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Income and city size : the British Columbia case Boaz, Amram 1977

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INCOME AND CITY SIZE: THE BRITISH COLUMBIA CASE by AMRAM BOAZ B.A., THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY, JERUSALEM, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARISEN CE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ; DECEMBER, 1977 AMRAM BOAZ, 1977 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the reguirements f o r an advanced degree at the O n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g The O n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1H5 Date December. 1977 i i i ABSTRACT The economic v a r i a b l e t h a t i s of i n t e r e s t t o most people xs income and i t s purchasing power. Very l i t t l e ..attention has been p a i d i n Canada to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and c i t y s i z e , while a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of r e s e a r c h has been conducted i n t h i s area i n the OVS. and other c o u n t r i e s . The major o b j e c t i v e of t h i s r e s e a r c h was, t h e r e f o r e , to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between economic .well-being, measured by r e a l income, of the i n d i v i d u a l and urban s i z e i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s was done i n order to determine whether B r i t i s h Columbia i n l i g h t of and i n s p i t e of i t s p a r t i c u l a r economic base--a resource e x p l o i t a t i o n economy-—fellows the g e n e r a l case elsewhere i n the world, which i n d i c a t e s t h a t incomes are p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with c i t y s i z e . The r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s are presented i n f o u r main ch a p t e r s . The author i n Chapter I I reviews the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d e a l s with the q u e s t i o n o f c i t y s i z e . T h i s review i n c l u d e s the e v o l v i n g concepts of c i t y s i z e and a review of the r e c e n t and i n n o v a t i v e approaches t o t h i s guestion. In Chapter I I I the author i n v e s t i g a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i o u s income c a t e g o r i e s and the urban communities i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. In order to c a r r y out t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n the urban communities were grouped i n t o e i g h t c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s i n a p o p u l a t i o n s i z e sequence where Greater Vancouver r e p r e s e n t s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e i g h t . The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t : 1. J5ean per c a p i t a income i s g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d ,with c i t y s i z e c l a s s . 2. Male average p e r s o n a l income d i s p l a y e d a U-shaped c o r r e l a t i o n with c i t y s i z e c l a s s . However, the h i g h e s t average incomes were s t i l l obtained i n the l a r g e r c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s : seven and e i g h t ; female average p e r s o n a l income showed a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with c i t y s i z e c l a s s . ,3. Family and non-family persons incomes, even though they showed an i r r e g u l a r r e l a t i o n t o c i t y s i z e c l a s s , tend g e n e r a l l y to i n c r e a s e with c i t y s i z e c l a s s . The author i n Chapter IV i n v e s t i g a t e s whether higher average incomes obtained i n the l a r g e r c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s are being negated by higher c o s t s of l i v i n g . He a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e s whether these higher incomes are obtained at the c o s t of a more i n e g u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of income. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o c o s t of l i v i n g r e v e a l e d a s l i g h t l y n egative c o r r e l a t i o n with c i t y s i z e c l a s s ; t h i s broadens the gap i n terms of r e a l income i n f avour of the l a r g e r c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . As f o r income d i s t r i b u t i o n , the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d g e n e r a l l y a r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r income d i s t r i b u t i o n i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s , t h e r e f o r e higher average incomes are not being achieved a t the expense of e q u i t y . The author i n Chapter V, attempts t o e x p l a i n the higher average incomes o b t a i n e d i n the l a r g e r c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . E x p l a n a t i o n s i n c l u d e d : 1.,The labour f o r c e t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n r a t i o s were higher i n those c l a s s e s and so was female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l a b o u r f o r c e . 2. The age, e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l compositions of the l a b o u r f o r c e i n these c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r higher average incomes. The r e s e a r c h concluded that e c o n o m i c a l l y the i n h a b i t a n t s of the l a r g e r urban communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia are, on the average, b e t t e r o f f than the i n h a b i t a n t s of s m a l l e r urban communities. However, the author does not propose that a l l urban communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia should be planned t o c o n t a i n the same poupulation s i z e as that of the l a r g e r ones. Rather, the author attempted f i r s t to o u t l i n e the e m p i r i c a l evidence as regards the r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s i n the P r o v i n c e ; and s e c o n d l y , to provide an a n a l y t i c a l b a s i s f o r p o l i c y makers to attempt to upgrade the i n h a b i t a n t s , and e s p e c i a l l y the females, of the s m a l l and medium urban communities through e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programmes; and t o encourage more female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e i n order t o improve the economic w e l l - b e i n g of the i n h a b i t a n t s o f these urba communities. v i i &CKNOWLEDGEHENTS I should l i k e t o thank my a d v i s o r s . P r o f e s s o r s Doug Webster and Braham Seisman, who have gi v e n so generously of t h e i r time and knowledge i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . •Their guidance, h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m and encouragement are g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. Hy thanks extend a l s o t o the s t a f f of the Data L i b r a r y , and e s p e c i a l l y t o Dave ftmos, f o r h i s v a l u a b l e help and i n s t r a c t i o n i n computer o p e r a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o thank Jim Sharpe f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n the p r o o f r e a d i n g and t y p i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . Thank you a l l . v i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION . .. ................ ... 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM ............ ....... 2 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH 5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEASCH ................. .5 HYPOTHESES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 SUBSTANTIVE CONTENT .... . ... ...... ...... ....... 9 DEFINITION OF TERMS ..........................11 SOURCE OF DATA .14 CHAPTER I I : CITY SIZE: LITERATURE REVIEW . , . . . ...... . . • . . .15 CITY SIZE: HISTORICAL APPROACHES ............. 16 CITY SIZE: GENERAL REVIEW ....................19 CITY SIZE: ECONOMIC APPROACHES .......... .....24 SUMMARY .•.................................... 44 CHAPTER I I I : INCOME CATEGORIES AND CITY SIZE CIASSES 46 THE INCOME CATEGORIES .....v,................. 48 CITY SIZE CLASSES 52 MEAN PER CAPITA INCOME . . . . . , V . .....60 AVERAGE PERSONAL INCOME BY SEX . 63 AVERAGE FAMILY AND NON-FAMILY PERSONS INCOME .70 SUMMARY .............. v W ^ v v J V v « w « W * W . W V . V T 3 ix PAGE CHAPTER IV: COST OF LIVING AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION 75 COST OF LIVING 77 SHELTER COMMODITY SUB-GROUP .................. 83 FOOD AND NON-FOOD COMMODITY GROUPS 88 CLOTHING AND RECREATION-READING COMMODITY GROUPS . . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2 THE PROVINCIAL CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 94 INCOME DISTRIBUTION ...... ........ ............ 97 SUMMARY ..................................... 104 CHAPTER V: EXPLANATION OF INCOME DIFFERENCES ............ 106 LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES ............108 LABOUR FORCE BY AGE AND SEX ................. 119 LABOUR FORCE BY EDUCATION AND SEX ........... 128 LABOUR FORCE BY OCCUPATION AND SEX .......... 133 ECONOMIC BASE OF THE URBAN COMMUNITIES ...... 139 SUMMARY 144 .... CHAPTER VI: POLICY IMPLICATIONS AND SUMMARY 148 POLICY IMPLICATIONS .........v.....v......... 149 SUMMARY 150 BIBLIOGRAPHY .. . .............. 157 .... APPENDIX A 163 , .. APPENDIX B .'. v.!..".:..v. . 170 . , APPENDIX G . . . 181 X LIST OF TABLES •> :. . PAGE TABLE II.1 RATIO OF ACTUAL TO "EXPECTED" HOURLY EARNINGS BY CITY SIZE, 1959 ........... V/.-V. ... 40 TABLE II.2 DEFLATED INCOME LEVELS FOR STANDARDIZED POPULATION ....... ..... ......... .. ............42 TABLE I I I . 1 TOTAL POPULATION BY CITY SIZE CLASS 59 , TABLE III.2 MEAN PER CAPITA INCOME BY CITY SIZE CLASS ....60 TABLE I I I . 3 AVERAGE PERSONAL INCOME BY CITY SIZE CLASS ...64 TABLE I I I . 4 AVERAGE PERSOUAL INCOME BY SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS .67 ... TABLE I I I . 5 AVERAGE FAMILY AND NON-FAMILY PERSONS INCOME BY CITY SIZE CLASS ........v..*.^...^73 TABLE IV.1 AVERAGE SHELTER COSTS BY CITY SIZE CLASS 85 ...... TABLE IV. 2 AVERAGE MONTHLY SHELTER COST BY CITY SIZE CLASS ........................... 87 ... TABLE IV. 3 AVERAGE MONTHLY SHELTER INDEX LEVELS AND WEIGHTS BY CITY SIZE CLASS 88 TABLE IV.4 FOOD AND NON-FOOD COMMODITY INDEX LEVELS AND WEIGHTS BY CITY SIZE CLASS ...............91 x i PAGE TABLE IV.5 CLOTHING AND RECREATION-READING INDEX LEVELS AND WEIGHTS BY CITY SIZE CLASS 94 TABLE IV.6 THE PROVINCIAL CONSUMER PRICE INDEX BY CITY SIZE CLASS ...........................96 TABLE IV.7 THE ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE INCOME DISTRIBUTION BY INCOME LEVEL AND CITY SIZE CLASS .........101 TABLE V.1 AGE/SEX DISTRIBUTION BY CITY SIZE CLASS ....... 111 TABLE V.2 LABOUR FORCE TO TOTAL POPULATION RATIO BY CITY SIZE CLASS 113 TABLE V.3 LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION BY SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS ...........................v.116 TABLE V.4 AVERAGE EMPLOYMENT INCOME BY AGE AND SEX FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA ........................ 124 TABLE V.5 LABOUR FORCE EY AGE, SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS ......................... 125 TABLE V.6 EXPECTED AVERAGE INCOMES BY AGE, SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS .........................126 TABLE V.7 AVERAGE EMPLOYMENT INCOME BY EDUCATION AND SEX FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA ................ 128 TABLE V.8 LABOUR FORCE BY EDUCATION, SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS ..;......*................ 130 TABLE V.9 EXPECTED AVERAGE INCOMES BY EDUCATION, SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS ....... „vi........... 131 x i i PAGE TABLE V.10 AVERAGE EMPLOYMENT INCOME BY OCCUPATION AND SEX FOR BRITISH COLOMBIA i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 .TABLE V.11.A LABOUR FORCE BY OCCUPATION, SEX AND CITY SIZE 'CLASS .w. . . ; . y . ; . v . v v > . > ; ' . : * " - . - , ' - - . . : , . . : . 135 ... TABLE V. 11. B LABOUR FORCE BY OCCUPATION, SEX f. AND CITY SIZE CLASS {CONTINUED} .............136 . TABLE V. 12 EXPECTED AVERAGE INCOMES BY OCCUPATION, SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS ..................... 137 TABLE V.13 LABOUR FORCE BY INDUSTRY, SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS 140 x i i i LIST OF GRAPHS PAGE GRAPH II. 1 COST BENEFITS CORVES BY CITY SIZE . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 .GRAPH II. 2 ORB AN COST AND PRODOCT CORVES WITH CITY SIZE . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 GRAPH II.-3 SELL-BEING VERSOS POPULATION OF "SETTLEMENT" 38 GRAPH III.1 MEAN PER CAPITA INCOME BY CITY SIZE CLASS 62 GRAPH III.2 AVERAGE PERSONAL INCOME BY CITY SIZE CLASS ..65 GRAPH III.3 AVERAGE PERSONAL INCOME BY SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 GRAPH III.4 AVERAGE FAMILY AND NON-FAMILY PERSONS INCOME BY CITY SIZE CLASS .72 GRAPH IV.1 THE ROW INCOME DISTRIBUTION BY INCOME LEVEL AND CITY SIZE CLASS . . . .102 GRAPH Vi.1 LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION BY SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 xiv LIST OF DIAGRAMS PAGE DIAGRAM IV.2 THE COLUMN INCOME DISTRIBUTION BY INCOME LEVEL AND CITY SIZE CLASS .............. ..103 DIAGRAM V.I AGE/SEX PYRAMIDS BY CITY SIZE CLASS .........112 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I N.TBQ MICTION TO THE PBOBLEM The economic Hell-being of man i n r e l a t i o n to c i t y s i z e has been a matter o f cont r o v e r s y f o r c e n t u r i e s . The. l e a d i n g argument of those who favour l a r g e c i t i e s i s the v a r i a t i o n of incomes with c i t y s i z e . They c l a i m t h a t incomes are. much higher i n l a r g e r c i t i e s and t h i s i n d i c a t e s higher p r o d u c t i v i t y as we l l as advantages t o the i n d i v i d u a l s who l i v e i n b i g c i t i e s . Of course the higher economic w e l l b e i n g t h a t may,exist i n b i g c i t i e s i s not enough i n i t s e l f to i n d i c a t e t h a t these c i t i e s are b e t t e r human s e t t l e m e n t s than s m a l l ones. T h i s r a i s e s the e v e r l a s t i n g c o n t r o v e r s i a l guestion of what i s the most d e s i r a b l e s i z e of a c i t y f o r man. we have evidence t h a t t h i s problem was of i n t e r e s t t o v a r i o u s peoples even i n the a n c i e n t world. Since then u n t i l the e a r l y part of the twent i e t h century, the main emphasis was upon the p h y s i c a l shape o f c i t i e s . I t was not u n t i l the e a r l y 1900*s and e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a s t few decades t h a t the approach to the c i t y s i z e guestion was d i r e c t e d toward the op t i m a l f u n c t i o n o f c i t i e s and well being of t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s r a t h e r than t h e i r shape. P l a n n e r s , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , - . j o u r n a l i s t s , economists, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , and many persons of; other d i s c i p l i n e s have begun to t h i n k about the problem of how f a r unba n i z a t i o n should go. Should the b i g c i t i e s be allowed to grow i n d e f i n i t e l y i n p o p u l a t i o n and area o r should t h e i r growth be c o n t r o l l e d . They have examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a and c i t y s i z e u s ing h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d techniques and methodologies. These c r i t e r i a have v a r i e d from the economic-; such as munici p a l s e r v i c e s (expenditure and revenue), i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o s t s , economies of agglomeration, per c a p i t a income, and so on: to the s o c i o l o g i c a l , such as s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , p u b l i c h e a l t h , d e n s i t i e s , e d u c a t i o n , e t c . Obv i o u s l y , using these v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a they have a r r i v e d a t v a r i o u s f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g what a most d e s i r a b l e s i z e of a c i t y should be. For example, the d e s i r a b l e s i z e of a c i t y may be found t o be one m i l l i o m people or more using maximum e f f i c i e n c y i n pr o d u c t i o n as a c r i t e r i o n , but onl y one hundred thousand u s i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n as a c r i t e r i o n . These r e s e a r c h e r s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups: opponents of l a r g e c i t i e s and advocates of l a r g e c i t i e s . The opponents, such as Neutze (1965), Thompson (1975) and others r e l y on s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l arguments such as g u a l i t y of l i f e , p u b l i c h e a l t h , the value of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , and the i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between people and nature, c o n g e s t i o n , p o l l u t i o n , long-Journeys to work, managerial diseconomies i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r of l a r g e c i t i e s , and so on. The advocates of l a r g e c i t i e s , such as Alonso (1975), Richardson (1973) and o t h e r s , p o i n t out the e x i s t e n c e of economic f a c t o r s , such as h i g h e r wages and s a l a r i e s , advantages o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , the v a r i e t y of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and other e x t e r n a l economies of agglomeration that these l a r g e c i t i e s generate. , i . , From the above i t becomes c l e a r t h a t i t w i l l be a d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , t o a r r i v e at an absolute consensus r e g a r d i n g what a s i z e of an urban community should be when i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a l l these c r i t e r i a and c i t y s i z e . T h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l f o c u s on those v a r i a b l e s which r e l f e c t the economic w e l l - b e i n g of an i n d i v i d u a l i n r e l a t i o n t o c i t y s i z e . 5 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s research a r e , f i r s t , to document the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d e a l s with the r e l a t i o n s h i p ..between c i t y s i z e and the v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a , and second, to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between those v a r i a b l e s which i l l u s t r a t e economic w e l l - b e i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l , and the v a r i o u s urban communities i n t h e Pr o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. The main o b j e c t i v e of t h i s r e s e a r c h may be :, s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : does the case of B r i t i s h Columbia i n l i g h t of and i n s p i t e of i t s p a r t i c u l a r economic base: u r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n economy, f o l l o w the gen e r a l case elsewhere i n the world that i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e a l incomes are p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with c i t y s i z e ? . . . S I G N I F I C A N C E OF THE RESEARCH • Since the dawn of h i s t o r y man has moved from one p l a c e t o another mainly t o improve h i s economic w e l l -being. T h i s o b j e c t i v e motivated the huge m i g r a t i o n of people from the r u r a l areas t o the i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s i n the l a s t c e n t u r y , and i t i s s t i l l a d r i v i n g f o r c e i n the movement of people from one p l a c e to another. ,>,,. T h i s movement generates s o c i a l as w e l l as .personal c o s t s . The s o c i a l c o s t i s manifested i n the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of c i t i e s t h a t are l e f t behind by the .migrants, while t h e p e r s o n a l c o s t i s manifested by the lower incomes t h a t migrants encounter i n the new h a b i t a t i o n as a r e s u l t of ignorance of the! job market or t h e i r response to ..employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s r a t h e r than t o p r o s p e c t i v e income gains {Thompson 1975) For a planner i t means t h a t i n order to minimize these s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l c o s t s he/she has to understand, i n h i s / h e r attempt to c r e a t e a b e t t e r p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment, not o n l y the needs and d e s i r e s o f men, but a l s o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these needs and d e s i r e s and the p h y s i c a l environment. Khen a planner i s reguested t o plan a new community or an e x t e n s i o n o f an e x i s t i n g community, one of h i s concerns i s how b i g i n terms of p o p u l a t i o n t h i s community sh o u l d be. There are many c r i t e r i a t h a t have t o be c o n s i d e r e d when determining a s u i t a b l e s i z e f o r a community* For example, a number of people needed t o maintain an economic base of a community may very w e l l d i f f e r from the number o f people needed to operate c e r t a i n s o c i a l needs of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r community. Determining the s i z e of a community i s .undoubtedly a h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d planning process. 7 Understanding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a and c i t y s i z e w i l l a i d the planner i n h i s attempt to plan a b e t t e r and more d e s i r a b l e community, and by t h a t understanding maybe reduce the s o c i a l and the p e r s o n a l c o s t s of m i gration. Very l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been given i n Canada to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and c i t y s i z e , while a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of r e s e a r c h has been conducted i n t h i s area i n the U.S. and other c o u n t r i e s . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t p r o v i d i n g the planner with i n f o r m a t i o n and e m p i r i c a l evidence from the Canadian scene r e g a r d i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l help him determine a s u i t a b l e s i z e of a proposed community. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p would not o n l y b e n e f i t the planner but a l s o government agencies and p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e i r l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s i n determining wages and other c o s t s . And f i n a l l y i t w i l l h e lp those who are t h i n k i n g of moving t o choose t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n and others to s a t i s f y t h e i r c u r i o s i t y t o compare t h e i r own circumstances with those of o t h e r s . 8 HYPOTHESES I t i s argued i n the c i t y s i z e c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t incomes are much high e r i n l a r g e c i t i e s and that t h i s f a c t i l l u s t r a t e s the b e n e f i t s of l a r g e c i t i e s from the s o c i a l as w e l l as the i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t o f view. T h i s argument s t r e s s e s t h a t higher incomes on one hand r e f l e c t higher p r o d u c t i v i t y , which supports the s o c i a l b e n e f i t s o f b i g c i t i e s , and on the other hand r e f l e c t the advantages o f i n d i v i d u a l s o f l i v i n g and working i n b i g c i t i e s . T h i s research attempts to t e s t t h i s o v e r r i d i n g hypothesis by examining the case of the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I f the e m p i r i c a l evidence supports t h i s h y p o t h e s i s t h a t there i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between incomes and c i t y s i z e one can conclude t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia f o l l o w s the ge n e r a l case and t h a t t h i s s i z e of c i t y r e p r e s e n t s the most d e s i r a b l e s i z e as f a r as the economic w e l l - b e i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l i s concerned. Before a r r i v i n g at such a c o n c l u s i o n two other hypotheses have t o be examined. The f i r s t sub-hypothesis i s t h a t , although c o s t of l i v i n g i s p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with Incomes, i t s a s s o c i a t i o n with c i t y s i z e i s much narrower, so t h a t t h e adjust e d r e a l incomes s t i l l tend t o be higher i n b i g c i t i e s . 9 The second sub^hypothesis i s that h i g h e r incomes o b t a i n e d i n l a r g e c i t i e s a re not achieved a t the expense of e q u i t y . .SUBSTANTIVE CONTENT The r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s w i l l be presented i n four chapters which w i l l l e a d to the dete r m i n a t i o n of the economic w e l l - b e i n g o f people i n r e l a t i o n to c i t y s i z e i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia The author i n Chapter I I w i l l review the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d e a l s with the gu e s t i o n of c i t y s i z e . T h i s review w i l l i n c l u d e the e v o l v i n g concepts of c i t y s i z e and a review of the r e c e n t and i n n o v a t i v e approaches t o t h i s problem. In Chapter I I I the author w i l l j u s t i f y t h e s e l e c t i o n of the economic v a r i a b l e s that w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the urban communities i n the P r o v i n c e i n t o s e v e r a l c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s and the time .p e r i o d f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The economic v a r i a b l e s chosen are: mean per c a p i t a income, average p e r s o n a l incomes of males and females, and average f a m i l y and non-family persons incomes. The year to be examined i s the census year 1971. By c o r r e l a t i n g incomes and c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s a 10 c e r t a i n kind o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be obt a i n e d . However, c o r r e l a t i n g incomes and c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s i s not s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s e l f , and other v a r i a b l e s , such as income d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o s t of l i v i n g have t o be examined i n order to enable t h i s research to t e s t the hypotheses mentioned e a r l i e r . The author i n Chapter IV w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , attempt to examine c o s t o f l i v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s among the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s i n order t o determine whether higher incomes obtained i n c e r t a i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s are being negated by the cost of l i v i n g p r e v a i l i n g t h e r e . F i n a l l y i n t h i s c h a p t e r the income d i s t r i b u t i o n i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n order t o t e s t the sub-hypothesis t h a t higher incomes are not achieved at the expense of e q u i t y . The outcome w i l l document the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the economic we l l - b e i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s and c i t y s i z e i n the Pr o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I D i f f e r e n c e s i n income can be due to a l a r g e number of f a c t o r s , such as e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , age, i n d u s t r i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . In an attempt t o e x p l a i n the income l e v e l s o btained f o r each c i t y s i z e c l a s s , the author i n Chapter V w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e these f a c t o r s which he b e l i e v e to .have the most s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n determining income .differences among the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . In the f i n a l c h a p t e r . Chapter VI, the author 11 w i l l o u t l i n e some of the p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s d e r i v e d from the r e s e a r c h and w i l l propose f u r t h e r study i n t h i s f i e l d . F i n a l l y , a summary of the r e s e a r c h and problems encountered w i l l be o u t l i n e d . .DEFINITION OF TERMS The f o l l o w i n g terms which w i l l fee used i n t h i s . r e s e a r c h are the terms t h a t were used i n the 1971 census. These terms were d e f i n e d by the Government of Canada as f o l l o w s : 0 R BAN-, POP PL ATI OH: In c l u d e s a l l persons l i v i n g i n : <1) i n c o r p o r a t e d c i t i e s , towns and v i l l a g e s with a p o p u l a t i o n o f 1,000 or over; (2) unincorporated p l a c e s of 1,000 or over, having a p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y of at l e a s t 1,000 per sguare mile; <3) the urbanized f r i n g e of (1) or (2) , i f i t has a minimum p o p u l a t i o n of 1,0.00 and a d e n s i t y of at l e a s t 1,000 per sguare mile., INCOME FROM ALL SOQRCES IN 1970: Refers to the t o t a l income r e c e i v e d during 1970 from wages and s a l a r i e s , b u s i n e s s or p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e , farm o p e r a t i o n s , f a m i l y and youth allowances, government o l d age pensions, other government payments, r e t i r e m e n t pensions from previous employment, bond and de p o s i t i n t e r e s t and 12 d i v i d e n d s , other investment sources* and other sources; , £ M PLOYME NT INCO HE: Refers to the t o t a l o f income r e c e i v e d i n 1970 as wages and s a l a r i e s , net income from business or p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e and/or net farm income. f _ H l _ Y _ I I _ G _ E _ Refers to the sum of the incomes r e c e i v e d by a l l members of the f a m i l y 15 years and over from a l l sources, d u r i n g the cale n d a r year 1970. Included are wages and s a l a r i e s , net income from business and p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e , net income from farm o p e r a t i o n s , t r a n s f e r payments, r e t i r e m e n t pensions, investment income, and oth e r miscellaneous sources. TOTAL.LABOUR-FORCE: Refers t o persons 15 years and over who belong t o the f o l l o w i n g groups: "worked l a s t week f o r pay or p r o f i t " , "worked l a s t week i n unpaid f a m i l y work", "looked f o r work l a s t week", "on temporary l a y - o f f l a s t week" and "with job but not a t work l a s t week.'! "the week" r e f e r s i n most cases t o the seek of May 24 to 31, 1971. .I._PJ3STR¥i Refers t o the g e n e r a l nature of the business c a r r i e d out i n the establishment where the respondent was employed as i n d i c a t e d by h i s r e p o r t i n g o f the name of h i s employer (or h i s own business name i f self-employed) and the kind of 13 b u s i n e s s , i n d u s t r y or s e r v i c e engaged i n by t h i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t . I f not employed i n the week p r i o r t o enumeration, the i n f o r m a t i o n was to r e l a t e t o the respondent*s job of l o n g e s t d u r a t i o n s i n c e January 1, 1970. Persons with two or more jobs were t o r e p o r t the i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the job a t which they worked the most hours. OGGUP ATIOJl Refers to the kind of work the person was doing, as determined by h i s r e p o r t i n g of h i s k i n d of work, h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s most important d u t i e s , and the job t i t l e . Data r e l a t e to the job at which the respondent worked the most hours ( i f he had more than one job) . I f he d i d not have .a job d u r i n g the week p r i o r to enumeration, the data r e l a t e t o the job of longest d u r a t i o n s i n c e January 1, 1970. Refers to the d o l l a r s r e q u i r e d to secure occupancy, but not the ownership- of a d w e l l i n g f o r e i t h e r the week or month p r i o r to enumeration day. VALUE OF 0SNED-OCCUPIED_ DWELLING: Refers t o the amount expected by the owner i f the d w e l l i n g t o be s o l d to a w i l l i n g buyer. 