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Recall of narrative material in five year olds White, William B. 1977

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RECALL OF NARRATIVE MATERIAL IN FIVE YEAR OLDS  'by WILLIAM B. WHITE B.A., Western Washington S t a t e C o l l e g e , 1972  •A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in .THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Decenber, 1977 ©  W i l l i a m B. W h i t e , 1977  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e requirements  f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  copying o f  t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood t h a t copying  o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department o f E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  /2> ^/^_ <a  /?77  ABSTRACT  The r e c a l l performances o f two groups (n= 16 i n each) o f kindergarten children (ages 4-11 t o 5-10) who encountered narrative material under two d i f f e r e n t conditions were compared. The c h i l d r e n who enacted the story with puppets while l i s t e n i n g to i t r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more story elements and both exp l i c i t and i m p l i c i t information than d i d children who merely l i s t e n e d to the story narration.  This was the case a t post t e s t s given 30  seconds and one week a f t e r the narrative material was encountered. Alternative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s are discussed and suggestions about pedagogical implications and future studies are provided.  Ill  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES AC^OWIHXM'ENTS  Page i i V vi v i i  I  INTRODUCTION General Problem and Delimitation  1 2  II  THEORETICAL ORIGINS OF THE PROBLEM Review o f Related L i t e r a t u r e Derivation o f Basis f o r Present Study  3 3 7  III  DERIVATION OF OJERENT POSTULATES AND HYPOTHESES Hypotheses  9 10  IV  METHODS Subjects Apparatus Procedure Introduction o f Subjects Passive Experience Group Active Experience Group a. T r a i n i n g Session b. L i s t e n i n g t o B r i e f Story Post Test-1 Post Test-2 a. Part One b. Part Two Analysis  11 11 13 14 16 16 16 16 19 19 21 21 22 22  V  RESULTS ' Analysis o f Data, Part One: Evaluation o f Hypothesis One, Two, and Three Analysis o f Data, Part Two: Evaluation o f Hypothesis Four, F i v e , and S i x Analysis o f Data, Part Three: Evaluation,. . of Answers, PT-2, Part Two Analysis o f Data, Part Four: Evaluation o f Teachers' Rating o f A b i l i t y ; and Age o f Children Between G r o u p s —  24  DISCUSSION Interpretation and Tmpl-ieations  34 34  VT  25 28 31 32  iv  Page  BIBLIOGRAPHY  37  APPENDIX A  44  APPENDIX B  46  APPENDIX C  47  APPENDIX D  48  APPENDIX E  49  APPENDIX F  50  APPENDIX G  51  APPENDIX H  52  V  L I S T OF TABLES  TABLE  Page  I  Teachers' R a t i n g s o f A b i l i t y :  II  Age and Sex: D a t a b y S c h o o l s  13  III  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s on C a t e g o r y Measure b y C h i l d r e n i n AE and PE Groups a t PT-1  25  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s on E x p l i c i t I n f o r m a t i o n Measure b y C h i l d r e n i n AE and PE Groups a t PT-1  26  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s on I m p l i c i t I n f o r m a t i o n Measure b y C h i l d r e n i n 7AE and PE Groups a t PT-1  27  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s on C a t e g o r y Measure b y C h i l d r e n i n AE and PE Groups a t PT-2 . .  28  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s on E x p l i c i t I n f o r m a t i o n Measure b y C h i l d r e n i n AE and PE Groups a t PT-2.'  29  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s on I m p l i c i t I n f o r m a t i o n Measure by C h i l d r e n i n 7AE and PE Groups a t PT-2  30  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s on Answers by C h i l d r e n i n AE and PE Groups a t PT-2, P a r t Two  31  X  Ratings of A b i l i t y :  32  XI  Age and Sex o f C h i l d r e n :  TV  V  VT  VTI  VTII  IX  Data by Schools  D a t a b y Group D a t a b y Group  ,  12  33  LIST OF FIGURES  FIGURE  OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE  Page  15  JCKN0WLiFJX5EME!NTS  Great appreciation i s not enough t o extend to those who have given me t h e i r e f f o r t , cooperation, ideas, time and friendship. >I wish to thank Mrs. Stewart at the Cypress House Day Care; Dr. J . A l b e r t a t Pentacare; and Miss E. S i l v e r at the C h i l d Study Centre, for allowing me to use t h e i r time and f a c i l i t i e s . wish to thank those c h i l d r e n who  FxurUiermore, I  so w i l l i n g l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s  study. Research, reviews, e d i t i n g , s t a t i s t i c a l analysis, support and general w r i t i n g a t times can be a chore.  However, a l l these were eased  because of three warm people: A s p e c i a l thanks to Dr. K. Murray, my advisor; my gratitude to Dr. P. A r l i n , whose advice and concern helped me t o achieve e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l y stages of t h i s study; and f i n a l l y , i n appreciation to Dr. L. T r a v i s , whose wisdom, encouragement, i n s p i r a t i o n s , and suggestions so r e a d i l y given,  I am deeply indebted to.  1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTICN  I t h a s been r e p o r t e d t h a t young c h i l d r e n ' s (as d e f i n e d i n A p p e n d i x A) a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l some t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a s e f f i c i e n t a s that o f their elders 1976).  (Danner & T a y l o r , 1973; J a b l o n s k i , 1974, K a i l ,  I n o r d e r t o f i n d methods o f i m p r o v i n g t h i s r e c a l l a b i l i t y ,  e s p e c i a l l y where i t m i g h t a p p l y i n s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s , some w r i t e r s have p r e s e n t e d m a t e r i a l i n what i s c o n s i d e r e d  t o be t h e c h i l d r e n ' s  p r e f e r r e d mode ( B r u i n i k s & C l a r k , 1970; Dauzat, 1970; W i l l i a m s , & Blumberg, 1973). has  Williams,  G e n e r a l l y , t h e mode o f p r e s e n t a t i o n i n s t u d i e s  followed t h a t which i s u s u a l l y found i n school i n s t r u c t i o n : v i s u a l  and/or v e r b a l forms. Recent r e s e a r c h  (Brown, 1975; P a r i s & L i n d a u e r ,  1976) h a s been  c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e younger c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l i n t h e form o f s h o r t prose passages.  A g a i n , t h e mode o f p r e s e n t a t i o n  s t i l l appears i n v i s u a l o r v e r b a l form, although,  sortie v i s u a l forms  i n c l u d e p i c t u r e s i n s t o r y sequence, much l i k e t h e f o r m o f a comic s t r i p (e.g. Brown, 1975).  I t appears, then, t h a t researchers  are s t i l l  f o l l o w i n g s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods o f p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l i n v i s u a l o r v e r b a l forms.  The a l t e r n a t i v e o f c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n c h i l d development  f a c t o r s , w h i c h may s u g g e s t o t h e r means o f m a x i m i z i n g r e c a l l o f m a t e r i a l t h a t c h i l d r e n e n c o u n t e r (and a l t e r n a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h change t h e manner i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n a s s i m u l a t e a n d o r g a n i z e t h e m a t e r i a l one e x p e c t s them t o r e c a l l ) , may b e more f r u i t f u l . Jean Piaget  (1967) h a s p o s t u l a t e d s i x s t a g e s o f development w h i c h  mark t h e appearance o f s u c c e s s i v e l y c o n s t r u c t e d  s t r u c t u r e s (motor o r -  2 i n t e l l e c t u a l and a f f e c t i v e ) , which are the organizational forms o f mental a c t i v i t y .  A f i v e year o l d c h i l d , according t o Piaget (see F l a v e l l ,  1963), would possibly be i n a subperiod of simple representations or i n t u i t i o n s , and may s t i l l be more e f f i c i e n t with sensory-motor a c t i v i t y (which may be r e l a t e d to learning), e s p e c i a l l y i f h i s past experience has been mostly sensory-motor (physical a c t i v i t y with action on objects). Piaget (e.g. F l a v e l l , 1963) has also postulated that a c h i l d should i n t e r a c t d i r e c t l y with h i s material and s o c i a l environment; that i s he should i n p a r t i c u l a r touch, f e e l , and otherwise be a c t i v e l y engaged i n h i s surroundings i f he i s t o learn e f f e c t i v e l y .  General Problem and Delimitation  The present study i s based on the proposition that i n s t r u c t i o n geared toward a c h i l d ' s active engagement with material w i l l h i s r e c a l l of information about that material.  enhance  S p e c i f i c a l l y , an i n s t r u c -  t i o n a l method e n t a i l i n g a sensory-motor. (physical a c t i v i t y with action on objects) organization of information by each c h i l d i s prepared as a treatment which may be superior to one i n which the c h i l d merely l i s t e n s t o the information p r i o r t o t e s t i n g f o r r e c a l l .  This study was  l i m i t e d to an investigation of the r e c a l l performance of c h i l d r e n i n an enactive experience approach (as defined i n /Appendix A ) , as compared t o children i n a passive experience approach (as defined i n Appendix A). This study compares free r e c a l l performances between two such groups.  3 CHAPTER II THEORETICAL ORIGINS OF THE PROBLEM Review of•Related L i t e r a t u r e  Recently, narrative material has become the focus.for research on children's free r e c a l l .  Narrative materials are often presented  i n sentence or b r i e f story form.  