UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Alternative conceptions of politics within the myth of Venice Hancey, James Orlo 1978

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ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTIONS OF POLITICS WITHIN THE MYTH OF VENICE by JAMES ORLO HANCEY B.A., Oregon State U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 B.A., Oregon State U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (c) James Orlo Hancey, 19 78 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and stud y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t ten pe rm i ss i on . Department o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date A p r i l 21, 1978 ABSTRACT The r e p u t a t i o n o f the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c as a model regime p r o v i d e d substance f o r a number o f s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r s . Moreover, the d i f f u s e n a t u r e o f t h i s r e p u t a t i o n , which has more r e c e n t l y been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the 'myth o f V e n i c e ' , made i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e s e men t o u t i l i z e t h e V e n e t i a n model f o r t h r e e w h o l l y d i s p a r a t e c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e n a t u r e o f p o l i t i c s . A l t h o u g h t h e w r i t e r s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l l employed t h e model o f V e n i c e t o address the i s s u e s of ' p o l i t i e s ' , we f i n d t h a t , i n f a c t , t h e y p o r t r a y t h r e e s e p a r a t e and a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s - -o f the purpose o f th e c i v i l s o c i e t y and of the n a t u r e of p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . Gasparo C o n t a r i n i drew upon the r e p u t a t i o n of V e n i c e t o p o r t r a y a c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s as the l e s s o n s o f h i s t o r y . The h e r i t a g e o f the R e p u b l i c c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n i t t h e t r a d i t i o n s which not o n l y p r o v i d e d the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a sense of c i v i c i d e n t i t y , but a l s o a number o f p a t t e r n s f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n which the f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s o f Venice had w i s e l y f a s h i o n e d a f t e r t h o se p a t t e r n s i n f u s e d by God i n t o n a t u r e . The t a s k o f the p o l i t i c a l man, t h e n , was t o d i s c o v e r (or r e - d i s c o v e r ) those p a t t e r n s and i n f u s e them i n t o p o s i t i v e law. Paolo P a r u t a and Paolo S a r p i p o r t r a y e d p o l i t i c s as a m o r a l endeavour, and drew upon the V e n e t i a n e x p e r i e n c e t o b o l s t e r t h e i r n o t i o n s o f the s a n c t i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and the importance of i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n . F o r t h e s e men t h e c i v i l s o c i e t y was o f v a l u e i n t h a t i t was p r o p e r l y an i i i i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e ennoblement o f men and an a i d e i n t h e i r quest f o r p e r f e c t i o n . P o l i t i c a l man i s p o r t r a y e d here as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the a f f a i r s o f the c i v i l s o c i e t y , and the v a l u e o f t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e r i v e s from the f a c t t h a t i t a l l o w s him t o e x e r c i s e h i s m o r a l p o t e n t i a l . L a s t l y , F r a n c e s o P a t r i z i and L u d o v i c o A g o s t i n i drew upon the r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e R e p u b l i c f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t p r o v i s i o n o f goods and s e r v i c e t o her i n h a b i t a n t s and upon t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c n a t u r e o f her government' t o p o r t r a y p o l i t i c a l man as an a r t i f i c e r who r e l i e s upon r e a s o n and e x p e r t i s e t o c o n s t r u c t and m a i n t a i n a government whose t a s k i t i s t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s o f s o c i e t y . Government here i s d e d i c a t e d t o e n s u r i n g the m a t e r i a l goods o f l i f e , and i t s v a l u e i s as a t o o l t o a c h i e v e those goods. i v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The c o u r s e o f t h i s work has been a l o n g one, and s u b s t a n t i a l debts have been i n c u r r e d a l o n g the way. Above a l l , I am i n d e b t e d t o P r o f e s s o r Edward J . Hundert o f t h e H i s t o r y Department at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r p r o v i d i n g encouragement and d i r e c t i o n a t a time whem they were most needed. He not o n l y a i d e d me i n s a l v a g i n g the work o f t h r e e y e a r s , but a l s o h e l p e d t o shore up a f l a g g i n g sense o f ego and s e l f - i d e n t i t y . I am a l s o . i n d e b t e d t o P r o f e s s o r John R. Wood o f the P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Department f o r h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f o r t s w hich brought a semblance o f r a t i o n a l i t y t o the committee p r o c e s s , and f o r h i s a i d i n o b t a i n i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . L a s t l y , I am i n d e b t e d t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e x t e n s i v e f i n a n c i a l supportnw-ithout which t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d not have been completed. V T A B L E OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION The Problem .. .. . . . . . . . . .. 1 CHAPTER I The S e t t i n g . . 10 I I P o l i t i c s as the Lesso n s o f H i s t o r y : Gasparo C o n t a r i n i •. .. .. .. 61 I I I P o l i t i c s as a M o r a l Endeavour: P a r u t a and S a r p i 107 IV P o l i t i c s as the R a t i o n a l Management o f S o c i e t y : P a t r i z i and A g o s t i n i .. 188 CONCLUSION 248 BIBLIOGRAPHY 2 62 1. I N T R O D U C T I O N The Problem A f u l l and a c c u r a t e s t u d y of the p o l i t i c a l thought o f a n o t h e r age o r s e t t i n g r e q u i r e s the adherence to c e r t a i n m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . F i r s t , t h a t study must be c a r r i e d out w i t h an awareness o f the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n which t h a t thought d e v e l o p e d . We must r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e have e x i s t e d — a n d c o n t i n u e to e x i s t - — w a y s o f v i e w i n g the w o r l d and o f a p p r o a c h i n g the problems o f c i v i l l i f e which a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from our own. S e c o n d l y , i n o r d e r to p o r t r a y a c c u r a t e l y the p o l i t i c a l thought o f a g i v e n age o r s e t t i n g , i t i s h e l p f u l to s h i f t our f o c u s away from a s o l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon t h o s e p o l i t i c a l t h i n k e r s whose v e r y o r i g i n a l i t y most o f t e n makes them a t y p i c a l o f t h a t age. J . W. A l l e n p o i n t s to the problem h e r e : I t w i l l be f u t i l e to l i g h t e n our l a b o u r s by p i c k i n g out a few w r i t e r s o r a few books t h a t f o r some r e a s o n have become o u t s t a n d i n g . I f we adopt t h a t method o f approach, i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t we s h a l l b a r e l y g e t i n t o t o u c h . The p o l i t i c a l thought o f a p e r i o d i s to be found 2 r a t h e r i n the w r i t i n g s o f ob s c u r e and anonymous persons than i n t h e work o f w r i t e r s whose r e a l ^ d i s t i n c t i o n and o r i g i n a l i t y makes them u n t y p i c a l . We must, then, r e c o g n i z e the value, f o r our purposes, o f a body o f l i t e r a t u r e w hich has h i t h e r t o r e c e i v e d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from l a t e r s c h o l a r s p r e c i s e l y because i t i s n o t h i g h l y o r i g i n a l . As one b e g i n s to r e a d the p o l i t i c a l w r i t i n g s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , one becomes aware t h a t t h e r e e x i s t g r e a t d i s p a r i t i e s w i t h r e g a r d to fundamental c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e n a t u r e o f p o l i t i c s , the purpose o f c i v i l s o c i e t y , and t h e p r o p e r manner o f p r o c e e d i n g i n p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e s h e r e a r e more than those o f t a c t i c s o r s t r a t e g y , o r r e f i n e m e n t s upon a common theme. R a t h e r they go to the v e r y c o r e o f p o l i t i c s and the v e r y r o o t s o f c i v i l l i f e . I f one i s to make comparisons between i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r s , then those comparisons must take i n t o account t h e s e v i t a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and one must be a b l e to a r t i c u l a t e the fundamental d i s p a r i t i e s found i n these a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s . We s h a l l examine, i n t h i s study, the works o f f i v e p o l i t i c a l t h i n k e r s i n our attempt to p o r t r a y t h e p o l i t i c a l thought s u r r o u n d i n g s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e ; and we s h a l l f i n d i n these works t h r e e d i s t i n c t c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s . We w i l l see p o l i t i c s t r e a t e d a l t e r n a t i v e l y as the l e s s o n s o f h i s t o r y , as a moral endeavour, and as a m a n a g e r i a l 1. J . W. A l l e n , A H i s t o r y o f P o l i t i c a l Thought i n the S i x t e e n t h Century ( R e v i s e d e d i t i o n ; London: U n i v e r s i t y Paperbacks, 1964), p. x v i i i . 3 a c t i v i t y f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f man's e a r t h l y needs. The w r i t i n g s which we s h a l l examine h e r e a r e f u l l y i n t e l l i g i b l e o n l y when we u n d e r s t a n d the framework o f i d e a s w i t h i n which they were f a s h i o n e d . Our t a s k then s h a l l be to examine these w r i t i n g s w i t h a view to a r t i c u l a t i n g those t h r e e d i s t i n c t c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s . The p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r s i n q u e s t i o n drew from a number o f i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e s , and i t i s t h i s admixture o f v a r i o u s t r a d i t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e s i n v a r y i n g degrees which a c c o u n t s , i n p a r t , f o r the wide-r a n g i n g d i f f e r e n c e s which we f i n d i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l works. One o f the u n d e r l y i n g i n f l u e n c e s , common to t hese f i v e w r i t e r s i s what has come to be termed by modern h i s t o r i a n s as the "myth o f V e n i c e " . There i s disagreement among modern s c h o l a r s as to the c o n t e n t o f the myth o r the parameters d e l i m i t i n g e x a c t l y what i s , and what i s not to be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s mental c o n s t r u c t ; but a r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s a g e n e r a l sense o f the v i t a l c o r e o f the l a t t e r . F e d e r i c o Chabod emphasizes the ' r e p u t a t i o n ' o f V e n i c e i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y as the model s t a t e because o f h e r c o n s t i t u t i o n . Gina F a s o l i , a l s o one o f the f i r s t to employ the term, emphasizes the r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e V e n e t i a n s f o r t h e i r e t h i c a l v i r t u e s o f magnanimity, he r o i s m , g e n e r o s i t y , 2 and l i b e r a l i t y . In the l a s t two decades the myth o f V e n i c e as a model p o l i t y has been somewhat more e x t e n s i v e l y t r e a t e d , and we see t h a t 2 F e d e r i c o Chabod, " V e n e z i a n e l l a p o l i t i c a i t a l i a n a ed europea d e l c i n q u e c e n t o , " i n La c i v i l t a v e n e z i a n a d e l r i n a s c i m e n t o ( F l o r e n c e : S a n s o n i , 1958), pp. 48-49; G i n a F a s o l i , " N a s c i t a d i un m i t o , " i n S t u d i s t o r i c i i n onore d i G i o a c c h i n o V o l p e , V o l . 1 ( F l o r e n c e : S a n s o n i , 1958). p. 449. 4 a mental c o n s t r u c t emerges which i s m u l t i - f a c e t e d . D a v i d Robey and John Law i d e n t i f y the i m p o r t a n t i d e a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the myth o f V e n i c e as b e i n g those " . . . o f the p r i v i l e g e d o r i g i n s o f the c i t y , o f i t s l o n g h i s t o r y o f freedom and p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y , o f i t s p i e t y and o f 3 the e x c e l l e n c e of i t s customs and i n s t i t u t i o n s . " Renzo P e c c h i o l i p o i n t s to the r e p u t a t i o n o f V e n i c e as a model s t a t e from a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o i n t o f view (which emphasized the e q u i l i b r i u m o f t h e mixed government), 4 and from the p o i n t o f view o f ' c i v i l e t h i c s ' . Myron G i l m o r e o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the myth o f V e n i c e : The c i t y ' s l o n g - c o n t i n u e d independence, the s t a b i l i t y o f i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , the e x i s t e n c e o f an a r i s t o c r a t i c g o v e r n i n g c l a s s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the l a r g e mass o f l a b o u r e r s and a r t i s a n s , the 'mixed' q u a l i t y o f the regime, which p r e v e n t e d the d o m i n a t i o n o f a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l o r f a c t i o n , t h e s e were the elements from which the myth o f V e n i c e was c o n s t r u c t e d . 5 L i k e w i s e , Franco Gaeta p o i n t s to the polymorphous , n a t u r e o f the myth o f V e n i c e when he i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e ' a s p e c t s ' o f t h e myth and, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e s e as t h r e e s e p a r a t e 'myths'; the myth o f V e n i c e as a s t a t e o f l i b e r t y ; as a mixed s t a t e ; and as a - g a l l a n t 3 D a v i d Robey and John Law, "The V e n e t i a n Myth and the 'De R e p u b l i c a Veneta' o f P i e r P aolo V e r g e r i o , " i n R i n a s c i m e n t o : R i v i s t a d e l l '  I n s t i t u t o N a z i o n a l e d i S t u d i s u l R i n a s c i m e n t o , V o l . 15, Second S e r i e s (1975), p. 3. 4 Renzo P e c c h i o l i , " I I 'mito' d i V e n e z i a e l a c r i s i f i o r e n t i n a i n t o r n o a l 1500," i n S t u d i s t o r i c i . v o l . I l l (1962). p. 471. 5 Myron G i l m o r e , "Myth and R e a l i t y i n V e n e t i a n P o l i t i c a l Theory," i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , e d i t e d by J . R. H a l e (London: Faber and Faber, 1973). p. 439. 5 c i t y . F e l i x G i l b e r t emphasizes the r e p u t a t i o n o f V e i n c e as a c i t y o f l i b e r t y and as a c i t y o f domestic peace and s t a b i l i t y ; ^ and L e s t e r J . L i b b y , J r . employs the concept under the r u b r i c o f the R e p u b l i c as an ' i d e a l s o c i e t y ' which e x h i b i t e d a s t a b i l i t y engendered by h e r p o l i t i c a l g c o n s t i t u t i o n . I n h i s f o r m u l a t i o n o f the myth o f V e n i c e J . G. A. Pocock has d i s c o u n t e d the emphasis which F a s o l i o r i g i n a l l y a t t a c h e d to the i n h e r e n t e t h i c a l v i r t u e s o f t h e V e n e t i a n s : The mito d i V e n e z i a c o n s i s t s i n the a s s e r t i o n t h a t V e n i c e p o s s e s s e s a s e t o f r e g u l a t i o n s f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g which ensure t h e complete r a t i o n a -l i t y o f e v e r y d e c i s i o n and the complete v i r t u e o f e v e r y d e c i s i o n maker. V e n e t i a n s a r e not i n h e r e n t l y more v i r t u o u s than o t h e r man, but they p o s s e s s i n s t i t u t i o n s which make them so.9 D e s p i t e modern disagreement as to the p r e c i s e c o n t e n t o f t h e myth o f V e n i c e , t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t V e n i c e s e r v e d as the model p o l i t y f o r a number o f p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r s i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; and the v e r y l a c k o f consensus among modern s c h o l a r s r e g a r d i n g a l l o f t h e elements o f t h e myth o f V e n i c e p o i n t s to i t s m u l t i - f a c e t e d n a t u r e . 6 F r a n c o Gaeta, "Alcune c o n s i d e r a z i o n i s u l mito d i V e n e z i a , " i n B i b l i o t h e q u e d'Humanisme e t R e n a i s s a n c e , V o l . 23 (1961), p. 60. 7 F e l i x G i l b e r t , "The V e n e t i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n i n F l o r e n t i n e P o l i t i c a l Thought," i n F l o r e n t i n e S t u d i e s : P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y i n Re n a i s s a n c e  F l o r e n c e , e d i t e d by N i c o l a i R u b e n s t e i n (London: F a b e r and Faber, 1968). pp. 466-67. 8. :Lester J . L i b b y , J r . , " V e n e t i a n H i s t o r y and P o l i t i c a l Thought a f t e r 1509," i n S t u d i e s i n the R e n a i s s a n c e , V o l . XX (1973), pp. 7-8 and passim. 9 J . G. A. Pocock, The M a c h i a v e l l i a n Moment: F l o r e n t i n e P o l i t i c a l Thought and the A t l a n t i c R e p u b l i c a n T r a d i t i o n ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975), p. 324. 6 V a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r s , i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y j u s t as i n t h e t w e n t i e t h , have emphasized d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o r elements o f the V e n e t i a n model dependent upon t h a t which they were ( o r are) a t t e m p t i n g to demonstrate. F o r example, w h i l e the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the R e p u b l i c was o f t e n c i t e d as p r o o f o f the m e r i t s of a mixed p o l i t y , V e n i c e was a l s o o f t e n employed as an example o f the b e n e f i t s o f an a r i s t o c r a c y . The model o f V e n i c e , then, has been u t i l i z e d f o r a number o f p u r p o s e s . I f we a r e to use the myth o f V e n i c e , we must t h i n k o f i t i n terms o f the r e l a t i v e l y w i d e s p r e a d r e p u t a t i o n which V e n i c e e n j o y e d i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y as a model s t a t e e x h i b i t i n g the q u a l i t i e s o f lon g e v i t y , . : s t a b i l i t y and a l a c k o f c i v i l d i s c o r d wrought by h e r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements and/or the v i r t u e o f her c i t i z e n r y . I t i s t h i s common t h r e a d o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e V e n e t i a n e x p e r i e n c e which we w i l l attempt to f o l l o w as we examine these t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s . How does i t c o l o u r these t h r e e c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s ? How i s i t u t i l i z e d by d i f f e r e n t t h i n k e r s and what do they draw from the V e n e t i a n e x p e r i e n c e ? Pocock has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n i s c o n s t a n t l y g o i n g on, and t h a t " . . . i t may take p l a c e i n a v a r i e t y o f ways and g i v e r i s e to a v a r i e t y o f mental phenomena.""*"^ We s h a l l attempt to e x p l o r e the v a r i o u s mental phenomena which a r o s e from d i f f e r i n g a c c o u n t i n g s and uses of what has come to be termed the myth o f V e n i c e . 10 J . G. A. Pocock, P o l i t i c s , Language and Time: E s s a y s on P o l i t i c a l  Thought and H i s t o r y (New York: Atheneum, 1971). p. 235. 7 The c h o i c e o f t e r m i n o l o g y by modern h i s t o r i a n s i s u n f o r t u n a t e h e r e , f o r t h e term "myth" o f t e n tends to l e a d us to l o o k f o r the degree o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between myth and r e a l i t y . While t h i s may be a w o r t h w h i l e endeavour i n i t s e l f , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to keep i n mind t h a t men's a c t i o n s a r e most o f t e n grounded i n a p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y , whether o r not t h a t p e r c e p t i o n be a c c u r a t e . In our s e a r c h f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p o l i t i c a l t h i n k i n g o f a n o t h e r e r a , the degree to which the myth c o r r e s p o n d s to the r e a l i t y s h o u l d c o n c e r n us l e s s than the r o l e o f t h a t myth i n i n f l u e n c i n g and g u i d i n g the p o l i t i c a l thought o f t h a t time. We a r e i n t e r e s t e d , here, w i t h the growth, a l t e r a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n o f i d e a s ; and f o r t h i s t a s k a mere i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the correspondence between the myth and r e a l i t y i s insufficient."'""'" T h i s study, which examines and p o r t r a y s t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s t h a t d e r i v e f r o m — a n d , indeed, a r e l a r g e l y bounded b y — t h e i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t o f t h e myth o f V e n i c e , i s o f v a l u e f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . F i r s t , the w r i t e r s under e x a m i n a t i o n h e r e have r e c e i v e d too l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from modern s c h o l a r s . Many of these w r i t e r s were tremendously i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r day, y e t the modern s t u d e n t i s s c a r c e l y aware o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . We s h o u l d seek to u n d e r s t a n d why these men e n j o y e d such a prominence w i t h s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y a u d i e n c e s , and what i t i s t h a t they have to say r e g a r d i n g the 11 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f Euhemerist myth and the r o l e o f myth i n p o l i t i c s , see Henry Tudor, P o l i t i c a l Myth (London: P a l l M a l l P r e s s , 1972), Chapters I and V. 8 n a t u r e of p o l i t i c s . T h i s s t u d y i s o f v a l u e , then, i n t h a t we s h a l l l o o k a t the works o f a body o f w r i t e r s on whom t h e r e i s a p a u c i t y o f modern s c h o l a r s h i p . S econdly, modern s c h o l a r s o f these works have most o f t e n tended to t r e a t them as d i s c r e t e , s e l f - c o n t a i n e d e n t i t i e s , unconnected w i t h t h e l a r g e r t r a d i t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e s u r r o u n d i n g s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e . I f t h e s e men of the c i n q u e c e n t o have adopted and u t i l i z e d the i d e a s and v a l u e s embodied i n what has come to be termed the myth o f V e n i c e , t h e n i t i s incumbent t h a t we e x p l o r e t h a t framework o f i d e a s and the ways i n which i t has i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r works. By a p p r o a c h i n g these works i n t h i s manner, we s h a l l be a b l e to p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t w i t h i n which we can more f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r i m p o r t . Indeed, we cannot f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d the works of t h e s e men w i t h o u t t h i s c o n t e x t ; and the tendency o f many modern s c h o l a r s to t r e a t these works as d i s c r e t e and s e l f -c o n t a i n e d e n t i t i e s i s i n a d e q u a t e . L a s t l y , and most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h i s s t u d y w i l l p r o v i d e t h a t c o n t e x t i n terms o f t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s which d e r i v e o u t o f a common body o f i d e a s . We w i l l be a b l e to demonstrate t h a t the V e n e t i a n e x p e r i e n c e has been employed to i n f o r m t h r e e s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t n o t i o n s o f t h e s u b s t a n c e o f p o l i t i c s ; and, as these t h r e e c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s take shape, i t w i l l become m a n i f e s t t h a t the attempt to d e a l w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l works o u t s i d e o f t h i s c o n t e x t i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e . F o r example, two w r i t e r s may b o t h be w r i t i n g about 9 " p o l i t i c s " , yet at the same time be w r i t i n g about very d i f f e r e n t phenomena. We can gain l i t t l e from a reading of the works of an i n d i -v i d u a l w r i t e r unless we are aware that he i s w r i t i n g w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r conception of p o l i t i c s i n mind, and unless we can a r t i c u l a t e that conception. Thus f a r , the l i t e r a t u r e on these t h i n k e r s has not provided the student w i t h t h i s foundation f o r an understanding of t h e i r works. While we s h a l l f i n d three d i s t i n c t conceptions of p o l i t i c s surrounding s i x t e e n t h century Venice, we s h a l l a l s o f i n d that these share much i n terms of i n t e l l e c t u a l i n f l u e n c e s and i d e a l s . We w i l l attempt to explore those bases of p o l i t i c a l wisdom common to these three a l t e r n a t i v e conceptions of p o l i t i c s , as w e l l as to account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s which we f i n d . 10 CHAPTER I THE SETTING I F o r c e n t u r i e s the c i t y o f V e n i c e has i n s p i r e d awe amongst o u t s i d e r s ; perhaps because i t i s an enigma. The c u r r e n t - d a y t r a v e l l e r to V e n i c e j u x t a p o s e s i n h i s mind the beauty o f the c i t y b u i l t upon c a n a l s w i t h a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i t i s , i n f a c t , a c i t y c o n s t r u c t e d atop i t s open pungent sewers. He sees the beauty o f the B y z a n t i n e mosaics i n S t . Mark's and, as he walks upon i t s uneven f l o o r s , r e a l i z e s t h a t the e n t i r e b u i l d i n g i s s i n k i n g s l o w l y upon i t s f o u n d a t i o n s . Ground f l o o r s o f b u i l d i n g s , awash w i t h t h e water o f the c a n a l s , t e s t i f y to the f a c t t h a t the c i t y i s c u r r e n t l y f a c i n g an enemy more de a d l y than any f a c e d i n the p a s t . One attempts to r e c o n c i l e the g l o r y o f the a r t , the s t a t e s m a n s h i p and the a d v e n t u r e of the p a s t w i t h the s t r e e t vendor hawking cheap s o u v e n i r s and the seeming i n a b i l i t y o r u n w i l l i n g n e s s o f modern governmental powers to do a n y t h i n g about the p l i g h t o f the c i t y as a whole. L i k e our c u r r e n t - d a y t o u r i s t , the R e n a i s s a n c e t r a v e l l e r to V e n i c e a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d a sense o f a w e — f o r the c i t y , even then, was an enigma. The s o u r c e s of h i s puzzlement were, however, d i f f e r e n t from our own. The R e n a i s s a n c e t r a v e l l e r m a r v e l l e d a t the a b i l i t y o f V e n i c e to remain f r e e from i n t e r n a l s t r i f e , and h e r a b i l i t y to d e a l w i t h g r e a t 11 r o y a l powers as though she were an e q u a l . Indeed, the i n t e r n a l q u i e t u d e and c i v i l harmony which seemed to c h a r a c t e r i z e V e n i c e earned f o r h e r a r e p u t a t i o n b e s t e x p r e s s e d i n the s o b r i q u e t , l a S e r e n i s s i m a — t h e most s e r e n e . What was i t about t h i s c i t y , about h e r p e o p l e , t h a t a l l o w e d her to c o n t i n u e to endure and to f l o u r i s h a m i d s t a w o r l d o f t u r m o i l and change? C e r t a i n l y f a r g r e a t e r powers had succumbed to c h a n g i n g times and changing power c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . A number o f f o r e i g n commentators upon V e n i c e a d d r e s s e d themselves to t h i s theme."'" The c o r n e r s t o n e o f V e n e t i a n r e p u b l i c a n i s m and l i b e r t y had been the i n s u l a r i t y o f t h e c i t y and the a t t e n d a n t independence o f th e R e p u b l i c from f o r e i g n powers. Indeed, the t h e n p o p u l a r myth r e g a r d i n g the f o u n d a t i o n of V e n i c e l e n t c r e d i b i l i t y to t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f the r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f V e n i c e b e i n g i n t e g r a l l y t i e d to the c o n c e p t i o n o f l i b e r t y . A c c o r d i n g to the myth, the c i t y had been founded i n t h e e a r l y f i f t h c e n t u r y by men who sought p e r s o n a l l i b e r t y and freedom from domina-t i o n above a l l m a t e r i a l goods, and saw i n t h e l a g o o n an a r e a i n which they c o u l d l i v e u n d i s t u r b e d by t h e chaos and t u r m o i l which a t t e n d e d 2 d o m i n a t i o n by o t h e r s . V e n e t i a n independence, and the p e r s o n a l l i b e r t y which t h a t independence a l l o w e d , were seen as the e s s e n c e o f V e n i c e 1 F e d e r i c o Chabod, " V e n e z i a n e l l a p o l i t i c a i t a l i a n a ed europea d e l c i n q u e c e n t o " , pp. 29-55, d i s c u s s e s the i n f l u e n c e o f V e n i c e i n the w r i t i n g s o f p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r s f o r e i g n to V e n i c e . See a l s o W i l l i a m J . Bouwsma, "V e n i c e and t h e P o l i t i c a l E d u c a t i o n o f Europe", i n H a l e , op. c i t . , pp. 445-66. Z. S. F i n k , " V e n i c e and E n g l i s h P o l i t i c a l Thought i n the Seventeenth Century", i n Modern P h i l o l o g y , XXXVIII (1940), pp. 155-72, d i s c u s s e s the " r e p u t a t i o n " o f V e n i c e and i t s p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s v i s - a - v i s E n g l i s h p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r s i n d e t a i l . 2 The Carmine o f M a r c a n t o n i o S a b e l l i c o , w r i t t e n i n :the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , s e t s t h e date a t March 25, 413. 12 h e r s e l f r a t h e r t h a n s o m e t h i n g o f r e c e n t o r i g n and w o r t h y o f n o t e by a number o f c o m m e n t a t o r s . I n d e e d , B o d i n t e l l s us t h a t t h i s i s V e n i c e ' s p r i m a r y c l a i m t o d i s t i n c t i o n : " T h i s i s t h e p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n why men p r a i s e t h e s t a t e o f t h e V e n e t i a n s so m u c h — o n e l i v e s t h e r e i n t h e 3 g r e a t e s t f r e e d o m . " The b e l i e f t h a t t h e v e r y e s s e n c e o f V e n i c e was i n e x t r i c a b l y t i e d t o t he n o t i o n s o f l i b e r t y and f r eedom f r o m e x t e r n a l powers was r e i n f o r c e d by h e r g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n . The n a t u r a l d e f e n c e s o f t h e l a g o o n were a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t he r e l i a n c e upon f o r e i g n powers w h i c h w o u l d have n e c e s s i t a t e d t he s u r r e n d e r o f some o f h e r i n d e p e n d e n c e . The i n s u l a r i t y o f V e n i c e a l l o w e d h e r to r e m a i n a l o o f f r o m p e n i n s u l a r c o n c e r n s u n t i l i t was to h e r advan tage to e n t e r i n t o a n a l l i a n c e . The advan t a ge h e r e can be s e e n i n t he c o n s t a n t r e l u c t a n c e o f V e n i c e t o become e m b r o i l e d i n t h e d i s p u t e s be tween t h e m e d i e v a l papacy and i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y . The g e o g r a p h i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f V e n i c e p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r a s s e t s i n te rms o f f o s t e r i n g a s p i r i t o f community among t h e c i t i z e n s . There e x i s t e d a g r e a t e r homogene i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n , and a l e s s e r deg ree o f p a r t i c u l a r i s t i n t e r e s t t h a n was t o be f o u n d on t h e p e n i n s u l a . T h e r e was no l a n d e d n o b i l i t y as t h e r e was no need f o r o n e . The l a n d e d n o b i l i t y o f t he p e n i n s u l a b a s e d t h e i r power on two t h i n g s w h i c h t h e y were a b l e to o f f e r — l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , and m i l i t a r y power . G i v e n t h e s e c u r i t y o f f e r e d by t h e l a g o o n s , and t he f a c t t h a t t he V e n e t i a n economy was l a r g e l y one o f t r a d e , a l a n d e d n o b i l i t y w o u l d 3. J e a n B o d i n , Method f o r t h e Ea sy Comprehens i on o f H i s t o r y , t r a n s l a t e d by B e a t r i c e R e y n o l d s , V o l . 37 o f R e c o r d s o f C i v i l i z a t i o n , e d i t e d by A u s t i n P Evans (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1945iv, p. 276. 13 s i m p l y have been out o f c o n t e x t . Hence a l a n d e d n o b i l i t y and a n a t i v e m i l i t a r y c l a s s were n o n - e x i s t e n t i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e . F u r t h e r , t h e n o b i l i t y o f V e n i c e , as a group, d i d n o t have g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t s which were d i v e r g e n t from those o f the common p o p u l a c e . Both groups made t h e i r l i v i n g from the sea, and a g r e a t degree o f c o o p e r a t i o n was needed to b u i l d and m a i n t a i n t h e network o f c a n a l s and d i k e s by which V e n i c e c o u l d have a c c e s s to the sea, y e t impede i t s d e s t r u c t i v e a s p e c t s . There was not, o r was t h e r e p e r c e i v e d to be, a d i v e r g e n c e o f i n t e r e s t between the r u l i n g segment o f s o c i e t y ( t h e p a t r i c i a n c l a s s ) and the s u b j e c t . L a s t l y , the g e o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s o f V e n i c e f o s t e r e d a sense o f community through i t s u n i q u e n e s s . Nowhere e l s e c o u l d one f i n d a t h r i v i n g r e p u b l i c which was b u i l t upon the water, and had so l e a r n e d to use t h a t advantage t h a t i t c o u l d l a r g e l y remain i m p e r v i o u s to the seemingly c o n s t a n t t r o u b l e s o f the m a i n l a n d . Other I t a l i a n s had o f t e n come to d e s p i s e the V e n e t i a n s f o r t h e i r non-involvement and t h i s , through t h e mechanism o f d e f i a n c e , had r e i n f o r c e d the V e n e t i a n sense o f p o l i t i c a l community. Many o f the a t t r i b u t e s which p r o v i d e d f o r V e n e t i a n independence a l s o h e l p e d to m a i n t a i n the s t a b i l i t y o f the p o l i t y . The absence o f a l a n d e d n o b i l i t y w i t h d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s and the absence o f a n a t i v e m i l i t a r y c l a s s enhanced s t a b i l i t y and t r a d i t i o n . Because o f V e n i c e ' s unique p o s i t i o n and h e r dependence upon the sea, a l a n d e d n o b i l i t y would have been a t odds w i t h a merchant c l a s s i n t e r e s t e d i n 14 m a i n t a i n i n g and enhancing m a r i t i m e i n f l u e n c e . Beyond t h i s , t h e r e was o f t e n the view t h a t V e n i c e must always endure s i m p l y because she had endured so l o n g . Indeed, the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y had seen the aggrandizement o f V e n i c e through the d e f a u l t o f more m o r t a l powers. The B y z a n t i n e Empire had succumbed to the Turks, the B a l k a n k i n g s were unable to a c t i n any d e c i s i v e manner, and the a s s e r t i o n o f Hapsburg power remained s l u g g i s h . The c o n t i n u e d f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f the p e n i n s u l a 4 p r e c l u d e d d e c i s i v e a c t i o n by any o f i t s components. D e s p i t e the view t h a t V e n i c e must endure i n h e r p e r s o n a l and c i v i c l i b e r t y s i m p l y because she had endured so l o n g i n t h e p a s t , V e n e t i a n s were not unaware o f the p r e - r e q u i s i t e s o f t h a t l i b e r t y . F o r l i b e r t y , to the V e n e t i a n s , was not merely something a b s t r a c t o r i d y l l i c , but was something t h a t was hard-won and r e a l i z e d h i s t o r i c a l l y . ^ W h i l e l i b e r t y was viewed much i n the sense o f a m e d i e v a l p r i v i l e g e to which V e n e t i a n s were p r i v y by r e a s o n o f c i t i z e n s h i p , i t was a l s o something which must be c o n s t a n t l y defended i n t h e f a c e o f those such as the Turks, p a p i s t s , the F r e n c h , and o t h e r I t a l i a n s who would take away t h a t l i b e r t y . The workings o f t h a t l i b e r t y c o u l d be viewed i n the everyday l i f e o f the V e n e t i a n and, t h e r e f o r e , the c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h a t l i b e r t y and i t s d e f e n s e had a l l the g r e a t e r cogency. The d i f f e r e n c e s between the l o t 4 See A l b e r t o T e n n t i , "The Sense o f Space and Time i n the V e n e t i a n World o f the F i f t e e n t h and S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s , " i n H a l e , op. e x t . , p a r t i c u l a r l y pp. 17-18. 5 I b i d . , 35-36. 15 of the Venetian and, say, someone d w e l l i n g on the p l a i n s of Lombardy, were manifest. Venetians di d not owe f e a l t y to landed nobles who might e x t r a c t rents and m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e as the occasion arose. They were not subjected to laws other than those passed i n t h e i r own c o u n c i l s . And, perhaps most impo r t a n t l y , t h e i r homes were not under constant t h r e a t of being overrun by the marauding armies of feuding powers. The f i r s t p r e - r e q u i s i t e to the maintenance of that personal and c i v i c l i b e r t y was the maintenance of Venetian independence from f o r e i g n powers. Venice of the s i x t e e n t h century has been v a r i o u s l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a democracy, a r e p u b l i c , an a r i s t o c r a c y and an o l i g a r c h y . With regard to the governmental s t r u c t u r e per se, the most accurate and p r e c i s e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s that of a r e p u b l i c f o r , as we s h a l l see, the number of those who a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the government was r e l a t i v e l y s m all when compared w i t h the t o t a l number of c i t i z e n s , and those that d i d so were to represent the c i t i z e n body as a whole. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n i n the business of government was most o f t e n v i c a r i o u s , and t h i s was due to the f a c t that there were simply more c i t i z e n s than needed government f u n c t i o n a r i e s . Those c i t i z e n s not p a r t i c i p a t i n g d i r e c t l y i n the government one year might or might not—depending upon l o t and e l e c t i o n — p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y the next. In t h i s sense though, Venice was a l s o considered a democracy i n that a l l of her c i t i z e n s were e l i g i b l e f o r p o s i t i o n s i n , say, the Senate or the C o u n c i l of Ten. A l l i n h a b i t a n t s were not c i t i z e n s however; 6 F u r t h e r , I take the term ' r e p u b l i c ' to i n d i c a t e " a type of regime which i s i n c l u d e d under the broader concept of 'democracies'. 16 and I t i s t h i s f a c t w h i c h gave r i s e t o t h e n o t i o n s o f a r i s t o c r a c y and o l i g a r c h y o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h V e n i c e . C i t i z e n s h i p was r e s t r i c t e d to the p a t r i c i a n c l a s s whose members numbered a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3,000 i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Thus, t h e r e i s a sense i n w h i c h t h e government o f V e n i c e was 'the r u l e o f t h e few'. I f one f o c u s e s upon t h e e n t i r e community, r a t h e r t h a n s o l e l y upon t h e c i t i z e n r y , t h e term a r i s t o c r a c y m i g ht a p p e a r more a p p r o p r i a t e . Indeed B o d i n uses t h i s n o t i o n o f ' f o c u s ' when he a t t e m p t s to p l a c e V e n i c e w i t h i n a t y p o l o g i c a l framework w i t h r e g a r d t o h e r f o r m o f government. A r g u i n g a g a i n s t the c h a r a c t e r i -z a t i o n o f V e n i c e as a mixed s t a t e , he s t a t e s t h a t s i n c e t h e doge, th e s e n a t e and, i n d e e d , a l l o f t h e m a g i s t r a t e s owe t h e i r t e n u r e to t h e p e o p l e , we must t h e r e f o r e c a l l t h i s form o f government ' p o p u l a r ' . ^ B u t s i n c e t h e number o f c i t i z e n s i s b u t a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s , g he c o n t i n u e s , t h e f o r m o f t h e government i s r e a l l y an a r i s t o c r a c y . L a s t l y , the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f ' o l i g a r c h y ' a r o s e p r i m a r i l y f r o m t h o s e d e t r a c t o r s o f V e n i c e who p r e f e r r e d to c a s t h e r government i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e r u l e o f a few who d i r e c t e d the s t a t e f o r t h e i r own, r a t h e r t h a n p u b l i c , p u r p o s e s . As we s h a l l s e e , t h i s c h a r g e i s n o t b o r n e o u t by t h e e v i d e n c e . The terms r e p u b l i c a n , d e m o c r a t i c and a r i s t o c r a t i c a r e a l l p r o p e r a d j e c t i v e s by w h i c h one might d e s c r i b e V e n i c e o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and t h e n o t i o n s o f democracy and a r i s t o c r a c y a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s . 7. B o d i n , op. c i t . , pp. 190-91. 8. I b i d . , p. 198. B o d i n uses t h e term 'government o f o p t i m a t e s ' , p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e r e a r e , i n r e a l i t y , no a r i s t o c r a c i e s s i n c e we c annot a s s u r e t h a t t h e ' b e s t ' men a r e a t t h e head o f t h e government. 