14 SOUBCE OF DATA The major source of data used t o analyze the . r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and the urban communities i n the ^Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s the 1971, Census User Summary Tapes s t o r e d i n the Data L i b r a r y a t the O n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The data from the-above source was a l s o employed i n c o n s t r u c t i n g p a r t of the Consumer P r i c e Index ,f c^. the P r o v i n c e (as w i l l be mentioned: i n the research) and i n the e x p l a n a t i o n s o f income d i f f e r e n t i a j l s among-the urban ccmmunities i n the Province. Unless s t a t e d otherwise, the source of a l l the t a b l e s contained i n t h i s r e s e a r c h i s the 1971 Census User I CHAPTER II CITY SIZE: LITERATURE REVIEW 16 The g u e s t i o n of what i s the most d e s i r a b l e s i z e o f a c i t y has been researched and s t u d i e d i n most c o u n t r i e s . ever s i n c e the process of u r b a n i z a t i o n began. While approaches to t h i s problem p r i o r t o the nineteenth century , were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by emphasising the p h y s i c a l shape of c i t i e s , the emphasis, e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a s t few decades, has been d i r e c t e d toward t h e i r optimal s i z e i n terms of f u n c t i o n and the w e l l - b e i n g of t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s , T h i s chapter i s d i v i d e d , t h e r e f o r e , i n t o three . p a r t s . The f i r s t reviews the recorded h i s t o r i c a l approaches t o the g u e s t i o n of what i s the most d e s i r a b l e s i z e of a c i t y . The second reviews more c u r r e n t concepts and approaches re g a r d i n g t h i s g u e s t i o n . The t h i r d reviews the economic approaches r e g a r d i n g the most d e s i r a b l e s i z e of a c i t y . CITY SIZE: HISTORICAL APPROACHES From as f a r back as the f o u r t h c entury B.C., man has c o n t r o l l e d the s i z e and shape of c i t i e s . During these e a r l y times, the main emphasis was upon r e g u l a t i n g the p h y s i c a l shape of c i t i e s . The i d e a l s i z e f o r P l a t o 17 (Richardson 1973) was a c i t y of 5,040 c i t i z e n s , t h a t f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g the number o f people who c o u l d be accomodated i n a forum. The Roman Empire i n t r o d u c e d the c r i t e r i o n of m i l i t a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the shape of c i t i e s and the d i s t a n c e between them. Those c i t i e s had a shape of f o r t s known as Roman f o r t s , while the spacing among them was r e l a t e d to the d i s t a n c e t h a t s i g n a l s could be heard between one tower and another. M i l i t a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s continued to dominate the shape and s i z e o f c i t i e s up t o the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s of people were the ones which d i c t a t e d the shape of c i t i e s . C i t i e s and towns were b u i l t so t h a t they focused s t r u c t u r a l l y upon the church (Mumford, 1961). The Renaissance and the Barogue period presented a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t approach to the i d e a l c i t y from t h a t of the Middle Ages. Geometric forms such as the arrangement of s t r e e t s or the p o s i t i o n i n g of b u i l d i n g s became the o b j e c t i v e s of the i d e a l c i t y . The c r e a t i o n of huge avenues and s t r a i g h t l i n e v i s t a s l e a d i n g to the most s i g n i f i c a n t b u i l d i n g s r e f l e c t e d the e v o l u t i o n of p o l i t i c a l power, such as i n France, or the emphasis on r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , such as i n I t a l y (Rosenau, 1959). The o v e r a l l e x t e r n a l shape of the c i t y which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the Renaissance became l e s s important i n the 18 Baroque period, achieving symmetry was more the goal of the architect of t h i s period, and examples of t h i s desire can be found i n most European c i t i e s and several North American ones. For example, the radiating pattern of streets in Paris, the symmetrical piazzas of Some, and the diagonal pattern of streets i n Washington. The aesthetic appearance of the design was a far more important consideration than the s o c i a l or economic problems which might arise from such plans ( i b i d , 1959). It was during the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution that the function rather than the form became, more important. The factory became the focus of the c i t y . As manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s expanded c i t i e s increased both in s i z e and density. The increase of population in c i t i e s occurred at the expense of s o c i a l amenities. Those were s a c r i f i c e d for the achievement of maximum production. As a r e s u l t of these developments so-called " v i s i o n a r i e s " emerged, such as Ebenezer Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Lewis Mumford (Mumford, 1961, and Reissman, 1964) ., They came with plans for Utopian self-supporting communities often c a l l e d "garden c i t i e s " . Their plans, which r e f l e c t the i d e a l size and shape of towns, were designed with the consideration of both form and function i n mind. The 'basic forms of the model towns were the g r i d - i r o n pattern or some modification of i t . With regard to function. 19 low l e v e l s of d e n s i t y and i n t e r n a l open spaces were designed t o provide easy access t o a l l areas of the town, and, i n a d d i t i o n , r e s i d e n t i a l areas were separated from p l a c e s of work. The s i z e of the garden c i t i e s i n terms of t h e i r area and p o p u l a t i o n was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the f u n c t i o n f o r which they were designed, but u s u a l l y i t d i d not exceed t h i r t y thousand persons. One of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the garden c i t i e s movement was the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n as a f a c t o r i n determining the optimum s i z e of c i t i e s r a t h e r than only form, the c o n s i d e r a t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e d urban design up t c the e a r l y part of the twen t i e t h c e n t u r y . T h i s movement can be c o n s i d e r e d as the s t a r t i n g point of the c u r r e n t trend i n determining the most d e s i r a b l e s i z e of c i t i e s . CITY SIZE: GENERAL REVIEW Since the t u r n of the c e n t u r y , and e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a s t few decades, the argument about what i s the most d e s i r a b l e s i z e of c i t i e s has become of s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r e s t to a wide range of people: s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , economists, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , and many o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n s . The methods they have used i n determining " o p t i m a l " s i z e have become more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , and they are u s u a l l y based upon the 20 r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l e c t e d c r i t e r i a and the urban p o p u l a t i o n i n v o l v e d . F o l l o w i n g i s a review of s t u d i e s t h a t were conducted by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s u s i n g d i f f e r i n g c r i t e r i a c oncerning the g u e s t i o n of the most d e s i r a b l e c i t y s i z e . Using m u n i c i p a l expenditure and e f f i c i e n c y as a c r i t e r i o n , Duncan (1951) found, on examining the e x i s t i n g data on 14 c a t e g o r i e s of munic i p a l expenditures i n the U.S., t h a t i n g e n e r a l t h e r e was a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p netween c i t y s i z e and per c a p i t a c o s t s - l a r g e r c i t i e s spend more f o r highways, s a n i t a t i o n , p u b l i c w e l f a r e , c o r r e c t i o n s , s c h o o l s , e t c . than s m a l l e r c i t i e s . However, these data prove l i t t l e c o ncerning m u n i c i p a l e f f i c i e n c y . Duncan c l a i m s that the high e r per c a p i t a l e v e l s o f expenditure f o r s c h o o l s , l i b r a r i e s , and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n l a r g e r c i t i e s a p p a r e n t l y r e f l e c t g r e a t e r volume and a higher q u a l i t y i n these s e r v i c e s . As f o r advanced e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , l a r g e c i t i e s are much more f r e q u e n t l y able to provide them i n g r e a t e r v a r i e t y . The p o p u l a t i o n base f o r a c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y i s around 100,000. P r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s i n such f i e l d s as bu s i n e s s , e n g i n e e r i n g , law, medicine, and s o c i a l work r e q u i r e p o p u l a t i o n bases i n the order of 500,000, But, s u r p r i s i n g l y , he says t h a t d e s p i t e the s u p e r i o r e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s of l a r g e c i t i e s , t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s e x h i b i t only 21 s l i g h t l y higher l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l achievement than those of small c i t i e s . G riggs (1967) a r r i v e d a t more or l e s s the same c o n c l u s i o n s . He examined t h e e f f i c i e n c y of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s of c i t i e s i n i n c o r p o r a t e d areas i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. E f f i c i e n c y of municipal s e r v i c e s was represented by the r e l a t i o n s h i p between per c a p i t a e xpenditures on s e r v i c e s and the l e v e l of s e r v i c e provided f o r each i n h a b i t a n t . He found that s m a l l e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n c u r lower per c a p i t a expenditures on a l l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s than do l a r g e r ones. Larger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p rovide higher l e v e l s of s e r v i c e i n f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , p u b l i c works, s a n i t a t i o n and waste removal, r e c r e a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n than do s m a l l e r communities. By equating c o s t of s e r v i c e with the l e v e l of s e r v i c e provided he found t h a t the l a r g e s t c i t i e s operate and maintain municipal s e r v i c e s more e f f e c i e n t l y than the other c i t i e s i n h i s study. The f i n a l r e s u l t t h a t he obtained was t h a t , when u s i n g e f f i c i e n c y o f municipal s e r v i c e s as a measure with which t o determine the most d e s i r a b l e s i z e of c i t i e s , t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s provide more e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e s and t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t a more d e s i r a b l e s i z e . Baker (1960), a n a l y z i n g the c o s t per c a p i t a f o r m u n i c i p a l expenditures i n seventy-two E n g l i s h c i t i e s , he found t h a t those c i t i e s between 85,000 and 92,000 i n c u r r e d 22 t h e lowest per c a p i t a expenditure c o s t s . Using the same c r i t e r i o n , P h i l l i p s (1942) a r r i v e d at higher f i g u r e s . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t c i t i e s between 108,000 and 124,000 had the lowest per c a p i t a c o s t s , wheras those between 100,000 and 250,000 operated these s e r v i c e s most e f f i c i e n t l y . Using s o c i a l l i f e as a c r i t e r i o n , Duncan (1951) advocated s m a l l c i t i e s . He found s t a t i s t i c a l support f o r h i s p o s i t i o n i n data on marriage and f e r t i l i t y . Of the n a t i v e white p o p u l a t i o n 18-6 4 o n l y t h r e e f i f t h s are married i n c i t i e s over a quarter m i l l i o n as a g a i n s t over two-thirds i n c i t i e s 2,500-25,000. As f o r f e r t i l i t y , no c i t y - s i z e group ( i n 1940) i n the urban white p o p u l a t i o n had a f e r t i l i t y l e v e l up t o the permanent replacement quota. But the c i t i e s of 2,500-10,000 were rep r o d u c i n g at 15% below replacement, whereas c i t i e s over 1,000,000 were 35% below. Looking a t the same c r i t e r i o n , Brenham (1949) i s a l s o i n favour of s m a l l c i t i e s . He found that a c i t y c f between 10,000 and 20,000 persons would pr o v i d e the most d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l l i f e f o r i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . Using p u b l i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e s as a c r i t e r i o n , Duncan (1951) found t h a t the r a t i o o f p h y s i c i a n s t o po p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g c i t y - s i z e , e s p e c i a l l y the r a t i o of s p e c i a l i s t s t o ge n e r a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Of eleven of the most important types of medical s p e c i a l i s t s , e i g h t are r e g u l a r l y found only i n c i t i e s o f over 50,000. The s i z e 23 of hospitals also varies d i r e c t l y with c i t y s i z e . Nine-tenths of the births to residents of c i t i e s of over 10,000 occur in hospitals, as compared to three quarters i n the case of c i t i e s below 10,000; and over half the large c i t y deaths occur i n hospital as compared to one-third i n the smaller centres. He concludes that health services and f a c i l i t i e s are therefore c l e a r l y more accessible to large-c i t y residents than to those of small c i t i e s . Using public safety as a c r i t e r i o n , Duncan {1951) found that most of 24 offense-categories used i n "Uniform Crime Reports", show a tendency for crime rates to increase with c i t y - s i z e , although the very largest c i t i e s by no means have the highest rates in a l l or even most of these categories. As for the police force costs, per cap i t a expenditures for these increase d i r e c t l y with c i t y size. Per capita f i r e losses in d o l l a r s show l i t t l e systematic association with c i t y s i z e . But f i r e losses expressed as a percentage of t o t a l r e a l property value are larger i n the c i t i e s of 30,000-50,000 than i n the c i t i e s of over 1,000,000 inhabitants. On the other hand, the loss per b u i l d i n g - f i r e i s more than 50$ greater i n larger c i t i e s . Meeting the threat of an atomic war, Angur {1958), Duncan (1951), and other writers on defense matters, concluded that c i t i e s should be small so that they would have a low probability of atomic destruction. Small c i t i e s 24 a r e s a f e r because they are d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e and h i t d i r e c t l y , and because they are l i k e l y to be l e s s a t t r a c t i v e s t r a t e g i c a l l y , from c o n s i d e r a t i o n s such as these, the N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y Resource Board suggested ( i n 1948) t h a t f u r t h e r urban con c e n t r a t i o n s of more than 50,000 people should be avoided. CITY SIZE;•ECONOMIC APPROACHES Approaching the matter from an economic p e r s p e c t i v e i n an attempt to determine the mcst d e s i r a b l e s i z e of c i t i e s , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have a l s o shown a l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c y among the v a r i o u s proposed v a l u e s f o r the most d e s i r a b l e c i t y s i z e . F o l l o w i n g i s a review of more r e c e n t s t u d i e s by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s r e g a r d i n g t h i s q u estion. Richardson attempted to determine the most d e s i r a b l e s i z e by usinq c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s . I n h i s t h e o r y , which s h a l l be presented below, he examines the v a r i a t i o n of c o s t s and b e n e f i t s with c i t y s i z e . Graph I I . 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the s e t of b e n e f i t and c o s t curves used by Richardson. He c l a i m s t h a t the optimal c i t y s i z e occurs where marqinal b e n e f i t s equal marqinal c o s t s . BENEFITS AND COSTS 25 PI P2 P3 POPULATION GRAPH I I . 1 COST BENEFITS CDBVES BY CITY SIZE* 1 Source: Richardson , 1973 F i g u r e 2.1 p. 11 26 He p o i n t s out t h a t i t might be p o s s i b l e to have g e n t l y upward s l o p i n g c o s t c u rves combined with b e n e f i t curves which never turned down. On these assumptions there would not be any o p t i m a l c i t y s i z e a t a l l . However, he c o n t i n u e s , most urban a n a l y s i s might be reasonably s a t i s f i e d with the curves presented i n Graph I I . 1.„ The c o s t curve has a U-shape; the minimum c o s t i s at a r e l a t i v e l y low p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l . The b e n e f i t curve has an s-shape where b e n e f i t s per c a p i t a , though i n i t i a l l y i n c r e a s i n g f a s t e r than c i t y s i z e , soon r i s e at a d i m i n i s h i n g r a t e and e v e n t u a l l y t u r n downwards. The c o s t s f a c t o r i n t h i s model i n c l u d e items such as r e n t and other c o s t s of l i v i n g , taxes f o r s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n , commuting c o s t s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o s t s of n o i s e and other forms of c o n g e s t i o n , the r i s k of damage from a i r p o l l u t i o n , and other c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d with c i t y s i z e t h a t f a c e an i n d i v i d u a l . B e n e f i t s i n c l u d e , a p a r t from incomes, a l l the b e n e f i t s of s c a l e economies i n the p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c goods, e x t e r n a l economies of consumption (e.g., shopping, t h e a t r e s , s p o r t s and l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , access to h i r e - p u r c h a s e f a c i l i t i e s ) , and the i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n compared with a s m a l l e r urban s e t t i n g . With t h i s model i n mind, Bichardson p o i n t s to s e v e r a l c i t y s i z e s of i n t e r e s t . The point D (AB= AC; AB 27 r i s i n g AC f a l l i n g ) r e p r e s e n t s the minimum c i t y s i z e P1. Below a pop u l a t i o n o f t h i s s i z e the c i t y i s not v i a b l e . In other words, i n a s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l environment, and at a given l e v e l of technology, t h e r e tends t o be a minimum urban p o p u l a t i o n s i z e r e q u i r e d to perform urban f u n c t i o n s e f f i c i e n t l y . P o i n t E (AC=MC) r e p r e s e n t s the l e a s t c o s t c i t y -s i z e . The p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l corresponding t o E i s f r e q u e n t l y l a b e l l e d an optimum. But, Richardson c l a i m s , assuming t h a t t h e r e are some b e n e f i t s of urban s c a l e , net r e t u r n s to urban s c a l e can almost always be i n c r e a s e d by expanding c i t i e s beyond the l e a s t c o s t l e v e l . The p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l P2 r e p r e s e n t s the c i t y s i z e which maximizes net b e n e f i t s per c a p i t a (AB-AC; the po i n t where the tangent t o AB (at F) i s p a r a l l e l t o the tangent to AC (at G)) . Beyond P2 the c i t i z e n s have a vested i n t e r e s t i n keeping out migrants. However, i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t the whole of the net b e n e f i t (AB-AC accrues t o the i n d i v i d u a l r e s i d e n t . Point H (AB=MB) r e p r e s e n t s the maximum gross b e n e f i t s c i t y s i z e . As i n the l e a s t c o s t c a s e , t h i s i s not an optimum c i t y s i z e . The urban p o p u l a t i o n P3 at point I (BC=MB) i s a t i t s o p t i m a l from a s o c i a l planning p o i n t of view, assuming that the o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s of l o c a t i n g the marginal 28 increments of p o p u l a t i o n below P3 are zero. At P3 the t o t a l net b e n e f i t s generated by the c i t y are maximized. However, the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s p e r c e i v e d by the p o t e n t i a l migrant w i l l be average r a t h e r than marginal, and migrants w i l l c o n tinue to be a t t r a c t e d i n t o t he c i t y so long as AB>AC. I f the urban land market i s p u r e l y competative, market e q u i l i b r i u m w i l l be a t t a i n e d at J where AB=AC. At t h i s l e v e l each c i t i z e n i s worse o f f than at the p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l P3 and the t o t a l net b e n e f i t s corresponding t o J are l e s s than at I. Bichardson s t r e s s e s the f a c t t h a t t h i s model i s crude because the assumptions that i t was based upon l i m i t i t s value; assumptions such as: measurement of c i t y s i z e i n terms of urban p o p u l a t i o n , the neg l e c t o f the importance of s p a t i a l d e n s i t i e s i n urban e f f i c i e n c y , the assumption t h a t there i s an i d e n t i t y i n i n t e r e s t s i n a l l c i t i z e n s , f i r m s , and households, and e s p e c i a l l y the assumptions about the shapes of the cost and b e n e f i t curves where the MC curve c u t s the MB curve from below. In h i s argument, Bichardson r e f e r s a l s o to the s o c i a l a s pects of c i t y s i z e . He argues t h a t i t would be a naive approach to a s s o c i a t e a l l s o c i a l e v i l with c i t y bigness. There i s very l i t t l e evidence, he s a i d , f o r the hypothesis t h a t s o c i a l problems are due to e x c e s s i v e c i t y s i z e r a t h e r than being a r e f l e c t i o n of s o c i e t y as a whole. 29 S o c i a l problems seem t o be more s i g n i f i c a n t i n b i g c i t i e s simply because c i t i e s are the f o c i o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . The disadvantages of l a r g e c i t i e s , he c o n t i n u e s , are f r e q u e n t l y exaqqerated while t h e i r b e n e f i t s are ignored. Even though i n small towns the l e v e l s of p o l l u t i o n and congestion are lower, there i s e a s i e r access to open c o u n t r y - s i d e and t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y (no more than that) of a s t r o n g e r sense of community; the economy i n them may be much more unstab l e , the i n c i d e n c e of poverty may be much g r e a t e r , and fhe scope f o r a f u l l s o c i a l l i f e i s much more r e s t r i c t e d by l a c k of amenities. Furthermore, he argues, many of the b e n e f i t s of small-town l i f e may be o b t a i n a b l e i n the m e t r o p o l i s because of the great v a r i e t y of l i f e - s t y l e s t h a t a well-designed c i t y may o f f e r . Regarding the e v o l u t i o n o f the megalopolis, he c l a i m s t h a t such systems r e f l e c t a d e s i r e to maximize s c a l e economies and other advantages of c o n c e n t r a t i o n without d e s t r o y i n g the c a p a c i t y to provide l i v a b l e environments. T h e r e f o r e , s m a l l e r m e t r o p o l i t a n areas w i t h i n a megapolis r e t a i n many of the b e n e f i t s of agglomeration without the p e n a l t i e s of l a r g e s i z e . The more important i s s u e , t h e r e f o r e , i s not optimal c i t y s i z e but optimal d e n s i t y and e f f i c i e n c y of s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n and between c i t i e s . Alonso (1975) h e l d the same o p i n i o n as Richardson r e g a r d i n g the q u e s t i o n of optimum c i t y s i z e . In 30 h i s a r t i c l e he presents a s i m i l a r model and seme e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s which suggest that even the l a r g e s t c i t i e s have not yet reached e x c e s s i v e s i z e s from the p o i n t o f view of growth and p r o d u c t i v i t y . He begins h i s a r t i c l e by c r i t i c i z i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s of urban economies which have focused on how p u b l i c c o s t s vary as a f u n c t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . These s t u d i e s have found t h i s f u n c t i o n t o have a U-shaped, with the bottom of the curve o c c u r r i n g v a r i o u s l y between 10,000 and 250,000 i n h a b i t a n t s . In h i s c r i t i c i s m he r e f e r s t o three f a c t o r s : 1. In these s t u d i e s t h e measures of cost i n d i c a t e only i n p u t s and they i m p l i c i t l y assume t h a t outputs are constant. 2. The d i f f i c u l t y of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between p r i v a t e and p u b l i c c o s t s . 3. Many o f the components of c o s t s may not be r e a l economic elements. In h i s model, t h e r e f o r e , he r e f e r r e d t o output per c a p i t a as an i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of urban s i z e and d e f i n e d urban output as the value of the t o t a l product o f the urban area. (He i s aware of the problem of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g i n some human a c t i v i t i e s between what would be considered p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s and what would be con s i d e r e d consumption c o s t s , and he suggests i g n o r i n g them.). The s e t s of c o s t and product curves t h a t Alonso presents i n h i s model 31 (Graph II.2) resemble the t r a d i t i o n a l diagram of c o s t s and revenues f o r a f i r m . The main d i f f e r e n c e i s that the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s i s i n terms of p o p u l a t i o n , r a t h e r than o f g u a n t i t y produced. The p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l at Pa (AC=MC) re p r e s e n t s the p o i n t of minimum per c a p i t a c o s t , while PC (MC=MP) i s the optimum s i z e of a c i t y . Beyond t h i s p o i n t a g r e a t e r p o p u l a t i o n c o s t s more than i t i s worth. From the p o i n t of view of the i n h a b i t a n t s of the c i t y , however, a more s e n s i b l e approach would be the maximization of the d i f f e r e n c e between the average product (AP) and the average c o s t (AC). T h i s maximization would be achieved where the r a t e of i n c r e a s e o f AP would be egual t o t h a t of AC, which i s to say at a p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l of Pb. T h e r e f o r e a c c o r d i n g t o Alonso the optimal p o p u l a t i o n w i l l d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g t o the p e r s p e c t i v e , which could be that of an i n d i v i d u a l or of a n a t i o n . Alonso pres e n t s some e m p i r i c a l evidence to support h i s argument t h a t economically even the l a r g e s t c i t i e s have not yet reached e x c e s s i v e s i z e s . In every country that he examines he f i n d s t h a t l o c a l product per c a p i t a r i s e s with urban s i z e and, where comparable f i g u r e s on c o s t are a v a i l a b l e , c o s t s r i s e f a r more s l o w l y , i f at a l l . Pd Pa Pb Pc POPULATION GRAPH II.2 URBAN COST AND PRODUCT CURVES WITH CITY SIZE* Source: Alonso, 1975 F i g u r e 1, p. 438 33 The f i g u r e s t h a t best r e i n f o r c e h i s arguments ar e those f o r West Germany and Japan. The data on West Germany show that the Gross Community Product per c a p i t a r i s e s by 40% from the s m a l l e r c i t i e s (20,0 00 to 50,000) t o those above 500,000. although p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e s per c a p i t a r i s e by 44%, the excess of product over expenditures r i s e s by over 30% from the s m a l l e s t to the l a r g e s t s i z e c l a s s . The data f o r Japan show t h a t income per c a p i t a r i s e s smoothly by 80% from areas of lower d e n s i t y t o those of higher (the densest areas corresponding t o the l a r g e s t c i t i e s ) , while government expenditures were more or l e s s s t a b l e . T h i s i s due to the uniform l e v e l of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n the Japanese system. The most s u r p r i s i n g element i n t h i s data i s the sharp d e c l i n e with i n c r e a s i n g d e n s i t y i n S o c i a l overhead C a p i t a l Stocks per c a p i t a . T h i s , Alonso s t r e s s e s , runs counter to common b e l i e f t h a t the bigger the c i t y the more i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s needed. As f o r the U.S., Alonso p o i n t s out t h a t the many s t u d i e s that have been done show a s t r o n g and steady r i s e i n income with i n c r e a s i n g c i t y s i z e . Higher incomes were found i n bigger p l a c e s i n developing c o u n t r i e s and i n s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s as w e l l . Alonso presents an example of a study that was done i n the S o v i e t Union by Perevedentsev t h a t showed t h a t the p r o d u c t i v i t y of labour i s 38% h i g h e r 34 and the r e t u r n on a s s e t s i s more than twice as high i n c i t i e s of more than 1,000,000 than i n c i t i e s of between 100,000 and 200,000. F i n a l l y , Alonso asks the g u e s t i o n whether the h i g h e r average incomes of bigger c i t i e s do not mask sharper i n e g u a l i t i e s among t h e i r c i t i z e n s so t h a t e f f i c i e n c y i s gained at t h e c o s t of e q u i t y . His answer to t h i s i s t h a t , at l e a s t i n the case of fhe U.S., r e c e n t s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e that t h e r e i s l e s s poverty and more egual d i s t r i b u t i o n of income i n b i g c i t i e s than i n s m a l l e r ones. In another a r t i c l e (Feb. 1970) Alonso comments on i n - m i g r a t i o n and c i t y s i z e . C r i t i c i z i n g the N a t i o n a l Committee on Urban Growth Policy-196 9, which p r e d i c t e d t h a t by the year 2,000 the U.S. Urban p o p u l a t i o n would grow by 100,000,000 and recommended the b u i l d i n g of 100 new towns of 100,000 people to h e l p accomodate t h i s growth, he p o i n t s out seme s t u d i e s t h a t show t h a t most of the domestic i n -migration i n the U.S. i s from s m a l l e r urban c e n t r e s to '>. b i g g e r ones. The f a s t e s t growing m e t r o p o l i t a n areas and the s t r o n g e s t magnets to migrants i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r s i z e are those between 200,000 and 2,000,000, wh i l e those under 200,000 had net o u t - m i g r a t i o n . I • Thompson (1975) takes an approach d i f f e r e n t from that of Alonso and Richardson. He c l a i m s that only c e r t a i n economic c l a s s e s are g a i n i n g economically with i n c r e a s e d c i t y s i z e . He b e l i e v e s t h a t , with i n c r e a s e d s i z e 35 of the l o c a l market, a l l consumers, and p a r t i c u l a r l y lower income households, gain from economies o f s c a l e i n the pr o d u c t i o n and c o m p e t i t i o n i n the marketing of s t a n d a r d i z e d goods and s e r v i c e s . A f t e r a l l , l a r g e r l o c a l markets b r i n g v a r i e t y f o r g r e a t e r consumer c h o i c e , and the very number of s e l l e r s promote c o m p e t i t i o n i n p r i c e and g u a l i t y . But once the c i t y reaches a c e r t a i n moderate s i z e (100,000 p o p u l a t i o n ) , the f a v o u r a b l e e f f e c t s of s c a l e f o r the poor are f l a t t e n e d out. F u r t h e r , at a p o p u l a t i o n of about one m i l l i o n , diseconomies of s c a l e f o r the poor begin to appear. For example, the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of p u b l i c t r a n s i t tends t o c o n f i n e the poor t o a s m a l l neighbourhood s t o r e which, j u s t as i n a small town, i s a monopoly which has the same e x p l o i t i v e nature of the i n s u l a t e d absentee ownership. But, i n sharp c o n t r a s t , the advantages of v a r i e t y i n the b i g c i t y would seem to b e n e f i t those with high education and income. The consumer welfare curve f o r the poor goes f i r s t upward and then downward with c i t y s i z e ; while f o r higher income households i t would seem, i n g e n e r a l , to r i s e with the i n c r e a s e d c i t y s i z e , i f not l i m i t l e s s l y , a t l e a s t much f u r t h e r . Lower income households, he adds, are f o r c e d o c c u p a t i o n a l l y by high s t a t u s groups to l i v e i n the l a r g e c i t i e s . The l a t t e r are not w i l l i n g t o l i v e i n s m a l l e r p l a c e s yet c o n t r o l workplaces f o r those l o c a t i o n a l l y dependent on them. 36 Then he r e f e r s to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c i t y s i z e and p u b l i c expenditure. S u r e l y , he says, the s k i l l and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of l o c a l p u b l i c management tends to i n c r e a s e with c i t y s i z e , but then, so does the complexity and d i f f i c u l t y of i t s work. The i s s u e becomes one of e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( q u a l i t y ) r a t h e r than e f f i c i e n c y ( c o s t ) . As f o r b a r g a i n i n g power, s m a l l e r p l a c e s are i n a h e l p l e s s s t a t e when f a c i n g a manufacturing f i r m t h a t t h r e a t e n s to l e a v e i f , f o r example, taxes are r a i s e d or p o l l u t i o n standards e n f o r c e d . On the other hand, l o c a l governments i n l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n areas composed of s e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are i n the same p o s i t i o n as t h a t of s m a l l towns. They are a f r a i d t o use a f i r m hand to pursue tax e q u i t y or to guide the l o c a t i o n of a f i r m because they f e a r the l o s s of the tax base through the t h r e a t of the f i r m l o c a t i n g i n a neighbouring m u n i c i p a l i t y as keenly as s m a l l towns f e a r job l o s s . T h e r e f o r e , he s a y s , m i d d l e - s i z e urban areas of a couple hundred thousand on up to a m i l l i o n or so people are r e l a t i v e l y the most d e s i r a b l e urban areas. They have the b e s t of both worlds: s c a l e enough to keep on a moderate economic s t a b i l i t y but s t i l l s m a l l enough to avoid d i f f i c u l t - t o - r a a n a g e complexity. Thompson summarizes h i s ideas i n a simple 37 schematic graph (Graph I I . 