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The "tz'u" of Ouyang Hsiu Yu, Teresa Yee-Wah 1977

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THE TZ'U OF OUYANG HSIU by Teresa Yee-wah Yu B.A., University of Hong Kong, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Asian Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1977 Teresa Yee-wah Yu, 1977 In presenting th i s thes is in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y sha l l make it f ree ly a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for s cho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of th is thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permiss ion. Department of Asian Studies The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS Date November 25 r 1977 i i ABSTRACT Ouyang Hsiu is well-known as a historian and a prose writer. His accomplishment as a bkih poet has also been noted and confirmed. His tz'a, however, remains relatively neglected. The object of this thesis is to introduce the tz'a of Ouyang Hsiu, to examine the qualities of these woxlcs, and to evaluate their significance in the history of tz'a development. Since biographical information on Ouyang Hsiu is readily available in English, I have provided in the introduction only a brief summary of Ouyang's life and his various achievements. Apart from 54 poems which are also attributed to other Sung poets, the authenticity of 73 tz'u (about one-third of his total corpus) in Ouyang's collection has been a question of doubt and heated dispute. In Chapter I, the different editions of Ouyang HSiu's tz'a are mentioned and compared. The historical, literary and biographical factors which surround the suspicion of fabrication are presented and analysed. Chapter II is a selection of 43 tz'a by Ouyang Hsiu, translated and followed by annotations. This selection presents a spectrum of the various styles of Ouyang Hsiu's tz'a. It is intended to give the readers a personal experience of the poet's works before their dis-cussion. Chapter III is the critical study. Since much work has been done in English on the subject of tz'a as a genre, I have only given cursory-information on the background'of tz'a and its development prior to Ouyang's time. The poems are classified into four major groups for discussion: tz'a which are typical of the tz'a tradition; tz'a which are written mainly for self-expression; tz'a composed s t r i c t l y for entertainment; and, las t l y , the 73 tz'a of doubtful authorship. In each case, I have contrasted Ouyang's tz'a with the works of other poets. I have also compared his tz'a with his &kik and prose works. If the beauty of a poem is better f e l t by reliving the poet's creative experience than by tearing i t s ingredients apart for ins-pection, this i s particularly the case with Ouyang's works. Since he excels more in a r t i s t i c expression than technical innovations, I have concentrated this study mainly on interpreting his works and relating my own feelings about them. But I have also included a general survey of the technical aspects of his tz'a. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION: Biographical Sketch 1 CHAPTER I: Problem of Authentication .7. CHAPTER II: Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u Translation and Annotations of 43 poems 37 CHAPTER III: Critical Study 135 List of Abbreviations 211 Footnotes '. • .213 Bibliography . 245 Appendix: Page Reference for Translations of tz'u from Ck'iian-6ung-tz'u 253 Abstract ; . i i Map of Sung China v Map of Sung China ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express special gratitude to my advisor, Professor C. Y. Chao, who helped me throughout the writing of this thesis. Most of a l l , I would like to thank her for the sense of joy she has always inspired in me for the appreciation of Chinese poetry. I am also greatly indebted to Professor J. Hightower who read the drafts of my f i r s t and second chapters, giving me valuable suggestions and friendly moral support. I must also thank Professor J. Walls and Professor E. G. Pulleyblank for reading the entire draft of my thesis and giving me suggestions for improvement. 1 INTRODUCTION Biographical Sketch To anyone even slightly familiar with Chinese literature or Chin-ese history, the name Ouyang Hsiu needs l i t t l e - introduction. As a prominent statesman, historian and writer, Ouyang Hsiu embodies the ideal of the model Confucian scholar-official. ^ There i s no problem finding materials about Ouyang Hsiu's l i f e . present three existing versions of his chronological biography and 3 a vast amount of primary sources on his l i f e , a l l easily accessible. In English, James T. Liu has furnished a comprehensive biography of the 4 man in his book Ouyang Hi>tu: An Etz.v2.ntk Ce.ntuAy He.o-ConiucJjx.nLi>t. J. Liu is concerned with describing the p o l i t i c a l l i f e and thought of Ouyang Hsiu as they shed light on the times he lived in. In many ins-tances, he has tried to interpret the nature of Sung p o l i t i c s and Sung intellectual history in relation to Ouyang Hsiu himself. Another work in English, a Ph.D. dissertation by Marjorie Locke, The. Easily Ltfie. ofa Ouyang Httu and HJU Relation to the. Hue. o^ the. ku-we.n Movement ofi the. Sung PeAiod, gives a f a i r l y detailed account of the f i r s t thirty years of Ouyang Hsiu's l i f e , emphasizing especially his literary l i f e as a prose master. ^ Since most of the biographical information on Ouyang Hsiu i s readily available in English, I shall provide here only a brief summary of his l i f e and achievements as a necessary background to understand his works. He has an o f f i c i a l biography 2 There are at Ouyang Hsiu [tzu -3- and ;2 L i u - i Chii-shih ; posthumous t i t l e , Wen-chung Kung ~£i%>' ) was born i n 1007 A.D. i n Mienchou J 1 ^ -H-] , i n present day Sze-chwan. He i s , however, considered a native of L u - l i n g J ] ^ ( in modern Kiahgs i ) , the fami ly ' s ancestral home. Tlius Ouyang Hsiu i s also known as L u - l i n g Hsien-shengJjJ^ fl^-^Ci • Born in to a well-educated fami ly , Ouyang Hsiu l o s t h i s father at the ear ly age of four. Upon the death of h is father, Ouyang's mother brought him to seek shel ter at h i s uncle ' s home at Sui-chou -YJ*| i n modern Hupeh. A backward region of meagre resources and barren s o i l , Sui-chou has been described by Ouyang Hsiu as "out of the way", "uncult ivated" and "a place wi th no scholars". ^ Nevertheless, i t was i n Sui-chou that Ouyang grew up. -There he developed a keen admi-r a t i on for. the wr i t ings o f Han Yu^jif j^ L and became well-grounded i n 7 the knowledge of the c l a s s i c s . He was b a s i c a l l y s e l£= taugh t . Like so many other Sung scholars who rose to prominence i n p o l i t i c s , Ouyang Hsiu started h i s o f f i c i a l career by going through the c i v i l service examinations. He obtained h is ckin-Ahik degree i n 1030, at the age of twenty-four. Ouyang's f i r s t o f f i c i a l assignment was magistrate to the governor of the c i t y of Loyang /-fr- r^j) • He remained i n th i s c u l t u r a l metro-p o l i s for four years. Although the nature of h i s work seemed l i g h t and t r i v i a l , these foasn years of o f f i ce at Loyang had important and far-reaching effects on h is subsequent p o l i t i c a l and l i t e r a r y career. In Loyang were gathered some of the most talented scholars and poets of Northern Sung. The governor of Loyang at t h i s time was Ch ' ien 3 Wei-yen a learned man himself, who along with Yang I ^L' K , u n ^ ^ ' w a s o n e °^ t^ e three leading represen-tatives of the Hsiik'un School \SO $k. , a school of poetry pre-valent in early Sung. The poetry of this school was modeled after the style of Li Shang-yin ^ (^} . However, its protagonists were largely preoccupied with an elegant style, packed with allusions 9 and expressions fastidiously used. It was a style of poetry that is "mannered, morose, with all the faults of Li Shang-yin and none of his compensations". Counteracting the influence of the Hsi-^ k'un School were poets like Mei Yao-ch'en and Su Shun-ch'in ^ wh° believed in a more natural and less adorned form of poetry. Ouyang Hsiu, a close friend and an unfailing admirer of Mei, devoted his efforts to the composition of poetry, advocating a more < £ 11 natural way of writing &hik £.<J . Besides i>hlh poetry, Ouyang wrote tz'u. ^ s] , and soon built up for himself a considerable repu-tation as a tz'u poet. In prose, p' tm-wzn^y^ 3^ had been and s t i l l was popular. It is a highly mannered and euphuistic form of writing. The deliberate use of parallelism as a stylistic device for its own sake brought about an emphasis on form rather than content. In many cases, such a style of writing became worthless as literature and ineffectual for practical use. In early Sung, however, the writing of p'to.n-WQ.Yi was further encouraged by the Hsi-k'un School. A number of scholars, no-tably Liu K ' a i J ^ ^ and Mi H s i u ^ , had revolted against it and had tried, with little success, to bring about a revival of ku-wzn 4 iC^  to replace i t . While Ouyang Hsiu was in Loyang, Su Shun-ch'in and Yin-Shu^ were already writing in this ancient style. After the example of Han Yii, and under the guidance of Yin Shu, Ouyang ex-perimented with the ancient style prose, developing a flowing and elo-quent style which he achieved with effortless grace. Apart from learning, Ouyang Hsiu was busy with a l l kinds of social ac t iv i t i e s in Loyang. As a minor o f f i c i a l , he had few responsibi l i t ies and plenty of time to enjoy himself. He was young, energetic and ta-lented. His friends and colleagues found him lovable and worthy of respect. These carefree years, however, were soon interrupted by p o l i t i c a l controversy, frontier disturbances, power struggles at court, and clashes between the newly arisen progressive o f f i c ia l s and the older conservatives. Twice in his career, Ouyang Hsiu became embroiled in these controversies, and for a total of ten years, was exiled to re-mote areas. These demotions took him to I - l i n g ^ . (dsn modern Hupeh) in 1036 as d i s t r i c t magistrate; thenafrom 1045 to 1048 to Ch'u-chou'/PJ^ -H-j in Anwhei, where he served as governor; in 1048 as pre-fect to Yangchow^^ -Wj (in modern Kiangsu); then, f i n a l l y , after one year in 1049 to the lake region of Ying-chou5&J[ '^j (in modern Anwhei), he spent another four years in Nanking^} tf^ (in modern Honan). Dur-ing these periods of absence from the distractions of the cap i ta l , Ou-yang Hsiu was able to devote himself to serious scholarly work. His H&A-n Wu-tcui-iklh jjj^ was compiled during this time. The poems and essays he wrote in this period earned him enduring fame, and 5 remain as some of the best known works in his collections. After a series of ups and downs in his o f f i c i a l career, Ouyang Hsiu was f i n a l l y summoned by Emperor Jen-tsung>{_i. ^ to Pien-ching ~ff* f° r an imperial audience. In 1057, he was assigned to take charge of the imperial examinations at the capital. In 1060, after completing H&ln T'ang-ika j ^ ^ ^ f which he was commissioned to compile, Ouyang Hsiu was appointed to the position of Vice-Councillor In Charge of State Affairs, the highest position he ever attained. Ouyang remained in this influential post for seven years, u n t i l 1067, when after an incident of moral scandal, he pleaded for less active duties i n the provinces, away from court. Finally, in 1071, avoiding conflict with Wang An-shih and other reformers on issues of new reforms, Ouyang Hsiu retired from office and settled in his home estate in Ying-chou. He died a year -later at the age of sixty-six. During the forty years of his career, Ouyang Hsiu befriended many eminent scholars and poets of his time. He was also well-known for his readiness to promote talented young men and to create chances for their advancement. Among them were Su Shih , Su C h ' e J ^ jj'S^ , Wang An-shih, Ch'eng H a a ^ l / ^ and Tseng K u n g ^ ^ . Be= cause of his popularity and position in p o l i t i c a l and literary c i r c l e s , he influenced the trend of writing of his time. In poetry, he i s credited for laying the groundwork for the kind of expression which typifies Sung t>kih. In prose, he is considered one of the greatest essayists in the history of Chinese literature. Today, while 6 his true worth as a Confucianist, statesman, and a historian have been repeatedly disputed, Ouyang Hsiu's literary achievements remain 13 unchallenged. CHAPTER I Problem of Authentication There are two different collections of Ouyang Hsiuls tz'u, Chln-t'l V'uzh-ia ~^\J^M ^ d Tsui-vowig Ch'in-(ih'ui^i&%$$S Chtn-t'i y'ue.h-{,u is the earliest known edition of Ouyang's tz'u (part of his CompleXe, Wotikb, first published in 1196 A.D.)- ^  It was compiled by Lo Mi , also a native of Lu-ling. The Sung edition of Chin-t'I ytie-h-fiu contains 194 poems, with a post-2 script by Lo. One easily available version is Shuang-chao-Zou ytng-k'an Ch'tng-y'dan Chi-chou-pun Ouyang We.n-c.hung Chin-t'i yueh-^u Ht>^ *H $%k?40 ^ &&$4^% (hereafter CTyf). 3 Stu-pu Wung-k'an VOty^ '^J (hereafter 5PTK) and S6u-pu P£st-yaoX£}-$tf i$T^!t~ (hereafter SPW) have a Yuan version of Chin-t'i y'uzh-^u. Recently, Lin Ta-ch'un made an-other collection of Chin-t'i yue.h-£u, based also upon the Yuan edi-4 tion. The Yuan version contains only 181 tz'u, omitting one sea-sonal series of y'u-ahia-ao '/&y 1 ^ $ ^ and another poem found in the Sung edition. T6ui-uie.ng Ch'yin-ah'li is a collection of unknown origin, believed to be compiled also in Sung. 5 The Yuan critic Wu Shih-tao mentions a preface to the collection by Su Shih, ^ but this preface is not to be found in T'ao-hhih She,-yuan ying-hung Ti,ui-we.ng Ch'in-ch'u %*$^ (hereafter TWCC), the only edition 7 of Thui-weng Ch'in-ch'u now available. TWCC records altogether 203 poems by Ouyang Hsiu, all but 73 also appear in CTVF. Mao Chin -4>-^ f" also made a collection of Ouyang's tz'u. [Liu-t Tz'a ) for his Sang Ltu-Akik Mtng-ckia Tz'u "7^  -j* A. iol . It contains only 171 poems, all drawn from CTVF. The latest and most complete collection of Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u is to be found in Taang Kuei-chang'sT^.^. ^  Ck'iian Sung-tz'u £ »\J (hereafter C5T). T'ang combines 171 poems from CT^ F together with 66 from TWCC (which are missing from CTVF) and 4> from other sources to make up a complete tz'u collection of Ouyang Hsiu, totaling 231 poems. Appended to this are the names of 55 poems which T'ang has excluded from the collection, judging them to be works of other writers mistakenly attributed to Ouyang. Ouyang Hsiu has been a favorite poet among tz'u anthologists. The number of his tz'u appearing in a few Sung anthologies will in-dicate this popularity at the time: yiie-h-fiu V'a-tz'u (hereafter VVVT') has 83; ^ Hua-an Tz'u-kbuan (here-after HATH), 18; 1 2 U'ao-t'ang Shlh-yu (hereafter 13 TTSY), 11. Today, the tz'u in these Sung aanthologies are useful for checking variant readings and for identifying poems of doubtful authenticity. They also give a good indication which of Ouyang's -tz'a were best received in early Sung times. Before discussing Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u and his achievements as a tz'u poet, we must consider the problem of authorship of a number of poems. Among the over two hundred tz'u attributed to Ouyang Hsiu, 54 14 also appear in the collections of other poets. This uncertainty of authorship is common with tz'u. It can be accounted for in two' 9 ways. First, although tz'a was a popular form of writing in Sung, it was never considered a serious form of expression, and its liteajaEy status was far below bkik. Tz'a were often only casually collected. Secondly, tz'a, in its early period of development, was extremely stylized. The restricted vocabulary, loaded with cliches, applied to a narrow range of expression, often resulted in a lack of indivi-duality in the poems, making it difficult to assign them to a specific poet. The 54 poems of doubtful authorship involve poets either con-temporary with Ouyang Hsiu or those who wrote in very similar styles be Ouyang's, while others have been accepted as his. In either case, they are for the most part so similar to the majority of Ouyang Hsiu's tz'a that the question of their authorship does not affect our over-all evaluation of his tz'a. A more serious problem is the authorship of the 73 poems that are not included in CTVF, but are found in TWCC. Since many of these poems are erotic in nature, traditional critics, editors and antholo-gists have generally agreed that they are fabrications deliberately ascribed to Ouyang Hsiu by his enemies, in the hope of besmirching his name. Lo Mdi writes in his postscript to CT^ F: ... I have omitted all those that are colloquial and vulgar (from CTVF), as they have been considered by most older scholars as works fabricated in the name of Ouyang by Liu Hui ... Some of the 54 poems have been demonstrated not to Tsen Tseng Ts'ao^f writes in his preface to WYT: ...A model Confucian scholar, Ouyang Hsiu thought highly of himself and his works. His style of writing i s graceful and refined, a style venerated by a l l . At his time, some in-ferior men probably composed erotic songs and w i l f u l l y ascribed 17 them to him. I shall exclude them here... Some of Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u...contain obscene and vulgar expressions. They are probably the woipks of enemies and rogues. Most (traditional c r i t i c s assume that the 73 tz'u are falsely attributed to Ouyang for three reasons. F i r s t , they do not believe that a person of his stature and integrity would write erotic tz'u. Secondly, the 73 poems are mostly not only licentious but are written in colloquial language. They represent a style markedly different from the majority of Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u. Thirdly, Ouyang Hsiu made many enemies in his l i f e as a p o l i t i c i a n , and some may have tried to ruin his reputation by forging erotic tz'u i n his name. One person who was specifically held responsible for the alleged fabrications was Liu Hui, the same person Lo Mi mentions i n his post-scri p t . - This allegation originates.from an examination episode in which Ouyang Hsiu was Chief-examiner. To understand the significance of this episode, a brief account of the whole event isnnecessary. Ch'en Cheng-sun also states in Cklh-chat Shu-la Cklth-11 19 The 1057 examination incident is recorded in Sung-Akik, ".; 20 and in a number of ppivate notes and sketches. In 1057, Ouyang Hsiu was assigned to take charge of the Doc-toral Examination held in the capital. Since it had been Ouyang Hsiu's wish to improve the examination system, once he was in office, he took full advantage of his position to institute the examination standards he had promoted unsuccessfully during the Minor Reform of 1043. He tried to broaden the subject-matter, so that more was tested than the candidates' memory of the classics. He was strongly dates at that time were interested in. It was a school of writing which encouraged the use of recondite and obscure expressions, rather than simple, straightforward arguments. When the results of the examination came out, therefore, many candidates who had been recog-nized as "promising" were rejected. These people rose in fury against Ouyang. Some wrote epitaphs and burial odes for him which they threw into his residence. Others gathered in the street when he came out, creating a tumult which took the patrol guards a long time to calm down. ^ which most of the candi-Among the failed candidates, Liu Hui (also known is mentioned particularly. writes in Sklk-sense when read. Ouyang Hsiu tried his best to discourage the fad. When he was made the Chief-examiner, therefore, he failed a l l those who wrote in this awkwardly adorned and d i f f i c u l t fashion...When the results came out, those like. Liu Hui who had been considered promising failed. There was 22 much uproar and discontent... Shen Yjda'JJCi^'k. writes in Mzng-kAt ?t-t'an~% ~/%^ ^ ...One candidate wrote, "Heaven and Earth i n tr a v a i l . A l l creation sprouts. The sages are out..." Ouyang said, "This must be Liu Chi!" He therefore parodied him by carrying on with the line. "The kii.u.-ti,'out ^ ^ r a l l i e s . The examiner judges", after which he crossed out the essay with a big red cross...and put down the remark, "Absurd!" The essay was f i n a l l y 23 proved to be Liu Chi's... Being the most conspicuous candidate who failed in the 1057 examination, Liu Hui was easily held responsible for any acts of revenge directed toward Ouyang Hsiu. For this reason, many scholars believe that Liu deliberately forged erotic tz'a in Ouyang Hsiu's name. We have already read Lo Mi's reference to Liu in his San-ch'ao Mtng-ck'en Ym-lutng-la s When Ouyang Hsiu was Chief-examiner, failed candidates like Liu Hui were antagonized. They fabricated poems such as Timi-p'mg-lai ^ and Wang-chlang-nan y^-^J in his name... ^ Ch'ien Mien^^ f^) also states in his Ch'tzn-bhih S&a-...When Ouyang Hsiu was Chief-examiner of the Doctoral Examination, those who failed the examination wrote tz'u poems like T6ui-p'zng-lai to ridicule him. Those tz'u have the most obscene expressions. I shall not record them here... ^ It would perhaps be hdlpful to examine the biographical accounts of Liu Hui. In Yang Chieh's ^ j i c ^ epitaph for him, the examination incident of 1057 is also mentioned: ...During the reign of Huang Y u f (1049-1053 A.D.) and Chih-ho, examination candidates were interested i n writing in an obscure and adorned style. Ouyang Hsiu was b i t t e r l y opposed to this. When he was made Chief-examiner of the im-perial examination in 1057, therefore, he tried his best to discourage this fashion of writing. Liu Hui was also failed in that examination. But later, when Ouyang Hsiu conducted another examination, he came across an essay which he appreciated very much. He showed i t to the emperor and e l i c i t e d the same admira-tion from him. When they disclosed the name of the candidate, they found that i t was Liu Hui. The essay was soon read and studied by everyone. And the trend of writing began to change. People who commented on this incident have expressed their admiration for Ouyang Hsiu's determination and effort. But they also praised Liu for his readiness to change and make improvements. Liu Hui fa i l e d his f i r s t examination, but took f i r s t i n his second attempt, i n another examination supervised by Ouyang Hsiu. • This fact is recorded also by Shen Kua: .A few years passed, and Ouyang Hsiu was Chief-examiner of the Doctoral Examination. L i u Chi was then one of the candidates. Ouyang Hsiu s a id , "I would t ry my best to f igh t against t h i s corrupt trend of w r i t i n g and give an. i r responsible fel low a lesson. I would rescue the world of prose from a great pest ." One • candidate wrote, "The Lord our Emperor he gathers b r i l l i a n c e and in te l l igence underneath h i s crown". Ouyang sa id , "Now I 've got L i u C h i ! " He f a i l e d him, only to f ind out l a t e r that he was another person . . . In that examination, candidates were tested on a £u on the benevolence of Emperor of Yao and Shun Ouyang Hsiu was very pleased wi th the essay (of one candidate). He gave i t s author the top pos i t i on among a l l other candidates. When the resu l t s were announced, the person was found to be L i u Hui . Those who knew the man pointed out. "This i s L i u C h i ! " He only changed his name." Ouyang Hsiu was 27 completely taken by s u r p r i s e . . . Wang P ' i - c h i h £ -2— of Sung wri tes i n lhi.z\\-i>kal ytn&t'an La L i u Hui of Ch' ien-sh was talented and wel l - read . In the fourth year of Chia-yu(1099 A . D . ) , he took f i r s t i n the palace examinat ion . . . 2 ^ According to Wm-kitzn T'ung-k'ao i . ^ K i S _ ^ r , L i u d id take f i r s t i n the palace examination of 1059, two years after the 1057 29 episode. This should prove the general c r e d i b i l i t y of these several accounts. Both Wang P ' i - c h i h and Yang Chieh have wr i t t en very favorably of L i u Hui . In Yang's account, e spec ia l ly , L i u was pic tured as a man of generosity and i n t e g r i t y . Short ly after h i s assignment to office, Liu's grandmother died. Liu, who was orphaned at an early age and raised up by his grandmother, insisted on mourning for her, resigning his office. He spent the rest of his l i f e i n his native 30 place, looking after the poor and deprived people in the region. It would be d i f f i c u l t to imagine how such a man could deliberately set about ruining another man. However, Yang's account was written for an epitaph, and cannot be taken as proof of Liuss dsategrity, since most epitaphs were expected to be favorable. On the other hand, i f Liu Hui could change his style of writing so thoroughly that even Ouyang Hsiu could not detect him, he must have made a genuine effort taeachieve the change. If this i s the case, i t makes the accusation against him highly questionable. Nevertheless, Liu Hui and the failed candidates of the 1057 examination were generally held responsible for the erotic poems which appear in Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u collection. Two poems: Iflang-ckia.ng-na.yi and T&ui-p'e,ng-lai are specifically mentioned in relation to them. There are altoge&her three tz'u written to the tune of Wang-ckiang-nan i n Ouyang's collections: 1. Butterflies of the South, F l i t t i n g , two by two, In the slanting rays of the setting sun. Like Master Ho's face, their bodies are laden with powder; After Han Shou, their hearts long for love-stolen fragrance. Born to be frivolous and carefree! After a drizzle, Their gossamerlike wings glisten in the misty Slight. Now accompanying the wandering bees to the small courtyard; Now following the flying catkins across the east wall. 31 Forever busy among the flowers! Willows of the South, Flowers and willows both so affectionate and gentle. When the petals f a l l , they cling onto wine goblets; Where the willow strands hang, they brush on men's heads. Each has i t s carefree gaiety! A moon of the South, Resembles a mirror, resembles a hook. Like a mirror but never encompasses a pink-powdered face; Like a hook yet never- hangs over a painted screen. 32 Forever shining where there is parting sorrow. A willow of the South, Its leaves so small i t does not make shade. No one would have the heart to pluck i t s boughs, Boughs so soft and f r a i l . The warbler fears that i t s branches are too delicate to support a song, Branches so tender and young. It is l e f t u n t i l spring is farther along. Fourteen years of age, or fifteen, Leisurely, with a p'i-p'a. in her arms She looked around--As we gambled on the steps, she ran past down below, Then I had already noticed her, 33 How could I f a i l to see her now? A l l these three poems can be found i n TWCC. However, poems 2. and 3 are missing from CTVV. Only poem 1 appears in this collec-34 tion. Y¥VT also collects this tz'a. Apparently a poem on butterflies, poem 1 describes allegori-cally the occupation of a philanderer. Like butterflies flying forever among flowers, picking nectar, he i s always i n the company of g i r l s , within pleasure-quarters. The analogy is emphasized by the poem does not use butterflies as a symbol for philanderers. It remains a description of butterflies likened to philanderers. There is nothing e x p l i c i t l y erotic about this poem. In spite of i t s im-plications, i t is saved from the editor's censure. Poem 2 is f a i r l y transparent and decently written. One wonders why i t was found objectionable. Poem 3 is- the Wang-ckiang-nan most traditional c r i t i c s are worried abbut. It is the poem which creates the most controversy over Ouyang's private morals. The f i r s t stanza describes in clear but metaphorical terms the suppressed desire for a young g i r l . Stanza 2 pictures in plain language a vivid impression of the g i r l i n her early teens. The g i r l is probably a young1, entertainer in a casino h a l l . As the man in the poem and the other people gambled up on the stpps, she ran past down below them. With a p't-p'a in her arms, her eyes darted around, as i f in search of something, or somebody. These several lines of stanza 2 are so vividly written, one tends to believe that the poet i s 35 as well as However, depicting a real s ituation. The last two lines exppess boldly the mantss stronger desire for the g i r l , now that she is grown-up. It A pair of golden-bird ear-rings, An age so young— She learns to pencil her brows And powders her cheeks l i gh t ly . She is everybody's topic, everybody's favorite. She doesn't understand this feeling, She just knows how to smile. In her dancing dress she moves gracefully. Walking around colorful feast-tables, She displays her charm and s k i l l . Master Liu has a heart for this flower, 36 Only that he comes too early for i t ! Compared to this tz'u, poem 3 is much more direct and personal. Its two f ina l lines end almost in a confession. No wonder this poem creates so much alarm.. TAut-p'zng-Zal i s another of Ouyang Hsiu's erotic tz'u which upsets the tradit ional c r i t i c s . Again, i t writes of a young teenage g i r l : reminds one of another , which occurs also exclusively in TWCC: A bashful look, a pair of knitted brows. A tender face smoothly rouged. A slender waist so graceful. Besides the railings where the dahlia grow, I stop her and won't let her pass. Half-covering her shyness, In a soft, wavering voice she asks, "Does anybody know?" She tries to rearrange her silken dress, And returns me a secret look. Now standing, now s i t t i n g . She asks again, "What i f After the whole aff a i r These hair tresses a l l messed up, And mother guesses rightly what happened?