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Lithic technology and settlement patterns in upper Hat Creek Valley, B.C. Pokotylo, David L. 1978

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LITHIC TECHNOLOGY AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN UPPER HAT CREEK VALLEY, B.C. by DAVID LESLIE POKOTYLO B.A., University of Winnipeg, 1972 M . A * , University of Manitoba, 1974 DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standards THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978 (c) David L e s l i e Pokotylo In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date S e p t e m b e r 1 5 . 1978 i i ABSTRACT T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f p r e h i s t o r i c l i t h i c t e c h n o l o g y t o p a s t s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t systems o p e r a t i v e a t upper e l e v a t i o n s i n t h e S o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t has b o t h a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and a s u b s t a n t i v e a s p e c t . From a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e r e s e a r c h a p p l i e s a l i n e a r model o f c h i p p e d - s t o n e t o o l m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s e s and m u l t i v a r i a t e d a t a r e d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s t o a s e r i e s o f l i t h i c assemblages from s u r f a c e s i t e s l o c a t e d i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y i n o r d e r t o s t u d y i n t e r s i t e v a r i -a b i l i t y o f s t o n e t o o l m a n u f a c t u r e and u s e . I n o r d e r t o e f f i c i e n t l y s t u d y d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o o l m a n u f a c t u r i n g s e q u e n c e s , p o t e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s t h a t may measure such t e c h n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y were e v a l u a t e d by a R-mode f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f a s m a l l sample o f t h e a s s e m b l a g e s ; T h i s e n a b l e d t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a r e d u c e d number o f a t t r i b u t e s t h a t measure t h e u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e s e n t i n t h e sample. T o o l c l a s s e s based on o v e r a l l morphology and w o r k i n g edge c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s were employed t o d e s c r i b e a r t i f a c t u s e . Two s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , one based on l i t h i c waste p a t t e r n i n g and t h e o t h e r on t o o l assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y , were e s t a b l i s h e d by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s and m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g o f t h e a s s e m b l a g e s . i i i The r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f each s i t e c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n as a means o f d e l i n e a t i n g s e t t l e m e n t t y p e s was e v a l -u a t e d by t h e a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o such v a r i a b l e s as t h e n a t u r e and i n t e n s i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f each a n a l y s i s t e n d t o b e . i n g e n e r a l agreement w i t h each o t h e r , a l t h o u g h some d i f f e r e n c e s a r e p r e s e n t . I n some c a s e s , t h e d e b i t a g e a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s a more d e t a i l e d and complex p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e t y p e o f o c c u p a -t i o n . - A l s o , a l a r g e r amount o f p a t t e r n i n g w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s i s e v i d e n t among t h e s i t e groups based on t e c h n o l o -g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n based on r e s u l t s o f b o t h a n a l y s e s were much more comp r e h e n s i v e r e l a t i v e t o t h o s e p o s s i b l e from t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f each a n a l y s i s s e p a r a t e l y . I n a d d i t i o n t o s t u d y i n g i n t e r a s s e m b l a g e v a r i a b i l i t y , t h e a n a l y s i s o f d e b i t a g e p r o v i d e d some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e p a t t e r n i n g o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e as measures o f v a r i a t i o n i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g s t e p s . I n two s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s , o b s e r v e d a t t r i b u t e p a t t e r n -i n g i s o p p o s i t e t o t h a t e x p e c t e d by p r e s e n t knowledge o f l i t h i c t e c h n o l o g y . The e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e s some d i r e c t i o n s t o be p u r s u e d by f u t u r e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s . The e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y o f each s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i v was also investigated. A ser i e s of Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance tests was run on general l i t h i c assemblage data and technological a t t r i b u t e s to determine i f the s i t e groups defined are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The t o o l -based s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i f f e r e n t i a t e s general l i t h i c assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y better than debitagej however, t h i s tends to r e f l e c t s i t e s i z e rather than technological processes. Both analyses support expectations based on ethno-graphy that Upper Hat Creek Valley was l i k e l y u t i l i z e d for seasonal hunting and plant gathering. These a c t i v i t i e s are r e f l e c t e d by the two main settlement types defined: 1) staging s i t e s for hunting and butchering a c t i v i t i e s and 2) plant gathering and processing s i t e s . Considerable v a r i a t i o n with respect to the emphasis on e x t r a c t i v e and maintenance a c t i v i t i e s i s present within each type. This study has major implications f o r the future study of interassemblage v a r i a b i l i t y where the predominant a r t i f a c t c l a s s i s l i t h i c debitage. I t has demonstrated that technological patterning i s observable at the i n t e r s i t e l e v e l and that t h i s can be accounted f o r i n terms of sub-sistence-settlement a c t i v i t i e s . V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my appreciation to a number of individuals who have contributed to the completion of t h i s study. The following acknowledgements are by no means exhaustive; I hope that those persons not s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned w i l l recognize t h e i r contribution as they read t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . Dr. R.G. Matson, as graduate advisor, provided en-couragement, advice, and assistance at a l l stages of my studies at U.B.C. My debt to him i s a great one. The guidance provided by my d i s s e r t a t i o n committee: Drs. David F. Aberle, J.E. Michael Kew, Richard J. Pearson, and Arnoud H. Stryd, i s also g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. My interests i n l i t h i c technology, settlement patterns, and quantitative analysis, were developed during the tenure of a Canada Council doctoral fellowship from to 1977. None of the work reported here could have taken place with-out the contracts provided to U.B.C. i n 1976 and 1977 "by B.C. Hydro and Power Authority. Bjom Simonsen, P r o v i n c i a l Archaeologist, and Art Charlton, then I n t e r i o r Archaeologist, of the Heritage Conservation Branch, Ministry of Recreation and Conservation, Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, were i n -strumental i n making t h i s support a v a i l a b l e . The successful completion of the Upper Hat Creek Valley fieldwork was dependent upon the assistance of many in d i v i d u a l s . I would l i k e to express my gratitude to the v i residents of Hat Creek Val l e y for t h e i r cooperation and hos-p i t a l i t y . Special thanks are extended to Gordon Parke, who provided an i d e a l l o c a t i o n f o r the f i e l d camp. The "crew of '76" was. composed of students enrolled i n the U.B.C. arch-aeological f i e l d school, instructed by Dr. P a t r i c i a Hitchins. The success of the f i e l d season was d i r e c t l y due .to Pat Beirne and Michael Blake, crew chi e f s , and crew members S y l v i a Albright, Sue Bishop, Christine Boulding, Linda Burnard, David Cambrin, Ruth Forest, R i t a Higginson, Geordie Howe, Helen Lemon, Irma Lux, Rosemary Pipke, Rena Soper, V i k i Warfield, Aflene Yip, and Sandra Zacharias, who braved a l l the elements from June snow to "boo-boo" the bear. Laboratory assistance i n 1976 was volunteered by Helen Lemon, who undertook the formidable task of cataloging the entire l i t h i c assemblage from EeRj 58• Assistance i n debitage coding was provided by Arlene Yip and R i t a Higginson. A l l figures and photographs i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , along with many other feats of .technical wizardry were done by Moira Irvine i n her usual excellent manner. Special thanks are also due to Joy Yorath and others who did the job that I never could have managed—typing the d i s s e r t a t i o n . I would also l i k e to acknowledge a number of folks who helped keep me sane during the writing of t h i s d i s s e r t a -t i o n . My parents were quite concerned throughout and I think are glad to see t h i s accomplished. Gerry Garcia, Jethro T u l l , and the R o l l i n g Stones helped me to maintain an optimistic perspective during the rather mundane aspects of v i i debitage analysis. This dissertation i s dedicated to my expectant wife, Catherine, who not only helped immeasurably with typing early drafts, xeroxing, and proofreading, but presented the incen-tive to get this written. v i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . ...... i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS V LIST OF TABLES x i LIST OF FIGURES * i v Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 History of Archaeological Research i n the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau 4 Research Questions and Objectives ............. 14 I I . RESEARCH DESIGN .... 16 General Theoretical Framework 16 The Study of P r e h i s t o r i c Behavior: A Framework 18 Research Strategy 32 I I I . THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING . . „ 35 The Contemporary Environment 34 General geographic s e t t i n g 34 S u r f i c i a l geology and s o i l s 35 Climate 40 Hydrologic environment 43 Flora 46 Fauna . • 63 Mammals .. 63 Fish 66 i x Birds . 67 L i t h i c Resources 68 The Paleoenvironmental Setting „ 73 The l a t e Pleistocene environment ............ 74 The Recent environment 78 IV. THE CULTURAL SETTING 87 Regional Ethnography 91 Regional Culture History 101 General Models of Hunter-Gatherer Subsistence-Settlement Systems .. ., .....108 Upper Hat Creek Valley Subsistence and Settlement 114 V. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN UPPER HAT CREEK VALLEY ..123 Methodology ......123 Research Results ................................ .135 VI.. THE LITHIC TECHNOLOGY SUBSYSTEM ....159 L i t h i c A t t r i b u t e Selection and Measurement...168 Platform-bearing flakes 177 Assessment of flake c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 201 Cores 208 Shatter 210 Tools 212 X VII. THE LITHIC ANALYSIS 229 A n a l y t i c a l Procedures ...229 Debitage Analysis .., .247 Debitage c l u s t e r analysis .247 Summary of the debitage c l u s t e r ^analysis 260 Multidimensional s c a l i n g of debitage 267 Tool Analysis 273 Tool c l u s t e r analysis .......273 Multidimensional s c a l i n g of tools 280 Comparison of Debitage and Tool Analyses ......283 VIII. SITE-ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS 297 IX. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 317 Summary .317 Conclusions 329 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . .333 x i LIST OF TABLES 1. Upper Hat Creek Valley C l i m a t i c Data 42 2. Vegetation Associations i n the Upper Hat Creek Basin .... .... . 48 3. Mammals P o t e n t i a l l y Present, i n the Upper Hat Creek Basin ... 64 4.. Waterfowl,, Upland Game Birds, and Birds of Prey P o t e n t i a l l y Present i n the Upper Hat Creek Basin 69 5. S i t e Tabulations: Grassland and Forest Strata ......136 6. S i t e Survey Summary Tabulations ....................137 7.. C u l t u r a l Depression Surface A t t r i b u t e s ............... 143 8. Estimated Antiquity of Sites .........151 9.. Radiocarbon Dates f o r Excavated C u l t u r a l :. , Depressions .. 157 10. Flake A t t r i b u t e Factor Analysis Loadings ............206 11. Tool Assemblage Tabulations 231 12. Sites Sampled f o r L i t h i c Analysis: Sampling Frac-t i o n and Area Sampled 234 13.. Debitage Assemblage Frequency Tabulations ..........235 14. Debitage Assemblage Weight Tabulations .............236 15. Metric A t t r i b u t e s for Basalt Debitage Assemblages .241 16. Metric A t t r i b u t e s f o r Chert Debitage Assemblages ...242 17. Index A t t r i b u t e s - f o r Basalt and Chert Debitage Assemblages .243 18. Technological A t t r i b u t e s of Sites Grouped by Ward's Cluster Analysis of Debitage ......................249 X I 1 19. Kruskal-Wallis Tests on Technological A t t r i b u t e s of Sites Grouped by Ward's Cl u s t e r Analysis of Debitage .... ........251 20. General L i t h i c Assemblage A t t r i b u t e s . .......263 21. Kruskal-Wallis Tests on General L i t h i c Assemblage At t r i b u t e s of Si t e s Grouped by Ward's C l u s t e r Analysis of Debitage 264 22. General L i t h i c Assemblage A t t r i b u t e s of S i t e s Grouped by Ward's Cl u s t e r Analysis of Debitage..265 23. Kruskal-Wallis Tests on General L i t h i c Assemblage At t r i b u t e s of S i t e s Grouped by Ward's Cl u s t e r Analysis of Tools 279 24. Kruskal-Wallis Tests on Technological A t t r i b u t e s of S i t e s Grouped by Ward's Cluste r Analysis of Tools 292 25. D i s t r i b u t i o n of S i t e s Grouped by Ward's Cl u s t e r Analyses of Debitage and of Tools by C u l t u r a l Depressions .295 26. D i s t r i b u t i o n of S i t e s Grouped by Ward's Cl u s t e r Analysis of Debitage by Vegetation Community Groups ... .....299 27. D i s t r i b u t i o n of S i t e s Grouped by Ward's Cl u s t e r Analysis of Tools by Vegetation Community Groups .300 x i i i 28. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sit e s Grouped by Ward's Cluste r Analyses of Debitage and of Tools by Distance to Drainage ....303 29. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sit e s Grouped by Ward's Cl u s t e r Analysis of Debitage by Drainage Type ..........305 30. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sit e s Grouped by Ward's Cl u s t e r Analysis '.of Tools by Drainage Type ...306 31. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sites Grouped by Ward's Cl u s t e r Analysis of Debitage by Local Exposure 308 32. D i s t r i b u t i o n of S i t e s Grouped by Ward's Cluste r Analysis of Tools by Local Exposure ....309 33. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sites Grouped by Ward's Cluste r Analyses of Debitage and of Tools by Overview...312 x i v LIST OF FIGURES 1. Locations of Previous Archaeological Research i n the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau 5 2. Physiographic Subdivisions i n the V i c i n i t y of Upper Hat Creek Valley .....36 3. General View of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y , Looking Southwest .... o . 37 4. S u r f i c i a l Geology of Upper Hat Creek Valley 39 5. Hat Creek Drainage Basin 45 6. V e r t i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of Biogeoclimatic Zones i n the V i c i n i t y of Upper Hat Creek Valley 47 7. Vegetation Communities i n the Upper Hat Creek Valley Study Area 50 8. Sagebrush-Bunchgrass Community 51 9. Middle-Upper Grassland Community 51 10. Riparian Community ...........54 11. Saline Depression Community 54 1.2. Engelmann Spruce-Horsetail Community 57 13. Willow-Sedge Bog Community ..........................57 14. Douglas Fir-Bunchgrass Community 59 15. Douglas-Fir-Pinegrass Community 59 16. Douglas-Fir-Bunchgrass-Pinegrass Community .62 17. Douglas Fir-Spriea-Bearberry Community 62 18. Ethnographic I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Groups i n the V i c i n i t y of Upper Hat Creek Valley ...88 XV 19. Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y Sampling Frame f o r Archaeological Survey • .125 20. Upper Hat Creek Val l e y Sampling Frame, Environ-mental S t r a t a , and Quadrats Surveyed .. ........... 132 21. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of Number of Sites per Quadrat: Forest Stratum, Grassland Stratum, and Total Sample ..... .......138 22. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Number of C u l t u r a l Depressions per Quadrat: Total Sample 142 23. Frequency D i s t r i b i t i o n of C u l t u r a l Depression Mean Rim-to-Rim Diameters: Total Sample ....144 24. Schematic Diagram of C u l t u r a l Depression 145 25. Frequency D i s t r i b i t i o n s of S i t e Size: Forest Stratum, Grassland Stratum, and Total Sample ......147 26. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of Debitage Densities: Forest Stratum, Grassland Stratum, and Total Samplel49 2 7. Schematic Diagram of Platform-Bearing Flake At t r i b u t e s 178 28. Schematic Diagram of Flake Ventral Surface Curvature A t t r i b u t e States 187 29. Schematic Diagram of Flake D i s t a l End Termination A t t r i b u t e States 189 30. Schematic Diagram of Flake S t r i k i n g Platform Preparation A t t r i b u t e States .....192 31. Schematic Diagram of Dorsal Flake Scar Pattern A t t r i b u t e States .200 xvi 32. P r o j e c t i l e Points from Upper Hat Creek Valley Sites 217 33. P r o j e c t i l e Point Bases from Upper Hat Creek Val l e y Sites . . . 219 34. Marginal U n i f a c i a l Retouched Flakes from Upper Hat Creek Valley Sites . 221 35. Formed Unifaces from Upper Hat Creek Valley S i t e s . 222 36. Marginal B i f a c i a l Retouched Flakes and Gravers from Upper Hat Creek Valley Sites 224 37. Microblades from Upper Hat Creek Valley Sites 225 38. Bipolar Implements-from Upper Hat Creek Valley S i t e s 227 39. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of Number of Tools and Tool Types i n L i t h i c Assemblages with Tools Present 232 40. Ward's Cluste r Analysis of Debitage Assemblages ....248 41. Torgerson's Metric Multidimensional Scaling of Debitage Assemblages 268 42. Kruskal's Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling of Debitage Assemblages 270 43. Ward's Cluste r Analysis of Tool Assemblages ........275 44. Torgerson's Metric Multidimensional Scaling of Tool Assemblages: Dimensions 1 and 2 281 45. Torgerson's Metric Multidimensional Scaling of Tool Assemblages: Dimensions 3 and 4 284 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This d i s s e r t a t i o n i s concerned with the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of p r e h i s t o r i c l i t h i c technology to past subsistence and settlement systems. It develops, applies, and evaluates a methodology to describe and in t e r p r e t i n t e r s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y i n the manufacture and use of chipped-stone a r t i f a c t s from surface s i t e s located i n an upper-elevation v a l l e y i n the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia. The i n t e r -p retive p o t e n t i a l of l i t h i c surface scatter s i t e s i n the reconstruction of p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence-settlement patterns i n upper-elevation environments of the southern plateau i s also investigated. This study i s organized into nine chapters. The present chapter presents a b r i e f h i s t o r y of archaeological research i n the southern plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia to determine the current state of knowledge on p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence-settlement systems and d i r e c t i o n s that future studies may take i n order to better understand the regional pattern. Chapter II outlines the research design of the study, i n d i c a t i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l and methodological o r i e n t -ation used. It also evaluates the po t e n t i a l usefulness of 2 various classes of archaeological data i n the reconstruction of p r e h i s t o r i c settlement types. On the basis of contemp-orary archaeological method and theory and the r e s u l t s of recent ethnoarchaeological research, i t i s proposed that byproducts of stone tool manufacture may provide a better r e f l e c t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out at p r e h i s t o r i c s e t t l e -ments. A research strategy to test t h i s idea i s then presented. Chapter III constitutes the i n i t i a l step of the research strategy, presenting an overview of the natural environment of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . The nature and d i s -t r i b u t i o n of such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as topography, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and w i l d l i f e , and t h e i r r o l e s as p o t e n t i a l subsistence resources are noted. Chapter IV examines the c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i n the v i c i n i t y of Upper Hat Creek Valley, emphasizing ethnographic patterns of upper-elevation land use practices i n the southern plateau. Local ethnographic information was supplemented by data on general p r i n c i p l e s of hunter-gatherer economic behavior. The combined information was then used as a basis for deriving s p e c i f i c expectations of the Upper Hat Creek Valley archaeological record. The s p e c i f i c archaeological research c a r r i e d out i n Hat Creek Valley i s discussed i n chapter V. The substantive r e s u l t s of both survey and excavation fieldwork are presented. Chapter VI discusses the nature of the l i t h i c 3 technology subsystem and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to subsistence and settlement p r a c t i c e s . Attributes that p o t e n t i a l l y measure aspects of tool manufacturing processes are presented and evaluated by an R-mode factor analysis of a p i l o t sample of debitage assemblages. The r e s u l t s of the factor analysis were used to s e l e c t those a t t r i b u t e s to be used i n the main ana l y s i s . Morphological l i t h i c t o o l categories considered to r e f l e c t a r t i f a c t use are also described. The r e s u l t s of two separate l i t h i c analyses, one of debitage and the other of t o o l s , are discussed i n chapter VII. S i t e assemblage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s based on c l u s t e r analysis and multidimensional s c a l i n g of debitage and tool data are interpreted and then comparatively studied. The empirical v a l i d i t y of each s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s also examined by a series of Kruskal-Wallis tests applied to the debitage and tools as well as a set of general l i t h i c assemblage a t t r i b u t e s . Environmental r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the two s i t e type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s based on debitage and tools are described and interpreted with respect to subsistence-settlement a c t i v i t i e s i n chapter VIII. The methodological and substantive r e s u l t s of the above analyses are summarized i n chapter IX. The r e l a t i v e effectiveness of l i t h i c debitage analysis i n the reconstruct-ion of settlement types and the methodology used to describe such v a r i a b i l i t y i s assessed. The contributions of the study to current archaeological method and theory and southern plateau archaeology are also evaluated. F i n a l l y , recommendations for future work are made. History of Archaeological Research  in the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau This section outlines the past archaeological research c a r r i e d out in the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia to provide a background to the present study. I t examines research questions addressed by past work and r e s u l t s of these investigations that have contributed to the present state of knowledge of southern plateau archaeol-ogy, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to questions of p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence and settlement. This overview i s used as a basis for delineating problem areas to be investigated by future subsistence-settlement studies.. The locations of the research discussed below are presented i n fig u r e 1. Archaeological investigations i n the southern plateau extend back to 1877, when George M. Dawson recorded his observations of archaeological and ethnographic s i t e s while engaged i n geological work for the Geological Survey of Canada (Dawson 1891:7-12).. The f i r s t i n t e n t i o n a l archaeolog-i c a l research, however, was conducted by Harlan I. Smith for the Jesup North P a c i f i c Expedition from 1897 to 1899.. Smith c a r r i e d out excavations of b u r i a l s i t e s at Lytton (Smith 1899), Spences Bridge, and Kamloops, as well as a b r i e f survey of the Nicola Valley (Smith 1900). The major conclusion of t h i s pioneering research concerned the close s i m i l a r i t y L E G E N D : 1 T W E E D S M U I R P A R K ( B O R D E N 1 9 5 2 ) 2 C H I N L A C V I L L A G E ( B O R D E N 1 9 5 2 ) 3 O K A N A G A N A N D S I M I L K A M E E N V A L L E Y S ( C A L D W E L L I 9 5 4 - , G R A B E R T 1 9 7 4 ) 4 C A C H E C R E E K ( S A N G E R 1 9 6 8 ) 5 C H A S E ( S A N G E R 1 9 6 8 ) 6 L O C H N O R E - N E S I K E P L O C A L I T Y ( S A N G E R 1 9 6 3 , 1 9 6 6 , 1 9 7 0 a , 1 9 7 0 b ) 7 A R R O W L A K E S ( T U R N B U L L 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 7 ) 8 C H I L C O T I N P L A T E A U ( M I T C H E L L n .d . , 1 9 6 9 , 1 9 7 2 ) 9 N I C O L A V A L L E Y ( W Y A T T n .d . , 1971. 1972};' 10 L I L L O O E T R E G I O N ( S T R Y D 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 2 , 1 9 7 3 , 1 9 7 4 ) 11 S O U T H T H O M P S O N R I V E R - S H U S W A P L A K E S ( S M I T H 1 9 0 0 ; E L D R I D G E 1 9 7 4 ; J O H N S O N - F L A D M A R K 1 9 7 4 ; W I L S O N 1 9 7 6 ) 12 L Y T T O N R E G I O N ( S M I T H 1 8 9 9 ; B A K E R n .d.0. n.d. b) 13 C H I L C O T I N R I V E R F R A S E R R I V E R C O N F L U E N C E ( H A M 1 9 7 5 ; M A T S O N , H A M Q B U N Y A N n d. ) 1 4 G A S P A R D C R E E K ( E L D R I D G E n.d.) 15 S E M L I N a B O N A P A R T E R I V E R V A L L E Y S ( P O K O T Y L O 1 9 7 7 ) B R O K E N L I N E S E N C O M P A S S A R E A S I N V E S T I G A T E D FIGURE 1. Locations of previous archaeological research i n th.e S.outhern I n t e r i o r Plateau.. 6 between the p r e h i s t o r i c and ethnographic cultures of the region: "The ancient c u l t u r e of the whole of the southern i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia was quite uniform, and resembled i n a l l e s s e n t i a l points the c u l t u r e of the present inhabitants of t h i s area . . . " (Smith 1900:432-433). The following period up to 1950 can be best des-cribed as a " c u l t u r a l h i a t us" of archaeological research i n the southern i n t e r i o r as i t was not u n t i l t h i s decade that any further- purposeful work was conducted. From 1950 to 1952 C.E. Borden (1952.) c a r r i e d out survey and excavation work i n Tweedsmuir Park and at the junction of the Stuart and Nechako Rivers. This resulted i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a protohisto-i c " C arrier c u l t u r e " and a p r e h i s t o r i c "Natalkuz c u l t u r e " (Borden 1952:37-40). The l a t t e r was considered to be quite d i f f e r e n t from the southern plateau materials described by Smith. In 1952, an archaeological s i t e survey of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys was conducted by Warren Caldwell, who interpreted most of the s i t e s as "seemingly l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c manifestations of a homogeneous regional c u l t u r e " (Caldwell: 1954:22). Other investigations during the 1950s include the excavation of a b u r i a l s i t e near Cache Creek by Borden i n 1954 and 1956 (see Sanger 1968a:140). Further investigations of b u r i a l s i t e s i n thessouthern plateau were conducted i n the early 1960s. This included a b u r i a l s i t e survey of the Fraser River Valley i n the Lytton-L i l l o o e t region by David Sanger (Sanger 1963:131) and 7 excavations of a s i t e at Chase (see Sanger 1968a) and two i n the L y t t o n - L i l l o o e t area by Borden and Sanger (Sanger 19 68a: 141 ,.1970:13). These b u r i a l s i t e s excavations mark the beginning of a period' of expanded i n t e r e s t i n i n t e r i o r plateau prehistory • with the construction of l o c a l archaeological sequences as a common research goal. From 1961 to 1965, i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were conducted by Sanger at the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y i n the Fraser River Valley between Lytton and L i l l o o e t (see Sanger 1963, 1966, 1969^ 1970). This work,, p a r t i c u l a r l y the excava-t i o n of the Nesikep Creek s i t e , r esulted i n the construction of the most extensive c u l t u r a l chronological framework fo r a southern plateau area' to date and an i n i t i a l model of pre-h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l adaptations to the mid-Fraser River r e g i o n — the.Nesikep T r a d i t i o n . The basic underlying p r i n c i p l e to the concept of the Nesikep T r a d i t i o n was that i t represented a r e l a t i v e l y unchanging c u l t u r a l adaptation to the southern i n t e r i o r environment s i m i l a r to that documented i n the ethno-graphic l i t e r a t u r e f o r the region (Sanger 1969:196). This work was followed s h o r t l y by areal studies i n the Arrow Lakes from 1966 to 1969 (Turnbull 1971, 1977) and i n the Okanagan Valley during 1966 and 1967 (Grabert 1971, 1974). The r e s u l t s of t h i s research that are relevant to the present study concern the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n - o f regional c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s that tend to e x h i b i t more differences 8 than s i m i l a r i t i e s with c u l t u r a l 1 units derived from the Lochnorer-Nesikep l o c a l i t y . Further areal studies that emphasized c u l t u r a l chronology and were also c a r r i e d out i n the middle-to-late 1960s include work on the C h i l c o t i n Plateau by Donald M i t c h e l l (n.d., 1970a., 1970b) and i n the Nicola Valley by David Wyatt (n.d., 1971, 1972). . Both studies noted s i m i l a r i t i e s between archaeological materials from the respective regions and those from the mid-Fraser River Valley,' thus enlarging the scope of the Nesikep T r a d i t i o n . The following period, from the l a t e 1960s to the present,- has seen a further increase i n the rate of archaeol-o g i c a l research that has addressed a wider range of problems, although c u l t u r a l chronology i s s t i l l the major goal i n most studies. The Fraser River Valley i n the v i c i n i t y of L i l l o o e t has been the focus of an extensive survey and excavation project conducted by A.. Stryd over an eight year period from 1969 to 1976 (Stryd 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974). The two main objectives of the L i l l o o e t research concerned the refinement of the l a t e r p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l chronology and the study of housepit v i l l a g e settlement pattern v a r i a b i l i t y during t h i s period (Stryd 1973:3-4, 1974:1),- making t h i s the f i r s t con-certed e f f o r t to e x p l i c i t l y address research goals other than that of c u l t u r e h i s t o r y . In the early 1970Sj a se r i e s of independent, smaller-9 scale studies were c a r r i e d out i n the Shuswap-. Lake-South Thompson River Valley which were concerned with both cultu r e h i s t o r y (Wilson 1971, 1976) and settlement pattern v a r i a b i l i t y (Eldridge 1974, Johnson-Fladmark n.d.j 1974) within f l o o d p l a i n zones of the region. By v i r t u e of being r e s t r i c t e d to t h i s zone, these investigations tended to emphasize housepit settlements, the dominant type of archaeological s i t e located i n such an environmental s i t u a t i o n . It i s apparent that v i r t u a l l y a l l of the research discussed above has emphasized the archaeology of the major r i v e r v a l l e y s i n the southern i n t e r i o r . Only recently have there been systematic e f f o r t s to investigate other physio-graphic zones i n the plateau. These l a t t e r investigations., however-, have had mixed degrees of success. In 1973 and 1974 an archaeological project to investigate the range of ecolog-i c a l zones i n the Fraser Plateau i n the v i c i n i t y of Lytton was i n i t i a t e d by J.. Baker (n.d.a, n.d.b,.).. This i n i t i a l research design was never s u c c e s s f u l l y completed (Baker n.d.b ,:3), although information on a v a r i e t y of archaeological s i t e types was c o l l e c t e d i n both the Fraser River Valley and the upper elevation (3600 ft;1100 m) Botanie V a l l e y . However, no d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n or analysis of these data i s yet a v a i l -able. In 1974, research on settlement patterns at the con-fluence of the C h i l c o t i n and Fraser Rivers by R.G. Matson involved a systematic survey of both the Fraser River bench-lands and the adjacent forested uplands (Ham 1975; Matson, 10 Ham, and Bunyan n.d.). A li m i t e d - s c a l e but systematic survey of the Gaspard Creek drainage i n the Fraser Plateau highlands by Eldridge i n 1975 resulted i n a b r i e f report on -the kind and d i s t r i b u t i o n of archaeological settlements i n the area (Eldridge n.d.) which e x h i b i t some s i m i l a r i t i e s to those found i n the present study.. Also i n 1975, a systematic survey of the Bonaparte and Semlin v a l l e y s i n the v i c i n i t y of Cache Creek by Pokotylo (1977) provided information on s i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s along main t r i b u t a r i e s of the South Thompson River, When the present archaeological l i t e r a t u r e on the southern i n t e r i o r i s reviewed i n terms of contributions to three general goals of archaeological research—-reconstruction of culture h i s t o r y , reconstruction of lifeways, and delineation of culture process (see Binford 1 9 6 8 ) — i t i s evident that these objectives have yet to be adequately r e a l i z e d . The following discussion focuses on the progress to date i n addressing the f i r s t two goals. With respect to the goal, of cu l t u r e h i s t o r y , there s t i l l does not e x i s t an o v e r a l l chronological sequence applicable to the southern i n t e r i o r as a whole, even though the majority of the research to date has been p r i m a r i l y con-cerned with the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c u l t u r a l chronology. The common present p r a c t i c e i s to determine the geographic extent to which the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l chronology i s 11 a p p l i c a b l e . This sequence i s now recognized to varying degrees throughout the i n t e r i o r plateau; the C h i l c o t i n Plateau (Mi t c h e l l 1970a, Ham 1975), the South Thompson River Valley (Sanger 1968, Wilson 1976), and possibly the Okanagan Valley (Grabert 1974). However,., i f the Lochnore-Nesikep sequence indeed i s widely applicable^ i t w i l l require- t e s t i n g against more l o c a l chronologies that involves more than just t r a i t comparisons. A main-aspect of reconstructing c u l t u r a l lifeways i s the analysis of subsistence-settlement systems, which-represent technological and economic aspects of a c u l t u r a l system's adaptation to the environment. Current archaeolog-i c a l method and theory has argued that s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e -ment systems cannot be e f f e c t i v e l y studied, by anything less than a regional approach (Binford 1964; Plog and H i l l 1971; Streuver 1968, 1971). The r a t i o n a l e for a regional approach has been s u c c i n c t l y stated by Judge et a l i , (-1975:83): Archaeological s i t e s represent the a c t i v i t y , l o c i of c u l t u r a l systems. A c t i v i t i e s are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ' s p a t i a l l y ; a s i n g l e archaeological s i t e cannot be expected to r e f l e c t a l l of the a c t i v i t i e s of a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l system. Sites are merely com-ponents of larger and more i n c l u s i v e settlement systems. Research with the goal of explanation of c u l t u r a l systems and processes must, then, be 'framed i n such a way that the t o t a l range of types of component s i t e s i s examined. In the above review I have noted that, with a few recent exceptions, archaeological research i n the southern i n t e r i o r has had a narrow geographic focus r e s t r i c t e d to 12 major r i v e r v a l l e y s . Nevertheless $ the archaeological p o t e n t i a l of the surrounding uplands has been recognized; physical evidence of upland elevation f l o r a l resource u t i l i z a t i o n has' been recovered from r i v e r v a l l e y s i t e s (Stryd 1973:69) while research that has extended outside the main v a l l e y s has commented on the kind of archaeological manifestations present. This i s exemplified by the Okanagan Valley research (Grabert 1974:66): Although upland areas were explored, the search was not as intensive as might have been. A p r o v i s i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n suggests that upland areas were u t i l i z e d as well as the r i v e r flood p l a i n areas,' but that s i t e s are more dispersed and .often small. ( I t a l i c s mine.) Although such aspects of the regional settlement pattern have been recognized, the lack of research on them i s l i k e l y due to the very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s noted a b o v e — t h e i r poor "archaeological v i s i b i l i t y " and minimal a r t i f a c t contents; The problems of t r y i n g to locate these summer s i t e s i s compounded by the f a c t that the summer housepit depressions are shallow^ i f present at a l l . . . summer houses were usually temporary mat structures and most of the a r t i f a c t u a l remains would be surface d e t r i t u s susceptible to being washed away (Sanger 1970:257). What Sanger i s r e f e r r i n g to above are the ephemeral surface scatters of chipped-stone debris and tools that c o n s t i t u t e the only non-perishable elements of such settlements. Such a r a t i o n a l e , however, only r e f l e c t s an inadequacy of arch-aeological methodology rather than that of the data, as 13 these s i t e s form the sole archaeologieally-observable evidence of short-term a c t i v i t i e s and occupation i n the l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c period and the e n t i r e range of settlement v a r i a t i o n i n e a r l i e r periods. This point i s elaborated below. The general absence of systematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of upper elevation environments probably r e s u l t s from a number of other factors associated with the course of development of i n t e r i o r plateau archaeology. The major factor i s that only recently has a viewpoint of p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l systems been adopted that stresses the study of human behavior that formed the archaeological record rather than the compilation of t r a i t s as the basis f o r comparative a n a l y s i s . Also, with the emphasis on chronological reconstruction^ past research has generally opted for investigations of the la r g e r , deeper s i t e s that are more l i k e l y to y i e l d s t r a t i g r a p h i c sequences of large - a r t i f a c t samples. In the southern i n t e r i o r , such preferred s i t e s tend to be the housepit v i l l a g e settlements prevalent i n the main r i v e r v a l l e y s . Even i n these areas, our present understanding of settlement pattern v a r i a b i l i t y i s hindered by the study of these s i t e s at the expense of other types that may be- present i n the same v i c i n i t y . The i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of such an approach i s that current reconstructions of c u l t u r a l lifeways are skewed, emphasizing the aspects of subsistence-settlement systems that were operative i n the major r i v e r v a l l e y s , to the exclusion of upland areas. This constitutes a major problem i n any regional i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau prehistory. In p a r t i c u l a r ^ our understanding of p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence and settlement w i l l be incomplete u n t i l research r e s u l t s are a v a i l a b l e from upper-elevation environmental zones. Research Questions and Objectives From the above l i t e r a t u r e review i t was evident that a most pressing problem i n reconstructing s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e -ment patterns was the need for more information on the arch-aeology of the plateau uplands. An associated problem was the need to apply an approach that would stress the study of v a r i a t i o n i n the behavioral content of the archaeological data c o l l e c t e d . Some previous studies had recognized the p o t e n t i a l range of p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s that could be represented by surface l i t h i c scatters or "chipping s t a t i o n s " (Styrd and H i l l s 1972:196): These s i t e s probably represent several d i f f e r e n t kinds  of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , including camps, animal k i l l s , chipping s t a t i o n s , berrying grounds, and puberty r i t e ' l o c a t i o n s . Many were probably occupied only once, as they contain l i t t l e c u l t u r a l debris. ( I t a l i c s mine.) While the p o t e n t i a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n behavioral content has been noted, the means by which the a c t i v i t i e s can be recognized or d i f f e r e n t i a t e d have yet to be presented. The main objective of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n — t h e development, 15 a p p l i c a t i o n , and t e s t i n g o f a methodology t o d e s c r i b e and i n t e r p r e t i n t e r s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y p r e s e n t among u p l a n d l i t h i c s c a t t e r s i t e s — i s aimed a t t h i s r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . Such a t y p e o f s t u d y i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r any r e s e a r c h t h a t a t t e m p t s t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n o f u p l a n d a r e a s i n t h e S o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were no e x t a n t d a t a s e t s s u i t a b l e f o r s u c h a s t u d y . I t was t h u s n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y o u t f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o c o l l e c t t h e r e q u i r e d d a t a . The s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n i n v e s t i g a t e d was t h e Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . A t an ave r a g e f l o o r e l e v a t i o n o f 3400 f t (1035 m), t h i s u p l a n d v a l l e y forms a n a t u r a l geo-g r a p h i c a r e a i d e a l f o r a s u b - r e g i o n a l l e v e l o f s t u d y . A l a r g e d e g r e e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i v e r s i t y i s a l s o p r e s e n t w i t h i n t h e d r a i n a g e b a s i n , r a n g i n g from open g r a s s l a n d s t o a l p i n e t u n d r a . The m a j o r i t y o f d a t a d e s c r i b e d and a n a l y z e d i n t h i s s t u d y were c o l l e c t e d by a s y s t e m a t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y o f t h e l o w e r f o r e s t e d s l o p e s and v a l l e y bottom g r a s s -l a n d s d u r i n g t h e summer and f a l l o f 1976. 1 6 CHAPTER II •RESEARCH DESIGN General Theoretical Framework The basic t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n employed i n t h i s study i s c u l t u r a l ecology or the "eco l o g i c a l approach" (Rappaport 1969; Steward 1955; Vayda and Rappaport 1968). While the o r i g i n a l "method" of c u l t u r a l ecology presented by Steward (1955) has been c r i t i c i z e d and modified consider-ably by recent human ecology studies (Vayda and Rappaport 1968), a fundamental assumption of the e c o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s that the biophysical environment i s a structured phenomen-on, posing problems req u i r i n g behavioral responses by human groups i n order f o r them to e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e the environ-ment. Such behavior that a r t i c u l a t e s human groups with both t h e i r b i o p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environments i s viewed as an adaptive mechanism by which an adjustment with these milieus i s achieved. I t i s the extrasomatic behavioral aspect of human s o c i e t i e s that constitutes the primary v a r i a b l e of c u l t u r a l e c o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s : In the approach advocated here, the c u l t u r e , or part of the c u l t u r e , of a human population i s regarded as part of the d i s t i n c t i v e means by which the population maintains i t s e l f i n the ecosystem (Rappaport 1969:185). The process of integration of human s o c i e t i e s with 1 7 t h e i r environment (biophysical or s o c i a l ) involves a complex set of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The.^anthropological study of c u l t u r e i n t h i s s e t t i n g e n t a i l s the d e l i n e a t i o n of s p e c i f i c behav-i o r a l v a riables of i n t e r e s t , the d e s c r i p t i o n of behavior-environment r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and the determination of those processes responsible for the pattern(s) observed. This i s most e f f e c t i v e l y done by viewing c u l t u r e as a system (Binford 1962, 1965). A system i s most simply defined as "a set of objects together with r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the objects and t h e i r a t t r i b u t e s " (Hall and Fagen 1968:81). The h e u r i s t i c value of perceiving c u l t u r e as a system i s that both the system components and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them are emphasized. Also, s p e c i f i c components and i n t e r a c t i o n s relevant to a p a r t i c u l a r research i n t e r e s t can be grouped together and investigated as a d i s t i n c t subsystem (Hall and Fagen 1968:84). Therefore, c u l t u r a l systems may be p a r t i t -ioned into subsystems such as s o c i a l organization, technology, r e l i g i o n , subsistence procurement, etc. f o r a n a l y t i c a l purposes. The e c o l o g i c a l approach also provides a l o g i c a l order to the study of culture-environment r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t has often been recognized that the most apparent areas of a r t i c u l a t i o n between human groups and t h e i r environments are those c u l t u r a l components that d i r e c t l y extract energy and materials from the biophysical environment—in p a r t i c u l a r , 1 8 the economic and technological subsystems (Harris 1968:45; Steward 1955:39; White 1959:18-28). The degree to which the population of a s p e c i f i c society i n t e r a c t s d i r e c t l y with the natural environment i s v a r i a b l e . Generally, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of human populations i n the d i r e c t extraction of energy and materials from the environment i s greatest among c u l t u r a l systems with low l e v e l s of organization. As the organizational l e v e l of the society becomes more complex, t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s more i n d i r e c t as the proportion of the population involved i n such a c t i v i t i e s decreases. Thus, i n the case of hunter-gatherer c u l t u r a l systems, a considerable amount of the behavior manifest may be accounted f o r by reference to technological and economic adaptive responses to constraints and/or opportunities posed by the biophysical environment. The Study of P r e h i s t o r i c Behavior: A Framework P r e h i s t o r i c behavioral, systems are not d i r e c t l y observable i n archaeological research (Cowgill 1970; F r i t z 1972). Rather, they are r e f l e c t e d by material products of human behavior that have entered i n t o the archaeological record. Patterns of p r e h i s t o r i c technological and economic behavior are best represented by the material remains of subsistence-settlement systems. Subsistence i s used here i n a general sense to include food, s h e l t e r , and water; sub-sistence patterns include both the actual resources u t i l i z e d 19 and the means employed to obtain them. The settlement pattern i s an adjunct of subsistence p r a c t i c e s , that i s , the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of these a c t i v i t i e s over the land-scape i n the form of settlements.. The l a t t e r can be defined as: . . . an occupation of a p a r t i c u l a r geographic locus by one or more i n d i v i d u a l s f o r any amount of time that a l t e r a t i o n of the natural environment r e s u l t s . Campbell (1968:15) would add that the occupation should f a l l within the "ordinary, expected and predictable round of the a c t i v i t i e s of the society in question." A settlement may be any locus of human a c t i v i t y r e s u l t i n g i n archaeological remains, and f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes t h i s usually means a dwelling area or a f u n c t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y area . . . (Fitzhugh 1972:7). C r i t i c a l to t h i s study i s the p o t e n t i a l range of v a r i a t i o n i n s i t e s i z e and s i t e contents. By the above d e f i n i t i o n , small ephemeral s i t e s with minimal material remains have just as much i n t e r p r e t i v e p o t e n t i a l v i s - a - v i s the subsistence-settlement system as large intensive habitation s i t e s ; f o r both r e f l e c t past behavior I c a r r i e d out at the respective locations i n pursuit of subsistence. The settlement, or s i t e , forms a main unit of synthesis i n the study of p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence-settlement systems. D i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of archaeological i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i l l d i s c l o s e various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of s i t e s that enable the reconstruction of past subsistence-settlement systems^.(Struever 1968,1971). The physical remains 20 r e s u l t i n g from human a c t i v i t y are considered to be patterned such that s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s r e s u l t i n the deposition of s i m i l a r material remains. On t h i s basis,, t o o l - k i t s and a c t i v i t y areas are i d e n t i f i e d , which form the "building blocks" upon which settlement types are defined. The kind, number, and s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of settlement types u t i l i z e d by a society i n the course of i t s annual cyc l e of subsistence a c t i v i t i e s r e f l e c t s the structure of the past settlement system (Struever 1968:135). Basic to the above methodology i s an assumption that a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the observable archaeological record and the unobservable past behavioral system respon-s i b l e for i t s formation that enables inferences about the l a t t e r to be derived from the former (Binford 1975; S c h i f f e r 1972,1976). The nature of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was f i r s t consid-ered i n the " a c t i v i t y s p e c i f i c " proposition presented by Binford (1962,1964): The intimate systemic a r t i c u l a t i o n of l o c a l i t i e s , f a c i l i t i e s , and tools with s p e c i f i c tasks performed by s o c i a l segments r e s u l t s i n a structured set of spatial-formal r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the archaeological record . . . The l o s s , breakage, and abandonment of implements and f a c i l i t i e s at d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s , where groups of v a r i a b l e structure performed d i f f e r e n t tasks, leave a " f o s s i l " record of the actual operation of the e x t i n c t society . . . we can recover, both from the nature of the populations of a r t i f a c t s and from t h e i r s p a t i a l associations, the f o s s i l i z e d structure of the t o t a l c u l t u r a l system (Binford 1964:425). This general " c o r r e l a t e " ( i . e . , a statement r e l a t i n g variables of material c u l t u r e to behavioral, v a r i a b l e s ^ c f . H i l l 1970:63; 21 S c h i f f e r 1976:12-14) has been used as the foundation for the majority of studies concerned with s p e c i f i c behavioral reconstructions (Binford and Binford 1966; Freeman 1973; H i l l 1970; Longacre 1970). Nevertheless, there i s a basic problem with these studies. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the behav-i o r a l inferences employed has yet to be evaluated, even though they are c r i t i c a l to the major hypotheses tested. This apparent lack of emphasis i n current archaeological research on "groundwork" necessary f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of more processual questions has been c r i t i c i z e d by S c h i f f e r (1972,1976). More r e c e n t l y , Binford (1977) has c a l l e d f o r more stress on the development of "middle-range theory", recognizing that progress i n explaining the operation of past c u l t u r a l systems i s dependent upon more elaborate inferences about the behavioral- s i g n i f i c a n c e of aspects of the archaeological record. The scope of "middle-range theory" and i t s r o l e i n contemporary archaeological research has been summarized by Binford (1977:6-7):, If one accepts observations made on the archaeological record as contemporary facts along with the idea that such facts are s t a t i c , then c l e a r l y basic problems fo r thectarchaeologist include (a) how we get from contemp-orary facts to statements about the past, and (b) how we convert the observationally s t a t i c facts of the record to statements of dynamics., What meaning may we j u s t i f i a b l y give to contemporary s t a t i c f a cts regarding past dynamics? What conditions of dynamics, not a v a i l a b l e f o r observation, produce the forms and structures observable as st a t i c ' patterning i n the archaeological record? In approaching t h i s problem, we must develop ideas and theories (middle-range theory) 22 regarding the formation processes of the archaeol-o g i c a l record. Only through an accurate under-standing of such processes can we r e l i a b l y give meaning to the facts that appear, from the past, i n the contemporary era. It i s evident from the above discussion that the proper i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of behavioral . c o r r e l a t e s i s a basic a n a l y t i c a l step i n any e f f e c t i v e reconstruction of subsis-tence-settlement systems. Furthermore, t h i s i s not a step, to be taken l i g h t l y ; i f the effectiveness of the behavioral relevance of "building blocks" of the subsistence-settlement system i s i n doubt, t h i s apprehension w i l l only be c a r r i e d over i n any higher-level system reconstructions. While the ultimate concern of t h i s study i s the reconstruction and understanding of subsistence-settlement systems operative at upper-level elevations i n the southern plateau, t h i s question cannot be addressed u n t i l the behav-i o r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of chipped-stone l i t h i c surface s c a t t e r s , the predominant archaeological manifestation observed i n such zones, has been studied. The remainder of t h i s section c r i t i c a l l y reviews the present state of "middle range theory" directed at the question of the behavioral s i g n i f i c a n c e of interassemblage v a r i a b i l i t y i n the chipped-stone industry. The main contribution to present middle range theory i s the "synthetic model of archaeological inference" developed by S c h i f f e r (1976:11-26; 1972). This model d i s t -inguishes the archaeological record from the human behavior 23 t h a t produced i t by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and s y s t e m i c c o n t e x t s o f c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s : S y s t e m i c c o n t e x t l a b e l s t h e c o n d i t i o n o f an element w h i c h i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a b e h a v i o r a l s y s t e m . