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Design factors influencing pedestrian movement patterns in enclosed shopping malls Elgalali, Ossama Ahmed 1978

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DESIGN FACTORS INFLUENCING PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT PATTERNS in  ENCLOSED SHOPPING MALLS  by OSSAMA AHMED ELGALALI B. A r c h . , Ain-Shams U n i v e r s i t y , C a i r o , Egypt, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School o f A r c h i t e c t u r e )  We accept  t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  to t h e r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  June 1978 (c)  Ossama Ahmed E l g a l a l i  In  presenting this  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  this  written  the U n i v e r s i t y of  make  it  British  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements f o r  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  representatives. thesis  It  this  for financial  gain s h a l l  permission.  University of B r i t i s h  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1WS  that  study. thesis or  is understood that c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n  Architecture Department of ________________________ The  fulfilment of  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  Columbia  not  be allowed without my  - i i-  ABSTRACT  T h i s e m p i r i c a l study s h i p between human b e h a v i o r  i s based on a broad premise o f r e l a t i o n -  p a t t e r n and the elements of the environment.  D e s p i t e developments i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l psychology and i n s t u d i e s of human s p a t i a l behavior  there i s s t i l l  a l a c k of data and i n f o r m a t i o n on f a c t o r s  of d e s i g n which most i n f l u e n c e the u s e r s The  study  i n enclosed  shopping m a l l s .  took t h e form of an e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  p e d e s t r i a n movement p a t t e r n i n t h r e e enclosed  shopping m a l l s  i n downtown  Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, namely, Harbour, Royal and P a c i f i c  Centre  Malls. The behavior  o b j e c t i v e o f t h e study was t o r e c o r d and compare the human  p a t t e r n i n the t h r e e study areas and to make a c o r r e l a t i o n a l  a n a l y s i s between t h i s b e h a v i o r  p a t t e r n and the elements of the environment  such as t h e f l o o r m a t e r i a l s , the s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t o r e f r o n t s , the m a l l l a y o u t s and s t o r e l o c a t i o n s  i n order  such c o r r e l a t i o n o f s u f f i c i e n t r e l e v a n c e  exists.  The method, employed i s t h i s study, p e d e s t r i a n movement behavior  i s called  of t y p i c a l u s e r s of the t h r e e enclosed  t o t e s t whether or not any  f o r data g a t h e r i n g on  "tracking".  By t r a c k i n g a sample  shopping m a l l s  i t has been p o s s i b l e  to o b t a i n a composite p a t t e r n of p e d e s t r i a n movement i n terms of channel of movement, s t o p p i n g and e n t e r i n g s t o r e s , v e l o c i t y and head movement. The  hypotheses r e g a r d i n g  were supported  the f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e p e d e s t r i a n movement  by the c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s .  - i i i-  The  1.  summary o f f i n d i n g s were t h a t :  The s o f t e r t h e f l o o r c o v e r i n g m a t e r i a l i n the m a l l , the slower the p e d e s t r i a n s walk.  2.  The g r e a t e r the s t o r e f r o n t l e n g t h , t h e more l i k e l y  t h a t the  p e d e s t r i a n s stop and e n t e r , but the l e s s time they spend a t the storefront. 3.  The g r e a t e r t h e number o f a n g l e s of s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n , the more l i k e l y  t h a t the p e d e s t r i a n s stop, spend more time a t  the s t o r e f r o n t and enter the s t o r e . 4.  Seats a t t h e s t o r e f r o n t whether o c c u p i e d statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the frequency  d u r a t i o n of s t o p p i n g and frequency 5.  or n o t do not have any of s t o p p i n g ,  of e n t e r i n g .  The g r e a t e r t h e t o t a l number o f a n g l e s of s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t , the more l i k e l y  t h a t the p e d e s t r i a n s d e c c e l e r a t e ,  stop, spend more time a t t h e s t o r e f r o n t and enter the s t o r e . 6.  The g r e a t e r t h e number o f changes i n r o u t e d i r e c t i o n , t h e more likely  7.  that the p e d e s t r i a n s d e c c e l e r a t e .  S t o r e s a t c o r n e r l o c a t i o n do not have any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e frequency  8.  of s t o p p i n g and e n t e r i n g .  The c l o s e r t h e s t o r e i s l o c a t e d t o the m a l l entrance likely  9.  statistically  t h e more  t h a t t h e p e d e s t r i a n s stop and e n t e r .  Pedestrians p r e f e r walking surfaces.  on s o f t s u r f a c e s r a t h e r than  hard  -  10.  iv -  There i s a p r e f e r e n c e  o f movement i n the m a l l f o r  channels which do not p r o v i d e any v i s u a l 11.  P e d e s t r i a n movement g r a v i t a t e s towards the m a l l .  i  the  breaks.  the c e n t r a l a r e a of  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  Page  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  v  LIST OF TABLES  v i i  LIST OF FIGURES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  x  CHAPTER I  II  INTRODUCTION  1  Statement o f t h e Problem  1  O b j e c t i v e o f the Study  5  Scope and L i m i t a t i o n s  6  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  7  Hypotheses-  9  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  14  S t u d i e s on Human S p a t i a l Behavior  14  P e d e s t r i a n Movement B e h a v i o r  17  III  STUDY AREAS  24  IV  METHODOLOGY  33  Naturalistic  Research Methods  Procedure  33 34  The T r a c k i n g Method  34  The T r a c k i n g Map  3  Identification  39  of O r i g i n Point  S e l e c t i o n of Subjects  f o r Tracking  5  ^0  - vi -  Preliminary Tracking  40  Final  41  Tracking  . . . .  F a c t o r s not T e s t e d  i n the Study  . .42  A n a l y s i s of S t o r e f r o n t s V  -.42  PROCESSING DATA FOR ANALYSIS  .52  S c o r i n g Data.  .53  Illustration  56  P r e p a r i n g Data Cards f o r the Computer A n a l y s i s  VI  VII  . . . . 58  Data A n a l y s i s .  59  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  60  Demographic and B e h a v i o r a l R e s u l t s  60  R e s u l t s of C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s  64  T r a c k i n g Maps of L o c a t i o n a l Movement P a t t e r n  67  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  73  Achievement o f O b j e c t i v e s  73  Summary o f F i n d i n g s  74  Design C r i t e r i a : I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study  75  Recommendations f o r F u t u r e S t u d i e s  79  . .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  81  APPENDIX  85  - vii -  LIST OF TABLES Table  I  II III IV  V  Page  Summary of S p e c i f i c Hypotheses f o r R e l a t i o n s h i p s Design V a r i a b l e s w i t h B e h a v i o r a l Measures  13  Comparative A n a l y s i s of Study Areas  26  Harbour C e n t r e M a l l . An Inventory of S p a t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of V a r i o u s S t o r e f r o n t s Royal Centre M a l l . An Inventory of S p a t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of V a r i o u s S t o r e f r o n t s P a c i f i c Centre M a l l .  An  Inventory  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of V a r i o u s VI VII  of  Demographic and  47 48  of S p a t i a l  Storefronts  49  Behavioral Results  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Design V a r i a b l e s B e h a v i o r a l Consequences  61 and 65  - viii  -  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1  A G e n e r a l Model of the D e s i g n i n g P r o c e s s  4  2  The Hypothesized R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between the A r c h i t e c t u r a l Elements of the M a l l Environment and the U s e r s ' Movement P a t t e r n Behavior  10  3  Related Studies  4  Review o f L i t e r a t u r e  5  Review of Measurement Techniques Used i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l Design A p p l i c a t i o n s : U n o b t r u s i v e Methods  16  6  L o c a t i o n s of Study Areas W i t h i n Vancouver Downtown . . .  .25  7  Harbour Centre M a l l .  8  Royal Centre M a l l .  9  P a c i f i c Centre M a l l .  10  11  H . .15  F l o o r Plan (Hastings l e v e l ) . Floor Plan (Retail  level)  E x t e r i o r View of the Harbour, Malls  R o y a l and P a c i f i c  I n t e r i o r View of the Harbour, Malls  Royal and P a c i f i c  Harbour C e n t r e M a l l .  13  Royal Centre M a l l .  14  P a c i f i c Centre M a l l . T y p i c a l T r a c k i n g Map  15  Harbour C e n t r e M a l l . S t o r e f r o n t Design  17  18  Royal C e n t r e M a l l . S t o r e f r o n t Design P a c i f i c Centre M a l l . S t o r e f r o n t Design R o y a l Centre M a l l . Tracking  2  F l o o r P l a n (Dunsmuir l e v e l ) . . . .  12  16  . . .27 8  29  Centre 3  0  3  1  Centre  T y p i c a l T r a c k i n g Map T y p i c a l T r a c k i n g Map  36 ^  3  3  8  V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n of D i f f e r e n t 44 V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n of D i f f e r e n t 45 V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n of D i f f e r e n t 46 Map  Showing a T y p i c a l Example of 57  - ix -  19  Movement P a t t e r n w i t h i n P a c i f i c Centre M a l l  68  20  Movement P a t t e r n w i t h i n Harbour Centre M a l l .  69  21  Movement P a t t e r n w i t h i n R o y a l Centre M a l l  70  22  P a c i f i c Centre M a l l , S t a i r s and E s c a l a t o r s P r o v i d e a V i s u a l Break t o t h e Users  72  V i s u a l R e l a t i o n t o t h e O u t s i d e World  78  23  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S  I wish t o express my s i n c e r e thanks t o p r o f e s s o r John A. G a i t a n a k i s  and Dr. John B. C o l l i n s , my t h e s i s  advisors,  f o r t h e i r s t i m u l a t i n g guidance and encouragement throughout t h e entire  study. I a l s o wish t o express my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n to a l l  those who a i d e d  i n t h e course of t h i s r e s e a r c h .  Gerson and P r o f e s s o r  Professor  Wolfgang  Bruno B. F r e s c h i f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l comments and  criticism. Thanks a r e a l s o due t o graduate student Vinay Kanetkar f o r his assistance  i n d a t a a n a l y s i s , S y l v i a Chan f o r t y p i n g and N a t a l i e  H a l l of t h e A r c h i t e c t u r e Reading Room f o r her h e l p w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e search. and  And f i n a l l y ,  encouragement.  I wish t o thank my w i f e  Samia f o r h e r a s s i s t a n c e  - 1 -  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  Statement of the Problem  The concept  of c r e a t i n g downtown e n c l o s e d shopping m a l l s has  q u e s t i o n a b l y been sweeping a c r o s s the w o r l d .  In North American  p r a c t i c e has been f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r w e l l over a decade.  un-  their  Other  c o u n t r i e s i n c l u d i n g Belgium, France, Western Germany, Sweden, A u s t r a l i a , Japan and  South A f r i c a have f o l l o w e d the t r e n d . Although  shopping  had  the i d e a o f the enclosed "megastructures"  a l r e a d y been r e a l i z e d  the G a l l e r i a of M i l a n , i t was m a l l s have been developed  i n a n c i e n t o r i e n t a l bazaars  visiting 1972). living  shopping  m a l l s a r e being b u i l t  i n great  element i n the form of our  cities.  i n d i c a t e s t h a t shoppers spend twice as much time  e n c l o s e d shopping  m a l l s as they do  i n open c e n t r e s  E n c l o s e d shopping m a l l s i n f l u e n c e our in cities.  in  i n Canada.  c o n t r i b u t e an important  Research i n the U.S.  and  only i n recent years that enclosed  Nowadays, e n c l o s e d shopping numbers and  for  However, t h e r e i s s t i l l  everyday  (Darlow,  experience  a l a c k of data and  information  on f a c t o r s of d e s i g n which most i n f l u e n c e the u s e r s ; s p e c i f i c a l l y , people behave i n such environments and t h a t c o n s t i t u t e those environments. these b u i l d i n g forms to see how a r c h i t e c t s , d e s i g n e r s , and  how  they r e a c t to those  T h e r e f o r e , we  w e l l they work  of  how  elements  need to e v a l u a t e  i n order to h e l p  s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s understand  the  more about them.  - 2 -  Proshansky  (1970) comments upon the p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n of  environmental  psychology  to the d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n as f o l l o w s :  The fundamental s i g n i f i c a n c e of environmental psychology f o r the d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n has i t s p o t e n t i a l c a p a c i t y t o p r o v i d e a body of knowledge c o n c e p t u a l and e m p i r i c a l f o r understanding the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between human b e h a v i o r and e x p e r i e n c e and the b u i l t environment (Lange, et a l . , pp. 74, 77).  Given such a body of knowledge, a r c h i t e c t s and  designers  w i l l have some r e a s o n a b l e b a s i s f o r t h e i r d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s . The purpose of s y s t e m a t i c e v a l u a t i o n i s t o determine b a s i s of the u s e r ' s r e a c t i o n whether or not a d e s i g n has met  on  i t s purpose  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y or s o l v e d the u s e r ' s needs over p e r i o d of time. p r o v i d e s a feedback  and feedforward mechanism.  knowledge of environmental  problems and  s t u d i e s compare intended use and facility,  and a d a p t a t i o n , the the c l a r i t y of the  image.  importance  Henry Sanoff who  Evaluation  f u n c t i o n w i t h the a c t u a l use of a  f r u s t r a t i o n of the u s e r ' s d e s i r e d a c t i v i t i e s and  The  It  I t i n c r e a s e s our  their solutions.  the l e v e l of the u s e r ' s comfort  intended environmental  the  of d e s i g n e v a l u a t i o n i s a l s o emphasized  by  states:  In a r c h i t e c t u r e today, e v a l u a t i o n i s the m i s s i n g l i n k i n the d e s i g n p r o c e s s . E v a l u a t i o n , programming and d e s i g n i n g a r e the l i n k e d a c t i v i t i e s drawing i n f o r m a t i o n from a s y s t e m a t i c l o o k a t how people use e x i s t i n g environment. A n a l y s i n g e x i s t i n g environments l e a d s to programming. I t i s time, t h e r e f o r e t h a t a r c h i t e c t conducts h i s own survey i n t o how people use t h e i r environment, what they l i k e and d i s l i k e about i t and what k i n d of environment they would p r e f e r ( S a n o f f , 1968, p . 3 ) .  - 3 -  The  important  p l a c e and  f u n c t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n  g e n e r a l model of the d e s i g n p r o c e s s i s i l l u s t r a t e d I t has  been suggested by many p r e v i o u s  i n Figure 1 .  authors t h a t the  c o n s t i t u t e s the f i n a l phase of the p r o c e s s of d e s i g n i n g a standard  p a r t of the a r c h t e c t ' s a c t i v i t i e s .  to improve t h e i r f u t u r e work.  a r c h i t e c t u r a l design An and  should  be  studies  that a r c h i t e c t s  They must a l s o c o n t r i b u t e  to b u i l d up  to  knowledge of human needs  to support them i s to e m p i r i c a l l y examine the i n t e r p l a y  between e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l systems and through o b s e r v a t i o n a l methods. t h i s to  and  theories.  e f f e c t i v e strategy  preferences  evaluation  If evaluation  a r e to be worthwhile, they must produce i n f o r m a t i o n can use  i n the  On  the b e h a v i o r a l  response of p e o p l e  t h i s p o i n t the f o l l o w i n g authors have  say:  I t i s c u r i o u s t h a t most of the concern w i t h f u n c t i o n a l i s m has been focused upon forms r a t h e r than f u n c t i o n design p r o f e s s i o n a l s , c i t y p l a n n e r s , landscape d e s i g n e r s , a r c h i t e c t s would g a i n by a d o p t i n g a f u n c t i o n a l i s m based on user b e h a v i o r (Sommer, 1969) .  