Indications are that young c h i l d r e n  e x h i b i t poor r e c a l l of such material (Brown, 1975; 1977;  Paris & Lindauer, 1976;  Brown & Smiley,  Paris & Upton, 1976).  Young children's poor r e c a l l i s often a t t r i b u t e d t o e i t h e r (a) t h e i r age  (Brown, 1975; .Banner •& Taylor, 1973;  F l a v e l l , 1971;  E h r i , 1976;  1976;  Brown, 1975; E l k i n d ,  Piaget, 1969); (c) t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y Tinderdeveloped  (Elkind, 1971;  1971;  Rosenberg, J a r v e l l a , & Cross, 1971)., (b) the handicaps  o f e a r l y forms of egocentriclsm; (Anastasiow, 1971; 1971;  Elkind,  Lange & Jackson, 1974;  Locke, 1973;  coding system  M i l l a r , 1972;  Piaget,  Piaget & Inhelder, .1973; Trabasso & Riley,.1973), or (d) the  absence of learned strategies.: (Chi, .1976; F l a v e l l , 1971; K r i s t z e r , Leonard, & F l a v e l l , 1975;  P a r i s & Lindauer, 1976).  The information from narrative material which children do r e c a l l i s more often e x p l i c i t than : i i r p l i c i t (Paris & Lindauer, 1976; 1975).  Moreover, they appear to te.more a d r o i t at  Stein & Glenn,  reconstructing  or r e -  cognizing p i c t o r a l content than they are at r e c a l l i n g verbal material (Brown, 1975).  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , these findings have moved some research-  ers to ask how performance might be improved.  Attempts to discover means  o f improving r e c a l l performance have produced the following conclusions: F i r s t , r e c a l l may than merely l i s t e n  be increased i f c h i l d r e n are t o l d to remember rather (Yussen, Gangne, Garrrulo, & Kunen, 1974), or i f they  4 are instructed to look f o r ways that (stimulus) items go together (Rosner, 1971). Second, rather than leaving young c h i l d r e n to t h e i r own  devices  (not i n s t r u c t i n g the c h i l d r e n on what to do), i f one manipulates or e f f e c t i v e l y induces the adoption of learning strategies ( i n s t r u c t i n g the c h i l d r e n or requiring them to do something i n connection with the presented material), some of which include rehearsing, imagining, or touching, performance improves (Danner & Taylor, 1973; DeRose, Wilder, & Norton, 1975; 1975;  Paris & Lindauer, 1976;  1971).  Levin, Ghatola,  Levin, Lesgold, Shimron, & Guttman,  Paris & Upton, 1976;  Tenney, 1975;  Wilder,  Third, i f c h i l d r e n are forced to code i n s p e c i f i c ways (Trabasso  & Riley, 1973)  or given a code to work with (Cannizzaro, Cecchini, &  Musatti, 1975), performance i s increased  (within s p e c i f i e d age ranges).  Fourth, and l a s t , but f o r the present study not l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t i s the evidence which suggests that the methods of presenting material may fluence the amount r e c a l l e d (Bijou, 1976; Hoving, Konick, & Wallace, 1975; & R i l e y , 1973;  Tulving, 1968;  Brinkerink, & Gorter, 1974;  Brown, 1975;  Lehman, 1972;  Debes,  Webster & Cox,  1974;  Stacy & Ross, 1975;  Underwood & Freund, 1968; 1974;  in-  Trabasso  VanDam, Peeck,  Wilder-& Levin, 1973).  Reflection devoted to the l a s t point suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y that the method of encoding information from narrative may  be a source of  the d i f f i c u l t i e s young c h i l d r e n experience i n attempts to r e c a l l such material.  ELkind (1971), f o r instance, suggests that young c h i l d r e n  devise t h e i r own Jablonski  coding system f o r language and (xrartunication. S i m i l a r l y ,  (1974), reported that, "There i s l i t t l e evidence to suggest  that the encoding schemes of c h i l d r e n w i l l follow those of adults..." (pg.  253).  may  5 However, the nature of children's encoding processes'is not w e l l understood.  There are several disputes over the nature of children's  encoding p r a c t i c e s .  Some writers report evidence of children's a b i l i t y  to encode material i n s p e c i f i c as w e l l as i n more general taxonomic classes (Kail, 1976), even though t h e i r verbal concepts are less w e l l organized and r e l a t i v e l y imprecise as compared with those of t h e i r elders (Lange & Jackson, 1974;  S a l t z , Dunin-Markiewicz & Rourke, 1975).  Others c i t e evidence (Ehri, 1976;  Jablonski, 1974)  which causes them  to deemphasize the organizational differences and emphasize the r o l e of experience, such as the production deficiency model which suggests that mediators are a v a i l a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n to use, but are not used by them unless continually prompted to do so (see Jablonski, 1974). both organizational immaturity and inexperience  Perhaps  i n using conceptual  systems  are implicated i n young children's d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e c a l l i n g verbal narrative material.  In other words, the young children's r e l a t i v e l y  unintegrated or fragmented conceptual  systems might produce encoding  d i f f i c u l t i e s not faced by an older person whose conceptual more coherent and better organized. practices may  systems are  In any case, children's encoding  hamper r e c a l l .  In addition to the above, young children's encoding procedures also be r e s t r i c t e d by t h e i r egocentric nature.  Flavell,  may  (1963) d e f i n i n g  egocentrism, states that " I t denotes a cognitive state i n which the cognizer sees the world from a s i n g l e point of view only-his own-but without knowledge of the existence of viewpoints or perspectives  and,  a f o r t i o r i , without awareness that he i s a prisoner of h i s own."  (pg.  60)  Furtherrrore, Kamii (1975) suggests that because of t h i s egocentric r  nature, the r e a l i t y the c h i l d sees i s not the same r e a l i t y the adult sees.  6 What the c h i l d percieves and attends to may  not be what an adult i s  seeking when asking a c h i l d to r e c a l l information.  7An example of t h i s  was apparent i n a recent study by Brown and Smiley  (1977), who  reported  that the units i n prose passages judged most important by young c h i l d r e n dominated t h e i r r e c a l l attempts.  Therefore, a c h i l d ' s egocentric nature  may not allow him to abide by r u l e s from without and only attend to i n formation that i n t e r e s t s him.  Thus, t h i s may  f o r some of h i s poor r e c a l l performance.  a l s o be an explanation .  (Brown, 1975;  E l k i n d , 1971;  Piaget, 1969). To return to the question of what might improve r e c a l l performance, one can take account of those studies which have reported performance gains of various kinds, as a consequence of inducing motor a c t i v i t y .  Levin,  Ghatala, DeRose, Wilder, and Norton (1975), f o r example, reported that motor-induced imagery appeared to constitute a highly e f f e c t i v e d i s c r i mination learning strategy (with c h i l d r e n i n the f i f t h and s i x t h grades). Moreover, Therrien (1977) has shown how use of play improved r e c a l l of story sequence.  S i m i l a r l y , Rubin and Pollack (1969) taught  boys to play games with objects as sounds, and i n t h i s way auditory perception.  kindergarten increased t h e i r  Rubin and Pollack (1969) emphasized the e f f e c t of  v i s u a l and visual-motor experience i n the f i v e year olds' a b i l i t y to intergrade multi-modal inputs.  Likewise, Penman, Christopher, and Wood  (1977) reported that learning to use c a p i t a l i z a t i o n and punctuation  by  t h i r d grade c h i l d r e n was greater when a c t i v e games i n v o l v i n g p h y s i c a l body movement and involvement was used as compared to a passive (seat work) presentation and a c o n t r o l group (not r e c e i v i n g any s p e c i a l presentation) .  Furthermore, other researchers have generally reported that  inducement of a c t i v e motor movement usually seems to produce superior  performance over other teaching strategies such as those which r e l y  x  heavily on v i s u a l and o r a l presentation (Jones, 1972'; Levin, McCabe, & Bender, 1975;  P a r i s & Lindauer, 1976;  S i l v e r n & Yawkey, 1977).  Further, v i s u a l encounters e n t a i l i n g the presentation of v i s u a l s t i m u l i appear to be associated with performances which are superior to those connected with aural presentation.  This was the case i n learning word  recognition (Dauzat, 1970), i n l e a r n i n g paired associate word l i s t s (Bruiniks & Clark 1970;  Drew & Brooks, 1976;  Reese, 1965;  Pohwer, 1970),  and i n following d i r e c t i o n s (Williams, Williams, & Blumberg, 1973) . Piaget has r e l a t e d the idea of a c t i v e engagement with the environment as possibly being connected to cognitive development ( F l a v e l l , 1963).  In addition, Inhelder, S i n c l a i r , and Bovet (1974) suggest that  a c t i v e engagement may be r e l a t e d to encoding, organizing, and r e c a l l . Furthermore, Bruner (1964) has reported that enactive representation of information o n t o l o g i c a l l y preceeds symbolic representation, where enactive representation i s defined as, "a mode of representing past events through appropriate motor response."  (pg. 2).  I t appears then that  these authors suggest the entailment of enactive engagement with material f o r cognitive development, which may,  i n turn, a f f e c t r e c a l l .  Derivation of Basis f o r Present Study  A review of the l i t e r a t u r e appears to i n d i c a t e that performance on memory measures may be improved i f f i v e year olds are induced to encode and organize information through t h e i r own p h y s i c a l intercourse with the subject matter.  Bruner (1964), i n discussing memory, states  that, "...memory i s not storage of past experience, but rather the r e -  t r i e v a l o f what i s relevant i n some useable form."  (pg. 2). I t follows  that enactive representation, o r "a mode o f representing past events through appropriate motor responses"  (Bruner, 1964, pg. 2), might be  expected t o enhance children's performance on memory measures which require r e t r i e v a l o f symbolic representations.  