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Attendance at Indian residential schools in British Columbia, 1890-1920 Redford, James W. 1978

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ATTENDANCE AT INDIAN RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA,  1890-1920  by JAMES W. REDFORD B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 7 5  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FUl^ILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f H i s t o r y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1 9 7 8  ©  James ¥. Redford, 1 9 7 8  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e  that  the Library shall make it freely available f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying o f this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by his representatives. of  It  is understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my  written permission.  Department of  History  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS  Date  2 October 1978  i i  ABSTRACT  In the late nineteenth t r i e d t o use education  century,  middle c l a s s Canadian  t o change t h e v a l u e s  immigrant, and I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . only i n the case o f Indians.  reformers  and rhythms o f working  They u s e d b o a r d i n g  Educators expected  schools,  class,  however,  boardingsschoolstto  g i v e them c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e i r p u p i l s , t h u s making i t p o s s i b l e t o r e a r a g e n e r a t i o n assimilated Indians.  They d i d n o t e x p e c t t h e i r e f f o r t s  reshaped by e x i s t i n g I n d i a n rhythms. and  o f c u l t u r a l l y and o c c u p a t i o n a l l y  Because I n d i a n s  b e c a u s e t h e i r c u l t u r e was u n d e r a t t a c k f r o m many  t o be b l u n t e d o r  were outnumbered, directions,  h i s t o r i a n s t o o have g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t n a t i v e rhythms h a d a n e g l i g i b l e impact on r e s i d e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n .  Most accounts o f t h e s c h o o l s  p o r t r a y them a s e i t h e r a s s i s t i n g o r v i c t i m i z i n g a d e c i m a t e d a n d  essen-  t i a l l y helpless minority. This  t h e s i s uses Government r e p o r t s , s c h o o l r e c o r d s ,  p o n d e n c e , a n d o r a l a c c o u n t s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e way e d u c a t o r s made a t t e n d a n c e d e c i s i o n s .  I t shows t h a t I n d i a n s p l a y e d  corresand I n d i a n s  a v i t a l role i n  d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r c h i l d r e n went t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l ; w h i c h c h i l d r e n went; a t what ages t h e y contact they dance.  e n r o l l e d ; how l o n g t h e y  a n d how much  r e t a i n e d w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s and c u l t u r e w h i l e  I t clarifies  some o f t h e e m o t i o n a l ,  needs which c o n d i t i o n e d I n d i a n s ' By  stayed;  i n atten-  economic, and c u l t u r a l  attendance d e c i s i o n s .  e x a m i n i n g how e x i s t i n g n a t i v e p a t t e r n s o f l i f e  modified  a  very determined campaign t o c o n t r o l and a l t e r I n d i a n s o c i e t y , t h e t h e s i s  iii hopefully  sheds l i g h t as w e l l on the g r a d u a l , a d a p t i v e , and f l u i d  o f " d i r e c t e d " c u l t u r a l change.  R e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s were not s i m p l y  "imposed" s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e , but a mutual and changing shaped by I n d i a n s as w e l l as  process  whites.  relationship  an  iv  CONTENTS  Chapter I. EDUCATION AND S O C I A L CHANGE: INDIANS II. III. IV. V. VI.  BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR 1  I N D I A N F A M I L I E S AND ENROLLMENT: A P P L I C A T I O N AND RECRUITMENT:  THE PROCESS OF S E L E C T I O N  THE SCHOOL REGIMEN AND TRUANCY: FRAGMENTATION OF F A M I L I E S :  15  POWER TO REFUSE  26  POWER TO COMPEL 62  EXTENT AND DURATION  72  EPILOGUE  ABBREVIATIONS  . .  75  Z  NOTES  76  B I B L I O G R A P H I C A L NOTE  95  SOURCES CONSULTED  •  97  V  TABLES  I.  Coqualeetza I n d u s t r i a l Linguistic  II. III.  Groups  Institute:  Origins of Pupils  by 3^  Ages a t A d m i s s i o n  ^3  lengths of Enrollment  69  Residential Schools, 1890-1920  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I would l i k e t o express s p e c i a l thanks Ignatieff,  t o my a d v i s o r , M i c h a e l  f o r s u g g e s t i n g t h e t o p i c , and f o r r a i s i n g many o f t h e ques-  t i o n s I have t r i e d t o answer.  1  CHAPTER I  EDUCATION AND S O C I A L CHANGE:  BOARDING  SCHOOLS FOR INDIANS  " E d u c a t i o n , " wrote A f f a i r s i n I876,  the Deputy Superintendent G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n  " i s the primary vehicle i n the c i v i l i z a t i o n  ment o f t h e I n d i a n R a c e — w i t h o u t may b e expected.""'"  i t but l i t t l e  and advance-  progress i n that direction  G o v e r n m e n t a n d 'church o f f i c i a l s b e l i e v e d t h e y c o u l d  p r e v e n t t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f Canada's n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n o n l y i f t h e y i n v e s t e d i t s r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n w i t h t h e v a l u e s and rhythms o f an i d e a l , industrialized  working c l a s s .  From t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ,  began c o n d u c t i n g day s c h o o l s i n t h e I n d i a n v i l l a g e s o f B r i t i s h but, almost without exception, f a i l e d  problems,  in British  I n an e f f o r t t o overcome  and c r e a t e a n d a c c u l t u r a t i v e environment  t h a n d a y s c h o o l s , G o v e r n m e n t a n d c'hurches 1890 a n d 1920,  Columbia,  t o induce n a t i v e p a r e n t s t o send  t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o c l a s s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . attendance  churches  undertook  t o intiroduce and p e r f e c t a system  jointly,  more i n t e n s e between  o f boarding schools  Columbia.  While white educators regarded t h e I n d i a n as "a blank sheet o f paper,  c u l t u r a l l y s p e a k i n g , who was t o be w r i t t e n u p o n w i t h E u r o p e a n  2 culture,"  i t i s now e v i d e n t t h a t he was n o t t h e p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t o f  imposed c u l t u r e .  Existing social,  d i t i o n e d I n d i a n response cause  economic, and c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s con-  t o white educative e f f o r t s .  Y e t , perhaps be-  o n l y white a d m i n i s t r a t o r s l e f t documentary r e c o r d s , t h e i r  t i o n s c o n t i n u e t o permeate most h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g .  Historians  assump% have  2 shown l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n explaining Indian reaction as a s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of r e s i d e n t i a l school history.  Thus H. J. Vallery's early, ¥higgish ac-  count of Indian schooling i s concerned e s s e n t i a l l y with statutory and administrative developments.  The educational program i n i t i a l l y en-  countered some opposition from p r i m i t i v e Indians, who, "having  little  foresight," clung to t h e i r pernicious customs; hut once they recognized " i t h e f f u t i l i t y " of such ,a course, "education was used very extensively to 3 a s s i s t the Indians change their method of l i v i n g .  A p a i r of recent  writers have demonstrated deep sympathy f o r the Indian culture and have succeeded i n s h i f t i n g attention from administrative to s o c i a l issues.  But i n illuminating one aspect of the schools' attack on native  culture, Robert Levine and Freda Cooper have contributed l i t t l e to our understanding  of how Indian rhythms conditioned the school experience.  In f a c t , by emphasizing the v i c t i m i z a t i o n of Indians, they have reinforced the tendency to see "white subjects and red objects."'' To date, the only study to attempt to focus the s t i l l "blurred and undifferentiated features"  of Indian p u p i l s i s Jacqueline Gresko's analysis 7  of the Qu'Appelle School i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s .  A history of  Indian education i n B r i t i s h Columbia must, therefore, describe and exp l a i n not just the p o l i c i e s of white educators, but also the reaction of Indians:  only then w i l l the complete picture begin to emerge. Examining attendance patterns should illuminate not only how  o f f i c i a l s attempted to d i r e c t acculturation through education, but" also how Indians responded to t h e i r e f f o r t s .  Jacqueline Gresko has lamented that  while an attendance study would be the best means of assessing the s o c i a l relationship and experience which r e s i d e n t i a l schools produced, adequate Q  records "are d i f f i c u l t to f i n d or to e s t a b l i s h . "  Fortunately, the  3 Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s r e q u i r e d d e t a i l e d r e p o r t s from i t s agents, s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , p r i n c i p a l s , and s c h o o l i n s p e c t o r s . d i a r i e s , a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s , and o r a l h i s t o r i e s , of impressionistic insights.  Combined w i t h l e t t e r s ,  they p r o v i d e a m u l t i t u d e  F o r t u i t o u s l y p r e s e r v e d attendance  reg-  i s t e r s c o n t a i n q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a a g a i n s t which the h i s t o r i a n can sure g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s .  