17 A s t r o n g d e m o c r a t i c o r r e p u b l i c a n . e l e m e n t had c h a r a c t e r i z e d the development o f t h e V e n e t i a n p o l i t i c a l h e r i t a g e . I n the s i x t h and sevent h c e n t u r i e s , each o f the twelve communities o f V e n i c e was o v e r s e e n by a p o p u l a r l y e l e c t e d t r i b u n e . To meet r i s i n g i n t e r n a l d i s o r d e r and t h e t h r e a t o f i n v a s i o n by the Lombards, a g e n e r a l meeting was c a l l e d i n 697 and, a t the s u g g e s t i o n o f a member o f the c l e r g y , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t the a u t h o r i t y o f t h e t r i b u n e s h o u l d be l i m i t e d s t r i c t l y to l o c a l m a t t e r s and t h a t a capo s h o u l d be e l e c t e d f o r l i f e . P a o l u c c i o A n a f e s t o thus became the f i r s t doge and was i n v e s t e d w i t h e x t e n s i v e powers. The i n s t i t u t i o n o f the doge l a s t e d o n l y twenty y e a r s b e f o r e i t was a b o l i s h e d d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f c i v i l s t r i f e . A f t e r s i x y e a r s o f d i s c o r d , a n o t h e r g e n e r a l meeting was c a l l e d and the dogeship r e i n s t i t u t e d — t h i s time to l a s t f o r about e l e v e n c e n t u r i e s . The p r a c t i c e o f e l e c t i n g the doge was s u p e r s e d e d i n 778 when M a u r i z i o G a l b a i o was p e r m i t t e d to a s s o c i a t e h i s s o n G i o v a n n i w i t h him f o r reasons o f i n f i r m h e a l t h . Upon the death of M a u r i z i o , the dogeship f e l l to h i s son. A s s o c i a t i o n and h e r e d i t a r y s u c c e s s i o n became s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e u n t i l the y e a r 1032, when Domenico F l a b i a n c o c a l l e d a g e n e r a l meeting f o r the purpose o f r e f o r m i n g the d o g e s h i p . A f t e r r e c o u n t i n g the u n b r i d l e d a m b i t i o n s and the t r a g i c consequences o f many of the doges f o r the p a s t 300 y e a r s , a s s o c i a t i o n and h e r e d i t a r y s u c c e s s i o n were a b o l i s h e d . The r e p u b l i c a n f a c t i o n s pushed f u r t h e r , and two d u c a l c o u n s e l l o r s were a p p o i n t e d to a s s i s t the doge i n h i s o r d i n a r y d u t i e s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , i n e x t r a o r d i n a r y m a t t e r s o f p u b l i c importance, the doge was compelled to i n v i t e the more prominent 18 and e x p e r i e n c e d c i t i z e n s to s i t i n the form o f a c o u n c i l and o f f e r a d v i c e . T h i s c o u n c i l formed the b e g i n n i n g s o f the l a t e r Senate and G r e a t C o u n c i l . The C o u n c i l a r r o g a t e d i n c r e a s i n g l y more power and f i n a l l y i n 1172 the c o n s t i t u t i o n was r e v i s e d . Under the new c o n s t i t u t i o n the c i t y was d i v i d e d i n t o s i x wards. Each ward was to e l e c t two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who would each a p p o i n t . f o r t y l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s . , from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e wards to form the G r e a t C o u n c i l . The C o u n c i l s a t f o r a y e a r , a t the end o f which i t (not the wards) nominated the twelve men who would a p p o i n t the C o u n c i l f o r the next y e a r . F u r t h e r , the C o u n c i l o b t a i n e d the r i g h t to e l e c t the o f f i c e r s o f s t a t e , i n c l u d i n g the doge. The doge was f u r t h e r c o n t r o l l e d by i n c r e a s i n g the number o f p r i v y c o u n s e l l o r s from two to s i x . The s i z e and power o f the Maggior C o n s i g l i o grew u n t i l the end o f t h e 13th c e n t u r y when the C o u n c i l was d e c l a r e d c l o s e d . The S e r r a t a  d e l Maggior C o n s i g l i o has been the s u b j e c t of much disagreement by l a t e r s c h o l a r s . E s s e n t i a l l y , i t l i m i t e d membership i n the C o u n c i l to those f a m i l i e s who were c u r r e n t l y s i t t i n g , o r had r e c e n t l y been s i t t i n g i n t he-.Council. T h i s r u l i n g was t e m p o r a r i l y r e l a x e d l a t e r i n times o f g r e a t governmental need when, f o r example, the e x i g e n c i e s o f war n e c e s s i t a t e d a g r e a t e r number o f government o f f i c i a l s . I t was a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y r e l a x e d to admit someone who had earned the honour through m e r i t o r i o u s s e r v i c e to the R e p u b l i c . Hence, the C o u n c i l d i d not r e a l l y a c h i e v e i t s f i n a l form u n t i l n ear the end o f the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 19 On the s u r f a c e , the t r e n d toward the g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e o f the C o u n c i l and the l i m i t a t i o n o f i t s membership appear to be p a t e n t moves i n the d i r e c t i o n o f an o l i g a r c h y o f n o b l e merchant f a m i l i e s . The r o l l s o f t h e C o u n c i l and o t h e r p u b l i c o f f i c e s b e a r out the c o n t i n u e d prominence o f a number o f p o w e r f u l f a m i l i e s . Members o f the G i u s t i n i a n f a m i l y , the C o n t a r i n i and M o r o s i n i c o n s t a n t l y appear as one reads the h i s t o r y o f t h e e r a . The debate c o n t i n u e s as to the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the C o u n c i l . S t a n l e y C h o j n a c k i has undertaken an e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f the V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a t e , and h i s r e s u l t s would s u g g e s t t h a t the move toward an o l i g a r c h y i n the power s t r u c t u r e was not r e f l e c t e d i n an e q u a l d e c l i n e i n the r e p u b l i c a n temperament. Indeed, w h i l e a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f p a t r i c i a n f a m i l i e s dominates n u m e r i c a l l y b o t h i n government and i n the ownership o f immovable w e a l t h , they d i d not t r a n s l a t e t h e i r n u m e r i c a l preponderance i n t o p a r t i c u l a r i s t advantage. The r e a s o n i s n o t h a r d to f i n d : they had no s i n g l e p a r t i c u l a r i s t i n t e r e s t . ^ A l t h o u g h t h e r e seems to have been an a l t e r n a t i n g p a t t e r n o f e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n o f t h e degree of democracy i n terms o f governmental s t r u c t u r e , the n o t i o n s o f democracy appear to have been a v e r y s i g n i -f i c a n t element throughout the p r o c e s s , and the h i s t o r y o f the power s t r u c t u r e o f V e n i c e i s b a s i c a l l y the s t o r y o f an expanding and c o n t r a c t i n g r e p u b l i c a n i s m as e n t r a n c e to the Maggior C o n s i g l i o was a l t e r n a t e l y c l o s e d S t a n l e y C h o j n a c k i , " I n S e a r c h o f the V e n e t i a n P a t r i c i a t e , " i n H a l e , op. c i t . , p. 70. See a l s o F r e d e r i c C. Lane, "The Enlargement o f the G r e a t C o u n c i l o f V e n i c e " , i n F l o r i l e g i u m H i s t o r i a l e , e d i t e d by J . G. Rowe and W. H. S t o c k d a l e ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1971), pp. 236-74, where he argues t h a t the c l o s i n g o f the c o u n c i l was, i n f a c t , an attempt to e n l a r g e the r u l i n g c l a s s i n o r d e r to moderate f a c t i o n a l s t r i f e . 20 and re-opened and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e a u t h o r i t y to p e r f o r m v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s s h i f t e d between the doge, the C o u n c i l o f Ten, and the Maggior  C o n s i g l i o . The v a l u e s o f r e p u b l i c a n i s m were not d i s c a r d e d remnant o f a l o n g d i s t a n t p a s t , but r a t h e r a v i b r a n t , l i v i n g a s p e c t o f V e n e t i a n l i f e . R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e was o f t e n — t h o u g h not a l w a y s — v i e w e d by contemporary w r i t e r s as p o r t r a y i n g the i d e a l o f a mixed c o n s t i t u t i o n ; and i t was to t h i s f a c t t h a t h e r r e p u t a t i o n f o r domestic t r a n q u i l i t y was o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d . More by a c c i d e n t o f h i s t o r y t h a n by d e s i g n , the V e n e t i a n government had d e v e l o p e d d e m o c r a t i c , a r i s t o c r a t i c , and m o n a r c h i c a l f e a t u r e s . The mixed c o n s t i t u t i o n , as an a b s t r a c t i d e a l , appears to have been an i s s u e on t h e I t a l i a n m a i nland o n l y from the l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y when A r i s t o t l e ' s P o l i t i c s was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o L a t i n and expounded upon by a number o f s c h o l a r s ; and i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t the n o t i o n s o f a mixed government p l a y e d any r o l e i n the V e n e t i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reforms o f about 1 2 0 0 . ^ The mixed c o n s t i t u t i o n as an a c c u r a t e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c , however, dates from an even l a t e r p e r i o d . "The most im p o r t a n t n o t i o n d e v e l o p e d by humanists i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y " , G i l b e r t s a y s , "was t h a t o f the V e n e t i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n as a r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c l a s s i c a l i d e a o f mixed government.""'""'" P i e r P a o l o V e r g e r i o , F r a n c e s c o Barbaro 10. F r e d e r i c C. Lane, " M e d i e v a l P o l i t i c a l Ideas and the V e n e t i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n , " i n V e n i c e and H i s t o r y : T h e ' C o l l e c t e d Papers of  F r e d e r i c C. Lane ( B a l t i m o r e : The Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1966), p. 228. 11. G i l b e r t , c>p. c i t . , p. 468. 21 and George o f T r e b i z o n d a r e the q u a t t r o c e n t o p r e c u r s o r s o f h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d myth o f V e n i c e , and among the f i r s t to employ the n o t i o n s o f a mixed 12 p o l i t y to c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e R e p u b l i c . By t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , V e n i c e had become the a c c e p t e d model o f the mixed p o l i t y . B o d i n uses V e n i c e as an example when he a t t a c k e d the n o t i o n o f a mixed p o l i t y i n 13 f a v o u r o f monarchy, and G u i c c i a r d i n i l i k e w i s e p o i n t e d to the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c when he spoke o f the mixed c o n s t i t u t i o n . Of the V e n e t i a n government he s t a t e s t h a t i t " . . . i s the most b e a u t i f u l and b e s t government t h a t any c i t y , n ot o n l y i n our own times but a l s o i n the c l a s s i c a l w o r l d , e v e r p o s s e s s e d ; the r e a s o n i s t h a t i t embodies a l l t h r e e forms o f government: those o f one, o f a few and o f many. x^ As t h e s e two w r i t e r s s u g g e s t , t h e r e was disagreement as to the m e r i t s o f a mixed p o l i t y , but not r e g a r d i n g the f a c t t h a t V e n i c e was the model o f a mixed p o l i t y . The d e m o c r a t i c element o f t h e mixed c o n s t i t u t i o n was embodied i n the i n s t i t u t i o n o f the G r e a t C o u n c i l . Because o f i t s unwield>y. s i z e , however, i t s main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was to e l e c t o t h e r s to c a r r y out the government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The Senate c o n s t i t u t e d the a r i s t o c r a t i c element, and i t was from t h i s body t h a t the government a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s u p e r v i s o r s were a p p o i n t e d . The m o n a r c h i c a l element o f government 12. See i b i d . , pp. 468-70; and Robey and Law, op_. c i t . , passim. 13. B o d i n , op. c i t . , C h a p t e r V I . 14. F r a n c e s c o G u i c c i a r d i n i , D i a l o g o e D i s c o r s i d e l Reggimento d i F i r e n z e , e d i t e d , by R. P a l m a r o c c h i ( B a r i : L a t e r z a , 1932), p. 132. C i t e d i n G i l b e r t , o£. c i t . , p. 487. 22 was, o f c o u r s e , embodied i n the p e r s o n o f the doge; though as we have seen, he was e l e c t e d by the G r e a t C o u n c i l . S t a n d i n g somewhat o u t s i d e t h i s pyramid was the C o u n c i l o f Ten. I n i t i a l l y a temporary appointment i n the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y to d e a l w i t h urgent and e x t r a o r d i n a r y m a t t e r s , the i n s t i t u t i o n was made permanent as the v a l u e o f s m a l l body which c o u l d a c t q u i c k l y and d e c i s i v e l y became a p p a r e n t . The i n t e r p l a y and b a l a n c e between t h e s e f e a t u r e s were viewed by many as the means by which V e n i c e a c q u i r e d h e r t i t l e o f l a S e r e n i s s i m a . The e x t e n t to which the mixed c o n s t i t u t i o n o f V e n i c e c o n t r i b u t e d to h e r domestic t r a n q u i l i t y was a t o p i c o f much debate i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Indeed, i t i s u n c e r t a i n as to what e x t e n t V e n e t i a n w r i t e r s themselves viewed t h i s i d e a l as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y o f V e n i c e , and i t seems worth n o t i n g t h a t the 'mixed c o n s t i t u t i o n ' was not a p l a n n e d i d e a l , but r a t h e r the p r o d u c t o f a l o n g h i s t o r i c a l development. What does appear c e r t a i n i s t h a t the V e n e t i a n s , as a whole, were a c u t e l y aware o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t y , and t h e i r l o y a l t y to the R e p u b l i c seems to have been a s o u r c e o f comment f o r R e n a i s s a n c e w r i t e r s throughout Europe. I I H i s t o r i c a l l y , V e n i c e had d i r e c t e d i t s i n t e r e s t s toward the L e v a n t i n e w o r l d . A l a r g e empire was s l o w l y b u i l t up on the b a s i s o f t r a d e , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e conquest o f the D a l m a t i a n c o a s t i n the 1 0 t h c e n t u r y . By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the q u a t t r o c e n t o , t h i s s t a t o da mar i n c l u d e d much 23 o f D a l m a t i a , the c o a s t o f Morea.on the Peolponnesus, the i s l a n d s o f C o r f u and C r e t e , the i s l a n d o f Negroponte ( E w i a ) i n the Aegean, and numerous s m a l l e r i s l a n d s i n t h e Aegean. The empire was one b u i l t t hrough V e n e t i a n n a v a l power around the e x i g e n c i e s o f an expanding t r a d e network. A t the b e g i n n i n g o f the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the V e n e t i a n Empire took on a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n — e x p a n s i o n onto the t e r r a f e r m a . Padua, V i c e n z a , Verona, B r e s c i a , Bergamo and F r i u l i were added to what had f o r m e r l y been V e n i c e ' s s o l e p o s s e s s i o n on the mainland, namely T r e v i g i a n o . On the p o s i t i v e s i d e , t h i s e x p a n s i o n was seen by some V e n e t i a n s as a b u f f e r zone between V e n i c e and p o t e n t i a l enemies on the m a i n l a n d . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t was seen as an added s o u r c e of p r e s t i g e , e n a b l i n g the wealthy n o b l e to adopt the l i f e s t y l e on h i s m a i n l a n d c o u n t e r p a r t . L a t e r , the e x p a n s i o n onto the t e r r a f e r m a was to be l e g i t i m i z e d i n terms o f compensation f o r l o s s e s s u f f e r e d i n t h e L e v a n t . On the o t h e r s i d e o f the c o i n however, the e x p a n s i o n onto the mainland was viewed as e v i d e n c e t h a t V e n e t i a n s had been seduced, away from the h e r i t a g e and t r a d i t i o n s which had s e r v e d them w e l l . They were abandoning t h e i r p r o p e r sphere of o p e r a t i o n out o f a b l i n d p u r s u i t to emulate t h e i r p e e r s . R a f f a i n o C a r e s i n i , a V e n e t i a n c h a n c e l l o r o f t h e l a t e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y v o i c e s t h i s view: "the p r o p e r t h i n g f o r V e n i c e i s to c u l t i v a t e the s e a and to l e a v e the l a n d a l o n e . " " ^ 15. Quoted by V i t t o r i o L a z z a r i n i , " A n t i c h e l e g g i venete i n t o m o a i p r o p r i e t a r i n e l l a t e r r a f e r m a , " A r c h i v i o Veneto, s e r . 3 XXXVIII (1920), p. 19. 24 The t e n s i o n s between the s t a t o da mar and the t e r r a f e r m a were to c h a r a c t e r i z e V e n e t i a n p o l i t i c s f o r w e l l o v e r a c e n t u r y . Whereas the s t a t o da mar was viewed b a s i c a l l y as a commercial and economic v e n t u r e , the n e c e s s i t y f o r a sense o f c o h e s i o n was m i n i m a l . F a r - f l u n g p r o v i n c e s of t h e Empire r e a d i l y saw the advantage o f a l l i a n c e w i t h V e n i c e through i n c r e a s e d economic advantage and s e c u r i t y . With the t e r r a f e r m a though, the bases o f u n i t y w i t h V e n i c e c o u l d not be the same. The V e n e t i a n m i l i t a r y power was n a v a l power, and t h e r e f o r e of no use i n the mountains around Bergamo o r the p l a i n s o f Padua. The c o h e s i o n o f the l a g o o n c i t y had been a n a t u r a l phenomenon; t h a t o f the s t a t o da mar was based upon p r a c t i c a l advantage; but the c o h e s i o n o f an e n l a r g e d V e n i c e i n c l u d i n g p a r t s o f the t e r r a f e r m a was n e c e s s a r i l y an 16 a r t i f i c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n a t b e s t . The l a t t e r p a r t o f the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y and the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s i x t e e n t h were to be d i f f i c u l t times f o r V e n i c e as she f a c e d c r i s e s on b o t h the t e r r a f e r m a and. the s t a t o da mar. V e n e t i a n s suddenly became aware o f the tremendous b u i l d - u p i n T u r k i s h n a v a l power when Negroponte, t h e most i m p o r t a n t i s l a n d i n the Aegean t r a d i n g system, was l o s t to the Turks i n 1470. The t h r e a t remained as the Turks c o n t i n u e d to advance around the Peloponnesus, t a k i n g Isonzo i n 1472 and, most d r a m a t i c a l l y , P o r t o Longo i n 1499. The news o f the d e f e a t a t P o r t o Longo was not w e l l r e c e i v e d i n V e n i c e . Girolamo P r i u l i , a contemporary d i a r i s t speaks 16 T e n e n t i , op. c i t . , d i s c u s s e s the pre-emption o f a commercial sense o f space by a p o l i t i c o - m i l i t a r y c o n c e p t i o n o f space. 25 o f t h e V e n e t i a n p e o p l e a t t h i s time: "Faced by the T u r k i s h t h r e a t , they a r e i n a worse c o n d i t i o n t h a n s l a v e s . " " ^ The s t a t o da mar was to undergo p r e s s u r e from y e t a n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n . I n J u l y 1501, . P o r tuguese c a r a v e l s r e t u r n e d from I n d i a . The news o f t h i s newly d i s c o v e r e d sea r o u t e to the F a r E a s t was met w i t h mixed r e a c t i o n s . Some s i m p l y r e f u s e d to b e l i e v e the news. Others met i t w i t h a sense o f deep d e p r e s s i o n , s e e i n g t h i s as much worse than d e f e a t by the Turks o r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the l o s s of the t e r r a f e r m a . The new sea r o u t e to I n d i a and the e a s t meant the l o s s o f V e n e t i a n pre-eminence as t r a d e r to the c o n t i n e n t o f Europe. I t meant the b r e a k i n g o f a t r a d i t i o n a l economic base which had s e r v e d the V e n e t i a n s f o r c e n t u r i e s , and t h a t the ' o l d w o r l d ' view, whereby a l l would be w e l l i f o n l y t h e V e n e t i a n s h e l d to t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f t r a d i n g , had become o b s o l e t e . " I n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , V e n i c e was the g r e a t e s t 18 merchant c i t y i n the w o r l d . " But a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the b a s i s f o r t h a t g r e a t n e s s s i m p l y d i s a p p e a r e d ; The i n c r e -d u l i t y o f the p e o p l e a t t h i s t u r n o f events can be n o t e d i n V e n i c e ' s r e f u s a l o f the o f f e r by the P o r tuguese government to make the p o r t o f L i s b o n the c e n t r e o f the V e n e t i a n d i s t r i b u t i v e networks. T e n e n t i p o i n t s out t h a t the r e f u s a l is' 1 a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the p r o f o u n d l y s h o c k i n g n a t u r e o f t h i s t u r n o f events by which V e n i c e was t o r n from h e r p a t r i m o n i a l h e r i t a g e , and was m o t i v a t e d by h e r r e l u c t a n c e to b e l i e v e t h a t such a fundamental change c o u l d o c c u r and by her r e l u c t a n c e to d i s c a r d h e r 17. Quoted i n T e n e n t i , op_. c i t . , p. 26. 18. P e t e r Burke, T r a d i t i o n and I n n o v a t i o n i n R e n a i s s a n c e I t a l y ( G r e a t B r i t a i n : F o n t a n a / C o l l i n s , 1974), p. 305. 26 19 t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e . The s t a t o da mar was a t r o u b l e d a r e a i n d e e d . What was not taken by the Turks was to be r e n d e r e d u s e l e s s by the d i s c o v e r i e s o f the P o r t u g u e s e . The t r a d i t i o n a l s o u r c e o f w e a l t h f o r V e n i c e had, seemingly f o r no r e a s o n , been e i t h e r t a ken by t h e Turks o r wrenched c o m p l e t e l y out o f the M e d i t e r r a n e a n and t r a n s p l a n t e d i n t o the A t l a n t i c . " F e ar and a l a r m . . . " says T e n e n t i , " a r e the words which b e s t d e s c r i b e the 20 atmosphere o f the l a g o o n a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . " To t h i s we might add " d e s p a i r " . The T u r k i s h encroachment upon the mare nostrum o f V e n i c e c o n t i n u e d w i t h conquest a f t e r conquest throughout the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and the e f f e c t s o f t h i s p r o t r a c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p , which seemed to v a c i l l a t e between r i v a l r y and open enmity, were m a n i f o l d f o r the V e n e t i a n s . In the e a r l y p a r t o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e r e c e i v e d much o f h e r g r a i n s u p p l i e s from the Ottoman empire, but w i t h the r a p i d l y growing p o p u l a t i o n o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , t h a t government was o b l i g e d to c u t o f f h e r g r a i n shipments to V e n i c e i n f a v o u r o f the demands o f h e r own c a p i t a l i n 1551. The 1569-73 war w i t h Turkey was d e v a s t a t i n g to the V e n e t i a n t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y as the Ottoman market was t r a n s f e r r e d to F r e n c h t e x t i l e m a n u f a c t u r e r s . The Ottoman market had r e p r e s e n t e d the l a s t s t a p l e o f t h e V e n e t i a n t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y , s i n c e the r e t u r n o f peace to the I t a l i a n p e n i n s u l a a f t e r 1559 had meant t h a t m a i n l a n d m a n u f a c t u r i n g c e n t r e s c o u l d re-open and resume s u p p l y i n g t h e European markets. The 19. T e n e n t i , op_. c i t . , p. 31. T e n e n t i c i t e s an e n t r y , i n 1509, i n the D i a r i i o f Sanudo which r e f e r s to the o f f e r . The o f f e r , thus would have been made sometime between 1501 and 1 5 0 9 — a n d I s u s p e c t c l o s e r to the former than the l a t t e r . 20. I b i d . , p. 26. V e n e t i a n s were l o c k e d by n e c e s s i t y i n t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e Ottoman empire which was a s o u r c e o f t r o u b l e f o r the R e p u b l i c throughout the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T r o u b l e , however, was not l i m i t e d to t h e s t a t o da mar. I n 1509 the K i n g o f S p a i n , L o u i s XII o f F r a n c e , Pope J u l i u s I I , and the Hapsburg M a x i m i l i a n a l l i e d w i t h one a n o ther to form the League o f Cambrai. O s t e n s i b l y to c u r t a i l any m o n a r c h i c a l d e s i g n s t h a t the V e n e t i a n s might have w i t h r e s p e c t to the p e n i n s u l a , the League i n v a d e d V e n e t i a n t e r r i t o r i e s on t h e m a i n l a n d . V e n i c e had f o r t i f i e d the o u t e r c i t i e s o f the Empire such as B r e s c i a , Bergamo and Cremona; but c o n s i d e r i n g the r e s t o f the Empire s a f e i f i t s o u t e r edges were p r o t e c t e d , had not f o r t i f i e d the i n n e r c i t i e s such as Verona, V i c e n z a o r Padua. W i t h i n a p e r i o d o f days, one c o u l d have s t o o d upon the towers o f V e n i c e and seen the f i r e s o f b a t t l e a c r o s s the l a g o o n . So d e s p e r a t e was t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a t , a t one p o i n t , the Senate c o n s i d e r e d i n v i t i n g the Turks to r e s c u e them. The t e r r i t o r i e s o f t h e t e r r a f e r m a were l o s t t o , and d i v i d e d by, the members o f the League. Indeed, " . . . t h e war o f the League o f Cambrai marked the 21 end o f V e n i c e as a G r e a t Power i n I t a l y . . . " To the d e s p a i r of the l o s s e s s u f f e r e d , i n t h e s t a t o da mar and the c o n t i n u e d f e a r and a l a r m a t the e n c r o a c h i n g Turks, was added the d i s b e l i e f a t the l o s s o f the t e r r a f e r m a . S e b a s t i a n o G i u s t i n i a n , p o d e s t a o f B r e s c i a s e t s the tone: 21. W i l l i a m H. M c N e i l l , V e n i c e : The Hinge o f Europe, 1081-1797. (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1974), p. 125. 28 " I f an a n g e l from heaven had s a i d t h a t the s t a t e o f the S i g n o r i a would 22 be l o s t i n f i f t e e n days, I would not have b e l i e v e d him." The t e r r i t o r i a l l o s s e s to the League were e v e n t u a l l y r e c o v e r e d through what 23 L i b b y c h a r a c t e r i z e s as "a s e r i e s o f f o r t u n a t e d i p l o m a t i c a c c i d e n t s " , and i n d e e d , an h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t i n g o f the a c t i o n s between 1509 and 1515 l e a v e one w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the V e n e t i a n s a n t e d a t e d the B r i t i s h i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e a r t o f "muddling-through". The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d e f e a t o f the R e p u b l i c by the League a t A g n a d e l l o i n 1509 i s a q u e s t i o n o f debate among s c h o l a r s . F r a n c e s c o Gaeta speaks o f t h e war w i t h the League o f Cambrai as the " c a t a l y s t o f the myth o f V e n i c e " , and sees t h e war as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s b i r t h as w e l l as i t s subsequent e l a b o r a t i o n . Bouwsma a l s o sees the war as one o f a s e r i e s o f ev e n t s which j o l t e d V e n i c e out o f h e r " r e l a t i v e l y i n a r t i c u l a t e complacency"; and L i b b y s t a t e s : The same p o l i t i c a l events t h a t d e s t r o y e d the s t a t u s o f V e n i c e as a g r e a t power h e l p e d to i n a u g u r a t e the new c a r e e r o f the r e p u b l i c as a l e a d i n g c u l t u r a l c e n t e r and an i n f l u e n t i a l model o f government f o r European p o l i t i c a l thought.24 Those who pursue t h i s argument go on to c h a r a c t e r i z e the w r i t i n g s o f the V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a t e a f t e r 1509 as an attempt to r e s t o r e the p r e s t i g e o f V e n i c e amongst o t h e r European powers by p o i n t i n g out t h a t , a l t h o u g h V e n i c e had s u f f e r e d h e r most s i g n i f i c a n t d e f e a t i n h e r l o n g h i s t o r y , she s t i l l r e t a i n e d h e r p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s d e s e r v i n g o f a p p r o b a t i o n . 22. Quoted i n T e n e n t i , op_. c i t . , p. 26. 23. L i b b y , op_. c i t . , p. 7. 24. Gaeta, op. c i t . , p. 63. See W i l l i a m H. Bouwsma, V e n i c e and the  Defense o f R e p u b l i c a n L i b e r t y ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1968), p. 95; see L i b b y , op. c i t . , p. 7. 29 Other s c h o l a r s , however, have attempted to d i s c o u n t the r o l e of A g n a d e l l o i n the f r u i t i o n of the myth o f V e n i c e , p o i n t i n g to, the m e d i e v a l and f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y r o o t s of t h a t t r a d i t i o n and d i r e c t i n g t h e i r 25 c o n c e r n toward e a r l i e r w r i t e r s . The most s o p h i s t i c a t e d treatment of the i n f l u e n c e of these e a r l i e r w r i t e r s i s t h a t o f f e r e d by F r e d e r i c C. Lane, i n which he e x p l o r e s the p o l i t i c a l thought contemporary w i t h the f o r m a t i o n 2 6 o f the b a s i c f e a t u r e s o f the V e n e t i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n . D e s p i t e the s c h o l a r l y disagreement r e g a r d i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d e f e a t o f V e n i c e by the League of Cambrai, the i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i s agreed upon by a l l — a n d t h a t i s t h a t the development o f V e n e t i a n p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s l o n g p r e c e d e d the dominant r a t i o n a l e f o r , and a d u l a t i o n o f , t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s . The l a t t e r a r e phenomena o f the post-Cambrai p e r i o d , and a r e t i e d t o g e t h e r i n the 'myth o f " V e n i c e ' . More than anyone e l s e , i t i s Gasparo C o n t a r i n i who i s c r e d i t e d w i t h g i v i n g s u b s t a n c e and form t o t h e 'myth o f V e n i c e ' , and making p a l p a b l e what had been a vague s e t o f n o t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the v i r t u e s and m e r i t s o f the R e p u b l i c . 25. See p a r t i c u l a r l y F a s o l i , £ p . c i t . , and Robey and Law, op. c i t . 26. Lane, " M e d i e v a l P o l i t i c a l Ideas and the V e n e t i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n , " pp. 285-303. 30 I I I The w r i t e r s w i t h which we s h a l l d e a l come from a background o f c l a s s -i c a l r e v i v a l , c o n c i l i a r f a i l u r e , and p a r t i c u l a r i s m . Sabine c h a r a c t e r i z e s 27 the age i n I t a l y as one o f " b l o o d and i r o n " i n which p o l i t i c a l power r e s t e d upon u n d i s g u i s e d f o r c e . A l l e n echoes the sen t i m e n t and f i n d s i t i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l w r i t i n g s o f t h e time: " H a r d l y any one of them /the numerous s t a t e s i n I t a l y 7 can be s a i d to have p o s s e s s e d any s o r t o f 2 8 s o l i d b a s i s , m o r a l o r m a t e r i a l . V e n i c e s t o o d f i r m almost a l o n e . " And any p o l i t i c a l thought produced i n t h i s I t a l y was l i k e l y to be c o m p l e t e l y d i s s o c i a t e d w i t h any k i n d o f C h r i s t i a n i t y and c o m p l e t e l y detached from the thought o f m e d i e v a l schoolmen. The P r o t e s t a n t R e f o r m a t i o n had y e t to come; but I t a l y had a l r e a d y gone beyond.29 The r e a s o n t h a t the i n f l u e n c e s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y and the m e d i e v a l schoolmen were l o s i n g much of t h e i r power and cogency i n I t a l y i s t h a t o t h e r t r a d i t i o n s o f thought were more o f t e n deemed to be a p p l i c a b l e to the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f t h a t "age o f b l o o d and i r o n " . T r a d i t i o n s o f thought do n o t s i m p l y l o s e t h e i r sway; they a r e s u p p l a n t e d by a l t e r n a t i v e manners o f v i e w i n g and o r d e r i n g e x p e r i e n c e which p r o v i d e men w i t h what they p e r c e i v e to be a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r w o r l d , and a b e t t e r method o f c o p i n g w i t h t h e i r problems. Among the dominant i n f l u e n c e s i n the w r i t i n g s under e x a m i n a t i o n — and, i n d e e d , i n the g r e a t b u l k o f I t a l i a n p o l i t i c a l thought i n t h i s 27. George H. Sabine, A H i s t o r y o f P o l i t i c a l Theory, T h i r d E d i t i o n (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1961), p. 333. 28. A l l e n , o£. c i t . , p. 466. 29. I b i d . One s u s p e c t s t h a t the 'break' i s not as c l e a r and d i s t i n c t as A l l e n has p o r t r a y e d i t . 31 p e r i o d — i s the r e v i v a l o f c l a s s i c a l p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y . I t was, a f t e r a l l , P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e who spoke to the p o l i t i c s o f the c i t y - s t a t e , the most common p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y I t a l y . A major a s p e c t of the r e v i v a l o f c l a s s i c a l p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y i s the emphasis p l a c e d upon human reason, e x p e r i e n c e and o b s e r v a t i o n as the prime s o u r c e s o f wisdom. Man i s , i n a sense, viewed as i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . I t i s w i t h i n him t h a t the p o t e n t i a l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , knowledge and wisdom r e s i d e ; and i n o r d e r to g a i n t h a t knowledge o r wisdom, he need o n l y e x e r c i s e h i s powers o f o b s e r v a t i o n and h i s f a c u l t y o f r e a s o n . I f man i s viewed i n t h i s sense as i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t , then we w i l l f i n d t h a t the p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r s under e x a m i n a t i o n s h a l l l a r g e l y p o i n t to human e x p e r i e n c e as the to u c h s t o n e o f p r o o f and o f argument, r a t h e r than r e l y i n g upon an e x t e r n a l s o u r c e such as s c r i p t u r e ^ • • 30 or C h r i s t i a n dogma. One element o f t h i s e a r t h l y wisdom i s the A r i s t o t e l i a n n o t i o n o f n a t u r e as a p a t t e r n f o r men's b e h a v i o u r and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s . Man may be independent i n h i s quest f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , y e t he must d i r e c t h i s powers o f o b s e r v a t i o n to something g r e a t e r than h i m s e l f to f i n d a manner o f o r d e r i n g h i s w o r l d . I t i s n a t u r e which r e p r e s e n t s t h i s p e r f e c t i o n which i s g r e a t e r than man, and from which he may take h i s l e s s o n s . Above a l l , i t p r o v i d e s the examples o f a mod e r a t i o n o f extremes, o f a 'golden mean', which a l l o w e d f o r the 30. I t i s i m p o r t a n t , however, to keep i n mind t h a t t h i s i s one a s p e c t o f the i n f l u e n c e o f the pagan r e v i v a l . I t i s not the h a r d and f a s t r u l e which A l l e n i m p l i e s , but r a t h e r r e p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a l p o s t u r e , l a r g e l y dominant b u t not t o t a l . 32 encompassing o f d i v e r s e elements. F o r those w r i t e r s who c a s t V e n i c e i n the l i g h t o f a mixed c o n s t i t u t i o n , an A r i s t o t e l i a n c o n c e p t i o n o f n a t u r e p r o v i d e d a ready argument, and perhaps as w e l l , a m o t i v a t i o n . The e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l i n k j o i n i n g the p a t t e r n s o f n a t u r e to men's everyday e x i s t e n c e i s the n o t i o n o f 'cor r e s p o n d e n c e s ' . W h i l e the l a t e r m e c h a n i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e l o o k e d to cause and e f f e c t , the g e n e r a l tendency i n Ren a i s s a n c e I t a l y was to l o o k f o r a n a l o g i e s , o r co r r e s p o n d e n c e s . "The most famous o f the correspondences was t h a t between man, the 'microcosm' and the u n i v e r s e i n g e n e r a l , the 'macrocosm'. Both were the c r e a t i o n o f God, and one c o u l d g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o one phenomenon by s t u d y i n g the o t h e r . F u r t h e r , the . e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l framework o f co r r e s p o n d e n c e s , when c o u p l e d w i t h the then dominant o r g a n i c imagery o f the u n i v e r s e , o f f e r e d a s e t of p a t t e r n s f o r man's a c t i v i t y and h i s p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . C o n t a r i n i compares the R e p u b l i c o f V e n i c e w i t h the p a t t e r n s i n f u s e d i n t o n a t u r e by God; P a r u t a v f i n d s a f a v o u r a b l e comparison o f t h e w e l l - o r d e r e d commonwealth i n the s o u l of man; and Bo d i n s t a t e s t h a t monarchy, the b e s t form o f government, 32 f i n d s a ready correspondence i n n a t u r e . A nother a s p e c t o f t h i s 'pagan r e v i v a l ' to i n f o r m the p o l i t i c a l thought w i t h which we a r e concerned i s the a d o p t i o n o f A r i s t o t e l i a n n o t i o n s o f p e r f e c t i o n , and t h e r e a r e two elements to be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . The f i r s t i s a p e r f e c t i o n which i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f the f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l . The c i v i l s o c i e t y comes b e f o r e man, f o r i t i s 31. Burke, op_. c i t . , p. 209. 32. Bodin, op_. c i t . , p. 271. 33 o n l y w i t h i n t h e c i v i l s o c i e t y t h a t man can a c h i e v e h i s p e r f e c t i o n and become f u l l y human. The c i v i l s o c i e t y i s of v a l u e , then, because i t a f f o r d s men the o p p o r t u n i t y to a c h i e v e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l . One o f the dominant themes i n the myth of V e n i c e i s t h a t the R e p u b l i c b e s t p r o v i d e d men w i t h t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y to a c h i e v e p e r f e c t i o n . The second element o f t h i s n o t i o n o f p e r f e c t i o n drawn from c l a s s i c a l p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y i s t h a t o f a h i e r a r c h i c a l view o f the r e l a t i v e n o b i l i t y or p e r f e c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t types o f a c t i v i t y , o b j e c t s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . That h i e r a r c h y w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the p l a c e a c c o r d e d to the c i v i l s o c i e t y and the emphasis p l a c e d upon p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . We f i n d that unlike the conceptions o f respublica Christiana, p o l i t i c s i n t h e r e p u b l i c a n w r i t i n g s o f s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y I t a l y , as i n the c l a s s i c a l w r i t i n g s , ranks r e l a t i v e l y h i g h upon the s c a l e o f v i r t u o u s and noble a c t i v i t i e s . These two elements a r e t i e d t o g e t h e r i n a n o t i o n o f p e r f e c t i o n , then, i n t h a t c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s a r e deemed to be more a p p r o p r i a t e to the n a t u r e o f man because they r e p r e s e n t a g r e a t e r degree o f p e r f e c t i o n o f t h a t n a t u r e . The pagan r e v i v a l and i t s a t t e n d a n t humanism a l l o w e d f o r an i n c r e a s e d f o c u s upon the needs and c a p a c i t i e s o f man as an e n t i t y unto h i m s e l f . B u r c k h a r d t has c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h i s development o f the R e n a i s s a n c e as one o f i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , and a c o r o l l a r y o f t h a t awareness 33 was the q u e s t i o n of men's c a p a c i t i e s . The t r e n d toward s e l f - a w a r e n e s s 33. Jacob B u r c k h a r d t , The C i v i l i z a t i o n o f the R e n a i s s a n c e i n I t a l y (New York: Harper & Row, 1929) . See p a r t i c u l a r l y P a r t I I f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the r o l e o f the development o f the n o n - d i s t o r t i n g m i r r o r i n the p r o c e s s o f i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , see • Burke, op. c i t . , p. 231. 34 was more than mere v a n i t y , and a f a v o r i t e s u b j e c t o f the e r a was the 'human c o n d i t i o n ' — a p h r a s e made p o p u l a r by the I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e w r i t e r s . Much o f the l i t e r a t u r e on the human c o n d i t i o n e x t o l s the d i g n i t y o f man, and e x h o r t s him to become more s e l f - a s s e r t i v e , to r e a l i z e h i s p e r f e c t i o n . A m y r i a d o f what P e t e r Burke c a l l s " s e l f -a s s e r t i o n words" o c c u r i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . A c t i v i t y i s e x h o r t e d on the 34 b a s i s o f honour, g l o r y , . shame, envy, c o m p e t i t i o n , v a l o u r and worth. The i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t h e r e i s t h a t these n o n - t a n g i b l e q u a l i t i e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d o f g r e a t importance, and t h a t they a r e i n e x t r i c a b l y t i e d to the concept o f s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n among one's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . A c t i v i t y , then, i s seen as a form o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s e l f - a s s e r t i o n . What d i r e c t i o n d i d t h a t s e l f - a s s e r t i o n t a k e , and how d i d one get honour, o r r e a l i z e h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r p e r f e c t i o n ? One o f the g r e a t debates to c h a r a c t e r i z e the f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h centur2ies was t h a t o f t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f t h e v i t a a c t i v a and the v i t a c o n t e m p l a t i v a , and f o r many w r i t e r s the t e n s i o n h e r e remained u n r e s o l v e d . The nomen-c l a t u r e i s , I b e l i e v e , m i s l e a d i n g ; f o r the v i t a c o n t e m p l a t i v a was not viewed as ' n o n - a c t i v i t y ' as the dichotomy would s u g g e s t . The v i t a  c o n t e m p l a t i v a was no l o n g e r to be found o n l y i n the abbey and connected w i t h s a c r e d o r d e r s ; but r a t h e r i t was a l s o seen as a p p r o p r i a t e to the s e c u l a r l i f e i n the c o u n t r y v i l l a o r i n the c i t y . I t was a form o f 34. Burke, op. c i t . , p. 231. 35 a c t i v i t y . The main p u r s u i t o f the v i t a c o n t e m p l a t i v a was a s e a r c h f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , whether w i t h a s a c r e d o r a s e c u l a r b i a s . Both the v i t a  a c t i v a and t h e v i t a c o n t e m p l a t i v a were seen as w o r t h w h i l e forms o f a c t i v i t y and s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , and o f t e n by t h e same p e o p l e . P a r u t a , as we s h a l l see, n e v e r r e s o l v e d the i s s u e o f t h e p r o p e r o r d e r i n g o f the two types o f a c t i v i t y f o r h i m s e l f . The i n c r e a s e d debate r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f the a c t i v e and the c o n t e m p l a t i v e l i f e c o u l d o n l y have come about through• the r e -d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e v i t a c o n t e m p l a t i v a . The f a c t t h a t i t had l o s t i t s p u r e l y s a c r e d b i a s i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i n c r e a s e d s e c u l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e e r a . I t i s a l s o r e f l e c t i v e o f the i n c r e a s e d t e n s i o n between the s a c r e d and s e c u l a r domains--an outgrowth of the f a i l u r e o f the c o n c i l i a r movement. The t e n s i o n between the s a c r e d and the s e c u l a r i s perhaps nowhere more e v i d e n t than i n V e n i c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The two concepts found embodiment, i n the r i v a l r y and enmity between the R e p u b l i c on the one hand, and t h e Church and P a p a l S t a t e s on the o t h e r . The t e n s i o n was e x a c e r b a t e d because o f th e l o n g V e n e t i a n t r a d i t i o n o f independence from s u p e r i o r powers. V e n e t i a n s viewed themselves as a p e o p l e independent s i n c e the f o u n d i n g o f t h e c i t y i n the f i f t h c e n t u r y and r e s e n t e d any attempted i n t e r f e r e n c e by what were c o n s i d e r e d " o u t s i d e r s . " Perhaps even more i m p o r t a n t i s the f a c t t h a t V e n e t i a n s tended to view the R e p u b l i c as b e i n g e q u a l to the papacy. T h i s sense i s w e l l e x p r e s s e d i n the myth t h a t the R e p u b l i c had a r r a n g e d a peace between F r e d e r i c k B a r b a r o s s a and Pope A l e x a n d e r I I I i n 1177. A c c o r d i n g to the myth, 36 o r i g i n a l e f f o r t s a t a r r a n g i n g a peace had f a i l e d , and the pope had taken r e f u g e i n V e n i c e . The V e n e t i a n s e n t e r e d the war on b e h a l f o f the pope and s c o r e d a major n a v a l v i c t o r y i n which B a r b a r o s s a ' s son was taken h o s t a g e . He was s e n t as an emi s s a r y to h i s f a t h e r , and f i n a l l y c o n v i n c e d him to e n t e r i n t o a peace agreement. Throughout these p r o c e e -d i n g s a number o f s y m b o l i c g i f t s were g i v e n to the R e p u b l i c by the pope, among them the r i g h t to s e a l documents w i t h l e a d , and a r i n g f o r the wedding o f V e n i c e to the s e a . Of even g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e though, was t h a t the pope, a g a i n s t the o b j e c t i o n s o f the emperor, had i n s i s t e d t h a t a t h i r d u m b r e l l a be produced f o r the doge t h a t the t h r e e o f them might s i t as e q u a l s i n c o u n s e l . The doge then came to be viewed, a t l e a s t by the V e n e t i a n s , as b e i n g e q u a l to the pope and emperor, and the t h r e e o f them were what Bouwsma c a l l s "the t h r e e p a r a l l e l p o t e n t a t e s 35 o f Christendom." The R e p u b l i c , then, was viewed i n some sense as n o t b e i n g p a r t o f the h i e r a r c h y o f Christendom, b u t r a t h e r an e q u a l o f the papacy. When l a t e r attempts a t i n t e r f e r e n c e were made by the papacy, they were met w i t h s t r o n g r e s i s t a n c e . R i v a l r y and enmity between the R e p u b l i c and the Church had much o f i t s f o u n d a t i o n i n a n o t h e r myth, namely t h a t S t . Mark, through h i s m i n i s t r y had p l a n t e d C h r i s t i a n i t y i n the lagoons o f V e n i c e . The myth was a c c e p t e d by Rome as w e l l as by the V e n e t i a n s . The i d e a o f an a p o s t o l i c f o u n d a t i o n gave V e n i c e a sense o f independence from Rome, and i n d e e d the c i t y was o f t e n viewed as a r i v a l c e n t r e o f Christendom. 35. Bouwsma, V e n i c e and the Defence o f R e p u b l i c a n L i b e r t y , p. 55. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the r i n g , which i s r e f e r r e d to o f t e n throughout much o f the l i t e r a t u r e , i s t h a t i t was a symbol o f V e n i c e ' s dominion o v e r the A d r i a t i c . 