I b e l i e v e t h a t the most r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be d i s c o v e r e d by e v a l u a t i n g e x i s t i n g p r o j e c t s r a t h e r than a s k i n g people what they want. C e r t a i n l y i t i s important to t a l k w i t h p o t e n t i a l u s e r s about a p r o s p e c t i v e park; i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y to l o o k a t e x i s t i n g parks which are s i m i l a r (Sommer, 1972).  A"GENERAL MODEL OF THE DESIGNING PROCESS  INTELLIGENCE  Development of Architectural! Program  DESIGN  CHOICE  IMPLEMENTATION  Sketching of Alternative Solutions  Selection of Best Alternative  Working Drawings Specifications, - Contracting, Construction  Correction of Faults i n Design  Figure  1.  Source: "A Model o f t h e D e s i g n i n g Programme" by John Lang: D e s i g n F o r Human B e h a v i o r , pp.43.  EVALUATION  Evaluation of B u i l d i n g i n use and P r o c e s s o f D e s i g n Used  ±  Theory Building f o r Future Designing  -  5  -  The most commonly accepted u n i t f o r d e s i g n purposes i s human need. Such a concept has r e l e v a n c e perhaps, what i t l a c k s i s e m p i r i c a l substance. That i s , we cannot observe need, but we can o n l y i n f e r i t s e x i s t a n c e through o b s e r v a t i o n of i t s e m p i r i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t , behavior Human b e h a v i o r appears to be more c o r r e c t u n i t of a n a l y s i s , i t has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , which a r e r e l e v a n t , e m p i r i c a l l y , v e r i f i a b l e and o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n a b l e (Studer, 1969).  One a p p e a l i n g approach to the a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge about b e h a v i o r i n designed environments l e a d s r a t h e r d i r e c t l y from observed p a t t e r n s of b e h a v i o r to d e s i g n decisions. A w e l l conducted e c o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of an e x i s t i n g system should convey a v i v i d sense of the s p a t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n of i t s a c t i v i t y systems Once the d e s i g n e r d i s c o v e r s the s p a t i a l parameters of a c t i v i t y systems he simply d e s i g n s around them ( C r a i k , 1970).  O b j e c t i v e of the Study  The main o b j e c t i v e of the study i s to compare the b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n between t h r e e d i f f e r e n t e n c l o s e d shopping downtown Vancouver by u s i n g the comparison study method.  shopping malls i n  The  three  m a l l s a r e Habour, R o y a l and P a c i f i c c e n t r e s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , 1.  the o b j e c t i v e s a r e :  To determine the p e d e s t r i a n movement p a t t e r n i n the t h r e e e n c l o s e d shopping  2.  m a l l s mentioned above.  To examine the e f f e c t of the f l o o r m a t e r i a l s , the s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t o r e f r o n t s , the m a l l l a y o u t s and  s t o r e l o c a t i o n s on the movement p a t t e r n i n the  Harbour, R o y a l and P a c i f i c c e n t r e shopping  malls.  - 6 -  Scope and Limitations  The primary focus of the study i s to record the human behavior pattern by tracking a sample of t y p i c a l users of the three enclosed shopping malls and to make a c o r r e l a t i o n a l analysis between their behavior pattern and the elements of the environment; to test whether or not any c o r r e l a t i o n of s u f f i c i e n t relevance exists. Limitations of time and man-power r e s t r i c t e d the scope of the study as follows:  1.  The study has been conducted over an area consisting of only one f l o o r i n each shopping mall.  2.  Interviewing i s not included i n the tracking program due to the fact that i t was found d i f f i c u l t , from the p i l o t study, to obtain enough relevant information by stopping people i n the shopping malls.  This might have l e f t the  t r i p motivation or things people l i k e or d i s l i k e unknown; but since the objectives of the study are primarily concerned with the behavioral aspects which could be recorded without  the subject's active p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i t  i s believed that the omission of interviewing did not affect the findings of this 3.  study.  The study does not include any marketing analysis for enclosed shopping malls.  - 7 -  4.  M e r c h a n d i s i n g and l e a s i n g s t o r e s i n the study areas are not examined i n the study.  5.  The type of merchandise, the way the d i s p l a y i s e x h i b i t e d and s t o r e r e p u t a t i o n a r e not taken i n t o account i n t h i s  study.  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  Tracking  -  T h i s i s the procedure i n v o l v e d i n f o l l o w i n g a  p e d e s t r i a n and r e c o r d i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n a p e d e s t r i a n enclosed  trip  i n the  shopping m a l l . Trip -  of a p e d e s t r i a n  A trip  i s considered  i n t h e study a r e a ,  t o be the l e n g t h of the journey  d u r i n g which he or she has been  tracked.  T h i s i s expressed by a l i n e drawn on the t r a c k i n g map showing the a c t u a l path o f t h e p e d e s t r i a n from t h e p o i n t of t r i p o r i g i n to the p o i n t of t r i p d e s t i n a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n may not be n e c e s s a r i l y w i t h i n t h e study a r e a f o r a p e d e s t r i a n . T r i p O r i g i n - The p o i n t a t which the p e d e s t r i a n begins h i s or her  t r i p s w i t h i n t h e study a r e a  i s d e f i n e d as t h e o r i g i n  point.  T r i p D e s t i n a t i o n - F o r the purpose o f t h i s study, a t r i p i s considered  t o be terminated  beyond the study a r e a .  when the s u b j e c t l e a v e s  the m a l l or goes  E n t e r i n g a shop would mean the end of a t r i p .  - 8 -  Subject  -  For  the convenience of the t r a c k i n g procedure,  the s u b j e c t w i l l always be an i n d i v i d u a l no matter whether he or i s w a l k i n g a l o n e or i n a group. can be done by u s i n g entering  the m a l l Mall -  P i c k i n g up an  she  i n d i v i d u a l from a group  some a r b i t r a r y c r i t e r i a of time or whoever i s  first. A p u b l i c space of a shopping c e n t r e devoted  to  p e d e s t r i a n movement. Variable has  That a s p e c t  of the s i t u a t i o n under study which  a p o t e n t i a l f o r change or does change. Mean -  The  sum  of the scores  d i v i d e d by  C o r r e l a t i o n , C o e f f i c i e n t of r e l a t i o n s h i p between two  (the case i n which a l l v a r i a b l e s i n c r e a s e (when t h e r e  to - 1.0  v a r i a b l e increases  (when one  I t v a r i e s from  i n d i r e c t proportion  An  as the other  in his results.  of time (out of 100)  that the outcome c o u l d be  The  smaller  r e s u l t a r e due  variables)  decreases).  Usually  Thus a p o i n t 0.5  that  expressed as the number the r e s u l t of chance  the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l the l e s s l i k e l y  to chance.  to each  index of the c o n f i d e n c e  the i n v e s t i g a t o r has  alone.  +1.0  i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  S i g n i f i c a n c e , L e v e l of -  that  significance level  the indicates  t h a t the i n v e s t i g a t o r f e e l s t h a t o n l y 5 times i n a hundred c o u l d r e s u l t s have been due  to chance alone;  even s t r o n g e r  t e s t i n one  due  alone.  to chance  scores.  A measure of the degree of  or more v a r i a b l e s .  o t h e r ) through 0.0  the number of  but  the p o i n t 0.1  his  l e v e l i s an  time of a hundred c o u l d h i s r e s u l t s have been  -  9 -  Hypotheses  The  f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c hypotheses,  summarizing the focus of  t h i s study, p r o v i d e d the f o u n d a t i o n f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of data t h e i r subsequent a n a l y s i s . illustrating  The  a n a l y t i c a l framework of the  these h y p o t h e s i z e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the  elements of the m a l l environment and behavior,  to be t e s t e d through  F i g u r e 2.  and  study  architectural  the u s e r ' s movement p a t t e r n  e m p i r i c a l d a t a , has been shown i n  F i g u r e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s a few r e l a t e d  s t u d i e s done p r e v i o u s l y  by other r e s e a r c h e r s i n order to p r o v i d e a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the c o n t e x t i n which t h i s study  1.  The  exists.  s o f t e r the f l o o r c o v e r i n g m a t e r i a l , the slower  p e d e s t r i a n v e l o c i t y i s expected v e l o c i t y i s to be measured and different  e n c l o s e d shopping  to become.  the  Pedestrian  compared i n t h r e e  malls with  different  floor materials. 2.  Longer s t o r e f r o n t l e n g t h s , more h i g h l y a r t i c u l a t e d s t o r e f r o n t s , presence  of s t o r e f r o n t s e a t s and  s t o r e f r o n t s e a t i n g are each expected  occupied  to produce i n c r e a s e d  numbers of stops of p e d e s t r i a n flow, i n c r e a s e d viewing time a t the s t o r e f r o n t and persons  by who  an i n c r e a s e i n numbers of  enter the s t o r e .  Shopper's b e h a v i o r  p a t t e r n i n f r o n t of s t o r e f r o n t s i s to be  observed,  measured and  enclosed  shopping  compared i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t  malls.  - 10 -  u  P e d e s t r i a n Vp.lor.iry Frequency of S t o p p i n g a t S t o r e f r o n t 0) D u r a t i o n of S t o r e f r o n t Stop S Frequency of E n t e r i n g S t o r e rH Cfl Seat User O r i e n t a t i o n M o Spatial Distribution •H > D e n s i t y (person per square f o o t ) cti P e d e s t r i a n Age OJ P e d e s t r i a n Sex pq Number of P e o p l e i n Group 43 Head Movement M too O Passage P o s i t i o n § P e d e s t r i a n Pace Storefront N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n T o t a l No. of A n g l e s of S t o r e f . A r t i c / f oot S t o r e f r o n t Length , Passage Width 0] CU Passage L e n g t h rH N o . o f Changes i n Route D i r e c t i o n •H Seat a t S t o r e f r o n t Seat Occupied a t S t o r e f r o n t > C Physical Artifact G r a p h i c and S i g n Floor Material Sound or N o i s e Temperature Colour Lighting Store Location S a l e s Volume 3  tn  F i g u r e 2.  X indicates tested r e l a t i o n s h i p s , blank denotes an u n t e s t e d relationship  The H y p o t h e s i z e d R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between the A r c h i t e c t u r a l Elements of the M a l l Environment and the U s e r s ' Movement P a t t e r n B e h a v i o r .  - 11 -  1ST P e d e s t r i a n V e l o c i t y u 3 of Stopping a t S t o r e f r o n t CD Frequency cd CD  s I—I CO  D u r a t i o n of S t o r e f r o n t Stop Frequency of E n t e r i n g  Store  u Seat User O r i e n t a t i o n o •rl Spatial Distribution > cfl  CD  Density  (person per square f o o t )  pq P e d e s t r i a n Age P e d e s t r i a n Sex cfl 60 O  §  Number of People i n Group Head Movement Passage P o s i t i o n P e d e s t r i a n Pace Storefront No. of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n T o t a l No.of Angles of S t o r e f . A r t i c / f oot S t o r e f r o n t Length  w cfl •H cfl  Passage Width Passage Length No.of Changes i n Route D i r e c t i o n Seat at S t o r e f r o n t  l> Seat Occupied a t S t o r e f r o n t C  60 •H 01 CD  Physical Artifact G r a p h i c and S i g n  Q Floor  Material  Sound or N o i s e  Numbers i n d i c a t e t e s t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , blank denotes an u n t e s t e d relationship.  Temperature Colour [Lighting Store Location S a l e s Volume  F i g u r e 3.  Related 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  Studies.  W o l f f , M. (1970) Banerjee, T. (1964) O l d e r , A. (1964) G e h l , J . (1968, 1970) P r e i s e r , W. (1973) Heidemann, C. (1967) F r u i n , J . (1971)  7 7 8 8 8 8 8  Oeding, D. (1963) Navin, F. & Wheeler, R. (1969) E s s e r , A. (1965, 1970) Sommer, R. (1966, 1970) Horowitz, M. (1964) H a l l , E. (1959, 1969) Goffman, E. (1963)  - 12 -  3.  The g r e a t e r the t o t a l number of a n g l e s of a r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t ,  the g r e a t e r  the l i k e l i h o o d of  the p e d e s t r i a n d e c c e l e r a t i o n , s t o p p i n g , storefront  and e n t e r i n g the s t o r e .  storefront  looking at  Pedestrian  the  velocity,  f r e q u e n c y of s t o p p i n g , d u r a t i o n of s t o p p i n g and frequency of e n t e r i n g a s t o r e i s to be measured and compared i n three d i f f e r e n t 4.  e n c l o s e d shopping m a l l s .  Shopping m a l l l a y o u t a f f e c t s p e d e s t r i a n v e l o c i t y . specifically,  More  the g r e a t e r the number of changes i n r o u t e  d i r e c t i o n , t h e slower p e d e s t r i a n speed becomes. Pedestrian velocity three d i f f e r e n t 5.  i s to be measured and compared i n  e n c l o s e d shopping m a l l s .  The f r e q u e n c y of s t o p p i n g and e n t e r i n g a s t o r e i s to become h i g h e r a t c o r n e r l o c a t i o n s t o r e s . expected to become h i g h e r too a t the s t o r e s  It  is  located  c l o s e to t h e m a l l e n t r a n c e where the p e d e s t r i a n h i s t r i p i n t h e shopping m a l l .  expected  Frequency of  starts  stopping  and e n t e r i n g a s t o r e i n r e l a t i o n to i t s l o c a t i o n i n the shopping m a l l i s to be measured and compared i n the  three  d i f f e r e n t shopping m a l l s . These hypotheses have been summarized and p r e s e n t e d Table  in  1 w h i c h shows each h y p o t h e s i s f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of d e s i g n v a r i a b l e s  w i t h b e h a v i o r a l measures.  Table  I.  Summary of Specific Hypotheses for Relationships of Design Variables with Behavioral Measures.  Behavioral  Measures  3 cv o  •H  p. o o m  4J  cn  Design Variables  •U  a a  H 4J UlO  Tl  CJ cu  U Tl CO  c u a) a  o cu o  cr cn cu  CU cu  p< >  Softness of Floor Covering Material l=Tile, 2=Semi-carpet; 3=Carpet Storefront Length  O  u  •  (J 4J  CO O U • H m U CU O  U  C  u u o 3 *J O cn ca  ec 0) i-l  4J  a u cr cu CU  u a  ill  Number of Angles of Storefront Articulation  Seat at Storefront l=No seat; 2=Presence of Seat  Seat Occupied at Storefront l=Seat empty; 2=Seat occupied  Total No.of Angles of Storefront Articulation per foot Royal=6; Pacific=9; Harbour=16 No.of Changes i n Route Direction Harbour=4; Royal=3; Pacific=2  I  0  +  1  Comer Location Stores l=No; 2-Yes  (+)  " Positive or higher  Q LT Q  No.of Stores Between the Store Where The Pedestrian Stops or Enters and the Mall Entrance  (-)  - Negative or lower  M m  - 14 -  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF  LITERATURE  Science i s a cumulative  endeavour.  I f our knowledge i s t o  grow r a p i d l y , then we must i n c o r p o r a t e i n our work the r e l a t e d s t u d i e s and procedures In  o f other i n v e s t i g a t o r s  (Figures 4 & 5 ) .  a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g s u b s t a n t i v e knowledge a v a i l a b l e on  any g i v e n t o p i c , a review of the s c h o l a r l y l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i v e t o any r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k i n g h e l p s the r e s e a r c h e r t o get a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the unique techniques and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l procedures which a r e i n use. It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o know how other i n v e s t i g a t o r s have measured the key  terms, what s t r a t e g i e s or r e s e a r c h methods and  they have employed, the type  s i z e o f sample and q u e s t i o n n a i r e developed  and what  statistical  techniques they have used t o a n a l y s e the r e s u l t s .  S t u d i e s oh Human S p a t i a l  Although  little  Behavior  i s known on a s p e c t s of s p a t i a l b e h a v i o r i n  shopping m a l l s t h e concepts which have been s t u d i e d i n other  contexts  might be p e r t i n e n t t o the a s p e c t s of t h i s study and w i l l be r e p o r t e d here.  Human s p a t i a l b e h a v i o r can take d i f f e r e n t forms whether i t occurs  w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s or i n groups. behavior.  Many v a r i a b l e s enter i n t o  spatial  Among them a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s , c u l t u r a l  p h y s i c a l environmental  factors,  factors, psychological factors, etc. Generally,  F i g u r e A.  Review of L i t e r a t u r e .  Overt, b e h a v i o r a l movement  &  P h y s i c a l Spacing S t a t i o n a r y Behavior & P h y s i c a l A r t i f a c t  Oeding, D.  Wolff, M.  Banerjee, T.  Stilitz, I.  Zipf, G.  Grabrecht, D.  Older, A.  Heidemann, C.  Fruin, J.  Lynch, K.  Thiel, P.  Esser, A.  