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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The parish church architecture of Yorkshire, ca.600 - ca.1130 Wallace, Leah Diane 1978

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THE PARISH CHURCH ARCHITECTURE OF YORKSHIRE, ca.600 - ca.1130 by Leah Diane Wallace B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Guelph, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of F i n e A r t s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1978 © Leah Diane Wallace, 19 78 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of FINE ARTS The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date OCTOBER 10. 19 78 i i ABSTRACT The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of; t h i s t h e s i s i s t o c a t a l o g u e t h e s a l i e n t e l e m e n t s o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n p a r i s h c h u r c h e s o f Y o r k s h i r e w i t h i n t h e b r o a d e r c o n t e x t o f t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d . T h r o u g h t h i s s t u d y i t may be p o s s i b l e t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r two d i f f e r i n g movements, t h e S a x o n a n d t h e Norman, r e s u l t e d , when c o m b i n e d , i n a new t y p e o f Saxo-Norman N o r t h u m b r i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e o r w h e t h e r i t r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o r c i b l e i m p o s i t i o n o f one s t y l e u p o n a n o t h e r w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f a c r e a t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s i n s u l a r a n d c o n t i n e n t a l e l e m e n t s i n q u e s t i o n . The p e r i m e t e r s o f t h e p e r i o d u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n a r e d e f i n e d b y two d a t e s . The y e a r s a r o u n d 600 mark t h e commencement o f a m a s o n r y b u i l d i n g t r a d i t i o n i n E n g l a n d and t h i s h a s b e e n s e l e c t e d a s t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h e s t u d y . The y e a r 1130 i s t h e t e r m i n u s a n t e quern f o r t h e c h u r c h o f S t . A n d r e w , W e a v e r t h o r p e , and i t s t a n d s a s t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p e r i o d u n d e r a n a l y s i s . R e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s i n c l u d e d b o t h t h e a s s e m b l y o f p l a n s and i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , and a t r i p t o Y o r k s h i r e d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g - a n d summer o f 1977. A t t h a t t i m e p h o t o g r a p h s , n o t e s a n d m e a s u r e m e n t s were c o l l e c t e d on t h e s i t e . i i i The f i r s t c h a p t e r , e n t i t l e d "The H i s t o r i c a l H e r i t a g e " , d i s c u s s e s t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y o f Y o r k s h i r e and t h e e f f e c t s t h e y h a d on t h e c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f N o r t h u m b r i a . P a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d o n t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e n a t u r e and i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n o f t h e N o r t h a n d o n t h e e v e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e Norman C o n q u e s t i n 1066, a s t h e s e f a c t o r s : h e l p e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t y p e a n d s t y l e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e s e r e c t e d j u s t a f t e r 1066. The s e c o n d c h a p t e r , e n t i t l e d "The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H e r i t a g e " , c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e p a r i s h c h u r c h e s o f Y o r k s h i r e . I t i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s , t h e A n g l o - S a x o n a nd t h e Norman, i n w h i c h t h e s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e a c h b u i l d i n g a r e d e s c r i b e d . The t h i r d c h a p t e r i s t h e C a t a l o g u e R a i s o n n e . I t c o n s i s t s o f t h e t w e n t y - s i x c h u r c h e s i n Y o r k s h i r e w h i c h c o n t a i n A n g l o - S a x o n o r e a r l y Norman f a b r i c . T h e s e a r e d e s c r i b e d f i r s t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o any h i s t o r i c a l d o c u m e n t s w h i c h p e r t a i n t o t h e i r p r e - C o n q u e s t d e v e l o p m e n t . The e x i s t i n g A n g l o - S a x o n a n d Norman e l e m e n t s i n t h e c h u r c h e s a r e t h e n d e s c r i b e d a n d a n a l y z e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e b u i l d i n g s w e r e p l a c e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r b a s e d on t h e e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e t o d a t e . The c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l t h a t 'the p r e - C o n q u e s t a r c h i t e c t u r e o f Y o r k s h i r e i s b o t h p i e c e m e a l a n d p o o r l y d o c u m e n t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n t h e a n c i e n t p a r i s h a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h i s c o u n t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t f r o m t h a t o f t h e r e s t o f E n g l a n d p r i o r t o 1066. A c h a n g e d i d commence d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f E d w a r d t h e C o n f e s s o r . A t , t h a t t i m e a b u i l d i n g boom o c c u r r e d w h i c h was d i s t i n g u i s h e d by an I n r e a s e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p l e x a r c h i t e c t u r a l f o r m s and a new e x p e r i m e n t a l a p p r o a c h t o s t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n . H o w e v e r , what may u l t i m a t e l y h a v e d e v e l o p e d i n t o a new A n g l o - S a x o n s t y l e was t e r m i n a t e d w i t h t h e C o n q u e s t o f 1066 a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t d e v a s t a t i o n o f t h e N o r t h i n 1069. I n Y o r k s h i r e t h e r e s u l t o f t h e s e e v e n t s was a c o n s e r v a t i o n o f A n g l o - S a x o n a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s l o n g a f t e r t h e y h a d c e a s e d t o e x i s t i n t h e s o u t h o f England..' T h i s h o l d o v e r , w h i c h h a s i t s c l e a r e s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n t h e c h u r c h o f S t . A n d r e w , W e a v e r t h o r p e , i s p e r h a p s t h e o n l y f e a t u r e o f A n g l o - S a x o n a r c h i t e c t u r e i n N o r t h u m b r i a w h i c h i s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m t h a t o f t h e r e s t o f E n g l a n d . V TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . i i INTRODUCTION 1 C h a p t e r I . THE HISTORICAL HERITAGE . . 5 I I . THE ARCHITECTURAL -HERITAGE 20 I I I . THE CHURCHES - A CATALOGUE 1,. .. "••/..• 44 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . 44 Ledshara 45 B i s h o p h i l l S e n i o r 54 S k i p w i t h 57 B a r d s e y 65 M i d d l e t o n - b y ^ - P i c k e r i n g 72 A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t . 79 K i r k d a l e • 85 H o v i n g h a m . 92 K i r k Hammerton 99 K i r k b y H i l l 107 H a c k n e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 : R y t h e r 120 B u l m e r 123 T e r r i n g t o n • 126 Y o r k , P e a s h o l m e G r e e n 128 Monk F r y s t o n 130 Y o r k , B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r 134 B e d a l e 139 C o l l i n g h a m 142 A l d b o r o u g h 144 B u r g h w a l l i s 147 S t o n e g r a v e 152 H o r n b y 157 K i r k b y U n d e r d a l e 162 W h a r r a m - l e - S t r e e t 167 W e a v e r t h o r p e 180 CONCLUSION 209 v i ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1. Ledsham - Church from the west, Victoria County History 214 2. Ledsham - Church from the south, Wallace . . . 214 3. Ledsham - West tower from the south, Wallace . 215 4. Ledsham - Lower portion of west tower from the south, Taylor and Taylor . 215 5. Ledsham - Tower south doorway and southwest quoins, Taylor and Taylor . 216 6. Ledsham - Nave south wall from the east, Wallace 216 7. Ledsham - West end of nave south wall with megalithic quoins, Wallace . 217 8. Ledsham - Nave south wall with blocked Anglo-Saxon windows, Taylor and Taylor . . . . . . 217 9... Ledsham - Chancel arch from the nave, Wallace . 218 10. Ledsham - Blocked window above the south doorway, Wallace 218 11. Ledsham - Blocked window above the north arcade, Wallace 219 12. Ledsham - Tower arch and opening above, Wallace 219 13. Ledsham - Interior east wall of tower, Taylor and Taylor 220 14. Bishophill Senior - Southwest quoins of the nave, Taylor and Taylor 220 15. Bishophill Senior - Northwest arcade, Taylor and Taylor . 221 16. Bishophill Senior - Northeast arcade, National Monuments Record 222 17. Bishophill Senior - South wall from the west, NMR 223 18. Bishophill Senior - South wall from the east, NMR I'"-.- 2 24 19. Skipwith - Church from the southwest, VCH . . . 225 20. Skipwith - West tower from the southwest, Taylor and Taylor 225 21. Skipwith - Tower from the southwest, Taylor and Taylor 226 22. Skipwith - Tower arch, Taylor and Taylor . . . 226 23. Skipwith - Anglo-Saxon masonry above the nave south arcade, Wallace . . 227 24. Skipwith - Tower arch from the nave, Taylor and Taylor . 227 25. Skipwith - Gable line and blocked doorway above the tower arch, Wallace 228 26. Bardsey - Church from the northwest, Wallace . 228. 27. Bardsey - Tower from the southwest, Taylor and Taylor 229 ,vii 28. B a r d s e y - Tower f r o m t h e s o u t h e a s t , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r 229 29. ..Bardsey - U p p e r p o r t i o n o f t h e t o w e r s o u t h f a c e , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r . . . . . . . . . . 230 30. B a r d s e y - Tower q u o i n s , W a l l a c e . 2 30 31. B a r d s e y - Nave s o u t h d o o r w a y , W a l l a c e . . . 231 32. B a r d s e y - W a l l a b o v e t h e n o r t h n a v e a r c a d e , W a l l a c e . . . . . 231 33. B a r d s e y - Nave w e s t w a l l a n d t h e t o w e r a r c h , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r 232 34. B a r d s e y - S o u t h w e s t s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s , W a l l a c e 232 35. B a r d s e y - S o u t h p o r c h w i t h w indow and s o u t h d o o r w a y , W a l l a c e 233 36. B a r d s e y - G a b l e l i n e a b o v e t h e t o w e r a r c h , W a l l a c e . 233 37. B a r d s e y - G a b l e l i n e a b o v e t h e c h a n c e l a r c h , W a l l a c e 234 38. M i d d l e t o n - b y - P i c k e r i n g - Tower f r o m t h e s o u t h , W a l l a c e 234 39. M i d d l e t o n - b y - P i c k e r i n g - L o w e r p o r t i o n o f t h e t o w e r w e s t f a c e , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r . . . . 235 40. M i d d l e t o n - b y - P i c k e r i n g - S o u t h w e s t q u o i n s o f t h e e a r l i e r n a v e , W a l l a c e 235 4 1 . M i d d l e t o n - b y - P i c k e r i n g - N o r t h a r c a d e a n d c l e r e s t o r y , W a l l a c e 236 42. A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t - C h u r c h f r o m t h e s o u t h e a s t , W a l l a c e 236 43. A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t - Tower f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r . . . . . 237 44. A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t - Tower f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t , F i s h e r . 237 45. A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t - C h u r c h f r o m t h e n o r t h e a s t , W a l l a c e 238 46. A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t - O r i g i n a l s o u t h w e s t n a v e q u o i n s , W a l l a c e . 238 47. A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t - Tower n o r t h d o o r w a y , W a l l a c e . . . . . . . . . 239 48. A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t - I n t e r i o r l o o k i n g w e s t f r o m t h e c h a n c e l , . VCH 239 49. A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t - Tower a r c h , W a l l a c e . . 240 50. K i r k d a l e - C h u r c h f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t , W a l l a c e 240 51. K i r k d a l e - C h u r c h f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t i n 1 8 2 1 , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r 241 52. K i r k d a l e - C h u r c h f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t i n 1 7 7 9 , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r . . 241 53. K i r k d a l e - N o r t h w e s t q u o i n s o f t h e e a r l y n a v e , W a l l a c e 242 54. K i r k d a l e - Nave s o u t h d o o r w a y , W a l l a c e . . . 242 55. K i r k d a l e - S a x o n s u n d i a l , VCH . . . . . • . . 243 56. K i r k d a l e - N o r t h jamb o f t h e c h a n c e l a r c h , W a l l a c e 243 v i i i 57. Kirkdale - North arcade, VCH 244 58. Kirkdale - Tower doorway from the nave, Taylor and Taylor 244 59. Kirkdale - North jamb on the west face of the . .... tower, arch, Wallace 245 60. Hovingham - Church from the southeast, Wallace 245 61. Hovingham - Tower from the southwest, Fisher . . . 246 62. Hovingham - Northwest quoin of the nave, Wallace 246 63. Hovingham - Tower west doorway, Taylor and Taylor . . . . . . . . 247 64. Hovingham - Nave south doorway, Wallace . . 247 65. Hovingham - Pre-Conquest carved stone slab, VCH . 248 66. Hovingham - Tower arch from the nave, VCH . 248 67. Hovingham - Nave and tower arch from the east, NMR 249 68. Kirk Hammerton - Church from the southwest, Taylor and Taylor 25 0 69. Kirk Hammerton - Church from the southeast, VCH 250 70. Kirk Hammerton - Tower west doorway, Fisher 251 71. Kirk Hammerton - Tower west doorway, Taylor and Taylor . 251 72. Kirk Hammerton - Nave south doorway, Taylor and Taylor . . 252 73. Kirk Hammerton - Two windows i n the chancel south wall, Wallace 252 74. Kirk Hammerton - Chancel arch from the nave, Taylor and Taylor 253 75. Kirk Hammerton - Chancel arch from the nave, Wallace • • . • 2 5 3 76. Kirk Hammerton - Chancel arch from the nave, Taylor and Taylor . . . ; . 254 77. Kirk Hammerton - Tower arch from the nave, Taylor and Taylor 254 78. Kirk Hammerton - Tower arch from the nave, Taylor and Taylor 255 79. Kirkby H i l l - Church from the south, Wallace 255 80. Kirkby K i l l - Church from the southeast, VCK 256 81. Kirkby H i l l - Nave south wall and a portion of the chancel arch, Wallace 256 82. Kirkby H i l l - Blocked doorway above the south porch, Wallace 257 83. Kirkby H i l l - North arcade with Anglo-Saxon walls above, Wallace 257 84a.. Kirkby H i l l - Chancel arch and nave north arcade, VCH 25 8 i x 84b . Hackness - Ghureh f rom t h e s o u t h w e s t , VCH . . 25S 8 5 . Hackness - C h a n c e l a r c h f r om the n a v e , T a y l o r and T a y l o r 259 86 . Hackness - E a s t f a c e o f c h a n c e l a r c h w i t h o r i g i n a l g a b l e l i n e , W a l l a c e . . . 259 87 . Hackness - I n t e r i o r o f the nave f rom the s o u t h w e s t , VCH 260 88.. Hackness - Nave s o u t h a r c a d e , Wallace.......... . . . 260 89 . Hackness - Nave wes t w a l l , W a l l a c e . . . . . 261 9 0 . R y t h e r . - C h u r c h f rom the w e s t , W a l l a c e . . 261 9 1 . R y t h e r - Nave e a s t g a b l e w i t h o l d e r masonry , W a l l a c e 262 92 . R y t h e r - C h a n c e l s o u t h doorway and p l i n t h , W a l l a c e . . . . . . . 262 9 3 . R y t h e r - P l i n t h and s o u t h e a s t q u o i n s o f t h e , c h a n c e l , W a l l a c e 263 94 . R y t h e r - C h a n c e l , a r c h f rom the n a v e , T a y l o r and T a y l o r 263 9 5 . Bu lmer - C h u r c h f rom the s o u t h e a s t , VCH . . . 264 96 . Bu lmer - Nave s o u t h w a l l , VCH . 264 9 7 . Bu lmer - E a s t e r n window b e s i d e t he p o r c h i n t h e nave s o u t h w a l l , W a l l a c e 265 98 . Bu lmer - Two e a s t windows i n t he nave s o u t h w a l l , W a l l a c e 265 9 9 . Bu lmer - Upper e a s t window i n nave s o u t h w a l l , W a l l a c e 266 100 . Bu lmer - N o r t h w a l l , W a l l a c e 266 1 0 1 . Bu lmer - N o r t h doorway and window t o the e a s t , W a l l a c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 102 . Bu lmer - N o r t h doorway , W a l l a c e 267 1 0 3 . Bu lmer - Nave s o u t h doorway , W a l l a c e . . . . 268 104. T e r r i n g t o n - C h u r c h f r om the s o u t h e a s t , VCH . 268 105 . T e r r i n g t o n - I n t e r i o r o f t h e nave f r om the w e s t , VCH 269 106 . T e r r i n g t o n - Sou th nave w a l l w i t h wiridow on t he n o r t h f a c e , W a l l a c e . . > . . . 269 107 . Peasholme Green - C h u r c h f r om the s o u t h e a s t , W a l l a c e . . . . . . . . ' . . 270 108 . Peasholme Green - E a s t end o f the n a v e , W a l l a c e •. . ; . . . . . . . . . . 270 109 . Peasholme Green - Gab le on e a s t w a l l , W a l l a c e 271 110 . Peasholme Green - B l o c k e d e a s t doorway , W a l l a c e . . . 271 1 1 1 . Peasholme Green - Lower n o r t h e a s t q u o i n s , W a l l a c e 272 112 . Peasholme Green - I n t e r i o r l o o k i n g e a s t , NMR 273 113 . Monk F r y s t o n - C h u r c h f rom the s o u t h e a s t , W a l l a c e 274 114. Monk F r y s t o n - Tower f r o m the s o u t h , T a y l o r and T a y l o r 274 X 115. Monk F r y s t o n - Tower f r o m t h e n o r t h . , W a l l a c e 275 116. Monk F r y s t o n - Nave g a b l e on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e t o w e r , W a l l a c e 275 117. Monk F r y s t o n - E a s t e r n b e l f r y window f r o m t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e n a v e , W a l l a c e 276 118. B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r - Tower f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r . . . . 4 276 119. B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r - C h u r c h f r o m t h e s o u t h e a s t , W a l l a c e 277 120. B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r - S o u t h a r c a d e , NMR . . . . 278 121. B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r - N o r t h a r c a d e , NMR'..-. . . 279 122. B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r - Tower a r c h f r o m n a v e , F i s h e r 230 12 3. B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r - Tower a r c h f r o m t h e n a v e , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r 280 124. B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r - S o u t h jamb o f t h e t o w e r a r c h , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r 281 125. B e d a l e - West t o w e r , W a l l a c e 231 126. B e d a l e - Tower f r o m t h e s o u t h , C a r t e r . . . . 282 127. B e d a l e - Nave f r o m t h e w e s t , NMR 28 3 128. B e d a l e - Nave s o u t h a r c a d e , VCH 284 129. B e d a l e - Nave n o r t h a r c a d e , VCH . . . . . . . 284 130. B e d a l e - N o r t h a r c a d e , NMR . 2 85 131. B e d a l e - Tower a r c h a n d n a v e w e s t w a l l , W a l l a c e 286 132. B e d a l e - I n t e r i o r w e s t w a l l o f t h e t o w e r , W a l l a c e . . . . . . . 286 133. C o l l i n g h a m - C h u r c h f r o m ,the s o u t h e a s t / W a l l a c e 287 134. C o l l i n g h a m - Nave s o u t h w a l l , W a l l a c e . . . . 287 135. C o l l i n g h a m - C h a n c e l s o u t h w a l l , W a l l a c e . . 288 136. C o l l i n g h a m - S o u t h e a s t q u o i n o f t h e n a v e , W a l l a c e 288 137. A l d b o r o u g h - C h u r c h f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t , W a l l a c e 289 138. A l d b o r o u g h - C h a n c e l f r o m t h e s o u t h e a s t , W a l l a c e 289 139. A l d b o r o u g h - C h a n c e l s o u t h w a l l , W a l l a c e . . 290 140. A l d b o r o u g h - Window i n c h a n c e l s o u t h w a l l , NMR . 291 141:. A l d b o r o u g h - Nave s o u t h a r c a d e , W a l l a c e . . . 292 142. A l d b o r o u g h - F i g u r e o f man o n t h e n o r t h f a c e o f t h e n o r t h a r c a d e , W a l l a c e 292 14 3..' A l d b o r o u g h - S u n d i a l i n s o u t h a r c a d e , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r 293 144. B u r g h w a l l i s - Nave f r o m t h e s o u t h e a s t , T a y l o r and T a y l o r 293 145. B u r g h w a l l i s , Tower f r o m t h e s o u t h e a s t , T a y l o r and T a y l o r 294 146. B u r g h w a l l i s , B l o c k e d d o o r w a y i n t h e n o r t h n a v e w a l l , W a l l a c e 294 x i 147. B u r g h w a l l i s - S o u t h w a l l o f t h e c h a n c e l , - -W a l l a c e 295 148. B u r g h w a l l i s - O p e n i n g a b o v e t h e t o w e r a r c h , W a l l a c e 295 149. S t o n e g r a v e - C h u r c h f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t , W a l l a c e 296 150. S t o n e g r a v e - Tower f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t , W a l l a c e 296 151. S t o n e g r a v e - B l o c k e d w e s t t o w e r d o o r w a y , W a l l a c e . 297 152. S t o n e g r a v e . - N o r t h a r c a d e f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t , VCH 297 153. S t o n e g r a v e - N o r t h a r c a d e , W a l l a c e 298 154. S t o n e g r a v e - S o u t h a r c a d e , W a l l a c e 29 8 155. H o r n b y - C h u r c h f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t , W a l l a c e . 299 156. H o r n b y - West t o w e r , W a l l a c e 299 157. H o r n b y - Tower n o r t h f a c e , W a l l a c e 300 15 8. H o r n b y - Tower s o u t h f a c e , F i s h e r 300 159. H o r n b y - Tower w e s t d o o r w a y , W a l l a c e . . . . 301 160. H o r n b y - C h a n c e l a n d c h a n c e l a r c h , W a l l a c e . 3,01 161. H o r n b y - N o r t h a r c a d e , VCH . - . 302 162. H o r n b y - Tower a r c h , W a l l a c e 302 16 3. K i r k b y U n d e r d a l e - C h u r c h f r o m t h e s o u t h , W a l l a c e 303 164. K i r k b y U n d e r d a l e - Tower f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t , W a l l a c e 303 165. K i r k b y U n d e r d a l e - Tower w e s t d o o r w a y a n d w i ndow, W a l l a c e 304 166. K i r k b y U n d e r d a l e - Tower w e s t d o o r w a y . W a l l a c e 304 16 7. K i r k b y U n d e r d a l e - Tower a r c h and p a r t o f n o r t h a r c a d e , NMR 305 168. K i r k b y U n d e r d a l e - C h a n c e l a r c h a n d t h e n o r t h a r c a d e f r o m t h e w e s t , NMR 306 169. . K i r k b y U n d e r d a l e - Tower a r c h , W a l l a c e . . . 307 170. W h a r r a m - l e - S t r e e t - C h u r c h f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r 307 171. W h a r r a m - l e - S t r e e t - Tower f r o m t h e w e s t , F i s h e r . . . . . 308 172. W h a r r a m - l e - S t r e e t - Tower w e s t d o o r w a y , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r 30 8 173. W h a r r a m - l e - S t r e e t - Tower a r c h f r o m t h e n a v e , B i l s o n 309 174. W h a r r a m - l e - S t r e e t - C h a n c e l a r c h n o r t h c a p i t a l , B i l s o n ., 309 1 7 5 a . W h a r r a m - l e - S t r e e t - C h a n c e l a r c h s o u t h c a p i t a l , B i l s o n 310 1 7 5 b . * W e a v e r t h o r p e - C h u r c h f r o m t h e s o u t h w e s t , T a y l o r and T a y l o r 310 17 6. W e a v e r t h o r p e - Nave a n d c h a n c e l a r c h f r o m t h e w e s t , NMR 311 x i i 111.- W e a v e r t h o r p e - G h a n c e l a r c h , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r . 312 178. W e a v e r t h o r p e - Tower a r c h , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r . . 312 179. W e a v e r t h o r p e - S u n d i a l o v e r t h e n a v e s o u t h d o o r w a y , T a y l o r a nd T a y l o r 313 P l a n 1. Ledsham, T a y l o r a nd T a y l o r '. . . . 314 2. B i s h o p h i l l S e n i o r , Y o r k s h i r e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y . . . . . .: 315 3. S k i p w i t h , T a y l o r a nd T a y l o r . . . . 314 4. B a r d s e y , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r 316 5. M i d d l e t o n - b y - P i c k e r i n g , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r . . . 317 6. A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r 318 7. K i r k d a l e , T a y l o r a nd T a y l o r 318 8. H o v i n g h a m , YAS 319 9. K i r k Hammerton, T a y l o r a nd T a y l o r 320 10. K i r k b y H i l l , VCH 320 1 1 . H a c k n e s s , VCH 321 12. R y t h e r , YAS 322 13. B u l m e r , VCH . 321 14. T e r r i n g t o n , VCH 321 15. Monk F r y s t o n , T a y l o r a n d T a y l o r 323 16. B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r , YAS 324 17. B e d a l e , VCH 323 18. C o l l i n g h a m , YAS 325 19. A l d b o r o u g h , YAS . . 326 20. B u r g h w a l l i s , YAS . . . . . 327 2 1 . S t o n e g r a v e , YAS . 328 22. H o r n b y , VCH 329 23. W h a r r a m - l e - S t r e e t , B i l s o n 330 24. W e a v e r t h o r p e , B i l s o n 331 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 32 AC KNOWLEDGEMENT S The g u i d a n c e o f my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , I . M a r c P e s s i n , h a s b e e n i n v a l u a b l e i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I n a d d i t i o n , I w o u l d l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e k i n d n e s s a n d a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e p e o p l e o f Y o r k s h i r e a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , o f D r . a n d M r s . B u t l e r , whose h o s p i t a l i t y e n a b l e d me t o f i n i s h my r e s e a r c h w h i l e I was i n E n g l a n d . T h a n k - y o u a l s o t o T.F.B.F., who p a t i e n t l y r e a d p o r t i o n s o f t h i s w o r k and whose c o r r e c t i o n s and a d v i c e w e r e m o s t h e l p f u l . INTRODUCTION The a r c h i t e c t u r a l a c h i e v e m e n t o f any age m u s t be j u d g e d b y t h e s t a n d a r d o f t h e p r i n c i p a l b u i l d i n g o f t h a t age and n o t by t h a t o f t h e o b s c u r e a nd s e c o n d r a t e . S i r A.W. C l a p h a m ' s s t a t e m e n t d o e s h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l i d i t y a n d c e r t a i n l y many a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s w o u l d a g r e e w i t h i t . I f t h i s d i c t u m w e r e e n f o r c e d i n t h e c a s e o f A n g l o -S a x o n a r c h i t e c t u r e , h o w e v e r , a w e a l t h o f monuments w o u l d h a v e t o be d i s m i s s e d as u n f i t f o r s e r i o u s s t u d y p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e w h a t r e m a i n s t o us w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a s " o b s c u r e a n d s e c o n d r a t e " . I n f a c t , i n E n g l a n d t o d a y t h e r e a r e no m a j o r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s l e f t s t a n d i n g f r o m b e f o r e t h e Norman C o n q u e s t . A l l t h a t i s l e f t a r e s m a l l p a r i s h c h u r c h e s f r e q u e n t l y l o c a t e d i n r e m o t e a r e a s o f t h e E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e . T h e s e a r e , more o f t e n t h a n n o t , l i t t l e more t h a n p i e c e m e a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m v a r i o u s b u i l d i n g p e r i o d s . What l i t t l e t h e y do d i s p l a y o f p r e - C o n q u e s t b u i l d i n g t e c h n i q u e s o f t e n r e v e a l s an o r i g i n a l i t y o f a p p r o a c h w h i c h , i f n o t b r i l l i a n t , i s a t l e a s t i n d i c a t i v e o f a c e r t a i n w i l l i n g n e s s t o e x p e r i m e n t . C o n c e i v e d a s t h e y w e r e , f a r f r o m t h e C a r o l i n g i a n a n d O t t o n i a n c e n t r e s o f i n f l u e n c e , t h e i r s t u d y i s a v a l i d one b e c a u s e t h e y i l l u s t r a t e j u s t how much o f w h a t may be t e r m e d t h e " A n g l o - S a x o n s t y l e " was d e v e l o p e d f r o m i n s u l a r s o u r c e s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y t h e a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f A n g l o - S a x o n a r c h i t e c t u r e h a d . b e e n one o f s e e k i n g i n d i v i d u a l f e a t u r e s i n v a r i o u s b u i l d i n g s w h i c h w e r e t h e n p a i n s t a k i n g l y t r a c e d t o t h e i r p r e s u m e d Roman, B y z a n t i n e o r C a r o l i n g i a n s o u r c e s . S u c h an a p p r o a c h was q u i t e v a l i d i n t h e c a s e o f a p p l i e d d e c o r a t i o n b u t i s l e f t much u n s a i d . a b o u t A n g l o - S a x o n m e t h o d s o f d e a l i n g w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . I n t h e 1940s and t h e 1 9 5 0 s , E. D u d l e y J a c k s o n a n d E r i c F l e t c h e r made a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s o f s u c h f e a t u r e s a s q u o i n s a n d 2 p i l a s t e r s t r i p s . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t S a x o n i n g e n u i t y h ad a g r e a t d e a l more t o do w i t h p r e - C o n q u e s t b u i l d i n g t e c h n i q u e s t h a n A.W. C l a p h a m h a d b e e n w i l l i n g t o a d m i t . The l i s t o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s c o u l d be e x p a n d e d t o i n c l u d e o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n a l d e t a i l s . Two modes o f i n s u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n w e r e d e v e l o p e d by t h e b u i l d e r s o f s m a l l p a r i s h c h u r c h e s . One t y p e emerged f r o m a t r i a l a n d e r r o r a p p r o a c h i n w h i c h p r e - C o n q u e s t masons e x p e r i m e n t e d h a p h a z a r d l y w i t h d i v e r s e . t e c h n i q u e s i n a s i m p l e a t t e m p t t o make w a l l s , a r c h e s and d o o r w a y s s t a b l e e nough t o s t a n d u p r i g h t . The o t h e r t y p e was b a s e d on a t r a d i t i o n o f wooden a r c h i t e c t u r e d a t i n g b a c k t o C e l t i c t i m e s . T h o s e s f e a t u r e s w h i c h d e v e l o p e d f r o m c o n s t r u c t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t s w e r e p i l a s t e r s t r i p s , l o n g a n d s h o r t q u o i n s , a r c h e s , j a m b s , d o u b l e - s p l a y e d w i n d o w s , and t h r o u g h s t o n e s . T h o s e w h i c h w e r e d e r i v e d f r o m t i m b e r s o u r c e s w e r e t h e s q u a r e c h a n c e l , t h e g a b l e - h e a d e d a r c h , t h e u s e o f a n t a e , and v a r i o u s t y p e s o f • p r e - C o n q u e s t d e c o r a t i v e m o u l d i n g s . I n t h e s t u d i e s d e v o t e d t o A n g l o - S a x o n a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h e e a r l y c h u r c h e s o f Y o r k s h i r e h a v e r e c e i v e d s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n w i t h i n t h e g r e a t e r c o n t e x t o f E n g l i s h e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . H o w ever, l i t t l e h a s b e e n done t o d e f i n e t h e s e monuments a s a 3 c o n c e n t r a t e d g r o u p w h i c h p r e s e n t s c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t c o n s t r u c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b o r n o f N o r t h u m b r i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e , i s o l a t i o n a n d c r e a t i v i t y . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be t o c a t a l o g u e .= s a l i e n t e l e m e n t s o f i n d i v i d u a l Y o r k s h i r e c h u r c h e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r b r o a d e r h i s t o r i c a l a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d . U l t i m a t e l y i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r two d i f f e r i n g movements, t h e S a x o n and t h e Norman, r e s u l t e d , when c o m b i n e d , i n a new e x p e r i m e n t a l t y p e o f Saxo-Norman N o r t h u m b r i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e , o r w h e t h e r t h e y m e r e l y r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o r c i b l e i m p o s i t i o n o f one s t y l e upon a n o t h e r w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f a c r e a t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s i n q u e s t i o n . The y e a r s a r o u n d 600, a c c o r d i n g t o H.M. and J o a n T a y l o r , mark t h e commencement o f a m a s o n r y b u i l d i n g t r a d i t i o n i n E n g l a n d and t h i s d a t e ' h a s b e e n s e l e c t e d a s t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h e s t u d y . The y e a r 1130, w h i c h i s t h e t e r m i n u s a n t e quern f o r t h e c h u r c h o f St.: A n d r e w a t W e a v e r t h o r p e , t h e p u r e s t e x a m p l e o f t h e Saxo-Norman s t y l e i n e x i s t e n c e , w i l l s t a n d a s t h e t e r m i n a t i o n : o f t h e p e r i o d u n d e r a n a l y s i s . I n 1925, B a l d w i n Brown i n t r o d u c e d a s y s t e m o f d a t i n g w h i c h d i v i d e d t h e A n g l o - S a x o n e r a i n t o t h r e e p e r i o d s : P e r i o d A ( E a r l y ) , P e r i o d B ( V i k i n g I n v a s i o n s ) , a n d P e r i o d C ( E p o c h o f t h e m o n a s t i c r e v i v a l t o t h e Norman C o n q u e s t ) . The T a y l o r s e l a b o r a t e d on t h i s s y s t e m i n 1965 by s u b d i v i d i n g t h e t h r e e p e r i o d s a s f o l l o w s : 600 ( A , ) , 650 (A«), 700 ( A - ) , 750 800 ( B 7 ) , 850 ( B ? ) , 900 ( B ~ ) , 950 . 950 ( C p , 1000 ( C ^ ) , 1050 ( C 3 ) , 1100 I t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o i m p r o v e on t h e s y s t e m a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y i t w i l l be e m p l o y e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h e s i s . 4 REFERENCES XA.W. C l a p h a m , E n g l i s h Romanesque A r c h i t e c t u r e B e f o r e t h e  C o n q u e s t / ( O x f o r d , 1930), p.78. E r i c G.M. F l e t c h e r a n d E. D u d l e y J a c k s o n , " 'Long and S h o r t 1 Q u o i n s a nd P i l a s t e r S t r i p s i n S a x o n C h u r c h e s , " B r i t i s h A r c h a e o l o g i c a l  A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , s e r i e s 3, 9 (1944), T2-29. E r i c G.M. F l e t c h e r a n d E. D u d l e y J a c k s o n , " F u r t h e r N o t e s on 'Long a nd S h o r t ' Q u o i n s i n S a x o n C h u r c h e s , " B r i t i s h A r c h a e o l o g i c a l  A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , s e r i e s 3, 11 (1949), 1-18. 3 H.M. T a y l o r and J o a n T a y l o r , A n g l o - S a x o n A r c h i t e c t u r e , v o l . I I , ( C a m b r i d g e , 19 65), x x v . 4 G. B a l d w i n B r o w n , The A r t s i n E a r l y E n g l a n d - A n g l o - S a x o n  A r c h i t e c t u r e , ( L o n d o n , 1925), p.5. T a y l o r , 1965, x x v . CHAPTER I THE HISTORICAL HERITAGE The h i s t o r y o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n k i n g d o m o f N o r t h u m b r i a ( w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e modern c o u n t y o f Y o r k s h i r e ) was one o f i s o l a t i o n , u n r e s t and s t u b b o r n i n d e p e n d e n c e . S e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e s o u t h e r n k i n g d o m s b y t h e w i d e e s t u a r y o f the (Humber, t h e n o r t h e r n p e o p l e s w e r e hemmed i n by h i l l s a n d moors and c o n s t a n t l y s u b j e c t t o t h e h a r a s s m e n t o f t h e P i c t s , t h e S c o t s , t h e n o r t h e r n W e l s h , and t h e V i k i n g s . As a r e s u l t , t h e y d e v e l o p e d a u n i q u e a n d , d e s p i t e t h e i r i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n , s u r p r i s i n g l y r i c h c u l t u r e t o w h i c h t h e y c l u n g f e r o c i o u s l y l o n g a f t e r t h e Normans h a d e f f e c t e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c c h a n g e o n t h e r e s t o f E n g l a n d . N o r t h u m b r i a was i n i t i a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o two s e p a r a t e k i n g d o m s , B e r n i c i a , w h i c h s t r e t c h e d n o r t h f r o m t h e Tyne t o t h e F i r t h o f F o r t h , a n d D e i r a , w h i c h c o m p r i s e d t h e a r e a b e t w e e n t h e Tyne and t h e Humber. T h e s e two p r o v i n c e s w e r e f i r s t r e f e r r e d t o i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e y e a r 547. Bede s t a t e d t h a t a t t h e t i m e I d a f o u n d e d B e r n i c i a , t h e l a r g e r a nd more p o w e r f u l o f t h e two."*" A f t e r t h e d e a t h o f AE11a i n 5 9 3 , A E t h e l f r i t h o f B e r n i c i a s e i z e d 2 D e i r a and u n i t e d t h e two k i n g d o m s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . He s t r e n g t h e n e d h i s p o s i t i o n by d e f e a t i n g t h e S c o t s o f D a l r i a d a i n 4 603 and t h e B r i t o n s (Welsh) a t C h e s t e r i n 613. A E t h e l f r i t h , who h a d u s u r p e d t h e D e i r a n t h r o n e , was 5 6 4 d e f e a t e d a n d k i l l e d by E d w i n , t h e r i g h t f u l h e i r , i n 616. I t was E d w i n who f i r s t p e r m i t t e d : t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s i n t o N o r t h u m b r i a . He m a r r i e d IE t h e l b u r g , t h e C h r i s t i a n d a u g h t e r o f A E t h e l b e r t o f K e n t , a n d when s h e came n o r t h s h e b r o u g h t w i t h h e r t h e Roman m i s s i o n a r y P a u l i n u s , who became t h e f i r s t b i s h o p o f Y o r k i n 627 a n d , a s a r e s u l t o f h i s a c t i o n , m o s t o f t h e n o b l e s o f t h e c o u r t w e r e c o n v e r t e d a s w e l l . E d w i n was d e f e a t e d a n d k i l l e d a t H a t f i e l d C h a s e i n 633 by t h e c o m b i n e d f o r c e s o f P e n d a o f M e r c i a 5 and C a d w a l l o n , . K i n g o f N o r t h W a l e s . P a u l i n u s a n d IE t h e l b u r g f l e d s o u t h t o s a f e t y a n d N o r t h u m b r i a r e v e r t e d t o p a g a n i s m . P e n d a o f M e r c i a c o n t i n u e d t o c a u s e much p o l i t i c a l a n d m i l i t a r y u n r e s t i n N o r t h u m b r i a b u t h i s t h r e a t e n i n g p r e s e n c e d i d n o t p r e v e n t O s w a l d , who o n c e a g a i n u n i t e d B e r n i c i a ' a n d D e i r a , f r o m r e i n t r o d u c i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y d u r i n g h i s r e i g n , ; (634 - 6 4 2 ) . ^ O s w a l d i n v i t e d t h e C e l t i c monk, A i d a n o f I o n a , t o N o r t h u m b r i a . A i d a n e s t a b l i s h e d h i s own f o r m o f I r i s h m o n a s t i c i s m a n d he e r e c t e d a m o n a s t e r y a t L i n d l s f a r n e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e f i r s t p e r m a n e n t i n t r o d u c t i o n o f an o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n i n t o t h e n o r t h was C e l t i c , n o t Roman. P e n d a k i l l e d O s w a l d i n 64 2 and h e , i n t u r n , was d e f e a t e d 7 and k i l l e d by O s w i u i n 655. A s a r e s u l t o f h i s v i c t o r y , O s w i u e x t e n d e d h i s power o v e r t h e s o u t h e r n E n g l i s h k i n g d o m s a n d became t h e f i r s t o f f i v e n o r t h e r n k i n g s t o assume t h e t i t l e o f B r e t w a l d a . He w a s > a l s o a n a d h e r e n t o f t h e C e l t i c o r I r i s h f o r m o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . g t h o u g h h i s w i f e f o l l o w e d t h e Roman c u s t o m . T h i s l e d t o c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f u s i o n a t c o u r t s i n c e t h e two f o l l o w e d d i f f e r e n t e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c a l e n d a r s a n d m a j o r f e s t i v a l s , s u c h a s E a s t e r a n d L e n t , w e r e 7 c e l e b r a t e d a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . I n a d d i t i o n , a d e s i r e t o f o l l o w t h e Roman C h u r c h was g r o w i n g among some n o r t h e r n e c c l e s i a s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g W i l f r i d o f R i p o n , who h a d b e e n a monk a t L i n d i s f a r n e b u t had c h a n g e d h i s a l l e g i a n c e a f t e r v i s i t i n g Rome. The c o n t r o v e r s y came t o a h e a d a t t h e S y n o d o f W h i t b y , 9 h e l d i n 664. C o l m a n , B i s h o p o f L i n d i s f a r n e , r e p r e s e n t e d t h e , C e l t i c p a r t y w h i l e W i l f r i d s p o k e f o r t h e Roman c a u s e . O s w i u r e a l i z e d t h a t i t was more p r a c t i c a l t o f o l l o w t h e c u s t o m s o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n p e o p l e s and t h e Roman C h u r c h emerged v i c t o r i o u s . I t was t h e n p o s s i b l e t o i n t r o d u c e a n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s y s t e m i n t o N o r t h u m b r i a w h i c h was b a s e d n o t o n t h e m o n a s t e r y , b u t on t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l p a r i s h c h u r c h e s p r e s i d e d o v e r by l o c a l p r i e s t s . T h e s e , i n t u r n , w e r e c o n t r o l l e d by b i s h o p s who h e l d p e r m a n e n t s e a t s w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s e e s . S u c h an o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h r e m a i n s i n t a c t t o d a y , b r o u g h t N o r t h u m b r i a o u t o f i t s r e l i g i o u s i s o l a t i o n a n d a l i g n e d i t w i t h t h e r e s t o f E n g l a n d . A f t e r t h e S y n o d o f W h i t b y t h e r e was a r e m a r k a b l e f l o w e r i n g o f a r t and l e a r n i n g i n N o r t h u m b r i a w h i c h seemed a l l t h e more r e m a r k a b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e k i n g d o m ' s r e m o t e n e s s a n d r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n . The b a s i s o f t h i s c u l t u r a l g r o w t h was m o n a s t i c a n d i t was m a r k e d by s t r o n g C e l t i c , M e d i t e r r a n e a n a n d G e r m a n i c i n f l u e n c e s . I n t h e f i e l d s o f l i t e r a t u r e a n d t e a c h i n g i t p r o d u c e d s u c h s c h o l a r s a s Bede a n d A l c u i n a nd a v i d p a t r o n s s u c h a s B e n e d i c t B i s c o p , a n a t i v e N o r t h u m b r i a n , who a r r i v e d f r o m Rome w i t h T h e o d o r e o f T a r s u s , A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y , i n 669. I n 6 74 B i s c o p f o u n d e d t h e m o n a s t e r y a t Monkwearmouth and i t was there t h a t Bede completed h i s E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y , 11 12 ca.731. In 685 Jarrow, a s i s t e r house, was d e d i c a t e d . The importance of t h i s twin f o u n d a t i o n l a y i n the g r e a t l i b r a r y B enedict B i s c o p had c o l l e c t e d t h e r e . I t was composed of books he had brought back with him from h i s v a r i o u s t r i p s to Rome and these were used as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n by Bede. Bede, i n t u r n , g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d Egbert, f i r s t Archbishop of York, who i n 735 e s t a b l i s h e d h i s famous s c h o o l and l i b r a r y a t York 13 M i n s t e r . Egbert's g r e a t e s t p u p i l was A l c u i n , who l e f t h i s t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n a t the c a t h e d r a l s c h o o l i n 782 i n order 14 to take an i n f l u e n t i a l post a t the Court of Charlemagne. As a r e s u l t of h i s move, E n g l i s h a r t s and l e t t e r s flowed 15 to the Continent,; where they had a profound e f f e c t . B enedict B i s c op's i n f l u e n c e was f e l t not o n l y i n the f i e l d s of l e a r n i n g and l i t e r a t u r e . A man of cosmopolitan t a s t e s , he a l s o imported G a l l i c masons and glass-makers to e r e c t h i s twin monastery of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow. L i t t l e remains of the two s t r u c t u r e s and the o n l y e i g h t h century: stone .church to s u r v i v e i n t a c t i n the n o r t h i s l o c a t e d a t Escomb, Co. Durham."*"^ However, Biscop was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the more advanced c o n t i n e n t a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s i n t o a kingdom where b u i l d i n g s were s t i l l predominantly c o n s t r u c t e d of wood. In a d d i t i o n to these developments i n the areas of l i t e r a t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e d u r i n g the e i g h t h century, the emergence of a s c u l p t u r a l t r a d i t i o n a l s o o c c u r r e d . Most o f t e n i t took the form of stone c r o s s e s and grave s l a b s and the s t y l e of the c a r v i n g s was an uneasy combination of I t a l i a n f i g u r e 9 17 and v i n e s c r o l l , t h e C e l t i c s p i r a l , a n d G e r m a n i c a n i m a l i n t e r l a c e . C h r i s t i a n a n d p a g a n themes a p p e a r e d s i d e by s i d e on t h e F r a n k s C a s k e t w h i l e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f d e c o r a t i v e d e s i g n s and f i g u r a l s c u l p t u r e a d o r n e d t h e f a c e s o f t h e R u t h w e l l and B e w c a s t l e 18 C r o s s e s , b o t h c o m p l e t e d c a . 7 0 0 . R a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t a l s o o c c u r r e d i n m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n . M a s t e r p i e c e s s u c h a s t h e L i n d i s f a r n e G o s p e l s , t h e . C o d e x A m i a t i n u s a n d t h e E c h t e r n a c h G o s p e l s were, a M , ' p r o d u c e d i n t h e v a r i o u s 19 m o n a s t i c s c r i p t o r i a o f N o r t h u m b r i a c a . 7 0 0 . They a l s o showed, t h o u g h i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , C e l t i c , G e r m a n i c and M e d i t e r r a n e a n i n f l u e n c e s . The p a t r o n a g e o f B e n e d i c t B i s c o p , t h e t e a c h i n g o f A l c u i n , v t h e w r i t i n g s o f B e d e , and t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f many anonymous c a r v e r s a n d i l l u m i n a t o r s , a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e o f e i g h t h c e n t u r y N o r t h u m b r i a . H owever, t h i s movement was t o t a l l y d e s t r o y e d by t h e D a n i s h i n v a s i o n s o f t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y a n d a s o c i e t y w h i c h h a d b e g u n t o merge and f l o w w i t h t h e r e s t o f E n g l a n d and t h e C o n t i n e n t was a t o n c e t h r u s t b a c k i n t o an i s o l a t e d a nd v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n . N o t u n t i l t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y was s u f f i c i e n t s t a b i l i t y r e s t o r e d t o e n a b l e t h e n o r t h e r n p e o p l e s t o o n c e a g a i n p u r s u e t h e i r c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . By t h a t t i m e , h o w e v e r , t h e p a t h o f i n f l u e n c e h a d b e e n r e v e r s e d a n d O t t o n i a n s t y l e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n 20 a n d s c u l p t u r e moved f r o m t h e C o n t i n e n t t o N o r t h u m b r i a . T h i s r e v e r s e f l o w p l u s t h e new p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l o u t l o o k c r e a t e d by t h e i n f l u x o f S c a n d i n a v i a n s e t t l e r s , i n i t i a t e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new a r t i s t i c s t y l e , b u t one w h i c h s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d s t r o n g 10 t r a c e s o f i t s e i g h t h c e n t u r y h e r i t a g e . The V i k i n g i n v a s i o n s b e g a n i n 789 a n d L i n d i s f a r n e was 21 s a c k e d i n 793. I n i t i a l l y t h e r a i d e r s came i n t h e s p r i n g a n d l e f t i n t h e autumn. T h e i r t a r g e t s w e r e t h e r i c h a n d v u l n e r a b l e m o n a s t e r i e s w h i c h w e r e o f t e n l o c a t e d i n i s o l a t e d c o a s t a l a r e a s and w e r e t h e r e f o r e e a s i l y a t t a c k e d . H o w e v e r , i n t h e m i d - n i n t h c e n t u r y t h e i n c u r s i o n s became more p e r m a n e n t as t h e Danes b e g a n t o s e t t l e i n N o r t h u m b r i a . I n , 876 H a l f d a n a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s s e t t l e d i n Y o r k s h i r e a f t e r r a i d i n g i n s o u t h e r n E n g l a n d a nd i n 883 t h e . D a n i s h C h r i s t i a n C n u t was e l e c t e d K i n g o f N o r t h u m b r i a , 22 m a k i n g Y o r k h i s c a p i t a l . The c o n f u s e d p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . c o n t i n u e d i n t h e N o r t h , r e s u l t i n g i n i n c r e a s e d i s o l a t i o n i s m a n d a m i x i n g o f t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n a n d A n g l i a n p e o p l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was a b i s e c t i n g a n d w e a k e n i n g o f t h e n o r t h e r n k i n g d o m . H o w e v e r , i n 920.Edward t h e E l d e r , t h e s o n o f A l f r e d o f W e s s e x , r e c e i v e d t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e K i n g o f t h e S c o t s , t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n r u l e r o f Y o r k , E a d r e d (who r u l e d a l l t h a t r e m a i n e d o f E n g l i s h N o r t h u m b r i a ) , 2 3 an d a l l o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e n o r t h no m a t t e r w h a t t h e i r o r i g i n . I n 954 t h e V i k i n g K i n g d o m o f Y o r k c o l l a p s e d a n d u n d e r E a d r e d o f W e s sex, N o r t h u m b r i a was p e r m a n e n t l y r e d u c e d t o t h e p o s i t i o n 24 o f an e a r l d o m . F r o m t h a t p o i n t on n o r t h e r n h i s t o r y was i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h t h a t o f t h e r e s t o f E n g l a n d , b u t t h e f i e r c e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e p e o p l e a nd t h e i r u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o s u b m i t t o t h e r u l e o f a s o u t h e r n k i n g was m a r k e d b y c o n s t a n t u p h e a v a l . I n 959 E d g a r o f Wessex became t h e s o l e m o n a r c h o f E n g l a n d , a n d an o r d e r l y s y s t e m o f r o y a l s u c c e s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d d e s p i t e 11 25 t h e f a c t t h a t t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n , C n u t , became k i n g i n 1016. The m o n a r c h y was r e s t o r e d t o t h e h o u s e o f Wessex i n 1042 when Ed w a r d t h e C o n f e s s o r a s c e n d e d t h e t h r o n e . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d p o l i t i c a l power was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e s o u t h o f E n g l a n d and t h e N o r t h was l i t t l e more t h a n a t r o u b l e s o m e p r o v i n c e . E d w a r d t h e C o n f e s s o r , a d e e p l y r e l i g i o u s man, h a d s p e n t many y e a r s a t t h e Norman c o u r t o f Duke W i l l i a m . H i s o b v i o u s f a v o u r i n g o f Norman r e t a i n e r s a nd h i s f o r e i g n h a b i t s and c u s t o m s must h a v e b e e n - l o o k e d on w i t h s u s p i c i o n by t h e A n g l o - S a x o n l o r d s . E d w a r d was n o t an e f f e c t i v e o r a s t r o n g k i n g b u t h i s power was b o l s t e r e d by a g r o u p o f a m b i t i o u s e a r l s , t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f whom was Godwine o f Wessex, t h e f a t h e r o f T o s t i g and H a r o l d , * • • • 26 who became e a r l when h i s f a t h e r d i e d . i n 1053. * The e a r l d o m o f N o r t h u m b r i a , r e m o t e and c o n s t a n t l y t h r e a t e n e d by t h e S c o t s and t h e D a n e s , was a d i f f i c u l t a r e a t o r u l e . C n u t h a d g i v e n i t t o S i w a r d , a s t r o n g and v i g o r o u s D a n i s h w a r r i o r who was a c c e p t e d t h e r e and who c o n t r o l l e d t h e u n r u l y p o p u l a t i o n w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s u n t i l h i s d e a t h 27 i n 1055. A t t h a t t i m e E d w a r d , who f a v o u r e d G o d w i n e 1 s s o n s , a p p o i n t e d T o s t i g e a r l o f N o r t h u m b r i a . R e s e n t m e n t t o w a r d s t h i s s o u t h e r n s t r a n g e r g r e w o v e r t h e n e x t t e n y e a r s . F r e q u e n t l y a b s e n t f r o m t h e N o r t h , T o s t i g l e f t h i s d e p u t y , C o p s i g , i n c h a r g e . He was.a man who r u l e d o p p r e s i v e l y a n d who was n o t a b o v e m u r d e r . Two o f t h i s v i c t i m s w e r e Gamal,; Orm's s o n , whose name i s c a r v e d on t h e d i a l a t K i r k d a l e c h u r c h , , and Ulf/...thane o f L i n t o n , who a l s o f i g u r e s p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c e r t a i n c h u r c h e s i n Y o r k s h i r e . 