--I'd better go home, You stop this now, For mother, There is some sewing I haven't quite finished. T i l l the night is deeply Below the shadow of the garden blossoms, 37 We'll meet again." This poem describes someone's intimate dallying with a young g i r l . The g i r l , stopped by the man, responds to his f l i r t a t i o n . Afraid that her "mother" would find out about her behavior, she refuses to play around with him then, but promises to be back again for a meeting, after i t is dark. This is one of the most frank and playful poems in TWCC. The poem is written from the observer's point of view, but the words of the g i r l are quoted a l l through. Since this poem, Wang-c.kia.ng-nan, yti-lou-ck'un and a f a i r number of Ouyang's other tz'u in TWCC all write about young maidens in a bold and intimate way, they have aroused a great deal of suspi-cion. The repeated references to young (teenage girls have been looked upon by many as evidence of Ouyang Hsiu's loose private life. The girl in Wang-cktang-nan, in particular, was thought to be Ouyang Hsiu's niece, the young Niece Chang who involved Ouyang Hsiu seriously in a moral scandal which almost ruined his career. The Incident of Niece Chang occurred in 1045, when Ouyang Hsiu was thirty-nine. The account was recorded in Sung-ikih, in HAU TZU-aklh T'ung-cklm Ch.'ang-plzn}$i ?J[ } VL \|j£^ i -4.i'fe ^(hereafter HTTC) , in Ouyang Wm-ckung Kung Utzn-p'u jL^ '^ -^ 'ft^ ' i - n several other private records. ^  Ouyang Hsiu had a widowed sister who was married into the family of Chang. After her husband's death, she went to stay with Ouyang's family, bringing with her a daughter of her husband by a previous marriage. The child, though having no blood relations with Ouyang's family, was s t i l l a niece to Ouyang. Niece Chang grew up in Ouyang's home, and was later married to a distant relative of the family. In 1045, a few years after the marriage, she was charged with having committed adultery with a servant. During the trial, Niece Chang con-fessed not only to this charge, but to having had intimate relations with Ouyang Hsiu before her marriage. The policy-critic-adviser Ch'ien Ming-i , who was inclined to believe the witness, had Ou-39 yang put in jail and charged with ineest. Ouyang Hsiu was also accused of having allowed Niece Chang to register a piece of land she had acquired with her marriage settlement in the name of the Ouyang family, apparently to get the benefit of Ouyang Hsiu's tax-exemption priv i lege . Ouyang Hsiu denied both allegations. The o f f i c ia l s in charge of the t r i a l did not want to have any more "digressions" from Niece Chang. ^ He was ready to close the case, but the Chief-Counci-l l o r Chia Ch'ang-ch'ao K ^ {f)Jf^ i , a r i v a l of Ouyang, would not allow i t . He arranged for a r e t r i a l . Two o f f i c i a l s , Su An - shih ^ " - ^ -J^ T and Wang Chao-ming were appointed to supervise i t . It was said that Wang had clashed with Ouyang Hsiu before when 41 the lat ter tr ied to block him from an appointment to a post. Nevertheless, he conducted a fa i r t r i a l , refusing to go beyond the normal jud ic ia l l imi t s . When Su suggested the idea of using torture in order to press for a confession from Ouyang, Wang objected strongly. Thus, Niece Chang's testimony was found to be inconclusive, and the orig inal verdict was upheld. Chia, however, was not sat is f ied. He asked for a third investigation. At this point, he was advised to drop the case. Since the antagonism between him and Ouyang was so well known, i t would be unwise of him to persecute such a high-ranking 43 o f f i c i a l on dubious grounds. On second thought, Chia took the advice and ordered the case to be closed. However, Ouyang was s t i l l found guilty of negligence under a c i v i l law by allowing a false registration of property under his name. He was demoted to the prefecture of Ch'u-chou, far away from the capi ta l . It was not unusual in those days for an o f f i c i a l to have intimate relations with courtesans and singing g i r l s . Fan Chung-yen -/fc^i^ 4 44 was sa id to have been i n love wi th a young courtesan. Ssu-ma Kuang " ^ ) ^ » much respected for h i s upright conduct, d id 45 not r e f r a in from w r i t i n g extravagant love poems. As a matter of fac t , the l i f e that many s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s led i n the T'ang and Sung times was by no means asce t ic . However, to have committed incest was another matter. Ouyang Hsiu ndmiself s trongly denied the charge. As he explained h is own s i t ua t ion to the emperor shor t ly after h i s demotion: . . . I have one s i s t e r from the same mother. Having lo s t her husband, she had no one to lean on. Thus she returned to stay wi th us, together wi th her orphan g i r l . The g i r l was then only seven. . .Since I was made a p o l i c y - c r i t i c - a d v i s e r , I have run into the enmity of men of wealth and power. I f I 46 am not sent away, they w i l l not cease t h e i r persecut ions . . . Ouyang Hsiu was implying that the whole incident was a p lo t by h is enemies to r u i n him. Wang C h i h J . ^ ^ also susggests i n Uo-ckl that Niece Chang had been led to bel ieve that she would draw 47 a l i g h t e r penalty i f Ouyang Hsiu was dragged into the case. At any ra te , few would want to bel ieve that Ouyang Hsiu was g u i l t y . As a leader of state and a well-known scholar who had constantly upheld' Confucian e t h i c a l teachings, Ouyang Hsiu had a very correct pub l ic image. Many assume i t to be u n l i k e l y that a person who claimed so much moral authori ty could have committed th i s kind of offence. However, there were those unwi l l i ng to bel ieve that Ouyang Hsiu was t o t a l l y innocent. Ouyang had frequented the company of courtesans 23 in his younger days. Those who had doubts about his morals could point to poems, such as TMii-p'e.ng-lcu. and Wang-chiang-nan. The latter was part icular ly noted because i t pointedly involves a young maiden who could well be the young niece in question. Ch'ien Mien writes about his uncle's comment after he had read Ouyang's let ter to the emperor: . . ."The g i r l was then only seven", "only seven!" ex-48 claimed my academician uncle, "that was just about the 49 time she learned to run after the gambling coins!'".'.. One must, however, consider Ch'ien Mien's attitude to the entire incident. For personal reasons, he expressed open dis-approval of Ouyang Hsiu, describing him as one "who had l i t erary talent but no moral integrity". ^ He happened to be a relat ive of Ch'ien Wei-yen (his father was a nephew of Ch'ien Wei-yen) who had showed kindness to Ouyang Hsiu when the Oiatter worked under him at Loyang. According to Ch'ien'Mien, Ch'ien Wei-yen has been unfair ly treated in Ouyang's account of him in H&Zn Wu-tai-Akih and Kuzl-t'lm Lu&fy & Incidentally, Ch'ien Ming- i , who was responsible for the t r i a l of Niece Chang was another nephew of Ch'ien Wei-yen. He might have been prejudiced against Ouyang Hsiu during the t r i a l for a similar reason. On the other hand, more and more c r i t i c s are becoming skeptical 52 about the idea of fabrication in Ouyang's tz'u. Some even doubt Ouyang' s innocence in the Niece Chang Incident. Hu Shih ^"jfj , for one, believes that the Niece Chang episode "could not be wholly 53 groundless". Although the poem "Wang-chiang-nan might not have been about Niece Chang", Hu refers to another poem of Ouyang Hsiu 54 which he thmnks could very l i k e l y have something to do with her. The tz'u referred to is Nan-ko-tzu -^l|*J> , a poem which appears even in CTVF: A phoenix-style bun in a gold-splashed ribbon, A palm-like oomb of jade carved with dragons. |he comes over under the window, Laughing and leaning against me, Keeps asking, "Eyebrows painted in this shade, Are they in fashion?" She leans on me And plays long with her brush. Drawing flowers, trying.her f i r s t sketch. Idling away a l l those sewing hours/. With a smile she asks, "Those words for mandarin drake and duck, How do you write them?" (Translation no. 39) Since the g i r l described i n this poem seems to be one of Ouyang Hsiu's family, Hu Shih suspects that she is the niece herself. On the other hand, because two lines of this tz'u (last two of stanza 1) are borrowed from a poem by Chu Ch'ing-yu ^ which describes a new bride, ^ the g i r l has been suggested by some c r i t i c s as Ouyang 25 Hsiu's young bride. Although few traditional c r i t i c s have passed direct comments on the Incident of Niece Chang, many believe that the erotic poems found in Ouyang Hsiu's collection are the works of his p o l i t i c a l adversaries. Even i f one ignores Liu Hui and the failed candidates of the 1057 examination, such a speculation is not altogether groundless. Rising to the highest positions i n court, Ouyang Hsiu was always active, f u l l of v i t a l i t y and high aspirations. He was constantly involved in court affairs. Because he was at times opinionated and always straightforward, he made many enemies at court. The f i r s t major clash at court occurred as early as 1036, several 58 years Sfter Ouyang Hsiu had started his o f f i c i a l career. In the 1036 Incident of Lii and Fan, Fan Chung-yen, then Acting Metropolitan Prefect of K'ai-feng, was ousted by Lii I-chien j|? , the Chief-councillor. Before that, Fan had openly c r i t i c i z e d Lu's conduct and malpractices as Councillor. Fan also observed that the emperor had been indulging himself i n "idleness and pleasures...giving l i t t l e 59 heed to the selection of wise and able ministers". As a result, Fan was at once demoted. Ouyang Hsiu had been friends with Fan since the two met at service i n K'aifeng. Like Fan, Ouyang believed that o f f i c i a l s had the moral responsibility to speak out against any misguided measures of the court. When the clash between Lii and Fan occurred, the p o l i c y - c r i t i c -adviser Kao Jo-na ^ ^ " J r ^ remained throughout discreetly silent. But after Fan was dismissed, he began to c r i t i c i z e him openly and expressed his 26 support for Lu. When Ouyang Hsiu heard his disparagement of Fan, he was infuriated, and at once composed a letter, criticizing Kao for not speaking for justice. He also accused him of yielding to those in power. The letter was written in the most outrageous and insulting terms. ^  Kao was utterly humiliated. He took the letter to court and made i t public. Lu's authority being challenged indirectly, he too was enraged. Ouyang Hsiu was at once dismissed and demoted to the subrprefecture of I-ling. Ouyang Hsiu reacted to the demotion with l i t t l e resentment or self-pity, and when seven years later he was called back to the capital as policy-critic-adviser by the emperor, he was as outspoken and active as ever. In 1043, together with Fan Chung-yen and Han Ch'i j j ^ 3^ , Ouyang Hsiu submitted the famous Ten-point Memorial which inaugurated the Minor Reform of Northern Sung. ^ The Memorial included mainly measures devised to recruit better qualified administrators and to exercise a tighter control over the entire bureaucracy. Many officials felt that the proposals endangered their positions. They also reduced thelpossibility of entering of f i -cialdom through connections. Consequently, the reform met with many difficulties and strong resistance. Only some of its proposals were implemented, and the entire campaign soon lapsed. As one of the leaders who initiated the reform, Ouyang Hsiu became very unpopular. Ouyang Hsiu had dissatisfied many in the Minor Reform. However, the greatest stir he createdaat court was yet to come. Immediately previous to the Incident of Niece Chang, Ouyang Hsiu was involved in one 27 o f the b i g g e s t f a c t i o n a l d i spu t e s i n Nor thern Sung. As e a r l y as 1036, when the Inc iden t o f Fan and L i i o c c u r r e d , Fan and Ouyang had been accused o f forming a f a c t i o n and c r e a t i n g d i s s e n s i o n s i n the c o u r t . When T s ' a i Hsiang^|^j|^ p r a i s e d those who were demoted as a r e s u l t o f the i n c i d e n t and spoke i l l o f Lu and h i s suppo r t e r s , two o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s were c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n -62 t i a t e d . L a t e r , when Fan and some o f h i s f o l l o w e r s were promoted to key p o s i t i o n s , S h i h C h i e h J ^ " ^ , an o f f i c i a l who was sympathet ic w i t h them expressed h i s j o y openly i n see ing "the advance o f worthy 6 3 o f f i c i a l s " . A genera l f e e l i n g o f o p p o s i t i o n began to develop i n c o u r t . Once the reformers d e c l a r e d t h e i r p roposa l s f o r r e fo rm, rumors began to spread about Fan c r e a t i n g f a c t i o n s and p r a c t i s i n g f a v o r i t i s m . F i n a l l y , Jen- t sung became_skep t ica l . He asked Fan p r i v a t e l y about the a l l e g e d f a c t i o n a l i s m . Fan , however, answered b o l d l y tha t i f a c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p should he lp men work toge ther f o r the bet terment o f the s t a t e , he saw n o t h i n g wrong w i t h the i d e a o f a f a c t i o n . In support o f M i i s , Ouyang soon composed h i s famous essay "On Taction*" ^ ^(jj) wh ich he submit ted to the emperor. ^ In h i s essay , Ouyang draws a dichotomy o f chun-tzu% (the gentleman) and kitao-jtni^ (the i n f e r i o r man). A p a r t y o f chun-tzu, he a rgues , i s formed out o f a shared p r i n c i p l e to serve the s t a t e . A p a r t y o f frAiao-jcn, on the o ther hand, i s o n l y a temporary band j o i n e d f o r p r o f i t and power. The l a t t e r group does not c o n s t i t u t e a r e a l p a r t y . I t s members d r i f t apar t . as soon as they see no p rospec t o f g a i n i n the o t h e r s ' company. Ouyang H s i u ma in ta ins tha t i t i s the emperor 's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h between these two parties in the court. Though well argued, this essay by Ouyang Hsiu takes a self-righteous and moralistic tone. Fan and his followers were also a l l opinionated and very proud of themselves. Fan and Ouyang were both noted by Yen Shu as being particularly "outspoken" and "making too many comments". ^  Ouyang Hsiu, especially, could be recklessly harsh and blunt when he criticized. By claiming themselves as ch'un-tza and condemning the others as hblao-jm, Ouyang Hsiu and the re-formers had unwisely created sharp dissension at court. This finally brought about bitter party strife in Northern Sung,- joined with a good deal of personal hatred. Since Ouyang Hsiu made so many enemies in his career, i t is possible that some of them may have tried to ruin him by slander, or by ascribing erotic tz'a to his name. On the other hand, Ouyang Hsiu was given to dissipation in his younger days, to the detriment of his reputation. When Ouyang Hsiu was serving in Loyang, he devoted his days to the enjoyment of wine, women and song. He loved drinking and sang angreat deal. Many of his tz'a were sung by courtesans and singing girls as part of their active repertoire. ^ He was also fond of women. There was an incident recorded in Ch'' Izn-bhlh SAu-chLh \&4&fL ^ abpwt 6 7 him and a courtesan. It is said that during his years in Loyang, Ouyang Hsiu had intimate relations with one courtesan. One day, Ch'ien Wei-yen played host to a party in his courtyard. The guests waited for a long time before Ouyang and the courtesan arrived. Everyone was an-29 xious and annoyed. Ch'ien reprimanded the girl for being late. She explained that since i t was hot, she took a nap in the garden chamber and lost her gold hairpin there. She and Ouyang were late because they had been looking for the pin. Ch'ien suggested that i f Ouyang Hsiu could improvise a tz'u on her behalf, he would pay for her new hairpin. Thereupon Ouyang Hsiu composed a tz'u to everyone's 68 satisfaction. The girl was then asked to pour a glass of wine for Ouyang. And Ch'ien ordered money from the public tfeasury to pay for her new hairpin. Drawn from a private record, this anecdote may not be entirely reliable. However, there are more reliable sources which note similar loose behavior in Ouyang Hsiu. It is recorded in HTTC that when Ouyang Hsiu was in Loyang, he received warnings from his su-periors about his behavior. ^ At one time, Wang Wen-k'ang £ -^Jp^  warned him to check his loose conduct, or he would easily "go the way of K'ou Chun^ JJF- ". Ouyang answered boldly that a l i t t l e pleasure would do no harm. The failure of K'ou Chun, he argued playfully, was due to his reluctance to give up his position in his old age, rather than to his taking pleasure in l i f e . A few years later, however, in a letter replying to Sun Cheng-chih X £ , Ouyang wrote: The last thirty years... I have indulged myself in wine and song. I took pleasure in these things, not knowing that they were not the right things to do...I can only try my best to do 71 good now to make up for a l l my wrongs... But Ouyang Hsiu did not truly regret his early behavior. Later in his l i f e , he often looked back at those days in Loyang with nostalgia and constantly referred to them in his tz'u poems. The following tz'u is one of the many poems Ouyang wrote which re-capture the spirit and charm of this period of carefree l i f e in Loyang: Often recalled, the fascinating scenery of Loyang, Where warm mists and genial breeze add To the taste of wine, Where warblers sing at feast-tables As i f beseeching one to stay; And flowers poke their heads above the wall A l l suggesting design. Since parting, We are thousands of green hills apart. Upon this high tower, I strain my gaze Toward the setting sun. My heart wants only to know i f the peonies are red now. 72 A patch of spring sorrow creeps into my dream. In the poetic diction of the time, warblers, fiowers, warm mists and genial breeze are but delicately veiled descriptions of pleasures among courtesans in drinking houses and pleasure quarters 73 in the gay metropolis. This poem is in fact f i l l e d with erotic implications, and reflects the kind of l i f e Ouyang Hsiu led in Loyang Nor did Ouyang's indulgence in pleasure stop after he left Loyang There are several records of his susceptibility to girls at a later 31 date. One passage from Hou-ck'tng Lu^^ reads: When Ouyang Hsiu was v i s i t i n g in Ju Yin'/^k" , a bright courtesan caught his attention. He liked the g i r l very much.. One day, over the feast-table, Ouyang jokingly made a promise that he would be back to be governor of the city. A few years later, he did get a transfer from Wei-yang^-^ . But the g i r l was no longer there...Ouyang was disappointed ...and he wrote these lines: The willow catkins have disappeared with spring; 74 Begonia probably regrets that I've come too late. Another passage from Vln-chix Sklk-kua^^f(L »^ reads: During the reign of Ch'ing-1 (1041-1048 A.D.), on his way to office in Hua-chou >1^^") > Ouyang passed through the ci t y of Wei and stayed in the prefect's house. There he took one of the courtesans to spend the night with him. The morning after, afraid that the af f a i r would be known, he offered the g i r l a gold hairpin, hoping that she would keep her mouth 75 shut. However, the g i r l did not maintain her silence... Although stories of this kind are not completely reliable, there is enough evidence to suggest that the charge of "loose conduct" was not unfounded. Along with wine, women and song, Ouyang Hsiu was fond of fun and company. He was well-known for his generosity and his readiness to meet new friends and discover talents. On many occasions, he would play the role of a lavish host. While Ouyang Hsiu was prefect of Yangchow, he constantly entertained guests in the famous hall of P'ing-shan of lotus blossoms to be picked and put into vases. The vases would then be arranged in a circle, surrounding the guests. And as the guests sang and drank, courtesans would serve them and offer them blossoms as prizes for their compositions. Most people are unfamiliar with these aspects of Ouyang Hsiu's private life. However, it was this carefree life Ouyang led in his younger days which earned him the reputation that was to pursue him in his later career. The Incident of Niece Chang almost ruined him. In 1067, Ouyang was involved in another moral scandal with his daughter-77 in-law. This episode virtually brought him doxvn in his old age. Of course not all accounts of Ouyang Hsiu's private life are re-liable. It is• not easy to acquire the truth of a contemporary's primate life, and it is even more difficult to uncover that of a man who lived several centuries ago. If he happens to be an important historical figure like Ouyang Hsiu, the task is made doubly difficult. For any record of the man is bound to be slightly colored or distorted. While those who hated him might have tried to slander him, others who had high opinion of him would do their best to defend him. Interesting enough, when the Incident of Niece Chang occurred, according to Ouyang Hsiu,liNiece Cliang was seven when she came to join his family, but all 78 the official hdssfcoBies say that she was only four. There was an unmistakable attempt to try to slant facts in Ouyang's favor. We have seen the various intricate factors which underly the pro-76 Before every big feast,=he would order thousands blem of authenticity surrounding the 73 poems. There is no con-clusive proof for or against the authenticity of these tz'u. Yet for several reasons, I am inclined to conclude that these poems are generally the works of Ouyang Hsiu. In early Sung times, the authorship of tz'u was often uncertain. Some of the poems in question could possibly be the works of other poets (15 of them are also attributed to other poets). However, i t i s presumptuous to exclude the entire 73 tz'u from Ouyang Hsiu's collection simply because they are erotic. As mentioned earlier, the lives of many Sung o f f i c i a l s were by no means ascetic. Stories of love affairs^with young singing g i r l s are told of such upright scholars as Fan Chung-yen and Ssu-ma Kuang. Ouyang Hsiu was i n no way exceptional. We have already seen some private aspects of his l i f e . Even i f the two scandals were entirely slanderous, there must have been enough evidences in his private l i f e to lend c r e d i b i l i t y to this kind of allegation. Wine, women and song being a part of Ouyang Hsiu's l i f e , i t i s only natural that they are reflected occasionally i n his works. We have seen how this kind of l i f e i s reflected even in his more refined poems, veiled in the traditional poetic diction of the time. Although Ouyang Hsiu protested strongly against the accusation of incest, he never denied writing eroftc tz'u. When Yen Shu was accused of writing flippant love songs (which he did), his son Yen C h i - t a o^ - ^ ^ J ^ i m -mediately stepped forward to defend him. If Ouyang Hsiu had never composed any licentious poems, one would expect his sons to have done the same for him. In the several biographical accounts of Ouyang 79 Hsiu written by his sons, the 1057 examination episode is described, but there is no mention of any wilf u l attempt to injure his reputa-tion by attributing unseemly tz'u to him. It was nothing new to write about love in. tz'u, a genre which of development, from the period of T'ang through the Five Dynasties, tz'u was characterized by a tradition of stylized refinement and subtle descriptions. There was a limited range of themes and emotions, but the subject was usually romantic. This tradition was pursued by most Southern T'ang and early Sung poets. It is also the style which predominates in the works of Ouyang Hsiu. With the beginning of Sung, a new style of tz'u gradually 81 emerged. Drawing closer to the popular songs of the commpn •folk, i t began to explore the world of love (often erotic) i n a re a l i s t i c manner, often using a plain and colloquial language. This kind of tz'u usually describe love from the protagonist's point of view, with psychological insight. Yet they do not idealize love or exaggerate i t s importance. The descriptions are at times disarmingly frank, but for a while i t was a refreshing way of writing tz'u. Liu Yung ?Jv» was one of the leading poets who wrote in this style. In spite of the condemnation he received from the literary c i r c l e , Liu was extremely popular with the common people. His songs 82 were sung "wherever there was habitation". after a l l originated as popular songs. 80 In i t s earliest stages Other Sung poets such as Huang T'ing-chien and Ch i n Kuan^^^Jrb also wrote thisskind o£ tz'u. However, unlike Ouyang Hsiu who set himself up as a moral exemplar, these poets were not self-righteous, and were less vulnerable to attack than Ouyang. Moreover, most of their experimentations were done among private parties. Not many of them wrote enough in the open to create any uproar. Arid before Su Shih introduced a new way of writing tz'u by enlarging i t s scope of expression and elevating i t s subject-matters, this type of tz'u flourished secretly. For a period of time, i t coexisted with the refined l i t e r a t i tz'u of the earlier tradition. Tikis phenomenon well explains the discrepancy in style between the majority of Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u. and the 73 poems missing from CTVT (the former are mainly works of the refined tradition, the latter belong to the newly arisen flippant love poems of Sung). But Ouyang is not the only poet whose tz'u f a l l into these two extremes. Liu Yung, Huang T'ing-chien and Ch'in Kuan a l l wrote in these dis-t i n c t l y different styles. Their tz'u at times rise to lofty heights of emotion and contemplation. At other times they can be extremely playful and colloquial. Huang T'ing-chien is well-known for his elevated style and his shunning vernacular elements i n '&lnik. Yet some of his tz'u are l i -centious and colloquial. Huang once confessed: When I was young, in my leisure time, I wrote tz'utfco go along with wine and a l l the pleasures of the world. Monk Fa-hsiu reproved me alone for leading others astray through writing. "According to my School", he said, "you should be sent to the worst part of hell". But hasn't he 84 read some of Shu-yuan's (Yen Chi-tao) works?... Obviously, this new style of t z ' a was prevalent in Northern Sung. Because t z ' a were written mainly to be sung as entertain-ment, often i t allowed the poets a casual but realistic handling of love themes without suggesting anything confessional. In gen-eral, therefore, poets tend to write more freely in t z ' a than in As an ardent innovator in many areas of literature and scholar-ship, Ouyang Hsiummust have tried his hand on the new s$rle of t z ' a . Although Ouyang's collection is predominately in the refined tradition, i t contains (even i f we disregard the 73 poems in question) a wide variety of experimentations. Indeed, i t would be strange i f this prevalent style of writing t z ' a has completely escaped his attention. CHAPTER II Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u (Translation and Annotations) In this chapter, I have translated, with annotations, 43 poems by Ouyang Hsiu. This selection, which totals about one-quarter of Ouyang Hsiu's entire tz'u corpus, is representative of his works. At the same time, I believe that i t covers a l l the1 different styles of tz'u he has written. Ouyang's tz'u f a l l naturally into several groups: tz'u which are typical of the tradi t ion , tz'u which are written mainly for self-expression, and, f i n a l l y , works composed s t r i c t l y for enter-tainment. I have also incorporated into this selection some poems of dubious authenticity from WCC. There are, in these 43 poems, styl ized boudoir laments, flippant love songs, poems on singing g i r l s , on parting, on sceneries, songs on the twelve months of the year, as well as on the lotus g i r l s and the Spinning Maid. There are also the more personal tz'u which reveal traces of Ouyang's l i f e . A l l in a l l , this selection reflects Ouyang's diversi ty . The poems are arranged roughly into the three groups l i s t ed above, although I have not attempted to label them or put them into water-tight com-partments. For many of the poems overlap one another, and any r i g i d c lass i f icat ion can only be arbitrary. I have chosen to translate these 43 poems into free verse. Since the forms of poetry are a l l so very much a part of the language they are written i n , i t i s impossible to reproduce the exact metrical effect of the Shiiaese or ig inal in English. Instead of attempting to preserve f i d e l i t y to form, therefore, I am primarily concerned with accuracy in meaning. I also try for similar poetic effects and a flow of natural English in my translation. Whenever possible, efforts have been made to maintain a similar number of lines i n each poem as i n the original. When translating certain stock images in the original, d i f f i c u l -ties arise occasionally, i n which one has to make a choice between accuracy and readability. A good example is J j £ ) tuan-ch'ang (broken bowels) which -I have rendered as "broken heart". c-h'ang (bowel) is considered as the seat of love and emotions in Chinese poetry. Thus taan-ch'ang means sadness, the same as "broken heart". In cases similar to this, I have taken the liberty to translate the images f a i r l y freely, avoiding the comical effects that l i t e r a l tran-slation might otherwise produce. Since most tz'u tune-titles are irrelevant to the contents of the poems, I have decided to transliterate them. Indeed, these t i t l e s are for a l l practical purposes names of meters. It could be misleading to have them translated. However, in cases where Ouyang Hsiu adds a sub-title (which is the real t i t l e of the poem), i t w i l l of course be translated. In annotating the poems, I have remarked upon such matters as their sources, problems of authenticity, variant read-imgs, and i n particular, on the wording of the poems: points of ambiguity and incoherence, allusions and contextual borrowings. I have also supplied some of the necessary historical or biographical information and other technical details which might help a reader to a better understanding of the poems. In some cases, I have also explained the different shades of meaning of the original where the translation seems inadequate My translations are based entirely on CST although I have con-sulted other editions for my annotations. These editions include (apart from CTVV and TWCC which almost make up CST) OYVSC, VTVT, LIT, HATH, TTSY,and LTSY. My notes on variant readings and certain cross-references are based upon the edition of Lin Ta-ch'un and the annotations of Ts'ai Mou-hsiung * f^T\/*p . . However, I have not tried to mention every variant reading which occurs in the poems, but only point out those which, I believe, make observable differences in the meaning of the original. 1 TZe-k-JLitn-ktia. Deep, deep i s the courtyard--who knows how deep? Willows p i l e up mist, Endless folds of hanging curtains and screens. Where bridles of jade and carved saddles Roam and look for pleasure, From the high chamber, the Chang T'ai Road cannot be seen. The rain rages, the wind blusfcers this late A p r i l . The door closes in twilight--There i s no way to induce spring to stay. With t e a r - f i l l e d eyes I ask the flowers, The flowers do not speak. A r i o t of red whirls away past the garden swing. (Translation by J. J. Liu, 2 modified.) ft & £ * 4b *#it#X . T4,e.h-LLzn-hua. Deep, deep is the courtyard--a door tightly closed. Over the painted chamber Folds of lonely beaded curtains hang. As we approach the Day of No Fire, The gentle rain has stopped. In the depths of the green willows, a garden swing dangles. The handsome young man has not ceased his frivolous roaming. Not remembering that in such a beautiful season, I have no one to draw these eyebrows for me. The heartless one has not returned yet, Spring has gone. Apricot blossoms fade and f a l l in scented pinks. ^ PL # #1 1 . & t A\% A * ^ 42 The first of these two poems is one of the most often anthologized and discussed of Ouyang's tz'u, in spite of the fact that there is considerable doubt about its authenticity. It is attributed to Ou-yang Hsiu in CTVF, TWCC, HATH, TTSV, LIT and LTSY, 3 but is also found in Feng Yen-ssu's collection, Yang-ch'un Chi f^)-^"*-!^ • ^ Most people (including some compilers of Ouyang's collections) who believe that this tz'u is a work of Ouyang Hsiu do so because of a remark by Li Ch'ing-chao ^  vjj" • ^  Li had a special love for this poem. She was particularly fond of its first line which she used as the opening line to two of her own poems. ^  In an accompanying, note to one of the poems, she refers to this tz'u as a work of Ouyang Hsiu. However, there are critics who doubt the reliability of Li's reference. Ch'en T'ing-cho ffJLl&J*^- and T'ang Kuei-chang are two g among all-few others who believe this to be a poem of Feng. T'ang gives three main reasons to support his view: 1. Yang-ch'un Clti was compiled in the period of Chia-yu^^j^^ (1056-1063 A.D.), a time not too far removed from Feng Yen-ssu (9037-960?). 2. Its compiler, Ch'en Shih-hsiu , was a relative of Feng. 3. Li Ch'ing-chao attributes the poem to Ouyang Hsiu probably because she is quoting it directly from Ouyang's tz'u, unaware that i f occurs simultaneously in Feng's collection. T'ang's arguments are reasonable but not conclusive. It is better, perhaps, to search within the corpus of Ouyang's tz'u for better clues. We shall now examine the second quoted tz'u by Ouyang Hsiu (found both in CTVF and WCC). A comparison of this poem (hereafter poem fa) with the other (poem a) discloses a striking similarity between the two. Both poems are written to the tune of Tick-LLe.n-h.ua AJij. , both write about the same seasonal and physical setting, and both speak in the same voice of a lonely lady. The mood and the wording are so similar that one can hardly read through one without remembering the other. Despite their similarity, however, there i s a distinct difference between the poems: poem a seems to show a greater intensity and subtlety of feeling than poem lb. In poem b, the protagonist's voice i s easier to identify, and she seems to be more aware of her own grief than to be totally immersed in i t . There i s an almost objective quality in the very subjective feelings expressed i n the poem. Per-sonally, I believe poem a to be more l i k e l y a work of Feng, since i t 9 is closer to his style of writing, as poem fa is closer to Ouyang's. It is also logical to think that no one poet would have written two closely parallel poems with such an observable difference in style and tone of voice. In faot, the two poems being so similar, and the prac-tice of writing tz'u to popular models so fashionable at the time, I am inclined to believe that Ouyang Hsiu has modeled his poem after Feng's. Although poem a (like poem fa) seems to be describing a woman whose husband has deserted her and is wandering away from home, because i t is less transparent in i t s descriptions, the poem has been inter-preted an various ©fcherwways. There are those, such as Hu Yun-i"&j| v-K*5l3 11 ^ , who think that the poem is about a courtesan's self-lament. The Ch'ing c r i t i c Chang Hui-yen ~^ even took i t as a p o l i -t i c a l callegory and interpreted every detail of the poem on an a l l e -12 gorical plane. This last view, however, has already been refuted by Wang Kuo-wei J , |S) . 