UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Food patterns, shopping habits and food beliefs of Indian families on selected isolated and non-isolated… Stepien, Yolanda Z 1978

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1978_A6_7 S84.pdf [ 11.68MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094485.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094485-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094485-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094485-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094485-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094485-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094485-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094485-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094485.ris

Full Text

FOOD PATTERNS, SHOPPING HABITS AND FOOD BELIEFS OF INDIAN FAMILIES ON SELECTED ISOLATED AND NON-ISOLATED RESERVES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by YOLANDA Z. STEPIEN B.Sc,  Simon Fraser University, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Division of Human Nutrition, School of Home Economics)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1978 ©  Yolanda Z. Stepien,  1978  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  Qd  II jit  ABSTRACT  Recent reports indicate that the n u t r i t i o n a l status of native Indians i s poorer than that of the general population.  The culture of native Canadians i s currently  i n a state of t r a n s i t i o n , with many factors a f f e c t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e patterns, producing rapid changes i n lifestyles.  The present study was  gain f u l l e r understanding  undertaken i n order to  of those problems r e l a t e d to  food intake and the influence of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l factors. By use of a 24-hour r e c a l l , the nutrient content of diets of 144 individuals l i v i n g at three reserves adjacent to urban centres was  compared with diets of 105 individuals at  four r e l a t i v e l y isolated Indian reserves.  Interviews were  conducted with 92 women from the seven reserves  and  information regarding food b e l i e f s , shopping habits, meal planning, food practices, as well as selected socio-economic and family variables, was  collected.  In addition, data on  food prices and foods available i n l o c a l stores was gathered. Analysis of nutrient intake data showed that low intakes were frequent for calories, calcium, iron and vitamin C. Low  c a l o r i c intakes were observed for adolescents and most  adults, regardless of reserve location.  Calcium  intakes  were lowest on isolated reserves, while iron status was  iii  poorest i n non-isolated communities . Vitamin C intakes on isolated reserves were considerably lower than on non-isolated reserves. Rank correlation c o e f f i c i e n t s using Kendall's tau beta demonstrated that several independent variables were r e l a t e d to the dependent variable, food practices of the female household head.  These included the location of the reserve,  education of respondents, the women's attitudes toward" n u t r i t i o n , household size, and the l e v e l reached on the household f a c i l i t i e s  scale.  The most s i g n i f i c a n t factor  related to food consumption was i s o l a t i o n ( p < . 0 0 1 ) , with diets i n urban areas being more adequate than those i n • r u r a l areas. Overall food selection was poorest i n i s o l a t e d reserves, notably Babine and Fort Ware.  The items most often i n  short supply were dairy products, fresh meats and fresh f r u i t s and vegetables.  Food costs were also highest i n the  most isolated reserves. It was concluded  that food practices of native Indians  are poorer at isolated reserves than at those adjacent to urban centres.  Indications are that this i s a consequence  of the interaction of a number of factors: high food prices, poor selection, unemployment, inadequate housing and household f a c i l i t i e s , depleting natural food resources, a lack of food/nutrition information, as well as a lack of involvement i n health-related programmes.  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  My most sincere thanks are extended to my research director Dr. Melvin Lee, for his guidance and encouragement throughout  the course of this study; Dr. Harriet Kuhnlein  for her enthusiasm  and advice with the thesis preparation;  and Dr. Tom Abernathy for his advice with the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis and thesis preparation. I am grateful to the personnel of the P a c i f i c Region, Medical Services Branch, Department of National Health and Welfare, and i n p a r t i c u l a r to Dr. Pyper, Dr. Habgood, Dr. Murie and Dr. Butler for their assistance i n selecting the reserves and i n execution of the study; with a special thanks to Public Health Nurses Ruby Siemens and Maxine Ingles, CHR Joyce White and n u t r i t i o n i s t Karen Loose for their advice and assistance; the Community Health Representatives who accompanied us on the reserves and introduced us to the people, along with the Indian chiefs, councillors and band members from the reserves; and Dan for his cheerful encouragement throughout  the course of this project and his  help i n the thesis preparation. And most importantly, I would l i k e to thank the women and other residents of the reserves who so patiently answered a l l the questions, making this study possible.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES  t  i i iv  . vii x  Chapter I II  III  IV  INTRODUCTION  1  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  7  P r i c i n g and food buying practices Food ideology and b e l i e f s  7 13  Food habits of native Indians  18  MATERIALS AND METHODS  24  Population and Sample Description of Reserves Description of Sample Population Data Collection and Analysis 1. Questionnaire 2. Food practices 3. Food p r i c i n g and food a v a i l a b i l i t y S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis RESULTS  24 28 4-5 51 51 53 55 56 60  Food A. B. Food A. B.  60  patterns Analysis of nutrient intake data . . . . Food frequencies ideology Food b e l i e f s of homemakers Food b e l i e f s as related to pregnancy, lactation, infancy and i l l n e s s Shopping practices Meal planning and preparation Food practices of homemakers A. Food scores B. Relationship betvzeen food practices and selected variables  81 90 90 92 97 104113 113 117  60  vi  Chapter'. Food p r i c i n g and food a v a i l a b i l i t y V VI  Page ,123  DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS  126  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  149  BIBLIOGRAPHY  154  APPENDICES A. Questionnaire B. Scoring system f o r food practice test C. Food l i s t used f o r food p r i c i n g and food availability D. Table VII-3: Daily nutrient intakes of a l l children and adolescents compared to median intakes of the N u t r i t i o n Canada Survey Table VII-4: Daily nutrient intakes of a l l adults compared to median intakes of the N u t r i t i o n Canada Survey Table IX-2 to IX-7: Percentage contributions of food groups to calories and nutrients for each age and sex category Legend to Appendix E E. Raw Data — Individual nutrient values calculated from 24-hour dietary r e c a l l s f o r subjects from the seven reserves  165 176 178  183 184 185 191 192  vii  LIST OF TABLES Page Table I  Indian reserves i n B r i t i s h Columbia involved i n the study  27  II  Age d i s t r i b u t i o n of sample population  46  III  Household c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of sample population  47  IV  Education l e v e l attained by family heads of household  49  V  Occupation of household heads  50  VI VII-1  D i s t r i b u t i o n of family income Daily nutrient intakes of children and adolescents from isolated and non-isolated reserves  51  VII-2  VIII  IX-1 X XI-1  61  Daily nutrient intakes of adults from isolated and non-isolated reserves  62  Number of individuals, by age and sex, with daily nutrient intakes less than two-thirds of the Canadian Dietary Standards ,  63  Percentage contribution of food groups to calories and nutrients ( a l l ages).  64  Frequency of consumption of s p e c i f i c food items by i s o l a t i o n  82  Sample d a i l y menus, taken from dietary r e c a l l forms collected on "isolated reserves"  88  viii Page Table XI-2  Sample daily menus, taken from dietary r e c a l l forms collected on "non-isolated" reserves  89  Number of women who l i s t e d a food group as important i n the diet and gave a v a l i d n u t r i t i o n a l reason for i t s importance  91  Percentage of women indicating s p e c i f i c foods as b e n e f i c i a l or harmful during pregnancy  93  Percentage of women indicating s p e c i f i c -foods as b e n e f i c i a l or harmful during l a c t a t i o n  94  Percentage of women indicating s p e c i f i c foods as b e n e f i c i a l or harmful during infancy  95  Percentage of women indicating s p e c i f i c foods as b e n e f i c i a l or harmful during i l l n e s s  96  Type of store where majority of food shopping i s done  98  XVIII  Reasons for selecting store  99  XIX  Frequency of shopping for major and minor food purchases  99  XX  Person who does majority of food shopping  XXI .  Food-shopping requests of children.. 101  XXII  Frequency of selected practices  XXIII  D i s t r i b u t i o n of monthly food expenditure  XII  XIII  XIV  XV  XVI  XVII  shopping  101  102 103  ix Page Table XXIV  Changes i n food buying with increasing food prices  104  XXV  Factors i d e n t i f i e d by respondents as influencing foods purchased  105  XXVI  Person who does majority of cooking....  106  XXVII  Use of and frequency of meal plans  107  XXVIII  Household f a c i l i t i e s  107  XXIX  Food and cooking education of respondents  108  XXX  Sources of n u t r i t i o n information i d e n t i f i e d by respondents  109  XXXI  Use of vitamin and mineral supplements.  HI  XXXII  Traditional food patterns  112  XXXIII  Food practice scores achieved by respondents  H4-  XXXIV  Food scores of respondents based on major food groups  115  Inter-relationship between food groups and food practices  117  XXXV XXXVI  Multiple range test of mean scores for food practices with respect to reserve  H8  XXXVII  Relationship of dependent variables and food practice scores  H9  XXXVIII  Interrelationship between variables....  121  XXXIX  Food a v a i l a b i l i t y at selected communities  124-  XL  Cost of 30 food items i n selected communities r e l a t i v e to the cost of these items i n Vancouver  125  X  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.  Page B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Reserves involved i n the study  25  2.  Non-isolated and isolated mean intakes of calories  65  3.  Non-isolated and isolated mean intakes of proteins  67  4.  Non-isolated and isolated mean intakes of calcium  69  5.  Non-isolated and isolated mean intakes of iron  71  6.  Non-isolated and isolated mean intakes of Vitamin A  73  7.  Non-isolated and isolated mean intakes of thiamin  75  8.  Non-isolated and isolated mean intakes of riboflavin  76  9.  Non-isolated and isolated mean intakes of niacin  78  10.  Non-isolated and isolated mean intakes of Vitamin C  80  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  The existence of problems of malnutrition among various groups within the Canadian population was by the Nutrition Canada Survey (1973). problem i d e n t i f i e d by the survey was  confirmed recently  The most s t r i k i n g  that of obesity, with  about half of the Canadian adult population being overweight. While n u t r i t i o n a l inadequacies were found throughout the general population, a higher proportion of deficiencies apparent among native Indians.  was  In the Indian population,  dietary and biochemical assessment showed poor iron, calcium, folate and vitamin A status.  Vitamin C nutriture, as  indicated by low serum ascorbic acid l e v e l s , was  also found  to be inadequate,  These  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n remote areas.  results were i n agreement with previous reports dealing with the native Indian population (Lee et a l , 1970; Feeny, 1967;  Dong and  Pett, 1950).  The poor n u t r i t i o n a l status of Indians revealed by N u t r i t i o n Canada i s a part of the overall i n f e r i o r health conditions that exist among native Indians (Butler, 1975; Stanbury, 1975).  The average age at death of Indians i n  B r i t i s h Columbia, for example, i s forty-four years as compared to seventy-two years f o r a l l B r i t i s h Columbians.  2  The death rate from accidents and violence, largelyassociated with alcohol, i s almost three times the provinc i a l rate.  The infant mortality rate, although  decreasing  rapidly, i s s t i l l three times the rate for non-Indians. Inadequate maternal n u t r i t i o n and poor sanitation are thought to be largely responsible,(Stanbury, 1975). On a per capita basis, Indians use twice the number of hospital days as do non-Indians. Dental surveys conducted by Medical Services indicate that the dental health of natives i s worse than that of the P r o v i n c i a l population as a whole (Foulkes, 1973). The 1973 Foulkes Report c r i t i c i z e d these conditions:. "The health of the native peoples of this Province, both 'status' and 'non status' i s such that i t i s a manifestation, of s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e so great that i t s correction demands the highest p r i o r i t y . " The n u t r i t i o n a l problems experienced by the Indian people may be i n part explained by their poverty and thus by their i n a b i l i t y to obtain the foods necessary f o r a. proper diet.  They may also lack basic information about  the foods required f o r good health, a problem shared by the general population.  The s i t u a t i o n of native Indians i s made  more complex, however, because their culture i s i n a state of t r a n s i t i o n .  In recent years a number of factors have  combined to a f f e c t t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e patterns and produce rapid changes i n l i f e s t y l e .  Increased i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n  has l e d to increased mobility, and the degree of i s o l a t i o n  3  for many reserves has decreased.  While the interaction  with white centres i s minimal f o r some, the majority of reserves are i n close proximity to non-Indian settlements. A small number are, i n fact, physically integrated with larger white urban centres. Closer contact with the white culture undoubtedly has affected food resources and eating habits.  Indications  are that t r a d i t i o n a l food practices based on f i s h i n g , hunting, and gathering have greatly diminished (Smith, 1975; Lee et a l , 1971; Schaefer, 1977).  The extent to which  families make use of game, f i s h and berries varies with the season and l o c a l i t y .  Many families now depend on l o c a l  grocery stores f o r their food supply.  I t i s possible that  such changes i n food habits are impairing the quality of diets.  In some areas native Indians are faced with an  increased a v a i l a b i l i t y of non-traditional foods, including fast or convenience foods, processed foods and beverages, current food fads —  a l l of which may lead to new dietary  problems. In more remote areas communities are frequently handicapped by higher food prices and a poor selection of nutritious foods.  A study i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  ( S t i l e s , 1971) showed that stores i n i s o l a t e d communities stocked about 125 items on the shelves as compared to 8,000 i n a large urban supermarket.  Prices i n predominantly  Indian centres ranged from 30 to 45 percent higher than c i t y  4  prices.  The concern that our food d i s t r i b u t i o n system may  not be operating e f f e c t i v e l y throughout  the population was  expressed recently by the Food Prices Review Board (1975), who  recommended that: "In p a r t i c u l a r , further study should be done about the special needs and interests of s p e c i f i c groups, such as our native population, persons l i v i n g i n remote, isolated or r u r a l areas ...." As such, there i s a need for consumer and n u t r i t i o n  education to better equip native Indians to deal with these conditions.  To be e f f e c t i v e , however, n u t r i t i o n  education must be presented i n a way  that w i l l motivate  people to accept and use n u t r i t i o n information.  In  developing e f f e c t i v e programmes, n u t r i t i o n i s t s must f i r s t understand reach.  the l i f e patterns of the people they want to  We must know the attitudes, b e l i e f s and  food behaviour,  'whys' of  i d e n t i f y i n g positive dietary habits and  working within that framework. Recently, many researchers studying food habits have c a l l e d for a broader ecological approach (Mead, 1965; Sanjur and Scoma, 1971;  Sims et a l , 1972).  They stress that  a study of dietary habits should not only deal with actual diets, but should investigate the t o t a l environment i n which these habits occur.  Mead (1965) has commented on the  urgent need for a frame-of-reference for the subject of food habits.  She suggests a multidimensional code for  describing and recording a people's dietary pattern. the proposed code, food habits could be described from  Within  5  different standpoints: i n physiological-sensory terms, i n chemical terms, i n n u t r i t i o n a l terms, i n c u l t u r a l terms, etc.  Within the context of Mead's ideas, Sanjur and Scoma  (1971) developed a model, using four s p e c i f i c dimensions to c o l l e c t and assess food habits data: — — —  i n food consumption terms i n food preference terms i n food ideology terms  —  i n socio-cultural terms  The code allows f o r a description of food habits from d i f f e r e n t standpoints, c o l l e c t i n g information to provide a base f o r the development of e f f e c t i v e n u t r i t i o n education methods. Few studies have analyzed the food habits of Canadian Indians i n a socio-cultural context.  Most studies have  been limited to an examination of nutrient intake.  The  quality and quantity of the several nutrients supplied by d i f f e r e n t food patterns i s measured against existing standards.  Such an approach ignores the meanings and s i g n i f i -  gances which underlie food behaviour.  Thus there i s a need  for a study using a socio-cultural approach to gather information that would be h e l p f u l i n the development of a n u t r i t i o n education programme to deal with present dietary problems of B.C. Indians. The main purpose of this research project was to learn more about the food habits of Indian families l i v i n g at ' selected isolated and non-isolated reserves i n B r i t i s h  6  Columbia, and to investigate the relationship of food practices to certain socio-cultural characteristics of the families, especially the female head of household.  The  s p e c i f i c objectives of the study were: 1) To compare diets of B.C.  Indians l i v i n g on i s o l a t e d  reserves with those on non-isolated reserves i n terms of nutrient content.  The sources of nine major  nutrients i n the diet as provided by eight selected food groups was also determined. 2) To investigate the relationship between the food practices of the female head of household and the family's socio-economic  variables.  Descriptive inform-  ation regarding certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c u l t u r a l dietary patterns such as food ideology, purchasing habits, meal time practices, food b e l i e f s , etc., which may  determine or are highly associated with ultimate  food behaviour, was  collected.  3) To determine the selection and price of foods available i n l o c a l stores. The study sample consisted of 92 native Indian families l i v i n g on reserves i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Seven reserves  varying i n population from 100 to 550 were selected, with an equal representation of families from isolated and non-isolated reserves.  Personal interviews were conducted  with the female head of household to obtain information related to food practices, shopping habits and meal preparation.  7  CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  Pricing and food buying practices Few studies i n Canada have attempted to deal with good purchasing practices of families and with the factors which motivate food selection.  Generally, food-buying  and food expenditures are considered as part of larger studies of consumer spending.  Our food market i s rapidly  changing, with food becoming more and more costly. Between 1969 and 1974  for example, food costs as measured by the  Consumer Price Index rose 527 and the o v e r a l l cost of 0  l i v i n g by 36% (Food Prices Review Board, 1975). new  In addition,  foods and food analogs are being created, while other  foods are being enriched, f o r t i f i e d or processed.  With  the changing consumer food market, individuals now require considerable more expertise to ensure that proper foods are  purchased. Concern with findings of the Nutrition Canada Survey,  together with rapidly r i s i n g food costs led to the formation of a government agency, the Food Prices Review Board, to monitor food costs i n Canada.  Studies by the Board  determined  that most Canadians pay more for food than they need for a nutritious diet (Food Prices Review Board, 1975). Their investigations revealed that while 'a reference 4-person urban family  1  could purchase a basic nutritious diet for  8  approximately $2,000 annually, most families spent $2,900 a year.  The report claimed that although most four-person  families i n the country can afford a nutritious diet, an estimated 9% of the 1.1 m i l l i o n four-person families i n Canada cannot.  Although these families were not  i d e n t i f i e d , the report gave recognition to s p e c i f i c groups, notably the elderly, native Indians and those l i v i n g i n isolated communities who  face their own unique food  purchasing problems, and recommended further study with respect to these groups. Individuals i n remote or isolated communities must frequently contend with poor shopping f a c i l i t i e s , as well as a limited selection of goods and high prices.  Many of  these problems are a r e s u l t of high transportation costs, limited volume of sales, and i n a c c e s s a b i l i t y to suppliers, which r e s u l t i n high expenses for shopkeepers.  These costs,  in turn, are passed on to the consumer. On native Indian reserves, problems may be compounded further, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n a survey i n the Fort Smith Region of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ( S t i l e s , 1970).  In  that study both White and Indian residents were interviewed and groceries i n stores i n 9 communities were priced, with the cost of similar items i n Edmonton used as a reference point.  Comparisons showed that while food costs i n  predominantly white ("other") centres were within 20 to 25% of Edmonton prices, the price of groceries i n smaller Indian  9  communities were 30 to 45% higher.  Indian families with  an average income of $4,500 spent $178 per month on food, or 48% of their income compared to 21% ($185 per month) for 'other' families with annual incomes of $9,000.  Many  Indians, however, harvested food from the land and  although  no estimate was made of the r e l a t i v e contribution of these collected foods, they did provide some assistance i n bridging the gap between employment, income and food costs. The study report recommended that: "The Government of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s should subsidize transportation cost for foods, as well as storage costs and the interest costs on c a p i t a l investment i n foods i n isolated areas". The higher cost of food on native reserves has been documented by other investigators.  In another study Lee  et a l (1970) reported that native residents at the coastal reserve of Ahousat, B r i t i s h Columbia shopped for groceries at a l o c a l store or i n the nearby town of Tofino.  Food  costs at the l o c a l store were about 30% higher than i n V i c t o r i a , while prices at Tofino were only 10%, higher.  At  the inland reserve of Anaham the authors surveyed grocery prices i n six stores i n nearby towns.  Prices were recorded  as 13.67 and 18.6% higher than the larger nearby centre of 0  Williams Lake, where costs were less than one percent higher than Vancouver.  At both reserves, income was  low,  but many families collected and preserved foods, managing f a i r l y well, as judged by n u t r i t i o n a l adequacy of the d i e t .  10  Lack of transportation often prevents many Indian families from shopping i n neighbourhood non-Indian community supermarkets where prices are lower than on (Bass and Wakefield, 1974).  reserves  They are thus r e s t r i c t e d to  l o c a l stores where prices are high and supplies limited. Whether or not the poor pay more for food than those of higher incomes has been the subject of a number of studies in the U.S.  Myers (1970) claims that the poor consumer i s  held back by a lack of time, place, quality, amount and method of purchase.  Immediate needs often overrule budget  plans or shopping during weekly 'specials'; a lack of transportation forces them to shop i n more costly l o c a l stores; they are not able toLtake advantage of bulk buying. The types of grocery stores i n many low-income areas are limited.  Dixon and McLaughlin (1968) concluded that low-income  residents i n the "inner c i t y " of Philadelphia bought most of t h e i r food i n small neighbourhood stores and thus incurred increased cost.  Prices i n stores located i n poverty and  non-poverty areas i n Omaha, Nebraska were examined by Captain  (1969).  He found no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between  the average food prices i n the two  income areas when the  same foods and types of stores were compared.  Few  stores, however, were found i n low-income areas.  large chain Regardless  of location, prices i n small neighbourhood stores were higher than i n large supermarkets.  The small independent stores  also tended to carry smaller quantity units of goods which  11  were more expensive.  Captain concluded that low-income  families pay more for food because of the kinds of stores patronized and unit sizes purchased. The investigations of Goodman (1968), however, contradicted these observations.  In interviews with 520 low-income  families, the majority of whom were black, he found that 92% of the respondents went outside of their neighbourhoods to purchase the bulk of their groceries.  Eighty-one percent  shopped at supermarkets while 8% used competitively priced, moderate-sized stores.  Families used small l o c a l stores  mainly for " f i l l - i n " and emergency shopping.  Over half of  the respondents believed that prices at supermarkets were lower, and so made special effort to go outside their neighbourhood  to shop at these stores.  Goodman claimed that  because families were aware of price differences and shopped competitively, they did not pay more for their food than did high-income families.  Goodman noted the l i m i t a t i o n of  this study i n that those individuals with incomes below $4,000 were not adequately represented. While income i s undoubtedly an important factor i n food selection, other factors also exert an influence on food buying practices.  Various studies have shown the relationship  between food marketing practices of the homemaker and education (Bishop, 1965), n u t r i t i o n or food-buying knowledge (Mize, 1962; Hammett and Blackstone, 1964a, 1964b;  12  Lamkin, 1970; F u s i l l o and Belsian, 1977), age (Stubbs, 1961; Dickins, 1965; Hammett and Blackstone, 1964b; Bishop, 1965), employment status (Dickins, 1961; Metheny et a l , 1962b), race (Dickins, 1961, 1962; Larson, 1968), exposure to food information sources (Bishop, 1965; Hammett, 1968; Dickins, 1962a; Stubbs, 1961) and family members (Casper and Wakefield, 1975; 1  Lamkin, 1978; Metheny, 1962; Dickins, 1962a, 1963; Van de Mark, 1962) . Bishop (1965) found that among a sample of 1,915 V i r g i n i a homemakers, younger women over 20 were more w i l l i n g than those over 60 to try new products.  Older homemakers had more  established food-buying and meal-preparation patterns and were not as e a s i l y influenced by food information and advertisements. In general, women were most influenced by advertisements i n newspapers.  Other influencing factors included label  information, recipes i n cookbooks, requests of family members, and magazine a r t i c l e s on food.  Increase education was also  related to willingness to t r y new foods.  Similar observations  were made by Hammett and Blackstone (1964b) i n a study of 1,654  Alabama, homemakers.  They observed that use of various  food information sources was closely related to age, income, and education.. Women under 30 or over 60 years of age showed greater economic concerns, and responded  less to outside  influences. Employment of women outside the home can affect food selection. Metheny et a l , (1962) interviewed 93 mothers of  13  preschool children i n a comprehensive study of childrens food patterns and family influences.  Among mothers who  reported a recent change i n family food practices, 15%, who were newly employed, reported purchase of foods that can be prepared more quickly.  Dickins (1961) compared  changes i n marketing practices among urban and r u r a l employed homemakers.  Urban families were found to purchase  more meat, f i s h , poultry, f r u i t s and vegetables than r u r a l families.  They were also less t r a d i t i o n a l i n their food  patterns and more l i k e l y to use new  foods ( i . e . f r u i t j u i c e s ,  instant coffee, frozen meat pies, canned b i s c u i t s ) .  Families  of r u r a l employed women were s h i f t i n g from home production of foods to purchased foods. Mize (1962) examining food marketing practices of Georgian homemakers, i d e n t i f i e d four determinants purchasing.  1,000  i n food  One-third of the women were concerned with  cost, while about one-fifth each were influenced by family preferences, the application of food and n u t r i t i o n knowledge, and innovation i n food preparation practices (use of products).  Cost was  new  a greater concern to low-income families  ($2,000 - $3,000), while those with more than a $5,000 annual income were more influenced by family preferences. Food Ideology and Beliefs Many investigators have stressed the importance of attitudes toward food and suggested that e f f e c t i v e n u t r i t i o n education programmes must be based on a knowledge of food patterns and attitudes. Food habits are generally r e a l i z e d  14  to be one of the most deeply rooted aspects of culture. Within their c u l t u r a l framework individuals learn which foods are proper, and associate emotional feelings, together with taste, with them (Cassell, 1965).  It i s essential that  dietary patterns be viewed i n the context of c u l t u r a l ideologies.  Cooper (1966) defines ideology as "an  individuals outlook on s e l f and society".  Food ideology  would then be the person's way of thinking about food as part of his l i f e pattern ( G i f f t , 1970). Beliefs (along with attitudes and values) are components of ideology systems.  According to Cooper (1966) b e l i e f s are  "attitudes which incorporate a large amount of cognitive structuring".  They may be founded on c u l t u r a l learning,  reasoning, observation, factual information, or the authority of a credible source ( G i f f t , 1970).  