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The evolution of Eduardo Mallea’s spiritual world Hammerly, Ethel Rosita Pidoux 1978

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THE EVOLUTION OF EDUAHDO MALLEA'S SPIRITUAL WORLD by Eth e l Roslta Pidoux Hammerly .M.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 .A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy i n The Faculty of Graduate Studies Department of Hispanic and I t a l i a n Studies We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of B r i t i s h Columbia June, 1978 @ Ethel Rosita Pidoux Hammerly, 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Hispanic and I t a l i a n Studies The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date E t h e l R. Pidoux Hammerly A BSTRA CT This study has focused mainly on the f i c t i o n of the Argen-tine writer Eduardo Mallea, but the t o t a l i t y of his work has been examined chronologically to have a complete view of the progression of his thought. This study shows (1) that Mallea's preference f o r the inner states of man has resulted i n the crea-t i o n of a s p e c i a l atmosphere which i s here referred to as a " s p i r i t u a l world" and (2) that i n such a s p i r i t u a l world there have been at least three stages of development. Different emphases i n the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of theme, tone and style serve as the basis f o r studying the evolution of Mallea's f i c t i o n , which can be attributed to the process of maturation of the writer as well as to his adaptive reactions to a changing environment. A f t e r an introductory biographical chapter, a rationale i s offered i n Chapter II f o r the d i v i s i o n of his works into three cycles, attempting to j u s t i f y the use of the term and also pointing out possible methodological problems. In subsequent chapters each cycle i s discussed i n d e t a i l considering some representative works. Thus, Chapter III presents Mallea's f i r s t cycle (to 1926), his l i t e r a r y i n i t i a t i o n , and search f o r beauty. The second cycle (covering roughly to 19^ 5/5°) i s presented - i -i n Chapters IV and V. M a l l e a ' s new commitment and v i s i o n are d i s c u s s e d from a s e r i e s of essays where h i s i d e o l o g y becomes d e f i n e d . Some of the sources r e l a t e d to h i s i d e o l o g y are con-s i d e r e d by e x p l o r i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h w r i t e r s of the G e n e r a t i o n of 1898 and with;..Stoics. In Chapter V the author's f i c t i o n of the second c y c l e i s a n a l y z e d . A f t e r having t r a c e d the nucleus of h i s i d e o l o g y i n Chapter IV, one can see how h i s i d e o l o g y be-comes pa r t of h i s f i c t i o n w orld. H i s n a t i o n a l i d e a l i s m i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d as a p r e v a l e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s c y c l e . The t h i r d c y c l e ( t o the present) i s presented l n Chapter V I . The more u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r of M a l l e a ' s themes i s pointed out, and h i s s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n w i t h regard to e x i s t e n t i a l i s m i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d . I n a d d i t i o n to having demonstrated the e x i s t e n c e of a s p i r -i t u a l world, composed of emotional, i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral e l e -ments, the d i v i s i o n i n t o c y c l e s seems j u s t i f i e d i n view of the changes i n emphasis t h a t have taken p l a c e . Thus, one can con-clude t h a t M a l l e a ' s themes have a d e f i n i t e p r o g r e s s i o n w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n v a r i e t y and depth. The focus changes from the par-t i c u l a r t o the g e n e r a l , as i t s h i f t s from (1) the i n n e r s t a t e of the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s youth, to (2) the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i d e n t i t y w i t h i n the c o l l e c t i v e n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , to (3) the i n n e r s t a t e s and s t r u g g l e s of men everywhere. A p r o g r e s s i o n can a l s o be seen from the i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l l y l i g h t , to the s e r i o u s a s p e c t s of a meaningful l i f e , and t o the t r a g i c i m p l i c a t i o n s faced d a i l y i n incomprehensible s i t u a t i o n s . I n terms of tone, change i s seen from (1) a l i g h t , f r i v o l o u s a t t i t u d e , w i t h some humor o f t e n mixed w i t h melancholy, t o (2) a s e r i o u s , p a s s i o n a t e , i d e a l i s t i c and committed a t t i t u d e where a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to h i s s o c i e t y i s present, to (3) a l e s s vehement tone, c l o s e r t o man's t r a g i c c o n f l i c t s and r e a l i t y . M a l l e a ' s p o s i t i o n toward l i t e r a t u r e a f f e c t s h i s s t y l e , the change being more e v i d e n t between the f i r s t c y c l e ( a r t f o r a r t ' s sake) and subsequent ones ( l i t e r a t u r e as a means to e l e v a t e man). W i t h i n the l a t t e r p o s i t i o n , h i s s t y l e changes from an i n t e l l e c -t u a l l y i n v o l v e d and wordy r h e t o r i c (which i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o h i s p a s s i o n a t e , I d e a l i s t i c stand and Involves the i n n o v a t i v e nov-e l i s t i c technique of " n a r r a r d e f l n i e n d o " ) to a more c o n t r o l l e d and balanced s t y l e , more concise and detached. The use of the Thomist technique of " n a r r a r d e f l n i e n d o " g i v e s M a l l e a ' s w r i t i n g s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c form, somewhat unorthodox f o r the n o v e l , but which a l l o w s him to d e a l w i t h a l l a s p e c t s of man and b r i n g a new balance between man's ov e r t and c o v e r t a c t i v i t i e s . The use of t h i s technique seems to be g r e a t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Mallea's success i n the c r e a t i o n of a s p i r i t u a l world. ' TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Chapter I - Biographical Introduction 6 Chapter II - Cycles i n the Work of Eduardo Mallea 39 - F i r s t Cycle 48 - Second Cycle 4 9 - Third Cycle 55 Chapter III - F i r s t Cycle: In Search of Beauty 60 Chapter IV - Second Cycle - Part I: In Quest of S e l f - and National Identity —The Shaping of Mallea's Thought 1 0 0 - Mallea's S i l e n t Struggle f o r D e f i n i t i o n 1 0 1 - The Emergence of a S p i r i t u a l Order and Mystical Tendencies 1 0 9 - Mallea's Attitudes Toward Writers and Literature 128 - Mallea and the Novel 14-7 - The Nucleus of Mallea's Ideology 1 5 9 - The " V i s i b l e " Versus the " I n v i s i b l e " Argentina 184 - The Importance of the Hispanic T r a d i t i o n 196 - Mallea, The Generation of 1 8 9 8 and Stoicism.. . 2 0 1 - i v -Page Chapter V - Second Cycle - Part I I : An Ideology Becomes F i c t i o n . 226 - F i e s t a en novlembre 226 - bahfa de s l l e n c l o 251 - La torre 2?6 - Mallea's National Idealism 283 Chapter VI - Third Cycle: Toward Universalism and the Novel of Self-Knowledge Through Tragedy 297 - Chaves 307 - "La razfin humana" and "La revelaclfin" 329 - "La celebracifin" and En l a creclente  oscuridad 335 - Mallea and E x i s t e n t i a l i s m 3^ 2 Conclusions 354 Bibliography 359 Appendix A - I. Chronological L i s t of Eduardo Mallea's F i r s t Editions 382 - I I . Mallea's Works i n Translation 385 Appendix B - The Cu l t u r a l Impact of Immigration i n Argentina .388 THE EVOLUTION OF EDUARDO MALLEA'S SPIRITUAL WORLD INTRODUCTION The Argentine Eduardo Mallea has been a p r o l i f i c writer i n his long l i t e r a r y career. He has produced a vast number of books i n various genres (novels, short s t o r i e s , essays, plays). With his writings he has created, both i n form and content, a work that i s very personal and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . What has made his work d i s t i n c t i v e i s what some have re-ferred to as an unorthodox narrative form, while many others have described his manner of writing, as a symbiotic r e l a t i o n -ship between the essay and the novel. With respect to content, the author himself admits being very concerned, obsessed even, with man's inner world. This i s true, but without further c l a r i f i c a t i o n i t could be interpreted as a mere intere s t i n human emotions. Mallea, however, goes beyond emotions and de-votes much of his attention to the i n t e l l e c t u a l side of man, to his reason and l o g i c . S t i l l i t i s not just emotions and the i n t e l l e c t that struggle f o r primacy, since conscience also has an important r o l e . O v e r all, these elements interplay to provide a s p e c i a l atmosphere, which i s referred to i n t h i s study as Mallea's s p i r i t u a l world. A d e f i n i t i o n of this s p i r i t u a l world i s attempted here by - 1 -2 c o n t r a s t s and approximations as follows*;: i t i s a world where man's " p a i s a j e s e c r e t o " ( s e c r e t landscape) i s revealed as being as important, i f not more so, than h i s p h y s i c a l nature; i t i s a world where preference i s g i v e n to i n t e r n a l and s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e s r a t h e r than to e x t e r n a l and o v e r t a c t i o n ; i t i s a world where ideas and a b s t r a c t i o n s have predominance, without t o t a l d i s r e g a r d f o r the r e a l , concrete p h y s i c a l w o r ld, as the l a t t e r i s o f t e n used to support and i l l u s t r a t e the a b s t r a c t world of thought; i t i s a world where ques t i o n s about the nature, value and Import of e x i s t e n c e , imbued w i t h a high e t h i c a l content, are of concern to the a u t h o r . The p r e v a i l i n g s p i r i t u a l atmosphere r e v e a l s a c e r -t a i n world view on the author's p a r t which a t t h i s p o i n t can be advanced as a s e a r c h f o r t r a n s c e n d e n t a l v a l u e s a t the p e r s o n a l and c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l s . Such a view can be d e r i v e d from h i s e a r l y statement about the e x a l t a t i o n of l i f e ("la e x a l t a c i f l n se-vere de l a v i d a " ) and h i s u r g i n g the development of a s p i r i t u a l a r i s t o c r a c y ; i t shows a l s o i n a t t i t u d e s intended to c r e a t e and f u r t h e r an e t h i c a l consciousness i n s o c i e t y . A f t e r a b r i e f b i o g r a p h i c a l i n t r o d u c t i o n , t h i s study t r a c e s the development and nature of the s p i r i t u a l world i n M a l l e a ' s f i c -t i o n . The study concentrates on h i s f i c t i o n but r e s u l t s from a c a r e f u l r e a d i n g of a l l h i s w r i t i n g s i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . From such a r e a d i n g one can see i n g e n e r a l terms t h a t the author, a f t e r the e a r l y w r i t i n g s d u r i n g h i s youth, has shown a thematic u n i t y of purpose throughout h i s l i f e ; a t the same time, a s h i f t i n emphasis i s e v i d e n t i n c e r t a i n a s p e c t s , making i t f e a s i b l e t o d i v i d e h i s work i n t o three c y c l e s i n order to t r e a t the predomi-3 nant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s within each. Since the author i s s t i l l w r i t ing, t h i s d i v i s i o n i s perforce only tentative, above a l l fo r the most recent period where new concerns and tendencies may s t i l l not be very c l e a r . In Chapter I some facts about the author's l i f e and work are presented. The influence of his home, es p e c i a l l y that of his father, i s shown as a f f e c t i n g some of his l a t e r i d e o l o g i c a l positions. Elements of the author's personality are noted as well as his motives f o r wr i t i n g . More detailed information on his c u l t u r a l - i n t e l l e c t u a l formation i s recorded i n l a t e r chap-ters , where they are discussed i n r e l a t i o n to the evolution of his writings. In Chapter II a rationale i s offered f o r the d i v i s i o n of Mallea's works into cycles, attempting to j u s t i f y the use of the term and also pointing out possible methodological problems. There i s a l s o i n th i s chapter a brief introduction to each cycle, including a preview of conclusions. In subsequent chapters each cycle i s considered i n d e t a i l . Chapter III presents the author's f i r s t cycle, his l i t e r -ary I n i t i a t i o n , and search f o r beauty. The chapter i s based p r i -marily on a discussion of Mallea's f i r s t book, Cuentos para una  inglesa desesperada (1926). The second cycle, covering roughly 1935-19^ 5/50, i s i n t r o -duced i n Chapter IV. Consideration i s given f i r s t to the s i l e n t period of nine years (1927-35) during which the author developed and matured i n a way that allowed him to emerge with a new vision and commitment i n his career. Secondly, the new attitudes of 4 Mallea towards writers and l i t e r a t u r e , and also toward the novel, are presented. T h i r d l y , brief reference i s made to his various essays from t h i s cycle, wherein his developing ideology i s ex-pressed ; p a r t i c u l a r attention Is given to H l s t o r i a de una paslfln  argentina. Fourthly, some of the sources related to his i d e o l -ogy are considered by exploring s i m i l a r i t i e s with writers of the Generation of 1 8 9 8 and Stoicism. In Chapter V the author's f i c t i o n of the second cycle i s discussed. One can see here — a f t e r having traced the nucleus of his ideology In Chapter I V — how an ideology becomes part of the f i c t i o n world. The novels analyzed are F i e s t a en noviembre. La bahla de s l l e n c l o and La torre . Also discussed, as a preva-lent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s cycle, i s the author's national idealism. In Chapter VI the writings of the t h i r d cycle, covering roughly 1945/50 to the present, are examined. Works analyzed i n d e t a i l i n t h i s chapter are Chaves. "La razfin humana," "La re-velaciGn," "La celebracicln" and En l a oreclente oscuridad. and passing reference i s made to others. The more universal char-acter of the author's themes i s pointed out, as well as his em-phasis on the t r a g i c situations man faces i n his d a i l y e x i s t -ence. Mallea's position with regard to e x i s t e n t i a l i s m i s also d iscussed. The bibliography on t h i s author i s extensive. Several books, theses, and numerous a r t i c l e s have been written. Most books have been of a general character, but two of them deal with s p e c i f i c topics, Mallea's s t y l i s t i c s and the thematic c o n t i n u i t y of h i s works. The theses have t r e a t e d t o p i c s such as s o l i t u d e , M a l l e a ' s s e a r c h f o r " a r g e n t i n i d a d h i s e x i s t e n -t i a l i s m , h i s l i t e r a r y theory i n ; r e l a t i o n t o h i s n o v e l i s t i c c r e a t i o n , and h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o n i h i l i s m . The present study c o n s t i t u t e s a new c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h a t i t attempts to d i s c u s s M a l l e a ' s work mainly from a s p i r i t u a l and d e v elop-mental p o i n t of view. CHAPTER I BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION In considering a work of a r t , there are those who claim, as William Faulkner, that "the a r t i s t i s of no importance. Only what he creates i s important.""'" While i t i s c e r t a i n l y pos-s i b l e to appreciate a work of a r t i n and by i t s e l f , knowing something about the author and i t s environment can throw some l i g h t into the work produced, since no work i s produced i n a vacuum. This appears p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n the case of Eduardo Mallea, who has injected into his writings — a l b e i t i n a veiled manner i n most c a s e s — so much of his personal experience. The information available to reconstruct a biography on the author i s taken mostly from his own writings and. from his comments made i n interviews. While he may be the best source of information about himself, this has serious l i m i t a t i o n s , for the feelings he may express are necessarily subjective and there may be a subconscious attempt on his part to bring' some retro-spective coherence into his l i f e and career. With an awareness that no biography ever written can t r u l y be the ultimate and d e f i n i t i v e one, an e f f o r t i s made here to present the available facts (along with an inter p r e t a t i o n of them) that might be ^ ^ n Writers at Work, p. 123, quoted by Katherine Lever i n The Novel and the Reader (London, 1 9 6 l ) , p. 42. - 6 -7 r e l e v a n t to the study of M a l l e a ' s work. The M a l l e a s descend from an old A r g e n t i n e f a m i l y of Basque o r i g i n as w e l l as from I n d i a n a n c e s t r y . They are d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d t o the Sarmiento f a m i l y , whose most famous member, the A r g e n t i n e educator and p r e s i d e n t Domingo F. Sarmiento, w r i t e s 2 about the M a l l e a s i n h i s Reouerdos de p r o v l n c i a . The i n f o r -mation about the a n c e s t r a l M a l l e a f a m i l y i s r a t h e r sketchy, but a c c o r d i n g to Sarmiento's account there i s evidence that they had a c e r t a i n s o c i a l and economic rank, were a c t i v e i n the conquest and i n the f o u n d a t i o n of c i t i e s , and l a t e r i n governing them. Eduardo M a l l e a ' s f a t h e r , N a r c l s o S. M a l l e a , ^ was born i n the i n t e r i o r of A r g e n t i n a ( i n the western r e g i o n ) , but as a youth moved to Buenos A i r e s to study medicine. I t seems h i s s t r o n g w i l l and courageous d e t e r m i n a t i o n enabled him to overcome 2 Reouerdos de p r o v l n c i a (Madrid: A g u i l a r , 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 4 8 6 -510. The f i r s t M a l l e a t o a r r i v e i n America a c c o r d i n g to t h i s account was Don Juan Eugenio de M a l l e a , one of the e a r l y Spanish conquerors. He p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the Indians i n southern C h i l e a f t e r l e a v i n g Peru i n 1552. Soon a f t e r t h a t he s e t t l e d i n the e a s t e r n Andean r e g i o n between Mendoza and San Juan de l a F r o n t e r a , where he married an I n d i a n p r i n c e s s , Teresa de A s c e n c i o ; her f a t h e r was the I n d i a n c h i e f t a i n of Angaco. From t h i s f a m i l y descended, s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s l a t e r , Fermln M a l l e a , a common a n c e s t o r to Domingo F. Sarmiento and Eduardo M a l l e a , about whom they both w r i t e . (Carmen R i v e l l i ' s comment i n Eduardo M a l l e a : La contlnuldad tema'tica de su obra. New York: Las Americas, 1969, p. 1 4 , t h a t Fermln was Don Juan's son i s unacceptable because Fermln died i n the 1 9 t h century — 1 8 4 8 — while Don Juan l i v e d i n the l 6 t h . ) As f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Sarmiento and the M a l l e a s , Eduardo M a l l e a i n La guerra  i n t e r i o r (Buenos A i r e s : Sur, 1963), p. 20, says h i s f a t h e r was " s o b r i n o en segundo grado de Sarmiento." ^ N a r c i s o S. M a l l e a was born i n San Juan, May 15, 1858 and died i n A z u l , i n Buenos A i r e s p r o v i n c e , December 6, 1941. 