1 3 In the f i r s t stanza of poem a, "Chang T'ai Road" is originally the name of a street in Ch'ang-an~%jiJ3jr- in the Han period. The street was known as the site of the pleasure quarters. Later i t has come to be a euphemism for the brothel d i s t r i c t . In poem fa, stanza 1, "the Day of No Fire" is ckin-y&n Jf- , another name for han-Akih J^L.'^ (cold-eat), a day in the third month of the year associated with the memory of Chieh Tzu-fui'^"-^" ^jJL , during which a l l fires were extinguished and food was supposed to be eaten cold. In the second stanza, what has been translated as "the handsome jwxuig man" is ^u-^en^'-j}^ ( l i t e r a l l y "to powder" or "the powdered"). This echoes a story about Ho Yenf^J ^ , a handsome young man in the Wei Dynasty whose complexion was so f a i r that he looked as i f he had his face powdered. Vu-^zn has come to mean simply a handsome young man. Falling petals waft And whirl in the wind In the face. The willows are heavy, The mist deep and dense. Snowy white catkins f l y around. As the touch of cold after rain lingers on, I feel depressed, Wrapped in spring sorrow and the i l l - e f f e c t s of wine. Beside the pillow, The bedscreen encloses blue waves. A green qui l t , an ornate lamp, Night after night these things I face In vain emptiness. Lonely, I rise To l i f t the embroidered curtain. The moon is bright Jtfust above the pear blossoms. This poem is typical of the tz'a tradition in the early Sung period: i t describes a lonely lady in rfehe familiar boudoir setting The language i s refined but not too stylized. In the f i r s t stanza, 7^ ) jfa cklu-ptng ( l i t e r a l l y wine-ill) refers to the "hangover" after an excessive drinking of wine. I have rendered ptng into " i l l - e f f e c t s " because "hangover" i s too slangy to match the refined language of the original. "The i l l - e f f e c t s of wine", however, i s slightly more formal than cklu-ptng. In the second stanza, what has been translated as "green q u i l t " i s ^ iMk, ti'al-pol. f | t&'iU means "green". But i t can also be interpreted as the feathers of kingfishers ( 5 ^ ^ &eA.-t& 'ml), a common decoration on the bed-quilts of rich families i n old China Su-chung -ch' -Ing (Thoughts On the Brows) Rolling up gently a curtain of clear morning frost, She blows on her hands and applies a beauty mark. A l l because of this parting-sorrow, Deliberately, she draws her eyebrows long, Like the distant h i l l s . Thinking of the past, Lamenting the f l i g h t of youth--So easy to be grieved! She tries to sing, But f i r s t composes her features; Just about to smile, She knits her brows again. How heart-rending! This poem is also attributed to Huang :T'ing-chien. However, it is unlikely to be Huang's poem because it is not to be found in the Sung edition of his collection. Both Mao Chin and T'ang Kuei-chang assign it to Ouyang Hsiu. ^ In CT^ F, WCC and HATH, a title accompanying the poem reads: m&i-l (thoughts on the brows). ^  In LTSY, it carries a 18 slightly different title: ^  J|j hua-mex. (drawing the brows) The poem does focus on the eyebrows. It is extremely common in tz'u poetry for the poet to liken the eyebrows of a girl to a range of hills. The "beauty mark" mentioned in the first stanza is a way of decorating a girl's forehead. It was said the Princess Shou-yang r*|) » daughter of Emperor Wu-ti - ^ j ^ of the Liu Sung '^J z}S (420-479 A.D.), once rested in the palace yard. A plum blossom fell on her forehead, showing five nicely-shaped petals which she could not brush away. Finally, she let them stay as a beauty-spot. It 19 then became a fashionable way of decorating the forehead. In line 4 of stanza 2 in the original,'jfijt^ tio.n can be inter-preted either as ILm-moA (knitting the brows) or^X. tim-jung (assuming a serious expression). The first meaning fits the subject of the poem better; it also parallels p'tn in line 5. y'd-lou-ch' un A night of blustering storm and wind In the last days of spring Sends red petals Falling and flying from the trees. Men and flowers alike would love to have spring stay. Having no feeling, spring leaves with ease. Alone and sad, with wine in hand, Upon this high tower I murmur to myself--"May I ask where Spring has retired to?" Wide and empty, The ekening clouds do not understand me. T9?here are only the green willows and the grassy roads. In stanza 1, line 2 (3 and 4 in the translation), tuucin-&an.Q is normally used as a compound meaning "to put an end to", "to waste away". In this particular line, i t i s used -in an unusual way, because i t is not followed by a simple noun or nounclause as i t often i s . Instead, i t i s followed by N r t l ^ » * >» /mnq-' 7 n. v. n. v. n. a {oA. hua-lo Aha (reds-fly flowers-fall tree), in which both verbs: and V^ - correspond only to i>ang (sends flying, f a l l i n g ) , and not to tuan-iung as a word. For better reading, I have decided to render the line without the tuan, as the idea of "wasting away" seems to be faintly, i f not sufficiently, suggested by the phrase "(to send)...from the trees" in the translation. In the f i n a l line, the sentence ends in a gentle twist, as an answer to i t s two previous lines. At the risk of seeming to read too much into the text, I would propose the following interpretations The evening clouds do not understand my question. A l l there i s i n front of the eyesaare the green wil«l>ows and the grassy roads, stret-ching sil e n t l y ahead, reminding one of the sadness of parting and distant travels. A light peal of thunder From beyond the willow trees. Rain on the pond, Falling, Scatters and patters, Upon the lotus leaves. Across the western corner of the Small house, a broken rainbow cuts Brightly, as I rest on the balcony, Awaiting moonrise. A swallow comes flying, Takes a peek under the painted beam. A jade hook lets the chamber curtain hang loose. It's cool waves unmoving, A bamboo mat spreads out f l a t . Beside the two crystal pillows Lies a fallen hairpin. #P4*& t <1f%. Although the story (about Ouyang and a singing g i r l ) U X J behind the composition of this tzfu cpiald be challenged, there i s some evidence which supports i t s cr e d i b i l i t y . This i>kkk poem by L i Shang-yin may shed some light: Resting lig h t l y in the garden pavilion, this gentle intoxication is dispelled. Branches of the promegranate and the sea-amber entwine one another. On the water-ripple of the mat, an amber glass stands. Beside i t l i e a fallen hairpin and a pair of green hair-ornaments. One may already have noticed that this poem is closely parallel to Ouyang's tz'u. In fact, i t reads like a blueprint f©r Ouyang's poem. Its f i r s t l i n e , about resting i n the garden after drinking wine, also f i t s very well with the situation mentioned in the anecdote. It is probable that Ouyang Hsiu; when asked by Ch'ien Wei-yen to improvise a song, struck by the similarity of his own circum-stance with Li's poem, created this tz'uaafter t i e model of L i . On the other hand, one may also argue that i t was entirely a story made up, because i t s writer saw the potentiality of an interesting anec-dote after reading Ouyang and Li's poem. Many notes and sketches of the Sung period were made i n such a light-hearted, story-telling way that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to find proof for their complete cr e d i b i l i t y . Line 1 of Ouyang's tz'u also resembles this line from another poem by L i Shang-yin: There is a light peal of thunder 22 From beyond the lotus pond. There i s a variant ch'Z (to rest) for k'ueA. (to peek) in VoLO-ihan-t1 ang Wal-dvl J ,^ t V l j * ^ J:(LA 2 3 which h changes the meaning of the line into something l i k e : A swallow comes flying To rest under the painted beam. In my opinion, this variant lessens much of the charm of the line as well as the very primate, almost secretive mood in the latter part of the poem. T' a-i>o-ki>lYiQ Plum blossoms fade by the wayside rest. Over the stream bridge, willow branches hang slender and young. A warm breeze blows, grass-fragrant, While my traveller's reins gently swing. Sorrow grows with the growing distance, Long and lingering, unending like a spring brook. The heart is in pieces, Brimming tears mingled with powder. The tower is high, Do not lean over i t s balustrade. Beyond the far reaches of the grassy plains the spring h i l l s l i e And the traveller is even beyond those spring h i l l s . This is one of the better-known and more frequently antho-logized tz'u of Ouyang Hsiu. In HATH, it has the title, "parting" 24 attached to it. In line 3, kiun"^, (fragrant) is printed as £ang ^  (young, 25 green) in TWCC and TTSY and marked with the same variant in CTVV. However, Yang Sheng-an ^ jL J\ points out in his Tz'u-p'in that luun should be the correct reading since tA''ao-h&uyi Jv-and ^nq-naanj^l^^^ are together a hidden borrowing from Chiang Yen 7 ^ . The two relevant lines from Chiang's Pitk-fiu reads The breeze blows warm at home, Over the roadside, the grass is fragrant. Vu-JLou-ch' un Since we parted, I do not know How far you are from me. Whatever meets the eyes Grieves the heart. So much sadness! The farther f,ou travel, the greater the distance, the scarcer the letters--The water is wide, The f i s h l i e s deep, Where can I seek i t s message? In the depths of night, The wind strikes an autumnal note On the tossed bamboo. Every leaf is a sorrow, Every sound a sigh. Lying alone in bed, I try to search for you in dreams. But f a i l . .. Meanwhile, the lamp has burnt to ashes. (1. 6 and 9, translation by % H i*l * &. • |V1 • This poem, written to the tune of yu-Zou-ch-un, is recorded with the tune t i t l e Ckuan-tZao Uu-Zan-kaa and Mu-Zan-kua " ^ ( ^ A)U i - n VTYT. According to Tz'a-p'a"^CJ Hu-Zan-kua and /u.-£<m-cfo'un are two distinct tunes, although the 28 f i r s t stanzas are very similar. The two tune-titles have been used interchangeably by many Sung tz'u writers under the same form The f i s h , like the wildgoose, i s often referred to as a news bearer i n Chinese poetry. Hence the reference to the f i s h i n the f i r s t stanza. Ch' ao -chung ' o The balcony of P'ing-shan Hall opens on the clear sky, Where the mountains come in and out of sight. Since 1 parted with this willow tree which I had planted in front of the h a l l , Several times the spring wind has blown. The governor i s fond of writing, Dashes off a million words at a stroke, Drinks a thousand pots of wine at a time. Enjoy yourself while you are young. You only have to look at this old fellow here with his wine :f * fl9 # »f * . 59 When Ouyang Hsiu was prefect of Yangchow in 1048, he built on top of Shu Hill j^ j P'ing-shan Hall. A much celebrated building, it overlooked hundreds of miles of land south of the Yangtze and commanded a good view of several counties in the area. Ouyang used the place as a resort and spent many of his 29 summer days there entertaining guests and friends. The famous willow (known as "Ouyang willow" 'A 1$^ ) which he writes about 30 in this poem was planted during this time. Ouyang stayed in Yangchow for about a year. A few years later he visited the place 31 again and wrote this poem. This is one of the few datable tz'uwwritten by Ouyang and also one of the few tz'u of his which has a title. However, the title itself varies in different collections: Seeing Mr. Liu Chung-yuan ^ J^ > off to be Prefect of Weiyang. (CT^ F) Seeing Liu Yuan-fu Jfy^ ^  off to be Prefect of Yangchow (HATH) Seeing Liu Kung-fu ^\ iC^ _ off to be Prefect of Weiyang (mentioned in I-yuan Tz'u-huang ^sjr B>\ ) P'ing-shan Hall (LIT) Here, Liu Kung-fu (1023-1089 A .D. ) is obviously a mistake for Liu .< 32 Yuan-fu (1019-1-68 A .D . ). Both Lius were contemporaries of Ouyang, but only Liu Yiian-fu (also known as Liu Chung-yuan) was once Prefect of Yangchow. A very good friend of Ouyang Hsiu, he held office in Yangchow in 1056, seven years after Ouyang had left the place. It is highly probable that the poem was written on the occasion when Liu took office in Yangchow. But i t does not seem to have been written specially for him or dedicated to him when he l e f t for the position in Yangchow. The poem sings exclusively of the hall and of the poet himself. It also suggests clearly fchat the poet was in Yangchow at the time of composition. Partly for these reasons and partly because of the existence of a number of different t i t l e s , I am inclined to believe that the t i t l e of the poem comes from the compilers rather than Ouyang himself. Line 2 is a direct borrowing from Wang Wei. Wang's original lines read: With i t s three branches reaching the Ch'u border, Its nine tributaries flowing through the gateway of Ching, This river runs beyond heaven and earth--33 Where the mountains come in and out of sight. In Wang's poem, the whole setting i s one of vastness of space and dimension. And the last line suggests particularly a feeling of distance and remoteness. According to 1-yuan Tz'u-huang, the mountains around the Yangtze River are close to P'"ing-shan Hall and should be easily within view. For some time, there was even an interesting speculation that Ouyang must be short-sighted since 35 he could not see the mountains clearly. However, Su Shih explained the phenomenon later in one of his tz 'a poems: Often recalled? upon the hall of P'ing-shan, Leaning and lying against the mists and rain south of the Yangtze, A lone wildgoose disappeared dimly in the distance--Then I recognized this line of the Drunken Elder: 36 "Where mountains come in and out of sight." According to Su Shih, it was because of the mists and vapors that Ouyang Hsiu could not see clearly, not because of the distance of the hills. This poem is one of themmore personal tz'u Ouyang Hsiu has written. The very carefree image he projects in this poem cer~ tainly impressed Su Shih a great deal. Years afterwards, passing Yangchow again after the death of Ouyang, Su wrote: Should we pay respect to our governor who was fond of writing 37 We must s t i l l sing of the willow and the spring wind. Cklm-tzu Uu-tan-hua You can't induce spring to stay. The swallow is aged, the warbler lazy, They are no where to be found. Te l l fading spring, Once old, youth w i l l never come again. The moon is bright, The wind mild. Let's buy laughter with the money we've made, And treasure the good time. Don't wait to pluck the bough u n t i l i t i s empty of flowers! :A t fa *L The last line of stanza 1 i s a slight modification of one line from Po Chii-i. Po's line reads: j s ^ ^ , ^ ^ / ^ 1-ta.o-"i 38 chung-wu ch'ukk-&hao-jcn. The f i n a l line of the poem is another line borrowed from a T'ang poet. This time, i t i s a popular line from Tu Ch'iu-niang's ij&ri^-tf^' Chln-lou-l ^"-jj* ^  (The Gold-Threaded Robe). Tu's poem runs: Do not treasure a gold-threaded robe, But cherish your youthful days! If a bud opens enough to be gathered, gather i t ! Don't wait to pluck a bough u n t i l i t is empty of flowers 64 11. Ti,' OKL-4 <zng -tzu Ten years' ago I was a winebibber, Beneath a bright moon, a wind clear and cool In this way people, wither and wane, Sorrow and worries grow. Time flashes by, startlingly quick. My hair has changed, but not my heart. Let me hold on to this golden goblet, And listen to the old songs again--Songs that remind me of those good old drunken days. * i tot in$. M^^^' -*^. & tot-At. 4 * - i r I t , a t f * * * ^ In line 2, the "bright moon" and "clear, cool wind" is a symbolic way of describing "the good time". This has the same effect as the fizng-kuo yue.h-haoj^j^-^-^L^ i n another tz'u of Ouyang Hsiu. ^ 66 12. Ckizn-tzu Mu-Zan-kua Partings and sorrows, Should Heaven have fee l ings , I t too would grow o l d . What are those sentiments l i k e ? Fine as l i g h t s i l k , Endless as the far-reaching waves. A small boat by the riverbank, Maple leaves, flowering reeds F lu t t e r i n the forlornness of f a l l . Ref lec t ing on past happiness, One can only compare th i s human world To a world of dreams. j ® \< H & w ^ ^ - * •' "f/a*^ 41 This poem occurs both in CTVT and TWCC. In the latter, the *• f i r s t line is printed as \%^Jjc&\^ffl\&^ng-ILl hu.cii-pa.0 (sorrow-parting-feelings) instead of ' i ^ i ^ j ^ Ahang-hucu. tl-pao (sorrow-feeling-partMg-feeling). Its second line reads r^ .^^  "HI <^fr^  t'ten-jo-yu-ch'tng j£n-£-Zao (Should Heaven have feelings, men too would grow old), which is obviously a mistake. Line 2 (2 and 3 in the translation) of the f i r s t stanza is a direct borrowing from L i H o ^ . ^ . Line 2 (2 and 3 in the translation) of the second stanza is a borrowing from Po Chii-13. Lang-t'ao-Aha With a glass of wine in hand I drink to the east wind: Pray tarry a l i t t l e ! - -East of Loyang, Along the streets of the capital Where the willows hang, There, we used to s t r o l l hand in hand, Rambling past every flower shrub. Meeting and parting, A l l i s too hasty. This sorrow has no end. Flowers bloom redder this year than last . Next year, they w i l l blossom even f iner. But who knows who w i l l be Here to share them With me? j & 4 i l * L . *kk % t . * «• The two opening lines of this tz'u seems to have been inspired by these similar lines from Ssu-k'ung T'u "tf| In the evening twilight, with a glass of wine in hand I drink to the east wind: 44 Pray tarry a l i t t l e ! - -It might also be mentioned that in stanza 1, "the streets of the capital" i s tzu-mo^ffi^ , l i t e r a l l y , "purple streets". Purple mssodJfennassociated with the capital and royalty in Chinese poetry. In the original text, line .4 of stanza 2 opens with "*J" Y% k'o-k&i (unfortunately). It is suggested in the translation by the word "but" in line 6. ^j* has a variant reading tiao-tz ((I) suppose) in CTV?. ^ 70 14. yu-cilia-ao The warm sun moves slowly, flowers gracefully sway. Girls with their rouge and powder compete with the flower's beauty. Flowers cannot speak, they only know .how to smile. Letts empty the golden jug. The flowers are blooming. They aren't old yet, and we are young. In front of the city gates, Horses and carriages throng in the busy traffic. Travellers, don't you long for the roads of Ch'ang-an. From the palace, the sound of the water-clock--The street drum announces the hour, Urging dusk to dawn. Men grow O'Mdfaster in the city of Ch'ang-an. \l -iifMt. <*'J • & % to• * *. rH tit fit. Ouyang H s i u has w r i t t e n a f a i r number of tz'u on Loyang and a few on the c a p i t a l c i t y Pien-ching. Although he seems to show a much stronger emotional attachment to Loyang, he has des-c r i b e d both c i t i e s w i t h z e s t . In h i s poems, Pien-ching i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h people and c o l o r f u l f e s t i v i t i e s . Despite i t s apparent reference to Ch'ang-an, t h i s i s another poem on Pien-ching. Ch'ang-an (the c a p i t a l o f T'ang, but a small p r o v i n c i a l town i n Sung) i s o n l y used as a s u b s t i t u t e name f o r the c a p i t a l c i t y . In t h i s poem, Pien-ching i s again p i c t u r e d . a s a c i t y o f b u s t l i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Because l i f e here i s f o r e v e r busy and h e c t i c , time seems to pass f a s t e r and people grow o l d sooner. Line 1 o f the second stanza mentions about "nine gates" okixx.-mzn which I have t r a n s l a t e d as " c i t y gates". The nine gates were f i r s t mentioned i n Li-ckl/yjt % & as a c t u a l l y n i n e gates l e a d i n g 46 to the r o y a l palace. In t h i s poem i t i s used o n l y i n a general sense t o r e f e r t o t t h e c i t y gates. However, i t does suggest r o y a l t y , and, i n t u r n , a touch o f fame and power. Indeed, fame and power are what a t t r a c t most people to the c a p i t a l . Hence the s t r e e t s o f Pien-ching are always thronged w i t h t r a f f i c . In stanza 2,J^"^ tan-ckln, which means "purple forbidden ( c i t y p a l a c e ) " i s a l s o used i n a general sense i n the poem. I t means simply "the c i t y palace". yU-Zou-ch'un Two old men happen to meet on this festival day When the willow catkins are flying like snow. Against youth let's drink, to the very last cup! Don't l e t the young blossoms Make you ashamed of your white hair. Like an arrow on the bowstring Are l i f e ' s meetings and partings. A feeling for separation grows intense with old age. Let's pour from our golden lotus cups, And don't worry about the morning moon Sinking behind the west house! i n This poem carries the tune-title Ma-Ian-hua-Ling j^X^j^x" WCC and Mu-Lan-hua i n VVVT. In stanza 2 { j t n g - c h ' i n g (wind-feelings) can mean a number of things: a feeling for love, romance and emotions, a touching mood, or special concerns. It i s d i f f i c u l t to prescribe a specific meaning to this word in the line. I have, instead, rendered i t by concentrating on i t s relation to the phrase Lao-ch'u and t-^ f yu-kii-pith. Vu-Zou-ch'un With a glass of wine before me, I try to announce the day of my return. Before I can utter a word, my spring face dissolves into choking tears. Men have feelings and so w i l l act dotingly. This sorrow has nothing to do with the moon, nor the wind. Please do not sing a second parting-song, One i s enough to t i e the heart in knots. Until I have seen the last of Loyang's flowers, I cannot part too easily with the spring wind. yii-Zou-ch' un dLoyang is perfect in the flowering season. Rich fragrance and gentle scent F i l l the air in turn. The gossamer deliberately entwines me, The willows, for no reason, strive to bid'farewell. Where the apricots blossom pink The green of the h i l l s i s broken. At the foot of the h i l l , A traveller takes his rest. Tonight, who would be willing to follow me far? None but the lonely moon above the solitary inn. In the f i r s t stanza, r\ ~iz yuii k' u-ki><Lng-y<Lng has been rendered as "deliberately entwines me". K'u is implied by both "deliberately" and "entwine". It means, by i t s e l f , some-thing l ike "sadly" and "persistently". Yet i t does not have as strong a sad overtone as i t s English equivalents. The willow hwas used in China as a farewell token in parting. It is a symbol for parting in Chinese poetry. There is a subtle contrast between 3 ^ yXyig of l ine 3 and •$'1 pX.oh of l ine 4 in the or ig inal text. means "to entwine". fy\ means "to bid farewell". While the beauty of Loyang urges the poet to stay, circumstances are caiuel. They make him bid farewell. The contrast representedeby these two lines is central to the poet's own conf l ic t ; a confl ict which runs through the entire poem. Line 2 of stanza 2 in the translation ca l l s for an explanation. What has been translated as "broken" is c.h'ue.k ( l i t e r a l l y "bro-ken"). The l ine means: Where the green patches of the h i l l are missing, one finds pink appricot blossoms. yu.-lou.-ch' un Often recal led, the fascinating scenery of Loyang, Where warm mists and genial breeze add to the taste of wine. Where warblers sing at feast-tables As though beseeching one to stay, And flowers poke their heads above the wal l , As i f by design. Since parting, We are thousands of green h i l l s apart. Upon this high tower, I s train my gaze ,T,oward the setting sun. My heart wants only to know i f the peonies are red now. A patch of spring sorrow creeps into my dream. (L. 1, 2, 6 and 11, translation 47 by R. Adler, modified.) To Ouyang Hsiu, Loyang lias always been a symbol of spring 48 and youth and "the good, old days". In his old age, the place meant even more to him and was constantly recalled in his poems. As already mentioned, Loyang had been a city of gardens and cheerful activities since the period of T'ang. Its flowers were numerous, and among them, the peonies were the best known. T'ang and Sung people were particularly fond of peonies. In a bklh poem, Ouyang writes: Loyang's climate is ideal for flowers, Its peonies are especially a marvel of the world. I used to know several dozen kinds of peonies. 49 Now, ten years apart, I can barely, recall half of them. In this tz'u, the memory of peonies in Loyang is again prominent. In the last line of stanza 1, ^f""^ yu-i (translated as "by design") implies something like "playfully inviting". Both the ying (warbler) and the hua (flower) are long-standing euphemisms for courtesans in Chinese poetry, and are aptly personified here for the implication. yu-lou-ch'un Wi'jjh the wildgoose and the swallow gone, Spring too takes i t s leave. I try to figure out the endless, straggling threads Of this floating l i f e on earJbh=-Like a spring dream each comes, who knows for how long? Like the morning cloud each disappears, No where to be found. For the sound of my zither, She gives me a girdle-gem, The companion of immortal s p i r i t s . Though I hold on hard t i l l her silken dress tears, I cannot induce her to stay.' Don't be the lone sober one, my friend. There aren't many times You can drop down drunk among the flowers. fa JR. i <f *6 A* A- . «3 ^  & #1 * * K This poem is attributed to Ouyang Hsiu i n CTVV, TVVT, LIT and LTSy. ^ However, i t is also ascribed to Yen Shu by Mao Chin and Feng Hsu jK), • ^ TWCC does not record this tz'u. Line 3 and 4 (5-7 in the translation) i s a borrowing of two by-lines from Po Chii-i's poem Hua-^cl-hua Flowers, but not flowers, Mists, but not mists--Come in the middle of the night, Gone by the dawn of the morrow. Like a spring dream each comes, who knows for how long? Like the morning cloud each w i l l disappear, 52 No where to be found. Line 1 of the second stanza (1-3 in the translation) contains an allusion drawn from the Ltnh-h6te.n-ch.uan One day, Cheng Chiao-fu 3^3^ j|j was st r o l l i n g along the river bank when two fai r i e s greeted him and handed him a girdle gem. Before he could thank them for i t , he turned his head and they were gone. The gem too, 53 disappeared instantly. In the second stanza, "the lone sober one" echoes a line from Ch'ii Yu'an's Vu~iu ^ : Everyone is drunk, I am the lone sober one. ^ However, i t is used without the moral and p o l i t i c a l overtones of i t s counterpart in Vii-^u. Shmg-wu-yu The road of l i f e i s stormy and rough. Ten years, once apart, are but an instant of time. So i t has always been with l i f e ' s many meetings and partings Let's have fun then while together. Good wine could help to pass the time, The spring wind cannot dye a greying beard. Let me drop drunk for you among the flowers. Redsleeves, please don't help me up! J M U - & & ft. fa * $ « ' J , i ^ This poem appears both i n CTVT and in TWCC. In the latter, however, the f i r s t character is printed as 5 ^ twi (toward) which is probably a misprint since i t does not make sense.in the sentence. The tone of the poem suggests that i t was written in the later years of Ouyang's l i f e . By that time, he had already gone through a series of ups and downs in his o f f i c i a l career. This poem was composed on the occasion of meeting a long=parted -friend. What I have rendered as "you" in line 7 (let me drop drunk for you among the flowers) is ^  kung, which means "you, s i r " . "Redsleeves" i n line 8 is a direct translation ofjfit^ft hung-kiiu, a metonymy for 'girl'"s Tizh-Lim-kua In the green garden,red blossoms f i l l the eyes as the sun comes out. Over the colorful feast-tables Warblers chase one another, forever, up and down. Leisurely, after the golden wheels, over the streets of the capital, Horses have trampled a l l the spring countryside's green. Ah, the years, and how short-lived the spring dream! Affairs of the past so far away. As mists and rain enshroud the house, Mountains come in and out of sight. In idleness, I lean a l l along the curving r a i l i n g . 84 This poem is recorded with the tune-title Ch'ue.h-£'a-ckih in TWCC. In stanza 1, "streets of the capital" is again ^ |>^ j £zu= 57 mo (purple streets) in the original. 22. TA ' ai-Aang-tzu A light boat, a short oar, West Lake is grand to s a i l on. Along the grassy stretch of embankment The green water meanders. Wherever you go, faint music follows. No wind: the water's surface i s smooth as glass. You scarcely notice the boat moves. Stirring some ripples, It scares the water-birds Who f l y up over the bank. Ouyang Hsiu was 43 when he was made prefect of Yingchou. There, while in office for one year, he became very much attracted to the beauty of West Lake, a scenic area in eastern Yingchou. A year la ter , he even discussed with his close friend Mei Yao-ch'en 58 the prospect of buying estates there for retirement. Ouyang's wish was f u l f i l l e d about twenty years afterwards when he did re t ire 59 to settle down in Yingchou. He was then 64. With no o f f i c i a l duties on his shoulders, Ouyang spent much of his time in retirement roaming on West Lake, enjoying the scenery and observing the change of i t s every mood. ^ It was during this time that the famous series of 10 poems on West Lake was composed. This is the f i r s t poem of the set. Ouyang's preface to the series says: "Wang Tzu-yu -^"^L loved bamboos so much he payed a v i s i t to his friend's house (just to look at the b'ambboss) without even greeting his friend. T'ao Yuan-ming ( w n 0 had a distaste for the l i f e of an o f f i c ia l ) once r iding in a sedan-chair, stopped on the road (when invited to jo in an o f f i c i a l ) to a glass of wine. ^ One does not have to mention how much stronger the attractions of West Lake are, with a l l the scenic beauties of Yingchou. Although many of i t s lovely moments have been celebrated by lavish feasts and gathering the gentle breeze and the bright moon belong, fortunately, also to the quiet and the le isurely . When you feel l ike company, you can invite friends for a s t r o l l , or on the spur of the moment you can go by yourself. When you l i s ten for a while to the songsof the frogs, what difference does i t make whether they are singing for the public or yourself alone? By the winding stream, one can always drink and sing. In a state of perfect happiness and 87 contentment, i t i s as though there was no one else around. At such a time one realizes what they say i s true: i t i s often better to come impromptu than planned. Althoughhll • am not the only one to have such experiences, I have known many. Therefore, I decide to rearrange the words of the old stanzas to f i t a new tune. And for the sake of enter-tainment, I venture to expose my inadequate s k i l l . " Thus this series of poems describes the beauty of West Lake in i t s various times and moods: i n the spring, the summer; during the day and after dusk. The idea i s to give one the impression that West Lake i s lovely any time of the day, any day of the year. The f i r s t line of each poem ends in a three character refrain: t£3>£$ k&i-hu-hao, l i t e r a l l y , "West Lake fine". However, hao is such a general word, i t s meaning i s ultimately governed by the rest of the line in each poem. Instead of casting the refrain into the same language, therefore, I have chosen to translate each according to the particular shade of meaning that the remainder of each poem suggests. 88 23. TV cu.-Aang-£zu West Lake 'is lovely After the passing away of the Many splendors of spring. Heaps of red scatter, Flying catkins like delicate rain. Over the railings, Hanging willows sway a l l day in the breeze. The musicians have l e f t , Pleasure-seekers are gone, before I realize The emptiness of spring. The window curtainclet down, In the gentle rain A pair of swallows come flying home. 4 % ii i i *ft *t i * . # t In stanza 2, line 1, Akmg-ko sometimes refers to the music played with the hkojig (a blown instrument) for singing. Sometimes, it refers to the actual musicians playing the music. o2. In this poem, the second meaning makes better sense. 90 24. Ti'al-iang-tza West Lake is lovely with the lotuses in bloom. Coming laden with wine in a boat, i We need no banners and flags, To our front and back, red standards and green canopies escort us. As we row our painted pleasure-boat into the depths of the flowers, Fragrance f i l l s our golden goblets. In the gentle rain and mists, Amidst songs and intoxication we return home. This is the seventh poem of the West Lake series. Ti,'' oui-iana-tzu. West Lake is beautiful against the glow of a fading twilight. With flowers over the bank, and duckweed covering the shallows. Over the wide expanse of the watery plain, The waves are tranquil. On the deserted shore, a boat si t s in solitude. To the southwest the moon rises, Floating clouds disperse. It grows cool at the balcony r a i l i n g - -How fresh the fragrance of the lotus and water caltrops! Across the surface of the water the wind comes, Sobering my wine-dazed face. This is the nineth poem of the West Lake series. It might be mentioned that, in the third line, the-]" V Ak<Lh.