12 I n 1065 t h e p e o p l e f i n a l l y r o s e i n o p e n r e v o l t a nd a t t a c k e d and p l u n d e r e d T o s t i g ' s p a l a c e i n Y o r k , k i l l i n g m o s t o f h i s 2 8 r e t a i n e r s . The i n s u r g e n t s c h o s e M o r c a r , g r a n d s o n o f L e o f r i c , e a r l o f L e i c e s t e r , , f o r t h e i r new l e a d e r . T o s t i g was w i t h t h e k i n g a t S a l i s b u r y a t t h e t i m e a n d t h u s e s c a p e d t h e f a t e o f h i s f o l l o w e r s , b u t H a r o l d ' s a t t e m p t t o a f f e c t a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h the. N o r t h u m b r i a n s f a i l e d a n d h i s b r o t h e r was f o r c e d t o l e a v e E n g l a n d . E d w a r d was p o w e r l e s s t o a i d T o s t i g a nd H a r o l d f e l t i t was more p r u d e n t t o a c c e d e t o t h e demands o f t h e m a j o r i t y b e c a u s e he w a n t e d t h e t h r o n e f o r h i m s e l f . On J a n u a r y 5, 1066 E d w a r d t h e C o n f e s s o r d i e d a n d t h e W i t a n i m m e d i a t e l y e l e c t e d H a r o l d k i n g , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t Duke W i l l i a m o f Normandy h a d p r o b a b l y b e e n p r o m i s e d t h e t h r o n e 29 when E d w a r d was i n e x i l e a t h i s c o u r t . H o w e v e r , H a r o l d was n o t a l l o w e d , t h e t i m e i n w h i c h t o c o n s o l i d a t e h i s p o w e r . The N o r t h u m b r i a n s a g a i n r e v e a l e d t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e and d i s l i k e o f c h a n g e when t h e y r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t H a r o l d a s t h e i r k i n g u n t i l he v i s i t e d t h e N o r t h a n d c o n f r o n t e d . t h e m . A l w a y s aware t h a t he w o u l d h a v e t o f a c e t h e w r a t h o f t h e r e j e c t e d W i l l i a m , H a r o l d was f i r s t f o r c e d t o f i g h t h i s b r o t h e r , who h a d s w o r n r e v e n g e f o r h i s b e t r a y a l o f f a m i l y l o y a l t y . A s s e m b l i n g a f l e e t , T o s t i g a p p e a r e d o f f t h e I s l e o f W i g h t i n . M a y 1066 a n d l a n d e d a t S a n d w i c h , w here he was d e f e a t e d by E a r l E d w i n o f L i n d s e y and M o r c a r o f N o r t h u m b r i a . " ^ He b a r e l y m anaged.to e s c a p e t o S c o t l a n d . M a k i n g h i s way f r o m t h e r e t o N o r w a y , he c o n c l u d e d a p a c t w i t h H a r o l d H a r d r a d a a n d , c o m b i n i n g t h e i r two f l e e t s , 31 t h e y a t t a c k e d Y o r k and d e f e a t e d E d w i n and M o r c a r . D e p r i v e d 13 o f t h e i r l e a d e r s , t h e men o f Y o r k w e r e f o r c e d t o make p e a c e w i t h t h e i n s u r g e n t s . K n o w i n g t h a t W i l l i a m was a t l a s t c o n c e n t r a t i n g h i s f o r c e s f o r t h e a t t a c k , H a r o l d was n o n e t h e l e s s f o r c e d t o m a r c h n o r t h , w here he d e f e a t e d a n d k i l l e d H a r o l d . H a r d r a d a a n d T o s t i g 32 a t S t a m f o r d B r i d g e on S e p t e m b e r 25. W h i l e t h e A n g l o - S a x o n k i n g was c e l e b r a t i n g h i s v i c t o r y a t Y o r k , W i l l i a m s e t s a i l f o r E n g l a n d . H a r o l d was s t i l l i n t h e c i t y on O c t o b e r 1, when t h e 33 news a r r i v e d o f t h e Norman l a n d i n g o n t h e S u s s e x c o a s t . W i t h i n c r e d i b l e s p e e d H a r o l d . c o m p l e t e d . h i s p a c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e N o r t h a n d c o v e r e d t h e d i s t a n c e . t o L o n d o n , g a t h e r i n g h i s army a l o n g t h e way. He met W i l l i a m a t H a s t i n g s on O c t o b e r 14, 1066 t h o u g h 34 h i s army was n o t f u l l y a s s e m b l e d . Once a g a i n t h e p e o p l e o f t h e N o r t h b e t r a y e d t h e i r s o u t h e r n l e a d e r . T h i s t i m e E d w i n and Morcar., who h a d f o u g h t s o f i e r c e l y a g a i n s t t h e i n c u r s i o n s o f T o s t i g and H a r o l d H a r d r a d a , h e l d b a c k t h e i r c o n t i n g e n t s . The k i n g ' s t i r e d a n d u n d i s c i p l i n e d f o r c e was d e f e a t e d , H a r o l d was k i l l e d , a n d t h e . L o n d o n e r s , a n x i o u s f o r a s t r o n g a n d s t a b i l e g o v e r n m e n t , named Duke W i l l i a m k i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e Norman C o n q u e s t was f a r f r o m c o m p l e t e . Once a g a i n d i s a f f e c t i o n was c e n t r e d i n t h e N o r t h w h e r e t h e r e a c t i o n t o any new r u l e r seemed t o be t h a t o f d i s t r u s t a n d s u s p i c i o n . F o r a t i m e N o r t h u m b r i a d i d a c c e p t W i l l i a m b u t he made t h e m i s t a k e o f c o m m i t t i n g , t h e p r o v i n c e t o t h e c a r e o f C o p s i g , t h e A n g l o - S a x o n t h a n e who h a d b e e n u n i v e r s a l l y d i s l i k e d d u r i n g T o s t i g ' s t e n u r e a s e a r l . When t h e C o n q u e r o r r e t u r n e d 35 t o Normandy i n 1067, t h e d i s a f f e c t i o n b e g a n t o s p r e a d . F i n a l l y 14 M o r c a r . a n d E d w i n , who h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e t r a y e d H a r o l d , r a i s e d t h e s t a n d a r d o f r e v o l t . E d g a r t h e A E t h e l i n g , who many f e l t was t h e r i g h t f u l A n g l o - S a x o n h e i r t o t h e t h r o n e , h a s t e n e d f r o m S c o t l a n d t o Durham w h e r e t h e Norman g a r r i s o n was s l a u g h t e r e d . From Durham t h e i n s u r g e n t s moved t o Y o r k , w h i c h w i l l i n g l y o p e n e d i t s g a t e s t o them a n d , s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t s o f M a l c o l m o f S c o t l a n d and B e t h w i n o f W a l e s , t h e y p r e p a r e d t o meet W i l l i a m , who h a d r e t u r n e d h u r r i e d l y f r o m Normandy. S u r p r i s i n g t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s a t Y o r k , t h e C o n q u e r o r d e f e a t e d them b e f o r e t h e y c o u l d c o m p l e t e t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n s a nd M o r c a r , E d w i n , G o s p a t r i c , .and E d g a r f l e d t o S c o t l a n d . The c i t i z e n s o f Y o r k r e c e i v e d t h e m e r c y o f t h e k i n g b u t t h i s t i m e he was u n w i l l i n g t o p u t t h e c o n t r o l o f N o r t h u m b r i a u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f a n . A n g l o - S a x o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , he a p p o i n t e d R o b e r t de C o m i n e s e a r l o f Durham and g a v e h i s a p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e t o a d m i n i s t e r . The n o r t h e r n e r s a g a i n s showed t h e i r d i s a f f e c t i o n a n d e a r l y i n 1069 t h e Norman f o r c e u n d e r R o b e r t ' s l e a d e r s h i p was 3 6 a n n i h i l a t e d a t Durham. T h i s s u c c e s s e n c o u r a g e d t h e A n g l o - S a x o n s and i n t h e same y e a r G o s p a t r i c , f o r m e r e a r l o f N o r t h u m b r i a ; W a l t h e o f ; E d w a r d t h e ^ E t h e l i n g ; t h e S c o t t i s h e x i l e s ; a n d t h e .Danes, whose a i d was s o l i c i t e d ; m a r c h e d t o Y o r k . W i l l i a m M a l e t , who was i n command o f t h e g a r r i s o n , s e n t an u r g e n t a p p e a l f o r h e l p t o t h e k i n g . He and h i s men w e r e p r e p a r i n g f o r an a t t a c k b u t w h i l e d o i n g s o t h e y s e t f i r e t o some d w e l l i n g s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r t h e enemy. The f i r e s p r e a d and b u r n t t h e M i n s t e r a n d i t s l i b r a r y a n d i n t h e c o n f u s i o n t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e A n g l o - S a x o n 15 an d D a n i s h t r o o p s e n t e r e d t h e c i t y a n d a n n i h i l a t e d t h e Norman f o r c e . T h i s t i m e W i l l i a m d e c l a r e d t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o p e r m a n e n t l y c r u s h t h e r e b e l l i o n , b y any means, no m a t t e r how d r a s t i c . W h i l e he h e a d e d n o r t h , W a l t h e o f was a p p o i n t e d g o v e r n o r o f Y o r k and t h e D a n i s h t r o o p s t o o k c o n t r o l o f . t h e a r e a b e t w e e n t h e T r e n t and t h e Humber i n o r d e r t o s t o p t h e Norman a d v a n c e . T h i s t h e y f a i l e d t o do. F e a r i n g t h e v e n g e a n c e o f t h e k i n g , t h e y q u i c k l y r e t r e a t e d t o L i n d s e y w h e r e t h e y w e r e c o m p l e t e l y r o u t e d . W i l l i a m l a i d s e i g e t o t h e a l r e a d y b e l e a g u e r e d c i t y w h i c h managed t o h o l d o u t f o r s i x m o n t h s . When f a m i n e f i n a l l y f o r c e d Y o r k ' s c a p i t u l a t i o n , b o t h W a l t h e o f a n d G o s p a t r i c w e r e h o n o u r a b l y p a r d o n e d f o r t h e i r b r a v e ...stand. W a l t h e o f ' s e s t a t e s w e r e r e t u r n e d t o h i m and G o s p a t r i c was r e i n s t a t e d t o h i s N o r t h u m b r i a n e a r l d o m , b u t d e s p i t e t h i s i n i t i a l l e n i e n c y , t h e C o n q u e r o r was s t i l l d e t e r m i n e d t o t o t a l l y s tamp o u t t h e c a u s e s o f i n s u r r e c t i o n . He t h e r e f o r e : s e t f i r e a n d s w o r d t o a t r a c t o f l a n d e i g h t y m i l e s w i d e , l y i n g b e t w e e n t h e Humber a n d . t h e Tyne a n d e x t e n d i n g a s f a r n o r t h a s Durham. P e o p l e , homes, c r o p s , farm, i m p l e m e n t s , and a n i m a l s w e r e d e s t r o y e d w i t h o u t c o m p u n c t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , he l a i d w a s t e t o a l a r g e a r c o f l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g Y o r k , w h i c h seemed t o be t h e c e n t r e o f t h e d i s c o n t e n t . So c o m p l e t e was t h e d e v a s t a t i o n . , e s p e c i a l l y i n w h a t now c o m p r i s e s t h e E a s t a nd West R i d i n g s o f Y o r k s h i r e , t h a t i n 10 86, when t h e Domesday S u r v e y was c o m p l e t e d , t h i s a r e a was s t i l l d e s o l a t e a nd p o v e r t y s t r i c k e n . T h i s was most g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e p r e - a n d p o s t - 1 0 6 6 v a l u e s o f t h e v a r i o u s manors a n d by t h e f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o 16 w a s t e l a n d . A monk o f M a l m e s b u r y w r o t e a f t e r t h e e v e n t t h a t , "100,000 p e o p l e d i e d as a r e s u l t and f o r n i n e y e a r s a f t e r t h e r e '37 was n o t a p a t c h o f c u l t i v a t e d g r o u n d b e t w e e n Y o r k and Durham". The i n d e p e n d e n t , c o n s e r v a t i v e n a t u r e o f N o r t h u m b r i a w a s / c o n s t a n t l y r e f l e c t e d i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I s o l a t e d among h i l l s a n d m o o r s , i n e v i t a b l y f i g h t i n g t h e i n c u r s i o n s o f o t h e r n o r t h e r n p e o p l e s , D e i r a . a n d B e r n i c i a w e r e f i n a l l y f o r c e d i n t o a u n i o n , t h u s c r e a t i n g a s t r o n g a n d i n d e p e n d e n t k i n g d o m . C h r i s t i a n i t y came s l o w l y a n d . p a i n f u l l y t o t h e N o r t h a n d when i t d i d a r r i v e , i t was o f t h e C e l t i c o r I r i s h t y p e . B e c a u s e t h e r e s t o f E n g l a n d f o l l o w e d t h e Roman t r a d i t i o n , t h i s f a c t a d d e d t o t h e i s o l a t i o n o f N o r t h u m b r i a . The p r o b l e m " w a s r e c t i f i e d i n 664 w i t h t h e S y n o d o f W h i t b y and t h e c h a n g e was r e f l e c t e d " i n t h e s u d d e n f l o w e r i n g o f a r t s and - l e t t e r s i n t h e n o r t h e r n m o n a s t e r i e s . I t was p r o m p t e d by a f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d i d e a s f r o m b o t h s o u t h e r n E n g l a n d and t h e . C o n t i n e n t . T h i s c u l t u r a l i n f l u x was v i o l e n t l y t e r m i n a t e d w i t h t h e c o m i n g o f t h e V i k i n g s d u r i n g t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y . T h e s e i n v a s i o n s o n c e a g a i n , c u t " t h e N o r t h o f f f r o m t h e S o u t h a n d . t h e r e s u l t i n g p o l i t i c a l c o n f u s i o n was i n c r e a s e d by t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f a l a r g e . S c a n d i n a v i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e k i n g d o m . The N o r s e s t r a i n r e i n f o r c e d t h e w a r l i k e , i n d e p e n d e n t n a t u r e o f t h e n a t i v e s and f u r t h e r a l i e n a t e d them f r o m t h e s o u t h e r n A n g l o - S a x o n s . N o t u n t i l 954 was D a n i s h r u l e e n d e d i n N o r t h u m b r i a . The c o n s e r v a t i v e N o r t h u m b r i a n s w e r e u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h e s u p r e m a c y o f t h e h o u s e o f Wessex i n t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y . T h i s was i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e i r r e f u s a l t o r e c o g n i z e E d w a r d t h e C o n f e s s o r ' s c h o i c e o f T o s t i g a s t h e i r e a r l . I t was a l s o r e v e a l e d i n t h e i r i n i t i a l r e f u s a l t o a c c e p t H a r o l d a s k i n g and i n t h e i r l a t e r u n e q u i v o c a l r e j e c t i o n o f W i l l i a m t h e C o n q u e r o r . A l w a y s p r e f e r r i n g t h e a i d o f t h e Danes and o f t h e i r own n o r t h e r n l e a d e r s , t h e y c o n t i n u e d i n an o p e n h o s t i l i t y w h i c h t h e C o n q u e r o r f e l t - h e c o u l d subdue o n l y by e x t r e m e m e a s u r e s . The i n i t i a l f l o w e r i n g o f N o r t h u m b r i a n c u l t u r e h a d b e e n f r o z e n a s 'a r e s u l t o f t h e D a n i s h i n v a s i o n s and t h e i n n a t e c o n s e r v a t i s m and s u s p i c i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n was r e i n f o r c e d by t h e t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a r e a now known as Y o r k s h i r e . I t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t w e l l i n t o t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y and l o n g a f t e r t h e y h a d d i s a p p e a r e d i n t h e r e s t o f E n g l a n d , t r a c e s o f A n g l o - S a x o n t h o u g h t , a r t i s t i c s t y l e • a n d . b u i l d i n g s h o u l d h ave r e m a i n e d i n N o r t h u m b r i a . 18 REFERENCES "''Peter H u n t e r B l a i r , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A n g l o - S a x o n E n g l a n d , ( C a m b r i d g , 1959), p.43. 2 B l a i r , 1959, 44. 3 B l a i r , 1959, 44. A. H a m i l t o n Thompson, " E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y , " i n The  V i c t o r i a C o u n t y H i s t o r y o f t h e C o u n t y o f Y o r k , v o l . I l l , e d . W i l l i a m Page ( L o n d o n , 1913), p.393. 4 F..M. S t e n t o n , A n g l o - S a x o n E n g l a n d , 3rd. e d . ( O x f o r d , 1971) , p.79. 5 " H i s t o r y o f Y o r k s h i r e , " i n B u l m e r ' s H i s t o r y , T o p o g r a p h y  and D i r e c t o r y o f N o r t h Y o r k s h i r e , e d . T. B u l m e r a nd Co. ( A s h t o n - o n - R i b b l e , 1890), p.27. 6 B l a i r , 1959, 45. 7 B u l m e r , 1890, 28. 8 B l a i r , 1959, 133-134. S t e n t o n , 1971, 119-120. 9 B l a i r , 1959, 131. 1 0 B l a i r , 1959, 135. i : L S t e n t o n , 1971, 145. 1 2 B l a i r , 1959, 139. 1 3 S t e n t o n , 1971, 187. 1 4 B l a i r , 1959, 165-166. ' 1 5 B l a i r , 1959, 162. ' s t e n t o n , 1971, 189. 1 6 S t e n t o n , 1971, 151. 1 7 B l a i r , 1959, 316. A good g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s i s f o u n d i n C h a p t e r V I I , " E a r l y N o r t h u m b r i a n C r o s s e s , " o f K e n d r i c k ' s b o o k . T.D. K e n d r i c k , A n g l o - S a x o n A r t t o A.D. 900, ( L o n d o n , 1938), pp.126-142. 19 1 8 B l a i r , 1 9 5 9 , 316. 1 9 K e n d r i c k , 1938, 132-136. 2 0 S t e n t o n , 1 9 7 1 , 442-443. 2 1 B u l m e r , 1890, 32. B l a i r , 1 9 5 9 , 55. 2 2 B l a i r , 1 9 5 9 , 73. L . F . S a l z m a n n , " P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y t o 1660," i n The V i c t o r i a  C o u n t y H i s t o r y o f t h e C o u n t y o f Y o r k , v o l . I l l , e d . W i l l i a m Page ( L o n d o n , 1 9 1 3 ) , p.394. 2 3 B l a i r , 1 9 5 9 , 78. 24 t S a l z m a n n , 1 9 1 3 , 395. 2 5 B l a i r , 1 959, 91. 2 6 S t e n t o n , 1 9 7 1 , 569. 2 7 B u l m e r , 1890, 37. 2 8 S a l z m a n n , 1 9 1 3 , 395. 2 9 S a l z m a n n , 1 9 1 3 , 395. 3 0 S t e n t o n , 1 9 7 1 , 586. 3 1 S t e n t o n , 1 9 7 1 , 588. 3 2 S t e n t o n , 1 9 7 1 , 598. 33 S a l z m a n n , 1 9 1 3 , 396. 3 4 B u l m e r , 1 8 9 0 , 38. 3 5 S a l z m a n n , 1 9 1 3 , 396. S a l z m a n n , 1 9 1 3 , 396. 3 7 B u l m e r , 1 8 9 0 , 50. CHAPTER I I THE ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE A n g l o - S a x o n A. P l a n 1. K e n t i s h : The f i r s t two t y p e s o f A n g l o - S a x o n m a s o n r y c h u r c h e s f o u n d i n E n g l a n d w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s t h e K e n t i s h p l a n , a s o u t h e r n d e v e l o p m e n t , a nd t h e N o r t h u m b r i a n p l a n , d e v e l o p e d i n t h e N o r t h . The K e n t i s h monuments w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d b y c o n t i n e n t a l masons i n t h e l a t e s i x t h c e n t u r y a nd t h e e a r l y s e v e n t h c e n t u r y , (ca.599 - c a . 666).^ I n E n g l i s h Romanesque A r c h i t e c t u r e B e f o r e t h e C o n q u e s t , A.W. C l a p h a m i n c l u d e d s e v e n 2 c h u r c h e s w h i c h s h a r e d r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r f e a t u r e s . T h e s e b u i l d i n g s c o n s i s t e d o f r e c t a n g u l a r a i s l e l e s s n a v e s a n d a p s i d a l c h a n c e l s o f t h e same w i d t h , s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e n a v e s b y t r i p l e a r c a d e s . R e m a i n s o f s u c h a r c a d e s h a v e b e e n e x c a v a t e d a t R e c u l v e r , B r a d w e l l - o n - S e a a n d L y m i n g e . The s t r u c t u r e s w e r e a l s o p r o v i d e d w i t h l a t e r a l p o r t i c o e s w h i c h o v e r l a p p e d b o t h t h e n a v e a n d t h e c h a n c e l a n d w h i c h , i n c a s e s s u c h a s R e c u l v e r a n d S.S. P e t e r a n d P a u l , e v e n t u a l l y s u r r o u n d e d t h e e n t i r e c h u r c h * ; C l a p h a m a s s o c i a t e d t h e s e a p p e n d a g e s w i t h t h e p r o t h e s e s a n d d i a c o n i c a o f N o r t h A f r i c a n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l 3 b u i l d i n g s . H o wever, t h e y o p e n e d i n t o t h e n a v e a n d t h e a p s e and t h e y a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n u s e d a s p l a c e s o f b u r i a l r a t h e r 20 t h a n as c h a p e l s . The m a i n e n t r a n c e s t o K e n t i s h c h u r c h e s w e r e on t h e w e s t and o p e n e d i n t o t h e b u i l d i n g t h r o u g h p r o j e c t i n g a r c h e s . D e s p i t e t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e , t h e s e monuments d i d n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e h a d any m a j o r i n f l u e n c e on t h e d e s i g n o f l a t e r A n g l o - S a x o n c h u r c h e s . 2. N o r t h u m b r i a n : T h i s p l a n was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e N o r t h by A r c h b i s h o p W i l f r i d a nd B e n e d i c t B i s c o p i n t h e l a t e s e v e n t h 5 c e n t u r y , ( c a . 6 8 0 ) . D a t i n g f r o m H.M. and J o a n T a y l o r ' s and B a l d w i n Brown's P e r i o d A^ a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( c a . 6 0 0 - c a . 7 0 0 A . D . ) , t h e y h a d f e a t u r e s i n d i g e n o u s t o t h e n o r t h e r n s t y l e . ^ H o w e v e r , s u f f i c i e n t r e m a i n s a r e l e f t o n l y a t C o r b r i d g e and Escomb t o p e r m i t a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s . C l a p h a m and B a l d w i n B rown h a v e s u g g e s t e d , on t h e b a s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m B e d e ' s A H i s t o r y o f t h e E n g l i s h , ..Church a n d P e o p l e , t h a t masons ..brought o v e r f r o m G a u l b u i l t t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e c h u r c h e s w h i c h g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f a l o n g , n a r r o w n a v e w i t h p r o p o r t i o n s , o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 3:1, s u r m o u n t e d by a s t e e p g a b l e . A t t h e e a s t end was a s q u a r e c h a n c e l , a l s o o f " l o f t y " p r o p o r t i o n s . T h e s e b u i l d i n g s w e r e e n t e r e d t h r o u g h a w e s t e r n p o r c h as w e r e t h e K e n t i s h c h u r c h e s . The s i m p l e N o r t h u m b r i a n t w o - c e l l e d p l a n *was more e a s i l y g r a s p e d b y A n g l o -S a x o n b u i l d e r s who w e r e u n f a m i l i a r w i t h s t o n e c o n s t r u c t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s scheme a c t e d as a p r o t o t y p e f o r t h e d e s i g n o f many l a t e r p r e - C o n q u e s t p a r i s h c h u r c h e s . 3. T w o - c e l l e d : F o l l o w i n g t h e D a n i s h i n v a s i o n s o f t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y , t h e N o r t h u m b r i a n t w o - c e l l e d p l a n w i t h s q u a r e c h a n c e l g became t h e g e n e r a l t y p e a d o p t e d i n m o s t a r e a s o f E n g l a n d . I t d i s p l a y e d t h e same g e n e r a l d e s i g n o f l o n g r e c t a n g u l a r n a v e a n d s q u a r e c h a n c e l . W h i l e t h i s p l a n was c e r t a i n l y t h e m o s t w i d e s p r e a d o t h e r s t y p e s w e r e e m p l o y e d , t h o u g h r a r e l y . T h e s e * 9 w e r e t h e p s e u d o - c r u c i f o r m a n d t h e t u r r i f o r m s t y l e s . B. P r o p o r t i o n s I n N o r t h u m b r i a n c h u r c h e s and i n most A n g l o - S a x o n p a r i s h s t r u c t u r e s b u i l t a f t e r 950, t h e l o n g , n a r r o w , v e r y h i g h haves' h a d l e n g t h / b r e a d t h r a t i o s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3:1. "^ The:' h e i g h t was f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e d by t h e s t e e p p i t c h o f t h e r o o f a n d t h e p l a c e m e n t o f s m a l l w indows h i g h up i n t h e n a v e w a l l s . T h i s e x a g g e r a t i o n was l e s s p r e v a l e n t i n K e n t i s h c h u r c h e s , w h i c h h a d . l e n g t h / b r e a d t h r a t i o s more, n e a r l y a p p r o a c h i n g lh o r 1 1/3:1 and w h i c h a l s o h a d a p s e s w i t h d i m e n s i o n s a l m o s t as w i d e a s t h o s e o f t h e naves.''"''" The c h a n c e l s o f t h e N o r t h u m b r i a n s t r u c t u r e s h o w e v e r , were u s u a l l y o f l e s s e r w i d t h t h a n t h e n a v e s . C. W a l l i n g a n d M a s o n r y T e c h n i q u e s 1. M a t e r i a l s : A n g l o - S a x o n w a l l s w e r e f o r m e d o f r u b b l e , r a g s t o n e , 12 f l i n t , o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e N o r t h , o f r o u g h - c u t s t o n e . The m o r t a r u s e d t o b o n d them was s o h a r d and d u r a b l e t h a t p r e -C o n q u e s t masons.were s o m e t i m e s a b l e . t o c o n s t r u c t t h e c o r n e r s o f t h e s e . s t r u c t u r e s f r o m t h e same: r u b b l e f a b r i c as t h e r e s t o f t h e w a l l s w i t h o u t t h e . b e n e f i t o f b u t t r e s s e s , o r c l a s p i n g 13 q u o i n s . I t was b e c a u s e o f t h i s e x t r e m e l y h a r d m o r t a r t h a t S a x o n masons w e r e a b l e t o e r e c t v e r y t h i n w a l l s f r o m 2 f t . 3 i n . 3 f t . i n t h i c k n e s s . " ' " 4 A n g l o - S a x o n w a l l i n g , , r u b b l e i n a m o r t a r m a t r i x , was 15 o f t e n p l a s t e r e d i n s i d e a n d o u t w i t h opus s i g n i n u m . Use o f s u c h Roman b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s a s b r i c k s , t i l e s and a s h l a r , e s p e c i a l l y i n d i s t r i c t s w h e r e s t o n e was n o t e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e , was a common o c c u r r e n c e and t h e s u b s e q u e n t d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f many R o m a n o - B r i t i s h b u i l d i n g s c a n be t r a c e d t o t h e l i g h t - f i n g e r e d 16 e f f o r t s o f l o c a l S a x o n b u i l d e r s . 2. C o u r s i n g : W h i l e e a r l i e r a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s s u c h as G. B a l d w i n Brown and A.W. C l a p h a m , , f e l t t h a t h e r r i n g - b o n e w o r k w a s . s t r i c t l y a f e a t u r e o f p o s t - C o n q u e s t w a l l s , r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n b y t h e T a y l o r s a n d E.A. F i s h e r , h a s r e v e a l e d 17 t h a t i t was a l s o e m p l o y e d by t h e Romans and t h e A n g l o - S a x o n s . T h e r e f o r e , i t h a s c e a s e d t o be c o n s i d e r e d a s a v a l i d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 18 f o r d a t i n g a s t r u c t u r e as e i t h e r p r e - o r p o s t - C o n q u e s t . D. T o w e r s , P o r c h e s a n d . T u r r e t s 1. P o r c h e s : B e f o r e t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e e x i s t e d a f o r m o f w e s t p o r c h w h i c h h a d e v o l v e d f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l w e s t e r n n a r t h e x o r p o r t i c u s o f K e n t i s h c h u r c h e s . Monkwearmouth h a d s u c h a p o r c h , w h i c h was r a i s e d i n t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y t o f u l l t o w e r h e i g h t . L a t e r a l p o r c h e s w e r e r a r e b u t t h e y d i d a p p e a r i n s u c h p l a c e s a s B i s h o p s t o n e and M i l b o u r n e P o r t . 2. Towers and T u r r e t s : I n t h e l a t e t e n t h c e n t u r y a f o r m o f a x i a l l y p l a c e d w e s t e r n b e l l t o w e r d e v e l o p e d a s a common f e a t u r e 19 o f A n g l o - S a x o n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l b u i l d i n g s . I t was g e n e r a l l y t a l l a n d s l e n d e r i n p r o p o r t i o n w i t h w a l l s s e l d o m more t h a n '3 f t . t h i c k a n d an o v e r a l l p l a i n n e s s c o r l l a c k r o f ^ o r n a m e n t a t i o n . O c c a s i o n a l l y , h o w e v e r , t h e s e v e r e s u r f a c e was b r o k e n by a p l a i n s t r i n g - c o u r s e w h i c h was p l a c e d a b o u t 3/4 o f t h e way up t h e t o w e r , a t t h e s i l l o f t h e b e l f r y s t a g e . T o w e r s p l a c e d a x i a l l y o v e r t h e c h o i r a r e a , b e t w e e n t h e n a v e a n d t h e c h a n c e l , 21 w e r e c o n f i n e d t o t h e l a r g e r t e n t h c e n t u r y m o n a s t i c c h u r c h e s . S t a i r t u r r e t s w e r e a t t a c h e d t o w e s t e r n t o w e r s b e f o r e 1066. The e a r l i e s t o f t h e s e , s u c h a s t h a t . l o c a t e d a t . B r i x w o r t h , w e r e u s u a l l y p l a c e d i n t h e c e n t r e o f 1 the,, w e s t w a l l o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . L a t e r , h o w e v e r , as a t W e a v e r t h o r p e , t h e y w e r e e r e c t e d a t one c o r n e r o f i t . T h r e e d i s t i n c t i v e t y p e s o f w e s t e r n b e l l t o w e r s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e y e a r s j u s t p r i o r t o t h e Norman C o n q u e s t . The f i r s t o f 22 t h e s e h a s b e e n c a l l e d a p o r c h t o w e r b y E.A. F i s h e r . T h i s t y p e was e r e c t e d o v e r a n a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g p o r c h . S e v e n c h u r c h e s e r e c t e d b e f o r e t h e D a n i s h i n v a s i o n s o f t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y w e r e 23 o f t h i s k i n d . A l l o t h e r t o w e r s i n p r e - C o n q u e s t E n g l a n d f e l l i n t o t h e s e c o n d c l a s s o f t h e de n o v o t o w e r , w h i c h was e r e c t e d 24 new f r o m t h e g r o u n d up. The e x a m p l e s o f t h i s t y p e a r e a s numerous a s t h e number o f A n g l o - S a x o n t o w e r s w h i c h e x i s t i n E n g l a n d t o d a y . The t h i r d c l a s s was t h a t o f t h e L i n c o l n s h i r e b e l l t o w e r . Though i t t o o k i t s name .from a p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t y , i t a p p e a r e d 26 i n a l l p a r t s o f E n g l a n d . A l l o f t h e t y p e s o f t o w e r s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , i f c o n s t r u c t e d a t t h e same t i m e as t h e c h u r c h , w e r e 27 e r e c t e d f l u s h w i t h t h e n a v e w a l l . E. Doorways and A r c h e s A n g l o - S a x o n d o o r w a y s w e r e u s u a l l y p l a c e d o p p o s i t e e a c h o t h e r i n t h e n o r t h and s o u t h w a l l s a t t h e w e s t e r n e n d o f t h e 2 8 n a v e . T h e s e c o u l d be s u r m o u n t e d b y a r o u n d - h e a d e d a r c h composed o f v o u s s o i r s , b y a g a b l e o f t r i a n g u l a r s h a p e , o r 29 by a p l a i n l i n t e l . T h e s e l i n t e l s s o m e t i m e s h a d a r c h e s c u t 30 i n t o t h e i r l o w e r s i d e s . G e n e r a l l y , h o w e v e r , a d o o r w a y was f o r m e d by a v o u s s o i r a r c h w h i l e g a b l e h e a d s w e r e e m p l o y e d i n s m a l l e r o p e n i n g s . T h e s e e n t r a n c e s w ere a l s o f r e q u e n t l y t a l l a n d n a r r o w i n p r o p o r t i o n , t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g much o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y e n t a i l e d i n s p a n n i n g a w i d e s p a c e w i t h a s i n g l e a r c h . A n g l o - S a x o n d o o r w a y s a nd a r c h e s p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e w a l l 3 i n a s i n g l e o r d e r w h i c h was f a c e d w i t h t h r o u g h s t o n e s o f a s h l a r . E n t r a n c e s h a d no o r n a m e n t a l r e c e s s i n g e x t e r n a l l y a n d no i n t e r n a l r e b a t i n g f o r h a n g i n g t h e d o o r , w h i c h was s i m p l y s u s p e n d e d 32 on t h e i n t e r i o r f a c e o f t h e w a l l . E v i d e n c e f o r a p r e - C o n q u e s t d a t e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s t r e n g t h e n e d i f t h e jambs o f t h e d o o r w a y s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f 33 t h r o u g h s t o n e s l a i d i n u p r i g h t a n d f l a t o r Escomb f a s h i o n . The u s e o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s f o r i m p o s t s , w h i c h a r e n o r m a l l y o f p l a i n s q u a r e d s e c t i o n , i s a n e q u a l l y g o o d i n d i c a t i o n o f 34 a p r e - C o n q u e s t d a t e . The i m p o s t b l o c k s c o u l d a l s o be f o r m e d o f two o r t h r e e Roman t i l e s o r s t o n e s l a b s , e a c h p r o j e c t i n g a l i t t l e b e y o n d t h e one b e l o w . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f v e r y e a r l y A n g l o - S a x o n c h u r c h e s , b u t i t c a n a l s o be s e e n i n l a t e r 35 o n e s . T h e r e w e r e two p r i n c i p a l a r c h w a y s i n A n g l o - S a x o n c h u r c h e t h e t o w e r a r c h a n d t h e c h a n c e l a r c h . B o t h w e r e u n u s u a l l y t a l l a n d n a r r o w i n p r o p o r t i o n a n d t h e y w e r e composed o f a s i n g l e o r d e r w h i c h was s q u a r e i n s e c t i o n a n d s e m i c i r c u l a r i n e l e v a t i o n . F r e q u e n t l y t h e s e a r c h e s w e r e f o r m e d o f v o u s s o i r s whose j o i n t s 26 d i d n o t r a d i a t e f r o m t h e c e n t r e , c a u s i n g t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s t o be s e v e r e l y s t i l t e d . I n some c a s e s t h e v o u s s o i r s w e r e l a i d a t an a l m o s t c o n s t a n t i n c l i n a t i o n , w i t h t h e l o w e s t o n e s o n e i t h e r s i d e t i l t e d up s h a r p l y f r o m t h e f a c e s o f t h e i m p o s t s . B e t w e e n t h e u p p e r m o s t v o u s s o i r s was a l a r g e v - s h a p e d gap w h i c h was f i l l e d w i t h a w e d g e - s h a p e d s t o n e o r a l a r g e mass o f m o r t a r . A t r u e k e y s t o n e was r a r e i n A n g l o - S a x o n a r c h i t e c t u r e . The v o u s s o i r s o f t h e s e a r c h e s o f t e n v a r i e d r e m a r k a b l y i n s i z e a n d 3 6 t h e y w e r e much d e e p e r r a d i a l l y t h a n t h e y w e r e l o n g . R e c e s s i n g d i d n o t o c c u r i n A n g l o - S a x o n a r c h e s u n t i l v e r y l a t e i n t h e p e r i o d . However, two r i n g s o f ,.cpncentr-ic.'. v o u s s o i r s d i d a p p e a r • A- n 3 7 p e r i o d i c a l l y . F. Windows P r e - N o r m a n C o n q u e s t windows c o u l d be r o u n d - h e a d e d , 3 8 g a b l e - h e a d e d o r e n t i r e l y c i r c u l a r . I f t h e o p e n i n g s w e r e r o u n d -39 h e a d e d , t h e a r c h w o u l d be composed o f a s e r i e s o f v o u s s o i r s . I t c o u l d a l s o be composed o f a l i n t e l i n w h i c h a s e m i c i r c u l a r 40 a r c h h a d b e e n c u t f r o m t h e s o f f i t . S t r u c t u r a l l y , w i n d o w s c o u l d be o f t h r e e t y p e s : 1. S i n g l e -s p l a y e d ( i n t e r n a l l y ) : T h i s was e i t h e r a v e r y e a r l y o r a v e r y l a t e (Saxo-Norman) f e a t u r e . 2. D o u b l e - s p l a y e d : T h i s was a l a t e d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h came a f t e r t h e D a n i s h i n v a s i o n s o f t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y . 3. D o u b l e - l i g h t B e l f r y Windows: T h e s e w e r e u s u a l l y 41 l o c a t e d i n t h e u p p e r p o r t i o n s o f A n g l o - S a x o n b e l l t o w e r s . I n a r e a s w h e r e a s h l a r was d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n , t h e jambs and e v e n t h e h e a d s o f s i n g l e a n d d o u b l e - s p l a y e d windows w e r e 2 7 42 c o n s t r u c t e d o f r u b b l e . When s t o n e was a c c e s s i b l e , . . h o w e v e r , i t was u s e d f o r v o u s s o i r s , l i n t e l s , j a m b s , a n d i m p o s t s j u s t a s i t was u s e d i n a r c h e s and d o o r w a y s . S o m e t i m e s t h e jambs o f t h e s e w indows c o n s i s t e d o f s i n g l e m o n u m e n t a l s t o n e s l a i d 43 i n an u p r i g h t and f l a t f a s h i o n . S a x o n w i n d o w s w e r e f r e q u e n t l y 44 l o c a t e d h i g h up i n t h e n a v e and t o w e r w a l l s . D o u b l e - l i g h t b e l f r y w i n d o w s - c o n s i s t e d o f two o p e n i n g s p l a c e d s i d e by s i d e , e i t h e r s u r m o u n t e d by a l i n t e l w i t h two a r c h e s c a r v e d o u t o f i t s u n d e r s i d e o r b y two s e p a r a t e v o u s s o i r , a r c h e s . B e t w e e n t h e s e s t o o d a s h a f t o f e i t h e r c i r c u l a r , o c t a g o n a l o r b a l u s t e r f o r m , w h i c h was s u r m o u n t e d b y a t h r o u g h s t o n e i m p o s t 45 b l o c k . I n t h e p e r i o d i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e Norman C o n q u e s t , t h i s b l o c k was o f t e n c h a m f e r e d , b u t i t was n e v e r m o u l d e d . L a t e r A n g l o - S a x o n m i d - w a l l s h a f t s s o m e t i m e s h a d c a p i t a l s a n d b a s e s o f t h e i r own, b u t more f r e q u e n t l y t h e y w e r e o f t h e s i m p l e s t f o r m . On r a r e . o c c a s i o n s , t h e s e d o u b l e - l i g h t b e l f r y w i n d o w s w e r e m u l t i p l i e d u n t i l t h e r e w e r e as'many as f i v e o r s i x o p e n i n g s , a s e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e w e s t t o w e r a t E a r l s . B a r t o n . V G. Q u o i n i n g , B u t t r e s s e s : and P i l a s t e r S t r i p s 1. Q u o i n i n g : A n g l o - S a x o n q u o i n i n g i n v a r i a b l y e m p l o y e d v e r y l a r g e s t o n e s o f a m e g a l i t h i c o r m o n o l i t h i c t y p e , as i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e q u o i n s o f t h e n a v e w a l l a t S t . M i l d r i d ' s , C a n t e r b u r y . A 46 s e c o n d d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e was t h e u s e o f l o n g and s h o r t work.. T h i s , h o w e v e r , was n o t t h e o n l y t y p e o f q u o i n i n g . u s e d by A n g l o -S a x o n masons. T h e r e w e r e a l s o s i d e - a l t e r n a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f v e r y l a r g e s t o n e s c a l l e d m e g a l i t h i c s i d e - a l t e r n a t e ..and s t o n e s 28 ' " . ,. l a i d w i t h o u t , any r e g u l a r f o r m a t - i o n , c a l l e d r andom m e g a l i t h i c . I n n o n - s t o n e d i s t r i c t s . ? ; q u o i n s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d w h o l l y o f f l i n t 48 o r o f t h e same r u b b l e w a l l i n g as t h e r e s t o f t h e c h u r c h . The u s e o f p r o j e c t i n g b u t t r e s s e s was n o t an A n g l o - S a x o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . 2. P i l a s t e r S t r i p s : T h e s e w e r e a p p l i e d a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s 49 t o the. e x t e r i o r s u r f a c e s o f p r e - C o n q u e s t t o w e r s a n d c h u r c h e s . F r e q u e n t l y o f p l a i n , s q u a r e s e c t i o n a n d 6 i n . - 1 f t . i n b r e a d t h , t h e y w e r e f o r m e d o f v e r y l o n g s t o n e s , c a r e f u l l y c h o s e n a n d w o r k e d K t o b i b e . i o f . t h e -same w i d t h . O f t e n , h o w e v e r , t h e y c o n s i s t e d o f s t r i p s o f u p r i g h t a n d f l a t w o r k i n w h i c h c a s e t h e f l a t s t o n e 50 was s e c u r e l y b o n d e d i n t o t h e w a l l . 3. S t r i p w d r k : T h i s was f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t o b r e a k up t h e p l a i n 51 s u r f a c e s o f A n g l o - S a x o n t o w e r s . A l w a y s o f p l a i n , s q u a r e s e c t i o n , i t u s u a l l y r a n h o r i z o n t a l l y a r o u n d , t h e t o w e r i n one o r two b a n d s m a r k i n g o f f t h e f l o o r l e v e l s of. t h e s t r u c t u r e . 4. P l i n t h s : T h e s e w e r e o c c a s i o n a l l y e m p l o y e d a t t h e b a s e s o f p r e - C o n q u e s t b u i l d i n g s , a p p e a r i n g m o s t o f t e n i n B a l d w i n Brown's . 52 P e r i o d C, ( c a . 9 50 - c a . 110 0),. A l s o d f p l a i n , s q u a r e s e c t i o n , t h e y w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f l a r g e , f l a t s t o n e s . I f t h e y w e r e c h a m f e r e d , a r a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , t h e d e t a i l i n g was u s u a l l y o f two o r d e r s . A n g l o - N o r m a n a n d Norman A. P l a n 1. T w o - c e l l e d : T h i s was t h e f i r s t o f t h r e e t y p e s o f A n g l o -Norman c h u r c h p l a n s a n d i t s s i m p l e f o r m h a d much i n common 53 w i t h t h a t o f pre-Conquest p a r i s h churches. I t c o n s i s t e d of a nave and a s l i g h t l y narrower ch a n c e l which c o u l d be square, 54 p o l y g o n a l or round, though the l a s t two forms were l e s s common. 2. T h r e e - c e l l e d : The t h r e e - c e l l e d p l a n c o n s i s t e d of a nave, 55 a square c h o i r and a square or a p s i d a l p r e s b y t e r y . The c h o i r f r e q u e n t l y formed the base of a tower, w h i l e the p r e s b y t e r y was o f t e n v a u l t e d . 3. F o u r - c e l l e d : T h i s scheme i n c l u d e d a western b e l l tower i n a d d i t i o n to the f e a t u r e s mentioned above. 5^ 4. A i s l e d Churches: Though the g r e a t . m a j o r i t y of e a r l y Anglo-Norman churches were a i s l e l e s s , post-Conquest b u i l d e r s o f t e n p i e r c e d o l d e r nave w a l l s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y chancel w a l l s , w i t h arcades. The a d d i t i o n of these arcades and t h e i r a d j o i n i n g 57 narrow a i s l e s c r e a t e d a form o f b a s i l i c a . The masonry above the arcades was f r e q u e n t l y of pre-Conquest date. 5. C r u c i f o r m : The Anglo-Normans showed a marked p r e f e r e n c e f o r the t r u e c r u c i f o r m p l a n i n which the c e n t r a l square was surmounted by a tower supported on f o u r p i e r s , and the t r a n s e p t s , 5 8 nave and chancel flowed i n t o each other. B. P r o p o r t i o n s •Anglo-Norman'churches d i d not d i s p l a y the t a l l p r o p o r t i o n s of Anglo-Saxon s t r u c t u r e s . The naves were s h o r t and.rather wide i n comparison to t h e i r l e n g t h though they c o u l d s t i l l 59 be very l o f t y . The nave of an Anglo-Norman church was u s u a l l y double, the l e n g t h of the sanctuary and the h e i g h t was o f t e n 6 0 p r e c i s e l y equal to the i n t e r i o r width. 30 C. W a l l i n g and M a s o n r y A n g l o - N o r m a n masons c o n s t r u c t e d t h i c k e r w a l l s t h a n t h e i r A n g l o - S a x o n c o u n t e r p a r t s . U s u a l l y t h e y w e r e o v e r 3 f t . i n d e p t h 61 and o c c a s i o n a l l y t h e y w e r e e x t e n d e d t o 4 - 6 f t . The m o r t a r u s e d t o b u i l d t h i s f a b r i c was p o o r e r t h a n t h a t u s e d i n p r e -C o n q u e s t w a l l s and t h e j o i n t s w e r e l e s s f i n e l y c o n s t r u c t e d . The w a l l s w e r e o f t e n f o r m e d o f a r u b b l e c o r e w h i c h was t h e n f a c e d w i t h a s h l a r f r e q u e n t l y i m p o r t e d f r o m Normandy, t h o u g h l o c a l t u f a was u t i l i z e d f o r s m a l l e r c h u r c h e s . E v e n i n a r e a s w h ere f l i n t w a s . t h e o n l y m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e i t was c a r e f u l l y c o u r s e d t o g i v e i t a f i n i s h e d a p p e a r a n c e . A n g l o - N o r m a n a s h l a r was n o r m a l l y o f s m a l l d i m e n s i o n s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l b l o c k s m e a s u r i n g j u s t u n d e r 1 f t . s q u a r e . A c c o r d i n g t o H.M. and J o a n T a y l o r , t h e i r s i z e was p r o b a b l y d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y c o u l d be e a s i l y c a r r i e d b y 62 one man. When r u b b l e w a l l i n g was e m p l o y e d , t h e s u r f a c e , i n s i d e 6 3 a n d o u t , was p l a s t e r e d a n d l i m e w a s h e d . . H e r r i n g - b o n e , as was m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , was u t i l i z e d by t h e Romans, t h e S a x o n s 64 and t h e A n g l o - N o r m a n s . D. T o w e r s , P o r c h e s and T u r r e t s A f t e r t h e Norman i n v a s i o n t h e w e s t e r n b e l l t o w e r d e c l i n e d i n i m p o r t a n c e . Though s t i l l d e s i g n e d and b u i l t on a g r a n d s c a l e , i t c e a s e d t o be u s e d a s t h e p r i n c i p a l e n t r a n c e t o t h e c h u r c h . I f i t was p r o v i d e d w i t h a d o o r w a y , i t was u s e d o n l y on c e r e m o n i a l o c c a s i o n s . The A n g l o - N o r m a n s p r e f e r r e d t o p l a c e t h e m a i n e n t r a n c e t o t h e b u i l d i n g on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e i n t h e n a v e w a l l . T h e i r u s e o f l a t e r a l p o r c h e s t o c o v e r t h e s e e n t r a n c e s 6 6 was e x t r e m e l y r a r e . O f t e n t h e w e s t e r n b e l l t o w e r was d i s p e n s e d w i t h a l t o g e t h e r . B e l l s , i f r e q u i r e d , w e r e hung i n a. jsxfcmplej'bell-g 7 . c o t e o v e r t h e w e s t g a b l e . I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h A n g l o - S a x o n e x a m p l e s , A n g l o - N o r m a n t o w e r s w e r e o f s h o r t , s q u a t p r o p o r t i o n s t h o u g h t h e y w e r e o f t e n 6 8 h i g h l y ornamented.. The w a l l s o f t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s w e r e q u i t e 69 > ." t h i c k , s o m e t i m e s a p p r o a c h i n g a s much a s 6 f t . . O f t e n : t h e y w e r e p l a c e d i n . a n a x i a l . p o s i t i o n o v e r t h e c h a n c e l or. c h o i r . A n g l o - N o r m a n t o w e r s w e r e s e l d o m b u i l t f l u s h w i t h t h e n a v e w a l l s . F r e q u e n t l y t h e y w e r e e r e c t e d s e p a r a t e l y a nd t h e n a t t a c h e d t o t h e c h u r c h b y one o r two b a y s o f a r c a d i n g , t h u s a l l o w i n g t h e mason t o l e n g t h e n t h e n a v e and t o c o n s t r u c t a new t o w e r a t 71 t h e same t i m e . The u s e o f c i r c u l a r s t a i r t u r r e t s was a more common f e a t u r e , i n p o s t - C o n q u e s t c h u r c h e s t h a n i t h a d b e e n i n 72 e a r l i e r A n g l o - S a x o n o n e s . E. Doorways and A r c h e s 1. A r c h e s : A n g l o - N o r m a n masons d i d n o t make u s e o f . t h r o u g h s t o n e s I n s t e a d t h e y c h o s e t o c o n s t r u c t a r c h e s o f a s h l a r , s e t on e a c h 73 s i d e o f a r u b b l e c o r e . S e c o n d l y , t h e y c r e a t e d a r c h e s a nd o p e n i n g s w h i c h w e r e r e c e s s e d i n a s e r i e s o f s e p a r a t e o r d e r s o r c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s w i t h jambs r e c e s s e d i n a c o r r e s p o n d i n g 74 f a s h i o n . T h e s e w e r e f a c e d w i t h a s e r i e s o f s u p p o r t i n g s h a f t s . The v o u s s o i r s o f t h e s e a r c h e s w e r e o f a s h l a r a n d . o f t h e s i z e w h i c h one man c o u l d c o n v e n i e n t l y h a n d l e . They, were c a r e f u l l y c u t s o a s t o be l a i d w i t h j o i n t s w h i c h r a d i a t e d c o r r e c t l y f r o m 75 t h e c e n t r e o f t h e a r c h and t h e y w e r e o r r e g u l a r s i z e a n d s h a p e . 2. D o o r w a y s : T h e s e were u s u a l l y l o c a t e d i n t h e n o r t h and s o u t h y g w a l l s o f t h e n a v e n e a r t h e w e s t e n d o f t h e c h u r c h . The A n g l o -Norman p r a c t i c e was t o hang t h e d o o r a l m o s t a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e w a l l a n d t h e n t o t r e a t t h e i n n e r and o u t e r h a l v e s o f t h e o p e n i n g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y . The o u t e r h a l f was g e n e r a l l y n a r r o w e r t h a n t h e i n n e r h a l f . I t a c t e d a s a r e b a t e f o r t h e d o o r , w h i l e t h e i n n e r p o r t i o n was t a k e n much h i g h e r up i n o r d e r t o a l l o w 77 t h e d o o r t o o p e n . The o u t e r s e c t i o n h a d an a r c h o f one o r 78 more r e c e s s e d j a m b s , b u t t h e i n n e r a r c h was u n a d o r n e d . G e n e r a l l y , d r e s s e d s t o n e was c o n f i n e d t o one r i n g on t h e i n n e r f a c e o f t h e w a l l . The r e s t o f t h e s o f f i t was u s u a l l y o f r u b b l e , 79 t h o u g h i t was , o f t e n . m o u l d e d w i t h some f o r m o f s o f f i t r o l l . I f t h e d o o r w a y was s u r m o u n t e d by a l i n t e l . i n s t e a d , t h e r e was 8 0 o f t e n some f o r m o f r e l i e v i n g a r c h a b o v e i t . F. Windows A n g l o - N o r m a n windows w e r e e i t h e r r o u n d - h e a d e d o r o f 81 an e n t i r e l y c i r c u l a r t y p e . G a b l e - h e a d e d w i n d o w s w e r e r a r e , t h o u g h t h e t y p i c a l d o u b l e - l i g h t b e l f r y window c o n t i n u e d t o be e m p l o y e d . C l e r e s t o r i e s , o f t e n composed o f c i r c u l a r o p e n i n g s , 8 2 w e r e u t i l i z e d t o l i g h t t h e n a v e s o f a i s l e d c h u r c h e s . P o s t - 1 0 66 window o p e n i n g s w e r e s i n g l e - s p l a y e d i n t e r n a l l y a n d w e re s u r m o u n t e d by e i t h e r t r u e a r c h e s o f c a r e f u l l y l a i d v o u s s o i r s o r , i f t h e y w e r e s m a l l , w i t h a, l i n t e l s o m e t i m e s c a p p e d 8 3 by a r e l i e v i n g a r c h . Window o p e n i n g s w e r e t r e a t e d l i k e d o o r w a y s i f t h e y w e r e l a r g e o r i m p o r t a n t . They were f o r m e d o f a s e r i e s o f r e c e s s e d m o u l d i n g s w i t h a c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e r i e s o f r e c e s s e d 84 jamb s h a f t s b e l o w . A n g l o - N o r m a n w i n d o w s , l i k e A n g l o - N o r m a n d o o r w a y s , w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f a r u b b l e c o r e f a c e d on e i t h e r s i d e w i t h a s h l a r . D o u b l e - l i g h t b e l f r y w i n d o w s t o o k on a d i s t i n c t i v e a p p e a r a n c e a f t e r t h e Norman C o n q u e s t . The m i d - w a l l s h a f t was u s u a l l y e n r i c h e d w i t h a b a s e a nd a v o l u t e o r a c u s h i o n c a p i t a l s u p p o r t i n g a p a i r o f a r c h e s . T h e s e , i n t u r n , - c a r r i e d a t h i n a n d s l i g h t l y r e c e s s e d s e c t i o n a b o v e t h e h e a d s a nd b e l o w a s i n g l e s e m i c i r c u l a r 8 5 a r c h w h i c h s p a n n e d . t h e w h o l e w a l l . G. Q u o i n i n g , B u t t r e s s e s ' a n d P i l a s t e r S t r i p s 1. B u t t r e s s e s : The Normans i n t r o d u c e d t h e b u t t r e s s i n t o E n g l a n d a f t e r 1066. I t was e i t h e r o f t h e f l a t , b r o a d , c l a s p i n g t y p e o r o f a h i g h l y p r o j e c t i n g , t h i c k l y p r o p o r t i o n e d s h a p e s e t a t i n t e r v a l s a l o n g t h e s i d e w a l l s o f t h e n a v e d i v i d i n g i t e x t e r n a l l y i n t o b a y s . 2. Q u o i n s : When u s e d , t h e y w e r e made o f s m a l l s t o n e s a n d were 8 7 u s u a l l y o f a s h l a r . l a i d i n a s i d e - a l t e r n a t e a r r a n g e m e n t . I f t h e b u i l d i n g w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f r u b b l e t h e n t h e s i d e - a l t e r n a t e 8 8 q u o i n s w e re o f s m a l l s t o n e s , n o t more t h a n a f o o t i n l e n g t h . 3. P l i n t h s a n d S t r i n g - c o u r s e s : P l i n t h s and s t r i n g - c o u r s e s w e r e u s e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n A n g l o - N o r m a n c h u r c h e s t h a n i n * A n g l o -89 S a x o n o n e s . They w e r e u s u a l l y o f p l a i n , s q u a r e s e c t i o n . 34 REFERENCES '''F.E. Howard, The M e d i e v a l . S t y l e s o f t h e E n g l i s h P a r i s h  C h u r c h , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 3 6 ) , p.19. 2 The s e v e n c h u r c h e s c i t e d i n c l u d e S.S. P e t e r and P a u l ; S t . M a r y and S t . P a n c r a s , C a n t e r b u r y ; L y m i n g e ; B r a d w e l l - o n - S e a ; R e c u l v e r ; and R o c h e s t e r . H o w e v e r , when u s i n g t h e s e b u i l d i n g s a s e x a m p l e s one must be aware o f t h e f a c t t h a t none o f them e x i s t i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l s t a t e . Most' h a v e l e f t f ew r e m a i n s , t h o u g h e x c a v a t i o n h a s r e v e a l e d t h e i r p l a n s a n d some o f t h e m a s o n r y w i t h w h i c h t h e y . w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d . A.W. C l a p h a m , E n g l i s h  Romanesque A r c h i t e c t u r e B e f o r e t h e C o n q u e s t , ( O x f o r d , 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 1 7 . 3 C l a p h a m , 1 9 3 0 , 12, 2 2 , 26-27. 4 :G. B a l d w i n B r o w n , The A r t s i n E a r l y E n g l a n d - A n g l o - S a x o n  A r c h i t e c t u r e , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 2 5 ) , p . 9 1 . 5 B a l d w i n . B r o w n , 1925, 119. E x a m p l e s o f t h e s e e a r l y n o r t h e r n c h u r c h e s i n c l u d e J a r r o w , Monkwearmouth, Escomb, and C o r b r i d g e . 7 C l a p h a m , 1930, 41. g E x a m p l e s o f t h e t w o - c e l l e d p l a n i n c l u d e B a r d s e y , K i r k Hammerton, B e d a l e , and B o a r h u n t . 9 E x a m p l e s o f t h e p s e u d o - c r u c i f o r m s t y l e i n c l u d e B r e a m o r e , B r i t f o r d , D e e r h u r s t , S t o w , a n d H a d s t o c k . B a r t o n - o n - H u m b e r and B r o u g h t o n w e r e o r i g i n a l l y t u r r i f o r m c h u r c h e s . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s e two p l a n s a p p e a r i n C h a r l e s J . Cox and C h a r l e s B r a d l e y F o r d , The P a r i s h C h u r c h e s o f E n g l a n d , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 3 5 ) , p.37. C l a p h a m , 193 0 , 146-148. E.A. F i s h e r , The G r e a t e r A n g l o - S a x o n C h u r c h e s - An A r c h i t e c t u r a l - H i s t o r i c a l S t u d y , ( L o n d o n , 19 6 2 ) , p . 3 1 . 1 0 F i s h e r , 1962, 49. i : L F i s h e r , 1 9 6 2 , 31. 12 F i s h e r d e f i n e s t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f w a l l i n g a s : 1) R u b b l e - W a l l i n g w i t h no c o r e . I t was o f t e n u n c o u r s e d . E x a m p l e s o f s u c h w a l l i n g a r e f o u n d a t B e d f o r d a n d Bosham. 2) R a g s t o n e - I t was, l i k e r u b b l e , o f v a r i a b l e g e o l o g i c a l t y p e s , b u t i t b r o k e i n t o t h i n , f l a t t i s h s l a b s o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f 35 o r d i n a r y b r i c k s , t h o u g h i t was t h i n n e r . I t was u s u a l l y l a i d h o r i z o n t a l l y b u t i t was s o m t i m e s u s e d f o r h e r r i n g - b o n e w o r k . E x a m p l e s o f t h i s t y p e a r e f o u n d a t Wigmore and B u r g h w a l l i s . 3) F l i n t - T h i s was u s e d i n K e n t and E a s t A n g l ' i a w h e r e l o c a l b u i l d i n g s t o n e was n o t a v a i l a b l e . E x a m p l e s o f s u c h w a l l i n g a r e f o u n d a t S t . M i l d r i d C a n t e r b u r y a n d D o v e r . F i s h e r , 1 9 6 2 , 32. E x a m p l e s , o f n o r t h e r n c h u r c h e s f o r m e d o f r o u g h - c u t s t o n e i n c l u d e B a r d s e y , Hovingham. and K i r k Hammerton. When d i s c u s s i n g A n g l o - S a x o n m a s o n r y and w a l l i n g i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m o f c o n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l a n d was a t i m b e r o n e . S t o n e s t r u c t u r e s . w e r e f o r e i g n i n t r o d u c t i o n s and t h o u g h t o d a y o n l y m a s o n r y b u i l d i n g s r e m a i n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o be aware t h a t c h u r c h e s c o n t i n u e d , t o be c o n s t r u c t e d o f wood t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r e - C o n q u e s t e r a . a n d . e v e n b e y o n d . T h i s f a c t i s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g b o o k s a n d p u b l i c a t i o n s , among o t h e r s . Hugh B r a u n , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o . E n g l i s h M e d i e v a l A r c h i t e c t u r e , ( L o n d o n , . . . ) , p p . 3 6 - 3 7 , 60. C l a p h a m , 19 30, 25. Cox and F o r d , 1 9 3 5 , 46. F i s h e r , 1 9 6 2 , 201. E r i c G.M. F l e t c h e r a nd E. D u d l e y J a c k s o n , " 'Long and S h o r t 1 Q u o i n s a n d P i l a s t e r S t r i p s i n S a x o n C h u r c h e s , " B r i t i s h  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , s e r i e s 3, 9 ( 1 9 4 4 ) , 14. H oward, 1936, 16. F r e d . H . C r o s s - l e y , T i m b e r B u i l d i n g i n E n g l a n d . - F rom E a r l y T i m e s  t o t h e End o f t h e S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y , ( L o n d o n , 1951) 13 T h i s t y p e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n i s e x e m p l i f i e d a t B r i x w o r t h . H.M.. and J o a n T a y l o r , A n g l o - S a x o n A r c h i t e c t u r e , v o l . I , ( C a m b r i d g e , 1965) , p.7. 1 4 T a y l o r , 1 9 65, 12. 15 Opus S i g n i n u m was a v e r y h a r d . p i n k c e m e n t - l i k e m i x t u r e o f p o u n d e d Roman t i l e s . B a l d w i n . B r o w n , 1925, 57. 1 6 C o x and F o r d , 1 9 3 5 , 47. 1 7 T a y l o r , 1 9 6 5 , 13. F i s h e r , 1 9 6 2 , 174-175. 18 E x a m p l e s o f s u c h h e r r i n g - b o n e w o r k i n c l u d e t h e n o r t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t . Wigmore, t h e s o u t h , w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t E l s t e d , t h e n o r t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t D i d d l e b u r y , a n d t h e s o u t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t T e r r i n g t o n . 19 A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t . , Bardsey., B i l l i n g h a m , B o l a m , J a r r o w , K i r k Hammerton, and E a r l s B a r t o n a r e a f e w o f t h e c h u r c h e s 36 w h i c h h a v e a x i a l l y p l a c e d w e s t e r n b e l l t o w e r s . 20 B a l d w i n B r o w n , 19 25, 20. 21 None o f t h e s e l a r g e m o n a s t i c c h u r c h e s now e x i s t b u t A.W. C l a p h a m l i s t s t h o s e he b e l i e v e s h a d a x i a l t o w e r s . They • i n c l u d e W i n c h e s t e r ( c a . 9 8 0 ) , Durham (ca.999), a n d Ramsey A b b e y (c a. 97 0).'. • c'l apham, -19 3 0 , 8 7 - 8 8 , 9 0 . 22 ' E.A. F i s h e r , A n g l o - S a x o n T owers - An A r c h i t e c t u r a l a n d H i s t o r i c a l S t u d y , (Newton A b b o t , 1969), p. 4 9." 23 T h e s e s e v e n c h u r c h e s w e r e C o r b r i d g e , J a r r o w , Monkwearmouth, B a r d s e y , L edsham, B r i x w o r t h , a n d D e e r h u r s t . 24 F i s h e r g i v e s an e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e two t y p e s o f t o w e r s ( h i s own t e r m i n o l o g y ) . 