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Lithic technology and settlement patterns in upper Hat Creek Valley, B.C. Pokotylo, David L. 1978

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LITHIC TECHNOLOGY AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN UPPER HAT CREEK VALLEY, B.C. by DAVID LESLIE POKOTYLO B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  o f Winnipeg, 1972  M . A * , U n i v e r s i t y o f Manitoba, 1974  DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and Sociology, University of B r i t i s h  Columbia)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standards  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978 (c)  David L e s l i e P o k o t y l o  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Anthropology  and S o c i o l o g y  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  September  15.  1978  ii  ABSTRACT This dissertation of  prehistoric  lithic  i s concerned  technology  w i t h the  relationships  to past subsistence  and  s e t t l e m e n t systems o p e r a t i v e a t upper e l e v a t i o n s i n the Southern  I n t e r i o r Plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia.  a methodological  and  p e r s p e c t i v e , the  a p p l i e s a l i n e a r model o f c h i p p e d - s t o n e and  U p p e r Hat ability  of stone  potential  assemblages from  Creek V a l l e y  efficiently  tool  research  manufacturing  m u l t i v a r i a t e data reduction techniques  s e r i e s of l i t h i c  surface sites  i n order to study  t o o l m a n u f a c t u r e and  intersite  use.  t h a t may  v a r i a b i l i t y w e r e e v a l u a t e d by  to a  located in vari-  In order  study d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o o l manufacturing  attributes  both  a substantive aspect.  From a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  processes  I t has  to sequences,  measure such t e c h n o l o g i c a l a R-mode f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f  s m a l l sample of the assemblages;  This enabled  of  t h a t measure the u n d e r l y i n g  a reduced  number o f a t t r i b u t e s  patterns of r e l a t i o n s h i p s present  i n the sample.  c l a s s e s b a s e d on o v e r a l l m o r p h o l o g y and  working  a c t e r i s t i c s were employed t o d e s c r i b e a r t i f a c t  Tool edge c h a r -  use.  Two  one  and  assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y , were e s t a b l i s h e d  tool  by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s and assemblages.  lithic  selection  site classifications, t h e o t h e r on  b a s e d on  the  a  waste p a t t e r n i n g  multidimensional scaling  of  the  iii  The  r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f each  t i o n a s a means o f d e l i n e a t i n g u a t e d by t h e a b i l i t y  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f each  as t h e n a t u r e and relationships.  a n a l y s i s tend t o be.in general  o t h e r , a l t h o u g h some d i f f e r e n c e s a r e  I n some c a s e s , t h e d e b i t a g e a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s a  more d e t a i l e d tion.-  and complex p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e t y p e o f  A l s o , a l a r g e r amount o f p a t t e r n i n g w i t h  variables  utilization comprehensive  based  occupa-  environmental  i s e v i d e n t among t h e s i t e g r o u p s b a s e d  gical variability.  o f each  eval-  t o interpret the results of the  i n t e n s i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  present.  classifica-  s e t t l e m e n t t y p e s was  a n a l y s e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o such v a r i a b l e s  agreement w i t h each  site  on t e c h n o l o -  Nevertheless, interpretations  of site  o n r e s u l t s o f b o t h a n a l y s e s w e r e much more  r e l a t i v e t o those p o s s i b l e from  the examination  analysis separately. In a d d i t i o n t o studying interassemblage  t h e a n a l y s i s o f d e b i t a g e p r o v i d e d some i n s i g h t quantitative patterning of technological  variability, into the  a t t r i b u t e s and  t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e as measures o f v a r i a t i o n  i n manufacturing  steps.  attribute  I n two s p e c i f i c  i n s t a n c e s , observed  pattern-  i n g i s o p p o s i t e t o t h a t e x p e c t e d by p r e s e n t knowledge o f lithic  technology.  indicates  The e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s e  some d i r e c t i o n s  t o be p u r s u e d  differences  by f u t u r e e x p e r i m e n t a l  studies. The  empirical validity  o f each  site  classification  iv  was  also investigated.  of v a r i a n c e t e s t s was and  A s e r i e s of K r u s k a l - W a l l i s a n a l y s i s  run on g e n e r a l l i t h i c  assemblage data  t e c h n o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s t o determine i f the  groups d e f i n e d a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . based s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  site  The  d i f f e r e n t i a t e s general  tool-  lithic  assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y b e t t e r than d e b i t a g e j however, tends  to r e f l e c t  this  s i t e s i z e r a t h e r than t e c h n o l o g i c a l  processes. Both a n a l y s e s support e x p e c t a t i o n s based on  ethno-  graphy t h a t Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y was  likely u t i l i z e d for  s e a s o n a l hunting and p l a n t g a t h e r i n g .  These a c t i v i t i e s  r e f l e c t e d by the two main s e t t l e m e n t types d e f i n e d : staging s i t e s  f o r hunting and b u t c h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s  2) p l a n t g a t h e r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g s i t e s .  are  1) and  Considerable  v a r i a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o the emphasis on e x t r a c t i v e and maintenance a c t i v i t i e s  i s p r e s e n t w i t h i n each t y p e .  T h i s study has major i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e study of i n t e r a s s e m b l a g e  v a r i a b i l i t y where the predominant  artifact class i s l i t h i c  debitage.  I t has  demonstrated  t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n i n g i s o b s e r v a b l e a t the level  and  that this  sistence-settlement  can be accounted activities.  intersite  f o r i n terms of sub-  V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o a number of i n d i v i d u a l s who have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e completion o f t h i s study.  The f o l l o w i n g acknowledgements are by no  means exhaustive;  I hope t h a t those persons not s p e c i f i c a l l y  mentioned w i l l r e c o g n i z e  t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n as they  read  this dissertation. Dr. R.G. Matson, as graduate a d v i s o r , p r o v i d e d encouragement, advice, s t u d i e s a t U.B.C. guidance p r o v i d e d F. Aberle,  and a s s i s t a n c e at a l l stages  o f my  My debt t o him i s a g r e a t one. The by my d i s s e r t a t i o n committee: D r s . David  J.E. Michael  Kew, R i c h a r d  J . Pearson, and Arnoud  H. S t r y d , i s a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. My i n t e r e s t s i n l i t h i c  technology, settlement  patterns,  and q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s , were developed d u r i n g t h e tenure of a Canada C o u n c i l d o c t o r a l f e l l o w s h i p from  t o 1977.  None o f t h e work r e p o r t e d here c o u l d have taken p l a c e out t h e c o n t r a c t s p r o v i d e d B.C.  t o U.B.C. i n 1976 and 1977 "by  Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y .  Archaeologist,  B j o m Simonsen, P r o v i n c i a l  and A r t C h a r l t o n , then I n t e r i o r A r c h a e o l o g i s t ,  of the H e r i t a g e  Conservation  and Conservation, strumental  with-  Branch, M i n i s t r y o f R e c r e a t i o n  Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, were i n -  i n making t h i s support a v a i l a b l e .  The  s u c c e s s f u l completion o f the Upper Hat Creek  V a l l e y f i e l d w o r k was dependent upon the a s s i s t a n c e o f many individuals.  I would l i k e t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o the  vi r e s i d e n t s of Hat Creek V a l l e y f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n and hospitality.  S p e c i a l thanks  are extended  to Gordon Parke,  p r o v i d e d an i d e a l l o c a t i o n f o r the f i e l d '76"  camp.  The  who  "crew o f  was. composed of students e n r o l l e d i n the U.B.C. a r c h -  aeological f i e l d  s c h o o l , i n s t r u c t e d by Dr. P a t r i c i a H i t c h i n s .  The success of the f i e l d  season was  d i r e c t l y due .to Pat  B e i r n e and M i c h a e l Blake, crew c h i e f s , and crew members S y l v i a A l b r i g h t , Sue Bishop, C h r i s t i n e Boulding, L i n d a Burnard,  David Cambrin, Ruth F o r e s t , R i t a Higginson,  Howe, Helen Lemon, Irma Lux,  Geordie  Rosemary Pipke, Rena Soper, V i k i  W a r f i e l d , A f l e n e Y i p , and Sandra Z a c h a r i a s , who  braved a l l  the elements from June snow to "boo-boo" the bear.  Laboratory  a s s i s t a n c e i n 1976  who  was  v o l u n t e e r e d by Helen Lemon,  undertook the formidable task of c a t a l o g i n g the e n t i r e  lithic  assemblage from EeRj 58•  was  A s s i s t a n c e i n debitage c o d i n g  p r o v i d e d by A r l e n e Y i p and R i t a Higginson. All  f i g u r e s and photographs i n t h i s  dissertation,  a l o n g with many other f e a t s of . t e c h n i c a l w i z a r d r y were done by Moira I r v i n e i n her u s u a l e x c e l l e n t manner. thanks job  are a l s o due t o Joy Yorath and others who  Special  d i d the  t h a t I never c o u l d have m a n a g e d — t y p i n g the d i s s e r t a t i o n . I would a l s o l i k e t o acknowledge a number of f o l k s  who  helped keep me  tion.  sane d u r i n g the w r i t i n g of t h i s  My parents were q u i t e concerned  throughout  t h i n k are g l a d t o see t h i s accomplished. Jethro T u l l ,  dissertaand I  Gerry G a r c i a ,  and the R o l l i n g Stones helped me  t o m a i n t a i n an  o p t i m i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e d u r i n g the r a t h e r mundane aspects of  vii debitage analysis. This d i s s e r t a t i o n i s dedicated to my expectant wife, Catherine, who not only helped immeasurably with typing early d r a f t s , xeroxing, and proofreading, but presented the incent i v e to get t h i s w r i t t e n .  viii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  .  ......  i i V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES  xi  LIST OF FIGURES  *iv  Chapter I.  INTRODUCTION  1  H i s t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Research i n t h e Southern I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u  4  Research Q u e s t i o n s and O b j e c t i v e s II.  ............. 14  RESEARCH DESIGN  .... 16  General T h e o r e t i c a l  Framework  The Study o f P r e h i s t o r i c  16  Behavior: A Framework 18  Research S t r a t e g y III.  32  THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING . . „ The Contemporary  35  Environment  34  General g e o g r a p h i c s e t t i n g  34  Surficial  35  geology and s o i l s  Climate  40  H y d r o l o g i c environment  43  Flora  46  Fauna Mammals Fish  .  • 63 .. 63 66  ix  Birds Lithic  .  67  Resources  68  The P a l e o e n v i r o n m e n t a l S e t t i n g The l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e environment  „  73  ............  The Recent environment IV.  74 78  THE CULTURAL SETTING  87  Regional Ethnography  91  Regional C u l t u r e History  101  General Models o f Hunter-Gatherer S u b s i s t e n c e - S e t t l e m e n t Systems  .. .,  .....108  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y S u b s i s t e n c e and Settlement V.  114  ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN UPPER HAT CREEK VALLEY  ..123  Methodology  ......123  Research R e s u l t s VI..  ................................ .135  THE LITHIC TECHNOLOGY  SUBSYSTEM  ....159  L i t h i c A t t r i b u t e S e l e c t i o n and Measurement...168 Platform-bearing flakes Assessment  of flake c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  177 201  Cores  208  Shatter  210  Tools  212  X  VII.  THE LITHIC ANALYSIS  229  A n a l y t i c a l Procedures Debitage A n a l y s i s  ...229  ..,  .247  Debitage c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s  .247  Summary o f the d e b i t a g e c l u s t e r ^ a n a l y s i s  260  Multidimensional s c a l i n g of debitage  267  Tool  Analysis  Tool  273  cluster analysis  .......273  Multidimensional s c a l i n g of tools Comparison o f Debitage and T o o l V I I I . SITE-ENVIRONMENT IX.  RELATIONSHIPS  ......283 297  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  317  Summary  .317  Conclusions  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Analyses  280  329  .  . .333  xi  LIST OF TABLES 1.  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y C l i m a t i c Data  2.  V e g e t a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n s i n the Upper Hat Creek Basin  3.  42  ....  .... . 48  Mammals P o t e n t i a l l y Present, i n the Upper Hat Creek Basin  ...  64  4.. Waterfowl,, Upland Game B i r d s , and B i r d s o f Prey P o t e n t i a l l y Present  i n the Upper Hat Creek Basin  5.  S i t e Tabulations: Grassland  6.  S i t e Survey Summary T a b u l a t i o n s  7.. C u l t u r a l  Depression  and F o r e s t S t r a t a ......136 ....................137  S u r f a c e A t t r i b u t e s ............... 143  8.  Estimated  9..  Radiocarbon Dates f o r Excavated  Antiquity of Sites  .........151 C u l t u r a l :.  Depressions 10.  69  ,  ..  157  F l a k e A t t r i b u t e F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Loadings ............206  11. T o o l Assemblage T a b u l a t i o n s  231  12. S i t e s Sampled f o r L i t h i c A n a l y s i s : Sampling  Frac-  t i o n and Area Sampled  234  13.. Debitage Assemblage Frequency T a b u l a t i o n s 14.  Debitage Assemblage Weight T a b u l a t i o n s  ..........235  .............236  15. M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s f o r B a s a l t Debitage Assemblages .241 16. M e t r i c A t t r i b u t e s f o r Chert 17.  Debitage Assemblages ...242  Index A t t r i b u t e s - f o r B a s a l t and C h e r t Assemblages  Debitage .243  18. T e c h n o l o g i c a l A t t r i b u t e s o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s o f Debitage ......................249  X I 1  19.  Kruskal-Wallis  T e s t s on T e c h n o l o g i c a l  o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's C l u s t e r o f Debitage  Attributes Analysis  ....  20.  General L i t h i c Assemblage A t t r i b u t e s .  21.  Kruskal-Wallis  ........251 .......263  T e s t s on General L i t h i c  Assemblage  A t t r i b u t e s o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's C l u s t e r Analysis 22.  o f Debitage  G e n e r a l L i t h i c Assemblage A t t r i b u t e s o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s  23.  264  Kruskal-Wallis  o f Debitage..265  T e s t s on General L i t h i c  Assemblage  A t t r i b u t e s o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's C l u s t e r Analysis 24.  of Tools  Kruskal-Wallis  T e s t s on T e c h n o l o g i c a l  279 Attributes  o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s o f Tools 25.  292  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's C l u s t e r A n a l y s e s o f Debitage and o f T o o l s by C u l t u r a l Depressions  26.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's C l u s t e r Analysis  o f D e b i t a g e by V e g e t a t i o n Community  Groups ... 27.  .295  .....299  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's C l u s t e r Analysis Groups  o f T o o l s by V e g e t a t i o n Community .300  xiii  28.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's  Cluster  A n a l y s e s o f Debitage and o f T o o l s by D i s t a n c e t o Drainage 29.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's Analysis  30.  32.  33.  o f Debitage by L o c a l  o f T o o l s by L o c a l  ...306 Cluster  Exposure  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's Analysis  Cluster  '.of T o o l s by Drainage Type  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's Analysis  Cluster  o f Debitage by Drainage Type ..........305  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's Analysis  31.  ....303  Exposure  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i t e s Grouped by Ward's A n a l y s e s o f Debitage and o f T o o l s by  308 Cluster ....309 Cluster Overview...312  xiv  LIST OF FIGURES 1.  L o c a t i o n s o f P r e v i o u s A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Research i n t h e Southern I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u  2.  5  P h y s i o g r a p h i c S u b d i v i s i o n s i n t h e V i c i n i t y o f Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y  3.  .....36  G e n e r a l View o f Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y , Looking Southwest  .... o  .  37  4.  S u r f i c i a l Geology o f Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y  39  5.  Hat Creek Drainage B a s i n  45  6.  V e r t i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zones i n the V i c i n i t y o f Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y  7.  V e g e t a t i o n Communities  47  i n the Upper Hat Creek  Valley  Study Area  50  8.  Sagebrush-Bunchgrass Community  51  9.  Middle-Upper G r a s s l a n d Community  51  10. R i p a r i a n Community  ...........54  11. S a l i n e D e p r e s s i o n Community  54  1.2. Engelmann S p r u c e - H o r s e t a i l Community  57  13. Willow-Sedge Bog Community  ..........................57  14. Douglas F i r - B u n c h g r a s s Community  59  15. D o u g l a s - F i r - P i n e g r a s s Community  59  16. D o u g l a s - F i r - B u n c h g r a s s - P i n e g r a s s Community  .62  17. Douglas F i r - S p r i e a - B e a r b e r r y Community 18. E t h n o g r a p h i c I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Groups of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y  62  i n the V i c i n i t y ...88  XV  19.  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y Sampling Frame f o r A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey •  20.  .125  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y Sampling Frame, E n v i r o n mental S t r a t a , and Quadrats Surveyed  21.  .. ........... 132  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f Number o f S i t e s per Quadrat: F o r e s t Stratum, G r a s s l a n d Stratum, and Total  22.  Sample .....  .......138  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Number o f C u l t u r a l D e p r e s s i o n s p e r Quadrat:  23.  T o t a l Sample  142  Frequency D i s t r i b i t i o n o f C u l t u r a l D e p r e s s i o n Mean Rim-to-Rim Diameters:  Total  Sample  ....144  24.  Schematic Diagram o f C u l t u r a l D e p r e s s i o n  25.  Frequency D i s t r i b i t i o n s o f S i t e S i z e : Stratum, G r a s s l a n d Stratum, and T o t a l  26.  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s  o f Debitage  Forest Sample ......147  Densities:  F o r e s t Stratum, G r a s s l a n d Stratum, and T o t a l 2 7.  145  Schematic Diagram o f P l a t f o r m - B e a r i n g  Samplel49  Flake  Attributes 28.  Schematic Diagram o f F l a k e V e n t r a l  178 Surface  Curvature A t t r i b u t e States 29.  Schematic Diagram o f F l a k e D i s t a l End T e r m i n a t i o n A t t r i b u t e States  30.  189  Schematic Diagram o f F l a k e S t r i k i n g P l a t f o r m Preparation A t t r i b u t e States  31.  187  .....192  Schematic Diagram o f D o r s a l F l a k e S c a r P a t t e r n A t t r i b u t e States  .200  xvi  32.  P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t s from Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y S i t e s 217  33.  P r o j e c t i l e P o i n t Bases from Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y Sites  34.  . .  .  219  M a r g i n a l U n i f a c i a l Retouched F l a k e s from Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y S i t e s  .  221  35.  Formed U n i f a c e s from Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y S i t e s  36.  Marginal B i f a c i a l  . 222  Retouched F l a k e s and G r a v e r s from  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y S i t e s  224  37.  M i c r o b l a d e s from Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y S i t e s  38.  B i p o l a r Implements-from  225  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y  Sites 39.  227  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f Number o f T o o l s and T o o l Types i n L i t h i c Assemblages w i t h T o o l s P r e s e n t  40.  Ward's C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s o f D e b i t a g e Assemblages  41.  Torgerson's Metric Multidimensional S c a l i n g of  232 ....248  Debitage Assemblages 42.  268  K r u s k a l ' s Non-metric M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l S c a l i n g o f Debitage Assemblages  270  43.  Ward's C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s o f T o o l Assemblages  44.  Torgerson's Metric Multidimensional S c a l i n g of Tool Assemblages:  45.  ........275  Dimensions 1 and 2  281  Torgerson's Metric Multidimensional S c a l i n g of Tool Assemblages:  Dimensions 3 and 4  284  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of  prehistoric l i t h i c  settlement  systems.  technology  t o past s u b s i s t e n c e and  I t develops,  a p p l i e s , and e v a l u a t e s a  methodology t o d e s c r i b e and i n t e r p r e t i n t e r s i t e in  the manufacture and use o f chipped-stone  variability  artifacts  from  s u r f a c e s i t e s l o c a t e d i n an u p p e r - e l e v a t i o n v a l l e y i n the Southern I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u o f B r i t i s h Columbia. p r e t i v e p o t e n t i a l of l i t h i c  The i n t e r -  s u r f a c e s c a t t e r s i t e s i n the  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence-settlement i n u p p e r - e l e v a t i o n environments o f the southern  patterns  plateau i s  also investigated. T h i s study  i s organized  i n t o nine c h a p t e r s .  The  present chapter presents  a b r i e f history of archaeological  r e s e a r c h i n the southern  p l a t e a u o f B r i t i s h Columbia t o  determine the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f knowledge on p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence-settlement  systems and d i r e c t i o n s t h a t f u t u r e  s t u d i e s may take i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r understand  the r e g i o n a l  pattern. Chapter I I o u t l i n e s the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n o f the study,  i n d i c a t i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  a t i o n used.  orient-  I t a l s o e v a l u a t e s the p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f  2 v a r i o u s c l a s s e s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data of p r e h i s t o r i c s e t t l e m e n t  types.  o r a r y a r c h a e o l o g i c a l method and recent ethnoarchaeological byproducts of stone  On  i n the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  the b a s i s of contemp-  theory  and  the r e s u l t s  r e s e a r c h , i t i s proposed t h a t  t o o l manufacture may  provide  a better  r e f l e c t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out at p r e h i s t o r i c ments.  of  settle-  A r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y to t e s t t h i s i d e a i s then  presented. Chapter I I I c o n s t i t u t e s the i n i t i a l  step of  the  r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y , p r e s e n t i n g an overview of the n a t u r a l environment of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y .  The  nature  and  dis-  t r i b u t i o n of such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as topography, geology, hydrology,  v e g e t a t i o n , and w i l d l i f e , and  p o t e n t i a l subsistence resources  are  t h e i r r o l e s as  noted.  Chapter IV examines the c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i n the vicinity  of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y , emphasizing  p a t t e r n s of u p p e r - e l e v a t i o n plateau.  L o c a l ethnographic  data on g e n e r a l behavior. for  l a n d use  The  p r a c t i c e s i n the  i n f o r m a t i o n was  combined i n f o r m a t i o n was  southern  supplemented  p r i n c i p l e s of h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r  d e r i v i n g s p e c i f i c expectations  ethnographic  by  economic  then used as a b a s i s  of the Upper Hat  Creek  Valley archaeological record. The Hat  s p e c i f i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d out i n  Creek V a l l e y i s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r  r e s u l t s of both survey  and  excavation  V.  The  substantive  f i e l d w o r k are  Chapter VI d i s c u s s e s the nature  of the  presented.  lithic  3 technology and  subsystem and  i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to subsistence  settlement p r a c t i c e s .  A t t r i b u t e s that p o t e n t i a l l y  measure a s p e c t s of t o o l manufacturing  p r o c e s s e s are p r e s e n t e d  and e v a l u a t e d by an R-mode f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of a p i l o t of  d e b i t a g e assemblages.  The r e s u l t s of the f a c t o r  sample  analysis  were used t o s e l e c t those a t t r i b u t e s t o be used i n the main analysis. to  Morphological l i t h i c  tool categories considered  r e f l e c t a r t i f a c t use are a l s o d e s c r i b e d . The  r e s u l t s of two  d e b i t a g e and  separate l i t h i c  a n a l y s e s , one  of  the o t h e r of t o o l s , a r e d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r V I I .  S i t e assemblage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s based on c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g of d e b i t a g e and i n t e r p r e t e d and  t o o l data are  then c o m p a r a t i v e l y s t u d i e d .  v a l i d i t y o f each s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  The e m p i r i c a l  i s a l s o examined by a  s e r i e s of K r u s k a l - W a l l i s t e s t s a p p l i e d t o the d e b i t a g e t o o l s as w e l l as a s e t o f g e n e r a l l i t h i c Environmental  and  site  type  t o o l s are d e s c r i b e d  i n t e r p r e t e d with respect to subsistence-settlement  activities  i n chapter V I I I .  The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  and  s u b s t a n t i v e r e s u l t s of the  above a n a l y s e s are summarized i n c h a p t e r IX. e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l i t h i c ion  and  assemblage a t t r i b u t e s .  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the two  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s based on d e b i t a g e and  and  relative  d e b i t a g e a n a l y s i s i n the r e c o n s t r u c t -  of s e t t l e m e n t types and  such v a r i a b i l i t y  The  the methodology used t o d e s c r i b e  i s assessed.  The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the  study t o c u r r e n t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l method and  theory  and  southern  p l a t e a u archaeology  are a l s o e v a l u a t e d .  Finally,  recommendations f o r f u t u r e work are made. H i s t o r y of A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Research i n the Southern I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u T h i s s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s the past a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d out i n the Southern I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u of B r i t i s h Columbia to p r o v i d e a background to the p r e s e n t I t examines r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s addressed  by past work  study.  and  r e s u l t s of these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t have c o n t r i b u t e d to the p r e s e n t ogy,  s t a t e of knowledge of southern  plateau  p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to questions  s u b s i s t e n c e and  settlement.  of p r e h i s t o r i c  T h i s overview i s used as a b a s i s  f o r d e l i n e a t i n g problem areas subsistence-settlement  archaeol-  to be i n v e s t i g a t e d by  studies..  d i s c u s s e d below are presented  The  future  l o c a t i o n s of the  in figure  1.  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the southern extend  back to 1877,  observations  when George M.  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and  research  Dawson r e c o r d e d ethnographic  plateau  his  sites  while  engaged i n g e o l o g i c a l work f o r the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada (Dawson 1891:7-12)..  The  ical  conducted by Harlan  r e s e a r c h , however, was  first  intentional  the Jesup North P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n from 1897 c a r r i e d out e x c a v a t i o n s  I . Smith f o r  t o 1899..  o f b u r i a l s i t e s at L y t t o n  1899), Spences B r i d g e , and of the N i c o l a V a l l e y (Smith  archaeolog-  (Smith  Kamloops, as w e l l as a b r i e f 1900).  The  Smith  survey  major c o n c l u s i o n of  t h i s p i o n e e r i n g r e s e a r c h concerned the c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y  9  LEGEND: 1  TWEEDSMUIR  2  CHINLAC  3  PARK  VILLAGE  (BORDEN 1952)  (BORDEN 1952)  OKANAGAN  AND SIMILKAMEEN  (CALDWELL  I954-,  4  CACHE  CREEK  CHASE  (SANGER 1968)  6  1966,  1970a,  7  ARROW  8  CHILCOTIN  LOCALITY  (TURNBULL  PLATEAU  FIGURE 1.  1971,  (MITCHELL  SOUTH  (SANGER 1963,  THOMPSON  LYTTON  13  CHILCOTIN  GASPARD  15  SEMLIN  1972)  BROKEN  1971,  1972,  RIVER-SHUSWAP  REGION RIVER  (SMITH  CREEK a  LINES  1899;  FRASER  MATSON, HAM  14  1971. 1972};'  n.d.,  (STRYD  1973,  1974)  L A K E S (SMITH  1974; J O H N S O N - F L ADM A R K 1974; WILSON  (POKOTYLO  1977) n.d., 1 9 6 9 ,  (WYATT  REGION  12  1975;  1970b)  LAKES  11  VALLEYS  (SANGER 1968)  LOCHNORE-NESIKEP  VALLEY  LILLOOET  ELDRIDGE  GRABERT 1974)  5  NICOLA  10  Q  BAKER  RIVER  BUNYAN  (ELDRIDGE  BONAPARTE  n.d.0. n.d. b)  CONFLUENCE (HAM n d.)  n.d.)  RIVER  V A L L E Y S  1977) ENCOMPASS  AREAS  1900; 1976)  INVESTIGATED  L o c a t i o n s of p r e v i o u s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n th.e S.outhern I n t e r i o r Plateau..  6 between the p r e h i s t o r i c and region:  "The  ancient  ethnographic  c u l t u r e o f the whole o f the  i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia was  q u i t e uniform,  resembled i n a l l e s s e n t i a l p o i n t s i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h i s area The  c u l t u r e s of  ..."  f o l l o w i n g p e r i o d up  Borden (1952.) c a r r i e d out Tweedsmuir Park and  t o 1950  can  Rivers. ic  not u n t i l  conducted.  survey and  at the  (Borden 1952:37-40).  be b e s t  Smith.  research  From 1950  in  excavation  any  t o 1952  C.E.  work i n  j u n c t i o n of the S t u a r t and  Nechako  The  a p r e h i s t o r i c "Natalkuz c u l t u r e " l a t t e r was  In 1952,  an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  Similkameen V a l l e y s was  considered  manifestations  by  s i t e survey of the Okanagan who  "seemingly l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c  of a homogeneous r e g i o n a l c u l t u r e "  Other i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d u r i n g  excavation  o f a b u r i a l s i t e near Cache Creek by  1956  quite  described  1954:22).  and  t o be  conducted by Warren C a l d w e l l ,  i n t e r p r e t e d most of the s i t e s as  (Caldwell:  the 1950s i n c l u d e  the  Borden i n  (see Sanger 1968a:140).  Further  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of b u r i a l s i t e s i n t h e s s o u t h e r n  p l a t e a u were conducted i n the e a r l y 1960s. burial  des-  t h i s decade t h a t  d i f f e r e n t from the s o u t h e r n p l a t e a u m a t e r i a l s  1954  present  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a p r o t o h i s t o -  " C a r r i e r c u l t u r e " and  and  and  (Smith 1900:432-433).  the southern i n t e r i o r as i t was work was  southern  the c u l t u r e of the  c r i b e d as a " c u l t u r a l h i a t u s " o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  further- p u r p o s e f u l  the  s i t e survey of the F r a s e r  This included  R i v e r V a l l e y i n the  L i l l o o e t r e g i o n by David Sanger (Sanger 1963:131) and  a  Lytton-  7 e x c a v a t i o n s of a s i t e at Chase (see Sanger 1968a) and i n the L y t t o n - L i l l o o e t area by  Borden and  Sanger  two  (Sanger  19 68a: 141 ,.1970:13). These b u r i a l  s i t e s e x c a v a t i o n s mark the b e g i n n i n g  a period' o f expanded i n t e r e s t i n i n t e r i o r p l a t e a u w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of l o c a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l common r e s e a r c h conducted by  goal.  From 1961  t o 1965,  1963,  1966,  prehistory •  sequences as a  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were  Sanger at the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y  F r a s e r R i v e r V a l l e y between L y t t o n 1969^  1970).  and  Lillooet  southern p l a t e a u  cultural chronological  area' t o date and  h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l adaptations the.Nesikep T r a d i t i o n .  in  The  an  excava-  construction  framework f o r a  i n i t i a l model o f  pre-  t o the m i d - F r a s e r R i v e r  basic underlying  concept o f the Nesikep T r a d i t i o n was  region—  p r i n c i p l e to  that i t represented  r e l a t i v e l y unchanging c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n  t o the  l i t e r a t u r e f o r the r e g i o n T h i s work was  followed  the Arrow Lakes from 1966  1974).  The  the present  a  ethno-  (Sanger 1969:196).  s h o r t l y by a r e a l s t u d i e s i n  to 1969  i n the Okanagan V a l l e y d u r i n g  the  southern  i n t e r i o r environment s i m i l a r to t h a t documented i n the graphic  the  (see Sanger  T h i s work,, p a r t i c u l a r l y the  t i o n of the Nesikep Creek s i t e , r e s u l t e d i n the of the most e x t e n s i v e  of  1966  ( T u r n b u l l 1971, and  r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h  1967  1977)  (Grabert  t h a t are r e l e v a n t  study concern the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n - o f  and  1971, to  regional  c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s t h a t tend t o e x h i b i t more d i f f e r e n c e s  8 than s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h c u l t u r a l Lochnorer-Nesikep l o c a l i t y .  1  units derived  Further  emphasized c u l t u r a l c h r o n o l o g y and the m i d d l e - t o - l a t e Plateau  by  from  areal studies  the that  were a l s o c a r r i e d out  1960s i n c l u d e work on the C h i l c o t i n  Donald M i t c h e l l (n.d., 1970a., 1970b) and  N i c o l a V a l l e y by  in  David Wyatt (n.d., 1971,  R i v e r Valley,' thus e n l a r g i n g  and  the  1972). . Both  s t u d i e s noted s i m i l a r i t i e s between a r c h a e o l o g i c a l from the r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n s  in  those from the  the scope of t h e  materials  mid-Fraser Nesikep  Tradition. The present,-  f o l l o w i n g p e r i o d , from the  has  seen a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e  ogical research  t h a t has  has  The  Fraser  been the focus  the  i n the r a t e of  archaeol-  addressed a wider range o f problems,  although c u l t u r a l c h r o n o l o g y i s s t i l l studies.  l a t e 1960s to  the major goal  i n most  R i v e r V a l l e y i n the v i c i n i t y of  o f an e x t e n s i v e  survey and  Lillooet  excavation  p r o j e c t conducted by A.. S t r y d over an e i g h t year p e r i o d 1969  to 1976  ( S t r y d 1971,  1972,  1973,  o b j e c t i v e s o f the L i l l o o e t r e s e a r c h  1974).  The  concerned the  of the l a t e r p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l chronology and housepit period  v i l l a g e settlement  two  from  main  refinement the study  pattern v a r i a b i l i t y during  this  ( S t r y d 1973:3-4, 1974:1),- making t h i s the f i r s t  con-  certed e f f o r t  to e x p l i c i t l y address r e s e a r c h  goals  of  other  than t h a t of c u l t u r e h i s t o r y . In the e a r l y 1970Sj a s e r i e s of independent,  smaller-  9 s c a l e s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out i n the Shuswap-. Lake-South Thompson R i v e r V a l l e y which were concerned w i t h both c u l t u r e history  (Wilson  ( E l d r i d g e 1974,  1971,  and  settlement  Johnson-Fladmark n.d.j  zones of the r e g i o n . zone, these  1976)  pattern  1974)  within floodplain  By v i r t u e of b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s tended to emphasize  settlements,  to  housepit  situation.  I t i s apparent t h a t v i r t u a l l y a l l o f the d i s c u s s e d above has  emphasized the archaeology  r i v e r v a l l e y s i n the southern t h e r e been s y s t e m a t i c  interior.  research  of the major  Only r e c e n t l y have  e f f o r t s to i n v e s t i g a t e o t h e r  zones i n the p l a t e a u .  however-, have had  physio-  These l a t t e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . ,  mixed degrees of s u c c e s s .  In 1973  and  an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t to i n v e s t i g a t e the range of ical  zones i n the F r a s e r P l a t e a u  i n i t i a t e d by d e s i g n was although was  J.. Baker (n.d.a,  n.d.b,.)..  This i n i t i a l (Baker n.d.b  i n both the F r a s e r R i v e r V a l l e y and Botanie  Valley.  In 1974,  r e s e a r c h on s e t t l e m e n t  was  research ,:3), types  the upper  However, no  d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n or a n a l y s i s of these data able.  ecolog-  i n f o r m a t i o n on a v a r i e t y o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e  (3600 ft;1100 m)  1974  i n the v i c i n i t y of L y t t o n  never s u c c e s s f u l l y completed  collected  elevation  this  the dominant type of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e l o c a t e d  i n such an environmental  graphic  variability  i s yet  avail-  p a t t e r n s at the con-  f l u e n c e of the C h i l c o t i n and  F r a s e r R i v e r s by R.G.  involved a systematic  of both the F r a s e r R i v e r bench-  lands and  the a d j a c e n t  survey  f o r e s t e d uplands  (Ham  1975;  Matson  Matson,  10  Ham, and Bunyan n.d.).  A l i m i t e d - s c a l e but s y s t e m a t i c  survey o f t h e Gaspard Creek d r a i n a g e i n t h e F r a s e r  Plateau  h i g h l a n d s by E l d r i d g e i n 1975 r e s u l t e d i n a b r i e f r e p o r t on the k i n d and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l the area  settlements i n  ( E l d r i d g e n.d.) which e x h i b i t some s i m i l a r i t i e s t o  those found i n t h e p r e s e n t  study..  A l s o i n 1975, a  systematic  survey o f t h e Bonaparte and Semlin v a l l e y s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Cache Creek by P o k o t y l o d i s t r i b u t i o n s along  (1977) p r o v i d e d  information  on s i t e  main t r i b u t a r i e s o f t h e South Thompson  River, When t h e p r e s e n t  archaeological  l i t e r a t u r e on t h e  southern i n t e r i o r i s reviewed i n terms o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o three general  goals  of archaeological  research—-reconstruction  o f c u l t u r e h i s t o r y , r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l i f e w a y s , and d e l i n e a t i o n of c u l t u r e p r o c e s s  (see B i n f o r d 1 9 6 8 ) — i t  i s evident  that  these o b j e c t i v e s have y e t t o be a d e q u a t e l y r e a l i z e d . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n focuses addressing  the f i r s t  With r e s p e c t still  on t h e p r o g r e s s t o date i n  two g o a l s . t o t h e goal, o f c u l t u r e h i s t o r y ,  does not e x i s t an o v e r a l l c h r o n o l o g i c a l  there  sequence  a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e southern i n t e r i o r as a whole, even though the m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h  t o date has been p r i m a r i l y con-  cerned w i t h t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l c h r o n o l o g y . common p r e s e n t extent  The  p r a c t i c e i s t o determine the geographic  t o which t h e Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l c h r o n o l o g y i s  11 applicable.  T h i s sequence  i s now  recognized to varying  degrees throughout the i n t e r i o r p l a t e a u ; Plateau  ( M i t c h e l l 1970a, Ham  River Valley  (Sanger 1968,  Okanagan V a l l e y  the C h i l c o t i n  1975), the South Thompson  Wilson 1976), and p o s s i b l y the  (Grabert 1974).  However,., i f the Lochnore-  Nesikep sequence indeed i s w i d e l y a p p l i c a b l e ^  i t will  r e q u i r e - t e s t i n g a g a i n s t more l o c a l c h r o n o l o g i e s i n v o l v e s more than j u s t t r a i t  that  comparisons.  A main-aspect o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g c u l t u r a l  lifeways i s  the a n a l y s i s o f s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t systems, whichr e p r e s e n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l and economic  aspects of a c u l t u r a l  system's a d a p t a t i o n t o the environment. i c a l method and t h e o r y has argued t h a t  Current archaeologsubsistence-settle-  ment systems cannot be e f f e c t i v e l y studied, by a n y t h i n g l e s s than a r e g i o n a l approach S t r e u v e r 1968,  1971).  ( B i n f o r d 1964;  Plog and H i l l  The r a t i o n a l e f o r a r e g i o n a l  1971;  approach  has been s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d by Judge e t a l i , (-1975:83): A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s r e p r e s e n t the a c t i v i t y , l o c i o f c u l t u r a l systems. A c t i v i t i e s a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ' s p a t i a l l y ; a s i n g l e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e cannot be expected t o r e f l e c t a l l o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l system. S i t e s a r e merely components o f l a r g e r and more i n c l u s i v e s e t t l e m e n t systems. Research w i t h the g o a l o f e x p l a n a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l systems and p r o c e s s e s must, then, be 'framed i n such a way t h a t the t o t a l range o f types of component s i t e s i s examined. In the above review I have noted t h a t , w i t h a few r e c e n t e x c e p t i o n s , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r has had a narrow geographic f o c u s r e s t r i c t e d t o  12 major r i v e r v a l l e y s .  N e v e r t h e l e s s $ the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  p o t e n t i a l o f the s u r r o u n d i n g uplands p h y s i c a l evidence  has been r e c o g n i z e d ;  of u p l a n d e l e v a t i o n f l o r a l  u t i l i z a t i o n has' been r e c o v e r e d  resource  from r i v e r v a l l e y  ( S t r y d 1973:69) w h i l e r e s e a r c h t h a t has  sites  extended o u t s i d e  the main v a l l e y s has commented on the k i n d of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l manifestations present.  T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d by  Okanagan V a l l e y r e s e a r c h  (Grabert  the  1974:66):  Although upland areas were e x p l o r e d , the s e a r c h was not as i n t e n s i v e as might have been. A p r o v i s i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n suggests t h a t upland areas were u t i l i z e d as w e l l as the r i v e r f l o o d p l a i n areas,' but t h a t s i t e s are more d i s p e r s e d and .often s m a l l . ( I t a l i c s mine.) Although  such a s p e c t s of the r e g i o n a l s e t t l e m e n t  p a t t e r n have been r e c o g n i z e d , the l a c k of r e s e a r c h on them i s l i k e l y due  t o the v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s noted  poor " a r c h a e o l o g i c a l v i s i b i l i t y " and minimal  above—their  artifact  contents; The problems of t r y i n g to l o c a t e these summer s i t e s i s compounded by the f a c t t h a t the summer h o u s e p i t d e p r e s s i o n s a r e shallow^ i f p r e s e n t a t a l l . . . summer houses were u s u a l l y temporary mat s t r u c t u r e s and most o f the a r t i f a c t u a l remains would be s u r f a c e d e t r i t u s s u s c e p t i b l e to b e i n g washed away (Sanger 1970:257). What Sanger i s r e f e r r i n g t o above are the ephemeral s u r f a c e s c a t t e r s of c h i p p e d - s t o n e the o n l y n o n - p e r i s h a b l e  d e b r i s and  tools that c o n s t i t u t e  elements of such s e t t l e m e n t s .  Such  a r a t i o n a l e , however, o n l y r e f l e c t s an inadequacy o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l methodology r a t h e r than t h a t of the d a t a , as  13  t h e s e s i t e s form the s o l e evidence o f short-term  archaeologieally-observable  a c t i v i t i e s and o c c u p a t i o n  p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d and the e n t i r e range o f variation  i n e a r l i e r periods.  i n the l a t e  settlement  This point i s elaborated  below. The  general  absence o f s y s t e m a t i c  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of  upper e l e v a t i o n environments p r o b a b l y r e s u l t s from a number of other  factors associated  of i n t e r i o r plateau  w i t h the c o u r s e o f development  archaeology.  The major f a c t o r i s t h a t  o n l y r e c e n t l y has a v i e w p o i n t o f p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l  systems  been adopted t h a t s t r e s s e s the study o f human b e h a v i o r formed the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  r e c o r d r a t h e r than the c o m p i l a t i o n  of t r a i t s as t h e b a s i s f o r comparative a n a l y s i s . the emphasis on c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ^ has  Also, with  past  research  g e n e r a l l y opted f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the l a r g e r , deeper  s i t e s t h a t a r e more l i k e l y of l a r g e - a r t i f a c t samples.  