-c.k'<Lng (which equals about 150 acres) i s intended simply to mean something like "a wide expanse", emphasizing the idea of an unobstructed view of the lake and a sense of freedom one has roaming on the waters. The last line of the f i r s t stanza i s drawn from a poem by , the late Taang poet. Its last two lines run: The spring flood, brought on by the rain, flows fast at dusk, On the deserted shore, a boat sits in solitude. TA 'ai-Aang-tzu All my life I have loved West Lake, Where I once arrived with a retinue of vermilion wheels. But riches and honor are like floating clouds. In a moment, twenty springs have slipped by. Coming back, I feel like the crane of Liao-tung. The city and its people, All have changed. Who would ever recognize the governor of long ago? This is the last of the 10-poem series on West Lake. While the nine others paint the beauty of West Lake in its different seasonal moods, this last one aptly wraps up the entire series by giving us a very personal enunciation of the poet's feeling for the place. The second stanza has a hidden allusion which I shall mention and explain in Chapter III. ^ In line 3, "but riches and honor are like floating clouds" V©~lt'3' 'JC &u-kuzl &u.-yun echoes a line in Lun-yli ^ but is without the moral overtones of its source. In this poem, the comparison of floating clouds to riches and honor implies the transciency and emptiness of wealth and fame. A better reading of the line can be obtained by rendering the last part as "vanish like floating clouds" instead of "are like floating clouds". Ch' ang-hA<La.ng-&Au Floating duckweed covers the stream, Willows wind along the embankment. I saw the wayfarer off, to the west of the stream. As I return, the moon is low over the fields. The mist is heavy, the wind chills. Once more, leaning against the vermilion gate, I listen for the sound of his horse neighing--In the freezing cold, a pair of gulls fly together. 97 This poem, which appears in CT/F, TWCC, LIT, ^F^ T and LTSV 66 as a poem of Ouyang Hsiu, is also attributed to Huang T!ing-6 7 chien and Chang Hsien. However, it can only be found in the Ming version of Huang's tz'u, not the Sung edition. It seems unlikely to be a work by Huang. T'ang Kuei-chang thinks it is 68 probably by Chang but he gives no explanation for his view. Chang and Ouyang were contemporaries and they have both composed similar tz'u to the tune of Ch&ang-luiang-Mu. "Vermilion gate" cku-mtn in line 6 is a common metonymy in Chinese poetry for "royalty" or "important, wealthy families" (it was said that most affluent households had their doors painted dark red). However, it seems irrelevant and even a little out of place in the simple farm-like setting of this poem. It may be more appropriate to take the term here on its surface meaning only. Line 8 has a variant reading under a note of the same line in Chang Hsien's edition. Instead of j^.^) ou it is y& (crows), and instead of jffis. fiel, the verb becomes*/^ t'i (to cry). The sadness displayed in this variant line is, however, too poignant and explicit. Personally, I prefer the subtle contrast of the first reading. Ch' ang - hi>-l<mg -4.6 a The flowers are like you, The willows are like you, Flowers and willows are in their youth as we part. We hang our heads while tears f a l l . East of the Yangtze, West of the Yangtze, Toward the two shores of the river two mandarin ducks f l y their separate ways--When w i l l they ever meet again? One of the three Ch'ang-hAiang-A&u found in Ouyang's tz'u collection, this poem is representative of the tradition of its tune: it sings of the pains of parting (which echoes the tune-title) in a simple, unadorned language. Shzng-cha-tzu Last year, on Firs t Full Moon, The flower-market's lanterns were bright as daylight. My love and I made a tryst to meet after dusk, When the moon rose to the top of the willow tree. This year, on Firs t F u l l Moon, Moon and lanterns are the same as before. But the man of last year--where i s he? Tears flood the sleeves of my spring dress. (L. 1, 2, 5 and 7, 70 translated by J. Liu) A J 9 * C «! J J * * ^ This poem is in itself simple and transparent, but some doubts arise over the question of its authenticity. It occurs in CT/F, 71 TVVT as well as in LIT as a work of Ouyang Hsiu. At the same time, it has been attributed to Ch'in Kuan and Chu Shu-chen ^ y j f ^ _^JL . A note under the poem in LIT reads: "Also published as a work by Ch'in S h a o - y u \ ^ (Ch'in Kuan)". 7 2 However, this uncertainty can be easily dismissed because the poem does not exist in the Sung edition of Ch'in's tz'a collection. As for Chu Shu-chen, her collection in Cht-ka-ko Skih-tz'u-t&a-t&a "jkJllQ $ji tJ. contains this tz'a. 7^ And being somehow an "improper" love poem written in a fairly bold language, Yang Shen^|) tjland Shen Hsiung have both, for this reason, 74 passed moral judgments over the character of Chu/ However, most critics, including T'ang Kuei-chang, believe that this is a work of 75 Ouyang Hsiu. In his preface to F^^ T, Tseng Ts'ao mentions that he has excluded many dubious and "unrefined", "erotic" poems from VTVT. The fact that he s t i l l keeps this tz'a in his collection, is, according to T'ang, a sufficient reason to believe that it is Ouyang's. TZe.h-Li2.n-h.ua The water mirrors an autumn sky; The wind makes wrinkles of wavelets. Dim and distant, the fairy boat seems to float in an autumn sky. Gathering lotus blossoms covered with dew--For one moment she is plunged into sadness. The flowers, too, look as i f they are weeping. She plucks a lotus stem, but the threads would not let go. The stem i s broken, but the threads cling s t i l l - -How sad! On your way home, do not let your boat float with the flowers. Somewhere, on the bank of the river, Somebody is waiting! s u t . % a i_ j*. -k^. A less common topic in tz'u than in i k i h , s t i l l , the lotus g i r l makesa very good subject for tz'u composition. Ouyang Hsiu has written altogether ten tz'u poems on such a topic. In the last line of stanza 1, ^-fer t'i-chuang means l i t e r a l l y "a tearful makeup". By that, the poet is referring to the dew-laden logus blossoms. Because the g i r l i s sad, the flowers too seem to her to be weeping, with the dew on their surfaces. In stanza 2, tim and 44a occurs in two consecutive lines. Both are used as puns: jj^ Lim (lotus) on the word ^*|, Lien (love/romance)', and i>i>u (silk/thread) on the word -6-6 u (thoughts/yearnings). TLzh-Lizn-km. By the autumn waters, a maid of Yueh is gathering lotus blossoms. A tight sleeve of thin gauze reveals dimly a pair of golden bracelets. She is reflected in the water, as she gathers flowers--flowers lovely as her face. Her young heart is as confused as the tangled threads of the lotus stems. Purple mallards on the riverbank, The waves are high in the evening wind. In the heavy mists and thin vapors, She cannot see the companions she came out with. Faintly, in the distance, comes the sound of songs from the returning boats--A touch of parting sorrow stretches a l l along the southern shores of the river. CL. 1, 5 translated by R. Adler) M M> # M L & H J L . • In l i n e , l , S^."^ "" y'dzh-nil is a pretty g i r l from Yueh (an area around present day Chekiang and Kiangsu), from the associa-tion of Hsi Shih Vib^-tLj . It can also mean any beautiful g i r l , as Yueh g i r l s have traditionally been considered pretty. In stanza 2, line 1 can be read as: On the Mallard Bank, The waves are high in the evening winds, Hsi-ch'ih (Mallard) Bank 7$X) i^|}ifj£being the name of a river bank 78 in Loyang. But since the setting of the poem is the South (lower Yangtze valley), a Loyang place name is not appropriate. In this line of the f i r s t stanza: -<a 4 4 a (silk/thread) i s used again as a pun on the word ^ 4 4 a (thoughts/yearnings). yu-chJJi-ao Broad and green--lotus leaves mirrored in the water. Beneath the shade of the Mossoms, a solitary boat is moored. Last night i t was drizzling, the rain thin and light. Laden with grief, I could not sleep. Waking up in the morning, I f e l t again the s t i r of the west wind. Rain-pounded, wind-tossed--the golden p i s t i l s scatter. Upon the stem of shared bl i s s The fragrant chamber of the green pod s t i l l remains. The lotus seeds are like me, So unhappy! Year after year, deep down in the heart--bitterness! (L. 1, 7 and 12 R. Adler's 79 translation, modified.) In stanza 1, ya i n the last line means "again", or the repetition of the same event (the west wind s t i r s again). At the same time, i t can refer to the happening of one event after an-other (after the rain comes the wind). This ambiguity and multi-p l i c i t y of meaning cannot be recaptured similarly i n English. Nor i s there a word i n English which corresponds to the second meaning of . In stanza 2, what I have rendered as "the stem of shared b l i s s " i s ko-haan-ckih ( l i t e r a l l y "together-happiness stem"). It suggests a reference to the ^ ^ ^ ^ " J " ko-kaan-ika, a tree whose double branches have been likened to a pair of lovers Ya-ckZa-ao (Evening of the Seventh Day of the Seventh Month of the Year) The magpies f i l l the Milky Way, the fairy waves are shallow. The cloud-chariot i s already by the Star Bridge. With the fading end of the twilight glow The street drum announces the hour. The bright daylight retreats. To the west of the sky a golden crescent hangs t i l t e d l y . After one whole year of parting, now they meet again.' Old woes and new joy--no end! Treasure this joyful period in Heaven, The good night is short. On earth, the silver-marker of the water-clock should not rush too fast for men! tott*frfe&*i.**&. HOW]*) t t *• ^ pt. 5L>« Ma . v f *i. As the t i t l e of this poem speaks for i t s e l f , this tz'u. writes about the legend of the Cowherd and the Spinning Maid. Like many other legends, the story of the Cowherd and the Spinning Maid has been a popular topic for poetry. It was said that on the night of the seventh day of the seventh month of every year, the Cowherd and the Spinning Maid are allowed to meet across the Milky Way. On that night, the magpies w i l l make a bridge across the sky, enabling them to come together across the Heavenly River. In line 2, "the cloud-chariot" i s ^ ^ - ^ yun-p'ing, a chariot ridden by the heavenly f a i r i e s . In this poem, i t is the chariot the Spinning Maid would ride in. yu-ckia-a.0 The fourth month--spring has gone from the woods. Deep and dense, like a heavy curtain the trees begin to develop shade. With the flower twig I've plucked s t i l l in my hands, My sleeves smell of scent. Among the leaves, the plums are green like beans. Oftenm rain and wind season the weather. Rows of new bamboo-shoots sprout--Their snowy-white skins thickening. I dash off a few poems on the departure of spring. Simply to go with the drinking. The color of the cherries reflect brightly on the silver plates. Ouyang Hsiu has composed altogether ifcwo sets of ka-tzu-tz'a \$L^T t 0 celebrate the twelve months of the year. ^ These seasonal poems capture the characteristics of every change in Nature and observe the human activities in each of the twelve months. Im-personal in manner, these poems reflect Ouyang Hsiu's zest in l i f e and Ms ability to observe and appreciate every tiny beauty in his surroundings. Al l twenty-four poems are written to the tune of Vii-chiR-ao. Every one of them opens with the name of a month. The one translated here is the fourtheof the first set of seasonal poems. 112 35. yu-dvLa-ao The seventh month--the beginning of fall When the wind starts to blow, And the dews come out early. Over the shallows, lotuses are s t i l l flowering, The wu-t'ang in the courtyard grows old. Everywhere, melon fruits and flowers flourish in season. People empty their golden jugs. Gathering colorful sewing threads, In the human world, the girls get ready for the Spinning Maid Festival. As the myriad leaves sound their notes, All of a sudden it grows cold. Different kinds of insects sing their nightly songs. The mists are gradually swept away. The water-clock begins to drip longer, The sky is far and high. In the absence of all human noise, Who can bear to hear the evening rain pressing to dawn? This is the seventh of the first series of seasonal poems. The Spinning Maid Festival, on the seventh day of the seventh month of the year, is a day to celebrate the yearly meeting in the sky of the legendary Cowherd and the Weaving Maid. On that day, melon fruits and flowers are displayed in the open, on tables. Girls gather different colors of sewing threads and perform certain 81 rituals and divinations to find out about their future marriages. Fall is a season of transition between summer and winter. During the summer, the water-clock drips a longer period of time in the day and shorter at night. As winter approaches, the days become shorter and the wa,ter-clock begins to drip longer at night. Thus Ouyang Hsiu writes in this poem: "The water-clock begins to drip longer". yu-ckia-ao The tenth month--month of the L i t t l e Spring. Plum trees are starting to send out blossoms. A red stove, a painted chamber newly furnished. Behind the bed-curtain, a beauty lingers l i s t l e s s l y in the warm bed, Too lazy to wash and comb her hair. Over the night, the jade water-clock is covered with a light film of ice. Upstairs, on a l l four sides, curtains are l e f t hanging. The cold mountain scene looks i t s best when viewed from afar The wind blows harshly, breaking off A line of travelling wildgeese. The red sun sets, Over the river, r o l l i n g clouds suggest the imminence of snow 115 82 This poem appears twice in CTYT, the f i r s t time independently, because of a few noticeable differences in the reading of the two occurrences, both poems have been kept in the collection. What is quoted here is the second poem. The following variants occur in The tenth month of the year has been habitually called " L i t t l e Spring" in China because the weather is s t i l l warm enough to suggest spring. In stanza 2, I have l e f t out the word -3- tza (character) from the translation because the image i t conjures up does not make sense in English. A line of travelling wild geese is visualized as the graph j&n (person) in Chinese. the second time in one of the yii-ckla-ao seasonal series. 83 However y'd-tal-hua Where is the best setting for youth? At the capital, I enjoy particularly F i r s t F u l l Moon night. Myriad layers of varied-color s i l k fabrics Make a screen of h i l l y range. The sky is half f i l l e d with rich and colorful decorations. Jade and silver lanterns Brighten up the red curtains. Dragons and tigers dart and leap. Along the lengthy Sand Embankment, To the houses of the five princes Carved wheels and silk-covered carriages race. Happy and harmonious, crushed and crowded, The night i s bright as daylight. Music-hall angels and sea-cave fa i r i e s meet. Trailing fragrance and fanning kingfisher feather, Hand in hand they parade and sing On the richly-decorated streets of the capital. The moon grows pale, the c h i l l i s light, Dawn gradually breaks. The water-clock is silent. When one is young, with a heart s t i l l a-roving, How can one ever go home before getting drunk? This is one of the longer tz'u written by Ouyang Hsiu. Away from the more standard themes of traditional tz'u, this poem des-cribes the ac t i v i t i e s which went on in the capital on First Full Moon night. It is an interesting piece of record which provides an insight into the everyday l i f e and custom of the people at the time. Firs t Full Moon was one of the busiest and most celebrated occasions in Sung. Meng Yuan-lao's ^ %j yfc Tung-chtng Mmg-in Pien-ching on such an occasion. Ittmajches very well with the description in this poem. Meng's passage reads: On the 15th night of the f i r s t month of the year., in F'aifeng, huge h i l l - l i k e awnings are set up...sightseers gather along both sides of the capital avenue, watching others display their unusual talents and skills...the sound of music, mixed with noises, could be heard over ten ti away...Over the lantern-decorated awnings, colorful s i l k fabrics run...showing rich and varied-color reflections... Over the two sides of the capital gate, straw bundles are gathered into the shapedod? dancing dragons...With myriads of of lanterns shinning brightly over their surfaces, they look like two flying dragons... In stanza 1, line 8, "dragons and tigers" could be the straw-bundled dragons or tigers over the capital gate. They may also be decorative lanterns made in the images of tigers and dragons. Line 9 of stanza 1 carls for an explanation. In T'ang t-imes, account of the celebrations held when a Chief-councillor was appointed, before he started his office, the court usually ordered the part of the road from his residence to ibhe capital to be paved specially by sand. This became known as the Road of Sand Embankment. In this poem, the name is used because ®f i t s association with royalty and high court-officials. In line 10, "houses of the five princes" originally refers to 85 the residences of T'ang Jui-tsung's J%^ five sons. In this poem, they refer simply to the houses of rich royalty. In stanza 2, line 3 (2 and 3 of the original), music-hall angels refer to the singing-girls of music and casino halls. Sea-cave fairies are probably g i r l s dressed in the images of legendary f a i r i e s , for the parade occasion. Lang-t'ao-iha Over the Five Ranges May begins to wane. The lichees are in their f i r s t flush of growth. Crystal balls wrapped in shells of silken red. It i s a pity that Heaven should l e t them grow in such remoteness, Far away from Ch'ang-an. Remember those days in the period of K'ai-yuan, When they won the Royal Favorite's special fondness. Since her soul departed at Mawei Pass, No couriers on the road now,--Only red dust, And Black Horse Mountain that f i l l s our eyes. ft*KJkx t i l , * a f t i jfo 120 This tz'u is special in Ouyang's collection for two reasons. First, it is the only tz'u on a historical subject he has written. Secondly, though the story of Yang Kuei-fei^|^-|^-jt^j was popular in A Itch, poetry, it was relatively unexplored in the early period of Sung tz'u. After Yang Kuei-fei had won the favor of Emperor Hsuan=tsung in the period of K'ai-yuan ftf^ %J (713-741 A.D.), he spent most of his time with her in the Hua-ch'ing Palace•^"7^ £ , a resort by Li-shanj^$) M (Black Horse Mountain, in present day Shensi). ^ To please her, he had lichees, her favorite fruit, brought from Nan-hai>^ jP) 7^ (in present day Kwangtung) by couriers galloping seven nights and days without stopping. Extravagances of this sort had created much discontent. In 756 A.D., when the An-lu-shan Re-bellion broke out, the emperor had to flee from Ch'ang-an to Szechwan. On the way, as the royal procession came to Mawei Pass ^  ^ , the guard refused to proceed. They demanded the death of Yang Kuei-fei. Finally, with much hesitation and pain on the part of Hsuan-87 tsung, Yang was killed. Many poets were intrigued by the grandeur of this story, by its tragic scale as well as a sense of history it offers. Among them were poets such as Po Chuii, Tu Fufc j | and Tu M u j i ! ^ . 8 8 This tz'u by Ouyang Hsiu follows that tradition. However, a critic, Teng K'uei-ying/j^ believes that this is not just a historical poem, but a contemporary 89 satire. During Ouyang's time, it was a practice among local officials to send yearly tribute of the most expensive and exotic products from their provinces, in hopes of pleasing the emperor. Ch'ien Wei-yen was said to have given away some of the most treasured peonies in Loyang in this manner, and Ts'ai Hsiang the finest qua-lity Zung-ch'a-^^^(dragon tea) from Foochow/^ )^^ "j . According to Teng, Ouyang wrote this tz'u as a satire against those officials, using the analogy of Yang Kuei-fei and the tribute-lichees. Teng supports his argument by referring to this nofce from a poem by Su Shih: (The tribute of) big and small dragon tea was initiated by Ting Chin-kung "3* '*\ and followed by Ts'ai Chun-mu =j$S %. f ^ . • When Ouyang Hsiu heard that Ts'ai sent in the tea cakes as yearly tribute, he exclaimed, "Chun-mu, you are 90 a gentleman. Why did you do that?" In his Kutt-t'tin Lu, Ouyang describes how the tea was valued 91 and fashionably talked about in court. It was a gift from the emperor. Those who were fortunate enough to obtain a portion of it preserved it as a treasure. One may also draw attention to another article "Lung-ck'a-Zu Hou-hi'u" in which Ouyang writes: ...Humble as I am, I, too, was presented one(piece of tea cake) which I have kept. Since I was made a policy-adviser, I have been working closely with the emperor. But I have only been given this tea once during these twenty years of royal ser-92 vice One can see just how valuable it is... 122 I agree with Teng that Ouyang Hsiu disapproved of the whole idea of tea-tribute. There is no doubt that he speaks ironically about the way it was done. However, the same satirical tone cannot be found in this poem. All that we can detect is a feeling of emp-tiness and a touch of sadness. The tone is calm and relatively de-tached . One line in the poem, however, is slightly baffling. In the last line of this tz'u, one wonders why Li-shan (Black Horse Moun-tain) would be mentioned right after the couriers and the red dust. According to T'ang-Akuj^!^' , lichees for Yang Kuei-fei were seiifct 93 directly to the capital, Ch'ang-an, and Ouyang understood it that way when he writes, "it is a pity that Heaven should let them grow in such remoteness, far away from Ch'ang-an". Although Li-shan is very much a part of Yang Kuei-fei's story, it is not elsewhere men-tioned in connection with the licheesepisode, and this last line of the poem necessarily draws some attention. Perhaps (if one is allowed the risk of reading too much into the poem), when writing about the couriers and the red dust, Ouyang is reminded of the extravagance of Yang at Li-shan. On the other hand, he may simply be using the si-tuation at Li-shan as a parallel for line 4 (4 and 5 in the transla-tion) : While the red dust s t i l l remains on the road, there are no more couriers; while Li-shan is s t i l l Miere, Yang Kuei-fei and all the history that went with her are gone. The meaning of the last line remains ambiguous and open to interpretation. In line 1, what I have rendered as "May" is mal-ch'iu (wheat-autumn), another name for the fourth month of the year on the lunar calendar. Although autumn is the harvest season for most crops, wheat i s usually harvested in China in the fourth month of the year, i n early summer. To wheat, therefore, that month is like autumn to most other grains. It i s also the month when lichees start to ripen. Hence Ouyang writes: "The lichees are in their f i r s t flush of growth." Man-ko-tzu A phoenix-style bun in a gold-splashed ribbon. A palm-like comb of jade carved with dragons. She comes over under the window, Laughing and leaning against me, Keeps asking, "Eyebrows painted in this shade, Are they in fashion?" She leans on me And plays long with her brush. Drawing flowers, trying her first sketch. Idling away a l l those sewing hours! With a smile she asks, "Those words for mandarin drake and duck, How do you write them?" TL IK h to. I i | *jbK.£fi%.%% This poem has been undisputedly recognized as a work by Ouyang 94 T Hsiu. However, a note under the poem in VVYT states: "TTSY says this is by Seng Chung-shu"{^f^ ^ i f v * "• ^  But the poem is not to be found under Seng in TTSY. It is not sure on what Tseng Ts'ao^g based his remark. Line 4 of the original (line 5-7 in the translation) is a direct borrowing of one line from the T'ang poet Chu Ch'ing-yu. Chu's poem runs: Last night the red wedding-chamber candles were burning. This morning she will meet my relatives. Her toilet finished, she asks me softly, 96 "Eyebrows painted in this shade, are they in fashion?" While the girl described in this poem is clearly a new bride, the one who asks the question in Ouyang's tz'u is not so easily identified. But because of the contextual association this borrowed line suggests, a few critics have considered her possibly to be 97 Ouyang Hsiu's young wife. Perhaps such a supposition kept this poem (which appears in TWCC) from being excluded from CTVF, for it is strikingly similar in style and tone to a number of other light-hearted poems of Ouyang missing from CTVF. What has been translated as "a phoenix-style bun" in line 1 is ie-ng-akij^^^^ , a term that can be interpreted either as a style of hairbun or as a bun with a phoenix hairpin. The phoenix-style was an elaborate way of doingguppthe hair so that it was imagined to suggest a flying phoenix. It was a fashionable hairstyle 98 the late T'ang and early Sung period. Man-k& tang-tzu A maiden so f a i r , Her lips deeply crimsoned, her cheeks delicately rouged. She met me under the flowers But hastened to go Lest anyone know, Leaving behind her tiny embroidered slippers. She returned in stocking feet, Her dark cloud-like tresses half-hanging, Held by a gold phoenix hairpin. Laughing and giggling as she walks, I try to embrace her, tenderly close. For one long moment, She stays sweetly in my arms. (L. 1, 5, 6 translation by R. Adler, modified) This i s another poem found in TWCC but missing from CTVF. There is a delightful rhythm running through the entire tz'u, accentuated by an alternation of long, short lines and the redupli-cation of words occurring thrice i n the poem. Because the rhythm of this poem seems to work especially close with i t s content and i t s mood of description, I have tried to maintain a similar varia-tion in the lengths of the lines in my translation. The protagonist's point of view has been adopted, which is only suggested in the original. T' 0L-&0- Suing Jade moss covers the zigzag verandah. In the deep courtyard, green willows hang. As I steal in by night To keep our secret tryst, Yeur window curtain i s s t i l l rolled up. Impossible not to be revealed Under these thin bushes,--The moon shining so bright! Our meeting seems doomed. The good time we had together when we last met, It's unlikely we can have i t again. The mark of the golden water-clock Is coming to i t s end. I tap a l l along the balustrade. There is no answer. Clearly, beneath the window curtain, I hear The sound of scissors cutting! This poem only appears in TWCC and is not to be found in CTW. It is obviously one of the tz'u in Ouyang's collection 102 which Lo Mi and Tseng Ts'ao considered "vulgar" and "unrefined". However, i t s theme seems to me universally human, and i t s treatment of the theme delightfully dramatic. This poem is also attributed to Yuan Hung-tao %^fi\ > 103 a Ming poet. This can only be a mistake for a work of the Ming period could not be included in TWCC, a Sung edition of Ou-yang's work. T'a-io-kiing-man Alone I board a solitary boat, Leaning against i t s t a l l mast, Gaze my f i l l at the far horizon. The evening rain is hard to form, Especially when the morning cloud is dispersed. In the cold gust, Shrivelled leaves scatter. The new moon shines on the clear shallows. Tonight, this parting feeling i s hard to dispel. I force myself to go to bed, And close these longing eyes, As the light burns out, And the water-clock drips ceaselessly, Clearly I see you i n a dream, Your lovely flower-like face, And the same old courtyard. The new moon shines. The silken bed-drapes hanging, The beaded curtain raised. Dawn gradually breaks--Sadly awakened from sleep, You seem as far as the distant sky. & . it A % *u M a . ft il $. *, jfc & # # jfc >* &. 3* I , **** 4 l i t . • A»«., $ I- ^ , 4 $. *i. * <o *fe, i& Hf i t 104 This tz'a is collected in TWCC but is missing from CTVT. Written in a refined and literary style, it is doubtful why this poem is excluded from CTVT. However, i f one examines the poem closely, one would detect, behind the yearning for a parted lover, a subtle touch of eroticism which runs through the poem. Line 4 and 5 (3 and 4 in the original text) has a reference to Sung Yii's ^  £" Kao-t'ang-Aa in which Sung des-cribes Emperor Huai of Ch'u in his trip to the Kao-t'ang Pavilion leaving, she said to him: " I ' l l be the morning cloud during the day, and the wandering rain at night". When he woke up again, the emperor had a temple built in memory of her, and he named it the Temple of Morning Cloud. Since then, "clouds and rain" have been usdd as a euphemism for ssxual encounters. In this poem, clouds and rain are described realistically, as part of an evening scene. At the same time, an allusion is made to their use as a euphemism. Thus line 4 and 5 refer also the impossibility of love-making because the lover is away. f«) JK. tyXj . There the emperor dreamt that he had an affair with the goddess of Mt. Wu who had come to visit him. Upon Wang -cklang-nan A willow of the South, Its leaves so small i t does not yet make shade. No one would have the heart to pluck i t s boughs, Boughs so soft and f r a i l . The warbler fears that i t s branches are too delicate to support a song, Branches so tender and young. It i s l e f t u n t i l spring is farther along. Fourteen years of age, or fifteen, Leisurely, with a p'i-p'a in her arms She looked around--As we gambled on the steps and she ran past down below, Then I had already noticed her, How could I f a i l to see her now? fa6] it & t k . pf i- & 1\ r f r. 1*. »|« IL 3f As mentioned earlier, this poem is connected with the f i r s t moral scandal involving Ouyang Hsium in which he was alleged to have committed incest with a niece. The young g i r l described in the poem was generally thought to be the niece herself. This tz'a has also been incorrectly ascribed to Emperor Kao-tsung of Sung -ft-^ a s well as to the Yuan monk Chu Yueh-hua Kao-tsung did write a tz'a which is very similar to the one here. Its f i r s t stanza reads: >> Jj 107 A willow of the South, Its leaves in soft green i t does not yet maKe shade. Its twigs are s t i l l too tender to be pHiucked, Its branches too delicate to support an oriole. 108 It i s l e f t u n t i l spring is farther along. ' Kao-tsung wrote this poem as a metaphorical description of a young concubine of his. Since he lived a number of years after Ouyang's death, this poem must have been based on Ouyang's. In stanza 2, what has been rendered as "looked around" i s 2^ - hi,an, which is more commonly used as a transitive verb meaning "to search for". Here, the interpretation of "to look around" has been preferred. This is perhaps more appropriate in i t s context. 