1) De Novo T o w e r s - T h e s e h a v e w a l l s t h i c k e r t h a n 2 f t . 6 i n . They may be w i d e r t h a n t h e i n t e r n a l w i d t h o f t h e . n a v e a n d t h e y a p p r o x i m a t e a s q u a r e i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n . H o w e v e r , w h e r e t h e r e i s a s l i g h t l y l o n g e r a x i s , i t l i e s n o r m a l l y ( n o t a l w a y s ) n o r t h / s o u t h . 2) P o r c h Towers - T h e s e h a v e t h i n w a l l s o f u s u a l l y l e s s t h a n 2 f t . 7 i n . i n t h i c k n e s s , a s t h e w a l l s were, i n t e n d e d . t o s u p p o r t o n l y p o r c h e s . They a r e r e c t a n g u l a r i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n w i t h t h e i r l o n g e r a x i s l y i n g e a s t / w e s t . The e x t e r i o r w i d t h i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s t h a n t h e i n t e r i o r w i d t h o f t h e n a v e . F i s h e r , 1962, 48. 25 S t . P e t e r - a t - G o w t s , S t . M a r y - l e - W i g f o r d a n d R o t h w e l l h a v e . L i n c o l n s h i r e , b e l l t o w e r s . -\ 26 A l l L i n c o l n s h i r e t o w e r s a r e w e s t e r n b e l l t o w e r s . The w a l l s a r e o f r u b b l e t h r o u g h o u t , u s u a l l y w i t h no b a t t e r , t h o u g h o c c a s i o n a l l y v e r y s l i g h t n a r r o w i n g u p w a r d s o c c u r s . The w a l l s a p p r o a c h Norman o n e s i n t h i c k n e s s a n d t h e y v a r y 2 ; f t . 6 i n . -3 f t . 9 i n . T h e r e i s u s u a l l y a p l a i n s t r i n g - c o u r s e a b o u t 3/4 o f t h e t o t a l h e i g h t f r o m t h e g r o u n d , w h i c h s e r v e s a s an o f f -s e t f o r t h e s h o r t u p p e r , o f t e n v e r y s l i g h t l y n a r r o w e r b e l f r y s t a g e . The q u o i n s o f t h e s e t o w e r s a r e n o r m a l l y o f s m a l l i s h o b l o n g b l o c k s l a i d w i t h t h e i r b r o a d f a c e s a r r a n g e d o n t h e a l t e r n a t e w a l l . f a c e s ( s i d e - a l t e r n a t e ) . The s t r u c t u r e s a r e a l m o s t s q u a r e i n p l a n and a n y s l i g h t l y l o n g e r a x i s u s u a l l y l i e s e a s t / w e s t . The window o p e n i n g s a t t h e l o w e r s t a g e s a r e f e w , s m a l l a n d ' n a r r o w , b u t t h e y a r e t a l l c o m p a r e d . w i t h , t h e i r w i d t h a n d h a v e s i n g l e i n t e r n a l s p l a y s . B e l f r y w i n d o w s i n t h e s e t o w e r s a r e .• r o u n d - h e a d e d d o u b l e o p e n i n g s . w i t h s t r a i g h t m i d - w a l l s h a f t s o r c o l u m n s w h i c h may h a v e c a p i t a l s . a n d s o m e t i m e s b a s e s . T h e s e s u p p o r t t h r o u g h s t o n e i m p o s t s t o t h e d o u b l e - a r c h e d , h e a d a b o v e . F i s h e r , 1962, 248-251. 27 B a l d w i n Brown n o t e d one f i n a l c u r i o u s f e a t u r e w h i c h o c c u r r e d o f t e n i n p r e - C o n q u e s t t o w e r s . T h i s was a d o o r - l i k e 37 o p e n i n g i n t h e e a s t w a l l a b o v e t h e t o w e r a r c h a n d w e l l b e l o w t h e n a v e r o o f . I t was n o r m a l l y p l a c e d i n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e o f a t h r e e o r f o u r s t a g e s t r u c t u r e , a nd h a d a n e x c e l l e n t v i e w o f t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e n a v e . S e v e r a l t h e o r i e s h a v e b e e n a d v a n c e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e p u r p o s e o f s u c h an o p e n i n g . B a l d w i n . B r o w n f e l t t h a t t h e y w e r e a means o f e n t r a n c e i n t o a d w e l l i n g chamber u s e d b y t h e p r i e s t o r c u s t o d i a n . H o w e v e r , he a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e y may h a v e b e e n u s e d as. a means o f e g r e s s c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h s p a c e s l o c a t e d b e t w e e n t h e c e i l i n g s a nd t h e . o u t e r r o o f s o f t h e c h u r c h e s . They c o u l d a l s o h a v e a f f o r d e d a c c e s s f r o m t h e t o w e r t o wooden g a l l e r i e s e r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e w e s t e n d s o f t h e b u i l d i n g s , A s y e t , none o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s h a s p r e s e n t e d a c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f y i n g s o l u t i o n . B a l d w i n B r o w n , 1925, 3 33-335. 2 8 E x a m p l e s o f s u c h d o o r w a y s a r e f o u n d a t F r a m i n g h a m , C o i n R o g e r s , A l t o n B a i n e s , B a r t o n - o n - H u m b e r , and B a r r o w . B a l d w i n B r o w n , 19 2 5 , 26. 29 R o u nd-headed v o u s s o i r a r c h e s a r e f o u n d , on t h e s o u t h f a c e o f t h e t o w e r a t B a r t o n - o n - H u m b e r , i n t h e t o w e r a r c h a t S k i p w i t h , a nd i n t h e c h a n c e l a r c h a t W o r t h . T r i a n g u l a r g a b l e s , a r e f o u n d i n t h e w e s t d o o r w a y a t H o l y T r i n i t y , i n t h e n o r t h d o o r w a y o f t h e t o w e r a t B a r t o n - o n - H u m b e r , and i n t h e w e s t d o o r w a y a t Dunham.Magna. P l a i n l i n t e l s s u r m o u n t t h e d o o r w a y l e a d i n g t o t h e s t a i r t u r r e t a t H o u g h - o n - t h e - H i l l and. t h e n o r t h d o o r w a y o f t h e n a v e a t W i n s t o n e . 30 E x a m p l e s o f . s u c h a r c h e s a r e f o u n d o v e r t h e s o u t h d o o r w a y a t Heysham and a b o v e t h e b l o c k e d . n o r t h d o o r w a y a t S o m e r f o r d K e y n e s . 31 E x a m p l e s o f t h i s t y p e o f o p e n i n g a r e f o u n d . i n t h e t o w e r a r c h e s a t B a r t o n - o n - H u m b e r a n d S k i p w i t h a n d . t h e c h a n c e l a r c h e s a t B a r r o w , H a c k n e s s , K i r k Hammerton., and. R y t h e r . 32 The n o r t h d o o r w a y s a t H a d s t o c k and S e l h a m r e p r e s e n t s u c h p l a i n u n r e b a t e d e n t r a n c e s . T a y l o r , 1 9 65, 10. 33 The t o w e r a r c h e s a t . Bosham and K i r k d a l e a n d t h e c h a n c e l a r c h e s a t Escomb and R y t h e r . h a v e jambs l a i d i n t h e Escomb f a s h i o n . 34 T h r o u g h s t o n e i m p o s t s a r e f o u n d i n t h e t o w e r a r c h e s a t Barton-on-Humber. a n d . S k i p w i t h and i n t h e c h a n c e l a r c h e s a t B a r r o w , H a c k n e s s and R y t h e r . 35 E x a m p l e s o f p r o j e c t i n g i m p o s t s c a n be seen, i n t h e t o w e r a r c h a t C o l c h e s t e r i n t h e b l o c k e d . n o r t h d o o r w a y a t S o m e r f o r d K e y n e s , a n d i n t h e t o w e r a r c h o f S t . M a r y B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r . 36 T h e s e a n o m a l i e s a r e w e l l - i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e c h a n c e l a r c h e s a t B a r r o w , K i r k Hammerton and R y t h e r a n d i n . t h e t o w e r a r c h e s 38 a t Barton-on-Humber., K i r k d a l e a n d S k i p w i t h . T a y l o r , 19 65, 1 1 . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e A n g l o - S a x o n m asons, s i n c e t h e y w e r e much more f a m i l i a r w i t h t i m b e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , f a i l e d t o c o m p r e h e n d t h e s t r u c t u r a l , s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t r u e Roman a r c h c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h a t t h e y m e r e l y a p p l i e d . t h e o u t w a r d . f o r m o f t h i s f e a t u r e t o t h e i r r o u n d - h e a d e d , o p e n i n g s . E. D u d l e y J a c k s o n a n d E r i c G.M. F l e t c h e r , " C o n s t r u c t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n A n g l o - S a x o n C h u r c h e s , " B r i t i s h A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , s e r i e s 3, 64 ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 2 1 . 37 S u c h v o u s s o i r s a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e c h a n c e l a r c h a t B a r r o w , t h e t o w e r a r c h a t C l e e , a n d t h e e n t r a n c e d o o r w a y t o t h e t o w e r a t K i r k Hammerton. 3 8 Rou n d - h e a d e d windows, a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e n o r t h w a l l o f t h e t o w e r a t C a v e r s f i e l d , i n t h e s o u t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t C h i c k n e y , a n d i n t h e e a s t window o f t h e n o r t h n a v e w a l l a t L e i c e s t e r . G a b l e - h e a d e d windows a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e e a s t window o f t h e t h i r d s t a g e o f t h e t o w e r a t D e e r h u r s t , t h e s e c o n d l e v e l o f t h e s o u t h f a c e o f t h e t o w e r a t B a r t o n - o n - H u m b e r , a n d i n t h e e a s t w i ndows o v e r t h e t o w e r a r c h e s a t T h u r l b y a n d Bosham. . C i r c u l a r w i ndows a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e n o r t h n a v e w a l l a t West B a r s h a m , i n t h e e a s t g a b l e o f t h e n a v e a t G o d a l m i n g , a n d i n t h e w e s t g a b l e o f the' n a v e a t H a d d i s c o e T h o r p e . 39 E x a m p l e s o f s u c h windows, a r e l o c a t e d i n . t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h w a l l s o f t h e n a v e a t W o r t h , i n . t h e n o r t h . w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t L e i c e s t e r , i n t h e s o u t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t K i n g s d o w n , a n d o v e r t h e n o r t h d o o r w a y o f t h e n a v e a t D a r e n t h . 40 S u c h l i n t e l s a r e f o u n d i n t h e n o r t h e a s t w a l l o f t h e c h a n c e l a t B a r r o w , i n t h e window o v e r t h e t o w e r a r c h a t B a r t o n -on-Humber, a n d i n t h e k e y h o l e window w i t h p r o j e c t i n g h o o d -m o u l d on t h e l o w e r s o u t h f a c e o f t h e t o w e r a t . C o l e b y . 41 S i n g l e - s p l a y e d ( i n t e r n a l l y ) w i n d o w s a r e f o u n d . i n t h e n o r t h w a l l o f t h e na v e a nd i n t h e n o r t h w a l l o f t h e c h a n c e l a t S t . G i l e s , i n t h e n o r t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t B y w e l l , i n t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h n a v e w a l l s a t B u l m e r , a nd i n t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h w a l l s o f t h e t o w e r a t B a r d s e y . D o u b l e - s p l a y e d w i n d o w s a r e f o u n d i n t h e s o u t h w a l l , o f t h e c h a n c e l a t Dunham Magna, i n t h e s o u t h w a l l o f the. n a v e a t D i d d l e b u r y , i n t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h w a l l s o f t h e t o w e r a t S k i p w i t h , a n d i n t h e w e s t , n o r t h a n d s o u t h w a l l s o f t h e t o w e r a t B a r t o n - o n - H u m b e r . D o u b l e - l i g h t b e l f r y w i n d o w s a r e f o u n d i n t h e t o w e r s a t A p p l e t o n -l e - S t r e e t , B y w e l l , S t . Ma r y B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r , K i r k Hammerton. and W h a r r a m - l e - S t r e e t . Howard., 1936, 28-29. S u c h r u b b l e jambs a n d window h e a d s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e 39 s o u t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t West B a r s h a m , i n t h e l o w e r s e c t i o n i o f t h e n o r t h w a l l o f t h e t o w e r a t C a v e r s f i e Id., i n t h e n o r t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t Dunham Magna, and i n t h e s o u t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t C h i c k n e y . 43 S u c h jambs a r e f o u n d i n . t h e o p e n i n g o v e r t h e t o w e r a r c h a t B a r t o n - o n - H u m b e r , i n t h e d o u b l e - l i g h t b e l f r y w i n d o w s a t S t . B e n e ' t , a n d i n . t h e window i n t h e s o u t h t r a n s e p t a t Stow. O f t e n t h e a c t u a l a p e r t u r e . o f t h e ..window was f i l l e d w i t h a wooden o r s t o n e s l a b p i e r c e d w i t h . g e o m e t r i c a l d e s i g n s i n o r d e r t o l e t i n l i g h t . S u c h s l a b s , w h i c h c a n be s e e n i n some o f t h e s m a l l e r w indows a t E a r l s B a r t o n , w e r e c a l l e d t r a n s c e n a e . They a r e o f I t a l i a n . o r i g i n . F i s h e r , 19 62, 19 2. B a l d w i n B r o w n , 19 2 5 , 2 7 3 - 2 7 5 . F r e q u e n t l y t h e o u t e r edge o f the" window was r e b a t e d i n o r d e r t o r e c e i v e a w o o d e n . s h u t t e r w h i c h was meant t o .keep o u t t h e e l e m e n t s . T a y l o r , 1 9 6 5 , 9. 44 E x a m p l e s i n c l u d e t h e c i r c u l a r window i n t h e w e s t g a b l e o f t h e n a v e , a t , H a d d i s c o e T h o r p e , t h e l a c k : o f a n y o p e n i n g e x c e p t t h o s e t h a t o c c u p y t h e b e l f r y . l e v e l a t A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t , t h e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e k e y h o l e window i n t h e w e s t w a l l o f t h e t o w e r a t Heapham, a n d t h e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e c i r c u l a r w i n d o w s i n t h e n o r t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t C o l t i s h a l l . D o u b l e - s p l a y e d w indows w e r e more e a s i l y c o n s t r u c t e d t h a n s i n g l e -s p l a y e d , o n e s , s i n c e t h e y r e q u i r e d s m a l l e r , l e s s e l a b o r a t e wooden c e n t r i n g s f o r . . t h e i r e r e c t i o n . 45 • E x a m p l e s o f t h e s e s i n g l e l i n t e l s a r e f o u n d i n t h e d o u b l e -l i g h t w i ndows a t A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t , S t . B e n e ' t , W h a r r a m - l e -S t r e e t , a nd R o t h w e l l . E x a m p l e s o f v o u s s o i r a r c h e s a r e f o u n d a t B a r d s e y , B a r t o n - o n -Humber, DunhamjMagna, and S t . M a r y B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r . B a l d w i n B r o w n , 1925, 32-34. F i s h e r , 1 9 6 2 , 249. 46 E x a m p l e s o f l o n g and s h o r t w o r k a p p e a r i n t h e t o w e r q u o i n s a t E a r l s B a r t o n and t h o s e a t S t . B e n e ' t . B a l d w i n . Brown f e e l s t h a t l o n g and s h o r t w o r k was d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g P e r i o d B and. was t h e n s e e n . i n i t s f i n a l f o r m i n P e r i o d C. B a l d w i n B r o w n , 1 9 2 5 , 25. 47 ^Random m e g a l i t h i c q u o i n s a r e f o u n d i n t h e n a v e o f S t . , M i l d r i d ' s , C a n t e r b u r y . T a y l o r , 1 9 6 5 , 7. 48 F i s h e r ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f q u o i n i n g - t a k e s i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u s e d by S i r G a r d n e r W i l k i n s o n , B a l d w i n B r o w n , E.C. G i l b e r t , J a c k s o n a n d F l e t c h e r , a n d F i s h e r ' s own s y s t e m . I t i s a t h o r o u g h a n d s u c c i n c t e x p l a n a t i o n . F i s h e r , 1 9 6 2 , 33-36. 49 P i l a s t e r s t r i p s a r e f o u n d on t h e e x t e r i o r s o f t h e t o w e r s a t B a r n a c k , E a r l s B a r t o n , S o m p t i n g and B a r t o n - o n - H u m b e r ; on 40 t h e a p s e a t W o r t h ; a n d on t h e n a v e w a l l s a t T i c h b o u r n e , W o o l b e e d i n g and C o i n R o g e r s . 50 T h e r e has b e e n much c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e s t r u c t u r a l v e r s u s t h e d e c o r a t i v e n a t u r e o f p i l a s t e r s t r i p s . E a r l i e r a u t h o r s , s u c h a s B a l d w i n B rown and C l a p h a m , f e l t t h a t t h e s e f e a t u r e s . w e r e p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e a n d . t h e y e q u a t e d them w i t h t h e German l i e s e n e n d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g the, C a r o l i n g i a n a n d O t t o n i a n p e r i o d s . F l e t c h e r , a n d J a c k s o n , h o w e v e r , p u t f o r w a r d t h e t h e o r y (and a r g u e d i t v e r y w e l l ) t h a t . p i l a s t e r s t r i p s h a d s t r u c t u r a l v a l u e . They w e r e s u p p o r t e d by more r e c e n t s c h o l a r s s u c h a s E.A. F i s h e r a nd H.M. and J o a n T a y l o r . 51 Some e x a m p l e s i n c l u d e t h e t o w e r s a t A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t , B y w e l l , B arnack,. S t . B e n e ' t , H o r n b y , and S k i p w i t h . 52 P l i n t h s o c c u r , b e n e a t h t h e n a v e a t B a r h o l m , t h e c h a n c e l a t B r a d f o r d - o n - A v o n , t h e . w e s t t o w e r a t B r a n s t o n e , t h e n o r t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t C o i n R o g e r s , a n d t h e w e s t t o w e r a t K i r k Hammerton. B a l d w i n B r o w n , 1 9 2 5 , 5. 53 E x a m p l e s o f t w o - c e l l e d p l a n s a r e f o u n d a t K e m p l e y , B e n g e o , S t o k e O r c h a r d , and H a l e s . 54 S q u a r e c h a n c e l s a r e f o u n d a t K e m p l e y and S t o k e O r c h a r d w h i l e a p s i d a l . c h a n c e l s , o c c u r a t Bengeo and H a l e s . A.W. C l a p h a m , E n g l i s h Romanesque. A r c h i t e c t u r e . A f t e r t h e C o n q u e s t , ( O x f o r d , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 1 0 2 . Norman b u i l d e r s b r o u g h t w i t h t h e m t h e a p s i d a l e a s t e r n , e n d , t h o u g h t h e y w e r e o f t e n f o r c e d . t o a b a n d o n . i t , due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i n s u l a r masons o v e r w h e l m i n g l y p r e f e r r e d a s q u a r e c h a n c e l . Howard, 19 36, 3 3 , 39. 55 T h r e e - c e l l e d p l a n s . a r e . f o u n d a t M o c c a s , K i l p e c k a n d S t u d l a n d . 56 B i r k i n i s an e x a m p l e o f . a f o u r - c e l l e d c h u r c h . 57 A i s l e d c h u r c h e s a r e f o u n d a t B a r d s e y , G e d d i n g t o n , A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t , B e d a l e , H a c k n e s s , a n d . K i r k b y H i l l . 58 C r u c i f o r m p l a n s appear, a t O l d a n d New S h o r e h a m , H e m e l H e m p s t e a d a n d M e l b o u r n e . Cox a n d F o r d , 19 35, 32. 59 E x a m p l e s o f s h o r t e r A n g l o - N o r m a n n a v e s a r e f o u n d a t I f f l e y , H a l e s , M e l b o u r n e , S t e w k l e y , and C a s s i n g t o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e n a v e s a t S t e w k l e y a n d M e l b o u r n e a r e o f g r e a t h e i g h t . 60 A.H. Thompson, The H i s t o r i c a l G r o w t h o f t h e E n g l i s h P a r i s h  C h u r c h , ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 1 3 ) , p.78. 6 1 C l a p h a m , . 1 9 3 4 , 116. 62 Some a r g u m e n t c a n be made f o r t h e f a c t , , t h a t , h e r r i n g - b o n e w o r k d i d seem t o a p p e a r - m o r e f r e q u e n t l y i n w a l l s o f p o s t -C o n q u e s t p r o v e n a n c e . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t i t may h a v e b e e n u s e d a s a b o n d i n g c o u r s e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e w a l l i t s e l f . H o ward, 19 36, 34. 6 3 E x a m p l e s o f s u c h p l a s t e r - c o v e r e d i n t e r i o r s a r e s e e n a t I f f l e y , W a l k s o k e n a n d Hemel H e m p s t e a d . v L i m e w a s h e d i n t e r i o r s o c c u r a t F i n g e s t a n d H a l e s . 6 4 T h o m p s o n , 1-913, 66-67. ^ 5 S u c h m a i n e n t r a n c e s a r e f o u n d a t K i l p e c k , S t u d l a n d , C a s t l e H e d d i n g h a m , B e n g e o , B i r k i n , a n d M o c c a s . fi ft Thompson, 1 9 1 3 , 58. 6 7 B e l l - c o t e s s u r m o u n t t h e r o o f s o f K i l p e c k , R u d f o r d a n d R e d m i r e . 6 8 L a n g f o r d . , O l d and New S h o r e h a m , I f f l e y , S t e w k l e y , a n d O z l e w o r t h a r e g o o d e x a m p l e s o f t h e s h o r t , s q u a t , d e c o r a t e d t y p e , t h o u g h F i n g e s t . d i s p l a y s a more s e v e r e e x t e r i o r . 6 9 F i s h e r , 1 9 6 2 , 180. ^ E x a m p l e s o f c e n t r a l l y p l a c e d a x i a l t o w e r s a r e f o u n d a t I f f l e y , S t e w k l e y , O l d and New Shore h a m , O z l e w o r t h , C a s t o r , a n d L a n g f o r d . 71 W i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r c h e s i n two o r more c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s , t h e f i r s t r i n g s e r v e d as a c e n t r i n g f o r t h e s e c o n d , w h i c h p r o j e c t e d b e y o n d t h e f i r s t . A t h i r d , f o u r t h , f i f t h o r e v e n s i x t h s u c h f e a t u r e . c o u l d be p r o j e c t e d i f t h e w a l l w e r e t h i c k o r i f a p a r t i c u l a r l y e l a b o r a t e f a c i n g was r e q u i r e d . H o w a r d , 1936., 3 1 , 44. 72 5 S u c h t u r r e t s e x i s t i n t h e n o r t h w e s t c o r n e r o f t h e n o r t h t r a n s e p t a t O l d Shoreham a nd i n t h e n o r t h e a s t , c o r n e r o f t h e s o u t h t r a n s e p t a t Hemel H e m p s t e a d . 73 A r c h e s w i t h r u b b l e c o r e s a r e f o u n d i n . t h e n a v e a r c a d e s a t M e l b o u r n e , a n d W a l k u r n ; • S u c h s t r u c t u r e s a l s o s u p p o r t t h e c r o s s i n g a t O l d Sho r e h a m a n d t h e a m b u l a t o r i e s , o f S t . J o h n ' s C h a p e l a t t h e Tower o f L o n d o n a nd S t . B a r t h o l o m e w ' s , S m i t h f i e l d . 74 E x a m p l e s o f r e c e s s e d a r c h e s i n c l u d e . t h e c h a n c e l a r c h a t T i c k e n c o t e ; t h e t o w e r a r c h e s a t I f f l e y , S t e w k l e y , C a s s i n g t p n , and S t u d l a n d ; t h e s o u t h p o r t a l , a t . B a r f r e y s t o n e ; t h e t o w e r a n d t r a n s e p t a r c h e s a t O l d Shoreham; a n d t h e n a v e s o u t h d o o r w a y a t A d e l . H o w a r d , 1 936, 47. S u c h c a r e f u l l y . l a i d v o u s s o i r s a r e f o u n d i n . t h e n a v e a r c a d e 42 a t M e l b o u r n e , t h e t o w e r a r c h e s a t O l d Shoreham, t h e a r c h e s o f t h e a x i a l t o w e r a t S t u d l a n d , a n d t h e a m b u l a t o r y o f S t . J o h n ' s C h a p e l a t . t h e Tower o f L o n d o n ; "7 <S N o r t h and s o u t h d o o r w a y s a r e f o u n d a t B e n g e o , H a l e s , L i t t l e T e y , M o c c a s , B i r k i n , ' S t o k e O r c h a r d , M e l b o u r n e , Hemel .{Hempstead-and Peterborough-.;. O c c a s i o n a l l y , h o w e v e r , t h e r e was a w e s t d o o r w a y . 77 S u c h . r e b a t e d o p e n i n g s i n c l u d e t h e w e s t d o o r w a y a t Hemel H e m p s t e a d ; t h e s o u t h d o o r w a y s a t K i l p e c k , B e n g e o , S t u d l a n d , K e m p l e y , a n d H a l e s ; a nd t h e n o r t h a nd s o u t h d o o r w a y s a t M o c c a s . 7 8 T a y l o r , 1 9 6 5 , 4. 79 S o f f i t r o l l s a r e f o u n d o n t h e s o u t h n a v e d o o r w a y a t S t e w k l e y , t h e n o r t h d o o r w a y a t I f f l e y , a n d t h e e n t r a n c e d o o r w a y a t S t . S e p u l c h r e ' s , C a m b r i d g e . 8 0 S u c h t y m p a n a a p p e a r a b o v e -the s o u t h p o r t a l s a t B a r f r e y s t o n e , K i l p e c k , T r e d i n g t o n , a n d B i s h o p s T£ighton. 81 E x a m p l e s o f r o u n d - h e a d e d w i n d o w s i n c l u d e t h e o p e n i n g s o v e r t h e w e s t d o o r w a y a t I f f l e y , t h e b l o c k e d o p e n i n g s o f t h e a p s e a t H a l e s , t h e w i n d o w s i n t h e s o u t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e a t S t e w k l e y , t h e a p s e w i n d o w s . a t K i l p e c k , a nd t h e t o w e r o p e n i n g s a t F i n g e s t . C i r c u l a r w i n d o w s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e n a v e w e s t w a l l , a t I f f l e y a n d t h e f o u r t o w e r w a l l s a t O l d and New Shoreham. 8 2 A n g l o - N o r m a n c l e r e s t o r y w i n d o w s a r e f o u n d a t A r r e t o n , B i b u r y a n d Bosham. 8 3 I n t e r n a l l y s i n g l e - s p l a y e d , windows, a r e . f o u n d i n t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h w a l l s o f t h e n a v e s a t S t o k e . O r c h a r d , K i l p e c k a n d S t u d l a n d a n d i n t h e a p s e a t B e n g e o . Those s u r m o u n t e d b y . t r u e a r c h e s i n c l u d e t h e b l o c k e d . a p s e w i n d o w s a t H a l e s , t h e o p e n i n g on t h e w e s t f r o n t a t K i l p e c k , t h e c l e r e s t o r y w indows a t M e l b o u r n e a n d S t . , S e p u l c h r e ' s , a n d t h e a p s e o p e n i n g s a t B i r k i n . T h o s e s u r m o u n t e d by. l i n t e l s . w i t h r e l i e v i n g a r c h e s i n c l u d e t h e n a v e windows a t O l d Shoreham a n d , t h e a p s e w i n d o w s a t K i l p e c k . 84 L a r g e r e c e s s e d and. m o u l d e d . w i n d o w o p e n i n g s a r e f o u n d a b o v e t h e w e s t d o o r w a y a t I f f l e y , i n t h e c l e r e s t o r y a t S t . S e p u l c h r e ' s / o n e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e t o w e r e n t r a n c e a t B r a n s t o n e , i n t h e b e l f r y a t R i n g e s t , a nd i n t h e a p s e a t B i r k i n . 85 A n g l o - N o r m a n d o u b l e - l i g h t b e l f r y w i n d o w s appear, i n t h e t o w e r s a t O l d and. New S h o r e h a m , O z l e w o r t h , C a s t o r , W e a v e r t h o r p e , J a r r o w , and C l a p h a m . T a y l o r , 1 9 6 5, 7. 43 F l a t , b r o a d c l a s p i n g b u t t r e s s e s a r e l o c a t e d a t t h e s o u t h e a s t c o r n e r o f t h e n a v e w a l l a t H a l e s , t h e c o r n e r s o f t h e s o u t h t r a n s e p t w a l l a t O l d Shoreham, a n d t h e c o r n e r s o f t h e w e s t f r o n t w a l l a t L a n g f o r d . H i g h l y p r o j e c t i n g b u t t r e s s e s a r e f o u n d on t h e n a v e a n d c l e r e s t o r y w a l l s a t S t . S e p u l c h r e ' s , t h e n a v e and a p s e w a l l s a t K i l p e c k , t h e a p s e w a l l s a t H a l e s a nd B i r k i n , a n d t h e n o r t h t r a n s e p t w a l l a t Romsey. 8 7 E x a m p l e s o f A n g l o - N o r m a n q u o i n s a r e l o c a t e d a t t h e n o r t h w e s t a n d s o u t h w e s t a n g l e s o f t h e n a v e a t I f f l e y , t h e s o u t h w e s t a nd s o u t h e a s t a n g l e s o f t h e n a v e a t B a r f r e y s t o n e , t h e f o u r a n g l e s o f t h e t o w e r a t O z l e w o r t h , a n d t h e s o u t h e a s t a n d n o r t h e a s t a n g l e s o f t h e c h a n c e l a t R u d f o r d . 8 8 S u c h s m a l l q u o i n s a p p e a r a t I f f l e y a n d O l d Shoreham. C l a p h a m , 1 9 3 4 , . 1 6 , 1 3 4 - 1 3 5 . 89 P l i n t h s . a r e f o u n d b e n e a t h t h e t o w e r s , a t O l d a n d New Shoreham and. S t e w k l e y , t h e n a v e a n d t o w e r a t I f f l e y , a n d t h e a p s e a t K i l p e c k . CHAPTER I I I THE CHURCHES - A CATALOGUE I n t r o d u c t i o n I n t h e t h r e e R i d i n g s o f Y o r k s h i r e t h e r e a r e t w e n t y - s i x p a r i s h c h u r c h e s w h i c h r e t a i n A n g l o - S a x o n f a b r i c . T h e s e h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t a l o g u e . They w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f i r s t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o any h i s t o r i c a l d o c u m e n t s , s u c h a s c h a r t e r s a n d c h r o n i c l e s , w h i c h p e r t a i n t o t h e i r p r e - C o n q u e s t d e v e l o p m e n t . The e x i s t i n g A n g l o - S a x o n a nd Norman e l e m e n t s i n t h e s e c h u r c h e s w i l l t h e n be d e s c r i b e d a n d a n a l y z e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I , "The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H e r i t a g e " . A s a r e s u l t o f t h i s s t u d y t h e s t r u c t u r e s h a v e b e e n a r r a n g e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , b a s e d on t h e e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e a t t h i s t i m e . The c h u r c h o f S t . M a r y a t L a s t i n g h a m , w h i c h was o r i g i n a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e c a t a l o g u e , h a s b e e n e l i m i n a t e d . Though L a s t i n g h a m was an a n c i e n t f o u n d a t i o n , e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e e x i s t i n g c h u r c h was c o n s t r u c t e d c a . 1 0 7 8 u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f S t e p h e n o f W h i t b y , a Norman c l e r i c t o t a l l y 1 u n a f f e c t e d by A n g l o - S a x o n b u i l d i n g s t y l e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s . A s t h i s was an i m p o r t a n t f o u n d a t i o n , he p r o b a b l y i m p o r t e d h i s own masons f r o m t h e C o n t i n e n t t o e r e c t i t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e c h u r c h , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e c o l u m n b a s e s i n t h e c r y p t , i s b u i l t 45 i n the Norman s t y l e and d i s p l a y s n i e t h e r Anglo-Saxon f e a t u r e s nor t h a t uneasy merging of Anglo-Saxon and Norman elements which c h a r a c t e r i z e many of the b u i l d i n g s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t a l o g u e . Ledsham I. Dedication;,, A l l S a i n t s I I . L o c a t i o n : The church i s l o c a t e d i n the West R i d i n g of Y o r k s h i r e , ten m i l e s e a s t of Leeds. I I I . Present C o n d i t i o n : A l l S a i n t s c o n s i s t s of a west tower, a nave with a no r t h a i s l e and a south porch, and a chancel w i t h a n o r t h chapel and v e s t r y . ( f i g s . 1 , 2 ) (Plan 1) IV. H i s t o r y and Documentation: There i s no mention of a church e x i s t i n g on t h i s s i t e before 1066, though the v i l l a g e i s mentioned i n Anglo-Saxon Charter LXXIV e n t i t l e d , "Types of 2 Tenure Among Church Lands i n Y o r k s h i r e " . A l l S a i n t s was 3 r e s t o r e d i n 1871 by Curzon. V. S t r u c t u r e : A. Anglo-Saxon Elements 1. E x t e r i o r a) Masonry: The southern and western w a l l s of the nave are of w e l l - c o u r s e d , widely j o i n t e d , roughly dressed brown sandstone. The lower p o r t i o n of the tower to the h e i g h t of the second window on the south f a c e , i s of s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l but hig h e r up i t changes to rough rubble w a l l i n g . ( f i g s . 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ) b) Nave: The south w a l l , v i s i b l e from the e x t e r i o r , may be o r i g i n a l and of the e i g h t h century. (figs.2,6,7,8) The church r e t a i n s e x c e p t i o n a l l y l a r g e m e g a l i t h i c s i d e - a l t e r n a t e quoins a t i t s n o r t h w e s t e r n , s o u t h w e s t e r n and s o u t h e a s t e r n c o r n e r s . 1 T h e s e r e s e m b l e t h o s e f o u n d a t Escomb a n d J a r r o w . ( f i g s . 2 , 3 , 7 ) The s o u t h n a v e w a l l c o n t a i n s t h r e e o r i g i n a l b l o c k e d r o u n d - h e a d e d w i n d o w s , one t o t h e w e s t o f t h e l a t e r w e s t window, one j u s t e a s t o f i t , and one t o t h e w e s t of, t h e p r e s e n t e a s t w i n d o w . ( f i g s . 2 , 6 , 7 , 8 ) T h e i r e x t e r n a l h e a d s c o n s i s t o f a r c h e d l i n t e l s r e s t i n g on jambs w h i c h a r e c o u r s e d w i t h t h e w a l l i n g . They a r e l a r g e f o r A n g l o - S a x o n w i n d o w s , w i t h e x t e r n a l , a p e r t u r e s 5 23 i n . w i d e x 51 i n . h i g h . The s o u t h p o r c h was a d d e d t o t h e n a v e s h o r t l y a f t e r i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n , a t a b o u t t h e same t i m e a s t h e w e s t p o r c h o r t o w e r . A t f i r s t s i g h t i t a p p e a r s t o be an o r d i n a r y m e d i e v a l s t r u c t u r e b u t H.M. T a y l o r t h i n k s t h a t o r i g i n a l l y i t f u n c t i o n e d . a s a l a t e r a l . p o r t i c u s . ^ He i n t e r p r e t s t h e r e m a i n s a b o v e t h e i n n e r d o o r w a y a s a t a l l , n a r r o w e n t r a n c e , w h i c h o p e n e d o u t w a r d s f r o m t h e n a v e . The e x t e r n a l f a c e c o n s i s t s . o f a f l a t l i n t e l r e s t i n g o n jambs 28 i n . a p a r t and.14 f t . h i g h . I n t e r n a l l y t h e jambs a r e o n l y 24 i n . a p a r t . The o p e n i n g w o u l d h a v e b e e n r e b a t e d f o r t h e h a n g i n g o f a,dodr.. S i n c e t h e d o o r w a y was b l o c k e d f r o m t h e t i m e t h e m e d i e v a l e n t r a n c e was c o n s t r u c t e d , i t seems f a i r t o assume t h a t t h e s i m i l a r l y r e b a t e d jambs and f l a t l i n t e l o f t h e t o w e r ' s s o u t h d o o r w a y a r e a l s o o r i g i n a l a nd n o t l a t e r i n s e r t i o n s . The r e m a r k a b l e h e i g h t o f t h e d o o r w a y w i t h i n t h e n a v e s u g g e s t s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f two d o o r w a y s , one a b o v e t h e o t h e r , o p e n i n g i n t o a s o u t h p o r t i c u s o f two s t o r e y s , b u t t h i s w o u l d i m p l y t h e n e e d f o r u p p e r w i n d o w s i n t h e p o r t i c u s and t h e r e 7 i s no t r a c e - o f s u c h o p e n i n g s . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o r e g a r d t h i s d o o r w a y a s an e x t r e m e e x a m p l e o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n l o v e o f t a l l , n a r r o w o p e n i n g s , p e r h a p s a d o p t e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e c a r r y i n g o f a c r o s s i n a p r o c e s s i o n . H.M. T a y l o r a d m i t s t h a t a n y s o u t h e r n window w h i c h d i d e x i s t w o u l d h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d w i t h t h e i n s e r t i o n g o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y o u t e r d o o r w a y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d a t e t h e m a i n . f a b r i c o f t h e s o u t h p o r c h . I t i s n o t i n b o nd w i t h t h e n a v e w a l l and i t h a s no o v e r l y i n g Norman f a b r i c t o a i d i n p r o v i n g t h a t i t i s p r e -C o n q u e s t . However, t h e w a l l s a r e o f s i m i l a r t h i c k n e s s (2 -2 f t . 2 i n . ) and g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r a s t h o s e o f t h e t o w e r and t h e q u o i n s a r e o f t h e l a r g e s i d e - a l t e r n a t e t y p e . T h i s may i n d i c a t e a s i m i l a r d a t e . ( f i g . 2 ) c) Tower: The t o w e r was n o t c o n s t r u c t e d . a t . t h e same t i m e as t h e n a v e s i n c e i t i s n o t i n b o n d w i t h t h e m a i n f a b r i c . H o wever, i t was e r e c t e d s h o r t l y a f t e r . ( f i g s . 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ) I t shows e v e r y i n d i c a t i o n o f h a v i n g o n c e b e e n a two s t o r e y p o r c h w i t h a g a b l e d r o o f s p a c e . T h i s p o r c h was c o n t i n u e d . u p w a r d s a f t e r 1066. I t s l o n g e r e a s t / w e s t a x i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f w h a t E.A. F i s h e r c a l l s a p o r c h t o w e r and t h e l i n e o f t h e o r i g i n a l e a s t g a b l e 9 a g a i n s t t h e w e s t w a l l i s f u r t h e r p r o o f o f t h i s . On t h e e x t e r i o r , t h e mark o f t h i s p o r c h i s . n o t c l e a r l y shown t h o u g h i t s e x i s t e n c e i s i m p l i e d by t h e c h a n g e f r o m r o u g h - c u t , r e g u l a r s t o n e l a i d i n c o u r s e s , t o c r u d e r u b b l e w a l l i n g . The q u o i n s o f t h e t o w e r a r e l a r g e s i d e - a l t e r n a t e s l a b s w h i c h a r e m a s s i v e a t t h e b a s e . T h e r e i s no p l i n t h a n d t h e r e a r e no o p e n i n g s i n t h e n o r t h w a l l b e l o w t h e b e l f r y l e v e l . ( f i g . 5 ) 48 A b o v e a n d s l i g h t l y t o t h e n o r t h o f t h e l a t e r r o u n d - h e a d e d w e s t window, i s an a l m o s t s q u a r e o p e n i n g w i t h a s q u a r e l i n t e l , jambs and s i l l , a l l o f one s t o n e e a c h . I t i s c h a m f e r e d a l l r o u n d . To t h e e a s t o f t h e d o o r w a y , i n t h e s o u t h w a l l , i s an o r i g i n a l A n g l o - S a x o n window w i t h an arched" l i n t e l a n d a s h l a r jambs w h i c h r e s e m b l e t h e w a l l i n g . ( f i g s . 3 , 4 ) A b o v e t h i s i s a s i m i l a r , though, s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r , o p e n i n g . The s o u t h d o o r w a y i s t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t a n d c o n t r o v e r s i a l f e a t u r e i n t h e t o w e r . On t h e e x t e r i o r i t i s r o u n d - h e a d e d a n d m e a s u r e s 2 f t . 4 i n . x 5 f t . 7 i n . w i t h jambs o f p l a i n , s q u a r e s e c t i o n , a n d s h a l l o w i m p o s t s . ( f i g s . 3 , 4 , 5 ) The r o u n d h e a d i s o f w e l l - l a i d v o u s s o i r s and t h e w h o l e d o o r w a y i s o u t l i n e d w i t h a b a n d o f s t r i p w o r k . . c a r r i e d up b e s i d e t h e jambs a n d a r o u n d t h e h e a d . The d i f f i c u l t f e a t u r e s . a r e t h e s t r i p w o r k and t h e i m p o s t s . The i m p o s t s a r e n o t t h e u s u a l S a x o n t y p e . I n s t e a d t h e y a r e s q u a r e b l o c k s r o u n d e d o f f b e l o w . T h e s e do n o t c o n t i n u e a c r o s s t h e w a l l f a c e t o . i n t e r s e c t t h e s t r i p w o r k , b u t e n d o d d l y a g a i n s t i t . B o t h t h e i m p o s t s and t h e s t r i p w o r k , w h i c h i s 7 i n . w i d e and p r o j e c t s 3 - 5 i n . f r o m t h e w a l l f a c e , a r e o r n a m e n t e d w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l v i n e s c r o l l . T h i s i s : i n t e r c e p t e d a t t h e t o p o f t h e m o u l d i n g by t h r e e r o s e t t e s . H.M. T a y l o r d o e s n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e s t r i p w o r k and o r n a m e n t a r e e n t i r e l y a d d i t i o n s made by C u r z o n i n 1 8 7 1 . He s t a t e s t h a t S i r S t e p h e n G l y n n e ' s 1862 d e s c r i p t i o n m e n t i o n s s u c h d e c o r a t i o n a r o u n d t h e o p e n i n g , b u t t h a t i t was o f s i m p l e . f o r m . He f e e l s t h a t t h e jambs c o u l d be c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e e a r l i e r n o r t h d o o r w a y a t Escomb a n d w i t h t h e s i d e o p e n i n g s i n t h e w e s t w a l l a t Monkwearmouth. 2. I n t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The e a r l y n a v e c o n s i s t s o f r o u g h l y s h a p e d a s h l a r l a i d i n r e g u l a r c o u r s e s o f v a r y i n g h e i g h t , ( f i g s . 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 2 ) The b rown s a n d s t o n e b l o c k s a r e . w i d e l y j o i n t e d a n d r e s e m b l e t h o s e on t h e e x t e r i o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g . b) C h a n c e l : The c h a n c e l a r c h , m e a s u r i n g 7 f t . 10 i n . x 9 f t . 9 i n . t o t h e h e i g h t . o f t h e i m p o s t s , i s e a r l y , b u t many o f i t s d e t a i l s h a v e b e e n r e n e w e d . ( f i g . 9 ) I t c o n s i s t s o f a r o u n d - h e a d e d a r c h o f r e g u l a r t h r o u g h s t o n e ' : v o u s s o i r s , some o f w h i c h , e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e n o r t h , may h a v e . b e e n r e p l a c e d . T h e r e i s no k e y s t o n e . The j a m b s , w h i c h a r e 2 f t . 4 i n . t h i c k , a r e a m i x t u r e o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s a n d s m a l l e r b l o c k s l a i d i n one -t h r e e c o u r s e s . They a r e l a i d Escomb f a s h i o n , t h o u g h a s q u i n t c u t s t h r o u g h .the n o r t h e r n one and a p i p e o r g a n b l o c k s t h e w e s t e r n o ne. The i m p o s t s a r e r e n e w a l s w h i c h c u r v e i n s l i g h t l y a n d a r e i n c i s e d w i t h a c i r c l e a n d s t a r d e s i g n . They a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e t o w e r s o u t h d o o r w a y . The a r c h . h a s b e e n so s e r i o u s l y t a m p e r e d w i t h t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t .to d a t e , t h o u g h i t i s p r o b a b l y l a t e S a x o n (C^) o r Saxo-Norman. d) Nave: The n a v e , w h i c h m e a s u r e s 42 f t . x 17 f t . 4 i n . , h a s w a l l s . w h i c h a r e 2 r f t . - 3 i n . - 2 f t . 4 i n . t h i c k a n d a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 22 f t . h i g h . A b o v e t h e n o r t h a r c a d e a r e t h e r e m a i n s o f f o u r b l o c k e d A n g l o - S a x o n w i n d o w s . ( f i g . 1 1 ) The s o u t h w a l l c o n t a i n s t h r e e b l o c k e d r o u n d - h e a d e d w i n d o w s . T h e s e a r e i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d a n d t h e i r i n t e r n a l h e a d s c o n s i s t o f w e l l - l a i d v o u s s o i r s d e s c e n d i n g t o jambs t h a t a r e 50 q u i t e d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e c o u r s i n g o f t h e w a l l . ( f i g . 1 0 ) T h e r e i s a l s o some t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s t h e u s e o f a l t e r n a t i n g u p r i g h t a n d f l a t s t o n e s . T h e s e windows a n d t h e o n e s t o t h e n o r t h , s p l a y i n t e r n a l l y 2 3 i n . w i d e x 51 i n . h i g h - 32 i n . w i d e x 78 i n . h i g h l a n d t h e i r i n t e r i o r s i l l s a r e 12 f t . a b o v e t h e f l o o r . 1 1 I n t h e s o u t h w a l l , n e a r t h e w e s t e r n e n d o f t h e n a v e , i s t h e s o u t h d o o r w a y w h i c h o r i g i n a l l y l e d t o t h e s o u t h p o r t i c u s . I n t e r n a l l y i t h a s a r o u n d h e a d w h i c h r e s t s on jambs 24 i n . a p a r t and i s r e b a t e d f o r the, h a n g i n g o f a d o o r . The d o o r o p e n e d s o u t h w a r d , b e c a u s e t h e e x t e r n a l o p e n i n g i s 2 8 i n . and t h e jambs on t h i s s i d e a r e 2 i n . h i g h e r . ( f i g . 1 0 ) A b o v e t h e t o w e r a r c h i s w h a t a p p e a r s a t f i r s t t o be t h e u s u a l t y p e o f S a x o n o p e n i n g i n t h e t o w e r e a s t w a l l . ( f i g . 1 2 ) H o wever, H.M. T a y l o r b e l i e v e s i t t o be an i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d window s i m i l a r i n c o n s t r u c t i o n t o t h e two w i n d o w s i n t h e t o w e r 12 s o u t h w a l l . I t m u s t h a v e b e e n p l a c e d t h e r e t o l i g h t t h e n a v e a s was t h e window a b o v e t h e w e s t d o o r w a y a t Monkwearmouth. I t c o n s i s t s o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s l a b jambs o f t h r e e s t o n e s e a c h , s u p p o r t i n g an a r c h e d l i n t e l o f s l i g h t l y t r i a n g u l a r s h a p e w h i c h i s composed o f two s t o n e s . The s i l l was b u i l t up f o r t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f . t h e " l a t e r / : t o w e r sarch--. e) Tower: The t o w e r m e a s u r e s 12 f t . 3 i n . e a s t / w e s t x 9 f t . 8 i n . n o r t h / s o u t h w i t h w a l l s 2 - 2 f t . 3 i n . t h i c k . T h e s e m e a s u r e m e n t s p l a c e i t i n E.A. F i s h e r ' s c a t e g o r y o f p o r c h t o w e r s . T h e r e a r e no o p e n i n g s on .the n o r t h f a c e . H owever, a t t h e e a s t e r n e n d o f t h e s o u t h w a l l , a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e s o u t h d o o r w a y , i s a s m a l l i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d , r o u n d - h e a d e d window. Above i t i s a n o t h e r s i m i l a r , t h o u g h s m a l l e r , o p e n i n g . V e r y near, t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n j a m b . i s t h e s o u t h d o o r w a y . On t h e i n t e r i o r i t . s u r v i v e s amost u n c h a n g e d a n d : c o n s i s t s o f a f l a t l i n t e l a n d jambs t h a t a r e r e b a t e d . 2 i n . b e h i n d t h o s e o f t h e o u t e r f a c e f o r t h e h a n g i n g o f a d o o r . The f i r s t f l o o r o f t h e t o w e r i s a b o u t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e c e i l i n g o f t h e o r i g i n a l A n g l o - S a x o n , c h a m b e r . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e w a l l i n g c e a s e s t o be c a r e f u l l y l a i d a n d becomes r u b b l e . On t h e e a s t e r n . w a l l o f t h e p r e s e n t c l o c k c h a m b e r , and c l e a r l y v i s i b l e on the. i n t e r i o r , i s t h e p a t c h e d s c a r o f t h e o r i g i n a l r o o f . l i n e , w h i c h marks, t h e . j u n c t i o n o f t h e A n g l o -S a x o n p o r c h w i t h t h e w e s t w a l l o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n n a v e . ( f i g . 1 3 ) B. Norman E l e m e n t s a) M a s o n r y : The b e l f r y s t a g e o f t h e t o w e r i s o f w h i t e T a d c a s t e r s t o n e l a i d i n r e g u l a r , t h i n l y j o i n t e d , a s h l a r c o u r s e s . ( f i g s . l , 3 ) i b) Tower: The b e l f r y s t a g e c o n t a i n s d o u b l e - l i g h t o p e n i n g s w i t h h e a d s o f . s m a l l v o u s s o i r s . ( f i g s . 1 , 3 ) The jambs, h a v e t h i n , s q u a r e i m p o s t s a n d t h e c e n t r a l s h a f t s , w h i c h a r e n o t m i d - w a l l , s u p p o r t s q u a r e , q u i r k e d i m p o s t s above.. E a c h - o f t h e s h a f t s i s s u r m o u n t e d by two s c a l l o p e d c a p i t a l s w i t h p l a i n n e c k i n g s . 2, I n t e r i o r a) N a v e : H.M. T a y l o r c o n s i d e r s t h e t o w e r a r c h , w h i c h m e a s u r e s 52 7 f t . 4 i n . x 11 f t . 9 i n . , t o be a Norman i n s e r t i o n , p r o b a b l y meant t o r e p l a c e a w e s t d o o r w a y s i m i l a r t o t h e one 13 a t Monkwearmouth. ( f i g . 1 2 ) The f a c t t h a t i t d o e s r e p l a c e an e a r l i e r o p e n i n g i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d b y t h e way t h a t t h e i m p o s t s a r e n o t c o u r s e d w i t h t h e w a l l i n g a n d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e h e a d r u n s c l o s e t o t h e window a b o v e . As a r e s u l t , t h e w i n d o w s i l l h a d t o be b u i l t up by one c o u r s e . A l s o , t h e o r i g i n a l f i r s t f l o o r o f t h e p o r c h w o u l d h a v e r u n a c r o s s t h e o p e n h e a d o f an a r c h o f t h i s s i z e . The a r c h i s p l a i n w i t h r e g u l a r v o u s s o i r s w h i c h a r e n o t t h r o u g h s t o n e s b u t : a r e i n s t e a d l a i d 3 -^4 p e r c o u r s e w i t h no r u b b l e i n - f i l l i n g . T h e r e i s no k e y s t o n e . The j ambs a r e ° 2 f t . 5 i n . t h i c k a nd a r e . a l s o l a i d 3 - 4 p e r c o u r s e w h i l e 14 t h e i m p o s t s a r e q u i r k e d a n d . c h a m f e r e d . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s and. C o n c l u s i o n s : T h e r e i s no r e f e r e n c e t o A l l S a i n t s i n any p r e - C o n q u e s t document o r c h r o n i c l e a n d d a t i n g must be done on s t y l i s t i c g r o u n d s . The t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n u n d e r t a k e n by H.M. a n d J o a n T a y l o r h a s a l l o w e d 15 t h e m t o a d v a n c e an e i g h t h c e n t u r y d a t e , f o r Ledsham. T h e i r r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e a s f o l l o w s : 1) The b l o c k e d s i d e w indows o f t h e . n a v e a n d t h e o r i g i n a l e a s t w indows o f t h e t o w e r a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f o u n d i n t h e w e s t e r n w a l l o f Monkwearmouth. They h a v e m o n o l i t h i c a r c h e d l i n t e l s on t h e e x t e r i o r a nd a r c h e d i n t e r i o r v o u s s o i r h e a d s . They a r e a l s o v e r y l a r g e . 2) The b l o c k e d s o u t h d o o r w a y l e a d i n g f r o m t h e n a v e t o t h e s o u t h p o r t i c u s , and t h e o r i g i n a l s o u t h d o o r w a y o f t h e t o w e r a r e e a r l y . The f a c t . t h a t t h e y a r e r e b a t e d a l l o w s t h e m t o be c o m p a r e d s t y l i s t i c a l l y t o t h e s i d e d o o r w a y s o f t h e w e s t p o r c h a t Monkwearmouth. A l s o , t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f a r o u n d h e a d on one f a c e a n d a f l a t l i n t e l on t h e o t h e r c a n be s e e n i n t h e f r a g m e n t a r y r e m a i n s o.f. t h e - s o u t h d o o r w a y s a t J a r r o w and D e e r h u r s t . 3) The p l a n o f t h e n a v e w i t h i t s s l i g h t l y l a t e r w e s t p o r c h i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t a t Monkwearmouth, as i s t h e s p l a y e d window a b o v e t h e t o w e r a r c h . 4) The f a b r i c o f t h e n a v e , w i t h i t s c o u r s e d , r o u g h l y s q u a r e d s t o n e s , t h i n w a l l i n g and m e g a l i t h i c q u o i n s , i s t y p i c a l o f t h e b e s t p e r i o d o f e a r l y N o r t h u m b r i a n c h u r c h b u i l d i n g ( e g . 16 J a r r o w , Escomb and C o r b r i d g e ) . B a l d w i n B r o w n , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a r g u e s a g a i n s t t h i s e a r l y d a t e . He f e e l s t h a t t h e Norman t o w e r a r c h and t h e s t r i p w o r k a r o u n d t h e t o w e r s o u t h d o o r w a y a r e much t o o a d v a n c e d t o be A n g l o -S a x o n . H.M. T a y l o r c o u n t e r s t h i s by s t a t i n g t h a t t h e t o w e r a r c h i s a l a t e r i n s e r t i o n and t h a t G l y n n e h a s d e s c r i b e d t h e pre-1871 17 s t r i p w o r k a s o f p l a i n e r d e s i g n . A s e a r l y a s '1886, B i s h o p G.F. Brown h a d a p p r e c i a t e d 18 t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n Ledsham and Monkwearmouth. A l s o , t h e two s e c t i o n s o f c a r v e d c r o s s i n t h e n o r t h e r n w a l l o f t h e n o r t h a i s l e , t h o u g h t h e y do n o t e s t a b l i s h a . d a t e f o r t h e c h u r c h , do p r o v e t h a t the. s i t e h a s b e e n a p l a c e o f w o r s h i p f r o m v e r y e a r l y t i m e s . I f H.M. T a y l o r ' s p r o p o s a l s a r e c o r r e c t , and t h e y seem q u i t e f e a s i b l e , t h e n Ledsham i s t h e e a r l i e s t A n g l o - S a x o n c h u r c h i n Y o r k s h i r e . As s u c h , i t r e v e a l s s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s u n i n f l u e n c e d by l a t e r c o n t i n e n t a l a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d i t c a n be u s e d a s a means o f d a t i n g t h e e a r l i e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o u n d i n A n g l o - S a x o n c h u r c h e s i n Y o r k s h i r e . 54 Y o r k , B i s h o p h i l l S e n i o r I . D e d i c a t i o n : S t . M a r y I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h was l o c a t e d i n t h e c i t y o f Y o r k on t h e w e s t s i d e o f t h e R i v e r Ouse. I t s a t midway b e t w e e n t h e r i v e r a n d t h e c i t y w a l l a t t h e j u n c t i o n o f B i s h o p h i l l S e n i o r a n d C r o m w e l l Road. I I I . C o n d i t i o n i n 1 9 6 1 : The c h u r c h c o n s i s t e d o f a n a v e w i t h a n o r t h a i s l e , a t o w e r a t t h e w e s t e n d o f t h e n o r t h a i s l e , a s o u t h p o r c h , and a c h a n c e l w i t h a n o r t h a i s l e . The c h a n c e l was n o t s e p a r a t e d s t r u c t u r a l l y f r o m t h e n a v e . ( P l a n 2) I V . H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n : S t . M a r y ' s was f i r s t r e f e r r e d t o i n 1 2 0 2 , when t h e r i g h t o f p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e b e n e f i c e was r e n o u n c e d i n f a v o u r o f R o b e r t l e W a v a s o r ( V a v a s o r ) . The p a r i s h b o u n d a r i e s w e r e r e v i s e d i n 1885. A s a r e s u l t , , t h e c h u r c h l a y i n t h e p a r i s h o f S t . M a r y B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r . The s t r u c t u r e was u s e d f o r o c c a s i o n a l s e r v i c e s u n t i l 1 956, when i t was l e f t t o d e t e r i o r a t e . A f a c u l t y was o b t a i n e d f o r i t s d e m o l i t i o n b u t i n 19 1958 t h e r u i n s w e r e s t i l l s t a n d i n g . I n 1 9 6 1 , when t h e T a y l o r s v i s i t e d t h e s i t e , t h e c h u r c h s t i l l . . e x i s t e d , b u t i t was f i n a l l y . 2 0 d e m o l i s h e d i n 1965. V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The n a v e w a l l s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f g r i t s t o n e r u b b l e l a i d i n i r r e g u l a r , w i d e l y j o i n t e d c o u r s e s . ( f i g . 1 4 ) A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f p a t c h i n g was v i s i b l e i n t h e w a l l s and was done w i t h w i d e l y j o i n t e d , g r e y g r i t s t o n e a s h l a r . b) Nave: A c c o r d i n g t o t h e T a y l o r s , t o t h e e a s t o f t h e s o u t h p o r c h t h e r e : was e v i d e n c e o f a s t r a i g h t v e r t i c a l j o i n t w h e r e t h e m e g a l i t h i c f a b r i c . o f t h e o r i g i n a l n a v e j o i n e d t h e s m a l l e r r u b b l e 21 f a b r i c o f t h e l a t e r c h a n c e l . P e r h a p s t h e b e s t i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e p r e - C o n q u e s t d a t e o f t h e c h u r c h w e r e t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n a n d n o r t h e a s t e r n q u o i n s . ( f i g . 1 4 ) The l o w e r p a r t o f t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n q u o i n was o f r e g u l a r s i d e - a l t e r n a t e c h a r a c t e r . I t was c o n s t r u c t e d o f l a r g e s t o n e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f o u n d i n many e a r l y N o r t h u m b r i a n c h u r c h e s . The m e g a l i t h i c c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e l o w e r c o u r s e s i n t h e s o u t h 22 w a l l may a l s o h a v e b e e n e a r l y . The R o m a n o - B r i t i s h r e m a i n s w h i c h T a y l o r s t a t e d w e r e p a r t o f t h e c h u r c h , w e r e s i t u a t e d r o u g h l y b e n e a t h . t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g w a l l s o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n n a v e , b u t t h e y h a d a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n . - T h e s o u t h w e s t e r n a n g l e s . o f t h e two s t r u c t u r e s w e re p r a c t i c a l l y c o i n c i d e n t b u t t h e w e s t w a l l o f t h e e a r l i e r f a b r i c s o o n b e g a n t o p r o t r u d e w e s t w a r d l i k e a f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m 23 b e n e a t h t h e A n g l o - S a x o n w a l l . T h i s p r o j e c t i o n c a n b e s e e n i n t h e Y o r k s h i r e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y P l a n . c) Tower: Some s t o n e s o f t h e e i g h t h o r e a r l y n i n t h c e n t u r y 24 w e r e l o c a t e d a t t h e f o o t o f t h e t o w e r . 2. I n t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : A p h o t o g r a p h t a k e n i n 1945 showed t h a t t h e p l a s t e r h a d f a l l e n o f f t h e w a l l a b o v e t h e n o r t h a r c a d e r e v e a l i n g r o u g h l y s h a p e d , w i d e l y j o i n t e d ; s t o n e s . ( f i g . 