t o y i e l d s t r a t i g r a p h i c sequences In the southern i n t e r i o r ,  p r e f e r r e d s i t e s tend t o be the h o u s e p i t prevalent our  that  i n the main r i v e r v a l l e y s .  present  i s hindered other  current  settlements  Even i n these  understanding of settlement  pattern  areas,  variability  by t h e study o f these s i t e s a t the expense o f  types t h a t may be- p r e s e n t The  village  such  i n the same v i c i n i t y .  i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t o f such an approach i s t h a t  reconstructions  of c u l t u r a l  l i f e w a y s a r e skewed,  emphasizing the a s p e c t s o f s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t  systems  t h a t were o p e r a t i v e i n the major r i v e r v a l l e y s , t o e x c l u s i o n o f upland i n any  areas.  the  T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s a major problem  r e g i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Southern I n t e r i o r  prehistory.  In p a r t i c u l a r ^  s u b s i s t e n c e and  our u n d e r s t a n d i n g  s e t t l e m e n t w i l l be  of  incomplete  Plateau  prehistoric  until  research  r e s u l t s are a v a i l a b l e from u p p e r - e l e v a t i o n environmental Research Questions  and  zones.  Objectives  From the above l i t e r a t u r e review  i t was  evident  that  a most p r e s s i n g problem i n r e c o n s t r u c t i n g s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e ment p a t t e r n s was aeology  the need f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on the  of the p l a t e a u u p l a n d s .  An  a s s o c i a t e d problem  archwas  the need t o apply an approach t h a t would s t r e s s the study v a r i a t i o n i n the b e h a v i o r a l c o n t e n t data  of  of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  collected. Some p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s had  recognized  the  potential  range of p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s t h a t c o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d surface l i t h i c Hills  s c a t t e r s or " c h i p p i n g s t a t i o n s "  by  ( S t y r d and  1972:196):  These s i t e s p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t kinds of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g camps, animal k i l l s , c h i p p i n g s t a t i o n s , b e r r y i n g grounds, and puberty r i t e ' locations. Many were probably o c c u p i e d o n l y once, as they c o n t a i n l i t t l e c u l t u r a l d e b r i s . ( I t a l i c s mine.) While the p o t e n t i a l v a r i a b i l i t y been noted,  i n behavioral content  the means by which the a c t i v i t i e s can  has  be  r e c o g n i z e d o r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d have y e t t o be p r e s e n t e d . main o b j e c t i v e of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n — t h e development,  The  15 a p p l i c a t i o n , and t e s t i n g interpret  o f a methodology t o d e s c r i b e and  intersite variability  scatter s i t e s — i s  p r e s e n t among u p l a n d  aimed a t t h i s r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n .  lithic Such a  t y p e o f s t u d y i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r any r e s e a r c h that attempts  to reconstruct thesubsistence-settlement  p a t t e r n o f upland areas The  i n the Southern  Interior Plateau.  l i t e r a t u r e review also indicated  t h a t t h e r e were  no e x t a n t d a t a s e t s s u i t a b l e f o r s u c h a s t u d y . necessary  t o carry out f i e l d  required data.  The s p e c i f i c  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y .  investigations  this  forms a n a t u r a l  f o ra sub-regional level diversity  geo-  of study.  i s also  A  present  t h e d r a i n a g e b a s i n , r a n g i n g from open g r a s s l a n d s t o  alpine tundra. in  t o c o l l e c t the  A t an a v e r a g e f l o o r e l e v a t i o n o f  l a r g e degree o f environmental within  thus  l o c a t i o n i n v e s t i g a t e d was t h e  3400 f t ( 1 0 3 5 m ) , t h i s u p l a n d v a l l e y graphic area ideal  I t was  The m a j o r i t y o f d a t a d e s c r i b e d and a n a l y z e d  s t u d y were c o l l e c t e d by a s y s t e m a t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  s u r v e y o f t h e lower f o r e s t e d s l o p e s and v a l l e y bottom g r a s s l a n d s d u r i n g t h e summer a n d f a l l  o f 1976.  16  CHAPTER I I •RESEARCH DESIGN  General T h e o r e t i c a l The  Framework  b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n employed i n t h i s  study i s c u l t u r a l e c o l o g y o r t h e " e c o l o g i c a l approach" (Rappaport 1969; Steward 1955; Vayda and Rappaport 1968). While t h e o r i g i n a l "method" o f c u l t u r a l e c o l o g y p r e s e n t e d by Steward  (1955) has been c r i t i c i z e d  a b l y by r e c e n t  human e c o l o g y s t u d i e s  and m o d i f i e d  (Vayda and Rappaport  1968), a fundamental assumption o f t h e e c o l o g i c a l i s that on,  the b i o p h y s i c a l  responses by human  groups i n o r d e r f o r them t o e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e Such b e h a v i o r  their biophysical  orientation  environment i s a s t r u c t u r e d phenomen-  p o s i n g problems r e q u i r i n g b e h a v i o r a l  ment.  consider-  the environ-  t h a t a r t i c u l a t e s human groups w i t h both  and s o c i a l environments i s viewed as an  a d a p t i v e mechanism by which an adjustment w i t h these i s achieved.  I t i s the extrasomatic b e h a v i o r a l  human s o c i e t i e s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s cultural ecological  milieus  aspect o f  the primary v a r i a b l e o f  analysis:  In t h e approach advocated h e r e , t h e c u l t u r e , o r p a r t o f t h e c u l t u r e , o f a human p o p u l a t i o n i s regarded as p a r t o f t h e d i s t i n c t i v e means by which the p o p u l a t i o n m a i n t a i n s i t s e l f i n the ecosystem (Rappaport 1969:185). The  p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f human s o c i e t i e s w i t h  17  t h e i r environment  ( b i o p h y s i c a l or s o c i a l ) i n v o l v e s  s e t of r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  a complex  The.^anthropological study o f  culture  i n t h i s s e t t i n g e n t a i l s the d e l i n e a t i o n of s p e c i f i c behavi o r a l v a r i a b l e s o f i n t e r e s t , the d e s c r i p t i o n of environment r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and processes responsible  behavior-  the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of  f o r the p a t t e r n ( s )  those  observed.  This  most e f f e c t i v e l y done by v i e w i n g c u l t u r e as a system 1962,  1965).  objects  A system i s most simply d e f i n e d  as  t o g e t h e r w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the  t h e i r a t t r i b u t e s " ( H a l l and v a l u e of p e r c e i v i n g  relevant  the  A l s o , s p e c i f i c components and  investigated  Fagen 1968:84).  "a s e t  of  objects  The  and  heuristic the  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them  to a p a r t i c u l a r research  t o g e t h e r and  (Binford  c u l t u r e as a system i s t h a t both  system components and emphasized.  Fagen 1968:81).  is  are  interactions  i n t e r e s t can  be  grouped  as a d i s t i n c t subsystem  T h e r e f o r e , c u l t u r a l systems may  (Hall be  ioned i n t o subsystems such as s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  and  partittechnology,  r e l i g i o n , s u b s i s t e n c e procurement, e t c . f o r a n a l y t i c a l purposes. The t o the  e c o l o g i c a l approach a l s o p r o v i d e s a l o g i c a l  study o f c u l t u r e - e n v i r o n m e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  o f t e n been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t  the most apparent areas  a r t i c u l a t i o n between human groups and  from the b i o p h y s i c a l  has  of  t h e i r environments  those c u l t u r a l components t h a t d i r e c t l y e x t r a c t materials  It  order  energy  are  and  environment—in particular,  18  the economic and  t e c h n o l o g i c a l subsystems ( H a r r i s 1968:45;  Steward 1955:39; White 1959:18-28). the p o p u l a t i o n  The  degree t o which  of a s p e c i f i c s o c i e t y i n t e r a c t s d i r e c t l y  w i t h the n a t u r a l environment i s v a r i a b l e . p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f human p o p u l a t i o n s of energy and among c u l t u r a l  materials  Generally,  the  i n the d i r e c t e x t r a c t i o n  from the environment i s g r e a t e s t  systems w i t h low  l e v e l s of o r g a n i z a t i o n .  As  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l o f the s o c i e t y becomes more complex, t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s more i n d i r e c t as the p r o p o r t i o n population  i n v o l v e d i n such a c t i v i t i e s d e c r e a s e s .  the c a s e of h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r c u l t u r a l systems, a amount of the b e h a v i o r reference  m a n i f e s t may  t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l and  the  Thus, i n  considerable  be accounted f o r by  economic a d a p t i v e  t o c o n s t r a i n t s and/or o p p o r t u n i t i e s  of  posed by the  responses biophysical  environment. The  Study o f P r e h i s t o r i c B e h a v i o r :  P r e h i s t o r i c behavioral, observable i n archaeological 1972).  A Framework  systems are not  research  directly  ( C o w g i l l 1970;  Fritz  Rather, they are r e f l e c t e d by m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t s of  human b e h a v i o r record. behavior  t h a t have e n t e r e d  Patterns are b e s t  archaeological  of p r e h i s t o r i c t e c h n o l o g i c a l and represented  subsistence-settlement a general  i n t o the  systems.  by the m a t e r i a l remains of Subsistence  sense t o i n c l u d e f o o d , s h e l t e r , and  sistence patterns  economic  i s used here i n water;  i n c l u d e both the a c t u a l r e s o u r c e s  subutilized  19 and  the means employed t o o b t a i n them.  p a t t e r n i s an a d j u n c t  The  settlement  of s u b s i s t e n c e p r a c t i c e s , t h a t i s ,  the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these a c t i v i t i e s over the scape i n the form of settlements..  The  l a t t e r can be  landdefined  as: . . . an o c c u p a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r geographic l o c u s by one or more i n d i v i d u a l s f o r any amount of time t h a t a l t e r a t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment results. Campbell (1968:15) would add t h a t the o c c u p a t i o n should f a l l w i t h i n the " o r d i n a r y , expected and p r e d i c t a b l e round of the a c t i v i t i e s of the s o c i e t y in question." A s e t t l e m e n t may be any l o c u s of human a c t i v i t y r e s u l t i n g i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains, and f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes t h i s u s u a l l y means a d w e l l i n g area or a f u n c t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y area . . . ( F i t z h u g h 1972:7). Critical  t o t h i s study  i n s i t e s i z e and  i s the p o t e n t i a l range o f v a r i a t i o n  s i t e contents.  By the above d e f i n i t i o n ,  s m a l l ephemeral s i t e s w i t h minimal m a t e r i a l remains have j u s t as much i n t e r p r e t i v e p o t e n t i a l v i s - a - v i s the settlement  system as l a r g e i n t e n s i v e h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s ;  both r e f l e c t past b e h a v i o r locations i n p u r s u i t of The  settlement,  s y n t h e s i s i n the study systems.  for  I c a r r i e d out at the r e s p e c t i v e  subsistence. or s i t e , forms a main u n i t of of p r e h i s t o r i c  subsistence-settlement  D i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  w i l l d i s c l o s e v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of  s i t e s t h a t enable the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of p a s t settlement  subsistence-  systems^.(Struever  1968,1971).  The  subsistencep h y s i c a l remains  20  resulting  from human a c t i v i t y are c o n s i d e r e d  to be  patterned  such t h a t s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s r e s u l t i n the d e p o s i t i o n similar material  remains.  On  t h i s b a s i s , , t o o l - k i t s and  a c t i v i t y areas are i d e n t i f i e d , which form the  "building  b l o c k s " upon which s e t t l e m e n t types are d e f i n e d . number, and by  The  s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t types  a s o c i e t y i n the c o u r s e of i t s annual c y c l e o f  a c t i v i t i e s r e f l e c t s the s t r u c t u r e o f the past system  (Struever Basic  and  subsistence  settlement  e x i s t s between the o b s e r v a b l e behavioral  l a t t e r to be  derived  1972,1976).  The  from the former  that  archaeological system r e s p o n -  s i b l e f o r i t s f o r m a t i o n t h a t enables i n f e r e n c e s  Binford  utilized  1968:135).  the u n o b s e r v a b l e past  ered i n the  kind,  to the above methodology i s an assumption  a relationship record  of  about  ( B i n f o r d 1975;  n a t u r e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was  the  Schiffer  first  " a c t i v i t y s p e c i f i c " p r o p o s i t i o n presented  considby  (1962,1964):  The i n t i m a t e s y s t e m i c a r t i c u l a t i o n o f l o c a l i t i e s , f a c i l i t i e s , and t o o l s w i t h s p e c i f i c tasks performed by s o c i a l segments r e s u l t s i n a s t r u c t u r e d s e t of s p a t i a l - f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l record . . . The l o s s , breakage, and abandonment of implements and f a c i l i t i e s at d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s , where groups of v a r i a b l e s t r u c t u r e performed d i f f e r e n t t a s k s , l e a v e a " f o s s i l " r e c o r d o f the a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n of the e x t i n c t s o c i e t y . . . we can r e c o v e r , both from the n a t u r e o f the p o p u l a t i o n s o f a r t i f a c t s and from t h e i r s p a t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , the f o s s i l i z e d s t r u c t u r e of the t o t a l c u l t u r a l system ( B i n f o r d 1964:425). This general of material  " c o r r e l a t e " ( i . e . , a statement r e l a t i n g v a r i a b l e s c u l t u r e to behavioral,  variables^cf. H i l l  1970:63;  21  S c h i f f e r 1976:12-14) has the m a j o r i t y  of s t u d i e s concerned w i t h s p e c i f i c  reconstructions Hill  1970;  been used as the f o u n d a t i o n  ( B i n f o r d and  Longacre 1970).  B i n f o r d 1966; Nevertheless,  problem w i t h these s t u d i e s . ioral  inferences  The  employed has  though they are c r i t i c a l  reliability  on  of the behav-  t o the major hypotheses  (1972,1976).  questions  has  been c r i t i c i z e d by S c h i f f e r  More r e c e n t l y , B i n f o r d  (1977) has  called  about the b e h a v i o r a l -  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d .  The  Binford  of  elaborate  s i g n i f i c a n c e of a s p e c t s of scope of "middle-range  i t s r o l e i n contemporary a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h  summarized by  for  theory",  t h a t p r o g r e s s i n e x p l a i n i n g the o p e r a t i o n  p a s t c u l t u r a l systems i s dependent upon more  and  tested.  archaeological  more s t r e s s on the development of "middle-range  inferences  even  "groundwork" n e c e s s a r y f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  more p r o c e s s u a l  recognizing  1973;  i s a basic  y e t to be e v a l u a t e d ,  T h i s apparent l a c k of emphasis i n c u r r e n t research  behavioral  Freeman there  for  has  theory" been  (1977:6-7):,  I f one a c c e p t s o b s e r v a t i o n s made on the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d as contemporary f a c t s a l o n g w i t h the i d e a t h a t such f a c t s are s t a t i c , then c l e a r l y b a s i c problems f o r t h e c t a r c h a e o l o g i s t i n c l u d e (a) how we get from contempo r a r y f a c t s t o statements about the p a s t , and (b) how we c o n v e r t the o b s e r v a t i o n a l l y s t a t i c f a c t s of the r e c o r d t o statements of dynamics., What meaning may we j u s t i f i a b l y g i v e t o contemporary s t a t i c f a c t s r e g a r d i n g past dynamics? What c o n d i t i o n s of dynamics, not a v a i l a b l e f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , produce the forms and s t r u c t u r e s o b s e r v a b l e as s t a t i c ' p a t t e r n i n g i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l record? In approaching t h i s problem, we must develop i d e a s and t h e o r i e s (middle-range t h e o r y )  22  r e g a r d i n g the formation pr o c e s s e s of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . Only through an a c c u r a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of such p r o c e s s e s can we r e l i a b l y g i v e meaning t o the f a c t s t h a t appear, from the p a s t , i n the contemporary e r a . It proper  i s evident  from the above d i s c u s s i o n t h a t  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of b e h a v i o r a l . c o r r e l a t e s i s a b a s i c  a n a l y t i c a l s t e p i n any tence-settlement to  relevance  e f f e c t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of s u b s i s -  systems.  be taken l i g h t l y ;  Furthermore, t h i s i s not a step,  i f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the  o f " b u i l d i n g b l o c k s " of the  behavioral  subsistence-settlement  system i s i n doubt, t h i s apprehension w i l l o n l y be over i n any  carried  h i g h e r - l e v e l system r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s .  While the u l t i m a t e concern o f t h i s study r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  i s the  subsistence-settlement  systems o p e r a t i v e at u p p e r - l e v e l e l e v a t i o n s i n the p l a t e a u , t h i s q u e s t i o n cannot be addressed u n t i l ioral  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of chipped-stone l i t h i c  southern  the behav-  surface s c a t t e r s ,  the predominant a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n observed i n such zones, has been s t u d i e d .  The  c r i t i c a l l y reviews the p r e s e n t d i r e c t e d a t the q u e s t i o n interassemblage The is  remainder of t h i s s e c t i o n s t a t e of "middle range  of the b e h a v i o r a l  theory"  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  v a r i a b i l i t y i n the c h i p p e d - s t o n e i n d u s t r y .  main c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p r e s e n t  middle range  theory  the " s y n t h e t i c model o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n f e r e n c e "  developed by S c h i f f e r  (1976:11-26; 1972).  T h i s model  i n g u i s h e s the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d from the human  dist-  behavior  23  t h a t p r o d u c e d i t by systemic  contexts  i d e n t i f y i n g the  of c u l t u r a l  archaeological  and  materials:  S y s t e m i c c o n t e x t l a b e l s t h e c o n d i t i o n o f an e l e m e n t which i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a behavioral system. Archaeological context describes m a t e r i a l s which a r e now t h e o b j e c t s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i s t s ( S c h i f f e r 1972:157). Given t h i s is  d i s t i n c t i o n , the  to reconstruct  behavioral, of t h e i r  and  value  context  of the  lies  non-cultural  are  due  forces  and  r e g u l a r and  be  study  behavioral  that  can  be  patterning  observed i n  over time of  form the  archaeological  processes of the described r e m a i n s and  1)  record.  archaeological  i n terms of past  arch-  cultural  relation-  cultural  main forms of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , or identified;  that  n e c e s s a r i l y e x i s t between  to actions  these formation  Two  a t i o n s can  the  i n t h e manner i n w h i c h i t r e c o g n i z e s  s h i p s between a r c h a e o l o g i c a l behavior*  (i.e.  record ( i . e .  s y n t h e t i c model t o  behavior  aeological context,  Nevertheless,  context  r e m a i n s by  archaeological  a d i r e c t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e does not  record  systemic  research  context).  reconstructions  and  archaeological  r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) of m a t e r i a l  archaeological  systemic  of  understand the  s t r u c t u r e i n the  The  goal  transform-  those that describe  natural  environmental processes a f f e c t i n g c u l t u r a l l y - d e p o s i t e d m a t e r i a l , o r n - t r a n s f o r m s and cultural are  behavior - surrounding  removed from the c u l t u r a l  2)  those d e l i n e a t i n g  t h e means by w h i c h s y s t e m and  are  the elements  deposited  into  24  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d , or c - t r a n s f o r m s  (Schiffer  and  Rathje 1973). While n-transforms have been e x p l i c i t l y i n past a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , c - t r a n s f o r m s ,  considered until  quite  r e c e n t l y , have g e n e r a l l y gone u n r e c o g n i z e d i n most behavioral reconstructions. has  d e f i n e d two  Schiffer  (1972:157-163; 1976:30-34)  b a s i c types of c u l t u r a l  formation  processes:  1) the normal output from c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , and onment p r o c e s s e s ,  as w e l l as i d e n t i f y i n g r e s p e c t i v e types of  r e f u s e produced by each p r o c e s s .  Refuse types produced  c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s are primary r e f u s e — r e f u s e carded at i t s l o c a t i o n of use, discarded  and  at some l o c a t i o n o t h e r  ( S c h i f f e r 1972:161).  secondary r e f u s e which i s  than t h a t where i t was  M a t e r i a l elements  as de f a c t o r e f u s e  that enter  not e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e d , these p r o c e s s e s  behavioral  and  i n research  reconstructions, particularly  chipped-stone interassemblage When'jiapplied  ^ s y n t h e t i c model" l i e s  the  refuse  While types  dealing  i n studies  with of  variability.  to research  assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y ,  used  settlement  ( S c h i f f e r 1972:160).  are, nevertheless, recognizable  by  that i s d i s -  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d upon the abandonment of a are d e f i n e d  2) aband-  on c h i p p e d - s t o n e  the main c o n t r i b u t i o n of i n the e x p l i c i t  interSchiffer's  acknowledgement t h a t  the l o c u s of d i s c a r d of elements ( r e p r e s e n t e d  by  their  25  s t r u c t u r e i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d ) i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the same as t h e i r l o c u s The  (or l o c i ) o f use and/or p r o d u c t i o n .  r e l e v a n c e o f t h i s p o s i t i o n becomes e v i d e n t when past  studies of interassemblage The  v a r i a b i l i t y a r e reviewed.  b a s i s f o r most contemporary l i t h i c  analyses i s  o u t l i n e d i n the " a c t i v i t y a n a l y s i s " approach p i o n e e r e d by B i n f o r d and B i n f o r d (1966,1969). understand behavioral,  T h i s r e s e a r c h attempted t o  v a r i a t i o n i n stone t o o l assemblages  through  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f past a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out  at s i t e s where they were d e p o s i t e d . approach, d i f f e r e n c e s observed  According  to t h i s  i n s i t e assemblages were con-  s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t the u t i l i z a t i o n o f d i s t i n c t stone  chipped-  " t o o l k i t s " i n t h e performance o f v a r i o u s t a s k s .  d i f f e r e n t t o o l frequency  Thus,  distributions i narchaeological  assemblages o f t e n do not r e f l e c t v a r i o u s " e t h n i c groups" but rather d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s .  The i n t e r s i t e v a r i a t i o n of  these a c t i v i t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d by stone t o o l assemblages can then be i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e s u l t o f s p a t i a l and s e a s o n a l l y patterned s h i f t s i n subsistence-settlement p r a c t i c e s of preh i s t o r i c groups.  There s t i l l  i s c o n s i d e r a b l e debate over  such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f stone t o o l assemblage  variability,  e s p e c i a l l y i n P a l e o l i t h i c s t u d i e s ( B i n f o r d 1972,1973; Bordes and de S o n n e v i l l e - B o r d e s  1970; Bordes 1973; M e l l a r s 1970).  N e v e r t h e l e s s , whatever the m e r i t s o r d e f i c i e n c i e s o f t h i s approach may be, i t has had a tremendous impact  on subsequent  26  archaeological re-evaluate  t h i n k i n g as i t has  traditional  p r e v i o u s l y used.  As  (and  usually implicit)  i s o f t e n the case w i t h  studies,, however, f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h exposes the n a i v e t y  compelled r e s e a r c h e r s  present  applying  i n the i n i t i a l  While c h i p p e d - s t o n e implements may forward p r o d u c t s o f p r e h i s t o r i c behavioi?, p o s i t i o n i s considered involved  i n t h e i r use  complex than has studies.  1970)  assumptions used., be q u i t e s t r a i g h t when S c h i f f e r ' s  d i s c a r d may  activity  ( B i n f o r d and  B i n f o r d 1966;  Freeman  1973;  l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t they have not c o n s i d e r e d  system and  assumption t h a t the c u l t u r a l behaviojr  their deposition  ( B i n f o r d 1962,1964). (again  On  involved  behavioral  i n t o the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  record  d i r e c t process  t h i s b a s i s , stone t o o l assemblages  i m p l i c i t l y ) regarded as primary and/or de  elements  ( t o o l s ) are d i s c a r d e d  t h e i r l o c a t i o n s of use. between the'.proportion archaeological any  the  a n a l y z e d , a s i t u a t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e to  constitutes a r e l a t i v e l y straightforward  r u l e s out  factors  be somewhat more  the removal of stone t o o l elements from the  refuse:  strategy  A major shortcoming of some p r e v i o u s  the i m p l i c i t  are  the  analysis  type of r e f u s e being  in  pioneering  been assumed i n many a c t i v i t y  analysis studies Hill  assumptions  i t becomes apparent t h a t the and  to  and/or abandoned at  This perspective and  r e c o r d and  facto  of an  equivalence  l o c a t i o n of elements i n  the  past a c t i v i t i e s t h a t produced them  p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t e r v e n i n g c u l t u r a l b e h a v i o r .  27  such as t r a n s p o r t and  o f elements away from l o c a t i o n s o f use  d e p o s i t i o n elsewhere  ( S c h i f f e r 1972,1975a).  Recent s t u d i e s aimed a t the f u r t h e r development o f middle range theory  have i n d i c a t e d t h e l i m i t e d u t i l i t y o f  the above approach by i d e n t i f y i n g b e h a v i o r a l . v a r i a b l e s than a c t i v i t i e s p e r se t h a t can p o t e n t i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e cultural  formation  assemblages. involved  processes of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  i n the s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t  stone t o o l  strategy  (Binford  "dropping r a t e s " o f t o o l s w i t h  l i f e s p a n s i n the c o u r s e o f a c t i v i t y  (Ammerman and Feldman 1974), the d u r a t i o n occupation  to the  Such v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e : the degree o f m o b i l i t y  1972:265), t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l varying  other  performance  of  settlement  ( S c h i f f e r 1975b), and the maintenance,  rejuvena-  tion,, and c u r a t i o n o f a r t i f a c t s used i n c a r r y i n g out a c t i v i ties  ( B i n f o r d 1972:265; 1973:242-243,249-250; 1976).  the above m e r i t  consideration  as p o s s i b l e sources o f i n t e r -  assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y and thus c o m p l i c a t e behavioral  inferences  patterning.  the n a t u r e o f  t h a t can be used t o e x p l a i n  Of the "secondary!  1  behaviors  discussed  i n some d e t a i l  such  noted above, the  concept o f c u r a t i o n i s o f p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e o b j e c t i v e s o f the p r e s e n t  A l l of  t o the  study and f o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s below.  " C u r a t i o n " r e f e r s t o a form o f c u l t u r a l t h a t i n v o l v e s the removal o f a r t i f a c t s  behavior  from t h e i r  locations  o f use and t r a n s p o r t elsewhere i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f f u t u r e  28  employment  ( B i n f o r d 1973:242).  The  i d e a of c u r a t i o n as  f a c t o r c o n d i t i o n i n g the s t r u c t u r e of the r e c o r d has  archaeological  been c r i t i c i z e d by Hayden (1976), who  i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y to l i t h i c  a  technologies.  questions  Nevertheless,  I .  b e l i e v e t h a t i t does have a wide range of a p p l i c a t i o n t o both past ships.  and  present  behavior -material c u l t u r e  It.is  evident  that c u r a t i o n i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d with  the b e h a v i o r r e f u s e , and  responsible there  relation-  f o r the d e p o s i t i o n of de  i s a high p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t  facto  "Very few  pre-  h i s t o r i c communities are abandoned w i t h a complete  invent-  ory of c u l t u r a l remains l e f t  (Reid  as de  facto refuse."  et a l . 1975:214) .. An  important i m p l i c a t i o n o f c u r a t e b e h a v i o r  archaeology i s t h a t c u r a t e d  materials  are  "conserved" by  the c u l t u r a l system,, t h e r e f o r e t h e i r frequency of i n t o the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d s h i p to the  i s not  curate behavior  in a direct relation-,  thus tend t o r e f l e c t  the o p e r a t i o n  of such  t o o l replacement  r a t e s r a t h e r than a c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t o c c u r r e d l o c a t i o n of d e p o s i t i o n  activity  Stone t o o l assemblages formed under  f a c t o r s as d i f f e r e n t t o o l l i f e s p a n s and  While i t may  deposition  i n t e n s i t y , d u r a t i o n , or l o c a t i o n o f the  i n which they were used.  for  at  the  ( B i n f o r d 1973:242j 1976:341-342).  r e a s o n a b l y be expected t h a t t o o l s d e p o s i t e d  a s i t e were used t h e r e and p o s s i b l y caches intended  at  e i t h e r r e f l e c t worn-out items or  f o r f u t u r e use,  i t does not  follow  29  that  t h e assemblage represents  a l l of the a r t i f a c t s  that  were employed i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d o u t t h e r e . Such a v i e w p o i n t lithic  analyses  that  has c r i t i c a l  implications f o r  seek t o i n t e r p r e t p r o p o r t i o n a l v a r i a -  t i o n among t o o l t y p e s a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f different  As an example, a f a c t o r  analysis  ( c u r r e n t l y t h e most p o p u l a r method o f d e r i v i n g  activity  toolkits)  activities.  that produces high  loadings  f o rp a r t i c u l a r groups  o f t o o l t y p e s may b e m e a s u r i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l and  dropping r a t e s , rather  frequency o f a c t i v i t i e s point  than t h e d i r e c t i n t e n s i t y o r  (Ammerman a n d F e l d m a n 1 9 7 4 ) .  t o b e made f r o m t h i s  ( 1 9 7 0 : 1 6 3 ) : ". . . t h e r e  may a l m o s t b e a n i n v e r s e  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n about b e h a v i o r a l Although curate  cultural  behavior  systems, i t i s l i k e l y  when e x a m i n e d i n s p e c i f i c uum t h a t o r d e r s  statistical  relationmachinery  interpretation".  may b e o p e r a t i v e  i n most  manifest i n varying  degrees  situations.  Viewed along  a contin-  levels of technological organization, the  types of c u r a t i o n discussed  above r e p r e s e n t ,  upper end where elements a r e c u r a t e d , possibly modified system.  The  example i s b e s t s t a t e d by C o w g i l l  s h i p between e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e formal and  tool lifespans  p r i o r t o being  At the other  t h e extreme  m a i n t a i n e d , and  removed from t h e c u l t u r a l  end o f t h e c o n t i n u u m i s an e x p e d i e n t  technology characterized  by t h e m a n u f a c t u r e ,  utilization,  d i s c a r d o r abandonment o f t o o l s a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e  30  a c t i v i t y i n which they were employed  ( B i n f o r d 1976:341).  From t h e above d i s c u s s i o n i t s h o u l d be q u i t e c l e a r that c u l t u r a l  formation processes  have a c r u c i a l r o l e i n  the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c data requirements q u e s t i o n s such as a c t i v i t y a n a l y s i s . behavior  A t t h e p r e s e n t time, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o  present s p e c i f i c c-transforms  ion  The e f f e c t s o f c u r a t e  on a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s a r e o b v i o u s l y q u i t e  complex., however.  ships.  f o r research  Some i n i t i a l  t h a t d e s c r i b e such  relation-  attempts have been made i n t h i s  direct-  (Ammerman and Feldman 1976; B i n f o r d 1976:339-349;  S c h i f f e r 1975b) and i n d i c a t e p o t e n t i a l d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e a c t i v i t y a n a l y s e s t o f o l l o w i n o r d e r t o bypass some o f t h e conceptual  problems o u t l i n e d above.  The most immediate  q u e s t i o n f a c e d by a c t i v i t y a n a l y s i s i s t h e e x t e n t t o which c u r a t e behavior  was o p e r a t i v e i n t h e c u l t u r a l system t h a t  produced a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a . has been determined,  one can e v a l u a t e t h e degree t o which  t h a t d a t a s e t may f u r n i s h i n f o r m a t i o n on s i t e One  Once t h i s  utilization.  o f t h e most v a l u a b l e o b s e r v a t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o  such g o a l s i s made by B i n f o r d (1973;1976) i n h i s  ethnoarch-  a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , on contemporary Nunamiut s u b s i s t e n c e and  s e t t l e m e n t behavior.  He notes  where a h i g h l y c u r a t e d technology byproducts  t h a t even i n s i t u a t i o n s  i s p r e s e n t , t h e immediate  o f e i t h e r work o r consumption c o n s i s t e n t l y  provide r e l a t i v e l y  "unbiased"  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e n a t u r e o f  31  a c t i v i t i e s conducted a t s p e c i f i c s i t e s  ( B i n f o r d 1976:340).  Such byproducts would i n c l u d e those elements c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  a low  p o t e n t i a l f o r use  i n future a c t i v i t i e s ,  r e f l e c t e d by a s h o r t u s e l i f e and such items do p r o v i d e according  a high  as  "dropping r a t e " .  a means of o r d e r i n g  If  settlements  t o t h e i r form of u t i l i z a t i o n , then i t should  be  p o s s i b l e t o measure the i n f l u e n c e of c u r a t e behavior-  by  examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the f a b r i c a t e d t o o l assemblages t o these groups based on s i t e use S c h i f f e r 1975b:268).  The  ( B i n f o r d 1976:339-346;  types of byproducts t h a t may  be  expected t o be observed i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d would include f l o r a l  and  f a u n a l remains and  the l i t h i c  o f stone t o o l manufacture and  use  In the c o n t e x t  s t u d y , an emphasis on  of the p r e s e n t  c o l l e c t i o n of s u r f a c e lithic  (i.e. lithic  byproducts debitage). the  survey data r e s t r i c t s a n a l y s i s t o  the  industry. The  explicitly  goals  of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n can  now  be more  s t a t e d i n l i g h t of the above d i s c u s s i o n .  requisite f i r s t  step  subsistence-settlement  A  i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p r e h i s t o r i c systems i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of  a c t i v i t i e s p r a c t i c e d at d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s o c c u p i e d  by  p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l system.  I t i s proposed here t h a t  a c t i v i t i e s are d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t e d i n the r e c o r d by  such  archaeological  immediate byproducts of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t  subsistence,  a  w h i l e the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s  secure  o f t o o l s used  32  i n such a c t i v i t i e s r e p r e s e n t more complex p a t t e r n s o f use and  disposal.  The g o a l s o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a r e t o :  1)  d e s c r i b e p a t t e r n s o f s e t t l e m e n t u t i l i z a t i o n r e f l e c t e d by byproducts and  of l i t h i c  technology  i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y ,  2) compare t h i s w i t h p a t t e r n s o f stone Research  tool deposition.  Strategy  While the above s e c t i o n has o u t l i n e d a g e n e r a l work f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g p r e h i s t o r i c b e h a v i o r a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d , a s e t o f more d e t a i l e d  frame-  from t h e a r c h assumptions,  hypotheses, and t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e necessary  f o r any  attempt t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e p a r t i c u l a r u n i t s o f s u b s i s t e n c e and  s e t t l e m e n t behavior-  o f a s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l system which  u t i l i z e d d i f f e r e n t settlements.  The f o l l o w i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y was d e r i v e d and m o d i f i e d s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t s t h a t have focused tence-settlement 1977;  p a t t e r n s i n t h e Great  from a number o f  on r e g i o n a l s u b s i s Basin  (Bettinger  Matson 1971; Thomas 1973) and t h e American Southwest  ( L i p e and Matson 1971). The  g e n e r a l s t r a t e g y o f these p r o j e c t s i s t h e i n v e s t -  i g a t i o n o f s u r f a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a r c h a e o l o g i c a l settlements  ( s i t e s ) and a s p e c t s o f the contemporary b i o -  p h y s i c a l environment of observation.  (micro-environments) a t a r e g i o n a l l e v e l  B e h a v i o r a l , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f these  r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e mainly  based on s p e c i f i c  ethnographic  33  analogies. t e n c e and  From r e g i o n a l e t h n o g r a p h i e s , u n i t s o f s u b s i s settlement behavior  logical  tool  reflect  such b e h a v i o r  geographic  " t a s k " a s s e m b l a g e s t h a t w o u l d be  settings  ence r e s o u r c e s . c o l l e c t e d by  a r e d e l i n e a t e d and  archaeo-  expected  are hypothesized along w i t h  in relationships  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and  to potential  encompass t h e r a n g e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l sphere of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .  The  data  areas  a n a l y s i s of the  cussed  i n t h e a b o v e s e c t i o n and  o f p a s t man^land  the  interrelation'  the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a  taxonomy a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f S t r u e v e r ' s  are  that  diversity within  s h i p s among t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l , and mental data sets enables  their subsist-  environmental  the survey of s e l e c t e d geographic  to  environsettlement  (1968) method as  the o v e r a l l  dis-  determination  relationships.  T h i s s t u d y a l s o u s e s a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e by v i e w i n g Upper Hat and  a f o c u s on  C r e e k V a l l e y as t h e main u n i t o f  the d i f f e r e n t i a l  utilization  e n v i r o n m e n t s p r e s e n t , as r e p r e s e n t e d by archaeological m a n u f a c t u r e and  s e t t l e m e n t s and use  of stone  of the  study micro-  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  intersite variability  tools.  of  i n the  34  CHAPTER I I I THE  NATURAL ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING The Contemporary Environment General  The has  Geographic S e t t i n g  Canadian C o r d i l l e r a n Region o f B r i t i s h  t h r e e major s u b d i v i s i o n s o r "systems":  Columbia  t h e Western  System o f Coast Range Mountains; t h e E a s t e r n System o f t h e Rocky Mountains; and the I n t e r i o r System, t h e l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h a t area l o c a t e d between t h e two mountain systems  (Holland 1964:,27).  System l y i n g south  The r e g i o n o f t h e I n t e r i o r  o f l a t i t u d e 55° n o r t h t o t h e 49th  parallel  and west o f t h e Columbia Mountains i s d e f i n e d as t h e Canadian I n t e r i o r Plateau The by areas  ( H o l l a n d 1964:66),.  I n t e r i o r Plateau i s diverse i n character,  typified  o f low t o moderate r e l i e f c o n s t i t u t i n g a s e r i e s o f  p l a t e a u s , h i g h l a n d s , mountains, and deeply river valleys.  The predominant d r a i n a g e  system i s t h e F r a s e r  R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s ; minor d r a i n a g e Peace, and Skeena R i v e r s occurs  i n those  entrenched major  t o t h e Columbia, areas  of the  I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u o u t s i d e o f the F r a s e r R i v e r watershed ( H o l l a n d 1964:67).  T h i s r e g i o n o f complex  patterning i s subdivided  physiographic  i n t o seven p h y s i o g r a p h i c  regions:  the F r a s e r B a s i n , Nechacko P l a t e a u , F r a s e r Plateau,: Thompson  35  Plateau,  :  Highland  Quesnel  H i g h l a n d , Shuswap H i g h l a n d , and Okanagan  (Holland 1964:67-74). Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y i s l o c a t e d on the t r a n s i t i o n  zone between two p h y s i o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s — t h e F r a s e r and Thompson P l a t e a u s .  Centered on a p p r o x i m a t e l y  50°40» n o r t h  l a t i t u d e and 121°56* west l o n g i t u d e and measuring  15 mi i n  l e n g t h o r i e n t e d n o r t h - s o u t h , Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y i n c l u d e s the e a s t e r n s l o p e s o f the C l e a r Range o f the F r a s e r P l a t e a u and the western  s e c t i o n s o f the T r a c h y t e and C o r n w a l l  t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the western (see  figure 2).  margin o f the Thompson P l a t e a u  The average  f l o o r elevation of t h i s  upland v a l l e y i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y from about  Hills  shallow  3500 f t (1050 m) and ranges  2800 f t (840 m) i n t h e n o r t h e r n end t o  l y 4000 f t (1200 m) i n the s o u t h .  approximate^  The C l e a r Range, w i t h  summits i n excess o f 7600 f t (2280 m.J r i s i n g over 4000 f t (1200 m) above t h e v a l l e y f l o o r , p r e s e n t s an a r e a o f h i g h relief  immediately  west o f Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y w h i l e  c r e s t s o f the T r a c h y t e and C o r n w a l l H i l l s  t o the e a s t a r e  1000 t o 2000 f t (300 t o 600 m) lower i n e l e v a t i o n , forming a zone o f more moderate r e l i e f .  The g e n e r a l p h y s i o g r a p h i c  s e t t i n g o f the v a l l e y can be observed of  from the photograph  f i g u r e 3. Surficial The  surficial  Geology  and S o i l s  geology o f Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y i s  p r i n c i p a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a sheet o f g l a c i a l  drift,  FIGURE 2.  Physiographic s u b d i v i s i o n s i n the v i c i n i t y of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y ( a f t e r H o l l a n d 1 9 6 4 ) .  37  FIGURE 3-  General view of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y , southwest.  looking  38  v a r y i n g i n depth, w i t h bedrock The  p r o j e c t i o n s and  exposures.  l a t t e r are r e p r e s e n t e d by the C l e a r Range, composed of  Cretaceous sedimentary r o c k s of the Spences B r i d g e Group (Ryder 1976:2) and a s e r i e s of l i m e s t o n e c l i f f s  forming the  e a s t e r n w a l l of the southern p a r t s of the v a l l e y which cons t i t u t e an o u t c r o p of the Marble Canyon Formation 1975:4-5). glacial  In general,; the landforms d e r i v e d from  till  purposes  (Aylsworth  d e p o s i t s are s t a b l e — a  the  f a c t o r important f o r  of archaeological surface survey.  M.  / p e r s o n a l communication) has noted the minimal  Church i n f l u e n c e of  e r o s i o n a l and d e p o s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s on these landforms t h e i r formation.  since  D r i f t d e p o s i t s i n the v a l l e y are c h a r a c t e r -  i z e d by u n d u l a t i n g t o hummocky moraines  (Ryder 1976:7-8),.  P o s t g l a c i a l a l t e r a t i o n s of these areas have mainly from e a r t h f l o w a c t i v i t y  resulted  i n the v i c i n i t y of White Rock Creek  and a l o n g the s o u t h e r n p e r i p h e r y of the Houth Meadows, and from stream entrenchment.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of major  features i s presented i n f i g u r e Alluvial  and c o l l u v i a l  s m a l l e r areas throughout sediments  comprise  surficial  4. sediments  are e v i d e n t i n  the v a l l e y b a s i n .  