3 ) . P o i n t A i n d i c a t e s r u r a l areas. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , he says, m i g r a t i o n out of r u r a l areas should l e a d t o higher r e t u r n s per worker and higher l e v e l s of money income. L o g i c a l l y r u r a l areas should be l e f t with not o n l y fewer farmers, but a l s o the best farmers. I f the migrants out of the r u r a l a reas were to l o c a t e i n m i d d l e - s i z e d urban areas (point D), they would tend to i n c r e a s e the p r o d u c t i v i t y and probably f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e to the r e a l income of the i n h a b i t a n t s , as the growing market permits g r e a t e r range of c h o i c e i n goods, s e r v i c e s , and o c c u p a t i o n s . In our case, i f p o i n t A i s i n the stage of d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s and p o i n t D i s i n the stage of i n c r e a s i n g r e t u r n s , everyone b e n e f i t s : those who move, those l e f t behind, and those who were a l r e a d y s e t t l e d t h e r e . M i g r a t i o n from s m a l l towns (B) to very l a r g e c i t i e s (E) u s u a l l y b e n e f i t s the migrant who r i s e s from l e v e l B to E, but c o u l d l e a v e everyone e l s e worse o f f . Those l e f t behind l i v e i n s e t t l e m e n t s worse o f f . Those l e f t behind are growing at a slower r a t e , f a c e higher c o s t s of u t i l i t i e s and higher taxes, and a reduced range of c h o i c e c f goods, s e r v i c e s , and occupations. The big c i t i e s , on the other hand, are l o s i n g more than they are g a i n i n g from g r e a t e r s i z e . They face an i n c r e a s e i n c o n g e s t i o n , g r e a t e r t r a v e l l i n g d i s t a n c e s , more p o l i t i c a l fragmentation and i n n e r - c i t y housing shortages. 38 REAL INCOME PER CAPITA "WELL-BEING" -f- GAIN O MIGRANTS _ LOSS Q THOSE LEFT BEHIND _\ THOSE JOINED / + «r RURAL SMALL TOWN SMALL CITY METROPOLITAN AREAS GRAPH II.3 SELL BEING VERSOS POPULATION OF "SETTLEMENT" 1 1 Source: Thompson, 1975 F i g u r e 1 p. 532 39 M i g r a t i o n from s m a l l towns (B) to m i d d l e - s i z e c i t i e s (D) (200,000 to 500,000 population) w i l l b e n e f i t the migrant and those they j o i n , s i n c e they may s t i l l be i n the stage of i n c r e a s i n g r e t u r n s and a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n w i l l improve t h e i r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . Small towns (B), he concludes, w i l l be worse o f f and e v e n t u a l l y remote sma l l towns w i l l have to be abandoned. Turning again t o the e m p i r i c a l evidence r e g a r d i n g economic w e l l - b e i n g i n r e l a t i o n to c i t y s i z e , Fuchs (1976) conducted a d e t a i l e d study based on 1960 census data r e g a r d i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n hourly earnings by r e g i o n and c i t y s i z e i n the U.S. In h i s study Fuchs adj u s t e d f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n labour f o r c e composition due to c o l o u r , age, sex, and e d u c a t i o n . Table II.1 p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s obtained by Fuchs f o r c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s by r e g i o n - Northeast, North C e n t r a l , South and West. He found a s i g n i f i c a n t tendency f o r e a r n i n g s to i n c r e a s e with c i t y s i z e f o r a l l workers and a l l r e g i o n s i n s p i t e of these adjustments. He concluded t h a t the p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between ear n i n g s and c i t y s i z e i s p e r s i s t e n t and 40 TABLE II.1 RATIO OF ACTUAL TO "EXPECTED" HOURLY EARNINGS BY CITY SIZE, 1959» STANDARD METROPOLITAN URBAN PLACES STATISTICAL AREAS RURAL UNDER 10000 10000 99999 UNDER 250000 250000 499999 - 500000 999999 - 1000000 S MORE SOUTH .76 .76 .83 .89 .94 i .96 1. ,06 NCN-SOUTH .88 .88 .94 1.00 . 99 1, .05 1. ,13 NORTHEAST .91 .92 .95 .96 .96 < .99 1. .10 NORTH CENT. .85 . 85 .93 1.03 1.03 1, .11 1. , 16 WEST .91 .89 .95 1.01 1. 00 1 .05 1. .14 WHITE H . 83 .84 .91 .97 .97 1. .02 1. , 12 F . 83 .84 .88 .94 .96 1, .03 1. .13 NONWHITE H .78 .75 .76 .84 1.04 1, .07 1. , 10 F .76 .63 .78 .76 .90 1.00 1, .19 SOUTH WHITES .76 .77 .85 .91 .95 .97 1, .07 NONWHITES .74 .68 .66 .73 .83 i .88 « , 96 NCN-SOUTH WHITES .88 .88 .93 1.00 .98 •1. 04 1. ,13 NONWHITES 1.08 •1.05 1.13 1.09 1.31 1 .23 1. .16 TOTAL . 83 . 84 .90 .96 .97 1. .02 1. .12 *Source: Fuchs, 1967 Table 8 p. 16 cannot be e x p l a i n e d by c o r r e l a t i o n between c i t y s i z e and other v a r i a b l e s . And t h a t , quoting " s t a n d a r d i z e d h o u r l y e a r n i n g s i n the SMSAs {Standard M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l Areas) of one m i l l i o n and over are t y p i c a l l y 25 to 35 percent higher than i n the areas o u t s i d e SMSAs w i t h i n the same r e g i o n , and about 15 percent higher than i n SMSAs o f l e s s than one m i l l i o n . The c i t y s i z e g r a d i e n t i s steeper i n the South than i n the r e s t of the cou n t r y , " Hoch (1972), u s i n g the Bureau o f Labour S t a t i s t i c s data, c o n s t r u c t e d a c o s t of l i v i n g index a c c o r d i n g to r e g i o n and c i t y s i z e i n the U.S. He found t h a t t h e r e i s a f a i r i n c r e a s e i n j t h e c o s t of l i v i n g index with c i t y s i z e and t h a t the southern r e g i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y below the other three r e g i o n s , which have s i m i l a r magnitudes f o r g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . However, us i n g Fuchs, r e s u l t s on money income d i f f e r e n t i a l among re g i o n s and c i t y s i z e s (presented e a r l i e r ) t o d e f l a t e the c o s t of l i v i n g indexes t h a t he obtained, he found t h a t g e n e r a l l y d e f l a t e d money incomes i n c r e a s e with c i t y s i z e , i . e . , t h a t the i n c r e a s i n g c o s t of l i v i n g with c i t y s i z e does not negate the i n c r e a s i n g money income with c i t y s i z e . Table I I . 2 o u t l i n e s the d e f l a t e d money income by r e g i o n and c i t y s i z e obtained by Hoch. 42 TABLE I I . 2 DEFLATED INCOME LEVELS FOB STANDARDIZED POPULATION* ASSUMED POPULATION POPULATION IN 000 IN 000 DEFLATED WAGE RATE NORTH- NORTH EAST CENTRAL SOUTH WEST URBAN PLACES UNDER 10 5 10 - 100 50 0.984 0.921 0.869 0.957 0.979 0.975 0. 928 0.990 SMSA UNDER 250 125 0. 250 - 500 375 0. 500 - 1000 750 0. 1000+ 2000 1. 1000+RELATIVE TO UNDER 10 1. 973 1.064 0.986 1. 033 953 1.045 1. 028 1. 003 970 1. 11 1 1. 042 1. 039 056 1.119 1. 122 1. 106 073 1.215 1. 291 1. 156 ^Source: Hoch, 1972 Table 4 p. 311 43 F i n a l l y , r e t u r n i n g to the t h e o r e t i c a l arguments, the most famous theory which attempts t o e x p l a i n the money income d i f f e r e n t i a l among v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e s i s the "urban d i s a m e n i t i e s premium theory" (Samuelscn, 1973, and o t h e r s ) . T h i s theory d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between money income (wages, s a l a r i e s , etc.) and d i s a m e n i t i e s premium income ( g u a l i t y of l i f e ) . According t o the theory, r e a l income, which c o n s i s t s of money income plus d i s a m e n i t i e s premium income, i s equal everywhere. The theory runs as f o l l o w s . Since the e m p i r i c a l evidence has shown t h a t there i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between money income and c i t y s i z e even a f t e r accounting f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o s t of l i v i n g , p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i n d u s t r i a l composition, i n order to reach an e q u i l i b r i u m , money income i s supplemented by d i s a m e n i t i e s premium income so t h a t r e a l income i s equal everywhere. Honey income i s , t h e r e f o r e , higher i n l a r g e c i t i e s to compensate f o r the " n e g a t i v e " c o n d i t i o n s which e x i s t t h e r e , such as higher p o l l u t i o n , c o n g e s t i o n and crime, long journeys to work, c i v i l u n r e s t , e t c . , while the lower income ob t a i n e d i n s m a l l c i t i e s i s being supplemented by t h e i r b e t t e r g u a l i t y of l i f e . Alonso (Jan. 1975) argued a g a i n s t the v a l i d i t y o f t h i s theory because of the assumptions which i t c a r r i e s , such as homogeneous r e s i d e n t i a l p r e f e r e n c e s , e l a s t i c supply 44 of l a b o u r , p e r f e c t m o b i l i t y , and so on. In h i s argument be a t t a c k s a major assumption of the disamenity t h e o r i s t s t h a t the g u a l i t y o f l i f e i s d e t e r i o r a t i n g with c i t y s i z e . One of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s theory which he f i n d s hard to b e l i e v e i s t h a t i f s o c i a l programs reduce crime and new technology reduces p o l l u t i o n i n l a r g e c i t i e s , the conseguences w i l l be a p o p u l a t i o n e x p l o s i o n i n these c i t i e s and a d e c l i n e i n t h e i r money income because these new c o n d i t i o n s i n the l a r g e c i t i e s reduce the "premium" needed t o maintain e q u i l i b r i u m . Furthermore, he adds, among those who l i v e i n l a r g e c i t i e s there are many who lov e them, f o r them the " d i s a m e n i t i e s premium" i s a net c o n t r i b u t i o n which he c a l l e d "urban bonus" t o t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g . T h e r e f o r e , Alonso c l a i m s , the income d i f f e r e n c e s among c i t i e s must not be accounted f o r only by the disamenity premium. SUMMARY The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s chapter was t o present the v a r i o u s concepts and approaches taken by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s throughout h i s t o r y regarding the question of what i s the most d e s i r a b l e s i z e o f a c i t y . The approaches t o t h i s problem have s h i f t e d 45 from those r e l a t e d to the p h y s i c a l shape and s t r u c t u r e of c i t i e s t o those r e l a t e d t o the optimal f u n c t i o n of c i t i e s and the w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s . As f o r the approaches r e l a t e d t o the o p t i m a l f u n c t i o n of c i t i e s , i t was r e v e a l e d that the c o n c l u s i o n s reached by the v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s vary a c c o r d i n g to the c r i t e r i a used i n d i s c u s s i n g the g u e s t i o n . Sometimes the sane c r i t e r i a gave c o n f l i c t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s as to the o p t i m a l s i z e due to i t s v a r i o u s components. For example, the c r i t e r i o n of p u b l i c h e a l t h and i t s components, such as the r a t i o of p h y s i c i a n s to the number of i n h a b i t a n t s which f a v o u r s l a r g e c i t i e s , as opposed to the component of the p o s s i b i l i t y of d e s t r u c t i o n by atomic war, which favours s m a l l e r ones; o r , the c r i t e r i o n of economies of s c a l e and i t s components, such as the welfare of the poor, which may favour medium-size c i t i e s , as opposed to the advantages of the r i c h , which may favour l a r g e urban areas. F i n a l l y , the chapter reviewed the e m p i r i c a l evidence r e g a r d i n g income and c i t y s i z e . T h i s review r e v e a l e d t h a t there i s a c o n s i s t e n t i n c r e a s e of income with c i t y s i z e i n every country t h a t has been i n v e s t i g a t e d , i . e . , t h a t from the vantage point of economic w e l l - b e i n g the l a r g e s t c i t i e s r e p r e s e n t the most d e s i r a b l e s i z e . 46 CHAPTER I I I INCOME CATEGORIES AND SITY SIZE CLASSES 47 The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and c i t y s i z e i n the d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s which were presented i n Chapter I I d e a l t mostly with l a r g e urban pl a c e s of 250,000 people and more r e l a t i v e t o per c a p i t a income. Even i n the d e t a i l e d study of V i c t o r Fuchs (1967) of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and c i t y s i z e i n the u n i t e d S t a t e s d i v i d e d the urban places below 100,000 people i n t o two c l a s s e s o n l y , examining them i n r e l a t i o n to the average hourly income by sex and c o l o u r . Since t h i s r e s e a r c h attempts to i n v e s t i g a t e more thoroughly the r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and c i t y s i z e i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia the income v a r i a b l e w i l l be broken down i n t o s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s and urban communities i n the Province w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l c l a s s e s i n terms of p o p u l a t i o n s i z e by using s m a l l e r c l a s s i n t e r v a l s . The economic v a r i a b l e s that are o b v i o u s l y of i n t e r e s t t o most people are wages and s a l a r i e s and t h e i r purchasing power. To most people these v a r i a b l e s determine t h e i r p l a c e of h a b i t a t i o n , not only at the broader s c a l e of which urban community, but a l s o more s p e c i f i c a l l y where i n t h a t community. The answer to the guestion i n which urban 48 community to r e s i d e i s u s u a l l y r e l a t e d t o the l o c a t i o n o f the income source. On the other hand, the answer t o the guestion of where i n that community i s mainly determined by other c o s t s such as housing, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , taxes, and so on, which can be grouped under the t i t l e c o s t of l i v i n g . Income and c o s t of l i v i n g , t h e r e f o r e , a f f e c t the c i t y - s i z e h i e r a r c h y by t h e i r dominant r o l e i n determining p l a c e of h a b i t a t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s chapter i s t o analyze the r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and the urban h i e r a r c h y i n the Prov i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. But f i r s t i t w i l l examine the income c a t e g o r i e s t h a t are to be i n v e s t i g a t e d and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the urban communities i n the P r o v i n c e i n t o s e v e r a l c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . THE INCOME_CATEGORIES j ~ ~ The income c a t e g o r i e s that are chosen to be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n r e l a t i o n to the urban h i e r a r c h y of the Pro v i n c e are: 1. mean per c a p i t a income, 2. average p e r s o n a l income, A. average per s o n a l income of males, B. average personal income of females. 49 3. average f a m i l y income, 4. average non-family income. The category mean per c a p i t a income i s the u n i v e r s a l measurement of economic well-being of people. T h i s category r e p r e s e n t s the d i v i s i o n of the t o t a l aggregate incomes of a d e f i n e d place by i t s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . I f , f o r example, the mean per c a p i t a income in c i t y A i s 1,000 d o l l a r s per annum and i n c i t y B i t i s only 800 d o l l a r s , one may conclude t h a t the i n h a b i t a n t s of c i t y A are on the average economically b e t t e r o f f . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n seems t o be v a l i d s i n c e the mean per c a p i t a income i n c i t y A i n d i c a t e s t h a t an i n h a b i t a n t of t h i s c i t y l i v e s on an average income of 20 0 d o l l a r s or 20% more per annum than t h a t of an i n h a b i t a n t of c i t y B. However, one has to be c a r e f u l l o o k i n g a t s t a t i s t i c a l measurements and r e a c h i n g such a c o n c l u s i o n , s i n c e , f o r example, very high incomes obtained by few people i n c i t y A would r e s u l t i n a high mean per c a p i t a income, while most people i n that c i t y may belong to the low income bracket group. On the other hand, c o s t of l i v i n g i n c i t y A may negate the 20% more income that the i n h a b i t a n t s of t h i s c i t y earn which w i l l r e s u l t i n lower r e a l incomes. Chapter IV i n v e s t i g a t e s more thoroughly the v a l i d i t y of t h i s c o n c l u s i o n f o r urban communities i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia by a n a l y z i n g the income 50 d i s t r i b u t i o n and l i v i n g c o s t o f these communities. At t h i s stage of the r e s e a r c h , t h e r e f o r e , t h i s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t higher average incomes i n d i c a t e b e t t e r economic w e l l - b e i n g , w i l l be accepted. The category average p e r s o n a l income i s obtained by d i v i d i n g the aggregate employment incomes f o r 1970 of a l l i n d i v i d u a l s o f an urban community by the number of people employed t h e r e . 1 A f t e r examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the average p e r s o n a l income and the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s i n the P r o v i n c e , t h i s c a t e g o r y i s broken down i n t o two s u b - c a t e g o r i e s ; average p e r s o n a l income of males and average p e r s o n a l income of females. T h i s i s done, i n order to analyze the c o r r e l a t i o n between these two sub-c a t e g o r i e s i n r e l a t i o n to these c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . I t i s o f t e n argued that f a m i l y income i s a more meaningful measure of income than p e r s o n a l income because the f a m i l y i s the b a s i c decision-making u n i t f o r the d i s p o s a l of income. T h e r e f o r e , a t h i r d group of c a t e g o r i e s was e s t a b l i s h e d i n order t o i n v e s t i g a t e incomes by households. Two types of households were i d e n t i f i e d : a f a m i l y household and a non-family household, or c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , f a m i l y income and non-family income. By of employment income see D e f i n i t i o n of Terms. VFor d e f i n i t i o n 51 d i v i d i n g the t o t a l aggregate f a c t i l y income of each urban community by the t o t a l number of f a m i l i e s i n the community, the average f a m i l y income i s obtained. Family income, as d e f i n e d e a r l i e r , r e f e r s t o the sum of the incomes r e c e i v e d by a l l members of a f a m i l y 15 years and over from a l l sources. The average non-family persons income f o r each urban community i s obtained by d i v i d i n g the t o t a l aggregate non-family persons income of an urban community by the t o t a l number of non-family persons i n that community. Non-family persons r e f e r s to those l i v i n g alone. The average f a m i l y income and the average non-family persons income c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be, t h e r e f o r e , examined i n order t o determine t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n t o the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s i n the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I f , i n t h i s stage of the r e s e a r c h , the h i g h e s t average income of each income category should be obtained at the same c i t y s i z e c l a s s , one can conclude that the i n h a b i t a n t s of the urban communities o f t h i s c l a s s i n the Pro v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia are on the average e c o n o m i c a l l y b e t t e r o f f than the i n h a b i t a n t s of any other urban community i n the P r o v i n c e . 52 CITY SIZE CLASSES In 1971 there were 32 c i t i e s , 40 d i s t r i c t s , 13 towns and 59 v i l l a g e s t h at were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Since t h i s r e s e a r c h attempts to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between incomes and the v a r i o u s urban communities i n the Pr o v i n c e , those s e t t l e m e n t s t h a t were not d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g to the 1971 census as "urban" were omitted. This was done i n the f o l l o w i n g way. For the purpose of the census the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia was d i v i d e d i n t o enumeration areas and the i n f o r m a t i o n was p r i n t e d f o r each area. Each enumeration area was a l s o d e f i n e d by the census as being e i t h e r " r u r a l " or "urban. For the purpose o f of t h i s r e s e a r c h a l l enumeration areas w i t h i n each i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y that have the l e g a l s t a t u s of c i t y or town were assembled under the s p e c i f i c c i t y or town i n which they f a l l . In t h e same way, the enumeration areas that were w i t h i n the boundaries of each municipal d i s t r i c t were assembled under t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m u n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t . Those mu n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t s , such as the D i s t r i c t of Langley i n the C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y Begion, or the D i s t r i c t of North Saanich i n the C a p i t a l Region, and other d i s t r i c t s which were not d e f i n e d as "urban" by the census: t h a t i s to say. 53 t h a t e i t h e r t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n was not over 1,000 people or t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y was not at l e a s t 1,000 people per square mile were a l s o emitted. The 31 municipal d i s t r i c t s , which w i l l be l i s t e d l a t e r , t h a t were d e f i n e d as "urban", are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . 1 The r e s e a r c h e r w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e 76 urban communities i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia: 32 c i t i e s , 13 towns, and 31 municipal d i s t r i c t s . The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f these 76 urban communities i n 1971 was 1,527,565, which then c o n s t i t u t e d 70% of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the P r o v i n c e . In order to enable the r e s e a r c h e r t o handle e f f e c t i v e l y the i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t a b u l a t i o n s of the income c a t e g o r i e s and the other v a r i a b l e s t h a t are to be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o c i t y s i z e , the 76 urban communities were d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . I t was decided, however, t o group a l l the urban communities t h a t composed the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t i n t o one c l a s s . T h i s was done because of the degree *The i n f o r m a t i o n on f i v e m u n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t s i s given s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e i r Urban Core (UC) and t h e i r Urban F r i n g e (UF, see D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms). The UC and UF of these m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i l l be t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y . These m u n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t s a r e : C h i l l i w a c k , D e l t a , North Vancouver, Saanich, and Surrey. 54 of a s s o c i a t i o n of people and i n d u s t r i e s among the urban communities o f t h i s r e g i o n and the i n t e n s i t y of the a s s o c i a t i o n . For example, a person may l i v e i n White Rock, commute d a i l y t o work to Burnaby, do h i s weekly shopping i n Richmond and seek entertainment i n Vancouver. T h i s c l a s s ( r e f e r r e d h e r e i n t o as Greater Vancouver), which r e p r e s e n t s the l a r g e s t c i t y s i z e c l a s s , i s composed of the f o l l o w i n g 18 urban communities: Burnaby Coquitlam D e l t a - UC De l t a - UF F r a s e r M i l l s North Vancouver North Vancouver Richmond Surrey - UC Surrey - UF U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Area West Vancouver New Westminster North Vancouver P o r t Coquitlam UC P o r t Moody UF Vancouver White Bock For the same reasons, f o u r urban communities have been added t o the c i t y of V i c t o r i a to form the second l a r g e s t c i t y s i z e c l a s s . T h i s c l a s s ( r e f e r r e d h e r e i n t o as Greater V i c t o r i a ) i s composed of the f o l l o w i n g f i v e urban communities: Esquimalt Oak Bay Saanich - UC Saanich - UF V i c t o r i a The remaining urban communities were d i v i d e d i n t o c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s i z e . The p o p u l a t i o n range between each c l a s s i s r e f e r r e d to as the 55 c l a s s i n t e r v a l . The s e l e c t i o n of the most e f f e c t i v e c l a s s i n t e r v a l i s d i f f i c u l t because t h i s value determines both the number of urban communities t h a t w i l l f a l l i n each c l a s s as w e l l as the number of c l a s s e s t h a t w i l l be o b t a i n e d . The output i s o b v i o u s l y s e n s i t i v e t o such changes i n c l a s s i n t e r v a l s . For example, i f the c l a s s i n t e r v a l i s chosen t o be 5,000 people, seven c l a s s e s would be obtained with the f o l l o w i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of the urban communities: C l a s s P o p u l a t i o n Number of Number C l a s s I n t e r v a l Urban Com. One 1000 - 4999 29 Two 5000 - 9999 9 Three 10000 - 14999 8 Four 15000 - 19999 4 F i v e 20000 - 24999 1 Six 25000 - 29999 1 Seven 30000 - 34999 1 The c l a s s i n t e r v a l of 10,000 people w i l l give the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s number and the f o l l o w i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of the urban communities: 56 C l a s s P o p u l a t i o n Number of Number C l a s s I n t e r v a l Urban Com. One 1000 - 9999 38 Two 10000 - 19999 12 Three 20000 - 29999 2 Four 30000 - 39999 1 I f the 5,000 c l a s s i n t e r v a l were adopted i t would r e s u l t i n a l a r g e number of c l a s s e s and a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f urban communities i n each c l a s s . I f the 10,000 c l a s s i n t e r v a l were chosen i t would g i v e a sm a l l number of c l a s s s e s but i t would smooth out the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the v a r i a t i o n of the number of urban communities i n each c l a s s . S i n c e i t was f e l t t h a t the 10,000 c l a s s i n t e r v a l would r e s u l t i n an i n s u f f i c i e n t number of c l a s s e s with which t o work, the c l a s s i n t e r v a l of 5,000 was s e l e c t e d . However, i t was f u r t h e r modified t o smooth out the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the number of the urban communities i n each c l a s s . C l a s s number one was d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s and c l a s s numbers f i v e , s i x and seven were combined i n t o one c l a s s . The f i n a l c l a s s s t r u c t u r e was, t h e r e f o r e , as f o l l o w s ; 57 C l a s s Number P o p u l a t i o n C l a s s I n t e r v a l Number Urban < One 1000 - 2999 11 Two 3000 - 4999 17 Three 5000 - 9999 10 Four 10000 - 14999 8 F i v e 15000 - 19999 4 Six 20000 - 34999 3 The urban communities t h a t each c l a s s i s composed of, are as f o l l o w s : CJ ;ASS_CNEi_J^000_ z_2 x999 Greenwood Enderby, Hudson's Hope C e n t r a l Saanich Squamish Armstrong CLASS TWO: 3,000 - 4,999 Golden C a s t l e g a r Hope Grand Forks Creston M i s s i o n Gold River Salmon Arm Mackenzie Sparwood K i n n a i r d Rossland Comox W i l l i a m s Lake Duncan F e r n i e Langley Ladysmith V a l l e y v i e w S l i t h e r s Sidney Bevelstoke C h i l l i w a c k - DF Kimberley C h i l l i w a c k - UC F o r t St. John M e r r i t t C h i l l i w a c k Quesnel Nelson Courtenay Campbell River CLASS FOUR: 10.000-14.999 Te r r a c e T r a i l K i t i m a t Dawson Creek CLASS FIVE: Cranbrook Vernon Powell R i v e r Nanaimo l___00_z_l_x299 Maple Ridge P r i n c e Rupert P e n t i c t o n Kelowna CLASS SIX:_20.000_-_34,999 Port A l b e r n i Kamloops P r i n c e George __A_S_SEVE_!_3^ Greater V i c t o r i a CLASS EIGHT: 250,000 + Greater Vancouver 59 The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of each of the 76 urban communities t h a t are i n v e s t i g a t e d i s contained i n Table I i n Appendix A. The sum of the p o p u l a t i o n of each c l a s s i s o u t l i n e d i n Ta b l e I I I . 1 TABLE I I I . 1 TOTAL POPULATION BY CITY SIZE CLASS POPULATION TOTAL CLASS % RELATIVE SIZE CLASS POPULATION TO TOTAL POP. ONE 18,395 1.2 TWO 65,710 4. 1 THREE 73,145 4.8 FOUR 98,945 6.5 FIVE 68,460 4.5 SIX 79,355 5.2 SEVEN 149,790 9.8 EIGHT 973,765 6 3.7 100.0 60 MEAN PER CAPITA INCOME By d i v i d i n g the aggregate incomes f o r 1970 of a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i n each urban community i n the Provinc e by i t s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , the mean per c a p i t a income f o r each urban community was o b t a i n e d . Table I I I . 2 , which i s the summation of the mean per c a p i t a income f o r Table I i n Appendix A, o u t l i n e s the mean per c a p i t a income of each c i t y s i z e c l a s s . TABLE III.2 MEAN PER CAPITA INCOME BY CITY SIZE CLASS POPULATION PER CAPITA % RELATIVE SIZE CLASS INCOME TO CLASS 8 ONE 2876 87.4 TWO 2847 86.5 THREE 2746 83.5 FOUR 2793 84.9 FIVE 2792 84.9 SIX 2979 90.6 SEVEN 3188 96.9 EIGHT 3289 100.0 6 1 In order to enable the r e s e a r c h e r t o compare both the v a r i o u s income c a t e g o r i e s and the f i g u r e s obtained i n each income category, i t i s necessary t o a r r i v e a t some common denominator with which t o c a r r y out the comparison . The method adopted by t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t o rank the income f i g u r e s of the v a r i o u s c l a s s e s r e l a t i v e to the income f i g u r e s o b tained i n c l a s s e i g h t . C l a s s e i g h t , which r e p r e s e n t s the l a r g e s t c i t y s i z e c l a s s , was chosen because t h i s c l a s s i s expected to have the highest average income f i g u r e s a c cording t o the hypothesis being examined i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , which s t a t e s that incomes are p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with c i t y s i z e . The r e s u l t s from Table 2 are i l l u s t r a t e d by Graph I I I . 1 . Of the v a r i o u s income c a t e g o r i e s being examined i n t h i s r e s e a r c h the mean per c a p i t a income e x h i b i t s the most uniform r e l a t i o n s h i p . With the exce p t i o n of c l a s s e s one and two, t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the mean per c a p i t a income and the c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . In other words, as the c i t y s i z e c l a s s i n c r e a s e s i n p o p u l a t i o n , t h e r e i s a corresponding i n c r e a s e i n the mean per c a p i t a income. The urban communities re p r e s e n t e d by c l a s s e s one and two show onl y s l i g h t l y higher mean per c a p i t a incomes than those of the urban communities represented by c l a s s e s t h r e e , f o u r , and f i v e . I t i s a l s o important to note t h a t the lowest mean per c a p i t a income was obtained i n the 62 GRAPH I I I . 1 MEAN PER C A P I T A I N C OME BY C I T Y S I Z E C L A S S . 