1 5 ) T h e s e h a d b e e n l a i d i n i r r e g u l a r c o u r s e s o f v a r y i n g s i z e a nd s h a p e . b) Nave: The n a v e , w h i c h measured. 19 f t . 6 i n . x 36 - f t . 3 i n . 25 on t h e i n t e r i o r , h a d s i d e w a l l s 2 f t . 6 i n . t h i c k . O r i g i n a l l y they, w e r e a t l e a s t 20 f t . h i g h . A t t h e w e s t e r n e n d o f t h e s o u t h w a l l t h e r e w e re c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s o f a s t r a i g h t v e r t i c a l j o i n t b e t w e e n t h e o l d a n d t h e new f a b r i c . I t was a l s o e a s y t o s e e t h a t a t a d i s t a n c e o f a b o u t 2 f t . 6 i n . t o t h e w e s t o f t h e j o i n t t h e r e was a n o t h e r s t r a i g h t v e r t i c a l l i n e . T h i s was i n d i c a t e d a t t h e w e s t e r n edge o f t h e o r i g i n a l e a s t w a l l w h i c h h a d b e e n 2 6 c u t away when t h e c h a n c e l .was w i d e n e d i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s . T h e ' b e s t e v i d e n c e o f A n g l o - S a x o n w o r k m a n s h i p w i t h i n t h e n a v e c o u l d be s e e n a b o v e t h e l a t e Norman n o r t h a r c a d e . The a r c h e s w e r e c u t t h r o u g h a p r e - C o n q u e s t w a l l and t h e o u t e r f a c e o f t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n q u o i n c o u l d be s e e n i n t h e n o r t h a i s l e o v e r 27 t h e t h i r d . c o l u m n t o t h e w e s t . A s t r a i g h t v e r t i c a l j o i n t r a n up t h e w a l l on t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h i s q u o i n w h e r e t h e l a t e r f a b r i c o f t h e w i d e n e d . c h a n c e l a b u t t e d a g a i n s t i t . W i t h i n t h e n a v e i t was a l s o p o s s i b l e t o . s e e t h e e a r l i e r R o m a n o - B r i t i s h w a l l p r o t r u d i n g n o r t h w a r d f r o m t h e A n g l o - S a x o n s o u t h w a l l . B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) Nave: The n o r t h a i s l e was c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e l a t e t w e l f t h 2 8 c e n t u r y b u t was w i d e n e d i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t r e s t e d on. a double... f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m . 2. I n t e r i o r a) N a v e : The t w e l f t h c e n t u r y n a v e n o r t h a r c a d e c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e b a y s o f a r c h e s r e s t i n g o n c i r c u l a r p i e r s . ( f i g . 1 5 ) The a r c h e s , w h i c h w e r e r o u n d - h e a d e d and o f a s i n g l e o r d e r o f v o u s s o i r s , r e s t e d on s q u a r e a b a c i . They w e r e c u t s t r a i g h t 30 t h r o u g h t h e w a l l w i t h no c h a m f e r . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s : The c h u r c h i s d i f f i c u l t t o d a t e as i t no l o n g e r e x i s t s . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e l y on t h e w o r d o f t h o s e who saw i t b e f o r e i t was d e m o l i s h e d . T h e r e w ere no d o o r w a y s , windows o r o t h e r d i s t i n c t i v e d e t a i l s t o a i d i n d e f i n i t e d a t i n g . I t i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o t u r n t o t h e w a l l i n g and q u o i n s f o r any c l u e s . H.M. a n d J o a n T a y l o r s t a t e t h a t t h e q u o i n s w e re m e g a l i t h i c s i d e - a l t e r n a t e a n d on t h i s b a s i s t h e y a s s i g n t h e n a v e t o P e r i o d A. They f e e l t h i s e a r l y d a t e i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e A n g l o - S a x o n p o r t i o n r e s t e d o n t h e r e m a i n s o f a R o m a n o - B r i t i s h b u i l d i n g . T h i s , t h e y s t a t e , i s a g ood r e a s o n f o r s u r m i s i n g t h a t i t i s e a r l i e r t h a n 31 S t . M a r y B i s h o p h i l l . J u n i o r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a n y i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s c h u r c h now d e p e n d s on t h e t h e o r i e s o f t h e T a y l o r s a s f i r s t h a n d r e s e a r c h i s i m p o s s i b l e . S k i p w i t h I . D e d i c a t i o n : S t . H e l e n I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e E a s t R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e , f i v e m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f S e l b y a n d two m i l e s f r o m R i c c a l l . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : S k i p w i t h c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , an o a i s l e d n a v e w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h , a n d a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l . ( f i g . 1 9 ) ( P l a n 3) I V . H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n : R e f e r e n c e t o t h e c h u r c h i s made 58 i n t h e Domesday Book u n d e r t h e h o l d i n g s o f R i c h a r d , s o n o f 32 E r f a s t . I n 1084, W i l l i a m t h e C o n q u e r o r gave Howden t o B i s h o p W i l l i a m o f Durham w i t h i t s c h u r c h and t h o s e o f W i l t o n a n d W a l k i n g t o n e a l o n g w i t h t h e i r t i t h e s . - a n d demesnes and t h e c h u r c h 33 o f S k i p w i t h e t c . I n t h e 112 0s t h e same c h u r c h was g r a n t e d 3 t o Durham P r i o r y . I t was r e s t o r e d by J . L . P e a r s o n , 1876 - 1877. V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : F o r a b o u t t h e f i r s t t w e l v e f e e t t h e l o w e r s t a g e o f t h e t o w e r i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f r o u g h l y s h a p e d s t o n e s l a i d i n w i d e l y j o i n t e d c o u r s e s . Above t h i s , a n d c o n t i n u i n g t o the, h e i g h t o f t h e f i r s t s t r i n g - c o u r s e , t h e s t o n e s d i m i n i s h i n s i z e a n d a r e o f r o u g h e r q u a l i t y . H i g h e r s t i l l t h e w a l l i n g i s f o r m e d o f t h i n s l a b s o f r a g s t o n e r u b b l e , ( f i g s . 2 0 , 2 1 ) b) Tower: The e x t e r i o r o f t h e t o w e r i s a b o u t 21 f t . 8 i n . s q u a r e and i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 44 f t . h i g h t o t h e t o p o f t h e s e c o n d s t a g e . I t s i t s on a d o u b l e p l i n t h o f one s q u a r e and one c h a m f e r e d o r d e r . A b o v e t h i s t h e f i r s t s t o r y r i s e s s h e e r t o a h e i g h t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 36 f t . The q u o i n s a t t h i s l e v e l a r e m e g a l i t h i c , 35 m e a s u r i n g up t o 3 f t . 6 i n . x 14 f t . 8 i n . However, a b o u t h a l f way up t h e y become s m a l l e r . The b o t t o m s t o n e s o f t h e t o w e r a r e v e r y l a r g e m e a s u r i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 f t . 6 i n . x 1 f t . 9 i n . ( f i g s , 2 0 , 21) The two l o w e r s t a g e s o f t h e t o w e r a r e A n g l o - S a x o n w h i l e 37 t h e u p p e r p o r t i o n i s a f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o n s t r u c t i o n . The l o w e r s t o r e y , w h i c h o c c u p i e s a b o u t h a l f t h e t o t a l h e i g h t o f t h e 59 s t r u c t u r e , i s d i v i d e d i n t e r n a l l y b y a wooden f l o o r . The s e c o n d s t a g e , w h i c h i s s h o r t , i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e one b e l o w b y a p l a i n s t r i n g - c o u r s e w h i c h h a s b e e n r e n e w e d . A s t r i n g - c o u r s e o f s i m i l a r p l a i n s q u a r e s e c t i o n a l s o s e p a r a t e s t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d s t a g e s . B e l o w t h e l a t e r b e l f r y s t a g e t h e s o u t h w a l l c o n t a i n s f o u r window o p e n i n g s , one i n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e and t h r e e i n t h e b o t t o m s t a g e . ( f i g s . 2 0 , 2 1 ) T h r e e o f t h e s e a r e s i t u a t e d i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e w a l l . The l o w e s t o p e n i n g i s a b o u t 10 - 12 f t . a b o v e g r o u n d l e v e l and i s a l a r g e d o u b l e - s p l a y e d c o n s t r u c t i o n . 38 I t m e a s u r e s 1 f t . 6 i n . x 5 f t . 6 i n . e x t e r n a l l y . The a r c h e d l i n t e l e x t e n d s t o t h e g l a s s l i n e a n d b e l o w t h i s t h e r e a r e s l a b j ambs l y i n g on t h e i r f a c e s . These- f o l l o w no p a r t i c u l a r a r r a n g e m e n t . A l s o t h e r e a r e no i m p o s t s a n d t h e r e i s no s e p a r a t e s i l l . The window a b o v e t h i s i s s m a l l e r a n d m e a s u r e s 10 i n . -39 1 f t . w i d e x 3 - 5 f t . h i g h . I t i s d o u b l e - s p l a y e d w i t h a r o u n d h e a d o f t h i n s e l e c t e d s t o n e s w i t h t h e i r t h i n n e r e n d s f a c i n g t h e i n t e r i o r . T h i s o p e n i n g h a s no i m p o s t s , s i l l o r j a m b s . The l o w e r o p e n i n g i n t h e w e s t w a l l o f t h e b o t t o m s t a g e i s a b o u t 4 f t . f r o m t h e g r o u n d . I t h a s " a n a r c h e d l i n t e l , a w e l l -d r e s s e d s t o n e s i l l , and jambs w h i c h h a v e b e e n r e n e w e d . A p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f way up t h e w e s t e r n w a l l i s a window w h i c h h a s m e a s u r e m e n t s and a d o u b l e - s p l a y e d c o n s t r u c t i o n s i m i l a r t o i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h e s o u t h w a l l . ( f i g . 2 1 ) I n t h e n o r t h w a l l a r e two d o u b l e - s p l a y e d w i n d o w s , t h e l o w e r o f w h i c h i s i n a c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o s i t i o n t o t h a t i n t h e s o u t h w a l l . I t i s t a l l a n d n a r r o w w i t h an a r c h e d l i n t e l a n d 60 s l a b j a m b s . T h e r e i s no s e p a r a t e s i l l . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f J a r r o w , t h e s e o p e n i n g s a r e t h e m o s t n o r t h e r l y e x a m p l e s o f d o u b l e -40 s p l a y e d A n g l o - S a x o n windows i n E n g l a n d . One l o o p window i s s e t i n e a c h o f t h e f o u r w a l l s o f t h e s e c o n d s t a g e . The one t o t h e s o u t h i s f o r m e d o f f o u r l a r g e w e l l - d r e s s e d s t o n e s c h a m f e r e d a l l r o u n d . ( f i g s . 2 0 , 2 1 ) I t i s a l a t e r i n s e r t i o n . The jambs o f t h e o p e n i n g s i n t h e w e s t e r n , n o r t h e r n and e a s t e r n w a l l s may a l s o be r e n e w a l s , t h o u g h F i s h e r s t a t e s t h a t t h e y a r e made o f h a r d e r and d a r k e r s t o n e t h a n t h a t 41 o f t h e w a l l , a nd t h e r e f o r e may h a v e w o r n l e s s . H.M. T a y l o r , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e s e o p e n i n g s a r e l a t e r 42 i n s e r t i o n s . T h i s i m p r e s s i o n i s s t r e n g t h e n e d by t r a c e s o f t h e jambs o f an e a r l y w indow on t h e n o r t h f a c e a n d by t h e d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n o f b l o c k e d r o u n d - h e a d e d w i n d o w s i n t h e s t o n e w o r k o f t h e w e s t e r n and s o u t h e r n f a c e s . T h e s e h a v e l o s t t h e i r d r e s s e d s t o n e f a c i n g s . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e s e c o n d s t a g e , w h i c h i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 36 - 44 f t . a b o v e g r o u n d l e v e l , i s a l l t h a t r e m a i n s o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n b e l f r y , t h e w indows o f w h i c h w e r e b l o c k e d i n o r d e r t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e w a l l s s o t h a t t h e y c o u l d c a r r y t h e h e a v y f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y b e l f r y . T h e s e s i n g l e b l o c k e d l o o p s may be a , t y p e o f e a r l y b e l f r y o p e n i n g b u t t h e y a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t l y d e f i n e d t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y . They r e s t o n a s t r i n g -c o u r s e 36 f t . a b o v e t h e g r o u n d and t h e y a r e s i m p l e r o u n d - h e a d e d 43 o p e n i n g s a b o u t 3 f t . w i d e x 6 f t . h i g h . On t h e w e s t f a c e o f t h e s e c o n d s t a g e n e a r t h e s o u t h w e s t c o r n e r , i s a b o l d l y p r o j e c t i n g c o r b e l o r p r o r r o s s o . ( f i g . 2 1 ) 61 I t i s l o c a t e d j u s t b e l o w t h e s q u a r e - c u t A n g l o - S a x o n s t r i n g -c o u r s e . A b o u t 10 f t . b e l o w t h i s t h e t o w e r i s e n c i r c l e d b y w h a t a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n d e c o r a t i v e p a n e l l i n g c o n s i s t i n g o f two c o u r s e s , o f s t o n e s w h i c h p r o j e c t s l i g h t l y f r o m ' t h e w a l l f a c e and w h i c h a r e s e p a r a t e d by a b a n d o f r o u g h a s h l a r . • 2. I n t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The i n t e r i o r o f t h e c h u r c h i s c o n s t r u c t e d p r i m a r i l y o f r o u g h l y d r e s s e d s t o n e s l a i d i n c o u r s e s o f v a r y i n g h e i g h t . T h e s e a r e o f w i d e l y j o i n t e d , l i g h t brown s a n d s t o n e a n d v a r y i n s i z e a n d s h a p e . ( f i g s . 2 4 , 2 5 ) b) N a v e : The o r i g i n a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e n a v e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 f t . x 16 f t . w i t h w a l l s 2 f t - 10 i n . t h i c k a nd a b o u t 20 f t . h i g h . The w a l l s a b o v e t h e a r c a d e s a r e A n g l o - S a x o n t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e l a t e r w i n d o w s . They a r e t h e n c o n t i n u e d u p w a r d i n l a t e r a n d n e a t e r m a s o n r y c o u r s e s . The o l d e r . w a l l i n g t e r m i n a t e s j u s t t o t h e e a s t o f t h e s e c o n d , o r m i d d l e , a r c h o f e a c h a r c a d e , t h o u g h i t d o e s e x t e n d s l i g h t l y f u r t h e r t o t h e e a s t i n t h e s o u t h w a l l . ( f i g . 2 3 ) W i t h i n t h e n a v e i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o c o n f i r m t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h u r c h b y n o t i n g how t h e s i d e w a l l s b e l o w t h e c l e r e s t o r y a r e i n b o n d w i t h t h e w e s t t o w e r . The e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e n o r t h w a l l , i s a l s o a p p r e c i a b l y t h i n n e r t h a n t h e e a r l i e r w a l l i n g o v e r t h e two w e s t e r n b a y s . The t o w e r a r c h i s a l a r g e r o u n d - h e a d e d c o n s t r u c t i o n , ( f i g s . 2 2 , 2 4 ) A few o f t h e v o u s s o i r s h a v e b e e n r e n e w e d a n d a number a r e t h r o u g h s t o n e s b u t t h e y c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f two o r t h r e e . b l o c k s p e r c o u r s e , w i t h no r u b b l e i n - f i l l i n g . The jambs 62 a l s o c o n t a i n some t h r o u g h s t o n e s b u t a r e m o s t l y two b l o c k s p e r c o u r s e . The a r c h i s 2 f t . 10 i n . t h i c k w i t h p l a i n i m p o s t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 i n . t h i c k . T h e s e p r o j e c t 4 i n . f r o m t h e w a l l f a c e . T h e s o f f i t i s r e t u r n e d on e a c h . f a c e a b o u t . 3 f t . 8 i n . The e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e i s 8 f t . h i g h t o t h e b o t t o m o f t h e i m p o s t s a n d a l m o s t 13. f t . i n t o t a l h e i g h t I t i s 8 f t . 3 i n . w i d e a n d r e s t s o n a p l i n t h 12 i n . h i g h w h i c h p r o j e c t s 3 i n . f r o m t h e w a l l f a c e . The d o u b l e s t r i p w o r k h o o d - m o u l d r u n s a r o u n d t h e h e a d a nd down t h e jambs and i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h o u t l i n e s 44 t h e t o w e r a r c h a t Stow, L i n e s . The o u t e r s t r i p w o r k , w h i c h i s . s q u a r e - e d g e d , i s 5 i n . x 5 i n . a n d a b u t s a g a i n s t t h e n a v e w e s t w a l l . The i n n e r s t r i p w o r k c o n s i s t s o f a r o l l m o u l d i n g s i t u a t e d 6 i n - , f r o m t h e o u t e r b a n d a n d 2 f t . f r o m t h e s o f f i t s . I t i s 9 i n . w i d e w i t h a p r o j e c t i o n o f 5 i n . A b o v e t h e t o w e r a r c h , b u t b e l o w t h e n a v e r o o f , i s a l a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r o p e n i n g w h i c h i s now b l o c k e d . ( f i g . 2 5 ) The jambs o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e a r e s m a l l s l a b s o f m i x e d f a c e - a n d s i d e - a l t e r n a t e a r r a n g e m e n t . The t o p and b o t t o m s t o n e s . o f t h e s e jambs h a v e c h a m f e r e d i n n e r c o r n e r s w h i c h f o r m t h e l i n t e l a n d s i l l . The o u t l i n e o f t h e o p e n i n g p r e s e n t s a r e c t a n g l e w i t h t h e c o r n e r s c u t o f f . I t h a s no s e p a r a t e s i l l b e t w e e n t h e two l o w e r i n w a r d p r o j e c t i n g jamb s t o n e s . The o p e n i n g m e a s u r e s 2 f t . 5 i n . w i d e x 7 f t . 3 i n . 45 t a l l , a n d t h e s i l l i s 19 f t . a b o v e t h e n a v e f l o o r . c) Tower: The i n t e r i o r o f t h e . t o w e r i s 15 f t . 10. i n s q u a r e w i t h w a l l s 2 f t . 11 i n . t h i c k . The w i n d o w s i n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e a r e a b n o r m a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d . A l l h a v e h e a d s w h i c h d i f f e r e x t e r n a l l y a n d i n t e r n a l l y . E x t e r n a l l y t h e y a r e c u t away b e l o w t o s h a p e t h e window h e a d s and t h e y may h a v e b e e n a l t e r e d when t h e d o u b l e -s p l a y e d w indows o f t h e u p p e r s t o r e y w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e i r s p l a y i s i n t e r n a l a n d t h e i n t e r i o r t h r o u g h s t b n e ..jambs l i e on t h e i r s i d e s . The i n t e r i o r h e a d s a r e f o r m e d o f v o u s s o i r s W i t h t h e i r n a r r o w e n d s f a c i n g o u t w a r d s , l e a v i n g a l a r g e , v i s h a p e d s p a c e a t t h e . c r o w n . T h i s s p a c e i s f i l l e d w i t h a v e r y l a r g e c e n t r e s t o n e w h i c h c a n n o t be c a l l e d a 46 k e y s t o n e . I n t e r n a l l y t h e o p e n i n g s m e a s u r e 1 f t . x 4 f t . 6 i n . The s e c o n d s t a g e c o n t a i n s an i n t e r i o r chamber n o t i n d i c a t e d on t h e e x t e r i o r . I t i s i l l u m i n a t e d b y two w i n d o w s i n t h e s o u t h w a l l a nd by one i n t h e w e s t w a l l . T h e s e a r e s i t u a t e d l . f t . a b o v e t h e f l o o r o f t h e room. A l i t t l e w i ndow a t t h e e a s t e r n c o r n e r o f t h e s o u t h w a l l i l l u m i n a t e s a c u r i o u s r e c e s s w i t h i n t h e chamber. S e t i n t o t h e w e s t w a l l . , i t i s a s h a l l o w i n d e n t a t i o n . 3 f t . x 3 f t . 5 i n . x 6 i n . w i t h i t s . s i l l a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 f t . a b o v e t h e p r e s e n t f l o o r . I t h a s . a f l a t l i n t e l w h i c h i s c h a m f e r e d b e l o w a n d b e n e a t h t h i s c h a m f e r i s a h a l f - r o u n d m o u l d i n g w h i c h f o r m s t h e l o w e r edge o f t h e l i n t e l . T h e r e i s no s e p a r a t e s i l l a n d t h e jambs a r e r o u n d m o n o l i t h i c c o l u m n s s e t u n d e r r e c t a n g u l a r s q u a r e -e d g e d b l o c k i m p o s t s o f p r e - C o n q u e s t t y p e . The b a s e s o f t h e s e a r e s l i g h t l y b u l b o u s . B a l d w i n Brown s t a t e s . t h a t t h e r e c e s s i s s i t u a t e d , 'south o f t h e b l o c k e d d o o r w a y w h i c h f o r m e r l y l e d o u t 47 i n t o a s p a c e a b o v e t h e n a v e . I t a p p e a r s t o h a v e f o r m e d a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e d e s i g n o f t h e chamber a n d . t h e window i n t h e s o u t h w a l l was c e r t a i n l y i n s e r t e d i n o r d e r . t o i l l u m i n a t e i t . I t may h a v e b e e n an a l t a r .and t h e b a c k o f . t h e r e c e s s may h a v e b e e n d e c o r a t e d w i t h a s t o n e s l a b . F r om t h e i n t e r i o r i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o s e e t h e b l o c k e d v o u s s o i r a r c h o f t h e e a s t e r n o p e n i n g i n t o t h e n a v e . The s i x v o u s s o i r s v a r y i n s i z e a n d a r e l a i d w i t h , j o i n t s w h i c h a r e f a r f r o m r a d i a l . T h e r e i s a l s o a f a i n t t r a c e o f t h e b l o c k e d w indows o f t h e e a r l y b e l f r y . B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r 48 a) Nave: The n o r t h a i s l e i s a t w e l f t h c e n t u r y c o n s t r u c t i o n . 2.. . I n t e r i o r v\ a) N a v e : The t w e l f t h c e n t u r y n o r t h a r c a d e c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e b a y s o f p o i n t e d a r c h e s . T h e s e a r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f r e c e s s e d o r d e r s w i t h d o g t o o t h d e c o r a t i o n a r o u n d t h e o u t e r e d g e s . They r e s t o n a l t e r n a t i n g 49 o c t a g o n a l a n d c i r c u l a r p i e r s . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s : I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p a r t s o f S t . H e l e n ' s S k i p w i t h a r e v e r y e a r l y . The e x t e r i o r o f t h e t o w e r shows m a r k e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h a r a c t e r . The u s e o f l a r g e b l o c k s o f s t o n e i s e v i d e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y up t o t h e s i l l o f t h e l o w e r window i n t h e s o u t h w a l l , and" t h e q u o i n s t o n e s a t t h i s p o i n t a r e m e g a l i t h i c . i n s i z e . The w a l l i n g b e a r s , a r e m a r k a b l e r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h a t a t Ledsham, t h o u g h a b o v e , i n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e , , t h e s t o n e s a r e o f s m a l l r a g s t o n e r u b b l e . The d i f f e r e n c e s may i m p l y t h a t t h e l o w e r w e s t e r n c h a m b e r , was o r i g i n a l l y a one s t o r e y p o r c h w i t h s i n g l e - s p l a y e d windows. The v o u s s o i r s o f t h e e x t e r n a l a n d i n t e r n a l a r c h e s o f t h e s e o p e n i n g s a r e o f a n e a r l y c h a r a c t e r . The a d d i t i o n o f t h e u p p e r chamber and b e l f r y w o u l d ' h a v e f o l l o w e d a t a l a t e r d a t e when d o u b l e - s p l a y e d windows h a d become t h e common t y p e . A t t h a t t i m e t h e o u t w a r d s p l a y s w o u l d h a v e b e e n a d d e d t o t h e h e a d s a n d jambs o f t h e l o w e r w indows i n o r d e r t o c o n v e r t them t o t h e new s t y l e . H o w e v e r , t h i s t h e o r y c a n n o t be s u b s t a n t i a t e d . w i t h t h e e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e . The i n t e r i o r f a b r i c o f t h e o r i g i n a l n a v e i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e t o w e r and must a l s o be o f e a r l y d a t e . I f t h e r e was a, p o r c h , t h e n i t and t h e n a v e w a l l s a b o v e t h e l a t e r a r c a d e s must h a v e b e e n e r e c t e d i n P e r i o d A o r B. I f , a s H.M. T a y l o r c l a i m s , t h e w i n d o w s i n t h e t o w e r w e r e o r i g i n a l l y l s i n g l e - s p l a y e d , t h e n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an e a r l y d a t e i s s t r e n g t h e n e d . H o w e v e r , t h e t o w e r a r c h i s l a t e . The h o o d - m o u l d s ; t h e u s e o f two o r t h r e e s t o n e s p e r c o u r s e ; and t h e , n e a t , a d v a n c e d f o r m o f c o n s t r u c t i o n ; a l l p o i n t t o a d a t e o f o f C^- The s t r u c t u r e i s p r o b a b l y a l a t e r i n s e r t i o n b u i l t when t h e A n g l o -S a x o n b e l f r y was a d d e d . The b e l f r y may h a v e c o n t a i n e d t y p i c a l d o u b l e - l i g h t windows w h i c h w o u l d h a v e b e e n r e n e w e d . o r b l o c k e d when t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y b e l f r y was a d d e d . The f a i n t o u t l i n e s o f t h e b l o c k e d o p e n i n g s a t t h i s l e v e l r e v e a l t h a t t h e y w e r e c e r t a i n l y w i d e and t a l l , e n ough t o h a v e t a k e n s u c h a f o r m . B a r d s e y I . D e d i c a t i o n : A l l H a l l o w s I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e West R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e , e i g h t m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f L e e d s . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : B a r d s e y c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , a n a i s l e d . n a v e w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h , a n d a r e c t a n g u l a r . c h a n c e l c o n t a i n i n g a s o u t h v e s t r y and a n o r t h c h a p e l . ( f i g . 2 6 ) ( P l a n 4) I V . H i s t o r y and D o c u m e n t a t i o n : R e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e v i l l a g e o f B a r d s e y i n t h e Domesday B o o k , t h o u g h t h e c h u r c h i s n o t m e n t i o n e d . V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1 . E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The e x t e r i o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g i s composed o f w i d e l y j o i n t e d , r o u g h l y d r e s s e d l i g h t b r o w n s a n d s t o n e . l a i d i n c o u r s e s o f v a r y i n g h e i g h t a n d s i z e . ( f i g s . 2 7 , 2 8 , 2 9 , 3 0 ) b) Tower: The w e s t t o w e r / w h i c h i s t a l l a n d s l e n d e r . , i s b u i l t o v e r ,an . e a r l i e r r p o r c h . - I t h a s no e x t e r i o r s t a g e s and r i s e s u n a d o r n e d t o t h e l a t e r b a t t l e m e n t e d p a r a p e t . ( f i g s . 2 6 , 2 7 , 2 8 , 29,30) The t o t a l h e i g h t o f t h e s t r u c t u r e i s 50 f t . a n d t h e 52 w e s t w a l l i s 12 f t . w i d e . The l o w e r n o r t h a n d s o u t h f a c e s o f t h e t o w e r a r e h i d d e n by l a t e r a i s l e w a l l s a n d a r e only-v i s i b l e i n s i d e t h e c h u r c h . The w e s t e r n q u o i n s , up t o . a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12 f t . ( t h e r o o f o f t h e e a r l y p o r c h ) , a r e o f l a r g e b l o c k s , 3 f t . 6 i n . x 2 f t . , l a i d i n s i d e - a l t e r n a t e f a s h i o n . ( f i g . 3 0 ) The q u o i n s a b o v e t h e s e a r e s m a l l e r , and,; t h o u g h F i s h e r c l a i m s t h e y a r e f a c e - a l t e r n a t e . , t h e y a p p e a r t o be l a i d i n t h e same manner a s t h o s e b e l o w . ^ 3 T h e r e i s no w e s t e r n e n t r a n c e t o t h e t o w e r a n d , t h o u g h H . M . ' T a y l o r i s t e m p t e d t o assume t h a t t h e r e was o r i g i n a l l y an A n g l o - S a x o n d o o r w a y and window t o t h e w e s t , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e 54 t o s u p p o r t t h i s t h e o r y . The m a i n e n t r a n c e was o n t h e n o r t h 67 a n u n u s u a l p o s i t i o n f o r a t o w e r e n t r a n c e e x c e p t when i t i s r e q u i r e d f o r a c c e s s t o s i d e a d j u n c t s . A b o u t 10 f t . a b o v e g r o u n d l e v e l o n t h e t o w e r w e s t f a c e , s h a p e d l i k e a n i n v e r t e d V, i s t h e o r i g i n a l g a b l e I l l r i e c o f x 55 t h e p o r c h . F u r t h e r up i s a s m a l l r e c t a n g u l a r window w i t h no i n d i v i d u a l l i n t e l , s i l l o r jamb s t o n e s . I n t h e n o r t h w a l l , a b o v e t h e l a t e r a i s l e s , i s a s i m i l a r r e c t a n g u l a r o p e n i n g . ( f i g . 2 6 ) On t h e s o u t h f a c e , a b o v e t h e p r o j e c t i n g a i s l e , i s a n o t h e r s m a l l r e c t n a g u l a r window, w h i l e i n t h e t h i r d a n d f o u r t h b e l f r y s t a g e s a r e two d o u b l e - l i g h t o p e n i n g s . ( f i g . 2 9 ) T h e i r p l a c e m e n t , one a b o v e t h e o t h e r , i s an A n g l o - S a x o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , t h o u g h an-uncommon one. T h e s e w i n d o w s a r e 4 f t . 4 i n . t a l l x 34 i n . w i d e a n d h a v e c e n t r a l b a l u s t e r s h a f t s w h i c h b u l g e s l i g h t l y 56 57 f r o m 5h - V i n . They a r e a b o u t 2 f t . 11 i n . t a l l . The s h a f t s s u p p o r t c e n t r a l t h r o u g h s t o n e i m p o s t s w i t h c h a m f e r e d e d g e s . T h e s e a r e s u r m o u n t e d by d o u b l e a r c h h e a d s o f s m a l l v o u s s o i r s . The s h a f t s a r e n o t m i d - w a l l b u t a r e s e t n e a r e r t o t h e e x t e r i o r f a c e . The b a s e s a r e a l m o s t f l u s h w i t h t h e o u t e r w a l l f a c e s and a r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f r o u g h c u b i c a l b l o c k s h o l l o w - c h a m f e r e d a b o v e t o meet t h e s h a f t s w h i c h h a v e no c a p i t a l s . The jamb i m p o s t s a r e s m a l l and a r e a l m o s t i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m t h e jamb s t o n e s , w h i c h a r e no more t h a n w a l l i n g s t o n e s . On t h e e a s t f a c e i s a b e l f r y o p e n i n g w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f a s i n g l e n a r r o w window w i t h an a r c h e d l i n t e l . ( f i g . 2 8 ) I t a p p e a r s t o be c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h t h e d o u b l e o p e n i n g s on t h e s o u t h f a c e . B e l o w i t , i n t h e t h i r d s t a g e , i s a s i m i l a r w indow. 5 8 T h e s e a r e 3 f t . 6 i n . t a l l x 11 i n . w i d e . H.M. T a y l o r n o t e s 68 t h a t t h e s e o p e n i n g s a r e p l a c e d a t t h e . s a m e l e v e l a s t h e two s o u t h e r n windows a n d . t h a t l i k e them, t h e y h a v e s q u a r e jambs b u i l t m a i n l y o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s a n d c u t s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h t h e w a l l , The r o u n d . h e a d o f e a c h i s a s i n g l e r e c t a n g u l a r a r c h e d b e l f r y w indow w h i c h i s e a r l i e r i n d e s i g n t h a n t h e more f a m i l i a r a n d more c o m p l i c a t e d d o u b l e - b e l f r y o p e n i n g s . The l a t t e r a r e much t o o c o m p l e x t o h a v e a r i s e n s u d d e n l y and one m u s t p o s t u l a t e a p r e l i m i n a r y p e r i o d o f d e v e l o p m e n t . He f e e l s a t B a r d s e y t h e r e may be on a d j a c e n t w a l l s , t h e f a m i l i a r d o u b l e o p e n i n g and i t s 59 p r e c u r s o r . 2. I n t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The i n t e r i o r m a s o n r y r e s e m b l e s . t h a t o f t h e e x t e r i o r , ( f i g s v 3 2 , 3 3 , 3 5 , 3 6 , 3 7 ) Of w i d e l y j o i n t e d , r o u g h l y d r e s s e d l i g h t b r o w n s a n d s t o n e , i t s o m e t i m e s , a p p r o a c h e s t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f r u b b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e e a s t w a l l a b o v e t h e c h a n c e l a r c h . The c o u r s e s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n s i z e a nd h e i g h t a n d i n t h e l o w e r w a l l s o f t h e t o w e r , w h i c h a r e now s e e n f r o m t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e c h u r c h , t h e s t o n e s a r e m e g a l i t h i c , t h o u g h t h e y a r e l a i d i n n e a t , w i d e l y j o i n t e d c o u r s e s . b) C h a n c e l : The s o u t h e a s t e r n s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n o f t h e n a v e c a n . b e s e e n i n t h e v e s t r y t o t h e s o u t h o f t h e c h a n c e l . A b o v e t h e c h a n c e l a r c h , on t h e e a s t e r n f a c e o f t h e c h a n c e l w e s t w a l l , t h e l i n e o f t h e o r i g i n a l r o o f g a b l e i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e , ( f i g . 3 7 ) e). N ave: The n a v e i s 31 f t . x 15 f t . 3 i n . , w i t h w a l l s 2 f t . t h i c k . The s o u t h w e s t e r n and n o r t h w e s t e r n s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s , w h i c h a r e v i s i b l e w i t h i n t h e c h u r c h , a r e composed o f m a s s i v e s t o n e s up t o 3 f t . 6 i n . x 16 i n . i n s i z e . ( f i g . 3 4 ) T hey a s c e n d 6 0 t o a h e i g h t o f 10 - 12 f t . a n d t h e n become s m a l l e r . The l o w e r n o r t h a n d s o u t h w a l l s o f t h e t o w e r a r e s e e n w i t h i n t h e n a v e . The n o r t h w a l l c o n t a i n s t h e o r i g i n a l m a i n e n t r a n c e , a r o u n d - h e a d e d d o o r w a y 2 f t . 6 i n . w i d e x 5 f t . 7 i n . t a l l . I t i s n o t r e b a t e d and h a s a h e a d o f two r i n g s o f a r c h e d l i n t e l s . The jambs a r e o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s . The s i l l o f t h e window a b o v e i s 8 f t . 9 i n . f r o m g r o u n d l e v e l . I t i s a s i n g l e - l i g h t o p e n i n g w i t h s l o p i n g jambs and' i s 2 f t . 7 i n . t a l l x 11 i n . 61 w i d e , s p l a y i n g i n t e r n a l l y t o 3 f t . 9 i n . x 1 f t . 5 i n . The h e a d i s composed o f w e l l - j o i n t e d v o u s s o i r s w h i c h a r e n o t t h r o u g h s t o n e s . I n t h e s o u t h w a l l o f t h e t o w e r , a t g r o u n d l e v e l , i s a r o u n d - h e a d e d d o o r w a y m e a s u r i n g 2 f t . 8 i n . x 5 f t . , w h i c h may be r e n e w e d , ( f i g . 3 5 ) The h e a d i s composed o f v o u s s o i r s b e l o w w h i c h a r e s l a b j a m b s . T h e r e a r e no i m p o s t s , t h o u g h t h e r e i s a s l a b s i l l . The s o u t h window i s o f s i m i l a r d i m e n s i o n s a s t h e n o r t h e r n one and i s round-'headed w i t h an i n t e r n a l s p l a y and s l o p i n g jambs..The a r c h i s composed o f f i v e v o u s s o i r s and e a c h o f t h e jambs i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f f o u r s e l e c t e d w a l l i n g s l a b s . The t o p o n e s s e r v e a s i m p o s t s a n d t h e r e i s no s e p a r a t e s i l l . A b o ve t h e t o w e r a r c h i s t h e l i n e o f t h e o r i g i n a l s t e e p l y p i t c h e d r o o f g a b l e . ( f i g . 3 6 ) d) Tower: The i n t e r i o r o f t h e t o w e r m e a s u r e s 10 f t . 2 i n . e a s t / w e s t x 8 f t . 2 i n . n o r t h / s o u t h . I t h a s w a l l s w h i c h v a r y i n t h i c k n e s s ,from 2h f t . a t g r o u n d l e v e l t o 2 f t . i n t h e s e c o n d 6 2 s t a g e , and o n l y 1 f t . 8 i n . i n t h e t h i r d s t a g e . 70 B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) Nave: D u r i n g t h e r e s t o r a t i o n (1904 - 1 9 1 4 ) , t h e Norman l a n c e t 6 3 i n t h e w e s t w a l l o f t h e n o r t h a i s l e was o p e n e d up. The s o u t h d o o r w a y was e r e c t e d i n t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r o f the_ x t w e l f t h c e n t u r y ( c a . 1 1 0 0 - c a . 1 1 2 5 ) , a nd i s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same d a t e 64 as t h e n o r t h a r c a d e . ( f i g . 3 1 ) The r o u n d - h e a d e d a r c h i s o f t h r e e o r d e r s . The o u t e r o r d e r d i s p l a y s a b e a k - h e a d m o u l d i n g w h i c h d e s c e n d s t o a q u i r k e d a n d c h a m f e r e d i m p o s t , b e l o w w h i c h i s an a t t a c h e d c o l u m n w i t h a c u s h i o n c a p i t a l . The c o l u m n r e s t s on a b e l l - s h a p e d b a s e b e l o w . T h i s i n t u r n s i t s on a c h a m f e r e d p l i n t h . The m i d d l e o r d e r i s i n c i s e d w i t h a c h e v r o n d e s i g n ,and i s s u p p o r t e d b y a s i m i l a r r e c e s s e d i m p o s t w i t h an a t t a c h e d c o l u m n b e l o w . The i n n e r o r d e r c o n s i s t s o f p l a i n v o u s s o i r s w h i c h v a r y i n s i z e a n d r e s t on q u i r k e d a n d c h a m f e r e d i m p o s t s . B e l o w t h e i m p o s t s a r e p l a i n s q u a r e jambs a n d a r e c e s s c h a m f e r e d p l i n t h . 2. I n t e r i o r a) C h a n c e l : The c h a n c e l a r c h , w h i c h i s 9 f t . 10 i n . w i d e , i s s i m i l a r t o , b u t l a t e r t h a n , t h e t o w e r a r c h , ( f i g . , 3 7 ) I t i s a l s o a t l e a s t 3 f t . t a l l e r . C o n t a i n i n g no t h r o u g h s t o n e s , i t i s c h a m f e r e d on t h e w e s t f a c e a n d h a s a r o u n d h e a d o f two v o u s s o i r s p e r c o u r s e . H owever, t h e v o u s s o i r s on t h e e a s t s i d e a b o v e t h e n o r t h jamb a r e s m a l l e r a n d s i m i l a r i n s i z e t o t h e w a l l i n g s t o n e s . They a p p e a r t o be o l d e r a n d may be r e - u s e d . ' Many h a v e i r r e g u l a r t o o l i n g . The i m p o s t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e t o w e r a r c h and t h o u g h t h e a r c h h e a d i s m o u l d e d on t h e w e s t f a c e , t h e r e i s no s t r i p w o r k h o o d - m o u l d on t h e e a s t f a c e . b) N a v e : D u r i n g t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y t h e n o r t h a r c a d e was c u t t h r o u g h t h e w a l l s o f t h e a i s l e l e s s A n g l o -65 . . . S a x o n n a v e . The a r c a d e c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e b a y s o f r o u n d a r c h e s s u p p o r t e d o n c y l i n d r i c a l c o l u m n s w i t h s q u a r e a b a c i . T h e s e a r c h e s a r e o f a s i n g l e o r d e r a n d a r e d e c o r a t e d w i t h h o o d - m o u l d s . ( f i g s . 3 2 , 3 3 ) The t o w e r a r c h , w h i c h i s 6 f t . 11 i n . w i d e x 8 f t . 4 i n . t a l l t o t h e l o w e r f a c e o f t h e i m p o s t s , i s c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h t h e n o r t h a r c a d e a n d , t h o u g h i t may be c l a s s i f i e d a s A n g l o -S a x o n i n s t y l e , i t h a s b e e n much r e n e w e d . : ( : f i g . 33) I t c o n s i s t s o f - a r o u n d h e a d o f t h r o u g h s t o n e . - v o u s s o i r s w h i c h v a r y i n s i z e a n d a r e o f one s q u a r e - c u t o r d e r . The jambs a r e 1 f t . 1 1 % i n . t h i c k e a s t / w e s t a n d t h e l a r g e l o w e r s t o n e s o f t h e s o u t h jamb, w h i c h l o o k o r i g i n a l , a r e 4 f t . 6 i n . x 11% i n . x 7 i n . n o r t h / s o u t h . The i m p o s t s a r e q u i r k e d a n d c h a m f e r e d a n d t h e r e i s a r o u n d - h e a d e d q u i r k e d a n d c h a m f e r e d h o o d - m o u l d s u r r o u n d i n g a n d i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e a r c h h e a d . I t e n d s i n l a b e l s t o p s w i t h human h e a d s . ^ V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s : B a r d s e y h a s one o f t h e few p o r c h t o w e r s now i n e x i s t e n c e i n E n g l a n d . Though t h e r e i s no s p e c i f i c m e n t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h i n any e a r l y d o c u m e n t s , one c a n . p o s t u l a t e an e a r l y d a t e f o r t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e t o w e r . I t s t h i n w a l l s , m e g a l i t h i c s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s , a n d i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d w i n d o w s a r e e a r l y f e a t u r e s . T h i s t h e o r y i s g i v e n a d d e d s t r e n g t h b e c a u s e o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e u n u s u a l n o r t h e n t r a n c e t o t h e c h u r c h . The t h i n w a l l s a b o v e t h e l a t e r a r c a d e s a r e m o s t l i k e l y c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h t h i s p o r c h t o w e r . F i s h e r h a d p r o p o s e d a p l a u s i b l e . P e r i o d B^ d a t e o f c a . 8 7 0 f o r t h e t o w e r a nd n a v e o 72 6 7 from the evidence available. The windows in the upper part of the tower mark this portion as later. The simple openings on the eastern face are probably contemporary with the double-light openings to the south,: but as Taylor states, they may have been precursors of this mature development. The gables of the nave and the upper portion of the tower are and in date. The tower and chancel arches are somewhat more d i f f i c u l t . . They both have some Saxon features and a considerable, number of Norman ones, and are therefore of Saxo-Norman or Early Norman date It i s d i f f i c u l t to place the church in any one period of Saxon or Saxo-Norman development. It is certainly an early church, but as with most small parish churches in England, i t passed through many periods of change and evolved slowly over the centuries, to i t s present state. Middleton-by-Pickering I. Dedication: St. Mary II. Location: The church is located in the North Riding of Yorkshire, one and a half miles northwest of Pickering. It stands between the main road to Helmsley and a small road leading up to the moor. III. Present,Condition: St. Mary's consists of a west tower, an aisled nave with a south porch, and a rectangular chancel. (Plan 5) IV. History and Documentation: Documentary references to the church are at best oblique. The village is mentioned in an Anglo-Saxon charter.which l i s t s the lands belonging to Otley. There is also an indirect reference to St. Mary's in the Domesday 73 ... Book under, t h e s e c t i o n l i s t i n g E n g l i s h m e n who r e t a i n e d t h e i r l a n d s o r s u c c e e d e d t h e i r f e l l o w c o u n t r y m e n a f t e r 1066. One was U c t r e d , who - s u c c e e d e d h i s f a t h e r U l f a t M i d d l e t o n and K n e e t o n a n d ^ a s U c t r e d U l f e s s u n , g ave t o S t . M a r y ' s Y o r k t h e c h u r c h 69 a t M i d d l e t o n . V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r . a) M a s o n r y : The t o w e r i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f w i d e l y j o i n t e d , r o u g h -c u t m a s o n r y s l a b s l a i d i n c o u r s e s a n d t h e r e m a i n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l n a v e w e s t w a l l a p p e a r t o . b e o f r u b b l e . ( f i g s . 3 8 , 4 0 ) The e n t i r e b u i l d i n g i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f l i g h t b r o w n s a n d s t o n e . b) N a v e : The w e s t w a l l o f t h e n a v e i s o f a n i n t e r e s t i n g a l b e i t somewhat c o n f u s i n g n a t u r e . The a n g l e s b e t w e e n t h e n a v e and t o w e r e x t e n d i n g f o r a b o u t 10 i n . a p p e a r t o H.M. T a y l o r t o be 70 o r i g i n a l q u o i n s o f an e x t r e m e l y n a r r o w A n g l o - S a x o n n a v e . ( f i g . 4 0 ) H o w e v e r , l o c a t e d a b o u t 4 f t . t o e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e s e a r e a d d i t i o n a l q u o i n s w h i c h Ada R u s s e l l a nd A.W. C l a p h a m a s c r i b e t o t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y b u t w h i c h a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e 71 s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s o f t h e t o w e r . H.M. T a y l o r s t a t e s t h a t ' t h e w e s t w a l l o f t h e n a v e f o r more t h a n 4 f t . on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e t o w e r , m u s t be a c c e p t e d a s c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h i t b e c a u s e o f t h e g e n e r a l s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n i n g a n d t h e w a l l i n g , a nd b e c a u s e i t 72 d o e s n o t r e s e m b l e Norman w o r k m a n s h i p . The l a r g e s t o n e s , w h i c h a r e r o u g h l y s h a p e d , a r e m e g a l i t h i c . F u r t h e r s u p p o r t f o r t h i s t h e o r y i s f o u n d w i t h i n t h e c h u r c h w h e r e t h e Norman n o r t h 74 a r c a d e and t h e T r a n s i t i o n a l s o u t h a r c a d e a r e i n a l i g n m e n t w i t h t h e e x t e r i o r q u o i n i n g . C o n q u e n t l y , H.M. T a y l o r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t c h u r c h c o n s i s t e d o f a n a r r o w , r e c t a n g u l a r , a i s l e l e s s n a v e w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e q u o i n s c l o s e t o t h e s i d e w a l l s o f t h e t o w e r . T h i s b u i l d i n g was f i r s t e n l a r g e d w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f a w e s t t o w e r and t h e n a v e was w i d e n e d by more t h a n 3 f t . o n e a c h s i d e u n t i l i t became t h e a i s l e l e s s s t r u c t u r e now d e f i n e d 73 by t h e s p a c e w i t h i n t h e n a v e a r c a d e s . The Normans l a t e r c u t t h r o u g h t h e s e w a l l s , e r e c t i n g t h e i r a r c a d e s and a i s l e s . The w i d e n i n g must h a v e f o l l o w e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t o w e r b e c a u s e i t a n d t h e o r i g i n a l n a v e b o t h s t a n d on a p l a i n , f l a t f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m . H owever, t h e s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e e x t e n d e d w e s t w a l l s t a n d s o n a d o u b l e f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m . T h i s c o n s i s t s o f a f l a t l o w e r c o u r s e and a c h a m f e r e d u p p e r 74 o n e . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t b o t h w e r e b u i l t a t t h e same t i m e . c) Tower: The t o w e r , w h i c h s t a n d s on a p l a i n s q u a r e p l i n t h , c o n s i s t s o f two u n e q u a l s t a g e s , t h e l o w e r one o c c u p y i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2/3 o f t h e t o t a l h e i g h t . ( f i g . 3 8 ) The b o t t o m p o r t i o n r i s e s s h e e r t o t h e s t r i n g - c o u r s e w h i c h i s o f s q u a r e s e c t i o n . The b l o c k s o f s t o n e i n t h i s s t a g e a r e m e g a l i t h i c , a v e r a g i n g a b o u t 6 i n . h i g h x 1 - 2 f t . l o n g . The q u o i n s a r e o f t h e r e g u l a r s i d e - a l t e r n a t e t y p e t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t o r e y and a r e a l s o m e g a l i t h i c . Many m e a s u r e o v e r 2 f t . 5 i n . x 1 f t . 7 i n . x a •  7 5 6 i n . The n o r t h e r n f a c e o f t h e t o w e r i s p l a i n , b u t i n t h e s o u t h w a l l t h e r e a r e two s m a l l r e c t a n g u l a r w indows t h a t a d m i t l i g h t t o t h e u p p e r f l o o r s . ( f i g . 3 8 ) T h e s e a r e o f u n u s u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n 75 b u t a p p e a r t o be o r i g i n a l . The l o w e r window, w h i c h i s a b o u t 1 f t . 6 i n . w i d e x 3 f t . 10 i n . t a l l , i s f o r m e d w h o l l y w i t h i n t h e n o r m a l c o u r s i n g o f t h e w a l l w i t h a f l a t m o n o l i t h i c s i l l 7 6 and a s i m i l a r l i n t e l . I t s j ambs c o n s i s t o f f i v e m a s s i v e t h r o u g h s t o n e s b o n d e d d e e p l y i n t o t h e f a c e o f t h e w a l l . The u p p e r w i n d o w . ; i s m o r e : i a d y a n c e d , . t h o u g h s m a l l e r . I t m e a s u r e s 1 f t . 8 i n . x 77 3 f t . and a l s o has. a m o n o l i t h i c , f l a t s i l l a n d a s i m i l a r l i n t e l . H o w e v e r , i n t h i s c a s e t h e jambs a r e s q u a r e a n d e a c h c o n s i s t s o f a n u p r i g h t s t o n e b e l o w s u r m o u n t e d by two f l a t s t o n e s b o n d i n g i t i n t o t h e w a l l f a c e . B o t h w i n d o w s n a r r o w t o w a r d t h e t o p , b u t t h i s f e a t u r e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y m a r k e d i n t h e l o w e r o p e n i n g . The p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e o f t h e t o w e r e x t e r i o r i s t h e w e s t d o o r w a y w h i c h s u f f e r e d d e f a c e m e n t when a v e s s i c a s h a p e d window was i n s e r t e d t h r o u g h t h e u p p e r p a r t o f i t s h e a d . I t i s t a l l a n d n a r r o w , m e a s u r i n g 2 f t . 10 i n . x 8 f t . 4 i n . f r o m . t h e s i l l t o t h e t o p o f t h e i m p o s t s . ( f i g . 3 9 ) The jambs a n d t h e r o u n d -h e a d e d a r c h a r e o f s i m p l e s q u a r e s e c t i o n a n d a r e f o r m e d o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s . The jambs a r e o f f o u r m a s s i v e s l a b s , e a c h o f w h i c h i s s e t on edge w i t h o u t t h e u s u a l a l t e r n a t i o n o f f l a t s t o n e s b o n d i n g t h e u p r i g h t s i n t o t h e w a l l . I n s t e a d , t h e i m p o s t s p r o v i d e b o n d i n g a t t h e t o p and a l s o u n i t e t h e i n n e r f a b r i c o f t h e d o o r w a y w i t h t h e o u t l y i n g p i l a s t e r s t r i p s and h o o d - m o u l d . The i m p o s t s p r o j e c t b o l d l y o n t h e s o f f i t a n d a l s o w e s t w a r d f r o m t h e w a l l f a c e . T h e i r u p p e r s q u a r e s e c t i o n s a r e s w e p t b a c k i n a h o l l o w c h a m f e r s t o p p i n g a g a i n s t t h e p i l a s t e r s t r i p s b e y o n d w h i c h t h e i m p o s t s c o n t i n u e a l o n g t h e w a l l f a c e . H e r e t h e y c o n t i n u e i n t h e f o r m o f l a b e l s w i t h s t r a i g h t c h a m f e r s a b o v e a n d a s q u a r e s e c t i o n b e l o w . O n l y t h e l o w e r h a l f o f t h e r o u n d h e a d and s u r r o u n d i n g h o o d - m o u l d now r e m a i n a s t h e u p p e r h a l f was c u t away when, t h e d o o r w a y was b l o c k e d , p r o b a b l y i n l a t e Norman t i m e s . H o w e v e r , enough r e m a i n s , t o show t h a t t h e h e a d was t u r n e d i n a b o u t t e n w e l l - s h a p e d t h r o u g h s t o n e v o u s s o i r s o f w h i c h f i v e r e m a i n . B e l o w t h e i m p o s t s t h e l i n e o f t h e h o o d - m o u l d i s c a r r i e d down by 6 i n . w i d e p i l a s t e r s t r i p s , , e a c h o f t h r e e t a l l s t o n e s . T h e s e s t r i p s p r o j e c t a b o u t 3 i n . f r o m t h e w a l l f a c e a n d r e s t a t t h e f o o t on b o l d l y p r o j e c t i n g s q u a r e c h a m f e r e d b a s e s . T h e s e i n t u r n r e s t on t h e m a i n p l i n t h . The jamb s t o n e s a r e o f i r r e g u l a r s h a p e s a n d t h e i n t e r v e n i n g s p a c e s a r e f i l l e d w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l , f l a t s t o n e s . w i t h w i d e m o r t a r , j o i n t s . T h e s e a r e s e t on e d g e . H.M. T a y l o r f i n d s t h i s p r i m i t i v e a t t e m p t t o be a n i n t e r e s t i n g c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e more a d v a n c e d c o n s t r u c t i o n 7 8 a t H o v i n g h a m , t e n m i l e s t o t h e s o u t h w e s t . A b o u t 7 f t . a b o v e t h e i m p o s t s o f t h e d o o r w a y i s an A n g l i a n c r o s s c a r v e d i n r e l i e f 79 on a s t o n e n e a r l y 3 f t . s q u a r e . ( f i g . 3 9 ) 2. I n t e r i o r a) Nave: The n a v e , w h i c h m e a s u r e s 41 f t . 6 i n . x 19 f t . 3 i n . , h a s w a l l s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 f t . 6 i n . t h i c k . The o r i g i n a l n a r r o w s t r u c t u r e must .have, b e e n a b o u t 12 f t . w i d e i n t e r n a l l y . ( f i g . 410 b) Tower: The i n t e r i o r o f t h e tower.,, w h i c h m e a s u r e s 11 f t . x 9 f t . 6 i n . , h a s w a l l s 2 f t . 8 i n . t h i c k , t h o u g h t h e w e s t w a l l i s s l i g h t l y t h i c k e r . The u p p e r f l o o r s a r e l i t t o t h e s o u t h by two s m a l l r e c t a n g u l a r w indows o f u n u s u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e i n n e r f a c e s o f w h i c h can be seen w i t h i n the upper tower chambers . The l o w e r one s p l a y s i n t e r n a l l y f rom 1 f t . 6 i n . x 3 f t . 10 i n . -8 0 2 f t . 8 i n . x 3 f t . 10 i n . I t has jambs w h i c h were o r i g i n a l l y s l i g h t l y s p l a y e d i n w a r d and w h i c h were l a t e r somewhat r u d e l y c u t t o fo rm the h o u s i n g f o r the p r e s e n t wooden f r a m e . The upper window i s more e l a b o r a t e . The s t o n e s o f i t s o u t e r f a c e do n o t e x t e n d t h r o u g h t h e f u l l t h i c k n e s s o f t he w a l l ' b u t s t o p s h o r t 7 i n . f rom the i n n e r f a c e . The squa re r e b a t e i s 7 i n . w ide a t t h i s s t a g e and t he s i l l c o n t i n u e s s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h the w a l l . The o p e n i n g measures 1 f t . 8 i n . x 3 f t . 2 i n . e x t e r n a l l y and the i n t e r n a l f a c e i s r e b a t e d t o 2 f t . 10 i n . x 81 3 f t . 9 i n . The w e s t e r n w a l l c o n t a i n s a doorway w h i c h i s now b l o c k e d and c o v e r e d o v e r w i t h p l a s t e r . B. Norman E l emen t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) Nave : The nave and t he n o r t h a i s l e were r e b u i l t ca.1130, w h i l e a t t he end o f t he c e n t u r y the s o u t h a i s l e was added . B o t h 8 2 nave a i s l e s were c o m p l e t e l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d ca.1500. b) Tower : The b e l f r y s t a g e i s an E a r l y E n g l i s h a d d i t i o n (ca.1200), 83 w i t h p o i n t e d d o u b l e - l i g h t windows i n each f a c e . ( f i g .38) The s t o n e , w h i c h i s c a r e f u l l y f i n i s h e d , has been c o n s i d e r a b l y renewed . Above t h i s i s a b a t t l e m e n t e d p a r a p e t s u p p o r t e d by a c o r b e l t a b l e composed o f b a d l y worn g r o t e s q u e s . 2. I n t e r i o r a) C h a n c e l : . T h e c h a n c e l a r c h , w h i c h i s w ide and l o f t y , d a t e s 84 f rom the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . I t i s p o i n t e d and o f two chamfe red 78 o r d e r s a n d s p r i n g s f r o m r e s p o n d s w i t h c i r c u l a r s h a f t s . The c a p i t a l s o f t h e s e s h a f t s a r e m o u l d e d w i t h s q u a r e a b a c i . b) N a v e : The e a r l y t w e l f t h c e n t u r y n o r t h a r c a d e c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e b a y s o f s e m i c i r c u l a r a r c h e s s u p p o r t e d by c y l i n d r i c a l p i e r s a n d h a l f - r o u n d r e s p o n d s w h i c h h a v e f l u t e d c a p i t a l s a n d s q u a r e a b a c i . ( f i g . 4 1 ) T h e s e p i e r s r e s t on s q u a r e p l i n t h s . The s o u t h a r c a d e was c o n s t r u c t e d h a l f a c e n t u r y l a t e r a n d c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s e m i c i r c u l a r a r c h e s o f two c h a m f e r e d o r d e r s w h i c h r e s t on r o u n d 8 5 c o l u m n s w i t h m o u l d e d c a p i t a l s a n d h o l d - w a t e r b a s e s . The r e s p o n d s a r e h a l f c o l u m n s w h i c h h a v e c a r v e d f o l i a g e c a p i t a l s o f e a r l y f o r m . The a r c a d e s a r e i n l i n e w i t h t h e s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s , e x t e n d i n g • a b o u t 4 f t . on e a c h s i d e o f t h e w e s t f a c e o f t h e n a v e w a l l . The t o w e r a r c h i s o f two p o i n t e d o r d e r s . I t was c o n s t r u c t e d 8 6 c a . 