135 CHAPTER III Critical Study As a tz'a poet, Ouyang Hsiu has been considered as a mere follower of the Hua-chien School (named after the first extensive tz'a anthology Haa-chim Chi J[ti which covers the period 836-940 A.D.) and the Southern T'ang tradition of Feng Yen-ssu. To many critics, he is but one of the literati poets of early Sung who write about groundless ennui and sentimental love. Some have concluded that his tz'a have no iden-tity and that he plays very little part in the development of the tz'a genre. Indeed, his works have often been lumped together with those of Yen Shu, and have even been rated as below those of Yen. 1 This popular view of Ouyang Hsiu as a tz'a poet is, in my opinion, largely unjust. Although Ouyang Hsiu made no epoch-making changes in the trend of tz'a composition, his works display considerable variety of experimentation, all written with a high degree of excel-lence. Compared to Yen Shu, his tz'a explore a wider range of worlds, and are emotionally more powerful and spontaneous. Many of them show deeper psychological insight and better characterization than the works of Yen. There is also a touch of gaiety and natural ease which runs through his poems. All these set him apart from other Sung poets, making his works refreshingly delightful to read. However, because Ouyang Hsiu's tz'a are more individualistic in style than technically innovative, their special qualities are difficult to define, and are 136 often easily overlooked. Before analysing the tz'u of Ouyang Hsiu, I would like to explain my method of classification. It is usually handy to classify a poet's works according to the themes he deals with. However, this method cannot be applied to the works of most early tz'u poets, since their poems express only a very narrow scope of themes. In the case of Ouyang, his tz'u are of related, though not altogether similar, subject-matter. They differ from one another more in their nature of composition than in their themes. To group his tz'u into such ready-made types as Love and Nature Lyrics (as R. Adler has done) is not only arbitrary and misleading, i t necessarily precludes the discussion 2 of many other works in his collection. Indeed, no more than 50 of Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u can be rightly called love and natureppoems. And even these do not deal exclusively with such well-defined themes. If we consider their nature of composition, Ouyang's tz'u do f a l l naturally into a few groups. These include poems which are typical of the tz'u tradition, poems written mainly for self-expression, and poems composed strictly for entertainment. Of course these groups are not mutually exclusive. In a very broad sense, almost a l l tz'u in early Sung were written to be sung, and therefore, to entertain. As for the tz'u tradition, i t is often difficult to determine to what extent a poem is typical or untypical of i t . However, because different emphases have been given to their nature of composition, Ouyang's tz'u do f a l l clearly into these groups, each with its distinct qua-li t i e s . Apart from these three categories of tz'u, I would like to discuss the 73 flippant and generally erotic poems in Ouyang Hsiu's collection. With this method of classification, I shall be able to cover all major aspects of Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u in this discussion. I. Poems typical of the tz'u tradition By the tz'u tradition, I refer to the style of tz'u represented by the poets of the Hua-chien School, modified and enlarged upon by the works of Feng Yen-ssu and Li Yii^-A (937-978 A.D.) of Southern T'ang. As the words kua-cklm (among the flowers) aptly suggest, tz'u in the early stage of development were composed to be performed 3 as entertainment. They were sung as popular songs, upon feast-tables and in music-halls. Because of the nature of this origin, poems of the Hua-chien School cover only a narrow scope of expression, and are highly impersonal. They centre around such familiar fhemes as boudoir lament, seasonal grief and parting §oi>;rHDW. In most cases, they are written in an elegant and cultivated fashion, packed heavily with cliches and stylizations. These, together with the necessity to comply with an elaborate set of metrical and prosodic rules, result in a lifeless, unprofound and stereotyped tz'u which characterizes the works of this period. 138 Wei Chuang ^. "jji. (855-910) was probably the f i r s t Hua-chien poet who wrote in a less stylized manner. He s t i l l retains in his poems many of the stock images common to the Hua-chien tz'u. Yet his language is plainer. His themes are slightly more varied, and his works reveal a greater depth of feeling and a stronger touch of realism. The following poem, deceptively simple and straightforward, is marked by an underlying tension of conflicting emotions: ?'u-Aa-man Everyone i s f u l l of praise for the beauty of the South: What can I do but end my days in exile in the South? The spring river is bluer than the sky; As i t rains, in a painted barge I l i e . Bright as the moon is she who serves the wine; Like frost or frozen snow her white wrists shine. I'm not old yet: l e t me not depart! 4 For going home w i l l surely break my heart! Wei Chuang had escaped from his native place near Ch'ang-an in the South, he tried to bury himself i n the enchantment of the place, i t s captivating scenery and lovely g i r l s . Yet deep in his heart, he was emotionally tied to his hometown. The apparent interest he assumes in this poem for the South only makes his nostalgic yearnings appear more poignant. It gives the poem a fresh, personal (Translation by J. Liu) during the Huang Ch'ao While seeking refuge 139 touch and a sense of realism that was heretofore unknown in tz'u. When Feng Yen-ssu and Li Yii came to the scene, they took up and extended this tradition of Wei Chuang, writing with s t i l l greater depth and subtlety. Li Yu even departed from the tradition to some extent when he wrote tz'u to give vent to his personal anguish and despair at the loss of his kingdom. As for Feng Yen-ssu, he wrote with great feeling and restraint, and his tz'u were extremely touching. These lines from one of his poems may serve to illustrate this: In tears I lean against the balcony, Murmuring to myself--When the swallows come in pairs, I ask them, "Have you met him on therasoad?" Spring sorrow is as confused and profuse as the willow floss. Longingly, I try but f a i l to find him in my dream. (Ch'uzk-t'a-chih) Although Wei, Feng and Li have enriched the tz'u genre and enlarged its scope, as a medium of expression, tz'u was s t i l l narrow and confined. Poets of this period were in general quite content to remain locked within the familiar confines of the lonely chamber and the desolate garden, expressing a restrictive world of emotions. They sought ful-filment not in broader realms, but in the refining and perfecting of the existing sphere. As mentioned earlier, Ouyang was an ardent reformer in prose and i>kik. He rejected the artificiality and over-refinement of the Hsi-k'un School with i t s exotic images and abstruse allusions. He inveighed strongly against the ornate, flowery style of pl£&n-uie.n, pressing for a return to the ku-we.n style of Han Yii. But as far as tz'u is concerned, probably because of the nature of this genre, Ouyang Hsiu did not entirely escape the influence of the Southern T'ang tradition. Over one-quarter of his works bear resemblance to the compositions of this trend. They share generally three characteristics. F i r s t , they are refined and restrained i n style. Second, they write on the standard themes of boudoir lament and parting sorrow. Third, they preserve much of the conventional setting and imagery of traditional tz'u. However, these poems are more akin to the works of Wei Chuang and Feng Yen-ssu in their depth of sensi-b i l i t y than to those of any other earlier tz'u poets. Let us f i r s t examine this tz'u: Vu-lou-ch'un Since we parted, I do not know How far you are from me. Whatever meets the eyes Grieves the heart. So much sadness.' The farther you travel, the greater the distance, The scarcer the letter--The water is wide, The f i s h l i e s deep, Where can I seek i t s message? In the depths of night, 141 The wind strikes an autumnal note On the tossed bamboo. Every leaf i s a sorrow, Every sound a sigh. Lying alone in bed, I try to search for you i n dreams. But f a i l . Meanwhile, the lamp has burnt to ashes. (Translation no. 8) Intense in i t s emotion and delicate in feeling, this poem deals with the theme of love in a manner strikingly similar to Feng Yen-ssu's. Set in a lady's chamber, i t contains no conventional description of the luxuries which surround its^ persona (as i n the works of Wen T'inggyun / j j Q . a n d other Hua-chien poets). In-stead, the poet plunges immediately into the g i r l ' s consciousness, describing her grief in her own voice. As she unfolds her sorrow, Nature and the real world about her become a part of her world, serving to intensify her emotions. If we see any traces of Feng Yen-ssu or Wei Chuang in Ouyang Hsiu's works, i t i s in this sensitive and subtle quality we find in his more traditional tz'u. Let us examine one other poem from this group of works: T' a-AO -lutng Plum blossoms fade by the wayside rest. Over the stream bridge, willow branches hang slender and young. A warm breeze blows, grass-fragrant, While my traveller's reins gentiy swing. Sorrow grows with the growing distance, Long and lingering, unending like a spring brook. The heart i s in pieces, Brimming tears mingled with powder. The tower i s high, Do not lean over i t s balustrade. Beyond the far reaches of the grassy plains 'the spring h i l l s l i e . And the traveller i s even beyond those spring h i l l s . (Translation no. 7) In two simple lines, with the use of two suggestive words ti'an (to fade) a n d N i ^ ki>i (slender and young), this poem opens with a vivid picture of early spring--plum blossoms faded, willow strands starting to send out young shoots. The setting (by the wayside rest), took is familiar and appropriate. ^ Spring is a joyous season when a l l things begin to sprout in rejuvenation. It i s the best time of the year when lovers, friends and relatives should be together, and not apart. By setting i t in contrast to a spring background, Ouyang Hsiu maKes the idea of parting appear even more unbearable. Warm breeze and the fragrance of grass echo a line from Chiang Yen's Fa On PaAtlng which, in turn, reinforces that feeling. Yet this adapted line f i t s in as an integral part of the poem, showing no traces of a loan. In the original, the c h a r a c t e r y a o (to sway/ swing) i s s l i g h t l y ambiguous. Without t a k i n g a d e f i n i t e subject i n the l i n e , i t can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n three d i f f e r e n t ways: 1) the wind blows on the r e i n s , causing them to sway; 2) the t r a v e l l e r swings the r e i n s ; and 3) the r e i n s sway by themselves, caused by the movement o f the horse and the rhythm o f the journey. I t i s not necessary to p i n down the exact meaning o f the l i n e . As the seven-long journey. In stanza 1, the p a r t i n g i s seen and des c r i b e d from the t r a v e l l e r ' s p o i n t o f view. He does not seem to have f o r g o t t e n the one he has parted w i t h . Instead, the grea t e r the di s t a n c e i s , the heav i e r i s h i s sorrow: "Sorrow grows w i t h the growing d i s t a n c e " - - t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f sorrow assumes the v i s u a l image o f a lengthy journey, blending very w e l l w i t h the subject o f the poem. This growing sadness i s f u r t h e r compared to an e v e r - f l o w i n g stream i n s p r i n g - - l o n g , p u r l i n g and unending. In stanza 2, the t r a v e l l e r now p r o j e c t s h i s f e e l i n g s to h i s loved one, p u t t i n g h i m s e l f i n her p o s i t i o n . She i s imagined i n her t e a r s , gazing a f a r from over a h i g h tower. Deep i n h i s h e a r t , he bi d s her not to do so, because there w i l l be no s i g h t o f him. A l l t h a t she can see w i l l o n l y be a s t r e t c h o f grassy p l a i n , beyond which l i e green h i l l s and green h i l l s . And he i s s t i l l f u r t h e r beyond those s p r i n g h i l l s The beauty o f t h i s poem l i e s very much i n i t s sense o f empathy. The t r a v e l l e r ' s thoughts o f h i s loved one's lo n g i n g f o r him r e v e a l i n teen t h century c r i t i c < c h a r a c t e r ^ ^ already n , 8 p o i n t e d out, the suggests v i v i d l y the rhythmic moMement of a turn his concern for her. This gentle compassion inevitably reminds one of this following poem from Tu Fu: Moonlit Night Tonight, in Fu-chou, She w i l l be watching this moon alone. With tenderness, I think of my far-away l i t t l e ones, Too young to understand about their father in Ch'ang-an. Her hair must be wet from the night-mist, Her white arms chilled by the cold moonlight. When shall we lean on the open casement together, And gaze at the moon 9 Until our tears are dry? Tu Fu wrote this poem in a feeling of anxiety and nostalgia when he was held captive in Ch'ang-an during the An-lu-shan Rebellion. His family was then away from him, in Fu-chou. On a bright, moonlit night, Tu thought about his wife, a l l alone and helpless (the children being too young to share her worries), waiting for his return. Although Tu Fu's poem seems to offer us a stronger sense of immediacy, the empathic effect i n Ouyang's tz'a is very similar to Tu's. And the perspective such an effect provides lends an added dimension to the poem. As far as his more traditional tz'a are concerned, Ouyang Hsiu (Translation adapted from D. Hawkes) is a fine exponent (a style of tz'a 145 which, contrary to the hao-fiang school ^  "3)^'^ •> i - s concerned with the exposition of fine and delicate feelings). The last two lines of this tz'u, for example, are a combination of emotional intensity and delicacy of feeling. Expressed in plain and simple terms, the emotions embraced in these lines are subtle and restrained, with much left to be contemplated and savored. In this respect, this poem, as well as the one previously examined, resembles the works of Feng Yen-ssu, and, at the same time, strikes a responsive chord in the "tz'u of Ch'in Kuan. We need only mention two popular lines from Ch'in: The Ch'en River used to wind around Mt. Ch'en, For whom does i t flow down the Hsiang River now? Serving in disgrace in Ch'en^j^ (in present-day Hunan), Ch'in Kuan was extremely depressed and homesick. In despondency, he wrote many poems, in one of which these lines are found. The implication of these two lines is: The Ch'en River originally wound around Mt. Ch'en, why does i t have to flow elsewhere, away from his hometown? By this, Ch'in is making an analogy between his inevitable exile and the outflowing of River Ch'en. Like the Ch'en River, the poet has no control of his own course. The subtlety and restraint of these lines have much in common with those of Ouyang's. However, typical of the works of Ch'in Kuan, these lines describe a state of consciousness in which the human world and the natural world are inextricably tied together. Mountains and rivers are seen through the Pathetic Fallacy, and heavily tainted with the poet's own emotions. In general, Ouyang Hsiu shows in his tz'a a wholehearted attitude toward l i f e and a readiness to surrender to the mood of the moment. He often projects his feelings to what surrounds him, but only very rarely does he lose himself in the process the way Ch'in Kuan does. As he states in one of his tz'a: Men have feelings and so w i l l act dotingly, This sorrow has nothing to do with the moon, nor the wind. (Translation no. 16) He is well aware of Mis own consciousness and his relationship with his surroundings, so that his feelings seldom go beyond the podaafc of tranquil recollection. If we examine the tz'a on parting again, Nagure is only set as a background in this poem to bring out the sadness of man. It is subordinate to him, and never takes over. If Ouyang Hsiu can afford to be objective withoflfctlacking i n feelings, i t is because he has a genuine interest in whatever he describes, At the same time, he i s remarkably gifted with an a b i l i t y to observe and record what he sees. The following poem w i l l attest to this: Lln-chAJxyiQ-hitlm 147 A light peal of thunder From beyond the willow trees. Rain on the pond, Falling, Scatters and patters, Upon the lotus leaves. Across the western corner of the Small house, a broken rainbow cuts Brightly, as I rest on the balcony, Awaiting moonrise. A swallow comes flying, Takes a peek under the painted beam. A jade hook lets the chamber curtain hang loose. It's cool waves unmoving, A bamboo mat spreads out f l a t . Beside the two crystal pillows Lie a fallen hairpin. (Translation no. 6) Despite the conventional setting and imagery, this poem is a pleasure to read. It does not contain passionate emotions, nor does i t seek to reflect or philosophize. However, there is a special beauty i n i t s lines as the poet details i n delight the world around him. He captures i n a leisurely, savoring mood every tiny activity that goes onnin front of his eyes. The light peal of thunder, the gentle rain, the gradual moonrise, the swallow which comes peeking, the waves on the bamboo mat--everything is described with a delicate awareness, building up slowly an atmosphere of secrecy and anticipation, until the description lands finally on the hairpin. This quality of description is a unique characteristic of Ouyang Hsiu. Although i t is a general opinion that Ouyang's tz'u differ greatly from his kkih, i t is not difficult to find the same unmista-kable manner of description in his &hih poetry. We can compare the above tz'u with, for example, this ihih poem: The. High ToweA Six zig-zags of carved railings, A hundred-foot-high tower. The curtain waves move gently, The brick shingles showing streams of wavering shadows. Over the north-western coMier of the tower, The floating clouds are casting. Toward the west of the clouds, s t i l l , 12 I await the sight of a crescent moon. In this poem, we find the same detailed descriptions of small scenes and tiny movements and the same feeling of anticipation. Again, the poet's presence is felt in the poem, playing the part of an interested observer, without melting into the scene. Ouyang Hsiu once expressed his special fondness for these two lines of ihih from Lin Ho-ching ^ j ^ * 2 : Its slanted shadow over the clear shallows,--An obscure scent floats gently in the twilight moon. The delicate observation of gentle nuances of mood in these lines has much in aommon with that of Ouyang Hsiu. After examining the quality of Ouyang's description, i t is easy to understand why he shows an af f i n i t y for Lin's poem. If Ouyang Hsiu is successful i n describing fine details of inanimate a c t i v i t i e s , he is equally s k i l f u l in portraying people: Su-ckung-ck'Ing (Thoughts on the Brows) Rolling up gently a curtain of clear morning ficost, She blows on her hands and applies a beauty mark. A l l because of this parting-sorrow, Deliberately, she draws her eyebrows long, Like the distant h i l l s . Thinking of the past, Lamenting the f l i g h t of youth--She tries to sing, But f i r s t composes her features; Just about to smile, She knits her brows again. How heart-rending! (Translation no. 4) This poem is set againsjg the familiar boudoir of the abandoned lady. The poem opens with a clear but cold, c h i l l y morning. The lady described is in a sad, pensive mood. She r o l l s up a curtain covered with light frost and blows on her hands to keep them warm. Her sadness is made more poignant by the suggestion of a gentle c h i l l . 150 As she settles to do her makeup, the poet begins to probe into her consciousness, while speaking to us in his own voice. Apparently, her lover has l e f t her. While she manages to face a new day by going through the usual t o i l e t routine, her heart is heavy. In deliberation, she likens her sad, longing feelings to the distant h i l l s by drawing her eyebrows long. The thought of far, distant h i l l s immediately triggers off a number of flashbacks and old memories. In this way, stanza 2 begins as a natural sequence to the last line in stanza 1. Thinking of the past, she.is suddenly reminded of her fast declining youth. Again, she is plunged into sadness. She attempts to sing, but cannot bring herself to the right mood. Trying hard to put on a smile, she ends up in a gentle frown. In a well-juxtaposed eight-character antithesis (lines 8-11 in this translation; I have not been able to reproduce a closer antithetical effect without making the translation f l a t and unnatural), Ouyang Hsiu has painted a pathetic picture of the g i r l ' s helplessness. The contrasting expressions on her face are a vivid representation not soromuch of her present melancholy; they dramatize her entire grief-stricken l i f e . More than this, they symbolize the lives of many other courtesans in Sung China who shared her fate. In most cases, the l i f e of a courtesan or singing g i r l was doomed to be unhappy. She sang not to enjoy, nor to express, but to entertain. The very nature of her work forbade her to have any real and permanent human relationships. Yet she s t i l l hoped for success and happiness 151 for the few short years before she began to lose the charm of youth. This poem of Ouyang Hsiu easily reminds one of an early tz'u from the lun-h.ua.ng Sang Collection. The second stanza of this song reads: Please don't climb me, Climb me out e£ an infatuation. I am a willow by a winding stream, This fellow plucks from me, That fellow climbs--14 Love a l l in one moment's time. One of the earliest tz'u of the common folk, this is a personal monologue of a courtesan's tragic l i f e , a direct protest she raises against the hostile world around her. The language, typical of the common folk's, is open and straightforward. In a very refined and delicate manner (suggested particularly by the setting and the choice of such words as 'gently1" {h.k'ing^tjiL. ), 'tries to apply' {i>klk%'t\ ), Ouyang's poem writes of the same plight of a g i r l . Compared to this tz'u, his tone is slightly removed, but not without compassion. His style is more subtle and sophisticated. 'clear' ), 'blows on her hands ) and 152 II. Poems written mainly for self-expression It is dangerous to read a poet's l i f e into his poems, parti-cularly his tz'u., for two reasons. First, unlike &hlk, tz'u poems are rarely titled, in which case i t becomes even more difficult to determine whether a poet is writing about his own experience. Se-condly, for a long time, tz'u had been treated merely as a form of entertainment. It had a highly romantic, yet impersonal tradition. The Hua-chien poets hardly sang about their personal feelings. However, as the genre gradually developed, because of its lyrical potential, a few poets began to reveal their private concerns in their tz'u. Wei Chuang started by expressing his longings for his native place, in fairly clear and concrete terms. With Li Yii, we are virtually compelled to read his works as reflections of his l i f e . As an eminent statesman, Ouyang Hsiu led an eventful l i f e during his forty years of office. He had never witnessed the kind of turbulence and bloodshed that Wei Chuang went through. Nor had he suffered the tragedy of losing a kingdom as Li Yii had. Nevertheless, his l i f e was fu l l of ups and downs. It was a l i f e of promotions and demotions, of veneration and scandal. We have seen many of the political and private embroilments Ouyang Hsiu was involved in. The effects of these vicissi-tudes naturally left some marks on his works. Ouyang's prose and hklk are a good reflection of the thoughts and concerns which predominated in his l i f e . For the more subtle feelings he had, however, he found expression in his tz'u. Although Ouyang seldom mentions specific people and events in his tz'u, about one-fifth of his works are written in a recurrent mood, expressing a certain outlook of l i f e which can be identified as his. At first glance, many of the sentiments he expresses in these works seem commonplace (about ageing, parting and the uncertainty of life) and could very well be part-and-parcel of a poet's stock-in-trade. However, the spontaneous and straight-forward manner in which these poems are written leaves a forceful impression on the readers, so that few would carelessly dismiss them as sentimental cliches of ground'lessslament. We have no need to read Ouyang's l i f e into every one of these poems, yet knowing his l i f e definitely lends an insight to 'this group of works. These tz'u share two characteristics. First, they are personal and, to some extent, reflective of Ouyang Hsiu's own feelings and experience. Second, their language is simple, prose-like and unadorned. Many of the tz'u in this group of works sing of the weariness and uncertainty of an official career: Remember, years back, we received our palace degrees together--A l l the gay and colorful luxuries of capital l i f e . Now, in meagre office I serve, after exiles and exiles... (Lin-ckiang-hAi&n) ^ How easily the joy of song disappears in a floating l i f e . The vicissitudes of an official career are difficult to predict. (Huan-kii-iha) The road of l i f e is stormy and rough... (Shmg-wu-yu) (Translation no. 20) 154 Travellers, don't you long for the roads of Ch'ang-an.. Men grow old faster in the cit y of Ch'ang-an... (y'd-ahyia-ao) (Translation no. 14) These are very personal enunciations of the uncertainty of l i f e and the brevity of i t s happy moments. It is characteristic of this group of works that the language used is clear and plain instead of elusive and evocative. However, the sentiments embraced in these poems are consonant with those in some of the more figurative and traditional works of Ouyang Hsiu: A night of blustering storm and wind In the last days of spring Sends red petals Falling and flying from the trees... (Vu-lou-ch'un) (Translation no. 5) The east wind is a news-bearer for a l l blossomings, 17 But when the blossoms come, i t blows so hard... (Yu-lou-ck'un) These lines, f u l l of a consumptive beauty, express the same concern we find in the works previously quoted: a feeling for the irretrievable passing away of the beautiful things and joyful moments of l i f e . The period of Ouyang's l i f e which he remembered well and sang of the most was probably his days in Loyang. Four years of office 155 in this thriving metropolis marked the early carefree years of his official and literary career. He was then young, zestful, yet naively bold and daring. However, he was in no influential position to be involved in any major political conflicts. Instead, he attended regular feasts, enjoyed himself in the company of poets and scholars, and was totally immersed in a l i f e of song and laughter. We have already seen the nostalgic attachment Ouyang shows for Loyang in one of his tz'u. Very often, the memory of the place is also linked with the parting with friends, with spring and a l l the happy asso-ciations i t brings: Vii-Zoa-ch' an With a glass of wine before me, I try to announce the day of my return. Before I can utter a word, my spring face dissolves into choking tears. Men have feelings and so will act dotingly. This sorrow has nothing to do with the moon, nor the wind. Please do not sing a second parting-song, One is enough to tie the heart in knots. Until I have seen the last of Loyang's flowers, I cannot part tooeeasily with the spring wind. (Translation no. 16) Apart from the memories of Loyang and the uncertainty of an official career, Ouyang Hsiu also writes abundantly on the subject of old age. In many of his tz'a, there is a sharp awareness of the flow of time and the inevitable passing away of youth. However, Ouyang always finds consolation and means of escape, so that he is never sad for long. A great number of songs in his collection are on the theme of carpe diem: Ckim-tza Ma-tan-kaa You can't induce spring to stay. The swallow is aged, the warbler lazy, They are no where to be found. Tell fading spring, Once old, youth will never come again. The moon is bright, The wind mild. Let's buy laughter with the money we've made, And treasure the ggod time. Don't wait to pluck the bough until i t is empty of flowers (Translation no. 10) Ti'ai-iang-tzu Ten years ago I was a winebibber, Beneath a bright moon, a wind clear and cool. In this way people wither and wane, Sorrow and worries grow. Time flashes by, startlingly quick. My hair has changed, but not my heart. Let me hold on to this golden goblet, And list e n to the old songs again--Songs that remind me of those good old drunken days (Translation no. 13) Vd-lou-ch'un Two old men happen to meet on this festival day When the willow catkins are flying like snow. Against youth let's drink, to the very last cup! Don't let the young blossoms Make you ashamed of your white hair. Like the arrow on the bowstring Are l i f e ' s meetings and partings. A feeling for separation grows intense with old age Let's pour from our golden lotus cups, And don't worry about the morning moon Sinking behind the west house! (Translation no. 15) Lang-t'ao-Aha Today we roam on the northern lake; Rocking, rocking, in a light boat. The bright ripples spread; the willow twigs hang so As Spring comes and Spring goes again like this, It has turned your hair white. A fine singing g i r l with a fine voice--158 It's hard to stop until you're drunk. Let me urge you to f i l l your golden goblet to the brim: Even if you are often sick with wine in the season of flowers, 18 That's a kind of gaiety too! (Translation by J. Liu) Reading these poems reminds one of Su Shih. A protege of Ouyang Hsiu, Su was a keen admirer of Ouyang and his works. It is not difficult to explain why Su had a special liking for Ouyang, as the two poets had much in common. They both show, in their works, a delicate awareness and sensitive appreciation for the beautiful things in life. Both display a sanguine attitude toward life and a readiness to find release in moments of grief. However, because the nature of their sentiments are not entirely similar, their ways of relief, too, are different. Like Ouyang, Su is also concerned about the passing away of time. However, his feeling for time is historical and phi-losophical : 19 The human world is like a dream.. (_Ui.e-n-na-c.kiao) The road of the world is endless, 20 But this weary life is short... (_Ck' in-yuan- ck' an) Upon River Ch'ien-t'ang, Over its mouth at Hsi-ling, How many times the sun has sunk? Do not dwell on changes since the old days, 21 A raise of head makes the present past! (Pa-4 hmg - kan-chou) Su Shih senses the f l i g h t of time and the emptiness of a short l i f e . Instead of relating these feelings to himself, however, he seeks release by philosophizing and pondering on them. Because he takes a cosmic view of l i f e in his works, he always succeeds in •rising above his feelings. This, I believe, is one reason why Su can transcend the immediate and the worldly to go beyond the limi-tations of conventional tz'u. Compared to Su, Ouyang's feeling for the fast elapse of time is more personal and down-to-earth: Once old, youth w i l l never come again... My hair has changed, but not my heart... As Spring comes and Spring goes again like this, It has turned your hair white... His r e l i e f , too, is direct and spontaneous, involving l i t t l e serious contemplations: Let's buy laughter with the money we've made, And treasure the good time. Don't wait to pluck the bough unt i l i t i s empty of flowers! Let's pour from our golden lotus cups, And don't worry about the morning moon sinking behind the west chouse! If we examine the four tz'a quoted, we see clearly two con-f l i c t i n g emotions underlying each poem; the one is a helpless feeling for the rapid flow of time and the loss of youth, the other, an unrestrained gaiety and a determination to enjoy what the present can offer. In each case, we see a swift transition of one feeling to the other, without going through any complicated thoughts or emotions. The hidden conflicts we see in these poems are not accidental. They represent two different qualities we find in the works of Ou-yang Hsiu: (1) a capacity to feel and to respond to very change and shade of feeling i n l i f e . In other words, a poetic sensibility. (2) the a b i l i t y to appreciate l i f e with an objective awareness and a detachment of Reeling. Because of these two qualities, Ouyang Hsiu is capable of writing poems marked at the same time by an emotional intensity and a touch of carefree gaiety. This unique combination we find not only in Ouyang's tz'a, but i n his &hlh as well: Thji2.il Foemi on a Spfvlng Vi&it to Vzng-lo PcLvjAion (1) The trees are in green profusion, The mountain birds chirping away. Falling petals waft and whirl in the sunny breeze--Amidst the songs of birds, the waltzes of flowers, The governor i s drunk--161 Tomorrow, when he awakes from intoxication, Spring w i l l already be gone. (2) The spring clouds float thinly, The sun shines bright. Grasses stir, the traveller's gown. Willow catkins brush on his clothes. As he walks to the west of the pavilion, There he meets the governor, Riding on his sedan, returning, sodden drunk, With flowers on his head. (3) Red trees, green h i l l s , a sun about to set. Over the countryside, the green color of grass stretches to no end--Ignoring the aging of spring, Visitors come to the pavilion, 22 Treading over i t s fallen petals. In these poems we can detect, on the one hand, a tender feeling for the gradual departure of spring--The trees aaie in green profusion.. Falling petals waft and whirl i n the sunny breeze.. Tomorrow, when he awakes from intoxication, Spring w i l l already be gone. Grasses s t i r the traveller's gown, Willow catkins brush on his c l o t h e s . . — 162 the other, the poet's attempt to assume a casual nonchalance--Amidst the songs of birds, the waltzes of the flowers, The governor i s drunk--Riding on his sedan, returning, sodden drunk, With flowers on his head. Ignoring the aging of spring, "Visitors come to the pavilion, Treading over i t s fallen petals. Poets respond to the transciency of time and the brief span of l i f e in their different ways. We have seen how Su Shaih reacts with his philosophical contemplation. Another poet who does i t in a distinctly individualistic manner is L i Po J^ . ^ . Let us analyse this following exceppt from one of his poems: Have you not seen How the Yellow River, which flows from heaven and hurries toward the sea, never turns back? Have you not seen How at the bright mirrors of high halls men mourn their white hair, At dawn black s i l k , by evening changed to snow? While there is pleasure i n l i f e , enjoy i t , 23 And never let your gold cup face the moon empty! (Translation by A.C. Graham) 163 What we see in these lines i s a powerful language and a soaring emotion. Typical of the style of L i Po, this poem is f i l l e d with strong, subjective feelings and exaggerated imageries. By comparing the flow of time to the ro l l i n g waters of the Yellow River, and by condensing the lengthy years of a lifetime to the span of a day, L i succeeds in creating a forceful impact on the feelings of his readers. After reading these lines, one is often convinced, emotionally, that l i f e is really too short. Any enjoyment of the pleasures of l i f e the poet writes about becomes easily j u s t i f i a b l e . We cannot find the thoughtful contemplation of Su Shih, nor san we detect the rich imagination of L i Po in Ouyang H§iu's works. What Ouyang possesses i s a different quality: an objective sense of humor, an a b i l i t y to laugh at himself. Ouyang had, in the less fortunate periods of his l i f e , invented interesting names to address himself. He called himself "The Drunken Elder" (jMii-mng j§*j£ ^  ) and "The Hermit of Six-ones" (Lm--i Ckii-Akih ^ ). In his works, he hardly allows himself to be sunk in grief. In moments of sorrow, he would shake off Ithe feeling by stepping aside, eyeing himself at a distance. In this way, he treats himself as an object for scrutiny, and finds himself laughable. In Ouyang's prose, we can easily find such descriptions as the following: ...Pale-faced and white-haired, drunk i n the middle of a l l • «.i , 2 5 is the governor!.. And from his ikik: As lie walks to the west of the pavilion, He meets the governor, Riding on his sedan, returning, sodden drunk, With flowers on his head! These l i v e l y and humorous self-portraits appear also in Ouyang's tz'a: Enjoy yourself while you are young, You only have to look at this old fellow here with his wine! (Ch'ao-ckang-ts ' o) (Translation no. 9) Don't laugh at me, Me with flowers on my white hair. The music i s urging on, 26 Wine glasses busily passed around... (Wan-h&l^ha) Because of Ouyang Hsiu's a b i l i t y to laugh at himself in times of grief, these lines read at once sad and amusing. It is this interesting combination which gives this group of tz'a by Ouyang Hsiu a personal touch and a sense of realism. Compared to his more traditional tz'a, this group of poems also shows a greater unrestrained gaiety. In this sense, i t is closer to the kao-fang school (a style not properly named and f u l l y represented un t i l after Su Tung-p'o), and is characteristic of this other style of Ouyang Hsiu's works. III. Poems written s t r i c t l y for entertainment After the chaotic period of the Five Dynasties, times were re-latively stable in Northern Sung. In the c i t i e s , a l l manner of in-dustries and small trades flourished. Artisans produced a wide variety of goods and wares. Craft stores, wine-shops, restaurants, casinos, entertainment houses and brothels f i l l e d the capital. Musical entertainment became a major source of enjoyment and relaxation for 27 a l l classes of people. Tz'a, which originated as a popular song form in the T'ang and Five Dynasties was given an excellent chance to thrive and develop. The l i t e r a t i who constantly visited the brothels and music halls found i t a challenge to compose verses for the new tunes of the day. Although the tunes used for Sung tz'a have long been lost, we do know that Ouyang Hsiu's tz'a were performed in his time, as an 28 active part of the singing g i r l s ' repertoire. Though most of his tz'a were eventually used in singing, some of them, according to Ou-yang himself, were especially written for the purpose of entertainment. As hessfcates in the preface to his poems on West Lake (the West Lake 166 in Ying-chou where Ouyang once served, and where he f i n a l l y chose to retire in): ... I decide to rearrange the words of the old stanzas to f i t a new tune. And for the sake of entertainment, I 29 venture to expose my inadequate s k i l l s . 