37 T h i s independence had been r e c o g n i z e d by the m e d i e v a l papacy t h r o u g h i t s g r a n t i n g to the V e n e t i a n n o b i l i t y the p r i v i l e g e o f s e l e c t i n g e c c l e s i a s -t i c a l as w e l l as s e c u l a r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . F o r example, the appointment o f a b i s h o p i n V e n i c e was c a r r i e d out i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: F i r s t , the Senate would recommend a c a n d i d a t e to the doge. The doge would convey t h e n o m i n a t i o n to the pope, and the pope would a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o n f i r m t h e c a n d i d a t e . T h i s p r a c t i c e c o n t i n u e d w i t h l e g a l s a n c t i o n u n t i l 1510, when t e c h n i c a l l y t h e b i s h o p was a p p o i n t e d d i r e c t l y from Rome. The p r a c t i c e , i n f a c t , went on much l o n g e r on a de f a c t o b a s i s . The e c c l e s i a s t i c a l independence o f the V e n e t i a n c l e r g y from Rome made i t much e a s i e r f o r the s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to c o n t r o l t h a t c l e r g y . The t e n s i o n between V e n i c e and Rome c o n c e r n i n g e c c l e s i a s t i c a l m a t t e r s i s o f t e n l a r g e l y r o o t e d i n a t e n s i o n between the n o t i o n s o f the s a c r e d and the s e c u l a r realms and the p r e r o g a t i v e s o f the a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e s o f each. The t e n s i o n between the s a c r e d and t h e s e c u l a r i s e v i d e n t i n two a r e a s . F i r s t , i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n many o f the w r i t i n g s o f the e r a . We w i l l f i n d t h a t t e n s i o n i n the w r i t i n g s o f F r a Paolo S a r p i who s e t s about the t a s k o f d e f i n i n g the l i m i t s to which t h e Church may i n t e r f e r e i n the l i v e s o f the c i t i z e n s o f the R e p u b l i c . G i v e n S a r p i ' s v o c a t i o n , t h a t t e n s i o n i n h i s w r i t i n g s c o u l d o n l y r e f l e c t the t e n s i o n between the two i d e a l s i n h i s own mind. F u r t h e r , we f i n d t h a t t e n s i o n r e f l e c t e d i n the r e l a t i o n s between the R e p u b l i c and the papacy. Undoubtedly much o f t h a t t e n s i o n was t h e r e s u l t o f t h e two r i v a l p o l i t i c a l e n t i t i e s , b u t , as w e l l , much o f i t r e v o l v e d around the d y i n g c o n c e p t i o n o f a u n i f i e d 38 C h r i s t e n d o m o v e r s e e n by the papacy, and the replacement o f t h i s i d e a l by t h a t o f an autonomous r e p u b l i c i n which t h e r e was some n o t i o n , 36 a l b e i t r a t h e r vague, o f the s e p a r a t i o n o f Church and S t a t e . I n h i s Commentaries, composed between 1458 and 1463, P i u s I I , who seems to have been h o s t i l e to a l l r e p u b l i c s , r e f e r s to the V e n e t i a n s as "companions... o f f i s h and comrades of marine monsters." He goes on: They a r e h y p o c r i t e s . They wish to appear C h r i s t i a n s b e f o r e the w o r l d b u t i n r e a l i t y they never t h i n k o f God and, e x c e p t f o r the s t a t e , which they r e g a r d as a d e i t y , they h o l d n o t h i n g s a c r e d , n o t h i n g h o l y . To a V e n e t i a n t h a t i s j u s t which i s f o r the good o f the s t a t e ; t h a t i s p i o u s which i s f o r the good o f the empire.... They a r e a l l o w e d to do a n y t h i n g t h a t w i l l b r i n g them supreme power. A l l law and r i g h t may be v i o l a t e d f o r the sake o f power.37 P a p a l h o s t i l i t y to i n c r e a s i n g s e c u l a r i s m and e n c r o a c h i n g p o l i t i c a l power o f the R e p u b l i c was not l i m i t e d to v i t r i o l i c p r o s e . P a p a l censure and the use o f the i n t e r d i c t were s t i l l s t r o n g weapons d u r i n g the R e n a i s s a n c e and they were used r e p e a t e d l y a g a i n s t b o t h F l o r e n c e and V e n i c e . V e n i c e was p l a c e d under p a p a l i n t e r d i c t i n 1509, i n 1601, and a g a i n i n 1605. Though much o f the t e n s i o n between the R e p u b l i c and the papacy i s a p r o d u c t o f the r i v a l r y between two s e c u l a r p o l i t i c a l e n t i t i e s , a 36. The n o t i o n o f a p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y w i t h complete s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a f f a i r s was l e s s d e v e l o p e d i n I t a l y t h a n i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Europe i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , p o s s i b l y due to two major f a c t o r s . S t a t e c o n t r o l o v e r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a f f a i r s was a n t i t h e -t i c a l to the C a t h o l i c Church, but a i d e d the cause o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . F u r t h e r , the s m a l l I t a l i a n s t a t e s were more s u b j e c t to the hegemony o f P a p a l armies s i m p l y because of t h e i r p r o x i m i t y . The i d e a o f the s t a t e as encompassing c o n t r o l o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l m a t t e r s , then, was l e s s cogent i n I t a l y t h a n e l s e w h e r e . See E r n e s t B a r k e r , P r i n c i p l e s o f S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l  Theory ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1951), pp. 13-17. 37. The Commentaries o f P i u s I I , t r a n s l a t e d by F l o r e n c e A. Gragg. Quoted i n Bouwsma, V e n i c e and the Defense o f R e p u b l i c a n L i b e r t y , p. 47. 39 s t r i c t s a c r e d v e r s u s s e c u l a r component may be d e t e c t e d . The Pope, as head o f the P a p a l S t a t e s , f e a r e d t h a t the R e p u b l i c might attempt a conquest o f the p e n i n s u l a and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f monarchy. As head o f the P a p a l S t a t e s , h i s s o v e r e i g n t y might appear t h r e a t e n e d . The Pope as head o f the C a t h o l i c Church and, i n some sense, the l e a d e r o f Christendom, had o t h e r reasons f o r co n c e r n . That p a p a l a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n the R e p u b l i c was b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d as i t was i n , say, the a r e a o f j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y , p o i n t e d to a d i m i n u t i o n o f the r e a l m o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a u t h o r i t y and the attempt a t a c l e a r e r d i s t i n c t i o n between the s e c u l a r and s a c r e d r e a l m s . I t was the a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e r e e x i s t a r e a s w i t h which the Church might n o t p r o p e r l y i n t e r f e r e . F u r t h e r , the a s s e r t i o n o f power by the i n d i v i d u a l R e p u b l i c s was a d i r e c t d e n i a l o f the i d e a l s o f t h e h i e r a r c h y and u n i t y o f Christendom which were embodied i n the r e s p u b l i c a C h r i s t i a n a . V e n i c e was o f t e n c a s t i n the r o l e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y ' s f i r s t l i n e o f def e n s e on the sea a g a i n s t the Turks; b u t V e n i c e ' s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h a t r o l e appeared u n r e l i a b l e i n the f a c e o f the i n c r e a s i n g antagonisms r e v o l v i n g around the i s s u e o f the e x t e n t to which the Church might c o n t r o l the l i v e s o f t h e c i t i z e n s o f the R e p u b l i c , and the f a c t t h a t t h e V e n e t i a n Senate had c o n s i d e r e d i n v i t i n g the Turks to save them from the p a p a l armies i n 1509. While r e l i g i o u s l o y a l t i e s s t i l l c l e a r l y l a y w i t h the Roman C a t h o l i c Church, p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t i e s d i d n o t . The f a c t t h a t the two l o y a l t i e s c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t a t a l l was e v i d e n c e t h a t the u n i t y o f Christendom was no l o n g e r a t e n a b l e i d e a l . The d i s t i n c t i o n between r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l was e v i d e n c e t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n between s a c r e d and s e c u l a r was a l r e a d y b e i n g made. 40 The e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r i v a l r y and p o l i t i c a l enmity between Rome and V e n i c e a r e r e f l e c t i v e o f the b r o a d e r R e n a i s s a n c e b i a s i n f a v o u r o f 38 what Bouwsma c a l l s " i n t e l l e c t u a l p l u r a l i s m . " The o l d e r n o t i o n s o f an i n t e g r a t e d h i e r a r c h i c a l cosmos were l o s i n g c u r r e n c y i n f a v o u r o f a view o f knowledge whose fundamental p r e c e p t was t h a t t r u t h was v a r i a b l e , f l e x i b l e , and dependent upon c i r c u m s t a n c e . What was t r u e i n one g i v e n s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s need n o t be t r u e g i v e n an a l t e r n a t e s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s . That which might be a p p r o p r i a t e o r p r o p e r f o r the c i t i z e n o f the P a p a l S t a t e s w i t h i t s i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e h i e r a r c h y o f the Church, i t s p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n as the s e c u l a r e x t r a - t e r r i t o r i a l domain o f the B i s h o p o f Rome, and l a t e r , i t s u l t i m a t e j u d i c i a l system t i e d to the S a c r e d Roman Rota, was most o f t e n viewed, by the V e n e t i a n s , as c l e a r l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e c i t i z e n o f V e n i c e who owed h i s a l l e g i a n c e to a R e p u b l i c whose v e r y essence was t i e d to the i d e a l o f independence. The n o t i o n s o f the v a r i a b i l i t y o f r e a l i t y had gone f u r t h e r i n the V e n e t i a n e x p e r i e n c e than i n any o t h e r I t a l i a n r e p u b l i c o r p r i n c i p a l i t y . The V e n e t i a n t r a d e e x p e r i e n c e had gone f a r i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g the v a r i a b i l i t y o f manners, customs, law, and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The a c t i v i t y o f t r a d e was based upon d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e s o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s — p e o p l e who d i d n o t 38. Bouwsma, V e n i c e and the Defense o f R e p u b l i c a n L i b e r t y , p. 9. 41 recognize the u l t i m a t e t r u t h s o f , say, the Roman C a t h o l i c Church, yet o f t e n appeared to l i v e w e l l - o r d e r e d and f r u i t f u l l i v e s . As w e l l , Venetian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the various crusades had done much to f o s t e r the sense of the v a r i a b i l i t y of experience. The f a b r i c of r e a l i t y could no longer be viewed as one unbroken tapestry, i n which a l l of the p a r t i c u l a r s r e -l a t e d t o , and played an i n t e g r a l p a r t i n , a coherent theme of that tap-e s t r y . Rather, we seem to be faced w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e t a p e s t r i e s , or more probably, something l i k e a patchwork q u i l t conception of r e a l i t y . Both the geography of Venice and her r o l e as t r a d e r to the continent tended to r e i n f o r c e t h i s s p i r i t of v a r i a b i l i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l p l u r a l i s m . S i t u a t e d i n the n o r t h , she had greater access to what one might c a l l the i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r c o u r s e of the era. Contact w i t h the centres of c e n t r a l and northern Europe was much greater i n Venice than i n many of the more southern I t a l i a n c i t i e s . A r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of f o r e i g n a r t i s t s and w r i t e r s came to Venice to work, and undoubtedly brought w i t h them f r e s h ideas to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n , or used as a l t e r n a t i v e ways of per-c e i v i n g r e a l i t y . The s i x t e e n t h century was the century of Luther and C a l v i n , and Venice was not immune from t h e i r impact. Indeed, we o f t e n f i n d reference to P r o t e s t a n t communities l i v i n g on the edge of the lagoon. The e a r l i e r Venetian experience i n the crusades, t h e i r r o l e as t r a d e r s p l y i n g between east and west, t h e i r long h i s t o r y of indepen-dence, and t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y high degree of s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h the northern centres of Europe a l l combined to r e i n f o r c e the variance to be found i n nature, and the view that nature was i n some sense malleable. The great works of synthesis attempting to l o c a t e r e a l i t y i n an unbroken 42 c h a i n from God to h i s l o w l i e s t c r e a t i o n might be viewed, not as o t i o s e , but perhaps an i n e f f i c i e n t way to g a i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the w o r l d i n which men l i v e d and worked. F o r example, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between N a t u r a l Law and E t e r n a l Law which o c c u p i e d Aquinas appeared l e s s r e l e v a n t to the V e n e t i a n w r i t e r s t h a n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e c i v i l c o u r t s o f the R e p u b l i c and the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u r t s . The q u e s t i o n o f j u r i s d i c t i o n ( p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the V e n e t i a n s ) i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y appears to r e v o l v e more o f t e n around the c o n c e p t o f t e r r i t o r i a l s o v e r e i g n t y than the concepts o f canon v e r s u s c i v i l law. Indeed, t h e c o n c e p t o f t e r r i t o r i a l s o v e r e i g n t y i t s e l f assumes v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n C h r i s t e n d o m . The t e n s i o n between a n o t i o n o f a s t a t i c , o r d e r e d c o n c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y , and one o f a v a r i e g a t e d , p a r t i c u l a r i s t , and m a l l e a b l e r e a l i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n d i f f e r e n c e s between the i d e a l s o f the r e s p u b l i c a C h r i s t i a n a and those d f the R e n a i s s a n c e r e p u b l i c s . We f i n d t h i s s p i r i t o f p a r t i c u l a r i s m among the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f much o f the p o l i t i c a l w r i t i n g o f t h e p e r i o d . The u n i v e r s a l i s t n o t i o n s o f a u n i t e d Europe r o u g h l y c o i n c i d i n g w i t h a u n i t e d Christendom had l a r g e l y l o s t t h e i r sway w i t h the f a i l u r e o f the c o n c i l i a r movement. The w r i t i n g s o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y p e r i o d r e f l e c t t h e tendency away from t h e s e u n i v e r s a l i s t n o t i o n s and a c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon s m a l l e r j more immediate p o l i t i c a l c o n c e r n s . G i v e n t h i s tendency toward p a r t i c u l a r i s m , i t was n e c e s s a r y t h a t the a r e a s o f prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l s o c h a n g e — t h a t the essence o f p o l i t i c s be viewed d i f f e r e n t l y . The g r e a t b u l k o f e a r l y c h r i s t i a n and m e d i e v a l p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y — f r o m Seneca to Aquinas — had been r o o t e d i n t h e o l o g y — i t s b a s i c premises r e v o l v e d around the n a t u r e o f God, man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to God, and the moral o b l i g a t i o n s imposed upon man by God. Indeed, t h e s e s o r t s o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d to h o l d sway throughout much o f Europe d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . But I t a l y , f o r a number o f r e a s o n s , seems to have been the e x c e p t i o n . Here, the b a s i c q u e s t i o n s more o f t e n c o n c e r n e d the c i r c u m s t a n c e s and the p a s t a c t i o n s o f men, r a t h e r than the more a b s t r a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p o f man to the A l m i g h t y . U l t i m a t e q u e s t i o n s were 39 eschewed i n f a v o u r o f the o b s e r v a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e o f a c t u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e . Indeed, J . W. A l l e n p o i n t s o u t , "Theology had v a n i s h e d from I t a l i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s ; law, m e d i c i n e , t h e c l a s s i c s and a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t owed 40 n o t h i n g to t h e schoolmen, r e i g n e d i n i t s s t e a d . " IV The R e n a i s s a n c e was a p e r i o d o f growth and d i f f u s i o n f o r the I t a l i a n language, and w h i l e L a t i n r e t a i n e d much o f i t s s t a t u s i n j u d i c i a l a f f a i r s , I t a l i a n i n c r e a s i n g l y became the wo r k i n g language o f the 39. See John Plamenatz, Man and S o c i e t y (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, I n c . , 1963), Chapter I . 40. A l l e n , op. c i t . , pp. 445-46. A l l e n perhaps has once a g a i n o v e r -s t a t e d h i s p o i n t h e r e . 44 41 government and o f p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r s . A number o f concepts used i n the works to be examined need c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The most i m p o r t a n t o f these somewhat ambiguous concepts i s t h a t o f l o s t a t o , o r what we haY.e come to t r a n s l a t e as "the s t a t e " . The m e d i e v a l n o t i o n o f s t a t u s and i t s v a r i o u s European f o r m s — l o s t a t o , 1 ' e t a t , der S t a a t — s e e m s to have undergone a t r a n s i t i o n i n meaning d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d w i t h which we a r e concerned. H e x t e r has undertaken an e x h a u s t i v e s t u d y of the term i n h i s work on M a c h i a v e l l i and c o n c l u d e s t h a t i t was not used i n i t s modern sense i n any of the Western European languages a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; but by the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y i t 42 was f r e q u e n t l y used i n i t s modern sense i n a l l o f them. Between 1400 and 1600 then, we must take i n t o account a s h i f t i n the c o n n o t a t i o n o f the term l o s t a t o , and keep i n mind b o t h m e d i e v a l and modern n o t i o n s o f t h a t term. The m e d i e v a l n o t i o n o f s t a t u s (and i t s I t a l i a n e q u i v a l e n t l o s t a t o ) was one which was based upon the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y o f the time, i . e . , i t b l e n d e d b o t h the sense o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l . H e x t e r d e l i n e a t e s two 41. The problem o f the t r a n s l a t i o n o f words (and the i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n those words) i s m i t i g a t e d , however, by the f a c t t h a t the I t a l i a n language of t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y was much more h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d than, say, the E n g l i s h language of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; i . e . , t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r s i m i l a r i t y between the language o f s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y I t a l y and modern I t a l i a n than t h e r e i s between s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y and modern E n g l i s h . 42. See J . H. H e x t e r , The V i s i o n o f P o l i t i c s on the Eve of t h e  R e f o r m a t i o n : More, M a c h i a v e l l i and S e y s s e l (London: A l l e n Lane, 1973), Chapter I I I . 45 m e d i e v a l n o t i o n s o f s t a t u s , b o t h o f which combine the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l . The f i r s t o f these i s the s t a t u s o f the p r i n c e which i n e f f e c t , was a d e f i n i n g body o f o b l i g a t i o n s and p r i v i l e g e s . The p r i n c e was most o f t e n viewed as f u l f i l l i n g a c a l l i n g from God and t h a t c a l l i n g was to r u l e over h i s s u b j e c t s . The t o o l s w i t h which he was to pe r f o r m h i s t a s k comprised h i s s t a t u s , which c o n s i s t e d of h i s r i g h t s , d u t i e s , o b l i g a t i o n s and p r i -v i l e g e s . These t h i n g s d e f i n e d what the p r i n c e d i d , and t h e r e f o r e came to be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e government o f the p r i n c i p a l i t y . I t i s w i t h i n the p r e r o g a t i v e o r e s t a t e o f p r i n c e s t o govern p r i n c i p a l i t i e s , and t h i s by v i r t u e o f t h e i r s t a t u s . The second m e d i e v a l n o t i o n o f s t a t u s i s much the same, exc e p t t h a t r a t h e r than b e i n g t i e d to the i n d i v i d u a l i n the p e r s o n o f the p r i n c e , i t i s t i e d to the p r i n c i p a l i t y i t s e l f . G i v e n the v a r i a t i o n s and c o n v o l u t i o n s of f e u d a l a l l e g i a n c e p a t t e r n s c i t i e s and p r i n c i p a l i t i e s came to develop t h e i r own s t a t u s , and the term o f t e n r e f e r r e d to the body p o l i t i c and 43 " . . . i t s fundamental c o n d i t i o n , i t s c o n s t a n t o r d e r i n g , i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n . . . " The prime d i f f e r e n c e h e r e i s one of f o c u s . The f i r s t n o t i o n f o c u s e s on the r u l e r and by what means he r u l e s , w h i l e the second n o t i o n f o c u s e s on the o r d e r and way o f l i f e o f t h e r u l e d . Opposed to these m e d i e v a l n o t i o n s o f "the s t a t e " , we have a modern c o n n o t a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e which i s based upon an i n i t i a l s e p a r a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l . The s e p a r a t i o n can be perhaps b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i n modern E n g l i s h usage we most o f t e n speak o f " s t a t u s " 43. I b i d . , p. 155. 46 i n a n o n - p o l i t i c a l s e n s e . We use the word f r e q u e n t l y i n terms o f a s o c i a l p o s i t i o n and have no r e f e r e n c e to l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n s and p r i v i l e g e s . In a m e d i e v a l c o n t e x t , t h i s s i m p l y would not have made sense: " s t a t u s " was i n e x t r i c a b l y t i e d to the p o l i t i c a l n o t i o n s i n v o l v e d 44 i n an arrangement o f l e g a l r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s , d u t i e s and o b l i g a t i o n s . F e d e r i c o Chabod's a n a l y s i s o f the term s t a t o i n s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y I t a l i a n works s u g g e s t s t h a t the term i s much c l o s e r to our own 45 c o n n o t a t i o n s than to a m e d i e v a l c o n c e p t i o n . L i k e H e x t e r , he p o i n t s to the d i v i s i o n between governor and governed, s t a t i n g t h a t the term s t a t o can r e f e r to the r u l e r , o r i t can r e f e r to the t e r r i t o r y and/or p e o p l e o v e r which t h e r u l e r h o l d s dominion. Drawing upon the w r i t i n g s o f P a r u t a however, Chabod i d e n t i f i e s a t h i r d element i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o n n o t a t i o n o f l o s t a t o . T h i s element i s one o f a form, o r type, o f 44. Indeed, the f a c t t h a t we most o f t e n use the term ' s t a t u s ' i n a s o c i a l sense, r a t h e r than p o l i t i c a l , l e n d s credence to A r e n d t ' s argument t h a t the p o l i t i c a l sphere i s i n danger o f b e i n g subsumed by the s o c i a l s p h e r e . See Hannah Ar e n d t , The Human C o n d i t i o n (Anchor Books e d i t i o n ; G a r d e n . C i t y , New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1959), pp. 35-60. See a l s o Raymond W i l l i a m s , Keywords: A V o c a b u l a r y o f  C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y (New York: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976), pp. 251-2. See B a r k e r , op_. c i t . , pp. 11-15, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s between ' s o c i a l ' and ' p o l i t i c a l ' . See a l s o A l e x a n d e r P a s s e r i n d ' E n t r e v e s , The N o t i o n o f the S t a t e : An  I n t r o d u c t i o n o f P o l i t i c a l Theory ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1967), pp. 86-88; W a l l a c e K. Ferguson, "Toward the Modern S t a t e , " i n The R e n a i s s a n c e , e d i t e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t (New York: H a r p e r Torchbooks, 1962), pp. 26-27; Joseph R. S t r a y e r , On the  M e d i e v a l O r i g i n s o f the Modern S t a t e ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970), C h a p t e r I I and I I I ; and Robert Ergang, Emergence o f  the N a t i o n a l S t a t e (New York: Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Company, 1971), Chapters I and I I , and pp. 163-66. 45. See F e d e r i c o Chabod, S c r i t t i s u l Rinascimento ( T u r i n : G i u l i o E i n a u d i , 1967), pp. 625-650. See a l s o N i c o l a i R u b i n s t e i n , "Notes on the Word S t a t o i n F l o r e n c e b e f o r e M a c h i a v e l l i " , i n Rowe and S t o c k d a l e , op. c i t . , pp. 314-26. " p u b l i c a c t i v i t y o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n " i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the r e g i m e . 1 + 0 The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s t a t o w i t h a way o f a c t i n g o r a manner o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r i t p o i n t s to the importance o f the p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and laws r e g u l a t i n g t h a t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n — a n d i t i s no c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t Chabod f i n d s t h i s c o n n o t a t i o n o f the term i n the w r i t i n g s o f a V e n e t i a n ; f o r perhaps the most i m p o r t a n t element o f the myth o f V e n i c e was the emphasis p l a c e d upon the laws and i n s t i t u t i o n s which r e g u l a t e d p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . M a c h i a v e l l i i s most o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h g i v i n g l o s t a t o i t s modern c o n n o t a t i o n . I t s usage throughout the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s i n c o n s i s t e n t and i t i s w e l l to keep i n mind the t e n s i o n between the medie-v a l and modern n o t i o n s o f l o s t a t o . We s h o u l d expect t h a t the term throughout t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y has a s t r o n g s o c i a l component. P e t e r Burke gets a t the same p o i n t by s t a t i n g i t s c o n v e r s e : "But t h e r e was a s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and men saw what we c a l l ' s o c i a l ' i n terms o f 47 » p o l i t i c a l . " The terms r e p u b b l i c a , c i t t a and p r i n c i p a t o a r e forms o f l o s t a t o , and s h a r e i n t h i s c o a l e s c e n c e o f th e p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l . We s h a l l e n c o u n t e r t h i s ' s o c i a l ' element i n the p o l i t i c s o f P a t r i z i and A g o s t i n i . L i k e the n o t i o n o f the ' s t a t e ' and i t s v a r i o u s forms, the n o t i o n o f p a t r i a s u f f e r s i n t r a n s l a t i o n and modern usage. Most o f t e n t r a n s l a t e d as ' f a t h e r l a n d ' , we have come to be s u s p i c i o u s o f the term, r e g a r d i n g i t as a sham i d e a l used to camouflage gr e e d and xenophobia. In i t s o l d e r 46. I b i d . , p. 645. 47. Burke, op. c i t . , p. 221. 48 sense though, the n o t i o n o f p a t r i a i s much more than t h a t o f merely the l a n d o f one's b i r t h . Above a l l , perhaps, the n o t i o n o f p a t r i a embodies the i d e a l o f ' b e l o n g i n g ' o r c i t i z e n s h i p . I t embodies a sense o f b i r t h r i g h t by which the c i t i z e n s h a r e s i n the l e g a c y ( o r patrimony) o f the p a s t . In t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y we f i n d e v i d e n c e o f two n o t i o n s of p a t r i a — o n e dominant and the o t h e r but n a s c e n t . The dominant n o t i o n o f p a t r i a was c i t y - b a s e d . One 'belonged' to F l o r e n c e o r V e n i c e o r M i l a n , o r a n o t h e r l o c a l p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y . One's p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t y was d e f i n e d i n terms o f h i s r e l a t i o n to t h a t p o l i t i c a l g r o u p i n g , and by the c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h a t p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . To b e l o n g to V e n i c e , f o r i n s t a n c e , meant something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t than to b e l o n g to F l o r e n c e . The fundamental o r d e r i n g o f t h e V e n e t i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d e d the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a s e t o f b e l i e f s about h i m s e l f and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . The degree to which these b e l i e f s o p e r a t e d i n the minds o f men i s p o i n t e d to by Chabod.when he c h a r a c t e r i z e s the n o t i o n o f p a t r i a as one o f p a s s i o n , sentxment and moral f o r c e . A s i d e from t h i s dominant c i t y - b a s e d n o t i o n o f p a t r i a , we f i n d e v i d e n c e o f t h e t e r m b e i n g a p p l i e d to the l a r g e r community o f a not s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d " I t a l y " i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . M a c h i a v e l l i ' s p a s s i o n a t e p l e a , i n the f i n a l c h a p t e r o f The P r i n c e , f o r a l i b e r a t o r o f I t a l y to c a s t o u t the b a r b a r i a n s e v i d e n c e s t h i s l a r g e r n o t i o n of - p a t r i a . We f i n d i n the l i t e r a t u r e o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , then, t h a t the term most o f t e n r e f e r s to the i d e n t i t y p r o v i d e d by membership i n the c i t y -48. I b i d . , p. 658. 49 b ased p o l i t i c a l regimes; but t h e r e a r e a l s o numerous i n s t a n c e s w h e r e i n p a t r i a r e f e r s to a g r e a t e r community o f " I t a l i a n s " — h o w e v e r t h a t term 49 might be d e f i n e d . A s i d e from s t a t o and p a t r i a , t h e r e a r e o t h e r c o n c e p t s which a r e l e s s o b v i o u s l y p o l i t i c a l , y e t which have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g upon how p o l i t i c s i s c o n c e i v e d by the w r i t e r s we s h a l l examine. We cannot g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f th e n a t u r e o f p o l i t i c s f o r these w r i t e r s u n l e s s we can u nderstand these u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e , the c o n cept o f h i s t o r y , cannot be d i s e n t a n g l e d from the s h i f t i n g p e r c e p t i o n s i n time which were wrought by the i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n and d i f f u s i o n i n t o s o c i e t y o f the c l o c k . P r i o r to the m i d - f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y the use o f c l o c k s had been l i m i t e d to w e i g h t - d r i v e n mechanisms, and f o r the most p a r t t h ese were b o t h l a r g e and c o s t l y , and l i m i t e d to use on c i v i c b u i l d i n g s o r churches where a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e combined to d e f r a y the enormous c o s t s i n v o l v e d . The p r i m a r y impetus to t h ese cumbersome d e v i c e s was one o f c i v i c p r i d e , as t h e c l o c k had become something o f a c i v i c s t a t u s symbol. I n the mid-f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y the use o f the s p r i n g as a motive f o r c e f o r the c l o c k came i n t o b e i n g , thus p a v i n g the way f o r s m a l l e r , more p o r t a b l e , and l e s s e x p e n s i v e c l o c k w o r k s . By the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , domestic c l o c k s and « - . . J J 50 watches had become more w i d e s p r e a d . 49. See i b i d . , pp. 656-59. The concepts o f p a t r i a and patrimony a r e s t i l l f o r c e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n I t a l i a n c u l t u r e . A l l too o f t e n , the modern s c h o l a r u n d e r e s t i m a t e s t h e i r power. 50. F o r a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f the development o f the c l o c k and clockmakers, see C a r l o C i p o l l a , C l o c k s and C u l t u r e 1300-1700 (London: C o l l i n s 1967). See a l s o J . R. H a l e , R e n a i s s a n c e Europe: The I n d i v i d u a l and S o c i e t y , 1480-1520 (New York: H a r p e r & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1971), Chapter I, and E. P. Thompson, "Time, W o r k - D i s c i p l i n e , and I n d u s t r i a l C a p i t a l i s m , " i n P a s t and P r e s e n t , V o l . 38 (1967), pp. 56-97. 50 The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s development i s p r o f o u n d l y i m p o r t a n t . The s h i f t from ' t a s k - o r i e n t e d time' to ' c l o c k - t i m e ' r e p r e s e n t s a s h i f t from a c y c l i c a l to a l i n e a r n o t i o n o f time. As l o n g as the passage o f time i s marked by t h e r e c u r r e n c e o f p e r i o d i c a c t i v i t y , the p r o g r e s s o f time can b e s t be viewed as c y c l i c a l — w h e t h e r men a r e measuring s h o r t spans o f time such as those demarcated by mealtimes, l o n g e r p e r i o d s such as th o s e marked by s e a s o n a l h a r v e s t s o r p l a n t i n g s , o r even g r e a t e r time spans such as were marked by t h e r i s e and f a l l o f empires. Perhaps the most s a l i e n t f e a t u r e o f a c y c l i c a l n o t i o n o f time i s the l i m i t a t i o n s which a r e p l a c e d upon t h e range o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the f u t u r e . The f u t u r e h o l d s t h a t which has gone b e f o r e , as p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s a r e a r c h t y p i c a l l y r e p e a t e d . I f the passage o f time i s viewed i n such a manner, then the stu d y o f h i s t o r y t a kes on a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The p a s t i s , then, composed o f a group o f e x p e r i e n c e s which w i l l make up the f u t u r e as those e x p e r i e n c e s a r e r e p e a t e d . The i n f u s i o n o f ' c l o c k - t i m e ' i n t o man's c o n c e p t i o n o f the passage o f time, however, b r i n g s w i t h i t an a l t e r n a t i v e mode o f p e r c e i v i n g t h a t p a s s a g e . The f u t u r e need n o t be c o n c e i v e d i n terms o f the r e p e t i t i o n o f t a s k s , a c t i v i t i e s , o r phenomena which had been p a r t o f the p a s t . I t can be a d d r e s s e d i n terms which go beyond the l i m i t a t i o n s o f p a s t e x p e r i e n c e . To speak o f the f u t u r e need n o t be to speak o f y e s t e r d a y , and t h e s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a c c o r d e d to h i s t o r y w i t h i n a c y c l i c a l n o t i o n o f time might g i v e way to o t h e r s o u r c e s o f wisdom w i t h r e g a r d to t h a t f u t u r e . 51. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f a s h i f t i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f time w i t h r e g a r d to the f u t u r e , see P i e r r e B o u r d i e u , "The a t t i t u d e o f t h e A l g e r i a n peasant toward t i m e , " i n M e d i t e r r a n e a n Countrymen, e d i t e d by J u l i a n P i t t - R i v e r s ( P a r i s : Mouton, 1963). 51 The s h i f t from ' t a s k - o r i e n t e d time' to ' c l o c k - t i m e ' a l s o a l l o w s f o r g r e a t e r c a l c u l a t i o n and p l a n n i n g o f t h a t t i m e . Time can be viewed as something a k i n to money (though we a r e not y e t a t the p o i n t o f F r a n k l i n ' s 'time i s money'), something t h a t can be used, spent, wasted, and saved. I t i s something to be used i n a r a t i o n a l and c a l c u l a t e d manner. The c a l c u l a t i o n and measuring o f time f o r i t s own sake i s o f m a r g i n a l importance, b u t the f a c t t h a t i t touched the l i v e s o f the men o f t h e p e r i o d and a l l o w e d f o r a p l a n n i n g o f t h a t time, i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r us. The f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y humanist Giannozzo M a n e t t i makes the p o i n t . He i s quoted by Ves p a s i a n o da B i s t i c c i as b e i n g i n the h a b i t o f s a y i n g : "Of the time which i s g i v e n us i n t h i s l i f e we must g i v e an acc o u n t o f e v e r y moment," b a s i n g h i s argument on a t e x t i n the G o s p e l which d e c l a r e s t h a t A l m i g h t y God i s l i k e the master o f a b u s i n e s s who g i v e s money to h i s t r e a s u r e r and r e q u i r e s him to r e n d e r an a c c o u n t as to how i t may have been s p e n t . So God w i l l s t h a t when a man q u i t s t h i s l i f e he s h a l l a c c o u n t f o r how he has spent h i s time, even to the g l a n c e o f an eye.-^ The s h i f t i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f the passage o f time wrought by an i n c r e a s e d u t i l i z a t i o n o f the c l o c k b r i n g s w i t h i t i t s own problems. I f men a r e a b l e to measure, c a l c u l a t e and p l a n time (as the n o t i o n s o f 'spending' o r ' s a v i n g ' time would s u g g e s t ) , t h e n we have a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the l i n e a r n a t u r e o f t h a t time. The n o t i o n s o f p l a n n i n g and c a l c u l a t i o n , 52. The account i s t a k e n from Vespasiano da B i s t i c c i , V i t e d i nomini i l l u s t r i . Quoted i n Burke, op_. c i t . , p. 236. C f . s i m i l a r attempts to p o r t r a y the u t i l i z a t i o n o f time as a moral duty i n Thompson, op. c i t . , p a r t i c u l a r l y pp. 86-89. though, presume a c e r t a i n degree o f p r e d i c t a b i l i t y about the f u t u r e — but t h a t p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i s , i n a sense, d e c r e a s e d by the s h i f t from c y c l i c a l to l i n e a r time. W h i l e the c l o c k might a l l o w men to p l a n and c a l c u l a t e t h e i r f u t u r e w i t h a g r e a t e r degree o f s p e c i f i c i t y , i t a l s o d i m i n i s h e s a sense o f p r e d i c t a b i l i t y by s u p p l a n t i n g a n o t i o n o f t h a t f u t u r e which i s composed o f p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . L i k e the concepts o f s t a t o and p a t r i a , the concept o f time was undergoing a t r a n s i t i o n d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The s h i f t to a l i n e a r c o n c e p t i o n o f time i s not t o t a l i n t h i s p e r i o d , and t h e manner i n which t h e passage o f time i s viewed has a pr o f o u n d e f f e c t upon the c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s t o r y . Amongst t h e s e w r i t e r s we s h a l l f i n d time t r e a t e d i n b o t h manners, and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , d i f f e r e n t emphases p l a c e d upon the v a l u e o f h i s t o r y . A n o t h e r concept to be employed i n t h i s work i s t h a t which I have e l e c t e d to term a 'moral endeavour'. The r e v i v a l o f A r i s t o t e l i a n p o l i t i c a l i d e a l s to speak to t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y I t a l i a n c i t y - s t a t e b rought w i t h i t a new way o f v i e w i n g p o l i t i c a l l i f e and c i v i l s o c i e t y . The emphasis upon the r e a l i z a t i o n o f man's f u l l p o t e n t i a l as the g o a l o r end o f p o l i t i c a l l i f e gavenew b r e a t h to t h e o l d e r n o t i o n o f the p o l i s . The p o l i s r e p r e s e n t e d the forum i n which man c o u l d become f u l l y human and a c h i e v e h i s p e r f e c t i o n , a n d i t i s t h i s which was the f i n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l l i f e . We f i n d t h i s c o n c e p t i o n r e s u r r e c t e d amongst V e n e t i a n s o f ' the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y as they sought to p o r t r a y the R e p u b l i c as t h a t c i v i l s o c i e t y which b e s t a f f o r d e d men the o p p o r t u n i t y to a c h i e v e t h e i r p e r f e c t i o n . 53 The two w r i t e r s to be examined who t r e a t p o l i t i c s i n t h i s manner p o r t r a y man's p e r f e c t i o n i n terms o f a m o r a l i t y which i s a t t a i n a b l e o n l y i n the c i v i l s o c i e t y . In d o i n g so, they have c o u p l e d the A r i s t o t e l i a n n o t i o n o f t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f man's p o t e n t i a l w i t h a p e r f e c t i o n d e f i n e d i n terms o f c l a s s i c a l C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y . F o r them,' p o l i t i c s i s most a p p r o p r i a t e l y viewed as an endeavour by which man a c h i e v e s h i s p e r f e c t i o n ; and t h a t p e r f e c t i o n i s the r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s moral n a t u r e . The l a s t concept to be used i n t h i s s t u d y and s t a n d i n g i n need o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n as to i t s s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o n n o t a t i o n s i s t h a t o f 'management' and i t s v a r i a n t s — m a n a g e r , manage, m a n a g e r i a l . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d h e r e i n i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i c a l l y p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and, t h e r e f o r e , s h a l l not e x p l o r e a l l o f i t s o t h e r c o n n o t a t i o n s and u s e s . There a r e two key elements o f 'management' as i t r e l a t e s to p o l i t i c s i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The f i r s t o f these i s t h a t o f l e a d e r s h i p w i t h r e s p e c t to a p u b l i c a c t i v i t y ; and h e r e the i m p o r t a n t v a r i a n t s o f the 5 3 term a r e maneggio and maneggiatore ( o r i t s f e m i n i n e form, m a n e g g i a t r i c e ) . The Grande D i z i o n a r i o d e l l a . L i n g u a I t a l i a n a c i t e s Sanudo, M a c h i a v e l l i , G u i c c i a r d i n i and S a r p i among o t h e r s to e v i d e n c e the use of maneggio (management) to c h a r a c t e r i z e the "government, command, d i r e c t i o n ( o f an army, o f a community, o f an i n s t i t u t i o n ) ; the r u n n i n g , conduct, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( o f an u n d e r t a k i n g , o f a p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e m a t t e r ) . " F u r t h e r , we a r e t o l d t h a t management i s an " a c t i v i t y , o p e r a t i o n , p r a c t i c e inherent;' 53. F o r t h i s and what f o l l o w s , see the Grande D i z i o n a r i o d e l l a L i n g u a  I t a l i a n a , V o l . IX, s.v. maneggio and maneggiatore. 54 i n the d i r e c t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a community, o f an i n s t i t u t i o n , o f a p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e o f f i c e , e t c . — i n p a r t i c u l a r : the p r a c t i c e o f government." (emphasis added) A g a i n , Sanudo, G u i c c i a r d i n i , A r e t i n o and S a r p i s t a n d o ut among the w r i t e r s o f t h i s e r a to employ the term i n t h i s s e n s e . There i s , then, the element o f l e a d e r s h i p ; and we see t h a t l e a d e r s h i p i s e x e r c i s e d i n terms o f command and d i r e c t i o n . The d i s p a r i t y o f a u t h o r i t y i n h e r e n t i n the n o t i o n o f command and d i r e c t i o n i s more pronounced when we seek to f i n d o ut who a r e t h e managers. G i o v a n n i B o t e r o , who r e f e r s to the p r i n c e as the "manager o f the p e o p l e " , i s c i t e d by the Grande D i z i o n a r i o to t e l l us t h a t t h e manager i s "one who e x e r c i s e s the government, the guidance, the dominion o v e r a n o t h e r . " To manage i s something more than s i m p l y to command o r d i r e c t however, and a second element i s i n t e g r a l to the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y n o t i o n o f management. T h i s second element i n f o r m s us o f the n a t u r e o f t h a t command and d i r e c t i o n . I t i s one o f the r e a l i z a t i o n o f a purpose through 54 o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r a c t i c a l usage, and e x p l o i t a t i o n . Management i s a pl a n n e d a c t i v i t y , the s p e c i f i c s o f which a r e d i c t a t e d by the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f 1) the purpose o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s , o r endeavour; and 2) the environment o r s e t t i n g i n which t h a t endeavour takes p l a c e . The purpose o r end o f an i n s t i t u t i o n i s g i v e n , and to manage the a f f a i r i s to o r g a n i z e m a tters i n such a manner as to r e a c h t h a t g o a l . T h i s second element, however, i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the management o f a g r e a t many a c t i v i t i e s i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y - f f o m the h a n d l i n g o f h o r s e s to the n a v i g a t i o n o f r i v e r s . What o f i t s p o l i t i c a l c o n t e n t ? Is the concept used to speak to s p e c i f i c a l l y p o l i t i c a l phenomena? We have seen t h a t B o t e r o , a t l e a s t , views the a c t i v i t i e s o f the p r i n c e as 54. I b i d . , s.v. maneggiare. 