1 2 0 0 , a t t h e same t i m e a s t h e c h a n c e l a r c h . A b o v e i t i s an a l m o s t s q u a r e window w i t h a f l a t l i n t e l a n d a s i l l o f l a r g e s l a b s . ( f i g . 4 1 ) The jambs o f t h i s o p e n i n g a r e o f u p r i g h t a n d f l a t s t o n e s w h i c h l o o k r e n e w e d . H o w e v e r , t h e window may be p a r t 87 " o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s : I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d a t e t h i s c h u r c h a s t h e r e a r e no d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o t h e r t h a n t h e w e s t d o o r w a y . The w a l l s a b o v e t h e l a t e r a r c a d e s a r e t h i n a n d a r e i n a l i g n m e n t w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l q u o i n s o f t h e n a v e w e s t f a c a d e , b u t t h e y h a v e b e e n c o a t e d w i t h p l a s t e r a n d , a s a r e s u l t , t h e r e i s no way o f p r o v i n g t h a t t h e y w e r e e r e c t e d b e f o r e . 1 0 6 6 . The t o w e r , t h o u g h d e f i n i t e l y A n g l o - S a x o n , c o n t a i n s no b e l f r y w i n d o w s w h i c h m i g h t h e l p t o p i n p o i n t i t s d a t e . The w a l l s a r e r e l a t i v e l y t h i n a nd c o n s i s t o f l a r g e , w e l l - l a i d s t o n e s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e l o w e r q u o i n s . I t c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y be a p o r c h t o w e r , t h o u g h t h e r e i s no t r a c e o f t h i s i n . t h e e x t e r n a l f a b r i c . The w i n d o w s i n t h e s o u t h w a l l a p p e a r t o be A n g l o - S a x o n b u t a g a i n , t h e y a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d a t e . H.M. T a y l o r f i n d s t h a t t h e w e s t d o o r w a y , w i t h i t s 8 8 s t r i p w o r k d e c o r a t i o n , i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f N o r t h u m b r i a n w i n d o w s . I t c a n n o t be r e a l l y e a r l y b e c a u s e o f t h i s d e c o r a t i o n , y e t i t i s l a c k i n g i n c o m p l e x i t y a n d d i s p l a y s a c r u d e e x p e r i m e n t a l f o r m o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t may d a t e f r o m P e r i o d o r C^. The n a v e ' s w e s t e r n w a l l i s c o m p l e x . T a y l o r f e e l s t h a t t h e i n n e r u p r i g h t q u o i n s , t h o s e c l o s e s t t o t h e t o w e r , mark t h e e x t e n t o f .a ...very e a r l y n a v e w h i c h was b u i l t b e f o r e t h e t o w e r . The t o w e r was t h e n c o n s t r u c t e d and v e r y s o o n a f t e r , t h e n a v e was w i d e n e d . I f t h i s t h e o r y i s c o r r e c t , t h e n t h e n a r r o w n a v e w o u l d be e i t h e r P e r i o d B o r C^. The t o w e r w o u l d be C-^  o r C^-I t i s s a f e t o d i s m i s s T a y l o r ' s c l a i m t h a t t h e . f i r s t n a v e may d a t e f r o m P e r i o d A a n d t h a t . t h e t o w e r was o r i g i n a l l y a p r e -D a n i s h p o r c h o f P e r i o d B. I t h a s n e i t h e r d i s t i n c t i v e l a t e f e a t u r e s n o r e a r l y o n e s . The q u o i n s , t h o u g h m e g a l i t h i c , do n o t r e s e m b l e t h o s e a t Ledsham o r a t o t h e r e a r l y N o r t h u m b r i a n c h u r c h e s s u c h a s Monkwearmouth a n d J a r r o w . A l s o , t h e r e i s no t r a c e o f a p o r c h on t h e e x t e r n a l o r i n t e r n a l f a b r i c o f t h e t o w e r . A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t I . D e d i c a t i o n : A l l S a i n t s I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e N o r t h R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r m i l e s w e s t o f M a l t o n o n t h e m a i n r o a d f r o m M a l t o n t o H o v i n g h a m . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : A l l S a i n t s c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r w i t h a n o r t h p o r c h and a n o r t h d o o r w a y ; a r e c t a n g u l a r , a i s l e d n a v e ; a n d a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l . ( f i g s . 4 2 , 4 3 , 4 4 , 4 5 ) ( P l a n 6) I V . H i s t o r y and. D o c u m e n t a t i o n : R e f e r e n c e s t o . t h e v i l l a g e o f A p p l e t o n - l e - S t r e e t a r e made i n a n A n g l o - S a x o n " S t a t e m e n t by O s w a l d , A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k , R e g a r d i n g C h u r c h L a n d s i n N o r t h u m b r i a " 8 9 and i n t h e Domesday Book . V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The f i r s t two s t a g e s o f t h e w e s t t o w e r a r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f r o u g h l y d r e s s e d , w i d e l y j o i n t e d g r e y g r i t s t o n e w h i c h i s l a i d i n i r r e g u l a r c o u r s e s . ( f i g s . 4 2 , 4 3 , 4 4 ) b) N a v e : The p l a n o f t h e n a v e i s p r e - C o n q u e s t . On t h e f a c e o f t h e w e s t w a l l i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s e e t h e w e s t e r n q u o i n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l a i s l e l e s s - s t r u c t u r e . ( f i g . 4 6 ) T h e s e q u o i n s a r e l o c a t e d a t e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e t o w e r ' s n o r t h a n d s o u t h w a l l s . , T h e one t o t h e n o r t h e x t e n d s 13 i n . f r o m t h e t o w e r , w h i l e t h e one t o t h e s o u t h e x t e n d s 11 i n . A s t h e t o w e r i s 16 f t . 10 i n . w i d e , t h e e x t e r i o r w i d t h o f t h e e a r l y n a v e m u s t h a v e b e e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90 18 f t . 10 i n . The q u o i n s a r e a l s o i n l i n e w i t h t h e a r c a d e s o f t h e n a v e . c) Tower: A c c o r d i n g t o E.A. F i s h e r , t h e w e s t w a l l o f t h e t o w e r i s n o t a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h w a l l s a n d t h e s e 91 i n t u r n a r e n o t a t r i g h t a n g l e s ' t o ; the nave.. The s t r u c t u r e , . 81 w h i c h i s o f t h r e e s t a g e s s e p a r a t e d by two p l a i n , p r o j e c t i n g s t r i n g - c o u r s e s , h a s s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s . ( f i g s . 4 2 , 4 3 , 4 4 ) The t h i r d s t r i n g - c o u r s e , s i t u a t e d j u s t b e l o w t h e l a t e r f l a t r o o f , i s h o l l o w - c h a m f e r e d a n d d e e p l y p r o j e c t i n g . The t o t a l h e i g h t o f t h e t o w e r i s 45 f t . The b o t t o m s t a g e o c c u p i e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f t h e t o t a l h e i g h t o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d t h e s e c o n d s t a g e i s somewhat t a l l e r t h a n t h e t h i r d . The f i r s t s t o r e y c o n t a i n s a w e s t window w h i c h i s a l a t e r i n s e r t i o n a nd w h i c h a p p e a r s t o h a v e r e p l a c e d an e a r l i e r d o o r w a y . H a l f w a y up i n t h e w e s t and s o u t h w a l l s o f t h e l o w e r s t a g e a r e two b l o c k e d s q u a r e - h e a d e d windows w i t h l i n t e l s a n d jambs o f l a r g e r o u g h s t o n e s , b u t w i t h no s i l l s . ( f i g s . 4 2 , 4 3 ) On t h e e a s t f a c e , j u s t a b o v e t h e p r e s e n t n a v e r o o f l i n e , i s a s m a l l r o u n d window w h i c h must h a v e l o o k e d i n t o t h e e a r l i e r a n d h i g h e r n a v e . A b o v e i t , a b o u t 34 f t . 1 f r o m t h e g r o u n d , i s t h e l i n e o f t h e o r i g i n a l n a v e g a b l e w h i c h e x t e n d s up i n t o t h e s e c o n d s t a g e and p a r t i a l l y c o v e r s t h e e a s t e r n d o u b l e - l i g h t window, ( f i g . 4 2 ) The s e c o n d and t h i r d s t a g e s o f t h e t o w e r c o n t a i n d o u b l e - l i g h t w indows i n a l l f o u r f a c e s . ( f i g s . 4 2 , 4 3 , 4 4 , 4 5 ) T h e s e a r e o f s i m i l a r d e s i g n b u t t h o s e i n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e a r e t a l l e r a n d w i d e r . A l l h a v e b a l u s t e r s h a f t s w i t h m o u l d e d s q u a r e b a s e s , t h o u g h t h e y h a v e no c a p i t a l s . I n s t e a d t h e r e a r e p r o j e c t i n g c h a m f e r e d t h r o u g h s t o n e i m p o s t s . I n a d d i t i o n , a l l h a v e two a r c h e d l i n t e l s p e r window. E a c h o f t h e s e i s f o r m e d o f two s t o n e s a n d r e s t s on a c e n t r a l t h r o u g h s t o n e i m p o s t a b o v e t h e b a l u s t e r s h a f t . The l o w e r l i n t e l s a r e s q u a r e - c u t . The c e n t r a l s h a f t s o f t h e u p p e r 82 b e l f r y w i n d o w s t e n d t o be n e a r e r t h e e x t e r i o r w a l l f a c e t h a n a r e t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e . 2. I n t e r i o r a) N a v e : The i n t e r n a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e n a v e a r e 26 f t . x 14 f t . 6 i n . w i t h w a l l s 2 f t . 4 i n . t h i c k . T h e s e w a l l s a r e i n l i n e w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l q u o i n s v i s i b l e o n e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e t o w e r . ( f i g . 4 8 ) b) Tower: T h e . ' i n t e r i o r o f t h e t o w e r m e a s u r e s 14 f t . x 10 f t . 6 i n . I t h a s a d o u b l e - s p l a y e d w e s t w i n d o w . ( f i g . 4 9 ) The n o r t h , s o u t h a n d w e s t w a l l s a r e 3 f t . t h i c k w h i l e t h e e a s t w a l l i s 2 f t . 7 i n . t h i c k . B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : An e a r l y t w e l f t h c e n t u r y d o o r w a y o f Norman d e s i g n 92 i s s e t i n t o t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e t o w e r . ( f i g . 4 7 ) I t c o n s i s t s o f a r o u n d - h e a d e d a r c h r e c e s s e d i n two o r d e r s . The i n n e r o r d e r c o n t a i n s n i n e v o u s s o i r s w h i c h v a r y s l i g h t l y i n s i z e a n d w h i c h r e s t o n t h i n i m p o s t s o f p l a i n s q u a r e s e c t i o n . B e l o w t h e s e i m p o s t s a r e jambs c o n s t r u c t e d o f l a r g e s t o n e s o f v a r i o u s s i z e s a n d s h a p e s . The o u t e r o r d e r r e s t s on c h a m f e r e d i m p o s t s b e l o w w h i c h a r e c o l u m n s w i t h v o l u t e d c a p i t a l s a n d p l a i n s q u a r e b a s e s . T h e s e r e s t oh a s q u a r e p l i n t h . A r o u n d t h e o u t e r o r d e r i s a s i m p l e b a n d o f s t r i p w o r k w h i c h d e s c e n d s t o t h e c o l u m n i m p o s t s b u t d o e s n o t c o n t i n u e down b e s i d e t h e c o l u m n s h a f t s . The l i n t e l s o f t h e u p p e r d o u b l e - l i g h t b e l f r y w i n d o w s a r e 83 c h a m f e r e d a l l r o u n d a n d t h e b a l u s t e r s h a f t s i n t h r e e o f t h e w indows i n t h i s s t a g e c a r r y a n i n c i s e d d e s i g n . ( f i g s . 4 2 , 4 3 , 4 4 , 4 5 ) The one t o t h e n o r t h h a s a c h e v r o n p a t t e r n , t h a t t o t h e s o u t h h a s a b r a i d e d p a t t e r n , a n d t h a t t o t h e w e s t h a s a s p i r a l o n e . The e a s t e r n s h a f t and i m p o s t - a r e modern r e n e w a l s a n d t h e b a l u s t e r i s p l a i n . The c e n t r a l s h a f t s o f t h e u p p e r w i n d o w s a r e c i r c u l a r i n p l a n e x c e p t f o r t h e one t o t h e n o r t h w h i c h i s a r o u g h r e c t a n g l e i n s e c t i o n and r e s t s on a l o n g s t o n e w h i c h p r o j e c t s b e y o n d t h e o u t e r f a c e o f t h e w a l l . C C . Hodges c l a i m s t h a t t h i s s t o n e i s c a r v e d w i t h t h e h e a d o f a g a r g o y l e , b u t t h i s was n o t 93 a p p a r e n t when t h e c h u r c h was v i s i t e d i n J u n e 1977. I n t h i s u p p e r s t a g e t h e s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s a r e c o u r s e d w i t h t h e w a l l i n g a n d t h i s s t d r e y e n d s i n a p r o j e c t i n g c o u r s e a b o u t 1 f t . h i g h w h i c h i s s u r m o u n t e d b y a f l a t r o o f . ( f i g s . 4 2 , 4 3 , 4 4 ) 2. I n t e r i o r a) N ave: The t o w e r a r c h i s a t w e l f t h c e n t u r y i n s e r t i o n w i t h s i m p l e 94 s q u a r e jambs a n d i m p o s t s w i t h h o l l o w c h a m f e r s and d o u b l e q u i r k s , ( f i g . 4 9 ) The a r c h , w h i c h i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h s t r i p w o r k , i s r o u n d ^ h e a d e d a n d c o n s i s t s o f v o u s s o i r s o f v a r y i n g s i z e s w h i c h a r e n o t c a r r i e d t h r o u g h t h e w a l l . I t m e a s u r e s 14 f t . x 10 f t . 6 i n . a n d i s a l m o s t as w i d e a s i t i s h i g h . I t i s n o t i n a l i g n m e n t w i t h t h e n a v e . b) Tower: The m a i n e n t r a n c e t o t h e c h u r c h i s t h r o u g h t h e t w e l f t h 95 c e n t u r y r e b a t e d d o o r w a y . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s : A s t h e r e i s no s p e c i f i c 84 d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c h u r c h a t A p p l e t o n -l e - S t r e e t b e f o r e 1066, d a t i n g o f t h e p r e s e n t b u i l d i n g m u s t be done on t h e b a s i s o f s t y l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A s t h e o r i g i n a l q u o i n s o f t h e n a v e a r e v i s i b l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e t h e w i d t h o f t h e e a r l y n a v e w h i c h was 18 f t . 10 i n . o n t h e e x t e r i o r a n d 1 4 - f t . 6 i n . o n t h e i n t e r i o r . The a r c a d e s , w h i c h a r e i n l i n e w i t h t h e s e q u o i n s a n d w h i c h a r e c u t t h r o u g h w a l l s o n l y 2 f t . 4 i n . t h i c k , may h a v e b e e n p i e r c e d t h r o u g h an A n g l o - S a x o n n a v e . T h i s t h e o r y i s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e n a v e , t o w e r and c h a n c e l a r e n o t a l i g n e d . The n a v e may be e a r l i e r t h a n t h e t o w e r , t h o u g h b o t h h a v e p r e - C o n q u e s t f o u n d a t i o n s . The two l o w e r s t a g e s o f t h e t o w e r a r e A n g l o - S a x o n . The t h i n w a l l s , w i d e m a s o n r y j o i n t s a n d l a r g e s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h i s . H o w e v e r , t h e u p p e r s t a g e p r e s e n t s some i n t e r e s t i n g a n o m a l i e s . S y l i s t i c a l l y t h e w i n d o w s a r e S a x o n , y e t t h e y h a v e s e v e r a l d e t a i l s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r i n c i s e d d e s i g n a n d t h e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e b a l u s t e r s h e a r t h e w a l l f a c e , w h i c h a r e Saxo-Norman o r Norman d e v e l o p m e n t s . A l s o , t h e a s h l a r w a l l i n g o f t h e t h i r d s t a g e , i n w h i c h t h e q u o i n s a r e c o u r s e d w i t h t h e m a s o n r y and t h e j o i n t s a r e n a r r o w , i s c e r t a i n l y a Norman f e a t u r e . I n t h i s c a s e i t w o u l d a p p e a r , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t H.M. T a y l o r d a t e s , t h i s s t a g e t o P e r i o d C 2/ t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n a p o s t -96 C o n q u e s t a m a l g a m a t i o n o f A n g l o - S a x o n and Norman c h a r a c t e r x s t i c s . The g a b l e l i n e o n t h e e a s t w a l l o f t h e t o w e r may mark t h e o r i g i n a l r o o f l i n e , b u t i f s o , i t i s c u r i o u s t h a t i t p a r t i a l l y c o n c e a l s a d o u b l e - l i g h t b e l f r y w i n d ow. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t may n o t 85 be t h e l i n e o f t h e o r i g i n a l g a b l e . K i r k d a l e I . D e d i c a t i o n : S t . G r e g o r y I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e N o r t h R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e a b o u t f o u r m i l e s e a s t o f H e l m s l e y , b e s i d e t h e N o r t h Y o r k s h i r e M o o r s . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : S t . G r e g o r y ' s M i n s t e r c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , a n a v e w i t h a n o r t h a i s l e a n d a s o u t h p o r c h , a n d an a i s l e l e s s r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l w i t h a n o r t h v e s t r y . ( f i g . 5 0 ) ( P l a n 7) I V . H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n : Bede s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m i n s t e r a t K i r k d a l e was t h e . s i t e o f t h e c h u r c h a n d m o n a s t e r y f o u n d e d b y S t . C e d d i n t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y . M o s t h i s t o r i a n s a g r e e , h o w e v e r , 97 t h a t L a s t i n g h a m i s t h e more p r o b a b l e s i t e f o r t h i s f o u n d a t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e m i n s t e r i s named a f t e r t h e pope who s e n t S t . A u g u s t i n e on h i s m i s s i o n t o E n g l a n d i n 59 7. A c c o r d i n g t o A r t h u r P e n n , t h i s d e d i c a t i o n may h a v e b e e n i n t e n d e d t o f o s t e r u n i t y b e t w e e n t h e I r i s h c h u r c h o f Cedd a n d t h e Roman one o f A u g u s t i n e . I f t h i s t h e o r y i s c o r r e c t , t h e n K i r k d a l e w o u l d h a v e b e e n f o u n d e d c.654. T h i s i d e a i s s t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c h u r c h was d e s t r o y e d d u r i n g t h e D a n i s h i n v a s i o n s o f t h e e i g h t h a n d n i n t h c e n t u r i e s , 9 8 and t h a t i t r e m a i n e d i n t h i s s t a t e u n t i l j u s t b e f o r e 1066. The b e s t way t o d a t e t h e f a b r i c o f t h e p r e s e n t b u i l d i n g i s t o a n a l y z e t h e i n s c r i p t i o n i n O l d E n g l i s h i n c i s e d on t h e s u n d i a l o v e r ^ t h e s o u t h d o o r w a y . ( f i g . 5 5 ) I t r e a d s ; Orm Gamal's s o n b o u g h t S t . G r e g o r y ' s m i n s t e r when i t was a l l t o - b r o k e n a n d t o - f a l l e n , a n d he i t l e t make new f r o m 86 t h e g r o u n d t o C h r i s t and S t . G r e g o r y i n E d w a r d ' s d a y s t h e k i n g i n T o s t i ' s d a y t h e e a r l + a n d Haward me w r o u g h t and B r a n d p r i e s t s . 9 9 The i n s c r i p t i o n r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o Orm, Gamal's s o n , who r e s t o r e d t h e c h u r c h when i t was i n r u i n s , p r o b a b l y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e D a n i s h r a i d s . I t i s a l s o known t h a t t h o u g h t h e b u i l d i n g was a m i n s t e r , he c h o s e t o r e s t o r e i t a s a p a r i s h c h u r c h . The Domesday Book r e c o r d s t h a t C h i r c h e b i ( K i r k b y M o o r s i d e ) h a d two c h u r c h e s . One o f t h e s e was i n t h e manor o f Orm, t h e l o c a l l a n d o w n e r , w h i l e t h e o t h e r was i n t h e manor o f T o r b r a n d . P e n n f e e l s t h a t t h e f i r s t c h u r c h was K i r k d a l e and t h a t t h e s e c o n d one 100 was t h e p a r i s h c h u r c h a t K i r k b y M o o r s i d e . Orm, a s t h e Domesday  Book i m p l i e s , a l s o h a d l a n d and a c h u r c h a t H o v i n g h a m w h i c h h a s d i s t i n c t i v e l a t e A n g l o - S a x o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . H i s h a b i t may h a v e b e e n t o r e s t o r e t h o s e r u i n e d c h u r c h e s w h i c h came u n d e r h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n . The i n s c r i p t i o n a l s o s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e s t o r a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t on t h i s b u i l d i n g i n t h e d a y s o f E d w a r d t h e C o n f e s s o r a n d T o s t i g t h e e a r l . T o s t i g became E a r l o f N o r t h u m b e r l a n d i n 1 0 5 5 , b u t was b a n i s h e d f o r a number o f c r i m e s i n 1065. K n o w i n g t h e s e d a t e s e n a b l e s t h e h i s t o r i a n t o p l a c e t h e s u n d i a l b e t w e e n t h e y e a r s 1055 - 1065, a n d more p r o b a b l y b e t w e e n 1060 - 1065. T h e r e was a g e n e r a l r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h (1907 -1909) u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e L o n d o n a r c h i t e c t , T emple M o o r e . A t t h a t t i m e t h e i n t e r i o r was c l e a r e d o f s t r u c t u r e s s u c h a s t h e w e s t g a l l e r y and t h e h i g h pews. A l s o , two e a r l y A n g l o - S a x o n c a r v e d c r o s s e s w e r e moved i n s i d e t h e c h u r c h . ^ <"'~'' 87 V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r ;> a) M a s o n r y : The n a v e w e s t w a l l i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f r o u g h l y d r e s s e d g r e y g r i t s t o n e o f v a r y i n g s i z e s , ( f i g . 5 3 ) The s t o n e s a r e n o t l a r g e a n d a r e l a i d i n w i d e l y j o i n t e d c o u r s e s . T h e r e i s much u s e o f o l d m a s o n r y f r o m a p r e v i o u s s t r u c t u r e . I n t h e s o u t h w a l l i s a c r u c i f i x w i t h a s e r p e n t r e s t i n g a t i t s f o o t , w h i l e a n A n g l o - S a x o n c r o s s h a s b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e n o r t h w e s t w a l l o f t h e n a v e , b e s i d e t h e t o w e r . ( f i g . 5 3 ) b) Nave: The n a v e , a s i s known f r o m t h e i n s c r i p t i o n o n t h e s u n d i a l , was c o n s t r u c t e d c a . 1 0 6 0 - c a . 10.65. ( f i g . 50) The n o r t h w e s t e r n and s o u t h w e s t e r n q u o i n s o f t h e b u i l d i n g a r e s t i l l v i s i b l e . The l o w e r o n e s on t h e s o u t h s i d e a r e m e g a l i t h i c . ( f i g . 5 3 ) H.M. T a y l o r i s t e m p t e d t o s e e t h e s e l a r g e r s t o n e s a s v e s t i g e s o f t h e c h u r c h w h i c h s t o o d o n t h e s i t e b e f o r e Orm r e b u i l t i t , b u t t h e e v i d e n c e 102 i s v e r y t e n u o u s . A d r a w i n g e x e c u t e d c a . 1 8 2 1 shows t h a t no t o w e r e x i s t e d a t t h a t t i m e . The b e l l s w e r e h u n g i n a s m a l l wooden b e l f r y r e s t i n g o n t h e t o p o f t h e r o o f g a b l e . B a l d w i n Brown r e c o r d s t h a t a t t h i s t i m e t h e r e e x i s t e d on t h e w e s t e r n f a c a d e , " t h e m o s t n o r t h e r l y p i l a s t e r s t r i p k n o w n " . ( f i g . 5 1 ) Hodges a g r e e s w i t h 103 B a l d w i n B r o w n - a n d t h e y b a s e t h e i r b e l i e f on t h e 1821 s k e t c h . B a l d w i n B rown d e s c r i b e s i t a s s h o w i n g a h o r i z o n t a l s t r i n g - c o u r s e c r o s s i n g t h e w e s t f r o n t . A b o v e t h i s i s a v e r t i c a l p i l a s t e r s t r i p r u n n i n g up t o t h e p o i n t o f t h e g a b l e . I f i t was r e a l l y t h e r e , 88 i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n an a r r a n g e m e n t e x a c t l y l i k e t h a t o n t h e e a s t e r n g a b l e o f t h e c h a n c e l a t B o a r h u n t , Hamps. H.M. T a y l o r , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t f e e l t h a t i t e x i s t e d . He r e f e r s i n s t e a d t o a n e n g r a v i n g o f 1 7 7 9 , i n w h i c h t h e v e r t i c a l a n d h o r i z o n t a l s t r i p s on t h e w e s t e r n g a b l e a r e a b s e n t . ( f i g . 5 2 ) I n a d d i t i o n , he h a s i n s p e c t e d t h e w a l l i n s i d e t h e t o w e r and h a s f o u n d no s u c h s t r i p 104 n o r t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t i t e v e r e x i s t e d . A b o v e t h e s o u t h d o o r w a y i s t h e A n g l o - S a x o n s u n d i a l w h i c h i s p e r h a p s t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e c h u r c h . ( f i g . 5 5 ) I t i s i n a n e x c e l l e n t s t a t e o f p r e s e r v a t i o n due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t was p r o t e c t e d u n d e r a c o a t o f p l a s t e r u n t i l i t was d i s c o v e r e d i n 1 7 7 1 . S i n c e t h e n i t has b e e n p r e s e r v e d u n d e r c o v e r o f t h e 105 s o u t h : p o r c h . The s t o n e i s 7 f t . w i d e x 2 f t . h i g h and h a s a l l o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d i a l o f t h e p e r i o d . I t a l s o f u n c t i o n s a s a d i s t i n c t p i e c e o f s c u l p t u r e w i t h a p o r t i o n c a r v e d i n r e l i e f and a s y s t e m f o r t i m e measurement."*"^ 2..; I n t e r i o r a) C h a n c e l : A c c o r d i n g t o A d a R u s s e l l , t h e c h a n c e l a r c h i s o f f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y d a t e , b u t H.M. T a y l o r p l a c e s i t i n t h e 107 t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e c h a n c e l . The j a m b s , w h i c h a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n w e s t d o o r w a y , a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y s q u a r e i n s e c t i o n , b u t h a v e p r i m i t i v e a n g l e s h a f t s . ( f i g . 5 6 ) T h e s e h a v e c a p i t a l s a n d b a s e s o f u n u s u a l c h a r a c t e r . The c a p i t a l s a r e s q u a r e a b o v e a n d s h a p e d b e l o w t o meet t h e r o u n d s h a f t s b y t a p e r i n g i n two b e l l - l i k e c o l l a r s w i t h r i d g e s b e t w e e n . The b a s e s r e s t o n a t a l l p l i n t h o f r o u g h l y d r e s s e d s t o n e s . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e . t o a c c e p t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e 89 jambs o f t h e c h a n c e l a r c h , w h i c h a r e 11 f t . 3 i n . a p a r t , a r e a p o r t i o n o f Orm's c h u r c h . b) Nave: The n a v e , w h i c h i s i r r e g u l a r l y s e t o u t , m e a s u r e s 34 f t . 7 i n . x 18 f t . The w a l l s a r e a b o u t 25 f t . h i g h a n d v a r y i n t h i c k n e s s . They a r e 2 f t . 2 i n . t h i c k a t t h e s o u t h d o o r w a y b u t o n l y 2 f t . a t t h e w e s t d o o r w a y . They w i d e n t o 2 f t . 10 i n . 108 i n t h e e a s t e r n w a l l by t h e c h a n c e l a r c h . ( f i g . 5 7 ) The o r i g i n a l w e s t d o o r w a y c a n be s e e n w i t h i n t h e n a v e . ( f i g . 5 8 ) I t now a c t s as t h e t o w e r a r c h a n d m e a s u r e s 2 f t . 8 i n . w i d e x 10 f t . h i g h . I t i s o f t a l l n a r r o w p r o p o r t i o n s and i s c u t s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h t h e w a l l . The v o u s s o i r s f o r m i n g t h e r o u n d a r c h a r e t h r o u g h s t o n e s o f v a r y i n g s i z e . T h e r e i s no k e y s t o n e . The i m p o s t s b e l o w t h i s a r e o f p l a i n s q u a r e s h a p e a n d p r o j e c t b e y o n d t h e jambs on t h e s o f f i t s i d e o n l y . The jambs a r e o f l a r g e s q u a r e t h r o u g h s t o n e s l a i d Escomb f a s h i o n . W i t h i n t h e t o w e r t h e a r c h i s much more o r n a t e and t h i s i n d i c a t e d t h e a d v e n t o f some Norman b u i l d i n g p r i n c i p l e s . B o t h t h e a r c h and jambs a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h 1 a n g l e s h a f t s a s t h o u g h t h e y w e r e meant t o c a r r y an i n n e r o r d e r . ( f i g . 5 9 ) The t r e a t m e n t , h o w e v e r , i s p r i m i t i v e a n d i s , a c c o r d i n g 109 t o H.M. T a y l o r , d i f f i c u l t t o a t t r i b u t e t o Norman w o r k m a n s h i p . . The r e c e s s o f e a c h jamb c o n t a i n s a f r e e - s t a n d i n g a n g l e - s h a f t . The s q u a r e b a s e i s c h a m f e r e d on e a c h o f i t s o u t e r f a c e s a n d i s s u r m o u n t e d by a c i r c u l a r f i l l e t o f t a p e r i n g c o n i c a l s h a p e . The s q u a r e c a p i t a l i s c h a m f e r e d on e a c h a n g l e t o p r o v i d e a s e r i e s o f u p r i g h t i n v e r t e d t r i a n g u l a r f a c e s . T h e s e r e s t on a s i m p l e f i l l e t on t o p of-, t h e s h a f t . 90 The a r c h i s o f t h r e e o r d e r s , b u t t h e two i n n e r o n e s do n o t r e s t on t o p o f e a c h o t h e r . I n s t e a d t h e y a r e a c t u a l l y two a r c h e s s e t s i d e by s i d e . The a r c h n e a r e s t t h e n a v e s p a n s t h e o p e n i n g b e t w e e n t h e m a i n jambs i n a s e m i c i r c l e 2 f t . 8 i n . i n . d i a m e t e r w h i l e t h e a r c h n e x t t o t h e t o w e r s p a n s an o p e n i n g b e t w e e n t h e a n g l e s h a f t s w h i c h i s 3 f t . i n d i a m e t e r . The t h i r d , o r o u t e r o r d e r , w h i c h i s f l u s h w i t h t h e n a v e w a l l , r e s t s on t h e e x t r a d o s o f t h e s e c o n d o r d e r . T h i s o r d e r i s r e c e s s e d a b o u t 2 f t . b e h i n d i t . The s q u a r e b a s e s o f t h e jambs r u n s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h t h e w a l l w h i l e t h e s q u a r e i m p o s t s a r e c u t b a c k 2 f t . a s t h e y p a s s w e s t w a r d f r o m t h e m a i n s e c t i o n o f t h e jambs t o t h e a n g l e s h a f t s . 3. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) Nave: The n o r t h a i s l e o f t h e n a v e was a d d e d c a . 1 2 0 0 a n d r a i s e d t o i t s p r e s e n t h e i g h t i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . " ' " 1 ^ An e x t e r i o r o f f - s e t m a r k s i t s o r i g i n a l h e i g h t . The s o u t h d o o r w a y i s an e a r l y t w e l f t h c e n t u r y i n s e r t i o n , s i n c e i t i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n t h a t o t h e d i a l a b o v e i t i s i n i t s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e A n g l o - S a x o n w a l l . ( f i g . 5 4 ) I t c o n s i s t s o f a r o u n d - h e a d e d a r c h c o n s t r u c t e d o f v o u s s o i r s o f r e g u l a r s i z e and s h a p e . The i n n e r e d g e s o f t h e s e s t o n e s a r e c h a m f e r e d . The a r c h s i t s on two s q u a r e i m p o s t s w h i c h a r e a l s o c h a m f e r e d on t h e i r l o w e r e d g e s , b u t w h i c h a r e o t h e r w i s e p l a i n . The l a r g e c h a m f e r e d jamb s t o n e s a r e l a i d i n an u p r i g h t a n d f l a t o r Escomb f a s h i o n and t h e f a c e o f t h e o p e n i n g i s r e b a t e d f o r t h e h a n g i n g o f t h e d o o r . 2. I n t e r i o r a) N ave: The n o r t h a r c a d e , w h i c h was e r e c t e d c a . 1 2 0 0 , i s o f t h r e e 112 b a y s w i t h two p o i n t e d a r c h e s o f two c h a m f e r e d o r d e r s . ( f i g . 5 7 ) I t h a s c o l u m n s w i t h c i r c u l a r m o u l d e d b a s e s s e t on o c t a g o n a l a b a c i . The c a p i t a l o f t h e e a s t e r n r e s p o n d i s c a r v e d w i t h a f o r m o f b r o a d w a t e r - l e a f , w h i l e t h o s e o f t h e w e s t e r n r e s p o n d a n d t h e e a s t e r n c o l u m n a r e p l a i n . The w e s t e r n c o l u m n h a s a c a p i t a l o f u n u s u a l d e s i g n d e c o r a t e d w i t h v o l u t e s a t e a c h 113 a n g l e o f t h e a b a c u s . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s : T h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e o r i g i n a l c h u r c h r e m a i n i n g and t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s . O n l y t h e w e s t d o o r w a y , t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n and s o u t h w e s t e r n q u o i n s , a n d t h e c h a n c e l a r c h r e s p o n d s a r e l e f t . H o wever, S t . G r e g o r y ' s i s one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t A n g l o - S a x o n b u i l d i n g s i n Y o r k s h i r e b e c a u s e i t c a n be d a t e d w i t h u n u s u a l a c c u r a c y and b e c a u s e a g r e a t d e a l i s known a b o u t i t s e a r l y h i s t o r y . T h e r e f o r e , w h a t f e w d e t a i l s t h e r e a r e c a n be a s s e s s e d v s t y l i s t i c a l l y a n d u s e d a s a p o i n t o f c o m p a r i s o n w i t h d e t a i l s f o u n d i n o t h e r c h u r c h e s . We know, as a r e s u l t . o f s t u d y i n g t h e r e m a i n s a t K i r k d a l e , t h a t t h e S a x o n s w e r e s t i l l u s i n g a t h i n - w a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d l a r g e s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s r i g h t up u n t i l 1066. Y e t t h e r e i s a l s o a c e r t a i n i n f u s i o n o f Norman i n f l u e n c e i n t h e s m a l l e r , more n e a t l y c o u r s e d m a s o n r y o f t h e n a v e w a l l s a n d t h e d e c o r a t i v e d e t a i l s o f t h e w e s t d o o r w a y and c h a n c e l r e s p o n d s . I n t h e a t t a c h e d coumns and c r u d e c a p i t a l s o f t h e s e i n t e r n a l o p e n i n g s one c a n n o t e t h e t e n t a t i v e and p r i m i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s a s o p p o s e d t o t h e more a d v a n c e d Norman u t i l i z a t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s w e r e b e i n g a t t e m p t e d shows t h a t c o n t i n e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s w e r e p r e s e n t e v e n b e f o r e t h e C o n q u e s t . I t a p p e a r s t h a t E d w a r d t h e C o n f e s s o r ' s s o j o u r n a t t h e c o u r t o f Duke W i l l i a m h a d a c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t , w h i c h he t h e n p a s s e d on t o t h e S a x o n n o b l e s o f h i s E n g l i s h c o u r t . The r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s c h u r c h and t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t H o v i n g h a m , w h i c h was a l s o u n d e r Orm's j u r i s d i c t i o n , m i g h t h a v e b e e n r e f u r b i s h e d b y h i m , r e v e a l s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a n i n c r e a s e i n b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e C o n t i n e n t , w h i c h t o o k p l a c e j u s t b e f o r e t h e C o n f e s s o r ' s d e a t h . H o v i n g h a m I . D e d i c a t i o n : A l l S a i n t s I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e N o r t h R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e , s e v e n m i l e s w e s t o f M a l t o n . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : A l l S a i n t s c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , an a i s l e d r e c t a n g u l a r n a v e w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h , and a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l w i t h a n o r t h v e s t r y a n d a n o r g a n c h a m b e r . ( f i g . 6 0 ) ( P l a n 8) I V . H i s t o r y and D o c u m e n t a t i o n : The v i l l a g e a n d c h u r c h o f H o v i n g h a m a r e l i s t e d i n t h e Domesday Book u n d e r t h e l a n d o f R i c h a r d , s o n o f E r f a s t . The e n t r y r e a d s , " I n H o v i n g h a m , Orm h a d e i g h t c a r u c a t e s o f l a n d f o r g e l d . T h e r e i s l a n d f o r f o u r p l o u g h s . 114 ... A c h u r c h ( x s ) t h e r e a n d a p r i e s t . " Orm i s a l s o m e n t i o n e d i n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n on t h e K i r k d a l e s u n d i a l , l o c a t e d i n t h e m i n s t e r o n l y s i x m i l e s away. I f t h e s e two a r e one a n d t h e same man a n d i f he r e b u i l t t h e m i n s t e r a t K i r k d a l e , a s t h e s u n d i a l i n d i c a t e s , t h e n i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t he r e c o n s t r u c t e d o r i m p r o v e d 115 H o v i n g h a m j u s t p r i o r t o t h e C o n q u e s t o f 1066. T h e r e i s a l s o a c h a r t e r i s s u e d b y H e n r y I and a d d r e s s e d t o Thomas, A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k (1109 - 1 1 1 4 ) ; N i g e l de A u b i g n y ; a n d O s b u r n de A r c h e s ; w h i c h m e n t i o n s H o v i n g h a m . T h i s c h a r t e r g a v e t o R o b e r t , B i s h o p 116 o f L i n c o l n , " t h e c h u r c h e s o f K i r k b y M o o r s i d e a n d H o v i n g h a m " . The e n t i r e c h u r c h was r e s t o r e d i n 1860 b y Rhode H a w k i n s . O n l y 117 t h e t o w e r e s c a p e d r e f u r b i s h i n g . V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The f i r s t s t a g e o f t h e w e s t t o w e r i s m a i n l y o f r o u g h l y d r e s s e d , g r e y g r i t s t o n e l a i d i n i r r e g u l a r , w i d e l y j o i n t e d c o u r s e s , ( f i g . 6 1 ) Some o f t h e s t o n e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i m m e d i a t e l y a b o v e t h e w e s t d o o r w a y , a r e m e g a l i t h i c i n s i z e . On t h e w e s t f a c e , j u s t b e l o w t h e f i r s t s t r i n g - c o u r s e , i s a l i n e o f h e r r i n g - b o n e w o r k . The u p p e r two s t a g e s a r e o f s m a l l s t o n e r u b b l e w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e c o l o u r o f t h e s t o n e s f r o m w h i t e t o b r o w n . The r e - u s e o f m a s o n r y f r o m an e a r l i e r p r e - C o n q u e s t b u i l d i n g i s a p p a r e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e f a b r i c o f t h e t o w e r . b) N a v e : On t h e n o r t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e , w h e r e i t a b u t s t h e t o w e r , t h e l i n e o f t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n q u o i n s o f t h e e a r l i e r n a v e a r e v i s i b l e . ( f i g . 6 2 ) T h e s e s t o n e s , w h i c h a r e l a r g e , a r e l a i d i n a s i d e - a l t e r n a t e f a s h i o n and e x t e n d u p w a r d s f o r 12 f t . , a t t h e same t i m e p r o j e c t i n g 2 f t . f r o m t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e t o w e r . c) T o w er: The w e s t t o w e r , w h i c h i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e r o u g h l y e q u a l s t a g e s b y two p l a i n s t r i n g - c o u r s e s , h a s l a r g e q u o i n " s t o n e s c o n s i s t i n g o f t h i n s l a b s l a i d i n r e g u l a r s i d e - a l t e r n a t e f a s h i o n . ( f i g . 6 1 ) The s o u t h w e s t e r n q u o i n c o n t a i n s two b l o c k s t h a t o n c e f o r m e d t h e r o u n d h e a d o f a window. The t o w e r i s n e a r l y 70 f t . t a l l a n d t h e e x t e r i o r m e a s u r e s 15 f t . 11 i n . e a s t / w e s t a n d 18 f t . lh i n . n o r t h / s o u t h . I n t h e w e s t f a c e o f t h e g r o u n d s t a g e i s a d o o r w ay o f a d v a n c e d d e s i g n . ( f i g . 6 3 ) H owever, H.M. T a y l o r s t a t e t h a t i t s 118 c o n s t r u c t i o n i s q u i t e t e n t a t i v e . The r o u n d a r c h c o n t a i n s no t h r o u g h s t o n e s and i s o f s i m p l e s q u a r e s e c t i o n . The o u t e r f a c e i s o f f o u r o r d e r s b u t o n l y t h e i n n e r m o s t s q u a r e o r d e r i s a p p r e c i a b l y r e c e s s e d , a n d t h e n by o n l y 8 i n . The n e x t o r d e r i s l e v e l w i t h t h e m a i n f a c e o f t h e w a l l a n d c a r r i e s a r o l l - m o u l d i n g on i t s f a c e . The t h i r d o r d e r i s s l i g h t l y i n s e t a n d i s c a r v e d w i t h a q u i r k a n d h o l l o w m o u l d i n g . The o u t e r o r d e r , w h i c h i s o f p l a i n s q u a r e s e c t i o n , i s s e t f l u s h w i t h t h e w a l l f a c e . The jambs a r e c u t s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h t h e w a l l , b u t e a c h h a s a s h a l l o w , o b l o n g r e c e s s w h i c h h o u s e s a f r e e - s t a n d i n g a n g l e s h a f t p l a c e d t o c a r r y t h e r o l l - m o u l d i n g o f t h e a r c h a b o v e . T h e s e s h a f t s h a v e no b a s e s and t h e c a p i t a l s a r e o f p r i m i t i v e , f l a t , a n n u l a r s h a p e . The s q u a r e s o f f i t o f e a c h jamb i s f o r m e d o f m a s s i v e t h r o u g h s t o n e s and t h e i m p o s t s p r o j e c t o n t h e s o f f i t f a c e s o n l y . They a r e p l a i n a n d s q u a r e w i t h h o l l o w c h a m f e r s on t h e i r l o w e r a n g l e s . The d o o r w a y i s 6 f t . h i g h t o t h e t o p o f t h e i m p o s t s , w h i c h a r e lh f t . t h i c k a n d 3 f t . 4 i n . w i d e . A b o v e t h e d o o r w ay i s a l a r g e s q u a r e s t o n e 119 b e a r i n g a n A n g l i a n c r o s s c a r v e d i n h i g h r e l i e f . The s o u t h f a c e o f t h e g r o u n d s t a g e c o n t a i n s a s m a l l r e c t a n g u l a r s l i t w i n dow w h i c h i s s e t j u s t b e l o w t h e s t r i n g - c o u r s e . ( f i g . 6 1 ) I t h a s no s i l l a n d i t s jambs a r e f o r m e d o f s i n g l e s t o n e s . The s e c o n d s t a g e o f t h e t o w e r i s s e t b a c k a f e w i n c h e s f r o m t h e f i r s t . . I t h a s one. p r i n c i p a l o p e n i n g , a t a l l r o u n d -h e a d e d , d o u b l e - s p l a y e d window s e t h i g h i n t h e s o u t h f a c e . The w indow h a s no i m p o s t s a n d i t s h e a d a n d jambs a r e n o t c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h r o u g h s t o n e s . The s m a l l r e c t a n g u l a r w i n d o w s i n t h e n o r t h e r n and w e s t e r n w a l l s o f t h i s s t a g e a r e s e t i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w t h e , s t r i n g - c o u r s e w h i c h f o r m s t h e i r h e a d s . They a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e one l o c a t e d i n t h e s o u t h w a l l o f t h e g r o u n d s t a g e . The t h i r d s t a g e c o n t a i n s t a l l , n a r r o w d o u b l e - l i g h t w i n d o w s i n a l l f o u r f a c e s . ( f i g s . 6 0 , 6 1 ) The i n d i v i d u a l l i g h t s o f t h e s e o p e n i n g s h a v e u n u s u a l l y n a r r o w , r o u n d h e a d s and a r e r e c t a n g u l a r i n c r o s s s e c t i o n . The jambs a n d i m p o s t s a r e h o l l o w - c h a m f e r e d t h r o u g h s t o n e s p r o j e c t i n g b o l d l y f r o m t h e w a l l f a c e . T h e i r s i l l s a r e o f t h i n s l a b s . H o w e v e r , t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e s e w i n d o w s a r e d i f f e r e n t o n a l l f o u r f a c e s . The s h a f t o f t h e s o u t h e r n l i g h t i s s q u a r e - e d g e d a n d t h e jambs a r e o f t h r e e r e c t a n g u l a r s t o n e s s e t on e n d . The s h a f t o f t h e w e s t e r n window i s a v e r y d e e p , s q u a r e -e d g e d , r e c t a n g u l a r s l a b w i t h a t o p a n d b o t t o m o f s e p a r a t e s t o n e s . H o w e v e r , t h e s e s t o n e s a r e n o t r e a l b a s e s a n d c a p i t a l s . The s h a f t o f t h e n o r t h e r n window i s o f t h r e e s t o n e s , s i m i l a r t o t h e w e s t e r n , o n e , b u t t h e jambs a r e o f f i v e f l a t s l a b s o f m i x e d f a c e - and s i d e - a l t e r n a t e a r r a n g e m e n t . The s h a f t o f t h e e a s t e r n o p e n i n g h a s a m a s s i v e , s e p a r a t e , i r r e g u l a r b a s e w h i c h i s ' n o t c u t t o s h a p e . The jambs a r e o f f o u r u p r i g h t a n d f l a t s t o n e s a s i n t h e w e s t window. The h e a d s o f t h e b e l f r y w i n d o w s a r e p r i m i t i v e l y c o n s t r u c t e d a r c h e s . The e a s t e r n one i s o f r o u g h v o u s s o i r s w h i c h s l o p e i m p r o p e r l y a n d t h e i n n e r e n d s h a v e b e e n c u t t o f i t t h e a r c h c u r v e . The h e a d s o f t h e n o r t h e r n , s o u t h e r n a n d w e s t e r n o p e n i n g s a r e o f 2 . - 4 l o n g s t o n e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n c u t t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a r c h s h a p e . A b o v e t h e s o u t h e r n b e l f r y w i n d o w , b u i l t 120 i n t o t h e w a l l , i s a L a t i n c r o s s o f . t h e S a x o n p e r i o d . 2. I n t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : A c c o r d i n g t o A d a R u s s e l l , t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e t o w e r 121 h a s some a n c i e n t p l a s t e r . The w e s t w a l l o f t h e n a v e i s n o t c o a t e d w i t h p l a s t e r . ( f i g . 6 7 ) The w a l l i n g h e r e i s r o u g h l y - c u t , l i g h t g r e y s t o n e l a i d i n i r r e g u l a r c o u r s e s w h i c h v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m s t a n d a r d b r i c k d i m e n s i o n s t o m e g a l i t h i c p r o p o r t i o n s . A b o v e t h e t o w e r a r c h i s a s i n g l e row o f h e r r i n g - b o n e . b) Nave: H.M. T a y l o r e s t i m a t e s - t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l w i d t h o f t h e "-*> 122 n a v e was 18 f t . 5 i n . w i t h w a l l s a b o u t 20 f t . h i g h . I t now m e a s u r e s 17 f t . 8 i n . x 50 f t . ( f i g . 6 7 ) The w e s t w a l l c o n t a i n s a r o u n d - h e a d e d t o w e r a r c h w h i c h i s c u t i n one s q u a r e o r d e r a n d i s c h a m f e r e d o n i t s e a s t e r n f a c e . ( f i g s . 6 6 , 6 7 ) No r e c e s s i n g i s e v i d e n t . The j a m b s , w h i c h a r e 3 f t . 3 i n . t h i c k , a r e o f l a r g e s t o n e s l a i d Escomb f a s h i o n , b u t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e h o l l o w - c h a m f e r e d i m p o s t s , t h e r e a r e no t h r o u g s t o n e s i n t h e a r c h . T h e r e a r e two r i n g s o f v o u s s o i r s t o t h e e a s t a nd w e s t w i t h r u b b l e i n - f i l l i n g b e t w e e n them. T h e r e a r e t w e n t y l a r g e v o u s s o i r s i n t h e a r c h h e a d on t h e e a s t f a c e a nd t h e e n d s o f t h e i m p o s t s a r e f l u s h w i t h t h e w a l l . The w e s t f a c e o f t h e a r c h , w h i c h m e a s u r e s 5 f t . 5 i n . x 10 f t . 6 i n . , h a s b e e n o b l i t e r a t e d b y a cdkt o f p l a s t e r . A b o v e , a n d t o t h e n o r t h o f t h i s a r c h , i s a s m a l l s q u a r e . o p e n i n g w h i c h s i t s j u s t b e n e a t h t h e l i n e o f t h e p r e s e n t r o o f . -The h e a d o f t h i s o p e n i n g i s n o t v i s i b l e f r o m t h e n a v e b u t i t i s s u r m o u n t e d by a f l a t l i n t e l . ( f i g . 6 7 ) The jambs a r e l a i d Escomb f a s h i o n a n d t h e window i s 1 f t . 10 i n . x 6 f t . 2 i n . a n d 123 ^ s i t s a b o u t 23 f t . a b o v e t h e f l o o r . A d a R u s s e l l s t a t e s t h a t ^ t h i s o p e n i n g m i g h t h a v e b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d t o e n a b l e t h e s a c r i s t a n t o 124 w a t c h f o r t h e e l e v a t i o n o f t h e h o s t i n o r d e r t o r i n g t h e b e l l . A t t h e e a s t e r n e n d o f t h e s o u t h n a v e a i s l e i s a r e m a r k a b l e c a r v e d s t o n e p a n e l a b o u t 2 f t . 1 i n . h i g h x 5 f t . 5 i n . l o n g , ( f i g . 6 5 ) I t was o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t i n t o t h e m a s o n r y o f t h e t o w e r s o u t h f a c e , a b o u t 12 f t . a b o v e g r o u n d l e v e l , a n d was r e m o v e d i n 1 9 2 4 . 1 2 5 c) Tower: The i n t e r i o r o f t h e t o w e r i s 12 f t . s q u a r e w i t h w a l l s 3 f t . 4 i n . t h i c k . I t i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s t o r e y s b y wooden f l o o r s . V aughn b e l i e v e s t h e s e c o n d s t o r y was u s e d a s a p r i e s t ' s 12 d w e l l i n g a n d h a d a d o o r w a y l e a d i n g t o a b a l c o n y w i t h i n t h e n a v e . B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) C h a n c e l : Though t h e e n t i r e c h a n c e l was r e b u i l t i n 1 8 6 0 , two 98 w i ndows f r o m t h e e a r l i e r s t r u c t u r e w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e s o u t h 127 w a l l . The one t o t h e e a s t d a t e s , f r o m t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y a n d i s s m a l l w i t h an a r c h e d l i n t e l , jambs o f t h r e e u p r i g h t s t o n e s , and f l a t i m p o s t s . ( f i g . 6 0 ) I t i s c h a m f e r e d a l l r o u n d . The o t h e r 128 w indow i s a t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y l a n c e t . b) Nave: The n a v e s o u t h d o o r w a y d a t e s f r o m t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y a n d was b u i l t b a c k i n t o t h e c h u r c h a t t h e t i m e o f i t s r e s t o r a t i o n , ( f i g . 6 4 ) I t c o n s i s t s o f a s e m i c i r c u l a r h e a d o f two c h a m f e r e d o r d e r s . The o u t e r one i s c a r r i e d b y s h a f t s h a v i n g c a r v e d c a p i t a l s w i t h m o u l d e d a b a c i w h i c h s t o p a t t h e i n n e r o r d e r . The i n n e r jambs a r e a l s o . c h a m f e r e d a n d - a r e s u r m o u n t e d by m o u l d e d i m p o s t s . L o n g s t o n e s h a v e b e e n c u t i n t o c u r v e d s h a p e s t o f o r m t h e a r c h h e a d . 130 c) Tower: The t o w e r i s s u r m o u n t e d by a Norman c o r b e l t a b l e . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s : A l l S a i n t s , H o v i n g h a m / i s -an e x a m p l e o f t h e r e s u l t s o f w h o l e s a l e r e s t o r a t i o n . I t i s f o r t u n a t e t h a t a t l e a s t t h e t o w e r was l e f t l a r g e l y u n t o u c h e d . M o s t o f t h e f e a t u r e s . , w h i c h ; do, r e m a i n a p p e a r t o be l a t e S a x o n i n s t y l e . The c h u r c h c o u l d be Saxo-Norman b u t i t i s more l i k e l y t o d a t e f r o m P e r i o d C^ a n d i t r e v e a l s t h e g r o w i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l k n o w l e d g e o f t h e S a x o n b u i l d e r . The w e s t d o o r w a y , w i t h i t s l a r g e r o l l -m o u l d i n g s , . i s o f a d v a n c e d d e s i g n b u t p r i m i t i v e e x e c u t i o n , as a r e t h e b e l f r y w i n d o w s w i t h t h e i r c h a m f e r e d jambs a n d t e n t a t i v e l y s h a p e d v o u s s o i r a r c h e s . The w a l l s o f t h e tower., w h i c h a r e o v e r 3 f t . t h i c k , c o n t a i n much r e - u s e d m a t e r i a l a n d i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e t o w e r was r e b u i l t j u s t b e f o r e t h e C o n q u e s t . T h i s t h e o r y i s s t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t Orm, who r e s t o r e d K i r k d a l e M i n s t e r i n t h e 1 0 6 0 s , was a l s o t h e owner o f t h e l a n d o n w h i c h A l l S a i n t s was e r e c t e d . I f he was o f a p h i l a n t h r o p i c n a t u r e , a s s o u r c e s seem t o i n d i c a t e , t h e n i t i s p o s s i b l e he r e b u i l t H o v i n g h a m i n a new a n d s l i g h t l y more a d v a n c e d s t y l e , r e f l e c t i n g t h e c o n t i n e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s i n t r o d u c e d . b y E d w a r d t h e C o n f e s s o r . K i r k Hammerton I. D e d i c a t i o n : S t . J o h n t h e B a p t i s t I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e West R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e , n i n e m i l e s w e s t o f Y o r k a n d w i t h i n one m i l e o f t h e m a i n r o a d t o B o r o u g h b r i d g e . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : S t . J o h n t h e B a p t i s t now c o n s i s t s o f an e n t i r e l y new n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c h u r c h t o t h e n o r t h . ( f i g s . 6 8 , 69) T h i s s t r u c t u r e h a s a n a v e a n d c h a n c e l a n d i t s own n o r t h a i s l e . The o r i g i n a l A n g l o - S a x o n c h u r c h now f o r m s t h e s o u t h a i s l e a n d c h a p e l o f t h i s l a t e r b u i l d i n g . I t c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , an a i s l e l e s s r e c t a n g u l a r n a v e , and a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l . ( P l a n " 9) I V . H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n : The c h u r c h a n d v i l l a g e a r e b o t h r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e Domesday Book u n d e r t h e l a n d o f O s b e r n de 131 A r c h e s . The h a m l e t was i m p o r t a n t e n o u g h t o w a r r a n t i t s own p r i e s t , t h o u g h m o s t p a r i s h e s h a d t o r e l y o n t h e o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t s o f i t i n e r a n t c l e r i c s . A f t e r t h e C o n q u e s t i t c e a s e d t o be i n d e p e n d e n t a n d f o l l o w i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r i o r y a t _Nun M o n k t o n , i t no l o n g e r h a d i t s own p r i e s t . I n s t e a d , one man was a p p o i n t e d by t h e P r i o r y C h a p t e r t o a d m i n i s t e r t o s e v e r a l l o c a l p a r i s h e s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e d i s s o l u t i o n 100 o f t h e m o n a s t e r i e s i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e r e was l i t t l e a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e f a b r i c u n t i l 1 8 9 0 , when a new c h u r c h was e r e c t e d t o t h e n o r t h o f t h e e x i s t i n g one u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f C o l o n e l E.W, S t a n y f o r t h . 1 3 3 V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The e a r l y c h u r c h i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f l a r g e b l o c k s o f r o u g h l y s q u a r e d , b r o w n i s h - g r e y s a n d s t o n e w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e a d m i x t u r e o f s m a l l e r s t o n e s i n t o n e s o f r o s e , amber a n d g r e y . ( f i g . 7 3 ) The l a r g e r b l o c k s a r e l a i d i n w i d e l y j o i n t e d , r o u g h c o u r s e s . F l i n t o f f f e e l s t h a t t h e t o w e r s t o n e s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t 134 i n a p p e a r a n c e f r o m t h o s e u s e d i n t h e n a v e and c h a n c e l . ( f i g . 6 8 ) He b e l i e v e s t h e y a r e o f t h e s o r t f r e q u e n t l y e m p l o y e d by t h e Romans. Ho w e v e r , t h e y a p p e a r , on c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n , t o be o f t h e same r o u g h l y s q u a r e d t y p e a s t h o s e f o u n d i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c h u r c h e x t e r i o r . b) C h a n c e l : The c h a n c e l , w h i c h r e s t s on a p l a i n s q u a r e f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m o f one o r d e r , c o n t a i n s o r i g i n a l n o r t h e a s t e r n and s o u t h e a s t e r n s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s . ( f i g . 6 9 ) T h e s e a r e o f l a r g e , r o u g h l y s q u a r e d s t o n e s . The n o r t h e a s t e r n one i s v i s i b l e o n l y f r o m t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e l a t e r c h u r c h . H.M. T a y l o r n o t e s t r a c e s o f a b l o c k e d r o u n d - h e a d e d window b e t w e e n t h e two e x i s t i n g o n e s i n t h e c h a n c e l s o u t h w a l l . He f e e l s t h i s i s a v e s t i g e o f a n * -i o • 135 A n g l o - S a x o n o p e n i n g . 101 c) N a v e : The n a v e , w h i c h s t a n d s on t h e same s q u a r e f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m a s t h e c h a n c e l , h a s a l l f o u r o r i g i n a l s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s . T h e s e , l i k e t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s t o t h e e a s t , a r e l a r g e , r o u g h l y d r e s s e d s t o n e s o f t h e same m a t e r i a l a s t h e w a l l i n g , ( f i g . 