8 the many obstacles he found as a student. Although a physi-cian by t r a i n i n g , he was active i n other things. For a period i t seems he was also teaching at a Teachers' College i n Azul, i n Buenos Aires Province. There he met and married Manuela A z t i r i a , a former student of t h i s school; she was a member of a landed family of Basque descent. He was nearly twenty years her senior, and they had very d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Mallea's parents settled i n Bahia Blanca, a seaport l o -cated some 500 kilometers south of the c a p i t a l . ^ It i s mostly a grain-shipping c i t y with a cold climate —without sun for long periods of t i m e — surrounded by desert plains; haze, sand blowing from the dunes, or a fine r a i n can go on f o r days with-out end. Mallea's parents had fiv e children born to them, but a boy and a g i r l died a few months a f t e r b i r t h . The three surviving children (Eduardo was the middle ;one) were a l l boys and each was eight years apart from the next: Enrique Narciso (1895-1968), ^ V i c t o r i a Ocampo, Diaiogo con Mallea (Buenos Ai r e s : Sur 1 9 6 9 ) t P» 15. Future references to, and quotations from,this work w i l l appear within the text, i n parenthesis, as Ocampo. -> I n i t i a l l y Bahia Blanca was called "Fuerte Argentino o l a Fortaleza Protectora Argentina," also "The New Buenos Ai r e s . " This c i t y had i t s beginnings i n 1828 i n the lowlands of the d e l -ta of the Naposta" River, and i t was mostly a m i l i t a r y post to serve as protection against the Indian raids which were common at the time and were to a f f e c t the new f o r t i f i e d town u n t i l 1859* (The Indian raids ended i n 1878-79 with the submission effected by General J. A. Roca.) The national policy of immigration was to a l t e r the i n i t i a l character of t h i s town with the advent of the f i r s t nucleus of 150 I t a l i a n s i n 1856; a f t e r f a i l i n g to ob-t a i n good crops i n the barren adjacent lands they dispersed. In l a t e r years new immigrants turned mostly to mercantile interests and the town became an important grain-shipping port. 9 Eduardo Alberto (August 14, 1903 - ), and Fernando Antonio (1911 - ). This age difference accounts i n some degree f o r Eduardo Mallea's f e e l i n g of childhood loneliness and i t s conse-quences, but lack of immediate playmates could have been over-come had he been of a gregarious temperament, which does not seem to have been the case. I t seems he has had a tendency to-wards an introverted nature a l l his l i f e . As Mallea states: Uno esta" ye en su p r i n c i p i o desde que viene a l mundo, y nada ni nadie l o cambiara" de l o que viene a ser. La com-plexion pensativa y l a pausada actitud del alma fueron to-da l a vida mis acompanentes i n t e r i o r e s . (Ocampo, p. 20) According to Mallea's accounts, the strong wind blowing from the bay was his f i r s t f r i e n d , and he says that i n his imagination i t was "para mis sustos, lobo; para mi d e l e i t e , perro."^ 0 H i s t o r i a de una pasifin argentine, 9 t h ed., Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, 196$, p. 25. A l l future references to, and quotations from,the works of Mallea w i l l be shown i n paren-thesis and w i l l appear within the text. The books referred to, and quoted from (whose abbreviations are shown i n parenthesis) are, i n alphabetical order, the following: Bahfa de s i l e n c l o . La, 5 t h ed., Buenos Ai r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudame-ricana, 1966. (Bahia) Chaves. 2nd ed., B i b l i o t e c a Cla'sica y Contemporanea, Buenos A i -res: Losada, 1968. (Chaves) Ciudad junto a l r l o irangyll, La, 4 t h ed., Buenos Ai r e s : Edito-r i a l Sudamericana, 1966. T c i u d e d ) Conoclmlento y_ expreslfln de l a Argentina, Obras completes de  Eduardo Mallea, V o l . I, Buenos A i r e s : Ernece", 1961. Ccono-cimientol Creciente oscurldad . En l a , Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudameri-cana , 1973. (Creciente) Cuentos para una i n g l e s a desesperada, Obras completes de Eduar-do Mallea, Vol. I, Buenos A i r e s : Emece", 1961. CCuentosl F i e s t a en novlembre. 4 t h ed., Bi b l i o t e c a Cla'sica y Contempo-ranea, Buenos A i r e s : Losade, 1968. (Fiesta) Guerra i n t e r i o r , La, Buenos A i r e s : Sur, 1963. (Guerre) H i s t o r i e de una paslon argentina, 9 t h ed., Buenos A i r e s : Edito-r i a l Sudamericana, 1968. (Historia) Meditacio'n en l a coste, Obras completes de Eduardo Mallee, V o l . I, Buenos A i r e s : Emece*, 1961. (Medltaolfln) 10 In spite of his feelings of loneliness Mallea states he had — c o n t r a r y to some c r i t i c s 1 comments— a happy childhood: "habfa tenido...una infancia f e l i z , muy concreta y substancial, en una casa bien terrestre como era l a de mis padres, sd'lida, honda." (Traveslas, I, p. 108) At least he was not an orphan as stated Nooturno europeo. Obras completas de Eduardo Mallea, V o l . I, Buenos A i r e s : Emece", 1961. (Nocturno) Notas de un novelista... Buenos A i r e s : Emece*, 1954. (Notas) Papeles prlvados, Los, Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, 1974. ( P a p e l e s T " Poderio de l a novela, Buenos A i r e s : Aguilar, 1966. (Poderio) Raz<3n humana. La, Buenos Ai r e s : Losada, 1959. (Razgn) Red, La, 2nd ed., Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, 1970. (Red) Retorno. E l , Buenos A i r e s : Espasa-Calpe, 1946. (Retorno) Rodeada esta" de sueno. Buenos A i r e s : Espasa-Calpe, 1944. (Ro-deada") Sayal y_ l a purpura, E l , 2nd ed. , B i b l i o t e c a Contempora"nea, Buenos A i r e s : Losada, 1962. (Sayal) Torre. La,. Buenos Ai r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, 1951. (Torre) Traveslas. Las, Vol. I, Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, 1961. (Traveslas. I) Traveslas, Las, V o l . I I , Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana., 1962. (Traveslas. II) T r i s t e p i e l del universe. Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudamerica-na, 1971. f T r i s t e ) Vida blanca, La, Buenos A i r e s : Sur, i 9 6 0 . (Vida) References to, and quotations from, Mallea's a r t i c l e s and essays published i n periodicals w i l l also appear within the text I t s e l f . The following abbreviations have been used: "Aseveracion sobre Sarmiento," Sur (Buenos A i r e s ) , No. 48 (1938), pp. 30-6. ("Aseveraci6"n") "La responsabllidad de los argentinos," Nosotros (Buenos Aires) 2a. e*poca, Aflo I, Tomo I (Mayo 1936), pp. 177-9. ("Respon-sabl l i d a d " ) "Respuesta a unos amigos colombianos," Bole t i n Cultural y_ Biblio- gra"f ico (Bogota), 10, No. 4 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 773-6. ("Respuesta"") "Sentido de l a i n t e l i g e n c i a en l a expresitfn de nuestro tiempo," Sur (Buenos A i r e s ) , No. 46 ( 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 18-37; reprinted i n Sur. No. 329 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , PP. 90-103. ("Sentido") 11 7 by some c r i t i c s . ' There are, however, other things which are mentioned by Mallea that seem to indicate an uneasy f e e l i n g of i n f e r i o r i t y as a c h i l d . He was unable, for example, to excel i n most games and sports; as a student, he was mediocre i f not poor; having no s i s t e r s or female cousins, he grew up completely apart from g i r l s ; his shy nature probably did not gain him very many male friends ei t h e r . ( H i s t o r l a , pp. 31-5) A l l these things may have set him apart and may have turned him inwards towards the company of books, where he found a sweeter l i f e without r e j e c t i o n . Eduardo Mallea often writes of his father with the highest ( The statement made i n J . E. Englekirk et a l . , An Outline  History of Spanish American Li t e r a t u r e , 3rd ed. (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1965), p. 204, and i n J . A. Grow and E. J . Dudley, eds., "Eduardo Mallea," E l cuento (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966), p. 369 (evidently using the former book as reference) about Mallea l o s i n g his mother as a c h i l d cannot be true: there i s no mention i n any of Mallea's writings to confirm t h i s , and there are instead several photographs In published books picturing Mrs. Mallea with her son Eduardo as a grown man. The l a s t one of these photographs shows Mallea's mother with him and his wife; since he married i n 1944, i t was therefore taken a f t e r that date. (See Ocampo, pp. 39, 41, 53, and 56; also Oscar Hermes V i l l o r d o , Genio y_ figura de Eduardo  Mallea, Buenos A i r e s : Eudeba, 1973.) Arnold Chapman i n an otherwise excellent a r t i c l e ("Terms of S p i r i t u a l I s o l a t i o n i n Eduardo Mallea," Modern Language Forum, Vol. 37, March-June 1952, p. 22) also makes a related statement: " I t i s l i k e l y . . . that c e r t a i n conditions of Mallea's early personal history color his outlook i n the sense of abandonment. It i s known that he and his brother were reared l a r g e l y by t h e i r father, [underlining i s mine] To t h i s biographical d e t a i l one can add hints i n Mallea's f i c t i o n a l writings where, over and over again, there appear characters who early i n l i f e lose t h e i r mothers and are dominated by unloving or otherwise inadequate fathers. They must endure a kind of orphanhood." While there are many characters who are orphans i n Mallea's f i c t i o n , there i s no evidence to support such portrayal as part of the author's personal experience. 1 2 admiration. Time a f t e r time there are tributes to his virtuous and moral character. For instance: Era. un hombre de gran energla y gran ternura, fuerte cara"cter y fuerte i n t e l i g e n c i a , de mucha sa-biduria moral y verbal, de expresifin tan refinada y elegante que no se sabla que" cosa era en 51 m£s se-ctorial, s i aquel desprendimiento permanente de su co-razfln o aquel hablar concise, vehemente, delicado, z con l o cual todo l o tocaba en e l orden del pensamien-to, s i n menoscabo, dstndole dignidad... .Mi padre ha pertenecido a esa clase de hombres de moral de acero que aparecen en l a dura formacid'n s o c i a l de los palses. ( H i s t o r i a . p. 2 7 ) 8 Eduardo, the son, repeatedly states that he could never measure up to the energetic strength of character of his father. When Angel Flores referred to Don Narciso's "neurosis feroz," Eduardo Mallea c l a r i f i e d : "Lo que tenia mi padre e influyo" en ml no era una 'neurosis feroz' sino una fuerza de cara"cter f e -o r o z . " x The persistence and dedication shown by Mallea to his own vocation t e l l s us a great deal about his own strengths, although he does not seem to think he has inherited any: "Yo no herede* l a hermosa fuerza de carficter... lo que herede" fue e l sentido de l a atmfisfera en que ese cara'cter actu<5 y luchd"."'1"0 His mother, Manuela A z t i r i a de Mallea, was almost the opposite i n character to his father: ° See also the references i n some of his other books: Guerra, pp. 2 0 - 4 ; Poderlo. pp. 64 - 5 ; Notas, pp. 2 5 - 6 ; Trave-s l a s . I, pp. l 4 - 6 i and 2 9 . S i m i l a r statements are found i n Ocampo, pp. 1 6 - 8 . 9 H i s t o r i a y_ antologla del cuento y_ l a novela en Hispa-noam^rlca (New York: Las Americas Publishing Co., 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 6 6 5 . 1 0 Ibid. See also Sergio V i l a r , "Eduardo Mallea: Pasitfn y r a c i o c i n i o , " Papeles de Son Armadans (Madrid), Tomo XXIX, No. 8 7 (Junio 1 9 6 3 ) ,-• 303 -4. 13 Una mujer suave, s a l de l a t i e r r a en su bondad t r a n q u i l a . ( H i s t o r i a , p. 25) ...tenue,...dulce,...temerosa de c a r S c t e r . (Tre-ves l a s , I, p. 15) . . . d S b i l y v u l n e r a b l e de c e r S c t e r . Nos perdo-naba l o s c a s t i g o s , se c o n d o l f a de una d i s c i p l i n a que siempre e r a demasiado f u e r t e , aun cuando nos l a a p l i -caban con normalidad. (Ocampo, p. 14) T h i s g e n t l e woman, who i n her e a r l y childhood had been rushed out of her home on horseback before impending I n d i a n r a i d s (Ocampo, p. 15 ) , was Eduardo M a l l e a ' s c o n f i d a n t e : "Confieso a mi madre todo y a mi padre nada, porque es s e v e r e " (Poderio, p. 64) i\s a youngster, he seems to have been very c l o s e to h i s mother, and alth o u g h a f t e r growing up he has r e p e a t e d l y s t a t e d an u n q u a l i f i e d a d m i r a t i o n f o r h i s f a t h e r , as a c h i l d the f a t h e r seemed to have loomed as a l a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e f i g u r e that i n s p i r e d awe and r e s p e c t . I t would seem that the f a t h e r ' s s e v e r i t y tended t o i n h i b i t o r t e r r o r i z e Eduardo, who yearned i n s t e a d f o r t h a t sweet ^ f a n t a s y world he was l e a r n i n g about i n the books he was beginning to read. ( T r e v e s f a s , I , p. 64) During h i s f a t h e r ' s absence, f o r example, Eduardo l i k e d to go to h i s o f f i c e and s i t on h i s f a t h e r ' s b i g l e a t h e r c h a i r . The noise of the a r r i v e l of Don N e r c i s o ' s horse c a r r i a g e , however, was enough f o r him to hurry out of there where he should not have been s c r a t c h i n g the f i n e l e a t h e r w i t h the undone l a c e s of h i s shoes. (P o d e r i o . pp. 63-4) I t Wip.uld be s e v e r a l years before Eduardo had a d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n of h i s f a t h e r , but when he d i d he d i d not h e s i t a t e to express p r o f u s e l y h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n toward him: 14 Pasara" todavla un tiempo hasta que e l nino de s i e -te anos tenga los anos suficientes como para que, nino afln, pueda...distinguir los elementos de i n t e l i g e n c i a y cultura que en e l me*dico de cincuenta y siete anos de-finira"n su saber, aquel saber vasto y prof undo, ene*rgico y claro, moral y humano, que en esa ciudad era de veras cosa eminente....Pero l o propio de l a juventud es d i s -criminar tarde de excelencias, y yo mismo no sabrfa afln l o que reconocerla despue"s por madurez y por comparaci<5n, a saber: que aquel me*dlco de provincia habfa fundado su vida sobre e l senorlo mayor, que es e l seflorlo del espf-r i t u y l a dist i n c i t f n honrosa y honrante de los usos. (Po-derlo, p. 65) Don Narciso was a man of action. He not only was well-read and highly cultured, he also seems to have had an interest i n creative writing. He wrote two books: Mi vlda, mis fobias, a book of short s t o r i e s , and Medlcina de agujeros, a s a t i r i c work on the state of medical practice, both written under the pseudo-nym Segundo Huerpe. Apparently these books did not reach a wide audience nor e s t a b l i s h him as a writer of renown, but they do hint something about the environment and the values e x i s t i n g i n the Malleas' home. I t seems to have been Don Narciso who i n -s t i l l e d i n Eduardo a love f o r books from an early age. He had a well-stocked l i b r a r y with books i n Spanish and French by authors from several countries.''"1' The Malleas' i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l environment seems to have encompassed the best of the European t r a d i t i o n as well as f a m i l i a r i t y with the c l a s s i c s . Furthermore, Don Narciso guided his children i n t h e i r readings as he wanted them to develop c u l t u r a l l y within both i n t e r n a t i o -nal and Argentine patterns. Eduardo's father was also an active and important provin-Poderlo, p. 14. Some of the books Mallea remembers from his father's l i b r a r y are Don Qul.lote. novels by Balzac, Moli^re's plays, Carlyle's Sartor Resartus, and works by Emerson and Una-muno. 15 c i a l p o l i t i c a l figure of the Unidn Clvic a party. ( H i s t o r i a , pp. 28-9) In that capacity, the father often spoke at home against the moral decadence of the country and of i t s public a u t h o r i t i e s . (Ocampo, p. 22) Eduardo says of his father: "Tenia cara*cter, y l o que ma's le preocupaba en e l pals era l a c r i s i s del cara"cter." (Travesfas, I, p. 29) This same preoccupation would be l a t e r shown by the son. I t appears i n his writings as his "Argentine passion," which w i l l be discussed i n d e t a i l i n Chapter IV. It seems that while a student of medicine i n Buenos A i r e s , Don Narciso had a chance to observe first-hand the important national p o l i t i c a l figures of the time: Mitre, Sarmiento, Ave-llaneda, and P e l l e g r i n i . Later, as a doctor, one of his pa-tient s was a prominent p o l i t i c i a n , Bernardo de Irigoyen. His observations on these people of renown would often be heard during family dinners, or he would show his fondness f o r Argen-tine history by narrating incidents of i t s past. As a v i v i d narrator, i t appears Don Narciso was able to imprint i n his young son's impressionable mind a love f o r his nation's past, through the r e p e t i t i o n of heroic h i s t o r i c a l moments that assumed very r e a l proportions and became more endearing with each repe-t i t i o n . (Guerra, pp. 21-3) The sense of history thus acquired by Eduardo Mallea i n his childhood i s to play an important role i n his l a t e r world view and i n his d i r e c t i o n as a writer. Furthermore, because of his appreciation of history, he comes to view the national past as something valuable of which he can be j u s t l y proud. Accom-panying t h i s pride i n a noble past, there i s a c a l l to 1 6 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the preservation of i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and for t h e i r projection into the future. One finds comments i n 'which these factors become evident, as when he writes to his younger brother: La sangre que contienen tus venas no es una recie"n llegada a l a idea de grandeza....Tu primer antecesor americano no vino aqul de los a i r e s , venia de Espana; y era un alfe"rez de Indias, actor de l a Conquista. ("Carta a l hermano me nor," Sayal, p. 158) And one of his characters i n Bahla proudly says: "Yo, que te-nia sobre mis hombros ocho generaciones de argentinos..." (p. 3*0 There are other references to the 400 years of history that rest on his shoulders. While these statements may sound l i k e rather snobbish appeals to pride i n ancestry, behind them one can detect the sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which prompted the old Argen-tine families to set an example to the many a r r i v i n g immigrants. Mallea may have displayed these attitudes also i n part to j u s t i f y his own c r i t i c a l comments on the present state of national a f f a i r s . As expressed i n more recent years, history i s perceived by Mallea as performing a d i d a c t i c function; he has stated that one of the greatest dangers i s to lose sight of the lessons of history and to lose f a i t h i n t h e i r effectiveness. (Traveslas, I, p. 22) I t was through his mother that Mallea received the basic and usual C h r i s t i a n teaching. (Traveslas, I, p. 102; Guerra, p. 40) He was baptized i n the Catholic Church, and taken to Mass on Sundays. At home he would observe his mother praying, but he would not accept any r i t u a l or practice that took away his sense of personal freedom. (Guerra, p. 4l) Thus, while he was influenced by the early r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n from his mother, 17 he never became a p r a c t i c i n g believer. His father's dominant influence was probably greater i n t h i s aspect, for i n t a l k i n g of his family's r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s Mallea describes the members of his family as agnostics, thus a s c r i b i n g his father's i d e o l -ogy to a l l of them. (Guerra, p. 16) In spite of t h i s position, Mallea i s characterized by a set of ideas that make his writings highly m o r a l i s t i c i n content, with what would seem l i b e r a l ten-dencies i n regard to d o c t r i n a l matters. In advising a prospec-tive writer, f o r example, Mallea t e l l s him: "No se a l l e en con-tra de su apetito de decoro humane E l f i n no j u s t i f i c a los me-dios, e l f i n no puede sino parecerse a los medios." (Poderio, p. 96) This would seem to show his basic e t h i c a l position. As a child Eduardo Mallea was sent to a B r i t i s h School i n Bahia Blanca, under the d i r e c t i o n of an Australian, a Mrs. H i l t o n (who ruled and maintained order with a whip) , so that he would be exposed to a language other than his own. There he mingled with children of various c u l t u r a l backgrounds (French, English, Danish, Norwegian, German and others), whose immigrant parents had come to Argentina to s e t t l e as farmers and traders. Through his acquaintance with these children he grew to love the culture of t h e i r lands, whose l i t e r a t u r e he was then beginning to read. ( H i s t o r i a . p. 3 2 f f . ) Among his f i r s t readings were works by Charles Dickens, Alexander Dumas, Arthur Conan Doyle, Thackeray, Emily Bronte^, the C a l i f o r n l a n novels of Bret Harte, and works by Daniel Defoe, C a l l e j a , Edgar A l l a n Poe, Maupassant, 18 12 T o l s t o i , Balzac, Flaubert and others. The t r a d i t i o n a l admiration of the cultured Argentine e l i t e for the European c u l t u r a l centers i s also present i n the Mallea family, as shown i n t h e i r travels and i n the schooling given Eduardo. In 1910, when Eduardo was seven years old, the Mallea family made the t r i p de_ rigueur to Europe , v i s i t i n g Madrid and Paris. In 1914 the Mallea family moved from the house on Donado Street where Eduardo was born — a one-story pink house with a t y p i c a l Spanish layout and two p a t i o s — to a three-story house with several balconies on 116 Lamadrid Street. This house has been referred to by Mallea as " e l h o t e l i t o , " and the view of the landscape from those balconies seems to have been deeply im-printed i n Mallea's mind. Both of these houses have appeared repeatedly i n Mallea's reminiscenses and have served as the detailed setting of at least one novel, Simbad. By 1916, the father gave up his medical practice and moved the family to Buenos Aires to f a c i l i t a t e the university educa-t i o n of t h e i r oldest son. While the professional medical prac-t i c e of the father gave the family some s o c i a l stature and i n -fluence i n Bahia Blanca, s t i l l a r e l a t i v e l y small c i t y at the time, that was not to be the case when they moved to the c a p i t a l . Eduardo says: "Buenos Aires me recibi<5 con su vasto mutismo." (Poderio. p. 16) While Buenos Aires has the appearance of being Ocampo, p. 37. A few pages e a r l i e r (p. 26), however, Mallea stated: "Las primeras lecturas de que me acuerdo eran los cuentos hallados en las r e v i s t a s , en e l T i t - B i t s . " 19 receptive and warm, Mallea has described i t as having an impene-trable and cold ambience for the newly arrived immigrant, which i s apparently a transposition of his own feelings upon his moving 13 to t h i s "Babilonia," "ciudad r i c a como Creso." J In spite of this l o s s , Eduardo came to l i k e the excitement of the people he was able to watch i n the big c i t y and quickly developed a strong love f o r i t : "Vivfa en mi juventud en una re l a c i d n de amor con Buenos A i r e s , con e l pals." (Poderlo, p. 68) The contrast of Buenos Aires with the quiet landscape surrounding Bahla Blanca i n the i n t e r i o r was to leave an i n d e l -i b l e mark on Mallea's writings. A f e e l i n g for his land seems to have developed from those long lonely evenings when, r e s t r i c t e d by the inclement weather, he would almost r i t u a l l y contemplate, from a high balcony i n the back of his house, the vast plains and t h e i r distant meeting place with the sky i n the horizon. He has seen the landscape as e f f e c t i n g an influence over the i n d i v i d u a l and he sees that i n his country, where there i s a lack of man-made esthetic refuges, the landscape serves as a refuge that produces amazing mutations: En otras partes del mundo uno puede i r y refu-giarse a mirar en un sal<5n casi s o l i t a r i o un Duccio, un Piero... .Aca", l o tlnico que puede parecerse a eso, e l tfnico suceda"neo, es s a l i r atropelladamente a l cam-po l i b r e y esperar a que l a ecuacid'n llanura-horizonte nos invada con sus sorprendentes mutaciones. (Notas, PP. 16-7) His attitude toward the land i s — a s opposed to that of J See the short novel "Sumersidn" i n Ciudad, pp. 15-51* Cf. H i s t o r i a . pp. 3 8 - 4 0 . 20 other Spanish American novelists, such as R. Gallegos and E. R i v e r a — by and large a positive one, f o r he perceives i t s con-structive aspects: man i n his contact with the land i s able to a t t a i n a purer, more honest way of l i f e with better values, as presented i n several of his books. In his view, nature provides a form of morality superior to that of the c i t y , since l i f e i n the c i t y i s dominated by a r t i f i c i a l s o c i a l conventions created by man. This can be seen i n the following two quotations: Pero l a naturaleza no hace sino que nos acerquemos todavfa ma's a nosotros mismos. Lo que determina en e l hombre es una necesidad de cl a r i f i c a c i d ' n y de na-turalidad. As! como aterraba a Pascal l a presencia de los eternos espacios i n f i n i t o s , socava l a presen-cia de l o natural e l a'nimo erizado o s o f f s t i c o ; l o fuerza a ser "substancialmente", no por las vlas que las sirenas de l a abstracciCn preparan. Ante l o na-t u r a l , un hombre piensa naturalmente. (Nocturno, p. 137) Nuestros t e r r i t o r i o s clima'ticos ("le silence e"ternel de ces espaces i n f i n i s . . . " ) son por su naturaleza propios para ese dia"logo con e l esplritu....Cada dla se habla menos en esta t i e r r a con e l e s p l r i t u , cada vez se habla ma's con las vlsceras, y con las v l s c e -ras me nos nobles. Nos rodea un especta"culo desola-dor: en e l orden de l a inteligencia...de l a cultura... en e l gobierno. ("Responsabilidad," p. 178) His f e e l i n g for the land also emerges from the recognition that one derives from i t a l l the nutrients, physical as well as s p i r -i t u a l , that go into one's being: No podemos desligarnos de e l l a [la t i e r r a ] , s i n haber nutrido en e l l a , aun espiritualmente, nues-tra rafz....Toda impregnacid"n poderosa de vida y humanidad viene de un sentimiento profundo de l a t i e r r a . ( H i s t o r i a , p. 136) Also: La e s p i r i t u a l i d a d de los hombres no puede ser una e s p i r i t u a l i d a d abstracta....La verdadera e s p i r i -tualidad humana tiene sus pies plantados en l a t i e -r r a . De ahf se desgaja y arranca, en su hermosa 21 aventura, e l alma perfectible cuando merece estar ordenada a un t e r r i t o r i o ma's a l t o . ("Aseveracidn," P. 36) Not long a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l i n the c a p i t a l , Eduardo was enrolled at a Boxing Club, since his father believed i n an austere education and wanted him to be physically educated as 14 well. In Buenos Aires Eduardo completed his secondary edu-cation at a public school, Colegio Nacional Manuel Belgrano. By his own accounts, he was not a b r i l l i a n t student there e i -ther, barely obtaining a passing mark i n some subjects. (Ocampo, pp. 18-21) Although inclined to l i t e r a t u r e from an early age, Mallea was discouraged by his father from following a career i n w r i t i n g . His father (whose opinion on this was l i k e that of most Argentines) 1^ advised him that l i t e r a t u r e was something necessary, even indispensable, f o r the c u l t u r a l development of the i n d i v i d u a l but not suitable as a f u l l time career, since i t was considered impractical and did not guarantee an adequate income. Pressured by his father, and i n order to please him, H i s t o r i a , pp. 3 8 - 4 0 . In Ocampo, p. 3 4 , the author states i n this regard: "Ma's tarde entre* inducido por mi padre, 'para que supiera defenderme 1, en e l Boxing Club, donde f u i alumno del famoso W i l l i e Gould y peleaba en exhibiciones semanales en p f i b l i -co recibiendo golpes en e l ring i l u s t r e por los que a l l l se ha-blan medido, saliendo mareado de entre las sogas, con los herma-nos Palomar o con Sua"rez; y llegue* a ser campe<5n u n i v e r s i t a r i o con e l doctor Herosa de a"rbitro, despue"s de dos combates t e r r i -bles....Pero iba a l club por fuerza y con desgano, como i r l a despue*s a l a Facultad de Derecho, sintie"ndome ma's atrafdo por sentarme a l e e r una novela en mi casa o en un banco publico." J In Bahia there are several mentions that reveal a neg-ative attitude towards the creative writer i n Argentine society. See pp. 8 0 , 235, 353, 388, 395, ^ 0 0 , 4 1 1 . 22 Mallea entered Law School at the University of Buenos Aires l n 1920. (His two brothers also studied law there.) But since he lacked a true interest i n t h i s f i e l d , Mallea abandoned his studies at about the time his f i r s t writings began to appear. 1^ He f e l t greatly excited by his f i r s t accomplishments as a writer, but also because he could show his father that he could make a future f o r himself within his chosen f i e l d . In 192? he announced to his father that he had chosen his career, and that he would s t a r t working as a reporter f o r the Buenos Aires news-paper La Nacitfn (a prestigious l i b e r a l newspaper founded by Bar-tolome* Mitre, whom Don Narciso admired very much). His father had to accept the change: "Mi padre se allan<5 a soportar a ese •cagatintas' en vez de a l titil abogado." (Guerra, p. 40) (Thus i t seems Mallea's father had a great influence on Eduardo while young and also l a t e r i n l i f e , since Eduardo con-tinued l i v i n g with his parents u n t i l he married, i n his f o r t i e s . Some of the d e t a i l s that emerge from Mallea' s? comments about his past, although somewhat v e i l e d , would lead one to detect i n the father such a strong and dominant personality that i n some cases would almost seem to overwhelm the timid personality of his son. From his accounts, as already recorded above, Mallea was not i n -terested i n boxing, but he engaged i n i t at his father's i n s i s t -ence. He was not interested i n a career l n law, but again he pursued i t to please his father. There i s a statement by Mallea that would seem to Indicate paternal reproach even when he was For a complete l i s t of Mallea's published books see Appendix A. 23 already an adult: "Ma's .de una vez, ya adelante en mis anos, habrfa de escuchar en torno a ml, como reproche, que no me em-barcara ' perdida l a cabeza 1, en un placer demente o una r i s a absoluta." (Guerra, p. 40)) Mallea has made negative remarks about education i n Ar-gentina. He writes scathingly of the indifference and lack of dedication and i n s p i r a t i o n provided by secondary teachers and university professors, who did not take seriously t h e i r respon-s i b i l i t y of guiding the destinies of a nation through i t s youth. It seems that i n spite of the disagreements experienced with his father with regard to his choice of career, Mallea came to re a l i z e l a t e r that the t r u l y fundamental education he obtained came from his father, who provided him with the excellent exam-ple of a man of character and dedication while introducing him at the same time to s i g n i f i c a n t authors and giving meaningful d i r e c t i o n to his readings. (Ocampo, pp. 21-2) While at f i r s t Mallea read only i n his native Spanish language, not long afterwards he was reading i n English and French, and l a t e r , as an adult, i n I t a l i a n and Portuguese. (Ocampo, p. 36) He has been a voracious reader since c h i l d -hood, a fac t that cannot be overemphasized and accounts for his vast culture. Among authors he mentions having" read dur-ing his adolescence are Manzoni, M i s t r a l , Hugo, Chauteaubriand, de Vigny, Meredith, Hardy, Turgenev, Goethe (Werther), Balzac, Stendhal, d'Annunzlo, Sterne, S i r Thomas Browne, Daniel Defoe, 24 17 and Stevenson. ' There i s a noticeable predominance of non-Hispanic authors i n his readings, a large group being comprised of English and French writers. Also Mallea states he has had throughout his l i f e a p r e d i l e c t i o n for writers' biographies. (Ocampo, p. 28) (More d e t a i l on his c u l t u r a l - i n t e l l e c t u a l f o r -mation and development i s provided i n subsequent chapters where his writings are discussed i n r e l a t i o n to these aspects.) In 1928 Mallea toured Europe again, with his parents, by-taking advantage of the opportunity afforded to him by having to attend as a reporter f o r La Nacidn the Olympic Games i n Hol-land. In 1931 he collaborated with V i c t o r i a Ocampo i n the foundation of the cosmopolitan p e r i o d i c a l Sur, at the instance of Waldo Frank who had v i s i t e d Argentina the previous year. Sur was created when members of the i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e —always i n tune with Europe— became alienated from the c u l t u r a l l y na-t i o n a l i s t i c tendencies that emerged to counteract the e f f e c t s of massive immigration. Furthermore, fearing that such p r e v a i l -ing tendencies would be detrimental to Argentina's c u l t u r a l well-being, i t was intended that a journal l i k e Sur could open two-way communication between Argentina and abroad and thus con-tribute to a c u l t u r a l cosmopolitanism. (See Appendix B.) Mallea continued d i l i g e n t l y performing his newspaper job and i n 1931 he was appointed Director of the weekly L i t e r a r y 1 ? H i s t o r i a . pp. 42-3. H. Ernest Lewald, i n Eduardo Mallea (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1977), P« 20, has noted that the l i s t s given by Mallea of his readings do not coincide. This should not invalidate his statements about his readings however. He has read so much that confusion i n r e c a l l i n g readings f o r s p e c i f i c periods i n his l i f e i s understandable. 25 Supplement of La NaclOn. a highly prestigious position. He has said of this work that i t was "un cargo simple y cfimodo," (Tra-veslas . I, p. 244) which evidently allowed him enough free time to write. According to a report written by Mallea f o r H. Ernest Lewald, Mallea has said he had to be at the o f f i c e only from three 18 to eight every afternoon and could write i n the morning. He was to hold t h i s post f o r 25 years, u n t i l 1955. In 1934 Mallea traveled to Europe again, t h i s time with V i c t o r i a Ocampo, to lecture i n Rome and Milan by i n v i t a t i o n of the I n s t i t u t o I n t e r u n i v e r s i t a r l o I t a l i a n o . In t h i s t r i p he had a chance to meet Vale"ry and Giraudoux i n Paris; Berdyaev, Moravia, RamCn Fernandez, and Maurice Martin du Gard i n Pontigny; and Pirandello i n Rome. (Lewald, p. 498) His opportunity to meet these many writers seems to have been very i n s p i r a t i o n a l , to-gether with the fac t that now, being more mature, he was able to grasp his d i r e c t i o n as a writer with greater certainty. One res u l t of t h i s t r i p was a profusion of essays, short s t o r i e s and novels that have remained as a very distinguished part of his l i t e r a r y output. The e f f e c t of his t r i p s has been quite marked on Mallea. They have provided him with new, challenging views and ideas: En un e s p l r i t u de i n c l l n a c i C n s i l e n c i o s a y medita-t i v a l a obra o in f l u e n c l a de mis vlaj e s ha sido enorme. No ya por su aporte a l conocimlento gene-r a l d e l hombre, sino, y mucho ma's, por e l valor H. Ernest Lewald, "Comentarios sobre unas 'Notas' de Eduardo Mallea," Anales de L l t e r a t u r a Hispanoamerlcana (Madrid), V o l . I I , Nos. 2-3 (1973-74"!, 503. Future references to, and quotations from, th i s work w i l l appear i n parenthesis within the text as Lewald. 26 incitante que tiene para e l pensamiento e l encuentro con d i s t i n t o s ritmos humanos, con universos morales y fondos v i t a l e s diferentes, a veces semejantes, a veces opuestos. Los hombres se ven en profundidad por su r e f l e j o en los otros hombres. (Lewald, p. 506) One can see numerous European elements present i n his writings a f t e r his v i s i t of 1934, as well as many elements from India a f t e r his short stay there i n 1956. His frequent walks through Buenos Aires and some European c i t i e s (and l a t e r i n India) , have given him sights that stimulate his imagination and writing, while at the same time have allowed him to be by himself and mull over his ideas undisturbed. He says: S i no he pensado mis asuntos caminando, he caminado en cambio mucho antes de ocurrlrseme los temas, y e l mucho andar por las c a l l e s de Buenos Aires y de muchas otras ciudades del mundo ha sido para ml c a p i t a l . E l caminar por las ciudades me extiende, abre un escena-r i o incomparable a mis ojos i n t e r i o r e s y estimula mis rumias. (Lewald, p. 501) 19 Mallea's p r o c l i v i t y for walking alone i n the c i t y appears also i n many of his f i c t i o n a l characters. Mallea l i v e d with his parents u n t i l his father's death i n 1941, and then with his mother alone u n t i l 1944. (Lewald, p. 505) In that year he married Helena Munoz Larreta, a mem-ber of an old Creole Argentine family. She i s apparently a 20 r e t i r i n g person and i s also a writer. They have had no i y In H i s t o r i a , p. 44, Mallea writes: " S a l l a a pensar, en l a noche, lugar d i l e c t o a l hurario y s o l i t a r i o , en una deam-bulaci<5n larga de horas." And i n Poderio, p. 24, a si m i l a r idea is expressed: "mis largas caminatas pensativas por e l Buenos Aires de las ma's lejanas plazas." 