55 those o f a manager. F u r t h e r , he speaks o f c i v i l j u s t i c e as an a c t i v i t y o f management. Indeed, t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e and t h e e x e r c i s e o f j u d i c i a l power by the term 'management' was s u f f i c i e n t l y p o p u l a r i n s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y I t a l y to m e r i t a s e p a r a t e e n t r y i n the Grande D i z i o n a r i o a l t h o u g h the term i s now o b s o l e t e i n t h i s s e n s e . We f i n d t h a t c i t t a d i n i , l i k e w i s e , a r e an e n t i t y to be managed. Most t e l l i n g , however, i s the usage o f t h e term 'managed' to i n d i c a t e governed w i t h r e f e r e n c e to t h e . c i v i l s o c i e t y . The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t , however, i s n o t s i m p l y whether we can f i n d e v i d e n c e o f t h e term 'management' b e i n g used i n s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y I t a l i a n to c h a r a c t e r i z e p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . We have done t h i s , and i t s i m p l i f i e s our t a s k g r e a t l y . The more im p o r t a n t p o i n t i s whether o r not the concept r e p r e s e n t e d by t h a t term i s a p p r o p r i a t e to t h a t e r a . The s i x t e e n t h -c e n t u r y n o t i o n o f 'management' i s v e r y c l o s e to our modern E n g l i s h conno-t a t i o n s o f t h a t term, and t h i s f u r t h e r s i m p l i f i e s our t a s k . The s a l i e n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two i s t h a t the former appears to be more o f t e n c o n n e c t e d w i t h p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s than the l a t t e r . The term 'management' apropos o f t h e w r i t i n g s which we s h a l l examine, then, connotes a l e a d e r s h i p which i s d i r e c t i v e i n n a t u r e , and which f o c u s e s t h a t d i r e c t i o n i n terms o f the p r a c t i c a l u t i l i z a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the c i v i l s o c i e t y f o r the purposes f o r which i t was founded. 55. I b i d . , s.v. maneggiato. LEAF 56 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING. 57 V We have s k e t c h e d the h i s t o r i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n which the V e n e t i a n p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r s o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y l i v e d and worked. As we have seen, the p i c t u r e i s n o t one o f d e f i n i t i v e l i n e s and d i s c r e t e forms but r a t h e r , more o f t e n , i t takes the form o f an o v e r -l a p p i n g and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y c o l l a g e . P h i l o s o p h i c a c t i v i t y most o f t e n f o l l o w s , r a t h e r than p r e c e d e s , a c t i v i t y i n the r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic spheres o f l i f e . I t i s the attempt to b r i n g u n i t y and coherence to e x p e r i e n c e . As M i c h a e l Oakeshott p o i n t s out, the i d e a s which we form o f an a c t i v i t y a r e to a l a r g e degree based upon o u r e x p e r i e n c e s o f a manner o f b e h a v i o u r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t a c t i v i t y . They a r e a p r o d u c t o f r e f l e c t i o n upon the manner i n which p e o p l e a r e "...accustomed to go about the b u s i n e s s o f a t t e n d i n g to the arrangements 5 6 o f t h e i r s o c i e t i e s " and those r e f l e c t i o n s cannot take p l a c e p r i o r to the a c t i v i t y . The R e n a i s s a n c e was a p e r i o d o f r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d and fundamental change, and the p h i l o s o p h i c a l m i l i e u o f the p e r i o d r e f l e c t e d t h i s dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . G i v e n an h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the m i l i e u o f t h e time, our t a s k i s to i n v e s t i g a t e t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s s u r r o u n d i n g s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e and to demonstrate how the i d e a l s o f the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c were 56. M i c h a e l Oakeshott, " P o l i t i c a l E d u c a t i o n " , i n P h i l o s o p h y , P o l i t i c s  and S o c i e t y , e d i t e d by P e t e r L a s l e t t ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1956), p. 8. 58 employed to i n f o r m those c o n c e p t i o n s . To do t h i s , we s h a l l examine the works o f f i v e w r i t e r s who d e v e l o p , a m p l i f y and u t i l i z e what has come to be termed the myth o f V e n i c e . T h e i r n o t i o n s o f what we g a i n from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e a r e d i f f e r e n t , as a r e t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s o f the most e f f e c t i v e manner to gauge and judge a c t i o n s i n the p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e . They pose d i f f e r e n t ends f o r the p o l i t i c a l l i f e , and d i f f e r i n g means to a c h i e v e those ends. The d i s p a r i t y amongst the w r i t e r s i s based upon fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s ; , and t h r e e s e p a r a t e bases f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n a r e to be found i n t h e s e f i v e w r i t e r s . Y e t a l l o f these w r i t e r s have drawn upon the e x p e r i e n c e and r e p u t a t i o n o f the V e n e t i a n r e p u b l i c . We s h a l l be concerned here w i t h t h e e x t e n s i o n and a m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e myth o f V e n i c e to speak to t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s . To g a i n a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p o l i t i c a l thought r e p r e s e n t e d by the works o f t h e s e men, i t i s n e c e s s a r y to i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e t h r e e d i s t i n c t c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s . F o r t h e purpose o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p o l i t i c a l thought of an e r a o r a g i v e n h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g we must l o o k beyond t h o s e t h i n k e r s noteworthy because they were a n o m a l i e s , to the works o f more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h i n k e r s ; f o r i n the h i s t o r y o f i d e a s , t h e s e men o f t e n p r e p a r e d the ground f o r those g r e a t 'ground-breakers' who p o p u l a t e our t e x t s i n the h i s t o r y o f p o l i t i c a l t hought. There i s much to be l e a r n e d from t h e s e t h i n k e r s who attempted to e x p l o r e , p o r t r a y , and extend t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f c u r r e n t dominant p o l i t i c a l i d e a l s . The f i r s t w r i t e r to be d e a l t w i t h i n our work i s Gasparo C o n t a r i n i , t h e g r e a t s y n t h e s i z e r o f the myth o f V e n i c e . C o n t a r i n i bases 59 h i s p o l i t i c a l w r i t i n g s upon a d e t a i l e d awareness (but not n e c e s s a r i l y 'understanding') of t h e ' i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s of the Venetian past, and views t h i s awareness as r e q u i s i t e to s u c c e s s f u l p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . His work i s of the c i t y - d e s c r i p t i o n genre, and f i n d s the r a t i o n a l e f o r the l o n g e v i t y and s t a b i l i t y of the Venetian r e p u b l i c i n the e x c e l l e n c e of her p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which the founding f a t h e r s had w i s e l y construc-ted a f t e r the p a t t e r n s o f f e r e d by nature. His work i s p r i m a r i l y of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n that i t o f f e r e d a concrete expression of the r e p u t a t i o n of Venice as a model p o l i t y and sought to l o c a t e the bases of that greatness. Myron Gilmore sums up the s i g n i f i c a n c e of C o n t a r i n i : . . . C o n t a r i n i r e f l e c t s p e r f e c t l y the views of the Venetian p a t r i c i a n c l a s s e s p e c i a l l y i n the p e r i o d a f t e r the s u c c e s s f u l recovery from the p e r i o d of the a t t a c k s of the League of Cambrai and the b a t t l e of Agnadello. He provided i n i t s most developed v e r s i o n the i d e a l i z e d Venetian c o n s t i t u t i o n , the elements of which were the exaggerated claims of the l o n g e v i t y , s t a b i l i t y and independence of Venice, the theory of the mixed c o n s t i t u t i o n and the c o n v i c t i o n that not only the c i t i z e n s who composed the Great Council but a l l the i n h a b i t a n t s p a r t i -c i p a t e d i n the good l i f e which the Republic o f f e r e d . He i s above a l l the e x p o s i t o r of the myth of the Venetian constitution.57 As the e x p o s i t o r of a c l u s t e r of i d e a l s which was extended, modified and u t i l i z e d by l a t e r s c h o l a r s then C o n t a r i n i provides a foundation f o r our own i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Secondly, we s h a l l deal w i t h the w r i t i n g s of Paolo Paruta and Fra Paolo S a r p i , and attempt to see how the i d e a l s embodied i n the myth of 57. Gilmore, "Myth and R e a l i t y i n Venetian P o l i t i c a l Theory", p. 434. 60 V e n i c e were used by t h e s e men to i n f o r m t h e i r p o l i t i c a l w r i t i n g s and to p o r t r a y an a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s . These men view p o l i t i c s as a moral endeavour and t i e d to the a t t a i n m e n t o f a v i r t u o u s l i f e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . G i l m o r e a l l u d e s to the l i n k a g e o f t h e s e l a t e r w r i t e r s w i t h the t r a d i t i o n d e v e l o p e d by C o n t a r i n i : " S y s t e m a t i z e d by C o n t a r i n i , the myth c o n t i n u e d w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n s to command the a l l e g i a n c e o f the V e n e t i a n s as an argument f o r r e p u b l i c a n i s m throughout the p e r i o d o f 58 P a r u t a and S a r p i . . . " F i n a l l y , we s h a l l examine t h e works o f two Utopian p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r s who draw upon the r e p u t a t i o n o f V e n i c e to i n f o r m t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e models o f the i d e a l s o c i e t y . L u d o v i c o A g o s t i n i and F r a n c e s o P a t r i z i drew upon o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e s as w e l l ; b u t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r us i s the f a c t t h a t elements o f the myth o f V e n i c e a r e used to p o r t r a y y e t a t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s . 58. I b i d . , p. 439. 61 C H A P T E R I I P o l i t i c s as the Lessons of H i s t o r y : Gasparo C o n t a r i n i I One cannot p r o p e r l y speak o f the myth o f V e n i c e w i t h o u t d e a l i n g w i t h Gasparo C o n t a r i n i ' s De M a g i s t r a t i b u s e t r e p u b l i c a Venetorum, 2 " . . . t h e most c e l e b r a t e d work ever composed on the V e n e t i a n government." The g r e a t e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the myth o f V e n i c e was t h a t the R e p u b l i c s e r v e d as a model f o r i m i t a t i o n ; and C o n t a r i n i ' s i s the c e n t r a l p l a c e i n the development of the i d e a s embodied i n the myth. Indeed, "one can say t h a t w i t h C o n t a r i n i the p r o c e s s was p e r f e c t e d by which V e n i c e 1. The e d i t i o n used h e r e i s Gasper Contareno, The Commonwealth and • Gouernment o f V e n i c e , t r a n s l a t e d by Lewes Lewkenor (London: Iohn Windet f o r Edmund Matt e s , 1599). 2. L i b b y , op_. c i t . , p. 17. F a s o l i , op_. c i t . , and Robey and Law, op. c i t . , have u t i l i z e d the myth of V e n i c e to p r o v i d e a framework f o r t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s o f e a r l i e r w r i t e r s and have i g n o r e d C o n t a r i n i and t h o s e who came a f t e r him. In so doing, they have i g n o r e d the c u l m i n a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f i d e a s embodied i n the myth o f V e n i c e , and have thus i g n o r e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the concept i t s e l f . 62 o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e p l a c e d Rome as the terms o f p o l i t i c a l „3 i m i t a t i o n . De r e p u b l i c a o f f e r s t h e most s y s t e m a t i c and complete a r t i c u l a t i o n of the i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n the myth o f V e n i c e which were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e V e n e t i a n p a r t i c i a t e i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . G i l m o r e s t a t e s t h a t These i d e a s e x i s t e d i n a somewhat u n f o r m u l a t e d way i n the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a n s and they found o c c a s i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n i n the ambassadors' r e p o r t s . 4 C o n t a r i n i b r i n g s those i d e a s t o g e t h e r and f a s h i o n s them i n t o an i n t e g r a t e d p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y which s e r v e d as a normative model f o r a good number o f o t h e r p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r s . F u r t h e r , C o n t a r i n i ' s De r e p u b l i c a i s a p a r a d i g m a t i c example o f a c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s as the l e s s o n s o f h i s t o r y and the work e x e m p l i f i e s one o f the c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s w i t h which we s h a l l d e a l . I t o f f e r s us a n o t i o n o f t h e scope o f government thr o u g h a p o r t r a y a l o f v a r i o u s V e n e t i a n p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s . I t t e l l s us what types o f a c t i v i t i e s , i s s u e s , problems and purposes the V e n e t i a n s t a t e s m e n viewed as a p p r o p r i a t e to the p o l i t i c a l realm; and i t g i v e s us a c o n t e x t w i t h i n which to p l a c e the works o f o t h e r w r i t e r s o f the p e r i o d . I t provides^.moreover, a s y s t e m a t i c 3. Gaeta, op_. c i t . , p. 65. O l i v e r Logan, C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y i n V e n i c e : 1470-1790 (London: B. T. B a t s f o r d , 1972), p. 5, echoes t h i s view o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f C o n t a r i n i as the most eminent proponent o f V e n i c e as a model p o l i t i c a l s o c i e t y : "With C o n t a r i n i came the p e r f e c t i o n o f the myth; V e n i c e was s u p e r i o r even to a n c i e n t Athens and Rome." 4. G i l m o r e , "Myth and R e a l i t y i n V e n e t i a n P o l i t i c a l Theory", pp. 433-34. 63 a r t i c u l a t i o n o f those i d e a s which were u t i l i z e d and m o d i f i e d by l a t e r V e n e t i a n s to p o r t r a y a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s of p o l i t i c s . As a f a m i l y , the C o n t a r i n i o f V e n i c e a r e perhaps unique. They s u r f a c e c o n t i n u a l l y as prominent f i g u r e s i n any h i s t o r y o f R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e . F u r t h e r , they were a l s o the most a m b i t i o u s c h r o n i c l e r s of V e n e t i a n h i s t o r y . A l t h o u g h not c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n terms o f k i n s h i p o r accomplishment, the prominent f i g u r e s o f t h i s f a m i l y seem to s h a r e , as a common f o c u s , a p a s s i o n a t e i n t e r e s t i n V e n e t i a n h i s t o r y and h i s t o r i o -graphy. A l v i s o was a p p o i n t e d o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i a n to the R e p u b l i c i n 1577; N i c o l o h e l d t h a t p o s t p r i o r to h i s e l e c t i o n as doge i n 1630. Jacopo C o n t a r i n i was chosen to p l a n the r e d e c o r a t i o n o f the G r e a t C o u n c i l chamber a f t e r t h e f i r e s o f 1574 and 1577 on the b a s i s o f h i s e x t e n s i v e knowledge o f t h e h i s t o r y o f the R e p u b l i c . Tomaso C o n t a r i n i d i r e c t e d h i s e f f o r t s towards an a n a l y s i s of the p o s i t i o n o f F l o r e n c e , and the r o l e o f the M e d i c i and t h e papacy i n the d e s t r u c t i o n o f F l o r e n t i n e freedom; and P i e r ' M a r i a C o n t a r i n i ' s Compendio u n i v e r s a l d i r e p u b l i c a appears to be a d e f e n s e o f a r i s t o c r a t i c government based upon c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r y . Gasparo C o n t a r i n i began h i s s t u d i e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Padua a t the age o f e i g h t e e n i n 1501, and h e r e he e n c o u n t e r e d two major p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n f l u e n c e s which c o l o u r e d h i s work and thought. H i s s t u d i e s i n A r i s t o t l e and A q u i n a s p r o v i d e d him w i t h a p h i l o s o p h i c a l background which c o u l d accommodate the competing l o y a l t i e s and t e n s i o n s to be e x p e r i e n c e d i n h i s own l i f e . " * The war w i t h t h e League o f Cambrai f o r c e d the temporary c l o s u r e o f the U n i v e r s i t y i n 1509, and C o n t a r i n i r e t u r n e d to V e n i c e and 5. On the d u a l i n f l u e n c e o f A r i s t o t l e and Aquinas, see Logan, op_. c i t . , pp. 52-54; and F e l i x G i l b e r t , " R e l i g i o n and P o l i t i c s i n the Thought o f Gasparo C o n t a r i n i " , i n A c t i o n and C o n v i c t i o n i n E a r l y Modern Europe, e d i t e d by Theodore K. Rabb and J e r r o l d E. S e i g e l ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), pp. 102-110. 64 embarked upon a s e l f - i m p o s e d programme of study between 1509 and 1511. He came to r e l y h e a v i l y upon two f r i e n d s , Tommaso G i u s t i n i a n i and V i n c e n z o Q u i r i n i , f o r guidance and r e i n f o r c e m e n t . G i u s t i n i a n i was C o n t a r i n i ' s e l d e r by seven y e a r s and, to a degree, s e r v e d as h i s s p i r i t u a l mentor. I n December 1510 G i u s t i n i a n i e n t e r e d the Camaldolese o r d e r , and n i n e months l a t e r Q u i r i n i f o l l o w e d h i s example. The d e n i a l o f the demands o f f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , and p a t r i a by G i u s t i n i a n i was made a l l the more p o i g n a n t by the t i m i n g of Q u i r i n i ' s d e c i s i o n to embark upon the e r e m i t i c l i f e o f t h e Camaldolese o r d e r . He had r e c e n t l y been e n t r u s t e d w i t h d i p l o m a t i c t a s k s on b e h a l f o f the V e n e t i a n government and seemed to be a t the b e g i n n i n g of a r i s i n g p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . The a c t i o n s o f h i s two f r i e n d s provoked w i t h i n C o n t a r i n i an i d e n t i t y c r i s i s which the h i s t o r i a n , 8 O l i v e r Logan, c h a r a c t e r i z e s as p a r a l l e l to t h a t o f L u t h e r . T h i s c r i s i s r e v o l v e d around the competing demands o f f a m i l y , f r i e n d s and p a t r i a on t h e one hand, and the promise o f s a l v a t i o n o f f e r e d by the c l o i s t e r e d s p i r i t u a l l i f e on the o t h e r . .6". F o r an e x t e n s i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s t r i a d see J . B. Ross, "Gasparo C o n t a r i n i and H i s F r i e n d s " , i n S t u d i e s i n the R e n a i s s a n c e, XVII, 1970. 7 . G i l b e r t , op_. c i t . , p. 93. 8 . Logan, op_. c i t . , p.15. See E r i k E r i k s o n , Young Man L u t h e r (New York: W. W. N o r t o n & Company, 1 9 5 8 ) ; and H e i n r i c h Boehmer, M a r t i n L u t h e r : Road to R e f o r m a t i o n ( C l e v e l a n d : World P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1957), P a r t One. 65 A l t h o u g h f o r e g o i n g the monastery, i t appears t h a t C o n t a r i n i e x h i b i t e d much the same degree of p e r s o n a l r i g o u r and d i s c i p l i n e n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o n a s t i c l i f e . H i s s e l f - i m p o s e d programme of study , appears to be a s t e p i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n of p l a n n e d s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e . F u r t h e r , i n 1512, he undertook a p r i v a t e vow of c e l i b a c y . He appears, then to have adopted a l i f e s t y l e which one might term a " c i v i c " o r " s e c u l a r m o n a s t i c i s m " which m i n i m i z e d e x t e r n a l demands, y e t d i d not i s o l a t e him from f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . Between the y e a r s of 1520 and 1534 he h e l d a number of ambassadorships; and i n 1534 he ascended to the p o s i t i o n o f c a r d i n a l and became "...perhaps the most p o w e r f u l member of the r e f o r m i n g 9 group a t the p a p a l c o u r t . " De m a g i s t r a t i b u s e t r e p u b l i c a Venetorum was w r i t t e n d u r i n g C o n t a r i n i ' s p e r i o d o f i n t e n s e p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y between 1520 and 1534. There i s much c o n f u s i o n as to the a c t u a l date (or dates) o f c o m p o s i t i o n . Our b e s t s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n here appears to be the h i s t o r i a n F e l i x 1C G i l b e r t , and h i s c o n c l u s i o n s a r e i n t h e form of an e i t h e r / o r p r o p o s i t i o n . I f the m a n u s c r i p t was w r i t t e n d u r i n g the 1520's, then i t was r e v i s e d i n the e a r l y t h i r t i e s to take account o f more r e c e n t developments. However G i l b e r t s t a t e s t h a t because of C o n t a r i n i ' s p e r s o n a l working h a b i t s , i t 9. Logan, op_. c i t . , p. 15. See a l s o , Hubert J e d i n , "Gasparo C o n t a r i n i e i l c o n t r i b u t o v e n e z i a n o a l i a r i f o r m a c a t t o l i c a , " i n La c i v i l i t a  v e n e z i a n a d e l r i n a s c i m e n t o ( F l o r e n c e : S a n s o n i , 1958). 10. See h i s "The Date of C o m p o s i t i o n of C o n t a r i n i ' s and G i a n o t t i ' s Books on V e n i c e " , i n S t u d i e s i n the R e n a i s s a n c e , XIV (1967). 66 i s more p l a u s i b l e t o b e l i e v e t h a t , w h i l e s e c t i o n s of the work were w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e t w e n t i e s , the work was not completed u n t i l the 1530's Gi l m o r e c o n c u r s w i t h G i l b e r t ' s l a t t e r p o s i t i o n , and argues t h a t the f i r s t f o u r books were composed i n 1523-24 w h i l e C o n t a r i n i s e r v e d as ambassador to C h a r l e s V, and t h a t t h e f i f t h and f i n a l book was not compos u n t i l 1531."'""'" Another time l a p s e ensued b e f o r e the work was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n P a r i s i n 1543. C o n t a r i n i ' s work has most o f t e n been viewed as a response to the events s u r r o u n d i n g the V e n e t i a n war w i t h the League of C a m b r a i — e i t h e r i n terms o f e x p l a i n i n g the g e n e s i s of V e n i c e ' s d e f e a t , r e s t o r i n g a damaged p r e s t i g e , o r e x p l a i n i n g V e n e t i a n r e c o v e r y from the l o s s e s to the League. L i b b y , f o r example, i d e n t i f i e s C o n t a r i n i as one of a c i r c l e of V e n e t i a n p a t r i o t i c humanist w r i t e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development of the myth of V e n i c e and concerned w i t h the r e s t o r a t i o n o f V e n i c e ' s r e p u t a t i o n : A f t e r 1515, the V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a t e devoted i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n to l i t e r a r y p r o j e c t s i n t e n d e d to r e s t o r e the damaged p r e s t i g e of the s t a t e by p r e s e n t i n g the r e p u b l i c as an i d e a l p o l i t i c a l s o c i e t y , a c o n c e p t i o n which contemporary h i s t o r i a n s have c a l l e d the ' V e n e t i a n myth'.12 There i s , however, no d i r e c t e v i d e n c e to i n d i c a t e t h a t C o n t a r i n i ' s work was m o t i v a t e d by such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; and the work, i n i t s e n t i r e t y , appears to be d i r e c t e d a t the V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a t e themselves, a d v o c a t i n g 11. G i l m o r e , "Myth and R e a l i t y i n V e n e t i a n P o l i t i c a l Theory," p. 431. 12. L i b b y , op. c i t . , pp. 7-8. See a l s o pp. 22, 24. a r e t u r n t o p r a c t i c e s embodied i n V e n i c e ' s a n c i e n t c o n s t i t u t i o n . J . G. A . P o c o c k has c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h i s t r a d i t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e w h i c h i s d i r e c t e d t owa rd d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e a n c i e n t and t r a d i t i o n a l r o o t s o f a g i v e n c o n s t i t u t i o n as one o f ' c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a n t i q u a r i a n i s m ' , and goes on t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h i s t r a d i t i o n has s e r v e d d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s f o r d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s . C o n t a r i n i ' s wo rk can be v i e w e d w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t , and i t w o u l d appear : t h a t h i s m o t i v a t i o n was t h a t " . . . t h e a n c i e n t c o n s t i t u t i o n had k e p t t h e p e o p l e happy f o r c e n t u r i e s and s h o u l d a c c o r d i n g l y be r e t a i n e d , 1 3 o r r e s t o r e d , as t h e c a s e m i g h t b e . " We s h a l l see t h i s theme c o n t i n u a l l y b o r n e o u t as we v i e w De r e p u b l i c a . The c r i s e s o f Cambra i may w e l l have p l a y e d an i n t e g r a l r o l e i n mov ing C o n t a r i n i t o s e t pen t o p a p e r , b u t o n l y i n t h e s en se t h a t Cambra i r e p r e s e n t e d t h e con sequence s o f d e v i a t i o n f r o m V e n e t i a n t r a d i t i o n . C o n t a r i n i ' s p o r t r a y a l o f V e n i c e as t h e i d e a l p o l i t i c a l s o c i e t y i n De r e p u b l i c a draws upon a number o f i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e s . Bouwsma c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e work as a " . . . p o r t r a i t o f s t a t i c p e r f e c t i o n . . . " whose argument i s ba sed upon " . . . a n uneasy b l e n d o f A r i s t o t e l i a n common-p laces w i t h t h e V e n e t i a n p o l i t i c a l m y t h . . . a n d t he e n t i r e amalgam i s o c c a s i o n a l l y m o d i f i e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s drawn f r o m h i s l o n g p e r i o d o f 1 4 p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . " As we t u r n t o t h i s ' ama l gam ' we s h a l l a t t e m p t t o d i s c e r n dominant i n f l u e n c e s i n C o n t a r i n i ' s wo rk , t o e x p l o r e t h e myth o f V e n i c e as a mode l p o l i t i c a l s o c i e t y , and to p o r t r a y C o n t a r i n i ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s a s t he l e s s o n s o f h i s t o r y . 1 3 . J . G. A . P o c o c k , The A n c i e n t C o n s t i t u t i o n and t h e F e u d a l Law (Cambr i dge : Cambr idge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 2 1 . See a l s o p p . 1 7 - 1 8 . 1 4 . Bouwsma, V e n i c e and t h e De fen se o f R e p u b l i c a n L i b e r t y , p. 1 4 5 . 68 I I C o n t a r i n i opens h i s wo rk by n o t i n g t h a t s t r a n g e r s t r a v e l l i n g t o V e n i c e m a r v e l a t a number o f o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c i t y . Some, a r e i m p r e s s e d by t he commodity o f t r a d e , o r t h e g r e a t n e s s o f t h e e m p i r e . Some n o t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c i t y i s t he c r o s s - r o a d s o f so many f o r e i g n p e o p l e s . S t i l l o t h e r s wonder a t t h e s i t e o f t h e c i t y w h i c h combines t h e d e f e n s i v e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e h i l l t o p towns on t h e m a i n l a n d , w i t h t h e ea sy a c c e s s f o r t r a d e . C o n t a r i n i goes on t o p o i n t o u t t h a t w h i l e t h e s e a r e a l l a d m i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c i t y , a more i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e c i t y and t h e R e p u b l i c i s o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d . Bu t w h i c h i s more, s i n c e t h o s e t i m e s . . . f r o m t h e f i r s t b u i l d i n g t h e r e o f , e ven u n t i l t h i s t i m e , b e i n g now a t hou sand and one hund red y e a r s , i t h a t h p r e s e r v e d i t s e l f f r e e and u n t o u c h e d f r om t h e v i o l e n c e o f any enemie , though b e i n g most o p u l e n t and f u r n i s h e d , a s w e l l o f g o l d and s i l v e r , as o f a l l t h i n g s t h a t m i g h t , y e a e ven f r o m t h e f a r t h e s t p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d a l l u r e t h e B a r b a r e s t o so r i c h a b o o t i e and s p o i l e . 1 5 Beyond t h e l o n g e v i t y and i ndependence o f t h e commonwealth, V e n i c e d e s e r v e d r e c o g n i t i o n b e c a u s e o f h e r r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p u r p o s e o f c i v i l l i f e . C i t i e s , C o n t a r i n i r e m a r k s , a r e more t h a n w a l l s and h o u s e s , and V e n i c e had a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e g r e a t e r e n d , o f c i v i l l i f e . . . . a n d t h i s i s t h e t r u e r e a s o n , manner & fo rme o f commonwealths, t h r o u g h w h i c h men e n j o y a h a p p i e and q u i e t l i f e : T h i s i s t h e r a r e and e x c e l l e n t t h i n g , w h e r e i n V e n i c e seemeth t o s h i n e , and t o s u r p a s s e a l l a n t i q u i t i e , f o r though i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e h a t h beene many commonwealthes, w h i c h have f a r f e e x c e e d e d V e n i c e as w e l l i n e m p i r e and 1-5. C o n t a r i n i , £ p . c i t . , p. 5 69 g r e a t n e s s o f e s t a t e , as i n m i l i t a r i e d i s c i p l i n e and g l o r y o f t h e wars: y e t h a t h t h e r e not beene any, t h a t may be paragond w i t h t h i s o f o u r s , f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s & lawes p r u d e n t l y d e c r e e d , t o e s t a b l i s h unto t h e i n h a b i t a n t e s a h a p p i e and p r o s p e r o u s f e l i c i t i e . . . 1 6 We have, i n C o n t a r i n i ' s i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks t h e n , t h e a s s e r t i o n o f two elements o f t h e V e n e t i a n m y t h — t h e l o n g e v i t y o f t h e R e p u b l i c , and l a w s w i s e l y f o r m u l a t e d — a n d C o n t a r i n i t i e s t h e s e two elements t o g e t h e r as he moves t h r o u g h h i s n a r r a t i v e . H a v i n g opened t h e t r e a t i s e w i t h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e Common-w e a l t h ' s l o n g e v i t y , and t h i s b o l d a s s e r t i o n o f the i n i m i t a b l e q u a l i t y o f l i f e w i t h i n t h e Commonwealth, C o n t a r i n i moves t o e x p l o r e the b a s i s o f t h a t g r e a t n e s s and t h o s e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n w h i c h must be p u r s u e d i f V e n i c e i s t o r e t a i n h e r p o s i t i o n o f pre-eminence i n p r o v i d i n g t h a t " h a p p i e and p r o s p e r o u s f e l i c i t i e " w h i c h he sees as t h e h a l l m a r k o f t h e R e p u b l i c . The g e n e s i s o f V e n e t i a n g r e a t n e s s was, f o r C o n t a r i n i , t h e wisdom and s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g o f h e r f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s . He o f t e n e x t o l s t h e v i r t u e o f t h e e a r l y V e n e t i a n s much i n the tone o f a l a m e n t a t i o n f o r a p a s t G o l d e n Age: " . . . I am wont g r e a t l y t o wonder a t t h e wisedome o f our a n c e s t o r s , a t t h e i r i n d u s t r y , t h e v i r t u e o f t h e i r minds, & t h e i r i n c r e d i b l e l o v e and c h a r i t y towards t h e i r country."'" Or, a g a i n , But o u r a n c e s t o r s , f r o m whome wee have r e c e y v e d so f l o u r i s h i n g a commonwealth, a l l i n one d i d u n i t e t h e m s e l v e s i n a c o n s e n t i n g d e s i r e t o e s t a b l i s h , honour, and a m p l i f i e t h e i r c o u n t r y w i t h o u t h a v i n g i n a manner any t h e l e a s t r e g a r d e o f t h e i r own p r i v a t e g l o r i e o r commodity ,r!8 • 16. I b i d . , pp. 5-6. 17" I b i d . , p. 6. 18. I b i d . 70 To r e i n f o r c e h i s p o i n t r e g a r d i n g t h e s e l f l e s s n e s s o f t h e V e n e t i a n a n c e s t r y , and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were more c o n c e r n e d w i t h p u b l i c good t h a n p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h noblemen e l s e w h e r e , he c i t e s t h e l a c k o f p e r s o n a l monuments i n t h e c i t y , and t h e p r o l i f i c c o n s t r u c t i o n 19 o f p a l a z z i w i t h t h e i d e a l i n mind of t h e b e a u t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c i t y . T h i s wisdom and s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g n a t u r e o f t h e V e n e t i a n f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s was p a r t o f t h e p a t r i m o n y i n w h i c h e v e r y V e n e t i a n s h a r e d , n o t t h r o u g h some a b s t r a c t i d e a l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t r a d i t i o n , a s much as t h r o u g h t h e u t i l i z a t i o n and c o n t i n u e d f u n c t i o n i n g o f a c o n c r e t e s e t o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r o c e d u r e s by w h i c h d e c i s i o n s were made, l e a d e r s s e l e c t e d , and c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n t a k e n . F o r example, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f c r i m i n a l judgements, C o n t a r i n i speaks o f "...two s t a t u t e s w i s e l y e n a c t e d by o u r a n c e s t o r s " w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e b e s t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r an a c c u r a t e and i m p a r t i a l judgement. The f i r s t was a p r o v i s i o n t h a t judgement was t o be made by a c o u n c i l o f j u d g e s r a t h e r t h a n a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l ; and t h e second a l l o w e d f o r the o p i n i o n o f e a c h j u d g e t o be made known t h r o u g h s e c r e t b a l l o t i n o r d e r t h a t t h e j u d g e s m i g h t n o t be swayed by p o s s i b l e s o c i a l r e p e r c u s s i o n s o f a judgement n o r m o t i v a t e d by 20 c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l a m b i t i o n . F o r C o n t a r i n i , t h e u n p a r a l l e l l e d 19. W h i l e C o n t a r i n i ' s p o i n t r e g a r d i n g t h e absence o f p e r s o n a l monuments i n t h e c i t y i s w e l l t a k e n , h i s p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a p a l a z z o as a n a c t f o r t h e b e a u t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c i t y r a t h e r t h a n p e r s o n a l a g g r a n d i z e m e n t may appear l e s s t e n a b l e t o t h e modern mind. T h i s same mechanism o f honour t h r o u g h c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p a t r i a v i a t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f sumptuous b u i l d i n g s i s a l s o f o u n d i n t h e e a r l y Roman Empir e . 20. C o n t a r i n i , op_. c i t . , pp. 92-93. 71 wisdom and v i r t u e o f the f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s had become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n , and i t was through the u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t the c i t i z e n s were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h a t g r e a t body o f p a s t wisdom. An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h a t a n c e s t r a l wisdom to which C o n t a r i n i pays g r e a t t r i b u t e i s the i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r e to p r o v i d e f o r c i v i l o r d e r . "Every i n s t i t u t i o n and government of man, the n e e r e r i t a s p i r e t h to the p r a i s e o f p e r f e c t i o n and goodnesse, the n e a r e r s h o l d i t i m i t a t e n a t u r e , the 21 b e s t mother of a l l t h i n g s : " The major purpose o f the c i v i l s o c i e t y i s to p r o v i d e o r d e r , and j u s t as n a t u r e tended toward a m o d e r a t i o n o f extremes, t h e p e r f e c t e d . c i v i l s o c i e t y i s one i n which m o d e r a t i o n p r e v a i l s o v e r f a c t i o n a l s t r i f e . That moderation, we s h a l l see, i n t u r n r e q u i r e s a b a l a n c e d government b e s t a c h i e v e d by the mixed c o n s t i t u t i o n . The V e n e t i a n f o r e f a t h e r s , C o n t a r i n i s a y s , were aware of the v a l u e o f the p a t -t e r n s p r o v i d e d by n a t u r e : Our a n c e s t o r s t h e r e f o r e by_ the i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r e have p r o v i d e d b o t h f o r one and the o t h e r i n c o n v e n i e n c e , . and have t h e r e i n used the i u s t temperature and e x c e l l e n t moderation, t h a t none...may any way blame o r f i n d e f a u l t w i t h a government so v e r t u o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d and so t e m p e r a t e l y maintayned:"22 (emphasis added) The f o u n d e r s o f V e n i c e had, a c c o r d i n g to C o n t a r i n i , a d m i r a b l y adopted the p a t t e r n s o f n a t u r e i n t h e i r t a s k o f p l a n n i n g the s t r u c t u r e o f Commonwealth; and i t was n e c e s s a r y t h a t the men of C o n t a r i n i ' s own time r e c o g n i z e t h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e to f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e the v a l u e o f t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f government. 21. 22. I b i d . , p. 66 . I b i d . , p. 149. See a l s o p. 148. 72 Moreover, s i n c e the f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s had been so s a g a c i o u s i n f a s h i o n i n g the R e p u b l i c a f t e r the p a t t e r n s o f n a t u r e , and s i n c e the R e p u b l i c had so l o n g endured, a n o t h e r avenue t o a knowledge o f t h e v a l u e o f t hese i n s t i t u t i o n s was opened. T h i s was e x p e r i e n c e . He who would but l o o k i n t o the h i s t o r y o f the R e p u b l i c would be a b l e to see the v a l u e o f those i n s t i t u t i o n s . F o r example, i n Book I I I C o n t a r i n i speaks o f the C o u n c i l o f Ten: That t h e r e h a t h g r e a t u t i l i t i e redounded to the commonwealth o f V e n i c e through t h i s c o u n c e l l & C o l l e d g e o f tenne: e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f h a t h made most m a n i f e s t and p l a i h e . ^ 3 Throughout the work we f i n d e x p e r i e n c e b e i n g used as the t o u c h s t o n e o f p r o o f . " B e s i d e s , i t i s by e x p e r i e n c e approoved...", " . . . e x p e r i e n c e the m i s t r e s s o f a l l t h i n g s doth e l e g a n t l y t e a c h us...", and "...so h a t h 24 e x p e r i e n c e approoved i t f o r a l l o w a b l e & o f h i g h commendation..." a r e markers o f a common theme which pervades the work. Those u n a b l e to d i s c e r n the p a t t e r n s o f n a t u r e and t r a n s l a t e them i n t o p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r the g o v e r n i n g o f c i v i l s o c i e t y , had but to l o o k to p a s t e x p e r i e n c e to see w h i t h e r t h i s r a t h e r a b s t r a c t and a b s t r u s e f o r m u l a would l e a d them. The f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s had t a c k l e d t h a t l a b y r i n t h i a n t a s k o f p a t t e r n i n g the Commonwealth a f t e r n a t u r e , and t h e r e f o r e c u r r e n t g e n e r a t i o n s need not s t a r t a t the b e g i n n i n g , but r a t h e r were o f f e r e d the l i v i n g p r o o f o f the t a s k through e x p e r i e n c e . F u r t h e r , e x p e r i e n c e and h i s t o r y p r o v i d e d a more p o w e r f u l and a c c u r a t e g u i d e to p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r than any 23 . I b i d . , p. 81. 24. I b i d . , pp. 70, 13, 83. s t r i c t l y m e n t a l e x e r c i s e . The Utopian'works o f a n c i e n t p h i l o s o p h e r s c o u l d n o t e q u a l the c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e i n p r o v i d i n g f o r a happy l i f e w i t h i n t h e Commonwealth. I n comparing t h e r e a l i t y o f V e n i c e w i t h t h o s e i m a g i n a r y r e p u b l i c s f o r g e d by p h i l o s o p h e r s o f t h e p a s t , C o n t a r i n i s t a t e s " . . . i n t h e d i s c o u r s e s o f t h o s e g r e a t P h i l o s o p h e r s , w h i c h f a s h i o n e d & f o r g e d commonwealths a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e 25 mind, t h e r e i s n o t any t o be founde so w e l l f a y n e d o r f r a med..." Thus n a t u r e p r o v i d e d a p a t t e r n t o w h i c h a commonwealth w e l l -e s t a b l i s h e d s h o u l d c o r r e s p o n d , and t h e V e n e t i a n a n c e s t r y had i n c o r p o r a t e d t h a t p a t t e r n i n t o t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f c i v i l l i f e . H i s t o r y had p r o v e n t h e wisdom o f f o l l o w i n g t h a t p a t t e r n and, f u r t h e r , p r o v i d e d a g r e a t body o f e x p e r i e n c e from w h i c h t h e w i s e p o l i t i c a l a c t o r c o u l d draw i n a t t e m p t i n g t o m a i n t a i n o r a m e l i o r a t e t h e c i v i l l i f e . N a t u r e and e x p e r i e n c e p r o v i d e d a s t o r e h o u s e from w h i c h t h e p o l i t i c a l a c t o r c o u l d draw t h e l e s s o n s necessary, t o h i s t a s k . C o n t a r i n i s t a t e s t h a t men a r e , by. n a t u r e , c i v i l c r e a t u r e s and t h a t t h e y u n i t e i n t o c ommunities i n o r d e r t o l i v e more commodiously: "...whereunto t h e whole r e a s o n o f c i v i l i n s t i t u t i o n s p e r t a i n e t h , t h a t by t h e e a s i e s t way p o s s i b l e t h e c i t i z e n s may be made p o s s e s s o r s o f a 26' happy l i f e . " The s i n e qua non o f t h e c i v i l s o c i e t y i s , f o r C o n t a r i n i , t h e o r d e r p r o v i d e d by an e f f e c t i v e government. C i v i l o r d e r can o n l y o b t a i n i n a commonwealth w h i c h i s o r g a n i z e d i n s u c h a manner t h a t 25. I b i d . , p. 7. I assume t h a t , above a l l , C o n t a r i n i i s r e f e r r i n g t o P l a t o i n t h i s p a s s a g e . 26. I b i d . , p. 8. 74 f a c t i o n s do n o t p e r i o d i c a l l y a r i s e t o combat one a n o t h e r a t t h e expense o f t h e e n t i r e commonwealth. I t i s t h i s q u e s t f o r o r d e r t h r o u g h t h e a l l e v i a t i o n o f f a c t i o n w h i c h f i g u r e s l a r g e l y i n C o n t a r i n i ' s a c c o u n t o f the V e n e t i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n . O r d e r l y government r e q u i r e s , f o r C o n t a r i n i , a b a s i s o f l a w , because laws c a n be p e r p e t u a l and, i f r i g h t l y l e g i s l a t e d , a r e not s u b j e c t t o t h e p a s s i o n s w h i c h a t t e n d i n d i v i d u a l men. I n o r d e r t o a s s u r e good l a w , C o n t a r i n i a d v o c a t e s t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n be c a r r i e d o u t by a s s e m b l i e s r a t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l s . The assembly i s p r e f e r a b l e , he s a y s , because i n making t h e laws many w i s e men meet t o g e t h e r and t h i s a s s u r e s t h a t 27 p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t does n o t d i c t a t e t h e l a w . F u r t h e r , t h e assembly i s a p r e f e r a b l e l e g i s l a t i v e f o r m a t because i t can be p e r p e t u a l whereas even t h e most s a g a c i o u s l a w - g i v e r i s bounded by d e a t h . C o n t a r i n i ' s method o f c i r c u m v e n t i n g t h e p a s s i o n s o f men and t h e i r " . . . f r a i l e d i s p o -„ 28 s i t i o n , w h i c h f o r the most p a r t e e n c l i n e t h t o t h e w o r s e r p a r t e . . . , i s t o p l a c e l a w a t the c e n t r e o f an o r d e r l y c i v i l s o c i e t y . "Something more d i v i n e t h e n men s h o u l d e r u l e and governe t h e companies o f men..." he s a y s , and t h e r e f o r e " . . . t h e s o v e r a i n t y o f government s h o u l d be recom-29' mended n o t t o men b u t t o l a w e s . . . " Law, t h e n , i s c e n t r a l t o t h e ma i n t e n a n c e o f c i v i l o r d e r , and i t i s i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o s i t i v e l a w t h a t t h e r e p u b l i c a n form o f government o f f e r s men t h e g r e a t e s t a d v a n t a g e . Laws f o r m u l a t e d i n a r e p u b l i c , s a y s C o n t a r i n i , e x h i b i t t h e advantages of b e i n g g u i d e d by r e a s o n r a t h e r t h a n p a s s i o n , and o f b e i n g p e r p e t u a l . 