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Housing for disabled people : the essential factors of domestic spatial organization Iwata, Naoyuki 1978

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HOUSING FOR DISABLED PEOPLE: The E s s e n t i a l Factors of Domestic S p a t i a l Organization by Naoyuki Iwata B.Sc. Erig. Kanto Gakuin U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 M.Sc. Arch..KantocGakuirL.University, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Architecture) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1978 © Naoyuki Iwata, 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the regu i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f School of Architecture The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date April 25, 1978 > i i Abstract In order to establish the essential c r i t e r i a of domestic spatial organization for disabled people, this study examined the result of a survey of disabled people in Vancouver. It focussed on two major points: (i) the mobility of disabled people in the home and ( i i ) the type of house-hold with disabled members. The mobility of disabled people in the home was classified into six levels: those who (1) can walk; (2) can walk but with limited capability, (3) can walk with mechanical aids (canes, crutches, walkers, etc.), (4) are mobile with wheelchair, (5) are mobile with a wheelchair but rela-: tively dependent, and (6) are immobile. The necessary domestic spatial arrangements for each Mobility Level were established by examining the capability of the disabled people at that level in fundamental daily activ-i t i e s such as walking, transferring to and from a bed, eliminating, bathing, and going out of the home. In order to establish the basic types of household with dis-abled members, six standard household types were considered: husband-and-wife family, one-parent family, complex family, individual, and group. The classification into basic types of household with disabled members was established by indicating the position of disabled members in each standard type of household. The essential domestic spatial factors for each type of household with disabled members were established by focussing-; on who is i n charge of or who is partially in charge of the fundamental responsibilities of daily l i f e such as earning a li v i n g , housekeeping, and providing personal i i i care and assistance for disabled members. Ultimately, both the Levels of M o b i l i t y and the composition of households with disabled members, taken together, were used to e s t a b l i s h the e s s e n t i a l factors of domestic s p a t i a l organization. These factors should prove very u s e f u l i n future research to locate, describe, and ulti m a t e l y eliminate a r c h i t e c t u r a l b a r r i e r s i n the use of dwellings by disabled people. Professor Robert K. Macleod Research Advisor. XV Table of Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Theory and Rationale 3 2.1 Housing Needs of Households with Disabled Members and Households without Disabled Members 3 2.2 Architectural Barriers and Mobility of Disabled People 5 2.3 Composition of Households with Disabled Members and the Use of Dwellings 8 2.4 Level of Capability 10 3. Methodology 13 4. Mobility of Disabled People and Domestic Space in the Home 15 4.1 Mobility 15 4.2 Mobility and Use of Mechanical Aids 18 4.2.1 Use of Mechanical Aids and Spatial Conditions inside the Home 18 4.2.2 Use of Mechanical Aids outside the Home 22 4.3 Mobility and Fundamental Daily Activities 26 4.4 Mobility and Type of Disability 34 4.5 Summary 39 5. Domestic Space and Composition of Household with Disabled Members . . . 44 5.1 Classification of Households with Disabled Members 44 5.2 Type of Households in the Sample 51 5.3 Position of Disabled Members and Their Responsibilities in Their Household 5^ 5.4 Summary 59 6. Conclusions 62 V Table of Contents - continued Bibliography 65 Appendix I Patterns of Activity 69 Appendix II Social Participation 80 Appendix III Survey Questionnaires 89 v i L i s t of Tables Table 1. M o b i l i t y , Independence and S p a t i a l Organization 7 2. M o b i l i t y Pattern, and Degree and Location of Physical Impairment 12 3. M o b i l i t y and Pattern of Movement 17 4. Use of Mechanical Aids i n s i d e the Home 19 5. Use of Mechanical Aids outside the Home 23 6. Use of Transportation 25 7. Fundamental Daily A c t i v i t i e s and Implications f o r M o b i l i t y . . . . 26 8. C r i t e r i a of Evaluation of Level of Ca p a b i l i t y 27 9. M o b i l i t y Level and Type of D i s a b i l i t y 35 10. Nature of D i s a b i l i t y Type and M o b i l i t y Problems i n General . . . . 36 11. M o b i l i t y and S p a t i a l Factors i n the Home 40 12. Type of Household and P o s i t i o n of Disabled Members i n the Household 48 13. C o r r e l a t i o n of P o s i t i o n of Disabled Members i n the Household and Domestic S p a t i a l Needs 49 14. Type of Household i n the Sample 52 15. Type of Household, P o s i t i o n of Disabled Members i n the Household, and Level of M o b i l i t y 58 16. Type of Household and Domestic S p a t i a l Factors 59 17. The S z a l a i 99 Category A c t i v i t y Code 74 18. ' Weekday Time Budget f or Disabled and Non-disabled by A c t i v i t y i n Average Minutes 77 v i i L i s t of Diagrams Diagram 1. Ca p a b i l i t y i n the Fundamental Dai l y A c t i v i t i e s - Ambulant 31 2. C a p a b i l i t y i n the Fundamental Dai l y A c t i v i t i e s - Semi-ambulant I 32 3. C a p a b i l i t y i n the Fundamental Dai l y A c t i v i t i e s - Semi-ambulant II 32 4. Ca p a b i l i t y i n the Fundamental D a i l y A c t i v i t i e s - Wheelchair I 33 5. C a p a b i l i t y i n the Fundamental D a i l y A c t i v i t i e s - Wheelchair II 33 v i i i Acknowledgement I would l i k e to acknowledge my appreciation to the many people who helped with t h i s study. P a r t i c u l a r thanks to Professor R.K. Macleod of the School of Architecture, who provided the o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n ; Professor M.R. Hood of the School of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Medicine, whose help i n the i n i t i a l work made t h i s study possible; and Professor J.B. C o l l i n s of the Department of Adult Education, who provided c r i t i c i s m and h e l p f u l suggestions. Special thanks are also due to Mr. Ed Desjardins of the G.F. Strong R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Centre, Mr. Tom Parker of the Canadian Paraplegic Association, Mr. Les Watson of the Handicapped Resource Centre, Mrs. E.G. Munro of the ISOTH Housing Society, Mrs. L. Freiman of the SPARC of B.C., Mr. F.W. Crockett of the B.C. Housing Management Commission, for valuable information; and to a great number of disabled people for t h e i r a c t i v e co-operation. I f e e l obliged as w e l l to Mr. Jim Placzek, for helping me correct the d r a f t . F i n a l l y , s p e c i a l appreciation i s extended to my parents, Mr. and Mrs. Minoru Iwata, for t h e i r encouragement, love and understanding during d i f f i c u l t time. 1. 1. Introduction Decisions about architectural details such as door width, counter heights, ramps, stairs, wheelchair circulation spaces, etc., are mainly based on the kinds of mechanical aids used by disabled people. Hous-ing for disabled people has been well-researched in terms of these details. However, the efficient use of these details i s not often considered by a great variety of disabled people in the actual housing design. In particular, not enough attention is paid to the type of disability and the type of the household. Thus, inadequate details and special designs are often introduced, or unreasonably large spaces or complex features are provided where standard dimensions and equipment would be sufficient and more desirable. These f a i l -ures create more barriers and problems for disabled people rather than accommodating them comfortably by eliminating such .obstacles and providing a high degree of safety and manoeuverability. Moreover, non-disabled people who live with disabled people in the same household are often ignored in the design of housing for disabled people. Unnecessary architectural adaptations are often introduced into places or areas which the disabled members of the household possibly do not use or seldom use, but the other members do. Specialized architectural adaptations for disabled people are sometimes inconvenient or awkward for non-disabled people. The most important factor in the design of housing for disabled people is how to cl a r i f y the relationship between disabi l i t y type and house-hold type in order to discriminate more precisely among the various kinds of housing needs of disabled people. This study attempts to provide such a 2. c l a r i f i c a t i o n and such discrimination by examining the result of a survey of disabled people in Vancouver. The main purpose of this study is to establish the essential c r i t e r i a of domestic spatial organization for disabled people, as one com-ponent of an overall study of housing design need for disabled people. lor the purpose of the study, disab i l i t y shall be defined as any limitation of mobility (walking, stair climbing, etc.) resulting from a physical condition, including paralysis of the lower limbs, or spinal cord lesion. Thus, problems of mental disa b i l i t y , blindness and deafness are excluded from this study. 3. 2. Theory and Rationale 2.1 • Housing Needs of Households with Disabled Members and Households without Disabled Members. Households with disabled members tend to have c e r t a i n chara-c t e r i s t i c needs f or the i r dwellings with regard to types of d i s a b i l i t y of the disabled members, the composition of the household, housing conditions and the i n t e r a c t i o n of these f a c t o r s . These needs might be deduced from the following: the large proportion of time spent at home, d i f f i c u l t i e s i n personal hygiene and dressing, requirement of personal care and assistance, and/or f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l work done completely at the home to earn a l i v i n g . However, th i s does ,not necess a r i l y mean that housing for house-holds with disabled members should require a d i f f e r e n t study approach from ordinary housing: rather i t should be based on the usual p r i n c i p l e s of ordinary housing study. The housing needs of households with disabled members are b a s i c a l l y the same as those of ordinary households. For example, a l l house-holds require s h e l t e r , which i s one of the most fundamental needs f o r s u r v i v a l and can be defined as the needs f or a place i n which to eat, sleep, and store one's worldly goods. There are many other common needs: a house or i t s equivalent should also afford the family comfort, convenience, privacy, r e s t , and quiet. If the degree of handicap of disabled people i s very s l i g h t , their housing needs (dwellings) should be very s i m i l a r to non-disabled people. In contrast, disabled people who have severe p h y s i c a l handicaps may need 4. special housing arrangements for daily l i f e . With respect to housing design for households with disabled members, therefore, i t i s essential to define how the characteristics of disabled people and households with disabled members affect the use of dwellings and housing needs. 5 . 2.2 Architectural Barriers and Mobility of Disabled People From the viewpoint of architectural design, the relation of disabled people to failure in spatial organization in the home is indicated by architectural barriers in the use of dwellings by disabled people. S. Goldsmith''' pointed out that physical handicap is not synonymous with physical di s a b i l i t y . A handicap i s the result of obstacle which hinder the achievement of specific goals. In the context of archi-tecture, these obstacles are the lack of suitable space and f a c i l i t i e s which cause people with d i s a b i l i t i e s to be handicapped in their use of buildings: so-called architectural barriers. Thus, the degree of handicap (difficulty) of disabled people in the use of dwellings is dependent mainly on the types of disab i l i t y and on the configuration of their housing conditions (the adequacy of designed elements in the home). Architectural barriers in the use of dwellings by disabled people in their daily lives are classified into two levels, based on the organizational elements in the home: referred to here as the room level and the overall dwelling level. There is another level which w i l l be refer-red to here as the detail level which must be considered concurrently. However, the detail level is considered one part of the room level in this study because details should be designed for maximum satisfaction in the characteristic uses of each room. Most daily activities in the home occur in specific rooms or spaces, which each resident determines for himself. Many of these rooms 1. Mr. Selwyn Goldsmith is author of "Designing for the Disabled". This comment i s in Designing for the Disabled, p. 11. 6. and/or spaces comprize one dwelling unit. Since each activity occupies a different area of the dwelling, mobility (going from one part of the dwelling to another) should be examined closely. When disabled people have d i f f i c u l t i e s in mobility or need wheelchairs or other mechanical aids (canes, crutches, walkers, etc.), i t is necessary to consider their spatial needs for on a room-to-room basis. When disabled people need constant personal care and assistance for their a c t i v i t i e s , the relationship between these people and their assist-ants is an important factor of spatial needs, and adequate arrangements in the spatial organization to support this relationship are required throughout the dwelling. The relationships between mobility and spatial organization level in the home are more clearly expressed in Table 1. Table 1. M o b i l i t y , Independence and S p a t i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n Degree of d i f f i c u l t y i n the use of a d w e l l i n g by d i s a b l e d people S p a t i a l l e v e l s and a c t i v i t i e s M o b i l i t y C a p a b i l i t y of independence i n managing d a i l y a c t i v -i t i e s i n the home Some a c t i v i t y M o b i l i t y Other a c t i v i t y 1. Without mechan-i c a l a i d s U s u a l l y independent In N-Mecha. . In 2. Without mechan-i c a l a i d s R e l a t i v e l y independent In N-Mecha. D 1! 3 . Wi th mechan ica l a i d s R e l a t i v e l y independent In W-Mecha. D 4 . With mechan ica l a i d s R e l a t i v e l y dependent W-Mecha. D 5. Immobile or mob i le w i t h someone's a i d s Completely dependent D or D & D r" D w e l l i n g L e v e l Room L e v e l I n : independent i n managing a c t i v i t y D: dependent i n managing a c t i v i t y N -Mecha. : Without mechanical a i d s W-Mecha. : With mechanica l a i d s 8. 2.3 Composition of Households with Disabled Members and the Use of Dwellings. An additional direct influence in the use of dwellings by disabled people is the composition of household; that i s , household size, the relative ages of members of the household, the relationship of the house-hold members and especially, position of disabled members in their household. Where disabled members need some personal care and assistance, the position of their assistants in their household and relationship between disabled members and their assistants are important too. The position of disabled members and their responsibilities in their households affect the use of rooms and areas in their homes. Hence, these factors help determine where and how architectural barriers should be eliminated, and what kind of elements and features should specifically be provided. For example, in a family where the housewife is disabled, but she s t i l l expects to have charge of things in the kitchen, then the kitchen should be planned specifically for her. Where disabled members need assis-tants in their daily lives, special considerations for the relationships between disabled members and their assistants should be designed at the over-a l l dwelling level. Where disabled members are likely to stay at home (due to unemployability or other factors), special consideration is necessary to accommodate the needs of those disabled members on the room level and/or on the overall dwelling level in order to prevent serious conflict among the activities of those disabled members and other household members.^ 1. The patterns of daily activities of disabled people are discussed in appendix I for "Pattern of Activity" based on a time budget survey. 9. The direct design objectives for the housing of households with disabled members are twofold: to increase the capability of physical independence of the disabled members, and simultaneously to minimize the needs of personal care and assistance for the disabled members by elimina-ting architectural barriers. Ultimately, disabled people should be enabled to smoothly assume their responsibilities in their household lives. Discussion of both the architectural barriers to mobility and the composition of households with disabled members taken together form the analytical axes to examine dwelling use in order to determine necessary and most effective housing arrangements. 10. 