B e l i e f s provide  individuals with the means of orientating themselves i n their environment i n ways that are g r a t i f y i n g (Goodenough, 1963). They function  i n r e l a t i o n to human purpose as:  1.  a basis of action.  2.  instruments of s o c i a l purpose.  3.  a means of emotional g r a t i f i c a t i o n (Goodenough, 1963).  According to Sanjur (1974) b e l i e f s , together with customs, taboos, and prejudices "enter as value orientation a f f e c t i n g diet and n u t r i t i o n " . The relationship between food ideology and n u t r i t i o n a l status has not been widely investigated. One area that i s  15  well documented, however, i s the effect of the Latin American "hot-cold" theory of dood ideology and disease etiology.  (Sanjur et a l , 1970a, 1970b, 1972, 1974;  Ahmed and Van Veen, 1968).  In one such study i n a small  Mexican v i l l a g e Sanjur et a l (1970) studied the effect of this b e l i e f system on the feeding pattern of young children. The authors observed that the t r a d i t i o n a l concepts of health and disease are linked to food b e l i e f s , and i n general almost any degree of i l l n e s s leads to the withdrawal of part of the childs food intake. Among Puerto Rican and Mexican-American  families, food  b e l i e f s were found to be linked to c u l t u r a l variants of this "hot-cold" theory.  In a study of low-income Puerto Rican  families i n New York, Sanjur (1974) found that diseases were grouped into 'hot' and 'cold' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , while food and medications were c l a s s i f i e d as 'hot , 'cold', or 'cool'. 1  Sixty-two percent of the mothers studied withheld food from sick children, most frequently eggs and milk, and during i l l n e s s e s such as fever, measles, cold and diarrhea. A t t i t u d i n a l factors, as they r e l a t e to the t o t a l pattern of food intake and l i f e s t y l e s were investigated as part of a n u t r i t i o n a l survey on the island of St. Vincent i n the Caribbean (Beaudry - Darisme et a l , 1972).  Data were collected  from 200 households i n two v i l l a g e s and one suburban area. In examining the knowledge and attitudes towards the consumption of d i f f e r e n t foods women were asked to l i s t foods they  16  considered as being 'good' or 'bad' during infancy, pregnancy, and l a c t a t i o n .  Respondents generally gave t r a d i t i o n a l or  non-specific reasons f o r f e e l i n g a p a r t i c u l a r food was good or bad at a p a r t i c u l a r l i f e stage.  I t appeared to  the authors that: "Habits and practices r e l a t i n g to food consumption and avoidance are an integral part of the l o c a l culture pattern and that most women's behaviour i s conditioned by environmental factors i n t e r r e l a t e d with the t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e " . Food b e l i e f s of Mexican-American women i n the post-partum period were reported by Bailey (1970).  Foods considered  harmful to the mother and c h i l d at this time include; hot c h i l i peppers, pickles, vinegar (or food prepared with vinegar), tomatoes, spinach, pork, and most f r u i t .  Beneficial  foods which contribute to l a c t a t i o n and r i c h milk are: chicken, toasted t o r t i l l a s and bread, eggs, milk, cooked cereal, chocolates and meats other than pork. The r e l a t i o n of n u t r i t i o n a l b e l i e f s and practices to several ecological variables was studied by Jalso et a l (1965) among 340 subjects i n New York State.  The authors  assessed  b e l i e f s i n a n u t r i t i o n a l opinions questionnaire, while food practices were measured by means of another  questionnaire  which tested use of food supplements, "health" foods, methods of weight control, special diets, and food avoidances.  They  found a high p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between n u t r i t i o n a l opinions scores and food practice scores, which suggested  that the  17  subjects b e l i e f s were r e f l e c t e d i n their dietary practices. A study of 600 urban slum youth between the ages of 14 and 21, i n 8 Columbian c i t i e s showed that s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l factors were more s i g n i f i c a n t than economic factors i n influencing dietary intake (Walter,  1973).  Of 13 variables  studied, the youths attitude toward his actual diet was the most i n f l u e n t i a l factor.  Youths who  rated their diets  as "good" or "very good" had better diets or a better food quality index (FQI). Pearson's (1972) study of n u t r i t i o n opinions as they r e l a t e to health practices among a nationwide sample of 2,893 American adults, however, indicated that practices are not always supported by s p e c i f i c b e l i e f s .  While the  majority of respondents believed that vitamin and  mineral  supplementation give more pep and energy and keep one only 20% were using vitamin p i l l s .  healthy,  S i m i l a r l y , more than h a l f  of the respondents believed i n the merits of  "health.foods",  but only 15% indicated that they ate or avoided p a r t i c u l a r foods because of their b e l i e f s about food healthfulness. Schaefer (1969) has stressed that attitudes towards food ought to be given prime consideration and measures to combat malnutrition must be based on food patterns and attitudes related to foods.  In developing  countries the introduction  of high protein plant foods has not always been well accepted. According  to Schaeffer  (1969) a general increase i n  a g r i c u l t u r a l production alone cannot a l l e v i a t e malnutrition,  18  but rather "a selective increase i n the production of food products preferred by the people as registered by their attitudes". This selective approach must be coupled with an educational program to increase the public's acceptance and consumption of a wide range of foods. Food Habits of Native Indians In general there i s a scarcity of studies on the food habits and n u t r i t i o n a l status of Canadian Indians.  Until  the Nutrition Canada Survey i n 1972, much of the information regarding native Indian dietary habits was based on studies carried out i n Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Ontario several decades ago.  (Moore et a l , 1946; Corrigan, 1946;  Nicholls, 1946; Vivian et a l , 1948; Best et a l , 1958, 1961).  These were primarily c l i n i c a l studies involving  physical examinations,  some dietary and biochemical  evaluations and occasionally, anthropometric  measurements.  The majority of investigators gave only sketchy  treatment  to description of dietary patterns. In their study, Moore et a l (1946) surveyed the dietary habits and n u t r i t i o n a l status of more than 400 northern Manitoba "Bush" Indians.  Food intake was investigated  by studying trading posts records of food purchases.  The  authors determined that of the 1470 calories purchased daily per person, 857 were supplied by white flour, lard, G  sugar,  and jam. Although diets were supplemented by f i s h and game (which provided additional protein, n i a c i n and some calcium),  19 this contribution was considered minimal as the supply of these foods was becoming depleted.  Assessment of the  nutrient content of diets revealed pronounced deficiencies of Vitamins A, C, and r i b o f l a v i n .  Clinical  examinations  showed marked tissue changes i n the majority of individuals, with the most marked changes being i n the conjuctival, ocular limbic blood vessels, tongue or gums.  The authors  associated these symptoms and the high mortality and morbidity rates, among other factors, to the lack of proper foods. Vivian et a l , (1948) conducted a similar study of two populations i n the James Bay area.  Food purchase records  indicated that, the bulk of food purchases from l o c a l stores included flour, fats, and sugar, with smaller amounts of milk,milk products, f r u i t s and vegetables.  Estimates of  amounts of food obtained from hunting and f i s h i n g were made, and the nutrient intake from a l l sources was  calculated.  Intakes were considered adequate for a l l nutrients except for calcium, ascorbic acid and vitamin A.  C l i n i c a l findings  and especially anthropometric measurements showed poor n u t r i t i o n a l status among the 10 to 19 year age group, with one-third to two-thirds of the teenagers examined being 10 to 30 pounds underweight for height. In 1958, the n u t r i t i o n a l status of children at Pine House and Pelican Narrows, Saskatchewan was  investigated as a  prelude to a demonstration n u t r i t i o n project (Best and Gerrard, 1958).  Dietary, anthropometric, and laboratory  20 data were collected. No frank deficiency diseases were encountered, but serum vitamin A and carotene and ascorbic acid levels were low. common.  Hypoproteinaemia and anemia were  Following the examinations the n u t r i t i o n project  began, with the introduction of a mid-day meal to the school children at Pine House, while Pelican Narrows served as a control.  Reexamination of children i n both  settlements i n 1960,  showed improved serum vitamin A and  carotene levels i n those who had received the dietary supplements (Best et a l , 1961). Studies i n B r i t i s h .Columbia include a comparison of nutrient intake of 61 Indian and non-Indian school children i n A l e r t Bay.  (Dong and Feeney, 1968).  Dietary h i s t o r i e s  of the subjects revealed that intakes of ascorbic acid and calcium were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower for Indian children than for non-Indian children.  Both populations had intakes of  vitamin A and calcium below the Canadian standard. A comprehensive study of the n u t r i t i o n a l status of Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia, including evaluation of dietary, anthropometric, was  c l i n i c a l , laboratory and dental parameters  carried out by Lee et a l i n 1968.  In that survey,  comparisons were made between a coastal f i s h i n g reserve, Ahousat and an inland hunting reserve, Anaham.  Dietary  analysis revealed that a l l age groups consumed a diet high i n protein (excess of CDS).  At both reserves more than  half of the children had calcium intakes less than 2/3 of the  21  standards, while 61 percent of teenage g i r l s at Anaham did not meet 2/3 of the standards for iron. was  Vitamin A  the only other deficient nutrient, with 45 to 70  percent of the Anaham population having intakes below the 2/3 l e v e l .  Intakes of vitamin E, thiamine, r i b o f l a v i n ,  n i a c i n and ascorbic acid were .adequate o r i n e x c e s s  of  standards. In their dietary investigations the authors observed that although t r a d i t i o n a l foods were s t i l l used, diets on both reserves also contained large amounts of processed and refined foods. Information regarding meal patterns, food costs, food storage, handling, preparation and preservation was also c o l l e c t e d i n that study. More recently Desai and Lee (1974) reported that among four Indian communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r i e s , the number of subjects with plasma tocopherol levels i n the d e f i c i e n t range varied from 1.3%, (Ahousat) to 35,8%  (Anaham), with 26.0% at Upper Liard and 19.5% at  Ross River.  An examination of dietary intakes, as measured  by the 24 - hour r e c a l l indicated that the pattern of d a i l y intakes of Vitamin E corresponded closely to the pattern of plasma tocopherol l e v e l s .  The authors suggested that  the o v e r a l l dietary status of the communities was a consequence of "socio-economic  and c u l t u r a l factors and the  geographic locations, as well as the climatic conditions".  22  Other studies have examined oral health among native Indians and related these to dietary data (Myers and Lee, 1974; Lee, 1975).  Myers and Lee (1974) noted s i g n i f i c a n t differences  i n the incidence of dental caries and periodontal disease among four Indian communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r i e s . Variations i n findings were  thoughtttoLbe  the r e s u l t of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of refined foods, as determined by c u l t u r a l -and economic factors. The present day n u t r i t i o n a l status of native Indians varies widely according to the r e l a t i v e importance of certain influences such as the b asic t r a d i t i o n a l economy, the settlement patterns, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the white man's food and the impact of teaching (Smith, 1975).  The dietary pattern  of even very isolated Canadian Indians has been altered from a t r a d i t i o n a l high meat and low carbohydrate i n carbohydrate  diet to one high  and low i n meat and f i s h (Ellestad-Sayed  and Haworth, 1977).  Intensified hunting and f i s h i n g have  greatly depleted these resources.  Thus the use and knowledge  of t r a d i t i o n a l foods i s low and disappearing with the increasing consumption of store-bought  foods (Peterson, 1971).  In addition, white teaching had tended to undermine the Indian values, and many native people are ashamed of t r a d i t i o n a l foods (Smith, 1975).  Food i s not thought i n terms of nutrient  value, but has tended to be polarized into two groups, white man's food and native food.  23  New foods are brought into l o c a l stores with l i t t l e education on their n u t r i t i v e value, r e l a t i v e cost or method of use.  Increased a v a i l a b i l i t y of refined carbohydrate  foods i n l o c a l stores may contribute to suboptimal n u t r i t i o n and high incidence of dental caries (Peterson, 1971; Goldthorpe, 1975).  Native people tend to make poor  food choices, so that native food items are being replaced by items of lower quality (Draper, 1975).  24  CHAPTER I I I MATERIALS AND METHODS  Population and Sample A study was conducted, u t i l i z i n g  descriptive and  a n a l y t i c a l survey research techniques to investigate the food habits of native Indian families on reserves i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  In order to i d e n t i f y differences i n  patterns of food intake and, possibly i n n u t r i t i o n a l status, reserves were selected on the basis of geographical isolation.  They werecS-lassified as either isolated or  non-isolated on the basis of: proximity to a center of 5,000 population, and access touitnedical and shopping f a c i l i t i e s . Four reserves considered representative of i s o l a t e d reserves i n B r i t i s h Columbia were chosen. Nazko, Babine and Takla Lake.  These include Fort Ware,  In each case the reserve  was at least 50 miles from an urban centre, shopping f a c i l i t i e s were limited to one or two small general stores, and medical f a c i l i t i e s consisted of a monthly v i s i t from Medical Services personnel.  Non-isolated reserves were located at  or near large centres and had f u l l access to medical and shopping f a c i l i t i e s . and Necoslie reserves.  They consisted of Nanaimo, Sechelt, (See F i g . 1 for locations).  The  final  sample consisted of 52 families from n o n i s o l a t e d reserves and 40 families from isolated reserves.  A summary of reserves  25  26  is presented  i n Table I, indicating the population size  of each reserve, the number of families interviewed and 24 - hour r e c a l l s collected, as well as the state of ' i s o l a t i o n ' , l i n g u i s t i c group, and c u l t u r a l area of each reserve. The reserves were selected with the help of Medical Services Branch ( P a c i f i c Region) of the Department of National Health and Welfare to maximize co-operation from the reserves.  For a l l but one survey  (Sechelt) preliminary  arrangements were made with the Band Council or Chief of the reserve by personnel from Medical Services.  At Sechelt,  n u t r i t i o n i s t s from the School of Home Economics, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, met with the Indian Band Council to explain the purpose of the study and the procedures to be used. Home v i s i t s were made and interviews conducted with the female household heads.  For the i n i t i a l contact with each  family the interviewer was accompanied by the Public Health Nurse, Community Health Worker, or a female resident of the reserve.  The study was explained an an appointment set up  for a convenient  time, usually the next day. Attmost of the  reserves an attempt was made to approach a l l households. However, at Sechelt, Nanaimo, Necoslie and Nazko households were selected by the aide on a judgmental basis., i . e . only those families i t was f e l t would co-operate were approached. Thus an unbiased,  random sample was not possible.  TABLE I INDIAN RESERVES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA INVOLVED IN THE STUDY  Reserve  Linguistic Group  Cultural Area  Sechelt  Salishan  P a c i f i c Coast Non-isolated  380  53  16  Fort Ware  Athapaskan  Mackenzie R.  Isolated  165  32  12  Necoslie  Athapaskan  Plateau  Non-Isolated  350  35  16  Nanaimo  Salishan  P a c i f i c Coast Non-Isolated  415  56  20  Nazko  Athapaskan  Plateau  Isolated  100  23  8  Lake Babine  Athapaskan  Plateau  Isolated  115  21  7  Takla Lake  Athapaskan  Plateau  Isolated  265  29  13  State of Isolation  Population Size*  Sample Size 1.24-hour 2. Interviews Recalls  * Represents the number of status Indians presently l i v i n g on the reserve.  28  Description of Reserves 1.  Fort Ware The Sekani v i l l a g e of Fort Ware, located on the banks of the Finlay River about 275 miles north of Prince George, i s one of B r i t i s h Columbia's most isolated communities.  There i s no road access to  the reserve, and i t can be reached only by chartered a i r c r a f t or boat. The reserve i t s e l f consists of about 25 log-cabin homes, many of which were b u i l t by members of the band, with supplies being provided by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s .  There i s also a community h a l l ,  health station, elementary school and a small general store on the reserve.  Several d i e s e l  generators  supply e l e c t r i c i t y to the c l i n i c and the homes of teachers, missionaries, and the storekeeper. homes have no e l e c t r i c i t y or indoor taps.  Native  Water i s  obtained from four wells and the nearby r i v e r . The 165 band members l i v e mainly by trapping and hunting, and seasonal jobs such as guiding and f i g h t i n g forest f i r e s .  Local I n i t i a t i v e Programmes (LIP) provide  some work around the reserve.  Income from these  a c t i v i t i e s i s low and merely serves to supplement the welfare income on which almost the entire community relies.  Trapping was  once a more important  source of  29  income but has declined with the lower price of pelts.  The best trapper, for example, w i l l only  earn up to $3,000 annually.  Additional problems  have been posed to wage earners by the formation of W i l l i s t o n Lake (created by the Bennett Dam) which hinders them from going south to Finlay Forks f o r summer jobs. Health care i s provided by Medical Services. At the time of the survey (September, 1975) monthly v i s i t s l a s t i n g 2 to 3 days were being made to the reserve by a Doctor - Public Health Nurse team. The doctor holds medical c l i n i c , while the nurse i s responsible for immunizations, health education, etc.  child-health care,  Since January, 1976, however,  one of the Fransiscan Sisters stationed at the reserve, a registered nurse, has taken over the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the public health nurse. Monthly v i s i t s are s t i l l being made by the doctor.  Emergency  patients are taken by chartered a i r c r a f t to either Mackenzie or Prince George. Yearly examinations for T.B. are conducted by a survey X-ray team.  More recently these have been  stepped up because of the increased, incidence of T.B. i n the area.  An annual dental service i s also  available, and includes the basic work of f i l l i n g s and extractions, centering mostly on the children.  30  The elementary school i s operated by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and includes classes from Grades one through seven. band funds.  A kindergarten i s supported  by  The school i s staffed by three  Fransiscan Missionary Sisters of Mary. The diet for the most part consists of bannock and moose, supplemented by a small v a r i e t y of goods available at the reserve store. men  Besides moose, the  hunt bear, beaver (in the spring and f a l l ) ,  goat  and sheep (in the f a l l ) and occasionally deer, grouse, and ducks.  Few  families f i s h , c h i e f l y because the  catch i n the Finlay River i s poor. Rainbow and lake trout are more p l e n t i f u l at Rainbow Lake, a 7-mile boat t r i p and 3-mile walk away.  The distance poses  problems for many individuals and consequently  the  community does not r e l y on f i s h as an important source.  food  Huckleberries, cranberries, red currant and  s o p a l l a l i e s are p l e n t i f u l and gathered, only for summer eating.  generally  A few families make gam  but  no canning i s done and only a l i t t l e preserving. There are no farms or home gardens. The only store on the reserve i s a small trading post managed by a non-Indian and owned by a couple l i v e i n Prince George.  who  Food prices are s u b s t a n t i a l l y  higher than those i n Vancouver and the s e l e c t i o n i s  31  r e s t r i c t e d to basic items such as flour, r i c e , sugar, powdered milk, etc and a variety of canned goods.  During summer the stock i s larger when a  more varied supply of goods, including fresh f r u i t s and vegetables are brought i n from Prince George by barge.  In winter prices increase  further when the r i v e r freezes and food must be flown i n by chartered plane at a cost of 30 cents a pound as compared to 10 cents a pound by barge. This poses an additional burden to the already impoverished inhabitants of Ware i n obtaining an adequate d i e t . Regular reports i n the press each winter speak of hunger and malnutrition i n thecommunity.  Emergency food supplies are brought i n  at such times, but the d i f f i c u l t i e s p e r s i s t . 2.  Nazko Nazko Reserve i s a Carrier Indian community located s i x t y - f i v e miles west of Quesnel.  U n t i l 1973,  when a two-lane gravel road replaced the single lane dust t r a i l that linked i t to Quesnel, i t was very much removed from outside influences.  Even now  there are no telephones, except for a radiotelephone operated by the Band.  Nazko i s the largest of a group  of small reserves that includes Baezeko, Trout Lake, Pelican Lake, Moses Lake and Kluskies, spread over  32 a 100 by 40 mile area. 100.  It has a population of about  Most of the 18 homes that make up the  reserve have cold running water but no e l e c t r i c i t y . This i s an impoverished area, with l i t t l e work for i t s inhabitants. Local I n i t i a t i v e Programmes have created some jobs on the reserve and i n the f a l l during haying several families are employed by l o c a l white ranchers.  Generally, however, most  individuals are forced to r e l y on welfare. Although hunting, f i s h i n g and trapping are carried out, they do not seem to be a major source of  livelihood.  In the peak f a l l season the men  hunt moose; l a s t year the reserve averaged moose per household. in the spring.  two  A few families trap beaver  Salmon i s also caught i n the summer,  most from the Nazko River, although the Quesnel River i s also a source.  Blueberries are the only  f r u i t gathered i n any substantial amount, with quantities obtained varying with their a v a i l a b i l i t y . Very l i t t l e was  found during the past year.  When  gathered, berries are dried for the winter; some are canned or frozen. of  In the summer of 1975, residents  the reserve planted a community garden that  included beets, carrots, onions, lettuce and potatoes. Vegetables were taken as needed during the summer, but  33 none were stored or preserved.  Thus l a t e r  in the year, families purchased  additional  vegetables from ranchers. Individuals on the reserve have access to two small grocery stores. One i s p r i v a t e l y owned and serves both the white and Indian communities. The other, which i s located on the reserve i t s e l f , is owned and operated by the Band.  Both stores  are s i m i l a r l y stocked, c h i e f l y with canned goods and a small selection of fresh f r u i t s and vegetables.  Food prices are cheaper at the reserve  store, probably because the Band have their  own  truck and are able to bring i n most of their freight from Quesnel.  own  Where families shop varies  with the selection available at the p a r t i c u l a r time and credit given.  Families who  are able to,  do their bulk shopping i n Quesnel where food i s cheaper. Health f a c i l i t i e s are limited.  A public health  nurse employed by Medical Services i n Prince George makes a monthly v i s i t to the area and remains for 3 to 5 days, serving the needs of both the Indian and non-Indian  communities.  V i s i t s from a doctor  are infrequent, and residents obtain routine medical care i n Quesnel.  There i s a community health  representative l i v i n g on the reserve.  34  There i s no school on the reserve so children are bussed to a rearby p r o v i n c i a l school which extends to Grade eight.  Students who wish to  continue their education do so at high schools in Quesnel, Prince George, or Williams Lake. 3.  Takla Landing Takla Landing i s a Carrier Indian community of about 265 people l i v i n g on the edge of Takla Lake i n north-western  B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  v i l l a g e i s accessible by water and r a i l from Ft. St. James, 192 miles to the south-east. It i s about 30 miles north of Lake Babine and residents occasionally t r a v e l between the two centres, by foot i n summer and skidoo i n winter. Direct access to Smithers located 100 miles south i s by chartered a i r c r a f t . There are a variety of sources of income. Some of the men  are employed as f a l l e r s by any  one of three logging companies i n the area.  These  are located at Leo Creek, 20 miles south, L o v e l l Creek, 20 miles north and Driftwood, 40 miles north.  Work i s casual, for periods stretching  from 3 days to 3 months. Programmes (WOP)  LIP and Work Opportunities  provide work around the community  for a number of band members.  Under the LIP  projects for example, members of the band b u i l t the  35  band o f f i c e , a community h a l l , a hockey rink and one house, and repaired ten other houses. The WOP  project was  set up to provide services  l i k e house-cleaning, laundering, painting, c o l l e c t i n g firewood, etc for needy band members. Fur trapping supplements the income of several families as well as handicrafts which are sold at the old Hudson's Bay store just outside the res Social assistance i s s t i l l an important source of income. Takla Landing was reserves v i s i t e d .  the largest of the 'isolated' It consists of about 40  houses, a community h a l l , band o f f i c e , Roman Catholic Church, pool h a l l , medical c l i n i c , store, and a two-room schoolhouse.  Housing i s also  available for l o c a l teachers and v i s i t i n g p r i e s t s . Few houses have e l e c t r i c i t y or indoor taps, most water being obtained from the r i v e r ; wood and propane are used for heating and cooking. The school on the reserve, which has classes up to Grade 7 i s operated by DIA.  Again students  who  wish to attend high school are boarded outside the community, at Smithers, Prince George, or F t . St. James. Residents of the reserve have access to two stores.  One,  located on the reserve i t s e l f and  operated by a former chief, has a limited supply of goods.  The owner was experiencing f i n a n c i a l  36  d i f f i c u l t i e s at the time of the survey and there was a strong p o s s i b i l i t y that the store would soon close.  Almost a l l residents shopped  at the former Hudsons Bay Company trading post, now p r i v a t e l y owned by a non-Indian  couple.  It i s located just outside the reserve and had the largest stock of a l l 'isolated' reserves. Weekly supplies are brought i n by r a i l from Fort St. James.  In addition to food, shoes,  clothing and l o c a l crafts (beaded moccasins and jackets) are also sold, the l a t t e r to tourists who come to the area to hunt and f i s h . Salmon and trout caught i n Takla Lake i n the summer, and moose hunted throughout  the year  are important food sources f o r the entire community.  About one-quarter of the families  at Takla trap either f o r fur (lynx, martin, beaver) or food (grouse, rabbit, groundhog). Much of the f i s h and meat i s preserved by s a l t i n g , smoking, drying or freezing i n winter.  The band  council i s encouraging gardening and about h a l f of the residents had planted potato gardens during the past summer. Medical Services provides the same health care here as i n Nazko.  The public health nurse based  37 i n Fort St. James v i s i t s the reserve twice a month, with v i s i t s from physicians being less frequent. A Community Health Representative l i v e s on the reserve. 4.  Babine Babine Reserve i s a Carrier Indian Sommunity situated just 64 miles north of Smithers at the edge of Babine Lake.  The 100 mile long lake i s  the s i t e of an extensive a r t i f i c i a l spawning channel and i s one of the province's leading producers of sockeye salmon.  Two copper mines,  Granisle and Noranda, as ^ e l l as a logging company, Northwood Pulp Ltd, operate i n the area. Although Babine has a population of 115, this number i s severely affected by seasonal employment. In the summer, jobs such as tree planting, road construction, work at the hatchery and LIP grants for housing, repairs provide employment for the reserve.  During winter, when such work i s temporarily  halted, most families leave the community to seek work i n the nearby towns of Burns Lake and Smithers. The 23 houses that make up the reserve have no running water and residents obtain water from a number of sources: the Babine River, Lake Babine, a seasonal creek and a single well.  There i s also  38 no e l e c t r i c i t y although the school and two families have private d i e s e l generators.  The only other  buildings on the reserve are a small grocery store, church, and health station. The school operated by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development and staffed by a non-Indian had an enrollment of 18 students, from Grades 1 through 7.  Two students attending kindergarten  were taught by a l o c a l resident employed as a teacher's aide. The small general store i s owned and operated by the band.  Selection i s r e s t r i c t e d to canned goods  and a few fresh items i . e . apples, oranges and onions.  Most residents buy their food i n Smithers  and shop at the store only when necessary between t r i p s to town.  The store i s most frequently  patronized by the elderly, who f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to purchase their food i n town and children, buying recess, lunch-time and after school "treats". Medical Services delivers health care to residents of the reserve.  One of the public health nurses  stationed at Fort St. James makes a 3 - day monthly v i s i t , providing the usual services.  The position of  the community health worker i s currently vacant. Hunting and f i s h i n g are carried out extensively. The reserve averages from four to f i v e moose per family annually.  Generally when one i s k i l l e d , i t i s shared  39  among the community, l a s t i n g for approximately three weeks.  Beaver i s trapped from A p r i l to  June at a time when i t s fur i s at i t s best. Occasionally someone may  catch a deer, cariboo,  timber wolf, lynx, rabbit or porcupine.  