Sand and  the r e l a t i v e l y narrow Hat Creek  silt  floodplain  l o c a t e d i n the s o u t h e r n p a r t o f the v a l l e y w h i l e i n the n o r t h e r n end the f l o o d p l a i n i s even more r e s t r i c t e d and i s w e l l entrenched i n t o the v a l l e y f i l l 26).  Alluvial  i n width  (Aylsworth  1975:  fans o c c u r a t both h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s on the  39  LETTER TEXTURE g  GRAVELLY  f  SILT  d  DIAMICTON  r  RUBBLE  9  CLAY  COMPOSITIONAL-GENETIC M  MORAINE;  TILL  A  ALLUVIAL;  SAND, SILT, G R A V E L , DIAMICTON  A?  FLUVIOGL ACIAL; S A N D , G R A V E L  L  LACUSTRINE;  C  COLLUVIUM;  R  ROCK  D  DRIFT  MORPHOLOGIC  SILT, C L A Y , S A N D VARIOUS  SUBDIVISION  P  PLAIN  t  TERRACED  STEEP  m  UNDULATING  f  FAN  COMPLEX  h  HUMMOCKY  v  VENEER  r  RIDGED  b  BLANKET  FIGURE 4.  SLOPES  S u r f i c i a l geology o f Upper Hat Creek ( a f t e r Ryder 1976).  Valley  40  western s l o p e of the v a l l e y and floodplain.  Colluvium  f e a t u r e on s t e e p e r  the margin of the  d e r i v e d from slopewash i s a common  s l o p e s along  the e a s t s i d e of the  T a l u s s l o p e s , however, are i n f r e q u e n t and the base of the l i m e s t o n e Upper Hat Creek and extreme southeast The  c l i f f s at the  valley.  are r e s t r i c t e d  j u n c t i o n of  to  the  Oregon Jack Creek v a l l e y s i n the  p a r t of the  process  present  of s o i l  basin.  development i n the v a l l e y i s  mainly i n f l u e n c e d by the v a r y i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s of c l i m a t e , topography, and  vegetation.  Local s o i l  from t h r e e main forms of parent c o l l u v i u m , and  alluvial  a l l u v i u m of the Hat  material:  deposits.  till  colluvium. and  B r u n i s o l s and  c o l l u v i u m are p r e s e n t  the l a t t e r t e n d i n g  are  derived  glacial  Regosols occur  Creek f l o o d p l a i n .  have developed under the g r a s s l a n d s and  types  till, on  Chernozemic  i n areas  the  soils  of g l a c i a l  l u v i s o l s d e r i v e d from  till  glacial  under f o r e s t e d c o n d i t i o n s ,  to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n  forests. Climate The  c l i m a t e of t h i s r e g i o n of the  southwestern  i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s t y p i f i e d by due  low  precipitation  t o the rainshadow e f f e c t of the Coast Mountains.  The  rainshadow e f f e c t i s most i n t e n s e at lower e l e v a t i o n s where s e m i - a r i d c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l , r e f l e c t i n g an i n c r e a s i n g p r e c i p i t a t i o n gradient with higher a l t i t u d e  (Van  Ryswyk e t a l .  41  1966).  C l i m a t i c d a t a f o r the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y a r e  a v a i l a b l e from a l o c a l m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s t a t i o n a t t h e Lehman Ranch (Atmospheric Environment  Service  n.d.:37).  Summary d a t a from t h i s s t a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e 1. Average 11.9  annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n t h e v a l l e y f l o o r ranges from  t o 12.5 i n (302.3 t o 317.0 mm).  These r e p r e s e n t v a l l e y  bottom o b s e r v a t i o n s ; t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n on t h e a d j a c e n t s l o p e s i s expected t o be h i g h e r .  There i s a bimodal  b u t i o n o f s e a s o n a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n , t h e f i r s t maximum in  distrioccurring  t h e w i n t e r p r i n c i p a l l y i n t h e form o f s n o w f a l l , and t h e  second i n t h e summer r a i n s . A c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e p r e v a i l s throughout t h e y e a r ; g e n e r a l l y warm summers and c o l d r i g o r o u s w i n t e r s r e s u l t sharp d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f s e a s o n a l temperatures.  in a  While t h e  Coast Mountains c o n s t a n t l y impede t h e f l o w o f P a c i f i c a i r masses eastward, t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u t o the n o r t h o f s o u t h c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia  does not p r o v i d e any e f f e c t i v e  b a r r i e r f o r p o l a r a i r moving south d u r i n g the w i n t e r .  The  i n t e r m i x t u r e o f t h e s e c o a s t a l and a r c t i c a i r masses over t h e r e g i o n r e s u l t s i n a marked f l u c t u a t i o n o f temperature the  w i n t e r season.  during  The c o l d e s t month o f t h e year i s January,  w i t h a mean d a i l y temperature o f 12.2°F  (-11.0°C).  Neverthe-  l e s s , t h e maximum r e c o r d e d temperature f o r January i s 53°F (11.7°C)  and t h e minimum i s -41°F (-40.6°C).  The warmest  months a r e J u l y and August w i t h average d a i l y temperatures o f  TABLE 1 UPPER HAT CREEK VALLEY CLIMATIC DATA  Hat Creek Station (Lehman Ranch) Latitude 50° 45N' Longitude 121° 35W Elevation 900 m (2950 ft) ASL  JAN  FEB  MAR  APR  MAY  JUN  JUL  AUG  SEPT  OCT  NOV  DEC  YEAR  17.1 37.8 25.9 39.4 50.9 57.5 54.2 59.1 43.3 38.7 28.8 21.7 12.2 ( 8.3) ( 3.2) ( 3.4) ( 4.1) (°C) (-U.0) (- 5.7) (- 1.8) ( 3.7) ( 9.1) ( 12.3) ( 15.1) ( 14.2) ( 10.5) 26.7 50.5 35.4 51.3 73.2 66.1 68.2 75.1 62.4 51.1 40.2 33.8 22.8 (°F) ( 2.9) ( 10.3) ( 10.7) ( 1.9) ( 22.9) ( 18.9) ( 23.9) (°C) (- 5.1) ( 1.0) ( 4.6) ( 10.6) ( 16.9) ( 20.1) (°F)  Mean Daily Temperature Mean Daily Maximum Temperature Mean Daily Minimum Temperature Extreme Maximum Temperature Extreme Minimum Temperature No. of Days with Frost  25.1 7.5 16.3 27.5 35.7 41.7 43.0 40.2 26.2 34.1 17.3 9.6 1.5 (°F) (-13.6) ( 3.8) ( 8.7) ( 2.5) ( 2.1) ( 5.4) ( 6 . 1 ) ( 4.6) (°C) (-16.9) (-12.4) (- 8.2) (- 3.2) ( 1.2) 50 94 54 74 88 94 94 . 82 93 70 63 56 (°F) 53 ( 12.2) ( 10.0) ( 34.4) ( 23.3) ( 33.1) ( 34.4) ( 34.4) ( 33.9) ( 27.8) ( 21.1) ( 17.2) (°C) ( 11.7) ( 13.3) -45 -45 -22 10 19 28 31 26 18 12 -18 -13 -41 (-12.2) (-30.0) (-42.8) (- 42.7) ( 7.2) ( 2.2) ( 0.6) ( 3.3) ( 7.8) (-27.8) (-25.0) ( U.l) (-40.6) (°C) 31 231 30 24 9 1 1 2 16 27 31 28 31 (°F)  Mean Snowfall  0.14 7.24 0.26 0.84 0.79 1.25 1.14 1.38 0.70 0.32 0.21 0.11 0.10 (in) ( 3.6) ( 183.9) ( 6.6) ( 21.3) ( 20.1) (ran) ( 2.5) ( 2.8) ( 5.3) ( 8.1) ( 17.8) ( 35.1) ( 29.0) ( 31.8) 52.4 12.2 9.1 1.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 3.2 4.0 6.2 14.5 (in) (231.1) (309.9) (1331.0) ( 38.1) ( 5.1) ( 0.0) ( 0.0) ( 0.0) (ran) (368.3) (157.5) (101.6) ( 81.3) ( 38.1)  Mean Total Precipitation  12.48 1.17 1.36 0.99 0.81 1.25 1.14 1.38 0.85 0.64 0.61 0.73 (in) 1.55 ( 29.7) ( 34.5) ( 317.0) (mm) ( 39.4) ( 18.5) ( 15.5) ( 16.3) ( 21.6) ( 35.1) ( 29.0) ( 31.8) ( 20.6) ( 25.2)  Mean Rainfall  Source: Atmospheric Environment Service ( n.d.: 37)  43 59.1°F  (15.1°C) and 57.5°F  (14.2°C) r e s p e c t i v e l y .  During  these months, the average d a i l y maximum temperatures a r e between 73.2°F minima  ;  (22.9°C) and 75.1°F  range between 41.7°F  No months a r e e n t i r e l y  frost  (23.9°C); average d a i l y  (5.4°C) and 43.0°F (6.1°C). f r e e , and o n l y June, J u l y and  August have snow-free p r e c i p i t a t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g  the e f f e c t s  o f more pronounced temperature f l u c t u a t i o n s a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s and the v e r t i c a l g r a d i e n t o f d e c r e a s i n g ture with increasing a l t i t u d e Service  tempera-  (Atmospheric Environment  n.d.:.37). H y d r o l o g i c Environment The n a t u r e , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and d u r a t i o n o f a v a i l -  a b i l i t y o f water i s a c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e i n the study o f c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n s t o s e m i - a r i d environments, p o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c i n g both o c c u p a t i o n and r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n and p r o cessing.  C o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n a l l the above  attributes  of the h y d r o l o g i c environment e x i s t s i n the study a r e a . The upper reaches o f Hat Creek d r a i n a b a s i n area o f 12 7 sq mi that  (329 s q km)  b e f o r e e n t e r i n g the lower stream c o u r s e  j o i n s the Bonaparte R i v e r 12 mi downstream.  The Bona-  p a r t e R i v e r i s a t r i b u t a r y of the Thompson R i v e r , the major c o n f l u e n t o f the F r a s e r  River.  The l o c a l d r a i n a g e i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an assortment o f i n t e r m i t t e n t , nent ( s e a s o n a l ) , and permanent  semi-perma-  year-round t r i b u t a r i e s  flowing  2J4  i n t o Hat Creek along i t s 13.4 mi (21.6 km) upper valleyf l o o r course.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r e s e n t Hat Creek  b u t a r i e s i s presented  i n f i g u r e 5.  l y low g r a d i e n t and stream The  c r e e k s have y e t t o be s t u d i e d . historic  Hat Creek has a r e l a t i v e -  flow a l o n g i t s upper  d u r a t i o n and r a t e s o f stream  tri-  reaches.  f l o w o f the t r i b u t a r y I t i s probable  t h a t the p r e -  l o c a t i o n o f streams i n the v a l l e y was s i m i l a r t o  the p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n .  Landforms a r e mainly  the r e s u l t s  o f g l a c i a l p r o c e s s e s , and the major e f f e c t o f Hat Creek and its  t r i b u t a r i e s on the physiography  has been channel  r e s u l t i n g i n deep entrenchment a l o n g most stream the r e s t r i c t e d development o f a l l u v i a l Hat Creek has an annual and  June  erosion  c o u r s e s and  fans.  h i g h flow p e r i o d d u r i n g May  (B.C. Research e t a l . 1975:88); the magnitude o f the  s p r i n g f r e s h e t i s dependent on t h e q u a n t i t y o f w i n t e r snow pack i n the v a l l e y and h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s . and  g e n e r a l creek  Thus, the peak  l e v e l s may f l u c t u a t e c o n s i d e r a b l y each y e a r ,  according to c l i m a t i c o s c i l l a t i o n s  in precipitation.  A s e r i e s o f s m a l l l a k e s and sloughs maintained system o f s u b s u r f a c e seepage channels  by a  a r e l o c a t e d on the  e a s t e r n s l o p e s south o f Ambusten Creek and along most o f the western benchland.  These p r o v i d e water sources,,  a l k a l i n e , f o r v a r y i n g p e r i o d s throughout  the y e a r .  seepage system a l s o feeds s p r i n g s i n the g e n e r a l although  although  t h e e n t i r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these sources  The same  area, i s not  45  FIGURE 5-  Hat Creek drainage b a s i n .  46  known.  Some are o b s e r v a b l e along the west bank of  Creek In the n o r t h end of the  valley.  While minimal i n o v e r a l l q u a n t i t y r e l a t i v e adjacent drainage  r e g i o n s and  Hat  to  s u s c e p t i b l e to f l u c t u a t i o n s i n  the p r e s e n t and undoubtedly the p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y water r e s o u r c e s p r e s e n t a d i s p e r s e d d i s t r i b u t i o n over the landscape  i n a v a r i e t y of source  types.  Flora According d i s t r i b u t i o n map  to the B r i t i s h Columbia b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone by K r a j i n a (1973),  t h r e e major b i o g e o c l i m a t i c  zones are p r e s e n t w i t h i n the Upper Hat Creek d r a i n a g e b a s i n : I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r , S u b a l p i n e F i r , and A l p i n e Tundra.. zones and  Engelmann Spruce —  Subalpine  The v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of  these  those of areas t o the e a s t and west of the v a l l e y  i s presented The  in figure  6.  v e g e t a t i o n w i t h i n these t h r e e broad  zones can  be  f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a s e r i e s of communities ( a s s o c i a t i o n s ) , each of which c o n s t i t u t e s a d i s t i n c t i v e grouping plant species.  of  A t o t a l of 17 v e g e t a t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s have  been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the Upper Hat Creek watershed i n an initial  e c o l o g i c a l study by the TERA Environmental  A n a l y s t L i m i t e d (1978).  These are p r e s e n t e d  Resource  i n o r d e r of  i n c r e a s i n g e l e v a t i o n i n t a b l e 2. From these a s s o c i a t i o n s , a t o t a l of 10 v e g e t a t i o n  WEST  HORIZONTAL:  VERTICAL:  1 1  I  'l r I 1  1  800 I  1  I  'l  METRES  \  3 MILES  FIGURE 6.  V e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zones i n the v i c i n i t y of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y .  TABLE 2 VEGETATION ASSOCIATIONS IN THE UPPER HAT CREEK BASIN  Interior Douglas-fir  (steppe) Zone  - Sagebrush-Bunchgrass A s s o c i a t i o n - Bunchgrass-Kentucky B l u e g r a s s A s s o c i a t i o n - S a l i n e Depression A s s o c i a t i o n - Kentucky B l u e g r a s s A s s o c i a t i o n Interior Douglas-fir  ( f o r e s t ) Zone  - Douglas-fir-Bunchgrass A s s o c i a t i o n - Douglas-fir-Pinegrass  Association  - Douglas-fir-Bunchgrass-Pinegrass A s s o c i a t i o n - Douglas-fir-Spirea-Bearberry  Association  Subalpine Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine F i r ( f o r e s t ) Zone - Engelmann Spruce-Grouseberry-Pinegrass A s s o c i a t i o n - Engelmann Spruee-Grouseberry A s s o c i a t i o n - Engelmann Spruce-Willow-Red Heather Association  Parkland  - Engelmann Spruce-Grouseberry-Lupines A s s o c i a t i o n Subalpine Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine F i r (steppe) Zone - H i g h l a n d Grasslands A s s o c i a t i o n A l p i n e Tundra Zone - Mountain Avens-Sedge A s s o c i a t i o n Azonal  Associations  - Riparian Association - Engelmann S p r u c e - H o r s e t a i l  Association  - Willow-Sedge Bog A s s o c i a t i o n  SOURCE:  TERA ( 1 9 7 8 ) Map  1 : 5 0 , 0 0 0 Vegetation  Association  4-9 communities a r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the study area f o r a r c h aeological survey.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the communities i n  the v i c i n i t y o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l sampling frame i s p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 7.  On. the b a s i s o f the TERA study and  o t h e r work i n the g e n e r a l r e g i o n K r a j i n a 1965; McLean and Marchand  (Beil  1974; Brayshaw  1968; T i s d a l e  1970;  1947;  T i s d a l e and McLean 1957), each community i s b r i e f l y  des-  c r i b e d below w i t h r e s p e c t t o dominant s p e c i e s and p l a n t s identified  as e t h n o g r a p h i c s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e s  1891; Palmer 1975a;  (see Dawson  Steedman 1930; Te-it 1900* 1906,. 1909).  The 10 communities p r e s e n t a r e : 1. The sagebrush-bunchgrass community  (see f i g u r e 8 ) ,  which i s u s u a l l y absent w i t h i n the I n t e r i o r  Douglas  F i r zone (Brayshaw 1970; T i s d a l e and McLean 1957). The p r e s e n c e o f t h i s community i n the n o r t h e r n end o f t h e Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y below 3200 f t (975 may  m)  c o n s t i t u t e an edaphic c l i m a x t o s o i l s r i c h i n  bentonite, since a similar vegetation-soil  relation-  s h i p has been suggested f o r sage-dominant  communities  o u t s i d e t h e i r r e c o g n i z e d ranges i n the Similkameen Valley., B.C.  (McLean 1970:413).  For t h i s reason i t  i s r e c o g n i z e d as a " n a t u r a l " community a l t h o u g h i n a s e r a i s t a t e due t o i n t e n s e g r a z i n g p r e s s u r e .  No  t r e e s a r e p r e s e n t i n the u n d i s t u r b e d areas of the community.  Sagebrush ( A r t e m i s i a t r i d e n t a t a ) con-  50  FIGURE 7.  V e g e t a t i o n communities i n the Upper Hat Creek study area.  F I G U R E 9.  Middle-upper  grassland  community.  52  s t i t u t e s the dominant s p e c i e s i n the shrub  stratum,  w h i l e Bluebunch wheatgrass  (Agropyron  dominates the herb l a y e r .  Subsistence plants i n  t h i s community i n c l u d e y e l l o w b e l l s pudica) , b i s c u i t r o o t lily  balsam-root  p r i c k l y pear  nodding onion  (Balsamorhiza  cactus  ( A l l i u m cernuum),  saqittata),  (Lewisa r e d i v a ) , stoneseed and  (Fritillaria  (Lomatium macrocarpum), mariposa  ( C a l o c h o r t u s macrocarpus),  (Opuntia f r a q i l i s ) ,  spicatum)  bitter-root  (Lithospermum r u d e r a l e ) ,  s e r v i c e b e r r y (Amelanchier  alnifolia).  2. The middle-upper g r a s s l a n d community  (see f i g u r e 9 ) ,  which c o n s t i t u t e s the remainder of the open g r a s s l a n d s on the v a l l e y bottom and c o n t a i n s two b l u e g r a s s and  lower  slopes.  T h i s community  v e g e t a t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s — t h e kentucky the bunchgrass-kentucky b l u e g r a s s —  i d e n t i f i e d by TERA (1978:4.77-4.81) as s e r a i i a t i o n s with a species composition by g r a z i n g pressure..  assoc-  mainly i n f l u e n c e d  For purposes of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  r e s e a r c h they have been grouped t o g e t h e r i n t o a s i n g l e community d e s c r i b e d on the b a s i s of the c l i m a x  assoc-  i a t i o n s t h a t would be p r e s e n t i f g r a z i n g p r e s s u r e removed.  These g r a s s l a n d s have an a l t i t u d i n a l  range  t h a t i n c l u d e s the upper two  c l i m a x g r a s s l a n d zones  r e c o g n i z e d f o r the Southern  Interior  Aqropyron-Poa (Middle G r a s s l a n d )  was  Plateau—the  zone and  the Agropyron-  53  Festuca 1968;  (Upper  T i s d a l e 1947),.  spicatum) The  G r a s s l a n d ) zone  ( M c L e a n and  Bluebunch  wheatgrass  Marchand (Agropyron  i s the dominant herb throughout both  secondary  dominance o f sandberg  zones.  bluegrass  (Poa  s e c u n d a ) i n t h e m i d d l e g r a s s l a n d z o n e and r o u g h (Festuca scabrella)  i n the upper  g r a s s l a n d zone, i n  combination with a greater species d i v e r s i t y latter  zone, d i f f e r e n t i a t e s  fescue  t h e two  zones..  i n the >of  A total  four ethnographic subsistence plants—balsam-root (Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a ) , yellow b e l l s pudica), mariposa nodding  onion  lily  ( C a l o c h o r t u s macrocarpus)  (Allium cernuum)—are  c l i m a x s i t e s d e s c r i b e d by T i s d a l e 3. The the  r i p a r i a n community v a l l e y bottom  Hat C r e e k . sition  and  present i n the (1947).  (see f i g u r e 10), r e s t r i c t e d  Brayshaw  Douglas  ( 1 9 7 0 : 3 0 ) n o t e s t h a t t h e compo-  F i r and P o n d e r o s a  the  Pine-Bunchgrass  i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e as i t t e n d s t o a c t as  catchment  to  a l o n g t h e f l o o d p l a i n and banks o f  o f t h e r i p a r i a n community t h r o u g h o u t b o t h  Interior zones  (Fritillaria  a  for higher-elevation vegetation transported  downstream.  Woody v e g e t a t i o n p r e v a i l s  throughout  the  community; t h e dominant t r e e i s b l a c k Cottonwood ( P o p u l u s t r i c h o c a r p a ) and  the shrub understory c o n t a i n s  a v a r i e t y o f e c o n o m i c a l l y — i m p o r t a n t shrubs:,  service-  FIGURE 1 0 .  Riparian  FIGURE 11.  Saline depression  community.  community.  55  berry  (Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ) , r e d - o s i e r dogwood  (Cornus s t o l o n i f e r a ) , gooseberry rose  (Rosa s p . ) , r a s p b e r r y  blueberry  (Vaccinium  (Ribes s p . ) , w i l d  (Rubus i d a e u s ) , and low  scoparium).  The herb l a y e r i s  p o o r l y developed i n t h i s community and i s r e f l e c t e d i n the minimal number of s u b s i s t e n c e a b l e : cow p a r s n i p  species  (Heracleum lanatum), sweetroot  (Osmorhiza c h i l e n s i s ) , and s t a r - f l o w e r e d seal  (Smilacina  Solomon's  stellata).  4. A s a l i n e d e p r e s s i o n  community t h a t i s p r e s e n t  western g r a s s l a n d - c o v e r e d f i g u r e 11).  avail-  In these  along the  s l o p e s o f the v a l l e y (see  l o c a t i o n s , subsurface  water  f l o w has r e s u l t e d i n a s e r i e s o f temporary ponds and s u r f a c e accumulations o f s a l t depressions.  i n hummocky moraine  T h i s environment supports  a community  composed o f a l k a l i n e and s a l i n e - r e s i s t a n t  vegetation.  Dominant p l a n t s p e c i e s i n t h i s community a r e w i r e g r a s s (Juncus sp.) and s a l t g r a s s ( D i s t i c h l i s s t r i c t a ) . ethnographic community. frequent  subsistence p l a n t s are present The s a l i n e d e p r e s s i o n  i n occurrence  No  i n this  community i s q u i t e  but o c c u p i e s  a small  area w i t h i n the middle-upper g r a s s l a n d  overall  community.  These two communities have been grouped t o g e t h e r f o r mapping purposes o n l y i n f i g u r e 7. 5. The engelmann s p r u c e - h o r s e t a i l community  (see f i g u r e  56  12), r e s t r i c t e d  i n d i s t r i b u t i o n along  and creek g u l l i e s on the e a s t e r n lower Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y .  depressions s l o p e s of  T h i s community r e p r e s e n t s  i n t r u s i o n of u p p e r - e l e v a t i o n f o r e s t s p e c i e s i n t o lower  s l o p e s due  to c o l d a i r drainage  1978:4.72-4.73). engelmann spruce  The  flows  (TERA  ( P i c e a enqelmanni).  Subsistence gooseberry  (Ribes l a c u s t r e ) , r e d - o s i e r dogwood (Cornus (Rubus i d a e u s ) b l a c k  (Lonicera i n v o l u c r a t a ) , serviceberry alnifolia),  and w i l d r o s e  (Fr.aqaria v i r q i n i a n a ) , cow and  sweetroot  important (Alectoria  stoloni-  twinberry (Amelanchier  (Rosa s p . ) .  Strawberry  p a r s n i p (Heracleum  (Osmorhiza c h i l e n s i s ) are  herbs i n the community.  Blacktree lichen  jubata) i s a l s o p r e s e n t . bog community  (see f i g u r e 13), which  a l s o has a l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n the sampling  frame.  I t i s present at  archaeolo-  inundated  areas w i t h i n the woodlands where the ponding for  some d u r a t i o n of time  Brayshaw 1970:33). i n two of  lanatum),  economically-  1  6. The willow-sedge  gical  the  s o l e t r e e i n the community i s  p l a n t s dominate the s h r u b - l a y e r : swamp  fera)., r a s p b e r r y  an  areas—near  the v a l l e y and  lasts  (TERA 1978:4.73; a l s o see  T h i s community was  observed  only  A l e e c e Lake i n the n o r t h e a s t p a r t a d j a c e n t t o Langley  s o u t h e a s t c o r n e r of the v a l l e y .  Lake i n the  Willows  (Salix  spp.).  FIGURE 12. Engelmann s p r u c e - h o r s e t a i l  FIGURE 13-  community.  Willow-sedge hog community.  58  and  sedges (Carex spp.)  vegetation.  always form the dominant  Only f o u r p l a n t s p e c i e s c o n s t i t u t e  p o t e n t i a l subsistence resources: bearberry staphylos u v a - u r s i ) , black  twinberry  i n v o l u c r a t a ) , dwarf h u c k l e b e r r y osum), and 7. The  strawberry  (Lonicera  (Vaccinium  (see f i g u r e  on exposed s l o p e s i n the n o r t h e r n  Upper Hat  caespit-  (Fragaria virginiana).  douglas f i r - b u n c h g r a s s community  present  (Arcto-  end  Creek V a l l e y a t e l e v a t i o n s of l e s s  3250 f t (990 m).  This topographic  and  of  14) the  than  altitudinal  p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t s the x e r i c nature  o f the community  (see B e i l  f o r e s t has  1974:206, 208-211).  The  a park-  l i k e a s p e c t dominated by douglas  fir .(Pseudotsuqa  m e n z i e s i i var. glauca) i n climax  state.  agencies  such as f i r e ,  tf  l o g g i n g , and  Due  to  livestock grazing,  most of the f o r e s t e d zone i n the v a l l e y i s i n s e r a i state.  In t h i s community, ponderosa p i n e  (Pinus  ponderosa) i s observed as the dominant t r e e i n the s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a t e (see Brayshaw 1970:27-29).  The  shrub l a y e r i s p o o r l y developed at the expense of a dense herb stratum  where bluebunch wheatgrass  pyron spicatum) i s the dominant s p e c i e s .  (Aqro-  Three  shrubs—serviceberry  (Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ) , w i l d  rose  bearberry  (Rosa s p . ) a n d  (Arctostaphylos  u r s i ) — a n d f i v e herb s p e c i e s — n o d d i n g  onion  uva-  (Allium  FIGURE 15.  Douglas f i r - p i n e g r a s s  community.  6o  cernuum), stoneseed root  (Lithospermum r u d e r a l e ) , b i s c u i t  (Lomatium macrocarpum), mariposa  us macrocarpus),  and balsam-root  lily  (Calochort-  (Balsamorhiza  s a q i t t a t a ) — c o n s t i t u t e the s u b s i s t e n c e p l a n t s a v a i l a b l e i n the community. 8. A douglas  f i r - p i n e g r a s s community  (see f i g u r e  15)  t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s the m a j o r i t y o f the dry f o r e s t i n the v a l l e y .  In c l i m a x s t a t e the community i s  dominated by douglas  f i r (Pseudotsuga  q l a u c a ) and a dense p i n e g r a s s herb l a y e r .  zone  menziesii var.  (Calamaqrostis  rubescens),  At lower e l e v a t i o n s , ponderosa p i n e  (Pinus ponderosa) c o n s t i t u t e s the dominant s e r a i t r e e while lodgepole pine  (Pinus c o n t o r t a ) assumes s e r a i  dominance above 4000 f t (1200 s p e c i e s form  m).  The m a j o r i t y c o n s i s t of  s p e c i e s : s e r v i c e b e r r y (Amelanchier  bear-  (Shepherdia  (Ribes l a c u s t r e ) ,  wild  (Rosa s p . ) , r a s p b e r r y (Rubus idaeus),, dwarf  huckleberry  (Vaccinium c a e s p i t o s u m ) ,  huckleberry  (Vaccinium membranaceum).  a r e h e r b s : nodding root  shrub  alnifolia),  ( A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i ) , soapberry  c a n a d e n s i s ) , swamp gooseberry rose  14  the s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e base a v a i l a b l e  i n t h i s community.,  berry  A t o t a l of  onion  and  The  remainder  ( A l l i u m cernuum), balsam-  ( B a l s a m o r h i z a s a g i t t a t a ) , stoneseed  ruderale)« sweetroot  mountain  (Osmorhiza  (Lithospermum  chilensis),  strawberry  61  (Fragaria virginiana);  and b l a c k t r e e l i c h e n  ( A l e e t o r i a jubata).. 9... A douglas  f i r - b u n c h g r a s s - p i n e g r a s s community  f i g u r e 16),. occupying  the midpoint  (see  o f the x e r i c - m e s i c  g r a d i e n t r e p r e s e n t e d by the douglas fir*-bunchgrass and douglas  f i r - p i n e g r a s s communities.  community p r i m a r i l y o c c u r s on the  This  westward-facing  s l o p e s i n the n o r t h e r n h a l f of the v a l l e y a t an e l e v a t i o n range between the above two C o m p o s i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  communities.  significant  economic p l a n t s p e c i e s are a v a r y i n g mixture  of  d e s c r i b e d f o r the douglas  douglas  fir-pinegrass 10. The 17)  douglas  f i r - b u n c h g r a s s and  communities.  f i r - s p i r e a - b e a r b e r r y community  (see f i g u r e  t h a t forms an edaphic c l i m a x r e s t r i c t e d t o s t e e p  t a l u s s l o p e s w i t h a rock r u b b l e m a t r i x . in  those  "pure" form  I t i s found  i n the south end of the v a l l e y a t the  j u n c t i o n of the Oregon Jack Creek V a l l e y .  In o t h e r  areas i t i s i n t e r m i x e d w i t h the d o u g l a s - f i r - b u n c h g r a s s p i n e g r a s s community a d j a c e n t t o bedrock Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga  m e n z i e s i i var.. g l a u c a )  the open t r e e canopy; the w e l l - d e v e l o p e d stratum  i n c l u d e s : bearberry  r e d - o s i e r dogwood (Cornus  outcrops. forms  shrub  (Arctostaphylos u v a - u r s i ) ,  stolonifera), serviceberry  FIGURE 17.  Douglas f i r - s p i r e a - b e a r b e r r y  community.  63  (Amelanchier w i l d rose  alnifolia),  gooseberry  (Rosa s p . ) , and soapberry  canadensis).  A poorly-formed  (Ribes s p . ) , (Shepherdia  herb l a y e r c o n t a i n s  only three subsistance p l a n t s — n o d d i n g ( A l l i u m cernuum), f i r e w e e d and  strawberry  onion  (Epilobium a n g u s t i f o l i u m ) ,  (Fraqaria virginiana). Fauna  P o t e n t i a l mammal, f i s h , and b i r d s p e c i e s t h a t may be p r e s e n t w i t h i n t h e Upper Hat Creek b a s i n were determined from present-day b r e e d i n g - m i g r a t i o n capability studies.  range maps and h a b i t a t  While i t i s p r o b a b l e  t h a t t h e present-day  d i s t r i b u t i o n s do not e x a c t l y m i r r o r t h a t o f t h e p r e h i s t o r i c e a r l y h i s t o r i c period-jvdue t o l a n d a l t e r a t i o n s such as l i v e stock g r a z i n g , a g r i c u l t u r e , and l o g g i n g , these are ameliorated  t o a degree by t h e h a b i t a t c a p a b i l i t y s t u d i e s  which do not c o n s i d e r such present-day e f f e c t s i n the a n a l y s i s . historical  observations  activities  and t h e i r  Those s p e c i e s t h a t have documented  i n t r o d u c t i o n s t o t h e r e g i o n a r e omitted  from t h e  listings. Mammals Those mammals w i t h ranges t h a t i n c l u d e t h e Upper Hat Creek b a s i n listed  (see B a n f i e l d 1974, Cowan and Guiguet 1965) a r e  i n t a b l e 3.  A l a n d c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s o f t h e Ash-  c r o f t map-area (between 50-51° n o r t h l a t i t u d e and 120-122°  TABLE 3 MAMMALS POTENTIALLY PRESENT IN THE UPPER HAT CREEK BASIN  Insectivores - Masked shrew (Sorex c i n e r u s ) - Dusky shrew (Sorex  obscurus)  - American water shrew (Sorex p a l u s t r i s ) - Townsend's b i g - e a r e d b a t ( P l e c o t u s townsendii) - B i g brown b a t ( E p t e s i c u s f u s c u s ) - S i l v e r - h a i r e d bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) - Hoary b a t ( L a s i u r u s c i n e r e u s ) - C a l i f o r n i a myotis  (Myotis c a l i f o r n i c u s )  - L i t t l e brown Myotis - Long-legged myotis  (Myotis l u c i f u g u s ) (Myotis v o l a n s )  Lagomorphs - Snowshoe hare  (Lepus  americanus)  - Rocky mountain p i k a (Ochotona p r i n c e p s ) Rodents - Y e l l o w - b e l l i e d marmot (Marmota F l a v i v e n t r i s ) - Hoary marmot (Marmota c a l i g a t a ) - Yellow-pine chipmunk (Eutamias amoenus) - American  red squirrel  (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)  - Northern F l y i n g s q u i r r e l  (Glaucomvs s a b r i n u s )  - Northern pocket gopher (Thomomys t a l p o i d e s ) - American beaver  ( C a s t o r canadensis)  - Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) - B u s h y - t a i l e d woodrat (Neotoma c i n e r e a ) - B o r e a l redback v o l e (Clethrionomys g a p p e r i ) - L o n g - t a i l e d v o l e (Microtus longicaudus) - Montane v o l e (Microtus montanus) - Meadow v o l e (Microtus p e n n s y l v a n i c u s ) - Muskrat  (Ondatra z i b e t h i c u s )  - Meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius) - American porcupine ( E r e t h i z o n dorsatum)  TABLE 3 —  Continued  Carnivores - Coyote (Canis l a t r a n s ) - Wolf (Canis lupus) - Red f o x (Vulpes f u l v a ) - B l a c k bear  (Ursus americanus)  - Marten (Martes  americanus)  - F i s h e r (Martes  pennanti)  - S h o r t - t a i l e d weasel (Mustela erminea) - L o n g - t a i l e d weasel (Mustela f r e n a t a ) - American mink (Mustela v i s o n ) - R i v e r o t t e r (Lutr.a canadensis) - Wolverine  (Gulo l u s c u s )  - Yellow badger (Taxidea taxus) - S t r i p e d skunk ( M e p h i t i s m e p h i t i s ) - Cougar ( F e l i s  concolor)  - Bobcat (Lynx r u f u s ) - Canada l y n x (Lynx  canadensis)  Artiodactyls - Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) - E l k (Cervus  elaphus)  - C a l i f o r n i a b i g h o r n sheep (Ovis  SOURCES:  Bamfield  (1965)  (1974);  canadensis)  Cowan and Guiguet  66  west l o n g i t u d e ) f o r p o t e n t i a l u n g u l a t e  production  (Environ-  ment Canada 1974) i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l areas w i t h i n t h e Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y as having mule deer p o p u l a t i o n s .  a high p o t e n t i a l f o r supporting  The v i c i n i t y o f t h e Houth Meadows i n  the northwest p a r t o f t h e v a l l e y i s c l a s s i f i e d as an winter range.  Other areas  important  i n t h e v a l l e y t h a t have high  c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s i n c l u d e t h e middle reaches and Anderson Creeks and t h e extreme southern  of Chipuin end o f t h e  valley. Fish A t o t a l o f 13 f r e s h w a t e r  f i s h s p e c i e s which have  ranges and a h a b i t a t type t h a t c o v e r were i d e n t i f i e d  t h e Hat Creek watershed  from t h e g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s p r o v i d e d by  C a r l e t a l . (1973) and S c o t t and Crossman (1973). o f economic importance as a s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e and  present  human p o p u l a t i o n s a r e :  Species f o r past  D o l l y varden ( S a l v e l i n u s  malma), Rainbow t r o u t (Salmo g a i r d n e r i ) , Mountain w h i t e f i s h (Prosopium w i l l i a m s o n i ) , C u t t h r o a t t r o u t (Salmo c l a r k i ) , and p o s s i b l y B r i d g e l i p sucker  (Catostomus  columbianus).  A v a r i e t y o f minnows c o u l d be p r e s e n t : Redslde s h i n e r ( R i c h a r d s o n i u s b a l t e a t u s ) , Lake chub (Couesius  plumbeus),  Leopard dace ( R h i n i c h t h y s f a l c a t u s ) , and Longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae),.  Other p o t e n t i a l f i s h e s i n c l u d e :  Coastrange s c u l p i n (Cottus a l e u t i c u s ) , P r i c k l y s c u l p i n  67  (Cottus a s p e r ) , Slimy s c u l p i n Pacific  lamprey  (Cottus c o q n a t u s ) , and  (Entoshenus t r i d e n t a t u s ) .  The l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f any o f these s p e c i e s i s l i k e l y c o n f i n e d t o Hat Creek proper as many o f the t r i b u t a r i e s p r e s e n t l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s such as a low summer-fall flow and/or f r e e z e - u p d u r i n g w i n t e r .  Local residents  have  observed w i n t e r f r e e z e - u p o f Hat Creek t r i b u t a r i e s and l o c a l l a k e s which would r e s u l t i n t h e w i n t e r k i l l o f any f i s h lations present. Aleece L a k e — d o  popu-  While t h e l a r g e r l a k e s — F i n n e y Lake and not p r e s e n t l y s u p p o r t f i s h p o p u l a t i o n s , t h e  B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch has i n d i c a t e d t h a t they have the p o t e n t i a l t o do so (S. Macdonald, p e r s o n a l  communication).  At p r e s e n t , Hat Greek does not support any anadromous f i s h species.  However, spawning p o p u l a t i o n s o f p i n k , coho,  and Chinook salmon have been observed i n t h e lower reaches o f t h e Bonaparte R i v e r Commission  ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h e r i e s  1970, 1971, 1972, 1973).  T h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n up-  stream i s l i m i t e d by a man-made b a r r i e r i n t h e form o f a dam.  A p o t e n t i a l n a t u r a l o b s t r u c t i o n t o upstream movement  t o t h e Upper Hat Creek i s a chute on t h e lower reaches o f Hat C r e e k .  The p r e s e n t h a b i t a t c a p a b i l i t y o f Hat Creek t o  s u p p o r t anadromous s p e c i e s i s u n c e r t a i n . Birds On t h e b a s i s o f range maps (Godfrey 1966) and h a b i t a t  68  descriptions  (Guiguet 1955,  b r e e d i n g ranges  1958)  and/or m i g r a t i o n r o u t e s t h a t are encompassed  by the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . . are perching b i r d s  Over h a l f of these s p e c i e s  ( P a s s e r i f o r m e s ) t h a t have minimal  as a s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e . presented here.  some 200 b i r d s have  For t h i s reason they are not  Table 4 l i s t s  a l l w a t e r f o w l , upland game  b i r d s , and b i r d s o f prey t h a t may The^  value  p o t e n t i a l waterfowl  be expected species l i s t  i n the v a l l e y . . i s probably  r e a l i z e d t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree as Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y has  a h i g h waterfowl  capability rating  R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion on the presence  T h i s h i g h r a t i n g i s based  of a s e r i e s of s m a l l temporary a l k a l i n e ponds  t h a t form a wetland  zone d i s t r i b u t e d a l o n g the western  s l o p e s o f the v a l l e y . waterfowl  1970).  (Canada Department o f  The  importance  lower  o f the v a l l e y as a  r e s o u r c e a r e a i s f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by the f a c t t h a t  t h e r e a r e a minimal  number o f areas i n the A s h c r o f t map  with a s i m i l a r r a t i n g .  The c l o s e s t areas w i t h comparable  c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e zones t o the s o u t h e a s t and northwest Kamloops and  the v i c i n i t y of N i c o l a Lake and  Lithic  of  Douglas Lake  (Canada Department of R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion  Lithic  area  1970).  Resources  r e s o u r c e s form an a s p e c t of the p h y s i c a l  environment t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d i n a study of p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence-settlement technology.  L i t h i c resources  d e f i n e d as those r o c k s and m i n e r a l s which e x h i b i t  the  are  TABLE 4 WATERFOWL, UPLAND GAME BIRDS, AND BIRDS OF PREY POTENTIALLY PRESENT IN THE UPPER HAT CREEK BASIN Waterfowl - Common l o o n (Gavia immer) - Red-necked  grebe (Podiceps g r i s e n g a )  - Horned grebe (Podiceps a u r i t u s ) - Eared grebe (Podiceps c a s p i c u s ) - P i e d - b i l l e d grebe (Podiceps podiceps) - American b i t t e r n (Botaurus l e n t i g i n o s u s ) - Canada goose - Mallard  (Branta canadensis)  (Anas p l a t y r h y n c h o s )  - Gadwall (Anas s t r e p e r a ) - Pintail  (Anas acuta)  - Green-winged  teal  - Blue-winged t e a l - Cinnamon t e a l  (Anas c a r o l i n e n s i s ) (Anas d i s c o r s )  (Anas cyanoptera)  - American widgeon  (Mareca americana)  - Shoveler (Spatula clypeata) - Redhead (Aythya americana) - Ring-necked Duck (Aythya c o l l a r i s ) - Canvasback  (Aythya v a l i s i n e r i a )  - Common goldeneye (Bucephala c l a n g u l a ) - Barrow's goldeneye (Bucephala i s l a n d i c a ) - Bufflehead  (Bucephala a l b e o l a )  - H a r l e q u i n duck ( H i s t r i o n i c u s h i s t r i o n i c u s ) - White-winged - Ruddy duck  scoter (Melanitta deglandi)  (Oxyura .jamaicensis)  - Hooded merganser  (Lophodytes c u c u l l a t u s )  - Common merganser  (Mergus  merganser)  - S a n d h i l l crane (Grus canadensis) - Virginia r a i l  (Rallus  limicola)  - S o r a (Porzana C a r o l i n a ) - American coot ( F u l i c a  americana)  TABLE 4 —  Continued  Upland Game B i r d s - Blue grouse  (Dendragapus  obscurus)  - Spruce grouse  (Canachites canadensis)  - R u f f e d grouse  (Bonasa  umbellus)  - W h i t e - t a i l e d ptarmigan - S h a r p - t a i l e d grouse - California quail  (Lagopus  leucurus)  (Pediocetes p h a s i a n e l l u s )  (Lophortyx c a l i f o r n i c u s )  - Chukar p a r t r i d g e ( A l e c t o r i s  gracea)  - Mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) B i r d s o f Prey - Goshawk ( A c c i p t e r g e n t i l i s ) - Sharp-shinned hawk ( A c c i p t e r s t r i a t u s ) - R e d - t a i l e d hawk (Buteo j a m a i c e n s i s ) - B a l d eagle ( H a l i a e t u s l e u c o c e p h a l u s ) - Marsh hawk ( C i r c u s cyaneus) - Osprey  (Pandion h a l i a e t u s )  - P r a i r i e f a l c o n ( F a l c o mexicanus) - Pigeon hawk (Falco  columbarius)  - Sparrow hawk (Falco s p a r v e r i u s ) - Screech owl (Otus a s i o ) - Great horned owl (Bubo v i r g i n i a n u s ) - Pygmy owl (Glaucidiom gnoma) - B a r r e d owl ( S t r i x v a r i a ) - Great gray owl ( S t r i x - Long-eared  owl (Asio  nebulosa) otus)  - S h o r t - e a r e d owl ( A s i o flammeus) - Saw-whet owl ( A e g o l i u s acadieus)  SOURCES:  Godfrey  (1966);  Guiguet  (1955. 1958)  71  p r o p e r t y of c o n c h o i d a l f r a c t u r e , thus making them p o t e n t i a l materials tools.  t h a t can be manufactured i n t o chipped  P r e s e n t knowledge o f the type and  stone  distribution  l i t h i c m a t e r i a l s i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y i s based q u a l i t a t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s made by the author  during  o g i c a l s i t e s u r v e y , p u b l i s h e d r e f e r e n c e s , and  of  on archaeol-  information  o f f e r e d by v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s . . B i n f o r d and of  occurrence  Quimby (1963:2 77)  for l i t h i c  d i s t i n g u i s h two  modes  resources:  Raw m a t e r i a l which breaks w i t h a c o n c h o i d a l f r a c t u r e normally occurs i n two o r d i n a r y forms and a v a r i e t y o f secondary forms. Primary forms a r e those jLn s i t u raw m a t e r i a l s which can be o b t a i n e d from the d e p o s i t s where they were s t r u c t u r a l l y formed . . . . Secondary forms o f raw m a t e r i a l a r e n o r m a l l y e i t h e r s p h e r i c a l or t a b u l a r chunks of eroded and r e d e p o s i t e d primary raw m a t e r i a l . There a r e few nature o f l i t h i c Stryd  raw  p u b l i s h e d r e f e r e n c e s on the type m a t e r i a l s i n Upper Hat  Creek V a l l e y .  (1973:189-190) has mapped a " c h e r t q u a r r y " l o c a t e d at  the c o n f l u e n c e o f Medicine d e s c r i b e d i n any d e t a i l .  and  Hat Creeks but t h i s i s not  Sanger (1970:118) makes a g e n e r a l  r e f e r e n c e t o the "Upper Hat Creek r a n g e " as a source for  and  j a s p e r and chalcedony  nore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y .  a r t i f a c t s recovered  More s p e c i f i c  raw  m a t e r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s i s found  who  notes  "pebbles  a limestone  location  from the Loch-  i n f o r m a t i o n on  lithic  i n Dawson (1894:212b)  conglomerate f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g  of c h e r t " which ranges from the e a s t e r n end  of  72  Marble Canyon a t the mouth of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y ward i n t o the T r a c h y t e H i l l s . for  T h i s i n d i c a t e s the p o t e n t i a l  the l o c a l o c c u r r e n c e of c h e r t i n primary More d e t a i l e d data on l o c a l  b u t i o n s was  south-  lithic  c o l l e c t e d during archaeological  form.  resource  distri-  survey.  G e n e r a l l y , raw m a t e r i a l nodules of c h e r t were observed more f r e q u e n t l y than those of b a s a l t . both l i t h i c  types were d i s t r i b u t e d  the areas s u r v e y e d .  than 256 mm)  sporadically  throughout  B a s a l t nodules e x h i b i t a g r e a t e r s i z e  range than the c h e r t s . ( l e s s than 64 mm),  With o n l y two e x c e p t i o n s ,  The  former are p r e s e n t as pebbles  c o b b l e s (65-256 mm),  and b o u l d e r s  (greater  while, the l a t t e r were observed o n l y as c o b b l e s  and b o u l d e r s .  Dense c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f b a s a l t pebbles were  exposed i n d i s s e c t e d areas of the e a s t e r n lower s l o p e s above M e d i c i n e Creek.  C o b b l e - s i z e d c h e r t s were f r e q u e n t a l o n g  e a s t e r n s l o p e s between M e d i c i n e Creek and Ambusten  Creek,  an area t h a t has been e x t e n s i v e l y e x p l o i t e d f o r j a s p e r by roekhounds f o r the p a s t two decades ( I . Lehman, p e r s o n a l communication). The c h a r a c t e r of the o r i g i n a l of  lithic  s u r f a c e , or c o r t e x ,  m a t e r i a l s i s the primary a t t r i b u t e which  the mode of o c c u r r e n c e .  indicates  On the b a s i s of an examination of  c o r t e x p r e s e n t on both a r t i f a c t s and u n a l t e r e d p i e c e s collected  and observed d u r i n g the s u r v e y , o n l y  forms of l i t h i c  secondary  r e s o u r c e s have been observed w i t h i n  the  73  valley.  With r e s p e c t t o u n a l t e r e d i t e m s , specimens w i t h  rounded c o r t i c a l in  glacial  till  or h y d r a t i o n p a t i n a s u r f a c e s were  observed  deposits.; o t h e r p i e c e s t h a t e x h i b i t rounded  and b a t t e r e d - b r u i s e d s u r f a c e s were noted  i n stream  bed  d e p o s i t s , i n d i c a t i n g a f u r t h e r r e d e p o s i t i o n of the  till  material. For - a n a l y t i c a l p u r p o s e s , m a t e r i a l s are c l a s s i f i e d  cryptoerystalllne  as c h e r t s and  grouped t o g e t h e r as b a s a l t s .  igneous  siliceous  rocks  are  T h i s l a t t e r c a t e g o r y does not  i n c l u d e o b s i d i a n ; i t s low o c c u r r e n c e i n the c h i p p e d  stone  assemblage  lithic  (2 specimens) i n d i c a t e s i t p r o b a b l y i s a  m a t e r i a l e x o t i c t o the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y .  Each of the  major types c o n t a i n s a d i v e r s e range o f m a t e r i a l s . c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s c h e r t s , c h a l c e d o n i e s , and  jaspers while  b a s a l t group c o n t a i n s r h y o l i t e s , a n d e s i t e s , and a d d i t i o n to b a s a l t s .  the  felsites in  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s more v a r i a t i o n  between groups than w i t h i n groups, to  The c h e r t  p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect  c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , e l a s t i c i t y and  flexibility  (see  C r a b t r e e 196 7 ) . The While environmental detailj to  Paleoenvironmental  Setting  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e the  present-day  s e t t i n g of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y i n some  i t is critical  which the nature and  t o t h i s study to- determine  the e x t e n t  d i s t r i b u t i o n of p h y s i c a l and  biotic  74  f e a t u r e s may have changed s i n c e the l a s t g l a c i a t i o n . s e c t i o n reviews and  the present  This  i n f o r m a t i o n on l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e  Recent paleoenvironments i n t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u i n  o r d e r t o determine i f t h e environment and, by e x t e n s i o n , the r e s o u r c e base a v a i l a b l e t o p r e h i s t o r i c p o p u l a t i o n s , may have changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y The  i n the p a s t .  