mea-  9  -x-  *  *-  The use o f "boarding s c h o o l s to " c i v i l i z e " I n d i a n s has a l o n g h i s t o r y i n Canada.  F r a n c o i s de Montmorency-Laval, head o f the Roman  C a t h o l i c Church i n New an i n s t i t u t i o n i n 1665.  France, mixed F r e n c h and I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n such H i s experience p r e f i g u r e d almost e x a c t l y t h a t  o f educators more than two  centuries later:  the young I n d i a n s a t s c h o o l because the  he had t r o u b l e keeping  parents  have an e x t r a o r d i n a r y l o v e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and can s c a r c e l y make up t h e i r minds t o be s e p a r a t e d from them. .. j^and, moreover] they depend on t h e i r c h i l d r e n , when they are somewhat advanced In y e a r s , f o r the s u p p o r t o f t h e i r f a m i l y . 1 0 P r o t e s t a n t groups u n d e r t a k i n g s i m i l a r experiments i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e c e i v e d encouragement from the Government o f Canada: d e c i d e d , i n 18^-51 t o r e p l a c e i t s gunpowder i s s u e s to I n d i a n s education grants.  Thus, a p a t t e r n o f Church-operated,  it  with  Government-sub-  s i d i z e d b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s took r o o t . The  systematic i n t r o d u c t i o n of Indian boarding schools i n  the 1880s and and 1890s was,  however, p a r t o f a wider movement t o use  e d u c a t i o n as a t o o l o f s o c i a l change.  Urban middle  class  reformers  hoped t o use s c h o o l s to change the h a b i t s and v a l u e s o f s o c i a l groups not s h a r i n g t h e i r economic assumptions and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e .  By view-  i n g environment as a d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n the f o r m a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r , these reformers became convinced  t h a t s o c i a l m a n i p u l a t i o n was  both  4 n e c e s s a r y and p o s s i b l e .  The c h i l d was a s e e d whose g r o w t h c o u l d  shaped a c c o r d i n g t o i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s e i t h e r t o good o r t o e v i l Ideally,  the family  ensured proper character  a moral s e t t i n g , screened from undesirable virtues could of future  influences,  citizens.  Reformers f e l t ,  ends. providing  where s o c i a l  t h o r o u g h l y p e n e t r a t e and i n d e l i b l y c o l o u r  i m m i g r a n t , and I n d i a n  theyyoung minds  however, t h a t w o r k i n g c l a s s ,  f a m i l i e s were n o t m e e t i n g t h e i r p r o t e c t i v e and  educative obligations.  Parents could  adequate s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e o r c o r r e c t lacked  development by  be  such q u a l i t i e s .  not i n s t i l l  aspirations  i n their children  when t h e y  themselves  A n o t h e r agency would have t o r e p l a c e  these 12  f a m i l i e s a s "an a s y l u m f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and  and c u l t u r e o f  childhood,"  make g o o d c i t i z e n s o f c h i l d r e n who m i g h t o t h e r w i s e m a t u r e  destructive,  retrogressive,  agency reformers s e l e c t e d  into  o r burdensome e l e m e n t s i n s o c i e t y .  was  The  schooling.  P r o p o n e n t s o f e d u c a t i o n s o u g h t r e f o r m i n two l i n k e d a r e a s o f working class l i f e .  First,  t h e y wanted t o e l i m i n a t e  juvenile  and  c r i m e , w h i c h seemed t o menace t h e p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e  the  nation.  tune w i t h instill  well-being  of  S e c o n d , t h e y w i s h e d t o n u r t u r e a w o r k f o r c e more f u l l y i n  t h e rhythms o f i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g s o c i e t y .  S c h o o l s must,  a new s e n s e o f s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n i n s e v e r a l k e y a r e a s .  migratory  pauperism  'habits'  o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s were p e r c e i v e d  t h e i r g e n e r a l want o f d i s c i p l i n e , " s t a t e s unpunctuality,  i r r e g u l a r work h a b i t s ,  therefore?,  "The  as p a r t o f  I a n Davey, " a l o n g w i t h  affection f o ralcohol,  their  and i n a b i l i t y  13 t o s a v e money."  Stability,  punctuality,  sobriety,  and t h r i f t  some o f t h e e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s s c h o o l s w o u l d p r o m o t e . such v a l u e s would reduce crime. classes  And i n s t e a d  were  Inculcation of  o f causing the labouring  t o d e s p i s e t h e i r p o s i t i o n , a s some f e a r e d ,  such education  would  lb make t h e m more a m e n a b l e t o f a c t o r y  discipline.  Middle c l a s s reformers considered the  vast  Saxon immigrants a r r i v i n g i n Canada towards the e v e n more d i s t r e s s i n g p r o b l e m : and  i n addition  t u r n of the  w e a k e n e d any  A n g l o - S a x o n c i v i l i z a t i o n was,  case, the  g r a n t s were e s p e c i a l l y numerous i n t h e  M.  Anderson d i d not  i m m i g r a n t s w o u l d e v e r become " t r u e h i g h e s t A n g l o - S a x o n i d e a l s , " and t h e i r c h i l d r e n are obtain  think  English  to  society,  and  that  m o s t advanced."'"^  where t h e i r  Saskatchewan i t possible  Immi-  that  School adult  Canadian c i t i z e n s , imbued w i t h  added:  compelled to attend  a knowledge o f the  social  t h e y would have  western provinces,  presence sometimes caused grave m i s g i v i n g s . I n s p e c t o r J . T.  an  Most r e f o r m e r s c o n s i d e r e d i t  axiomatic that c u l t u r a l heterogenity i n any  Anglo-  century  to overcoming the  economic d e f i c i e n c i e s o f working c l a s s l i f e ,  transcend t h e i r c u l t u r a l i n f e r i o r i t y .  n u m b e r s o f non  "Were i t n o t the  public  f o r the  schools,  the  fact  that  where  they  language, t h e i r presence might  well  16  g i v e us c a u s e f o r a l a r m . " I n B r i t i s h Columbia, the i n f l u x o f A s i a n s sparked v i o l e n t p r o t e s t s ; even c h a r i t a b l e groups t r y i n g to ease the entry  of Orientals  i n t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y v i e w e d them a s  a  potential  17 threat. grants  T h u s , e d u c a t o r s h o p e d t o use "the  v a l u e s o f an  expanding mercantile  " C a n a d i a n i z e " them a s e x p e d i t i o u s l y A desire  t o use  schooling  e d u c a t i o n as  as  b o t h t o t e a c h immig-  s o c i e t y , " . -.and'to  possible.  an  instrument of s o c i a l control  a l s o prompted the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s c h o o l s f o r Canada's n a t i v e  tion.  family  The  Indian  c u l t u r a l l y and "deleterious incident  was  p r o d u c i n g c h i l d r e n who  economically troublesome.  home i n f l u e n c e s " — t h o s e  to l i f e  i n the  might w e l l prove  S c h o o l would have t o  "irregular habits  w i g w a m " — a n d be  the  popula-  and  vanquish  customs  " w e l l o r d e r e d home" w h i c h  6 the I n d i a n , l i k e Schools  t h e i m m i g r a n t and  working  class child,  would have t o t a k e c h i l d r e n — " r a w m a t e r i a l " — a n d  i n t o good c i t i z e n s . i n h i s 1910  20  "Without education,"  r e p o r t as S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  19  lacked  " m o u l d " them  wrote Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t  of Indian Education,  "... t h e  Indians 21  w o u l d p r o d u c e an u n d e s i r a b l e and  o f t e n a dangerous element i n s o c i e t y . "  G e n e r a l l y , however, r e f o r m e r s by  the untutored  I n d i a n t h a n by  seem t o h a v e b e e n l e s s  the s t r e e t t u r c h i n or immigrant.  ran a f o u l of the law p r i n c i p a l l y through than  through  from white  any  antisocial activity;  settlements.  a p p e a r e d t o be  t h e i r use  and  of l i q u o r ,  t h e m a j o r i t y were  M o r e o v e r , w h i l e t h e number o f  rather  isolated  immigrants  Concerned 22  u s u a l l y v i e w e d t h e I n d i a n a s a " p o o r doomed s a v a g e . " " p r i m i t i v e " I n d i a n c u l t u r e thus  t h a n f r o m p h i l a n t h r o p i c and T h e r e was cation.  Indians  i n c r e a s i n g d r a m a t i c a l l y , t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n had  i n p r e c i p i t o u s d e c l i n e f o r most o f the c e n t u r y .  eradicate the  alarmed  evangelistic  sprang  been  Canadians  The  drive to  l e s s from  defensive  impulses.  a l s o an economic r a t i o n a l e f o r p r o m o t i n g I n d i a n  I n most u n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s , p e o p l e  do n o t  organize  t h e i r work h a b i t s around a r b i t r a r i l y d e f i n e d p e r i o d s o f time, but 23 given to w e r e no  " a l t e r n a t e b o u t s o f i n t e n s e l a b o u r and exception.  Deputy Superintendent  of idleness."  General  edu-  Frank Pedley  are  Indians spoke  of  " t h e p e c u l i a r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l t e n d e n c y o f t h e I n d i a n t o p r e f e r employment w h i c h g i v e s q u i c k r e t u r n s and  allows of i n t e r m i t t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n re-  2k l i e v e d by p e r i o d i c a l i n d u l g e n c e working  c l a s s education,  L i k e immigrant  and  I n d i a n s c h o o l i n g aimed a t e r a d i c a t i n g p r e -  i n d u s t r i a l work r h y t h m s , and the i n c u l c a t i o n o f t h r i f t , education  i n recreation."  