Game  birds such as ptarmigans, grouse or ducks are also becoming scarcer.  A variety of salmon including  spring (August - l a t e September), sockeye (midJuly) , pink (summer), cohoe and steelhead (late September) are obtained from the Babine River. Trout and char are also fished.  Band members f i s h i n  family groups and divide the catch.  Almost a l l  the f i s h i s smoked or dried; very l i t t l e is done.  canning  Some f i s h i s salted i n kegs.  As i n other communities described, very trapping i s carried out.  little  With the f a l l i n the  price of pelts, and fewer animals to hunt, trapping i s no longer a worthwhile means of obtaining a living.  Some of the elderly people tan moose hides  which fetch $100 apiece, but this i s a tedious and lengthy (2 weeks) procedure. 5.  Necoslie The Carrier Indian community of Necoslie i s located just outside Ft. St. James, on the banks of Stuart Lake.  Lying almost at the geographical  centre of the province, Ft. St. James i s linked by  40  a paved road to Vanderhoof, 39 miles to the south. It i s one of B r i t i s h Columbia's h i s t o r i c a l communities having been founded i n 1806 by Simon Fraser as the main administrative centre for the region then c a l l e d New Caledonia.  Later i t became  an important fur-trading post for the Hudson's Bay Company. Today Ft. St. James has a population of 5,000 and i s the chief commercial centre for the northcentral region.  I t i s growing rapidly, with one  secondary and two elementary  schools, a 25-bed  hospital, two supermarkets, a number of smaller grocery stores, hotels, restaurants, etc.  Facilities  i n the town are used by the 350 residents of the reserve. Many of the men at the reserve are employed by l o c a l logging companies and sawmills.  Recently,  women are also being hired and several women from the reserve are thus employed.  Wages are good.  Other  employment i s provided by LIP projects, c h i e f l y for the construction of new homes on the reserve. Housing on the reserve i s generally poor. A survey carried out by Medical Services i n 1976 judged 28 of the 63 existing homes as "unhealthy" ( i . e . overcrowded, seriously deteriorating, no running water or proper sewage disposal).  The s i t u a t i o n i s improving  41  slowly with new houses being constructed by the Band i n collaboration with the Department of Indian A f f a i r s .  There i s however presently, a four  year waiting l i s t for a new home on the reserve, and many young families impatient with this delay are leaving the reserve and purchasing homes i n town. Health services are provided by Medical Services. At the time of the survey one nurse, who was also responsible for s i x other nearby reserves, was stationed i n Fort St. James. expanded (July 1976)  Her job has since been  to a two-nurse position.  Similarly the CHR p o s i t i o n has grown from half to three-quarter time.  Residents of the reserve r e g u l a r l y  consult with doctors at the hospital i n Fort St. James or Vanderhoof. Sockeye salmon i s the most important  locally  available food and i s netted i n Stuart Lake during l a t e summer.  Char (mid-September to late October),  whitefish (October - November) and trout (year-round) are also caught.  Some f i s h i s eaten fresh i n season,  but most i s smoked, frozen or dried for consumption throughout the year.  Only a few families can f i s h .  Hunting i s done away from the reserve near Beaver Lake.  Where there are men  i n the family a household  w i l l average one to two moose annually.  Beaver,  42 p l e n t i f u l i n the spring are trapped for both food and skin.  Other game i s rarer.  A variety of berries  ( i . e . huckleberries, raspberries, soapberries and blueberries) are gathered by many families and dried or made into jam. 6.  Nanaimo Nanaimo, a community of 415 Cowichan,  people, i s  located on the east coast of Vancouver Island.  It is  made up of one larger main reserve located just outside of the c i t y of Nanaimo, and four smaller r i v e r reserves on the Cedar Highway beside the Nanaimo River. r i v e r reserves (numbered 2 to 5) are less  The  developed  and more t h i n l y populated than the main reserve (reserve one).  There are about 87 houses on the reserve, 68  of these on reserve one, s i x each on reserves 2 to 4 and one on reserve f i v e .  With a few exceptions a l l the  houses on reserve one have e l e c t r i c i t y , telephone and water services available. The c i t y of Nanaimo has a population of 42,000 and i s one of the largest urban centres on Vancouver Island. As such i t has a hospital, a large supermarket (Safeway) together with a number of other smaller food and specialty stores and other amenities of small c i t y  life.  There i s easy access by highway to V i c t o r i a , 70 miles south and i t i s only a 2 - hour ferry r i d e away from Vancouver.  The residents of Nanaimo reserve are thus  43  relatively  urbanized.  Medical Services and the p r o v i n c i a l government share i n providing health care.  An energetic CHR on the  reserve works with a Public Health nurse from the Central Vancouver Island Health unit i n Nanaimo and Federal Public Health nurses from V i c t o r i a i n holding bi-monthly baby c l i n i c s , c h i l d care programmes, immunizations etc. Residents of the reserve can also obtain routine medical and dental care i n town. Fishing i s s t i l l an important means of obtaining food. About h a l f of the families set nets i n the Nanaimo River every f a l l and the salmon caught are shared among members of the reserve.  Many of the families also hunt f o r  deer i n the nearby Nanaimo Lakes area throughout the year.  Some of the families gather berries and make jams  There i s no trapping done. 7.  Sechelt Located on the 'Sunshine Coast' 30 miles north-west of Vancouver i s the Salish reserve of Sechelt, adjoining . the V i l l a g e of Sechelt.  Access from Vancouver i s by  ferry from Horseshoe Bay across Howe Sound to the Langdale Terminal, then by road to Sechelt. is approximately  Travel time  one hour.  Although the population of Sechelt V i l l a g e i t s e l f i s only 550, the t o t a l sub-area population of the region, known as the Powell River-Sechelt belt, i s 32,000.  There  are 380 band members currently l i v i n g on this reserve.  44  F a c i l i t i e s for modern day l i v i n g are quite complete. A l l homes have running water and e l e c t r i c i t y .  There i s an  elementary school (Grades I to VII) i n Sechelt V i l l a g e , and a secondary school i s located at the nearby community of Gibson's Landing. opened i n 1964  A 35-bed h o s p i t a l was  on land donated by the reserve.  Shopping  f a c i l i t i e s are adequate, with a large supermarket (Shop Easy) and other smaller grocery and specialty stores. The major source of employment i n the area i s forestry and many of the men  at the reserve work i n l o c a l logging  camps or sawmills.  A small number of families make a  l i v i n g at commercial f i s h i n g i n the S t r a i t of Georgia, There i s also seasonal employment f o r women at l o c a l f i s h packing houses. Fishing i s also carried out as a means of obtaining food; clams are eagerly gathered.  Some deer hunting i s  done, but no family reported trapping. As i n Nanaimo, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for health, services is shared by the P r o v i n c i a l and Federal Governments. There i s a CHR  on the reserve.  45  Description of the Sample Population Univariate frequency  tables were designed to describe  how the isolated and non-isolated populations were distributed with respect to demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Age The age of women ranged from 17 to 72 years, with a mean age of 37.2 years i n non-isolated areas and 37.9  years i n isolated areas  (Table I I ) .  Male heads  of households l i v i n g i n isolated reserves were s l i g h t l y older, on the average, than males i n non-isolated reserves.  The mean age for the populations was 41.1  years and 37.3 years, respectively.  There were 321  children i n the study population, equally distributed i n number between the two groups.  A larger percentage  of children on isolated reserves however f e l l into the 12 years and under categories (82.0% as compared to 60.0%  for non-isolated reserves).  Household Characteristics As indicated by Table I I I , the size of households was large.  The size of families ranged from 2 to  18 members, with a mean size of 6.80 family members i n isolated areas, and 5.65 members i n non-isolated areas. Isolated families had a larger number of children per household.  The mean number of children i n each family  studied was 4.0 on isolated reserves and 3.0 on nonisolated reserves.  There was no difference, however,  TABLE II AGE DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE POPULATION  Age  Non--isolated No.• (%)  Female Household Head years  8  35 years 50 years 51+ years  18 16 10  0 - 2 5 25 36  -  Male Household Head -  n  =  =  52  n  (15) (35) (31)  7  n 6 8 11  (18) (23) (32)  9  (27)  35 years 50 years 51+ years  11 12 7  (19) = 158  n  years  12  (8)  22  2 - .5 years 6 - 1 2 years  37 46  39 73  18 years 21 years  50  (23) (29) (32)  13  (8)  3  0 - 2  13 19  -  (17) (40) (25)  37 (19) (30) (32)  n  40  (19)  7  Children  =  16 10 7  years  0 - 2 5 25 36  n  Isolated No • (%)  26  (18) =  34  = 163 (13) (24) (45) (16) (2)  47 TABLE I I I HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMPLE POPULATION  Household Characteristic  Non-isolated No. (%)  Isolated No/ (7c)  Household Size 0 - 3 4 - 6 7 - 10 10+  members members members members  No. Children/Household 0 1 -3 4-6 7+  12 26 10 4  (23) (50) (29) (8)  2  6 28 16 2  (H)  2 16 17  X54) (31) (4)  2 15 21  5  (5) (38) (53) (5) (5) (40) (43) (13)  No. Adults/Household 1 2 3 3+  4 27 14 7  (8)  (13)  3 21 7 9  (54) (25) (12) (10)  23 13 3 1  (52) (27)  (8)  (53) (18)  (23)  Household Type Nuclear  28  Extended  13  Single parent  6  Other  5  (58) (33)  (8) (3)  48  in the mean number of adults per household i n the two populations.  Almost a l l "other" adults were parents,  r e l a t i v e s , or older children of the male/female household heads.  Table I I I also shows the d i f f e r e n t types of  households, with the majority of households among a l l reserves c l a s s i f i e d as nuclear and extended. Education Table IV shows the l e v e l of education attained by people i n each of the two populations.  No woman on an isolated  reserve had completed high school, whereas 157. of the women on non-isolated reserves had graduated school.  from high  The majority of women on i s o l a t e d reserves (717o)  had either no formal schooling or some grade school.  On  non-isolated reserves, 607. of the women had completed some high school. Similar findings were observed f o r the male household heads.  While 467, of men on non-isolated reserves had  completed some high school, only 217. on i s o l a t e d reserves had reached that same l e v e l of education Occupation Since there was l i t t l e difference among job categories of working women interviewed, the work status i . e . whether or not a woman was employed, was used as a measure of occupation rather than the type of work i t s e l f .  Distinct  differences were observed between the two populations (Table V).  Whereas an equal number of women on non-isolated  reserves were either working or homemakers, the majority  49  TABLE IV EDUCATION LEVEL ATTAINED BY FAMILY HEADS OF HOUSEHOLD  EDUCATION  Non-isolated No. (%)  Isolated No. (%)  Female Head  n  n  No Formal Schooling Some Grade School Completed Grade School Some High School Completed High School High School and Other Training Male Head  =  52  .0 . 6 5 31 8 2  (10) (60)  n  =  =  40  13  (33) (38)  (15) (4)  15 13 9 0 0  37  n  -  (12)  (8) (23) -  =  34  No Formal Schooling  2  (5)  11  (32)  Some Grade School Completed Grade School Some High School  6 2  (16) (5) (46)  9 2  (26)  (16)  6 1  (18) (3)  (H)  0  Completed High School High School and Other Training Don 1 know 1  17 6 4 . 0  5  (6)  -  (15)  (85%) of women on isolated reserves were homemakers. Although male household heads on a l l reserves were involved i n similar types of occupations, a larger percentage of men on non-isolated reserves had jobs among the higher " s t r a t a " of job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( i . e . tradesman, craftsman).  50  TABLE V OCCUPATION OF HOUSEHOLD HEADS  OCCUPATION  Non-isolated No. (%)  Isolated No. (%)  Work Status - Female Working f u l l - t i m e Working part-time Not working outside home  19  (36)  2  6  (12)  4  27  (52)  34  (85)  1  (3) -  (5) (10)  icupation - Male Chief, Counsellor  2  Tradesman, craftsman Sawmill, ForestryFisherman, Longshoreman Labourer, Trapper  6  (16)  0  15  (39)  11  (32)  6  (16)  4  (12)  5  (13)  12  (35)  4  (ID  6  (18)  Unemployment,  retired  (5)  Income Table VI shows that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of income f o r the entire study population was low.  Although results are broadly  clustered into 5 categories, the majority of families reported a yearly income of just over $5,000.00.  Differences are seen  for the two areas, with a larger number of families on nonisolated reserves earning $5,000 or more annually.  51  TABLE VI DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILY INCOME  INCOME  Non-Isolated No. (%)  Isolated No. (%) 0  0 - 2500  2  (4)  2500 - 5000  7  (14)  12;  (30)  5001 - 10,000  30  (58)  22  (55)  10,001 - 15,000  7  (14)  5  (13)  6  (12)  0  -  1  (3)  15,000+ No response  0  -  -  Data C o l l e c t i o n  Three instruments were developed or adapted to gather data.  1•  Questionnaire  A questionnaire was developed to assess the food habits and shopping practices of native Indian women i n B r i t i s h Columbia. P r i o r to the survey i t was pre-tested among a group of women from the Duncan Indian Band on Vancouver Island.  In accordance with suggestions of the pre-test  52  subjects, the questionnaire was reduced i n length and modified for the study.(Appendix A). The questionnaire was designed to measure separately, food b e l i e f s , shopping habits, meal planning, and other food practices, as well as selected socio-economic and family variables. Attitudes of the women toward n u t r i t i o n , termed food b e l i e f s , were measured by asking the women two questions: "What foods or types of food do you try to include i n your family's diet each day?" and "Why do you think each of these foods i s important." In the methods used to score the answers, credit was given f o r naming each basic food group or a food from each group, and for correctly providing the name of a nutrient or a function of a nutrient i n the food group.  As a measure of variety, the f r u i t and vege-  table group was divided into two food groups.  Each food  group and nutrient and function named correctly scored one point, the maximum score possible being 10. On the food ideology data, women were asked to give their ideas on foods considered desirable and undesirable at certain stages of the l i f e - c y c l e , i . e . during pregnancy, lactation, sickness, and for babies and younger children. Information concerning the women's opinions of diets i n their area, and recent changes i n native diets was also collected, but because much of this was incomplete,, i t was not included in the study report.  53  Food-buying habits were assessed i n another section of the questionnaire composed of 12 questions dealing with shopping s i t e and reason for patronage,  shopping  fre-  quency, children's food requests, the use of recommended food-buying practices, food expenditures and method of payment, factors influencing choice of purchases  and  changes i n food-buying patterns with r i s i n g food costs. The questionnaire also contained a number of questions designed to c o l l e c t descriptive information indicative of other n u t r i t i o n practices. These included meal planning and preparation, the use of nutrient supplements, sources of n u t r i t i o n information, and use of t r a d i t i o n a l foods. Data concerning selected socio-economic  and family  characteristics such as age, education, family composition, occupation, household  f a c i l i t i e s , etc., was also recorded  because of indications i n the l i t e r a t u r e that they are important i n a f f e c t i n g n u t r i t i o n a l status.  A more complete  description of the variables i s given i n the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis section of this chapter.  2.  Food Practices After examining the various methods of c o l l e c t i n g dietary  intake data i t was  decided that the 24-hour r e c a l l  the most feasible method to assess food practices.  was This  method i s the simplest and most direct method for c o l l e c t i n g data on large groups of individuals, and data compares  54  favourably with that of the 3-day or 7-day record.(Young, et a l , 1952).  I t was recognized that results could only  be interpreted i n terms of groups, not individuals, and that foods consumed would not necessarily r e f l e c t  seasonal  or long-term patterns (Marr, 1971). When the female household head was interviewed, the dietary r e c a l l method was explained.  She was asked to  r e c a l l a l l foods consumed by her and one or two other family members during the 24 hours p r i o r to the interview. When other family members were present, information was obtained from them d i r e c t l y .  Subjects were asked to ,  mention the amount of food and drink consumed, using where necessary,  glasses, measuring cups and cereal bowls  as aids i n estimating portion size.  With the aid of the  N u t r i t i o n a l Status Investigation Computer Programs of the School of Home Economics, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, the d a i l y intake of 9 nutrients (calories, protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, r i b o f l a v i n , n i a c i n and ascorbic acid) was computed from the 24-hour r e c a l l of each individual.  For both population groups, daily nutrients  were grouped according to age and sex and the number of subjects with intakes below 2/3 of the Canadian Dietary Standard were noted.  In a l l , a t o t a l of 249 r e c a l l s were  obtained. In addition, i n order to measure the c r i t e r i o n variable 'food practices' the information obtained from the 24-hour  55  dietary r e c a l l s of the 92 female heads of households were scored using the B r i t i s h Columbia Dairy "Guide to Good Eating Everyday".  Foundation's  Scores were assigned  for each food group, according to the recommended number of daily servings of that group (Appendix B). score possible was  25.  The maximum  This numerical score represented  a quantitative estimate of food practices.  3.  Food P r i c i n g and Food A v a i l a b i l i t y Information on food prices and food a v a i l a b i l i t y  was  collected by the use of a food l i s t containing 66 items adopted from the 'food basket' of the Food Prices and Review Board, 1975  (Appendix C).  Items of the same size  and brand, where possible, were used.  It was  originally  planned that the 66 food items would be used to develop a price index that would give some measure of food prices in each area r e l a t i v e to food prices i n Vancouver.  In the  f i n a l analysis, because many of the items were not available on a number of the reserves i t was not possible to develop a food index.  Instead, the cost of 30 food items which  could be found i n a l l reserves was the same items i n Vancouver.  compared to the cost of  The 30 food items included  the following: powdered skim milk, evaporated milk, apples, bananas, apple j u i c e , canned peaches, oranges, r a i s i n s , potatoes, onions, turnips, canned peas, canned soup, dry cereal, r o l l e d oats, f l o u r , macaroni, cookies, canned tuna,  56  sardines, beans with pork, peanut butter, eggs, bacon, butter, margarine, shortening,  sugar, jam,  and tea.  Data Analysis  The data analyzed  i n the study were collected on native  Indian reserves i n B r i t i s h Columbia between the months of August 1975  and February  1976.  A l l the variables (socio-economic, family and  reserve)  were viewed where possible i n rank order, as this i s required for the association tests demanding ordinal ranking. Variables were treated as follows:  1.  Socio-economic Variables Education:  was  grouped according  to the number of years  completed i n school, separately coded for the male and female head of the house. Occupation: was was  that of the male household head and  grouped according  to the f i v e categories; unemployed  or r e t i r e d , labourer or trapper, fisherman or longshoreman, sawmill worker or logger, tradesman or craftsman, and chief or c o u n c i l l o r . Work status: of the female household head was for 'yes' or 'no',  according  to whether she was  other than domestic work at home.  dichotomized involved i n  57  Income: represents the approximate yearly income of a l l adults i n the household. I t includes a l l money from work, trading, UIC and welfare. Per capita income: refers to the yearly income divided by the number of individuals dependent on that income. Household f a c i l i t i e s scale: was  constructed using the  presence or absence of the following items i n the household —  e l e c t r i c i t y , stove, oven, running water, r e f r i g e r -  ator and freezer.  2.  Family Characteristics Age: of the female'head of household i s expressed i n  years. Household size: refers to the number of adults and children l i v i n g i n the household. Food b e l i e f s : answers to this question were ranked as discussed i n the text. Nutrition education: was  again dichotomized  and refers to  whether or not the female household head had received any food or n u t r i t i o n information i n an education setting.  3.  Reserve Variables Reserve: refers to one of the seven reserves. Isolation: refers to the geographical location of the  reserve as previously described.  58  4.  Food Practices Score As described  e a r l i e r , the food practice score was  obtained  from a 24-hour food intake record of the female head of household of each family. After coding, data were key-punched on cards and s t a t i s t i c a l l y by computer analysis.  The  Package for the Social Sciences (1963) was  treated  Statistical used as a ref-.  erence for programming. The Kendall rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , tau beta,  was  used to measure the degree of association between the food scores and a l l but one of the socio-economic variables. These parameters, as has been described, were a l l ranked in an ordinal manner.  The Kendall rank c o r r e l a t i o n  c o e f f i c i e n t measures the degree of association or correlation between two -1 to +1.  sets of ranks (variables) ranging from  A +1 denotes a perfect i d e n t i c a l ordering  the ranks and a -1 indicates a perfect opposite In determining whether or not there was difference between reserves,  of  ordering.  any s i g n i f i c a n t  a variable which had no ordinal  property, and food practices, the analysis of variance  was  used. Although the major concern i n this study was  to i n v e s t i -  gate the r e l a t i o n between selected socio-economic, family, and reserve variables and the dependent variable, food practices, i t was variables may  thought that since relations between two  often be due to a t h i r d , i t would be useful  59  to was  look at r e l a t i o n s  between a l l o f the v a r i a b l e s .  done by means o f a m a t r i x  order  correlations.  of Kendall's  tau beta  This rank  60  CHAPTER IV RESULTS  Food Patterns  A. Analysis of nutrient intake data The average daily nutrient intakes by age and sex categories, of the i s o l a t e d and non-isolated populations are shown i n Tables VII-1 and VII-2, and i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 2 to 10. Tables VII-3 and VII-4 (Appendix D) show the mean daily nutrient intakes of the same age categories for the combined isolated and non-isolated populations (provincial) compared to median intakes of the Nutrition Canada Survey.  The l a t t e r data are presented for general  interest only and w i l l not be discussed. The percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of each nutrient derived from each of the 8 food groups, f o r the two populations i s given in Table IV-1 and for each age and sex category i n Tables IX-2 to IX-7 (Appendix D).  1. Calories The mean calorie intakes for a l l children up to 9 years for both populations were equal to or greater than the CDS. Adolescents of both sexes, regardless of reserve location had mean c a l o r i e intakes below the recommended Dietary Standards.  Among teenage boys from non-isolated communities,  TABLE VII-1 DAILY NUTRIENT INTAKES OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS FROM ISOLATED AND NON-ISOLATED RESERVES. MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS ARE GIVEN. FIGURES IN PARENTHESES ARE NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS. 1  Calories  0-4 Years,, M & F NI I (12) (10)  5-9 Years, M & F NI I (17) (14)  10-19 Years, F NI I (10) (15)  1763+613 .. 1396+549  2082+879  1902+554  1875+342  1926+598  56+22  78+41  69+18  73+16  82+23  82+34  70+16  65+22  Proteins  10-19 Years, M NI I (14) (ID 2235+744  2301+480  Calcium  1029+500  1034+1096  1008+448  705+270  786+427  552+299  958+530  676+249  Iron  10.3+6.4  10.7+4.5  13.2+8.7  14.4+6.1  10.8+2.6  16.9+5.0  12.5+5.3  14.9+7.2  Vitamin A  3932+2278  3581+2192  3323+2272  3301+2282  3275+1715  2532+1302  4986+2618 2176+1305  Thiamin  1.02+0.37  1.04+0.36  1.66+1.13  1.15+0.32  1.22+0.45  1.33+0.28  1.49+0.46 1.20+0.39  Riboflavin  1.72+0.63  1.59+0.49  2.17+1.16  1.59+0.42  1.62+0.77  1.84+0.40  2.02+1.06 1.58+0.60  Niacin  13.9+10.6  10.8+5.1  16.8+10.5  16.6+8.1  17.4+6.9  21.6+6.3  19.5+8.3  17.0+5.3  106+79  117+114  182+160  84+80  145+163  62+29  185+131  78+151  Ascorbic Acid  1  For t h i s and other t a b l e s , u n i t s are P r o t e i n (gm), Vitamin A ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i t s ) , a l l others (mg). NI = Non-isolated I = isolated.  TABLE VII-2 DAILY NUTRIENT INTAKES OF ADULTS FROM ISOLATED AND NON-ISOLATED RESERVES. MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS ARE GIVEN. FIGURE IN PARENTHESES ARE NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS.  20 + Years, F Non-isolated Isolated (58) (43) 1635 + 423  Calories  1594 + 485  20 + Years, M Non-isolated Isolated (32) (13) 2979 + 953  2127 + 618  Proteins  67 + 20  73 + 23  121 + 37  107 + 24  Calcium  554 + 305  548 + 547  848 + 468  573 + 241  Iron  10.8 + 4.2  14.9 + 5.6  18.7 + 7.3  23.5 + 8.1  Vitamin A  4018 + 2730  3608 + 2915  7234 + 4740  3825 + 3871  Thiamin  1.05 + 0.47  1.08 + 0.32  1.86 + 0.77  1.70 + 0.48  Riboflavin  1.36 + 0.67  1.65 + 0.61  2.08 + 0.85  2.18 + 0.82  Niacin  18.5 + 6.3  19.6 + 6.7  31.2 + 11.1  28.4 + 9.3  42 + 52  144 + 163  119 + 197  Ascorbic  Acid  97 + 101  CTl  TABLE V I I I NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS, BY AGE AND SEX, WITH DAILY NUTRIENT INTAKES LESS THAN TWO THIRDS OF THE CANADIAN DIETARY STANDARDS. FIGURES IN PARENTHESES ARE TOTAL NUMBERS OF INDIVIDUALS IN EACH GROUP.  0 - 4 Yrs. (M & F) NI I (12) (10)  5 - 9 Yrs. (M & F) NI I (17) (14)  10 - 19 Yrs. (F) NI I (10) (15)  10 - 19 Yrs. (M) NI I (14) (11)  Calories  1  1  3  2  2  3  6  2  Proteins  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  Calcium  2  1  1  2  3  11  6  5  Iron  2  1  4  0  3  0  4  Vitamin A  1  1  0  1  3  4  Thiamin  0  1  5  0  2  Riboflavin  0  0  2  1  Niacin  2  1  3  Ascorbic Acid  1  1  3  NI = Non-isolated  20 + Yrs. 20 + Yrs (F) (M) NI I NI I (58) (43) (32) (i3: 13  5  4  1  0  0  28  23  8  4  1  26  7  2  0  1  4  9  11  5  4  0  1  1  13  2  4  0  1  0  2  2  11  3  3  1  1  0  0  2  2  2  3  1  2  3  1  5  2  7  7  15  2  4  I = isolated  15 0  TABLE IX-1 PERCENTAGE CONTRIBUTION OF FOOD GROUPS TO CALORIES AND NUTRIENTS (ALL AGES)  Calories NI I  Protein NI I  Calcium NI I  Iron NI I  Vit. A I NI  Thiamine NI I  Ribofl. NI I  Niacin NI I  Ascorb. NI I  1. (Milk,milk products)  13  10  17  12  60  51  3  2  12  11  8  5  34  23  1  1  2  2  2. (Meat,fish poultry, eggs, legumes)  26  20  55  58  14  10  46  55  23  20  32  36  36  50  52  58  3  2  3. (Vegetables)  7  8  5  5  5  4  11  7  32  34  12  11  5  4  11  10  25  30  4. (Fruits)  8  5  2  1  6  3  9  3  15  10  14  8  5  2  6  3  70  65  5. (Grains, cereals)  25  34  20  24  14  30  29  28  1  3  32  39  16  18  21  22  6. ( F a t s , o i l s )  10  10  -  -  1  1  --  -  17  22  -  -  -  -  -  -  7. (Sugars)  8  14  -  1  1  2  2  5  -  -  8..(Misc.)  1  1 2  1  2  1  1 -  9  6  ~  4000  NON-ISOLATED  •  ISOLATED  •  V. C D S L E V E L  •  3500  3000-  >< Q  2500^  < 2000-  y I 500-  O  < u 1000-  500  0-4  5-9  10-19  10-19  20 +  20 +  MF  MF  F  M  F  M  NO.  NON-ISOL.  12  17  10  14  58  32  NO.  ISOLATED  10  14  15  I I  43  13  F  I  G  U  R  E  2  .  N  O  N  -  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  A  N  D  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  M  E  A  N  I  N  T  A  K  E  S  O  F  C  A  L  O  R  I  E  S  66  in p a r t i c u l a r , a large percentage (48%) f a i l e d to achieve intakes equal to two-thirds of the CDS.  The c a l o r i e intakes  of adults, except males i n non-isolated areas, were well below the CDS. The major food group source of dietary calories varied only s l i g h t l y between children from the two populations, with 26-357, of calories being derived from grains and cereal products, 16-217o from meat, f i s h , poultry, and 11-237, from the milk group.  A similar picture was obtained for  adolescents, except for teenage boys i n isolated areas where the contribution of sugars (207,) was f a i r l y high.  In adult  diets, grains and cereals and meats were s t i l l the largest source of calories, but s i g n i f i c a n t amounts were derived from fats and o i l s and from sugars (8-137,).  In general, for  a l l groups, grains and cereals contributed more calories to diets on isolated reserves, while the meat and milk group supplied more calories to individuals on non-isolated reserves.  2.  Protein Mean daily protein intakes f o r a l l age and sex groups, for  both populations, exceeded the recommended standards, by as much as 1007,.  often  The number of individuals who f a i l e d  to achieve two-thirds of the CDS was n e g l i g i b l e . Protein intakes on non-isolated reserves were generally higher than on isolated reserves.  Approximately one-half of a l l protein  160  NON-ISOLATED  •  ISOLATED  •  / C D S LEVEL  •  2  3  140  120  100  <  80  60  o cc CL.  40  20  0-4  5-9  10-19  10-19  20 +  20 +  MF  MF  F  M  F  M  NO.  NON-ISOL.  12  17  10  14  58  32  NO.  ISOLATED  10  14  15  I I  43  13  F  I  G  U  R  E  3.  N  O  N  -  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  A  N  D  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  M  E  A  N  I  N  T  A  K  E  S  O  F  P  R  O  T  E  I  N  S  68  was derived from meat, f i s h , poultry, eggs and legumes, while grains and cereals and milk and milk products supplied the remainder.  Among children up to 9 years, milk contrib-  uted about 24-357o of the protein to diets i n non-isolated areas and s l i g h t l y  less (17-267,) i n i s o l a t e d reserves.  Milk supplied less protein i n the 10-19 age bracket, but the proportion at non-isolated reserves was again greater, in this case almost double that at i s o l a t e d reserves. Among adults, protein from meat sources was 60-697>v while milk and milk products supplied less protein compared with children and adolescents.  3.  