Horowitz, M.  Hall, E.  Goffman, E.  Gehl, J.  DeJonge, D.  Webb, E.  Newman, 0.  Fanger, P.  Halldane, J.  X  i  X  I  X X X X X X X X  -  X  j  Perception of Urban S e t t i n g D i s t r i b u t i o n of People i n Given Space  >  X  X  Pedestrian Velocity  Crime Occurrence  •3  X  X  Factor o f Thermal Comfort  C i r c u l a t i o n Path  3  X  Design of Sound I n t e r f a c e  Temperature &  •H 0) CD  X  X  A c t i v i t i e s of Residents  l i g h t L e v e l Related to A t t i t u d e  X  X  Personal T e r r i t o r y & I n t r u s i o n  D a i l y A c t i v i t y Sequences  Sloan, S.  Lozar, C.  Lozar, C.  Wright, H.  Preiser, W.  Blasdel, H.  -  X  X  Mapping of Movement P a t t e r n  Personal Space & T e r r i t o r y  u o  ii  Use Patterns  Environmental Q u a l i t y  oi  X  Movement Patterns Movement  Cooper, C.  Davis & Eyer  AND DIMENSIONS  Sommer, R.  INTERRELATIONS  Bechtel, R.  MAN -ENVIRONMENT  Proshansky, et al  |  A U T H O R  1  X  !  X  i X  X  I  X  X IX X  !  X  MAN-ENVIRONMENT  MEASUREMENT  INTERRELATIONS & DIMENSION  AUTHOR  SETTING  Overt b e h a v i o r a l movement  Bechtel,R.  Movement p a t t e r n s  Lozar, C. O l d e r , A. Cooper,  Movement & use p a t t e r n s  Museum  INSTRUMENT USED  Hodometer  E l e c t r i c a l micro-switches  Time-lapse f i l m  Time-lapse super 8 camera  Structure observation  Trained observer  Shopping s t r e e t  C.  Davis & Eyer  Airport  Still  Gehl, J .  Shopping s t r e e t  Structured observation  Heidemann Mapping o f movement p a t t e r n  MEASUREMENT DEVICE OR  TECHNIQUE  Preiser, Thiel,  Bechtel,  Personal t e r r i t o r y & intrusion.  Sloan, S.  S t i l l & timelapse camera Trained observer  Shopping s t r e e t  Time sampling  Researcher-observer  W.  Shopping m a l l  Video-taping  Video-tape recordings  N o t a t i o n system  Researcher observer  R.  Museum  P.  Environmental q u a l i t y  photography  H a l l , E.  Behavior s e t t i n g  Behavior o b s e r v a t i o n system  Proxemics  Ed H a l l ' s proxemic n o t a t i o n  Proxemics  H a l l ' s proxemic n o t a t i o n  Personal space  Author's person  Hospital  Personal space  Author's person  Housing  Mapping  Researcher time-sampling  Wright, H.  Speciman r e c o r d  Trained observer  L i g h t l e v e l r e l a t e d to a t t i t u d e  Blasdel,  Lighting  Questionnaire  Design & sound  Halldane, J .  Noise  Electronic  F a c t o r o f thermal comfort  Fanger, P.  Thermal comfort  Combination of devices  Temperature  Gehl, J .  P e r s o n a l space 4 t e r r i t o r y  Sommer, R. E s s e r , A.  A c t i v i t i e s of resident  Proshansky, e t a l .  Daily a c t i v i t y  sequences  interface  & pedestrian v e l o c i t y  C i r c u l a t i o n path  Library  H.  Shopping s t r e e t  Lozar, C. Baner'j ee,  T.  Crime o c c u r r e n c e  Newman, 0.  P e r c e p t i o n o f urban s e t t i n g  Lynch, K.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of people i n g i v e n space  Preiser,  W.  DeJonge, D. P h y s i c a l spacing  Stationary b e h a v i o r & p h y s i c a l a r t i f a c t  Note:  Temperature Tracks  Carpet wear  Tracking  Author'person  Records  P u b l i c crime records  Urban space  Unstructured  Plaza  Still  Park  A e r i a l photographs  interview  photography  Interviewer & tape r e c o r d e r Still &  time-lapse camera  Camera  Goffman, E.  P u b l i c space  Horowitz, M.  Hospital  Fruin, J .  P u b l i c space  A e r i a l photographs  Camera  Wolff,  Sideisalk  A e r i a l photographs  Camera  Plaza  Still  S t i l l and time-lapse camera  M.  Preiser,  W.  S t i l i t z , I. Source:  Shopping s t r e e t •  instrumentation  ••  photography  Theatres l o b b i e s  "Measurement Techniques Towards a Measurement Technology" by L o z a r , C h a r l e s . "The E v a l u a t i o n of P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g s to. Measure A t t i t u d e s , Behavior or Both?" by P a t t e r s o n A.H. In: Man Environment I n t e r a c t i o n , p. 174 & p. 214.  and P a s c i n i ,  O r g a n i z a t i o n and adding have been made by the author. F i g u r e 5.  Review o f Measurement Techniques Used i n Environmental Design A p p l i c a t i o n s : Unobtrusive Methods.  R.  - 17 -  studies on s p a t i a l behavior f a l l into one or more categories related to certain recurring s p a t i a l concepts, such as dominance and t e r r i t o r i a l i t y (Esser, 1965, 1971), privacy and personal space (Sommer, 1969), and proxemic relationships i n groups (Hall, 1959, 1966).  Examples  of units of analysis for the various categories named above include the number of aggressive acts or submissions i n a dominance hierarchy, the frequency of use of c e r t a i n locations, the number of defensive acts and the distance maintained among individuals i n a group. Current research trends i n the f i e l d of man-environment r e l a t i o n s are p a r t i a l l y based upon the fact that humans and animals structure their environment s p a t i a l l y to maintain s o c i a l order  (Esser, 1971).  Originating  from studies with animals i n their natural habitat an ethological d i r e c t i o n of research has evolved which deals with the determinants of human s p a t i a l behavior.  Valuable insight was gained from observational studies on  how animals define and mark t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries, acquire and defend t e r r i t o r y , communicate and r e l a t e s p a t i a l l y to members of their own spaces. Of the classes of behavior referred to above a few were found to be relevant f o r the shopping mall, i n p a r t i c u l a r , space u t i l i z a t i o n of the c i r c u l a t i o n areas by pedestrian movement.  Pedestrian Movement Behavior  Relevant studies of pedestrian movement behavior w i l l be summarized and reported as following:  - 18 -  Pedestrian observation made by Wolff and Hirsh (1970) point out that at distances of less than 15 f t people normally do not walk behind each other but rather walk i n a checkerboard pattern, looking "over the shoulder" of the person i n front.  Thus, i f any person i n a  group of walkers changes his l a t e r a l position, he forces others to accommodate to maintain the checkerboard spacing. can also be observed i n the l a t e r a l d i r e c t i o n :  A similar phenomenon  people prefer not to walk  side by side with a stranger for any length of time and either accelerate or slow down i f someone else i s walking alongside. s i g n i f i c a n t i n two ways:  Wolff's study i s  F i r s t , h i s findings suggest that rules for  acceptable s o c i a l behavior are followed v o l u n t a r i l y by most pedestrians in order to avoid c o n f l i c t i n density situations of varying degrees. Secondly, the methods employed by Wolff i n gathering his data used participant and movie recordings.  By taking movies from above, the  pedestrian movement patterns could be investigated i n d e t a i l by analysing the movie frame by frame. S t i l i t z (1969, 1970) observed stationary groups, as they related to physical elements (e.g. t i c k e t machines, columns, niches, etc.). Queuing affected the flow of movement during varying t r a f f i c densities, especially during rush hours and the flow of movement i n turn affected the positioning of other stationary groups. protection from moving crowds.  Waiting people were seeking  Such shelter, according to S t i l i t z ,  usually found i n the v i c i n i t y of columns, edges, niches, corners and similar s p a t i a l l y defined attributes of the investigated setting.  was  - 19 -  S t i l i t z d i f f e r e n t i a t e d among p e d e s t r i a n a t t r i b u t e s , f o r m a l a t t r i b u t e s and flow p a t t e r n s .  Pedestrian a t t r i b u t e s included p e r i o d i c i t y  such as the r u s h hours, and  factors,  the f a c t t h a t people take to the r o u t e of  l e a s t appearing e f f o r t . Zipf  (1949) attempted  to develop a t h e o r y of human b e h a v i o r  based upon the " P r i n c i p l e of L e a s t E f f o r t " , a c c o r d i n g to which each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l adopt a c o u r s e of a c t i o n that w i l l of the  least effort".  i n v o l v e the e x p e n d i t u r e  Formal a t t r i b u t e s were those of most  to the author i n t h a t they attempted a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , containment,  interest  to g i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the  c o n n e c t i v e n e s s , and t r a v e r s a b i l i t y of  c e r t a i n s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which appeared  to have d i r e c t  influence  on people's b e h a v i o r . Garbrecht  (1971) d i s t i n g u i s h e d among s e v e r a l k i n d s of p e d e s t r i a n  b e h a v i o r by the purpose around  of w a l k i n g , l i k e going to work, shopping,  and e x p l o r i n g the environment.  strolling  The c r i t e r i a and determinants f o r  the s e l e c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r path were: " V e l o c i t y , i n c l i n a t i o n to i n t e r r u p t a walk and t o make d e t o u r s ; p e r c e p t i o n of the q u a l i t y of the environment;  environment;  l e n g t h of path and the s i m p l i c i t y of p a t h " .  With r e g a r d to the a c t i v i t y of shopping and a s s o c i a t e d w a l k i n g b e h a v i o r s , he remarked t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t p r o b a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s f o r i n t e r r u p t i o n s of the p e d e s t r i a n movement. speed was  observed i n the p e r s o n approaching the shopping f a c i l i t y .  the shopping a c t i v i t y features.  Stopping, minor d e t o u r s and a r e l a t i v e l y  lower In  i t s e l f more a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n to the environmental  The q u a l i t y of the environment  o b v i o u s l y has a l a r g e r  effect  upon the shopper's walking than has the l e n g t h and s i m p l i c i t y of the path.  -  20  -  Another study of w a l k i n g speeds i n the P i t t s b u r g h C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t  ( F r u i n , 1971)  showed v a r i a n c e s i n p e d e s t r i a n  speeds  which were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the time of the day, o u t s i d e temperature and t r i p purpose. to  P e d e s t r i a n w i t h r e s t a u r a n t t r i p purposes were found  have s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r speeds than those w i t h b u s i n e s s or shopping  t r i p purpose.  These s t u d i e s c o n f i r m t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l of  potential variability  i n i n d i v i d u a l f r e e - f l o w w a l k i n g speeds.  Psychological  f a c t o r s , r e a c t i o n t o environment, t r a f f i c c o m p o s i t i o n and t r i p purpose c o u l d all  c o n t r i b u t e t o each p e d e s t r i a n ' s s e l e c t i o n of h i s unimpeded f r e e f l o w  speed. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s among space requirements (or d e n s i t y ) ,  speed  of movement, and r a t e s of f l o w i n p e d e s t r i a n streams have been s t u d i e d by a number of i n v e s t i g a t o r s . N a v i n and Wheeler,  Among the more r e c e n t ones a r e Oeding, O l d e r ,  and F r u i n .  O l d e r (1964) noted i n h i s paper on  "Speed, d e n s i t y and f l o w of p e d e s t r i a n s on foot-ways i n shopping s t r e e t s " , t h a t under i d e n t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of p e d e s t r i a n d e n s i t y , narrower paths would generate r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r speed whereas w i t h c o n s t a n t path w i d t h a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between i n c r e a s e d d e n s i t y and decreased p e d e s t r i a n v e l o c i t y , i . e . a r a t i o o f p e d e s t r i a n per square f o o t . Heidemann (1967) conducted an i n t e r e s t i n g study of the p e r i o d i c changes of p e d e s t r i a n d e n s i t y i n a downtown shopping s t r e e t i n Braunschweig, Germany.  On the b a s i s o f sampled  t r a f f i c counts, he was  a b l e to c o n s t r u c t  average p r o f i l e s of user d e n s i t y f o r hours, days, weeks and months which would l e n d themselves t o p r e d i c t e s t i m a t e d t r a f f i c .  A c o r r e l a t i o n between  v a r i a t i o n s i n p e d e s t r i a n d e n s i t i e s and s a l e s f i g u r e s of the a d j a c e n t s t o r e s was  found.  - 21 -  In a study of pedestrians and their environment i n a pedestrianized main shopping street of Copenhagen Gehl (1968) noted the importance of serious and q u a l i f i e d planning for pedestrians and pedestrian a c t i v i t i e s i n Danish centres.  Walking i s not only a way of transportation. Being pedestrian among other pedestrians provides a vast number of p o s s i b i l i t i e s for f u l f i l l i n g s o c i a l needs such as contact, knowledge, s o c i a l acceptance, etc. A c t i v i t i e s i n a pedestrian area are therefore of a very complex nature, and the area changes character from being a corridor used for walking to being a l i v i n g room criss-crossed by walkers - when the conditions are favorable. Creating of such environment favorable conditions would be the obvious aim of Manscope planning (Gehl, 1968).  Gehl found too, concerning the d i s t r i b u t i o n of pedestrian speeds under conditions of free choice, maximum speed to be 410 f t per minute and minimum speed to be 143 f t per minute. Lynch (1959) recorded responses from pedestrians, i n the c i t y of Boston, while actually moving through a c i t y i t s e l f .  From this study,  i t was possible to obtain a hierarchy of common agreements as to the d i f f e r e n t parts of the street scene  i n which, interestingly enough,  contents and d e t a i l s of various storefronts was one important factor. In h i s report, Lynch states:  Almost every pedestrian was conscious about the s p a t i a l quality of the street breadth, width of side walk, the height of flanking building and the open v i s t a Almost a l l walkers commented at one time or another upon the stores themselves and the contents of their window, parked cars, moving t r a f f i c , street furniture, people, colors, smells, sound and weather (Lynch, 1959).  - 22 -  Thiel of  (1961), an a r c h i t e c t , f o c u s e s on the s e q u e n t i a l a s p e c t  human movement through an environment  n o t a t i o n system  on the model of the person who i s walking and coming  onto v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s of t h e environment, strip.  and bases h i s environmental  which a r e l a i d  out as i f i n  H i s emphasis on d e s i g n i n g f o r " s e q u e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e i n r e a l - t i m e "  p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i e s t o t h e moving crowd which has need of an o r i e n t i n g language.  H i s n o t a t i o n system  i s an environmental  d i s t a n c e , and d i r e c t i o n p r i m a r i l y .  sign-language of s c a l e ,  I t i s such languages  w i l l need to speak t o p a r t i c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l  that designers  problems.  Winkel and Sasanoff  (1966) used a p h o t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o  s i m u l a t e a r e a l world system.  The r e a l world system was the i n t e r i o r of a  museum, and the u s e r b e h a v i o r s t u d i e d i n t h i s environment through t h e museum; as w e l l as p a t t e r n of e x h i b i t v i e w i n g . photographs to  o f the i n t e r i o r o f t h e museum were used  was movement Color  to allow observers  r e p o r t on how they would move through the museum and which  they would view.  Observed  exhibit  p a t t e r n s of user movement i n the r e a l world  system were compared w i t h p a t t e r n s of user movement o b t a i n e d i n the simulated  space. Bechtel  (1970) used  the hodometer, which i s a s p e c i a l type of  instrumented mapping d e v i c e , i n h i s study of p r e f e r e n c e s i n a museum setting.  The hodometer c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s of p r e s s u r e s e n s i t i v e  m i c r o - s w i t c h e s under t h e mats of a museum f l o o r .  When a p r e s s u r e of  more than f o u r pounds per square i n c h e x i s t e d a s w i t c h would c l o s e and t r i p an e l e c t r i c a l c o u n t e r .  I n t h i s way, the movement of people was  r e g i s t e r e d and t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e p a t t e r n f o r c e r t a i n p o i n t i n g s was mapped.  - 23 -  Lozar  (1973) used  t i m e l a p s e photography  movement p a t t e r n s i n a d i n i n g space. first  to examine  Timelapse i s a d e v i c e which a t  g l a n c e seems to have s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r r e c o r d i n g b e h a v i o r  i n almost any environment.  