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t d e s c r i b e s m a t e r i a l s w h i c h a r e now t h e o b j e c t s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a r c h a e o l -o g i s t s ( S c h i f f e r 1972:157). G i v e n t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , t h e g o a l o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i s t o r e c o n s t r u c t and u n d e r s t a n d t h e s y s t e m i c c o n t e x t ( i . e . b e h a v i o r a l , r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) o f m a t e r i a l r e m a i n s by t h e s t u d y o f t h e i r s t r u c t u r e i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d ( i . e . a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t ) . The v a l u e o f t h e s y n t h e t i c model t o b e h a v i o r a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s l i e s i n t h e manner i n w h i c h i t r e c o g n i z e s t h a t a d i r e c t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e does not n e c e s s a r i l y e x i s t between s y s t e m i c c o n t e x t b e h a v i o r and p a t t e r n i n g o b s e r v e d i n a r c h -a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t , due t o a c t i o n s o v e r t i m e o f c u l t u r a l and n o n - c u l t u r a l f o r c e s t h a t form t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e s o f t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d a r e r e g u l a r and can be d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r emains and p a s t c u l t u r a l b e h a v i o r * Two main forms o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o r t r a n s f o r m -a t i o n s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d ; 1) t h o s e t h a t d e s c r i b e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s a f f e c t i n g c u l t u r a l l y - d e p o s i t e d m a t e r i a l , o r n - t r a n s f o r m s and 2) t h o s e d e l i n e a t i n g t h e c u l t u r a l b e h a v i o r - s u r r o u n d i n g t h e means by w h i c h e l e m e n t s a r e removed from t h e c u l t u r a l system and a r e d e p o s i t e d i n t o 2 4 the archaeological record, or c-transforms ( S c h i f f e r and Rathje 1973). While n-transforms have been e x p l i c i t l y considered i n past archaeological research, c-transforms, u n t i l quite recently, have generally gone unrecognized i n most behav-i o r a l reconstructions. S c h i f f e r (1972:157-163; 1976:30-34) has defined two basic types of c u l t u r a l formation processes: 1) the normal output from c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , and 2) aband-onment processes, as well as i d e n t i f y i n g respective types of refuse produced by each process. Refuse types produced by c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s are primary r e f u s e — r e f u s e that i s d i s -carded at i t s l o c a t i o n of use, and secondary refuse which i s discarded at some lo c a t i o n other than that where i t was used ( S c h i f f e r 1972:161). Material elements that enter the archaeological record upon the abandonment of a settlement are defined as de facto refuse ( S c h i f f e r 1972:160). While not e x p l i c i t l y defined, these processes and refuse types are, nevertheless, recognizable i n research dealing with behavioral reconstructions, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n studies of chipped-stone interassemblage v a r i a b i l i t y . When'jiapplied to research on chipped-stone i n t e r -assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y , the main contribution of S c h i f f e r ' s ^synthetic model" l i e s i n the e x p l i c i t acknowledgement that the locus of discard of elements (represented by t h e i r 25 structure i n the archaeological record) i s not necessarily the same as t h e i r locus (or l o c i ) of use and/or production. The relevance of t h i s p o s i t i o n becomes evident when past studies of interassemblage v a r i a b i l i t y are reviewed. The basis for most contemporary l i t h i c analyses i s outlined i n the " a c t i v i t y a n a l y s i s " approach pioneered by Binford and Binford (1966,1969). This research attempted to understand v a r i a t i o n i n stone tool assemblages through behavioral, reconstructions of past a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out at s i t e s where they were deposited. According to t h i s approach, differences observed i n s i t e assemblages were con-sidered to represent the u t i l i z a t i o n of d i s t i n c t chipped-stone "too l k i t s " i n the performance of various tasks. Thus, d i f f e r e n t t o o l frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n archaeological assemblages often do not r e f l e c t various "ethnic groups" but rather d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . The i n t e r s i t e v a r i a t i o n of these a c t i v i t i e s represented by stone tool assemblages can then be interpreted as a r e s u l t of s p a t i a l and seasonally patterned s h i f t s i n subsistence-settlement practices of pre-h i s t o r i c groups. There s t i l l i s considerable debate over such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of stone tool assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n P a l e o l i t h i c studies (Binford 1972,1973; Bordes and de Sonneville-Bordes 1970; Bordes 1973; Mellars 1970). Nevertheless, whatever the merits or d e f i c i e n c i e s of t h i s approach may be, i t has had a tremendous impact on subsequent 26 archaeological thinking as i t has compelled researchers to re-evaluate t r a d i t i o n a l (and usually i m p l i c i t ) assumptions previously used. As i s often the case with pioneering studies,, however, further research applying the strategy exposes the naivety present i n the i n i t i a l assumptions used., While chipped-stone implements may be quite s t r a i g h t -forward products of p r e h i s t o r i c behavioi?, when S c h i f f e r ' s p o s i t i o n i s considered i t becomes apparent that the factors involved i n t h e i r use and discard may be somewhat more complex than has been assumed i n many a c t i v i t y analysis studies. A major shortcoming of some previous a c t i v i t y analysis studies (Binford and Binford 1966; Freeman 1973; H i l l 1970) l i e s i n the f a c t that they have not considered the type of refuse being analyzed, a s i t u a t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e to the i m p l i c i t assumption that the c u l t u r a l behaviojr involved i n the removal of stone tool elements from the behavioral system and t h e i r deposition i n t o the archaeological record constitutes a r e l a t i v e l y straightforward d i r e c t process (Binford 1962,1964). On t h i s b a s i s , stone tool assemblages are (again i m p l i c i t l y ) regarded as primary and/or de facto refuse: elements (tools) are discarded and/or abandoned at t h e i r locations of use. This perspective of an equivalence between the'.proportion and l o c a t i o n of elements i n the archaeological record and past a c t i v i t i e s that produced them rules out any p o s s i b i l i t y of intervening c u l t u r a l behavior . 27 such as transport of elements away from locations of use and deposition elsewhere ( S c h i f f e r 1972,1975a). Recent studies aimed at the further development of middle range theory have indicated the li m i t e d u t i l i t y of the above approach by i d e n t i f y i n g behavioral . variables other than a c t i v i t i e s per se that can p o t e n t i a l l y contribute to the c u l t u r a l formation processes of archaeological stone tool assemblages. Such variables include: the degree of mobility involved i n the subsistence-settlement strategy (Binford 1972:265), the d i f f e r e n t i a l "dropping r a t e s " of tools with varying l i f e s p a n s i n the course of a c t i v i t y performance (Ammerman and Feldman 1974), the duration of settlement occupation ( S c h i f f e r 1975b), and the maintenance, rejuvena-tion,, and curation of a r t i f a c t s used i n carrying out a c t i v i -t i e s (Binford 1972:265; 1973:242-243,249-250; 1976). A l l of the above merit consideration as possible sources of i n t e r -assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y and thus complicate the nature of behavioral inferences that can be used to explain such patterning. Of the "secondary! 1 behaviors noted above, the concept of curation i s of p a r t i c u l a r relevance to the objectives of the present study and f o r t h i s reason i t i s discussed i n some d e t a i l below. "Curation" r e f e r s to a form of c u l t u r a l behavior that involves the removal of a r t i f a c t s from t h e i r locations of use and transport elsewhere i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of future 28 employment (Binford 1973:242). The idea of curation as a factor conditioning the structure of the archaeological record has been c r i t i c i z e d by Hayden (1976), who questions i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y to l i t h i c technologies. Nevertheless, I . believe that i t does have a wide range of a p p l i c a t i o n to both past and present behavior -material culture r e l a t i o n -ships. I t . i s evident that curation i s c l o s e l y linked with the behavior responsible f o r the deposition of de facto refuse, and there i s a high p r o b a b i l i t y that "Very few pre-h i s t o r i c communities are abandoned with a complete invent-ory of c u l t u r a l remains l e f t as de facto refuse." (Reid et a l . 1975:214) .. An important implication of curate behavior for archaeology i s that curated materials are "conserved" by the c u l t u r a l system,, therefore t h e i r frequency of deposition i n t o the archaeological record i s not i n a d i r e c t relation-, ship to the i n t e n s i t y , duration, or l o c a t i o n of the a c t i v i t y i n which they were used. Stone tool assemblages formed under curate behavior thus tend to r e f l e c t the operation of such factors as d i f f e r e n t tool l i f e s p a n s and tool replacement rates rather than actual a c t i v i t i e s that occurred at the l o c a t i o n of deposition (Binford 1973:242j 1976:341-342). While i t may reasonably be expected that tools deposited at a s i t e were used there and e i t h e r r e f l e c t worn-out items or possibly caches intended for future use, i t does not follow 29 t h a t t h e assemblage r e p r e s e n t s a l l o f t h e a r t i f a c t s t h a t were employed i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d o u t t h e r e . Such a v i e w p o i n t has c r i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l i t h i c a n a l y s e s t h a t seek t o i n t e r p r e t p r o p o r t i o n a l v a r i a -t i o n among t o o l t y p e s as t h e r e s u l t o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . As an example, a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s ( c u r r e n t l y t h e most p o p u l a r method o f d e r i v i n g a c t i v i t y t o o l k i t s ) t h a t p r oduces h i g h l o a d i n g s f o r p a r t i c u l a r groups o f t o o l t y p e s may be m e a s u r i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l t o o l l i f e s p a n s and d r o p p i n g r a t e s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e d i r e c t i n t e n s i t y o r f r e q u e n c y o f a c t i v i t i e s (Ammerman and Feldman 1 9 7 4 ) . The p o i n t t o be made from t h i s example i s b e s t s t a t e d by C o w g i l l (1970:163): ". . . t h e r e may a l m o s t be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e f o r m a l s t a t i s t i c a l m a c h i n e r y and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n about b e h a v i o r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " . A l t h o u g h c u r a t e b e h a v i o r may be o p e r a t i v e i n most c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s , i t i s l i k e l y m a n i f e s t i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s when examined i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . Viewed a l o n g a c o n t i n -uum t h a t o r d e r s l e v e l s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e t y p e s o f c u r a t i o n d i s c u s s e d above r e p r e s e n t , t h e extreme upper end where e l e m e n t s a r e c u r a t e d , m a i n t a i n e d , and p o s s i b l y m o d i f i e d p r i o r t o b e i n g removed from t h e c u l t u r a l s y s t e m . A t t h e o t h e r end o f t h e co n t i n u u m i s an e x p e d i e n t t e c h n o l o g y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e m a n u f a c t u r e , u t i l i z a t i o n , d i s c a r d o r abandonment o f t o o l s a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e 30 a c t i v i t y i n which they were employed (Binford 1976:341). From the above discussion i t should be quite c l e a r that c u l t u r a l formation processes have a c r u c i a l r o l e i n the determination of s p e c i f i c data requirements f o r research questions such as a c t i v i t y a n a l y s i s . The e f f e c t s of curate behavior on archaeological structures are obviously quite complex., however. At the present time, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to present s p e c i f i c c-transforms that describe such r e l a t i o n -ships. Some i n i t i a l attempts have been made i n t h i s d i r e c t -ion (Ammerman and Feldman 1976; Binford 1976:339-349; S c h i f f e r 1975b) and in d i c a t e p o t e n t i a l d i r e c t i o n s f o r future a c t i v i t y analyses to follow i n order to bypass some of the conceptual problems outlined above. The most immediate question faced by a c t i v i t y analysis i s the extent to which curate behavior was operative i n the c u l t u r a l system that produced a p a r t i c u l a r set of archaeological data. Once t h i s has been determined, one can evaluate the degree to which that data set may furnish information on s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n . One of the most valuable observations relevant to such goals i s made by Binford (1973;1976) i n his ethnoarch-aeological research, on contemporary Nunamiut subsistence and settlement behavior. He notes that even i n si t u a t i o n s where a highly curated technology i s present, the immediate byproducts of ei t h e r work or consumption c o n s i s t e n t l y provide r e l a t i v e l y "unbiased" information on the nature of 3 1 a c t i v i t i e s conducted at s p e c i f i c s i t e s (Binford 1976:340). Such byproducts would include those elements characterized by a low p o t e n t i a l f o r use i n future a c t i v i t i e s , as r e f l e c t e d by a short u s e l i f e and a high "dropping r a t e " . If such items do provide a means of ordering settlements according to t h e i r form of u t i l i z a t i o n , then i t should be possible to measure the influence of curate behavior- by examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the fabricated t o o l assemblages to these groups based on s i t e use (Binford 1976:339-346; S c h i f f e r 1975b:268). The types of byproducts that may be expected to be observed i n the archaeological record would include f l o r a l and faunal remains and the l i t h i c byproducts of stone t o o l manufacture and use ( i . e . l i t h i c debitage). In the context of the present study, an emphasis on the c o l l e c t i o n of surface survey data r e s t r i c t s analysis to the l i t h i c industry. The goals of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n can now be more e x p l i c i t l y stated i n l i g h t of the above discussion. A r e q u i s i t e f i r s t step i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence-settlement systems i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s practiced at d i f f e r e n t locations occupied by a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l system. I t i s proposed here that such a c t i v i t i e s are d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t e d i n the archaeological record by immediate byproducts of a c t i v i t i e s that secure subsistence, while the archaeological contexts of tools used 32 i n such a c t i v i t i e s represent more complex patterns of use and d i s p o s a l . The goals of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n are to: 1) describe patterns of settlement u t i l i z a t i o n r e f l e c t e d by byproducts of l i t h i c technology i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y , and 2) compare t h i s with patterns of stone tool deposition. Research Strategy While the above section has outlined a general frame-work f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g p r e h i s t o r i c behavior from the arch-aeological record, a set of more d e t a i l e d assumptions, hypotheses, and tes t implications are necessary f o r any attempt to reconstruct the p a r t i c u l a r units of subsistence and settlement behavior- of a s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l system which u t i l i z e d d i f f e r e n t settlements. The following archaeological research strategy was derived and modified from a number of successful projects that have focused on regional subsis-tence-settlement patterns i n the Great Basin (Bettinger 1977; Matson 1971; Thomas 1973) and the American Southwest (Lipe and Matson 1971). The general strategy of these projects i s the invest-i g a t i o n of surface r e l a t i o n s h i p s between archaeological settlements ( s i t e s ) and aspects of the contemporary b i o -physical environment (micro-environments) at a regional l e v e l of observation. Behavioral, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s are mainly based on s p e c i f i c ethnographic 33 a n a l o g i e s . From r e g i o n a l e t h n o g r a p h i e s , u n i t s o f s u b s i s -t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t b e h a v i o r a r e d e l i n e a t e d and a r c h a e o -l o g i c a l t o o l " t a s k " assemblages t h a t would be e x p e c t e d t o r e f l e c t such b e h a v i o r a r e h y p o t h e s i z e d a l o n g w i t h t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c s e t t i n g s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o p o t e n t i a l s u b s i s t -ence r e s o u r c e s . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d a t a a r e c o l l e c t e d by t h e s u r v e y o f s e l e c t e d g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s t h a t encompass t h e r a n g e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n t h e s p h e r e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n ' s h i p s among t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l , and e n v i r o n -m e n t a l d a t a s e t s e n a b l e s t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s e t t l e m e n t taxonomy a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f S t r u e v e r ' s (1968) method as d i s -c u s s e d i n t h e above s e c t i o n and t h e o v e r a l l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p a s t man^land r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s s t u d y a l s o uses a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e by v i e w i n g Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y as t h e main u n i t o f s t u d y and a f o c u s on t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e m i c r o -e n v i r o n m e n t s p r e s e n t , as r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s e t t l e m e n t s and i n t e r s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e and use o f s t o n e t o o l s . 34 CHAPTER III THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING The Contemporary Environment General Geographic Setting The Canadian C o r d i l l e r a n Region of B r i t i s h Columbia has three major subdivisions or "systems": the Western System of Coast Range Mountains; the Eastern System of the Rocky Mountains; and the I n t e r i o r System, the l a t t e r representing that area located between the two mountain systems (Holland 1964:,27). The region of the I n t e r i o r System l y i n g south of l a t i t u d e 55° north to the 49th p a r a l l e l and west of the Columbia Mountains i s defined as the Canadian I n t e r i o r Plateau (Holland 1964:66),. The I n t e r i o r Plateau i s diverse i n character, t y p i f i e d by areas of low to moderate r e l i e f c o n s t i t u t i n g a serie s of plateaus, highlands, mountains, and deeply entrenched major r i v e r v a l l e y s . The predominant drainage system i s the Fraser River and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s ; minor drainage to the Columbia, Peace, and Skeena Rivers occurs i n those areas of the I n t e r i o r Plateau outside of the Fraser River watershed (Holland 1964:67). This region of complex physiographic patterning i s subdivided into seven physiographic regions: the Fraser Basin, Nechacko Plateau, Fraser Plateau,: Thompson 35 Plateau, : Quesnel Highland, Shuswap Highland, and Okanagan Highland (Holland 1964:67-74). Upper Hat Creek Valley i s located on the t r a n s i t i o n zone between two physiographic r e g i o n s — t h e Fraser and Thompson Plateaus. Centered on approximately 50°40» north l a t i t u d e and 121°56* west longitude and measuring 15 mi i n length oriented north-south, Upper Hat Creek Valley includes the eastern slopes of the Clear Range of the Fraser Plateau and the western sections of the Trachyte and Cornwall H i l l s that c o n s t i t u t e the western margin of the Thompson Plateau (see f i g u r e 2). The average f l o o r elevation of t h i s shallow upland v a l l e y i s approximately 3500 f t (1050 m) and ranges from about 2800 f t (840 m) i n the northern end to approximate^ l y 4000 f t (1200 m) i n the south. The Clear Range, with summits i n excess of 7600 f t (2280 m.J r i s i n g over 4000 f t (1200 m) above the v a l l e y f l o o r , presents an area of high r e l i e f immediately west of Upper Hat Creek Valley while cre s t s of the Trachyte and Cornwall H i l l s to the east are 1000 to 2000 f t (300 to 600 m) lower i n ele v a t i o n , forming a zone of more moderate r e l i e f . The general physiographic s e t t i n g of the v a l l e y can be observed from the photograph of f i g u r e 3. S u r f i c i a l Geology and S o i l s The s u r f i c i a l geology of Upper Hat Creek Valley i s p r i n c i p a l l y characterized by a sheet of g l a c i a l d r i f t , FIGURE 2. Physiographic subdivisions i n the v i c i n i t y of Upper Hat Creek Valley (after Holland 1964). 37 FIGURE 3- General view of Upper Hat Creek Valley, looking southwest. 38 varying i n depth, with bedrock projections and exposures. The l a t t e r are represented by the Clear Range, composed of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Spences Bridge Group (Ryder 1976:2) and a s e r i e s of limestone c l i f f s forming the eastern wall of the southern parts of the v a l l e y which con-s t i t u t e an outcrop of the Marble Canyon Formation (Aylsworth 1975:4-5). In general,; the landforms derived from the g l a c i a l t i l l deposits are s t a b l e — a f a c t o r important for purposes of archaeological surface survey. M. Church /personal communication) has noted the minimal influence of erosional and depositional processes on these landforms since t h e i r formation. D r i f t deposits i n the v a l l e y are character-ized by undulating to hummocky moraines (Ryder 1976:7-8),. P o s t g l a c i a l a l t e r a t i o n s of these areas have mainly resulted from earthflow a c t i v i t y i n the v i c i n i t y of White Rock Creek and along the southern periphery of the Houth Meadows, and from stream entrenchment. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of major s u r f i c i a l features i s presented i n f i g u r e 4. A l l u v i a l and c o l l u v i a l sediments are evident i n smaller areas throughout the v a l l e y basin. Sand and s i l t sediments comprise the r e l a t i v e l y narrow Hat Creek f l o o d p l a i n located i n the southern part of the v a l l e y while i n the northern end the f l o o d p l a i n i s even more r e s t r i c t e d i n width and i s well entrenched into the v a l l e y f i l l (Aylsworth 1975: 26). A l l u v i a l fans occur at both higher elevations on the 39 LETTER T E X T U R E g G R A V E L L Y f SILT 9 C L A Y d D IAMICTON r R U B B L E C O M P O S I T I O N A L - G E N E T I C M M O R A I N E ; T I L L A L L U V I A L ; SAND, SILT, G R A V E L , DIAMICTON FLUVIOGL ACIAL; S A N D , G R A V E L LACUSTRINE; SILT, C L A Y , SAND COLLUVIUM; VARIOUS ROCK DRIFT M O R P H O L O G I C SUBD IV I S ION P PLAIN t T E R R A C E D m UNDULATING f FAN h HUMMOCKY v V E N E E R r RIDGED b B L A N K E T A A? L C R D S T E E P SLOPES COMPLEX F IGURE 4 . S u r f i c i a l g e o l o g y o f U p p e r H a t C r e e k V a l l e y ( a f t e r R y d e r 1 9 7 6 ) . 40 western slope of the v a l l e y and the margin of the present f l o o d p l a i n . Colluvium derived from slopewash i s a common feature on steeper slopes along the east side of the v a l l e y . Talus slopes, however, are infrequent and are r e s t r i c t e d to the base of the limestone c l i f f s at the junction of the Upper Hat Creek and Oregon Jack Creek v a l l e y s i n the extreme southeast part of the basin. The process of s o i l development i n the v a l l e y i s mainly influenced by the varying i n t e r a c t i o n s of climate, topography, and vegetation. Local s o i l types are derived from three main forms of parent material: g l a c i a l t i l l , colluvium, and a l l u v i a l deposits. Regosols occur on the alluvium of the Hat Creek f l o o d p l a i n . Chernozemic s o i l s have developed under the grasslands i n areas of g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium. Brunisols and l u v i s o l s derived from g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium are present under forested conditions, the l a t t e r tending to be associated with higher elevation f o r e s t s . Climate The climate of t h i s region of the southwestern i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia i s t y p i f i e d by low p r e c i p i t a t i o n due to the rainshadow e f f e c t of the Coast Mountains. The rainshadow e f f e c t i s most intense at lower elevations where semi-arid conditions p r e v a i l , r e f l e c t i n g an increasing pre-c i p i t a t i o n gradient with higher a l t i t u d e (Van Ryswyk et a l . 4 1 1966). Clim a t i c data for the Upper Hat Creek Valley are av a i l a b l e from a l o c a l meteorological s t a t i o n at the Lehman Ranch (Atmospheric Environment Service n.d.:37). Summary data from t h i s s t a t i o n are presented i n table 1. Average annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the v a l l e y f l o o r ranges from 11.9 to 12.5 i n (302.3 to 317.0 mm). These represent v a l l e y bottom observations; the p r e c i p i t a t i o n on the adjacent slopes i s expected to be higher. There i s a bimodal d i s t r i -bution of seasonal p r e c i p i t a t i o n , the f i r s t maximum occurring i n the winter p r i n c i p a l l y i n the form of snowfall, and the second i n the summer r a i n s . A continental climate p r e v a i l s throughout the year; generally warm summers and cold rigorous winters r e s u l t i n a sharp d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of seasonal temperatures. While the Coast Mountains constantly impede the flow of P a c i f i c a i r masses eastward, the I n t e r i o r Plateau to the north of south-c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia does not provide any e f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r f o r polar a i r moving south during the winter. The intermixture of these coastal and a r c t i c a i r masses over the region r e s u l t s i n a marked f l u c t u a t i o n of temperature during the winter season. The coldest month of the year i s January, with a mean d a i l y temperature of 12.2°F (-11.0°C). Neverthe-l e s s , the maximum recorded temperature f o r January i s 53°F (11.7°C) and the minimum i s -41°F (-40.6°C). The warmest months are July and August with average d a i l y temperatures of TABLE 1 UPPER HAT CREEK VALLEY CLIMATIC DATA Hat Creek Station (Lehman Ranch) Latitude 50° 45N' Longitude 121° 35W Elevation 900 m (2950 ft) ASL JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC YEAR (°F) 12.2 21.7 28.8 38.7 43.3 54.2 59.1 57.5 50.9 39.4 25.9 17.1 37.8 Mean Daily Temperature (°C) (-U.0) (- 5.7) (- 1.8) ( 3.7) ( 9.1) ( 12.3) ( 15.1) ( 14.2) ( 10.5) ( 4.1) ( 3.4) ( 8.3) ( 3.2) (°F) 22.8 33.8 40.2 51.1 62.4 68.2 75.1 73.2 66.1 51.3 35.4 26.7 50.5 Mean Daily Maximum Temperature (°C) (- 5.1) ( 1.0) ( 4.6) ( 10.6) ( 16.9) ( 20.1) ( 23.9) ( 22.9) ( 18.9) ( 10.7) ( 1.9) (- 2.9) ( 10.3) (°F) 1.5 9.6 17.3 26.2 34.1 40.2 43.0 41.7 35.7 27.5 16.3 7.5 25.1 Mean Daily Minimum Temperature (°C) (-16.9) (-12.4) (- 8.2) (- 3.2) ( 1.2) ( 4.6) ( 6.-1) ( 5.4) ( 2.1) (- 2.5) (- 8.7) (-13.6) (- 3.8) (°F) 53 56 63 70 82 93 94 . 94 88 74 54 50 94 Extreme Maximum Temperature (°C) ( 11.7) ( 13.3) ( 17.2) ( 21.1) ( 27.8) ( 33.9) ( 34.4) ( 34.4) ( 33.1) ( 23.3) ( 12.2) ( 10.0) ( 34.4) (°F) -41 -13 -18 12 18 26 31 28 19 10 -22 -45 -45 Extreme Minimum Temperature (°C) (-40.6) (-25.0) (-27.8) ( U.l) ( 7.8) (- 3.3) (- 0.6) (- 2.2) (- 7.2) (-12.2) (-30.0) (-42.8) (- 42.7) No. of Days with Frost 31 28 31 27 16 2 1 1 9 24 30 31 231 (in) 0.10 0.11 0.21 0.32 0.70 1.38 1.14 1.25 0.79 0.84 0.26 0.14 7.24 Mean Rainfall (ran) ( 2.5) ( 2.8) ( 5.3) ( 8.1) ( 17.8) ( 35.1) ( 29.0) ( 31.8) ( 20.1) ( 21.3) ( 6.6) ( 3.6) ( 183.9) (in) 14.5 6.2 4.0 3.2 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.5 9.1 12.2 52.4 Mean Snowfall (ran) (368.3) (157.5) (101.6) ( 81.3) ( 38.1) ( 0.0) ( 0.0) ( 0.0) ( 5.1) ( 38.1) (231.1) (309.9) (1331.0) (in) 1.55 0.73 0.61 0.64 0.85 1.38 1.14 1.25 0.81 0.99 1.17 1.36 12.48 Mean Total Precipitation (mm) ( 39.4) ( 18.5) ( 15.5) ( 16.3) ( 21.6) ( 35.1) ( 29.0) ( 31.8) ( 20.6) ( 25.2) ( 29.7) ( 34.5) ( 317.0) Source: Atmospheric Environment Service ( n.d.: 37) 43 59.1°F (15.1°C) and 57.5°F (14.2°C) r e s p e c t i v e l y . During these months, the average d a i l y maximum temperatures are between 73.2°F (22.9°C) and 75.1°F (23.9°C); average d a i l y minima ; range between 41.7°F (5.4°C) and 43.0°F (6.1°C). No months are e n t i r e l y f r o s t f r e e , and only June, July and August have snow-free p r e c i p i t a t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g the e f f e c t s of more pronounced temperature f l u c t u a t i o n s at higher elevations and the v e r t i c a l gradient of decreasing tempera-ture with increasing a l t i t u d e (Atmospheric Environment Service n.d.:.37). Hydrologic Environment The nature, d i s t r i b u t i o n , and duration of a v a i l -a b i l i t y of water i s a c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e i n the study of c u l t u r a l adaptations to semi-arid environments, p o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c i n g both occupation and resource extraction and pro-cessing. Considerable v a r i a t i o n i n a l l the above a t t r i b u t e s of the hydrologic environment e x i s t s i n the study area. The upper reaches of Hat Creek drain a basin area of 12 7 sq mi (329 sq km) before entering the lower stream course that joins the Bonaparte River 12 mi downstream. The Bona-parte River i s a t r i b u t a r y of the Thompson River, the major confluent of the Fraser River. The l o c a l drainage i n Upper Hat Creek Valley i s characterized by an assortment of inte r m i t t e n t , semi-perma-nent (seasonal), and permanent year-round t r i b u t a r i e s flowing 2J4 i n t o Hat Creek along i t s 13.4 mi (21.6 km) upper valley-f l o o r course. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of present Hat Creek t r i -butaries i s presented i n figur e 5. Hat Creek has a r e l a t i v e -l y low gradient and stream flow along i t s upper reaches. The duration and rates of stream flow of the t r i b u t a r y creeks have yet to be studied. It i s probable that the pre-h i s t o r i c l o c a t i o n of streams i n the v a l l e y was s i m i l a r to the present d i s t r i b u t i o n . Landforms are mainly the r e s u l t s of g l a c i a l processes, and the major e f f e c t of Hat Creek and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s on the physiography has been channel erosion r e s u l t i n g i n deep entrenchment along most stream courses and the r e s t r i c t e d development of a l l u v i a l fans. Hat Creek has an annual high flow period during May and June (B.C. Research et a l . 1975:88); the magnitude of the spring freshet i s dependent on the quantity of winter snow pack i n the v a l l e y and higher elevations. Thus, the peak and general creek l e v e l s may fl u c t u a t e considerably each year, according to c l i m a t i c o s c i l l a t i o n s i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n . A se r i e s of small lakes and sloughs maintained by a system of subsurface seepage channels are located on the eastern slopes south of Ambusten Creek and along most of the western benchland. These provide water sources,, although a l k a l i n e , f o r varying periods throughout the year. The same seepage system also feeds springs i n the general area, although the e n t i r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of these sources i s not 45 FIGURE 5- Hat Creek drainage basin. 46 known. Some are observable along the west bank of Hat Creek In the north end of the v a l l e y . While minimal i n o v e r a l l quantity r e l a t i v e to adjacent drainage regions and susceptible to f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the present and undoubtedly the p r e h i s t o r i c period, Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y water resources present a dispersed d i s t r i b u t i o n over the landscape i n a v a r i e t y of source types. Flora According to the B r i t i s h Columbia biogeoclimatic zone d i s t r i b u t i o n map by Krajina (1973), three major biogeoclimatic zones are present within the Upper Hat Creek drainage basin: I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r , Subalpine Engelmann Spruce — Subalpine F i r , and Alpine Tundra.. The v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of these zones and those of areas to the east and west of the v a l l e y i s presented i n f i g u r e 6. The vegetation within these three broad zones can be further subdivided i n t o a ser i e s of communities (associa-t i o n s ) , each of which constitutes a d i s t i n c t i v e grouping of plant species. A t o t a l of 17 vegetation associations have been i d e n t i f i e d within the Upper Hat Creek watershed i n an i n i t i a l e c o l o g i c a l study by the TERA Environmental Resource Analyst Limited (1978). These are presented i n order of increasing elevation i n table 2. From these associations, a t o t a l of 10 vegetation WEST H O R I Z O N T A L : V E R T I C A L : 8 0 0 M E T R E S 1 I 1 'l 1 I1 r 3 MILES I1 I ' l \ FIGURE 6. V e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of Biogeoclimatic Zones i n the v i c i n i t y of Upper Hat Creek Valley. TABLE 2 VEGETATION ASSOCIATIONS IN THE UPPER HAT CREEK BASIN In t e r i o r Douglas-fir (steppe) Zone - Sagebrush-Bunchgrass Association - Bunchgrass-Kentucky Bluegrass Association - Saline Depression Association - Kentucky Bluegrass Association I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir (forest) Zone - Douglas-fir-Bunchgrass Association - Douglas-fir-Pinegrass Association - Douglas-fir-Bunchgrass-Pinegrass Association - Douglas-fir-Spirea-Bearberry Association Subalpine Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine F i r (forest) Zone - Engelmann Spruce-Grouseberry-Pinegrass Association - Engelmann Spruee-Grouseberry Association - Engelmann Spruce-Willow-Red Heather Parkland Association - Engelmann Spruce-Grouseberry-Lupines Association Subalpine Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine F i r (steppe) Zone - Highland Grasslands Association Alpine Tundra Zone - Mountain Avens-Sedge Association Azonal Associations - Riparian Association - Engelmann Spruce-Horsetail Association - Willow-Sedge Bog Association SOURCE: TERA (1978) 1 : 5 0 , 0 0 0 Vegetation Association Map 4-9 communities are i d e n t i f i e d within the study area for arch-aeological survey. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the communities i n the v i c i n i t y of the archaeological sampling frame i s presented i n f i g u r e 7. On. the basis of the TERA study and other work i n the general region ( B e i l 1974; Brayshaw 1970; Krajina 1965; McLean and Marchand 1968; Tisdal e 1947; T i s d a l e and McLean 1957), each community i s b r i e f l y des-cribed below with respect to dominant species and plants i d e n t i f i e d as ethnographic subsistence resources (see Dawson 1891; Palmer 1975a; Steedman 1930; Te-it 1900* 1906,. 1909). The 10 communities present are: 1. The sagebrush-bunchgrass community (see f i g u r e 8), which i s usually absent within the I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r zone (Brayshaw 1970; Tisdal e and McLean 1957). The presence of t h i s community i n the northern end of the Upper Hat Creek Valley below 3200 f t (975 m) may c o n s t i t u t e an edaphic climax to s o i l s r i c h i n bentonite, since a s i m i l a r v e g e t a t i o n - s o i l r e l a t i o n -ship has been suggested f o r sage-dominant communities outside t h e i r recognized ranges i n the Similkameen Valley., B.C. (McLean 1970:413). For t h i s reason i t i s recognized as a "natural" community although i n a s e r a i state due to intense grazing pressure. No trees are present i n the undisturbed areas of the community. Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) con-50 FIGURE 7. Vegetation communities i n the Upper Hat Creek study area. F IGURE 9. M i d d l e - u p p e r g r a s s l a n d c o m m u n i t y . 52 s t i t u t e s the dominant species i n the shrub stratum, while Bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum) dominates the herb layer. Subsistence plants i n t h i s community include yellow b e l l s ( F r i t i l l a r i a  pudica) , b i s c u i t root (Lomatium macrocarpum), mariposa l i l y (Calochortus macrocarpus), p r i c k l y pear cactus (Opuntia f r a q i l i s ) , nodding onion (Allium cernuum), balsam-root (Balsamorhiza s a q i t t a t a ) , b i t t e r - r o o t (Lewisa r e d i v a ) , stoneseed (Lithospermum ruderale), and serviceberry (Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ) . 2. The middle-upper grassland community (see fig u r e 9), which constitutes the remainder of the open grasslands on the v a l l e y bottom and lower slopes. This community contains two vegetation a s s o c i a t i o n s — t h e kentucky bluegrass and the bunchgrass-kentucky b l u e g r a s s — i d e n t i f i e d by TERA (1978:4.77-4.81) as s e r a i assoc-i a t i o n s with a species composition mainly influenced by grazing pressure.. For purposes of archaeological research they have been grouped together i n t o a sin g l e community described on the basis of the climax assoc-i a t i o n s that would be present i f grazing pressure was removed. These grasslands have an a l t i t u d i n a l range that includes the upper two climax grassland zones recognized for the Southern I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u — t h e Aqropyron-Poa (Middle Grassland) zone and the Agropyron-53 F e s t u c a (Upper G r a s s l a n d ) zone (McLean and Marchand 1968; T i s d a l e 1947),. B l u e b u n c h w h e a t g r a s s ( A g r o p y r o n  s p i c a t u m ) i s t h e dominant herb t h r o u g h o u t b o t h z o n e s . The s e c o n d a r y dominance o f sandberg b l u e g r a s s (Poa  secunda) i n t h e m i d d l e g r a s s l a n d zone and rough f e s c u e ( F e s t u c a s c a b r e l l a ) i n t h e upper g r a s s l a n d zone, i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a g r e a t e r s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y i n t h e l a t t e r zone, d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h e two zones.. A t o t a l >of f o u r e t h n o g r a p h i c s u b s i s t e n c e p l a n t s — b a l s a m - r o o t ( B a l s a m o r h i z a s a g i t t a t a ) , y e l l o w b e l l s ( F r i t i l l a r i a  p u d i c a ) , m a r i p o s a l i l y ( C a l o c h o r t u s macrocarpus) and n o d d i n g o n i o n ( A l l i u m c e r n u u m ) — a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e c l i m a x s i t e s d e s c r i b e d by T i s d a l e ( 1 9 4 7 ) . 3. The r i p a r i a n community (see f i g u r e 1 0 ) , r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e v a l l e y bottom a l o n g t h e f l o o d p l a i n and banks o f Hat C r e e k . Brayshaw (1970:30) n o t e s t h a t t h e compo-s i t i o n o f t h e r i p a r i a n community t h r o u g h o u t b o t h t h e I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r and Ponderosa P i n e - B u n c h g r a s s zones i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e as i t t e n d s t o a c t as a catchment f o r h i g h e r - e l e v a t i o n v e g e t a t i o n t r a n s p o r t e d downstream. Woody v e g e t a t i o n p r e v a i l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e community; t h e dominant t r e e i s b l a c k Cottonwood ( P o p u l u s t r i c h o c a r p a ) and t h e s h r u b u n d e r s t o r y c o n t a i n s a v a r i e t y o f e c o n o m i c a l l y — i m p o r t a n t shrubs:, s e r v i c e -FIGURE 1 0 . Riparian community. FIGURE 11. Saline depression community. 55 berry (Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ) , red-osier dogwood (Cornus s t o l o n i f e r a ) , gooseberry (Ribes sp.), wild rose (Rosa sp.), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), and low blueberry (Vaccinium scoparium). The herb layer i s poorly developed i n t h i s community and i s r e f l e c t e d i n the minimal number of subsistence species a v a i l -able: cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum), sweetroot (Osmorhiza c h i l e n s i s ) , and star-flowered Solomon's seal (Smilacina s t e l l a t a ) . 4. A s a l i n e depression community that i s present along the western grassland-covered slopes of the v a l l e y (see fi g u r e 11). In these l o c a t i o n s , subsurface water flow has resulted i n a s e r i e s of temporary ponds and surface accumulations of s a l t i n hummocky moraine depressions. This environment supports a community composed of a l k a l i n e and s a l i n e - r e s i s t a n t vegetation. Dominant plant species i n t h i s community are wiregrass (Juncus sp.) and saltgrass ( D i s t i c h l i s s t r i c t a ) . No ethnographic subsistence plants are present i n t h i s community. The s a l i n e depression community i s quite frequent i n occurrence but occupies a small o v e r a l l area within the middle-upper grassland community. These two communities have been grouped together f o r mapping purposes only i n figu r e 7. 5. The engelmann spruce-horsetail community (see f i g u r e 56 12), r e s t r i c t e d i n d i s t r i b u t i o n along depressions and creek g u l l i e s on the eastern lower slopes of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . This community represents an i n t r u s i o n of upper-elevation f o r e s t species i n t o the lower slopes due to cold a i r drainage flows (TERA 1978:4.72-4.73). The sole tree i n the community i s engelmann spruce (Picea enqelmanni). Subsistence plants dominate the shrub-layer: swamp gooseberry (Ribes l a c u s t r e ) , red-osier dogwood (Cornus s t o l o n i -fera)., raspberry (Rubus i d a e u s ) b l a c k twinberry (Lonicera i n v o l u c r a t a ) , serviceberry (Amelanchier  a l n i f o l i a ) , and wild rose (Rosa sp.). Strawberry (Fr.aqaria virqiniana ) , cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum), and sweetroot (Osmorhiza1 c h i l e n s i s ) are economically-important herbs i n the community. Blacktree li c h e n ( A l e c t o r i a jubata) i s also present. 6. The willow-sedge bog community (see f i g u r e 13), which also has a l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n within the archaeolo-g i c a l sampling frame. I t i s present at inundated areas within the woodlands where the ponding l a s t s fo r some duration of time (TERA 1978:4.73; also see Brayshaw 1970:33). This community was observed only i n two a r e a s — n e a r Aleece Lake i n the northeast part of the v a l l e y and adjacent to Langley Lake i n the southeast corner of the v a l l e y . Willows (Sa l i x spp.). FIGURE 12. Engelmann spruce-horsetail community. FIGURE 13- Willow-sedge hog community. 58 and sedges (Carex spp.) always form the dominant vegetation. Only four plant species c o n s t i t u t e p o t e n t i a l subsistence resources: bearberry (Arcto- staphylos u v a - u r s i ) , black twinberry (Lonicera  i n v o l u c r a t a ) , dwarf huckleberry (Vaccinium c a e s p i t - osum), and strawberry (Fragaria v i r g i n i a n a ) . 7. The douglas fir-bunchgrass community (see f i g u r e 14) present on exposed slopes i n the northern end of the Upper Hat Creek Va l l e y at elevations of less than 3250 f t (990 m). This topographic and a l t i t u d i n a l p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t s the x e r i c nature of the community (see B e i l 1974:206, 208-211). The forest has a park-l i k e aspect dominated by douglas fir t f.(Pseudotsuqa  menziesii var. glauca) i n climax s t a t e . Due to agencies such as f i r e , logging, and l i v e s t o c k grazing, most of the forested zone i n the v a l l e y i s i n s e r a i s t a t e . In t h i s community, ponderosa pine (Pinus  ponderosa) i s observed as the dominant tree i n the successional state (see Brayshaw 1970:27-29). The shrub layer i s poorly developed at the expense of a dense herb stratum where bluebunch wheatgrass (Aqro- pyron spicatum) i s the dominant species. Three s h r u b s — s e r v i c e b e r r y (Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ) , wild rose (Rosa s p . ) a n d bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva- u r s i ) — and f i v e herb species—nodding onion (Allium FIGURE 15. Douglas fir-pinegrass community. 6o cernuum), stoneseed (Lithospermum ruderale), b i s c u i t root (Lomatium macrocarpum), mariposa l i l y (Calochort- us macrocarpus), and balsam-root (Balsamorhiza  s a q i t t a t a ) — c o n s t i t u t e the subsistence plants a v a i l -able i n the community. 8. A douglas f i r - p i n e g r a s s community (see f i g u r e 15) that constitutes the majority of the dry forest zone i n the v a l l e y . In climax state the community i s dominated by douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. qlauca) and a dense pinegrass (Calamaqrostis rubescens), herb l a y e r . At lower elevations, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) constitutes the dominant s e r a i tree while lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) assumes s e r a i dominance above 4000 f t (1200 m). A t o t a l of 14 species form the subsistence resource base a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s community., The majority consist of shrub species: serviceberry (Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ) , bear-berry (Arctostaphylos u v a - u r s i ) , soapberry (Shepherdia  canadensis), swamp gooseberry (Ribes l a c u s t r e ) , wild rose (Rosa sp.), raspberry (Rubus idaeus),, dwarf huckleberry (Vaccinium caespitosum), and mountain huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum). The remainder are herbs: nodding onion (Allium cernuum), balsam-root (Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a ) , stoneseed (Lithospermum  ruderale)« sweetroot (Osmorhiza c h i l e n s i s ) , strawberry 6 1 (Fragaria v i r g i n i a n a ) ; and black tree l i c h e n ( A l e e t o r i a jubata).. 9... A douglas fir-bunchgrass-pinegrass community (see f i g u r e 16),. occupying the midpoint of the xeric-mesic gradient represented by the douglas fir*-bunchgrass and douglas f i r - p i n e g r a s s communities. This community p r i m a r i l y occurs on the westward-facing slopes i n the northern h a l f of the v a l l e y at an elevation range between the above two communities. Compositional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s i g n i f i c a n t economic plant species are a varying mixture of those described f o r the douglas fir-bunchgrass and douglas f i r - p i n e g r a s s communities. 10. The douglas f i r - s p i r e a - b e a r b e r r y community (see fig u r e 17) that forms an edaphic climax r e s t r i c t e d to steep talus slopes with a rock rubble matrix. It i s found i n "pure" form i n the south end of the v a l l e y at the junction of the Oregon Jack Creek V a l l e y . In other areas i t i s intermixed with the douglas-fir-bunchgrass pinegrass community adjacent to bedrock outcrops. Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii var.. glauca) forms the open tree canopy; the well-developed shrub stratum includes: bearberry (Arctostaphylos u v a - u r s i ) , red-osier dogwood (Cornus s t o l o n i f e r a ) , serviceberry FIGURE 17. Douglas fir-spirea-bearberry community. 