Calcium Up to the age of 9 years, calcium intakes were above the  CDS and few children i n either age category from either population obtained less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of calcium.  In the 10-19 age bracket the mean intakes  of calcium i n non-isolated communities was s l i g h t l y  greater  than i n i s o l a t e d areas, but f o r both groups diets did not meet the CDS.  Approximately  one-half of adolescent g i r l s  (307> on non-isolated reserves and 737, on i s o l a t e d reserves) and adolescent boys (437, on non-isolated and 557, on i s o l a t e d reserves) had calcium intakes below the two-thirds  level.  Mean calcium intakes for adults were also below the CDS, with a greater percentage  of women (50-587,) than men  (26-337.) f a i l i n g to obtain two-thirds of the recommended  1600-1  NON-ISOLATED  •  ISOLATED  •  A C D S LEVEL  •  2  1400  1200 -  1000 -  800  600  400 -  200 -  0-4  5-9  10-19  10-19  20 +  20 +  MF  MF  F  M  F  M  14  58  32  43  13  NO.  NON-ISOL.  12  17  10  NO.  ISOLATED  10  14  15  F  I  G  U  R  E  4.  N  O  N  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  A  N  D  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  M  E  A  N  I  N  T  A  K  E  S  O  F  C  A  L  C  I  U  M  70  amounts. In general, milk and milk products supplied 50-607o of the calcium i n the diet.  The proportion of calcium  contributed by milk was highest among children and  adolesc-  ents (49-757.) and greater at reserves adjacent to urban centres than at isolated reserves.  S i g n i f i c a n t amounts of  calcium were also supplied by grains and cereals, with  twice  as large a proportion from this source at i s o l a t e d reserves (21-377.) as compared to non-isolated reserves (11-177,).  Meat was  an additional calcium source, but i n  this case provided more calcium to non-isolated diets.  4.  Iron Mean daily iron intakes for almost every group and both  sexes were well above the recommended l e v e l s .  There  was,  however, a wide range i n i n d i v i d u a l intakes —  from 2 mg  to 40 mg daily, with intakes on isolated reserves consistently higher than on non-isolated reserves.  Thus i n  some groups a considerable number of persons f a i l e d to obtain two-thirds of the recommended standards.  Teenagers  of both sexes, and adult females, had the highest percentage of individuals with intakes below the CDS.  On non-isolated  reserves, almost one-third of adolescent boys and  girls,  and 507. of women, f a i l e d to obtain 2/3 of the recommended intakes.  Among adult men  at both reserves iron intakes  were considerably i n excess of recommendations, and the number of men  f a i l i n g to meet 2/3 of the CDS was  low.  NON-ISOLATED  •  ISOLATED  •  Yi C D S L E V E L  35-]  30 ra  25E  <  20-  15-1  o  10-  5-  0-4  5-9  10-19  10-19  20 +  20 +  MF  MF  F  M  F  M  NO.  NON-ISOL.  12  17  10  14  58  32  NO.  ISOLATED  10  14  15  I I  43  13  F  I  G  U  R  E  5.  N  O  N  -  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  A  N  D  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  M  E  A  N  I  N  T  A  K  E  S  O  F  I  R  O  N  72  The primary food group sources of dietary iron for a l l individuals were meat, f i s h , poultry and legumes (Group I I ) , contributing approximately h a l f the dietary iron, and cereals and grains  (Group V), supplying  almost 30% of  intake. Both dietary food groups made roughly similar contributions to the diets of the two population  groups.  Some  difference was observed, however, between the contribution of f r u i t s and vegetables to the iron intake.  While vege-  tables were a better source of iron to diets on non-isolated reserves,  5.  the reverse was true for f r u i t s .  Vitamin A A l l age groups had mean vitamin A intakes greatly i n  excess of standards.  Individual daily intakes of this  nutrient, however, were extremely variable — of zero to a high of 18,050 i u . 0-9,  from a low  Except for age groups  about 207 of diets of a l l other groups were d e f i c i e n t o  i n vitamin A when compared with 2/3 of the CDS.  Adolescent  g i r l s had poorest intakes, with 287, f a i l i n g to achieve 2/3 recommended l e v e l s .  The mean vitamin A intakes on non-  i s o l a t e d reserves were generally higher than those on isolated reserves,  and a larger proportion of individuals  from i s o l a t e d reserves f a i l e d to meet requirements. The  contribution of the various  of children was variable.  food groups to the diets  Vegetables (Group I I I ) , the  largest single contributor, supplied approximately 1/3 of  8000  NON-ISOLATED  •  ISOLATED  •  7000 2  / CDS LEVEL  •  3  6000 ro  -o 5000  < I-  4000  < z z <  3000  >  2000  1000  i  0-4  5-9  10-19  10-19  20 +  20 +  MF  MF  F  M  F  M  NO.  NON-ISOL.  12  17  10  14  58  32  NO.  ISOLATED  10  14  15  II  43  13 (jO  F  I  G  U  R  E  6.  N  O  N  -  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  A  N  D  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  M  E  A  N  I  N  T  A  K  E  S  O  F  V  I  T  A  M  I  N  A  -  74  the vitamin A, regardless of reserve.  But milk was a  better source i n urban reserves, while both the meat (Group II) and fats and o i l s (Group VI) supplied more vitamin A on i s o l a t e d reserves.  Among teenagers i n non-  isolated communities, f r u i t s supplied the most vitamin A (26-337.) .  Fats and o i l s (16-327.) , milk and milk  products  (16-227.) , and the meat group (10-227.) made similar contributions to adolescent diets.  Vegetables were an important  contributor of vitamin A to adult diets (28-447.) , followed by meats (20-347.) , and fats and o i l s (14-21%).  6.  Thiamin and Riboflavin  Mean thiamin and r i b o f l a v i n intakes were i n excess of the recommended standards  for every group with the exception of  adolescent males on i s o l a t e d reserves.  Intakes of thiamin  were similar f o r both population groups, except for 5-9 year olds, and adolescent and adult males, where intakes were greater i n non-isolated areas. Intakes of r i b o f l a v i n were also generally higher on non-isolated reserves, except for teenage g i r l s and adult groups.  At the same time the  variance of intake of both nutrients on non-isolated reserves was larger than on isolated reserves, so that more individuals on non-isolated reserves f a i l e d to meet the 2/3 CDS.  Thus 29% of children i n the 5-9 year o l d category, 20%  of adolescent females,  and 23% of adult women i n non-isolated  communities did not reach the 2/3 l e v e l . With respect to  NON-ISOLATED  2.4-7  2.1  ISOLATED  •  / C D S LEVEL  •  2  3  ra  1.5  <  1.2 H  H Z  .9 <  I-  • 6H .3  -i  0-4  5-9  10-19  10-19  20 +  20 +  MF  MF  F  M  F  M  NO.  NON-ISOL.  12  17  10  14  58  32  NO.  ISOLATED  10  14  15  I I  43  13  F  I  G  U  R  E  7 .  N  O  N  -  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  A  N  D  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  M  E  A  N  I  N  T  A  K  E  S  O  F  T  H  I  A  M  I  N  4.0  NON-ISOLATED  •  ISOLATED  •  / CDS LEVEL  ^  2  3  3.5  3.0  2.5  2.0  1.5  I.OH  .5-1  NO.  0-4  5-9  10-19  10-19  20 +  20 +  MF  MF  F  M  F  M  12  17  10  14  58  32  14  15  I I  43  13  NON-ISOL.  NO.  ISOLATED  F  I  G  U  R  E  8.  10  N  O  N  -  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  A  N  D  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  M  E  A  N  I  N  T  A  K  E  S  O  F  R  I  B  O  F  L  A  V  I  N  77  r i b o f l a v i n , only adult women i n non-isolated areas f a i l e d to ingest amounts equal to 2/3 of the CDS i n s i g n i f i c a n t numbers (30%). The contribution of the various food groups to thiamin intake were roughly similar for both population groups, with grains and cereals (Group V) contributing 29-55% of the thiamin, and meat, f i s h , poultry and legumes (Group II) contributing the second largest amounts.  Fruits,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n urban areas, contributed s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of thiamin to the diets of children (7-23%), while both the f r u i t and vegetable groups provided thiamin to adult diets  (4-18%).  Among the population under 9, milk and milk products contributed the largest amount of r i b o f l a v i n ,  approximately  567o i n the 0-4 age group, and 35-47% i n 5-9 year o l d c h i l d ren.  In the case of adolescents i n urban areas milk con-  tributed 45% of the r i b o f l a v i n , while meat (Group II) supplied similar quantities of r i b o f l a v i n to diets of adolescents i n i s o l a t e d communities.  Among adults, meat  contributed the largest amount of r i b o f l a v i n , with the largest proportion i n diets of i s o l a t e d residents.  For a l l  groups, most of the remaining r i b o f l a v i n came from grains and cereals.(14-25%).  7.  Niacin Average intakes of n i a c i n were considerably greater than  the recommended standards f o r every group.  On i s o l a t e d  40  NON-ISOLATED  U  ISOLATED  •  Vi C D S L E V E L  •  35  30  25 H  20  15  io  H  0-4  5-9  10-19  10-19  20 +  20 +  MF  MF  F  M  F  M  17  10  14  58  32  I I  43  13  NO.  NON-ISOL.  12  NO.  ISOLATED  10  F  I  G  U  R  E  9.  N  O  14  N  -  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  15  D  A  N  D  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  M  E  A  N  I  N  T  A  K  E  S  O  F  N  I  A  C  I  N  79  reserves, 0-4 year olds, adolescent and adult males had lower mean n i a c i n intakes than did the groups on non-isolated reserves.  corresponding  In a l l other groups  intakes i n non-isolated areas were equal to or greater than those i n reserves adjacent to urban centres.  The  number of individuals with intakes below 2/3 of the  CDS  was n e g l i g i b l e , with not more than one to three persons in any age group from either population i n that category. In a l l groups meat, poultry and legumes (Group II) were the major contributor to dietary niacin, with residents from non-isolated areas obtaining s l i g h t l y less n i a c i n (43-567o) from that source, than isolated residents (43-667,). The second important  contributor was  the cereal and grain  groups (about 257,) , followed by vegetables  (7-157.) , both  equally distributed between reserves.  8.  Ascorbic Acid Mean intakes of ascorbic acid were i n excess of the  Canadian Dietary Standards i n every age category for both populations, with intakes on non-isolated reserves being considerably greater than those on i s o l a t e d reserves 0-4 year olds, where the two were s i m i l a r ) .  (except  However,  because of the large variance, 9-367, of persons i n most age groups f a i l e d to take i n s u f f i c i e n t ascorbic acid to meet two-thirds of the CDS.  Among adolescent boys, for  example, 647, of those from isolated areas f a i l e d to achieve  240  •  ISOLATED  •  V  •  -i  210 H  180  NON-ISOLATED  CDS LEVEL  3  A  150  120  90  H  60  30  0-4  5-9  10-19  10-19  20 +  20 +  MF  MF  F  M  F  M  NO.  NON-ISOL.  12  17  10  14  58  32  NO.  ISOLATED  10  14  15  I I  43  13  F  I  G  U  R  E  1  0  .  N  O  N  -  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  A  N  D  I  S  O  L  A  T  E  D  M  E  A  N  I  N  T  A  K  E  S  O  F  V  I  T  A  M  I  N  C  81  that l e v e l of intake. The primary source of ascorbic acid intake among children and adolescents  was  the f r u i t group, with  individ-  uals on non-isolated reserves receiving more vitamin C from that source (81-897o) than those on i s o l a t e d reserves (66-817.) .  Vegetables also contributed a large percentage  of ascorbic acid, but more at i s o l a t e d reserves  (15-297.)  than on non-isolated ones (8-157.) . Among adults, the pattern of intake was  related more to the sex of the  individuals than to i s o l a t i o n .  Whereas vegetables  (Group  III) contributed just over one-half of the vitamin C to diets of women, f r u i t s  (Group IV) provided males with that  same amount.  B.  Food Frequencies  The frequencies with which i n d i v i d u a l foods were consumed by respondents are given i n Table X. was  obtained  Data for this table  from the 249 24-hour r e c a l l s c o l l e c t e d and  not be representative of the t o t a l diet of any one ual over time. potatoes,  may  individ-  Foods used most extensively include bread,  tea and coffee, as well as a variety of meats,  p a r t i c u l a r l y game. Although the quantity of meat consumed was the two populations,  s i m i l a r for  the pattern of consumption varied.  32 TABLE X FREQUENCY OF CONSUMPTION OF SPECIFIC FOOD ITEMS BY ISOLATION*  Foods  % Urban  7oIsolated  Meats Fish Poultry Luncheon meats Hamburger/stew Game "Other"meats Eggs Peanut butter/beans Bacon  31! 13 31 37 11 16 43 17 20  7 . 7 19 10 69 3 40 9 17  26 25 14 14 21 8 64 31 39 29 23 32 22  15 -5 11 6 0 18 62 17 '3 11 10 10 18  83 31 11 14 " 17 5 5  88 58 11 25 25 23 12  Fruits and Vegetables Apples/bananas Citrus f r u i t s / j u i c e Peaches/apricots "Other" f r u i t s Celery/cucumber Vegetable soup (pkg) Potato Onion Leafy green vegetables Tomato/juice/sauce Peas/green beans Carrots/beets Corn/turnips Bread & Cereals Bread Rice Breakfast cereal Hot cereal Macaroni/spaghetti Pancakes Biscuits/crackers  * Calculated from 24-hour r e c a l l s and based on the number of individuals who l i s t e d the s p e c i f i c food i n their r e c a l l .  83  Foods  % Urban  % Isolated  38 7 42 20 22  52 20 7 9 6  68 31 29 18  82 52 36 19  52 25  48 26  30 71 31 25  10 79 21 19  80 87 99 79  88 97 95 69  Milk and Milk Products Evaporated milk Powdered milk Fresh milk Cheese Other milk products Sugars Sugar/honey Jam/jelly Cookies/cakes Cheesies/chips, etc. Fats and Oils Margarine Butter Miscellaneous P i c k l e s / r e l i s h , etc. Tea/coffee Tang Pop/Kool Aid Meal Frequency Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snacks  84  Whereas game meat, n a m e l y moose, was t h e m a i n p r o t e i n source being  f o rresidents i n isolated reported  individuals  by almost  70% o f t h o s e  i n non-isolated reserves  g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f meats. poultry,  reserves,  as  being  a l l three  largely  frequency  "urban" reserves  o f use being  only vegetable  Milk  intakes  were s i t u a t e d n e a r  p r o t e i n eaten  i n isolated  I t was r a r e l y  d r u n k as a b e v e r a g e , b u t was  i n obtaining  of fresh milk, on r e s e r v e s  Powdered m i l k was a l s o  reserves.  because o f l a c k o f r e f r i g e r a t i o n ,  was  i t s ingestion.  c o m m u n i t i e s where i t was consumed b y 52%  more f r e q u e n t l y o n i s o l a t e d  highest  with  u s e d most f r e q u e n t l y , p a r t i c u -  added t o c o f f e e , t e a o r c e r e a l .  to  quantities, with  areas.  g a s t r o - i n t e s t i n a l disturbances  of respondents.  use  fishing  P e a n u t b u t t e r was t h e  i n appreciable  i n non-isolated  location  f o rboth populations, i t s  a b o u t 40%,.  E v a p o r a t e d m i l k was t h e m i l k  culty  a l s o consumed more  i n t a k e was g e n e r a l l y low, w i t h many r e s p o n d e n t s  indicating  larly  meats.  a function of geographical  E g g c o n s u m p t i o n was h i g h  highest  generally ate a  hamburger a n d stew m e a t s , a n d " o t h e r "  this  areas.  respondents,  T h e s e i n c l u d e d l u n c h e o n meats,  I n d i v i d u a l s on n o n - i s o l a t e d r e s e r v e s fish,  i t s consumption  fresh milk  adjacent  T h i s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d  cost of milk,  and o t h e r  cheese, and other  and d i f f i -  dairy products.  d a i r y products  to urban centres,  The  was  where  supermarkets and thus a l a r g e r v a r i e t y o f m i l k greater.  used  access  products  85  Consumption of foods from the cereal group was high, with bread (including bannock) being the most popular item, included i n over 80% of a l l diets.  Nutrition Canada (1977)  also found that for a l l age groups the mean consumption of bread and r o l l s , as well as the mean consumption of.cereals in general was higher for the native Indian population than the general population.  For almost a l l groups, i n fact,  cereals were a primary source of c a l o r i e s . were documented by Lee et a l (1970).  Similar results  In the present study,  cereals provided more calories to diets of individuals on i s o l a t e d reserves than on non-isolated reserves.  This i s  r e f l e c t e d i n the greater frequency of consumption of "other" foods from the cereal group by i s o l a t e d respondents.  These  include r i c e , which was eaten by almost twice as many residents —  607. on isolated reserves —  cereal, macaroni  as well as hot  and spaghetti, pancakes, b i s c u i t s and  crackers. F r u i t and vegetable intake was low as has been described i n other studies (Lee et a l , 1970; N u t r i t i o n Canada, 1977). Smith (1975) reported that when available, potatoes are often eaten, while other vegetables are usually thought to be too expensive to purchase. toes were a staple of the diet.  In the present study, potaThey were, i n fact, the  only vegetable mentioned by almost 2/3 of respondents, regardless of geographical location. method of preparation was by frying.  The most common  86  Vegetables most frequently eaten included onions, tomatoes, carrots, peas, corn and turnips which were generally included i n popular one-pot dishes such as meat and vegetable stews or soups.  A surprising finding was  the r e l a t i v e l y high consumption (39%) of leafy green vegetables reported by urban respondents.  These were,  again, mostly eaten as part of a combination food either i n sandwiches or hamburgers —  —  and not as a d i s t i n c t  vegetable dish, i . e . salads. Intake of f r u i t s , as well as vegetables was  lower on  isolated reserves than on non-isolated reserves.  Fruits  such as apples, bananas or canned peaches and apricots which are more e a s i l y purchased on isolated reserves  — —  were reported most frequently, but the number of individuals doing so was  low.  Citrus f r u i t s were almost completely  absent from the diets of isolated residents, and this was r e f l e c t e d i n their lower vitamin C status. No native f r u i t s and vegetables were mentioned except for several types of berries.  One reason f o r this may be because  of the time of the year the study was  conducted, i . e . f a l l  and winter when store supplies are also low. It has frequently been reported that native diets are high i n "empty c a l o r i e " items. (Schaeffer, 1977; Sayed, 1977).  Ellested-  Smith (1975) noted that sweet (and greasy)  foods have a great appeal; young children are often given bottles f i l l e d with sugar water or pop; cookies, candies  87  and soft drinks are popular snack items f o r both young children and adolescents.  Nutrition Canada (1977), however,  found that the percentage contribution of sugars, beverages and soft drinks to the c a l o r i c intake of native diets was similar to that of the general population. Here, the food items most frequently consumed i n this category were sugars added to coffee and tea, or jams, j e l l i e s and syrup, most often eaten with bannock, bread or pancakes. consumption was higher i n isolated communities  In both cases where, i n  fact, foods from this group provided almost twice as many calories to diets (Table IX-1).  Cookies and cakes were  also eaten by about 307. of respondents from non-isolated reserves and 367. from isolated reserves.  Other foods also  c l a s s i f i e d as "empty c a l o r i e " such as cheesies, chips, carbonated beverages and Kool Aid were also consumed by both groups, but to a lesser extent. A high percentage of the population, 717. on non-isolated reserves and 797. on isolated reserves, consumed large quanti t i e s ' of tea or coffee.  Margarine was used more frequently  than butter, possibly because of a v a i l a b i l i t y and cost. Tables XI-1 and XI-2 show some randomly selected but representative meal patterns. meals a day were eaten.  In almost a l l cases three  Breakfast was the meal most commonly  missed, by 207. of respondents on non-isolated reserves and 127. on i s o l a t e d reserves. evening meal.  Almost a l l r e c a l l s included an  The frequency of snack consumption was high,  indicated by almost three-quarters of a l l respondents.  88 TABLE XI-1 SAMPLE DAILY MENUS, TAKEN FROM DIETARY RECALL FORMS COLLECTED ON "ISOLATED" RESERVES.  Early Morn  2 white toast with marg. and jam. Small bowl of oatmeal with sugar and evap. milk. Coffee with sugar and evap. milk  Mid Morn  Coffee with sugar and evap. milk; 2-3 cookies  Noon  3-4 oz. moose, % cup mashed potatoes with marg. and evap. milk; 1 piece bread with marg. and jam. Tea with evap. milk and sugar  1 cup tomato soup (pkg). 6 oz. moose steak, % cup r i c e , potato  Mid-afternoon  Coffee with sugar and milk. Bread with marg. and jam.  1 cup tea with sugar  Evening  Moose meat. % cup r i c e . Tea with sugar and milk  Moose stew with noodles. Potatoes and r i c e . Bannock with marg. Tea with sugar  Late evening  Coffee with sugar and milk bread with marg. and jam  1 - 2 cups coffee with sugar and milk  2 cups coffee with sugar and evaporated milk  89 TABLE XI-2 SAMPLE DAILY MENUS, TAKEN FROM DIETARY RECALL FORMS COLLECTED ON "NON-ISOLATED" RESERVES.  Early Morn  1 small pancake with marg. and jam. Coffee  2 toast (white) with marg. Coffee with sugar and evap. milk  Mid Morn  Coffee  4 cups coffee with sugar and milk  Noon  Macaroni and cheese 2 toast (white) with marg. and applesauce  1 cup r i c e ; 1 thick s l i c e (%") f r i e d balogne. Tea with sugar and milk (2-3 cups tea)  Evening  Fried chicken Breast 1 baked potato with marg. and gravy % cup canned corn. 8 oz. Tang  Beef stew with spaghetti and onions 1 cup tea with sugar and milk  Late Evening  1 sandwich with meatspread, mayonnaise, and marg. 1 pop  4 cups tea with sugar and milk  90  Food  A.  Ideology  Food b e l i e f s  o f homemakers  T a b l e X I I g i v e s the measured f o o d a t t i t u d e s With ted  the e x c e p t i o n o f the c e r e a l  group,  of respondents.  women i n n o n - I s o l a -  a r e a s were more a b l e t h a n t h o s e on i s o l a t e d f o o d s w h i c h s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d  i n their  reserves  to  list  In  n o n - i s o l a t e d a r e a s women most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d  (1007,), v e g e t a b l e s (887.) a n d t h e m i l k g r o u p f o o d s most i m p o r t a n t isolated  l i s t e d meat  (707,) .  tables of  areas  to t h e i r  families,  the respondents  listed  to note  diet. meat  (737,) as t h e  w h i l e those  (.907,) , c e r e a l s  I t i s interesting  daily  from  (857.) a n d v e g e t h a t w h i l e many  t h e v e g e t a b l e group,  527, o f t h e s e  named t h e p o t a t o s p e c i f i c a l l y . Women f r o m n o n - i s o l a t e d r e s e r v e s were a l s o more l i k e l y t o provide v a l i d n u t r i t i o n a l i n their  valid  nutritional  diet,  o n l y 107, o f t h o s e o n i s o l a t e d  cereal  answers. group,  location this  Whereas  f o r including  foods  similar  diet.  reasons  specific  697, o f women c o u l d g i v e a  reason f o r including  vegetables i n their  reserves could give  Knowledge was p o o r e s t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e  and o n l y about  107, o f r e s p o n d e n t s  from  either  c o u l d p r o v i d e a v a l i d reason f o r the importance o f  group.  91  TABLE XII  NUMBER OF WOMEN WHO LISTED A FOOD GROUP AS IMPORTANT IN THE DIET AND GAVE A VALID NUTRITIONAL REASON FOR ITS IMPORTANCE.  FOOD GROUP  ISOLATED (52) NON-ISOLATED (39) No.  (%)  No.  38 34  (73) (65)  19 6  (49) (21)  52 24  (100) (46)  35 11  (90) (28)  37 22  (71) (42)  15 3  (39) (8)  46 36  (88) (69)  27 4  (70) (10)  34 6  (65) (12)  33 4  (85) (10)  (7o)  1. Milk group a. L i s t e d b. V a l i d Reason 2. Meat group a. L i s t e d b. V a l i d Reason 3. Fruits a. L i s t e d b. V a l i d Reason 4. Vegetables a. Listed b. V a l i d Reason 5. Cereal group a. L i s t e d b. Valid Reason  92  B.  Food b e l i e f s as related to pregnancy, infancy and i l l n e s s  lactation,  Tables XIII to XVI l i s t some of the most common foods considered b e n e f i c i a l or harmful at certain stages of the l i f e cycle.  General statements made by respondents i n d i -  cating why foods were so c l a s s i f i e d , together with certain t r a d i t i o n a l food b e l i e f s are also presented. Respondents l i s t e d few dietary alterations that occur during pregnancy, and f o r the most part stressed the consumption of a regular diet (Table XIII).  Foods from the  milk and vegetable groups were mentioned most frequently as foods important to the pregnant woman. considered taboo.  Few foods were  Avoidances of s p e c i f i c foods appear to  be more closely related to r e s t r i c t i o n of weight gain than any widely held f o l k - b e l i e f . Opinions related to maternal n u t r i t i o n d i r i n g l a c t a t i o n are  presented i n Table XIV.  Many of the women related that  they had not breastfed their infants and were thus unsure of  the best diet at this time.  Foods most frequently  ..  classed as " b e n e f i c i a l " to l a c t a t i o n were f l u i d s , as either milk (.36%), tea, coffee, or soup (13%).  Certain  vegetables and f r u i t s , and chocolates were considered as "harmful" by a small percentage of women (9-12%) because they were thought to cause diarrhea and cramps i n infants. Table XV shows that respondents were more l i k e l y to  93  TABLE XIII PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN INDICATING SPECIFIC FOODS AS BENEFICIAL OR HARMFUL DURING PREGNANCY  BENEFICIAL FOODS  (%)  HARMFUL FOODS  (%)  Milk Vegetables Regular diet Fruits Meat Cereal Soup Vitamins  42 33 28 26 23 8 6 5  Greasy/s tarchy Meat Fruits/vegetables Empty calories Alcohol Salt Milk  14 12 8 7 6 6 4  N=86 General statements: Bananas and potatoes are too starchy. Not too much starches — gain too much weight. Don't eat potato — baby w i l l get too b i g . No sugar, baby w i l l be too b i g . Not too much meat — baby might grow too b i g . Don't eat double or baby w i l l get too big. Green apples and coconut are bad f o r baby. Baby w i l l be healthy i f you eat grouse and rabbit. My mother-in-law told me not to eat onions. Traditional beliefs: Certain seaweed w i l l darken baby's hair (or skin). Fish heads (or eggs) w i l l produce a bald-headed baby. Eating beaver or pig's feet w i l l deform feet of baby. No berries (huckle/blue) or baby w i l l have spots. Eating f i s h eggs w i l l cause scars on child's face. No f i s h t a i l s — baby w i l l be breach.  94  TABLE XIV  PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN INDICATING SPECIFIC FOODS AS BENEFICIAL OR HARMFUL DURING LACTATION  BENEFICIAL FOOD  (%)  HARMFUL FOOD  (%)  Milk  (.36)  Vegetables  (12)  Tea  (13)  Chocolates/pop  (10)  Soup  (13)  Fruits  (9)  Coffee/other f l u i d s  (13)  Fatty foods  (6)  Fruits  (12)  Meat  (5)  Regular diet  (12)  Spicy foods  (3)  Vegetables  (10)  N=86  General Comments: Fruits give baby gas pains and diarrhea. Turnips and cabbage w i l l upset the c h i l d with gas. Orange stops the milk flow (also causes diarrhea). Onions w i l l make baby smell. The mother cannot eat meat f o r 40 days because her stomach i s weak and cannot grind i t . Gum, chocolates and sweets w i l l give baby cramps.  TABLE XV PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN INDICATING SPECIFIC FOODS AS BENEFICIAL OR HARMFUL DURING INFANCY  BENEFICIAL FOODS  (%)  HARMFUL FOODS  (%)  74  Empty calories  23  '52"  Solids  '7  Fruits  51  Cereal  5  Vegetables  48  Meat  Meats  43  Canned baby foods  Cereal  42  Juice  21  Regular (mashed)  14  Milk Canned baby foods  Soups  7  N=86  General Comments: Almost everything we eat, ground up. Not too much meat.  I f so, should be well done.  Cabbage and cauliflower are too gassy.. No strong foods such as meat and f i s h . No bannock or dried meat, baby might choke.  '4 4  96  TABLE XVI  PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN INDICATING SPECIFIC FOODS AS BENEFICIAL OR HARMFUL DURING ILLNESS  BENEFICIAL FOODS  (%)  HARMFUL FOODS  (%)  Soup  57  Solids  20  F r u i t juices  55  Meat  6  Liquids  26  Usual meals  5  Soft drinks  13  Fried foods  5  Tea  12  Cereal  4  Meat  12  Vegetables  4  Milk  9  N=86  General Comments: Soup i s easier to take. Can't eat when you are sick. Don't eat most foods. Avoid heavy starchy foods that w i l l lay heavy i n stomach.  97  provide opinions regarding diets of infants.  Milk was  mentioned by 74% of women as an important food f o r infants, while over 50% l i s t e d f r u i t s , vegetables, and canned baby foods.  Almost no foods were considered harmful during this  period, although almost 25% of respondents  emphasized that  "empty c a l o r i e " foods should be avoided. During i l l n e s s , some alterations i n food intake occur, as indicated i n Table XVI.  Many respondents  indicated that  consumption of l i q u i d foods, notable soups and f r u i t juices when i l l .  Twenty percent o f respondents mentioned with-  drawal of solids and other "heavy" foods from their diet.  Shopping Practices  Table XVII shows that supermarkets were the most popular type of store selected f o r food purchasing by women on non-isolated reserves.  Isolated homemakers, i n contrast,  shopped at small grocery or general stores.  Where access  was possible, 23% of isolated families travelled to larger centres and purchased  their food i n supermarkets.  Better, selection, convenience,  and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of  credit were the p r i n c i p a l reasons given by women on nonisolated reserves for selecting stores (Table XVIII).  On  many i s o l a t e d reserves families were r e s t r i c t e d to one grocery outlet.  In those i s o l a t e d areas with more than  98  TABLE XVII TYPE OF STORE WHERE MAJORITY OF FOOD SHOPPING IS DONE  STORE  NON- ISOLATED  ISOLATED  No.  (7.)  Supermarket  36  (69)  9  (23)  Small supermarket  12  (23)  -  - •  Convenience store  3  (6)  -  -  General/Grocery store  -  -  Co-op  1  (2)  No.  31  (78)  -  -  one store, purchasing decisions were based on better selection and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c r e d i t .  Cost was given  equal consideration by the two populations. Frequency of shopping f o r major and minor, or " f i l l i n " food purchases are reported i n Table XIX.  A small number  of respondents expressed d i f f i c u l t y i n categorizing shopping t r i p s , and this problem may be r e f l e c t e d i n the results.  The majority of homemakers shopped once weekly or  every two weeks for their major grocery supplies.  Among the  isolated group, one-third of the families, including many of those who sought alternative grocery outlets outside their  communities,  d i d a large monthly shopping.  Minor  purchases were frequent and the majority of families from both areas shopped two or more times a week. TABLE XVIII REASONS FOR SELECTING STORE Reason  Non- Isolated No. (%)  Isolated No. (%)  Better selection Cheaper Convenient Credit Selection & price No choice Service Location Patronage  21 6 8 9 3 0 3 2 0  11 5 0 1 1 15 0 4 3  (40) (12) (15) (17) (8) (8) (4)  (28) (13) (3) (3) (38) (10) (8)  TABLE XIX FREQUENCY OF SHOPPING FOR MAJOR AND MINOR FOOD PURCHASES Frequency  Non- •Isolated No. (%)  Isolated No. (%)  Major shopping Daily Weekly .Bi-weekly Monthly Other  1 12 31 8 0  (2) (23) (60) (15) (10)  5 9 11 13 2  (13) (23) (28) (33) (5)  Minor shopping 6 - 7x/week 4 - 5x/week 2 - 3x/week Weekly Don't do  15 7 20 7 3  (29) (14) (39) (14) (6)  5 8 20 4 3  (13) (20) (50) (10) (8)  100  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r purchasing food f o r the household d i f f e r e d with i s o l a t i o n (Table XX).  