20 In his interview with A. Pizarnik and E. de Olaso ("En-t r e v i s t a con Eduardo Mallea," Zona Franca (Caracas) , Aflo I, No. 18, segunda quincena de mayo de 1965, p. 12) Mallea t e l l s of his friendship with the writer Lawrence D u r r e l l , who called 27 children. Only once Mallea appears to have expressed i n his published writings a nostalgic f e e l i n g for natural paternity: "Miro de soslayo a l padre y a l a cr i a t u r a : q^ue' nostalgia por esa natural paternidad!" (Traveslas, I I , p. 18) Almost nothing i s known about the author's previous love l i f e . Carmen R i v e l l i considers Rodeada esta* de sue no a confes-21 sional novel. In i t , Mallea presents the two dramas of an un-named protagonist: a drama concerning his country and a drama of love. While i t i s a fact that the former i s derived d i r e c t l y from the author's experience, there i s no evidence to confirm the l a t t e r . The love drama consists of the protagonist's sepa-r a t i o n from Paula, a woman who "estaba dispuesta a negarse para afirmar algo que estuviera fuera de e l l a . . . ; por eso-tenia l a Mrs. Mallea "the dark lady of the shadows" because she avoided public lectures and c o c k t a i l parties, preferring to stay home instead. Some of her publications are the following: Sonetos en  carne viva. (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, 1950) This book of poems was reviewed i n Sur (Buenos A i r e s ) , No. 198 (195D, .pp. 75-6. La pregunta, (Buenos A i r e s : Emece", 1955) a book of poems reviewed by Carlos Grieben i n Sur (Buenos Aires) , No. 239 (1956), pp. 133-4. Baltasar, (Buenos A i r e s : Emece-, 1961) , a nar-r a t i o n reviewed by Oscar H. V i l l o r d o , i n Sur (Buenos A i r e s ) , No. 274 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 8 9 . This i s the story of a dog by that name owned by the Malleas. About this dog Mallea says "que v i v l a sabio y paciente en e l inmenso tedio que nuestro egolsmo afec-tuoso debla depararle." (Ocampo, p. 64) Other writings by Helena Mufioz Larreta that appeared i n Sur (Buenos Aires) are: "Las cosas" (poem), No. 204 ( 1 9 5 1 ) , p. 55. "Tres poemas: Cancl<5n del nino enfermo. Tener es no tener. E l mar ya lejano." No. 228 ( 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 74. "Como l a alondra" (sonnet), No. 234 (1955), P« 81. "La mentira" (short story), No. 238 (1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 63-7. "La terraza" (short story), No. 260 (19 5 9 ) , PP. 40-3. 21 Eduardo Mallea: La continuidad tema'tica de su obra, (New York: Las Americas, 1969), p. 42. Future references to, and quotations from, th i s work w i l l appear i n parenthesis w i t h i n the text as R i v e l l i . 28 22 fuerza de l a vida." In the novel La torre one finds a si m i l a r separation; but again this i s a piece of f i c t i o n and thus one i s not j u s t i f i e d i n considering i t a part of the author's per-sonal experience, even i f there i s veiled autobiography i n some of his writings. While the above i s pure speculation, one finds i n Traveslas, I, an instance of personal r e j e c t i o n by a woman who had formerly held Mallea i n a privileged status and this case — u n l i k e the previous ones which appear i n works of f i c t i o n -i s autobiographical, (pp. 70-2) The author has been otherwise extremely reserved about his love l i f e , since he considers i t to be of an intimate nature. (Traveslas, I, p. 218) His b e l i e f i n the intimacy of love i s demonstrated by his disapproving com-ments about a couple i n Prance whom he saw kissing passionately i n public. (Traveslas, I, pp. 234-5) Furthermore, there are very few e x p l i c i t love scenes i n his works. In general, Mallea's attitude i n thi s regard seems to be i n tone with the standard view of the middle class i n Argentina —people accept matters of love as an acknowledged part of ' l i f e but agree t a c i t l y that they are not to be discussed nor displayed i n public. Mallea's was a middle class or upper middle class family, but not part of the closed Argentine a r i s t o c r a c y . While recog-nizing his class status and the negative aspects of a bourgeois mentality, Mallea has made a d i s t i n c t i o n c l a r i f y i n g his s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . He distinguishes between two d i f f e r e n t types of bourgeoisie: a " d u l l and sleepy" one, characterized by i t s R i v e l l i , p. 42, i s quoting from Rodeada esta~ de sue no (Buenos A i r e s : Austral, 1946), p. 45. 29 materialism, conformity and love for the easy l i f e , and an i d e a l i s t i c bourgeoisie, possessing c e r t a i n economic means but also a sense of nonconformity and dissent about the human con-d i t i o n . He places himself within the l a t t e r : "provengo de... una burguesla i d e a l i s t a . " ( H i s t o r i a , p. 28) While i t may appear that he i s tryi n g to present himself i n the best l i g h t —some-thing that i s only n a t u r a l — one cannot r e a l l y quarrel with his view, for i t i s evident (as w i l l be shown i n Chapter IV) that he i s indeed i d e a l i s t i c . He does not seem to be against a basic degree of comfort, but he aspires to r i d himself of any negative influence that his s o c i a l class might have had on him; he says, fo r example, he has never attempted to amass wealth or surround himself with luxuries. (Traveslas, I, p. 2l6; Ocampo, pp. 42-4) His own choice of career a t t e s t s to his disregard for wealth, because i t Is well known that most writers i n Spanish America who attempt to make a l i v i n g from r o y a l t i e s barely manage to support themselves. (The demands from the reading public are not very large and the editions are normally of a few thousand copies, usually 1,000 to 5,000.) One has to conclude that the pursuit of money has d e f i n i t e l y not been Mallea's goal. Fur-thermore, he has refused to follow the l a t e s t l i t e r a r y trends just to s e l l more books; Instead, he has acted on p r i n c i p l e . Additional evidence of t h i s i s that he has followed the Argentine t r a d i t i o n of generosity and d i s i n t e r e s t —which he defines as the "a'nimo de donacion" ( H i s t o r i a , Chapter X ) — by l i b e r a l l y giving of his time, talents and means to various causes, 30 2 3 e s p e c i a l l y l i t e r a r y s o c i e t i e s . J He has collaborated without pay i n the creation of some l i t e r a r y journals, the most pres-tigious one being Sur. He has also donated the prize money of one of his l i t e r a r y awards (Premio Vaccaro, i 9 6 0 ) to the v i c -2 4 tims of a Chilean earthquake. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that sharply d i f f e r e n t i a t e s Mallea from the " d u l l and sleepy" bourgeoisie i s his constant f e e l i n g that he must improve on his l i t e r a r y accomplishments. There are many passages that show his discontent. For example: "Ten-go 53 anos y nada de l o que quise construir ha sido construido en l a medida de las dimensiones que me propuse." (Traveslas, I, ^ Mallea has been on the e d i t o r i a l board of several jour-nals: Re v i s t a de America, Realidad, and Sur. He has been an ac-tive member of, among others, the P.E.N. Club, the CIrculo de l a Prensa, the Sociedad Argentina de E s c r i t o r e s (elected p r e s i -dent i n 1940), the Academia Goetheana of S3!© Paulo, B r a z i l (by appointment i n 1949), and the Academia Argentina de Letras (by appointment i n i 9 6 0 ) . 2 4 The Award of the Fundaci<5n Vaccaro i s normally given to a "periodista, e s c r i t o r u hombre de ciencia que en e l cumplimien-to de su actividad i n t e l e c t u a l se haya destacado por e l conjunto de su labor y sea e*sta honrosa para e l pals o reporte un benefi-cio para l a humanidad." Recognition has been given to Mallea by many other awards. Some of them have been: f i r s t prize for prose i n the Concurso L i t e r a r i o Municipal of Buenos Aires for Nocturno europeo (1935); second National Award of the Comisidn Nacional de Cultura f o r his writings of 1936-38; f i r s t National Award f o r Lit e r a t u r e , i n 1945, for his works Las Aguilas (1943) and Rodeada  esta* de sue no (1944) ; Gran Premio de Honor of the Sociedad Argen-tina de E s c r i t o r e s , i n 1948; Casavalle Award, i n 1955, f o r La  sala de espera (1953); F o r t i G l o r i Award f o r his book E l resen-timiento (1966); Gran Premio Nacional de las Artes, i n 1970, pre-viously given only twice i n the l i t e r a r y category. Together with Borges, Mallea received an honorary doctorate from Universidad de l a Plata i n 1976. In Vlda Mallea praises the generosity of such founding fathers of his nation as San Martin and Belgrano; they performed t h e i r m i l i t a r y functions as a moral duty, not from a desire to become wealthy, since they donated some of t h e i r pay to various causes. Mallea's own sim i l a r actions t e s t i f y to the genuiness of his praise. 31 p. 242) "Olr hablar sobre l o ya hecho,...no me deja ma's que l a amargura de su i n s u f i c i e n c i a y l a repugnancia de su imperfec-ci<5n." (Traveslas, I, p. 69) He feels he must continue to s t r i v e to do his best, f o r his best book may be the one he i s writi n g . During the years of Peronist power (roughly 19^3-1955) most Argentine writers of some renown were at odds with the govern-2 $ ment. J Lewald summarizes the phenomenon as follows: E l fenomeno p o l i t i c o del j u s t i c i a l i s m o de l a e"poca 1943-55 t r a j o consigo una mentalidad populista que en aquel entonces no fue compartIda por l a mayorfa de los e s c r i t o r e s argentinos ma's destacados. Ba"si-camente a n t i o l i g a r q u i s t a , a n t i i n t e l e c t u a l y estre-chamente nacionalista, e l j u s t i c i a l i s m o desconfiaba del "establecimiento" l i t e r a r i o (La Nac1fln-Sur-Suda-mericana) a l que pertenecfa Mallea. (Lewald, p. 516, note 27) Mallea, who values p o l i t i c a l freedom, comments on the s i t u a t i o n at that time and on the constant threats against La Naclgn — t h e independent newspaper he was working f o r - - and against the private i n d i v i d u a l : En las e"pocas de dictadura t o t a l i t a r i a los hombres l i b r e s , aunque no este"n flsicamente presos, viven presos. Deben v i v i r recluidos en s i mismos, ya que ^ There are few remarks by Mallea on record about t h i s period, but they are enough to make his p o s i t i o n quite c l e a r . Without naming him, he refers to J . D. Peron as "dictador.... mentiroso, con su enorme cuerpo de dragon cebado estos doce anos." (Traveslas, I, p. 90) Mallea saw Per<5n's removal from the presidency with exuberance as a triumphant moment for his country: " E l pals devuelto a cada cual. E l vie jo, noble pals generoso, amplio para todos, abierto para todos. E l pals excar-celado. E l pals devuelto de su secuestro. Y para todos los que sufrieron l a tremenda clausura moral de esos doce anos, e l h o r i -zonte reestablecido, los caminos franqueados, de nuevo e l pals todo tendido a su l i b r e r espiracion sana, s i n g r i l l o s n i cerro-jos n i opresiones n i agresiones n i persecuciones." (Ibid.) 32 a l no permitIrseles opinar, no se les permite esa comunicaci<5n espont^nea s i n l a que l a salud moral del hombre se resiente. Yo no estuve preso entre los alios 19^3 y 1955, pero no era l i b r e . . . . L a Naoign, ...constantemente se le amenazaba con quemarlo o cerrarlo...en l a soledad estudiosa de mi casa, adonde a cada rato podia o l r s e , s i n embargo, e l llamado del timbre que s i g n i f i c a b a que —como a o t r o s — l o venlan a uno a detener. (Lewald, p. 503) A f t e r Juan D. Peron was deposed i n 1955, Mallea accepted an ambassadorship to UNESCO as a public service for his country. While he served i n this capacity, he resided i n Paris. In car-rying out the duties of this o f f i c e , he attended a general con-ference of UNESCO i n New Delhi, India and stayed there f o r about 26 40 days. During his ambassadorship Mallea succeeded i n having Buenos Ai r e s chosen as the s i t e for the Centro de Documentacidn 27 Internacional. ' A f t e r s l i g h t l y over two years Mallea resigned his post because he found diplomacy "contraria a mi temperamen-to," (Traveslas, I, p. 216) and " e l peor de los cautiverios para mi e s p l r i t u necesitado de independencia y creacign." (Traveslas, I, p. 217) His motive f o r accepting the ambassadorial post was, according to his explanation, part of a sequence of s e l f - d e n i a l s he imposed on himself, since throughout his l i f e he has struggled to avoid choosing the way of comfort and habit. (Traveslas, I, pp. 243-4) His i d e a l of service i s tied to the view that per-f e c t i o n comes through personal suffering. When he resigned he In Lewald, p. 505, Mallea states: "Y esa estada en l a India fue para ml, como e s c r i t o r , extraordinariamente va l i o s a . " Two of his novels have India as t h e i r setting: La penflltima puer^ ta ( 1 9 6 9 ) , and T r i s t e p i e l del universo ( 1 9 7 D • ' Carlos P. Grieben, Eduardo Mallea (Buenos A i r e s : E d i c i o -nes Culturales Argentines, 1961), p. 38. 3 3 decided to renounce a l l other work to devote himself e n t i r e l y to writing. He continues to write, mostly f i c t i o n , but the editions of his books are small and do not produce him much income. Fortunately he can apparently manage well f i n a n c i a l l y , unlike other writers, since La Naoign publishes two a r t i c l e s by him per month plus whatever he wants to contribute to i t s weekly L i t e r -ary Supplement. For these a r t i c l e s he i s f a i r l y well paid. It seems only J . L. Borges i s as well remunerated as Mallea by thi s 28 newspaper. In 1964 Mallea travelled to Europe with his wife to attend a l i t e r a r y convention i n B e r l i n and also stopped i n Madrid. Although i t has been insinuated that Mallea has avoided v i s i t i n g 29 Spain, t h i s i s not true. 7 It i s a fact, however, that Spain has not been the main foreign center of a t t r a c t i o n f o r him. I t has been Paris. (Medltacifln. p. 543; Traveslas, I, p. 211) Those who have had occasion to know Eduardo Mallea i n person seem to agree that he i s a reserved, observant and r e f l e c -t i v e man. Some comments to this e f f e c t follow from several writers of d i f f e r e n t countries: He i s sparing of words. A l l e n Haden, the American writer, has written of him as "shy, dogged, incon-spicuous, r e t i c e n t , abstemious, preoccupied, and unusually s i l e n t . " I would say he rather gives the impression of a passionate, intensive, observant Donald L. Shaw, "Un coloquio con Eduardo Mallea," Insula (Madrid), Ano XXVII, No. 3 0 3.(Febrero 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 5-2 9 Guillermo Diaz Plaja, "Meditacion sobre l o argentino en l a novela," Boletln de l a Academia Argentina de Letras, V o l . 19 ( 1 9 5 0 ) , 1 8 4 . 34 presence. Just the exterior you might expect from a man of deep passion and conviction. He may say very l i t t l e , but he asks questions every now and then, and he often puts them with an alarming abruptness and sharpness. He i s c l e a r l y taking i n everything and f e e l i n g the atmosphere. 30 The impression received by a Venezuelan j o u r n a l i s t i s as follows: En todo momento Mallea nos daba l a impresio'n de una aute"ntica austeridad. La l l e v d tambie"n a l suplemento que d i r i g l a , en e l cual jama's se desliz<5 un solo e l o -gio a su persona y a su obra. Recatado, s i l e n c i o s o , preciso, casi un hombre hacia adentro, pero s i n que esto fuera "pose" alguna o preparativo para darle a t -m<5sfera a su forma de e s c r i b i r . 31 Guillermo Diaz Plaja comments on the writer's elegance and on his nature: Fino, peinado con atildamiento, con una sonrisa un poco distante y un suave adema"n de elegancia c r i o l l a , Mallea es, fundamentalmente, un hombre de s i l e n c i o s — es decir, un gran escuchador.... Su apariencia es ge*lida, pero en l a brasa de sus ojos hay todos los calores e s p i r i t u a l e s . 32 Diaz Plaja also quotes a verse about Mallea written by the Ar-gentine poet Fernandez Moreno: Pa"lido amigo callado de psiquis, de coraz<5n, por r e f l e x i o n , por pasl<5n, huerto, a l ma's l i n c e , cerrado. Pero, moved a su lado, bien a l t o , y como presea, rosa, meta"fora, idea... 3° Patrick Dudgeon, Eduardo Mallea: A Personal Study of  His Works (Buenos A i r e s : Agonla, 1949), p. 16. " Manuel Garcia Hernandez, "Eduardo Mallea y su mundo no v e l l s t i c o , " E l Universal (Caracas), 10 septiembre 1957, Seccidn Indice L i t e r a r i o , p. 2. J " E l meditador de l a argentinidad," Cuadernos Hispanoa-mericanos. Vol. 5, No. 14 ( 1 9 5 0 ) , 267. 35 Tirad a fondo l a espada o dad una campa.nada y s a l t a e l otro Mallea. 33 Oscar Hermes V i l l o r d o , an Argentine writer who has personally known Mallea since 195^, says of him: "Un infatigable trabaja-dor...observador silencioso,...recatado,...timido...pero... C a i l l o i s , a good friend of Mallea, wrote a dedication defining him as "silencieux, re*tif, inabordable." Mallea reacted to i t with the following statement: Hasta que* punto ese s i l e n c i o , esa r e c a l c i t r a n c i a , esa inabordabilidad son aparentes y acaso los as-pectos conjuntos de una sola cosa: mi atencidn re-cogida y reverencial ante todo l o que me dice otro ser humano. (Traveslas, I I , p. 39) But i n his many descriptions of himself, Mallea admits that silence i s part of his nature: "mi temperamento si l e n c i o s o . " (Poderlo, p. 16) His silence seems to be related to his timid-i t y , which he has recently admitted to be part of his personal-i t y : "Tlmido, inclinado a l a preocupacidn y a una inmensidad de problemas imaginarios." (Lewald, p. 511) This was also acknowl-edged early i n his career, when, describing himself through Adrian i n Nocturno europeo (a disclosure he makes as a postscript to the book) , Mallea writes: "Su temperamento huraflo y concen-trado, su ardiente vibracid'n secreta, continuaban inquietos." Mallea has mentioned also a r e l a t i o n s h i p between his s i l e n t sobre todo un hombre 'comprometido1 con su vocacidn." 