L a t e P l e i s t o c e n e Environment  In B r i t i s h Columbia the F r a s e r G l a c i a t i o n  represents  the l a s t major W i s c o n s i n i a n  glaciation  1965).  p e r i o d , p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the  During  this glacial  I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u was covered t h r e e stades  (Armstrong e t a l .  by an i c e s h e e t .  While two t o  of the Fraser g l a c i a t i o n are recognized  i n the southern  c o a s t o f B r i t i s h Columbia, no s u b d i v i s i o n s  have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the I n t e r i o r During  Plateau.  t h e F r a s e r g l a c i a t i o n maximum, the i c e s u r f a c e  i n t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u reached  an e s t i m a t e d  8000 f t (2450 m)  above sea l e v e l on t h e e a s t e r n s l o p e s o f the Coast at t h i s e l e v a t i o n c o u l d have b u r i e d t h e e n t i r e  Range, and  Interior  System under i c e ( D u f f e l l and McTaggart 1952, Wilson 1958).  i n the  Ryder (1976:15) suggests  et a l .  t h a t some peaks i n t h e C l e a r  Range may have c o n s t i t u t e d nunataks d u r i n g the g l a c i a l maximum. G l a c i a t i o n i n the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u was i n i t i a t e d by a b u i l d u p of i c e s h e e t s  i n the Coast, Cariboo  and Monashee  75  Mountains which flowed onto t h e p l a t e a u and c o a l e s c e d . There e x i s t a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e nature o f F r a s e r i c e sheet movement i n t h e I n t e r i o r System. (1967^ 1971) proposes to  Fulton  t h a t c o a l e s c i n g i c e sheets b u i l t up  form an i c e dome which became a s i n g l e dynamic u n i t  d u r i n g t h e g l a c i a l maximum.  From t h i s i c e dome, t h e r e was  a n o r t h e r n and southern outward f l o w .  T i p p e r (1971) p r e s e n t s  an a l t e r n a t e view r e j e c t i n g the h y p o t h e s i s o f an i c e dome developing during the Fraser g l a c i a t i o n .  Rather, t h e  i n t e r i o r i c e sheet c o n s i s t e d o f s e p a r a t e flows from the Coast and Columbia  mountains t h a t c o a l e s c e d and d i v e r g e d i n  n o r t h e r l y and s o u t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n s . Aylsworth  (1975:14) notes g l a c i a l  On a l o c a l  scale,  a b r a s i o n f e a t u r e s i n the  Upper Hat Creek d r a i n a g e r e g i o n t h a t i n d i c a t e a main i c e movement eastward  from t h e Coast Mountains.  An i n i t i a l ,  p a r t i a l r e t r e a t o f t h i s i c e was f o l l o w e d by a readvance  that  e n t e r e d Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y from t h e n o r t h e a s t but was not of  s u f f i c i e n t magnitude t o c o v e r t h e upland a r e a s .  This r e -  advance, p r o b a b l y t h e l o c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f the g l a c i a l r e advance t h a t o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e C a r i b o o Mountains,  extended  as f a r west as the F r a s e r R i v e r ( T i p p e r 1971). D e g l a c i a t i o n throughout  the I n t e r i o r Plateau occurred  by i n - p l a c e downwasting o f t h e i c e s h e e t , a p r o c e s s p r o b a b l y initiated  i n t h e southern Columbia  Mountains ( F u l t o n 1971:16).  The mountains and uplands were t h e f i r s t  areas exposed w h i l e  76  ice  tongues i n lower v a l l e y zones s t a g n a t e d ,  causing a  complex s u c c e s s i o n o f p r o g l a c i a l l a k e s throughout t h e p e r i o d of  downwasting  ( F u l t o n 1967:16).  t i o n d i d occur;  Considerable  t h e r e i s no f i r m evidence  duration  (Aylsworth  of  1975:15).  The d e g l a c i a t i o n o f Upper Hat  by a s e r i e s o f t r a n s v e r s e  r i d g e s i n the southern  a still-active  the s h a l l o w  l a k e o f any a p p r e c i a b l e s i z e o r  Creek V a l l e y i s r e p r e s e n t e d morainic  varia-  o f stagnant i c e  d e p o s i t s i n the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y f i l l i n g basin with a p r o g l a c i a l  local  area r e f l e c t i n g  f r o n t i n the b a s i n  (Aylsworth  the r e t r e a t 1975;  Ryder  1976:16). The  d e g l a c i a t i o n o f the I n t e r i o r System r e s u l t e d i n  the exposure o f u n c o n s o l i d a t e d  g l a c i a l d r i f t and a temporary  i n c r e a s e i n the amount and d u r a t i o n o f streamflow, two cond i t i o n s that d i r e c t l y  i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f sediments  throughout s o u t h - c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia both d u r i n g and a f t e r the d e g l a c i a t i o n p e r i o d (Ryder 1971). of  Three main  types  such p a r a g l a c i a l sediments a r e e v i d e n t i n the Southern  Interior Plateau:  Dalluvial  3 ) l a c u s t r i n e sediments the f i r s t  two types  Alluvial by c r e e k s  (Church  f a n s , 2) f l u v i a l .sediments, and and Ryder 1972:3063).  Only  a r e e v i d e n t i n the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . .  fans have b u r i e d s m a l l e r moraines l o c a t e d  on t h e western s l o p e s o f the v a l l e y which d r a i n  the C l e a r Range  (Aylsworth  l e s s e x t e n s i v e than  19 75:27).  the a g g r a d a t i o n  While c o n s i d e r a b l y deposits characterizing  77  the major r i v e r v a l l e y s , f l u v i a l  sediments probably  d u r i n g the main r e t r e a t of the F r a s e r i c e sheet by t i l l  and o v e r l a i n  r e p r e s e n t i n g the l a t e readvance are p r e s e n t  northern these  end  types  of the v a l l e y  The glacial  (Aylsworth  of the l o c a l base  postglacial  d a t i n g o f b a s a l o r g a n i c sediments from bogs  F u l t o n (1971:17) has f r e e with present  Plateau.  proposed t h a t the e n t i r e p l a t e a u was  drainage  systems e s t a b l i s h e d by. at  Undoubtedly, upland  areas  than t h i s date but an a c c u r a t e study.  estimate  d e g l a c i a t e d around 11,500 B.P. I f one  date may  apply  Armstrong 1965;  in  around  of the Thompson P l a t e a u ,  (Mathewes and  Rouse  1975:  ice-free latter  t o s o u t h - c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia i n g e n e r a l .  Mathewes and  (Hansen 1955;  Rouse 1975;  Fulton  and  A l l e y 1976a) has  p o l l e n s p e c t r a i n the b a s a l o r g a n i c sediments  some c a s e s , u n d e r l y i n g  glacial  t h a t the area  the Lower F r a s e r Canyon, then the  Palynological research  recorded  earlier  assumes t h a t the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u was  as e a r l y as was  Hat  would r e q u i r e  There i s evidence  Y a l e , l o c a t e d on the western p e r i p h e r y  ice-  least  such as the Upper  Creek V a l l e y must have been i c e - f r e e c o n s i d e r a b l y  detailed local  and  a basis for estimating  the time of i c e - f r e e c o n d i t i o n s i n the I n t e r i o r  754).  Both of  level.  l a k e o u t l e t channels p r o v i d e s  9,500 B.P..  i n the  1975:15-18).  o f sediments have been entrenched by  stream l o w e r i n g  was  deposited  lacustrine silts  l a k e s t h a t document the i n i t i a l  deposited  establishment  and,  by of  pro-  78  vegetation during d e g l a c i a t i o n .  The  presence of a r b o r e a l  p o l l e n i n both c o n t e x t s  suggests a c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t , r a t h e r  than p e r i g l a c i a l  v e g e t a t i o n , was  deglaciation.  tundra  Fulton  present  during  (1971:19) suggests t h a t a zone of  temperate c l i m a t e p r o v i d i n g c o n d i t i o n s c o n d u c i v e to establishment  of c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n may  the  have  e x i s t e d i n the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u i f d e g l a c i a t i o n d i d not occur u n t i l  a relatively The  The  extant  late  date.  Recent Environment  d i r e c t evidence  o f the Upper Hat  V a l l e y p o s t g l a c i a l environment i s not s u f f i c i e n t  Creek  to  provide  a comprehensive p e r s p e c t i v e of any  r e g i o n a l changes t h a t  have o c c u r r e d .  overview of the  However, a g e n e r a l  post-  g l a c i a l environment i n the Southern I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u can obtained  by  i n t e g r a t i n g the l o c a l Hat Creek data w i t h  from o t h e r areas The  i n the  extant  may  be  that  region.  i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on I n t e r i o r  Plateau  p o s t g l a c i a l environments i s mainly based on p a l y n o l o g i c a l studies. survey  The  pioneer  o f the i n t e r i o r  p a l y n o l o g i c a l research, a general (Hansen 1955)  and  a preliminary  a n a l y s i s of a c o r e near M e r r i t t ( F u l t o n and 88-91), has  Armstrong  1965:  o n l y r e c e n t l y been augmented by s t u d i e s i n the  Lower F r a s e r R i v e r Canyon on the western boundary of I n t e r i o r System  (Mathewes and  the  Rouse 1975), the Okanagan  79  Valley  ( A l l e y 1976a), and  the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y (Hebda  n.d.,).  A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n from geomorphic and  studies  ( A l l e y 1976b, Denton and K a r l e n 1973)  geologic  i s also  available. B a s a l r a d i o c a r b o n dates a v a i l a b l e from some p o l l e n c o r e s i n d i c a t e v a r y i n g times by which o r g a n i c the Southern  sedimentation  was  i n p r o c e s s throughout  was  w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d i n the v i c i n i t y of the O t t e r Creek  near M e r r i t t by 9,320 B.P.  Plateau.  l a y e r s of  i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e g i o n a l v e g e t a t i o n was  some time p r i o r to 8,140  bog  ( F u l t o n and Armstrong 1965:88).  In the Okanagan Valley,,; a date from the lower Kelowna bog  Vegetation  B.P... ( A l l e y 1976a:1133).  the  present A core  from Squeah Lake near Y a l e i n the Lower F r a s e r Canyon prov i d e s evidence 11,140 B.P,  of v e g e t a t i o n a l s u c c e s s i o n i n t h a t a r e a  (Mathewes and  before  Rouse 19 75:54).  S t u d i e s of these and  other f o s s i l  pollen  profiles  have d e f i n e d t h r e e main zones based on p o l l e n s p e c t r a changes. These are i n t e r p r e t e d as evidence fluctuations.  of p o s t g l a c i a l  climatic  While c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d among i n d i v i d u a l  c o r e samples, the d a t i n g of these c l i m a t i c - v e g e t a t i o n i n t e r v a l s i s p r e s e n t l y s u b j e c t to some debate. concerns  the temporal  xerothermic  interval  boundaries  The main argument  of the " h y p s i t h e r m a l  i n south-central B r i t i s h  Hansen (1955) o r i g i n a l l y d e f i n e d a " c l a s s i c " interval  from 7,500-3,500 B.P.  w i t h a thermal  11  or  Columbia. xerothermic maximum a t  80  6,600 B..P.  T h i s has r e c e n t l y been q u e s t i o n e d by A l l e y  (1976a:1141.-1142)  and Mathewes and Rouse  l i g h t of the r e s e a r c h i n the Okanagan Canyon.  (1975:752), i n  and Lower  Fraser  T h e i r p o s i t i o n i s a l s o supported by the Upper Hat  Creek s t u d y .  The remainder o f t h i s s e c t i o n reviews the  e x t a n t s t u d i e s r e l e v a n t t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the post-^ g l a c i a l environmental s e t t i n g i n the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . The e a r l i e s t p o l l e n zone d i s p l a y s an abundance o f arboreal p o l l e n , suggestive of a p o s t - g l a c i a l forest.  coniferous  A l l p r o f i l e s , e x c e p t i n g t h a t from the Kelowna bog,  i n d i c a t e the dominance o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e  (Pinus c o n t o r t a ) i n  a p o l l e n assemblage t h a t a l s o i n c l u d e s s m a l l e r amounts o f spruce ( P i c e a ) and f i r  (Abies).  In the Kelowna bog, ponderosa  p i n e (Pinus ponderosa) i s the dominant a r b o r e a l s p e c i e s , a d i f f e r e n c e which may be due t o l o c a l physiography 1976a:1140). and f i r  (Alley  The presence of such s p e c i e s as l o d g e p o l e p i n e  i n the s p e c t r a suggest t h a t e a r l y p o s t - g l a c i a l vege-  t a t i o n developed under moist and c o o l c l i m a t i c  conditions  (Hansen 1955:64 7-649; Mathewes and Rouse 1975:751; 1976a:1140).  Alley  T h i s i n t e r v a l p r o b a b l y t e r m i n a t e d about 10,400  B.P. i n the Lower F r a s e r Canyon  (Mathewes and Rouse 1975:751).  An a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e f o r the d u r a t i o n  of t h i s p e r i o d i n the  .OkanaganValley i s not a v a i l a b l e , . ( A l l e y 1976a:1140).  Evidence  f o r t h i s zone i s absent from the Finney Lake c o r e sample from Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y .  81  The  s u c c e e d i n g zone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a marked  decrease i n a r b o r e a l p o l l e n , n o t a b l y l o d g e p o l e p i n e , and  an  i n c r e a s e i n n o n a r b o r e a l types such as g r a s s e s , chenopods, and sage ( A r t e m i s i a ) .  This s h i f t  i s i n t e r p r e t e d as  result-  i n g from a warmer and d r i e r c l i m a t i c p e r i o d d e f i n e d as the x e r o t h e r m i c or Hypsithermal  interval  (Hansen 1955:650;  Mathewes and Rouse 1975:752; A l l e y 1976a.:1140; Hebda 3-4).  n.d.:  R e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n among the p o l l e n assemblages o f  t h i s zone i s a l s o e v i d e n t .  The h i g h l y x e r i c greasewood  (Sarcobatus) i s p r e s e n t i n the Okanagan V a l l e y d u r i n g t h i s interval  ( A l l e y 1976a).  In the Southern  Plateau pollen  pro-  f i l e s , ; Hansen (1955:650-651) r e c o r d s an i n c r e a s e i n the geog r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e l a t i v e amounts of ponderosa which, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h peaks i n sage, i s viewed e v i d e n c e o f a "thermal maximum".  pine,  as  T h i s i s contemporaneous  w i t h v o l c a n i c ash l a y e r s p r o b a b l y c o n t a i n i n g Mount Mazama tephra deposited at approximately Wilcox 1964).  6600 B.P..(Powers and  However, s t u d i e s i n the Lower F r a s e r Canyon,  the Okanagan V a l l e y , and Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y  independently  c o n c l u d e t h a t t h i s i n t e r v a l t e r m i n a t e d as l a t e a s , o r s h o r t l y a f t e r the d e p o s i t i o n of Mazama ash, a date i n c o n f l i c t the 3,500 B.P.  e s t i m a t e made by Hansen (1955).  4) e s t i m a t e s t h a t t h i s i n t e r v a l ended a t about i n Upper Hat The  with  Hebda 6,200  (n.d.: B.P.  Creek. e f f e c t s o f the x e r o t h e r m i c i n t e r v a l i n the  82  I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u do not appear t o be as extreme as they were i n the Columbia P l a t e a u southern  (Hansen 1955:657).  B r i t i s h Columbia, a r b o r e a l p o l l e n i s never  supplanted  by x e r i c s p e c i e s such as g r a s s e s  Nevertheless,  x e r i c c o n d i t i o n s may  i n the more s o u t h e r l y areas  factors  deposits suggestive  the end  Alley  of such  l a y e r i n the Okanagan  j u s t be due  (M.< Church, p e r s o n a l The  chenopods.  have been more pronounced  c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g the Mazama ash However, t h i s may  and  fully  o f the Canadian P l a t e a u .  (1976a:1133) r e p o r t s aeolean  Valley.  Throughout  to l o c a l  topographic  communication).  t h i r d broad p o l l e n zone spans the p e r i o d from  of the xerothermic  i n t e r v a l to present  times. . P o l l e n  s p e c t r a changes documented f o r t h i s zone i n d i c a t e the r e t u r n o f a c o o l e r and/or m o i s t e r wetter,  climate.  The  t r e n d towards  c o o l e r c o n d i t i o n s i n the Lower F r a s e r Canyon  have begun p r i o r t o 6,600 B.P.:  i n c r e a s e s i n western hemlock  (Tsuqa h e t e r o p h y l l a ) , f i r ( A b i e s , and  b i r c h ( B e t u l a ) occur  the upper l e v e l s u n d e r l y i n g the Mazama ash and  Rouse 1975:752).  trend to moister  The  may  l a y e r (Mathewes  post-Mazama c o n t i n u a t i o n of  conditions i s represented  by peak  this  fre-  quencies o f western hemlock,, western white p i n e . (Pinus monticola), pollen  and  cedar-cypress  (Mathewes and  (Thu ja-Chamaecyparis)  Rouse 1975:752).  An  type  increase i n  a r b o r e a l p o l l e n , dominated by ponderosa p i n e and accompanying decrease i n the g r a s s e s , sedges, and  an sage,  in  83 c h a r a c t e r i z e the p o s t - x e r o t h e r m i c Valley  ( A l l e y 1976a:1139).  zone i n the Okanagan  Hansen (1955:147, 151)  an i n c r e a s e i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e throughout  interprets  the upper l e v e l s i n  a s e r i e s o f p r o f i l e s and a l a t e appearance of douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga response  m e n z i e s i i ) i n g r a s s l a n d r e g i o n c o r e s as a  to a moister c l i m a t e . The  immediate p o s t - h y p s i t h e r m a l p o l l e n zone i n the  Finney Lake c o r e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l d e r (Alnus) as dominant a r b o r e a l component.  the  There i s a l s o a drop i n the  r e l a t i v e frequency o f g r a s s e s and sage, r e p r e s e n t i n g the s h i f t t o c o o l e r , m o i s t e r c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s (Hebda n.d.:4-5). A subsequent s h i f t from a l d e r t o p i n e and douglas  f i r at  about 4,500 B.P.  transform-  i s i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f l e c t i n g the  a t i o n t o the present-day Creek V a l l e y  v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n i n Upper Hat  (Hebda n.d.:5).  At p r e s e n t , i t i s not c e r t a i n i f the dominance o f a l d e r i n the Finney Lake c o r e may  r e p r e s e n t a p e r i o d of  i n c r e a s e d m o i s t u r e w i t h i n t h i s g e n e r a l l y c o o l and wet val. of  Alley  (1976a:1139) i n t e r p r e t s the p e r i o d i c dominance  b i r c h and  reflecting Valley. ified  inter-  a l d e r p o l l e n i n the Kelowna, bog upper zone as  t h r e e phases o f i n c r e a s e d m o i s t u r e  i n the Okanagan  However, s i m i l a r s u b d i v i s i o n s have not been i d e n t -  i n o t h e r f o s s i l p o l l e n s p e c t r a i n the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u . E v i d e n c e of t h r e e Holocene g l a c i a l  advances i n the  84  Shuswap H i g h l a n d ,  and t h e Monashee, C a r i b o o  and Omineca  Mountains suggests the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u was s u b j e c t t o p e r i o d s o f i n c r e a s e d m o i s t u r e and c o o l e r temperatures during the post-hypisthermal  interval.  Relative dating of  these advances ( A l l e y 1976b:6) i n d i c a t e s a c o r r e l a t i o n the g e n e r a l N e o g l a c i a l chronology C o r d i l l e r a that recognizes  f o r the North American  advances o c c u r r i n g a t 5,800-4,900  B.P., 3,300-2,300 B.P., and w i t h i n the l a s t m i l l e n i u m and  Karlen  with  (Denton  1973).  In summary, the a v a i l a b l e p a l e o e n v i r o n m e n t a l  evidence  suggests the f o l l o w i n g sequence o f p o s t - P l e i s t o c e n e e l i m a t i c o s c i l l a t i o n s f o r t h e Southern I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u . c o o l c l i m a t e probably  s i m i l a r to present  A moist and  conditions prevailed  d u r i n g the e a r l y p o s t g l a c i a l p e r i o d u n t i l  10,400 B.P. t o 8400  B.P., depending on the p a r t i c u l a r a r e a .  A change t o warmer  and  This  d r i e r c l i m a t i c conditions followed.  i n t e r v a l terminated ditions returned.  xerothermic  by 6,200 B.P. when c o o l and moist conDuring  Pleistocene alpine glacial  t h i s l a t e s t period, t h r e e advances o c c u r r e d  post-  during the  i n t e r v a l s 5,800-4,900 B.P.., 3,300-2,300 B.P., and 1,000 B.P. to present.  An even c o o l e r and m o i s t e r c l i m a t e may have  been p r e s e n t  d u r i n g these  The  advances.  e f f e c t o f these b r o a d - s c a l e  o s c i l l a t i o n s on t h e  v e g e t a t i o n o f Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y a r e d i s c u s s e d  below.  85  The most d r a s t i c s h i f t i d e n t i f i e d i n the Finney Lake c o r e o c c u r s i n the immediate post-Mazama p e r i o d where sage and g r a s s p o l l e n types decrease and a r b o r e a l p o l l e n i n the of  a l d e r becomes dominant.  Hebda (n.,d.:6) has  suggested  t h a t i n the x e r i c i n t e r v a l p r i o r t o t h i s s h i f t the g r a s s l a n d zone was distribution.  sage-  more e x t e n s i v e r e l a t i v e t o i t s present-day  From about 6,200 B . P . t o the p r e s e n t , c o o l e r  and m o i s t e r c o n d i t i o n s have enabled the woodlands t o on the g r a s s l a n d s , w i t h the present-day around 4,500 B.P. of  form  encroach  pattern established  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the i n i t i a l  dominance  a l d e r i n t h i s i n t e r v a l as an i n d i c a t o r of even more wetness  has y e t t o be  determined.  T h i s i n f e r r e d change i n the extent, of the g r a s s l a n d community has o t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e f f e c t s of c l i m a t i c change on v e g e t a t i o n i n the Upper Hat Creek b a s i n . e c o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e on the Southern  I n t e r i o r Plateau  1974;  Van  Brayshaw 1970;  has i d e n t i f i e d  T i s d a l e 1947;  The p l a n t (Beil  Ryswyk e t a l . 1966)  the e f f e c t s o f temperature  and  precipitation  g r a d i e n t s on the r e g i o n a l physiography  t h a t r e s u l t i n the  vertical  In such a s i t u a t i o n ,  s t r u c t u r i n g o f b i o t i c zones-,  a major e f f e c t o f c l i m a t i c o s c i l l a t i o n s would be a s h i f t  of  community b o u n d a r i e s , the e n t i r e community moving t o h i g h e r or  lower e l e v a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o the r e s p e c t i v e h o t / d r y  cool/moist i n t e r v a l .  In Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y t h i s  i s r e p r e s e n t e d by i n i t i a l l y  or  process  extensive grasslands covering  86  l a r g e r areas  slopes during the xeric  interval  a n d s u b s e q u e n t downward movement o f t h e w o o d l a n d s  onto the  lower  o f t h e lower  slopes  relatively  i n the following interval.  low-relief  areas  of the Interior Plateau the  upward e l e v a t i o n s h i f t under x e r o t h e r m i c have r e s u l t e d i n u p p e r - e l e v a t i o n b i o t i c wiped o u t o f e x i s t e n c e by t h e occupation zone by l o w e r - e l e v a t i o n communities displacement.,  While t h i s  However, i n  c o n d i t i o n s may communities  of their elevation  experiencing  i sunlikely  upward  t o have o c c u r r e d i n  t h e h i g h - r e l i e f C l e a r Range c o n s t i t u t i n g  the western  o f t h e v a l l e y , some m i d - t o - u p p e r e l e v a t i o n b i o t i c on t h e l o w - r e l i e f C o r n w a l l  being  and T r a c h y t e  slopes  communities  H i l l s ,to t h e e a s t  may h a v e b e e n f o r c e d o u t d u r i n g t h e x e r o t h e r m i c  interval.  87  CHAPTER IV THE The  CULTURAL SETTING  main n a t i v e i n h a b i t a n t s of the Southern  P l a t e a u a t the time o f c o n t a c t were p o p u l a t i o n s languages of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h f a m i l y .  speaking  Groups of p a r t -  i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s study a r e those w i t h t e r r i t o r i e s encompassing or a d j a c e n t  Interior  historic  t o Upper Hat  Creek  V a l l e y : the L i l l o o e t - s p e a k i n g Upper L i l l o o e t band on F r a s e r R i v e r ; the Shuswap-speaking Bonaparte and bands; and  noted  Pavilion  the Thompson-speaking Upper F r a s e r and  B r i d g e bands (see f i g u r e 18;  T e i t 1900:166)..  the  Spences  I t should  be  t h a t the term "band", as used i n t h i s study, a p p l i e s  t o those  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l u n i t s d e s c r i b e d by e a r l y ethno-  g r a p h i e s , r a t h e r than the contemporary aggregates d e f i n e d f o r purposes of I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . present-day  For i n f o r m a t i o n  band d i v i s i o n s r e c o g n i z e d by government  the r e a d e r s h o u l d c o n s u l t Duff  on  agencies,  (1964:29-31).  European c o n t a c t w i t h these n a t i v e groups commenced i n 1808,  when Simon F r a s e r camped among bands occupying  Fraser River V a l l e y .  Fraser provided  the f i r s t  ethnographic  d e s c r i p t i o n s of Southern I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u c u l t u r e s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n tends t o be fragmentary important  although  (Lamb 1960).  o b s e r v a t i o n r e c o r d e d by F r a s e r was  the  One  the presence  o f European goods i n the i n v e n t o r y of a b o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l  SHUSWAP  <0  O  o I LYTTON  BAND  THOMPSON^* ^7 V.  /  n j  0 *N  1 1  0  FIGURE 18.  1  K MS 1  1  MILES  30 1  1 20  E t h n o g r a p h i c I n t e r i o r S a l i s h groups i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y ( a f t e r Teit 1900:166).  89  c u l t u r e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the replacement process itional  t o o l s and f a c i l i t i e s  of t r a d -  had a l r e a d y commenced  at this  time. Not  until  Shuswap I n d i a n s  the p u b l i c a t i o n o f two b r i e f notes  on t h e  i n t h e e a r l y 1890's (Boas 1890, Dawson 1891)  i s t h e r e any r e l i a b l e ethnographic Interior Salish culture,  i n f o r m a t i o n on n o r t h e r n  Dawson r e c o r d e d  h i s observations  on the Shuswap i n the c o u r s e o f g e o l o g i c a l work i n the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r d u r i n g t h e y e a r s o f 1877, 1888, 1889 and 1890, w h i l e Boas' i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d by an i n t e n t i o n a l ethno-^ graphic reconnaissance  i n 1889.  During  t h i s time James T e i t ,  a member o f Boas' Jesup North P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n ,  initiated  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which r e s u l t e d i n the p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h r e e major e t h n o g r a p h i c  monographs on t h e Thompson, L i l l o o e t , and  Shuswap ( T e i t 1900, 1906, 1909).  F u r t h e r work among the  Thompson and L i l l o o e t was c a r r i e d out i n the l a t e 19th c e n t u r y by C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t  (1899, 1905).  However, by the time t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h was conducted, the impact o f European c o n t a c t on the a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e was m a n i f e s t  i n a v a r i e t y o f forms: a d r a s t i c  population  d e c l i n e due t o i n t r o d u c e d d i s e a s e s such as smallpox; d e s t r u c t i o n o r r e s t r i c t i o n o f n a t u r a l environmental due  t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f m i n i n g , lumbering,  farming  the resources,  r a n c h i n g , and  o p e r a t i o n s as w e l l as n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these  90  i n d u s t r i e s ; and the l a r g e l y sedentary s t r u c t u r e due t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of reserves.  these s t u d i e s do p r o v i d e a wealth i g i n a l economic l i f e  nature o f the band Nevertheless,  o f i n f o r m a t i o n on abor-  i n the e a r l y p o s t - c o n t a c t p e r i o d .  T e i t and Dawson used informant observation i n c o l l e c t i n g  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s and d i r e c t  their information.  This  an e v a l u a t i o n o f the impact o f E u r o p e a n . c u l t u r e Although  Both  permits  contact.  i t i s apparent t h a t t h e impact o f western c u l t u r e  on I n t e r i o r S a l i s h n a t i v e groups was c o n s i d e r a b l e d u r i n g the initial  contact period, i t i s s t i l l  p o s s i b l e t o determine  some g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s o f t r a d i t i o n a l  s u b s i s t e n c e and  settlement practices., Much o f the more r e c e n t ethnographic focused  r e s e a r c h has  on t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l I n t e r i o r  Salish lifeway.  Verne Ray c a r r i e d out f i e l d w o r k  the 1930's f o r h i s d i f f u s i o n i s t  throughout  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f both  Canadian and American p l a t e a u c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Ray 1939).  A r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p r e - c o n t a c t and e a r l y c o n t a c t  c u l t u r a l ecology  o f t h e southern  Shuswap Indians  i s pre-  sented by Palmer (1975b), who puts e x t e n s i v e r e l i a n c e on the p r e v i o u s  information contained  i n the T e i t  ethnographies.  Kennedy and Bouchard (1978) p r o v i d e some new i n s i g h t t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t  into  of the Fraser River  L i l l o o e t band, based on new data d e r i v e d from contemporary informant  reconstructions.  S p e c i f i c information pertaining  91  to native f l o r a l present Turner  subsistence resource e x p l o i t a t i o n also i s  i n numerous e t h n o b o t a n i c a l s t u d i e s (Palmer 1975a, 1974,  Steedman 1930).  The  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s d i s c u s s past and  contemporary  a s p e c t s of the c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i n the r e g i o n of Upper Creek V a l l e y . , settlement  These d e s c r i p t i o n s focus on  subsistence-  systems; no attempt i s undertaken t o p r e s e n t  complete ethnographic  The  a  account.  Regional  of two  Hat  Ethnography  Upper Hat Creek drainage  basin includes portions  band t e r r i t o r i e s : the m a j o r i t y of the b a s i n  lies  w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r y of the Spences B r i d g e band of the Upper Thompson I n d i a n s , w h i l e the extreme n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n of v a l l e y and  the lower reaches  of Hat Creek were p a r t of  Bonaparte Shuswap band t e r r i t o r y 1900:170, 1909:456). ethnographic Teit  (see f i g u r e 18;  The most d e t a i l e d account of  the  u t i l i z a t i o n of Hat Creek V a l l e y i s p r o v i d e d  "...  t h e i r hunting  grounds extend  the upper h a l f of Hat Creek". to the v a l l e y proper  No  settlement  other s p e c i f i c  are made i n the p u b l i s h e d  Nevertheless, considerable general activities  by  Bridge  back f o r t h i r t y  or f o r t y m i l e s on each s i d e of Thompson R i v e r and  and  the  also Teit  (1900:170) i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the Spences  band:  the  references ethnographies.  i n f o r m a t i o n on  i s a v a i l a b l e t o enable  include  subsistence the  formu-  92  l a t i o n o f some i d e a s on the p o t e n t i a l range o f s e t t l e m e n t and e x p l o i t a t i o n  t h a t would be expected  i n such an e n v i r o n -  mental s i t u a t i o n as Hat C r e e k . V a l l e y . The Thompson and Shuswap Indians possess but h i g h l y s i m i l a r languages  and c u l t u r e s .  Jorgensen  18-20) c o n s i d e r s Thompson and Shuswap as d i a l e c t s t o d i f f e r e n t but c l o s e l y r e l a t e d of t h e i r cognates.  languages  distinctive (1969:  belonging  t h a t share 75%  With r e s p e c t t o a t t r i b u t e s o f t e c h n o l o g y ,  s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and r e l i g i o n , Jorgensen  (1969:63-65)  notes t h a t t h e two c u l t u r e s form a "Thompson C u l t u r e C l u s t e r " i n which 70% o f these a t t r i b u t e s a r e common t o b o t h .  The  l i f e w a y s o f the two groups were regarded by T e i t as a s i n g l e b a s i c t y p e , as he c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r s t o t h e Thompson I n d i a n ethnography f o r f u l l e r accounts  o f Shuswap c u l t u r e .  For  these reasons, the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n t e g r a t e s informat i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o both the Thompson and Shuswap i n p r e s e n t i n g an o u t l i n e o f s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t systems i n the r e g i o n o f Hat Creek. Thompson and Shuswap l i f e w a y s were c l o s e l y a l i g n e d t o geographic  and s e a s o n a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e b i o p h y s i c a l  environment, m a n i f e s t i n a p a t t e r n o f group a g g r e g a t i o n and d i s p e r s a l at  v a r i o u s stages i n the seminomadic annual  s i s t e n c e c y c l e o f h u n t i n g , g a t h e r i n g , and f i s h i n g  sub-  activities  (Boas 1890, Dawson 1891, H i l l - T o u t 1899, Palmer 1975a, T e i t  93  1900,  1909).  The annual c y c l e f o r both groups  d e s c r i b e d by T e i t  has been  (1900;237-239; 1909:517-518) and i s  summarized below. The annual c y c l e f o r both the Thompson and Shuswap began i n November when h u n t i n g p a r t i e s would move t o upland areas t o p r o c u r e d e e r , which a t t h i s time were i n r u t and h e r d i n g as they migrated t o lower e l e v a t i o n s a f t e r the summer browsing  i n the h i g h e r zones.  would e s t a b l i s h temporary branches  groups  h u n t i n g lodges covered w i t h f i r  r a t h e r than the u s u a l mat  1900:196).  These  or s k i n c o v e r i n g  (Teit  O c c a s i o n a l l y , these s t r u c t u r e s a l s o had e a r t h  banked up t o a meter i n h e i g h t ( T e i t 1909:494). ment  spending  l o c a t i o n s may  These  have been r e o c c u p i e d each f a l l ,  were g e n e r a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d near deer fences ( T e i t  settle-  as they  1909:404),  one of the many f a c i l i t i e s used f o r deer procurement.  These  were p r i m a r i l y e x t r a c t i v e camps f o r meat procurement.  Pro-  c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s were conducted  elsewhere:  . . . s k i n s were g e n e r a l l y c l e a n e d and the h a i r removed a t the h u n t i n g camps, w h i l e they were s t i l l fresh. They were then d r i e d and f o l d e d up u n t i l w i n t e r , which was the time f o r s k i n d r e s s i n g ( T e i t 1909:477). With the onset of w i n t e r , groups would r e t u r n t o the major r i v e r v a l l e y s , where the w i n t e r v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t s were l o c a t e d  (Dawson 1891:8, T e i t  1900:192).  While  were the p r i n c i p a l v i l l a g e s o f the bands, membership  these was  94  not permanent. villages mum  Many f a m i l i e s chose t o s e t t l e i n d i f f e r e n t  from one w i n t e r t o a n o t h e r . ( T e i t 1909:570).  Maxi-  population aggregation occurred during t h i s period of  sedentary w i n t e r s e t t l e m e n t , which u s u a l l y l a s t e d  from  December u n t i l  (Teit  the end of February or e a r l y March  1900:194,238). semisubterranean the mat 635)  The predominant w i n t e r d w e l l i n g was  the  p i t h o u s e , a l t h o u g h an a l t e r n a t e type  lodge w i t h s h a l l o w excavated  floors  and double or t r i p l e l a y e r s of mat  w i t h e a r t h ( T e i t 1909:493).  Teit  (Boas  was  1890:634-  c o v e r i n g banked  up  (1900:195) notes t h a t sub-  t e r r a n e a n p i t h o u s e s were i n use as l a t e as 1890, were f i n a l l y r e p l a c e d by l o g c a b i n s .  T h i s was  when they  generally a  p e r i o d o f r e l i a n c e on s t o r e d s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e s , a l t h o u g h some u n g u l a t e hunting was i c e - f i s h i n g was fall  done ( T e i t 1909:247,248)..  also carried  out, but p r o b a b l y s p r i n g  f i s h i n g were more i m p o r t a n t .  such, as h i d e p r o c e s s i n g and were a l s o conducted  Winter  Maintenance a c t i v i t i e s  the manufacture of s k i n  during t h i s period (Teit  clothing  1909:477).  The p a t t e r n o f s e d e n t a r y w i n t e r s e t t l e m e n t was u n i v e r s a l among a l l Shuswap bands, however. t i o n of the Lakes d i v i s i o n 492,  494)  and  not  In h i s d e s c r i p -  Shuswap bands, T e i t  (1909:459-460,  i n d i c a t e s t h a t these groups were more m i g r a t o r y  than bands occupying the F r a s e r R i v e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y  during  the w i n t e r season, when they c o u l d not r e l y on s t o r e d subsistence resources.  These bands had a s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e -  95  ment p a t t e r n t h a t d i d not settlement. p e r s i o n and Thus, mat  include winter  housepit  village  Winter s u b s i s t e n c e r e q u i r e d s e t t l e m e n t m o b i l i t y t o procure  or bark lodges  throughout the  l a n d mammal  dis-  resources.  were the predominant h a b i t a t i o n  year.  Winter v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y d i s p e r s e d by A p r i l .  One  o f the primary s p r i n g economic a c t i v i t i e s  t r o u t f i s h i n g a t l a k e s and n e t s , s p e a r s , and w e i r s ,  rivers. Teit  c r i p t i o n of a l a r g e s t e e l h e a d o f the N i c o l a and  T r o u t were procured  (1900:252) p r o v i d e s  by  a des-  t r o u t f i s h e r y at the  Thompson R i v e r s o c c u p i e d  was  confluence  in April  by  members from v a r i o u s Thompson bands. During  late April  v a r i o u s r o o t s and resources  and  at v a r i o u s times i n t o the summer,  stems began t o be o b t a i n a b l e .  Root  are a v a i l a b l e from the dry t e r r a c e s of the major  r i v e r v a l l e y s t o the u p p e r - e l e v a t i o n valleys.  Roots were e x p l o i t e d d u r i n g  seasons: e a r l y summer and  fall  mountain s l o p e s two  and  main c o l l e c t i n g  ( T e i t 1900:231).  With r e s p e c t  t o the d i f f e r e n t i a l u t i l i z a t i o n of v a r i o u s e l e v a t i o n zones, the upland 231) while  areas  f i g u r e d more p r o m i n e n t l y ,  since Teit  notes "some of the r o o t s used grew i n the dry the m a j o r i t y were o b t a i n e d  only"..  H i g h e r - e l e v a t i o n areas  e l e v a t i o n 3600 f t ; 1100 utilized  m)  (1900:  valleys,  i n the h i g h e r mountains  such as Botanie  have been r e c o r d e d  e x t e n s i v e l y f o r root resources  Valley as  (floor  being  through May  and  June  96  by l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n aggregates thousand  numbering "sometimes over a  I n d i a n s " ( T e i t 1900:294).  During s p r i n g and  summer,., u n g u l a t e s were hunted i n t h e i r uplands.  summer range i n t h e  S m a l l e r l a n d mammals as w e l l as f i s h were l i k e l y  e x p l o i t e d when l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e , however, s p e c i f i c  informa-  t i o n on t h e i r use i s u n a v a i l a b l e . F r u i t s , b e r r i e s and drupes c o n s t i t u t e another main s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e w i t h a s p e c i f i c geographic distribution.  Several d i f f e r e n t  and seasonal  species of b e r r i e s ripened  i n l a t e summer on t h e major r i v e r t e r r a c e s , w h i l e restricted  those  t o h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s (such as t h e v a r i o u s s p e c i e s  of Vaccinium) were not o b t a i n a b l e u n t i l w e l l i n t o t h e f a l l . The  ethnographies  do not p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n  on t h e group s t r u c t u r e and l o c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n s p r i n g and summer s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s .  F a m i l y groups were l i k e l y t h e  common u n i t a t most summer camps a l t h o u g h l a r g e r  temporary  a g g r e g a t i o n s d i d occur a t v a r i o u s times when p e r m i t t e d by the r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n  which was b e i n g u t i l i z e d ( e . g .  s p r i n g f i s h i n g and r o o t g a t h e r i n g ) .  P l a n t r e s o u r c e s were  always p r o c u r e d and p r o c e s s e d by women (Dawson 1891:19, T e i t 1900:230) w h i l e men engaged i n h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g a c t i v i t ies.  Camps a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e x t r a c t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g o f  r o o t r e s o u r c e s were g e n e r a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to g a t h e r i n g areas  (Dawson 1891:9), but t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e i r  97  o c c u p a t i o n i s unknown.  Root r e s o u r c e s were p r o c e s s e d f o r  s t o r a g e by d r y i n g , b a k i n g , o r steaming.  The l a s t  two  methods i n v o l v e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e a r t h ovens which i n v o l v e d t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f both sexes  (Dawson 1891:9).  At s h o r t - t e r m s e a s o n a l camps, temporary lodges o f t u l e mats, b r u s h e s , bark, o r s k i n c o v e r i n g over a wood frame were erected  (Dawson 1891:8* T e i t 1900:195-197, T e i t 1909:493).  More permanent h a b i t a t i o n s w i t h l o g f o u n d a t i o n s were o f t e n erected at subsistence-gathering locations r e - v i s i t e d ( T e i t 1900:196, 1909:493).  annually  Kennedy and Bouchard (1978:38)  note the o c c u r r e n c e o f e t h n o g r a p h i c  settlements o f t h i s  type  a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s i n F o u n t a i n and P a v i l i o n V a l l e y s , i n Lillooet Creek  t e r r i t o r y t o t h e west and north-west  o f Upper Hat  Valley. By August, the focus o f s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s  s h i f t e d t o t h e major r i v e r s and t h e i r t r i b u t a r i e s where salmon runs were commencing.  Camps f o r the e x t r a c t i o n and  p r o c e s s i n g o f f i s h were e s t a b l i s h e d a d j a c e n t t o canyon and banks o f t h e F r a s e r and Thompson  Rivers.  floors  Salmon were  p r o c u r e d by;r nets o r s p e a r i n g from n a t u r a l o r c o n s t r u c t e d f i s h i n g p l a t f o r m s , the f a v o r e d l o c a t i o n s o f which were a t c o n s t r i c t i o n s i n the r i v e r where f i s h were f o r c e d t o f o l l o w the s h o r e l i n e ( T e i t 1900:250-251).  Processing locations  were u s u a l l y s i t u a t e d away from t h e r i v e r shore on a d j a c e n t  98  banks o r t e r r a c e s , depending on l o c a l topography. were p r o c u r e d  by men and processed  Dawson (1891:22) notes another  Fish  by women.  t h a t nut g a t h e r i n g was  s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t y c a r r i e d out i n l a t e summer.  P r e f e r r e d nuts were those  from t h e cones o f ponderosa p i n e  (Pinus ponderosa) and white-bark p i n e  (Pinus  albicaulis)  (Dawson 1891:22; T e i t 1900:223; T e i t 1909:515,519). b r i e f account o f white-bark p i n e procurement is  A  activities  p r o v i d e d by Dawson (1891:22): When t h e cones o f Pinus a l b i c a u l i s a r e f u l l y formed, toward t h e end o f summer, b u t b e f o r e t h e s c a l e s expand and a l l o w t h e n u t l e t s t o f a l l , t h e I n d i a n women r e s o r t t o t h e mountains where these t r e e s abound a t h e i g h t s between 5,000 and 6,000 f e e t , o f t e n camping f o r days t h e r e , g a t h e r i n g and e a t i n g the n u t l e t s . ( I t a l i c s mine.) It  was  i s e v i d e n t t h a t l a t e summer through e a r l y  fall  a p e r i o d d u r i n g which a d i v e r s e group o f h i g h l y s e a s o n a l  s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e s were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  available, part-  i c u l a r l y salmon, r o o t s , b e r r i e s , and n u t s .  While t h e p r o -  curement o f these r e s o u r c e s was d i v i d e d between t h e sexes, w i t h men f i s h i n g and women g a t h e r i n g , t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f a l l resources noted  i n v o l v e d o n l y t h e women.  i n the ethnographies,  some degree o f s c h e d u l i n g  Although  not s p e c i f i c a l l y  t h i s s i t u a t i o n suggests ( F l a n n e r y 1968)  that  on t h e p a r t o f t h e  female l a b o r f o r c e may have been i n v o l v e d t o e f f i c i e n t l y i n t e g r a t e p l a n t c o l l e c t i n g and f i s h p r o c e s s i n g Food kept  tasks.  f o r w i n t e r consumption was g e n e r a l l y  99  s t o r e d i n b a r k - l i n e d underground 199).  cache p i t s  ( T e i t 1900:198-  Other forms o f s t o r a g e caches a r e noted by T e i t  199), however,; o n l y underground been used f o r food s u p p l i e s .  (1900:  cache p i t s appear t o have  Cache p i t s were u s u a l l y  uated i n p r o x i m i t y t o w i n t e r v i l l a g e  sit-  sites.  . The remainder o f the annual s u b s i s t e n c e c y c l e i s not w e l l documented.  T r a p p i n g and h u n t i n g a r e the main  a c t i v i t i e s noted f o r O c t o b e r . w a t e r f o w l would  Land mammals and m i g r a t i n g  a l s o be a v a i l a b l e i n the  fall.  Elements o f the m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i n v e n t o r y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l by T e i t (1942), and Dawson (1891).  (1900,1909),  Ray  The m a j o r i t y o f t o o l s i n the  i n v e n t o r y were f a b r i c a t e d from bone, a n t l e r , wood, and s t o n e . Bone and a n t l e r p r o v i d e d such items a s : deer u l n a  skinning  and f l e s h i n g t o o l s , e l k - a n t l e r wedges f o r f e l l i n g  and  t i n g t r e e s , bear-bone  split-  e n g r a v i n g t o o l s , awls and n e e d l e s ,  stone f l a k e r s , d i g g i n g s t i c k h a n d l e s , f i s h l e i s t e r b a r b s , f i s h hooks, bark p e e l e r s , sap s c r a p e r s , barbed spear p o i n t s , and horn and s k u l l - c a p spoons. m a l l e t s , axe/adze p i n e dug-out  Wooden a r t i f a c t s  included  h a f t s , s c r a p e r and k n i f e h a f t s , c e d a r and  canoes, spruce bark canoes, n e e d l e s , spoons,  t r a y s and o t h e r v e s s e l s , r o o t d i g g i n g s t i c k s , berry' d r y i n g frames, and bows, arrows, and s p e a r s .  