Whereas on non-  isolated reserves the female head of household was by far the p r i n c i p a l food shopper (857,) , on isolated reserves this task was almost equally distributed between the woman and other family members.  The majority  of women (767o)  did not shop alone, and were accompanied to stores by family members, most frequently, children. The types of foods children encourage mothers to purchase while shopping were c l a s s i f i e d into the food groups and are presented i n Table XXI.  Snacks and empty c a l o r i e  foods such as pop, sweets, potato chips, etc. were the most popular items requested, p a r t i c u l a r l y on isolated reserves.  Foods from the milk group (notably i c e cream),  f r u i t s , and cereals were also l i k e d by children. The use of several recommended food - buying practices was assessed, as i l l u s t r a t e d by Table XXII.  While  respondents on non-isolated reserves were more l i k e l y to budget and pay cash for food purchases, an equal percentage of women from both groups used shopping  lists.  Monthly food expenditure ranged from $84.00 to $630.00 with a mean of $252.16 on non-isolated reserves, and $302.43 on isolated reserves. (Table XXIII).  A larger  percentage of families on isolated reserves reported expenditure of three hundred dollars and more. (537, as compared to 297, f o r non-isolated reserves) .  101 TABLE XX PERSON WHO DOES MAJORITY OF FOOD SHOPPING  Shopper Female head of household Male head of household Female head of household & other family member Children/other adult  Non-Isolated No. (%)  Isolated No. (%)  44' -  (85) -  18 6  (45) (15)  7 3  (13) (6)  11 5  (28) (8)  5 20 4 2  (16) (65) (13) (7)  Person accompanying Food Shopper Husband Children Friends/relatives Entire family  .8 25 .3 . 5  (20) (61) (7) (12)  TABLE XXI FOOD SHOPPING REQUESTS OF CHILDREN  Food Group  Milk Meat Fruits Vegetables Cereals Empty c a l o r i e s Other  Non-Isolated No. (7.)  Isolated No. (7o)  10 4 13 2 7 18 5  7 1 4 0 3 23 0  (31) (13) (41) (6) (22) (56) (16)  (29) (4) (17) (13) (96)  102 TABLE XXII FREQUENCY OF SELECTED SHOPPING PRACTICES  Practice  Non-Isolated(52) No. (%)  Isolated(39) No. (%)  29 23  (56) (44)  19 20  (49) (51)  29 23  (56), (44) :•  7 32  (17) (82)  36 13 3 0  (69) (25) (6)  6 25 7 1  (15) (64) (18) (3)  Use of L i s t Makes L i s t Doesn't make L i s t Budget Budgets f o r food Doesn't budget Payment Cash Charge Cash & charge Charge & trade  To assess the e f f e c t , i f any, of using food costs on the purchasing patterns of families, women were asked whether they now buy more, less, or the same amounts of c e r t a i n foods.  As i l l u s t r a t e d  i n Table XXIV, 537 of women named  meat as the food most affected.  0  Many of these same  respondents also indicated that they were now r e l y i n g more on meat from hunting and f i s h i n g .  Snack foods, f r u i t s and  vegetables were other food groups affected.  Increased  purchases were most apparent i n the bread and cereal group, with almost 207 of families indicating that they were recently o  103  buying more of these foods.  TABLE XXIII DISTRIBUTION OF MONTHLY FOOD EXPENDITURE  Food Expenditure ($ per month) Less than 100 100 - 199 200 - 299 300 - 399 400 + No response  Non- Isolated No. (%)  Isolated No. (%)  1: 13 20 10 5 3  ;o 5 11 12 9 3  :'(2) (25) (39) (19) (10) (6)  (13) (28) (30) (23) (8)  The degree to which various factors influence food purchases and thus food consumption was also investigated, with the consideration that these a t t i t u d i n a l data could be used to increase the effectiveness of n u t r i t i o n education programme.  Homemakers were asked to indicate  whether each factor l i s t e d was very important, or/vnot important i n influencing food selection (Table XXV). "What the children l i k e " was chosen most often as an i n f l u e n t i a l factor.  "Cost", "what i s good for you",  and "requests made by husbands" were also mentioned frequently.  The woman's own food preferences was the main  factor i n the 'important' category, while ease of preparation was the least i n f l u e n t i a l factor.  104  TABLE XXIV CHANGES IN FOOD BUYING WITH INCREASING FOOD PRICES  Food Group  Buy less No. (%)  Buy more No. (%)  Same No. (%)  Milk Meat Fruits Vegetables Cereals/bread Snack foods  9 32 12 11 5 22  .6  45 26 46 46 44 36  (15) (53) (20) (18) (8) (37)  •2 2 .3 11 2  (10) (3) (3) (5) (18) (3)  (75) (44) (77) (77) (74) (60)  N = 60  Meal Planning and Preparation Table XXVI shows that the chief i n d i v i d u a l responsible for the preparation of family meals, regardless of i s o l a t i o n was the female head of household.  Males play  l i t t l e , i f any, r o l e i n the actual cooking of food. Whether or not meals were planned ahead, and how far i n advance was also assessed, as. i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table XXVII. Although few women used meal plans, a larger percentage of those i n non-isolated reserves were more l i k e l y to do so.  TABLE XXV FACTORS IDENTIFIED BY RESPONDENTS AS INFLUENCING FOODS PURCHASED.  Factor  Very Important No. (7.)  What the homemaker likes What husband l i k e s What children l i k e Easy to prepare  14  (22)  45  (70)  5  (8)  21 34 6  (34) (53)  (46) (39) (34)  . 4 .3 36  (7) (5) (56)  Cost of Food  27  (10) (42)  28 25 22 22  (34)  (23)  What i s "good" f o r  26  (40)  35  (55)  15 3  N = 64  Important No. (%)  Not Important No. (To)  i(5)  106  TABLE XXVI PERSON WHO DOES MAJORITY OF COOKING  Cook  Non-Isolated No. (%)  Female head of household Male head of household Other adult FHH and other adult FHH and daughter FHH and MHH Shared by a l l Children  35  (70)  3 3 5  (6) (6)  0  1  3  0  (10)  (2) (6)  Isolated No. (%) 25  (63) (2) (2) (8)  1 1  3 4 3 2  (10)  (8) (5) (2)  1  There was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n household f a c i l i t i e s available to individuals l i v i n g i n the two areas (Table XXVIII).  Whereas almost a l l families  in non-isolated reserves had running water, e l e c t r i c i t y , r e f r i g e r a t o r s , stoves and ovens, these were reported  by  a much smaller percentage of families i n isolated areas. Freezers were an appliance least available to a l l respondents. Homemakers were asked whether they had ever "studied about what to eat" and where they had studied.  There  was a large differnce between the two populations, with 657, of women on non-isolated reserves having received some training, but only 257, of those on isolated reserves having food education (Table XXIX).  Formal schooling was  107 indicated'  ;" by the majority of respondents from both  areas as the source of teaching.  Women were also i n  agreement that the food or cooking information they had received was of benefit to them.  TABLE XXVII USE OF, AND FREQUENCY OF MEAL PLANS  Plan  For one week For a few days Day before Day-to-day  Non -isolated No. (%) 4 4 8 36  ((8) 1(8) (15) (69)  Isolated No. (%) 0 1 2 37  .(3) '(5) (93)  TABLE XXVIII HOUSEHOLD FACILITIES  Facility  Non -isolated No. (%)  Running water Electricity Freezer Refrigerator Stove Oven  5i: 51 26 52 52 5.2  . (98) (98)  (50) (100) (100) (100)  Isolated No. (%) H 13 4 2 39 32  (21) (33) (10) ..(5) (98) (80)  108 TABLE XXIX FOOD AND COOKING EDUCATION OF RESPONDENTS  Education  Non-•Isolated No. (%)  Isolated No. (%)  Received t r a i n i n g Did not receive training  34 18  (65) (35)  10 30  (25) (75)  1 24 3  (3) (71) (9)  1 5 2  (10) (50) (20)  5 1  (14) (3)  1 1  (10) (10)  26 7  (79) (21)  9 1  (90) (10)  Source of teaching Grade school High school Vocational school/ other t r a i n i n g High school & other Evening classes Value of information Helpful Not h e l p f u l  Sources of n u t r i t i o n information i d e n t i f i e d by respondents are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table XXX. The primary source of information l i s t e d by respondents was their mother, while family members and other r e l a t i v e s were indicated by almost 40% of women.  Of the non-human  sources, cookbooks and other books received a high response from the population.  Newspapers and magazines  were cited by 507 of women on non-isolated reserves, o  but not mentioned by women on isolated reserves. N u t r i t i o n i s t s , d i e t i c i a n s , physicians, or nurses were mentioned infrequently.  TABLE XXX SOURCES OF NUTRITION INFORMATION IDENTIFIED BY RESPONDENTS  Source  Non-isolated (52) No. (%)  1. Physicians, nurses  6  Isolated (40) No. (%)  (12)  (5)  Total (92) No. (7o)* 8  (9)  3  (3)  dentists 2. N u t r i t i o n i s t s , d i e t i c i a n s  3  3. Mother  26  4. Family member/other  20  relatives  (6)  0  (50)  25  (63)  51  (55)  (38)  15  (38)  35  (38)  (25)  1  14  (15)  29  (32)  44  (48)  9  (10)  22  (24)  5. Friends  13  (56)  0  6. Newspapers, magazines  29  (50)  18  7. Cookbooks, other books  26  (17)  0  9  (25)  9  8. T.V./Radio 9. Past experience *  13  expressed as % of a l l women  (3)  (45)  (23)  110  A large percentage of respondents, 737, on nonisolated reserves and 78% on isolated reserves indicated use of vitamin and mineral supplements (Table XXXI).  Less than h a l f of these,however, mentioned  that supplements were used regularly. of use were apparent.  Different patterns  Whereas on isolated reserves the  majority of users (80%) were children, on non-isolated reserves, children, the female head of household and the entire family were taking supplements.  The type of  supplement being taken also varied with location with 1  T r i - V i - F l o r / A d e f l o r ' (issued by Medical Services) being  the most frequently mentioned supplement on isolated reserves, and 'Multivitamins' on non-isolated reserves. In order to assess the r o l e of alternate food ~ sources to families, respondents were asked to rank the importance of f i s h i n g , hunting, trapping, gardening, and gathering as a food source to them  (Table XXXII).  In almost every case, subjects i n isolated areas were more l i k e l y than those i n non-isolated areas to rate food from the land as being a more important means of obtaining food.  The most notable differences were i n  hunting and f i s h i n g ; whereas 100 percent of respondents i n isolated communities indicated that hunting was either very important or important to them, only 567. of those on non-isolated reserves d i d likewise.  Similarly trapping  TABLE XXXI USE OF VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS  Variable  Non-Isolated No. (%)  Isolated No. (%)  38 14  (73) (27)  31 9  (78) (23)  18 15 5  (47) (40) (13)  13 18 0  (42) (58)  10 13 1 1 13  (26) (34) (3) (3) (34)  24 3 1 0 2  (80) (10) (3)  21 5 1 2 5 1 2 1  (55) (13) (3) (5) (13) (3) (5) (3)  30  (100)  Practice Take supplements So not take supplements Frequency Regular Irregular Winter only Family member Child/children Female head of household Male head of household Other family members A l l or most of family  (7)  Type of supplement Multiple Adeflor/Tri-vi-flor Calcium Iron Iron + vitamins Cod l i v e r o i l Combination of types Don't know  TABLE XXXII TRADITIONAL FOOD PATTERNS  Practice Very Impt.  NON-ISOLATED(52) Impt. Not Impt.  Very Impt.  ISOLATED(40) Impt. Not Impt.  Fishing  30 (50)*  14 (27)  8 (15)  28 (70)  9 (23)  3  Hunting  15 (29)  14 (27)  23 (44)  37 (93)  3  0  (8)  (8)  Trapping  1  (2)  5 (10)  46 (88)  8 (20)  12 (30)  20 (50)  Gardening  8 (15)  7 (14)  3? (71)  6 (15)  10 (25)  24 (60)  Gathering  6 (12)  2 (40)  25 (48)  7 (18)  22 (55)  11 (28)  * Figures i n parentheses indicate percentage of i s o l a t i o n type PRESERVATION PRACTICES  Preserves Food  Non-isolated No. (%)  Isolated No. (7o)  37  29  (71)  (73)  113  was  stressed by 507, of isolated residents, but only  127, of non-isolated families.  Gardening appeared  to be least important to a l l respondents, f i s h i n g was most  while  important.  The practice of food preservation was not affected by i s o l a t i o n and almost three-quarters of a l l families preserved food (Table XXXII).  Food Practices of Homemakers A.  Food Scores  Food practices were measured by a score based on a 24 - hour r e c a l l of the intake of the female household head.  As an indication of dietary adequacy, the assumption  of Au Coin et a l (1972) was  adopted:  "In recognition of the fact that i t i s quite possible to obtain a satisfactory nutrient intake in terms of Canadian Dietary Standards yet not meet a l l of the recommendations of Canada's Food Guide (McClinton et a l , 1971; Milne et a l , 1963) for the purpose of this study, a score of 70 or more out of a possible 100 was considered to be adequate (p.147)." Table XXXIII shows that scores for food practices varied widely, with a range of 10 to 25 points and a mean of 18.3  for the entire population.  Satisfactory intake was  obtained by only 577, of the women, as indicated by scores of 18.5  (707,) or greater.  Significant differences were  observed between the scores of the two populations, with  114  TABLE XXXIII FOOD PRACTICE SCORES ACHIEVED BY RESPONDENTS  Score  10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  Non-isolated (52) No. (%) 0 0 2 1 1 3 1 6 3 6 10 8 4 4 2 1  (3.8) (1.9) (1.9) (5.8) (1.9) (H.5)  ..^5^81  (11.5) (19.2) (15.4) (7.7) (7.7) (3.8) (1.9)  mean = 19.3  Isolated (40) No. ^ (%) 1 1 1 3 4 2 3 3 5 7 5 4 1 0 0 0  (2.5) (2.5) (2.5) (7.5) (10.0) (5.0) (7.5) (7.5)  {12.51*  (17.5) (12.5) (10.0) (2.5)  mean = 17.2  * l e v e l of dietary adequacy  women.' on non-isolated reserves scoring higher.  In non-  isolated areas, 677, of respondents had adequate ;diets, while only 437. of respondents on isolated areas d i d so. Food practice scores were also broken down into major food groups (Table XXXIV).  115  TABLE XXXIV. FOOD SCORES OF RESPONDENTS BASED ON MAJOR FOOD GROUPS  Food Group  Score  Non-isolated.(52)  No. MILK  0 1 2 3 4 5 6  8 3 8 3 13 2 15  (%) (15) (6) (15) (6) (25) (4) (27)  mean = 3.5 FRUIT AND VEGETABLES  MEAT  BREAD AND CEREAL  0 2 3 •4 5 6 7  1 3 4 5 6  0 2 3 4 5 6  3 3 2 4 18 4 18  (6) (6) (4) (8) (35) (8) (35)  I s o l a t e d (40)  No. 3 5 9 11 6 1 5  (%) (8) (13) (23) (28) (15) (2) (13)  mean = 2.9 8 3 8 9 6 4 2  (20) (8) (20) (23) (15) (10) (5)  mean = 5/2  mean = 3.4  1 3 3 10 35  0 1 4 6 29  (2) (6) (6) (19) (68)  (0) (3) (10) (15) (72)  mean = 5.4  mean = 5.6  1 3 1 7 4 36  2 2 0 3 0 33  (2) (6) (2) (14) (8) (69)  mean = 5.3  (5) (5) (0) (8) (0) (83)  mean = 5.4  116  Meat and cereal were the most adequate groups i n the women's diets.  Ninety-five percent of the respondents  consumed the recommended d a i l y intake of meat or meat products, as demonstrated by a score of 4 or greater. Only one woman had no foods from this group.  No s i g n i f i c a n t  differences were found between the two populations f o r meat consumption. For the cereal food group, 697> of women on non-isolated reserves, and 837. of women on isolated reserves consumed 3 servings, thus achieving a maximum score of 6 points. A t o t a l of 87% of respondents  had an adequate intake of foods  from this group (adequate being taken as a score of 4 plus). Milk and milk products was the group consumed i n the least adequate amounts.  Foods from this group were  eaten by only 22% of the women i n the recommended 1% servings, When a score of 4 i s taken as a basis for dietary adequacy, 447> of the surveyed population had an adequate intake of foods from this group.  Although intakes were lower i n  isolated areas, this difference was not s i g n i f i c a n t . A s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two populations was observed, however, i n the intake of f r u i t s and vegetables. Only 307. of women on isolated reserves had adequate intakes of foods from this group (indicated by a score of 5 plus), as compared to 787. of women on non-isolated reserves. Forty-eight percent of isolated respondents serving of f r u i t s and vegetables.  had one or no  117  TABLE XXXV INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOOD GROUPS AND FOOD PRACTICES  1 2 3 4 5  Milk Fr Veg Meat Cereal Practices  -0 .015 -0 .134 0 .128 0 .499,c  0.002. •0.207° 0.437c  0.051 0.142a  0.250b  1.000  P < .01 c  p  < .001 T n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n of mean scores i n the four food  groups showed only asstrong negative c o r r e l a t i o n (p < 0.01) between scores for the cereal and the f r u i t s and vegetables groups (Table XXXV). Mean scores of each of the four food groups were p o s i t i v e l y correlated with the t o t a l food practice mean scores.  Milk, and f r u i t and vegetable group mean scores  were found to correlate most strongly (p < .001), while cereal (p < .01) and meat (p < .05) group mean scores related less strongly to t o t a l food practice mean scores.  B.  Relationship between food practices and selected variables Analysis of variance indicated that the location of  the reserve d i d influence the food practice scores of respondents (Table XXXVI).  The mean food practice scores  118  TABLE XXXVI MULTIPLE RANGE TEST OF MEAN SCORES FOR FOOD PRACTICES, WITH RESPECT TO RESERVE Reserve 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Sechelt Fort Ware Necoslie Nanaimo Nazko Babine Takla  N  Mean Score  16 12 16 20 8 7 13  19.00 * 16.08 19.81 19.10 18.50 19.14 16.23 b  ab  bc  b  b  b  ab  * Means not sharing the same subscript under each variable are s i g n i f i c a n t l y different at p < 0.05. of women from Necoslie did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the mean scores of women at Sechelt, Nanaimo, Nazko or Babine, but were s i g n i f i c a n t l y different  from the mean  scores of those at Fort Ware or Takla. Results of Scheffe's Test for food practice scores i n terms of reserves: 3  1 4 1  4  5  6  5  6  7  2  For reserves underlined by the same l i n e , differences in mean practice scores were not s i g n i f i c a n t .  119  TABLE XXXVII RELATIONSHIP OF DEPENDENT VARIABLES AND FOOD PRACTICE SCORES (KENDALL'S CORRELATION COEFFICIENT)  Variable  Food Score  Isolation  - 0.286  c  Age - female Household  size  b  C  - 0.136  Education-female  0.179  Education-male  0.155  Nutrition Education  0.137  Beliefs  0.229  Family Income  a  0.040  0.083  Work Status-female  0.021  Occupation-Male  0.144  Household  0.238  p p p  a  b  - 0.079  Per Capita Income  facilities  a  b  < .05 < .01 < .001  Rank c o r r e l a t i o n indicated that a number of variates were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to n u t r i t i o n practice scores (Table XXXVII).  120  The most s i g n i f i c a n t factor r e l a t i n g to food consumption was i s o l a t i o n (p < .001). s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated variables  Isolation was also  with different independent  (Table XXXVIII) . Reserves intrmore urbanized  areas were associated with increased levels i n the general way  of l i f e , i . e . more education, higher occupational  status, increased income and l e v e l of l i v i n g and better nutritional  attitudes.  A s i g n i f i c a n t negative correlation was observed between the women's food scores and t o t a l household  size.  In this study, families with large households tended to be located i n isolated areas, had lower incomes, and less formal education. Education of respondents was also s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to n u t r i t i o n practice  scores (p < .05).  Women  who had a higher educational l e v e l tended to l i v e i n urban areas, had smaller families, a higher income, and a better attitude toward n u t r i t i o n . The women's attitudes  toward n u t r i t i o n , as expressed  i n their food b e l i e f s , had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on their food practices  (p < .01).  Beliefs were also s i g n i f i c a n t l y  related to other variables  influencing  i.e.,  f a c i l i t i e s and i s o l a t i o n .  education, household  dietary practices -  There was a s i g n i f i c a n t correlation between the l e v e l reached on the household adequacy (p < .01).  f a c i l i t i e s scale and n u t r i t i o n  TABLE XXXVIII INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES 1  2  ISOLATION  1  1  F AGE  2  .012  BELIEFS  3 --.387° -.085 •  HSHLDSIZE  4  INCOME  5 --.184 •-.044  INC/FAMSIZE  6 --.318  F EDUC  .251  b  .171  3  a  a  6 •  8,  7  '9  :L"  10  -.062 , .128  .135  .127 -.527°  .485°  7 --.581° -.350°  .477 -.244  .152  a  .272°  M EDUC  8 --.460°  .299° -.382  .178  a  .395°  .560°  F WORK  9 •-.347° -.092  .172  a  .150  a  .418°  .226  a  .323  c  .623  .522°  .238  .250  b  .257°  .382°  .291  .256  .272  .321°  .271°  .185  .356  .086  .236  c  -.118  5  .4  .450°  NUTR EDUC  10 --.401  c  -.371°  HSHL'D FACIL  11 •-.788  c  .119  M "'OCCUP  12 --.291  a  b  -.139  p < .05; p < .01; p < .001 b  C  a  c  b  c  .231 - .067 .397 -.233 c  -.344  c  -.081  .156 -.103 a  b  .219  c  a  a  b  c  a  b  b  a  122  Cross-tabulation of the age of the female household head with scores on food practices revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t relationship between the two v a r i a b l e s . No s i g n i f i c a n t relationship was  observed between  the educational l e v e l of the male head of household and the diet of  respondents.  Correlation of the n u t r i t i o n education of the respondents with scores on food practices showed that food practice scores increased with n u t r i t i o n education, but the relationship was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Whether or not female household heads were employed did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t their food practice scores.  Neither was  there a s i g n i f i c a n t relationship  between food practice scores of homemakers and the occupation l e v e l of husbands. Although  there was a trend toward a more adequate  diet with increased income, no s i g n i f i c a n t relationship was  observed between family income and dietary practices.  Similarly when family income was  expressed as per capita  income and cross tabulated with the women's food practice scores, no s i g n i f i c a n t effect was indicated.  123  Food P r i c i n g and Food A v a i l a b i l i t y The a v a i l a b i l i t y of the 66 food items contained i n the 'food basket' i n the selected reserves i s shown i n Table XXXIX.  Overall select ion was poorest i n i s o l a t e d reserves,  notably Babine and Fort Ware.  D i s t i n c t differences were  also observed i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of certain categories of foods between isolated and non-isolated reserves.  The  items most often i n short supply were dairy products, fresh meats, and fresh f r u i t s and vegetables. The cost of 30 food items selected from the 'food basket' on the different reserves r e l a t i v e to Vancouver prices i s shown i n Table XL.  Because so few food items  were available i n the small grocery store at Babine and most residents there shopped at Smithers, food costs f o r Babine residents were calculated from the supermarkets at Smithers rather than Babine i t s e l f . As indicated i n Table XL, food costs were highest i n the most i s o l a t e d reserves (Fort Ware and Takla), where transportation costs were also expensive.  Prices i n more  urbanized areas varied from 5% (Nanaimo) to 15% (Fort St. James) higher than Vancouver.  124  TABLE XXXIX FOOD AVAILABILITY  CATEGORY  NO. ITEMS LISTED  COMMUNITIES CO  cu  r-l CU  ~C  4-> CO  -  O CL) CO  |Jq  7  7  Fruits/vegetables: Fresh Processed  12 13  Breads and cereals  cu  r-l cd  CO  U  Q  0  CU  cu  cd  4->  •H  cd rH  cd  cd  -rH  &  C - H  c  O r *  N cd  4-1  U o  |3  0  X>  CO  PQ  H  3  7  7  7  2  2  6  3  12 13  11 13  11 13  12 13  4 5  9 9  8 11  6 9  8  8  8  8  8  6  8  8  6  Meat: Fresh Processed  9 8  9 7  9 8  9 7  9 8  0 2  7 8  5 8  0 6  Fats and o i l s  5  5  5  5  5  0  5  5  3  Miscellaneous  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  4  Total  66  65  65  64  66  23  52  55  37  Dairy products  4-J  Cd  125  TABLE XL  COST OF 30 FOOD ITEMS IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES RELATIVE TO THE COST OF THESE ITEMS IN VANCOUVER  Community  Cost  Vancouver  $29..86  °L Higher Than Vancouver  Sechelt  33..35  12  Fort St. James  34.,24  15  Nanaimo  31..24  5  Smithers  31..51  6  Takla  40.,59  36  Nazko  36.,50  22  Fort Ware  54.,37  82  Babine  126  CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS A.  Analysis of nutrient intake data In the present study, low nutrient intakes (defined  as less than two-thirds of the Canadian Dietary Standard) were frequent for, calcium, iron, Vitamin C and c a l o r i e s . Among native Indianspopulations, calcium intakes have frequently been reported to be poor. Lee, 1970; D i l l i n g et a l , 1978).  (Heller, 1964;  Nutrition Canada (1975)  reported inadequate intakes among teenage g i r l s and pregnant women, marginal intakes among children 5 to 9 years of age, a l l adult women and elderly men.  In the study  described here, calcium intakes were lowest for adolescents of both sexes, p a r t i c u l a r l y on isolated reserves.  This  difference i n regional adequacy i s r e f l e c t e d i n food consumption as indicated i n Table X. Milk and milk  frequency products  which supplied about one half of the calcium intake, were consumed more frequently at non-isolated reserves.  Intakes  of a l l adults, p a r t i c u l a r l y women were also inadequate. Concern i s expressed  for the low calcium intakes among  adolescents and women, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of child-bearing age who have increased dietary demands for calcium.  On the  evidence of bone density studies Fraser (1975) has suggested that low calcium intakes may  predispose adults over 40  years to a higher incidence of osteoporosis.  127  Calcium i s a nutrient that requires careful consideration, p a r t i c u l a r l y with recent reports of lactose intolerance among native groups (Leichter and Lee, 1971; Sayed and Haworth, 1977).  Ellestad -  Leichter observed a high  incidence of lactose intolerance among adolescent  B.C.  Indians, however test doses given to subjects were very high. There appears to be less intolerance when lactose i s given as a whole milk i n small quantities (Garza and Scrimshaw, 1976)  or milk taken with other foods or as part of a food  recipe (Leichter, 1977).  It would be advisable then for  n u t r i t i o n education programmes to encourage incorporation of milk and milk products into other food dishes i . e . cooked cereal, ground meat, mashed potato, cream soup, cocoa, etc. Iron intakes followed the trend noted i n other studies, with a high percentage of adolescents and adult women below the two-thirds l e v e l (Lee, 1970;  N u t r i t i o n Canada, 1975).  Those individuals on non-isolated reserves exhibited the poorest iron status.  This i s very l i k e l y due to differences  in the consumption pattern of meat which contributed less iron to diets of non-isolated than isolated residents (Table IX-1). The type of meat consumed may  be an additional factor.  Diets  on isolated reserves contained more meats with a high iron content  ( i . e . moose) than those on non-isolated reserves  where f i s h , luncheon meats, and poultry were more commonly eaten (Table X).  128  Among adolescents, poor dietary practices often contribute to low iron intake (Schorr et a l , 1972; Singleton et a l , 1976). Adolescent  g i r l s i n p a r t i c u l a r may r e s t r i c t c a l o r i c intake  or subscribe to fad diets i n order to lose weight (Singleton et a l , 1976). study  The low c a l o r i c intake of adult women i n this  no doubt contributed to their low iron status, as any  reduction of c a l o r i e s i s l i k e l y to reduce iron intake (Clements, 1975).  The low dietary intake of iron, l i k e calcium, among  women of child-bearing age i s of concern because of increased demands at this time. The geographical pattern of lower Vitamin C intakes among native Indians i n remote areas as compared to those l i v i n g nearer to urban centres, i d e n t i f i e d by N u t r i t i o n Canada (1975) was also observed i n this study.  Vitamin C intakes on isolated  reserves, p a r t i c u l a r l y among adolescent boys, were considerably lower than on non-isolated reserves.  Of i n t e r e s t to note also,  was the changing pattern of the source of ascorbic acid i n diets.  Whereas Lee (1970) noted that residents of the Anaham  and Ahousat reserves were dependent on evaporated milk for their Vitamin C, individuals i n this study obtained most of their supply from f r u i t s (about 70%).  Foods from the milk group  contributed a n e g l i g i b l e 2% of the ascorbic acid intake.  One  explanation f o r this may be increased consumption of the orange drink Tang on both isolated and non-isolated reserves X) .,  Tang, which i s cheap, convenient,  (Table  easy to store and  129  widely available has been r e a d i l y accepted as a " f r u i t " drink i n native diets (Peterson, 1974).  Among the  national native population, as well as the general population, vegetables as well as f r u i t s are a primary source of Vitamin C (Nutrition Canada, 1977). Low c a l o r i c intakes were observed for a l l adolescents, p a r t i c u l a r l y boys, and for most adults, regardless of reserve location.  That diets of adolescent g i r l s were  more favourable than those of adolescent boys was of interest. Generally studies show that n u t r i t i o n a l status of adolescent boys i s superior to that of adolescent g i r l s , c h i e f l y because boys eat more food than g i r l s and thus have a better chance of obtaining adequate intakes (Schorr et a l , 1972).  One reason for our results may be the  uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of g i r l s i n the 10 to 19 years  category,  many of whom were under 13 years, i n the age range where intakes are more favourable (Au Coin et a l , 1972;  Haley et a l ,  1977). One paradox that was apparent here, and described i n other studies (Prothro et a l , 1976; Nutrition Canada, 1975), was that although c a l o r i c intake of adults, p a r t i c u l a r l y women, was not excessive, many of the women appeared to be overweight.  It has been suggested that factors such as  past n u t r i t i o n a l history, omission of food items i n r e c a l l s , and a sedentary l i f e s t y l e may explain this inconsistancy (Nutrition Canada, 1975).  130  B.  Relationship variates The  between food practices and  selected  location of the reserve (rural vs. urban) may  through physical a v a i l a b i l i t y — preservation,  distribution —  i . e . , food production,  a f f e c t food habits.  In  the present study, the most s i g n i f i c a n t factor related to food consumption was  i s o l a t i o n , with diets i n urban areas  being more adequate than those i n i s o l a t e d areas. Other studies which have examined the influence of location, have tended to focus on differences between c i t y and farm diets (Dean et a l , 1954;  Hendel et a l , 1965) .  In their investigation Dean et a l (1954) found that Intakes of c i t y children were better than those of children l i v i n g i n nearby r u r a l areas.  The  1955  USDA survey studied/closely  he e f f e c t of residence arid found that farm diets tended to be lower in.vitamins A and'C than c i t y - d i e t s . Contradictory survey, and i t was  r e s u l t s were obtained i n the 1965 USDA concluded that other factors besides  r e s i d e n t i a l differences were exerting an effect on dietary adequacy.  Similarly, results of the Nutrition Canada Survey  indicated that the "type of food consumed was enced by region or season...." (Educational  little  influ-  Services, 1978).  