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Design factors influencing pedestrian movement patterns in enclosed shopping malls Elgalali, Ossama Ahmed 1978

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DESIGN FACTORS INFLUENCING PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT PATTERNS i n ENCLOSED SHOPPING MALLS by OSSAMA AHMED ELGALALI B. Arch., Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Architecture) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1978 (c) Ossama Ahmed E l g a l a l i In presenting th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th i s thesis f o r f i n anc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of ________________________ The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n couver, Canada V6T 1WS A r c h i t e c t u r e - i i -ABSTRACT This empirical study i s based on a broad premise of r e l a t i o n -ship between human behavior pattern and the elements of the environment. Despite developments i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l psychology and i n studies of human s p a t i a l behavior there i s s t i l l a lack of data and information on factors of design which most influence the users i n enclosed shopping malls. The study took the form of an empirical i n v e s t i g a t i o n of pedestrian movement pattern i n three enclosed shopping malls i n downtown Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, namely, Harbour, Royal and P a c i f i c Centre Malls. The objective of the study was to record and compare the human behavior pattern i n the three study areas and to make a c o r r e l a t i o n a l analysis between t h i s behavior pattern and the elements of the environment such as the f l o o r materials, the s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of storefronts, the mall layouts and store locations i n order to test whether or not any such c o r r e l a t i o n of s u f f i c i e n t relevance e x i s t s . The method, employed i s t h i s study, for data gathering on pedestrian movement behavior i s c a l l e d "tracking". By tracking a sample of t y p i c a l users of the three enclosed shopping malls i t has been possible to obtain a composite pattern of pedestrian movement i n terms of channel of movement, stopping and entering stores, v e l o c i t y and head movement. The hypotheses regarding the factors that influence pedestrian movement were supported by the c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . - i i i -The summary of findings were that: 1. The softer the f l o o r covering material i n the mall, the slower the pedestrians walk. 2. The greater the storefront length, the more l i k e l y that the pedestrians stop and enter, but the less time they spend at the storefront. 3. The greater the number of angles of storefront a r t i c u l a t i o n , the more l i k e l y that the pedestrians stop, spend more time at the storefront and enter the store. 4. Seats at the storefront whether occupied or not do not have any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the frequency of stopping, duration of stopping and frequency of entering. 5. The greater the t o t a l number of angles of storefront a r t i c u l a t i o n per foot, the more l i k e l y that the pedestrians deccelerate, stop, spend more time at the storefront and enter the store. 6. The greater the number of changes i n route d i r e c t i o n , the more l i k e l y that the pedestrians deccelerate. 7. Stores at corner l o c a t i o n do not have any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the frequency of stopping and entering. 8. The closer the store i s located to the mall entrance the more l i k e l y that the pedestrians stop and enter. 9. Pedestrians prefer walking on soft surfaces rather than hard surfaces. - i v -1 0 . There i s a preference of movement i n the ma l l for the channels which do not provide any v i s u a l breaks. 1 1 . Pedestr ian movement grav i ta te s towards the c e n t r a l area of the m a l l . i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the Problem 1 Objective of the Study 5 Scope and Limitations 6 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 7 Hypotheses- 9 II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 14 Studies on Human S p a t i a l Behavior 14 Pedestrian Movement Behavior 17 III STUDY AREAS 24 IV METHODOLOGY 33 N a t u r a l i s t i c Research Methods 33 Procedure 34 The Tracking Method 34 The Tracking Map 3 5 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of O r i g i n Point 39 Selection of Subjects f o r Tracking ^0 - v i -Preliminary Tracking 40 F i n a l Tracking . . . . 41 Factors not Tested i n the Study . .42 Analysis of Storefronts -.42 V PROCESSING DATA FOR ANALYSIS .52 Scoring Data. .53 I l l u s t r a t i o n 56 Preparing Data Cards f o r the Computer Analysis . . . . 58 Data Analysis. 59 VI RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 60 Demographic and Behavioral Results 60 Results of C o r r e l a t i o n Analysis 64 Tracking Maps of Locational Movement Pattern 67 VII CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 73 Achievement of Objectives 73 Summary of Findings 74 Design C r i t e r i a : Implications of the Study 75 Recommendations f o r Future Studies . . 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY 81 APPENDIX 85 - v i i -LIST OF TABLES Table Page I Summary of S p e c i f i c Hypotheses for Relationships of Design Variables with Behavioral Measures 13 II Comparative Analysis of Study Areas 26 III Harbour Centre M a l l . An Inventory of S p a t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Various Storefronts 47 IV Royal Centre M a l l . An Inventory of S p a t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Various Storefronts 48 V P a c i f i c Centre M a l l . An Inventory of S p a t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Various Storefronts 49 VI Demographic and Behavioral Results 61 VII Relationships Between Design Variables and Behavioral Consequences 65 - v i i i -LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 A General Model of the Designing Process 4 2 The Hypothesized Relationships Between the A r c h i t e c t u r a l Elements of the Mall Environment and the Users' Movement Pattern Behavior 10 3 Related Studies H 4 Review of L i t e r a t u r e . .15 5 Review of Measurement Techniques Used i n Environmental Design Applications: Unobtrusive Methods 16 6 Locations of Study Areas Within Vancouver Downtown . . . .25 7 Harbour Centre M a l l . Floor Plan (Hastings level). . . .27 8 Royal Centre M a l l . Floor Plan ( R e t a i l l e v e l ) 2 8 9 P a c i f i c Centre M a l l . Floor Plan (Dunsmuir le v e l ) . . . . 29 10 E x t e r i o r View of the Harbour, Royal and P a c i f i c Centre Malls 3 0 11 I n t e r i o r View of the Harbour, Royal and P a c i f i c Centre Malls 3 1 12 Harbour Centre M a l l . T y p i c a l Tracking Map 36 13 Royal Centre M a l l . T y p i c a l Tracking Map 3 ^ 14 P a c i f i c Centre M a l l . T y p i c a l Tracking Map 3 8 15 Harbour Centre M a l l . V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n of D i f f e r e n t Storefront Design 44 16 Royal Centre M a l l . V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n of D i f f e r e n t Storefront Design 45 17 P a c i f i c Centre M a l l . V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n of D i f f e r e n t Storefront Design 46 18 Royal Centre M a l l . Map Showing a T y p i c a l Example of Tracking 57 - i x -19 Movement Pattern within P a c i f i c Centre Mall 68 20 Movement Pattern within Harbour Centre Mall. 69 21 Movement Pattern within Royal Centre Mall 70 22 P a c i f i c Centre M a l l , S t a i r s and Escalators Provide a V i s u a l Break to the Users 72 23 V i s u a l Relation to the Outside World 78 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S I wish to express my sincere thanks to professor John A. Gaitanakis and Dr. John B. C o l l i n s , my thesis advisors, for t h e i r stimulating guidance and encouragement throughout the entire study. I also wish to express my sincere appreciation to a l l those who aided i n the course of t h i s research. Professor Wolfgang Gerson and Professor Bruno B. Fr e s c h i for t h e i r h e l p f u l comments and c r i t i c i s m . Thanks are also due to graduate student Vinay Kanetkar for his assistance i n data a n a l y s i s , S y l v i a Chan for typing and Natalie H a l l of the Architecture Reading Room for her help with the l i t e r a t u r e search. And f i n a l l y , I wish to thank my wife Samia for her assistance and encouragement. - 1 -CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem The concept of creating downtown enclosed shopping malls has un-questionably been sweeping across the world. In North American t h e i r p r a c t i c e has been f i r m l y established for w e l l over a decade. Other countries including Belgium, France, Western Germany, Sweden, A u s t r a l i a , Japan and South A f r i c a have followed the trend. Although the idea of the enclosed "megastructures" for shopping had already been r e a l i z e d i n ancient o r i e n t a l bazaars and i n the G a l l e r i a of Milan, i t was only i n recent years that enclosed shopping malls have been developed i n Canada. Nowadays, enclosed shopping malls are being b u i l t i n great numbers and contribute an important element i n the form of our c i t i e s . Research i n the U.S. indicates that shoppers spend twice as much time v i s i t i n g enclosed shopping malls as they do i n open centres (Darlow, 1972). Enclosed shopping malls influence our everyday experience of l i v i n g i n c i t i e s . However, there i s s t i l l a lack of data and information on factors of design which most influence the users; s p e c i f i c a l l y , how people behave i n such environments and how they react to those elements that constitute those environments. Therefore, we need to evaluate these b u i l d i n g forms to see how well they work i n order to help the a r c h i t e c t s , designers, and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s understand more about them. - 2 -Proshansky (1970) comments upon the p o t e n t i a l contribution of environmental psychology to the design profession as follows: The fundamental s i g n i f i c a n c e of environmental psychology for the design profession has i t s p o t e n t i a l capacity to provide a body of knowledge conceptual and empirical for understanding the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between human behavior and experience and the b u i l t environment (Lange, et a l . , pp. 74, 77). Given such a body of knowledge, a r c h i t e c t s and designers w i l l have some reasonable basis for t h e i r design decisions. The purpose of systematic evaluation i s to determine on the basis of the user's reaction whether or not a design has met i t s purpose s a t i s f a c t o r i l y or solved the user's needs over period of time. I t provides a feedback and feedforward mechanism. I t increases our knowledge of environmental problems and t h e i r solutions. Evaluation studies compare intended use and function with the actual use of a f a c i l i t y , the l e v e l of the user's comfort and adaptation, the f r u s t r a t i o n of the user's desired a c t i v i t i e s and the c l a r i t y of the intended environmental image. The importance of design evaluation i s also emphasized by Henry Sanoff who states: In arc h i t e c t u r e today, evaluation i s the missing l i n k i n the design process. Evaluation, programming and designing are the linked a c t i v i t i e s drawing information from a systematic look at how people use e x i s t i n g environment. Analysing e x i s t i n g environments leads to programming. I t i s time, therefore that a r c h i t e c t conducts h i s own survey into how people use t h e i r environment, what they l i k e and d i s l i k e about i t and what kind of environment they would prefer (Sanoff, 1968, p.3). - 3 -The important place and function of evaluation i n the general model of the design process i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 1 . It has been suggested by many previous authors that the evaluation constitutes the f i n a l phase of the process of designing and should be a standard part of the archtect's a c t i v i t i e s . If evaluation studies are to be worthwhile, they must produce information that a r c h i t e c t s can use to improve t h e i r future work. They must also contribute to a r c h i t e c t u r a l design theories. An e f f e c t i v e strategy to b u i l d up knowledge of human needs and preferences to support them i s to empirically examine the interplay between e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l systems and the behavioral response of people through observational methods. On t h i s point the following authors have t h i s to say: It i s curious that most of the concern with functionalism has been focused upon forms rather than function design professionals, c i t y planners, landscape designers, a r c h i t e c t s would gain by adopting a functionalism based on user behavior (Sommer, 1969) . I b e l i e v e that the most relevant information w i l l be discovered by evaluating e x i s t i n g projects rather than asking people what they want. Ce r t a i n l y i t i s important to t a l k with p o t e n t i a l users about a prospective park; i t i s also necessary to look at e x i s t i n g parks which are s i m i l a r (Sommer, 1972). A"GENERAL MODEL OF THE DESIGNING PROCESS INTELLIGENCE DESIGN CHOICE IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION Development of Architectural! Program Sketching of A l t e r n a t i v e Solutions Selection of Best A l t e r n a t i v e Correction of Faults i n Design Working Drawings Spec i f i c a t i o n s , - Contracting, Construction Evaluation of Building i n use and Process of Design Used ± Theory Building f o r Future Designing Figure 1. Source: "A Model of the Designing Programme" by John Lang: Design For Human Behavior, pp.43. - 5 -The most commonly accepted unit for design purposes i s human need. Such a concept has relevance perhaps, what i t lacks i s empirical substance. That i s , we cannot observe need, but we can only i n f e r i t s existance through observation of i t s empirical counterpart, behavior Human behavior appears to be more correct unit of a n a l y s i s , i t has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , which are relevant, e m p i r i c a l l y , v e r i f i a b l e and operationally definable (Studer, 1969). One appealing approach to the a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge about behavior i n designed environments leads rather d i r e c t l y from observed patterns of behavior to design decisions. A well conducted e c o l o g i c a l analysis of an e x i s t i n g system should convey a v i v i d sense of the s p a t i a l configuration of i t s a c t i v i t y systems Once the designer discovers the s p a t i a l parameters of a c t i v i t y systems he simply designs around them (Craik, 1970). Objective of the Study The main objective of the study i s to compare the shopping behavior pattern between three d i f f e r e n t enclosed shopping malls i n downtown Vancouver by using the comparison study method. The three malls are Habour, Royal and P a c i f i c centres. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the objectives are: 1. To determine the pedestrian movement pattern i n the three enclosed shopping malls mentioned above. 2. To examine the e f f e c t of the f l o o r materials, the s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of storefronts, the mall layouts and store locations on the movement pattern i n the Harbour, Royal and P a c i f i c centre shopping malls. - 6 -Scope and Limitations The primary focus of the study is to record the human behavior pattern by tracking a sample of typical users of the three enclosed shopping malls and to make a correlational analysis between their behavior pattern and the elements of the environment; to test whether or not any correlation of sufficient relevance exists. Limitations of time and man-power restricted the scope of the study as follows: 1. The study has been conducted over an area consisting of only one floor in each shopping mall. 2. Interviewing is not included in the tracking program due to the fact that i t was found d i f f i c u l t , from the pilot study, to obtain enough relevant information by stopping people in the shopping malls. This might have l e f t the trip motivation or things people like or dislike unknown; but since the objectives of the study are primarily concerned with the behavioral aspects which could be recorded without the subject's active participation, i t is believed that the omission of interviewing did not affect the findings of this study. 3. The study does not include any marketing analysis for enclosed shopping malls. - 7 -4. Merchandising and leasing stores i n the study areas are not examined i n the study. 5 . The type of merchandise, the way the display i s exhibited and store reputation are not taken into account i n t h i s study. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Tracking - This i s the procedure involved i n following a pedestrian and recording the a c t i v i t i e s i n a pedestrian t r i p i n the enclosed shopping mall. T r i p - A t r i p i s considered to be the length of the journey of a pedestrian i n the study area, during which he or she has been tracked. This i s expressed by a l i n e drawn on the tracking map showing the actual path of the pedestrian from the point of t r i p o r i g i n to the point of t r i p destination, although the f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n may not be necessa r i l y within the study area f o r a pedestrian. T r i p O r i g i n - The point at which the pedestrian begins his or her t r i p s within the study area i s defined as the o r i g i n point. T r i p Destination - For the purpose of t h i s study, a t r i p i s considered to be terminated when the subject leaves the mall or goes beyond the study area. Entering a shop would mean the end of a t r i p . - 8 -Subject - For the convenience of the tracking procedure, the subject w i l l always be an i n d i v i d u a l no matter whether he or she i s walking alone or i n a group. Picking up an i n d i v i d u a l from a group can be done by using some a r b i t r a r y c r i t e r i a of time or whoever i s entering the mall f i r s t . M a ll - A public space of a shopping centre devoted to pedestrian movement. Variable - That aspect of the s i t u a t i o n under study which has a p o t e n t i a l for change or does change. Mean - The sum of the scores divided by the number of scores. C o r r e l a t i o n , C o e f f i c i e n t of - A measure of the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between two or more va r i a b l e s . I t v a r i e s from +1.0 (the case i n which a l l variables increase i n d i r e c t proportion to each other) through 0.0 (when there i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between the variables) to - 1.0 (when one v a r i a b l e increases as the other decreases). Sig n i f i c a n c e , Level of - An index of the confidence that the investigator has i n h i s r e s u l t s . Usually expressed as the number of time (out of 100) that the outcome could be the r e s u l t of chance alone. The smaller the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l the l e s s l i k e l y that the r e s u l t are due to chance. Thus a point 0.5 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l indicates that the investigator f e e l s that only 5 times i n a hundred could his r e s u l t s have been due to chance alone; but the point 0.1 l e v e l i s an even stronger test i n one time of a hundred could h i s r e s u l t s have been due to chance alone. - 9 -Hypotheses The following s p e c i f i c hypotheses, summarizing the focus of t h i s study, provided the foundation for the c o l l e c t i o n of data and t h e i r subsequent an a l y s i s . The a n a l y t i c a l framework of the study i l l u s t r a t i n g these hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements of the mall environment and the user's movement pattern behavior, to be tested through empirical data, has been shown i n Figure 2. Figure 3 i l l u s t r a t e s a few related studies done previously by other researchers i n order to provide a clear p i c t u r e of the context i n which t h i s study e x i s t s . 1. The softer the f l o o r covering material, the slower the pedestrian v e l o c i t y i s expected to become. Pedestrian v e l o c i t y i s to be measured and compared i n three d i f f e r e n t enclosed shopping malls with d i f f e r e n t f l o o r materials. 2. Longer storefront lengths, more highly a r t i c u l a t e d s t o r e f r o n t s , presence of storefront seats and occupied storefront seating are each expected to produce increased numbers of stops of pedestrian flow, increased viewing time at the storefront and an increase i n numbers of persons by who enter the store. Shopper's behavior pattern i n front of storefronts i s to be observed, measured and compared i n three d i f f e r e n t enclosed shopping malls. - 10 -u 3 tn 0) S rH Cfl M o •H > cti OJ pq 43 M too O § 0] CU rH •H > C P e d e s t r i a n Vp.lor. iry Frequency of Stopping at S t o r e f r o n t  D u r a t i o n of S t o r e f r o n t Stop  Frequency of E n t e r i n g Store Seat User O r i e n t a t i o n S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Dens i t y (person per square f o o t ) P e d e s t r i a n Age P e d e s t r i a n Sex Number of People i n Group Head Movement Passage P o s i t i o n P e d e s t r i a n Pace S t o r e f r o n t No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n T o t a l No. of Angles of S to re f . A r t i c / f oot  S t o r e f r o n t Length , Passage Width Passage Length No.of Changes i n Route D i r e c t i o n Seat a t S t o r e f r o n t Seat Occupied at S t o r e f r o n t P h y s i c a l A r t i f a c t Graphic and S ign F l o o r M a t e r i a l Sound or No ise Temperature Colour L i g h t i n g S to re L o c a t i o n Sa les Volume X i n d i c a t e s t e s t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , b lank denotes an untes ted r e l a t i o n s h i p F i g u r e 2. The Hypothesized R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between the A r c h i t e c t u r a l Elements of the M a l l Environment and the U s e r s ' Movement P a t t e r n B e h a v i o r . - 11 -1ST u 3 CD cd CD s I—I CO u o •rl > cfl CD pq cfl 60 O § w cfl •H cfl l> C 60 •H 01 CD Q Pedestrian V e l o c i t y Frequency of Stopping at Storefront Duration of Storefront Stop Frequency of Entering Store Seat User Orientation S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Density (person per square foot) Pedestrian Age Pedestrian Sex Number of People i n Group Head Movement Passage P o s i t i o n Pedestrian Pace Storefront No. of Angles of Storefront A r t i c u l a t i o n T o t a l No.of Angles of S t o r e f . A r t i c / f oot Storefront Length Passage Width Passage Length No.of Changes i n Route D i r e c t i o n Seat at Storefront Seat Occupied at Storefront Physical A r t i f a c t Graphic and Sign Floor M a t e r i a l Sound or Noise Temperature Colour [Lighting Store Location Sales Volume Numbers indicate tested r e l a t i o n s h i p s , blank denotes an untested r e l a t i o n s h i p . Figure 3. Related Studies. 1 Wolff, M. (1970) 2 Banerjee, T. (1964) 3 Older, A. (1964) 4 Gehl, J . (1968, 1970) 5 Preiser, W. (1973) 6 Heidemann, C. (1967) 7 Fruin, J . (1971) 7 Oeding, D. (1963) 7 Navin, F. & Wheeler, R. (1969) 8 Esser, A. (1965, 1970) 8 Sommer, R. (1966, 1970) 8 Horowitz, M. (1964) 8 H a l l , E. (1959, 1969) 8 Goffman, E. (1963) - 12 -3. The g r e a t e r the t o t a l number of angles of s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t , the g rea te r the l i k e l i h o o d of the p e d e s t r i a n d e c c e l e r a t i o n , s t o p p i n g , l o o k i n g at the s t o r e f r o n t and e n t e r i n g the s t o r e . P e d e s t r i a n v e l o c i t y , f requency of s t o p p i n g , d u r a t i o n of s topp ing and frequency of e n t e r i n g a s t o r e i s to be measured and compared i n th ree d i f f e r e n t enc losed shopping m a l l s . 4 . Shopping m a l l layout a f f e c t s p e d e s t r i a n v e l o c i t y . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the g r e a t e r the number of changes i n r o u t e d i r e c t i o n , the s lower p e d e s t r i a n speed becomes. P e d e s t r i a n v e l o c i t y i s to be measured and compared i n th ree d i f f e r e n t enc losed shopping m a l l s . 5 . The f requency of s topp ing and e n t e r i n g a s t o r e i s expected to become h igher at corner l o c a t i o n s t o r e s . I t i s expected to become h igher too at the s t o r e s l o c a t e d c l o s e to the m a l l entrance where the p e d e s t r i a n s t a r t s h i s t r i p i n the shopping m a l l . Frequency of s topp ing and e n t e r i n g a s t o r e i n r e l a t i o n to i t s l o c a t i o n i n the shopping m a l l i s to be measured and compared i n the th ree d i f f e r e n t shopping m a l l s . These hypotheses have been summarized and presented i n Table 1 which shows each hypothes i s f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of des ign v a r i a b l e s w i t h b e h a v i o r a l measures. Table I. Summary of Specific Hypotheses for Relationships of Design Variables with Behavioral Measures. Design Variables Behavioral Measures a a Tl H 4J U Tl CO o cu o CU cu p< > 3 •H cv o 4J cn •U O O u U-l CJ cu c u a) a cr cn cu (J 4J Softness of Floor Covering Material l=Tile, 2=Semi-carpet; 3=Carpet • Storefront Length Number of Angles of Storefront Articulation Seat at Storefront l=No seat; 2=Presence of Seat Seat Occupied at Storefront l=Seat empty; 2=Seat occupied Total No.of Angles of Storefront Articulation per foot Royal=6; Pacific=9; Harbour=16 No.of Changes in Route Direction Harbour=4; Royal=3; Pacific=2 Comer Location Stores l=No; 2-Yes No.of Stores Between the Store Where The Pedestrian Stops or Enters and the Mall Entrance p. o o m O U C C O O U •H m U CU ca u u o 3 *J O cn e c 0) i-l a u cr cu CU 4J u a i l l I + Q LT 0 1 Q M m (+) " Positive or higher (-) - Negative or lower - 14 -CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Science i s a cumulative endeavour. I f our knowledge i s to grow r a p i d l y , then we must incorporate i n our work the rela t e d studies and procedures of other investigators (Figures 4 & 5). In addition to providing substantive knowledge a v a i l a b l e on any given topic, a review of the scholarly l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i v e to any research undertaking helps the researcher to get acquainted with the unique techniques and methodological procedures which are i n use. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to know how other investigators have measured the key terms, what strategies or research methods they have employed, the type and s i z e of sample and questionnaire developed and what s t a t i s t i c a l techniques they have used to analyse the r e s u l t s . Studies oh Human S p a t i a l Behavior Although l i t t l e i s known on aspects of s p a t i a l behavior i n shopping malls the concepts which have been studied i n other contexts might be pertinent to the aspects of t h i s study and w i l l be reported here. Human s p a t i a l behavior can take d i f f e r e n t forms whether i t occurs with i n d i v i d u a l s or i n groups. Many var i a b l e s enter into s p a t i a l behavior. Among them are psychological v a r i a b l e s , c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , p h y s i c a l environmental f a c t o r s , psychological f a c t o r s , etc. Generally, Figure A. Review of Literature. MAN -ENVIRONMENT INTERRELATIONS AND DIMENSIONS A U T H O R Bechtel, R. Sommer, R. Davis & Eyer Cooper, C. Preiser, W. Wright, H. Lozar, C. Blasdel, H. Lozar, C. Sloan, S. Proshansky, et al Halldane, J. Fanger, P. Newman, 0. Webb, E. DeJonge, D. Gehl, J. Goffman, E. Hall, E. Horowitz, M. Esser, A. Thiel, P. Lynch, K. Fruin, J. Heidemann, C. Older, A. Grabrecht, D. Zipf, G. Stilitz, I. Banerjee, T. Wolff, M. Oeding, D. | oi u o •H 0) CD 3 •3 > Overt, behavioral movement X i i Movement Patterns X X - X X i I Movement & Use Patterns X X X Mapping of Movement Pattern X X Environmental Quality X Personal Territory & Intrusion X X Personal Space & Territory X X A c t i v i t i e s of Residents X Daily A c t i v i t y Sequences X light Level Related to Attitude X Design of Sound Interface X Factor of Thermal Comfort X Temperature & Pedestrian Velocity X Circulation Path X Crime Occurrence X - j Perception of Urban Setting X 1 ! Distribution of People i n Given Space X i Physical Spacing X X X I X I X X Stationary Behavior & Physical A r t i f a c t X ! MAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERRELATIONS & DIMENSION AUTHOR SETTING MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE MEASUREMENT DEVICE OR INSTRUMENT USED Overt behavioral movement Bechtel,R. Museum Hodometer E l e c t r i c a l micro-switches Movement patterns Lozar, C. Time-lapse f i l m Time-lapse super 8 camera Older, A. Shopping street Cooper, C. Structure observation Trained observer Movement & use patterns Davis & Eyer Airport S t i l l photography S t i l l & timelapse camera Gehl, J . Shopping street Structured observation Trained observer Heidemann Shopping street Time sampling Researcher-observer Mapping of movement pattern Preiser, W. Shopping mall Video-taping Video-tape recordings T h i e l , P. Notation system Researcher observer Environmental quality Bechtel, R. Museum Behavior setting Behavior observation system Personal t e r r i t o r y & intrusion. Sloan, S. Proxemics Ed Hall's proxemic notation H a l l , E. Proxemics Hall's proxemic notation Personal space 4 t e r r i t o r y Sommer, R. Library Personal space Author's person Esser, A. Hospital Personal space Author's person A c t i v i t i e s of resident Proshansky, et a l . Housing Mapping Researcher time-sampling Daily a c t i v i t y sequences Wright, H. Speciman record Trained observer Light l e v e l related to attitude