63 (Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ) , gooseberry (Ribes sp.), wild rose (Rosa sp.), and soapberry (Shepherdia  canadensis). A poorly-formed herb layer contains only three subsistance plants—nodding onion (Allium cernuum), fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), and strawberry (Fraqaria v i r g i n i a n a ) . Fauna Po t e n t i a l mammal, f i s h , and b i r d species that may be present within the Upper Hat Creek basin were determined from present-day breeding-migration range maps and habitat c a p a b i l i t y studies. While i t i s probable that the present-day d i s t r i b u t i o n s do not exactly mirror that of the p r e h i s t o r i c -early h i s t o r i c period-jvdue to land a l t e r a t i o n s such as l i v e -stock grazing, a g r i c u l t u r e , and logging, these observations are ameliorated to a degree by the habitat c a p a b i l i t y studies which do not consider such present-day a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r e f f e c t s i n the a n a l y s i s . Those species that have documented h i s t o r i c a l introductions to the region are omitted from the l i s t i n g s . Mammals Those mammals with ranges that include the Upper Hat Creek basin (see Banfield 1974, Cowan and Guiguet 1965) are l i s t e d i n table 3. A land c a p a b i l i t y analysis of the Ash-c r o f t map-area (between 50-51° north l a t i t u d e and 120-122° TABLE 3 MAMMALS POTENTIALLY PRESENT IN THE UPPER HAT CREEK BASIN Insectivores - Masked shrew (Sorex cinerus) - Dusky shrew (Sorex obscurus) - American water shrew (Sorex p a l u s t r i s ) - Townsend's big-eared bat (Plecotus townsendii) - Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) - S i l v e r - h a i r e d bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) - Hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) - C a l i f o r n i a myotis (Myotis c a l i f o r n i c u s ) - L i t t l e brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus) - Long-legged myotis (Myotis volans) Lagomorphs - Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) - Rocky mountain pika (Ochotona princeps) Rodents - Yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota F l a v i v e n t r i s ) - Hoary marmot (Marmota caligata) - Yellow-pine chipmunk (Eutamias amoenus) - American red s q u i r r e l (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) - Northern F l y i n g s q u i r r e l (Glaucomvs sabrinus) - Northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) - American beaver (Castor canadensis) - Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) - Bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma cinerea) - Boreal redback vole (Clethrionomys gapperi) - Long-tailed vole (Microtus longicaudus) - Montane vole (Microtus montanus) - Meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) - Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) - Meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius) - American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) TABLE 3 — Continued Carnivores - Coyote (Canis latrans) - Wolf (Canis lupus) - Red fox (Vulpes fulva) - Black bear (Ursus americanus) - Marten (Martes americanus) - Fisher (Martes pennanti) - S h o r t - t a i l e d weasel (Mustela erminea) - Long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata) - American mink (Mustela vison) - River otte r (Lutr.a canadensis) - Wolverine (Gulo luscus) - Yellow badger (Taxidea taxus) - Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) - Cougar ( F e l i s concolor) - Bobcat (Lynx rufus) - Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) Artiodactyls - Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) - Elk (Cervus elaphus) - C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) SOURCES: Bamfield (1974); Cowan and Guiguet (1965) 66 west longitude) f o r po t e n t i a l ungulate production (Environ-ment Canada 1974) i d e n t i f i e s several areas within the Upper Hat Creek Valley as having a high p o t e n t i a l for supporting mule deer populations. The v i c i n i t y of the Houth Meadows i n the northwest part of the v a l l e y i s c l a s s i f i e d as an important winter range. Other areas i n the v a l l e y that have high c a p a b i l i t y ratings include the middle reaches of Chipuin and Anderson Creeks and the extreme southern end of the v a l l e y . Fish A t o t a l of 13 freshwater f i s h species which have ranges and a habitat type that cover the Hat Creek watershed were i d e n t i f i e d from the general d i s t r i b u t i o n s provided by Ca r l et a l . (1973) and Scott and Crossman (1973). Species of economic importance as a subsistence resource f o r past and present human populations are: Dolly varden (Salvelinus  malma), Rainbow trout (Salmo g a i r d n e r i ) , Mountain whitefish (Prosopium w i l l i a m s o n i ) , Cutthroat trout (Salmo c l a r k i ) , and possibly B r i d g e l i p sucker (Catostomus columbianus). A v a r i e t y of minnows could be present: Redslde shiner (Richardsonius b a l t e a t u s ) , Lake chub (Couesius plumbeus), Leopard dace (Rhinichthys f a l c a t u s ) , and Longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae),. Other p o t e n t i a l f i s h e s include: Coastrange s c u l p i n (Cottus a l e u t i c u s ) , P r i c k l y s c u l p i n 67 (Cottus asper), Slimy sc u l p i n (Cottus coqnatus), and P a c i f i c lamprey (Entoshenus t r i d e n t a t u s ) . The l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of any of these species i s l i k e l y confined to Hat Creek proper as many of the t r i b u t a r -i e s present l i m i t i n g factors such as a low summer-fall flow and/or freeze-up during winter. Local residents have observed winter freeze-up of Hat Creek t r i b u t a r i e s and l o c a l lakes which would r e s u l t i n the w i n t e r k i l l of any f i s h popu-l a t i o n s present. While the larger l a k e s — F i n n e y Lake and Aleece Lake—do not presently support f i s h populations, the B.C. Fish and W i l d l i f e Branch has indicated that they have the p o t e n t i a l to do so (S. Macdonald, personal communication). At present, Hat Greek does not support any anadromous f i s h species. However, spawning populations of pink, coho, and Chinook salmon have been observed i n the lower reaches of the Bonaparte River (International P a c i f i c Salmon Fi s h e r i e s Commission 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973). Their d i s t r i b u t i o n up-stream i s l i m i t e d by a man-made b a r r i e r i n the form of a dam. A p o t e n t i a l natural obstruction to upstream movement to the Upper Hat Creek i s a chute on the lower reaches of Hat Creek. The present habitat c a p a b i l i t y of Hat Creek to support anadromous species i s uncertain. Birds On the basis of range maps (Godfrey 1966) and habitat 68 descriptions (Guiguet 1955, 1958) some 200 birds have breeding ranges and/or migration routes that are encompassed by the Upper Hat Creek Valley.. Over h a l f of these species are perching birds (Passeriformes) that have minimal value as a subsistence resource. For t h i s reason they are not presented here. Table 4 l i s t s a l l waterfowl, upland game b i r d s , and birds of prey that may be expected i n the valley.. The^ p o t e n t i a l waterfowl species l i s t i s probably r e a l i z e d to a considerable degree as Upper Hat Creek Valley has a high waterfowl c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g (Canada Department of Regional Economic Expansion 1970). This high r a t i n g i s based on the presence of a s e r i e s of small temporary a l k a l i n e ponds that form a wetland zone d i s t r i b u t e d along the western lower slopes of the v a l l e y . The importance of the v a l l e y as a waterfowl resource area i s further increased by the f a c t that there are a minimal number of areas i n the Ashcroft map area with a s i m i l a r r a t i n g . The c l o s e s t areas with comparable c a p a b i l i t i e s are zones to the southeast and northwest of Kamloops and the v i c i n i t y of Nicola Lake and Douglas Lake (Canada Department of Regional Economic Expansion 1970). L i t h i c Resources L i t h i c resources form an aspect of the physical environment that must be considered i n a study of p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence-settlement technology. L i t h i c resources are defined as those rocks and minerals which e x h i b i t the TABLE 4 WATERFOWL, UPLAND GAME BIRDS, AND BIRDS OF PREY POTENTIALLY PRESENT IN THE UPPER HAT CREEK BASIN Waterfowl - Common loon (Gavia immer) - Red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisenga) - Horned grebe (Podiceps auritus) - Eared grebe (Podiceps caspicus) - P i e d - b i l l e d grebe (Podiceps podiceps) - American b i t t e r n (Botaurus lentiginosus) - Canada goose (Branta canadensis) - Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) - Gadwall (Anas strepera) - P i n t a i l (Anas acuta) - Green-winged t e a l (Anas carolinensis) - Blue-winged t e a l (Anas discors) - Cinnamon t e a l (Anas cyanoptera) - American widgeon (Mareca americana) - Shoveler (Spatula clypeata) - Redhead (Aythya americana) - Ring-necked Duck (Aythya c o l l a r i s ) - Canvasback (Aythya v a l i s i n e r i a ) - Common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) - Barrow's goldeneye (Bucephala islandica) - Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) - Harlequin duck (Histrionicus h i s t r i o n i c u s ) - White-winged scoter (Melanitta deglandi) - Ruddy duck (Oxyura .jamaicensis) - Hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus) - Common merganser (Mergus merganser) - Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) - V i r g i n i a r a i l (Rallus limicola) - Sora (Porzana Carolina) - American coot ( F u l i c a americana) TABLE 4 — Continued Upland Game Birds - Blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) - Spruce grouse (Canachites canadensis) - Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) - White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) - Sharp-tailed grouse (Pediocetes phasianellus) - C a l i f o r n i a q u a i l (Lophortyx c a l i f o r n i c u s ) - Chukar partridge (Alectoris gracea) - Mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) Birds of Prey - Goshawk (Accipter g e n t i l i s ) - Sharp-shinned hawk (Accipter s t r i a t u s ) - Red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) - Bald eagle (Haliaetus leucocephalus) - Marsh hawk (Circus cyaneus) - Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) - P r a i r i e falcon (Falco mexicanus) - Pigeon hawk (Falco columbarius) - Sparrow hawk (Falco sparverius) - Screech owl (Otus asio) - Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) - Pygmy owl (Glaucidiom gnoma) - Barred owl (Stri x varia) - Great gray owl (Stri x nebulosa) - Long-eared owl (Asio otus) - Short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) - Saw-whet owl (Aegolius acadieus) SOURCES: Godfrey (1966); Guiguet (1955. 1958) 71 property of conchoidal f r a c t u r e , thus making them p o t e n t i a l materials that can be manufactured into chipped stone t o o l s . Present knowledge of the type and d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i t h i c materials i n Upper Hat Creek Valley i s based on q u a l i t a t i v e observations made by the author during archaeol-o g i c a l s i t e survey, published references, and information offered by v a l l e y residents.. Binford and Quimby (1963:2 77) d i s t i n g u i s h two modes of occurrence f o r l i t h i c resources: Raw material which breaks with a conchoidal fracture normally occurs i n two ordinary forms and a v a r i e t y of secondary forms. Primary forms are those jLn s i t u raw materials which can be obtained from the deposits where they were s t r u c t u r a l l y formed . . . . Secondary forms of raw material are normally e i t h e r s p h e r i c a l or tabular chunks of eroded and redeposited primary raw material. There are few published references on the type and nature of l i t h i c raw materials i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . Stryd (1973:189-190) has mapped a "chert quarry" located at the confluence of Medicine and Hat Creeks but t h i s i s not described i n any d e t a i l . Sanger (1970:118) makes a general reference to the "Upper Hat Creek range" as a source l o c a t i o n for jasper and chalcedony a r t i f a c t s recovered from the Loch-nore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y . More s p e c i f i c information on l i t h i c raw material d i s t r i b u t i o n s i s found i n Dawson (1894:212b) who notes a limestone conglomerate formation containing "pebbles of chert" which ranges from the eastern end of 72 Marble Canyon at the mouth of Upper Hat Creek Valley south-ward i n t o the Trachyte H i l l s . This indicates the p o t e n t i a l for the l o c a l occurrence of chert i n primary form. More de t a i l e d data on l o c a l l i t h i c resource d i s t r i -butions was c o l l e c t e d during archaeological survey. Generally, raw material nodules of chert were observed more frequently than those of b a s a l t . With only two exceptions, both l i t h i c types were d i s t r i b u t e d s p o r a d i c a l l y throughout the areas surveyed. Basalt nodules e x h i b i t a greater s i z e range than the cherts. The former are present as pebbles (less than 64 mm), cobbles (65-256 mm), and boulders (greater than 256 mm) while, the l a t t e r were observed only as cobbles and boulders. Dense concentrations of basalt pebbles were exposed i n dissected areas of the eastern lower slopes above Medicine Creek. Cobble-sized cherts were frequent along eastern slopes between Medicine Creek and Ambusten Creek, an area that has been extensively exploited f o r jasper by roekhounds f o r the past two decades ( I . Lehman, personal communication). The character of the o r i g i n a l surface, or cortex, of l i t h i c materials i s the primary a t t r i b u t e which indicates the mode of occurrence. On the basis of an examination of cortex present on both a r t i f a c t s and unaltered pieces c o l l e c t e d and observed during the survey, only secondary forms of l i t h i c resources have been observed within the 73 v a l l e y . With respect to unaltered items, specimens with rounded c o r t i c a l or hydration patina surfaces were observed i n g l a c i a l t i l l deposits.; other pieces that exh i b i t rounded and battered-bruised surfaces were noted i n stream bed deposits, i n d i c a t i n g a further redeposition of the t i l l m a t e r i a l . For -analytical purposes, c r y p t o e r y s t a l l l n e s i l i c e o u s materials are c l a s s i f i e d as cherts and igneous rocks are grouped together as b a s a l t s . This l a t t e r category does not include obsidian; i t s low occurrence i n the chipped stone assemblage (2 specimens) indicates i t probably i s a l i t h i c material exotic to the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . Each of the major types contains a diverse range of materials. The chert category includes cherts, chalcedonies, and jaspers while the basalt group contains r h y o l i t e s , andesites, and f e l s i t e s i n addition to b a s a l t s . Nevertheless, there i s more v a r i a t i o n between groups than within groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to chemical composition, e l a s t i c i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y (see Crabtree 196 7). The Paleoenvironmental Setting While i t i s possible to describe the present-day environmental s e t t i n g of Upper Hat Creek Valley i n some d e t a i l j i t i s c r i t i c a l to t h i s study to- determine the extent to which the nature and d i s t r i b u t i o n of physical and b i o t i c 74 features may have changed since the l a s t g l a c i a t i o n . This section reviews the present information on la t e Pleistocene and Recent paleoenvironments i n the I n t e r i o r Plateau i n order to determine i f the environment and, by extension, the resource base a v a i l a b l e to p r e h i s t o r i c populations, may have changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the past. The Late Pleistocene Environment In B r i t i s h Columbia the Fraser G l a c i a t i o n represents the l a s t major Wisconsinian g l a c i a t i o n (Armstrong et a l . 1965). During t h i s g l a c i a l period, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the In t e r i o r Plateau was covered by an i c e sheet. While two to three stades of the Fraser g l a c i a t i o n are recognized i n the i n the southern coast of B r i t i s h Columbia, no subdivisions have been established for the I n t e r i o r Plateau. During the Fraser g l a c i a t i o n maximum, the i c e surface i n the I n t e r i o r Plateau reached an estimated 8000 f t (2450 m) above sea l e v e l on the eastern slopes of the Coast Range, and at t h i s elevation could have buried the e n t i r e I n t e r i o r System under i c e ( D u f f e l l and McTaggart 1952, Wilson et a l . 1958). Ryder (1976:15) suggests that some peaks i n the Clear Range may have constituted nunataks during the g l a c i a l maximum. Gl a c i a t i o n i n the I n t e r i o r Plateau was i n i t i a t e d by a buildup of i c e sheets i n the Coast, Cariboo and Monashee 75 Mountains which flowed onto the plateau and coalesced. There e x i s t alternate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the nature of Fraser i c e sheet movement i n the I n t e r i o r System. Fulton (1967^ 1971) proposes that coalescing i c e sheets b u i l t up to form an i c e dome which became a s i n g l e dynamic unit during the g l a c i a l maximum. From t h i s i c e dome, there was a northern and southern outward flow. Tipper (1971) presents an alternate view r e j e c t i n g the hypothesis of an i c e dome developing during the Fraser g l a c i a t i o n . Rather, the i n t e r i o r i c e sheet consisted of separate flows from the Coast and Columbia mountains that coalesced and diverged i n northerly and southerly d i r e c t i o n s . On a l o c a l scale, Aylsworth (1975:14) notes g l a c i a l abrasion features i n the Upper Hat Creek drainage region that i n d i c a t e a main i c e movement eastward from the Coast Mountains. An i n i t i a l , p a r t i a l r e t r e a t of t h i s i c e was followed by a readvance that entered Upper Hat Creek Valley from the northeast but was not of s u f f i c i e n t magnitude to cover the upland areas. This r e-advance, probably the l o c a l expression of the g l a c i a l r e -advance that originated i n the Cariboo Mountains, extended as f a r west as the Fraser River (Tipper 1971). Deglaciation throughout the I n t e r i o r Plateau occurred by in-place downwasting of the i c e sheet, a process probably i n i t i a t e d i n the southern Columbia Mountains (Fulton 1971:16). The mountains and uplands were the f i r s t areas exposed while 76 i c e tongues i n lower v a l l e y zones stagnated, causing a complex succession of p r o g l a c i a l lakes throughout the period of downwasting (Fulton 1967:16). Considerable l o c a l v a r i a -t i o n did occur; there i s no firm evidence of stagnant i c e deposits i n the Upper Hat Creek Valley f i l l i n g the shallow basin with a p r o g l a c i a l lake of any appreciable s i z e or duration (Aylsworth 1975:15). The deglaciation of Upper Hat Creek Valley i s represented by a serie s of transverse morainic ridges i n the southern area r e f l e c t i n g the retr e a t of a s t i l l - a c t i v e front i n the basin (Aylsworth 1975; Ryder 1976:16). The deglaciation of the I n t e r i o r System resulted i n the exposure of unconsolidated g l a c i a l d r i f t and a temporary increase i n the amount and duration of streamflow, two con-d i t i o n s that d i r e c t l y influenced the deposition of sediments throughout south-central B r i t i s h Columbia both during and a f t e r the deg l a c i a t i o n period (Ryder 1971). Three main types of such p a r a g l a c i a l sediments are evident i n the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau: D a l l u v i a l fans, 2) f l u v i a l .sediments, and 3)l a c u s t r i n e sediments (Church and Ryder 1972:3063). Only the f i r s t two types are evident i n the Upper Hat Creek Valley.. A l l u v i a l fans have buried smaller moraines located by creeks on the western slopes of the v a l l e y which drain the Clear Range (Aylsworth 19 75:27). While considerably le s s extensive than the aggradation deposits c h a r a c t e r i z i n g 77 the major r i v e r v a l l e y s , f l u v i a l sediments probably deposited during the main r e t r e a t of the Fraser i c e sheet and o v e r l a i n by t i l l representing the l a t e readvance are present i n the northern end of the v a l l e y (Aylsworth 1975:15-18). Both of these types of sediments have been entrenched by p o s t g l a c i a l stream lowering of the l o c a l base l e v e l . The dating of basal organic sediments from bogs and g l a c i a l lake outlet channels provides a basis f o r estimating the time of i c e - f r e e conditions i n the I n t e r i o r Plateau. Fulton (1971:17) has proposed that the e n t i r e plateau was i c e -free with present drainage systems established by. at l e a s t 9,500 B.P.. Undoubtedly, upland areas such as the Upper Hat Creek Valley must have been i c e - f r e e considerably e a r l i e r than t h i s date but an accurate estimate would require d e t a i l e d l o c a l study. There i s evidence that the area around Yale, located on the western periphery of the Thompson Plateau, was deglaciated around 11,500 B.P. (Mathewes and Rouse 1975: 754). If one assumes that the I n t e r i o r Plateau was i c e - f r e e as e a r l y as was the Lower Fraser Canyon, then the l a t t e r date may apply to south-central B r i t i s h Columbia i n general. Palynological research (Hansen 1955; Fulton and Armstrong 1965; Mathewes and Rouse 1975; A l l e y 1976a) has recorded pollen spectra i n the basal organic sediments and, i n some cases, underlying l a c u s t r i n e s i l t s deposited by pro-g l a c i a l lakes that document the i n i t i a l establishment of 78 vegetation during d e g l a c i a t i o n . The presence of arboreal pollen i n both contexts suggests a coniferous f o r e s t , rather than p e r i g l a c i a l tundra vegetation, was present during d e g l a c i a t i o n . Fulton (1971:19) suggests that a zone of temperate climate providing conditions conducive to the establishment of coniferous forest vegetation may have existed i n the I n t e r i o r Plateau i f deglaciation did not occur u n t i l a r e l a t i v e l y l a t e date. The Recent Environment The extant d i r e c t evidence of the Upper Hat Creek Valley p o s t g l a c i a l environment i s not s u f f i c i e n t to provide a comprehensive perspective of any regional changes that may have occurred. However, a general overview of the post-g l a c i a l environment i n the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau can be obtained by i n t e g r a t i n g the l o c a l Hat Creek data with that from other areas i n the region. The extant information a v a i l a b l e on I n t e r i o r Plateau p o s t g l a c i a l environments i s mainly based on palynological studies. The pioneer palynological research, a general survey of the i n t e r i o r (Hansen 1955) and a preliminary analysis of a core near M e r r i t t (Fulton and Armstrong 1965: 88-91), has only recently been augmented by studies i n the Lower Fraser River Canyon on the western boundary of the I n t e r i o r System (Mathewes and Rouse 1975), the Okanagan 79 Valley (Alley 1976a), and the Upper Hat Creek Valley (Hebda n.d.,). Additional information from geomorphic and geologic studies (Alley 1976b, Denton and Karlen 1973) i s also a v a i l a b l e . Basal radiocarbon dates a v a i l a b l e from some pollen cores i n d i c a t e varying times by which organic sedimentation was i n process throughout the Southern Plateau. Vegetation was well-established i n the v i c i n i t y of the Otter Creek bog near M e r r i t t by 9,320 B.P. (Fulton and Armstrong 1965:88). In the Okanagan Valley,,; a date from the lower layers of the Kelowna bog indicates that regional vegetation was present some time p r i o r to 8,140 B.P... (Alley 1976a:1133). A core from Squeah Lake near Yale i n the Lower Fraser Canyon pro-vides evidence of vegetational succession i n that area before 11,140 B.P, (Mathewes and Rouse 19 75:54). Studies of these and other f o s s i l pollen p r o f i l e s have defined three main zones based on pollen spectra changes. These are interpreted as evidence of p o s t g l a c i a l c l i m a t i c f l u c t u a t i o n s . While c o n s i s t e n t l y recognized among i n d i v i d u a l core samples, the dating of these climatic-vegetation i n t e r -vals i s presently subject to some debate. The main argument concerns the temporal boundaries of the "hypsithermal 1 1 or xerothermic i n t e r v a l i n south-central B r i t i s h Columbia. Hansen (1955) o r i g i n a l l y defined a " c l a s s i c " xerothermic i n t e r v a l from 7,500-3,500 B.P. with a thermal maximum at 80 6,600 B..P. This has recently been questioned by A l l e y (1976a:1141.-1142) and Mathewes and Rouse (1975:752), i n l i g h t of the research i n the Okanagan and Lower Fraser Canyon. Their p o s i t i o n i s also supported by the Upper Hat Creek study. The remainder of t h i s section reviews the extant studies relevant to an understanding of the post-^ g l a c i a l environmental s e t t i n g i n the Upper Hat Creek Va l l e y . The e a r l i e s t pollen zone displays an abundance of arboreal p o l l e n , suggestive of a p o s t - g l a c i a l coniferous f o r e s t . A l l p r o f i l e s , excepting that from the Kelowna bog, indicate the dominance of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) i n a pollen assemblage that also includes smaller amounts of spruce (Picea) and f i r (Abies). In the Kelowna bog, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) i s the dominant arboreal species, a dif f e r e n c e which may be due to l o c a l physiography (Alley 1976a:1140). The presence of such species as lodgepole pine and f i r i n the spectra suggest that early p o s t - g l a c i a l vege-t a t i o n developed under moist and cool c l i m a t i c conditions (Hansen 1955:64 7-649; Mathewes and Rouse 1975:751; A l l e y 1976a:1140). This i n t e r v a l probably terminated about 10,400 B.P. i n the Lower Fraser Canyon (Mathewes and Rouse 1975:751). An accurate estimate f o r the duration of t h i s period i n the .OkanaganValley i s not available,. (Alley 1976a:1140). Evidence for t h i s zone i s absent from the Finney Lake core sample from Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . 81 The succeeding zone i s characterized by a marked decrease i n arboreal p o l l e n , notably lodgepole pine, and an increase i n nonarboreal types such as grasses, chenopods, and sage (Artemisia). This s h i f t i s interpreted as r e s u l t -ing from a warmer and d r i e r c l i m a t i c period defined as the xerothermic or Hypsithermal i n t e r v a l (Hansen 1955:650; Mathewes and Rouse 1975:752; A l l e y 1976a.:1140; Hebda n.d.: 3-4). Regional v a r i a t i o n among the pollen assemblages of t h i s zone i s also evident. The highly x e r i c greasewood (Sarcobatus) i s present i n the Okanagan Valley during t h i s i n t e r v a l ( A l l e y 1976a). In the Southern Plateau pollen pro-f i l e s , ; Hansen (1955:650-651) records an increase i n the geo-graphic d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e l a t i v e amounts of ponderosa pine, which, i n conjunction with peaks i n sage, i s viewed as evidence of a "thermal maximum". This i s contemporaneous with volcanic ash layers probably containing Mount Mazama tephra deposited at approximately 6600 B.P..(Powers and Wilcox 1964). However, studies i n the Lower Fraser Canyon, the Okanagan V a l l e y , and Upper Hat Creek Valley independently conclude that t h i s i n t e r v a l terminated as l a t e as, or s h o r t l y a f t e r the deposition of Mazama ash, a date i n c o n f l i c t with the 3,500 B.P. estimate made by Hansen (1955). Hebda (n.d.: 4) estimates that t h i s i n t e r v a l ended at about 6,200 B.P. i n Upper Hat Creek. The e f f e c t s of the xerothermic i n t e r v a l i n the 82 I n t e r i o r Plateau do not appear to be as extreme as they were i n the Columbia Plateau (Hansen 1955:657). Throughout southern B r i t i s h Columbia, arboreal pollen i s never f u l l y supplanted by x e r i c species such as grasses and chenopods. Nevertheless, x e r i c conditions may have been more pronounced i n the more southerly areas of the Canadian Plateau. A l l e y (1976a:1133) reports aeolean deposits suggestive of such conditions underlying the Mazama ash layer i n the Okanagan V a l l e y . However, t h i s may just be due to l o c a l topographic factors (M.< Church, personal communication). The t h i r d broad pollen zone spans the period from the end of the xerothermic i n t e r v a l to present times. . Pollen spectra changes documented fo r t h i s zone in d i c a t e the return of a cooler and/or moister climate. The trend towards wetter, cooler conditions i n the Lower Fraser Canyon may have begun p r i o r to 6,600 B.P.: increases i n western hemlock (Tsuqa heterophylla), f i r (Abies, and b i r c h (Betula) occur i n the upper l e v e l s underlying the Mazama ash layer (Mathewes and Rouse 1975:752). The post-Mazama continuation of t h i s trend to moister conditions i s represented by peak f r e -quencies of western hemlock,, western white pine . (Pinus  monticola), and cedar-cypress (Thu ja-Chamaecyparis) type p o l l e n (Mathewes and Rouse 1975:752). An increase i n arboreal p o l l e n , dominated by ponderosa pine and an accompanying decrease i n the grasses, sedges, and sage, 83 characterize the post-xerothermic zone i n the Okanagan Va l l e y ( A l l e y 1976a:1139). Hansen (1955:147, 151) i n t e r p r e t s an increase i n lodgepole pine throughout the upper l e v e l s i n a s e r i e s of p r o f i l e s and a l a t e appearance of douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii) i n grassland region cores as a response to a moister climate. The immediate post-hypsithermal pollen zone i n the Finney Lake core i s characterized by alder (Alnus) as the dominant arboreal component. There i s also a drop i n the r e l a t i v e frequency of grasses and sage, representing the s h i f t to c o o l e r , moister c l i m a t i c conditions (Hebda n.d.:4-5). A subsequent s h i f t from alder to pine and douglas f i r at about 4,500 B.P. i s interpreted as r e f l e c t i n g the transform-ation to the present-day vegetation pattern i n Upper Hat Creek Val l e y (Hebda n.d.:5). At present, i t i s not c e r t a i n i f the dominance of alder i n the Finney Lake core may represent a period of increased moisture within t h i s generally cool and wet i n t e r -v a l . A l l e y (1976a:1139) int e r p r e t s the p e r i o d i c dominance of b i r c h and alder p o l l e n i n the Kelowna, bog upper zone as r e f l e c t i n g three phases of increased moisture i n the Okanagan V a l l e y . However, s i m i l a r subdivisions have not been ident-i f i e d i n other f o s s i l p o l l e n spectra i n the I n t e r i o r Plateau. Evidence of three Holocene g l a c i a l advances i n the 84 Shuswap Highland, and the Monashee, Cariboo and Omineca Mountains suggests the I n t e r i o r Plateau was subject to periods of increased moisture and cooler temperatures during the post-hypisthermal i n t e r v a l . Relative dating of these advances (Alley 1976b:6) indicates a c o r r e l a t i o n with the general Neoglacial chronology f o r the North American C o r d i l l e r a that recognizes advances occurring at 5,800-4,900 B.P., 3,300-2,300 B.P., and within the l a s t millenium (Denton and Karlen 1973). In summary, the a v a i l a b l e paleoenvironmental evidence suggests the following sequence of post-Pleistocene e l i m a t i c o s c i l l a t i o n s f o r the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau. A moist and cool climate probably s i m i l a r to present conditions prevailed during the early p o s t g l a c i a l period u n t i l 10,400 B.P. to 8400 B.P., depending on the p a r t i c u l a r area. A change to warmer and d r i e r c l i m a t i c conditions followed. This xerothermic i n t e r v a l terminated by 6,200 B.P. when cool and moist con-d i t i o n s returned. During t h i s l a t e s t period, three post-Pleistocene alpine g l a c i a l advances occurred during the i n t e r v a l s 5,800-4,900 B.P.., 3,300-2,300 B.P., and 1,000 B.P. to present. An even cooler and moister climate may have been present during these advances. The e f f e c t of these broad-scale o s c i l l a t i o n s on the vegetation of Upper Hat Creek Valley are discussed below. 85 The most d r a s t i c s h i f t i d e n t i f i e d i n the Finney Lake core occurs i n the immediate post-Mazama period where sage and grass p o l l e n types decrease and arboreal pollen i n the form of alder becomes dominant. Hebda (n.,d.:6) has suggested that i n the x e r i c i n t e r v a l p r i o r to t h i s s h i f t the sage-grassland zone was more extensive r e l a t i v e to i t s present-day d i s t r i b u t i o n . From about 6,200 B.P.to the present, cooler and moister conditions have enabled the woodlands to encroach on the grasslands, with the present-day pattern established around 4,500 B.P. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i n i t i a l dominance of alder i n t h i s i n t e r v a l as an i n d i c a t o r of even more wetness has yet to be determined. This i n f e r r e d change i n the extent, of the grassland community has other implications for e f f e c t s of c l i m a t i c change on vegetation i n the Upper Hat Creek basin. The plant ecology l i t e r a t u r e on the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau ( B e i l 1974; Brayshaw 1970; T i s d a l e 1947; Van Ryswyk et a l . 1966) has i d e n t i f i e d the e f f e c t s of temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n gradients on the regional physiography that r e s u l t i n the v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r i n g of b i o t i c zones-, In such a s i t u a t i o n , a major e f f e c t of c l i m a t i c o s c i l l a t i o n s would be a s h i f t of community boundaries, the e n t i r e community moving to higher or lower elevations according to the respective hot/dry or cool/moist i n t e r v a l . In Upper Hat Creek Valley t h i s process i s represented by i n i t i a l l y extensive grasslands covering 86 l a r g e r a r e a s o f t h e l o w e r s l o p e s d u r i n g t h e x e r i c i n t e r v a l and s u b s e q u e n t downward movement o f t h e woodlands o n t o t h e l o w e r s l o p e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v a l . However, i n r e l a t i v e l y l o w - r e l i e f a r e a s o f t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u t h e upward e l e v a t i o n s h i f t under x e r o t h e r m i c c o n d i t i o n s may have r e s u l t e d i n u p p e r - e l e v a t i o n b i o t i c c o mmunities b e i n g w i p e d o u t o f e x i s t e n c e by t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e i r e l e v a t i o n zone by l o w e r - e l e v a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s e x p e r i e n c i n g upward d i s p l a c e m e n t . , W h i l e t h i s i s u n l i k e l y t o have o c c u r r e d i n t h e h i g h - r e l i e f C l e a r Range c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e w e s t e r n s l o p e s o f t h e v a l l e y , some m i d - t o - u p p e r e l e v a t i o n b i o t i c c o m m u n i t i e s on t h e l o w - r e l i e f C o r n w a l l and T r a c h y t e H i l l s ,to t h e e a s t may have been f o r c e d o u t d u r i n g t h e x e r o t h e r m i c i n t e r v a l . 87 CHAPTER IV THE CULTURAL SETTING The main native inhabitants of the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau at the time of contact were populations speaking languages of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h family. Groups of part-i c u l a r relevance to t h i s study are those with h i s t o r i c t e r r i t o r i e s encompassing or adjacent to Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y : the L i l l o o e t - s p e a k i n g Upper L i l l o o e t band on the Fraser River; the Shuswap-speaking Bonaparte and P a v i l i o n bands; and the Thompson-speaking Upper Fraser and Spences Bridge bands (see f i g u r e 18; T e i t 1900:166).. It should be noted that the term "band", as used i n t h i s study, applies to those s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l units described by early ethno-graphies, rather than the contemporary aggregates defined fo r purposes of Indian administration. For information on present-day band d i v i s i o n s recognized by government agencies, the reader should consult Duff (1964:29-31). European contact with these native groups commenced i n 1808, when Simon Fraser camped among bands occupying the Fraser River V a l l e y . Fraser provided the f i r s t ethnographic descriptions of Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau cultures although t h i s information tends to be fragmentary (Lamb 1960). One important observation recorded by Fraser was the presence of European goods i n the inventory of aboriginal material <0 O o SHUSWAP I LYTTON BAND THOMPSON^* ^ 7 n V. j / 0 1 K MS 1 1 30 1 *N 1 0 1 MILES 1 20 FIGURE 18. Ethnographic I n t e r i o r S a l i s h groups i n the v i c i n i t y of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y ( a f t e r T e i t 1 9 0 0 : 1 6 6 ) . 89 c u l t u r e , i n d i c a t i n g that the replacement process of tr a d -i t i o n a l tools and f a c i l i t i e s had already commenced at t h i s time. Not u n t i l the p u b l i c a t i o n of two b r i e f notes on the Shuswap Indians i n the early 1890's (Boas 1890, Dawson 1891) i s there any r e l i a b l e ethnographic information on northern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c u l t u r e , Dawson recorded his observations on the Shuswap i n the course of geological work i n the south-ern i n t e r i o r during the years of 1877, 1888, 1889 and 1890, while Boas' information was c o l l e c t e d by an i n t e n t i o n a l ethno-^ graphic reconnaissance i n 1889. During t h i s time James T e i t , a member of Boas' Jesup North P a c i f i c Expedition, i n i t i a t e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which resulted i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of three major ethnographic monographs on the Thompson, L i l l o o e t , and Shuswap (Teit 1900, 1906, 1909). Further work among the Thompson and L i l l o o e t was c a r r i e d out i n the l a t e 19th century by Charles H i l l - T o u t (1899, 1905). However, by the time that t h i s research was conduct-ed, the impact of European contact on the ab o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e was manifest i n a v a r i e t y of forms: a d r a s t i c population decline due to introduced diseases such as smallpox; the destruction or r e s t r i c t i o n of natural environmental resources, due to the introduction of mining, lumbering, ranching, and farming operations as well as native p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these 90 i n d u s t r i e s ; and the l a r g e l y sedentary nature of the band structure due to establishment of reserves. Nevertheless, these studies do provide a wealth of information on abor-i g i n a l economic l i f e i n the early post-contact period. Both T e i t and Dawson used informant reconstructions and d i r e c t observation i n c o l l e c t i n g t h e i r information. This permits an evaluation of the impact of European.culture contact. Although i t i s apparent that the impact of western c u l t u r e on I n t e r i o r S a l i s h native groups was considerable during the i n i t i a l contact period, i t i s s t i l l p o ssible to determine some general patterns of t r a d i t i o n a l subsistence and settlement practices., Much of the more recent ethnographic research has focused on the reconstruction of the abo r i g i n a l I n t e r i o r S a l i s h lifeway. Verne Ray c a r r i e d out fieldwork throughout the 1930's f o r his d i f f u s i o n i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of both Canadian and American plateau c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Ray 1939). A reconstruction of pre-contact and early contact c u l t u r a l ecology of the southern Shuswap Indians i s pre-sented by Palmer (1975b), who puts extensive r e l i a n c e on the previous information contained i n the T e i t ethnographies. Kennedy and Bouchard (1978) provide some new in s i g h t into t r a d i t i o n a l subsistence and settlement of the Fraser River L i l l o o e t band, based on new data derived from contemporary informant reconstructions. S p e c i f i c information pertaining 91 to native f l o r a l subsistence resource e x p l o i t a t i o n also i s present i n numerous ethnobotanical studies (Palmer 1975a, Turner 1974, Steedman 1930). The following sections discuss past and contemporary aspects of the c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g i n the region of Upper Hat Creek Valley., These descriptions focus on subsistence-settlement systems; no attempt i s undertaken to present a complete ethnographic account. Regional Ethnography The Upper Hat Creek drainage basin includes portions of two band t e r r i t o r i e s : the majority of the basin l i e s within the t e r r i t o r y of the Spences Bridge band of the Upper Thompson Indians, while the extreme northern portion of the v a l l e y and the lower reaches of Hat Creek were part of the Bonaparte Shuswap band t e r r i t o r y (see f i g u r e 18; also T e i t 1900:170, 1909:456). The most d e t a i l e d account of the ethnographic u t i l i z a t i o n of Hat Creek Valley i s provided by T e i t (1900:170) i n his discussion of the Spences Bridge band: " . . . t h e i r hunting grounds extend back f o r t h i r t y or f o r t y miles on each side of Thompson River and include the upper h a l f of Hat Creek". No other s p e c i f i c references to the v a l l e y proper are made i n the published ethnographies. Nevertheless, considerable general information on subsistence and settlement a c t i v i t i e s i s a v a i l a b l e to enable the formu-92 l a t i o n of some ideas on the po t e n t i a l range of settlement and e x p l o i t a t i o n that would be expected i n such an environ-mental s i t u a t i o n as Hat Creek.Valley. The Thompson and Shuswap Indians possess d i s t i n c t i v e but highly s i m i l a r languages and c u l t u r e s . Jorgensen (1969: 18-20) considers Thompson and Shuswap as d i a l e c t s belonging to d i f f e r e n t but c l o s e l y r e l a t e d languages that share 75% of t h e i r cognates. With respect to a t t r i b u t e s of technology, s o c i a l organization, and r e l i g i o n , Jorgensen (1969:63-65) notes that the two cultures form a "Thompson Culture C l u s t e r " i n which 70% of these a t t r i b u t e s are common to both. The lifeways of the two groups were regarded by T e i t as a si n g l e basic type, as he constantly r e f e r s to the Thompson Indian ethnography for f u l l e r accounts of Shuswap c u l t u r e . For these reasons, the following discussion integrates informa-t i o n pertaining to both the Thompson and Shuswap i n present-ing an o u t l i n e of subsistence and settlement systems i n the region of Hat Creek. Thompson and Shuswap lifeways were c l o s e l y aligned to geographic and seasonal v a r i a b i l i t y i n the biophysical environment, manifest i n a pattern of group aggregation and di s p e r s a l at various stages i n the seminomadic annual sub-sistence c y c l e of hunting, gathering, and f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s (Boas 1890, Dawson 1891, H i l l - T o u t 1899, Palmer 1975a, T e i t 93 1900, 1909). The annual cy c l e for both groups has been described by T e i t (1900;237-239; 1909:517-518) and i s summarized below. The annual cy c l e for both the Thompson and Shuswap began i n November when hunting par t i e s would move to upland areas to procure deer, which at t h i s time were i n rut and herding as they migrated to lower elevations a f t e r spending the summer browsing i n the higher zones. These groups would e s t a b l i s h temporary hunting lodges covered with f i r branches rather than the usual mat or skin covering (Teit 1900:196). Occasionally, these structures also had earth banked up to a meter i n height (Teit 1909:494). These s e t t l e -ment locations may have been reoccupied each f a l l , as they were generally constructed near deer fences (Teit 1909:404), one of the many f a c i l i t i e s used for deer procurement. These were p r i m a r i l y e x t r a c t i v e camps for meat procurement. Pro-cessing a c t i v i t i e s were conducted elsewhere: . . . skins were generally cleaned and the h a i r removed at the hunting camps, while they were s t i l l f r e s h . They were then dried and folded up u n t i l winter, which was the time f o r skin dressing (Teit 1909:477). With the onset of winter, groups would return to the major r i v e r v a l l e y s , where the winter v i l l a g e settlements were located (Dawson 1891:8, T e i t 1900:192). While these were the p r i n c i p a l v i l l a g e s of the bands, membership was 94 not permanent. Many fa m i l i e s chose to s e t t l e i n d i f f e r e n t v i l l a g e s from one winter to another.(Teit 1909:570). Maxi-mum population aggregation occurred during t h i s period of sedentary winter settlement, which usually lasted from December u n t i l the end of February or early March (Teit 1900:194,238). The predominant winter dwelling was the semisubterranean pithouse, although an alternate type was the mat lodge with shallow excavated f l o o r s (Boas 1890:634-635) and double or t r i p l e layers of mat covering banked up with earth (Teit 1909:493). T e i t (1900:195) notes that sub-terranean pithouses were i n use as l a t e as 1890, when they were f i n a l l y replaced by log cabins. This was generally a period of r e l i a n c e on stored subsistence resources, although some ungulate hunting was done (Teit 1909:247,248).. Winter i c e - f i s h i n g was also c a r r i e d out, but probably spring and f a l l f i s h i n g were more important. Maintenance a c t i v i t i e s such, as hide processing and the manufacture of skin c l o t h i n g were also conducted during t h i s period (Teit 1909:477). The pattern of sedentary winter settlement was not universal among a l l Shuswap bands, however. In his descrip-t i o n of the Lakes d i v i s i o n Shuswap bands, T e i t (1909:459-460, 492, 494) indicates that these groups were more migratory than bands occupying the Fraser River, p a r t i c u l a r l y during the winter season, when they could not r e l y on stored sub-sistence resources. These bands had a subsistence-settle-95 ment pattern that did not include winter housepit v i l l a g e settlement. Winter subsistence required settlement d i s -persion and mobility to procure land mammal resources. Thus, mat or bark lodges were the predominant habitation throughout the year. Winter v i l l a g e populations were generally dispersed by A p r i l . One of the primary spring economic a c t i v i t i e s was trout f i s h i n g at lakes and r i v e r s . Trout were procured by nets, spears, and weirs, T e i t (1900:252) provides a des-c r i p t i o n of a large steelhead trout f i s h e r y at the confluence of the Nicola and Thompson Rivers occupied i n A p r i l by members from various Thompson bands. During l a t e A p r i l and at various times i n t o the summer, various roots and stems began to be obtainable. Root resources are a v a i l a b l e from the dry terraces of the major r i v e r v a l l e y s to the upper-elevation mountain slopes and v a l l e y s . Roots were exploited during two main c o l l e c t i n g seasons: e a r l y summer and f a l l (Teit 1900:231). With respect to the d i f f e r e n t i a l u t i l i z a t i o n of various elevation zones, the upland areas figured more prominently, since T e i t (1900: 231) notes "some of the roots used grew i n the dry v a l l e y s , while the majority were obtained i n the higher mountains only".. Higher-elevation areas such as Botanie Valley ( f l o o r elevation 3600 f t ; 1100 m) have been recorded as being u t i l i z e d extensively f o r root resources through May and June 96 by large population aggregates numbering "sometimes over a thousand Indians" (Teit 1900:294). During spring and summer,., ungulates were hunted i n t h e i r summer range i n the uplands. Smaller land mammals as well as f i s h were l i k e l y exploited when l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e , however, s p e c i f i c informa-t i o n on t h e i r use i s unavailable. F r u i t s , b e r r i e s and drupes c o n s t i t u t e another main subsistence resource with a s p e c i f i c geographic and seasonal d i s t r i b u t i o n . Several d i f f e r e n t species of berr i e s ripened i n l a t e summer on the major r i v e r terraces, while those r e s t r i c t e d to higher elevations (such as the various species of Vaccinium) were not obtainable u n t i l well i n t o the f a l l . The ethnographies do not provide d e t a i l e d information on the group structure and locations involved i n spring and summer subsistence a c t i v i t i e s . Family groups were l i k e l y the common un i t at most summer camps although larger temporary aggregations did occur at various times when permitted by the resource d i s t r i b u t i o n which was being u t i l i z e d (e.g. spring f i s h i n g and root gathering). Plant resources were always procured and processed by women (Dawson 1891:19, T e i t 1900:230) while men engaged i n hunting and trapping a c t i v i t -i e s . Camps associated with the extraction and processing of root resources were generally established i n close proximity to gathering areas (Dawson 1891:9), but the duration of t h e i r 97 occupation i s unknown. Root resources were processed f o r storage by drying, baking, or steaming. The l a s t two methods involved the construction of earth ovens which involved the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of both sexes (Dawson 1891:9). At short-term seasonal camps, temporary lodges of t u l e mats, brushes, bark, or skin covering over a wood frame were erected (Dawson 1891:8* T e i t 1900:195-197, T e i t 1909:493). More permanent habitations with log foundations were often erected at subsistence-gathering locations r e - v i s i t e d annually (Teit 1900:196, 1909:493). Kennedy and Bouchard (1978:38) note the occurrence of ethnographic settlements of t h i s type at high elevations i n Fountain and P a v i l i o n V a l l e y s , i n L i l l o o e t t e r r i t o r y to the west and north-west of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . By August, the focus of subsistence a c t i v i t i e s s h i f t e d to the major r i v e r s and t h e i r t r i b u t a r i e s where salmon runs were commencing. Camps f o r the extraction and processing of f i s h were established adjacent to canyon f l o o r s and banks of the Fraser and Thompson Rivers. Salmon were procured by;r nets or spearing from natural or constructed f i s h i n g platforms, the favored locations of which were at c o n s t r i c t i o n s i n the r i v e r where f i s h were forced to follow the shoreline (Teit 1900:250-251). Processing locations were usually situated away from the r i v e r shore on adjacent 98 banks or terraces, depending on l o c a l topography. Fish were procured by men and processed by women. Dawson (1891:22) notes that nut gathering was another subsistence a c t i v i t y c a r r i e d out i n l a t e summer. Preferred nuts were those from the cones of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and white-bark pine (Pinus a l b i c a u l i s ) (Dawson 1891:22; T e i t 1900:223; T e i t 1909:515,519). A b r i e f account of white-bark pine procurement a c t i v i t i e s i s provided by Dawson (1891:22): When the cones of Pinus a l b i c a u l i s are f u l l y formed, toward the end of summer, but before the scales expand and allow the nutlets to f a l l , the Indian women resort to the mountains where these trees abound at heights between 5,000 and 6,000 fe e t , often camping fo r days there, gathering and eating the n u t l e t s . ( I t a l i c s mine.) It i s evident that l a t e summer through e a r l y f a l l was a period during which a diverse group of highly seasonal subsistence resources were simultaneously a v a i l a b l e , part-i c u l a r l y salmon, roots, b e r r i e s , and nuts. While the pro-curement of these resources was divided between the sexes, with men f i s h i n g and women gathering, the processing of a l l resources involved only the women. Although not s p e c i f i c a l l y noted i n the ethnographies, t h i s s i t u a t i o n suggests that some degree of scheduling (Flannery 1968) on the part of the female labor force may have been involved to e f f i c i e n t l y integrate plant c o l l e c t i n g and f i s h processing tasks. Food kept f o r winter consumption was generally 99 stored i n bark-lined underground cache p i t s (Teit 1900:198-199). Other forms of storage caches are noted by T e i t (1900: 199), however,; only underground cache p i t s appear to have been used f o r food supplies. Cache p i t s were usually s i t -uated i n proximity to winter v i l l a g e s i t e s . . The remainder of the annual subsistence cyc l e i s not well documented. Trapping and hunting are the main a c t i v i t i e s noted f o r October. Land mammals and migrating waterfowl would also be a v a i l a b l e i n the f a l l . Elements of the material cul t u r e inventory are presented i n considerable d e t a i l by T e i t (1900,1909), Ray (1942), and Dawson (1891). The majority of tools i n the inventory were fabr i c a t e d from bone, a n t l e r , wood, and stone. Bone and a n t l e r provided such items as: deer ulna skinning and f l e s h i n g t o o l s , e l k - a n t l e r wedges f o r f e l l i n g and s p l i t -t i n g t r e e s , bear-bone engraving t o o l s , awls and needles, stone f l a k e r s , digging s t i c k handles, f i s h l e i s t e r barbs, f i s h hooks, bark peelers, sap scrapers, barbed spear points, and horn and skull-cap spoons. Wooden a r t i f a c t s included mallets, axe/adze h a f t s , scraper and k n i f e hafts, cedar and pine dug-out canoes, spruce bark canoes, needles, spoons, trays and other ve s s e l s , root digging s t i c k s , berry' drying frames, and bows, arrows, and spears. Spruce roots were used f o r basketry while t u l e and bulrushes were used for matting. The r o l e of stone t o o l technology i n the economy 100 of the ethnographic present can be regarded neither as sub-s t a n t i a l or i n s i g n i f i c a n t . A considerable degree of s e l e c t i v e replacement of many elements by metal items had occurred throughout the i n i t i a l contact period. Neverthe-l e s s , the sheer quantity of wood and bone items observed ethnographically indicates the importance of stone tools i n the manufacture of these a r t i f a c t s p r i o r to the introduction of metal. T e i t does inventory chipped-stone scrapers, wedges, knives, axe/adzes, and ground-stone items such as mallets, adzes, bowl vessels j and grinding stones f o r meat and berry processing. While the ethnographies provide considerable informa-t i o n on the locations of major winter v i l l a g e s , t h i s i s usually done at the expense of s p e c i f i c information on locations of upland subsistence a c t i v i t i e s and settlements. Nevertheless, the a v a i l a b l e data does indicate that upper elevation zones did have a prominent r o l e i n the aboriginal Thompson-Shuswap subsistence-settlement system: . . .., a large portion of the t r i b e l i v e d i n the  mountains during the greater part of the year, moving about from one root-digging or deer-hunting ground to another, according to the harvest-time of c e r t a i n roots and b e r r i e s , or as the deer changed t h e i r feeding grounds during the seasons. . . . Only when winter set i n did they return to t h e i r winter houses (Teit 1900:230). ( I t a l i c s mine). 101 Regional Culture History The a n t i q u i t y of the above ethnographic economic pattern has been a concern of considerable archaeological research i n areas adjacent to Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . The research most relevant to t h i s study i s that conducted i n the Fraser River Valley between Lytton and L i l l o o e t , which has resulted i n the construction of a 7,000 year sequence of archaeological cultures (Sanger 1969, 1970; Stryd 1973). A summary of t h i s c u l t u r e h i s t o r y i s presented below. The e a r l i e s t evidence of p r e h i s t o r i c settlement i n the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau i s the Old C o r d i l l e r a n Culture (Sanger 1969:192-194), a member of the more encompassing Protowestern T r a d i t i o n (Borden 1969). This constitutes an archaeological c u l t u r e i n i t i a l l y based i n the unglaciated regions south of B r i t i s h Columbia that moved north to occupy the province i n the early p o s t - g l a c i a l period. The Old C o r d i l l e r a n Culture i s interpreted as r e f l e c t i n g a general-ized hunting, f i s h i n g and gathering adaptation to a c o o l , wet, forested environment (Butler 1965:1127; Warren 1968: 45). The e a r l i e s t established date f o r t h i s c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s 9,100 B.P., obtained from the M i l l i k e n s i t e i n the Lower Fraser Canyon (Borden 1965* 1968). The Lochnore Complex from the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y i n the mid-Fraser River V a l l e y may also represent an Old C o r d i l l e r -an occupation estimated to date as early as 7,000-8,000 B.P.. 102 (Sanger 1969:194).. Old C o r d i l l e r a n material c u l t u r e i s characterized by leaf-shaped "Cascade" points, a core-microblade technology, edge-battered cobbles, cobble choppers, oval b i f a c e s , m i l l i n g stones,, a v a r i e t y of scraper types, and a well-developed a n t l e r and bone indust-ry (Sanger 1969:192; Warren 1968:27). The e a r l i e s t probable date f o r the Old C o r d i l l e r a n Culture i n the Fraser and Thompson Plateaus i s at l e a s t 9,500 B.P., the estimated time by which the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau was i c e - f r e e (Fulton 1971)., As yet, the temporal duration of t h i s c u l t u r e i n I n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia i s undetermined. A second possible early p o s t - g l a c i a l type of c u l t u r a l adaptation may be represented by i s o l a t e d finds of Piano-l i k e p r o j e c t i l e points. However, the only relevant informa-t i o n to date consists of b r i e f references to the presence of such point types and t h e i r possible a n t i q u i t y (Sanger 1969: 192). The i n t e r v a l from approximately 7,000 B.P.,to the h i s t o r i c period i n the mid-Fraser River Valley region i s interpreted as a time of e s s e n t i a l l y unchanging man-land relationships.. Fishing, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r anadromous salmon, was the major focus of subsistence a c t i v i t i e s that also included hunting and gathering of resources a v a i l a b l e i n a dry f o r e s t environment. The p r e v a i l i n g archaeological c u l t u r e throughout t h i s time i s defined as the Nesikep 103 T r a d i t i o n (Sanger 1969, 1970). I n i t i a l l y divided i n t o four smaller c u l t u r a l units on the basis of v a r i a b i l i t y among a r t i f a c t classes and settlement types, i . e . , Early Nesikep (7,000-5,000 B.P,), Lower middle Nesikep (5,000-3,500 B%, P.), Upper Middle Nesikep (3,500-2,800 B.P.), and Late Nesikep (2,800 B.P., - A.D. 1,800) (Sanger 1970:105), recent research suggests a twofold d i v i s i o n : Early Nesikep (7,000-2,800 B.P.), and Late Nesikep(2,800 B.P..