2.4 Level of Capability Up to now, distinctions among disabled people tend to have been made according to the level of functional impairment, especially for the purpose of providing therapy and/or of giving pensions (HPIA)^ in the government social welfare plans. In contrast, there should be another level defined here as the level of capability which is the degree of capability of independence of disabled people in managing personal affairs. Although the physical capacities at each level of functional impairment are limited, the factors of training and constant practice in fundamental a c t i v i t i e s , age and motivation positively affect the development and increase the capabilities of disabled people. Thus Level of Capability is assessed by examining how each disabled person manages a certain activity and what kinds of problem he has in engaging in that activity. A discussion of Level of Capability expresses more clearly the degree of d i f f i c u l t y of disabled people in their daily lives than a discussion of the level of functional impairment. In order to observe the characteristics of disabled people in domestic l i f e habits, understanding disabled people by the degree of cap-abil i t y in managing their activities i s quite essential. In this study, mobility i s considered one Level of Capability. As mentioned earlier, this is because point-to-point movement is the most fundamental activity in domestic l i f e habits and is a focal point for a method of organizing space in the home. Subsequently, the capabilities of disabled people in managing fundamental activities such as personal hygiene 1. Handicapped Person Income Allowance by Guaranteed Available Income for Need Act, Order in Council 2531, B.C. 11. (eliminating and bathing) and going out of the home are discussed i n terms of d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of mo b i l i t y . These a c t i v i t i e s are important, but highly troublesome for disabled people. Thus, as defined by C a p a b i l i t y , disabled people are considered here to be handicapped only by reference to current housing and domestic l i f e h a b i t s . This discussion leads to the conclusion that Level of Capabil-i t y i s the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n the domestic l i f e habits of disabled people and t h i s f a c t o r i s considered to be the primary point of reference f o r analyzing s p a t i a l conditions i n the home. The mobility patterns of disabled people are c l a s s i f i e d by Level of Ca p a b i l i t y , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of mo b i l i t y to degree and l o c a -t i o n of impairment are expressed i n Table 2. In the table, the impairments of v i s i o n and hearing are not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the impairment of mobil-i t y : these are i n the impairment of sensory perception, even though a handicap.in sensory perception can be considered a secondary handicap i n mobili t y . Also, disabled people with only the impairment of upper limbs are considered to have the same l e v e l of mo b i l i t y as ordinary people. Thus, the subject of th i s study i s those disabled people who have problems with the s p a t i a l organization of the home due to lack of mo b i l i t y . Most such people have an impairment of the lower limbs or s p i n a l cord. The survey subjects of th i s study are li m i t e d to these disabled people who a c t u a l l y have l i m i t e d m o b i l i t y compared with ordinary people. I t should be noted that "mobility" i n t h i s study i s a narrow area of the general meaning of "mobility". M o b i l i t y i s defined as the 12. degree of mobility inside dwellings and with respect to ab i l i t y to move to and from different areas of the dwelling. It is assumed that level of mobility required in domestic l i f e habits is relatively low compared with that of activities outside the home. Therefore, Mobility for this study is not representative of the entire range of mobility of each disabled person. Table 2. Mobility Pattern, and Degree and Location of Physical Impairment  Mobility Degree and location of physical impairment Can walk without any mechanical aids - Impairment of upper limbs - Slight impairment of lower limbs and/or spinal cord - Impairment of vision and hearing Can walk with mechanical aids (canes, crutches, walker) - Relatively severe impairment of lower limbs and/or spinal cord. With wheelchair (manual) - Severe impairment of lower limbs and/or spinal cord With wheelchair (power) - Severe impairment of upper limbs and lower limbs, and/or spinal cord Immobile (bedridden) - Severe impairment of four limbs and/or spinal cord 13. 3. Methodology In order to test the theory of this study and to focus on the domestic l i f e habits of disabled people, an intensive survey was con-ducted in the Greater Vancouver area in December, 1976, and June and July 1977. The survey was of people who actually had limited mobility as a result of their physical dis a b i l i t y , who had been disabled more than a year and who were relatively healthy both physiologically and psychologic-ally at the time of the survey. The following categories of people were excluded from the survey. - People who were bedridden, because they were completely dependent in fundamental affa i r s . - People who were mobile only with assistance, on stretchers or in wheelchairs, because they were considered to be bedridden. - People over the age of sixty, because the housing needs of these people are substantially different (though not crucially different) from disabled people under sixty. - People under the age of twenty, because of a requirement of"the School of Architecture for this survey. No l i s t of addresses and disability types of disabled people was available for this survey because i t was not a government project. Thus, the survey interviews were undertaken without an appropriate sampling procedure. Among 46 respondents, 24 were introduced by associations for the physically handicapped or by individuals, and the rest of the respondents 14. were residents of the B.C. Housing Management's public housing or group homes organized by the Handicapped Resource Center. Although the sample was small, the respondents seemed to be f a i r l y representative of Vancouver disabled in that various different types of disabled people are covered. The respondents were interviewed using two different types of questionnaire (see Appendix III for copies): (i) a comprehensive questionnaire about disa b i l i t y , mobility, and housing condition, and ( i i ) a time budget for a 24 hour period on a weekday which focussed on how the respondent spent his time at home'''. A l l s t a t i s t i c a l results were analyzed by computer using the 2 SPSS program and the, BMD 7M program . 1. The time budget survey was conducted according to W. Michelson's procedure (p. 256-257, 1972). Respondents were asked for time budgets covering the weekday prior to the interview. Time was elicited on a 15 minute basis: that i s , any activity taking 15 minutes or more was reported. Answers for the time budget were coded according to a slightly modified version of the Szalai 99 category activity code (see Appendix I table 17). 2. SPSS: s t a t i s t i c a l package for the social sciences. BMD 7M: stepwise discriminant analysis. These programs are available at the UBC Computer Center. 15. 4. Mobility of Disabled People and Domestic Space in the Home In order to observe a great variety of disabled people, Mobility Level was presented as a method of classification of disabled people. The sample of disabled people in the survey is classified by Mobility Level, and the essential factors of domestic space in the home for each group of disabled people so classified are established. 4.1 Mobility The Mobility of disabled people in the survey was judged by two factors: (i) the manner of movement on a f l a t floor without any mechan-i c a l aids (classified into three categories: able to walk, able to crawl, and immobile); ( i i ) the manner of preferred Mobility on a f l a t floor when mechanical aids are used and what kinds of mechanical aids are needed. The actual classification decision in the survey was based on both the observation of the interviewer and the opinion of; the disabled person himself. Although the Mobility of disabled people was classified i n i t i a l l y into five categories in Table 2, one new category is added as a result of the survey. This is a group of people who are capable of walking without mechanical aids (canes, crutches, and walker) but with limited capability. In addition, the criterion of classification for disabled people who use wheelchair is changed from whether manual or power wheelchairs to degree of independence in Mobility out of the wheelchair. This change is necessary due to the fact that although some people have severe impairment in both upper and lower limbs and they need some personal care and assistance 16. particularly out of the wheelchair, they are nevertheless capable of using manual wheelchairs, especially in the home. They are almost incapable of crawling on a floor, and they have great d i f f i c u l t y in movement to and from a bed or chair. Their Mobility is apparently less than that of people who have lower limb impairment. Thus, they are considered almost the same in Mobility as the group of people in power wheelchairs. The f i n a l c l a s s i f i c a -tion according to Mobility and the distribution of these categories in the survey sample are expressed in Table 3. Table 3 Mobility and Pattern of Movement Category Mobility Pattern of movement and implication Cases Ambulant Can Walk - Capable of walking without any mechanical aids - Usually complete independence 3 Semi-ambulant I Can walk but with limited capability - Capable of walking without any mechanical aids, but with slight d i f f i c u l t y and unsteadiness - Complete independence possible 6 p=2 Semi-ambulant II Can walk with mechanical aids (canes, crutches, walker) - Capable of walking with mechanical aids - Some people very slightly walk along wall without mechanical aids - In come cases, personal care needed 7 P=2 Wheelchair I With wheelchair (independent) - Dependent on wheelchairs - Capable of crawling when out of the wheelchair - May be capable of complete independence, i f barriers removed 18 p=6 g=5 Wheelchair II With wheelchair (relatively dependent) - Dependent on wheelchairs, some people require electric power wheelchairs - Some personal care and assistance required, particularly out of the wheelchair 12 p=4 g=3 Bedridden Immobile (completely dependent) - Mobile only with assistance - Constant care and assistance required p: number of people who live in public housing g: number of people who li v e in group-homes 18. 4.2 Mobility and Use of Mechanical Aids The uses of mechanical aids by disabled people in movement activities in the home are mainly related to their physical capacities and the domestic spatial conditions of their dwellings. Similarly, the uses of mechanical aids out of the home should be related to physical capacity and the outdoor environment. The details of the relationship between Mobility and kinds of mechanical aids are presented here, based on survey information both inside and outside the home. From an analysis of the conditions of use of mechancial aids by disabled people, actual spatial limitations are described. In this study, i t is considered that braces and a r t i f i c i a l limbs, mechanical aids which are attached to the human body, themselves do not directly affect the ut i l i z a t i o n of domestic space in the home as compared with other mechanical aids such as canes, crutches, walkers, and wheelchairs. Therefore, braces and a r t i f i c i a l limbs are not considered here. 4,:2.1 Use of Mechanical Aids and Spatial Conditions inside the Home Eighty-seven percent of the sample of disabled people use mechanical aids inside the home (see Table 4). Clearly, people in the Ambulant category do not use any mechanical aids. However, among six Semi-ambulant I people, two sometimes used canes or crutches, and one sometimes used a wheel-chair. Among seven Semi-ambulant II people, two sometimes used wheelchairs. Both Wheelchair I and II people use only wheelchairs, and among them eight use power wheelchairs (electric). This situation indicates that some disabled Table 4 Use of mechanical aids Inside the home Mobility Level Mechanical aids B W-II W-I Sa-II Sa-I A Total No use of any mechanical aids 3 50.0% 3 100.0% 6 13.0% Canes, Cru tches, Walker 5 p=l 71.4% 2 p=l 33.3% 7 p=2 15.2% Wheelchair (manual) 5 17 2 1 25 P=l g=l 41.2% p=6 g=5 94.4% p=2 28.6% p=l 16.7% p=9 g=6 54.3% Wheelchair (power) 7 P=3 g=2 58.8% 1 5.6% 8 P=3 g=2 17.4% Total 12 18 7 6 3 46 p=4 g=3 100.0% p=6 g=5 100.0% p=2 100.0% p=2 100.0% 100.0% p=14 g=8 100.0% B: Bedridden Sa-II: Semi-ambulant II W-II: Wheelchair II Sa-I : Semi-ambulant I W-I : Wheelchair I A : Ambulant p: number of people who liv e in the public housing g: number of people who liv e in the group homes 20. people tend to use more sophisticated mechanical aids on occasions, presumably in order to increase physical independence. With respect to specific architectural modification for disabled people in the home, Ambulant people live in ordinary single family houses or apartments (with elevators, or walk-up) without any specific modification for disabled people in the home, Ambulant people live in ordinary single family houses or apartments (with elevators, or walk-up) without any specific modi-fication. Among people who use mechanical aids, 17% also l i v e in ordinary single family houses or apartments without any specific modification, and 25% live in somewhat modified single family houses. The rest of them (58%) live in houses or dwelling units which are specifically designed or modified to accommodate disabled people. Except for only one case, this 58% live in houses or dwelling units which are public housing (dwelling units in senior citizen's housing) or group-homes (government subsidized housing: ordinary single family houses converted to rooms for groups of disabled people). In the survey, surprisingly, there was only one interviewee living in private housing which was completely designed specifically for him. This situation implies that the structures of private houses or dwelling units of the samples are relatively utilizable with mechanical aids by disabled people without specific modifications. Wheelchairs are no exception i f at least adequate accessibility is provided. Actually, i t was noticed that every disabled person who needs mechanical aids for Mobility could use these aids in his dwelling in the survey, even though some of them have a certain amount of d i f f i c u l t y . 21. Although 52% of the sample of disabled people in the survey f e l t almost no d i f f i c u l t y in their dwellings, 43% of them had a certain amount of d i f f i c u l t y in their dwellings. In terms of architectural barriers, 14% of the sample of disabled people considered, whether the dwelling had been modified or not, that no barriers had ever been eliminated from their dwellings, and 48% of them considered that barriers had been only partially eliminated. Understandably, i t is wheelchair users who do not live i n the public housing or the group-homes who have the more severe problems in their dwellings. Typical problems related with Mobility which the disabled people have are: - the kitchen not built for a person in a wheelchair, each room very small, and sometimes everything becomes an obstacle, - dwelling not completely renovated yet so that certain areas are inaccessible, disabled resident cannot manage housekeeping due to lack of renovation, - multiple floor levels. In addition, among the disabled people who f e l t almost no di f f i c u l t y in their dwellings, some considered the reason for this lack of di f f i c u l t y to be adequate help (assistant or spouse) available, although architectural barriers had not been yet completely removed. These reactions seem to indicate that the present domestic spatial conditions seriously restri c t some disabled people's f u l l independence in Mobility in the home, even though they use correct mechanical aids for their physical capacities. 22. In order to increase the degree of ph y s i c a l independence of these disabled people i n Mo b i l i t y and to reduce t h e i r need for personal care and assistance i n d a i l y l i f e , adequate s p a t i a l arrangements for each Level of M o b i l i t y are outlined i n the summary, Table 11. 4.2.2 Use of Mechanical Aids outside the Home Ninety-three percent of the sampled disabled people use mechanical aids outside the home (see Table 5). This r a t i o i s s l i g h t l y higher than that found in s i d e the home, and e s p e c i a l l y the number of wheelchair users i s la r g e r . This r e l a t i v e usage mechanical aids indicates that these aids, and e s p e c i a l l y higher l e v e l (more sophisticated) aids, are used r e l a t i v e l y l e s s i n s i d e the home, and r e l a t i v e l y more outside. Thus, i t i s assumed that the mo b i l i t y of disabled people i s more l i m i t e d outside the home than i n s i d e , due to the longer distances involved, fear of unpredictable happenings and lack of privacy (disabled people tend to d i s l i k e d isplaying t h e i r d i s a b i l i t i e s and clumsiness). At the same time, i t i s also assumed that convenient access to the outdoor environment i s gradually improved for disabled people by the use of mechanical aids, although many d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t obstacles s t i l l e x i s t . With respect to transportation, the remarkable d i f f e r e n c e between wheelchair users (both Wheelchair I and II people, and others who use wheelchairs) and non-users (excluding Bedridden people) i s that the l a t t e r group have access to public transportation (see Table 6). Wheelchair users and other severely disabled people are very dependent on the Easter Seal bus services''' and/or the motor car. They may be able to use t r a i n s and a i r c r a f t ^ 1. The Easter Seal bus services sponsored by the B r i t i s h Columbia Lions Club. Table 5 Use of mechanical aids outside the home Mobility Level Mechanical aids B W-II W-I Sa-II Sa-I A Total No use of any mechanical aids \ / 1 16.7% 3 100.0% 4 8.7% Canes, Crutches, Walker \ / 2 28.6% 3 p=l 50.0% 5 p=l 10.9% w 4 17 5 2 28 .Wheelchair (manual) / P=l g=l 33.3% p=6 g=5 94.4% p=2 71.4% p=l 33.3% p=10 g=6 60.8% Wheelchair (power) 8 P=3 g=2 66.7% 1 5.6% 9 p=3 g=2 19.6% 12 18 7 6 3 46 Total p=4 g=3 100.0% p=6 g=5 100.0% p=2 100.0% p=2 100.0% 100.0% p=14 g=8 100.0% B : Bedridden Sa-II : Semi-ambulant II W-II : Wheelchair II Sa-I : Semi-ambulant I W-I : Wheelchair I A : Ambulant p : number of people who live in the public housing g : number of people who live in the group homes. 