Such that, enactive  representations may e n t a i l organization o f the information i n t o a system which i s b u i l t on action schemes (Bruner, 1964).  9 CHAPTER I I I DERIVATION OF CURRENT POSTULATES AND HYPOTHESES  From a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e ,  the following postulates  were d e r i v e d : (1)  A young c h i l d ' s a c t i o n s c e n t e r h i s a t t e n t i o n o n t h e o b j e c t s of h i s actions.  (2)  A c h i l d ' s own a c t i o n s a r e a m a j o r means by w h i c h  information  about t h e w o r l d upon w h i c h s u c h a c t i o n s a r e e x e r c i s e d i s assimilated. (3)  A c h i l d ' s actions a r e c e n t r a l t o h i s point o f view.  (4)  A c t i o n s o n o b j e c t s enhances a s s i m i l a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e ' o b j e c t s .  (5)  Organization o f information s i m p l i f i e s r e c a l l o f that .information.  (6)  Motor a c t i v i t y o r g a n i z e s i n f o r m a t i o n and hence enhances probability o f r e c a l l o f that information.  (7)  Motor a c t i v i t y i s a t y p e o f r e h e a r s a l o f c o n s t i t u e n t motor schemes.  (8)  R e h e a r s a l enhances remote m a t c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e .  (9)  R e c a l l i s a form o f matching performance.  The f o l l o w i n g i n f e r e n c e i s drawn f r o m t h e p o s t u l a t e s w h i c h a r e l i s t e d above.  Since actions a r e the content o f enactive  representations  and e n a c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o r m a b a s i s o f i c o n i c and s y m b o l i c representation, r e c a l l o f information which i s organized through a subject's a c t i o n s may be enhanced due t o s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n .  I t follows then, that i f  a f i v e year o l d encountered narrative material and through enactive  experi-  ence with i t , organized the material through h i s actions, h i s r e c a l l o f that narrative material might be expected t o be superior t o the r e c a l l o f those who merely l i s t e n to a verbal narration of the material.  Specifically,  i f a c h i l d was presented a b r i e f story, and induced to a c t out that story while l i s t e n i n g t o i t , h i s r e c a l l o f i t may be enhanced.  On the basis o f the  foregoing, the following hypotheses were formulated f o r t h i s study: Hypotheses (1)  A t post t e s t one (PT-1) the c h i l d r e n acting out a story with puppets while l i s t e n i n g t o the story (active experience (AE)) would demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e c a l l o f the narrative material than would those c h i l d r e n s i t t i n g and l i s t e n i n g to the story (passive experience (PE)).  (2)  A t PT-1, the c h i l d r e n i n the AE group would demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e c a l l o f e x p l i c i t information than would those c h i l d r e n i n the PE group.  (3)  A t PT-1, the c h i l d r e n i n the AE group would demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e c a l l o f the i m p l i c i t information than would those c h i l d r e n i n the PE group.  (4)  A t PT-2 (one week delayed) , the c h i l d r e n i n the AE group would demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e c a l l of the narrative material than would those c h i l d r e n i n the PE group.  (5)  A t PT-2, the c h i l d r e n i n the AE group would demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e c a l l of the e x p l i c i t information than would those c h i l d r e n i n the PE group.  (6)  A t PT-2, the c h i l d r e n i n the AE group would demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e c a l l o f the i m p l i c i t information than would those c h i l d r e n i n the PE group.  11 CHAPTER IV METHODS  Subjects A sample o f t h i r t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n ranging i n age from 4.75 t o 5.83 years were selected from three kindergartens i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  Ten c h i l d r e n were from a p r i v a t e kindergarten.  Sixteen  were from a u n i v e r s i t y kindergarten; and nine were from a u n i v e r s i t y operated C h i l d Study Centre kindergarten, a t the University o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The c h i l d r e n from the University kindergartens were mostly students drawn from a University housing area whose parents are f o r the most part graduate students o r f a c u l t y members a t the University.  Children from  the private kindergarten were reported t o be from middle t o upper middle class families. A l l c h i l d r e n had English as a f i r s t language except one, whose parents spoke Cree a t home but who used English quite f l u e n t l y . One c h i l d from •.the* private kindergarten and one from the u n i v e r s i t y kindergarten were dropped because o f absence a t PT-2.  In addition, one  c h i l d from the u n i v e r s i t y kindergarten was dropped because o f non-partic i p a t i o n i n the r e c a l l t e s t s .  This made a t o t a l of'32 c h i l d r e n f o r the  present study. Each c h i l d was randomly assigned t o one o f two groups with the r e s t r i c t i o n that c h i l d r e n from each school were approximately equal i n each group. Following PT-2, teachers rated (from 1-3) t h e i r students on a b i l i t y ,  12 performance, i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s , and o v e r a l l i n t e l l i g e n c e .  The t o t a l s  from each of those measures were then grouped f o r a s i n g l e score f o r each c h i l d .  The scores from each school were then averaged and compared,  which do not indicate differences  (Cypress House kindergarten as compared  to the University kindergarten, t (21) = 1.6, p»>.05; Cypress House as compared t o the C h i l d Study Centre, t (16) - 1.22, p>.05; and f o r the University as compared to the C h i l d Study Centre, t (21) = .188, p>.05). Data from these ratings on a b i l i t y can be seen i n Table 1.  TABLE 1 Teachers' Ratings o f A b i l i t y :  Data by Schools  Standard Deviation  School  Range  Mean  Cypress House  1.75-2.875  2.22  .471  University  1.812-3.0  2.44  .388  C h i l d Study Centre  2.0-2.875  2.47  .331  Total  1.75-3.0  2.38  .400  The ages of the c h i l d r e n i n each school also indicated no s i g n i f i c a n t between School differences  (Cypress House as compared t o University, t  (21) = .05, p>.05; Cypress House as compared to the C h i l d Study Centre, t  (16) = .02, p>.05; and f o r the C h i l d Study Centre as compared t o the  University kindergarten, t (21)-=-;05, p>.05).  Data from the ages, and  13 the sex of the children by schools can be seen i n Table I I .  TABLE I I Age and Sex:  Data by Schools  School  Range  Mean  Standard Deviation  Boys  Girls  Cypress House  4.92-5.75  5.47  .269  6  3  University  5.08-5.92  5.48  .538  .7  7  C h i l d Study Centre  4.83-5.83  5.47  .518  3  6  Total  4.83-5.92  5.48  .457  16  16  A l l c h i l d r e n were tested by a male experimenter.  Apparatus Two cotton sock puppets (a deer and a rabbit) were used.  The deer  was made from a man's dark brown cotton-polyester sock, i t had a round h a l f c i r c l e dark brown leather button f o r a nose, two round h a l f c i r c l e white p l a s t i c buttons f o r eyes, and antlers cut from l i g h t brown tag board.  The r a b b i t was s i m i l a r except the eyes were painted pink,  there were wiskers below the hose, there.was a white cotton b a l l f o r a t a i l , there were white ears instead o f a n t l e r s , and the sock was a l i g h t e r brown.  A l l items were sewn on except the rabbit's wiskers which  were stuck through the sock.  14 A painted s e t which included c o l o r f u l scenery mounted on cardboard, was used with the puppets.  The scenery was i n two parts.  One part  stood up and had clouds, h i l l s , grass, trees f o r a forest, and a house on i t .  The other part l a i d f l a t and was a scene o f a garden with rows  of com, l e t t u c e , carrots and peas. circle  In the l e f t corner was a brown  f o r a hole, and through the middle o f the garden was a road  which went from the bottom of the p i c t u r e t o the top and then t o the r i g h t side towards the house.  Both parts were placed together t o make  a f o l d i n g scene. A tape-recorded narration of f o r t y seconds duration was used, (see Appendix B). The narration was taken from the reading s e r i e s Rockets (Durr, LeePere & A l s i n , 1976, pg. 72). Two alternate s t o r i e s (see  Appendix C) were produced from t h i s source.  In the f i r s t revised  story the word 'perked' was replaced by the word 'stood'.  In the  second r e v i s i o n , the words 'perked, r a b b i t , hopped, and hole', were r e placed by the words 'stood, deer, jumped, and f o r e s t ' . A Lloyds automatic l e v e l control compact cassette tape recorder with an external mike was used both t o d e l i v e r the narrative material and t o record the r e c a l l responses.  The experimenter read d i r e c t i o n s and  questions which were i n s c r i p t from on a single page. The children were" tested i n a room i s o l a t e d from t h e i r c l a s s but located within t h e i r Kindergarten b u i l d i n g .  