27. I b i d . , p. 11. C o n t a r i n i seems t o o v e r l o o k t h e o b v i o u s non s e q u i t u r h e r e . 28. I b i d . , p. 13. 29. I b i d . , p. 12. 75 If, in the formulation of positive law, man seeks patterns i n nature or attempts to replicate earlier patterns which were drawn from nature, then we have a notion of p o l i t i c a l man not so much as 'man the a r t i f i c e r ' of law, but as 'man the discoverer' of that law. The basis of positive law then l i e s outside the bounds of man's creation, and is rather part of God's creation. Further, i f positive law is formulated according to divine designs rather than human w i l l , then that law takes on a special validity which owes nothing to human w i l l other than the fact that the original legislators were sufficiently wise to detect those patterns and sufficiently civic-minded to eschew private interest in favour of a public good. Contarini speaks of the wisdom and sel f -sacrificing nature of the founding fathers, but i t is in this sense of the founding fathers of Venice as discoverers, rather than a r t i f i c e r s of beneficial positive law. Such a view of law (which is the cornerstone of c i v i l society), then, leaves a relatively bounded sphere of action for the p o l i t i c a l actor. Orderly government requires more than laws which regulate behaviour, however. It requires an absence of faction; and i t is the consideration given to the problem of faction which ultimately leads Contarini to advocate the mixed polity. Contarini characterizes the danger of faction as the most powerful enemy of the Commonwealths . . . i f you w i l l have your commonwealth perfect and enduring, let not one parte bee mightier then the other, but let them all...have equall share in the public authoritie. For, "...there cannot happen to a commonwealth a more dangerous or 76 p e s t i l e n t c o n t a g i o n , then the o v e r w e i g h i n g o f one p a r t e o r f a c t i o n 30 above the o t h e r . . . " The V e n e t i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r a b a l a n c e d government e x h i b i t i n g m o n a r c h i c a l , a r i s t o c r a t i c and d e m o c r a t i c elements. We have seen t h a t the a r i s t o c r a t i c element p r o v i d e d the p o l i t y w i t h j u s t laws, a c c o r d i n g to C o n t a r i n i . The m o n a r c h i c a l and d e m o c r a t i c elements of t h a t mixed p o l i t y spoke to the i s s u e o f f a c t i o n by p r o v i d i n g u n i t y and contentment, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The d e m o c r a t i c p r a c t i c e s o f t h e V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c o f f e r e d the c i t i z e n t h e sense o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the common p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y . The importance o f the p e r c e p t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a l l u d e d to i n C o n t a r i n i ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e employed to e l e c t the Doge. The c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e d u r e h e r e i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f l o t and e l e c t i o n 31 d e s i g n e d to s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t b o t h f r a u d and f a c t i o n . 30 . I b i d . , p. 67. See a l s o p. 78. 3 1 . The p r o c e d u r e was as f o l l o w s : A l l c i t i z e n s o v e r the age o f t h i r t y meet t o g e t h e r and draw c o l o u r e d b a l l s out o f a p o t . The t h i r t y men o b t a i n i n g g o l d b a l l s a r e r e t a i n e d , and the r e s t d i s m i s s e d . Nine o f t h e s e t h i r t y a r e s e l e c t e d by l o t — a g a i n u s i n g the method o f c h o o s i n g c o l o u r e d b a l l s . These n i n e e l e c t f o r t y c i t i z e n s which a r e then c a l l e d to t h e C o u r t . The f o r t y men s e l e c t e d a r e reduced to t w e l v e by l o t ; and these twelve e l e c t t w e n t y - f i v e . The twenty-f i v e men e l e c t e d a r e reduced to n i n e by l o t ; and these n i n e e l e c t f o r t y - f i v e . The f o r t y - f i v e a r e reduced by l o t to e l e v e n ; and these e l e v e n men e l e c t f o r t y - o n e i n d i v i d u a l s who have the a u t h o r i t y to e l e c t the Doge. (See C o n t a r i n i , op_. c i t . , pp. 53-56.) A f u r t h e r s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t f a c t i o n i s i n t r o d u c e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the p r o c e d u r e by not a l l o w i n g two members o f the same f a m i l y to be chosen by l o t i n the o r i g i n a l t h i r t y . Once one member o f a f a m i l y o b t a i n s a g o l d c o l o u r e d b a l l , the o t h e r members o f h i s f a m i l y a r e d i s a l l o w e d from drawing and a s i l v e r b a l l i s removed from the p o t . The use o f s o r t i t i o n as a mechanism to p r e v e n t f r a u d was i n e v i d e n c e i n t h e A t h e n i a n democracy. See V i c t o r Ehrenberg, The Greek  S t a t e (London: Methuen & Co. L t d . , 1958), Chapter I I . Our a n c e s t o r s ( b e i n g men most w i s e and v e r t u o u s ) made c h o i c e o f t h i s s t r a n g e and i n t r i c a t e p r o c e e d i n g , t o t h e ende the whole m u l t i t u d e m i g h t seeme t o have a p a r t i n t h i s c r e a t i o n & e l e c t i o n o f t h e i r p r i n c e .32 (emphasis added) W h i l e i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t a l l c i t i z e n s have the sense o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e e l e c t i o n o f t h e Doge, C o n t a r i n i i s u n w i l l i n g t o p u t t h i s t a s k o v e r e n t i r e l y t o t h e p e o p l e . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f l o t and e l e c t i o n has t h e advantage, he s t a t e s , o f n o t l e a v i n g t h e m a t t e r e n t i r e l y t o f o r t u n e nor " . . . t o t h e w a v e r i n g w l t t e o f t h e i n c o n s i d e r a t e p e o p l e , among whom commonly a v a i n e o p i n i o n and ungrounded f a v o u r may 33 doe more, t h e n a s e t t l e d iudgement o f t h o s e t h a t a r e w i s e and v e r t u o u s . " There i s , h e r e , a g r e a t t e n s i o n between t h e i d e a l s o f u n i t y and h i e r a r c h y . On t h e one hand, C o n t a r i n i speaks o f t h e need f o r e q u a l i t y among the c i t i z e n r y : " . . . t h e V e n e t i a n s w i l l n o t a l l o w among t h e i r c i t i z e n s any o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e , t h e n o n l y o f age, because f r o m t h e n c e n e v e r s p r a n g any s e d i t i o n o r c o n t e n t i o n . O n t h e o t h e r hand, however, t h i s q u e s t f o r e q u a l i t y does n o t appear to c o i n c i d e w i t h h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f " t h e w a v e r i n g w i t t e o f t h e i n c o n s i d e r a t e p e o p l e " ; o r h i s c o n c e r n t o c u r t a i l t h e r o l e o f w e a l t h w i t h r e s p e c t t o e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e n o b i l i t y i n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f " t h e v e r y skum 35 ' o f t h e p e o p l e . . . " C o n t a r i n i ' s c o n c e r n f o r u n i t y a p p ears t o be based 32. I b i d . , p. 56. 3 3 . I b i d . 34. I b i d . , p. 26. C f . A r i s t o t l e ' s P o l i t i c s IV, x i i , Sec.6; "The b e t t e r , and the more e q u i t a b l e , t h e m i x t u r e i n a ' p o l i t y ' , the more d u r a b l e i t w i l l be." 35. I b i d . , p. 17. 78 p r i m a r i l y upon the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p r e v e n t i n g i n t e r n a l s t r i f e and 36 s e d i t i o n , but a t the same time he t i e s t h i s to a sense o f j u s t i c e . And w i t h o u t doubt i t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h a t commonwealth to m a i n t a i n e i t s e l f a f o o t , and to s t a n d f i r m e , whose government many o f the c i t i z e n s do seek to a l t e r o r undermine: so t h a t n o t h i n g i s more p r o p e r to a commonwealth, then t h a t the common a u t h o r i t y and power s h o u l d b e l o n g to many: f o r i t i s i u s t t h a t the c i t i z e n s , by whom the' s t a t e o f the C i t t i e i s m a i n t a i n e d , b e i n g o t h e r w i s e among themselves e q u a l l , s h o u l d n ot i n t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f honors bee made un e q u a l l . 3 7 The dilemma a r i s e s h e r e when we attempt to l o c a t e the g r o u n d i n g o f the p r i n c i p l e o f h i e r a r c h y . I f the p r i n c i p l e o f an e q u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a common a u t h o r i t y i s grounded i n j u s t i c e , how a r e we to r e c o n c i l e the i m p l a n t i n g o f an h i e r a r c h y o f a u t h o r i t y upon a group o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e j u s t l y equal? I t i s he r e t h a t we f i n d the Thomist i n f l u e n c e , w i t h i t s emphasis upon purpose and s u b o r d i n a t i o n to an end, i n C o n t a r i n i ' s work. S i n c e the c i v i l s o c i e t y i s o r g a n i s e d so t h a t men may be made p o s s e s s o r s o f a happy l i f e ; and s i n c e the prime impediment to the c i v i l s o c i e t y i s i n t e r n a l s t r i f e o r s e d i t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f i r s t o f a l l to m a i n t a i n the s p i r i t o f u n i t y . I n Book I I C o n t a r i n i t a c k l e s the q u e s t i o n of h i e r a r c h y : "...we now take upon us to e x p r e s s e the f i r s t r e a s o n t h a t moved our wise & v e r t u o u s a u n c e s t o r s to p l a c e one man o n e l y a t the helme 38 of t h e i r commonwealth." He goes on to s t a t e : Now a u n i t i e cannot w e l l be contayned, u n l e s s e one b e i n g p l a c e d i n a u t h o r i t i e above, not o n e l y the v u l g a r m u l t i t u d e , but a l s o a l l the r e s t o f the c i t i z e n s and o f f i c e r s , have a u t h o r i t i e to combine them t o g e t h e r . . . a n d to b i n d them a l l i n 36. " . . . n o t a n y t h i n g so much to bee doubted and f e a r e d , as an i n t e s t i n e enemy, o r c i v i l l s t r i f e and s e d i t i o n among the c i t i z e n s , " I b i d . , p. 37. I b i d . , p. 33 38. I b i d . , p. 38. See a l s o A q u i n a s , Summa T h e o l o g i c a , Prima Secundae, Qu. 90. and De Regimine P r i n c i p u m , Chapter V. 79 39 one e n t i r e body. The p r i n c i p l e o f h i e r a r c h y then, w h i l e i t may i n one sense be i ncongruous w i t h the u n i t y d e s i r a b l e i n the c i v i l s o c i e t y , i s , i n f a c t , the s o l e means by which t h a t u n i t y can be m a i n t a i n e d . There i s , then, a c e r t a i n e x p e d i e n t i a l q u a l i t y to the p r i n c i p l e of h i e r a r c h y . C o n t a r i n i a l l u d e s to the e x p e d i e n t i a l b a s i s w i t h h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , " B e s i d e s i t i s by e x p e r i e n c e approoved, t h a t the t h i n g which dependeth g e n e r a l l y a l i k e 40 upon the c a r e o f a l l , i s g e n e r a l l y a l i k e i n manner o f a l l n e g l e c t e d . " Simply put, C o n t a r i n i argues t h a t a d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i s e n t a i l e d i n o r d e r to a c c o m p l i s h the t a s k s o f government, and t h a t d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r r e q u i r e s a c o n c o m i t a n t d i v i s i o n o f a u t h o r i t y . The j u s t i c e o f e q u a l i t y must g i v e way to the maintenance of u n i t y and the u t i l i t y o f achievement. C o n t a r i n i f u r t h e r attempts the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f t h e se two p r i n c i p l e s through the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the Thomist c o n c e p t i o n of d i f f e r e n t s t a t i o n s o r d u t i e s which c o n t r i b u t e to the p e r f e c t i o n o f the whole. T h i s d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r (and concomitant a u t h o r i t y ) c o r r e s p o n d s to the model p r o v i d e d by n a t u r e i n the human body. J u s t as the eyes see the e n v i r o n -ment and d i r e c t the a c t i o n s o f the o t h e r p a r t s o f the body, so the n o b i l i t y i s c h a r g e d w i t h the t a s k s of ' s e e i n g ' and o f d i r e c t i n g the 41 o t h e r p a r t s o f the body p o l i t i c . The p a t t e r n i s one which runs through 39. I b i d . , p. 39. 40. I b i d . , p. 70. C f . Aquinas De Regimine P r i n c i p u m Chapter V; a l s o A r i s t o t l e P o l i t i c s I I , i i i , Sec. 4. 41. See i b i d . , pp. 148-149. 80 the e n t i r e c o u r s e o f n a t u r e where a l l a r e " . . . u p h e l d and maintayned under one h e a v e n l y and e t e r n a l l mouer, and so l i k e w i s e a l l causes under 42 one, the f i r s t cause o f a l l t h i n g s . " C o n t a r i n i n e v e r f u l l y r e c o n c i l e s the dilemma i n v o l v e d i n the two c o n c e p t s o f h i e r a r c h y on the one hand, and e q u a l i t y as an a s p e c t o f u n i t y on the o t h e r ; but he seems to p o r t r a y a modus v i v e n d i based upon m o d e r a t i o n and a b a l a n c e between the two i d e a l s . A g a i n , t h i s ' s o l u t i o n ' i s m o d e l l e d upon n a t u r e : "And t h e r e f o r e i t may e a s i l i e appear, t h a t t h i s our commonwealth i s tempered w i t h t h a t 43 m o d e r a t i o n , which seemeth c h i e f l y and n e e r e s t to i m i t a t e n a t u r e . " The A r i s t o t e l i a n i d e a l s o f b a l a n c e and m o d e r a t i o n pervade both C o n t a r i n i ' s p o r t r a y a l o f the government o f the R e p u b l i c and h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the p r a c t i c e s o f the r u l i n g c l a s s . Book I I o f De r e p u b l i c a i s devoted to a d i s c u s s i o n o f the o f f i c e o f the Doge and the q u a l i t i e s o f b a l a n c e which t h i s m o n a r c h i c a l element b r i n g s to t h e government. Above a l l , t h e o f f i c e o f the Doge p r o v i d e s f o r u n i t y by b i n d i n g the e n t i r e body under one 44 a u t h o r i t y . The many s a f e g u a r d s a g a i n s t the abuse o f a u t h o r i t y on the p a r t o f the Doge p r e v e n t over-powering o f the d e l i c a t e b a l a n c e o f g o v e r n -ment by t h i s m o n a r c h i c a l element. The p o p u l a r element i n the b a l a n c e d 45 government o f V e n i c e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the G r e a t C o u n c i l , and mid-way between these two extremes a r e the Senate ( c o n s i s t i n g o f 120 members) and the C o u n c i l o f Ten. These l a s t two i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p r e s e n t , a c c o r d i n g 42. I b i d . , p . 39. C f . Aquinas Summa T h e o l o g i a Prima Secundae, Qu. 91 Secunda Secundae, Qu. 104. 43. I b i d . , p. 148. 44. I b i d . , pp. 37-39. 45. I b i d . , p. 63. 81 to C o n t a r i n i , " . . . t h e meane o r m i d d l e , which r e c o n c i l e t h and b i n d e t h the two extremes,... The i d e a l s o f b a l a n c e and m o d e r a t i o n between extremes a r e not s i m p l y l i m i t e d to a b a l a n c e between democracy and monarchy, but the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f each i n s t i t u t i o n i s a l s o formed around these i d e a l s . E v e r y committee and c o l l e g i a t e body i n the whole c o m p l i c a t e d machinery o f government i s i n a way 'mixed' and so the microcosm r e f l e c t s the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . 4 7 F o r example, C o n t a r i n i speaks o f t h e p r a c t i c e of a p p o i n t i n g c o l l e g e s o f f o r t y j u d g e s which s e r v e on a r o t a t i n g b a s i s , whereby a new p a n e l o f f o r t y i s p e r i o d i c a l l y i n i t i a t e d i n t o the j u d i c i a l p r o c e s s : ...neyther w i t h o u t r e a s o n a r e t h e s e f o r t y yonger men m i n g l e d w i t h the S e n a t o r s , which a r e f o r the most p a r t o l d e men i n r e g a r d e t h a t t h e h e a t e o f t h e i r n a t u r e maketh a temperature w i t h the o t h e r s c o l d n e s s e , y e t a r e not these young men e q u a l l i n number to the o l d e men, but much fewer, o n e l y inough to put some heat i n t o the c o l d d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f the Senate..."48 The A r i s t o t e l i a n i d e a l s o f b a l a n c e and a mo d e r a t i o n o f extremes a r e c e n t r a l to C o n t a r i n i ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f the v a r i o u s V e n e t i a n p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and a r e a t the base o f the mixed c o n s t i t u t i o n . No l e s s , t h i s same i d e a l o f m o d e r a t i o n and "temperature" pervades h i s p o r t r a y a l o f the a c t i v i t y o f g o v e r n i n g . The c i v i l t r a n q u i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f V e n i c e was l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e , f o r C o n t a r i n i , not 49 to f o r c e o f arms, but to a " . . . i u s t and temperate manner o f r u l i n g . " 46. I b i d . , p. 65. 47. G i l m o r e , "Myth and R e a l i t y i n V e n e t i a n P o l i t i c a l T h eory," p. 433. 48. C o n t a r i n i , op. c i t . , p. 94. 49. I b i d . , p. 146. 82 The h a b i t o f "moderation and temperance i n g o u e r n m e n t " — y e t .another element of the myth o f V e n i c e — e s t a b l i s h e d by the prudent a n c e s t o r s was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the l o y a l t y o f the common p e o p l e . One a s p e c t o f t h i s temperate manner o f r u l i n g i s i n the p r o v i s i o n by the s t a t e o f what might be termed s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . The R e p u b l i c p r o v i d e d f o r m a g i s t r a t e s c h a r g e d w i t h the duty o f m a i n t a i n i n g p r o p e r h e a l t h s t a n d a r d s . These m a g i s t r a t e s conducted p e r i o d i c f o o d i n s p e c t i o n s to i n s u r e the q u a l i t y o f f o o d s t u f f s b e i n g marketed w i t h i n the c i t y . The government p r o v i d e d a number o f ' i s o l a t i o n h ouses' a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e m i l e s from the c i t y , to where those i n f e c t e d w i t h a c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e were removed w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s . C o n t a r i n i p o r t r a y s these as s p a c i o u s v i l l a s w i t h b e a u t i f u l gardens to make t h e s t a y more p l e a s a n t . A f t e r a p e r i o d o f i n c u b a t i o n the f a m i l y would move back to t h e i r own home i f no f u r t h e r s i g n o f d i s e a s e d e v e l o p e d . The R e p u b l i c a l s o a p p o i n t e d t h r e e m a g i s t r a t e s charged w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n of the c o r n s u p p l y , and i t o f t e n supplemented d e f i c i t s i n t h i s s u p p l y by p u r c h a s i n g from f o r e i g n markets 52 and s e l l i n g to the i n h a b i t a n t s a t a p r i c e lower than t h a t p a i d . The government even p r o v i d e d f o r aged c i t i z e n s who had s e r v e d the R e p u b l i c but who had more r e c e n t l y f a l l e n upon i l l f o r t u n e . Y e a r l y s t i p e n d s and h o u s i n g i n the a r s e n a l "...(which i s so ample and l a r g e , t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t e t h t h e shew o f another towne)..." were g i v e n to those who had s e r v e d the R e p u b l i c but were p r e s e n t l y too aged o r i n f i r m to work. I b i d . , pp. 138-139. I b i d . , pp. 117-118. I b i d . , pp. 116-117. T h i s o f f i c e p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f the Roman i n s t i t u t i o n o f the C u r i a Annonaa 50. 51. 52. 83 53 P r o v i s i o n was made f o r a p e n s i o n system f o r r e t i r e d m a r i n e r s ; and the c a r e o f the poor and t h e orphans was charged t o t h e P r o c u r a t o r s o f 54 S t . Mark. T h i s " s o c i a l s e r v i c e " a s p e c t o f V e n e t i a n p o l i t i c s C o n t a r i n i views as i n d i c a t i v e o f the b a l a n c e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the a c t i v i t y o f r u l i n g , and he f i n d s a f a v o u r a b l e comparison i n t h e example o f t h e Roman R e p u b l i c which he says concerned i t s e l f too much w i t h the needs and a r t s o f war w h i l e n e g l e c t i n g the needs o f the p e o p l e i n times o f p e a c e . T h e s p i r i t o f n o b l e s s e o b l i g e , by which those o f a h i g h e r s t a t i o n tempered t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and d e s i r e s w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r those o f t h e common p e o p l e , and f o r the common good, i s deemed e v i d e n c e of the s p i r i t o f m o d e r a t i o n and b a l a n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e V e n e t i a n a r i s t o c r a c y from i t s v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s . A t times, however, t h i s s p i r i t o f 'moderation' on the p a r t o f the r u l i n g c l a s s i n which the needs and d e s i r e s o f the common p e o p l e a r e l o o k e d a f t e r approaches an a t t i t u d e o f appeasement. C o n t a r i n i c i t e s A r i s t o t l e ' s d i v i s i o n o f s o c i e t y i n t o two c l a s s e s , and speaks o f the p r o v i s i o n s made f o r t h o s e "...who o f n a t u r e a r e , r a t h e r i n t e n t i v e to g a i n e then to 56 honour..." P e o p l e , as a whole, seek o n l y to l i v e a l i f e o f p l e n t y u n f e t t e r e d by o p p r e s s i o n . We have no sense o f man as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f the community: And commonly a l l p e o l e do r e q u i r e t h i s a t the hands of t h e i r r u l e r s , t h a t they l i v e commodiously & i n p l e n t y , & t h a t they be not s u b j e c t to the o p p r e s s i o n s and i n i u r i e s o f those t h a t a r e 53. I b i d . , pp. 140-141. 54. I b i d . , p. 122. 55. F o r example, see i b i d . , p. 14. 56. See i b i d . , pp. 141-142. 84 m i g h t i e r then themselves: which when they have a t t a i n e d , they go on w i t h t h e i r b u s i n e s s s e c u r e & c a r e l e s s o f t h e r e s t : o f which t h e r e was not a n y t h i n g o m i t t e d o f our a n c e s t o r s p e r t a i n i n g to t h o s e two p o i n t s ; " 5 7 Those who spend t h e i r l i v e s i n t h e p u r s u i t o f g a i n and a r e s u b j e c t e d to manual l a b o u r a r e not c i t i z e n s and a r e not p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p o l i t i c a l , l i f e o f the community. Those t h i n g s which the common p e o p l e a c q u i r e through the c i v i l community a r e commodious l i v i n g and p r o t e c t i o n by the c i v i l a u t h o r i t y . These two q u a l i t i e s a r e the r e a s o n o f t h e i r u n i t i n g i n t o the c i v i l community, and g r e a t p a i n s a r e taken to a s s u r e t h a t t h ese two q u a l i t i e s o f peace and p l e n t y a r e p r o v i d e d . F o r example, the c i t y p r o v i d e d f o r a s o r t o f " i n s t a n t a n e o u s n i g h t c o u r t " whereby s i x judges would make rounds o f the c i t y i n the company o f armed men and d i s p e n s e j u s t i c e on t h e s p o t f o r the misdemeanours o f vagabonds and p r o s t i t u t e s . They were ...to see t h a t t h e r e be not any d i s o r d e r done i n the darkness o f n i g h t , which a l w a i e s imboldneth men i l l d i s p o s e d to n a u g h t i n e s s , and t h a t t h e r e be not any houses broken up, nor theeves, nor rogues l u r k i n g i n the c o r n e r s w i t h i n t e n t to do v i o l e n c e . 5 8 V e n i c e p r o v i d e d the o r d e r and p l e n t y which were the two p r i n c i p a l v a l u e s g a i n e d by man through h i s l i f e i n t h e commonwealth. The sense of j u s t i c e , t h e sense o f n o b l e s s e o b l i g e on the p a r t o f the p a t r i c i a n c l a s s , and the m o d e r a t i o n w i t h which they r u l e d p r o v i d e d these q u a l i t i e s : "By 57. I b i d . , p. 140. 58. See i b i d . , pp. 96-98. 85 these t h i n g e s you may p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e r e a p p e a r e t h i n every p a r t e o f the V e n e t i a n common w e a l t h , t h a t moderation, and temperature, which i n the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s work, I t o l d e you our a n c e s t o r s d i d so h i g h l y 59 i n d e v o u r to e s t a b l i s h . . . " C i v i l o r d e r , t h e keyst o n e o f the commonwealth, was p r o v i d e d f i r s t o f a l l , by j u s t laws. Secondly, c i v i l o r d e r r e q u i r e d the sense o f a b r o a d p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Those who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s would, C o n t a r i n i reasoned, be l e s s i n c l i n e d toward s e d i t i o n and c i v i l s t r i f e . We have a l r e a d y seen the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed upon the i d e a l o f a broad p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the c o n c e r n to m a i n t a i n a government o f the 'most v i r t u o u s 1 . The s o c i a l harmony engendered by a sense o f broad p a r t i c i p a t i o n was r e i n f o r c e d , f o r C o n t a r i n i , by the sense o f u n i t y p r o v i d e d by the m o n a r c h i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n o f the Doge. F o u r t h l y , c i v i l o r d e r r e q u i r e d a sense o f b a l a n c e and m o d e r a t i o n by which no one c l a s s or f a c t i o n would view i t s e l f as b e i n g o p p r e s s e d by o t h e r s . The V e n e t i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r t h i s b a l a n c e through an e l a b o r a t e s e t o f d e v i c e s to p r e v e n t f a c t i o n and f r a u d . These d e v i c e s d i d not make men more v i r t u o u s b u t , to a v e r y g r e a t e x t e n t , p r e v e n t e d the t r a n s l a t i o n 60 o f men's b a s e r i n t e n t s i n t o a c t i o n . L a s t l y , c i v i l o r d e r r e q u i r e d 59. I b i d . , p. 95. See however, Donald E. Q u e l l e r , "The C i v i c I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ofi the V e n e t i a n P a t r i c i a t e , " i n E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Economic H i s t o r y , V o l . 7 (1969-70), pp. 223-35, where he e x p l o r e s the myth o f V e n e t i a n p a t r i o t i s m and s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n , and argues t h a t p u b l i c s e r v i c e was more o f t e n shunned than welcomed because o f the f i n a n c i a l burdens i n v o l v e d . 60. Pocock, The M a c h i a v e l l i a n Moment, pp. 324-325. 1 86 p r o v i s i o n by the s t a t e o f those two q u a l i t i e s which brought men i n t o the c i v i l s o c i e t y : freedom from o p p r e s s i o n and the a b i l i t y to l i v e commodiously. C o n t a r i n i ' s a c c o u n t o f s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t these two q u a l i t i e s o f c i v i l l i f e a r e i d e a l s based r a t h e r upon t r a d i t i o n than any sense o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l argument o r reasoned p l a n n i n g . C o n t a r i n i r e l i e s h e a v i l y upon the wisdom o f the V e n e t i a n f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s i n the p r o v i s i o n o f a groundwork f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . Bouwsma c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s r e l i a n c e upon t r a d i t i o n as a l i n k between p h i l o s o p h y and p o l i t i c s : The m i s s i n g l i n k between p h i l o s o p h y and p o l i t i c s i s s u p p l i e d , f o r C o n t a r i n i , by the f a c t t h a t e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n s o f V e n e t i a n s had been statesmen as w e l l as sages; they had combined a c t i v e w i t h c o n t e m p l a t i v e v i r t u e s . 6 1 The key to the p o l i t i c s o f the p r e s e n t and f u t u r e , f o r C o n t a r i n i , l a y i n the p a s t . The p a s t p r o v i d e d the examples o f the wisdom o f those s a g e l y men who had l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n which had l a s t e d f o r ove r a m i l l e n i u m . They were t h e men who had worked out the problems o f c i v i l o r d e r and s o c i a l harmony, and e x p e r i e n c e had proven the e f f i c a c y o f t h e i r s o l u t i o n s . The wise p o l i t i c a l a c t o r was one who c o u l d emulate t h o s e a c t i o n s and c o n t i n u e a thousand y e a r o l d t r a d i t i o n . C o n t a r i n i ' s p o s i t i o n must have been cogent to t h e V e n e t i a n s who c o u l d l o o k around themselves and see the f o r t u n e s o f o t h e r r e p u b l i c s and empires which came and went w i t h such g r e a t r a p i d i t y w h i l e V e n i c e c o n t i n u e d to endure. C o n t a r i n i ' s r e l i a n c e upon the p a s t was n o t , however, based s o l e l y upon the l o n g e v i t y o f the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c . He employs a c y c l i c a l v iew o f h i s t o r y — a s d i d a g r e a t number o f R e n a i s s a n c e w r i t e r s . One 61. Bouwsma, V e n i c e and t h e Defense o f R e p u b l i c a n L i b e r t y , p. 148. 87 a s p e c t o f t h a t "pagan r e v i v a l 1 ' which c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e R e n a i s s a n c e was the r e b i r t h o f the i n f l u e n c e o f A r i s t o t e l i a n and P o l y b i a n n o t i o n s o f h i s t o r i c a l c y c l i s m . The e s c h a t o l o g i c a l A u g u s t i n i a n v i s i o n o f two c i t i e s moving a l o n g a l i n e a r p a t h had been, i n l a r g e p a r t , s u p p l a n t e d by the pagan n o t i o n s o f c y c l i s m . Aquinas had made the works of A r i s t o t l e a c c e p t a b l e to the Church as e a r l y as the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; and by the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y h i s t o r i o g r a p h y c o u l d a s s i m i l a t e the n o t i o n s o f c y c l i s m so l o n g as i t s f o c u s was l i m i t e d to the s e c u l a r r e a l m . W h i l e the c i t y of God might be e t e r n a l , Rome p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t h a t the e a r t h l y c i t y c e r t a i n l y was not and t h a t , perhaps, c l a s s i c a l n o t i o n s o f h i s t o r i c a l c y c l i s m were more a p p r o p r i a t e to the study o f such e a r t h l y 62 i n s t i t u t i o n s . C o n t a r i n i employs t h i s c y c l i c a l view o f h i s t o r y i n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f i n s t i t u t i o n s as c o r r e s p o n d i n g to o r g a n i c e n t i t i e s which r e q u i r e c o n t i n u a l o r p e r i o d i c r e v i t a l i z a t i o n to overcome the i n e v i t a b l e decay of n a t u r e . Those a n c i e n t lawes and goodly i n s t i t u t i o n s do s t i l l c o n t i n u e even t i l l t h i s time o f o u r s , though sundry young men, b e i n g s i n c e the i n c r e a s e of our dominion c o r r u p t e d e i t h e r by a m b i t i o n , o r r y o t , have n e g l e c t e d t h e i r c o u n t r y c u s t o m e s . . . f o r such i s i n a l l w o r l d l y t h i n g e s t h e c o u r s e o f n a t u r e , t h a t n o t h i n g may be among men p e r p e t u a l l . But a l l t h i n g e s howsoever they seeme a t f i r s t p e r f e c t l y and w e l l o r d a i n e d , y e t i n c o u r s e o f time n a t u r e s t i l l s l y d i n g to the worse, 62. See Frank E. Manuel, Shapes o f P h i l o s o p h i c a l H i s t o r y ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), Chapter 3. See J e a n Bodin, The S i x Books o f a Commonwealth, Book IV, Chapter I, f o r h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the : c y c l i c a l n a t u r e o f a commonwealth. 88 they had need to be mened and renewed...so i n e v e r y t h i n g t h e r e must be a r e l i e f e and r e p a r a t i o n added to the wearing and a l w a i e s downe d e c l i n i n g c o u r s e of nature.63 A s t r i c t l i n e a r view o f h i s t o r y would p r e c l u d e the v a l u e of the i m i t a t i o n o f the examples o f the V e n e t i a n f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s ; and a view o f h i s t o r y as some form o f random change may o r may not r ender i m i t a t i o n o f p a s t example o f v a l u e ; but a c y c l i c a l view o f decay and renewal r e n d e r s t h a t i m i t a t i o n o f paramount im p o r t a n c e . For example, C o n t a r i n i a l l u d e s to t h e need f o r d i l i g e n c e and renewal i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the o f f i c e o f the A u d i t o r s who were to s c r e e n a p p e a l s i n the j u d i c i a l p r o c e s s . N o t i n g the d e c l i n e o f t h i s o f f i c e , he s t a t e s " . . . I know not by what n e g l i g e n c e by l i t t l e and l i t t l e i t i s brought to p a s s . . . t h a t t h i s o f f i c e which was b e f o r e time so h o n o u r a b l e , i s now become to bee g r e a t l y 64 o b s c u r e d and e c l i p s e d . " G i v e n a c y c l i c a l view o f h i s t o r y , C o n t a r i n i c o u l d p o i n t to the t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e p a s t as the s o u r c e o f p o l i t i c a l wisdom. V e n i c e ' s c u r r e n t t r o u b l e s c o u l d b e s t be a l l e v i a t e d by drawing upon the r i c h t r a d i t i o n s sown by the s a g e l y f o u n d e r s o f the R e p u b l i c . I t i s i n t h i s sense o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n t h a t the c y c l i c a l view o f h i s t o r y p r o v i d e d C o n t a r i n i ' s work w i t h a tone of optimism. The e c l i p s e 63. C o n t a r i n i , op_. c i t . , p. 135. 64. I b i d . , p. 101. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t C o n t a r i n i s t a t e s t h a t he does not know how i t came to pass t h a t the o f f i c e has d e c l i n e d . Perhaps he a c c e p t e d the d e c l i n e as the i n e v i t a b l e decay o f n a t u r e ; or,more i m p o r t a n t l y , he may not have c o n s i d e r e d the reasons f o r d e c l i n e as a l l t h a t i m p o r t a n t . The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s would seem to be 1) the o f f i c e i s i n a s t a t e o f d e c l i n e ; and 2) we p o s s e s s , i n h i s t o r y , the w h e r e w i t h a l to r e v i t a l i z e t h a t o f f i c e . 89 o f the a n c i e n t w o r l d w i t h the f a l l o f the Roman Empire and the subsequent m e d i e v a l e r a might r e p r e s e n t the c o n s t a n t decay and d e c l i n i n g c o u r s e o f n a t u r e ; but the r e b i r t h o f l e a r n i n g , the e x p a n s i o n o f u n i v e r s i t i e s , a r t s and s c i e n c e s , and commerce d u r i n g the f o u r t e e n t h and f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s t e s t i f i e d to the f a c t t h a t men c o u l d a t l e a s t a pproximate the achievements of the a n c i e n t w o r l d . That d e c l i n i n g c o u r s e o f n a t u r e c o u l d , , t h e n , be m o d i f i e d by man to the e x t e n t t h a t he c o u l d r e i n s t a t e the i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s o f an e a r l i e r e r a . The V e n e t i a n s were f o r t u n a t e to have i n t h e i r own h e r i t a g e the exemplars o f g r e a t n e s s . One need not view the decay o f c i v i c i n s t i t u t i o n s as the p r o g r e s s toward a p r e - o r d a i n e d and i n e s c a p a b l e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l end, but r a t h e r o n l y as the downward cur v e on a c y c l e which c o u l d once a g a i n see t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f those g r e a t i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s which had c h a r a c t e r i z e d the R e p u b l i c a t i t s apogee. The n o t i o n o f c y c l i s m o f f e r e d i t s a d h e r e n t s the o p t i m i s m o f a t l e a s t an a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f former g r e a t n e s s . C o n t a r i n i ' s c y c l i c a l view o f h i s t o r y , and h i s concomitant r e l i a n c e upon the examples o f the p a s t , however, a l s o r e v e a l the b a s i c weakness o f h i s thought. H i s t o r y , w i t h i t s p a t t e r n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to n a t u r e , p r o v i d e d , f o r C o n t a r i n i , the key to the f u t u r e , and a c l o s e s t u d y o f h i s t o r y was a l l t h a t was r e q u i r e d to b u i l d t h a t f u t u r e . V e n e t i a n h i s t o r y , a c c o r d i n g to C o n t a r i n i , p r o v i d e d a l l t h e examples n e c e s s a r y f o r the maintenance o f the R e p u b l i c i n a changed environment. He f a i l e d to r e c o g n i z e t h a t the changed environment o f the R e p u b l i c r e p r e s e n t e d more than a n o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n i n the i n e v i t a b l e c y c l e s o f decay and r e n e w a l . 90 C o n t a r i n i ' s statement, ...whereby i t may appeare to those t h a t s h a l l c o n s i d e r a t e l i e , and w i t h an i n d i f f e r e n t eye l o o k e i n t o the o r d e r , and government o f t h i s common w e a l t h , t h a t our a n c e s t o r s d i d n o t omit a n y t h i n g t h a t might tend to the common b e n e f i t e and good o f t h e i r C o u n t r i e , 6 5 r e p r e s e n t s a c l o s i n g o f f o f o t h e r a r e a s o f knowledge, and forms o f s p e c u l a t i o n i n the p u r s u i t o f a b e n e f i c i a l c i v i l l i f e . He seems i n danger o f emphasizing h i s t o r i c a l knowledge to the e x t e n t t h a t he d e n i g r a t e s the v a l u e o f s p e c u l a t i v e knowledge. Pocock c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s weakness as a d e f i c i e n c y n o t o n l y o f the thought o f C o n t a r i n i , b u t o f t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n -humanist t r a d i t i o n , and p o i n t s to i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n : " . . . t h e f a c t remains t h a t the weakness o f the A r i s t o t e l i a n and humanist t r a d i t i o n was the i n s u f f i c i e n c y o f i t s means f o r d i s c u s s i n g the p o s i t i v e , as opposed to t h e p r e s e r v a t i v e , e x e r c i s e ot power. T h i s weakness would appear to be d e r i v a t i v e o f the p o s t u r e which c h a r a c t e r i z e s C o n t a r i n i ' s approach to h i s s u b j e c t ; and, in d e e d , which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the l a r g e r A r i s t o t e l i a n - h u m a n i s t t r a d i t i o n . The f i r s t a s p e c t o f t h a t p o s t u r e i s a f o c u s upon an e a r t h l y r e a l i t y w h e r e i n those p o i n t s o f i n t e r e s t a r e what i s r a t h e r t h a n what might be. Man i s an e a r t h l y c r e a t u r e w i t h g i v e n needs and a g i v e n n a t u r e ; o f importance i s how man l i v e s w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h a t n a t u r e , u t i l i z i n g h i s r e s o u r c e s to a c h i e v e h i s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . A s i d e from a f o c u s upon an e a r t h l y r e a l i t y , C o n t a r i n i ' s approach to h i s t o p i c i s marked by a near r e v e r e n t i a l i d e a l i z a t i o n o f the a n c i e n t s — a n d here he i s l i k e w i s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the A r i s t o t e l i a n - h u m a n i s t t r a d i t i o n o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . That which s e t s 65. I b i d . , p. 125. 66. Pocock, The M a c h i a v e l l i a n Moment, p. 325. 9 1 C o n t a r i n i a p a r t i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s t h a t , f o r him, the " a n c i e n t s " a r e those f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s o f V e n i c e . The enthusiasm w i t h which the works o f the c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s were adopted a i d e d i n d i r e c t i n g t h a t i n i t i a l f o c u s backward i n time. I f one sought wisdom r e g a r d i n g t h e c i v i l s o c i e t y , he l o o k e d to t h e p a s t , f o r t h e r e were to be found the exemplars of g r e a t n e s s and of t h a t wisdom. G i v e n such an approach to one's s u b j e c t , the range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the e x e r c i s e o f p o l i t i c a l power i s bounded by the p a s t . I f one i s to f o c u s upon an e a r t h l y r e a l i t y i t must be i n terms o f the p a s t o r o f the p r e s e n t , f o r we have no e x p e r i e n c e o f a r e a l i t y o f the f u t u r e . And when one c o n c e i v e s the p r e s e n t to be a d e g e n e r a t i o n of the p a s t , i t i s to the p a s t t h a t we must t u r n f o r g u i d a n c e . C o n t a r i n i ' s a c c o u n t o f V e n e t i a n h i s t o r y s u f f e r s from one f u r t h e r weakness which, i n one sense, makes h i s work appear a h i s t o r i c a l . H i s p o r t r a y a l o f t h e b i r t h and development of V e n i c e i s much l i k e B o t t i c e l l i ' s p o r t r a y a l o f t h e b i r t h of Venus. C o n t a r i n i ' s V e n i c e , l i k e B o t t i c e l l i ' s Venus, seems to r i s e f o r t h from the sea, and e n t e r the w o r l d f u l l y formed and mature. C o n t a r i n i g i v e s no a c c o u n t o f the h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o f the g r a d u a l development o f V e n e t i a n p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , but subsumes the e n t i r e p r o c e s s under the a c t i o n s o f the f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s . We have no sense o f t h e g r a d u a l a m e l i o r a t i o n o f those i n s t i t u t i o n s and the "growing p a i n s " i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t — j u s t as B o t t i c e l l i ' s Venus g i v e s no a c c o u n t o f the g r a d u a l development o f a b e a u t i f u l woman. The h i s t o r i c a l i n a c c u r a c y i n v o l v e d h e r e g i v e s one t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a s t a t i c p e r f e c t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the e a r l y p e r i o d of V e n i c e , and t h e p r a c t i c e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s o f which need o n l y be 92 r e p l i c a t e d i n o r d e r to r e t u r n to t h a t p e r f e c t i o n and a l l e v i a t e c u r r e n t decay. The v a l u e which C o n t a r i n i p l a c e s upon the study o f h i s t o r y r e f l e c t s h i s p o s i t i o n as a member o f a s o c i e t y w i t h s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n a l r o o t s . T r a d i t i o n most o f t e n p r o v i d e s one w i t h a sense o f s e l f - i d e n t i t y as w e l l as a sense o f how t h i n g s a r e a r r a n g e d i n the w o r l d . I t l i n k s the i n d i v i d u a l to a g r e a t e r i d e n t i t y and p r o v i d e s him w i t h a s e t o f i d e a s about h i m s e l f ; and f u r t h e r p r o v i d e s him w i t h a sense o f the r e a l i t y o f the w o r l d . R e a l i t y i s , i n f a c t , made up o f one's p e r c e p t i o n s o f the w o r l d , and t r a d i t i o n p r o v i d e s men w i t h t h e means to o r d e r and make sense o f those p e r c e p t i o n s . Moreover, C o n t a r i n i ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the v a l u e o f h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r c o n t i n u i t y i n the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s and, c e r t a i n l y , a number o f exemplary i d e a l s and p r a c t i c e s a f t e r which to model p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . Taken l i t e r a l l y however, h i s emphasis upon h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n has t h e d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t o f c l o s i n g o f f o t h e r forms o f s p e c u l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the d i r e c t i o n and form o f government most a p p r o p r i a t e to the changed h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y o f s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e . H i s r e l i a n c e upon h i s t o r y as the s o l e s t o r e h o u s e o f knowledge d e r i v e s from h i s c y c l i c a l view o f h i s t o r y , but i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s which p l a c e s the g r e a t e s t l i m i t a t i o n s upon h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s . H i s f a i l u r e to r e c o g n i z e h i s t o r y as something o t h e r than c y c l i c a l p r e v e n t s him from s t e p p i n g o u t s i d e the bounds o f p a s t example. I f h i s t o r y i s viewed as some form of l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n , o r as some form o f random change, then the examples o f the p a s t become d i d a c t i c t o o l s from which we can s e l e c t a c c o r d i n g to the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f our own time. Once we a c c e p t a s t r i c t c y c l i c a l view o f h i s t o r y , then t r a d i t i o n becomes a s t r a i g h t - j a c k e t and the a b i l i t y to p i c k and choose a c c o r d i n g to c i r c u m s t a n c e i s d i m i n i s h e d . The examples o f p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , then, have l o s t t h e i r a n a l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r and have become r a t h e r models to be r e s u r r e c t e d and r e i n s t a t e d i n to to i n t o the p o l i t i c a l regime. De r e p u b l i c a i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . Of prime importance i s the model s o c i e t y drawn by C o n t a r i n i u s i n g the m a t e r i a l s o f the V e n e t i a n e x p e r i e n c e . Those i d e a s embodied i n the myth o f V e n i c e and which p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g l a t e r w r i t e r s — b o t h V e n e t i a n and n o n - V e n e t i a n a l i k e — f o u n d t h e i r f i r s t s y s t e m a t i c and comprehensive a r t i c u l a t i o n i n t h i s work. We have seen t h a t those i d e a s r e v o l v e around the c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n o f law i n the maintenance o f c i v i l o r d e r , and to p r o v i d e j u s t laws C o n t a r i n i sees the need f o r the l e g i s l a t i v e p r o c e s s to be c a r r i e d out i n the c o n t e x t o f a s s e m b l i e s . S e c o n d l y , c o n t a r y to the g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d view which h e l d t h a t mixed p o l i t i e s were i n h e r e n t l y u n s t a b l e , C o n t a r i n i saw t h i s form o f government as n e c e s s a r y to ensure a g a i n s t the development o f f a c t i o n , and to combine the members o f the p o l i t y i n a u n i f i e d body. He found, i n V e n i c e , an example o f the mixed c o n s t i t u t i o n which A r i s t o t l e m a i n t a i n e d 6 7 was most b e n e f i c i a l f o r the m a j o r i t y o f the s t a t e s , y e t a l s o most r a r e . Of even g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e , however, i s the f a c t t h a t C o n t a r i n i bases h i s model s o c i e t y upon the l e s s o n s which he draws from t h e V e n e t i a n e x p e r i e n c e . " . . . C o n t a r i n i found i n V e n i c e the model c i t y not o n l y f o r 6 8 the p r e s e n t , but f o r a l l time." 67. A r i s t o t l e , P o l i t i c s , IV, x i , Sees. 10-12. 