24. but other means of public transport such as buses are unlikely to be accept-able to them, although they may be able to use buses with help from other people. Buses have many disadvantages: catching a bus often involves a long wait in the open air; bus stops may not be convenient to home or destina-tion; there is very l i t t l e room inside buses for storage of wheelchairs and other large mechanical aids. Hence, they are required to have a personal car (if i t i s within their capability, both physically and financially), or to use the Easter Seal bus services at $1.00 for the f i r s t mile and 25c for each additional mile, and/or taxi services ( i f relatives and friends who drive for them are not available). An important thing is that the majority of disabled people are financially under-privileged because their earning capacity is quite often decreased by dis a b i l i t y , and disabi l i t y i t s e l f requires additional expenditure. Therefore, many of them cannot afford to have their own personal car even i f physically capable of driving, nor can they afford to use the Easter Seal bus services or taxi services often. These disabled people tend to be unable to select where they go and when they go. Moreover, in terms of excursions outside the home, these people are actually quite restricted, and are l i k e l y to stay at home. This matter is discussed in appendix II for "Social Participation". Their mobility outside the home may be limited as much by financial considerations as by their physical conditions. These people require not only adequate domestic spatial arrangements but also adequate transportation services which encourages them to go out ( i f they wish) and enables them to increase their independence outdoors. Table 6 Use of transportation Mobility Level Transpor-tation B W-II W-I Sa-II Sa-I A Total Public bus 1 14.3% 3 50.0% 2 66.7% 6 13.0% Easter Seal Bus (mainly for wheel-chair users) 6 8 2 1 17 p=4 g=2 50.0% p=4 g=2 44.4% P=2 28.6% p=l 16.7% p=ll g=3 36.9% Personal car (driving by himself) \ / 6 3 1 1 11 p=2 g=l 33.3% 42.8% 16.7% 33.3% P=2 8=1 23.9% Taxi, or relative's/ friend's car 6 4 1 1 12 g=2 50.0% g=2 22.2% 14.3% p=l 16.7% P=l g=4 26.1% Total 12 18 7 6 3 46 p=4 g=3 100.0% p=6 g=5 100.0% p=2 100.0% P=2 100.0% 100.0% p=14 g=8 100.0% N 3 Bedridden Sa-II : Semi-ambulant II Wheelchair II Sa-I : Semi-ambulant I Wheelchair I A : Ambulant number of people who l i v e in the public housing number of people who liv e in the group homes 26. 4.3 M o b i l i t y and Fundamental Dai l y A c t i v i t i e s This study hypothesized that M o b i l i t y of disabled people strongly correlates with t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y i n managing d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s ^ i n the home. If th i s hypothesis i s correct, M o b i l i t y should be considered a c r i t i c a l index which expresses the basic independence of disabled people i n d a i l y l i f e . In order to observe c e r t a i n c o r r e l a t i o n between M o b i l i t y and d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , f i v e such a c t i v i t i e s : , walking, transfer to and from 2 a bed, eliminating, bathing, and going out of the home are selected as the most fundamental a c t i v i t i e s . The imp l i c a t i o n of each a c t i v i t y for M o b i l i t y i s expressed i n Table 7. Ca p a b i l i t y i n each a c t i v i t y i s evaluated at f i v e l e v e l s which are concerned with both degree of d i f f i c u l t y and actual use of mechanical aids (see table 8). Table 7. Fundamental d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s and implications f o r M o b i l i t y A c t i v i t y Implication f o r M o b i l i t y I. Walking - Basic a c t i v i t y i n the judgment of M o b i l i t y . I I . Transferring to and from a bed - Beginning and ending a c t i v i t y of d a i l y l i f e . I I I . Eliminating - Beginning and ending of walking; standing up and s i t t i n g down. IV. Bathing - Very complex a c t i v i t y including dressing and grooming. V. Going out of the home - Comprehensive a c t i v i t y r e l a t e d to M o b i l i t y , motivation, s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , etc. 1. d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s : i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n medicine, usually c a l l e d " a c t i v i t i e s of d a i l y l i v i n g " , simply "ADL". 2. eliminating: means " a c t i v i t y f o r evacuation" i n t h i s study. 27. Here, "mechanical aids" means not only canes, crutches, and wheelchairs but also s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s which are required s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r managing the a c t i v i t y (e.g. grab bars i n a bathroom, overhead bars or a h o i s t i n a bedroom, e t c . ) . The evaluation of c a p a b i l i t y of the sampled d i s -abled people i n each a c t i v i t y at each l e v e l of M o b i l i t y i s presented i n diagrams 1 - 5 . With decreasing M o b i l i t y , c a p a b i l i t y i n managing each a c t i v -i t y c l e a r l y decreased as w e l l (pentagons i n the diagrams shrink and d i s t o r t ) . E s p e c i a l l y , Wheelchair II people show s i g n i f i c a n t l y low c a p a b i l i t y i n each a c t i v i t y compared with other l e v e l s of M o b i l i t y . Two of the Wheelchair II people are almost incapable of independence i n any of the f i v e fundamental a c t i v i t i e s . With respect to walking, c e r t a i n l y , Ambulant and Semi-ambu-lant I people are capable without any mechanical aids. Also a couple of Semi-ambulant II people are s l i g h t l y capable without mechanical aids, and other Table 8. C r i t e r i a of evaluation of l e v e l of c a p a b i l i t y Level of C a p a b i l i t y C r i t e r i a (for a l l 5 Fundamental Dai l y A c t i v i t i e s ) 1. Independent - Capable, without any mechanical aids and with almost no d i f f i c u l t y . 2. Independent with d i f f i c u l t y - R e l a t i v e l y capable without any mechanical aids, with d i f f i c u l t y (amounts of time taken, un-easiness, pain experienced). 3. Independent with mechanical aids - Capable with mechanical aids though with c e r t a i n amounts of d i f f i c u l t y . 4. Marginally independent with mechanical aids - With considerable d i f f i c u l t y , barely capable. Personal care and assistance preferred for s e c u r i t y . 5. Dependent - Incapable even with mechanical aids. Personal care and assistance necessary. 28. Semi-ambulant II people need mechanical aids. Some Wheelchair I people are marginally capable of walking with mechanical aids. Wheelchair II and most Wheelchair I people are incapable even with mechanical aids. Although M o b i l i t y of disabled people i n t h i s study i s p r i m a r i l y based on c a p a b i l i t y i n walking so that i t may not be necessary to discuss walking a b i l i t y again here, i t i s quite important to know whether a disabled person i s capable of walking or not (even i f marginally, or with mechanical a i d s ) , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n designing t o i l e t s and bathrooms. When t r a n s f e r r i n g to and from a bed, quite a few disabled people are independent whether with or without mechanical a i d s . Wheelchair II people and a few Wheelchair I people need c e r t a i n mechanical aids to transfer to and from a bed. Also quite a few disabled people are independent i n eliminating, although Wheelchair II and most Wheelchair I people need s p e c i a l mechanical aids ( i n d i v i d u a l l y suited f a c i l i t i e s ) . Fewer people are independent i n bathing than i n eliminating, whether with or without mechanical aids. Apparently, t h i s i s because the a c t i v i t y of bathing i s not only more complex but also requires more energy than the a c t i v i t y of eliminating. One person i n Wheelchair I and h a l f of the Wheelchair II people need some personal care and assistance even i f mechanical aids are being used, since some people may not have enough i n d i v i d u a l l y suited f a c i l i t i e s to be independent. In general, however, the number of people who are independent i n both t o i l e t i n g and bathing i s s u r p r i s i n g l y high, although these a c t i v i t i e s must be extremely troublesome for disabled people. Presum-29. ably, there is a tendency among disabled people to manage personal hygiene by themselves even with greater d i f f i c u l t y . When going out of the home, capability is understandably related to Mobility. One-third of the Wheelchair II people are incapable of independence, and many of them have greater d i f f i c u l t y . In addition, even among Wheelchair I and Semi-ambulant II,. there are some people who are in-capable of independence. This may be due to motivation or some other psycho-logical factors rather than the actual limitation of Mobility in going out of the home. As mentioned previously, Bedridden people are considered to be almost incapable of independence in managing the five Fundamental Daily Activities. Another important activity in the home is climbing stairs and steps, although the capability of disabled people in this activity was not reported in the survey. According to S.P. Harkness and J.N. Groom, Jr.,''' disabled people who are capable of walking (whether or not with mechanical aids such as canes and crutches) generally find stairs easier to negotiate than ramps (which are necessary for wheelchair users). Thus, i t is assumed that the capability of disabled people i n climbing stairs steps i s related to walking a b i l i t y , and Ambulant and Semi-ambulant I people are capable of climbing stairs and steps even with some d i f f i c u l t y and insecurity. In addition, some Semi-ambulant II people may be capable. Understandably, both wheelchair I and II people are considered to be incapable. 1. Harkness, S.P. and Groom, Jr., J.N. Building without barriers for the  disabled, p. 20 and 21. Watson-Guptill Publication, N.Y., 1976. 30. In summary, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of disabled people by M o b i l i t y as i n t h i s study i s a concept which expresses not only l e v e l of M o b i l i t y but also basic independence i n d a i l y l i f e through c a p a b i l i t y of managing the fundamental a c t i v i t i e s of walking, t r a n s f e r r i n g to and from a bed, elimina-t i n g , bathing, and going out of the home. Hence, M o b i l i t y i s considered to be an a n a l y t i c a l axis f or examining domestic d a i l y l i f e habits and for determining the necessary housing domestic s p a t i a l arrangements. 31. In diagrams 1 - 5, the numbers from 1 to 5 indic a t e l e v e l of c a p a b i l i t y i n each a c t i v i t y , as outlined i n Table 8. Each s o l i d - l i n e pentagon represents one disabled" person i n the sample f o r each M o b i l i t y Level. Thus, larger (and more regular) pentagons indi c a t e higher l e v e l s of c a p a b i l i t y i n managing the fundamental d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s represented by each radius. Smaller (and more distorted) pentagons indi c a t e lower l e v e l s of c a p a b i l i t y i n these a c t i v i t i e s . Diagrams 1 - 5 C a p a b i l i t y . i n the Fundamental Daily A c t i v i t i e s . | Walking Bathing Eliminating 32. 33. Walking Going out of the home Diagram 4 Wheelchair I (cases: 18) Transferring to and from a bed Bathing Eliminating Going out of the home Diagram 5 Wheelchair II (cases: 12) Transferring to and from a bed Bathing Eliminating 34. 4.4 Mobility and Type of Disability Although disabled people are classified in this study accord-ing to Mobility which expresses basic independence in daily l i f e , they are medically classified by type of dis a b i l i t y , such as paraplegia, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, etc. In order to further objectify classification of disabled people by Mobility, i t i s essential to observe how the types of disability are distributed among the Mobility levels (see Table 9). Certainly, the majority of quadriplegics are concentrated in wheelchair II, and people with severe cerebral palsy and people with multiple sclerosis who also have paralysis of a l l four limbs are in Wheelchair II as well. Although there are some quadriplegics in Wheelchair I, most people in this Mobility level have severe paralysis of both lower limbs due to paraplegia, cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, or multiple sclerosis. In addi-tion, there are some other types of dis a b i l i t y in Wheelchair I: severe hemiplegia, severe a r t h r i t i s , and double amputation (lower limbs). Paraplegia, hemiplegia, cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, and multiple sclerosis are found in Semi-ambulant II. Most people in Semi-ambulant II have relatively slight paralysis of either both lower limbs or one lower limb (the other being relatively healthy). In Semi-ambulant I, there is no one who has paralysis (or other impairments) of both lower limbs. People in this Mobility level have a relatively severe problem mainly in one lower limb (and, in case of hemiplegia, one upper limb). Semi-ambulant I people suffer from hemiplegia, cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, a r t h r i t i s , or amputation. Similarly, hemiplegia, a r t h r i t i s , and meningitis (with epilepsy) are found in the Ambulant level. 35. For further information, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each type of d i s a b i l i t y and the m o b i l i t y problems associated with each type (as found i n the samples of t h i s study) are summarised from the a v a i l a b l e relevant l i t e r a t u r e i n Table 10. Table 9. M o b i l i t y Level and type of d i s a b i l i t y M o b i l i t y Type of d i s a b i l i t y W-II W-I Sa-II Sa-I A To t a l Hemiplegia ( p a r a l y s i s of one side of the body: an upper limb & lower limb) 1 1 2 1 5 p=l p=l p=2 Paraplegia (paral y s i s of both Tower limbs) 8 3 11 P=3 8=2 p=l p=4 8=2 • Quadriplegia (paraly s i s of a l l four limbs) 9 3 p=l 8=1 12 p=2 8=3 P=3 8=4 Cerebral palsy (para l y s i s of one leg or both lower limbs, and/or upper limbs 1 p=l 1 1 1 p=L 4 p=2 P o l i o m y e l i t i s (see cerebral palsy) 1 1 P=l 1 3 P=l M u l t i p l e s c l e r o s i s (disseminated s c l e r o s i s ) 2 p=l 2 8=1 1 5 P=l 8=1 A r t h r i t i s (pain and s t i f f -ness i n j o i n t s of limbs 1 p=l 1 1 3 P=l Amputation (both lower limbs or one lower:limb) 1 8=1 1 2 8=1 Meningitis and epilepsy (some s l i g h t s p i n a l cord involvement and a d i s -ease of nervous system) 1 1 T o t a l 12 18 7 6 3 46 p=4 8=3 p=6 8=5 P=2 p=2 p=14 8= 8 p: number of people who l i v e i n the public housing, g: number of people who l i v e i n the group homes. 36. Table 10. Nature of d i s a b i l i t y type and mo b i l i t y problems i n general* Type of d i s a b i l i t y Nature of d i s a b i l i t y Problems i n m o b i l i t y Hemiplegia - P a r a l y s i s of one side of the body caused by a b r a i n l e s i o n . - Loss of p o s i t i o n sense a f f e c t i n g one arm and l e g . - Poor balance. Many people use canes (or c a l i p e r s ) . - Severely affected people may be obliged to use wheel-chairs (one-arm drive or e l e c t r i c ) . Paraplegia - P a r a l y s i s of lower limbs and the lower portion of trunk, caused by an i n j u r y to the nerve centres of the s p i n a l cord. - Both sensory and motor nerves are aff e c t e d . - Some people walk with crutches but a large porportion are confined to wheelchairs. Quadriplegia - P a r a l y s i s of a l l four limbs caused by an i n j u r y to the nerve c e l l s i n the c e r v i c a l region, (see Paraplegia) - Not usually able to care f o r themselves or con t r o l a s e l f - p r o p e l l e d wheelchair (manual). Cerebral palsy• - Comprising a v a r i e t y of i n j u r i e s which cause damage to the br a i n at b i r t h or f a u l t y development of the growing b r a i n t i s s u e s . - Depending on the degree and l o c a t i o n of br a i n damage, mental and sensory f a c u l t i e s may be affected. - Spastic cerebral palsy may a f f e c t both lower limbs or, more r a r e l y , both upper limbs, or three or a l l four limbs. - The d i f f e r e n t types of cerebral palsy may r e s u l t i n weakness, poor balance, wild unco-ordinated movement. — Many spastics are obliged to use wheelchairs. P o l i o -m y e l i t i s - Virus disease a f f e c t i n g the anterior nerve c e l l s of the s p i n a l cord which cause p a r a l y s i s of the muscles. - The r e s i d u a l e f f e c t of p o l i o may involve complete or p a r t i a l muscular paraly-s i s i n one leg or arm, or i n s p e c i f i c areas unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the body. - Unsteadiness, e s p e c i a l l y on steep ramps, and d i f f i -c u l t y i n climbing steps. - Many people with p o l i o are confined to wheelchairs. (Continued) 37. Type of d i s a b i l i t y Nature of d i s a b i l i t y Problems i n m o b i l i t y M u l t i p l e s c l e r o s i s - Disseminated s c l e r o s i s , and common disease of the c e n t r a l nervous system which causes p a r a l y s i s and d i s -turbance of sensat ion i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the body. - A l l four limbs may be af fected and balance and co-o r d i n a t i o n may be d i f f i c u l t . - The d i s a b i l i t y becomes more extensive i n t ime. - D i f f i c u l t y i n moving, balancing and reaching forward, up or down. - Many people with m u l t i p l e s c l e r o s i s use wheelchairs (a wheelchair eventua l ly becomes e s s e n t i a l ) . A r t h r i t i s (Os teoar thr i t i s ) - P a i n f u l degenerative changes of the j o i n t s . - Usua l ly the weight-bearing j o i n t s such as hips and knees are a f f ec ted , and m o b i l i t y may be r e s t r i c t e d . (Rheumatoid a r t h r i t i s ) - The most c r i p p l i n g of the rheumatic d i seases . - S t i f f n e s s , s w e l l i n g , pa in i n many j o i n t s of l imbs , p a r t i c u l a r l y smal l j o i n t s of hands and f e e t . - L i m i t a t i o n of movement. - D i f f i c u l t y i n standing from s i t t i n g , standing for long , k n e e l i n g , and reaching up, forward or down. - D i f f i c u l t y i n c l imbing high s teps , and i n negot ia-t ing steep ramps. - people with severe a r t h r i t i s may use wheel-chair s . Amputation - Removal of the:.whole or part of a l imb. (an a r t i f i c i a l leg can approach more c l o s e l y to the usefulness of the o r i g i n a l than an a r t i -f i c i a l arm.) - D i f f i c u l t y i n negot ia t ing steep ramps ( leg amputee). Mening i t i s - Inflammation a f f ec t ing the membranes of the b r a i n or s p i n a l cord . Ep i lepsy - A disease of the nervous system character ized by f i t s or sudden loss of consciousness and often accompanied by convuls ions . - Normal m o b i l i t y , but often a f r a i d of having convuls ions and f a l l i n g i n l i f t s or on winding s t a i r -cases . 38. * Sources Planning for Disabled People i n the Urban Environment, p. 6-8, The Planning Research Unit Department of Urban Design and Regional Planning, University of Edinburgh, 1969. Howie, P.M. A P i l o t Study of Disabled Housewives i n Their Kitchen, p. 12-13, Disabled L i v i n g A c t i v i t i e s Group Central Council f o r Disabled, London, 1968. Goldsmith, S. Design for the Disabled, p. 188-192, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1967. Frost, A. Handbook f o r Paraplegics and Quadriplegics, The National Paraplegia Foundation, I l l i n o i s , 1964. B e l l , E., E l l i o t t , R.M., Von Werssewetz, O.F. Muscle Strength and  Resultant Function i n C e r r i c a l Cord Lesions, AJOT XV, 3, 1961. D i s a b i l i t i e s and Housing Needs, ICTA Information Centre, p. 28-34, Sweden, 1975. 