Positioned i n the room was  a f l a t table on which was placed the tape recorder, blank tapes, and question sheet. Procedure An o u t l i n e of the procedure can be seen i n Figure I.  15 FIGURE 1 OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE Introduction o f Children t o Ebqperimenter designation o f group PE groups-  s i t t i n g and listening to story  discussion o f tape recorder  ^.AE group-  ^ 30 second delay  PT-1 r e c a l l  4  40 seconds t o think o f story a f t e r f i r s t attempt a t r e c a l l complete PT-1  I  Return t o c l a s s  i I  7 day wait  Introduction and begin PT-2, Part One \t  40 seconds t o think o f story a f t e r f i r s t attempt a t r e c a l l  4  complete PT-2 Part One  4 '4 \t  Begin PT-2 Part Two immediately a f t e r Part One complete PT-2 Part Two return t o c l a s s  training i n use of puppets V Acting story out with puppet while listening to story  16  A l l c h i l d r e n were e i t h e r introduced t o the experimenter i n the classroom and then taken to the t e s t i n g room, o r were brought t o the t e s t i n g room by the teacher and introduced. As soon as the c h i l d was introduced, he was asked t o s i t down a t the table i n the t e s t i n g room. I f the experimenter brought the c h i l d i n t o the room, upon entering, the experimenter pointed t o a c h a i r and asked the c h i l d t o s i t down. The experimenter then s a i d , "(Child's name), t h i s i s a tape recorder. Have you ever used one before?"  The operation o f the tape recorder  was discussed. The c h i l d was then t o l d , "I have a story on the tape recorder that I would l i k e you t o l i s t e n to. it?"  Would you l i k e t o hear  A f t e r the c h i l d responded p o s i t i v e l y , the b r i e f story (as outlined  below) was presented.  1.  Passive Experience Group A f t e r discussion of the tape recorder, each c h i l d i n the PE group  was t o l d , "Listen very c a r e f u l l y t o the story."  As soon as the tape  recorder was turned on the experimenter again said, "Listen very c a r e f u l l y to the story."  When the story was f i n i s h e d , the experimenter, without  saying anything, rewound the story tape; took the cassette out o f the tape recorder; and put i n a blank tape.  This procedure took 30 seconds.  PT-1  then began.  2.  Active Experience Group a.  Training Session  For the AE group, a f t e r the tape recorder had been discussed the  17 experimenter said, "But f i r s t I would l i k e you t o look a t something." This began the t r a i n i n g session f o r 7AE c h i l d r e n i n the use o f a puppet enacting a story.  For the t r a i n i n g session, i f the c h i l d was t o l i s t e n  to a story about a rabbit during the experience condition, the c h i l d was given t r a i n i n g with a deer puppet.  I f the experience condition was  to be with a deer story, t r a i n i n g was with a r a b b i t puppet. When the t r a i n i n g began, the experimenter took out a puppet from a paper sack and put i t on h i s hand.  He then said, "This i s a puppet,  what kind o f animal do you think i t i s ? "  The c h i l d responded with "mouse"  or "rabbit" f o r the r a b b i t puppet; "moose" o r "deer" f o r the deer puppet. The i d e n t i t y f o r the puppet was established a t t h i s time.  With the  puppet on the experimenter's hand, the experimenter demonstrated how t o make the puppet work by making i t breathe, make a face, jump up and down, and run across the table.  While the experimenter was doing t h i s he said,  "These are some things you can make the puppet do: face; jump; o r run across the table."  breathe; make a funny  As soon as the experimenter f i n i s h e d  the demonstration, he said, "Would you l i k e t o t r y i t ? "  The experimenter  then took the puppet o f f h i s hand and helped the c h i l d put i t on the c h i l d ' s hand.  The experimenter then said, "Can you make i t breathe?"  The experimenter waited u n t i l the c h i l d t r i e d t o make the puppet breathe, and said, "That i s very good. do?"  What are some other things you can make i t  As the c h i l d made the puppet move around o r do something, the experi-  menter reacted t o each movement with, "That i s very good. make the puppet do a l o t o f things." by the experimenter.  You can r e a l l y  Only two c h i l d r e n needed prompting  For these c h i l d r e n the experimenter took the c h i l d ' s  hand holding the puppet, and moved the hand around the table, making the puppet jump and run.  While doing t h i s the experimenter s a i d , "This i s  18 how you can make the puppet jump, and t h i s i s how you can make the puppet run across the table."  The experimenter continued with, "I  would l i k e t o see how w e l l you can make the puppet act out a sentence while you l i s t e n t o i t .  Would you l i k e t o t r y ? "  Some o f the c h i l d r e n  asked what a sentence was, t o which the experimenter responded, "I am going t o say some things, and while I say these things can you make the try, the  puppet do them?"  As soon as the c h i l d r e p l i e d that he or she would  the experimenter began the sentence.  Two sentences were used i n  p r e - t r a i n i n g condition (see Appendix D).  used t o observe the c h i l d ' s responses.  The f i r s t sentence was  I f assistance was required the  experimenter would take the c h i l d ' s hand and go through the motions o f the  sentence as i t was being t o l d .  The f i r s t sentence was repeated  three times, and i n three cases three children needed i t repeated more . than three times.  Two children needed the sentence repeated four times;  and one c h i l d needed the sentence repeated f i v e times.  A l l other  c h i l d r e n were able t o make the puppet act out the f i r s t try.  When the  c h i l d experienced d i f f i c u l t y on the f i r s t t r y the experimenter would say, "Pretend the table i s the woods and over here (pointing) i s the home."  A f t e r the f i r s t statement was given the t h i r d time, and the c h i l d  was able t o act i t out with some movement, the experimenter continued with, "Let's t r y a d i f f e r e n t sentence, but t h i s time I won't help you. Do you think you can do i t ? "  As soon as the c h i l d responded p o s i t i v e l y ,  he was t o l d , "Listen very c a r e f u l l y and t r y to make the puppet do what the  sentence says."  The experimenter gave the passage.  I f the c h i l d  enacted the events represented i n the passage the t r a i n i n g was concluded; i f the c h i l d had d i f f i c u l t y , as i n one case, i t was repeated.  The second  statement was repeated twice f o r f i v e c h i l d r e n t o insure t h e i r p r o f i c i e n c y ,  and four times f o r one c h i l d .  b.  L i s t e n i n g t o Story:  A f t e r the t r a i n i n g , the story was given.  The experimenter took  the t r a i n i n g puppet from the c h i l d and put i t back i n t o a paper sack on the f l o o r .  He then placed a scenery on the table, brought out the  appropriate puppet f o r the story, and s a i d , "Here i s another puppet, would you l i k e t o put t h i s one on?"  When the c h i l d agreed, the experi-  menter helped him put the puppet on h i s hand and stated, "I am going to play a story that i s on the tape recorder.  I want you t o make the  puppet act out the story while you are l i s t e n i n g t o the story. think you can do that?"  Do you  As soon as the c h i l d gave a p o s i t i v e response,  the experimenter, turning on the tape recorder, stated, "Listen very c a r e f u l l y t o the story, and make the puppet do what the story says." As soon as the story was f i n i s h e d , the scenery was removed from sight, the puppet was taken from the c h i l d ' s hand and placed i n t o a paper bag, the story tape was removed from the tape recorder and a blank tape put i n place.  This procedure took 30 seconds.  PT-1 then began.  Post Test-1. When the AE and PE groups were f i n i s h e d l i s t e n i n g t o the story, and a f t e r a 30 second pause (described e a r l i e r ) , PT-1 began.  While turning  the tape recorder on t o record the experimenter stated, "I have some cjuestions I would l i k e t o ask you about the story you j u s t heard." " F i r s t , can you t e l l the story back t o me j u s t as you heard i t ? " I f the c h i l d was s i l e n t but appeared t o be thinking about the story, the experi-  menter remained s i l e n t u n t i l the c h i l d e i t h e r produced h i s account o f the  story o r s a i d he could not remember.  When he remained s i l e n t f o r  more than twenty seconds the experimenter said, " T e l l me everything or anything you remember about the story."  When the c h i l d was  finished,  e i t h e r by s t a t i n g he could not remember o r through a period o f s i l e n c e (twenty seconds), the experimenter s a i d , "I am going t o give you a itvinute to think about the story, and i f there i s anything you would l i k e to t e l l me, o r anything you may want t o add t o what you have already t o l d me, you can do i t then.  Think about the story f o r a niinute."  The  experimenter turned o f f the tape recorder at the mike switch and waited f o r t y seconds.  When the time had lapsed the experimenter turned the  recorder on and said, "Is there anything you want to t e l l me about the story or anything you want to add t o what you have already t o l d  me?"  When the c h i l d stated that he had t o l d a l l he remembered, that he was f i n i s h e d , or there was a long period o f silence (20 seconds), the experimenter said, "Is that everything you remember?" the  experimenter turned the tape recorder o f f .  A f t e r the c h i l d responded, For a l l responses, the  experimenter responded with 'O.K.' or " a l l r i g h t , " i f the c h i l d asked i f that was r i g h t or waited f o r a reply from the experimenter. As soon as the tape recorder was turned o f f the experimenter s a i d , "Thank'you f o r l i s t e n i n g to the story. you would.  I would l i k e you t o help me, i f  Do you know how you can help me?  c l a s s what we d i d i n here today.  Don't t e l l anyone i n your  I f they ask, you can say that you  l i s t e n e d to a story on the tape recorder, but you are not supposed t o t e l l them the story.  Maybe we can make t h i s our secret.  O.K.?" When  the  c h i l d f i n i s h e d answering, the_experimenter t o l d the c h i l d t o return t o  the  classroom.  