34 Roger (p. 122) 33 Ibid. 1973), p 7 2 o T Genio y_ figura de Eduardo Mallea (Buenos A i r e s : Eudeba, 36 temperament and his vocation. Writing becomes a fundamental need to compensate fo r his silence, while also serving as a ca-t h a r t i c . In an interview with Adela Grondona he said: "La nece-sidad expresiva se confunde en mf con las t i n i e b l a s de l a prime-ra i n f a n c i a . " - ^ On another occasion, Mallea declared that he i s one of those who writes because he does not know how to speak. Other relevant comments made by him are the following: De temperamento d i f f c i l a l a palabra, concentrado, tuve siempre una necesidad profunda de marcar cuan-to iba viviendo con una expresitfn ma's fuerte de l a que hubiera sido capaz de imprimirle con l a voz o con los actos. (Notas, p. 26) ;.Por que* escribimos? (Buenos A i r e s : Emece*, 1961) , p. 142. In interview with Arturo Laguado, "Eduardo Mallea y l a realidad inconfesada," Bolettn C u l t u r a l y_ Bibliogra'f ico (Bogota), Vol. 2, No. 1 (1968), l l c H Myron Lichtblau i n E l arte  e s t i l l s t i c o de Eduardo Mallea (Buenos A i r e s : Juan Goyanarte, 1967), p. 39, quotes from an interview Mallea had with Alex Neish i n London: "Escribo porque no se" hablar. Escribo porque aunque parezca extrano que l o diga un,'.novelista— en c i e r t o sen-tido desconflo de las palabras. Cuando uno p a r t i c i p a en una conversacidn hay tantas cosas que no se pueden expresar, tantas cosas que uno no se atreve a expresar. Cuando deseo comunicar, por l o tanto, recurro a l a palabra e s c r i t a . A l l ! uno tiene e l elemento o cuando menos l a ,ilusi<5n del control. A l l ! uno puede a i s l a r s e en un cuarto vacfo — l e j o s de aquellos objetos fami-l i a r e s que tienen voces y memorias, y que l o restringen a uno— y puede i r a tientas lentamente hacia l a verdadera s i g n i f i c a c i c n , hacia lo que uno quiere decir, hacia lo que uno cree." This was reportedly taken from "Because I cannot speak," The Guardian (London), 1 December 1963. I n t e r l i b r a r y Loan D i v i s i o n informs me that t h i s reference i s incorrect; therefore i t has been im-possible to consult the o r i g i n a l . David Vinas i n L i t e r a t u r a ar-gent ina y_ realidad. p o l l t i o a de Sarmiento a Corta*zar (Buenos A i -res: Siglo Veinte, 1971), P« 83, quotes a s i m i l a r statement from Mallea: "Yo no se* hablar." The source i n t h i s case i s Pedro Ort i z B a r i l i , La Prensa (Buenos A i r e s ) , 23 agosto 1970. 37 E l e s c r i b i r tan [sic] es una operacifln compensate— r i a de mis zonas s i l e n c i o s a s , que una vez logrado e l objeto de mi expresidn ya no me interesa su des-tino f o r t u i t o y exterior, y por ml n i siquiera pu-b l i c a r f a mis l i b r o s , salvo aquellos, los menos ar-t l s t i c o s , e s c r i t o s pidiendo diSlogo. (Traveslas, I, P. 43) Escribo en virtud de un proceso cuya c a l i f i c a c i d n no es tan simple. Elijamos una palabra: cata'rtico. Cata'rtico en l o personal. (Notas, p. 23) Writing i s such an i n t r i n s i c need to Mallea, that he has said: "Creo que s i no e s c r i b i e r a , no v i v i r l a . " (Notas, p. 26) This need to write i s also related to his sense of duty and commit-ment to his vocation. In his speech of acceptance of the Casa-va l l e Award i n 1955, Mallea stated the following: E l sentido de l a labor de un escritor...,debe ser, a mi j.uicio, hacer ma's claros en e l hombre los ojos para l a v i s i o n de los peligros que l o acecharon y pueden acecharlo todavla, en un mundo cruel y d i -f f c i l . Yo no he cumplido en e l camino de ese deber sino una distancia modesta, pero me considero uno de los hombres cargados con ese deber. (Traveslas, I, P. 9 D One can also see that carrying out his duty f u l f i l l s two im-portant personal needs f o r Mallea: " . . . l a sumersidn en mi obra. Nada me da como e l l a e l sentimiento del deber, l a med.ida del modesto bien que puedo hacer a los otros seres humanos." (Tra-veslas . I, p. 213) Furthermore, Mallea has recognized the privileged p o s i t i o n of writers i n society, of whom he has said: Hombres senalados con un extrario p r i v i l e g i o : l a ventaja ...de poder dar vida, producie*ndola desde su persona, a personas harto mayores que e l l o s . En r i g o r , de poder dar de s i criaturas de formato portentoso, inmortales eventualmente, e intemporales. (Poderio, p. 98) The p r i v i l e g e of the writer i s then twofold: 1) he can create 38 characters greater than himself and 2) through these characters he may eventually a t t a i n a sort of immortality. That Mallea's writing i s an attempt to rescue himself, through his l i t e r a r y creations, from the physical destruction a l l humans face i s ap-parent i n the following statement made early i n his career: "Las salvaciones temporales no bastan.... La criatura contempora'nea busca oscuramente salvaciones intemporales.... Todo se vuelve secreta aspiracid'n intemporal.... Todo se vuelve metaffsico." ("Sentido," p. 24) A desire for immortality through his creations i s not nec-e s s a r i l y , however, a desire for fame and preservation of his name. Through his characters, as a writer, he may enlighten and influence others among his contemporaries and future gener-ations, a f f e c t i n g them beyond the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n narrated and the moment of actual reading. He can thus a f f e c t others i n subtle ways i n matters of v i t a l importance to t h e i r existence. I t i s by contributing to an understanding and knowledge about man and his universe that the creations a t t a i n l a s t i n g value. Thus the ultimate worth of a writer's creations i s linked to the s p i r i t u a l reach of his message. In Mallea's case, t h i s can be succinctly stated as being e s s e n t i a l l y a moral one, since he assigns a sacred value to l i f e and attempts to elevate i t to Its utmost po t e n t i a l . CHAPTER II CYCLES IN THE WORK OF EDUARDO MALLEA U n t i l now no one has published a study i n depth on the evolution of Mallea's works. To one who has read a l l of them i t i s rather evident that there are several differences among his writings that j u s t i f y such a study. An attempt i s made i n t h i s chapter to present the basis f o r a reevaluation of his work as well as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the d i v i s i o n of his work. It might seem questionable to divide Mallea's writings when one considers that a doctoral thesis has been written about the thematic continuity of his works. 1 There i s undoubt-edly unity of thought and a c t i o n i n Mallea's writings, as shown by the author's aspirations and dedication to his vocation throughout his career. D i v i s i o n may seem further u n j u s t i f i e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y when the author himself has looked at his produc-t i o n and seen his works as forming a whole unit, of which each book i s merely a part: En mi vida, l a verdad es que no puedo hablar en te"r-minos de obras.... Es que no veo l o que he e s c r i t o en te'rminos de obras, sino en te"rmino de obra. Mi labor e s c r i t a se me presenta como un todo pensado... Carmen R i v e l l i , Eduardo Mallea: La continuidad tema"tica de su obra (New York University, 1966). This study has appeared as a book with the same t i t l e (New York: Las Americas, 1969)• - 39 -40 como un todo cerrado. Como un todo que necesita para formar su cfrculo i d e a l l a serie de obras que lo concluyan. (Ocampo, p. 52) A f t e r these statements, the l o g i c of i n s i s t i n g on d i f f e r -ences and tracing d i v i s i o n s within a whole or c i r c u l a r unit may seem dubious. If one leaves matters at that, however, one tends to disregard some aspects and shadings that should be taken into account as important developments within the t o t a l i t y of his writings, aspects that the author himself has also recognized. Although t h i s may seem paradoxical, i t i s not contradictory, fo r within a c e r t a i n set of aspirations there are changes that are bound to occur with the passage of time. As a person matures and the surroundings change, new insights and ideas come into play, and as a result these are l i k e l y to a f f e c t the writer's world view and work. But i n addition to the passage of time, change i s also related to the psychological development of the author and his adaptive reactions to the changing environment. There i s evidence that t h i s occurred to Mallea,for he comments on his changed outlook at d i f f e r e n t ages: A los veinte anos l a vida me parecfa tener veinte anos; a los t r e i n t a me parecla tener trescientos; a los cincuenta empece* a ver l a vida como una c i r -cunstancia eterna en l a que yo no era ma's que un fugaz instante pronto llamado a desaparecer. (Traveslas. I I , p. 31) Several c r i t i c s have shown some awareness of change i n Mallea's work although often i n brief and sometimes rather vague comments. But they do not agree as to the differences or the d i v i s i o n into periods or even the basis for them. The brief review that follows w i l l show t h i s . Jaime Concha has written, for example, on the i n i t i a l phase of Mallea's n o v e l i s t i c work: 41 Llamamos fase i n l c i a l de l a n o v e l l s t i c a de Mallea a l a que va desde 1926 hasta 1943. Las gguilas. de este afio, c i e r r a ese perfodo, cuya unidad tema"-t i c a y e s t i l l s t i c a es harto c l a r a . E l vinculo, de 1946, aun s i n romper l a continuidad central de l a produccidn del autor introduce un nuevo campo te-ma"tico y d i s t i n t a s dimensiones narrativas. 2 While acknowledging differences i n Mallea's writings Concha chooses to make a study of what he c a l l s the " i n i t i a l phase of Mallea's novels" because he finds a binding element within a certain period ( i t i s i n t r i g u i n g that he should date i t from 1926 to 1943, since there are no novels written u n t i l 1935)* He does not attempt, though, to systematize a l l the author's writings into periods. Donald L. Shaw, observing Mallea's works from a s t r u c t u r a l point of view, sees two stages: 1) the stage preceding Todo ver-dor perecera' (1941) , which l n his opinion i s characterized by a rambling, unpredictable structure i n his novels (La bahia de s l -lenclo being the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ) , a structure that suggests the influence of the Spanish novelist PIo Baroja, f o r whom Mallea has shown some preference;^ and 2) the stage following Todo ver-dor pe recera' ( 1 9 4 1 ) , where the author begins to show premeditated planning and a well thought-out structure. (Shaw seems to d i s -regard i n t h i s scheme the highly structured Fiesta en novlembre "Eduardo Mallea en su fase i n i c i a l , " Anales de l a Univer-sldad de Chile. AHo CXXIII, No. 135 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 107. Future r e f -erences to, and quotations from, t h i s work w i l l appear i n paren-thesis within the text as Concha. ^ See Notas. pp. 14-5, where Mallea shows his admiration f o r Baroja; however, Mallea i s extremely disappointed at Baroja's l a s t disclosures i n his memoirs. 42 4 (1938).) Myron Lichtblau also considers Todo verdor pe recera" as a d i v i d i n g point that ends the stage of Mallea as the young author: Se puede decir que Todo verdor pe recera" cerr<5 l a e"poca de un Mallea joven. Con esta novela se a f i a n -z<5 su reputacidn l i t e r a r i a . En adelante, su carrera se halla en plena madurez. 5 In reviewing one of Mallea's more recent books (1969), Lichtblau says the author "appears to be more universally appealing now than he was t h i r t y - f i v e years ago." With such a statement th i s c r i t i c i s implying awareness of an add i t i o n a l change (that i s , towards u n i v e r s a l i t y ) . While some c r i t i c s see a change occurring i n the emotional tone of Mallea's work only i n the 50's with the publication of Chaves ( 1 9 5 3 ) , at lea s t one, Argentina Q. Armstrong, has pre-ferred a generic d i v i s i o n ; i n her thesis "Eduardo Mallea y l a btfsqueda de l a argentinidad" ( 1 9 6 6 ) , she presents four d i v i s i o n s : the short story, the essay, the novel, and the plays. S t i l l others have observed a change i n the narrative ap-proach taken within the various novels, as shown by Juan Carlos "Baroja y Mallea: Algunos puntos de contacto," A etas del  III Congreso Internaclonal de Hispanistas (Mexico, 1970), pp. F47-52. 12. arte e s t i l l s t i c o de Eduardo Mallea (Buenos Ai r e s : Juan Goyanarte, 196771 P* 33* Future references to, and quotations from, t h i s work w i l l appear i n parenthesis within the text as Lichtblau. 6 In review of La penflltima puerta, Hispanla, Vol. 5^» No. 1 (March 1970), 204. 7 H. A. Murena, "Chaves: Un giro copernicano," Sur (Buenos A i r e s ) , No. 228 (1954), pp. 28-9. Astur Morsella, Eduardo Mallea (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l MAC-Co., 1957), p. 81. 43 Ghiano's statement: F i e s t a en noviembre c i e r r a e l primer perlodo de l a n o v e l l s t i c a malleana, prepara"ndolo con e f i c a c i a para l a s obras mayores, en que se d i s t i n g u e n i n d i v i d u o s y c i r c u n s t a n c i a s en i n c l u s i o n ma's densa. La bahla de  s i l e n c i o , 1940, y Todo verdor perecera", 1941, son l o s ejemplos mejores de esta c a s i l i b e r a c i o * n . 8 Mariano Pic<5n Salas has commented on Mallea's n a r r a t i v e progres-s i o n as f o l l o w s : S i sus primeras obras parecen f u n d i r ge"neros aparen-temente d i s t a n t e s como e l de l a novela y e l ensayo, en l a s i l l t i m a s e l "pathos" de l a t r a g e d i a misma ab-sorbe l o d i s c u r s i v o . 9 Emir Rodriguez Monegal i s e v i d e n t l y i n disagreement w i t h the l a s t two statements,for he has seen a thematic change only: S i bien Mallea ha renunciado a su t e s i s sobre l a A r -gentina v i s i b l e y l a i n v i s i b l e ( l a r e a l i d a d se ha en-cargado de hacerlo renunciar) , p e r s i s t e n en 51 l o s v i e j o s ha"bitos l i t e r a r i o s . 10 But a progression has a l s o been seen from a thematic and s t y -l i s t i c p o i n t of view, as the f o l l o w i n g paragraph by V i c t o r Ma-rangoni i n d i c a t e s : Recordemos l a e v o l u c i f i n de l a tema"tica malleana.... A l p r i n c i p i o habla una gran preocupacidn por l o a r -gentine, por l l e g a r a desentranar l a s riquezas l a -tentes, l o s rasgos aute"nticos. Despue*s, poco a poco e l intere"s se centra en e l hombre, y con eso ganan l o s personajes en u n i v e r s a l i d a d . . . . Ha habido en Mallea un avance, una depuraci<5n en su l a b o r l i t e r a -r i a , e igualmente una p r o f u n d i z a c i d n p r o g r e s i v a . 11 "Mallea n o v e l i s t a , " i n Constantes de l a l i t e r a t u r a argen-t i n a (Buenos A i r e s : R a i g a l , 1953) , pp. l l o " ^ 7 . Q "Prfilogo a Mallea," i n C r i s i s , cambio, t r a d i c i d n (Caracas: E d i t o r i a l Edime, 1955), p. 157. 10 "Eduardo Mallea v i s i b l e e i n v i s i b l e , " i n Narradores de  esta America (Montevideo: A l f a , 1969), p. 268. "Eduardo M a l l e a , n o v e l i s t a , " Estudios (Buenos A i r e s ) , V o l . 50, No. 527 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 530, 532. 44 Much the same appreciation of progression within Mallea's novels i s expressed by Emilio Sosa Lflpez: Los valores a r t l s t i c o s del ge"nero narrativo y las preocupaciones de Indole f i l o s d f i c a o psicol6gica de l o humano que tanto conmueven su e s p l r i t u , pare-cen acrecentar actualmente su labor dentro de un orden de planteos universales, cuyas tfltimas pers-pectives son todavla d i f f c i l e s de apreciar. Su re-ciente novela e"pica Slmbad, sus nuevos l i b r o s de relatos Posesi<5n y La razdn humana as! l o a t e s t i -guan. Se puede pensar que en Mallea se ha iniciado tlltimamente un c i c l o novel Is t i c o nuevo en madurez y perfeccidn, que tiende a mostrarlo ma's bien en una dir e c c i d n del pensamiento creador. 12 It i s v a l i d to state then that among those c r i t i c s who have evaluated Mallea's production, there i s general agreement that there i s a change or evolution i n the author's writings. The lack of agreement or consensus on what the differences are or what.the periods should be does not Invalidate such obser-vations. The d i f f i c u l t y i n resolving t h i s apparent disagreement i s not insurmountable but only due to the fact that the various c r i t i c s did not follow a common approach to t h e i r a n a l y s i s . As i t i s , each one — w i t h perhaps one or two exceptions— has focused on change or evolution from a d i f f e r e n t angle (struc-t u r a l , s t y l i s t i c , thematic, and so forth) or from a generic point of view (his novels only, for instance), thus accounting for the apparent disagreement. " E l mundo e s p i r i t u a l de Eduardo Mallea," i n La novela y e l hombre (C<5rdoba, Argentina: Universidad Nacional.de C<5r-doba, 1961), p. 160. Future references to, and quotations from, thi s work w i l l appear i n parenthesis within the text as Sosa L<5pez. 45 The present thesis w i l l consider the aspect of change, es p e c i a l l y i n the makeup of Mallea 1s s p i r i t u a l world as pre-viously defined i n the introduction and as reflected i n his l i t e r a r y expression, taking into account a l l of his works, but concentrating on his works of f i c t i o n . While one can agree with the fundamental organic unity of Mallea 1s work one can also see changing emphases i n theme, tone and style that j u s t i f y a d i -v i s i o n of the author's works into three periods. The d i v i s i o n w i l l not be presented here as periods but as cycles, f o r the following reasons: 1) There i s a thematic and s t y l i s t i c unity that j u s t i f i e s the use of such a term. 2 ) The term "cycle" lends i t s e l f to a more useful methodological and graphic representation than the term "period," with i t s connotation of purely l i n e a r development. 