The camera i s c a p a b l e of f i l m i n g  unattended;  f i l m compresses time t o enable t h e r e s e a r c h t o sample a t i n t e r v a l s . The major problem  i n t i m e l a p s e f i l m i s not so much w i t h the a c t u a l  i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n as i t i s w i t h the software a n a l y s i s of the r e c o r d e d information. David and Eyer  (1973) used t h e technique of s t i l l  to document movement p a t t e r n s i n a i r p o r t s and extended  photography  i t t o human f a c t o r s  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of e s c a l a t o r d e s i g n s . Preiser  (1973) conducted  an i n t e r e s t i n g study by u s i n g the v i d e o  tape r e c o r d i n g o f human b e h a v i o r , to determine and  the p e d e s t r i a n movement  s t a t i o n a r y b e h a v i o r i n t h e e n c l o s e d shopping c e n t r e m a l l of Columbia,  Maryland.  H i s r e s u l t s l e d t o t h e development o f models of s o c i a l  i n t e r a c t i o n i n shopping c e n t e r s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n i m p l i c a t i o n s . In a study o f s i d e w a l k b e h a v i o r i n a shopping s t r e e t (1964) found t h a t age groups, were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d zones o f the s i d e w a l k .  Banerjee  i n t h e i r use of d i f f e r e n t  O l d e r people would p r e f e r t o walk i n the zone  c l o s e s t to the s t o r e f r o n t s  (perhaps f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l reasons of f e e l i n g  s a f e r c l o s e t o w a l l s ) whereas young people tended t o be found near the curb and s t r e e t s i d e of the s i d e w a l k .  I n terms of methodology, B a r n e r j e e used  the t r a c k i n g t e c h n i q u e f o r g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on p e d e s t r i a n movement behavior.  A s i m i l a r t e c h n i q u e of t r a c k i n g was employed i n t h i s  i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n b a s i c p a t t e r n of p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c shopping m a l l s .  study  f l o w i n the e n c l o s e d  - 24 -  CHAPTER I I I  STUDY AREAS  In view of the o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s study, Harbour Centre M a l l , Royal Centre M a l l and P a c i f i c Centre M a l l were chosen  f o r the f o l l o w i n g  reasons:  1.  The t h r e e study areas have d i f f e r e n t l a y o u t s .  2.  They have d i f f e r e n t f l o o r m a t e r i a l s .  3.  They a r e a l l l o c a t e d i n the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s of Vancouver, B r i t i s h  The  district  Columbia.  l o c a t i o n s o f these study areas i n the downtown c o n t e x t ,  a r e shown i n F i g u r e 6.  A l l t h r e e study a r e a s a r e w i t h i n c l o s e w a l k i n g  d i s t a n c e s from t h e mainstream o f p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n i n downtown Vancouver. A comparative  a n a l y s i s of the three centers o f f e r i n g  background i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n i n T a b l e I I .  P l a n s and  some  photographs  f o l l o w ( F i g u r e s 7-11). The Harbour C e n t r e M a l l was the f i r s t major c a r p e t e d m a l l i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  I t c o v e r s more than 65,000 square f e e t on two l e v e l s  i n t h e b l o c k bounded by West H a s t i n g s , Seymour, Cordova and R i c h a r d s ,  1 I  =i  1  ^*«sj  J  1 I  tzi • a • c= nn nn n n  in nn nn  r —  Georgia St  to 3 a < CO  rt  Figure  6.  Locations of Study Areas Within Vancouver Downtown.  ho  - 26 -  Table  II.  Comparative A n a l y s i s of Study Areas. STUDY AREAS ROYAL  PACIFIC  CENTRE MALL  CENTRE MALL Pacific Limited  HARBOUR CENTRE  MALL  MANAGEMENT  Polaris Reality Western L i m i t e d  Trizec Corporation  ARCHITECT  Eng and Wright  D i r a s s a r James Jorgenion Davis  DESIGN ARCHITECT  Webb Zerafa Menkes  D i r a s s a r James Jorgenion Davis  Ceasar  PLAN. TYPE (Layout)  Enclosed m a l l on two l e v e l s  Enclosed m a l l on two l e v e l s  Enclosed m a l l on two l e v e l s  RETAIL AREA  75,000 s q . f t . (two l e v e l s )  72,000 s q . f t . (two l e v e l s )  215,000 s q . f t . (two l e v e l s )  NO.OF RETAIL STORE  50 (two  55 (two  130 (two  levels)  levels)  Centre  • MacCarter Nairne and partner Pelli  levels)  MALL WIDTH  15-20 f t  20 f t  30 f t  MALL HEIGHT  11 f t  12-13 f t  12 f t  FLOOR MATERIAL  carpet  semi-carpeted  glazed b r i c k s  TOTAL NO.OF ANGLES OF STOREFRONT ARTICULATION PER FOOT  16  6  9  TOTAL STOREFRONT . WIDTH  612 f t  920 f t  1737 f t  BENCHES OR SEATS  fixed  fixed  movable  MAJOR TENANT  Department Store  OTHER FACILITIES  O f f i c e Bldg, Restaurant  Hotel,Bank, O f f i c e Bldg.  Hotel, O f f i c e Bldg.  ANNUAL SALES PER SQUARE FOOT  $125  $135  $200  Department . Store  Figure  7.  Harbour C e n t r e M a l l .  F l o o r Plan (Hastings  level).  -  28 -  MELVILLE STREET  H  PS H O Pi  P5  GEORGIA STREET to  Figure  Royal Centre M a l l .  c  ft"  Floor Plan ( R e t a i l l e v e l ) .  EATON' S  Exterior View of the Harbour, Royal and P a c i f i c Centre Malls.  -  31 -  Harbour Centre  Figure  11.  I n t e r i o r View of the H a r b o u r , R o y a l and P a c i f i c Centre M a l l s .  - 32  w i t h entrances from every s t r e e t .  -  The  design  concept i n the m a l l i s  d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the t r a d i t i o n a l shopping c e n t r e , which i s a c o r r i d o r w i t h s t o r e s o f f e i t h e r s i d e of i t . pedestrian  shopping m a l l .  Royal Centre M a l l i s Vancouver's f i r s t major downtown I t i s l o c a t e d on one  Vancouver, G e o r g i a S t r e e t and The  between Robson and  Granville Street.  and  Burrard  department s t o r e and  the new  central city  Howe S t r e e t s .  the Eaton's department  transportation  I t i s a t w o - l e v e l m a l l , one  forming a covered walkway stores.  It is  Vancouver Centre under  P a c i f i c C e n t r e M a l l i s c l o s e to major  the other  of downtown  Street.  Dunsmuir, G r a n v i l l e and  through the downtown a r e a .  on to sidewalks and Bay  of the b u s i e s t corner  P a c i f i c Centre M a l l i s encompassing two  connected to the Bay  routes  easy  pattern. The  blocks  I t i s a s h o r t and  long  opening  between  the  - 33 -  CHAPTER IV  METHODOLOGY  N a t u r a l i s t i c Research  Methods  In o r d e r t o make an o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of b e h a v i o r i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e shopping m a l l environment u n o b t r u s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s were employed u s i n g t h e t r a c k i n g method.  The  advantages of t h e u n o b t r u s i v e t e c h n i q u e l i e i n the f a c t t h a t i n t e r f e r e n c e with subjects i n public places i s l i m i t e d .  F o r t h e purpose of t h i s  the shopping m a l l was d e f i n e d as a " n a t u r a l s e t t i n g " . study of environmental particularly themselves  study  I n e t h o l o g y , the  b e h a v i o r i n i t s n a t u r a l i s t i c r e s e a r c h has been  s u c c e s s f u l , p a r t l y because animals a r e not a b l e t o express  verbally.  The importance  o f n a t u r a l i s t i c r e s e a r c h i n human  s e t t i n g s has been s t r e s s e d by T i n b e r g e n  (1968).  Greenbie  (1970) argued  c o n v i n c i n g l y f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of e t h o l o g i c a l methods t o a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s i n urban s e t t i n g s . animals  I n s h o r t , e t h o l o g y s t u d i e s t h e behavior of  i n their natural habitat.  I f a p p l i e d t o the study of human  b e h a v i o r , c e r t a i n advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s of the e t h o l o g i c a l as d e s c r i b e d by Hutt The  (1970),  e t h o l o g i c a l method tends  c a n be summarized i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways: to capture i n a h o l i s t i c  sense  the o v e r a l l  s t r u c t u r e u n d e r l y i n g human b e h a v i o r i n non l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g s . it  i s n o t concerned  approach,  Since  w i t h c o n t r o l l e d and i s o l a t e d v a r i a b l e as found  under  -  34 -  l a b o r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s , q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g i s more d i f f i c u l t  to a c h i e v e , as i s an exact r e p l i c a t i o n of f i n d i n g s  of e t h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . and Wright  behavior  In c o n t r a s t i n g t h i s method, Barker  (1968)  (1967) have e l a b o r a t e d on the e c o l o g i c a l approach to the  study of b e h a v i o r i n numerous w r i t i n g s . a n a l y s i s f o r the e c o l o g i s t s may w i t h g o a l s and  The b e h a v i o r a l u n i t s of  be long sequences of b e h a v i o r  i n t e n t i o n s of the a c t o r s being i n f e r r e d by the  episodes observer,  w h i l e the e t h o l o g i s t i n t e n d s to g i v e an o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of behavior p a t t e r n s .  Research  s t r a t e g i e s f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n of p h y s i c a l  l o c a t i o n and movement of animals or human d i f f e r w i t h the purpose of investigation.  Some o n l y a p p l y simple o b s e r v a t i o n and o t h e r s  hardware as mentioned e a r l i e r  (see F i g u r e  the  use  5)  Procedure  The  e t h o l o g i c a l approach was  i s mainly based  chosen f o r t h i s study.  The  procedure  on the f o l l o w i n g t e c h n i q u e s :  The T r a c k i n g Method  The method, employed i n t h i s : p e d e s t r i a n movement b e h a v i o r i s c a l l e d  study, f o r d a t a g a t h e r i n g on "tracking".  T r a c k i n g as a t o o l  f o r r e c o r d i n g some a s p e c t s of human b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n has i n t e r e s t i n g and  encouraging  results  i n a few  produced  s t u d i e s done p r e v i o u s l y .  - 35 -  One of the f i r s t uses of tracking was made at Boston Museum of Science by Weiss and Boutourline (1962), as an exploratory study, followed by the study done of Seattle World's F a i r i n 1962. This technique had also been adopted by Winkel and Sasanoff (1966) i n a simulation study of human behavior.  Banerjee  (1964) used the same  technique for his study on human behavior aspects i n a shopping Recently, Bonsteel and Parker  (1970) conducted  an interesting  street.  study,  using the pedestrian count and tracking techniques i n observing the users of downtown Seattle, Washington. In terms of data c o l l e c t i o n , the following information was recorded during tracking i n the three study areas:  1.  Subject c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as age, sex, i n d i v i d u a l or  i n a group. 2.  Duration of time spent i n the mall i n order to calculate  the subject's v e l o c i t y . 3.  Places at which the subject stopped and the time spent.  4.  Direction of head movement.  The Tracking Map  A tracking map was prepared showing the plan of the shopping mall (the f l o o r plan within which the study area was delimited). The tracking map shows the outline of the storefronts and location of the d i f f e r e n t shopping mall furniture.  Figures 1-2-14  : show t y p i c a l tracking  maps, f o r each shopping mall, used f o r the purpose of tracking. The p a r a l l e l lines on the mall correspond to a twenty foot module, l a i d  Figure  12.  Harbour Centre Mall. Typical Tracking Map. CORDOVA STREET  Subject ID No. Sex: Male ( )  Female ( )  Age Group: Below 10 ( ) 10-19 ( ) 20-29 ( ) 30-39 ( )  40-49 50-59 60-69 70+  ( ( ( (  ) ) ) )  Number i n Group Head Movement D i r e c t i o n : Looking Straight Looking Around Duration of Storefront F i r s t Stop Second Stop Third Stop Fourth Stop  ( ) ( ) Stop: ( ( ( (  ) ) ) )  Duration of Time Spent in the Mall Velocity  Origin HASTINGS STREET  Point  MELVILLE STREET Figure  13.  Royal Centre Mall.  Typical Tracking Map.  Date_ Day Subjet ID No.  ,_tore j ^ F J i r ec t or-y—-f, Hyatt lot e l T  14  Storefront  13 12  20 L_  18  19  0  40-49 50-59 60-69 70+  ( ( ( (  ) ) ) )  Head Movement Direction: Looking Straight ( ) Looking Around ( ) Duration of Storefront Stop:  S  t  o  r  23  •'• .• • Carpet - ..  Es'dklatl l o r  Female ( )  Number i n Group:  22  21  Storefront!  10  ( )  Below 10 ( ) 10-19 ( ) 20-29 ( ) 30-39 ( )  'A  Storefront  Male  Age Group:  he  --  ii  Sex:  T  e  f  r  o  n  First  t  ( )  Second. ( )  Third ( )  Fourth (  )  Duration of Time Spent i n the M a l l Velocity  14 tor  ienc h  Plabter  •Stor  Planter I  j  ron 3  GEORGIA STREET  Store Director^  E3  To Royal Bank  O r i g i n Point  m  DUNSMUIR STREET  P a c i f i c Centre M a l l .  Typical Tracking  Map.  00  o CO  w W H  - 39 -  out on t h e f l o o r , f o r keeping t r a c k of the p o s i t i o n of the s u b j e c t s i n the m a l l .  The t r a c k i n g maps a l s o i n c l u d e a l i s t  such as date,  day, age, sex, number of people i n group, number of  s t o p s , d u r a t i o n of each stop, d u r a t i o n of time spent head movement which a r e f i l l e d maps, the r e s e a r c h e r  out d u r i n g  t r a c k e d and r e c o r d e d  i n t h e a c t u a l space o f the shopping m a l l .  of the items  i n the m a l l ,  the t r a c k i n g .  Using  these  the s u b j e c t ' s movement Movement was i n d i c a t e d by  l i n e s on the maps, w i t h arrows t o show d i r e c t i o n  of movement.  I f the  s u b j e c t moved t o a s t o r e f r o n t , the l i n e was drawn up t o the s t o r e f r o n t and  t h e time spent  a t t h a t p o i n t was recorded  Identification  The i n the study  by a stopwatch.  of O r i g i n P o i n t  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f o r i g i n p o i n t s f o r the p e d e s t r i a n areas was n e c e s s a r y  tracking pedestrians.  i n order  In i d e n t i f y i n g  trips  to develop a system f o r  the o r i g i n p o i n t s , the study  area was a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d e n c l o s u r e w i t h some d e f i n i t e  entry p o i n t s .  A l t h o u g h i n r e a l i t y the t r i p might o r i g i n a t e from any shop or r e s t a u r a n t i n the m a l l , those  t r i p s would o n l y be a p a r t of t h e t o t a l t r i p  r e s p e c t t o the study  a r e a w i t h i n the m a l l and t h e r e f o r e those  w i l l not be c o n s i d e r e d  f o r t h e purpose of the study.  with  trips  The o r i g i n  points  of the p e d e s t r i a n t r i p was d e f i n e d t o be those p l a c e s where the p e d e s t r i a n e n t e r s t h e study  a r e a from o u t s i d e .  -  40  S e l e c t i o n of S u b j e c t s  The R o y a l and  -  for  Tracking  s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study were users  P a c i f i c shopping c e n t r e m a l l s .  of the Harbour,  They were s e l e c t e d  the f o l l o w i n g procedure designed to produce a random sample: hand of stopwatch was  allowed  the m a l l e n t r a n c e became the s u b j e c t repeated  a t the d i f f e r e n t  Preliminary  an a r b i t r a r y  and  s e l e c t e d mark at  to be t r a c k e d .  The  same procedure  entrances i n the t h r e e study  areas.  Tracking  I n oder to t e s t the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the techniques i n t r a c k i n g , some p r e l i m i n a r y t r a c k i n g had p e r i o d i n l a t e January, 1978 were t r a c k e d  the  to pass an a r b i t r a r y . t i m e p o i n t ,  the f i r s t p e r s o n t h e r e a f t e r p a s s i n g  was  by  been done f o r a one-week  d u r i n g which a t o t a l of s i x t y  i n the t h r e e study a r e a s .  The  involved  subjects  purposes of t h i s  preliminary  t r a c k i n g were:  1.  To  t e s t whether or not  2.  To r e f i n e and  the method of o b s e r v a t i o n  was  possible.  whether any  other  improve the method and  a l s o to f i n d  out  f a c t o r s t h a t might have s u f f i c i e n t  i n f l u e n c e on  the  p e d e s t r i a n movement p a t t e r n .  - 41 -  As  f a r as the a c t u a l t r a c k i n g was concerned, the p r e l i m i n a r y  t r a c k i n g proved t o be s u c c e s s f u l and p r o v i d e d c a r r y on.  A t the same time, the e x p e r i e n c e  enough encouragement t o  from the p r e l i m i n a r y  t r a c k i n g i n d i c a t e d the d i r e c t i o n s f o r n e c e s s a r y Initially, density pattern.  improvements.  i t was found n e c e s s a r y t o e v a l u a t e  i n the m a l l as i t might have a d i r e c t Therefore,  i t had been decided  effect  the p e d e s t r i a n  on the movement  t o r e c o r d the change i n the  degree of crowding a t d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the m a l l .  