This concluded PT-1.  21 Post Test-2 One week a f t e r each c h i l d had heard the story, he was again tested on h i s r e c a l l o f the story.  This comprised PT-2 and i t was composed  of two parts.  a.  Part One  Part One was a free r e c a l l t e s t .  The experimenter took the c h i l d  i n t o the same room he had heard the story and asked him t o s i t down. The c h i l d was then t o l d , "Last week you heard a story on t h i s tape recorder (pointing t o the tape recorder). j u s t as you heard i t . "  I would l i k e you t o t e l l me that story  I f the c h i l d stated.-he could not o r that he had  forgotten the story, the experimenter s a i d , " T e l l me everything o r anything you remember about the story."  The c h i l d then responded, stated  he could not remember anything, o r remained s i l e n t .  A f t e r twenty seconds  of s i l e n c e the experimenter stated, "I am going t o give you a minute t o think about the story, and i f there i s anything you would l i k e t o t e l l me, or anything you may want t o add t o what you have already t o l d me, you can do i t then."  A l l children able t o respond t o the f i r s t question were  asked, "Is there anything you might have forgotten t o t e l l me, or anything you would l i k e t o add?"  When a c h i l d was s i l e n t f o r 20 seconds a f t e r  responding, or stated he could not remember any more, he was given one minute t o think about the story.  Following a 40 second i n t e r v a l , the  experimenter said, "Is there anything you want t o t e l l me about the story o r anything you want t o add t o what you have already t o l d me?" A f t e r the c h i l d responded and stated he could not remember any more, o r said 'no', the f i r s t part o f PT-2 was completed.  22 b.  Part Two  The second part o f PT-2 was given immediately a f t e r the c h i l d ' s l a s t response t o the free r e c a l l t e s t .  The experimenter s a i d , "I am  going t o ask you some questions about the story.  The experimenter  then began to read a set o f questions f o r the c h i l d t o answer (see Appendix E ) . Since some o f the questions overlapped, i f a c h i l d was able t o answer a question that also answered the next question, the second question was not asked.  When a l l questions had been asked, the  experimenter thanked the c h i l d f o r coming i n again, and asked him not to t e l l h i s c l a s s or friends about the t e s t (as was done a t the end of  PT-1). At  the end o f PT-2, each c h i l d was asked i f he had kept h i s secret  (of not t e l l i n g h i s classmates what he had done during the f i r s t story and post t e s t ) .  Each c h i l d stated he had not t o l d any o f h i s classmates  what he had done.  Further, prearrangements were made t o support t h i s ,  i n that a f t e r the t e s t i n g o f each c h i l d (PT-1 and PT-2), the c h i l d ' s teacher was allowed t o remind him, i n the classroom, not t o discuss the story he had heard.  Analysis The story was categorized i n t o Rumelhart's  (Stein & Glenn, 1975)  schema f o r analysis o f the b r i e f story (Appendix F ) .  As can be seen,  t h i s b r i e f story was broken down i n t o 14 categories.  Since, e i t h e r one  does or does not r e c a l l a given instance o f information, the data was treated as nominal data and r e c a l l pf-same was scored as one point while f a i l u r e t o r e c a l l was i n d i c a t d by zero.  23 I f a c h i l d transposed a category but gave the the general meaning, the  category was counted as correct.  For example, t h i s was the case  when the c h i l d said, "He went i n a garden" f o r the statement, 'A l i t t l e brown rabbit (deer) hopped (jumped) i n t o a farmer's garden.' the  Similarly,  s u b s t i t u t i o n of "He looked f o r some food" f o r the statement, ' I t  looked a l l around f o r something to eat.' was accepted.  Each c h i l d  received two scores f o r t h i s procedure, one a t PT-1 and one a t PT-2. This comprised the counting f o r t o t a l narrative content of the b r i e f story. E x p l i c i t information scores were t a l l i e d using a predetermined l i s t of the e x p l i c i t items i n the passage  (see Appendix G).  Implicit  information scores were obtained i n the same manner as the e x p l i c i t scores from a l i s t of predetermined i m p l i c i t items (see Appendix H). Because the .hypotheses to be tested were concerned only with r e s u l t s at the end of each post t e s t , a oneway analysis of variance was used f o r each measure (categories, e x p l i c i t information, and i m p l i c i t information); the  post t e s t measures being the dependent variables and the experimental  conditions the independent v a r i a b l e s .  CHAPTER V RESULTS "  The present study was designed to discover whether differences i n r e c a l l performance would be produced by varying the manner i n which c h i l d r e n interacted with narrative material.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the study  attempted to t e s t the hypotheses that mean r e c a l l performance of c h i l d r e n who enacted the narrative (AE) as i t was heard by them would be superior to mean r e c a l l performance of c h i l d r e n who merely l i s t e n e d (PE) to the same narrative.  In order to t e s t these hypotheses, two  comparisons of three performances were made between two groups.  That i s ,  performances of two groups a t 30 seconds and one week a f t e r encounters with the material were compared.  To reduce the p r o b a b i l i t y that any  d i f f e r e n c e on performances were a t t r i b u t a b l e to spurious f a c t o r s , a oneway analysis o f variance was used to compare between group differences of age and teachers' ratings of the children's a b i l i t y . The oneway analysis of variance between groups on the three performance measures (narrative content, e x p l i c i t information, and i m p l i c i t information), and on both post t e s t s , indicated that the AE group r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more narrative material, e x p l i c i t information and i m p l i c i t information than the PE group.  Furthermore, between'group comparisons  of age and of teachers' ratings of a b i l i t y revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences.  Analysis of the two group performances on each post t e s t ,  comparisons of children's age,and teachers' ratings of a b i l i t y between groups, follows.  25 /Analysis o f D a t a , P a r t One: One, Two,  Evaluation o f Hypothesis  and  Three  The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n who e n a c t e d a b r i e f s t o r y w o u l d demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e c a l l o f n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l t h a n w o u l d t h o s e c h i l d r e n s i t t i n g and l i s t e n i n g  to i t at  PT-1.  enumerating  The r e c a l l o f n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l was measured b y  t h e number o f i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t s — c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o Fajmelhart's (as c i t e d i n S t e i n & G l e n n , 1975) on r e c a l l  schema f o r s t o r i e s — w h i c h were p r e s e n t  performances.  . F o r t h e performance on t h e c a t e g o r y measure ( a t P T - 1 ) , t h e means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I I I .  TABLE I I I Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s on C a t e g o r y Measure by C h i l d r e n i n AE and PE Groups a t PT-1  Group  Mean  SD  AE  5.125  1.995  PE  2.75  1.653  Total  3.938  2.169  i—-  26' As can be seen from Table I I I , the AE group had a higher rate of r e c a l l than the PE group on the category measure at PT-1.  The  analysis  of variance indicated t h i s to be a s i g n i f i c a n t difference (F (1,30) = 13.437, p = .0009). was  a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the means f o r the category measure  at PT-1 was  Pooled variance estimate also indicated there  (t (30) = 3.666, p = .001).  Furthermore, homogenity of  checked using B a r t l e t t ' s procedure.  This post-hoc t e s t indicated  no differences of variance between the groups (Bartlett-box F = p = .475)  at PT-1.  variance  .512,  (Post-hoc t e s t s were used to s a t i s f y any argument  that variance differences could be the contributing factor to s i g n i f i c a n t differences of analysis of variance between the means f o r a l l t e s t s on measures i n t h i s study). Hypothesis Two predicted that c h i l d r e n who  enacted a b r i e f story  would demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e c a l l o f e x p l i c i t information i n the story than would those c h i l d r e n s i t t i n g and l i s t e n i n g to i t at  PT-1.  The mean number of responses and standard deviations f o r each group, at PT-1,  on the e x p l i c i t information measure can be seen i n Table TV.  TABLE IV Means and Standard Deviations on E x p l i c i t Information Measure by Children i n AE and PE Groups a t  PT-1  Mean  SD  AE  9.75  3.624  PE  4.875  3.052  Total  7.313  Group  4.123  27 Table TV shows that the AE group had more r e c a l l o f e x p l i c i t i n formation than the PE group.  Analysis o f variance o f the means indicated  that t h i s was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference (F (1,30) = 16.938, p = .0003) at PT-1. Pooled variance estimate also indicated s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the means (t (30) - 4.116, p = .000). was also s i g n i f i c a n t  Hcmyjenity o f variance  (Bartlett-box F = .426, p = .514) f o r no differences  of variance between the groups on t h i s measure a t PT-1. The t h i r d hypothesis predicted that a t PT-1, c h i l d r e n who enacted a b r i e f story would demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e c a l l o f i m p l i c i t information i n the story than would those c h i l d r e n s i t t i n g and l i s t e n i n g to i t . I m p l i c i t information r e c a l l e d a t PT-1 i s summarized i n Table V.  