Spruce r o o t s were  used f o r b a s k e t r y w h i l e t u l e and b u l r u s h e s were used f o r matting.  The r o l e o f stone t o o l t e c h n o l o g y i n the economy  100  o f the e t h n o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t can be regarded n e i t h e r as s t a n t i a l or i n s i g n i f i c a n t . s e l e c t i v e replacement o c c u r r e d throughout  A c o n s i d e r a b l e degree  o f many elements  the i n i t i a l  l e s s , the sheer q u a n t i t y o f wood and bone items e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y i n d i c a t e s the importance the manufacture of metal.  of  by metal items  contact period.  sub-  had  Nevertheobserved  of stone t o o l s i n  of these a r t i f a c t s p r i o r t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n  T e i t does i n v e n t o r y c h i p p e d - s t o n e s c r a p e r s , wedges,  k n i v e s , axe/adzes,  and ground-stone  items such as m a l l e t s ,  adzes, bowl v e s s e l s j and g r i n d i n g stones f o r meat and b e r r y processing. While the e t h n o g r a p h i e s p r o v i d e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the l o c a t i o n s o f major w i n t e r v i l l a g e s , t h i s i s u s u a l l y done a t the expense of s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on l o c a t i o n s of upland s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s and s e t t l e m e n t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the a v a i l a b l e data does i n d i c a t e t h a t e l e v a t i o n zones d i d have a prominent  upper  r o l e i n the a b o r i g i n a l  Thompson-Shuswap s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t system: . . .., a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the t r i b e l i v e d i n the mountains d u r i n g the g r e a t e r p a r t of the y e a r , moving about from one r o o t - d i g g i n g or d e e r - h u n t i n g ground t o a n o t h e r , a c c o r d i n g t o the h a r v e s t - t i m e o f c e r t a i n r o o t s and b e r r i e s , or as the deer changed t h e i r f e e d i n g grounds d u r i n g the seasons. . . . Only when w i n t e r s e t i n d i d they r e t u r n t o t h e i r w i n t e r houses ( T e i t 1900:230). ( I t a l i c s mine).  101  Regional Culture The p a t t e r n has  History  a n t i q u i t y o f the above e t h n o g r a p h i c economic been a concern o f c o n s i d e r a b l e t o Upper Hat  archaeological  research  i n areas a d j a c e n t  research  most r e l e v a n t t o t h i s study i s t h a t conducted i n  the F r a s e r R i v e r V a l l e y between has  Creek V a l l e y .  Lytton  and  The  L i l l o o e t , which  r e s u l t e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a 7,000 y e a r sequence  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e s  (Sanger 1969,  1970;  Stryd  1973).  A summary o f t h i s c u l t u r e h i s t o r y i s p r e s e n t e d below. The  e a r l i e s t evidence of p r e h i s t o r i c settlement  the Southern I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u (Sanger 1969:192-194),  i s the Old C o r d i l l e r a n C u l t u r e  a member o f the more encompassing  P r o t o w e s t e r n T r a d i t i o n (Borden 1969).  This c o n s t i t u t e s  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e i n i t i a l l y based i n the regions  i n the e a r l y p o s t - g l a c i a l p e r i o d .  Cordilleran Culture ized hunting, wet, 45).  gathering  f o r e s t e d environment The  adaptation  t o occupy  The  i s i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f l e c t i n g  f i s h i n g and  an  unglaciated  south o f B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t moved n o r t h  the p r o v i n c e  in  a  Old general-  to a c o o l ,  ( B u t l e r 1965:1127; Warren  1968:  e a r l i e s t e s t a b l i s h e d date f o r t h i s c u l t u r e i n  B r i t i s h Columbia i s 9,100  B.P.,  obtained  from the M i l l i k e n  s i t e i n the Lower F r a s e r Canyon (Borden 1965* 1968). Lochnore Complex from the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y m i d - F r a s e r R i v e r V a l l e y may an o c c u p a t i o n  also represent  e s t i m a t e d t o date as e a r l y as  an Old  The in  the  Cordiller-  7,000-8,000  B.P..  102  (Sanger 1969:194)..  Old C o r d i l l e r a n material c u l t u r e i s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l e a f - s h a p e d "Cascade" p o i n t s , a c o r e microblade technology, edge-battered cobbles, cobble choppers, o v a l b i f a c e s , m i l l i n g stones,, a v a r i e t y o f s c r a p e r t y p e s , and a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d a n t l e r and bone i n d u s t ry  (Sanger 1969:192; Warren 1968:27).  The e a r l i e s t  probable  date f o r t h e O l d C o r d i l l e r a n C u l t u r e i n the F r a s e r and Thompson P l a t e a u s i s a t l e a s t 9,500 B.P., the e s t i m a t e d time by which t h e Southern ( F u l t o n 1971).,  I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u was i c e - f r e e  As y e t , the temporal d u r a t i o n o f t h i s  i n I n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia  culture  i s undetermined.  A second p o s s i b l e e a r l y p o s t - g l a c i a l type o f c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n may be r e p r e s e n t e d by i s o l a t e d f i n d s o f P i a n o like projectile points.  However, t h e o n l y r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a -  t i o n t o date c o n s i s t s o f b r i e f r e f e r e n c e s t o the presence o f such p o i n t types and t h e i r p o s s i b l e a n t i q u i t y  (Sanger 1969:  192). The i n t e r v a l  from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7,000 B.P.,to the  h i s t o r i c period i n the mid-Fraser River V a l l e y r e g i o n i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a time o f e s s e n t i a l l y unchanging relationships..  man-land  F i s h i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r anadromous salmon,  was the major f o c u s o f s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t  also  i n c l u d e d h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g o f r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n a dry f o r e s t environment. c u l t u r e throughout  The p r e v a i l i n g  archaeological  t h i s time i s d e f i n e d as the Nesikep  103 Tradition  (Sanger 1969, 1970).  I n i t i a l l y divided into  four  s m a l l e r c u l t u r a l u n i t s on the b a s i s o f v a r i a b i l i t y  among  a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s and s e t t l e m e n t t y p e s , i . e . , E a r l y  Nesikep  (7,000-5,000 B.P,), Lower middle Nesikep Upper M i d d l e Nesikep  (5,000-3,500 B%, P . ) ,  (3,500-2,800 B.P.), and L a t e Nesikep  (2,800 B.P., - A.D. 1,800) (Sanger 1970:105), r e c e n t r e s e a r c h suggests a t w o f o l d d i v i s i o n : and L a t e Nesikep(2,800 Stryd  (7,000-2,800  B.P..- A.D,.1,750) ( S t r y d  o f f o u r phases:  B.P.),  1973;24).  (1973) has f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d the l a t e Nesikep  i n t o a sequence and  E a r l y Nesikep  period  N i c o l a , L i l l o o e t , Kamloops,  Proto-historic, The main items w i t h i n the c h i p p e d stone i n d u s t r y  which d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e E a r l y and L a t e Nesikep p e r i o d s a r e products of a prepared microblade technology.  The E a r l y  Nesikep p e r i o d i s d e f i n e d by the presence o f these a r t i f a c t t y p e s , which 1973:24).  a r e absent i n L a t e Nesikep assemblages  (Stryd  Other c h i p p e d - s t o n e a r t i f a c t types which may be  d i a g n o s t i c o f the E a r l y Nesikep p e r i o d a r e s m a l l p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s manufactured scraping tools  from m i c r o b l a d e s and w e l l - f i n i s h e d  (Sanger 1970:38).  Sanger  (1970:110) a l s o  notes t h a t g r a v i n g t o o l s have a m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e  distri-  b u t i o n w i t h m i c r o b l a d e s and c o r e s and t h e r e f o r e may a l s o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e L a t e Nesikep p e r i o d .  Differential  usage o f raw m a t e r i a l s i n t h e c h i p p e d - s t o n e i n d u s t r y may a l s o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e two p e r i o d s ( S t r y d 1973:25-26).  In.  1 0 4  the L a t e Nesikep p e r i o d , r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r amounts o f black  v i t r e o u s b a s a l t are g e n e r a l l y observed i n waste  chippage r e s u l t i n g to other  from a r t i f a c t manufacture.  a s p e c t s o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d , the  subterranean winter pithouse not  With  appear u n t i l  v i l l a g e settlement  respect semi-  type does  the l a t t e r p a r t o f the E a r l y Nesikep p e r i o d  a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 500-3,000 B.P.  (Sanger 1969:196, S t r y d  r  1973:101),., Other d i f f e r e n c e s between the E a r l y and  Late  of the Nesikep T r a d i t i o n tend t o be  "quantitative  than q u a l i t a t i v e "  Research by S t r y d  ( S t r y d 1973:26).  r e f i n e the L a t e Nesikep c u l t u r e h i s t o r y has  periods  rather to  resulted in a  more d e t a i l e d m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i n v e n t o r y  than t h a t c u r r e n t l y  a v a i l a b l e f o r the E a r l y Nesikep p e r i o d .  However, i t a l s o i s  not p r e s e n t l y p o s s i b l e to determine which t r a i t s l i s t e d Stryd  by  (1973:25-26) as a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the L a t e Nesikep p e r i o d  are d i a g n o s t i c o f i t ( i ; e . those t h a t are absent from  the  E a r l y Nesikep p e r i o d ) . Stryd  (1973:27-39.) has  recognized  phases w i t h i n the L a t e Nesikep p e r i o d . (2,750-1,750 B.P.). i s d e f i n e d by and  The  cultural  N i c o l a Phase  an absence of arrow  points  the presence of medium t o l a r g e - s i z e d c o r n e r - n o t c h e d  stemmed p o i n t s . B.P.)  four  The  or  s u c c e e d i n g L i l l o o e t Phase (1,750-1,150  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by L i l l o o e t Corner-Notched arrow  p o i n t s and  the absence o f Kamloops Side-Notched arrow p o i n t s .  105 The  best  documented phase i s the Kamloops Phase  200  B.P.), i n i t i a l l y  g e n e r a l l y recognized  (1,150-  d e f i n e d by Sanger (1968a).  The  "type f o s s i l " of t h i s phase i s the  Kamloops Side-Notched arrow p o i n t  (Sanger 1968a:147, S t r y d  1973:34).  identified  Stryd  (1973:34-35) has  additional artifact — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —  types t h a t may  a l s o be  several  diagnostic:  s t e a t i t e c a r v i n g complex (Duff 1956, Sanger 1968a) carved a n t l e r f i g u r i n e s > zoomorphic hand mauls p e c t e n s h e l l (Pecten c a u r i n u s ) r a t t l e s tubular s t e a t i t e pipes b i r d bone beads? c h i p p e d and d r i l l e d s l a t e pendants s p i n d l e whorls and weaving ( i n f e r e n t i a l ) s m a l l asymmetric l e a f - s h a p e d p o i n t s notched c h i p p e d stone d r i l l s ? a r g i l l i t e scrapers? spall tools c h i p p e d s t o n e spokeshaves m e t a p o i d a l awls f r e q u e n t mica f l a k e s ( f o r ornamentation?) l a r g e p i t h o u s e s a l t h o u g h medium and s m a l l p i t h o u s e s are a l s o i n use.  However, S t r y d  (1973) a l s o notes t h a t these t r a i t s  emphasize the c o n t e n t s of b u r i a l s i t e s r a t h e r than enting  those t o be expected i n h a b i t a t i o n  Sanger (1968a:146-149), n e v e r t h e l e s s , Kamloops Phase r e p r e s e n t s Thompson I n d i a n s and  may repres-  settlements.  suggests t h a t  the  the l a t e r p r e h i s t o r y of the Upper  the southern d i v i s i o n of the Shuswap  Indians. The and  P r o t o - h i s t o r i c Phase commences a t A.D.  continues  archaeological  up  to the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d .  1,750  Proto-historic  assemblages are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  "the  presence  106  o f a few  t r a d e goods i n the midst of an assemblage which  o t h e r w i s e resembles  t h a t of the Kamloops Phase" ( S t r y d  1973:  39). In a d d i t i o n t o c o n s t i t u t i n g a c h r o n o l o g i c a l u n i t , the e n t i r e Nesikep emphasizing  T r a d i t i o n has been p r e s e n t e d as a model  the c o n t i n u i t y and s t a b i l i t y o f p r e h i s t o r i c  s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t systems i n the mid-Fraser  River  Valley regions: E a r l y h i s t o r i c Thompson and Shuswap s u b s i s t e n c e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n were p r o b a b l y combined w i t h I n t e r i o r S a l i s h languages f o r much o f the 7,000 y e a r s of the Nesikep T r a d i t i o n (Sanger 1969:198). Although  p r e s e n t e d as a f a c t , t h i s statement  of ethnographic  on the  antiquity  s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t systems s h o u l d  regarded  as a h y p o t h e s i s .  icularly  i n l i g h t of the data upon which i t i s based. The  ethnographies  I t needs f u r t h e r t e s t i n g , p a r t -  on the Thompson and Shuswap  Indians c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t d u r i n g the annual  round  groups engaged i n d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s at numerous l o c a t i o n s throughout  be  these  geographic  the F r a s e r and Thompson P l a t e a u s .  The  range o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , d e l i n e a t e s the subs i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t system. was  The Nesikep  T r a d i t i o n , however,  d e f i n e d on the b a s i s of data c o l l e c t e d  area—the  major r i v e r v a l l e y t e r r a c e s .  from o n l y  I t should not  one be  assumed t h a t a l l changes i n the r e g i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e ment system would be r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n a s i n g l e  environmental  107  zone.  There i s a c u r r e n t  lack of information  of p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence m i d d l e and  settlement  be  observable  would a f f e c t our On  e c o n o m i c p a t t e r n has  therefore, reflect  current  understanding  above c u l t u r a l  Creek V a l l e y .  The  identification be  recourse  perspective,  there  t h a t m u s t be  recognized.  f o r Hat  different the  are  system.  would encompass  of these  chronol-  accomplished  of those types demonstrated  (or  While t h i s  l a t e n t problems w i t h The  such a  is  environmental context  strategy of  the data  chronology.  types from the  The  used to  construct  presence or  Fraser  absence  River Valley  i n f e r r e d t o h a v e c h r o n o l o g i c a l i m p o r t a n c e may geographic v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n a For  only  for obtaining a chronological  from t h a t surrounding  of c e r t a i n a r t i f a c t  reflect  nevertheless  Creek a r c h a e o l o g i c a l assemblages i s q u i t e  existing cultural  that are  may  systems.  h i s t o r y would  a s s u m e d ) t o h a v e some t e m p o r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . the only present  the  system that  of such  assemblages can  artifact cross-dating  recovery  anti-  a l t e r a t i o n s to  t h e b a s i s o f g e o g r a p h i c p r o x i m i t y , one  ogical units i n surface by  any  i n the major r i v e r v a l l e y s but  a n t i c i p a t e that the Upper Hat  in  and v a l l e y s ,  regional p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence-settlement be  nature  assumed t o have been s u b s t a n t i a l l y u t i l i z e d .  These a r e a s s h o u l d ,  not  the  behavior  upper e l e v a t i o n mountain slopes  which, i f the ethnographic q u i t y , can  and  on  sites simply  subsistence-settlement  i n s t a n c e , the d i a g n o s t i c a r t i f a c t  type  that  108  differentiates  the  E a r l y and  T r a d i t i o n — t h e microblade on  Late periods of the  and  core technology—was  Late Nesikep from those  p e r i o d s e t t l e m e n t s where a c t i v i t i e s ,  associated with housepit  the present  t i m e , one  the e n t i r e t y  Creek V a l l e y . determined regarded  on  sites.  i t s occurrence.at different  s i t e s , were c a r r i e d  out.  c a n n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y assume t h a t  the Fraser R i v e r V a l l e y c u l t u r a l chronology in  determined  the b a s i s of i t s negative a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h housepit  T h i s d o e s n o t , h o w e v e r , a. p r i o r i r u l e o u t  At  Nesikep  can  be  extended  t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s from Upper T h e r e f o r e , any  chronological relationships  the b a s i s of a r t i f a c t c r o s s - d a t i n g should  as v e r y t e n t a t i v e and  Hat  be  subject to further testing.  General Models of Hunter-Gatherer S u b s i s t e n c e - S e t t l e m e n t Systems The  early ethnographic  c u l t u r e s represent attempts these c u l t u r e s .  accounts  of I n t e r i o r  Salish  t o encompass a l l a s p e c t s  However, the l i m i t a t i o n s  of such  of  an  approach  a r e r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d when r e s u l t a n t w o r k s a r e c o n s u l t e d for detailed interest.  i n f o r m a t i o n on  s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s of  These s t u d i e s a r e d e s c r i p t i v e ;  synthesis of the data recorded ities  The  attempt  little  to note u n d e r l y i n g r e g u l a r -  or propose general p r i n c i p l e s  trends.  there i s  t o account  for  such  t o p r o v i d e an e n c o m p a s s i n g , y e t  d e t a i l e d , p i c t u r e of the t o t a l  culture also results in  an  i m p l i c i t o v e r - and " u n d e r e m p h a s i s o f v a r i o u s v a r i a b l e s " t h a t .  109  b e c o m e s e v i d e n t when e f f o r t s ities  and g e n e r a l  settlement  p r i n c i p l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o s u b s i s t e n c e and  practices.  ethnographic  a r e made t o d i s c e r n r e g u l a r -  In the course  of gleaning data  Thompson a n d Shuswap s u b s i s t e n c e a n d  on  settlement  p r a c t i c e s , i t became e v i d e n t  t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n was l a c k i n g o n  a number o f c r i t i c a l  including the social units of  upland  resource  aspects  p r o c u r e m e n t and p r o c e s s i n g , t h e d u r a t i o n o f  such a c t i v i t i e s ,  and t h e n a t u r e  of occupation  of the respect-  ive  settlements.  S u c h i n f o r m a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d  for  deriving archaeological expectations of the  economic p a t t e r n i n upland In  necessary ethnographic  areas.  s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , an a l t e r n a t e s t r a t e g y i s t o  i n c o r p o r a t e b a s i c themes i d e n t i f i e d with a hunting-gathering  f o r other c u l t u r a l  economy i n o r d e r  p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e n a t u r e  to obtain a  o f such a c t i v i t i e s  formulation of archaeological expectations. not unique t o t h i s  study.  This strategy i s  There a r e a r a p i d l y  hunter-gatherer be  data  tested against specific  (Jochim  1976,  to derive general  s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t  expanding  that can  sets of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data  Wilmaerr 1973).  subsistence-settlement  a t i v e study  comparative  principles of  behavior  The m o s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e g e n e r a l m o d e l o f gatherer  general  t o guide the  number o f s t u d i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e analysis of ethnographic  systems  of ethnographic  hunter-  s y s t e m s b a s e d on t h e c o m p a r -  literature  i s presented  by Jochim  110  (1976).  The s a l i e n t p o i n t s o f t h i s model a r e summarized  below. Jochim  (1976:11) d e l i n e a t e s t h r e e major problems  t h a t f a c e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n any s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t  system:  1) r e s o u r c e use s c h e d u l e , 2) s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n , and 3) demographic arrangement. relationshipramong  He a l s o i d e n t i f i e s a c a u s a l  these v a r i a b l e s " . . . t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n  of r e s o u r c e use tends  t o produce and c o n d i t i o n t h e s i t e  placements and demographic arrangement o f a h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r group" (Jochim The  1976:12).  r e s o u r c e use schedule  i s r r e g a r d e d as t h e economic  s t r a t e g y employed t o cope w i t h two fundamental of t h e c u l t u r a l  requirements  system:  1. The attainment o f a secure l e v e l o f food and manuf a c t u r i n g needs. 2. The maintenance o f energy e x p e n d i t u r e w i t h i n a p r e d e f i n e d range, determined p a r t l y by the need f o r p o p u l a t i o n a g g r e g a t i o n . (Jochim 1976:19). I t i s assumed t h a t t h i s economic s t r a t e g y i s t h e e s s e n t i a l determinant  of settlement l o c a t i o n s .  D e c i s i o n s on s i t e  placement a r e p r i m a r i l y i n f l u e n c e d by a l e a s t - c o s t  principle  i n which t h e d i s t a n c e between s e t t l e m e n t and r e s o u r c e s i s kept t o a minimum ( a l s o see Judge 1971; P l o g and H i l l r e l a t i v e t o two a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g  1971),  settlement  l o c a t i o n : 1) t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s h e l t e r and 2) "the concern f o r a view, both  f o r game animals  and f o r o t h e r human  Ill  p o p u l a t i o n s " (Jochim  1976:49).  The main a t t r i b u t e s  r e s o u r c e s t h a t would f i g u r e i n s e t t l e m e n t l e v e l o f s e c u r i t y and  degree of m o b i l i t y ;  h i g h l e v e l s o f s e c u r i t y and  l o c a t i o n are resources  The  with  (Jochim  s i z e of the p o p u l a t i o n aggregates  s e t t l e m e n t s and  their  a low degree of m o b i l i t y would  have the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on s i t e placement 53-55).  of  the geographic  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  i s the r e s u l t o f an adjustment t o f i v e  1976:  occupying settlements  factors:  1. P r o v i s i o n o f food f o r the p o p u l a t i o n . 2. Resource procurement i n the predetermined t i o n s a t low c o s t .  propor-  3. Resource procurement i n the predetermined tions with high security.  propor-  4. Insurance  of r e p r o d u c t i v e v i a b i l i t y .  5. P r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n  (Jochim  1976:70).  While the above model e x p l i c i t l y o u t l i n e s the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s of hunter-gatherer t h a t have e t h n o g r a p h i c  s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t systems  v e r i f i c a t i o n , t h e r e i s a problem o f  i t s operationalization for archaeological studies. does not p r e s e n t any  Jochim  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the model f o r i n t e r -  assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y of l i t h i c  a r t i f a c t s , which  limits  i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o the s u r f a c e assemblages under a n a l y s i s in this  study. Another g e n e r a l model of hunter-^gatherer  subsistence-  s e t t l e m e n t b e h a v i o r has been proposed by B i n f o r d and B i n f o r d (1966).  Although  t h i s model i s not e x p l i c i t l y based  on  112  ethnographic  d a t a , the o v e r a l l s i m i l a r i t y w i t h the above  model i s s t r i k i n g . study v a r i a b i l i t y measured  T h i s model was  s p e c i f i c a l l y designed  to  i n the u t i l i z a t i o n o f settlements as  by l i t h i c  assemblages.  B i n f o r d and B i n f o r d (1966:268) propose t h a t a l l economic a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s dichotomized  i n t o two b a s i c t y p e s < — e x t r a c t i v e  and maintenance  can be  activities  activities:  E x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s a r e those t h a t c e n t e r on the d i r e c t procurement o f s u b s i s t e n c e items or o f raw m a t e r i a l s t o be used i n the manufacture o f a r t i f a c t s . Maintenance a c t i v i t i e s are r e l a t e d t o the p r e p a r a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u b s i s t e n c e goods a l r e a d y on hand and t o the p r o c e s s i n g o f on-hand m a t e r i a l s i n the production of t o o l s . The p r i n c i p l e o f l e a s t - c o s t i s i m p l i c i t  in their  t h a t these a c t i v i t i e s w i l l have a d i f f e r e n t i a l over the l a n d s c a p e ,  distribution  r e l a t i v e to l o c a t i o n s of e x p l o i t a b l e  r e s o u r c e s and l o c a t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r o c c u p a t i o n . suggest  hypothesis  t h a t , on the b a s i s o f a r t i f a c t assemblage  They  then  contents  and l o c a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y two g e n e r a l types of s e t t l e m e n t s — b a s e  camps and work camps:  We would expect t h e r e t o be base camps s e l e c t e d p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f adequate l i f e - s p a c e p r o t e c t i o n from the elements, and c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l assemblages o f base camps s h o u l d r e f l e c t maintenance t a s k s — t h e p r e p a r a t i o n and consumption o f food as w e l l as the manufacture of t o o l s f o r use i n o t h e r l o c a t i o n s . Another s e t t l e m e n t would be a work camp, a l o c a t i o n o c c u p i e d w h i l e subgroups were c a r r y i n g out e x t r a c t i v e tasks . . . In these l o c a t i o n s we would  113  expect the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l assemblages t o be dominated by the t o o l s used i n the s p e c i f i c e x t r a c t i v e t a s k s . The degree t o which maintenance a c t i v i t i e s may be r e p r e s e n t e d a t work camps would be a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n o f t h e l e n g t h o f time a g i v e n s o c i a l u n i t was t h e r e and the s i z e of the u n i t ( B i n f o r d and B i n f o r d 1966:268-269). The  s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t system i s t h e r e f o r e d e f i n e d on the  b a s i s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r combination  i n which these two  s e t t l e m e n t types a r e u t i l i z e d by a s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l  system.  V a r i a t i o n s o f t h i s g e n e r a l model have been s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d i n a number o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s (Wilmsen 1970, P l o g and H i l l  1971, Judge 1973).  T h i s model has r e c e n t l y been s u b j e c t t o some c r i t icism.  On the b a s i s o f e t h n o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h on IKung  bushman s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s , Y e l l e n (1976) q u e s t i o n s t h e e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y o f the b a s i c d i v i s i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t s base and e x t r a c t i v e camps as they a r e d e f i n e d above. (1976:65, 69-70) notes  that while subsistence  into  Yellen  activities  c a r r i e d out a t s e t t l e m e n t s do v a r y i n r e l a t i o n t o e n v i r o n mental areas and seasons, in  extractive activities  t h e v i c i n i t y o f a l l types o f camps.  a r e performed  Furthermore, main-  tenance a c t i v i t i e s a r e not c o n f i n e d t o any p a r t i c u l a r form of ive  settlement  ( Y e l l e n 1976:65).  T h e r e f o r e , work o r e x t r a c t -  camps p e r se a r e n o n - e x i s t e n t i n t h e IKung s u b s i s t e n c e -  settlement system.  The s e a s o n a l a s p e c t s o f s e t t l e m e n t s ,  however,, a r e r e f l e c t e d by the q u a n t i t y and k i n d o f d e b r i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h manufacturing  activities.  The primary  i n f l u e n c i n g t h e performance o f manufacturing  factor  activities i s  the settlement  occupation  subsistence resources 19 7 6 : 6 5 ) .  Thus, the  s p a n , i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e d by  a v a i l a b l e i n the v i c i n i t y longer the seasonal  a camp, t h e g r e a t e r i s t h e l i k e l i h o o d in  the a c t i v i t i e s  will  be w o r n o u t  r e j u v e n a t i o n , or replacement. longer the occupation variety  One  resources  change,, r e s u l t i n g  q u a n t i t y and  diversity  Given  (Yellen  occupation  and  r e q u i r e maintenance,,  can  a l s o deduce t h a t  r e q u i r e d as  seasonal  i n the d e p o s i t i o n of a  o f d e b r i s and  discarded  be  some f a i r l y  expectations  prehistoric  settlement  U p p e r Hat  greater  tools.  data, i t should  patterns present  Creek V a l l e y .  on  southern  possible to  i n upland  areas  These are p r e s e n t e d  the  and  t h e a b o v e i n f o r m a t i o n a s w e l l as t h e  specific  of  t h a t the t o o l s employed  plateau ethnographic  and  span  s p a n , t h e g r e a t e r t h e number  of subsistence a c t i v i t i e s  the  derive  subsistence such  as  i n the f o l l o w i n g  section. Upper Hat The  Creek V a l l e y S u b s i s t e n c e  fundamental o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e of  gatherer  subsistence-settlement  resource  utilization  s i o n and  settlement  sistence resources seasonal  and  on  (Jochim  and  The  and  plants.  T h e s e two  distinct  distributions.  sub-  of  i n t h e Thompson-Shuswap a n n u a l  a r e anadromous f i s h  of  disper-  1976:11-13).  s u b j e c t to the g r e a t e s t degree  fluctuation  geographic  hunter-  systems i s the e f f e c t  population aggregation  location  Settlement  resources  Anadromous f i s h  round have are  115  restricted  t o major r i v e r i n e v a l l e y s  While p l a n t r e s o u r c e s range from terraces  and t h e i r  tributaries.  t h e major r i v e r  valley  t o t h e upper mountain slopes,, t h e h i g h e r  a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n u t i l i z e d more i n t e n s i v e l y gathering activities.,  zones  f o rplant  P e r i o d s o f optimum a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r  each r e s o u r c e a r e o n l y s l i g h t l y o v e r l a p p i n g i n t h e f a l l . Additional  r e s o u r c e s such  as animals  a r e r e l a t i v e l y common t o b o t h A l s o , they a r e p o t e n t i a l l y although  lower  and non-anadromous and u p p e r - e l e v a t i o n  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c  complete  Rather,  the area  o n l y one o f s e v e r a l t h a t w o u l d be u t i l i z e d the annual  round.  be c a r r i e d  out within  to find the  s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t system  w i t h i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y .  f o r each..  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  a b o v e , one w o u l d n o t e x p e c t  ethnographic  zones.  e x p l o i t a b l e a t a l l seasons,  t h e r e a r e p e r i o d s o f maximum a v a i l a b i l i t y  data presented  fish  operative  constitutes  i n the course of  The m a i n e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s  expected t o  t h e v a l l e y w o u l d f o c u s on h u n t i n g and  plant gathering. Hunting  activities  the year, although  c o u l d be c a r r i e d  t h e optimal times  w o u l d b e i n t h e summer a n d f a l l  f o r procuring  when h e r d s  t h e i r summer r a n g e i n t h e h i g h e l e v a t i o n process  out throughout  were e i t h e r i n  zones o r i n t h e  o f m i g r a t i n g t o w i n t e r i n g grounds a t lower  M i g r a t i n g waterfowl would a l s o l i k e l y the v a l l e y  during the f a l l .  ungulates  levels.  be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n  The s t a t u s o f U p p e r H a t C r e e k  116  V a l l e y as a good w i n t e r i n g  range f o r u n g u l a t e s i n d i c a t e s  the p o t e n t i a l f o r w i n t e r h u n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the Generally,  gathering  areas such as Upper Hat resources  activities  in  upper-elevation  Creek V a l l e y emphasized  ( T e i t 1900:230-231).  On  area.  root  the b a s i s of present-day  d i s t r i b u t i o n s , a l a r g e number of r o o t c r o p s t h a t f i g u r e predominately i n ethnographic gathering available.  Major s p e c i e s  include:  hiza s a g g i t a t a ) , b i s c u i t root  gathering  According  (Balsamorr-  nodding onion  A l l of these are p e r e n n i a l s ,  r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e and habitats.  balsam r o o t  thus c o n s t i t u t i n g a  p r e d i c t a b l e resource  in suitable  t o the e t h n o g r a p h i c c a l e n d a r ,  ( T e i t 1900:231).  In Upper Hat  i n the s p r i n g and  e a r l y summer  time at which they are most abundant and  A p r i l o r i n e a r l y May. by  June  Indian  palatable.  Palmer  in late  p o t a t o i s g e n e r a l l y ready f o r  (Dawson 1891:20).  l i k e l y t h a t major p l a n t g a t h e r i n g  r u l e out  likely  (Palmer 1975:65), w h i l e w i l d onion camps  are e s t a b l i s h e d i n e a r l y J u l y  centrated  late  period,the  (1975:59) notes t h a t balsam r o o t i s u s u a l l y dug  is  plant  Creek  V a l l e y , the procurement o f the above s p e c i e s would be c a r r i e d out  Indian  (Allium  would o c c u r mainly i n the e a r l y s p r i n g and  summer-early f a l l  gathering  are  (Lomatium macrocarpum),  p o t a t o ( C l a y t o n i a l a n c e o l a t a ) , and cernuum).  strategies  a c t i v i t i e s were con-  i n the above p e r i o d , t h i s does not the c o l l e c t i o n of nut  and  While i t  necessarily  berry resources  in  the  117  l a t e summer and Applying  fall. the  "law  of minimum" t o the above s u b s i s -  tence r e s o u r c e s , i t i s proposed here t h a t the primary minant o f group s i z e and s p r i n g and The  summer p e r i o d s  task groups and  o f these r e s o u r c e s butions.  settlement  l o c a t i o n during  i s the g a t h e r i n g  settlements  of p l a n t  the resources..  i n v o l v e d i n the e x p l o i t a t i o n  l i k e l y v a r i e d depending on l o c a l  Wilmsen (1973:8) has  deter-  distri-  suggested t h a t the most  e f f e c t i v e work group f o r p l a n t food procurement i s one minimal s i z e c o n s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y o f a few age  and  s t a t u s , who  t h e i r own  gather  "of  females of v a r y i n g  p l a n t food f o r consumption  by  immediate h o u s e h o l d s " and based i n a s i n g l e  extended f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e u n i t .  However, t h i s i s not  the  form o f group s t r u c t u r e d e s c r i b e d f o r Thompson r o o t - g a t h e r i n g camps ( T e i t 1900:294) which are composed of s u b s t a n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n aggregates engaged i n g a t h e r i n g f o r immediate consumption as w e l l as w i n t e r  subsistence.  The  ethnographic  l i t e r a t u r e does not i n d i c a t e the d u r a t i o n of such types settlements, valleys.  nor  the r e g u l a r i t y of t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e  I t i s assumed here t h a t such a g g r e g a t i o n s  have o c c u r r e d whenever p e r m i t t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t was p r o v i d e both a s t a b l e and t h e l e s s , these r e s o u r c e s gathering  in  of upland  would  by the l o c a l r e s o u r c e  base,  composed of p e r e n n i a l s t h a t would predictable distribution. would be r a p i d l y d e p l e t e d by  Neverintense  a c t i y i t i e s which would r e s u l t i n the d i s p e r s i o n of  118  the group t o e x p l o i t o t h e r s p e c i e s e x h i b i t i n g a l e s s dense and  s t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r a t l e a s t p a r t o f the P l a n t g a t h e r i n g was  did assist  a female  season.  a c t i v i t y , although  i n processing plant resources.  men  The major male  a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the p l a n t g a t h e r i n g season  focused on  hunting  of l o c a l l y - a v a i l a b l e a n i m a l s , which c o u l d have i n v o l v e d the use of s m a l l e x t r a c t i v e s e t t l e m e n t s away from the r o o t g a t h e r i n g camps.  Meat was  often processed with p l a n t  r e s o u r c e s a t the main camps.  T h i s suggests  that while  b u t c h e r i n g o f l a r g e r animals would have been c a r r i e d out a t hunting s i t e s , the meat would be p r o c e s s e d and consumed a t the p l a n t procurement camps. Thus, i t i s proposed Creek V a l l e y i n the annual t i o n s was  t h a t the major use of Upper Hat  round  of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h  f o r spring plant gathering a c t i v i t i e s .  a n c i l l i a r y a c t i v i t i e s such as hunting may  popula-  While  a l s o have been  c a r r i e d out a t t h i s time, p l a n t c o l l e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d t o be the primary and  settlement l o c a t i o n s .  some importance  f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g group s i z e  The v a l l e y may  a l s o have been of  as a r e s o u r c e zone f o r f a l l  hunting a c t i v i t i e s .  are  With r e s p e c t t o the  and  winter  maintenance-extra-  c t i v e dichotomy, w i n t e r h u n t i n g p r o b a b l y c o n s t i t u t e d e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t y as meat would be procured  an  f o r consump-  t i o n back a t the w i n t e r v i l l a g e s s i t u a t e d i n the major r i v e r valleys..  On the o t h e r hand, s p r i n g g a t h e r i n g  and  119  fall  hunting  i n v o l v e d a mixture  ive a c t i v i t i e s ;  o f maintenance and e x t r a c t -  food was procured  f o r immediate consumption  and was a l s o s t o r e d f o r w i n t e r s u b s i s t e n c e . Given t h e above range o f a c t i v i t i e s , t h e types o f s e t t l e m e n t s t h a t would be expected  i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y  include: 1., "Brush house" t r a n s i e n t camps ( T e i t by e i t h e r h u n t i n g o r c o l l e c t i n g from l o c a l base s e t t l e m e n t s . constitute l i t t l e  p a r t i e s when away  These would l i k e l y  more than a windbreak and a h e a r t h .  2. E x p l o i t a t i o n camps o c c u p i e d brief  1900:196) used  f o r v a r y i n g but g e n e r a l l y  spans o f time by one o r more f a m i l y groups.  These would s e r v e as a temporary l o c a l base f o r h u n t i n g and/or g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . type i n c l u d e s the f a l l cessing sites ethnographic  hunting  This  settlement  lodges and r o o t  pro-  d i s c u s s e d i n the above s e c t i o n on t h e annual  round.  Mat o r s k i n - c o v e r e d  lodges  would be t h e major form o f d w e l l i n g u s e d . 3. I n t e n s i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n camps, o c c u p i e d b r i e f l y the e a r l y s p r i n g and summer by a r e l a t i v e l y p o p u l a t i o n aggregate  large  c o n s t i t u t i n g a number o f l o c a l  or even r e g i o n a l bands. revisited  during  These s e t t l e m e n t s , b e i n g  a n n u a l l y , would have d w e l l i n g s w i t h more  permanent f o u n d a t i o n s o f l o g s o r e a r t h embankments. In a d d i t i o n t o these d w e l l i n g s and the u s u a l mat  120  l o d g e s , l a r g e communal lodges would a l s o be e r e c t e d a t such s e t t l e m e n t s  ( T e i t 1900:196).  s e t t l e m e n t would be expected  T h i s type of  a t l o c a t i o n s having  s t a b l e , p r e d i c t a b l e p l a n t r e s o u r c e s s i m i l a r to t h a t d e s c r i b e d by T e i t  (1900:294) f o r the B o t a n i e V a l l e y .  These s e t t l e m e n t s p r o b a b l y had  the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n o f  utilization. During  the s p r i n g and  summer g a t h e r i n g p e r i o d , groups  r a n g i n g from s i n g l e extended f a m i l i e s to an assembly o f bands would occupy s e t t l e m e n t s s i t u a t e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o p l a n t c o l l e c t i n g grounds and determined  f a v o r a b l e camp l o c a t i o n s , the  latter  by a t t r i b u t e s i n c l u d i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y o f water,  s h e l t e r e d s i t u a t i o n , and  sufficient  ments would be o c c u p i e d up  level terrain.  Settle-  to the time at which s u b s i s t e n c e  r e s o u r c e s i n the area were d e p l e t e d or r e s o u r c e s i n o t h e r areas became a v a i l a b l e .  Given  that plant resources  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by v a r i a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n s and the o v e r a l l  are  predictability,  s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n would a l s o be expected  to be  diverse. Settlements  o c c u p i e d by p l a n t procurement groups  would tend t o v a r y i n s i z e r e l a t i v e to the s t a b i l i t y p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of l o c a l p l a n t r e s o u r c e s .  The  and  l a t t e r would  a l s o determine the p o t e n t i a l f o r s e a s o n a l r e o c c u p a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c locations..  While s i t e s i z e may  i n c r e a s e from  r e o c c u p a t i o n , the r e s u l t i n g t o o l assemblages from e i t h e r  121  s i n g l e or r e p e a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s would s t i l l  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by a l i m i t e d range o f d e b r i s and t o o l t y p e s , r e l a t i v e t o t h a t produced  under prolonged  occupation.  For example,  e x t r a c t i v e s i t e s i n the v i c i n i t y of a s p e c i f i c p l a n t r e s o u r c e would i n v o l v e a l i m i t e d v a r i e t y of stone t o o l s the major t o o l s used  i n g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s are wood d i g g i n g  s t i c k s w i t h a n t l e r handles ( T e i t 1900:231).  as  and baskets  for transporting plants  Stone t o o l s would most l i k e l y be  employed  i n woodworking a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the manufacture o f g a t h e r i n g t o o l s as they would p r o v i d e the b e s t means by which wood c o u l d be c u t and m o d i f i e d i n the absence of metal  items.  Repeated u t i l i z a t i o n o f the e x t r a c t i v e camp would i n c r e a s e the frequency  o f these t o o l s but would not i n c r e a s e the  d i v e r s i t y o f the t o o l assemblage.  T h i s would be low  to  t h a t produced  of  e x t r a c t i v e and maintenance t a s k s would be c a r r i e d  relative  a t main s e a s o n a l base camps where a v a r i e t y out.  Given a s t a b l e and p r e d i c t a b l e p l a n t r e s o u r c e base and  t h a t g a t h e r i n g was  sumption and may  expect  c a r r i e d out f o r both immediate  con-  s t o r a g e o f food f o r w i n t e r s u b s i s t e n c e , one  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s  to process l a r g e  q u a n t i t i e s of p l a n t s and be re-used on the subsequent r e o c c u p a t i o n o f the l o c a t i o n . would be based  The placement o f such  on p r o x i m i t y t o both food and  r e s o u r c e s , the l a t t e r i n c l u d i n g f u e l and Fall  facilities  nonfood  water.  and w i n t e r h u n t i n g camps would be o c c u p i e d  mainly  122  by male task groups, although  the e n t i r e f a m i l y u n i t  was  o c c a s i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n deer d r i v e s ( T e i t 1900:248). h u n t i n g camps tended  Fall  t o have s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s determined  by m i g r a t i o n r o u t e s of game.  T h i s enabled  of  t h a t were r e v i s i t e d on a  s e t t l e m e n t s and  facilities  s e a s o n a l b a s i s ( T e i t 1900:246). hunting  One  the  establishment  would expect  winter  s i t e s to e x h i b i t a d i s p e r s e d d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  determined  by the l o c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f game and  primarily  the  kill  location. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o g n i t i o n of these s e t t l e m e n t and p a t t e r n s i s a d i f f i c u l t of  m o b i l i t y necessary  procedure  s t r u c t u r a l evidence  some may  be s u b j e c t t o  With r e s p e c t t o s u r f a c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , of such s e t t l e m e n t s would be minimal  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f p l a n t p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t i e s 1891:20).  degree  of a number of s e t t l e m e n t s f o r  r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f p e r i o d s , although reoccupation.  The  t o e x p l o i t p l a n t and game r e s o u r c e s  i n v o l v e s the u t i l i z a t i o n  annual  at best.  types  Observable  (Dawson:  elements of o c c u p a t i o n would i n most  c a s e s , be l i m i t e d t o the l i t h i c i n d u s t r y .  123  CHAPTER V ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH I N UPPER HAT CREEK V A L L E Y Methodology The sistence  of  o f any d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r e h i s t o r i c sub-  and s e t t l e m e n t  tribution relation  basis  patterns  i s information  of d i f f e r e n t types of archaeological t o environmental v a r i a b l e s .  archaeological  sites i n  The p r i m a r y  objective  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n Upper Hat Creek  was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a r i a b i l i t y a r e a as an i n i t i a l  step  Valley  p r e s e n t among s i t e s i n t h e  towards such d e s c r i p t i o n .  archaeological  perspective,  unknown a r e a .  