39. 4.5 Summary This study establishes the mo b i l i t y of disabled people i n the home as an. a n a l y t i c a l axis for examining domestic l i f e habits and for determining the necessary domestic s p a t i a l arrangements f o r disabled people. M o b i l i t y was divided into s i x l e v e l s . Subsequently, i n order to more c l e a r l y define each Level of M o b i l i t y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of M o b i l i t y to the use of mechanical aids, basic independence i n d a i l y l i f e , and the type of d i s a b i l i t y (and the natures of the d i s a b i l i t y ) were investigated. From these, the eventual r e l a t i o n s h i p of the M o b i l i t y of disabled people to e s s e n t i a l s p a t i a l factors i n t h e i r homes i s summarised i n Table 11. Table 11. Mobility and spatial factors In the home Mobility Level Basic independence in daily l i f e Domestic spatial factors Note Ambulant (can walk) - Capable of walking without any mechanical aids - May be capable of climbing stairs, but with some di f f i c u l t y - Usually complete indepen-dence in most daily a c t i v i -ties , and generally very similar to ordinary people in a l l domestic l i f e habits. - Independence in going out of the home without any mechanical aids, and with almost no d i f f i c u l t y . - Spatial organization on multiple floor levels is not recommended - Handrails on both sides of stairs are essential. - Mainly problems in one lower limb and/or some minor problems in other parts of the body, (art h r i t i s , hemi-plegia and menin-g i t i s are found.) Semi-ambulant I (can walk, but with limited capability) - Capable of walking without mechanical aids, but with d i f f i c u l t y and unsteadiness. - May be capable of climbing stairs, but with certain amount of d i f f i c u l t y . - Complete independence possible in eliminating and bathing without any special f a c i l i t y . -Most of these people need mechanical aids i n going out of the home, but complete independence possible - Spatial organization on one floor level is recommended. - Handrails in bathrooms and on both sides of stairs and steps are necessary. - Mainly problems in one lower limb: a r t h r i t i s , amputa-tion, cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis and hemiplegia (with problems in an upper limb) are found. - Some people use canes or crutches on occasion inside the home too. (Continue) Mobility Level Basic independence in daily l i f e Domestic spatial factors Note Semi-ambulant II (can walk with mechancial aids) - Capable of walking with mechanical aids, but insecure - Generally quite d i f f i c u l t to climb stairs, therefore not able to go upstairs frequently. - Independence is possible in eliminating, although some people require some special f a c i l i t i e s . - For complete independence, many people need special f a c i l i t i e s in bathing. - Independent in going out of the home with mechanical aids. - Basically, spatial organiza-tion on one floor level is required. - Avoiding level differences within a floor is recommended. - Handrails for convenience and security of circulation are required in certain places. - Grab bars to suit individu-als should be installed in bathrooms (for bathtubs, showers, toiletseats and washbasins). - Relatively severe problems in both lower limbs or sev-ere problems in one lower limb: para-plegia, cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis and multiple sclerosis are found. - Many people use wheelchairs outside the home. Wheelchair I (independent) - Mobile with wheelchairs, may be capable of complete indepen-dence in mobility i f barriers removed in the home. - Most of these people are capable of independence in transferring to and from a bed without special f a c i l i t y , but some people have certain amounts of d i f f i c u l t y . - Depending on space and kinds of individually suited f a c i l -i t i e s available, capable of complete independence in e l -minating and bathing. - Spatial organization on one floor level is absolutely necessary i f elevators (or equivalent) are not available. - Grab bars and overhead bars to suit individuals near the bed are efficient for some people. - Convenient circulation for wheelchairs (going from one part of the home to another and going from place to place within a room) should be guaranteed. - Mainly severe problems in both lower limbs: para-plegia, quadri-plegia, cerebral palsy, hemiplegia, poliomyelitis, multiple sclerosis, a r t h r i t i s , and double amputation are found. (continue) M o b i l i t y Level Basic independence i n d a i l y l i f e Domestic S p a t i a l factors Note Wheelchair I - Capable of independence i n going out of the home with wheelchairs, but d i f f i c u l t y i n use of transportation due to i n a c c e s s i b l e to public transportation (public buses). - Space and d e t a i l s for wheel-chairs i n kitchens and bath-rooms should be c a r e f u l l y considered. - Some of these people drive a car. Wheelchair II ( r e l a t i v e l y dependent) - Mobile with wheelchairs, but due to severe impairments some personal care and assistance required, p a r t i c u l a r l y out of the wheelchair. - Many of these people require e l e c t r i c power wheelchairs. - May be capable of indepen-dence i n t r a n s f e r r i n g to and from a bed and eliminating i f adequate f a c i l i t i e s are pro-vided. - Some people may be capable of independence i n bathing i f adequate f a c i l i t i e s are pro-vided, but they experience considerable d i f f i c u l t y . Some people require personal care and assistance i n bath-ing even with c e r t a i n f a c i l i -t i e s (incapable of independence). - The same recommendations as for Wheelchair I. - In addition, when personal assistance i s necessary, adequate space arrangements for that are required, par-t i c u l a r l y i n bathrooms. - Moreover, for d i f f i c u l t y i n transfer to and from a bed, adequate design arrange-ments i n r e l a t i o n to i n d i v i d -u a l l y suited f a e i l i t e s should be considered i n bedrooms. - Mainly severe problems i n a l l four limes: quadri-p l e g i a , cerebral palsy, and mult i p l e s c l e r o s i s are found. - These people may be p h y s i c a l l y incapable (continue) Mobility Level Basic independence in daily l i f e Domestic Spatial factors Note Wheelchair II (relatively dependent) - Greater d i f f i c u l t y than Wheelchair I people in going out of the home. Some people are incapable of independence. of driving a car with present level of technology. Bedridden (immobile and dependent) - Mobile only with assistance - Almost complete dependence in daily l i f e . Constant care and assistance required. - Special design arrangements in bedrooms are required not only for sleeping but also personal hygiene and dining. - Also relationship between disabled people and assist-ants should be considered in the spatial organizations of the home, especially the distance to the assistant's bedroom. - Space for stretchers in the home is highly desirable. - Severe problems in spinal cord and/or a l l four limbs.. 44. 5. Domestic Space and Composition of Household with Disabled Members. Factors of domestic space found to be e s s e n t i a l to the mobil-i t y of disabled people were focused on i n the previous chapter. As another important consideration of domestic space i n the home, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of (i) the composition of households with disabled members ( e s p e c i a l l y the po s i t i o n of disabled members i n t h e i r households) and ( i i ) domestic s p a t i a l organization i s observed i n th i s chapter. A method of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of households with disabled members i s presented. Subsequently, the households of the sampled disabled people i n the survey are c l a s s i f i e d by this method, and c r i t e r i a l domestic s p a t i a l factors for each type of household are established. 5.1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Households with Disabled Members As mentioned e a r l i e r , the housing needs of households with disabled members are b a s i c a l l y the same as those of ordinary households (p. 3, this paper). Thus, the composition of households with disabled members i s c l a s s i f i e d based on the usual p r i n c i p l e s followed i n ordinary housing studies. Although the terms "household" and "family" are frequently used interchangeably, these terms are used i n t h i s study under the follow-ing definitions.''' A household consists of a person or group of persons occupying one dwelling. It usually consists of a family group with or without lodgers, employees, etc. However, i t may consist of two or more fa m i l i e s sharing a dwelling, of a group of unrelated persons, or of one person l i v i n g alone. 1. Defined by The Census of Canada (Household) 1971, P. 38, 39. 45. A family consists of a husband and wife with or without children (children who have never been married, regardless of age) or a parent with one or more children never married, living in the same dwelling. A family may consist, also, of a man or woman living with a guardianship child or ward under 21 years for whom no pay was received. There is an immense variation i n the nature of households. 2 In housing studies in general , households are commonly classified by indicating either (i) the size of household, ( i i ) the relationship of members of the household, or ( i i i ) a combination of (i) and ( i i ) . (i) "Size of household" refers to the number of people who reside in a dwelling, subdivided according to age (the age range) and sex. These indicate the number of bedrooms required and the amount of space required, ( i i ) Classification by relationship of members of the household refers to the basic division of households into family and non-family households. It also refers to a single family occupying one dwelling, or two or more families occupying the same dwelling. These indicate primarily the necessary layout of rooms and spaces in a dwelling. ( i i i ) Classification by size of household and relationship of members of the household i s a combination of (i) and ( i i ) . 2. For example, * Beyer, G.H., Housing and Society, The Macmillan CompanyColler-MACMILLAN LIMITED, London, 1965. * The Use and Design of Space in the Home. Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Canada, 1975. * Space in the Home, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1968. 46. The third method is used in this study. However, as c l a s s i -fication according to the relationship of a l l members of the household becomes too complex, only the relationship of primary members of each household is considered here. The basic types of households with disabled members are as follows: 1. Husband-and-wife family: husband and wife with or without children, (also may be with husband's or wife's one parent, or with a few related or unrelated boarders), 2. One-parent family: husband or wife with one or more children, (also may be with husband's or wife's one parent, or with a few related or unrelated boarders), 3. Complex family: two or more families living together in the same dwelling (that i s a combination of husband-and-wife families and one-parent families such as two H.-W. families, one H.-W. family and one O.-P. family, two O.-P. families, etc.), 4. Individual: one person liv i n g alone, 5. Group: unrelated individuals living together. A couple living in a common law relationship is classified as a husband-and-wife family. Children are classified into three categories: the f i r s t stage of growth (primary school: under 13 years of age), the later stage of growth (secondary school: ages 13 to 17), and the stage of independence (post secondary school: young adult and adult). Although 47. disabled people under 20 years old were not interviewed, they are included here because the sampled disabled people may have disabled children of those ages. Ultimately, the classification of households with disabled members is established by indicating the position of disabled members in each basic type of household (see table 12). The relationship of (i) the position of disabled members and their responsibilities in their house-holds and ( i i ) domestic spatial needs i s expressed in Table 13. This classification helps determine what specific arrange-ments of the domestic spatial organization of the home are required for each type of household with disabled .members. For example, where and how much architectural barriers should be eliminated, and specifically what kind of space or room should be required. 48. Table 12. Types of Household and P o s i t i o n of Disabled Members i n the Household Type of Household Composition ( p o s i t i o n of disabled members) Code Husband-and-wif e family * Disabled husband without c h i l d r e n * Disabled husband with one or more ch i l d r e n * Disabled wife without c h i l d r e n * Disabled wife with one or more ch i l d r e n * Disabled husband and wife without c h i l d r e n * Disabled husband and wife with one or more chi l d r e n * A disabled c h i l d under 13 years old * A disabled adolescent c h i l d (13 to 17 years old) * A disabled young adult or adult c h i l d Hw Hwc hW hWc HW HWc hwC(X) hwC(Y) hwC(Z) One-parent family * Disabled husband with one or more c h i l d r e n * Disabled wife with one or more ch i l d r e n * Husband or.wife with a disabled c h i l d under 13 years o l d * Husband or wife with a disabled c h i l d of adolescent * Husband or wife with a disabled c h i l d of young adult or adult He Wc h or wC(X) h or wC(Y) h or wC(Z) Complex Family * Combination of husband-and-wife f a m i l i e s and one parent f a m i l i e s example hwC hw, hw wC, etc. I n d ividual * A disabled person l i v i n g alone I Group * Disabled persons l i v i n g together with or without a s s i s t a n t s * A disabled person with non^disabled persons l i v i n g together II I i H: disabled husband h: husband X: Child (under 13 years of age) W: disabled wife w: wife Y: adolescent c h i l d (ages 13 I: disabled i n d i v i d u a l i : i n d i v i d u a l to 17) C: disabled c h i l d r e n c: c h i l d r e n Z: c h i l d (young adult or adult) Table 13. Correlation of position of Disabled Member in the Household and Domestic Spatial Needs Position of the disabled Primary responsi b i l i t y and stage of growth Necessary condition for carrying out responsi-b i l i t y (or for growth) Comestic spatial needs Husband (1) Working to earn a living Satisfactory employment and good working condition - If working outside the home: location of home must provide f u l l access to working place and convenience of transportation. - If working at home: a working room or specific space. (2) Working and housekeeping (see hu sband (1) and wife (1) (3) None (dependent: severely disabled and elderly dis-abled, etc.) Reduce the needs of personal care and assistance - Adequate design arrangements (providing individually suited space and f a c i l i t i e s ) to reduce personal care and assistance particularly in the bedroom and bathroom. Wife (1) Housekeeping Reduce effort in housekeeping - Suitable modifications particularly in the kitchen, dining room and housekeep-ing room ( u t i l i t y room). - If a family with young children, suit-able space and f a c i l i t i e s in the children's play room and bed rooms for the disabled wife. (2) Housekeeping and working See wif e (1) and husband (2) (3) None (see husband(3)) See hus band (3) j ,— (Continued) Position of the disabled Primary responsi-b i l i t y and stage of growth Necessary condition for carrying out responsi-b i l i t y (or for growth) Domestic spatial needs Under 13 years old children The f i r s t stage of growth Relationship with mother who is responsible in childcare, education, and play ac t i v i t i e s . - Consideration of the furnishing, equipment and space in the children's play room. - Proximity of children's play room and bedroom to kitchen and housekeeping room in which mother usually works. - The bedroom should be easily accessible from the mother's bedroom. Adolescent children (ages 13 to _ 17) The latter stage of growth Encouragement toward independence - Providing individually suited space and f a c i l i t i e s in the bathroom. - Privacy should be provided in the bed-room as a place for the child to pursue his own activities and hobbies. Young adult or adult children The stage of ind ep end enc e In preparation for self-support - A high degree of privacy is required in the personal rooms or spaces. - Spatial needs depend on sex: see husband (1) and wife (1), (2). Individual Independence Self-supporting or in preparation for self-support - See husband (1) and wife (1). - In addition, for a person living alone, smallness and compactness of dwelling are required for convenience and economy, and i f living in a group home, a high degree of privacy is required in the personal rooms or spaces. 51. 5.2 Type of Households i n the Sample The sample of disabled people i s c l a s s i f i e d i n Table 14 by the previously presented method of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Forty-one percent (19 people) are members of Husband-and-Wife Family type of households, 33% (15 people) are i n Individual type of households, 20% (9 people) are i n Group type of households, and 4% (2 people) are i n One-Parent Family type of households. In the sample, only one disabled person i s i n Complex Family type of households. With respect to the p o s i t i o n of disabled members i n the household, disabled c h i l d r e n (young adult or adult) are found i n 21% (4 households) of the H.-W. Family households, i n both of the O.-P. Family households, and i n the one sample of the Complex Family household. Among these seven households, none of the other member i s disabled: hwZ, hwy_zZ, w.*hwZ, wZ, wZz, wZ.hwxx, hwZ. i Of the H.-W. Family type, 37% (7 households) have a disabled husband: Hw, 32% (6 households) have both husban'd and wife disabled: HW, and 10% (2 households) have a disabled wife: hW. I t may be the case that marriage occurs frequently between disabled persons. In H.