3) By the use of the term "cycle" one can do more justice to the author's attempts to create a c i r -13 cular world with interrelated parts. ^ There are of course methodological p i t f a l l s involved i n Regarding the " c i r c u l a r world" Mallea has stated the following: "La obra de un novelista consciente del mundo en e l que a l a vez vive y transporta, forma un a n i l l o donde cada frag-mento esta" Intimamente referido a l otro, y s<51o s i se mira e l fragmento con exclusidn de l a idea de a n i l l o puede toma'rsele como un aspecto in s u f i c i e n t e y p a r c i a l en rela c i d n con aquel mundo." (Traveslas, I I , p. 8 8 ) Also, a f t e r commenting on the works of the Argentine writers Borges and Marechal, he added:-"Mi propia ambicidn de un mundo c i r c u l a r fue tambie"n amplia." (Poderlo. p. 2 7 ) 46 e s t a b l i s h i n g any type of d i v i s i o n . A d i v i s i o n of works i n t o p e r i o d s or c y c l e s does not mean t h a t the changes perceived have a c l e a r - c u t beginning and end. A c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i v i s i o n i s v a l i d mostly as a means of b r i n g i n g some order and s t r u c t u r e t o an attempt a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A l s o a d i v i s i o n does not imply i n any way a r i g i d o r immobile boundary; t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y true of the d i v i s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d f o r more recent years i n the author's f i c t i o n . I n many cases the changes a r e v e r y g r a d u a l and f l u i d , a f a c t t h a t . t h e s e t t i n g of dates tends t o d i s r e g a r d . A l s o , i t would be, of course, more i n accordance w i t h the s c i e n t i f i c method t o s t a r t by a n a l y z i n g M a l l e a ' s works and onl y then o f f e r -i n g c o n c l u s i o n s about the d i v i s i o n s one would f i n d j u s t i f i e d ; the d e f i n i t i o n of the d i v i s i o n i n t o c y c l e s a t t h i s p o i n t i n the t h e s i s i s t h e r e f o r e a preview of the c o n c l u s i o n s of such an a n a l y s i s . I n o r d e r t o minimize the methodological i m p l i c a t i o n s and problems of d i v i s i o n s , the change i n M a l l e a ' s works w i l l be r e -presented g r a p h i c a l l y as c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s , w i t h r a d i a l l i n e a r developments w i t h i n and a c r o s s the c i r c l e s . The r a d i a l l i n e s r e p r e s e n t some c o n t i n u i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s through the y e a r s . The most obvious example of the l a t t e r i s the p r e v a i l i n g e x i s t -ence of a " s p i r i t u a l world." Other such r a d i a l l i n e s might represent c o n t i n u i n g thematic i n t e r e s t s (the search f o r authen-t i c i t y , s o l i t u d e , l a c k of communication, and so f o r t h ) , o r c e r t a i n s t y l i s t i c p r eferences (such as m u l t i p l e use of a d j e c -t i v e s ) . 47 While t h i s may not be the i d e a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the image pf c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s makes i t p o s s i b l e to rep r e s e n t a p p r o x i -mately the amount of p r o d u c t i o n w i t h the area assigned t o each c i r c l e . I t a l s o permits the s e t t i n g of t e n t a t i v e l i m i t s w h ile a l l o w i n g f o r the idea of o v e r l a p o r l i n e a r c o n t i n u i t y of c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n the time l i m i t s needed to c l a s s i f y M a l l e a ' s works. Thus, the f i r s t c y c l e would comprise the s m a l l e s t por-t i o n of h i s published works, as shown by the s m a l l e r c e n t r a l a r e a . 48 In deciding on the c y c l i c d i v i s i o n s the author of t h i s thesis i s not r e l y i n g s o l e l y on her own i n t u i t i o n s and feelings, but i s taking advantage of c r i t i c s ' observations and also of Mallea's own appreciation of some of the changes effected. This w i l l be documented .with Mallea's own statements as each cycle, and i t s causes, i s introduced and b r i e f l y discussed here. Since each cycle i s i n d i v i d u a l l y considered at length i n Chapters III to VI, a d d i t i o n a l information w i l l be found there. F i r s t Cycle This cycle, e n t i t l e d "In Search of Beauty," comprises a l l of his writings to 1926 i n c l u s i v e . In t h i s cycle there i s only one book published, Cuentos para una inglesa desesperada (1926), but the cycle includes as well a l l of his e a r l i e r short s t o r i e s scattered i n various journals and newspapers. Some of these st o r i e s are not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the f i r s t cycle i s that a l l the writings are short s t o r i e s . Also, they a l l have a predominantly esthetic emphasis r e l a t i n g them to Modernism and the European avant-garde of the 1920s. As Mallea has written about his early years as a writer: Abriga'bamos en l a primera adolescencia, con e l naci-miento natural de las aspiraciones, una vocaci<5n de creaci<5n l i b r e y poe"tica. (Sayal, p. 42) Un tono poe*tico senala mi primera labor; luego ese tono no l o pude dar — o no tuve tiempo de darlo. ("Respuesta," p. 775) Mi primera l i t e r a t u r e , l i t e r a t u r e de edolescencie, ponle por encime de todo, los velores de le sobrie-ded, e l ecento, e l e q u i l i b r i o . (Sayel, p. 7) 49 During those e a r l y years he looked f o r the e x q u i s i t e i n l i t e r a t u r e , as shown i n the f o l l o w i n g statements: "Yo, a l p r i n -c i p i o , tambie"n q u e r f a , tambie"n buscaba esos l i b r o s e x q u i s i t o s . " (Notas. p. 92, w r i t t e n i n 1949) "Esa l i t e r a t u r e tan l i t e r a r i a — q u e me d e l e i t a b a a l o s v e i n t e anos." ( T r a v e s l a s , I, p. 107, w r i t t e n i n the l a t e 50 s). He a l s o shared w i t h h i s young l i t e r -a r y f r i e n d s a f e r v i d a d m i r a t i o n f o r the f a s h i o n a b l e European w r i t e r s : "Eramos a c 6 l i t o s de l o s grandes sacerdotes extranos o e x t r a n j e r o s ; y quien no s e r v f a a l uno s e r v f a a l o t r o . " (Guerra, p. 33) Second Cycle T h i s c y c l e (1935-1945/50, presented i n two chapters e n t i -t l e d "In Quest of S e l f - and N a t i o n a l I d e n t i t y : The Shaping of "Ma-llea's Thought" and "An Ideology Becomes F i c t i o n " ) i s preceded by a long s i l e n c e (1927-34; except f o r a few s h o r t s t o r i e s t h a t appeared i n some j o u r n a l s , no books of h i s were published i n those y e a r s ) . T h i s i s a p e r i o d d u r i n g which he i s s e a r c h i n g f o r d i r e c t i o n s and a d e f i n i t i o n of h i s g o a l s as a w r i t e r . When he begins w r i t i n g a g a i n he does i t p a s s i o n a t e l y , w i t h a sense of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t o t a l commitment. Thus the s t y l e and themes of the essays and novels he then w r i t e s are r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from h i s i n i t i a l e s t h e t i c a l l y - b a l a n c e d s h o r t s t o r i e s . During the years of the second c y c l e he a t -tempts to develop a s p i r i t u a l consciousness among h i s country-men and to r a i s e them to the l e v e l s of t h e i r a u t h e n t i c being and d e s t i n y . He p e r c e i v e s the l a t t e r as those o r i g i n a l l y t r a c e d by the g r e a t f o r g e r s of the A r g e n t i n e n a t i o n . The works published d u r i n g t h i s c y c l e made M a l l e a i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y 50 14 known, as several of them were translated into other languages. The second cycle could be extended to 1945 or even to 1950, but i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to set a f i n a l time l i m i t as the change here i s not as d r a s t i c as i t i s between the f i r s t and the second cycles. What i s evident now i s a gradual change i n style and tone to a more balanced, precise and streamlined form of expression, while the dominant theme of national authenticity slowly begins to recede. The change that occurs between the f i r s t and second cycles has been noted by Jaime Concha (Concha, p. 1 0 7 ) , Arnold Chapman,1-^ Martin Stabb, 1^ Enrique Anderson Imbert, 1^ and several other c r i t i c s . In commenting on the change, Chapman attr i b u t e s i t to the influence of Waldo Frank, an influence he feels lasted well into the late 1930s. 1 8 One i s inclined to think that Frank 14 See Appendix A f o r a l i s t of his works i n t r a n s l a t i o n . 1 ^ The Spanish-American Reception of U.S. F i c t i o n 1920-1940 (Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1966), p. 66. Future references to, and quotations,from, t h i s work w i l l appear i n parenthesis within the text as Chapman. In Quest of Identity (University of North Carolina Press, 1967), p. 160^ 17 H i s t o r i a de l a l i t e r a t u r a hispanoamericana, Vol. II (Mexico, 1954) , p. 23o". 18 The American author f i r s t had contact with Mallea i n September, 1929 when v i s i t i n g Argentina f o r a series of lectures for which Mallea served as his tra n s l a t o r . Chapman states: "A patent change [appears] i n Mallea's writing d i r e c t l y a f t e r Frank's v i s i t . La ciudad .junto a l rfo inmovil (1936) , a c o l l e c t i o n whose stor i e s appeared at intervals i n periodicals from 1931 through 1935, i s a break with the t r a d i t i o n — o r lack of i t — of the Cuentos para una inglesa desesperada." (Chapman, p. 66) Chapman goes so f a r as to say that Mallea's admiration f o r Frank was so intense that he wrote La ciudad .junto a l r f o inmovil i n imitation helped Mallea to c r y s t a l l i z e ideas and preoccupations that had been latent f o r many years. Astur Morsella a l s o thinks that rather than Prank influencing Mallea there was "una confluencia 19 Frank-Mallea." 7 But other c r u c i a l factors also seem to have been at play: 1. In 1927 Mallea began working as a reporter f o r La  Naci<5n. This d i r e c t experience i n communication may have given him the r e a l i z a t i o n of the vaster reach possible through jour-nalism at a time when communicating ideas to his countrymen was 20 becoming more important to him than form. 2. His f i r s t t r i p to Europe as an adult, i n 1928, had a decisive e f f e c t on Mallea, for he was able to see his native of Frank's City Block: "In many ways Mallea was exercising the sincerest form of f l a t t e r y . " Mallea's great admiration for Frank cannot be denied for he himself acknowledges i t i n his H i s t o r i a (Chapter V I I ) . But i t seems s i m p l i s t i c to a t t r i b u t e the change i n Mallea s o l e l y to Frank's influence. 19 y This c r i t i c does trace Frank's influence on Mallea by r e l a t i n g H i s t o r i a to Frank's Our America. Yet he states: "Mas que una i n f l u e n c i a de Frank sobre Mallea hay una confluencia Frank-Mallea." i n Eduardo Mallea (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l MAC-Co. , 1957). P« 96. Future references to, and quotations from, th i s work w i l l be included i n parenthesis within the text as Morsella. 20 Mallea's early attitude i s explained i n the following passage: "A los veinte anos,...yo estaba en l a edad en que uno toma partido por e l romanticismo creador o l a supersticion l l r i -ca y hace poco caso — o ma's bien se b u r l a — de l o que peyorati-vamente engloba e n l a palabra 'periodismo 1 , que a esa hora de l a vida se equipara a lo puramente fa"ctico." (Traveslas, I I , p. 6 l ) He has acknowledged that journalism i s not "una v i a de l a ex-presidn e s p i r i t u a l , " or a creative form of expression. He has seen i t , however, as a v a l i d and necessary form that allows the writer to be i n d a i l y touch with his community. ("Aseveracion," pp. 30-6; also i n Mallea's "Prefacio del compilador," Prosa de  ver y_ pensar: D. F. Sarmiento. Buenos Ai r e s : Emece', 1943, p. xv) 52 land from a d i f f e r e n t perspective while envisioning the impending disaster to come over Europe and the meaning i t would have f o r Western culture. He says: "Mi propio empeno alcanzd su primer decisivo encendimiento en e l contacto con Europa despue"s del primer l i b r o . " (Poderio. p. 19) He feels this much more intensely on his third t r i p to Europe (his second t r i p as an adult) i n 1934: Vista Europa, v i a mi pais. No conocemos nuestro pueblo sino despue"s de haber v i s t o e l otro pueblo ....conocer es reconocer, conocer es redescubrir.... tambie*n ver es d i s t i n g u i r . (Poderio, pp. 21, 22) 3. By 1930 the l i t e r a r y boom stage of avant garde s o l i -d a r ity and national optimism i n Argentina had declined consid-erably. The p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Argentina became chaotic; a m i l i t a r y coup had deposed Hip<51ito Irigoyen i n 1930, with a subsequent loss of freedom. General Jose" de Uriburu's coup marked Argentina's sharpest turn from democracy since independ-ence, with p a r a l l e l s to events one century e a r l i e r under Juan 21 Manuel de Rosas. The economic c r i s i s caused by a world de-pression was also being f e l t . As Stabb observes: It i s very probable that the p o l i t i c a l and economic c r i s i s of the period i n t e n s i f i e d the search f o r deeper values i n Argentine l i f e . . . . G. A. Erro...notes that "passion and anguish" are'prime requisites f o r self-discovery, for the discovery of the i n d i v i d u a l or the group essence. 22 James C. Hunt, "Argentina," i n Claud lo Ve"liz, ed., L a t i n America and the Caribbean: A Handbook (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1968), p. 10. 22 Martin Stabb, In Quest of Identity (University of North Carolina Press, 1967), pp. 153-4T 53 4. Also, i t may have happened to Mallea — a s i t did to Chekhov, i n Mallea's o p i n i o n — that with the f i r s t public ac-knowledgment of his work, he realized the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s he had as a writer. (Travesfas, I, p. 248) I t i s at t h i s point, sensing the impending European c r i s i s , that Mallea reacts with great passion and sees the p o t e n t i a l of America as a bastion for the preservation and promotion of Western culture. He turns into a committed writer because he feels that a writer's work must not be a work r e s u l t i n g from contemplation i n i s o l a t i o n but from creative p a r t i c i p a t i o n with his surroundings. (Sayal, pp. 18-20) I t i s here that he rejects the purely esthetic as a form of evading r e a l i t y , and becomes an agonistic writer, s i m i l a r to the Spanish writers of the Genera-t i o n of 1898 but p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e Unamuno (as w i l l be shown i n Chapter IV). In the face of the collapse of an order i n Europe, Mallea longs f o r order and meaning i n l i f e . He reacts by r a i s i n g his defenses and attempting to create a new frame of reference when 23 the old one was d i s i n t e g r a t i n g and appeared no longer v a l i d . J A s he says : Los hombres que nacimos con los primeros anos de esta centuria hemos sido, en efecto, los silenciosos acom-panantes de un t e r r i b l e clima en e l mundo...al tocar e l mundo de Occidente e l punto c r l t i c o de su desgarra-miento central....ambiente de dispersion....del que iba a surgir un creciente abandono de las libertades y l a pe*rdida de l a s e n s i b i l i d a d , con l a consiguiente ruina para l a condici<5n primordial de l a cultura. Era menester J Mallea's developing thought, shown only b r i e f l y here, w i l l be discussed i n d e t a i l i n Chapter IV. 54 improvisarse una suerte de a i r e i n t e r i o r , construirse las defenses contra semejante estado de desolacidn, atravesar las t i e r r a s confuses y l l e g a r a l pleno ho-rizonte. Era menester acabar con los colgajos de c i e r -ta ideologla r a c i o n a l i s t a y esttfpida, d e s t r u i r l o s ' aparetos de l a razon ensoberbecida y seftalar a l es-p l r i t u rutas ignoredas. Era menester, en una palabra, reconstruirse, o sea reconstruir un estado de fe, Pero, ique" es reconstruir un estado de fe?...No s<51o l a consumacion de un proceso, sino l a estructura-ci<5n misma del alma. Hacerse e l alma de nuevo. Esto implica grandes destrucciones y grandes s a c r i f i c i o s . (Sayal. pp. 36-7) The new world order and meaning are erected i n his view by a r e j e c t i o n of the p o s i t i v i s t / r a t i o n a l i s t emphasis that brought about such a state of desolation through the misguided use of reason and by enthroning the s p i r i t u a l powers that are latent i n every soul. The i n d i v i d u a l , however, needs to restructure and control these s p i r i t u a l powers i n order to bring them up to t h e i r utmost productive capacity. In describing the change that he experienced, Mallea ex-plains that his f i r s t writings, an " i n i c i a c i d n l i t e r a r i a mera-mente f i c t i c i a y l l r i c a , " had to be realigned into a ...pedido de contestacio'n a l fondo mismo de nuestro ser, en sus aspectos personales y colectivos.... cambio de fuente y objetivo,...traslado de un caudal gratuito a un recepta"culo ma's serio, ma's hondo....por l a necesidad de un e s p f r i t u lanzado a l a persecuci<5n de s i mismo, de sus cuestiones. (Traveslas, I, p. 79) I t appears he perceived his destiny at the time as a m i l i t a n t struggle where esthetics are to be displaced by ethics: "Ni este*tica n i d e l i c i a , sino una e*tica creed ore. Una moral l l e -vada a hacerse verbo.... Una moral combatiente." (Sayal, p. 43) Elsewhere he has expanded on his passionate feelings and on the commitment that made him react d i f f e r e n t l y during the years here 55 assigned to the second cycle: Me importaba una suerte de ba t a l l a : l a lucha e s c r i -ta mediante algunas ideas, y convicciones sinceras, en l a que me parecia necesario empenarme cuerpo a cuerpo. A l abrazarme asf a l o que consideraba deriun-ciable, atacable, vituperable, malo para las c r i a -turas humanas, malo para las almas, tuve que verme envuelto con mi enemigo, con mis temas, de un modo t a l que l a lucha podia ma's que l a posibilidad de ven-cerlo en e l acto y transformarlo en l a materia de un arte con encanto.... Pero yo debla e j e r c i t a r , exponer, tra t a r de comunicar esa pasi<5n; y e l arte se me presen-taba secundario, pues primero querla a l a verdad y des-pue*s a l arte. Mi compromiso con mi conciencia, mi com-promiso con e l alma, me fueron ma's fuertes que e l en-canto que antes habla festejado. ("Respuesta," p. 775) Third Cycle This cycle (entitled "Toward Universalism and the Novel of Self-knowledge Through Tragedy") involves the works of the author roughly from 19^5 or 1950 to the present (excluding La vida blanca, which although published i n i 9 6 0 , was written i n 19^2 and c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s the author's state of mind during the second c y c l e ) . As mentioned before, the demarcation between the second and third cycles can be stated only approximately. An emphasis seems to emerge i n the third cycle away from the c o l l e c t i v e Argentine consciousness into a more universal aware-ness and self-knowledge of the i n d i v i d u a l . K. Schwartz has observed that " i n his l a t e r works one can see more e a s i l y the deepening tragedy of being a human being i n quest f o r meaning 2k i n l i f e . " Mallea's move away from a c o l l e c t i v e national consciousness A New History of Spanish-American F i c t i o n , Vol. 2 (Coral Gables: University of Miami Press, 1971), P« 2 2 7 « 56 may have been caused by 1 ) the i l l use given his own writings (es p e c i a l l y those of H i s t o r i a de una pasidn argentina) by s e l f -seeking p o l i t i c i a n s of various persuasions — n a t i o n a l i s t s , so-c i a l i s t s and t o t a l i t a r i a n s — (Poderlo, p. 7 0 ) and 2 ) the e f f e c t s of extreme nationalism i n a c t i o n as observed i n Nazi Germany. Although he believed i n his countrymen i n humanistic terms of s p i r i t u a l dignity, the fact that his b e l i e f was expressed f o r a geographically r e s t r i c t e d region, a p a r t i c u l a r