63 urban communities o f c l a s s t h r e e . The attempt t o e x p l a i n the reasons f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s i n income i s l e f t t o Chapter V of t h i s r e s e a r c h . At t h i s stage, however, the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n may be drawn: higher mean per c a p i t a incomes are obtained i n the l a r g e r urban commvnities of the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and t h a t with the s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s of c l a s s e s one and two, t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between mean per c a p i t a income and c i t y s i z e c l a s s . AVERAGE PERSONAL IHCOHBBY SEX The average p e r s o n a l income of each urban community i s contained i n Table I i n Appendix A. The summation of the average p e r s o n a l income by c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s o u t l i n e d i n Table I I I . 3 and the accompanying Graph I I I . 2 From an a n a l y s i s o f t h i s t a b l e and the accompanying graph s e v e r a l phenomena are apparent. F i r s t , t here i s an obvious U-shaped r e l a t i o n s h i p between average p e r s o n a l income and c i t y s i z e c l a s s , with the bottom of the curve o c c u r i n g at the urban communities of c l a s s three - the same c l a s s which i n d i c a t e s the lowest mean per c a p i t a income. 64 TABLE I I I . 3 AVERAGE PERSONAL INCOME BY CITY SIZE CLASS POPULATION AVERAGE % RELATIVE SIZE CLASS P. INCOME TO CLASS 8 ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX SEVEN EIGHT 6823 6499 6282 6388 6376 6418 6996 6860 99.5 94.7 91.6 93. 1 92.9 93.6 102.0 100.0 Second, the highest average p e r s o n a l income i s obtained i n the second l a r g e s t c l a s s - c l a s s seven and not as expected t o be i n c l a s s e i g h t . The high average p e r s o n a l income of c l a s s e s one and seven i s probably mainly due t o t h e i r economic base. 65 GRAPH I I I . 2 AVERAGE PERSONAL INCOME BY CITY SIZE CLASS 66 A f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the average pe r s o n a l income and c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s c a r r i e d out by examining the average p e r s o n a l income of males and females i n r e l a t i o n to c i t y s i z e c l a s s . The male average p e r s o n a l income of an urban community r e p r e s e n t s the d i v i s i o n of the t o t a l aggregate employment incomes f o r 1970 of a l l males i n that community by the number of males «ho worked there i n t h a t year. The female average p e r s o n a l income i s obtained i n the same way, t h a t i s to say, by d i v i d i n g the t o t a l aggregate employment incomes f o r 1970 of a l l females i n an urban community by the number of females who worked i n that community i n 1970. Table I I I . 4 which i s the summation of the male and female average p e r s o n a l income f o r Table I I i n Appendix A, o u t l i n e s the r e s u l t s a c c o r d i n g to c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . Table I I I . 4 was a l s o used to c o n s t r u c t Graph I I I . 3 . S e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table I I I . 4 and the f o l l o w i n g Graph I I I . 3 . The male average p e r s o n a l income curve and the r e l a t i v e f i g u r e s resemble the r e s u l t s obtained f o r the average p e r s o n a l income i n t h e i r 0-shaped r e l a t i o n t o c i t y s i z e c l a s s , with the bottom of the curve o c c u r i n g , a g a i n , at the urban community of c l a s s t hree. T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y because of the dominant 67 p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of males i n the labour f o r c e . 1 TABLE I I I . 4 AVERAGE PERSONAL INCOME BY SEX AND BY CITY SIZE CLASS MALE FEMALE POPULATION AVERAGE % RELATIVE AVERAGE % RELATIVE SIZE CLASS P. INC. TO CLASS 8 P. INC. TO CLASS 8 ONE 8248 98. 1 3790 84.9 TWO 8011 95. 3 36 87 82.6 THREE 7686 91.4 3635 81.5 FOUR 7781 92.6 3741 83.8 FIVE 7773 92. 5 4048 90.7 SIX 7968 9 4. 8 3572 80.0 SEVEN 8400 99.9 4955 111.0 EIGHT 8407 100.0 4462 100.0 The female average p e r s o n a l income r e s u l t s i l l u s t r a t e g e n e r a l l y a p o s i t i v e c o r r r e l a t i o n with c i t y s i z e »In 1970, as i t w i l l be i n d i c a t e d l a t e r i n Chapter V, 64% of the lab o u r f o r c e were males and 36% were females. 6 8 110-RELATIVE TO CLASS EIGHT MALE FEMALE 100-904 80 T - i 1 1 — 5 6 7 CITY SIZE CLASS 8 G8&PH I I I . 3 AVERAGE PERSONAL INCOME BY SEX AND BY CITY SIZE CLASS 69 c l a s s with a few v a r i a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y at the urban coommunities of c l a s s e s s i x and seven. The females of c l a s s seven - Greater V i c t o r i a earn, s i g n i f i c a n t l y more on the average than the females of any other urban while the females of c l a s s s i x - P r i n c e George, Kamloops and Port A l b e r n i , are worse o f f on the average than the females of the other urban communities. These r e s u l t s probably r e l a t e d t o the economic bases, the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s and the employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s of the urban communities i n these c l a s s e s . As mentioned e a r l i e r Chapter V w i l l attempt to e x p l a i n the r e s u l t s obtained f o r each sex, as w e l l as the reasons f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between them. However, one can conclude a t t h i s stage from the r e s u l t s t h a t are i l l u s t r t a t e d i n Table I I I . 4 and Graph I I I . 3 , t h a t even though h i g h e r average incomes are obtained i n the l a r g e r c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s , average ircomes do not i n c r e a s e with c i t y s i z e and t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between average income and c i t y s i z e f o r the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia has a U-shape r a t h e r than a l i n e a r one. 70 AVERAGE FAMILY AND NON-FAMILY PERSONS INCOME The d e t a i l e d r e s u l t s r e g a r d i n g the average f a m i l y and non-family persons income f o r each urban community i n the P r o v i n c e are contained i n Table I I i n Appendix A. The summation o f these r e s u l t s a c c o r d i n g to c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s i s o u t l i n e d i n Table I I I . 5 and Graph I I I . 4 . S e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s are i n d i c a t e d by Table I I I . 5 and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g Graph I I I . 4 . The f i r s t i s t h a t both the average f a m i l y income and average non-family persons income show i r r e g u l a r r e l a t i o n t o the c i t y s i z e c l a s s . However, there i s a general tendency of the averages of both c a t e g o r i e s to i n c r e a s e with c i t y s i z e . T h i s tendency i s smoother i n the case of the average f a m i l y income. T h i s , as i t w i l l appear i n chapter V, i s due mainly to the employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the v a r i a t i o n s i n employment t h a t l a r g e urban areas such as Greater Vancouver o f f e r , which enable more members of f a m i l i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the labour f o r c e . TABLE I I I . 5 AVERAGE FAMILY AND NON-FAMILY PERSONS INCOME BY CITY SIZE CLASS AVERAGE AVERAGE . POPULATION FAMILY % RELATIVE NO-FAM. % RELATIVE SIZE CLASS INCOME TO CLASS 8 INCOME TO CLASS 8 ONE TSO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX SEVEN EIGHT 9849 9736 9551 9849 9297 10725 9976 10740 91.7 90.6 88.9 91.7 86.6 99.8 92.9 100. 0 3518 3691 3452 3714 3569 4058 3632 3855 91.3 95.7 89.5 96.3 92.6 105. 3 94.2 100.0 Other s i g n i f i c a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s are the d i f f e r e n t peak p o i n t s obtained f o r each category. While t hi g h e s t and lowest average f a m i l y incomes are obtained 72 110-RELATIVE TO CLASS EIGHT 80. i I i — i 1 l r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CITY SIZE CLASS GRAPH i l l . 4 AVERAGE FAMILY AND NON-FAMILY PERSONS INCOME BY CITY SIZE CLASS 7 3 c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y at the urban communities of c l a s s e i g h t and c l a s s f i v e , the h i g h e s t and lowest average non-family persons incomes are o b t a i n e d c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y a t the urban communities of c l a s s s i x and c l a s s t h r e e . The p r e l i m i n a r y c o n c l u s i o n to t h i s s e c t i o n and stage of the r e s e a r c h resembles that of the previous s e c t i o n , namely, t h a t higher average incomes are obtained i n the l a r g e r c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . However, as f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the average f a m i l y and non-family persons incomes and c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s the c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn only i n general terms because of the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the occurrence of the averages, and the c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t g e n e r a l l y t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between these c a t e g o r i e s and c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. SUMH6BY The purpose o f t h i s Chapter was t o determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and c i t y s i z e i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. In order t o c a r r y out t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s e v e r a l income c a t e g o r i e s were determined and a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a l l the urban communities i n the P r o v i n c e i n t o c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s was made. The a n a l y s i s of 74 the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the income c a t e g o r i e s and the c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s r e v e a l e d a few s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s . The f i r s t i s that the mean per c a p i t a income i n the Prov i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, with a s l i g h t negative c o r r e l a t i o n a t c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s one and two, indeed support the hypothesis that t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between income and c i t y s i z e , and t h a t b e s i d e s these s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s of c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s one and two, B r i t i s h Columbia f o l l o w s the general case presented by other c o u n t r i e s r e g a r d i n g t h i s h y p othesis. The second f e a t u r e i s that a f t e r an examination o f the other income c a t e g o r i e s showed t h a t , indeed average incomes were higher i n the l a r g e r c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . However, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these income c a t e g o r i e s and the c i t y s i z e c l a s s i n d i c a t e d e i t h e r a U-shaped c o r r e l a t i o n , as i n the case of the average p e r s o n a l income, or not a d e f i n e d c o r r e l a t i o n , as i n the case of the average f a m i l y and non-family incomes. And the t h i r d f e a t u r e i s that the urban communities of c l a s s t h r e e i n d i c a t e d e i t h e r the lowest average incomes, as i n the c a t e g o r i e s mean per c a p i t a income, average p e r s o n a l income, male average p e r s o n a l income and average non-family persons income, or r e l a t i v e l y very low average incomes, as i n the c a t e g o r i e s female average p e r s o n a l income and the average f a m i l y income. CHAPTER IV COST OF LIVING AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION 76 The e m p i r i c a l evidence presented i n the prev i o u s chapter examining the hypothesis that average incomes are higher i n l a r g e r c i t i e s has been i n d i c a t e d t o be v a l i d . I f one were to accept t h a t the urban communities having the highest mean per c a p i t a income r e p r e s e n t the most d e s i r a b l e communities from the vantage point of economic w e l l - b e i n g , then one cou l d be s a t i s f i e d with the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s chapter. However, i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w that the i n h a b i t a n t s of these urban communities are b e t t e r o f f i n terms of r e a l income. Much depends on the c o s t of l i v i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o income. On the other hand i t can be argued t h a t h i g h e r incomes obtained i n l a r g e c i t i e s g i v e a misleading impression of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the economic w e l l -being and c i t y s i z e , s i n c e from one p o i n t of view t h i s i n f l a t e s the avnrage income f i g u r e s and from the other can i n d i c a t e an i n e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of income. These two r e s e r v a t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e t h e inadequacy o f only c o n s i d e r i n g mean per c a p i t a income as a measure f o r determininq the economic w e l l - b e i n q o f i n h a b i t a n t s o f an urban community. T h i s chapter has, t h e r e f o r e , been d i v i d e d i n t o 77 two p a r t s . In the f i r s t p a r t the author analyzes the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o s t of l i v i n g and the urban communities i n the Pr o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia i n order to examine the sub-hypothesis t h a t the p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n of c o s t of l i v i n g with c i t y s i z e i s much narrower than t h a t of incomes with c i t y s i z e , so t h a t the adjusted incomes s t i l l tend t o be higher i n l a r g e c i t i e s . The author i n the second p a r t of t h i s chapter a n a l y z e s the inlome d i s t r i s u c r o n w i t h i n the urban communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n order t o t e s t the second sub-hypothesis, which s t a t e s t h a t higher incomes obtained i n l a r g e c i t i e s are not achieved a t the expense of e g u i t y . COST OFLIVING The d e v i c e t h a t i s u s u a l l y used to measure and compare c o s t of l i v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between p l a c e s i s the Consumer P r i c e Index. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the data a v a i l a b l e on the Consumer P r i c e Index at the community s c a l e i n Canada i s very i m p e r f e c t . The Consumer P r i c e Index f o r Canada, pu b l i s h e d by S t a t i s t i c s Canada, pro v i d e s data e i t h e r by commodity d e t a i l s f o r the e n t i r e country o r by major c i t i e s . In B r i t i s h Columbia, Consumer P r i c e Index data i s provided o n l y f o r Vancouver. 7 8 F o l l o w i n g a comprehensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n , two sources that d e s c r i b e l i v i n g c o s t d i f f e r e n c e s among va r i o u s s m a l l e r s e t t l e m e n t s i n the P r o v i n c e were found. The f i r s t i s the Government allowance Indexes published by S t a t i s t i c s Canada. These Indexes are measurements of c e r t a i n elements o f the l i v i n g c o s t d i f f e r e n t i a l s encountered by F e d e r a l Government employees s e r v i n g a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n the more remote p a r t s of the P r o v i n c e . These measurements have been conducted i n order to a s s i s t i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p p r o p r i a t e allowance l e v e l s f o r the r e c r u i t m e n t and r e t e n t i o n of government employees s e r v i n g i n these i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n s . The second source i s two s p e c i a l s t u d i e s conducted by S t a t i s t i c s Canada of comparative r e t a i l p r i c e l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s between K i t i m a t - Vancouver and P r i n c e Bupert - Vancouver, which were c a r r i e d out r e s p e c t i v e l y i n 1 9 7 0 and 1 9 7 1 . Based on the i n f o r m a t i o n provided by these two sources and on the census 1 9 7 1 data, i t was decided to c o n s t r u c t a Consumer P r i c e Index f o r the P r o v i n c e which w i l l cover the urban communities i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The P r o v i n c i a l Consumer P r i c e Index t h a t i s to be c o n s t r u c t e d i s based cn the Consumer P r i c e Index f o r Canada: the s t r u c t u r e of the N a t i o n a l Consumer P r i c e Index as d e s c r i b e d by S t a t i s t i c s Canada (catalogue no. 6 2 - 5 1 8 ) 79 f e l l o w s . S t a t i s t i c s Canada d e f i n e s the Consumer P r i c e Index as a measurement of the percentage change through time i n the c o s t of purchasing a constant "basket" of goods and s e r v i c e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the purchases made by a p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n group i n a s p e c i f i e d time p e r i o d . The Consumer P r i c e Index i s expressed i n terms of weights and time base. The weight of an item i s a measurement of the i n f l u e n c e t h a t the p r i c e change o f the item has on the movements of the index. The time base i s the p e r i o d a t which the index i s d e f i n e d as 1 0 0 , and the p e r i o d from which the p u b l i s h e d s e r i e s measures the percentage change i n t h e . p r i c e . Each item i n c l u d e d i n the index i s "weighted" i n a way which r e f l e c t s the r e l a t i v e importance of the item i n the index budget. I f one item has ten times the weight of another, then the same p r i c e change in both items w i l l a f f e c t the movement of the t o t a l index i n the r a t i o of ten t o one. The weights assigned t o the goods and s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d i n the index were determined from the amount of money repo r t e d spent on each item or group o f items. For example, f a m i l i e s reported i n 1957 t h a t f o r every d o l l a r spent on c l o t h i n g , over twice as much was spent food. The r e f l e c t i o n of t h i s f a c t i s i n the weights t h a t are assigned t o these components, which are 11 f o r c l o t h i n g and 27 f o r food. A given r i s e i n the food index w i l l , t h e r e f o r e . 80 i n c r e a s e the t o t a l index over twice as much as w i l l the same i n c r e a s e i n the c l o t h i n g index. Items w i t h i n the index are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o groups f o r which separate indexes are c a l c u l a t e d and pu b l i s h e d . The p r i n c i p a l b a s i s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been type of commodity or s e r v i c e and i t s use. Thus, c l o t h i n g i s a main group w i t h i n the Consumer P r i c e Index, and men's wear, womenfs wear, e t c . are sub-groups under c l o t h i n g . The p r i n c i p a l components and t h e i r weights i n the Consumer P r i c e Index used i n the time p e r i o d of t h i s r e s e a r c h , namely 1971, were as f o l l o w s : 1 CONSUMER PRICE INDEX Group Weight A l l Items 100 Food 27 Housing 32 C l o t h i n g 11 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 12 Health and Personal Care 7 R e c r e a t i o n and Reading 5 Tobacco and A l c o h o l 6 The P r o v i n c i a l Consumer P r i c e Index uses these *The Consumer P r i c e Index weights were r e v i s e d i n May 1973 81 weighting p a t t e r n s . The time base f o r the purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s converted i n t o c i t y base, as w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraph. The method used i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l Consumer P r i c e Index i n t h i s r e s e a r c h i s to rank the r e t a i l p r i c e o f a commodity group i n a c e r t a i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s r e l a t i v e to the r e t a i l p r i c e of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r commodity group i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s e i g h t (Greater Vancouver). Greater Vancouver was, t h e r e f o r e , chosen to be the base c i t y , and an index l e v e l of 100 was assi g n e d to i t . The r e s u l t s obtained by the computation are, t h e r e f o r e , r e l a t i v e index l e v e l s to the base c i t y . The r e l a t i v e index l e v e l s were then a d j u s t e d a c c o r d i n g to the s p e c i f i c index weight of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r commodity group. For example, i f the monthly housing c o s t i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s one i s $300 and i n c l a s s e i g h t $400, the corresponding index l e v e l s w i l l be 75 and 100. S i n c e the index weight of housing i n the Consumer P r i c e Index i s 32, t h e r e f o r e the adju s t e d index weight w i l l be r e s p e c t i v e l y 24 and 32. These were computed by u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g formula: 82 R * W / 100 = A where R = R e l a t i v e index l e v e l s W = Index weights A = Adjusted index weights The Government Allowance Indexes embrace the f o l l o w i n g commodity groups: Food Household Operations T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P e r s o n a l Care Tobacco and A l c o h o l These w i l l be r e f e r r e d h e r e i n t o as food and non-food commodity groups. Data on the s h e l t e r commodity sub-group, which belongs t o the housing commodity group, was taken from the 1971 census. Information on the remaining two commodity groups: c l o t h i n g and r e c r e a t i o n - r e a d i n g , was estimated ac c o r d i n g t o the K i t i m a t and P r i n c e Rupert s p e c i a l s t u d i e s . The f o l l o w i n g f o u r s e c t i o n s o u t l i n e the method used to c o n s t r u c t the P r o v i n c i a l P r i c e Index. The f i r s t s e c t i o n d e a l s with the s h e l t e r commodity sub-group, the second with the food and non-food commodity groups, and the t h i r d with the c l o t h i n g and r e c r e a t i o n - r e a d i n g commodity 83 groups. F i n a l l y , the f o u r t h s e c t i o n analyzes the P r o v i n c i a l Consumer P r i c e Index that was accepted i n l i g h t of the sub-hypothesis s t a t e d e a r l i e r , i . e . , t h a t higher c o s t of l i v i n g i n l a r g e c i t i e s does not negate the higher incomes obtained t h e r e , so t h a t the ad j u s t e d r e a l incomes s t i l l tend to be higher i n l a r g e c i t i e s . SHELTER COMMODITY S0B-GBO0P The housing commodity group i n the N a t i o n a l Consumer P r i c e Index i s broken down i n t o the f o l l o w i n g sub-groups: Housing 32 S h e l t e r 18 Rent 9 Home Ownership 9 Houshold Operation 14 The i n f o r m a t i o n on the household o p e r a t i o n commodity sub-group i s provided by the Government Allowance Indexes. The 1971 census provides data on the average monthly cash r e n t of tenant occupied non-farm d w e l l i n g s , and on the average value of s i n g l e detached owner-occupied non-farm d w e l l i n g s f o r each urban community i n the P r o v i n c e . T h i s data was used i n determining the index l e v e l s and 84 weights of the s h e l t e r commodity sub-groups f o r each c i t y s i z e c l a s s . The average monthly cash r e n t and the average value of the owner-occupied dw e l l i n g s o f each of the 76 urban communities t h a t are i n v e s t i g a t e d i s co n t a i n e d i n Table I i n Appendix B. The summation of t h i s data by c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s o u t l i n e d i n Table IV.1. The average monthly c o s t of home ownership i n the N a t i o n a l Consumer P r i c e Index i s approximated by aggregating p r i c e change f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n , mortgage c r e d i t , property taxes, i n s u r a n c e , maintenance and r e p a i r . The treatment of home ownership i n the N a t i o n a l Consumer P r i c e Index i s a complex and c o n t r o v e r s i a l one and c u r r e n t l y i s under review ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, J u l y 1977). A f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n with v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s on how to determine the average monthly home ownership c o s t f o r each urban community i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , i t was decided to ev a l u a t e i t as one percent of the average value of the owner-occupied d w e l l i n g s i n t h a t community. Thus, f o r example, the average monthly home ownership c o s t i n the urban communities of c l a s s one i s 189 d o l l a r s , and th a t of c l a s s e i g h t - Greater Vancouver - i s 293 d o l l a r s . 85 TABLE 17.1 AVERAGE SHELTER COSTS BY CITY SIZE CLASS POPULATION AVEBAGE AVERAGE SIZE CLASS CASH RENT VALUE HOME ONE 105 18,900 TWO 105 19,700 THREE 105 18,900 FOUR 111 19,000 FIVE 113 21,800 SIX 119 21,800 SEVEN 128 27,100 EIGHT 135 29,300 In order t o a r r i v e at an average monthly s h e l t e r c o s t f o r each urban community, the d i f f e r e n c e between of numbers of r e n t a l d w e l l i n g s and owner-occupied d w e l l i n g s i n t h a t community has t o be taken i n t o account. The f o l l o w i n g formula was used to a r r i v e at an average monthly s h e l t e r c o s t f o r an urban community: 86 [ (A*a) + (B*b) ]/a*b=S where A = Average monthly cash r e n t a = Count of r e n t a l d w e l l i n g s B = average monthly home ownership c o s t b = Count of owner-occupied d w e l l i n g s S - Average monthly s h e l t e r cost The number o f r e n t a l and owner-occupied d w e l l i n g s i n each urban community i s co n t a i n e d i n Table I Appendix B. The sum of the r e n t a l and owner-occupied d w e l l i n g s by c i t y s i z e c l a s s and t h e average monthly s h e l t e r c o s t i s o u t l i n e d i n Table IV.2. 87 TABLE IV.2 AVERAGE MONTHLY SHELTER COST BY CITY SIZE CLASS POPULATION AVERAGE NO. OF AVERAGE NO. OF AVERAGE SIZE CLASS CASH RENT RENTALS HOME COST HOMES SH. COST ONE 105 1,795 189 3,055 158 TWO 105 6,280 197 12,200 166 THREE 105 7,425 189 12, 700 158 FOUR 111 9,585 190 16,835 161 FIVE 113 7,395 2 18 12,35 5 179 SIX 119 8,940 218 11,250 174 SEVEN 128 22,395 271 27, 900 207 EIGHT 135 135,580 293 166,315 222 Table IV.3 o u t l i n e s the average monthly s h e l t e r c o s t f i g u r e s and index l e v e l s and weights of t h i s commodity sub-group a c c o r d i n g t o c i t y s i z e c l a s s 88 TABLE IV.3 AVERAGE MONTHLY SHELTER INDEX LEVELS AND WEIGHTS BY CITY SIZE CLASS POPULATION AVERAGE INDEX INDEX SIZE CLASS SH. COST LEVELS WEIGHTS ONE 158 71.2 12.8 TWO 166 74.8 13. 5 THREE 158 71.2 12. 8 FOUR 161 72.5 13. 0 FIVE 179 80.6 14.5 SIX 174 78.4 14. 1 SEVEN 207 93.2 16. 8 EIGHT 222 100.0 18. 0 FOOD AND NON-FOOD COMMODITY GROUPS The Government Allowance Indexes, which i n c l u d e the food and non-food commodity groups d e t a i l e d e a r l i e r , have been set up i n the f o l l o w i n g way: r e t a i l p r i c e s , which have been c o l l e c t e d at c e n t r e s of v a r i o u s remote s e t t l e m e n t s 89 i n the P r o v i n c e , have been compared with those p r e v a i l i n g i n Vancouver. In so f a r as p o s s i b l e , data has been c o l l e c t e d through v i s i t s by S t a t i s t i c s Canada employees to these l o c a t i o n s . In the case of c e r t a i n c o s t s , i n f o r m a t i o n has been obtained through the use of m a i l g u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Comparisons of p r i c e s at the item l e v e l have been aggregated so as to r e f l e c t the r e l a t i v e importance of goods and s e r v i c e s purchased i n the base c i t y - Vancouver, with m o d i f i c a t i o n s as n e c e s s i t a t e d by l o c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . These Indexes have been formulated as f a l l i n g w i t h i n 10 p o i n t s ranges: 100.0 to 109.9 or 110.0 to 119.9 e t c . The base c i t y r e p r e s e n t s the 100.0 index l e v e l . For the purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h , the medium p o i n t s were chosen as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e index l e v e l . Two Government allowance Indexes have been e s t a b l i s h e d by S t a t i s t i c s Canada i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, one i n Oct./Nov. 1972 and the other i n Hay/June 1975. Table I I i n Appendix B p r e s e n t s both Indexes. Since no major p h y s i c a l change has occurred i n the l a s t decades i n the Province, such as a c o n s t r u c t i o n of a major a r t e r i a l highway or the occurrence of major d i s a s t e r s t h a t may a f f e c t these index l e v e l s , i t was decided t o use them as v a l i d f o r the time p e r i o d of t h i s r e s e a r c h . Only s i x urban communities i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h are i n c l u d e d i n those Indexes. These urban 90 communities a r e : Index L e v e l s Gold R i v e r 110.0 - 119.9 Mackenzie 100.0 - 109.9 Smithers 110.0 - 119.9 T e r r a c e 100.0 - 109.9 K i t i m a t 100.0 - 109.9 P r i n c e Rupert 110.0 - 119.9 Index l e v e l s f o r the remaining urban communities were e s t a b l i s h e d by comparing them to s e t t l e m e n t s t h a t were i n c l u d e d i n these Indexes, t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the s i z e and remoteness of these urban communities. Judgements were based on c o n s u l t a t i o n with v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s and persons more f a m i l i a r with the B r i t i s h Columbia s i t u a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , an index l e v e l of 115 was assigned t o s m a l l and remote urban communities, an index l e v e l o f 110 was assigned t o medium s i z e and l e s s remote urban communities. Urban communities i n the Lower Mainland, those c l o s e t o the U.S.; border and those i n the v i c i n i t y of Greater V i c t o r i a were assigned an index l e v e l of 105. The aggregate weight of these commodity groups i n the P r o v i n c i a l P r i c e Index i s 66. The index l e v e l of food and non-food commodity groups of each urban community i s contained i n Table I i n Appendix B. The summation of the 91 index l e v e l s o f these commodity groups by c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s o u t l i n e d i n Table IV.4. TABLE IV.4 FOOD AND NON-FOOD INDEX LEVEL INDEX LEVEL AND HEIGHTS BY CITY SIZE CLASS POPULATION INDEX INDEX SIZE CLASS LEVELS WEIGHTS ONE 111.8 73.8 TWO 1 10.3 72.8 THREE 109.5 72.3 FOUB 110.6 73. 0 FIVE 110.0 72.6 SIX 110.0 72.6 SEVEN 105.0 69. 3 EIGHT 100.0 66.0 92 CLOTHING AND RECREATION - READING COMMODITY GROUPS Dealing with the c l o t h i n g and r e c r e a t i o n -re a d i n g commodity groups c o n s t i t u t e s a problem, s i n c e no in f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on the r e t a i l p r i c e d i f f e r e n c e s of these commodity groups between the urban communities i n the Prov i n c e and the base c i t y . One p o s s i b l e way to de a l with these commidity groups i s t o rank them a t the same index l e v e l r a t i o as the food and non-food commidity groups index l e v e l . However, a f t e r c a r e f u l examination of the K i t i m a t and P r i n c e Rupert s t u d i e s , i t was f e l t t h a t r a t i n g these commodity groups a t t h i s r a t i o would i n f l a t e t h e i r index l e v e l s much high e r than t h e i r a c t u a l l e v e l s . The K i t i m a t and P r i n c e Rupert s t u d i e s , which were conducted by S t a t i s t i c s Canada at the request o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Government and the l o c a l governments of these urban communities, were comprehensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n s cf comparative r e t a i l p r i c e l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s between these urban communities and Vancouver. These s t u d i e s covered a l l the commodity groups t h a t compose the Consumer P r i c e Index but exclude s h e l t e r . The s t u d i e s were conducted by mail as w e l l as by p e r s o n a l v i s i t and embrace l a r g e numbers of items. Table IIT i n Appendix B o u t l i n e s the r e s u l t s of these two s t u d i e s , 93 The K i t i m a t and P r i n c e Rupert s t u d i e s r a t e the c l o t h i n g commodity group a t , r e s p e c t i v e l y , 101 and 102 index l e v e l s and the r e c r e a t i o n commodity group a t , r e s p e c t i v e l y , 102 and 106 i n comparison to the 100 index l e v e l of the base c i t y . Index l e v e l s f o r these commodity groups, t h e r e f o r e , were assigned t o the urban communities i n the Province i n the f o l l o w i n g way. For the c l o t h i n g commodity group, index l e v e l s of 102, 101 and 100 were assigned t o the urban communities which c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y had been assigned 115, 110 and 105 f o r the food and non-focd commodity groups. C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , f o r the r e c r e a t i o n - r e a d i n g commodity group, index l e v e l s o f 106, 10 4 and 102 were assigned. T a b l e IV.5, which i s the summation of the index l e v e l s and weights o f the c l o t h i n g and r e c r e a t i o n - r e a d i n g commodity groups of the 76 urban communities, o u t l i n e s these indexes by c i t y s i z e c l a s s . 