T h u s , i t was c r i t i c a l  the valley constituted  m i n a t i o n s h o u l d be as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e This  on t h e d i s -  that  this  From a n a basically  initial  and u n b i a s e d as p o s s i b l e .  was a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a memo-  randum o f agreement b e t w e e n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h and  deter-  the Office of the P r o v i n c i a l Archaeologist  Columbia—an overview of the c u l t u r a l heritage of t h e v a l l e y that could  of B r i t i s h resource  base  be used t o e s t i m a t e t h e n a t u r e and  extent of those resources w i t h i n thermal e l e c t r i c  Columbia  impact zones o f a proposed  development.  G i v e n t h e time and f i n a n c i a l  r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e 1976  field  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , i t was n o t c o n s i d e r e d  carry  o u t an i n v e n t o r y  of archaeological  practical to  sites within the  1 2 4  h y d r o g r a p h i c boundaries  of Upper Hat Creek  ( i . e . the a r e a  bounded on the west by the Hat C r e e k - F r a s e r R i v e r d r a i n a g e d i v i d e i n the C l e a r Range and by the T r a c h y t e and H i l l s on the e a s t ) . manageable s i z e was presented  Cornwall  I n s t e a d , an a r e a of s m a l l e r , more selected.  The  90.4  sq km  tract  i n f i g u r e 19 c o v e r s the v a l l e y bottomlands  and  a d j a c e n t f o r e s t e d lower slopes,, r e p r e s e n t i n g a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the environmental Hat Creek watershed.,  v a r i a t i o n p r e s e n t w i t h i n the Upper  T h i s a r e a was  also considered l i k e l y  to  c o n t a i n any thermal power developments i n the v a l l e y . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e base w i t h i n the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y study a r e a r e q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r nature  (the t o t a l range o f types o f  r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) and e x t e n t the-ground  spatial patterning).  c o l l e c t such d a t a was  (the a c t u a l  on-,  The methodology employed t o  p r o b a b i l i t y sampling.,  T h i s permits  the i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of o n l y a d e s i g n a t e d f r a c t i o n of the study a r e a w h i l e e n a b l i n g r e l i a b l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s w i t h i n the e n t i r e P r o b a b i l i t y sampling o l o g i c a l development.  tract.  i n archaeology  I t has had  i s a r e c e n t method-  successful applications in  s e m i - a r i d r e g i o n s of the American Southwest (Matson and L i p e 1975), the Great B a s i n ( B e t t i n g e r 1977; 1969, 1973), and f  Columbia  the Southern  ( E l d r i d g e n.d.;  Matson 1971;  I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u of  Matson, Ham,  and Bunyon  Thomas  British n.d.;  FIGURE 19.  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y sampling frame f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l survey.  126  Pokotylo  1977), The proper a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o b a b i l i t y  sampling  r e q u i r e s t h a t f o u r b a s i c d e c i s i o n s be made w i t h r e g a r d t o : 1) sampling  technique,; 2) sampling scheme,, 3) sampling  f r a c t i o n , and 4) sampling u n i t s  ( M u e l l e r 1974:28-30),  The  p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s made i n t h i s study a r e summarized below. Although t h e primary c o n c e r n here i s t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f v a r i a b i l i t y among a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s , these a r e not t h e a c t u a l items sampled.  The sampling o f s i t e s p e r se  would e n t a i l t h e t e c h n i q u e o f element elements  of interest  (sites) f i r s t  sampling, i n which t h e  have t o be enumerated f o r  i n c l u s i o n i n t o a frame from which a s p e c i f i c sample would be drawn ( K i s h 1965:20-21),  Such a l i s t  o f elements was not  a v a i l a b l e i n t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n , and r e s o r t was made t o the t e c h n i q u e o f c l u s t e r sampling.  Here, t h e samples a r e  u n i t s o r groups which c o n t a i n t h e elements the frame c o n s i s t s o f a complete 1965:20-21, 148).  list  of i n t e r e s t ;  o f these u n i t s  (Kish  While t h e r e a r e d i s a d v a n t a g e s i n u s i n g a  c l u s t e r sampling t e c h n i q u e , p a r t i c u l a r l y a l o s s i n p r e c i s i o n , ( K i s h 1965:149-150), more p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s argue f o r its  use h e r e . The second d e c i s i o n i n v o l v e s t h e c h o i c e o f a p a r t -  i c u l a r sampling scheme. among f o u r b a s i c schemes;  G e n e r a l l y , t h e c h o i c e i s made simple random,, s t r a t i f i e d  random,  127  s y s t e m a t i c , and s t r a t i f i e d (see Haggett  s y s t e m a t i c u n a l i g n e d sampling  1965:195-197; and B e r r y and Baker 1968 f o r  more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f each scheme).  Stratified  random sampling w i t h replacement was t h e s p e c i f i c scheme used i n t h i s d e s i g n . divided  The area t o be sampled  was f i r s t  sub-  ( s t r a t i f i e d ) by t h e c r i t e r i o n o f contemporary  v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r t o form zones more e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y homogenous than t h e o r i g i n a l  area taken as a whole.  Two s t r a t a ,  a f o r e s t e d zone and a g r a s s l a n d a r e a , were d e f i n e d . stratum was then random sampled  Each  separately.  D e c i s i o n s on t h e " s i z e " o f t h e sample t o be i n v e s t igated  ( i . e . sampling f r a c t i o n ) a r e g e n e r a l l y based on a  mixture o f both p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e r n s .  While  s t a t i s t i c a l means o f e s t i m a t i n g t h e optimum sample s i z e f o r a g i v e n degree o f a c c u r a c y a r e a v a i l a b l e  (Cochran 1963:71-86),  the d e c i s i o n s made i n t h i s study were based on more p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f time and c o s t r e s t r i c t i o n s .  As concern was w i t h  sampling space, t h e c h o i c e o f t h e sampling f r a c t i o n was h i g h l y dependent Given t h e i n i t i a l was  on t h e s i z e o f t h e c l u s t e r u n i t s t o be used. limitation of a single f i e l d  season, i t  e v i d e n t t h a t o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e frame c o u l d be  i n t e n s i v e l y surveyed.  A t such low r a t e s o f c o v e r a g e , i t i s  important t o note t h a t t h e sampling f r a c t i o n i s not as critical  as i s t h e a b s o l u t e number o f c l u s t e r u n i t s  (Asch 1975; C o w g i l l 1975; True and Matson 1974).  sampled  I n t h e end  128  r e s u l t , , a t o t a l aggregate a r e a o f 7.0 s q km (7.8%) o f the frame was d e s i g n a t e d f o r i n t e n s i v e s u r f a c e disproportionate  survey.  However,  sampling r a t e s were used t o draw s p e c i f i c  u n i t s from each s t r a t u m .  The f o r e s t stratum was sampled  at a r a t e o f 0.0512 (12 u n i t s ) , w h i l e a r a t e o f 0.0966 (32 u n i t s ) was used i n t h e g r a s s l a n d  stratum t o produce a  sample o f 44 c l u s t e r u n i t s . The the  f i n a l d e c i s i o n concerned t h e s i z e and shape o f  sampling u n i t s t h a t would compose t h e frame.  regional  s u r v e y s have used a v a r i e t y o f a r b i t r a r y s p a t i a l  u n i t s : quadrats Lipe  (Bettinger  1977; Matson 1971; Matson and  1975; Thomas 1969); t r a n s e c t s  1977); and even c i r c l e s  (Judge e t a l , 1975; Reher  (Goodyear 1975).  A number o f r e c e n t transect  studies  on t h e r e l a t i v e worth o f  v e r s u s quadrat-shaped u n i t s have i n d i c a t e d  t h e r e i s no s i n g l e " b e s t " shape f o r c l u s t e r s 1975;  Previous  Matson and L i p e  1975; P l o g  1976).  that  (Judge e t a l .  Matson and L i p e  (1975:132), however, p r o v i d e a u s e f u l g u i d e l i n e  for selecting  between t h e two shapes on t h e b a s i s  research  interests.  When s i t e p o p u l a t i o n  i n t e r e s t , transects  e s t i m a t e s a r e t h e major  a r e more e f f e c t i v e .  emphasis i s on a s s o c i a t i o n s , delineating  of general  quadrats a r e more u s e f u l i n  such r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  With r e s p e c t  s t u d y , c o n c e r n i s w i t h both p o p u l a t i o n associations.  When t h e r e s e a r c h  t o the p r e s e n t  e s t i m a t e s and  When a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s were c o n s i d e r e d , a  129  d e c i s i o n was made t o use q u a d r a t s .  On t h e b a s i s o f p r e v i o u s  work i n v o l v i n g t h e implementation o f a t r a n s e c t sampling design  i n t h e Bonaparte and Semlin V a l l e y s ( P o k o t y l o  i t was found t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e  disadvantages  i n u s i n g t r a n s e c t s t o c o l l e c t c e r t a i n types o f s i t e r e q u i r e d by t h e above o b j e c t i v e s . encountering  "edge-area" e f f e c t s o f t h e t r a n s e c t shape where  s i t u a t i o n s , ; t h e t r a n s e c t w i d t h was i n s u f f i c i e n t the maximum dimensions o f s i t e s , r e s u l t i n g  ility  data  The major drawback was i n  s i t e s were observed on t h e margins o f t h e u n i t .  contextual  1977),  i n f o r m a t i o n necessary  In some t o encompass  i n the l o s s of  t o determine s i t e v a r i a b -  i n the population. A second d e c i s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e sampling u n i t  i n v o l v e d t h e c h o i c e o f quadrat s i z e . statistical  This also involves  and p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  As a r u l e , t h e  s m a l l e r t h e c l u s t e r u n i t , t h e more p r e c i s e and a c c u r a t e are the r e s u l t i n g population estimates 1975:53).  However, t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l  (Plog 1976:5 7; Read  advantage i s o f f s e t by  the h i g h e r c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s m a l l e r sized units: . F o r s u r v e y i n g any g i v e n a r e a , d e c r e a s i n g t h e quadrat s i z e a l s o d e c r e a s e s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f time a c t u a l l y spent s u r v e y i n g and i n c r e a s e s the p r o p o r t i o n o f time spent g e t t i n g t o t h e q u a d r a t , l o c a t i n g and marking i t s b o u n d a r i e s , e t c , (Matson and L i p e 1975:132). An  a d d i t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the increased p o t e n t i a l f o r  130  edge e f f e c t s t h a t r e s u l t s from d e c r e a s i n g the u n i t (Matson  and L i p e 1975:132),  employing  In o t h e r r e g i o n a l  size  surveys  quadrats as sampling u n i t s , the s i z e tended t o be  e i t h e r 500 m  ( B e t t i n g e r 1977;  Thomas 1969)  o r 400 m t o a s i d e (Matson, Ham,  Matson and L i p e 1975). Upper Hat Creek  The  E l d r i d g e 1976;  l a t t e r s i z e was  investigations.  Matson  1971;  and Bunyon  n.d.;  s e l e c t e d f o r the  The 400 m quadrat  has  g e n e r a l l y been proven s a t i s f a c t o r y i n the above r e s e a r c h , l o c a t e d i n both the Canadian west.  P l a t e a u and the American  Given t h a t the Hat Creek  South-  survey would c o v e r o n l y a  r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a , the 400 m s i z e would r e s u l t i n a h i g h e r sample s i z e of survey u n i t s r e l a t i v e t o t h a t w i t h the 500 m s i z e , g i v e n a f i x e d coverage r a t e .  possible The main  d i s a d v a n t a g e a n t i c i p a t e d w i t h the use of 400 m quadrats the number of "empty" u n i t s  ( i . e . d e v o i d of s i t e s ) i f the  s i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n tended t o be d i s p e r s e d and o v e r a l l d e n s i t y was  study a r e a i n t o 565 quadrats  frame was  dominant v e g e t a t i o n type  Each  the  quadrat  s t r a t a on the b a s i s of the  ( f o r e s t or g r a s s l a n d c o v e r ) p r e s e n t  w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s , as observed  from quadrat p l o t s on a i r  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f a g r a s s l a n d  stratum composed o f 331 t a i n i n g 234  c r e a t e d by d i v i d i n g  (see f i g u r e 19).  a s s i g n e d t o one o f the two  photographs.  site  low..  The Upper Hat Creek  was  was  quadrats.  quadrats and a f o r e s t stratum conThe d i s t r i b u t i o n of the two e n v i r o n -  131  mental  s t r a t a w i t h i n t h e frame and t h e s p e c i f i c  sampled from  each  Survey  stratum are presented  quadrats  i n f i g u r e 20.  f i e l d w o r k i n v o l v e d t h e on-the-ground  location  of t h e quadrats,, t h e l a y o u t o f t h e quadrat margins,  a n d an  i n t e n s i v e s u r v e y o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  data.  The  would  survey crew  ( w h i c h numbered f r o m 4 t o 6 i n s i z e )  l i n e u p a n d s p r e a d o u t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 m a p a r t a n d t h e n sweep t h e q u a d r a t aeological sites selected  parallel  and i s o l a t e d  environmental The  term  t o one m a r g i n  "site"  artifact  t o survey f o r arch-  l o c a t i o n s as w e l l as  variables. i s used  h e r e as a u n i t o f measurement  for observations of the archaeological record. s t i t u t e observable spatial  The e m p i r i c a l c r i t e r i a  the survey were a d e n s i t y o f l i t h i c above an a r b i t r a r i l y - d e f i n e d sq m area and/or t h e presence cultural  which  artifacts  a site i n  equal t o or  value o f s i x items w i t h i n a 4 o f o n e o r more s u r f a c e rock  w h i c h was u n d e r  a s an " a r t i f a c t  location".  l o c a t i o n s may r e p r e s e n t p r e h i s t o r i c  activities  resulted  i n the d e p o s i t i o n of minimal  material or simple natural of such  f o r defining  Any c l u s t e r o f e l e m e n t s  d e n s i t y v a l u e was i d e n t i f i e d Artifact  above a s p e c i f i c t h r e s h -  features (depressions, rock c a i r n s , burnt  middens, e t c . ) .  con-  localizations ofarchaeological  m a t e r i a l s w i t h a d e n s i t y o f elements old value.  Sites  artifactual  f o r c e s o f movement..  i s o l a t e d m a t e r i a l s does,  this  Collection  however, p e r m i t c o n s i d e r a -  FIGURE 20.  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y sampling frame, s t r a t a , and quadrats surveyed.  environmental  133  t i o n o f these a l t e r n a t i v e s r a t h e r than r e l y i n g on a p r i o r i d e c i s i o n s made i n the f i e l d  on whether such items  warrant  r e c o r d i n g and c o l l e c t i o n . Artifact  l o c a t i o n s were noted on the quadrat  map,  a s s i g n e d a p r o v e n i e n c e number and c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the survey.  S i t e s l o c a t e d d u r i n g t h e survey were f l a g g e d and  s u b s e q u e n t l y s u r f a c e c o l l e c t e d when t h e survey o f t h e quadrat was completed.  A l l s i t e s l o c a t e d i n the quadrat survey were  c o m p l e t e l y s u r f a c e c o l l e c t e d by superimposing  a 2 m grid  system o f c o l l e c t i o n u n i t s over t h e e n t i r e s u r f a c e a r e a . Surface c u l t u r a l  f e a t u r e s were r e c o r d e d on s i t e  collection  g r i d maps. Given an u n d e r l y i n g i n t e r e s t w i t h the c o n t e x t u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o f s i t e s , ; a number o f n a t u r a l  environmental  v a r i a b l e s were r e c o r d e d i n a c o n s i s t e n t format f o r every as w e l l as q u a d r a t .  site  Data on t h r e e major v a r i a b l e s were  c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g s u r f a c e survey sampling: 1) c u r r e n t p l a n t community, 2) t o p o g r a p h i c s i t u a t i o n , and 3) d r a i n a g e p a t t e r n water s o u r c e .  There i s g e n e r a l consensus  i n contemporary  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g t h a t these c a t e g o r i e s " w i l l  ultimately  prove t o be among t h e most c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n e x p l a i n i n g settlement d i s t r i b u t i o n s "  (Plog and H i l l  environmental a t t r i b u t e s observed 1. The presence-absence  1971:15).  Specific  include:  o f v e g e t a t i o n communities and  s p e c i f i c s u b s i s t e n c e food p l a n t s w i t h i n the bound-  134  a r i e s of s i t e s  and  quadrats.  2. The p r o x i m i t y ( i . e . both the d i s t a n c e and ease of accessibility  t o human groups) o f s i t e s  and  quadrats  t o p o t a b l e and non-potable water s o u r c e s , and specific  the  type of p o t a b l e water s o u r c e .  3. The type of landform on which s i t e s  and quadrats are  situated. 4. The s l o p e g r a d i e n t w i t h i n s i t e and quadrat b o u n d a r i e s . 5. The  average e l e v a t i o n of s i t e s  6. The exposure 7. The view  of the s i t e and  and  quadrats.  quadrat.  "overview" p r e s e n t a t s i t e s  and q u a d r a t s .  Over-  i s d e f i n e d by Judge (1973:125) as "the view of  the s u r r o u n d i n g topography  a f f o r d e d by the  site  situation." In a d d i t i o n t o the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , , c o n d i t i o n of each s i t e was  a l s o noted;  turbance and the p r o b a b l e a c t i v i t y  the g e n e r a l  the degree of  dis-  t h a t caused i t was  r e c o r d e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a measure of p r e s e n t r a t e s of d i s t u r b a n c e t o the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d t h a t may  have  a f f e c t e d the p r e s e r v a t i o n of c e r t a i n d a t a c a t e g o r i e s and s u r f a c e p a t t e r n i n g of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  materials.  The emphasis of t h i s r e s e a r c h was  the s u r f a c e survey  f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and environmental data..  Subsurface  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were a s s i g n e d second p r i o r i t y , t o be only a f t e r  the s u r f a c e survey was  the  complete.  initiated  L i m i t e d excava-  135  t i o n s a t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f s i t e s l o c a t e d by survey would be conducted  the  a t a s c a l e dependent on the time  and f i n a n c e s r e m a i n i n g upon the c o m p l e t i o n of the s u r v e y . Research R e s u l t s T h i s s e c t i o n summarizes the r e s u l t s of the survey and the e x c a v a t i o n s of c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n s .  It discusses  the c h a r a c t e r o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e base p r e d i c t e d f o r Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y and a l s o p r o v i d e s a b a s i c  des-  c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of the resources.  The primary a n a l y s i s d e l i n e a t e s  archaeological  s i t e f r e q u e n c i e s and d e n s i t i e s , s i t e t y p e s , a n t i q u i t y , f a c t assemblage i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and correlations.  arti-  environmental  The o b j e c t i v e here i s t o p r e s e n t b a s i c  docu-  mentation o f the survey d a t a . The survey of the 44 quadrats forming the t a r g e t sample y i e l d e d data on 85 p r e h i s t o r i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n o n ^ b a s i c s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as  sites.  location,  s i z e , t y p e , and assemblage c o n t e n t are p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e  5.  D e s c r i p t i v e summary s t a t i s t i c s by environmental stratum are presented i n t a b l e The  6.  frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the number of s i t e s  per quadrat f o r each environmental stratum and the sample are p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 21. 22 of the 44 quadrats i n v e s t i g a t e d .  total  S i t e s were observed i n In the g r a s s l a n d  TABLE 5 SITE TABULATIONS: GRASSLAND AND FOREST STRATA SURVEY NUMBER G2-I G2-II G2-III G2-IV G2-V C2-VI G2-VII G2-VTII G2-LX G2-X G2-XI G2-XII G2-XIII G2-XIV G2-XV G2-XV1 G3-I G3-II G3-III G6-I G6-II G7/26-I G7/26-II G7/26-III G8-I Gll-I GU-II Gll-III Gll-IV Gll-V Gll-VI G17-I G18-I G19-I G20-I G21-I G21-II G21-III G21-IV G21-V G21-VI G21-V1II G21-1X G21-X G21-XI G21-XLII G21-XIV G22-I G22-II G22-III G22-IV G22-V G23-I G23-II G23-III G23-IV G27-I G27-II G28-I G28-II G28-III G28-IV G28-V G28-VI G28-VII G28-VIII G28-LX G28-X G30-I G31-I G31-II G32-I G32-II F8-I FB-II Fll-I Fll-II H2-I F12-II F12-III F12-IV F12-V  *  BORDEN DESIGNATION  EeRj 9 EeRj 10 EeRj 11 EeRj 12 EeRI 13 EeRj 14 EeRj 15 EeRj 16 EeRj 17 EeR1 18 EeRj 19 EeRj 20 EeRj 21 EeRj 22 EeR1 23 EeRj 24 EeRj 25 EeRj 26 EeRj 27 EeRi 28 EeRj 82 EeRj 29 EeRj 30 EeRj 31 EeRi 32 EeRj 68 EeRj 69 EeRj 70 EeRj 75 EeRi 76 EeRj 77 EeRj 78 EeRj 33 EeRj 81 EeRi 34 EeRj 35 EeRj 36 EeRj 37 EeRj 38 EeRi 39 EeRj 40 EeRj 41 EeRj 42 EeRj 43 EeRi 44 EeRj 45 EeRj 46 EeRj 47 EeRj 48 EeRi 49 EeRj 50 EeRj 51 EeRj 52 EeRj 83 EeRi 84 EeRj 85 EeRj 53 EeRj 54 EeRj 55 EeRi 56 EeRj 57 EeRj 58a EeRj 59 EeRj 60 EeRi 61 EeRj 62 EeRj 79 EeRj 80 EeRj 63 EeRi 64 EeRj 65 EeRj 66 EeRj 67 EeRj 71 EeRi 72 EeRj 73 EeRj 86 EeRj 5 EeRj 6 EeRj 7 EeRj 58b EeRj 8  SITE SIZE  92 932 88 16 4 4 4 8 168 72 236 244 320 4 56 28 24 72 244 104 64 164 28 4 72 20 6% 8320 16 76 N/A 32 1260 4 56 280 104 88 172 124 208 116 2252 224 180 376 56 248 8 84 68 56 288 45 33 53 248 128 104 892 72 9404 252 1448 52 416 4  BASALT IEBITAGE  CHERT DEBITAGE  227 422 104 141 11 31 14 42 155 46 1161 237 135 6 105 23 14 96 260 31 63 611 216 25 0 0 1210  7 1436 3 3 10 2 0 0 1 0 620 42 441 74 1 22 0 43 28 27 4 0 0 0 103 46 2110  *1  *41  16 4 0 778 0 1 5 7 26 745 61 147 48 4369 140 254 376 9 254 0 43 20 54 156 0 0 0 707 0 145 3127 25 64741 483 2355 33 699 49 14 361 103 118 19 0 4623 482 0  4  476 372 180 20 8 1668 400  8 11  0  1001 430 1725 13821 486  64  292 796 6240 88  33 31 0 21 11 46 266 55 21 1 0 152 7 1326 22 26 174 33 24 12 108 28 1 251 0 0 0 92 64 20 73 1 9932 2 923 3 67 0 5 85 219 129 1 20 1498 356 17 0 2 206 321 2524 0  BASALT TOOLS  CHERT TOOLS  TOTAL TOOLS  TOTAL LITHIC ARTIFACTS  234 1858 107 144 21 33 14 42 156 46 1781 279 576 80 106 45 14 139 288 58 67 611 216 25 103 46 3320  1 17 3 3 0  0 9 1 1 0  0  0  0 0 5 1 3 5 10 2 2 3 1 4 3 4 5 14 0 0 0 0 4  0 0 0 1 1 2 4 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1  1 26 4 4 0 0 0 0 5 2 4 7 14 2 2 3 1 6 4 5 6 14 0 0 0 0 5  235 1884 111 148 21 33 14 42 161 48 1785 286 590 82 108 48 15 145 292 63 73 625 216 25 103 46 3325  49 35 0 799 11 47 271 62 47 746 61 299 55 5695 162 280 550 42 278 12 151 48 55 407 0 0 0 799 64 165 3200 26 74673 485 3278 36 766 49 19 446 322 247 20 20 6121 838 17 0 1003 636 2046 16345 486  0 0 0 30 0 0 0 3 0 1 9 2 0 14 3 0 3 1 4 0 0 8 2 4 0 0 0 8 0 2 19 1 115 0 27 2 43 0 1 . 14 18 0 0 0 29 8 0 0 28 2 39 141 5  0 0 0 2 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 1 0 10 1 0 3 0 0 0 3 1 0 2 0 0  0 0 0 32 0 0 5 4 0 1 9 3 0 24 4 0 6 1 4 0 3 9 2 6 0 0  49 35 0 . 831 11 47 276 66 47 747 70 302 55 5719 166 280 556 43 282 12 154 57 57 413 0 0 0 807 64 168 3222 27 74797 485 3305 38 811 49 20 463 344 247 20 20 6158 851 17 0 1031 640 2086 16491 491  TOTAL DEBnACE  *42  No tabulation a v a i l a b l e - s i t e under c u l t i v a t i o n a t tuoe o f survey.  Survey number legend:  G  -  F -  grassland  stratun  f o r e s t stratum  Arabic number - quadrat nunber Romaii numeral - s i t e number S i t e type Legend:  L.S. -  l i t h i c s c a t t e r present  CD.  -  c u l t u r a l depreBsion(s) present  R.C.  -  rock c a i m ( s ) present  *0  *0  0  0 0 1 3 0 9 0 0 0 2 0 0  .  3 4 0 0 0 8 5 0 0 0  2 1 5 0  *0  0  8 0 3 22 1 124 0 27 2 45 0 1 17 22 0 0 0 37 13 0 0 28 4 40 146 5  *42  SITE TYPE L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S./CD. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S./CD. L.S. L.S. L.S. CD. L.S./CD. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S./CD. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S./R.C. CD. CD. CD. L.S. L.S. L.S./CD. L.S. L.S. L.S./CD. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S./CD. L.S. L.S. L.S./CD. L.S. L.S. CD. L.S. L.S. L.S. L.S./CD. L.S.  137 TABLE 6 SITE SURVEY SUMMARY TABULATIONS  Environmental Forest  Variable  Z o n a l area (sq km) Sampling  fraction  37.^ 0.0512  Stratum  Grassland  53.0 0.0966  12  32  S i t e frequency  9  76  S i t e d e n s i t y ( s i t e s / s q km)  4.69  14.84  No. of quadrats surveyed  8-6240  4-9404  IO63  438  S i t e s i z e standard d e v i a t i o n (sq m)  2013  1451  No. o f a r t i f a c t s / s i t e range  0-16491  0-74800  Mean no. o f a r t i f a c t s / s i t e  3470  1421  No. o f a r t i f a c t s / s i t e standard deviation  5609  8637  S i t e s i z e range Mean s i t e s i z e  (sq m)  FIGURE 21.  Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f number of s i t e s p e r quadrat: f o r e s t stratum, g r a s s l a n d stratum, and t o t a l sample.  139  s t r a t u m , 13 (40.6%) o f t h e quadrats were "empty" o f s i t e s , w h i l e i n t h e f o r e s t stratum 9 (75.0%) out o f t h e 12 quadrats surveyed were empty. With r e s p e c t t o s i t e d e n s i t y , t h e mean number o f s i t e s p e r g r a s s l a n d quadrat i s 2.37, g i v i n g a d e n s i t y o f 14.8  s i t e s / s q km.  In t h e f o r e s t stratum an average  o f 0.75  s i t e s a r e p r e s e n t p e r q u a d r a t , a d e n s i t y o f 4.7 s i t e s / s q km. Thus, t h e d e n s i t y o f s i t e s i n t h e g r a s s l a n d s a r e over 3 times as g r e a t as t h a t i n t h e f o r e s t s t r a t u m . (Conover  A Mann-Whitney U t e s t  1971:224-136) o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e g r a s s l a n d  s i t e d e n s i t y i s l a r g e r than t h a t o f t h e f o r e s t , was  signifi-  c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y  While  (p = 0.0355).  t h i s v a r i a t i o n may r e f l e c t d i f f e r i n g degrees a c t i v i t y t o some e x t e n t , t h e problem site visibility  of p r e h i s t o r i c  o f lower a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  i n t h e f o r e s t s t r a t u m must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d  i n any such c u l t u r a l  interpretation.  The mean number o f  s i t e s per quadrat a c r o s s t h e e n t i r e sample i s 1.93  (12.1/  sq km). S i t e types were d e f i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f d a t a c a t e g o r i e s e v i d e n t on t h e s i t e s u r f a c e . were d i s t i n g u i s h e d :  1) l i t h i c s c a t t e r s , 2) c u l t u r a l  i o n s , and 3) rock c a i r n s . i n d e f i n i n g s i t e types; combinations  Three main c a t e g o r i e s depress-  These a r e not m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e s p e c i f i c s i t e s can e x h i b i t v a r i o u s  o f t h e above data c a t e g o r i e s .  140  L i t h i c s c a t t e r s comprise l o c a l i z e d s u r f a c e  distri-  b u t i o n s of c h i p p e d stone t o o l s and/or l i t h i c .debris. . T h i s i s the dominant type r e c o r d e d i n both the g r a s s l a n d and forest  the  strata. C u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n s are n o n - n a t u r a l  depressions  having an o v a l , c i r c u l a r or r e c t a n g u l a r p l a n .shape and of  are  v a r y i n g depth below the s u r r o u n d i n g ground s u r f a c e .  the d e p r e s s i o n e x h i b i t s a mounded r i m .  Often  Distinct functions  are u s u a l l y i n f e r r e d f o r c u l t u r a l depressions w i t h i n various diameter pits  ranges—occupation  s t r u c t u r e s (housepits), storage  (cache p i t s ) , and p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t i e s Boulder c a i r n s have been observed  pit  i n a s s o c i a t i o n with  b u r i a l s i n the Thompson P l a t e a u area e a s t of Upper Hat  Creek V a l l e y  (see Sanger 1968a:140; Smith 1900:434).  s i n g l e rock c a i r n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l i t h i c in  (earth ovens).  the sample may  scatter  The  recorded  have a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n , however, t h i s  can be s u b s t a n t i a t e d o n l y by s u b s u r f a c e  investigations.  T a b l e 5 o n l y i n d i c a t e s the presence  or absence of  the c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n and b o u l d e r c a i r n data c a t e g o r i e s at  a site.  While t h i s  i s not c r i t i c a l  i n the case of the  s i n g l e c a i r n r e c o r d e d i n the s u r v e y , a more d e t a i l e d p e c t i v e i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the study of c u l t u r a l  pers-  depression  variability. The  frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of d e p r e s s i o n s a c r o s s  141  the t o t a l quadrat  sample i s p r e s e n t e d  in figure  22.  C u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n s were p r e s e n t i n o n l y 9 (20,50%) out of 44 q u a d r a t s .  In those quadrats  dominant t r e n d was o n l y 3 quadrats  had  having d e p r e s s i o n s , the p r e -  t o e x h i b i t o n l y one  depression feature;  2 or more d e p r e s s i o n s  present.  S i t e s i z e has been measured by s e v e r a l methods as it  i s a somewhat a r b i t r a r y v a r i a b l e ; s i t e boundaries  indistinct  and not a l l of the area w i t h i n the  are  "boundaries"  c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s .  The  s i t e a r e a v a l u e s i n d i c a t e t h a t a r e a of the s u r f a c e c o l l e c t i o n g r i d from which l i t h i c cultural  items were r e c o v e r e d and/or s u r f a c e  f e a t u r e s observed  (the "data a r e a " ) .  While the s p a t i a l e x t e n t o f c u l t u r a l  depression  f e a t u r e s i s i n c l u d e d i n s i t e s i z e c a l c u l a t i o n s , 5 (35.71%) of  the 14 s i t e s w i t h c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n s had no a s s o c i a t e d  surface a r t i f a c t s .  Thus, i n some c a s e s , s i t e s i z e i n d i c a t e s  the s p a t i a l e x t e n t o f the d e p r e s s i o n ( s ) o n l y , w h i l e i n o t h e r s it  denotes the combined t o t a l d e p r e s s i o n and  area.  T h i s masks any v a r i a t i o n which may  sample.  lithic  be p r e s e n t i n the  A more d e t a i l e d p e r s p e c t i v e i s p r o v i d e d by  a t t r i b u t e s t h a t measure the s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e o f d e p r e s s i o n and may features.  i n t a b l e 7.  five  the  p r o v i d e i n f e r e n c e s on the use o f  These are p r e s e n t e d  scatter  the  F i g u r e 23  i n d i c a t e s t h a t a bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n of mean r i m c r e s t rim  c r e s t diameters  (see f i g u r e 24)  i s p r e s e n t among the  -  NUMBER  FIGURE 2 2 .  OF  CULTURAL  DEPRESSIONS  PER  QUADRAT  Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of number of c u l t u r a l depressions p e r quadrat: t o t a l sample.  143  TABLE 7 CULTURAL, DEPRESSION SURFACE ATTRIBUTES  Quadrat Feature Number  Mean ' Rim-Rim Diameter (m)  1 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10 11 12 13  6.50 4.00 1.50 2.50 2.00 5.20 4.75 4.00 6.00 5.45 5.40 2.00 6.15 6.70 4.00 4.35 5.15  14  3.80  G 28  15 16 17  G 28  18  G 28  19 1 1 1  2.20 2.70 1.10 5.00 2.60 5.55 2.25 5.75  6 G 17  G  G 18 G 18 G 18 G 21 G 23 G 23 G 23 G 28 G 28 G 28 G 28 G G G G G G G G G G  28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28  8 F 11 F 12 F  NOTE:  5.40  6.90 3.60  Maximum Depth (m)  0.12 0.13 0.07 0.09 0.07 0.36 0.20 0.22 0.26 0.34 0.31 0.08  0.49 0.33 0.20 0.51 0.40 0.46  0.73 0.11 0.12 0.21 0.19 0.08  0.09 0.07 0.29 0.25 0.35  Surface Rim Surface F i r e Lipping Matrix Cracked Rock Stain  -  +  +  + +  -  +  +  -  + +  + +  + +  -  -  +  +  + +  + + + +  + + +  -  -  + +  + +  -  + +  -  -  + + + +  +  +  -  -  + +  + +  -  -  +  -  +  -  +  + +  -  +  + = attribute present, - = attribute absent  + + + +  -  + + + +  -  +  -  +  FIGURE 23.  Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n mean r i m - t o - r i m diameters: t o t a l sample.  PLAN  VIEW  L= r=  RIM CREST TO RIM CREST DIAMETER  CROSS-SECTION  FIGURE 2k.  Schematic diagram o f c u l t u r a l  depression.  146  c u l t u r a l depressions.  Modes o c c u r a t the 2.00-2.99 m  5.00-5.99 m i n t e r v a l s . v a l u e s i s 4.22 The  and  average o f the mean  w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n  frequency  each stratum 25.  m,  The  distributions  the e n t i r e  Site size exhibits  In the f o r e s t  sq m w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n sites exhibit  9,404 sq m..  m.  in  a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f  r  stratum  o f 1.69  of t o t a l s i t e s i z e f o r  s i t e s range i n s i z e from 8 t o 6 240 sq m; 1,062  diameter  sample a r e p r e s e n t e d  both w i t h i n and between s t r a t a .  and  figure  variation  stratum,  mean s i t e s i z e i s  of 2,014.  Grassland  an even g r e a t e r s i z e range, from 4 t o  Mean s i t e s i z e i n the g r a s s l a n d stratum  sq m w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n  of 1,452.  i s 433  However, when  s u b j e c t e d t o a Mann-Whitney U t e s t , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ences were noted between the s i t e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s two  strata  (p = 0.076).  s i z e frequency  C l o s e examination  distributions  indicates  from  of a l l t h r e e s i t e  a common t r e n d :  or more o f the s i t e s i n each sample a r e l e s s than 100 in areal  extent.  smaller-sized 1,000  sq  There e x i s t s  50% sq m  a d e f i n i t e tendency towards  s i t e s ; o n l y 7 (8.2%) s i t e s a r e i n excess  of  m. S i t e assemblages a l s o d i s p l a y  quantities  of a r t i f a c t s .  i n the f o r e s t  stratum  t r e n d s o t h e r than t h a t  The  the  a t r e n d towards  low number of s i t e s  low  recorded  p r e c l u d e s any r e l i a b l e statement  on  a wide range of v a l u e s i s p r e s e n t .  147  FIGURE 25.  Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s i t e s i z e : f o r e s t stratum, g r a s s l a n d stratum, and t o t a l sample.  148  I n t h e g r a s s l a n d s t r a t u m , 28 (41.2%) o f t h e 75 a s s e m b l a g e s c o n t a i n l e s s than  50 a r t i f a c t s  (i.e.lithic  d e b i t a g e ) , w h i l e o n l y 11 (13.1%) h a v e 1,000 While  the examination  t o o l s and items o r more.  o f s i t e a r e a and a s s e m b l a g e  s i z e s p r o v i d e s some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e a n d e x t e n t o f site utilization,  a more u s e f u l m e a s u r e i s t h e d e n s i t y o f  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s d e p o s i t e d as byproducts activities. items  Lithic  debitage constitutes  of the  t h e major c l a s s o f  i n t h e assemblages o f a l l s i t e s w i t h s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s .  I f d e b i t a g e d e n s i t y c a n be c o n s i d e r e d an i n d e x o f t h e n a t u r e and  extent of s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n , considerable variation i n  site activity  i s r e f l e c t e d by t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f s i t e  debitage densities..  Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s  f o rsite  d e b i t a g e d e n s i t i e s i n each s t r a t u m and t h e t o t a l are presented  i n f i g u r e 26.  s i t e d e b i t a g e d e n s i t y i s 4.20 d e v i a t i o n o f 4.95. 16.75.,  quadrat  i t e m s / s q m, w i t h a s t a n d a r d  T h e r a n g e o f d e n s i t y v a l u e s i s 0.00 t o  s q m; t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n i s 3.73.  i s 2.90/  The r a n g e o f d e n s i t y  to that f o rthe forest stratum.  Although  the average debitage d e n s i t y i n f o r e s t stratum s i t e s and  a half  sample  I n t h e f o r e s t s t r a t u m , t h e mean  T h e mean v a l u e f o r g r a s s l a n d s t r a t u m s i t e s  values i s similar  total  times g r e a t e r than t h a t observed  sample, a Mann-Whitney U t e s t  indicates  not s i g n i f i c a n t  The f r e q u e n c y  ,(p = 0,069),  g r a p h i c a l l y i n d i c a t e a tendency  i s one  i n the grassland  this difference i s distributions  towards low d e n s i t y v a l u e s :  149 FOREST  STRATUM  50-i  GRASSLAND  STRATUM  o o  TOTAL  SAMPLE  a)  DTBITAGE  FIGURE 26.  DENSITY  (ITEMS/SO.  M.)  Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of debitage d e n s i t i e s : f o r e s t stratum, g r a s s l a n d stratum, and t o t a l sample.  150  the p r o p o r t i o n s o f s i t e s w i t h d e n s i t i e s l e s s than  2.25  i t e m s / s q m a r e 44.4%, 62.2%, and 60.2% f o r the f o r e s t s t r a t u m , g r a s s l a n d s t r a t u m , and t o t a l quadrat  sample  respectively. At t h e p r e s e n t l e v e l o f r e s e a r c h , e s t i m a t e s o f a n t i q u i t y a r e based The  p r i m a r i l y on a r t i f a c t c r o s s - d a t i n g .  s i t e tabulations i n table 5 reveal  s o l e a r t i f a c t c l a s s a t many s i t e s .  that debitage i s the  In o t h e r c a s e s , the t o o l s  i n the assemblages were types which had an undetermined chronological significance. artifact  Only those s i t e s c o n t a i n i n g  types i d e n t i f i e d as c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y - d i a g n o s t i c i n  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e for antiquity estimates.  (see c h a p t e r IV) were c o n s i d e r e d  T a b l e 8 p r e s e n t s the e s t i m a t e d  a n t i q u i t y f o r these s i t e s by the c u l t u r a l p e r i o d s d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r IV. regarded  A t o t a l o f 56 s u r f a c e assemblages were  as u n r e l i a b l e f o r c r o s s - d a t i n g and were a s s i g n e d  an undetermined  antiquity.  151 TABLE 8 ESTIMATED ANTIQUITY OF  SITES  Environmental Cultural Period  The  Forest  Stratum Grassland  Old C o r d i l l e r a n  0  0  E a r l y Nesikep  3  16  L a t e Nesikep  1  3  E a r l y and  2  4  Undetermined  3  53  Total  9  76  Late Nesikep  above a n t i q u i t y e s t i m a t e s are t e n t a t i v e .  regarded  They are b e s t  as hypotheses t h a t s h o u l d be s u b j e c t t o i n t e n s i v e  t e s t i n g , p r e f e r a b l y by p h y s i c a l - c h e m i c a l d a t i n g methods a t f u t u r e s t a g e s of r e s e a r c h . Upon the c o m p l e t i o n  o f the s u r v e y , an  program f o c u s i n g on c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n s was initiated.  I t was  designed  and  e v i d e n t from the survey r e s u l t s t h a t the  s u r f a c e v a r i a t i o n e x h i b i t e d by the c u l t u r a l sample was  excavation  depression  d i f f e r e n t from t h a t p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d f o r the  general r e g i o n .  Thus, t e s t e x c a v a t i o n s  to determine sub-  s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e were c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y p r e t a t i o n s of u t i l i z a t i o n .  t o enable  inter-  Research i n areas a d j a c e n t  to  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y have i n f e r r e d the f u n c t i o n s of c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n s on the b a s i s o f s u r f a c e r i m - t o - r i m diameters rim  ( S t r y d and H i l l s 1972:193-195),  diameter  The mean r i m - t o .  o f the Upper Hat Creek sample i s 4,2  m,  a  152  v a l u e above t h a t u s u a l l y d e f i n e d f o r s t o r a g e cache  pits  but below t h a t assigned to h a b i t a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s .  Therefore,  s u r f a c e measurements a l o n e were i n s u f f i c i e n t r e l i a b l e i n f e r e n c e s on The  " l a r g e " and rim  done by  " s m a l l " d e p r e s s i o n s on  value f o r the e n t i r e group. that depressions  w o u l d be was  investigated.  fell  o f t h e 1976  and  field  above o r below the  The  l e a s t an  of the  depth  by  of  t h e 1976  investigations.  deposits.  although t h i s  data.  depressions  "large" cultural  due  The to a  was  depress-  towards  original combination time  restrict-  obtained did provide  The  r e m a i n i n g work  f u r t h e r c o n t r a c t r e s e a r c h i n 1977  Beirne n.d.),  distribution  p e r s p e c t i v e of the subsurface s t r u c t u r e  of the c u l t u r a l  completed  procedure  E e R j 71 w e r e i n i t i a t e d  subsurface data which  initial  median  investigation.  g e n e r a l l y m i s e r a b l e w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s and  ions.  each  each s i z e stratum, p r o v i d i n g a  e x c a v a t i o n d e s i g n s were not completed of  into  the b a s i s of whether  A sample o f 3 c u l t u r a l  E x c a v a t i o n s a t two  t h e end  sample  from b o t h ends o f the  t a r g e t sample of 6 f o r s u b s u r f a c e  E e R j 46  for  This s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  then randomly drawn from  ions at s i t e s  depressions  s u b d i v i d i n g the t o t a l  base t o r i m base diameter  ensured  any  use.  s e l e c t i o n of s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l  e x c a v a t i o n was  to permit  d i d not a l t e r  the  This research also carried  at and  was  (Pokotylo  and  interpretations out  excavations  153  at  the t h i r d  " l a r g e " c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n sampled, l o c a t e d  at  EeRj 55.  The  1977  study a l s o excavated  an  c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n l o c a t e d a t s i t e EeRj 101,  ;  additional situated i n  the Harry Lake a r e a t o the n o r t h e a s t o f the 1976 The for  r e s u l t s of these e x c a v a t i o n s  frame.  suggest  a function  the c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n s u n r e l a t e d to o c c u p a t i o n  or  s t o r a g e u&age.. -^.This i s based on t h r e e main o b s e r v a t i o n s : 1) a c u l t u r a l m a t r i x y i e l d i n g a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of i z e d remains and burned s o i l ,  2) the presence  carbon-  of large  q u a n t i t i e s o f h e a t - f r a c t u r e d rock i n dense c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and  i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the c a r b o n i z e d remains, and  minimal s i z e s of the excavated  lithic  artifact  Such data i s d i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t r e p o r t e d from of  c u l t u r a l depressions  3)  assemblages. excavations  i n the F r a s e r R i v e r V a l l e y and  elsewhere i n the southern  interior.  M a t r i x e s c o n t a i n i n g c h a r c o a l as w e l l as rock c e n t r a t i o n s are noted tions  (Sanger  con-  i n the l i t e r a t u r e on h o u s e p i t  1970:20, 27-28, 35) but from the  excava-  available  d e s c r i p t i o n s they do not come c l o s e to approaching p o r t i o n s observed  the  the  i n the Upper Hat Creek d e p r e s s i o n s .  proThe  only published d e s c r i p t i o n s of a c u l t u r a l feature that approximates the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of the Hat Creek (but who  on a c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced notes  data  s c a l e ) i s by S t r y d (1972:23)  "a s m a l l bowl-shaped d e p r e s s i o n 26 cm  in  diameter  154  and 15 cm deep, l i n e d w i t h f i r e c r a c k e d pebbles and c h a r c o a l " situated i n a pithouse l i v i n g  floor.  f e r r e d t o be a "baking p i t " ( S t r y d The  This feature i s i n -  1972:23).  above d i s c u s s i o n i n d i c a t e s the problems i n v o l v e d  i n t r y i n g t o i n t e r p r e t the Hat Creek data by  comparative  a n a l y s i s t o f e a t u r e d e s c r i p t i o n s i n the e x t a n t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l literature.  An a l t e r n a t i v e method of i n f e r r i n g the nature  of c u l t u r a l depression u t i l i z a t i o n  i s by e t h n o g r a p h i c  analogy.  E t h n o g r a p h i c accounts of p l a n t s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e p r o c e s s i n g permit the d e d u c t i o n of the m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e l i k e l y p r e s e n t a t s i t e s of these a c t i v i t i e s .  t o be  D e s c r i p t i o n s of  e t h n o g r a p h i c b e h a v i o r and t e c h n o l o g y i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s i n g o f p l a n t r e s o u r c e s a r e o u t l i n e d i n the  following  o b s e r v a t i o n s on the Thompson and Shuswap I n d i a n s : A c i r c u l a r h o l e i s dug i n the ground t o a depth of two f e e t and a h a l f , and l a r g e enough i n diameter t o c o n t a i n the r o o t s t o be cooked. I n t o t h i s h o l e are put f o u r or f i v e f l a t s t o n e s — o n e i n the c e n t e r and o t h e r s around the s i d e s . Above these i s p l a c e d a l a r g e heap o f dry f i r - w o o d , on which i s p l a c e d a s m a l l q u a n t i t y o f s m a l l s t o n e s . The wood i s then k i n d l e d , and allowed t o burn u n t i l n o t h i n g but the embers remain, when the s m a l l stones drop down t o the bottom o f the h o l e . The unburnt wood i s next taken o u t , l e a v i n g n o t h i n g but the ashes and s t o n e s . Enough damp e a r t h i s then s h o v e l l e d i n t o c o v e r t h i n l y the top o f the s t o n e s , and t h i s i s o v e r s p r e a d t o the depth of h a l f a f o o t o r more w i t h the branches o f bushes, such as the s e r v i c e b e r r y , maple, a l d e r , ... etc. Next f o l l o w s a l a y e r o f broken f i r - w o o d branches, over which i s spread a l a y e r of dry y e l l o w p i n e n e e d l e s , and s t i l l another l a y e r of f i r branche s . By t h i s time the h o l e i s n e a r l y f i l l e d up. The r o o t s are then p l a c e d on t o p , and covered c a r e f u l l y w i t h a t h i c k l a y e r of f i r branches. The whole i s c o v e r e d w i t h e a r t h , and a l a r g e f i r e of f i r - w o o d  155  i s k i n d l e d on t o p . In t h i s way, immense q u a n t i t i e s o f r o o t s are cooked a t one t i m e . ( T e i t 1900:236) ..... . ... a spot i s f i r s t c l e a r e d and a f i r e b u i l t on it. When the s u r r o u n d i n g s o i l has become s u f f i c i e n t l y h e a t e d , the r o o t s , enveloped i n mats or g r a s s herbage, are l a i d upon the bed o f f i r e , and the whole i s covered up by p i l i n g t o g e t h e r the e a r t h from a l l s i d e s upon the mass of r o o t s . A f t e r a l a p s e o f s u f f i c i e n t time the r o o t s are dug out i n a baked or steamed c o n d i t i o n , and e i t h e r a t once eaten or d r i e d up f o r f u t u r e use. Such r o o t - b a k i n g p l a c e s are u s u a l l y i n the v i c i n i t y o f r o o t - g a t h e r i n g grounds, and a f t e r some y e a r s appear as low cones from f i f t e e n t o twenty f e e t i n d i a m e t e r , w i t h m i n i a t u r e c r a t e r s i n the m i d d l e . (Dawson 1891:9) A r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y - o b s e r v a b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s can deduced from the above d e s c r i p t i o n s . r e s o u r c e p r o c e s s i n g was p r a c t i c e s , one may  If prehistoric plant  s i m i l a r to h i s t o r i c a l l y - o b s e r v e d  expect  the f o l l o w i n g t o be p r e s e n t a t  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s where such t a s k s were 1. A s u b s u r f a c e p i t f e a t u r e having  conducted:  a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of  c a r b o n i z e d m a t e r i a l and v a r i e d s i z e s o f f r a c t u r e d rock i n the 2. The  presence  heat-  matrix,  of carbonized f l o r a l  r e s o u r c e s i n the  be  s u b s i s t e n c e food  matrix.  