Several investigations have found a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n ship between the homemaker's age and dietary adequacy. (1955) reported better n u t r i t i o n a l practices among young  Young  131  homemakers (under 40 years) than middle aged or older homemakers.  As age increased, use of milk products and  c i t r u s f r u i t s decreased.  In Jolso's study (1965)  increasing age was p o s i t i v e l y associated with increasing r i g i d i t y and with decreasing n u t r i t i o n a l practice scores. Bowering et a l (1976) found that among,? 119 low-income women attending an obstetrics c l i n i c i n New York, age was associated with dietary indices.  Older women tended to  have poorer diets. In this study, although there was a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n in ages among respondents, age had no effect on dietary practices, although older women tended to have less education and larger families.  Age was however not related  to i s o l a t i o n or l e v e l of l i v i n g , two variables which exerted the strongest influence on food practices. Household  size may exert a negative influence on  n u t r i t i o n a l status.  I t has been hypothesized that as family  size increases, there i s a decrease i n the amount of money spent f o r food per person (Davis, 1969).  Studies among  preschoolers of various c u l t u r a l backgrounds have yielded conflicting results.  While Sanjur and Scoma (1972) and  Caliendo et a l (1976) found that nutrient intake was not dependent on family size, Sims and Morris (1974), Cook et a l (1973) and Hendel et a l (1965) did observe some e f f e c t . Examinations of the dietary habits of teenagers have shown no relationship between these two variables  (Thompson, 1975;  132  Schorr et a l , 1972; Duyff et a l , 1975).  Similarly i n a  study of 483 expectant Negro women, Crump et a l (1959) found no relationship between size of the family unit and prenatal n u t r i t i o n of subjects. Boek (1956) however, reported that dietary intake of calcium as well as dietary d i v e r s i t y of Michigan farmers were inversely related to family size.  Results  of the present study were i n agreement with the findings of Boek i n that a s i g n i f i c a n t negative correlation was observed between food scores and household size. A direct r e l a t i o n s h i p has also frequently been reported between educational attainment adequacy of d i f f e r e n t population groups.  and n u t r i t i o n a l (Eppright,  1970; Payton, 1960; Cliendo et a l , 1977; Haley et a l , 1977).  Both F u t t r e l l (1971) and Eppright (1970) stressed  that the education of the woman was a more s i g n i f i c a n t factor than income i n determining  dietary quality.  Murphy  and Wertz (1954) found that the dietary adequacy of 65 pregnant women increased with their educational l e v e l . While 42% of women with the highest education ate an adequate diet, only 207, of those with lesser education were i n this group.  The present study supported  these studies.  Dietary practices were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to the educational l e v e l of respondents. The importance of the educational l e v e l of the male household head has been discussed by a number of  133  investigators.  It i s generally considered that with  increased education, the socio-economic l e v e l increases, providing individuals with higher incomes for purchasing food (Davis et a l , 1969). Many studies have examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the educational l e v e l of the male parent and the dietary adequacy of children from varying backgrounds, with inconsistent r e s u l t s . and Hinton  While Au Coin (1971), Haley (1977)  (1963) reported that the father's educational  achievements exerted a strong influence on dietary practices of t h e i r school children, Caliendo et a l , 1976  and Walter  (1974) f a i l e d to obtain a similar s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n their studies.  The present investigation was  in  agreement with the l a t t e r two studies i n that no s i g n i f i c a n t correlation was  observed between the educational l e v e l of  the male head and the dietary practices of homemakers. reason for this finding may  One  be the general lack of employment  on reserves, regardless of education.  Most jobs available  don.not require specialized training, and can be  occupied  by anyone, regardless of education. A large number of investigators have documented the p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between n u t r i t i o n education dietary practices (Coale, 1972;  Hunt, 1976;  and  Bowering et a l ,  1976). Walter(1974) found that Indian youths having educational dietary programs available to themhhad a better  134  Food Quality Index (FQI), while Hunt (1976) recently reported that low-income pregnant women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n n u t r i t i o n education programs s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased their mean intakes of protein, ascorbic acid, niacin, r i b o f l a v i n and thiamine.  Results of the present study, however, showed  that women who had received "food or n u t r i t i o n information" did not achieve s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher food scores. The majority of women reported formal schooling as the source of their food information, with only a small percentage indicating other sources of learning.  This finding  suggests  that among the study subjects, food or n u t r i t i o n education received i n Home Economics classes did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r dietary practices.  Schwartz (1975, 1976) also  found no relationship between enrollment i n Home Economics classes and the n u t r i t i o n practice scores of 313 Ohio high school graduates, and again amoung 352 Canadian public health nurses. Results of the present study indicate that the food b e l i e f s or attitudes of the women affected t h e i r dietary practices.  A highly s i g n i f i c a n t positive c o r r e l a t i o n  (p < .001) was found between food b e l i e f s and practices of respondents.  These findings support the work of Schwartz  (1975, 1975), J a l s o et a l (1965) and Dickins (1962), who have documented similar p o s i t i v e relationships between  135  n u t r i t i o n attitudes and practices. Income i s considered to have a d i r e c t effect on n u t r i t i o n practices with the quality of the diet generally improving with an increase i n the income l e v e l .  (Delgado  et a l , 1961; Hendel et a l , 1965; Dickins, 1965; Payton et a l , 1960).  Although a recent report based on data from the  Nutrition Canada Survey concluded that for most physiological groups income does not affect n u t r i t i o n a l status, native Indians * were not included i n the study population (Health and Welfare Canada, 1975). No relationship was observed between income and dietary practices i n the present study.  The study of Walter  (1974) among American Indian youths also found no s i g n i f i c a n t relationship between these two variables.  In his discussion  of this finding Walter distinguishes between the effects of two kinds of poverty: internal and external poverty. Internal poverty i s described as a poverty one i s born into, the "culture of poverty". Under conditions of an impossible environment, the poor develop a sense of l i v i n g i n the present, with an immediate approach to l i f e .  External  poverty l i e s outside the culture of poverty and i s the r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t factors i . e . a decline i n economic a c t i v i t y r e s u l t i n g i n unemployment and loss of income.  Walter concludes  that the relationship between income and diet exists i n the  136  external poverty sense, but not to those subject to internal poverty..  It may be that the population group  i n the study were s i m i l a r l y a part of the i n t e r n a l poverty and factors other than income affected the way they eat. No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between dietary practices of employed and non-employed respondents, confirming  the reports of Robson (1971), Au Coin et a l ,  (1972) and Doyle et a l (1953).  Other studies have  concluded that families of employed women show better diets (Schorr et a l , 1972; 1972;  Coale, 1971).  Dickins, 1961; Sanjur and Scoma,  The difference i n findings may be  caused by the s i m i l a r i t y of occupations i n which homemakers were employed. The e f f e c t of the occupational  status of the male  head of household on family food practices has been studied among adolescents  (Schorr, 1972)', children (Sims,  1974), and adult women (Murphy and Wertz, 1954), with positive r e s u l t s .  Duyff (1975) however, found that among  a sample of Puerto Rican teengagers a higher l e v e l i n the occupational scale of the parents was associated with frequent consumption of soft drinks, perhaps i n d i c a t i n g that more money was avaiable. noted that the occupation  Walter (1974) s i m i l a r l y  of the family head had no  137  influence on the food practices of 35 Indian youths.  The  findings of the present study support the l a s t study i n that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t relationship between food practice scores of homemakers and the occupational l e v e l of male heads.  This may be because here, as i n Walter's  study, differences i n occupational categories were minimal, and many of the men were employed i n similar types of work. The typesof public services and materials available water, e l e c t r i c i t y , equipment and f a c i l i t i e s for food preparation and eating - a l l influence food patterns.  There  i s generally, a lack of these services and f a c i l i t i e s on Indian reserves, r e s u l t i n g i n a high incidence of various diseases (Simpson, 1974;  Smith, 1975).  Among the study  group, respondents with higher household f a c i l i t e s scale exhibited better dietary practices. other reports.  This i s consistent with  Boek (1956) showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e  correlation between calories and ascorbic acid and l e v e l of l i v i n g among a group of Michigan farmers.  Walter (1974)  found that Indian youths l i v i n g i n homes with e l e c t r i c i t y tended to have better FQI than those not having this benefit. Level of l i v i n g was also s i g n i f i c a n t l y related (p < .01) to the family food scale i n each area studied i n the Caribbean Island survey of Beaudry - Dariame et a l (1971).  138  C.  General Discussion The most s i g n i f i c a n t factor related to food consumption  is i s o l a t i o n .  Diets of families l i v i n g i n non-isolated  communities are more adequate than those i n r u r a l areas. Changes i n the way of l i v i n g that are a f f e c t i n g native Canadians are having i n some ways a more profound  effect  on the n u t r i t i o n a l status of those native peoples i n i s o l a t e d reserves.  T r a d i t i o n a l dependence on l o c a l food resources,  although s t i l l i n evidence i s declining, the l o c a l community store becoming a more important food source for many families.  Many of the foods brought into these stores are  n u t r i t i o n a l l y i n f e r i o r to native foods  (Schaefer, 1977).  As a result, the t r a d i t i o n a l native diet, r i c h i n protein, i s being replaced by low-quality carbohydrate  foods, i . e .  "luxury sugars", with disastrous consequences to native health (Schaefer, 1977; Ellestad-Sayed and Haworth, 1977). A comparison of food prices among the reserves reveals that costs are greatest i n isolated communities, notably Fort Ware, Takla Landing and Nazko.  Although the r e l a t i o n -  ship between food costs and reserve location was not stati s t i c a l l y explored, i t i s of interest to note that food practice scores of women are also lowest at these three reserves.  Food practice scores are highest at Necoslie and  the fourth isolated reserve, Lake Babine.  These two commun-  i t i e s s t i l l r e l i e d strongly on 'food from the land', yet had access to a well-stocked, reasonably-priced food outlet ( i n  139  the case of Babine, the supermarket at Smithers, 64 miles south).  I t may be that access to both modern and  t r a d i t i o n a l methods of food procurement, available to these two reserves, i s one of the ways through which reserve location affects food practices. Variety for selection i s also poorest on i s o l a t e d reserves, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to dairy products, frozen and fresh meats, and fresh f r u i t s and vegetables. Lack of fresh meats i s most probably due to harvesting of f i s h and game from the land.  The absence or limited  supply of dairy products and fresh f r u i t s and vegetables, r e f l e c t e d i n dietary r e c a l l s , may  pose n u t r i t i o n a l problems.  The problems of obtaining food on i s o l a t e d reserves i s i n t e n s i f i e d by lack of employment, hence income to purchase these expensive foods. of respondents  inadequate Thirty percent  on isolated reserves indicate yearly incomes  of $5,000 or less, as opposed to 18% on non-isolated reserves.  At the same time families on non-isolated reserves  report mean monthly food expenditures of $252.16, while those on i s o l a t e d reserves spent $302.43 monthly.  Thus  those families with the least money to spend on food, and the most r e s t r i c t e d choices, are forced to spend more money. Housing, public services and household f a c i l i t i e s on isolated reserves are inadequate, further.  compounding d i f f i c u l t i e s  140  " We forget that modern cooking requires a great deal of equipment, appliances, a source of e l e c t r i c i t y , pans, dishes, running water, and storage areas and these are not always available to native peoples" (Smith, 1975)  While dependence on store-bought foods has increased, information regarding use of these new foods has not been passed on.  Few women on isolated reserves have  received any food, n u t r i t i o n , or cooking education.  Until  recently the majority of Indian children received their education at r e s i d e n t i a l schools where homemaking s k i l l s were not taught.  They did not purchase or prepare foods.  Children at the schools often ate only with each other and not with adults.  With no adult model around to watch i t  i s d i f f i c u l t to teach children to accept new foods 1975) . The majority of respondents  (Smith,  l i s t mothers (63%)  and other family members or r e l a t i v e (38%) as t h e i r primary 'human' sources of n u t r i t i o n and food information.  Other  investigators have also found homemakers to be strongly influenced by the experience of their mothers 1975; Young et a l , 1956; Coale, 1971).  (Schwartz,  Although 45%  of women on isolated reserves indicate cookbooks and other books as a source, individuals on non-isolated reserves are more l i k e l y  to use mass media as a source of n u t r i t i o n /  food information.  When compared with other studies, however  141  the use of printed material and t e l e v i s i o n as a source of n u t r i t i o n information i s much lower; printed material appears to have more influence among population groups with higher income levels (Sanjur, 1972; Young et a l , 1956;  Jalso, 1965;  Coale,  1971;  Schwartz, 1975).  Similarly, professional persons are mentioned less frequently as n u t r i t i o n information sources than has been documented i n the studies of Coale (1971), Lund and Burke (1969), Eppright et al,(1970), or Fox et a l (1970). When shopping, homemakers are strongly influenced by the " l i k e s and d i s l i k e s " of their children who often accompany them to stores.  "Cost", "what i s good  for you", and "requests made by husbands" are also i n f l u e n t i a l factors. Young et a l (1956) who  Similar findings were reported by also found foods "good" for the  family, preferences, and cost to have s i g n i f i c a n t influence on meal planning. homemakers i n New  In another study among low-income York Sanjur et a l (1972) also reported  taste as the predominant element influencing food shopping, followed by cost, f a m i l i a r i t y with food, and n u t r i t i v e value.  Preparation time, the least i n f l u e n t i a l  factor i n the present study has s i m i l a r l y been found not to be a major consideration i n other studies (Shapiro, 1962;  Young et a l , 1956;  Coale, 1971).  There i s l i t t l e evidence of budgeting planning.  According to Goldthorpe  and meal  (1975) planning ahead  142  does not f i t into the Indian way of l i f e : "the Indian culture i s not to plan or save but to share and l i v e f u l l y for today, so that within months of a successful return from the trapline, there may have to be a welfare cheque." Smith (1975) claims that native people do not s i t down and work out a budget or determine where the best bargains are.  Shopping i s a s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , a way of  meeting with friends and neighbours, thus they prefer to shop d a i l y .  Results of the study indicate that this i s  true more for residents' of isolated than non-isolated reserves.  Almost 70% of urban respondents shop at  supermarkets, a figure comparable to that found i n the studies of Leichter et a l (1978), Metheny et a l (1962) and Stubbs (1961).  Better selection i s the most important  reason given i n their selection of the supermarket.  That  23% of families on isolated reserves travelled to larger centres and purchased food i n supermarkets where 'costs are cheaper' and 'selection i s greater' i s also an i n d i c a t i o n of their increasing awareness of shopping s k i l l s . Food practices on non-isolated reserves are more adequate than those i n isolated reserves. i n urban communities  Although families  r e l y even less on food from the land  than those i n r u r a l areas, they have greater access to supermarkets and a larger selection of store foods.  Increased  143  a v a i l a b i l i t y of milk and milk products, for example, has resulted i n greater consumption of these foods.  At  the same time, a larger selection of foods does not necessarily mean that individuals w i l l necessarily make the best choices.  Consumption of f r u i t s and vegetables  among urban families i s s t i l l inadequate.  Tang, although  f o r t i f i e d with Vitamin C, i s a poor substitute for f r u i t juices.  In the U.S., food consumption studies have shown  that with increased urbanization, there has been a concurrent decline i n two p a r t i c u l a r nutrients, vitamins A and C.  According to Parrish (1971) this decline i s a  r e f l e c t i o n of change from "wide-variety to limited-variety food habits" combined with consumer preference for fast foods (low i n A and C) and neglect of fresh f r u i t s and vegetables (high i n A and C). Of interest to note i s the frequency with which respondents supplements.  and t h e i r f f a m i l i e s take vitamin/mineral Following the results of the Nutrition  Canada Survey, Butler (1975) reported that "action i s being i n t e n s i f i e d . . . i n the provision of vitamin and iron supplements to r i s k groups."  Smith (1975) claims that nurses  tend to overestimate the use of vitamins because they base i t on the amount distributed, while i n fact actual use i s much lower.  Results of the study indicate that  144  while a very high percentage of family members take supplements (73 to 78%) less than 50% of these do so regularly.  Frequency of use of supplements i s nevertheless  higher than has been found among other population groups. Figures obtained i n other surveys include: 27% among a group of 383 elementary schoolchildren i n Winnipeg (Ellestad Sayed and Haworth, 1977), 31%, of a group of adolescent g i r l s (Huenemann et a l , 1968), 20% of 2839 adults surveyed i n a country-wide U.S. study (Pearson, 1972) and from 15% (Leichter et a l , 1978) to 24% (Read and Miles, 1977) of elderly Canadian c i t i z e n s .  Supplements are most often taken  by children on isolated reserves and by homemakers, children and the entire family on non-isolated reserves. of concern are i d e n t i f i e d .  Two areas  That few women on isolated  reserves reported use of supplements indicates that few pregnant women, an i d e n t i f i e d r i s k group, are also taking supplements.  I t i s recommended that judicious use of  supplements be combined with n u t r i t i o n counselling of r i s k groups and i n t e n s i f i e d efforts to improve a v a i l a b i l i t y and selection of foods.  Implications Results of the study indicate the need f o r n u t r i t i o n education programs designed to improve the quality of native d i e t s .  An understanding of those factors which  145  influence food habits i s basic to any such programme. N u t r i t i o n education programs which consider those factors affecting food choices can better improve dietary practices. N u t r i t i o n educators working with native peoples ought to encourage those strong aspects of food practices such as one pot meat-vegetable stews and soups, oatmeal cereals, and use of t r a d i t i o n a l foods.  Emphasis might be given  to  increase intake of vegetables, dairy products and foods high i n iron. One l o g i c a l place from which n u t r i t i o n education programs could be provided i s the school, where there i s presently no formal program of n u t r i t i o n education.  In  some areas, vitaminized b i s c u i t s , developed by the Department of National Health and Welfare s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r native Indian children, are distributed by teachers.  Distribution  i s not combined with any n u t r i t i o n education programs(Smith, 1975).  Children exert strong influences on family food  practices through demands for mothers admitted, as has been discussed, that "what the children l i k e " was a very important influence on what she bought.  Nutrition information learned  by the children would hopefully be "passed on" through discussion and sharing of materials with other family members. Nutrition education programmes aimed at the homemaker herself are suggested.  In the majority of households i t i s  the female head herself who purchases and prepares the food,  146  and thus determines what her family eats. Food b e l i e f s may indicate the basis of decisionmaking processes, which ultimately affect food selection (Sanjur, 1972).  Examination of food b e l i e f s of respondents  reveals that many of the b e l i e f s held by women have t h e i r basis i n non-Indian teaching rather than t r a d i t i o n a l native culture.  Certain attitudes expressed by women  indicate those areas which are amenable to n u t r i t i o n education.  During pregnancy many women are concerned with  r e s t r i c t i n g weight gain, a practice which i s contrary to the recommendations of the Committee of Maternal Nutrition, Food and N u t r i t i o n Board i n the U.S.A. (1970) and the B r i t i s h Columbia Medical Association as endorsed i n the p o s i t i o n paper established by the N u t r i t i o n i n Pregnancy Committee of the Health Planning Council of B r i t i s h Columbia (1973) that recommends an average weight gain of 24 pounds. Although the majority of women indicate that 'breastfeeding i s best for baby', the practice i s not widespread among the study population. the decline i n breastfeeding  Smith (1975) attributes  to giving b i r t h i n a h o s p i t a l  where women receive l i t t l e encouragement and support to breastfeed.  Present p o l i c y of Medical Services i s to strongly  advocate breastfeeding.  Sound dietary advice as part of the  breastfeeding education programme may help to a l l e v i a t e some  147  of the ' d i f f i c u l t i e s ' by nursing mothers.  ( i . e . drying up) For women who  experienced  choose not to breastfeed,  education .is needed i n the preparation of formulas. Over 507o of respondents l i s t canned baby foods as a food b e n e f i c i a l t t o infants.  I f i n fact, a large number  of families are buying prepared foods, information regarding careful selection of these products ought "to be included i n education programmes.  Where conditions permit, home  preparation of infant foods i s also to be encouraged. N u t r i t i o n education programmes, however,  cannot  replace food, and before they can be e f f e c t i v e there must be adequate food supplies.  Funds ought to be made available  to subsidize transportation costs of c e r t a i n foods i . e . f r u i t s and vegetables to isolated areas.  Dialogue with  l o c a l shopkeepers to encourage stocking of more nutritious foods, replacing low-quality high sugar foods i s also suggested.  Where possible use of t r a d i t i o n a l foods ought  to be encouraged. Perhaps the most important factor i n considering improved n u t r i t i o n a l status i s motivation.  Individuals  w i l l not improve dietary practices unless motivated to do so: "No matter how much money one has, or how much food (enriched or not) i s available, and regardless of the c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n or n u t r i t i o n education l e v e l , people must have proper motivation to eat well. This i s p a r t i a l l y a matter of n u t r i t i o n education but much more i s involved" (Briggs, 1970)  148  Many of the health problems of native Indians are associated with their l i f e s t y l e and environment and a l l e v i a t i o n of these problems requires the support of the people themselves as well as the agencies responsible for environmental services (Butler, 1975).  While Indian  Band Councils are becoming increasingly autonomous and often manage their own funds, health related projects are not always given top p r i o r i t y (Simpson and Dormaar, 1974; Butler, 1975).  I f motivation to improve food practices  is to be increased, i t i s necessary also to increase the awareness of native peoples of n u t r i t i o n problems and encourage their p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n education programmes.  149  CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  This study was conducted to investigate the food habits of native Indian families i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  By use  of a 24 - hour r e c a l l , the nutrient content of diets of 144  individuals l i v i n g on non-isolated reserves was compared  with diets of 105 individuals l i v i n g on isolated reserves. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between the food practices of the female head of household and certain socio-cultural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the family. Ninety-two women from seven reserves were interviewed. addition,  In  information on food prices and foods available i n  l o c a l stores was collected. Rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s using Kendall's tau beta demonstrated that several independent variables  (socio-  economic, family and reserve c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) were related to the dependent variable, food practices. Independent variables which were s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y related to food practices included  the location of the reserve,  education of respondents, the women's attitudes toward n u t r i t i o n , and the l e v e l reached on the household f a c i l i t i e s scale. size of the household was negatively of the woman's d i e t .  The  correlated to the adequacy  The most s i g n i f i c a n t factor related to  food consumption was i s o l a t i o n , with diets i n urban areas being more adequate than those i n r u r a l areas.  Family income and  150  whether or not the woman had received food or n u t r i t i o n education were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to food intake, although there was a trend towards improved diets. Analysis of nutrient intake data showed that low intakes (defined as less than two-thirds of the Canadian Dietary Standard) were frequent f o r calories, iron and vitamin C.  calcium,  Calcium intakes were lowest f o r  adolescents of both sexes, p a r t i c u l a r l y on i s o l a t e d reserves.  Calcium intakes of a l l adults, p a r t i c u l a r l y  women, were also inadequate.  A high percentage of  adolescents and adult women exhibited poor iron intakes, p a r t i c u l a r l y on non-isolated reserves.  Vitamin C intake's on  isolated reserves, p a r t i c u l a r l y among adolescent boys, were considerably lower than on non-isolated reserves. o r i c intakes were observed f o r a l l adolescents,  Low c a l -  particularly  boys, and most adults, regardless of reserve location.  Mean  daily protein intakes at a l l age and sex levels for both population groups exceeded the recommended Food frequency  standards.  studies revealed that bread, potatoes, tea  and coffee, as well as a v a r i e t y of meats, p a r t i c u l a r l y game, were the foods used most extensively.  Game meat,  namely moose, was the main protein source i n isolated areas, while individuals i n non-isolated reserves consumed a greater variety of store-bought  meats.  Milk intake was generally  low, and many respondents indicated g a s t r o - i n t e s t i n a l disturbances with ingestion.  Consumption of foods from the  151  cereal group was high, p a r t i c u l a r l y on isolated reserves. Potatoes were the main vegetable eaten.  Generally intake  of f r u i t s and vegetables was highest i n non-isolated communities.  Sugar was the "empty c a l o r i e " food consumed  most frequently (in coffee or tea) together with jams, j e l l i e s and syrup eaten with bannock, bread or pancakes. Generally three meals a day were eaten; breakfast was the meal most commonly missed, while most respondents reported eating an evening meal.  Snacks were frequent.  Information regarding food b e l i e f s of respondents was collected.  With the exception of the cereal group, women  i n non-isolated areas were more able than those on isolated reserves to l i s t foods that should be included i n their d a i l y diet.  They were also more l i k e l y to provide v a l i d  n u t r i t i o n a l reasons for including diet.  s p e c i f i c foods i n their  During pregnancy, respondents l i s t e d few dietary  alterations  and for the most part stressed the consumption  of a regular diet.  Few women mentioned s p e c i f i c b e l i e f s  regarding n u t r i t i o n during l a c t a t i o n , as few had breastfed t h e i r infants, and were thus unsure of the best diet at t h i s time.  Respondents were more l i k e l y to provide opinions  regarding diets of infants, l i s t i n g milk, f r u i t s , vegetables and canned baby foods as important foods for infants. Liquid foods, notably soups and f r u i t juices were foods most frequently consumed during most types of i l l n e s s e s .  152  Investigation of shopping habits revealed that on non-isolated reserves women most frequently shopped i n supermarkets because of better selection and convenience. Families i n many of the isolated communities were r e s t r i c t e d to one grocery outlet.  The majority of homemakers shopped  once weekly or every two weeks for t h e i r major grocery supplies, while minor purchases were more frequent. for purchasing  Responsibility  food rested with the female household head i n  non-isolated reserves, but was shared among family members i n isolated reserves.  Children frequently accompanied mothers  to stores, requesting them to purchase empty c a l o r i e foods, ice-cream, f r u i t s and cereals.  Respondents on non-isolated  reserves were more l i k e l y to budget and pay cash f o r food purchases while an equal percentage of women from both groups used shopping l i s t s .  