94 TABLE IV. 5 CLOTHING AND RECREATION - READING INDEX LEVELS AND WEIGHTS BY CITY SIZE CLASS POPULATION CLOTHING CLOTHING REC. — R E. B EC. — RE. SIZE CLASS INDEXES WEIGHTS INDEXES WEIGHTS ONE 101. 4 11.2 104.7 5.2 TWO 101.0 11.1 104. 1 5.2 THBEE 100.9 11.1 103.2 5.2 POOR 101. 1 11. 1 104. 3 5.2 FIVE 101.1 11.1 104.0 5.2 SIX 101. 1 11. 1 104.0 5.2 SEVEN 100.0 11.0 102.0 5. 1 EIGHT 100.0 11.0 100. 0 5.0 THE PROV IN CI A L CONS UM E.B P R IC E_ INDEX By aggregating the index weights of a l l the commodity groups t h a t compose the "basket" of the Consumer P r i c e Index o f each c i t y s i z e c l a s s , the Consumer P r i c e Index f o r t h a t c l a s s was ob t a i n e d . Table IV.6 o u t l i n e s the 95 Consumer P r i c e Index f o r each c i t y s i z e c l a s s r e l a t i v e to c i t y s i z e c l a s s e i g h t . The general p a t t e r n o f the Consumer P r i c e Index by c i t y s i z e c l a s s that r e s u l t s can be d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s . On the average, r e t a i l p r i c e s of a l l commodity groups i n urban communities of c l a s s e s one to seven are higher than those of urban communities of c l a s s e i g h t . However, the Consumer P r i c e Indexes of c l a s s e s one to seven are only s l i g h t l y higher than the Consumer P r i c e Index of c l a s s e i g h t . Other i n t e r - c l a s s v a r i a t i o n s are even s l i g h t e r , which i s mainly the product of s h e l t e r index weights d i f f e r e n c e s . 96 TABLE IV.6 THE PROVINCIAL CONSUMER PRICE INDEX BY CITY SIZE CLASS POPULATION SIZE CLASS SHELTER WEIGHTS FOOD NO-FO. WEIGHTS CLOTHING WEIGHTS REC.-RE WEIGHTS CPI MEAN P C. INC ONE 12. 8 73.8 11.2 5.2 103.0 87.4 TWO 13.5 72.8 11. 1 5.2 102.6 86.5 THREE 12.8 72.3 11.1 5.2 101.4 83.5 FOUR 13.0 73.0 11.1 5.2 102.3 84.9 FIVE 14.5 72.6 11.1 5.2 103. 4 84.9 SIX 14. 1 72.6 11.1 5.2 103.0 90.6 SEVEN 16.8 69.3 11.0 5.1 102. 2 96.9 EIGHT 18.0 66.0 11.0 5.0 100.0 100.0 Even i f we assume, because of l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the methodology, t h a t the Consumer P r i c e Index i s equal amongst the c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s , t h i s would s t i l l s upport the sub-hypothesis i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s part o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h a t the p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n of c o s t of l i v i n g with c i t y s i z e i s much narrower than t h a t of incomes with c i t y s i z e . Furthermore, the e m p i r i c a l evidence o f the Pro v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t there i s a s l i g h t l y n e g ative c o r r e l a t i o n between cost o f l i v i n g and 97 c i t y size c l a s s ; t h i s broadens the gap i n terms of re a l income i n favour of c i t y s i z e class eight. The r e l a t i v e mean per capita income of each c i t y size class contained in Table IV.6 i l l u s t r a t e s sharply these conclusions. It should be noted that the findings concerning cost of l i v i n g opposed to those of Hoch (see Chapter II) who found that there i s a f a i r increase in the cost of l i v i n g with c i t y size i n the O . S . The differences between the mean per capita income and the Consumer Price Index of each c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s also an indicator of the standard of l i v i n g of the inhabitants of the urban communities of that class. The inhabitants of, for example, the urban communities i n class one can afford on the average to purchase only 84.8 (87.4 out of 103.0) percent of the "basket" of goods and services, while the inhabitants of the urban communities of c l a s s eight can afford on the average to purchase 100 percent of t h i s "basket". 1NCCME_DISTRIB0TI0N Higher average incomes obtained i n the larger c i t i e s can indicate more inequitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of incomes, or a derived hypothesis that there are r e l a t i v e l y 98 more poor i n l a r g e c i t i e s t h a n ; i n s m a l l ones. In order to i n v e s t i g a t e these hypotheses i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the income d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the urban communities of each c i t y s i z e c l a s s w i l l be examined. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l r e f e r t o employment income and w i l l i n c l u d e a l l persons 15 years and over who worked i n 1970. The census disaggregated employment income data i s given f o r each urban community a c c o r d i n g to f i v e income l e v e l s . These are: 1. . persons with zero employment income reported (0) 2. persons with employment income l e s s than 3000 ( i n c l u d i n g l o s s ) (-3) 3. persons with employment income 3000 - 59 99 (3-6) 4. persons with employment income 6000 - 9999 (6-10) 5. persons with employment income 10,000 and over (10+) The income l e v e l of 0 r e f e r s t o persons who worked unpaid i n a f a m i l y business. The income l e v e l -3 i n c l u d e s a l s o s e l f -employed persons who r e p o r t e d negative income. S t a t i s t i c s Canada (catalogue 93-773) d e f i n e s low income as the l e v e l of income below which a f a m i l y or an i n d i v i d u a l i s considered t o be of low income s t a t u s . Low income s t a t u s r e f e r s t o persons who spend 70% or more of t h e i r income on the b a s i c e s s e n t i a l s of food, s h e l t e r and 99 c l o t h i n g . T h i s produces a c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada, f o r the census 1971, low income l e v e l s of $1957 f o r a s i n g l e person, $3263 f o r a f a m i l y o f two, $3915 f o r a f a m i l y of t h r e e , $4568 f o r f o u r and $5220 f o r f i v e or more. In order to f a c i l i t a t e the a n a l y s i s of the income d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Prov i n c e , i t was decided, f o r the purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h , t o c o n s i d e r the -3 income l e v e l as low income and the 10+ income l e v e l as high income. The number of persons i n each income l e v e l i n each of the 76 urban communities t h a t are i n v e s t i g a t e d i s con t a i n e d i n Table IV i n Appendix B. The sum of these persons by income l e v e l and by c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s o u t l i n e d i n Table IV.7. Table IV.7 a l s o c o n t a i n s the r e l a t i v e income d i s t r i b u t i o n of the v a r i o u s income l e v e l s i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s , r e f e r r e d h e r e i n to as row income d i s t r i b u t i o n or row percentage, and the r e l a t i v e income d i s t r i b u t i o n of the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s i n each income l e v e l , r e f e r r e d h e r e i n t o as column income d i s t r i b u t i o n or column percentage. The row income d i s t r i b u t i o n was used to c o n s t r u c t Graph IV.1 and the column income d i s t r i b u t i o n was used to c o n s t r u c t Diagram IV.1. Diagram IV.1 a l s o c o n t a i n s the r e l a t i v e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n among the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s {figures are taken from Ta b l e I I I . 1, Chapter I I I ) . The r e l a t i v e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s 100 c o n s t i t u t e s the "expected" p r o p o r t i o n of persons i n each income l e v e l f o r t h a t c i t y s i z e c l a s s . The o v e r a l l s u r p r i s i n g p i c t u r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table IV.7 and the accompanying Graph IV.1 and Diagram IV.1 i s t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , there i s a r e l a t i v e l y even income d i s t r i b u t i o n i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s (column percentage), and among the c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s (row percentage); More s u r p r i s i n g i s the r e l a t i v e income d i s t r i b u t i o n resemblance between c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s one and e i g h t which r e p r e s e n t , c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y the s m a l l e s t and l a r g e s t c i t y s i z e c l a s s . However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that r e l a t i v e l y t h e r e are more persons with high incomes i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s one than i n any o t h e r c i t y s i z e c l a s s ; 17% i n comparison to a rough average of 14% i n the other c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s (row percentage). On t h e other hand, i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s e i g h t the expected p r o p o r t i o n of persons i n each income l e v e l i s 63.7% (Table I I I . 1 ) , however, the r e s u l t s presented i n Table IV.7 i n d i c a t e t h a t roughly roughly 68% of t h e high income persons of the P r o v i n c e are concentrated t h e r e , while only roughly 61% of the low income persons l i v e there (column percentage) These f i n d i n g s c o n t r a d i c t the arguments s t a t e d e a r l i e r t h a t higher incomes i n l a r g e c i t i e s i n d i c a t e i n e g u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f incomes and that t h e r e are r e l a t i v e l y more poor i n l a r g e c i t i e s . 101 TABLE IV. 7 THE ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE INCOME DISTRIBUTION BY INCOME LEVEL AND BY CITY SIZE CLASS COUNT ROM PCT. COL. PCT. INCOME LEVELS CLASSES 0 -3 3-6 6-10 10* ROW TOTI ONE 120 2270 1685 2400 1325 7800 1.5 29. 1 21.6 30. 8 17.0 100.0 1. 1 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.3 TWO 550 9720 6065 8715 3965 29015 1.9 33. 5 20.9 30. 0 13.7 100.0 4. 8 4.3 3.4 4. 2 3.9 THREE 725 10575 7100 9800 4405 32605 2. 2 32. 4 21.8 30. 1 1395 100.0 6.4 4.6 4.0 4. 8 4.4 FOUR 850 13575 9580 14 145 5810 43960 1.9 30. 9 21.8 32. 2 13.2 7. 5 5.9 5.4 6. 9 5.7 FIVE 420 11365 7050 8100 3750 30685 1.4 37.0 23.0 26. 4 12.2 100.0 3.7 5.0 4.0 3. 9 3.7 SIX 690 11290 8385 11690 5695 37750 1.8 29.9 22.2 31.0 15. 1 100.0 6. 1 4.8 5.7 5.6 SEVEN 1080 23875 17230 18655 7665 68505 1.6 34.9 25.2 27.2 11.2 100.0 9.5 1095 9.8 9. 1 7.6 EIGHT 696 5 145670 119415 132265 68645 472S60 1. 5 30. 8 25.2 28. 0 14. 5 100.0 61. 1 63. 8 67.7 64. 3 67.8 COLUMN TOTAL11400 228340 176510 205770 101260 723280 100.0 100.0 100.0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 102 A ^ V \ 6-10 .5-6 ...10-o 7 8 CITY SIZE CLASS GRAPH IV.1 THE ROW INCOME DISTRIBUTION BY INCOME LEVEL AND BY CITY SIZE CLASS DIAGRAM IV, 1 THE COLUMN INCOME DISTRIBUTION BY INCOME LEVEL AND BY CITY SIZE CLASS 104 Other phenomena r e v e a l e d by t h i s T able, Graph and Diagram are, f i r s t the r e l a t i v e l y high percentage of low income persons i n the urban communities of c l a s s e s f i v e and seven - Greater V i c t o r i a , and secondly the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of persons with high incomes i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s s i x -P o r t a l b e r n i , Kamloops and P r i n c e George and the r e l a t i v e l y low percentage of low income persons i n t h i s c l a s s . These phenomena are probably mainly due to the economic base o f these urban communities. The next chapter w i l l attempt to e x p l a i n the reasons f o r these f i n d i n g s . SUMMARY The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s chapter were f i r s t t o determine the r e a l income i n the urban communities of the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n order to c l a r i f y whether the average higher incomes obtained i n the l a r g e urban communities are being negated by the c o s t of l i v i n g p r e v a i l i n g there. T h i s has been accomplished by c o n s t r u c t i n g a Consumer P r i c e Index f o r the urban communities i n v e s t i g a t e d r e l a t i v e to G r e a t e r Vancouver. The f i n d i n g s i l l u s t r a t e t h a t the higher average incomes obtained i n the l a r g e urban communities are not negated by the c o s t of l i v i n g . Furthermore, s i n c e the cost of l i v i n g r e v e a l e d a 105 negative c o r r e l a t i o n with c i t y s i z e c l a s s , average r e a l incomes are even higher i n the l a r g e urban communities of the Province than i n s m a l l e r ones. The second o b j e c t i v e of t h i s c h a p t e r was to examine whether t h e average higher incomes obtained i n the l a r g e urban communities of the Province are being achieved a t the expense of e q u i t y . I n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s h y p o thesis i n d i c a t e s t h a t g e n e r a l l y there i s a r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r income d i s t r i b u t i o n i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s and among the c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . T h i s , t h e r e f o r e , s u b s t a n t i a t e s the sub-h y p o t h e s i s , which s t a t e s t h a t higher incomes obtained i n l a r g e c i t i e s are not being achived a t the expense of e q u i t y . In t h i s stage o f the rese a r c h a c o n c l u s i o n concerning income and c i t y s i z e i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia can be drawn. I t i s t h a t the i n h a b i t a n t s of the l a r g e urban communities i n the Provin c e are economically b e t t e r o f f than the i n h a b i t a n t s of the s m a l l e r ones, and t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia p a r a l l e l s the general case of other c o u n t r i e s , namely, t h a t t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between r e a l income and c i t y s i z e . 106 CHAPTER V EXPLANATIONS OF INCOME DIFFERENCES 107 The e x i s t e n c e o f average income d i f f e r e n t i a l s among the urban communities of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia can be t h e r e s u l t of a l a r g e number of f a c t o r s . These f a c t o r s range from those i d e n t i f i e d as p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a c t o r s , such as age, sex, e d u c a t i o n , e t c . , t o those which can be grouped under the t i t l e i n d u s t r i a l composition f a c t o r s , such as occupation, degrees of r i s k , l i f e - c y c l e v a r i a t i o n of wages, e t c . In an attempt t o e x p l a i n average income d i f f e r e n t i a l s , the author i n t h i s chapter w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e those f a c t o r s which he c o n s i d e r s t o have the most s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n determining income d i f f e r e n c e s among the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . These f a c t o r s a r e : 1. Labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s 2. Labour f o r c e by age and sex 3. Labour f o r c e by education and sex 4. Labor f o r c e by occupation and sex T h i s chapter i s t h e r e f o r e d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to these f a c t o r s . 108 LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES A p o p u l a t i o n can b a s i c a l l y be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups: those who c o n t r i b u t e t o the aggregate incomes of tha t p o p u l a t i o n , and those who are dependent, i . e . , without any source of income. The mean per c a p i t a income was obta i n e d by a d i v i s i o n of the aggregate incomes of a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i n a c i t y s i z e c l a s s by i t s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , the r a t i o of the c o n t r i b u t i n g income group to t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s important i n determining the l e v e l o f the mean per c a p i t a income of that c i t y s i z e c l a s s . However, an i n c r e a s i n g r a t i o of c o n t r i b u t i n g income group to t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n w i t h c i t y s i z e c l a s s does not n e c e s s a r i l y e x p l a i n a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between mean per c a p i t a income and c i t y s i z e . For example, a sm a l l r a t i o of c o n t r i b u t i n g income group t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n accompanied by very high incomes can produce high mean per c a p i t a income, while a high r a t i o accompanied by low incomes can produce a low mean per c a p i t a income. However, s i n c e e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t there i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between mean per c a p i t a income and c i t y s i z e c l a s s , and t h a t income d i s t r i b u t i o n v a r i e s l i t t l e among c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a t i o o f the c o n t r i b u t i n g income group t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and c i t y s i z e c l a s s can 109 e x p l a i n income d i f f e r e n c e s among the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . D e f i n i n g the c o n t r i b u t i n g income group c r e a t e s a problem, s i n c e no i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on the exact number of those belonging to t h i s group i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s . The aggregate income of a c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s composed mainly of income r e c e i v e d by those p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the l a b o u r f o r c e i n the form of wages and s a l a r i e s and net income from business or p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e , and of income r e c e i v e d by an unknown number of people from other sources, such as government income maintenance programmes, bond and d e p o s i t i n t e r e s t , and d i v i d e n d s and other investment sources. &n i n d i v i d u a l i s d e f i n e d as being i n the l a b o u r f o r c e i f he/she was employed or l o o k i n g f o r work d u r i n g the week the census was conducted. T h i s does not mean t h a t he/she had a steady job and i t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t t o know how s i n c e r e a person i s who says he/she i s l o o k i n g f o r work. Sin c e the aggregate income of a c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s composed o f income r e c e i v e d by those a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the l a b o u r f o r c e , p l u s income r e c e i v e d by an unknown number of people from other sources; while the t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e of t h a t c l a s s i s composed of those a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the labour f o r c e , plus those belonging to the l a b o u r f o r c e but not c o n t r i b u t i n g to the aggregate income, i t was decided to r e f e r to the t o t a l 110 l a b o u r f o r c e of a c i t y s i z e c l a s s as the c o n t r i b u t i n g income group. T h i s assumption, as w i l l appear l a t e r , w i l l not a f f e c t the f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a t i o of the c o n t r i b u t i n g income group to t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and c i t y s i z e c l a s s . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s and diagram w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the age/sex s t r u c t u r e of the p o p u l a t i o n i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s and the r a t i o s of the labour f o r c e to t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . Table V.I, which i s the summation of Table I i n Appendix C , o u t l i n e s the p r o p o r t i o n a l age group d i s t r i b u t i o n by sex a c c o r d i n g t o c i t y s i z e c l a s s . Table V.1 was used t o c o n s t r u c t Diagram V.1. 111 TABLE V.1 AGE/SEX DISTRIBUTION BY CITY SIZE CLASS* POPULATION AGE GROUPS SIZE CLASS 0-14 15-24 2 5-34 IN % 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + ONE H 16.6 8.6 7. 8 6.0 4.6 3.7 3.8 F 15. 8 8.0 6.9 5.0 4.6 3.9 3.8 TWO M 15.0 8.9 6. 3 6.0 5. 2 4.2 4.3 F 14. 3 8.5 6. 1 5.5 5.4 4.4 4.7 THREE M 15. 0 10.0 6. 6 6.1 5.0 3.9 4.0 F 14.8 9. 1 6. 2 5.7 5.4 4. 1 4.4 FGU8 H 15.5 9.6 6.9 6.3 5. 2 4.1 4.0 F 15. 1 8.8 6.5 5.8 5.4 4.0 4. 1 FIVE M 13.6 8.8 6. 0 5.9 5. 1 4.5 6.1 F 13.4 8.3 5. 8 5.4 5.6 5.2 6.7 SIX H 16.3 9.6 8. 1 6.9 4. 9 3.3 2.4 F 15.7 9.6 7.6 5.6 4.8 2.8 2.5 SEVEN H 11.2 9.0 5.0 4.9 5.6 4.7 6.9 F 11.0 8.9 5.0 5.0 6.6 6.1 10.0 EIGHT a 12.7 8.7 7. 2 6.2 5. 7 4.5 4.5 F 12. 1 9.0 6.9 5.8 6. 1 4. 8 5.8 *Note: the sum of the male and female percentages i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s egu a l t o 100 (subject t o rounding e r r o r s ) . 113 The l a b o u r f o r c e o f each of the 76 urban communities t h a t are i n v e s t i g a t e d i s d e s c r i b e d i n Table I I of Appendix C. The s i z e of the labour f o r c e and i t s r a t i o to the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n by c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s o u t l i n e d i n Table V.2 (the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f each c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s contained i n Table I I I . 1 i n Chapter I I I . ) . TABLE V.2 LABOUR FORCE TO TOTAL POPULATION RATIO BY CITY SIZE CLASS POPULATION LABOUR RATIO SIZE CLASS FORCE L.F. TO POP. ONE 7265 39.5 TWO 26460 40.3 THREE 30600 41.8 FOUR 41430 41.9 FIVE 28340 41.4 SIX 35025 44. 1 SEVEN 64220 42. 9 EIGHT 443010 45. 5 Examination of the age/sex s t r u c t u r e s of the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s i l l u s t r a t e s s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s . There 114 are a r e l a t i v e l y high number of c h i l d r e n aged 0-14, i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s one to s i x r e l a t i v e t o c i t y s i z e c l a s s seven-Greater V i c t o r i a and e i g h t - G r e a t e r Vancouver. These d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e l a t i v e number of c h i l d r e n e x p l a i n a l a r g e degree of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the n o n - c o n t r i b u t i n g income group between c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s one t o s i x and c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s seven and e i g h t . The age group 65+ i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s f i v e , seven and e i g h t , and very s m a l l i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s s i x - P o r t A l b e r n i , Kamloops and P r i n c e George. T h i s age group c o n t r i b u t e s to the aggregate income, e i t h e r through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e (14.8% of the t o t a l 65+ are i n the labour f o r c e , as w i l l be i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n ) , or through government income maintenance programmes (Hincome, Old Age S e c u r i t y Pension, Guaranteed Income Supplement, e t c . ) . An examination of the l a b o u r f o r c e to t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n r a t i o s o u t l i n e d i n Table V.2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t there i s a d i s t i n c t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h i s r a t i o and c i t y s i z e c l a s s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , combined with the e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s that t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n of income and c i t y s i z e c l a s s , and that there i s a s i m i l a r income d i s t r i b u t i o n i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t higher labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a r g e r urban c e n t e r s may c o n t r i b u t e to the i n c r e a s i n g mean per c a p i t a incomes 115 with c i t y s i z e c l a s s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Furthermore, the f a c t t h a t t h e r e are more 65+ persons i n the c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s f i v e , seven and e i g h t , combined with the f i n d i n g s t h a t w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , i . e . , t h a t r e l a t i v e l y t h e r e are more 65+ persons p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the labour f o r c e i n those c l a s s e s can a l s o e x p l a i n the i n c r e a s i n g per c a p i t a incomes with c i t y s i z e c l a s s i n the Province. T h i s assumes t h a t the incomes of those i n the labour f o r c e are higher than the incomes r e c e i v e d through government income maintenance programmes, s i n c e , i f not, they would be b e t t e r o f f c o l l e c t i n g incomes through those programmes. The l a r g e number of 65+ persons i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s f i v e and seven may a l s o e x p l a i n the r e l a t i v e l y high percentage of low income persons i n these c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s as d e s c r i b e d i n the previous chapter. On the other hand, the low p r o p o r t i o n of 65+ persons i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s one and s i x may account f o r the r e l a t i v e l y low percentage of low income persons i n those c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . Before c o n c l u d i n g t h i s s e c t i o n , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o examine d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n the male and female labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s by c i t y s i z e c l a s s . The l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i s the percentage of the p o p u l a t i o n d e f i n e d as belonging to the l a b o u r f o r c e out o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n age 15 and over. 11 The p o p u l a t i o n of male and female i n the la b o u r f o r c e f o r each urban community i n the Pr o v i n c e i s co n t a i n e d i n Table I I , Appendix C. The male and female labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s a c c o r d i n g t o c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s are o u t l i n e d i n Table V.3 and Graph V.1. TABLE V.3 LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION BY SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS POPULATION MALE FEMALE SIZE CLASS PARTICIP. PARTICIPw ONE TWO THREE FOUR FIVE SIX SEVEN EIGHT 79.9 77.5 79. 3 79.7 73. 8 83. 9 72. 6 77.6 31. 1 36.5 38.8 39.7 3 9.U 44. 2 39.9 44. 0 1 1 7 PARTI CI P. RATES 85 80 J 75 45 40 35 MALE FEMALE / / A  \ / \ V i i » i i I I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CITY SIZE CLASS GRAPH V.1 LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION BY SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS 118 From an a n a l y s i s of t h i s t a b l e and the accompanying graph s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s are apparent. F i r s t , the male p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e tends a t the beginning -c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s one to f o u r - to remain s i m i l a r with c i t y s i z e c l a s s , but then i t shows an i r r e g u l a r r e l a t i o n to c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s f i v e to e i g h t . The r e l a t i v e l y low male p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s f i v e , seven and e i g h t i s probably l a r g e l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e i r l a r g e male 6 5+ p o p u l a t i o n . However, s i n c e a n a l y s i s of male average p e r s o n a l inccme re v e a l e d a U-shaped r e l a t i o n to c i t y s i z e c l a s s (Chapter I I I ) , i t appears t h a t , on the average, income l e v e l s do not a f f e c t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of males i n the labour f o r c e . Second, the female p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e e x h i b i t s a g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with c i t y s i z e resembling the female average p e r s o n a l income by c i t y s i z e c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p r e v e a l e d i n Chapter I I I . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the highest female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s obtained i n the same c i t y s i z e c l a s s - c l a s s s i x - where the lowest female average p e r s o n a l income e x i s t s . However, i t can be g e n e r a l l y be s a i d t h a t s m a l l e r urban communities o f f e r i n g , on the average, low-paid female jobs, o b v i o u s l y discourage females from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the l a b o u r f o r c e . T h i s , of course, a f f e c t s the mean per c a p i t a inccme of these communities, s i n c e more females who might 119 have belonged to the c o n t r i b u t i n g income group are now i n the n o n - c o n t r i b u t i n g group. The opposite can be s a i d o f the l a r g e r urban communities. Furthermore, be s i d e s high paid female jobs, these l a r g e communities o f f e r a wider v a r i e t y of j o b s , as w e l l as ones r e g u i r i n g h i g h e r s k i l l s , c o n d i t i o n s which o b v i o u s l y encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e . LABOUR FORCE BY,AGE AND SEX The age, ed u c a t i o n and occupation f a c t o r s p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n determining income l e v e l s of i n d i v i d u a l s . I d e a l l y , an adjustment should be made f o r these three f a c t o r s i n order to determine the e f f e c t o f the s i z e of a c i t y on the p e r s o n a l income l e v e l . Fuchs (see Chapter I I ) , who had d e t a i l e d data on income by c o l o u r , age, sex and education f o r each c i t y s i z e , was able t o a d j u s t f o r these f a c t o r s and t o conclude t h a t even a f t e r these adjustments, incomes are s t i l l higher i n l a r g e r c i t i e s , i . e . , t h a t the s i z e of a c i t y i s a f a c t o r i n determining income l e v e l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no data on incomes by age, education and occupation at the munici p a l s c a l e was found to enable the r e s e a r c h e r to a d j u s t f o r these f a c t o r s i n - o r d e r to determine the e f f e c t o f the s i z e of an urban community i n the Province on t h e average personal incomes obtained t h e r e . 120 However, the 1971 census pro v i d e s data on average incomes by these f a c t o r s and t h e i r components f o r the e n t i r e P r o v i n c e . 1 i t was decided, t h e r e f o r e , to use t h i s data as a d e v i c e with which to determine the d i r e c t i o n and order o f magnitude of the e f f e c t of these three f a c t o r s on average p e r s o n a l incomes f o r males and females i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s i n order t o e x p l a i n the average p e r s o n a l income d i f f e r e n c e s among the var i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . I f these three f a c t o r s w i l l not help e x p l a i n the income d i f f e r e n c e s , then i t can be concluded that the s i z e of the urban community i s the f a c t o r which determines income l e v e l . The d i r e c t i o n and order of magnitude of the e f f e c t of these three f a c t o r s on average p e r s o n a l incomes w i l l be determined using a s t a t i s t i c a l method developed by the r e s e a r c h e r , which w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs. The assumption behind t h i s method i s t h a t people of the same component group are expected to earn s i m i l a r incomes i n the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n average p e r s o n a l incomes, h o l d i n g a l l other f a c t o r s constant, w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , be accounted f o r by the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the composition o f the v a r i a b l e f a c t o r i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s . For example, t a k i n g age as the *The components of each f a c t o r are: age groups, education l e v e l s and occupation types. 