customs—like  p u n c t u a l i t y , and  would t r a n s f o r m I n d i a n s  the p o t l a t c h — w h i c h order.  from fishermen  and  Officials hunters  inhibited hoped  into  farmers  7 and  wage-earners. There were s e v e r a l reasons why they d e s i r e d t h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l  change.  First,  f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g were i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n f e r i o r t o more  regular pursuits.  They n e c e s s i t a t e d s e a s o n a l m i g r a t i o n s — " t h e nomadic  h a b i t s which are f a t a l t o the a c q u i s i t i o n o f even elementary  civiliza-  25 tion."  Second, and more t a n g i b l e , the I n d i a n s ' c o n t i n u e d d e v o t i o n t o  t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s t h r e a t e n e d t o make the Government's r e s e r v e p o l i c y unworkable.  A member o f the 1888 Commission i n q u i r i n g i n t o the  c o n d i t i o n o f c o a s t a l I n d i a n s t o l d the n a t i v e s t h a t they s h o u l d down t h e i r l a n d c l a i m s .  Although i n p a s t times they had been  scale "little  b e t t e r than w i l d animals t h a t rove over the h i l l s , " and had thus r e q u i r e d l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d t o s u r v i v e , t h e y would soon a c q u i r e new,  26 b e t t e r o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t would o b v i a t e such needs.  Third,  admini-  s t r a t o r s were c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e growth o f s e t t l e m e n t would soon r e n der t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n p u r s u i t s i m p o s s i b l e , and t h a t u n l e s s the I n d i a n were equipped  w i t h new s k i l l s and rhythms, he would become a s e r i o u s  f i n a n c i a l burden f o r the Government.  F i n a l l y , I n d i a n s were v a l u e d  both as p o t e n t i a l consumers and as a v i t a l l a b o u r s u p p l y . p r i n c i p a l wrote i n 1907: would be l i t t l e  As one s c h o o l  "With the e x c e s s i v e demand f o r l a b o u r , i t  s h o r t o f c r i m i n a l t o n e g l e c t the t r a i n i n g o f the thou27  sands o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . But working c l a s s , immigrant, and I n d i a n c h i l d r e n — t h e v e r y ones f o r whom educators c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e most v i t a l — h a d poor r e c o r d s o f s c h o o l attendance.  Although,  uniformly  by the 1880s, most working  c l a s s c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o l , f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n remained "somet h i n g t o be f i t t e d the farm,  i n w i t h t h e o t h e r needs o f the f a m i l y — t h e work o f 28 o f the workshop, o r the home." The p r i n c i p a l of. the  8 V i c t o r i a Boys' School explained i n 1891 that the generally i r r e g u l a r attendance "arises from r e a l or supposed necessity f o r keeping children 29 at home to aid t h e i r parents at certain seasons of the year." head of the Sapperton School was more s p e c i f i c i n his 1897  The  report:  "The  older boys are employed during the summer and autumn at the box factory of the Brunette Saw M i l l s , and so attend only f o r a short time during the 30 Thus, although 10b of the 105  year."  children aged s i x to sixteen, who  l i v e d i n Chilliwack i n 1895,were enrolled i n school, only 63 of them attended on the average day.  At Lytton, 30 of 32 were enrolled, but 31  the average attendance was only a l i t t l e over f i f t e e n .  Indeed, l o c a l  opposition prevented the introduction of universal compulsory education f o r B r i t i s h Columbia children between seven and f i f t e e n u n t i l  1921.  Immigrants often "saw no reason why they should be deprived 32 of free labour while t h e i r children were i n school," understand  or could not  why educators f e l t newcomers must abandon t h e i r language and  c u l t u r a l heritage to be good Canadians.  They were more w i l l i n g to send  their children to schools i n which t h e i r o r i g i n a l culture had a place. Japanese immigrants i n B r i t i s h Columbia attended public schools when possible, but supplemented, and to some extent countered such i n s t r u c t i o n 33 with t h e i r own.  Norwegians created an i s o l a t e d community near B e l l a  Coola, and established t h e i r own school, i n order to r e t a i n "a measure 3^ of control over the secular and r e l i g i o u s education of t h e i r children."-^ Indian day schools faced both enrollment and attendance problems. Many i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s had no schools at a l l ; and where schools did exist, many school-age  children completely ignored them.  For example, there  were 65 children, aged s i x to f i f t e e n l i v i n g at Quamichan i n 1901, only 17 pupils were enrolled i n the day school.  At Skidegate,  but  there  w e r e 37 In  school-age  21  children;  p u p i l s were e n r o l l e d i n t h e  a l l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , o n l y kj  percent  school.  o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n were  35 e n r o l l e d e i t h e r i n r e s i d e n t i a l o r day The 1901  was  average d a i l y attendance  j u s t o v e r 50  percent.  to  f o l l o w the Indians  success.  of those  v a c a t e d ' f o r up  hop-picking  school r o l l s  in  t o f i v e months o f  seasons.  Some t e a c h e r s  on t h e i r m i g r a t i o n s , b u t u s u a l l y w i t h  Often, Indians of a s i n g l e v i l l a g e  p l a c e s d u r i n g t h e summer m o n t h s , m a k i n g any E v e n when t e a c h e r s  on day  Many o f t h e s c h o o l s w e r e l o c a t e d i n  winter v i l l a g e s which the Indians y e a r d u r i n g t h e f i s h i n g and  schools.  each  tried  little  s c a t t e r e d t o many  different  attempt to f o l l o w impossible.  were a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h s c h o o l s a t t h e  canneries,  37 attendance was  was  " u n c e r t a i n and  intermittent  i n g r e a t demand. Some g r o u p s , s u c h a s t h e s o u t h e r n  to  since children's labour  r e d u c e absence f r o m s c h o o l and  Haida,  even took  in planning interinsular migrations."  "did everything possible  this into consideration  More o f t e n , p a r e n t s  i n d i f f e r e n t o r even h o s t i l e t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n ,  were  with  the  r e s u l t t h a t , e v e n i n t h e w i n t e r v i l l a g e s , p u p i l s s t a y e d away "on  the  39  slightest pretext."^ T h o s e s t u d e n t s who w e n t r e g u l a r l y t o s c h o o l s t i l l s p e n t "some t w e n t y h o u r s o u t o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r . . . a m i d the d i r e c t l y  opposing  a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the r a n c h e r i a |_Indian homej."  t h e s c h o o l s were c o m p l e t e l y engineering educators to  kO  ~i  r  had  i n e f f e c t i v e as t o o l s o f the s o r t o f  i n mind:  such teaching, i f indeed  Consequently,  he  has  "The  I n d i a n who  experienced  any  has  social  been s u b j e c t  interruption at a l l  kl to  h i s l i s t l e s s h a b i t s and  nomadic ways, s o o n resumes them."  d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n seemed a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o s u c c e s s : which both guaranteed r e g u l a r attendance  and  an  A institution  o f f e r e d more t h o r o u g h  10 environmental control. Educators were well aware of the p o t e n t i a l advantages of hoarding schools, not just f o r Indians, hut f o r working class and immigrant children as well.  Nevertheless, except i n the case of Indians, authori-  t i e s generally constructed such i n s t i t u t i o n s only i n extreme cases:  in  England, f o r chronic truants "whose attendance was u n l i k e l y to improve  bz without a s p e l l under s t r i c t supervision";  i n Canada, f o r neglected a  and delinquent children of the most troublesome sort.  One exception  was  a hoarding school established i n the Cache Creek area i n 1875 f o r the children of geographically dispersed white farmers.  But "public f e e l i n g ^3  was very i n i m i c a l about the success of t h i s system of education,"  and  a f t e r a series of f i n a n c i a l and moral scandals, declining enrollment forced i t s closure i n  1890.  While o f f i c i a l s admitted  that " i n many instances... r e s u l t s ob-  tained at [Indian day] schools equal those of the common-schools of the 1(4  rural districts,"  most concluded  that o v e r a l l , the successful reform  of Indians required a more intensive system of education than did the reform of other groups.  Although the percentage of enrolled working  class children a c t u a l l y attending school was often almost as low as the same figure f o r Indian pupils, a much smaller proportion of Indian than working c l a s s c h i l d r e n bothered to e n r o l l i n the f i r s t place. Superintendent  General James Smart argued i n 1897  Deputy  that "heredity has done '  much to overcome i n white children the natural aversion to the monotonous work and confinement of schools, but Indian children...possess this i n i t s strongest form."  