But from the  p r e l i m i n a r y t r a c k i n g i t became apparent t h a t the p e d e s t r i a n was so low as n o t t o have any e f f e c t  density  on the g e n e r a l movement p a t t e r n ,  e s p e c i a l l y i n the Harbour and the R o y a l shopping c e n t r e I t had a l s o been n o t i c e d d u r i n g  malls.  the p e r i o d of  experimental  t r a c k i n g t h a t t h e r e might have been some c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the presence o f a seat a t a s t o r e f r o n t and the frequency of s t o p p i n g , d u r a t i o n of s t o p p i n g hypothesis,  and frequency o f e n t e r i n g  i t was d e c i d e d  the s t o r e .  With  this  t o r e c o r d the presence of s e a t s a t s t o r e f r o n t s .  In t h e p r e l i m i n a r y t r a c k i n g , the l i n e o f movement was by drawing a continuous l i n e behind the s u b j e c t  tracked.  system was r e f i n e d i n the f i n a l t r a c k i n g by n o t i n g  This  recorded recording  the c r o s s i n g of the  twenty f o o t module l i n e s by the s u b j e c t and then c o n n e c t i n g  the r e s u l t i n g  dots.  Final  Tracking  On the b a s i s o f the p r e v i o u s necessary refinements,  the f i n a l  t r a c k i n g experience  and w i t h  t r a c k i n g was conducted over a f o u r week  p e r i o d i n February, 1978 d u r i n g which a t o t a l of a hundred and e i g h t y  - 42 -  s u b j e c t s were t r a c k e d  i n the t h r e e study a r e a s ,  s i x t y subjects i n  each m a l l .  The s u b j e c t s f o r t r a c k i n g were p i c k e d  previously,  on a random b a s i s u s i n g  F a c t o r s Not Tested  1. pedestrian  the c r i t e r i a  up, of a  as  mentioned  random p o i n t .  i n the Study  M a n a g e r i a l d e c i s i o n s which might e f f e c t the space and  i n the observed a r e a s i n c l u d e e x h i b i t s , s p e c i a l s a l e s ,  p r o m o t i o n a l programs, f a s h i o n shows, e t c . No d a t a were c o l l e c t e d under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , s i n c e any b e h a v i o r a l  changes would be d i f f i c u l t  to r e l a t e to such causes. 2.  Seasonal e f f e c t s a r e not expected s i n c e the enclosed  shopping m a l l has a u n i f o r m c l i m a t e w i t h p r o t e c t i o n from weather. 3. were not  Temporal p e r i o d i c changes and e f f e c t s on space or d e n s i t y  notable  low d u r i n g  as mentioned b e f o r e .  the weeks of  The use of the m a l l was  rather  observation.  A n a l y s i s of S t o r e f r o n t s  The othertypes  study areas c o n s i s t of d i f f e r e n t s t o r e s , r e s t a u r a n t s , and  of commercial uses.  However, a l l these s t o r e s and other  of uses a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the d i f f e r e n t s p a t i a l q u a l i t y of t h e i r  types fronts  due t o i n d i v i d u a l treatments, n e c e s s i t a t e d by t h e t y p e of merchandise being  sold.  Since one of the p r i n c i p l e o b j e c t i v e s of the study i s to t e s t  -  the e f f e c t  of s t o r e f r o n t  i t was e s s e n t i a l characteristics. storefront  d e s i g n s on the p e d e s t r i a n movement p a t t e r n ,  to analyse the d i f f e r e n t Due t o the v a r i a t i o n s  d e s i g n , i t was n e c e s s a r y  for a l ldifferent  storefronts,  characteristics.  Figures  different  43 -  storefront  storefronts  i n the treatment  to establish  provide v i s u a l  d e s i g n s i n the study a r e a s .  show an i n v e n t o r y o f s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and other uses i n t h e study  areas.  spatial  of i n d i v i d u a l  a measurement  i n order t o t e s t t h e i r  15-17  and t h e i r  criteria  spatial  i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Tables  III-V  of t h e d i f f e r e n t s t o r e s  -  44  -  S t o r e f r o n t Length N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t Articulation N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per foot  S t o r e f r o n t Length N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t Articulation N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t  S t o r e f r o n t Length N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t Articulation N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t  Figure  15.  Harbour C e n t r e M a l l . Visual Illustration Different Storefront Design.  of  26'0" 540 540 26 20.8  16'0" 450 450 16 28.1  = 27'0" = 495 = 495 27 = 18.3  - 45 -  S t o r e f r o n t Length N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t Articulation N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t  Figure  16.  25'0" 360 360 25 14.4  S t o r e f r o n t Length N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t Articulation N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per foot  21'6"  S t o r e f r o n t Length N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t Articulation N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t  66'0"  Royal Centre M a l l . Visual Illustration Different Storefront Design.  of  0 0  360 360 66 5.5  - 46 -  S t o r e f r o n t Length N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t Articulation N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per foot  S t o r e f r o n t Length N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t Articulation N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t  S t o r e f r o n t Length N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t Articulation N o . o f A n g l e s of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t  Figure  17.  P a c i f i c Centre M a l l . Different Storefront  Visual Illustration Design.  of  20'0" 360 360 20 18  20'0" 720 720 20 36  16*0" 0 0  - 47 -  Seat at Storefront  1  Le Chateau  16' 0"  450  28.1  X  2 .  Ashers  27'0"  495  18.3  Store Name  Corner Location  No.of Angles of Storefront Articulation per ft  Harbour Centre M a l l . An Inventory of S p a t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Various S t o r e f r o n t s . No.of Angles of Storefront Articulation  III.  Storefront Length  Table  Type of Use  Unisex X  Men's wear  3  You and I  20' 0"  360  18.0  L a d i e s ' wear  4  Charms N' Chain  15'0"  360  24.0  Jewellery  5  Black Cheer  21'0"  495  23.6  X  Men's wear  6  Filains  31'0"  495  16.9  X  L a d i e s ' wear  7  Diamond Watch  28'0"  495  17.7  X  Jewellery  8  The smoke Shoppe  34" o"  360  10.6  9  Purdy's Chocolate  15'0"  270  18.0  X  Specialty store  10  Suzy Cream Cheese  52 '0"  540  10.3  X  L a d i e s ' wear  11  Ricki's  50*0"  675  13.5  X  L a d i e s ' wear  12  D'allairds  40'0"  360  9.0  13  Bootlegger  50'0"  945  18.9  14  Peaches and Cream  12'0"  270 •  22.5  15  J . Reid  12*6"  360  28.8  Shoes  16  Bus Stop  27*0"  360  13.3  Men's wear  17  V i l l a g e r Shoes  31*0"  540  17.4  18  Woodman Cleaners  18*0"  225  12.5  S p e c i a l t y wear  19  Snap Shop  28*6"  495  17.4  S p e c i a l t y wear  20  C l a s s i c Books  35'6"  360  10.1  S p e c i a l t y wear  21  Birks  26*0"  540  20.8  22  R.J.  22*6"  360  16.0  Clarke-tobacconist  Specialty store  X  .  L a d i e s ' wear Unisex X  Specialty store  X  Shoes  X  Jewellery X  Specialty store  - 48 -  Table  IV.  Royal Centre M a l l . An Inventory of S p a t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Various S t o r e f r o n t s . ,  4-1  14'6"  270  18.3  2  Fairweather  43'6"  360  8.3  Ladies' wear  3  Reid Shoes  15'0"  0  0  Ladies wear  4  Marget Son Lee  61'0"  360  5  Harrison G a l l e r i e s  18'0"  0  0  6  Queue Shop  36'0"  360  10.0  Shoes  7  Rae Son Shoes  29'0"  360. 12.4  Shoes  8  Charlenes  29'0"  450  15.5  L a d i e s ' wear  9  Bootlegger  20*0"  360  18.0  Unisex  10  M.G.  31 '6"  360  11.4  L a d i e s ' wear  11  Bowrings Canada  36*6"  0  0  12  F r e d e l l e Shoes Boutique  21'6"  0  0  13  The Scotch Shop  33'6"  0  0  14  .  Boutique  1  Kaede Japanese Restaurant  Corner Location  Big Steel  Seat at Storefront  1  Store Name  No.of Angles of Storefront Articu] per foot  No.of Angles of Storefront Articu]  rH  Storefront Length  rH  Type of Use  X  Men's wear  X  5.9  S p e c i a l t y store Men's wear  Specialty store X  Shoes  X  S p e c i a l t y shop  *  Restaurant  20'0"  0  0 12.2  L a d i e s ' wear  15  Marget Son Lee  29'0"  360  16  E l i a n Logan  25'0"  360  14.4  L a d i e s ' wear  17  Zodiac Men's Fashion  25'0"  360  14.4  Men's wear  18  P i c a d i l l y Shop  110*0"  0  0  19  Dogwood E l l i o t  16'0"  0  0  20  Purdy's Chocolate  37'0"  0  0  21  Swedish J e w e l l e r  68'0"  0  0  22  Champs E l y s e e s  29'0"  360  12.4  23  Hy A r t Gims  66'0"  360  5.5  24  Champs Elysees  27'0"  360  13.3  L a d i e s ' wear  25  Hosiery Hut  21'0"  0  0  L a d i e s ' wear  26  Hey Pretty  29'0"  0  0  L a d i e s ' wear  27  Dack's Shoes  Girl  Flowers  29'0"  360. 12.4  X  S p e c i a l t y store Specialty store  X  Specialty store Jewellery L a d i e s ' wear  X  X  Jewellery  Shoes  - 49 -  Corner Location  Seat at Storefront  Name  No.of Angles of Storefront Articulation per foot  P a c i f i c Centre M a l l . An Inventory of S p a t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Various S t o r e f r o n t  No.of Angles of Storefront Articulation  V.  Length of Storefront  Table  Type of Use  Restaurant  1  Rotisserie  38'0"  0  0  2  Ingledew's  20'0"  360  20  X  Shoes  3  D'Allaird's  24'0"  360  15  X  Ladies' wear  4  United Cigar Store  8'0"  0  0  Specialty store  5  London Drugs O p t i c a l  31'0"  0  0  Specialty store  6  London Drugs  40'0"  0  0  Specialty store  7  Snack 'N Go  12'0"  0  0  Restaurant  8  C l a s s i c Bookstore  20'0"  135  6.8 21.6  X  Specialty store Men's wear  Black Sheep Boutique  12*6"  270  10  Sweet Sixteen  20'0"  360  18  11  Caprice Cards  13'0"  270  20.8  X  Specialty store  12  Fredelle  16'0"  0  0  X  Shoes  13  Bus Stop  13'0"  270  20.8  X  14  Murray Goldman  20'0"  720  36  15  Ricki's  30'0"  360  12  X  L a d i e s ' wear  16  People's  23 '0"  0  0  X  Jewellery  17  Aggies  16'0"  0  0  18  Purdy's Chocolates  16'6"  0  0  9  L a d i e s ' wear  Men's wear Men's wear  Shoes Specialty store  19  Bryan's Fashions  18*8"  360  19.3  Ladies * wear  20  S h i r l e y K Maternity  17'0"  0  0  L a d i e s ' wear  21  Rodier of P a r i s  15'6"  270  17.4  L a d i e s ' wear  22  YoFi Creations  15'0"  810  54  L a d i e s ' wear  23  Second Look  15'0"  0  0  Specialty  24 .  Tie City  13'0"  0  0  Men's wear  25  Pingouin Wool  17'6"  0  0  Specialty store  26  Hentschel's of Waterloo 22'4"  450  20.1  X  Specialty store  27  Stephanie's  22*0"  0  0  X  Specialty store  28  Smitty's Pancake House  39'0"  360  9.2  X  Restaurant  29  Kinney Shoes  16*9"  0  0  X  Shoes  30  Lighting Unlimited  14*6"  0  0  store  Specialty store L a d i e s ' wear  Pennington's  30*8"  495  16.1  32  Murchie's Tea & Coffee  18*0"  135  7.5  Specialty store  33  J e f f ' s Fabrics  14*0"  360  25  Specialty store  34  Ben Moss  24'0"  0  0  Jewellery  35  Toronto Dominion Bank  34*0"  180  5.3  Service  31  Corner Location  Seat at Storefront  No.of Angles of Storefront Articulation per foot  Name  Length of Storefront  Table V. (Cont'd)  50 -  No.of Angles of ••' Storefront Articulation  -  Type of Use  36  Malacca Rattan .  46'0"  0  0  Specialty store  37  Thrifty's  20'0"  0  0  Unisex  38  S c h o l l ' s Foot Comforr Shoes  24'0"  0  0  Shoes  39  Benson & Hedges  13'0"  135  10.4  40  House of D i s t i n c t i o n  26'8"  240  8.9  Specialty store  X  Specialty store Ladies' wear  41  Mannequin  26 '8"  360  13.5  42  Goodies  18'0"  270  15  43  Swedish Jewellers  22'8"  270  11.9  Jewellery  44  Shop 41  22'3"-  360  16.2  L a d i e s ' wear  45  Holt Renfrew  19'3"  135  1.7  46  B r i g i t t e Mode  21'6"  360  16.7  47  Mappins  21'6"  0  0  48  North Pole Sales  15'5"  0  0  49  Speedy Gourmet  31*0"  0  0  X  Restaurant  50  V i l l a g e r Shoes  13'0"  0  0  X  Shoes  51  ABC Recreation Equip.  15'0"  0  0  X  Specialty store  52  Bootlegger  20'0"  720  36  Unisex  53  Fred Asher  24'9"  720  29  Men's wear  54  Modiste  24'9"  270  10.9  55  Mankind  14'8"  0  0  56  Bata Shoes  17'0"  0  0  X  Shoes  57  Clark's '  17'2"  0  0  X  Unisex  58  Keyboard Fun Centre  19'9"  0  0  X  Specialty store  59  P i c a d i l l y Place  21'6"  0  0  X  S p e c i a l t y store  60  Marc Singer  20'0"  360  18  61  Suzy Cream Cheese  22*0"  270  12.3  Specialty store  X  Department s t o r e L a d i e s ' wear  X  X  Jewellery Specialty store  L a d i e s ' wear Shoes  Specialty store X  L a d i e s ' wear  X  X  Men's wear  X  L a d i e s ' wear  62  Werner's Men's Wear  32'0"  360  11.3  63  M.G.  1  30'0"  360  12  64  J . Red Shoes  13'6"  0  0  65  Oharm's & Things  16*6"  0  0  X  Jewellery  66  Ear R e s i s t i b l e  11'0"  0  0  X  Jewellery  67  Shenlor  13'6"  0  0  Specialty store L a d i e s ' wear  Shoes  68  Gazebo  30'0"  540  18  X  69  Fairweather/Big S t e e l  64'0"  720  11.3  X  70  K i t s Camera  18' 0" |  270  15  1  X  L a d i e s ' wear S p e c i a l t y t/corci  No.of Angles of.Storefront Articulation per foot  Grassie-Firbanks  20'0"  585  29.3  72  Smart Set  20'0"  360  18  X  L a d i e s ' wear  X  Shoes  Name  Sterlings  30' 0"  360  12  74  Norman G. C o l l O p t i c a l  18'0"  270  15  75  Tiptop  14'0"  360  15  X  76  Bowrings of Newfoundlanc 30' 0"  0  X  77  Dalmy's  30'0"  360  12  Type of Use  Jewellery  73  0  Corner Location  No.of Angles of Storefront Articulation  71  Table V. (Cont'd)  Seat at Storefront  Length of Storefront  51 -  Specialty store Men's wear Specialty store L a d i e s ' wear  - 52 -  CHAPTER V  PROCESSING DATA FOR ANALYSIS  SPSS"1",  the S t a t i s t i c a l  was used to d e s c r i b e  Package  for  and a n a l y z e the d a t a .  It  i n s t u d i e s i n b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e and c o n t a i n s for  frequency c o u n t s , means,  standard  the S o c i a l is  Sciences  a common t o o l used  standard  analysis  d e v i a t i o n s and a n a l y s i s  programs  of  2 variance. analysis  In a d d i t i o n , U . B . C . and t e s t s of  CORN  program was used f o r  correlation  significance.  In a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e s e a r c h work, o f t e n the e v a l u a t i o n of d a t a done i n a s u b j e c t i v e manner, by assuming the f i n d i n g s may g e n e r a l l y a possibility  rationale,  i n d i c a t e the t r u e d i r e c t i o n s ,  of p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s  other hand, i f  the d a t a i s  involved i n a p a r t i c u l a r interactions  and 1  there is  i n f l u e n c i n g data e v a l u a t i o n .  evaluated  on the b a s i s of a s t r o n g  between d i f f e r e n t  d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i v e  factors  and a l t h o u g h always  On the mathematical  the f i n d i n g s are based on a more s t a b l e ground and the  mathematical r e l a t i o n s h i p s  subjective  a r b i t r a r y values  is  importance.  involved are  becomes  questionable.  too many, a n a l y s i s  the computer p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l  g i v e an  B e s i d e s , when the  study of t h i s n a t u r e a r e  become i n c r e a s i n g l y complex,  analysis  variables  accurate  factors  too many and t h e i r  the performance of any T h e r e f o r e , where the  various  of d a t a becomes humanly i m p o s s i b l e  resource.  SPSS, The S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s was w r i t t e n at the U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o , by Norman H . N i e , C . H a d l a i H u l l , Jean G. Jenkens, K a r i n S t e i n b r e n n e r , and D a l e H . B e n t . I t was m o d i f i e d f o r MTS ( i . e . The M i c h i g a n T e r m i n a l System) by Dan P r e c h t at the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a .  - 53 -  Scoring Data  In most of the cases the scoring of data for the d i f f e r e n t variables has been done i n a continuous been coded as dichotomies.  form, while for a few i t has  By dichotomy, i t i s meant that only two  classes can be desired for each v a r i a b l e . may correspond  That i s , these two values  to yes or no, presence or absence of c e r t a i n phenomena,  and the variable can take only two values: 1 and 2.  For instance, under  the variable of head movement, i f the subject i s looking straight, a value of 1 was given. 2 was given. given.  If the subject i s looking around a value of  S i m i l a r l y , i f the subject i s a male, a value of 1 was  If the subject i s a female, a value of 2 was recorded for sex.  But wherever possible, variables l i k e length of storefront, age of the subject and v e l o c i t y , actual numerical values were given.  To i l l u s t r a t e  the scoring system and the reasons for i t , the d i f f e r e n t variables are discussed i n the following text.  1.  Mall Number - A value of 3 was given f o r Harbour Centre  Mall, 2 for Royal Centre M a l l and 1 for P a c i f i c Centre M a l l . 2.  Age - The approximate age of the subjects was recorded  by using the true values, although during tracking, the age-group had been recorded rather than the actual age.  