121 v a r i a b l e f a c t o r , a l l persons belonging t o the age group 15-19 should make s i m i l a r incomes i n the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . Those belonging t o the age group 19-34 may make higher incomes than those of the pr e v i o u s age group; however, they s t i l l s hould make s i m i l a r incomes a c r o s s the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s , and so on. The d i f f e r e n c e i n average p e r s o n a l incomes among the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s , h o l d i n g the other f a c t o r s c o n s t a n t , w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , be due to the age group composition o f each c i t y s i z e c l a s s . F o l l o w i n g , i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s t a t i s t i c a l method used. The p r o p o r t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the labour f o r c e by each f a c t o r a c c o r d i n g t o i t s components i s c a l c u l a t e d . The sum of these p r o p o r t i o n s should be equal t o one. Then, the P r o v i n c i a l average income of each component i s m u l t i p l i e d by the p r o p o r t i o n of the same component of the same f a c t o r f o r each c i t y s i z e c l a s s . The r e s u l t s of the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n are added up to produce the "expected" average income f o r t h a t c i t y s i z e c l a s s a c c o r d i n g t o t h a t f a c t o r . These s t e p s , which produce the expected average income - A f o r c i t y s i z e c l a s s - j a c c o r d i n g to f a c t o r - i , are i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g formula; 122 A j i = Pxlx where A = Expected average income P = P r o p o r t i o n o f a component I = P r o v i n c i a l average income of a component j = c i t y s i z e c l a s s i = f a c t o r x = component In order to enable the rese a r c h e r t o compare the v a r i o u s expected average incomes obtained f o r the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s by each f a c t o r , c i t y c l a s s e i g h t -G reater Vancouver, was again chosen as the common denominator with which t o c a r r y out the comparison, and a score of 100 was a s s i g n e d to i t . The expected average income f i g u r e s were, t h e r e f o r e , ranked r e l a t i v e t o the expected average income f i g u r e s o b t ained f o r c l a s s e i g h t . 123 The r a t i o o b t a i n e d by t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n determines the d i r e c t i o n and the order of magnitude of the e f f e c t of each f a c t o r on t h e average income of each c i t y s i z e c l a s s . I f the f a c t o r r a t i o i s g r e a t e r than 100, t h a t f a c t o r , h o l d i n g t h e other c o n s t a n t , as a " p o s i t i v e " e f f e c t on the average income i n t h a t c i t y s i z e c l a s s , i . e . , t h a t the composition of the components of t h a t f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t e t o produce a higher average income i n t h a t c i t y s i z e c l a s s . The g r e a t e r the r a t i o the s t r o n g e r i s the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t . I f the f a c t o r r a t i o i s l e s s than 100, t h a t f a c t o r has a " n e g a t i v e " e f f e c t on the average income i n t h a t c i t y s i z e c l a s s , and the s m a l l e r i t i s the s t r o n g e r the negative e f f e c t . The 1971 census data on the average employment income of the labour f o r c e by age groups and by sex f o r the P r o v i n c e { S t a t i s t i c s Canada catalogue 94-760) i s presented i n Table V.4. 124 TABLE V.4 AVERAGE EMPLOYMENT INCOME BY AGE AND SEX FOE BRITISH COLOMBIA1 AGE GROUP MALE AV. INC. FEMALE AV. INC. 15-19 1442 1010 20-24 4597 2995 25-34 7951 3696 35-44 9636 3648 45-54 9735 4014 55-64 8584 4215 65 + 7669 4905 The l a b o u r f o r c e by age groups and by sex of each o f the 76 urban communities i n v e s t i g a t e d i s con t a i n e d i n Table I I I i n Appendix C. The p r o p o r t i o n o f the labour f o r c e by age groups and by sex according t o c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s o u t l i n e d i n Table V.5. 1 S o u r c e : adapted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada c a t . 94-760 125 TABLE V.5 LABOUR FORCE BY AGE, SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS* POPULATION AGE GROUPS SIZE CLASS 15-19 20-24 25-34 IN % 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + ONE M 8.7 14.6 27.5 21.4 16. 1 10.0 1.7 F 10.7 17.9 21. 0 18. 4 20.0 10. 1 1.8 TWO H 9.7 13.4 21.9 21. 6 18.4 12.3 2.3 F 1 4.3 15.9 19. 1 18. 0 18.6 12.3 1.7 THREE H 10.8 14.8 22.7 21.2 16.6 11.5 2.6 F 15.6 15.4 17. 4 20. 4 18.2 10.7 2.5 FOUR H 9.9 14.1 23. 3 21. 1 17.1 12.0 2.7 F 15.4 16.0 9.6 18. 9 18.0 10.0 1.9 FIVE H 10.2 13.8 21.6 21.6 17.6 12.4 3.3 F 13.4 16.6 18. 0 18.2 19.0 12.4 2.9 SIX H 10.0 14.5 26.3 22. 3 15.5 9.8 1.7 F 15.5 19.0 22.5 17. 8 15.8 8.0 1.4 SEVEN M 9.8 15.3 18.2 18.2 20.3 14. 2 4.0 F 13.7 17.9 15. 1 15. 5 20.3 13.7 3.8 EIGHT M 7.7 13.4 23.7 20.9 18.4 12.9 3.0 F 11.6 19.3 21.0 17.0 17.9 11.0 2.3 VNote: the sura of each row i s equal t o 100 {subject to rounding e r r o r s ) . 126 By using the s t a t i s t i c a l method d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r the expected average income by age groups of each c i t y s i z e f o r male and female was produced. Table V.6 presents these r e s u l t s and the age r a t i o s f o r male and female a c c o r d i n g t o c i t y s i z e c l a s s . TABLE V.6 EXPECTED AVERAGE INCOMES BY AGE, SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS POPULATION MALE EXP. MALE FEMALE EXP. FEMALE SIZE CLASS AV. INC., RATIO AV. INC. RATIO ONE 7601 98.0 3408 100.6 TWO 7602 98.0 3332 98.4 THREE 7486 96.5 3310 97.7 FOUR 7579 97.7 3286 97.0 FIVE 7611 98.2 3389 100.0 SIX 7532 97.1 3247 95.8 SEVEN 7547 97.3 3377 99.7 EIGHT 7754 100.0 3386 100.0 From an examination of the r e s u l t s i n Table V.6 i t appears t h a t the age f a c t o r f o r males has a negative 127 e f f e c t on incomes f o r c i t i e s s i z e c l a s s e s one to seven. T h i s f a c t o r can, t h e r e f o r e , h e l p e x p l a i n the lower male average p e r s o n a l income obtained i n c l a s s e s one to seven i n comparison with t h a t o f c l a s s e i g h t (Chapter I I I ) . The urban communities o f c i t y s i z e c l a s s three which i n d i c a t e d t h e lowest p e r s o n a l average income, appear to have the lowest male age r a t i o i n comparison with the other c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . On the other hand, the urban communities of c l a s s e s one and two, which r e v e a l e d a r e l a t i v e l y high male average p e r s o n a l income, have r e l a t i v e l y b e t t e r male age composition. However, the r e l a t i v e l y high male age r a t i o s o f c i t y s i z e c l a s s f i v e and the r e l a t i v e l y low r a t i o s of c i t y s i z e c l a s s seven do not e x p l a i n t h e i r male average p e r s o n a l incomes, which are r e l a t i v e l y low f o r c l a s s s i x and high f o r seven. As f o r females, the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the average per s o n a l incomes o b t a i n e d by them i n the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s g e n e r a l l y cannot be e x p l a i n e d by the female age composition i n the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s as o u t l i n e d i n Table V.5. However, the female age composition of the c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s t h r e e and s i x , which are manifested by t h e i r lew female age r a t i o s , can be accountable to the low female average pe r s o n a l income o b t a i n e d i n these c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . 128 IMCnB_FORCE_BY_ED0CATigj_AN The 1971 census data on the average employment income of the labour f o r c e a c c o r d i n g t o e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s and by sex f o r the Pr o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada catalogue 94-763) i s o u t l i n e d i n Table V.7. TABLE V.7 AVERAGE EMPLOYMENT INCOME BY EDUCATION AND SEX FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA* EDUCATION MALE FEMALE LEVEL AV. INC. AV. INC. LESS THAN GRADE 9 6417 2536 GRADES 9-10 6752 2533 GRADES 11+13 6788 2 978 SOME UNIVERSITY 6375 3434 UNIVERSITY DEGREE 1186 4 5802 *Source: adapted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada c a t . 94-763 129 Table V.8, which i s the summation of the labour f o r c e by e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s and by sex (d e r i v e d from Table IV i n appendix C) o u t l i n e s the p r o p o r t i o n of the labou r f o r c e by e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s and sex a c c o r d i n g to c i t y s i z e c l a s s . TABLE V.8 LABOUB FORCE BY EDUCATION, SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS* POPULATION LESS GRADES GRADES SOME UNIV. SIZE CLASS THAN 9 9 - 1 0 1 1 - 1 3 UNIV. DEGREE IN % ONE M 21.9 25. 9 38.3 7.6 6.3 F 12. 4 21.1 4 9.6 12.2 4.7 TWO M 22.7 24. 8 37.6 8.4 6.6 F 14.3 20. 5 50. 1 12.4 2.7 THREE M 24.0 26.5 36.6 7.0 5.8 F 14.5 22. 4 48.7 10.4 4.0 FOUR M 23. 2 25. 0 38.0 7.9 5.9 F 13.3 22. 7 50.8 9.9 3.2 FIVE M 22. 1 24. 7 38.8 8.3 6.0 F 16.2 22. 1 48.7 9.3 3.8 SIX M 22. 8 24.9 3 8.3 8.0 6.0 F 13.7 21.2 49.5 11.3 4.3 SEVEN M 15. 3 23.3 41.6 10.7 9.2 F 10. 8 19. 1 52.3 12. 5 5.3 EIGHT M 17.6 20. 0 41.0 11.4 9.9 F 11.9 17. 8 52.9 11.3 6.1 JNote: the sum of each row i s equal t o 100 (su b j e c t to rounding e r r o r s ) . 131 expected average income by e d u c a t i o n a l and females by c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s o u t l i n e d TABLE V.9 EXPECTED AVERAGE INCOMES BY EDUCATION, SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS POPULATION SIZE CLASS MALE EXP. AV. INC. MALE RATIO FEMALE EXP. AV. INC. FEMALE RATIO ONE 69 86 97.5 3018 98.3 TWO 7002 97.7 2956 96.3 THREE 6948 97.0 2977 97.0 FOUR 6960 97.2 2951 96.1 FIVE 6961 97.2 2935 95.6 SIX 6966 97.2 2996 97.6 SEVEN 7152 99.8 3 052 99.4 EIGHT 7164 100.0 307 0 100.0 The g e n e r a l p i c t u r e i l l u s t r a t e d by Table V. 9 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l composition among the va r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o e x p l a i n i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s i n The l e v e l s f o r males i n Table V.9. 1 3 2 average pe r s o n a l incomes of males and females by c i t y s i z e c l a s s r e v e a l e d i n Chapter I I I . The e d u c a t i o n a l composition f o r both sexes shows a negative e d u c a t i o n r a t i o , which means t h a t the g e n e r a l l y lower e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s of the labour f o r c e i n the urban communities of c l a s s e s one and seven help account f o r the lower average pe r s o n a l income l e v e l s of t h e s e communities i n comparison with c i t y s i z e c l a s s e i g h t . The urban communities of c i t y s i z e c l a s s t h r e e , again, show the lowest male e d u c a t i o n a l r a t i o . G e n e r a l l y the male and female e d u c a t i o n r a t i o s show a U-shaped r e l a t i o n s h i p with c i t y s i z e c l a s s . The male ed u c a t i o n r a t i o s resemble, t h e r e f o r e , the male average p e r s o n a l incomes i n t h e i r U-shape. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t e d u c a t i o n may play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n determining inccme l e v e l s f o r males. The female e d u c a t i o n r a t i o s i l l u s t r a t e that l e v e l of education does not always help account f o r inccme l e v e l s . The h i g h e s t female average p e r s o n a l income, f o r example, was o b t a i n e d i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s seven, while the h i g h e s t female education r a t i o was obtained i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s e i g h t . Also, the r e l a t i v e l y high female edu c a t i o n r a t i o obtained i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s one i s combined with the r e l a t i v e l y low female average pe r s o n a l income of t h a t c i t y s i z e c l a s s . T h e r e f o r e , education l e v e l s seem to e x p l a i n l e s s 133 of the v a r i a n c e i n female incomes by c i t y s i z e c l a s s than i s the case with male incomes. LABOUR FORCE BY OCCUPATION AND SEX The 1971 census data on the average employment inccme of the labour f o r c e by occupation and sex f o r the P r o v i n c e ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, c a t a l o g u e 94-766) i s o u t l i n e d i n Table V.10. The occupations under the t i t l e "other primary occup." are f i s h i n g , hunting, t r a p p i n g , f o r e s t r y and l e g g i n g , mining and q u a r r y i n g , and o i l and gas f i e l d o c c u p a t i o n s . The o c c u p a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o secondary i n d u s t r y a r e : p r o c e s s i n g , machining , product f a b r i c a t i n g , assembly, r e p a i r , c o n s t r u c t i o n and t r a d e s . The l a b o u r f o r c e by occupation and sex of each o f the urban communities i n v e s t i g a t e d i s d e s c r i b e d i n Table V Appendix C. The l a b o u r f o r c e by occupation and sex a c c o r d i n g to c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s d e s c r i b e d i n Tables V.11.A and Table V.11.B. 134 TABLE 7.10 AVERAGE EMPLOYMENT INCOME BY OCCUPATION AND SEX FOB BRITISH COLOMBIA* MALE FEMALE OCCUPATION AV. INC. AV. INC. MANAGERIAL, ADMIN. & RELATED OCCUP. 13819 581 1 TEACHING S BELATED OCCUP. 9235 5248 MEDICINE S HEALTH OCCUP. 15241 4192 TECHNO., SOCIAL, ARTIS. 8 RELIG. OCCUP. 5903 2350 CLERICAL 5 RELATED OCCUP. 6109 3 33 4 SALES OCCUP. 7371 2368 SERVICE OCCUP. 5393 1986 FARMING, HORTICULTURE S RELATED OCCUP. 3808 1190 OTHER PRIMARY OCCUP. 6725 1682 OCCUP. RELATED TO SECONDARY INDUSTRY 6824 3163 TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT S NOT CLASSIFIED OCCUP. 5925 2311 OCCUP. NOT STATED 5958 274 4 *Source: adapted from S t a t i s t i c s Canada c a t . 94-766 135 TABLE V. 1 1. A LABOUR FORCE BY OCCUPATION, SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS 1 POPULATION MANAGE. TEACH. MEDIC. TECHNO. CLERIC. SALES SIZE CLASS S RELA. € RE LA. , S RELA. S RELAT. t> RELAT OCCUP. IN % ONE M 3.9 2.5 1. 1 4.1 3. 0 6.9 F 1.6 11.6 5.3 1.8 36. 3 7.4 TWO M 4.3 2.7 1. 3 4.3 4.0 10.5 F 1.0 8.3 8.7 2.1 29. 0 12.7 THREE M 3.0 2.4 1.4 4.4 4.4 9.4 F 0. 9 7.8 8.0 1.4 32. 1 11.7 FOUR M 3.4 2. 1 1.3 4.9 5. 1 10.0 F 1.3 6.6 10.1 2. 1 32.6 10.6 FIVE M 4.0 1.9 1.9 4.2 5.4 12.4 F 1.3 5.4 9.7 1.7 29.8 11.0 SIX M 4.3 2.0 1.7 4.7 5.3 10.8 F 1.3 8.7 9.8 2.4 31.9 10.5 SEVEN M 4.7 2.7 2. 1 7.4 8. 0 12.0 F 1.3 5.2 10.2 2.7 34. 4 11.2 EIGHT M 6. 1 2.4 1.8 7.2 8. 1 13. 4 F 1.8 5.2 8.2 2.9 38.6 9.5 *Note: the sum of each row i n t h i s t a b l e and the c o n t i n u i n g row i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i s equal to 100 (subject to rounding e r r o r s ) . T A B L E V . 1 1 . B L A B O U R F O R C E B Y O C C U P A T I O N , S E X A N D C I T Y S I Z E C L A S S ( C O N T I N U E D ) P O P U L A T I O N S E R V I C E F A R M I N G O T H E R S E C O N D T R A N S P . N O T S I Z E C L A S S O C C U P . S R E L A . P R I M A R Y I N D U S T R Y & R E L A . S T A T J I N % O N E H 8 . 4 1 . 1 9 . 5 3 8 . 8 1 4 . 7 6. 0 F 2 2 . 4 0 . 8 0 . 0 0 2 . 1 1 . 0 9 . 7 T W O M 1 0 . 7 1 . 6 7 . 1 3 0 . 5 1 6 . 3 6 . 8 F 2 3 . 5 0 . 5 1 . 6 1 . 5 1 . 7 1 0 . 7 T H R E E M 1 5 . 3 2 . 1 9 . 4 2 8 . 6 1 3 . 1 6 . 2 F 2 1 . 9 0 . 6 0 . 2 3 . 7 2 . 0 9 . 7 F O U R M 8 . 3 1 . 5 5 . 1 3 6 . 7 1 5 . 2 6 . 4 F 2 1 . 0 0 . 4 0 . 1 1 . 5 2 . 1 1 1 . 5 F I V E M 9 . 8 3 . 2 4 . 2 3 0 . 9 1 4 . 4 7 . 7 F 2 0 . 6 0 . 9 0 . 2 6 . 9 2 . 4 1 0 . 0 S I X M 9 . 1 0 . 7 5 . 2 3 3 . 7 1 5 . 6 7 . 0 F 2 0 . 6 0 . 3 0 . 3 2 . 0 2 . 1 1 0 . 0 S E V E N M 1 9 . 1 2 . 6 1 . 4 2 2 . 3 1 0 . 3 7 . 3 F 2 0 . 2 0 . 5 0 . 0 2 2 . 3 1 . 6 1 0 . 4 E I G H T M 1 0 . 2 1 . 3 1 . 6 2 7 . 0 1 3 . 7 7 . 4 F 1 6 . 8 0 . 5 0 . 0 5 4 . 8 2 . 3 9 . 3 137 The expected average income by occupation and sex f o r each c i t y s i z e c l a s s which was produced by the s t a t i s t i c a l method d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i s presented i n Table V. 12. TABLE V. 12 EXPECTED AVERAGE INCOMES BY OCCUPATION, SEX AND CITY SIZE CL ASS POPULATION MALE EXP. MALE FEMALE EXP. FEMALE SIZE CLASS AV. INC. RATIO AV. INC. RATIO ONE 6899 97.9 314 1 101.3 TWO 6882 97.6 3055 98.5 THREE 6705 95.1 3052 98.4 FOUR 6834 96.9 3068 98.9 FIVE 6 863 97.4 3031 97.7 SIX 6943 98.5 3112 100.3 SEVEN 6919 96.7 3130 100.9 EIGHT 7049 100.0 3102 100.0 S e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table V.12. G e n e r a l l y , the male occupation r a t i o s again resemble the male average p e r s o n a l incomes i n t h e i r U-shaped 1 3 8 r e l a t i o n to c i t y s i z e c l a s s . T h i s , t h e r e f o r e , i n d i c a t e s t h a t the male o c c u p a t i o n a l composition i n a c i t y s i z e c l a s s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the average income l e v e l of t h a t c l a s s . Thus, the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the male o c c u p a t i o n a l compositions among the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s may help e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the male average personal incomes obtained t h e r e . Again, the urban communities of c i t y s i z e c l a s s three show the lowest male o c c u p a t i o n r a t i o i n comparison to t h a t of the other c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . However, c i t y s i z e c l a s s seven - Greater V i c t o r i a i s an e x c e p t i o n , i n t h a t the r e l a t i v e l y high male average p e r s o n a l incomes obtained t h e r e cannot be e x p l a i n e d by i t s o c c u p a t i o n a l composition. The reasons f o r i t s high male average personal income must, t h e r e f o r e , be accounted f o r by other f a c t o r s . The female o c c u p a t i o n r a t i o s show, as with the female age r a t i o s , i r r e g u l a r r e l a t i o n to c i t y s i z e c l a s s . Furthermore, the female o c c u p a t i o n a l composition f o r each c i t y s i z e c l a s s , as i s manifested by the female occupation r a t i o s , almost always c o n f l i c t s with the female average p e r s o n a l income l e v e l s obtained i n the same c i t y s i z e c l a s s . For example, r e l a t i v e l y low female average p e r s o n a l incomes p r e v a i l i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s one to four and c i t y s i z e c l a s s s i x compared with r e l a t i v e l y high female oc c u p a t i o n r a t i o s , and the r e l a t i v e l y high female average p e r s o n a l income i n 139 c i t y s i z e c l a s s four i n comparison with i t s very low female occupation r a t i o . The h i g h e s t female average personal income found i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s seven - Greater V i c t o r i a - i s c o r r e l a t e d with i t s female o c c u p a t i o n a l composition. But, g e n e r a l l y , i t appears t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the female average personal incomes among the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s cannot be e x p l a i n e d by t h e i r female o c c u p a t i o n a l compositions. THE ECONOMIC BASE Q.F THE URBAN COMMUNITIES-• The o c c u p a t i o n a l composition of each c i t y s i z e c l a s s o u t l i n e d i n Table V.11 i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n i t s i n d u s t r i a l s t r u c t u r e . 1 Table V . 1 3 , which i s the summation of the l a b o u r f o r c e by i n d u s t r y and sex (der i v e d from Table VI i n Appendix C) o u t l i n e s the p r o p o r t i o n of the labour f o r c e by i n d u s t r y and by sex of each c i t y s i z e c l a s s . i n d u s t r i e s were grouped under three main c a t e g o r i e s ; primary, secondary and t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s . Primary i n d u s t r y i n c l u d e s farming, f o r e s t r y , f i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g , mining and guar r y i n g and o i l w e l l s . Secondary i n d u s t r y i n c l u d e s manufacturing and c o n s t r u c t i o n . T e r t i a r y i n d u s t r y i n c l u d e s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication, t r a d e , f i n a n c e , community business and pe r s o n a l s e r v i c e s , p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , defense and u n s p e c i f i e d or undefined i n d u s t r i e s TABLE V. 13 LABOUR FORCE BY INDUSTRY, SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS 1 POPULATION PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY SIZE CLASS INDUSTRY INDUSTRY INDUSTRY IN % ONE M 17. 8 39.9 4 2.3 F 2. 1 8.5 89.4 TWO M 12.7 28.0 59.0 F 2. 2 5.0 92.8 THREE M 17. 0 25.9 57. 1 F 2. 4 6.9 90.7 FOUR M 8.2 42.0 49.8 F 1. 7 6.9 91.5 FIVE M 7.5 33.0 59.5 F 1.7 11.1 87.2 SIX M 8. 3 36.1 55.6 F 2.0 6.0 92.0 SEVEN M 3.0 21.2 75.9 F ' 1. 1 4.4 94.5 EIGHT M 2. 8 30.4 66.9 F 1. 1 10.4 8 8.5 lNote: the sum of each row i s egua l t o 100 (subject t o rounding e r r o r s ) . The high p r o p o r t i o n of the labour f o r c e i n t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r y i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s seven and e i g h t , which r e f l e c t s the high p r o p o r t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l (Table V.11) and o f h i g h l y educated persons (Table V.8) found i n these c l a s s e s , can probably account f o r the high average incomes obtained t h e r e . G r e a t e r Vancouver - c l a s s e i g h t -indeed i s the economic heart of the P r o v i n c e and i s the p r i n c i p a l manufacturing, trade and s e r v i c e c e n t r e . I t s d i v e r s e economy i s a l s o manifested i n the highest female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e (Table V.3) i n the P r o v i n c e . The economy of Greater V i c t o r i a i s h i g h l y dependent on t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r y , which provides employment f o r 75.9S5 of males and 94.5% of females i n the l a b o u r f o r c e . I t s high p r o p o r t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n 65 years of age and over (Table V.1) i s r e f l e c t e d i n i t s o c c u p a t i o n a l composition (Table V.11): the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of employed persons i n medicine and h e a l t h occupations and i n s e r v i c e occupations i n comparison with the other c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . High p r o p o r t i o n s of persons 6 5 years of age and over are found a l s o i n two o f the f o u r urban communities t h a t composed c i t y s i z e c l a s s f i v e : Kelowna and P e n t i c t o n . T h i s f a c t i s a l s o manifested i n Table V.11 by the r e l a t i v e l y high p r o p o r t i o n of employed persons i n medicine and h e a l t h occupations i n comparison with the other c l a s s e s . The 1 1 1 2 economy o f these two urban communities i s indeed supported t o a l a r g e extent by the e x p e n d i t u r e s of t h e i r r e t i r e d r e s i d e n t s . The other two urban communities comprising t h i s c i t y s i z e c l a s s are P r i n c e Rupert and Maple Ridge. The economy of P r i n c e Rupert i s based mainly on f i s h i n g , l o g g i n g and pulp m i l l o p e r a t i o n s , while t h a t of Maple Ridge i s based on farming and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . Farming i s a l s o an important source o f employment i n P e n t i c t o n and Kelowna and, indeed, i t comprises the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of employed persons (Table V. 11) i n comparison with the other c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . The high p r o p o r t i o n of r e t i r e d r e s i d e n t s and the a g r i c u l t u r a l economic base of t h i s c i t y s i z e c l a s s probably accounts f o r the c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y r e l a t i v e l y high female average p e r s o n a l income through employment r e l a t e d to s e r v i c e s to the e l d e r l y and low male average p e r s o n a l income obtained i n t h i s c l a s s . The economy of the urban communities of c i t y s i z e c l a s s s i x - P o r t a l b e r n i , Kamloops and P r i n c e George i s mainly based on the f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s . T h i s f a c t can probably e x p l a i n the high male p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l a b o u r f o r c e - 83.9% (Table V. 3). However, the h i g h l y s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n s of Kamloops and P r i n c e George have helped to d i v e r s i f y t h e i r economies. T h i s d i v e r s i t y i s manifested i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l compositions of t h i s c i t y s i z e c l a s s (Table 143 V.11) and i n i t s i n d u s t r i a l s t r u c t u r e (Table V.13). The economy o f the urban communities of c i t y s i z e c l a s s four i s g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the importance o f secondary i n d u s t r y (Tables V.13 and V.11), such as manufacturing and f a b r i c a t i o n i n d u s t r i e s i n Dawson Creek and Nanaimo, food p r o c e s s i n g i n Vernon, the pulp and paper m i l l s o f McMillan - B l o e d e l and Powell R i v e r L t d . i n Powell R i v e r and secondary i n d u s t r i e s i n K i t i m a t . A r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of primary i n d u s t r y c h a r a c t e r i z e s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s one and three (Table V.13). However, while t h e p r i n c i p a l source o f income of many of the urban communities of c l a s s t h r e e , such as the C h i l l i w a c k D i s t r i c t , M e r r i t t , Quesnel and F o r t S t . John i s farming, d a i r y i n g or stock breeding, which, as r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l composition, e x p l a i n s the low male and female average p e r s o n a l incomes obtained i n t h i s c l a s s , the main source of income c f most of the urban communities o f c i t y s i z e c l a s s one, such as Greenwood, Sguamish, Gold R i v e r , Salmon Arm, Mackenzie and Sparwood i s the f o r e s t or mining i n d u s t i e s o r , i n the case of Hudson's Hope, the B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y . These income sources probably account f o r t h e r e l a t i v e l y high male and female average p e r s o n a l incomes of t h i s c l a s s . The economic base of the urban communities of c l a s s two i s d i v e r s i f i e d , but b a s i c a l l y d e r i v e d from the 144 f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , such as i n Golden, C a s t l e g a r , Grand Forks, Hope, Ladysmith and Smithers. The second important source of income i n t h i s c l a s s i s farming and food p r o c e s s i n g , such as i n C r e s t o n , M i s s i o n , Comox, Duncan and Langley. These income sources are r e f l e c t e d i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l composition (Table v.11) as w e l l as i n the i n d u s t r i a l s t r u c t u r e (Table V.13) and the male/female average p e r s o n a l income (Table I I I . 3 i n Chapter I'll) of t h i s c i t y s i z e c l a s s . SUMMARY The major o b j e c t i v e of t h i s chapter was to e x p l a i n the average income d i f f e r e n c e s obtained i n the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . T h i s has been c a r r i e d out through i n v e s t i g a t i o n of four f a c t o r s which are b e l i e v e d to have the most important r o l e i n determining income l e v e l s . The f i r s t f a c t o r was labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . The labour f o r c e t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n r a t i o s were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with c i t y s i z e c l a s s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o the p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between mean per c a p i t a income and c i t y s i z e c l a s s . An examination of the labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e by sex i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t , while the male p a r t i c i p a t i o n tended 145 t c not to c o r r e l a t e with c i t y s i z e c l a s s , the female p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e v e a l e d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with c i t y s i z e c l a s s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e f f e c t o f the other three f a c t o r s on average p e r s o n a l income d i f f e r e n c e s among the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s was c a r r i e d out through a s t a t i s t i c a l method developed by the r e s e a r c h e r . T h i s method used P r o v i n c i a l average income data based on each of these f a c t o r s as a de v i c e with which t o determine the d i r e c t i o n and order o f magnitude of the e f f e c t of that f a c t o r on the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . Through t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l method, expected average incomes f o r the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s f o r each f a c t o r were produced by h o l d i n g a l l other f a c t o r s constant. Then, they were ranked r e l a t i v e t o the expected average income ob t a i n e d f o r c i t y s i z e c l a s s e i g h t f o r the same f a c t o r . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r the f a c t o r l a b o u r f o r c e by age and sex i n d i c a t e d that male age r a t i o s f o r the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s g e n e r a l l y resembled the male average p e r s o n a l income i n t h e i r U-shape i n r e l a t i o n to c i t y s i z e c l a s s , with the same low peak p o i n t a t c i t y s i z e c l a s s t h r e e . T h i s i n d i c a t e d that the male age composition, h o l d i n g the other f a c t o r s constant, may help e x p l a i n the male average pe r s o n a l income d i f f e r e n c e s among the va r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . 146 The female age r a t i o s showed an ir r e g u l a r r e l a t i o n to c i t y s i z e class. However, the low ra t i o s obtained in c i t y size classes three and six can be accountable to the low female average personal incomes obtained there. The r e s u l t s obtained for the factor labour force by education indicated that generally the educational compositions of males and females in the various c i t y size classes correlated with the average personal income differences obtained there. As for the factor labour force by occupation and sex, the res u l t s for both sexes resembled generally those obtained for the factor labour force by age and sex. Therefore, the same conclusions can be drawn regarding t h i s factor. Since the factors age, education and occupation help explain the male average personal income differences among the various c i t y s i z e classes, the s i z e of an urban community i n B r i t i s h Columbia may or may not af f e c t the male average income l e v e l obtained there; while for females, since only the education factor helps explain the female average personal income differences, i t appears that the si z e of an urban community aff e c t s the average personal income l e v e l of females obtained there. F i n a l l y , t h i s chapter reviewed the main economic bases of the urban communities of the P r o v i n c e i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . 148 CHAPTER VI POLICY IMPLICATIONS AND SUMMARY 149 P0LICY_IW£LIG1TI0NS The researcher has determined that economically the inhabitants of the larger urban communities i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia are, on the average, better off than the inhabitants of the smaller urban communities. However, the researcher does not propose that a l l people in B r i t i s h Columbia should therefore l i v e i n a few large c i t i e s , after a l l , the mere fact that incomes are higher in large c i t i e s does not imply that large c i t i e s represent the most desirable s i z e as i s i l l u s t r a t e d by factors discussed in the l i t e r a t u r e review—Chapter I I . Rather, the researcher attempted mainly to outline the empirical evidence as regards the relationship between income and c i t y s i z e classes in the p a r t i c u l a r case of B r i t i s h Columbia. The second contribution that t h i s research offers i s an a n a l y t i c a l basis for policy makers to attempt to improve the economic well-being of the inhabitants of the small and medium size urban communities in the Province. These p o l i c i e s should aim f i r s t to upgrade the inhabitants, and e s p e c i a l l y the females, of these urban communities through educational and occupational t r a i n i n g programmes, since i t was found that the age, educational and 150 o c c u p a t i o n a l composition of the labour f o r c e c o n t r i b u t e s to higher average p e r s o n a l incomes. Secondly, the p o l i c i e s should encourage more femal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labou r f o r c e i n these urban communities by the development cf employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r them. Since i t emerged t h a t the female p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i s , on the average, lower by about '\0% i n the urban communities o f c i t y s i z e c l a s s one i n comparison with t h a t of c l a s s e i g h t — G r e a t e r Vancouver; and, as i n d i c a t e d , t h i s a f f e c t s the mean per c a p i t a income of these communities, s i n c e more females who might have belonged t o the c o n t r i b u t i n g income group are i n the n o n - c o n t r i b u t i n g income group. The r e s e a r c h e r proposes t h a t a more comprehensive study concerning p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s d e r i v e d from the a n a l y t i c a l base l a i d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h should be c a r r i e d out. SUHHABI The main o b j e c t i v e of t h i s research was to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the economic w e l l - b e i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s (measured by r e a l income) and c i t y s i z e i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, This was done i n order to 151 determine whether B r i t i s h Columbia i n l i g h t of and i n s p i t e of i t s p a r t i c u l a r economic b a s e — a resource e x p l o i t a t i o n e c o nomy—follows the gene r a l case elsewhere i n the world, which i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e a l incomes are p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with c i t y s i z e . In order t o c a r r y out t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s e v e r a l income c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d and a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the urban communities i n the Provinc e i n t o s i z e c l a s s e s was made. The income measures t h a t were analysed were: mean per c a p i t a income, average p e r s o n a l inccme of males and females, average f a m i l y income and average non-family inccme. The 76 urban communities t h a t were i n v e s t i g a t e d were grouped i n t o e i g h t c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . The urban communities t h a t f e l l i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s one t o s i x were grouped i n t o these c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , while the urban communities comprising the P r o v i n c e * s two m e t r o p o l i t a n areas were grouped together t o form c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s seven and e i g h t because of t h e i r high degree of economic and f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . C i t y s i z e c l a s s e s seven and e i g h t were r e f e r r e d t o c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y as Greater V i c t o r i a and Greater Vancouver. The a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between mean per c a p i t a income and the c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t , with the ex c e p t i o n of a s l i g h t negative c o r r e l a t i o n between 1 5 2 c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s one and two and per c a p i t a income, there i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h i s income category and c i t y s i z e c l a s s . The male average personal income, even though higher i n c i t y s i z e c l a s s e i g h t , i l l u s t r a t e d a U-shape r e l a t i o n t o c i t y s i z e c l a s s r a t h e r than a l i n e a r one. The female average p e r s o n a l income r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e g e n e r a l l y a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with c i t y s i z e c l a s s with a few v a r i a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y at c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s s i x and seven where the lowest and the h i g h e s t female average p e r s o n a l income, r e s p e c t i v e l y was o b t a i n e d . The income c a t e g o r i e s " f a m i l y and non-family average incomes" showed an i r r e g u l a r r e l a t i o n to c i t y s i z e c l a s s . However t h e r e was a g e n e r a l tendency f o r the averages o f both c a t e g o r i e s to i n c r e a s e with c i t y s i z e c l a s s . I t should be noted that the r e s u l t s obtained f o r c i t y s i z e c l a s s t h r e e i n d i c a t e d e i t h e r the lowest average incomes, as i n the income c a t e g o r i e s mean per c a p i t a income, male average p e r s o n a l income and average non-family persons income, or r e l a t i v e l y very low average incomes, as i n the income c a t e g o r i e s female average personal income and the average f a m i l y income. Higher average incomes obtained i n the l a r g e r c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s can be negated by higher c o s t of l i v i n g or may i n d i c a t e an i n e g u i t a b l e d i s t r i v u t i o n of income. Lack of 153 data r e g a r d i n g the c o s t of l i v i n g a t the m u n i c i p a l s c a l e n e c e s s i t a t e s the use o f secondary sources, such as s p e c i a l s t u d i e s conducted by S t a t i s t i c s Canada, and judgements t h a t were based on c o n s u l t a t i o n with v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s . Based on these secondary sources and on 1971 census data, a consumer p r i c e index f o r the urban communities i n v e s t i g a t e d was c o n s t r u c t e d . The f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d a s l i g h t l y negative c o r r e l a t i o n between the consumer p r i c e index and c i t y s i z e c l a s s . T h i s broadens the gap i n terms of r e a l income i n favour of the l a r g e r c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . As f o r income d i s t r i b u t i o n , the census disaggregated employment income data a c c o r d i n g t o c i t y s i z e c l a s s was examined. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that g e n e r a l l y there i s a r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r income d i s t r i b u t i o n i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s , i . e . , higher average incomes are not being achieved at the expense of e q u i t y . At t h i s staqe a c o n c l u s i o n concerning income and c i t y s i z e i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia was drawn. I t i s t h a t the i n h a b i t a n t s of the l a r g e urban communities i n the Province are, on the averaqe, b e t t e r o f f than the i n h a b i t a n t s of the s m a l l e r ones, and t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia p a r a l l e l e d the qeneral case of other c o u n t r i e s , namely, t h a t t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between r e a l income and c i t y s i z e . 1 5 4 In an attempt t o e x p l a i n the average income d i f f e r e n t i a l s among the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s , f o u r f a c t o r s which are b e l i e v e d t o play an important r o l e i n determining income were i n v e s t i g a t e d . The f i r s t f a c t o r was labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . The labour f o r c e to t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n r a t i o s were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with c i t y s i z e c l a s s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o the p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between mean per c a p i t a income and c i t y s i z e c l a s s . An examination of the la b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e by sex i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t while the male p a r t i c i p a t i o n tended t o not c o r r e l a t e with c i t y s i z e c l a s s , female p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e v e a l e d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with c i t y s i z e c l a s s . The other three f a c t o r s are age, education and occu p a t i o n . I d e a l l y , an adjustment should be made f o r th r e e f a c t o r s i n order t o determine the e f f e c t o f the s i z e of an urban community on the p e r s o n a l income l e v e l . However, l a c k of data on the p e r s o n a l incomes a f f e c t e d by these f a c t o r s a t the municipal l e v e l d i d not enable the r e s e a r c h e r t o a d j u s t f o r them. I t was decided, t h e r e f o r e , i n s t e a d of a d j u s t i n g f o r these t h r e e f a c t o r s , to attempt to determine t h e i r e f f e c t on the average pe r s o n a l income d i f f e r e n c e s among the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . I f these three f a c t o r s w i l l not 1 5 5 h e l p e x p l a i n the income d i f f e r e n c e s , then i t can be concluded t h a t the s i z e of the urban community i s the f a c t o r which determines income l e v e l . The 1 9 7 1 census provided data on the male and female average p e r s o n a l incomes by these t h r e e f a c t o r s f o r the e n t i r e P r o v i n c e . These data were used as a c o n t r o l to determine the d i r e c t i o n and order o f magnitude o f the e f f e c t of these f a c t o r s on the average personal income d i f f e r e n c e s among the va r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s . The r e s u l t s obtained by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h at male age, e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l composition i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s can help account f o r the male average pe r s o n a l income l e v e l s obtained t h e r e . As f o r females, the female age and o c c u p a t i o n a l composition i n each c i t y s i z e c l a s s g e n e r a l l y cannot h e l p to e x p l a i n the female average p e r s o n a l income l e v e l o b t a i n e d there. However, the female e d u c a t i o n a l composition can help account f o r the female average personal income l e v e l obtained i n t h e v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s , The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t was drawn was t h e r e f o r e , t h a t s i n c e these t h r e e f a c t o r s helped e x p l a i n the male average p e r s o n a l income d i f f e r e n c e s among the v a r i o u s c i t y s i z e c l a s s e s , the s i z e o f an urban community i n B r i t i s h Columbia may or may not a f f e c t the male average pe r s o n a l income l e v e l obtained t h e r e ; while f o r females, s i n c e o n l y 156 the education factor helped explain the female average personal income differences, i t appears that the siz e of an urban community a f f e c t s the average personal income l e v e l of females obtained there. 157 BIBLIOGRAPHY 158 A. BOOKS AND ARTICLES Alonso, 8. 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Friedmann and W. alonso, Cambridqe, MIT P r e s s , 1975, pp. 516-533. T o l l e y , G.S. "Economic P o l i c y Toward C i t y Bigness", Conference Papers Presented, Sept. 11-12, 1969, I n t e r - U n i v e r s i t y Committee on Urban Economics, Cambridge, Mass., Sept. 1969. Wirth, L. "Urbanism as a Way of L i f e " , C i t i e s and S o c i e t y . ed. P.K. Hatt and A.J. R e i s s , New York, The Free Press, 1951, pp. 759-772. 161 B. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. Of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade, and Commerce, Regional I n d e x o f B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a . Bureau o f Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , V i c t o r i a , Jan. 1966. B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. Of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , The M u n i c i p a l P i c t u r e i n B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a . V i c t o r i a , 1£71. B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. Of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Becjional. D i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1971: General Review. 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BY CITY SIZE CLASS, 1971 MEAN AVERAGE URBAN TOTAL PER CAPITA PERSONAL COMMUNITIES POPULATION INCOME INCOME CLASS ONE GREENWOOD 865 2364 6814 ENDERBY 1150 2000 6862 HUDSON'S HOPE 1 155 3085 8442 CENTRAL SAANICH 1 175 2969 7134 SQUAMISH 1600 24 50 6338 ARMSTRONG 1645 1989 6087 GOLD RIVER 1890 2571 7312 SALMON ABM 1965 2215 5988 MACKENZIE 1980 2974 7173 SPABWOOD 2155 2388 6850 KINNAIRD 2845 2639 6683 CLASS TWO GOLDEN 30 20 24 86 6197 CASTLEGAR 3060 2099 5818 HOPE 3145 2303 5824 GRAND FORKS 3165 2231 5896 CRESTON 3195 2097 6027 MISSION 3650 2124 6155 LADYSMITH 3675 2441 6848 VALLEYVIEW 3775 2941 6955 SMITHERS 3875 2423 6491 ROSSLAND 3 895 24 57 6159 COMOX 3980 2583 7137 WILLIAMS LAKE 4070 2840 6072 DUNCAN 4 375 2264 6514 FERNIE 4415 2522 666 2 LANGLEY 4670 26 82 7977 SIDNEY 4865 2439 6856 REVELSTOKE 4870 2532 6247 TABLE I (CONTINUED) SEA 8 AVEBAGE UREAN TOTAL PEB CAPITA PERSONAL COMMUNITIES POPULATION INCOME INCOME CLASS THREE CHILLIWACK-UF 4870 1839 4961 MERRITT 5295 2352 6416 CHILLIWACK-UC 5295 2327 6447 QUESNEL 6270 2275 6194 CGDRTENAY 7150 23 34 6496 KIMBERLEY 7635 2576 6728 FORT ST. JOHN 8250 2362 6418 CHILLIWACK 9180 2212 6222 NELSON 9365 2295 5890 CAMPBELL RIVER 9820 2735 6696 CLASS FOUR TERRACE 10005 2404 6535 TRAIL 11 155 2560 6620 KITIMAT 11820 2673 6737 DAWSON CREEK 11900 20 63 5855 CBANBRGOK 120 20 2423 6430 VERNON 13290 2173 6109 POWELL RIVEB 13740 24 55 6678 NANAIMO 14945 2208 6188 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 15125 2249 6347 PRINCE RUPERT 15740 24 86 6466 PENTICTON 18170 2277 6190 KELOWNA 19 395 2290 6491 CLASS SIX PORT ALBERNI 20070 2516 6585 KAMLOOPS 26 165 2414 6244 PRINCE GEORGE 33100 2554 6462 166 TABLE I (CONTINUED) URBAN COMMUNITIES TOT AL POPULATION MEAN PER CAPITA INCOME AVERAGE PERSONAL INCOME CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC ESQUIMALT OAK BAY SAANICH-UF VICTOBIA CLASS EIGHT 2050 12925 18415 54635 61740 3134 2475 3692 26 96 20 56 7724 6174 10080 6759 6489 FRASER MILLS 155 UNIVERSITY AREA 3530 NORTH VAN.-DC 8230 SURREY-UF 89 85 WHITE ROCK 10350 POET MOODY 10760 DELTA-UF 19225 PORT COQUITLAM 19555 DELTA-UC 20595 NORTH VANCOUVER 31845 WEST VANCOUVER 34105 NORTH VAN.-UF 42765 NEW WESTMINSTER 42840 COQUITLAM 51150 RICHMOND 57420 SURREY-UC 60470 BURNABY 125655 VANCOUVER 426275 24 57 4078 3275 2501 2340 2596 2982 2604 2517 26 76 4403 3383 2319 2529 2709 2268 2744 2489 5743 9455 7845 7281 7816 6610 7633 7017 656 8 6260 10542 7899 6503 7067 6482 6373 6527 6672 167 TABLE I I MALE, FEMALE, FAMILY AND NON-FAMILY AVERAGE PERSONAL INCOMES FOR ALL URBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C. BY CITY SIZE CLASS, 1971 MALE AV. FEMALE AV. FAMILY AV. NO-FAMILY URBAN PERSONAL PERSONAL PERSONAL AV. P ERS. COMMUNITIES INCOME INCOME INCOME INCOME CLASS ONE GREENWOOD 7859 3476 9087 3694 ENDERBY 7257 5839 7418 2755 HUDSON'S HOPE 11150 3503 12724 6202 CENTRAL SAANICH 9116 4609 9966 2884 SQUAMISH 7467 3465 9335 3863 ARMSTRONG 7100 4084 7522 1852 GOLD RIVER 8859 2940 11299 4442 SALMON ASM 6901 4620 8290 3095 MACKENZIE 9212 2758 12142 5262 SPARWOOD 8131 3088 10612 3640 KINNAIRD 8087 3744 9 877 3305 CLASS TWO GOLDEN 7837 3097 10 80 1 4440 CASTLEGAR 6805 3545 8183 3318 HOPE 7465 3169 9531 2782 GRAND FORKS 7290 3359 8509 2619 CRESTON 7085 3979 7569 2424 MISSION 7215 4038 8426 3178 LADYSMITH 8141 3883 9394 3206 VALLEYVIEW 9212 3163 12 201 41 17 SMITHERS 8299 3437 10668 4044 ROSSLAND 7419 3300 9475 2947 COMOX 8615 3963 10935 4136 WILLIAMS LAKE 7984 3189 11444 3512 DUNCAN 7881 4166 9045 3893 FERNIE 8130 3779 10216 3932 LANGLEY 9921 4593 10268 5762 SIDNEY 8238 4533 8569 3899 REVELSTOKE 7687 3312 10275 3923 168 TABLE I I (CONTINUED) MALE AV. FEMALE AV. FAMILY AV. NO-FAMILY U BEAN PERSONAL PERSONAL PEBSONAL AV. PEBS. COMMUNITIES INCOME INCOME INCOME INCOME CLASS THREE CHILLIWACK-UF 5896 MERRITT 7813 CH1LLIWACK-UC 7802 QUESNEL 7425 COURTENAY 7856 KIMBEBLEY 8254 FORT ST JOHN 8019 CHILLIWACK 7351 NELSON 7331 CAMPBELL RIVER 8650 CLASS FOUR TERBACE 8210 TRAIL 8055 KITIMAT 8245 DAWSON CREEK 7280 CRANBBOOK 7845 VERNON 7309 POWELL RIVER 808 3 NANAIMO 7311 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 7537 PRINCE RUPERT 8104 PENTICTON 7537 KELOWNA 786 2 CLASS SIX PORT ALBEBNI 7942 KAMLOOPS 7753 PBINCE GEOBGE 8154 2643 8218 2815 3160 9963 4112 4 256 879 9 2230 3452 9806 4064 3908 9220 3619 3621 9832 4704 3335 10254 3973 4372 8425 3158 3809 9532 3001 3151 10785 3488 3451 11006 3674 3970 10039 4076 3358 11262 5260 3462 9262 3794 3670 10182 3629 4114 8886 2793 3511 9980 4142 4129 8847 3428 4180 8823 3198 3466 11 133 4663 4063 8795 3191 4432 8847 3298 3435 10380 3801 3701 10397 3803 3530 11212 4458 169 TABLE I I (CONTINUED) MALE AV. FEMALE AV., FAMILY AV. NO-FAMILY URBAN PERSONAL PERSONAL PERSONAL AV. PERS. COMMUNITIES INCOME INCOME INCOME INCOME CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 9558 ESQUIMALT 74 24 OAK BAY 12008 SAANICH-UF 8367 VICTORIA 7552 CLASS EIGHT FRASER MILLS 7140 UNIVERSITY AREA 11838 NORTH VAN.-UC 9853 SURREY—UF 8733 WHITE ROCK 9158 PORT MOODY 8207 DELTA-UF 96 77 PORT COQUITLAM 8753 DELTA-UC 8200 NORTH VANCOUVER 7740 WEST VANCOUVER 13311 NORTH VAN.-UF 10144 NEW WESTMINSTER 7778 COQUITLAM 8781 RICHMOND 8160 SURREY-UC 7693 BURNABY 8027 VANCOUVER 8019 4696 11272 4550 3901 9579 3694 7211 13529 5197 4145 10260 3532 5147 8541 3408 2751 9520 0000 5621 15480 6137 3834 13084 3911 4466 9115 3539 5953 8085 3096 3542 10382 3655 3773 11762 3800 3608 10480 4553 3281 10439 2753 4168 9967 4140 5736 16677 5124 3891 13352 4201 4638 9431 3594 3826 11024 2377 3659 10771 3754 3633 9222 3240 4069 10480 3788 4809 10121 3943 APPENDIX 171 TABLE I AVERAGE MONTHLY CASH RENT, AVERAGE VALUE OF OWNER-OCCUPIED' DWELLINGS, NUMBER OF RENTAL DWELLINGS AND OWNER-OCCUPIED DWELLINGS, AND FOOD AND NON-FOOD COMMODITY INDEX LEVELS FOR ALL URBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C. BY CITY SIZE CLASS, 1971 DEBAR COMMUNITIES AVERAGE MONTHLY CASH RENT AVERAGE VALUE HOME NO. OF RENTAL DEWEL. NO. OF FOOD OWNED NO-FOOD HOMES INDEXES CLASS ONE G BEENWOOD 78 9500 55 155 110 ENDERBY 80 13300 80 285 115 HUDSON'S HOPE 83 9300 150 60 115 CENTRAL SAANICH 99 28500 100 305 105 SQUAMISH 117 24300 24 0 225 105 ARMSTRONG 79 16600 120 425 115 GOLD RIVER 153 24000 190 200 115 SALMON ARM 94 20600 315 320 115 MACKENZIE 160 21500 160 170 105 SPARWOOD 106 21000 255 295 115 KINNAIRD 101 19800 130 615 115 CLASS TWO GOLDEN 115 16000 220 420 115 CASTLEGAR 88 16500 280 545 110 HOPE 89 17100 325 565 105 GRAND FORKS 80 15700 255 725 110 CRESTON 97 15700 250 770 110 MISSION 93 20800 390 750 105 LADYSMITH 86 17100 230 920 110 VALLEYVIEW 143 29200 310 600 115 SMITHERS 110 21500 325 585 1 15 RGSSLAND 81 12700 22 5 890 110 COMOX 107 24300 340 685 110 WILLIAMS LAKE 127 2 3100 580 495 1 15 DUNCAN 104 20300 515 855 110 FERNIE 118 16600 355 770 110 LANGLEY 116 26400 54 5 860 105 SIDNEY 126 24600 590 1080 105 REVELSTOKE 107 18000 54 5 685 115 172 TABLE I (CONTINUED) URBAN COMMUNITIES AVERAGE MONTHLY CASH RENT AVERAGE VALUE HOME NO. OF RENTAL DEWEL. NO. OF OWnED HOMES ; FOOD NO-FOOD INDEXES CLASS THREE CHILLIWACK-UF 103 20600 565 510 105 MEERITT 107 17500 505 770 110 CHILLIWACK-UC 103 20600 46 5 1035 105 QUESNEL 111 20300 735 910 115 COURTENAY 110 19500 805 1235 1 10 KIMBERLEY 86 13700 445 1685 110 FORT ST. JOHN 117 18600 880 1 130 115 CHILLIWACK 105 19700 1055 1930 105 NELSON 90 16200 1055 1720 110 CAMPBELL RIVER 118 22500 915 1775 110 CLASS FOUR TERRACE 132 23500 910 1305 110 TRAIL 82 15900 1240 2175 110 KITIMAT 150 22300 1145 1270 110 DAWSON CREEK 100 14000 1125 1 930 1 10 CRANBROOK 119 19900 915 1990 110 VERNON 102 20800 1465 2 420 110 POWELL RIVER 107 19200 1025 2750 115 NANAIMO 102 16400 1760 2995 110 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 107 24600 1365 3 055 105 PRINCE RUPERT 120 19700 2030 1845 115 PENTICTON 106 20300 167 0 3670 110 KELOWNA 120 22700 2330 3785 110 CLASS SIX PORT ALBERNI 100 20200 1820 3605 1 10 KAMLOOPS 124 21600 3200 3595 1 10 PRINCE GEORGE 134 23600 3920 4050 1 10 173 TABLE I (CONTINUED) URBAN COMMUNITIES AVEBAGE MONTHLY CASH RENT AVERAGE VALUE HOME NO. OF RENTAL DEWEL. NO. OF OWnED HOMES FOOD NO-FOOD INDEXES CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 125 27700 80 545 105 ESQUIMALT 126 24000 1780 1930 1G5 OAK BAY 153 33700 1810 4510 105 SAANICH-UF 125 27700 3370 12785 105 VICTORIA 113 22600 15355 8130 105 CLASS EIGHT FRASER MILLS 50 0 50 0 100 UNIVERSITY AREA 128 58600 645 400 100 NORTH VAN-UC 179 33800 435 1740 100 SURREY-UF 120 25100 640 2170 100 WHITE BOCK 123 24100 1510 2370 100 PORT MODDY 130 28500 106 5 1685 100 DELTA-UF 139 29800 985 4165 100 POET COQUITLAM 131 25400 104 0 3895 100 DELTA-UC 139 29800 575 4435 100 NORTH VANCOUVER 141 27500 7030 4 145 100 WEST VANCOUVER 185 46300 3610 7210 100 NORTH VAN-UF 179 33800 1640 9790 100 NEW WESTMINSTER 120 25200 9605 5310 100 COQUITLAM 136 29600 3285 8830 100 RICHMOND 141 27400 358 5 11140 100 SURREY-UC 120 25100 3795 11450 100 BURNABY 136 28100 14715 22290 100 VANCOUVER 127 28900 81 170 65290 100 174 TABLE II.A STATISTICS CANADA PSICES DIVISION - GOVERNMENT ALLOWANCE INDEXES SECTION COMPARATIVE INDEXES OF RETAIL PRICE LEVELS ENCOUNTERED EY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES OCT./NOV. 1972* VANCOUVER=100 LOCATION INDEX LEVEL LOCATION INDEX LEVEL ALEXIS CREEK 120. 0-129.9 ALKALI LAKE 120. 0-•129. 9 ANAHIM LAKE 120. 0-•129.9 ATLIN 120. 0-•129.9 BLUEBERRY 100. 0-•109.9 BLUE RIVER 110. 0-•119.9 BURNS LAKE 110. 0-•119.9 CANOE CREEK 120. 0-•129.9 CASSAIR 110. 0-•119.9 DEASE LAKE 130. 0-•139. 9 FORT ST. JAMES 110. 0-•119. 9 FORT WARE 130. 0-•139. 9 GRANISLE 120. 0-•129.9 HALFWAY RIVER 110. 0-•119.9 HOUSTON 110. 0-•119.9 100 MILE HOUSE 110. 0-•119.9 KISPIOX 120. 0-•129.9 KITSEGUKLA 120. 0-•129.9 KITSANCOOL 120. 0--129.9 KITWANGA 120. 0-•129.9 KLAPPAN 130. 0-139.9 LAC LA HACHE 110. 0-•119.9 LOWER POST 120. 0-•129.9 MACKENZIE 100. 0-•109.9 MCBRIDE 110. 0--119.9 MICA CREEK 110. 0-•1 19.9 PLEASANT CAMP 140. 0--149.9 PROPHET RIVER 110. 0-•1 19.9 PUNUCI MOUNTAIN 120. 0--129.9 SMITHERS 110. 0-•1 19.9 STONE 120. 0--129.9 TACHE 120. 0--129.9 TAKLA LANDING 130. 0--139.9 TELEGRAPH CREEK 130. 0-139.9 TELKWA 110. 0--119.9 VALEMOUNT 110. 0-•1 19.9 WELLS 110. 0--1 19.9 1SOURCE: STATISTICS CANADA, OCT./NOV. 1972. 175 TABLE II.A STATISTICS CANADA PRICES DIVISION - GOVERNMENT ALLOWANCE INDEXES SECTION COMPARATIVE INDEXES OF RETAIL PRICE LEVELS ENCODNTERED BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES MAY/JUNE 197 5* VANCOUVER=100 LOCATION INDEX LEVEL LOCATION INDEX LEVEL AHOOSAT 120,0- 129. 9 MASSET 110.0- 119.9 AIYANSH 110.0- 119.9 MASSET - CANES 110.0- 119.9 ALERT BAY 100.0- 109. 9 OCEAN FALLS • 110.0-119.9 BELLA BELLA 110.0- 119.9 PACIFIC RIM (PH.I) 110.0- 119.9 BELLA COOLA 110.0- 119.9 PACIFIC RIM (PH.II) 110.0-119.9 BOLL HARBOUR 120.0- 129.9 PACIFIC RIM(P.Ill)100.0- 109.9 CAPE ST. JAMES N/A PORT ALICE 110.0-119.9 CHURCH HOUSE 120.0- 129.9 PORT HARDY 110.0- 1 19.9 DAWSON'S LANDING 120.0- 129. 9 PORT MCNEILL 100.0- 109.9 ESTEVAN POINT 120.0- 129. 9 PORT SIMPSON 110.0- 1 19.9 ETHELDA BAY 110.0- 119.9 PRINCE RUPERT 110.0- 1 19.9 GOLD RIVER 110.0- 119.9 QUATSINO 110.0- 1 19.9 GREENVILLE 110.0- 119.9 QUEEN CHARLOTTE 110.0- 119.9 HARTLEY BAY 130.0- 139. 9 SANDSPIT 110.0- 119.9 HOLBERG 100.0-109. 9 SAN JOSEF 100.0- 109.9 KINGCOLITH 120.0- 129.9 SOINTULA 110.0- 119.9 KINGCOME INLET 120.0- 129. 9 SPRING ISLAND 120.0- 129.9 KITIMAT 100.0- 109.9 STEWART 110.0- 1 19.9 KLEBTU 110.0- 119.9 TAH SIS 110.0- 119.9 KITKATLA 120.0- 129.9 TERRACE 100.0- 109.9 *SOURCE: STATISTICS CANADA, MAY/JUNE 1975. TABLE II I . A STATISTICS CANADA KITIMAT/VANCOUVER COMPARATIVE INDEXES FOB SELECTED GROUPS OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES JANUARY 1970* VANCOUVER=100 WEIGHT INDEX FOOD AT HOME 24.3 113 DAISY PRODUCTS 3.6 1 13 CEREAL PRODUCTS 3.3 105 MISCELLANEOUS GROCERIES 3.4 114 FATS AND OILS 1.4 107 EGGS 1. 1 107 MEAT, FISH, POULTRY 7.2 109 FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 4. 3 127 NGN-FOOD 50.9 103 HOUSEHOLD OPERATION 11. 1 100 CLOTHING 10.3 1 01 TRANSPORTATION 12. 7 108 HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE 5.7 103 RECREATION AND READING 4.9 102 TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL 6.2 1 04 »SOURCE: STATISTICS CANADA, JAN. 1970. 177 TABLE III.A STATISTICS CANADA PRINCE RUPERT/VANCOUVER COMPARATIVE INDEXES FOR SELECTED GROUPS OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES JUNE 1971* VANCOUVER=100 WEIGHT INDEX FOOD AT HOME 20. 0 115 DAIRY PRODUCTS 2.9 1 14 CEREAL PRODUCTS 2.7 112 MISCELLANEOUS GROCERIES 2.9 119 FATS AND OILS 0. 8 111 EGGS 0.6 115 MEAT, FISH, POULTRY 6.6 108 FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 3. 5 126 NGN-FOOD 57,5 104 HOUSEHOLD OPERATION 11. 1 103 CLOTHING 9.7 102 TRANSPORTATION 16. 9 108 HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE 6.9 100 RECREATION AND READING 7. 3 106 TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL 5.6 105 ^SOURCE: ! STATISTICS CANADA, JUNE 1971. 178 TABLE IV INCOME DISTRIBUTION BY INCOME LEVEL AND CITY SIZE CLASS FOB ALL URBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C., 1971 URBAN INCOME LEVELS COMMUNITIES 0 -3 3-6 6-10 *10 CLASS ONE GREENWOOD 10 110 70 120 40 ENDERBY 20 150 115 85 25 HUDSON* S HOPE 10 120 70 105 200 CENTRAL SAANICH 5 175 135 175 50 SQUAMISH 0 190 185 270 90 ARMSTRONG 15 270 110 170 55 GOLD RIVER 0 180 100 260 200 SALMON ABM 15 280 280 240 65 MACKENZIE 25 235 160 255 285 SPARWOOD 0 280 200 280 160 KINNAIBD 20 280 260 440 155 CLASS TWO GOLDEN 20 465 310 465 195 CASTLEGAB 5 410 355 390 110 HOPE 30 580 265 395 195 GBAND FORKS 20 545 275 410 125 CRESTON 30 560 265 275 140 MISSION 70 570 320 355 205 LADYSMITH 5 435 290 515 215 VALLEYVIEW 25 600 365 440 420 SMITHERS 45 465 375 495 270 ROSSLAND 60 500 295 635 195 COMOX 35 460 320 575 235 WILLIAMS LAKE 10 725 485 605 335 DUNCAN 5 630 385 585 240 FERNIE 70 550 400 670 290 LANGLEY 40 670 455 530 250 SIDNEY 40 725 515 590 195 REVELSTOKE 40 830 390 785 350 179 TABLE IV (CONTINUED) UBBAN INCOME LEVELS COMMUNITIES 0 -3 3-6 6-10 +10 CLASS THREE CHILLIWACK-UF 70 910 435 615 150 MERBITT 70 670 480 730 390 CHILLIWACK-UC 20 835 530 530 260 QUESNEL 40 840 710 870 400 COURTENAY 45 915 605 10 95 370 KIMBEBLEY 60 920 590 1360 495 FOBT ST. JOHN 85 1025 835 1035 6 15 CHILLIWACK 45 1570 1055 ' 1010 335 NELSON 70 1650 1035 1255 495 CAMPBELL RIVER 220 1240 825 1300 895 CLASS FOUR TEBRACE 55 1325 1035 1265 740 TRAIL 95 1465 1070 1940 620 KITIMAT 110 1275 1120 2070 935 DAWSON CREEK 80 1770 1320 1345 600 CRANBROOK 100 1685 1115 1685 775 VERNON 170 20 80 1395 1625 595 POWELL BIVER 100 1685 895 2230 860 NANAIMO 140 2290 1630 1985 685 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 95 2065 1465 1925 6 90 PRINCE RUPERT 75 2435 1660 2300 1395 PENTICTON 120 3380 1915 1860 825 KELOWNA 130 3485 2010 2015 840 CLASS SIX POET ALBEBNI 190 2645 1655 3250 1380 KAMLOOPS 155 4125 3240 3650 1635 PRINCE GEORGE 345 4520 3490 4790 26 80 180 TABLE IV (CONTINUED) URBAN INCOME LEVELS COMMUNITIES 0 -3 3-6 6-10 + 10 CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 15 295 205 250 195 ESQUIMALT UO 1965 1830 1845 620 OAK BAY 110 2990 1500 1780 1735 SAANICH-UF 430 8150 5190 7300 3270 VICTORIA 485 10475 8505 7480 1845 CLASS EIGHT UNIVEBSITY AREA 40 745 375 215 420 FBASER MILLS 0 15 20 20 10 NORTH VAN-UC 60 9 80 650 915 1155 SUBBEY-UF 110 1130 730 1130 550 WHITE ROCK 90 1365 1060 1060 3 85 PORT MOODY 60 1250 905 1515 820 DELTA-UF 230 2190 1510 2315 1965 PORT COQUITLAM 155 2045 1515 2975 1325 DELTA-UC 185 2125 1645 3100 1400 NORTH VANCOUVER 345 5100 4490 4810 2245 WEST VANCOUVEB 235 5155 2545 2870 5430 NORTH VAN-UF 310 5960 3455 4690 5470 NEW WESTMINSTER 285 6505 5950 66 50 2165 COQUITLAM 270 6050 4025 6370 3955 RICHMOND 405 7715 6095 8240 41 15 SURREY-UC 495 7335 5505 8175 3175 BURNABY 795 18570 15185 18560 8965 VANCOUVER 2895 71435 63755 58655 25095 181 APPENDIX C 182 TABLE I. A TOTAL POPULATION BY AGE GROUP AND CITY SIZE CLASS FOR MALES FOR ALL URBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C., 1971 URBAN AGE GROUPS COMMUNITIES 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65* CLASS ONE GREENWOOD 1 10 75 45 55 65 30 40 ENDERBY 150 70 45 45 45 75 115 HUDSON * S HOPE 225 70 125 85 5 5 45 10 CENTRAL SAANICH 155 80 65 50 75 70 85 S.QUAMISH 265 165 140 105 80 65 45 ARMSTRONG 220 110 55 60 80 65 165 GOLD RIVER 385 170 200 135 75 30 0 SALMON ARM 260 180 110 95 85 90 135 MACKENZIE 395 180 250 135 55 25 5 SPARSOOD 400 230 230 155 75 55 35 KINNAIRD 495 240 175 190 140 135 60 CLASS TWO GOLDEN 510 300 240 210 165 100 75 CASTLEGAR 420 300 180 160 16 5 145 100 HOPE 485 28 5 165 200 175 140 105 GRAND FORKS 440 260 175 185 175 155 155 CRESTON 370 225 130 130 165 205 320 MISSION 500 300 170 195 185 175 255 LADYSMITH 495 350 210 200 215 215 210 VALLEYVIEW 610 365 250 290 250 105 50 SMITHERS 810 340 310 245 170 110 80 ROSSLAND 585 400 225 200 235 240 135 COMOX 685 310 225 320 215 95 120 WILLIAMS LAKE 660 405 320 305 190 110 60 DUNCAN 6 10 420 265 230 180 175 200 FERNIE 705 375 325 280 215 175 145 LANGLEY 665 390 320 225 215 155 225 SIDNEY 610 315 300 210 245 225 430 REVELSTOKE 745 485 315 365 275 220 165 183 TABLE I. A (CONTINUED) URBAN AGE GROUPS COMMUNITIES 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 6 5+ CLASS THREE CHTLLIWACK-UF 780 765 305 345 220 120 155 MERRITT 915 540 410 390 275 190 110 CHILLIWACK-UC 685 470 280 255 265 225 3 20 QUESNEL 1050 67 5 535 440 310 185 180 COURTENAY 1115 665 480 455 345 250 270 KIMBERLEY 1105 780 440 435 480 420 270 FORT ST. JOHN 1520 810 685 570 265 175 120 CHILLIWACK 1095 845 445 465 485 480 820 NELSON 1125 885 480 465 485 450 470 CAMPBELL RIVER 1545 880 735 640 530 375 235 CLASS FOUR TERRACE 1775 945 830 705 455 250 365 TRAIL 1360 1235 545 610 725 765 510 KITIMAT 2255 1190 1150 1015 635 260 55 DAWSON CREEK 2140 1115 820 815 540 390 305 CRANBROOK 2075 1200 935 770 630 405 410 VEBNON 1705 1095 735 735 640 635 905 POWELL RIVER 2200 1270 920 860 665 555 475 NANAIMO 1825 1435 905 765 855 785 890 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 2200 1295 895 905 815 685 870 PRINCE RUPERT 2555 1565 1455 1125 775 540 385 P.ENTICTON 2335 1515 895 1045 940 930 1340 KELOWNA 2225 1650 880 980 975 900 1610 CLASS SIX PORT ALBERNI 3235 2005 1485 1340 1035 815 510 KAMLOOPS 3880 2530 1915 1765 1375 1040 870 PRINCE GEORGE 5865 3060 3020 2365 1480 745 555 184 TABLE I.A (CONTINUED) UBBAN AGE GBOUPS COMMUNITIES 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 270 180 85 115 150 110 105 ESQUIMALT 1650 1590 805 690 700 510 540 OAK BAY 1665 1590 565 770 1190 1080 1560 SAANICH-UF 7690 4740 2790 3210 3340 2395 2620 VICTORIA 5520 5350 3230 2580 3015 2910 5445 CLASS EIGHT FBASER MILLS 20 15 10 5 5 5 0 UNIVERSITY AREA 485 350 420 155 145 145 95 NOBTH VAN.-UC 1525 520 780 755 410 195 90 SUBBEY-UF 1165 805 525 455 450 430 770 WHITE ROCK 920 690 510 385 42 5 545 1395 PORT MOODY 2070 725 970 765 465 250 165 DELTA-UF 3305 1250 1640 1360 935 590 470 PORT COQUITLAM 3685 1330 1870 133 0 790 460 380 DELTA-UC 4015 1480 2020 1420 870 425 225 NORTH VANCOUVER 3680 3025 2695 1695 1715 1425 1200 WEST VANCOUVER 3975 2865 1540 2125 2 445 1995 1450 NORTH VAN.