-W. Family households which have disabled husband and/ or disabled wife, there are few ch i l d r e n and none of the ch i l d r e n are d i s -abled. Two couples consisting of disabled husband and non-disabled wife l i v e with an adolescent c h i l d or young adult: Hwy, Hwz. One couple con-s i s t i n g of disabled husband and disabled wife with a c h i l d under 13 years old: HWx. One couple consisting of disabled wife and non-disabled husband l i v e with a young adult daughter and an adult daughter: hWzz. 52. Table 14 Type of Household In the Sample Type of Po s i t i o n of Disabled Members Number of Household Family Code Sample Findings Cases Hw Hw 5 (P=D Hwc Hwy 1 Hwz 1 Husband-and- hW hW 1 Wife hWc hWzz 1 HW HW 5 (p=2) HWc HWx 1 hw_Z 2 hwC hwy_zZ 1 w.hwz 1 One Parent wC wZl 1 Family wZz 1 Complex Family wC.hwc wZ.hwxx 1 Indi v i d u a l I I 15 (p=ll) Group II II 8 (g=8) I i I i 1 husband wife children under 13 years old ch i l d r e n adolescent c h i l d r e n young adult or adult c h i l d r e n i n d i v i d u a l female (e.g. zi young adult or adult daughter) number of households who l i v e i n the public housing number of i n d i v i d u a l s who l i v e i n the group homes. H: disabled husband W: disabled wife C: disabled c h i l d r e n X: under 13 years old disabled c h i l d r e n Y: adolescent disabled c h i l d r e n Z: young adult or adult disabled children I: disabled i n d i v i d u a l 53. With respect to the Individual households, 60% (9 people) live in the public housing (each resident occupies one dwelling unit alone), and the rest of them liv e alone in ordinary dwellings. In the Group households, eight of the nine people live in the group homes with unrelated disabled persons, and one person lives in an ordinary dwelling with non-disabled persons. (The number of Individual households in public housing is quite high. This is because of the sampling of this survey.) Although there are no disabled children under 13 years old and no disabled adolescents, the distribution of the sampled disabled people in each basic type of household yields certain different categories of house-hold according to position of disabled members. From this distribution, the domestic spatial factors for typical households with disabled members are delineated except for households with under 13 years old disabled children and/or adolescent disabled children. 54. 5.3 Position of Disabled Members and Their Responsibilities in Their Households. The position of disabled members and their responsibilities in their households characterize the use of rooms and of areas in their dwellings. The most influential factor of domestic spatial organization is who is in charge of or who is in partial charge of the fundamental responsibilities of daily l i f e such as earning a l i v i n g , housekeeping, and providing personal care and assistance for disabled members. Each respons-i b i l i t y is related to different types of household and different Levels of Mobility in Table 15, in order to focus on essential spatial needs for each type of household with disabled members. The following is a discussion of some of the relationships presented in Table 15. (Hw), (Hwc): a household of disabled husband and non-disabled wife without children (5 cases) and with non-disabled children (2 cases). Disabled husbands are found in each Level of Mobility (Ambulant, Semi-ambulant I, Semi-ambulant II, Wheelchair I, Wheel-chair II). With high mobility levels (A, Sa-I, Sa-II) and one of two cases of W-I, disabled husbands work full-time to earn a living and their wives manage the housekeeping. This manner of sharing family responsibilities is similar to that of the ordinary family in general. In contrast, with W-II and the other case of W-I, earning a living depends on spouse and/or pensions. Also the spouse not only takes the housekeeping load but also bears r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for providing personal care and assistance to the disabled husband. (hW), (hWc): a household of non-disabled husband and disabled wife without c h i l d r e n (1 case) and non-disabled c h i l d r e n (1 case). Both disabled wives have r e l a t i v e l y low M o b i l i t y (Sa-II and W-I). In both cases, as the wives are not able to assume the housekeeping load completely, the husband or1 daughter takes p a r t i a l charge of i t . Also the husband or daughter provides some personal care and assistance. (HW), (HWc): a household of disabled husband and disabled wife without c h i l d r e n (5 cases) and with non-disabled c h i l d r e n (1 case). As a common r u l e among the s i x cases, i t i s seen that the m o b i l i t y of the wife i s higher than that of the husband. There i s no exception. Husbands are Sa-II, W-I, or W-II, and hal f of the husbands work f u l l - t i m e . Two (Sa-II, W-I) are outside the home and one (W-II) does p r o f e s s i o n a l work i n the home. No wife works i n -stead of her husband. Therefore, three households are t o t a l l y dependent on pensions. A l l wives assume the housekeeping load and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for personal care and assistance f o r t h e i r husbands. However, two of them sometimes receive c e r t a i n amounts of assistance from outside people for t h e i r duties. (hwC): a household of a non-disabled couple with a disabled c h i l d (4 cases: three female, one male). The disabled c h i l d r e n are adult and f a l l into three M o b i l i t y Levels: Sa-I, Sa-II, and W-I. Two of them work f u l l - t i m e , one outside the home and one at home. A l l three females take p a r t i a l charge of housekeeping. Those who are Sa-II or W-I receive personal care and assistance from t h e i r mothers. (wC): a household of non-disabled mother and a disabled c h i l d (2 cases: two females). The disabled adult ch i l d r e n are W-I and W-II. The W-I person works f u l l - t i m e outside the home to support her s e l f and hi r e s a personal a s s i s t a n t . The W-II person i s i n school and receives personal care and assistance from her mother. She also receives a pension. (wC.hwc): a household of non-disabled mother with a disabled c h i l d and a non-disabled couple with c h i l d r e n (1 case). The disabled c h i l d i s a male adult and i s W-I. Although he works part-time outside the home, he receives a pension. He i s not required personal care and assistance. His mother and married s i s t e r assume the housekeeping load. His brother-in-law works f u l l - t i m e and has two young c h i l d r e n . ( I ) : a household of one person l i v i n g alone (15 cases). These people are found i n each Level of M o b i l i t y . Many of them are ph y s i c a l l y capable of l i v i n g independently, but f i n a n c i a l l y only a few people are independent. For example, one Ambulant person works f u l l - t i m e outside the home, and one W-I person does profes-s i o n a l work at home. Most of them receive pensions. In public housing, necessary personal care and assistance are occasionally a v a i l a b l e . 57. ( I I ) : a household of unrelated disabled i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g together (eight people are found i n the sample, and they l i v e i n several d i f f e r e n t group homes). Eight people are either W-I or W-II. Three of them work f u l l - t i m e outside the home, one works part-time outside the home, and two are i n school (college or u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l ) . Five of then receive pensions. Usually, each group home (4 to 6 people) hires an ass i s t a n t for both housekeeping and personal care and assistance. (I i ) : a household of a disabled person l i v i n g with an unrelated non-disabled person (1 case). A W-II person l i v e s with hi s f r i e n d . The f r i e n d manages the housekeeping load and provides personal care and assistance for him. He does professional work i n the home to support himself. 58. Table 15. Type of Householdj Position of disabled members in the Household, and Level of Mobility . o Si d> cn 3 O Xi C H O ft o in •H U -P O 10 H O CD P . a Xt <D H in O (0 60 -rl CD T( -p cr) «M o o •p H O O CD o 1-1 Source of support Self to a o si *—* xi a +> -rl •P < H I O rH a <« o ^ a <» o s Xi -rl -P tt) I Xi H *» H CJ <H CD H a o •H O •P J3 I a -p ta H CTj C Other members o si m 10 <M 3 o o •a <u Housekeeping Provision of personal care Note Hw' (5) Hwc (2? (1) Sa-I (1) Sa-II (1)" Jf=I LZl W-II (2) p=l cd 4> <H I •a § I « at .a u 3 W hW (1) hWc - i l l Sa-I Sa-I W-I (1) W-II (1) HW (5) HWc -111 A Sa-I Sa-II (2)' P=l w-l (3) W: Sa-I,»3a-Il W-II (1) W: A, Sa-II, W: Sa-I Sa-I-I hwC Cf) A Sa-I (2) P-l-Sa-II (1)" W-I (1) W-II •P >> I 0) -rH © u a ss crj ca O P < < H wC (2) A Sa-I Sa-II W-I (1) W-II (1) rH H o at wOhwc (1) Sa-I Sa-II W-I (1) W-II cr) 3 I X T •H -rl TS > a I (15) (2) Sa-I (2.) Sa-II (2) W-I W-II T57 T¥7 p=l P=2 p=4 ft 3 o M II (8) Sa-I Sa-II W-I (5) W-II (5) g=5-I i (1) A Sa-I . Sa-II W-I W-II (1) Total 22 27 17 15 17 U. If H: disabled husband W: disabled wife C: disabled children I: disabled individual h: non-disabled husband w: non-disabled wife c: non-disabled children i : non-disabled individual A: Ambulant Sa-I: Semi-ambulant I Sa-II: Semi-ambulant II W-I: Wheelchair I W-II: Wheelchair II ( ): number of cases p: number of households who l i v e i n the public housing g: number of individuals who l i v e i n the group homes 59. 5.4 Summary According to the observation of the position of disabled members and their responsibilities in their households, the essential domestic spatial factors for each type of household are summarized in Table 16. These factors must be considered in order to enable disabled people to smoothly assume their responsibilities in their daily lives by minimizing their handicap in their use of dwellings, and/or to reduce the needs of personal care and assistance. Table 16. Type of Household and Domestic Spatial Factors Type of household Category by position of the disabled Spatial factors Husband-and-wif e family Hw, Hwc (disabled husband) - Satisfactory employment and f u l l access to work can be improved by location of the home or location of the working room or space in the home. - Individually suited space and f a c i l i t i e s for the husband particularly in the bath-room are required for reducing the needs of personal care and assistance. hW, hWc (disabled wife) - Minimum effort in housekeeping can be attained by providing (i) convenient circulation for wheelchairs in the overall dwelling, and ( i i ) individually suited space and f a c i l i t i e s in the kitchen, dining room and housekeeping room ( u t i l i t y room). - Individually suited space and f a c i l i t i e s in the bathroom are also required for reducing the needs of personal care and assistance. (continue) 60. Table 16 - (continued) Type of household Category by position of the disabled Spatial factors HW, HWc - Satisfactory employment and f u l l access to work can be improved by location of the home or location of the working room or space in the home. (disabled - Smallness and compactness of dwelling can be effective to improve independence in daily l i v i n g . couple) - It may be preferable for some of these couples to receive special care in a sheltered setting with local workshops. Husband-and-wif e family hwC (disabled young adult or adult child) - High degree of privacy i s necessary for the disabled daughter's or son's private rooms. - The needs of personal care and assist-ance can be reduced by providing individ-ally suited space and f a c i l i t i e s for the disabled daughter or son particularly in the bathroom. - Especially for the disabled daughter, partial modification of the kitchen encourages her to participate in house-keeping . - Satisfactory employment also encourages independence in daily l i f e so that loca-tion of the home or location of the work-ing room or space in the home should be carefully considered. One-parent family wC - The same factors as for (hwC). wC.hwc - The same factors as for (hwC). Complex family (disabled young adult or adult child) - In addition, a separate bathroom for the disabled person i s highly desirable in order to prevent conflict of the use of the bathroom of the disabled person and other household members (especially young children). (continued) 61. Table 16 (continued) Type of Category by household position of the disabled Spatial factors I - Satisfactory employment and f u l l access to work can be improved by location of the home or location of the working room or space in the home. (disabled individual) - Smallness and compactness of dwelling are required for convenience and economy. Individual - For low mobility disabled people, i t may be appropriate to receive special care in a sheltered residential setting with local workshops. II, I i - Satisfactory employment and f u l l access to work can be improved by location of (disabled the home or location of the working room individuals or space in the home. Group group, and disabled and non-disabled individuals group) - A balance of privacy and communality should be carefully considered. Each person needs private realm almost like a private household of his own within the group household. 62. 6. Conclusions In order to establish the essential c r i t e r i a of domestic spatial organization for disabled people, this study focussed on two major points: (i) the mobility of disabled people in the home and ( i i ) the type of household with disabled members. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The differences in housing needs and domestic spatial organiza-tion in the home are related to two factors: (i) the kinds of architectural barriers met by disabled people in the home, and (i i ) the composition of households with disabled members (especi-ally the position of disabled members and their responsibilities in their households). (2) Architectural barriers in the use of dwellings by disabled people are examined according to the mobility of those disabled people. Mobility i s defined as the level of mobility inside the home with respect to ab i l i t y to move to and from different areas of the home. This definition is required because the mobility of disabled people is more limited outside the home than inside, due to the longer distances involved, fear of unpredictable happen-ings and lack of privacy (disabled people tend to dislike display-ing their d i s a b i l i t y and clumsiness.) (3) The mobility of disabled people in the home is classified into six levels: those who (1) can walk, (2) can walk but with limited capability, (3) can walk with mechanical aids (canes, crutches, walkers, etc.), (4) are mobile with a wheelchair, (5) are mobile 63. with a wheelchair but relatively dependent, and (6) are immobile (completely dependent). The mobility of disabled people strongly correlates with their capability i n managing fundamental daily activities such as walk-ing, transferring to and from a bed, eliminating, bathing, and going out of the home. This probably applies to climbing stairs and steps as well. Thus, the mobility of disabled people in the home is the c r i t i c a l factor for examining domestic l i f e habits and for determining the necessary domestic spatial arrangements for disabled people. Greater mobility requires fewer adaptations and less mobility requires more adaptations in order to smoothly manage daily activities in the home. The composition of households with disabled members is classified according to the usual principles followed in ordinary housing studies: hushand-and-wife family, one-parent family, complex family, individual, and group. The f i n a l categories are esta-blished by indicating the position of disabled members in their households: husband, wife, child (under 13 years old, adolescent young adult or adult), and individual. Since the position of disabled members and their responsibilities in their households are factors which characterize the use of rooms and of areas in their dwellings, this is essential in determining what specific arrangements of the domestic spatial organization of the home are required for each type of household with disabled members. 6 4 . Finally, both the architectural barriers to mobility and the composition of households with disabled members, taken together, establish the essential domestic spatial factors for combination of household type and mobility level. As architectural guidelines, these domestic spatial factors provide essential information not only for the designing of barrier-free housing but also for the avoidance of excessive construction or renovation costs due to overdesigning or pro-vision :of unnecessary features. 65. Bibliography A Study on the Special Transportation Needs of the Handicapped, Saskatchewan Co-ordinating Council on Social Pjllnning, 1974. A. B. C. Task Report on Accommodation and Support Services for Independent  Living for the Disabled, the SPAR& of B.C., 1976. Agan, T. The House; Its Plan and Use, J.B. Lippincott Company, Chicago, 1956. Albrecht, G. The Sociology of Physical Disability and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 1976. Alexander, C., et a l . A Pattern Language; Towns - Buildings - Construction, Oxford University Press, N.Y., 1977. Approaches to Independent Living, Third International Congress World Federation of Occupational Therapists, Wm. C. Brown Book Co., 1962. Backstrom, C., Hursh, G. Survey Research, Northwestern University Press, 1963. Barrier-Free Design for the Elderly and the Disabled, A l l University Gerontology Center and Center for Instructional Development, Syracuse University, N.Y., 1976. Barrier Free Site Design, The American Society of Landscape Architects Foundation, Washington, D.C, 1975. Beckman, M. Building for Everyone: the Disabled and the Building Environment in Sweden, Ministry of Housing and Physical Planning, Stockholm, 1976. Bell, W.G. Improving the Quality and Quantity of Transportation for Elderly  and Handicapped, Department of Urban and Regional Planning Florida State University, 1975. Bell , E., et a l . Muscle Strength and Resultant Function in Cerrical  Code Lesions, AJOT XV, 3, 1961 Bennett, C. Spaces for People: Human Factors in Design, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, 1977. Beyer, G.H. Housing and Society, The Macmillan Company Collier-Macmillan Ltd., London, 1965. 