Blasdel, H. Lighting Questionnaire Design & sound interface Halldane, J . Noise Electronic instrumentation Factor of thermal comfort Fanger, P. Thermal comfort Combination of devices Temperature & pedestrian v e l o c i t y Gehl, J. Shopping street Temperature C i r c u l a t i o n path Lozar, C. Tracks Carpet wear Baner'j ee, T. Shopping street • Tracking Author'person Crime occurrence Newman, 0. Records Public crime records Perception of urban setting Lynch, K. Urban space Unstructured interview Interviewer & tape recorder D i s t r i b u t i o n of people i n given space Preiser, W. Plaza S t i l l photography S t i l l & time-lapse camera DeJonge, D. Park A e r i a l photographs Camera Physical spacing Goffman, E. Public space Horowitz, M. Hospital • • Fruin, J . Public space A e r i a l photographs Camera Wolff, M. Sideisalk A e r i a l photographs Camera Stationary behavior & physical a r t i f a c t Preiser, W. Plaza S t i l l photography S t i l l and time-lapse camera S t i l i t z , I. Theatres lobbies Source: "Measurement Techniques Towards a Measurement Technology" by Lozar, Charles. "The Evaluation of Physical Settings to. Measure Attitudes, Behavior or Both?" by Patterson A.H. and Pascini, R. In: Man Environment Interaction, p. 174 & p. 214. Note: Organization and adding have been made by the author. Figure 5. Review of Measurement Techniques Used i n Environmental Design Applications: Unobtrusive Methods. - 17 -studies on spatial behavior f a l l into one or more categories related to certain recurring spatial concepts, such as dominance and t e r r i t o r i a l i t y (Esser, 1965, 1971), privacy and personal space (Sommer, 1969), and proxemic relationships in groups (Hall, 1959, 1966). Examples of units of analysis for the various categories named above include the number of aggressive acts or submissions in a dominance hierarchy, the frequency of use of certain locations, the number of defensive acts and the distance maintained among individuals in a group. Current research trends in the f i e l d of man-environment relations are partially based upon the fact that humans and animals structure their environment spatially to maintain social order (Esser, 1971). Originating from studies with animals in their natural habitat an ethological direction of research has evolved which deals with the determinants of human spatial behavior. Valuable insight was gained from observational studies on how animals define and mark t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries, acquire and defend territory, communicate and relate spatially to members of their own spaces. Of the classes of behavior referred to above a few were found to be relevant for the shopping mall, in particular, space u t i l i z a t i o n of the circulation areas by pedestrian movement. Pedestrian Movement Behavior Relevant studies of pedestrian movement behavior w i l l be summarized and reported as following: - 18 -Pedestrian observation made by Wolff and Hirsh (1970) point out that at distances of less than 15 f t people normally do not walk behind each other but rather walk in a checkerboard pattern, looking "over the shoulder" of the person in front. Thus, i f any person in a group of walkers changes his lateral position, he forces others to accommodate to maintain the checkerboard spacing. A similar phenomenon can also be observed in the lateral direction: people prefer not to walk side by side with a stranger for any length of time and either accelerate or slow down i f someone else is walking alongside. Wolff's study is significant in two ways: F i r s t , his findings suggest that rules for acceptable social behavior are followed voluntarily by most pedestrians in order to avoid conflict in density situations of varying degrees. Secondly, the methods employed by Wolff in gathering his data used participant and movie recordings. By taking movies from above, the pedestrian movement patterns could be investigated in detail by analysing the movie frame by frame. S t i l i t z (1969, 1970) observed stationary groups, as they related to physical elements (e.g. ticket machines, columns, niches, etc.). Queuing affected the flow of movement during varying t r a f f i c densities, especially during rush hours and the flow of movement in turn affected the positioning of other stationary groups. Waiting people were seeking protection from moving crowds. Such shelter, according to S t i l i t z , was usually found in the v i c i n i t y of columns, edges, niches, corners and similar spatially defined attributes of the investigated setting. - 19 -S t i l i t z d i f f e r e n t i a t e d among pedestrian a t t r i b u t e s , formal a t t r i b u t e s and flow patterns. Pedestrian a t t r i b u t e s included p e r i o d i c i t y f a c t o r s , such as the rush hours, and the fa c t that people take to the route of l e a s t appearing e f f o r t . Zipf (1949) attempted to develop a theory of human behavior based upon the " P r i n c i p l e of Least E f f o r t " , according to which each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l adopt a course of a c t i o n that w i l l involve the expenditure of the l e a s t e f f o r t " . Formal a t t r i b u t e s were those of most in t e r e s t to the author i n that they attempted to give descriptions of the attractiveness, containment, connectiveness, and t r a v e r s a b i l i t y of c e r t a i n s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which appeared to have d i r e c t influence on people's behavior. Garbrecht (1971) distinguished among several kinds of pedestrian behavior by the purpose of walking, l i k e going to work, shopping, s t r o l l i n g around and exploring the environment. The c r i t e r i a and determinants for the s e l e c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r path were: "Ve l o c i t y , i n c l i n a t i o n to interrupt a walk and to make detours; perception of the environment; q u a l i t y of the environment; length of path and the s i m p l i c i t y of path". With regard to the a c t i v i t y of shopping and associated walking behaviors, he remarked that there i s a great p r o b a b i l i t y and willingness f or interruptions of the pedestrian movement. Stopping, minor detours and a r e l a t i v e l y lower speed was observed i n the person approaching the shopping f a c i l i t y . In the shopping a c t i v i t y i t s e l f more attention i s given to the environmental features. The q u a l i t y of the environment obviously has a larger e f f e c t upon the shopper's walking than has the length and s i m p l i c i t y of the path. - 20 -Another study of walking speeds i n the Pittsburgh Central Business D i s t r i c t (Fruin, 1971) showed variances i n pedestrian speeds which were correlated with the time of the day, outside temperature and t r i p purpose. Pedestrian with restaurant t r i p purposes were found to have s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher speeds than those with business or shopping t r i p purpose. These studies confirm that there i s a great deal of p o t e n t i a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n i n d i v i d u a l free-flow walking speeds. Psychological f a c t o r s , reaction to environment, t r a f f i c composition and t r i p purpose could a l l contribute to each pedestrian's s e l e c t i o n of his unimpeded free flow speed. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s among space requirements (or density), speed of movement, and rates of flow i n pedestrian streams have been studied by a number of inv e s t i g a t o r s . Among the more recent ones are Oeding, Older, Navin and Wheeler, and Fruin. Older (1964) noted i n h i s paper on "Speed, density and flow of pedestrians on foot-ways i n shopping s t r e e t s " , that under i d e n t i c a l conditions of pedestrian density, narrower paths would generate r e l a t i v e l y higher speed whereas with constant path width a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p existed between increased density and decreased pedestrian v e l o c i t y , i . e . a r a t i o of pedestrian per square foot. Heidemann (1967) conducted an i n t e r e s t i n g study of the periodic changes of pedestrian density i n a downtown shopping street i n Braunschweig, Germany. On the basis of sampled t r a f f i c counts, he was able to construct average p r o f i l e s of user density f or hours, days, weeks and months which would lend themselves to predict estimated t r a f f i c . A c o r r e l a t i o n between v a r i a t i o n s i n pedestrian d e n s i t i e s and sales figures of the adjacent stores was found. - 21 -In a study of pedestrians and their environment in a pedestrianized main shopping street of Copenhagen Gehl (1968) noted the importance of serious and qualified planning for pedestrians and pedestrian activities in Danish centres. Walking is not only a way of transportation. Being pedestrian among other pedestrians provides a vast number of possibilities for f u l f i l l i n g social needs such as contact, knowledge, social acceptance, etc. Activities in a pedestrian area are therefore of a very complex nature, and the area changes character from being a corridor used for walking to being a living room criss-crossed by walkers - when the conditions are favorable. Creating of such environment favorable conditions would be the obvious aim of Manscope planning (Gehl, 1968). Gehl found too, concerning the distribution of pedestrian speeds under conditions of free choice, maximum speed to be 410 f t per minute and minimum speed to be 143 f t per minute. Lynch (1959) recorded responses from pedestrians, in the city of Boston, while actually moving through a city i t s e l f . From this study, i t was possible to obtain a hierarchy of common agreements as to the different parts of the street scene in which, interestingly enough, contents and details of various storefronts was one important factor. In his report, Lynch states: Almost every pedestrian was conscious about the spatial quality of the street breadth, width of side walk, the height of flanking building and the open vista Almost a l l walkers commented at one time or another upon the stores themselves and the contents of their window, parked cars, moving t r a f f i c , street furniture, people, colors, smells, sound and weather (Lynch, 1959). - 22 -T h i e l (1961), an a r c h i t e c t , focuses on the sequential aspect of human movement through an environment and bases his environmental notation system on the model of the person who i s walking and coming onto various features of the environment, which are l a i d out as i f i n s t r i p . His emphasis on designing f o r "sequential experience i n real-time" p a r t i c u l a r l y applies to the moving crowd which has need of an orienting language. His notation system i s an environmental sign-language of scale, distance, and d i r e c t i o n p r i m a r i l y . I t i s such languages that designers w i l l need to speak to p a r t i c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l problems. Winkel and Sasanoff (1966) used a photographic representation to simulate a r e a l world system. The r e a l world system was the i n t e r i o r of a museum, and the user behavior studied i n th i s environment was movement through the museum; as we l l as pattern of exhibit viewing. Color photographs of the i n t e r i o r of the museum were used to allow observers to report on how they would move through the museum and which exhibit they would view. Observed patterns of user movement i n the r e a l world system were compared with patterns of user movement obtained i n the simulated space. Bechtel (1970) used the hodometer, which i s a s p e c i a l type of instrumented mapping device, i n h i s study of preferences i n a museum se t t i n g . The hodometer consisted of a serie s of pressure s e n s i t i v e micro-switches under the mats of a museum f l o o r . When a pressure of more than four pounds per square inch existed a switch would close and t r i p an e l e c t r i c a l counter. In t h i s way, the movement of people was registered and t h e i r preference pattern for c e r t a i n pointings was mapped. - 23 -Lozar (1973) used timelapse photography to examine movement patterns i n a dining space. Timelapse i s a device which at f i r s t glance seems to have strong p o s s i b i l i t i e s for recording behavior i n almost any environment. The camera i s capable of fi l m i n g unattended; f i l m compresses time to enable the research to sample at i n t e r v a l s . The major problem i n timelapse f i l m i s not so much with the actual instrumentation as i t i s with the software analysis of the recorded information. David and Eyer (1973) used the technique of s t i l l photography to document movement patterns i n a i r p o r t s and extended i t to human factors considerations of escalator designs. Pr e i s e r (1973) conducted an i n t e r e s t i n g study by using the video tape recording of human behavior, to determine the pedestrian movement and stationary behavior i n the enclosed shopping centre mall of Columbia, Maryland. His r e s u l t s led to the development of models of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n shopping centers and a r c h i t e c t u r a l design implications. In a study of sidewalk behavior i n a shopping street Banerjee (1964) found that age groups, were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t h e i r use of d i f f e r e n t zones of the sidewalk. Older people would prefer to walk i n the zone close s t to the storefronts (perhaps for psychological reasons of f e e l i n g safer close to walls) whereas young people tended to be found near the curb and street side of the sidewalk. In terms of methodology, Barnerjee used the tracking technique for gathering information on pedestrian movement behavior. A s i m i l a r technique of tracking was employed i n th i s study i n order to obtain basic pattern of pedestrian t r a f f i c flow i n the enclosed shopping malls. - 24 -CHAPTER III STUDY AREAS In view of the objectives of t h i s study, Harbour Centre M a l l , Royal Centre Mall and P a c i f i c Centre Mall were chosen for the following reasons: 1. The three study areas have d i f f e r e n t layouts. 2. They have d i f f e r e n t f l o o r materials. 