I f Indians had greater need of intensive forms of  acculturation than Anglo-Saxon Canadians of the labouring classes, at l e a s t one o f f i c i a l contended that they also had more r i g h t to s p e c i a l care  11 than immigrants:  "As  the o r i g i n a l owners o f t h e s o i l o f t h i s  northern  c o n t i n e n t . . . t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e have m o r a l c l a i m s t o our sympathy a s s i s t a n c e a s no  immigrant  Perhaps control,  o r newcomer e v e r h a s  had  o r can  and  have."  b e c a u s e t h e y seemed t o p o s e more d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m s  o r b e c a u s e a w i l l i n g G o v e r n m e n t and  Church  bureaucracy  of  was a l -  r e a d y i n p l a c e , o r b e c a u s e h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e seemed t o p o i n t t h e way,  I n d i a n s were t h e o n l y " u n a c c u l t u r a t e d " g r o u p t o undergo t h e  board-  4? ing school experience.  I t i s the uniqueness  makes a s t u d y o f t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e a s t u d y may  clarify  that  patterns e s p e c i a l l y important.  t h e n a t u r e o f one  d i r e c t e d a c c u l t u r a t i o n t h a t Canadians e l u c i d a t i n g the extent to which  of t h e i r experience  Such  o f the most c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s have e v e r u n d e r t a k e n .  t h e s o c i a l and  And  at  by  economic p a t t e r n s o f  a  48 supposedly  " s i c k and  acculturative drive, gram o f s o c i a l  demoralized m i n o r i t y " i t may  suggest  -x-  i t s u p e r i o r t o day  s c h o o l s , I t was I n 1879,  Davin to i n v e s t i g a t e American  But though a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  not w i d e l y emulated  the Canadian  approaches  to Indian education.  b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s f o r I n d i a n s , on t h e m o d e l o f t h e one s e t t i n g up a t C a r l i s l e ,  Pennsylvania.  .until a l -  Government s e n t N i c h o l a s  D a v i n recommended t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n C a n a d a o f  P r a t t was  pro-  *  I n d i a n s a t M i s s i o n i n I863.  most t h i r t y y e a r s l a t e r .  turn,  some o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f a n y  Roman C a t h o l i c O b l a t e s o p e n e d t h e f i r s t b o a r d i n g s c h o o l f o r  B r i t i s h Columbia thought  that  control. •*  The  blunted or deflected  On h i s r e -  "industrial" R i c h a r d Henry  I n 1883,  a systematic  e f f o r t t o c o n s t r u c t b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s began on t h e p r a i r i e s ;  and  a  year  l a t e r , S i r J o h n A. M a c d o n a l d , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , as w e l l as P r i m e  Minister,  a n n o u n c e d t h a t he was  discussing with  >:  12 interested religious in  o r g a n i z a t i o n s the establishment  B r i t i s h Columbia.  Run  by the churches,  a i d f r o m t h e G o v e r n m e n t , and Government and " b o a r d i n g " and "Boarding" did  churches  eligible for  created B r i t i s h Columbia's system  of  " i n d u s t r i a l " schools d u r i n g the three decades a f t e r  s c h o o l encompasses b o t h types  By 1920,  1890  a l l b u t one  and  The  of i n s t i t u t i o n s .  term  Map  additional significance:  "resi-  operated—not  a time  The  period  ever  1890-1920  of experimentation,  of  b u r e a u c r a t i c d e b a t e r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l u e o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s ; and time d u r i n g which t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n rhythms c o n t i n u e d tant determinant  I n 1920,  of attendance.  v i g o r o u s campaign t o promote and first in  time,  a few  t o be  an  impor-  the Government u n d e r t o o k  expand the e x i s t i n g  schools.  a  For  a the  i t empowered i t s o f f i c e r s t o f o r c i b l y e n r o l l c h i l d r e n .  y e a r s , r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s exceeded day Although  13)  (page  s c h o o l s w h i c h were  been e s t a b l i s h e d . i t was  1  and  1920.  of the r e s i d e n t i a l  i n t h e p r o v i n c e had  1890.  " i n d u s t r i a l " schools,  l o c a t e s the twenty r e s i d e n t i a l schools which  concurrently—between  to operate  schools  subject to i t s general s u p e r v i s i o n .  s c h o o l s were g e n e r a l l y s m a l l e r t h a n  summarizes and  has  t h e y w o u l d be  n o t o f f e r as f o r m a l a program o f manual t r a i n i n g .  dential"  all  of such  With-  schools i n enrollment.  o f f i c i a l s o f the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  would  h a v e l i k e d a l l I n d i a n c h i l d r e n t o a t t e n d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s a t some t i m e , t h e y were w e l l aware t h a t s u c h I n 1901,  a n o b j e c t i v e was  w e l l beyond t h e i r  the t o t a l I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia between  a g e s o f s i x and  fifteeen  was  3i^5-  The  G o v e r n m e n t - a i d e d s c h o o l s , r e s i d e n t i a l and T h o s e on t h e r o l l school-age  the  t o t a l number e n r o l l e d i n a l l day,  was  1,^96, o r ^3 p e r c e n t .  i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s c o n s t i t u t e d 19.7  children;  reach.  the average d a i l y attendance  was  percent  o n l y 17.6  of  percent  13  MAP 1 R e s i d e n t i a l Schools,  1890-1920 (RC) (A) (MJ (P)  Roman C a t h o l i c Anglican Methodist Presbyterian  p, ^ T o r t Simpson Boys' / G i r l s * (M) M e t l a k a t l a (A) » Stuart Lake (RCi K i t i m a t (M) ( l a t e r a t Fraser Lake)  •Williams LakeVRC)  A l e r t Bay G i r l s ' / i d u s t r i a l (A)  • Kamloops (RC) St. George's (A)  Ahousaht (p) Clayoquot (RC) A l t e r n i (P)  Sechelt (RC) • A l l Hallows (A) -Squamish (RCJ oq^ualeetza (M) Q St. Mary^g-  Kuper I s l a n d (RC)  14 of children s i x to f i f t e e n age children: 53-9  (N=608).  In  1920,  there were 4,284 school-  percent were enrolled i n a i l schools; 26 percent i n  r e s i d e n t i a l schools; and  22.3  percent  (W=955) were  actually i n residen-  49 t i a l school classes on the average day.  Since there were pupils i n  the schools younger than s i x and older than f i f t e e n , these figures actually overstate the attendance of the given age group. While the aggregate number who attended r e s i d e n t i a l schools depended on the rate of turnover, there i s some evidence that a considerable proportion of young Indians never saw the inside of a c l a s s room, r e s i d e n t i a l or .day. serves i n  196l,  over  6l  Of natives l i v i n g on B r i t i s h Columbia re-  percent of those born i n  no schooling whatsoever; approximately 1897  I896  or e a r l i e r had  one i n three of those born between  and I916 had been t o i n c i t h e r day nor r e s i d e n t i a l  school.Since  day schools continued to be the preponderant form of native education during t h i s period, i t i s probably accurate to assume that only a minority of Indian children ever went to r e s i d e n t i a l school.  Succeed-  ing chapters w i l l attempt to c l a r i f y who selected that minority, how they d i d so, what t h e i r choice indicated, and what attendance meant f o r those involved.  15  CHAPTER I I  I N D I A N F A M I L I E S AND ENROLLMENT:  POWER  TO REFUSE  I n most r e s p e c t s , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s Indians  i nthe late nineteenth  o f Canadian  and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s  p a r a l l e l e d those o f American n a t i v e s .  closely  One s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ,  h o w e v e r , was t h e d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l t h e y r e t a i n e d o v e r e n r o l l m e n t i n boarding  schools.  coercion to f i l l  By the  early  1900s, A m e r i c a n o f f i c i a l s w e r e u s i n g  such i n s t i t u t i o n s .  An A r i z o n a Hopi r e c a l l s t h e r e s u l t s :  B e f o r e s u n r i s e o n t h e t e n t h o f S e p t e m b e r t h e p o l i c e came t o O r a i b i and s u r r o u n d e d t h e v i l l a g e , w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f c a p t u r i n g t h e c h i l d r e n . . . a n d t a k i n g them t o s c h o o l b y f o r c e . They h e r d e d u s a l l t o g e t h e r a t t h e e a s t e n d o f t h e mesa...The p e o p l e w e r e e x c i t e d , t h e c h i l d r e n a n d t h e m o t h e r s w e r e c r y i n g , a n d t h e men w a n t e d t o f i g h t . 1 I n Canada, s u c h s c e n e s d i d n o t n o r m a l l y  U n t i l 1920,  occur.  parents  possessed and f r e q u e n t l y e x e r c i s e d t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s enrollment  i nr e s i d e n t i a l  From 1894,  schools.  J u s t i c e s and I n d i a n Agents had the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y t o  2 commit I n d i a n c h i l d r e n under s i x t e e n t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . f o r e 1920,  they  c o u l d do s o o n l y i f "a d a y s c h o o l i s p r o v i d e d , 3  c h i l d does n o t a t t e n d . ' t e r n a t i v e o f a day school: separate day  But, be-  Regulations i neffect,  thus guaranteed parents educators  c h i l d r e n from t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  school g e n e r a l l y remained voluntary.  