6 9 ) The n o r t h e a s t e r n q u o i n i s v i s i b l e w i t h i n t h e p r e s e n t n a v e . The s o u t h d o o r w a y i s h e a v i l y r e s t o r e d . L o c a t e d n e a r t h e w e s t e r n e n d o f t h e n a v e , i t i s 3 f t . 5 i n . w i d e x 8 f t . 6 i n . t a l l w i t h s q u a r e jambs w h i c h h a v e b e e n c u t s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h t h e w a l l . T h e r e a r e no r e b a t e s f o r t h e h a n g i n g o f t h e d o o r . ( f i g . - 2 ) The t h r o u g h s t o n e i m p o s t s a r e o f f l a t s q u a r e b l o c k s . The e a s t e r n one h a s b e e n r e n e w e d b u t t h e w e s t e r n one i s o r i g i n a l a n d c o n s i s t s o f two f l a t s t o n e s w h i c h r e t a i n v e s t i g e s o f a m o u l d i n g o r q u i r k on t h e l o w e r a r r i s . T h e s e i m p o s t s a r e r e t u r n e d on t h e o u t e r w a l l f o r a b o u t 2 f t . and i n t e r s e c t t h e l i n e o f s t r i p w o r k c a r r i e d up e a c h s i d e o f t h e d o o r w a y , r o u n d t h e h e a d o f w h i c h i s a s e m i c i r c u l a r h o o d - m o u l d . The o r i g i n a l w e s t e r n jambs a r e o f l a r g e r o u g h l y s q u a r e d t h r o u g h s t o n e s l a i d Escomb f a s h i o n , w h i l e t h e o r i g i n a l w e s t e r n v o u s s o i r s a r e o f r e g u l a r s i z e a n d s h a p e . The u n u s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s d o o r w a y a r e t h e p l a i n s q u a r e h o o d - m o u l d a n d s t r i p w o r k w h i c h a r e n o t c o n c e n t r i c w i t h t h e m a i n a r c h . I n s t e a d , t h e y s t a n d f u r t h e r b a c k f r o m t h e s t r u c t u r e a t e a c h s i d e , w h e r e t h e l a r g e r s t o n e s a r e i n t e r p o s e d b e t w e e n t h e a r c h a n d t h e h o o d - m o u l d . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h : t h e . s m a l l i n t e r v e n i n g s t o n e s a t t h e a r c h h e a d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s t r i p w o r k p a s s e s a r o u n d t h e a r c h h e a d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 i n . 136 f r o m t h e c r o w n b u t i t i s 9 i n . away a t t h e i m p o s t . 102 I n t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e s o u t h w a l l i s t h e b l o c k e d o u t l i n e o f a n o t h e r d o o r w a y w h i c h was a b o u t 2 f t . 10 i n . w i d e and was p r o b a b l y 7 f t . h i g h . I t s f o r m i s more c l e a r l y v i s i b l e on. .the,; i n t e r i o r , of: .the n a v e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e , h o w e v e r , why s o . s m a l l . a n a v e r e q u i r e d two d o o r w a y s u n l e s s t h i s one o p e n e d i n t o a p o r t i c u s o r l a t e r a l c h a p e l w h i l e t h e w e s t d o o r w a y was u s e d a s a m a i n e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e n a v e . T h i s t h e o r y , s u g g e s t e d by H.M. T a y l o r , i s s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t s t r i p w o r k a p p e a r s on t h e e x t e r n a l f a c e o f t h e w e s t d o o r w a y b u t o n t h e 137 i n t e r n a l f a c e o f t h e e a s t e r n o n e . H o w e v e r , no t r a c e o f t h e p r o p o s e d p o r t i c u s e x i s t s a n d t h e c o n t i n u o u s l i n e o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m r o u n d t h e b a s e o f t h e n a v e a n d c h a n c e l w a l l s . t e n d s t o a r g u e a g a i n s t t h i s t h e o r y . d) Tower: The t o w e r i s a b o u t 50 f t . h i g h and H.M. T a y l o r b e l i e v e s 138 i t t o .be ..of the. common L i n c o l n s h i r e t y p e . ( f i g s . 6 8 , 6 9 ) The q u o i n s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a r e o f a r o u g h l y s q u a r e d , s i d e - a l t e r n a t e s o r t . The l o w e r s t o r i e s a r e l a r g e , m e a s u r i n g 2 f t . 6 i n . x 1 f t . 10 i n . x 18 i n . , w h i l e t h e u p p e r o n e s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y 139 s m a l l e r T h e f a c t t h a t i t i s a l a t e r a d d i t i o n t o t h e t w o - c e l l n a v e a n d c h a n c e l i s p r o v e n by t h e p r e s e n c e o f a f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m o r p l i n t h o f two s q u a r e o r d e r s b e n e a t h t h e t o w e r , c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e - s i n g l e o r d e r o f t h e one b e n e a t h t h e n a v e and c h a n c e l . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e w a l l s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a r e n o t i n b o n d w i t h t h e n a v e w e s t w a l l . An i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e b e l f r y c hamber by H.M. T a y l o r r e v e a l s t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l p l a s t e r o f t h e w e s t 140 w a l l p a s s e s b e h i n d t h e l a t e r s i d e w a l l s o f t h e t o w e r . 103 The u p p e r s t a g e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o c c u p i e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y one q u a r t e r o f \ i t s t o t a l h e i g h t . On e a c h f a c e o f t h i s s t o r e y i s a d o u b l e - l i g h t b e l f r y window c o n s i s t i n g o f two a r c h e d l i n t e l s s u p p o r t e d on r e c t a n g u l a r t h r o u g h s t o n e s l a b s w h i c h p r o j e c t s l i g h t l y f r o m t h e w a l l . T h e s e s l a b s r e s t , i n t u r n , on p l a i n c y l i n d r i c a l m i d - w a l l s h a f t s ( t h e s o u t h e r n one h a s b e e n renewed) t h a t h a v e no c a p i t i a l s b u t t h a t do h a v e c r u d e b a s e s c o n s i s t i n g o f b u l b o u s c o l l a r s o v e r s p l a y e d f e e t . The i m p o s t s s i t on t h r o u g h s t o n e j a m b s , e a c h o f w h i c h i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f two o r t h r e e l a r g e s t o n e s . A p l a i n s q u a r e s t r i n g - c o u r s e s e p a r a t e s t h e b e l f r y f r o m t h e l o w e r p o r t i o n o f t h e t o w e r . The l o w e r s t a g e h a s no w indows on i t s e a s t e r n f a c e , b u t on e a c h o f t h e n o r t h e r n , s o u t h e r n a n d w e s t e r n f a c e s a r e two n a r r o w r e c t a n g u l a r s l i t o p e n i n g s s e t one a b o v e t h e o t h e r . The w e s t f a c e o f t h e t o w e r c o n t a i n s a n A n g l o - S a x o n d o o r w a y w h i c h m e a s u r e s 3 f t . 3 i n . x 9 f t . 8 i n . w i t h an a r c h e d e l l i p t i c a l h e a d f o r m e d o f two s q u a r e o r d e r s . ( f i g s . 7 0 , 7 1 ) The i n n e r one i s s l i g h t l y r e c e s s e d b e h i n d t h e w a l l f a c e a n d i s b u i l t o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s . The o p e n i n g i s r e c e s s e d t o p r o v i d e f o r two a n g l e s h a f t s w h i c h a r e c u r i o u s l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r . The one t o t h e n o r t h c a r r i e s a b a d l y w o r n c a p i t a l w i t h a g e o m e t r i c d e s i g n , b u t t h e one t o t h e s o u t h i s more c i r c u l a r t h a n s q u a r e i n p l a n a n d i s o f a much r o u g h e r s h a p e . I t i s a l s o s h o r t e r t h a n i t s c o u n t e r p a r t . The o u t e r o r d e r c o n t a i n s r e g u l a r l y s h a p e d v o u s s o i r s w h i l e t h e i n n e r one c o n t a i n s s i x o f l e s s r e g u l a r s h a p e . 104 2. I n t e r i o r 1 a) M a s o n r y : The i n t e r i o r w a l l i n g i s much l i k e t h a t o f t h e e x t e r i o r . I t c o n s i s t s o f l a r g e , r o u g h l y squared., w i d e l y j o i n t e d g r e y i s h - b r o w n s t o n e s w i t h an a d m i x t u r e o f s m a l l e r o n e s . ~ ( f i g . 76) " b) C h a n c e l : The c h a n c e l i s 13 f t . 4 i n . l o n g and was o r i g i n a l l y 8 f t . 6 i n . w i d e w i t h w a l l s 2 f t . 2 i n . t h i c k a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 141 2 1 - f t . high;.. I n t h e s o u t h w a l l t h e r e a r e t r a c e s o f a s m a l l i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d window w h i c h i s now b l o c k e d . The c h a n c e l a r c h , w h i c h i s 5 f t . 10 i n . w i d e x 13 f t . t a l l , i s o f t h r e e o r d e r s . ( f i g s . 7 4 , 7 5 , 7 6 ) - T h e o u t e r two o f t h e s e c o n s i s t o f c o n c e n t r i c v o u s s o i r s w h i c h a r e f l u s h w i t h t h e w a l l f a c e , w h i l e t h e i n n e r one i s s l i g h t l y r e c e s s e d . I t i s f o r m e d o f i r r e g u l a r l y s h a p e d v o u s s o i r s . The i m p o s t s a r e o f m a s s i v e f l a t s l a b s c u t t o m a t c h t h e r e c e s s i n g o f t h e i n n e r o r d e r . They a r e a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d i n two s t e p s , t h e u p p e r o f w h i c h p r o j e c t s s l i g h t l y b e y o n d t h e l o w e r . The l a r g e - s t o n e jambs a r e f o r m e d o f two s q u a r e o r d e r s and c o n t i n u e t h e m o t i f o f a r c h and i m p o s t . A l m o s t t h e e n t i r e n o r t h e r n s i d e o f t h e a r c h and jamb w e r e c u t away i n 1 8 3 4 , when t h e c h u r c h was f i r s t e n l a r g e d t o t h e n o r t h , 142 b u t i t was c o m p l e t e l y r e s t o r e d i n 1 8 9 1 . ^ The s o u t h e r n jamb o f t h i s r e c e s s e d o r d e r a l s o shows s i g n s o f b e i n g c u t away. The o r i g i n a l p o r t i o n o f t h e a r c h i s b u i l t o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s . c) N a v e : The n a v e m e a s u r e s 21 f t . x 13 f t . 1 i n . w i t h w a l l s 2 f t . 2 i n . t h i c k a n d a b o u t 21 f t . h i g h . The s o u t h w a l l c o n t a i n s t h e o u t l i n e o f a b l o c k e d e a s t d o o r w a y w h i c h i s s u r r o u n d e d by 105 s t r i p w o r k now c u t f l u s h w i t h t h e f a c e o f t h e w a l l . I t may h a v e l e d t o a s o u t h p o r t i c u s , a s i t i s d e c o r a t e d on i t s i n t e r n a l f a c e . H o w e v e r , no t r a c e now r e m a i n s o f t h i s p o r t i c u s , i f i t e v e r e x i s t e d . A t t h e w e s t e r n e n d o f t h e s o u t h w a l l i s a n u n r e b a t e d d o o r w a y w h i c h s e r v e d as t h e o r i g i n a l e n t r a n c e t o t h e c h u r c h b e f o r e t h e w e s t t o w e r was e r e c t e d . The t o w e r a r c h , w h i c h i s 6 f t . x 13 f t . , i s o f a s l i g h t l y h o r s e s h o e s h a p e . ( f i g s . 7 7 , 7 8 ) I t i s v e r y c r u d e l y c o n s t r u c t e d a nd l a c k s . i m p o s t s . The v o u s s o i r s , w h i c h a r e n o t t h r o u g h s t o n e s , a r e o f a n i r r e g u l a r s h a p e . T h e r e i s no k e y s t o n e a n d t h e p l a i n s q u a r e jambs a r e o f m a s s i v e t h r o u g h s t o n e s l a i d Escomb f a s h i o n . The a r c h may h a v e b e e n i n s e r t e d i n t h i s w a l l a t a l a t e r , d a t e . B e f o r e t h i s a s m a l l o p e n i n g p r o b a b l y e x i s t e d h e r e . I t w o u l d h a v e b e e n e n l a r g e d when t h e w e s t t o w e r was b u i l t and t h i s w o u l d h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e a w k w a r d n e s s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n . H i g h a b o v e t h e t o w e r a r c h , a n d p a r t i a l l y o b s c u r e d by t h e k i n g - p o s t o f t h e p r e s e n t r o o f , a r e t r a c e s o f a s m a l l b l o c k e d r e c t a n g u l a r o p e n i n g w h i c h g a v e a c c e s s t o t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e t o w e r . d) Tower: The i n t e r i o r o f t h e t o w e r i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 f t . 2 i n . s q u a r e and h a s s i d e w a l l s 2 f t . 2 i n . t h i c k . H o w e v e r , t h e e n d w a l l s v a r y i n d e p t h f r o m 2 f t . 9 i n . t o t h e w e s t - 2 f t . 1 i n . 143 t o t h e e a s t . The w e s t d o o r w a y i s n o t r e b a t e d a n d t h e t o w e r i s l i t a t t h i s l o w e r l e v e l by s m a l l i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d s l i t w i ndows s e t i n i t s n o r t h e r n , w e s t e r n a n d s o u t h e r n f a c e s . B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r 106 a) C h a n c e l : I n t h e s o u t h c h a n c e l w a l l t h e r e a r e two i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d w i n d o w s . The one t o t h e w e s t i s a t a l l l a n c e t w i t h a n a r c h e d l i n t e l . I t i s c h a m f e r e d a l l r o u n d and h a s jambs o f r o u g h l y s h a p e d s t o n e s . The one f u r t h e r e a s t i s much s m a l l e r a n d h i g h e r up i n t h e w a l l f a c e . ( f i g . 7 3 ) I t s a r c h e d l i n t e l i s s h a p e d t o a p o i n t and i t / t o o , i s c h a m f e r e d a l l r o u n d . The jambs o f t h i s o p e n i n g a r e o f two u p r i g h t s t o n e s p e r s i d e w h i l e t h e s i l l i s 144 o f one h o r i z o n t a l s t o n e . T h e r e a r e no i m p o s t s . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s : The Domesday Book s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e . w a s a c h u r c h h e r e b e f o r e . 1066. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e i s e x t e m e l y i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e i t /has s u r v i v e d w i t h a minimum o f s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r a t i o n s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f t h e c h a n c e l , a s i t was u s u a l l y t h e f i r s t t h i n g t o r n down o r e n l a r g e d by t h e Normans. H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a p r o b l e m i n d a t i n g t h i s b u i l d i n g . The w a l l s a n d q u o i n s a r e o f l a r g e s t o n e s w h i c h w o u l d l e a d t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f a n e a r l y d a t e . H o w e v e r , f e a t u r e s s u c h a s t h e w e s t d o o r w a y , t h e s o u t h d o o r w a y , and t h e c h a n c e l a r c h a r e o f r e l a t i v e l y a d v a n c e d c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h t h e i r r e c e s s e d o r d e r s , s t r i p w o r k d e c o r a t i o n a n d , i n t h e c a s e o f t h e w e s t d o o r w a y , t h e i r c r u d e c a p i t a l s . T h e r e w o u l d a p p e a r t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e f r o m a b r o a d , y e t a p r i m i t i v e t y p e o f e x e c u t i o n s t i l l p r e v a i l s . T h i s i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e t o w e r a r c h a n d t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e w e s t d o o r w a y . The d a t e p r o p o s e d by B a l d w i n Brown i s p o s t - 1 0 4 0 , a n d i s p r o b a b l y 145 a c c u r a t e . The w e s t d o o r w a y d o e s h a v e a c e r t a i n a f f i n i t y w i t h t h e w e s t f a c e o f t h e t o w e r a r c h a t K i r k d a l e , w h i c h c a n be 107 a s s i g n e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y t o t h e p e r i o d ca.1060 - ca.1065. H o w e v e r , a l a t e d a t e f o r K i r k Hammerton w o u l d be q u e s t i o n a b l e i f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a l a t e r a l p o r t i c u s c o u l d be p r o v e n . I n t h a t c a s e t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y w o u l d h a v e t o be p r o p o s e d f o r a t l e a s t t h e n a v e . A t t h i s t i m e no s u c h p r o o f i s f o r t h c o m i n g . K i r k b y H i l l ( K i r k b y - o n - t h e - M o o r ) I . D e d i c a t i o n : A l l S a i n t s I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e N o r t h R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e a n d i s w i t h i n two m i l e s o f B o r o u g h b r i d g e a n d a b o u t s i x m i l e s e a s t o f R i p o n . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : A l l S a i n t s c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , a n a v e w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h a n d a l a r g e n o r t h a i s l e , a n d a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l w i t h a l a r g e n o r t h c h a p e l . ( f i g s . 7 9 , 8 0 ) ( P l a n I V . H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n : T h e r e i s no s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c h u r c h i n t h e Domesday Book , t h o u g h t h e v i l l a g e i s 146 m e n t i o n e d . The b u i l d x n g was r e s t o r e d i n 1870, a t w h i c h t i m e t h e w h i t e w a s h was remo v e d f r o m t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e n a v e a n d c h a n c e l . V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The e x t e r n a l m a s o n r y o f t h e n a v e c o n s i s t s o f l a r g e , r o u g h l y d r e s s e d , w i d e l y j o i n t e d s t o n e s o f v a r y i n g s i z e a n d s h a p e . ( f i g . 7 9 ) They a r e l a i d i n i r r e g u l a r c o u r s e s a nd some b l o c k s a r e so l a r g e t h a t t h e y f o r m p a r t o f two c o u r s e s . T h e r e i s much r e - u s e d m a t e r i a l i n t h e n a v e s o u t h w a l l , i n c l u d i n g t h e 108 m o n o l i t h i c a r c h e d l i n t e l o f a w i n d o w w h i c h i s now b u i l t i n u p s i d e down. J u s t t o t h e w e s t o f t h e s o u t h e r n t r i p l e - l i g h t window a r e a number o f p r e - C o n q u e s t c a r v e d s t o n e s . The c h a n c e l w a l l s a l s o c o n s i s t o f r o u g h l y d r e s s e d , w i d e l y j o i n t e d s t o n e s . H o wever, t h e i n d i v i d u a l b l o c k s a r e s m a l l e r and l a i d i n more r e g u l a r c o u r s e s . A l l o f t h e e x t e r i o r w a l l i n g i s o f l i g h t b r o w n s a n d s t o n e . b) N a v e : F o r t h e m o s t p a r t t h e n a v e r e m a i n s a s i t e x i s t e d b e f o r e 1066. The s o u t h p o r c h i s a modern r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l a n c i e n t s t o n e s i n t h e w a l l i n g o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e , i n c l u d i n g a s m a l l o c t a g o n a l s h a f t , a s m a l l e a r l y m o u l d e d b a s e , a p i e c e o f r o l l - m o u l d i n g , a n d a S a x o n s t o n e w i t h i n t e r l a c e 148 p a t t e r n s . B o t h o f t h e o r i g i n a l s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s o f t h e n a v e s o u t h w a l l a r e v i s i b l e on t h e e x t e r i o r . They a r e f o r m e d o f v e r y l a r g e b u t r e g u l a r l y s h a p e d s t o n e s . The most i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e i n t h e n a v e i s t h e s u r v i v i n g f r a g m e n t o f a l a r g e a r c h s o u t h d o o r w a y i n t o w h i c h a s m a l l l a t e r m e d i e v a l d o o r w a y h a s b e e n i n s e r t e d . The e a s t e r n i m p o s t o f t h e e a r l i e r o p e n i n g a n d t h e f o u r l o w e s t v o u s s o i r s on t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h e a r c h a r e v i s i b l e w i t h i n t h e s o u t h p o r c h . The s o u t h f a c e o f t h e i m p o s t c a r r i e s a n i n t e r l a c e p a t t e r n o f t h r e e c i r c l e s w i t h i n a r a i s e d b o r d e r a n d t h e w e s t f a c e i s v i s i b l e w i t h i n a c a v i t y i n t h e w a l l . I t i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h a w e l l - e x e c u t e d f o r m o f A n g l i a n v i n e s c r o l l . C o l l i n g w o o d p l a c e s t h i s s t o n e i n t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y a n d i t i s l a r g e l y b a s e d on t h i s e v i d e n c e t h a t B a l d w i n B rown a s s i g n s t h e c h u r c h 109 t o P e r i o d B. Ho w e v e r , C o l l i n g w o o d f e e l s t h a t t h e s t o n e came o r i g i n a l l y f r o m an e a r l i e r b u i l d i n g , p r o b a b l y R i p o n , a n d t h a t 149 i t was r e - u s e d i n i t s p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n i n t h e e l e v e n t h , c e n t u r y . H.M. T a y l o r f i n d s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e i m p o s t and t h e t h r e e s t o n e s o f t h e a r c h t o be p e c u l i a r . The i m p o s t p r o j e c t s n e a r l y 2 f t . i n f r o n t o f t h e c u r v e o f t h i s a r c h a n d he f e e l s t h a t p e r h a p s t h e s t r u c t u r e h a d , and s t i l l h a s , an i n n e r o r d e r much l i k e t h a t o f t h e c h a n c e l a r c h a n d t h e w e s t " d o o r w a y a t K i r k Hammerton. The a r c h m e a s u r e s 7 f t . 6 i n . x 10 3/4 f t . , b u t t h e i m p o s t s d e f i n e a n o p e n i n g o f o n l y 3 3/4 f t . b e t w e e n t h e j a m b s . T h i s w o u l d mean t h a t t h e i n n e r o r d e r r e d u c e d t h e o p e n i n g t o a s i z e o f a b o u t 4 x 9 f t . A s H.M. T a y l o r e x p l a i n s , s u c h an 150 a r c h , w i t h two c o m p l e x o r d e r s , i s n o t an e a r l y f e a t u r e . A n o t h e r a n c i e n t o p e n i n g e x i s t s b e s i d e t h i s s o u t h d o o r w a y . The o u t l i n e o f i t s h e a d r e m a i n s v i s i b l e e v e n w h e r e t h e s t o n e s h a v e s i n c e b e e n removed.' „ c) Tower: The w e s t t o w e r was r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1 8 7 0 , b u t o l d s t o n e s w e r e r e - u s e d a t t h e t i m e a n d t h e l o w e r p a r t s o f t h e 151 s t r u c t u r e w e r e l e f t u n d i s t u r b e d . ( f i g s . 7 9 , 8 0 ) B e f o r e t h i s r e b u i l d i n g t h e t o w e r was p r o b a b l y o f t h e same d a t e a s t h e n a v e . The p l i n t h on t h e w e s t s i d e i s o f u n u s u a l l y l a r g e p r o j e c t i o n and t h e r e . a r e a l s o some l a r g e s t o n e s i n t h e l o w e r w a l l i n g a t t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n a n g l e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . M a r i o n W e s t o n s t a t e s t h a t t h e s e a r e Roman a n d t h a t t h e s u n k e n p a n e l o n t h i s f a c e o n c e c o n t a i n e d an i n s c r i p t i o n . " ^ 2 2. I n t e r i o r 110 a) M a s o n r y : The e a r l y n a v e a n d t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y c h a n c e l a r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f l a r g e , r o u g h l y d r e s s e d , w i d e l y j o i n t e d 153 s t o n e s w h i c h v a r y g r e a t l y i n s i z e a n d s h a p e . ( f i g s . 8 1 , 8 3 ) T h e s e s a r e l a i d i n i r r e g u l a r c o u r s e s . The i n t e r n a l m a s o n r y i s o f l i g h t b r o w n s a n d s t o n e . b) N a v e : The i n t e r i o r o f t h e n a v e m e a s u r e s 24 f t . 3 i n . x 15 f t . w i t h w a l l s 2 f t . 6 i n . t h i c k , w h i l e t h e n o r t h a i s l e i s 37 f t . x 13 f t . 10 i n . A b o v e t h e n o r t h a r c a d e t h e f a b r i c o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n w a l l c a n be s e e n . W i t h i n t h i s w a l l a r e two r e c t a n g u l a r a r e a s w h i c h h a v e b e e n p a t c h e d w i t h much s m a l l e r s t o n e s . T h e s e p a t c h e s mark t h e f o r m e r p o s i t i o n o f t h e two n o r t h e r n w i n d o w s . ( f i g . 8 3 ) The o r i g i n a l q u o i n s o f t h e n o r t h w a l l a r e a l s o v i s i b l e on t h e i n t e r i o r . The w e s t e r n q u o i n i s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d s t a n d s o n a w e l l - d e f i n e d s q u a r e p l i n t h w h i c h p r o j e c t s 4 i n . b e y o n d t h e f a c e o f t h e w a l l . The e a s t e r n q u o i n i s l e s s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d a s t h e l o w e r p o r t i o n h a s b e e n c u t away. However, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o make o u t s e v e r a l o f t h e u p p e r b l o c k s . A b o v e t h e l a t e r a n d s m a l l e r s o u t h d o o r w a y i s t h e c u r v e d r o u n d h e a d o f t h e o r i g i n a l e n t r a n c e . ( f i g . 8 2 ) A c c o r d i n g t o M a r i o n W e s t o n t h i s a r c h i s v e r y a n c i e n t a nd o f p l a i n 1 5 4 c o n s t r u c t i o n . c) Tower: The i n t e r i o r o f t h e t o w e r m e a s u r e s 10 f t . 5 i n . x 10 f t . 7 i n . a n d i s a l m o s t s q u a r e . B. Norman E l e m e n t s I l l 1. Exterior a) Chancel: A new chancel replaced the Anglo-Saxon one ca.1160 -155 ca.1170. Large side-alternate quoins form the northeastern and southeastern corners of the structure. Flush with the eastern wall is a rectangular southeast window of a single chamfered order.(figs.79,80) It i s of uncertain date. Adjoining i t to the west, but set lower in the wall so that i t s s i l l performs the function of a seat, is another square-headed window. The third window to the west of the priest's doorway i s an old rectangular light like that to the southeast. A band of large stones forms the upper part of this wall and one of these is decorated with an interlace pattern. 2. Interior a) Chancel: The interior measurements of the chancel are 25 f t . 6 in. x 13 f t . 4 in., but Henry Stapleton feels that the original structure may have had approximately the same dimensions as those of the Anglo-Saxon chancel at Kirk Hammerton, which is 13 f t . 9 in. long."*"^ The chancel arch is a modern copy of a late Norman design, though a few old stones remain 157 in i t . (figs.81>83,84a) It consists of a wide round arch of two chamfered orders which rest on round quirked and moulded capitals. The inner order descends to circular attached columns, while the outer one descends to a smaller attached column-set in the angles of the square imposts. The east window on the south side of the chancel i s 112 a p l a i n rectangular l i g h t of a single chamfered order. Adjoining i t to the west, and set lower, i s a square-headed window of two t r e f o i l e d l i g h t s with modern tracery. The t h i r d window to the west of the doorway i s an old rectangular l i g h t set low in the wall. A nineteenth century arch spans the western end of the north chapel but the southern jamb consists of a carved twelfth century impost with hatched sunken star ornament 158 carved on i t . There i s also a cable-mould i n the hollow chamfer on i t s underside. Weston states that i t may have been 159 taken from the former chancel arch. b) Nave: The nave arcade was pierced through the north wall ca.1160 - ca. 1170 . ^ ® (figs . 83, 84a) I t i s of two bays with responds that are semicircular and have small shafts. These have been renewed against the inner face. The middle pier i s of unusual section, consisting of a round column with engaged semi-octagonal shafts on the eastern and western faces. The base-moulds of this arcade are modern but the c a p i t a l s are o r i g i n a l , though they appear to have been p a r t i a l l y restored. Those above the c i r c u l a r columns are scalloped, but those above the smaller shafts are hollow-chamfered or f l u t e d . The arches are round and of two square orders. The eastern one has been much restored, 161 but the western one i s untouched. VI. Observations and Conclusions: No strong documentary evidence can be used to date this church. However, i t s pre-Conquest provenance can be established s t y l i s t i c a l l y , the church suffered 113 f r o m n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e s t o r a t i o n . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f t h e w e s t t o w e r , w h i c h , b e f o r e i t s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n 1 8 7 0 , may h a v e b e e n o f A n g l o - S a x o n o r i g i n . B a l d w i n Brown p r e f e r s t o p l a c e t h e b u i l d i n g i n P e r i o d B b e c a u s e o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y c a r v e d i m p o s t w h i c h i s s e t i n t h e o r i g i n a l 162 s o u t h d o o r w a y , b u t t h i s i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y . The s o u t h d o o r w a y , i f i t was o f two o r d e r s , a s seems p r o b a b l e , w o u l d h a v e b e e n l a t e r . The q u o i n s , w h i l e t h e y a r e l a r g e , a r e c e r t a i n l y n o t m e g a l i t h i c a n d a r e l a i d i n a r e g u l a r f a s h i o n . The p r e s e n c e o f much r e - u s e d m a t e r i a l i n t h e n a v e s o u t h w a l l , i n c l u d i n g t h e u p t u r n e d a r c h e d l i n t e l , l e n d s c r e d e n c e t o t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g was r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y . A f f i n i t i e s w i t h K i r k Hammerton, b o t h i n t h e s t y l e o f t h e s o u t h . d o o r w a y and t h e o r i g i n a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e c h a n c e l , s t r e n g t h e n t h i s t h e o r y , a s t h e l a t t e r c h u r c h i s o n l y n i n e m i l e s away f r o m K i r k b y H i l l , o n t h e r o a d t h a t p a s s e s t h r o u g h B o r o u g h b r i d g e . A l s o , C o l l i n g w o o d 1 s b e l i e f t h a t t h e c a r v e d i m p o s t s t o n e i n t h e s o u t h d o o r w a y o f t h e n a v e o r i g i n a l l y came f r o m R i p o n i s q u i t e f e a s i b l e , s i n c e t h e c a t h e d r a l l i e s o n l y s i x m i l e s t o t h e w e s t . I t i s most l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e p r e - C o n q u e s t f a b r i c o f t h e c h u r c h d a t e s f r o m P e r i o d C 2 o r C 3 when much new b u i l d i n g a n d r e c o n s t r u c t i o n was b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t i n E n g l a n d . H a c k n e s s I . D e d i c a t i o n : S t . P e t e r I I . L o c a t i o n : H a c k n e s s i s l o c a t e d i n t h e N o r t h R i d i n g o f 114 Y o r k s h i r e , f i v e m i l e s w e s t o f S c a r b o r o u g h . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : The c h u r c h c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , an a i s l e d n a v e w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h , a n d a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l w i t h a n o r t h c h a p e l and n o r t h e a s t v e s t r y , (.f Ig.. 84b.) ( P l a n 11). I V . H i s t o r y a n d D ocumentation:.-The h i s t o r y o f t h e b u i l d i n g i s c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h a t o f W h i t b y A b b e y and Bede w r i t e s t h a t i n 680, t h e y e a r o f h e r d e a t h , S t . H i l d a " c o n s t r u c t e d a m o n a s t e r y c a l l e d H a c a n o s " . He i n f e r s t h a t t h e c h u r c h was u n d e r t h e r u l e o f H i l d a a s a b b e s s o f W h i t b y a n d t h a t i t was 16 3 a d m i n i s t e r e d l o c a l l y b y a p r i o r e s s . A. H a m i l t o n Thompson f e e l s i t i s h a r d l y l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e l i g i o u s h o u s e a t H a c k n e s s s u r v i v e d t h e i n r o a d s o f t h e D a n e s . I t p r o b a b l y s h a r e d t h e same 164 f a t e a s W h i t b y s u f f e r e d , 867 - 869. The f i r s t m e n t i o n o f H a c k n e s s a f t e r 1066 i s i n t h e Domesday Book. The c h u r c h and t h e v i l l a g e a r e l i s t e d u n d e r 165 t h e l a n d o f W i l l i a m de P e r c i . Thompson a l s o r e f e r s t o a c h a r t e r i s s u e d by W i l l i a m de P e r c i t o S e r l o , w h i c h he g r a n t e d w i t h i n t e n y e a r s o f t h e S u r v e y . I t c o n f e r r e d upon t h i s a b b o t and h i s monks, i n t e r a l j a , " H a c k n e s s and t h e c h u r c h o f S t . M a r y o f t h e same town a n d t h e c h u r c h o f S t . P e t e r w i t h a l l i t s 166 a p p u r t e n a n c e s ..." The Domesday Book e n t r y r e f e r s t o t h r e e c h u r c h e s a t H a c k n e s s . Two, S t . M a r y ' s a n d S t . P e t e r ' s , a r e a c c o u n t e d f o r by W i l l i a m de P e r c i ' s c h a r t e r t o S e r l o , w h i c h a l s o p o i n t s t o S t . P e t e r ' s a s t h e c h u r c h u s e d by t h e monks. However, f o r t h e t h i r d c h u r c h t h e r e i s no o t h e r r e c o r d and i t was p o s s i b l y l i t t l e more t h a n a c h a p e l i n one o f t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g h a m l e t s . 115 One o f t h e two c h u r c h e s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e c h a r t e r s h a s s i n c e d i s a p p e a r e d and t h e p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e h a s b e e n d e d i c a t e d t o S t . P e t e r f r o m a n c i e n t t i m e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Thompson, one w o u l d n a t u r a l l y e x p e c t t h a t a s S t . P e t e r ' s was a p u r e l y c o n v e n t u a l 16 7 c h u r c h , S t . M a r y ' s w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e b u i l d i n g t o s u r v i v e . I t i s c e r t a i n l y t h e c a s e t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e d e v e l o p e d a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f an o r d i n a r y p a r i s h c h u r c h , b u t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o s u p p o s e t h a t a c h u r c h 168 o f d e f i n i t e m o n a s t i c t y p e was e v e r c o n s t r u c t e d . M o s t l i k e l y t h e monks u s e d one o f t h e two c h u r c h e s a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e . A t a l a t e r d a t e t h i s b u i l d i n g w o u l d h a v e p r o v e d a d e q u a t e f o r p a r o c h i a l n e e d s and S t . M a r y ' s w o u l d h a v e b e e n a b a n d o n e d . As t h i s e a r l y m o n a s t e r y was b o u n d by c l o s e t i e s w i t h S t . H i l d a ' s a t W h i t b y , i t e x p e r i e n c e d a p a r a l l e l r e v i v a l i n m o n a s t i c l i f e a f t e r t h e Norman C o n q u e s t . I t became, f o r a s h o r t t i m e , t h e abode o f t h e new c o n v e n t w h i c h h a d . b e e n t e m p o r a r i l y 169 f o r c e d t o l e a v e W h i t b y . A f t e r W h i t b y h a d b e e n r e - e s t a b l i s h e d on a f i r m e r f o o t i n g , t h e v i l l a g e o f H a c k n e s s s a n k i n t o a s e c o n d a r y p o s i t i o n and l a t e r e x i s t e d o n l y a s a manor a n d f a r m on t h e e s t a t e s o f t h e A b b e y . V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. I n t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The w a l l s a b o v e t h e a r c a d e s and a b o v e t h e c h a n c e l and t o w e r a r c h e s a r e o f w i d e l y j o i n t e d b rown s a n d s t o n e a s h l a r . The c o u r s e s a r e o f v a r y i n g h e i g h t - a n d t h e s t o n e s a r e a x e - t o o l e d , ( f i g s . 8 5 , 8 6 , 8 9 ) 116 b) C h a n c e l : H.M. T a y l o r f e e l s t h a t f o r a l e n g t h o f a b o u t 10 f t . f r o m t h e n a v e a nd f o r a b o u t t h e same h e i g h t , t h e s o u t h c h a n c e l w a l l a p p e a r s t o be. o f t h e same c h a r a c t e r a s t h e w a l l i n g 170 a b o v e t h e n a v e a r c a d e s , b u t t h i s i s d o u b t f u l . The c h a n c e l a r c h , w h i c h i s 10 f t . x 15 f t . a n d i s s e t i n t o a. w a l l 2 f t . t h i c k , p r o b a b l y d a t e s f r o m t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y , ( f i g s . 8 5 , 8 6 ) I t c o n s i s t s o f a s i m p l e r o u n d a r c h . o f n i n e t e e n w e l l - l a i d t h r o u g h s t o n e v o u s s o i r s . T h i s a r c h s p r i n g s f r o m p l a i n i m p o s t s w h i c h p r o j e c t o n t h e s o f f i t a n d on t h e e a s t e r n a n d w e s t e r n f a c e s . The s o u t h e r n i m p o s t b l o c k on t h e e a s t f a c e h a s b e e n r e n e w e d . The n o r t h e r n i m p o s t i s c a r v e d o n t h e s o f f i t w i t h a p a t t e r n o f i n t e r l a c e d c r e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e p a r t b i r d a n d p a r t b e a s t . B i l s o n s t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s a v e r y o l d m o t i f N 171 an d C o l l i n g w o o d a s s i g n s i t t o t h e p o s t - D a n i s h p e r i o d . H.M. T a y l o r , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t a k e s t h e v i e w o f B a l d w i n B r o w n , who a s s i g n s t h e d e c o r a t i o n w i t h some c e r t a i n t y t o t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y . He s t a t e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e i m p o s t came f r o m an e a r l i e r b u i l d i n g a n d 172 t h a t t h e c h a n c e l a r c h i s l a t e r t h a n t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y . A b o v e t h i s a r c h i s t h e l i n e o f a n o l d e r r o o f g a b l e . ( f i g . 8 6 ) c) N a v e : The o r i g i n a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e n a v e , as r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e a r e a w i t h i n t h e a r c a d e s , was 30 f t . 6 i n . x 18 f t . 3 i n . 173 w i t h w a l l s 2 f t . t h i c k a n d a b o u t 20 f t . h i g h . T h r e e o f t h e - -o r i g i n a l s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s a r e s t i l l v i s i b l e . ( f i g . 8 8 ) B o t h o f t h e w e s t e r n q u o i n s h a v e s u r v i v e d t o m o s t o f t h e i r o r i g i n a l h e i g h t w h i l e p a r t o f t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n q u o i n may be s e e n i n 117 t h e n o r t h a i s l e . The w a l l s a b o v e t h e l a t e r a r c a d e s p r e s e n t a p r o b l e m . They are, A n g l o - S a x o n b u t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l j u s t how e a r l y t h e y a r e . I n t h e w a l l a b o v e t h e s o u t h a r c a d e , a t o p p o s i t e e n d s o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e , a r e v e s t i g e s o f two e a r l i e r w i n d o w s . The n a r r o w , f l a t - h e a d e d o u t e r f a c e o f t h e e a s t e r n o p e n i n g i s s e e n i n t h e s o u t h a i s l e . B o t h i m p o s t s o f i t s i n n e r f a c e h a v e s u r v i v e d i n t h e n a v e a s h a v e t h e e a s t e r n jamb and p a r t o f t h e s i l l . Of t h e w e s t e r n window o n l y t h e w e s t jamb a n d p a r t o f t h e h e a d r e m a i n - i n ' t h e n a v e and t h e r e i s a t r a c e o f t h e w e s t jamb i n t h e a i s l e . : B o t h o p e n i n g s w e r e s i n g l e - s p l a y e d i n t e r n a l l y a n d h a d i n t e r n a l s i l l 13 f t . 6 i n . a b o v e t h e p r e s e n t f l o o r . They w e r e a b o u t 2 f t . w i d e i n t e r n a l l y a nd n a r r o w e d t o 1 f t . e x t e r n a l l y . B i l s o n m e n t i o n s o n l y one o f t h e s e w i n d o w s , t h e one a t t h e e a s t 175 e n d , b u t two d i d e x i s t . B i l s o n c l a i m s t h a t t h e w a l l a b o v e t h e t o w e r a r c h d a t e s f r o m t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a s t h e o r i g i n a l w a l l was r e m o v e d 176 a t t h e t i m e o f t h e t o w e r ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n . ( f i g . 8 9 ) H o w e v e r , t h i s w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t t h e w a l l i s A n g l o - S a x o n . The m a s o n r y i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t a b o v e t h e c h a n c e l a r c h a n d t h e l i n e o f t h e o l d g a b l e i s v i s i b l e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a s m a l l t r i a n g u l a r -h e a d e d o p e n i n g j u s t b e n e a t h t h e l i n e o f t h e p r e s e n t - r o o f r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h o s e f o u n d a t N o r t o n , Co. Durham a n d T h u r l b y , L i n e s . B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r 118 " a) Tower: The w e s t t o w e r was c o n s t r u c t e d ca.1200 a n d i s o f 177 t h r e e s t a g e s s e p a r a t e d by p l a i n s t r i n g - c o u r s e s . ( f i g . 8 4 b ) I t s t a n d s on a d e e p p l i n t h . The b e l l chamber h a s a window i n e a c h f a c e c o n s i s t i n g o f two l a n c e t s u n d e r s e m i c i r c u l a r h e a d s w i t h m o u l d e d e x t e r n a l h o o d s . A t t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n a n g l e o f t h e t o w e r i s a m a s s i v e s q u a r e p r o j e c t i o n t a b l e d b a c k a t t h e b e l f r y s t a g e w h i c h e n c l o s e s a s t a i r c a s e . A t t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n a n g l e a r e two b u t t r e s s e s , e a c h w i t h two o f f - s e t s . 1. I n t e r i o r a) N a v e : The s o u t h a r c a d e , w h i c h i s m i d - t w e l f t h c e n t u r y o r e a r l i e r , c o n s i s t s o f two b a y s o f r o u n d - h e a d e d a r c h e s c u t t h r o u g h 178 a v e r y t h i n w a l l . ( f i g . 8 8 ) The c e n t r a l p i e r i s c i r c u l a r a n d i s s u r m o u n t e d by a s q s a r e c a p i t a l w i t h an i n c i s e d d e s i g n s e t b e l o w a s q u a r e a b a c u s . The r e s p o n d s a r e s q u a r e w i t h a t t a c h e d h a l f c o l u m n s o f a d e s i g n s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e p i e r s . The a r c h e s c o n s i s t o f t h r o u g h s t o n e v o u s s o i r s f r a m e d by s t r i p w o r k d e c o r a t i o n a b o v e . The n o r t h a r c a d e , w h i c h was a d d e d i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f 179 o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , i s o f t h r e e b a y s . ( f i g . 8 7 ) The p o i n t e d a r c h e s a r e o f two c h a m f e r e d o r d e r s a n d show t r a c e s o f t a m p e r i n g w h i c h may h a v e o c c u r r e d when t h e c l e r e s t o r y was a d d e d . The p i e r s a r e c y l i n d r i c a l w i t h m o u l d e d b e l l c a p i t a l s w h i l e t h e r e s p o n d s a r e s q u a r e w i t h h a l f - r o u n d s h a f t s h a v i n g v o l u t e d c a p i t a l s a n d s q u a r e a b a c i . The w e s t e r n o f t h e s e h a s c a b l e o r n a m e n t a r o u n d i t s b a s e . 180 b) T o wer: The i n t e r i o r o f t h e t o w e r i s 15 f t . s q u a r e . 119 V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s : D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s c h u r c h e x i s t e d b e f o r e 1066, i t i s s t i l l d i f f i c u l t t o d a t e . B i l s o n and M i c k l e t h w a i t e b e l i e v e t h a t S t . P e t e r ' s was b u i l t d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f E d w a r d t h e C o n f e s s o r . T h i s b e l i e f i s b a s e d on C o l l i n g w o o d ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c h a n c e l s c u l p t u r e as p o s t -D a n i s h . They c o n f i r m t h i s c o n c l u s i o n w i t h e v i d e n c e f r o m t h e Domesday B o o k , w h i c h l i s t s t h e T.R.E. v a l u e s o f D i e W a pentake -a s £162 1 7 s . 8d. I f t h e T.R.E. v a l u e s o f M o r c a r ' s manor a t P i c k e r i n g a n d T o s t i g ' s a t F a l s g r a v e a r e d e d u c t e d , - t h e v a l u i t o f H a c k n e s s w i t h S u f f i e l d a nd E v e r l e y w o u l d be t 7 . T h i s i n d i c a t e s a c o m p a r a t i v e l y f l o u r i s h i n g c o m m u n i t y . The e f f e c t o f t h e C o n q u e r o r ' s h a r r y i n g i n 1069 c a n be s e e n i n t h e r e d u c t i o n 181 t o a T.R.W. v a l u e o f 2 0 s . H.M. T a y l o r t a k e s B a l d w i n B r o w n ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , f e e l i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f l a t e S a x o n f e a t u r e s i n t h e c h u r c h a n d t h a t t h e c a r v i n g i s e i g h t h c e n t u r y . He f e e l s i t i s r e a s o n a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t o a c c e p t t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e i m p o s t b l o c k and t o a s s i g n t h e c h u r c h t o P e r i o d B. The t h i n n e s s o f t h e w a l l s a b o v e t h e l a t e r a r c a d e s , he c l a i m s , u n d e r l i n e s 182 t h i s e a r l y d a t i n g . H owever, w h i l e t h e w a l l s a r e t h i n , t h e r e a r e no d i s t i n c t i v e e a r l y f e a t u r e s . The c h a n c e l a r c h , w h i c h i s p l a i n a nd u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d , c o u l d e a s i l y be o f e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y d a t e . The q u o i n s a r e n o t m e g a l i t h i c , t h e b l o c k e d w i n d o w s show no e a r l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a n d t h e t h i n n e s s o f t h e w a l l s i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n t o p r o p o s e an e a r l y d a t e . T h e r e i s a l s o no r e a s o n t o d o u b t C o l l i n g w o o d ' - s a s s i g n m e n t o f t h e c a r v i n g t o t h e p o s t - D a n i s h p e r i o d and t h i s w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g A n g l o - S a x o n e l e m e n t s a r e more l i k e l y t o be C0 o r C-,. 120 R y t h e r I . D e d i c a t i o n : A l l S a i n t s I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e West R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e , s i x m i l e s n o r t h w e s t o f S e l b y . I t s t a n d s b e s i d e t h e R i v e r W h a r f e , a q u a r t e r m i l e e a s t o f t h e v i l l a g e . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : A l l S a i n t s c o n s i s t s o f a n a v e w i t h a l a r g e s o u t h a i s l e , a s o u t h p o r c h a n d a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l , ( f i g . 9 0 ) ( P l a n 12) I V . H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s r e f e r r e d t o i n 183 t h e Domesday Book u n d e r t h e l a n d o f I l b e r t de L a c i . V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) C h a n c e l : The c h a n c e l was r e b u i l t i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y 184 on i t s o l d f o u n d a t i o n a n d r e s t o r e d i n 1847. ( f i g . 9 3 ) The p l a i n s q u a r e f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m , w h i c h d i p s t o t h e e a s t , may d e n o t e t h e l i n e o f t h e o r i g i n a l w a l l s . The s o u t h e a s t e r n a n d n o r t h e a s t e r n q u o i n s o f t h e c h a n c e l a r e o f t h e m a s s i v e s i d e -a l t e r n a t e t y p e b u t t h e y may be o f r e - u s e d m a t e r i a l s i n c e t h e c h a n c e l w a l l i n g i s n o t o f p r e - C o n q u e s t d a t e . b) N a v e : A l a r g e number o f c o r b e l s and o t h e r t w e l f t h c e n t u r y s t o n e s h a v e b e e n b u i l t i n t o t h e o u t e r w a l l s o f t h e n a v e . I n c l u d e d a r e t h r e e m o n o l i t h i c window h e a d s w h i c h a r e s e t i n 185 t h e n o r t h w a l l . H.M. T a y l o r b e l i e v e s t h e s e a r e p r e - C o n q u e s t . T h e r e i s t h e t r a c e o f an o l d e r g a b l e l i n e on t h e n a v e e a s t 121 w a l l w h i c h may mark t h e o r i g i n a l r o o f . l i n e . ( f i g . 9 1 ) The s o u t h e a s t e r n s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n " o f t h e n a v e c a n be s e e n b e s i d e t h e c h a n c e l . • H owever, i t i s n o t o f a d i s t i n c t i v e t y p e a nd c a n n o t be s e c u r e l y d a t e d . 2. I n t e r i o r a) C h a n c e l : The c h a n c e l a r c h r i s e s t o a h e i g h t o f 10 f t . 2 i n . f r o m t h e c h a n c e l f l o o r a n d i s s e t i n a w a l l 2 f t . 3 i n . t h i c k . ( f i g . 9 4 ) The jambs a r e l a i d Escomb f a s h i o n . They a n d t h e a r c h a r e w h o l l y c o n s t r u c t e d o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s . The l o w e r v o u s s o i r s , w h i c h m e a s u r e 2 f t . 8 i n . x 2 f t . 3 i n . , a r e more w e d g e - s h a p e d t h a n i s n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e r a d i a l j o i n t s , w h i l e t h e s u c c e e d i n g 186 few v o u s s o i r s on e a c h s i d e a r e s c a r c e l y w e d g e - s h a p e d a t a l l . The i m p o s t s a r e o f r o u g h , e a r l y c h a r a c t e r a n d p r o j e c t o n t h e s o f f i t s i d e o n l y . T h a t on t h e n o r t h h a s two v e r t i c a l f a c e s s e p a r a t e d b y a s i n g l e c h a m f e r , w h i l e t h a t o n t h e s o u t h h a s a s i n g l e v e r t i c a l f a c e a b o v e a h o l l o w c h a m f e r . B o t h i m p o s t s a r e u n d e r c u t b e l o w . b) Nave: The n a v e , w h i c h i s i r r e g u l a r l y s e t o u t , i s 19 f t . 7 i n . w i d e a t t h e e a s t e r n e n d and 18 f t . w i d e a t t h e w e s t e r n e n d . I t s l e n g t h v a r i e s f r o m 50 f t . 8 i n . o n t h e n o r t h - 51 f t . 2 i n . on t h e s o u t h a n d t h e n o r t h e r n w a l l t h i c k e n s o u t by 6 i n . h a l f 18 7 way down. The f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m a nd t h e b r e a k i n t h e e x t e r i o r n o r t h e a s t e r n w a l l o f t h e n a v e show t h a t t h e w a l l s w e r e o r i g i n a l l y 2 f t . 6 i n . t h i c k . B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r 122 a) C h a n c e l : J . E . M o r r i s and t h e Y o r k s h i r e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y c l a i m t h a t t h e jambs o f t h e r e b a t e d p r i e s t ' s d o o r w a y a t t h e w e s t e r n e n d o f t h e s o u t h w a l l a r e o f p r e - C o n q u e s t d a t e , 188 w h i l e t h e h o o d - m o u l d and a r c h a r e l a t e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , ( f i g . 9 2 ) The d o o r w a y h a s a r o u n d h e a d o f s t o n e s s h a p e d t o t h e c u r v e o f t h e a r c h . A b o v e t h i s i s a c h a m f e r e d h o o d - m o u l d . The i m p o s t s a r e o f a n i n t r i c a t e l y c h a m f e r e d and q u i r k e d f o r m b u t t h e jambs a r e o f m a s s i v e u p r i g h t and f l a t t h r o u g h s t o n e s . T h e s e h a v e b e e n c h a m f e r e d b u t t h i s c o u l d h a v e b e e n done d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e s t o r a t i o n s . The jambs r e s t on t h e i r own s q u a r e p l i n t h w h i c h i n t u r n r e s t s on t h e o r i g i n a l f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m . b) Nave: A t t h e w e s t e r n e n d o f t h e n a v e i s a r e b a t e d n o r t h d o o r w a y . The w e s t e r n f a c a d e o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s l i t b y two i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d c h a m f e r e d l a n c e t s w h i c h a r e s e p a r a t e d 189 e x t e r n a l l y by l a r g e b u t t r e s s e s o f t h r e e o f f - s e t s . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s : The d o c u m e n t a r y r e f e r e n c e i n t h e Domesday Book r e v e a l s t h a t R y t h e r was a r e l a t i v e l y i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e b e f o r e 1069, w i t h i t s own p r i e s t a s w e l l a s i t s own c h u r c h . H owever, t h e p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r a b l y a l t e r e d o v e r t h e y e a r s a n d h a s l i t t l e e x t e r n a l f a b r i c t h a t w o u l d r e v e a l i t s e a r l y d a t e . The l a t e r w a l l s o f t h e c h a n c e l , s e t on t h e p l a i n A n g l o - S a x o n f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m , may c o r r e s p o n d i n t h i c k n e s s t o t h e e a r l i e r p r e - C o n q u e s t w a l l . The w a l l s o f t h e n a v e , e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e e a s t e r n e n d , a r e a l s o t h i n a n d s e t o u t i n a n i r r e g u l a r f a s h i o n . The n o r t h e a s t e r n w a l l may be A n g l o - S a x o n b u t t h e r e a r e no d i s t i n c t i v e 123 e l e m e n t s t h a t w o u l d a l l o w a d e f i n i t e a t t r i b u t i o n . The p r i e s t ' s d o o r w a y i n t h e c h a n c e l s o u t h w a l l h a s m a s s i v e jambs w h i c h a r e l a i d Escomb s t y l e , b u t i t t o o h a s b e e n a l t e r e d a n d i s more l i k e l y t o be a t w e l f t h c e n t u r y o p e n i n g . The c h a n c e l a r c h i s t h e o n l y c o n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h c a n be i d e n t i f i e d a s A n g l o - S a x o n . I t c o n s i s t s o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s and a p o o r l y e x e c u t e d v o u s s o i r a r c h s u p p o r t e d by Escomb j a m b s . However, t h e c h a m f e r e d i m p o s t s a n d w i d e r , s h o r t e r p r o p o r t i o n s w o u l d t e n d t o p l a c e i t i n t h e l a t e S a x o n p e r i o d ( C 2 o r C ^ ) , o r p e r h a p s e v e n t h e Saxo-Norman e r a . B u l m e r I . D e d i c a t i o n : S t . M a r t i n I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e N o r t h R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e , s i x m i l e s s o u t h w e s t o f M a l t o n . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : S t . M a r t i n ' s c o n s i s t s o f an a i s l e l e s s r e c t a n g u l a r n a v e w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h , a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l , and an E a r l y E n g l i s h w e s t t o w e r . ( f i g . 9 5 ) ( P l a n 13) I V . H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n : The c h u r c h a t B u l m e r h a d i t s own p r i e s t a n d was l i s t e d i n t h e Domesday Book u n d e r t h e l a n d s 190 o f t h e C o u n t o f M o r t a x n . V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The e x t e r i o r i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f l i g h t b r own s a n d s t o n e r u b b l e . H e r r i n g - b o n e w o r k a p p e a r s i n p a t c h e s s u c h a s t h e s i x rows a t t h e e a s t e r n e n d o f t h e s o u t h w a l l and t h e f o u r r o w s 124 e a s t o f t h e b l o c k e d d o o r w a y i n t h e n o r t h w a l l . ( f i g s . 9 6 , 1 0 1 ) b) N a v e : I n t h e n o r t h w a l l , w e s t o f t h e b l o c k e d a r c h e s o f t h e f o r m e r c h a p e l a r c a d e , i s a s m a l l , n a r r o w l o o p window o f p r e -C o n q u e s t d e s i g n . D e e p l y s p l a y e d i n t e r n a l l y , i t i s composed o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s a n d h a s a n a r c h e d l i n t e l , j a m b s o f t h r e e r o u g h l y d r e s s e d s t o n e s e a c h , a n d no s i l l . ( f i g s . 1 0 0 , 1 0 1 ) S t i l l f u r t h e r t o t h e w e s t i s a n o r t h d o o r w a y , now b l o c k e d , w h i c h h a s e x t e r n a l d i m e n s i o n s o f 2 f t . 2 i n . x 6 f t . ( f i g s . 1 0 1 , 1 0 2 ) The l i n t e l s u p p o r t s a p l a i n tympanum ab o v e w h i c h i s a r e l i e v i n g a r c h c o n s t r u c t e d o f t h r o u g h s t o n e v o u s s o i r s o f v a r i o u s s i z e s T h i s a r c h i s o u t l i n e d w i t h s t r i p w o r k w h i c h e n d s a b r u p t l y j u s t a b o v e t h e l i n t e l . T h e r e a r e no i m p o s t s and t h e t h r o u g h s t o n e jambs a r e l a i d Escomb f a s h i o n . On e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e s o u t h p o r c h a r e two n a r r o w l o o p w indows s i m i l a r t o t h e one i n t h e n o r t h w a l l . ( f i g . 9 7 ) E x t e r n a l l y t h e y a r e 6 i n . w i d e x 2 f t . 4 i n . h i g h , s p l a y i n g i n t e r n a l l y t o 2 f t . 4 i n . x 5 f t . T h e i r s i l l s a r e 8 f t . 9 i n . f r o m t h e 191 g r o u n d . To t h e e a s t a r e t r a c e s o f w h a t may be a b l o c k e d r o u n d - h e a d e d d o o r w a y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h a t on t h e n o r t h , ( f i g s . 