nation, gave 2 S many the impression that he advocated nationalism. J The i n -terpretation of Mallea's work as nationalistic was further due to his essay "Para un destino" (included i n Sayal, p . ' 1 3 2 ) , where he sees Argentina's role as foremost i n America — a g a i n as leader i n s p i r i t u a l and moral matters. Mallea has stated i n clear terms his p o s i t i o n i n this matter: "Mi forma de creer en mi pals no era una forma de nacionalismo, porque era una forma de humanismo." (Poderlo, p. 6 7 ) By "humanismo" Mallea means the exaltation of values that dignify man. (More i n Chapter V.) It appears that Mallea wanted to transcend the r e s t r i c t i v e national boundaries, which could engender dangerous nationalism, to l e t his preoccupations be matters of concern to every human J R i v e l l i , p. 5 7 : "La obra de Mallea, comenzada en e l alio 1 9 3 5 . se halla comprendida dentro de l a corriente del nacionalis-mo, e l cual se pone en evidencia en l a frecuencia con l a que pro-pugna e l retorno a l e s p l r i t u de l a nacldn, ' l a reconquista de nuestro objeto, l a reconquista de nuestra t i e r r a . ' E l nacionalis-mo se manifiesta en l a protesta ante l a actitud de ciertos argen-tinos, hombres de l a ciudad que buscaban i r s e , p a r t i r , no quedar-se en una situacidn, un destino, 'ser extranjeros s i n haber sido todavla algo, gentes de esta t i e r r a ' . " ( R i v e l l i quotes from Medi-tacidn, pp. 5 7 8 and 5 5 7 ) 57 being. This i s a way of bringing Argentines out from t h e i r geographic l i m i t s into the universal c u l t u r a l community of man, where they j u s t l y belong because of t h e i r cosmopolitan culture. In t h i s respect Mallea agrees with Borges: "Muy bien ha dicho Borges que nuestra t r a d i c i o n es toda l a cultura. Ese e s p l r i t u , ese sentimiento, es l o que hace e l poder de l a l i t e r a t u r e nueva de l a Argentina." (Poderio, p. 19) As Mallea explains i t , however, the change seems to have resulted more from a sense of debt to other peoples than anything else: He e s c r i t o mucho sobre los hombres de mi pals y so-bre sus t i e r r a s , sus ilusiones y sus sueftos. He viajado por otros palses y por otras l i t e r a t u r e s . Y de ese modo mi deude se fue heciendo ten grende, que pense* no descenser heste no concluir, en los cepftulos de l e veste carta de mis l i b r o s , una especie de f e r -viente epfstola o largo cuento contado a todos los amigos del mundo, s i n levantar mucho l a voz, a l costado de un fuego o a l arrimo de un r l o , en que estuviera recogida l a h i s t o r i a de unas almas cuyo destino me pe-reci<5 admirable o cuyos suenos compartl o cuyas trege-dias me hicieron penser o cuyos insomnios o cuyos dramas encerraron pera ml una s i g n i f i c e c i o n misteriosa y extrane. Estoy a bordo de esa large nerrecio'n. Y espero conterle hesta que ya no tenga fuerzas. ("Trlptico personal," i n Notes, pp. 29-30, written i n 1949.) This goal i s congruous also with the objectives of his generation to universalize Argentine l i t e r a t u r e : Una generacidn entere, l e generecidn necida a l a vida l i t e r a r i a en 1926, se propuso en l a Argentina un i d e a l universal y su conquista se ha producido.. .en te"rminos de universelided. No querlemos contester con nuestre sola t r e d i c i o n , sino con tode l e t r e d i c i d n en movimien-to, eligiendo nosotros nuestro d i s t i n t o punto de par-tid e . (Poderio, p. 20) Elsewhere, Mellee expleins how he writes ( i n the yeers here essigned to the third cycle) e f t e r his "vehemencie Inmo-derada" (Sayal, p. 8) and his "segunde. fiebr e " have.. passed.: 58 S6±o ahora, dichas ya vehementemente muchas cosas que querfa decir, puedo volver un poco ma's t r i s t e , pero un poco ma's tranquil©, a ciertos temas, a ciertos tonos, a ciertas medidas, a c i e r t a s armonfas de las que mi segunda fiebre me ale jo". ("Respuesta ," p. 775) In e f f e c t , i t i s possible to see a more poetic tone, a more streamlined form of expression, that delves into new themes and also into formerly explored themes but now i n greater depth. The u n i v e r s a l i t y of his writings can be seen not i n an abandonment of Argentina as the setting, for i t continues to be the setting of most writings, but i n the fact that his charac-ters' feelings, preoccupations and actions can be shared by any human being anywhere i n the world. One can see here an interest i n the mysterious and incomprehensible aspects of l i f e , with a desire to grasp the i n v i s i b l e through i n t u i t i o n . The r e l a t i o n between external acts and t h e i r psychological motivation i s given a very important role and often t h i s r e l a t i o n i s presented as a means to point to the t r a g i c s i t u a t i o n of man. Without becoming s t r i c t l y psychological studies, his writings show much about Mallea's sharp a b i l i t y to observe human conduct and are thus generally enlightening to the reader. Mallea i s able to make one aware of problematic everyday situations which many times may go by unnoticed. In spite of his a b i l i t y to probe inwardly there are cases that remain shrouded i n mystery f o r the writer as well as the reader. Writing seems to be used as an exercise for discovery with the hope that thinking intensely and v e r b a l i z i n g on a subject the solution to a problem w i l l be revealed, or at least some insight w i l l be obtained. In the third cycle the author appears to be more detached 59 from his f i c t i o n a l characters; that i s , now he does not seem to recreate his own problems as much as he did during the second cycle. Although there i s a recurrence of some of the same basic concerns, confession i s not the dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of thi s cycle, as i t was to a degree during the second cycle. Further mentions by Mallea of his changes as a writer can be found i n Sayal, pp. 7, 8, 46; Nocturno, p. 93; Traveslas, I , pp. 46-7; Traveslas. I I , p. 61; Lewald, p. 498. •CHAPTER III FIRST CYCLE: IN SEARCH OF BEAUTY In t h i s chapter an attempt w i l l be made to show that Mallea i n his f i r s t years of writing had not yet found an ide-o l o g i c a l commitment of depth and was mostly concerned with the beauty afforded by l i t e r a t u r e . His early interest i n beauty, however, did not preclude e n t i r e l y the showing of some other i n c i p i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that would bloom l a t e r . In the f i r s t cycle are comprised a l l the early writings of Mallea up to and including his f i r s t published book, Cuentos  para una inglesa desesperada (1926). Mallea began his writing with the short story and t h i s i s the only genre he cultivated during the f i r s t cycle. The generic factor i s only i n c i d e n t a l , however; as stated i n the previous chapter, d i s t i n c t i o n s of genre are not an element i n the scheme of thi s t h e s i s . A brief review of Mallea's i n i t i a t i o n shows that an i n c l i -nation f o r writing was present i n him since his early youth. Aged 13, he had already written his f i r s t short story. He sent i t f or publication without anyone i n his family knowing about i t ; i t was accepted by E l Tan-Tan, a Buenos Aires children's magazine he used to read. He also contributed, at about the ^  same time to La Nueva Provincia a page on Carpentier, under the - 60 -61 pseudonym Lord A l g y . 1 What might be considered his f i r s t l i t e r a r y contribution was the short story "La amazona," written under the influence of Re*my de Gourmont and published i n Caras 2 y_ Caretas (Buenos Aires) i n 1920. This was soon followed by " E l seflor Hamlet," a short story with esthetic emphasis published i n the L i t e r a r y Supplement of the reputable newspaper La Nacidn (Buenos Aires, 22 May 1922), and by "Sonata de soledad," i n 1923, i n the same newspaper. Another short story, "Cynthia," was to appear i n 1924 i n Revista de A m e r i c a . T h e s e l a s t two s t o r i e s , plus four others, appeared i n book form with the t i t l e Cuentos para una inglesa desesperada ( 1 9 2 6 ) . In a 1941 e d i t i o n of Cuentos (Buenos A i r e s : Espasa-Calpe) Mallea added a prologue 4 and a seventh story, "Confesidn." Although the precise date when "Confesi<5n" was written i s not known, i t f i t s well with the general tone of the other s t o r i e s . In discussing the f i r s t cycle, attention w i l l be focused on Cuentos f o r three reasons: (1) the stories there collected best 1 Ocampo, p. 27. This i s presumably Georges Carpentier, the French middleweight boxing champion who won the world t i t l e i n 1920. This inte r e s t i n Carpentier i s linked to Eduardo's tr a i n i n g i n boxing during his adolescence. 2 Lewald, p. 496. Carlos F. Grieben, Eduardo Mallea (Buenos Ai r e s : Ediciones Culturales Argentinas, Min i s t e r i o de Educacid'n y J u s t i c i a , 1961), p. 36. J Revista de America (Buenos Ai r e s : December 1924-July 1926) i s a magazine which Mallea himself helped found. 4 Horacio Jorge Becco, " B i b l i o g r a f l a : Eduardo Mallea," i n Obras Completas de Eduardo Mallea, V o l . I (Buenos A i r e s : Emece*, 1961), p. 1227. 62 exemplify the author's attainment within t h i s cycle, (2) the book can be considered as the f i r s t major l i t e r a r y e f f o r t of a young writer, and (3) the a v a i l a b i l i t y of Cuentos began to make Mallea known i n l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s . The f i r s t impression one derives from an overview of t h i s c o l l e c t i o n of s t o r i e s i s that they have i n common a f a i r l y simple and sketchy anecdotal element, with rather generous de-s c r i p t i o n s . The overt action or adventure i s very limited or non-existent, while the author's imagination thrives on emotion-a l states of mind that are expressed r i c h l y and l y r i c a l l y . These moods of the characters are further expanded and supported by the subjective states they see i n t h e i r settings. The stories show the v i r t u o s i t y of the writer i n manipulating l a n -guage. From a thematic point of view the topics dealt with are without much consequence. Thus the stories can be characterized as brief and l i g h t , with a p l a y f u l mood although touched by a melancholy tone. An o v e r a l l consideration of the s t o r i e s shows that most have some elements i n common that can be summarized as follows:-' I. Thematically there i s a predominance of love storie s or rather diverse forms of f a i l u r e i n love. V i r g i l i o of "Arabella y yo," f o r instance, feels dejected because i n spite of being ^ Excepting " E l capita"n," since t h i s story d i f f e r s somewhat i n theme and i n i t s characters from the more prevalent patterns. With the exception of " E l cap!ta"n,"which presents a case of defensive c o l l e c t i v e reaction towards an old seaman who ap-parently has gone mad. 63 very busy and s o c i a l l y active he i s sad, lonely and empty. His r e a l i t y does not coincide with his cherished i l l u s i o n s , and i t i s from t h i s d i s p a r i t y that his sense of despair, bitterness and tragedy emerges. While daydreaming about g i r l s and love as pos-si b l e solutions to his desolate state, the adorable Arabella appears at his door, a l l dressed i n blue, as i f to further en-courage his i l l u s i o n s and bring him to an attainment of love, but t h i s i s only temporary. Or one could take the case of the unnamed narrator of "Cynthia 1 1 who aspires to the t i t l e charac-ter's love and f e e l s he has a special place i n her heart, only to find she rejects a l l known admirers f o r an unknown, clumsy Englishman, towards whom i n the l a s t instance she i s unfaith-f u l . Unrequited love i s depicted i n "Georgia," with a variant form being present i n "Neel," while "Sonata de soledad" and "Confesitfn" are based on the aftermath of love l o s t , one by abandonment and the other through death. I I . The s t o r i e s have a d e l i b e r a t e l y limited anecdotal element, with l i t t l e overt action. I t i s l e f t to the reader to complete the story f o r himself. There i s a concentration on depicting feelings and sentimental states or that which i s nor-mally f e l t but remains unseen; emphasis i s on the i n t e r n a l rather than external a c t i o n . Also, within the various s e n t i -mental states, the t a s t e f u l and graceful within the topic i s chosen over the rough, or i f the rough i s described at a l l i t i s given such a treatment as to keep i t graceful. 64 Among the mental states taken up by Mallea i n thi s book, the predominant one appears to be loneliness, since i t i s pre-sent i n varying degrees of int e n s i t y i n four of the seven sto-r i e s . For thi s state Mallea seems to take as his point of de-parture the almost universally accepted premise that human beings respond i n general to a basic, natural need to be with others, to be sociable. Loneliness i s presented i n Cuentos as a state creating anx-iety and there are d i f f e r e n t reactions portrayed by the charac-ters i n an attempt to annul i t s e f f e c t s . These reactions to the anxiety of loneliness can be summarized i n Cuentos as one basic form, that of avoidance, which i n turn has two al t e r n a t i v e s : (1) avoidance of loneliness by seeking the love and companionship of a member of the opposite sex; and (2) avoidance of loneliness by attempting to escape ^ From "Arabella y yo," Cuentos, p. 25: "'A que no adivina usted ^que" vientos me traen por aqul"...?' 1 iQue* vientos, Arabe-l l a , que" vientos desconsoladores? ... 1 '^Desconsoladores?' "SI". Desconsoladores porque ha venido usted con ese traje odiosamente planchado, insultante, a l que no me sera" permitido hacerle, en venganza, l a ma's leve arruga; desconsoladores porque usted es l a mejor amiga de Axel, mi mejor amigo; desconsoladores porque usted no consentira" que yo mire en sus ojos, extasiado, uno a uno, los cuatro respiradores del techo.... 1" And from "Confesidn," Ibid., p. 52: "Basto" que navegaras, aleja"ndote de tu ambiente, blanda como eras, para sentirte como arraigada en ml. Eras un l i b r o de cuentas flamantes, recie*n abierto, donde yo iba a anotar, a mi voluntad, e l t o t a l ootidiano; d d c i l , ibas a permitir hasta que alguna vez me d i s t r a j e r a y restara... Numeracidn a f e c t i v a , nume-racidn de las tardes trafagosas en los bulevares, en los museos, de alguna m o d i s t i l l a irrespetuosa y malintencionada." 65 from i t : e i t h e r by (a) changing the scenery or moving away from the place where loneliness was f i r s t expe-rienced , or (b) engaging i n f l i g h t s of fancy that tend to suppress the perception of loneliness thus bringing a temporary sense of r e l i e f . The predominant kind of loneliness i n these stories i s of a sen-timental kind, of the type that can be caused by lack of female companionship. This i s evident, f o r instance, i n a passing comment of the protagonist's monologue i n "Cynthia": "La pers-pective de r e c i b i r su amor [de Cynthia ]... ideas que durante tres semanas hicie"ronme reparar en mi soledad, en e l encanto univer-s a l de una sabia c a r i c i a femenina." (Cuentos, p. 45) In the case of loneliness r e s u l t i n g from l o s t love, the solution offered i s neither quick to come nor an easy one, for only time i s presented as the healer: E l tiempo, naturalmente, fue cura"ndome de tu ausencia. ("Confesign," Cuentos. p. 56) No puedo sino esperar a que venga e l tiempo, amigable, apaclguador y me vaya llenando poco a poco. Tarea d i -f l c i l y l a r g a . . . l a de l l e n a r estos huecos miserables, estos resquicios e s p i r i t u a l e s que tfl l l e n a s t e . ("Sonata de soledad," Cuentos, p. j 6 . In these stories the author uses certain techniques very e f f e c t i v e l y to present the mental state of loneliness. One of them i s very simple, consisting i n the r e p e t i t i o n of certa i n terms which e i t h e r l a b e l the emotional state desired or feelings present i n i t . For example: "Soledad, soledad....Otra vez.... Otra vez.... Otra vez l a soledad. Ansias....ansias....dolorosa. 66 Dolorosa como esta soledad,... Necesitarla.... necesitarfa.... necesitarfa..." ("Sonata de soledad," Cuentos, pp. 30-1) Another technique which proves extremely e f f e c t i v e i n conveying emotions and making them convincing to the reader i s something that s h a l l here be called the concretization or ob-j e c t i f i c a t i o n of abstractions. The mental state of loneliness, through the use of imagery, i s expressed as a concrete, physical object. In "Sonata de soledad" there i s an instance of l o n e l i -ness as a physical object: "Esa visi<5n me serfa dolorosa [la de e l l a con e l otro ]. Dolorosa como esta soledad, amontonada en e l fondo de mi e s c r i t o r i o . " (Cuentos, p. 30) Another instance of this technique i n combination with p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i s found i n "Arabella y yo." In t h i s case the author f i r s t introduces the protagonist by portraying him as f e e l i n g exhausted, empty, and alone; secondly, he personifies, the room objects surrounding him by having them one by one bid goodbye to the departing sun rays, thus adding to the image of loss of warmth, cheer and hap-piness associated with the l a t t e r and making more intense the f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n ; and then the concretization of loneliness i s achieved i n the sentence: "Cada uno de los metros de mi cuarto es un metro de soledad." (Ibid., p. 23) Later i n the same story, Mallea uses a d i f f e r e n t image to express loneliness: "Deplorable soledad cuyo significado verdadero, cuyo peso, cae lamentable me n-te sobre e l tfnico p l a t i l l o de mi corazon." (Ibid.) By resorting to the image of a scale, he not only o b j e c t i f i e s an abstraction but adds to i t a defining c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of heaviness, a charac-t e r i s t i c that makes one f e e l the depressing e f f e c t of loneliness 6? as lopsided and unbalancing — f o r i t s weight f a l l s a l l on one lonely heart. I I I . Mallea's language has a profusion of imagery which gives the narration a l y r i c tone. This i s further increased by some techniques, such as a l l i t e r a t i o n and r e p e t i t i o n of certa i n words and phrases both within and across sentences and paragraphs, g which give a rhythmic cadence to the narration. In addition to the technique here referred to as the con-c r e t i z a t i o n or o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of abstractions (discussed above), Mallea uses extensively the technique of per s o n i f i c a t i o n , with impressionistic touches, to bring to l i f e settings as well as inanimate objects. Some examples follow: E l verano quemaba sus dlas lentamente, y los atarde-ceres se prolongaban con una indolencia cortesana. La carretera ancha del pueblo, partie*ndolo, t o r t u -ra"ndose en ondulaciones y desvfos, iba finalmente a entregar su cansancio a l a playa. ("Neel," Cuentos, p. 36) ...monte de falda colorida. (Ibid., p. 3 8 ) Light i s also personified i n diverse ways, as seen from the following: "La luz ele*ctrica, exhausta, se resignara" a las p r i -meras claridades. ( "Confesi<5n," Cuentos, p. 48) Light i s at times assigned the a t t r i b u t e of speech: Hay una la"mpara que ya no tiene sino palabras entre-cortadas para su mondlogo, palabras de clara l u z , u An example of a l l i t e r a t i o n , found i n "Georgia," i s the following: " E l viento-animal recorre las casas, ondula l os lagos y resbala sobre l a nieve como arrastrando una vela l a t i n a . Es e l mismo que restan'a e l bianco sangrar de los regatos, e l mismo que recie*n amanecido..." (Cuentos, p. 6 l , the underlining i s mine) Repetition i s frequent i n "Georgia." See also "Sonata," Ibid., pp. 31-2. 