68. Gaeta, op_. c i t . , p. 65. 94 I I I The c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s as the l e s s o n s o f h i s t o r y , as r e p r e s e n t e d i n the w r i t i n g s o f C o n t a r i n i , drew from a number of i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n s ; and i t i s the o r d e r i n g o f p r i o r i t y g i v e n to these more g e n e r a l i n f l u e n c e s which d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from o t h e r c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s e v i d e n t i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A t the base o f the c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s as a quest f o r c i v i l o r d e r and h a p p i n e s s through the l e s s o n s o f h i s t o r y i s a n o t i o n o f wisdom—drawn l a r g e l y from A r i s t o t l e — w h i c h emphasizes a c t i o n 69 ov e r c o n t e m p l a t i o n , and v i r t u e o v e r knowledge. Co n t e m p l a t i o n and knowledge r e p r e s e n t the b e g i n n i n g o f wisdom; and wisdom, i n the Ren a i s s a n c e , i s r e a l i z e d when a c t i o n s a r e b u i l t upon t h a t f o u n d a t i o n o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n and knowledge. Eugene R i c e , i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the n o t i o n o f wisdom i n the R e n a i s s a n c e , s t a t e s t h a t " R e a l wisdom must be t a n g i b l y u s e f u l to l i v i n g men and to o n e s e l f " ^ and goes on :to p o i n t out t h a t the h i g h e s t form o f wisdom i n the R e n a i s s a n c e was c o n s i d e r e d to be p o l i t i c a l o r c i v i l w i s d o m . ^ We can, then, i d e n t i f y two a s p e c t s o f R e n a i s s a n c e wisdom which o p e r a t e w i t h i n the c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s based upon the l e s s o n s o f h i s t o r y : f i r s t , p o l i t i c a l wisdom i s knowledge connected w i t h a c t i o n ; and s e c o n d l y , t h a t a c t i o n i s u s e f u l i n some manner,helping men to a m e l i o r a t e t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . I f the man o f the R e n a i s s a n c e sought a p a t t e r n o r b l u e p r i n t f o r a c t i o n , though, where d i d he b e g i n h i s study? Where d i d he l o o k f o r the knowledge which would s e r v e as a f o u n d a t i o n f o r 69. See A r i s t o t l e , P o l i t i c s V I I , i - i i i . 70. Eugene F. R i c e , J . , T h e R e n a i s s a n c e Idea o f Wisdom (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p. 73. 71. I b i d . , p. 60. 95 p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n ? R i c e c h a r a c t e r i z e s s e c u l a r i s m as one o f t h e t h r e e fundamental 72 t e n d e n c i e s o f R e n a i s s a n c e wisdom,, a n d — t o e l u c i d a t e t h i s Promethean c h a r a c t e r o f w i s d o m — c i t e s Robert Gaguin who, i n 1496, urged h i s con t e m p o r a r i e s to " . . . s e i z e t h e s p l e n d i d t o r c h o f wisdom from the heavens I f p o l i t i c a l wisdom was the u n i o n o f knowledge w i t h u s e f u l a c t i o n s , t h e n the s u b s t a n c e o f t h a t knowledge must be o f such a n a t u r e t h a t i t c o u l d r e l a t e to man's t e r r e s t i a l e x i s t e n c e — f o r i t was h i s t e r r e s t i a l e x i s t e n c e which o f f e r e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c t i o n . The p h i l o s o p h y o f m e d i e v a l s c h o l a s t i c i s m , which was most o f t e n grounded i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f an e x t r a - t e r r e s t i a l o r d e r , c o u l d not p r o v i d e those p a t t e r n s f o r a c t i o n . I t i s t h e v e r y essence o f the R e n a i s s a n c e t h a t t h o se l e s s o n s were to be ga i n e d from a s t u d y o f the a n c i e n t p a s t , f o r i t was i n the p e r i o d o f c l a s s i c a l Greece and Rome t h a t the t h i n k e r s o f the Re n a i s s a n c e found the exemplars o f wisdom r e l a t i n g to man's c i v i l l i f e . Here were the t h i n k e r s who a d d r e s s e d themselves to the problems o f the c i t y - s t a t e . Here, t o o, were to be found those men such as P o l y b i u s and L i v y who had su r v e y e d the h i s t o r y o f Rome i n an attempt to draw l e s s o n s f o r man's t e r r e s t i a l l i f e . 72. I b i d . , p. 180. The o t h e r two which he d e l i n e a t e s a r e humanism and m o r a l i s m . 73. See i b i d . , pp. 93-94. 96 N o t i n g a g e n e r a l t r e n d o f R e n a i s s a n c e t h i n k e r s to c o n c e n t r a t e upon h i s t o r y as a prime s o u r c e o f knowledge, A l b a n Widgery e x p l a i n s : With the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the M i d d l e Ages had been a p e r i o d o f d e g e n e r a t i o n , many o f them wanted a r e t u r n to some o f the modes o f l i f e and i d e a l s o f a n c i e n t Greece and Rome. There was a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f the v a l u e s o f t e r r e s t i a l l i f e . 7 4 I t was, then, t h i s h i s t o r y o f e a r t h l y i n s t i t u t i o n s which s e r v e d men i n t h e i r q u e s t f o r p o l i t i c a l wisdom: and t h i s s h i f t to h i s t o r y as a so u r c e o f wisdom i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the more g e n e r a l p o s t u r e which Manuel d e s c r i b e s : "The c r u c i a l R e n a i s s a n c e r e v o l u t i o n i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l h i s t o r y l i e s i n the s h i f t o f f o c u s from t h e C i t y o f God to the C i t y o f Man."^ The R e n a i s s a n c e p o s t u r e toward the study o f the p a s t has been d e s c r i b e d as 'pragmatic'. Widgery speaks o f " . . . t h e p r a g m a t i c a t t i t u d e 7 6 to h i s t o r y common i n the p e r i o d o f t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e " and s t a t e s o f the R e n a i s s a n c e h i s t o r i a n s , t h a t " T h e i r c o n c e r n w i t h the ,77 p a s t was f o r the sake o f the p r e s e n t . T h i s p r a g m a t i c approach to the l e s s o n s o f h i s t o r y i s d e r i v a t i v e o f Roman and H e l l e n i s t i c h i s t o r i o g r a p h y w i t h i t s g r e a t c h r o n i c a l l e r s o f events and c o n d i t i o n s , and g a i n e d ground i n the R e n a i s s a n c e l a r g e l y through the i n f l u e n c e o f P o l y b i u s . H i s t o r y , f o r the man o f the Re n a i s s a n c e , as f o r P o l y b i u s , was "worth s t u d y i n g because i t i s a s c h o o l and t r a i n i n g ground f o r p o l i t i c a l ,78 l i f e . " 74. A l b a n G. Widgery, I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f H i s t o r y : C o n f u c i u s to  Toynbee (London: George A l l e n & Unwin, L t d . , 1961), p. 143. 75. Frank E. Manuel, Shapes o f P h i l o s o p h i c a l H i s t o r y ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 48. 76. Widgery, op_. c i t . , p. 152. 77. I b i d . , p. 146. 78. R. G. C o l l i n g w o o d , The Idea o f H i s t o r y ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1946), p. 35. The V e n e t i a n p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r , i n p a r t i c u l a r , s h a r e d much w i t h the Roman h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n . He c o u l d g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the workings o f c i v i l s o c i e t y by drawing upon a t r a d i t i o n r i c h i n h i s t o r i c a l example. The s t a t e o f V e n i c e had, a f t e r a l l , been i n e x i s t e n c e f o r c e n t u r i e s , and t h e preponderence o f t h a t e x i s t e n c e had been f r e e from f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n . F u r t h e r , t h e R e p u b l i c o f V e n i c e was i n p o s s e s s i o n of a unique s e t o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s which had l i k e w i s e endured f o r c e n t u r i e s , g a i n i n g t h e a c c l a m a t i o n o f s t r a n g e r s as w e l l as o f t h o se n a t i v e to V e n i c e . We have seen t h a t t h e r e was a c o n s e r v a t i v e i d e a l i s m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f much o f the p o l i t i c a l w r i t i n g s u r r o u n d i n g V e n i c e and, to a l a r g e degree, t h i s c o n s e r v a t i s m was n o t unwarranted. C o l l i n g w o o d speaks o f the v a l u e o f h i s t o r y f o r the Romans, and h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s e q u a l l y a p t f o r a good many V e n e t i a n s i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y : H i s t o r y f o r them meant c o n t i n u i t y : the i n h e r i t a n c e from the p a s t of i n s t i t u t i o n s s c r u p u l o u s l y p r e s e r v e d i n t h e form i n which they were r e c e i v e d ; the moulding o f l i f e a c c o r d i n g to the p a t t e r n o f a n c e s t r a l wisdom.^ However, the V e n e t i a n a p proach to h i s t o r y , l i k e t h a t o f the Romans, was much more than a p r a g m a t i c approach to a p o o l o f wisdom l o c a t e d i n the p a s t . Men c o u l d d i s c o v e r much from t h e p a s t which was d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to t h e p r e s e n t because o f two i d e a l s which marked a R e n a i s s a n c e approach to h i s t o r y — c o n t i n u i t y o f men's c h a r a c t e r o v e r time, and th e A r i s t o t e l i a n - P o l y b i a n n o t i o n s o f c y c l i s m . Much o f the v a l u e o f a s t u d y of h i s t o r y f o r the t h i n k e r of t h e R e n a i s s a n c e d e r i v e d from 7 9 . I b i d . , p.. 34. 98 the n o t i o n t h a t a p e o p l e ' s c h a r a c t e r — t h e i r p a s s i o n s , emotions and d i s p o s i t i o n s — w e r e c o n s t a n t o v e r a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g , i f not i n d e f i n i t e , p e r i o d o f time. F o r i n s t a n c e , M a c h i a v e l l i speaks of the v a l u e o f a study o f h i s t o r y which d e r i v e s from t h i s view o f c o n t i n u i t y : Wise men say, and not w i t h o u t r e a s o n , t h a t whoever wishes to f o r s e e the f u t u r e must c o n s u l t t h e , p a s t : f o r human events e v e r resemble those of p r e c e d i n g t i m e s . T h i s a r i s e s from the f a c t t h a t they a r e produced by men who have been, and e v e r w i l l be, animated by the same p a s s i o n s , and thus they must n e c e s s a r i l y have the same r e s u l t s . . . . I t a l s o f a c i l i t a t e s a judgment o f the f u t u r e by the p a s t , to o b s e r v e n a t i o n s p r e s e r v e f o r a l o n g time the same c h a r a c t e r ; e v e r e x h i b i t i n g the same d i s p o s i t i o n to a v a r i c e , o r bad f a i t h , o r to some o t h e r s p e c i a l v i c e o r v i r t u e . 8 0 The g l o r i f i c a t i o n by v a r i o u s w r i t e r s o f t h e s p i r i t a n i m a t i n g t h e f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s o f V e n i c e from t h e i n i t i a l s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e l a g o o n a r e a to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c o n s t i t u t i o n would suggest t h a t these l a t e r w r i t e r s sought to p o r t r a y V e n i c e as a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h a t s p i r i t and c h a r a c t e r . A g a i n C o l l i n g w o o d ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f h i s t o r y i s a p p r o p r i a t e . I t was "...a h i s t o r y i n which t h e hero o f the s t o r y i s the c o n t i n u i n g and 81 c o r p o r a t e s p i r i t o f a p e o p l e . . . " The a p p e a l o f h i s t o r y to the V e n e t i a n s was p o w e r f u l as they c o u l d l o o k upon a l o n g , and f o r the most p a r t s u c c e s s f u l , s t r u g g l e to e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n independence from f o r e i g n hegemony and i n t e r n a l c i v i l l i b e r t y . 80_ M a c h i a v e l l i D i s c o u r s e s I I I , x l i i i . See a l s o James Burnham, The M a c h i a v e l l i a n s : Defenders o f Freedom ( F r e e p o r t , New York: Books f o r L i b r a r i e s P r e s s , 1970), P a r t I I , C h a p t e r IV; and Sydney Anglo, M a c h i a v e l l i : A D i s s e c t i o n (New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace & World, Inc., 1969), pp. 91-95 and 239-40. 81. C o l l i n g w o o d , op_. c i t . , p. 34. 99 Another i d e a l c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the n o t i o n of a c o n t i n u i t y of a people's character over time and which coloured a Renaissance approach 82 to the past was the i n c r e a s i n g consciousness of one's p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t y . The complex, multi-faceted and o f t e n vague notions of a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between peoples on the b a s i s of chara c t e r came to be complemented by i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r i v a l r i e s on the b a s i s of p o l i t i c a l or r e l i g i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . For example, w h i l e i t might be d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the Venetian people and t h e i r contemporaries i n Rome with regard to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e characters or d i s p o s i t i o n s , the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c ould r e a d i l y be made w i t h respect to t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and the a t t i t u d e s toward e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t y which those i n s t i t u t i o n s represented. A d i f f e r e n c e i n 'character' was, i n the eyes of many, r e f l e c t e d i n a people's p o l i t i c a l arrangements; and as we have seen, the Venetian Republic boasted a p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e widely acclaimed as p r o v i d i n g s t a b i l i t y , order, freedom and l o n g e v i t y of the Republic. Besides the c o n t i n u i t y of some form of ' n a t i o n a l ' c h aracter, the Renaissance approach to h i s t o r y most o f t e n r e f l e c t e d the c y c l i s m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of A r i s t o t e l i a n and P o l y b i a n w r i t i n g s : "The Renaissance For an extended d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e of n a t i o n a l consciousness and n a t i o n a l i s m i n the l a t e medieval and Renaissance h i s t o r y , see F. J . C. Hearnshaw, The S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Ideas of Some Great  Thinkers of the Renaissance and Reformation (London: George C. Harrap & Company, 1925), pp. 25-30. I t i s important to keep i n mind that the p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t y here i s not that which we have come to a s s o c i a t e w i t h the ' n a t i o n a l ' boundaries of I t a l y . These st a t e s of the Renaissance, r a t h e r , represent the transformation and t e r r i t o r i a l expansion of urban communites. 100 w r i t e r s were d i r e c t l y , a lmost s l a v i s h l y , dependent on the c y c l i c a l 8 3 t h e o r i e s t h a t they found i n the a n c i e n t t e x t s . " I t i s im p o r t a n t to keep i n mind t h a t the h i s t o r i c a l c y c l i s m o f the R e n a i s s a n c e was not the h i g h l y f o r m a l i z e d c y c l i s m which was to be l a t e r worked out by G i a m b a t t i s t a V i c o , b u t r a t h e r a g e n e r a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f decay and d e c l i n e which might be overcome by t h e r e a s s e r t i o n o f human e f f o r t . M a c h i a v e l l i conveys t h a t g e n e r a l tone: I t may be obser v e d , t h a t p r o v i n c e s amid the v i c i s s i t u d e s to which they a r e s u b j e c t , pass from o r d e r i n t o c o n f u s i o n , and a f t e r w a r d to a s t a t e o f o r d e r a g a i n ; f o r the n a t u r e o f mundane a f f a i r s n ot a l l o w i n g them to c o n t i n u e i n an even co u r s e , when they a r r i v e d a t t h e i r g r e a t e s t p e r f e c t i o n , they soon b e g i n to d e c l i n e . ^ As we have seen the n o t i o n s o f c y c l i s m o f f e r e d an o p t i m i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e on the human c o n d i t i o n . I t o f f e r e d the p r o s p e c t o f a r e s t o r a t i o n o f the g l o r i e s o f an e a r l i e r e r a , and an o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t e r r u p t what had most o f t e n been viewed as an i n e v i t a b l e c o u r s e o f d e c l i n e and decay. 85 I t was the chance to 'put t h i n g s r i g h t ' once a g a i n . C o n t a r i n i asks h i s r e a d e r s to r e t u r n to those p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which t h e f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s had p a t t e r n e d a f t e r n a t u r e ; and c u r r e n t decadence c o u l d be r e -p l a c e d b y t w i t a l i t y w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l V e n e t i a n v i r t u e s . I t was t h i s which o f f e r e d the p r o s p e c t o f t r a n s f o r m i n g i n e v i t a b l e d e c l i n e i n t o a c y c l i s m c a p a b l e o f r e s t o r i n g p a s t g l o r i e s . 83. Manuel, op . c i t . , p. 51. 84. M a c h i a v e l l i F l o r e n t i n e H i s t o r i e s V, i . 85. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f c y c l i s m w i t h r e g a r d to the problem o f r e s t o r a t i o n , see Robert A. Kann," The Problem o f R e s t o r a t i o n : A Study i n Comparative P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1968), Chapter IV. 101 Thus good always l a p s e s i n t o e v i l , and e v i l becomes good. A l l t h i s had been a commonplace o f h i s t o r i c a l t h i n k i n g from a n c i e n t times; and i t was an a t t i t u d e e s p e c i a l l y f a v o u r e d i n the Re n a i s s a n c e which, o f c o u r s e , saw i t s e l f p r e c i s e l y as a p e r i o d o f a s c e n t f o l l o w i n g l o n g d e c l i n e from the f a l l o f Rome through to the abyss o f the Dark /Ages , 8 6 The n o t i o n s o f c y c l i s m r e f l e c t a g r e a t e r s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e on the p a r t o f men i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to a m e l i o r a t e temporal e x i s t e n c e — a n d t h i s no doubt d e r i v e d l a r g e l y from the i n c r e a s e d r a p i d i t y of s c i e n t i f i c i n v e n t i o n and i n n o v a t i o n i n the R e n a i s s a n c e — f o r w i t h o u t t h a t c o n f i d e n c e i n human i n i t i a t i v e and i t s a b i l i t y to t r a n s f o r m e v i l i n t o good, the d e c l i n i n g c o u r s e o f n a t u r e c o u l d not be i n t e r r u p t e d . C o n f i d e n c e i n men's c a p a b i l i t i e s to s e i z e t h e i n i t i a t i v e and a l t e r the cou r s e o f h i s t o r y was t h e s i n e qua non o f the h i s t o r i c a l c y c l i s m which we f i n d i n much of the R e n a i s s a n c e w r i t i n g . That c o n c e p t i o n o f , and approach to p o l i t i c s which we f i n d e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f C o n t a r i n i draws h e a v i l y from the Ren a i s s a n c e n o t i o n o f wisdom b e i n g made up o f knowledge and u s e f u l a c t i o n . A c l o s e study o f the p a s t o f f e r e d h ot o n l y an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a p e o p l e ' s d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r , but a l s o a p i c t u r e o f what types o f a c t i o n had proved u s e f u l to t h e i r p o l i t i c a l arrangements i n the p a s t . I t p r o v i d e d , then, b o t h elements o f p o l i t i c a l wisdom—knowledge o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and p a t t e r n s f o r u s e f u l a c t i o n . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s as a quest f o r 86. A n g l o , op_. c i t . , p. 172. 87. See: E r w i n Panofsky, " A r t i s t , S c i e n t i s t , Genius: Notes on the 'Renaissance-Dammerung'," i n The Re n a i s s a n c e : S i x E s s a y s , e d i t e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t ( R e v i s e d e d i t i o n ; New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1962), pp. 138-40. 102 c i v i l o r d e r and f e l i c i t y through the l e s s o n s o f h i s t o r y does n o t , however, emphasize a member of o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l i n f l u e n c e s which we f i n d i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . F o r example we f i n d i n t h i s approach to p o l i t i c s , l i t t l e emphasis upon the i n d i v i d u a l i s m which B u r c k h a r d t takes 88 to be a major development o f the R e n a i s s a n c e p e r i o d . Otto G i e r k e has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i n terms o f f o c u s , the s t a t e and the i n d i v i d u a l tended 89 to o b l i t e r a t e i n t e r m e d i a t e groups — and i n t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s the f o c u s i s e n t i r e l y upon the s t a t e , as p e r f e c t i o n i s sought through the r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f an e a r l i e r e r a . The r o l e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n p o l i t i c s — w h i c h so o c c u p i e d o t h e r w r i t e r s such as M a c h i a v e l l i , S a r p i , and B o t e r o — i s m i n i m i z e d i n t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s . I n sum, we f i n d here, a c l u s t e r or framework o f i d e a s which draws t o g e t h e r the R e n a i s s a n c e emphases upon a c t i o n , s e c u l a r i s m , c y c l i s m , r e s t o r a t i o n , an a c u t e sense o f p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t y and, above a l l , h i s t o r i c a l knowledge as t h e b a s i s o f wisdom. T h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s , however, m i n i m i z e s a number o f o t h e r p o w e r f u l i n t e l l e c t u a l i n f l u e n c e s i n the R e n a i s s a n c e — a m o n g them, i n d i v i d u a l i s m , moralism, and the v a l u e of independent human r e a s o n . We a r e l e d to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the fundamental d i s p a r i t i e s which we f i n d between a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s r e f l e c t a d i f f e r i n g a c c o u n t i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l i n f l u e n c e s which we f i n d i n the R e n a i s s a n c e . Faced w i t h a p l e t h o r a o f i n t e l l e c t u a l i n f l u e n c e s v y i n g f o r men's a t t e n t i o n and a l l e g i a n c e , i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r s have i n c o r p o r a t e d and u t i l i z e d t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s i n d i f f e r i n g degrees to f o r g e t h e i r views o f p o l i t i c a l l i f e . I n so do i n g , we f i n d , they have 88. See B u r c k h a r d t , op. c i t . , V o l . I, P a r t I I . 89. O t t o G i e r k e , P o l i t i c a l T h e o r i e s o f the M i d d l e Age, t r a n s l a t e d by F r e d e r i c W i l l i a m M a i t l a n d (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), p. 87. 103 p r o v i d e d us w i t h r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s — o f the n a t u r e o f the c i v i l s o c i e t y , i t s purpose, and the most b e n e f i c i a l forms o f p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . There a r e two major l i m i t a t i o n s to a c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s based upon a view o f h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n as the prime s o u r c e s o f p o l i t i c a l wisdom. F i r s t , t h i s approach to p o l i t i c s g i v e s us an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what we may p r e s e r v e , and how to go about p r e s e r v i n g those t r a d i t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , but i t o f f e r s no means by which we can d i s c o v e r a l t e r n a t i v e 90 i n s t i t u t i o n s to those o f the p a s t . T h i s f a c t , i n i t s e l f , would not have r e n d e r e d t h i s approach to p o l i t i c s i n s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e u n t e n a b l e f o r , as we have seen, the V e n e t i a n t r a d i t i o n b o a s t e d a number o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w e l l worth p r e s e r v i n g . But t h i s f i r s t major l i m i t a t i o n i s c o u p l e d w i t h t h e second; and t h a t i s t h a t t h i s approach t o p o l i t i c s p r o v i d e s no means to accommodate -. a fundamental a l t e r a t i o n i n the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t o f those p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s . P o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the p a s t were most o f t e n , we may assume, f o r m u l a t e d w i t h a view t o , o r a f f e c t e d by, the e x i g e n c i e s o f the h i s t o r i -c a l environment i n which t h e government found i t s e l f . I f t h a t h i s t o r i c a l environment i s so f u n d a m e n t a l l y a l t e r e d t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the p a s t a r e no l o n g e r p r a c t i c a b l e o r o f v a l u e , we must then f o r m u l a t e new i n s t i t u t i o n s w hich take i n t o a c c o u n t c u r r e n t e x i g e n c i e s r a t h e r than the re q u i r e m e n t s o f an e a r l i e r e r a . The c r i s e s f a c i n g V e n i c e i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y appear to c o n s t i t u t e such a f u n d a m e n t a l l y a l t e r e d 90. See Pocock, The M a c h i a v e l l i a n Moment, p. 325. 104 h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . Growing power and antagonism a g a i n s t V e n i c e on the mainland, i n c r e a s i n g p i r a c y which t h e V e n e t i a n s were unable to c u r t a i l , the l o s s o f o v e r s e a s c o l o n i e s and, most i m p o r t a n t l y , the l o s s o f w e a l t h through i n c r e a s e d European t r a d e w i t h the New World, a l l c o a l e s c e d to p l a c e V e n i c e i n a p o s i t i o n q u i t e d i s p a r a t e from t h a t f a c e d by e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n s o f V e n e t i a n p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s . L i b b y a l l u d e s t o C o n t a r i n i ' s f a i l u r e to r e c o g n i z e the p r e s e n t as f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the p a s t : C o n t a r i n i ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s t o r y i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r c h a i c , l o o k i n g back i n t o the p a s t f o r a model o f i d e a l v i r t u e upon which the p r e s e n t c o u l d be r e c o n s t r u c t e d . 9 1 Given a f u n d a m e n t a l l y a l t e r e d h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t such as t h a t which f a c e d c i n q u e c e n t o V e n i c e , a c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s w hich p o s i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n and/or r e s t o r a t i o n o f the o l d o r d e r as the p r o p e r means to a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s o f p o l i t i c a l l i f e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t . In such a s i t u a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n must be a t t u n e d to the demands o f an a l t e r e d h i s t o r i c a l environment and p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t i v e s to what has gone b e f o r e . G i v e n the. advantage d f h i n d s i g h t , we can see t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f , and approach to p o l i t i c s , by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , f a i l e d V e n i c e . i n terms o f the p r o v i s i o n o f a b l u e p r i n t f o r f u t u r e p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . I t c o u l d n o t do o t h e r w i s e . W h i l e t h i s approach to p o l i t i c s o f f e r e d much i n terms o f e x p l a n a t o r y powers, i t s a r c h i t e c t o n i c v a l u e i s bounded by h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e . 91. L i b b y , op_. c i t . , p. 30. 105 IV We have seen that for Contarini the purpose of p o l i t i c s was the establishment of c i v i l order that men might lead lives of a 'happy and prosperous f e l i c i t y ' . The emphasis upon order is not idiosyncratic to Contarini, but rather marks this conception of politics which could most effectively address the questions of maintenance and preservation. If we are faced with a tradition of p o l i t i c a l discourse which is fundamentally preservative in nature, we can infer that the quest for c i v i l order assumes a high priority within that tradition—particularly in the Venetian experience where that for which preservation was sought was a centuries old reputation for order and s t a b i l i t y . At the centre of the quest for c i v i l order we find the concern with good laws. Law performs two functions for those writers who articu-lated the myth of Venice. First, i t regulates behaviour by defining what actions shall be classed as legal and i l l e g a l , and assures each individual his own. In this i t performs the function of law elsewhere. Secondly, however, laws for the Venetian writers erected an intricate institutional arrangement by which the role of passion in decision-making was decreased, the dangers of faction were minimized, and a sense of broad participation was enjoyed. It is in this second function of law that Venice was claimed to be and often seen as unique, and served as an example for imitation. And i t is in the consideration of this second function of law that the Venetian writers turned to the lessons of history. Besides good laws, however, c i v i l order required, for these writers, habits of of moderation and temperance in government—and here, again, those practices were to be found in historical example. 106 The p o l i t i c a l t a s k , t h e n , i s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an o r d e r l y s o c i e t y t h r o u g h t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f good l a w and t h r o u g h a t e m p e r a t e manner o f r u l i n g . B o t h o f t h e s e f a c e t s o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y a r e b e s t g u i d e d by h i s t o r i c a l example, f o r i t i s i n t h e p a s t t h a t we f i n d l i v i n g p r o o f o f t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h o s e p a t t e r n s d e v e l o p e d by t h e V e n e t i a n f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s . The w i s e p o l i t i c a l a c t o r , i s one who-can m a i n t a i n and/or r e s t o r e t h o s e p a s t p r a c t i c e s ; and p o l i t i c s , t h e n , i s an a c t i v i t y b u i l t upon t h e l e s s o n s o f h i s t o r y . There were o t h e r p o l i t i c a l w r i t e r s s u r r o u n d i n g s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e , however, who drew upon t h e i d e a s embodied i n t h e myth o f V e n i c e t o i n f o r m a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s . By c o m b i n i n g t h o s e i d e a s drawn from t h e myth o f V e n i c e w i t h o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e s t h e y were a b l e to b u i l d up and p o r t r a y an a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s t o t h a t w h i c h we have seen i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f C o n t a r i n i . These w r i t e r s , f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , have eschewed t h e V e n e t i a n p a s t as a model f o r s t r i c t i m i t a t i o n , and have r e l i e d upon o t h e r s o u r c e s o f wisdom w h i c h c o l o u r t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s . Of i n t e r e s t , however, i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y c o n t i n u e d to u t i l i z e t h e i d e a l s embodied i n t h e myth o f V e n i c e t o mould t h e i r w r i t i n g s . There i s perhaps no more p o w e r f u l t e s t i m o n y t o t h e cogency o f t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f V e n i c e t h a n t h a t t h e s e men c o n t i n u e d t o employ t h o s e i d e a l s as a complement to t h e i r works w h i c h a p p r o a c h t h e problems o f p o l i t i c s f r o m a p e r s p e c t i v e r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t employed by C o n t a r i n i . 107 CHAPTER I I I POLITICS AS A MORAL ENDEAVOUR: P a r u t a and S a r p i The major s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the myth o f V e n i c e i s t h a t the R e p u b l i c was viewed by many as o f f e r i n g a b l u e p r i n t f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s t a b l e and l o n g - l a s t i n g regime; but f u r t h e r , those i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n the myth a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t they were adopted and u t i l i z e d by o t h e r p o l i t i c a l t h i n k e r s to shape t h e i r w r i t i n g s . Two such w r i t e r s who drew upon the V e n e t i a n e x p e r i e n c e and the i d e a s embodied i n the myth o f V e n i c e were Paolo P a r u t a and Paolo S a r p i . U n l i k e C o n t a r i n i who used the e x c e l l e n c e o f V e n e t i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s as a s p r i n g b o a r d f o r h i s p l e a f o r r e s t o r a t i o n , P a r u t a and S a r p i employed the i d e a l s and p r a c t i c e s o f the R e p u b l i c to advocate and e v i d e n c e a n o t i o n o f p o l i t i c s which seeks to make men b e t t e r human bei n g s and a i d them i n the a t t a i n -ment o f a p e r f e c t i o n i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r n a t u r e . V e n i c e p r o v i d e d them w i t h the example o f a p o l i t y i n which men c o u l d most r e a d i l y a c h i e v e t h a t p e r f e c t i o n and l i v e moral l i v e s . I n t h e i r work they have p o r t r a y e d 108 a c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s which can b e s t be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a m o r a l endeavour. I P a o l o P a r u t a P a o l o P a r u t a was b o r n i n 1540 o f a newly ennobled f a m i l y which had i t s o r i g i n s i n the n o r t h e r n Tuscan c i t y o f L u c c a . The f a m i l y m i g r a t e d to V e n i c e , and had been i n d u c t e d i n t o the p a t r i c i a t e i n 1381 on the s t r e n g t h o f a commitment by the V e n e t i a n government, made i n 1379, to ennoble the t h i r t y f a m i l i e s c o n t r i b u t i n g the most to the war a g a i n s t Genoa. In e f f e c t , the f a m i l y , bought i t s way i n t o the n o b i l i t y . P a r u t a was, by r e a s o n of b i r t h , c a s t i n t o the q u a r r e l between the c o l d e r ' and 'younger' n o b l e f a m i l i e s which was to c h a r a c t e r i z e the e a r l y modern V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a t e , and i t i s perhaps t h i s t e n s i o n between young and o l d , between the giovane and v e c c h i a i a c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e V e n e t i a n n o b i l i t y , which d i d much to c o l o u r h i s p e r c e p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l l i f e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some disagreement as to the a c t u a l dates i n v o l v e d , i t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t P a r u t a s t u d i e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Padua between the y e a r s 1558 and 1561.^ Here he seems to have been i n f l u e n c e d to some e x t e n t by the P l a t o n i s t and A r i s t o t e l i a n p h i l o s o p h y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the U n i v e r s i t y a t the time. Upon r e t u r n i n g to V e n i c e , P a r u t a opened 1. See A r t u r o Pompeati, "Per l a b i o g r a f i a d i Paolo P a r u t a , " i n G i o r n a l e  s t o r i c o d e l l a l e t t e r a t u r a i t a l i a n a , XLV (1905). V a r i o u s ages, from twelve to e i g h t e e n y e a r s , have been s t a t e d as the age a t which P a r u t a began h i s s t u d i e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y . By f o l l o w i n g P a r u t a ' s p o s t - u n i v e r -s i t y c a r e e r , Pompeati p o i n t s to the age o f e i g h t e e n as b e i n g a c c u r a t e , thus s e t t i n g the date a t 1558. 109 h i s own p r i v a t e academy i n h i s home where he met r e g u l a r l y w i t h o t h e r s c h o l a r s and s t u d e n t s . As w e l l , he h e l d a number of minor government p o s i t i o n s which o f f e r e d him i n s i g h t i n t o the a c t u a l workings o f the V e n e t i a n b u r e a u c r a c y . I t was d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t he wrote h i s 2 f i r s t major work, D e l l a P e r f e z i o n e d e l l a V i t a P o l i t i c a . Subsequent to the p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s work, and p o s s i b l y because o f i t , P a r u t a was a p p o i n t e d s t a t e h i s t o r i a n f o r the R e p u b l i c . L a t e r he s e r v e d as the V e n e t i a n ambassador to Rome, and i t was t h e r e t h a t he wrote h i s second major work, D i s c o r s i P o l i t i c i , which was p u b l i s h e d i n 1599, a y e a r a f t e r h i s death. P a r u t a was n o t , however, a h i g h l y o r i g i n a l w r i t e r . Gaetano Mosca s t a t e s t h a t he was " . . . a w r i t e r i n f e r i o r to the fame t h a t he e n j o y e d and one would s e a r c h i n v a i n through h i s works f o r p r o f o u n d 3 and t r u l y o r i g i n a l v i e w s . " The fame t h a t he enjoyed, then, i s due more to h i s a r t i c u l a t i o n o f c u r r e n t l y h e l d b e l i e f s than to any c o n c e p t u a l i n n o v a t i o n on h i s p a r t . F o r our purposes o f an e x p l o r a t i o n 2. There i s much c o n f u s i o n h e r e . The work was w r i t t e n i n 15 72, and p u b l i s h e d i n 1579. Pompeati, i n h i s a r t i c l e "Le d o t t r i n e p o l i t i c h e d i P a o l o P a r u t a , " i n G i o r n a l e s t o r i c o d e l l a l e t t e r a t u r a i t a l i a n a , LXVI (1905), s t a t e s t h a t the work was l a t e r t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h . A l l e n , op_. c i t . , c l a i m s t h a t the work was t r a n s l a t e d i n 1657 by Henry Cary. An e x h a u s t i v e s e a r c h has f a i l e d to produce any e v i d e n c e o f t h i s o r any o t h e r E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n ; and I am under the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t Pompeati i s c o n f u s e d h e r e , and t h a t A l l e n , who seems to r e l y h e a v i l y upon secondary e v i d e n c e , has compounded the e r r o r . There was an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n by Henry Cary o f P a r u t a ' s second major work, D i s c o r s i P o l i t i c i , which appeared i n 1657,and I s u s p e c t t h a t i t i s t h i s t h a t Pompeati has i n mind. The c o n f u s i o n h e r e p o i n t s to the l a r g e r p roblem i n v o l v e d w i t h much o f t h e s c h o l a r s h i p s u r r o u n -d i n g P a r u t a , i . e . , t h e r e has been too heavy a r e l i a n c e upon secondary m a t e r i a l s and a concomitant i n s u f f i c i e n t c h e c k i n g o f the o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s . See n. 42. below. 3. Gaetano Mosca, A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f P o l i t i c a l P h i l o s o p h y , t r a n s l a t e d by Sandra Z. K o f f (New York: Thomas Y. C r o w e l l , 1972), p. 114. 110 o f the p o l i t i c a l thought s u r r o u n d i n g s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e h i s work i s o f v a l u e p r e c i s e l y because i t i s o f t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t u r e . Of the two works, D e l l a P e r f e z i o n e d e l l a V i t a P o l i t i c a has r e c e i v e d the most a t t e n t i o n o f l a t e r s c h o l a r s , and i n d e e d i t i s h e r e t h a t we g a i n - t h e most complete view o f P a r u t a ' s p o l i t i c a l t hought. The D i s c o u r s e s have l a r g e l y been i g n o r e d i n the secondary l i t e r a t u r e . Pompeati i n h i s p i o n e e r i n g s t u d y , e l e c t s to i g n o r e t h e D i s c o u r s e s because they a r e " n e g l i g i b l e " and do n o t add a n y t h i n g to t h a t which i s 4 s t a t e d i n D e l l a P e r f e z i o n e . J . W. A l l e n s eemingly f o l l o w s the example o f Pompeati, s t a t i n g o f the l a t e r work t h a t " i t does not add v e r y much o f i n t e r e s t . " " ' T h i s I b e l i e v e to be m i s l e a d i n g , and we s h a l l examine both works h e r e . The D i s c o u r s e s o f f e r , i f not a m o d i f i c a t i o n , a t l e a s t a l i m i t a t i o n to the c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s which P a r u t a d e v e l o p s i n D e l l a P e r f e z i o n e . F u r t h e r , the work i s o f v a l u e f o r our purposes i n tha i t i s y e t a n o t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the power o f the myth o f V e n i c e : " I n sum, the work takes i t s p l a c e i n the abundant s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o l i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e which e x a l t e d V e n i c e as a model o f p o l i t i c a l l i f e . . D e l i a P e r f e z i o n e d e l l a V i t a P o l i t i c a p u r p o r t s to be a r e c o r d i n g o f a c o n v e r s a t i o n which took p l a c e a t the home o f Matteo Dandolo, the V e n e t i a n ambassador a t the C o u n c i l o f T r e n t i n 1563. P a r u t a had 4. Pompeati, "Le d o t t r i n e p o l i t i c h e d i Paolo P a r u t a " , p. 286. 5. A l l e n , op_. c i t . , p. 105. 