As  can be seen, the AE group had more r e c a l l o f i m p l i c i t information than the PE group.  TABLE V Means and Standard Deviations on I m p l i c i t Information Measure by Children i n AE and PE Groups a t PT-1  Group  Mean  SD  AE  1.125  .957  PE  .500  .516  Total  .813  .821  28 This d i f f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t a t PT-1 (F (1,30) = 5.282, p = .029).  The pooled variance estimate i n d i c a t e d that the differences  between both means are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (t (30) = 2.298, p_ = .029).  Homogenity o f variance  (Bartlett-box F = 5.222, p = .022) was  not s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t i n g differences o f variances between the groups.  Analysis o f Data, Part Two:  Evaluation o f Hypothesis  Four, Five, and S i x  The r e s u l t s o f the oneway analysis o f variance a t PT-2 were s i m i l a r t o those r e s u l t s a t PT-1. The fourth hypothesis predicted that a t PT-2, c h i l d r e n who enacted a b r i e f story would demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e c a l l o f n a r r a t i v e material than would those c h i l d r e n s i t t i n g and l i s t e n i n g t o i t (one week l a t e r ) . The mean number o f responses and standard deviations f o r each group on the category measure a t PT-2 i s summarized i n Table VT. TABLE VT Means and Standard Deviations on Category Measure by Children i n AE and PE Groups a t PT-2  Group  Mean  SD  AE  3.563  2.128  PE  1.375  1.455  Total  2.469  2.11  29 As can be seen from Table VI,  the AE group had a higher rate of  r e c a l l on the category measure than the PE group. these r e c a l l rates were s i g n i f i c a n t at PT-2 .002).  The differences of  (F (1,30) = 11.520, p =  Pooled variance estimate also indicated s i g n i f i c a n t differences  between the means (t (30) = 3.394, p =  .002).  Homogenity o f variance on the category measure between the groups was  also s i g n i f i c a n t , i n d i c a t i n g that the variances were the same.  (Bartlett-box F = 2.052, p = .152)  at  PT-2.  Hypothesis number f i v e predicted that at PT-2,  c h i l d r e n who  enacted  a b r i e f story would demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e c a l l of e x p l i c i t information than would those c h i l d r e n who merely l i s t e n e d to i t . There was more r e c a l l of e x p l i c i t information by the AE group than the PE group on the e x p l i c i t information measure (see Table V I I ) . was  This  a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the group means (F (1,30) = 11.95,  p =^0017).  TABLE VII Means and Standard Deviations on E x p l i c i t Information Measure by Children i n AE and PE Groups at  Group  Mean  PT-2  SD  AE  6.5  PE  2.375  2.63  Total  4.438  3.926  .3.983  30 The pooled variance estimate was also s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t i n g no d i f f e r e n c e between the means (t (30) = 3.457, p = .002) on the e x p l i c i t i  measure.  Homogenity of variance a l s o indicated there was no d i f f e r e n c e  i n variance between the groups on the e x p l i c i t measure a t PT-2  (Bartlett-  box F = 2.434, p = .119). The l a s t hypothesis, number 6, predicted that c h i l d r e n who  enacted  a b r i e f story would demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e c a l l of i m p l i c i t r  information than would those c h i l d r e n who merely l i s t e n e d to i t (at PT-2). I m p l i c i t information r e c a l l e d a t PT-2^is o u t l i n e d i n Table VTII. TABLE VTII Means and Standard Deviations of I m p l i c i t Information Measure by Children i n AE and PE Groups a t  PT-2  Mean  SD  AE  .563  .629  PE  .125  .342  .344  .545  Group  Total  As can be seen i n Table VIII, the AE group had a superior performance i n r e c a l l i n g i m p l i c i t information as opposed to the PE group. analysis of variance indicated that t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was PT-2  (F (1,30) = 5.976, p = .021).  The oneway  significant at  The pooled variance estimate  was  also s i g n i f i c a n t a t PT-2 (t (30) = 2.445, p = 0.21).  Homogenity of  variance indicated that there was a d i f f e r e n c e i n group variance a t PT-2  (Bartlett-box F = 5.118, p = .024).  Analysis of the Data, Part Three: PT-2,  Part  Evaluation of Answers, Two  The oneway analysis of variance on the responses to the (see Appendix E) asked at the end of PT-2  (this was PT-2,  questions  part  two),  indicated that the AE group r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more information about the story than d i d the PE group.  This can be seen i n Table  IX.  TABLE IX Means and Standard Deviations of Answers by Children i n AE and PE Groups a t PT-2,  Group  AE  PE Total  Mean  SD  15.813  4.215  11.375  5.867  13.594  5.506  Part  Two  F (df) =  P =  6.042 (1,30)  .020  Further, pooled variance estimate resulted i n no d i f f e r e n c e between the means t (30) = 2.248, p = .020.  Homogenity of variance a l s o i n d i -  32 c a t e d t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e o f v a r i a n c e between groups on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s answers a t PT-2, P a r t Two  ( B a r t l e t t - b o x F - 1.556, p - .212) .  A n a l y s i s o f the Data, P a r t Four:  Between Group Comparisons  o f Age and T e a c h e r s ' R a t i n g s o f A b i l i t y  Each c h i l d was r a t e d by h i s t e a c h e r on a t h r e e p o i n t s c a l e w i t h r e g a r d t o each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g :  A b i l i t y , performance, i n t e l l e c t u a l  s k i l l s , and o v e r a l l i n t e l l i g e n c e .  The r a t i n g s f o r each c h i l d on e a c h  o f t h e f o r e g o i n g were combined t o f o r m a c o m p o s i t e a b i l i t y  rating.  These c o m p o s i t e s c o r e s f o r each group were t h e n compared.  Analysis  o f t h e r a t i n g s by t e a c h e r s (as shown i n T a b l e X) y i e l d e d no s i g n i f i c a n t between g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s  (F (1,30) = .483, p = .492) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t  no d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between groups on t h e combined measure o f r a t i n g s by t h e  teachers.  TABLE X R a t i n g s o f A b i l i t y : D a t a by Group  Group  Mean  SD  AE  2.386  .394  PE  2.398  .365  Total  "2739  .374  Likewise, a oneway analysis o f variance between groups on comparisons o f children's age also indicated no s i g n i f i c a n t between group differences (F (1,30) = .007, p = .932); can be seen i n Table XI.  TABLE XI Age and Sex o f Children: Data by Group  Group  Mean Age  SD (Age)  Boys  Girls  AE  5.51  .235  9  7  PE  5.45  .335  7  9  Total  5.48  .286  16  16  These data, together, suggest then, that group differences with regard t o age and a b i l i t y , as quantified, are not spurious sources o f between group differences on the dependent measures.  34 CHAPTER VT DISCUSSION  The present study exarnined the e f f e c t s o f two types o f encounters w i t h n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l on young c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l performances.  The  e f f e c t s were examined by comparing the amount o f f r e e r e c a l l at two times a f t e r the encounters and by the responses t o questions answered a t the end o f the second time p e r i o d (PT-2, p a r t two). Data from a l l measures a t both post t e s t s i n d i c a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n who enacted a b r i e f s t o r y w i t h puppets (AE group) r e c a l l e d more n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l , e x p l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n , and i m p l i c i t information from the b r i e f s t o r y than d i d those c h i l d r e n who merely l i s t e n e d t o i t  (PE group).  Furthermore, the r e s u l t s of a check f o r any spurious sources o f p e r formance d i f f e r e n c e s enhanced confidence i n the conclusion t h a t the performance d i f f e r e n c e s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n experimental treatment s i n c e no s i g n i f i c a n t between group d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n teacher r a t i n g s o f a b i l i t y or age.  A c c o r d i n g l y , s i n c e i t was concluded  t h a t the groups were from the same age and a b i l i t y p o p u l a t i o n , and a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n performances were as p r e d i c t e d , a l l hypotheses were accepted.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and Implications The r e s u l t s o f the present study suggest motoric o r g a n i z a t i o n of n a r r a t i v e content enhances r e c a l l (of t h a t n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l ) . However, one may ask whether the r e s u l t s are equivocal due t o the f a c t t h a t on one measure (the i m p l i c i t measure) there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between group variances a t both post t e s t s .  C l o s e r exami-  n a t i o n o f the variance d a t a , however, allows one t o put t h i s doubt  aside.  F o r a s m a l l number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e PE group (9 i n PT-1  2 i n PT-2)  r e c a l l e d the i m p l i c i t information.  i n t h e PE group d i d n o t r e c a l l any i n many s c o r e s as z e r o (7 i n PT-1  The  r e s t of the  and  children  i m p l i c i t information which r e s u l t e d and  14 i n P T - 2 ) .  By c o n t r a s t ,  the  c h i l d r e n i n t h e AE group more c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c a l l e d i n f o r m a t i o n  on  measure (11 i n PT-1  had  and  8 i n PT-2).  