3. A rock l i n i n g a t the bottom of the s u b s u r f a c e p i t . 4. A p i t depth of about 2% f t (0.76 meter of v a r y i n g  m)  and  a pit dia-  dimensions.  5. A s u r f a c e d i s t u r b a n c e area c o n s t i t u t i n g r e d e p o s i t e d burnt s o i l ft  (6.10  t o an approximate maximum diameter m).  of  20  156  6.  The p r o x i m i t y o f t h e f e a t u r e t o v e g e t a t i o n communities  having a high density of f l o r a l  subsistence  resources a v a i l a b l e at the time the s t r u c t u r e  was  used. While  t h e d a t a from  t h e Hat Creek c u l t u r a l  depress-  ions are s i m i l a r t o these expectations, s i g n i f i c a n t  differ-  ences from  Relative  to  t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n were o b s e r v e d .  ethnographically-described baking p i t s ,  the dimensions  of  t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s a r e much g r e a t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o s u r f a c e d i s t u r b a n c e a r e a and p i t d e p t h . in  a l l b u t one c a s e  (EeRj  the base o f the p i t . rock are observed  },101),,  a r o c k pavement does n o t l i n e  Rather, concentrations of fire-cracked  as l a y e r s w i t h i n  r o c k , c a r b o n , and d a r k  Also.,  soil.  the matrix of fire-cracked  T h e s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s may  evidence of repeated u t i l i z a t i o n  o f t h e s t r u c t u r e , an  be act-  ivity  not reported i n the ethnographies.  Faunal remains  were  found  i n some o f t h e d e p o s i t s , i n d i c a t i n g  t h a t more t h a n  just  p l a n t r e s o u r c e s were b e i n g  processed.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s do n o t n e g a t e t h e general analogy toric  t h a t t h e s e f e a t u r e s do r e p r e s e n t  "earth-ovens" or "baking p i t s " ,  r a t h e r than  prehis-  having a processing  storage or habitation use.  They d i f f e r  from the  ethnographic descriptions mainly i n the i n t e n s i t y of use, p r o b a b l y p r o c e s s i n g a much l a r g e r amount o f s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e s , b o t h p l a n t and a n i m a l , a n d i n t h e i r  likelihood  1  of being re-used. t h i s analogy  P r e s e n t l y , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o extend  t o the e n t i r e sample without more e x t e n s i v e  subsurface i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , although s i m i l a r i t i e s form and l o c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n i n g suggest  i n surface  the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t  future investigations w i l l result i n similar  interpretations  The p r e v a l e n c e o f c a r b o n i z e d f l o r a l remains i n the e x c a v a t i o n s p e r m i t t e d the r e c o v e r y o f a s u b s t a n t i a l o f samples s u i t a b l e f o r r a d i o c a r b o n d a t i n g . each s i t e was submitted Radiocarbon  number  One. sample  from  t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan  Dating L a b o r a t o r y f o r a b s o l u t e age d e t e r m i n a t i o n  The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d  i n t a b l e 9.  the range o f t h e Lake Nesikep  A l l dates f a l l w i t h i n  c u l t u r a l p e r i o d (see c h a p t e r  IV) . TABLE 9 RADIOCARBON DATES FOR EXCAVATED CULTURAL  DEPRESSIONS.  Site  Radiocarbon Date  Reference  EeRj 71  2120.65 B.P,  S-.1453  EeRj 46  1550 60 B , P „  S-1454  EeRj 55  1220  B...P...  S-1455  EeRj 101  2090 65 B.P.  S-1456  70  No.  In summary, t h e above d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f the survey and e x c a v a t i o n data suggests  t h a t Upper Hat Creek  158  V a l l e y was p r o b a b l y  subject to a dispersed,  seasonal  p a t t e r n . . More i n t e n s e , but l i k e l y  settlement  seasonal, occupation  may  have o c c u r r e d  limited-span,  at s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s  w i t h i n the v a l l e y , r e f l e c t e d by l a r g e r s i t e s w i t h d e n s i t i e s of d e b r i s .  The p r e s e n t  o n l y , the main o b j e c t i v e b e i n g  analysis i s exploratory  the d i s c o v e r y o f p a t t e r n s and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t can p r o v i d e some o r g a n i z i n g f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on l i t h i c  high  technology.  principles  159  'CHAPTER VI • ^HE LITHIC TECHNOLOGY The a n a l y t i c a l  importance  SUBSYSTEM o f the e n e r g y - e x t r a c t i n g  a s p e c t o f t e c h n o l o g y i n the study o f c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n has been d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r I I .  In a g e n e r a l  sense,  t e c h n o l o g y can be d e f i n e d as "those t o o l s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a r t i c u l a t e t h e [human] organism p h y s i c a l environment"  ( B i n f o r d 1962:218).  w i t h the  In.the c o n t e x t o f  t h i s s t u d y , stone i s t h e o n l y element c l a s s from the range o f p o t e n t i a l m a t e r i a l remains  r e s u l t i n g from such b e h a v i o r  t h a t has s u r v i v e d i n t h e s u r f a c e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . L i t h i c t e c h n o l o g y i n c l u d e s a l l those p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n and use o f stone t o o l s .  As an  i n t e g r a l a s p e c t o f the l a r g e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l system,  one may  t h e r e f o r e expect l i t h i c  technological v a r i a b i l i t y  to r e f l e c t  s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p r a c t i c e s o f human groups.  I f one  assumes t h a t s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s a r e p r i m a r i l y determined by the s u b s i s t e n c e s t r a t e g y - r e l a t e d t o procurement o f food and other environmental  r e s o u r c e s (Jochim 1976:47-63), i t f o l l o w s  t h a t p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n the manufacture o f t o o l s employed i n a c t i v i t i e s conducted Lithic  at s i t e s are s i m i l a r l y conditioned.  t e c h n o l o g y p o t e n t i a l l y has both a d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t  16o r o l e i n s u b s i s t e n c e procurement s t r a t e g i e s . sense, stone ion  t o o l s may  of s p e c i f i c  be produced f o r use  food r e s o u r c e s  w e l l as t h e i r p r o c e s s i n g tools-)'.  In the  i n the e x t r a c t -  (e.g. p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s ) as  ( e . g . meat k n i v e s , p l a n t  L i t h i c t o o l s are a l s o necessary  and maintenance o f t o o l s and  direct  facilities  shredding  i n the manufacture of o t h e r  artifact  i n d u s t r i e s , such as bone and wood, a l s o r e q u i r e d by s u b s i s tence t a s k s  ( B i n f o r d and  they o p e r a t e  indirectly  B i n f o r d 1969:71).,  In t h i s  i n the a c t u a l s u b s i s t e n c e s t r a t e g y .  T h e r e f o r e , remains o f l i t h i c  technology  can p o t e n t i a l l y  used t o determine and measure s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e ment s t r a t e g i e s i n which stone actual  context,  be  procure-  t o o l s were not r e q u i r e d i n the  tasks. Although  the l i t h i c  the primary  technology  determinant  of the s t r u c t u r e of  subsystem i s assumed t o be the s u b s i s -  tence procurement s t r a t e g y t h a t d i c t a t e s c e r t a i n t o o l r e q u i r e m e n t s , the s p e c i f i c form of the technology i n f l u e n c e d c o n s i d e r a b l y by in  t h i s c a s e , raw  of  lithic  lithic  and  " o t h e r " environmental  m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e f o r the  n o n - l i t h i c t o o l s and  technology  subsystem may  put system i n which raw  1970).  Schiffer  resources,  production  facilities.  Thus, the  b e s t be viewed as  m a t e r i a l i s e x t r a c t e d from  p h y s i c a l environment, p r o c e s s e d , form t o the environment^  i s also  1  and  "a  through-  the  returned i n modified  ( C o l l i n s 1974:130;  (1.972:158; 1976:46-47) has  a l s o see S p i e r presented  a  linear  161  s e r i e s o f b a s i c p r o c e s s e s i n which d u r a b l e elements, such as l i t h i c involved;  t e c h n o l o g i c a l remains, may  have been  potentially  1) procurement, 2) manufacture, 3) use, 4) main-  tenance, and 5) d i s c a r d . :  I t s h o u l d be emphasized  t h a t these  p r o c e s s e s a r e o b s e r v a b l e i n the s y s t e m i c c o n t e x t (see chapter I I ) ;  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d w i l l o n l y  reflect  m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e outputs t h a t may  r e s u l t from t h e i r o p e r a -  tion.  t e c h n o l o g y subsystem,  With r e s p e c t t o the l i t h i c  t h r e e b a s i c c l a s s e s o f elements p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e p r o cesses:  1) f a b r i c a t o r s used i n stone t o o l manufacture  maintenance;  2) d i s c a r d e d l i t h i c waste  and  ( d e b i t a g e ) produced  d u r i n g stone t o o l manufacture, use, and maintenance, and 3.) " f i n i s h e d " stone t o o l s j t h a t i s , the end p r o d u c t s o f manuf a c t u r e produced t o meet the t o o l use needs o f a c t i v i t i e s ( C o l l i n s 1974:3;  C r a b t r e e 1972:1-17).  The manner i n which  these elements p a r t i c i p a t e i n the o p e r a t i o n o f a c u l t u r a l system i s d i s c u s s e d  below.  L i t h i c t e c h n o l o g y i s a s u b t r a c t i v e p r o c e s s (Deetz 1967:48);  implements  a r e manufactured and m a i n t a i n e d by the  removal o f mass from a p i e c e o f s t o n e .  In an extreme  sense,  each f l a k e removal from the l i t h i c m a t e r i a l , from the i n i t i a l lump o f m a t e r i a l t o the r e s h a r p e n i n g o f a t o o l , can be cons i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t a s t a g e i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s (Muto 1971a, 1971b).  While such a continuum  i n the r e d u c t i v e  p r o c e s s has been r e c o g n i z e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e f o r some time  162  (see  Holmes 1890,  e x p l i c i t attempts of  1894), o n l y r e c e n t l y have t h e r e been t o p a r t i t i o n t h i s continuum i n t o a s e r i e s  a n a l y t i c a l u n i t s t h a t encompass the fundamental  unavoidable steps of producing t o o l s F i s h 1976; 1976;  Katz 1976;  S h a f e r 1973;  and  ( C o l l i n s 1974,  1975;  Knudson 1973.; Newcomer 1971;  Sheets  1975).  Phagan  The main c o n t r i b u t i o n o f  these s t u d i e s i s h e u r i s t i c r a t h e r than p r a c t i c a l . they propose  a p o t e n t i a l r o u t e t o a.more complete  s t a n d i n g o f the b e h a v i o r r e f l e c t e d i n l i t h i c v a r i a b i l i t y , the e m p i r i c a l c r i t e r i a measuring  While under-  assemblage  for identifying  such s t e p s a r e o f t e n i n c o n s i s t e n t and  and  ambiguous.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the c o n c e p t u a l scheme has major i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , and these a r e d i s c u s s e d below. Given t h e i r s u b t r a c t i v e n a t u r e , a t t r i b u t e s o f  lithic  t e c h n o l o g y a r e e v i d e n t on both the f l a k e d a r t i f a c t and debitage r e s u l t i n g reduced  from i t s r e d u c t i o n .  n a t u r e , the f i n i s h e d a r t i f a c t  the  Because o f i t s  forming the  product o f the t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s may  end  not p h y s i c a l l y v i *  m a n i f e s t a l l the s u b t r a c t i v e s t e p s o f manufacture.  Neverthe«  l e s s , the d e b i t a g e r e s u l t i n g s h o u l d i n d i c a t e the e n t i r e production process.  I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o make a b a s i c  d i s t i n c t i o n between the t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f t o o l manufacture and t o o l maintenance.  The  those p r o c e s s e s n e c e s s a r y t o produce  former  i s d e f i n e d as  a culturally  usable  163  a r t i f a c t , w h i l e the l a t t e r c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s those  processes  t h a t a l t e r a worn or broken a r t i f a c t t o permit i t s c o n t i n u e d utilization.  In e i t h e r s i t u a t i o n , d e b i t a g e r e f l e c t i n g  s p e c i f i c reductive step(s) w i l l r e s u l t . t e x t o f r e f l e c t i n g the m a n u f a c t u r i n g , tenance  processes that l i t h i c  much a n a l y t i c a l importance s t r u c t i o n o f the l i t h i c has  It i s in this  d e b i t a g e assumes a t l e a s t  as stone t o o l s i n any  t e c h n o l o g i c a l subsystem.  p r o d u c t i o n and maintenance a c t i v i t i e s ,  lithic  as  reconThis also  utilization  As i t c o n s t i t u t e s an immediate byproduct  of  tool  debitage i s  assumed t o be s u b j e c t t o much s i m p l e r d e p o s i t i o n a l than .those:. as s oc i a ted  con-  u t i l i z a t i o n , and main-  implications f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i n g settlement  practices.  the  processes  w i t h stone, .t oo 1 s . . -There f o r e , d e b i t a g e .  s h o u l d be a more r e l i a b l e s p a t i a l i n d i c a t o r o f a p o t e n t i a l l y wide range o f ongoing  site  activities.  A d d i t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s become e v i d e n t a t the s i t e l e v e l of observation.  One  t i o n o f the r e g i o n a l approach,  can extend  inter-  the b a s i c assump-  t h a t the e n t i r e range o f  c u l t u r a l b e h a v i o r ' i s u n l i k e l y t o be conducted  a t any  one  l o c a t i o n , t o the l i t h i c  In the  con-  technology  t e x t of t h i s study, concern  subsystem.  i s w i t h the d i s p e r s a l  or  a g g r e g a t i o n of l i t h i c r e d u c t i o n s t e p s a t d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y .  The  specific  r e d u c t i o n s t r a t e g y employed i n the p r o d u c t i o n of t o o l s and  site  utilizable  the s p a t i a l p a r t i t i o n i n g of t h i s s t r a t e g y over  the  landscape may  be a f f e c t e d by more v a r i a b l e s than j u s t  concerned w i t h B i n f o r d and  t o o l - s p e c i f i c needs a t v a r i o u s  B i n f o r d (1966:264) p r e s e n t  d i t i o n s t h a t may  d i s p o s i t i o n o f raw  i n any  region:  of l i t h i c  of t o o l use,  and  t r a n s p o r t i n g manufacturing products manufacture to l o c a t i o n s of  tech-  1) the l o c a t i o n and  m a t e r i a l s , 2) the l o c a t i o n and  d i s t r i b u t i o n of l o c i  One  settlements.  t h r e e p o s s i b l e con-  r e g u l a t e the s e g r e g a t i o n  nological a c t i v i t i e s  those  spatial  3) the n e c e s s i t y of  from l o c a t i o n s of  use.  can assume the o p e r a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e  of  l e a s t c o s t i n such a s i t u a t i o n , s e l e c t i n g a t e c h n o l o g i c a l s t r a t e g y t h a t minimizes the time and involved i n obtaining l i t h i c  raw  energy  expenditure  m a t e r i a l s and  fabricating  them i n t o u t i l i z a b l e t o o l s f o r t a s k s a t hand at v a r i o u s settlement two  locations.  T h i s s t r a t e g y c o u l d be m a n i f e s t  in  main ways: 1. L o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s t o minimize movement e f f o r t decreasing source  the d i s t a n c e from the s e t t l e m e n t  of l i t h i c  raw  the weight of l i t h i c  material resources. raw  m a t e r i a l s as a  determinant r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r i s admittedly  difficult  13-14) notes t h a t  raw  However, locational  Munday (1976:  m a t e r i a l s are a  p o t e n t i a l l y r e - u s a b l e r e s o u r c e , whereas o t h e r ical  resources,  the  l i f e s u p p o r t resources  to a s c e r t a i n .  lithic  to  by-  such as food and  crit-  water, a r e more  165  difficult that  to r e c y c l e .  On t h i s b a s i s , he  suggests  " s i t e s w i l l be found c l o s e r t o f o o d , water,  f u e l than f l i n t , a l t h o u g h where o t h e r needs can met  a t a f l i n t s o u r c e , s i t e s should be  and be  located  t h e r e " (Munday 1976:14). 2. S e l e c t i o n of r e d u c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s t o conserve  lithic  raw m a t e r i a l s and thus lower the amount o f time involved i n their a c q u i s i t i o n . accomplished  through c a r e f u l r e d u c t i o n of c o r e s  d u r i n g manufacture produced,  T h i s c o u l d be  to minimize :  the amount of d e b i t a g e  and/or maintenance or m o d i f i c a t i o n of worn-  out t o o l s t o extend t h e i r e f f e c t i v e Thus, l i t h i c continuum  use-life.  assemblage v a r i a t i o n can be i n t e r p r e t e d a l o n g a  of primary d e t e r m i n a n t s , a t one extreme c o n s t i t u t i n g  the t o o l needs of a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y l o c a t i o n and a t the o t h e r end, the d i f f e r e n t i a l a c c e s s t o stone s o u r c e s .  The  g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l amount of time and energy e x p e n d i t u r e i n the e n t i r e l i t h i c the procurement 1978). of  technology process i s l i k e l y to occur i n  and t r a n s p o r t o f stone m a t e r i a l s (Gould 1-974*-'  T h e r e f o r e , one might be a b l e t o i n f e r some f e a t u r e s  the p r o c e s s e s of stone toolmaking i n a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n  from an examination of the k i n d and d i s t r i b u t i o n of u s a b l e stone s o u r c e s i n the a r e a . The p r e s e n t knowledge on: - the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f  166  the l i t h i c  resource  base i n Upper Hat Creek  been d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r I I I . summarized below.  V a l l e y has  The s a l i e n t p o i n t s a r e  Usable stone r e s o u r c e s i n the v a l l e y  s o l e l y as r e d e p o s i t e d m a t e r i a l s i n widespread deposits.  drift  On t h e b a s i s o f survey o b s e r v a t i o n s , c h e r t and  b a s a l t nodules  o f v a r y i n g s i z e s have a d i s p e r s e d , but  g e n e r a l l y homogenous, s u r f a c e d i s t r i b u t i o n The  glacial  occur  above s i t u a t i o n i s analogous  p l a i n s " d e s c r i b e d by Gould Desert of A u s t r a l i a .  i n these d e p o s i t s .  t o the " g i b b e r  (1974, 1978) f o r t h e Western  Gould has conducted  e x t e n s i v e ethno-  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h on t h e a b o r i g i n a l stone t o o l makingp r o c e s s e s o f t h i s r e g i o n (Gould 1974, 1978; Gould e t a l . 1971), the r e s u l t s o f which a r e c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g some i n s i g h t on t h e expected n a t u r e o f p r e h i s t o r i c l i t h i c nology i n Upper Hat Creek  Valley.  tech-  The main e f f e c t o f such  a non-r-localized s u r f a c e o c c u r r e n c e o f u s a b l e stone on the lithic  t e c h n o l o g y subsystem  i s the ease w i t h which these raw  m a t e r i a l s c o u l d be p r o c u r e d i n the immediate v i c i n i t y o f subsistence a c t i v i t y necessity of s p e c i f i c  locations.  T h i s i n t u r n minimizes t h e  stone procurement t r i p s and l o n g -  d i s t a n c e t r a n s p o r t o f stone m a t e r i a l s i n whatever form to, s i t e s o f t o o l need f o r a l l l i t h i c  types except those w i t h  h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s and/or which a r e not as r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e over t h e l a n d s c a p e .  In such a c a s e ,  r e s o u r c e s can be c o n s i d e r e d t o exert- a minimal  lithic  " p u l l " on  167  determining settlement l o c a t i o n . lithic  One  may  a l s o assume t h a t  assemblage v a r i a t i o n i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the  s u b s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s conducted d e p o s i t i o n and  a t the s i t e s of  their  the a s s o c i a t e d span of o c c u p a t i o n .  ease o f procurement would a l s o lower the s t r e s s on e f f i c i e n t processing of stone.  Gould  Increased the  (1978:282-284) r e c o r d s  g e n e r a l l y expedient p r o c e s s e s o f manufacture, use, and c a r d at both temporary and  dis-  longer-term settlements with  l o c a l l y - a v a i l a b l e stone s o u r c e s .  The  above o b s e r v a t i o n s do  not, however, a_ p r i o r i r u l e out the o p e r a t i o n o f c u r a t i o n . S p e c i a l l y - s h a p e d t o o l s r e q u i r i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e manufacturing e f f o r t and  p o s s i b l y raw m a t e r i a l s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r  physical  p r o p e r t i e s which are not as w i d e l y o b t a i n a b l e as o t h e r would be p o t e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e s f o r c u r a t i o n i n such On the b a s i s o f the above d i s c u s s i o n , t h i s  types  situations. study  a n a l y t i c a l l y t r e a t s the p r o c e s s of stone procurement as a c o n s t a n t w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s r o l e as a source of assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y .  lithic  I t i s also evident that a l l d e b i t -  age can be c o n s i d e r e d as primary r e f u s e .  Thus, the d i s c a r d  p r o c e s s can be h e l d c o n s t a n t f o r t h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s  also*  The  be  above o b s e r v a t i o n s - suggest  extended  that t h i s could also  t o the t o o l a s p e c t , however, t h i s i s b e t t e r regarded  as a h y p o t h e s i s t o be t e s t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s . This leaves three processes ance) as the minimal  (manufacture,  use, and  mainten-  b e h a v i o r a l " v a r i a b l e s which, i n v a r i o u s  168  combinations, are  a s s u m e d t o be  s o u r c e s of  lithic  1  assemblage  variability. Each of reduction  these processes involves  sequences which r e s u l t i n the  p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s and that  enable the  strategy  quantities  a t e a c h s i t e and  comparison of  site  variables  presented i n the  are  the  lithic  While the nology w i t h i n  the  t o i n v e s t i g a t e them.  the  s p e c i f i c methodology f o r l i t h i c present study;  p r i n c i p l e s of criteria  measurement o f  r e s p e c t to such , section.  lithic  remains to describe  required  empirical  quantitative  tech-  s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t system have been  are  organizing  attributes  Measurement  a n a l y t i c a l treatment of archaeological  employed i n the  of  reduction  p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of  presented above, i t s t i l l of  the  following and  The  lithic  assemblages w i t h  Lithic Attribute Selection  lithic  deposition  of d e b i t a g e .  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  c a r r i e d out  specific  that  the  This section assemblage  analysis  and  should enable the  methods  assemblages which  i t outlines  those technological  the  discusses analysis  the  general  defines  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  processes  previously  discussed. The is the  o v e r a l l framework i n w h i c h t h i s l i t h i c  couched i s the  " l i f e - c y c l e " f l o w model f o r  analysis  determining  m i n i m a l p r o c e s s e s i n w h i c h d u r a b l e e l e m e n t s may  be  169  i n v o l v e d i n the o p e r a t i o n o f a c u l t u r a l system 1972,  1976;  (Schiffer  a l s o see above s e c t i o n ) . . T h i s g e n e r a l model  has been m o d i f i e d by r e s e a r c h e r s t o p r o v i d e a more s p e c i f i c treatment F i s h 1976; 1976;  of l i t h i c Gould  technology processes  1974;  Knudson 1973;  House 1975;  ( C o l l i n s 1974,  Muto1971a,1971b;  1975;  Katz  S h a f e r 1973). . The most comprehensive  and parsimonious treatment  pf l i t h i c  technology  p r o c e s s e s t o d a t e , p r o v i d e d by C o l l i n s  life-cycle  (1974*1975), f o c u s e s  on the " c e r t a i n b a s i c and u n a v o i d a b l e r e d u c t i v e steps i n v o l v e d i n producing 16).  The  (chipped-stone) o b j e c t s " ( C o l l i n s  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s model i s suggested by  1975:  the  s i m i l a r o v e r a l l r e s u l t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y a r r i v e d a t by o t h e r studies  (see F i s h 1976;  Gould  1974;  Katz 1976).  For these  r e a s o n s , C o l l i n s ' model i s used as a h e u r i s t i c d e v i c e i n o r g a n i z i n g the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s .  The model i s summarized  below. C o l l i n s proposes  that a l l conceivable l i t h i c  tech-  nology p r o c e s s e s can be d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e b a s i c r e d u c t i v e steps:  1) a c q u i s i t i o n o f raw m a t e r i a l s , 2) c o r e p r e p a r a t i o n  and i n i t i a l r e d u c t i o n , 3) primary trimming,  4)  trimming*  A c c o r d i n g t o the  and  5) m a i n t e n a n c e / m o d i f i c a t i o n .  secondary  model,- the use and d i s c a r d o f stone t o o l s a r e not c o n s i d e r e d p a r t s o f the r e d u c t i v e techno!ogy  per s e .  Use,  however, i s  i n f e r r e d i n the m a i n t e n a n c e / m o d i f i c a t i o n r e d u c t i o n s t e p i n which worn and/or damaged items a r e r e c y c l e d . Each of the  170  above s t e p s a c h i e v e s a s p e c i f i c task i n the o v e r a l l t i o n of stone t o o l manufacture* and linear fashion.  Given  a l l are r e l a t e d i n a  the c o n s t r a i n t s s e t by the p h y s i c a l  nature o f c h i p p a b l e l i t h i c initial  raw  m a t e r i a l s , " a l l but  s t e p a r e dependent upon the output  the  q u a l i t i e s of the  p r i o r s t e p as p r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n " 1975:17).  opera-  (Collins  While a v a r i e t y of p a r t i c u l a r r e d u c t i o n t e c h -  niques can accomplish  the task i n v o l v e d i n each s t e p , the  overall effect i s distinctive technological attribute patterning  on both the items p r o c e s s e d  and  the a s s o c i a t e d d e b i t a g e  which r e f l e c t s the g e n e r a l o p e r a t i o n c a r r i e d o u t . item p r o c e s s e d  i s committed t o f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n s t e p s , the  p a t t e r n i n g o f the p r i o r s t e p ( s ) may such p a t t e r n i n g - would s t i l l resulting  I f the  be obscured. . N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  be e v i d e n t on the  debitage  from each s t e p .  The  s t e p o f raw m a t e r i a l a c q u i s i t i o n  " s u p p l i e s the  a r t i s a n w i t h s u i t a b l e p i e c e s of c h i p p a b l e stone s e l e c t e d from a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s " ( C o l l i n s 1975:19). e x t r a c t i o n o f stone i s regarded  The p r o c e s s of a c t u a l  as a c o n s t a n t v a r i a b l e i n  the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y l i t h i c  technology  subsystem,  g i v e n the nature of the l o c a l r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n .  The  a s s o c i a t e d p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i o n , howeverj i s v a r i a b l e . l o c a l r e s o u r c e base p r e s e n t s two lithic  The  equally a c c e s s i b l e general  t y p e s , c h e r t and b a s a l t , which may  vary i n t h e i r  p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s t o the e x t e n t t h a t i t may  affect  their  171  suitability  f o r c e r t a i n reduction techniques  particular  tool-use  The  tasks.  subsequent step o f core  reduction involves the conversion m a t e r i a l I n t o items immediately  usable  fabricated.  regarded  preparation  and  initial  o f t h e l i t h i c raw  suitable f o r further reduction or as t o o l s .  This  i t i o n * form t h e minimal processes be  and/or  step, plus that of acquisby w h i c h s t o n e  A l l subsequent steps  t o o l s can  c a n t h e r e f o r e be  a s o p t i o n a l , r e f l e c t i n g more r e s t r i c t e d  tolerances  r e q u i r e d o f t o o l s used i n a c t i v i t i e s . The is  tool  main task  shaping,  of the o p t i o n a l primary  particularly  edge f o r m o f t h e implement.. step  This  i s the f i n a l  reduction  marginally-retouched  shaping  thinning  step.  and f i n a l  of b i f a c i a l  trimming  The m a j o r o p e r a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s f u r t h e r preparation of the tool  e d g e s b y means  f l a k i n g . ' The i m p l e m e n t s p r o d u c e d a t t h i s  require the greatest expenditure those  art-  T h o s e t o o l s t h a t r e q u i r e a more c o m p l e x m o r p h o l o g y  undergo f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n i n t h e o p t i o n a l secondary and  step  f o r t h e o u t l i n e , s e c t i o n , and  i n the manufacture of simple  ifacts.  trimming  of production  step  energy o f a l l  i n t h e assemblage and t h e r e f o r e have t h e g r e a t e s t  potential Binford  forreflecting  " s t y l i s t i c " expression (see  1962) and f o r b e i n g While the process  conserved.  o f use does r e s u l t i n t h e  172  reduction  o f the l i t h i c  implement through wear, t h i s i s not  considered  a d i s t i n c t i v e step.  reduction  s t e p , maintenance and  upon a r t i f a c t use. rejuvenation fact,  Nevertheless,  modification, i s  final contingent  Maintenance p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e  the  of the worn or damaged p o r t i o n s of the  ( F r i s o n 1968;  i t s work-performance c a p a b i l i t i e s  form, thus changing  ( F r i s o n 1968).  major drawback of the above model l i e s i n i t s  operationalization—what  does one  a n t i c i p a t e i n the  a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d as a consequence of each of the steps?  Two  analyses  arti-  S h a f e r 1970), w h i l e m o d i f i c a t i o n a l t e r s  the t o o l morphology from i t s o r i g i n a l  The  the  problems t h a t plague the m a j o r i t y  emerge a t t h i s p o i n t :  1)  of  arch-  reduction lithic  the s e l e c t i o n of  attri-  butes t o measure t e c h n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h a minimal degree of redundancy, and designating  a t t r i b u t e s and  2) the e x p l i c a t i o n of c o r r e l a t e s a t t r i b u t e s t a t e s as the  output of s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s e s , reduction  i n t h i s case,  the  steps.  C o l l i n s does p r e s e n t of the model, and a t t r i b u t e s that  an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n  i n doing so d e f i n e s  a number o f  " a l l have e x p e r i m e n t a l l y  vance t o the model" ( C o l l i n s 1974:160). the p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e p a t t e r n i n g  lithic  determined  rele-  However, nowhere i s  expected on  t h a t r e s u l t s from each of the r e d u c t i o n stated.  material  steps  the  debitage  explicitly  Rather, the e m p i r i c a l c r i t e r i a by which l i t h i c  items  173  a r e a s s i g n e d t o the "product group" of a s p e c i f i c r e d u c t i o n s t e p are i m p l i c i t  and ambiguous.  I have been a b l e t o  o b t a i n a broad i d e a of the c r i t e r i a used o n l y through a d e t a i l e d comparison tions  of d e b i t a g e a t t r i b u t e frequency t a b u l a -  (see C o l l i n s 1974:423-429).  distressing  f o r anyone who  wishes  While t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s t o i n d e p e n d e n t l y a p p l y the  above model, i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t C o l l i n s * work r e p r e s e n t s the most e x h a u s t i v e study of p r e h i s t o r i c l i t h i c v a r i a b i l i t y to date.  technological  The g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the model  has been e s t a b l i s h e d by o t h e r s t u d i e s of l i t h i c  technology  t h a t a r r i v e a t h i g h l y s i m i l a r sequences of r e d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s , even when d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t e s and t e c h n i q u e s are used  ( F i s h 1976;  Gould  quantitative  1974;  House  1975;  Katz 1976). The lithic  l a r g e number of a t t r i b u t e s c u r r e n t l y employed i n  s t u d i e s makes the procedure  specific analysis a d i f f i c u l t o b j e c t i v e l y noted t h a t a t t r i b u t e s remain ified".  of s e l e c t i n g those f o r  one.  Speth  "the c r i t e r i a  (1972:35) has  f o r choosing  f o r the most p a r t , a r b i t r a r y and  these unspec-  The b a s i s of a l l r e d u c t i v e s t e p s i s the removal  l i t h i c m a t e r i a l , accomplished f r a c t u r e i n stone.  by i n i t i a t i n g  of  a conchoidal  Given t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s such  as  p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s are h e l d c o n s t a n t , the p r o c e s s of stone t o o l p r o d u c t i o n can thus be viewed  as a s e r i e s of  fractures  r e d u c i n g the l i t h i c mass which are e x e r t e d and c o n t r o l l e d  by  174  the stoneworker.  The  f r a c t u r e s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n  t h i s study are those t h a t c o v a r y through the sequence and in  reduction  t h a t would t h e r e f o r e be r e f l e c t e d by  debitage a t t r i b u t e p a t t e r n i n g . There has  been c o n s i d e r a b l e  pioneering  i n t o the mechanics of f r a c t u r e o f l i t h i c (Bonnichsen 1977; and  Crabtree  Muller-Beck 1969;  1974;  T s i r k 1974),  1972b; F a u l k n e r 1972;  Leach 1969;  The  research  materials  Morgan 1967;  b a s i s of a c c o u n t i n g  Kerkhof Speth  i s the  and  p r i n c i p l e s o f the mechanics of b r i t t l e s o l i d  The  majority  of such i n f o r m a t i o n  the e n g i n e e r i n g  archaeological present  discipline.  Two  fracture.  r e s u l t e d from recent  study  research  s t u d i e s i n the  l i t e r a t u r e have attempted t o s y n t h e s i z e  s t a t e of such knowledge as i t a p p l i e s t o  technology processes The  has  1972,  for fracture  p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n stone t o o l p r o d u c t i o n  in  shifts  lithic  (Bonnichsen 1977:91-149; F a u l k n e r 1972).  r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s , w i t h r e s p e c t  of f r a c t u r e required  the  to the knowledge  to determine those a t t r i b u t e s t h a t  p o t e n t i a l l y measure r e d u c t i o n  sequence v a r i a b i l i t y ,  can  are  summarized below. The i s achieved  removal of a f l a k e from the parent p i e c e of through the a p p l i c a t i o n of f o r c e to the  o f the m a t e r i a l . percussion  surface  T h i s f o r c e can be e i t h e r dynamic ( i . e .  f l a k i n g ) or s t a t i c  ( i . e . pressure  stone  flaking) in  175  origin;  both types w i l l  (Faulkner of  1972).  the b r i t t l e  point  solid,  results  along  This  area.  this  in the  by a c o n e - l i n e  crack  force  material, tensile  lithic  are three  exceeds  failure  are pulled  technology  raw m a t e r i a l  litera-  variables that  t h e most e f f e c t i v e measurement These a r e :  of  potent-  variability  1) t h e n a t u r e o f  t o w h i c h f o r c e i s a p p l i e d , 2) t h e  treatment of the material and  through the  path.  t h e above f r a c t u r e p r o c e s s . lithic  r e s u l t s i n two t y p e s o f  the p a r t i c l e s of the s o l i d  ture suggests that there provide  surface  a r e s e t up a t t h e  I f the applied  A review of experimental  ially  at the  t o each other  l i m i t s of the l i t h i c  in_which  along  stresses  a path defined  at the contact  elastic  apart  tensile  t r a v e l perpendicular  body o f t h e s o l i d initiated  t h e same f r a c t u r e p r o c e s s  As t h e f o r c e i s a p p l i e d  of force a p p l i c a t i o n .  stress that  the  initiate  p r i o r to the a p p l i c a t i o n of force,  3) t h e t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s o f t h e s p e c i f i c  technique of  f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n . , One c a n a l s o p r o p o s e some f u n d a m e n t a l trends  that  sequencing.  these v a r i a b l e s should Holding  ties constant, dictates and  raw m a t e r i a l  exhibit within  s i z e and p h y s i c a l  the subtractive nature of l i t h i c  t h e r e s u l t a n t f l a k e s removed w i l l  anticipate that  steps  increases.  later reduction  steps  proper-  reduction  t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e s i z e o f t h e mass b e i n g  number o f r e d u c t i v e  reduction  fractured  d e c r e a s e as t h e One w o u l d  further  would r e q u i r e  more  176  exacting  f l a k e removal operations  morphology d e s i r e d m u s t be  applied  as w e l l as  t o an  area to receive  the  the  f a c t that the  force  i n c r e a s i n g l y s m a l l e r mass.  would evoke changing the f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n and  f o r the p a r t i c u l a r  amount as w e l l as  possibly increased  force i n order  This  the method  preparation  t o guide the  of of  the  desired  removal. The  best a r t i f a c t  expected to r e f l e c t flake debitage,  as  sequent r e d u c t i o n  a l s o be  a b o v e v a r i a b l e s and  once removed. on  this  involved  i n manufacture.  each l i t h i c  trends  Therefore,  major  i n i t i a l strategy  those f i n a l  of  the  is sub-  analytical  These p r o c e s s e s  r e f l e c t e d t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e by  tools, particularly  assemblage  to minimal  artifact class.  finished  The  lithic  t h i s group i s subject  emphasis i s p l a c e d should  the  c l a s s i n the  cores  reduction  a n a l y s i s was  a s s e m b l a g e i n t o a number o f b a s i c  to  and  steps  divide  artifact  c a t e g o r i e s , each of which would undergo p a r t i c u l a r a n a l y t i c a l treatment. bearing  Four c a t e g o r i e s  f l a k e s , 2)  variables  and  The  and  use  t o o l s and  4)  and  w e r e s e l e c t e d on  review of l i t h i c  to evaluate  3)  a t t r i b u t e s to i d e n t i f y  tool production extensive  cores*  were d e f i n e d :  1)  platform  shatter.  Specific  measure a s p e c t s the b a s i s of  an  technology l i t e r a t u r e c a r r i e d  a t t r i b u t e s c u r r e n t l y employed i n l i t h i c  a r t i f a c t c a t e g o r i e s , v a r i a b l e s , and  of  out  analysis.  attributes selected  177  are  d i s c u s s e d below. Platform-Bearing A f l a k e can  Flakes  be b r o a d l y d e f i n e d  stone removed from a l a r g e r mass by force"  ( C r a b t r e e 1972a:64).  as  the  in  the  application  f r a c t u r e process.: the  to t h e i r p o t e n t i a l  treatment of the  f o r c e used to detach f l a k e s  involved  lithic  material the  ( C r a b t r e e 1972a:  t h i s r e a s o n , a more s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n i s  necessary to d e l i n e a t e information.  Two  those items t h a t can  a t t r i b u t e s , the  b u l b of f o r c e , c o n s t i t u t e  has  research that  p r o v i d e such  s t r i k i n g platform  the d i a g n o s t i c  platform-bearing flake a r t i f a c t It  of  a p p l i c a t i o n of f l a k e removal f o r c e s , and  n a t u r e of the For  of  are  t o e x h i b i t e v i d e n c e of the main v a r i a b l e s  p r i o r to the  1-17)..  piece  In t h i s s t u d y , , f l a k e s  a s s i g n e d a h i g h a n a l y t i c a l p r i o r i t y due ability  "any  criteria  and  for  the  class.  been well-documented i n l i t h i c the geometry of the mass to be  technology flaked  and  the  p r e p a r a t i o n of the a r e a of i n t e n d e d f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n have a major e f f e c t on exhibiting f o r c e was  the  type of f l a k e removed.  i n t a c t s t r i k i n g platforms applied  t o remove the  Thus,  (the s u r f a c e  f l a k e s , , see  at which  f i g u r e 27)  p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e of such treatment of p r e p a r a t i o n . addition,  the presence of the (see  s t r i k i n g platform  that  the b u l b of f o r c e  This  l a t t e r attribute i s generally  flakes  f i g u r e 2 7) i s a l s o  will  In.  indicates evident.  considered to r e f l e c t  the  STRIKING  PLATFORM  STRIKING  STRIKING  PLATFORM  DEPTH  WIOTH  STRIKING PLATFORM STRENGTHENING S C A R S  PLATFORM  SURFACE  CORTEX COVERED SURFACE  DORSAL  VENTRAL  FIGURE 27.  SIDE  LONGITUDINAL CROSS-SECTION  FLAKE  SCARS  DORSAL  SIDE  Schematic diagram o f p l a t f o r m - h e a r i n g attributes.  flake  179  n a t u r e of the f o r c e a p p l i e d i n f l a k e detachment  (Crabtree  1972a:6-17 . 1972b; Muto 1971a:115-116), r  A t t r i b u t e s t o measure t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s were determined by a c r i t i c a l of the e x t a n t was  lithic  c a r r i e d out  technology l i t e r a t u r e .  applied i n analyses  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  r e s u l t e d i n the c o m p i l a t i o n  o f 23  effectively  The  procedure  f l a k e a t t r i b u t e s which  p o t e n t i a l l y a p p l i c a b l e i n the p r e s e n t  Each a t t r i b u t e i s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d 1. Raw  been  M a t e r i a l Type,,  The  been  data as i n d i c a t o r s of  i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l processes.,  were c o n s i d e r e d  review  t o i d e n t i f y those a t t r i b u t e s which had  documented i n e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s or had  variability  This  review  study.  below:  s e l e c t i o n of the raw  material  type from which t o manufacture a stone t o o l i s the first  p r o c e s s t o r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n i n any  strategy.  The  d i f f e r e n t raw  reduction  physical properties exhibited materials  by  determine t h e i r performance  c a p a b i l i t i e s as t o o l s as w e l l as the p a r t i c u l a r reductive techniques required (Bordaz 1970:6-13; C r a b t r e e main raw  material  to f a b r i c a t e implements  1967;  Goodman 1944).  types r e c o g n i z e d  in this  analysis  are: 1, " C h e r t " ( i n c l u d e s c h e r t s , and  chalcedonies,  jaspers);  2., " B a s a l t "  The  (includes b a s a l t s , r h y o l i t e s ,  180  andesites, 3.  and f e l s i t e s ) ;  Obsidian;  4. O t h e r  ( u n i d e n t i f i a b l e raw m a t e r i a l s  Raw M a t e r i a l T e x t u r e .  This  w h i c h would be c o n s i d e r e d material  selection.  i n t h e process o f raw (1967:8) n o t e s  that  the stone texture, the  t o u g h e r a n d more d i f f i c u l t and  i s another a t t r i b u t e  Crabtree  "generally, the coarser  types).  i t i s t o remove r e g u l a r  uniform f l a k e s " , although t h i s  manufacturing  d i s a d v a n t a g e w o u l d be o f f s e t by t h e enhanced u s e potential  of a tool with  of standard raw as  such toughness.  petrological classification,  materials  In, t e r m s a l l of the  i n t h e p r e s e n t sample would be r e g a r d e d  fine-grained i n texture.  more d e t a i l e d i d e a  In order  to obtain  of v a r i a t i o n within this  a q u a l i t a t i y e a n a l y s i s was made b y o b s e r v i n g  a  division, the  m i c r o t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e f l a k e s u r f a c e a t 10-power magnification. 1.  The s p e c i f i c  no v i s i b l e g r a i n i n e s s  2. v i s i b l e  graininess  material  that  the  s e l e c t i o n process.  at lOx magnification;  a t lOx magnification.  Raw M a t e r i a l H o m o g e n e i t y . raw  attribute states are:  Another a t t r i b u t e o f the  i s p o t e n t i a l l y considered Generally,  during  t h e more homo-  g e n e o u s t h e r a w m a t e r i a l , " t h e more e x a c t may b e the c o n t r o l o f pressure"  to affect fracture  (Pond  181  1930:101).  T h i s a t t r i b u t e measures t h e c o m p o s i t i o n  of t h e m a t e r i a l from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n g r a i n s i z e , i n c l u s i o n s ( f o s s i l s o r phenocrysts), all  f a u l t planes,, and b r e c c i a t i o n , e i t h e r o r  o f which could p o t e n t i a l l y  of f r a c t u r e .  Two a t t r i b u t e s t a t e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d :  1.  homogeneous;  2.  inhomogeneous.  4. W e i g h t .  affect the control  This provides  a measure o f t h e r e l a t i v e  mass o f t h e i t e m , m e a s u r e d t o 0.1 gm. constant  Given  s i z e o f raw m a t e r i a l , one would  a  expect  f l a k e weight t o decrease i n advanced r e d u c t i o n 5.  Flake Length.  