68 palabras de sombra. ("Georgia," Cuentos, p. 60) . . . l a ventana, ya muda de l u z . . . ("Neel," Ibid, p. 3 9 ) ^ Imagery i s also found at the center of characterization. For instance, a f t e r his exhilarating experience "with Arabella, V i r g i l i o i s b r i e f l y portrayed with a c o l o r f u l and e f f e c t i v e con-cluding metaphor, somewhat i n the romantic s t y l e : " E l vie jo ro-sal abandonado acaba de f l o r e c e r con una sonrisa, luego con una la"grima." (Cuentos, p. 26) Also, the swiftness of a dancing g i r l , Georgia, i s depicted as follows: "Sus muslos se muestran en re-la'mpagos, velozmente, con ese escurridizo argentear de dagas en r i f i a . " The same image of the dagger i s extended into the next sentence to be applied now to her gaze: " E l l a no tiene sino una mirada, una mirada i n d i v i s i b l e , que atraviesa e l ai r e turbio y se clava en l a puerta como en un corazon." (Cuentos, p. 59) Mallea assigns the feelings of one of his characters to the clothing he i s wearing. This i s the case with an i l l - f i t t i n g s u i t i n "Sonata de soledad": ...mi chaleco de smoking, irresponsable de que un sastre econdmico le hubiera cortado demasiado t l m i -do...yo con mi smoking encogie*ndose de vergtienza... solo, vergonzosamente, ridfculamente solo,... Con mi pobre smoking... con mi pobre smoking... (Cuentos, PP. 31-2) The tuxedo i s attributed feelings of ti m i d i t y and shame, but these are i n e f f e c t a transference of the feelings of the person who i s wearing i t , so that there i s a mutual relationship of feelings between the character and his s u i t . ~ The quotation i s also an example of synaesthesia. Another one i s : "aquella voz lenta y de"bil que cojeaba." ("El capita"n," Cuentos, p. 28) 69 In his characterizations Mallea gives special attention to the eyes, which are frequently also depicted through images. In the f i r s t example, one finds f i r s t a metaphor, then a simile: E l movimiento de tus pa"rpados, a"gil, era igual que una va*lvula de tu belleza, de tu lucimiento. Detra"s de aquellos pa"rpados, tus bellezas minuciosas eran una jaurl a : se revolucionaban a l a b r i r l o s , se lanzaban. Dos ojos hermosos y violentos como perros de presa. (Ibid.,-p. 33) Sus ojos entonaban un Angelus s i l e n c i o s o . ("Neel," Cuentos, p. 40) Sus ojos...semejan dos enormes enigmas suspendidos. ("Cynthia," Cuentos, p. 43) The image i s generally used to add, by suggestion, a deeper dimension of meaning. Thus, words spoken without s i n c e r i t y are depicted through the image of a flock of orphaned birds: Ya era tarde, O f e l i a , . . . tarde para impedir que aque-11a bandada de a r t i f i c i a l e s palabras o s c i l a r a , tem-blando, y se expandiera luego por l a ciudad, amplia-mente, con un vuelo vacilante y aleteado de p^jaros hu^rfanos. ("Sonata de soledad," Cuentos, p. 34) The most frequented place i n town i s described as follows: " l a fuente, que era como e l centro de l a brtijula l o c a l . " ("Neel," Cuentos. p. 36) While there i s usually one image used, as i n the two exam-ples above, there are occasions where a sense of improvisation i n writing seems to appear i n the form of a s t r i n g of images apparently produced by association of ideas. In the following example the word "energla" i s related to several signs of f o r -tune, the l a s t suggesting movement. By association, t h i s l a s t image brings to mind the image of the watch; his heart runs as a watch, which i s then related to the country renowned, fo r i t s watches: 70 Yo carezco de l a energfa de los elegidos. No s<5 s i habre" nacido bajo e l signo de una quime'rica cruz griega, de una swastika quebrada, bajo un signo de viento exhausto. Tengo e l coraztfn demasiado veloz y un temperamento de r e l o j e r f a . Atraso, sabes, cuan-do no me cuidan. Necesitarfa v i v i r en Suiza. ("Sonata de soledad," Cuentos, p. 31) The images are generally c o l o r f u l and suggestive, but some-times they seem quite contrived: En sus mej i l l a s aparecfan dos chapas rojas, bruscas, sobresaltadoras, como aparecen los pa"jaros de cuco en un r e l o j de pared. ("Cynthia," Cuentos, p. 44) Sus jazmines rojos siempre caye*ndosele del o j a l , inclina'ndose hacia l a t i e r r a , como s i aquel o j a l no fuese l o suficientemente virgen como para merecer-l o s . (Ibid.) The effectiveness i n the use of language i s sometimes l o s t because of exotic vocabulary, words that even a well educated Ar-gentine native speaker cannot understand without a comprehensive dictionary. This would seem to suggest that the author wanted to appeal to a select public. For example: " e l mismo que restana e l bianco sangrar de los regatos!' (Cuentos, p. 6 l ) ; " l a s jaras liadas...con gruesos vencejos" (Ibid., p. 2 7 ) ; "alcalde peda'neo" (Ibid., p. 40); "mendigo trashumante." (Ibid., p. 28) There i s also at least one instance of archaic language: "cabe" meaning "cerca de.""*"^  IV. The stories are usually b u i l t around two basic charac-ters: a r e f l e c t i v e young man, who as a rule i s timid but also has occasional boldness, e s p e c i a l l y i n his daydreams, and a g i r l "Cabe el- hogar," "cabe l a chimenea." (Cuentos, pp. 28 and 49) 71 who by her actions a f f e c t s him i n his desire to seek love and companionship. There i s a tendency to portray the males as very s e l f -conscious, se n s i t i v e , shy, r e f l e c t i v e and introverted. Their states of mind show them as r e s t l e s s , lonely, unhappy, dejected, and c o n t r i t e . Because the female characters are generally pre-sented from the males' subjective point of view, the females' actions are supportive of the males' states of mind. Thus, the females are portrayed as f i c k l e , whimsical and capricious. To ;a degree, because of such t r a i t s , the females seem to be the cause of the males' problems. A second look, however, indicates that these female t r a i t s , i n additi o n to being the r e p e t i t i o n of long held myths, are due primarily to the uncertainty and s o c i a l inse-c u r i t i e s of the males. In other words, the males' own feelings regarding the outcome of t h e i r romantic pursuits re s u l t i n the females being portrayed as f i c k l e . While i t i s true that the female characters display some fr i v o l o u s attitudes and ambivalent behavior, there i s no doubt as to t h e i r independence, unwavering determination, and sense of d i r e c t i o n about what they want out of l i f e . The examples that follow confirm t h i s i n terpretation. If Cynthia appears to act i n a c h i l d i s h , unpredictable man-ner i n the view of the male protagonist, i t i s because she refuses to l i v e according to plan, i . e . , she accepts the unp r e d i c t a b i l i t y of things i n her l i f e as normal: Yo soy como Casandra, l a griega. Puedo decir de los otros, pero no contesto de ml. Contar es vanidad de plebeyos. La vida se vive, no se conf l a . jQue* repug-nancia, los que se vacfan de palabras I jLos confidentes, esa raza de mansos! (Cuentos, p. 48) 72 The male of thi s story also admits her strength: " E l l a era ma's fuerte que yo, o, por lo me nos, ma's segura. ""1""L In Neel's case, her actions i n her relationship with Rabel are misconstrued by him as indecisiveness, when i n fact they show her reluctance to run away to get married because she does not love him. Georgia's aloofness to, and detachment from, her suitors adds to her mys-terious character and unreality as a woman; i t conveys, however, her strong determination to be f a i t h f u l to some unidentified being or goal which i s never expressed i n the narration. In "Sonata de soledad," O f e l i a acts protectively out of pi t y for a shy man rather than from love. When true love comes her way, she recognizes i t and does not hesitate to follow the dictates of her heart, abandoning the f i r s t man. In contrast, the abandoned male i n t h i s same story t r i e s , i n his reminiscent state, to talk himself into the conviction that he does not need her anymore. This reveals more about him than anything, since she no longer i s there to be convinced; i t i s he who has been unable to forget and needs to overcome his gr i e f at having l o s t her. He i s thus engaged i n an exercise i n se l f - d e c e i t . His f i n a l statement that only time w i l l cure him from his present pain i s an acknowledgment of his bravado. The fears and i n s e c u r i t i e s of the male character are further i n Cuentos. p. 45. Other examples of weakness i n the por-t r a y a l of male characters are: "Los siete admiradores que l a con-templamos nos sentimos de"biles como niftos, vulgares, vacilantes, mudos." (Ibid.); "Los compafteros masculinos, de"biles" and "he vuelto a ese panal holgado de mi debilidad." ("Sonata de soledad," Cuentos, p. 35) 73 evidence i n "Confesi6"n." Several years a f t e r Malva's death, Sergio, the protagonist, i s unable to come to terms with r e a l i t y and l i v e s i n a dejected, d e c e i t f u l way, unable to take on the world. He shows his fear of dishonoring her memory by his con-triteness a f t e r s e l l i n g her p o r t r a i t . He finds i t recriminating to look at the faded rectangle on the wall where the p o r t r a i t had been. His own feelings of insecurity lead him to brand him-s e l f as an egotist f o r that act of independence: Tfl sabes que yo no soy ma's que un hombre, una vulgar substanciacidn del egolsmo. Crei ser otra cosa un dla, pero no pas6 de figuraci<5n. Hoy he cedido a un pretexto, a un pretexto cualquiera para deshacerme de t i . Pero sufro, a pesar de todo, Malva, todavfa sufro. ...estoy aqul,.;. tre"mulo, encogido y sensible como un nifto, temeroso de todo, arrepentido de todo. (Cuentos, P. 58) This remorse would seem to indicate not only a sensitive nature, but also one quite weak and f e a r f u l , probably the r e s u l t of an immature personality. The portrayal of the females thus contrasts with that of the males, with the l a t t e r appearing restless and without enough d i r e c t i o n and purpose i n l i f e . I t would appear that through the female characters, long held myths about the female's unstable psyche are exploited as seen exclusively from the male's various subjective states of mind. As the stories develop, the female characters break away from the myths to suggest a d i f f e r e n t r e a l i t y than that f i r s t proposed i n the s t o r i e s . Hence Mallea's woman protagonists tend to display, even i n t h i s f i r s t cycle, a strength of character, an independence and a sense of d i r e c t i o n that seems to be lacking i n Mallea's male characters. Also, the males are usually dependent to an exaggerated degree on the 74 females f o r t h e i r emotional well-being. I t i s perhaps because of a l l t h i s that the author has t i t l e d four of the stories with the names of the leading ladies and has e n t i t l e d the c o l l e c t i o n "para una inglesa." (As f o r the word "desesperada" i n the t i t l e , i t seems to have an i r o n i c tone and re f e r rather to the emotional 12 state of the male characters.) V. In the narrative form there i s a prevalence of the mon-ologue. The male i s the one expressing himself and the female appears i n his reminiscences to further support his fancy. In two instances the monologue assumes the nature of a dialogue where only one side of the conversation i s heard. In "Sonata de soledad" and i n "Confesi<5n" the male talks d i r e c t l y to the female i n his thoughts, using the second person pronoun ("Til l o has querido O f e l i a " "Tfl sabes que....a pesar de todo, Malva, todavla sufro."). (Cuentos, pp. 30 and 58) VI. With respect to the temporal structure, a chronological development of the narration i s found i n four of the seven sto-r i e s . But there i s d i v e r s i t y i n the temporal structure of the other three: (1) "Confesi<5n" s h i f t s the presentation of the monologue between present, r e c o l l e c t i o n of the past, and again Mallea showed Cuentos to Leopoldo Lugones, the Argentine leader of the Modernist movement, i n 1924 or 1925* According to Mallea's account, Lugones like d i t s prose, e s p e c i a l l y the use of adjectives, but suggested a change of t i t l e to "Pedazos de es-pejo," a change that did not appeal to Mallea. (Lewald, p. 497) 75 back to the present to conclude. (2) "Sonata de soledad" uses the s t r u c t u r a l elements of the musical composition; the author transposes much of the thematic and rhythmic development of a sonata into the narration. P a r a l l e l to the t r a d i t i o n a l move-ments of a sonata — e x p o s i t i o n , development, and reca-p i t u l a t i o n — one finds here i n "Sonata de soledad" (a) a thematic exposition, with present and. past elements, (b) a restrospective development, and (c) a return to the present, with a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n and resolution of the theme introduced i n the f i r s t part. J (3) "Seis poemas a Georgia" seems to have been inspired by Charlie Chaplin's movie "The Gold Rush," to judge by i t s epigraph and i t s setting. The author focuses his attention on s i x scenes, a l l expressed i n the present tense, and by physical juxtaposition — a f i l m technique-leaves the reader to derive i n his imagination the psy-chological meaning and emotion of the almost non-exist-ent action. The r e s u l t i s a s i t u a t i o n where feelings subsist alone without l i n k s to past or future actions, something that has led Carlos Alberto Erro to consider 14 t h i s story an "ejemplar hazaria l i t e r a r i a . " With the 13 J This use of musical forms can be traced to French sym-bolism, which attempted to find the essence of poetry through verbal musicality and harmony. ^ Medida del c r i o l l i s m o (Buenos A i r e s ; 1929), pp. 141-3. Future references to, and quotations from, this work w i l l appear i n parenthesis within the text as Erro. 76 a p p l i c a t i o n of th i s technique Mallea succeeds i n doing away with the practice of having the author constantly intrude d i r e c t l y i n the story with comments and value judgments. 1^ VII. There i s , o v e r a l l , a p l a y f u l mood and l i g h t atmos-phere i n these stories which res u l t mostly from the presentation of apparently unimportant motives. For the male characters, the sentimental states, while only temporary, are depressing for them and thi s contributes a touch of melancholy to the s t o r i e s . The melancholy, however, i s overshadowed by the happy, p l a y f u l or hopeful actions of the female characters, as well as by oc-casional humor. From the point of view of the male characters, the various g i r l s — A r a b e l l a , Neel, Cynthia, O f e l i a — present the most unex-pected whims i n t h e i r sentimental adventures: f r i v o l o u s , shallow, and gratuitous whims that one sees l i k e bubbles navigating i n midair and suddenly bursting. The choice of words and images contributes greatly to this lighthearted atmosphere. Arabella i s described as "inconstante, rubia, insoportable, orgullosa, snob, instruida muy poco en geograffa, absolutamente nada en hi s -t o r i a sagrada y demasiado en f ranee's." (Cuentos, p. 25) Cynthia, D Of course, the author's presence i s s t i l l there since he has chosen the words, situations, imagery, and so fo r t h , but the i l l u s i o n of a world without i t s creator i s greater than by having obvious d i r e c t intrusions within the narration. An aban-donment of the author's comments within his narration was a gen-e r a l goal sought by Mallea's generation of rebellious writers, as i t w i l l be seen l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. 77 a happy-go-lucky extroverted g i r l , who "desgrana carcajadas en medio de l a severidad poco grata del papelerlo" of her male friend's o f f i c e , i s disconcerting. (Cuentos, p. 43) An admirer's remark about the charming difference he has noticed i n her eyes, brings her frolicsome reply: "Efectivamente: es e l rimmel..." She i s also "expansiva como e l champaha" and involves her ad-mirers i n "una charla espumosa, hueca." (Ibid., pp. 46 and 47) Georgia i s characterized as both tender and i n t r e p i d . (Ibid., p. 6 0 ) The complex Neel seems to change according to the amount of l i g h t present. She also exhibits touches of " v i r i l i t y , " such as a d i s l i k e f or housework and needlework, and a lack of fear of r e p t i l e s . (Ibid., p. 39) She i s portrayed as follows: Neel: ignorante de todo sosiego, encrespada de Impetus, de resoluci6n, de curiosidad, pero de*bil; animosa, pero siempre en e l mismo s i t i o , con una f i j e z a t r i s t e , con una tardla indeterminaci6n que era como arrepentimiento, tenia reminiscencias de mujer primitiva, desnudos todos los pe*talos de su cara'cter sobre l a mano abi e r t a . Po-sela todas las audacias, todas las timideces, todos los temores. (Ibid., p. 38) In addition to depicting Neel by direc t statement, there i s here an example of Mallea's exquisite handling of language, which he uses to suggest by metaphor rather than by di r e c t statement. While the flower image applied to a woman i s now t r i t e and reflects a degree of romantic i d e a l i z a t i o n of woman on the part of i t s user, there i s here an element of freshness. Mallea i n d i r e c t l y implies that old metaphor by r e f e r r i n g , not to the whole flower but to a p a r t o f i t , the petals, which he sees as facets of Neel's character. The wording also suggests a second image: that of a hand of cards which has been exposed, where there i s nothing else to be learned or discovered, where a l l the mystery of her 78 character i s i n the open. In spite of t h i s image, she remains a paradoxical being f o r her s u i t o r because she has contradictory t r a i t s and moods that he cannot comprehend. While the behavior of the female characters i s extremely inconsistent, and often paradoxical, such behavior i s not e n t i r e -l y absent from the male ones, who sometimes also exhibit a l i g h t touch of humor. I t i s often possible to find a p o l