6. D i z i o n a r i o l e t t e r a r i o Bompiani d e l l e opere e d e i p e r s o n a g g i , V o l . I I ( M i l a n : Bompiani, 194 7), p. 714. I l l accompanied M i c h e l e S u r i a n o on a s p e c i a l embassy to Inn s b r u c k and, on the r e t u r n t r i p , the two had s t o p p e d to view the p r o c e e d i n g s o f the C o u n c i l . W h i l e t h e r e a f r i e n d , F r a n c e s c o M o l i n o , s u p p o s e d l y r e l a t e d the c o n v e r s a t i o n o f the e v e n i n g to P a r u t a , who then r e c o r d e d i t some n i n e y e a r s l a t e r . G i v e n the second-hand i n f o r m a t i o n , the time l a p s e i n v o l v e d , and the f a c t t h a t the work runs i n excess o f 300 pages, t h i s account o f i t s g e n e s i s i s d u b i o u s — t h o u g h as Bouwsma p o i n t s o u t , s i n c e the p a r t i c i p a n t s were r e a l personages and a l i v e a t the time o f p u b l i c a t i o n , the work most l i k e l y r e f l e c t s the o p i n i o n s which they a c t u a l l y h e l d . ^ D e l i a P e r f e z i o n e i s composed o f t h r e e books, and i s i n i t i a t e d by a debate about the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f the a c t i v e and c o n t e m p l a t i v e l i v e s . Pompeati s u g g e s t s t h a t P a r u t a ' s own p o s i t i o n can g be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h a t o f S u r i a n o i n the work, but i t would seem t h a t t h i s would be the case o n l y i n the f i r s t book. T h e r e a f t e r S u r i a n o p l a y s a minor r o l e i n the d i a l o g u e , and the weight o f argument s h i f t s to o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n the second book Barbaro a r t i c u l a t e s P a r u t a ' s p o s i t i o n , w h i l e i n the t h i r d i t i s Da Ponte who i s c a l l e d upon to bear the weight o f t h e argument. P a r u t a ' s own i d e a s , then, appear to be a com b i n a t i o n o f the i d e a s p u t f o r t h by these t h r e e men. The d i a l o g u e format, and i t s s e t t i n g a t the C o u n c i l o f T r e n t , are i n d i c a t i v e o f P a r u t a ' s i n t e n t , as w e l l as o f what he took to be the c e n t r a l i s s u e s f a c i n g p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i n the l a t e R e n a i s s a n c e . 7. Bouwsma, V e n i c e and t h e Defense o f R e p u b l i c a n L i b e r t y , p. 201. 8. Pompeati, "Le d o t t r i n e p o l i t i c h e d i P a o l o P a r u t a " , p. 287. 112 There was the dilemma o f the c h o i c e between the a c t ' i v e . l i f e o f the c i v i c community and the c l o i s t e r e d c o n t e m p l a t i v e l i f e o f t h e Church which seemingly o f f e r e d a more c e r t a i n r o u t e to s a l v a t i o n . P a r u t a attempts to r e c o n c i l e the two types o f l i f e by d e m o n s t r a t i n g a r a p p o r t between mo r a l l i f e and p o l i t i c a l l i f e — a n d we see P a r u t a a t t e m p t i n g an i n t e l l e c t u a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f the v e r y problem which C o n t a r i n i f a c e d i n a p e r s o n a l manner a t the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s c a r e e r . P a r u t a ' s t a s k then, i s to c o n v i n c e h i s r e a d e r s t h a t the debate- between s a c r e d and s e c u l a r , between Church and s t a t e , and between morals and p o l i t i c s i s , i n f a c t , n o t a debate a t a l l . Rather, i n each case, b o t h s i d e s a r e but a s p e c t s o f one type o f l i f e , i . e . , the n o b l e human l i f e g i v e n to man by God. To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s t a s k , P a r u t a draws upon the V e n e t i a n e x p e r i e n c e to demonstrate t h a t c i v i c a c t i v i t y b e s t p r o v i d e s one w i t h the o p p o r t u n i -t i e s f o r human p e r f e c t i o n . P e c c h i o l i p o i n t s to the a f f i n i t y between C o n t a r i n i , P a r u t a and F r a n c e s c o Barbaro i n t h i s r e s p e c t : In a l l o f them i s m a i n t a i n e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y unchanged the same p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e i n r e g a r d to p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y as b e i n g i n ac c o r d a n c e w i t h the v i r t u o u s p e r f e c t i o n o f human e x i s t e n c e , from which f o l l o w e d n e c e s s a r i l y an i n c l i n a t i o n toward a p r o f o u n d c o n s c i o u s apology o f t h e i r c i t y , c o n s i d e r e d above a l l to be the exemplary f u n c t i o n a l i t y o f i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s and the goodness o f c i v i l conduct.9 T h i s view o f t h e r o l e o f the V e n e t i a n e x p e r i e n c e i n the w r i t i n g s o f P a r u t a i s echoed by G r e n d l e r : 9. P e c c h i o l i , op_. c i t . , p. 481. 113 With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t r e a t i s e s i n s p i r e d by the example o f V e n i c e , l i k e P a o l o P a r u t a ' s D e l i a  p e r f e t t i o n e d e l l a v i t a p o l i t i c a , m o s t s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y champions o f e d u c a t i o n f o r the v i t a c i v i l e l a i d l e s s emphasis on d e d i c a t i o n to a c i t y and were l e s s c oncerned w i t h h i s t o r y than t h e i r q u a t t r o c e n t o p r e d e c e s s o r s . 1 0 The d i a l o g u e format as P a r u t a has employed i t n o t o n l y p o i n t s up the t e n s i o n s between the two s i d e s o f the debate, but a l s o emphasizes the r o l e o f V e n i c e i n h i s f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o l i t i c s as a moral endeavour. Not o n l y were t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r e a l personages and a l i v e a t the time,' but they were a l s o r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e w i t h one s i d e o f the debate o r the o t h e r . Those engaged i n demonstrating the v i r t u e s o f the a c t i v e c i v i c l i f e were, i n f a c t , prominent V e n e t i a n s who p o i n t e d to t h e i r c i t y as the b e s t p o s s i b l e forum i n which man c o u l d l i v e a t r u l y v i r t u o u s l i f e . The o t h e r s i d e o f t h e debate i s a r t i c u l a t e d by members o f the c l e r g y , thus s o l i d i f y i n g and making c o n c r e t e the t e n s i o n s between two a b s t r a c t i d e a l s . The dilemma o f the a c t i v e v e r s u s c o n t e m p l a t i v e i s r e i f i e d , then, i n t o a c o n c r e t e c h o i c e between V e n e t i a n r e p u b l i c a n i n s t i t u t i o n s and v a l u e s and those o f the Church. V e n i c e was employed as a model f o r P a r u t a inasmuch as i t i s the p o s i t i o n o f the V e n e t i a n s i n v o l v e d i n the debate t h a t t h e i r c i v i c i n s t i t u t i o n s and v a l u e s were b e t t e r a b l e to p r o v i d e men w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t i e s to a c h i e v e p e r f e c t i o n through the e x e r c i s e o f v i r t u e . 10. P a u l F. G r e n d l e r , C r i t i c s o f the I t a l i a n World: 1530-1560 (Madison; U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1969), p. 137. 114 P a r u t a opens D e l i a P e r f e z l o n e d e l l a V i t a P o l i t i c a w i t h a d e d i c a t i o n to Giovan V a l i e r o , the B i s h o p o f B e l l u n o , i n which he r e c o u n t s t h e o r a c l e o f A p o l l o as a way o f r a i s i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f how one may f i n d h a p p i n e s s . The i n j u n c t i o n to "know t h y s e l f " i n s c r i b e d above the p o r t a l o f t h e temple a t D e l p h i i s sound a d v i c e , but d i f f i c u l t i n t h a t we a l l a r e c r e a t e d w i t h d i v e r s e p o t e n t i a l s and g i f t s . The v i r t u o u s l i f e , and t h a t which w i l l b r i n g us h a p p i n e s s , i s a p r o p e r a c c o u n t i n g o f o u r s e l v e s , b r i n g i n g our senses i n t o a c c o r d w i t h r e a s o n . I t i s the p e r f e c t i o n o f our humanity i n o r d e r to " e l e v a t e o u r s e l v e s to a more n o b l e s t a t e , a l l o w i n g us to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a g r e a t e r good which God has g i v e n to v i r t u o u s men..."''"''" The p a t h to h a p p i n e s s h e r e , and t h e sense o f a v i r t u o u s l i f e , i s s u f f i c i e n t l y vague to encompass the most d i s p a r a t e o f c h a r a c t e r s . What then does P a r u t a mean by "the p e r f e c t i o n o f humanity"? What i s the "more n o b l e s t a t e " to which we s h o u l d attempt to e l e v a t e o u r s e l v e s ? What i s the " g r e a t e r good" which God has g i v e n to v i r t u o u s men? I n sum, we a r e back to the o r i g i n a l - q u e s t i o n : "What do we mean by a v i r t u o u s l i f e ? " The b a l a n c e o f the work i s l e s s e t h e r e a l , and P a r u t a ' s w r i t i n g i s most o f t e n viewed as a d e f e n s e o f R e n a i s s a n c e v a l u e s 11. P a o l o P a r u t a , D e l l a P e r f e z i o n e d e l l a V i t a P o l i t i c a ( h e r e i n a f t e r a b b r e v i a t e d PVP). p. ,141. The e d i t i o n used h e r e i s found i n Bruno Widmar's c o l l e c t i o n , S c r i t t o r i P o l i t i c i d e l '500 e '600 ( M i l a n : R i z z o l i , 1964) . 115 a g a i n s t what he p e r c e i v e d to be h o s t i l e c l e r i c a l e lements o f t h e C o u n t e r R e f o r m a t i o n . But i t i s more t h a n a mere d e f e n s e , f o r he n o t o n l y a t t e m p t s t o d e f e n d t h e a c t i v e and p a r t i c i p a t i v e l i f e o f t h e R e p u b l i c from i t s d e t r a c t o r s b u t , a t the same t i m e , to g i v e t h a t l i f e a g r e a t e r meaning. He b e g i n s h i s t a s k n o t w i t h an a t t a c k upon t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e l i f e , b u t r a t h e r t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e a c t i v e l i f e . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s i s t h a t h i s t a s k was n o t to d e n i g r a t e t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e l i f e , b u t r a t h e r to p o r t r a y a f u l l e r human l i f e — and f o r t h i s , mere d e n i g r a t i o n o f one s i d e o f t h e t e n s i o n was i n s u f f i c i e n t . M a c h i a v e l l i and G u i c c i a r d i n i r e s o l v e t h e t e n s i o n between t h e v i t a  a c t i v a and t h e v i t a c o n t e m p l a t i v a i n f a v o u r o f the a c t i v e ; B e l l a r m i n e and o t h e r m o r a l i s t w r i t e r s s u b o r d i n a t e t h e a c t i v e l i f e o f p o l i t i c s t o a m o r a l i t y sought t h r o u g h t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e l i f e . F o r P a r u t a , t h e two w o r l d s go hand i n hand, and a n y t h i n g l e s s t h a n a c o n j u n c t i o n o f t h e two i s l e s s t h a n a f u l l y human l i f e . The f i r s t book, t h e n , c o n s i s t s o f t h e d i a l o g u e r e v o l v i n g a r o u n d t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f t h e two s i d e s , and an a t t e m p t t o b r i n g them i n t o c o n j u n c t i o n . P a r u t a ' s s t a r t i n g p o i n t may be v i e w e d as t h e d u a l n a t u r e o f human l i f e . Man, by h i s v e r y e s s e n c e , i s p a r t o f b o t h t h e " C i t y o f God" and t h e " e a r t h l y c i t y " . Body and s p i r i t a r e t i e d t o g e t h e r i n one c r e a t i o i and t h a t d u a l n a t u r e i s what d i f f e r e n t i a t e s men f r o m God on t h e one hand, and f r o m b e a s t s on t h e o t h e r . The a p p r o p r i a t e l i f e t o men, t h e n , i s one w h i c h accommodates t h i s d u a l n a t u r e . The d u a l n a t u r e o f man i s r e f l e c t e d i n two t y p e s o f needs w h i c h must be met. F i r s t , t h e r e 116 a r e the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p h y s i c a l comfort; and s e c o n d l y t h e r e i s the need to p r a c t i s e v i r t u e as r e q u i r e d by t h e moral component o f man's 12 n a t u r e . Only the c i v i l l i f e a l l o w s man to f u l f i l l b o t h needs, o r a c t i n b o t h s p h e r e s , as i t were. To r e j e c t s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e i n f a v o u r o f the l i f e o f a r e c l u s e i s t o fo r e g o an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f one's humanity. I t i s , as Bouwsma p o i n t s out, " . . . t o r e j e c t humanity i n f a v o u r o f the p e r f e c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e to some o t h e r n a t u r e : t h a t o f a b e a s t o r a god 13 but i n e i t h e r case u n s u i t a b l e to man." Man, a c c o r d i n g to P a r u t a , i s a l s o unique f o r reasons o t h e r than h i s d u a l n a t u r e which g i v e s him both d i v i n e and b e s t i a l p o t e n t i a l s . Among c r e a t i o n , i t i s o n l y man who i s g i v e n the a t t r i b u t e s o f b o t h w i l l and r e a s o n . Of t h e s e two, w i l l i s supreme, and r e a s o n has the l e s s e r r o l e o f a c o u n s e l l o r . L i k e the a t t r i b u t e s o f w e a l t h and power, the a t t r i b u t e o f r e a s o n i s not m e r i t o r i o u s i n i t s e l f . Rather, the v a l u e o f r e a s o n i s dependent upon how i t i s used. I n the second book, w i l l i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the queen o f man's s o u l . S u r i a n o makes the comparison to a w e l l - o r d e r e d r e p u b l i c i n which t h e r e e x i s t s "one l e a d e r who commands everybody, but u s i n g t h e a d v i c e o f o t h e r c i t i z e n s to p r o v i d e f o r the p a r t i c u l a r needs o f the c i t y . S i m i l a r l y i t i s w i t h o u r s o u l s , the queen. . ./fwhichj. i s the w i l l , does not d e l i b e r a t e a l o n e , b u t always c o n s u l t s ^ w i t h r e a s o n , f o l l o w i n g what i t proposes as good. 12. P a r u t a , PVP, pp. 179-183. 13. Bouwsma, V e n i c e and the Defense o f R e p u b l i c a n L i b e r t y , p. 210. Cf . A r i s t o t l e P o l i t i c s I, i i , Sec. 14. 14. P a r u t a , PVP, pp 307-8. 117 Reason i s p o r t r a y e d as a c o u n s e l l o r , w h i l e the w i l l has the s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c t i o n . Reason i s unable to f o r c e a c t i o n , and i t i s t h e w i l l w hich i s the prime moving f o r c e . T h e importance o f the d i s t i n c t i o n h e r e , and the s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f r e a s o n and w i l l , i s t h a t i f w i l l i s the p r i m a r y human a t t r i b u t e r a t h e r t h a n r e a s o n , we can i n f e r t h a t man i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a c t i v e r a t h e r than a s t r i c t l y c o n t e m p l a t i v e b e i n g . That i s , man's p o t e n t i a l can o n l y be r e a l i z e d through t h e e x e r c i s e o f w i l l as w e l l as re a s o n ; and w i l l 16 can o n l y be e x e r c i s e d i n t h e r e a l m o f t h e v i t a a c t i v a . The e x e r c i s e o f w i l l r e p r e s e n t s a c o n s c i o u s c h o i c e , and the a c t o f making t h a t c h o i c e p l a c e s man s q u a r e l y i n the r e a l m o f a c t i o n . The p r o c e s s o f c h o o s i n g , then, r e p r e s e n t s the b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r o f the p r i m a r y a t t r i b u t e o f the v i t a c o n t e m p l a t i v a ( r e a s o n ) , and t h e p r i m a r y a t t r i b u t e o f the v i t a a c t i v a ( w i l l ) . What we a r e f a c e d w i t h i n t h i s c o n j u n c t i o n o f r e a s o n and w i l l i s , i n f a c t , prudence; and thus f a r i t would seem t h a t the n o t i o n o f prudence p o r t r a y e d here d i f f e r s l i t t l e from t h a t o f , say, M a c h i a v e l l i . But P a r u t a ' s n o t i o n o f prudence p o r t r a y e d i n Book I I i s drawn from P l a t o , and i s bo t h an i n t e l l e c t u a l and a moral v i r t u e a t the same time . " ^ I t i s a n o t i o n o f prudence which a c c o u n t s not o n l y f o r 15. C f . M a r t i n F l e i s h e r , "A P a s s i o n o f P o l i t i c s : The V i t a l Core o f the World o f M a c h i a v e l l i " , i n M a c h i a v e l l i and the Nature  o f P o l i t i c a l Thought, e d i t e d by M a r t i n F l e i s h e r (New York: Atheneum, 1972), pp. 133-42. 16. See Bouwsma, V e n i c e and t h e Defense o f R e p u b l i c a n L i b e r t y , p. 208. 17. See P a r u t a , PVP, p. 288 e t seq., and Pompeati, "Le d o t t r i n e p o l i t i c h e d i P a o l o P a r u t a " , p. 304. Cf. P l a t o , The R e p u b l i c , Book IV. 118 e x p e d i e n c y o f a c t i o n , but a l s o s p e c u l a t e s on t h e c o n t e n t o f v i r t u e . The r a p p o r t between ends and means must, i n the f i n a l a c c o u n t i n g , be dependent upon t h e v i r t u e o f b o t h . Indeed, the use o f r e a s o n to g u i d e o r curb our a p p e t i t e s h e r e i s t h i s P l a t o n i c n o t i o n o f prudence, and f u l f i l l s much the same f u n c t i o n as " c o n s c i e n c e " i n the contemporary 18 P r o t e s t a n t l i t e r a t u r e . The f a c t t h a t the d e c i s i o n to l i s t e n to our r a t i o n a l component r e q u i r e s t h e e x e r c i s e o f w i l l p l a c e s the p r o c e s s i n much the same l i g h t . The s a l i e n t d i f f e r e n c e appears to be t h a t c o n s c i e n c e m a i n l y s e r v e s to curb man's " e v i l " a p p e t i t e s i n the P r o t e s t a n t l i t e r a t u r e ; w h i l e prudence, f o r P a r u t a , i s more p o s i t i v e i n t h a t i t a l s o h e l p s us to i d e n t i f y v i r t u o u s a c t i o n . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e appears to be r o o t e d i n d i f f e r i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f the e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e o f man. R a t h e r than v i e w i n g man as a f a l l e n c r e a t u r e who i s a t the mercy o f an angry God, P a r u t a views him as a s o c i a l c r e a t u r e and an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n God's c r e a t i o n . Man's duty i s n o t to f e n d o f f the e v i l i n f l u e n c e o f the r e s t o f c r e a t i o n , b u t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n , and work w i t h , the r e s t o f t h a t c r e a t i o n . The n o t i o n t h a t v i r t u e has to do w i t h a c t i v i t y can be seen i n P a r u t a ' s f o u r " g r a d e s " o f v i r t u e . Happiness, he says, i s g r e a t e r as one moves up t h e s c a l e . The f i r s t grade o f v i r t u e i s t h e n a t u r a l 18. F o r example see John C a l v i n , On God and P o l i t i c a l Duty, e d i t e d by John T. M c N e i l l , 2nd e d i t i o n (New York: B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company,1956), Chapter I, and Max Weber, The P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c  and t h e S p i r i t o f C a p i t a l i s m (New York: C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1958), Chapters I I I and IV. See a l s o C a l v i n ' s I n s t i t u t e s o f the C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n , " . . . t h e c o n s c i e n c e which d i s t i n g u i s h e s s u f f i c i e n t l y between j u s t and u n j u s t . . . " ; I I , i i , 22. 119 d i s p o s i t i o n which men have to be v i r t u o u s . I t i s the p o t e n t i a l f o r v i r t u o u s a c t i o n g i v e n to them by God. The second l e v e l encompasses the b e g i n n i n g s o f a c t i o n by which we may v e r i f y t h a t n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n . The t h i r d l e v e l o r grade i s the h a b i t o f v i r t u o u s a c t i o n , by which we a c t i n a v i r t u o u s manner due to s o c i a l custom o r p e r s o n a l h a b i t . The h i g h e s t grade o f v i r t u e , and t h a t which b r i n g s us the most 19 h a p p i n e s s , i s c o n s c i o u s a c t i o n to c o n f i r m h a b i t . The i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t h e r e i s t h a t we have an a s c e n d i n g s c a l e o f c o n s c i o u s a c t i o n . Happiness i s to be found i n c o n s c i o u s v i r t u o u s a c t i o n , r a t h e r than i n t h e h a b i t o r d i s p o s i t i o n to be v i r t u o u s . V i r t u o u s a c t i o n , then, i s something which must be r e a l i z e d and a c t e d o u t — t h e c e n t r a l c r i t e r i o n b e i n g the r e a l i z a t i o n o f a p o t e n t i a l . Mere i n c l i n a t i o n o r u n c o n s c i o u s h a b i t a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t to b r i n g g r a t i f i c a t i o n ; what i s needed i s the c o n s c i o u s e x e r c i s e o f w i l l . There i s no " j u s t i f i c a t i o n by f a i t h a l o n e " h e r e ; h a p p i n e s s r e q u i r e s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the b e s t s e n t i m e n t s 20 through "works". The c o n c e p t o f v i r t u e i s i m p o r t a n t , f o r i t i s through the n o t i o n s o f v i r t u e and v i r t u o u s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t we a r e a b l e to g i v e s u b s t a n c e to P a r u t a ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f m o r a l i t y . We have seen t h a t one o f the needs w h i c h d e r i v e out o f man's d u a l n a t u r e i s t h a t o f p r a c t i s i n g v i r t u e as r e q u i r e d by the moral a s p e c t o f t h a t d u a l n a t u r e . 19. C f . A r i s t o t l e , Nichomachean E t h i c s , I, 8. 20. P a r u t a , PVP, pp. 277-83. 120 I f man's moral n a t u r e r e q u i r e s the e x e r c i s e o f v i r t u e , and we can i d e n t i f y t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s which P a r u t a c h a r a c t e r i z e s as v i r t u o u s , t h e n we can make p a l p a b l e P a r u t a ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f m o r a l i t y . We b e g i n to get an i d e a o f the c o n t e n t o f v i r t u o u s a c t i o n i n the o p e n i n g d i a l o g u e r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o p e r forum f o r a v i r t u o u s l i f e . What e l s e i s our l i f e o t h e r than work? And among our a c t i v i t i e s none a r e more n o b l e n o r more p e r f e c t than t h a t which i s d i r e c t e d toward the good o f many: and y e t he who g i v e s h i m s e l f to t h e g o v e r n i n g o f the r e p u b l i c l i f t s h i m s e l f from i d l e n e s s which i s the death o f the s o u l , and g i v e s h i m s e l f a t r u e and happy l i f e . ^ l C i v i c a c t i v i t y , then, i s t h e means by which we a c h i e v e a " t r u e and happy l i f e " , and i t i s a c t i v i t y i n the s e r v i c e o f the c i v i l s o c i e t y (and those c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n ) which i s most v i r t u o u s . B e s i d e s the f a c t t h a t i t g i v e s one a happy l i f e , t h e r e i s an i n j u n c t i o n to community s e r v i c e based on the premise t h a t t h a t form o f a c t i v i t y i s good i n and of i t s e l f . The impetus to a c t i o n i s based upon the n a t u r e o f the a c t i v i t y i t s e l f ; the " t r u e and happy l i f e " would seem to be one o f the b e n e f i c i a l consequences o f engaging i n an i n h e r e n t l y more p e r f e c t type o f a c t i v i t y . The o b l i g a t i o n to p u b l i c s e r v i c e i s grounded upon t h i s v e r y p r i n c i p l e . S u r i a n o c o u n t e r s the i d e a t h a t men s h o u l d d i v e s t themselves 21. I b i d . , p. 137. See A r e n d t , op. c i t . , pp. 19-20, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of a c t i v i t y as the quest f o r i m m o r t a l i t y . That P a r u t a c h a r a c t e r i z e s i d l e n e s s as the death o f the s o u l p l a c e s him w i t h i n t h a t t r a d i t i o n which A r e n d t c h a r a c t e r i z e s as a quest f o r " i m m o r t a l i t y " as opposed t o ' e t e r n i t y " . 121 o f w o r l d l y c o n c e r n s w i t h the f o l l o w i n g : Too g r e a t i s the o b l i g a t i o n t h a t we have t o th e  p a t r i a : which i s a company of men, not c o n s t r u c -t e d f o r a b r i e f time l i k e those of m a r i n e r s , but founded i n n a t u r e , c o n f i r m e d by e l e c t i o n , i n e v e r y case dear and n e c e s s a r y , (emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) ^ 2 The o b l i g a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c i v i c a c t i v i t y d e r i v e s out o f the v e r y n a t u r e o f the c i v i l s o c i e t y . C i v i l l i f e i s o f v a l u e to man, a c c o r d i n g to P a r u t a , i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s the c o n t e x t w i t h i n which he can s a t i s f y h i s m o r a l p o t e n t i a l s . I t c o n t a i n s "...our sons and daughters, our r e l a t i v e s , our f r i e n d s , and w i t h these e x t e r n a l s , the 23 t r u e and g r e a t e s t good o f v i r t u e . " The major advantages o f c i v i l l i f e a r e not the m a t e r i a l o r a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s which i t p r o v i d e s , but r a t h e r the p o t e n t i a l which i t a f f o r d s the i n d i v i d u a l f o r the e x e r c i s e o f h i s m o r a l v i r t u e s through a c t i o n ; and i t i s t h i s which 24 i s t h e f i n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c i v i l l i f e . Chabod p o i n t s to the importance a t t a c h e d to a c t i v i t y i n P a r u t a ' s treatment o f p o l i t i c s , s t a t i n g t h a t he most o f t e n employs the term ' r e p u b b l i c a ' r a t h e r than ' s t a t o ' . And "Now and then, ' r e p u b l i c ' i s 22. P a r u t a , PVP, p. 150. I have n o t t r a n s l a t e d the term p a t r i a h e r e . See Chapter I . 23. I b i d . , p. 151. See A r e n d t , op. c i t . , p. 18. 24. Bouwsma, V e n i c e and t h e Defense of R e p u b l i c a n L i b e r t y , p. 212. 122 equated to p u b l i c a c t i v i t y , o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , more than to 25 ' s t a t e ' . " R e p u b b l i c a , then, encompasses a manner o f a c t i n g and an i d e a - s e t r e g a r d i n g men's b e h a v i o u r , as w e l l as the n o t i o n s o f t e r r i t o r i a l dominion and r u l e . " ' S t a t o ' i s here not o n l y p o l i t i c a l government; but i n s t i t u t i o n s and laws, a n d — a t the same t i m e — t h e 2 6 power, the d i r e c t i o n and t h e c o nduct." We have seen t h a t man's moral a s p e c t r e q u i r e s the p r a c t i c e o f v i r t u e , and we have found t h a t the p r o p e r forum f o r v i r t u o u s a c t i v i t y i s t h e c i v i l s o c i e t y , but.we must g i v e s ubstance to P a r u t a ' s concep-t i o n o f v i r t u e . A d o p t i n g an A r i s t o t e l i a n n o t i o n o f f u n c t i o n , P a r u t a s t a t e s t h a t v i r t u e " . . . i s an a t t i t u d e to e x e r c i s e w e l l one's 27 own f u n c t i o n , " and v i r t u o u s a c t i o n i n the c i v i c l i f e does not appear to be d i s p a r a t e from the v i r t u o u s a c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e to the i n d i v i d u a l . The c a r d i n a l v i r t u e i n b o t h a r e a s i s the e x e r c i s e of "prudence", o r the b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r o f r e a s o n and w i l l . Prudence i s not p u r e l y n e g a t i v e , but i t i s an a c t i v e v i r t u e , which precedes r a t i o n a l and p r a c t i c a l c h o i c e s o f goods, by which men can f l o u r i s h . I t t e a c h e s , f o r example, the f a t h e r how to conduct h i s f a m i l y w e l l , j u s t as i t teaches the statesman how to govern the c i t y w e l l . 2 8 25. Chabod, S r i t t i s u l R i n a s c i m e n t o , p. 645. 26. I b i d . , p. 646. 27. P a r u t a , PVP, p. 288. P a r u t a uses the term u f f i c i o which can be t r a n s l a t e d as ' o f f i c e ' , ' f u n c t i o n ' o r 'duty'. C f . A r i s t o t l e P o l i t i c s I , v. 28. E n r i c o Z a n o n i , P a o l o P a r u t a n e l l a v i t a e n e l l e opere ( L i v o r n o : G i u s t i , 1905), p. 55. 123 The e x e r c i s e o f prudence would seem to be the c a r d i n a l v i r t u e because i t d e f i n e s the good i n the b a l a n c e o f men's a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s the means by which o t h e r v i r t u o u s a c t i v i t i e s can be i d e n t i f i e d . J u s t as r e a s o n can combine w i t h v a r i o u s a p p e t i t e s , so we have v a r i o u s v i r t u e s . The a p p e t i t e d e f i n e s t h e m a t e r i a l o r a r e a o f g i v e n need, and r e a s o n g i v e s us t h e form o f s a t i s f y i n g t h a t need. In t h e p o l i t i c a l sphere, t h i s concept o f prudence i s t i e d to " . . . t h e v i r t u e o f j u s t i c e , n o b l e and e x c e l l e n t above e v e r y o t h e r because i t i s the t r u e c o n s e r v a t o r o f t h a t e q u a l i t y so n e c e s s a r y t o 29 the c i v i l l i f e . " J u s t as prudence i s the un i o n o f r e a s o n and w i l l i n the i n d i v i d u a l which d e f i n e s the good, so i t i s j u s t i c e i n the p o l i t i c a l s p h e re which d e f i n e s t h e good. I t i s t h e tempering o f a p p e t i t e s by r e a s o n . I n the p o l i t i c a l sphere, prudence and j u s t i c e f o r P a r u t a a r e q u a l i t i e s i n e x t r i c a b l y t i e d to one a n o t h e r . H i s use o f prudence i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h e concept as we see i t p o r t r a y e d i n the w r i t i n g s o f M a c h i a v e l l i , and much c l o s e r to C o n t a r i n i ' s p o r t r a y a l o f the h a b i t s o f mo d e r a t i o n and temperance which he saw as g u i d i n g p u b l i c a c t i o n s . R a t h e r than a t o o l by which we d e f i n e the most e x p e d i e n t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n , prudence f o r P a r u t a d e f i n e s the j u s t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n ; i . e . , through the e x e r c i s e o f prudence we can a s c e r t a i n whether o r not a g i v e n a c t i o n .is j u s t . Because j u s t i c e i s concerned 29. P a r u t a , PVP, p. 289. 124 w i t h the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e q u a l i t y , prudence can a i d us i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between j u s t and u n j u s t a c t i o n s . I f we a c c e p t j u s t i c e as a moral good, the f u n c t i o n o f prudence i n the p o l i t i c a l sphere i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l l y m o r a l . I t i s a t o o l by which to d e f i n e those s p e c i f i c a c t s which we 30 can i n c l u d e i n t h a t moral good. B e s i d e s prudence and j u s t i c e , P a r u t a d e l i n e a t e s o t h e r v i r t u e s a p p r o p r i a t e to the c i v i l l i f e . These a r e l i b e r a l i t y , meekness, 31 magnanimity and temperance. These v i r t u e s a r e o f g r e a t e r worth, he s a y s , than the p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l v i r t u e s o f s c i e n c e and a r t , because " . . . v i r t u e has r e s p e c t to the o p e r a t i o n , b e i n g the p e r f e c t i o n 32 of a p o t e n t i a l , " and the worth o f p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l v i r t u e s 30. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the etymology and t r a n s i t i o n o f the term "prudence" i n t h e E n g l i s h l anguage. The term e n t e r s t h e language i n the l a t e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the prudent man b e i n g "wise and d i s c e r n i n g " , and i s now o b s o l e t e i n t h i s s e n s e . The modern usage o f the term d a t e s from the l a t t e r p a r t o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The seeming d i s p a r i t y between prudence and j u s t i c e , then, would seem to be a modern c o n t r i v a n c e d e r i v i n g from the f a c t t h a t we have l o s t the o r i g i n a l meaning o f prudence from our own language. See the O x f o r d  E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y ( h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as OED). 31. P a r u t a , PVP, pp. 290-91. C o n f u s i o n e x i s t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e term " l i b e r a l i t y " i n the E n g l i s h language due to the r i s e o f B r i t i s h l i b e r a l i s m , a n d i t s subsequent i n f l u e n c e upon the language i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . P r i o r t o t h a t time the term most o f t e n connoted c h a r i t y , b e n e v o l e n c e , and k i n d n e s s . See the OED, and W i l l i a m s , op. c i t . , p. 150. 32. I b i d . , p. 290. 125 i s dependent upon the ends f o r which they a r e used. F o r example, w h i l e the i n t e l l e c t may be used f o r e i t h e r good o r bad, the v i r t u e s o f temperance and j u s t i c e cannot be used i n an e v i l manner. There cannot be a c o n t r a d i c t o r y d i s t i n c t i o n between j u s t a c t i o n s and the achievement o f j u s t i c e . The means a r e a p p r o p r i a t e to the ends. The i n t e l l e c t u a l v i r t u e s , however, take no a c c o u n t o f ends o r t h e p o t e n -t i a l to be r e a l i z e d . An example o f what P a r u t a has i n mind h e r e might be seen i n M a c h i a v e l l i ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f prudence which i s a v i r t u e a p p r o p r i a t e to a wide d i v e r s i t y o f ends. Pompeati p o i n t s out t h a t the v i r t u e s most u s e f u l to the s t a t e 33 a r e j u s t i c e and s t r e n g t h . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t j u s t i c e comes b e f o r e s t r e n g t h , f o r w i t h o u t j u s t i c e to d e f i n e the good, s t r e n g t h i s of l i t t l e o r no v a l u e . S t r e n g t h p r o v i d e s the means f o r a c t i o n , b u t t h a t a c t i o n must be d i r e c t e d i n some manner. I t i s j u s t i c e which d e f i n e s the ends to be sought by t h a t a c t i o n ; and s t r e n g t h i s the means t o a c c o m p l i s h t h a t end. The c o a l e s c e n c e o f prudence and j u s t i c e h ere r e i n f o r c e s the image o f prudence f u l f i l l i n g the same r o l e as " c o n s c i e n c e " i n the P r o t e s t a n t l i t e r a t u r e o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i . e . , a gauge by which men might determine the r e c t i t u d e o f s p e c i f i c a c t s , and a mechanism by which to curb man's a p p e t i t i v e n a t u r e . 33. Pompeati, "Le d o t t r i n e p o l i t i c h e d i Paolo P a r u t a " , p. 324. 126 L i k e s t r e n g t h , r i c h e s a r e n e i t h e r good nor bad o f themselves, but a r e p r o p e r l y means to a c h i e v e j u s t ends. I n the t h i r d book, P a r u t a makes h i s famous de f e n s e o f w e a l t h . When the b i s h o p o f Ceneda d e c r i e s r i c h e s and the d e s i r e to e n r i c h o u r s e l v e s as c o r r u p t i n g men's s o u l s , S u r i a n o c o u n t e r s h i s argument w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g : ...the d e s i r e to e n r i c h o u r s e l v e s , l i k e the d e s i r e to l i v e , i s n a t u r a l : t h i s because n a t u r e p r o v i d e s b e a s t s w i t h the n e c e s s i t i e s o f t h e i r l i v e s ; but i n man, who i s poor, naked, and s u b j e c t to many needs i s i n s e r t e d the d e s i r e f o r r i c h e s ; and he i s g i v e n i n g e n u i t y and i n d u s t r y by. which t o p r o c u r them, t h a t he may l i v e n ot l i k e o t h e r a n i m a l s , but humanly, which i s t h a t c e r t a i n e l e g a n c e and d i g n i t y t h a t one seeks o f t h e c i v i l l i f e a p p r o p r i a t e to man.34 Wh i l e P a r u t a ' s defense o f r i c h e s may be viewed as d e r i v a t i v e o f h i s m e r c a n t i l e background, t h e more im p o r t a n t p o i n t would seem t o be the importance o f w e a l t h i n g a i n i n g c i v i l f e l i c i t y . R i c h e s , l i k e s t r e n g t h , a r e e s s e n t i a l l y means r a t h e r than ends. I t i s not the f a c t t h a t one i s r i c h which makes one happy, b u t r a t h e r the happy man i s one who has enough r i c h e s t h a t he can f i l l the o f f i c e s o f a good f a t h e r to h i s f a m i l y and a good c i t i z e n . I n Book I , answering t h e charge t h a t c i v i l l i f e c o r r u p t s t h e s o u l s o f men, P a r u t a uses r i c h e s and m a t e r i a l goods as an example o f comparison. Of these t h i n g s , he says t h a t i t i s n ot t h e i r n a t u r e which c o r r u p t s , but r a t h e r t h e i r imprudent use. R i c h e s and t h e c i v i l l i f e , he s a y s , a r e much l i k e wine: a l l use i t , some abuse i t . I t i s b e t t e r , then, to c a s t i g a t e those who abuse i t 35 r a t h e r than p r o h i b i t i t s usage o r dec r y i t as e v i l . 34. P a r u t a , PVP, p. 493. 35. I b i d . , p. 154. 127 M a t e r i a l w e a l t h and the d e s i r e to e n r i c h o u r s e l v e s , f o r P a r u t a , ar e not merely f o r s a t i s f y i n g man's b a s i c needs, b u t a l s o s e r v e "... 36 to s a t i s f y more n o b l e and e l e v a t e d needs." R i c h e s f a v o u r t h e a r t s , promote i n d u s t r y and a r e n e c e s s a r y to o b t a i n work and l a b o u r . The d e s i r e f o r m a t e r i a l good, then, p r o v i d e s an i n c e n t i v e to a c t i o n ; but the dynamics appear to be d i f f e r e n t from the Hobbesian n o t i o n o f gree d and a n x i e t y b e i n g a spur to the i n s t i t u t i o n o f L e v i a t h a n and c l o s e r to t h e l a t e r u t i l i t a r i a n c o n c e p t i o n s o f w e a l t h . The d e s i r e f o r m a t e r i a l w e a l t h , f o r P a r u t a , i s not t h e prime mover, but r a t h e r an a p p e t i t e which i s m o d i f i e d by prudence. The u l t i m a t e a p p e t i t e i s t h a t o f h a p p i n e s s , and f o r t h i s , m a t e r i a l w e a l t h i s i n s u f f i c i e n t . M a t e r i a l w e a l t h i s seen n o t as an end, but as a means by which one can s e r v e the more n o b l e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f b e i n g the good f a t h e r and c i t i z e n . The concept r e p r e s e n t s a movement away from the c l a s s i c a l Greek c o n c e p t i o n o f w e a l t h as merely f r e e i n g men f o r o t h e r p u r s u i t s . Wealth h e r e i s seen as d i r e c t l y s e r v i n g t h o se h i g h e r g o a l s . The r e a l i z a t i o n o f man's moral n a t u r e , then, r e q u i r e s the e x e r c i s e o f v i r t u e . I t r e q u i r e s , above a l l , t h e e x e r c i s e o f prudence and j u s t i c e i n men's a c t i o n s . F u r t h e r , the r e a l i z a t i o n o f man's mora l n a t u r e r e q u i r e s t h e e x e r c i s e o f l i b e r a l i t y , meekness, temperance and magnanimity. These v i r t u e s can b e s t be e x e r c i s e d w i t h i n the c i v i l s o c i e t y , and i t i s t h i s which i s the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h a t c i v i l s o c i e t y , I t p r o v i d e s men w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to p r a c t i s e t h e s e v i r t u e s , and the r e b y a c h i e v e h a p p i n e s s . P a r u t a ' s n o t i o n o f p o l i t i c s as a moral 36. Pompeati, "Le d o t t r i n e p o l i t i c h e d i Paolo P a r u t a " , p. 327. 1 2 8 endeavour then, Is t h a t the r a l s o n d ' e t r e of the c i v i l s o c i e t y i s to a l l o w man to r e a l i z e the moral p o t e n t i a l embodied i n h i s d u a l n a t u r e . T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n o f a moral p o t e n t i a l i s a c c o m p l i s h e d through the e x e r c i s e o f v i r t u e — a n d P a r u t a p o r t r a y s f o r us a scheme o f v i r t u o u s a c t i o n which he sees as a p p r o p r i a t e to man qua p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as to man qua p o l i t i c a l a c t o r . Pompeati sums up the purpose o f D e l l a P e r f e z i o n e : "The i n t e n t o f the a u t h o r i n the w r i t i n g o f t h e s e t h r e e d i a l o g u e s was t h a t o f drawing the model o f a c i t i z e n , o f t e a c h i n g t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f 37 c i v i l l i f e . " F u r t h e r , s i n c e c i v i l l i f e i s viewed as the most p e r f e c t type o f l i f e f o r man, he i s a t t e m p t i n g to get a t the p e r f e c t i o n o f human n a t u r e . In o r d e r f o r c i v i l l i f e t o be viewed as the most p e r f e c t type o f l i f e f o r man, i t must be p r e s e n t e d i n terms o f v i r t u e . P a r u t a i s p o r t r a y i n g , i f n o t a s e t o f r u l e s o r code o f laws which f u l l y d e f i n e v i r t u e , a t l e a s t a way o f a c t i n g which l e a d s men to v i r t u e . We a r e g i v e n , i n t h e d i a l o g u e s , r a t h e r t a n g e n t i a l r e f e r e n c e s to the a r e a s which P a r u t a has i n mind. Above a l l , v i r t u o u s a c t s a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e p o l i t y and one's f a m i l y . But more i m p o r t a n t l y , we a r e g i v e n a p l a n o f how to a c t i n a v i r t u o u s manner. The use o f prudence o r j u s t i c e to p r e s c r i b e a c t i o n i s o f paramount imp o r t a n c e . 37. Pompeati, "Le d o t t r i n e p o l i t i c h e d i P a o l o P a r u t a " , p. 340. 129 G i v e n t h e c o n t e x t o f s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t e n s i o n s between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e m o r a l i t y , and t h e t e n s i o n s between s c e p t r e and c r o z i e r , P a r u t a ' s work stands out as p o r t r a y i n g moral b e h a v i o u r i n the p o l i t i c a l sphere as c o i n c i d e n t a l to p e r s o n a l moral b e h a v i o u r : "... P a r u t a does not have r e c o u r s e to a f i c t i t i o u s m o r a l i t y which i s d i v e r s e from p r i v a t e m o r a l i t y ; he i s not the a r c h i t e c t o f a s t a t e e t h i c which 38 s p r i n g s from the d i s s e n s i o n between common l i f e and p o l i t i c a l l i f e . " F o r P a r u t a , t h e r e i s no d i s c r e p a n c y between l e a d i n g a moral l i f e i n the p r i v a t e sphere and i n t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e. Both a s p e c t s a r e p a r t o f man's n a t u r e , and a n y t h i n g l e s s than m o r a l i t y i n both a r e a s i s f a i l i n g to l i v e up to one's human p o t e n t i a l . M o r a l b e h a v i o u r i n one sphere cannot h e l p but be r e f l e c t e d by moral b e h a v i o u r i n t h e o t h e r . P a r u t a ' s e f f o r t s h e r e appear to be an attempt a t a c o n c e p t i o n a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f the l o n g - s t a n d i n g t e n s i o n s embodied i n s c e p t r e and c r o z i e r by p o i n t i n g out t h a t b o t h a r e , i n f a c t , a s p e c t s o f the same phenomenon and b o t h a r e concerned w i t h t h e same end; i . e . , the f u l f i l l m e n t of. man's p o t e n t i a l f o r moral b e h a v i o u r . H i s r e f u s a l to concede fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s between p u b l i c b e h a v i o u r and p r i v a t e b e h a v i o u r r e p r e s e n t s a sh o r t c o m i n g which m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n the l a t e r P o l i t i c a l D i s c o u r s e s . D e s p i t e P a r u t a ' s abundant r e f e r e n c e s to P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e to b o l s t e r h i s p o i n t s o f argument, i t i s perhaps t h i s b l e n d i n g o r s y n t h e s i z i n g of. t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s p h e r e s which most s e t s him a p a r t from t h e s e two t h i n k e r s and, a t the same time, p l a c e s him 38. I b i d . , p. 315. 130 s q u a r e l y w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y I t a l i a n p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . F u r t h e r , whereas P l a t o f a v o u r e d the s p e c u l a t i v e l i f e , P a r u t a , l i k e many o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , viewed t h i s as o f v a l u e o n l y when conn e c t e d w i t h t h e a c t i v e l i f e o f the p o l i t y . The e x e r c i s e o f reason , judgement,.and prudence remain s t e r i l e e x e r c i s e s u n t i l c onnected w i t h t h e w i l l w hich d e r i v e s from a p p e t i t e . I t i s t h i s which makes us men, and w i t h o u t the e x e r c i s e o f b o t h f a c u l t i e s we a r e l e s s than human. Le t us t u r n to the D i s c o u r s e s . ~ J J The work was p u b l i s h e d i n 1599, one y e a r a f t e r P a r u t a ' s death. The D i s c o r s i P o l i t i c i appear to 40 be a response t o M a c h i a v e l l i ' s I D i s c o r s i . The s i m i l i a r t i e s between t h e two works a r e m a n i f o l d . B e s i d e s the s i m i l a r i t y o f t i t l e , t h e r e i s a s i m i l a r i t y o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r . P a r u t a takes on many o f the examples o f h i s t o r y used by M a c h i a v e l l i , p o i n t i n g out c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of which M a c h i a v e l l i has f a i l e d to take n o t e . He d i s c u s s e s such t h i n g s as whether o r not f o r t r e s s e s a r e o f v a l u e to the p r i n c e . He d e a l s 39. U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d , the e d i t i o n used here i s P o l i t i c k  D i s c o u r s e s , t r a n s l a t e d by Henry Cary (London: 1657). 