31 Apart from the famous series of 10 poems on West Lake, this group;of tz'u I have in mind includes two cycles of seasonal poems--a total of 24 tz'u written to the tune yu-ckia-ao, as well as a number of other poems on the lotus g i r l and the mythical Spinning Maid. Both the poems on West Lake and the two sets of seasonal tz'u are written to a form known as ku-tzu-tz'u A ku-tzu-tz'u is a series of songs written to the same tune and on the same subject. The songs often bear-a recurring refrain so that they resemblesone another and assume a coherence when sung one after an-other. Since most Northern Sung tz'u were hAiao-ting (tz'u 32 with less than 58 characters), each ku-tzu-tz'u provided a much lengthier performance than one k&tao-ting. Like an inflated folk-ballad (except that i n most cases the works repeat the same subject instead of assuming a narrative progression), the songs, due to re-peated and continuous singing, became popular very easily. Ouyang Hsiu was one of the f i r s t to write in this form. However, the earliest prototype of ku-tzu-tz'u dated back to the period of Chin and Sung in the fourth and f i f t h centuries. During that time, we already 167 find such a poem as Va.uk-chink Ckc-gang-Liu-ko which contains a series of songs, each celebrating one month of 33 the year. In the Tun-huang collection of T'ang folk songs, poems such as Skik-2Ak-Akik-ko ~ ^ ^$[K , Wu-ke.ng-ckuan 2^. and Pai-Aui-ko f^~%^> contain cycles of songs written on the 34 same tunes. A form of folk-song by origin, ku-tzu-tz'u was composed in Northern Sung solely for the purpose of entertainment. A Sung poet Chao Ling-chih (1051-1134) who lived after Ouyang Hsiu even used this form to narrate the story of Chang Chun-jui ^ <^%L ^*$Q and Ts'ui Ying-ying y|f _5h .Jh in Yuan Chen's Hui-ckzn Cki -$t> • This was the first attempt at story-telling with songs for the sake of performance. It marked the beginning of the idea of ck'a it • Although the music is no longer extant, and none of the ku-tzu-tz'u can be sung, we can s t i l l detect the characteristics of this form of writing in Ouyang's works. The 24 seasonal poems cannot be treated in any other way but as two sets of coherent works. The poems on West Lake, too, should also be read as one single unit, instead of 10 individual tz'u. Each poem in this set sings of the charm of the lake in a different time and temperament. Each carries in its first line a simple refrain kit-ku-kao , meaning literally "West Lake fine". Together, they paint the beauty of West Lake in its varied seasons and moods: in early, deep and late spring, in the summer, during the day and after dusk. The message is in the form itself. The repeated 168 singing of the same tune with the same refrain reinforces the idea that West Lake is lovely any time of the day, any day of the year. These variations of moods on the lake include: i t s gay and interesting bustles Flying canopies chase after one another, Rushing to seek intoxication 36 Among the jade goblets and the flowers., (no. 5) West Lake is lovely with the lotuses i n bloom, Coming laden with wine in a boat, We need no banners and flags, To our front and back, red standards and green canopies escort us... (no. 7) (Translation no. 24) i t s tranquil serenity: West Lake is beautiful against the glow of a fading twilight. With flowers over the bank, and duckweed covering the shallows. Over the wide expanse of the watery plain, The waves are tranquil. On the deserted shore, a boat si t s i n solitude. To the southwest the moon rises, Floating clouds disperse. It grows cool at the balcony r a i l i n g - -How fresh the fragrance of the lotus and water caltrops! Across the surface of the water the wind comes, Sobering my wine-dazed face. (no. 9) (Translation no. 25) and finally, its rapturous and idyllic moments: The wind is clear, the moon white--Favoring a perfect night. The water is a field of lustrous jade. Who would long to ride on the imperial horse or the fairy bird? 37 A man in a boat is an immortal! (no. 8) Beneath the boat the clouds float softly by, Sky and water are both clear and limpid. I glance, now upward, now down, 38 Lingering in the illusion of another sky in the lake, (no. 3) After describing Wgst Lake in all of its moods and variations, Ouyang Hsiu wraps up the series by giving it a slight personal touch: All my life I have loved West Lake, Where I once arrived with a retinue of vermilion wheels. But riches and honor are like floating clouds. In a moment, twenty springs slipped by. Coming back, I feel like the crane of Liao-tung. The city and its people, All have changed. Who would ever recognize the governor of long ago? (no. 10) (Translation no. 26) Ouyang Hsiu was not the first Sung poet to write about West Lake in ku-tzu-tz'u. P'an L a n g ^ ? ^ (995-1009) who lived slightly before 170 him, had already composed a string of nature poems to the tune of in which he celebrates the scenery of 39 the South. Poem 3 and 4 of this series sing specifically of the renowned West Lake of Hangchow. The third poem reads: I w i l l always remember West Lake, When Spring comes, endless scenery upon i t s waters. Where the g i r l s of Wu are a l l as beautiful as f a i r i e s , Racing one another i n their orchid boats. Clusters of pavilions, a fairy land i n the distance--Where a recluse should end his days. Since I was last there, Twenty years have passed. Stretching their gaze toward the east, These eyes are almost worn through. ^ In contrast to the vague and dreamy picture of West Lake P'an Lang gives us, Ouyang's poems present a variety of sharp and interesting snapshots of the West Lake i n Ying-chou. When reading his series, one can sense Ouyang's acute awareness to the different kinds of moods the lake offers him, thereby sharing his poetic experience. There is also a strong feeling of immediate presence in Ouyang's tz'a which is missing in P'an's. This i s partly due to the vividness of Ouyang Hsiu's de-pictions, but partly due also to the subtle implication of the poet's own presence throughout the series. Words such as pu-chuck y\~ jgj "(You) scarcely notice", y i - i h l h 1 $ ^ f t ^ "(One) has the i l l u s i o n that", i> kih-ckiie.k -^vj, vj£> ". .before (I) realize..", ikuA.-c.hih^^,^- , "who 171 knows", and &hut-hAim~%p-< > " w n o longs for?" a l l remind the readers of the poet's consciousness, and suggesting, at the same time, an invitation to the readers to join him in his rapture. Were i t not written to the prosody of a tz'u. tune, this series of poems is far removed from traditional tz'u both in i t s i d y l l i c feeling and rhapsodical mood, and in i t s lack of conventional tz'u imagery. Apart from the West Lake series, Ouyang Hsiu has composed two sets of tz'u to the tune of yli-ckia-ao, each of which describes the year, month by month, in 12 individual poems. Although written as popular entertainment, these works have none of the superficial or hackneyed descriptions of Nature found in most popular songs. Instead, every line i s a sharp and heart-felt expression of careful observation. These poems reflect Ouyang's capacity to respond sensitively to the minute changes i n Nature: to i t s shape, color, sound, mood, and i t s effect on human ac t i v i t i e s . Let us examine how the poet observes |and responds, at the same time) to just a few of the delicate seasonal transformations: The f i r s t month--the Dipper starts to t i l t in i t s course.. Layers of soft, thin ice scattered over the green pond, The brook begins to murmur. The f i s h about to play again. 41 Over the woods, one senses already a blossoming climate... In a few short lines, Ouyang Hsiu has successfully captured the 172 essence of early spring--the f i r s t sign of burgeoning movement after a period of cold, dormant winter. The pond, deeply frozen in winter, is now almost a l l melted clear. The brook begins to l e t off a gentle flow. Even the f i s h feel the return of l i f e and warmth and are about to run active again. Everywhere the resurgence of l i f e is prevalent. The fourth month--spring has gone from the woods. Deep and dense, like a heavy curtain the trees begin to develop shade. With the flower twig I mve plucked s t i l l i n my hands, My sleeves smell of scent. Among the leaves, the plums are green like beans. Often, rain and wind season the weather. Rows of new bamboo-shoots sprout--Their snowy-white skins thickening. I dash off a few poems on the departure of spring, Simply to go with the drinking. The color of the cherries reflect brightly on the silver plates. (Translation no. 34) This poem describes the time of the year when spring is gone and summer is around the corner. Instead of the usual sadness associated with the departure of spring, there is a newly settled feeling, a feeling of everything steadily maturing in the atmosphere: the plums are green like beans, the skins of the bamboo-shoots are gradually thickening. There seems to be a lack of excitement and enthusiasm when the poet claims that he does a few farewell songs simply to go wi'th the drinking. However, typical of Ouyang Hsiu, this indifference is quickly replaced by a touch of cheerfulness as the poet finds con-solation by mentioning about the cherries reflecting brightly on the silver plates. The seventh month--the beginning of f a l l When the wind starts to blow, And the dews come out early. Over the shallows, lotuses are s t i l l flowering, The wu-t'ang in the courtyard grows old... As the myriad leaves sound their notes, A l l of a sudden i t grows cold. Different kinds of insects sing their nightly songs. The mists are gradually swept away. The water-clock begins to drip longer, The sky is far and high. In the absence of a l l human noise, Who can bear to hear the evening rain pressing to dawn? (Translation no. 35) This poem describes the seventh month of the year when summer is gradually taken over by f a l l . Throughout the f i r s t part of the poem, a feeling of transformation i s f e l t by the suggestion of move-ment and change taking place in Nature: the wind starts to blow; the dews come out early; while the lotuses are sending out their last blooms, the wu-t'ang are growing old. The second part of the poem is f i l l e d with a forlorn and c h i l l y feeling of f a l l . The sky, far and high overhead, gives a feeling of hollow vastness. The wind is high, the leaves rustle, the nightly insects chirping away, the evening rain i s pressing to dawn. In the absence of a l l human noise, the destructive aspect of Nature is dominant. The tenth month--month of the L i t t l e Spring. Plum trees are starting to send out blossoms. A red stove, a painted chamber newly furnished. Behind the bed-curtain, a beauty lingers l i s t l e s s l y in the warm bed, Too lazy to wash and comb her hair. Over the night, the jade water-clock is covered with a light film of ice. Upstairs, on a l l four sides, curtains awe l e f t hanging. The cold mountain scene looks i t s best when viewed from afar. The wind blows harshly, breaking off a line of travelling wildgeese. The red sun sets, Over the river, r o l l i n g clouds suggest the imminence of snow. (Translation no. 36) In this poem, the poet depicts winter--its c h i l l and sense of intimidation--by effectively juxtaposing two scenes, one indoor, one outdoor. The f i r s t stanza unfolds with a lady's chamber. Newly painted, with a warm red stove, the chamber is shielded on a l l four sides from the cold by heavy curtains. Nevertheless, a touch of c h i l l is s t i l l felt in the room, as the water-clock shows a layer of thin, cold ice. The lady of the chamber is lazy and listless. Unwilling to face the cold, she tries to linger for allonger while in her warm bed. Without mentioning that it is cold, the poet succeeds in bringing across a sense of chill and intimidation. This is es-pecially suggested by the heavy curtains which are "left hanging", by the inactivity of the lady, the warm, red stove and the light, filmy ice on the surface of the water-clock. In the second stanza, the poet moves from the inside to the outside of the house, painting for us a distant picture of winter twilight. We see, in this picture, cold, far-off mountains and a line of travelling wildgeese broken off by a harsh wind. In the glow of a red sunset, clouds above the river gather in rolling forms, suggesting the imminence of snow. Despite the description of the wind and the rolling movement of the clouds, there is a static mood about the poem, a sense of stillness working gradually toward a slow precipitation. Apart from the description of Nature's seasonal changes, Ouyang Hsiu's two series of V(i-chia-oiO poems are interesting records of human activities taking place during the different seasons: The first month--the Dipper starts to t i l t in its course.. Families gather together in happy union.. The first full moon is not full yet, On the fourteenth of the month, In front of the houses, red lanterns are already hanging... The third month--the season of Ch'ing-ming 43 is gentle and mild... The f i f t h month... On golden plates, fastened in varied-color s i l k strings--44 Dumplings of the Mid-dragon Festival... The seventh month... Everywhere, melon fruits and flowers flourish in season. People empty their golden jugs. Gathering colorful sewing threads, In the human world, the g i r l s get ready for the Spinning Maid Festival. (Translation no. 35) The eighth month... As the autumn sacrifices draw near, 45 I grieve to see the swallows leaving for home... A l l these descriptions of seasonal activities bring about a feeling for the various occasions and fe s t i v i t i e s that everyone is familiar with. Besides the West Lake series and the two cycles of seasonal tz'a, Ouyang Hsiu has composed a number of poems on the popular themes of the Spinning Maid and the lotus g i r l . Both topics have been commonly dealt with in ihth poetry, but less so in tz'u. Coming from a long-standing folk legend, the story of the mythical Spinning Maid and the Cowherd has particular appeal with the common folk. Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u share the same feelings most people have for the story of the legendary couple. At the same time, he i s able to capture the essence of the tragedy by highlighting i t s happy moment. Let us examine the following tz'u: yii-ckia-ao x (Evening of the Seventh Day of the Seventh Month of the Year) The magpies f i l l the Milky Way, the fairy waves are shallow. The cloud-chariot i s already by the Star Bridge. With the fading end of the twilight glow The street drum announces the hour. The bright daylight retreats. To the west of the sky a golden crescent hangs t i l t e d l y . After one whole year of parting, now they meet again. Old woes and new joy--no end! Treasure this joyful meeting i n Heaven, The good night i s short. On earth, the silver-marker of the water-clock should not rush too fast for them! (Translation no. 33) This poem centres i t s description around the moment of happy reunion between the Spinning Maid and the Cowherd. Stanza 1- des-cribes the anticipation as the meeting draws near. It opens with a heavenly scene: the magpies are forming the fairy bridge, the Spinning Maid's cloud-chariot i s already waiting by one side of the Milky Way. As the glowing t a i l of a fading twilight gradually disappears, the moon emerges, hanging t i l t e d l y in anticipation to the west of the sky. These heavenly activities are echoed on earth by the awareness of a flow in time, as the street drum announces the hour. Stanza 2 describes the meeting i t s e l f . The poet beautifies that b l i s s f u l moment by emphasizing i t s shortness, and contrasting i t with the endless woe separation creates. There i s an urge to capture the moment, to halt the flow of time as the poet pleads the human world to slow down for the fairy couple. Like the seasonal tz'a, poems on the topic of the Spinning Maid are common and, often, stale. However, Ouyang Hsiu is able to give his works a fresh, poetic touch through a sense of interest and a genuine participation i n his process of description. On the whole, he succeeds in elevating many of his "entertainment tz'a" from the level of mere popular songs to interesting pieces of poetic experience. TV. The 73 generally erotic tz'a Finally, I would like to discuss the 73 controversial tz'a in Ouyang Hsiu's collection. These works, many of which are love poems, di f f e r drastically from his other tz'a both i n content and style. As mentioned earlier, they coincide with a newly arisen trend of tz'a composition in Northern Sung headed by Liu Yung. Instead of idealizing love in the usual heart-searching and dreamy manner, they handle i t with a dramatic realism, describing i t in frank and often erotic terms. Liu Yung was not the f i r s t poet to write in this style. Long (regulated verse) on love themes in this distinct manner: Drunk, and counting on i t , I seek, for no reasons, an old rendezvous. Laden heavily with grief, this feeling i s d i f f i c u l t to overcome. The house stands in the silent drizzle of a deep spring. In the distance, a mid-night lamp i s burning behind the window casement. I hold on tightly to a post, the wind blows on me, gently. As I walk along the zigzag path of the verandah, My feelings are burning. Clearly, underneath the window, I hear The sound of scissors cutting! I tap a l l along the balustrade, There i s no answer. ^ This poem is neither erotic nor frivolous. Nevertheless, i t already departs greatly from the traditional love poem and can be considered one of the earliest prototypes for the new kind of tz'u we mentioned. In this poem, we cannot find the painful yearnings or gentle concern a man has for his lover. Instead, we are presented before him, in T'ang, Han Wo with a situation in which he becomes the centre of his own description. The opening line sums up the situation very well. Drunk, lonely and lacking a sense of purpose, the man in this poem tries to find recognition of his self by seeking- his old lover. As he walks in the rainy night to his lover's house, he is burning with feelings, not so much of a desire to see her, but of a longing for acceptance and the fear of being rejected. Instead of glorifying the emotions the man has for his lover, the poet concentrates on describing the man's conflicting emotions, his shivering courage to confront the meeting that he dreads but longs for. This poem gives us a heightened drama of love and an interesting piece of psychological insight. Ouyang Hsiu must have read this poem of Han and been impressed by i t s dramatic situation. Let us examine how Ouyang adapts the same situation into one of his tz'a: Jade moss covers the zigzag verandah. In the deep courtyard, green willows hang. As I steal in by night To keep our secret tryst, Your window curtain i s s t i l l rolled up. Impossible not to be revealed Under these tMn bushes, The moon shining so bright! Our meeting seems doomed. The good time we had together when we last met, It i s unlikely we can have i t again. The mark of the golden water-clock Is coming to i t s end. I tap a l l along the balustrade. There is no answer. Clearly, beneath the window curtain, I hear The sound of scissors cutting! (Translation no. 41) Like Han's poem, much of the typical imagery of traditional love poem is present in M i s -£z'u--the deep courtyard, the winding verandah, the green willows, the cold, bright moon, the dripping water-clock and the window curtain. However, they a l l appear in a context far from the usual. There is no languishing lady waiting l i s t l e s s l y in her chamber, no lonely watching of the cold, evening moon, no longing for a moment's encounter i n dreams. Instead, she is seen as a real g i r l having the last word of a lover's quarrel. Like the man in Han's poem, the one described here walks through the same zigzag verandah to meet his lover at night. As he hustles his way stealthily to his rendezvous, darting along, finding shade among the shrubs to hide himself from the terrible brightness of the moon, there is a mischievous, almost comical air about his movement. The g i r l i s sewing i n her chamber. With her window curtain rolled up i t i s obvious that she remembers their secret tryst. But as he waits and waits, he realizes that there may be no hope for a meeting. Like the man i n Han's poem, he taps a l l along the balustrade. But she ans wers him with the same cold, metalic sound of her working scissors, snapping away in the quiet night. Despite their similarities, there i s a marked difference between Han's and Ouyang's poems. While Han's poem is f i l l e d with a lonely, helpless and pathetic mood, Ouyang's tz'a is flippant and amusing. Words such as yafy^ ( s t i l l ) , wa-nai 3$'^ (helpless, impossible), ch'uck-hzn (but how I hate), k'an-k'an (but look), ch'iao-pizn (I tap a l l along) and fan-mlng (clearly) spoken in the persona's own voice a l l contribute to a frustrating yet light-hearted tone. Far-fetched though i t may seem, this tone reminds me sharply of the voice i n Robert Browning's many frivolous dramatic monologues. Compare i t with, for example, this excerpt from Browning's Tha. Lippo IJjppl: I am ppor brother Lippo, by your leave!: You need not clap your toEches to my face. Zooks, what's to blame? You think you see a monk! What, 'tis past midnight, and you go the rounds, And here you catch me at an alley's end Where sportive ladies leave their doors ajar? The Carmine's my cloister: hunt i t up.... Aha, you know your betters/ Then, you'll take Your hand away that's fiddling on my throat, 47 And please to know me likewise... As Brother Lippo get caught in the middle of the night away from his cloister, stealing around in some ladies' quarters, we see him confronting the guard in his timidly bold way. He jiustifies his behavior, bulldozes the guard and begs him for a favor--in a voice even more mischievous and charged with l i f e than Ouyang's flippant lover. However, the manner in which both characters are dramatized are very similar. We see the characters acting and speaking directly in front of us, both i n their small, undignified yet equally human way. Fri v o l i t y seems to be the dominant mood in this group of tz'u. Let us examine another poem written in a similarly delightful tone, this time, describing a happier rendezvous: A maiden so f a i r , Her li p s deeply crimsoned, her cheeks delicately rouged. She met me under the flowers But hastened to go Lest anyone know, Leaving behind her tiny embroidered slippers. She returned i n stocking feet, Her dark cloud-like tresses half-hanging, Held by a gold phoenix hairpin. Laughing and giggling as she walks, I try to embrace her, tenderly close. For one long moment, She stays sweetly i n my arms. (Translation no. 40) This poem, like the one mentioned earlier, contains a touch of light-hearted tension and the passion of a stolen moment. This time, the g i r l becomes the centre of description, told from the man's point of view. As the two f i r s t encountered each other, the meeting was hasty and brief, suggesting the conspiracy of a subsequent meeting. The g i r l came back for the embroidered slippers she l e f t behind. Carelessly dressed, i n stocking feet, with her tresses half-hanging, she giggles and laughs as she holds on to him. And for one lingering moment, oblivious of a l l danger, they embrace. This secret love epi-sode i s , as R. Adler already suggested, reminiscent of the forbidden meeting between L i Yu and his young princess (his wife's sister) des-cribed in this tz'u: ^ ?'u-Aa-man The flowers were bright But the moon was gloomy in the light mist. That was the best night to go to my lover. Fearingly, I trod the fragrant stairs with stocking feet; I held in my hand my gold-threaded shoes. I met him to the south of the painted h a l l . For a time I leaned against him, shivering. I said, "It i s d i f f i c u l t for me to come too often, 49 So lavish on me now your love". (Translation by Y. L. Liu and Suhrawardy) As mentioned earlier, L i Yii was one of the f i r s t tz'u poets to break away from the Hua-chien tradition. His poems are personal reflections of his l i f e , ranging from the early gay and carefree days 185 to the later sorrowful years after the loss of his kingdom. Many of his early poems write of his luxurious court l i f e and his romantic hiiao-chou-hou. These tz'u. have bold and r e a l i s t i c descriptions of love. The one quoted here, for example, describe the young princess' secret meeting with him in intimate language. However, as the g i r l secretly treads her way along the stairs to where he i s , and shivers when she i s f i n a l l y with him, there i s an ominous note about the poem. She seems to seek i n his arms not only love, but shelter from the c h i l l of the night and a l l the fear and danger that have taken over her. Compared to this tz'u, Ouyang's poem is flippant and cheerful, despite i t s underlying tension. Nevertheless, i f Ouyang Hsiu has inherited anything from L i Yu, i t is the quality of genuine and r e a l i s t i c description we find in the works of L i . Although some of Li's early tz'u appear t r i v i a l and superficial in content, they are saved from the banal and the voluptuous by the real i t y of their vi v i d expressions. The following, for example, is a delicate sketch of feminine coquetry done i n exquisitely fine but l i v e l y strokes: yt-h.u-c.hu The evening toilette i s just over; She burns a l i t t l e sandal powder And puts out the l i l a c bud of a tongue. A tune of clean song breaks from her cherry mouth. ta-chou-hou and her sister ' The fragrance in her gauze sleeves fades, But the red abides in them s t i l l . The deep cup is soon tinted wigh wine. Stretched on the embroidered bed, her charm is unbearable. She chews red petals and spits them out at me, laughing. ^ (Translation by Y. L. Liu and Suhrawardy) This poem is sensual but restrained. The scented fumes of the sandal powder, the li l a c bud of the girl's tongue, the pearly teeth, the gauzy sleeves, the brimming wine in the goblet--all these cons-titute a feeling of sensuality, painting the picture of a girl who is both charming and provocative. Ouyang Hsiu, too, is a master at sketching vignettes. Let us compare the following sketch of a girl with that of Li Yii: Man-ko-tzu A phoenix-style bun in a gold-s.plashed ribbon. A palm-like comb of jade carved with dragons. ' She comes over under the window, Laughing and leaning against me, Keeps asking, "Eyebrows painted in this shade, Are they in fashion?" She leans on me And plays long with her brush, Drawing flowers, trying her first sketch. 