66. Building Standards for the Handicapped 1970, Supplement No. 5, Voluntary Association for Health and Welfare of B.C., 1971. Chapin, F.S. Human Activity Patterns in the City, John Wiley & Sons, Toronto, 1974. Chermayeff, S., Alexander, C. Community and Privacy, Doubleday & Company, Inc., N.Y., 1969. Disabilities and Housing Needs, ICTA Information Centre, Sweden, 1975. Do It Yourself Again, The American Heart Association, N.Y., 1965. Duoskin, S. The Disabled's Encounter with the Environment, Design and Environment, Vol. 1, No. 2, Summer, p. 60-63, 1970. Dynamic Living for the Long Term Patient, Third International Congress World Federation of Occupational Therapists, 1962. Falcocchio, J.C, C a n t i l l i , E.J. Transportation and the Disadvantaged, Lexington Books, Toronto, 1974. Fischer, C.S. The Urban Experience, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., N.Y., 1976. Fitzpatrick, T. Selected Rehabilitation F a c i l i t i e s in the United States; an Architect's Analysis, 1971. Frost, A. Handbook for Paraplegics and Quadriplegics, The National Paraplegia Foundation, I l l i n o i s , 1964. Goldsmith, S. Designing for the Disabled, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1967 Green, I., et a l . Housing for the Elderly: the Development and Design  Process, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, N.Y., 1975. Hadraken, N.J., et a l . Variations: the Systematic Design of Supports, The Laboratory of Architecture and Planning at MIT, Mass., 1976. Harkness, S.P., Groom, J.N. Jr. Building without Barriers for the Disabled, Whitney Library of Design, N.Y., 1976. Henning, D.N. Housing Requirements of Physically Disabled People, B. Arch. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1970. Housing for the Disabled, Fokus Society, Sweden, 1967. Housing for the Handicapped, The SPARC of B.C., 1973. 67. Housing for the Handicapped, Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Ottawa, 1974. Howie, P.M. A Pilot Study of Disabled Housewives in Their Kitchens, Disabled Living Activities Group of the Central Council for the Disabled, London, 1968. Kirkland, S. Architectural Barriers to the Physically Handicapped, Canadian Rehabilitation Council for the Disabled, Toronto, 1973. Klienman, R.L. Through Youth to Age: Occupational Therapy Faces the  Challenge, Excerpta Medica Foundation, London, 1969. Klement, S. The Elimination of Architectural Barriers to the Disabled, Canadian Rehabilitation Council for the Disabled, Toronto, 1969. Krusen, F.H., et a l . Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, W.B. Saunders Co., London, 1965. Lang, J. Design for Human Behavior: Architecture and the Behavioral  Science, Halsted Press, Pennsylvania, 1974. Laurie, G. Housing and Home Services for the Disabled, Medical Department Harper & Row, Publishers, Maryland, 1977. Marshall, P.J. Planning for Disabled People in the Urban Environment, Central Council for the Disabled, London, 1969. Michelson, W. Analytic Sampling for Design Information: a Study of Housing Experience, Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, 1969. Michelson, W. Behavioral Research Methods in Environmental Design, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., Pennsylvania, 1975. Michelson, W. The Theoretical Status and Operational Usage of Lif e Style  in Environmental Research, Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, 1970. Michelson, W. Environmental Choice, Ministry of State for Urban Affairs and University of Toronto, Ottawa, 1972. Mobility of Physically Disabled People, Department of Health and Social Security Scottish Home and Health Department, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1974. Nellist, I. Planning Buildings for Handicapped Children, Crosby Lockwood & Son Ltd., London, 1970. 68. Planning for Disabled People i n the Urban Environment, The Planning Research Unit, Department of Urban Design and Regional Planning, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, 1969. Planning the Home for Occupancy, The American Public Health Association Committee on the Hygiene of Housing, Chicago, 1950. Residential Environments for the Functional Disabled, The Architecture and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, Washington, D.C, 1975. Salmon, F., Salmon, C. Rehabilitation Center Planning, The Pennsylvania State University Press, Pennsylvania, 1959. Smith, D.E. Household Space and Family Organization, Pacific Sociological Review, January 1971. Sommer, R. Personal Space: the Behavioral Basis of Design, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey, 1969. Space in the Home, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1968. Szalai, A. The Use of Time, The Hague: Mouton, 1972 The Census of Canada (Household) 1971, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, 1977. The Use and Design of Space in the Home, Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Ottawa, 1974. Walter, F. An Introduction to Domestic Design for the Disabled, Disabled Living Activities Group, London, 1968. Walter, F. Four Architectural Movement Studies for the Wheelchair and  Ambulant Disabled, Disabled Living Foundation, London, 1971. Wellman, B. The Network Nature of Future Communities: a Predictive Synthesis, Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, 1973. Wright, B.A. Physical Disability - a Psychological Approach, Harper & Row Publishers, N.Y., 1960. Yamamoto, T. The Family Life Cycle and Family Needs in a Housing Project, M. Arch. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1975. APPENDIX I PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY 6 9 . Patterns of Activity 1. Disabled People and Non-disabled People In order to focus on what kinds of differences exist between the daily activities of disabled and non-disabled, this study contrasts the observed time budget of disabled people- in:".Vahcouver with W. Michelson's 1972 Toronto study of the time budget of non-disabled people. Table 18 indicates how both groups of people spent their week-days (see Table 17 Activity Code). First of a l l the greater proportion of the day's time was devoted to more or less obligatory ac t i v i t i e s . Non-disabled men spent most of their time eating, sleeping and working. Non-disabled women showed great amounts of time devoted to eating and sleeping, as well as relatively high averages for working, housekeeping and childcare. Disabled men spent great amounts of their time eating and sleeping, as well as relatively high averages for working, and in leisure activities such as watching T.V., and in addition slightly high averages for personal hygiene and dressing. Disabled women show almost the same pattern as disabled men. Presumably the reason for this phenomenon i s that more than 80% of the disabled women in the survey are single and liv e alone or with parent(s) so that they are generally lower in time spent for housekeeping (and childcare). On the average, both disabled and non-disabled people showed very l i t t l e time devoted to marginal a c t i v i t i e s . Although social l i f e activities (inviting friends, receiving visitoof"friends, etc.) showed that disabled people spent slightly more time than non-disabled people, those marginal activities do not indicate clear differences between disabled 70. and n o n - d i s a b l e d p e o p l e . With r e f e r e n c e to work s t a t u s , the p a t t e r n s of a c t i v i t y of d i s a b l e d people are d i s c u s s e d (see Table 18 ) . Expend i ture of t ime on working i n d i c a t e s that most of n o n - d i s a b l e d men are understandably work ing f u l l - t i m e . A l s o some n o n - d i s a b l e d women are working f u l l - t i m e and those women spend probably great amounts of t ime working r a t h e r than withthouse—" keeping and c h i l d c a r e on weekdays. There i s no g reat d i f f e r e n c e i n weekday p a t t e r n s between d i s a b l e d and n o n - d i s a b l e d people who are work ing f u l l - t i m e except f o r some a c t i v i t i e s due to d i f f i c u l t i e s i n m o b i l i t y . D i s a b l e d people who are working p a r t - t i m e spend l a r g e amounts of t ime both work ing and i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , and d i s a b l e d people who are not working a t a l l spend l a r g e amounts of t ime e i t h e r i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s or s tudy ing (adu l t educat ion and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g ) . In g e n e r a l , grouping a c c o r d i n g to work s t a t u s shows g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p a t t e r n of a c t i v i t y than grouping a c c o r d i n g to d i s a -b i l i t y - n o n - d i s a b i l i t y . For i n f o r m a t i o n , 35% of (the) d i s a b l e d people i n the survey are working f u l l - t i m e , 11% of them are work ing p a r t - t i m e and 54% of them are not w o r k i n g . On the other hand, grouping a c c o r d i n g to d i s a b i l i t y - n o n -d i s a b i l i t y shows g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n d u r a t i o n of c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s than grouping a c c o r d i n g to work s t a t u s . E s p e c i a l l y , d i f f e r e n c e s i n s l e e p i n g , r-and p e r s o n a l hygiene and d r e s s i n g are s i g n i f i c a n t . D i s a b l e d p e o p l e , what -ever working s t a t u s , spend almost tw ice as much t ime as n o n - d i s a b l e d people on p e r s o n a l hygiene and d r e s s i n g , and 100-140 minutes more on s l e e p i n g . The cause of g rea te r amounts of t ime taken f o r p e r s o n a l hygiene and d r e s s i n g i s main l y due:'to- l i m i t e d m o b i l i t y as a resu l t : of t h e i r 71. d i s a b i l i t y . P h y s i o l o g i c a l factors are responsible f or greater amounts of time spent sleeping, though work:!status may r e l a t i v e l y a f f e c t some types of disabled people. 2. M o b i l i t y Levels of Disabled People In terms of the greater proportion of the day's time devoted to more or les s obligatory a c t i v i t e s , each l e v e l showed the same pattern as the e n t i r e group of disabled people which was discussed pre-vi o u s l y . Great amounts of time are devoted to eating and sleeping, as" well as r e l a t i v e l y high averages f o r working and for l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . In addition, s l i g h t l y high averages for personal hygiene and dressing were reported. There are no differences amongithe three l e v e l s i n expenditure of time i n working, i n eating and i n t o t a l amount of time i n both passive and active l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . With respect to personal hygiene and dressing, i n most cases, severely disabled people (wheelchairr.il) receive some personal care and assistance so that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r - . , ence i n terms of net amounts of time taken for these a c t i v i t i e s among f i v e l e v e l s . Moreover, there are no differences between l e v e l s i n the d a i l y time schedule i n shopping and i n housekeeping, not i n terms of duration of staying at home and being out. In contrast, there are some diff e r e n c e s , which are small but consistent, i n expenditure of marginal uses of time. For example, wheelchair I people spent r e l a t i v e l y more time i n active l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s than other l e v e l s of people, although t h i s i s not d i r e c t l y caused by t h e i r m o b i l i t y because t h e i r main i n t e r e s t i n active l e i s u r e i s a r t i s t i c creation (sculpture, painting, pottery', l i t e r a t u r e , etc.) . With respect to adult education and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , semi-ambulant and ambulant people spent more time than other l e v e l s of people. In terms of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n (receiving f r i e n d s , v i s i t i n g 73. friends, attending parties, having parties) and civic and collective p a r t i -cipation ac t i v i t i e s , semi-ambulant and ambulant people claimed to spend no time. wheelchair II people spent 75 minutes a day in social interaction, and eleven minutes in civic and collective participation, while wheelchair I people devoted 53 and 25 minutes a." day i t o those a c t i v i t i e s , respectively. This phenomenon w i l l be discussed later with reference to social parti-cipation and residential environment. In the general discussion, however, these marginal differs, ences between the levels are not considered. This i s because no major activity is strongly associated with mobility, and also i t was not apparent from the data what caused these differences; whether they were due to mobility or not. 74. Table 17 The S z a l a i 99 Category A c t i v i t y Code Working Time and Time Connected to It (00-09) 00 Normal professional work (outside home) 01 Normal professional work at home or brought home 02 Overtime if it can be specifically isolated from 00 03 Displacements during work if they can be specifically isolated from 00 04 A n y waiting or interruption during working time if it can be specifically isolated from work (e.g., due to supply shortage, breakdown of machines, etc.) 05 Undeclared, auxiliary, etc., work, wives-children, unpaid members to assist family 06 Meal at the workplace 07 T ime spent at the workplace before starting or after ending work 08 Regular breaks and prescribed nonworking periods, etc., during work time 09 Travel to (return from) workplace, including waiting for means of transport Domestic Work (10-19) 10 Preparation and cooking of food, putting away groceries 11 Washing up and putting away the dishes 12 Indoor cleaning (sweeping, washing, bedmaking), general nonspecific housework 13 Outdoor cleaning (sidewalk, disposal of garbage) 14 Laundry, ironing 15 Repair or upkeep of clothes, shoes, underwear, etc. 16 Other repairs and home operations, packing and unpacking, washing or repairing car 17 Gardening, animal care, walking d o g a 18 Heat and water supplies—upkeep 19 Others (e.g., dealing with bills and various other papers, usual care to household members, etc.) Care of Children (20-29) 20 Care of babies.feeding baby 21 Care of older children 22 Supervision of school work (exercises and lessons) 23 Reading of tales or other nonschool books to children, conversations with children 24 Indoor games and manual instruction 25 Outdoor games and walks 26 Medical care (visiting the children's doctor or dentist, or other activities related to the health of children) 27 Others 28 Not to be used 29 Travel to accompany children, including waiting for means of transport Purchasing of Goods and Services (30-39) 30 Purchasing of everyday consumer goods and products, shopping 31 Purchasing of durable consumer goods 32 Personal care outside home (e.g., hairdresser) 33 Medical care outside home 34 Administrative services, offices, bank, employment agency, customs, etc. 35 Repair and other services (e.g., laundry, electricity, mechanics, car wash) 36 Waiting, queuing for the purchase of goods and services, house or apartment hunting 37 Others, signing lease or contract to buy 38 Selling house or house contents: showing own house 39 Traveling connected to the above-mentioned activities, including waiting for means of transport 1. T h i s a c t i v i t y code was s l i g h t l y modified by Michelson, W., 1971 The S z a l a i 99 c a t e g o r y a c t i v i t y code was d e v i s e d and u t i l i z e d i n the M u l t i n a t i o n a l Comparative Time-Budget Research P r o j e c t ( S z a l a i , 1972) 75. Private and Nondescribed Activities (40-49) 40 Personal hygiene, dressing (getting up, going to bed, etc.) 41 Personal medical care at home 42 Care given to adults, if not included in household work 43 Meals and snacks at home 44 Meals outside home or the canteen, essential other than 7 0 - 7 9 ° 45 Night sleep (essential) 46 Daytime sleep (incidental), long time, e.g., 1 hour or more 47 Nap or rest, 1 hour or less 48 Private activities, nondescribed, others (using sauna alone) 49 Traveling connected to the above ;mentioned activities, including waiting for means of transport Adult Education and Professional Training (50-59) 50 Full-time attendance to classes (undergraduate or postgraduate student), studies being the principal activity 51 Reduced programs of professional or special training courses, driving lessons (including after-work classes organized by the plant or enterprise in question) 52 Attendance to lectures (occasionally) 53 Programs of political or union training courses 54 Homework prepared for different courses and lectures (including related research work and self-instruction) 55 Reading of scientific reviews of books for personal instruction, specific to own profession 56 Others 57 No response, no further activity 58 No secondary activity 59 Traveling connected to the above-mentioned activities, including waiting for means of transport Civic and Collective Participation Activities (60-69) 60 Participation as a member of a party, union, etc. 61 Voluntary activity as an elected official of a social or political organization 62 Participation in meetings other than those covered by 60 and 61 63 Nonpaid collective civic activity (e.g., volunteers) 64 Participation in religious organizations 65 Religious practice and attending religious ceremonies 66 Participation in various factory councils (committees, commissions) 67 Participation in other associations (family, parent, military, etc.) 68 Others 69 Traveling connected to the above-mentioned activities, including waiting for means of transport Spectacles. Entertainment. Social Life (70-79) 70 Attending a sports event 71 Circus, music hall, dancing, show, nightclub (including a meal in entertainment local), parade 72 Movies 73 Theater, concert opera 74 Museum, exhibition, library (educational purposes) 75 Receiving visit of friends or visiting friends, relatives at airport 76 Party or reception with meal or snack offered to or offered by friends, relatives 77 Cafe, bar tearoom 78 Attending receptions (other than those mentioned above) 79 Traveling connected to the above-mentioned activities, including waiting for means of transport Sports and Active Leisure (80-89) 80 Practice a sport and physical exercise 81 Excursions or drive, hunting, fishing 82 Walks, browsing, window shopping 83 Technical hobbies, photography and developing, collections 84 Ladies 'work (confection, needlework, dressmaking, knitting, etc.) 35 Artistic creaiions (sculpture, painting, pottery, literature, writing poetry, etc.) 86 Playing a musical instrument, singing 87 Society games (cards, etc.), crosswords, board games, chess 88 Others 89 Traveling connected to the above-mentioned activities, including waiting for means of transport 76. Passive Leisure (90-99) 90 Listening to the radio, piped music 91 Watching television 92 Listening to records, tape recording 93 Reading books 94 Reading reviews, periodicals, magazines, pamphlets, etc.. Including proofreading done at home 95 Reading newspapers 96 Conversations, including telephone conversations 97 Writing private correspondence, reading mail, writing in diary 98 Relaxing, reflecting, thinking, planning, doing nothing, no visible activity (arrive home, use on Sunday if long interval between activities) 99 Travel connected to the above-mentioned activities, including waiting for means of transport Table 18 Weekday Time Budget for Disabled and Non-disabled by A c t i v i t y i n Average Minutes' (Data of non-disabled people which i s Michelson's Toronto study i n 1972.) Szalail Disabled A c t i - w-f w-p n-w ro- w - r Sa- Sa- Wo- Hus-v i t y i l I I I&A Men men wife band Code (16) (9) (21) (12) (18) (7) (9) {2k) (22) 0. kOl 185 0 135 152 115 201 158 Ikk 131 370 1. k 9 0 0 2 8 0 2 2 3 11 2. 