and t h e  the a l -  could not f o r c i b l y  I n p r a c t i c e , even attendance a t F o r i t was D e p a r t m e n t p o l i c y ,  f o r m a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d by DeputyjaSuperihtendent  General  James S m a r t i n I 8 9 8 ,  "to r e f r a i n from compulsory measures, and t r y t h e e f f e c t o f m o r a l  suasion  16 and  4  an a p p e a l t o s e l f - i n t e r e s t . " In  1920,  t h e Government p a s s e d  amendments t o t h e I n d i a n A c t  which e l i m i n a t e d i t s o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o v i d e day the compulsory between seven  enrollment i n r e s i d e n t i a l  schools.  By  authorizing  schools of a l lIndian children  and f i f t e e n , t h e c h a n g e s " g i v e t h e d e p a r t m e n t c o n t r o l  remove f r o m t h e I n d i a n p a r e n t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c a r e education of h i s c h i l d . T h e f i r s t  explicityadmission of  r e c r u i t m e n t o f p u p i l s f o r a B r i t i s h Columbia t a i n e d i n a N o v e m b e r 1923  residential  and  coerced  s c h o o l i s con-  e n t r y o f the F r a s e r Lake S c h o o l D i a r y :  " I t was  n o t a n e a s y m a t t e r t o h a v e t h e p a r e n t s l e t £their c h i l d r e n J go. p o l i c e m a n Mr.  M a n s o n was  and  The  w i t h the p r i n c i p a l t o f o r c e the parents to  the  6  effect." Cases o f compulsory  enrollment undoubtably  occurred p r i o r  to  7 1920,  b u t t h e y were s c a t t e r e d and p r o b a b l y u n a u t h o r i z e d .  r e p o r t t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t f o r t h e y e a r e n d e d 30  J u n e 1904,  p r i n c i p a l o f the A l b e r n i Boarding School, wrote: accomodation  pupils;  no e f f o r t was  In his J . R.  "For l a c k of  made d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r t o r e c r u i t g  several applications being refused f o r that reason."  Fred Thornberg,  proper more  But  l i v i n g a t Ahousaht, charged  i n a l e t t e r to  t h e V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t t h a t M o t i o n had f o r c i b l y a b d u c t e d  his half-caste  daughter  The  on  23  a w h i t e man  Motion,  September  1903=  She was s c r e a m i n g a n d r u n n i n g a s h a r d a s s h e c o u l d , a n d t h i s b i g man was i n f u l l c h a s e a f t e r h e r . . . I t r i e d t o p r e v e n t h i m , b u t he g a v e me a h e a v y p u s h , t h a t n e a r l y t u m b l e d me down a R o c k y B l u f f . . . I was a f o o l t o t h i n k t h a t I a n o l d man (63 y e a r s ) a l s o a C r i b b l e [~sic~1 w o u l d be a b l e t o p r e v e n t s u c h a b i g Man t o do a s [ j i e ] p l e a s e d . . . Mr. M o t i o n o f c o u r s e i n t h e end c a p t u r e d h e r . . . a n d commanded h e r t o p a c k up a n d come w i t h h i m . C o l o n i s t d e c l i n e d t o p u b l i s h the l e t t e r , f e a r i n g " p o s s i b l e a c t i o n  f o r damages," and  instead sent copies to Indian Superintendent  Vowell  17 and. t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . case  9  The  outcome o f  the  i s unknown. There i s , i n a d d i t i o n ,  at least  the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  one;;recorded  instance i n  which  i t s e l f a u t h o r i z e d the compulsory  ment o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n .  I n 1911,  girls  on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t s i n c e t h e l a t t e r w e r e  from  t h e i r mothers,  i t s officers  t o o k two  enroll-  ten year old  " n o t o r i o u s l y b a d women," t h e y w e r e " u n f i t t o h a v e c h a r g e " o f daughters.  The  their  mothers " f l e d from p l a c e to p l a c e , to prevent the  b e i n g p l a c e d i n s c h o o l , " but the Department e v e n t u a l l y succeeded enrolling  t h e two  residential of  in  c h i l d r e n i n Coqualeetza.  These c a s e s were, however, e x c e p t i o n s . g u a r d i a n s had  girls  Normally, parents  the power t o d e c i d e which c h i l d r e n ,  school.  Departmental  i f any,  or  went t o  r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e d t h a t the head  t h e f a m i l y s i g n a document, g i v i n g t h e s c h o o l charge  over h i s c h i l d .  F r e q u e n t l y , p a r e n t s shared the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process w i t h t h e i r dren.  A.  W.  Neill,  r e p o r t e d i n 1906 of  I n d i a n A g e n t on t h e w e s t c o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r  t h a t attendance  the c h i l d , i t b e i n g e n t i r e l y  was  "too o f t e n l e f t t o the  G.  Donckele,  "The  inclination  P u p i l s a r e f r e e and  u n t i l 1906,  independent  was  made t h e  from  to  anything against  a B e l g i a n m i s s i o n a r y who  c i p a l o f t h e K u p e r I s l a n d S c h o o l f r o m 1890 observation:  Island,  a g a i n s t the customs o f the I n d i a n s  u s e p r e s s u r e , f a r l e s s f o r c e , t o make t h e i r c h i l d r e n do their inclination.  chil-  their  prinsame  Parents  12 as f a r as a t t e n d a n c e Principals  at School i s  concerned."  attempting to f i l l  t h e i r s c h o o l s had  the c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by t h e I n d i a n f a m i l y ' s r i g h t When J . N. in  I889,  0.  t o work  within  to refuse enrollment.  S c o t t sought p u p i l s f o r the newly-opened M e t l a k a t l a School  some p a r e n t s i n f o r m e d h i m  curtly  t h a t "what we  want f r o m  the  18 Government i s our land, and not schools or education."  Scott was  obliged to s t a r t the school with only s i x pupils; gradually enrollment rose, but only "by the Indians sending or bringing t h e i r c h i l d r e n " 13 themselves.  Joseph Hall, p r i n c i p a l of Coqualeetza, t r i e d to r e c r u i t  p u p i l s on Vancouver Island i n January of 1897,  out without success:  Parentswwere apparently quite aware of t h e i r rights and not about to be rushed:  "Indians do not come to a decision at once i n matters of 14  t h i s kind."  Continuing h o s t i l i t y to education among l o c a l natives  forced o f f i c i a l s of the Alert Bay I n d u s t r i a l School to import at l e a s t h a l f of t h e i r pupils from distant, more favourably disposed t r i b e s ; the G i r l s ' Home at Alert Bay remained closed f o r several years because parents simply refused to part with t h e i r daughters."^ Faced with the unwelcome task of persuading parents, not a l l p r i n c i p a l s took the honourable course.  Nicholas Coccola recorded that  on the eve:-' of the opening of the Kootenay School "the f a i t h f u l old man Alban came to t e l l me secretly that the Indians were not to t r u s t t h e i r children to white women though c a l l e d S i s t e r s . "  Alarmed, Coccola  decided that only a dramatic i n i t i a t i v e could f o r e s t a l l serious trouble f o r the new school. Following Sunday Church services, he marched [the c h i l d r e n ] into the school houses...the parents... followed to see where the march was leading. The S i s t e r s were on the porch...[they] received the children who entered and closljing] the doors,, t o l d the crowd to go back to camp.l6 The parents, apparently too surprised to r e s i s t , quietly l e f t the schoolyard.  As Coccola's biographer notes:  "The birds were i n the  17 cage, almost without knowing how." While Coccola did not state how, or even i f , he eventually obtained the parents' signatures, some r e c r u i t e r s allegedly used trickery.  The Roman Catholic p r i n c i p a l at Kuper Island, G. Donckele,  1 9  asserted i n a l e t t e r to Superintendent Vowell that G. M. Tate, Methodist founder of Coqualeetza, had used f a l s e pretenses on more than one occasion to overcome parental intransigence.  He suggested that Tate  misled parents about what they were signing.  I t should be noted, how-  ever, that Donckele made his accusations i n the context of long and b i t t e r h o s t i l i t y between the two schools, and that his evidence was l a r g e l y hearsay: I have been t o l d by one party that Eugene was under the influence of l i q u o r at the time the Rev. Mr. Tate extorted the so-called application from him, and another party informed me that the whole document was drawn up by Mr. Tate and that the same paper does not even show a signature mark of Eugene or of any of his relations.18 I n i t i a l l y , there was a good deal of opposition to enrollment at r e s i d e n t i a l schools, e s p e c i a l l y among older Indians.  To some extent,  t h i s opposition was an i n s t i n c t i v e defense of t r a d i t i o n a l customs and beliefs.  The h i s t o r y of t h e i r contact with white c i v i l i z a t i o n had made  natives a wary group.  During the preceding century, European s e t t l e r s  had decimated the Indian population by introducing disease and alcohol. Then, i n the 1870s and 1880s, the Government set out to control and a l t e r the Indian way of l i f e .  Imposed land settlements and the 1884  law p r o h i b i t i n g the potlatch provoked widespread discontent among natives. Many f e l t that the schools would prove "an additional snare to the poor Indian."  19  Parents also recognized that r e s i d e n t i a l education would i n t e r rupt t h e i r own patterns of i n s t r u c t i o n . Largely imitative, native education necessitated l i v i n g constantly around older Indians who possessed v i t a l knowledge.  Among the B e l l a Goola, f o r example,  a boy, as he increases i n strength, follows his father on hunting expeditions <3r f i s h i n g . The mother teaches her daughter how to make baskets, and they [her daughters] follow her when she gathers berries, or when she cooks and performs household duties.