Monthly food expenditure  ranged from  $84 to $630, with a mean of $252.16 on non-isolated reserves, and $302.43 on isolated reserves. Rising food costs had altered the purchasing patterns of families.  Over 50% of families were buying less meat and  r e l y i n g more heavily on meat from hunting and f i s h i n g ,  Of  the factors which the homemaker perceived as influencing buying, "what the children l i k e " was most often selected. "Cost", "what i s good for you" and "requests made by husband" were also mentioned frequently.  The female head of household  was the chief i n d i v i d u a l responsible f o r the preparation of  153  family meals, regardless of degree of i s o l a t i o n . used meal plans.  Few women  There was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n  household f a c i l i t i e s available to the two areas, with a larger percentage of homes i n non-isolated having access to running water, e l e c t r i c i t y , r e f r i g e r a t o r s , stoves, ovens and freezers.  Women on non-isolated reserves were also more  l i k e l y to have "studied about what to eat."  The primary  nutrition/food information source i d e n t i f i e d by respondents was their mother, followed by family members and other relatives.  Homemakers i n urban communities also cited  newspapers and magazines.  Although a large percentage of  respondents indicated use of vitamin and mineral supplements, (73% on non-isolated reserves, 787 on i s o l a t e d reserves) less c  than h a l f of these mentioned that these were used r e g u l a r l y . Subjects i n isolated areas were more l i k e l y than those i n non-isolated areas to rate food from the land as being an important means of obtaining food. Overall food s e l e c t i o n was poorest i n isolated reserves, notably Babine and Ft. Ware.  D i s t i n c t differences were also  observed i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c e r t a i n categories of foods between isolated and non-isolated reserves. often i n short supply were dairy products, fresh f r u i t s and vegetables.  The items most fresh meats, and  Food costs were highest i n  the most isolated reserves (Fort Ware and Takla), where transportation costs were also expensive.  Prices i n more  urbanized areas varied from 5% (Nanaimo) to 15% (Fort St. James) higher than Vancouver.  154  BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahmed, M.J. and Van Veen, A.G. A s o c i o l o g i c a l approach to a dietary survey and food habit study i n an Andean community. Trop.. GeogrV Med.. 20:88-100, 1968. Aucoin, D., Haley, M., Rae, J . and Cole, M. A comparative study of food habits: Influence of age, sex and selected family c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Can. J . Publ. Health. 63:143-154, 1972. Bailey, M.A. Nutrition Education and the Spanish-speaking American. J . Nutr. Educ..1:50-54, 1970. Bass, M.A. and Wakefield, L.M. Nutrient intake and food patterns of Indians on Standing Rock Reservation. J. Amer Diet. Assoc. 64:36-41, 1974. Beaudry-Darisme, M., Hayes-Blend, L. and Van Veen, A. The application of s o c i o l o g i c a l research methods to food and n u t r i t i o n problems on a Caribbean island. Ecol. Food Nutr. 1:103-119, 1972. Best, S.C. and Gerrard, J.M. Pine House (Saskatchewan) Nutrition Project. Can. Med. Assoc. J . 81:915-917, 1959. Best, S.C, Gerrard, J.W. , Irwin, A.C, Kerr, D., Flanagan, M. and Black, M. The Pine House (Saskatchewan) N u t r i t i o n Project I I . Can. Med. Assoc. J. 85:412-414, 1961. Bishop, C , Davis, B. and Harper, L.J. Factors influencing homemakers food-buying practices and their w i l l i n g ness to t r y new foods and recipes. V i r g i n i a Agr. Exp. Sta. B u l l . No. 565, 30p, 1965. 1  Boek, J.K. Dietary intake and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Amer. J. C l i n . Nutr. 4:239-245, 1967. Bowering, J . , Morrison, M.A., Lowenberg, R.L. and Tirado, N. Role of EFNEP Aides i n improving diets of pregnant women. J . Nutr. Educ. 8:111-117, 1976. Briggs, CM. Hunger and malnutrition. J. Nutr. Educ. 1:4-6, 1970. Butler, G.C. Trends i n Indian health i n B r i t i s h B.C. Med. J . 17:220-223, 1975.  Columbia.  155  Caliendo, M.A., Sanjur, D., Wright, J. and Cummings, G. Use of path analysis as a s t a t i s t i c a l technique for the analysis of q u a l i t a t i v e n u t r i t i o n a l data. Ecol. Food Nutr. 5:75-81, 1976. Captain, O.B. and Mclntyre, M.S. Cost and quality of food i n poverty and non-DOverty urban areas. J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 55": 569-571,' 1969. Casper, B.A. and Wakefield, L.M. Food choices of women. J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 66:152-155, 1975. Cassel, J . Social and c u l t u r a l implications of food and food habits. Amer. J . Pub. Health. 47:732, 1957. Chassy, J.P., Van Veen, A.G. and Young, F.W. The application of s o c i a l science research methods to the study of food habits and food consumption i n an i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g area. Amer. J. C l i n . Nutr. 20:56-64, 1967. Clements, F.W. Iron metabolism and iron deficiency anaemia. Med. J. Aust. 1:654-656, 1975. Coale, M.S. Factors influencing the food habits of negro preschool children i n the inner c i t y . Unpublished Masters Thesis, Cornell University. 1971. Committee on Maternal Nutrition, Food and N u t r i t i o n Board, Maternal Nutrition and the Outcome of Pregnancy, Washington; National Academy of Sciences, 1970. Cook, J., Altman, D.G., Moore, D.M.C., Topp, S., Holland, W. and E l l i o t t , A. A survey of the n u t r i t i o n a l status of school children: Relation between nutrient intake and socio-economic factors. Br. J. Prey. Soc. Med. 27:91-99, 1973. Cooper, J.B. and McGaugh, J.M. "Attitudes and Related Concepts," i n M. Jahoda and N. Warren, eds., Attitudes (London: Penguin Books, 1966), pp. 29-30. Cornely, P.B., Bigman, S.K. and Watts, D.P. N u t r i t i o n b e l i e f s among a low-income urban population. J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 42:131-135, 1963. Corrigan, C. Scurvy i n a Cree Indian. Can. Med. 54:380-383, 1946.  Assoc. J.  Crump, E., Payton, E. and Horton, C. IV. Relationship between prenatal maternal n u t r i t i o n and socioeconomic  156  index, weight of mother, and b i r t h weight of infant. Amer. J . Obstet. Gynecol. 77:562-572, 1959. Davis, J.G., Stasch, A.R. and Vastine, W.J. Food-buying practices of students' wives at New Mexico State University. New Mexico Agr. Exp. Sta. B u l l . No. 547, 12 pp., 1969. Dean, W.T., Davis, B.C. and McConnell, S.L. N u t r i t i o n a l status of pre-adolescent boys and g i r l s i n the Blacksburg School D i s t r i c t . Va. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. B u l l . No. 122, 1954. Delgado, G. , Brumback, C L . and Deaver, M.B. Eating patterns among migrant families. Publ. Health Reports 76:349-355, 1961. Desai, I.D. and Lee, M. Vitamin E status of Indians of Western Canada. Can. J . Publ. Health. 65:191-196, 1974. Dickins, D. Food purchases and use practices of families of g a i n f u l l y employed homemakers. Miss. Agr. Expt. Sta. B u l l . No. 620, 1961. Dickins, D. Sources of information which influence homemakers' food purchases. Home Economics Series No. 2 Miss. Agr. Expt. Sta., May 1962. Dickins, D. Use, knowledge, and attitudes concerning milk products by homemakers. Miss. Agr. Expt. Sta. , B u l l . No. 642, Apr. 1962b. Dickins, D., and Johnston, A. Children's influence on family food purchase decisions. Miss. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull."No. 671, Sept. 1963. Dickins, D. Factors related to food preferences. J . Home Econ. 57:427-430, 1965. D i l l i n g , L.A., Ellestad-Sayed, J., Coodin, F.J. and Haworth, J . C Growth and N u t r i t i o n of Preschool Indian Children i n Manitoba: I. Vitamin D Deficiency. Can. J . Publ. Health 69:248-252, 1978. Dixon, D.F. and McLaughlin, D.J. Do the inner c i t y poor pay more for food? Econ. Bus. B u l l . 20:6, 1968. Dong, A. and Feenay, M.C The nutrient intake of Indian and non-Indian school children. Can. J . Publ. Health 59:115-118, 1968.  157  Doyle, M.T., Cahoon, M.C. and McRenry, E.W. The consumption of recommended foods by children i n r e l a t i o n to sex, the use of sweet foods, and employment of mothers. Can. J. Publ. Health 44:259-261, 1953. Draper, H. General discussion. In N u t r i t i o n of Indian and Eskimo Children, Report of the Second Canadian Ross Conference on Paediatric Research, Haworth, J.C., Ed., Montreal, Quebec, Ross Laboratories, 1975, p. 188. Duyff, R.L., Sanjur, D. and Nelson, H. Food behavior and related factors of Puerto Rican-American Teenagers. J. Nutr. Educ. 7:99-103, 1975. Educational Services, Nutrition Canada Survey, Dispatch. No. 37 (Revised) Winter 1978. Ellestad-Sayed, J . , Haworth, J.C. and Medovy, H. N u t r i t i o n survey of school children i n greater Winnipeg. I. Descriptive and anthropometric data. Can. Med. Assoc. J . 116:490-492, 1977. Ellestad-Sayed, J . J . and Haworth, J.C. Disaccharide consumption and malabsorption i n Canadian Indians. Am. J. C l i n . Nutr. 30:698-703, 1977. Emmons, L. and Hayes, M. N u t r i t i o n knowledge of mothers and children. J . Nutr. Educ. 5:134-139,.1973Ca). Emmons, L. and Hayes, M. Accuracy of 24-hour r e c a l l s of young children. J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 62:409-415, 1973(b) . Eppright, E.S., Fox, H., Fryer, B., Lamkin, G. and Vivian, V. The North Central Regional Study of diets of preschool children: 2. Nutrition knowledge and a t t i tudes of mothers. J. Home Econ. 62:327-332, 1970. Food Consumption of Households i n the United States. USDA, ARS, Household Food Consumption Survey 1955, Rept. No. 1, 1968. Food Consumption of Households i n the United States — Spring 1965. ARS, USDA Household Food Consumption Survey 1965-66, Rept. No. 1, 1972. Food Prices Review Board. What price nutrition? Ottawa, Feb. 1975. Foulkes, R.G. Health Security f o r B r i t i s h Columbians. Vol. II, Part IV, Section C. A programme f o r Native  158  Peoples. Chapter 15:IV-C-15-1 to IV-C-15-10, Dec. 1973. Fox, H.M., Fryer, B.A., Lamkin, C H . , Vivian, V.M. and Eppright, E.S. The North Central Regional Study of diets of preschool children: 1. Family environment. J . Home Econ. 62:241-245, 1970. Fraser, D. Calcium, phosphorus and Vitamin D. I n : N u t r i t i o n of Indian and Eskimo Children. Report of the Second Canadian Ross Conference on Paediatric Research. Haworth, J.C. ed. Montreal, Quebec, Ross Laboratories, 1975, Pp. 119-124. F u s i l l o , A.E. and Beloian, A.M. Consumer n u t r i t i o n knowledge .'and s e l f reported food shopping behavior. Amer.' J. Publ. Health 67:846-850, 1977. F u t r e l l , M.F., Kilgore, L.T. and Windham, F. N u t r i t i o n a l status of Negro preschool children i n M i s s i s s i p p i . J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 59:224, 1971. Garza, C. and Scrimshaw, N.S. Relationship of lactose intolerance to milk intolerance i n young children. Amer. J. C l i n . Nutr. 29:192-196, 1976. G i f f t , H.H., Washbon, M.J. and Harrison, G.G. Nutrition, Behaviour and Change. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice H a l l , 1972. Goldthorpe, W.'G. Malnutrition i n Sioux Lookout Zone Indians 1970-74. In: N u t r i t i o n of Indian and Eskimo Children, Report of the Second Canadian Ross Conference on Paediatric Research, Haworth, J . C , Ed., Montreal, Quebec, Ross Laboratories, 1975, pp. 67-73. Goodenough, W.H. " B e l i e f s " i n Cooperation i n Change CNew York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1963), Chapter 7. Goodman, C S . Do the poor pay more? J. Market 32:18-24, 1968. Haley, M., Aucoin, D. and Rae, J . A comparative study of food habits: Influence of age, sex and selected family c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I I . Can. J . Publ. Health 68:301-306, 1977. Hammett, R.A. and Blackstone, H. Alabama urban homemakers and milk products. Alabama Agr. Exp. Sta. B u l l . No. 352, 47pp, 1964a. Hammett, R.A. and Blackstone, J.H. How homemakers  select  159  foods. Alabama Agr. Exp. Sta. B u l l . No. 353, 47p, 1964b. Hammett, R.A. Homemakers' response to food information i n mass media of .... Anniston, Birmingham, Montgomery. Alabama Agr. Exp. Sta. B u l l . No. 377, 42p, 1968. Health and Welfare Canada. Report on the relationship between income and n u t r i t i o n . Ottawa, Bureau of N u t r i t i o n a l Sciences, 1975. Heller, C.A. The Diets of some Alaskan Eskimos and Indians. J . Amer. Diet. Assoc. 45:425-428, 1964. Hendel, G.M., Burk, M.C. and Lund, L.A. Socio-economic factors influencing children's diets. J. Home Econ. 57:205-208, 1965. Hinton, M.A., Eppright, E.S., Chadderdon, H. and Wolins, L. Eating behaviour and dietary intake of g i r l s 12-14-years-old. J . Amer. Diet. Assoc. 43:223-227, 1963. Hook, N.C. and Paolucci, B. The family as ecosystem. J . Home Econ. 62:315, 1970. Huenemann, R.L., Shapiro, L.R., Hampton, M.C. and M i t c h e l l , . B.W. Food and eating practices of teenagers. J . Amer. Diet. Assoc. 53, 17, 1968. ;  Hunt, I., Jacob, M., Ostergard, N., Masri, G., Clark, V. and Coulson, H. E f f e c t of n u t r i t i o n education on the n u t r i t i o n a l status of low-income pregnant women of Mexican descent. Amer. J . C l i n . Nutr. 29:675-684, 1976. Jakobobits, C., Halstead, P., Kelley, L., Roe, D. and Young, C. Eating habits and nutrient intakes of college women over a thirty-year period. J . Amer. Diet. Assoc. 71:405-411, 1977. Jalso, S.B., Burns, M.M. and Rivers, J.M. N u t r i t i o n b e l i e f s and practices. Relation to demographic and personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . J . Amer. Diet. Assoc. 47:263-268, 1965. Lamkin, G., Hielscher, M.L. and James, H. Food purchasing practises of young families. J . Home Econ. 62:598604, 1970. Larson, CM. Racial brand usage and media exposure  160  d i f f e r e n t i a l s . Proc. Amer. Market. Assoc. Conf. Ser. 27, 208-215, 1965. LeBovit, C. and Clark, F. Are we well fed? Food: The Yearbook of Agriculture 1959. U.S. Dept. Agr. pp. 620-629. Lee, M., A l f r e d , B.T., Birkbeck, J.A., Desai, I.D., Myers, G.S., Reyburn, R.C. and Carrow, A. N u t r i t i o n a l status of B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Populations. I. Ahousat and Anaham reserves. A Report Printed by Medical Services Branch, Department of National Health and Welfare, 1970. Leichter, J . and Lee, M. Lactose intolerance i n Canadian west coast Indians. Am. J . Digest. Diseases. 16:809, 1971. Leichter, J . Personal Communication, 1977. Leichter, J., Angel, J . and Lee, M. N u t r i t i o n a l status of a select group of f r e e - l i v i n g e l d e r l y people i n Vancouver. Can. Med. Assoc. J . 118:40-43, 1978. Lewin, K. Forces behind food habits and methods of change. Natl. Res. Council B u l l . 108:35, 1943. Lund, L.A. and Burk, M.C. A m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y analysis of children's food consumption behavior. Minn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. B u l l . No. 265, 1969. McClinton, P., Milne, H. and Beaton, G.H. An evaluation of food habits and nutrient intakes i n Canada: Design of e f f e c t i v e food guides. Can. J . Publ. Health 62:139-146, 1971. Marr, J.W., Individual dietary surveys: purposes and methods. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 13:105-164, 1971. Mead, M. Food habits research: Problems of the 1960's. National Academy of Sciences National Research Council Publication 1225, 1964. Metheny, N.Y., Hunt, F.E., Patton, M.B. andHeye, H. The diets of preschool children 1. n u t r i t i o n a l sufficiency findings and family marketing practises. J. Home Econ. 54:297-303, 1962. Metheny, N.Y., Hunt, F.E., Patton, M.B. andHeye, H. The Diets of preschool children 2. Factors i n food acceptance. J . Home Econ. 54:303-308, 1962.  161  Meyers, T. The extra cost of being poor. J . Home Econ. 62:379-382, 1970. Milne, H., Kerr, C , Trenholme, M., and Beaton, G.H. Studies of teenage eating i n Ontario. I I . Evaluation of a diet scoring method. Can. J . Publ. Health. 54:463-470, 1963. Mize, J . J . Determinant factors and motivations i n meat choices for household use. Georgia Agr. Exp. Sta. B u l l . No. 97, 27p, 1962. Moore, P.E., Kruse, H.O., T i s d a l l , F.F. and Corrigan, R.S.C. Medical survey of n u t r i t i o n among the Northern Manitoba Indians. Can. Med. Assoc. J . 54:223-228, 1946. Myers, G.S. and Lee, M. Comparison of Oral Health i n Four Canadian Indian communities. J . Dental Ros. 53:385392, 1974. Nicholls, J.V.V. A survey of the ophthalmic status of the Cree Indians of Norway House, Manitoba. Can: Med. Assoc. J . 54:344-348, 1946. Nie, N. and Bent, D. S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the Social Sciences. N.Y. McGraw H i l l Book Co., Inc. 1970. Nutrition Canada, National Survey. Dept. of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Canada. 1973. Nutrition Canada, Indian Survey. Dept. of National Health and Welfarej Ottawa, Canada, 1975. Nutrition Canada, Food Consumption Patterns Report. Dept. of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Canada. 1977. N u t r i t i o n i n Pregnancy Committee, The Health Planning Council of B r i t i s h Columbia. Nutrition i n Pregnancy. B.C.- Med. J. 15:128, 1973. Parrish, J.B. Implications of changing food habits for n u t r i t i o n educators. J . Nutr. Educ. 2:140-146, 1971. Payton, E., Crump, P. and Horton, C. VII. Dietary Habits of 571 Pregnant Southern Negro Women. J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 37:129-136, 1960. Peterson, J . Nutrition-related health practices and opinions. Nutr. Progr. News, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Sept.-Dec. 1972.  pp 1-8.  162  Peterson, M.A. Infant and Child Feeding Practices Among Low-Income Reservation and Rural American Indian and Alaska Native Families. In: Practice of LowIncome Families i n Feeding Infants and Small Children. Fomon, S.J. and Anderson, T.A., Eds., Proceedings of a National Workshop, Warrenton, Va., March 17-18, 1971, pp. 101-112. Prothro, J., Mickles, M. and Toblert, B. N u t r i t i o n a l status of a population sample i n Macon County, Alabama. Am. J. C l i n . Nutr. 29:94-104, 1976. Reid, D.L. and Miles, J.E. Food habits and nutrient intakes of n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d senior c i t i z e n s . Can. J. Publ. Health 68:154-158, 1977. Robson, R.H. Changing food habits of Canadian children. Can. Home Econ. J. 21:14-25, 1971. Sanjur, D.M., Cravioto, J., Rosales, L. and Van Veen, A. Infant feeding and weaning practices i n a r u r a l p r e i n d u s t r i a l setting. Acta Paediatr. Scand.: Suppl. 200, 1-56, 1970a. Sanjur, D., Cravioto, J. and Van Veen, A.G. Infant n u t r i t i o n and socio-cultural influences i n a v i l l a g e i n Central Mexico. J. Trop. Geog. Med. 22:443-451, 1970b. Sanjur, D. and Scoma, A.D. Food habits of low-income children in Northern New York. J . Nutr. Educ. 2:85-95, 1971. Sanjur, D., Romero, E. and N e v i l l e , G. A community study of food habits and socio-cultural factors of selected families p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the East Harlem N u t r i t i o n Education Program. Dept. of Human N u t r i t i o n and Food, Cornell Univ., N.Y. June 1972, pp. 1-112, Mimeo, Sanjur, D. Food ideology systems as conditioners of n u t r i t i o n a l practises. Arch. Latin. Nutr. 24:47-64, 1974. Schaefer, 0. Changing dietary patterns i n the Canadian North: Health, s o c i a l and economic consequences. J. Can. Diet. Assoc. 38:17-25, 1977. Schorr, B.C., Sanjur, D. and Erickson, E.C. Teenage food habits. A multidimensional analysis. J. Amer. Diet. Assoc^ 61:415-420, 1972. S c h w a r t z , N.E.  N u t r i t i o n k n o w l e d g e , a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s  163  of High School graduates. J . Amer. Diet. Assoc. 66:28-31, 1975. Schwartz, N.E. N u t r i t i o n knowledge, attitudes and practices of Canadian public health nurses. J . Nutr. Educ. 8:28-31, 1976. Shapiro, L.R., Huenemann, R.L. and Hampton, M.C. Dietarysurvey for planning a l o c a l n u t r i t i o n program. U.S. Publ. Health Repts. 77:259-266, 1962. Sims, L., Paolucci, B. and Morris, P.M. A theoretical model for the study of n u t r i t i o n a l status. Ecol. Food and Nutr. 1:197-205, 1972. Sims, L.S. and Morris, P.M. N u t r i t i o n a l status of preschoolers. J . Amer. Diet. Assoc. 64:492-499, 1974. Simpson, C.A. Indian health not a medical problem. B.C. Med. 16:320, 1974. Singleton, N.C., Lewis, H. and Parker, J . The diet of pregnant teenagers. J . Home Econ. 68:43-45, 1976. Smith, M.D. Food resources and changing dietary patterns of the Canadian Indian c h i l d . In: N u t r i t i o n of Indian and Eskimo children. Report of the Second Canadian Ross Conference on Paediatric Research. Haworth, J . C , ed. Montreal, Quebec, Ross Laboratories, 1975, pp. 12-18. Stanbury, W.T. Success and F a i l u r e : Indians i n urban society. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975. S t i l e s , M.E. A study of food costs and a v a i l a b i l i t y , Fort Smith Region, NWT. Faculty of Home Economics, University of Alberta, Edmonton. 1971. Stubbs, A.C. Family food marketing practices. Texas Agr. Exper. Sta. Misc. Publ. 8p, 1961. Thompson, J.K. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and practices of eighth grade students. J . Can. Diet. Assoc. 38:222-228, 1977. Van de Mark, M.S. Influence of media on food marketing. J . Home Econ. 54:218-220, 1962. Vivian, R.P., McMillan, C , Moore, P.E., Robertson, E . C , Sebrell, W.H., T i s d a l l , F.F., and Mcintosh, W.G. The n u t r i t i o n and health of the James Bay Indian. Can. Med. Assoc. J . 59:505-518, 1948.  164  Walter, J.P. Two poverties equal one hunger. J . Nutr. Educ. 5:129-133, 1973. Walter, J.P., Two Poverties Equal Many Hungry Indians: An Economic and Social Study of Nutrition, A Working Paper f o r the Select Committee on N u t r i t i o n and Human Needs of the U.S. Senate pp. 95-106, Washington, D.C. 19 74. Wilhelmy, 0., Young, C. and Pilcher, H. N u t r i t i o n a l Status Survey, Groton Township, New York. I I I . Nutrient Usage as Related to Certain Social and Economic Factors. J . Amer. Diet. Assoc. 26:868-873, 1950. Williams, S.W. Food buying practises of selected low- and middle-income families i n Americus, Georgia. Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of Alabama, 1972. Young, CM., Hagan, G.C, Tucker, R.E. and Foster, W.D. A comparison of dietary study methods: 2. Dietary history vs. seven-day record U.S. 24-hr. r e c a l l . J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 28:218-221, 1952. Young, CM., Waldner, B.G. and Berresford, K. "What the homemaker knows about n u t r i t i o n . II Levels of n u t r i t i o n knowledge." J . Amer. Diet. Assoc. 32:218-222, 1956. Young, CM., Waldner, B.G. and Berresford, K. What the homemaker knows about n u t r i t i o n . IV. Her food problems, shopping habits and sources of information. J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 32:429-434, 1956. Young, F.W. and Young, R.C. The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of family structure i n r u r a l Mexico. J . Marriage and Family 30:154-161, 1968.  APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE  Family No Band No  -  Town DEMOGRAPHIC DATA  1. Population of reserve  2. Isolation (no. of miles from urban centre of 5,000 pop.)  3. Health services available to the community:  4. Shopping facilities:  5. Price of food:  6. a. How many people live and eat in your home? b. Number of children c. Number of adults d. Relationship of adult(s) to female head of household: mother/mother-in-law father/father-in-law relative friend  7. a. Age of female head of household b. Age of male head of household— c. Age of child/children _ _ _ _ _ _ No. that are: less than 2 years 2 — 5 years 6—12 years 13—18 years more than 18 years  1  167  8. Type of household: nuclear  single parent  extended  communal  |37.  9. a. Occupationofmaleheadofhousehold:  38.  b. Occupation of female head of household  39.  If housewife, have you ever worked in the past? yes If yes, how long ago? less than 1 year 1—4years  no  |40. 5—lOyears more than 10years  |41.  10. a. What was the last grade you completed at school? some grade school completed grade school some high school completed high school completed high school and also other training, but not college some college completed college some graduate work graduate degree none other b. What was the last grade your husband completed? '.  |42. |43 .  44. 45.  :  11. Social Class  46.  12. What is your approximate family income? less than $2,500 $2,501—$5,000 $5,001-$10,000  $10,001-$15,000 more than $15,000  |47_  FOOD BELIEFS 1. What foods or types of foods do you try to include in your family 'sdieteachday?Whydo you think each of these foods is important? 1. nutritional reason  2. non-nutritional reason  2  3. no reason given  168  milk groupReason meat group_ Reason fruits. Reason. vegetables _ Reason cereal group. Reason. empty calories. Reason. other. Reason. 2. Are there any foods you think should/shouldn't be eaten during pregnancy? yes  no  If yes, what foods should be eaten? milk group  ————  meat group fruits vegetables cereal group — empty calories other What foods shouldn't be eaten? milk group meat group, fruits vegetables. cereal group. empty calories, other  ;  3. Are there any foods you think should/shouldn't be eaten while breastfeeding?  3  169  yes  70  no  If yes, what foods should be eaten?  71  milk group meat group  72  —  73  fruits — vegetables _  74 75  cereal group-  76  empty calories _  77  other What foods shouldn't be eaten? milk group meat group  78  ;  79  :  fruits  80  -  No— Card.  vegetables cereal group. empty calories _ other 4. What do you think is best for babies—bottle-feeding or breast-feeding? bottle-feeding breast-feeding  both the same don't know  5. Are there any foods you think should/shouldn't be eaten by babies and younger children? yes  10_  no  If yes, what foods should be eaten?  11_  milk group  12 _  meat group,  13 _  fruits vegetables  14_ 15.  cereal group.  16_  empty calories,  17.  other What foods shouldn't be eaten?  18.  milk group  4  170  19-  meat group-  20-  fruits vegetables —  21. 22-  cereal group.  23.  empty calories .  24.  other 6. Are there any foods you think should/shouldn't be eaten by sick persons? yes  25 _  no  If yes, what foods should be eaten? milk group  .  meat group fruits  .  _  26 _ 27 _ 28 _  ;  29 _  vegetables cereal group_  30 _  empty calories,  31_ 32 _  other What foods shouldn't be eaten?  33.  milk group  34_  meat group  35_  fruits  36,  vegetables  37.  cereal group.  38.  empty calories _  39,  other 7. a. How would you describe the diet of the Indian people in your area? excellent good fair  poor don't know other  40.  b. Why do you think it is. 41c. Do you think it has changed in your lifetime? yes  42.  no  If yes, how do you think it has changed?43.  5  SHOPPING HABITS  1. Where do you do most of your shopping? _! —i  .specialty store . health food store .other  supermarket convenience store food co-op general store  2. Why do you shop there? . no choice . convenience . patronage . other  cheaper better selection/quality location credit given service 3. How often do you shop for groceries? a. major trips .daily .weekly  .bi-weekly .monthly  .other  . bi-weekly . monthly  -other  b. minor trips -daily . weekly  4. How do you get to and from the store? lk bus car/truck taxi wa  boat bicycle  animal other  5. Who usually does the shopping? female head of household male head of household other female adult family member other male adult family member daughter  son relatives/friends other children other  Does anyone go with that person? yes  no  If yes, who? female head of household male head of household children  mother friends/relatives other  If family member, does she/he request certain foods? yes  no  6  If yes, what foods? milk group meat group fruits vegetables cereal group empty calories. other 6. Do you use a shopping list? yes  no  If no, when do you decide to buy? .both .other  before going to store at the store 7. How do you feel about: a. The number of grocery shops in your area  . enough . don't know  too many too few b. The variety of foods in the shops excellent good  fair poor  don't know  c. The prices charged reasonable  too low  toohigh  don'tknow  d. The quality of the food 1. good  2. fair  3. poor  4. don'tknow  meat fruits vegetables dairy products bread 8. Do you set aside a certain amount of money every week, month, or twice a month for buying food? yes  no  9. How much money do you usually spend on food every month?_  10. How do you pay for your food? cash trade  .charge .food voucher  .other  7  1  11. How important are the following in helping you to decide what to buy? 1. very important  3. not important  2. important  76. 77. 78. 79. 80.  what you like what your husband likes what your children like what is easy to prepare cost of the food  No. Card  . what is good for you 12. Rising food costs have forced many people to make changes in their shopping habits. Do you find that you now buy more, less or the same amounts of the following foods? 1. buy less  2. buy more  4. don't know  3. same  6. 7. 8. 9. 110. 11-  . milk/dairy products . meat . fruits . vegetables . cereals/bread . snack foods  MEAL PLANNING AND PREPARATION  1. Who usually does the cooking in your home? female head of household male head of household other female adult household member other male adult household member  daughter son shared other  12. 13.  2. Does your family eat together? yes  14-  no  If yes, when? How many times per week? morning mid-moming mid-day 1. 6-7 times a week 3. 2-3 times a week 5. once every two weeks  afternoon early evening late evening 2. 4-5 times a week 4. once a week 6. other  15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.  3. How far ahead do you plan your meals? for the entire month for two weeks for one week for a few days  day-to-day no plan other  8  21.  4. Do you have: running water electricity a freezer refrigerator stove oven other storage facilities  FOOD PRACTISES  A. Factors affecting food practises  1. Have you ever taken cooking classes or studied about foods? yes  no  If yes, where?  Do you think what you learned has been helpful to you? yes  no  2. Has anyone else ever taught you about food or nutrition? _yes  no  If yes, who? nurse doctor dentist _ _ friends relatives family member pharmacist dietician/ nutritionist mother health food personnel shopkeepers other  9  3. Have you obtained food or nutrition information from anywhere else? yes  no  If yes, where? newspapers magazines  —T.V:  radio talks/lectures cookbook other books past experience other  B. Actual practises 1. Do you or your family take vitamins? yes  no  If yes, what kind?  How often? regularly  irregularly  Who advised you to take them? .dietician/nutritionist .mother .husband .pharmacist .health food personnel .other  nurse  doctor dentist friends family relatives  2. How important are the following as a food source for your family? 1. very important  2. important  3. not important  fishing hunting trapping home gardening gathering 3. Do you can, freeze, dry, smoke or otherwise preserve any foods? yes  no  10  APPENDIX B SYSTEM USED FOR SCORING FOOD PRACTICES (24-HOUR RECALLS)  177  SCORING SYSTEM FOR FOOD PRACTICES  FOOD GROUP Milk and Milk products F r u i t s and vegetables  RECOMMENDED SERVINGS (1974) 1%  Vitamin C source  POINTS PER SERVING  MAXIMUM POINTS  %.... 2 points 1.  .2 points  6  1.  .1 point  1  Meat and alternates  3 points  Cereals, bread and pastas  2 points Maximum score  25  Source: B.C. Dairy Foundation, Guide to Good Eating Every Day.  