5 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 3. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 15 k. 5 0 0 0 0 10 0 2 0 0 0 5. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 6. 51 32 0 20 19 15 30 23 17 12 27 7. 2 k 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 5 9 8. 9 9 0 3 k 5 8 3 6 28 9. 5k *f8 0 22 27 23 23 26 25 26 85 10. 20 21 ko 23 27 20 k5 17 37 68 5 11. 6 6 18 Ik 8 13 23 6 17 31 k 12. 0 0 20 8 k 18 15 2 16 65 k 13. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Ik. 11 0 5 8 6 0. 0 0 11 3k 0 15. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 16. 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 27 1^ 17. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 k k 18. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 20. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 27 2 21. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 6 22. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 23. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 2k. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 k 3 25. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 1 26. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 27. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 28. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 29. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 k 2 Non-Disabled w-f: a person who i s working f u l l - t i m e w-p: a person who i s working part-time, or who i s i n school n-w: a person who i s not working ( ): number of cases (Continued) W-II: Wheelchair II W-I : Wheelchair I Sa-II: Semi-ambulant II Sa-I&A: Semi-ambulant and Ambulant 1. Source Michelson, W. Environmental Choice, p. 312, 313,--Ministry of State for Urban A f f a i r s & University of Toronto, Ottawa, 1972 78. Code w-f w-p n -w w-II W-I S a -i l S a -I&A Men Wo-men Wife Hus-band 30. 10 0 2 11 12 5 8 82 95 46 46 31. 19 0 ' 3 0 2 0 26 0 0 1 o 32. 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 33. 0 0 2 4 0 o 0 71 71 82 65 34. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 11 10 23 35. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 515 482 385 370 36. . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 4 2 37. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 12 6 13 4 38. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 39. 5 0 7 5 3 0 11 9 5 4 3 40. 87 101 88 94 86 82 82 7 15 18 6 41. 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 7 0 7 3 42. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 43. 69 69 85 76 63 100 64 cl 0 2 0 44. 0 9 2 8 14 10 o. 0 0 1 2 45. 475 487 522 466 509 497 521 0 0 1 1 46. 0 0 14 15 0 15 0 0 0 1 1 47. 0 17 10 11 12 0 0 0 0 3 2 48. 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 49. 4 0 9 12 7 0 15 6 2 23 14 50. 0 70 0 12 22 50 0 11 35 2 5 51. 0 0 3 5 0 40 0 2 12 1 1 52. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 53. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 54. 0 47 8 35 4 55 0 10 29 3 7 55. 0 21 0 0 15 30 0 15 9 0 0 56. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 57. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 58. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 59. 0 15 8 18 4 10 0 9 7 2 2 60. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 61. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 62. 0 0 7 3 5 0 0 0 8 1 2 63. 0 0 5 0 4 0 0 0 4 0 0 64. 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 9 1 0 65. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 66. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 67. 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 68. 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 69. 0 0 3 8 4 0 0 0 10 1 2 70. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 71. 0 0 11 18 0 0 0 .0 10 2 2 72. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 73. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 74. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 75. 30 30 30 27 49 0 0 54 15 27 17 76. 35 0 10 46 4 0 0 21 6 7 5 77. 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 3 ( C o n t i n u e d 79. w-f w-p n-w W- W-I Sa- Sa- Men Wo- Wife Hus-II II I&A men band 78. 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 3 1 2 79. 0 0 10 k 6 0 0 3 5 12 12 80. 11 15 11 18 10 0 0 Ik 5 3 7 81. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 82. 0 0 9 0 0 0 22 3 0 5 3 83. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8*f. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 85. 0 kl 28 0 35 0 0 16 23 1 1 86. 2 0 10 0 8 0 8 8 2 0 1 87. 0 0 kS 18 8 20 82 20 0 3 6 88. 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 89. 1 k 12 3 7 0 15 7 2 3 90. 0 19 0 0 6 0 0 6 0 l l 91. 72 162 251 155 171 192 128 171 170 55 62 92. 2 0 7 3 6 0 0 6 2 1 2 93. 8 17 3 0 8 10 8 2 11 8 5 9^. 8 0 10 5 0 0 11 0 12 10 95- 25 9 8 l l 15 20 8 Ik Ik 9 20 96. 8 15 23 37 8 20 15 18 17 2h 17 97. 0 0 23 Ik 9 0 11 10 8 2 1 98. 10 32 k3 3k 32 k5 kS 17 52 26 22 99. 0 k 7 15 7 10 8 3 16 0 0 APPENDIX II SOCIAL PARTICIPATION 80. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n A large portion of disabled people are eit h e r not working or working part-time, therefore, they tend to spend large amounts of time at home and tend to spend a great deal of time i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , among other a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l to know how they p a r t i c i p a t e s o c i a l l y i n urban communities i n order to understand one important aspect of t h e i r l i f e -s t y l e s and the kinds of problems and in t e r a c t i o n s that create d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s defined here as follows: (1) the kinds of s o c i a l club and/or organization belonged to, (2) the use of buildings and f a c i l i t i e s , (3) the degree of involvement i n s o c i a l clubs and organizations, and frequency of use of buildings and f a c i l i t i e s , (4) the number of afternoons or evenings spent with a f r i e n d or at a meeting or s o c i a l event i n the l a s t week, (5) frequency of talks with neighbours. 8 1 . 1 . K inds of S o c i a l Club and/or O r g a n i z a t i o n Belonged to "(see Appendix I I Q.17) The d i s a b l e d people i n the survey seem to be a c t i v e l y p a r -t i c i p a t i n g i n s o c i a l c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D i s a b l e d people be long to at l e a s t one c lub or o r g a n i z a t i o n ; on the average they belong to t h r e e . More than 90% of them belong to some s o r t of a s s o c i a t i o n f o r the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped, and approx imate ly 65% of those people who are members r e p l i e d tha t they are ve ry or somewhat i n v o l v e d i n those a s s o c i a t i o n s . Many d i s a b l e d people are a c t i v e l y or f a i r l y i n v o l v e d i n some of the f o l l o w i n g c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s : s p o r t s teams, hobby c l u b s , community c e n t r e s , churches o r church -connected groups and l o c a l o r p r o v i n -c i a l p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . E s p e c i a l l y , young and midd le -aged d i s a b l e d people a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n s p o r t s teams and hobby c l u b s . R e l a t i v e l y fewer d i s a b l e d people belong to c h a r i t y or w e l f a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , bus iness or c i v i c groups, p r o f e s s i o n a l groups and r e g u l a r ca rd c l u b s . Very few d i s a b l e d people belong to country c l u b s , neighborhood improvement a s s o c i a -t i o n s , f r a t e r n a l l o d g e s , h o s p i t a l board of d i r e c t o r s and armed f o r c e s v e t e r a n ' s c l u b s . There i s no p a r t i c u l a r l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n i n the cho ice of s o c i a l c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s among d i s a b l e d people i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . The cho ice of s o c i a l c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s depends upon r. t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s . 82. 2. Use of Buildings and F a c i l i t i e s Disabled people who are p a r t i c u l a r l y chairbound under-standably have d i f f i c u l t y i n the use of public buildings and f a c i l i t i e s , but i n f a c t not many of such buildings and f a c i l i t i e s . Among 35 examples (see AppendixIII Q.21) many chairbound r e p l i e d that seven types of buildings or f a c i l i t i e s are i n a c c e s s i b l e (including thosernot "spec- ;?.z ificallyaccommodated to them): public telephone booths, railway z s t a t i o n s , hotels or motels, pubs or night-clubs, downtown shopping malls, movie theatres and bus stops (apparently because of i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of busses) and f i v e are somewhat or i n some places i n a c c e s s i b l e : small r e t a i l shops, barber shops and beauty parlours, resturants, coffee or hamburger shops.and a t h l e t i c centres (pool, gymnasium). Quite a few of the disabled who were questioned r e p l i e d that they have used most of the 35 example buildings and f a c i l i t i e s without someone's aid since becoming handicapped, although there are presumably c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s accommodating h i s mobility and d i s a b i l i t y . 8 3 . 3 . Frequency of Use of B u i l d i n g s and F a c i l i t i e s and Degree of Involvement i n S o c i a l C lubs and O r g a n i z a t i o n s About i n f l u e n c e s on the use of b u i l d i n g s by d i s a b l e d p e o p l e , S. Goldsmith says (p. 1 1 , 1967) : The- d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of ' a r c h i t e c t u r a l b a r r i e r s ' on the use of b u i l d i n g s by d i s a b l e d people i s r e l a t i v e l y minor . I n d i r e c t •inf luences are more i m p o r t a n t , f o r example, the a v a i l a b i l i t y • of t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s , o b s t a c l e of s t r e e t knvironinent and l a c k of i n d i c a t i o n on b u i l d i n g s of f a c i l i t i e s s u i t a b l e f o r d i s a b l e d peop le . The c r i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e s are the s o c i a l and economic ones - the a v a i l a b i l i t y of t r a n s p o r t and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the cash necessary f o r the use of b u i l d i n g s . Ih a d d i t i o n , he p o i n t e d out that the use of b u i l d i n g s by d i s a b l e d people i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h age and a s t rong m o t i v a t i o n . A l though the use of p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s i n t h i s study i s not e a s i l y d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t to v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s of d i s a b l e d people because of the s m a l l samples, f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e tha t f requency of use of b u i l d i n g s and f a c -i l i t i e s s t r o n g l y corresponds w i t h m o b i l i t y , income and the i n t e r a c t i o n of these f a c t o r s . Moreover , involvement i n s o c i a l c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s showed the same p a t t e r n as the use of b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s . With d e c r e a s i n g income and m o b i l i t y , d i s a b l e d people showed tha t they tend to be l e s s i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s and l e s s f r e q u e n t l y use b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s . Among chairbound p e o p l e , those who-are c a t e -g o r i z e d as s e v e r e l y d i s a b l e d (such as whee lcha i r I I people w i t h poor income, and no p e r s o n a l car ) are very s e l e c t i v e as to where they go. There are three d i s t i n c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s of b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s e s p e c i a l l y f o r the cha i rbound : (1) l u x u r i o u s p l a c e s or u n s u i t a b l e p l a c e s f o r t h e i r d i s a b i l i t y , (2) r e g u l a r l y ; ' i m p o r t a n t but not e s s e n t i a l p l a c e s , (3) e s s e n t i a l p l a c e s . U s u a l l y , * the s e v e r e l y d i s a b l e d go to the t h i r d category of p l a c e s such as 84. s m a l l r e t a i l shops, supermarkets and banks , and they i n f r e q u e n t l y go to post o f f i c e s , r e s t u r a n t s , c o f f e e or hamburger shops, community c e n t r e s , neighbourhood parks and l i q u o r s t o r e s . A l s o , most of them are not very i n v o l v e d i n any s o c i a l c l u b s or o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a l though they do belong to a v a r i e t y of such c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Chairbound p e o p l e , however, who are r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l y mobi le (W-I) w i t h s l i g h t l y h igher income (and sometimes w i t h a p e r s o n a l car ) go to the second and t h i r d c a t e g o r i e s of p l a c e s whenever they need t o , and sometimes they go to some l u x u r i o u s p l a c e s t o o . They can sometimes a f f o r d to use the Eas te r Sea l bus s e r v i c e s at $1.00 f o r the f i r s t m i l e p l u s 25<: f o r each a d d i t i o n a l m i l e . They are a l s o more i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s than the low- income low m o b i l i t y d i s a b l e d . In comparing chairbound people w i t h semi-ambulant and ambulant p e o p l e , the l a t t e r use a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of b u i l d i n g s and f a c -i l i t i e s w i t h g rea te r f requency , and are more i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The remarkable d i f f e r e n c e between >:thosettwo;\groups:/6f people i s tha t semi-ambulant and ambulant people have an advantage i n t h e i r h i g h m o b i l i t y which i s , m a i n l y , access to p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Hence they can s e l e c t where they go, when they go, what they p a r t i c i p a t e i n , and when they p a r t i c i p a t e , a l though they have the same g e n e r a l r e s -t r i c t i o n s as chairbound peop le . As: an a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r on the use of b u i l d i n g s and f a c -i l i t i e s , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s to take d i s a b l e d people out (which Goldsmith p o i n t e d out) i s c o n s i d e r e d . Th is i s seen as s u p -p lementa l i n f o r m a t i o n i n the t ime budget study i n terms of p l a c e s and p e o p l e , f o r example, i n i tems a s k i n g when the respondent goes out and wi th . whom. However, t h i s fact :or has not on ly p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s but a l s o 85. sometimes negative e f fects i n terms of frequency of use of b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s . The reason for t h i s i s that d i sab led people tend to ask : t h e i r f r i ends or r e l a t i v e s to go to r e t a i l shops, supermarkets, banks and post o f f i ce s i n t h e i r place as one of the eas ies t or fa s tes t ways to get things done. Supposedly, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f r iends or r e l a t i v e s to take d i sab led people out g rea t ly inf luences the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of d i sab led people i n s o c i a l clubs and organiza t ions . 7 86. 4. Number of Af te rnoons or Evenings Spent w i t h a F r i e n d or at a Meet ing or S o c i a l Event i n the L a s t Week On the average, many d i s a b l e d people f a i r l y o f t e n spent a f te rnoons and/or evenings w i t h a f r i e n d or at a meeting or s o c i a l event i n the p rev ious week. G e n e r a l l y , the number of a f te rnoons or evenings spent w i t h a f r i e n d or at a meeting or s o c i a l event i s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o b i l i t y , income and the i n t e r a c t i o n of these f a c t o r s ; i n a d d i t i o n , i t should be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f r i e n d s and involvement i n s o c i a l c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . However, some r e s i d e n t s of p u b l i c hous ing are e x c e p t i o n s . Those people r e p l i e d tha t they q u i t e o f t e n spent a f t e r -noons and/or evenings w i t h f r i e n d s or at meetings or s o c i a l events even though they are not p a r t i c u l a r i l y mobi le or economica l l y w e l l - o f f . T h i s s i t u a t i o n complete ly c o n t r a d i c t s the above g e n e r a l t h e o r y . The reason i s that they have f r i e n d s i n the same b u i l d i n g and/or they a t t e n d soc ia l : ' . : . " events and meetings which are o c c a s s i o n a l l y p rov ided by hous ing management b o d i e s , e t c . , and a l s o there i s a c e r t a i n number of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and equipment i n the b u i l d i n g s which they can share w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s . Hence, they do not need to worry about t h e i r m o b i l i t y , t h e i r money, or any other d i f f i c u l t i e s consequent to go ing o u t s i d e t h e i r b u i l d i n g s . Of c o u r s e , a few people r e p l i e d that they spent no t ime at a l l i n these a c t i v i t i e s or p a r t i c i p a t e d on ly once, even though they are i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g , because they have no p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s i n the b u i l d i n g , or are s imply not i n t e r e s t e d i n these k i n d s of a c t i v i t i e s . A p p a r e n t l y , hous ing types ( e . g . , p u b l i c housing) i n f l u e n c e some types of d i s a b l e d people i h the use of b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s and i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , because of the more complete f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n p u b l i c housing. However, this factor has not been discussed in detail. 