Therefore, the mean age of  the p a r t i c u l a r age-group was used i n the analysis.  A subject's age  belonging to an age-group of 30-39 was scored as 35, the mean age of that p a r t i c u l a r age-group. 2  CORN, Parametric and Non-Parametric Correlations and Tests of Significance by Jason Halm, UBC, Computing Centre, 1973.  -  3.  54 -  Sex - Sex was coded w i t h a v a l u e of 1 d e n o t i n g a male  and 2 a f e m a l e . 4.  Number i n Group - The a c t u a l number of p e o p l e were coded  f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the a n a l y s i s . 5.  Head Movement - The head movement d i r e c t i o n s were d e f i n e d  as two c l a s s e s :  l o o k i n g s t r a i g h t 1 and l o o k i n g around 2.  6.  V e l o c i t y - The w a l k i n g average speed was expressed  in  f e e t per second as f o l l o w s :  . „ , , Average Speed, f e e t per second = c  7.  W a l k i n g D i s t a n c e i n Feet „ , , .— „ . ; r— W a l k i n g Time i n Seconds  Number of Changes i n Route D i r e c t i o n - The number of  p o s s i b l e r o u t e s was expressed by u s i n g the t r u e v a l u e s . 8.  F l o o r M a t e r i a l - A v a l u e of 1 was g i v e n f o r t i l e , 2 f o r  s e m i - c a r p e t and 3 f o r 9.  carpet.  T o t a l S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per Foot - The  total  s t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t was expressed as the sum of a l l a n g l e s , i n degrees a l o n g t h e t o t a l s t o r e f r o n t  surfaces.  The f o l l o w i n g  procedure  was u s e d :  a.  Adding up t h e t o t a l number of degrees of along the  articulation  storefronts.  b.  Measuring the t o t a l s t o r e f r o n t  lengths.  c.  T o t a l s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n = —r— b  3.  T o t a l No. of Degrees of A r t i c u l a t i o n T o t a l storefront lengths i n l i n e a r feet  - 55 -  10.  Total Number of Stores the Subject Stopped At -  The t o t a l number of stores the subject stopped at was expressed  i n terms  of actual values. 11.  Did Subject Stop - 1 indicated that the subject did  not stop and 2 the subject did stop. 12.  Did Subject Enter - 1 was given to subjects who did not  enter a store, and 2 to subjects who did enter. 13.  Duration of Storefront Stop - The duration of stopping  at a storefront was expressed 14. expressed  i n seconds.  Storefronts A r t i c u l a t i o n - Storefronts a r t i c u l a t i o n were  as the sum of angles i n degrees along the storefront lengths. 15.  Number of Stores Between the Store Where the Subject  Stopped or Entered And the Mall Entrance - Was expressed  i n terms of  actual number of stores. 16.  Corner Location - 1 indicated that the store i s not  located at a corner l o c a t i o n and 2 f o r the store located at a corner location. 17.  Storefront Length - The storefront length was  expressed  i n linear feet. 18.  Seat at Storefront - 1 indicated no seat and 2 the  presence of a seat. 19. 2 a seat  Seat Occupied - 1 indicated a seat not occupied and  occupied.  - 56 -  llustration  F i g u r e 18 shows a t r a c k i n g map, f o r the R o y a l Centre M a l l , w i t h a t y p i c a l s u b j e c t recorded on i t .  The f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n  shows how the data were s c o r e d .  Subject I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  67  M a l l Number  2  Age  35  Sex  1  Number i n Group  1  Head Movement  1  Velocity  i n f o o t per second  Number o f changes i n Route D i r e c t i o n  4.2 (number o f p o s s i b l e r o u t e s )  Floor Material  3 2  T o t a l Number o f Angles  o f S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per Foot  6  T o t a l Number o f S t o r e s t h e S u b j e c t Stopped At  0  Did  Subject Stop  1  Did  Subject Enter  2  D u r a t i o n o f S t o r e f r o n t Stop i n Seconds  0  Number o f Angles  0  of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n  Number o f S t o r e s Between the S t o r e Where the Subject or Entered and t h e M a l l E n t r a n c e Corner L o c a t i o n Length o f S t o r e f r o n t  Stopped 6 2 110  Seat a t S t o r e f r o n t  1  Seat Occupied  1  MELVILLE STREET F i g u r e 18. Royal Centre M a l l . of T r a c k i n g .  Kkvuo^  Map Showing a T y p i c a l Example  Date l7 \<Mg Day ^ Y i d y Sub j e t ID No. 67 14  PlanteiHji  T  o  'a^'ear-petj'^V;.^.^ .D iprjgfc t ory. -Hyatt  Hotel  Sex:  Male  a  QS)  Female ( )  Age Group: Below 10 ( ) 10-19 ( ) 20-29 ( ) 30-39  40-49 50-59 60-69 70+  ( ( ( (  ) ) ) )  Number i n G r o u p : \ Head Movement D i r e c t i o n : Looking Straight (y*) Looking Around ( ) Duration of Storefront(Stop: -First ( ) Second (••) Third ( )  Storefront'  Fourth ( )  "  "  Duration of Time Spent i n the M a l l  FhAtC  Velocity 24  25  XT. Planter  j  26  27  7 ' %  GEORGIA STREET  H to  i Store 1  V ^ r C a ^ p W ^ . j ^ ^ V ^ - ^ l  3  H W  Storefront planter i  Storpfron  1  50 %Z6x3r\&*  ].DMcto|ry >  1  >  1 r  1  1 9  z,  To Royal Bank  1  Stop  O r i g i n Point  1  S  - 58 -  Preparing Data Cards for the Computer Analysis  Each punch card on the data deck contained regarding one subject.  For subjects who  an additional card was prepared number of cards was  information  stopped more than one time  for each stop.  Therefore, the t o t a l  equal to the t o t a l number of stops, not the number  of subjects. The data cards consisted of normal eighty column punch cards, in which the f i r s t columns were set aside for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r subject and contained the s e r i a l number of the subject tracked.  The fourth column indicated the mall number.  The  successive  columns of the data card were used primarily for the d i f f e r e n t variables in the following order.  Column 1-3  Subject  Identification  4  Mall Number  5-6  Age  7  Sex  8  Number i n Group  9  Head Movement  10-11  V e l o c i t y i n Foot per second  12  Number of Changes i n Route Direction (number of possible routes)  13  Floor Material  14-15  Total Number of Stores the Subject Stopped At  16  Total Number of Angles of Storefront A r t i c u l a t i o n per Foot  - 59 -  17-18  Blank :.: /:  19  Did Subject Stop  20  Did Subject Enter  21-22  Duration of Storefront Stop i n Seconds  23-25  Number of Angles of Storefront A r t i c u l a t i o n  26-27  Number of Stores Between the Store Where the Subject Stopped or Entered And the Mall Entrance  28  Corner Location  29-30  Length of Storefront  31  Seat at Storefront  32  Seat Occupied  Data Analysis  After preparing the data cards accordingly, they were placed i n a f i l e i n the UBC Computing Centre and then run under SPSS and CORN Programs.  - 60 -  CHAPTER VI  RESULTS AND  DISCUSSION  Demographic and B e h a v i o r a l R e s u l t s  The computer output of the a n a l y s i s were o b t a i n e d , summarized and p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e VI • which shows the demographic and b e h a v i o r a l r e s u l t s i n the t h r e e study a r e a s .  Age  Comparatively younger s u b j e c t s (30.0 y e a r s ) were found i n the P a c i f i c C e n t r e M a l l , w h i l e o l d e r s u b j e c t s (37.0 y e a r s ) were found i n the Royal C e n t r e M a l l . is significant  The 7 y e a r s d i f f e r e n c e i n age between the two m a l l s  a t 0.01 l e v e l which means t h a t a d i f f e r e n c e t h a t  large  c o u l d occur one time i n a hundred by chance a l o n e .  Sex  More males (58%) were found i n the Harbour Centre M a l l , than i n the Royal Centre M a l l  (40%) and almost  female i n the P a c i f i c C e n t r e M a l l . t h r e e m a l l s a r e not  significant.  the same percentage of male and  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n sex between the  - 61 -  Table  VI.  Demographic and B e h a v i o r a l R e s u l t s .  STUDY AREAS Demographic & Behavioral Measures  Harbour Centre M a l l  Mean Age  (years)  Royal  Pacific  Significanci  Centre M a l l  Centre M a l l  Level  34  37  30  0.01  Percentage of Male  58.3  40.0  50.0  0.134  Mean Group Size  1.367  1.050  1.300  0.001  Mean Head Movement  1.483  1.433  1.367  0.434  Percentage of Looking S t r a i g h t  51.7  56.7  63.3  Mean V e l o c i t y ( f t / s e c )  4.132  4.298  4.745 -  0.001  Mean No. of Stores the Subjects Stopped At  1.700  1.283  1.333  0.06  Percentage of Stopping At S t o r e f r o n t s  70.0  28.3  36.7  Percentage of E n t e r i n g Stores  25.0  45.0  38.4  Percentage of Stopping a t Corner L o c a t i o n Stores  20.0  3.0  3.0  Percentage of E n t e r i n g a t Corner L o c a t i o n Stores  10.0  13.0  8.0  Floor Material  Carpet  Semicarpeted  Glazed bricks  M a l l Layout (No. of p o s s i b l e routes)  4  3  2  T o t a l No. of Angles of S t o r e f r o n t A r t i c u l a t i o n per f t  16  6  9  No. of Stores  22  27  78  Percentage of Stores At Corner L o c a t i o n  36.0  29.0  9.0  -  62  -  Number i n Group  The number i n group vary considerably between the three malls. Smaller groups (1.05 persons) were i n the Royal Centre Mall and almost equal size group i n the P a c i f i c (1.3) and Harbour Centre Mall (1.37). The differences i n group sizes between the three malls are s i g n i f i c a n t at 0.001 l e v e l .  Head Movement  There i s almost no difference i n head movement between the three malls and the differences f o r the three malls are not s i g n i f i c a n t . Generally, i t can be summarized that almost 55% of the subjects look straight ahead and the smaller percentage look towards the shops. Although head movement towards the shops does not necessarily indicate what people are actually looking a t .  Velocity  Subjects walk faster i n P a c i f i c Centre Mall (4.74 ft/sec) and slower i n the Harbour (4.13 ft/sec) and Royal Centre Mall (4.30 f t / s e c ) . The differences i n v e l o c i t y among the three malls are s i g n i f i c a n t at 0.001 l e v e l .  - 63 -  T o t a l Number o f S t o r e s the S u b j e c t s Stopped At  The g r e a t e r number of s t o r e s the s u b j e c t s stopped found  i n t h e Harbour C e n t r e M a l l (1.70).  of s t o r e s f o r t h e other two (1.33). s t o r e s stopped significant  a t were  A l e s s e r and equal number  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n number of  a t among the t h r e e m a l l s f a l l j u s t s h o r t of t h e i r  (0.06).  Stopping and E n t e r i n g  A h i g h e r frequency (70.0%), w h i l e t h e lower lower  of s t o p p i n g was found  frequency  i n R o y a l Centre M a l l (28.3%).  frequency of e n t e r i n g was found  w h i l e t h e h i g h e r frequency  i n Habour C e n t r e M a l l  i n Harbour Centre M a l l  i n R o y a l Centre M a l l .  The  (25.0%),  A h i g h e r frequency of  e n t e r i n g o c c u r s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a h i g h e r frequency of s t o p p i n g (r«5 = 0.719, p = 0.001).  Stopping and E n t e r i n g a t Corner L o c a t i o n S t o r e s  A h i g h e r frequency found  of s t o p p i n g a t c o r n e r l o c a t i o n s t o r e s was  i n Harbour Centre M a l l (20.0%), w h i l e the lower and equal  i n t h e Royal and P a c i f i c C e n t r e M a l l s ( 3 . 0 % ) .  I t was found  frequency  too t h a t the  R o y a l Centre M a l l had t h e h i g h e s t frequency of e n t e r i n g a t corner stores  (13.0%), w h i l e t h e P a c i f i c had the lowest frequency  (8.0%).  location  - 64 -  Results of C o r r e l a t i o n Analysis  In order  to o b t a i n a s i m p l i f i e d  p i c t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between d e s i g n f a c t o r s and b e h a v i o r a l consequences, a c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s was performed and presented c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and t h e i r The  f o l l o w i n g statements  i n T a b l e VII which shows t h e  significances.  g i v e a summary of the degree of the  c o r r e l a t i o n between the v a r i a b l e s , noted under the study of the t h r e e shopping  malls.  1. walk.  The s o f t e r the f l o o r m a t e r i a l the slower  the p e d e s t r i a n s  I n o t h e r words, lower p e d e s t r i a n speeds occur on f l o o r s  s o f t surfaces, while comparatively  with  h i g h e r speeds occur on hard s u r f a c e s .  S o f t n e s s o f f l o o r c o v e r i n g m a t e r i a l has a moderate c o r r e l a t i o n . (-0.45) wi velocity.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f l o o r m a t e r i a l and v e l o c i t y i s  s i g n i f i c a n t a t 0.0001 l e v e l which means t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p d i d not l i k e l y occur by chance. 2.  The g r e a t e r the s t o r e f r o n t l e n g t h the more l i k e l y  that  the p e d e s t r i a n s stop and enter but the l e s s time they spend a t the storefront. +0.25)  The l e n g t h o f s t o r e f r o n t has low c o r r e l a t i o n s (+0.23^.  w i t h the frequency  correlation  (-0.20)  of s t o p p i n g and e n t e r i n g a s t o r e and a low  w i t h the d u r a t i o n of s t o p p i n g .  between t h e s t o r e f r o n t l e n g t h and t h e frequency  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s  of s t o p p i n g , e n t e r i n g  and d u r a t i o n of s t o p p i n g a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t 0.008.,;, 0.004: and 0.021 levels.  - 65 Table  VII.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Design V a r i a b l e s and Behavioral Consequences.  Duration of Storefront Stop  Frequency of Entering Store  Consequences  Frequency of Stopping At Storefront  Behavioral  +0.23 0.008  -0.20 ' 0.02  +0.25 0.004  +0.27 0.001  ..+0.23 0.007  .+0.18 0.04  Seat a t S t o r e f r o n t  NS  NS  NS  Seat Occupied a t Storefront  NS  NS  NS  Pedestrian Velocity  Design Variables  Softness of F l o o r  Storefront  Material  -0.45 0.0001  Length  No.of Angles of Storesfront A r t i c u l a t i o n  T o t a l No. of Angles of Storefront A r t i c u l a t i o n per Foot  -0.24 0.0001  No. o f Changes i n Route D i r e c t i o n  -0.45 0.0001  Corner Location  Stores  No.cf Stores Between the Store Where the Pedestrian Stops or Enters and the M a l l Entrance  Correlation Coefficient Significance Level  +0.35 0.0004  NS  +0.21 0.05  +0.26 0.003  +0.33 0.001  NS  +0.30 0.004  A l l reported c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t , NS i n d i c a t e s n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , blank denotes an untested r e l a t i o n s h i p .  -  3. articulation,  The g r e a t e r  66 -  the number of a n g l e s of  storefront  the more l i k e l y t h a t the p e d e s t r i a n s s t o p , spend more  time a t s t o r e f r o n t s  and e n t e r s t o r e s .  a r t i c u l a t i o n has low c o r r e l a t i o n s  The number of a n g l e s of  storefront  (+0.27, + 0 . 2 3 , +0.18) w i t h the  frequency  of s t o p p i n g , d u r a t i o n of s t o p p i n g and frequency of e n t e r i n g a s t o r e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e number of a n g l e s of s t o r e f r o n t  articulation  and the f r e q u e n c y of s t o p p i n g , d u r a t i o n of s t o p p i n g and f r e q u e n c y  of  e n t e r i n g a s t o r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t 0 . 0 0 1 , 0.007 and 0.04 l e v e l s . 4.  Seats a t s t o r e f r o n t s whether o c c u p i e d or not do not have  any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the f r e q u e n c y of d u r a t i o n of s t o p p i n g and f r e q u e n c y of 5.  The g r e a t e r  a r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t ,  stopping,  entering.  t h e t o t a l number of a n g l e s of  storefront  t h e more l i k e l y t h a t t h e p e d e s t r i a n s  deccelerate,  s t o p , spend more t i m e a t s t o r e f r o n t s a n d e n t e r s t o r e s .  The t o t a l number  of a n g l e s of s t o r e f r o n t a r t i c u l a t i o n per f o o t has low  correlations  ( - 0 . 2 4 , +0.35) w i t h v e l o c i t y and f r e q u e n c y of s t o p p i n g and low c o r r e l a t i o n s (+0.26, +0.33) w i t h d u r a t i o n of s t o p p i n g and f r e q u e n c y of e n t e r i n g a s t o r e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e t o t a l number of a n g l e s of a r t i c u l a t i o n p e r f o o t and v e l o c i t y ,  storefront  f r e q u e n c y of s t o p p i n g , d u r a t i o n of  s t o p p i n g and e n t e r i n g a s t o r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t 0 . 0 0 0 1 , 0 . 0 0 0 4 ,  0.003  and 0 . 0 0 1 l e v e l s . 6.  The g r e a t e r the number of changes i n r o u t e d i r e c t i o n ,  more l i k e l y t h a t t h e p e d e s t r i a n s d e c c e l e r a t e . l a y o u t r o u t i n g has a low c o r r e l a t i o n  Changes i n shopping m a l l  (—0.45) w i t h v e l o c i t y .  s h i p between the m a l l l a y o u t and v e l o c i t y  the  The r e l a t i o n -  i s s i g n i f i c a n t at 0.0001 l e v e l .  - 67 -  7.  S t o r e s a t c o r n e r l o c a t i o n s do not have any s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  e f f e c t on t h e frequency  8.  of s t o p p i n g and e n t e r i n g a s t o r e .  The c l o s e r t h e s t o r e i s l o c a t e d t o the m a l l  the more l i k e l y  t h a t the p e d e s t r i a n s stop and e n t e r .  between t h e s t o r e where t h e s u b j e c t stopped entrance  entrance,  The number of s t o r e s  or entered  and the m a l l  ( s u b j e c t ' s o r i g i n p o i n t ) has low c o r r e l a t i o n s (+0.21,  w i t h the frequency  of s t o p p i n g and e n t e r i n g a s t o r e .  +0.30)  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between t h e number o f s t o r e s to the m a l l entrance  and the frequency of  s t o p p i n g and e n t e r i n g a s t o r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t  0.05  and  0.004 l e v e l s .  T r a c k i n g Maps o f L o c a t i o n a l Movement P a t t e r n  For each m a l l t r a c k i n g maps f o r d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s were superimposed t o study  t h e r e l a t i v e use o f d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the space.  A  set of such t r a c k i n g maps f o r t h e t h r e e study areas  (presented i n  Figures  of d i s t r i b u t i o n of  19  through  21  ) i l l u s t r a t e s the n a t u r e  users movement p a t t e r n w i t h i n these The  spaces.  f o l l o w i n g statements can be made as a r e s u l t of u s e r s '  movement p a t t e r n i n t h e t h r e e shopping m a l l s :  1.  I n the P a c i f i c Centre M a l l , the channels  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a p r e f e r e n c e f o r those channels p r o v i d e any v i s u a l breaks t o the u s e r s .  of movement  which do not  Thus, the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  elements of v e r t i c a l movement l i k e s t a i r s and e s c a l a t o r s take up a l o t of v a l u a b l e space and work as a v i s u a l b a r r i e r  (Figure 22).  why most u s e r s a v o i d movement i n l i n e w i t h these  elements.  This i s  -  68 -  THE BAY  HOWE STREET Figure  19.  Movement Pattern Within P a c i f i c Centre M a l l .  MELVILLE STREET  Figure 2 1 .  Movement Pattern within Royal Centre Mall.  To Hyatt Hotel  GEORGIA STREET  '//////////,. Pedestrian c i r c u l a t i o n  - 71 -  F i g u r e 19 shows a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a channel of movement between the two b i g department  s t o r e s , the Bay and Eaton's.  As a r e s u l t  the movement i s c o n c e n t r a t e d between t h e m a l l c e n t r e and the e x i t t o Dunsmuir  Street. 2.  I n the Harbour Centre M a l l ,  the channels of movement  i n d i c a t e t h e c e n t r a l a r e a of the m a l l i s the p l a c e most used f o r movement, however, the f o u r shopping c o r r i d o r s c o n v e r g i n g onto the c e n t r e a r e r a r e l y used.  Furthermore,  s u b j e c t s had d i f f i c u l t y  from the t r a c k i n g study some 10% - 20% of the  l o c a t i n g and o r i e n t i n g themselves  i n the Harbour  C e n t r e M a l l , but no p a r t i c u l a r problems were seen a t the o t h e r m a l l s . 3.  I n the R o y a l C e n t r e M a l l , the channels of movement  indicate  a p r e f e r e n c e f o r movement i n the shopping c o r r i d o r s between the entrance on B u r r a r d S t r e e t and t h e e n t r a n c e on M e l v i l l e S t r e e t . m a l l , however, i s r a r e l y used.  The r e s t of the  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, i t should a l s o  noted t h a t t h e r e i s a p r e f e r e n c e f o r movement on s u r f a c e s covered w i t h c a r p e t r a t h e r than w i t h t i l e .  I n t h i s m a l l the t i l e  by a t h r e e - f o o t wide c a r p e t i n t h e c o r r i d o r c e n t r e . to  floor  i s covered  P e d e s t r i a n s tended  s e l e c t the c e n t r e c a r p e t e d pathway even a t the expense of b e i n g  f a r t h e r from the s t o r e f r o n t s .  - 72 -  Figure  22.  P a c i f i c Centre M a l l . S t a i r s and E s c a l a t o r s P r o v i d e a V i s u a l Break to t h e U s e r s .  - 73 -  CHAPTER V I I  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  Achievement of O b j e c t i v e s  This  1. enclosed  study had two main o b j e c t i v e s , which were:  To determine the p e d e s t r i a n movement p a t t e r n i n t h r e e  shopping m a l l s . 2.  To examine the f l o o r m a t e r i a l s ,  the s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of s t o r e f r o n t s , t h e m a l l l a y o u t s and s t o r e l o c a t i o n s t h a t may  influence  the movement p a t t e r n and study the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these d e s i g n v a r i a b l e s and b e h a v i o r a l  consequences.  Each o f these o b j e c t i v e s has been r e a l i z e d t o a c e r t a i n degree of success.  I t has been p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a composite p a t t e r n of p e d e s t r i a n  movement i n terms o f c h a n n e l of movement, s t o p p i n g v e l o c i t y and head movement. contained  and e n t e r i n g  stores,  F o u r t e e n from the twenty-two p r e d i c t i o n s  i n t h e hypotheses r e g a r d i n g  the f a c t o r s t h a t  influence  p e d e s t r i a n movement were supported by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . Several  a - p o s t e r i o r i c o r r e l a t i o n s were a l s o examined f o r which no  hypotheses had been generated.  - 74 -  Summary of  1.  Findings  The s o f t e r the f l o o r c o v e r i n g m a t e r i a l i n t h e m a l l ,  the  slower  the p e d e s t r i a n s walk. 2.  The g r e a t e r the s t o r e f r o n t  l e n g t h , the more l i k e l y t h a t  the  p e d e s t r i a n s stop and e n t e r , but the l e s s time they spend a t the 3.  storefront.  The g r e a t e r t h e number of a n g l e s of s t o r e f r o n t  articulation,  the more l i k e l y t h a t t h e p e d e s t r i a n s s t o p , spend more time a t the s t o r e f r o n t 4.  and e n t e r t h e s t o r e .  Seats a t the s t o r e f r o n t  whether o c c u p i e d o r not do not have any  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the f r e q u e n c y of d u r a t i o n of s t o p p i n g and f r e q u e n c y of 5.  entering.  The g r e a t e r the t o t a l number of a n g l e s of s t o r e f r o n t per f o o t ,  t h e more l i k e l y t h a t the p e d e s t r i a n s  s t o p , spend more t i m e a t the s t o r e f r o n t 6.  The g r e a t e r  articulation  deccelerate,  and e n t e r the  store.  t h e number of changes i n r o u t e d i r e c t i o n , the more  l i k e l y t h a t the p e d e s t r i a n s 7.  stopping,  deccelerate.  S t o r e s a t c o r n e r l o c a t i o n do not have any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e f r e q u e n c y of s t o p p i n g and e n t e r i n g .  8.  The c l o s e r the s t o r e i s l o c a t e d to t h e m a l l e n t r a n c e the more l i k e l y t h a t the p e d e s t r i a n s stop and e n t e r .  9.  P e d e s t r i a n s p r e f e r w a l k i n g on s o f t s u r f a c e s r a t h e r than hard surfaces.  - 75  10.  -  There i s a p r e f e r e n c e o f movement i n the m a l l f o r the channels which do not p r o v i d e any v i s u a l  11.  breaks.  P e d e s t r i a n movement g r a v i t a t e s towards the c e n t r a l area of the m a l l .  Design C r i t e r i a :  I m p l i c a t i o n s of the  Study  Some of the c r i t i c i s m s of the d e s i g n which have emerged from study  of p e d e s t r i a n movement p a t t e r n s i n Harbour Centre,  P a c i f i c Centre M a l l s are l i s t e d  A.  M a l l l a y o u t should  study  be simple w i t h a f o c a l p o i n t l i k e a  p r i n c i p l e c o u r t p r o v i d i n g a c e n t r e f o r shopper's a t t e n t i o n . used f o r v a r i o u s p r o m o t i o n a l etc.  Based b r o a d l y on U.S.  been the simple and  activities experience  I t can  the most s u c c e s s f u l l a y o u t s have  ones, namely I - , T- and L-shaped l a y o u t s .  H i s t o r i c a l l y , most of the s u c c e s s f u l e n c l o s e d  G a l e r i a i n M i l a n , were i n r e a l i t y covered traffic.  T h e i r p l a n was  simple  and  be  i n c l u d i n g d i s p l a y s , f a s h i o n shows,  Parallel  other more complex l a y o u t s have g e n e r a l l y been u n s u c c e s s f u l  1972).  and  below:  I m p l i c a t i o n s d e r i v i n g d i r e c t l y from the  1.  Royal Centre  the  malls  (Darlow,  shopping m a l l s ,  like  over s t r e e t s minus v e h i c u l a r  s i n c e i t was  the e x t e n s i o n of  the  e x i s t i n g s t r e e t p l a n , i t gave them v i s u a l coherence w i t h i n the urban environment.  C o n t a i n i n g may  s t o r e s , c a f e s and  they p r o v i d e ample v i s u a l v a r i e t y .  other c e n t r e s of  activity,  - 76 -  2.  Floor materials for shopping malls should consist  of soft surfaces.  Pedestrians prefer walking on soft surfaces rather  than hard surfaces, according to the r e s u l t s of this study. 3.  Escalators provide a continuous flow of shoppers and  reduce congestion i n the mall.  Also, where they connect two levels of  shopping, they tend to draw the shopper's eye to the higher l e v e l . they have two serious disadvantages  But  - they take up a l o t of valuable  space and provide a v i s u a l barrier i n the long mall.  Escalators should  be i n s t a l l e d i n areas of the mall where they do not produce v i s u a l obstructions but they can be easily accessible to users. 4.  Open type stores i n the enclosed shopping malls require  new, ingenious approaches on the part of the designers to focus the shopper's attention on the store. 5.  The design of the malls should s t r i v e for an intimate  character and subdued atmosphere.  The purpose i s to have the shopper's  eye attracted to the storefronts.  A l l the v i s u a l excitement and variety  should be allocated to the storefronts and not the a r c h i t e c t u r a l 6.  Mall frontages should be highly a r t i c u l a t e d i n order to  become more e f f e c t i v e i n attracting 7.  envelope.  shoppers.  Stores could be arranged i n a saw-tooth fashion so that  store openings and window displays would be facing the t r a f f i c flow more d i r e c t l y i n order to a t t r a c t the shopper's eye. 8. for many users.  Orientation and finding d i r e c t i o n i n the mall i s d i f f i c u l t A store directory prominently and c l e a r l y presented  should be provided.  - 77 -  B.  I m p l i c a t i o n s d e r i v i n g i n d i r e c t l y from the study  1.  The t r a f f i c flow and ease of movement of the people  from one major s t o r e to another i s a prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n . d i s t a n c e from one major s t o r e t o another i s long  Where the  (over 700 f e e t ) ,  t h e r e a r e both p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s t o t h e " t u n n e l (Redstone, 1973).  Redstone suggests t h a t one way to a v o i d these  e f f e c t i s by c r e a t i n g a break approximately  midway - forming  negative  a Z-shape  p l a n - u s u a l l y a t the c o u r t i n t e r s e c t i o n .  There the shopper has t o  make a s h o r t t u r n b e f o r e he sees t h e other  end of the c e n t r e .  2.  The complexity  of d e s i g n may o f f e r g r e a t e r v i s u a l v a r i e t y ,  more n o v e l t y , and c h a l l e n g e f o r d i s c o v e r y , but such complexity e q u a l l y f o l l o w e d by coherence and c l a r i t y w i t h i n the space. m a l l by i t s v e r y n a t u r e  i s complex, a g r e a t d e a l of v i s u a l  c o n s t a n t l y a s s a u l t s t h e eyes. and  considered 23).  The v i s u a l r e l a t i o n t o the o u t s i d e world  S k y l i g h t s should be p r o v i d e d  of g r e a t  creates a v i s u a l  beyond the m i n i m a l requirements f o r egress  4.  must be  A shopping information  Any l a c k of c l e a r o r i e n t a t i o n , d i r e c t i o n  ease o f movement w i t h many people, 3.  effect"  overload. i s almost never  and e x i t  (Figure  whenever p o s s i b l e .  The d e s i g n of t h e main e n t r i e s t o the shopping m a l l s i s  importance.  I t should have an i n v i t i n g q u a l i t y and a t the same  time be imposing enough t o draw the shopper's a t t e n t i o n , so t h a t he i s led i n with a n t i c i p a t i o n . exciting,  three dimensional  T h i s means an a r c h i t e c t u r a l concept of an q u a l i t y which c o u l d take many forms: a  -  Figure 2 3 .  78  -  V i s u a l R e l a t i o n to the O u t s i d e W o r l d .  - 79 -  colonnaded  canopy or s p e c i a l wall design at the entry and landscaped  areas which include not only interesting plantings, but also art and water forms. 5.  One of the most important requirements  of any shopping  mall i s to establish the right balance of r e t a i l e r s (Darlow, 1972). Darlow mentioned that by c a r e f u l l y selecting prospective tenants, cont r o l l i n g their f l o o r area requirements, and influencing their individual locations within the shopping mall, the developer can create a centre which generates the maximum amount of interest for shoppers.  Also by  s k i l f u l l y positioning the major r e t a i l e r s within the enclosed centre the highest throughout  of shoppers i s v i r t u a l l y guaranteed  along the  malls - shoppers usually move from one star a t t r a c t i o n to the next.  Recommendations for Future Studies  In order to further examine the v a l i d i t y of the most important findings of this study, further research should be conducted  along  t h i s l i n e i n similar settings. The following points r e l a t e to those issues which might be pursued i n future study of similar enclosed shopping malls.  1.  In addition to observational data, complementary data  might be collected on the user's perception of the setting under study. The objective would be to correlate behavioral and verbal response data r e l a t i n g to i d e n t i c a l features whenever possible.  - 80 -  2.  Simultaneous research a c t i v i t i e s should be  conducted  i n recording the subject's reaction under simulated condition of the same setting with the help of photographs or s l i d e s .  The simulation  study would be a useful supplement to the actual f i e l d work and the comparative  data obtained from these studies would substantiate the  findings. 3.  There were other aspects of the mall environment l i k e  sound, color and l i g h t i n g which were not taken into account i n this study.  Bright colours and good illumination tend to excite people  and to promote a cheerful atmosphere and quick trade (Danger, 1968). Parnes (1948) mentioned that most people who i n s t i n c t i v e l y toward the greatest noise.  enter a store move  Therefore, i t would be  interesting to do more research on this l i n e and find out the c o r r e l a t i o n between the illumination l e v e l , noise l e v e l and colour with the behavior pattern i n enclosed shopping malls.  - 81 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Banerjee, T.K.  A Study of Some A s p e c t s of Human Behavior i n a Shopping S t r e e t . Unpublished Master T h e s i s . Department of A r c h i t e c t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1964.  Barker, Roger G.  B e c h t e l , Robert.  E c o l o g i c a l Psychology: Concepts and Methods f o r Studying t h e Environment of Human B e h a v i o r . S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968.  Human Movement and A r c h i t e c t u r e I n : Proshansky, H a r o l d M.; I t t l e s o n , W i l l i a m H.; and R i v l i n , Leanne G. 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P a t t e r s o n , A.H. and P a s s i n i , R. The E v a l u a t i o n of P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g s to Measure A t t i t u d e s , Behavior or Both? In Carson, D a n i e l H. Man Environment I n t e r a c t i o n s : E v a l u a t i o n s and A p p l i c a t i o n s , P a r t I I . Stroudsburg, P e n n s y l v a n i a . Dowden, H u t c h i n s o n and Ross I n c . , 1974. P r e i s e r , Wolfgang. User Response to P h y s i c a l D e s i g n F e a t u r e s i n a Shopping M a l l . Research Report, E n v i r o n m e n t a l Systems L a b o r a t o r i e s , C o l l e g e of A r c h i t e c t u r e , V i r g i n i a P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e and S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , B l a c k s b u r g , V i r g i n i a , 1973. Proshansky, H a r o l d M.; I t t e l s o n , W i l l i a m , H.; and R i v l i n , Leanne G. E n v i r o n m e n t a l Psychology: Man i n H i s P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , New York, H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1970. Redstone,  L.G. New Dimensions H i l l , I n c . , 1973.  i n Shopping  C e n t e r s and S t o r e s .  