3. They are a l l located i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. The locations of these study areas i n the downtown context, are shown i n Figure 6. A l l three study areas are within close walking distances from the mainstream of pedestrian c i r c u l a t i o n i n downtown Vancouver. A comparative analysis of the three centers o f f e r i n g some background information i s given i n Table I I . Plans and photographs follow (Figures 7-11). The Harbour Centre M a l l was the f i r s t major carpeted mall i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t covers more than 65,000 square feet on two l e v e l s i n the block bounded by West Hastings, Seymour, Cordova and Richards, 1 I 1 ^ * « s j J 1 I =i tzi • a • c= i n nn nn nn nn n n r — Geor gia St to 3 CO rt a< Figure 6. Locations of Study Areas Within Vancouver Downtown. ho - 26 -Table I I . Comparative Analysis of Study Areas. STUDY AREAS HARBOUR ROYAL PACIFIC CENTRE MALL CENTRE MALL CENTRE MALL MANAGEMENT Polaris Reality Western Limited Trizec Corporation P a c i f i c Centre Limited ARCHITECT Eng and Wright Dirassar James Jorgenion Davis • MacCarter Nairne and partner DESIGN ARCHITECT Webb Zerafa Menkes Dirassar James Jorgenion Davis Ceasar P e l l i PLAN. TYPE (Layout) Enclosed mall on two levels Enclosed mall on two levels Enclosed mall on two levels RETAIL AREA 75,000 sq.ft. (two levels) 72,000 sq.ft . (two levels) 215,000 sq.ft. (two levels) NO.OF RETAIL STORE 50 (two levels) 55 (two levels) 130 (two levels) MALL WIDTH 15-20 f t 20 f t 30 f t MALL HEIGHT 11 f t 12-13 f t 12 f t FLOOR MATERIAL carpet semi-carpeted glazed bricks TOTAL NO.OF ANGLES OF STOREFRONT ARTICULATION PER FOOT 16 6 9 TOTAL STOREFRONT . WIDTH 612 f t 920 f t 1737 f t BENCHES OR SEATS fixed fixed movable MAJOR TENANT Department Store Department . Store OTHER FACILITIES Office Bldg, Restaurant Hotel,Bank, Office Bldg. Hotel, Office Bldg. ANNUAL SALES PER SQUARE FOOT $125 $135 $200 F i g u r e 7. Harbour Centre M a l l . F l o o r P l a n (Hast ings l e v e l ) . - 28 -MELVILLE STREET H PS H O Pi P5 GEORGIA STREET to c ft" Figure Royal Centre Mall. Floor Plan (Retail level). EATON' S Exterior View of the Harbour, Royal and Pacific Centre Malls. - 31 -Harbour Centre F i g u r e 1 1 . I n t e r i o r View of the Harbour , Royal and P a c i f i c Centre M a l l s . - 32 -with entrances from every s t r e e t . The design concept i n the mall i s d i f f e r e n t from that of the t r a d i t i o n a l shopping centre, which i s a long corridor with stores off either side of i t . I t i s a short and easy pedestrian pattern. The Royal Centre M a l l i s Vancouver's f i r s t major downtown shopping mall. I t i s located on one of the busiest corner of downtown Vancouver, Georgia Street and Burrard Street. The P a c i f i c Centre Mall i s encompassing two c e n t r a l c i t y blocks between Robson and Dunsmuir, G r a n v i l l e and Howe Streets. I t i s connected to the Bay department store and the new Vancouver Centre under G r a n v i l l e Street. P a c i f i c Centre M a l l i s close to major transportation routes through the downtown area. I t i s a two-level mall, one opening on to sidewalks and the other forming a covered walkway between the Bay and the Eaton's department stores. - 33 -CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY N a t u r a l i s t i c Research Methods In order to make an objective evaluation of c e r t a i n aspects of behavior i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the shopping mall environment unobtrusive observational techniques were employed using the tracking method. The advantages of the unobtrusive technique l i e i n the fa c t that interference with subjects i n public places i s l i m i t e d . For the purpose of th i s study the shopping mall was defined as a "natural s e t t i n g " . In ethology, the study of environmental behavior i n i t s n a t u r a l i s t i c research has been p a r t i c u l a r l y successful, p a r t l y because animals are not able to express themselves v e r b a l l y . The importance of n a t u r a l i s t i c research i n human settings has been stressed by Tinbergen (1968). Greenbie (1970) argued convincingly for the a p p l i c a t i o n of et h o l o g i c a l methods to an a l y t i c studies i n urban s e t t i n g s . In short, ethology studies the behavior of animals i n th e i r n atural habitat. If applied to the study of human behavior, c e r t a i n advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s of the et h o l o g i c a l approach, as described by Hutt (1970), can be summarized i n the following ways: The e t h o l o g i c a l method tends to capture i n a h o l i s t i c sense the o v e r a l l structure underlying human behavior i n non laboratory setti n g s . Since i t i s not concerned with c o n t r o l l e d and i s o l a t e d v a r i a b l e as found under - 34 -laboratory conditions, q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of variables a f f e c t i n g behavior i s more d i f f i c u l t to achieve, as i s an exact r e p l i c a t i o n of findings of e t h o l o g i c a l studies. In contrasting t h i s method, Barker (1968) and Wright (1967) have elaborated on the e c o l o g i c a l approach to the study of behavior i n numerous writings. The behavioral units of analysis for the ecologists may be long sequences of behavior episodes with goals and intentions of the actors being i n f e r r e d by the observer, while the ethologist intends to give an objective d e s c r i p t i o n of behavior patterns. Research strategies for the observation of ph y s i c a l l o c a t i o n and movement of animals or human d i f f e r with the purpose of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Some only apply simple observation and others use hardware as mentioned e a r l i e r (see Figure 5) Procedure The e t h o l o g i c a l approach was chosen for t h i s study. The procedure i s mainly based on the following techniques: The Tracking Method The method, employed i n t h i s : study, for data gathering on pedestrian movement behavior i s c a l l e d "tracking". Tracking as a t o o l for recording some aspects of human behavior pattern has produced i n t e r e s t i n g and encouraging r e s u l t s i n a few studies done previously. - 35 -One of the f i r s t uses of tracking was made at Boston Museum of Science by Weiss and Boutourline (1962), as an exploratory study, followed by the study done of Seattle World's Fair in 1962. This technique had also been adopted by Winkel and Sasanoff (1966) in a simulation study of human behavior. Banerjee (1964) used the same technique for his study on human behavior aspects in a shopping street. Recently, Bonsteel and Parker (1970) conducted an interesting study, using the pedestrian count and tracking techniques in observing the users of downtown Seattle, Washington. In terms of data collection, the following information was recorded during tracking in the three study areas: 1. Subject characteristics such as age, sex, individual or in a group. 2. Duration of time spent in the mall in order to calculate the subject's velocity. 3. Places at which the subject stopped and the time spent. 4. Direction of head movement. The Tracking Map A tracking map was prepared showing the plan of the shopping mall (the floor plan within which the study area was delimited). The tracking map shows the outline of the storefronts and location of the different shopping mall furniture. Figures 1-2-14 : show typical tracking maps, for each shopping mall, used for the purpose of tracking. The parallel lines on the mall correspond to a twenty foot module, laid Figure 1 2 . CORDOVA STREET Harbour Centre Mall. Typical Tracking Map. Subject ID No. Sex: Male ( ) Age Group: Female ( ) Below 10 ( ) 40-49 ( ) 10-19 ( ) 50-59 ( ) 20-29 ( ) 60-69 ( ) 30-39 ( ) 70+ ( ) Number in Group Head Movement Direction: Looking Straight ( ) Looking Around ( ) Duration of Storefront Stop: First Stop ( ) Second Stop ( ) Third Stop ( ) Fourth Stop ( ) Duration of Time Spent in the Mall Velocity Origin Point HASTINGS STREET MELVILLE STREET 14 Figure 13. Royal Centre Mall. Typical Tracking Map. Date_ Day ,_tore j T ^FJir ec t or-y—-f T, 0 13 12 L _ i i Storefront! 10 'A 20 19 Storefront 18 Storefront 21 he - -Hyatt lot el Subjet ID No. Sex: Male ( ) Age Group: 22 Below 10 ( ) 10-19 ( ) 20-29 ( ) 30-39 ( ) Number in Group: Female ( ) 40-49 50-59 60-69 70+ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Es'dklatl •'• .• • Carpet - .. l o r 14 tor ienc h Head Movement Direction: Looking Straight ( ) Looking Around ( ) Duration of Storefront Stop: S t o r e f r o n t F i r s t ( ) Second. ( ) Third ( ) Fourth Duration of Time Spent in the Mall Velocity ( ) 23 Store Plabter j Planter I Director^ •Stor ron 3 To Royal Bank E 3 m GEORGIA STREET Origin Point DUNSMUIR STREET Pacific Centre Mall. Typical Tracking Map. o CO w W H 00 - 39 -out on the f l o o r , for keeping track of the p o s i t i o n of the subjects i n the mall. The tracking maps also include a l i s t of the items such as date, day, age, sex, number of people i n group, number of stops, duration of each stop, duration of time spent i n the mall, head movement which are f i l l e d out during the tracking. Using these maps, the researcher tracked and recorded the subject's movement i n the actual space of the shopping mall. Movement was indicated by l i n e s on the maps, with arrows to show d i r e c t i o n of movement. If the subject moved to a storefront, the l i n e was drawn up to the storefront and the time spent at that point was recorded by a stopwatch. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of O r i g i n Point The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of o r i g i n points f o r the pedestrian t r i p s i n the study areas was necessary i n order to develop a system for tracking pedestrians. In i d e n t i f y i n g the o r i g i n points, the study area was a c l e a r l y defined enclosure with some d e f i n i t e entry points. Although i n r e a l i t y the t r i p might originate from any shop or restaurant i n the mall, those t r i p s would only be a part of the t o t a l t r i p with respect to the study area within the mall and therefore those t r i p s w i l l not be considered for the purpose of the study. The o r i g i n points of the pedestrian t r i p was defined to be those places where the pedestrian enters the study area from outside. - 40 -Selection of Subjects for Tracking The subjects for t h i s study were users of the Harbour, Royal and P a c i f i c shopping centre malls. They were selected by the following procedure designed to produce a random sample: the hand of stopwatch was allowed to pass an a r b i t r a r y . t i m e point, and the f i r s t person thereafter passing an a r b i t r a r y selected mark at the mall entrance became the subject to be tracked. The same procedure was repeated at the d i f f e r e n t entrances i n the three study areas. Preliminary Tracking In oder to test the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the techniques involved i n tracking, some preliminary tracking had been done for a one-week period i n l a t e January, 1978 during which a t o t a l of s i x t y subjects were tracked i n the three study areas. The purposes of t h i s preliminary tracking were: 1. To test whether or not the method of observation was possible. 2. To r e f i n e and improve the method and also to f i n d out whether any other factors that might have s u f f i c i e n t influence on the pedestrian movement pattern. - 41 -As f ar as the act u a l tracking was concerned, the preliminary tracking proved to be successful and provided enough encouragement to carry on. At the same time, the experience from the preliminary tracking indicated the d i r e c t i o n s f o r necessary improvements. I n i t i a l l y , i t was found necessary to evaluate the pedestrian density i n the mall as i t might have a d i r e c t e f f e c t on the movement pattern. Therefore, i t had been decided to record the change i n the degree of crowding at d i f f e r e n t parts of the mall. But from the preliminary tracking i t became apparent that the pedestrian density was so low as not to have any e f f e c t on the general movement pattern, e s p e c i a l l y i n the Harbour and the Royal shopping centre malls. It had also been noticed during the period of experimental tracking that there might have been some close r e l a t i o n s h i p between the presence of a seat at a storefront and the frequency of stopping, duration of stopping and frequency of entering the store. With t h i s hypothesis, i t was decided to record the presence of seats at storefronts. In the preliminary tracking, the l i n e of movement was recorded by drawing a continuous l i n e behind the subject tracked. This recording system was refined i n the f i n a l tracking by noting the crossing of the twenty foot module l i n e s by the subject and then connecting the r e s u l t i n g dots. F i n a l Tracking On the basis of the previous tracking experience and with necessary refinements, the f i n a l tracking was conducted over a four week period i n February, 1978 during which a t o t a l of a hundred and eighty - 42 -subjects were tracked i n the three study areas, s i x t y subjects i n each mall. The subjects f o r tracking were picked up, as mentioned previously, on a random basis using the c r i t e r i a of a random point. Factors Not Tested i n the Study 1. Managerial decisions which might e f f e c t the space and pedestrian i n the observed areas include e x h i b i t s , s p e c i a l sales, promotional programs, fashion shows, etc. No data were c o l l e c t e d under such circumstances, since any behavioral changes would be d i f f i c u l t to r e l a t e to such causes. 2. Seasonal e f f e c t s are not expected since the enclosed shopping mall has a uniform climate with protection from weather. 3. Temporal periodic changes and e f f e c t s on space or density were not notable as mentioned before. The use of the mall was rather low during the weeks of observation. Analysis of Storefronts The study areas consist of d i f f e r e n t stores, restaurants, and othertypes of commercial uses. However, a l l these stores and other types of uses are characterized by the d i f f e r e n t s p a t i a l q u a l i t y of t h e i r fronts due to i n d i v i d u a l treatments, necessitated by the type of merchandise being sold. Since one of the p r i n c i p l e objectives of the study i s to test - 43 -the e f f e c t of storefront designs on the pedestrian movement pattern, i t was e s s e n t i a l to analyse the d i f f e r e n t storefronts and t h e i r s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Due to the v a r i a t i o n s i n the treatment of i n d i v i d u a l storefront design, i t was necessary to e s t a b l i s h a measurement c r i t e r i a f o r a l l d i f f e r e n t s t o r e f r o n t s , i n order to test t h e i r s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Figures 15-17 provide v i s u a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t storefront designs i n the study areas. Tables III-V show an inventory of s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the d i f f e r e n t stores and other uses i n the study areas. - 44 -S t o r e f r o n t Length No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per foo t 2 6 ' 0 " 540 540 26 20.8 S t o r e f r o n t Length No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per foot 1 6 ' 0 " 450 450 16 2 8 . 1 S t o r e f r o n t Length No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per foo t = 2 7 ' 0 " = 495 = 495 27 = 18 .3 F i g u r e 15. Harbour Centre M a l l . V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n of D i f f e r e n t S t o r e f r o n t Des ign . - 45 -S t o r e f r o n t Length No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per foot 2 5 ' 0 " 360 360 25 14.4 S t o r e f r o n t Length No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per foot 2 1 ' 6 " 0 0 S t o r e f r o n t Length No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per foot 6 6 ' 0 " 360 360 66 5 . 