187 Idling away all those sewing hours! With a smile she asks, "Those words for mandarin drake and duck, How do you write them?" (Translation no. 39) The setting in this tz'a is less ornate, less heavily-perfumed than in Li Yii's. The girl seems to be younger and less glamorous, but equally alive and alluring. Ouyang Hsiu replaces the sensuality of Li's poem by a perceptive insight of a young girl in love. There is a subtle flattery to her lover as she asks him innocently if she has pencilled her brows to fashion's taste. When she continues to daily with him, she makes it seem as i f it was he who is keeping her from her serious pursuits. After a casual attempt at sketching her embroidery, she appeals again to his wisdom, knowing that he would not fail to respond to her suggestion of the mandarin drake and duck. Small details and vivid insights such as these give this group of Ouyang Hsiu's tz'a its delightful appeal. Although these works seem to differ considerably from Ouyang's other t z ' a , their descriptive method (interested yet objective depiction of small details) is in line with his writing style. Apart from a few poems which approach the style of Liu Yung, ^ this group of tz'a is, on the whole, only mildly erotic compared to the works of Liu. We hardly find in them overt descriptions of sexual 188 encounter as we find in the works of Liu. Nor do we hear many open protests of male exploitation or bold exhibitions of a woman's love as we sometimes hear from the tz'u of Liu. Instead, Ouyang Hsiu writes about love in a dainty and light-hearted way. His women are usually pictured from a man's point of view. They are gentle, meek, but bubbling with zest and life. In many respects, this group of Ouyang's works is much closer in style to the early tz'u of Li Yii than to those of Liu. Ouyang Hsiu's Use of Language As mentioned earlier, Ouyang's tz'u are more individualistic than innovative. His tz'u present few striking features in the use of language. However, they do show an exceptionally effective use of simple language through the .clever control of the speaking tone, rhythm and sound effect, and the appropriate choice of diction and syntax. A general survey of Ouyang's use of language may help in a better under-standing of the technical aspects of his works. When discussing Ouyang's tz'u, we have to bear in mind the genre he is writing in. Tz'u is, to quote Professor Hightower's definition, "a song-form characterized by lines of unequal length, prescribed rhyme 52 and tonal patterns, each of which bears the name of a musical air." 189 Because of i t s unequal length and different tunes, tz'u has greatly enriched the auditory effects of Chinese poetry, creating more subtle and varied sound patterns than the i k i h . Although i t has stricter and more complicated metrical rules, i t offers the poet far more meters to choose from than the i h i h does. The beginning of Sung saw the continuation of early tz'u develop-ment. Poets of this period used a limited number of tunes, most of which were hiiao-Zing. Some such popular tunes include Huan-hii-iha ' XJ /Jk J , Lin-chiang-hiicn )I*M. and Sa-chung-ch'ing "w^ f ^ 1"^  which are common in Huaachim Chi and Yang-ch'un Chi. However, as the music halls prospered and poets became more involved with the composition of tz'u, many new tunes began to emerge. Chang Hsien and Liu Yung were two of the more innovative poets who wrote in a variety of over 100 tunes. Many of Liu's tunes were ch'ang-tiaoJfc^*^ (also known as man-tz'u t ^ ' l ^ j ) , exceeding one hundred words. ^ If we include the 73 poems of disputed authorship, the total number of meters Ouyang Hsiu used i s 73, of which 55 are hiiao-ling and 18 are ch'ang-tiao. Metrically, they are much less varied in tune than the works of Liu and Chang. However, they s t i l l outnumber the meters Yen Shu used (mainly hiiao-ting, with only a few chung - tiao ^ ) by 33. About half of Ouyang's tz'u are writteniin four favorite hiiao-ting tunes: Yu-chia-ao /JB, ^ (50), Yu-Zou-ch'un (34), Tich-Zitn-hua ^^ p^ ^ (26) and Ti 'ai-iang-tzu $$\J$; <)" (13). 190 Since many of his tz'u are lyrical, dealing with exquisite moments of changing moods, the short kbiao-ting is well-suited for his pur-pose. In general, most of his more traditional tz'u are written in the TiQ.h-tizn-h.ua and yu-lou-ch'un meters, whereas the songs he wrote strictly for entertainment are found in the Vu-chia-ao and Ti>' ai-i>ang-tzu patterns. The ku-tzu-tz'u in this last group of works are best written in the luiao-ting form for their recurring appeal. Several of Ouyang's ch'ang-tiao describe city life in Pien-ching. However, most of them are found in the 73 disputed tz'u, describing love or lovers' meeting in narrative monologues. Syntactically, Ouyang's tz'u do not present many special features. However, there are a few points which deserve attention. In general, his traditonal tz'u are more compact in syntax, involving inversions and omissions of particles. In this line, for example: all the necessary particles are omitted, leaving a purely impressionistic line of nouns and verbs. The relationship between the petals and the wind, between the face and the wind are not clearly stated, but left to the readers' imaginative senses. In contrast to this condensed syntax is the looser structure we find in the other tz'u of Ouyang Hsiu. Enjambment occurs very freely in these poems (it does occur, but much less commonly in his 54 face swirl falling-petals wind waft-and-whirl (Falling petals waft and whirl in the wind in the face) traditional works). To cite just a few examples: (Coming laden with wine, we need no banners and flags.) (A tight sleeve of thin gauze, reveals dimly a pair of gold bracelets.) ^ (Until I have seen the last of Loyang's flowers, 57 I cannot part too easily with the Spring wind!) (Now accompanying the wandering bees to the small courtyard; 58 Now following the flying catkins across the east wall) (She asks again, "What i f after the whole a f f a i r , these hair tresses are a l l messed up, and mother guesses rightly what happened?") ^ Ap"aa?t from enjambment, many of these tz'u are written in prose word-order and contain particles such as ti&i (to be at, in or on) and X *han3 (on) * j € & ; 6 ° ± ; 6 1 "I^L \olcn (is) and ^  chung (inside, in the midst of): y ^ f e ^ \ ^ &t (inside): The presehce of enjambment, together with the use of particles and prose word-order, results i n a loose structure and a relatively straightforward style i n many of Ouyang's tz'u. However, his works 192 are pleasant to read not so much because they are straightforward as because they assume the flow of the natural speaking voice. This natural flow is due partly to the use of enjambment and the use of particles, but partly to Ouyang's excellent master of various speaking tones. We have already seen Ouyang's effective control of the speaking 64 tone in one of his playful works. With most of his other tz'u, ex-pressions such as i£ >fi chcng-tAai (is just), kzng-tai (until), chzn(really), &e,n-u)cu. ( e s p e c i a l l y ) , - ^ j li-chen (now), 111 ck'id-h-ch'an (may as well make use of), k'uang-yu (not to mention that we have), f| tzu-i>hih (naturally i s ) , jl X ck'Uh-mo (please don't), chlh-kiu (just have to) a l l help to carry the poet's voice forward, giving his poems a remarkable sense of flow. As far as diction i s concerned, the majority of Ouyang's tz'u are between the vernacular and the extremely refined. Examples are: JU*$L % M O H - (forever busy among the flowers), 6 5 fdi -^.(Let's buy laughter with the money we've made), 66J} (My lwe and I met after twilight, when the moon reaches 67 the top of the willow tree). His traditional works are comparatively elegant and refined, containing expressions such as ^  (a kingfisher qu i l t , an ornate lamp), ivi." (long, remote years of bygone), 69$i.|ft (shrivelled reds scatter), 7 0 % jj-71 (the slanting sun over a stretch of grass). His frivolous love poems, on the other hand, contain colloquial phrases such as f v | ^^K^*^, 193 4 ii?' t ^ O ^ N ' t ^ * ( . . .Asking, "Does anybody know? You stop this now!), H & iP+l_V? (I haven't quite put away...), 72^ © J^^ ' § jft . , a i J •  a bought1 about i t , and try to forget about the whole thing, but then, when he 73 comes, oh, how can I be mad with him!) However, most of the collo-quialisms Ouyang uses are direct and unobscure. There is no slang in his tz'u. Nor is there any erudite diction. Although Ouyang's meters, syntax and diction do not show any distinctive innovations, his works on the whole reflect a sensitive use of sound and rhythm. Let us examine this following poem: Su-chung-ch'tng (Thoughts on the Brows) Rolling up gently a curtain of clear morning frost, She blows on her hands and applies a beauty mark. All because of this parting-sorrow, Deliberately, she draws her eyebrows long, Like the distant hills. % a Thinking of the past, t-f & # Lamenting the flight of youth-She tries to sing, 194 &L 4*. *. & But first composes her features; Just about to smile; She knits her brows again. &^ K 1$ How heart-rending! (Translation no. 4) We have already discussed the treatment of theme in this poem. As for the rhythm, stanza 1 contains lines which are straight narra-tive, with no antithesis and no reduplication. The lines, too, are invariably longer (7-5-6-6) to match the sad, thoughtful mood of the gi r l . Stanza 2, however, is made up of a sequence of short lines (3-3-3-4-4-4) in balanced staccato. This, together with the use of through the girl's mind, the change of expression on her face and the sense of helplessness which confronts her. Although much of the va-riation in line-length and rhythm are in the meter itself, neverthe-less, this poem demonstrates clearly Ouyang's exquisite s k i l l in versi-fication and in blending sense to sound. In the following poem, we see another example of Ouyang's skilful use of rhythm: antithetical lines , brings out effectively the rapid thoughts which go Lang-thao-Aha Today we roam on the northern l a k e ; i t  :<& & Rocking, r o c k i n g , i n a l i g n t boat. The b r i g h t r i p p l e s spread; the w i l l o w twigs hang s o f t . As Spring comes and Spring goes again l i k e t h i s , I t has turned your h a i r - w h i t e . A f i n e s i n g i n g g i r l w i t h a f i n e v o i c e - -* ft ^ I t ' s hard to stop u n t i l you're drunk. Mil % »fc*9 B ^ , Let me urge you to f i l l your golden goblet to the brim: Even i f you are o f t e n s i c k w i t h wine i n the season o f f l o w e r s , -e. K ft* 75 That's a k i n d o f g a i e t y too! ( T r a n s l a t i o n by J . L i u ) This poem conveys the g a i e t y o f the poet i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d language and a l i l t i n g rhythm. The rhythm i s achieved by the use o f r e p e t i -t i o n s r e d u p l i c a t i o n s ( /Jk.>»k, arid a rhyming d i s y l l a b l e lian-ym The tune chosen (y^:/% Lang-t'ad-A ha) i s s h o r t , w i t h one s i n g l e rhyme packed c l o s e l y together (the same rhyme i s used i n l i n e 1: yu WF , l i n e 2: 196 ckou-$L , l ine 3: jou ^ , 5: t'ou^K > 6 : ho^K > 7 : , and 8: Liu //ILJ ) . A l l Mese help to give this poem a sing-song appeal. Reduplications occur very frequently in Ouyang's tz'u, sometimes for a light-hearted, dainty effect: T A ^ / ^ (kao-ko jan-jun: A maiden so f a i r ) , "j"N ^ )^ -yi^^i(l-kila kung~kung kilao-hAlu-k&lzh: leaving behind her tiny embroidered s l ippers) , ^ "T ^ ^ ^^\^(hj>lng-hAlao^h^lng-kilng-ll2.n-pao-t<i: laughing and giggling 76 as she walks, I try to embrace her, tenderly close); sometimes for a sad, l ingering appeal: (Ll-ch'ou ahlzn-yuan-chl2.n-wu-ck'lung, t'lao-t'lao pu-tuan ju-ch'un-ihul: longing and l ingering, unending l ike a spring brook), J$Q(.&>'un-t!>'un jouGch' ang: every inch of soft bowel), ^ . ^ ^ ' ^ ' ^ s 77 (ylng-ylng fan-lzl: eyes f i l l e d with brimming tears). Apart from reduplication and rhyme, Ouyang Hsiu makes clever use of repetit ion and contrast of whole phrases. The following poem is a good example of how effective simple language can be when juxtaposed ingeniously: Shmg-cka^tzu Last year, on F i r s t F u l l Moon, The flower-market's lanterns were bright as daylight. My love and I made a tryst to meet after dusk, When the moon rose to the top of the willow tree. This year, on Firs t F u l l Moon, A «5 t'fr fa Moon and lanterns are the same as before. But the man of last year--where i s he? -A 4MJ te Tears flood the sleeves of my spring dress. (Lines 1, 2, 5 and 7, translated by J. Liu) This tz'u, as J. Liu pointed out, i s a marvel of verbal 79 economy. Within this simple structure, the poet successfully brings out a sharp contrast between the past and the present by emphasizing the sameness of two physically identical situations. As already noted by Chin Sheng-t'an, the poet only changes one 80 word of stanza 1, line 1, in the f i r s t line of the second stanza. He then recapitulates line 2 and 3 of stanza 1 into line 2 of the second stanza. Line 4 of stanza 1 i s echoed in line 3 of stanza 2. The poem ends with an emotional climax as the persona breaks down inibo tears. The almost naive voice that speaks to us in the poem is unpretentious and touching. Next, I would like to discuss Ouyang Hsiu's use of allusions and quotations. Ouyang's tz'u have few allusions. Those that he uses are the most common ones which give no freshness and adds l i t t l e significance to his tz'u. Examples are allusions to Master Ho (Ho Yen^J Jfc? to Han Shouj£Jj4§ and Master Liu^J (Liu Yu-hsi ^ \ ^ ) % \ ) )• In general, Ouyang's allusions are simple and transparent. How-ever, in one instance, his use of allusion has been c r i t i c i z e d by Wang Kuo-wei as fee(Mlb (veiled). ^ The two lines run: On the pond of the Hsieh family, Chiang Yen by the bank of the river. The f i r s t line alludes to the following from Hsieh Ling-yun By the pond spring grass grows, 8^ The second,to Chiang Yen's Fa On Vcuittng, which reads: Spring grass is of a jade color, The spring water shimmers in green waves. Seeing you off to the south side of the river, How my heart grieves! According to these two contextual allusions, both lines in Ouyang's tz'unmean simply "spring grass". Contrast this to the expression of spring grass which precedes i t w i l l show us how'un-necessary this allusion i s : Leaning alone against a twelve-railing balcony, 4 £. skit t On a clear spring day, the grasses stretch afar to meet the clouds--A thousand, ten thousand miles, The second, the third month, The sight of a journey saddens me. The description of spring grass in these lines i s viv i d and effective, but plain. Compared to this, the one contained in the allusions is-mannered and indirect. No wonder Wang Kuo-wei describes i t as "veiled". However, Ouyang rarely uses an allusion in such an obscurejway. Most often, his allusions are almost self-explanatory, as in the following: A l l my l i f e I have loved West Lake, Where I once arrived with a retinue of vermilion wheels. But riches and honor are like floating clouds. In a moment, twenty springs have slipped by. 200 Coming back, I feel like the crane of Liao-tung. The ci t y and i t s people, A l l .have changed. 87 Who would ever recognize the governor of long ago? In the second stanza of this poem, Ouyang Hsiu alludes to a legend told about a man called Ting Ling-wei ^ in Sou-. 8 8 Ting, a native of Liaotung (present day Liao-yang) l e f t his hometown as a youth for the mountains. He learned to become an immortal and was later turned into a crane. A thousand years after he had l e f t home, Ting flew back to Liaotung to discover that everything had changed. Nobody remembered him. The story reads: On top of the p i l l a r , by the ci t y gate of Liaotung, a white crane came to rest. It cried: "There is a bird, there is a bird called Ting Ling-wei, Now returning home, he has been a thousand years away. 89 The ci t y is the same, i t s people so different.." From line44-8, Ouyang i s comparing his state of feeling to the returned crane of Liaotung. Lines 6 and 7 are a rephrase of the line "The city i s the same, i t s people so different", so that even without the knowledge of this legend, one would understand the sentiment Ouyang Hsiu tries to convey in these lines. However, knowing the story does enhance one's perception of his feelings. Apart from the reference to legends, people and historical events, 201 Ouyang's tz'u show a f a i r amount of contextual borrowings. As the Chin c r i t i c Liu Ch'i once remarked: Former c r i t i c s and poets used to say: "It i s not advisable in &kth to use the lines of previous poets. But with tz'u, there is no harm in borrowing from 90 the past, i f one knows how to tai l o r the materials..." Probably because tz'u were originally written as popular songs, modified and even whole-line borrowings from past poets are highly common and acceptable. Ouyang Hsiu draws extensively from previous, particularly T'ang poets. Some of his adapted borrowings include: (i) w 4 ^ * A light peal of thunder from beyond the willow trees, 91 Rain on the pond, from L i Shangiyin's There i s a light peal of thunder from beyond the lotus pond, 92 (2) A warm breeze blows, grass-fragrant, while my traveller's reins 93 gently swing, from Chiang Yen's The breeze blows warm at home, - - • 94 Over the roadside, the grass i s fragrant. Riches and honor (are like) floating clouds. from Lun-yii's Any thought of accepting wealth and rank by means that I know to be wrong is as remote from me as the clouds 96 that float above. (4) ikskflfl I tap a l l along the balustrade, there is no answer. Clearly, beneath the window curtain, I hear the sound 97 of scissors cutting! from Han Wo's Clearly, underneath the window, I hear the sound of scissors cutting! I tap all=along the balustrade, there i s no- answer. There i s no need for a reader to recognize mSst of these borrowings as they;ame well-interwoven into the fabric of Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u. Sometimes, Ouyang shows even better use of these lines. In the last quotation, for example, instead of drawing the two lines directly from Han Wo, Ouyang reverses their order to a better effect. When discussin the poem which bears these borrowings, we have compared the similar 99 setting yet different moods in Han's and Ouyang's poems. In Ouyang' 203 tz'a, the g i r l ' s deliberate silence is heightened and made more dramatic because of a change of order in the two lines (the man taps along the balustrade f i r s t before he is answered by the cold snapping of her scissors, instead of vice versa). Ouyang Hsiu's tz'a are f u l l of digested learning. Most of his borrowings are used freely, out of their original context. Adapted borrowings such as Chiang Y e n ' s j ^ U ^ ^ >-^ "J^ v ^ d Jb "It , ^  V ^ from the Lun-yu give readers familiar with his sources the joy of recognition. But a reader who is unfamiliar with his references can equally understand and enjoy his poems. In the case of \% f[ , > his line is completely free, of the moral overtone of the Lan-ya original. In fact, i t takes on a even more natural image of comparison than what is suggested i n the original. Because Ouyang uses his borrowings very flexibly, his borrowed lines always read natmrally in his tz'a. However, his free borrowing sometimes results in misinterpretation such as the one which surrounds this line: Where the mountains come in and out of sight, in the following stanza: The balcony of P'ing-shan Hall opens on the clear sky, Where the mountains come in and out of sight. Since I parted with this willow tree which I had planted in front of the h a l l , 204 Several times the s p r i n g wind has blown. As mentioned i n the l a s t chapter, t h i s l i n e i s drawn from a poem of Wang Wei i n which Wang describes a d i s t a n t view o f the 101 Yangtze and i t s surrounding mountains from the Han R i v e r . In Wang's poem, il* t \ f o l l o w s 5* >>R-*Kjrf2j ^  (This r i v e r runs beyond heaven and e a r t h - - ) . I t suggests a sense o f vastness of space and dimension and the d i f f i c u l t y o f v i s i o n due to remote-ness. In Ouyang's tz'u, however, t h i s l i n e describlbes a d i f f i c u l t y o f v i s i o n due to the vapors and mists which enshroud P'ing-shan H a l l . Since the mountains he r e f e r s to are not too f a r away from the h a l l , the d i r e c t borrowing o f t h i s l i n e from Wang Wei has l e d to the i n -t e r e s t i n g s p e c u l a t i o n that Ouyang H s i u was s h o r t - s i g h t e d ! The l a s t examplelis a case o f w h o l e - l i n e borrowing. Other examples o f d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n i n c l u d e : Should Heaven h a w f e e l i n g s , he too would grow o l d . (from L i Ho 9. ) Don't w a i t to p l u c k the bough u n t i l i t i s empty o f f l o w e r s ! (Tu Ch' i u - n i a n g R ) On the deserted shore, a boat s i t s i n s o l i t u d e . , 103 (Wei Ying-wu ) 1 0 4 205 Eyebrows painted in this shade, are they in fashion? (from Chu Ch'Ang-yu Apart from allusions and quotations, images are an important part of tz'u composition. However, the beauty of Ouyang's tz'u l i e s mainly i n the vividness of plain description and his s k i l f u l use of the speaking tone. On the whole, his poems are free of loaded images. His images of direct comparison are scarce compared to many other poets. The ones that he does use are mainly stock iamges: 106 107 tlu-j'u-mti (willow strands like a g i r l ' s eyebrows) * | f llu-mlm hol-AAu-hAuok (willow floss f l y like snow) fifes* hzng-po (eyes with level, watery waves) ch'ang-tA'un-ckizh (bowel in knots, equivalent to heart in knots) Other even more common images of comparison include: L}unh-i,i>u-kila.nQ (a moon (bright and white) as frost) lHj^$T)'^ tlu-ti-hua(smooth as glass) -^ J^^ J^ ^^ ffjt ikih-lu fang-po-hiim (the road of l i f e i s stormy and rough) 2 M hit ^ m fi-cHU (cHerr, iips and Jade-li.ce teeth) ™ In most cases, these images appear in their familiar usages. Very 206 few are r e i n v i g o r a t e d to suggest a new s i g n i f i c a n c e . Normally, a poet who uses only conventional images w i l l sound hackneyed and su-p e r f i c i a l . However, Ouyang Hs i u does not overuse these images. More-over, h i s p l a i n and easy s t y l e o f w r i t i n g depends more on a f l o w i n g language than a heavy and e l u s i v e one. In t h i s r e s p e c t , a moderate use o f simple and unobscure images is. b a s i c a l l y i n l i n e w i t h h i s s t y l e . I t i s a l s o i n l i n e w i t h the nature of e a r l y Sung tz'u, which were w r i t t e n p r i m a r i l y f o r popular s i n g i n g . Apart from images of d i r e c t comparison, Ouyang Hsiu's f a v o r i t e images i n c l u d e the f a l l e n blossom, the w i l l o w s t r a n d s , the moon, the w a r b l e r , the wildgoose, the f i s h and the p a i r e d swallows. Although Ouyang introduces few f r e s h images i n t o h i s tz'u, many o f h i s images are used e f f e c t i v e l y . In many cases, they create s u b t l e c o n t r a s t s and appropriate moods i n h i s works. Let us analyse, f o r example, t h i s f o l l o w i n g tz'u: T' a-Ao-luing A c l e a r view a f t e r r a i n ; The weather, t h a t of e a r l y s p r i n g : Hundreds and thousands of flowers v i e i n b r i g h t - c o l o r e d beauty. On the p a i n t e d beams, p a i r s of swallows have newly a r r i v e d . In the j e w e l l e d cage, the p a r r o t g r i e v e s to s l e e p alone. Creepers c l i n g i n g to the w a l l , Lichens a l l over the ground--From s e v e r a l Green Mansions comes the r i c h n o i s e of songs. Suddenly, memories of the past r i s e i n her h e a r t ; In silence she knits her eyebrows, dark as green h i l l s . (Translation by J. Liu) This poem describes the grief'of a neglected woman. It opens with a touch of freshness and cheerfulness as the rain stops and thousands of blossoming flowers compete in colorful display. The swallows, newly returned, are flying happily i n pairs. A l l these are contrasted with the sad and l i s t l e s s parrot lying in solitude and inactivity within her jewelled cage. The second stanza opens with a picture' of lichens and creepers hanging and clinging a l l over the place. As the g i r l hears the sound of carefree singing coming from the other g i r l s in the. brothels, i t reminds her of her young, and happy days in the past. The brightly-colored blossoms, the happy swallows, the lonely parrot and the sprawling creepers and lichens are a l l part of the setting that surrounds the g i r l i n this'poem. At the same time, they are subtle images the poet deliberately uses to bring out the g i r l ' s inner world. The parrot i s locked to a jewelled cage because of i t s a b i l i t y to speak, just as the g i r l .is confined to a harem because of her beauty and talent. The crawling creepers and lichens give this poem a sense of neglect.and a gnawing and moody effect. Instead of proclaiming their rejoice In growth as the gay blossoms do, they creep secfetly over walls and obscure corners of the ground. In this way, they are also symbolic of the g i r l ' s undignified status as a courtesan. 208 This following tz'u is another example of Ouyang Hsiu's use of subtle images: Yuan-lang-kutl In the garden of the south, spring i s early. Time for a s t r o l l on the green. In the gentle breeze, one hears the sound of horses neighing. Green plums are like beans. Willow leaves curve like eyebrows. A l l day Otfoig, the butterflies dance. The flowers are heavy with dew, •,And mists hang low on the grass, Everywhere, curtain drapes are drawn. I rest idly on the swing, with loosened garments. Over the painted beam, a pair of swallows are roosting. (Lines 1 and 8, translation by R. Adler) Even i f one should ignore the gentle breeze, the neighing horses and the dancing butterflies as symbols of sensual love, one would not miss the overall mood of this poem. There i s a languid feeling about this tz'u and a sense of passivity which approaches something hypnotic This atmosphere is brought about not only by the images of the gentle breeze, the neighing horses and the fleeting butterflies. It i s also suggested by the heavy dews, the low mists, the hanging curtains, the loosened garments and the pair of perching swallows. Apparently a simple nature poem, this tz'u is f i l l e d with an undercurrent of gentle e r o t i c i s m . Conclusion As we have seen, Ouyang Hsiu's tilt1u are t e c h n i c a l l y simple and u n i n n o v a t i v e , but s t y l i s t i c a l l y a r t i s t i c and e f f e c t i v e . U n l i k e L i u Yung who explored the t e c h n i c a l p o t e n t i a l o f tz'u, or Su Shih who en-l a r g e d and e l e v a t e d i t s worlds, Ouyang introduced no major changes i n t o t h i s genre. L i k e so many, other Sung poets, he t r e a t e d tz'u as a secondary p o e t i c form. Governed by t h i s concept of tz'u, the s e n t i -ments Ouyang H s i u expresses i n h i s tz'u are r e l a t i v e l y . s i m p l e and l i m i t e d , and the need f o r complicated p o e t i c devices i s not c a l l e d f o r . N e vertheless, Ouyang Hsiu i s s t i l l a major tz'u poet. This i s 117 due p a r t l y to the l a r g e volume of tz'u he has composed, but more impo r t a n t l y to two other reasons. F i r s t , h i s tz'u marked the p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n a l development from the t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n f i n e d expre-s s i o n s of Southern T'ang t o the f i n a l l i b e r a t i o n o f tz'u seen i n the works of Su and L i u . Second, h i s tz'u d i s p l a y h i g h standards of a r t i s t i c e x c e l l e n c e . Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p e r i o d o f tz'u development from the t r a d i t i o n a l to the f r e e r expressions o f L i u and ^Su. Compared to the works o f Wei Chuang, Feng Yen-ssu and L i Yu, 210 his poems show a definitely wider variety of experimentation, both in content, style and form. This variety covers the four groups of t z ' a we have examined. Within these four groups, there are the refined conventional t z ' a , a continuation of the Hua-chien and Southern T'ang tradition; the light-hearted erotic poems, a new trend of writing love songs in Northern Sung; the "entertainment t z ' a " on legendary topics, and the ku-tzu-tz'u which Ouyang Hsiu used as a vehicle for more personal expressions. Poems of this last group can be found as early as in the works of Wei Chuang and L i Yu, and as late as after the worts of Hsin Ch'i-chi 4 . TMs variety of works are a l l treated in their different ways. Some with soft elegance, some with flippancy, others with gaiety and a sense of humor. Ouyang Hsiu's t z ' a exhibit a high degree of a r t i s t i c achievement. Despite their differences, the various g'UOfps of his t z ' a share one thing in common: they are a l l written in a simple, easy style, a style which depends on plain, vivid descriptions and a suitable use of sound effect and speaking tone. A l l in a l l , Ouyang Hsiu's t z ' a possess a leisurely grace, an effortless and unadorned beauty which can likewise be found in his iktk and prose. It is a quality different from the urbane and cultured restraint of Yen Shu, or the sensitive melancholy of Feng Yen-ssu. It is a style very much his own. 211 L i s t o f A b b r e v i a t i o n s SPP/ ^ ^ f ( f l -£ i ^ »r & -"^ FOOTNOTES INTRODUCTION 1. Apart from being a historian, statesman and poet, Ouyang Hsiu was also an archaeologist and antiquarian. His Chi-ku-Zu jj^. iz. 1 S o n e of the earliest studies of bronze and stone ins-criptions. 2. SS chiian 319, &ih-i>hih-Mu-&kih > f \ J O ^ , vol. 29, pp. 22958-22961. 3. Some important primary sources on Ouyang Hsiu include: -Li T'ao xr'^U , Hi>u-tzu-chih-t' ung-chim Ch' ang-pim J&'£&^$%ltblkig61: Shih-chieh Book Co.), vol. 1-15. -Chao J u - y u ^ | _ ^ , Kuo-ck'ao Chu-ch'm Tzou-i (,"§3 \ \ %% (1970; Taiwan), vol. 1-10. -Hsu Sung ifci'* , Sang Hui-yao Chi-kao (1957; Chung-hua Book Co.), vol. 1-8. Chiang Liang-fu's Li-tai Jm-im Nim-Zi Pzi-ckuan Chung-piao J&K^XQ $T ¥ ity \ % p . 2 48, mentions a few chronological biographies of Ouyang Hsiu compiled by his contem-poraries. However, none of them seems to be extant. The three nim-p'u that are available now are: a) Hu K'o w $ £ l f , la-Zing Ouyang Wm-chung-kung Nim-p'u J&4> , nag.. i> / ^ -Lj .yc . b) Hua Tzu-heng^*T ">U , Ti>mg-ting Ouyang Wm-chung-kung Nim-p'u t%^sM.1%££*%¥t, 1662?-1722? c) Yang Hsi-min |3t) , Ouyang Wm-chung-kung Nim-p'u frih*& '* JrPi" > 1877• Of the three nim-p'u of Ouyang Hsiu, Hua's is by far the most detailed and reliable. He bases his compilation on Hu's version, supplementing i t with more primary sources and evidences on Ou-yang's l i f e drawn from the works of Ouyang himself. Moreover, his approach i s less biased and less eulogizing i n nature than Yang's. In preparing this biographical sketch of Ouyang Hsiu, I have relied heavily on this version for most of the information. 4. James T.C. Liu ^ 'l^ fo^  , Ouyang H&iu: An Ele.ve.nth Czntuny hlzo-Confiuciani&t 1967: Stanford University Press). J. Liu has a Chinese version of this book: Ouyang H&iu te. Chih-luue-h yu U^ung-chzng y%. <$-*64/Jt $3C* (1963; Hong Kong, New Asia Research Institute). 5. Marjorie Locke, The. Eaxly Lifiz o{ Ouyang Htiu and Hii> Relation to thz Ri&z ol thz ku-wzn Mo&.&ne.nt o{> thz Sung Renlod, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation (1951; University of London). 6. OWSC We. 9, p. 17. 7. Ibid. 8. For the translation of o f f i c i a l t i t l e s , I have consulted J. Liu's translation in his Ouyang H&iu. Reference has also been made to A . E . Kracke, Jr.'s glossary l i s t of o f f i c i a l t i t l e s in his Civil Sexvicz in Sung China. 9. Liu Ta-chieh ^  , Chung-kuo Wzn-k&uzh Ta-chan-i>hih KJt- ^ & ^ - (1962; Shanghai: Chung-hua Book Co.), p. 666 Also, Cheng Chen-to f^^ffy^^t , Ch'a-t'd-pzn Chung-kuo Wzn-hAuzh-x ; *hih $fc (|| # f LfJ ijt ^ , vol. 2, P . 46i. 10. Burton Watson, Chinese, lynlcl&m (1971; Columbia UnMersityPPress), pp. 197-198. 11. Ouyang Hsiu's admiration for Mei's poetry can be seen i n the following: 215 OWSC We. 2, p.o52. U'c 5, p. 64. $&%fci$J$r%> Ouyang Hsiu was a p r o l i f i c i>hlh writer. He has written as many as over 800 hhlk, many of which are long poems i n the form of ku-i>hkh. 12. Liu Ta-chieh, vol. 2, p. 572. 13. Ouyang has been harshly cr i t i z e d as a historian and Confucianist. See preface to H&in Wu-tat-6hlh %^ fcl^ (1974; Chung-hua Book Co.), pp. 1-11. CHAPTER I 1. A few easily available versions of Ouyang's Complete, WoJik& are: a. Ouyang Yung-Aku Chi Kuo-hsue.li Chi-pe.n TA'ung-i>ku ^ ^ . ^ < ^ ^ * (H96; rpt. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1958), vol. 1-3. b. Ouyang Wen-chung -kung We.n-chl , S&u-pu Ti,'ung-k'angCh'u-plzn ^ -^f^^^'j %® (Yuan edition; rpt. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1936), vol. 196-198. c. Ouyang We,n-chung Chi , Si>u-pu Pel-yao (Yuan edition; rpt. Shanghai: Chung-hua Book Co.) 1936), vol. 211-212. Ouyang Hsiu's tz'u collection appears i n ch'udn 131-133 of these works. For date of publication of original Sung version of Ouyang's Complete. WonhA, see S&u-k'u Ch'uan-i>hu T&ung-mu T't-yao <g?^-^s 216 OWSC vol. 3, p. 47. Also see Shuang-chao-Zou ying-k'an Ch'ing-yu'an Chi-chou-pen Ou-yang Wen-chung^kung Chin-t'i yiieh-^u %*• JfrMJlD k'l&Lfy fi§ , edition of ying-k'an Sung-chin-yuan-ming-pen-tz'u Si>u-i>hih-chung ~%^\ ^ L^> j^t ^ "4? f'-fc^ ( 1 9 1 7; rpt. Peking: Chung-hua Book Co.) 1961), vol. 1. 3. CTVF, see footnote 2. 4. Ouyang Hi>iu Wen-chung-kung Chin-t'i y'ueh-iu H>X fy) j^JC^ f , ed. Lin Ta-ch'un (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1935). 5. See Jao Tsung-i .Jft, , Tz'a-ckt K'ao t£| £f ^ , p. 39. 6. Wu Shih-tao , Wu Li-pu Tz'u-hua in TUT? t£\%i.^bfo> ed. T'ang Kuei-chang % £ > P- 243. 7. T'ao-t>hih She-yuan Ying-hung Ti>ui-weng Ch'in-ch'u , edition of ying-k'an Sung - chin-yuan-ming-pcn-tz'u S&u-Ahih-chung, vol. 2. 