^0  20 Young c h i l d r e n i m i t a t e d i n t h e i r p l a y t h e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e I n d i a n way o f l i f e ,  as they observed  i t first-hand:  they reproduced  i n their  games n o t j u s t a d u l t o c c u p a t i o n s , b u t a l s o c u l t u r a l e v e n t s s u c h a s t h e 21 potlatch.  Grandparents  recounted family h i s t o r i e s ,  and used  l o r e t o t r a n s m i t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f accepted v a l u e s . d i t i o n a l education, so i n s e p a r a b l e from everyday continue c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h attendance  in  tended  B r i t i s h Columbia  families.  In  within  interruption. largely  their children to residential  Indians t r a d i t i o n a l l y lived  Often, several conjugal units,  more g e n e r a t i o n s , l i v e d  tra-  and c o n t a c t s , might  e m o t i o n a l t r a u m a o f s e p a r a t i o n seems t o have f i g u r e d  t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f p a r e n t s t o send  schools.  life  this  a t day s c h o o l , i s o l a t i o n  r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s w o u l d mean i t s a l m o s t t o t a l The  While  popular  i n l a r g e , ex-  representing three o r  i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f t h e same l a r g e  h e r a n a l y s i s o f Coast S a l i s h f a m i l i e s ,  C l a u d i a Lewis  house.  speculates that,  t h e e m o t i o n a l t i e b e t w e e n p a r e n t s a n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n may n o t h a v e b e e n a s i n t e n s e a n d c l o s e a s we e x p e r i e n c e i t , i n o u r n u c l e a r f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s . . . y e t t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t c h i l d r e n - - a l l c h i l d r e n — w e r e c h e r i s h e d and t h a t , i n s p i t e o f t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n c o d e o f b e h a v i o r , g o o d w i l l was t h e b a s i c f e e l i n g c o n v e y e d . 2 2 M o s t o f t h o s e who o b s e r v e d  t h e I n d i a n f a m i l y about t h e t u r n o f t h e cen-  t u r y emphasized without q u a l i f i c a t i o n the unusual c l o s e n e s s o f p a r e n t and  child.  "fondness of  Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l H a y t e r Reed spoke o f t h e f o rt h e i r offspring,  which  i s so admirable  I n d i a n p a r e n t s " ; Agent P e r r y , w r i t i n g from  p e l l e d t o mention  a characteristic  t h e Nass a r e a , f e l t  com-  " t h e d e l i g h t t a k e n among m o t h e r s i n t h e c a r e o f , a n d  devotion to, their children";  a c c o r d i n g t o .•.Frobeh:Bpper;iIndians • a r o u n d 23  his  C l a y o q u o t S c h o o l were " p a s s i o n a t e l y f o n d " o f t h e i r  young.  Two s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l c h a n g e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d may h a v e b e e n i n t e n s i f y i n g such emotional t i e s .  Due p a r t i a l l y  to the efforts o f  21 white  m i s s i o n a r i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,  was a p p a r e n t l y  24  the extended I n d i a n  family  g i v i n g way i n m o s t a r e a s t o a c l o s e r a p p r o x i m a t i o n  of  25 the  western European n u c l e a r model.  The c h a n g i n g n a t u r e  o f housing  seems t o o f f e r t h e b e s t e v i d e n c e o f c h a n g i n g f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . e a r l y 1900s, a g e n t s commonly r e p o r t e d their large, traditional dwellings. Charlottes, there  that Indians I n Skidegate,  w e r e o n l y two w e s t e r n - s t y l e  were  From t h e  abandoning  i n t h e Queen  h o u s e s i n 1885,  hut twelve  26 years  later,  t h e l a s t o f t h e b i g I n d i a n houses stood  N e i l l reported "it  empty.  Agent  f r o m t h e w e s t c o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d i n 1908  i s t h e c u s t o m now g e n e r a l l y t o b u i l d a h o u s e o f m o d e r a t e  that  dimensions  s u i t a b l e f o r t h e u s e o f "only o n e f a m i l y , i n s t e a d o f t h e huge s t r u c t u r e s . . .  27 w h i c h used t o be t h e r u l e . "  i f C l a u d i a l e w i s i s c o r r e c t about the  d i f f u s i o n o f emotion i n extended f a m i l i e s ,  t h i s move t o w a r d s s m a l l e r ,  n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s may h a v e f u r t h e r t i g h t e n e d b o n d s b e t w e e n and  c h i l d r e n , thereby  parents  i n c r e a s i n g the reluctance o f parents  t h e i r c h i l d r e n into boarding  schools.  to sign  Thus t h e v e r y s u c c e s s  o f one  a t t e m p t t o d i r e c t s o c i a l c h a n g e may h a v e i n d i r e c t l y h a m p e r e d t h e p r o g r e s s of another form o f s o c i a l The  control.  second development c o n c e i v a b l y  r e l a t i o n s between p a r e n t s  a n d c h i l d r e n was d e m o g r a p h i c .  rapid population decline o f previous 1890  contributing to closer  i n some p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e ,  Although the  d e c a d e s was c h e c k e d a s e a r l y a s the t o t a l Indian population  continued  28 t o d e c r e a s e u n t i l 1929. t i c u l a r l y a t young people.  Officials I n 1907,  agreed t h a t disease  struck  par-  f o rexample, deaths from measles  29 and  i n f l u e n z a were " l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o i n f a n t s and y o u n g c h i l d r e n . "  I n f a n t m o r t a l i t y was n o t t h e o n l y c a u s e o f p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e , h o w e v e r ; low f e r t i l i t y  was a l s o a f a c t o r .  Describing the effect o f venereal  22 d i s e a s e s , Helen Godere s t a t e s :  " I t i s apparent...that  t h e K w a k i u t l p o p u l a t i o n was  not only to c o n t i n u a l l o s s e s ,  due  the  decline i n but 30  a l s o t o a l a c k o f any m o r t a l i t y and than ever  h e a l t h y c a p a c i t y to r e p l a c e those  low f e r t i l i t y meant t h a t t h e r e  before,  not  Indian population.  only a b s o l u t e l y , but  losses."  Child  were f e w e r I n d i a n c h i l d r e n  a l s o as a p e r c e n t a g e o f  the  1880s r e m a r k e d  V i s i t o r s t o t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e s i n t h e  31 r o u t i n e l y on t h e s m a l l n u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n . d e n t i a l schools  r a r e may  h a v e made t h e i r t a s k e v e n more  Most evidence c o n f i r m s  Girls'  Home:  difficult.  "You  nuclear  s e p a r a t i o n caused byyenrollment.  H a l l d e s c r i b e d f t h e s t r u g g l e o f one  had  resi-  the p i c t u r e o f s m a l l , , c l o s e l y k n i t  f a m i l i e s f e e l i n g very a c u t e l y the  a f t e r he  running  were t r y i n g t o r e c r u i t f r o m f a m i l i e s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n  were c o m p a r a t i v e l y  t h e A l e r t Bay  That those  man  who  brought h i s daughter  c a n n o t t h i n k how  s o r r o w f u l he  y i e l d e d h e r t o o u r c a r e — s u r e l y i t was  like  Alfred  to looked  cutting off a  32 r i g h t hand." t h a t she  was  school,  "but  Mom  Dad  and  A f o r m e r p u p i l a t A l e r t Bay, at f i r s t  t h e r e , I had  g o n e — w o u l d n ' t see  Margaret Butcher,  a teacher  a different feeling  at K i t i m a t , recorded they  f r o m t h e l o g g i n g camps:  expectant  "How  the I n l e t ,  awaited  recalls  residential altogether... 33  them a g a i n f o r a l o n g t i m e . "  the f e e l i n g s o f the p u p i l s as  week l o o k i n g up  Edward J o y c e ,  very e x c i t e d about e n r o l l i n g i n the  a f t e r I got  had  Mrs.  i n a personal  the r e t u r n of t h e i r  J  letter parents  t h e c h i l d r e n were a l l t h a t  s u r m i s i n g w h i c h day  t h e y w o u l d come.  Talk-  34 i n g a l l the  time of Mother o r Father  or  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s , who, were " s t r i c t l y  u t i l i t a r i a n with regard  Baby." "with the r a r e s t to the  they d e s i r e [ d ] f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , w e r e c e i v e much m a t e r i a l a d v a n t a g e t o be  standard  exceptions," of  education  f r e q u e n t l y unable to  d e r i v e d from i t .  I n 1910,  perDuncan  23 Campbell S c o t t r e f l e c t e d , on the o c c u p a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e ' s natives.  He n o t e d t h a t they had always been s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , and t h a t  "the advent o f white p o p u l a t i o n ,  which i n t h e west caused t h e complete  disappearance o f the b u f f a l o , d i d n o t o c c a s i o n any s e r i o u s change i n t h e i r source  o f food-supply."  Moreover, "they e a s i l y adapted themselves  to the demands made upon them as l a b o u r e r s and g e n e r a l h e l p e r s , "  with  the r e s u l t t h a t "they a r e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i n d u s t r i a l importance as a l a b o u r f a c t o r throughout the p r o v i n c e . " p a r t l y why, f o r those  undertaking  T h i s , S c o t t a f f i r m e d , was  e d u c a t i o n a l work i n B r i t i s h  Columbia,  "the d i f f i c u l t i e s t o be met w i t h a r e even g r e a t e r than i n t h e o t h e r provinces." parents  As Agent H a l l i d a y wrote o f the Nimpkish band, many  "look a t i t from the s t a n d p o i n t  t h a t , as they were a b l e t o g e t 37  a l o n g without province's cally,  education,  t h e i r c h i l d r e n can a l s o . " ^  I r o n i c a l l y , the  i n t o l e r a n t r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s b e n e f i t t e d the I n d i a n s  economi-  and made new s k i l l s and knowledge seem even l e s s important:  O r i e n t a l immigration  was r e s t r i c t e d , t h e demand f o r n a t i v e l a b o u r  But i f e d u c a t i o n promised l i t t l e  future return, parents  w e l l aware t h a t i t would exact immediate c o s t . o f work which c h i l d r e n c o u l d do: sacrifice.  