5 F igu re 16. Royal Centre M a l l . V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n of D i f f e r e n t S t o r e f r o n t Des ign . - 46 -S t o r e f r o n t Length No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per foot 2 0 ' 0 " 360 360 20 18 S t o r e f r o n t Length No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per foot 2 0 ' 0 " 720 720 20 36 S t o r e f r o n t Length No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n No.of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per foot 16*0" 0 0 F igu re 17. P a c i f i c Centre M a l l . V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n of D i f f e r e n t S t o r e f r o n t Des ign . - 47 -Table III. Harbour Centre Mall. An Inventory of Spatial Characteristics of Various Storefronts. Store Name Storefront Length No.of Angles of Storefront Articulation No.of Angles of Store-front Articulation per ft Seat at Storefront Corner Location Type of Use 1 Le Chateau 16' 0" 450 28.1 X Unisex 2 . Ashers 27'0" 495 18.3 X Men's wear 3 You and I 20' 0" 360 18.0 Ladies' wear 4 Charms N' Chain 15'0" 360 24.0 Jewellery 5 Black Cheer 21'0" 495 23.6 X Men's wear 6 F i l a i n s 31'0" 495 16.9 X Ladies' wear 7 Diamond Watch 28'0" 495 17.7 X Jewellery 8 The smoke Shoppe 34" o" 360 10.6 Specialty store 9 Purdy's Chocolate 15'0" 270 18.0 X Specialty store 10 Suzy Cream Cheese 52 '0" 540 10.3 X Ladies' wear 11 Ricki's 50*0" 675 13.5 X . X Ladies' wear 12 D'allairds 40'0" 360 9.0 Ladies' wear 13 Bootlegger 50'0" 945 18.9 Unisex 14 Peaches and Cream 12'0" 270 • 22.5 X Specialty store 15 J. Reid 12*6" 360 28.8 Shoes 16 Bus Stop 27*0" 360 13.3 Men's wear 17 Vi l l a g e r Shoes 31*0" 540 17.4 X Shoes 18 Woodman Cleaners 18*0" 225 12.5 Specialty wear 19 Snap Shop 28*6" 495 17.4 Specialty wear 20 Classic Books 35'6" 360 10.1 Specialty wear 21 Birks 26*0" 540 20.8 X Jewellery 22 R.J. Clarke-tobacconist 22*6" 360 16.0 X Specialty store - 48 -Table IV. Royal Centre Mall. An Inventory of Spatial Characteristics of Various Storefronts. rH rH , 4-1 Store Name Storefront Length No.of Angles of Storefront Articu] No.of Angles of Storefront Articu] per foot Seat at Storefront Corner Location Type of Use 1 Big Steel 14'6" 270 18.3 X Men's wear 2 Fairweather 43'6" 360 8.3 Ladies' wear 3 Reid Shoes 15'0" 0 0 Ladies wear 4 Marget Son Lee 61'0" 360 5.9 X Specialty store 5 Harrison Galleries 18'0" 0 0 Men's wear 6 Queue Shop 36'0" 360 10.0 Shoes 7 Rae Son Shoes . 29'0" 360. 12.4 Shoes 8 Charlenes Boutique 29'0" 450 15.5 Ladies' wear 9 Bootlegger 20*0" 360 18.0 Unisex 10 M.G. 1 31 '6" 360 11.4 Ladies' wear 11 Bowrings Canada 36*6" 0 0 Specialty store 12 Fredelle Shoes Boutique 21'6" 0 0 X Shoes 13 The Scotch Shop 33'6" 0 0 X Specialty shop 14 Kaede Japanese Restaurant 20'0" 0 0 * Restaurant 15 Marget Son Lee 29'0" 360 12.2 Ladies' wear 16 Elian Logan 25'0" 360 14.4 Ladies' wear 17 Zodiac Men's Fashion 25'0" 360 14.4 Men's wear 18 P i c a d i l l y Shop 110*0" 0 0 X Specialty store 19 Dogwood E l l i o t Flowers 16'0" 0 0 Specialty store 20 Purdy's Chocolate 37'0" 0 0 X Specialty store 21 Swedish Jeweller 68'0" 0 0 Jewellery 22 Champs Elysees 29'0" 360 12.4 Ladies' wear 23 Hy Art Gims 66'0" 360 5.5 X Jewellery 24 Champs Elysees 27'0" 360 13.3 Ladies' wear 25 Hosiery Hut 21'0" 0 0 Ladies' wear 26 Hey Pretty G i r l 29'0" 0 0 Ladies' wear 27 Dack's Shoes 29'0" 360. 12.4 X Shoes - 49 -Table V. P a c i f i c Centre Mall. of Various Storefront An Inventory of Spatial Characteristics Name Length of Storefront No.of Angles of Storefront Articulation No.of Angles of Storefront Articulation per foot Seat at Storefront Corner Location Type of Use 1 Rotisserie 38'0" 0 0 Restaurant 2 Ingledew's 20'0" 360 20 X Shoes 3 D'Allaird's 24'0" 360 15 X Ladies' wear 4 United Cigar Store 8'0" 0 0 Specialty store 5 London Drugs Optical 31'0" 0 0 Specialty store 6 London Drugs 40'0" 0 0 Specialty store 7 Snack 'N Go 12'0" 0 0 Restaurant 8 Classic Bookstore 20'0" 135 6.8 X Specialty store 9 Black Sheep Boutique 12*6" 270 21.6 Men's wear 10 Sweet Sixteen 20'0" 360 18 Ladies' wear 11 Caprice Cards 13'0" 270 20.8 X Specialty store 12 Fredelle 16'0" 0 0 X Shoes 13 Bus Stop 13'0" 270 20.8 X Men's wear 14 Murray Goldman 20'0" 720 36 Men's wear 15 Ricki's 30'0" 360 12 X Ladies' wear 16 People's 23 '0" 0 0 X Jewellery 17 Aggies 16'0" 0 0 Shoes 18 Purdy's Chocolates 16'6" 0 0 Specialty store 19 Bryan's Fashions 18*8" 360 19.3 Ladies * wear 20 Shirley K Maternity 17'0" 0 0 Ladies' wear 21 Rodier of Paris 15'6" 270 17.4 Ladies' wear 22 YoFi Creations 15'0" 810 54 Ladies' wear 23 Second Look 15'0" 0 0 Specialty store 24 . Tie City 13'0" 0 0 Men's wear 25 Pingouin Wool 17'6" 0 0 Specialty store 26 Hentschel's of Waterloo 22'4" 450 20.1 X Specialty store 27 Stephanie's 22*0" 0 0 X Specialty store 28 Smitty's Pancake House 39'0" 360 9.2 X Restaurant 29 Kinney Shoes 16*9" 0 0 X Shoes 30 Lighting Unlimited 14*6" 0 0 Specialty store 31 Pennington's 30*8" 495 16.1 Ladies' wear 32 Murchie's Tea & Coffee 18*0" 135 7.5 Specialty store 33 Je f f ' s Fabrics 14*0" 360 25 Specialty store 34 Ben Moss 24'0" 0 0 Jewellery 35 Toronto Dominion Bank 34*0" 180 5.3 Service - 50 -Table V. (Cont'd) Name Length of Storefront No.of Angles of ••' Storefront Articulation No.of Angles of Storefront Articulation per foot Seat at Storefront Corner Location Type of Use 36 Malacca Rattan . 46'0" 0 0 Specialty store 37 Thrifty's 20'0" 0 0 Unisex 38 Scholl's Foot Comforr Shoes 24'0" 0 0 Shoes 39 Benson & Hedges 13'0" 135 10.4 X Specialty store 40 House of Distinction 26'8" 240 8.9 Specialty store 41 Mannequin 26 '8" 360 13.5 Ladies' wear 42 Goodies 18'0" 270 15 Specialty store 43 Swedish Jewellers 22'8" 270 11.9 Jewellery 44 Shop 41 22'3"- 360 16.2 Ladies' wear 45 Holt Renfrew 19'3" 135 1.7 X Department store 46 B r i g i t t e Mode 21'6" 360 16.7 Ladies' wear 47 Mappins 21'6" 0 0 X X Jewellery 48 North Pole Sales 15'5" 0 0 Specialty store 49 Speedy Gourmet 31*0" 0 0 X Restaurant 50 V i l l a g e r Shoes 13'0" 0 0 X Shoes 51 ABC Recreation Equip. 15'0" 0 0 X Specialty store 52 Bootlegger 20'0" 720 36 Unisex 53 Fred Asher 24'9" 720 29 Men's wear 54 Modiste 24'9" 270 10.9 Ladies' wear 55 Mankind 14'8" 0 0 Shoes 56 Bata Shoes 17'0" 0 0 X Shoes 57 Clark's ' 17'2" 0 0 X Unisex 58 Keyboard Fun Centre 19'9" 0 0 X Specialty store 59 P i c a d i l l y Place 21'6" 0 0 X Specialty store 60 Marc Singer 20'0" 360 18 Specialty store 61 Suzy Cream Cheese 22*0" 270 12.3 X Ladies' wear 62 Werner's Men's Wear 32'0" 360 11.3 X X Men's wear 63 M.G. 1 30'0" 360 12 X Ladies' wear 64 J. Red Shoes 13'6" 0 0 Shoes 65 Oharm's & Things 16*6" 0 0 X Jewellery 66 Ear R e s i s t i b l e 11'0" 0 0 X Jewellery 67 Shenlor 13'6" 0 0 Specialty store 68 Gazebo 30'0" 540 18 X Ladies' wear 69 Fairweather/Big Steel 64'0" 720 11.3 X X Ladies' wear 70 Kits Camera 18' 0" | 270 15 1 Specialty t/corci 51 -Table V. (Cont'd) Name Length of Storefront No.of Angles of Storefront Articulation No.of Angles of.Storefront Articulation per foot Seat at Storefront Corner Location Type of Use 71 Grassie-Firbanks 20'0" 585 29.3 Jewellery 72 Smart Set 20'0" 360 18 X Ladies' wear 73 Sterlings 30' 0" 360 12 X Shoes 74 Norman G. Co l l Optical 18'0" 270 15 Specialty store 75 Tiptop 14'0" 360 15 X Men's wear 76 Bowrings of Newfoundlanc 30' 0" 0 0 X Specialty store 77 Dalmy's 30'0" 360 12 Ladies' wear - 52 -CHAPTER V PROCESSING DATA FOR ANALYSIS SPSS"1", the S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the S o c i a l Sciences was used to descr ibe and analyze the data. It i s a common t o o l used i n studies i n behaviora l sc ience and contains standard ana lys i s programs for frequency counts , means, standard dev ia t ions and a n a l y s i s of 2 var iance . In a d d i t i o n , U . B . C . CORN program was used for c o r r e l a t i o n analys i s and tes t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . In a r c h i t e c t u r a l research work, often the eva luat ion of data i s done i n a sub jec t ive manner, by assuming a r b i t r a r y values and although the f indings may genera l ly i n d i c a t e the true d i r e c t i o n s , there i s always a p o s s i b i l i t y of personal f ac tors in f luenc ing data eva lua t ion . On the other hand, i f the data i s evaluated on the basis of a strong mathematical r a t i o n a l e , the f ind ings are based on a more s table ground and the mathematical r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s g ive an accurate d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance. Besides , when the factors involved i n a p a r t i c u l a r study of t h i s nature are too many and t h e i r in te rac t ions become i n c r e a s i n g l y complex, the performance of any sub ject ive ana lys i s becomes quest ionable . Therefore , where the var ious factors involved are too many, ana lys i s of data becomes humanly impossible and the computer provides a use fu l resource . 1 SPSS, The S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the S o c i a l Sciences was wr i t t en at the U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, by Norman H. N i e , C. Had la i H u l l , Jean G. Jenkens, K a r i n Steinbrenner, and Dale H. Bent. I t was modif ied for MTS ( i . e . The Michigan Terminal System) by Dan Precht at the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . - 53 -Scoring Data In most of the cases the scoring of data for the different variables has been done in a continuous form, while for a few i t has been coded as dichotomies. By dichotomy, i t is meant that only two classes can be desired for each variable. That i s , these two values may correspond to yes or no, presence or absence of certain phenomena, and the variable can take only two values: 1 and 2. For instance, under the variable of head movement, i f the subject is looking straight, a value of 1 was given. If the subject is looking around a value of 2 was given. Similarly, i f the subject is a male, a value of 1 was given. If the subject is a female, a value of 2 was recorded for sex. But wherever possible, variables like length of storefront, age of the subject and velocity, actual numerical values were given. To il l u s t r a t e the scoring system and the reasons for i t , the different variables are discussed in the following text. 1. Mall Number - A value of 3 was given for Harbour Centre Mall, 2 for Royal Centre Mall and 1 for Pacific Centre Mall. 2. Age - The approximate age of the subjects was recorded by using the true values, although during tracking, the age-group had been recorded rather than the actual age. Therefore, the mean age of the particular age-group was used in the analysis. A subject's age belonging to an age-group of 30-39 was scored as 35, the mean age of that particular age-group. 2 CORN, Parametric and Non-Parametric Correlations and Tests of Significance by Jason Halm, UBC, Computing Centre, 1973. - 54 -3 . Sex - Sex was coded w i t h a v a l u e of 1 denot ing a male and 2 a female . 4 . Number i n Group - The a c t u a l number of people were coded f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the a n a l y s i s . 5 . Head Movement - The head movement d i r e c t i o n s were d e f i n e d as two c l a s s e s : l o o k i n g s t r a i g h t 1 and l o o k i n g around 2. 6. V e l o c i t y - The wa lk ing average speed was expressed i n f e e t per second as f o l l o w s : . „ , c , Walking D i s t a n c e i n Feet Average Speed, f e e t per second = „ , , .— „ . ; r— Walking Time i n Seconds 7. Number of Changes i n Route D i r e c t i o n - The number of p o s s i b l e routes was expressed by u s i n g the t r u e v a l u e s . 8 . F l o o r M a t e r i a l - A v a l u e of 1 was g i ven f o r t i l e , 2 f o r s e m i - c a r p e t and 3 f o r c a r p e t . 9 . T o t a l S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per Foot - The t o t a l s t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per foo t was expressed as the sum of a l l ang les , i n degrees a long the t o t a l s t o r e f r o n t s u r f a c e s . The f o l l o w i n g procedure was used : a . Adding up the t o t a l number of degrees of a r t i c u l a t i o n a long the s t o r e f r o n t s . b. Measur ing the t o t a l s t o r e f r o n t l e n g t h s . 3. c . T o t a l s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n = —r— b T o t a l No. of Degrees of A r t i c u l a t i o n T o t a l s t o r e f r o n t lengths i n l i n e a r f e e t - 55 -10. Total Number of Stores the Subject Stopped At -The total number of stores the subject stopped at was expressed in terms of actual values. 11. Did Subject Stop - 1 indicated that the subject did not stop and 2 the subject did stop. 12. Did Subject Enter - 1 was given to subjects who did not enter a store, and 2 to subjects who did enter. 13. Duration of Storefront Stop - The duration of stopping at a storefront was expressed in seconds. 14. Storefronts Articulation - Storefronts articulation were expressed as the sum of angles in degrees along the storefront lengths. 15. Number of Stores Between the Store Where the Subject Stopped or Entered And the Mall Entrance - Was expressed in terms of actual number of stores. 16. Corner Location - 1 indicated that the store is not located at a corner location and 2 for the store located at a corner location. 17. Storefront Length - The storefront length was expressed in linear feet. 18. Seat at Storefront - 1 indicated no seat and 2 the presence of a seat. 19. Seat Occupied - 1 indicated a seat not occupied and 2 a seat occupied. - 56 -l l u s t r a t i o n Figure 18 shows a tracking map, for the Royal Centre Mall, with a t y p i c a l subject recorded on i t . The following i l l u s t r a t i o n shows how the data were scored. Subject I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 67 Mall Number 2 Age 35 Sex 1 Number i n Group 1 Head Movement 1 Ve l o c i t y i n foot per second 4.2 Number of changes i n Route D i r e c t i o n (number of possible routes) 3 Floor Material 2 To t a l Number of Angles of Storefront A r t i c u l a t i o n per Foot 6 To t a l Number of Stores the Subject Stopped At 0 Did Subject Stop 1 Did Subject Enter 2 Duration of Storefront Stop i n Seconds 0 Number of Angles of Storefront A r t i c u l a t i o n 0 Number of Stores Between the Store Where the Subject Stopped or Entered and the Mall Entrance 6 Corner Location 2 Length of Storefront 110 Seat at Storefront 1 Seat Occupied 1 MELVILLE STREET 14 P l a n t e i H j i Figure 18. Royal Centre M a l l . Map Showing a T y p i c a l Example of Tracking. Date Kkvuo^ l7a\<Mg Day ^ Y i d y  Sub jet ID No. 67 'a^'ear-petj'^V;.^.