fewer s c o r e s as z e r o (5 i n PT-1  and  Accordingly, 8 i n PT-2).  t h e AE group Further,  c h i l d r e n ' s ages and r a t i n g s o f a b i l i t y d i d n o t d i f f e r between g r o u p s , a d i f f e r e n c e o f a younger age  since  this  the  significantly  and/or a l o w e r a b i l i t y  r a t i n g c o u l d n o t be r e g a r d e d a c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e low s c o r e s (amount • o f z e r o s as s c o r e s ) on t h i s measure. s c o r e s (zeros) Such was  T h e r e f o r e , t h e amount o f  a p p e a r s t o be t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e v a r i a n c e  low  differences.  the reason f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of r e s e t t i n g the confidence i n t e r v a l s  ( i . e . r e s e t t i n g t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t o .02 o r .001)  and/or t r a n s p o s i n g  s c o r e s t o d e c r e a s e t h e amount o f v a r i a n c e between g r o u p s , d i d  the  not  appear t o be w a r r a n t e d . A second q u e s t i o n about t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d a l s o discussed.  T h i s q u e s t i o n concerns the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t  e f f e c t s may  confound t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e  ization) i n this.  Since the c h i l d r e n of the enactive  necessarily rehearsing  be  rehearsal (motor o r g a n -  group were  t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e s t o r y as t h e y a c t e d i t o u t ,  and c h i l d r e n i n t h e a l t e r n a t i v e c o n d i t i o n d i d n o t have t o r e h e a r s e t h e m a t e r i a l , one must c o n s i d e r  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t performance d i f f e r e n c e s  on t h e p o s t t e s t measures a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o p o s s i b l e advantages g a i n e d by t h e AE c h i l d r e n f r o m r e h e a r s a l Unfortunately,  (Bandura & J e f f e r y , 1973).  t h e d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y does n o t e n a b l e one  p a r t i a l o u t such e f f e c t s as m i g h t be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o r e h e a r s a l .  to Future  research i n t h i s area could use a design which enables one t o avoid confounding e f f e c t s of rehearsal with those that may be associated with enactive organization of the material to be r e c a l l e d .  Such a  design may e n t a i l the use of a group that i s induced to rehearse the material without enacting i t subsequent to hearing i t .  Furthermore,  control f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of a Hawthorne e f f e c t (regarding the use of puppets), may also be achieved through a design which includes a group which watches the puppets enacting the story as i s being read. The performance of the above groups could then be compared to such groups as were i n t h i s study.  Such designs should be contrived and  used i n a study which would c l a r i f y the t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the present findings. While a more complete t h e o r e t i c a l explanation f o r the present r e s u l t s w i l l depend upon future research which c l a r i f i e s the extent to which a rehearsal e f f e c t i s implicated i n r e c a l l gains exhibited by c h i l d r e n who a c t out s t o r i e s , teachers may take note that t h i s study has shown that c h i l d r e n who do organize information through t h e i r actions appear t o r e c a l l more of such information than do those merely l i s t e n to i t .  who  Accordingly, where pedagogical techniques require  the r e c a l l of "information, superior gains may be obtained i f the teacher uses an enactive experience approach with young c h i l d r e n rather than merely t e l l i n g the c h i l d and/or reading the information; and these gains may also be made with no l o s s i n i n s t r u c t i o n time.  37 BIBLIOGRAPHY TAnastasiow N. Oral language: expression o f thought. Newark, Del.: International Reading Association, 1971. 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F i r s t d i s c u s s a n t ' s comments: What i s memory development t h e development o f ? Human Development, 1971, 14, 272-278. Goodson, B.D., & G r e e n f i e l d , P.M. The s e a r c h f o r s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s i n children's manipulative play: A p a r a l l e l with l i n g u i s t i c development. C h i l d Development, 1975, 46^, 734-746. H o v i n g , K.L., K o n i c k , D.S., & W a l l a c e , J . Memory s t o r a g e and r e t r i e v a l w i t h i n and a c r o s s m o d a l i t i e s i n c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y , 1975, 19 ( 3 ) , 440-447. I n h e l d e r , B., S i n c l a i r , H., & B o v e t , M. L e a r n i n g and t h e development o f c o g n i t i o n . Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974. J a b l o n s k i , E.M. F r e e r e c a l l i n c h i l d r e n . 1974, 81 ( 9 ) , 522-539.  Psychological Bulletin,  J o n e s , B. F a c i l i t a t i o n o f v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n t h r o u g h v o l u n t a r y movement i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l Of E x p e r i m e n t a l C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y , 1972, 14 ( 3 ) , 408-415. K a i l , R.V. J r . C h i l d r e n ' s e n c o d i n g o f taxonomic c l a s s e s and s u b c l a s s e s . D e v e l o p m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1976, 12 ( 5 ) , 487-488.  K a m i i , C. One i n t e l l i g e n c e i n d i v i d u a l . 228-238.  Young C h i l d r e n , 1975, 30_ ( 4 ) ,  K r e u t z e r , M.A., L e o n a r d , C., & F l a v e l l , J.H. An i n t e r v i e w s t u d y o f c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge a b o u t memory. S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d Development Monographs, 1975, 40_ ( 1 ) , 1-58. Lange, G., & J a c k s o n , P. P e r s o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c h i l d r e n ' s f r e e r e c a l l . C h i l d development,-1974, 45 ( 1 ) , 1060-1067.  Lehamn, E.B. Selective strategies i n children's attention t o taskrelevant information. C h i l d Development, 1972, 43 (1), 197-209. Levin, J.R. Inducing comprehension i n poor readers: A t e s t o f a recent model. Journal o f Educational Psychology, 1973, 65 19-24. Levin, J.R., & Divine-Hawkins, P. V i s u a l imagery as a prose learning process. Journal o f Reading Behavior, 1974, £, 23-30. Levin, J.R., Divine-Hawkins, P., & Kerst, S.M. Strategies i n reading comprehension: I I . Individual differences i n learning from pictures and words. Madison, Wisconsin: University o f Wisconsin, 1973. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 082 143) Levin, J.R. Ghatala, E.S., DeRose, T.M., Wilder, L., & Norton, R.W. A further comparison o f imagery and v o c a l i z a t i o n strategies i n children's discrirturiation learning. Journal o f Educational Psychology, 1975, 67 (1), 141-145. Levin, J.R., Lesgold, A.M., Shimron, J . , & Guttman, J . Strategies i n reading comprehension 4: Pictures and young children's learning from o r a l prose. Technical report No. 328. Madison, Wisconsin: University o f Wisconsin, 1975. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 112 584)  Levin, J.R., McCabe, A.E., & Bender, B.G. A note on imagery-inducing motor a c t i v i t y i n young c h i l d r e n . C h i l d Development, 1975, 46, 236-266.  Locke, J.L. Children's language coding i n short term memory. Language and Speech, 1973, 16_ (3) , 271-278. M i l l a r , S. E f f e c t s o f interpolated tasks on latency and accuracy of intramodal and cross-modal recognition by c h i l d r e n . Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 96 (1), 170-175.  Olson, D.R. children.  Oral and written language and the cognitive processes o f Journal o f Communication, 1977, 27 (3), 10-26.  P a r i s , S.G., & Lindauer, B.K. The r o l e o f inference i n children's comprehension and memory f o r sentences. Cognitive Psychology, 1976, 8 (2), 217-227. r  41 P a r i s , S.G., & Upton, L.R. Children's memory f o r i n f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n prose. C h i l d Development, 1976, £7 (3), 660-668. Penman, K.A., Christopher, J.P., & Wood, G.S. Using gross motor a c t i v i t y t o improve language a r t s concepts by t h i r d grade students. Research Quarterly, 1977, 48 (1), 134-137. Piaget, J . Play, dreams, and i m i t a t i o n i n childhood. Norton, 1962. Piaget, J . Six psychological studies.  New York:  Piaget, J . The c h i l d ' s conception o f time. & K. Paul, 1969.  Random House, 1967.  London:  Piaget, J . The language and thought o f the c h i l d . American L i b r a r y , 1974. Piaget, J . The grasp o f consciousness. Press, 1976.  New York:  Routledge  New York:  Cambridge:  New  Harvard U n i v e r s i t y  Piaget, J . , & Inhelder, B. Basic Books, 1969.  The psychology o f the c h i l d .  New York,  Piaget, J . , & Inhelder, B. Basic Books, 1971.  Mental imagery i n the c h i l d .  New York:  Piaget, J . , & Inhelder, B. Basic Books, 1973.  Memory and i n t e l l i g e n c e .  New York:  Reese, H.W. Imagery i n paired-associate learning i n c h i l d r e n . of Experimental C h i l d Psychology, 1965, 2, 290-296. Rohwer, W.D. J r . Imagery and contextual meaning. B u l l e t i n , 1970, 73, 404-414.  Journal  Psychological  Rosenberg, S., J a r v e l l a , & Cross P. Semantic i n t e g r a t i o n , age and the r e c a l l o f sentences. C h i l d Development, 1971, 42 (6), 19591966.  