when rose.  were  There was an abundance  t o send them t o s c h o o l meant economic  When J . No 0. S c o t t t r i e d t o r e c r u i t p u p i l s f o r t h e l i n d u s t r f  r&alvisehool a t M e t l a k a t l a i n 1889, p l a y e d an important  he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t school-age boys  r o l e i n t h e economy o f t h e I n d i a n f a m i l y :  "A few...  s a i d they would l i k e t o send t h e i r boys t o t h i s s c h o o l a t the end o f the f i s h i n g season; b u t while  the f i s h i n g l a s t e d they were v e r y u s e f u l , 39  and  c o u l d n o t w e l l be s p a r e d . "  I n the New Westminster Agency,  "they  a l l — i n c l u d i n g men, women, boys and g i r l s — o b t a i n e d employment and good wages a t the d i f f e r e n t canning  establishments."  Most o f t e n , the men  24 and. l a r g e r b o y s h a n d l e d t h e b o a t s and worked i n the c a n n e r i e s . age. ing  Apparently  James S e w i d r e c a l l s t h a t he c r e w , when he  was  F i s h i n g was participated.  On  ten.  nets;  t h e women and  they could begin  went f i s h i n g ,  children  at a very  early  a s a member o f a s e i n -  41  not the  o n l y economic a c t i v i t y i n which c h i l d r e n  Vancouver I s l a n d ' s west c o a s t ,  "the  l a d s go  sealing  42 a t an e a r l y a g e . " b e r r i e s and helpedd  I n the Skeena area,  s t o r e d them f o r w i n t e r u s e .  women and  to carry while  on h u n t s .  c h i l d r e n gathered  Among t h e T s i m s h i a n ,  44  t o t h e M i n e s n e a r G l a d w i n B.C."  for  s h o w i n g " I n d i a n P l a c e r M i n e r s on i n c l u d e s two  boys roughly  wild  children  a b o u t 1899  A photograph taken  the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Way  43  their  nine  to  45 twelve  years  of  age.  Less formal, but  equally important  economy m i g h t a l s o d i s c o u r a g e mon.  The  parents  enrollment.  c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the  family  B a b y s i t t i n g ; d u t i e s w e r e com-  o f C l a r a C l a r e withdrew her from the  A l l Hallows  S c h o o l so t h a t she c o u l d h e l p c a r e f o r a y o u n g e r , s i c k l y s i s t e r . "Antodme" l e f t t h e W i l l i a m s L a k e S c h o o l t o c a r e f o r h i s p a r e n t s ,  46 "both  47 o f them n e a r l y  blind."  Because o f t h e i r p r e c a r i o u s demographic s i t u a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y anxious ment.  t h a t t h e i r young l i v e  Fear that schools  were u n h e a l t h y ,  d i t i o n s i n them, m i l i t a t e d the Haida "take dren,  and  will  n a t i v e s were  i n the best p o s s i b l e  environ-  o r even u n c e r t a i n t y about con-  against enrollment.  Agent Deasy s t a t e d  that  a great d e a l of i n t e r e s t i n the w e l l - b e i n g of t h e i r not  s e n d them away f r o m home, w h e r e t h e y  chil-  cannot l e a r n  48 of t h e i r health." t h e 1916  Royal  Natives  f r o m some b a n d s i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y  C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s  send c h i l d r e n to [ t h e boarding  that they  were " a f r a i d  s c h o o l a t ] M i s s i o n on a c c o u n t o f  told to  health  25 conditions."  49  Many I n d i a n s seem t o have been extremely  uneasy about  e n t r u s t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o an unknown and p o s s i b l y h a r m f u l ment.  Margaret Butcher  environ-  d e s c r i b e d t h e way s i c k n e s s i n t h e K i t i m a t Home  a f f e c t e d n a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards i t : The I n d i a n s a r e so i l l o g i c a l , they do n o t c o n s i d e r the number o f c h i l d r e n who a r e brought through d e l i c a c y and s i c k n e s s t o s t r e n g t h and f i t n e s s , they o n l y l o o k a t and count the c h i l d r e n who a r e s i c k and 'are k i l l e d by t h e Home'.  50  P r i n c i p a l s were w e l l aware o f t h e p o s s i b l y d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t  illness  o r d e a t h c o u l d have on I n d i a n s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r s c h o o l , and cons e q u e n t l y on f u t u r e e n r o l l m e n t .  Donckele f e l t a sense o f r e l i e f  he sent one s i c k g i r l home from Kuper I s l a n d : proven f a t a l a t t h e School,  after  " I f h e r malady would have  t h e r e would have been g r e a t  excitement  51 amongst the I n d i a n s . Thus a number o f f a c t o r s f i g u r e d i n t h e f r e q u e n t r e f u s a l o f Indian parents of  to e n r o l l t h e i r children i n r e s i d e n t i a l school:  white i n t e n t i o n s ; p r e f e r e n c e f o r t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n ;  ening f a m i l i a l t i e s ; the unavoidable  for  tight-  the dubious economic v a l u e o f f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g ;  f i n a n c i a l s a c r i f i c e i t i n v o l v e d ; and worry over  health conditions. of  suspicion  school  The next c h a p t e r w i l l b e g i n by i n v e s t i g a t i n g some  t h e c o u n t e r v a i l i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which prompted p a r e n t s their children's  admission.  to apply  2 6  CHAPTER I I I  A P P L I C A T I O N AND  RECRUTTMENT:  PROCESS OF  SELECTION  Although many—probably m o s t — I n d i a n d r e n a t home f i o r r e a s o n s  THE  parents kept  d e s c r i b e d i n the l a s t chapter,  m i n o r i t y v o l u n t a r i l y e n r o l l e d t h e i r young i n b o a r d i n g chapter w i l l  attempt  their  a  significant  schools.  t o a n s w e r a number o f c l o s e l y r e l a t e d  a b o u t t h e ways i n w h i c h p a r e n t s c h i l d r e n s t a y e d a t home, and  and  educators  j o i n t l y determined  p r o m p t e d some p a r e n t s t o o v e r c o m e t h e o b v i o u s conclude  t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n was  did  they choose t o e n r o l l i n the s c h o o l s ?  a b o u t t h e i r c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s and c h i l d r e n d i d educators  This  questions  w h i c h c h i l d r e n went t o s c h o o l .  and  chil-  What  o b j e c t i o n s to the  desirable?  which  Which  schools,  children  What d i d t h a t c h o i c e  indicate  s o c i a l objectives?' Conversely,  seek to r e c r u i t ,  and  what d i d t h e i r  preference  i n d i c a t e about t h e i r s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s ?  This chapter w i l l  s e l e c t i n g s t u d e n t s was  i n w h i c h I n d i a n s , as w e l l  a complex process  educators, played a v i t a l It  i s important  in  almost  show t h a t as  role.  not to o v e r s i m p l i f y the r e a c t i o n o f Indians.  M o s t I n d i a n c h i l d r e n d i d n o t , a p p a r e n t l y , go theless,  which  to boarding  schools.  Never-  a l l r e s i d e n t i a l schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia succeeded  o b t a i n i n g t h e number o f s t u d e n t s f o r w h i c h t h e Government o f f e r e d  them g r a n t s .  In fact,  a f t e r a wave o f i n i t i a l  opposition, Indians i n  many p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e seem t o h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d  a rush of  enthusiasm  27 f o r t h e new  institutions.  A year a f t e r the opening  S c h o o l , N i c h o l a s G o c c o l a , who by s u r p r i s e , come and  had  felt  reported t h a t the parents  recruits  "seem now  and  of applications.  At Kuper I s l a n d ,  e v e r y I n d i a n i s now  The  highly pleased,  a r e a l l o w e d by t h e  Govern-  "considerable d i s s a t i s -  f a c t i o n " among b o t h p a r e n t s and p u p i l s g a v e way a deluge  Kootenay  o b l i g e d to take h i s f i r s t  o f f e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , more t h a n we  m e n t a t p r e s e n t t o take."'''  o f the  w i t h i n two y e a r s  p r i n c i p a l s t a t e d i n 1892  that "nearly  desirous of having h i s c h i l d r e n educated,"  a n n o u n c e d t h a t he was  to  and  c o n s e q u e n t l y a b l e t o be much more s e l e c t i v e i n  d e c i d i n g which c h i l d r e n to admit.  The  1916  R o y a l Commission on I n d i a n  A f f a i r s h e a r d s e v e r a l t r i b e s c o m p l a i n t h a t t h e r e were n o t enough r e s i d e n -  3 t i a l schools. Enthusiasm  d i d not completely replace opposition:  t i m e n t s were u s u a l l y p r e s e n t i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s . d o m i n a n t a t t i t u d e a t any alacrity.  The  one  both  sen-  Moreover, the  pre-  t i m e c o u l d be r e v e r s e d w i t h a s t o n i s h i n g  K a m l o o p s S c h o o l was  " s o p o p u l a r " i n 1890  s e n t number o f p u p i l s m i g h t e a s i l y be  quadrupled."  Only  t h a t "the p r e two y e a r s  however, t h e d e p a r t u r e o f an i n f l u e n t i a l p r i e s t combined w i t h management p r o d u c e d in  s o much d i s c o n t e n t t h a t t h e s c h o o l h a d  1893»  1895  was  t o be c l o s e d .  