^ .D iprjgfc t ory. T o Sex: Male QS) -Hyatt Hotel Age Group: Below 10 ( ) 10-19 ( ) 20-29 ( ) 30-39 Number in Group:\ Female ( ) 40-49 50-59 60-69 70+ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Head Movement Direction: Looking Straight (y*) Looking Around ( ) Duration of Storefront(Stop: -First ( ) Second (••) Third ( ) Fourth ( ) Storefront' " " 1 Duration of Time Spent in the Mall 50 %Z6x3r\&* Velocity FhAtC 24 XT. 25 26 Storefront 27 Planter j planter i i Store 1 V ^ r C a ^ p W ^ . j ^ ^ V ^ - ^ l ] . D M c t o | r y S H W H to Storpfron 3 7 ' > 1 > 1 1 1 r To 1 9 z, Royal 1 Bank GEORGIA STREET % Stop Origin Point - 58 -Preparing Data Cards for the Computer Analysis Each punch card on the data deck contained information regarding one subject. For subjects who stopped more than one time an additional card was prepared for each stop. Therefore, the total number of cards was equal to the total number of stops, not the number of subjects. The data cards consisted of normal eighty column punch cards, in which the f i r s t columns were set aside for identification of the particular subject and contained the serial number of the subject tracked. The fourth column indicated the mall number. The successive columns of the data card were used primarily for the different variables in the following order. Column 1-3 Subject Identification 4 Mall Number 5-6 Age 7 Sex 8 Number in Group 9 Head Movement 10-11 Velocity in Foot per second 12 Number of Changes in Route Direction (number of possible routes) 13 Floor Material 14-15 Total Number of Stores the Subject Stopped At 16 Total Number of Angles of Storefront Articulation per Foot - 59 -17-18 Blank :.: /: 19 Did Subject Stop 20 Did Subject Enter 21-22 Duration of Storefront Stop in Seconds 23-25 Number of Angles of Storefront Articulation 26-27 Number of Stores Between the Store Where the Subject Stopped or Entered And the Mall Entrance 28 Corner Location 29-30 Length of Storefront 31 Seat at Storefront 32 Seat Occupied Data Analysis After preparing the data cards accordingly, they were placed in a f i l e in the UBC Computing Centre and then run under SPSS and CORN Programs. - 60 -CHAPTER VI RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Demographic and Behavioral Results The computer output of the analysis were obtained, summarized and presented i n Table VI • which shows the demographic and behavioral r e s u l t s i n the three study areas. Age Comparatively younger subjects (30.0 years) were found i n the P a c i f i c Centre M a l l , while older subjects (37.0 years) were found i n the Royal Centre M a l l . The 7 years d i f f e r e n c e i n age between the two malls i s s i g n i f i c a n t at 0.01 l e v e l which means that a diffe r e n c e that large could occur one time i n a hundred by chance alone. Sex More males (58%) were found i n the Harbour Centre M a l l , than i n the Royal Centre Mall (40%) and almost the same percentage of male and female i n the P a c i f i c Centre M a l l . The differences i n sex between the three malls are not s i g n i f i c a n t . - 61 -Table VI. Demographic and Behavioral Results. STUDY AREAS Demographic & Behavioral Measures Harbour Royal P a c i f i c Significanci Centre Mall Centre Mall Centre Mall Level Mean Age (years) 34 37 30 0.01 Percentage of Male 58.3 40.0 50.0 0.134 Mean Group Size 1.367 1.050 1.300 0.001 Mean Head Movement 1.483 1.433 1.367 0.434 Percentage of Looking Straight 51.7 56.7 63.3 Mean Velocity (ft/sec) 4.132 4.298 4.745 - 0.001 Mean No. of Stores the Subjects Stopped At 1.700 1.283 1.333 0.06 Percentage of Stopping At Storefronts 70.0 28.3 36.7 Percentage of Entering Stores 25.0 45.0 38.4 Percentage of Stopping at Corner Location Stores 20.0 3.0 3.0 Percentage of Entering at Corner Location Stores 10.0 13.0 8.0 Floor Material Carpet Semi-carpeted Glazed bricks Mall Layout (No. of possible routes) 4 3 2 Total No. of Angles of Storefront A r t i c u l a t i o n per f t 16 6 9 No. of Stores 22 27 78 Percentage of Stores At Corner Location 36.0 29.0 9.0 - 62 -Number in Group The number in group vary considerably between the three malls. Smaller groups (1.05 persons) were in the Royal Centre Mall and almost equal size group in the Pacific (1.3) and Harbour Centre Mall (1.37). The differences in group sizes between the three malls are significant at 0.001 level. Head Movement There i s almost no difference in head movement between the three malls and the differences for the three malls are not significant. Generally, i t can be summarized that almost 55% of the subjects look straight ahead and the smaller percentage look towards the shops. Although head movement towards the shops does not necessarily indicate what people are actually looking at. Velocity Subjects walk faster in Pacific Centre Mall (4.74 ft/sec) and slower in the Harbour (4.13 ft/sec) and Royal Centre Mall (4.30 ft/sec). The differences in velocity among the three malls are significant at 0.001 level. - 63 -T o t a l Number of Stores the Subjects Stopped At The greater number of stores the subjects stopped at were found i n the Harbour Centre M a l l (1.70). A lesser and equal number of stores f o r the other two (1.33). The differences i n number of stores stopped at among the three malls f a l l j u s t short of t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t (0.06). Stopping and Entering A higher frequency of stopping was found i n Habour Centre Mall (70.0%), while the lower frequency i n Royal Centre M a l l (28.3%). The lower frequency of entering was found i n Harbour Centre M a l l (25.0%), while the higher frequency i n Royal Centre M a l l . A higher frequency of entering occurs i n conjunction with a higher frequency of stopping (r«5 = 0.719, p = 0.001). Stopping and Entering at Corner Location Stores A higher frequency of stopping at corner l o c a t i o n stores was found i n Harbour Centre M a l l (20.0%), while the lower and equal frequency i n the Royal and P a c i f i c Centre Malls (3.0%). I t was found too that the Royal Centre M a l l had the highest frequency of entering at corner l o c a t i o n stores (13.0%), while the P a c i f i c had the lowest frequency (8.0%). - 64 -Results of C o r r e l a t i o n Analysis In order to obtain a s i m p l i f i e d p i c t ure of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between design factors and behavioral consequences, a c o r r e l a t i o n a l analysis was performed and presented i n Table VII which shows the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e s . The following statements give a summary of the degree of the c o r r e l a t i o n between the v a r i a b l e s , noted under the study of the three shopping malls. 1. The softer the f l o o r material the slower the pedestrians walk. In other words, lower pedestrian speeds occur on f l o o r s with soft surfaces, while comparatively higher speeds occur on hard surfaces. Softness of f l o o r covering material has a moderate cor r e l a t i o n . (-0.45) wi v e l o c i t y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f l o o r material and v e l o c i t y i s s i g n i f i c a n t at 0.0001 l e v e l which means that the r e l a t i o n s h i p did not l i k e l y occur by chance. 2. The greater the storefront length the more l i k e l y that the pedestrians stop and enter but the less time they spend at the storefront. The length of storefront has low co r r e l a t i o n s (+0.23^. +0.25) with the frequency of stopping and entering a store and a low c o r r e l a t i o n (-0.20) with the duration of stopping. The re l a t i o n s h i p s between the storefront length and the frequency of stopping, entering and duration of stopping are s i g n i f i c a n t at 0.008.,;, 0.004: and 0.021 -l e v e l s . - 65 -Table VII. Relationships Between Design Variables and Behavioral Consequences. Design Variables Behavioral Consequences Pedestrian Velocity Frequency of Stopping At Storefront Duration of Storefront Stop Frequency of Entering Store Softness of Floor Material -0.45 0.0001 Storefront Length +0.23 0.008 -0.20 ' 0.02 +0.25 0.004 No.of Angles of Storesfront A r t i c u l a t i o n +0.27 0.001 ..+0.23 0.007 .+0.18 0.04 Seat at Storefront NS NS NS Seat Occupied at Storefront NS NS NS Total No. of Angles of Storefront A r t i c u l a t i o n per Foot -0.24 +0.35 +0.26 +0.33 0.0001 0.0004 0.003 0.001 No. of Changes i n Route Direction -0.45 0.0001 Corner Location Stores NS NS No.cf Stores Between the Store Where the Pedestrian Stops or Enters and the Mall Entrance +0.21 0.05 +0.30 0.004 Correlation Coefficient A l l reported correlations are s i g n i f i c a n t , NS indicates Significance non-significant relationships, blank denotes an Level untested relationship. - 66 -3 . The g rea te r the number of angles of s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n , the more l i k e l y that the p e d e s t r i a n s s t o p , spend more t ime at s t o r e f r o n t s and enter s t o r e s . The number of ang les of s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n has low c o r r e l a t i o n s (+0.27, +0 .23 , +0.18) w i t h the frequency of s t o p p i n g , d u r a t i o n of s topp ing and frequency of e n t e r i n g a s t o r e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the number of ang les of s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n and the f requency of s t o p p i n g , d u r a t i o n of s topp ing and frequency of e n t e r i n g a s t o r e a re s i g n i f i c a n t a t 0 . 0 0 1 , 0.007 and 0.04 l e v e l s . 4. Seats a t s t o r e f r o n t s whether occupied or not do not have any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the f requency of s t o p p i n g , d u r a t i o n of s topp ing and frequency of e n t e r i n g . 5 . The g rea te r the t o t a l number of angles of s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t , the more l i k e l y tha t the p e d e s t r i a n s d e c c e l e r a t e , s t o p , spend more t ime a t s t o r e f r o n t s a n d enter s t o r e s . The t o t a l number of ang les of s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n per foo t has low c o r r e l a t i o n s ( - 0 . 2 4 , +0.35) w i t h v e l o c i t y and f requency of s topp ing and low c o r r e l a t i o n s (+0.26, +0.33) w i t h d u r a t i o n of s topp ing and f requency of e n t e r i n g a s t o r e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the t o t a l number of ang les of s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t and v e l o c i t y , f requency of s t o p p i n g , d u r a t i o n of s topp ing and e n t e r i n g a s t o r e are s i g n i f i c a n t at 0 . 0 0 0 1 , 0 .0004 , 0.003 and 0 .001 l e v e l s . 6. The g rea te r the number of changes i n r o u t e d i r e c t i o n , the more l i k e l y tha t the p e d e s t r i a n s d e c c e l e r a t e . Changes i n shopping m a l l layout r o u t i n g has a low c o r r e l a t i o n (—0.45) w i t h v e l o c i t y . The r e l a t i o n -sh ip between the m a l l layout and v e l o c i t y i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t 0 .0001 l e v e l . - 67 -7. Stores at corner locations do not have any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the frequency of stopping and entering a store. 8. The closer the store i s located to the mall entrance, the more l i k e l y that the pedestrians stop and enter. The number of stores between the store where the subject stopped or entered and the mall entrance (subject's o r i g i n point) has low co r r e l a t i o n s (+0.21, +0.30) with the frequency of stopping and entering a store. The re l a t i o n s h i p s between the number of stores to the mall entrance and the frequency of stopping and entering a store are s i g n i f i c a n t at 0.05 and 0.004 l e v e l s . Tracking Maps of Locational Movement Pattern For each mall tracking maps for d i f f e r e n t subjects were super-imposed to study the r e l a t i v e use of d i f f e r e n t parts of the space. A set of such tracking maps for the three study areas (presented i n Figures 19 through 21 ) i l l u s t r a t e s the nature of d i s t r i b u t i o n of users movement pattern within these spaces. The following statements can be made as a r e s u l t of users' movement pattern i n the three shopping malls: 1. In the P a c i f i c Centre M a l l , the channels of movement indicate that there i s a preference f o r those channels which do not provide any v i s u a l breaks to the users. Thus, the a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements of v e r t i c a l movement l i k e s t a i r s and escalators take up a l o t of valuable space and work as a v i s u a l b a r r i e r (Figure 22). This i s why most users avoid movement i n l i n e with these elements. - 68 -THE BAY Figure 19. Movement Pattern Within Pacific Centre Mall. HOWE STREET MELVILLE STREET Figure 2 1 . To Hyatt Hotel Movement Pattern within Royal Centre Mall. GEORGIA STREET '//////////,. Pedestrian circulation - 71 -Figure 19 shows a preference for a channel of movement between the two big department stores, the Bay and Eaton's. As a r e s u l t the movement i s concentrated between the mall centre and the ex i t to Dunsmuir Street. 2. In the Harbour Centre Ma l l , the channels of movement indica t e the c e n t r a l area of the mall i s the place most used f o r movement, however, the four shopping cor r i d o r s converging onto the centre are ra r e l y used. Furthermore, from the tracking study some 10% - 20% of the subjects had d i f f i c u l t y l o c a t i n g and orien t i n g themselves i n the Harbour Centre Mall, but no p a r t i c u l a r problems were seen at the other malls. 3. In the Royal Centre M a l l , the channels of movement indicate a preference f o r movement i n the shopping cor r i d o r s between the entrance on Burrard Street and the entrance on M e l v i l l e Street. The rest of the mall, however, i s r a r e l y used. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, i t should also noted that there i s a preference for movement on surfaces covered with carpet rather than with t i l e . In t h i s mall the t i l e f l o o r i s covered by a three-foot wide carpet i n the corridor centre. Pedestrians tended to s e l e c t the centre carpeted pathway even at the expense of being farther from the sto r e f r o n t s . - 72 -F igure 22. P a c i f i c Centre M a l l . S t a i r s and E s c a l a t o r s P rov ide a V i s u a l Break to the Users . - 73 -CHAPTER VII CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Achievement of Objectives This study had two main objectives, which were: 1. To determine the pedestrian movement pattern i n three enclosed shopping malls. 2. To examine the f l o o r materials, the s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t o r e f r o n t s , the mall layouts and store locations that may influence the movement pattern and study the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these design v a r i a b l e s and behavioral consequences. Each of these objectives has been r e a l i z e d to a c e r t a i n degree of success. I t has been possible to obtain a composite pattern of pedestrian movement i n terms of channel of movement, stopping and entering stores, v e l o c i t y and head movement. Fourteen from the twenty-two predictions contained i n the hypotheses regarding the factors that influence pedestrian movement were supported by the c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . Several a - p o s t e r i o r i c o r r e l a t i o n s were also examined for which no hypotheses had been generated. - 74 -Summary of F i n d i n g s 1. The s o f t e r the f l o o r c o v e r i n g m a t e r i a l i n the m a l l , the slower the p e d e s t r i a n s w a l k . 