9 6 , 9 7 ) 2. I n t e r i o r a) N a v e : The i n t e r i o r o f t h e n a v e m e a s u r e s 49 f t . x 16% f t . w i t h w a l l s 2 f t . 9 i n . t h i c k a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 19 f t . h i g h . To t h e w e s t o f t h e b l o c k e d a r c h e s i n t h e n o r t h w a l l i s a n a r r o w , r o u n d - h e a d e d , i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d window. Two s i m i l a r r o u n d -h e a d e d windows a r e l o c a t e d a t t h e w e s t e r n e n d o f t h e s o u t h w a l l . 125 B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) . C h a n c e l : The c h a n c e l w a l l . w a s r e b u i l t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . The n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e e a s t w a l l a nd t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e n o r t h w a l l a r e p a r t o f t h i s Norman 192 r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . ( f i g . 9 5 ) b) Nave: The l a t e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y s o u t h d o o r w a y i s o f a w e l l -19 3 d e v e l o p e d , b u t m u t i l a t e d , a p p e a r a n c e . The e n t r a n c e c o n s i s t s o f a r o u n d a r c h r e c e s s e d i n two o r d e r s , t h e o u t e r o f w h i c h o n c e r e s t e d on c h a m f e r e d i m p o s t s a n d s i d e s h a f t s w i t h - v o l u t e d c a p i t a l s . ( f i g . 1 0 3 ) T h e s e s h a f t s h a v e s i n c e d i s a p p e a r e d . The i n n e r o r d e r o n c e r e s t e d on c h a m f e r e d i m p o s t s , t h e e a s t e r n one o w h i c h i s now g one. T h e r e i s s t r i p w o r k m o u l d i n g a b o v e t h e o u t e r o r d e r , w h i c h e n d s a t t h e i m p o s t s and t h e o p e n i n g i s r e b a t e d f o r t h e h a n g i n g o f a d o o r . A t t h e e a s t e r n e n d o f t h e s o u t h w a l l a r e two i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d , s q u a r e - h e a d e d w i n d o w s . The: u p p e r one h a s some i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s . ( f i g s . 9 8 , 9 9 ) I t c o n s i s t s o f a c h a m f e r e d l i n t e l , l a r g e jamb s t o n e s , a n d a s i n g l e s t o n e s i l l . The l o w e r p a r t o f t h e w e s t e r n jamb i s i n s c r i b e d w i t h a s i m p l e s u n d i a l o f e a r l y a p p e a r a n c e and on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e l i n t e l a r e two c o r b e l h e a d s w i t h c a r v e d f a c e s . T h i s i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d window i s n o t m e n t i o n e d by C a r o l i n e Morewood o r H.M. T a y l o r . 2. I n t e r i o r a) C h a n c e l : The i n t e r i o r o f t h e c h a n c e l m e a s u r e s 30 f t . x 15 f t V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s : S t . M a r t i n ' s h a s b e e n much 126 a l t e r e d o v e r t h e y e a r s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e s t i l l d e f i n i t e t r a c e s o f S a x o n and Saxo-Norman w o r k m a n s h i p . A l l o f t h e . e l e m e n t s w h i c h do r e m a i n a p p e a r t o be l a t e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e b l o c k e d n o r t h and s o u t h d o o r w a y s . The p l a c e m e n t o f t h e s e o p e n i n g s , o p p o s i t e e a c h o t h e r i n t h e n a v e w a l l s , i s an e a r l y A n g l o - S a x o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , w h i c h i s a l s o f o u n d ^n-. c h u r c h e s s u c h a s B a r t o n - o n - H u m b e r , L i n e s . The h e r r i n g - b o n e w o r k a n d t h e a d v a n c e d w o r k m a n s h i p o f t h e b l o c k e d n o r t h d o o r w a y w i t h i t s tympanum, w o u l d t e n d t o p l a c e t h e p r e - C o n q u e s t f a b r i c o f t h i s c h u r c h i n P e r i o d C^ o r t h e Saxo-Norman o v e r l a p . T e r r i n g t o n , I . D e d i c a t i o n : A l l S a i n t s -I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e N o r t h R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e a b o u t s e v e n m i l e s w e s t o f M a l t o n , c l o s e t o t h e g a t e s o f C a s t l e Howard. I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : A l l S a i n t s c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , an a i s l e d n a v e w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h , and an a i s l e l e s s c h a n c e l w i t h a n o r t h v e s t r y . ( f i g . 1 0 4 ) ( P l a n 14) I V . H i s t o r y and D o c u m e n t a t i o n : The v i l l a g e o f T e r r i n g t o n i s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e Domesday Book u n d e r t h e l a n d s o f t h e C o u n t 195 1 o f M o r t a i n . A r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h t o o k p l a c e i n 1868. V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. I n t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : On t h e w e s t e r n f a c e o f t h e s o u t h n a v e w a l l , a b o v e a t h e l a t e r a r c a d e s , a r e t h r e e c o u r s e s o f h o r i z o n t a l l y l a i d r a g s t o n e . T h e s e a r e s u r m o u n t e d by t h i r t e e n c o u r s e s o f h e r r i n g - b o n e a b o v e w h i c h t h e w a l l a g a i n c o n s i s t s o f h o r i z o n t a l l y c o u r s e d r e d r a g s t o n e . b) Nave: West o f t h e s o u t h a r c a d e . t h e w a l l i s o f r u d e A n g l o -S a x o n c o n s t r u c t i o n and c o n t a i n s much h e r r i n g - b o n e , s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o u n d a t B u l m e r . On t h e s o u t h f a c e " o f t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e n a v e s o u t h w a l l i s a window w i t h a s i n g l e s p l a y c a r r i e d t h r o u g h t h e f u l l t h i c k n e s s o f t h e w a l l . ( f i g . 1 0 6 ) E x t e r n a l l y t h e jambs a r e b u i l t o f r o u g h l y d r e s s e d s t o n e a n d t h e r o u n d h e a d c o n s i s t s o f a n a r c h e d l i n t e l c u t i n t o t h e f a c e o f a r e - u s e d s t o n e . T h i s s t o n e i s t r i a n g u l a r w i t h c a r v e d k h o t w o r k and was p r o b a b l y a g r a v e s l a b . I n t e r n a l l y t h e m a i n b o d y o f t h e o p e n i n g c o n s i s t s o f . s p l a y e d jambs a n d a r o u n d p l a s t e r e d h e a d , b u t t h e s a l i e n t a n g l e s a r e f o r m e d o f d r e s s e d s t o n e . The o u t e r f a c e o f t h i s w i n d o w i s 1 f t . w i d e x 3 f t . t a l l w i t h a s i l l r e s t i n g 8 f t . 3 i n . a b o v e t h e f l o o r . I n t e r n a l l y i t s p l a y s t o 3 f t . 5 i n . B. Norman E l e m e n t s y 1. E x t e r i o r a) N a v e : The t w e l f t h c e n t u r y n a v e m e a s u r e s 38 3/4 f t . x 197 18 f t . and h a s a n o r t h a i s l e w h i c h i s 30 3/4 f t . l o n g , ( f i g . 1 0 5 ) The n o r t h a r c a d e c o n s i s t s o f two b a y s o f u n e q u a l s i z e . T h e r e i s a d e e p r e s p o n d a t t h e w e s t e r n e n d o f t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e a r c h e s a r e o f two p l a i n s e m i c i r c u l a r o r d e r s . The w i d e r e a s t e r n a r c h r e s t s on a c y l i n d r i c a l p i e r and h a l f - r o u n d r e s p o n d s w h i c h h a v e o c t a g o n a l c a p i t a l s o f 128 d i f f e r i n g d e s i g n s . The c a p i t a l o f t h e w e s t e r n r e s p o n d i s f l u t e d w h i l e t h e o t h e r two c a p i t a l s c o n s i s t o f c o n v e n t i o n a l 19 8 l e a f o r n a m e n t . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s : The f a b r i c o f A l l S a i n t s T e r r i n g t o n c a n n o t be c o n c l u s i v e l y d a t e d . The i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d window w i t h i t s a r c h e d ; l i n t e l c o u l d be e a r l y o r l a t e , b u t t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e e a r l y S a x o n . g r a v e s l a b s u g g e s t s a l a t e r d a t e . The e x i s t e n c e o f h e r r i n g - b o n e w o r k s u c h a s t h a t a t . B u l m e r , i f n o t a Norman c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , i s a t l e a s t a l a t e S a x o n o r a Saxo-Norman o n e . The t h i n n e s s and h e i g h t o f t h e w a l l s i s A n g l o - S a x o n b u t no d i s t i n c t i v e e l e m e n t s s u c h a s q u o i n s o r d o o r w a y s e x i s t . The n o r t h a r c a d e i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f two a r c h e s c u t a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s t h r o u g h an e a r l i e r w a l l , t h u s g i v i n g f u r t h e r s u p p o r t t o t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f a p r e - C o n q u e s t 19 9 d a t e t o t h e c r u d e m a s o n r y i n t h e s o u t h w a l l . The m o s t p r o b a b l e i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h i s i s a l a t e o r Saxo-Norman c h u r c h . Y o r k , P e a s h o l m e G r e e n I . D e d i c a t i o n : S t . C u t h b e r t I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e c i t y o f Y o r k on t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h e R i v e r Ouse. I t s i t s a t t h e j u n c t i o n o f F o s s I s l a n d s a n d P e a s h o l m e G r e e n S t r e e t s , j u s t i n s i d e - t h e a n c i e n t c i t y w a l l s . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : The c h u r c h c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , a n a v e w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h , and a modern v e s t r y . ( f i g s . 1 0 7 , 1 1 2 ) I V . H i s t o r y and D o c u m e n t a t i o n : The f i r s t r e f e r e n c e t o 129 S t . C u t h b e r t ' s o c c u r s i n t h e Domesday B o o k . 2 ^ The b u i l d i n g i s n o t m e n t i o n e d a g a i n u n t i l t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s r e c o r d e d i n 201 1238, u n d e r t h e advowson b e l o n g i n g t o H o l y T r i n i t y P r i o r y . The c h u r c h was r e s t o r e d 1911 - 1912 a n d i s now u s e d o n l y o n c e a week b e c a u s e i t i s t o o s m a l l t o a c c o m m o d a t e / a l l o f t h e . . . 202 p a r i s h i o n e r s . V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : A t t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n c o r n e r o f t h e c h u r c h , i n w h a t w o u l d n o r m a l l y be t h e c h a n c e l e a s t w a l l , t h e T a d c a s t e r s t o n e i s r o u g h l y s h a p e d a n d l a i d , i n r e g u l a r s m a l l - s t o n e c o u r s e s , ( f i g . 1 0 8 ) b) N a v e : The e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e was r e b u i l t c a . 1 5 0 0 , e x c e p t f o r 203 t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e e a s t w a l l . ( f i g . 1 0 7 ) T h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e f a b r i c c o n t a i n s o l d e r m a t e r i a l , p r o b a b l y f r o m t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y . ( f i g s . 1 0 8 , 1 0 9 ) The g a b l e l i n e o f a c h u r c h w a l l c a n be s e e n t o t h e n o r t h a n d e x t e n d s s o u t h w a r d s t o t h e edge o f t h e s o u t h n a v e . w a l l . To t h e n o r t h e a s t , b e s i d e t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y w i n d o w , t h e r e a r e a s e r i e s o f l a r g e s t o n e s w h i c h a r e l a i d i n a s i d e - a l t e r n a t e a r r a n g e m e n t . ( f i g . I l l ) T h e s e c o u l d be t h e q u o i n s o f an e a r l i e r c h u r c h . B e t w e e n t h e two b u t t r e s s e s i s a d o o r w a y w h i c h h a s b e e n b r i c k e d u p . ( f i g . 1 1 0 ) The m a s s i v e l i n t e l c o n s i s t s o f a r o u g h s t o n e b'lock and a b o v e i t a r e a s e r i e s o f v o u s s o i r s o f v a r y i n g s i z e a nd s h a p e . T h e s e f o r m a r e l i e v i n g a r c h . The j a m b s , t r a c e s o f w h i c h a r e s t i l l 130 v i s i b l e , a r e l a i d i n a s i d e - a l t e r n a t e f a s h i o n . The d o o r w a y 204 i s q u i t e t a l l a n d n a r r o w and c o u l d be A n g l o - S a x o n . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s : The c h u r c h o f S t . C u t h b e r t i s p o o r l y d o c u m e n t e d and t h e r e a r e no d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s w h i c h w o u l d a i d i n d a t i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e . T h e r e was a c h u r c h on t h e s i t e when t h e Domesday S u r v e y was u n d e r t a k e n a n d t h e e a s t e r n end o f t h e p r e s e n t b u i l d i n g c o u l d be a r e m n a n t o f t h i s . H o w e v e r , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l j u s t how o l d t h i s r e m n a n t i s . The b l o c k e d d o o r w a y i s . t o o w o r n a n d . a l t e r e d t o be d e f i n i t e l y a s c r i b e d t o t h e A n g l o - S a x o n p e r i o d a n d t h e q u o i n s a r e p a r t i a l l y c o v e r e d by a s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y a d d i t i o n t o t h e e a s t w a l l . The p r e v i o u s s t r u c t u r e was r e l a t i v e l y t a l l a n d l o f t y , a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e g a b l e l i n e a b o v e . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e o f t h e a b s e n c e o f any d i s t i n c t i v e s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s , t h e b e s t d a t e t h a t c a n be g i v e n f o r S t . C u t h b e r t 1 s i s C^ o r t h e Saxo-Norman o v e r l a p . Monk F r y s t o n r I . D e d i c a t i o n : S t . W i l f r i d o f R i p o n I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e West R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e , a b o u t s e v e n m i l e s w e s t o f S e l b y . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : S t . W i l f r i d ' s c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , an a i s l e d n a v e w i t h n o r t h and s o u t h p o r c h e s , a n d a c h a n c e l w i t h a s o u t h v e s t r y . ( f i g . 1 1 3 ) ( P l a n 15) I V . H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n : R e f e r e n c e t o t h e v i l l a g e f i r s t a p p e a r s i n a s u r v e y o f t h e e s t a t e s o f t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k made c a . 1 0 3 0 . T h e s e l a n d s w e r e c e n t r e d a t S h e r b u r n i n E l m e t , 131 205 O t l e y and R i p o n . A c h a r t e r o f 1109 g r a n t e d by A r c h b i s h o p Thomas I o f Y o r k , g a v e t h e l a n d s o f F r y s t o n t o t h e B e n e d i c t i n e A b b e y a t S e l b y . F rom t h a t t i m e t h e p l a c e was known as Monk F r y s t o n . V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The c h u r c h i s b u i l t o f w h i t e T a d c a s t e r m a s o n r y , ( f i g . 1 1 3 ) The f i r s t t h r e e s t a g e s o f t h e t o w e r a n d p o r t i o n s o f t h e n a v e w e s t f r o n t a r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f l a r g e , w i d e l y j o i n t e d r u b b l e s t o n e s . ( f i g s . 1 1 5 , 1 1 6 ) b) Nave: A t t h e w e s t f r o n t o f t h e n a v e , and v i s i b l e f o r 3 f t . o n e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e t o w e r , a r e t h e m a r k s o f an e a r l i e r n a v e g a b l e . ( f i g . 1 1 6 ) The r u b b l e w a l l i n g b e l o w t h e s e g a b l e l i n e s i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e s t o n e s a b o v e a n d may mark t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n n a v e . c) Tower: The t o w e r c o n s i s t s o f f o u r s t a g e s o f w h i c h t h e t h r e e l o w e s t a r e A n g l o - S a x o n ( f i g s . 1 1 4 , 1 1 5 ) T h e s e e x t e n d t o a h e i g h t o f 35 f t . The q u o i n s a r e h i d d e n a t t h e two l o w e r l e v e l s by t h e t a l l a n g l e b u t t r e s s e s . . ^ H o w e v e r , t h e y a r e v i s i b l e i n t h e t h i r d s t a g e a n d a r e a r r a n g e d f a c e - a l t e r n a t e l y . The l o w e r s t a g e o f t h e t o w e r i s a b o u t h a l f i t s t o t a l h e i g h t and i s d i v i d e d f r o m t h e s e c o n d s t o r e y by a s i m p l e s q u a r e s t r i n g - c o u r s e . T h e r e i s a s m a l l p o i n t e d window i n t h e s o u t h w a l l w h i c h i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s and may be A n g l o -S a x o n , ( f i g . 114) I t s h e a d i s c u t e x t e r n a l l y f r o m two s h a p e d 132 s t o n e s a n d i t h a s jambs o f two p i l l a r s t o n e s e a c h . The s i l l i s o f one b l o c k . A b o v e t h e p l a i n s t r i n g - c o u r s e i s t h e l o w s e c o n d s t a g e . The t h r e e e x t e r n a l f a c e s a t t h i s l e v e l c o n t a i n o r i g i n a l d o u b l e - l i g h t b e l f r y w i n d o w s w h i c h h a v e a r c h e d l i n t e l s o v e r e a c h o p e n i n g and a r e s u p p o r t e d i n t h e c e n t r e by t h e u s u a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s l a b s and m i d - w a l l s h a f t s . ( f i g s . 114,115) The o u t e r e d g e s o f t h e s e a r c h e d l i n t e l s r e s t , w i t h o u t i m p o s t s , on s q u a r e jambs c o n s t r u c t e d o f a s h l a r . T h e s e do n o t p a s s t h r o u g h t h e f u l l t h i c k n e s s o f t h e w a l l . The m i d - w a l l s h a f t s h a v e s q u a r e b a s e s and s i m p l e c a p i t a l s o f u n u s u a l f o r m . They a r e s q u a r e i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e i r c r o s s - s e c t i o n a n d a r e t a p e r e d by means o f ..hollow c h a m f e r s on e a c h f a c e . A l l t h r e e w i n d o w s r e s t on t h e l o w e r s t r i n g - c o u r s e . A b o v e t h e o r i g i n a l b e l f r y i s a w i d e l y p r o j e c t i n g s t r i n g - c o u r s e s u p p o r t e d by p l a i n b l o c k c o r b e l s . ( f i g s . 1 1 4 , 1 1 5 ) I t i s s u r m o u n t e d by t h e u n u s u a l l y s h o r t t h i r d s t a g e w h i c h h a s no o p e n i n g s . A b o v e t h i s i s a s e c o n d c o r b e l t a b l e a n d a s t r i n g -c o u r s e . 2. I n t e r i o r a) Nave: The nave," w h i c h i s i r r e g u l a r l y s e t o u t , i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40% f t . x 18% f t . w i t h w a l l s 2 f t . 9 i n . t h i c k . T h e s e w a l l s a r e now a b o u t 26 f t . h i g h b u t t h e y w e r e p r o b a b l y a b o u t 20 f t . h i g h b e f o r e t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y 207 c l e r e s t o r y . The w a l l s a b o v e t h e n o r t h and s o u t h a r c a d e s may be A n g l o - S a x o n . A b o v e t h e t o w e r a r c h i s a b e l f r y w i n d o w w h i c h i s now e n c l o s e d i n t h e n a v e . ( f i g . 1 1 7 ) I t s h e a d i s o f 133 v t w o l i g h t s o f p o i n t e d f o r m w h i c h h a v e b e e n r e n e w e d . The s h a f t s and c a p i t a l s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r t h r e e b e l f r y w i n d o w s . b) T o wer: The i n t e r i o r o f t h e t o w e r m e a s u r e s 9 f t . 6 i n . e a s t / w e s t x 8 f t . 11 i n . n o r t h / s o u t h a n d h a s w a l l s w h i c h a r e 3 f t . 6 i n . t h i c k . I t i s l i t o n t h e s o u t h f a c e b y a s m a l l window w h i c h i s o f p o i n t e d f o r m e x t e r n a l l y . T h i s o p e n i n g i s s p l a y e d i n t e r n a l l y a n d h a s a r o u n d h e a d o f v e r y t h i n s t r i p s t h a t a p p e a r t o be t h r o u g h s t o n e s . The jambs a r e f l a t a n d h a v e no i m p o s t s . B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) Tower: T h e r e a r e s i g n s o f r e p a i r w o r k i n t h e w e s t w a l l b e l o w t h e p o i n t e d f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y w i n d ow. On one o f t h e s e r e p a i r s t o n e s t h e r e i s a s m a l l Norman s c r a t c h d i a l . 2. I n t e r i o r a) N a v e : The n o r t h a n d s o u t h a r c a d e s w e r e b u i l t c a . 1 2 0 0 a nd 208 c o n s i s t o f t h r e e ,bays e a c h . The a r c h e s a r e r o u n d - h e a d e d 209 and r e s t o n . c i r c u l a r p i e r s w i t h s q u a r e b a s e s . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s . : - S t . W i l f r i d ' s i s n o t m e n t i o n e d i n a n y d o c u m e n t a r y s o u r c e s , t h o u g h t h e v i l l a g e was c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e l a n d s o f t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k i n p r e -C o n q u e s t t i m e s . I t m a i n t a i n e d t h i s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o n n e c t i o n a f t e r 1066. The c h u r c h h a s u n d e r g o n e many c h a n g e s a n d a l t e r a t i o n s s i n c e t h e A n g l o - S a x o n p e r i o d a n d t h e o n l y e a r l y f a b r i c w h i c h c a n be d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d i s t h e l o w e r t h r e e s t a g e s o f t h e t o w e r . T h i s t o w e r c o n t a i n s many e l e m e n t s w h i c h 134 p l a c e i t i n t h e o r Saxo-Norman p e r i o d . The q u o i n s a r e o f s m a l l s i z e a n d a r e n e a t l y a r r a n g e d . The jambs o f t h e b e l f r y w i n d o w s a r e n o t t h r o u g h s t o n e s and t h e c a p i t a l s , t h o u g h c r u d e , a r e o f l a t e d e s i g n . They a r e m o u n t e d on r o u n d f i l l e t s w h i c h a r e u n u s u a l i n A n g l o - S a x o n b u i l d i n g s . The e x i s t e n c e o f c o r b e l t a b l e s , w h i c h a r e commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Norman s t r u c t u r e s , i n d i c a t e s a l a t e r d a t e , a s d o e s t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e t o w e r w a l l s . The w a l l s o f t h e o r i g i n a l S a x o n n a v e may e x i s t a b o v e t h e l a t e r a r c a d e s , a s t h e f a b r i c i s t h i n and b a d l y s e t o u t . On t h e i n t e r i o r t h e y a r e c o a t e d w i t h p l a s t e r and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r o v e t h e i r a n t i q u i t y . However,, t h e g a b l e mark an d r u b b l e w a l l i n g on t h e w e s t e r n f r o n t o f t h e p r e s e n t n a v e may i n d i c a t e t r a c e s o f t h e e a r l i e r s t r u c t u r e . Y o r k , B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r I . D e d i c a t i o n : S t . M a r y I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s . l o c a t e d i n t h e c i t y o f Y o r k , n e a r B i s h o p h i l l , on t h e w e s t e r n s i d e o f t h e R i v e r Ouse. I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : S t . M a r y ' s c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , an a i s l e d n a v e w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h , a n d a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l w i t h a n o r t h c h a p e l . ( f i g s . 1 1 8 , 1 1 9 ) ( P l a n 16) I V . H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n : The o n l y d o c u m e n t a r y r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c h u r c h i s a p a p a l . c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e c a p i t u l a r 210 p r o p e r t y o f 1194. V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The t o w e r i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f l i m e s t o n e r u b b l e . I t i s r e a s o n a b l y w e l l - c o u r s e d , t h o u g h t h i s i s l e s s a p p a r e n t i n t h e u p p e r l e v e l s . T h e r e i s a l s o a c o n s i d e r a b l e a d m i x t u r e o f w h o l e c o u r s e s o f w h i t e l i m e s t o n e r u b b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e n o r t h w a l l . T h e s e c o u r s e s a r e i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h l a r g e r , l o n g e r s l a b s o f d a r k s t o n e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e some c o u r s e s a n d p a r t c o u r s e s o f h e r r i n g - b o n e . b) Tower: A c c o r d i n g t o C C . H o d g e s , t h e t o w e r , w h i c h i s 26 f t . s q u a r e e x t e r n a l l y a n d 73 f t . h i g h , i s t h e mos t s o u t h e r l y o f a s i m i l a r g r o u p o f t o w e r s d a t i n g f r o m t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y . ( f i g . 1 1 8 ) T h e s e i n c l u d e B o l a m , C o r b r i d g e , 211 B y w e l l , a n d Monkwearmouth. The s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e i n t e r n a l s t a g e s b u t e x t e r n a l l y o n l y one s t r i n g - c o u r s e s e p a r a t e s t h e r e c e s s e d b e l f r y f r o m t h e l o w e r p o r t i o n . The s t r i n g - c o u r s e i s s q u a r e - c u t o n t h e e a s t b u t i t h a s b e e n b a d l y w o r n e l s e w h e r e . The q u o i n s o f t h e t o w e r a r e o f d a r k l y c o l o u r e d s a n d s t o n e s l a b s w i t h l o n g b o n d i n g s t o n e s o f t h e same m a t e r i a l . Some o f t h e l o w e r s l a b s a r e q u i t e l a r g e b u t t h o s e a b o v e a r e s m a l l e r a n d f l a t t e r . A l l a r e l a i d s i d e - a l t e r n a t e l y . The g a b l e m a r k s o f t h e f o r m e r n a v e r o o f a r e v i s i b l e on t h e t o w e r e a s t w a l l , 2. - 3 f t . , a b o v e t h e p r e s e n t r o o f l i n e . The s m a l l r e c t a n g u l a r w i n d o w i n t h e w e s t w a l l i s a l a t e r i n s e r t i o n . I n t h e s o u t h w a l l , a b o u t h a l f way u p , a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e a i s l e r o o f , i s a l a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r o p e n i n g . The jambs a r e p i l l a r s t o n e s ( t h r e e p e r jamb) a n d t h e l i n t e l i s o f one s l a b . The s i l l i s d e e p l y w o r n . T h e r e i s a s i m i l a r window i n t h e n o r t h w a l l . 136 The b e l f r y s t a g e c o n t a i n s t h e u s u a l d o u b l e - l i g h t , r o u n d - h e a d e d o p e n i n g s . The a r c h h e a d s , w h i c h a r e o f v e r y t h i n l i m e s t o n e s l a b s , h a v e a b r i c k - l i k e a p p e a r a n c e a n d t h e m i d - w a l l s h a f t s a r e c i r c u l a r i n s e c t i o n . T h e s e s h a f t s s u p p o r t l o n g c e n t r a l i m p o s t s c h a m f e r e d b e l o w . The jambs a p p e a r t o be t h r o u g h s t o n e s . One u n u s u a l f e a t u r e , o f t h e s e o p e n i n g s i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h i n s t r i p s p r o j e c t i n g f r o m t h e w a l l f a c e a n d f o r m i n g a f r a m e a l o n g t h e s i d e s o f t h e jambs and a r o u n d t h e a r c h h e a d s . The s t r i p s t e r m i n a t e b e l o w t h e windows a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e b u i l t up s i l l s , j u s t a b o v e t h e s t r i n g - c o u r s e , a n d t h e y r e s t o n c u b i c a l c o r b e l s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y h a v e t h e i r own s m a l l c u b i c a l i m p o s t s w h i c h p r o j e c t f r o m t h e l o n g jamb i m p o s t s . The u p p e r p a r t o f t h e w e s t e r n o p e n i n g h a s b e e n r e n e w e d i n t h e f o r m o f two l a n c e t s u n d e r a s i n g l e r o u n d - h e a d e d arch.- H o w e v e r , t h e l o w e r p o r t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l jambs and s t r i p w o r k r e m a i n u n d i s t u r b e d . The m a s o n r y o f t h e s e b e l f r y w i ndows h a s a s t r a i g h t j o i n t w h i c h r u n s down t h e w a l l f r o m t h e f o o t o f e a c h jamb as i f t h e o p e n i n g s w e r e o r i g i n a l l y much d e e p e r o r h a d s t e e p l y s l o p i n g s i l l s w h i c h w e r e l a t e r b u i l t up t o t h e i r p r e s e n t f o r m . B a l d w i n Brown f a v o u r s t h e f o r m e r e x p l a n a t i o n b u t J e w i t t ' s d r a w i n g , p u b l i s h e d b y R i c k m a n , seems t o c o n f i r m t h e l a t t e r t h e o r y . T h i s s k e t c h shows t h e wi n d o w s w i t h a p e r t u r e s o f t h e p r e s e n t s i z e b u t w i t h s i l l s e x t e n d i n g . h o r i z o n t a l l y o n l y t h r o u g h t h e i n n e r t h i c k n e s s o f t h e w a l l . They s l o p e o f f s t e e p l y t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e o f f - s e t b e s i d e t h e b a s e s o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g 212 s t r i p w o r k . 137 2. I n t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The i n t e r i o r was o n c e e n t i r e l y c o a t e d w i t h p l a s t e r b u t now much o f t h i s h a s b e e n r e m o v e d . The e x p o s e d s u r f a c e s a r e o f r o u g h l y s q u a r e d , w i d e l y j o i n t e d r e d s a n d s t o n e r u b b l e w i t h a n a d m i x t u r e o f v e r y l a r g e s t o n e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n l a i d i n i r r e g u l a r c o u r s e s , ( f i g s . 12,0 ,.121) b) N a v e : The n a v e m e a s u r e s 20 f t . 10 i n . x 38 f t . 4 i n . i n t e r n a l l y . ( f i g . 1 2 1 ) The n o r t h w a l l i s 2 f t . 7 i n . t h i c k a n d t h e s o u t h w a l l i s 2 f t . t h i c k . , B a l d w i n Brown r e g a r d s t h e t o w e r a r c h a s p e r h a p s t h e f i n e s t p r e - C o n q u e s t e x a m p l e i n e x i s t e n c e w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e 213 e x c e p t i o n o f B a r n a c k a nd C a m b r i d g e . ( f i g s . 1 2 2 , 1 2 3 , 1 2 4 ) I t i s 10 f t . w i d e x 16 f t . h i g h f r o m t h e f l o o r o f t h e n a v e t o t h e c r o w n . The s t r u c t u r e i s r e c e s s e d i n two p l a i n s q u a r e o r d e r a s a r e t h e jambs a n d i m p o s t s . E a c h i m p o s t i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f two s u p e r i m p o s e d o v e r s a i l i n g s l a b s o f s t o n e a n d t h e a r c h i s o u t l i n e d o n t h e e a s t e r n a n d w e s t e r n f a c e s b y a s q u a r e h o o d -m o u l d . T h i s i s n o t c a r r i e d down b e s i d e t h e jambs i n t h e f o r m o f s t r i p w o r k . T h e r e s e e m s , i n s t e a d . t o h a v e been, p r o v i s i o n • f o r i t b e s i d e t h e jamb, b e c a u s e t h e s h o r t s e c t i o n o f t h e p i l a s t e r r u n s f r o m t h e u p p e r s e c t i o n o f e a c h i m p o s t a c r o s s t h e f a c e o f t h e l o w e r s e c t i o n . The two o r d e r s o f t h e a r c h a r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f two s e p a r a t e s e t s o f v o u s s o i r s , w h e r e a s , i n t h e c a s e o f t h e j a m b s , t h e two o r d e r s a r e s o m e t i m e s o f s e p a r a t e s t o n e s a n d s o m e t i m e s o f a s i n g l e g r e a t s t o n e r u n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e f u l l t h i c k n e s s o f t h e w a l l w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y o u t l i n e c u t i n t o i t . The jambs r e s t o n p l a i n c u b i c a l b a s e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 f t . 4 i n 138 t a l l . T h e s e a l s o s e r v e t o s u p p o r t t h e s i d e s o f a s i n g l e s t e p w h i c h l e a d s up f r o m t h e n a v e t o t h e t o w e r . c) Tower: The t o w e r , w h i c h i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s t a g e s i n t e r n a l l y , i s 20 f t . s q u a r e . The w a l l s a t t h e b a s e a r e 3 f t . 1 i n . t h i c k b u t t h e y d e c r e a s e t o 2 f t . 5 i n . a t t h e b e l f r y l e v e l . 2 " * " 4 B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r 215 a) Nave: The n o r t h a i s l e was a d d e d c a . 1 1 8 0 . A t t h e e a s t e r n e n d o f t h i s a i s l e t h e w a l l c o n t a i n s a d o o r w a y , w h i l e f u r t h e r w e s t a r e two d o u b l e - l i g h t w i n d o w s . The w e s t e r n w a l l o f t h i s a i s l e c o n t a i n s an i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d l a n c e t . 2. I n t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The n o r t h a i s l e i s composed o f r u b b l e . ( f i g . 1 2 1 ) b) N a v e : The t w e l f t h c e n t u r y n o r t h a r c a d e c o n s i s t s o f two r o u n d 216 a r c h e s r e c e s s e d i n two p l a i n s q u a r e o r d e r s . . ( f i g . 1 2 1 ) T h e s e 217 r e s t o n a c e n t r a l c i r c u l a r p i e r w i t h an o c t a g o n a l c a p i t a l . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s : The c h u r c h i s l a t e S a x o n . The t o w e r a r c h w i t h i t s m o u l d i n g and r e c e s s e d jambs i s o f an a d v a n c e d d e s i g n . The t o w e r i s p e r h a p s e a r l i e r b u t i t a l s o d i s p l a y s m a t u r e e l e m e n t s s u c h a s t h e v o u s s o i r s and s t r i p w o r k o f t h e b e l f r y w i n d o w s . T h i s s t r i p w o r k , w h i c h h a s an a f f i n i t y w i t h t h a t s u r r o u n d i n g t h e o p e n i n g s i n t h e t o w e r a t W h a r r a m - l e - ' S t r e e t , p l a c e s t h e t o w e r i n t h e C^ o r Saxo-Norman e r a . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t Wharram i s a l a t e c h u r c h a n d i t 139 i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e two a r e c o n t e m p o r a r y o r t h a t S t . M a r y ' s may.have i n f l u e n c e d t h e l a t t e r s t r u c t u r e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e h e r r i n g - b o n e w o r k i s a o r Saxo-Norman f e a t u r e . The t h i n n e s s o f t h e n a v e w a l l s a b o v e t h e l a t e r a r c a d e s may be an i n d i c a t i o n o f A n g l o - S a x o n d a t e and t h e e a r l i n e s s o f t h e n o r t h a r c a d e a d d s c r e d e n c e t o t h i s t h e o r y . H owever, t h e w a l l s h a v e b e e n c o a t e d w i t h p l a s t e r and no d i s t i n g u i s h i n g q u o i n s a r e e v i d e n t . T h e r e f o r e , a d e f i n i t e a s s i g n m e n t o f t h e f a b r i c t o t h e p r e - C o n q u e s t p e r i o d i s i m p o s s i b l e . B e d a l e I . D e d i c a t i o n : S t . G r e g o r y I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e N o r t h R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e , s e v e n m i l e s s o u t h w e s t o f N o r t h a l l e r t o n . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : S t . G r e g o r y ' s c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h , a r e c t a n g u l a r a i s l e d n a v e , a n d a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l w i t h n o r t h and s o u t h c h a p e l s . ( f i g s . 1 2 5 , 126) T h e s e c h a p e l s a r e e x t e n s i o n s o f t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h a i s l e s . ( P l a n I V . H i s t o r y and D o c u m e n t a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e 218 Domesday Book as p a r t o f t h e manor o f t h e Norman v a s s a l , B o d i n . V. S t r u c t u r e : 1. E x t e r i o r a) N a v e : A t t h e e a s t e n d o f t h e n o r t h w a l l i s a s t r i n g - c o u r s e s i t u a t e d u n d e r t h e e a s t window. I t i s r e t u r n e d a s h o r t way r o u n d t h e n o r t h w a l l . 2. I n t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The s t o n e s o f t h e w e s t w a l l a r e t h e o n l y o n e s w h i c h 140 a r e n o t l i m e w a s h e d o r c o a t e d w i t h p l a s t e r . They a r e o f r o u g h g r e y g r i t s t o n e l a i d i n i r r e g u l a r , w i d e l y j o i n t e d c o u r s e s o f v a r y i n g s i z e s . ( f i g s . 1 3 0 , 1 3 1 ) b) C h a n c e l : H.M. T a y l o r e s t i m a t e s t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l , d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e c h a n c e l w e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 f t . s q u a r e w i t h w a l l s 219 2 f t . 7 i n . t h i c k a nd 24 f t . h i g h . A b o v e t h e c h a n c e l a r c h and s e t i n t o t h e l i m e w a s h e d w a l l , i s a s m a l l s q u a r e d o o r w a y , o r o p e n i n g , w i t h a l i n t e l a b o v e and jamb s t o n e s o f v a r y i n g s i z e s a n d s h a p e b e l o w . H i g h e r up i s t h e f a i n t o u t l i n e o f a n e a r l i e r s t e e p l y p i t c h e d n a v e g a b l e , ( f i g . . 127.). . c) N a v e : H.M. T a y l o r s t a t e s t h a t t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l a i s l e l e s s n a v e w e r e 48% f t . x 24 f t . t o t h e e a s t , n a r r o w i n g t o 22 f t . t o t h e w e s t . The w a l l s a r e 2 f t . 7 i n . t h i c k a nd 220 . a b o u t 24 f t . h i g h . • ( f i g . 1 2 7 ) A b o v e t h e t o w e r a r c h i s t h e l i n e o f a s t e e p l y p i t c h e d n a v e g a b l e . T h i s e x t e n d s up u n d e r n e a t h t h e p r e s e n t wooden c e i l i n g . ( f i g s . 1 3 0 , 1 3 1 ) A c c o r d i n g t o T a y l o r , t h e e a s t e r n q u o i n s o f t h e n a v e 221 may h a v e s u r v i v e d b u t t h e y a r e now c o n c e a l e d b y p l a s t e r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a p l a i n c h a m f e r e d s t r i n g - c o u r s e on t h e s o u t h f a c e o f t h e n a v e s o u t h w a l l . T h i s w o u l d o r i g i n a l l y h a v e b e e n on t h e e x t e r i o r o f t h e e a r l i e r a i s l e l e s s c h u r c h . B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) C h a n c e l : The c h a n c e l was e x t e n d e d e a s t w a r d d u r i n g t h e Norman 222 p e r i o d a nd t h e s o u t h c h a p e l was a d d e d c a . 1 2 0 0 . b). N a ve: The b a s i c p l a n o f t h e o r i g i n a l a i s l e l e s s n a v e i s V 223 t w e l f t h c e n t u r y o r e a r l i e r . 2. I n t e r i o r a) C h a n c e l : E a s t o f t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y c h a n c e l s o u t h a r c a d e , on t h e s o u t h f a c e o f t h e w a l l , a r e two f r a g m e n t s o f e l a b o r a t e Norman s t r i n g - c o u r s e d e c o r a t e d w i t h b i l l e t m o u l d i n g . T h e s e 224 mark t h e e x t e n t o f t h e e a r l i e r c h a n c e l . b) N a v e : The n o r t h a r c a d e was c o n s t r u c t e d c a . 1 2 0 0 . I t i s o f 225 f o u r b a y s w i t h a c u t e l y p o i n t e d a r c h e s o f two o r d e r s . ( f i g s . 1 27,129,130) T h e r e i s n a i l - h e a d o r n a m e n t i n t h e h o l l o w c h a m f e r o f t h e o u t e r o r d e r a n d a h o o d - m o u l d a b o v e o f s o l i d t h r e e -s i d e d d o g t o o t h . The c h i e f p e c u l i a r i t y o f t h i s a r c a d e i s t h e f a c t t h a t no two p i e r s a r e a l i k e . The w e s t e r n m o s t i s o c t a g o n a l , t h e s e c o n d h a s c l u s t e r e d s h a f t s , a n d t h e t h i r d i s s q u a r e w i t h h o l l o w c h a m f e r s a t t h e c o r n e r s . A l l o f t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g c a p i t a l s a r e f o l i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t d e s i g n s a n d a l l o f t h e b a s e s are= d i f f e r e n t a l s o . 2 2 6 V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s : T h e r e a r e no d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . A n g l o - S a x o n e l e m e n t s l e f t i n t h e c h u r c h , s u c h a s d o o r w a y s , q u o i n i n g o r a r c h e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s u n s a f e t o s a y t h a t any o f t h e r e m a i n i n g e a r l y f a b r i c p r e d a t e s 1066. The T a y l o r s h a v e t r i e d t o p i e c e t o g e t h e r t h e p o s s i b l e s i z e a nd s h a p e o f t h e o r i g i n a l s t r u c t u r e , w h i c h t h e y f e e l c o n s i s t e d o f a l o n g a i s l e l e s s n a v e a n d a s h o r t s q u a r e c h a n c e l . The b e s t p r o o f o f t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t h e s t r i n g - c o u r s e s on w h a t w e r e o n c e t h e e x t e r i o r s o u t h w a l l s o f t h e n a v e and c h a n c e l . The T a y l o r s 142 f e e l t h e L a t e Norman o r T r a n s i t i o n a l a r c a d e m u s t h a v e b e e n c u t t h r o u g h a w a l l o f e i t h e r t h e Norman o r t h e A n g l o - S a x o n p e r i o d , t h e r e f o r e p r o v i n g t h e e a r l y d a t e o f t h e n o r t h w a l l . The Norman e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s h o r t s q u a r e c h a n c e l a d d s t o t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l c h u r c h was S a x o n a n d t h i s s u r m i s e i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p l a i n c h a m f e r e d c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s t r i n g - c o u r s e on t h e s o u t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h t h e more e l a b o r a t e s t r i n g - c o u r s e on t h e Norman e x t e n s i o n o f t h e c h a n c e l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y f o r m u l a t e t h e i r m e a s u r e m e n t s f r o m t h e s e e x i s t i n g s t r i n g - c o u r s e s and t h e a r c a d e i n t h e e a r l i e r n o r t h w a l l , and f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e n a v e i s s t i l l a p p r o x i m a t e l y i t s o r i g i n a l l e n g t h , a s r e v e a l e d by t h e two e a r l y , s t e e p l y p i t c h e d g a b l e s . H o w e v e r , i f t h e r e m a i n i n g e l e m e n t s a r e A n g l o - S a x o n , t h e y a r e o f P e r i o d C^ and t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o s u p p o s e , b e c a u s e o f a l a c k o f s p e c i f i c a l l y p r e - C o n q u e s t f e a t u r e s , t h a t t h e y may n o t be any e a r l i e r t h a n t h e Saxo-Norman o f E a r l y Norman p e r i o d . C o l l i n g h a m I . D e d i c a t i o n : S t . O s w a l d I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e West R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e a b o u t two m i l e s s o u t h w e s t o f W e t h e r b y . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : S t . O s w a l d ' s c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r w i t h a n o r t h t u r r e t , a r e c t a n g u l a r n a v e , w i t h a n o r t h a i s l e - r. and a s o u t h , p o r c h , a n d a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l w h i c h n a r r o w s s l i g h t l y t o t h e e a s t and h a s a n o r t h v e s t r y . ( f i g . 1 3 3 ) ( P l a n 18) I V . H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n : The c h a n c e l was r e b u i l t i n 1840 143 227 and t h e c h u r c h was r e s t o r e d i n 1870. V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The f a b r i c o f t h e s t r u c t u r e i s o f r o u g h l y d r e s s e d , w i d e l y j o i n t e d s a n d s t o n e m a s o n r y . The s t o n e s a r e a b o u t t h e s i z e o f modern b r i c k s and a r e l a i d i n c o u r s e s . ( f i g . 1 3 4 ) Some l a r g e s t o n e s a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d t h e l o w e r f i v e c o u r s e s , o f t h e w a l l a r e o f e v e n r o u g h e r a p p e a r a n c e . b) N a v e : The s o u t h w e s t e r n and s o u t h e a s t e r n q u o i n s o f t h e n a v e a r e v i s i b l e b e s i d e t h e modern b u t t r e s s e s . They a r e o f r e g u l a r 228 s i d e - a l t e r n a t e c h a r a c t e r and u n i f o r m h e i g h t ( a b o u t 1 f t . 6 i n . ) ( f i g . 1 3 6 ) T h e r e a r e a l s o v e s t i g e s o f s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s t o t h e n o r t h e a s t a b o v e t h e r o o f o f t h e v e s t r y . 2. I n t e r i o r a) N a v e : The n a v e m e a s u r e s 37 f t . x 15 f t . and h a s w a l l s w h i c h v a r y i n t h i c k n e s s , 2 f t . 3 i n . - 2 f t . 8 i n . and a r e a b o u t 20 f t . h i g h . ( f i g . 1 3 4 ) Two f r a g m e n t s o f s c u l p t u r e d s t o n e w e r e f o u n d i n t h e s o u t h w a l l i n 1840. They h a v e b e e n a s s i g n e d by C o l l i n g w o o d t o t h e e i g h t h o r n i n t h c e n t u r y and a r e now l o c a t e d 229 a t t h e e a s t e r n e n d o f t h e n o r t h a i s l e . One i s c a r v e d w i t h f i g u r e s on a l l f o u r s i d e s and t h e o t h e r i s s c u l p t e d w i t h a n i m a l s a n d i n t e r l a c e . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s : T h e r e a r e no d o c u m e n t a r y s o u r c e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e c h u r c h a n d no e l e m e n t s w h i c h c a n d e f i n i t e l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e A n g l o - S a x o n s . The s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s o f t h e n a v e c o u l d be Saxo-Norman o r E a r l y Norman as 144 t h e y a r e s m a l l i n s i z e a n d n e a t i n a p p e a r a n c e . The w a l l s a r e t h i n b u t a p p r o a c h 3 f t . i n d e p t h . They a r e a l s o h i g h , b u t t h e y may h a v e b e e n t a m p e r e d w i t h d u r i n g t h e 1870 r e s t o r a t i o n . The r e b u i l d i n g a n d l a t e r r e s t o r a t i o n w e r e s o t h o r o u g h a nd t h e A n g l o - S a x o n t r a c e s i n t h e w a l l so s l i g h t , t h a t i t i s d a n g e r o u s t o p o s t u l a t e a n y d e f i n i t e d a t e f o r t h e b u i l d i n g . H o w e v e r , i f t h e s o u t h w a l l s o f t h e n a v e a nd c h a n c e l a r e a n c i e n t , t h e y a r e p r o b a b l y o f t h e Saxo-Norman o r p e r i o d . A l d b o r o u g h I . D e d i c a t i o n ; S t . B a r t h o l o m e w I I . L o c a t i o n , ; The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e E a s t R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e l v e m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f H u l l . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n ; S t . B a r t h o l o m e w c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , an a i s l e d n a v e w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h , a n d a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l w i t h a n o r t h c h a p e l . ( f i g s . 1 3 7 , 1 3 8 ) ( P l a n 19) I V . H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n ; The c h u r c h i s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e 231 Domesday Book u n d e r t h e l a n d s o f t h e C o u n t o f M o r t a i n . I t 232 was r e s t o r e d i n 1870. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s u n d i a l s i t u a t e d o n t h e s o u t h f a c e o f t h e n a v e s o u t h w a l l , a b o v e t h e a r c a d e , may s h e d some l i g h t on t h e h i s t o r y a n d d a t i n g o f t h i s , monument, ( f i g . 1 4 3 ) A.R. G r e e n h a s d e s c r i b e d t h e s u n d i a l a s b e i n g c a r v e d on a c i r c u l a r s t o n e , t h e f a c e o f w h i c h p r o j e c t s f r o m t h e w a l l . I t c o n s i s t s o f a s t y l e h o l e a n d e i g h t r a d i a t i n g l i n e s t h a t d i v i d e t h e d a y a n d n i g h t i n t o e i g h t t i d e s . T h e r e i s an i n s c r i p t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s f o r m i n g t h e 145 c i r c u m f e r e n c e a n d on t h e f a c e o f t h e d i a l i s a m a r k , p o s s i b l y a v a r i a n t o f t h e s w a s t i k a . G r e e n f e e l s t h i s i s i n t e n d e d t o 2 mark t h e d a e g - m a e l ( t h e s y m b o l composed o f s i x c r o s s i n g l i n e s ) . The i n s c r i p t i o n i s w r i t t e n i n o l d D a n i s h - E n g l i s h o f t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y a n d r e a d s , "ULF LET JtEAERAN CYRICE FOR HANUM AND FOR 234 GUNWARE SAULA". H.M. T a y l o r t r a n s l a t e s t h i s a s , " U l f h a d 235 t h i s c h u r c h b u i l t f o r h i m s e l f , a n d f o r Gunwara's s o u l " . G r e e n f e e l s t h a t t h e U l f m e n t i o n e d i s p r o b a b l y U l f u s , s o n o f T h o r a l d . Gunwara was s t i l l l i v i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1066, and he was l i s t e d i n t h e Domesday Book a s d e a d a t t h e t i m e t h a t t h e d i a l was e r e c t e d . The y e a r o f t h e Norman C o n q u e s t 2 36 i s t h e r e f o r e t h e t e r m i n u s p o s t quern f o r t h e c h u r c h . V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) C h a n c e l : I n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e c h a n c e l s o u t h w a l l i s a f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y d o u b l e - l i g h t window a b o v e w h i c h i s a 237 m o n o l i t h i c A n g l o - S a x o n w i n d o w - h e a d . ( f i g . 1 4 0 ) I t i s c a r v e d i n r e l i e f w i t h t h e f i g u r e o f two b e a s t s f a c i n g e a c h o t h e r . T h i s s t o n e d o e s n o t r e s e m b l e t h e m a s o n r y s u r r o u n d i n g i t and i s n o t i n i t s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n . 2. I n t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : A s m a l l amount o f p l a s t e r h a s b e e n r e m o v e d f r o m a r o u n d t h e s u n d i a l on t h e s o u t h e r n f a c e o f t h e s o u t h n a v e a r c a d e a n d t h e w a l l i n g b e n e a t h i s o f l i g h t b r o w n , w i d e l y j o i n t e d s a n d s t o n e a s h l a r . ( f i g . 1 4 3 ) 146 b) N ave: The n a v e s o u t h w a l l i s 2 f t . t h i c k . ( f i g . 1 4 1 ) The s u n d i a l o n t h i s w a l l may n o t be i n i t s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n a s t h e w a l l i n g s u r r o u n d i n g i t h a s b e e n d i s t u r b e d a t some p o i n t . B e l o w t h e d i a l i s a t r i a n g u l a r - s h a p e d p i e c e o f s t o n e w h i c h H. M. T a y l o r b e l i e v e s t o be a s u r v i v i n g f r a g m e n t f r o m t h e h e a d o f a s t r i p w o r k h o o d - m o u l d s e t o v e r a t r i a n g u l a r - h e a d e d d o o r w a y . The d i a l m i g h t , t h e r e f o r e be i n i t s r i g h t f u l p l a c e o v e r t h e 238 o r i g i n a l s o u t h o p e n i n g i n t h e n a v e w a l l . B. Norman E l e m e n t s I . E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : S t . B a r t h o l o m e w ' s i s composed o f r u b b l e w a l l i n g made o f l i g h t b r o w n s a n d s t o n e . ( f i g s . 1 3 7 , 1 3 8 , 1 3 9 ) b) C h a n c e l : The c h a n c e l , w h i c h h a s s o u t h e a s t e r n a n d n o r t h e a s t e r n s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s , d a t e s f r o m t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . ( f i g . 138) I t r e s t s o n a f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m . To t h e w e s t o f t h e c e n t r a l d o u b l e - l i g h t , w indow i n t h e s o u t h c h a n c e l w a l l , a t t h e j u n c t u r e o f t h e c h a n c e l and t h e s o u t h a i s l e , i s a d o o r w a y w i t h Norman c h e v r o n d e c o r a t i o n c a r v e d f r o m a s e c o n d o r d e r o f v o u s s o i r s . ( f i g . 1 3 9 ) The e x i s t i n g e n t r a n c e was i n s e r t e d a t a l a t e r d a t e o b l i t e r a t i n g t h e jambs and i m p o s t s o f i t s Norman p r e d e c e s s o r . c) Tower: The w e s t t o w e r , w h i c h i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s t a g e s by p l a i n s t r i n g - c o u r s e s , i s o f s h o r t , s q u a t Norman p r o p o r t i o n s , ( f i g . 1 3 7 ) I t r e s t s o n a s l o p i n g p l i n t h a n d h a s s m a l l s i d e -a l t e r n a t e a s h l a r q u o i n s . T h e r e i s a s m a l l window on t h e s o u t h f a c e o f t h e g r o u n d s t o r e y . T h e r e i s a l s o a window a b o v e i t 147 i n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e . The t o w e r i s f i n i s h e d w i t h a p l a i n Norman c o r b e l t a b l e . 2. I n t e r i o r a) C h a n c e l : The i n t e r i o r o f t h e c h a n c e l m e a s u r e s 19 f t . 3 i n . x 45 f t . 4 i n . b) N a v e : O v e r t h e e a s t e r n p i e r o f t h e w e s t e r n a r c h i n t h e n a v e s o u t h a r c a d e i s a s m a l l c a r v e d s t o n e f i g u r e o f a man w e a r i n g a s h o r t t u n i c . ( f i g . 1 4 2 ) c) Tower: The i n t e r n a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e t o w e r a r e 15 f t . 10 i n . 239 e a s t / w e s t x 12 f t . 3 i n . n o r t h / s o u t h . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s : I t i s d a n g e r o u s t o presume t h a t a n y p a r t o f t h e f a b r i c o f S t . B a r t h o l o m e w A l d b o r o u g h i s o f A n g l o - S a x o n d a t e . The s u n d i a l may n o t be i n i t s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n and t h e c a r v e d l i n t e l o n t h e e x t e r i o r s o u t h w a l l o f t h e c h a n c e l h a s c e r t a i n l y b e e n moved f r o m a n o t h e r l o c a t i o n . The t h i n n e s s o f t h e w a l l s a b o v e t h e n a v e s o u t h a r c a d e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e f o r a s s i g n i n g t h e c h u r c h t o t h e p r e - C o n q u e s t e r a . I t i s known f r o m d o c u m e n t a r y s o u r c e s t h a t a c h u r c h e x i s t e d o n t h e s i t e i n 1066, b u t w h e t h e r a n y p a r t o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e r e m a i n s i s . q u e s t i o n a b l e . W i t h t h e e v i d e n c e a t h a n d , a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n b u i l d i n g i s i m p o s s i b l e . B u r g h w a l l i s I . D e d i c a t i o n : S t . H e l e n I I . . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e West R i d i n g o f 148 Y o r k s h i r e , a b o u t s i x m i l e s n o r t h - n o r t h w e s t o f D o n c a s t e r . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : S t . H e l e n ' s c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , an a i s l e l e s s r e c t a n g u l a r n a v e w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h , a n d a l o n g r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l w i t h a n o r t h v e s t r y v ( f i g s . 1 4 4 , 1 4 5 ) ( P l a n 20) I V . H i s t o r y and D o c u m e n t a t i o n : O n l y t h e v i l l a g e i s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e Domesday Book. V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1 . E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The n a v e w a l l s a r e o f r e d s a n d s t o n e r u b b l e l a i d i n i r r e g u l a r c o u r s e s o f t h i n s l a b s , w h i l e t h e c h a n c e l e a s t w a l l and some o f t h e u p p e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h w a l l s a r e o f a s h l a r . ( f i g s . 1 4 4 , 1 4 6 ) The s o u t h w a l l o f t h e n a v e i s c omposed a l m o s t . e n t i r e l y o f h e r r i n g - b o n e w o r k w h i l e t h e h e r r i n g - b o n e i n t h e n o r t h n a v e w a l l i s c o n f i n e d m a i n l y t o t h e l o w e r c o u r s e s . T h e r e i s a l s o a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f h e r r i n g -bone s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c h a n c e l s o u t h w a l l . b) C h a n c e l : The c h a n c e l was l e n g t h e n e d a t some p o i n t a f t e r i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n . ( f i g . 1 4 7 ) T h i s l e n g t h e n i n g i s • i n d i c a t e d b y t h e e n d o f t h e h e r r i n g - b o n e a n d t h e s t a r t o f t h e a s h l a r j u s t t o t h e e a s t o f t h e s o u t h e r n b u t t r e s s o f t h e s o u t h w a l l . The s i d e - a l t e r n a t e s o u t h e a s t e r n a n d n o r t h e a s t e r n q u o i n s a r e s t i l l v i s i b l e a n d a s i m p l e s q u a r e f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m o f r o u g h - c u t s t o n e s f o r m s t h e b a s e o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e . c) N a v e : The n a v e , w h i c h r e s t s on a s q u a r e f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m , r e t a i n s a l l f o u r o r i g i n a l q u o i n s . ( f i g . 