42 Rosner, S.R. The e f f e c t s of rehearsal and chunking i n s t r u c t i o n s on children's m u l t i t r i a l free r e c a l l . Journal of Experimental C h i l d Psychology, 1971, 11, 93-105. Rubin, L., & Pollack, C. Auditory perception i n kindergarten c h i l d r e n . Journal of Special Education, 1969, .3 (2), 155-161. S a l t z , E., Dunin-Markiewioz, A., & Rourke, D. The development of natural concepts: I I . Developmental changes i n a t t r i b u t e structures. C h i l d Development, 1975, 46 (4), 913-921. S i l v e r n , S.B., & Yawkey, T.D. Young children's encoding of images based on motor and verbal modes of mediation. Psychology i n the Schools, 1977, 14 (1), 112-115. Slobin, D. Cognitive prerequisites f o r the development of grammar. In C. Ferguson and D.I. Slobin (Eds.), Studies of c h i l d language development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1973. Stacey, J.T., & Ross, B.M. Scheme and schema i n children's memory of t h e i r own drawings. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1975, 67, 37-41. Stein, N., & Glenn, C. A developmental study of children's r e c a l l of story material. Paper presented at the Society f o r Research i n C h i l d Development, Denver, Colorado. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1975. Swalm, J.E. Is l i s t e n i n g r e a l l y more e f f e c t i v e f o r learning i n the e a r l y grades? Elementary English, 1974, 51 (8), 1110-1113. Tenney, Y.H. The c h i l d ' s conception of organization and r e c a l l . df Experimental C h i l d Psychology, 1975, 19, '100-114.  Journal  Therrien, S. Children's play: Translating research i n t o p r a c t i c e . Early Childhood Education, 1977, 10 (2), 10-19. Trabasso, T., & R i l e y , C.A. An information processing analysis of t r a n s i t i v e inferences. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University, 1973. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 091 043) Tulving, E. When i s r e c a l l higher than recognition? Science, 1968, 10, 53-54.  PsychOhomic  43 Underwood, B.J., & Freund, J.S. Two t e s t s of a theory o f v e r b a l discrimination learning. Canada Journal o f Psychology, 1968, 22, 96-104. VanDam, G., Peeck, J . , Brinkerink, M., & Gorter, U. The i s o l a t i o n e f f e c t i n free r e c a l l and recognition. /American Journal o f Psychology, 1974, 87 (3), 497-504. Webster, B.R., & Cox, S.M. The value of color i n educational t e l e v i s i o n . B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Technology, 1974, 5_ (11), 44-61. Wilder, L. Spoken rehearsal and verbal discrimination learning. Speech Monograph, 1971, 38, 113-120. Wilder, L., & Levin, J . A developmental study o f pronouncing response i n the discrimination learning of words and p i c t u r e s . Journal of C h i l d Psychology, 1973, 15, 278-286. Williams, J.P., Williams, D.V., & Blumberg, E.L. V i s u a l and aural learning i n urban children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1973, 64 (3), 353-359. Yussen, S.R., Gange, E., Garriulo, R., & Kunen, S. The d i s t i n c t i o n between perceiving and memorizing i n elementary school c h i l d r e n . Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin, 1974. (ERIC Docaiement Reproduction Service No. ED 098 538)  7APPENDIX  A  DEFINITION OF TERMS In  t h i s s t u d y , t h e f o l l o w i n g terms were used.  A c t i v e Experience:  A c h i l d l i s t e n s t o a b r i e f s t o r y and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y makes a hand puppet a c t o u t t h e sequence o f t h e s t o r y on a background.  E x p l i c i t Information:  Information i n a b r i e f story that i s s a i d and s t a t e d , f o r example, i n "The L i t t l e Brown R a b b i t . . . , ' l i t t l e , brown and r a b b i t a r e e x p l i c i t .  I m p l i c i t Information:  Information t h a t i s not s a i d i n a b r i e f s t o r y b u t w h i c h t h e s t o r y may i m p l y , f o r example, i n 'He l o o k e d f o r something t o e a t , ' may i m p l y 'he was hungry.'  Narrative Material:  The o v e r a l l c o n t e n t o f t h e b r i e f s t o r y p r e s e n t e d . T h i s c o n t e n t was then c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o s i x p a r t s a c c o r d i n g t o Rumelhart's 'Schema' ( S t e i n & G l e n n , 1976). F o r t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e s t o r y used i n t h i s s t u d y see A p p e n d i x F.  Passive Experience:  A c h i l d s i t s and l i s t e n s t o a b r i e f s t o r y . T h i s does n o t mean he has t o l i s t e n however.  Post Test-1:  The means o f a s k i n g a c h i l d t o t e l l back a story. (Free r e c a l l ) In t h i s study P o s t - t e s t I was t h i r t y seconds d e l a y e d a f t e r h e a r i n g a b r i e f s t o r y i n an a c t i v e or p a s s i v e experience s i t u a t i o n . (Immediate r e c a l l was n o t u s e d because o f t h e t i m e needed t o p u t a l l r e f e r e n t s out o f s i g h t i n the a c t i v e experience situation).  Post Test-2:  A s . i n Post Test-1 except the c h i l d r e n were reminded o f 'a s t o r y ' on t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r and t h e n asked t o t e l l i t t o the experimenter. Post Test-2 c o n s i s t e d o f two p a r t s . These p a r t s were:  (1)  Free r e c a l l and  (2)  Answering of questions (given i n that order). Post Test-2 was given seven days a f t e r hearing the b r i e f story.  And 'children'; ' c h i l d ' ; and 'younger c h i l d r e n ' , are terms used i n t h i s study t o denote c h i l d r e n o f the ages Four t o Eight, unless otherwise specified.  APPENDIX B  "BRIEF STORY IN ORIGINAL FOEM  A l i t t l e brown rabbit hopped i n t o a farmer's garden.  I t looked a l l around f o r  something t o eat. a patch o f l e t t u c e .  The rabbit ran over t o As i t nibbled on some  lettuce, i t s ears perked up. A dog was barking i n the distance, and the barking noise was coming closer and closer.  The  rabbit hopped out o f the farmer's garden and i n t o a nearby hole.  APPENDIX C  i REVISED VERSIONS OF ORIGINAL BRIEF STORY  RABBIT STORY  A l i t t l e brown rabbit hopped into a farmer's garden.  I t looked a l l around f o r something t o eat.  The rabbit ran over t o a patch o f lettuce. nibbled on some lettuce, i t s ears stood up.  As i t A dog  was barking i n the distance, and the barking noise was coming closer and closer.  The r a b b i t hopped  out o f the farmer's garden and into a nearby hole.  DEER STORY  A l i t t l e brown deer jumped into a farmer's garden. eat.  I t looked a l l around f o r something to  The deer ran over t o a patch o f lettuce.  i t nibbled on some l e t t u c e , i t s ears stood up.  As A  dog was barking i n the distance, and the barking noise was coming c l o s e r and closer.  The deer  jumped out of the farmer's garden and i n t o a nearby forest.  48  /APPENDIX D  /ACTIVE EXPERIENCE STORY CONDITION—TRAINING SENTENCES  When the r a b b i t puppet was used i n the p r e - t r i a l , the following two statements were used:  (1)  ' "A r a b b i t was walking through some woods when he heard h i s mother c a l l i n g him t o come home as f a s t as he could."  (2)  "A rabbit was going down the f o r e s t t r a i l when he saw some friends, stopped t o say h e l l o , and then went on again. II  The following a l t e r n a t i v e sentences were used with the deer puppet:  (1)  II  'A deer was walking through some woods when he heard h i s mother c a l l i n g him to come home as f a s t as he could. II  (2)  II  'A deer was going down a f o r e s t t r a i l when he saw some friends, stopped t o say h e l l o , and then went on again. II  49  APPENDIX E QUESTIONS OF PART TWO  Possible Score  (1)  What animal was the story about?  1  (2)  What animals were i n the story?  2  (3)  What d i d the r a b b i t (deer) do f i r s t ?  3  (4)  Where d i d the rabbit (deer) go?  2  (5)  When the rabbit (deer) got i n t o the garden, what d i d he do?  4  (6)  What d i d the r a b b i t (deer) look f o r i n the story?  2  (7)  Why was the rabbit (deer) looking f o r something t o eat?  1  (8)  What d i d the rabbit (deer) find?  2  (9)  When the rabbit (deer) was eating the l e t t u c e , why d i d h i s ears stand up? What d i d the r a b b i t (deer) hear as i t was eating the lettuce?  (10)  r  2 1  (11)  What was the dog doing?  2  (12)  Was the dog t r y i n g t o get the r a b b i t (deer) ?  1  (13)  What d i d the r a b b i t (deer) do then?  3  (14)  Where d i d the rabbit (deer) go?  3  (15)  Why d i d the r a b b i t hop i n t o a nearby hole? (Why d i d the deer jump i n t o a nearby forest?)  1  (16)  How do you think the r a b b i t (deer) f e l t ?  1  (17)  Why do .you think the r a b b i t (deer) f e l t t h i s way?  1  APPENDIX F  STORY CATEGORIZED IN KUMELHART'S  'SCHEMA'  (1)  Setting:  (2)  Activity:  I t looked a l l around  (3)  Internal response (goal)  f o r something t o eat.  (4)  Activity:  The r a b b i t ran over  (5)  Internal response (goal)  to a patch o f lettuce.  (6)  Activity:  As i t nibbled on some l e t t u c e  (7)  Event:  i t s ears stood up.  (8)  Event:  A dog was barking  (9)  Internal response (cognitive):  i n the distance,  (10)  Event:  and the barking noise  (11)  Internal response (cognitive):  was coming c l o s e r and c l o s e r .  (12)  Activity:  The rabbit hopped out  (13)  Internal response (cognitive):  of the farmer's garden  (14)  Consequence:  and i n t o a nearby hole.  A l i t t l e brown rabbit hopped i n t o a farmer's garden.  /APPENDIX G EXPLICIT ITEMS IN STORY  1.  Little  2.  Brown  3.  Rabbit (Deer)  4.  Hopped (Jumped) i n t o  5.  Farmer's  6.  Garden  7.  Looked  8.  Around  9.  Eat  10.  Ran  11.  Patch  12.  Lettuce  13.  Nibbled  14.  Ears  15.  Stood up  16.  Dog  17.  Barking  18.  Distance  19.  Closer and closer  20.  Hopped (Jumped) out  21.  Nearby-  22.  Hole (Forest)  52 APPENDIX H IMPLICIT ITEMS IN STORY  1. Rabbit (Deer) hungry 2. Looking for food 3. Saw the lettuce 4.  Found the lettuce  5. Did not eat much lettuce 6. Heard a noise 7. Dog barking at rabbit (deer) 8. Dog after rabbit (deer) 9. Rabbit (Deer) scared or frightened 10.  Farmer's garden not safe  11.  Hole i s safe  

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