This  measured p a r a l l e l 27).  i s t h e maximum l e n g t h i n mm,  t o the axis of force (see figure  F l a k e l e n g t h s h o u l d be r e l a t e d  of force required t o e f f e c t 1976:18). expect  steps.  t o t h e amount  f l a k e removal  (Phagan  W i t h i n t h e r e d u c t i o n sequence, one would  f l a k e length t o decrease.  6. F l a k e W i d t h .  This  i s t h e maximum w i d t h  i n mm,  measured p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e a x i s o f f o r c e ( s e e f i g u r e 27).  This a t t r i b u t e should  also provide  measure o f t h e f o r c e i n v o l v e d i n f l a k e Overall  flake width  through  the reduction  removal.  should, therefore,; decrease steps.  7. N o n - B u l b a r F l a k e T h i c k n e s s .  This  i s t h e maximum  a  182  measurement i n mm  at r i g h t angles  the f r a c t u r e s u r f a c e at any bulbar  should r e f l e c t  of  p o i n t except w i t h i n  zone (see F i g u r e 27).  general  to the p l a n e  the  Flake thickness i n  the l o c a t i o n and  direction  of the a p p l i e d f o r c e which detached the f l a k e (Faulkner  1972:110-115).  ment to t h a t of the b u l b a r  The  t h i c k n e s s below  p r o v i d e a q u a n t i t a t i v e index prominence on the 8. Bulbar T h i c k n e s s .  r a t i o o f t h i s measureshould  of the b u l b of f o r c e  flake. T h i s i s the f l a k e t h i c k n e s s i n  mm  taken at the c e n t r e of the b u l b o f f o r c e (see f i g u r e 2 7). bulbar  Prominent b u l b s , as i n d i c a t e d by the r a t i o of thickness with  are c o n s i d e r e d  non-bulbar f l a k e t h i c k n e s s ,  suggestive  of f o r c e a p p l i e d by a  hammer ( i . e . s t o n e ) , whereas lower r a t i o s may  hard  reflect  s o f t hammer ( i . e . bone, a n t l e r , and wood) f o r c e application.  With r e s p e c t t o the r e d u c t i o n  the use o f hard  hammers i s expected to be more p r e -  v a l e n t i n the i n i t i a l  steps w h i l e s o f t hammers would  g i v e more c o n t r o l i n shaping 9. S t r i k i n g P l a t f o r m Width. between those  two  the t o o l at l a t e r  steps.  T h i s i s the d i s t a n c e i n  p o i n t s where the s t r i k i n g  s u r f a c e i n t e r s e c t s the margins of the f l a k e f i g u r e 27).  sequence,  platform (see  Phagan (1976:45) notes t h a t reduced  p l a t f o r m width i s e v i d e n t i a l of p l a t f o r m  mm  treatment  183  p r i o r to the a p p l i c a t i o n o f f o r c e and  "lower  values  can be i n t e r p r e t e d as more c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o such platform preparation".  One  would a l s o expect  increased e f f o r t i n platform preparation p r i o r e x a c t i n g f l a k e removals t h a t are c r i t i c a l l a t e r r e d u c t i o n s t e p s of t h i n n i n g and 1 0 . S t r i k i n g P l a t f o r m Depth,  i n the  shaping.  T h i s i s the maximum  d o r s a l t o v e n t r a l s u r f a c e d i s t a n c e i n mm to  to  perpendicular  the a x i s of s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m width (see f i g u r e 27).  S t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m depth i s expected t o decrease i n l a t e r reduction steps. distance i s c r i t i c a l bifacial  The  minimization  of  this  i n reduction steps i n v o l v i n g  f l a k i n g where the o b j e c t i v e i s t o t h i n  implement s e c t i o n w h i l e removing as l i t t l e  the  as  p o s s i b l e from the margins (Muto 1971a:63-73). 11.Ventral  Flaking Angle.  T h i s i s the angle between  p l a n e o f the s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m depth and ventral surface intervals. Wilmsen  the  average  (see f i g u r e 27), measured i n 5 d e g r e e ,  T h i s has been termed "angle b e t a "  .(1970:14) and Knudson (1973:188*  There a r e two  the  192).  p r e s e n t means of r e c o r d i n g t h i s  1) the a c t u a l angle  from the p l a n e  by  angle:  t h a t passes  through the f l a k e mass t o the v e n t r a l s u r f a c e (Knudson 1973:188, 192), t h i s angle  (Leach  and  2) the supplement o f  1969:52; Wilmsen 1970:14, 17).  In  184  t h i s s t u d y , the former method was thought t h a t t h i s p r o v i d e d ment and  was  force.  by  an  T h i s angle should  measure-  This angle i s prim-  i n c r e a s e as the f o r c e i s  s u r f a c e of the c o r e  f o r inward f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n s .  inward-directed  was  the d i r e c t i o n of the f r a c t u r i n g  d i r e c t e d t o the o u t e r versa  a more a c c u r a t e  e a s i e r to o b t a i n .  a r i l y regulated  used as i t  f o r c e would be  and  The  vice  r e s u l t of  the removal of a  s u b s t a n t i a l f l a k e mass, which would n e c e s s i t a t e a p p l i c a t i o n of a l a r g e amount of f o r c e .  The  the  results  o f o u t w a r d - d i r e c t e d f o r c e are b e s t r e f l e c t e d by bifacial  thinning  largest angles.  f l a k e s which would e x h i b i t Therefore,  one  the  would expect  a n g l e to i n c r e a s e through the r e d u c t i o n  this  sequence.  12.Dorsal F l a k i n g Angle.. T h i s i s the a n g l e between p l a n e of the s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m dorsal surface o r i g i n a l core  and  the  average  ( i . e . that s i d e that preserves  the  s u r f a c e ) measured i n 5 degree i n t e r v a l s  (see f i g u r e 27). t o the  depth and  the  This angle i s e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r  " s t r i k i n g platform  angle"  of Leach  (1969:34),  "angle e t a " of Knudson (1973:188,192), except  t h a t here the angle measured i s t h a t from s t r i k i n g platform  the  depth p l a n e t o the d o r s a l  surface,  r a t h e r than t h a t between the d o r s a l s u r f a c e and platform  surface  the  t h a t passes through the f l a k e mass.  185  Muto (1971a:114) c o n s i d e r s t h i s a t t r i b u t e as one the more d i a g n o s t i c v a r i a b l e s t h a t should be ered  i n i n f e r r i n g modes of manufacture.  207)  suggests t h a t t h i s  " p l a t f o r m angle  consid-  Speth  (1975:  i s of  g r e a t e r importance t o the f l i n t - k n a p p e r than angle  of  the  of impact f o r c o n t r o l l i n g the s i z e of a d i r e c t  percussion  flake".,  Higher angles would be  associated  w i t h b i f a c i a l l y - f l a k e d edges manufactured i n l a t e r reduction  steps.  13. D o r s a l Scar Count.  T h i s i s the t o t a l number of  f l a k e s c a r s observed on the d o r s a l s u r f a c e , those  s c a r s thought to have r e s u l t e d from  of the s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m .  excluding  preparation  These s c a r s r e p r e s e n t  the  n e g a t i v e marks on v e n t r a l s u r f a c e s of f l a k e s removed from the p r e s e n t  l i t h i c material previous  detachment of the p r e s e n t should  provide  ion operations  flake.  The  to  the  s c a r count  a measure of energy expended i n r e d u c t up  t o the removal of the p r e s e n t  piece.  G e n e r a l l y , the number o f f l a k e s c a r s i s expected to i n c r e a s e through the r e d u c t i o n sequence, up  to a  p o i n t t h a t the s i z e of f l a k e removed i s a p p r e c i a b l y s m a l l e r than the n e g a t i v e p o i n t the s c a r count w i l l  f l a k e s c a r s , at which decrease.  14. V e n t r a l S u r f a c e Curvature.,  T h i s a t t r i b u t e measures  186  the c u r v a t u r e of the v e n t r a l  flake surface  long-  i t u d i n a l p r o f i l e measured a l o n g the b u l b a r  axis  (Knudson 1973:187; Leach 1969:57),  Three s t a t e s  c u r v a t u r e were d e f i n e d  28):  (see  figure  of  1. Concave; 2.  Straight/Flat;  3. Convex. The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s a t t r i b u t e has  by C r a b t r e e  been d i s c u s s e d  (1972a:12):  The s t r a i g h t n e s s of a f l a k e or b l a d e depends on the i n e r t i a of the m a t e r i a l . Large masses of stone w i l l remain i n e r t because of t h e i r s i z e and weight., . . . Another f a c t o r i s the manner of the b l o w — a n a r c - l i k e blow w i l l cause c u r v i n g w h i l e the s t r a i g h t l i n e blow w i l l produce s t r a i g h t e r f l a k e s and b l a d e s . Phagan (1976:42) has  suggested t h a t concave  s t r a i g h t / f l a t p r o f i l e s are control  greater  over f r a c t u r e v a r i a b l e s , w h i l e convex  p r o f i l e s are force  i n d i c a t i v e of  the  r e s u l t of inadequate amounts of  application.  Straight  p r o f i l e s would  be most e f f e c t i v e i n e a r l y r e d u c t i o n w i t h r e d u c i n g the  likely  s t e p s concerned  o v e r a l l mass of the  parent  and/or d e t a c h i n g f l a k e s s u i t a b l e f o r f u r t h e r ion.  and  material reduct-  Convex p r o f i l e s would p r o v i d e the b e s t form  for thinning  f l a k e s removed i n l a t e r s t e p s aimed at  r e d u c i n g the  section  implements.  and  cross-section  of  bifacial  187  FIGURE 28.  Schematic diagram of f l a k e v e n t r a l surface curvature a t t r i b u t e states. Key: 1-concave, 2 - s t r a i g h t / f l a t , 3-convex.  188  15. D i s t a l End Termination., the d i s t a l end  The  type of t e r m i n a t i o n o f  ( i . e . t h a t f l a k e margin o p p o s i t e the  b u l b a r or p r o x i m a l edge) of the f l a k e i s i n f l u e n c e d by the form of the parent m a t e r i a l s u r f a c e and  the  amount and d i r e c t i o n of a p p l i e d f o r c e ( C r a b t r e e 1972a:12).'  Bonnichson  (1977:132) notes t h a t the main  v a r i a b l e d e t e r m i n i n g the type o f t e r m i n a t i o n i s the v e l o c i t y of the f r a c t u r e f r o n t removing the  flake.  S i x p o t e n t i a l types o f d i s t a l end t e r m i n a t i o n were d e f i n e d f o r the a n a l y s i s  (see f i g u r e  29):  1. F e a t h e r ; 2. Step; 3.  Hinge;  4. Reverse  Hinge;  5.. , Jagged; 6, M u l t i p l e F r a c t u r e . Feather t e r m i n a t i o n s e x h i b i t a s h a r p , f l a k e margin a t the d i s t a l end o f the f l a k e .  thin These  t e r m i n a t i o n s are the most d e s i r a b l e type as they represent w e l l - c o n t r o l l e d force  application.  Step, h i n g e , r e v e r s e h i n g e , and  jagged  term-  i n a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y regarded as i n d i c a t i o n s of manufacturing  e r r o r s r e s u l t i n g from  insufficient  and/or m i s d i r e c t e d a p p l i c a t i o n s of f o r c e . be noted t h a t s t e p t e r m i n a t i o n s may  I t should  also represent  189  FIGURE 29.  Schematic attribute ^-reverse  d i a g r a m o f f l a k e d i s t a l end t e r m i n a t i o n states. Key: 1 - f e a t h e r , 2-step, 3-hinge, hinge, 5-jagged.  190  breakage t h a t o c c u r r e d a f t e r removal o f t h e f l a k e and  thus may b i a s  interpretations.  Multiple-fracture  t e r m i n a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o r e s u l t s o l e l y from post-manufacture breakage. Step, h i n g e , r e v e r s e hinge,, and jagged termi n a t i o n s a r e caused by t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f s t r e s s waves from t h e bottom o f the parent p i e c e  of material  which  i n t e r f e r e w i t h the path o f the approaching f r o n t and f o r c e i t t o change d i r e c t i o n (Bonnichsen 1977:132).. This  phenomenon i s g e n e r a l l y  r e s t r i c t e d t o slow-moving  f r a c t u r e f r o n t s r e s u l t i n g from i n s u f f i c i e n t application..  force  When s t r e s s r e f l e c t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t  t o impede f u r t h e r movement o f the f r a c t u r e f r o n t , the force i s released  a t the n e a r e s t f r e e s u r f a c e .  f r a c t u r e s r e s u l t from the r e l e a s e dorsal the  surface;  o f f o r c e a t the  r e v e r s e hinge f r a c t u r e s o c c u r when  f o r c e t u r n s toward t h e v e n t r a l s u r f a c e  mass b e i n g f l a k e d  (Bonnichsen 1977:132).  that occur abruptly termination  of the Fractures  a t r i g h t angles r e s u l t i n s t e p  ( C r a b t r e e 1972a:93).  Jagged f l a k e term-  i n a t i o n s a r e l i k e l y the r e s u l t o f " c o n t a c t  with  another substance when t h e f l a k e was d e t a c h e d " (Bonnichsen 1977:132,135), 16.  Hinge  S t r i k i n g Platform  Preparation.,  This  attribute  191  measures t h e treatment o f the p l a t f o r m w i t h to  f l a k e removals i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e the  a p p l i c a t i o n o f the detachment f o r c e . was p o t e n t i a l l y o b s e r v a b l e  incomplete 1. C o r t e x  Preparation  i n three s t a t e s ;  f o u r t h s t a t e was d e f i n e d f o r those had  respect  damaged p l a t f o r m s  a  speciments which  (see f i g u r e 3 0 ) :  c o v e r , no f a c e t s ;  2. S i n g l e f a c e t ; 3. M u l t i p l e f a c e t s ; 4., Unobservable due t o incomplete  striking  platform. The  first  three a t t r i b u t e states r e f l e c t i n c r e a s i n g  amounts o f energy e x p e n d i t u r e treatment, suggesting  involved i n platform  greater i n t e r e s t i n c o n t r o l l i n g  the l o c a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n of a p p l i e d f o r c e . c o n t r o l would be c r i t i c a l  i n advanced r e d u c t i o n  s t e p s t h a t i n v o l v e s p e c i f i c f l a k e removal to  achieve  Such  patterns  the d e s i r e d implement form.  17. S t r i k i n g P l a t f o r m Strengthening..  This a t t r i b u t e  measures e f f o r t s t o a l t e r the d o r s a l f l a k i n g  angle  through the removal of s m a l l f l a k e s from t h e d o r s a l s u r f a c e immediately beneath the s t r i k i n g This serves  to strengthen  s u r f a c e t o an exact  platform.  and p o s i t i o n t h e p l a t f o r m  form i n o r d e r t o i s o l a t e the  l o c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d t o r e c e i v e the detachment  192  FIGURE 30.  Schematic diagram of f l a k e s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m preparation attribute states. Key: 1-cortex covered, no f a c e t s ; 2 - s i n g l e f a c e t ; 3 - m u l t i p l e facted.  193  f o r c e as w e l l as t o s t r e n g t h e n the p l a t f o r m i n o r d e r to prevent c r u s h i n g of the p l a t f o r m 1972a,:15; Knudson 1973:193). was  (Crabtree  Platform strengthening  r e c o r d e d on a presence-absence b a s i s (see  figure  27): 1. S t r e n g t h e n i n g  scars  2. S t r e n g t h e n i n g  scars present;  3. Unobservable due  absent;  to incomplete  striking  platform. The concern  f o r p l a t f o r m i s o l a t i o n and  would be expected ion  t o be g r e a t e s t i n the l a t e r  s t e p s t h a t focus on shaping  A strong, isolated flaking  strengthening reduct-  the implement s e c t i o n .  p l a t f o r m would permit  greater  o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g the t h i n n i n g of the  imple-  ment s e c t i o n w h i l e removing a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p o r t i o n o f i t s margins t h a t form the p l a t f o r m a r e a (Muto 1971a). 18. S t r i k i n g  Platform Abrasion.  Evidence  of g r i n d i n g ,  r u b b i n g * or c r u s h i n g on or a d j a c e n t t o the p l a t f o r m i s examined by t h i s a t t r i b u t e 1970:14).  T h i s was  striking  (Wilmsen  r e c o r d e d on a presence-absence  basis: 1. A b r a s i o n  absent;  2. A b r a s i o n  present;  3. Unobservable due platform.  t o incomplete  striking  194  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s a t t r i b u t e i s s t a t e d  Crabtree  by  (1972a:8):  When the p l a t f o r m i s r o u g h l y abraded, the s u r f a c e i s weakened, the p r e s s u r e o r p e r c u s s i o n t o o l w i l l not s l i p , and the amount of f o r c e n e c e s s a r y t o induce f r a c ture i s reduced. A s m a l l e r amount o f f o r c e r e q u i r e d  t o remove f l a k e s  would r e s u l t i n a lower l i k e l i h o o d o f s t r i k i n g p l a t form c o l l a p s e under e x c e s s i v e  force application.  Such c o n t r o l i s d e s i r a b l e throughout a l l the ion  s t e p s but would be more c r i t i c a l  shaping  Lipping.  T h i s a t t r i b u t e i s observed  the v e n t r a l f l a k e s u r f a c e  the s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m . -  immediately a d j a c e n t  L i p p i n g has  or pressure  f l a k i n g t e c h n i q u e s of r e d u c t i o n  1972a:74; Muto 1971a:114-115). e x p e r i m e n t a l work has  percussion, (Crabtree  However, r e c e n t  challenged  suggested t h a t the c r i t i c a l  l i p p i n g i s the a n g l e of f o r c e  to  o f t e n been con-  s i d e r e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o f t hammer  has  later  stages.  ... V e n t r a l S u r f a c e on  i n the  reduct-  this position  and  v a r i a b l e governing  (Bonnichsen 1977:165).  Thus, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s a t t r i b u t e i s u n c e r t a i n at  the p r e s e n t  a n a l y s i s t o see with other  time.  L i p p i n g was  included  i f i t e x h i b i t e d any  a t t r i b u t e s t h a t may  i n t o i t s meaningfulness.  in  the  relationships  provide  some i n s i g h t  Only the presence or absence  195  o f - l i p p i n g was r e c o r d e d as any more d e t a i l e d down ( e . g . Phagan 1976:49-50) was regarded  break-  as t o o  cumbersome t o employ (see f i g u r e 2 7 ) : 1.. L i p absent; 2. L i p p r e s e n t ; 3. Unobservable  due t o incomplete  striking  platform. I f l i p p i n g i s indeed a s s o c i a t e d w i t h soft-hammer p e r c u s s i o n and p r e s s u r e f l a k i n g , one may expect  these  t e c h n i q u e s t o be more p r e v a l e n t i n l a t e r r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s where more c o n t r o l i n f l a k e removal i s exercised. 20., Bulb o f A p p l i e d Force.. T h i s a t t r i b u t e measures two associated characteristics of force application, the b u l b o f a p p l i e d f o r c e and t h e cone o f a p p l i e d f o r c e , p r e s e n t on t h e v e n t r a l f l a k e s u r f a c e . S a l i e n t bulbs o f a p p l i e d f o r c e a r e u s u a l l y t h e p r o d u c t o f f o r c e a p p l i e d by a hard hammer w h i l e d i f f u s e b u l b s r e s u l t from s o f t hammers (Muto 1971a: 115-116).  L i k e w i s e , acuminate cones o f a p p l i e d  f o r c e a r e n o r m a l l y t h e p r o d u c t o f a hard hammer blow and  t r u n c a t e d cones t h a t o f a s o f t hammer, a l t h o u g h  a t r u n c a t e d cone may a l s o r e s u l t from an e x c e s s i v e hard hammer blow t o a r e l a t i v e l y  l a r g e contact area  196  (Muto 1971a:116). and  Two  s t a t e s of the above cone  b u l b combinations were i d e n t i f i e d : 1. D i f f u s e b u l b / T r u n c a t e d cone; 2. S a l i e n t bulb/Acuminate cone; 3. Unobseryable due  t o incomplete  striking  platform. One  would expect the bulb/cone combination  i a t e d w i t h soft-hammer and t o be more f r e q u e n t  pressure force  i n l a t e r reduction  assocapplications  steps  those r e s u l t i n g from hard-hammers i n the  and  initial  steps. 21. C o r t e x C o v e r . pf the d o r s a l surface  This  i s a measure of the  flake surface  o f the  1. No  cortex  natural  (see f i g u r e 27),  The  s t a t e s were r e c o r d e d :  cover;  2. P a r t i a l c o r t e x  cover;'  3. Complete c o r t e x 4. Unobservable due The  t h a t e x h i b i t s the  l i t h i c material  following proportional  proportion  cover; to incomplete f l a k e form.  above s t a t e s are i d e n t i c a l t o the  primary  d e c o r t i c a t i o n , secondary d e c o r t i c a t i o n , and  tertiary-  flake divisions i n i t i a l l y  e s t a b l i s h e d by  White  L i t h i c technology studies  have g e n e r a l l y  assumed  that  "cortex  i s n o r m a l l y not  (1963),  as d e s i r a b l e as f r e s h l y  f r a c t u r e d m a t e r i a l , e i t h e r because of a d i f f e r e n c e  197  i n some q u a l i t y o f the stone r e g u l a r i t y o f the two (Phagan 1976:53).  i t s e l f or i n the  k i n d s of s u r f a c e o r edges"  T h e r e f o r e , one  of the v e r y  first  r e d u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s would i n v o l v e the removal of the n a t u r a l o r weathered s u r f a c e from the  raw  m a t e r i a l , r e s u l t i n g i n f l a k e s w i t h v a r y i n g amounts o f c o r t e x on the d o r s a l s u r f a c e .  The  detachment of  c o r t e x - f r e e f l a k e s would o n l y be p o s s i b l e a f t e r above o p e r a t i o n had restricted 22.  been completed and  to l a t e r reduction  Dorsal Surface  the  i s therefore  steps.  F l a k e Scar P a t t e r n i n g ,  This  a t t r i b u t e q u a l i t a t i v e l y measures the c o m p l e x i t y  of  the arrangement of s c a r s on the d o r s a l f l a k e surface iftMynday  (see Knudson 1973:190; Leach 1969:58; 1976:32; Phagan 1976:55).,  recorded  The  specific  states  here a r e d e r i v e d from Knudson (1973) and  are arranged  below i n o r d e r o f i n c r e a s i n g  1. P a t t e r n i n g p a r a l l e l  to bulbar a x i s ,  g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t e d from 2. P a t t e r n i n g p a r a l l e l  platform;  to bulbar a x i s ,  g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t e d from d i s t a l 3. P a t t e r n i n g p a r a l l e l  complexity:  end;  to bulbar a x i s ,  d i r e c t e d from both d i s t a l and 4. P a t t e r n i n g p e r p e n d i c u l a r  proximal  ends;  to bulbar a x i s ,  g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t e d from one  f l a k e margin;  198  5. P a t t e r n i n g p e r p e n d i c u l a r  to bulbar a x i s *  d i r e c t e d from both f l a k e margins; 6. P a t t e r n i n g  oblique'to bulbar axis* .  d i r e c t e d from proximal  .  end; -  7. P a t t e r n i n g o b l i q u e t o b u l b a r a x i s , g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t e d from d i s t a l  end;  8. Complex p a t t e r n i n g d i r e c t e d from a l l f l a k e margins and  ends;  9.. P a t t e r n i n g not d e t e r m i n a b l e incomplete The  due  to  f l a k e form.  above s t a t e s a r e s c h e m a t i c a l l y presented  f i g u r e 31.  in  Munday (1976:23) suggests t h a t more  complex p a t t e r n s r e s u l t e d from i n c r e a s e d c o r e paration.  pre-  Phagan (1976:55) argues a s i m i l a r p o i n t  by n o t i n g t h a t more complex s c a r arrangements i n d i c a t e detachment "by a f o r c e a p p l i e d i n a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n from those  t h a t formed the c o r e f a c e ,  i n d i c a t e very c a r e f u l planning  and c o n t r o l . "  and  Such  p a t t e r n s would be most p r e v a l e n t among f l a k e s r e s u l t i n g from the l a t e r s t e p s of b i f a c i a l 23. D o r s a l S u r f a c e  F l a k e Scar Size.,  flaking.  T h i s i s an  o f the predominant width e x h i b i t e d by n e g a t i v e  estimate flake  s c a r s on the d o r s a l f l a k e s u r f a c e .  "Predominant" i s  d e f i n e d as 2/3  (Phagan 1976:55).  The  or more o f the s c a r s  s p e c i f i c s i z e i n t e r v a l s and  a t t r i b u t e s t a t e s are  199 Key t o F i g u r e 31 Scar  1.  - Dorsal  Flake  Patterns:  Patterning p a r a l l e l  to bulbar axis,  g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t e d from p l a t f o r m ; 2.  Patterning p a r a l l e l  to bulbar a x i s ,  g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t e d from d i s t a l 3.  Patterning p a r a l l e l  end;  to bulbar a x i s ,  d i r e c t e d from both d i s t a l and proximal 4.  ends;  Patterning perpendicular to bulbar axis, g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t e d from one f l a k e margin;  5.  Patterning perpendicular to bulbar axis, d i r e c t e d from both f l a k e margins;  6.  P a t t e r n i n g o b l i q u e to b u l b a r a x i s , d i r e c t e d from p l a t f o r m  7.  end;  P a t t e r n i n g o b l i q u e to b u l b a r a x i s , genera l l y d i r e c t e d from d i s t a l  8.  end;  Complex p a t t e r n i n g d i r e c t e d from a l l f l a k e margins and ends.  200  7  FIGURE 31.  8  Schematic diagram of d o r s a l f l a k e s c a r attribute states.  pattern  201  adopted  from Knudson  1. Predominantly maximum  (1973:189): l a r g e ( g r e a t e r than 8 mm  width);  2. Predominantly medium and l a r g e ; 3. Predominantly medium (3-8 mm maximum width);. 4.. Predominantly  l a r g e and s m a l l ;  5. Predominantly  l a r g e , medium and s m a l l ;  6. Predominantly medium and s m a l l ; 7. Predominantly s m a l l  ( l e s s than 3 mm maximum  width); 8. Predominant  s i z e not d e t e r m i n a b l e due t o  incomplete f l a k e form. Given t h a t t h e average  f l a k e s i z e decreases  through the r e d u c t i v e sequence,  one may expect t o  observe a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f l a r g e s i z e d s c a r s on f l a k e s detached while increased smaller  in initial  reduction  s i z e v a r i a t i o n and a t r e n d  towards  f l a k e s c a r s i z e s i s expected t o r e s u l t  l a t e r reduction 1  steps,  from  steps.  Assessment o f F l a k e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A l t h o u g h each o f t h e above a t t r i b u t e s can be r e g a r d e d as b e i n g  o f some importance  i n describing  tech-  n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n t h e r e d u c t i o n sequence,  the  1  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e a t t r i b u t e s e t poses two problems for analysis.  F i r s t i s t h e problem o f redundancy.  While-  202  t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f each a t t r i b u t e i s noted, to. what e x t e n t 1  are they measuring m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e variables?  S e c o n d l y , such a group o f a t t r i b u t e s p r e s e n t s  p r a c t i c a l problems w i t h r e s p e c t the  technological  l a r g e number o f l i t h i c  present a n a l y s i s .  to t h e i r application to  assemblages a v a i l a b l e t o the  Thus, i t was d e s i r a b l e t o determine an  a t t r i b u t e s e t t h a t would p r o v i d e t h e g r e a t e s t technological ment.  information  amount of  and the l e a s t redundant measure-  T h i s was a c h i e v e d by c a r r y i n g out a p i l o t  study  i n v o l v i n g t h e a n a l y s i s o f s e l e c t s i t e assemblages u s i n g the t o t a l a t t r i b u t e s e t and s u b j e c t i n g t o q u a n t i t a t i v e data r e d u c t i o n  the r e s u l t i n g  information  techniques.  Assemblages f o r t h e p i l o t study were s e l e c t e d by d i v i d i n g t h e s i t e assemblages c o l l e c t e d by the survey i n t o two groups on t h e b a s i s ' o f t h e dominant raw m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t and then random sampling e a c h ,  types  A t o t a l of f i v e  assemblages, from s i t e s EeRj 21, EeRj 40, EeRj 59, EeRj 63, and  EeRj 64, were drawn.  A t o t a l o f 516 p l a t f o r m  bearing  f l a k e s were observed i n t h e sample, o f which 190 were cons i d e r e d as s u i t a b l e f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s having d i s t a l end t e r m i n a t i o n s  that d e f i n i t e l y  ( i . e . those resulted  from f l a k e - r e m o v a l f o r c e s , r e p r e s e n t e d by f e a t h e r and hinge  terminations). The  s p e c i f i c data reduction  factor analysis  (-Rumme! 1970).  technique  Factor  employed was  a n a l y s i s was  spec-  203 ifically  selected  underlying  f o r i t s demonstrated a b i l i t y t o d e l i n e a t e  patterns  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s exhibited  d a t a and r e o r g a n i z e i t i n t o s m a l l e r may be regarded as c h a r a c t e r i z i n g 1970:12-21).  attribute patterning smaller  sets of factors  these r e l a t i o n s  The r o l e o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s  study i s e x p l o r a t o r y ,  by a s e t o f that  (Rummel  i n the p r e s e n t  the o b j e c t i v e being detection of that w i l l  lead t o discovery  of a  s e t o f dimensions t h a t can account f o r such v a r i a -  t i o n s and those a t t r i b u t e s t h a t most e f f e c t i v e l y i n d i c a t e them. The  p i l o t study was s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned w i t h  the c o - v a r i a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s observed on a sample p o p u l a t i o n o f f l a k e s , o r R-mode a n a l y s i s . been p r e v i o u s l y  Factor  used i n R-mode a t t r i b u t e s t u d i e s  (1967) and Judge (1973:273-298). c r i t i c i z e d by S a c k e t t  by Benfer  B e n f e r ' s study has been  (19.69), whose comments on t h e use o f  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s may a l s o be a p p l i c a b l e The  a n a l y s i s has  t o Judge's s t u d y .  major c r i t i c i s m p r e s e n t e d by S a c k e t t concerns t h e use o f  a t t r i b u t e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t measurement s c a l e s  i n the c a l c u l a -  t i o n o f Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . When used as a t e s t s t a t i s t i c , Pearson's " r " s h o u l d o n l y be calculated  f o r c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e s w i t h a b i v a r i a t e normal  distribution. critical  The type o f u n d e r l y i n g  d i s t r i b u t i o n i s not  i n f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , as c o n c e r n i s not w i t h t h e  statistical  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c o r r e l a t i o n s between v a r i a b l e s .  204  N e v e r t h e l e s s * Pearson's " r " i s a measure o f l i n e a r relationships. val scales difficult  have i n t e r -  o f measurement, o t h e r w i s e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t i s to interpret  attributes scales,  Therefore, the variables-should  (Conover 1971:245).  e x h i b i t both o r d i n a l  As t h e above  and i n t e r v a l measurement  a m a t r i x o f Spearman's r h o r a n k - o r d e r  coefficients  (Siegel  1956:202-213) was used.  The main  advantage i n employing Spearman*s r h o i s t h a t calculated  for variables  that  correlation  i t can  "be  have m i n i m a l l y an o r d i n a l  s c a l e o f measurement. Subprogram NONPAR CORR from t h e S t a t i s t i c a l f o r the S o c i a l Sciences calculate  Package  (Nie e t a l . 1975) was used t o  t h e Spearman•s rho c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , which was  used as i n p u t f o r subprogram FACTOR o f t h e SPSS package. The  s p e c i f i c f a c t o r i n g method employed was PA2, p r i n c i p a l  f a c t o r i n g w i t h i t e r a t i o n * which i s t h e most w i d e l y accepted method (Kim•1975:480).  This i s * i n effect,  1  "classical"  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , which makes t h e assumption t h a t correlations An  a r e due t o u n d e r l y i n g r e g u l a r i t y i n t h e d a t a .  e i g e n v a l u e o f 1.0-0 was used as t h e c u t o f f p o i n t  generation of f a c t o r s . s u b j e c t e d t o varimax The raw  observed  material  for the  The r e s u l t i n g f a c t o r m a t r i x was then  rotation.  factor analysis  o f 19 f l a k e a t t r i b u t e s  (those o f  t y p e , t e x t u r e , homogeneity, and d i s t a l end  t e r m i n a t i o n were excluded) r e s u l t e d  i n a 5-factor  solution.  205 The  varimax r o t a t e d  f a c t o r l o a d i n g s are p r e s e n t e d i n  table  10. F a c t o r 1, which accounts f o r 54.2%  of the  sample  v a r i a n c e * i s c o n s i d e r e d to r e p r e s e n t the dimension of size.  The  a t t r i b u t e s of weight, l e n g t h ,  t h i c k n e s s * and loadings.  factor i s also bipolar  surface  f l a k e scar  This  between the  f l a k e s c a r s i z e and  dorsal  indicates  an  inverse  measure the o v e r a l l dimensions of the  T h e r e f o r e , as the  does the scars.  flake.  Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p would be  dorsal  flaking angles.  two.  to  that dorsal  decreasing  flake  so«  surface  the  two  of v a r i a n c e  a t t r i b u t e s : the v e n t r a l  and  dorsal  These a t t r i b u t e s have v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l  v a l u e s , i n d i c a t i n g a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  This; f a c t o r i s i n t e r p r e t e d  of a p p l i e d  1  sequence.  i s dominated by  loading  The  expected i n  The^ second f a c t o r accounts f o r 20.2% and  relationship  o v e r a l l f l a k e s i z e decreases,  predominant s i z e range of the  reduction  a high  those above  s i z e a t t r i b u t e i s measured w i t h r e s p e c t  size*  high  (Harman 1967:100),,  s i z e a t t r i b u t e has  negative loading.  scar  w i d t h , non-bulbar  b u l b a r t h i c k n e s s a l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y  This  as the d o r s a l  flake  force  as r e p r e s e n t i n g  the  the  vector  f o r f l a k e removal.  Factor 3 i s a s p e c i f i c factor'-primarily defined a single attribute--dorsal  surface  f l a k e scar count.  by This  TABLE 10 FLAKE ATTRIBUTE;FACTOR ANALYSIS LOADINGS Factor 1  2  3  4  5  Weight  (0.94055)  -0.01606  0.09267  0.28315  -0.05189  Flake Length  (0.87324)  0.01745  0.04732  0.13609  -0.00498  0.16504  0.23375  -0.08215  0.14786  0.27058  -0.13363  Attribute  Flake Width  (0.87349)  .-0.01449  Non-Bulbar Flake Thickness  (0.79583)  -0.07855  Bulbar Thickness  (0.78514)  -0.04233  0.10179  0.45786  -0.10976  0.38280  0.01632  -0.14174  (0.83340)  0.01119  -0.06311 0.14752  (0.74821)  -0.06460  -0.03548  S t r i k i n g Platform Width S t r i k i n g Platform Depth  ,  0.47101  0.05038  Dorsal Flaking Angle  -0.00988  (0.90162)  Ventral Flaking Angle  -0.02932  (0.90790)  0.10803  0.04351  0.14633  0.18506  0.16225  (0.72590)  0.13582  -0.07473  Ventral Surface Curvature  0.23848  -0.32663  -0.25441  0.12007  0.19568  S t r i k i n g Platform Preparation  0.13379  -0.04986  0.11445  0.38414  0.01309  -0.23755  0.05662  0.06962  -0.10009  -0.16660  0.13420  -0.00428  0.29238  0.00548  0.24010  Dorsal Scar Count  S t r i k i n g Platform Abrasion S t r i k i n g Platform Strengthening Ventral Surface Lipping  0.14708  -0.05185  0.16394  Bulb o f Applied Force  0.31049  -0.19094  -0.01546 -0.10138  0.01347 0.25997  (-0.59391)  Cortex Cover  0.17744  0.18606  -0.27496  -0.15902  -0.31698  -0.02243  0.09957  0.41807  -0.04490  0.03050  (-0.62006)  0.05258  0.37009  -0.10247  0.16467  Dorsal Surface Scar Patterning Dorsal Surface Scar Size  NOTE: Bracketed ( ) values indicate s i g n i f i c a n t loadings discussed i n text.  (0.68824)  ro  o  ON  207  f a c t o r accounts f o r 9.2% o f the sample v a r i a n c e .  It i s  r e g a r d e d as a dimension o f r e d u c t i o n energy e x p e n d i t u r e respect parent The  t o t h e number o f p r e v i o u s material before  lower than t h e v a l u e  a t t r i b u t e , although  a s s o c i a t i o n , as i n c r e a s e d reduction i n operations  considerably  T h i s i s not an unexpected  f l a k e removals i n d i c a t e extended  t h a t would r e s u l t i n more complex  arrangements o f n e g a t i v e  original  flake.  f o r scar count, i s that of d o r s a l  surface f l a k e scar patterning.  The  f l a k e removals from t h e  t h e removal o f the p r e s e n t  next h i g h e s t - l o a d i n g  flake sears.  f o u r t h f a c t o r accounts f o r a p r o p o r t i o n o f  sample v a r i a n c e , 9.1%, t h a t i s n e a r l y equal  of f a c t o r 3.. The h i g h e s t  to that  loading a t t r i b u t e s i n t h i s f a c t o r  are those o f s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m a r c h i t e c t u r e , p l a t f o r m and  platform  with  depth.  This f a c t o r i s considered  width  to indicate  the dimension o f t h e s u r f a c e t o r e c e i v e the a p p l i e d f o r c e f o r f l a k e detachment. F a c t o r 5 i s another b i p o l a r f a c t o r t h a t i n t h i s accounts f o r 7.4% o f the sample v a r i a n c e .  Ventral  case  surface  l i p p i n g has the h i g h e s t p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g v a l u e w h i l e the b u l b o f a p p l i e d f o r c e has the g r e a t e s t n e g a t i v e  value.  This  i n d i c a t e s an o p p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two a t t r i b u t e s , , which s t a t e s t h a t v e n t r a l s u r f a c e l i p p i n g i s associated with  s a l i e n t , acuminate bulbs  d i f f u s e , truncated  bulbs  o f f o r c e r a t h e r than  as has been suggested by some  208  experimental research.  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t  these  a t t r i b u t e s w e r e each, m e a s u r e d i n o n l y 2 s t a t e s , w h i c h be  m a s k i n g more s u b t l e  variations.  f a c t o r c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d detachment  in  basis  be  analysis.,  the highest absolute loading  This resulted  bulb of applied  attribute  an The  platform  The b u l b o f a p p l i e d  due t o t h e u n c e r t a i n  surface lipping  c a l c u l a t i o n o f a f l a k e mass  width, force  of  attribute) removal  a t t r i b u t e o f f l a k e w i d t h , t h e second h i g h e s t retained  flaking  present status  (the highest-loading  1, was a l s o  analysis.  attribute i n factor  accurate i n d i c a t o r of the type of applied  attribute i n factor the  count, s t r i k i n g  force.  lithic  weight, ventral  i s t h e second highest loading  5 a n d was s e l e c t e d ventral  inferred f o r that  of the i n i t i a l set subjected  to 5 attributes:  flake scar  attri-  v a l u e was a s s u m e d t o  f o r the following  i n the reduction  analysis  angle, dorsal and  For each f a c t o r , t h a t  the best indicator of r e l a t i o n s h i p s  factor  provide  f o r s e l e c t i o n o f t h o s e f l a k e a t t r i b u t e s t o be used  f a c t o r a n d was r e t a i n e d  to  as t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a p p l i e d  above r e s u l t s o f t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s  the major l i t h i c  bute with  Nevertheless,, t h i s  force.  The the  may  as  force.  loading  i n order t o enable  index.  Cores This a r t i f a c t material  class  includes  those items o f  from which f l a k e s were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  lithic  removed.  209  For purposes o f a n a l y s i s , c o r e s were d e f i n e d by two eria: one  crit-  1) the absence o f a b u l b o f f o r c e , and 2) m i n i m a l l y  s u r f a c e e x h i b i t i n g n e g a t i v e f l a k e s c a r s a t l e a s t 2 cm  long.  I d e a l l y these c r i t e r i a  p i e c e s t h a t have evidence  s h o u l d s c r e e n out those  o f numerous f l a k e removals but  not f o r the purpose of producing reduction..  f l a k e s f o r subsequent  However, p o t e n t i a l e r r o r s o f o b s e r v a t i o n  should be noted.  still  While the o b j e c t i v e i s t o determine  those  items t h a t s e r v e d as p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f f l a k e t o o l b l a n k s , some a r t i f a c t s meeting the above c r i t e r i a may r e p r e s e n t amorphous r e j e c t s from i n i t i a l stages o f b i facial  or u n i f a c i a l  tool production.  The above c u t o f f  value  may a l s o r e s u l t i n t h e m i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v e r y s m a l l and exhausted  c o r e s as b l o c k s h a t t e r d e b i t a g e  c u s s i o n below).  (see s h a t t e r d i s -  The measurement o f i n t e n t i n l i t h i c a n a l y s i s  i s a hazardous procedure  a t best..  Core raw m a t e r i a l a t t r i b u t e s were r e c o r d e d manner i d e n t i c a l flakes.,  to that described f o r platform-bearing  A d d i t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s recorded  f o r cores i n c l u d e :  1) weight t o 0.1 gm, 2) maximum dimension dimension  i n mm,  in a  i n mm,  3) minimum  4) presence-absence o f c o r t e x , 5) number o f  f l a k e removal s u r f a c e s , 6) p a t t e r n i n g o f f l a k e removal f a c e s ( u n i d i r e c t i o n a l , b i d i r e c t i o n a l , or m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l ) , type  ( u n d i a g n o s t i c o r prepared  8) c o n d i t i o n (whole o r  f o r microblade  fragmentary).  7)  r e m o v a l ) , and  210  The  measurement o f r e d u c t i o n  on  cores  i s restricted  on  the piece.  of various  anticipated. source, and  some c h a r a c t e r i s i c e n d r e s u l t s  Given a constant  amount o f c o r t e x  mass a n d n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g  steps  should  f l a k e removal surfaces  changing  c a r r i e d out  i n t h e o v e r a l l r e d u c t i v e s e q u e n c e may be  a s more r e d u c t i o n  removal faces  represented  t o the l a s t removal steps  Nevertheless,  points  sequences  a r e c a r r i e d o u t , t h e mass  decrease while  should  increase.  t h e number o f  Patterning of flake  may a l s o b e e x p e c t e d t o g e t more c o m p l e x ,  from u n i d i r e c t i o n a l t o b i d i r e c t i o n a l  or multi-  d i r e c t i o n a l removal f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n s . Shatter Shatter constitutes undiagnostic  pieces  t h a t do n o t e x h i b i t a t t r i b u t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h category  lack a bulb  f l a k e sections..  debitage  flakes.,  includes both irregular-shaped,, angular  m e d i a l and d i s t a l will  of  pieces  This and  In e i t h e r case, the item  o f f o r c e and s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m .  Two  basic  t y p e s o f s h a t t e r were d i s t i n g u i s h e d on t h e b a s i s o f o v e r a l l morphology:  1) block  Block angular istics  s h a t t e r and 2 ) f l a k e s h a t t e r .  shatter i s identified  form and a v i r t u a l  absence o f a l l those  usually associated with  d e t e r m i n e how b l o c k material.  Block  by i t s c u b i c a l and  flaking.  character-  I t i s impossible  to  s h a t t e r was r e m o v e d f r o m t h e p a r e n t  shatter i s likely  a product of  excessive  a p p l i c a t i o n s o f f o r c e and/or t h e p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f the  211  l i t h i c m a t e r i a l being can  fractured.  p o t e n t i a l l y r e s u l t at any  Although block  p o i n t i n the  reduction  sequence, i t i s assumed t o have the g r e a t e s t o c c u r r e n c e i n the i n i t i a l s i z e i s i t s l a r g e s t and  steps.  raw  material  l i k e l i h o o d of  A t . t h i s s t e p , raw  t h e r e f o r e would r e q u i r e  amounts of f o r c e t o remove f l a k e s , t h a t may The  shatter  be  material  considerable misapplied.  nodule would a l s o be expected t o e x h i b i t  p l a n e s o f weakness a t the e x t e r i o r s u r f a c e r e s u l t i n g from weathering force  (e.g. f r o s t - f r a c t u r e ) and  n a t u r a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of  (e.g. w a t e r - r o l l i n g ) t h a t would r e s u l t i n a  potential  high  f o r the i n t e r n a l r e f l e c t i o n o f s t r e s s waves, which  i s considered  to r e s u l t i n s h a t t e r i n g  (Speth 1972).  F l a k e s h a t t e r i n c l u d e s the m i d - s e c t i o n s or ends of f l a k e s .  While these p i e c e s  do  terminal  not e x h i b i t a b u l b  o f f o r c e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h the v e n t r a l  surface  from the d o r s a l by the presence o f compression r i n g s . it  i s o f t e n p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y a p o r t i o n of the  f l a k e margin.  F l a k e s h a t t e r was  a l l m a n u f a c t u r i n g steps  original  l i k e l y produced throughout  as w e l l as by  post^manufacture f o r c e s .  A minimal number o f a t t r i b u t e s were recorded block  and  cortex,  flake shatter.  and  Raw  Also,  m a t e r i a l a t t r i b u t e s of  for type,  homogeneity were measured i n the same manner  as t h a t d e s c r i b e d  f o r platform-bearing  a t t r i b u t e s recorded  include:  flakes.  weight, t o 0.1  gm,  Other and  212  presence-absence o f c o r t e x . weight v a l u e s  While the d i s t r i b u t i o n  f o r each p i e c e of s h a t t e r may  not  accurately  r e f l e c t r e d u c t i o n sequence, the t o t a l amount per should  g i v e at l e a s t a g e n e r a l  m a t e r i a l reduced.  assemblage  i d e a of the mass of  lithic  P i e c e s w i t h c o r t e x p r e s e n t would  expected to r e f l e c t e a r l i e r r e d u c t i o n steps than w i t h no c o r t e x  of  be  those  cover. Tools  The intended  t o o l c l a s s e s d e f i n e d f o r t h i s study were  t o measure a p a r t i c u l a r s e t of v a r i a b l e s t h a t have  been r e c o g n i z e d  i n experimental  and  ethnoarchaeological  r e s e a r c h as i n f l u e n c i n g the use o f an implement.  While  c l a s s e s are d e f i n e d i n p a r t on the b a s i s o f o v e r a l l  form,  s p e c i a l emphasis was  type,  given t o :  1) the raw  material  2.) the degree o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g energy e x p e n d i t u r e , the angle  and  of the working edge.  There i s some debate i n contemporary l i t h i c w i t h r e s p e c t to the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f raw  material  as a determinant of c h i p p e d - s t o n e t o o l use. (1968,1970) p i o n e e r stone to  study  the v a r i a t i o n i n use  studies  variability  Wilmsen's  on the u s e - f u n c t i o n o f P a l e o l n d i a n  t o o l assemblages e v i d e n t l y a s c r i b e s l i t t l e  materials  3)  importance  p o t e n t i a l r e l a t e d to d i f f e r e n t  ( J e l i n e k 1976:28).  have i n d i c a t e d t h a t s y s t e m a t i c  Nevertheless, raw  other  raw  studies  m a t e r i a l s e l e c t i o n was  213  conducted f o r those p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s the mechanical use The  conclusions  t h a t would a f f e c t  of a t o o l ( C l a r k 1959:147; Wylie 1975).  o f Wylie's study o f t o o l micro-wear i n the  Hogup Cave l i t h i c  assemblage are of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e  to  this analysis: The s e l e c t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s stone types a v a i l a b l e to the i n h a b i t a n t s of Hogup Cave were not random. I t p r o b a b l y depended on the n a t u r e o f the p a r t i c u l a r tasks t o be performed, w i t h job requirement