8. Liu-i Tz'u " J , ed. Mao Chin 44- , in Sang Liu-i,hih Ming-chia Tz'u ifl^-)" %u , ed. Mao Chin, Chung-kuo Wen-hsMh Chen-pen U'ung-i>hu f \ 9 5 k ^ ^ J ^ ^ ^f- , ed. Chang Ching-lu jlk^f jjk (Shanghai: 1935-1936), vol. 1. Mao probably named his collection Liu-i Tz'u after reading Ch'en Chengsun's reference to this t i t l e . See Ch'en, Chih-chai Shu-lu Chieh-t'i%^% 4J< \^ S4a-k'a Ch'uan-hhu Chen-pen Meh-chi tfO^ *) 'J J^N (Sung; rpt. Taipei: Commercial Press, 1975), vol. 392, chuan 21, p. 3. 9. Ch' uan-iiuhg-tz' u , ed. T'ang Kuei-chang (Peking: Chung-hua Book Co., 1965), vol. 1, pp. 120-165. 217 10. Jao T s u n g - i makes a mis take when he says tha t the number t o t a l s 229. See J a o , Ti'a-chi K'ao, p . 40. 11 . VCteh-iu Ya-tz'u ^ ff^CI , ed . Tseng T s ' a o ^ tiJL , SPTK (1146; r p t . Shanghai : Commercial P r e s s , 1936) , v o l . 437, chiian X , pp . 1-18. 12. Hua-an Tz'u-k&uan i ^ , , Huang Sheng SPTK (1249; r p t . Shanghai : Commercial P r e s s , 1936), v o l . 438, chaan 2 , pp . 16-18. 13. Ti,'ao-t'ana Sklh-yd , ed . a n o n . , SPTK, v o l . 439. 14. T 'ang Kuei-chang c o l l e c t s the names o f 55 such poems a t the end o f h i s c o l l e c t i o n . One o f these i s , i n f a c t , a ihih by Ouyang h i m s e l f . Th i s reduces the number to 54. 15. Feng has 15 , Yen has 13 , and Chang has 11 . 16. CTYF, chiian 3, p . 16. 17. VVVT, chiian X , p . 1. 18. Ch ' en Chen-sun, chiian 21 , pp . 3-4. 19. S S , p . 22960. 20. Yeh Meng-te , Shih-tin Yen-yd Sung-jcn 1-ihth Hivi-plcn , ed . T ing Ch 'uan-c h i n g *5\% i f (1870-1930), chiian 8, p . 350. ghen Kua y%s ^ 4 , Mzng-h&i Pl-t'an ^ t^»*$L, Ckin-tl Ml-ihu y^^Jt^^f , ed . Mao C h i n (Sung; r p t . 1630) , v o l . 15 , chiian 9, pp . 2 -3 . 21. S S , chiian 319, Etih-ihih-Mu-ikih, v o l . 29, p . 22959. 22. Yeh Meng- te , Shih-tin Ym-yd, SJ1S, ch'dan 8, p . 350. 23. Shen Kua, Ucng-h&l Pl-t'an, chaan 9, pp. 2 -3 . 218 24. Chu Hsi , San-ch'ao Uing-ch'cn Vcn-hling La Z-% ^ , S?TK (1661; rpt. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1936), vol. 62, p. 28. 25. Ch'ien Mien , Chl.icn-Ahih S^a-ahih , Ka-chin Shao-hai ^ 4 ^ f ^ i ^ t Sung; rpt. 1544), T^a-cki Ckla-pa flM^iMp '26' p - 6 -26. Yang C h i e h ^ l ^ » Wa-wex Chi ^ ^jf? , Sta-k'u Chrdan-&ha Chcn-pcn Wa-chi s d Q ^ ^ ^ - r f % £ (1143; rpt. Taipei: tf-Un-foi-ouj Shu-chii, 1974), vol. 274, chaan 13, pp. 1-3. 27. Shen Kua, \hcng-hhi Fi-t'an, Chin-ti Ui-iha, vol. 15, chiian 9, p. 3. 28. Wang P'iichih $ 2- , Mizn-&hwL yen-*'an La ? C ^ j ^ s , Pi-chi Hhiao-bha Ta-kaan Hia-pitn %x%Z>'^ X*^ L> l^UM^K Sung rpt. Taipei: Hsin-hsing Book Co., 1962), vol. 2, p. 1739, chiian 4, p. 1. 29. Ma Tuan-lin j£) , Wm-h&icn T'ung-k'ao vol. 1, chaan 32, p. 306. 30. m\Yang Chie^h, Wa-wol Chi, chaan 13, p. ft. 31. CST, p. 124. WCC, chaan 6, p. 8. CTVF, chaan 1, p. 11. Eines 6 and 11 of translation are borrowed from R. Adler. See R. Adler, p. 48. 32. CST, p. 158. TWCC, chaan 6, p. 8. 33. CST, p. 158. TWCC, chiian 6, p. 9. 34. VTVT, chiian X , p. 17. 35. Han Shou was secretary of Chia Chung ^ /L-J in the Chin Dynasty. 219 He and Chia's daughter Chia Wu-f[ were secretly in love. The daughter stole a rare perfume which had been given to Chia by the Emperor. She gavetit to Han. When Chia recognized the perfume in Han, he was aware of the love between his daughter and Han, and he kept qs&i't-For information on the story of Ho Lang, see annotation to trans-lat ion number 2, p. 44 . 36. CST, p. 156. TWCC, chiian 5, p. 6. 37. CST, poil48. WCC, chiian 1, p. 2. 38. SS, chiian 319, Ehk-i>hih Sia-ihih, vo l . 29, p. 22958. HTTC, chaan 1555} p. 3. Q V H ? , pp. 23-24. The most detailed account of the Niece Chang Incident is recorded in Wang Chih's %%. Ho-chi 16 , Ku-chin Shao-hai~fc ^ » Tia-chl-pa^i^ 1, pp. 9-11. 39. HTTC, chaan 157, p. 3. 40. Wang Chih, Mo-chi, p. 9. 41. Ibid. 42. OVHV, p. 24. 43. Chang Fang-p'ing , Lo-ch'aan Chi ^-^* , S&aQk'u Ch'iian-Aha Chcn-pcn Ch'a-chi <PJ^. f£ %7)$jfc » vo l . 119, suppl. pp. 9-10. 44. Wu Ch'u-hou h J^^S" , Ch'lng-kilang Ua-chl " t ^ * (Ll , chiian 8, p. 2, Pl-chl HiZao-ihao Ta-kuan, vo l . 1, pp. 639-658. Also see SJIS, CiWM. 8, p. 309. 220 45. See Ssu-ma Kuang's C]Jb ^ L J H*l-chlang-yu2.h ^ , CST, pp. 199-200. ^ . 4 Also see Chao T e - l i n ^ J ^ M ^ , Hou-ch'ing Lu ^ . r - l 4$^ , chlian 8, Vl-chl H&lao-iihuo Ta-kuan, vol. 1, p. 956. 46. OVVSC, Wz. 10, pp. 102-103. 47. Wang Chih, Md'-ahl, p. 9. 48. This academician uncle of Ch'ien Mien i s Ch'ien Hsieh * * * * (1034-1097 A.D.). 49. Ch'ien Mien, Ch'izn-Ahih SAu-chlh, Ku-chln Shuo-hal, Tza-ahl-pu 26, p. 5. 50. Ibid., p. 4. 51. Ibid., p. 5. 52. These c r i t i c s include: Liu Ta-chieh, Chung-kuo Wzn-hAu'zh Va-dhan-i>hik, p. 72. Tanaka Kenji , "0(/o Snu. no -i/u. nx. thultz" 9 *3 <: t , Tohogaku ^ i ^ vol. 7, pp. 50-62. Hu SMh f^i_ , "Ouyang Ui>lu £a Liang-tz'u y'u-&hlh" $X f|> ^ v*£> >K%iK-%> , Hu-ihlh Wtn-U'un &H "jft. £ (Shanghai: Ya-tung Library, 1926), vol. 3, 7: 907. Feng Yuan-chun and Lu K'an-ju m_}*tyo> f Chung-kuo :53'~ Shlh-i>hlh xf7 |J (Hong Kong: Ku-wen Book Co., 1968), vol. 3, p. 622. 53. Hu Shih, vol. 3, 7: 907. 54. Ibid. 55. CST, p. 140. CTW, ohvjxn 3, p. 1. 221 56. See annotation to translation no. 39, p. 125 . 57. See Hu Yun- i , Sung-tz'u Hi>uan 32. 58. SS, chiian 319,En.h-i,hih S&u-i>hih, vo l . 29, p. 22958. OVHV, p. 8. 59. Fan Chung-yen ?/b ^ , Fan Wen-chung-kung Chi ZA> ^ SPTK (Sung; rpt . Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1936), vo l . 177, chiian 9, p. 80. ) 60. OWSC, We 8, pp. 56-58. James T .C . Liu has a translation of this le t ter . See J . Liu ,„ Ouyang H&iu: An Eleventh Centwty Neo-ConfiucianiAt, pp. 33-34. 61. OWSC, We 12, pp. 3-4. We 18, p. 40. 62. Wang P ' i - ch ih , Mien-thui V'en-Van Lu, SJIS, CHMH 9, p. 368. 63. SS, chiian 432. HTTC, chuan 140, p. 11. 64. OWSC, We 3, p. 22. 65. HTTC, chuan 152, p. 3. 66. Ch'en Shih-tao,?^. i^L , Hou-than TVung- t 'ank - »?*L , SJIS, Chiian 8, p. 348. 67. Ch'ien Mien, Ch'ien-Ahih S&u-chih, Ku-chin Shuo-hai, Tza-chi-pu 26, p. 5. 68. CST, p. 140. CTVT, chuan 3, p. 2. See translation no. 6, p. 51 222 69. HTTC, chaan 114, p. 221. Also see Wang Pi-chih, Mien-Ahu Yen-fan La, chiian 4, p. 4, Pi-chi HA-lao-Ahao Ta-kaan, vol. 2, p. 1740. 70. For story concerning K'oueChun's private l i f e , see Yeh Meng-te, Shih-Zin Yen-yd, chiian 4, p. 6, Pi-chi HAiao-Ahao Ta-kaan HAU-picn, vol. 1, p. 150. 71. OVYSC, tA'c 8, p. 67. %>bk&i~%-% 72. CTYV, chiian 2, p. 13. Lines 6 and Untranslated by R. Adler. See R. Adler, p. 10. 73. The same observation has been made by R. A31er. See R. Adler, p. 10. 74. Chao Ling-chih^ S ^ f " , Hoa-ch'ing La, SJIS, chiian 8, p. 347. 75. Liu Hsiin 3*] tft. , Yin-chd Shih-haa ?H A t§ , SJIS, chiian 8, p. 348. 76. Yeh Meng-te, Pi-A ha La-haa SJIS, chaan 8, p. 347. 77. HTTC, chiian 157, p. 3. SS, chaan 319, Enh-Ahih SAa-Ahih, vol. 29, p. 22960. 78. HTTC, chiian 157, p. 3. OVVSC, tA'c 18, p. 36. ^Wv^Mf 18, p. 4 7 . ^ | f J t > l | 79. 0WSC £&'e 18, p. 42.-^4^ 4$ *6'a 18, p. 67. | ^ 80. Tanaka Kenji believes that, for this reason, Ouyang Hsiu could have written those erotic poems. See Tanaka Kenji, p. 7. 81. See Feng Yuan-chUn and Lu K'an-ju, vol. 3, p. 623. 82. Yen Meng-te, Vzl-bhu Lu-hua, SJ1S, chlian 10, p. 427. 83. For examples of this type of tz'u written by Huang, see Huang's Shao-nizn-hiln'^'j&f i<S , CST, p. 409; Ch'ln-yuan-ch'un-i^ ^ ] , Ch'Icn-ch'' iu-i>ui Jf , CST, p. 412. For Ch'in Kuan, see CST, p. 468, V In-Ling ^ ^ • 84. See Liu Ta-chieh, p. 84. CHAPTER II 1. Lin Ta-ch'un, Ouyang Wen-chung-kung Chin-t'i. Vuch-^u r© 01937; Shanghai) . 2. Ts'ai Mou-hsiung ^ fk'fy , Llu-l-tz'u Chlao-chu J"\ -"" it^ J %L "''i ' (-1969> Taiwan). 3. CTVT (chlian 2, p. 3), TWCC (cHan 1, p. 5), HATH (chuan 2, p. 16), TTSV (chudnX, p. 18), LIT (vol. 4, p. 9), LTSY (chuan 114, THT?, vol. 4, p. 1207)/ 4. Feng Yen-ssu, Yang-ch'un Chi, SYC, vol. 9, p. 3. 5. LIT, VTYT, CTVT all mention L i Ch'ing-chao's remark. 6. Both poems are composed to the tune of Lln-chlangQhAlcn See L i Ch'ing-chao, Sou-yu-tz'u ^ J ^ J t f j , SVC, vol. 7, p. 5, and p. 11. 7. See Chao Wan-li^J^ "/$ ^ , Chlao-chl Sung-thin-yuan-jcn-tz'u-pm ^ ^ Sou--y"--tz'a> P- 5-224 I have not been able to find this remark in any complete collection of Sou-yu-tz'u available to me. In Chao's edition, L i ' s note stcitcs * BX & >z \} 4 % m t * i% He %) * 9 . 8. See T'ang Kuei-chang, Sung-tz'u Hu-chtcn K'ao if- % G i l * , p. 88. Also see Ch'en T'ing-cho >| , Vcu.-yu-c.hcu. Tz'u-hua & , ^ oan 1, p. 4, THTP vol. 11, p. 3804. 9. Cheng Ch'ien -J^)" , however, believes that poem a is more li k e l y Ouyang's. According to him, Feng Yen-ssu would never have written semethlngeTg/ke the last two lines of this poem. See Cheng Ch'ien's Tz'u-lm'dan £*] ^ > , p. 26 . 10. Hsia Ch'eng-t'ao and Sheng T'ao-ch'ing ed., T'ang-hung Tz'u-Sudan ^ ^ . f s j , 1962, Peking, p. 60. 11. Hu Yuh-i, Sung-tz'u-hhuan, p. 32. 12. Chang Hui-yen ^ , Tz'u-hiuan t{\ , chlian 1, p. 12. 13. Wang Kuo-wei ^ 1 ^ 3 ^ , Jm-chicn Tz'u-hua A ^ f ^ ] f £ J W > Wang Kuan-fang Whlcn-hhmg Ch'uan-cht'^i!^^ > v°l-13, p. 5951. 14. Liu I-ch'ing -4'] J*^ , Shih-hhuo HUn-yu ^ t ^ L % ^ %%L , (1138; rpt. Peking, Chung-hua Shu-chu, 1962), chuan "f> , jang-chihjQ.Ja. 14, p. 1. 15. See eSt, p. 123. 16. 17. T'ang Kuei-chang, Sung-tz'u Hu-cSu.cn' K' ao, p. 91. CTVT (chuan 1, p. 10), TWCC (chlian 4, p. 5), HATH (chuan 2, p. 18). 225 18. LTSY (vol. 2, chaan 11, p. 19). 19. See Hu Yuh-i, SunggTiz'u-luiian, p. 29. 20. See Chapter I, p. 29. 21. CTS, vol. 8, t&'e 9, p. 74. The poem reads: 22. CTS, vol. 8, *4'e 9, p. 19 Two lines from this poem read: 23. See Ts'ai Mou-hsiung, p. 134. I have not been able to locate Vao-^han-t'ang Wai-chi in the UBC library. 24. HATH (chiian 2, p. 17). 25. TWCC (chiian 4, p. 4), TTSY (chiian "fv , p. 78), CTVV (chiian 1, p. 10). 26. Yang Shen , Tz'u-p'in S^ ] , cnaan 1, p. 13, THTP, vol. 2, p. 397. 27. Wm-kbuan, chuan 16, p. 21, SPPV. The quoted lines read: 28. Wang I-ch'ing , Tz'u-p'u f f ] , 1715, diuiw 11, p. 20. 226 29. Yeh Meng-te, Pl-hhu Lu.-h.ua, SJIS, chiian 8, p. 347. 30. Chang Pang-chi , Mo-chuang Uan-tu -If' ' Uk chuan 2, Pi-chi HAlao-Ahuo Ta-kkan ^ %t>'^ fjj , vol. 1, p. 499. 31. OVHP, pp. 27-28. 32. For the biography of both Lius, see SS, chuan 319, Ehk-hhlh-hku-ihlh, vol. 29, pp. 22962-22963. For more information on the l i f e of Liu Yuan-fu, also see.Ouyang's Chl-h&lcn-yuan H&uch-&hlh Llsx-kung Muechlh-mlng % % * $'J % \ % i h , OVVSG, We 4, pp. 95-98. 33. CTS, vol. 2, We 8, p. 45. The f i r s t four lines of Wang's poem run: 34. Yen Yu-i ^ if , I-t/uan Tz'u-huangix^J^f-^s , SJJS, chiian 8, p. 357. 35. IBid. 36. CST, vol. 1, p. 279. The quoted lines read: 37. CST, vol. 1, p. 285. The two quoted lines: 227 38. CTS, vol. 7, t&'e. 4, p. 23. Lines 5 and 6 of the poem read: 39. T' ang-Akik San-pcu.-6h.ou HAiang-hAJ, , 1973, Taiwan, p. 333. The poem reads: £ * j U t * tit 4. 40. See translation no. 10. Also see CST, p. 124. 41. CTYF (chiian 1, p. 11), TWCC (cniian 6, p. 4). 42. CTS, vol. 6, ti>'& 7, p. 42. Part of the poem runs: & Helium PM,^ i tR**. a* -a 43. CTS, vol. 7, *4'e 3, p. 38. The relevant lines read: 44. Lin Ta-ch'un, T'amj Wu-tcU Tz'uj%% } ( 1 9 6 5 ; sbmmercial Press), p. 76. 228 45. CT/F (chlian 3, p. 17). 46. See Ts'ai Mou-hsiung, p. 67. 47. lines 6 and 11 translated by R. Adler. See Adler, p. 10. 48. See Chapter I, p. 30. 49. OVVSC, vol. 1, p. 19. The lines quoted read: 50. . CTVF (chiian 2, p. 14), /FVT (chlian -t , p. 14), LIT (ra<Mw4, p. 19), ITS/ (vol. 3, chlian 31, p. 7). 51. LIT (vol. 4, p. 16). Also see Ts'ai Mou-hsiung, p. 110. 52. CTS, vol. 7, W c 12, p. 30. 53. See Lo Ch'i *pL /-#\ , Chung-kuo Ll-tdi Tz'u-hhuan p. 89. 54. Ch'u-tz'u Vu-chu , SPW, vol. 195, cftuixn 7, p. 1. 229 55. CTW (chiian 3, p. 2), TWCC (chiian 3, p. 5). 56. TWCC (chiian 3, p. 2). Ch'lieh-t'a-chlh is another name for the tune t i t l e Tltk-tlcn-57. See p. 69, annotations to poem no. 13. 58. OVNP, p. 28. SS, chiian 319, Eih-Ahlh-AMi-Ah&h, vol. 29, p. 22960. 59. Oyhl?, p. 28. 60. Su Shih has a i>hlh t i t l e d " A Patty on WeAt Lake with MaAteA Also see T'ao yiian-mlng Nlcn-p'u i n Liang Ch'i-ch'ao's T'ao yiian-mlng $£\zJ}r\ , (1966; Taiwan), p. 40. This preface appears in CST, pp. 120-121. The original text reads: 230 62. In this following poem by Feng Yen-ssu, for example, hhmg-ko r e f e r s definitely to the musicians playing the music: fstf^ ^ M.D-f *A See Feng Yen-ssu, yang-ch'an Chi, SVC, vol. 9, p. 5. 63. CTS, vol. 3, t&'z 7, p. 63. Wei's poem runs: 64. S§e Chapter III, p. 200. 65. Lun-y'u , Shu-eAh , no. 15, SPTK, vol. 9, chuan 4, p. 29. 66. CTYF (chuim 1, p. 9) , TWCC (ch'uan 6, p. 9) , LIT (vol. 4, p. 4 ) , VTYT (chuan }L , p. 16), LTSY (vol. 1, c/iaan 3, p. 4) . 67. See Chang Tzu-ych Tz'u 5|c. h ^ > eALum 1, p. 10, Chlang-t&'un Th'iing-hhu ^ > vol. 31. Also see CST, p. 123. 68. See T'ang Kuei-chang, Sung-tz'u Hu-chicn K'ao, pp. 82-83. 69. See CST, p. 123 and p. 81. 231 70. See James Liu, p. 37. 71. CTYF (chiian 1, p. 12), VVVT (chiianX , p. 17), LIT (vol. 4, p. 6) 72. LIT (vol. 4, p. 6). 73. See T'ang Kuei-chang, Sang-tz'u Hu-chlcn K'ao, p. 91. I have not been able to locate the particular edition he refers to in the UBC library. 74. See Yang Shen, Tz'u-p'in, chiian 2, THTP, vol. 2, p. 415. 75. See Shen Hsiung , Ku-chtn Tz'u-hua , chuan X. , THTP, vol. 3, p. 924. 76. yr-VT, p. 1, SPTK, vol. 437. 77. See R. Adler, p. 52. 78. One commentator who suggests this reading i s Ts'ai Mou-hsiung. See Ts'ai, p. 52. 79. See R. Adler, p. 53. 80. See Chapter III, p. 166. 81. Tsung Lin,% t j( , Chlng-ch'u Sul-i>hih-chi ^.^"3 t p. 9, SPPy, vol. 141, t&'e. 10. 82. CTW (chiian 2, p. 7); See also CST, p. 129. 83. CTVT (chiian 2, p. 13); See also C5T, p. 137. 84. Meng Yuan-lao J z . , Tung-chlng tteng-hua Lu pp. 172-173. . 232 85. See Ts'ai Mou-hsiung, p. 161. 86. See Biography of Yang Kuei-fei, Cklu-t'ang-Ahu pp. 10-15, Efth-Ahih-SAu-Ahih, vol. 19, p. 14848. Also see HAin-t'ang-Ahu "^,fj fa ^  , chimin 76, pp. 16-18, Ehk-Ahih-AAu-Ahlh, vol. 21, p. 16642. 87. Also see Po Chii-i's Ch&ang-hen-ko - f e f ^ " ^ - , CTS, vol. 7, tA' c 3, p. 25. 88. Ibid. pp. 25-26. Also see Tu Mu, Kuo-hua-ch'ing-kung Chlich-chii J^J?"  y n CTS, vol. 8, tA'c 7, p. 20. 89. Teng K'uei-ying j^, , Ouyang WAAJX Tzal Tz' u-Ahih-Ahang-tc-U-wci &1. \ \ W c n - h A u c h l-chaan ^ ^ i f ^ ^ , 1963, vol. 459. 90. Su-AhLh Ving-chii Hui-ch'ao A £ J , chuanl8, p. 20. 91. OWSC, vol. 3, p. 96. 92. OWSC, vol. 2, p. 37. 93. HA-in-t' ang-Ahu, chiian 76, p. 17. 94. In CTVT (chiian 3, p. 1), TWCC (chuan 6, p. 6), VVVT (chuan X , p. 11), LIT(vol. 4, p. 23). 95. TTSV (chiian 1, p. 11), in SPTK, vol. 437-440. 96. CTS, vol. 8, £&'e6, p. 24. 97. One c r i t i c i s Hu Yun-i. See Sung-tz'u-hAuan, p. 33. 233 98. Tu Mu $ C has these two lines in one of his poems: * f m A M . f t £ ( * * ) She throws away her hairpin, And lets f a l l her phoenix-style bun. In tears, she crawls underneath the sheets. Also, see Hu Yun-i, p. 32. 99. See R. Adler, p. 65. 100. TWCC (chuan 3, pp. 3-4). 101. TWCC (chuan 3, p. 3). 102. CTVT (chlian 3, p. 16), VTVT, p. 1, vol. 437, SPTK. 103. See CST, p. 154. I have not been able to locate Ku-chln V-ich-ch'ang-tz'u %. i$)ii\ in the UBC libeaaryy' 104. TWCC (ch'uan 5, p. 1). 105. See Wcn-hiiian, chuan 19, p. 11, S??Y. W i i . * * 0\ ( ! ^ ) 106. Fofc more background and discussion on the authenticity of this poem, see Chapter I, pp. 17-18. 101. CST, p. 158. 108. See Tz'u-hlian TA 'ul-pi2.n~tt\)l$:_ ^Jf^) , chuan 13, p. 10. THTPra vol. 6, p. 1951. 234 CHAPTER III 1. Hu Yun-i, Sung-tz'u-khuan, p. 27. ^ Also see Hsieh Li-jo f$ ^ JaL ^ , Sung-tz'u T'ling-lun <4 Jfe* , p. 32. 2. R. Adler, pp. 20-39. 3. This i s clearly stated in the preface to Hua-cklzn Cki ^ Chao Ch'ung-tsu ^ ed., p. 1. 4. Ibid. pp. 31-32. . I f - r t ^ f ^ , 4 & < t ^ 4, **Jifc if. Translation by J. J. Liu. See J. Liu, The A^t ojj Cklnuz VooJJiy, p. 31. 5. T'ang Wu-tai Tz'u., Lin Ta-ch'un ed., p. 237. This poem is also attributed to Ouyang Hsiu, but has been demons-trated to be Feng's. See T'ang Kuei-chang, Sang-tz'a Ha-akizn K'ao, p. 85. 6. Two lines from Wen T'ing-yun's poem describe a very similar setting. See Hua-ckizn Cki, p. 4. 7. CST, p. 123. y.e Atgr 8. See Chin Sheng-t'an, Ck'ang-cking-t'ang T&-al-tza-i>ka *©J<£. ^ 235 ~% ^ , Chung-kuo Wcn-hiilch Chcn-pcn Tt'ung-Ahu ^ (1^ 5^ ^ v o 1- 3 4' P' 2 1 4 • 9. Tu Shao-Llng Chi. H&lang-chu , Ch'ou Chao-ao 4^li^fc»^., ed., (1966; Hong Kong: T'ai-p'ing Book Co.), t6'e 3, chuan 4, p. 29. . Translation adapted from David Hawkes, A Lc£t£e VhAxncx o{ Tu Tu (1967; Oxford University Press), p. 32. 10. Otherwise, Ouyang Hsiu has been described as one who writes "with a seriousness and sense of depth in his carefree gaiety (kao-fang way)" > | L 3 < ^ ^ i f c ^ • S e e W a n § Kuo-wei, p. 17. 11. CST, p. 460. A *tf 4 Jb ip ^ * *1 12. O W S C , ti'e 7, cnuan 5, p. 9. 13. Wang Chih-fang Shlh-hua , Sung-jzn Shlh-hua Chl-l $J^ik%i($K> Kuo Shao-yu ff>j& ij. ed., (1937; Shanghai), vol. 1, p. 30. 14. Tun-huang Ch'u-tzu-tz'u-ckl f{] ' W a n g C n , u n g " m i n 236 ed., 1950 (1956; Shanghai: Commercial Press), p. 44. 15. CST, p. 141. 16. Ibid. p. 144. 17. Ibid. p. 135. 18. Ibid. p. 141. Translation by J. Liu. See J. Liu, MCLJOI Lyhiz-Uti, UovthzAn Sang, p. 47. 19. CST, p. 282. 20. Ibid. 21. Ibid. p. 297. 22. OWSC, Wz 2, zhiian 11, pp. 27-78. The three poems are: Jferfe & % A f « J f , »JJ a & * i . 237 23. CTSijivol. 3, 4, p. 15. £ * t * 1*J & * *» 4t**» -t • « * - i M ' ' B ) Translation by A. C. Graham. See Anthology ofi Chinese. LtteAatuAz, C y r i l Birch ed., (1965; New York: Grover Press), p. 232. 24. See OmC, ti,'e S,chilan 44, p. 78. Part of Ouyang's original autobiography runs: 25. WSC, 5, cteitn 39, p. 36. 26. CST, p. 143. 27. Meng Yuan-lao, pp. 72-73. 28. The music used for the £z'u i n T'amg and Sung times has not survived except for 17 tunes composed by Chiang K'uei for his own poems and written down in a notation which has not been deciphered to the satisfaction of a l l . See Baxter, p. 188. Ouyang's tz'u. were popularly sung in his time. See Ch'en Shih-ta<b, Hou-hkan TA'ung-t'an, S J T S , chuan 8, p. 348. 29. CST, p. 121. See my translation, pp. 86-87. 30. The series consists of 10 poems only. It appears in CTVF, followed 238 immediately by three other TA' dl-Aang-tzu tunes. R. Adler has mistaken i t to be a series of 13 poems. See R. Adler, p. 32. 31. For the nature and origin of this tz'u form, see Cheng Chen-to, pp. 529-530. Also see Hu Huai-shen^^ , Ckung-kuo Mln-ko Van-cktu <f ^/fX^^Li, p. 75. 32. A general classification only. See Wu Mei % , Tz'u* hAu'm T'ung-lunt^&tffQ (1964; Hong Kong), p. 3. Wang Li $ , however, objects to such a regid classification. See Wang L i , Han-y'u Skih-lu-hAuth ^ifct^X^^ (1958; Shang-hai) , p. 518. 33. See Hu Huai-shen, p. 48. Hu mentions about a kind of folk song known as HAt-ck' u-ko_ popular in the areas of Chin-H - " and Ch'u! during this period. The series of seasonal poems referred to belong to this type of songs. 34. See Tun-huang-ck'u Ckiao-Zu , Jen Erh-peoi \k > ed., (1955; Shanghai: Wen-i Lien-ho Publishing Co.), p. 115, p. 128 and p. 164. 35. CST, pp. 491-496. 36. Ibid. p. 121. 37. Ibid. p. 122. 38. Ibid, pp 121. 39. Ibid. pp. 5-6. 40. Ibid. p. 5. 'V 41. Ibid. p. 136 239 42. Ibid. 43. Ibid. 44. Ibid. 45. Ibid. p. 137. 46. See Han W o \ & , Hhlang-Um Chi ^ J<fs , SPTK, vol. 169, p. 30. , 47. The Poem-4 PoboAt Browning(^1962; London: Oxford University Press), p. 123. 48. See R. Adler, p. 83. 49. Yih-ling Liu and Shahid Suhrawardy, Poem-6 ojj Lee Hou-chu (1948; Bombay), p. 40. See R. Adler, p. 83. Lin Ta-ch'un, T'ang Wu-tal Tz'u, pp. 225-226. & »i 14 f i *?4. ^ t « to*-* • 50. Lin Ta-ch'un, pp. 221-222. it i* i t # If ii 240 f **> "& *Uvfc -3". * ^  * i l M 4 & «jb & sap. "I 4, * ^  $ *H <'#^> Translation by Yih-ling Liu and Shahid Suhrawardy. See Liu and Suhrawardy, pp. 20=21. 51. See CST, p. 148: T&ui-p'zng-lal.; CST, p. 149: K'an-hua-huA. (3 } 52. J. R. Hightower, Topics l.n ChtnoJsZ LtteJiatuAz (1950; Cambridge), p. 80. 53. The differentiation of ki>tao-tlng 1 , chung-ttao ^ and ch'ang-tlao |^<. f)!} (or man-tz'u t^ ^^ ] ) f i r s t appeared dm TTSy. Mao Chin defines kitdo-tlng as a tz'u with under 58 characters,auliung-tiao as a tz'u. with 59-90 characters. See Wu Mei, p. 3. Wang L i disagrees with this r i g i d way of classification. See Wang L i , p. 518. 54. C5T, p. 126. Translation no. 3. 55. Ibid. p. 121. Translation no. 24. 56. Ibid. p. 127. Translation no. 31. 57. Ibid. p. 132. Translation no. 16. 58. Ibid. p. 124. 59. Ibid. p. 148. 60. Ibid. p. 129. 61. Ibid. p. 126. Translation no. 3. 241 62. Ibid. p. 122. 63. Ibid. p. 130. Translation no. 32. 64. See p. 182. 65. Ibid. p. 124. 66. Ibid. Translation no. 10. 67. iBid. Translation no. 29. 68. CST, p. 126. Translation no. 3. 69. CST, p. 128. 70. CST, p. 121. Translation no. 23. 71. Ibid. p. 121. 72. Ibid. p. 148. 73. IBid. p. 149. 74. See pp. 149-151. 75. Ibid. p. 141. Translation by J. J. Liu. See J. Liu, Ma jot Lytlditi 0& Hottkzftn Sung, p. 47. 76. CST, p. 154. Translation no. 40. 77. „ Ibid. p. 123. Translation no. 7. 78. Ibid. p. 124. Translation adapted from J. Liu, Majot LyfUcL&tA o^ HotthoAn Sung, p. 37. Translation no. 29. 79. Ibid. p. 38. 242 80. See Chin Sheng-t'an, p. 216. 81. For allusions on Master Ho, see CST, p. 124 and p. 128. Allusions on Han Shou, p. 124. Allusion on Master Liu, p. 156. 82. Wang Kuo-wei, p. 27. 83. CST, p. 158. 84. Ku-thih-ydan w. *"3 , (1971; Taipei), chaan h , p. 40. *aS«>* by Hsieh Ling-yun g|-t ^ i>|__ . 85. Wcnkhddan, chuan 16, p. 21. SPPV'. 86. CST, p. 158. 87. Ibid. p. 122. 88. Sou-Ahcn Hou-chi f^^ L^ ^^  "t-* , chaan 1, in Hmch-chin T'ao-y'dan yjfii. , vol. 16, p. 1. 89. Ibid. 90. Liu Ch'i^'J 4lp , Kuel-ch'Icn-chlh Iff "> ,V , chaan 8, p. 3, Pi-ckl HAiao-Ahuo Ta-kaan, vol. 1, p. 1152. 91. CST, p. 140. Translation no. 6. 92. CTS vol. 8, t6'e 9, p. 19. 93. CST, p. 123. Translation no. 7. 94. See footnote 8S. 95. CS.7>, p. 122. Translation no. 26. 96. Lun-yd, Shu-eAh no. 15, SPTK, vol. 9, cliuan 4, p. 29. Translation by Al Waley, See A. Waley, The, knale.cti> oi Con&uciuA, 243 (1938; George Allen § Unwin Ltd.), p. 126. 97. CTS, vol. 8, t&'e. 7, p. 51. 98. CST, p. 154. Translation no. 41. 99. See p. 181. 100. CST, p. 122. Translation no. 9. 101. See p. 60. 102. CTS, vol. 6, ;£&'e 7, p. 42. 103. T' ang-hklk San-pal-6hou Hhlang-kbl, p. 333. 104. CTS, vol. 3, t&'e. 7, p. 63. 105. Ibid. vol. 8, t&'e. 6, p. 24. 106. CST, p. 123. 107. Ibid. p. 133. 108. Ibid. p. 131, p. 125. 109. Ibid. p. 132. 110. Ibid. p. 144. 111. Ibid. p. 121. 112. Ibid. p. 141. 113. Ibid, p. 124. 114. CST, p. 123. J. Liu, Majofi LynlclAti, o{ HonXkojin Sung, p. 35. 244 115. J. Liu, p. 36. 116. CST, p. 162. This tz'u is also attributed to Feng Yen-ssu. 117. Ouyang Hsiu has a total of 2M tz'u collected in CST. This may be compared with a few of the most prolific tz'u writers -M Northern Sung: Chang Hsien has 116, Liu Yung has 212, Yen Shu has 134. 245 BIBLIOGRAPHY DIFFERENT COLLECTIONS OF OUYANG HSIU'S WORKS 1. Ouyang Vung-hhu Cki , 1196, Kuo-kiixek Ckl-pen Ti,'ung-hhu lf3 v^r t ^ - ^ ^f^^- f 3 vols. Shanghai: Commer-c i a l Press, 1958. 2V Ouyang Wen-chung-kung Wen-chi $ % . *A *k ~& ^ Y u a n e d i t i o n > SPTK ed., vol. 196-198. 3': Ouyang Wen-chung Cki vol. 211-212. , Yuan edition, SPPY ed., 4. Shuang-ckao-Zou Ying-k'an Ck'lng-yuan Cki-chou-pan Ouyang Wen ckung-kung Chin-t'I Yuek-fiu ^iiL^^>/% , edition o£ Ying-k'an Sung-chin-y'uan-mlng-pen-tz' u Siu-hklk-ckung £ $ I?) «0 #f , 1917, vol. 1. Peking: Chung-hua Book Co., 1961. 5. T'ao-hhlh She-yuan Ylng-hung Tiul-weng Ch'ln-ck'u ^ sf<i ^-jfe- , edition of Ying-k'an Sung -chin-yuan-mlng-pen-tz'u Shu-Ahlh-chung, vol. 2. 6. Llu-l-tz'u "TN " n "^ J , ed. Mao Chin -T^ TO , in Sang Llu-hklh Mlng-ckia Tz'a -r & "»^J > ed. Mao Chin, Ckung-kuo Wen-kbueh Chen-pen Ti>'ung-i>ku $ ^ J ^ " ^ J - ^ - , ed. Chang Ching-l u $f ) \ , vol. 1. Shanghai; 1935-1936. 7. Vaeh-tfu Va-^z'a 2^ ^ 81^  *d , ed. Tseng Ts'ao ^ , 1146, SPTK ed., vol. 437, chuan X- , pp. 1-18. 8. Hua-an Tz'u-k&uan At* ^ £l]^L_ , ed. Huang Sheng^t 4| , 1249, SPTK ed., vol. 438, diuan 2, pp. 16-18. 9. Ti'ao-t'ang Sklh-yu , ed. anon,, SPT/C ed., vol. 439. ,). Ouyang Hhlu Wen-chung-kung Chin-t'i Vueh-^u PA i'^ ^ '^vL , ed. Lin Ta-ch'un 3v , Yuan edit ion. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1935. 11. Ch'uan-hung-tz'u i- *°} , ed. T'ang Kuei-changJt < % , v o l . 1, pp. 120-165. Peking: Chung-hua Book Co. , 1965. 12. liu-i-Wu Chiao-chu < t ^ ] %'x> , T s ' a i Mou-hsiung JjjS^ I^^ . • Taiwan, 1969. PRIMARY SOURCES ON OUYANG HSIU 1. Sung-hhih %• , Pai-na edition T^1^ % , 1937, v o l . 29. Taiwan: Commercial Press, 1967. 2. L i , T'ao -o ^ , , H6u-tzu-chih-t'ung-chien Ch'ang-pien ^ ..V^ ft, 7fc>L£&4^ i4> 1 8 8 1 ' v o 1 - 1 - 1 5 • Taiwan: Shih-chieh Book C o . , 1961. 3. T'ung-chien Ch'ang-pien Chi-hhih Pen-mo ed. Yang Chung-liang t , 1893. Taipei : Wen-hai Publishing Co . , 1967. 4. Hua Tzu-heng £ ^ , Theng-ting Ouyang Wen-chung-kung Uien-p'u %<s $t ^  1% , 1662?-1722? Chao-tai W ung-bhu e d . ^ ^ ^ J ^ - , chuan 3. 5. Chao J u - y u i , Kuo-ch'ao Chu-ch'm Tzou-i \£] IHJ fy^ihi 1-10. Taiwan; 1970. ,6. OWSC, Fu-lu , We 18. 247 SECONDARY SOURCES 1. Adler, Ruth, Tz'u oi Ouyang Hiiu, unpublished M.A. Thesis. University of Columbia, 1973. 2. Baxter, Glen William, "MeXAlcat .QhA.gi.ni> oi the. Tz'u" in Studies in Chinese. LlteAatWie., ed. John L. Bishop, Cambridge, 1966, pp. 186-224. Reprinted from WAS 16 (1953), pp. 108-145. 3. Btoowning, Robert, The Voemi oi Robert Btowning,(London: Oxford University Press, 1962. 4. Chang, Hui-yen j-y~ R$ **• , Tz ' u-hiuan * !j J^ 2L_ ..Taipei: I-wen Press, 1957. 5. Chang, Hsiangj-I^ , Skih-tz'u-ch'ii-yu Tz'u-tim til t*\ & , Taipei, 1957. 6. Chang, Hsien , Chang-tzu-yeh Tz'u Chiang-t!>'un Ti' ungSihu ^[^K.-^" ' v 0 ^ - ^^dan 1-7. Chao, Chia-ying ^  Jj* x ^ , Chia-ting Van-ihlh > £ L 1$. i - J » 1 9 6 0 • Taiwan: San-min Book Co., 1971. 8- Ch ChJux-ting Van-tz'u. ^ | ^  t{| , I960. Taiwan: Ch'un-wen-hsueh Press, 1973. 9. Chao,Ch'ung-tso -iff- ^  I1 , Wua-cklen Ckl 1960. Hong Kong: Commercial Press, 1973. 10. Cheng, Chen-to \§ , Ck'a-t'li-pcn Ckung-kuo We.n-kiue.k-iklk ify ^ lSlSL§X, 1961. Hong Kong: Commercial Press, 1973. 11. Ch'ien, Mien , Ck'lcn-ihlh Siu-ckik S O ' , 1544, 248 Ku-ckin Shuo-hai \ ^£^->>^| , Tha-chi Chia-pu ^ffy 12. Chin, Sheng - t&an'^T% , Ch'ang-ching-t'ang Th'ai-tzu-i>hu *£) ^ •^ V'C> [^ ^ , Chung-kuo Wzn-h&uth Chm-pm Ti'ung-ihu ^ ^ ^^^-Mr > vo1- 34• 13. Chou, Chen-fu , Shlh-tz'u Li-kua Chung-kuo Ch'ing-nien Publishing Co., 1962. 14. Chu, Hsi , San-ch'ao Ming-ch'en Ym-ht>ing LU. ^ H \ B I^L , SPTK ed., vol. 62. 15. Fan,Chung-yen ^ii^^b , Fan Wm-chung-kung Chi \>ty^Ki , SPTK ed., vol. 177. 16. Feng, Ch'i-yung / $ ) ^ , "Lun-pci-Aung-ch'im-ch'i Liang-chung Vu-t'ung Te Tz'u-£mg" ^ » j . •» , Wm-hiium l-ch'an Umg-k'an ^ d V L r i . *T 4»j , v o i ' . 8, pp. 120-136. Peking: Tso-chia Publishing Co., 1955. 17. Feng, Yen-ssu A|> ^ JL , Vang-ch'un Chi ft9 3^|^  , S^ C ed., vol. 9. 18. Feng, Yuan-chun >.|) lli § Lu, K'an-ju ^ ?u Chung-kuo Shih-thih ^ )I3 ^ | ^ • Ku-wen Book Co., 1968. 19. Han, Wo %\ \\ , H&ixing-lim Cki^fr % ifr , SPTK ed., vol. 169. 20. Hsia, Ch'eng-t'ao J^Q*, § Wu, Hsiung-ho Tz'u-h&uch » Hong Kong: Hung-t'u Publishing Co. 21. Hsieh, Li-jo £f ZJ^j ^ , Sung-tz'u T'ung-lun % • Hong Kong: Chung-liu PublisMng Co., 1974. 249 22. Hu, Huai-shen"^ t^ «s*-^  , Ckung-kuo Min-ko Ven-cklu ^  (jj^  fcifc^jJL H o n S K o n § : Pai-ling Book Co. 23. Hu, Shih ^  , "Ouyang Hhlu Te LLang-tz'u Vu-hklk" \l$D * j 4!) & f , Hu-hklk Wen-ts'un t & t h > vol. 3, 7: 907. Shanghai: Ya-tung Library, 1926. 24-. Hu, Yun-i v>% ^  ¥ , Sung-tz'u-kiuan i f , 1970. Hong Kong: Chung-hua Book Co., 1973. 25. , Tz'u-k6ue.k Kal-lun^Q^^tj^vfi), Hong Kong: Shih-yung Book Co. 26. Huang, Kung-chu^ '5 / J ^ , Ouyang Hi>iu Tz'u Hhaan-ojo. iS^I)^ l^^t^f* ' P e k i n § : Tso-chia Publishing Co., 1958. 27. Jao, Tsung-i ? , Tz'u-dvi-k'ao^\\% . Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1963. 28. Tun-kuang-ck'u Ckiao-Lu , Jen Erh-pei ^ ed., Shanghai: Wen-i Lien-ho Publishing Co., 1955. 29. Ko, Tsai , Tz'u-Lin Ckeng-yun Taipei: Wen-ch'uan Publishing Co., 1967. 30. Kuo, Shao-yii SpJ-vLll; , Sung-j en Skik-kua Ckl-l lM>ff • Shanghai, 1937. 31. L i , Ch'ing-chao %  l y \ J?K« , Sou-yu-tz'u ?fe ^ I 3 , SVC ed., vol. 7. 32. Lin, Ta-ch'un '^ .^ ^4" , T'ang Wu-tal Tz'u J%. Hong Kong; 1963. 33. Liu, James Jo-yiu , Tke hvt o^ Cklnehe ?oe&iy.y University of Chicago Press, 1962. 250 , The Voztfiy Li Shang-yln. University of Chicago Press, 1969. 35. , "L-itznaJiy Quatitizh Ofj thz Lyniz", in Studies In Chinzhz Litzn.axy Gzn/tzh, pp. 133-153. B y r i l Birch ed. U. of California Press, 1974. 36. __, Ma jot LyfvlziAtA ofi thz Hohthznn Sung A.0. 9602JIIM. Princeton University Press, 1974. >.l v. i 37. Liu, Ta-chieh *3 \ "A < , Chung-kuo Wzn-hhdzh fa-zhan-Ahih ^ 111 3. %. iL^ • Shanghai: Chung-hua Book Co., 1962. 38. Liu, James Tzu-chien , Ouyang Hi>iu Tz Chih-h&uzh Yu U'ung-zhzng Hong Kong: New Asia Research Institute, 1963. 39. '•' ' , Ouyang H&lu: An Elzvznth CzntuAy Hzo-Con{uzianti>t. Stanford University Press, 1967. 40. Locke, Marjorie A., "The Easily Lifiz ofi Ouyang Hhlu and Hit, Relation to thz ku-wzn Movzmznt ofi thz Sung Dynasty". Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. London,University, 1951. 41. Lu, A n - t ' a i / ^ A)^ , "Th'ung Sung-jzn-tz-m-pu-tz'u-k&uan-zhung K'an-tao-tz Yi-hhlzh Wzn-t'i" Kuang-mlng Jlh-pao ^Ceh 1 9 $ L , 1963, Jan. 13. 42. Ma, Tuan-lin it^Q , Wzn-kbizn T'ung-k'ao Wzn-yu Wzn-k'u ed./ 43. Meng, Yuan-lao ^ ? ^ , Tung-zhing Mzng-hua Lu ^ 3> ^ 1147. Shanghai: Classics Press edition, 1956. 44. MMing, Yun-chung. , '"Lun Tz'u-zhih-kblng^Ahih Yu Hzi-t'«J > Vu-^h Hmzh-pao ^fyrfy 251 ^ %L » v o 1 - 41-42, 1961. 45. Miu , YuehJT^ , S U h-tz ' u Sarc-£un "tlj Itl fc^© . Hong Kong: T 1 a i - p 1 i n g Book C o . , 1963. 46. Ouyang, Hsiu #1 f £) 4'^  , HUn Wu-iai Shih %(/{ <£^j^ . Shanghai: Chung-hua Book Co . , 1974. AT.: P ' an , Ting-chiitu , et a l . , Ch'ua.n-t'<xng-&hih ' 1 8 8 7 ' T , u n g - w e n B ° ° k c ° -48. Tanaka, Kenji ^ } ^ - , "Oyo Shu no i>hi ni t&ui£&" tf)lM] {.- " " b » Tohogaku^.^^ , 1953, no. 7. 49. T'ang, Kuei-chang ^ ^ , Tz'u-hua T^'ung-pizn iMi j^k--M*F) • T a i P e i : Kuang-wen Book C o . , 1967. 50. , Sung-tz'u Hu-chim K'ao i f*-* Taiwan: Hsueh-sheng Book C o . , 1971. 51. , Ch'uan-Aung-tz'u \ ^ £ . Peking: Chung-hua Book C o . , 1965. 52. Teng, K 'ue i -y ing ^ jfl ,"0uyang Hi>iu Uai Tz'u-thih-thang tt Ti-wzi" W$)\xfa%% -t 6$ , Wzn-h&uth I-ch'an ^ ^ / \ , v o l . 459., 1963, 4: 14. 53. Tsung, L i n % f %, , Ching-ah'u Sui-thUM-chi SPW ed. v o l . 141, t&'z 10. 54. Wan, Min-hao ^L-I^TI^, , Enh-yan Chi Ch'i-tz'u -Shanghai, 1934. 55. Wan, Shu ^ P 1 ^ , Tz'u-lu , 1687. v o l . 1-12. SFPY ed. 252 o . Wang, Chih %\ , Mo-chl *C» , Ku-chln Shuo-hal %^IV4 ,^-chl-pu f j i i t ^ p , ! . 51. Wang, CMung-min , ed : , Tun-huang Ch'u-tzu-tz' u-ml 't&^'Xt t*} J$T > 1 9 5 0 • Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1956. 58. Wang, I - ch ' i ng "£ ^ ^ | , Tz'u-p'u. ^{j f 1715. Ting Fu-pao I-hsueh Book C o . , r epr in t ed. ;5@. Wang, Kuo-wei ~l |J3 J^ J£ , Jm-chlm Tz'u-hua A fB^\*^\^ . Shanghai: Chung-hua Book C o . , 1961. 60. Wang, Li~£ , Han-i/ii Sliih-lu-hiuch yjl. *3 . Shanghai: New Knowledge Publ ishing Co . , 1958. 61. Watson, Burton, Chinae LyJvicli>m. Columbia U . Press, 1972. 62. Wu, Mei , Tz'u-hbuch T'ang-lun j »J ^ j ^ f / J D . Hong Kong: T ' a i - p ' i n g Book C o . , 1964. % > : h 6g. Wu, Wen-chih ^ ^k. >vj. , 1,1 Wan-yuch-tz'u Vm-chlu-chung-tc-cki-ko Wm-t'l" bPL%& 5L^  <*9 IL . f t \ ) ^ |L , Kuang-mlng Jlh-pao , 1964, 8: 30. 64. Yang, Chieh \*A , Wu-wcl Chi jf, > 1 1 4 3> Siu-k'u Ch'udn-ihu Chm-pm DJu-chl ^D^^^rf, % ^% J j^jf. , v o l . 274, chuan 13. Ta ipe i : Hsin-hsing Book C o . , 1974. APPENDIX I Page Reference for Translations of Tz'u in Ch'dan-Aung Tz'a: Translation # CST page # 1. Tim-Urn-kua j$t> -§> }jL 162 2. Tim-tim-kua 6^ 128 3. Tim-tim-kua ^ ^ 126 4. Su-chung-ck'ing »^ %^ f|[ 123 5. Vu-lou-ck'un i J-J 4s- 132 6. Lin-ckiang-kiim $v&t ^ 140 7. T'a-i.a-h6tng J<e /JM J 123 8. Yd-lou-ck' un 133 9. Ch.'ao-ckung-t!,'o M ^ 122 10. Ckizn-tzu Hu-tan-kua 124 11. Ti,'ai-iang-tzu 122 12. Ckim-tzu Mu-lan-kua 5* tfQ $ j 124 13. Lang-t'ao-ika 141 14. yil-c.kla.-ao |^ 129 15. yd-lou-ck'un ~h 4i 4^  133 16. yd-lou-ck'un i ^ - 4 ^ 132 17. Yu-lou-ck'un 132 254 18. y'd-:loa-ck' an 19. Ya-lou-ch'un 20. Shzng-im-yu 21. Ttzh-Lizn-hua 22. Ti' ai-Aang-tza 23. TV ai-Aang-tzu 24. 'oi-4ang-*za 25. Ti>' ai-Aang-tzu 26. T"4 'axL-.4a.ng-.tzu. 27. Ch' cmg-k&Ajxng-A&u. 28. Ch' ang-h&lang-A&u. 29. Shnng-c.ha.-tza. 30. Ttzh-Lizn-hua 31. Tizh-Lizn-hua 32. yd-ch-ca-ao 33. yii-chia-ao 34. yU-chla-ao 35. yd-chxla-ao 36. yd-chia-ao 37. yd-ta-ikhaa 132 133 141 128 121 121 121-122 122 122 123 123 124 127 127 129 131 136 137 137 144 ( 255 38. Lang-t' ao-hka it -A ->y 141 39. Nan~ko-tzu 140 40. Han-khiixng-tza 154 41. T' a-Ao-kb-tng 154 42. T'aeio-ki-ing-man it 156 43. Wang-ckLang-nan ~4 aft 158 

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