1 4 4 ) E.A. F i s h e r c l a i m s 149 t h a t w h i l e t h e y a r e l a r g e , t h e y a r e c e r t a i n l y n o t m e g a l i t h i c . He a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n q u o i n i s o f m i x e d f a c e -and s i d e - a l t e r n a t e s t o n e s a n d t h a t t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n q u o i n i s r o u g h l y u p r i g h t a n d f l a t w h i l e t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n a n d s o u t h w e s t e r n 241 o n e s a r e s i d e - a l t e r n a t e . H o w e v e r , b o t h t h e T a y l o r s a n d t h i s w r i t e r f e e l , t h a t a l l f o u r q u o i n s s h o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d a s 242 m e g a l i t h i c s i d e - a l t e r n a t e . 2. I n t e r i o r a) C h a n c e l : The o r i g i n a l i n t e r n a l l e n g t h o f t h e c h a n c e l , 243 a c c o r d i n g t o H.M. T a y l o r , was a b o u t 15 f t . The p r e s e n t d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e a r e 13 f t . 9 i n . x 27 f t . 1 i n . b) N a v e : The a i s l e l e s s n a v e m e a s u r e s 20 f t . 1 i n . x 34 f t . 5 i n . w i t h w a l l s 2 f t . 9 i n . t h i c k a n d a b o u t 17 f t . h i g h . A b o v e t h e t o w e r a r c h a n d t o t h e s o u t h o f i t s a p e x , i s a r o u n d - h e a d e d o p e n i n g p a r t i a l l y c o n c e a l e d by t h e wooden c e i l i n g . ( f i g . 1 4 8 ) B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The t o w e r i s composed o f r e d s a n d s t o n e r u b b l e l a i d i n c o u r s e s o f s m a l l s t o n e s i n t e r m i x e d w i t h some l a r g e r o n e s , ( f i g . 1 4 5 ) b) C h a n c e l : The d o o r w a y i n t h e s o u t h w a l l , w h i c h h a s b e e n o p e n e d up s i n c e t h e T a y l o r s w e r e t h e r e , h a s a m o n o l i t h i c h e a d c u t 244 t o a p o i n t e d s h a p e . . ( f i g . 1 4 7 ) The jambs a r e o f l a r g e , r o u g h l y d r e s s e d t h r o u g h s t o n e s . c) N a v e : The s o u t h p o r c h i s o f a l a t e r d a t e t h a n t h e n a v e , 150 b u t t h e s o u t h d o o r w a y i s o f a n i n d e t e r m i n a t e d a t e . I t c o n s i s t s o f a r o u n d - h e a d e d t r u e v o u s s o i r a r c h o f r e d s a n d s t o n e , b u t t h e r e i s no k e y s t o n e . Two m a s o n r y b l o c k s f o r m t h e l i n t e l b e l o w . M o s t o f t h e s q u a r e jambs h a v e b e e n r e n e w e d b u t t h e i m p o s t s a p p e a r t o be o r i g i n a l . The o p e n i n g m i g h t be E a r l y Norman, b u t i t c o n t a i n s no d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s . B e t w e e n t h e two d o u b l e - l i g h t windows i n t h e n o r t h w a l l i s a b l o c k e d r e c t a n g u l a r o p e n i n g . I t i s a b o u t 5 . f t . h i g h a n d h a s a f l a t l i n t e l . ( f i g . 1 4 6 ) I t i s much w o r n , t h o u g h t h e w e s t e r n jamb i s o f e i g h t l a r g e c h a m f e r e d s l a b s . The e a s t e r n jamb i s h i d d e n by a l a t e r b u t t r e s s . d) Tower: The t o w e r , w h i c h i s 17% f t . s q u a r e a n d 55 f t . h i g h t o t h e t o p o f t h e l a t e r b a t t l e m e n t s , c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s t a g e s , e a c h s e t b a c k 6 i n . f r o m t h e one b e l o w and s e p a r a t e d by a 245 c h a m f e r e d s t r i n g - c o u r s e . ( f i g . 1 4 5 ) The s t r u c t u r e , w h i c h h a s s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s , i s n o t i n b o n d w i t h t h e n a v e . w a l l s a n d h a s a c h a m f e r e d p l i n t h t h a t r i s e s 18 i n . a b o v e t h e g r o u n d . I n t h e s o u t h w a l l , j u s t b e l o w t h e f i r s t s t r i n g - c o u r s e , i s a t a l l n a r r o w w i n d o w w i t h an a r c h e d l i n t e l , jambs o f f o u r s l a b s e a c h , a n d a s l a b s i l l . I t h a s a s i n g l e i n t e r n a l s p l a y , i s c h a m f e r e d a l l r o u n d , a n d l o o k s r e n e w e d . T h e r e i s a s i m i l a r w indow on t h e w e s t f a c e . The s e c o n d s t a g e c o n t a i n s a c i r c u l a r o p e n i n g i n t h e n o r t h w a l l w h i c h i s c u t s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h a s i n g l e s q u a r e s l a b o f r e d d i s h s t o n e . The b e l f r y w i n d o w s on a l l f o u r f a c e s a r e m i d - w a l l , d o u b l e - l i g h t o p e n i n g s w i t h p o i n t e d h e a d s . E a c h p a i r i s c u t 151 f r o m f i v e l o n g s t o n e s s h a p e d t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c u r v e d f o r m . The m i d d l e s t o n e o f e a c h i s common t o t h e p a i r a n d e a c h p o i n t e d a p e x i s c u t f r o m one s t o n e . The j a m b s , w h i c h h a v e no i m p o s t s , a r e o f f o u r s i d e - a l t e r n a t e s l a b s , b u t t h e y a r e n o t t h r o u g h s t o n e s . The c e n t r a l i m p o s t s a r e l o n g , t h i n a n d s q u a r e -c u t a n d t h e c e n t r a l , c o l u m n s b e n e a t h a r e t a l l a n d s l e n d e r . They a r e n o t t r u l y m i d - w a l l b u t s i t n e a r t h e o u t e r f a c e s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . E a c h t h r o u g h s t o n e i s s u p p o r t e d by two s h a f t s , n o t one. On t h r e e f a c e s o f t h e t o w e r t h e s h a f t s a r e c y l i n d r i c a l . H o w e v e r , on t h e f o u r t h f a c e , t o t h e e a s t , t h e o u t e r one i s 246 c y l i n d r i c a l w h i l e t h e i n n e r one i s a l a r g e s q u a r e s l a b . The r e a r c o l u m n s a r e o f d i f f e r e n t s t o n e f r o m t h e o t h e r s and a p p e a r t o be modern r e p l a c e m e n t s . 2. I n t e r i o r a) N a v e : The b l o c k e d r e m a i n s o f t h e n o r t h d o o r w a y a r e r e b a t e d 247 f o r t h e h a n g i n g o f a d o o r . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s : T h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t c h u r c h t o d a t e . T h e r e a r e a t B u r g h w a l l i s no s p e c i f i c a l l y A n g l o - S a x o n e l e m e n t s a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f h e r r i n g - b o n e w o r k i s o f no r e a l h e l p , s i n c e i t c a n be e i t h e r A n g l o - S a x o n o r Norman. However, t h e w a l l s a r e r e l a t i v e l y t h i n and t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g q u o i n s a r e m e g a l i t h i c . T h i s p l a c e s t h e s t r u c t u r e i n C^ o f t h e Saxo-Norman e r a ; H o w e v e r , t h e t o w e r i s Saxo-Norman o r Norman. The q u o i n s a r e s m a l l e r a n d s i d e - a l t e r n a t e a n d t h e r u b b l e w a l l i n g i s w e l l — : c o u r s e d . The b e l f r y w i n d o w s , w i t h t h e i r s l i g h t l y p o i n t e d a r c h e s , a r e e x e c u t e d i n a more d e v e l o p e d s t y l e . The t o w e r i s n o t i n bond w i t h t h e n a v e w a l l a nd i s p r o b a b l y l a t e r t h a n t h e n a v e . D e s p i t e e a r l y f e a t u r e s , t h i s m ust be c o n s i d e r e d as a l a t e c h u r c h o f t h e Saxo-Norman o v e r l a p o r E a r l y Norman p e r i o d , b u t one w h i c h h a s c e r t a i n c o n s e r v a t i v e o v e r t o n e s . S t o n e g r a v e I . D e d i c a t i o n : . Holy, T r i n i t y I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e N o r t h ' R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e , a b o u t n i n e m i l e s w e s t n o r t h w e s t o f M a l t o n . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : H o l y T r i n i t y c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , an a i s l e d n a v e w i t h a. s o u t h p o r c h , and an a i s l e l e s s c h a n c e l w i t h a n o r t h v e s t r y . ( f i g . 1 4 9 ) ( P l a n 21) I V . H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n : The c h u r c h a t S t o n e g r a v e b e l o n g s t o t h e g r o u p o f m o n a s t e r i e s .and. c h u r c h e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y b y I r i s h m i s s i o n a r i e s . T h i s g r o u p i n c l u d e s K i r k d a l e a nd L a s t i n g h a m . H o l y T r i n i t y i s f i r s t r e f e r r e d t o i n a l e t t e r a d d r e s s e d t o E a d b e r t , K i n g o f N o r t h u m b r i a b y Pope P a u l I i n 75 7. T h i s l e t t e r c a l l e d o n h i m t o r e s t o r e t h e m o n a s t e r i e s o f S t o n e g r a v e , C o x w o l d a n d Donmouth ( J a r r o w ) t o 248 t h e i r p r o p e r o w n e r s and t o t h e s e r v i c e o f God. I n t h e Domesday Book t h e r e a r e two s e p a r a t e e n t r i e s f o r S t o n e g r a v e . The f i r s t l i s t s t h e v i l l a g e u n d e r t h e l a n d h e l d b y t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k . The s e c o n d e n t r y , u n d e r t h e l a n d o f R a l p h P a g e n e l , i n c l u d e s a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c h u r c h a n d t h e 249 p r i e s t who s e r v e d i t . A m a j o r r e b u i l d i n g o f t h e c h u r c h may h a v e t a k e n p l a c e when p o s s e s s i o n o f S t o n e g r a v e manor was t r a n s f e r r e d 153 f r o m t h e P r i o r and C h a p t e r o f Hexham t o W i l l i a m de S t o n e g r a v e 250 i n 1 1 4 1 . The b u i l d i n g was d r a s t i c a l l y r e s t o r e d i n 1 8 6 2 , 251 a t w h i c h t i m e a l l o f t h e e x t e r i o r w a l l s w e r e r e c o n s t r u c t e d . V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The t o w e r i s o f w i d e l y j o i n t e d g r e y g r i t s t o n e r u b b l e , ( f i g . 1 5 0 ) b) Tower: The t o w e r i s o f t h r e e s t a g e s and i s d i f f i c u l t t o d a t e . I t may be e i t h e r Saxo-Norman o r N o r m a n . ( f i g . 1 5 0 ) The w a l l s o f t h i s s t r u c t u r e r e s t on a c h a m f e r e d p l i n t h w i t h m i t r e d a n g l e s . Hodges f e e l s t h a t i t r e s e m b l e s t h e p l i n t h s f o u n d i n many Roman b u i l d i n g s i n E n g l a n d and he s t a t e s t h a t he h a s s e e n s u c h a c o n s t r u c t i o n i n o n l y one o t h e r c h u r c h , S t o w , L i n e s . , w h e r e t h e t r a n s e p t s h a v e p l i n t h s w i t h d o u b l e 252 c h a m f e r s and s i m i l a r l y m i t r e d a n g l e s . The s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s a r e o f m o d e r a t e s i z e . The o n l y o p e n i n g s t o s u r v i v e a r e t h e b l o c k e d w e s t d o o r w a y and t h e s m a l l r o u n d - h e a d e d i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d window i n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e o f t h e s o u t h f a c e . ( f i g . 1 5 0 ) I t i s o f L a t e S a x o n o f E a r l y Norman c h a r a c t e r . The s p l a y o f t h i s o p e n i n g i s c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h t h e e n t i r e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e , w a l l a n d t h e r e i s no g r o o v e o r r e b a t e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f f i x i n g a g l a s s p a n e . The h e a d o f t h e w indow c o n s i s t s o f a n a r c h e d l i n t e l a n d t h e jambs a r e o f two s t o n e s e a c h . T h e s e b o n d d e e p l y s i d e w a y s i n t o t h e w a l l . The w e s t d o o r w a y was b l o c k e d b y t h e i n s e r t i o n o f a 154 253 f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t w o - l i g h t window. ~ The h o o d - m o u l d o f t h i s l a t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n now o b l i t e r a t e s t h e h e a d o f t h e o r i g i n a l d o o r w a y , t h o u g h a f a i n t o u t l i n e o f t h e r o u n d a r c h r e m a i n s , ( f i g . 1 5 1 ) The jambs o f t h e o p e n i n g a r e l a i d Escomb f a s h i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o H.M. T a y l o r t h e t o w e r . i s b u i l t o v e r t h e w e s t e r n w a l l o f t h e e a r l i e r n a v e . T h i s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s i d e w a l l s o f t h e t o w e r a r e n o t i n b o n d 254 255 w i t h t h e n a v e w a l l . Ada R u s s e l l c o n f i r m s t h i s . 2. I n t e r i o r a) N ave: The n a v e , w h i c h i s i r r e g u l a r l y s e t o u t , i s 15 f t . 11 i n . w i d e a t t h e e a s t e r n e n d and 18 f t . 2 i n . w i d e a t t h e w e s t e r n en d . I t i s 37 f t . 4 i n . l o n g t o t h e n o r t h b u t 37 f t . 9iin-; l o n g t o t h e s o u t h . The w a l l s were., o r i g i n a l l y 3. f t . t h i c k . The w e s t w a l l c o n t a i n s a r o u n d - a r c h e d d o o r w a y w h i c h now l e a d s i n t o t h e t o w e r . The s e c t i o n f a c i n g t h e n a v e m e a s u r e s 3 f t . 3 i n . x 9 f t . 3 i n . a n d i s c o a t e d w i t h p l a s t e r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t s h i s t o r y i s d i f f i c u l t o f s u r m i s e . The n a r r o w i n g t o t h e w e s t c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d a s a s t o p f o r t h e h a n g i n g o f a d o o r . B u t i n t h a t c a s e , t h e h e a d s h o u l d be a few i n c h e s l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e e a s t e r n a r c h i n s t e a d o f 1 f t . h i g h e r . P o s s i b l y t h e o r i g i n a l o p e n i n g was c u t s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h t h e w a l l a n d . a d o o r was t h e n hung on t h e i n n e r w a l l f a c e . The p r e s e n t . : c o m p l i c a t e d a r r a n g e m e n t a r i s e s f r o m some m o d i f i c a t i o n , p e r h a p s t h e t h i c k e n i n g o f t h e f a b r i c . S u p p o r t i s g i v e n t o t h i s t h e o r y by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e w e s t w a l l o f t h e n a v e i s 3 f t . 8 i n . t h i c k , w h i l e t h e s i d e w a l l s a r e o n l y 3 f t . t h i c k . b) Tower: The i n t e r i o r o f t h e t o w e r m e a s u r e s 11 f t . 9 i n . x 11 f t . 155 and h a s w a l l s w h i c h a r e 3 f t . 2 i n . t h i c k . The w e s t e r n f a c e o f t h e w e s t d o o r w a y , w h i c h l e a d s f r o m t h e n a v e i n t o t h e t o w e r , i s 2 f t . 10 i n . w i d e x 10 f t . 2 i n . h i g h . The a r c h i s n a r r o w e r on t h e e a s t e r n f a c e . The d e t a i l s o f t h i s d o o r w a y c a n be s e e n more c l e a r l y f r o m t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e t o w e r w h e r e t h e s t o n e s a r e p a r t i a l l y v i s i b l e b e n e a t h t h e l i m e w a s h . The u s e o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s a n d m a s s i v e jamb s t o n e s i s e v i d e n t and t h e v o u s s o i r s a r e a w k w a r d l y s h a p e d and t h i n . The i m p o s t h a s b e e n c u t away a b o v e t h e s o u t h e r n jamb b u t i s s t i l l v i s i b l e a s a f l a t b l o c k a b o v e t h e n o r t h e r n jamb. B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) Nave: I n t h e m i d - t w e l f t h c e n t u r y a n o r t h a i s l e was b u i l t a n d l a t e i n t h e same c e n t u r y a c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t r u c t u r e w a s a d d e d o c c t o t h e s o u t h . ( f i g . 1 4 9 ) 2. I n t e r i o r a) Nave: The m i d - t w e l f t h c e n t u r y n o r t h a r c a d e c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e b a y s w i t h r o u n d a r c h e s o f two c h a m f e r e d o r d e r s s u p p o r t e d o n 257 c i r c u l a r c o l u m n s a n d r e s p o n d s . ( f i g s . 1 5 2 , 1 5 3 ) The v o u s s o i r s o f t h e c e n t r a l a n d w e s t e r n a r c h e s a r e o f a l t e r n a t i n g y e l l o w s a n d s t o n e and w h i t e f r e e s t o n e - a n d t h e c o l u m n c a p i t a l s a r e s c a l l o p e d a n d h a v e s q u a r e - c h a m f e r e d a b a c i . The c a p i t a l o f t h e w e s t e r n r e s p o n d i s c a r v e d i n t h e f o r m o f a b r o a d w a t e r - l e a f . The v e r t i c a l f a c e s o f t h e e a s t e r n . c o l u m n ' s s c a l l o p e d c a p i t a l a r e i n c i s e d o n t h e w e s t e r n and s o u t h e r n f a c e s w i t h s i x c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s w h i c h w e r e n e v e r c o m p l e t e d . The s o u t h e r n and w e s t e r n f a c e s o f t h e w e s t e r n c o l u m n a r e o r n a m e n t e d w i t h f o l i a t e d d e s i g n s 156 w i t h i n b e a d e d b o r d e r s . On t h e n e x t c o l u m n t o t h e e a s t i s t h e c a r v e d f i g u r e o f a m e r m a i d w h i l e o n t h e w e s t e r n f a c e o f t h e c a p i t a l a r e t h r e e c i r c l e s c o n t a i n i n g o r n a m e n t . The t h i r d c i r c l e i s i n c o m p l e t e . The l a t e r t w o - b a y s o u t h a r c a d e h a s r o u n d a r c h e s o f two c h a m f e r e d o r d e r s , e a c h w i t h a c h a m f e r e d l a b e l . ( f i g . 1 5 4 ) The r e s p o n d s a r e s e m i c i r c u l a r w i t h a b a c i a n d m o u l d e d b a s e s . The c a p i t a l s o f t h e r e s p o n d s o f t h e e a s t e r n a r c h a r e c a r v e d w i t h a b r o a d w a t e r - l e a f d e s i g n , w h i l e t h e w e s t e r n a r c h h a s s c a l l o p e d c a p i t a l s . The s c a l l o p s a t t h e a n g l e s o f t h e e a s t e r n c a p i t a l a r e c a r v e d w i t h s h a l l o w r e l i e f a n d t h e n e c k i n g o f t h e w e s t e r n 258 r e s p o n d i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h n a i l - h e a d o r n a m e n t . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s : The c h u r c h o f H o l y T r i n i t y i s a n a n c i e n t f o u n d a t i o n , b u t none o f t h e o l d e s t s t r u c t u r e r e m a i n s . O n l y t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y S a x o n c r o s s s h a f t s , now p l a c e d a t t h e w e s t e r n e n d o f t h e n a v e , d a t e f r o m t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d . As a r e s u l t o f t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f 1862 - 1 8 6 3 , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s o r t o u t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e x i s t i n g c h u r c h . The w a l l s o f t h e n a v e may be A n g l o - S a x o n , a s t h e y a r e n o t i n b o n d w i t h t h e t o w e r and a r e l a i d o u t i n a n i r r e g u l a r t r i a n g u l a r s h a p e . H owever, t h e s e w a l l s a r e t h i c k ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 f t . ) T h i s m e a s u r e m e n t i s n o t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y A n g l o - S a x o n , . The t o w e r d o o r w a y a n d t h e n a v e w e s t d o o r w a y a r e b o t h d i f f i c u l t t o d a t e b e c a u s e t h e i r . d e t a i l s h a v e b e e n c o v e r e d w i t h p l a s t e r . H o w e v e r , t h e i r c l u m s y c o n s t r u c t i o n may i n d i c a t e t h e Saxo-Norman p e r i o d . The t o w e r w a l l s a r e o v e r 3 f t . t h i c k b u t , t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a r e t a l l a n d s l e n d e r , u n l i k e t h o s e o f Norman t o w e r s . I t i s h a r d t o s e e how t h e b l o c k e d w e s t d o o r w a y may p 157 h a v e l o o k e d o r i g i n a l l y b u t i t s p l a c e m e n t h e r e i s an A n g l o - S a x o n f e a t u r e . T h e r e a r e no b e l f r y w i n d o w s and s i n c e t h e w a l l s a r e n o t i n b o n d w i t h t h o s e o f t h e n a v e , t h e t o w e r i s p r o b a b l y a l a t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n . The q u o i n s a r e o f t h e s m a l l s i d e - a l t e r n a t e h Norman t y p e . L i t t l e . i n s u l a r i n f l u e n c e now r e m a i n s a t H o l y T r i n i t y a n d t h e c h u r c h c a n o n l y be a s s i g n e d t o t h e p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g 1066. H o r n b y I . D e d i c a t i o n : S t . M a r y I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e g r o u n d s o f H o r n b y P a r k and C a s t l e , a b o u t t h r e e m i l e s s o u t h o f C a t t e r i c k . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : S t . M a r y ' s c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , an a i s l e d n a v e w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h , a n d a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l w i t h a modern n o r t h v e s t r y and a s o u t h c h a p e l . ( f i g s . 1 5 5 , 1 5 6 ) ( P l a n 22) . I V . H i s t o r y and D o c u m e n t a t i o n : T h e r e i s some c o n f u s i o n o v e r t h e name H o r n b y , s i n c e t h r e e s u c h p l a c e s e x i s t e d a t t h e t i m e t h e Domesday Book was c o m p i l e d . H o w e v e r , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e n t r y r e f e r s t o b o t h t h e c h u r c h and t h e v i l l a g e i n w h i c h i t i s 259 s i t u a t e d . V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The e x t e r i o r i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f w i d e l y ^ j o i n t e d , l i g h t b r own s a n d s t o n e r u b b l e . ( f i g s . 1 5 5 , 1 5 6 , 1 5 7 ) b) N a v e : The r u d e s t o n e w o r k o f t h e t o w e r h a s b e e n c o n t i n u e d a l o n g t h e s o u t h e r n s i d e o f t h e n a v e and f o r a s h o r t d i s t a n c e 158 260 i n t o t h e w e s t e r n e n d o f t h e n o r t h ' a i s l e . ( f i g s . 1 5 6 , 1 5 7 ) The w e s t e r n w a l l s o f t h e n a v e a i s l e s , a c c o r d i n g t o H.M. T a y l o r , h a v e b e e n b u i l t up a g a i n s t t h e c l a s p i n g b u t t r e s s e s o f t h e a i s l e l e s s Norman n a v e . However, b e t w e e n t h e s e b u t t r e s s e s and t h e s i d e w a l l s o f t h e t o w e r t h e r e a p p e a r t o be s e c t i o n s 261 o f t h e w e s t e r n w a l l o f a n e a r l i e r n a v e . c) Tower: The t o w e r i s o f f o u r s t a g e s and r e s t s on a p l a i n s q u a r e p l i n t h . ( f i g s . 1 5 5 , 1 5 6 , 1 5 7 ) The t h r e e l o w e r s t o r e y s a r e s e p a r a t e d by two s t r i n g - c o u r s e s . T h e s e seem o r i g i n a l l y t o h a v e b e e n o f p l a i n s q u a r e s e c t i o n , b u t t h e y w e r e l a t e r c u t t o be c h a m f e r e d on t h e u p p e r e d g e . The l o w e r s t r i n g - c o u r s e i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . The g r e a t e r p a r t o f i t s s o u t h e r n and w e s t e r n f a c e s h a v e s u r v i v e d i n t h e i r p l a i n s q u a r e f o r m , w h e r e a s t h e p a r t s w h i c h a r e a b o v e t h e Norman c l a s p i n g b u t t r e s s e s a r e o f t h i n n e r c h a m f e r e d s e c t i o n . The w e s t d o o r w a y , w h i c h i s 3 f t . w i d e x 6 f t . 6 i n . t a l l t o t h e l i n t e l , h a s a t o t a l h e i g h t f r o m s i l l t o c r o w n o f 9 f t . 10 i n . ( f i g . 1 5 9 ) I t h a s s u f f e r e d f r o m c o n s i d e r a b l e a l t e r a t i o n a n d i s now s q u a r e - e d g e d w i t h a m a s s i v e l i n t e l a n d s m a l l jamb s t o n e s . A b o v e t h e l i n t e l i s an a r c h e d h e a d o f i r r e g u l a r l y s h a p e d v o u r s s o i r s w h i c h s u r r o u n d s a tympanum o f p l a i n r u b b l e w a l l i n g . T h i s tympanum i s r e c e s s e d a b o u t 2 i n . b e h i n d t h e w a l l f a c e . The l o w e r few f e e t o f m a s o n r y on t h e s o u t h e r n and w e s t e r n f a c e s o f t h e t o w e r a r e o f d i f f e r e n t t e x t u r e f r o m t h a t a b o v e . H.M. T a y l o r f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n t h i s f e a t u r e u n l e s s . a t one p o i n t t h e r e was some s t r u c t u r e b u i l t a g a i n s t t h e l o w e r 262 p a r t o f t h e w a l l . '(f i g s . 156 ,158) 159 The s e c o n d a n d t h i r d s t a g e s o f t h e t o w e r h a v e m a s s i v e f a c e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s a t t h e c o r n e r s . ( f i g s . 1 5 6 , 1 5 7 ) The s o u t h e r n f a c e o f t h e s e c o n d s t o r e y i s l i t by an o r i g i n a l r o u n d - h e a d e d , s i n g l e - s p l a y e d w i n d o w . ( f i g . 1 5 8 ) I t h a s t a l l m o n o l i t h i c jambs and an a r c h e d l i n t e l . The o u t e r f a c e o f t h i s o p e n i n g i s r e b a t e d and may ha v e b e e n c l o s e d b y a wooden s h u t t e r . The t h i r d s t a g e was o r i g i n a l l y t h e b e l f r y s t o r e y o f t h e t o w e r . I t s f o u r d o u b l e - l i g h t b e l f r y w i n d o w s r e s t on t h e u p p e r s t r i n g - c o u r s e . They h a v e c y l i n d r i c a l s h a f t s w i t h s q u a r e b l o c k - l i k e b a s e s a n d c u s h i o n c a p i t a l s . ( f i g s . 1 5 6 , 1 5 7 , 1 5 8 ) The jambs a r e o f d r e s s e d m a s o n r y w i t h p l a i n s q u a r e i m p o s t s . The c e n t r a l t h r o u g h s t o n e s l a b s a r e a l s o o f p l a i n s q u a r e s e c t i o n . E a c h p a i r o f windows h a s s q u a r e a r c h e d l i n t e l s , one o v e r e a c h l i g h t , a n d t h e s e r e s t o n t h e p l a i n . . s q u a r e i m p o s t - b l o c k s . 2. I n t e r i o r a) Tower: The w e s t t o w e r m e a s u r e s 11 f t . 8 i n . x 11 f t . 5 i n . B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The c l a s p i n g , b u t t r e s s e s o f t h e t o w e r a r e o f r u b b l e b e l o w a n d o f l a r g e , w i d e l y j o i n t e d a s h l a r s t o n e s a b o v e . ( f i g s . 156,157) 263 b) C h a n c e l : The c h a n c e l was r e b u i l t ca.1170 - ca.1180. The l a t e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y s o u t h window i s o f two r o u n d - h e a d e d l i g h t s . T h e s e l i g h t s a r e o f two o r d e r s . The i n n e r one i s r e n e w e d w h i l e t h e o u t e r one i s o l d . They a r e s l i g h t l y c h a m f e r e d w i t h t h e u s u a l s m a l l g r o o v e a b o v e t h e h o l l o w c h a m f e r s a n d l a b e l s . The 160 groove i s r e a l l y p a r t of the s t r i n g - c o u r s e which runs along the w a l l a t the l e v e l of the s p r i n g i n g l i n e of the window arches and i s c a r r i e d over them. Another s t r i n g - c o u r s e o f s i m i l a r s e c t i o n , though renewed i n p a r t s , a l s o , r u n s below the s i l l s . There are shallow c l a s p i n g b u t t r e s s e s a t the e a s t e r n angles of the chancel which stands on a foundation p l a t f o r m c o n s i s t i n g of a r o l l above two chamfered members. c) Nave: The nave was r e b u i l t and the n o r t h a i s l e added ca.1170 -c a . H 8 0 . 2 6 5 ( f i g . l 5 5 ) . d) Tower: The lowest stage of the tower i s supported by wide, shallow c l a s p i n g b u t t r e s s e s a t the western corners and shallow b u t t r e s s e s abut a g a i n s t the nave wall.(figs.156,157) These l a s t are obscured by the l a t e r western b u t t r e s s e s of the nave. H.M. T a y l o r f e e l s there are good grounds f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t these c l a s p i n g b u t t r e s s e s - a r e l a t e r a d d i t i o n s , as they are not p r o p e r l y bonded to,the w a l l f a b r i c . They d i s p l a y s t r a i g h t 266 v e r t i c a l j o i n t s a t t h e i r j u n c t i o n with the main w a l l s . 2. I n t e r i o r a) Chancel: The internal>dimensions of the chancel are 37 f t . 7 i n . x 18 f t . 4 i n . ( f i g . 1 6 0 ) Below the east windows i s a b i l l e t moulded s t r i n g - c o u r s e . The northern w a l l o f the chancel g i v e s access t o the v e s t r y through a l a t e r t w e l f t h century round-headed doorway wi t h a 3/4 edge r o l l . Myra C u r t i s c l a i m s t h a t t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n has e i t h e r been r e s e t i n i t s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n o r , more probably, t h a t i t has been 267 removed from the south w a l l . 161 The s o u t h w a l l c o n t a i n s two r o u n d - h e a d e d t w e l f t h c e n t u r y 2 68 l i g h t s w i t h , 3 / 4 r o l l s t o t h e i r i n s i d e s p l a y s . A r o l l a l s o p a s s e s a l o n g t h e b o t t o m s o f t h e s l o p i n g window l e d g e s , o n e : o f w h i c h h a s b e e n r e c e n t l y r e n e w e d . b) Nave: The i n t e r i o r o f t h e n a v e m e a s u r e s 45 f t . 9 i n . x 21 f t . 5 i n . w i t h s i d e w a l l s 2 f t . 9 i n . t h i c k . The n o r t h a i s l e i s 13 f t . 9 i n . wide'. The n o r t h a r c a d e i s o f t h r e e b a y s w i t h p i e r s c o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r a t t a c h e d s h a f t s . ( f i g . 1 6 1 ) T h e s e a r c h e s h a v e r e s p o n d s o f two o r d e r s d e c o r a t e d w i t h h a l f - r o u n d s h a f t s f l a n k e d b y s m a l l e r s h a f t s . The b a s e m o u l d s c o n s i s t o f h o l l o w s b e t w e e n two r o u n d s . The c a p i t a l s c o n f o r m t o t h e s h a p e o f t h e p i e r s b e l o w , b u t a r e o c t a g o n a l a b o v e . They h a v e r o u n d n e c k m o u l d s and a r e c a r v e d w i t h s i m p l e s h a l l o w v o l u t e l e a v e s o f t h e w a t e r p l a n t t y p e . The a b a c i a r e h o l l o w - c h a m f e r e d w i t h h a l f - r o u n d s b e l o w and g r o o v e s a b o v e . T h a t o f t h e e a s t e r n r e s p o n d h a s b e e n r e n e w e d . The t o w e r a r c h h a s p l a i n s q u a r e jambs and q u i r k e d a n d c h a m f e r e d i m p o s t s . The r o u n d h e a d i s o f a s i n g l e o r d e r , t h e r e i s no u s e o f t h r o u g h s t o n e s , a n d t h e v o u s s o i r s a r e o f d i f f e r i n g s i z e a nd s h a p e . ( f i g . 1 6 2 ) T h i s a r c h i s 6 f t . 1 i n . w i d e x 269 13 f t . 7 ^ i n . t a l l a n d i s s e t i n a w a l l 3 f t . 5 i n . t h i c k . V I : O b s e r v a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s : Though a c h u r c h e x i s t e d a t H o r n b y a t t h e t i m e o f t h e Domesday S u r v e y , t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h i s b u i l d i n g d a t e m a i n l y f r o m t h e p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e C o n q u e s t . The t o w e r a r c h i s o f t a l l , n a r r o w S a x o n p r o p o r t i o n s and d i s p l a y s an i n e p t u s e o f v o u s s o i r s , b u t i t h a s c h a m f e r e d i m p o s t s a n d 162 d o e s n o t u t i l i z e t h r o u g h s t o n e s . The t o w e r i s t a l l a n d s l e n d e r b u t t h e w a l l s a r e r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k ( t h e w e s t w a l l i s 3 f t . 5 i n . t h i c k ) , t h e s t r i n g - c o u r s e s a r e c h a m f e r e d , and t h e q u o i n s a r e s m a l l . The w e s t d o o r w a y i s p r i m i t i v e a n d o f p o o r c o n s t r u c t i o n b u t t h e r e l i e v i n g a r c h a n d tympanum b e l o w t e n d t o p l a c e i t i n t h e p o s t - C o n q u e s t p e r i o d r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r e - C o n q u e s t e r a . The b e l f r y w i n d o w s a r e S a x o n i n c h a r a c t e r b u t t h e y d i s p l a y a n . a d v a n c e d u s e o f c a p i t a l s a n d b a s e s . The E a r l y Norman c l a s p i n g b u t t r e s s e s , i f n o t e r e c t e d a t t h e same t i m e a s t h e t o w e r , w e r e a d d e d s o o n a f t e r . Though t h e n a v e w a l l s a b o v e t h e l a t e r a r c a d e s a r e l e s s t h a n 3 f t . t h i c k , t h e y do a p p r o a c h t h a t m e a s u r e m e n t . I n f a c t , t h o s e s t y l i s t i c e l e m e n t s w h i c h m i g h t be c a l l e d S a x o n a l s o h a v e s t r o n g Norman o v e r t o n e s . I t i s l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t H o r n b y i s o f p o s t - C o n q u e s t d a t e , . c a . 1 0 80. A t t h a t t i m e S t . M a r y ' s b e g a n t o a d o p t some o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e c o n q u e r i n g n a t i o n b u t an i n n a t e Y o r k s h i r e c o n s e r v a t i s m a n d t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e n o r t h w o u l d r e s u l t i n a t e n a c i o u s c l i n g i n g t o many o f t h e o l d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n a l a n d s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s . K i r k b y . U n d e r d a l e I . D e d i c a t i o n : A l l S a i n t s I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e E a s t R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e , t h i r t e e n m i l e s e a s t - n o r t h e a s t o f Y o r k a n d a b o u t s e v e n m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f S t a m f o r d B r i d g e . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : A l l S a i n t s c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , an a i s l e d n a v e w i t h a s o u t h p o r c h , a n d an a i s l e l e s s r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l . T h e r e i s a l s o a n o r t h v e s t r y . " . ( f i g . 163) 163 I V . H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s n o t m e n t i o n e d i n t h e Domesday Book t h o u g h K i r k b y , w h i c h i s a N o r s e name m e a n i n g 270 f a r m s t e a d n e a r a c h u r c h , i s t w i c e r e f e r r e d t o . T h e r e a r e , i n a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l Norman c h a r t e r s i n e x i s t e n c e w h i c h c o n c e r n t h e c h u r c h . The f i r s t document c o n f i r m s t h e g r a n t o f l a n d b y W i l l i a m t h e C o n q u e r o r t o S t / M a r y ' s A b b e y a t Y o r k on i t s f o u n d a t i o n i n 1085. T h i s c h a r t e r s t a t e s t h a t A l l S a i n t s was i n c l u d e d i n t h e g i f t . The g r a n t s w e r e c o n f i r m e d b y a c h a r t e r o f W i l l i a m R u f u s i n 1088. A s u b s e q u e n t c h a r t e r o f H e n r y I I , 271 i s s u e d i n 1156, o n c e a g a i n c o n f i r m e d t h e t r a n s f e r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e was a c h u r c h on t h e s i t e b e f o r e t h e Domesday S u r v e y was c o m p l e t e d . W h e t h e r t h e r e was one i n e x i s t e n c e b e f o r e 1066 c a n n o t be c o n f i r m e d , , b u t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e N o r s e name o f t h e v i l l a g e a n d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f _ a p o s t - C o n q u e s t c h u r c h i n t h i s a r e a a t so e a r l y a d a t e w o u l d seem t o s t r e n g t h e n t h i s t h e o r y . 272 The b u i l d i n g was r e s t o r e d by G.E. S t r e e t i n 1870. V. S t r u c t u r e : A. A n g l o - S a x o n E l e m e n t s 1. I n t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The n a v e a nd a i s l e s c o n s i s t o f an a d m i x t u r e o f s m a l l a n d l a r g e - s t o n e r u b b l e . T h e r e a r e t h r e e r ows o f h e r r i n g - b o n e w o r k a t t h e s o u t h w e s t e n d o f t h e n a v e w a l l , a n d b e t w e e n -the c e n t r e p i e r s a b o v e t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h a r c a d e s . ( f i g s . 1 6 7 , 1 6 8 ) b) N a v e : The i n t e r i o r o f t h e n a v e m e a s u r e s 2 7 f t . x. 18 f t . 6 i n . w i t h s i d e w a l l s 2 f t . 6 i n . t h i c k a n d a b o u t 18 f t . h i g h . A b o v e t h e l a t e r n a v e a r c a d e s , a n d a l m o s t t o t a l l y c u t away by them, a r e t h e r e m a i n s o f f o u r o r i g i n a l w i n d o w s , two i n e a c h o f t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h w a l l s . ( f i g s . 1 6 7 , 1 6 8 ) T h e s e a r e o f s i m p l e r o u n d -h e a d e d f o r m a n d a r e s i n g l e - s p l a y e d i n t e r n a l l y . A l l b u t one a r e v i s i b l e o n l y f r o m t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e n a v e . The s o u t h f a c e o f t h e f o u r t h window, n e a r t h e e a s t e r n end o f t h e n a v e , may be s e e n w i t h i n t h e s o u t h a i s l e . I t h a s a m o n o l i t h i c a r c h e d h e a d . T h e r e i s some d i s a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n S h e p h e r d and T a y l o r c o n c e r n i n g t h e d a t e o f t h e n a v e . S h e p h e r d b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e e n t i r e c h u r c h was r e c o n s t r u c t e d c a . 1 1 5 0 , a n d t h a t no p a r t o f i t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d A n g l o - S a x o n . However, T a y l o r f e e l s t h a t t h e t h i n n a v e w a l l s w i t h t h e i r r u b b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d a r c h e d o p e n i n g s may be Saxo-Norman. T h i s t h e o r y he c o n s i d e r s t o be-s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t o w e r i s n o t i n b o n d w i t h 273 t h e n a v e w a l l s and i s p r o b a b l y l a t e r . The t o w e r a r c h i s o f p l a i n u n c h a m f e r e d Saxo-Norman o r E a r l y Norman c h a r a c t e r . I t h a s a r o u n d h e a d o f i r r e g u l a r l y s h a p e d v o u s s o i r s w h i c h h a v e no c e n t r a l k e y s t o n e . ( f i g . 1 6 9 ) The i m p o s t s c o n t a i n no t h r o u g h s t o n e s and a r e q u i r k e d a n d c h a m f e r e d on t h e i r l o w e r e d g e s . The j a m b s , w h i c h a l s o c o n t a i n no t h r o u g h s t o n e s , a r e l a i d Escomb f a s h i o n * . The' a r c h i s w i d e and n o t e s p e c i a l l y t a l l . A b o v e i t i s a b l o c k e d o p e n i n g w h i c h S h e p h e r d f e e l s l e d t o t h e u p p e r f l o o r o f t h e t o w e r . T h i s c h a m b e r , 274 h e . b e l i e v e s , a c t e d a s a d w e l l i n g p l a c e f o r t h e p a r i s h p r i e s t . The jambs o f t h i s o p e n i n g , w h i c h h a s . a s q u a r e h e a d a n d i s r e c t a n g u l a r i n s h a p e , a r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f l a r g e u n c u t s t o n e s . B. Norman E l e m e n t s 1. E x t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The t o w e r i s composed o f s m a l l - s t o n e r u b b l e l a i d 165 i n c o u r s e s . ( f i g . 1 6 4 ) T h e r e i s some h e r r i n g - b o n e w o r k o n e a c h s i d e o f t h e w e s t d o o r w a y . b) N a v e : The o r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g m ust h a v e h a d a n a i s l e l e s s n a v e , 275 t h o u g h a i s l e s w e r e a d d e d c a . 1 2 0 0 . ( f i g . 1 6 3 . ) The n o r t h d o o r w a y , w h i c h i s now b l o c k e d , h a s a h e a d c u t o u t o f one s t o n e . I t i s p r o b a b l y t h e o r i g i n a l e n t r a n c e t o t h e n a v e . The f o u n d a t i o n p l a t f o r m o f t h e s o u t h a i s l e i s o r i g i n a l a n d i s much w o r n n e a r t h e s o u t h d o o r w a y , w h i c h h a s c a p i t a l s w i t h n a i l - h e a d o r n a m e n t . The w e s t w a l l o f t h e v e s t r y c o n t a i n s a s c r a t c h d i a l n e a r g r o u n d l e v e l . S h e p h e r d f e e l s i t s two c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s s u g g e s t a 276 t w e l f t h c e n t u r y d a t e . c) Tower: The t o w e r i s o f t h e s q u a r e , s q u a t , u n b u t t r e s s e d Norman t y p e w i t h s m a l l s i d e - a l t e r n a t e q u o i n s . ( f i g . 1 6 4 ) H.M. T a y l o r b e l i e v e s i t was a d d e d t o t h e p r e - e x i s t i n g n a v e , s i n c e i t s s i d e 277 w a l l s a r e n o t i n b o n d w i t h t h e n a v e . The t o w e r w e s t d o o r w a y i s o f an E a r l y Norman t y p e . I t i s r o u n d - h e a d e d and c o n s i s t s o f two o r d e r s . ( f i g s . 1 6 5 , 1 6 6 ) The i n n e r one i s r e c e s s e d w i t h a p l a i n r o l l - m o u l d w h i c h d e s c e n d s t o s q u a r e a b a c i a n d c y l i n d r i c a l c a p i t a l s w i t h i n c i s e d s c a l l o p d e s i g n . The a t t a c h e d c o l u m n s a r e f o r m e d o f r o u n d e d c y l i n d e r s o f s t o n e p l a c e d one on t o p o f t h e o t h e r a n d d e s c e n d t o p r i m i t i v e b a s e s w h i c h c o n s i s t o f l i t t l e more t h a n a s e r i e s o f m o u l d e d r i n g s . T h e s e r e s t on a p l a i n s q u a r e p l i n t h . The o u t e r o r d e r i s o f v o u s s o i r s - d e c o r a t e d , w i t h an i n c i s e d c h e v r o n d e s i g n . T h i s d e s c e n d s t o c o l u m n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e i n n e r o r d e r . A b o v e t h e w e s t d o o r w a y i s a c h a m f e r e d r e c t a n g u l a r w e s t 166 window w h i c h r e t a i n s much o f i t s o r i g i n a l s p l a y . ( f i g . 1 6 5 ) I t was p a r t l y c u t away on t h e r i g h t s i d e when t h e o p e n i n g was made w i d e r and g i v e n i t s p r e s e n t s q u a r e h e a d . The jambs a r e o f u p r i g h t s t o n e s and t h e s i l l i s o f a s i n g l e b l o c k . The u p p e r , s h o r t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e t o w e r i s r e c e s s e d b e h i n d t h e s t o r e y b e l o w and d i v i d e d f r o m i t by a c h a m f e r e d s t r i n g - c o u r s e . The b e l f r y w i ndows h e r e a r e s q u a r e - h e a d e d , r e c t a n g u l a r d o u b l e - l i g h t s w h i c h a r e c l o s e d w i t h l o u v r e s . The t o w e r i s s u r m o u n t e d by a p l a i n s t r i n g - c o u r s e and b a t t l e m e n t e d p a r a p e t . 2. I n t e r i o r a) M a s o n r y : The i n t e r i o r o f t h e t o w e r i s o f r u b b l e w i t h a number o f d o u b l e b a n d s o f h e r r i n g - b o n e . L i g h t b rown s a n d s t o n e i s u s e d t h r o u g h o u t . b) C h a n c e l : The w i d e a n d l o f t y c h a n c e l a r c h - i s o f two o r d e r s , t h e i n n e r one o f w h i c h i s r e c e s s e d . ( f i g s . 1 6 7 , 1 6 8 ) T h i s i n n e r o r d e r c o n s i s t s o f a r o l l - m o u l d and a h o l l o w c h a m f e r on b o t h t h e e a s t and w e s t f a c e s o f t h e a r c h . T h e s e d e s c e n d t o q u i r k e d a n d c h a m f e r e d s q u a r e a b a c i a n d c u s h i o n c a p i t a l s w i t h .an I n c i s e d s c a l l o p e d d e s i g n . B e l o w , on t h e s o f f i t s i d e , a r e a t t a c h e d h a l f c o l u m n s w h i c h h a v e d i s s i m i l a r , b a s e s . The s o u t h e r n one h a s an u n u s u a l i n c i s e d d e s i g n . The o u t e r o r d e r c o n s i s t s o f a r i n g o f v o u s s o i r s o f v a r y i n g s i z e s and s h a p e s . They d e s c e n d t o p l a i n s q u a r e i m p o s t s and jambs l a i d Escomb f a s h i o n . c) Nave: The s i d e w a l l s o f t h e o r i g i n a l n a v e w e r e p i e r c e d , a t t h e e n d o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , by a r c a d e s o f T r a n s i t i o n a l 167 p o i n t e d a r c h e s . ( f i g s . 1 6 7 , 1 6 8 ) They a r e s u p p o r t e d by m a s s i v e c i r c u l a r p i l l a r s w i t h s q u a r e a b a c i and s h a l l o w s c a l l o p e d c a p i t a l s . d) Tower: The t o w e r , w h i c h i s a l m o s t s q u a r e , i s l i t b y an i n t e r n a l l y s p l a y e d r e c t a n g u l a r w e s t window. The w a l l s a r e o v e r 279 3 f t . t h i c k a n d a r e n o t i n b o n d w i t h t h o s e o f t h e n a v e . V I . O b s e r v a t i o n s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s : T h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t c h u r c h t o d a t e . The o n l y d o c u m e n t a r y r e f e r e n c e s i n e x i s t e n c e a r e p o s t -C o n q u e s t o n e s and t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s w h i c h h a v e A n g l o -S a x o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l s o h a v e s t r o n g l y Norman d e t a i l s . The Norman f e a t u r e s , s u c h a s t h e t o w e r , t h e t o w e r w e s t d o o r w a y , and t h e c h a n c e l , a r e p r e d o m i n a n t . The o r i g i n a l p l a n o f t h e c h u r c h , w i t h i t s w e s t t o w e r , w e s t d o o r w a y and a i s l e l e s s n a v e and c h a n c e l , , i s o f S a x o n d e r i v a t i o n . The t h i n w a l l s a b o v e t h e l a t e r a r c a d e s , w i t h t h e i r p a r t i a l l y b l o c k e d w indows and t h e p l a i n t o w e r a r c h a n d b l o c k e d o p e n i n g a b o v e , w o u l d t e n d t o p l a c e t h e n a v e w i t h i n t h e Saxo-Norman o v e r l a p . . T h i s • d a t e / T a y l o r -s t a t e s , i s s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Norman t o w e r i s n o t i n b o n d w i t h t h e n a v e w a l l . I f i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e n a v e i s r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y , c a . 1 0 8 0 - c a . 1 1 0 0 , t h e n t h e c h u r c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e Saxo-Norman s t y l e o f t h e l a s t y e a r s o f t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y and t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , t o t h e p u r e l y Norman s t y l e w h i c h g r a d u a l l y i n f i l t r a t e d i n t o Y o r k s h i r e . W h a r r a m - l e - S t r e e t I . D e d i c a t i o n : S t . M a r y 168 I I . L o c a t i o n : The c h u r c h i s l o c a t e d i n t h e E a s t R i d i n g o f Y o r k s h i r e , s i x m i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f M a l t o n . I I I . P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n : The c h u r c h c o n s i s t s o f a w e s t t o w e r , a n a v e w i t h a n o r t h a i s l e a n d a s o u t h p o r c h , and an a i s l e l e s s c h a n c e l . ( f i g . 1 7 0 ) ( P l a n 23) I V . H i s t o r y and D o c u m e n t a t i o n : T h e r e i s no r e f e r e n c e t o t h e 280 c h u r c h i n t h e Domesday Book t h o u g h t h e . v i l l a g e i s m e n t i o n e d . H o w e v e r , J o h n B i l s o n i n h i s 1923 a r t i c l e , makes an e x t e n s i v e s t u d y o f S t . M a r y ' s . He s t a t e s t h a t t h i s p a r t o f Y o r k s h i r e was a d e v a s t a t e d r e g i o n w h i c h was o n l y b e g i n n i n g t o r e c o v e r f r o m t h e C o n q u e r o r ' s h a r r y i n g o f t h e n o r t h d u r i n g t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . No one i n t h e a r e a w o u l d h a v e b e e n a b l e t o c o n s t r u c t a c h u r c h e x c e p t t h e l a n d o w n e r . I n t h i s c a s e t h e l a n d h o l d e r was N i g e l F r o s s a r d , who r e c e i v e d h i s g r a n t f r o m R o b e r t , C o u n t o f M o r t a i n , t h e C o n q u e r o r ' s h a l f b r o t h e r . When t h e C o u n t ' s l a n d s w e r e f o r f e i t e d a f e w y e a r s l a t e r , N i g e l became a t e n a n t o f t h e Crown a n d i t was t h e n , B i l s o n b e l i e v e s , t h a t he e r e c t e d t h e c h u r c h . The Norman l o r d s who b u i l t t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s g e n e r a l l y endowed m o n a s t e r i e s ,by. g i v i n g s u c h b u i l d i n g s t o them. R o b e r t . F r o s s a r d , N i g e l ' s s o n , g a v e t h e c h u r c h e s o f Wharram, Bramham and L y t h e t o N o s t e l l P r i o r y a s a s o u r c e o f r e v e n u e f o r 281 t h e c h u r c h o f S t . P e t e r a t Y o r k . B i l s o n p o s t u l a t e s a s t y l i s t i c c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n Wharram-l e - S t r e e t a n d t h e C h u r c h o f S t . R u l e ( S t . R e g u l u s ) , S t . A n d r e w ' s i n S c o t l a n d . He f e e l s t h e Y o r k s h i r e c h u r c h was e r e c t e d c a . 1 1 0 0 -c a . 1 1 0 5 , i n t h e t i m e o f N i g e l F r o s s a r d a n d j u s t a few y e a r s b e f o r e i t s n o r t h e r n c o u s i n . The c o n n e c t i o n i s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d 169 by the fact that the Bishop of St. Andrew's was originally from M 4- n 2 8 2 Nostell. However, H.M. Taylor i s of a different opinion. While he agrees that the tower and arches of the chancel at Wharram-le-Street were built by Nigel Frossard's masons in the early twelfth century, he feels that the main fabric existed even before the Conquest. The village was s t i l l lying in-waste-at the time of the Domesday Survey, 1069 - 1070. It is li k e l y , therefore, that the main fabric remained and that i t was utilized by Nigel.and his son Robert. He believes they brought the structure back into use at the turn of the century. This would account for the insertion of arches constructed in an advanced style 283 and set into the Saxon fabric, V. Structure: A. Anglo-Saxon Elements 1. Exterior a) Masonry: The tower is constructed of calcareous g r i t from an outcrop in the nearby Yorkshire Wolds.(figs.170,171) The individual stones are of rough ashlar, 10 - 11 in. high, and are laid in widely jointed courses. . b) Nave: The nave overlaps the tower to the west and projects 2 f t . 9 in. on the north and 2 f t . 7 in. on the south at the junction of the masonry with the tower west wall.(fig.171) The two structures were built together..The northeastern, northwestern and southwestern quoins are original but the southeastern one has been renewed. A l l are of the side-alternate type. The nave is built on a foundation platform of two members. 170 The u p p e r o n e , w h i c h i s c h a m f e r e d a n d i s 13 i n . h i g h , e x t e n d s e a s t w a r d f r o m t h e modern p o r c h a n d i s c o n t i n u e d a r o u n d t h e r e b u i l t c h a n c e l . c) Tower: The p r e s e n t h e i g h t o f t h e t o w e r i s 51 f t . and t h e e x t e r i o r w e s t w a l l i s 15 f t . 8 i n . w i d e . ( f i g s . 1 7 0 , 1 7 1 ) I t s 284 d i m e n s i o n s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e a t C o r b r i d g e . The t o w e r s i t s on a f o u n d a t i o n o f f - s e t w h i c h i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 - 7 i n . w i d e a t g r o u n d l e v e l . ( f i g . 1 7 1 ) A c h a m f e r e d s t r i n g - c o u r s e s e p a r a t e s t h e s l i g h t l y . r e c e s s e d b e l f r y s t a g e f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . The q u o i n s a r e s i m i l a r i n f o r m t o t h o s e o f t h e w a l l i n g , b u t l a r g e r . They a r e s i d e - a l t e r n a t e a n d e a c h one m e a s u r e s a b o u t ^  ^ r • ,r- • 285 2 f t . 6 i n . x 15 i n . Above t h e t o w e r w e s t d o o r w a y a r e two l o o p w i n d o w s w i t h a p e r t u r e s w h i c h a r e 6 i n . w i d e . T h e s e h a v e a r c h e d l i n t e l s a n d s l i g h t l y i n c l i n e d m o n o l i t h i c j a m b s . The o p e n i n g s a r e c h a m f e r e d a l l a r o u n d . I n t h e s o u t h e r n w a l l i s a l o o p window s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n t h e w e s t w a l l . A d i a l s t o n e i s s e t i n t o t h e m i d d l e 286 o f t h e w e s t w a l l , a b o u t 15 f t . a b o v e g r o u n d l e v e l . F i s h e r , B i l s o n a nd T a y l o r a g r e e t h a t t h e b e l f r y w i n d o w s 287 a r e o f a p r e - C o n q u e s t t y p e . ( f i g s . 1 7 0 , 1 7 1 ) They a r e n a r r o w d o u b l e o p e n i n g s w i t h c e n t r a l m i d - w a l l , s h a f t s s u r m o u n t e d by t a l l c u b i c c a p i t a l s . T h e s e h a v e b e e n r o u n d e d t o a c i r c u l a r s h a p e b e l o w and h a v e no n e c k i n g s . The s h a f t s s u p p o r t c e n t r a l t h r o u g h s t o n e i m p o s t s w h i c h a r e h o l l o w - c h a m f e r e d on t h e f a c e a nd s i d e s , a s a r e t h e jamb i m p o s t s . The d o u b l e - l i g h t s h a v e a r c h e s l i n t e l s a n d narrow,, s q u a r e - e d g e d s t r i p w o r k d e c o r a t i o n f l a n k s t h e j a m b s . The i m p o s t s a b u t a g a i n s t t h e s e s t r i p s w h i c h 171 a r e f i n i s h e d a b o v e t h e l e v e l o f t h e jambs w i t h s i m i l a r s m a l l , h o l l o w - c h a m f e r e d c o n s t r u c t i o n s . T h e s e r e s t on c o r b e l s a b o v e t h e l e v e l o f t h e s t r i n g - c o u r s e . I t a p p e a r s as t h o u g h t h e s e u p p e r s t r i p i m p o s t s w e r e meant t o s u p p o r t a h a l f - r o u n d s t r i p w o r k 2 88 h o o d much l i k e t h a t a t S t . . M a r y B i s h o p h i l l J u n i o r . However,, no c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e r e m a i n s f o r t h e a s s u m p t i o n , a s a t h r e e c o u r s e p a r a p e t w i t h a h o l l o w - c h a m f e r e d c o r b e l t a b l e b e n e a t h i t , r e p l a c e d t h e e a r l i e r t o p c o u r s e s o f t h e t o w e r . T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n o b l i t e r a t e s w h a t may h a v e e x i s t e d p r e v i o u s l y . 2. I n t e r i o r a) N ave: The n a v e was b u i l t a t t h e same t i m e a s t h e t o w e r and t h e two a r e i n b o n d w i t h e a c h o t h e r . The a s h l a r m a s o n r y w h i c h f o r m e d a p a r t o f t h e o r i g i n a l e x t e r i o r f a c e o f t h e n o r t h w a l l i s s t i l l v i s i b l e a b o v e t h e w e s t e r n m o s t a r c h o f t h e n o r t h a r c a d e . The t o w e r a r c h , w h i c h i s t a l l a n d n a r r o w , h a s a w i d t h o f 6 f t . 1 i n . and m e a s u r e s 10 f t . 9 i n . f r o m t h e f l o o r t o t h e s p r i n g i n g o f t h e a r c h . ( f i g . 1 7 3 ) The j a m b s , w h i c h a r e s q u a r e , a r e r e c e s s e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 i n . o n t h e n a v e f a c e o n l y . T h e r e i s a d e t a c h e d s h a f t i n t h e n ook o f e a c h jamb. The b a s e s o f t h e s e s h a f t s a r e o f u n u s u a l p r o f i l e . They a r e n o t Norman i n s t y l e a nd h a v e v e r y t a l l a n g l e h o l l o w s , 1 2 % . i n . h i g h a b o v e a 3 i n . f l a t f a c e . B e l o w t h i s i s a c h a m f e r e d p l i n t h . The c a p i t a l s a r e a l s o u n u s u a l . They a r e o f t h e t a l l c u b i c t y p e . w h i c h i s n o t n o r m a l l y a t t r i b u t e d , t o Norman b u i l d e r s . H o w e v e r , i n E n g l a n d t h e Normans d i d s y s t e m a t i z e , t h i s s t y l e i n t h e f o r m o f a c u s h i o n c a p i t a l . Of t h e more r u d i m e n t a r y E n g l i s h t y p e s , two may be m e n t i o n e d . One h a s a s q u a r e u p p e r p o r t i o n w h i c h i s g r a d u a l l y 172 worked away towards the shaft, giving i t a horizontal section approximating a c i r c l e . The other consists of the angles of a square which bevel towards the shaft giving i t a horizontal section which i s approximately octagonal. The west doorway at 239 Kirkdale has such shafts. The c a p i t a l s atnWharram-le-Street belong to the f i r s t type though they are overlaid with s l i g h t l y projecting triangles which derive from the second type. These ca p i t a l s have no neckings and the abaci have hollow chamfers beneath f l a t faces. This i s not a Norman p r o f i l e . The inner face of the tower opening i s finished with imposts of the same general section. These have the archaic p e c u l i a r i t y of not being returned under the arch on the western face. Another ancient survival i s the i n c l i n a t i o n of the jambs. As a r e s u l t , the width of the opening i s