- A.D,.1,750) (Stryd 1973;24). Stryd (1973) has further s u b d i v i d e d the l a t e Nesikep period i n t o a sequence of four phases: Nicola, L i l l o o e t , Kamloops, and P r o t o - h i s t o r i c , The main items within the chipped stone industry which d i f f e r e n t i a t e the Early and Late Nesikep periods are products of a prepared microblade technology. The Early Nesikep period i s defined by the presence of these a r t i f a c t types, which are absent i n Late Nesikep assemblages (Stryd 1973:24). Other chipped-stone a r t i f a c t types which may be diagnostic of the Early Nesikep period are small p r o j e c t i l e points manufactured from microblades and w e l l - f i n i s h e d scraping tools (Sanger 1970:38). Sanger (1970:110) also notes that graving t o o l s have a mutually exclusive d i s t r i -bution with microblades and cores and therefore may also be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Late Nesikep period. D i f f e r e n t i a l usage of raw materials i n the chipped-stone industry may also d i f f e r e n t i a t e the two periods (Stryd 1973:25-26). In. 1 0 4 the Late Nesikep period, r e l a t i v e l y greater amounts of black vitreous basalt are generally observed i n waste chippage r e s u l t i n g from a r t i f a c t manufacture. With respect to other aspects of the archaeological record, the semi-subterranean winter pithouse v i l l a g e settlement type does not appear u n t i l the l a t t e r part of the Early Nesikep period at approximately 3r500-3,000 B.P. (Sanger 1969:196, Stryd 1973:101),., Other differences between the Early and Late periods of the Nesikep T r a d i t i o n tend to be "quantitative rather than q u a l i t a t i v e " (Stryd 1973:26). Research by Stryd to r e f i n e the Late Nesikep c u l t u r e h i s t o r y has resulted i n a more d e t a i l e d material c u l t u r e inventory than that c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e f o r the Early Nesikep period. However, i t also i s not presently possible to determine which t r a i t s l i s t e d by Stryd (1973:25-26) as a t t r i b u t a b l e to the Late Nesikep period are diagnostic of i t ( i ; e . those that are absent from the Early Nesikep period). Stryd (1973:27-39.) has recognized four c u l t u r a l phases within the Late Nesikep period. The Nicola Phase (2,750-1,750 B.P.). i s defined by an absence of arrow points and the presence of medium to large-sized corner-notched or stemmed points. The succeeding L i l l o o e t Phase (1,750-1,150 B.P.) i s characterized by L i l l o o e t Corner-Notched arrow points and the absence of Kamloops Side-Notched arrow points. 105 The best documented phase i s the Kamloops Phase (1,150-200 B.P.), i n i t i a l l y defined by Sanger (1968a). The generally recognized "type f o s s i l " of t h i s phase i s the Kamloops Side-Notched arrow point (Sanger 1968a:147, Stryd 1973:34). Stryd (1973:34-35) has i d e n t i f i e d several a d d i t i o n a l a r t i f a c t types that may also be diagnostic: — s t e a t i t e carving complex (Duff 1956, Sanger 1968a) — carved a n t l e r f i g u r i n e s > — zoomorphic hand mauls — pecten s h e l l (Pecten caurinus) r a t t l e s — tubular s t e a t i t e pipes — b i r d bone beads? — chipped and d r i l l e d s l a t e pendants — spindle whorls and weaving ( i n f e r e n t i a l ) — small asymmetric leaf-shaped points — notched chipped stone d r i l l s ? — a r g i l l i t e scrapers? — s p a l l tools — chipped stone spokeshaves — metapoidal awls frequent — mica flakes (for ornamentation?) — large pithouses although medium and small pithouses are also i n use. However, Stryd (1973) also notes that these t r a i t s may emphasize the contents of b u r i a l s i t e s rather than repres-enting those to be expected i n habitation settlements. Sanger (1968a:146-149), nevertheless, suggests that the Kamloops Phase represents the l a t e r prehistory of the Upper Thompson Indians and the southern d i v i s i o n of the Shuswap Indians. The P r o t o - h i s t o r i c Phase commences at A.D. 1,750 and continues up to the h i s t o r i c period. P r o t o - h i s t o r i c archaeological assemblages are distinguished by "the presence 1 0 6 of a few trade goods i n the midst of an assemblage which otherwise resembles that of the Kamloops Phase" (Stryd 1973: 39). In addition to c o n s t i t u t i n g a chronological u n i t , the e n t i r e Nesikep T r a d i t i o n has been presented as a model emphasizing the co n t i n u i t y and s t a b i l i t y of p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence-settlement systems i n the mid-Fraser River Val l e y regions: Early h i s t o r i c Thompson and Shuswap subsistence-settlement patterns and s o c i a l organization were probably combined with I n t e r i o r S a l i s h languages for much of the 7,000 years of the Nesikep T r a d i t i o n (Sanger 1969:198). Although presented as a f a c t , t h i s statement on the an t i q u i t y of ethnographic subsistence-settlement systems should be regarded as a hypothesis. I t needs further t e s t i n g , part-i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t of the data upon which i t i s based. The ethnographies on the Thompson and Shuswap Indians c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e that during the annual round these groups engaged i n d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s at numerous geographic locations throughout the Fraser and Thompson Plateaus. The range of these a c t i v i t i e s , therefore, delineates the sub-sistence-settlement system. The Nesikep T r a d i t i o n , however, was defined on the basis of data c o l l e c t e d from only one a r e a — t h e major r i v e r v a l l e y terraces. It should not be assumed that a l l changes i n the regional subsistence-settle-ment system would be represented within a sing l e environmental 107 zone. There i s a c u r r e n t l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e n a t u r e o f p r e h i s t o r i c s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t b e h a v i o r i n m i d d l e and upper e l e v a t i o n mountain s l o p e s and v a l l e y s , w h i c h , i f t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c economic p a t t e r n has any a n t i -q u i t y , can be assumed t o have been s u b s t a n t i a l l y u t i l i z e d . These a r e a s s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , r e f l e c t a l t e r a t i o n s t o t h e r e g i o n a l p r e h i s t o r i c s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t system t h a t may not be o b s e r v a b l e i n t h e major r i v e r v a l l e y s b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s would a f f e c t o u r c u r r e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s uch s y s t e m s . On t h e b a s i s o f g e o g r a p h i c p r o x i m i t y , one would a n t i c i p a t e t h a t t h e above c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y would encompass Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e c h r o n o l -o g i c a l u n i t s i n s u r f a c e assemblages can be a c c o m p l i s h e d o n l y by a r t i f a c t c r o s s - d a t i n g o f t h o s e t y p e s d e m o n s t r a t e d ( o r assumed) t o have some t e m p o r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . W h i l e t h i s i s t h e o n l y p r e s e n t r e c o u r s e f o r o b t a i n i n g a c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e r e a r e l a t e n t problems w i t h s uch a s t r a t e g y t h a t must be r e c o g n i z e d . The e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t e x t o f r e c o v e r y f o r Hat Creek a r c h a e o l o g i c a l assemblages i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t s u r r o u n d i n g t h e d a t a used t o c o n s t r u c t t h e e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l c h r o n o l o g y . The p r e s e n c e o r absence o f c e r t a i n a r t i f a c t t y p e s from t h e F r a s e r R i v e r V a l l e y s i t e s t h a t a r e i n f e r r e d t o have c h r o n o l o g i c a l i m p o r t a n c e may s i m p l y r e f l e c t g e o g r a p h i c v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n a s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e d i a g n o s t i c a r t i f a c t t y p e t h a t 108 d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h e E a r l y and L a t e p e r i o d s o f t h e N e s i k e p T r a d i t i o n — t h e m i c r o b l a d e and c o r e t e c h n o l o g y — w a s d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f i t s n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h o u s e p i t s i t e s . T h i s does n o t , however, a. p r i o r i r u l e out i t s o c c u r r e n c e . a t L a t e N e s i k e p p e r i o d s e t t l e m e n t s where a c t i v i t i e s , d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h o u s e p i t s i t e s , were c a r r i e d o u t . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , one c a n n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y assume t h a t t h e F r a s e r R i v e r V a l l e y c u l t u r a l c h r o n o l o g y can be e x t e n d e d i n t h e e n t i r e t y t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s from Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . T h e r e f o r e , any c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f a r t i f a c t c r o s s - d a t i n g s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as v e r y t e n t a t i v e and s u b j e c t t o f u r t h e r t e s t i n g . G e n e r a l Models o f H u n t e r - G a t h e r e r  S u b s i s t e n c e - S e t t l e m e n t Systems The e a r l y e t h n o g r a p h i c a c c o u n t s o f I n t e r i o r S a l i s h c u l t u r e s r e p r e s e n t a t t e m p t s t o encompass a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e s e c u l t u r e s . However, t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f s u c h an a p p r o a c h a r e r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d when r e s u l t a n t works a r e c o n s u l t e d f o r d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s o f i n t e r e s t . These s t u d i e s a r e d e s c r i p t i v e ; t h e r e i s l i t t l e s y n t h e s i s o f t h e d a t a r e c o r d e d t o n o t e u n d e r l y i n g r e g u l a r -i t i e s o r p r o p o s e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s t o a c c o u n t f o r s u c h t r e n d s . The a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e an e n c o m p a s s i n g , y e t d e t a i l e d , p i c t u r e o f t h e t o t a l c u l t u r e a l s o r e s u l t s i n an i m p l i c i t o v e r - and "underemphasis o f v a r i o u s v a r i a b l e s " t h a t . 1 0 9 becomes e v i d e n t when e f f o r t s a r e made t o d i s c e r n r e g u l a r -i t i e s and g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p r a c t i c e s . I n t h e c o u r s e o f g l e a n i n g d a t a on e t h n o g r a p h i c Thompson and Shuswap s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p r a c t i c e s , i t became e v i d e n t t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n was l a c k i n g on a number o f c r i t i c a l a s p e c t s i n c l u d i n g t h e s o c i a l u n i t s o f u p l a n d r e s o u r c e procurement and p r o c e s s i n g , t h e d u r a t i o n o f su c h a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e n a t u r e o f o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e r e s p e c t -i v e s e t t l e m e n t s . Such i n f o r m a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y f o r d e r i v i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c economic p a t t e r n i n u p l a n d a r e a s . In s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , an a l t e r n a t e s t r a t e g y i s t o i n c o r p o r a t e b a s i c themes i d e n t i f i e d f o r o t h e r c u l t u r a l systems w i t h a h u n t i n g - g a t h e r i n g economy i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a g e n e r a l p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e n a t u r e o f such a c t i v i t i e s t o g u i d e t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h i s s t r a t e g y i s no t u n i q u e t o t h i s s t u d y . There a r e a r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g number o f s t u d i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a t o d e r i v e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t b e h a v i o r t h a t can be t e s t e d a g a i n s t s p e c i f i c s e t s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a ( J o c h i m 1976, Wilmaerr 1973). The most co m p r e h e n s i v e g e n e r a l model o f h u n t e r -g a t h e r e r s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t systems based on t h e compar-a t i v e s t u d y o f e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e i s p r e s e n t e d by Jochim 110 (1976). The s a l i e n t points of t h i s model are summarized below. Jochim (1976:11) delineates three major problems that face p a r t i c i p a n t s i n any subsistence-settlement system: 1) resource use schedule, 2) settlement l o c a t i o n , and 3) demographic arrangement. He also i d e n t i f i e s a causal relationshipramong these variables " . . . the determination of resource use tends to produce and condition the s i t e placements and demographic arrangement of a hunter-gatherer group" (Jochim 1976:12). The resource use schedule isrregarded as the economic strategy employed to cope with two fundamental requirements of the c u l t u r a l system: 1. The attainment of a secure l e v e l of food and manu-fac t u r i n g needs. 2. The maintenance of energy expenditure within a pre-defined range, determined p a r t l y by the need for population aggregation. (Jochim 1976:19). I t i s assumed that t h i s economic strategy i s the es s e n t i a l determinant of settlement l o c a t i o n s . Decisions on s i t e placement are pr i m a r i l y influenced by a least- c o s t p r i n c i p l e i n which the distance between settlement and resources i s kept to a minimum (also see Judge 1971; Plog and H i l l 1971), r e l a t i v e to two add i t i o n a l factors a f f e c t i n g settlement l o c a t i o n : 1) the provision of shel t e r and 2) "the concern for a view, both for game animals and f o r other human I l l populations" (Jochim 1976:49). The main a t t r i b u t e s of resources that would figu r e i n settlement l o c a t i o n are t h e i r l e v e l of s e c u r i t y and degree of mobility; resources with high l e v e l s of s e c u r i t y and a low degree of mobility would have the greatest influence on s i t e placement (Jochim 1976: 53-55). The s i z e of the population aggregates occupying settlements and the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of settlements i s the r e s u l t of an adjustment to f i v e f a c t o r s : 1. Provision of food for the population. 2. Resource procurement i n the predetermined propor-tions at low cost. 3. Resource procurement i n the predetermined propor-tions with high security. 4. Insurance of reproductive v i a b i l i t y . 5. Provision of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n (Jochim 1976:70). While the above model e x p l i c i t l y outlines the general p r i n c i p l e s of hunter-gatherer subsistence-settlement systems that have ethnographic v e r i f i c a t i o n , there i s a problem of i t s o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n for archaeological studies. Jochim does not present any implications of the model fo r i n t e r -assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y of l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s , which l i m i t s i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to the surface assemblages under analysis i n t h i s study. Another general model of hunter-^gatherer subsistence-settlement behavior has been proposed by Binford and Binford (1966). Although t h i s model i s not e x p l i c i t l y based on 112 ethnographic data, the o v e r a l l s i m i l a r i t y with the above model i s s t r i k i n g . This model was s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to study v a r i a b i l i t y i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of settlements as measured by l i t h i c assemblages. Binford and Binford (1966:268) propose that a l l economic a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by hunter-gatherers can be dichotomized i n t o two basic types<—extractive a c t i v i t i e s and maintenance a c t i v i t i e s : E x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s are those that center on the d i r e c t procurement of subsistence items or of raw materials to be used i n the manufacture of a r t i f a c t s . Maintenance a c t i v i t i e s are rel a t e d to the preparation and d i s t r i b u t i o n of subsistence goods already on hand and to the processing of on-hand materials i n the production of t o o l s . The p r i n c i p l e of l e a s t - c o s t i s i m p l i c i t i n t h e i r hypothesis that these a c t i v i t i e s w i l l have a d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n over the landscape, r e l a t i v e to locations of ex p l o i t a b l e resources and locations s u i t a b l e f o r occupation. They then suggest that, on the basis of a r t i f a c t assemblage contents and l o c a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , i t should be possible to i d e n t i f y two general types of settlements—base camps and work camps: We would expect there to be base camps selected p r i m a r i l y i n terms of adequate l i f e - s p a c e protect-ion from the elements, and c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n with respect to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources. The archaeological assemblages of base camps should r e f l e c t maintenance t a s k s — t h e preparation and consumption of food as well as the manufacture of tools f o r use i n other l o c a t i o n s . Another settlement would be a work camp, a l o c a t i o n occupied while subgroups were carrying out e x t r a c t i v e tasks . . . In these locations we would 113 expect the archaeological assemblages to be dominated by the tools used i n the s p e c i f i c e x t r a c t i v e tasks. The degree to which maintenance a c t i v i t i e s may be represented at work camps would be a d i r e c t function of the length of time a given s o c i a l u n i t was there and the s i z e of the unit (Binford and Binford 1966:268-269). The subsistence-settlement system i s therefore defined on the basis of the p a r t i c u l a r combination i n which these two settlement types are u t i l i z e d by a s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l system. Variations of t h i s general model have been s u c c e s s f u l l y applied i n a number of archaeological studies (Wilmsen 1970, Plog and H i l l 1971, Judge 1973). This model has recently been subject to some c r i t -i c i s m . On the basis of ethnoarchaeological research on IKung bushman settlement patterns, Yellen (1976) questions the empirical v a l i d i t y of the basic d i v i s i o n of settlements into base and ex t r a c t i v e camps as they are defined above. Yellen (1976:65, 69-70) notes that while subsistence a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out at settlements do vary i n r e l a t i o n to environ-mental areas and seasons, e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s are performed i n the v i c i n i t y of a l l types of camps. Furthermore, main-tenance a c t i v i t i e s are not confined to any p a r t i c u l a r form of settlement (Yellen 1976:65). Therefore, work or extract-ive camps per se are non-existent i n the IKung subsistence-settlement system. The seasonal aspects of settlements, however,, are r e f l e c t e d by the quantity and kind of debris associated with manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s . The primary fa c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the performance of manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s i s t h e s e t t l e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s p a n , i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e v i c i n i t y ( Y e l l e n 19 76:65). Thus, t h e l o n g e r t h e s e a s o n a l o c c u p a t i o n span o f a camp, t h e g r e a t e r i s t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e t o o l s employed i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be worn out and r e q u i r e maintenance,, r e j u v e n a t i o n , o r r e p l a c e m e n t . One can a l s o deduce t h a t t h e l o n g e r t h e o c c u p a t i o n s p a n , t h e g r e a t e r t h e number and v a r i e t y o f s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d as s e a s o n a l r e s o u r c e s change,, r e s u l t i n g i n t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f a g r e a t e r q u a n t i t y and d i v e r s i t y o f d e b r i s and d i s c a r d e d t o o l s . G i v e n t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as t h e s o u t h e r n p l a t e a u e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o d e r i v e some f a i r l y s p e c i f i c e x p e c t a t i o n s on p r e h i s t o r i c s u b s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s p r e s e n t i n u p l a n d a r e a s such as Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . These a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y S u b s i s t e n c e and S e t t l e m e n t The f u n d a m e n t a l o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e o f h u n t e r -g a t h e r e r s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t systems i s t h e e f f e c t o f r e s o u r c e u t i l i z a t i o n on p o p u l a t i o n a g g r e g a t i o n and d i s p e r -s i o n and s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n ( J o c h i m 1976:11-13). The sub-s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e s s u b j e c t t o t h e g r e a t e s t degree o f s e a s o n a l f l u c t u a t i o n i n t h e Thompson-Shuswap a n n u a l round a r e anadromous f i s h and p l a n t s . These two r e s o u r c e s have d i s t i n c t g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n s . Anadromous f i s h a r e 1 1 5 r e s t r i c t e d t o major r i v e r i n e v a l l e y s and t h e i r t r i b u t a r i e s . W h i l e p l a n t r e s o u r c e s range from t h e major r i v e r v a l l e y t e r r a c e s t o t h e upper mountain s l o p e s , , t h e h i g h e r zones appear t o have been u t i l i z e d more i n t e n s i v e l y f o r p l a n t g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . , P e r i o d s o f optimum a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r each r e s o u r c e a r e o n l y s l i g h t l y o v e r l a p p i n g i n t h e f a l l . A d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s such as a n i m a l s and non-anadromous f i s h a r e r e l a t i v e l y common t o b o t h l o w e r and u p p e r - e l e v a t i o n z o n e s . A l s o , t h e y a r e p o t e n t i a l l y e x p l o i t a b l e a t a l l s e a s o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e p e r i o d s o f maximum a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r each.. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d a t a p r e s e n t e d above, one would n ot e x p e c t t o f i n d t h e co m p l e t e e t h n o g r a p h i c s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t system o p e r a t i v e w i t h i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . R a t h e r , t h e a r e a c o n s t i t u t e s o n l y one o f s e v e r a l t h a t would be u t i l i z e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a n n u a l r o u n d . The main economic a c t i v i t i e s e x p e c t e d t o be c a r r i e d o u t w i t h i n t h e v a l l e y would f o c u s on h u n t i n g and p l a n t g a t h e r i n g . H u n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r , a l t h o u g h t h e o p t i m a l t i m e s f o r p r o c u r i n g u n g u l a t e s would be i n t h e summer and f a l l when her d s were e i t h e r i n t h e i r summer ran g e i n t h e h i g h e l e v a t i o n zones o r i n t h e p r o c e s s o f m i g r a t i n g t o w i n t e r i n g grounds a t l o w e r l e v e l s . M i g r a t i n g w a t e r f o w l would a l s o l i k e l y be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e v a l l e y d u r i n g t h e f a l l . The s t a t u s o f Upper Hat Creek 116 Valley as a good wintering range for ungulates indicates the p o t e n t i a l for winter hunting a c t i v i t i e s i n the area. Generally, gathering a c t i v i t i e s i n upper-elevation areas such as Upper Hat Creek Valley emphasized root resources (Teit 1900:230-231). On the basis of present-day d i s t r i b u t i o n s , a large number of root crops that f i g u r e predominately i n ethnographic gathering strategies are a v a i l a b l e . Major species include: balsam root (Balsamorr-hiza saggitata), b i s c u i t root (Lomatium macrocarpum), Indian potato (Claytonia lanceolata), and nodding onion (Allium  cernuum). A l l of these are perennials, thus c o n s t i t u t i n g a r e l a t i v e l y stable and predictable resource i n s u i t a b l e h a b i t a t s . According to the ethnographic calendar, plant gathering would occur mainly i n the early spring and l a t e summer-early f a l l ( T e i t 1900:231). In Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y , the procurement of the above species would l i k e l y be c a r r i e d out i n the spring and early summer period,the time at which they are most abundant and palatable. Palmer (1975:59) notes that balsam root i s usually dug i n l a t e A p r i l or i n early May. Indian potato i s generally ready f o r gathering by June (Palmer 1975:65), while wild onion camps are established i n early July (Dawson 1891:20). While i t i s l i k e l y that major plant gathering a c t i v i t i e s were con-centrated i n the above period, t h i s does not necessarily r u l e out the c o l l e c t i o n of nut and berry resources i n the 117 l a t e summer and f a l l . Applying the "law of minimum" to the above subsis-tence resources, i t i s proposed here that the primary deter-minant of group s i z e and settlement l o c a t i o n during the spring and summer periods i s the gathering of plant resources.. The task groups and settlements involved i n the e x p l o i t a t i o n of these resources l i k e l y varied depending on l o c a l d i s t r i -butions. Wilmsen (1973:8) has suggested that the most e f f e c t i v e work group f o r plant food procurement i s one "of minimal s i z e c o n s i s t i n g primarily of a few females of varying age and status, who gather plant food f o r consumption by t h e i r own immediate households" and based i n a s i n g l e extended family residence u n i t . However, t h i s i s not the form of group structure described f o r Thompson root-gathering camps (Teit 1900:294) which are composed of substantial population aggregates engaged i n gathering f o r immediate consumption as well as winter subsistence. The ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e does not i n d i c a t e the duration of such types of settlements, nor the r e g u l a r i t y of t h e i r occurrence i n upland v a l l e y s . I t i s assumed here that such aggregations would have occurred whenever permitted by the l o c a l resource base, p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t was composed of perennials that would provide both a stable and predictable d i s t r i b u t i o n . Never-theless, these resources would be r a p i d l y depleted by intense gathering a c t i y i t i e s which would r e s u l t i n the dispersion of 118 the group to e x p l o i t other species e x h i b i t i n g a less dense and stable d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r at l e a s t part of the season. Plant gathering was a female a c t i v i t y , although men did a s s i s t i n processing plant resources. The major male a c t i v i t y during the plant gathering season focused on hunting of l o c a l l y - a v a i l a b l e animals, which could have involved the use of small e x t r a c t i v e settlements away from the root-gathering camps. Meat was often processed with plant resources at the main camps. This suggests that while butchering of larger animals would have been c a r r i e d out at hunting s i t e s , the meat would be processed and consumed at the plant procurement camps. Thus, i t i s proposed that the major use of Upper Hat Creek Valley i n the annual round of I n t e r i o r S a l i s h popula-tions was f o r spring plant gathering a c t i v i t i e s . While a n c i l l i a r y a c t i v i t i e s such as hunting may also have been c a r r i e d out at t h i s time, plant c o l l e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s are considered to be the primary factors a f f e c t i n g group s i z e and settlement l o c a t i o n s . The v a l l e y may also have been of some importance as a resource zone f o r f a l l and winter hunting a c t i v i t i e s . With respect to the maintenance-extra-c t i v e dichotomy, winter hunting probably constituted an e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t y as meat would be procured f o r consump-ti o n back at the winter v i l l a g e s situated i n the major r i v e r valleys.. On the other hand, spring gathering and 119 f a l l hunting involved a mixture of maintenance and extract-ive a c t i v i t i e s ; food was procured for immediate consumption and was also stored f o r winter subsistence. Given the above range of a c t i v i t i e s , the types of settlements that would be expected i n Upper Hat Creek Valley include: 1., "Brush house" transient camps (Teit 1900:196) used by e i t h e r hunting or c o l l e c t i n g parties when away from l o c a l base settlements. These would l i k e l y c o n s t i t u t e l i t t l e more than a windbreak and a hearth. 2. E x p l o i t a t i o n camps occupied f o r varying but generally b r i e f spans of time by one or more family groups. These would serve as a temporary l o c a l base f o r hunting and/or gathering a c t i v i t i e s . This settlement type includes the f a l l hunting lodges and root pro-cessing s i t e s discussed i n the above section on the ethnographic annual round. Mat or skin-covered lodges would be the major form of dwelling used. 3. Intensive e x p l o i t a t i o n camps, occupied b r i e f l y during the e a r l y spring and summer by a r e l a t i v e l y large population aggregate c o n s t i t u t i n g a number of l o c a l or even regional bands. These settlements, being r e v i s i t e d annually, would have dwellings with more permanent foundations of logs or earth embankments. In addition to these dwellings and the usual mat 120 lodges, large communal lodges would also be erected at such settlements (Teit 1900:196). This type of settlement would be expected at locations having s t a b l e , predictable plant resources s i m i l a r to that described by T e i t (1900:294) fo r the Botanie V a l l e y . These settlements probably had the following pattern of u t i l i z a t i o n . During the spring and summer gathering period, groups ranging from s i n g l e extended f a m i l i e s to an assembly of bands would occupy settlements situated i n close proximity to plant c o l l e c t i n g grounds and favorable camp lo c a t i o n s , the l a t t e r determined by a t t r i b u t e s including a v a i l a b i l i t y of water, sheltered s i t u a t i o n , and s u f f i c i e n t l e v e l t e r r a i n . S e t t l e -ments would be occupied up to the time at which subsistence resources i n the area were depleted or resources i n other areas became a v a i l a b l e . Given that plant resources are characterized by v a r i a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n s and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , the o v e r a l l settlement pattern would also be expected to be diverse. Settlements occupied by plant procurement groups would tend to vary i n s i z e r e l a t i v e to the s t a b i l i t y and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of l o c a l plant resources. The l a t t e r would also determine the p o t e n t i a l f o r seasonal reoccupation of s p e c i f i c locations.. While s i t e s i z e may increase from reoccupation, the r e s u l t i n g tool assemblages from e i t h e r 121 s i n g l e or repeated occupations would s t i l l be characterized by a l i m i t e d range of debris and t o o l types, r e l a t i v e to that produced under prolonged occupation. For example, ext r a c t i v e s i t e s i n the v i c i n i t y of a s p e c i f i c plant resource would involve a l i m i t e d v a r i e t y of stone tools as the major tools used i n gathering a c t i v i t i e s are wood digging s t i c k s with a n t l e r handles and baskets f o r transporting plants (Te i t 1900:231). Stone tools would most l i k e l y be employed i n woodworking a c t i v i t i e s associated with the manufacture of gathering tools as they would provide the best means by which wood could be cut and modified i n the absence of metal items. Repeated u t i l i z a t i o n of the e x t r a c t i v e camp would increase the frequency of these tools but would not increase the d i v e r s i t y of the t o o l assemblage. This would be low r e l a t i v e to that produced at main seasonal base camps where a v a r i e t y of e x t r a c t i v e and maintenance tasks would be c a r r i e d out. Given a stable and predictable plant resource base and that gathering was c a r r i e d out f o r both immediate con-sumption and storage of food f o r winter subsistence, one may expect the construction of f a c i l i t i e s to process large quantities of plants and be re-used on the subsequent r e -occupation of the l o c a t i o n . The placement of such f a c i l i t i e s would be based on proximity to both food and nonfood resources, the l a t t e r including f u e l and water. F a l l and winter hunting camps would be occupied mainly 122 by male task groups, although the e n t i r e family uni t was occasionally involved i n deer drives (Teit 1900:248). F a l l hunting camps tended to have s p e c i f i c locations determined by migration routes of game. This enabled the establishment of settlements and f a c i l i t i e s that were r e v i s i t e d on a seasonal basis (Teit 1900:246). One would expect winter hunting s i t e s to e x h i b i t a dispersed d i s t r i b u t i o n , p r i m a r i l y determined by the l o c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y of game and the k i l l l o c a t i o n . Archaeological recognition of these settlement types and patterns i s a d i f f i c u l t procedure at best. The degree of m o b i l i t y necessary to e x p l o i t plant and game resources involves the u t i l i z a t i o n of a number of settlements for r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f periods, although some may be subject to annual reoccupation. With respect to surface i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , s t r u c t u r a l evidence of such settlements would be minimal with the exception of plant processing f a c i l i t i e s (Dawson: 1891:20). Observable elements of occupation would i n most cases, be l i m i t e d to the l i t h i c industry. 123 CHAPTER V ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN UPPER HAT CREEK VALLEY Methodology The b a s i s o f any d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r e h i s t o r i c sub-s i s t e n c e and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s i s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n r e l a t i o n t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s . The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a r i a b i l i t y p r e s e n t among s i t e s i n t h e a r e a as an i n i t i a l s t e p towards s u c h d e s c r i p t i o n . From an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e v a l l e y c o n s t i t u t e d a b a s i c a l l y unknown a r e a . Thus, i t was c r i t i c a l t h a t t h i s i n i t i a l d e t e r -m i n a t i o n s h o u l d be as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and u n b i a s e d as p o s s i b l e . T h i s was a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a memo-randum o f agreement between t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e O f f i c e o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h a e o l o g i s t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a — a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e base o f t h e v a l l e y t h a t c o u l d be used t o e s t i m a t e t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h o s e r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n i m p a c t zones o f a pr o p o s e d t h e r m a l e l e c t r i c d e velopment. G i v e n t h e t i m e and f i n a n c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e 1976 f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , i t was not c o n s i d e r e d p r a c t i c a l t o c a r r y o u t an i n v e n t o r y o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s w i t h i n t h e 1 2 4 hydrographic boundaries of Upper Hat Creek ( i . e . the area bounded on the west by the Hat Creek-Fraser River drainage divide i n the Clear Range and by the Trachyte and Cornwall H i l l s on the e a s t ) . Instead, an area of smaller, more manageable s i z e was selected. The 90.4 sq km t r a c t presented i n fig u r e 19 covers the v a l l e y bottomlands and adjacent forested lower slopes,, representing a large propor-t i o n of the environmental v a r i a t i o n present within the Upper Hat Creek watershed., This area was also considered l i k e l y to contain any thermal power developments i n the v a l l e y . Generalizations about the archaeological resource base within the Upper Hat Creek Valley study area require information on t h e i r nature (the t o t a l range of types of resources and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) and extent (the actual on-, the-ground s p a t i a l patterning). The methodology employed to c o l l e c t such data was p r o b a b i l i t y sampling., This permits the intensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n of only a designated f r a c t i o n of the study area while enabling r e l i a b l e generalizations about archaeological s i t e s within the e n t i r e t r a c t . P r o b a b i l i t y sampling i n archaeology i s a recent method-o l o g i c a l development. I t has had successful applic a t i o n s i n semi-arid regions of the American Southwest (Matson and Lipe 1975), the Great Basin (Bettinger 1977; Matson 1971; Thomas 1969,f 1973), and the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia (Eldridge n.d.; Matson, Ham, and Bunyon n.d.; FIGURE 19. Upper Hat Creek Valley sampling frame for archaeological survey. 1 2 6 Pokotylo 1977), The proper a p p l i c a t i o n of p r o b a b i l i t y sampling requires that four basic decisions be made with regard to: 1) sampling technique,; 2) sampling scheme,, 3) sampling f r a c t i o n , and 4) sampling units (Mueller 1974:28-30), The p a r t i c u l a r decisions made i n t h i s study are summarized below. Although the primary concern here i s the i n v e s t i g a -t i o n of v a r i a b i l i t y among archaeological s i t e s , these are not the actual items sampled. The sampling of s i t e s per se would e n t a i l the technique of element sampling, i n which the elements of i n t e r e s t ( s i t e s ) f i r s t have to be enumerated for i n c l u s i o n i n t o a frame from which a s p e c i f i c sample would be drawn (Kish 1965:20-21), Such a l i s t of elements was not av a i l a b l e i n the present s i t u a t i o n , and resort was made to the technique of c l u s t e r sampling. Here, the samples are units or groups which contain the elements of i n t e r e s t ; the frame consists of a complete l i s t of these units (Kish 1965:20-21, 148). While there are disadvantages i n using a c l u s t e r sampling technique, p a r t i c u l a r l y a loss i n p r e c i s i o n , (Kish 1965:149-150), more p r a c t i c a l considerations argue f o r i t s use here. The second decision involves the choice of a part-i c u l a r sampling scheme. Generally, the choice i s made among four basic schemes; simple random,, s t r a t i f i e d random, 127 systematic, and s t r a t i f i e d systematic unaligned sampling (see Haggett 1965:195-197; and Berry and Baker 1968 f o r more d e t a i l e d descriptions of each scheme). S t r a t i f i e d random sampling with replacement was the s p e c i f i c scheme used i n t h i s design. The area to be sampled was f i r s t sub-divided ( s t r a t i f i e d ) by the c r i t e r i o n of contemporary vegetation cover to form zones more environmentally homo-genous than the o r i g i n a l area taken as a whole. Two s t r a t a , a forested zone and a grassland area, were defined. Each stratum was then random sampled separately. Decisions on the " s i z e " of the sample to be invest-igated ( i . e . sampling f r a c t i o n ) are generally based on a mixture of both p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l concerns. While s t a t i s t i c a l means of estimating the optimum sample s i z e f o r a given degree of accuracy are a v a i l a b l e (Cochran 1963:71-86), the decisions made i n t h i s study were based on more p r a c t i c a l aspects of time and cost r e s t r i c t i o n s . As concern was with sampling space, the choice of the sampling f r a c t i o n was highly dependent on the s i z e of the c l u s t e r units to be used. Given the i n i t i a l l i m i t a t i o n of a s i n g l e f i e l d season, i t was evident that only a small portion of the frame could be in t e n s i v e l y surveyed. At such low rates of coverage, i t i s important to note that the sampling f r a c t i o n i s not as c r i t i c a l as i s the absolute number of c l u s t e r units sampled (Asch 1975; Cowgill 1975; True and Matson 1974). In the end 128 result,, a t o t a l aggregate area of 7.0 sq km (7.8%) of the frame was designated for intensive surface survey. However, disproportionate sampling rates were used to draw s p e c i f i c units from each stratum. The f o r e s t stratum was sampled at a rate of 0.0512 (12 u n i t s ) , while a rate of 0.0966 (32 units) was used i n the grassland stratum to produce a sample of 44 c l u s t e r u n i t s . The f i n a l decision concerned the s i z e and shape of the sampling units that would compose the frame. Previous regional surveys have used a v a r i e t y of a r b i t r a r y s p a t i a l u n i t s : quadrats (Bettinger 1977; Matson 1971; Matson and Lipe 1975; Thomas 1969); transects (Judge et a l , 1975; Reher 1977); and even c i r c l e s (Goodyear 1975). A number of recent studies on the r e l a t i v e worth of transect versus quadrat-shaped units have indicated that there i s no s i n g l e "best" shape for c l u s t e r s (Judge et a l . 1975; Matson and Lipe 1975; Plog 1976). Matson and Lipe (1975:132), however, provide a useful guideline for s e l e c t i n g between the two shapes on the basis of general research i n t e r e s t s . When s i t e population estimates are the major i n t e r e s t , transects are more e f f e c t i v e . When the research emphasis i s on ass o c i a t i o n s , quadrats are more useful i n deline a t i n g such r e l a t i o n s h i p s . With respect to the present study, concern i s with both population estimates and ass o c i a t i o n s . When ad d i t i o n a l factors were considered, a 129 decision was made to use quadrats. On the basis of previous work invo l v i n g the implementation of a transect sampling design i n the Bonaparte and Semlin Valleys (Pokotylo 1977), i t was found that there existed considerable disadvantages i n using transects to c o l l e c t c e r t a i n types of s i t e data required by the above ob j e c t i v e s . The major drawback was i n encountering "edge-area" e f f e c t s of the transect shape where s i t e s were observed on the margins of the u n i t . In some situations,; the transect width was i n s u f f i c i e n t to encompass the maximum dimensions of s i t e s , r e s u l t i n g i n the loss of contextual information necessary to determine s i t e variab-i l i t y i n the population. A second decision with respect to the sampling uni t involved the choice of quadrat s i z e . This also involves s t a t i s t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l considerations. As a r u l e , the smaller the c l u s t e r u n i t , the more precise and accurate are the r e s u l t i n g population estimates (Plog 1976:5 7; Read 1975:53). However, t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l advantage i s o f f s e t by the higher costs involved i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of smaller-siz e d u n i t s : . For surveying any given area, decreasing the quadrat s i z e also decreases the proportion of time a c t u a l l y spent surveying and increases the pro-portion of time spent getting to the quadrat, lo c a t i n g and marking i t s boundaries, etc, (Matson and Lipe 1975:132). An a d d i t i o n a l consideration i s the increased p o t e n t i a l f o r 1 3 0 edge e f f e c t s that r e s u l t s from decreasing the unit s i z e (Matson and Lipe 1975:132), In other regional surveys employing quadrats as sampling u n i t s , the s i z e tended to be ei t h e r 500 m (Bettinger 1977; Eldridge 1976; Matson 1971; Thomas 1969) or 400 m to a side (Matson, Ham, and Bunyon n.d.; Matson and Lipe 1975). The l a t t e r s i z e was selected for the Upper Hat Creek i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The 400 m quadrat has generally been proven s a t i s f a c t o r y i n the above research, located i n both the Canadian Plateau and the American South-west. Given that the Hat Creek survey would cover only a r e l a t i v e l y small area, the 400 m s i z e would r e s u l t i n a higher sample s i z e of survey units r e l a t i v e to that possible with the 500 m s i z e , given a f i x e d coverage r a t e . The main disadvantage anticipated with the use of 400 m quadrats was the number of "empty" units ( i . e . devoid of s i t e s ) i f the s i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n tended to be dispersed and o v e r a l l s i t e density was low.. The Upper Hat Creek frame was created by d i v i d i n g the study area i n t o 565 quadrats (see f i g u r e 19). Each quadrat was assigned to one of the two s t r a t a on the basis of the dominant vegetation type (forest or grassland cover) present within i t s boundaries, as observed from quadrat plots on a i r photographs. This resulted i n the d e f i n i t i o n of a grassland stratum composed of 331 quadrats and a forest stratum con-t a i n i n g 234 quadrats. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the two environ-131 m e n t a l s t r a t a w i t h i n t h e frame and t h e s p e c i f i c q u a d r a t s sampled from each s t r a t u m a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 20. S u r v e y f i e l d w o r k i n v o l v e d t h e on- t h e - g r o u n d l o c a t i o n o f t h e quadrats,, t h e l a y o u t o f t h e q u a d r a t m a r g i n s , and an i n t e n s i v e s u r v e y o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d a t a . The s u r v e y crew (which numbered from 4 t o 6 i n s i z e ) would l i n e up and s p r e a d o u t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 m a p a r t and t h e n sweep t h e q u a d r a t p a r a l l e l t o one m a r g i n t o s u r v e y f o r a r c h -a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s and i s o l a t e d a r t i f a c t l o c a t i o n s as w e l l as s e l e c t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s . The term " s i t e " i s used h e r e as a u n i t o f measurement f o r o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . S i t e s c o n -s t i t u t e o b s e r v a b l e s p a t i a l l o c a l i z a t i o n s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s w i t h a d e n s i t y o f ele m e n t s above a s p e c i f i c t h r e s h -o l d v a l u e . The e m p i r i c a l c r i t e r i a f o r d e f i n i n g a s i t e i n t h e s u r v e y were a d e n s i t y o f l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s e q u a l t o o r above an a r b i t r a r i l y - d e f i n e d v a l u e o f s i x i t e m s w i t h i n a 4 s q m a r e a and/or t h e p r e s e n c e o f one o r more s u r f a c e c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s ( d e p r e s s i o n s , r o c k c a i r n s , b u r n t r o c k middens, e t c . ) . Any c l u s t e r o f e l e m e n t s w h i c h was under t h i s d e n s i t y v a l u e was i d e n t i f i e d as an " a r t i f a c t l o c a t i o n " . A r t i f a c t l o c a t i o n s may r e p r e s e n t p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f m i n i m a l a r t i f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l o r s i m p l e n a t u r a l f o r c e s o f movement.. C o l l e c t i o n o f such i s o l a t e d m a t e r i a l s d o e s , however, p e r m i t c o n s i d e r a -FIGURE 20. Upper Hat Creek Valley sampling frame, environmental st r a t a , and quadrats surveyed. 133 t i o n of these a l t e r n a t i v e s rather than r e l y i n g on a p r i o r i decisions made i n the f i e l d on whether such items warrant recording and c o l l e c t i o n . A r t i f a c t locations were noted on the quadrat map, assigned a provenience number and c o l l e c t e d during the survey. Sites located during the survey were flagged and subsequently surface c o l l e c t e d when the survey of the quadrat was completed. A l l s i t e s located i n the quadrat survey were completely surface c o l l e c t e d by superimposing a 2 m g r i d system of c o l l e c t i o n units over the e n t i r e surface area. Surface c u l t u r a l features were recorded on s i t e c o l l e c t i o n g r i d maps. Given an underlying i n t e r e s t with the contextual associations of sites,; a number of natural environmental variables were recorded i n a consistent format f o r every s i t e as well as quadrat. Data on three major variables were c o l l e c t e d during surface survey sampling: 1) current plant community, 2) topographic s i t u a t i o n , and 3) drainage pattern-water source. There i s general consensus i n contemporary archaeological thinking that these categories " w i l l u l t i m a t e l y prove to be among the most c r i t i c a l v a riables i n explaining settlement d i s t r i b u t i o n s " (Plog and H i l l 1971:15). S p e c i f i c environmental a t t r i b u t e s observed include: 1. The presence-absence of vegetation communities and s p e c i f i c subsistence food plants within the bound-134 a r i e s of s i t e s and quadrats. 2. The proximity ( i . e . both the distance and ease of a c c e s s i b i l i t y to human groups) of s i t e s and quadrats to potable and non-potable water sources, and the s p e c i f i c type of potable water source. 3. The type of landform on which s i t e s and quadrats are s i t u a t e d . 4. The slope gradient within s i t e and quadrat boundaries. 5. The average elevation of s i t e s and quadrats. 6. The exposure of the s i t e and quadrat. 7. The "overview" present at s i t e s and quadrats. Over-view i s defined by Judge (1973:125) as "the view of the surrounding topography afforded by the s i t e s i t u a t i o n . " In addition to the above char a c t e r i s t i c s , , the general condition of each s i t e was also noted; the degree of d i s -turbance and the probable a c t i v i t y that caused i t was recorded i n order to provide a measure of present rates of disturbance to the archaeological record that may have affected the preservation of c e r t a i n data categories and the surface patterning of archaeological materials. The emphasis of t h i s research was the surface survey f o r archaeological and environmental data.. Subsurface in v e s t i g a t i o n s were assigned second p r i o r i t y , to be i n i t i a t e d only a f t e r the surface survey was complete. Limited excava-135 tions at a representative sample of s i t e s located by the survey would be conducted at a scale dependent on the time and finances remaining upon the completion of the survey. Research Results This section summarizes the r e s u l t s of the survey and the excavations of c u l t u r a l depressions. It discusses the character of the archaeological resource base predicted for Upper Hat Creek Valley and also provides a basic des-c r i p t i o n and analysis of a representative sample of the resources. The primary analysis delineates archaeological s i t e frequencies and d e n s i t i e s , s i t e types, a n t i q u i t y , a r t i -f a c t assemblage i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and environmental c o r r e l a t i o n s . The objective here i s to present basic docu-mentation of the survey data. The survey of the 44 quadrats forming the target sample yielded data on 85 p r e h i s t o r i c archaeological s i t e s . Information on^basic s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as l o c a t i o n , s i z e , type, and assemblage content are presented i n table 5. Descriptive summary s t a t i s t i c s by environmental stratum are presented i n table 6. The frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the number of s i t e s per quadrat f o r each environmental stratum and the t o t a l sample are presented i n f i g u r e 21. Sites were observed i n 22 of the 44 quadrats investigated. In the grassland TABLE 5 SITE TABULATIONS: GRASSLAND AND FOREST STRATA SITE TOTAL SURVEY BORDEN SIZE BASALT CHERT TOTAL BASALT CHERT TOTAL LITHIC SITE NUMBER DESIGNATION IEBITAGE DEBITAGE D E B n A C E TOOLS TOOLS TOOLS ARTIFACTS TYPE G2-I EeRj 9 92 227 7 234 1 0 1 235 L.S. G2-II EeRj 10 932 422 1436 1858 17 9 26 1884 L.S. G2-III EeRj 11 88 104 3 107 3 1 4 111 L.S. G2-IV EeRj 12 16 141 3 144 3 1 4 148 L.S. G2-V EeRI 13 4 11 10 21 0 0 0 21 L.S. C2-VI EeRj 14 4 31 2 33 0 0 0 33 L.S. G2-VII EeRj 15 4 14 0 14 0 0 0 14 L.S. G2-VTII EeRj 16 8 42 0 42 0 0 0 42 L.S. G2-LX EeRj 17 168 155 1 156 5 0 5 161 L.S. G2-X EeR1 18 72 46 0 46 1 1 2 48 L.S. G2-XI EeRj 19 236 1161 620 1781 3 1 4 1785 L.S. G2-XII EeRj 20 244 237 42 279 5 2 7 286 L.S. G2-XIII EeRj 21 320 135 441 576 10 4 14 590 L.S. G2-XIV EeRj 22 4 6 74 80 2 0 2 82 L.S. G2-XV EeR1 23 56 105 1 106 2 0 2 108 L.S. G2-XV1 EeRj 24 28 23 22 45 3 0 3 48 L.S. G3-I EeRj 25 24 14 0 14 1 0 1 15 L.S. G3-II EeRj 26 72 96 43 139 4 2 6 145 L.S. G3-III EeRj 27 244 260 28 288 3 1 4 292 L.S. G6-I EeRi 28 104 31 27 58 4 1 5 63 L.S. G6-II EeRj 82 64 63 4 67 5 1 6 73 L.S./CD. G7/26-I EeRj 29 164 611 0 611 14 0 14 625 L.S. G7/26-II EeRj 30 28 216 0 216 0 0 0 216 L.S. G7/26-III EeRj 31 4 25 0 25 0 0 0 25 L.S. G8-I EeRi 32 72 0 103 103 0 0 0 103 L.S. G l l - I EeRj 68 20 0 46 46 0 0 0 46 L.S. GU-II EeRj 69 6% 1210 2110 3320 4 1 5 3325 L.S. G l l - I I I EeRj 70 8320 * * * * * * * L.S./CD. Gll-IV EeRj 75 16 1 41 42 0 0 0 42 L.S. Gll-V EeRi 76 76 16 33 49 0 0 0 49 L.S. Gll-VI EeRj 77 N/A 4 31 35 0 0 0 35 L.S. G17-I EeRj 78 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . CD. G18-I EeRj 33 1260 778 21 799 30 2 32 831 L.S./CD. G19-I EeRj 81 4 0 11 11 0 0 0 11 L.S. G20-I EeRi 34 56 1 46 47 0 0 0 47 L.S. G21-I EeRj 35 280 5 266 271 0 5 5 276 L.S. G21-II EeRj 36 104 7 55 62 3 1 4 66 L.S. G21-III EeRj 37 88 26 21 47 0 0 0 47 L.S. G21-IV EeRj 38 172 745 1 746 1 0 1 747 L.S. G21-V EeRi 39 124 61 0 61 9 0 9 70 L.S. G21-VI EeRj 40 208 147 152 299 2 1 3 302 L.S. G21-V1II EeRj 41 116 48 7 55 0 0 0 55 L.S. G21-1X EeRj 42 2252 4369 1326 5695 14 10 24 5719 L.S. G21-X EeRj 43 224 140 22 162 3 1 4 166 L.S. G21-XI EeRi 44 180 254 26 280 0 0 0 280 L.S. G21-XLII EeRj 45 376 376 174 550 3 3 6 556 L.S. G21-XIV EeRj 46 56 9 33 42 1 0 1 43 L.S./CD. G22-I EeRj 47 248 254 24 278 4 0 4 282 L.S. G22-II EeRj 48 8 0 12 12 0 0 0 12 L.S. G22-III EeRi 49 84 43 108 151 0 3 3 154 L.S. G22-IV EeRj 50 68 20 28 48 8 1 9 57 L.S. G22-V EeRj 51 56 54 1 55 2 0 2 57 L.S. G23-I EeRj 52 288 156 251 407 4 2 6 413 L.S./R.C. G23-II EeRj 83 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CD. G23-III EeRi 84 33 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CD. G23-IV EeRj 85 53 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CD. G27-I EeRj 53 248 707 92 799 8 0 8 807 L.S. G27-II EeRj 54 128 0 64 64 0 0 0 64 L.S. G28-I EeRj 55 104 145 20 165 2 1 3 168 L.S./CD. G28-II EeRi 56 892 3127 73 3200 19 3 22 3222 L.S. G28-III EeRj 57 72 25 1 26 1 0 1 27 L.S. G28-IV EeRj 58a 9404 64741 9932 74673 115 9 124 74797 L.S./CD. G28-V EeRj 59 252 483 2 485 0 0 0 485 L.S. G28-VI EeRj 60 1448 2355 923 3278 27 0 27 3305 L.S. G28-VII EeRi 61 52 33 3 36 2 0 2 38 L.S. G28-VIII EeRj 62 416 699 67 766 43 2 45 811 L.S. G28-LX EeRj 79 4 49 0 49 0 0 0 49 L.S. G28-X EeRj 80 4 14 5 19 1 0 1 20 L.S. G30-I EeRj 63 476 361 85 446 . 