2. The g r e a t e r the s t o r e f r o n t l e n g t h , the more l i k e l y that the p e d e s t r i a n s stop and e n t e r , but the l e s s t ime they spend a t the s t o r e f r o n t . 3. The g r e a t e r the number of angles of s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n , the more l i k e l y t h a t the p e d e s t r i a n s s t o p , spend more t ime a t the s t o r e f r o n t and enter the s t o r e . 4. Seats a t the s t o r e f r o n t whether occupied or not do not have any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the f requency of s t o p p i n g , d u r a t i o n of s topp ing and frequency of e n t e r i n g . 5 . The g r e a t e r the t o t a l number of angles of s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t , the more l i k e l y tha t the p e d e s t r i a n s d e c c e l e r a t e , s t o p , spend more t ime a t the s t o r e f r o n t and enter the s t o r e . 6. The g reate r the number of changes i n route d i r e c t i o n , the more l i k e l y tha t the p e d e s t r i a n s d e c c e l e r a t e . 7. S tores a t corner l o c a t i o n do not have any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the f requency of s topp ing and e n t e r i n g . 8. The c l o s e r the s t o r e i s l o c a t e d to the m a l l entrance the more l i k e l y tha t the p e d e s t r i a n s stop and e n t e r . 9. P e d e s t r i a n s p r e f e r w a l k i n g on s o f t s u r f a c e s r a t h e r than hard s u r f a c e s . - 75 -10. There i s a preference of movement i n the mall f o r the channels which do not provide any v i s u a l breaks. 11. Pedestrian movement gravitates towards the c e n t r a l area of the mall. Design C r i t e r i a : Implications of the Study Some of the c r i t i c i s m s of the design which have emerged from the study of pedestrian movement patterns i n Harbour Centre, Royal Centre and P a c i f i c Centre Malls are l i s t e d below: A. Implications deriving d i r e c t l y from the study 1. M a l l layout should be simple with a f o c a l point l i k e a p r i n c i p l e court providing a centre f o r shopper's atte n t i o n . I t can be used for various promotional a c t i v i t i e s including displays, fashion shows, etc. Based broadly on U.S. experience the most successful layouts have been the simple ones, namely I-, T- and L-shaped layouts. P a r a l l e l malls and other more complex layouts have generally been unsuccessful (Darlow, 1972). H i s t o r i c a l l y , most of the successful enclosed shopping malls, l i k e G a l e r i a i n Milan, were i n r e a l i t y covered over streets minus vehicular t r a f f i c . Their plan was simple and since i t was the extension of the e x i s t i n g street plan, i t gave them v i s u a l coherence within the urban environment. Containing may stores, cafes and other centres of a c t i v i t y , they provide ample v i s u a l v a r i e t y . - 76 -2. Floor materials for shopping malls should consist of soft surfaces. Pedestrians prefer walking on soft surfaces rather than hard surfaces, according to the results of this study. 3. Escalators provide a continuous flow of shoppers and reduce congestion in the mall. Also, where they connect two levels of shopping, they tend to draw the shopper's eye to the higher level. But they have two serious disadvantages - they take up a lot of valuable space and provide a visual barrier in the long mall. Escalators should be installed in areas of the mall where they do not produce visual obstructions but they can be easily accessible to users. 4. Open type stores in the enclosed shopping malls require new, ingenious approaches on the part of the designers to focus the shopper's attention on the store. 5. The design of the malls should strive for an intimate character and subdued atmosphere. The purpose is to have the shopper's eye attracted to the storefronts. A l l the visual excitement and variety should be allocated to the storefronts and not the architectural envelope. 6. Mall frontages should be highly articulated in order to become more effective in attracting shoppers. 7. Stores could be arranged in a saw-tooth fashion so that store openings and window displays would be facing the t r a f f i c flow more directly in order to attract the shopper's eye. 8. Orientation and finding direction in the mall is d i f f i c u l t for many users. A store directory prominently and clearly presented should be provided. - 77 -B. Implications deriving i n d i r e c t l y from the study 1. The t r a f f i c flow and ease of movement of the people from one major store to another i s a prime consideration. Where the distance from one major store to another i s long (over 700 f e e t ) , there are both ph y s i c a l and psychological reactions to the "tunnel e f f e c t " (Redstone, 1973). Redstone suggests that one way to avoid these negative e f f e c t i s by creating a break approximately midway - forming a Z-shape plan - usually at the court i n t e r s e c t i o n . There the shopper has to make a short turn before he sees the other end of the centre. 2. The complexity of design may o f f e r greater v i s u a l v a r i e t y , more novelty, and challenge for discovery, but such complexity must be equally followed by coherence and c l a r i t y within the space. A shopping mall by i t s very nature i s complex, a great deal of v i s u a l information constantly assaults the eyes. Any lack of clear o r i e n t a t i o n , d i r e c t i o n and ease of movement with many people, creates a v i s u a l overload. 3. The v i s u a l r e l a t i o n to the outside world i s almost never considered beyond the minimal requirements for egress and exit (Figure 23). Skylights should be provided whenever possible. 4. The design of the main entries to the shopping malls i s of great importance. I t should have an i n v i t i n g q u a l i t y and at the same time be imposing enough to draw the shopper's attention, so that he i s led i n with a n t i c i p a t i o n . This means an a r c h i t e c t u r a l concept of an exc i t i n g , three dimensional q u a l i t y which could take many forms: a - 7 8 -F i g u r e 2 3 . V i s u a l R e l a t i o n to the Outs ide Wor ld . - 79 -colonnaded canopy or special wall design at the entry and landscaped areas which include not only interesting plantings, but also art and water forms. 5. One of the most important requirements of any shopping mall is to establish the right balance of retailers (Darlow, 1972). Darlow mentioned that by carefully selecting prospective tenants, con-tro l l i n g their floor area requirements, and influencing their individual locations within the shopping mall, the developer can create a centre which generates the maximum amount of interest for shoppers. Also by s k i l f u l l y positioning the major retailers within the enclosed centre the highest throughout of shoppers is virtually guaranteed along the malls - shoppers usually move from one star attraction to the next. Recommendations for Future Studies In order to further examine the vali d i t y of the most important findings of this study, further research should be conducted along this line in similar settings. The following points relate to those issues which might be pursued in future study of similar enclosed shopping malls. 1. In addition to observational data, complementary data might be collected on the user's perception of the setting under study. The objective would be to correlate behavioral and verbal response data relating to identical features whenever possible. - 80 -2. Simultaneous research activities should be conducted in recording the subject's reaction under simulated condition of the same setting with the help of photographs or slides. The simulation study would be a useful supplement to the actual f i e l d work and the comparative data obtained from these studies would substantiate the findings. 3. 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Wolff, M. and Hirsh, V. Some Pedestrian Observation. Time Magazine, May 11, 1970, 96, No." 18, p. 66. Wright, H.F. Recording and Analyzing C h i l d Behavior, New York: Harper and Row, 1967. Zi p f , G.K. Human Behavior and the P r i n c i p l e of Least E f f o r t . Cambridge: Addison Wesley, 1949. - 85 -APPENDIX Sample of Computer-Tabulated Results = C 0 R U - F E b f . U A R Y 8 , 1 9 7 7 V A R I A B L E S 1 9 J_Y.fic.S__y...I.._N...I...._...1.._.C_J ti ?l. ? l C I. I ? H 1 L E V E L S 3 0 2 0 2 0 4 3 0 4 2*2 2*0 20 2 0 2*2 $ J A T A O S A M A . D I $ NA.'-ifcS M A L L f / i A G E , S E X t G P S I Z E i L K A R N D , V E L O C I T Y , #R OUT E S , F L O O R M , T O T A N G t S T O R E S > _ST_C)P l , JLNTfcR_ ? , D u R A T K. 'M t f A M G L E t O O F S T O R E S . C O R N E R ? , L E N G T H i S E A T ? . S E A T U ? t C C R R 1 - i . V S 1 - 1 9 * C Q R R 6 1 3 V S 1 7 I t 1 5 / ( 1 ) * P R P C : S i  C O R R E L A T I O N C C E F F 1 C 1 E N T S . 2 1 9 G O S f c P V A T I O N S R E A D . C O r R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S A G E G F S I Z E V E L O C I T Y FLOOR M S T O R E S • " A L L ' 1...0C.0..9. 0 _ . 2 2 2 8 _ _.Q.J3._._.96. 0....29S.3.5 U...a9_.S.O. Q ,..4.06 7.4 Q...9.9Q.63 l . U J O Q l ! 1 . O 0 . W 3 0 . - 9 < . _ _ _ A G E 0 . 2 2 2 3 b 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 1 9 8 5 7 - 0 . 2 2 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 6 4 3 - 0 . 1 4 0 1 1 0 . 1 1 0 5 4 0 . 1 1 1 5 6 - 0 . C 6 8 6 4 - 0 . 0 7 * 6 3 S E X 0 . 0 1 9 9 - . 0 . 1 9 8 5 7 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 1 0 6 9 5 0 . 0 5 1 6 4 0 . 0 1 7 o l 0 . 0 9 7 2 4 • 0 . 0 8 7 0 7 0 . 1 5 4 7 4 0 . 0 7 2 2 8 -y P S U E 0 . 2 ' - 9 3 5 - 0 . 2 2 0 3 4 Q . 1 Q 6 9 5 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 1 9 7 3 7 - 0 . 1 9 5 0 0 U . 0 8 0 4 2 0 . 0 7 4 1 7 0 . 2 5 0 4 6 0 . 3 S 1 C 7 L K A K . D 0 . C 9 3 5 0 ' 0 . 0 3 6 4 3 0 . 0 5 1 6 4 0 . 1 9 7 3 7 l . O C O O O 0 . 4 6 7 4 7 0 . 1 4 1 6 4 0 . 1 5 5 6 2 0 . 1 3 9 1 0 0 . 5 0 0 0 3 V t L O C I T Y . 0 . 4 0 6 7 4 - 0 . 1 4 0 1 1 0 . 0 1 7 8 1 - 0 . 1 9 5 0 0 0 . 4 6 7 4 7 1 . 0 3 0 0 0 - 3 . 4 5 2 8 7 - 0 . 4 5 5 9 9 - 0 . 2 4 9 8 0 - 0 . * 1 9 t 5 . 0 O T . E S C . V 9 0 3 . 0 _ U _ _ _ . 0 . 0 9 7 2 * 0 . 0 8 0 4 2 0 . 1 4 1 6 4 - 0 . 4 5 2 6 7 l . . , .C0.00ft 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 8 1 8 7 9 0 . 7 0 o 9 9 F L O O R M l . O O C O O 0 . 1 1 1 5 6 6 . C 8 7 0 7 . 6 . 0 7 4 1 7 0 . 1 5 5 6 2 - 0 . 4 5 5 9 9 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 6 1 5 7 6 0 . 6 9 5 5 1 T U T A M G l . O O C O O - 0 . 0 6 8 6 4 0 . 1 5 4 7 4 0 . 2 5 0 6 6 0 . 1 3 9 1 0 - 0 . 2 4 9 b 0 0 . 8 1 8 7 9 0 . 8 1 5 7 6 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 5 6 8 0 9 .Toa.S ; C . 3 9 4 8 3 - 0 . 0 7 4 1 . 3 0 . 0 7 2 2 8 0 : 3 5 1 C 7 0 . 5 0 0 0 0 - Q . * 1 9 6 5 0 . 7 0 6 9 9 0 . 6 9 5 5 1 0 . 5 6 6 0 9 1 . P C . 0 0 S T J » ? 0 . 1 . 6 2 5 0 . 1 1 4 9 9 0 . 0 0 . 2 3 1 8 5 0 . 1 0 6 3 8 0 . 3 0 8 2 4 0 . 2 7 9 9 2 0 . 2 8 2 2 9 0 . 3 5 0 2 2 0 . 3 1 0 9 4 e N T E « ? 0 . 2 2 9 1 7 G . 1 2 7 7 6 0 . 0 1 7 0 9 0 . 1 6 4 4 9 0 . 1 7 2 7 3 0 . 2 e 0 9 5 0 . 2 6 6 6 3 0 . 2 9 3 9 5 0 . 3 3 6 4 8 0 . 2 5 4 E 3 J O ^ A T . i J N 0 . . . 2K . 442 . . . 1 9 4 . J 4 C . . C 4 5 2 7 0 ..12387 0 , 2 1 4 6 . 4 _Q_.2Jf_r_.6_ 0 . 3 0 1 1 4 0 . 3 0 6 1 3 0 . . 2 6 0 7 . 5 Q.Mi.ZZ. W A N G L E 0 . 6 8 9 5 b - 0 . 0 3 7 7 6 0 . 1 8 3 0 7 0 . 1 9 0 8 1 0 . 1 6 7 7 5 - 0 . 2 4 5 2 1 0 . 6 3 5 6 2 0 . 6 2 6 8 4 0 . 6 8 5 3 0 0 . 2 8 8 9 4 * U F S T O R E S 0 . 2 5 1 2 7 - 0 . 0 3 1 9 9 0 . 3 0 0 4 8 0 . 1 4 4 1 7 0 . C 5 3 2 1 0 . 1 2 2 - 2 - 0 . 0 3 9 3 2 - 0 . 0 2 7 6 1 0 . 1 5 C 4 8 0 . 0 2 3 8 5 C Q R .?-.? 0 _ 0 0 . 1 0 6 3 2 C . 1 3 9 5 3 0 . 0 0 7 3 2 0 . 0 0 . 1 4 4 . 0 0 . 1 5 6 0 4 0 . 1 4 2 3 1 0 . 0 6 7 1 2 0 . 1 0 1 4 5 L E i . u T H 0 . 2 9 8 1 7 0 . 0 0 2 4 7 0 . 0 6 7 7 6 - 0 . 1 1 9 6 9 0 . 0 9 1 2 7 0 . 0 9 5 4 8 G . - 1 3 0 6 8 0 . 0 9 3 2 6 - 0 . 1 3 4 2 7 0 . 1 0 5 0 1 S E A T ? 0 . 1 3 6 3 6 0 . 0 9 5 9 2 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 2 0 4 C O 0 . 1 1 2 9 4 0 . 3 2 9 8 2 0 . 3 4 4 7 4 0 . C 5 2 9 3 C . C 4 9 2 8 i E A T O ? 0 . 0 9 5 2 4 0 . 0 9 9 0 2 O ^ O 0 . 0 X 6 4 5 0_.b 0 j J0J .5_5_ l .Q__3_5 87.3. 0 . 3 7 1 7 9 0 . 0 3 8 2 8 0 . 0 5 7 8 9 C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S , 2 1 9 O B S E R V A T I O N S R E A D . C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S S T O P ? D U R A T I O N # 0 F S T O R E S L E N G T H S E A T O ? E N T E R ? JANGJLJL _.QBM R ? S E A T ? ; M A L L * 0 . 1 5 6 2 5 0 . 2 2 9 1 7 0 . 2 8 ^ 4 2 0 . 6 8 9 5 8 0 . 2 5 1 2 7 0 . 0 0 . 2 9 8 1 7 0 . 1 3 6 3 6 0 . C 9 5 2 4 A G E 0 . 1 1 4 9 9 0 . 1 2 7 7 6 0 . 1 9 4 8 4 - 0 . 0 8 7 7 6 - 0 . 0 3 1 9 9 0 . 1 0 6 3 2 0 . 0 0 2 4 7 0 . 0 9 5 9 2 0 . 0 9 9 0 2 S f c X 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 7 0 9 0 . 0 4 5 2 7 0 . 1 8 3 0 7 0 . 3 0 0 4 8 0 . 1 3 9 5 3 0 . 0 6 7 7 6 0 . 0 0 . 0 G P S I Z E 0 . 2 3 1 8 5 0 . 1 6 4 4 9 0 . 1 2 3 8 7 0 . 1 9 0 8 1 0 . 1 4 4 1 7 0 . 0 0 7 3 2 - 0 . 1 1 9 6 9 0 . 0 1 2 0 4 0 . 0 1 6 4 5 L K A R N O 0 . 1 C 6 3 8 0 . 1 7 2 7 3 _ _ J). 2 1 4 6 4 _ _ 0 . 1.6.775 0 . 0 5 3 2 1 ........0,0 _ 0.,.09.12.1. _ 0 . 0 0...0 V E L O C I T Y 0 . 3 0 3 2 4 0 . 2 6 0 9 5 - 0 . 2 8 4 6 6 - 6 . 2 4 5 2 1 6 . 1 2 2 8 2 0 . 1 4 4 6 0 0 . 0 9 5 4 8 0 . 1 1 2 9 4 0 . 0 6 5 5 1 * R O U T E S 0 . 2 7 9 9 2 0 . 2 8 6 6 3 0 . 3 0 1 1 4 0 . 6 3 5 6 2 - 0 . 0 3 9 3 2 0 . 1 5 6 0 4 0 . 1 0 0 6 8 0 . 3 2 9 8 2 0 . 3 5 3 7 3 . F L O O R :. 0 . 2 3 2 2 9 0 . 2 9 3 9 5 0 . 3 0 6 1 3 0 . 6 2 6 8 4 - 0 . 0 2 7 6 1 0 . 1 4 2 3 1 0 . 0 9 3 2 6 0 . 3 4 4 7 4 0 . 3 7 1 7 9 T O T A . G 0 . 3 5 0 2 2 0 . 3 3 6 4 8 0 . 2 6 0 7 5 0 . 6 6 5 8 0 0 . 1 5 0 4 8 0 . 0 ( 7 1 2 - 0 . 1 3 4 2 7 0 . 0 5 2 9 8 0 . 0 3 8 2 8 S T O R E S 0 . 3 I C 9 4 0 . 2 5 4 8 8 0 . 1 5 9 2 2 0 . 2 8 8 9 4 0 . 0 2 3 8 5 0 . 1 0 1 4 5 . 0 . 1 0 5 0 1 0 . 0 4 9 2 8 ^ 0 . 0 5 7 3 9 S T O P ? 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 Q - 7 1 9 . 2 . 0 0 , 8 5 5 3 5 0 . 2 . 7 9 . 6 8 _ _ 0 . 2 1 2 8 3 0 . 0 0 . 2 3 3 6 4 0 . 3 . " O . C ._ C N T E R ? 0 . 7 1 9 3 0 l . C O O O O 0 . 7 8 2 8 8 0 . 1 8 0 7 2 0 . 3 C 8 7 2 0 . 0 3 0 o l 0 . 2 5 2 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 4 2 0 . 0 6 5 9 3 D U R A T I O N 0 . 8 5 5 3 5 0 . 7 8 2 8 3 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 2 3 6 8 9 - 0 . 2 9 6 6 0 0 . 0 5 9 2 6 - 0 . 2 0 2 3 7 0 . 0 9 3 4 6 0 . 0 6 7 9 9 D A N G L E 0 . 2 7 9 6 6 0 . 1 8 0 7 2 0 . 2 3 6 8 9 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . C 4 5 4 1 0 . 1 7 8 5 5 0 . 1 4 1 2 4 0 . 1 3 0 6 6 0 . 1 1 1 3 2 X o F S T O R E S 0 . 2 1 2 6 3 0 . 3 0 8 7 2 - C . 2 9 6 6 0 0 . 0 4 5 4 1 l . L C C O O G . 1 6 0 1 2 0 . 0 5 5 9 6 0 . 0 7 7 6 4 0 . 1 3 0 6 4 C O R N E R ? 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 0 6 1 0 . 0 5 9 2 6 0 . 1 7 8 5 5 0 . 1 6 0 1 2 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 4 6 9 5 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 L E N G T H 0 . 2 3 3 ( 4 0 . 2 5 2 0 0 - 0 . 2 0 2 3 7 0 . 1 4 1 2 4 0 . 0 5 5 9 6 0 . 4 6 9 5 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 1 6 1 8 9 0 . 