40. Giuseppe F e r r a r i , Corso s u g l i s c r i t t o r i p o l i t i c i i t a l i a n a (Nuova E d i z i o n e Completa; M i l a n : Casa E d i t r i c e Monanni, 1929), p. 351, views P a r u t a ' s work as a response to B o t e r o ' s Ragion d i S t a t o . C u r i o u s l y , F e r r a r i , a r a t h e r eminent p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r , seems to have r u n c o m p l e t e l y amok when d e a l i n g w i t h P a r u t a . He takes no p a i n s to c o n c e a l h i s h o s t i l i t y toward P a r u t a and the i d e a l o f the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c , which he r e f e r s to as "una c i t t a n e l  fango" (a c i t y i n the mud) (p. 352). H i s a n a l y s i s i s s u s p e c t when he p l a c e s the wrong t i t l e on P a r u t a ' s e a r l i e r work, and once r e f e r s t o P a r u t a as G i o v a n n i , who was, i n f a c t , the son o f Pao l o P a r u t a (p. 353). 131 e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h t h e r o l e p l a y e d by f o r t u n e i n the a f f a i r s o f man. A t one p o i n t , he j u s t i f i e s a c t i o n i n terms o f " r e a s o n of s t a t e " — though h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f r a g i o n d i s t a t o appears to be d i f f e r e n t from 41 t h a t o f M a c h i a v e l l i . P a r u t a d i s c u s s e s the v a l u e o f c o n f e d e r a c i e s as opposed to the s t r e n g t h of the p r i n c e who r e l i e s o n l y upon h i m s e l f A l l e n p o i n t s o u t : "Only once does P a r u t a r e f e r to M a c h i a v e l l i ; and 41. The d i s t i n c t i o n h e r e i s e x t r e m e l y s u b t l e , and r e v o l v e s around the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s o f s t a t o . P a r u t a seems to use the term s t a t o i n the sense o f the o r d e r and way o f l i f e o f the p o l i t y , w h i l e M a c h i a v e l l i uses the term d e r i v i n g from the more m e d i e v a l n o t i o n o f s t a t u s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the government o f the p r i n c i p a l i t y . See s u p r a , Chapter I , f o r a d e l i n e a t i o n between t h e two n o t i o n s o f s t a t o . P a r u t a ' s n o t i o n o f r a g i o n d i s t a t o seems then to embrace the n o t i o n o f t h e maintenance of a g i v e n way o f l i f e , w h i l e M a c h i a v e l l i i s c o ncerned o f t h e more g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the maintenance o f governmental s t r u c t u r e o r regime. 132 then i t i s to ex p r e s s a hope t h a t h i s works w i l l remain f o r ev e r i n 42 o b l i v i o n . " B e s i d e s t h i s one o b v i o u s r e f e r e n c e by name, numerous r e f e r e n c e s a r e made to M a c h i a v e l l i throughout the work w i t h o u t naming him. There can be l i t t l e doubt, then, t h a t P a r u t a was r e s p o n d i n g 42. J . W. A l l e n , '.op. c i t . , p. 506. T h i s i s a most c u r i o u s p o i n t . C u r i o u s , f i r s t o f a l l because o f A l l e n ' s o b v i o u s e r r o r h e r e . The passage, i n f a c t , reads as f o l l o w s : " I f i n d t h e s e t h i n g s i n some A u t h o r s , but C h i e f l y a m p l i f i e d and a f f i r m e d by N i c h o l a s M a c h i a v e l , a name which h a t h f o r m e r l y been v e r y famous f o r the c u r i o s i t y o f the m a t t e r which he took upon him to w r i t e on h i s d i s c o u r s e s ; b u t i t i s now so condemned to p e r p e t u a l o b l i v i o n by t h e h o l y A p o s t o l i c k Sea, as i t i s not l a w f u l to name him." (p. 131). Here we seem to have no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t P a r u t a hopes t h a t M a c h i a v e l l i ' s name w i l l f o r e v e r remain i n o b l i v i o n . P a r u t a i s merely s t a t i n g the f a c t o f the m a t t e r . Nor i s the problem one o f t r a n s l a t i o n . The o r i g i n a l l i n e reads " . . . N i c c o l o M a c h i a v e l l i , nome g i a famoso p e r l a c u r i o s i t a d e l l e m a t e r i e d e l l e q u a l i s i t o l s e a s c r i v e r e n e i s u o i D i s c o r s i , ma che o r a condannato d a l l a Sede A p o l s t o l i c a ad o b l i v i o n e p e r p e t u a , non e pur l e c i t o d i nominare." D i s c o r s i P o l i t i c i de P a o l o P a r u t a ( S i e n a : P r e s s o Onerato P o r r i , 1827), Book I I , p. 52. The d i f f e r e n c e here between the passage and A l l e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s , I b e l i e v e , q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t . F u r t h e r , the passage i s c u r i o u s i n i t s e l f ; f o r i t i s w i t h i n t h e same sen t e n c e t h a t P a r u t a s t a t e s t h a t i t i s no l o n g e r l a w f u l to name M a c h i a v e l l i t h a t he does s o . Gi v e n the f a c t t h a t the work was p u b l i s h e d posthumously, and the p o s s i b l e r e p e r c u s s i o n s from i g n o r i n g the ban on M a c h i a v e l l i ( M a c h i a v e l l i ' s works were p l a c e d on the o r i g i n a l P a p a l Index i n 1559, and the d e c i s i o n was c o n f i r m e d a t the C o u n c i l o f T r e n t ) , the p o s s i b i l i t y r a i s e s i t s e l f t h a t P a r u t a had never i n t e n d e d t h i s l a t e r work f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . I f t h i s i s so, i s i t r e l a t e d to the f a c t t h a t , i n terms o f s t y l e , i t i s c l o s e l y p a t t e r n e d a f t e r M a c h i a v e l l i ' s D i s c o u r s e s ? Does i t r e p r e s e n t the s h i f t i n a t t i t u d e which we see i n the " S o l i l o q u i e " appended to the end o f the book i n which P a r u t a , i n e f f e c t , s t a t e s t h a t he has been so busy w i t h the a f f a i r s o f s t a t e t h a t he has i g n o r e d h i s God, and t h a t he hopes to bre a k t h a t h a b i t some day so as to be a b l e to devote h i s time to the s a c r e d a s p e c t o f l i f e ? Does i t account f o r some o f t h e seeming i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the work (see p a r t i c u l a r l y Book I I , Second D i s c o u r s e ) , and i f so, a r e we r e a l l y f a c e d w i t h two P a r u t a s — one p r i v a t e and one p u b l i c ? 133 to M a c h i a v e l l i ' s D i s c o u r s e s i n h i s own/"' The P o l i t i c k D i s c o u r s e s i s made up o f two books; the f i r s t o f which draws upon the e x p e r i e n c e o f Rome to g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p r o p e r form and end o f good government, w h i l e the second book draws upon the V e n e t i a n e x p e r i e n c e f o r the same pur p o s e . The b a s i c l i n e o f argument i n the e a r l y p a r t o f the work appears to be t h a t developed i n D e l l a P e r f e z i o n e d e l l a V i t a P o l i t i c a . We f i n d the same o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e r n w i t h " c i v i l f e l i c i t y " , and t h e view developed i n D e l l a P e r f e z i o n e of the c o a l e s c e n c e o f t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s p h e r e s . P a r u t a ' s prime c o n c e r n i s l a i d down i n the f i r s t d i s c o u r s e : " . . . t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f Government l i e s i n making a C i t y v e r t u o u s , n o t i n making her M i s t r e s s o f 44 many C o u n t r i e s . " U n l i k e M a c h i a v e l l i , who saw t h a t the q u a l i t y o f l i f e w i t h i n the p o l i t y was dependent upon the p o s i t i o n o f t h a t p o l i t y among f o r e i g n powers, P a r u t a d i r e c t s h i s concerns inward. Good government and c i v i l f e l i c i t y depend not upon r e l a t i o n s w i t h f o r e i g n powers, b u t r a t h e r upon the e x e r c i s e o f v i r t u e by t h e c i t i z e n r y . And v i r t u e among the c i t i z e n r y i s one, whether e x e r c i s e d i n the p u b l i c sphere o r t h e p r i v a t e : 43. On t h i s p o i n t see D i z i o n a r i o l e t t e r a r i o Bompiani d e l l e opere e  d e i p e r s o n a g g i , V o l . I I , pp. 713-14; Gaeta, op_. c i t . , p. 70; and P e c c h i o l i , op_. c i t . , p. 486. 44. P a r u t a , P o l i t i c k D i s c o u r s e s , p. 10. 134 F o r i t i s n o t to be a f f i r m e d t h a t the same t h i n g can be good i n r e s p e c t o f the p u b l i c k , and bad i n p r i v a t e A f f a i r s . F o r the g e n e r a l f e l i c i t y o f the whole C i t y , and the p a r t i c u l a r good o f every C i t i z e n i s one and the same t h i n g . . . 4 5 The e x e r i c s e o f v i r t u e r e q u i r e s prudence, " . . . j o y n i n g Reason 46 and Custom to N a t u r e . " I n o p p o s i t i o n to M a c h i a v e l l i , P a r u t a p l a c e s l i t t l e s t o r e i n the s t r o n g p r i n c e to make the c i t i z e n s v i r t u o u s : " T h e r e f o r e where good I n s t i t u t i o n s o f l i f e a r e wanting, the s e v e r i t y o f M a g i s t r a t e s i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t to make C i t i z e n s o b e d i e n t to the Laws. F o r when the a p p e t i t e had a l r e a d y g o t t e n power, and i s 47 accustomed to v i c e , ' t i s too h a r d to overcome h e r by f o r c e . " U n l i k e , D e l l a P e r f e z i o n e , w h e r e i n v i r t u o u s a c t i o n can se e m i n g l y overcome a l l , the D i s c o u r s e s g i v e a much w i d e r b e r t h to the r o l e o f f o r t u n e i n the a f f a i r s o f men. Chance and " a c c i d e n t s " l i m i t the degree to which reasoned a c t i o n may gu i d e h i s t o r y , and a r e c o n s i d e r e d 48 by P a r u t a to r e f l e c t the w i l l o f " D i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e " . Reason has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and cannot p e n e t r a t e i n t o the w i l l o f God. The p l a c e a l l o c a t e d to f o r t u n e i n the l a t e r work would seem to r e f l e c t b o t h M a c h i a v e l l i ' s e x t e n s i v e treatment o f the concept and, as w e l l , the more s p e c i f i c and c o n c r e t e n a t u r e o f the P o l i t i c a l D i s c o u r s e s as compared 45. I b i d . 46. I b i d . , p. 11. 47. I b i d . 48. I b i d . , p. 18. 135 w i t h D e l l a P e r f e z i o n e . The e x t e n s i v e treatment o f f o r t u n e i n the P o l i t i c a l D i s c o u r s e s r e p r e s e n t s , I b e l i e v e , a major l i m i t a t i o n to the scope o f a c t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n the e a r l i e r work. The l i n e o f argument seems to s h i f t i n the l a t e r p a r t o f the D i s c o u r s e s where he employs the example o f V e n i c e r a t h e r than Rome. Here, f o r example, we . f i n d P a r u t a ' s defense o f V e n e t i a n a c t i o n on b e h a l f o f P i s a a g a i n s t the F l o r e n t i n e s . I t appears t h a t P a r u t a ' s t a s k was a d i f f i c u l t one, and we see him h e d g i n g on some o f h i s e a r l i e r a s s e r t i o n s . Of V e n i c e ' s a c t i o n d e f e n d i n g P i s a he s a y s : "Such a c t i o n s may t h e n be measured e i t h e r by the o r d i n a r y reasons o f j u s t i c e and e q u i t y , o r e l s e by reasons o f S t a t e , which a r e the more 49 p r o p e r . " H i s e a r l i e r p o s i t i o n would seem to s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e would be no d i s p a r i t y between t h e two measures. F u r t h e r , he seems to d i s t i n g u i s h between the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e spheres i n terms o f j u d g i n g t h i s a c t i o n . " C e r t a i n l y the a c t i o n s o f a P h i l o s o p h e r , and those o f a P r i n c e , ought not to be measured by one and the same r u l e ; nor must we f a n c y t h e c o n d i t i o n o f men, and o f a f f a i r s , to be what 50 p e r a d v e n t u r e they ought to be, but what they a r e f o r the most p a r t . " P a r u t a sounds ominously c l o s e to M a c h i a v e l l i o r B o t e r o i n t h e s e passages, but perhaps t h i s a r i s e s out o f h i s attempt to d efend what may have been, i n f a c t , an i n d e f e n s i b l e a c t i o n e x c e p t i n terms o f 49. I b i d . , p. 123. Cf. p. 19. 50. I b i d . , p. 128. C f . p. 11. 136 r a i s o n d ' e t a t . I t i s e q u a l l y p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down i n D e l l a P e r f e z i o n e s i m p l y would not i l l u m i n a t e the q u e s t i o n s P a r u t a sought to answer h e r e and, i n f a c t , he h i n t s a t a c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s which i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t which we have seen i n the e a r l i e r 51 work. A l t h o u g h ' P a r u t a i s n o t e x p l i c i t , i t may w e l l be t h a t he r e c o g n i z e d t h a t , as F i g g i s p o i n t s out i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f M a c h i a v e l l i : " . ..Rules o f m o r a l i t y a r e n o t o f t h e n a t u r e o f e t e r n a l t r u t h s , immutable i n t h e i r a u t h o r i t y — b u t o n l y rough statements o f what i n o r d i n a r y c ases i s man's duty. Hence the need o f some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y 52 c a ses when they do not h o l d , . . . " Among o t h e r q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n Book I I , P a r u t a d i s c u s s e s whether o r n ot f o r t r e s s e s a r e , o f v a l u e to the s t a t e , whether o r not c o n f e d e r a c i e s a r e a v a l u a b l e form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h e r o l e o f gunpowder i n chang i n g the n a t u r e o f w a r f a r e . T h i s type o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n cannot be a d d r e s s e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f the e a r l i e r work, and we a r e f a c e d w i t h a l i m i t a t i o n o f P a r u t a ' s p o l i t i c s based on m o r a l i t y . For example, the q u e s t i o n o f t h e V e n e t i a n d e f e n s e o f P i s a i s an e n t i r e l y p u b l i c q u e s t i o n , and the a c t i o n c o u l d not be defended a d e q u a t e l y on the b a s i s o f a p u b l i c m o r a l i t y which was e q u i v a l e n t to a p r i v a t e m o r a l i t y . I n terms o f a p e r s o n a l moral b e h a v i o u r , t h e contemporary V e n e t i a n would be 51. The a l t e r n a t i v e to t h i s i s t h e i d e a t h a t t h e r e i s a p u b l i c P a r u t a which i s d i f f e r e n t from the p r i v a t e P a r u t a (see n. 4 3 ) . 52. John N e v i l l e F i g g i s , S t u d i e s o f P o l i t i c a l Thought from Gerson to  G r o t i u s : 1414-1625 (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956), p. 92. 137 h a r d - p r e s s e d to j u s t i f y the i n t e r v e n t i o n between two f o r e i g n powers. The p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n between t h e government o f F l o r e n c e and the government of P i s a d i d not impinge upon the p e r s o n a l l i f e o f t h e V e n e t i a n c i t i z e n . The g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t a n c e i n v o l v e d here i s l e s s i m p o r t a n t than the q u a l i t a t i v e d i s t a n c e between the p o l i t i c a l and p e r s o n a l sphere o f l i f e . The concept o f a p u b l i c v i r t u e which was the e q u i v a l e n t o f p r i v a t e v i r t u e s i m p l y c o u l d n o t be made to a d d r e s s i t s e l f to t h i s p o i n t , and i t was n e c e s s a r y to s h i f t to j u s t i f i c a t i o n s drawn from the concept o f r a i s o n d ' e t a t . There are l i m i t a t i o n s to P a r u t a ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s . A n o t i o n o f p u b l i c m o r a l i t y as the e q u i v a l e n t o f a p r i v a t e m o r a l i t y s i m p l y cannot be s u s t a i n e d . A c t i o n s i n the p u b l i c sphere are i n h e r e n t l y d i f f e r e n t from p r i v a t e a c t i o n s , and cannot be j u s t i f i e d s o l e l y i n terms o f a p r i v a t e , become ' p u b l i c ' , m o r a l i t y . P u b l i c a c t i o n s r e q u i r e t h e i r own j u s t i f i c a t i o n s — w h e t h e r t h i s be i n terms o f a p u b l i c m o r a l i t y o r whether i t be i n terms o f r e a s o n o f s t a t e . The s t e p from p r i v a t e v i r t u o u s a c t i o n to p u b l i c m o r a l i t y i s one o f q u a l i t y r a t h e r than o f l o c a t i o n . I f i n d i v i d u a l moral a c t i o n i s an outgrowth o f t h e needs and p o t e n t i a l s o f man, then p u b l i c moral a c t i o n may be viewed as an outgrowth o f s o c i e t a l o r p u b l i c needs and p o t e n t i a l s . S o c i a l i d e a l s a r e not merely p r i v a t e i d e a l s a p p l i e d to the s o c i a l s e t t i n g , but r a t h e r a c o l l e c t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n o f an i d e a l which i s embodied i n the laws and i n s t i t u t i o n o f s o c i e t y . 138 P u b l i c moral a c t i o n i s a more cumbersome and complex phenomenon than i n d i v i d u a l moral a c t i o n . We may be a b l e to speak o f a " p u b l i c w i l l " as d i d Rousseau, but the t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h a t w i l l i n t o a c t i o n i n e v i t a b l y f a l l s upon the s h o u l d e r s o f i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s . In t h e p u b l i c sphere, the s t e p from w i l l i n g to a c t i n g i n v o l v e s two c r i t i c a l p o i n t s a t which we must r e l y upon t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s to a c t on b e h a l f o f t h e p u b l i c . F i r s t o f a l l , the d e s i r e s o r needs o f an i n d i v i d u a l a r e g e n e r a l l y a pparent to t h a t i n d i v i d u a l ; but the d e s i r e s o r needs o f a p o l i t i c a l community a r e most o f t e n l e s s a p p a r e n t . They may be made up o f a number o f f a c e t s which, when taken t o g e t h e r , do not c h a r a c t e r i z e any s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l o r group o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h a t community. A s c e r t a i n i n g the w i l l o f the body p o l i t i c i s a much more d i f f i c u l t t a s k than d e f i n i n g our own p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l . S e c o n d l y , the b e g i n n i n g s . o f a c t i o n , once t h a t p u b l i c w i l l i s a s c e r t a i n e d , i n e v i t a b l y f a l l s to i n d i v i d u a l s . Whole communities s i m p l y do not s p o n t a n e o u s l y d e c i d e to embark upon a c e r t a i n c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . Most o f t e n the p u b l i c , as a whole, must be e n t r e a t e d , persuaded, and c a j o l e d by i t s l e a d e r s i n t o u n d e r t a k i n g any c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . G i v e n these two c r i t i c a l p o i n t s then, p u b l i c a c t i o n appears to r e s t u l t i m a t e l y w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s who a c t on b e h a l f o f the p u b l i c ; f o r w i t h o u t the r o l e p l a y e d by t h e s e agents, the p u b l i c , as a whole, would be i n c a p a b l e o f any c o n c e r t e d and s u s t a i n e d a c t i o n , be i t moral o r non-moral. F u r t h e r , t h i s p r o c e s s i s c o n t i n u a l l y r e p e a t e d throughout the l i f e o f the body 139 p o l i t i c whenever the government a c t s i n some manner. The s p r i n g s o f p u b l i c a c t i o n a r e grounded i n the i n d i v i d u a l a c t i n g on b e h a l f o f the p u b l i c , and t h i s must have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the way i n which we gauge t h a t p u b l i c a c t i o n . P a r u t a ' s s h o r t c o m i n g s , then, c e n t e r around the e x t e n t to which codes o f m o r a l i t y a p p r o p r i a t e to the i n d i v i d u a l can be i m p l a n t e d upon the p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e . D e s p i t e the short c o m i n g s o f P a r u t a ' s work, he o f f e r s us an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of man's moral p o t e n t i a l . He c o n s t r u c t s a framework w i t h i n which to view human e x p e r i e n c e and which can accommodate h i s d u a l n a t u r e . F u r t h e r , i t i s a framework which r e c o g n i z e s , and i n d e e d , f o s t e r s d i v e r -s i t y i n human b e h a v i o u r . H i s emphasis upon the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x e r c i s e o f prudence p l a c e s t h a t d i v e r s i t y i n a p e r s p e c t i v e which not o n l y t o l e r a t e s , but l e g i t i m i z e s and s a n c t i o n s d i v e r s i t y . A t the same time, P a r u t a has s h i f t e d b o t h p o l i t i c a l and mo r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the i n d i v i d u a l . R a t h e r than l o c a t i n g moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the Church and p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the p e r s o n o f t h e . p r i n c e , P a r u t a has see m i n g l y r e c o g n i z e d the importance o f an a c c e p t a n c e o f the r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r c h o i c e and a c t i o n to human growth, and p l a c e d these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on the i n d i v i d u a l . Only by a c c e p t i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r moral and p o l i t i c a l c h o i c e s can the i n d i v i d u a l u t i l i z e h i s a t t r i b u t e s o f r e a s o n and w i l l to t h e i r f u l l e s t e x t e n t i n o r d e r to " e l e v a t e h i m s e l f to a more n o b l e s t a t e . " The p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l can o n l y be a c c o m p l i s h e d when he b e g i n s to e x e r c i s e 140 the c a r d i n a l v i r t u e o f prudence, j o i n i n g r e a s o n to w i l l ; and prudence can o n l y be e x e r c i s e d i n terms o f making a c t i v e c h o i c e s . The i n d i v i d u a l , then, must be a l l o w e d the o p p o r t u n i t y o f c h o i c e i n the a l l i m p o r t a n t a r e a o f p o l i t i c o - m o r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , f o r i t i s i n t h i s a r e a t h a t l i e t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l s f o r human growth and c i v i l f e l i c i t y . Those i d e a l s and v a l u e s which P a r u t a takes t o ; b e the c o r n e r s t o n e of p o l i t i c a l l i f e a r e m a n i f e s t i n the model o f V e n i c e and, i n d e e d , h i s work can be viewed as an e n u n c i a t i o n o f V e n e t i a n v a l u e s . H i s emphases upon the l i b e r t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l and i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s o f c i v i l l i f e a r e but a g e n e r a l statement o f what he took to be the s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e R e p u b l i c which r e n d e r e d i t o f v a l u e i n man's quest f o r t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f h i s n a t u r e . Through h i s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the d i a l o g u e , he i s the v o i c e o f V e n i c e i n f o r m i n g us of the v a l u e o f a c i v i l s o c i e t y o r d e r e d i n such a manner as to f a c i l i t a t e man's moral development. P o l i t i c s i s a moral endeavour f o r P a r u t a , then, i n t h a t i t i s an a c t i v i t y borne o f the need which men, by r e a s o n o f the moral a s p e c t o f t h e i r d u a l n a t u r e , have to p r a c t i c e v i r t u e . The c i v i l l i f e p r o v i d e s the most a p p r o p r i a t e forum i n which men might e x e r c i s e t h e i r v a r i o u s v i r t u e s i n t h a t , f i r s t , i t p r o v i d e s the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t i e s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y ; and s e c o n d l y , i t c o n t a i n s those t h i n g s which P a r u t a seems to a c c e p t as moral ends unto themselves, i . e . , f a m i l y , f r i e n d s and p a t r i a . The p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t c i v i l l i f e s h o u l d , above a l l , be gu i d e d by the v i r t u e s o f prudence, j u s t i c e , l i b e r a l i t y , temperance, magnanimity and meekness. 141 I I P a o lo S a r p i L i t t l e i s known o f the e a r l y l i f e o f Paolo S a r p i . He was b o r n on August 14, 1552, to F r a n c e s c o and I s a b e l l a , and was b a p t i z e d P i e t r o . F r a n c e s c o was a merchant and d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g " . . . o f low s t a t u r e , o f brown h a i r and o f a t e r r i b l e a s p e c t . I s a b e l l a was o f g r e a t s t a t u r e , o f f a i r complexion, and o f a countenance as humble and g e n t l e as 'twas 53 p o s s i b l e . " N a t h a n a e l B r e n t , i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the H i s t o r y o f the C o u n c i l p u b l i s h e d i n 1676, s t a t e s t h a t the d i v e r s i t y o f c o n d i t i o n s which c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e m a r r i a g e were s i m i l a r to those which "...we 54 see among the B a r b a r i a n s o f Canada..." F r a n c e s c o d i e d s h o r t l y a f t e r the b i r t h o f h i s son, and I s a b e l l a devoted h e r l i f e to the Church. S a r p i was r a i s e d and educated by h i s u n c l e , Ambrosio M o r e l l i , a p r i e s t . The boy was r e p u t e d to have keen memory, and an acco u n t o f h i s e d u c a t i o n r e c a l l s to mind the e d u c a t i o n o f John S t u a r t M i l l a t the hands o f h i s f a t h e r and Jeremy Bentham. S a r p i ' s u n c l e honed the boy's memory by f o r c i n g him to r e c i t e l o n g passages a f t e r o n l y one r e a d i n g . I t i s no s u r p r i s e to l e a r n t h a t , as a c h i l d , S a r p i was withdrawn and a s c e t i c . He e n t e r e d t h e S e r v i t e Order a t t h e age o f f o u r t e e n and was o r d a i n e d a t the age o f twenty-two. 53. Paolo S a r p i , The H i s t o r y o f t h e C o u n c i l o f T r e n t , t r a n s l a t e d by N a t h a n a e l B r e n t (London: J . Macock f o r Samuel Mearne, 1676), p. V. 54. I b i d . 142 A f t e r t e a c h i n g p h i l o s o p h y w h i l e s t u d y i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Padua, he became P r o v i n c i a l o f the V e n e t i a n p r o v i n c e o f the S e r v i t e Order, and l a t e r P r o c u r a t o r - G e n e r a l o f t h e e n t i r e Order. L e a v i n g Rome a t the age o f t h i r t y - s i x , he spent the next e i g h t e e n y e a r s i n V e n i c e d e v o t i n g h i s time to study i n the area s o f anatomy, astronomy, o p t i c s and p h y s i c s . A l l o f h i s pa p e r s from t h i s p e r i o d were d e s t r o y e d by f i r e i n 1769. The V e n e t i a n i n t e r d i c t o f 1606-7 j o l t e d S a r p i out o f h i s s t u d i o u s r e t i r e m e n t and f o r c e d him i n t o the w o r l d o f p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . The c o n f l i c t between t h e Church and the R e p u b l i c taxed a d u a l l o y a l t y w i t h i n S a r p i , and brought i n t o c o n f l i c t not o n l y two s e t s o f i d e a l s ( t h o s e o f the Church and those o f the R e p u b l i c ) , but a l s o h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the Church and t h a t which he h e l d i n t h e government o f t h e R e p u b l i c . He had been a p p o i n t e d S t a t e t h e o l o g i a n and canon lawyer to the R e p u b l i c a few months p r i o r to the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the i n t e r d i c t . H i s views, c h a n n e l l e d to t h e R e p u b l i c through t h i s p o s t , r e s u l t e d i n h i s excommuni-c a t i o n d u r i n g t h e i n t e r d i c t , an a s s a s s i n a t i o n attempt upon h i s l i f e and t h e subsequent need f o r s e c r e c y , and h i s i n a b i l i t y to t r a v e l s a f e l y o u t s i d e V e n i c e o r to de s p a t c h materials o p e n l y . S a r p i i s b e s t known among s c h o l a r s f o r h i s numerous h i s t o r i e s o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the r i s e o f what P e t e r Burke, i n h i s p r e f a c e to the S a r p i volume i n The Great H i s t o r i e s s e r i e s , c a l l s p r o b l e m a t i c h i s t o r y o r prag m a t i c h i s t o r y . 55. S a r p i , H i s t o r y o f the B e n e f i c e s and s e l e c t i o n s from t h e H i s t o r y o f  th e C o u n c i l , t r a n s l a t e d and e d i t e d by P e t e r Burke (New York: Washington Square P r e s s , 1967), p. x x v i i . H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as S a r p i , HBHC. 143 By f o c u s i n g h i s works i n terms o f a s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t o r s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r than c h r o n i c l l i n g t h e r i s e and f a l l o f empires o r r e p u b l i c s , S a r p i was a b l e to draw i n much more of the i n t e r p l a y between law, r e l i g i o n , s o c i a l f o r c e s and i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n i n the a f f a i r s o f men, and was a b l e to eschew much o f the i r r e l e v a n t c h r o n i c l l i n g o f i n c i d e n t s which one f i n d s i n c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r i a n s such as C a s s i u s D i o . S a r p i ' s approach to h i s t o r i o g r a p h y a l l o w s f o r a more " e c o n o m i c a l " treatment o f h i s s u b j e c t by d i s p e n s i n g w i t h much t h a t i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e to t h e e x p o s i t i o n o f h i s chosen t o p i c . T h i s i s not to say, however, t h a t S a r p i ' s work i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e i t h e r c a r e l e s s n e s s o r b r e v i t y . H i s works a r e b o t h d e t a i l e d and e x t e n s i v e . D e s p i t e the e x t e n t o f S a r p i ' s w r i t i n g s and .(perhaps p a r t i a l l y because o f ) t h e i r f o c u s e d q u a l i t y , the a u t h o r h i m s e l f remains a r a t h e r 56 e n i g m a t i c f i g u r e . He was e m b r o i l e d i n c o n t r o v e r s y i n h i s own time, and t h e s e c r e c y which he f e l t s e l f - d e f e n s e n e c e s s i t a t e d c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g t h e problem o f g a i n i n g a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f the man from h i s works. He was, o f n e c e s s i t y , o f t e n c o v e r t c o n c e r n i n g h i s views and r o l e . H i s e a r l i e s t work, The H i s t o r y o f t h e I n t e r d i c t , had to be smuggled to E n g l a n d l e s t i t be i n t e r c e p t e d and forwarded to Rome. The H i s t o r y o f the C o u n c i l was p u b l i s h e d i n London under the name o f P i e t r o Soave P o l a n o — w h i c h t u r n s out to be an anagram o f 56. W i l l i a m Bouwsma, " V e n i c e , S p a i n , and t h e Papacy: Paolo S a r p i and the R e n a i s s a n c e Tradition',' i n The L a t e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e , e d i t e d by E r i c Cochrane (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1970), p. 354, s t a t e s "Yet t h e r e i s s t i l l no s a t i s f a c t o r y g e n e r a l work on S a r p i , n o r i s t h e r e any g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s p e r s o n a l -i t y , h i s thought, and h i s p u r p o s e s . " 144 P a olo S a r p i Veneto. The a u t h o r s h i p o f one minor t r e a t i s e , o f t e n 57 a t t r i b u t e d to S a r p i , remains i n d i s p u t e . Nor was t h i s s e c r e c y unwarranted.. In 1607:th.ree a s s a s s i n s a t t a c k e d S a r p i , s t a b b i n g him t w i c e i n the neck and once i n t h e temple. Of t h e a t t a c k , S a r p i commented 57. I r e f e r h e r e to the pamphlet e n t i t l e d O p i n i o n e come debba g o v e r n a r s i i n t ernamente ed esternamente l a r e p u b b l i c a d i V e n e z i a  p e r a v e r e 11 perpetuo dominio. There i s an E n g l i s h e d i t i o n o f t h i s work under t h e t i t l e A d v i c e g i v e n to the r e p u b l i c k o f V e n i c e , t r a n s l a t e d by Dr. A g l i o n b y (London: F o r C h r i s t o p h e r Nobbes, 1693). A g l i o n b y o f f e r s no p r o o f t h a t the a u t h o r i s S a r p i . He s t a t e s i n h i s p r e f a t o r y n o t e t h a t " . . . t h e r e needs no o t h e r p r o o f than the r e a d i n g o f i t . . . " , and goes on to a s s e r t t h a t the ' s t y l e ' and 'manner o f t h i n k i n g ' a r e S a r p i ' s . T h i s i s q u i t e p a t e n t l y a b s u r d . The work i s e x t r e m e l y s h o r t — c o n s i s t i n g o f o n l y one hundred and n i n e t e e n v e r y s h o r t p a g e s — q u i t e u n l i k e the m e t h o d i c a l and extended t r e a t m e n t s which we f i n d i n works known to have i s s u e d from S a r p i ' s hand. F u r t h e r , the t h r u s t o f the argument put f o r t h i n the pamphlet i s i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to the themes which we f i n d i n S a r p i ' s work. C u r i o u s l y , a number o f s c h o l a r s have a c c e p t e d the pamphlet as S a r p i ' s w i t h o u t e v e r t a c k l i n g the q u e s t i o n o f a u t h o r s h i p . F o r example, Gaetano Mosca, op_. c i t . , pp. 97-98, condemns S a r p i as amoral on t h i s b a s i s . L u i g i S a l v a t o r e l l i uses the q u e s t i o n o f a u t h o r s h i p i n h i s a r t i c l e "Paolo S a r p i " , i n C o n t r i b u t i a l i a s t o r i a  d e l C o n c i l i o d i T r e n t o e d e l l a C o n t r o r i f o r m a i n Quaderni d i  ' B e l f a g o r ' , V o l . I (1948), to p o r t r a y the e n i g m a t i c c h a r a c t e r o f S a r p i . "That a w r i t i n g o f the type and c o n t e n t , to use the words o f B i a n c h i G i o v a n i , o f ' a t r o c i o u s a d v i c e ' , has been r e p e a t e d l y a t t r i b u t e d , o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f time, to F r a P aolo i s s u f f i c i e n t to demonstrate how l i t t l e known...remains the h i g h l y moral p e r s o n -a l i t y o f ZBarpi7." (p. 137) I am c o n v i n c e d t h a t the work i s n o t S a r p i ' s . The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n and i t s a t t r i b u t i o n to S a r p i r a i s e s a number o f i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s which a r e o u t s i d e the purview o f t h i s t h e s i s . A f t e r p o i n t i n g out t h a t the work most a c c u r a t e l y p o r t r a y s the R e p u b l i c o f V e n i c e and t h e c h a r a c t e r o f S a r p i as w e l l , A g l i o n b y goes on to d e d i c a t e the work to Henry V i s c o u n t Sydney, the L o r d L i e u t e n a n t to I r e l a n d . The r e s u l t i s to d i s c r e d i t the R e p u b l i c , • S a r p i h i m s e l f , and to i m p l i c i t l y r a i s e a number o f q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f C a t h o l i c s to the s t a t e . Is the a t t r i b u t i o n to S a r p i an u n c o n s c i o u s e r r o r , o r d i d A g l i o n b y have some o t h e r purpose i n mind when he d e d i c a t e s such a work to the L o r d L i e u t e n a n t o f I r e l a n d ? 145 "agnosco s t y l u m romanae c u r i a e " — I r e c o g n i z e the s t y l e ( o r 'dagger') o f the Roman c o u r t . A l t h o u g h i t i s u n c e r t a i n , s p e c u l a t i o n a t the time c o n s i d e r e d t h e Pope's nephew r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a t t a c k . S a r p i ' s s u s t a i n e d c r i t i c i s m o f the Roman C o u r t and the C h i e s a romana (which he c o n s t a n t l y c o n t r a s t e d to t h e C h i e s a d i Dip) l e d to y e t more s p e c u l a t i o n and c o n f u s i o n about the man. B i s h o p Bossuet r e f e r r e d to him as a P r o t e s t a n t i n f r i a r ' s c l o t h i n g , and indeed, many o f h i s c l o s e s t f r i e n d s and c o n f i d a n t s were P r o t e s t a n t . H i s a t t a c k s upon the C a t h o l i c Church o f t e n have a r e s o u n d i n g L u t h e r a n o r C a l v i n i s t r i n g . We know t h a t i n 1603 he d i s c u s s e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t r o d u c i n g P r o t e s t a n -5 8 t i s m i n t o V e n i c e w i t h t h e German envoy. But f o r a l l t h e e v i d e n c e o f a P r o t e s t a n t i n monk's c l o t h i n g , the more r e a l i s t i c a p p r a i s a l would seem to be t h a t o f the h i s t o r i a n P e t e r Burke, who c h a r a c t e r i z e s S a r p i as a 59 " J a n s e n i s t b e f o r e J a n s e n . " H i s s u s t a i n e d a t t a c k upon t h e Church was m o t i v a t e d not out o f P r o t e s t a n t l e a n i n g s , b u t r a t h e r out o f the c o n c e r n t h a t the Church, l i k e more mundane p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , had gone through c y c l e s which had l e d to i t s decay and c o r r u p t i o n . H i s c o n t i n u e d c o n t r a s t s o f t h e Church o f Rome w i t h the p r i m i t i v e Church h e l p e d to produce the a u r a o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m . 58. I b i d . , p. x v i i . 59. I b i d . , p. x v i i i . On t h i s p o i n t , see a l s o Frances A. Y a t e s , Paolo S a r p i ' s ' H i s t o r y of t h e C o u n c i l o f T r e n t ' , " i n J o u r n a l o f  Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s , V o l . 7(1947), pp. 127-128; and S a l v a t o r e l l i , op. c i t . , p. 144. 146 U n r a v e l l i n g t h e mystery and c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g S a r p i i s no s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d t a s k . H i s prime a r e a o f focus i s t h a t o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the Church, and i t i s o n l y t a n g e n t i a l l y t h a t we g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o h i s p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . F u r t h e r , S a r p i was a v e r y s u b t l e w r i t e r , and i t i s o n l y by combing through t h e v a r i o u s h i s t o r i e s , p i c k i n g out p i e c e s and fragments, and the n f i t t i n g them t o g e t h e r t h a t we b e g i n to g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the man and h i s i d e a s . We f i n d a c e n t r a l theme r u n n i n g through S a r p i ' s major works, and i t i s t h i s which g i v e s us the c l e a r e s t p i c t u r e o f t h e man. T h i s i s t h e theme o f t h e e x e r c i s e o f w i l l i n a f r e e environment, and the o b l i g a t i o n to be m o r a l l y r i g o r o u s i n the s e l e c t i o n o f courses o f a c t i o n . S a r p i r e p e a t e d l y r e t u r n s to the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t weakness and c o r r u p t i o n i n the church and i n government a r e t h e r e s u l t o f m o r a l . l a x i t y on the p a r t o f i n d i v i d u a l men. C h o i c e s have been made and cou r s e s o f a c t i o n f o l l o w e d , which a r e , i n f a c t "wrong c h o i c e s , " Y a t e s p o i n t s to t h i s theme i n h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f the H i s t o r y  o f t h e C o u n c i l : " I f the r i g h t c o u r s e had been pursued a t T r e n t , S a r p i i n d i r e c t l y s u g g e s t s , the Church as a whole would have been reformed... But the wrong c o u r s e was pursued, and the Church, i n s t e a d o f b e i n g reformed, was deformed w i t h new p a p a l u s u r p a t i o n s . " ^ These "wrong c h o i c e s " a r e , f o r S a r p i , the r e s u l t o f men's moral d e f i c i e n c i e s and the s t r o n g a t t r a c t i o n o f w e a l t h and power. We f i n d t h i s theme i n 60. Y a t e s , op_. c i t . , p. 133. 147 h i s H i s t o r y o f the C o u n c i l and h i s H i s t o r y o f the I n q u i s i t i o n . I t i s the b a s i s o f the H i s t o r y o f the B e n e f i c e s and h i s H i s t o r y o f the  I n t e r d i c t . T h i s theme i s i m p o r t a n t to S a r p i ' s treatment o f the d e c l i n e and debasement of s a c r e d i n s t i t u t i o n s because the q u e s t i o n o f the f a l l e n s t a t e o f the Church was n o t , f o r him, m e r e l y a q u e s t i o n i n v o l v i n g r e l i g i o n and c l e r i c a l p r a c t i c e s . I t was, above a l l , a p roblem r e v o l v i n g around p o l i t i c o - m o r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . V e n i c e r e p r e s e n t e d what the p r i m i t i v e Church had been, and th e s a l v a t i o n o f V e n i c e and the Church were i n t e g r a l l y t i e d to one a n o t h e r . Those f o r c e s which had l e d to the decay o f t h e Church were the same which t h r e a t e n e d b o t h V e n i c e and the 61 C h i e s a d i D i o . The b a s i s upon which the a l l i a n c e o f the Pope, the J e s u i t s , and t h e K i n g of S p a i n r e s t e d was the a b s o l u t i s m which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the t h r e e members. The r e f o r m and s a l v a t i o n o f the Church, a c c o r d i n g to S a r p i , r e s t e d w i t h the l a i t y through the mechanism o f the S t a t e . I f the Church was to be reformed, i t was n e c e s s a r y f i r s t o f a l l to m a i n t a i n the R e p u b l i c o f Venice;, f o r the i d e a l s upon which the R e p u b l i c r e s t e d were the v e r y i d e a l s r e q u i s i t e f o r a r e t u r n to the s p i r i t o f the p r i m i t i v e Church i n a changed age. L i b b y p o i n t s to 61. I am employing S a r p i ' s term h e r e f o r the sake o f c l a r i t y . The C h i e s a d i Dio (Church o f God) i s b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d i n the p r a c t i c e s of t h e p r i m i t i v e church, b e f o r e the enormous i n c r e a s e i n w e a l t h and power e n j o y e d by t h e C a t h o l i c Church d u r i n g the m e d i e v a l e r a . 148 t h i s a f f i n i t y between the r e p u b l i c a n theme o f the V e n e t i a n myth and the problems o f r e f o r m w i t h i n the Church; and we see t h a t the i d e a l s embodied i n the myth o f V e n i c e a r e u t i l i z e d to i l l u m i n a t e and a d d r e s s g r e a t e r i s s u e s — i s s u e s o u t s i d e the purview o f V e n e t i a n p o l i t i c s as someone s u c h as C o n t a r i n i e n v i s a g e d t h a t s p h ere: A f t e r 1570, the r e p u b l i c a n theme i n the i d e a l i z a t i o n o f V e n i c e became merged w i t h the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f the P r o t e s t a n t ^2 and C a t h o l i c enemies o f t h e C o u n t e r - R e f o r m a t i o n . The i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n between p o l i t i c s and m o r a l i t y , f o r S a r p i , was t h a t p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , l i k e r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , w a s — o r ought to b e — e s s e n t i a l l y concerned w i t h the development o f the moral 63 c a p a c i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l . The s t a t e was t h e embodiment o f p o l i t i c a l l i f e , j u s t as the Church was the embodiment o f the r e l i g i o u s ; and the p r o p e r r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f both i n s t i t u t i o n s was to f a c i l i t a t e and encourage p i e t y and the moral development o f men. L i k e P a r u t a , S a r p i sees no c o n f l i c t between s t a t e and Church p r o v i d e d — a n d t h i s i s the key i s s u e — t h a t b o t h a r e p r o p e r l y o r g a n i z e d and t h a t men p r o p e r l y govern t h e i r own a c t i o n s . S a r p i f i n d s the model o f the p r o p e r s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the V e n e t i a n example, and the model o f p r o p e r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the a n c i e n t Church. Both i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n cerned themselves w i t h the moral development o f men. Bouwsma, i n d e a l i n g w i t h the s t a t e o f S a r p i s c h o l a r s h i p , sees the f a i l u r e to 62. L i b b y , op_. c i t . , p. 44. 63. Chabod, S c r i t t i s u l R i n a s c i m e n t o , pp. 471-72. 149 r e c o g n i z e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two i n s t i t u t i o n s as a major impediment to g a i n i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f S a r p i and h i s work. The f i r s t problem, whether S a r p i ' s m otives were e s s e n t i a l l y r e l i g i o u s o r p o l i t i c a l , depends on a tendency to d i s t i n g u i s h between r e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c s , and hence between church and s t a t e . That d i s t i n c t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o n l y o f more modern t i m e s . For S a r p i , as f o r the s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e pope, the s t r u g g l e between V e n i c e and the papacy was o n l y one more c h a p t e r i n the a g e - o l d debate about the l o c a t i o n o f supreme a u t h o r i t y i n Christendom.64 Bouwsma, as we s h a l l see, has o v e r s t a t e d h i s c a s e ; f o r S a r p i does d i s t i n g u i s h between Church and s t a t e . A l t h o u g h o v e r s t a t i n g h i s c a s e, however, Bouwsma p o i n t s to an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; and t h a t i s t h a t p o l i t i c s and r e l i g i o n a r e , f o r S a r p i , but p a r t s of the same q u e s t . A g a i n , l i k e P a r u t a , b o t h phenomena a r e but a s p e c t s o f th e same grand t a s k g i v e n to men by God. That t a s k i s t h e moral development and growth o f men; and t h i s i s most e f f e c