14 . 3 17 463 L.S. G31-I EeRi 64 372 103 219 322 18 4 22 344 L.S. G31-II EeRj 65 180 118 129 247 0 0 0 247 L.S./CD. G32-I EeRj 66 20 19 1 20 0 0 0 20 L.S. G32-II EeRj 67 8 0 20 20 0 0 0 20 L.S. F8-I EeRj 71 1668 4623 1498 6121 29 8 37 6158 L.S./CD. FB-II EeRi 72 400 482 356 838 8 5 13 851 L.S. F l l - I EeRj 73 8 0 17 17 0 0 0 17 L.S. F l l - I I EeRj 86 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CD. H2-I EeRj 5 64 1001 2 1003 28 0 28 1031 L.S. F12-II EeRj 6 292 430 206 636 2 2 4 640 L.S. F12-III EeRj 7 796 1725 321 2046 39 1 40 2086 L.S. F12-IV EeRj 58b 6240 13821 2524 16345 141 5 146 16491 L.S./CD. F12-V EeRj 8 88 486 0 486 5 0 5 491 L.S. * No tabulation available - s i t e under cultivation at tuoe of survey. Survey number legend: G - grassland stratun F - forest stratum Arabic number - quadrat nunber Romai i numeral - s i t e number Site type Legend: L.S. - l i t h i c scatter present C D . - cultural depreBsion(s) present R.C. - rock caim(s) present 137 TABLE 6 SITE SURVEY SUMMARY TABULATIONS Environmental Stratum Variable Forest Grassland Zonal area (sq km) 3 7 . ^ 5 3 . 0 Sampling f r a c t i o n 0 . 0 5 1 2 0 . 0 9 6 6 No. of quadrats surveyed 12 32 S i t e frequency 9 76 S i t e density (sites/sq km) 4.69 14.84 S i t e s i z e range 8-6240 4-9404 Mean s i t e s i z e (sq m) IO63 438 S i t e size standard deviation (sq m) 2013 1451 No. of a r t i f a c t s / s i t e range 0-16491 0-74800 Mean no. of a r t i f a c t s / s i t e 3470 1421 No. of a r t i f a c t s / s i t e standard 5609 8637 deviation FIGURE 21. Frequency di s t r i b u t i o n s of number of sit e s per quadrat: forest stratum, grassland stratum, and t o t a l sample. 139 stratum, 13 (40.6%) of the quadrats were "empty" of s i t e s , while i n the forest stratum 9 (75.0%) out of the 12 quadrats surveyed were empty. With respect to s i t e density, the mean number of s i t e s per grassland quadrat i s 2.37, giving a density of 14.8 s i t e s / s q km. In the forest stratum an average of 0.75 s i t e s are present per quadrat, a density of 4.7 s i t e s / s q km. Thus, the density of s i t e s i n the grasslands are over 3 times as great as that i n the for e s t stratum. A Mann-Whitney U test (Conover 1971:224-136) of the hypothesis that the grassland s i t e density i s larger than that of the f o r e s t , was s i g n i f i -cant at the .05 l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y (p = 0.0355). While t h i s v a r i a t i o n may r e f l e c t d i f f e r i n g degrees of p r e h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t y to some extent, the problem of lower archaeological s i t e v i s i b i l i t y i n the f o r e s t stratum must also be considered i n any such c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The mean number of s i t e s per quadrat across the e n t i r e sample i s 1.93 (12.1/ sq km). S i t e types were defined on the basis of data cate-gories evident on the s i t e surface. Three main categories were dist i n g u i s h e d : 1) l i t h i c s c a t t e r s , 2) c u l t u r a l depress-ions, and 3) rock c a i r n s . These are not mutually exclusive i n d efining s i t e types; s p e c i f i c s i t e s can ex h i b i t various combinations of the above data categories. 140 L i t h i c scatters comprise l o c a l i z e d surface d i s t r i -butions of chipped stone tools and/or l i t h i c .debris. . This i s the dominant type recorded i n both the grassland and the fo r e s t s t r a t a . C u l t u r a l depressions are non-natural depressions having an oval , c i r c u l a r or rectangular plan .shape and are of varying depth below the surrounding ground surface. Often the depression exhibits a mounded rim. D i s t i n c t functions are usually i n f e r r e d f o r c u l t u r a l depressions within various diameter ranges—occupation structures (housepits), storage p i t s (cache p i t s ) , and processing f a c i l i t i e s (earth ovens). Boulder cairns have been observed i n association with p i t b u r i a l s i n the Thompson Plateau area east of Upper Hat Creek Valley (see Sanger 1968a:140; Smith 1900:434). The s i n g l e rock c a i r n associated with a l i t h i c s c a t t e r recorded i n the sample may have a s i m i l a r function, however, t h i s can be substantiated only by subsurface i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Table 5 only indicates the presence or absence of the c u l t u r a l depression and boulder c a i r n data categories at a s i t e . While t h i s i s not c r i t i c a l i n the case of the s i n g l e c a i r n recorded i n the survey, a more d e t a i l e d pers-pective i s necessary f o r the study of c u l t u r a l depression v a r i a b i l i t y . The frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of depressions across 1 4 1 the t o t a l quadrat sample i s presented i n fig u r e 22. C u l t u r a l depressions were present i n only 9 (20,50%) out of 44 quadrats. In those quadrats having depressions, the pre-dominant trend was to exh i b i t only one depression feature; only 3 quadrats had 2 or more depressions present. S i t e s i z e has been measured by several methods as i t i s a somewhat a r b i t r a r y v a r i a b l e ; s i t e boundaries are i n d i s t i n c t and not a l l of the area within the "boundaries" contain information on archaeological manifestations. The s i t e area values i n d i c a t e that area of the surface c o l l e c t i o n g r i d from which l i t h i c items were recovered and/or surface c u l t u r a l features observed (the "data area"). While the s p a t i a l extent of c u l t u r a l depression features i s included i n s i t e s i z e c a l c u l a t i o n s , 5 (35.71%) of the 14 s i t e s with c u l t u r a l depressions had no associated surface a r t i f a c t s . Thus, i n some cases, s i t e s i z e indicates the s p a t i a l extent of the depression(s) only, while i n others i t denotes the combined t o t a l depression and l i t h i c s catter area. This masks any v a r i a t i o n which may be present i n the sample. A more d e t a i l e d perspective i s provided by f i v e a t t r i b u t e s that measure the surface structure of the depression and may provide inferences on the use of the features. These are presented i n table 7. Figure 23 indicates that a bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n of mean rim c r e s t -rim c r e s t diameters (see fig u r e 24) i s present among the NUMBER OF CULTURAL DEPRESSIONS PER QUADRAT FIGURE 2 2 . Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of number of c u l t u r a l depressions per quadrat: t o t a l sample. 1 4 3 TABLE 7 CULTURAL , DEPRESSION SURFACE ATTRIBUTES Quadrat Feature Number Mean ' Rim-Rim Diameter (m) Maximum Depth (m) Rim Lipping Surface Matrix Stain Surface Fire-Cracked Rock G 6 1 6.50 0.12 - + + G 17 1 4.00 0.13 + - -G 18 1 1.50 0.07 + + + G 18 2 2.50 0.09 + + + G 18 3 2.00 0.07 + + + G 21 1 5.20 0.36 - - + G 23 1 4.75 0.20 + + + G 23 2 4.00 0.22 + - -G 23 3 6.00 0.26 + + -G 28 1 5.45 0.34 + + + G 28 2 5.40 0.31 + + + G 28 3 2.00 0.08 + + + G 28 4 6.15 0.49 + + + G 28 5 6.70 0.33 - - -G 28 8 4.00 0.20 - + -G 28 9 4.35 0.51 + + -G 28 10 5.15 0.40 + + -G 28 11 5.40 0.46 - + + G 28 12 6.90 0.73 + + + G 28 13 3.60 0.11 - - + G 28 14 3.80 0.12 - - -G 28 15 2.20 0.21 + + + G 28 16 2.70 0.19 + + -G 28 17 1.10 0.08 - - -G 28 18 5.00 0.09 + - -G 28 19 2.60 0.07 - + -F 8 1 5.55 0.29 + + + F 11 1 2.25 0.25 - - -F 12 1 5.75 0.35 + + + NOTE: + = attribute present, - = attribute absent FIGURE 23. Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of c u l t u r a l depression mean rim-to-rim diameters: t o t a l sample. PLAN VIEW L= RIM CREST TO RIM r= CREST DIAMETER CROSS-SECTION FIGURE 2k. Schematic diagram of c u l t u r a l depression. 1 4 6 c u l t u r a l depressions. Modes occur at the 2.00-2.99 m and 5.00-5.99 m i n t e r v a l s . The average of the mean diameter values i s 4.22 m, with a standard deviation of 1.69 m. The frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of t o t a l s i t e s i z e f o r each stratum and the e n t i r e sample are presented i n fig u r e 25. S i t e s i z e e x h i b i t s a considerable degree of v a r i a t i o n both within and between s t r a t a . In the forest stratum, s i t e s range i n s i z e from 8 to 6 r240 sq m; mean s i t e s i z e i s 1,062 sq m with a standard deviation of 2,014. Grassland stratum s i t e s e x h i b i t an even greater s i z e range, from 4 to 9,404 sq m.. Mean s i t e s i z e i n the grassland stratum i s 433 sq m with a standard deviation of 1,452. However, when subjected to a Mann-Whitney U t e s t , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences were noted between the s i t e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s from the two s t r a t a (p = 0.076). Close examination of a l l three s i t e s i z e frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s indicates a common trend: 50% or more of the s i t e s i n each sample are less than 100 sq m i n areal extent. There e x i s t s a d e f i n i t e tendency towards smaller-sized s i t e s ; only 7 (8.2%) s i t e s are i n excess of 1,000 sq m. S i t e assemblages also display a trend towards low quantities of a r t i f a c t s . The low number of s i t e s recorded i n the f o r e s t stratum precludes any r e l i a b l e statement on trends other than that a wide range of values i s present. 1 4 7 FIGURE 25. Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s i t e s i z e : forest stratum, grassland stratum, and t o t a l sample. 1 4 8 I n t h e g r a s s l a n d s t r a t u m , 28 (41.2%) o f t h e 75 assemblages c o n t a i n l e s s t h a n 50 a r t i f a c t s ( i . e . l i t h i c t o o l s and d e b i t a g e ) , w h i l e o n l y 11 (13.1%) have 1,000 i t e m s o r more. W h i l e t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f s i t e a r e a and assemblage s i z e s p r o v i d e s some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n , a more u s e f u l measure i s t h e d e n s i t y o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s d e p o s i t e d as b y p r o d u c t s o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s . L i t h i c d e b i t a g e c o n s t i t u t e s t h e major c l a s s o f i t e m s i n t h e assemblages o f a l l s i t e s w i t h s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s . I f d e b i t a g e d e n s i t y can be c o n s i d e r e d an i n d e x o f t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n , c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n s i t e a c t i v i t y i s r e f l e c t e d by t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f s i t e d e b i t a g e d e n s i t i e s . . F requency d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r s i t e t o t a l d e b i t a g e d e n s i t i e s i n each s t r a t u m and t h e t o t a l q u a d r a t sample a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 26. I n t h e f o r e s t s t r a t u m , t h e mean s i t e d e b i t a g e d e n s i t y i s 4.20 i t e m s / s q m, w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 4.95. The ran g e o f d e n s i t y v a l u e s i s 0.00 t o 16.75., The mean v a l u e f o r g r a s s l a n d s t r a t u m s i t e s i s 2.90/ s q m; t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n i s 3.73. The ran g e o f d e n s i t y v a l u e s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r t h e f o r e s t s t r a t u m . A l t h o u g h t h e a v e r a g e d e b i t a g e d e n s i t y i n f o r e s t s t r a t u m s i t e s i s one and a h a l f t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o b s e r v e d i n t h e g r a s s l a n d sample, a Mann-Whitney U t e s t i n d i c a t e s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ,(p = 0,069), The f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s g r a p h i c a l l y i n d i c a t e a t e n d e n c y towards low d e n s i t y v a l u e s : 1 4 9 FOREST STRATUM 5 0 - i G R A S S L A N D S T R A T U M o o T O T A L S A M P L E a) DTBITAGE DENSITY ( I T E M S / S O . M.) FIGURE 26. Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of debitage densities: forest stratum, grassland stratum, and t o t a l sample. 1 5 0 the proportions of s i t e s with d e n s i t i e s less than 2.25 items/sq m are 44.4%, 62.2%, and 60.2% for the fo r e s t stratum, grassland stratum, and t o t a l quadrat sample r e s p e c t i v e l y . At the present l e v e l of research, estimates of an t i q u i t y are based p r i m a r i l y on a r t i f a c t cross-dating. The s i t e tabulations i n table 5 reveal that debitage i s the sole a r t i f a c t c l a s s at many s i t e s . In other cases, the tools i n the assemblages were types which had an undetermined chronological s i g n i f i c a n c e . Only those s i t e s containing a r t i f a c t types i d e n t i f i e d as chro n o l o g i c a l l y - d i a g n o s t i c i n the archaeological l i t e r a t u r e (see chapter IV) were considered for a n t i q u i t y estimates. Table 8 presents the estimated a n t i q u i t y f o r these s i t e s by the c u l t u r a l periods described i n chapter IV. A t o t a l of 56 surface assemblages were regarded as u n r e l i a b l e for cross-dating and were assigned an undetermined a n t i q u i t y . 151 TABLE 8 ESTIMATED ANTIQUITY OF SITES Environmental Stratum C u l t u r a l Period Forest Grassland Old C o r d i l l e r a n 0 0 Early Nesikep 3 16 Late Nesikep 1 3 Early and Late Nesikep 2 4 Undetermined 3 53 Total 9 76 The above an t i q u i t y estimates are t e n t a t i v e . They are best regarded as hypotheses that should be subject to intensive t e s t i n g , preferably by physical-chemical dating methods at future stages of research. Upon the completion of the survey, an excavation program focusing on c u l t u r a l depressions was designed and i n i t i a t e d . It was evident from the survey r e s u l t s that the surface v a r i a t i o n exhibited by the c u l t u r a l depression sample was d i f f e r e n t from that previously reported f o r the general region. Thus, te s t excavations to determine sub-surface structure were considered necessary to enable i n t e r -pretations of u t i l i z a t i o n . Research i n areas adjacent to Upper Hat Creek Valley have i n f e r r e d the functions of c u l t u r a l depressions on the basis of surface rim-to-rim diameters (Stryd and H i l l s 1972:193-195), The mean rim-to. rim diameter of the Upper Hat Creek sample i s 4,2 m, a 152 v a l u e above t h a t u s u a l l y d e f i n e d f o r s t o r a g e c a che p i t s b u t below t h a t a s s i g n e d t o h a b i t a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s . T h e r e f o r e , s u r f a c e measurements a l o n e were i n s u f f i c i e n t t o p e r m i t any r e l i a b l e i n f e r e n c e s on u s e . The s e l e c t i o n o f s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n s f o r e x c a v a t i o n was done by s u b d i v i d i n g t h e t o t a l sample i n t o " l a r g e " and " s m a l l " d e p r e s s i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f whether each r i m base t o r i m base d i a m e t e r f e l l above o r below t h e median v a l u e f o r t h e e n t i r e g r o u p . T h i s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e e n s u r e d t h a t d e p r e s s i o n s from b o t h ends o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n w ould be i n v e s t i g a t e d . A sample o f 3 c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n s was t h e n randomly drawn from each s i z e s t r a t u m , p r o v i d i n g a t a r g e t sample o f 6 f o r s u b s u r f a c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . E x c a v a t i o n s a t two o f t h e " l a r g e " c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s -i o n s a t s i t e s EeRj 46 and EeRj 71 were i n i t i a t e d towards t h e end o f t h e 1976 f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The o r i g i n a l e x c a v a t i o n d e s i g n s were not c o m p l e t e d due t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f g e n e r a l l y m i s e r a b l e w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s and t i m e r e s t r i c t -i o n s . The s u b s u r f a c e d a t a w h i c h was o b t a i n e d d i d p r o v i d e a t l e a s t an i n i t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e s u b s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e and d e p t h o f t h e c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s . The r e m a i n i n g work was c o m p l e t e d by f u r t h e r c o n t r a c t r e s e a r c h i n 1977 ( P o k o t y l o and B e i r n e n . d . ) , a l t h o u g h t h i s d i d not a l t e r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e 1976 d a t a . T h i s r e s e a r c h a l s o c a r r i e d o ut e x c a v a t i o n s 153 at the t h i r d "large" c u l t u r a l depression sampled, located at EeRj 55. The 1977 study also excavated an a d d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l depression located at s i t e EeRj 101,; situated i n the Harry Lake area to the northeast of the 1976 frame. The r e s u l t s of these excavations suggest a function for the c u l t u r a l depressions unrelated to occupation or storage u&age.. -^.This i s based on three main observations: 1) a c u l t u r a l matrix y i e l d i n g a high proportion of carbon-ized remains and burned s o i l , 2) the presence of large quantities of heat-fractured rock i n dense concentrations and i n association with the carbonized remains, and 3) the minimal s i z e s of the excavated l i t h i c a r t i f a c t assemblages. Such data i s d i s s i m i l a r to that reported from excavations of c u l t u r a l depressions i n the Fraser River Valley and elsewhere i n the southern i n t e r i o r . Matrixes containing charcoal as well as rock con-centrations are noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e on housepit excava-tions (Sanger 1970:20, 27-28, 35) but from the a v a i l a b l e descriptions they do not come close to approaching the pro-portions observed i n the Upper Hat Creek depressions. The only published descriptions of a c u l t u r a l feature that approximates the i n t e r n a l structure of the Hat Creek data (but on a considerably reduced scale) i s by Stryd (1972:23) who notes "a small bowl-shaped depression 26 cm i n diameter 154 and 15 cm deep, l i n e d with firecracked pebbles and charcoal" situated i n a pithouse l i v i n g f l o o r . This feature i s i n -fer r e d to be a "baking p i t " (Stryd 1972:23). The above discussion indicates the problems involved i n t r y i n g to i n t e r p r e t the Hat Creek data by comparative analysis to feature descriptions i n the extant archaeological l i t e r a t u r e . An a l t e r n a t i v e method of i n f e r r i n g the nature of c u l t u r a l depression u t i l i z a t i o n i s by ethnographic analogy. Ethnographic accounts of plant subsistence resource processing permit the deduction of the material cultu r e l i k e l y to be present at s i t e s of these a c t i v i t i e s . Descriptions of ethnographic behavior and technology involved i n the pro-cessing of plant resources are outlined i n the following observations on the Thompson and Shuswap Indians: A c i r c u l a r hole i s dug i n the ground to a depth of two feet and a h a l f , and large enough i n diameter to contain the roots to be cooked. Into t h i s hole are put four or f i v e f l a t stones—one i n the center and others around the sid e s . Above these i s placed a large heap of dry fir-wood, on which i s placed a small quantity of small stones. The wood i s then kindled, and allowed to burn u n t i l nothing but the embers remain, when the small stones drop down to the bottom of the hole. The unburnt wood i s next taken out, leaving nothing but the ashes and stones. Enough damp earth i s then shovelled i n to cover t h i n l y the top of the stones, and t h i s i s overspread to the depth of h a l f a foot or more with the branches of bushes, such as the serviceberry, maple, alder, ... etc. Next follows a layer of broken fir-wood branches, over which i s spread a layer of dry yellow-pine needles, and s t i l l another layer of f i r branch-es. By t h i s time the hole i s nearly f i l l e d up. The roots are then placed on top, and covered care-f u l l y with a thick layer of f i r branches. The whole i s covered with earth, and a large f i r e of fir-wood 1 5 5 i s kindled on top. In t h i s way, immense quantities of roots are cooked at one time. (Teit 1900:236) ... . ... a spot i s f i r s t cleared and a f i r e b u i l t on i t . When the surrounding s o i l has become s u f f i c -i e n t l y heated, the r o o t s , enveloped i n mats or grass herbage, are l a i d upon the bed of f i r e , and the whole i s covered up by p i l i n g together the earth from a l l sides upon the mass of roots. After a lapse of s u f f i c i e n t time the roots are dug out i n a baked or steamed condition, and e i t h e r at once eaten or dried up f o r future use. Such root-baking places are usually i n the v i c i n i t y of root-gathering grounds, and a f t e r some years appear as low cones from f i f t e e n to twenty feet i n diameter, with miniature craters i n the middle. (Dawson 1891:9) Archaeologically-observable implications can be deduced from the above d e s c r i p t i o n s . If p r e h i s t o r i c plant resource processing was s i m i l a r to h i s t o r i c a l l y - o b s e r v e d p r a c t i c e s , one may expect the following to be present at archaeological s i t e s where such tasks were conducted: 1. A subsurface p i t feature having a high proportion of carbonized material and varied sizes of heat-fractured rock i n the matrix, 2. The presence of carbonized f l o r a l subsistence food resources i n the matrix. 3. A rock l i n i n g at the bottom of the subsurface p i t . 4. A p i t depth of about 2% f t (0.76 m) and a p i t d i a -meter of varying dimensions. 5. A surface disturbance area c o n s t i t u t i n g redeposited burnt s o i l to an approximate maximum diameter of 20 f t (6.10 m). 1 5 6 6. The p r o x i m i t y o f t h e f e a t u r e t o v e g e t a t i o n commun-i t i e s h a v i n g a h i g h d e n s i t y o f f l o r a l s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e a t t h e t i m e t h e s t r u c t u r e was u s e d . W h i l e t h e d a t a from t h e Hat Creek c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s -i o n s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences from t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n were o b s e r v e d . R e l a t i v e t o e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y - d e s c r i b e d b a k i n g p i t s , t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s a r e much g r e a t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o s u r f a c e d i s t u r b a n c e a r e a and p i t d e p t h . Also., i n a l l b u t one c a s e (EeRj } , 1 0 1 ) , , a r o c k pavement does not l i n e t h e base o f t h e p i t . R a t h e r , c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k a r e o b s e r v e d as l a y e r s w i t h i n t h e m a t r i x o f f i r e - c r a c k e d r o c k , c a r b o n , and dark s o i l . These c o n c e n t r a t i o n s may be e v i d e n c e o f r e p e a t e d u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e , an a c t -i v i t y n o t r e p o r t e d i n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s . F a u n a l r e m a i n s were fo u n d i n some o f t h e d e p o s i t s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t more t h a n j u s t p l a n t r e s o u r c e s were b e i n g p r o c e s s e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s do not negate t h e g e n e r a l a n a l o g y t h a t t h e s e f e a t u r e s do r e p r e s e n t p r e h i s -t o r i c " e a r t h - o v e n s " o r " b a k i n g p i t s " , h a v i n g a p r o c e s s i n g r a t h e r t h a n s t o r a g e o r h a b i t a t i o n u s e . They d i f f e r from t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n s m a i n l y i n t h e i n t e n s i t y o f u s e , p r o b a b l y p r o c e s s i n g a much l a r g e r amount o f s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e s , b o t h p l a n t and a n i m a l , and i n t h e i r l i k e l i h o o d 1 of being re-used. Presently, i t i s not possible to extend t h i s analogy to the e n t i r e sample without more extensive subsurface i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , although s i m i l a r i t i e s i n surface form and l o c a t i o n a l patterning suggest the l i k e l i h o o d that future i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i l l r e s u l t i n s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s The prevalence of carbonized f l o r a l remains i n the excavations permitted the recovery of a substantial number of samples s u i t a b l e f o r radiocarbon dating. One. sample from each s i t e was submitted to the University of Saskatchewan Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory f o r absolute age determination The r e s u l t s are presented i n table 9. A l l dates f a l l within the range of the Lake Nesikep c u l t u r a l period (see chapter IV) . TABLE 9 RADIOCARBON DATES FOR EXCAVATED CULTURAL DEPRESSIONS. Si t e Radiocarbon Date Reference No. EeRj 71 EeRj 46 EeRj 55 EeRj 101 2120.65 B.P, S-.1453 1550 60 B,P„ S-1454 1220 70 B...P... S-1455 2090 65 B.P. S-1456 In summary, the above d e s c r i p t i v e analysis of the survey and excavation data suggests that Upper Hat Creek 158 Valley was probably subject to a dispersed, limited-span, seasonal settlement pattern.. More intense, but l i k e l y seasonal, occupation may have occurred at s p e c i f i c locations within the v a l l e y , r e f l e c t e d by larger s i t e s with high de n s i t i e s of debris. The present analysis i s exploratory only, the main objective being the discovery of patterns and r e l a t i o n s h i p s that can provide some organizing p r i n c i p l e s for further research on l i t h i c technology. 159 'CHAPTER VI • ^HE LITHIC TECHNOLOGY SUBSYSTEM The a n a l y t i c a l importance of the energy-extracting aspect of technology i n the study of c u l t u r a l adaptation has been discussed i n chapter I I . In a general sense, technology can be defined as "those tools and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a r t i c u l a t e the [human] organism with the physical environment" (Binford 1962:218). In.the context of t h i s study, stone i s the only element c l a s s from the range of p o t e n t i a l material remains r e s u l t i n g from such behavior that has survived i n the surface archaeological record. L i t h i c technology includes a l l those processes involved i n the production and use of stone t o o l s . As an i n t e g r a l aspect of the larger technological system, one may therefore expect l i t h i c technological v a r i a b i l i t y to r e f l e c t subsistence and settlement practices of human groups. I f one assumes that settlement locations are pri m a r i l y determined by the subsistence strategy-related to procurement of food and other environmental resources (Jochim 1976:47-63), i t follows that processes involved i n the manufacture of tools employed i n a c t i v i t i e s conducted at s i t e s are s i m i l a r l y conditioned. L i t h i c technology p o t e n t i a l l y has both a d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t 16o r o l e i n subsistence procurement s t r a t e g i e s . In the d i r e c t sense, stone tools may be produced f o r use i n the e x t r a c t -ion of s p e c i f i c food resources (e.g. p r o j e c t i l e points) as well as t h e i r processing (e.g. meat knives, plant shredding tools-)'. L i t h i c tools are also necessary i n the manufacture and maintenance of tools and f a c i l i t i e s of other a r t i f a c t i n d u s t r i e s , such as bone and wood, also required by subsis-tence tasks (Binford and Binford 1969:71)., In t h i s context, they operate i n d i r e c t l y i n the actual subsistence strategy. Therefore, remains of l i t h i c technology can p o t e n t i a l l y be used to determine and measure subsistence resource procure-ment s t r a t e g i e s i n which stone tools were not required i n the actual tasks. Although the primary determinant of the structure of the l i t h i c technology subsystem i s assumed to be the subsis-tence procurement strategy that dictates c e r t a i n t o o l r e -quirements, the s p e c i f i c form of the technology i s also influenced considerably by "other" environmental resources, i n t h i s case, raw materials a v a i l a b l e for the production of l i t h i c and n o n - l i t h i c tools and f a c i l i t i e s . Thus, the l i t h i c technology subsystem may best be viewed as "a through-put system i n which raw material i s extracted from the physical environment, processed, and returned i n modified form to the environment^1 ( C o l l i n s 1974:130; also see Spier 1970). S c h i f f e r (1.972:158; 1976:46-47) has presented a l i n e a r 1 6 1 s e r i e s of basic processes i n which durable elements, such as l i t h i c technological remains, may have been p o t e n t i a l l y involved; 1) procurement, 2) manufacture, 3) use, 4) main-tenance, : and 5) d i s c a r d . I t should be emphasized that these processes are observable i n the systemic context (see chapter I I ) ; the archaeological record w i l l only r e f l e c t material c u l t u r e outputs that may r e s u l t from t h e i r opera-t i o n . With respect to the l i t h i c technology subsystem, three basic classes of elements p a r t i c i p a t e i n these pro-cesses: 1) f a b r i c a t o r s used i n stone tool manufacture and maintenance; 2) discarded l i t h i c waste (debitage) produced during stone t o o l manufacture, use, and maintenance, and 3.) " f i n i s h e d " stone t o o l s j that i s , the end products of manu-facture produced to meet the tool use needs of a c t i v i t i e s ( C o l l i n s 1974:3; Crabtree 1972:1-17). The manner i n which these elements p a r t i c i p a t e i n the operation of a c u l t u r a l system i s discussed below. L i t h i c technology i s a subtractive process (Deetz 1967:48); implements are manufactured and maintained by the removal of mass from a piece of stone. In an extreme sense, each f l a k e removal from the l i t h i c material, from the i n i t i a l lump of material to the resharpening of a t o o l , can be con-sidered to represent a stage i n the technological process (Muto 1971a, 1971b). While such a continuum i n the reductive process has been recognized i n the l i t e r a t u r e f o r some time 1 6 2 (see Holmes 1890, 1894), only recently have there been e x p l i c i t attempts to p a r t i t i o n t h i s continuum into a ser i e s of a n a l y t i c a l units that encompass the fundamental and unavoidable steps of producing tools ( C o l l i n s 1974, 1975; Fish 1976; Katz 1976; Knudson 1973.; Newcomer 1971; Phagan 1976; Shafer 1973; Sheets 1975). The main contribution of these studies i s h e u r i s t i c rather than p r a c t i c a l . While they propose a p o t e n t i a l route to a.more complete under-standing of the behavior r e f l e c t e d i n l i t h i c assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y , the empirical c r i t e r i a f o r i d e n t i f y i n g and measuring such steps are often inconsistent and ambiguous. Nevertheless, the conceptual scheme has major implications for the present study, and these are discussed below. Given t h e i r subtractive nature, a t t r i b u t e s of l i t h i c technology are evident on both the flaked a r t i f a c t and the debitage r e s u l t i n g from i t s reduction. Because of i t s reduced nature, the f i n i s h e d a r t i f a c t forming the end product of the technological process may not physicallyvi* manifest a l l the subtractive steps of manufacture. Neverthe« l e s s , the debitage r e s u l t i n g should i n d i c a t e the e n t i r e production process. I t i s also possible to make a basic d i s t i n c t i o n between the technological processes of tool manufacture and t o o l maintenance. The former i s defined as those processes necessary to produce a c u l t u r a l l y usable 163 a r t i f a c t , while the l a t t e r category includes those processes that a l t e r a worn or broken a r t i f a c t to permit i t s continued u t i l i z a t i o n . In e i t h e r s i t u a t i o n , debitage r e f l e c t i n g the s p e c i f i c reductive step(s) w i l l r e s u l t . I t i s i n t h i s con-text of r e f l e c t i n g the manufacturing, u t i l i z a t i o n , and main-tenance processes that l i t h i c debitage assumes at l e a s t as much a n a l y t i c a l importance as stone tools i n any recon-s t r u c t i o n of the l i t h i c technological subsystem. This also has implications f o r reconstructing settlement u t i l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . As i t constitutes an immediate byproduct of tool production and maintenance a c t i v i t i e s , l i t h i c debitage i s assumed to be subject to much simpler depositional processes than .those:. as s oc i a ted with stone, .t oo 1 s . . -There f o r e , debitage. should be a more r e l i a b l e s p a t i a l i n d i c a t o r of a p o t e n t i a l l y wide range of ongoing s i t e a c t i v i t i e s . A d d i t i o n a l implications become evident at the i n t e r -s i t e l e v e l of observation. One can extend the basic assump-t i o n of the regional approach, that the e n t i r e range of c u l t u r a l behavior ' i s u n l i k e l y to be conducted at any one l o c a t i o n , to the l i t h i c technology subsystem. In the con-text of t h i s study, concern i s with the d i s p e r s a l or aggregation of l i t h i c reduction steps at d i f f e r e n t s i t e l ocations within Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . The s p e c i f i c reduction strategy employed i n the production of u t i l i z a b l e tools and the s p a t i a l p a r t i t i o n i n g of t h i s strategy over the landscape may be affected by more variables than just those concerned with t o o l - s p e c i f i c needs at various settlements. Binford and Binford (1966:264) present three possible con-d i t i o n s that may regulate the segregation of l i t h i c tech-nological a c t i v i t i e s i n any region: 1) the l o c a t i o n and d i s p o s i t i o n of raw materials, 2) the l o c a t i o n and s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of l o c i of tool use, and 3) the necessity of transporting manufacturing products from locations of manufacture to locations of use. One can assume the operation of the p r i n c i p l e of l e a s t cost i n such a s i t u a t i o n , s e l e c t i n g a technological strategy that minimizes the time and energy expenditure involved i n obtaining l i t h i c raw materials and f a b r i c a t i n g them in t o u t i l i z a b l e tools for tasks at hand at various settlement l o c a t i o n s . This strategy could be manifest i n two main ways: 1. Locational decisions to minimize movement e f f o r t by-decreasing the distance from the settlement to the source of l i t h i c raw material resources. However, the weight of l i t h i c raw materials as a l o c a t i o n a l determinant r e l a t i v e to other l i f e s u p p o r t resources i s admittedly d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n . Munday (1976: 13-14) notes that l i t h i c raw materials are a p o t e n t i a l l y re-usable resource, whereas other c r i t -i c a l resources, such as food and water, are more 165 d i f f i c u l t to r e c y c l e . On t h i s b a s i s , he suggests that " s i t e s w i l l be found c l o s e r to food, water, and f u e l than f l i n t , although where other needs can be met at a f l i n t source, s i t e s should be located there" (Munday 1976:14). 2. Selection of reduction str a t e g i e s to conserve l i t h i c raw materials and thus lower the amount of time involved i n t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n . This could be accomplished through c a r e f u l reduction of cores during manufacture to : minimize the amount of debitage produced, and/or maintenance or modification of worn-out too l s to extend t h e i r e f f e c t i v e u s e - l i f e . Thus, l i t h i c assemblage v a r i a t i o n can be interpreted along a continuum of primary determinants, at one extreme c o n s t i t u t i n g the t o o l needs of a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y l o c a t i o n and at the other end, the d i f f e r e n t i a l access to stone sources. The greatest p o t e n t i a l amount of time and energy expenditure i n the e n t i r e l i t h i c technology process i s l i k e l y to occur i n the procurement and transport of stone materials (Gould 1-974*-' 1978). Therefore, one might be able to i n f e r some features of the processes of stone toolmaking i n a p a r t i c u l a r region from an examination of the kind and d i s t r i b u t i o n of usable stone sources i n the area. The present knowledge on: - the general character of 166 the l i t h i c resource base i n Upper Hat Creek Valley has been discussed i n chapter I I I . The s a l i e n t points are summarized below. Usable stone resources i n the v a l l e y occur s o l e l y as redeposited materials i n widespread g l a c i a l d r i f t deposits. On the basis of survey observations, chert and basalt nodules of varying sizes have a dispersed, but generally homogenous, surface d i s t r i b u t i o n i n these deposits. The above s i t u a t i o n i s analogous to the "gibber p l a i n s " described by Gould (1974, 1978) f o r the Western Desert of A u s t r a l i a . Gould has conducted extensive ethno-archaeological research on the abo r i g i n a l stone tool making-processes of t h i s region (Gould 1974, 1978; Gould et a l . 1971), the r e s u l t s of which are considered useful i n providing some in s i g h t on the expected nature of p r e h i s t o r i c l i t h i c tech-nology i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . The main e f f e c t of such a non-r-localized surface occurrence of usable stone on the l i t h i c technology subsystem i s the ease with which these raw materials could be procured i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of subsistence a c t i v i t y l o c a t i o n s . This i n turn minimizes the necessity of s p e c i f i c stone procurement t r i p s and long-distance transport of stone materials i n whatever form to, s i t e s of t o o l need for a l l l i t h i c types except those with highly desirable physical properties and/or which are not as r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e over the landscape. In such a case, l i t h i c resources can be considered to exert- a minimal " p u l l " on 167 determining settlement l o c a t i o n . One may also assume that l i t h i c assemblage v a r i a t i o n i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the subsistance a c t i v i t i e s conducted at the s i t e s of t h e i r deposition and the associated span of occupation. Increased ease of procurement would also lower the stress on the e f f i c i e n t processing of stone. Gould (1978:282-284) records generally expedient processes of manufacture, use, and d i s -card at both temporary and longer-term settlements with l o c a l l y - a v a i l a b l e stone sources. The above observations do not, however, a_ p r i o r i r u l e out the operation of c u r a t i o n . Specially-shaped tools requiring considerable manufacturing e f f o r t and possibly raw materials with p a r t i c u l a r physical properties which are not as widely obtainable as other types would be p o t e n t i a l candidates for curation i n such s i t u a t i o n s . On the basis of the above discussion, t h i s study a n a l y t i c a l l y treats the process of stone procurement as a constant with regard to i t s r o l e as a source of l i t h i c assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y . It i s also evident that a l l debit-age can be considered as primary refuse. Thus, the discard process can be held constant f o r t h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s also* The above observations - suggest that t h i s could also be extended to the tool aspect, however, t h i s i s better regarded as a hypothesis to be tested i n the following a n a l y s i s . This leaves three processes (manufacture, use, and mainten-ance) as the minimal behavioral" variables which, i n various 168 c o m b i n a t i o n s , a r e assumed t o be s o u r c e s of 1 l i t h i c assemblage v a r i a b i l i t y . Each o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e s s p e c i f i c l i t h i c r e d u c t i o n sequences w h i c h r e s u l t i n t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s and q u a n t i t i e s o f d e b i t a g e . The a t t r i b u t e s t h a t e n a b l e t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l i t h i c r e d u c t i o n s t r a t e g y c a r r i e d out a t each s i t e and t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e c o m p a r i s o n o f s i t e l i t h i c assemblages w i t h r e s p e c t t o such , v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . L i t h i c A t t r i b u t e S e l e c t i o n and Measurement W h i l e t h e p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f l i t h i c t e c h -n o l o g y w i t h i n t h e s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t system have been p r e s e n t e d above, i t s t i l l r e m ains t o d e s c r i b e t h e methods o f a n a l y t i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l assemblages w h i c h a r e r e q u i r e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e them. T h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s t h e s p e c i f i c methodology f o r l i t h i c assemblage a n a l y s i s employed i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ; i t o u t l i n e s t h e g e n e r a l o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e a n a l y s i s and d e f i n e s t h e e m p i r i c a l c r i t e r i a t h a t s h o u l d e n a b l e t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and measurement o f t h o s e t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . The o v e r a l l framework i n w h i c h t h i s l i t h i c a n a l y s i s i s couched i s t h e " l i f e - c y c l e " f l o w model f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e m i n i m a l p r o c e s s e s i n w h i c h d u r a b l e elements may be 169 involved i n the operation of a c u l t u r a l system ( S c h i f f e r 1972, 1976; also see above s e c t i o n ) . . This general model has been modified by researchers to provide a more s p e c i f i c treatment of l i t h i c technology processes ( C o l l i n s 1974, 1975; Fish 1976; Gould 1974; House 1975; Muto1971a,1971b; Katz 1976; Knudson 1973; Shafer 1973). . The most comprehensive and parsimonious treatment pf l i t h i c technology l i f e - c y c l e processes to date, provided by C o l l i n s (1974*1975), focuses on the " c e r t a i n basic and unavoidable reductive steps involved i n producing (chipped-stone) objects" ( C o l l i n s 1975: 16). The effectiveness of t h i s model i s suggested by the s i m i l a r o v e r a l l r e s u l t s independently arr i v e d at by other studies (see Fish 1976; Gould 1974; Katz 1976). For these reasons, C o l l i n s ' model i s used as a h e u r i s t i c device i n organizing the present a n a l y s i s . The model i s summarized below. C o l l i n s proposes that a l l conceivable l i t h i c tech-nology processes can be divided i n t o f i v e basic reductive steps: 1) a c q u i s i t i o n of raw materials, 2) core preparation and i n i t i a l reduction, 3) primary trimming, 4) secondary trimming* and 5) maintenance/modification. According to the model,- the use and discard of stone tools are not considered parts of the reductive techno!ogy per se. Use, however, i s i n f e r r e d i n the maintenance/modification reduction step i n which worn and/or damaged items are recycled. Each of the 1 7 0 above steps achieves a s p e c i f i c task i n the o v e r a l l opera-t i o n of stone tool manufacture* and a l l are r e l a t e d i n a l i n e a r fashion. Given the constraints set by the physical nature of chippable l i t h i c raw materials, " a l l but the i n i t i a l step are dependent upon the output q u a l i t i e s of the p r i o r step as preconditions for t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n " ( C o l l i n s 1975:17). While a v a r i e t y of p a r t i c u l a r reduction tech-niques can accomplish the task involved i n each step, the o v e r a l l e f f e c t i s d i s t i n c t i v e technological a t t r i b u t e pattern-ing on both the items processed and the associated debitage which r e f l e c t s the general operation c a r r i e d out. I f the item processed i s committed to further reduction steps, the patterning of the p r i o r step(s) may be obscured. . Nevertheless, such patterning- would s t i l l be evident on the debitage r e s u l t i n g from each step. The step of raw material a c q u i s i t i o n "supplies the a r t i s a n with s u i t a b l e pieces of chippable stone selected from a v a i l a b l e resources" ( C o l l i n s 1975:19). The process of actual extraction of stone i s regarded as a constant v a r i a b l e i n the Upper Hat Creek Valley l i t h i c technology subsystem, given the nature of the l o c a l resource d i s t r i b u t i o n . The associated process of s e l e c t i o n , howeverj i s v a r i a b l e . The l o c a l resource base presents two equally accessible general l i t h i c types, chert and b a s a l t , which may vary i n t h e i r p hysical properties to the extent that i t may a f f e c t t h e i r 171 s u i t a b i l i t y f o r c e r t a i n r e d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and/or p a r t i c u l a r t o o l - u s e t a s k s . The subsequent s t e p o f c o r e p r e p a r a t i o n and i n i t i a l r e d u c t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e l i t h i c raw m a t e r i a l I n t o i t e m s s u i t a b l e f o r f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n o r i m m e d i a t e l y u s a b l e as t o o l s . T h i s s t e p , p l u s t h a t o f a c q u i s -i t i o n * form t h e m i n i m a l p r o c e s s e s by w h i c h s t o n e t o o l s can be f a b r i c a t e d . A l l subsequent s t e p s can t h e r e f o r e be r e g a r d e d as o p t i o n a l , r e f l e c t i n g more r e s t r i c t e d t o l e r a n c e s r e q u i r e d o f t o o l s used i n a c t i v i t i e s . The main t a s k o f t h e o p t i o n a l p r i m a r y t r i m m i n g s t e p i s t o o l s h a p i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e o u t l i n e , s e c t i o n , and edge form o f t h e implement.. T h i s i s t h e f i n a l r e d u c t i o n s t e p i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f s i m p l e m a r g i n a l l y - r e t o u c h e d a r t -i f a c t s . Those t o o l s t h a t r e q u i r e a more complex morphology undergo f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n i n t h e o p t i o n a l s e c o n d a r y t r i m m i n g and s h a p i n g s t e p . The major o p e r a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s f u r t h e r t h i n n i n g and f i n a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e t o o l edges by means o f b i f a c i a l f l a k i n g . ' The implements pro d u c e d a t t h i s s t e p r e q u i r e t h e g r e a t e s t e x p e n d i t u r e o f p r o d u c t i o n e n e r g y o f a l l t h o s e i n t h e assemblage and t h e r e f o r e have t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r r e f l e c t i n g " s t y l i s t i c " e x p r e s s i o n ( see B i n f o r d 1962) and f o r b e i n g c o n s e r v e d . W h i l e t h e p r o c e s s o f use does r e s u l t i n t h e 172 reduction of the l i t h i c implement through wear, t h i s i s not considered a d i s t i n c t i v e step. Nevertheless, the f i n a l reduction step, maintenance and modification, i s contingent upon a r t i f a c t use. Maintenance processes involve the rejuvenation of the worn or damaged portions of the a r t i -f a c t , (Frison 1968; Shafer 1970), while modification a l t e r s the tool morphology from i t s o r i g i n a l form, thus changing i t s work-performance c a p a b i l i t i e s (Frison 1968). The major drawback of the above model l i e s i n i t s o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n — w h a t does one a n t i c i p a t e i n the arch-aeological record as a consequence of each of the reduction steps? Two problems that plague the majority of l i t h i c analyses emerge at t h i s point: 1) the s e l e c t i o n of a t t r i -butes to measure technological v a r i a b i l i t y with a minimal degree of redundancy, and 2) the e x p l i c a t i o n of c o r r e l a t e s designating a t t r i b u t e s and a t t r i b u t e states as the material output of s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l processes, i n t h i s case, the reduction steps. C o l l i n s does present an archaeological a p p l i c a t i o n of the model, and i n doing so defines a number of l i t h i c a t t r i b u t e s that " a l l have experimentally determined r e l e -vance to the model" ( C o l l i n s 1974:160). However, nowhere i s the p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e patterning expected on the debitage that r e s u l t s from each of the reduction steps e x p l i c i t l y stated. Rather, the empirical c r i t e r i a by which l i t h i c items 173 are assigned to the "product group" of a s p e c i f i c reduction step are i m p l i c i t and ambiguous. I have been able to obtain a broad idea of the c r i t e r i a used only through a d e t a i l e d comparison of debitage a t t r i b u t e frequency tabula-tions (see C o l l i n s 1974:423-429). While t h i s observation i s d i s t r e s s i n g for anyone who wishes to independently apply the above model, i t should be noted that C o l l i n s * work represents the most exhaustive study of p r e h i s t o r i c l i t h i c technological v a r i a b i l i t y to date. The general a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the model has been established by other studies of l i t h i c technology that a r r i v e at highly s i m i l a r sequences of reduction pro-cesses, even when d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t e s and quantitative techniques are used (Fish 1976; Gould 1974; House 1975; Katz 1976). The large number of a t t r i b u t e s currently employed i n l i t h i c studies makes the procedure of s e l e c t i n g those for s p e c i f i c analysis a d i f f i c u l t one. Speth (1972:35) has o b j e c t i v e l y noted that "the c r i t e r i a f o r choosing these a t t r i b u t e s remain f o r the most part, a r b i t r a r y and unspec-i f i e d " . The basis of a l l reductive steps i s the removal of l i t h i c m a terial, accomplished by i n i t i a t i n g a conchoidal fr a c t u r e i n stone. Given that other factors such as physical properties are held constant, the process of stone tool production can thus be viewed as a series of fractures reducing the l i t h i c mass which are exerted and c o n t r o l l e d by 174 the stoneworker. The fractures of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study are those that covary through the reduction sequence and that would therefore be r e f l e c t e d by s h i f t s i n debitage a t t r i b u t e patterning. There has been considerable pioneering research i n t o the mechanics of fracture of l i t h i c materials (Bonnichsen 1977; Crabtree 1972b; Faulkner 1972; Kerkhof and Muller-Beck 1969; Leach 1969; Morgan 1967; Speth 1972, 1974; T s i r k 1974), The basis of accounting for fracture processes involved i n stone tool production i s the study and p r i n c i p l e s of the mechanics of b r i t t l e s o l i d f r a c t u r e . The majority of such information has resulted from research i n the engineering d i s c i p l i n e . Two recent studies i n the archaeological l i t e r a t u r e have attempted to synthesize the present state of such knowledge as i t applies to l i t h i c technology processes (Bonnichsen 1977:91-149; Faulkner 1972). The r e s u l t s of these studies, with respect to the knowledge of f r a c t u r e required to determine those a t t r i b u t e s that can p o t e n t i a l l y measure reduction sequence v a r i a b i l i t y , are summarized below. The removal of a flake from the parent piece of stone i s achieved through the a p p l i c a t i o n of force to the surface of the m a t e r i a l . This force can be e i t h e r dynamic ( i . e . percussion flaking) or s t a t i c ( i . e . pressure flaking) i n 175 o r i g i n ; b o t h t y p e s w i l l i n i t i a t e t h e same f r a c t u r e p r o c e s s ( F a u l k n e r 1 9 7 2 ) . As t h e f o r c e i s a p p l i e d a t t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e b r i t t l e s o l i d , t e n s i l e s t r e s s e s a r e s e t up a t t h e p o i n t o f f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t s i n two t y p e s o f s t r e s s t h a t t r a v e l p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o each o t h e r t h r o u g h t h e body o f t h e s o l i d a l o n g a p a t h d e f i n e d by a c o n e - l i n e c r a c k i n i t i a t e d a t t h e c o n t a c t a r e a . I f t h e a p p l i e d f o r c e exceeds t h e e l a s t i c l i m i t s o f t h e l i t h i c m a t e r i a l , t e n s i l e f a i l u r e r e s u l t s i n _ w h i c h t h e p a r t i c l e s o f t h e s o l i d a r e p u l l e d a p a r t a l o n g t h i s p a t h . A r e v i e w o f e x p e r i m e n t a l l i t h i c t e c h n o l o g y l i t e r a -t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s t h a t p o t e n t -i a l l y p r o v i d e t h e most e f f e c t i v e measurement o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e above f r a c t u r e p r o c e s s . These a r e : 1) t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l i t h i c raw m a t e r i a l t o w h i c h f o r c e i s a p p l i e d , 2) t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e m a t e r i a l p r i o r t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f f o r c e , and 3) t h e t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s o f t h e s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e o f f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n . , One can a l s o p r o p o s e some f u n d a m e n t a l t r e n d s t h a t t h e s e v a r i a b l e s s h o u l d e x h i b i t w i t h i n r e d u c t i o n s e q u e n c i n g . H o l d i n g raw m a t e r i a l s i z e and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r -t i e s c o n s t a n t , t h e s u b t r a c t i v e n a t u r e o f l i t h i c r e d u c t i o n d i c t a t e s t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e s i z e o f t h e mass b e i n g f r a c t u r e d and t h e r e s u l t a n t f l a k e s removed w i l l d e c r e a s e as t h e number o f r e d u c t i v e s t e p s i n c r e a s e s . One would f u r t h e r a n t i c i p a t e t h a t l a t e r r e d u c t i o n s t e p s would r e q u i r e more 176 e x a c t i n g f l a k e r e m o v a l o p e r a t i o n s f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r morphology d e s i r e d as w e l l as t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f o r c e must be a p p l i e d t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y s m a l l e r mass. T h i s would evoke c h a n g i n g t h e amount as w e l l as t h e method o f f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n and p o s s i b l y i n c r e a s e d p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e a r e a t o r e c e i v e t h e f o r c e i n o r d e r t o g u i d e t h e d e s i r e d r e m o v a l . The b e s t a r t i f a c t c l a s s i n t h e l i t h i c assemblage e x p e c t e d t o r e f l e c t t h e above v a r i a b l e s and t r e n d s i s f l a k e d e b i t a g e , as t h i s group i s s u b j e c t t o m i n i m a l sub-sequent r e d u c t i o n once removed. T h e r e f o r e , major a n a l y t i c a l emphasis i s p l a c e d on t h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s . These p r o c e s s e s s h o u l d a l s o be r e f l e c t e d t o a l e s s e r degree by c o r e s and f i n i s h e d t o o l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e f i n a l r e d u c t i o n s t e p s i n v o l v e d i n m a n u f a c t u r e . The i n i t i a l s t r a t e g y o f t h e a n a l y s i s was t o d i v i d e each l i t h i c assemblage i n t o a number o f b a s i c a r t i f a c t c a t e g o r i e s , each o f w h i c h would undergo p a r t i c u l a r a n a l y t i c a l t r e a t m e n t . Four c a t e g o r i e s were d e f i n e d : 1) p l a t f o r m b e a r i n g f l a k e s , 2) c o r e s * 3) t o o l s and 4) s h a t t e r . S p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s and a t t r i b u t e s t o i d e n t i f y and measure a s p e c t s o f t o o l p r o d u c t i o n and use were s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f an e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w o f l i t h i c t e c h n o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e c a r r i e d o u t t o e v a l u a t e a t t r i b u t e s c u r r e n t l y employed i n l i t h i c a n a l y s i s . The a r t i f a c t c a t e g o r i e s , v a r i a b l e s , and a t t r i b u t e s s e l e c t e d 177 are discussed below. Platform-Bearing Flakes A flake can be broadly defined as "any piece of stone removed from a larger mass by the a p p l i c a t i o n of f o r c e " (Crabtree 1972a:64). In t h i s study,,flakes are assigned a high a n a l y t i c a l p r i o r i t y due to t h e i r p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t y to e x h i b i t evidence of the main variables involved i n the f r a c t u r e process.: the treatment of the l i t h i c material p r i o r to the a p p l i c a t i o n of flake removal forces, and the nature of the force used to detach flakes (Crabtree 1972a: 1-17).. For t h i s reason, a more s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n i s necessary to delineate those items that can provide such information. Two a t t r i b u t e s , the s t r i k i n g platform and bulb of force, c o n s t i t u t e the diagnostic c r i t e r i a f o r the platform-bearing flake a r t i f a c t c l a s s . It has been well-documented i n l i t h i c technology research that the geometry of the mass to be flaked and the preparation of the area of intended force a p p l i c a t i o n have a major e f f e c t on the type of flake removed. Thus, flakes e x h i b i t i n g i n t a c t s t r i k i n g platforms (the surface at which force was applied to remove the flakes,, see f i g u r e 27) w i l l provide evidence of such treatment of preparation. In. a d d i t i o n , the presence of the s t r i k i n g platform indicates that the bulb of force (see f i g u r e 2 7) i s also evident. This l a t t e r a t t r i b u t e i s generally considered to r e f l e c t the STRIKING P L A T F O R M WIOTH STRIKING PLATFORM S U R F A C E STRIKING PLATFORM DEPTH STRIKING PLATFORM STRENGTHENING S C A R S CORTEX COVERED SURFACE DORSAL FLAKE SCARS VENTRAL SIDE LONGITUDINAL DORSAL SIDE CROSS-SECTION FIGURE 27. Schematic diagram of platform-hearing flake a t t r i b u t e s . 