APPENDIX C FOOD LIST USED FOR FOOD PRICING AND FOOD AVAILABILITY STUDY  179  FOOD  JNIT  BRAND  DAILY PRODUCTS pwd. skim milk evaporated milk fresh, while fresh, 27c Cheddar cheese processed cheese ice cream  J3 l b P a c i f i c Pacific qt. "local" qt. "local" 1 lb "local" 2 lb "local" 3 pts  BREAD & CEREALS bread (whole • wheat) bread (white) ready-to-eat cereal r o l l e d oats flour,enriched rice macaroni,enriched cookies  16 oz  "local"  16 oz 12 oz  "local" Kelloggs  5 l b Quaker 10 l b Five Roses 2 l b Delta 2 lb C a t e l l i 4 l b Dad's  FRESH FRUIT AND VEGETABLES potatoes lettuce carrots onions, cooking cabbage corn turnips beets apples bananas tomato oranges  lb head lb lb lb cobs lb lb lb lb lb lb  "local" "local" "local" "local" "local" "local" "local" "local" "local" "local" "local" "local"  PRICES Store 1 Store 2  AVERAGE  180  BRAND  FOOD  PROCESSED MEAT/MEAT ALTERNATES 6%oz canned tuna canned sardine 3%oz lb lb lb 28oz  Cloverleaf Brunswick Canadian "local" "local" "local" Libby's  16oz doz  McColls "local"  lb butter 31b margarine lb shortening salad/cooking 32oz oil salad dressing 24oz  B.C. Empress Crisco Mazola  bologna weiners(bulk) bacon beans with pork peanut butter eggs, large A FATS AND OILS  Mayonnaise  MISCELLANEOUS Sugar jam coffee tea  51b 24oz lb lb  B.C. Nabob Nabob Lipton  AVERAGE PRICES Store 1 i Store 2  181  FOOD  UNIT  BRAND  48oz  Sun-Rype  48oz 28oz 14oz 14oz 12oz 15oz  Town House Royal City Town House Town House Bel A i r Golden Harvest  prunes 16oz canned peas 14oz canned corn 14oz ,,21b frozen vegets. canned soup (veg) KOoz dry soup ( s p l i t 16oz pea)  -  Town House Town House Green Giant Campbell's Avion  FRESH AND FROZEN MEAT beef l i v e r beef roast (blade or chuck) beef,hamburger beef, stewing chicken turkey pork chops ham, butt end f i s h , cod  AVERAGE -  PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES apple juice= (vitam) tomato juice canned tomatoes applesauce canned peaches orange juice raisins  PRICES Store 1 Store 2  lb lb  "local" "local"  lb lb lb lb lb lb lb  "local" "local" "local" "local" "local" Vlocal" "local"  APPENDIXXD TABLES VII-3 and VII-4: Daily nutrient intakes of a l l children, adolescents and adults compared to median intakes of the N u t r i t i o n Canada Survey. TABLES IX-2 to IX-7: Percentage contribut of food groups to calories and nutrients for each age and sex category.  TABLE VII-3 DAILY NUTRIENT INTAKES OF ALL CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS. MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS ARE GIVEN. MEAN PROVINCIAL INTAKES ARE COMPARED TO MEDIAN INTAKES OF THE NUTRITION CANADA SURVEY. FIGURES IN PARENTHESES ARE NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS.  0-4 Years, M & F N.C.* Province (22) Calories Proteins  1596+ 601 61+  22  Calcium  1031+ 804  Iron  10.5+ 5.5  Vitamin A  3772+2193  1678  5-9 Years, M & F N.C. Province (31) 2001+ 744  2025  10-19 Years , F Province N.C. (25) 2250+ 503  2129  10-19 Years,, M Province N.C. (25) 2264+ 630 2584 77+ 28 834+ 446  89  33  67  20  69  871+ 403  798  645+ 366  13.7+ 7.5  11  14.5+ 5.1  661 12  13.5+ 6.2  791 16  703(R.E) 3313+2239  784  2829+1493  724  3750+2540  971  60 881 10  74+  78+  Thiamine  1.03+0.36  1.00  1.43+0.89  1.13  1.29+0.35  1.12  1.36+0.45 1.53  Riboflavin  1.66+0.56  1.72  1.91+0.93  1.71  1.75+0.58  1.57  1.82+0.90 2.04  Niacin  12.5+8.5  Ascorbic Acid  119+  94  21 81  * N.C. = N u t r i t i o n Canada Survey  16.7+9.3 138+ 138  25 71  19.9+6.7 95+ 121  27 83  18.447.1 138+ 147  35 70  TABLE VII-4 DAILY NUTRIENT INTAKES OF ALL ADULTS.  MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS ARE GIVEN. MEAN  PROVINCIAL INTAKES ARE COMPARED TO MEDIAN INTAKES OF THE NUTRITION CANADA SURVEY. FIGURES IN PARENTHESES ARE NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS.  20-39 Years Province (62) Calories Proteins Calcium Iron Vitamin A  1674+ 500  N.C.  1970  23  72  594+ 504  631  71+  13.1+ 5.3 3793+2880  13 684(R.E)  Thiamine  1.12+0.47  1.14  Riboflavin  1.52+0.74  1.46  Niacin  19.0+6.8  Ascorbic Acid  83+ 104  30 68  20-39 Years, M Province N.C. (27) 2780+ 817 119+  33  804+ 417 20.1+ 8.1 5848+4761 1.96+0.71 2.16+0.89 30.5+12.2 156+ 210  2893 105 733 18  40 + F Province (39) 1527+ 338 67+  19  484+ 232  N.C.  1577 60 536  40 + M Province (18) 2661+1135 114+  N.C  2174  37  85  715+ 459  606 1011  14  1173  3923+2711  959  18.7+ 7.3 6850+4750  1.54  0.96+0.27  .84  1.61+0.63  1.21  1.37  2.03+0.76  1.26  2.17 41 82  11.7+ 5.2  1.42+0.50 18.4+6.1 59+  52  10  23 55  30.5+8.1 109+  86  34 59  TABLE IX-2 PERCENTAGE CONTRIBUTION OF FOOD GROUPS TO CALORIES AND NUTRIENTS (5 - 9 Years M & F)  Iron NI I  Thiamine NI I  V i t .A NI I  Ribofl. NI I  Niacin NI I  Calories NI I  Protein NI I  Calcium NI I  I. (Milk, Milk products)  18  11  28  17  73  63  2  2  21  12  13  8  48  35  2  2  II.  18  16  41  47  3  7  38  41  6  15  28  25  28  37  51  51  4  7  3  5  1  3  5  7  73  31  5  11  2  4  7  IV.(Fruits  14  8  4  2  9  4  13  7  29  12  22  13  7  4  V. (Grains, cereals)  31  35  23  28  12  21  38  36  1  3  33  43  14  7  11  -  -  -  1  -  -  19  27  8  12  1  1  1  2  4  7  -  -  -  -  1  Ascorbic NI I  FOOD GROUPS  (Meat,fish, poultry, eggs, legumes)  I I I . (Vegetables)  VI.  (Fats,oils)  VII.(Sugars VIII.(Misc.)  )  3  3  12  8  22  11  4  89  75  19  29  29  -  1  -  -  -  -  TABLE IX-3 PERCENTAGE CONTRIBUTION OF FOOD GROUPS TO CALORIES AND NUTRIENTS (0-4 Years M & F)  Calories NI I  Protein NI I  Calcium NI I  Iron NI I  Vitam A NI I  Thiamine NI I  Ribof. NI I  Niacin NI I  Ascorb. NI I  FOOD GROUPS 4  3  I. (Milk, milk products)  23  19  35  26  72  53  5  3  21  15  18  11  57  45  3  4  II.(Meat,fish, poultry, eggs, legumes)  21  16  38  42  6  4  28  44  12  23  25  27  20  30  54  47  III.(Vegetables)  7  5  5  4  3  1  9  7  43  28  11  8  4  3  12  12  18  11  IV.(Fruits)  9  11  2  4  4  3  10  8  8  19  16  19  4  5  6  12  78  84  26  29  20  22  14  37  41  35  2  1  29  36  14  16  25  24  —  1  VI. ( F a t s , o i l s )  8  9  -  -  -  -  -  -  15  14  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  VII.(Sugars)  7  11  -  2  1  1  7  4  -  -  -  -  -  1  -  -  • -  -  V. (Grains, cereals)  VIII.(Misc)  1  TABLE IX-4 PERCENTAGE CONTRIBUTION OF FOOD GROUPS TO CALORIES AND NUTRIENTS (10 - 19 F)  Calories NI I  Protein NI I  Calcium NI I  Iron NI I  Thiamine NI I  Vit A I NI  Ribof. NI I  Niacin NI I  Ascorb NI I  FOOD CROUPS I.(Milk, milk products)  15  9  22  10  68  49  3  2  17  16  11  4  42  18  2  1  2  2  II.(Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, legumes)  22  19  45  60  8  16  39  56  17  17  16  34  21  51  50  62  1  1  5  6  3  3  3  3  7  4  7  16  9  8  4  3  8  7  12 29  IV. ( F r u i t s )  14  5  5  1  6  3  16  3  33  22  23  6  9  2  11  2  85  V.(Grains cereals)  28  37  25  26  14  25  34  29  -  3  41  47  24  24  26  23  VI.(Fats,oils)  11  10  -  -  1  -  -  -  26  26  -  -  -  -  -  -  VII.(Sugars)  11  13  -  -  -  3  -  5  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  III.(Vegetables)  VIII.  (Misc.)  1  66 2  TABLE IX-5 PERCENTAGE CONTRIBUTION OF FOOD GROUPS TO CALORIES AND NUTRIENTS (10 - 19 Years,M)  Calories NI I  Protein NI I  Calcium NI I  Iron NI I  Vit. A NI I  Thiamine NI I  Ribof. NI I  Niacin NI I  Ascorb NI I  I.(Milk,milk products)  23  9  27  16  75  56  4  2  21  22  13  6  48  28  2  2  3  II.(Meat,fish poultry, eggs,. legumes)  18  12  41  40  4  5  37  34  23  10  15  18  25  36  43  43  3  7  8  5  4  2  3  10  6  13  16  11  9  4  4  12  12  13  23  IV.(Fruits)  13  5  5  1  6  4  17  5  26  13  21  11  8  3  12  3  82  74  V. (Grains, cereals)  26  38  23  38  11  26  31  45  1  7  39  55  14  25  29  36  -  1  VI.(Fats,oils)  8  8  -  -  1  1  -  -  16  32  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  VII.(Sugars)  5  20  1  1  5  2  8  -  -  -  1  1  3  1  -  -  VIII.(Misc.)  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  1  -  1  2  4  -  -  FOOD GROUPS  III.(Vegetables)  2  TABLE IX-6 PERCENTAGE CONTRIBUTION OF FOOD GROUPS TO CALORIES AND NUTRIENTS (20 + FEMALES)  Calories NI I  Protein NI I  Calcium NI I  Iron NI I  Vit.A NI I  Thiamine NI I  Ribof. NI I  Niacin NI I  Ascorb NI I  FOOD GROUPS I.(Milk, milk products)  11  9  14  9  57  46  2  1  10  9  7  5  30  20  1  1  2  3  II.(Meat,fish poultry, eggs, legumes)  28  23  60  63  16  12  50  63  21  20  33  42  41  56  51  60  4  4  III.(Vegetables)  8  9  6  5  7  5  13  8  44  44  15  13  7  4  11  10  34  50  IV.(Fruits)  6  3  2  1  4  1  6  1  10  5  11  3  4  1  4  1  60  41  V.(Grains, cereals)  23  32  17  21  13  34  26  24  1  3  31  35  15  17  18  19  VI.(Fats,oils)  10  12  -  -  1  1  -  -  14  21  -  -  -  -  -  VII.(Sugars)  11  14  -  1  1  2  4  3  -  -  -  1  -  -  -  -  -  3  2  3  2  15  VIII.(Misc.)  —  1  -  -  -  9  -  -  TABLE IX-7 PERCENTAGE CONTRIBUTION OF FOOD GROUPS TO CALORIES AND NUTRIENTS (20 + MALES)  Calories NI I  Protein NI I  Calcium NI I  Iron NI I  Vit. A NI I  Thiamine NI I  Ribofl. NI I  Niacin NI I  Ascorb NI I  FOOD GROUPS 8  5  8  6  38  40  2  -  8  5  3  3  17  15  1  1  1  1  32  30  65  69  30  17  54  61  34  30  42  46  49  61  56  64  6  4  III.(Vegetables)  8  9  6  5  6  6  12  8  28  33  14  13  7  6  11  11  36  32  IV.(Fruits)  5  6  2  1  6  4  6  4  12  10  10  8  4  3  4  2  57  64  V.(Grains, cereals)  25  30  19  19  17  30  24  21  1  3  29  28  19  14  19  15  -  -  VI.(Fats,oils)  12  9  -  -  1  1  -  -  18  19  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  VII.(Sugars)  8  11  2  1  4  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  2  -  -  1  VIII.(Misc.)  -  1  -  -  -  -  -  2  1  3  1  9  7  -  -  I. (Milk,milk products) II.(Meat,fish, poultry, eggs, legumes)  LEGEND TO APPENDIX E Variable Isolation  Code l=Non-Isolated Reserve 2=Isolated Reserve  APPENDIX E Raw Data — Individual Nutrient Values Calculated From 24-Hour DietaryRecalls For Subjects From The Eight* Reserves. Units are protein, t o t a l f a t , carbohydrate (gm) , Vitamins A and E (International Units), a l l others i n mg.  Data from Fort Ware and Injenika were l a t e r poole under Fort Ware, making a t o t a l of seven reserves  193 CODE AGE ISO RE HUM LAT SER ION VE  A.  SEX  CALO RIES  PROT EIN  CALCIUM  IRON  VITAMIN A  614 771 1456 1707 337 398 1390 608 962 657 797 1623 959 172 401 474 228 777 461 400 910 796 369 167 203 239 522 382 375 286 284 125 1349 464 180 699 743 1434 1584 1466 747 317 1227 139 1516 973 1154  4.6 8.8 8.7 11. 4 8.3 10.4 6. 2 8. 8 11-2 17.2 14.0 26. 9 8.6 7. 8 4.4 4.9 7.2 17. 5 8.2 5. 7 7.2 16.8 17. 0 13.3 8. 1 10.1 9.6 4.7 14.7 11.8 12.2 6.9 11.9 12. 5 5.5 8.0 9.3 25.1 19. 5 12.4 8.6 11.5 2.1 11.0 12. 6 13.9 7.9  1000 3080 3846 3590 913 2 12975 3699 2050 2867 5433 2308 1891 1720 2027 2120 19 70 1770 3087 2406 1696 1905 2131 2701 1575 4600 5605 526 0 3000 8482 7480 6940 4115 4066 1950 865 2502 4779 15196 93 63 10173 1556 33 05 1322 5251 8675 584 0 3690  VITAMIN E  SECHELT  11 13 14 15 21 22 23 31 33 34 41 43 44 51 53 54 61 62 63 64 71 72 81 82 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 103 104 105 106 111 112 113 114 121 123 124 131 133 134 135  41 1 12 1 14 1 15 1 1 42 1 52 1 15 66 1 16 1 28 1 27 1 4 1 5 1 26 1 7 1 6 1 25 1 29 1 6 1 5 1 1 22 25 1 55 1 19 1 44 1 48 1 10 1 .5 1 1 13 1 15 16 1 1 21 16 1 18 1 12 1 13 1 45 1 44 1 1 18 8 1 19 1 2 1 1 1 34 1 1 11 12 1 5 1  1  1  1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  F F M M F M  M F M  M F M F F F M F M F M F M  F F F M M F M M F F F F M M F M M M F M F F M M F  1549 1516 2115 26 50 12 05 1288 1702 1457 1963 2515 1624 1940 1303 1387 1365 1671 965 2546 1445 1026 1548 2600 2019 1650 1444 1407 1554 890 1718 1780 1813 728 2533 1987 770 2159 1429 4189 3702 2444 1476 1691 850 1245 2630 2578 1671  58 71 91 106 64 88 63 63 96 119 98 106 75 46 24 34 59 161 49 34 82 127 74 55 42 52 40 22 76 60 65 36 81 71 28 47 47 153 124 86 107 41 44 51 77 75 69  201.8 128.4 289.5 517.3 49.4 62.3 44.6 113.6 179.7 269.4 148.1 131.1 74.4 280.0 280.6 307.9 201.5 398.4 279.0 166.1 81.9 210.4 65.2 169.1 190.5 108.5 120.9 87.9 97.9 66.5 61.2 51.9 339.8 94.5 33.6 99.1 145.0 633.8 250.0 2 77.6 189.2 263.6 44.8 167.5 438.2 239.2 74.5  194 CODE AGE ISO RE SEX LAT SER NUM ION VE 141 142 151 161 162 163 8.  18 20 35 22 21 0  1 1 1 1 1 1  CALO RIES  PROT EIN  CALCIUM  IRON  VITAMIN A  4009 12460 9596 3554 13244 2010  VITAMIN E  212.5 367.4 126.6 190.7 565.7 11.3  1 1 1 1 1 1  F M F F M F  1736 2400 1822 1454 4084 641  82 101 77 62 148 31  1008 745 927 835 1063 1549  15.1 24.4 14. 5 7.7 28.5 2. 8  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  F M F F M F F F F F F F F F F  F F  870 870 1976 553 1856 892 544 958 1007 1711 1433 989 1709 172 8 1242 2270 818 1273 2102 2110 3304 3400 1326 1929 1228 2038  129 129 105 42 103 63 30 48 54 72 83 32 52 89 48 100 24 47 117 67 97 125 50 120 43 72  241 241 3 62 118 334 990 923 193 458 947 840 184 474 336 4091 1021 272 449 6 95 891 1110 1413 445 356 415 565  30. 1 30. 1 25. 7 9. 6 20.3 9. 2 1.9 10. 8 10.6 13.7 17.5 5.0 10.4 18.3 15.9 15.0 4.2 8.7 24.9 11. 7 17.4 26. 2 9.1 14.6 8.3 9.3  160 160 4480 0 3280 935 50 464 2060 3540 1312 390 1507 4820 4560 5293 2490 3370 2860 3140 4390 4315 1630 125 1465 2525  11.5 35.5 227.3 14.5 194.9 25.9 10.5 83.6 70.8 176.8 182.4 44.8 120.6 150.4 70.5 135.9 179.9 199.1 201.2 204.8 299.2 153.5 56.8 69.4 50.8 217.1  3 3 3 3 3 3  F M F F M F  1647 1670 1073 1979 2267 1103  76 77 39 81 93 37  605 413 578 3762 556 294  17.8 21.0 8.7 25.1 17.0 6.9  9056 1395 4 7391 2555 2655 2820  157.0 100.0 80.5 98.0 214.7 72.7  4 4  F F  1800 2813  59 89  723 995  8.3 13. 8  2523 4210  136.7 179.2  FORT WARE  171 172 173 181 182 183 184 211 213 214 215 221 223 231 233 234 241 251 261 263 264 265 271 27 2 273 281 C.  61 69 18 33 48 7 4 86 3 5 21 32 8 22 1 2 31 50 31 8 10 14 22 25 5 33  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 •>  2  M  F F F M M  F F M  INJENIKA  191 192 193 201 202 203  21 30 2 23 28 3  2 2 2 2 2 2  D. NE COSLIE 291 293  30 7  1 1  SEX • ODE AGE ISO RE LAT SER NUM ION VE 294 301 302 311 312  313 321 322 323 331 341 342 351 352 353 361 371 373 374 381 382 383 391 393 401 403 411 421 423 424 431 441 442  8 21 26 25 37 2 21 36 4 61 44 44 27 36 8 51 24 2 4 39 38 5 27 6 54 20 52 37 74 9 26 42 46  1 1 1 1 1 1  1  1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1  1  1 1  4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4  M F M F M F F M F F F M F M F F F F F F  M M  F M F F F F F F F F M  CALO Ries  PROT EIN  CALCIUM  IRON  VITAMIN A  VITAMIN E  279.5 225.3 382.0 95.6 289.5 86.2 148.3  4416 1823 2750 1828 3667 1687 1289 1315 1870 1163 1887 3417 1666 3639 2130 1751 2734 1475 193 7 1316 3781 2888 1159 1601 1955 1179 1803 233 7 1096 2799 2545 1914 2867  144 65 95 69 148 65 44 71 54 69 85 161 72 113 74 91 123 62 70 74 158 164 51 56 96 37 70 69 72 110 90 58 107  1364 625 577 581 562 13 54 408 366 220 867 680 755 922 800 1518 450 1572 1003 889 108 780 918 719 964 470 210 518 586 150 1311 1256 237 726  24.4 10.3 16.4 14.0 25. 5 5.9 9.2 15.6 10. 2 6. 1 12. 7 25.8 7.4 17.9 23.7 17. 9 15.0 8.2 11.0 18.2 36. 7 35.3 8.5 6. 6 13.5 7.0 9.4 14.7 17.4 18.0 14. 1 10.6 16.9  5520 2965 3055 10437 15562 4490 872 1496 1759 6323 5420 11345 2953 3305 2155 1512 11364 8635 6183 1120 6450 2513 2931 1650 10312 1179 2470 2373 993 2795 30 96 4988 7710  2426 2292 2601 1773 2498 2922 2263 1175 2447 4479 2129 1956 2055  102 94 72 95 154 141 129 55  727 472 1348 566 5 97 1270 1126 674 687 1423 208 1345 655  10.4 11.6 9.5 18.8 31.4 24.5 20.6 7. 0 14.1 27.3 12.0 9.2 12.2  4042 4460 523 5 2581 18050 4399 2037 1330 2610 4010 6370 3461 2487  •125.1  335.0 70.4 158.5 334.4 218.7 617.3 184.1 120.5 195.4 57.9 107.0 114.8 182.3 110.9 56.2 48.2 303.9 200.1 97.3 191.4 59.0 275.0 447.3 144.5 262.4  E. NANAIMO 451 452 453 461 462 463 464 471 481 482 483 491 493  28 31 3 33 38 10 8 46 25 24 24 46 25  1  1 1  1  1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  F  M  M F M M M F F M :F F F  61  129 60 91 91  359.6 463.5 241.1 336.4 369.2 559.8 211.8 98.6 199.9 431.8 199.7 292.1 274.7  196 CODE  A G E ISO  NUM  501 502 503 504 511 512 513 514 521 522 5 23 531 533 541 551 552 553 561 562 563 571 573 581 582 583 5 84 591 592 593 601 602 611 613 614 615 621 622 631 641 643 651 6 52 F.  RE  LAT  SER  I ON  VE  40 1 42 1 18 1 13 1 42 1 44 ' 1 3 1 5 1 60 1 64 1 17 1 84 1 46 1 61 1 48 1 50 1 24 1 38 1 40 1 17 1 57 1 85 1 29 1 29 1 25 1 24 1 56 1 63 1 29 1 27 1 24 1 26 1 24 1 4 1 2 1 41 1 41 1 28 1 27 1 6 1 23 1 23 1  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  SEX  F M F F F M F F F M F F M  F F M M F M  M F F F M F M F M  M F M F F F M  F M  F F M F M  CALO  PROT  RIES  6 IN  CALCIUM  IRON  VITAMIN  VITAMIN  A  E  1618 1495 1918 2354 1470 3941 2505 1962 172 8 1975 1767 1406 4302 1459 1961 3861 1548 1845 2586 3051 1113 1044 1520 388 5 2296 2615 1438 3490 3 047 1613 3466 1936 1216 1462 2493 1895 4120 1420 1653 27 13 1105 3269  41 39 57 57 43 142 84 81 55 88 80 33 187 71 60 122 51 88 148 130 58 57 43 190 121 124 63 109 150 66 116 62 45 56 96 86 120 72 64 89 47 103  501 284 704 855 205 849 1603 1603 6 54 1034 1508 511 2080 603 780 712 491 206 608 496 439 387 490 2128 879 742 396 703 1374 759 1674 488 32 5 659 551 51.1 547 297 521 1644 2 34 734  4. 7 5.7 9. 3 9.7 9.4 26. 5 13.0 10.9 6.4 5.6 6. 8 5.2 19.0 9.4 8.7 20.6 7. 0 14.4 19. 9 17.5 11.8 6.2 3.9 15.9 17. 1 19.2 8.0 13. 0 17.6 23. 2 13.9 12.4 8.6 7.9 14. 0 12. 9 20.9 13.3 8.5 14.2 8.0 17.7  1805 1450 4650 3179 2078 12869 274 5 2040 2008 1410 1748 7665 9750 7025 3711 5561 1980 2135 3633 2939 2210 2055 1314 4470 3804 5433 4816 5046 8377 5716 6337 8505 5742 323 2 6321 8110 12944 3485 1514 6804 7858 6660  216.1 101.3 258.0 272.4 240.6 668.0 151.2 117.7 518.4 593.8 325.9 46.3 268.4 232.3 433.4 880.2 387.2 224.8 345.7 438.8 78.9 132.6 3 56.5 530 . 0 314.6 421.6 115.8 527.9 375.3 173.2 189.9 543.9 330.2 223.9 736.9 251.1 686.7 111.7 269.2 266.2 125,9 437.6  1633 2234 2443 1346  85 104 93 49  719 872 808 763  16.9 21.9 24. 2 8.2  2220 2820 11971 172 0  197.1 273.4 302.0 159.1  NAZKO  661 662 671 673  36 41 26 4  2 2 2 2  6 6 6 6  F M  F F  197 CODE  AGE  RE  LAT ION  SER VE  12 20 2  2 2 2  6 6 6  F F  2 9  2 2 2 2  6 6  NUM  674 681 683 691 693 701 703  11 44 8 51 17 13  711 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 723 724 731  G.  CALO RIES  654 388 660 1200 2 54 806 447 324 429  11.2 19.3 8.3 12.8 11.0 14.7 10.5 10.5 13.4  9462 3890 2958 3168 440 8 2630 2120 1472 1290  107.9 137.8 166.4 227.4 39.5 248.7 44-3 115.7 150.9  77 78 72 41 43 76 78  824 667 478 720 380  11.8 13.9 17.7 5.5 7.3 8.8  2539 600 2155 1490 730 3445  139.8 295.0 423.1 79.6 343.5 290.6  11.1  5551  467.0  15. 4 40.3 32.8 27.8 14.1 17.3  2317 1890 3661 2591 4142 4172  268.8 289.3 100.2 85.2 223.2 158.7  663 367 670 314 706 324  11.2 12.1 11.5 31.4 31.6 19.7 13.6 15.0 20.9 18.3 15. 0 17.4 17.2  3302 1630 1839 2329 2663 6410 8630 3030 3624 3340 311 2170 2260  86.3 160.3 79.9 174.1 240.7 333.0 169.6 205.4 109.0 261.4 132.9 335.2 206.0  1679 2359  65 89  F  1410 2769 1046 2627 1658 1621 1592  63 98 65 83 67 63 60  2483 2067 2640 1800 1850 1945 2557  11 11 16 14  2 2  6 6  2 2 2 2  6 6 6 6  M F  2  6  M  F M M F F  1777 2305 2412  71 101 77  429 553 1035  1702 1809  64 62 76 60 70  896 672 635  F F M  M M M  622 557  •  BABINE  32 3 5 10 8 59 20  2 2 2  7 7 7  2 2 2  7 7 7  F  1924  10 71  7 7  F F  1641 1236  763 764  27 20  2 2 2  7 7  765 766 771 773  22 28 42 14  M M M M  781 783 784  17 9 14  2 2 2 2  791 801  35 40  2 2  803  2 9  TAKLA  811 813 821  273.5 339.2 110.2  F F  M M  E  400 6910 3467  M  F  VITAMIN  A  11.0 19.4 10.7  2 2  2 2 2  VITAMIN  464 814 602  52 120 53  F  IRON  E IN  1234 2332 1443  741 742 743 744 751 753 754 761  H.  CALCIUM  11 14  LAKE  804  PROT  6 6 6 6 6 6 6  11 33 7  733  ,EX  ISO  45 20 33  2 2  7  2 2  7 7 7 7 7 7 7  F F F F F  1616 2888 2911 3097 1464 2098 2143 2406 1025 2090 1612  75 147 146 98 64 68 86 71 79 83 74  550 367 669 507 1041 851 397  7  F F  2  7  F  2  7  M  1647 2289  111  873 3 54  12.6 26.7  2620 1610  180.9 286.4  8 8 8  F F F  1673 1618 1234  57 67 49  198 264 440  13.8 16.7 9.9  153 0 162 0 6195  237-7 231.5 59.0  65  LAKE 2 2 2  198 ODE AGE ISO RE SEX LAT SER NUM ION VE  CALO RIES  F F F F F F F F M F F F M F F F F F M F F F F F F F M  1615 1839 1667 1215 1103 2493 1377 2027 2009 772 1321 2194 2311 1820 2627 2287 1488 1439 1697 1092 1827 2136 1983 2358 2579 1990 2457  2 2 12 56 2 15 2 27 2 7 2 35 2 2 11 14 2 36 2 9 2 46 2 60 2 6 2 23 2 3 2 28 2 50 2 52 2 28 2 35 2 911 913 12 2 921 26 2 931 20 2 933 13 2 934 53 2 93 5 10 2  323 824 831 833 841 843 851 853 854 861 863 871 872 873 831 883 884 891 892 901  6  8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8  PROT E IN  48 78 86 71 36 78 85 65 70 52 62 86 120 63 84 82 88 63 81 58 118 119 74 87 105 93 68  CALCIUM  IRON  VITAMIN A  722 614 555 242 240 780 318 803 419 168 258 628 689 709 860 735 467 307 362 101 6 87 869 451 714 473 394 550  10. 8 14.3  5090 2611 9825 1840 5730 9715 1898 2818 3270 1040 173 2 2662 246 0 2830 8310 5833 2100 5607 9100 135 1694 2480 2140 3014 2110 2800 346  19.2  16. 0 4. 9 11.2 19. 2 14. 1 18.1  12. 1 16.3 19. 2 27.6 13.0 15.6 16.6 19.3 14.0 18.4 14.5 22.0 20.3 13.3 14.6 20. 5 15.6 13.6  VITAMIN E  72.0 95.1 37.6 50.2 114.2 181.9 143.6 176.2 169.6 52.2 43.2 79.8 81.4 49.0 255.8 246.5 147.2 116.7 89.6 74.1 171.7 227.3 47.7 127.4 98.1 73.6 68.6  199 CODE AGE ISO RES NUM LAT ER ION VE  SEX  THIA RIBO MINE F L A V I N {MGJ (MG)  NIACIN  (MG)  ASCOR BIC AC 19  TOTAL FAT  CARBO HYD RATE  A. S E C H E L T  11 13 14 15 21 22 23 31 33 34 41 43 44 51 53 54 61 62 63 64 71 72 81 82 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 103 104 10 5 106 111 112 1 1 3  114 121 123 124 1 3 1  133 134 135  41 1 2  14 15 42 52 15 66 16 28 27 4 5 26 7 6 25 29 6 5 22 25 55 19 44 48 10 5 13 15 16 21 16 18 12 13 45 44 18 8 19 2 1 34 11 12 5  1  1 1  1 1 1 1 1  1  1 1  1 1 1  1 1  1  1  1 1  1  1  1 1  1  1  1  1 1  1  1 1 1 1 1  1 1  1  1  1 1  1 1 1  1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1  1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1  1 1 1  1 1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 1  1 1 1 1 1  1  1  1 1 1  1 1  1 1 1 1  F F  M M F M M F M M F M F F F  M F M F M F M F F F  M M F M  M F F F F M M F M  M  M F M F F M M F  0.50 1.05 1.67  1.44 0.55 0.75 1.86 0.83 1 . 50 1.56 1.24 1.05 0.61 0.61 0.48 0. 63 0.87 1.60 1.29 0.97 0.62 1-69  0.55 0.38 1.10 1.32  1.35 0.68 1.44 1.47 1.48 0.69 1.02 1.54 0.47 1.00 0.86 2.14 2. 18 1. 57 0.71 0.85 0.5 7 0.53 0.99 1.63  0.70  1.12  1.53  2.44 3.03 0.95 1 . 12 1.68 1.45 2.53 1.98  2.00 2.50 2.02 0.61 0.60 0.67 0.47 1.45 0.82 0.68 1.27 1 . 48 1.03 0.65 0.72 0.89 1.09 0.65 1.55 0.92 1.13 0,64 2.39 1.11 0, 52 1.20 1.46  3.00 3.11 2.60 1.70 1.09  1.97 0.74 2.45 1.68 1.97  18.4 11.3 19.5 25-2 11.9 16.8 15.4 11.1 17.1 27.2 21.6 16.8 9.8 14.8 4.8 1 1 . 7  12.6 33.8 1 1 . 9  8.2 11.9 20.6 20.1 15.3 15. 0 17.5 12.7 6.2 13.0 19.0 17.0 8.6 12.5 14.8 7.1 10.9 10.9 27.6 23.0 14,4 35.9 10.3 1.5 16.4 15.4 27.9 12.7  7 67 190 41 61 83 328 60 73 246 9 24 5 34 2 72 139 157 316 258 45 40 92 8 255 323 422 214 312 340 232 174 52 24 0 11 62 116 183 122 24 152 14 92 123 136 52  42 60 72 87 46 61 57 58 103 117 70 89 66 76 57 69 31 105 37 21 52 95 100 95 43 43 29 23 75 66 78 29 93 79 31 69 62 154 105 83 59 73 33 55 107 132 64  158 174 279 377 81 90 242 174 178 248 170 193 106 135 202 245 113 244 243 183 190 324 215 153 231 210 301 159 190 248 218 80 368 274 101 362 188 569 599 358 127 2 28 104 134 354 276 205  200  CODE AGE ISO RES SEX LAT ER NUM ION VE 18 20 35 22 21 0  141 142 151 161 162 163  1 1 1 1 1 1  THIA RI BO NIACIN (MG) MINE FLAVIN (MG) IMG)  ASCOR BIG ACID  TOTAL CARBO FAT HYD RATE  1 1 1 1 1 1  F M F F M F  1-51 1-92 1-80 0.79 3.31 0-35  3.26 2.50 1.70 1.32 2.72 1.55  16.8 3 7.7 18.2 12.5 33. 2 1.9  40 146 565 58 911 8  59 117 50 67 161 36  225 263 275 158 535 48  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  F M F F M F F F F F F F F F F M F F F M F F M F F  1.40 1.43 1.43 0.75 1.66 0.94 0.51 0.78 0.85 1.11 1.23 0.73 1.00 1.73 1.00 1.87 0. 44 0.84 1.56 1.07 1.62 1-57 0.80 1.54 0.77 0.87  3.08 3.05 2.47 0.98 2.16 2.10 1.35 1.05 1.39 1.98 2.28 0.55 0.75 1.77 1.87 2.20 0.66 1.21 2.88 1.79 2.40 2.58 1.16 1. 17 1.06 0.92  3 8.5 3 9.7 3.1.5 15.2 24.7 10.9 3.0 14.1 10.9 12.1 17.5 7.2 9.8 21.8 5.7 17.9 5.1 5.4 28.9 10.9 16.3 24.1 9.8 24.0 7.6 14.1  1 1 5 60 80 47 27 1 70 112 34 24 26 214 26 381 56 47 3 4 5 30 2 6 1 33  28 28 87 11 96 20 5 35 39 71 48 37 50 64 46 83 45 55 80 82 126 126 43 73 33 69  17 17 198 69 142 106 89 114 107 186 158 139 260 209 158 278 78 150 224 278 453 424 194 210 189 2 83  3 3 3 3 3 3  F M F F M F  1.23 1.37 0.78 1.93 1.89 0.98  1.88 1.68 1. 11 1.61 1. 74 0.78  2.1.1 24.2 7.8 15.1 14.8 8.6  49 75 111 158 152 232  56 43 33 87 95 40  203 234 148 224 262 154  4 4  F F  2.20 3.07  1.41 1.94  17.8 17.6  285 521  70 104  238 384  >. FORT WARE 171 172 173 181 182 183 184 211 213 214 2 15 221 223 231 233 234 241 251 261 263 264 265 271 272 273 281  61 69 18 33 48 7 4 86 3 5 21 32 8 22 1 2  31 50  31  8 10 14 22 25 5  33  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  M  INJENIKA 191 192 193 201 202 203  D.  21 30 2 23 28  3  2 2 2 2 2 2  NECOSLIE  291 293  30 7  1 1  201 CODE AGE ISO RES SEX LAT ER NUM I ON VE 294 301 302 311 312 313 321 322 323 331 341 342 351 352 3 53 361 3 71 373 3 74 381 382 383 391 393 401 403 411 421 423 4 24 431 441 442  8 1 21 1 26 1 25 1 37 1 2 1 21 1 36 1 4 1 61 1 44 1 44 1 27 1 36 1 8 1 51 1 24 1 2 1 4 1 39 1 38 1 5 1 27 1 6 1 54 1 20 1 52 1 37 . 1 74 1 9 1 26 1 42 1 46 1  THIA RIBO NIACIN {MG.) MINE FLAVIN {MG) (MG)  ASCOR BIC ACID  3.11  1.94 1.79 1.43 3.15 3.75 3.94 3.47 2.40 0.60 1.31 1.60 1.64 2.65 2.03 0.82 1.90  30.9 13.2 24.9 16.5 34.8 8.2 16.6 22.1 18.9 19.1 25.5 38.6 15.9 40.1 15.1 30.2 34.9 11.8 18.2 26.6 42.6 45.4 17.0 14.8 24.2 11.2 19.0 17.1 21.9 22.8 24.9 17.1 28.1  504 9 19 34 73 134 5 6 82 58 56 114 67 125 277 160 324 166 158 11 46 43 25 12 29 42 48 25 20 94 84 56 176  1.47 1.81 1.68 2.46 5.07 4.51 4.12 1.35 0.94 1.83 0.76 2.23 1.30  34.0 26.8 11.5 22.1 35.6 30.1 31.2 11.4 8.3 28.9 25.5 19.3 23.4  244 213 2 86 167 36 239 188 60 7 21 246 46 190  4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4  M F M F M F F M F F F M F M F F F F F F M M F M F F F F F F F F M  5.09 0. 73 1. 56 1-71 3.89 1.20 0.85 1.2 7 0.98 0.64 1.24 2.31 0.84 1.48 1.49 1.42 2.00 1.03 1.27 1.06 2.71 2. 20 1.92 1.90 1.56 0.60 0.94 1.40 0.93 2.20 1.39 0.66 1.99  2.88 1.26 1.5 8 1.38 2.07 2.24 1.38 2.02 0.86 1.40 1.61 2.72 1.69 1.67 2* 25 1.89  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  F M M F M M M F F M F F F  1.46 1.80 1.04 1.63 2.13 2.20 T.72 0.98 0.74 1.77 1.22 1.10 1.02  TOTAL CARBO FAT HYD RATE 173 96 132 85 199 84 33 41 77 50 77 171 60 175 58 50 80 47 61 28 135 95 29 52 89 56 76 77 26 103 97 69 105  578 180 306 201 339 174 207 158 244 109 218 315 215 432 346 238 3 87 2 02 283 195 505 340 178 215 196 132 216 341 143 360 337 137 2 85  E. NANAIMO 451 452 453 461 462 463 464 471 481 482 483 491 493  28 1 31 1 3 1 33 1 38 1 10 1 8 1 46 1 25 1 24 1 24 1 46 1 25 1  99 10 9 107 64 90 114 71 50 77 168 58 99 95  291 251 343 207 272 343 293 132 374 5 89 352 183 163  202 CODE AGE ISO RES LAT ER ION VE  NUM  501 502 503 504 511 512 513 514 521 522 523 531 533 541 551 552 5 53 561 562 563 571 573 581 582 5 83 584 591 592 593 601 602 611 613 614 615 621 622 631 641 643 651 652 F.  40 42 18 13 42 44 3 5 60 64 17 84 46 61 48 50 24 38 40 17 57 85 29 29 25 24 56 63 29 27 24 26 24 4 2 41 41 28 27 6 23 23  SEX  THIA RIBO NIACIN MINE F L A V I N (MG) (MG) (MG)  21.0  172 163 2 62 329 116 402 336 261 227 233 247 254 404 184 214 405 159 145 185 340 136 107 191 486 243 266 106 340 2 86 192 378 217 160 186 240 204 519 204 216 378 103 415  21.0 26.5 27.2 8.9  26 42 8 4  46 62 99 50  203 288 306 177  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0.71 0.79 1.53 1.86 1.39 3.22 1.83 1.67 0.68 0.57 1.11 0.60 1.93 0.94 0.74 1.8.1 0.56 1.08 1.32 1.65 1.01 0.94 0.43 1.81 2.81 2.43 1.39 1.85 3.06 1.01 1.54 1.10 0.76 0.83 1.28 1.00 1.77 0.92 0.73 1.96 0.65  1.14 0.92 1.15 1.17 0.86 2.57 2.87 2.55 0.96 1.30 2.10 0.81 3.29 1.12 1.41 1.75 0.84 1.00 2.02 1.54 1.24 1.16 0.5 7 2.59 3.17 2.10 1.19 1. 78 2.76 1.56 2.42 1.09 0.62 1.11 1.00 1.38 1.71 1.02 0.82 3.23 0.70  22.7 20.6 17.4 14.5 10.8 32.5 11.2 10.6 20.8 34.2 18.1 8.8 45.3 25.1 14.2 27.1 12.4 26.9 35.1 37.1 21.2 16.1 17.1 72.9 32.7 29.2 16.6 39.7 38.8 16.4 21.5 17.2 11.9 13.7 42.5 23.7 35.3 23.8 16.5 17.4 11.1  1.82  1.46  2 2 2 2  6 6 6 6  F M F F  1.28 1.61 1.63 1.12  2.18 2.60 2.99 1.63  1 1  1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1  I  1  1 1 1 1 1 1  CARBO HYD RATE  49 40 78 95 94 206 87 73 71 77 53 37 219 49 97 204 79 100 141 134 37 43 64 130 96 118 66 156 150 72 168 99 51 62 143 85 180 26 67 100 58 138  F M F F F M F F F M F F M F F M M F M M F F F M F M F M M F M F F F M F M F F M F M  1  TOTAL FAT  96 161 449 401 13 285 92 155 43 64 151 37 91 168 47 70 48 206 35 197 100 49 27 230 249 128 48 53 270 72 120 127 38 97 64 48 118 120 32 255 176 98  5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5  1 1 1 1  ASCOR BIC ACID  NAZKO  661 662 671 673  36 41 26 4  203 CODE AGE ISO RES SEX LAT ER NUM ION VE 6 74 681 683 691 693 701 703 711 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 723 724 731 733  12 20 2 29 11 44 8 51 17 13 11 14 11 11 16 14 11 33 7  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  THIA RIBO NIACIN MINE FLAVIN (MG) {MG) IMG)  ASCOR BIC ACID  TOTAL CAR BO FAT HYD RATE  F F M F F F F F M M F F M M M M M F M  1.50 1.46 0.95 0.89 1.66 0.67 1.33 0.84 1.31 0.91 1.05 1.21 0.87 1.39 1.46 0.60 0.86 0.76 1.16  1.49 2.19 1.30 1.36 1.91 1.12 1.88 1.75 2.60 1.88 1.64 1.28 1.19 1.58 1.57 0.77 0.81 1.39 1.25  11.9 28.9 11.7 18.6 22.6 16.3 26.7 18.0 18.9 15.6 18.4 18.2 15.6 25.1 22.0 7.1 9.3 16.2 22.0  2 33 143 37 213 30 162 154 262 44 64 6 7 12 15 7 7 37 41  22 110 44 62 104 58 94 30 93 58 57 44 101 74 84 68 62 95 110  212 221 215 215 274 162 378 127 354 218 210 244 303 284 400 260 280 203 326  1.2 7 1.43 1.94 1.29 1.30 1.15 0. 83 0.93 1.47 2.08 2.45 2.74  1.56 2.16 1.99 1.65 2.33 2.20  22.7 31.1  7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7  F M M F F F F F M M M M F F F F F F F F M  1.40 1.81 1.43 1.09 1.36 1.20 1.03 2.02  1.43 1.27 3.06 3.86 1.80 1.42 1.67 2.45 1.96 1.43 2.12 1.71 1.95 2.14  15.6 2 0.3 21.5 14.9 20.9 15.7 44.4 41.0 24.0 17.6 17.5 24.9 19.5 27.9 23.3 21.5 14.5 37.7  172 61 471 219 36 40 28 45 14 67 150 751 21 33 192 132 40 12 21 84 41  63 77 56 54 56 54 49 40 74 99 73 84 53 66 53 76 24 75 49 60 63  240 294 421 256 259 265 246 146 167 353 430 492 185 306 333 353 120 274 219 206 316  8 8 8  F F F  0.97 0.95 0.79  1.21 1.40 1.23  19.3 19.7 16.4  40 0 16  51 53 42  249 213 170  6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6  G. LAKE BABINE 741 742 743 744 751 753 754 761 763 764 765 766 771 773 781 783 784 791 801 803 804  32 35 10 8 59 20 10 71 27 20 22 28 42 14 17 9 14 35 40 2 9  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  7 7 7 7 7 7  1.01  1.67  21.3  H. TAKLA LAKE 811 813 821  45 20 33  2 2 2  204  CODE AGE ISO RES SEX LAT ER NUM ION VE 823 824 831 833 841 8 43 851 853 854 861 863 871 872 873 881 883 884 891 892 901 911 913 921 931 933 934 935  6 12 56 15 27 7 35 11 14 36 9 46 60 6 23 3 28 50 52 28 35 12 26 20 13 53 10  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8  8  F F F F F F F F M F F F M F F F F F M F F F F F F F M  THIA RI80 NIACIN MINE FLAVIN IMG) (MG) (MG) 0.91 1.28 I. 21 1.24 0.58 1.32 1.24 1.00 1.06 0.79 0.87 1.13 1.44 0.86 1.24 1.31 1.21 0.84 0.99 0.82 1.57 1.64 1.09 0.97 1. 26 1.09 1.23  1.35 1.74 1.94 1.54 0.63 1.64 1.92 1.70 1.42 1.17 1.26 1.92 2.63 1.47 2.20 2.32 2.08 0.95 1.19 1.13 2.26 2.16 1. 52 1.84 1.94 1.60 1.14  11.9 18.4 23.1 20.1 11.1 12.3 27.0 15.2 19.1 15.2 19.2 25.9 35.0 16.5 24.0 18.6 23.2 18.1 23.8 19.6 34.1 34.0 19.8 18.7 24.2 21.1 17.0  ASCOR BIC ACID 125 14 31 108 27 233 22 28 24 9 18 29 8 12 10 88 2 119 146 0 152 165 2 3 1 1 2  TOTAL FAT  53 86 54 39 39 84 41 67 61 25 39 85 81 67 90 87 49 43 58 30 53 63 87 104 86 95 44  CARBO HYD RATE 229 195 202 146 160 351 164 285 2 83 82 170 264 262 235 3 83 302 172 197 211 144 217 2 72 235 260 347 195 449  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094485/manifest

Comment

Related Items