-UF 6680 3680 256 5 3175 2965 1570 840 NEW WESTMINSTER 4235 4675 3250 2195 2305 2140 2305 COQUITLAM 8700 4060 3550 3820 2645 1510 1420 RICHMOND 9500 4770 4105 4210 3150 1885 1290 SURREY-UC 10535 5055 4205 4040 3125 1990 1925 BUBNABY 16360 12100 8600 7915 7750 5460 4315 VANCOUVER 424 25 37390 30565 25050 24730 22625 25295 185 TABLE I.B TOTAL POPULATION BY AGE GROUP AND CITY SIZE CLASS FOB FEMALES FOR ALL URBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C., 1971 URBAN AGE GROUPS COMMUNITIES 0-11 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ CLASS ONE GREENWOOD 130 80 45 55 50 45 30 ENDERBY 140 70 45 3 5 70 85 110 HUDSON'S HOPE 225 95 115 80 45 30 20 CENTRAL SAANICH 130 70 65 55 90 80 70 SQUAMISH 260 125 110 75 75 55 45 ARMSTRONG 205 95 70 60 95 120 160 GOLD RIVER 3 45 165 175 85 60 15 0 SALMON ARM 255 170 110 95 115 115 160 MACKENZIE 400 195 205 80 45 10 0 SPARWOOD 360 165 150 120 75 35 40 KINNAIRD 445 240 185 185 135 120 55 CLASS TWO GOLDEN 545 265 230 190 140 75 80 CASTLEGAR 375 290 170 165 170 135 100 HOPE 415 275 185 180 185 145 90 GRAND FOBKS 420 260 185 210 165 170 1S5 CRESTON 380 220 150 135 215 240 300 MISSION 455 280 160 180 235 195 285 LADYSMITH 505 310 175 195 255 210 200 VALLEYVIEW 565 350 220 275 200 110 45 SMITHEBS 720 350 305 225 165 110 75 BOSSLAND 555 325 210 195 250 230 120 COMOX 675 290 255 295 185 95 170 WILLIAMS LAKE 675 435 310 255 170 110 70 DUNCAN 585 400 260 215 225 210 260 FERNIE 605 400 285 225 205 175 130 LANGLEY 635 375 295 215 225 200 300 SIDNEY 610 305 320 190 280 295 510 REVELSTOKE 700 425 300 280 255 180 185 186 TABLE I.B (CONTINUED) UBBAN AGE GROUPS COMMUNITIES 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + CLASS THREE CHILLIWACK-DF 780 365 280 310 210 140 165 MERRITT 880 520 365 330 245 155 120 CHILLIWACK-UC 735 46 5 270 280 315 240 410 QUESNEL 1065 640 430 385 320 205 165 COURTENAY 1080 595 505 415 365 255 345 KIMBERLEY 1010 700 450 390 525 360 225 FORT ST. JOHN 1500 77 5 655 440 260 145 100 CHILLIWACK 1070 815 435 525 680 655 900 NELSON 1135 920 455 515 525 490 555 CAMPBELL RIVER 1595 860 680 580 540 340 230 CLASS FOUR TERRACE 1820 920 755 560 405 210 90 TRAIL 1325 995 555 640 845 660 575 KITIMAT 2125 995 1020 800 500 180 70 DAWSON CREEK 21 10 1185 815 735 540 370 290 CRANBROOK 1940 1115 885 720 575 395 415 VERNON 1660 1105 730 745 790 715 1095 POWELL RIVER 2165 1165 885 805 670 570 485 NANAIMO 1755 1265 815 765 985 885 1030 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 2240 1300 875 890 820 785 955 PRINCE RUPERT 2475 1450 1225 780 685 455 305 PENTICTON 2250 1425 980 1030 1125 1150 1460 KELOWNA 2215 1505 900 1030 1185 1195 1855 CLASS SIX PORT ALBERNI 3080 1795 1345 1105 1060 695 560 KAMLOOPS 3635 2615 1830 1535 1365 925 935 PRINCE GEORGE 5685 3190 2820 192 5 1375 630 460 187 TABLE I.B (CONTINUED) UBBAN AGE GROUPS COMMUNITIES 0-1 a 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 235 140 105 125 150 115 130 ESQUIMALT 1645 1240 755 700 795 585 755 OAK BAY 1790 1490 645 940 1530 1375 2340 SAANICH-UF 7470 4435 3040 3375 3635 2835 3180 VICTORIA 5400 6080 2975 2410 3715 4220 8650 CLASS EIGHT FBASER MILLS 25 10 10 5 10 0 0 UNIVERSITY AREA 410 325 380 120 175 155 105 NORTH VAN.-UC 1405 490 845 620 350 195 125 SURREY-UF 1095 590 500 430 535 500 815 WHITE ROCK 870 650 410 445 585 840 1725 PORT MOODY 1890 780 1050 660 440 225 200 DELTA-UF 3315 1290 1720 1205 885 605 575 POST COQUITLAM 3555 1490 1895 1135 800 435 365 DELTA-UC 3890 1550 2115 1185 780 340 285 NORTH VANCOUVER 3540 3295 2405 1720 2005 1545 1880 WEST VANCOUVER 3875 2590 1650 2340 2695 2110 2375 NORTH VAN.-UF 6375 3370 2920 3215 2900 1430 1100 NEW WESTMINSTER 4115 4890 2470 2015 2690 2465 3220 COQUITLAM 8155 3995 3880 3430 2515 1405 1920 RICHMOND 9050 4555 4370 3985 3205 1730 1615 SURREY-UC 9860 4855 4320 3760 2985 1875 1935 BDBNABY 15755 12240 8000 7585 8460 5450 5655 VANCOUVER 40810 40295 28535 22910 27550 25500 32325 188 TABLE I I LABOUR FORCE EY SEX AND CITY SIZE CLASS FOR ALL URBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C., 1971 TOTAL MALE IN FEMALE IN URBAN LABOUR LABOUR LABOUR COMMUNITIES FORCE FORCE FORCE CLASS ONE GREENWOOD 335 240 85 ENDERBY 360 230 130 HUDSON*S HOPE 445 315 125 CENTRAL SAANICH 505 300 200 SQUAMISH 670 510 170 ARMSTRONG 570 390 195 GOLD RIVER 715 560 155 SALMON ARM 840 540 310 MACKENZIE 880 640 230 SPARWOOD 835 665 170 KINNAIRD 1115 800 305 CLASS TWO GOLDEN 1255 890 355 CASTLEGAR 1235 880 355 HOPE 1345 885 460 GRAND FORKS 1295 850 435 CRESTON 1110 755 360 MISSION 1365 930 425 LADYSMITH 1340 990 360 VALLEYVIEW 1720 1155 560 SMITHERS 1495 980 515 SOSSLAND 1490 1100 395 CCMOX 1520 1050 445 WILLIAMS LAKE 1960 1245 720 DUNCAN 1770 1180 595 FERNIE 1835 1290 560 LANGLEY 1785 1200 575 SIDNEY 1820 1170 650 REVELSTOKE 2140 1500 645 TABLE I I (CONTINUED) TOTAL HALE IN FEMALE IN U BEAN LABOUR LABOUR LABOUR COMMUNITIES FOBCE FORCE FORCE CLASS THREE CHILLIWACK-UF 2145 1575 565 MERRITT 2205 1615 605 CHILLIWACK-UC 2000 1270 725 QUESNEL 2685 1920 765 COURTENAY 2955 2040 910 KIMBEBLEY 3235 2270 955 FORT ST. JOHN 3435 2345 1 105 CHILLIWACK 3670 2290 1370 NELSON 4080 2555 1545 CAMPBELL RIVER 4175 2830 1345 CLASS FOUR TERRACE 4190 2770 1415 TRAIL 5035 3335 1715 KITIMAT 5210 3865 1360 DAWSON CREEK 4835 3080 1765 CRANBROOK 5070 3470 1620 VERNON 5340 3375 1970 POWELL RIVER 5310 3850 1460 NANAIMO 6375 4250 2130 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 5895 3945 1970 PRINCE RUPERT 7200 4905 2305 PENTICTON 7530 4815 2715 KELOWNA 7680 4780 2905 CLASS SIX PORT ALBERNI 8375 6190 2 225 KAMLOOPS 11995 7625 4345 PRINCE GEORGE 14640 9660 4980 TABLE I I (CONTINUED) TOTAL HALE IN FEMALE IN URBAN LABOUR LABOUR LABOUR COMMUNITIES FORCE FORCE FORCE CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 905 ESQUIMALT 6055 OAK BAY 7485 SAANICH-UF 23040 VICTORIA 26760 CLASS EIGHT 575 4005 4570 14775 15425 330 2040 2900 8260 11340 FRASER MILLS 60 UNIVERSITY AREA 1445 NORTH VAN.-UC 3485 SURREY-UF 3285 WHITE ROCK 3435 PORT MOODY 4265 DELTA-UF 7450 PORT COQUITLAM 7570 DELTA-UC 7860 NORTH VANCOUVER 16015 WEST VANCOUVER 15000 NORTH VAN.-OF 18810 NEW WESTMINSTER 19910 COQUITLAM 19435 RICHMOND 24970 SUEREY-UC 23315 BURNABY 57815 VANCOUVER 108990 50 960 2465 2330 2160 2935 5235 5215 5540 9595 9920 12440 12160 13180 16345 16130 36985 124690 10 480 1035 940 1285 1330 2235 2340 2310 6430 5080 6365 7795 6225 8655 7150 20740 84270 191 TABLE I I I . A LABOUR FORCE BY AGE GROUP AND CITY SIZE CLASS FOR MALES FOR ALL URBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C., 1971 URBAN COMMUNITIES 15-19 AGE GROUPS 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + CLASS ONE GREENWOOD 15 35 45 60 65 5 5 ENDERBY 25 30 35 50 55 40 10 HUDSON'S HOPE 10 20 115 75 45 30 0 CENTRAL SAANICH 15 35 60 50 80 30 10 SQUAMISH 20 85 130 100 90 65 20 ARMSTRONG 55 40 65 70 80 65 20 GOLD RIVER 40 90 190 130 55 25 5 SALMON ARM 90 100 110 90 80 85 15 MACKENZIE 45 110 245 125 60 25 0 SPARWOOD 50 130 230 150 55 30 0 KINNAIRD 75 65 165 185 150 105 0 CLASS TWO GOLDEN 70 125 205 195 165 70 15 CASTLEGAR 85 135 195 180 175 150 15 HOPE 120 120 155 205 160 95 20 GRAND FORKS 75 90 170 180 160 100 20 CRESTON 80 80 125 120 150 170 35 MISSION 95 135 160 185 180 1 15 40 LADYSMITH 95 110 205 190 210 175 25 VA1LEYVIEW 130 130 235 290 255 1 10 5 SMITHERS 105 140 280 225 135 65 5 ROSSLAND 95 145 205 195 225 190 20 COM OX 80 95 205 315 205 60 30 WILLIAMS LAKE 140 190 320 315 195 85 30 DUNCAN 135 205 265 240 195 190 25 FERNIE 120 195 335 275 215 165 20 LANGLEY 105 160 295 220 195 110 25 SIDNEY 70 160 295 200 225 165 40 REVELSTOKE 155 205 310 360 285 205 40 192 TABLE XII.A (CONTINUED) URBAN AGE GROUPS COMMUNITIES 15-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 6 5+ CLASS1 THREE CHILLIWACK-UF 335 295 275 340 175 80 20 MERBITT 140 270 385 400 265 160 35 CHILLIWACK-UC 115 180 260 245 235 160 35 QUESNEL 190 30 5 510 410 270 145 40 COURTENAY 230 275 515 465 340 250 50 KIMBERLEY 245 300 420 440 460 355 25 FORT ST. JOHN 255 375 690 560 275 155 55 CHILLIWACK 230 320 400 405 410 340 125 NELSON 280 380 505 490 515 415 90 CAMPBELL RIVER 220 370 735 635 505 32 5 55 CLASS FOUR TERRACE 260 400 750 685 420 200 15 TRAIL 310 560 520 565 695 660 105 KITIMAT 285 630 1150 97 0 605 225 35 DAWSON CREEK 305 395 770 755 505 315 60 CRANBROOK 465 480 910 740 575 355 70 VERNON 325 410 715 695 580 480 140 POWELL RIVER 385 525 895 825 655 510 85 NANAIMO 4 40 585 855 715 790 630 185 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 450 510 845 845 755 505 115 PRINCE RUPERT 385 750 1395 1095 705 470 100 PENTICTON 515 605 855 995 870 680 225 KELOWNA 535 680 880 990 910 635 165 CLASS SIX PORT ALBERNI 665 950 1460 133 0 1015 840 110 KAMLOOPS 780 1125 1835 1675 126 5 845 165 PRINCE GEORGE 925 1380 2955 2295 1410 655 125 193 TABLE I I I . A "(CONTINUED) UBBAN AGE GBOUPS COMMUNITIES 15- 19 20-24 25-34 35-4 4 45-54 55-64 65+ CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 70 70 70 125 145 110 15 ESQUIMALT 455 875 765 66 5 690 4 20 100 OAK BAY 550 49 5 510 700 1 130 830 230 SAANICH-UF 1550 1735 2765 3185 3225 2015 470 VICTOBIA 1225 2810 3025 2485 2785 2185 755 CLASS EIGHT ERASER MILLS 0 15 5 5 5 10 0 UNIVERSITY AREA 55 145 325 125 135 140 25 NORTH VAN.-UC 195 175 735 760 415 220 25 SURREY-UF 230 305 515 420 390 295 70 WHITE ROCK 160 315 455 380 400 385 135 PORT MOODY 250 295 965 785 495 225 40 DELTA-UF 3 45 400 1595 1355 895 475 110 PORT COQUITLAM 375 475 1780 1315 685 300 55 DELTA-UC 430 535 1950 1345 840 345 20 NORTH VANCOUVER 720 1555 2585 1635 1645 1165 255 WEST VANCOUVER 835 940 1505 2155 2430 1770 465 NORTH VAN.-UF 1155 1160 2440 3125 2845 1355 165 NEW WESTMINSTER 950 2265 2845 1975 2055 1780 390 COQUITLAM 1155 1490 3355 3600 2335 1065 105 RICHMOND 1430 1825 3975 4090 3060 1715 3 15 SURREY-UC 1520 1765 4075 3960 2920 1595 290 BURNABY 2920 5335 8065 7595 7340 4705 880 VANCOUVER 8690 18245 28750 23430 22305 18305 5150 194 TABLE III.B LABOUR FORCE BY AGE GROUP AND CITY SIZE CLASS FOR FEMALES FOR ALL URBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C., 1971 URBAN AGE GROUPS COMMUNITIES 15-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 6 5* CLASS ONE GREENWOOD 10 10 5 15 20 5 0 ENDERBY 20 10 20 15 30 25 5 HUDSON»S HOPE 5 25 30 30 10 10 0 CENTRAL SAANICH 20 15 30 25 60 20 5 SQUAMISH 15 30 30 20 50 30 0 ARMSTRONG 25 10 45 40 35 40 15 GOLD RIVER 20 35 55 30 5 0 0 SALMON ARM 50 65 35 65 85 35 10 MACKENZIE 5 65 90 25 20 5 0 SPARWOOD 20 45 25 45 25 0 0 KINNAIRD 25 45 50 55 55 30 0 CLASS TWO GOLDEN 50 40 80 85 55 15 0 CASTLEGAR 60 70 75 70 60 40 5 HOPE 80 70 70 70 100 60 5 GRAND FORKS 60 50 85 95 65 45 5 CRESTON 60 40 50 55 85 80 10 MISSION 50 60 45 85 95 65 10 LADYSMITH 35 60 75 50 85 70 10 VALLEYVIEW 90 85 115 130 95 35 5 SMITHERS 90 95 130 70 65 20 5 ROSSLAND 45 60 50 70 75 75 5 COMOX 75 30 75 115 70 20 0 WILLIAMS LAKE 115 165 150 145 125 55 5 DUNCAN 80 125 145 85 105 105 20 FERNIE 90 110 115 105 85 80 10 LANGLEY 60 100 95 90 105 65 0 SIDNEY 55 90 135 85 145 115 20 REVELSTOKE 110 85 120 115 150 85 25 195 TABLE I I I . B (CONTINUED) UBBAN AGE GBOUPS COMMUNITIES 15-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ CLASS THREE CHILLIWACK-UP 115 65 95 155 90 25 10 MERRITT 90 100 140 120 100 50 15 CHILLIWACK-UC 130 95 90 145 150 75 10 QUESNEL 135 125 145 175 110 45 20 COURTENAY 150 150 160 195 170 100 45 KIMBERLEY 150 125 160 170 190 105 15 FORT ST. JOHN 170 210 330 215 135 75 10 CHILLIWACK 165 195 165 255 290 200 40 NELSON 230 300 225 330 280 260 35 CAMPBELL RIVER 220 170 230 280 300 130 50 CLASS FOUR TERRACE 270 285 315 265 205 80 0 TRAIL 255 255 290 305 405 270 20 KITIMAT 165 235 400 330 215 65 10 DAWSON CREEK 270 310 340 345 315 150 40 CRANBROOK 305 305 340 360 245 110 50 VERNON 325 270 350 350 355 245 40 POWELL RIVER 215 195 315 325 240 155 25 NANAIMO 300 335 330 300 485 2 95 70 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 245 305 360 390 390 265 90 PRINCE RUPERT 285 450 535 405 370 225 25 PENTICTON 375 400 460 495 540 345 65 KELOWNA 420 485 435 510 575 390 105 CLASS SIX PORT ALBERNI 375 435 465 405 415 250 60 KAMLOOPS 685 780 930 785 755 405 75 PRINCE GEORGE 770 1020 1260 910 695 285 25 196 TABLE I I I . B (CONTINUED) URBAN AGE GROUPS COMMUNITIES 15-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 50 50 50 65 75 55 0 ESQUIMALT 305 350 365 340 400 250 15 OAK BAY 475 375 295 46 5 675 355 160 SAANICH-UF 1295 1185 1330 1670 1795 940 225 VICTORIA 1280 250 0 1715 1305 2090 180 5 550 CLASS EIGHT FRASER MILLS 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 UNIVERSITY AREA 40 110 155 45 65 45 5 NORTH VAN.-UC 115 125 280 305 160 80 10 SURREY-UF 90 130 155 135 200 120 20 WHITE ROCK 150 205 180 235 250 255 75 PORT MOODY 195 215 400 315 205 75 35 DELTA-UF 265 350 630 490 295 130 30 PORT COQUITLAM 235 355 615 490 300 90 20 DELTA-UC 275 405 780 475 280 45 10 NORTH VANCOUVER 695 1460 1415 975 1105 635 135 WEST VANCOUVER 760 800 715 860 1200 715 210 NORTH "VAN. -UF 1020 730 1225 1320 1275 555 55 NEW WESTMINSTER 1005 1895 1365 1055 1365 940 225 COQUITLAM 980 955 1450 1420 1000 335 55 RICHMOND 1170 1300 1925 1975 1630 715 105 SURREY-UC 1070 1135 1660 1450 1205 555 55 BURNABY 26 55 4265 3800 3660 4045 1865 305 VANCOUVER 8340 17325 17805 12730 14 915 11010 2505 197 TABLE IV. A LABOUR FORCE BY LEVEL OF EDUCATION AND CITY SIZE CLASS FOR MALES FOR ALL URBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C., 1971 URBAN COMMUNITIES LESS THAN 9 GRADES 9-10 GRADES 11-13 SOME UNIV. UNIV. DEGREE CLASS ONE GREENWOOD 80 ENDERBY 90 HUDSON'S HOPE 60 CENTRAL SAANICH 20 SQUAMISH 160 ARMSTRONG 90 GOLD RIVER 50 SALMON ARM 150 MACKENZIE 150 SPARWOOD 110 KINNAIRD 160 CLASS TWO 60 55 80 60 125 1 10 135 135 195 215 150 75 70 125 165 160 110 285 185 220 240 320 10 10 25 20 35 40 35 45 30 55 85 0 5 15 20 30 50 50 45 25 30 50 GOLDEN CASTLEGAR HOPE GRAND FORKS CRESTON MISSION LADYSMITH VALLEYVIEW SMITHERS ROSSLAND CGMOX WILLIAMS LAKE DUNCAN FERNIE LANGLEY SIDNEY REVELSTOKE 245 290 230 280 210 215 280 200 220 245 80 245 245 285 20 5 180 445 190 175 255 155 190 235 280 290 255 220 260 290 330 335 315 300 410 295 290 295 260 255 295 320 475 380 430 490 530 455 475 480 520 550 75 70 70 60 45 105 75 100 75 80 105 95 110 145 85 120 105 50 80 50 60 65 65 55 125 20 110 65 110 85 70 60 60 55 198 TABLE IV. A (CONTINUED) UBBAN LESS GRADES GRADES SOME UNIV. COMMUNITIES THAN 9 9-10 11-13 UNIV. DEGREE CLASS THREE CHILLIWACK-UF 475 530 450 3 5 70 MERRITT 505 420 48 5 120 90 CHILLIWACK-UC 315 315 440 100 80 QUESNEL 520 520 570 165 90 COURTENAY 365 5 80 895 135 130 KIMBERLEY 405 550 995 150 120 FORT ST. JOHN 605 685 835 155 110 CHILLIWACK 650 630 77 0 9 5 110 NELSON 495 515 1080 305 240 CAMPBELL RIVER 660 755 1075 205 170 CLASS FOUR TERRACE 735 740 925 240 135 TBAIL 785 700 1180 400 290 KITIMAT 915 935 1495 295 265 DAWSON CREEK 755 765 1230 170 160 CRANBROOK 740 965 1400 240 200 VERNON 750 750 1355 260 230 POWELL RIVER 905 980 1595 255 160 NANAIMO 945 120 5 1530 36 5 210 CLASS FIVE MAPLE BIDGE 925 960 1650 255 2 10 PRINCE 1165 1260 1805 420 230 PENTICTON 935 1195 1925 400 3 20 KELOWNA 1050 1140 1770 455 340 CLASS SIX POBT ALBERNI 1690 1635 2185 46 5 335 KAMLOOPS 1660 1960 2945 610 510 PRINCE GEORGE 2030 2295 3930 810 585 199 TABLE IV.A (CONTINUED) URBAN LESS GRADES GRADES SOME UNIV. COMMUNITIES THAN 9 9-10 11-13 UNIV. DEGREE CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 85 95 255 65 90 ESQUIMALT 570 1265 1635 310 195 OAK BAY 275 640 1915 705 945 SAANICH-UF 2195 3505 6250 1555 1315 VICTORIA 2865 3630 6280 1550 1060 CLASS EIGHT FRASER MILLS 15 10 0 10 5 UNIVERSITY AREA 0 60 145 165 565 NORTH VAN.-UC 210 370 1165 37 5 370 SURREY-UF 435 515 975 185 190 WHITE ROCK 335 550 925 230 180 PORT MOODY 435 670 1380 310 200 DELTA-UF 560 960 2535 625 510 PORT COQUITLAM 830 1330 2345 330 260 DELTA-UC 955 1355 2580 405 210 NORTH VANCOUVER 1380 1925 4370 1170 795 WEST VANCOUVER 530 1040 3870 1930 2645 NORTH VAM.-UF 905 1820 5705 1810 2045 NEW WESTMINSTER 2490 2585 5120 1155 815 COQUITLAM 2095 30 80 5770 1215 930 RICHMOND 2555 3625 7660 1585 1025 SURREY-UC 3960 4470 6235 1015 455 BURNABY 6145 8315 16160 3865 2500 VANCOUVER 2519 5 23205 47195 15315 13S65 200 TABLE IV. B LABOOB FORCE BY LEVEL OF EDUCATION AND CITY SIZE CLASS FOB FEMALES FOB ALL UBBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C., 1971 U BEAN LESS GRADES GBADES SOME UNIv. COMMUNITIES THAN 9 9-10 11-13 UNIV. DEGBEE CLASS ONE GBEENWOOD ENDEBBY HUDSON'S HOPE CENTRAL SAANICH SQUAMISH ARMSTRONG GOLD RIVER SALMON ARM MACKENZIE SPARWOOD KINNAIRD CLASS TWO 5 25 10 10 20 45 0 70 15 30 20 10 35 25 55 40 50 20 50 60 45 35 40 65 55 105 80 75 90 160 115 60 155 10 5 20 15 20 25 20 40 20 25 45 0 0 5 5 5 15 15 20 10 5 15 GOLDEN CASTLEGAR HOPE GRAND FORKS CRESTON MISSION LADYSMITH VALLEYVIEW SMITHEBS ROSSLAND COMOX WILLIAMS LAKE DUNCAN FERNIE LANGLEY SIDNEY REVELSTOKE 55 65 85 95 85 40 80 30 85 55 10 75 90 95 40 75 145 95 60 110 85 60 85 65 125 110 60 75 130 155 105 110 160 140 135 175 190 175 165 200 170 335 245 210 275 420 275 300 315 305 33 0 40 60 55 35 50 60 55 80 55 65 35 90 80 65 50 80 85 5 15 10 10 15 20 15 10 0 0 15 25 40 10 10 20 5 2 0 1 TABLE IV.B (CONTINUED) US BAN COMMUNITIES LESS THAN 9 GRADES 9-10 GRADES 11-13 SOME UNIV. UNIV. DEGREE CLASS THREE CHILLIWACK-UF 65 145 270 45 15 MERRITT 85 160 295 60 10 CHILLIWACK-UC 120 160 315 85 20 QUESNEL 130 185 320 90 30 COURTENAY 105 2 35 475 75 40 KIMBERLEY 125 17 5 480 120 40 FORT ST. JOHN 160 280 530 105 50 CHILLIWACK 235 255 670 110 45 NELSON 245 305 760 205 110 CAMPBELL RIVER 160 315 710 130 40 CLASS FOUR TERRACE 210 350 675 135 20 TRAIL 230 295 920 225 55 KITIMAT 180 305 700 145 75 DAWSON CREEK 240 430 855 160 65 CRANBROOK 235 350 890 155 25 VERNON 285 460 945 170 65 POWELL RIVER 160 345 770 150 55 NANAIMO 250 515 1060 195 75 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 295 425 1015 190 85 PRINCE RUPERT 430 540 1045 255 75 PENTICTON 445 555 1370 250 70 KELOWNA 445 680 1420 230 145 CLASS SIX PORT ALBERNI 435 490 1 120 235 80 KAMLOOPS 490 960 2250 490 190 PRINCE GEORGE 675 1040 2430 600 235 202 TABLE IV.B (CONTINUED) UBBAN LESS GRADES GRADES SOME UNIV. COMMUNITIES THAN 9 9-10 11-13 UNIV. DEGREE CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 10 45 170 85 30 ESQUIMALT 210 455 1160 160 55 OAK BAY 105 370 1615 490 280 SAANICH-UF 845 1610 4455 1055 405 VICTOBIA 1520 227 5 5645 1325 545 CLASS EIGHT FBASEB MILLS 0 0 5 0 0 UNIVEBSITY ABEA 10 30 140 95 175 NOBTH VAN.-UC 65 175 605 135 90 SUBREY-UF 85 200 490 80 50 WHITE BOCK 155 285 650 150 85 POST MOODY 135 275 775 140 80 DELTA-UF 150 305 1395 270 115 POET COQUITLAM 210 500 1320 160 50 DELTA-UC 190 555 1310 160 55 NOBTH VANCOUVER 550 1145 3615 730 385 WEST VANCOUVER 230 565 2640 1045 665 NOBTH VAN.-UF 270 920 3805 835 365 NEW WESTMINSTER 890 1510 4300 760 360 COQUITLAM 550 13 10 3475 610 230 RICHMOND 995 1805 4840 805 295 SURREY-UC 825 1760 3760 590 170 BUBNABY 1970 4200 11530 2 090 790 VANCOUVER 12260 13615 42275 9970 6025 203 TABLE V.A LABOUR FORCE BY OCCUPATION AND CITY SIZE CLASS FOR MALES FOR ALL URBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C., 1971 URBAN MANAG. TEACH. MEDIC. TECHN . CLERI. SALES COMMUNITIES S REL. S REL. S REL. & REL. & REL. OCCUP, CLASS ONE GREENWOOD 10 0 0 5 0 5 ENDERBY 10 0 0 5 10 45 HUDSON'S HOPE 5 5 0 30 5 10 CENTRAL SAANICH 5 0 5 25 5 35 SQUAMISH 25 15 0 10 15 20 ARMSTRONG 25 20 15 15 15 45 GOLD RIVER 10 5 10 35 20 0 SALMON ARM 40 30 10 25 15 65 MACKENZIE 30 0 5 10 25 25 SPARWOOD 15 10 5 20 15 20 KINNAIRD 15 35 5 20 20 65 CLASS TWO GOLDEN 45 15 0 15 20 75 CASTLEGAR 45 45 10 30 50 55 HOPE 15 10 15 35 30 70 GRAND FORKS 40 15 0 30 25 75 CRESTON 60 25 15 50 20 85 MISSION 30 35 10 15 55 110 LADYSMITH 30 20 1 0 35 25 65 VALLEYVIEW 50 40 25 85 55 210 SMITHERS 35 30 5 45 30 130 ROSSLAND 20 20 30 1 10 45 55 COMOX 35 10 30 10 20 105 WILLIAMS LAKE 90 60 25 45 75 155 DUNCAN 50 25 15 60 40 120 FERNIE 85 45 10 45 60 90 LANGLEY 40 20 5 35 35 170 SIDNEY 45 35 20 50 45 160 REVELSTOKE 40 25 5 60 75 1 40 204 TABLE V.A (CONTINUED) UBBAN MANAG. TEACH. MEDIC. TECHN. CLEBI. SALES COMMUNITIES 6 REL. S BEL. S BEL. & BEL. & BEL. OCCUP. CLASS THBEE CHILLIWACK-UF 15 20 10 20 35 60 MEBBITT 25 45 25 60 70 145 CHILLIWACK-UC 40 50 15 30 55 150 QUESNEL 85 45 25 45 60 155 COURTENAY 50 55 30 85 105 215 KIMBERLEY 70 15 20 180 75 130 FORT ST. JOHN 70 40 40 125 95 305 CHILLIWACK 85 35 35 80 105 315 NELSON 100 95 65 175 190 265 CAMPBELL RIVER 80 85 25 95 110 190 CLASS FOUB TERRACE 120 65 35 1 10 110 290 TRAIL 90 55 85 285 220 245 KITIMAT 145 90 35 260 160 155 DAWSON CREEK 125 85 40 1 15 140 4 30 CRANBROOK 130 50 70 175 215 445 VERNON 130 95 40 135 190 560 POWELL RIVER 85 55 50 140 180 265 NANAIMO 110 90 20 145 205 390 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 130 90 105 130 175 500 PRINCE RUPERT 180 80 55 155 210 330 PENTICTON 220 80 95 235 290 660 KELOWNA 205 100 90 245 300 755 CLASS SIX PORT ALBEBNI 205 95 80 2 25 245 350 KAMLOOPS 265 190 180 4 05 415 955 PBINCE GEORGE 535 180 140 470 600 1250 205 TABLE V.A (CONTINUED) URBAN M AN AG. TEACH. MEDIC. TECHN. CLERI. SALES COMMUNITIES S REL.,6 REL. & REL. 6 REL. & REL. OCCUP. CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 45 30 15 60 40 90 ESQUIMALT 100 35 55 185 305 290 OAK BAY 485 190 24 5 415 375 730 SAANICH-UF 735 490 300 1110 1060 1955 VICTORIA 455 290 210 1070 1305 1570 CLASS EIGHT FRASER MILLS 0 0 0 0 5 5 UNIVERSITY AREA 105 170 80 225 40 65 NORTH VAN.-UC 285 80 55 260 160 580 SURREY-UF 135 80 4 5 90 150 360 WHITE ROCK 115 70 55 140 180 325 PORT MOODY 195 105 25 185 170 455 DELTA-UF 475 140 80 345 360 955 PORT COQUITLAM 200 105 105 2 80 300 640 DELTA-UC 245 90 15 2 35 395 795 NORTH VANCOUVER 555 220 105 720 710 1335 WEST VANCOUVER 1735 380 325 1430 6 35 2045 NORTH VAN.-UF 1420 335 130 1445 825 2480 NEW WESTMINSTER 505 245 395 5 80 905 1320 COQUITLAM 720 345 210 755 810 1960 RICHMOND 865 340 195 1070 1460 2165 SURREY-UC 495 180 270 540 920 1565 BURNABY 1950 810 380 2160 3170 5125 VANCOUVER 6520 2750 2405 9065 10895 14140 206 TABLE V.B LABOUB FORCE BY OCCUPATION AND CITY SIZE CLASS FOB FEMALES FOB ALL UBBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C., 1971 UBEAN MANAG. TEACH. MEDIC. TECHN. CLEBI. SALES COMMUNITIES € BEL. S BEL. S BEL. S BEL. S BEL. OCCUP. CLASS ONE GBEENWOOD 5 10 5 0 25 0 ENDEBBY 10 5 10 5 25 5 HUDSON'S HOPE 0 20 0 0 45 5 CENTBAL SAANICH 0 15 10 0 70 10 SQUAMISH 0 15 5 0 75 10 AHMSTBONG 10 25 10 15 40 15 GOLD RIVER 0 15 0 5 50 15 SALMON ABM 0 40 20 10 90 45 MACKENZIE 5 25 15 0 80 10 SPARWOOD 0 15 10 0 60 5 KINNAIBD 0 35 15 0 130 20 CLASS TWO GOLDEN 0 20 25 0 75 20 CASTLEGAB 0 50 15 10 120 50 HOPE 0 35 20 0 100 40 GRAND FORKS 0 15 25 0 105 60 CBESTON 10 40 15 15 75 30 MISSION 0 40 45 5 120 70 LADYSMITH 10 40 40 15 85 35 VALLEYVIEW 0 30 55 25 200 85 SMITHEES 5 45 25 0 125 65 BOSSLAND 0 20 25 5 100 50 COMOX 0 30 60 0 140 30 WILLIAMS LAKE 10 75 100 30 280 85 DUNCAN 15 75 40 15 160 90 FERNIE 5 35 65 10 140 75 LANGLEY 0 40 40 0 170 75 SIDNEY 10 30 55 15 180 70 REVELSTOKE 15 50 55 25 175 100 207 TABLE V.B (CONTINUED) URBAN MANAG. TEACH. MEDIC. TECHN. CLERI. SALES COMMUNITIES S REL. & REL. & REL. & REL. & REL. OCCUP. CLASS THREE CHILLIWACK-UF 0 40 5 5 135 55 MERRITT 5 50 55 0 190 85 CHILLIWACK-UC 0 40 55 15 180 75 QUESNEL 15 55 80 5 240 100 COURTENAY 10 85 80 20 245 140 KIMBERLEY 5 80 45 10 275 95 FORT ST. JOHN 5 75 120 25 395 95 CHILLIWACK 25 90 75 20 375 160 NELSON 10 130 175 25 540 140 CAMPBELL RIVER 10 90 70 15 455 160 CLASS FOUR TERRACE 20 115 160 20 450 120 TRAIL 45 105 235 50 490 195 KITIMAT 15 90 155 25 500 175 DAWSON CREEK 10 150 110 20 610 130 CRANBROOK 45 100 145 40 620 160 VERNON 30 110 165 30 535 190 POWELL RIVER 0 115 185 55 410 185 NANAIMO 5 75 165 30 645 225 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 15 130 270 25 435 200 PRINCE RUPERT 40 140 175 35 700 290 PENTICTON 25 100 235 45 810 270 KELOWNA 50 150 255 60 940 305 CLASS SIX PORT ALBERNI 30 205 155 80 630 285 KAMLOOPS 60 300 62 5 90 1260 485 PRINCE GEORGE 65 495 350 105 1775 440 208 TABLE V.B (CONTINUED) UBBAN COMMUNITIES MANAG. 5 REL. TEACH. 8 REL. MEDIC. S REL. TECHN. 5 REL. CL ERI. 8 REL. SALES OCCUP CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 10 40 20 20 115 45 ESQUIMALT 5 95 120 25 745 175 OAK BAY 35 215 290 100 940 390 SAANICH-UF 135 510 650 215 2955 1090 VICTORIA 120 400 1370 280 3515 1000 CLASS EIGHT FBASER MILLS 0 0 0 0 0 0 UNIVEBSITY ABEA 5 70 50 65 125 10 NORTH VAN.-UC 35 55 85 60 385 1 15 SUBREY-UF 10 100 100 20 205 1 15 WHITE BOCK 15 115 155 35 380 125 PORT MOODY 25 120 135 25 470 160 DELTA-UF 35 170 165 45 825 245 PORT COQUITLAM 5 100 255 20 695 170 DELTA-UC 30 120 170 25 925 205 NORTH VANCOUVER 105 435 575 1 45 2530 580 WEST VANCOUVER 220 455 310 290 1850 655 NORTH VAN.-UF 70 385 450 195 2550 770 NEW WESTMINSTER 100 415 1210 165 2420 680 COQUITLAM 90 350 610 120 2145 760 RICHMOND 140 345 505 185 3420 1000 SURREY-UC 100 280 565 95 2315 720 BUBNABY 235 1035 1165 4 80 8805 2230 VANCOUVER 1580 3785 6560 2600 31600 6680 2 0 9 T A B L E V . A ( C O N T I N U E D ) L A B O U R F O R C E B Y O C C U P A T I O N A N D C I T Y S I Z E C L A S S F O B M A L E S F O R A L L U R B A N C O M M U N I T I E S I N B . C . , 1 9 7 1 U R E A N S E R V I . F A R M I . O T H E B S E C O N . T R A N S . N O T C O M M U N I T I E S O C C U P . & R L A . P R I M A . I N D U S . S R E L . S T A T E D C L A S S O N E G R E E N W O O D 5 0 4 5 7 5 3 5 5 E N D E R B Y 2 0 5 3 5 6 5 3 5 1 5 H U D S O N ' S H O P E 2 0 0 1 0 1 4 5 4 5 1 5 C E N T R A L S A A N I C H 4 0 0 0 7 5 2 5 2 0 S Q U A M I S H 3 5 5 6 0 2 0 5 9 5 2 5 : A R M S T R C N G 4 5 3 0 2 0 1 1 5 4 5 1 5 G O L D R I V E R 5 5 0 6 0 2 1 0 9 0 1 0 S A L M O N . A R M 7 5 1 5 4 0 1 6 5 7 0 3 5 M A C K E N Z I E 1 5 0 4 5 2 7 5 7 0 7 5 S P A R W O O D 4 0 0 1 4 0 2 1 5 1 0 0 5 5 K I N N A I R D 6 0 0 5 3 4 0 1 0 5 2 0 C L A S S T W O G O L D E N 8 5 5 8 0 2 6 5 1 2 0 5 5 C A S T L E G A R 8 5 1 5 2 5 3 9 0 1 1 5 3 5 H O P E 1 0 0 1 5 1 8 0 2 0 0 9 0 1 2 0 G R A N D F O R K S 5 5 2 0 5 0 2 8 0 9 0 6 0 C R E S T O N 7 0 3 5 4 0 2 0 0 1 2 5 6 5 M I S S I O N 9 0 1 5 8 5 2 0 5 1 5 0 5 0 L A D Y S M I T H 7 0 5 1 7 0 3 4 0 2 1 0 5 5 V A L L E Y V I E W 8 5 1 5 3 5 3 8 0 1 4 5 1 0 0 S M I T H E B S 6 5 0 7 0 2 7 5 1 4 0 7 0 R C S S L A N D 6 5 0 4 0 4 7 0 1 6 5 5 5 C O M O X 4 1 0 5 2 0 1 5 5 4 5 5 5 W I L L I A M S L A K E 1 0 0 1 5 6 5 3 8 0 2 3 5 6 0 D U N C A N 1 1 5 3 5 1 2 0 3 9 5 1 8 0 1 0 0 F E B N I E 1 2 0 2 5 1 7 5 4 4 5 2 0 5 6 0 L A N G L E Y 9 5 3 0 5 3 2 5 1 6 5 7 0 S I D N E Y 1 7 5 2 0 2 5 2 9 0 1 6 0 1 0 5 R E V E L S T O K E 1 1 0 2 5 8 0 4 2 5 5 5 5 9 0 210 TABLE V.A (CONTINUED) URBAN COMMUNITIES SERVT. OCCUP. FARSI. & RLA. OTHER PRIMA. SECON. INDUS. TRANS. & REL. NOT STATEI CLASS THBEE CHILLIWACK-UF 870 80 30 180 90 60 MEERITT 130 5 275 505 245 105 CHILLIWACK-UC 190 70 40 280 125 95 QUESNEL 160 0 155 6 80 285 125 COUETENAY 555 40 195 4 80 200 115 KIMBERLEY 120 25 445 760 185 65 FORT ST. JOHN 170 85 185 650 450 170 CHILLIWACK 405 60 75 545 245 175 NELSON 275 60 110 785 445 165 CAMPBELL RIVER 255 5 43 0 985 410 180 CLASS FOUB T EE RACE 190 25 400 810 430 150 TRAIL 250 60 105 1345 470 190 KITIMAT 235 20 80 1905 535 280 DAWSON CREEK 230 110 100 865 520 2 15 CRANBROOK 270 60 165 1205 710 160 VERNON 330 95 70 1015 385 205 POWELL RIVER 225 10 220 1800 585 165 NANAIMO 570 35 285 1245 600 390 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 380 100 165 1235 555 450 PRINCE RUPERT 445 10 455 1585 960 350 PENTICTON 490 265 85 1375 575 285 KELOWNA 460 215 60 14 20 525 3 20 CLASS SIX PORT ALBERNI 480 20 755 2490 1 130 390 KAMLOOPS 835 130 160 23 60 1 120 590 PRINCE GEORGE 835 25 305 3100 1445 670 TABLE V.A (CONTINUED) UEBAN COMMUNITIES SEBVI.-OCCUP. FARNI. 6 RLA. OTHER PRIMA. SECON. INDUS. TRANS. 6 REL. NOT STATE! CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 4 0 20 5 145 80 40 ESQUIMALT 1475 50 45 6 90 355 280 OAK BAY 525 130 40 530 295 280 SAANICH-UF 2300 435 235 37 65 1615 865 VICTORIA 3025 380 205 34 35 1620 1335 CLASS EIGHT FRASEB MILLS 0 0 0 15 10 0 UNIVERSITY AREA 50 5 0 35 35 80 NORTH VAN.-UC 170 15 50 4 55 240 175 SURREY-UF 240 55 25 565 295 180 WHITE ROCK 255 50 40 570 255 200 PORT MOODY 260 30 65 935 490 125 DELTA-UF 405 95 85 1225 610 430 POET COQUITLAM 380 50 65 1500 850 305 DELTA-UC 380 25 115 1985 835 255 NORTH VANCOUVER 1025 155 205 2545 1305 690 WEST VANCOUVEB 6 30 105 110 1040 800 755 NORTH VAN.-UF 925 120 90 2290 1120 595 NEW WESTMINSTER 1255 115 275 3710 1795 845 COQUITLAM 1095 145 120 39 80 2060 705 RICHMOND 1370 340 44 0 44 70 2335 1110 SURREY-UC 1160 210 405 6320 2440 1195 BURNABY 3100 390 460 11060 5295 23G5 VANCOUVER 15000 1570 1790 30750 16365 10135 212 TABLE V.B (CONTINUED) LABOUB -FORCE BY OCCUPATION AND CITY SIZE CLASS FOB FEMALES FOB ALL URBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C., 1971 UBEAN COMMUNITIES SERVI. OCCUP. FARMI. S RLA. OTHER PRIMA. SECON. INDUS. TRANS. S BEL. NOT STATEI CLASS ONE GBEENWOOD 20 0 0 0 0 0 ENDEBBY 55 5 0 5 5 10 HUDSON * S HOPE 30 0 0 0 0 10 CENTBAL SAANICH 35 0 0 0 0 25 SQUAMISH 35 0 0 10 0 15 ABMSTIONG 50 10 0 10 5 20 GOLD RIVER 40 0 0 0 0 10 SALMON ARM 70 0 0 15 10 25 MACKENZIE 25 0 0 0 0 40 SPARWOOD 40 0 0 0 0 20 KINNAIRD 25 0 0 0 0 10 CLASS TWO GOLDEN 115 0 0 5 5 20 CASTLEGAR 80 0 0 10 5 25 HOPE 180 0 0 0 5 45 GRAND FORKS 90 10 0 0 5 65 CRESTON 115 10 0 20 15 35 MISSION 75 0 0 0 0 45 LADYSMITH 105 0 5 5 20 35 VALLEYVIEW 120 0 0 10 5 60 SMITHERS 110 5 5 0 0 55 ROSSLAND 90 0 0 5 0 65 COMOX 50 0 0 0 0 40 WILLIAMS LAKE 85 5 5 10 20 55 DUNCAN 140 10 0 0 20 55 FERNIE 160 0 10 15 20 40 LANGLEY . 85 0 0 0 0 45 SIDNEY 140 0 0 15 0 105 REVELSTOKE 165 0 5 30 15 75 213 TABLE V.B (CONTINUED) UBBAN SERVI. FARMI. OTHER SECON. TBANS. NOT COMMUNITIES OCCUP. 6 BLA. PRIMA. INDUS. 6 REL. STATED CLASS THREE CHILLIWACK-UF 85 30 0 75 10 15 MERRITT 155 0 0 5 10 55 CHILLIWACK-UC 135 10 0 60 15 65 QUESNEL 130 0 0 5 15 65 COURTENAY 190 5 0 25 0 85 KIMBERLEY 200 0 5 30 20 90 FOBT ST. JOHN 260 5 5 5 5 115 CHILLIWACK 300 5 5 70 30 65 NELSON 355 5 0 45 40 165 CAMPBELL RIVER 260 0 0 25 40 195 CLASS FOUR TERRACE 225 5 5 15 25 190 TRAIL 350 0 0 45 15 185 KITIMAT 210 0 0 15 45 150 DAHSON, CREEK 380 10 0 20 35 185 CBANBBOOK 405 10 0 20 25 135 VERNON 410 20 5 35 70 215 POWELL BIVEB 305 10 0 20 25 165 NANAIMO 455 5 5 30 35 275 CLASS FIVE MAPLE RIDGE 340 30 10 165 30 2 85 PRINCE RUPERT 445 0 10 235 50 165 PENTICTON 665 25 0 155 60 225 KELOWNA 545 30 0 110 95 295 CLASS SIX PORT ALBERNI 480 5 5 85 90 285 KAMLOOPS 940 5 5 100 85 3 85 PRINCE GEORGE 945 30 20 40 65 490 214 TABLE V.B (CONTINUED) URBAN SERVI. FARMI. OTHER SECON. TRANS. NOT COMMUNITIES OCCUP. 6 RLA. PRIMA. INDUS. 6 REL. STATED CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 40 5 0 10 0 35 ESQUIMALT 515 5 0 35 25 190 OAK BAY 360 0 0 25 25 3 15 SAANICH-UF 1490 60 5 155 165 765 VICTORIA 2450 60 0 325 160 1195 CLASS EIGHT FRASER MILLS 0 0 0 0 0 0 UNIVERSITY AREA 60 0 0 0 5 50 NORTH VAN.-UC 135 0 0 45 20 145 SURREY-UF 145 15 0 20 20 95 WHITE ROCK 275 10 0 35 15 160 PORT MOODY 220 5 0 80 35 140 DELTA-UF 315 25 0 50 20 255 PORT COQUITLAM 350 15 0 80 40 260 DELTA-UC 285 20 5 80 60 220 NORTH VANCOUVER 1020 15 10 190 85 630 WEST VANCOUVER 650 25 0 55 80 520 NORTH VAN.-UF 740 0 0 1 15 75 475 NEW WESTMINSTER 1295 40 10 3 80 290 635 COQUITLAM 860 35 0 265 150 490 RICHMOND 1400 105 5 560 155 725 SURREY-UC 1235 105 20 345 180 840 BURNABY 2820 90 5 750 595 1640 VANCOUVER 150 90 330 40 46 10 1885 7540 215 TABLE VI LABOUR FORCE BY INDUSTRY AND CITY SIZE CLASS FOB MALES AND FEMALES FOB ALL URBAN COMMUNITIES IN B.C., 1971 MALE FEMALE URBAN PRIMA. SECON. TERTI. . PRIMA. SECON. TERTI. COMMUNITIES INDUS. INDUS. INDUS. INDUS. INDUS. INDUS, CLASS ONE GREENWOOD 85 85 40 0 10 50 ENDERBY 35 50 150 5 10 120 HUDSON'S HOPE 10 130 155 0 0 115 CENTRAL SAANICH 0 60 200 0 5 175 SQUAMISH 80 170 250 10 15 150 ARMSTRONG 65 110 225 10 10 185 GOLD RIVER 85 340 105 5 20 115 SALMON ARM 65 150 360 0 30 285 MACKENZIE 85 345 170 5 35 185 SPARWOOD 3 40 135 160 5 15 125 KINNAIRD 35 405 285 0 15 230 CLASS TWO GOLDEN 95 335 385 0 15 290 CASTLEGAR 70 445 395 5 35 325 HOPE 240 155 480 10 15 400 GRAND FORKS 100 230 415 10 20 360 CBESTON 90 230 440 10 30 3 20 MISSION 90 270 525 5 25 365 LADYSMITH 260 350 385 30 15 340 VALLEYVIEW 90 290 84 0 10 40 550 SMITHEBS 100 165 630 10 0 430 ROSSLAND 165 495 400 5 25 340 COMOX 30 60 850 0 5 340 WILLIAMS LAKE 85 345 870 15 45 695 DUNCAN 180 420 615 10 30 590 FERNIE 440 290 620 30 25 520 LANGLEY 35 390 655 0 15 445 SIDNEY 30 240 84 0 0 45 580 REVELSTOKE 160 270 1165 25 25 645 216 TABLE VI (CONTINUED) MALE FEMALE UBBAN PBIMA. SECON. TEBTI. PRIMA. SECON. TERTI. COMMUNITIES INDUS. INDUS. INDUS. INDUS. INDUS. INDUS. CLASS THfiEE CHILLIWACK-UF 100 195 1185 3 5 115 320 MERRITT 585 420 620 10 30 565 CHILLIWACK-UC 75 295 795 20 90 535 QUESNEL 200 830 800 5 40 650 COURTENAY 285 3 20 1480 15 30 815 KIMBEELEY 885 590 630 35 45 795 FOBT ST. JOHN 375 535 1465 3 0 45 1030 CHILLIWACK 160 485 1530 25 105 1120 NELSON 215 625 1815 25 85 1505 CAMPBELL BIVEB 580 960 1290 25 65 1230 CLASS FOUB TEBRACE 585 755 1390 35 60 1275 TB AIL 310 1810 1215 75 155 1465 KITIMAT 110 2775 1030 20 215 1 130 DAWSON -CREEK 220 715 2075 15 70 1600 CBANBROOK 300 1060 2255 15 95 1575 VERNON 130 880 2235 25 115 1675 POWELL BIVEB 235 24 45 1110 20 110 1260 NANAIMO 395 1215 2505 10 75 1900 CLASS FIVE MAELE BIDGE 260 1420 2280 60 230 1650 PBINCE RUPERT 435 1785 2620 35 355 1870 PENTICTON 365 1325 2965 30 245 2375 KELOWNA 310 1470 2950 40 245 2565 CLASS SIX PORT ALBERNI 1090 3105 2115 35 215 2060 KAMLOOPS 340 2265 5035 70 175 4030 PRINCE GEOBGE 535 3160 5985 120 300 4450 217 TABLE VI (CONTINUED) MALE FEMALE UREAN PRIMA. SECON. TERTI. PRIMA. SECON. TERTI. COMMUNITIES INDUS. INDUS. INDUS. INDUS. INDUS. INDUS. CLASS SEVEN SAANICH-UC 20 135 425 10 10 330 ESQUIMALT 70 520 3265 10 100 1845 OAK BAY 135 650 3575 15 80 2580 SAANICH-UF 575 3490 10665 120 390 7635 VICTORIA 335 3340 11255 105 475 10385 CLASS EIGHT FRASER MILLS 0 35 15 0 0 0 UNIVEESITY AREA no 105 785 5 10 415 NORTH VAN.-UC 90 655 1775 5 145 915 SURREY-UF 95 610 1535 10 60 795 WHITE ROCK 60 495 1605 10 95 1240 PORT MOODY 100 1150 1755 10 155 1205 DELTA-UF 170 1465 352 5 3 5 205 1875 PORT COQUITLAM 125 1670 312 5 10 235 1 855 DELTA-UC 150 20 80 3095 30 280 1855 NORTH VANCOUVER 330 2755 654 5 80 565 5640 WEST VANCOUVER 290 1895 7725 70 325 4745 NORTH VAN.-UF 225 3015 8700 65 445 5350 NEW WESTMINSTER 3 35 4300 7300 85 920 6610 COQUITLAM 2 30 4880 7835 70 720 5155 RICHMOND 670 4955 10620 165 1120 7195 SUREEY-UC 530 6780 8460 165 820 5840 BURNABY 755 11985 23580 155 2210 17555 VANCOUVER 3305 339 30 84110 82 5 8325 73125 218 

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