179 nature of the force applied i n f l a k e detachment (Crabtree 1972a:6-17r. 1972b; Muto 1971a:115-116), At t r i b u t e s to measure technological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s were determined by a c r i t i c a l review of the extant l i t h i c technology l i t e r a t u r e . This review was c a r r i e d out to i d e n t i f y those a t t r i b u t e s which had been documented i n experimental studies or had been e f f e c t i v e l y applied i n analyses of archaeological data as i n d i c a t o r s of v a r i a b i l i t y i n technological processes., The procedure re s u l t e d i n the compilation of 23 f l a k e a t t r i b u t e s which were considered p o t e n t i a l l y applicable i n the present study. Each a t t r i b u t e i s b r i e f l y described below: 1. Raw Material Type,, The s e l e c t i o n of the raw material type from which to manufacture a stone t o o l i s the f i r s t process to receive attention i n any reduction strategy. The physical properties exhibited by d i f f e r e n t raw materials determine t h e i r performance c a p a b i l i t i e s as tools as well as the p a r t i c u l a r reductive techniques required to f a b r i c a t e implements (Bordaz 1970:6-13; Crabtree 1967; Goodman 1944). The main raw material types recognized i n t h i s analysis are: 1, "Chert" (includes cherts, chalcedonies, and jaspers); 2., "Basalt" (includes b a s a l t s , r h y o l i t e s , 180 a n d e s i t e s , and f e l s i t e s ) ; 3. O b s i d i a n ; 4. Other ( u n i d e n t i f i a b l e raw m a t e r i a l s t y p e s ) . Raw M a t e r i a l T e x t u r e . T h i s i s a n o t h e r a t t r i b u t e w h i c h would be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f raw m a t e r i a l s e l e c t i o n . C r a b t r e e (1967:8) n o t e s t h a t " g e n e r a l l y , t h e c o a r s e r t h e s t o n e t e x t u r e , t h e t o u g h e r and more d i f f i c u l t i t i s t o remove r e g u l a r and u n i f o r m f l a k e s " , a l t h o u g h t h i s m a n u f a c t u r i n g d i s a d v a n t a g e would be o f f s e t by t h e enhanced use p o t e n t i a l o f a t o o l w i t h s uch t o u g h n e s s . In, terms o f s t a n d a r d p e t r o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a l l o f t h e raw m a t e r i a l s i n t h e p r e s e n t sample would be r e g a r d e d as f i n e - g r a i n e d i n t e x t u r e . I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a more d e t a i l e d i d e a o f v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n t h i s d i v i s i o n , a q u a l i t a t i y e a n a l y s i s was made by o b s e r v i n g t h e m i c r o t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e f l a k e s u r f a c e a t 10-power m a g n i f i c a t i o n . The s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s t a t e s a r e : 1. no v i s i b l e g r a i n i n e s s a t l O x m a g n i f i c a t i o n ; 2. v i s i b l e g r a i n i n e s s a t l O x m a g n i f i c a t i o n . Raw M a t e r i a l Homogeneity. A n o t h e r a t t r i b u t e o f t h e raw m a t e r i a l t h a t i s p o t e n t i a l l y c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . G e n e r a l l y , t h e more homo-geneous t h e raw m a t e r i a l , " t h e more e x a c t may be t h e c o n t r o l o f p r e s s u r e " t o a f f e c t f r a c t u r e (Pond 181 1930:101). T h i s a t t r i b u t e measures t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f i n c o n s i s -t e n c i e s i n g r a i n s i z e , i n c l u s i o n s ( f o s s i l s o r pheno-c r y s t s ) , f a u l t planes,, and b r e c c i a t i o n , e i t h e r o r a l l o f w h i c h c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t t h e c o n t r o l o f f r a c t u r e . Two a t t r i b u t e s t a t e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d : 1. homogeneous; 2. inhomogeneous. 4. Weight. T h i s p r o v i d e s a measure o f t h e r e l a t i v e mass o f t h e i t e m , measured t o 0.1 gm. G i v e n a c o n s t a n t s i z e o f raw m a t e r i a l , one would e x p e c t f l a k e w e i g h t t o d e c r e a s e i n advanced r e d u c t i o n s t e p s . 5. F l a k e L e n g t h . T h i s i s t h e maximum l e n g t h i n mm, measured p a r a l l e l t o t h e a x i s o f f o r c e ( s e e f i g u r e 2 7 ) . F l a k e l e n g t h s h o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e amount o f f o r c e r e q u i r e d t o e f f e c t f l a k e r e m o v a l (Phagan 1976:18). W i t h i n t h e r e d u c t i o n sequence, one would e x p e c t f l a k e l e n g t h t o d e c r e a s e . 6. F l a k e W i d t h . T h i s i s t h e maximum w i d t h i n mm, measured p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e a x i s o f f o r c e ( s ee f i g u r e 2 7 ) . T h i s a t t r i b u t e s h o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e a measure o f t h e f o r c e i n v o l v e d i n f l a k e r e m o v a l . O v e r a l l f l a k e w i d t h s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , ; d e c r e a s e t h r o u g h t h e r e d u c t i o n s t e p s . 7. Non- Bulbar F l a k e T h i c k n e s s . T h i s i s t h e maximum 182 measurement i n mm at r i g h t angles to the plane of the f r a c t u r e surface at any point except within the bulbar zone (see Figure 27). Flake thickness i n general should r e f l e c t the l o c a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n of the applied force which detached the f l a k e (Faulkner 1972:110-115). The r a t i o of t h i s measure-ment to that of the bulbar thickness below should provide a quantitative index of the bulb of force prominence on the f l a k e . 8. Bulbar Thickness. This i s the flake thickness i n mm taken at the centre of the bulb of force (see f i g u r e 2 7). Prominent bulbs, as indicated by the r a t i o of bulbar thickness with non-bulbar flake thickness, are considered suggestive of force applied by a hard hammer ( i . e . stone), whereas lower r a t i o s may r e f l e c t s o f t hammer ( i . e . bone, a n t l e r , and wood) force a p p l i c a t i o n . With respect to the reduction sequence, the use of hard hammers i s expected to be more pre-valent i n the i n i t i a l steps while s o f t hammers would give more control i n shaping the tool at l a t e r steps. 9. S t r i k i n g Platform Width. This i s the distance i n mm between those two points where the s t r i k i n g platform surface i n t e r s e c t s the margins of the f l a k e (see f i g u r e 27). Phagan (1976:45) notes that reduced platform width i s e v i d e n t i a l of platform treatment 183 p r i o r to the a p p l i c a t i o n of force and "lower values can be interpreted as more c a r e f u l attention to such platform preparation". One would also expect increased e f f o r t i n platform preparation p r i o r to exacting flake removals that are c r i t i c a l i n the l a t e r reduction steps of thinning and shaping. 10.Striking Platform Depth, This i s the maximum dorsal to ventral surface distance i n mm perpendicular to the axis of s t r i k i n g platform width (see f i g u r e 27). S t r i k i n g platform depth i s expected to decrease i n l a t e r reduction steps. The minimization of t h i s distance i s c r i t i c a l i n reduction steps involving b i f a c i a l f l a k i n g where the objective i s to t h i n the implement section while removing as l i t t l e as possible from the margins (Muto 1971a:63-73). 11.Ventral Flaking Angle. This i s the angle between the plane of the s t r i k i n g platform depth and the average ventral surface (see f i g u r e 27), measured i n 5 degree, i n t e r v a l s . This has been termed "angle beta" by Wilmsen .(1970:14) and Knudson (1973:188* 192). There are two present means of recording t h i s angle: 1) the actual angle from the plane that passes through the f l a k e mass to the ventral surface (Knudson 1973:188, 192), and 2) the supplement of t h i s angle (Leach 1969:52; Wilmsen 1970:14, 17). In 184 t h i s study, the former method was used as i t was thought that t h i s provided a more accurate measure-ment and was easier to obtain. This angle i s prim-a r i l y regulated by the d i r e c t i o n of the f r a c t u r i n g force. This angle should increase as the force i s directed to the outer surface of the core and vice versa f o r inward force a p p l i c a t i o n s . The r e s u l t of an inward-directed force would be the removal of a substantial f l a k e mass, which would necessitate the a p p l i c a t i o n of a large amount of force. The r e s u l t s of outward-directed force are best r e f l e c t e d by b i f a c i a l thinning flakes which would e x h i b i t the largest angles. Therefore, one would expect t h i s angle to increase through the reduction sequence. 12.Dorsal Flaking Angle.. This i s the angle between the plane of the s t r i k i n g platform depth and the average dorsal surface ( i . e . that s i d e that preserves the o r i g i n a l core surface) measured i n 5 degree i n t e r v a l s (see f i g u r e 27). This angle i s e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r to the " s t r i k i n g platform angle" of Leach (1969:34), and "angle eta" of Knudson (1973:188,192), except that here the angle measured i s that from the s t r i k i n g platform depth plane to the dorsal surface, rather than that between the dorsal surface and the platform surface that passes through the flake mass. 185 Muto (1971a:114) considers t h i s a t t r i b u t e as one of the more diagnostic variables that should be consid-ered i n i n f e r r i n g modes of manufacture. Speth (1975: 207) suggests that t h i s "platform angle i s of greater importance to the flint-knapper than the angle of impact f o r c o n t r o l l i n g the s i z e of a d i r e c t percussion flake"., Higher angles would be associated with b i f a c i a l l y - f l a k e d edges manufactured i n l a t e r reduction steps. 13. Dorsal Scar Count. This i s the t o t a l number of f l a k e scars observed on the dorsal surface, excluding those scars thought to have resulted from preparation of the s t r i k i n g platform. These scars represent the negative marks on ventral surfaces of flakes removed from the present l i t h i c material previous to the detachment of the present f l a k e . The scar count should provide a measure of energy expended i n reduct-ion operations up to the removal of the present piece. Generally, the number of flake scars i s expected to increase through the reduction sequence, up to a point that the s i z e of flake removed i s appreciably smaller than the negative flake scars, at which point the scar count w i l l decrease. 14. Ventral Surface Curvature., This a t t r i b u t e measures 186 the curvature of the ventral flake surface long-i t u d i n a l p r o f i l e measured along the bulbar axis (Knudson 1973:187; Leach 1969:57), Three states of curvature were defined (see f i g u r e 28): 1. Concave; 2. S t r a i g h t / F l a t ; 3. Convex. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s a t t r i b u t e has been discussed by Crabtree (1972a:12): The straightness of a f l a k e or blade depends on the i n e r t i a of the material. Large masses of stone w i l l remain i n e r t because of t h e i r s i z e and weight., . . . Another factor i s the manner of the blow—an a r c - l i k e blow w i l l cause curving while the s t r a i g h t l i n e blow w i l l produce s t r a i g h t e r flakes and blades. Phagan (1976:42) has suggested that concave and s t r a i g h t / f l a t p r o f i l e s are i n d i c a t i v e of greater co n t r o l over fracture v a r i a b l e s , while convex p r o f i l e s are the r e s u l t of inadequate amounts of force a p p l i c a t i o n . Straight p r o f i l e s would l i k e l y be most e f f e c t i v e i n early reduction steps concerned with reducing the o v e r a l l mass of the parent material and/or detaching flakes s u i t a b l e for further reduct-i o n . Convex p r o f i l e s would provide the best form for thinning flakes removed in l a t e r steps aimed at reducing the section and cross-section of b i f a c i a l implements. 187 FIGURE 28. Schematic diagram of flake ventral surface curva-ture attribute states. Key: 1-concave, 2-straight/ f l a t , 3-convex. 188 15. D i s t a l End Termination., The type of termination of the d i s t a l end ( i . e . that flake margin opposite the bulbar or proximal edge) of the flake i s influenced by the form of the parent material surface and the amount and d i r e c t i o n of applied force (Crabtree 1972a:12).' Bonnichson (1977:132) notes that the main v a r i a b l e determining the type of termination i s the v e l o c i t y of the fracture front removing the f l a k e . Six p o t e n t i a l types of d i s t a l end termination were defined f o r the analysis (see f i g u r e 29): 1. Feather; 2. Step; 3. Hinge; 4. Reverse Hinge; 5.. , Jagged; 6, Multiple Fracture. Feather terminations e x h i b i t a sharp, th i n f l a k e margin at the d i s t a l end of the f l a k e . These terminations are the most desirable type as they represent w e l l - c o n t r o l l e d force a p p l i c a t i o n . Step, hinge, reverse hinge, and jagged term-inations are generally regarded as i n d i c a t i o n s of manufacturing errors r e s u l t i n g from i n s u f f i c i e n t and/or misdirected applications of force. It should be noted that step terminations may also represent 189 F IGURE 29. S c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f f l a k e d i s t a l end t e r m i n a t i o n a t t r i b u t e s t a t e s . K e y : 1 - f e a t h e r , 2 - s t e p , 3 - h i n g e , ^ - r e v e r s e h i n g e , 5 - j a g g e d . 190 breakage that occurred a f t e r removal of the flake and thus may bias i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . M u l t i p l e - f r a c t u r e terminations are considered to r e s u l t s o l e l y from post-manufacture breakage. Step, hinge, reverse hinge,, and jagged term-inations are caused by the r e f l e c t i o n of stress waves from the bottom of the parent piece of material which i n t e r f e r e with the path of the approaching front and force i t to change d i r e c t i o n (Bonnichsen 1977:132).. This phenomenon i s generally r e s t r i c t e d to slow-moving fracture fronts r e s u l t i n g from i n s u f f i c i e n t force application.. When stress r e f l e c t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t to impede further movement of the fracture f r o n t , the force i s released at the nearest free surface. Hinge fractures r e s u l t from the release of force at the dorsal surface; reverse hinge fractures occur when the force turns toward the ventral surface of the mass being flaked (Bonnichsen 1977:132). Fractures that occur abruptly at r i g h t angles r e s u l t i n step termination (Crabtree 1972a:93). Jagged f l a k e term-inations are l i k e l y the r e s u l t of "contact with another substance when the f l a k e was detached" (Bonnichsen 1977:132,135), 16. S t r i k i n g Platform Preparation., This a t t r i b u t e 191 measures the treatment of the platform with respect to f l a k e removals i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the a p p l i c a t i o n of the detachment fo r c e . Preparation was p o t e n t i a l l y observable i n three states; a fourth state was defined for those speciments which had incomplete damaged platforms (see f i g u r e 30): 1. Cortex cover, no facets; 2. Single facet; 3. Multiple facets; 4., Unobservable due to incomplete s t r i k i n g platform. The f i r s t three a t t r i b u t e states r e f l e c t increasing amounts of energy expenditure involved i n platform treatment, suggesting greater i n t e r e s t i n c o n t r o l l i n g the l o c a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n of applied force. Such co n t r o l would be c r i t i c a l i n advanced reduction steps that involve s p e c i f i c f l a k e removal patterns to achieve the desired implement form. 17. S t r i k i n g Platform Strengthening.. This a t t r i b u t e measures e f f o r t s to a l t e r the dorsal f l a k i n g angle through the removal of small flakes from the dorsal surface immediately beneath the s t r i k i n g platform. This serves to strengthen and p o s i t i o n the platform surface to an exact form i n order to i s o l a t e the l o c a t i o n established to receive the detachment 192 FIGURE 30. Schematic diagram of flake s t r i k i n g platform preparation attribute states. Key: 1-cortex covered, no facets; 2-single facet; 3-multiple-facted. 193 force as well as to strengthen the platform i n order to prevent crushing of the platform (Crabtree 1972a,:15; Knudson 1973:193). Platform strengthening was recorded on a presence-absence basis (see f i g u r e 27): 1. Strengthening scars absent; 2. Strengthening scars present; 3. Unobservable due to incomplete s t r i k i n g platform. The concern f o r platform i s o l a t i o n and strengthening would be expected to be greatest i n the l a t e r reduct-ion steps that focus on shaping the implement s e c t i o n . A strong, i s o l a t e d platform would permit greater f l a k i n g occurring during the thinning of the imple-ment section while removing a r e l a t i v e l y small portion of i t s margins that form the platform area (Muto 1971a). 18. S t r i k i n g Platform Abrasion. Evidence of grinding, rubbing* or crushing on or adjacent to the s t r i k i n g platform i s examined by t h i s a t t r i b u t e (Wilmsen 1970:14). This was recorded on a presence-absence b a s i s : 1. Abrasion absent; 2. Abrasion present; 3. Unobservable due to incomplete s t r i k i n g platform. 1 9 4 The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s a t t r i b u t e i s stated by Crabtree (1972a:8): When the platform i s roughly abraded, the surface i s weakened, the pressure or percussion t o o l w i l l not s l i p , and the amount of force necessary to induce f r a c -ture i s reduced. A smaller amount of force required to remove flakes would r e s u l t i n a lower l i k e l i h o o d of s t r i k i n g p l a t -form collapse under excessive force a p p l i c a t i o n . Such control i s desirable throughout a l l the reduct-ion steps but would be more c r i t i c a l i n the l a t e r shaping stages. .. Ventral Surface Lipping. This a t t r i b u t e i s observed on the ventral f l a k e surface immediately adjacent to the s t r i k i n g platform.- Lipping has often been con-sidered to be associated with s o f t hammer percussion, or pressure f l a k i n g techniques of reduction (Crabtree 1972a:74; Muto 1971a:114-115). However, recent experimental work has challenged t h i s p o s i t i o n and has suggested that the c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e governing l i p p i n g i s the angle of force (Bonnichsen 1977:165). Thus, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s a t t r i b u t e i s uncertain at the present time. Lipping was included i n the analysis to see i f i t exhibited any r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other a t t r i b u t e s that may provide some i n s i g h t i n t o i t s meaningfulness. Only the presence or absence 195 o f - l i p p i n g was recorded as any more de t a i l e d break-down (e.g. Phagan 1976:49-50) was regarded as too cumbersome to employ (see figur e 27): 1.. Lip absent; 2. L ip present; 3. Unobservable due to incomplete s t r i k i n g platform. If l i p p i n g i s indeed associated with soft-hammer percussion and pressure f l a k i n g , one may expect these techniques to be more prevalent i n l a t e r reduction stages where more control i n flake removal i s exercised. 20., Bulb of Applied Force.. This a t t r i b u t e measures two associated c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of force a p p l i c a t i o n , the bulb of applied force and the cone of applied force, present on the ventral flake surface. S a l i e n t bulbs of applied force are usually the product of force applied by a hard hammer while d i f f u s e bulbs r e s u l t from s o f t hammers (Muto 1971a: 115-116). Likewise, acuminate cones of applied force are normally the product of a hard hammer blow and truncated cones that of a s o f t hammer, although a truncated cone may also r e s u l t from an excessive hard hammer blow to a r e l a t i v e l y large contact area 196 (Muto 1971a:116). Two states of the above cone and bulb combinations were i d e n t i f i e d : 1. Diffuse bulb/Truncated cone; 2. S a l i e n t bulb/Acuminate cone; 3. Unobseryable due to incomplete s t r i k i n g platform. One would expect the bulb/cone combination assoc-iated with soft-hammer and pressure force applications to be more frequent i n l a t e r reduction steps and those r e s u l t i n g from hard-hammers i n the i n i t i a l steps. 21. Cortex Cover. This i s a measure of the proportion pf the dorsal flake surface that exhibits the natural surface of the l i t h i c material (see f i g u r e 27), The following proportional states were recorded: 1. No cortex cover; 2. P a r t i a l cortex cover;' 3. Complete cortex cover; 4. Unobservable due to incomplete f l a k e form. The above states are i d e n t i c a l to the primary d e c o r t i c a t i o n , secondary d e c o r t i c a t i o n , and tertiary-f l a k e d i v i s i o n s i n i t i a l l y established by White (1963), L i t h i c technology studies have generally assumed that "cortex i s normally not as desirable as f r e s h l y fractured material, e i t h e r because of a d i f f e r e n c e 197 i n some q u a l i t y of the stone i t s e l f or i n the r e g u l a r i t y of the two kinds of surface or edges" (Phagan 1976:53). Therefore, one of the very f i r s t reduction operations would involve the removal of the natural or weathered surface from the raw material, r e s u l t i n g i n flakes with varying amounts of cortex on the dorsal surface. The detachment of cortex-free flakes would only be possible a f t e r the above operation had been completed and i s therefore r e s t r i c t e d to l a t e r reduction steps. 22. Dorsal Surface Flake Scar Patterning, This a t t r i b u t e q u a l i t a t i v e l y measures the complexity of the arrangement of scars on the dorsal f l a k e surface (see Knudson 1973:190; Leach 1969:58; iftMynday 1976:32; Phagan 1976:55)., The s p e c i f i c states recorded here are derived from Knudson (1973) and are arranged below i n order of increasing complexity: 1. Patterning p a r a l l e l to bulbar a x i s , generally directed from platform; 2. Patterning p a r a l l e l to bulbar a x i s , generally directed from d i s t a l end; 3. Patterning p a r a l l e l to bulbar a x i s , directed from both d i s t a l and proximal ends; 4. Patterning perpendicular to bulbar a x i s , generally directed from one f l a k e margin; 198 5. Patterning perpendicular to bulbar axis* directed from both flake margins; 6. Patterning oblique'to bulbar axis* . . directed from proximal end; -7. Patterning oblique to bulbar axis, generally directed from d i s t a l end; 8. Complex patterning directed from a l l flake margins and ends; 9.. Patterning not determinable due to incomplete flake form. The above states are schematically presented i n f i g u r e 31. Munday (1976:23) suggests that more complex patterns resulted from increased core pre-paration. Phagan (1976:55) argues a s i m i l a r point by noting that more complex scar arrangements i n -dicate detachment "by a force applied i n a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n from those that formed the core face, and i n d i c a t e very c a r e f u l planning and c o n t r o l . " Such patterns would be most prevalent among flakes r e s u l t -ing from the l a t e r steps of b i f a c i a l f l a k i n g . 23. Dorsal Surface Flake Scar Size., This i s an estimate of the predominant width exhibited by negative flake scars on the dorsal flake surface. "Predominant" i s defined as 2/3 or more of the scars (Phagan 1976:55). The s p e c i f i c s i z e i n t e r v a l s and a t t r i b u t e states are Key to Figure 31 - Dorsal Flake Scar Patterns: 199 1. Patterning p a r a l l e l to bulbar axis, generally directed from platform; 2. Patterning p a r a l l e l to bulbar axis, generally directed from d i s t a l end; 3 . Patterning p a r a l l e l to bulbar axis, directed from both d i s t a l and proximal ends; 4. Patterning perpendicular to bulbar axis, generally directed from one flake margin; 5. Patterning perpendicular to bulbar axis, directed from both flake margins; 6. Patterning oblique to bulbar axis, directed from platform end; 7. Patterning oblique to bulbar axis, gener-a l l y directed from d i s t a l end; 8. Complex patterning directed from a l l flake margins and ends. 200 7 8 FIGURE 31. Schematic diagram of dorsal flake scar pattern attribute states. 201 adopted from Knudson (1973:189): 1. Predominantly large (greater than 8 mm maximum width); 2. Predominantly medium and large; 3. Predominantly medium (3-8 mm maximum width);. 4.. Predominantly large and small; 5. Predominantly large, medium and small; 6. Predominantly medium and small; 7. Predominantly small (less than 3 mm maximum width); 8. Predominant s i z e not determinable due to incomplete flake form. Given that the average flake s i z e decreases through the reductive sequence, one may expect to observe a r e l a t i v e l y high proportion of large sized scars on flakes detached i n i n i t i a l reduction steps, while increased s i z e v a r i a t i o n and a trend towards smaller flake scar s i z e s i s expected to r e s u l t from l a t e r 1 reduction steps. Assessment of Flake C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Although each of the above a t t r i b u t e s can be regarded as being of some importance i n describing tech-n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y within the reduction sequence, the 1 consideration of the e n t i r e a t t r i b u t e set poses two problems for a n a l y s i s . F i r s t i s the problem of redundancy. While-202 the 1 s i g n i f i c a n c e of each a t t r i b u t e i s noted, to. what extent are they measuring mutually exclusive technological variables? Secondly, such a group of a t t r i b u t e s presents p r a c t i c a l problems with respect to t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to the large number of l i t h i c assemblages a v a i l a b l e to the present a n a l y s i s . Thus, i t was desirable to determine an a t t r i b u t e set that would provide the greatest amount of technological information and the le a s t redundant measure-ment. This was achieved by carrying out a p i l o t study involving the analysis of s e l e c t s i t e assemblages using the t o t a l a t t r i b u t e set and subjecting the r e s u l t i n g information to q u a n t i t a t i v e data reduction techniques. Assemblages f o r the p i l o t study were selected by d i v i d i n g the s i t e assemblages c o l l e c t e d by the survey into two groups on the basis' of the dominant raw material types present and then random sampling each, A t o t a l of f i v e assemblages, from s i t e s EeRj 21, EeRj 40, EeRj 59, EeRj 63, and EeRj 64, were drawn. A t o t a l of 516 platform bearing flakes were observed i n the sample, of which 190 were con-sidered as s u i t a b l e for quantitative analysis ( i . e . those having d i s t a l end terminations that d e f i n i t e l y resulted from flake-removal forces, represented by feather and hinge terminations). The s p e c i f i c data reduction technique employed was fact o r analysis (-Rumme! 1970). Factor analysis was spec-203 i f i c a l l y selected f o r i t s demonstrated a b i l i t y to delineate underlying patterns of r e l a t i o n s h i p s exhibited by a set of data and reorganize i t i n t o smaller sets of factors that may be regarded as ch a r a c t e r i z i n g these r e l a t i o n s (Rummel 1970:12-21). The r o l e of fact o r analysis i n the present study i s exploratory, the objective being detection of a t t r i b u t e patterning that w i l l lead to discovery of a smaller set of dimensions that can account for such v a r i a -tions and those a t t r i b u t e s that most e f f e c t i v e l y i n d i c a t e them. The p i l o t study was s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned with the c o - v a r i a t i o n of a t t r i b u t e s observed on a sample popula-t i o n of f l a k e s , or R-mode a n a l y s i s . Factor analysis has been previously used i n R-mode a t t r i b u t e studies by Benfer (1967) and Judge (1973:273-298). Benfer's study has been c r i t i c i z e d by Sackett (19.69), whose comments on the use of fac t o r analysis may also be applicable to Judge's study. The major c r i t i c i s m presented by Sackett concerns the use of at t r i b u t e s with d i f f e r e n t measurement scales i n the c a l c u l a -t i o n of Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . When used as a tes t s t a t i s t i c , Pearson's " r " should only be cal c u l a t e d f o r continuous variables with a b i v a r i a t e normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . The type of underlying d i s t r i b u t i o n i s not c r i t i c a l i n fa c t o r a n a l y s i s , as concern i s not with the s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of c o r r e l a t i o n s between v a r i a b l e s . 204 Nevertheless* Pearson's " r " i s a measure of l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Therefore, the variables-should have i n t e r -v a l scales of measurement, otherwise the c o e f f i c i e n t i s d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t (Conover 1971:245). As the above a t t r i b u t e s e x h i b i t both ord i n a l and i n t e r v a l measurement scales, a matrix of Spearman's rho rank-order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Siegel 1956:202-213) was used. The main advantage i n employing Spearman*s rho i s that i t can "be c a l c u l a t e d f o r variables that have minimally an ordin a l scale of measurement. Subprogram NONPAR CORR from the S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the S o c i a l Sciences (Nie e t a l . 1975) was used to ca l c u l a t e the Spearman•s rho c o r r e l a t i o n matrix, which was used as input f o r subprogram FACTOR of the SPSS package. The s p e c i f i c f a c t o r i n g method employed was PA2, p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r i n g with i t e r a t i o n * which i s the most widely accepted method (Kim•1975:480). This i s * i n ef f e c t , 1 " c l a s s i c a l " f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , which makes the assumption that observed c o r r e l a t i o n s are due to underlying r e g u l a r i t y i n the data. An eigenvalue of 1.0-0 was used as the cut o f f point f o r the generation of f a c t o r s . The r e s u l t i n g f a c t o r matrix was then subjected to varimax r o t a t i o n . The f a c t o r analysis of 19 fla k e a t t r i b u t e s (those of raw material type, texture, homogeneity, and d i s t a l end termination were excluded) resulted i n a 5-factor s o l u t i o n . 205 The varimax rotated f a c t o r loadings are presented i n table 10. Factor 1, which accounts f o r 54.2% of the sample variance * i s considered to represent the dimension of flake s i z e . The a t t r i b u t e s of weight, length, width, non-bulbar thickness * and bulbar thickness a l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y high loadings. This f a c t o r i s also b i p o l a r (Harman 1967:100),, as the dorsal surface f l a k e scar s i z e a t t r i b u t e has a high negative loading. This indicates an inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p 1 between the dorsal f l a k e scar s i z e and those above that measure the o v e r a l l dimensions of the f l a k e . The dorsal scar s i z e a t t r i b u t e i s measured with respect to decreasing s i z e * Therefore, as the o v e r a l l f l a k e s i z e decreases, so« does the predominant s i z e range of the dorsal f l a k e surface scars. Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p would be expected i n the reduction sequence. The^ second f a c t o r accounts f o r 20.2% of variance and i s dominated by two a t t r i b u t e s : the ventral and dorsal f l a k i n g angles. These a t t r i b u t e s have v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l loading values, i n d i c a t i n g a close r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. This; f a c t o r i s interpreted as representing the vector of applied force for flake removal. Factor 3 i s a s p e c i f i c factor'-primarily defined by a s i n g l e a t t r i b u t e - - d o r s a l surface flake scar count. This TABLE 10 FLAKE ATTRIBUTE;FACTOR ANALYSIS LOADINGS Factor Attribute 1 2 3 4 5 Weight (0.94055) -0.01606 0.09267 0.28315 -0.05189 Flake Length (0.87324) 0.01745 0.04732 0.13609 -0.00498 Flake Width (0.87349) .-0.01449 , 0.16504 0.23375 -0.08215 Non-Bulbar Flake Thickness (0.79583) -0.07855 0.14786 0.27058 -0.13363 Bulbar Thickness (0.78514) -0.04233 0.10179 0.45786 -0.10976 Striking Platform Width 0.38280 0.01632 -0.14174 (0.83340) 0.01119 Striking Platform Depth 0.47101 0.05038 -0.06311 (0.74821) -0.06460 Dorsal Flaking Angle -0.00988 (0.90162) 0.14752 -0.03548 0.14708 Ventral Flaking Angle -0.02932 (0.90790) 0.10803 0.04351 0.14633 Dorsal Scar Count 0.18506 0.16225 (0.72590) 0.13582 -0.07473 Ventral Surface Curvature 0.23848 -0.32663 -0.25441 0.12007 0.19568 Striking Platform Preparation 0.13379 -0.04986 0.11445 0.38414 0.01309 Striking Platform Abrasion -0.23755 0.05662 0.06962 -0.10009 -0.16660 Striking Platform Strengthening 0.13420 -0.00428 0.29238 0.00548 0.24010 Ventral Surface Lipping -0.05185 0.16394 -0.01546 0.01347 (0.68824) Bulb of Applied Force 0.31049 -0.19094 -0.10138 0.25997 (-0.59391) Cortex Cover 0.17744 0.18606 -0.27496 -0.15902 -0.31698 Dorsal Surface Scar Patterning -0.02243 0.09957 0.41807 -0.04490 0.03050 Dorsal Surface Scar Size (-0.62006) 0.05258 0.37009 -0.10247 0.16467 NOTE: Bracketed ( ) values indicate significant loadings discussed i n text. r o o ON 207 f a c t o r accounts for 9.2% of the sample variance. I t i s regarded as a dimension of reduction energy expenditure with respect to the number of previous f l a k e removals from the parent material before the removal of the present f l a k e . The next highest-loading a t t r i b u t e , although considerably lower than the value for scar count, i s that of dorsal surface flake scar patterning. This i s not an unexpected a s s o c i a t i o n , as increased flake removals i n d i c a t e extended reduction i n operations that would r e s u l t i n more complex arrangements of negative flake sears. The fourth f a c t o r accounts f o r a proportion of o r i g i n a l sample variance, 9.1%, that i s nearly equal to that of f a c t o r 3.. The highest loading a t t r i b u t e s i n t h i s f a c t o r are those of s t r i k i n g platform a r c h i t e c t u r e , platform width and platform depth. This factor i s considered to in d i c a t e the dimension of the surface to receive the applied force fo r f l a k e detachment. Factor 5 i s another b i p o l a r factor that i n t h i s case accounts f o r 7.4% of the sample variance. Ventral surface l i p p i n g has the highest p o s i t i v e loading value while the bulb of applied force has the greatest negative value. This i n d i c a t e s an oppositional r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two attributes,, which states that ventral surface l i p p i n g i s associated with s a l i e n t , acuminate bulbs of force rather than d i f f u s e , truncated bulbs as has been suggested by some 208 e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s were each, measured i n o n l y 2 s t a t e s , w h i c h may be masking more s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , , t h i s f a c t o r can be i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a p p l i e d detachment f o r c e . The above r e s u l t s o f t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i o n o f t h o s e f l a k e a t t r i b u t e s t o be u s e d i n t h e major l i t h i c a n a l y s i s . , F o r each f a c t o r , t h a t a t t r i -b u t e w i t h t h e h i g h e s t a b s o l u t e l o a d i n g v a l u e was assumed t o be t h e b e s t i n d i c a t o r o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f e r r e d f o r t h a t f a c t o r and was r e t a i n e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g l i t h i c a n a l y s i s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e i n i t i a l s e t s u b j e c t e d t o f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t o 5 a t t r i b u t e s : w e i g h t , v e n t r a l f l a k i n g a n g l e , d o r s a l f l a k e s c a r c o u n t , s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m w i d t h , and b u l b o f a p p l i e d f o r c e . The b u l b o f a p p l i e d f o r c e a t t r i b u t e i s t h e second h i g h e s t l o a d i n g a t t r i b u t e i n f a c t o r 5 and was s e l e c t e d due t o t h e u n c e r t a i n p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f v e n t r a l s u r f a c e l i p p i n g ( t h e h i g h e s t - l o a d i n g a t t r i b u t e ) as an a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t o r o f t h e t y p e o f a p p l i e d r e m o v a l f o r c e . The a t t r i b u t e o f f l a k e w i d t h , t h e second h i g h e s t l o a d i n g a t t r i b u t e i n f a c t o r 1, was a l s o r e t a i n e d i n o r d e r t o e n a b l e t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f a f l a k e mass i n d e x . C o r e s T h i s a r t i f a c t c l a s s i n c l u d e s t h o s e i t e m s o f l i t h i c m a t e r i a l from w h i c h f l a k e s were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y removed. 209 For purposes of a n a l y s i s , cores were defined by two c r i t -e r i a : 1) the absence of a bulb of force, and 2) minimally one surface e x h i b i t i n g negative flake scars at l e a s t 2 cm long. Ideally these c r i t e r i a should screen out those pieces that have evidence of numerous flake removals but not f o r the purpose of producing flakes for subsequent reduction.. However, p o t e n t i a l errors of observation s t i l l should be noted. While the objective i s to determine those items that served as parent materials f o r the production of flake t o o l blanks, some a r t i f a c t s meeting the above c r i t e r i a may represent amorphous r e j e c t s from i n i t i a l stages of b i -f a c i a l or u n i f a c i a l t o o l production. The above cu t o f f value may also r e s u l t i n the m i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of very small and exhausted cores as block shatter debitage (see shatter d i s -cussion below). The measurement of intent i n l i t h i c analysis i s a hazardous procedure at best.. Core raw material a t t r i b u t e s were recorded i n a manner i d e n t i c a l to that described for platform-bearing flakes., Additional a t t r i b u t e s recorded for cores include: 1) weight to 0.1 gm, 2) maximum dimension i n mm, 3) minimum dimension i n mm, 4) presence-absence of cortex, 5) number of flake removal surfaces, 6) patterning of flake removal faces ( u n i d i r e c t i o n a l , b i d i r e c t i o n a l , or m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l ) , 7) type (undiagnostic or prepared for microblade removal), and 8) condition (whole or fragmentary). 210 The measurement o f r e d u c t i o n sequences r e p r e s e n t e d on c o r e s i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e l a s t r e m o v a l s t e p s c a r r i e d o u t on t h e p i e c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , some c h a r a c t e r i s i c end r e s u l t s o f v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n t h e o v e r a l l r e d u c t i v e sequence may be a n t i c i p a t e d . G i v e n a c o n s t a n t mass and n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g s o u r c e , as more r e d u c t i o n s t e p s a r e c a r r i e d o u t , t h e mass and amount o f c o r t e x s h o u l d d e c r e a s e w h i l e t h e number o f f l a k e r e m o v a l s u r f a c e s s h o u l d i n c r e a s e . P a t t e r n i n g o f f l a k e r e m o v a l f a c e s may a l s o be e x p e c t e d t o g e t more complex, c h a n g i n g from u n i d i r e c t i o n a l t o b i d i r e c t i o n a l o r m u l t i -d i r e c t i o n a l r e m o v a l f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n s . S h a t t e r S h a t t e r c o n s t i t u t e s u n d i a g n o s t i c p i e c e s o f d e b i t a g e t h a t do not e x h i b i t a t t r i b u t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f l a k e s . , T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s b o t h i r r e g u l a r - s h a p e d , , a n g u l a r p i e c e s and m e d i a l and d i s t a l f l a k e s e c t i o n s . . I n e i t h e r c a s e , t h e i t e m w i l l l a c k a b u l b o f f o r c e and s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m . Two b a s i c t y p e s o f s h a t t e r were d i s t i n g u i s h e d on t h e b a s i s o f o v e r a l l m orphology: 1 ) b l o c k s h a t t e r and 2 ) f l a k e s h a t t e r . B l o c k s h a t t e r i s i d e n t i f i e d by i t s c u b i c a l and a n g u l a r form and a v i r t u a l absence o f a l l t h o s e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f l a k i n g . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e how b l o c k s h a t t e r was removed from t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . B l o c k s h a t t e r i s l i k e l y a p r o d u c t o f e x c e s s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f f o r c e and/or t h e p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e 211 l i t h i c material being fractured. Although block shatter can p o t e n t i a l l y r e s u l t at any point i n the reduction sequence, i t i s assumed to have the greatest l i k e l i h o o d of occurrence i n the i n i t i a l steps. A t . t h i s step, raw material s i z e i s i t s l a r g e s t and therefore would require considerable amounts of force to remove f l a k e s , that may be misapplied. The raw material nodule would also be expected to e x h i b i t planes of weakness at the e x t e r i o r surface r e s u l t i n g from weathering (e.g. f r o s t - f r a c t u r e ) and natural a p p l i c a t i o n s of force (e.g. water-rolling) that would r e s u l t i n a high p o t e n t i a l f o r the i n t e r n a l r e f l e c t i o n of stress waves, which i s considered to r e s u l t i n shattering (Speth 1972). Flake shatter includes the mid-sections or terminal ends of f l a k e s . While these pieces do not e x h i b i t a bulb of force, i t i s possible to d i s t i n g u i s h the ventral surface from the dorsal by the presence of compression r i n g s . Also, i t i s often possible to i d e n t i f y a portion of the o r i g i n a l f l a k e margin. Flake shatter was l i k e l y produced throughout a l l manufacturing steps as well as by post^manufacture forces. A minimal number of a t t r i b u t e s were recorded for block and flake shatter. Raw material a t t r i b u t e s of type, cortex, and homogeneity were measured i n the same manner as that described f o r platform-bearing f l a k e s . Other a t t r i b u t e s recorded include: weight, to 0.1 gm, and 212 presence-absence of cortex. While the d i s t r i b u t i o n of weight values for each piece of shatter may not accurately r e f l e c t reduction sequence, the t o t a l amount per assemblage should give at l e a s t a general idea of the mass of l i t h i c material reduced. Pieces with cortex present would be expected to r e f l e c t e a r l i e r reduction steps than those with no cortex cover. Tools The t o o l classes defined for t h i s study were intended to measure a p a r t i c u l a r set of variables that have been recognized i n experimental and ethnoarchaeological research as i n f l u e n c i n g the use of an implement. While classes are defined i n part on the basis of o v e r a l l form, s p e c i a l emphasis was given to: 1) the raw material type, 2.) the degree of manufacturing energy expenditure, and 3) the angle of the working edge. There i s some debate i n contemporary l i t h i c studies with respect to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of raw material v a r i a b i l i t y as a determinant of chipped-stone t o o l use. Wilmsen's (1968,1970) pioneer study on the use-function of Paleolndian stone t o o l assemblages evidently ascribes l i t t l e importance to the v a r i a t i o n i n use p o t e n t i a l r e l a t e d to d i f f e r e n t raw materials (Jelinek 1976:28). Nevertheless, other studies have indicated that systematic raw material s e l e c t i o n was 213 conducted for those physical properties that would a f f e c t the mechanical use of a t o o l (Clark 1959:147; Wylie 1975). The conclusions of Wylie's study of t o o l micro-wear i n the Hogup Cave l i t h i c assemblage are of p a r t i c u l a r relevance to t h i s a n a l y s i s : The s e l e c t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of the various stone types a v a i l a b l e to the inhabitants of Hogup Cave were not random. I t probably depended on the nature of the p a r t i c u l a r tasks to be performed, with job requirements being matched with the known f l a k i n g properties and use c a p a b i l i t i e s of each ma t e r i a l . They were undoubtedly aware, fo r example, that vitreous types such as obsidian and ignimbrite have a keen but extremely b r i t t l e and very e a s i l y abraded edge, while s i l i c e o u s and basalt materials are durable but less sharp and more d i f f i c u l t to shape. (Wylie 1975:28). C o l l i n s (1974:187,189) provides more d e t a i l e d i n s i g h t into the d i f f e r e n t physical properties that may be expected between the chert and basalt materials distinguished i n the present study: In terms of r e l a t i v e chipping properties, the cherts, jasper and chalcedony o f f e r b r i t t l e , e a s i l y flaked materials which produce sharp though f r a g i l e edges. The various igneous and metamor-phic rocks (including b a s a l t ) , sandstone and lime-stone provide tough material that requires greater force to flake and which r e s u l t s i n moderately sharp but r e l a t i v e l y durable edges. In order to c o n t r o l f o r the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s of raw material v a r i a b i l i t y on d i f f e r e n t i a l t o o l use, each morphological t o o l c l a s s was subdivided i n t o chert and basalt types. The primary c r i t e r i o n for d i s t i n g u i s h i n g tools was 214 the presence of at l e a s t one retouched edge having some contiguous arrangements of negative flake scars along the margin v i s i b l e to the naked eye. It i s assumed here that retouch was c a r r i e d out at l e a s t i n part for the purpose of preparing an edge for work. Those tools that have undergone extensive retouch may have been intended to have a r e l a t i v e -l y long u s e - l i f e expectancy and a tendency to be conserved (e.g. Binford 1973:249), or be used i n s p e c i f i c tasks. Two types of retouch to measure d i f f e r e n t i a l amounts of manu-facturing energy expenditure were defined: 1) marginal retouch, and 2) f a c i a l retouch. This i s s i m i l a r to the d i s -t i n c t i o n between primary chipping and secondary chipping made by Binford (1963:202-207), although secondary chipping need not occur only a f t e r primary chipping steps. A n a l y t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s of marginal and f a c i a l retouch are adopted from Chapman (1977:378)., F a c i a l retouch scars extend from the t o o l margin over one-third or more of the surface area. Marginal retouch scars extend from the tool margins up to a maximum of one-third of the surface. Each type of retouch can be applied to e i t h e r the ventral or dorsal surface ( u n i f a c i a l application) or to both surfaces ( b i f a c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n ) . The above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between manufacturing and u t i l i z a t i o n retouch. While i t i s l i k e l y that a considerable proportion of implements i n the 215 assemblage may not have been retouched p r i o r to t h e i r use, u t i l i z a t i o n may or may not r e s u l t i n observable edge modification as t h i s i s dependent on the type and i n t e n s i t y of use. The present treatment of stone t o o l use, on the basis of macroscopically-observable retouch, should be regarded as t e n t a t i v e . A more comprehensive study w i l l require the measurement of microscopic wear patterns, which i s beyond the scope of the present a n a l y s i s . Numerous archaeological and ethnoarchaeological studies have indicated the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the working edge i n y i e l d i n g information on the p o t e n t i a l range of tasks i n which the implement would be e f f e c t i v e l y employed (Gould 1971; Semenov 1964; White 1968b; Wilmsen 1968,1970). This analysis employs a s l i g h t modification of the edge angle ranges proposed by Semenov, Wilmsen, and Gould as having s p e c i f i c use c a p a b i l i t i e s . Two ranges are defined: 1) "acute" angles below 45° and 2) "steep" angles greater than or equal to 45°. It should be noted that the "edge-angle" measured i n t h i s analysis i s that between the two surfaces forming the edge at a point 2 mm i n from the margin on each face ( c f . Odell 1977; Tringham et a l . 1973:, F i g . 1). Wilmsen (1970:70) has suggested that edge angles between 26° and 35° are optimal f o r c u t t i n g operations. Gould (1971:61) has recorded an edge angle range of 19° 216 to 59°, with a mean of 39.52°, f o r ethnographic A u s t r a l i a n Aborigine stone knives ( t j i m a r i ) . Semenov (1964:20) notes the best angle f o r w h i t t l i n g knives i s i n the 35° to 40° range. Wilmsen (1970:70) has i n f e r r e d skinning and hide scraping, sinew and plant f i b e r shredding; heavy c u t t i n g of wood, bone, and horn; and tool backing asy uses f o r edge angles between 46° and 55°. Edge angles between 66° and 75° are well suited f o r wood and bone working and heavy shredding (Wilmsen 1970:71). Gould (1971:161) has recorded edge angles ranging from 40° to 89° with a mean of 67.0° f o r ethnographic Aborigine stone adzes (purpunpa) used i n wood-r working. On the basis of the above v a r i a b l e s , 15 po t e n t i a l implement categories were defined which, when raw material was considered, resulted i n 30 possible tool types. Each category i s b r i e f l y described below. 