McGraw-  Sanoff, Henry. Techniques of E v a l u a t i o n f o r D e s i g n e r s , Design Research L a b o r a t o r y , S c h o o l of D e s i g n , North C a r o l i n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , R a l e i g h , N.C. May 1968. S a s a n o f f , Robert and Winkel, Gary H. An Approach to An O b j e c t i v e A n a l y s i s of Behavior i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l Space. Architecture/Development S e r i e s No. 5, S e a t t l e , Washington: U n i v e r s i t y of Washington C o l l e g e of A r c h i t e c t u r e - and Urban P l a n n i n g , August 1966. Sommer, R.  P e r s o n a l Space: The B e h a v i o r a l B a s i s of D e s i g n . C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1969.  Englewood  - 84 -  Sommer, R.  D e s i g n Awareness, C a l i f o r n i a , R i n e h a r t P r e s s , 1972.  Stilitz,  I.B. The r o l e o f s t a t i c p e d e s t r i a n groups i n crowded Ergonomics, 1969, 12, No. 6, 821-839.  Stilitz,  I.B. P e d e s t r i a n c o n g e s t i o n . I n Canter, D.V. ( E d . ) . A r c h i t e c t u r a l Psychology, London: RIBA P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1970.  Studer, R.  spaces.  The dynamics of b e h a v i o r - c o n t i n g e n t p h y s i c a l systems. Broadbent, G. and Ward, A. ( E d s . ) . D e s i g n Methods i n Architecture. London: Lund Humphries, 1969.  In  The Vancouver Sun, " R e t a i l e r : L o s i n g T h e i r S h i r t s Downtown" by E l e a n o r Boyle, May 3, 1978. The Vancouver Sun, "Red Carpet R o l l e d Out f o r C i t y Shoppers". A d v e r t i s i n g F e a t u r e s , February 15, 1977.  Special  The Vancouver Sun, " P a c i f i c C e n t r e A D r a i n on Other A r e a s " by Jamie Lamb, December 20, 1976. Thiel, Philip. Notes on the D e s c r i p t i o n , S c a l i n g , N o t a t i o n , and S c o r i n g of some P e r c e p t u a l and C o g n i t i v e A t t r i b u t e s of the P h y s i c a l Environment. I n : Proshansky, H a r o l d M.; I t t e l s o n , W i l l i a m H.; and R i v l i n , Leanne G. Environmental Psychology: Man and H i s P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g , New York, H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1970. T i n b e r g e n , N. C u r i o u s N a t u r a l i s t s . 1968.  Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday,  Weiss, Robert S. and Serge B o u t o u r l i n e . F a i r s , E x h i b i t s , P a v i l l i o n , and T h e i r Audience. Manuscript p u b l i s h e d by I.B.M. C o r p o r a t i o n , New York, 1963. W o l f f , M. and H i r s h , V. Some P e d e s t r i a n Observation. Time Magazine, May 11, 1970, 96, No." 18, p. 66. Wright,  H.F. Recording and A n a l y z i n g C h i l d Behavior, New York: Harper and Row, 1967.  Z i p f , G.K.  Human Behavior and t h e P r i n c i p l e of L e a s t Cambridge: Addison Wesley, 1949.  Effort.  - 85 -  APPENDIX  Sample of Computer-Tabulated Results  = VARIABLES  C  0  R  U  FEbf.UARY  -  8, 1 9 7 7  19  J_Y.fic.S__y...I.._N...I...._...1.._.C_J ti ?l. ? l C I. I ? H 1 LEVELS 3 0 2 0 2 J ATA O S A M A . D I $  0  4  3  0  4  2*2  2*0  20  2 0  2*2  $  NA.'-ifcS M A L L f / i A G E , S E X G P S I Z E i L K A R N D , V E L O C I T Y , #R O U T E S , F L O O R M , T O T ANG STORES> _ST_C)Pl,JLNTfcR_? , D u R A T K.'M t f A M G L E t O O F S T O R E S . C O R N E R ? , L E N G T H i S E A T ? . S E A T U ? t CCRR 1 - i . VS 1 - 1 9 * t  CQRR 6 13 PR P C : S i  VS  17  I t  t  15/(1)  CORRELATION  *  CCEFF1 C1ENTS .  COr R E L A T I O N  2 1 9 GOSfcPVAT IONS  COEFFICIENTS  AGE •"ALL' AGE SEX y P S U E LKAK.D VtLOCITY .  .  0OT.ES FLOOR M TUT AMG .Toa.S  ;  STJ»?  1...0C.0..9. 0 .2223b 0.0199-. 0 . 2'-935 0.C9350 0.40674  '  GFSIZE  0_.2228_ 1.00000 0.19857 - 0 . 2 2 0 3 4 0.03643 -0.14011  _.Q.J3._._.96. 0.19857 1. 00000 Q.1Q695 0.05164 0.01781  C.V903. l.OOCOO l.OOCOO  0_U___. 0.11156 - 0 . 0 6 8 6 4  0 . 0 9 7 2 * 6.C8707 0.15474  C.39483  -0.0741.3  0.1.625  0....29S.3.5 - 0 .2 2 0 3 4 0.10695 1.00000 0.19737 - 0 . 1 9 5 0 0 .  FLOOR  M  STORES  U...a9_.S.O. 0.03643 0.05164 0.19737 l.OCOOO 0.46747  Q ,..4.06 7.4 -0.14011 0.017ol - 0 .19500 0.46747 1.03000  Q...9.9Q.63 0 . 11054 0.09724 U.08042 0.14164 - 3 . 4 5 2 8 7  l.UJOQl! 0.11156 • 0.08707 0.07417 0.15562 -0.45599  1.O0.W3 -0.C6864 0.15474 0.25046 0.13910 -0.24980  0.08042 6.07417 0.25066  0.14164 0.15562 0.13910  - 0 . 4 5 2 6 7 -0.4559 9 -0.249b0  l..,.C0.00ft 1.00000 0.81879  1.00000 1.00000 0.81576  0.81879 0.61576 1.00000  0:351C7  0.50000  -Q.*1965  0.70699  0.69551  0.56609  1.PC.00  0 .23185  0.10638  0.30824  0.27992  0.28229  0.35022  0.31094  0.22917  G.12776  0.01709  0...2K.442 0.6895b 0.25127 0_0 0.29817 0.13636  ... 194.J4 - 0 . 0 3 7 7 6 - 0 . 0 3 1 9 9 0 . 10632 0.00247 0.09592  C..C45 27 0.18307 0.30048 C.13953 0.06776 0 . 0  iEATO?  0.09524  0.09902  COEFFICIENTS,  CORRELATION  0.16449  0.17273  0 ..12387 0.19081 0.14417 0.00732 - 0 . 1 1 9 6 9 0.01204  O^O  0,2146.4 0.16775 0.C5321 0 . 0 0.09127 C O  0.0X645  219 OBSERVATIONS  0_.b  0.2e095 _Q_.2Jf_r_.6_ -0.24521 0.122-2 0.144.0 0.09548 0 .11294 0jJ0J.5_5_l  0.26663  0.29395  0.33648  0.30114 0.63562 -0.03932 0.15604 G.-13068 0.32982  0.30613 0.62684 -0.02761 0.14231 0.09326 0.34474  0..2607.5 0.68530 0.15C48 0.06712 - 0 .1 3 4 2 7 0.C5293  0.37179  0.03828  .Q__3_5 87.3.  0.28894 0.02385 0.10145 0.10501 C.C4928 0.05789  READ.  DURATION  #0F  STORES  JANGJLJL  LENGTH _.QBM R ?  SEATO? SEAT?  ;  MALL*  0.15625  0.22917  0.28^42  0.68958  0.25127  0 . 0  0.29817  0.13636  AGE  0 .11499  0 . 12776  0 .19484  -0.08776  -0.03199  0.10632  0.00247  0.09592  SfcX  0 . 0  0.01709  0.04527  0.18307  0.30048  0.13953  0.06776  0 . 0  0.19081  0.14417  0.00732  - 0 . 1 1 9 6 9  _ 0 . 1.6.775  0.05321  GPSIZE  0.23185  0.16449  0.12387  LKARNO  0. 1C638  0 . 17273  _ _ J). 2 1 4 6 4  _  ........0,0  _  0.,.09.12.1.  0.01204 _  0 . 0  0.C9524 0.09902 0 . 0 0.01645 0...0  VELOCITY  0.30324  0.26095  - 0 . 2 8 4 6 6  -6.24521  6.12282  0.14460  0.09548  0.11294  *ROUTES  0.27992  0.28663  0.30114  0.63562  -0.03932  0.15604  0.10068  0.32982  0.35373  FLOOR  0.23229  0.29395  0.30613  0.62684  -0.02761  0.14231  0.09326  0.34474  0.37179  -0.13427  0.05298  0.03828  0.10501  0.04928  ^0.05739  A . G  0.254E3  Q.Mi.ZZ.  COEFFICIENTS  ENTER?  TOT  0.70o99 0.69551 0.56809  0 . 0  JO^AT.iJN WANGLE *UF STORES C Q R .?-.? LEi.uTH SEAT?  :.  0.-9<.___ - 0 . 0 7 * 6 3 0.072280.3S1C7 0.50003 - 0 . * 1 9 t 5  0.07228  STOP?  .  VELOCITY  0.1 1499  eNTE«?  CORRELATION  READ.  0.06551  0.35022  0.33648  0.26075  0.66580  0.15048  0.0(712  0.3IC94  0.25488  0 .15922  0.28894  0.02385  0.10145  STOP?  1.00000  Q-719.2.0  0,85535  0.2.79.68  0.21283  0 . 0  0.23 364  0 . 3  CNTER?  0.71930  l.COOOO  0.78288  0.18072  0.3C872  0.030ol  0.25200  0.01042  DURATION  0.85535  0.78283  1.00000  0.23689  - 0 . 2 9 6 6 0  0.05926  -0.20237  0.09346  0.06799  DANGLE  0.27966  0.18072  0.23689  1.00000  0.C4541  0.17855  0.14124  0.13066  0.11 132  0.21263  0.30872  - C . 2 9 6 6 0  0.04541  l.LCCOO  G.16012  0.05596  0.07764  0 . 0  0.03061  0.05926  0.17855  0.16012  1.00000  0.46950  0 . 0  0.14124  0.05596  0.46950  1.00000  0.16189  0.10602  0 .13066  0.07764  0 . 0  3.16189  1.00000  0.72414...  0.11132  0.13064  0 . 0  0.10802  0.72414  l.COOOO  STORES  XoF  STORES  CORNER? LENGTH SEAT? SEATO ?  .  0.233(4  0.25200  - 0 . 2 0 2 3 7  0 . 0  0.01042  ...0.09346  0 . 0  0.06593  0.06799  .  __  .  . "O.C  ._  0.06593  0.13064 0 . 0  SIGNIFICANCES  o  1+  THE  COEFFICIENTS.  MALL #  SEX  LKARND  A.L MAIL*  0  ..AGE  0C'±.O8  SEX  05776 CC0C4 08119 COOOO 0 0  GPSIZE LK.A4M) l/ELOLITr *ROUT cS  _FL:'.OK M f o f _NG STGRi. S STOP? cNTER ? JURAT  ION  __A_GLE 1.j<-  0.004C8 0.0 '  0.149Q4 0.14790 0.31195 . 0.54395 J.19267  0.0C061 0.00472 ..___. flJ 0.38272 0.00271 ,00000  L E'NGT H •St&T? SEATC?  •  .00000 S I G M  0.00317 0.CC103 0.591R4 0.C3829  O.C ' #14 0.OC034  STOKES  CORNER?  GPSI7F  FICANCES  OF  THE  0.05776  STORE S STOP? _E„Tc? I  DURAT U N SANGLE KOF STORES CORNER? LENGTH _SEAT? SEATC?  O.COOOO .C.03829  0.31431 0.00336 0.0 •  0.79322 0.00377 0.00000  0.79322  0.00377  O.COOOO.  0.0  0.18673  0.29544  0.05426  0.00030  _________ 0.C3971 0.00002 0.00116  __C 0 0 0 0 0 0.00019 , 0.00043 0.Q0036  _C . . . .  23912  0 . 3J0c5  C.14744  C2199 48550 43787 85792  0.00018 0.00353 0.00795 0.06147  0.02633  0.60902  0.16030  0.01420  0 . _3 . 2 0 8 0 . 0.73464  0.037C8 0.00563,  0.23043 0.97772 0.28146  0.00034' 0.44366  0.26236  0.00091  AUG  '  STORES O.C 0.14994, 0. 18673 0.29 544 0.05428 0.00000 0.0 0.0 O.COCOO" O.COOOO 0.C045?  0.0 0.14790_ 0 . 2 3 9 12 0.33.65 0.03529  C 31195_ 02 199 00018 03971  0.OCOOO 0.0  C0C19  ,00353 ,0C0_2 0C043 00000 00001  COOOO COOOO  O.COOOO 0.00001 0.00451  0 COOOO CCC04  02379  00000  0.00271  0.00270  ,00226  00009  0.00103  ,01909  0.002  .00202  00273  ,19383  23  0.05643  G.__0 0 4 9 3_  _O_.OO.0CO_  „_.0___  £OC00_  C1717  0.63653 0.49178 0.30172  0.191t>l  0.67744  ,77319  0.15165  19198  0.43288  OiZ7__L  0.31442  0.89269  ,35517  10896 44 977 1 2 77t>  . o4666  0.10205  0.96572  0. 204J2  0.002.72  0.68708  0.85264  00176  0.48936  ,55257  0.33341  0.00267  0.00188  66547  DURATION  #0F  STORES  #ANGLE  0.00061  0.00472  0.0  0.14744 0.85792  0.02633 0.60902  0.32080 0.03708  0.00795 0.00116  0.06147 C.00091  0.16030 0.01420  0.02966 0.05643  *13 0.73464 0.0056 3 0.12479 0.63653  __.._QC_3.6.  _0.C_.27J  0 . 001 03  0 . 00493  0 . 191.61_  0.00452  0.00270  0.00223  O.COOOO  0.67744  0.OC451 OtC'OCC-4 0.02379 C O .  0.00226 0.00009 .01909  0.00202 0.00273  0.00000 O.OOOOQ  0.77319 0.10896  0. 19383 0.00000 0.00000  0.01717 0.00127  .0.00000 C 0 0 1 2 7 0.04748  0.00000 0.C3963 0.00352  0.0 0.00666 0.00132  _0_0_3963 0.00666 0.0 0.63032  0.80956  0.58446  0.50472  0.04291  0.00747  0.00382  0.02094  0.10895  0.29403  0.14155  0.89203  0.9J701. 0.27294  0.44212  0.20735  LENGTH  SEATC?  CORNER?  0.19267 0.43787  • 0_  ,48550  0.0  C L fcFF I C I E N T S .  .0  *14 ,5t395  0 . 0 2 9 66  O.OC034  •o.o—• )  TOT  0.12479 0.93435 0.17499  ENTER?  G P S U c LKARND VELGC ITY_ (-ROUTES FLOCK M TOT ANG  .0.0010) 0.11453 C O U.00336  0.08119 ._Q..J_9184  0 0 0 0  STOP?  MALL" AGE SEX  0.00004  ______ 17 0.0 . 0. 11453 0.31431  ("ROUTES  VELOCITY  0.84666 0.04748 _0.00352 0.00132 0.63032 0.0 0.21120 0.55301 _  0.52033  0.31393  0.38272 0.23043 0.00034 0.93435 0.49178 _ 0 , 1C2_05_ O._51o5 0.19198 0.44977 0.40048 0.80956 0.584<t6  S_AT? 0.00271 0.97772 3.44366 0.17499  0.00000 0.28146 0.432B8 0.89269  0.00000 0.26236 0.68708 0.85264  0.30172  0.96572  0.48936  0,27989  0 ...204 3 2  0 .33341 0.00267  0.31442  0.00272  0.35517  C.00176  0.C0188  776  0.55257  0.66547 0.64649  0.39266  0.67612  0.00747  0.95597  0.69203  JL.003JU 0.02094  0.91 701 0.29403  0. 27294 0.44212  0.04291  0.10895  0.14155  0.20735  0.21120  0-55301  0.52033  0.31393  0.50472  0.0 0.00000 .0.06412  0.09488  0.00000  0.06412  0.09488  0.0  0.06790  0.22120  0.06 790  0.0  0.22120  0  .  0.0 0  ~  O.C  40048 392  06  67612 64649  OF  NUME-ER  SIMULTANEOUS  OBSERVATIONS.  o ^  _  —  :  219. 219.  219.  HALL «  2 19 .  AGE  .  219.  219.  219.  219. 219,  219.  ..2..1.2.,.. 219.  219.  219. 219.  219.  219.  .  VELOCITY  GPSIZE  A fit-"  _  _  TOT  ((ROUTES  LKARND  SEX  MALL*  219.  219. .  ANG  <  STORES  F_O0R H 217.  219.  96.  219.  217.  219, _  9..  219.  217.  219.  9e>. 96.  219.  219.  219.  219.  219.  219.  219.  217.  219.  219.  219.  219.  219.  219.  219.  96.  219.  219.  219.  219.  219.  219.  219.  V ELOCITY  219.  21?. 217.  219.  LK A R N 0  JIG. _: i "5 •  * ROIT  _S  219.  FLOOR  M  SfcX G P S I i E  STORE S -TOP?  217. 219. • 96. . 30 . l _> _ .  ENTER?  130.  J U R A T I UN (.ANGLE  130. i1 ya p,•  •.Of  119.  TOT  ANG  S T U R :s  129.  CORNER? L-eNGTH  1l J" .-n . 128. 130.  _  1  SEAT? StATO? NUMBER  OF  219.  219.  219.  219.  219.  219.  217.  219.  217.  217.  217.  217.  217.  217.  217.  217.  9o . 96. 94.  219.  219.  219.  219.  219.  219.  217.  219.  96 •  96.  96.  96.  96.  96.  96.  94.  9 6 .  130.  130.  130.  130.  130.  130.  128,....  130.  130.  130.  130.  130.  130.  128.  130.  96. 9o •  130.  130.  130.  130.  13J.  130.  128.  130.  96.  130.  130.  130,  _ U 8 _ 117.  ..130,  119.  13Q, 119.  119.  6 5.  129.  129.  1 3C .  130.  129. 130.  128. 130.  L  *~  J  *  128.  127.  129.  95.  130.  130.  96,  128.  128.  128.  128.  128. 126.  128.  9*t •  130.  130.  13..  130.  126.  130.  96.  #0F  129.  1 30.  128.  119.  129.  130.  128.  130.  ; 129. 129.  .130.  130.  119. 119.  130.  126. 128.  1 30. 130.  130.  119.  129.  130.  128.  130.  J.29,  130.  128._ 126.  130_ 130.  130.  130. 130.  I 30. 1 30.  130.  130.  130.  130.  130.  130.  130.  119.  130.  13 0__  S.AT?  CORNER? 130. 130. 130.  J 3 0 .  SEATD?  LENGTH  STORES  .ANGLE  .1.3.0*. 130.  119.  129.  130.  128.  128.  128.  128.  117.  127.  128.  126.  128.  M  13Q.  119, 85.  130.  128.  96.  130. 96.  129,  9c.  130. 96.  130.  AMG  130.  95.  96.  94.  96.  130.  130.  130.  119.  129.  130.  128.  130.  FLOOR TOT  129.  130.  130.  130__  .ROUTES  129.  130.  130.  130.  _yELOCIT.lL.  129.  130.  130.  STORES STOP?  13C. 130.  130.  130.  130.  .130,.  130.  130.  130.  130.  130.  119.. 119.  128.  ENTE(-?„ OURAT ION  129.  130.  126.  130.  130.  130.  130.  119.  129.  130.  128.  OOF  119,  119.,  U 9 .  U 9 . .  119.  ,l.a.  119.  117,  130.  .ANGLE  130. 129.  129.  129.  129.  118.  129.  129.  128.  129.  130.  130.  130.  130.  119.  129.  130.  128.  130.  126j_  12S., 130.  128.  _12iU  128, 129.  .128...  _1.28._.  130.  .117. 119.  __.2.8_„.  130.  1'30.  126.  130.  STORES  CORNER? LENGTH .SEAT?  130.  StATO?  ***«« HI . .14  ERROR  MESSAGES  _  INC  QD  MORE  CELLS  MITH  EXPECTED  FREUUENCY  <  1  »• 2 0 *  OR  CORE  CELLS  WiTH  EXPECTED  FREQUENCY  <  5  96.  1 19.  DURATION  LKARND  .130.,..,  9o.  119.  119.  ENTEP?  GPSI.E  __  OBSERVATIONS.  STOP?  130.  L3_L_ 119.  130.  SIMULTANEOUS  MALL* AGE SEX  •  130.  119.  STATISTICAL FILE  ?  PACK A C E  NONAME  Flip  I HF  (CREATION  SOCIAL  DATE  =  03/19/78  SCIENCES  \  LABEL  RELATIVE  A C J U S T ED  FR E O  CCOE  FREQ  IPC!  FREG (PCT  1 5.  9  15.0  15,0  15 . 0  28 . 3  . ? H, 3  -.3.3  16.7  60.0  28.3  88 . 3  25.  1  35 .  10  16 .  •'•5.  17  28  55 .  5  7  65. AL  60  MEAN •I O D E  34.667  5TO  ERR  X.Tib  2 5.TOO  STD  OEV  13.525  KU-'TOSIS  - 0 . 7 P .  SKF.WNESS  .MINIMUM  15.00 0  MAXIMUM  60  >.! S S I NG  VALID  CASES  t \  Art S O L U T E  TO!  3  03/l9/7e)  VAR2  CA fltGORY  PAGE  7  .3  65.000 0  1  ( PCT)  » . 3  8.3  96.7  3 .3  3.3  100 . 0  100 . 0  100.0  M E D I AN  0.232  CASES  )  CU1 FREQ  VARIANCE RANGE  3 4 . 0 00  ie2.S36 50.000  CO  STATISTICAL  o  FILE  PACMT.r.  N G N AM E  ( t 7  FOP.  IHE  AT ION  SOCIAL  03/19/78  SCIENl.ES-  «-Q3/19/7ti>  DATE  „AO jysTEn  CLP  FRFQ (PCI )  FREQ  FR EQ  35  58.3  58. 3  25  41  .7  41.7  100 . 0  100.0  PELA CATEGORY  CLOt-  LABEL  ABSGLUT E FKEO  60  TOTAL  1.417  Mr .vi K TO SI S M I N I '. I'-' VALID  CASES  -I..46 I  .OfO  STD  P A G F.  0. 064  ERR  0.497 0.347  STO DEV SKF„N SS MA XI : ' U M C  KISSING  11  V.E  (PCT  I  (PCTI  56.3 100.0  MEDIAN VARIANCE  0.247  RANGE  1 .000  1.357  ?.0()0 CASES  O  '  ST%TIST1C-L FILE  / —  PACKAGE  NGNAHE  FQF  IHl  (CREATION  SOCIAL  :  DATE  =  SCIENCES-  03/19/78)  03/19/78  :  _  ..  ]  PAGE  5  '  VAR4  .  CATEGORY  C ODE  LABEL  CLH  RELATIVE  ACJUSIED  ABSOLUTE  TR EQ  FR EQ  FREO  FREO  (PCT)  (PCT)  (PCT)  0.  41  61.3  68.3  68.3  1 .  I 7  2'3 . 3  28.3  96.7  2.  1  1.7  1.7  98.3  i.  I  1.7  t.7  100.0  60  100.0  100.0  TOTAL  0. 367  SID  EUR  0.079  MEDIAN  0.23?  MOTE KU . T C S I S  0.0  STD  DEV  VARIANCE  0.372  4.308  SKEWf-ESS  C.610 1.927  RANGE  3.0CC  M I N I MU'l  0. 0  MAX1HU ,  3.000  VALIO  :  CASES  60  CISSING  CASES  0  .  '  f o  S1A1IST1CAL FILE  1/  PACKAGE  N O N AM E  e_P  IKE  (CREATION  SOCIAL  DATE  =  03/19/78  SCIENCES  PAGE  6  03/19/78) \  \ o c  RELATIVE Ff< EQ  ABSOLUTE CATEGORY  CEDE  LABEL  • F RE 0  AQJUSTED FREQ  CU* FREC (PCT)  (PCT )  (PCT 51.7  51.7  100.c'  1.  U  51.7  2 .  2 9  48.3  48.3  TO T A L  6 0  100.0  100.0  )  -  -  •  MEAN  1. '.S3  MODE KUr.TOSI.S rtlMMUM VALID  CASES  STO STO  CKR nnv  0.065  .MEDIAN  1.469 0 . 2 54 l.OCO  0 . 5 OA  VARIANCE  • - ? . . >'>5 1.000  SKFliMFSS  n  RANGE  MA XI .MUM  2.000  60  VISS1NG  1 . inn ;  CASES  .060  0  VO K3  STATISTICAL  FJJ-f  >,  PACKAGE  NONA..?  rnk  THt  (CPFAT1')()  SUOIAL  SCIENCES  =  03/19/78)  CCCE  ABSOLUTE FREO  DATE  03/19/7 8  V A 0,-fr  ; CATGGuFlY  LABEL  -  .  _  ,  -  FREC  (PCT)  (PCTI  __  CUM  l77  1 .7  3.3  5.C  1  1.7  1.7  6.7  Z  3.3  373  10.0  4  jti JS 7  6JL.7  16.7  10.0  10.0  _6.7  To  16. /  16.7  .3.3  ?  3_.3  3. i  ^b.l  ..  3  5.0  5.0  5 1.7  4.  5  0.3  (Til  60.C  3.3  3.3  63 .3  ~.  . 6  __2  :  FREC  3.3  4.  :  AC J U S T E D ,  FR EQ (PCT)  _2  I.3.  „  RELATIVE  •t.  1  6.7  6. 7  70.0  9.  A  6.7  .7.  76.7  LsJL  1_._7  78.3  5.  1  5.  Z  3.3  3.3  81.7  5.  5"  8.3  8T3  90.0  5.  4  6.7  6LL___J_k__  5.  1  1.7  1.7  98.3  5.  1  1.7  1T7  100.0  TOTAL  J50  100.0  . 100 . 0  PAGE  7  

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