88. 5. Frequency of Talks with Neighbours Most disabled people often talk with their neighbours. Frequency of talks with neighbours i s associated with housing type be-cause of the definition of "neighbour". In the survey questionnaire, "neighbour" is someone in the five or six homes (or units) nearest to the respondent. Therefore, people who l i v e in public housing or high rise apartments talk to their neighbours often. Also, some residents of group homes quite often talk to their neighbour because they apparently think of their co-operators as neighbours as well as friends. APPENDIX III INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRES Note Segment Number: Interview Number: Interviewer; Date of Interview: Mobility 1. Walk ( ) 2. Crawl ( ) 3« Immobile ( ) 1. Ambulant ( ) 2. Semi-ambulant ( ) 3. Semi-ambulant ( ) 4. Wheelchair I ( ) 5. Wheelchair II ( ) Use of Mechanical Aids * Inside 1. Wheelchair P. ( ) M. ( ) 2. Canes, Crutches, Walker ( ) 3. Not Required ( ) -* Outside 1. Wheelchair P. ( ) M. ( ) 2. Canes, Crutches, Walker ( ) 3. Not Required ( ) Transportation: Fundamental Daily A c t i v i t i e s 1. T o i l e t i n g : -2. Taking Baths: 3. Transfer to and from a bed: k. Going out of the home: Personal Assistant: 90. O f f i c e use Project : Arch 547, 549 P a l l , 1976 - Spring, 1977 ***A STUDY OF HOUSING FOB THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED*** ACTIVITY SURVEY OF PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED PEOPLE. School of Architecture Graduate Studies The Oniveristy of B r i t i s h Columbia a. Segment Number b. Interview Number c. Date I am Naoyuki Iwata from the School of Architecture of the Oniversity of B r i t i s h Columbia. I am conducting a survey about things that the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped do each day. I am t r y i n g to discover from t h i s what things we must pay atte n t i o n to i n the planning of housing f o r the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped i n urban s o c i e t y . Please take 20 minutes to f i l l i n the guestionnaire and return i t as soon as i t i s convenient. A l l the answers you give w i l l be s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . The guestionnaire i s intended to be f i l l e d i n by the p h y s i c a l l y handicappd only. Of course, you are not reguired to p a r t i c i p a t e , but I hope very much that you w i l l , and I think you w i l l f i n d i t i n t e r e s t i n g , as well as i n your onw i n t e r e s t i n the long run. Thank you. F i r s t , I would l i k e to ask you some question about people i n your dwelling. Would you please give me a l i s t of both adults and c h i l d r e n who usually l i v e with you. (If you are l i v i n g i n a sort of group home, you w i l l just write about yourself / and your spouse) How i s he/she r e l a t e d to you|Sex (F or M)| Age | + + 1 1. Respondent 1 + -1 + J 8,11 , 2. 1 + 1 + I 12,15 3. 1 + 1 •••--+ • I 16.19 -4. 1 + 1 + I 20,23 5. 1 + -1 + I 24.27 -6. 1 + • • 1 - + -] 28,31____ 7. 1 + 1 + I 32.35 8. 1 x . - .. 1 X - . I 36,39____ 2. Are you using a wheelchair? 1. { ) Yes 2. ( ) Sometimes 3.{ ) No 3 _ 6,7_;_ 40 91. O f f i c e use 6. 8. Do you have a dri v e r ' s l i c e n c e ? 1. ( ) Yes 2. ( ) No Do you have your own personal car? 1. ( ) Yes 2. ( ) No Chech the nature of your handicap 1. ( ) 3. { ) 5. ( ) 7. ( ) A r t h r i t i s 2. { ) Quadiplegia 4. ( ) M u l t i p l e S c l e r o s i s 6.( ) Other, (Specify) For instance Paraplegia Hemiplegia Cerebral Palsy How many years/ months have you been handicapped? Years or Months I would l i k e to ask you about your d i s a b i l i t y Would you i n d i c a t e your type with check (X) i n " s e l f " column below. I f your spouse has a d i s a b i l i t y please check (X) the appropriate typ the "spouse" column below. type, the ny e i n TYPES Implications I S e l f | Spouse | + + I 1. Bedridden Constant care required i I + - 1 2. wheelchair I I Some personal care | and assistance, | p a r t i c u l a r l y | out of the wheelchair i 1 1 1 1 1 • - + 1 3. Wheelchair I May be capable of complete independence, i f b a r r i e r s removed.- + 1 1 I 1 4. Semi-Ambulant I i In some cases, some personal care needed. + 1 1 - - + 5. Semi-Ambulant I. Complete independency po s s i b l e . • - - - + 1 + 6. Ambulant Usually complete independence. •-- I J. 1 . j. What type of dwelling are you l i v i n g i n now? Indicate by a 1- ( 2- ( 3. ( 4. ( 5. ( 7. ( 8. ( check (X) Single family, detached house Duplex Row house Walk-up apartment b u i l d i n g Store with dwellinq above or behind House converted to rooms or apartments Other (Specify) : -Is your dwelling designed or modified f o r you? 1. ( ) No 2. ( ) Somewhat 3.( ) Yes 10. Do you 1. ( ) Own 2. ( ) Rent 3. ( ) (Other) your dwelling? (Specify) a i _ 42 _ 43 44,45 46,47, 4 8 , 4 9 _ 50 51 52 92. Office use 11. 12. 13. 16. Are you l i v i n q i n public housing, such as Sunset Towers, Steeres Manor, Seven Maples, Woodcraft? 1. ( ) Yes 2. ( ) No Are you l i v i n g i n a s o r t of group home? 1.( ) Yes 2.( ) NO What area of the c i t y do you l i v e in? ( e. g. West Point Grey, Marpole, etc.) From your own personal point of view. How would you 14. 159 rate your dwelling as a place to l i v e ? I 57 1. ( ) Excellent 2. ( ) Good 3. ( ) Average <*. ( ) Below average 5. ( ) Poor Why do you say so? {If you have any s p e c i a l reasons would you t e l l me.) 1 58 How d i f f i c u l t i s i t to l i v e i n your dwelling? 1 59 1. ( ) Considerable d i f f i c u l t y 2. ( ) A c e r t a i n amount of d i f f i c u l t y 3. ( ) Almost no d i f f i c u l t y Have the a r c h i t e c t u r a l b a r r i e r s to your movement been removed i n your dwelling? 1. ( ) Completely. 2. ( ) P a r t i a l l y . 3. ( ) Not at a l l . Here are some words and phr you to use to describe your n to you. By neighbours I mean what you can see from front doo s i x homes (or Units) nearest you think the neighbours are " check r i g h t next to the word " i s "Quiet" Please put a check r "Quiet" and i f you think i t i please put a check where you th 1. 2. 3. * Noisy * Unattractive, * Fri e n d l y people * Poorly kept up * People s i m i l a r to me * Pleasant * Very poor place to l i v e ases which I eighbours as -j ust those r, that i s , to yours. Noisy," Pie noisy," If y ight next to s somewhere ink i t belon 4. . 5. would l i k e i t seems who l i v e i n the f i v e or E. G. , I f ase put a ou think i t the word in between, gs. Quiet A t t r a c t i v e Unfriendly people Well kept up People d i s s i m i l a r to me Unpleasant Very good place to l i v e 53 _ 54 _ 55,56 60 61 62-63 _ 64 65 66 67 93. O f f i c e use 17. The following i s a l i s t of clubs and organisations that many people belong to. Please look at t h i s l i s t and mark the organisation you yourself belong to (Check as many organisations as you l i k e , check on the' column i n l e f t ) Organisation For Q. 18 18. 1. 2. , 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 19. 20. Church, Synagogue or other Church connected group, (but not the church) Hobby club. College alumini (alumnae) a s s o c i a t i o n . F r a t e r n a l lodge or organisation. Business or c i v i c group. Parent-teacher Association. Community, centre. Regular card-playing club-Sports team. Country club. Youth group ( G i r l scout leader, l i t t l e league manager) Pr o f e s s i o n a l group. Local p o l i t i c a l club or organization. P r o v i n c i a l or national p o l i t i c a l club or organization. Neighborhood improvement a s s o c i a t i o n . Charity or welfare organization. P h y s i c a l l y Handicapped a s s o c i a t i o n . Other, s p e c i f y Other, s p e c i f y I f you are very involved, somewhat involved, not very involved i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the groups checked i n Question 17. * I f you are very involved put a number 1 * I f you are somewhat involved put a number 2 * I f you are not very involved put a number 3 Against the a c t i v i t y checked o f f i n Question no. 17, to the r i g h t i n the space provided. How many times i n the l a s t week have you afternoon or evening with a fr i e n d or meeting or s o c i a l event or some such event? 0.{ ) Not a l a l l Once Twice Three or four times Five or six times Seven or more times. spent an gone to a 1. ( 2. ( 3. ( 5. ( 7. ( How often do you ta l k to any of neighbours? 0. ( ) Never 1. ( ) A few times a ye a r / r a r e l y . 2. ( ) Once a month. 3. ( ) 2 - 3 times a month 4. ( ) Once a week 5. ( ) Several times a week 6. ( ) Every day. 68,69 70,71_ 72,73_ 74,75_ 76,77_ 78,79_ 3, 4_ 5, 6_ 1, 8_ 9, 10 11,12_ 13, 14 15,16_ 17,18_ 19,20 21,22 23,24 25,26 27,28 29,30 31 32 94. O f f i c e use 21. T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s | t h a t many p e o p l e o f t e n u s e . Have y o u u s e d t h e s e | w i t h o u t s o m e o n e ' s a i d s i n c e you became h a n d i c a p p e d ? | ( C h e c k i n t h e c o l u m n f o r q u e s t i o n 21) F o r Q .21 F o r Q .22 F o r G . 23 1. S m a l l r e t a i l s h o p . { ( ( I 3 3 , 3 5 2 . S u p e r m a r k e t . ( ( ( | 36 ,38 3 . H a i l box ( ( { 1 3 9 , 4 1 _ _ _ 4 . P o s t o f f i c e . ( ( ( | 42 ,44 5 . P u b l i c t e l e p h o n e b o o t h . ( ( { | 4 5 , 4 7 6 . Bank ( ( { I 48 ,50 7 . B a r b e r o r B e a u t y p a r l o u r . ( ( ( I 51 ,53 8 . RCaP o f f i c e . ( ( ( I 54 ,56 9 . R e s t a u r a n t . ( ( ( | 5 7 , 5 9 _ _ 10 . C o f f e e o r Hamburger s h o p . ( ( ( I 6 0 , 6 2 1 1 . C l i n i c . ( { { | 6 3 , 6 5 12 . H o s p i t a l . ( ( ( 1 6 6 . 6 8 1 3 . G . F. S t r o n g o r e q u i v a l e n t . ( ( ( 1 69 ,71 14. R a i l w a y s t a t i o n . ( ( ( 1 7 2 , 7 4 15 . Bus s t o p . ( { ( 1 75 ,77 16 . C h u r c h . ( ( ( I 7 8 , 8 0 17. N e i g h b o u r h o o d p a r k . ( ( { 1 3 , 5 18 . M o v i e t h e a t r e . ( ( ( | 6 , 8 19 . T h e a t r e o r A u d i t o r i u m . ( ( ( 1 9,11 2 0 . D e p a r t m e n t s t o r e . ( ( ( I 12 ,14 2 1 . S t a n l e y p a r k o r e g u i v a l e n t . ( ( ( I 1 5 , 1 7 2 2 . H o t e l o r M o t e l . ( ( ( I 18 ,20 2 4 . CMHC o r GVRD o f f i c e . ( { ( I 21 ,23 2 5 . P u b l i c L i b r a r y . ( ( { I 24 ,26 2 6 . S c h o o l . ( ( ( I 2 7 , 2 9 2 7 . K i n d e r g a r t e n . ( ( ( 1 3 0 , 3 2 2 8 . D a y - c a r e c e n t r e . ( ( ( 1 3 3 , 3 5 2 9 . L i q u o r s t o r e . { ( ( I 36 ,38 3 0 . Pub o r N i g h t C l u b . ( ( ( 1 3 9 , 4 1 _ _ _ 3 1 . Community c e n t r e . ( ( ( | 42 ,44 3 2 . A t h l e t i c c e n t r e ( P o o l , G y m n a s i u m , e t c . ) ( ) ( ) { ) | 4 5 , 4 7 3 3 . C a n a d i a n P a r a p l e g i c A s s o c i a t i o n , H a n d -i c a p p e d R e s o u r c e C e n t r e o r e q u i v a l e n t . ( ) ( ) ( ) I 48 ,50 3 4 . Down town s h o p p i n g - m a l l ( ) ( ) ( ) I 51 ,53 3 5 . A i r p o r t . ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 54,56___ 95. O f f i c e use 22. Last month, how many times did you go to the places l i s t e d above. For each place choose a number from the following l i s t , and then write i t i n the appropriate space i n the column f o r guestion 22. 0. . Never 3. Three or four times 1. Once 5. Five or six times 2. Twice 7.. Seven or more times 23.. which of the places i n guestion 21 would you l i k e to use but cannot because i t i s not designed to accomodate the handicapped. Check the appropriate space i n the column f o r guestion 23. 24.. Describe your employment s i t u a t i o n . 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 1. ( 2. ( 3. ( ». { 5. ( 30. Working f u l l - t i m e (35 hours or more per week) Working part-time Retired Not employed In school When did you s t a r t working on your current job? Month year Not sure ( ) What kind of business or industry is/(was) your (last) job in? ( e g : TV and ra d i o manufacturing, r e t a i l shoe store, p r o v i n c i a l labor Department, farm, etc.) What kind of work do/(did) you do? ( e g: s k i l l e d operator, supervisor, c l e r k , manager, laborer, etc.) How many years of school have you completed? Years. When you were i n emelemtary school, l i v i n g most of the time? where were you 1. ( 2. ( 3. ( «. ( 5. ( 6. { On a farm In the country, but not on a farm In a town or small c i t y In the suburbs of a si z e a b l e c i t y In the c e n t r a l c i t y of a metropolitan area Not sure Please look at t h i s p i c t ure of a ladder. Suppose the top of the ladder represents the very best of health. Where would you say your health f a l l s on the ladder? I 1. ( ) _ l 2. ( ) I 3. { ) I ». ( ) . I 5. ( ) 57 _ 58,59 60,61 62,63_ 64,65 _ 66 67 96. O f f i c e use 31. 32. 34. 35. Is your spouse now working f u l l - t i m e , part-time, or i s your spouse r e t i r e d , not employed or what? (If you don't have a spouse, please go to question no. 35) 1. ( ) Working f u l l - t i m e . 2. ( ) Working part-time. 3. ( ) Retired. 4. ( ) Not employed.', 5. ( ) House wife. 6. ( ) Student. What kind of business or industry i s your spouse's job i n ? E. G., TV and radio manufacturing, supermarket, p r o v i n c i a l labour department, etc) 33. What kind of work does your spouse do? ( e. G. S k i l l e d operator, checker, secretary, manager, u n s k i l l e d labour, etc.) Please look at t h i s p i c t u r e of a ladder again. Suppose the top of the ladder represents the very best of health. Where would you say your spouse's health f a l l s on t h i s ladder?-_ i. ( l 2. { 3- ( f*- ( 5. { I Just for s t a t i s t i c a l purposes would you mind t e l l i n g me how much money you and your family received l a s t month or l a s t year from a l l sources, before taxes were deducted? Monthly Annually 1. ( ) Under $250 Under $2,999 ( ) 1-2. ( ) $250-5416 $3,000-$4,999 ( )2. 3. ( ) $417-$583 $5,000-36,999 ( )3. 4. ( ) $584-$749 $7,000-38,999 ( ><*-5. { ) $750-$1,249 $9,000-$14,999 ( )5. 6. ( ) $1,250-31,666 $15,000-319,999 ( )6. 7. ( ) $1,667-32.083 $20,000-324,999 ( )7. 8. ( ) $2,084-32,499 $25,000-$29,999 ( )8. 9. ( ) $2,500 and over 330,000 and over ( )9. 68 69,70. 11,12, 73 74,75. !• I would l i k e to ask you about the things you did and the places you went yesterday ( i f yesterday was Saturday or Sunday, could you t e l l me about Friday)* I am interested both i n the things you do regularly and i n the things that you happened to do yesterday, PLEASE LOOK AT THIS EXAMPLE„ A„ Y B o What did you do jWhat time next? (Anythingjdid you else at the jstart? same time?) Who did a l l that with you? (CHECK ALL THAT APPLY) • D„ Where were you when you i ? 4:00 a..m» dress * * J--30 (^)Salf only )Tamily in RH )Rels 0 not i n )U*bours )Friends )Co-Workers )Other •X)Self onfy { )Family i n HH )P.elSc not i n )N'bours )Friends )Co-Workers 10ther.._ I <yQ Home I Travel HH ( )Car Vied. ( )0ther 7 (^Home Travel HH ( )Car ( )Other q.3 H L 0 E E E S s B E S T Ufft Tor (X)Self only )Family i n HH )Bels» not i n )lT»bours )Friends )Co-Worker-s )Other j Travel HH ( )Car ( )0taer > 3 o "iTX)Seif" only j( )Family )Other ( )Self only ( )Family ( )Eels„ not i n ( )W'bours ( )Friends 0^0 Co-Workers |( )Other {.)Home | Travel 00Car Household Hels.: Relatives j H'bours: Neighbours ~|( )Home I Travel HH ( )Car ( )Other] I U30 K )Self only j( )Family i n HH ( )RelS(s not i n ( )N»bours (X,) Friends ( )Co-Wokers H )Home j Travel til ( )Car ( )0ther 1 UBC Cafeteria.' X * Let's begin with 4a»m. i n the morning. When did you get up? PLEASE CHECK, Now, thinking back, what did you do next? YESTERDAY WAS Please describe i n as much detail as possible' from ( ) Monday "getting up" to "going to bed." ( ) Tuesday First of a l l , f i l l i n QUESTIONS A - D. ( ) Wednseday ( ) Thursday (Please, see next page) ( ) Friday 98. A. What did you do i next ? (Anything e l s e at the same tine?) B. rtfhat time did you start? C, 1 Who did a l l that with you? (CHECK 3 ALL THAT APPLY) D. There wre you when rou ? .2 { H 0 R E 1.3 C L E S S B E S T htoo a.nw ( )Self only < ( )Family i n HH ( )Rels. not i n HI! ( )N«bours ( )Fr±ends ( )Co~Workers ( )Other [ )Home Travel ( )Car ( )Othej i ( )Self only ( )Family i n HH ( )Rels. not i n HE: ( )N'bours ( )Friends ( )Co-Wokers ( )Other ( )Home Travel ( )Car ( )Cthe: ( )Self only ( ) Family i n HH ( )Hels. not i i i HB ( )N'bours ( )Friends ( )Co-Workers ( )Other ( )Home Travel ( )Car ( )Cthei ( )Self only ( •) Family i n HH ( )Rels. not i n HI ( )N'bours ( JFriands ( )Co-Workers ( )Oth^r ( )Home Travel ( )Car ( ) Othe r ( )Self only ( )Fnmily i n HH ( )Rels. not i n HE ( )H'bours ( )Friends ( )Co-Workers ( )Other ( )Home Travel ( )Car ( )Other ( )Self only ( )Family i n HH ( )Rels» not i n HI ( )M*bours ( )Friends . ( )Co-Workers ( )Other I }Home Travel 1 ( )Car ( )Othex ( )Self only ( )Family i n HE ( )Rels. not i n HJ ( )N'bours ( )Friends ( )Co-Workers ( )Other ( )Home Travel i ( )Car ( )Othei ( )Self only ( )Family i n HH ( ) R e l S o not i n K ( )N'bours ( )Friends ( )Co-Workers ( )Other ( )Home Travel fct ( )Car ( )Othej r (continued i n ne:;t page 99. B, ;Seif only : )Family i n HH )Rels„ not i n HH )N'bours )Friends )C6-Workers )Other t JEome Travel ( )Car ( )0the: JSelf only ) Family i n HH )Relsc not i n HH )K«bours )Friends )Co-Workers )Other C )Home Travel ( )Car ( )0thei 2 , Among the a c t i v i t i e s you mentioned doing away from home (other than work or transportation} were there any that you would lilte to do more often? l . ( ) Yes 2.( ) Ho 3. ( ) None away from home WHICH ONES? ("X" APPROPRIATE BOXES ABOVE Q.2 COLUMN) 3» And among these a c t i v i t i e s away from home (other than work or trans-portation) , wre there any that you.would l i k e to do less oftan? l.( ) Yes 2,( ) No p.( ) None away from home WHICH ONES? ("X" APPROPRIATE BOXES ABOVE COLUNM) k. How of a l l the things you did yesterday, which one did you enjoy doing most? IF NO ACTIVITY THAT ENJOYABLE, CHECK HERE: ( ) OTHERWISE CHECK ACTIVITY MENTIONED IN APPROPRIATE BOX ABOVE 0..^  COLUMN, 5 . Are there things you didn't do yesterday which you usually do on day of week? l . ( ) NO 2 „ ( ) Yes (SPECIFY: 6 * Sy o|eweek?6 ^ *° ^ s t ^ ^ ^ you don't usually do on 1..C ) No 2,( ) Yes (SPECIFY: I would very appreciate i f you add any comment on your diffxculta.es i n l i v i n g or on this questionnaire. 

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