1. P r o j e c t i l e Points.. These are b i f a c i a l l y flaked, symmetrical a r t i f a c t s with a sharply pointed end, acute-angled blade margins* and, a basal modification (notching, stem, thinning) to f a c i l i t a t e hafting (see fig u r e 32). Such a morphological c l a s s i s usually assumed, to function as arrow or dart points, but an a l t e r n a t i v e use as knives should also be con-sidered ( c f . Ahler 1971; Hester and Heizer 1973; 217 FIGURE 32. P r o j e c t i l e points from Upper Hat Creek Valley s i t e s . 218 Nance 1971). 2. P r o j e c t i l e Point Bases, These are b i f a e i a l l y flaked items with an i n t a c t basal element having a modification f o r hafting and a transverse or oblique fracture above the haft (see f i g u r e 33). This category does not include those specimens that have been modified subsequent to breakage. 3. P r o j e c t i l e Point/Biface T i p s . These are sharply pointed, b i f a c i a l l y flaked a r t i f a c t s with a trans-verse break opposite the t i p . There i s no evidence of any modification f o r h a f t i n g . 4. Biface Fragments. These are undiagnostic pieces of b i f a c i a l l y - f l a k e d a r t i f a c t s which lack a d i s t a l and/ or proximal end. 5. Biface Ends. These are symmetrical b i f a c i a l l y flaked a r t i f a c t s with a rounded end and an opposed transverse or oblique break. I t i s not possible to determine i f the end represents the basal or t i p element. 6. Bifaces. These are b i f a c i a l l y flaked, symmetrical a r t i f a c t s , with e i t h e r pointed or rounded ends and acute edge angles. There i s no evidence of modifica-t i o n f o r the hafting of the implement. 7. Steep-Angled, Marginal, U n i f a c i a l Retouched Flakes. These a r t i f a c t s have one or more margins e x h i b i t i n g 2 1 9 FIGURE 33. P r o j e c t i l e point bases from Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y s i t e s . 220 contiguous retouch scars that do not extend over more than one t h i r d of the f l a k e surface from the margin. Retouch i s confined to one surface (see fi g u r e 34). Edge-angles of the retouched edges are equal to or greater than 45°. 8. Acute-Angled, Marginal, U n i f a c i a l Retouched Flakes. These items have minimally one margin e x h i b i t i n g contiguous retouch scars that do not extend over more than one-third of the flake surface from the margin. (see f i g u r e 34). Retouch i s r e s t r i c t e d to one f l a k e surface. These margins have edge-angles les s than 45°. 9. Steep-Angled "Formed" Unifaces. This implement category was i n i t i a l l y defined by Sanger (1970:76) as exhibiting'"well-defined o u t l i n e s , r e f l e c t i n g , presumably, deliberate shaping on the part of the manufacturer." In t h i s analysis such intent i s considered to be r e f l e c t e d i n extensive f a c i a l retouch that extends minimally over one-third of the flake surface from at le a s t one margin, (see f i g u r e 35). Retouch i s located on one flake surface only. Retouched margins have edge-angles equal to or greater than 45°. 10. Acute-Angled "Formed" Unifaces. These implements have e s s e n t i a l l y the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the 221 FIGURE 3 4 . Marginal u n i f a c i a l retouched flakes from Upper Hat Creek Valley s i t e s : a,b - basalt steep-angled flakes, c,d - basalt acute-angled flakes, e-g - chert acute-angled flakes, h - chert steep-angled flakes. 222 FIGURE 35 • Steep-angled "formed" unifaces from Upper Hat Creek Valley s i t e s : a-g - chert unifaces, h , i - basalt unifaces. 223 above category, except that the edge-angle(s) of the retouched margins are less than 45°. 11. Steep-Angled, Marginal, B i f a c i a l Retouched Flakes. These a r t i f a c t s e x h i b i t one or more edges with retouch on both adjacent surfaces that does not extend over one t h i r d of ei t h e r f a c t from the margin. (see f i g u r e 36). The edge-angle, of the retouched margins i s equal to or greater than 45°. 12. Acute-Angled, Marginal, B i f a c i a l Retouched Flakes. This category i s i d e n t i c a l to the above category except that retouched edges have edge-angles less than 45° (see fi g u r e 36). 13. Gravers. A r t i f a c t s i n t h i s category may have a wide range of general morphology but a l l are characterized by a pronounced u n i f a c i a l l y retouched pr o j e c t i o n i n the form of a point or a spur ( c f . Sanger 1970:83) (see fi g u r e 36). The projection retouch may be marginal or f a c i a l , The projection edge-angle i s generally steep (equal to or greater than 45 degrees). 14. Microblades,. Microblades are flakes detached from prepared cores. Diagnostic a t t r i b u t e s of micro-blades include a long, narrow, p a r a l l e l - s i d e d out-l i n e , and a t r i a n g u l a r or prismatic cross-section (see fig u r e 37; Sanger 1968b:83). In t h i s a n a l y s i s , FIGURE 3 6 . Marginal b i f a c i a l retouched flakes and gravers from Upper Hat Creek Valley s i t e s : a-d - gravers; e -steep-angled marginal b i f a c i a l retouched flake';' ?. f-h - acute-angled marginal b i f a c i a l retouched flakes. 225 I I I I I t i l l ; H i ' i i I • i F IGURE 37. M i c r o - b l a d e s f r o m U p p e r H a t C r e e k V a l l e y s i t e s . 226 a l l microblades are regarded as t o o l s , whether or not they e x h i b i t macroscopically-observable retouch. This i s based on the assumption that such a pre-pared core technique of reduction was c a r r i e d out to produce flakes with the above s p e c i f i c character-i s t i c s , which required n e g l i g i b l e subsequent modification p r i o r to use. 15. Bipolar Implements. These a r t i f a c t s have been c l a s s i f i e d under a number of terms i n the l i t e r a -ture: b i p o l a r cores (Binford and Quimby 1963; Brose 1970; McPherron 1967), s c a l a r cores (White 1968b), and pieces e s q u i l l e s (MacDonald 1968). A l l of these terms apply to a r t i f a c t s having two opposed edges that e x h i b i t crushing and battering with multiple s t e p - f r a c t u r i n g on the adjacent surface (see fi g u r e 38.)... These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a t t r i b u t a b l e to a s p e c i f i c technique of force a p p l i c a t i o n i n which the base of the stone material i s placed on a hard surface while percussion forces are applied at the opposite end. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s a r t i f a c t category i s problematic at present; i t has been interpreted as a core (Binford and Quimby 1973; McPherron 1967; White 1968b) and as a to o l (Brose 1970; MacDonald 1968). In t h i s a n a l y s i s , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of b i p o l a r a r t i f a c t s i n the l i t h i c 22? d FIGURE 3 8 . Bipolar implements from Upper Hat Creek Valley-s i t e s : a-e - basalt implements. assemblage i s r e g a r d e d as a c o r e i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , w h a t e v e r t h e y ( c e r t a i n l y ) have been used f o r s u b s e q u e n t l y . 229 CHAPTER VII THE LITHIC ANALYSIS The previous chapter has presented s p e c i f i c cate-gories and a t t r i b u t e sets which are expected to measure v a r i a b i l i t y i n stone t o o l production and use. The present chapter discusses the a p p l i c a t i o n and r e s u l t s of two sep-arate l i t h i c analyses, one of tools and the other of debitage, c a r r i e d out on a series of s i t e assemblages from Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . I t also investigates the i n t e r -p r e t i v e p o t e n t i a l of l i t h i c debitage through the construction and the comparative study of two d i s t i n c t sets of s i t e assemblage groupings defined on the basis of t o o l and debitage c o v a r i a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . A n a l y t i c a l Procedures In order to study i n t e r s i t e v a r i a t i o n among tools and debitage, the i n i t i a l step of the analysis was to exclude those s i t e assemblages that were composed of debit-age only. This was done on the basis of tool tabulations recorded during the f i e l d cataloguing of the assemblages (see table 5). This procedure reduced the sample to 52 assemblages. While t h i s reduced sample presents the minimum 230 l e v e l of s i m i l a r i t y required for comparative analyses, further reduction was considered necessary to remove some of the e f f e c t s that low t o o l sample s i z e s would have i n s t a t i s t i c a l manipulation. The r e s u l t s of the t o o l inventory based on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n presented i n chapter VI (see table 11). i n d i c a t e a tendency towards very small t o o l assemblage sizes and a low l e v e l of t o o l type d i v e r s i t y within the assemblages (see f i g u r e 39). The large number of "no observations" f o r the majority of tool types prompted the decision to study t o o l assemblage .covariation on a binary (presence-absence) measurement sca l e , as frequency analysis was considered impractical under such conditions. However, even a binary measurement scale would also be affected by the low number of co-occurrences that are present when subjected to quantitative data reduction techniques. It was therefore necessary to e s t a b l i s h a sample that would not d r a s t i c a l l y s u f f e r from the e f f e c t s of low numbers of co-occurrences,, yet would not be so small as to include only the l a r g e r , most diverse tool assemblages, f o r t h i s would defeat the major aim of the study, to examine the range of v a r i a t i o n represented by the sample. Given these considerations, i t was decided to r e t a i n only those assembl-ages having two or more to o l types present where each t o o l type occurred i n minimally two assemblages. This resulted i n the exclusion of 8 a d d i t i o n a l s i t e s (EeRj 9, EeRj 25, EeRj 38, EeRj 45, EeRj 51, EeRj 57, EeRj 61 and EeRj 80), TABLE 11 TOOL ASSEMBLAGE TABULATIONS 231 E e R j 9 G 2 - 1 1 1 1 0 G 2 -.1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 8 2 2 6 1 1 G 2 - II 1 1 1 2 4 1 2 G 2 - 1 V 1 1 1 1 4 1 7 G 2 - 1 X 3 2 5 1 8 G 2 - X 1 1 2 1 9 G 2 - X 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 0 G 2 -X I I 2 1 1 1 1 1 7 2 1 G 2 -XIII 2 1 2 4 2 11 1 1 4 2 2 G 2 - X IV 1 1 2 2 3 G 2 - X V 1 1 2 2 4 G 2 - X V I 1 2 3 2 5 G 3 - 1 1 1 2 6 G 3 - II 1 1 1 1 1 6 2 7 G 3 III 3 1 4 2 8 G 6 - 1 3 1 1 5 8 2 G 6 - 1 1 1 3 1 1 6 2 9 G 7 - 1 3 1 10 1 4 6 9 G 1 1 - II 1 1 1 2 5 3 3 G I 8 - 1 6 3 8 2 1 2 1 1 6 2 3 2 3 5 G 2 I - 1 4 1 5 3 6 G 2 I - II 1 2 1 4 3 8 G 2 I - IV 1 1 3 9 G 2 I - V 1 2 3 1 1 9 4 0 G 2 I - V I 1 1 1 3 4 2 G 2 I - IX 3 1 2 2 4 5 2 2 1 1 1 2 4 4 3 G 2 I - X 3 1 4 4 5 G 2 I - X I I I 1 2 1 1 1 6 4 6 G 2 I - X I V 1 1 4 7 G 2 2 - 1 1 1 2 4 4 9 G 2 2 - III 1 1 3 1 5 0 G 2 2 - I V 2 6 1 9 5 1 G 2 2 - V 2 2 5 2 G 2 3 - I 1 1 2 1 1 6 5 3 G 2 7 - I 1 1 1 4 1 8 5 5 G 2 8 - I 1 1 1 3 5 6 G 2 8 - I I 2 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 8 2 2 5 7 G 2 8 - I I I 1 1 5 8 a G 2 8 - I V 3 1 8 7 1 2 9 1 4 0 2 7 3 1 1 1 1 2 14 1 2 4 6 0 G 2 8 - V I 1 1 5 5 2 2 1 10 2 7 6 1 G 2 8 - V I I 2 2 6 2 G 2 8 - VIII 1 1 4 14 1 7 1 1 15 4 5 8 0 G 2 8 - X 1 1 6 3 G 3 0 - 1 1 3 2 1 1 9 1 7 6 4 G 3 I -1 3 1 1 1 8 2 2 1 2 2 2 7 1 F 8 - 1 3 4 1 4 2 II 1 2 4 1 1 2 1 3 7 7 2 F 8 - II 1 1 4 2 1 2 2 1 3 5 F 12-1 2 3 1 2 2 0 2 8 . 6 F 12-11 1 1 2 4 7 F 12-111 2 1 1 2 2 31 1 4 0 5 8 b F 12- IV 3 5 6 1 8 3 1 2 1 112 4 1 4 6 8 F 1 2 - V 1 1 1 2 5 T O T A L / a '%/<>>/ 7 // / y / / / •/ 232 NUMBER OF TOOLS IN A S S E M B L A G E (9 SITES WITH MORE THAN 23 T O O L S ) FIGURE 39- Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of number of tools and to o l types i n l i t h i c assemblages with tools present. 233 reducing the sample f o r i n t e r s i t e analysis to 44 assembl-ages., A t o t a l of 6 a r t i f a c t types were also deleted from the analysis,, 3 of which (basalt and chert acute-angled "formed" unifaces, and chert b i p o l a r implements) were not observed at a l l , and 3 (chert p r o j e c t i l e point bases and b i f a c e s , and basalt gravers), that were present i n only one assemblage. This reduced the e f f e c t i v e number of to o l types f o r analysis to 24., The tabulations presented i n table 11 represent the t o t a l number of tools observed i n the inventory of the e n t i r e l i t h i c assemblage. The debitage that was subjected to analysis includes both complete assemblages and random samples drawn from l a r g e r - s i z e d assemblages. L i t h i c assemblages containing less than 600 items of debitage were completely analyzed, while those over 600 were usually sampled. Debitage samples were selected by drawing a random sample of surface c o l l e c t i o n units from the s i t e l i t h i c data area; a l l platform-bearing f l a k e s , cores, and shatter from these units were analyzed. The s p e c i f i c s i t e s sampled and t h e i r respective sampling f r a c t i o n s are pre-sented i n table 12. The frequency and weight tabulations for basic debitage classes i n each assemblage are presented i n tables 13 and 14. It should be noted that f o r sampled sites,, these tabulations represent the debitage analyzed, rather than extrapolations f o r the t o t a l l i t h i c assemblage. 234 TABLE 12 SITES SAMPLED FOR LITHIC ANALYSIS: SAMPLING FRACTION AND AREA SAMPLED Borden Area Survey Site Sampling Fraction Sampled Number Designation (sq m) G2-II EeRj 10 0.3133 292 G2-XI EeRj 19 0.4407 104 Gll-II EeRj 69 O.I667 116 G18-I EeRj 33 0.7143 900 G21-IV EeRj 38 0.5116 88 G21-IX EeRj 42 0.1297 292 G27-I EeRj 53 0.5000 124 G28-II EeRj 56 0.1659 148 G28-IV EeRj 58a 0.0217 204 G28-VI EeRj 60 0.1602 232 F8-I EeRj 71 0.0935 156 F8-II EeRj 72 0.5000 200 F12-II EeRj 6 O.5206 152 F12-III EeRj 7 0.2111 168 F12-IV EeRj 58b 0.0218 136 235 TABLE 13 DEBITAGE ASSEMBLAGE FREQUENCY TABULATIONS G2-I E e R j 9 - 1 2 1 19 - 154 5 175 7 52 - - - 227 7 234 • G2-II E e R j 10 - 2 1 29 6 12 111 380 118 423 27 109 - 2 145 534 679 G2-III E e R j 11 - - - - 1 1 70 2 71 3 33 - - - 104 3 107 G2-IV E e R j 12 - - - 4 - 108 2 112 2 29 - - 1 141 3 144 G2-IX E e R j 17 2 - - - 8 - 109 1 119 1 36 - - - 155 1 156 ' G2-X E e R j 18 - - - - 3 - 27 - 30 - 16 - - - 46 - 46 G2-XI E e R j 19 - - - 2 29 1 298 163 327 166 62 48 1 1 390 215 605 C2-X1I E e R j 20 1 - 4 - 6 - 164 21 175 21 62 21 - - 237 42 279 G2-XIII E e R j 21 - 5 6 40 1 3 88 291 95 339 38 102 2 - 135 441 576 G2-XIV E e R j 22 - 1 - - - 6 4 48 4 55 2 18 - 1 6 74 80 G2-XV E e R j 23 - - - - 4 - 74 - 78 - 27 1 - - 105 1 106 , G2-XVI E e R j 24 - 1 - - - - 11 8 11 9 12 13 - - 23 22 45 G3-I E e R j 25 - - - - 3 - 6 - 9 - 5 - - - 14 - 14 G3-II E e R j 26 - - - 3 1 1 70 31 71 35 23 8 2 1 96 43 139 G3-III E e R j 27 - - 1 1 7 2 150 14 158 17 101 10 1 1 260 28 288 G6-I E e R j 28 1 1 - 2 2 - 23 19 26 22 4 5 1 - 31 27 58 G6-II E e R j 82 - - - - 4 - 45 2 49 2 14 2 - - 63 4 67 G7-I E e R j 29 56 - 32 - 143 - 361 - 592 - 19 - - - 611 - 611 Gll-II E e R j 69 - 3 - 22 2 9 152 185 154 219 81 63 1 4 236 286 522 G18-I E e R j 33 2 - 5 3 32 1 415 13 454 17 125 2 4 - 583 .19 602 G21-I E e R j 35 - 3 - 4 - 22 3 156 3 185 1 75 1 6 5 266 271 G21-II E e R j 36 - - - 10 - - 5 33 5 43 2 11 - 1 7 55 62 G21-IV E e R j 38 1 - - - 5 - 335 1 341 1 98 - - - 439 1 440 G21-V E e R j 39 1 - . - - 7 - 45 . - 53 - 8 - - - 61 - 61 G21-VT E e R j 40 - 1 2 14 3 6 97 100 102 121 45 30 - 1 147 152 299 G21-LX E e R j 42 2 - - 18 4 4 327 222 333 244 65 34 1 - 399 278 677 G21-X E e R j 43 - - 4 1 3 - 95 14 102 15 37 6 1 1 140 22 162 G21-XIII E e R j 45 - 2 2 6 6 2 269 102 277 112 99 62 - - 376 174 550 G21-XTV E e R j 46 - - - 13 1 1 4 19 5 33 4 - - - 9 33 42 G22-I E e R j 47 - - - 1 19 4 154 15 173 20 81 4 - - 254 24 278 - G22-III E e R j 49 - 3 - 3 4 7 22 59 26 72 16 36 1 - 43 108 151 G22-IV E e R j 50 - - - 2 - 1 13 17 13 20 7 8 - - 20 28 48 G22-V E e R j 51 - - - - 2 - 45 1 47 1 6 - 1 - 54 1 55 G23-I E e R j 52 - 4 1 24 6 16 105 156 112 200 44 45 - 6 156 251 407 G27-I E e R j 53 - - 3 - 53 5 191 23 247 28 151 27 - 1 398 56 454 G28-I E e R j 55 2 1 2 1 9 1 89 12 102 15 41 6 1 - 144 21 165 G28-II E e R j 56 2 - 3 2 10 - 264 7 279 9 101 1 - - 380 10 390 G28-III E e R j 57 - - 2 - 1 - 17 - 20 - 5 1 - - 25 1 26 G28-IV E e R j 58a - - - 6 9 1 879 90 888 97 162 15 - - 1050 . 112 1162 G28-VI E e R j 60 2 3 1 13 33 13 255 125 291 154 70 16 1 4 362 174 536 G28-VII E e R j 61 - - - 1 3 - 22 2 25 3 8 - - - 33 3 36 G28-VIII E e R j 62 3 - 10 6 33 2 460 44 506 52 190 10 3 5 699 67 766 G28-X E e R j 80 - - - - 3 - 10 3 13 3 1 2 - - 14 5 19 G30-I E e R j 63 5 4 11 4 6 3 259 44 281 55 81 21 - 8 362 84 446 G31-I E e R j 64 4 3 4 54 10 5 63 112 81 174 21 40 1 5 103 219 322 FB-I E e R j 71 - - 1 5 24 1 277 82 302 88 88 16 2 2 392 106 498 F8-II E e R j 72 - - 3 14 12 2 155 144 170 160 49 45 - 2 219 207 426 F12-I E e R j 5 32 - - - 219 - 735 2 986 2 15 - - - 1001 2 1003 F12-II E e R j 6 - - 1 2 5 2 179 76 185 80 61 22 - 1 246 103 349 F12-III E e R j 7 2 - 4 19 11 74 342 - 359 93 81 14 1 1 441 108 549 F12-IV E e R j 58b 5 - 9 - 30 - 515 23 559 23 169 6 - - 728 29 757 F12-V E e R j 8 - - 4 - 24 - 402 - 430 - 48 - 8 - 486 - 486 236 TABLE 14 DEBITAGE ASSEMBLAGE WEIGHT TABULATIONS G2-I G2-II G2-III G2-TV G2-LX EeRj 9 EeRj 10 EeRj 11 EeRj 12. EeRj 17 5.8 3.9 0.3 0.3 G2-X G2-XI G2-XII G2-X1II G2-XTV EeRj 18 EeRj 19 EeRj 20 EeRj 21 EeRj 22 2.4 12.2 1.6 30.1 0.7 32.6 2.0 50.3 60.6 4.6 0.8 1.7 28.9 23.9 9.9 G2-XV G2-XVI G3-I G3-II G3-III EeRj 23 EeRj 24 EeRj 25 EeRj 26 EeRj 27 33.9 11.3 4.3 1.5 20.5 18.6 1.3 0.0 ~41.6_ 0.0 40.1 4.1 42.9 7.2 15.1 34.5 78.7 24.5 31.9 62.1 9.1 64.3 46.0 44.6 2.2 6.3 229.3 3.0 2.9 0.5 0.0 162.8 22.0 109.3 24.4 99.0 83.6 25.3 33.6 91.9_ 10.6 84.8 67.5 47.5 2.2 12.8 286.1 12.9 2.9 0.5 37.1 21.8 20.1 20.7 28.9 51.0 38.9 136.1 105.4 45.4 54.3 120.8 12.8 480.2 12.9 41.8 0.5 148.9 585.6 58.3 96.1 121.3 168.1 22.0 179.1 69.6 12.5 40.5 24.7 19.0 2.7 63.2 29.5 115.1 33.0 29.7 30.7 60.0 28.2 23.1 155.0 92.2 126.5 4.9 262.0 51.5 286.2 130.8 6.0 27.3 19.1 4.3 13.7 57.3 97.0 45.9 10.6 G6-I G6-II G7-I Gll-II G18-I EeRj 28 EeRj 82 EeRj 29 EeRj 69 EeRj 33 G21-I G21-II G21-IV G21-V G21-VI EeRj 35 EeRj 36 EeRj 38 EeRj 39 EeRj 40 0.1 15.0 G21-IX G21-X G21-XIII G21-XTV G22-I G22-III G22-IV G22-V G23-I G27-I EeRj 42 EeRj 43 EeRj 45 EeRj 46 EeRj 47 7.8 2.9 5.6 EeRj 49 EeRj 50 EeRj 51 EeRj 52 EeRj 53 84.1 17.6 -'357V 48.9 9.3 17.4 6.8 3.7 26.3 0.2 " L T O 2.6 3.5 7.1 291.9 1.1 163.0 3.9 59.4 9.2 "37r 3.0 21.5 15.9 27.0 145.5 0.4 3.0 9.4 3.6 170.1 59.9 112.7 3.3 - 5072 31.8 "'1.6 3.0 5.2 16.6 -"2879" 7.4 27.7 19.3 148.1 132.1 330.4 17 4~" 3.8 96.5 60.5 59.7 "8l77~ 48.0 148.5 2.4 74.6 14.8 2.3 213.1 19.9 60.1 4.3 53.8 61.4 142.0 34.9 26.4 595.1 133.2 506.9 55.7 63.2 42.2 10.9 19.5 15.7 88.8 250.5 0.2 28.6 14.3 28.9 33.4 8.6 109.5 42.9 71.0 23.8 69.5 183.6 502.0 0.2 84.3 86.1 114.0 22.4 2.3 418.2 40.8 2.4 21.0 19.5 72.5 299.2 5.8 20.3 224.3 5.4 27.1 12.4 108.1 56.9 64.4 47.4 614.6 218.1 863.0 28.2 22.6 750.6 46.2 243.1 23.8 0.7 69.9 ~99.6' 8.1 59.3 23.5 23.6 1.4 3.8 100.5 135.4 69.4 "86:1" 58.8 175.6 18.3 101.6 339.9 72.7 0.7 113.4 '115."0~ 14.9 68.9 55.0 40.4 1.9 0.5 71.6 4.4 19.0 139.6 10.3 28.4 117.4 407.8 0.0 43.2 120.7 4.3 172.1 139.8 88.4 887.3 209.2 0.7 230.6 23.1 417.0 143.7 412.7 135.7 71.2 108.1 69.5 269.7 616.0 92.6 70.0 614.6 968.7 909.2 1008.0 213.5 172.8 139.8 319.0 39.8 26.1 55.3 1.1 57.1 20.2 6.0 36.4 18.8 34.6 12.3 144.7 119.5 230.9 19.4 158.7 135.2 33.2 105.3 55.0 55.7 G28-I G28-II G28-III G28-IV G28-VI EeRj 55 EeRj 56 EeRj 57 EeRj 58a EeRj 60 2.8 11.0 5.7 20.7 0.3 1.2 25.3 9.8 19.1 5.0 5.6 12.4 10.0 11.3 3.3 7.1 93.1 118.1 41.1 8.9 32.9 10.4 34.7 52.0 94.2 42.7 49.8 1.1 266.7 29.2 42.4 10.4 38.3 222.5 157.1 94.1 59.8 1.1 678.7 70.3 17.0 13.9 24.0 43.3 103.9 44.1 9.4 72.1 58.3 18.5 175.0 1464.5 37.2 0.2 97.7 34.8 55.8 23.7 265.1 182.4 G28-VII G28-VIII G28-X G30-I G31-I EeRj 61 EeRj 62 EeRj 80 EeRj 63 EeRj 64 14.8 37.3 10.6 24.4 5.5 13.2 9.2 1.1 14.4 9.2 78.9 30.9 101.0 16.9 26.0 50.9 F8-I F8-1I F12-I F12-II F12-I1I F12-IV F12-V EeRj 71 EeRj 72 EeRj 5 EeRj 6 EeRj 7 EeRj 58b EeRj 8 21.9 1.7 11.0 1.4 0.4 23.2 2.6 1.1 50.3 7.1 1.1 83.2 34.2 26.2 394.3 5.4 18.8 45.6 446.8 39.2 88.0 "44.2 2.6 17.0 284.8 8.3 89.7 138.3 7.9 4.1 60.4 138.7 i74~ 72.3 1.4 67.3 276.1 68.3 78.4 28.2 272.2 294.2 41.6 9.1 66.2 274.1 23.0 54.2 10.3 93.2 75.6 4.3 0.2 1.7 9.9 29.8 18.7 279.8 77.9 24.3 237.3 265.8 261.0 " l l l . l 132.6 38.5 365.4 388.5 138.2 69.2 1.1 2215.3 165.8 279.9 152.7 336.2 74.4 214.4 216.1 93.5 238.4 1 2481. 426.8 45.9 9.3 1.7 76.1 583.7 47.9 407.3 25.2 158.5 244.7 2.5 87.8 1.4 140.1 456.2 8.0 503.6 1.0 44.5 39.0 51.8 5.1 31.5 110.2 94.8 232.8 721.3 92.8 207.0 55.9 1005.7 26.2 203.0 376.5 2.5 372.4 5.5 892.9 773.4 157.0 141.9 40.2 441.5 972.2 58.4 I 1378.1 31.7 1095.9 1149.9 213.5 104.8 178.7 117.2 213.5 154.1 475.9 71.7 1.5 51.4 76.3 19.6 258.7 132.4 714.7 123.0 276.6 204.0 923.8 193.3 81.4 1.5 55.3 159.5 19.6 78.9 63.5 1.5 89.1 96.1 136.4 175.0 33.1 87.7 12.9 9.8 4.2 64.5 114.5 59.4 43.1 38.9 42.9 402.1 195.9 716.2 212.1 411.6 340.4 2280.9 340.9 228.5 1.5 111.3 212.2 23.8 743.0 424.4 717.7 535.5 623.8 364.2 2280.9 237 In order to permit debitage comparisons at the interassemblage l e v e l , a ser i e s of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s and indices were ca l c u l a t e d for the platform-bearing f l a k e , core, and shatter a t t r i b u t e data i n each assemblage. Each of these measures are b r i e f l y described below: 1. Mean fl a k e width:weight index. This measures the r e l a t i v e s i z e and mass of the f l a k e , expressed by Flake width Flake weight which i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r those platform-bearing flakes with feather,, hinge, reverse hinge, or jagged end terminations. Given a constant width, high values would r e f l e c t t h i n flakes and v i c e versa for low values. The mean of a l l index values f o r each assemblage i s then c a l c u l a t e d . 2. Flake width:weight index c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n . This i s a measure of the r e l a t i v e amount of var-i a b i l i t y exhibited by the f l a k e width:weight values i n each assemblage. I t has the desirable property of being comparable between assemblages with d i f f e r e n t means (Sokal and Rohlf 1969:62). The c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n f o r the flake width: weight index i s determined by: Flake width:weight index standard deviation x 100 Flake width:weight index mean 3. Mean s t r i k i n g platform width. This i s the average 238 of a l l widths of i n t a c t s t r i k i n g platforms i n the assemblage. 4 . S t r i k i n g platform width c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n . This i s cal c u l a t e d by the above formula presented fo r the flake width:weight index c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n , s u b s t i t u t i n g s t r i k i n g platform width values f o r the standard deviation and the mean. 5. Mean ventral f l a k i n g angle. This i s the average of ventral f l a k i n g angles recorded f o r a l l platform-bearing flakes i n the assemblage. 6. Ventral f l a k i n g angle c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n . This i s ca l c u l a t e d by the flake width:weight index c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n formula, s u b s t i t u t i n g ventral f l a k i n g angle values f o r the mean and standard d e v i a t i o n . 7. Mean dorsal scar count. This i s the average number of dorsal surface flake scars per flake observed on a l l platform-bearing flakes i n the assemblage. 8. Dorsal scar count c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n . This i s cal c u l a t e d by the c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n formula, using values f o r the dorsal scar count mean and standard d e v i a t i o n . 9. Bulb of force index. This measures the proportion of flakes with d i f f u s e bulbs/truncated cones i n the assemblage, represented by 239 Number of d i f f u s e bulb/truncated cone flakes x 100 Total number of platform-bearing flakes 10. S t r i k i n g platform preparation index. This index i s defined as the proportion of s t r i k i n g platforms e x h i b i t i n g multiple faceting i n the platform-bear-ing f l a k e sample, determined by Number of multiple-faceted s t r i k i n g platforms x 100 Total number of s t r i k i n g platforms 11. Flake cortex cover index. This i s a measure of the proportion of flakes with cortex present on the dorsal surface, determined by Number of flakes with p a r t i a l or complete cortex cover x Total number of platform-bearing flakes 12., Dorsal surface f l a k e scar patterning complexity index. This i s a q u a l i t a t i v e measure of the degree of complex dorsal flake scar patterning i n the assemblage. Complex scar patterns are defined as a t t r i b u t e states 5,6,7 & 8 f o r the dorsal surface f l a k e scar patterning a t t r i b u t e . The index i s c a l -culated by Number of flakes with complex dorsal scar patterns x 100 Total number of platform-bearing flakes This i s s i m i l a r to the dorsal scar complexity index presented by Munday (1976:32). 13. Block shatter index. This measures the r e l a t i v e proportion of block shatter i n the shatter c l a s s , determined by Number of pieces of block shatter x 100 Total shatter 14. Cortex-covered shatter index. This represents the proportion of shatter that has cortex adhering to one or more su r f a c e ( s ) , determined by Number of pieces of shatter with cortex x 100 Total shatter 15. Mean core weight. The average of a l l core weights for each assemblage. Due to the low frequency of cores i n the assemblages, the c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a -t i o n f o r core weights was not c a l c u l a t e d . 16. Core index. This i s the r a t i o of the number of cores to the number of platform-bearing flakes present i n the assemblage, which may r e f l e c t the r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t y of flake production per core. The index i s ca l c u l a t e d by Total number of cores X ,QQ Total number of platform-bearing flakes Assemblages lacking cores and having less than 25 flakes were, coded as missing data,, while those with 25 flakes or more were assigned an index value of zero. Separate measures were calcula t e d f o r basalt and chert raw materials, r e s u l t i n g i n a t o t a l of 32 assemblage l e v e l debitage a t t r i b u t e s . The values of these a t t r i b u t e s f o r a l l s i t e assemblages containing tools are presented i n tables 15 to 17. 2 4 1 TABLE 15 METRIC ATTRIBUTES FOR BASALT DEBITAGE ASSEMBLAGES FLAKE WIDTH/WEIGHT INDEX STRIKING PLATFORM WIDTH VENTRAL FLAKING ANGLE DORSAL FLAKE SCAR COUNT SURVEY NUMBER BORDEN SITE DESIGNATION MEAN COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION N MEAN COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION N MEAN COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION N MEAN COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION N G2-I EeRj 9 22.7 83.7 26 6.4 61.1 52 118.4 8.1 52 4.4 50.5 51 G2-II EeRj 10 41.3 59.7 13 5.8 65.2 27 130.7 10.1 27 3.1 51.8 27 G2-III EeRj 11 44.2 61.7 16 6.0 61.1 28 123.6 10.4 33 3.8 48.8 33 G2-IV EeRj 12 21.3 93.4 15 5.9 47.2 28 112.8 7.5 29 3.7 61.7 29 G2-TX EeRj 17 33.4 103.1 11 5.5 70.9 35 111.8 7.7 35 3.2 46.0 36 G2-X EeRj 18 31.8 115.5 11 6.3 55.2 15 115.3 6.4 15 3.0 50.2 16 G2-XI EeRj 19 39.3 121.9 30 5.3 56.6 57 109.8 9.1 62 3.2 42.8 61 G2-XII EeRj 20 54.9 85.8 31 5.0 49.6 58 106.0 9.1 60 2.9 57.8 62 G2-XIII EeRj 21 47.4 78.4 14 5.3 48.9 35 113.6 10.9 35 3.6 37.3 38 G2-XTV EeRj 22 8.1 0.0 1 . 5.0 0.0 1 110.0 0.0 1 6.0 94.3 2 G2-XV EeRj 23 46.9 56.4 14 4.5 96.2 27 110.0 6.0 26 3.7 61.4 27 G2-XV1 EeRj 24 19.5 80.6 7 6.8 49.4 12 132.5 5.5 12 3.5 56.5 12 G3-I EeRj 25 6.5 29.8 3 8.8 38.0 5 125.0 4.9 5 3.0 94.3 5 G3-II EeRj 26 8.9 125.2 10 10.8 67.2 23 119.4 5.3 23 2.8 68.1 22 G3-III EeRj 27 16.4 10.0 45 7.3 59.9 97 117.0 5.9 99 2.9 66.6 101 G6-I EeRj 28 — — — 6.0 49.1 4 126.3 5.9 4 2.3 66.7 4 G6-II EeRj 82 45.2 60.2 11 7.9 68.3 14 113.6 9.8 14 4.1 65.5 14 G7-I EeRj 29 47.2 65.8 15 3.8 47.7 19 102.9 11.1 19 3.3 51.3 19 G l l - I I EeRj 69 20.2 96.2 39 5.7 42.1 69 111.8 7.6 80 3.2 39.6 81 G18-I EeRj 33 20.3 113.2 59 8.2 62.8 122 115.5 9.6 120 4.3 59.6 125 G21-I EeRj 35 5.8 0.0 1 7.0 0.0 1 115.0 0.0 1 7.0 0.0 1 G21-II EeRj 36 90.0 0.0 1 3.5 60.6 2 120.0 5.9 2 4.0 0.0 1 G21-IV EeRj 38 27.3 159.3 51 6.2 54.5 85 111.6 8.0 95 3.9 55.0 98 G21-V EeRj 39 17.6 87.3 3 6.0 44.6 8 110.0 3.4 8 3.2 49.7 8 G21-W EeRj 40 62.2 96.8 20 5.5 63.7 42 124.3 12.6 37 3.1 56.7 40 G21-K . EeRj 42 25.1 72.9 23 5.4 64.0 63 114.8 7.3 64 3.5 45.6 64 G21-X -EeRj 43 28.4 66.0 16 8.2 57.1 37 112.7 8.2 36 3.1 39.3 37 G21-XIII EeRj 45 33.2 100.9 54 5.4 58.0 94 110.2 8.1 98 3.6 64.0 99 G21-XIV EeRj 46 — ~ — 4.3 52.2 4 117.5 16.1 4 4.3 , 52.2 4 G22-I EeRj 47 39.4 79.8 48 4.6 50.5 80 112.1 6.6 80 3.5 52.6 80 1 G22-III EeRj 49 26.9 100.5 11 6.6 37.7 16 126.3 7.4 15 3.6 49.1 16 G22-IV EeRj 50 40.8 60.3 3 10.1 62.5 7 132.1 5.7 7 3.1 59.3 7 G22-V EeRj 51 11.9 70.0 3 8.8 69.9 6 111.7 13.2 6 3.0 29.8 6 G23-I EeRj 52 38.4 272.9 32 5.2 82.6 43 111.9 6.9 43 3.9 51.0 44 G27-I EeRj 53 32.5 113.6 19 5.7 53.1 147 113.5 5.8 150 3.7 45.8 150 G28-I EeRj 55 40.8 69.3 19 5.0 41.1 41 106.1 8.4 41 3.1 58.5 41 G28-II EeRj 56 63.4 78.5 61 6.4 61.3 99 118.0 8.1 99 3.1 49.2 101 G28-III EeRj 57 37.8 107.8 2 8.2 36.0 5 122.5 5.3 4 3.5 49.5 4 G28-IV EeRj 58a 42.4 96.4 76 5.9 73.0 139 113.6 9.7 160 3.6 43.6 162 G28-VI EeRj 60 23.7 107.9 41 8.1 44.9 69 120.9 8.5 69 2.5 53.4 69 G28-VII EeRj 61 50.9 56.8 2 6.5 54.6 8 125.7 10.9 7 2.7 27.9 7 G28-VIII EeRj 62 30.2 119.4 120 7.7 75.3 180 120.8 11.6 182 3.5 61.4 187 G28-X EeRj 80 — ~ ~ 12.0 0.0 1 95.0 0.0 1 4.0 0.0 1 G30-I EeRj 63 48.8 92.0 28 5.6 55.9 77 115.9 12.4 69 3.4 42.0 73 G31-I EeRj 64 31.7 94.1 11 9.2 62.2 21 115.9 13.1 16 3.1 46.5 15 F8-I EeRj 71 36.5 90.7 46 6.2 59.6 76 114.1 8.1 88 3.8 46.0 88 F8-II EeRj 72 36.2 83.0 28 5.5 58.3 49 111.9 7.9 49 3.5 58.0 49 F12-I EeRj 5 110.2 21.8 9 3.3 42.5 15 124.3 9.7 15 3.5 30.0 15 F12-II EeRj 6 29.1 80.5 27 6.2 58.9 59 112.7 6.3 59 3.6 47.4 60 F12-III EeRj 7 28.0 84.3 31 6.0 67.0 78 116.5 10.0 78 3.4 48.8 79 F12-W EeRj 58b 43.8 94.6 81 5.6 53.8 152 110.8 7.7 169 3.2 . 46.9 169 F12-V EeRj 8 18.3 128.9 28 8.7 81.0 41 115.1 7.2 47 2.7 48.2 45 242 TABLE 16 METRIC ATTRIBUTES FOR CHERT DEBITAGE ASSEMBLAGES FLAKE WIDTH/WEIGHT INDEX STRIKING PLATFORM WIDTH VENTRAL FLAKING ANGLE DORSAL FLAKE SCAR COUNT SURVEY NUMBER BORDEN SITE DESIGNATION OCEFFICIESr OF MEAN VARIATION N COEFFICIENT OF MEAN VARIATION N COEFFICIENT CF MEAN VARIATION N . COEFFICIENT OF MEAN VARIATION N G2-I E e R j 9 — — - — — - — ~ — — — — G2-II E e R j 10 27.3 125.4 73 7.9 60.6 108 130.6 12.3 108 3.2 48.5 108 G2-III E e R j 11 — - — — ~ — — — — — — G2-IV E e R j 12 — — — — - — — — — — — — G2-LX E e R j 17 - -- -- — - — — — — — — G2-X E e R j 18 - — — — — — — — — — — — G2-XI E e R j 19 27.9 97.2 22 7.9 57.0 44 113.2 80.0 46 2.4 55.5 45 G2-XII E e R j 20 26.5 123.6 9 5.9 46.8 20 113.0 5.4 20 3.7 63.2 21 G2-XIII E e R j 21 49.0 157.7 41 6.3 60.0 98 108.1 10.8 95 2.9 42.3 96 G2-XTV E e R j 22 16.4 138.0 5 6.5 67.0 18 114.2 7.7 18 4.3 86.7 18 G2-XV E e R j 23 — ~ — 4.0 0.0 1 90.0 0.0 1 2.0 0.0 1 G2-XVI E e R j 24 20.5 121.9 8 10.3 57.4 12 130.8 3.9 12 2.2 49.6 16 G3-I E e R j 25 ~ — — ~ - — — — ~ — — — G3-II E e R j 26 15.0 0.0 1 8.4 96.1 8 113.8 9.6 8 2.5 52.4 8 G3-III E e R j 27 12.2 44.0 4 7.2 49.8 10 118.0 4.6 10 2.8 64.8 10 G6-I E e R j 28 13.7 18.6 4 6.4 23.7 5 131.0 1.7 5 2.6 43.8 5 G6-II E e R j 82 4.2 22.0 2 15.5 41.1 2 107.5 3.3 2 4.0 0.0 2 G7-I E e R j 29 ~ - - - — — — — — — — Gll-II E e R j 69 25.1 93.0 39 9.8 77.0 60 113.3 7.9 63 2.4 43.1 .61 G18-I E e R j 33 15.2 0.0 1 17.0 8.3 2 105.0 6.7 2 2.5 28.3 2 G21-I E e R j 35 21.0 148.6 36 7.5 49.9 69 116.5 7.9 72 3.1 64.8 ' 74 G21-II E e R j 36 14.2 38.9 4 7.3 51.8 11 112.7 5.0 11 2.9 34.3 10 G21-TV E e R j 38 — — — — — — — — — — — — G21-V E e R j 39 — — - — — — — — — — — — G21-VI E e R j 40 48.3 116.0 16 7.7 56.3 29 113.8 10.6 25 3.1 54.0 26 G2I-IX E e R j 42 32.0 98.4 10 6.1 58.2 33 114.7 8.4 32 3.0 50.0 33 G21-X E e R j 43 17.1 35.3 3 7.0 51.1 6 115.8 5.0 6 3.5 64.5 6 G21-XHI E e R j 45 33.4 87.1 36 5.8 56.4 62 109.0 6.6 62 3.0 54.8 61 G21-XTV E e R j 46 - — — — — — — — — — — — G22-I E e R j 47 20.2 108.4 4 11.0 75.3 4 118.8 4.0 . 4 1.8 28.6 4 G22-III E e R j 49 33.0 143.1 24 6.0 63.4 36 118.8 12.3 36 4.3 53.8 36 G22-IV E e R j 50 35.6 113.0 8 7.5 52.9 8 130.6 5.9 8 3.5 48.3 8 G22-V E e R j 51 ~ — — — — — — — — — — — G23-I E e R j 52 38.4 272.9 32 6.0 78.6 42 110.3 8.6 45 2.8 46.0 44 G27-I E e R j 53 20.6 64.3 16 6.8 46.7 27 113.6 7.9 27 3.4 51.6 26 G28-I E e R j 55 23.2 49.9 3 5.7 39.7 6 110.8 6.6 6 3.5 69.4 6 G28-II E e R j 56 60.0 0.0 1 4.0 0.0 1 125.0 0.0 1 1.0 0.0 1 G28-III E e R j 57 — — — 3.0 0.0 1 105.0 0.0 1 — — — G28-TV E e R j 58a 36.1 68.6 10 4.9 65.7 15 112.7 7.8 15 3.5 0.406 15 G28-VI E e R j 60 12.9 108.7 11 9.4 57.5 16 122.2 10.0 16 2.7 0.588 16 G28-VII E e R j 61 — — — ~ — — — — — ~ — — G28-VIII E e R j 62 9.5 74.7 7 12.3 74.3 8 128.9 7.5 9 3.3 0.607 10 G28-X E e R j 80 14.5 83.2 2 7.0 20.2 2 95.0 7.4 2 2.5 0.283 2 G30-I E e R j 63 32.1 126.4 7 6.9 61.0 18 111.4 10.5 18 3.8 0.358 18 G31-I E e R j 64 53.9 181.5 17 9.4 71.2 37 116.0 11.7 31 3.0 0.493 31 F8-I E e R j 71 38.0 155.2 7 6.8 77.3 13 113.4 7.3 16 3.4 0.444 16 F8-II E e R j 72 31.6 112.2 33 6.2 74.0 44 111.4 6.9 45 3.3 0.547 44 F12-I E e R j 5 - — — — — — — — — — — — F12-II E e R j 6 41.9 94.1 12 5.0 45.3 22 106.8 7.7 22 3.0 0.411 22 F12-III E e R j 7 45.1 70.5 8 6.0 73.0 13 106.4 11.1 14 2.4 0.386 14 F12-TV E e R j 58b 24.6 81.6 2 5.8 50.9 5 110.8 9.2 6 3.2 0.613 6 F12-V E e R j 8 ~ — — — — — — — — — — 243 T A B L E 1? I N D E X A T T R I B U T E S F O R B A S A L T A N D C H E R T D E B I T A G E A S S E M B L A G E S G2-I G2-II G2-III G2-IV G 2 - M EeRj 9 EeRj 10 EeRj 11 EeRj 12 EeRj 17 84.6 85.2 93.3 93.1 83.3 33.3 18.5 25.0 20.7 25.7 1.9 3.7 3.0 6.9 5.6 43.1 18.5 18.2 17.1 51.4 13.9 1.1 0.8 0.0 0.0 1.7 28.5 7.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.9 5.1 1.4 3.6 8.4 14.3 3.3 33.3 0.0 0.0 25.5 38.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 G2-X G2-XI G2-XII G2-XIII G2-XW EeRj 18 EeRj 19 EeRj 20 EeRj 21 EeRj 22 93.8 98.4 98.3 86.4 50.0 97.9 95.2 68.0 100.0 0.0 3.3 5.1 45.7 0.0 4.2 5.0 34.0 11.1 0.0 19.4 1.6 0.0 0.0 G2-XV G2-XVI G3-I G3-II G3-III EeRj 23 EeRj 24 EeRj 25 EeRj 26 EeRj 27 92.6 91.7 100.0 1O0.O 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.7 6.2 0.0 15.4 12.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 40.0 13.0 6.9 4.2 0.0 1.0 16.7 ' oTcT 7.7 0.0 0.0 6.3 23.0 16.1 84.2 50.0 4.2 4.8 52.6 22.3 0.0 0.0 2.9 6.3 0.0 1.2 0.0 13.3 1.8 10.0 8.9 4.0 1.1 0.0 0.6 29.7 30.7 0.0 2.4 30.0 12.7 — 28.2 1.6 0.0 5.3 70.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.0 100.0 0.0 12.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 8.6 5.9 5.1 0.0 33.3 1.4 4.4 11.1 2.9 11.8 16.7 109.5 8.6 42.9 ~070~~ 8.7 1.0 0.0 5.6 12.5 10.0 G6-I G6-II G7-I Gll-II G18-I EeRj 28 EeRj 82 EeRj 29 EeRj 69 EeRj 33 100.0 78.6 84.2 96.3 73.5 80.0 100.0 79.4 100.0 0.0 50.0 5.3 5.8 33.8 G21-I G21-II G21-IV G21-V G21-V1 EeRj 35 EeRj 36 EeRj 38 EeRj 39 EeRj 40 100.0 100.0 92.9 87.5 88.6 98.5 72.7 62.1 0.0 0.0 13.9 12.5 21.9 0.0 0.0 50.0 ~l4.2~ 45.5 27.5 G21-DC G21-X G21-XIII G21-XW G22-I EeRj 42 EeRj 43 EeRj 45 EeRj 46 EeRj 47 92.1 74.3 98.0 75.0 93.8 93.9 50.0 98.4 9.5 55.9 13.8 0.0 7.5 27.3 33.3 9.8 G22-III G22-IV G22-V G23-I G27-I EeRj 49 EeRj 50 EeRj 51 EeRj 52 EeRj 53 87.5 100.0 66.7 90.9 88.0 86.1 100.0 86.7 74.1 0.0 14.3 16.7 6.8 12.2 8.3 12.5 2.3 11.1 G28-I G28-II G28-1I1 G28-IV G28-VI EeRj 55 EeRj 56 EeRj 57 EeRj 58a EeRj 60 90.2 100.0 40.0 96.3 98.6 83.3 100.0 100.0 93.3 100.0 9.8 7.1 40.0 14.2 13.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 13.3 0.0 0.0 7.1 10.5 3.7 7.2 "~o7o""" 0.0 2.0 0.0 6.7 ~T.6~ 2.7 2.0 0.0 18.5 12.5 28.6 33.3 4.5 21.2 ~~£.V 6.9 20.0 3.1 1.4 0.0 0.0 12.7 0.0 " S I T 0.0 _ 3' 7 "0.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 78.6 26.4 5.0 37.6 "IOOTO" 100.0 27.8 12.5 66.6 "~39X~ 48.6 18.2 100.0 17.3 0.0 0.0 17.8 0.0 22.2 65.4 ~2l72 33.4 9.8 3.8 0.0 14.9 0.0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.9 2.0 13.6 0.0 11.4 17.6 3.8"-23.2 0.0 12.4 0.6 3.9 0.7 0.0 0.0 7.4 6.7 7.1 39.4 5.0 11.5 8.2 33.6 1.3 7.5 "0.0~ 0.0 1.8 15.1 2.9 ~'T7sT 2.9 2.2 20.0 11.0 4.5 0.0 5.5 5.9 12.4 14.2 1.2 3.2 13.5 0.0 0.0 5.8 68.0 43.2 88.1 N / A 1.6 18.8 0.0 34.6 3.6 3.0 20.0 1.5 2.7 0.0 11.1 0.0 6.6 3.7 26.6 0.0 16.7 24.6 13.3 22.2 0.0 13.3 3.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 1.2 8.3 10.0 0.0 14.0 0.0 15.4 0.0 4.3 5.4 21.5 13.9 18.5 5.0 0.0 175.0 10.0 — 244.0 17.8 - 37.2 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.7 6.3 35.2 15.9 20.0 12.9 0.0 33.3 0.0 0.0 26.7 0.0 3.9 1.8 10.0 0.0 1.0 13.3 22.2 6.2 10.4 10.8 4.3 5.0 1.0 12.0 13.3 0.0 19.8 2.4 1.0 1.0 10.4 18.7 0.0 1.4 G28-VII G28-VIII G28-X G30-I G31-I EeRj 61 EeRj 62 EeRj 80 EeRj 63 EeRj 64 100.0 92.8 100.0 77.5 85.7 88.8 50.0 76.2 72.5 12.5 17.2 100.0 24.1 28.6 33.3 0.0 26.3 23.1 0.0 6.8 0.0 2.5 4.8 10.0 0.0 0.0 2.7 14.3 17.9 100.0 62.5 68.8 20.0 0.0 66.6 60.6 0.0 2.6 0.0 5.7 9.9 33.3 11.5 0.0 14.6 32.8 12.0 7.1 23.1 3.9 17.3 0.0 3.8 0.0 12.7 4.6 31.6 46.6 144.3 41.4 6.4 8.0 9.1 3.3 0.0 16.7 0.0 13.3 3.7 25.0 0.0 38.1 4.8 12.5 F8-I FB-II F12-1 F12-II F12-II1 F12-W F12-V EeRj 71 EeRj 72 EeRj 5 EeRj 6 EeRj 7 EeRj 58b EeRj 8 95.5 93.9 1OO.0 96.6 83.8 93.5 95.8 93.8 86.7 86.4 78.6 83.3 9.9 12.2 13.3 6.8 20.0 6.3 0.0 6.6 13.3 9.1 14.3 20.0 14.7 4.1 0.0 6.7 9.9 5.9 8.4 0.0 4.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.9 8.1 100.0 3.3 26.9 9.5 13.3 12.6 11.0 9.1 7.1 0.0 0.3 1.8 3.2 0.5 1.7 2.5 0.9 5.7 8.8 0.0 2.5 20.4 0.0 8.0 7.1 25.4 2.7 3.6 6.3 5.6 1.1 1.3 0.0 2.5 79.5 0.0 57.3 29.7 43.1 42.9 147.8 2.3 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 16.7 12.5 4.4 4.6 7.1 2 4 4 S i m i l a r sets of quantitative data reduction tech-niques were applied to the above tool and debitage data s e t s . Although s p e c i f i c applications did d i f f e r with respect to measures of s i m i l a r i t y c a l c u l a t e d i n order to encompass the varying measurement scales of the two data sets, attempts were made to keep the two analyses as equi-valent as possible i n order that differences i n assemblage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n due to the nature of the quantitative tech-nique employed are minimized. The s p e c i f i c data reduction techniques used to examine interassemblage v a r i a t i o n were c l u s t e r analysis and multidimensional s c a l i n g . The major objective of employing these techniques was to reduce the sample of s i t e assembl-ages in t o a smaller number of groups according to t h e i r l e v e l s of s i m i l a r i t y . The general p r i n c i p l e of c l u s t e r analysis i s h i e r -a r c h i c a l i n nature; e n t i t i e s ( l i t h i c assemblages) are grouped together at incremental decreasing l e v e l s of sim^-i l a r i t y u n t i l they a l l c o n s t i t u t e one t o t a l group. Such a technique i s termed SAHN (sequential, agglomerative, h i e r -a r c h i c , and non-overlapping.) (Sneath and Sokal 1973:214). A wide v a r i e t y of s p e c i f i c c l u s t e r i n g techniques are presently a v a i l a b l e (Anderberg 1973:131-155; Sneath and Sokal 1973:216-245); the major di f f e r e n c e among these i s the procedure followed once the group i s enlarged beyond 245 the p a i r l e v e l , which can involve the r e c a l c u l a t i o n of the s i m i l a r i t y matrix and d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a f o r the i n -c l u s i o n of an e n t i t y i n t o a group. The s p e c i f i c c l u s t e r i n g technique used i n both the tool and debitage analyses i s Ward's Error Sum of Squares method (Anderberg 1973:142-145; 147-148; Ward 1963). The decision to s e l e c t t h i s technique over others i s based on the r e s u l t s of a comparative evaluation of numerous c l u s t e r i n g methods i n archaeological applic a t i o n s (Matson and True 1974). This study considered the Ward's method to be one of the preferable linkage tech-niques, p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t can be assumed that the values of the s i m i l a r i t y matrix are metric (Matson and True 1974: 61). The s p e c i f i c s i m i l a r i t y measures to which t h i s c l u s t e r i n g method was applied are discussed i n the respect-ive analysis sections. Rather than generating c l u s t e r s of s i m i l a r v a r i a -b l e s , multidimensional s c a l i n g constructs a number of dimensions i n hyperspace and orders variables along them. An inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t s with respect to the d i s -tances between variables and the l e v e l of s i m i l a r i t y between them; the smaller the distance, the higher the s i m i l a r i t y l e v e l . The objective of the technique i s to construct a small number of dimensions that account f o r the v a r i a b i l i t y present i n the data set. Both metric multidimensional s c a l i n g (Torgerson 1958,1965) and non-246 metric multidimensional s c a l i n g (Kruskal 1964a,1964b) present such data r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Their u t i l i t y i n arch-aeological applications has also been established (Cowgill 1972; Hodson et a l . 1966; Johnson 1972; Matson and True 1974), p a r t i c u l a r l y as a complement to c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s . The s p e c i f i c s c a l i n g technique employed i n both l i t h i c analyses was metric multidimensional s c a l i n g . Given a s i m i l a r i t y matrix with metric p r o p e r t i e s , t h i s technique computes a matrix of products of the distances from the centroid (origin) of the configuration which i s then f a c t -ored. This r e s u l t s i n the production of a number of axes i n t h e i r order of importance, which are interpreted as representing dimensions of v a r i a t i o n present i n the o r i g i n a l data set (Torgerson 1958:254-276). The empirical v a l i d i t y of the assemblage groupings delineated by c l u s t e r i n g and multidimensional s c a l i n g was investigated by applying a series of Kr.uskal-Wa.llis analysis of variance tests (Siegel 1956:184-193) to the raw input data to determine i f various c l u s t e r members are derived from s i m i l a r or d i f f e r e n t populations. I f the tests i n d i c a t e that members of each group are from d i f f e r e n t populations, a greater degree of confidence can be given to the idea that r e a l differences are present between the c l u s t e r s . 247 Debitage Analysis The input data f o r the debitage analysis constituted 32 assemblage-level d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s and indexes of technological a t t r i b u t e s described i n the above section f o r each of the 44 s i t e assemblages retained f o r a n a l y s i s . In order to enable each assemblage measure to contribute equal information to the c a l c u l a t i o n of the s i m i l a r i t y (or i n t h i s case, d i s s i m i l a r i t y ) c o e f f i c i e n t , the values for each assemblage were standardized, whereby the assemblage mean equals 0 and the standard deviation i s 1 (Sneath and Sokal 1973:154). . The standardized matrix was then used to c a l c u l a t e the Manhattan or C i t y Block metric distances (Sneath and Sokal 1973:125) between assemblages. Debitage Cluster Analysis A Ward's Error Sum c l u s t e r analysis of the standardized C i t y Block distance matrix resulted i n a den-drogram d i s p l a y i n g 5 main groups (see f i g u r e 40). On the basis of these groups, the mean and range of each assemblage debitage a t t r i b u t e was re- c a l c u l a t e d f o r each assemblage cluster-group (see table 18). These measures are used as the basis f o r the following i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . An i n i t i a l idea of the technological a t t r i b u t e s that best d i f f e r e n t i a t e the c l u s t e r s i s provided by a se r i e s of Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance tests run on 248 3.0 I 2.0 1.0 r - C EeRj I0/G2-II 40/G2I-VI 7 /F 12-111 1 I/G2-III I7/G2-IX 2 I/G2-XIII 63/G30- I 64/G3I- I 82/G6-I I 33/GI8-I 43 /G2 I -X 22/G2-XIV 35/G2I- I 2 3 / G 2 - X V 52/G23- I 36/G2I-II . I2/G2-IV 69/GII- l l 6/FI2-II 42/G2I- IX 58a/G28-IV| 45/G2I-XIIII 72/F8-II 20/G2-XII 58b/FI2-IV| 55/G28-I I9/G2-XI 7 I /F8- I 47 /G 22-1 53/G27- I I 8 /G2 -X 39/G2 I -V 8 / F I 2 - V 2 4 / G 2 - X V l ] 4 9 /G22 - I I I 27/G3-III 56/G28-I I 60/G28-V I 62/G28-V l l l| 28 /G6 - I 26/G3-I I 50 /G22- IV 2 9 / G 7 - I 5/FI2-I FIGURE 40. Ward's cl u s t e r analysis of debitage assemblages. C H E R T B A S A L T RAW MATERIAL u, j> UJ to u i Ul , 0 CLUSTER NUMBER MEAN RANGE ! MEAN RANGE MEAN j RANGE ! MEAN RANGE 1 1 m MEAN RANGE MEAN RANGE MEAN' RANGE MEAN RANGE MEAN RANGE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTIC 1 I 23.6 9.5-60.0 29.3 20.2-41.9 22.5 14.2-38.4 32.5 4.2-53.9 78.7 47.2-110.2! 28. 7 8.9-63.4 33.1 17.6-54.9 37.8 5.8-90.0 39.2 20.3-62.2 WIDTH/WEIGHT INDEX ! ! 89.1 60.3-125.2 94.9 49.9-155.2 149.6 38.9-272.9 104.4 22.0-181.5 43.8 21.8-65.8 96.5 60.3-125.2 94.7 69.3-128.9 164.7 56.4-272.9 82.7 59.7-113.2 COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION ! ! 7.9 4.0-12.3 6.8 4.9-11.0 6.3 4.0-7.5 9.3 6.0-17.0 3.6 3.3-3.8 7.8 6.0-10.8 5.8 4.6-8.7 5.0 3.5-7.0 6.7 5.3-9.2 STRIKING PLATFORM WIDTH 1 1 59.4 23.7-96.1 59.3 39.7-77.3 61.8 49.9-78.6 53.6 8.3-73.0 J > u i J > 1 u i 56.4 37.7-75.3 55.7 41.1-81.0 79.8 60.6-96.2 62.1 48.9-70.9 COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION ! i 124.4 113.8-131.0 112.4 106.8-118.8 108. 7 90.0-116.5 112.7 105.0-130.6 113.6 102.9-124.3 123. 7 117.0-132.5 111 .8 106.0-115.3 113.4 110.0-120.0 117.7 111.8-130.7 VENTRAL FLAKING ANGLE i i 6.9 1.7-12.3 O -J 7.3 5.0-8.6 9.1 3.1-12.3 10.4 9.7-11.1 7.1 5.3-11.6 7.4 3.4-9.7 6.3 5.9-6.9 9.5 3.1-12.6 COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION 2.8 1.0-4.3 3.1 1.8-3.7 3.0 2.0-4.3 j> Ul J > to o 3.4 3.3-3.5 3.0 2.3-3.6 3.5 2.7-3.8 4.9 3.7-7.0 3.5 3.1-4.3 DORSAL FLAKE SCAR COUNT ! ! U J « Ul 1 4> i> O CO 50.6 28.6-69.4 58.0 34.3-86.7 45.2 28.3-64.5 40.7 30.0-51.3 58.9 49.1-68.1 50.5 39.6-64.0 68.9 51.0-94.3 49.3 37.3-65.5 COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION i ! 95.0 80.0-100.0 89.7 74.1-100.0 91.6 72.7-100.0 77.3 50.0-100.0 92.1 84.2-100.0 96.7 87.5-100.0 94.2 87.5-98.4 86.7 50.0-100.0 82.7 73.5-93.3 BULB OF FORCE INDEX ! : 9.1 0.0-33.3 11.9 0.0-27.3 14.6 0.0-45.5 25.9 0.0-50.0 9.3 5.3-13.3 7.4 0.0-17.2 8.8 0.0-20.7 1.4 0.0-6.8 31.7 18.5-55.9 STRIKING PLATFORM PREPARATION INDEX ! ! 3.9 0.0-11.1 o O J> tO 4> Ui o 6.3 0.0-16.7 1.1 0.0-3.7 5.3 0.0-10.5 8.5 0.0-28.6 7.2 0.0-21.2 0.9 0.0-4.5 4.8 0.0-9.9 FLAKE CORTEX COVER INDEX I ! 6.1 0.0-22.2 11.9 0.0-33.3 33.3 8.1-100.Or 33.3 0.0-66.7 63.2 26.4-100.0 7.5 0.0-26.6 15.2 3.3-39.1 69.0 24.6-100.0 51.1 18.2-84.2 DORSAL FLAKE SCAR COMPLEXITY INDEX ! ! 11.3 0.0-22.2 4.9 0.0-13.3 10. 7 1.8-23.2 11.4 0.0-32.8 9.1 3.2-14.9 7.5 0.0-22.2 1.0 0.0-3.9 0.2 0.0-0.9 3.1 0.0-9.9 BLOCK SHATTER INDEX i i i i 7.0 0.0-13.9 4.9 0.0-20.0 9.1 0.0-13.5 13.4 0.0-79.5 29.5 25.4-33.6 6.2 0.0-15.4 7.1 1.0-21.5 2.1 0.0-5.4 5.7 1.1-17.3 SHATTER WITH CORTEX INDEX i i i i 42.0 8.6-70.0 37.7 27.0-57.3 fO 00 to \D 1 ui to O to UJ Ul 1 f t> to J> UJ t 1 1 1 37.1 16.7-109.5 to t ut t> Ui 00 117.4 117.4 30.2 14 1—92 8 CORE WEIGHT i i i i 19.5 0.0-50.0 4.2 0.0-12.5 9.0 5.6-13.3 11.4 0.0-38.1 1 1 t 1 6.4 1.0-25.0 1.7 0.0-16.7 0 0 0 0 1.7 0.0-5.3 CORE INDEX O D bd tn w o b-1 a Ul 1-3 M > > y< GO 1—1 Ui o a w bd H > Q 6+72 250 the o r i g i n a l raw data set grouped according to the Ward's c l u s t e r s . Results of these tests are presented i n table 19. F i f t e e n of the 32 assemblage a t t r i b u t e s are s i g n i f i -cant at the .05 l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y , that i s , with, respect to averages, they represent samples drawn from d i f f e r e n t populations. I t should be noted that 11 of the 15 s i g n i f i -cant a t t r i b u t e s pertain to b a s a l t , suggesting that techno-l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y , as measured by the present v a r i a b l e s , i s better evidenced by basalt raw materials. This d i s p a r i t y may also i n d i c a t e that technological processes involved i n the manufacture of chert stone tools are quite d i f f e r e n t from and/or more subtle than those surrounding the product-ion of basalt t o o l s . C l u s t e r 1 i s composed of 11 s i t e s . With respect to basalt f l a k e s , there i s a tendency f o r high values of such a t t r i b u t e s as s t r i k i n g platform complexity index, dorsal scar count, dorsal scar pattern complexity index, f l a k e width:weight index, and s t r i k i n g platform width (see table 18), C o e f f i c i e n t s of v a r i a t i o n e x h i b i t a wide range, although a l l have mid-range rather than extreme r e l a t i v e values. The mixture of c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n values and the mid-range, although high means and index values, part-i c u l a r l y f o r dorsal f l a k e surface and s t r i k i n g platform a t t r i b u t e s suggests a wide range of manufacturing steps with TABLE 19 KRUSKAL-WALLIS TESTS ON TECHNOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF SITES GROUPED BY WARD'S CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF DEBITAGE Attributes H (X 2) Degrees of Freedom Significance Level Mean Basalt Width: Weight Index 7 . 6 1 0 4 0 . 1 0 7 Basalt Width: Weight Index CV. 6.790 4 0 . 1 4 7 Mean Chert Width: Weight Index 4 . 0 2 1 3 0.259 Chert Width: Weight Index CV. 2 . 6 5 5 3 0 . 4 4 8 Mean Basalt S t r i k i n g Platform Width 20 .007 4 0 . 0 0 1 * Basalt S t r i k i n g Platform Width CV. 1 1 . 5 4 3 4 0 . 0 2 1 * Mean Chert S t r i k i n g Platform Width 6 . 0 8 4 3 0 . 1 0 8 Chert S t r i k i n g Platform Width CV. 0 . 3 7 4 3 0 . 9 4 6 Mean Basalt Ventral Flaking Angle 2 2 .108 4 0 . 0 0 0 * Basalt Ventral Flaking Angle C.V. 1 4 . 8 4 2 4 0.005* Mean Chert Ventral Flaking Angle 15.306 3 0 . 0 0 2 * Chert Ventral Flaking Angle CV. 3.390 3 0 . 3 3 5 Mean Basalt Dorsal Scar Count 1 4 . 6 9 6 4 0.005* Basalt Dorsal Scar Count CV. 11.217 4 0 . 0 2 4 * Mean Chert Dorsal Scar Count 1 . 5 6 4 3 0.667 Chert Dorsal Scar Count CV. 3 . 0 8 8 3 0 . 3 7 8 Basalt S t r i k i n g Platform Preparation Index 2 7 . 4 6 1 4 0 . 0 0 0 * Chert S t r i k i n g Platform Preparation Index 8.362 3 0.039* Basalt Cortex Cover Index 6.917 4 0 . 1 4 0 TABLE 19—Continued 0 Degrees of Significance Attributes H (X^) Freedom Level Chert Cortex Cover Index 2 . 0 7 5 3 0 .557 Basalt Bulb of Force Index I 9 . 2 5 4 4 0 . 0 0 1 * Chert Bulb of Force Index 8 . 3 3 5 3 0 . 0 4 0 * Basalt Dorsal Scar Complexity Index 28.4-98 4 0 . 0 0 0 * Chert Dorsal Scar Complexity Index 8 . 6 0 6 3 0 . 0 3 5 * Basalt Block Shatter Index 11 .892 4 0.018* Chert Block Shatter Index 6 . 9 9 8 3 0 .072 Basalt Cortex Shatter Index 9 . 7 2 0 4 0 . 0 4 5 * Chert Cortex Shatter Index 2 . 2 7 7 3 0 .517 Mean Basalt Core Weight 2 . 3 3 2 3 0 . 5 0 6 Mean Chert Core Weight 1.842 3 0 . 6 0 6 Basalt Core Index 7 . 5 4 3 3 0 . 0 5 6 Chert Core Index 4 . 7 0 0 3 0 . 1 9 5 NOTE: * Si g n i f i c a n t at 0.05 l e v e l of pr o b a b i l i t y . 253 an emphasis on l a t e r r e d u c t i o n f o r b a s a l t raw m a t e r i a l s . A l l o w b u l b o f f o r c e i n d e x v a l u e i n d i c a t e s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r hard-hammer f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t would be e x p e c t e d towards e a r l i e r s t e p s , t h u s a l s o a r g u i n g f o r a wide range o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h e r e d u c t i o n sequence. M i d d l e - r a n g i n g v a l u e s f o r t h e b a s a l t s h a t t e r i n d i c e s i n d i c a t e t h e p r e s e n c e , b u t n o t predominance, o f c o r t e x c o v e r on t h e o r i g i n a l p a r e n t p i e c e o f raw m a t e r i a l , as w e l l as heavy f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n s e x p e c t e d i n i n i t i a l r e m o v a l s e q u e n c e s . There i s a l s o a te n d e n c y f o r f l a k e s t o e x h i b i t wide s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m s , a l t h o u g h t h e h i g h c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e v a l u e s a r e more v a r i a b l e t h a n t h o s e o f o t h e r c l u s t e r s . W h i l e t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f t h i s a t t r i b u t e i s e x p e c t e d t o d e c r e a s e as l a t e r r e d u c t i o n s t e p s a r e c a r r i e d out,, t h e h i g h mean and c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n i n c o m b i n a t i o n may r e f l e c t a l a r g e r number o f f l a k e removal s e q u e n c e s , w h i c h i s n o t opposed t o t h e above i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r t h e c l u s t e r . P a t t e r n i n g among c h e r t t e c h n o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s i s more s u b t l e t h a n t h a t o b s e r v e d f o r b a s a l t . . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e means and i n d i c e s i n t h i s c l u s t e r a r e e i t h e r t h e h i g h e s t o r l o w e s t v a l u e s o b s e r v e d among c l u s t e r s . The h i g h a v e r a g e s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m w i d t h v a l u e h a v i n g t h e l o w e s t c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n p r e s e n t among t h e c l u s t e r s s u g g e s t s an emphasis on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f f l a k e s 254 w i t h l a r g e p l a t f o r m s w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y q u i t e v a r i a b l e i n s i z e , as r e f l e c t e d by t h e h i g h w i d t h : w e i g h t i n d e x and a s s o c i a t e d c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n . The l a r g e amount o f p l a t f o r m p r e p a r a t i o n and d o r s a l s u r f a c e m o d i f i c a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e energy was expended i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f t h e s e f l a k e s . W h i l e t h e above p a t t e r n a r g u e s f o r advanced r e d u c t i o n steps,,maximum v a l u e s o b s e r v e d f o r b l o c k s h a t t e r and c o r t e x - c o v e r e d s h a t t e r i n d i c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t d e c o r t i c a -t i o n as w e l l as heavy f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n s may a l s o have p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h e r e d u c t i o n s t r a t e g y . These l a t t e r p r o c e s s e s a r e most l i k e l y t o o c c u r a t e a r l y r e d u c t i o n s t a g e s . Thus, c h e r t d e b i t a g e a t t r i b u t e p a t t e r n i n g a l s o s u g g e s t s a w i d e r a n g e o f r e d u c t i o n s t e p s b u t w i t h an emphasis on t h e o p p o s i n g end o f t h e r e d u c t i o n p r o c e s s . C l u s t e r 2 c o n t a i n s a t o t a l o f 5 s i t e a s s e m b l a g e s . B a s a l t t e c h n o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s have t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e s p r e s e n t among t h e c l u s t e r s f o r d o r s a l s c a r c o u n t , t h e d o r s a l s c a r c o m p l e x i t y i n d e x and t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f v a r -i a t i o n f o r t h e f l a k e w i d t h : w e i g h t i n d e x , t h e b l o c k s h a t t e r i n d e x , and t h e c o r t e x - c o v e r e d s h a t t e r i n d e x . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s , v a l u e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o r e f l e c t l a t e r r e d u c t i o n s t e p s . The low s h a t t e r i n d i c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e raw m a t e r i a l f r a c t u r e d had a m i n i m a l amount o f c o r t e x a d h e r i n g t o i t and t h a t e x c e s s i v e f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n s were 255 n o t t o o p r o m i n e n t i n t h e f r a c t u r e p r o c e s s . The l a c k o f emphasis on • . d e c o r t i c a t i o n i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d by t h e low f l a k e c o r t e x c o v e r i n d e x and t h e h i g h degree o f d o r s a l f l a k e s u r f a c e m o d i f i c a t i o n . A low s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m w i d t h and h i g h c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n i n d i c a t e s a c o n c e r n w i t h removing m i n i m a l amounts o f t h e c o r e m a r g i n a l t h o u g h t h e p o r t i o n d e t a c h e d i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e . These a r e p a t t e r n s e x p e c t e d i n a r e d u c t i o n s t r a t e g y t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e s on l a t e r m a n u f a c t u r i n g s t e p s and o m i t s e a r l y s t a g e s . The s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m p r e p a r a t i o n i n d e x , w h i c h i s t h e l o w e s t o f a l l c l u s t e r means,: does n o t f i t i n t o t h i s p a t t e r n . W h i l e f l a k e s may have been removed from p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s w i t h c o r t e x - f r e e s u r f a c e s and a h i g h d e g r e e o f f a c i a l m o d i f i c a -t i o n , l i t t l e emphasis was p l a c e d on t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m . , The c h e r t d e b i t a g e a t t r i b u t e s o f c l u s t e r 2 a s s e m b l -ages a r e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a r g e number o f maximum and minimum v a l u e s . The f l a k e w i d t h : w e i g h t i n d e x , , s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m w i d t h , and v e n t r a l f l a k i n g a n g l e v a l u e s a r e t h e l o w e s t r e c o r d e d f o r c l u s t e r means. The c o e f f i c i e n t s o f v a r i a t i o n f o r t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s as w e l l as t h e d o r s a l s c a r c o u n t a r e t h e most o r second most v a r i a b l e o f a l l c l u s t e r v a l u e s . T h i s c l u s t e r a l s o e x h i b i t s t h e h i g h e s t c o r t e x c o v e r i n d e x . The r e m a i n i n g a t t r i b u t e s have mid-range v a l u e s r e l a t i v e t o t h o s e o f o t h e r c l u s t e r s . The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h 256 s t r i k i n g platform preparation and dorsal scar complexity i n d i c e s , and the low s t r i k i n g platform width should be r e f l e c t i v e of l a t e r reduction steps. The high cortex cover and cortex-covered shatter i n d i c e s , along with the r e l a t i v e l y low dorsal scar count i n d i c a t e that d e c o r t i c a -t i o n processes must have played a r o l e i n the o v e r a l l reduction strategy.. The d e c o r t i c a t i o n process did not evidently involve too much heavy force a p p l i c a t i o n , as indicated by the r e l a t i v e l y low block shatter index. The above combination of a t t r i b u t e values i s interpreted as r e f l e c t i n g middle-to-later stage reduction steps that involved the removal of cortex covered surfaces as well as the production of flakes from parent materials with extensive f a c i a l modifications. The lar g e s t number of assemblages (17) i s present i n c l u s t e r 3. A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c common to both basalt and chert technological a t t r i b u t e s of t h i s c l u s t e r i s t h e i r tendency to e x h i b i t middle-ranging values r e l a t i v e to those of other c l u s t e r s . Only four extreme values were observed among the 32 a t t r i b u t e s : the basalt cortex-covered shatter index has the highest mean value of a l l c l u s t e r s , while the b a s a l t v e n t r a l f l a k i n g angle, the chert block shatter, and cortex-covered shatter indices have the lowest observed values. While both the chert and basalt sample ex h i b i t values suggestive of advanced stage reduction (low s t r i k i n g 257 p l a t f o r m w i d t h s , h i g h d o r s a l s c a r c o u n t s , r e l a t i v e t o t h e o t h e r c l u s t e r s ) , t h e r e i s an e q u a l number o f a t t r i b u t e s r e f l e c t i n g t h e o p p o s i t e end o f t h e r e d u c t i o n c o n t i n u u m ( r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c o r t e x c o v e r and low d o r s a l s c a r c o m p l e x i t y i n d i c e s ) . These opposed p a t t e r n s and t h e o v e r a l l t e n d ency f o r a t t r i b u t e s t o e x h i b i t m i d d l e - r a n k i n g v a l u e s among t h e c l u s t e r s i s i n f e r r e d t o r e f l e c t a b r o a d span o f r e d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s l i k e l y i n v o l v i n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e b a s i c m a n u f a c t u r i n g s t e p s f o r b o t h b a s a l t and c h e r t t o o l s . A t o t a l o f 9 s i t e assemblages form c l u s t e r 4 , i n f e r r e d t o r e p r e s e n t r e d u c t i o n sequences r e s t r i c t e d t o e a r l i e r s t e p s . B a s a l t m a t e r i a l s e x h i b i t a number o f extreme v a l u e s e x p e c t e d t o r e s u l t from e a r l y r e d u c t i o n s t e p s . The l o w e s t f l a k e w i d t h : w e i g h t i n d e x , d o r s a l s c a r c o u n t , and d o r s a l s c a r c o m p l e x i t y i n d e x , and t h e h i g h e s t s t r i k i n g p l a t -f o r m w i d t h , c o r t e x c o v e r i n d e x , and b l o c k s h a t t e r i n d e x o f a l l . c l u s t e r means a r e p r e s e n t . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t u n e x p e c t e d a s s o c i a t i o n s o c c u r i n b o t h t h e b a s a l t and c h e r t sample; t h e maximum v e n t r a l f l a k i n g a n g l e s and b u l b o f f o r c e i n d i c i e s f o r b o t h m a t e r i a l s a r e o b s e r v e d i n t h i s c l u s t e r . Maximum v a l u e s o f b o t h t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s were o r i g i n a l l y e x p e c t e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h advanced r e d u c t i o n s t e p s o f b i f a c i a l f l a k i n g . 258 The <presence of.maximum mean values i n combination with those d e f i n i t e l y i n d i c a t i v e of i n i t i a l reduction steps i n t h i s c l u s t e r suggests that 1) ventral f l a k i n g angles are more prevalent i n the i n i t i a l detachment pf flake blanks from cores and 2) that the d i f f u s e bulb/truncated cone bulb of force a t t r i b u t e state may be measuring an undetermined combination of s o f t and hard hammer force applications (Muto 1971a:116). Both of these a t t r i b u t e s are obviously i n need of experimental i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The chert sample exhibits other s i m i l a r i t i e s to basalt materials i n addition to those observed f o r the ventral f l a k i n g angle and bulb of force index* s p e c i f i c a l l y the lowest dorsal scar count and dorsal sear complexity of a l l c l u s t e r means. Also the chert sample has the lowest s t r i k i n g platform preparation index of a l l c l u s t e r s , which adds further support to the early reduction step i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n . C l u s t e r 5 has the lowest l e v e l of s i m i l a r i t y of a l l groups and i s composed of two members. Both assemblages i n t h i s c l u s t e r have measurements fo r basalt technological a t t r i b u t e s only. The most d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s c l u s t e r are very high block shatter and cortex-covered shatter indices.,--3 well above the values present for other c l u s t e r s . Although core a t t r i b u t e values are not a v a i l a b l e for these assemblages, both have high frequencies of b i p o l a r 2 implements w h i c h were l i k e l y employed as c o r e s a t some p o i n t i n t h e i r u s e l i f e . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o f b i p o l a r a r t i f a c t s and l a r g e s h a t t e r i n d i c e s , b i p o l a r k n a p p i n g i s i n f e r r e d as t h e dominant r e d u c t i o n s t r a t e g y c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e s e two s i t e s . I t s h o u l d f u r t h e r be n o t e d t h a t i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e two a s s e m b l a g e s , i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e p r e dominant form o f raw m a t e r i a l r e d u c e d was s m a l l b a s a l t p e b b l e s . G i v e n t h i s t y p e o f raw m a t e r i a l , b i p o l a r r e d u c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s t h e most e f f i c i e n t means o f o b t a i n i n g a l a r g e number o f f l a k e edges from a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i n i t i a l mass. E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p l a t f o r m - b e a r i n g f l a k e measure-ments and i n d i c e s ^ r e v e a l s t h a t r e d u c t i o n - w a s not l i m i t e d s o l e l y t o b i p o l a r k n a p p i n g . The mean f l a k e w i d t h : w e i g h t v a l u e i s t w i c e as l a r g e as t h a t e x h i b i t e d by o t h e r c l u s t e r s , w h i l e t h e s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m w i d t h i s t h e l o w e s t . B o t h o f t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s have t h e s m a l l e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s o f v a r i a t i o n r e c o r d e d f o r t h e c l u s t e r s . A l l r e m a i n i n g a t t r i b u t e v a l u e s f a l l w i t h i n r a n g e s e x h i b i t e d by t h e o t h e r f o u r c l u s t e r s * a l t h o u g h t h e s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r m p r e p a r a t i o n and d o r s a l s c a r c o m p l e x i t y i n d i c e s ; , a r e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h . A l l t h e s e f l a k e a t t r i b u t e s a r e s u g g e s t i v e o f w e l l - a d v a n c e d r e d u c t i o n s t e p s , i p o s s i b l y f i n a l t r i m m i n g o r even m a i n t e n a n c e . Low c o -e f f i c i e n t s o f v a r i a t i o n s u g g e s t t h a t f l a k e r e m o v a l sequences have a m i n i m a l degree o f v a r i a b i l i t y * w h i c h would be l i m i t e d 260 t o l a t e r e d u c t i o n s t e p s . I t i s p r e s e n t l y n ot p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e s e f l a k e s were d e r i v e d - from c o r e s o r t o o l s r e s u l t i n g from b i p o l a r r e d u c t i o n . Thus* w h i l e c l u s t e r 5 members have a low degree o f o v e r a l l s i m i l a r i t y , t h e y s h a r e an i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n common, b e i n g t h e main examples o f b i p o l a r t e c h n o l o g y p r e s e n t i n t h e sample. Summary o f t h e D e b i t a g e C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s The d e b i t a g e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s was c o n s i d e r e d s u c c e s s f u l i n d e l i n e a t i n g g r o u p i n g s o f assemblages t h a t a r e i n t e r p r e t a b l e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n and l i t h i c r e d u c t i o n s e q u e n c e s . The c l u s t e r i n g t e c h n i q u e a l s o p r e s e n t e d some u n e x p e c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s among d e b i t a g e a t t r i b u t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e v e n t r a l f l a k i n g a n g l e and t h e b u l b o f f o r c e i n d e x . B o t h o f t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s t e n d t o have h i g h v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n i t i a l r e d u c t i o n s t e p s r a t h e r t h a n advanced s t e p s as was o r i g i n a l l y e x p e c t e d . T h i s f o r c e s one t o r e a s s e s s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s w i t h r e g a r d t o . t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e o v e r a l l r e d u c t i o n sequence. T h i s c o u l d b e s t be done t h r o u g h c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y o f l i t h i c r e d u c t i o n sequences and q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d e b i t a g e a t t r i b u t e s r e s u l t i n g from each s t e p . The main t r e n d s and p a t t e r n s e x h i b i t e d by t h e 261 c l u s t e r s are b r i e f l y summarized below. . The broadest range of reduction steps i s present i n c l u s t e r s 1 and 3. Cluster 1 i s i n f e r r e d to emphasize l a t e r steps within t h i s range while.there appears to be no s p e c i f i c step predominating i n c l u s t e r 3. A more r e s t r i c t e d range of reduction sequences, which center around advanced steps i s i n t e r -preted f o r c l u s t e r 2,„ On the other hand, c l u s t e r 4 i s in f e r r e d to represent i n i t i a l reduction stages only. C l u s t e r 5 i s unique i n e x h i b i t i n g a bi p o l a r reduction tech-nology with a les s e r emphasis on l a t e stage production or possibly maintenance steps. The empirical v a l i d i t y of these groups was i n i t i a l l y assessed by a serie s of Kruskal-Wallis tests to determine i f assemblage a t t r i b u t e values grouped according to the c l u s t e r s are from the same or d i f f e r e n t underlying popula-t i o n s . The majority of the basalt a t t r i b u t e s r e j e c t the hypothesis that the values are drawn from a s i n g l e popula-t i o n while only one-fourth of the chert a t t r i b u t e s r e j e c t the hypothesis. This suggests that technological v a r i a b i l -i t y , as measured by the present a t t r i b u t e set, i s more pronounced f o r basalt materials. This i s also indicated by the c l u s t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , as patterning of basalt a t t r i b u t e s was much easier to account f o r than that 1 observed among the chert sample. The empirical v a l i d i t y of the debitage c l u s t e r 262 analysis was further, investigated by running an a d d i t i o n a l s e r i e s of Kruskal-Wallis tests on general l i t h i c assemblage data grouped according to the debitage cluster-groups. This data set c o n s t i t u t e d a number of absolute measures of each l i t h i c assemblage i n the sample, i n c l u d i n g : shatter weight, number of platform-bearing f l a k e s , weight of l i t h i c mass reduced, s i t e area-containing l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s , and debitage density (see table 20). These a t t r i b u t e s form an independent set of data not used i n the generation of debitage assemblage c l u s t e r s , as the analysis employed s o l e l y proportional measures. While these a t t r i b u t e s do not r e f l e c t s p e c i f i c reduction processes, they do provide a general measure of s i t e occupation i n t e n s i t y , s p e c i f i c a l l y the amount >of l i t h i c material reduced and the s i z e of the locations over which these a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d out. The l i t h i c assemblage attributes, also provide an i n d i r e c t measure of s i t e size., A comparison- of t o t a l shatter weight, t o t a l number of platform-bearing flak e s * and t o t a l l i t h i c mass produced with s i t e area resulted i n Spearman's* rho c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of 0.7988, 0,8828 and 0.8201, r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l of these are s i g n i f i c a n t at the .001 l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y . The r e s u l t s of the Kruskal-Wallis tests are presented in 1 table 21. Table 22 presents the average a t t r i b u t e values for each assemblage cluster-group. A t o t a l of 4 general 263 TABLE 20 GENERAL LITHIC ASSEMBLAGE ATTRIBUTES TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL SITE BORDEN BASALT CHERT SHATTER BASALT CHERT PLAT- BASALT CHERT LITHIC LITHIC DEBITAGE SURVEY SITE SHATTER SHATTER WEIGHT PLATFORM- PLATFORM- FOiW- MASS MASS MASS DATA DENSITY CESIGNAnOS WEIGHT WEIGHT (gm) BEARING BEARING BEARDB REDUCED REDUCED REDUCED AREA (gm/ NUMBER (g») (gm) FLAKES FLAKES FLAKES (gm) (gm) (gm) (sq m) sq m) G2-I EeRj 9 99.0 12.8 111.8 52 52 136.1 12.8 148.9 92 1.6 * G2-II EeRj 10 266.8 913.2 1180.0 86 348 434 336.4 1532.7 1869.1 932 2.0 G2-III EeRj 11 25.3 12.9 38.2 33 - 33 45.4 12.9 58.3 88 0.7 G2-W EeRj 12 33.6 2.9 36.5 29 - 29 54.3 41.8 96.1 16 6.0 G2-LX EeRj 17 91.9 0.5 92.4 36 - 36 120.8 0.5 121.3 168 0.7 G2-X EeRj 18 10.6 - 10.6 16 - 16 23.1 0.0 23.1 72 0.3 G2-XI* EeRj 19 192.4 381.4 573.8 141 109 250 351.7 594.5 946.2 236 4.0 G2-XII EeRj 20 67.5 22.0 89.5 62 21 83 92.2 51.5 143.7 244 0.6 G2-XIII EeRj 21 47.5 179.1 226.6 38 102 140 126.5 286.2 412.7 320 1.3 G2-X1V EeRj 22 2.2 69.6 71.8 2 18 20 4.9 130.8 135.7 4 33.9 G2-XV EeRj 23 60.1 - 60.1 27 1 28 71.0 0.2 71.2 56 1.3 G2-XVI EeRj 24 4.3 55.7 60.0 12 13 25 23.8 84.3 108.1 28 3.9 G3-I EeRj 25 53.8 - 53.8 5 - 5 69.5 - 69.5 24 2.9 G3-II EeRj 26 61.4 63.2 124.6 23 8 41 183.6 86.1 269.7 72 3.8 G3-III EeRj 27 142.0 42.2 184.2 101 10 U l 502.0 114.0 616.0 244 2.5 G6-I EeRj 28 34.9 22.4 57.3 4 5 9 64.4 23.2 92.6 104 0.9 G6-II EeRj 52 26.4 2.3 28.7 14 2 16 47.4 22.6 70.0 64 1.1 G7-I EeRj 29 595.1 - 595.1 19 - 19 614.6 - 614.6 164 3.8 Gll-II* EeRj 69 799.0 2507.5 3306.5 486 378 864 1308.3 4502.7 5811.0 696 8.4 G18-I* EeRj 33 709.6 57.1 766.7 175 3 178 1208.2 64.7 1272.9 1260 1.0 G21-I EeRj 35 1.4 339.9 341.3 1 75 76 120.7 887.3 1008.0 280 3.6 G21-II EeRj 36 3.8 72.7 76.5 2 11 13 4.3 209.2 213.5 104 2.1 G21-IV* EeRj 38 196.4 1.4 197.8 192 - 192 336.4 1.4 337.8 172 2.0 G21-V EeRj 39 135.4 - 135.4 8 - 8 139.8 - 139.8 124 1.1 G21-VI EeRj 40 69.4 113.4 182.8 45 30 75 88.4 230.6 319.0 208 1.5 G21-DC* EeRj 42 663.8 886.7 1550.5 501 270 771 1115.7 1042.4 2158.1 2252 1.0 G21-X EeRj 43 58.8 14.9 73.7 37 6 43 119.5 33.2 152.7 224 0.7 G21-XIII EeRj 45 175.6 68.9 244.5 99 62 161 230.9 105.3 336.2 376 0.9 G21-XIV EeRj 46 18.3 55.0 73.3 4 - 4 19.4 55.0 74.4 56 1.3 G22-I EeRj 47 101.6 40.4 142.0 81 4 85 158.7 55.7 214.4 248 0.9 G22-III EeRj 49 42.4 94.1 136.5 16 36 52 77.9 138.2 216.1 84 2.6 G22-TV EeRj 50 10.4 59.8 70.2 7 8 15 24.3 69.2 93.5 68 1.4 G22-V EeRj 51 38.3 1.1 39.4 6 - 6 237.3 1.1 238.4 56 4.3 G23-I EeRj 52 222.5 678.7 901.2 44 45 99 1464.5 2215.3 2481.1 288 8.6 G27-I* EeRj 53 314.2 140.6 454.8 302 54 356 522.0 331.6 853.6 248 3.4 G28-I EeRj 55 68.3 41.6 109.9 41 6 47 111.1 45.9 157.0 104 1.5 G28-II* EeRj 56 472.6 54.8 527.4 609 6 615 799.3 56.1 855.4 892 1.0 G28-III EeRj 57 28.2 - 28.2 5 1 6 38.5 1.7 40.2 72 0.6 G28-IV* EeRj 58a 12543.8 3050.7 15594.5 7465 691 8156 16838.7 3506.9 20345.6 9404 2.2 G28-VI* EeRj 60 1836.5 1711.0 3547.5 437 100 537 2425.1 3643.6 6068.7 1448 4.2 G28-VII EeRj 61 47.9 2.5 50.4 8 - 8 55.9 2.5 58.4 52 1.1 G28-VIII EeRj 62 407.3 87.8 495.1 190 10 200 1005.7 372.4 1378.1 416 3.3 G28-X EeRj 80 25.2 1.4 26.6 1 2 3 26.2 5.5 31.7 4 7.9 ' G30-I EeRj 63 158.5 140.1 298.6 81 21 102 203.0 892.9 1095.9 476 2.3 G31-I EeRj 64 244.7 456.2 700.9 21 40 61 376.5 773.4 1149.9 372 3.1 PM* EeRj 71 3836.4 2067.4 5903.8 941 171 1112 4300.5 3646.0 7946.5 1668 4.8 F8-II* EeRj 72 264.8 162.8 427.6 98 90 188 391.8 457.0 848.8 400 2.1 F12-I EeRj 5 714.7 1.5 716.2 15 - 15 716.2 1.5 717.7 64 11.2 F12-II* EeRj 6 236.3 106.2 342.5 117 42 159 407.4 213.8 621.2 292 2.1 F12-III* EeRj 7 1310.3 755.6 2065.9 384 66 450 1949.8 1005.2 2955.0 796 3.7 F12-IV* EeRj 58b 9357.8 899.1 10256.9 7752 275 8027 15614.7 1091.7 L6706.4 6240 2.7 F12-V EeRj 8 923.8 - 923.8 48 - 48 2280.9 " 2280.9 88 25.9 L e g e n d : - S i t e assenfcLage s a n p l e d f o r a n a l y s i s , a l l t o t a l s a r e e s t i m a t e d v a l u e s . 264 TABLE 21 KRUSKAL-WALLIS TESTS ON GENERAL LITHIC ASSEMBLAGE ATTRIBUTES OF SITES GROUPED BY WARD'S CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF DEBITAGE Attribute H(x 2) Degrees of Freedom Significance Level Total Basalt Shatter Weight 9-975 4 0.041* Total Chert Shatter Weight 6.321 4 0.176 Total Shatter Weight 0.351 4 0.351 Total Basalt Platform-Bearing Flakes 14.172 4 0.007* Total Chert Platform-Bearing Flakes 8.820 3 0.032* Total Platform-Bearing Flakes 11.009 4 0.026 Total Basalt Mass 5.602 4 0.231 Total Chert Mass 4.928 4 0.295 Total Lithic Mass 2.191 4 0.701 Total Lithic Data Area 6.434 4 0.169 Site Debitage Density 7.726 4 0.102 NOTE: * - Significant at 0.05 level of probability TABLE 20' GENERAL LITHIC ASSEMBLAGE ATTRIBUTES OF SITES GROUPED BY WARD'S CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF DEBITAGE CLUSTER NO. § B l l TOTAL BASALT SHATTER WEIGHT (gm) TOTAL CHERT SHATTER WEIGHT (gm) TOTAL SHATTER WEIGHT (gfn) TOTAL BASALT PLATFORM-BEARING FLAK TOTAL CHERT PLATFORM-BEARING • FLAKES TOTAL PLATFORM-BEARING FLAKES TOTAL BASALT MASS REDUCED (gm) TOTAL CHERT MASS REDUCED (gm) TOTAL LITHIC MASS REDUCED (gm) TOTAL LITHIC DATA AREA • (sq. m) SITE DEBITAGE DENSITY i (gm/sq. m) 1 1 MEAN 296.2 246.6 542.8 91 65 143 449.5 456.9 906.4 458.8 1.7 1 RANGE 25.3-1310.3 0.5-913.2 28.7-2065.9 14-384 2-348 16-450 45.4-1949.8 0.5-1532.7 58.3-2955.0 64.0-1260.0 0.7-3.7 MEAN 58.0 290.2 290.2 15 30 47 333.1 688.6 781.9 146.4 9.9 2 RANGE 1.4-222.5 69.6-678.7 60.1-901.2 1-44 1-75 13-99 4.3-1464.5 0.2-2215.3 71.2-2481.1 4.0-288.0 1.3-33.9 MEAN 1743.4 715.5 2374.7 1072 163 1205 2584.0 1076.6 3534.0 1347.3 4.0 3 RANGE 10.6-12543.8 2.9-3050.7 10.6-15594.5 16-7752 4-691 16-8156 23.1-16838.7 41.8-4502.7 23.1-20345.6 16.0-9404.0 0.3-25.9 MEAN 314.7 243.4 533.8 141 22 161 524.6 510.3 983.8 348.0 2.4 4 RANGE 4.3-1836.5 22.4-1711.0 57.3-3547.5 4-609 5-100 8-615 23.8-2425.1 28.2-3643.6 92.6-6068.7 28.0-1448.0 0.9-4.2 MEAN 654.9 1.5 655.7 17 — 17 665.4 1.5 666.2 114 7.5 5 RANGE 595.1-714.7 1.5 595.1-716.2 15-19 — 15-19 614.6-716.2 1.5 614.6-717.7 64.0-164.0 3.8-11.2 266 assemblage a t t r i b u t e s — b a s a l t , chert, and t o t a l number of platform-bearing f l a k e s , and basalt shatter w e i g h t — s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e the c l u s t e r s . The number of platform-bearing flakes per s i t e pro-vides the best measure of the i n t e n s i t y of f l a k i n g a c t i v -i t i e s , as these values are less l i k e l y to be influenced by post-manufacturing processes that have an undetermined e f f e c t on other l i t h i c assemblage a t t r i b u t e s . Thus i t can be stated-that debitage c l u s t e r s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r -entiated on the* basis of the production-of platform-bearing' • flakes «i The tests also i n d i c a t e that the t o t a l weight of » basalt shatter per s i t e represents values drawn from separate populations. This i s most evident between c l u s t e r 5 and the r e s t of the c l u s t e r s (see table 22), r e f l e c t i n g - the presence of b i p o l a r technology i n the former. Table 22 indicates that basalt shatter weight may also d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i f f e r e n t types and ranges of reduction steps. The mean value f o r c l u s t e r 2 assemblages, interpreted as representing l a t e r reduction steps, is . the lowest of the c l u s t e r s . The next lowest value i s f o r c l u s t e r 1, which also emphasizes l a t e r reduction steps. In both these c l u s t e r s , i n i t i a l reduction processes, assumed to be responsible f o r the production of most shatter, play a minimal r o l e i n the reduction process. Basalt shatter weight values increase 267 markedly for, c l u s t e r s 3 and 4, which are interpreted as r e f l e c t i n g i n i t i a l reduction and a broad range of reduction steps r e s p e c t i v e l y . Multidimensional Scaling ,of Debitage The standardized G i t y Block distance matrix f o r debitage assemblage a t t r i b u t e s was also subjected to Torgerson^s metric multidimensional, s c a l i n g technique. This r e s u l t e d i n the generation of two axes, i n which 50.8% of the sample variance i s accounted f o r by the f i r s t axis and 24.8% by the second. No succeeding axes accounted f o r more than 4.0% of variance. The configuration of the debitage assemblages along these two dimensions i s presented i n f i g u r e 41. It should also be noted that a t r i a n g l e i n -e q u a l i t y t e s t to check f o r the metric properties of the input matrix, indicated that 4.0% of the tests were v i o l a t e d . Thus, i t i s not^possible to meet the assumption of the metric q u a l i t y of the matrix which i s made by Torgerson's method. Given t h i s non-metric q u a l i t y of the matrix, i t swas decided also to run .Kruskal's non-metric multidimensional s c a l i n g on the above matrix f o r a two-dimension .solution. A non-arbitrary i n i t i a l c onfiguration r e s u l t i n g from the metric s c a l i n g was also supplied f o r the non-metric run. The non-metric s c a l i n g of the 44 assemblages i n two dimensions resulted i n a stress value of 21.6%, which 268 FIGURE 4 1 . T o r g e r s o n ' s m e t r i c m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g o f d e b i t a g e a s s e m b l a g e s . 269 i n d i c a t e s a poor goodness-of-fit i n t h i s number of dimen-sions. A more v i a b l e procedure would be to run the non-metric s c a l i n g without the i n i t i a l , configuration and f o r a. nhigher number of dimensions i n order to obtain a lower stress value... A second a l t e r n a t i v e would be to. r e t a i n the two-dimension, i n i t i a l c onfiguration and supply a dummy i n i t i a l c onfiguration ;for higher numbers of dimensions (Matson, personal communication). Nevertheless, in.order to d i r e c t l y compare the configurations produced by the two techniques, the two-dimension r e s u l t s were retained. The assemblage configuration salong these dimensions presented i n f i g u r e 42. The r e s u l t s pf each s c a l i n g method are separately discussed below. The f i r s t dimension of-the metric multidimensional s c a l i n g i s d i f f i c u l t to. i n t e r p r e t . There ex i s t s a high degree of intermixture among the assemblages of the groups defined by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s . Some subtle patterns are evident among the members of c l u s t e r s 2, 3, and 4. The majority of c l u s t e r 2 and 4 assemblages show a tendency to load at the ? h i g h end of the a x i s , while c l u s t e r 3 members generally have values lower than those of 2 and 4. The two c l u s t e r 5 assemblages take on values at the extreme negative end of the axis and occur at some distance away from a l l other assemblages. The members of c l u s t e r 1 tend to be dispersed along the e n t i r e axis with no apparent range 270 FIGURE 42. Kruskal's non-metric multidimensional scaling of debitage assemblages. 271 r e s t r i c t i o n r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r assemblages., T h i s d i m e n s i o n t h u s t e n d s t o p a r t i t i o n a l t h o u g h v e r y s u b t l y , assemblages w i t h l i m i t e d r a n g e s o f r e d u c t i o n s t e p s from t h o s e w i t h a l a r g e v a r i a t i o n i n r e d u c t i o n s e q u e n c e s . T h i s i s most e v i d e n t among t h e r a n k i n g o f v a l u e s f o r assemblages b e l o n g -i n g t o c l u s t e r s 2, 3, and 4 where t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l u s t e r 3 members i s a l m o s t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e f r om t h o s e o f c l u s t e r s 2 and 4. The d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f b i p o l a r t e c h -n o l o g y i s i n d i c a t e d by extreme n e g a t i v e p o i n t v a l u e s f o r t h e members o f c l u s t e r 5. I t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e c t any p a t t e r n i n g o f assemblages a l o n g t h e second d i m e n s i o n . Each extreme o f t h e v e c t o r i s o c c u p i e d by a member o f t h e b i p o l a r c l u s t e r 5. The assemblages from t h e o t h e r f o u r c l u s t e r s t e n d t o be i n t e r m i x e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e range between t h e c l u s t e r 5 a s s e m b l a g e s . The f i r s t d i m e n s i o n g e n e r a t e d by n o n - m e t r i c m u l t i -d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g d i s p l a y s a c o n t r a s t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p among assemblages o.f s p e c i f i c groups d e f i n e d by t h e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one assemblage from each c l u s t e r , , assemblages o f c l u s t e r s . 2 and 4 have h i g h e r a x i s v a l u e s t h a n t h o s e o f c l u s t e r 3. The two members o f c l u s t e r 5 l o a d a t t h e extreme n e g a t i v e end o f t h e a x i s . T h ere i s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r m i x i n g o f assemblages from 272 c l u s t e r s 1 and 3, while members•of c l u s t e r 1 are dispersed along'the'entire a x i s . This dimension i s considered to be equivalent to the f i r s t dimension produced by the metric s c a l i n g . An examination of the second dimension of non-metric multidimensional s c a l i n g indicates that assemblages belonging to c l u s t e r s 1 and 5 tend to take on lower values on the a x i s . With the exception of one assemblage, a l l members of c l u s t e r 2 occur within the dimension range of c l u s t e r 1. Members of c l u s t e r s 3 and 4 generally are present at points above those f o r c l u s t e r 1 assemblages. There thus e x i s t s a con t r a s t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h i s dimension a l s o , i n - t h i s case between assemblage c l u s t e r s 1 and 2 versus, c l u s t e r s 3 and 4. It.should be r e c a l l e d that c l u s t e r 1 was i n f e r r e d to r e f l e c t a wide ranging reduction sequence which emphasized l a t e r steps, while c l u s t e r 2 represented manufact-uring processes r e s t r i c t e d to advanced reduction steps. On. the other hand, c l u s t e r 3 was interpreted as c o n s t i t u t i n g a wide range of reduction a c t i v i t i e s with no s p e c i f i c step predominating,_ while c l u s t e r 4 contains assemblages r e s u l t -ing from i n i t i a l reduction steps. On t h i s basis, dimension 2 i s considered to represent the stage of reduction achieved. Assemblages emphasizing l a t e r reduction steps load at low to negative values on the axis while those s t r e s s i n g early steps take on higher values. 273 In summary, the non-metric multidimensional s c a l i n g r e s u l t s (In.spite of the high stress value) are most i n t e r -pretable i n the framework of technological processes. The f i r s t dimensions produced by both metric and non-metric s c a l i n g techniques are highly s i m i l a r i n that both appear to be measuring the range of v a r i a t i o n involved i n the reduction sequence that resulted i n the debitage assemblages. The second non-metric dimension i s easier to i n t e r p r e t than that generated by the metric technique, representing the s p e c i f i c reduction step(s) that predominate i n each assembl-age. When viewed i n combination with the c l u s t e r analysis r e s u l t s i t i s evident that considerable interassemblage technological patterning i s present i n the sample. Tool Analysis The raw data f o r the tool analysis constituted a matrix of presence-absence measures of 24 t o o l types f o r 44 s i t e assemblages. From t h i s data set, a matrix of Jaccard's association c o e f f i c i e n t s (Sneath and Sokal 1973:131) was ca l c u l a t e d and then converted into pseudo-distances by sub-t r a c t i n g the value of the c o e f f i c i e n t from 1. The r e s u l t i n g matrix was then subjected to c l u s t e r analysis and mu l t i -dimensional s c a l i n g . Tool C l u s t e r Analysis A Ward's Error Sum of Squares c l u s t e r analysis of 274 the above matrix resulted i n the de l i n e a t i o n of 5 main c l u s t e r s of t o o l assemblages (see fig u r e 43),. A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of each c l u s t e r i s presented below. Cluste r 1 contains a t o t a l of 12 s i t e s . The mean tool frequency among assemblages i n t h i s c l u s t e r i s 7.7, while the average number of t o o l types observed per assemblage i s 3.4. Both of these values are below the t o t a l sample averages of 17.3 and 5.6, respectively.. The dominant tool types present i n t h i s group are steep and acute-angled, marginal u n i f a c i a l retouched f l a k e s , followed by steep-angled,, marginal b i f a c i a l retouched flakes., A l l of these types have retouch scars extending from the t o o l margin up to a maximum of one-third of the surface. Assemblages i n t h i s c l u s t e r are also characterized by a v i r t u a l absence of f a c i a l l y - r e t o u c h e d tools (that i s , a r t i f a c t s with retouch scars extending from the margin over more than one-third of i t s s u r f a c e ) . Also,, 3 of the 5 s i t e s i n the sample with b i p o l a r implements are present i n the cluster.. The minimal evidence f o r p r o j e c t i l e points and bifaces i n t h i s c l u s t e r suggests that hunting a c t i v i t i e s were not emphasized at these sites., Rather,, the emphasis i s on expediently-made tools that, are discarded i n r e l a t i v e l y low frequencies,, suggesting a l i m i t e d term occupation of the s i t e s . C luster 2 i s composed of 6 assemblages having an EeRj II/G2-III EeRj 35/G2I-I EeRj28/G6-l EeRj 20/G2-XII EeRj 27/G3-III EeRj 82A56-II EeRj I8/G2-X EeRj 55/G28-I EeRj I7/G2-IX EeRj 39/G2I-V EeRj 5/FI2-I EeRj 29/G7-I EeRj I9/G2-XI EeRj 47/G22-I EeRj 8/FI2-V EeRj22/G2-XIV EeRj 2I/G2-XIII EeRj26/G3-ll EeRj 33/GI8-I EeRj62/G28-VII EeRj42/G2l-IX EeRj56/G28-ll EeRj 58b/FI2-IV EeRj 60/G28-VI EeRj 7/FI2-III EeRj 58a/G28-IV| EeRj I0/G2-II EeRj64/G3l-l EeRj 7I/F8-I EeRj 36/G2I-II EeRj 52/G23-I EeRj72/F8-ll EeRj 45/G2I-XIII EeRj53/G27-l EeRj23/G2-XV EeRj 63/G30-I EeRj I2/G2-IV EeRj69/GII-ll EeRj 6/FI2-II EeRj40/G2l-VI EeRj49/G22-lll EeRj43/G2l-X EeRj 50/G22-IV EeRj 24/G2-XVI 2.5 FIGURE 4 3 . Ward's cl u s t e r analysis of t o o l assemblage 2 7 6 a v e r a g e t o o l f r e q u e n c y o f 5 . 8 and a mean number o f t o o l t y p e s o f 4 . 5 , w h i c h a r e b o t h below t h e sample a v e r a g e s . C h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s common t o a l l assemblages i n c l u d e t h e p r e s e n c e o f b a s a l t b i f a c e ends and s t e e p - a n g l e d m a r g i n a l u n i f a c i a l r e t o u c h f l a k e s . T o o l t y p e s a b s e n t i n t h i s c l u s t e r i n c l u d e p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t f r a g m e n t s ( t i p s and b a s e s ) , c o m p l e t e b i f a c e s , formed u n i f a c e s , and g r a v e r s . M i c r o b l a d e s and b i p o l a r implements o c c u r m i n i m a l l y . A g a i n , t h e low d i v e r s i t y o f t o o l t y p e s p r e s e n t and t h e low a v e r a g e t o o l sample s i z e f o r assemblages i n t h i s c l u s t e r i m p l y t h a t s i t e s were u t i l i z e d f o r b r i e f , p o s s i b l y t a s k - s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . , C l u s t e r 3 i s t h e second l a r g e s t group,, w i t h a t o t a l o f 1 1 assemblages p r e s e n t . T h i s c l u s t e r i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a v e r y h i g h mean assemblage t o o l f r e q u e n c y o f 4 9 . 5 and a mean number o f 1 1 . 1 t o o l t y p e s p e r a s s e m b l a g e s . S i t e s i n t h i s c l u s t e r have t o o l assemblages c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h c o - o c c u r r e n c e s o f p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s , p o i n t f r a g m e n t s , b i f a c e f r a g m e n t s and ends, m i c r o b l a d e s , and b o t h s t e e p and a c u t e - a n g l e d m a r g i n a l u n i f a c i a l r e t o u c h f l a k e s . . T h i s h i g h a v e r a g e t o o l f r e q u e n c y and d i v e r s i t y argue f o r more i n t e n s i v e o c c u p a t i o n and a w i d e r r a n g e o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t , r e s u l t i n su c h a p a t t e r n o f t o o l d e p o s i t i o n . The most d i a g n o s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c l u s t e r 4 i s t h e common p r e s e n c e o f p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t t i p s i n t h e a s s e m b l a g e s . A l l s i t e s i n t h i s c l u s t e r l a c k c o m p l e t e 277 p r o j e c t i l e points, formed unifaces, b i f a c i a l retouch f l a k e s , and b i p o l a r implements. Other t o o l types with a high extent of co-occurrence i n assemblages belonging to t h i s group include biface fragments and ends, and marginal u n i f a c i a l retouch f l a k e s . The average frequency of tools per assemblage i n t h i s group i s 8.0. The mean number of t o o l types per s i t e i s 4.7. Both of these values are below the t o t a l sample means. It. i s l i k e l y that items such as point t i p s and b i f a c e fragments would r e s u l t at locations where they were broken e i t h e r through use or manufacture, and therefore may be regarded as primary refuse. I f these to o l fragments were the r e s u l t of use, one can i n f e r that hunting and/or butchering a c t i v i t i e s may have been common to the assemblages i n the c l u s t e r . Again, the low mean tool frequency and number of tool types present argue f o r a r e s t r i c t e d range of a c t i v i t i e s and a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f period of s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n . Assemblages i n c l u s t e r 5 are characterized by the common presence of microblades. A l l other tool types are minimal i n t h e i r l e v e l of co-occurrence among the c l u s t e r members,, which i s r e f l e c t e d i n the lowest mean number of t o o l types (3.0) of a l l the cl u s t e r s . . The average tool frequency among the assemblages i s 4.4, As the present s i g n i f i c a n c e of microblades i n l i t h i c s c a t t e r s i t e s i s uncertain, t h i s c l u s t e r may be r e f l e c t i n g a temporal or 2 7 8 functional pattern i n the sample. An i n i t i a l assessment of the empirical v a l i d i t y of the c l u s t e r analysis was done by applying Kruskal-Wallis tests to measures of tool assemblage, frequency and number of t o o l types, grouped on the basis of the above cluster-groups.. These t e s t s , yielded H values of 25,231 and 27,022 r e s p e c t i v e l y , with 4 degrees of freedom. Both values have a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of 0.0001, i n d i c a t i n g that the c l u s t e r samples are not derived from the same underlying population. i t was also desirable to determine the r e l a t i v e a b i l i t y of both the t o o l and debitage based c l u s t e r s to order general v a r i a b i l i t y present among l i t h i c assemblages. This was accomplished by applying a s e r i e s of Kruskal-Wallis t e s t s to the data presented i n table 20, grouped according to the t o o l assemblage c l u s t e r s . This data set had also been arranged with respect to the debitage assemblage c l u s t e r s and subjected to i d e n t i c a l t e s t s . The r e s u l t s of the Kruskal-Wallis tests on the t o o l c l u s t e r defined groups are presented i n Table 23. With the exception of two cases (chert platform-bearing flakes and s i t e debitage d e n s i t y ) , a l l of the a t t r i b u t e s are s i g n i f i c a n t well beyond the .05 l e v e l , i n d i c a t i n g that the members of each tool c l u s t e r are not derived from the same population. 279 TABLE 23 KRUSKAL-WALLIS TESTS ON GENERAL LITHIC ASSEMBLAGE ATTRIBUTES OF SITES GROUPED BY WARD'S CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF TOOLS Assemblage Attribute H(x 2) Degrees of Freedom Significance Level Total Basalt Shatter Weight 18.9^2 4 0.001* Total Chert Shatter Weight 18.000 4 0.001* Total Shatter Weight 20.853 4 0.000* Total Basalt Platform-Bearing Flakes 18.681 4 0.001* Total Chert Platform-Bearing Flakes 5.545 4 0.236 Total Platform-Bearing Flakes 21.920 4 0.000* Total Basalt Mass 17.926 4 0.001* Total Chert Mass 15.615 4 0.004* Total Lithic Mass 22.111 4 0.000* Total Lithic Data Area 25.008 4 0.000* Site Debitage Density 5.^13 4 0.247 NOTE: * - Significant at 0.05 level of probability 280 Multidimensional Scaling of Tools The matrix of transformed Jaccard's c o e f f i c i e n t s was also used i n Torgerson's metric multidimensional s c a l i n g technique. The metric q u a l i t y of the matrix i s indicated by the minimal number of t r i a n g l e i n e q u a l i t i e s present; only 1 out of 13,244 check tests were v i o l a t e d . The metric s c a l i n g resulted i n the generation of 10 axes that explain 85.56% of the sample variance. However, the s p e c i f i c amount of v a r i a b i l i t y accounted f o r by each sector i s quite low. The l a r g e s t , vector 1, accounts for only 14.97% of the t o t a l variance. The configurations of the t o o l assemblages on the f i r s t four axes, which explain a t o t a l of 48.33% of the i n i t i a l variance, are presented i n figures 44 and 45. Given the low l e v e l of co-occurrences among tool types i n the i n i t i a l data matrix (see table 11) and the r e s u l t i n g low "percent-of-trace" ( i . e . proportion of variance explained) fo r each axis generated, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the dimensions was a d i f f i c u l t procedure at best. The following discussion i s r e s t r i c t e d to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f i r s t four dimensions. The f i r s t dimension (see f i g u r e 44) d i f f e r e n t i a t e s assemblages with microblades present from those with steep-angled formed unifaces and chert b i f a c e ends. Microblade s i t e s have a d i s t r i b u t i o n r e s t r i c t e d to the upper half of the sample values for t h i s vector while those assemblages 281 G2-XVI 622-G 2-111 G22-III + G2I-VI FI 2-11 IV + G2I-X + 0.6 0.5-FIGURE k k . Torgerson's metric Multidimensional scaling of t o o l assemblages: dimensions 1 and 2. 282 w i t h b o t h c h e r t and b a s a l t s t e e p - a n g l e d formed u n i f a c e s and c h e r t b i f a c e ends t a k e on v a l u e s i n t h e l o w e r h a l f o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t formed u n i f a c e s and m i c r o b l a d e s have a m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e t o o l a s s e m b l a g e s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t b o t h o f t h e s e t o o l t y p e s have p r e v i o u s l y been c o n s i d e r e d t o be d i a g n o s t i c o f t h e E a r l y N e s i k e p p e r i o d . I f t h i s i s i n d e e d t h e c a s e , t h i s d i m e n s i o n may r e p r e s e n t a c t i v i t y v a r i a t i o n between assemblages c o n t a i n i n g t h e two t o o l t y p e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e e x c l u s i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e s e t o o l s may a l s o q u e s t i o n t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f b o t h as d i a g n o s t i c o f t h e E a r l y N e s i k e p P e r i o d . I n e i t h e r c a s e , i t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t d i m e n s i o n 1 c o n t r a s t s t o o l s h a v i n g m i n i m a l r e t o u c h ( m i c r o -b l a d e s ) w i t h t o o l s o f e x t e n s i v e f a c i a l r e t o u c h (formed u n i f a c e and c h e r t b i f a c e e n d s ) . D i m e n s i o n 2 ( s e e f i g u r e 44) a c c o u n t s / f o r 13.18% o f t h e i n i t i a l sample v a r i a n c e . The major p a t t e r n o b s e r v e d i n t h i s d i m e n s i o n i s t h e l o a d i n g o f s i t e assemblages w i t h c o m p l e t e o r f r a g m e n t a r y p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s m a n u f a c t u r e d o u t o f e i t h e r c h e r t o r b a s a l t i n t h e l o w e r h a l f o f t h e r a n g e o f a x i s v a l u e s . C h e r t and b a s a l t formed u n i f a c e s as w e l l as c o m p l e t e b i f a c e s a r e a l s o f o u n d o n l y i n t h e s e a s s e m b l a g e s . T h i s d i m e n s i o n i s i n f e r r e d t o measure t h e emphasis on h u n t i n g and b u t c h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s o v e r t h e assemblage sample. 2 8 3 Dimensions 3 and 4 (see f i g u r e 45) explain 10.50% and 9 . 6 8 % of the i n i t i a l sample variance r e s p e c t i v e l y . The patterns presented i n both dimensions are much more subtle than those presented above for dimensions 1 and 2 . The main pattern observed for dimension 3 i s the amount of facially-retouched chert tools i n the assemblage. A l l s i t e s with complete or fragmentary chert p r o j e c t i l e points or biface ends are present i n the lower h a l f of the range of loading values on the a x i s . Along dimension 4, s i t e s with b i p o l a r implements and steep-angled marginal b i f a c i a l l y retouched flakes are r e s t r i c t e d to the lower h a l f of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of axis values. In summary, the r e s u l t s of the metric s c a l i n g of the t o o l assemblages were i n t e r p r e t a b l e . The main patterns that emerge from the analysis d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t e s with microblades, unifaces, and p r o j e c t i l e points, implying a minimal three-way d i v i s i o n of a c t i v i t i e s that resulted i n the deposition of the present tool assemblage sample. Comparison of Debitage and Tool Analyses This section examines the r e s u l t s of both the debitage and the t o o l analyses to determine i f any r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two can be ascertained. It also attempts to assess the r e l a t i v e merits and d e f i c i e n c i e s of each approach i n the study of i n t e r s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y of 284 C L U S T E R S : I A 4 • 2 * 5 + 3 • G2I-XIII G28-II FI2-IV G 2 - X V G2-XI •0.5 + 0.5 G1HI G2I-X + A G6-I * G 2 - X I V G2-XVI G2I-II . G22-IV G27-I K . FI2 - V G22-I FI2- III + 0.5 G2-X G 2 - X ^ A G28-I - 0.5 G28-VI GI8-I G7-I G2I-VI G2-IX FI2-I EeRj . G2I-V FIGURE 45. Torgerson's metric multidimensional s c a l i n g of to o l assemblages: dimensions 3 and 4. 285 l i t h i c assemblages. I n i t i a l differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s among to o l and debitage assemblages were determined through a compari-son of v a r i a t i o n between c l u s t e r memberships as defined by the two c l u s t e r analyses. Each s i t e was examined with respect to i t s cluster-group membership i n each of the two assemblage dendrograms. Tool and debitage cluster-group p a i r s were f i r s t examined for the proportion of assemblages common to both. Once those debitage-tool pairs that had a number of common members had been delineated, c l u s t e r memberships of the remaining assemblages i n each p a i r were studied to see i f there was any pattern i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of memberships among other c l u s t e r s . The comparisons discussed below are made on the basis of debitage r e l a t i o n -ships exhibited by each t o o l cluster-group. Tool c l u s t e r 1 contains assemblages that have memberships i n a l l 5 debitage c l u s t e r s . A l l of debitage c l u s t e r 5, representing two b i p o l a r technology assemblages, i s contained within t h i s c l u s t e r . This i s not unexpected since these two assemblages have a large number of b i p o l a r implements that were considered i n the tool a n a l y s i s . The highest number of common assemblages are those associated withidebitage c l u s t e r 3, a t o t a l of four assemblages. A s l i g h t l y smaller number of assemblages (three) are associated with debitage c l u s t e r 1. Of the remaining three assemblages, 286 two are members of debitage c l u s t e r 4 and one i s from debitage c l u s t e r 5. Although the proportion of assemblages i n common with any s p e c i f i c debitage c l u s t e r i s rather low, i t should be noted that 7 out of the 12 s i t e s i n t h i s tool c l u s t e r have memberships i n debitage c l u s t e r s 1 and 3,, which are interpreted to r e f l e c t a wide range of reduction steps. It. should also be noted that t o o l c l u s t e r 1 was inf e r r e d to represent an emphasis on expediently-manufactured tools which have a high p r o b a b i l i t y of being manufactured, used, and discarded at the same l o c a t i o n . In such a s i t u a t i o n , the f u l l range of tool manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s would be expected, and that i s the case here. Three assemblages of to o l c l u s t e r 2 are members of debitage c l u s t e r 3, while the remaining members are equally d i s t r i b u t e d among debitage c l u s t e r s 1, 2, and 4. Again, the lar g e s t proportion of assemblages i n a common debitage c l u s t e r are those from a c l u s t e r i n f e r r e d to represent a wide range of tool manufacturing steps., It was not possible to perceive any pattern among the remaining t o o l c l u s t e r members. This t o o l c l u s t e r i s characterized by basalt b i f a c e ends and steep-angled marginal u n i f a c i a l retouch flakes., The association of biface fragments with debitage r e f l e c t i n g a wide range of manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s suggests that the bifaees may have been broken during manufacture rather than from use a c t i v i t i e s . Again, the int e r p r e t a t i o n s o f 287 the debitage and t o o l patterns are not considered to be opposed to one another i n t h i s c l u s t e r but they should also not be regarded as having a high degree of concordance. Tool c l u s t e r 3 exhibits a debitage c l u s t e r assoc-i a t i o n highly s i m i l a r to that observed i n tool c l u s t e r 1. Eight of the eleven assemblages are equally d i s t r i b u t e d among debitage c l u s t e r s 1 and 3,, The remaining three assemblages are members of debitage c l u s t e r 4. This indicates that a high proportion of t h i s t o o l c l u s t e r , characterized by high t o o l frequencies and d i v e r s i t y i s associated with debitage r e s u l t i n g from the whdle range of manufacturing steps. Thus, both the tool and debitage data suggest these s i t e s had an intensive occupation which involved a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s . Tool c l u s t e r 4 exhibits equal numbers (3 each) of assemblages associated with debitage c l u s t e r s 2 and 3. The remaining assemblage i s a member of debitage c l u s t e r 1. Again, an association with debitage c l u s t e r s representing a wide v a r i e t y of manufacturing sequences i s the predominant pattern. This c l u s t e r also shows a strong secondary assoc-i a t i o n with a debitage c l u s t e r l i m i t e d to l a t e r manufact-uring and possibly maintenance steps. It should be r e c a l l e d that t h i s t o o l c l u s t e r was characterized by the high co-occurrence of p r o j e c t i l e - p o i n t t i p s and a l e s s e r prevalence 288 of b i f a c e fragments and ends, and marginal u n i f a c i a l retouch flakes; the debitage c l u s t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s suggest that these tools types are l i k e l y derived from two d i s t i n c t manufacturing s t r a t e g i e s . One strategy represents the f i n a l shaping and possibly resharpening of t o o l s , l i k e l y to occur at limited-term, t a s k - s p e c i f i c hunting/butchering l o c a t i o n s , while the other may i n d i c a t e that the fragment-ary tool types are r e j e c t s from a wide range of manufact-uring a c t i v i t i e s . The former strategy i s that which would be expected given the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s t o o l c l u s t e r , that i s , a l i m i t e d range of a c t i v i t i e s centered around hunting/butchering and a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f period of s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n . Thus, i n the case of t h i s tool c l u s t e r , the debitage associations present a more complex perspective of s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n than that derived s o l e l y from t o o l assemblages. The microblade-specific t o o l d u s t e r 5 has three assemblages associated with debitage c l u s t e r 3, three with debitage c l u s t e r 4, and two with c l u s t e r 1. While the primary debitage association i s with c l u s t e r s emphasizing broad-scale reduction, there i s a strong secondary associa-t i o n with c l u s t e r 2, which i s interpreted as r e f l e c t i n g i n i t i a l reduction stages only. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s of such debitage c l u s t e r associations with microblade assemblages are d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t at the present time. It may be 289 t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f m i c r o b l a d e s e n t a i l s a r e d u c t i o n sequence t h a t emphasizes i n i t i a l r e d u c t i o n , a f t e r w h i c h m i n i m a l d e b i t a g e i s p r o d u c e d w h i c h i s i d e n t i f i a b l e as b e i n g due t o l a t e r r e d u c t i o n s t e p s . W h i l e t h i s would a c c o u n t f o r t h e p r e s e n t a s s o c i a t i o n o f a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f m i c r o b l a d e assemblages w i t h d e b i t a g e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o i n i t i a l r e d u c t i o n s t e p s , t h i s needs t o be t e s t e d e x p e r i - -m e n t a l l y b e f o r e i t c a n be used as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e p r e s e n t p a t t e r n i n g . W h i l e t h e above c o m p a r i s o n s p r o v i d e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f t o o l and d e b i t a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e r e l a t i v e u t i l i t y o f each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o a c c o u n t f o r i n t e r a s s e m b l a g e v a r i a b i l i t y r e m a i n s t o be d e t e r m i n e d . The e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y o f each c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s was a s s e s s e d by a c o m p a r i s o n o f r e s u l t s o f K r u s k a l - W a l l i s t e s t s on t e c h n o l -o g i c a l , t o o l , and g e n e r a l l i t h i c assemblage d a t a . The t e c h n o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e - a n d t o o l t e s t s , however, a p p l y t o o n l y one o r the - o t h e r dendrogram. " T h e r e f o r e , t h e y do not e n a b l e a t r u l y r e l a t i v e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two a n a l y s e s . T h i s i s b e t t e r a c h i e v e d by c o n t r a s t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e two s e r i e s o f t e s t s r u n on t h e g e n e r a l l i t h i c assemblage d a t a ( s e e t a b l e s 21 and 13)., When a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o d e b i t a g e c l u s t e r - g r o u p s j 4 (36.4%) o f t h e 11 g e n e r a l l i t h i c assemblage a t t r i b u t e s 290 a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e , 0 5 l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y j t h a t i s , t h e y do not r e p r e s e n t samples