1 0 6 0 2 S E A T ? . 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 4 2 . . . 0 . 0 9 3 4 6 . 0 . 1 3 0 6 6 0 . 0 7 7 6 4 0 . 0 3 . 1 6 1 8 9 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 7 2 4 1 4 . . . S E A T O ? 0 . 0 0 . 0 6 5 9 3 0 . 0 6 7 9 9 0 . 1 1 1 3 2 0 . 1 3 0 6 4 0 . 0 0 . 1 0 8 0 2 0 . 7 2 4 1 4 l . C O O O O o S I G N I F I C A N C E S 1+ T H E C O E F F I C I E N T S . MAIL* . .AGE S E X G P S I Z E L K . A 4 M ) l / E L O L I T r * R O U T c S _FL:'.OK M f o f _NG S T G R i . S S T O P ? c N T E R ? J U R A T ION _ _ A _ G L E 1.j<- S T O K E S C O R N E R ? L E'NGT H  •St&T? S E A T C ? MALL # SEX A.L L K A R N D G P S I 7 F VELOCITY ( " R O U T E S 0 0 C ' ± . O 8 0 . 0 0 4 C 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 7 7 6 _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 7 0 . 0 0 0 0 4 . 0 . 0 0 1 0 ) 0 5 7 7 6 ' 0 . 0 0 3 1 7 0 . 0 . 0 . 1 1 4 5 3 C C 0 C 4 0 . C C 1 0 3 0 . 1 1 4 5 3 C O 0 8 1 1 9 0 . 5 9 1 R 4 0 . 3 1 4 3 1 U . 0 0 3 3 6 C O O O O 0 0 0 . 0 8 1 1 9 . _Q . . J _9184 O . C O O O O . C . 0 3 8 2 9 0 . C 3 8 2 9 0 . 1 4 9 Q 4 0 . 1 4 7 9 0 O . C 0 . 3 1 1 9 5 ' # 1 4 . 0 . 5 4 3 9 5 0 . O C 0 3 4 J . 1 9 2 6 7 0 . 7 9 3 2 2 0 . 1 8 6 7 3 _ C 2 3 9 1 2 0 . 3 1 4 3 1 0 . 7 9 3 2 2 0 . 0 0 3 3 6 0 . 0 0 3 7 7 0 . 0 • 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 3 7 7 0 . 2 9 5 4 4 0 . 3J0c5 0 . 0 C 0 6 1 C . 1 4 7 4 4 0 . 8 5 7 9 2 0 . 0 6 1 4 7 0 . 0 0 4 7 2 0 . 0 2 6 3 3 0 . 6 0 9 0 2 0 . 1 6 0 3 0 . . ___ . 0 . _3 . 2 0 8 0 . 0 . 0 3 7 C 8 0 . 0 2 9 6 6 flJ 0 . 7 3 4 6 4 0 . 0 0 5 6 3 , 0 . 3 8 2 7 2 • 0 . 2 3 0 4 3 0 . 0 0 0 3 4 ' 0 . 0 0 2 7 1 0 . 9 7 7 7 2 0 . 4 4 3 6 6 , 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 2 8 1 4 6 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 2 6 2 3 6 0 . 4 3 2 8 8 0 . 6 8 7 0 8 0 . 1 2 4 7 9 0 . 9 3 4 3 5 0 . 1 7 4 9 9 0 . 0 0 0 9 1 0 . 0 0 2 7 1 0 . 0 1 4 2 0 ' 0 . 0 0 1 0 3 0 . 0 5 6 4 3 G.__0 0 4 9 3_ 0 . 8 9 2 6 9 0 . 8 5 2 6 4 0 . 6 3 6 5 3 0 . 4 9 1 7 8 0 . 3 0 1 7 2 0 . 9 6 5 7 2 0 . 4 8 9 3 6 0 . 1 9 1 t > l 0 . 1 0 2 0 5 O i Z 7 _ _ L 0 . 2 0 4 J 2 0 . 3 3 3 4 1 S I G M F I C A N C E S O F T H E C L fcFF I C I E N T S . T O T A U G S T O R E S O . C 0 . 1 4 9 9 4 , 0 . 1 8 6 7 3 0 . 2 9 5 4 4 0 . 0 5 4 2 8 O . C O O O O . 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 5 4 2 6 0 . 0 0 0 3 0 0 . 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 1 4 7 9 0 _ 0 . 2 3 9 1 2 0 . 3 3 . 6 5 0 . 0 3 5 2 9 0 . C 2 1 9 9 0 . 0 0 0 1 8 0 . C 3 9 7 1 0 . 0 0 0 1 9 O . C O C O O " 0 . 4 8 5 5 0 0 . 0 0 3 5 3 0 . 0 0 0 0 2 , 0 . 0 0 0 4 3 O . C O O O O 0 . 4 3 7 8 7 0 . 0 0 7 9 5 0 . 0 0 1 1 6 0 . Q 0 0 3 6 0 . C 0 4 5 ? 0 . O C O O O 0 . 0 0 . 0 O . C O O O O 0 . 0 0 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 4 5 1 0 . 0 0 2 7 0 0 . 0 0 2 2 3 _O_ .OO.0CO_ 0 . 6 7 7 4 4 0 . 1 5 1 6 5 0 . 3 1 4 4 2 0 . 0 0 2 . 7 2 0 . 0 0 2 6 7 , 0 0 2 2 6 . 0 0 2 0 2 „ _ . 0 _ _ _ , 7 7 3 1 9 1 9 1 9 8 , 3 5 5 1 7 0 0 1 7 6 0 . 0 0 1 8 8 C 3 1 1 9 5 _ 0 2 1 9 9 0 0 0 1 8 0 3 9 7 1 * 1 4 , 5 t 3 9 5 , 4 8 5 5 0 , 0 0 3 5 3 , 0 C 0 _ 2 C 0 C 1 9 C O O O O C O O O O 0 C 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 C O O O O C C C 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 7 9 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 2 7 3 £ O C 0 0 _ 1 0 8 9 6 4 4 9 7 7 1 2 77t> , 5 5 2 5 7 6 6 5 4 7 , 0 1 9 0 9 , 1 9 3 8 3 C 1 7 1 7 . o 4 6 6 6 4 0 0 4 8 3 9 2 0 6 6 7 6 1 2 6 4 6 4 9 MALL" AGE SEX G P S U c L K A R N D V E L G C I T Y _ ( - R O U T E S F L O C K M T O T A N G S T O R E S S T O P ? _ E „ T c ? I DURAT U N SANGLE K O F S T O R E S C O R N E R ? L E N G T H _ S E A T ? S E A T C ? S T O P ? D U R A T I O N E N T E R ? # 0 F S T O R E S #ANGLE L E N G T H C O R N E R ? S _ A T ? S E A T C ? O . O C 0 3 4 0 . 0 0 0 6 1 0 . 0 0 4 7 2 0 . 0 0 . 1 9 2 6 7 0 . 1 4 7 4 4 0 . 0 2 6 3 3 0 . 3 2 0 8 0 0 . 4 3 7 8 7 0 . 8 5 7 9 2 0 . 6 0 9 0 2 0 . 0 3 7 0 8 0 . 0 0 7 9 5 0 . 0 6 1 4 7 0 . 1 6 0 3 0 0 . 0 2 9 6 6 0 . 1 2 4 7 9 0 . 0 0 1 1 6 C . 0 0 0 9 1 0 . 0 1 4 2 0 0 . 0 5 6 4 3 0 . 6 3 6 5 3 __ . ._QC_3.6 . _ 0 . C _ . 2 7 J 0 . 0 0 1 0 3 0 . 0 0 4 9 3 0 . 1 9 1 . 6 1 _ 0 . 0 0 4 5 2 0 . 0 0 2 7 0 0 . 0 0 2 2 3 O . C O O O O 0 . 6 7 7 4 4 0 . O C 4 5 1 0 . 0 0 2 2 6 0 . 0 0 2 0 2 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 7 7 3 1 9 O t C ' O C C - 4 0 . 0 0 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 2 7 3 O . O O O O Q 0 . 1 0 8 9 6 * 1 3 0 . 3 8 2 7 2 0 . 0 0 2 7 1 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 7 3 4 6 4 0 . 2 3 0 4 3 0 . 9 7 7 7 2 0 . 2 8 1 4 6 0 . 0 0 5 6 3 0 . 0 0 0 3 4 3 . 4 4 3 6 6 0 . 4 3 2 B 8 0 . 0 2 3 7 9 C O . •o.o—• ) . 0 1 9 0 9 . 0 • 0 _ 0 . 1 9 3 8 3 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 1 7 1 7 0 . 0 0 1 2 7 _ 0 _ 0 _ 3 9 6 3 0 . 8 9 2 0 3 0 . 2 7 2 9 4 0.44212 0 . 2 0 7 3 5 0 . 8 4 6 6 6 0 . 0 4 7 4 8 _ 0 . 0 0 3 5 2 0 . 9 3 4 3 5 0 . 4 9 1 7 8 _ 0 , 1 C 2 _ 0 5 _ O . _ 5 1 o 5 0 . 1 9 1 9 8 0 . 4 4 9 7 7 . 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 6 6 6 0 . 0 0 1 3 2 C 0 0 1 2 7 0 . C 3 9 6 3 0 . 0 0 6 6 6 0 . 0 0 . 6 3 0 3 2 0 . 0 4 7 4 8 0 . 0 0 3 5 2 0 . 0 0 1 3 2 0 . 6 3 0 3 2 0 . 0 0 . 4 0 0 4 8 0 . 8 0 9 5 6 0 . 5 8 4 < t 6 0 . 8 0 9 5 6 0 . 5 8 4 4 6 0 . 5 0 4 7 2 0 . 0 4 2 9 1 0 . 2 1 1 2 0 0 . 0 0 7 4 7 0 . 0 0 3 8 2 0 . 0 2 0 9 4 0 . 1 0 8 9 5 0 . 5 5 3 0 1 0 . 9 J 7 0 1 . 0 . 2 9 4 0 3 0 . 1 4 1 5 5 _ 0 . 5 2 0 3 3 0.31393 0 . 5 0 4 7 2 0 . 0 4 2 9 1 0 . 2 1 1 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 . 0 6 4 1 2 0.09488 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 2 6 2 3 6 0 . 6 8 7 0 8 0 . 1 7 4 9 9 0 . 8 9 2 6 9 0 . 8 5 2 6 4 0 . 3 0 1 7 2 0 . 9 6 5 7 2 0 . 4 8 9 3 6 0 , 2 7 9 8 9 0 ...204 3 2 0 . 3 3 3 4 1 0 . 3 1 4 4 2 0 . 0 0 2 7 2 0 . 0 0 2 6 7 0 . 3 5 5 1 7 C . 0 0 1 7 6 0 . C 0 1 8 8 776 0 . 5 5 2 5 7 0 . 6 6 5 4 7 0 . 3 9 2 6 6 0 . 6 7 6 1 2 0 . 6 4 6 4 9 0 . 0 0 7 4 7 0 . 9 5 5 9 7 0 . 6 9 2 0 3 J L . 0 0 3 J U 0.91 7 0 1 0 . 2 7 2 9 4 0 . 0 2 0 9 4 0 . 2 9 4 0 3 0 . 4 4 2 1 2 0 . 1 0 8 9 5 0 . 1 4 1 5 5 0 . 2 0 7 3 5 0 - 5 5 3 0 1 0 . 5 2 0 3 3 0 . 3 1 3 9 3 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 6 4 1 2 0 . 0 9 4 8 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 6 7 9 0 0 . 2 2 1 2 0 0 . 0 6 7 9 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 2 2 1 2 0 0 . 0 ~ O . C o N U M E - E R O F S I M U L T A N E O U S O B S E R V A T I O N S . M A L L * A fit-" S E X G P S I Z E L K A R N D V E L O C I T Y ( ( R O U T E S . F _ O 0 R H TOT A N G S T O R E S < ^ _ — : H A L L « 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . _ _ ..2..1.2.,.. 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 , 2 1 9 . . 2 1 9 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 , _ 9 6 . 9 . . A G E S f c X G P S I i E 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . J I G . . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 ? . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 9e>. 9 6 . 9 6 . LK A R N 0 V E L O C I T Y * R O I T _S _: i "5 • 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 7 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 9 . 2 1 7 . 9 o . 9 6 . 9 4 . F L O O R M T O T A N G S T O R E S 2 1 9 . • 9 6 . . 3 0 . 2 1 9 . 9 6 . 1 3 0 . 2 1 9 . 9 6 . 1 3 0 . 2 1 9 . 9 6 . 1 3 0 . 2 1 9 . 9 6 . 1 3 0 . 2 1 9 . 9 6 . 1 3 0 . 2 1 9 . 9 6 . 1 3 0 . 2 1 7 . 9 4 . 128,.... 2 1 9 . 9 6 . 1 3 0 . 9 6 • 9 o . 9 6 . - T O P ? E N T E R ? J U R A T I U N l _> _ . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 -a p, 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 Q , 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . • L 3 _ L _ 1 3 0 . 1 3 J . _ _ .130.,.., 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 , 1 2 8 . 1 2 8 . _ U 8 _ 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . . . 1 3 0 , 9 o • 9 6 . 9 6 . ( . A N G L E • .Of S T U R C O R N E R ? :s i y • 1 1 9 . 1 2 9 . l " .n 1 1 9 . 1 2 9 . 1 3 C . 1 1 9 . 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 . 1 1 9 . 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 . 1 1 9 . 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 . 1 1 9 . 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 . 1 1 9 . 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 . 1 1 7 . 1 2 7 . 1 2 8 . 1 1 9 . 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 . 6 5 . 9 5 . 9 6 , L - e N G T H S E A T ? S t A T O ? _ 1 J - 1 . 1 2 8 . 1 3 0 . L J*~ * 1 2 8 . 1 3 0 . 1 2 8 . 1 3 0 . 1 2 8 . 1 3 0 . 1 2 8 . 1 3 0 . 1 2 8 . 1 3 . . 1 2 8 . 1 3 0 . 1 2 6 . 1 2 6 . 1 2 8 . 1 3 0 . 9*t • 9 6 . N U M B E R O F S I M U L T A N E O U S O B S E R V A T I O N S . S T O P ? D U R A T I O N # 0 F S T O R E S L E N G T H S E A T D ? E N T E P ? . A N G L E C O R N E R ? S . A T ? M A L L * A G E S E X 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . I 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 1 9 . 1 1 9 . 1 1 9 . 1 2 9 . 1 2 9 . ; 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . . 1 3 0 . 1 2 8 . 1 2 8 . 1 2 6 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . G P S I . E L K A R N D _ y E L O C I T . l L . . R O U T E S F L O O R M T O T A M G 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 _ _ 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . J 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 _ _ 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . .1.3.0*. 1 1 9 . 1 1 9 . 1 2 9 . 1 2 9 . J . 2 9 , 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 2 8 . 1 2 8 . 1 2 8 . _ 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 130_ 1 3 0 . 1 2 8 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 2 8 . 13Q. 1 3 0 . 1 2 8 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 2 8 . 1 3 0 . 1 1 9 . 1 1 7 . 1 1 9 , 1 2 9 . 1 2 7 . 129, 1 3 0 . 1 2 8 . 130. 1 2 6 . 1 2 6 . 128. 130. 1 2 8 . 1 3 0 . S T O R E S S T O P ? E N T E ( - ? „ 9 c . 1 3 C . 1 3 0 . 9 6 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 9 6 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . O U R A T I O N . A N G L E O O F S T O R E S 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 1 9 , 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 119., 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . U 9 . 9 6 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . U 9 . . 8 5 . 1 1 9 . 1 1 9 . . 1 1 9 . 1 1 9 . 1 1 9 . 9 5 . 1 2 9 . 1 2 9 . 1 2 9 . , l . a . 9 6 . 1 3 0 . . 1 3 0 , . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 119. 9 4 . 1 2 8 . 1 2 8 . 1 2 6 . 1 2 8 . 117, 9 6 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 119. C O R N E R ? L E N G T H . S E A T ? S t A T O ? 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 . 1 2 6 j _ 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 . 1 2 S . , 1 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 . 1 2 8 . 1 3 0 . 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 . _12iU 1 1 8 . 1 1 9 . . 1 1 7 . 1 2 9 . 1 2 9 . 1 2 8 , 1 3 0 . 1 1 9 . 1 2 9 . 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 . __.2.8_„. 1 ' 3 0 . 1 2 8 . 1 2 8 . . 1 2 8 . . . 1 2 6 . 1 2 9 . 1 3 0 . _1.28._. 1 3 0 . ***«« E R R O R M E S S A G E S _ HI . I N C Q D M O R E C E L L S M I T H E X P E C T E D F R E U U E N C Y < 1 . 1 4 »• 2 0 * O R C O R E C E L L S W i T H E X P E C T E D F R E Q U E N C Y < 5 S T A T I S T I C A L P A C K F I L E N O N A M E A C E F l i p I HF S O C I A L S C I E N C E S ( C R E A T I O N D A T E = 0 3 / l 9 / 7 e ) 03/19/78 P A G E 3 VAR2 \ t ? R E L A T I V E A C JUS T ED C U 1 \ CA f l t G O R Y L A B E L Art S O L U T E C C O E F R E Q FR EO I P C ! ) F R E G ( P C T 1 F R E Q ( P C T ) 1 5 . 2 5 . 9 1 7 1 5 . 0 28 . 3 1 5 , 0 . ? H , 3 15 . 0 - . 3 . 3 35 . 1 0 16 . 7 1 6 . 7 60.0 •'•5. 55 . 1 7 5 28 . 3 » . 3 2 8 . 3 8 . 3 8 8 . 3 9 6 . 7 6 5 . 3 . 3 3 . 3 1 0 0 . 0 T O ! A L 6 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 M E A N •I ODE K U - ' T O S I S 3 4 . 6 6 7 2 5 . T O O - 0 . 7 P . 5 T O ERR S T D O E V S K F . W N E S S X.Tib 1 3 . 5 2 5 0 . 2 3 2 MED I AN V A R I A N C E R A N G E 3 4 . 0 0 0 i e 2 . S 3 6 5 0 . 0 0 0 CO .MINIMUM 1 5 . 0 0 0 V A L I D C A S E S 6 0 M A X I M U M 6 5 . 0 0 0 >.! S S I NG C A S E S 0 o S T A T I S T I C A L P A C M T . r . FOP. I H E S O C I A L S C I E N l . E S -F I L E NGN AM E ( t 7 AT ION D A T E « - Q 3 / 1 9 / 7 t i >  0 3 / 1 9 / 7 8 PAG F. C A T E G O R Y L A B E L PELA 11 V.E „AO jysTEn C L O t -A B S G L U T E F K E O T O T A L 3 5 2 5 6 0 F R F Q ( P C I ) 5 8 . 3 41 . 7 1 0 0 . 0 F R E Q (PCT I C L P FR EQ (PCTI 5 8 . 3 4 1 . 7 1 0 0 . 0 5 6 . 3 1 0 0 . 0 Mr .vi 1.417 K TO SI S M I N I '. I'-' - I . . 4 6 I . O f O S T D E R R S T O D E V S K F „ N C S S MA XI : 'UM 0 . 0 6 4 0 . 4 9 7 MEDIAN VARIANCE 1 . 3 5 7 0 . 2 4 7 0 . 3 4 7 ? . 0 ( ) 0 R A N G E 1 . 0 0 0 V A L I D C A S E S K I S S I N G C A S E S O ' S T % T I S T 1 C - L P A C K A G E F Q F I H l : S O C I A L S C I E N C E S - : 0 3 / 1 9 / 7 8 : P A G E 5 F I L E N G N A H E ( C R E A T I O N D A T E = 0 3 / 1 9 / 7 8 ) _ .. ] ' V A R 4 / — . R E L A T I V E A C J U S I E D C L H A B S O L U T E TR EQ FR EQ F R E O C A T E G O R Y L A B E L C ODE F R E O ( P C T ) ( P C T ) ( P C T ) 0 . 4 1 6 1 . 3 6 8 . 3 6 8 . 3 1 . I 7 2'3 . 3 2 8 . 3 9 6 . 7 2 . 1 1 . 7 1 . 7 9 8 . 3 i. I 1 . 7 t . 7 1 0 0 . 0 T O T A L 6 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 3 6 7 S I D EUR 0 . 0 7 9 M E D I A N 0 . 2 3 ? MOTE 0 . 0 S T D D E V C . 6 1 0 V A R I A N C E 0 . 3 7 2 . ' KU . T C S I S 4 . 3 0 8 S K E W f - E S S 1 . 9 2 7 R A N G E 3 . 0 C C M I N I MU'l 0 . 0 M A X 1 H U , 3 . 0 0 0 V A L I O C A S E S 6 0 C I S S I N G C A S E S 0 o f S 1 A 1 I S T 1 C A L P A C K A G E e _ P I K E S O C I A L S C I E N C E S F I L E NON AM E ( C R E A T I O N D A T E = 0 3 / 1 9 / 7 8 ) 0 3 / 1 9 / 7 8 P A G E 6 1/ \ o c \ -R E L A T I V E A Q J U S T E D C U * A B S O L U T E Ff< EQ F R E Q F R E C C A T E G O R Y L A B E L C E D E • F RE 0 ( P C T ) ( P C T ) ( P C T ) 1 . U 5 1 . 7 5 1 . 7 5 1 . 7 2 . 2 9 4 8 . 3 4 8 . 3 1 0 0 . c ' -TO TAL 6 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 M E A N 1 . ' . S 3 S T O CKR 0 . 0 6 5 .MEDIAN • 1 . 4 6 9 MODE 1 . inn S T O n n v 0 . 5 OA V A R I A N C E 0 . 2 54 K U r . T O S I . S • - ? . . ;>'>5 S K F l i M F S S n . 0 6 0 R A N G E l . O C O rtlMMUM 1 . 0 0 0 MA XI .MUM 2 . 0 0 0 V A L I D C A S E S 6 0 V I S S 1 N G C A S E S 0 VO K 3 S T A T I S T I C A L P A C K A G E rnk T H t S U O I A L S C I E N C E S F J J - f N O N A . . ? ( C P F A T 1 ' ) ( ) D A T E = 03/19/78) >, VA 0,-fr ; R E L A T I V E A B S O L U T E FR EQ C A T G G u F l Y L A B E L . C C C E F R E O ( P C T ) _ - _ _ - , I.- _2 3.3 3 . 1 1.7 Z 3.3 4 jti JS 7 4 . . 6 10.0 ~. To 16. / ? 3_.3 .. 3 5.0 4 . 5 0 .3 __2 3.3 •t. 1 6 .7 9 . A 6 .7 „ 5. 1 LsJL 5. Z 3.3 : 5. 5" 8.3 : 5. 4 6 .7 5 . 1 1.7 5. 1 1.7 T O T A L J50 100.0 03/19/7 8 P A G E 7 AC J U S T E D , C U M F R E C F R E C ( P C T ) ( P C T I l77 1 .7 3.3 5 . C 1.7 6.7 373 10 .0 6JL.7 16.7 10.0 _6 .7 16.7 .3.3 3 . i ^b.l 5.0 5 1.7 (Til 6 0 . C 3.3 63 .3 6. 7 70.0 .7. 76.7 1_._7 78 .3 3.3 81.7 8T3 90 .0 6LL___J_k__ 1.7 98.3 1T7 100.0 . 100 . 0 

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