reopened  tions,  some p a r e n t s e v e n o f f e r i n g p a y m e n t t o h a v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n  ted.  Throughout B r i t i s h Columbia,  t u r a l background  by  incompetent  I t was  s h a d e s o f t a c t and  and  again inundated with  experience:  applicaadmits  educators g i f t e d with varying  competence encountered  and  later,  Indians of disparate c u l -  naturally, reactions differed  p l a c e t o p l a c e , and f r o m y e a r t o y e a r .  from  But the s c h o o l s g e n e r a l l y  ceeded i n g e t t i n g t h e number o f c h i l d r e n t h e y  desired.  suc-  28 While the majority of Indians discerned l i t t l e tangible benefit i n schooling, there were times when aspects of education appeared ful.  use-  The French Catholics who ran the Kootenay School maintained that  the Indians i n the area eventually welcomed a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n because "tous comprennent que l e g i b i e r d i s p a r a i t . . . [ e t q u ' ] i l s seront obliges de vivre du produit de leurs f e r m e s . M o s t o f f i c i a l s believed Indians valued education " i n proportion as i t helps them to hold t h e i r own i n business r e l a t i o n s with other n a t i o n a l i t i e s , " and that such contact and competition was than elsewhere."  "expanding more rapidly i n B r i t i s h Columbia  On the west coast of Vancouver Island, f o r example,  Indians found i t easier to obtain work i n lumber camps and sawmills i f 7  they could speak English. S t i l l , even those natives convinced of education's value r a r e l y Q  considered i t "absolutely necessary";  they did not take the decision  to e n r o l l i n a r e s i d e n t i a l school l i g h t l y . day schools an easier alternative.  Indians generally found  Thus Peter K e l l y ' s Haida stepfather,  convinced that "education would become the important f a c t o r . . . i n the l i v e s of a l l young children," signed papers committing Peter to Coqualeetza i n 1897,  But i t took three years of further r e f l e c t i o n  before he f i n a l l y concluded t h e t s a c r i f i c e was worthwhile,  and a c t u a l l y  9 l e t Peter attend. The desire f o r s o c i a l advancement could inspire parents to look with favour on the education of t h e i r children.  Members of one band  i n the New Westminster Agency were p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n education because "they wish to see a l l t h e i r people put on a l e v e l with t h e i r white neighbours.""^ Kwakiutl father:  William Halliday recorded a speech made by one  "I allowed [my daughter] to go to school with pride  29 i n my h e a r t t o t h i n k t h a t s h e w o u l d b e a b l e t o g e t a h e a d o f t h e o t h e r girls  of our p e o p l e . T h e  did experience i n Massett  a dramatic  recorded  f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l p u p i l s sometimes  enhancement o f t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t u s .  A minister  t h a t one H a i d a b o y who r e t u r n e d f r o m M e t l a k a t l a f o r  12 holidays  "walks about here q u i t e t h e c e n t r e o f an a d m i r i n g Although  schools  o f t e n found i t d i f f i c u l t t o r e c r u i t  I n d i a n s f e a r e d t h e y were u n h e a l t h y , as w e l l :  crowd." because  t h e r e v e r s e was o c c a s i o n a l l y t r u e  t h e p a r t i c u l a r l y good h e a l t h r e c o r d s o f i n d i v i d u a l  c o u l d encourage p a r e n t s from Coqualeetza teachers,  to enroll their children.  schools  E. R o b s o n r e p o r t e d  i n 1895 t h a t , due t o t h e c o n c e r n e d e f f o r t s o f h i s  "the h e a l t h o f those  i n t r u s t e d t o t h e i r care has been  such,  when c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n o u t s i d e , a s t o c o n s t i t u t e a s t r o n g  13 reason  f o r attendance  a t s c h o o l , i n the minds o f p a r e n t s . "  W i l l i a m s l a k e , i n 1910,  parents  At  were p u r p o r t e d l y s o i m p r e s s e d  with health  conditions i n the school t h a t they n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y e n r o l l e d t h e i r  14  c h i l d w i t h t h e r e m a r k , "I'm a f r a i d h e ' l l d i e i f I k e e p h i m . "  The  Indians' perception of health conditions i n the schools d i d not just d i f f e r from place t o p l a c e , o r from year t o year: Indians  o f t h e same v i l l a g e m i g h t h o l d c o n t r a s t i n g  Butcher  was e x a s p e r a t e d  a t any s i n g l e t i m e , views.reWhileIMargaret  because the m a j o r i t y o f K i t i m a t I n d i a n s  seemed  t o f o c u s e x c l u s i v e l y on h e a l t h p r o b l e m s i n t h e s c h o o l , and i g n o r e t h e s t a f f ' s e f f o r t s t o nurse s i c k c h i l d r e n , natives looked  she p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a few  a t the school from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e :  The m o r t a l i t y a m o n g s t t h e o u t s i d e c h i l d r e n i s g r e a t e r t h a n i n t h e Home. One man who h a s l o s t 7 c h i l d r e n h a s b r o u g h t h i s b o y t o u s h o p i n g we c a n c a r r y h i m t h r o u g h a n d a n o t h e r h a s b r o u g h t h i s o n e p r e c i o u s l i t t l e s o n he h a s l o s t n i n e o t h e r c h i l d r e n a n d h a s o n l y a b o y o f 22 o r s o b e s i d e s . So y o u s e e t h e y do n o t a l l b l a m e t h e Home a n d t h e r e i s s m a l l d o u b t t h a t t h e r e g u l a r l i v i n g , g o o d f o o d , c l e a n l i n e s s e t c . h e l p t o k i l l o r s t a y t h e d i s e a s e i n many. 1-5  30 P a r e n t s e n r o l l i n g t h e i r young i n the b e l i e f t h a t h e a l t h cond i t i o n s w e r e b e t t e r i n t h e s c h o o l s t h a n a t home w e r e p r o b a b l y more numerous a f t e r t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y .  For i n the e a r l y years  t h e s c h o o l s ' e x i s t e n c e , t h e s c h o o l s were d e m o n s t r a b l y Campbell  S c o t t a c k n o w l e d g e d i n 1913  unhealthy.  t h a t p o o r a c c o m m o d a t i o n and  ure t o s c r e e n a p p l i c a n t s had c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s p r e a d o f and  s e v e r e l y impaired the usefulness of the schools.  w i t h i n t h e m a r k , " he who  passed  wrote,  "to say t h a t f i f t y  through these schools d i d not l i v e  of Duncan  the  fail-  tuberculosis  " I t i s quite  p e r c e n t o f the  children  t o b e n e f i t from  the  16 e d u c a t i o n w h i c h t h e y had r e c e i v e d t h e r e i n . " S c h o o l s began r e q u i r i n g the m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f at  v a r i o u s times--Kuper  I s l a n d b y 1893;  applicants  C o q u a l e e t z a i n 1897—but a  s t r i c t determination to accept o n l y the h e a l t h i e s t c h i l d r e n d i d not  17 become o f f i c i a l D e p a r t m e n t p o l i c y u n t i l a b o u t 1910.  I n 1911,  a  d o c t o r examined each c h i l d a d m i t t e d t o the L y t t o n S c h o o l f o r d e f e c t i v e limbs, poor eyesight or hearing, s c r o f u l a ,  fits,  and  smallpox.  s i n c e o f f i c i a l s a t L y t t o n d i d not f i n d i t easy to r e c r u i t  pupils,  t h e i r minimum s t a n d a r d s w e r e n o t , a p p a r e n t l y , t o o e x a c t i n g . C i s c o was of  a d m i t t e d i n 1912  e v e n t h o u g h he h a d  "some s l i g h t  t h e l y m p h a t i c g l a n d s " ; A n g e l i n a B a r r a c k , who  e x z e m a , and  congenital syphilis,  was  But  Ivor enlargement  had bad e y e s i g h t ,  a c c e p t e d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t  18 treatment would improve  her.  norshortage of applicants, approved  a girl  "idiot."  who  was  '  Even a t K u p e r I s l a n d , where t h e r e  the p r i n c i p a l complained  s c r o f u l o u s and  deaf,  t h a t the Doctor  as w e l l as b e i n g  had  an  1 9  Strong r e l i g i o u s leaders or convictions could influence to  was  accept r e s i d e n t i a l education.  The  Indians  l a y p r i n c i p a l o f the Kamloops  31 S c h o o l found i t beyond h i s power t o m a i n t a i n attendance  a f t e r the i n -  20 f l u e n t i a l F a t h e r L e j a c q departed i n 1892.  D e d i c a t i o n t o the Roman  C a t h o l i c Church and r e s p e c t f o r the a d v i c e o f i t s p r i e s t s may w e l l have helped prompt the S e c h e l t I n d i a n s — f o r m e r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n F a t h e r r i g i d l y d i s c i p l i n e d s o c i a l "system"—to  Durieu's  c o n s t r u c t t h e i r own b o a r d i n g  21 s c h o o l i n 1903-  When i n f l u e n z a s t r u c k I n d i a n s i n the S t u a r t Lake  a r e a i n about 1917,  p a r e n t s who had disobeyed the p r i e s t ' s  to ensure t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s attendance  injunction  c o n s t r u e d i t as d i v i n e  retribution  22  f o r t h e i r disobedience. Conversely, r e l i g i o u s questions could prevent enrollment. I n d i a n s who r e t a i n e d t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l b e l i e f s f e a r e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n w would s e p a r a t e t h e i r C h i l d r e n from them a f t e r death.  23  In addition,  as Agent Frank D e v l i n r e p o r t e d , many o f those who are n o t a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l are most anxious t o go, but t h e r e i s not accommodation f o r them. T h e i r p a r e n t s a r e v e r y p a r t i c u l a r about sending t h e i r ' childrehyto'--any" -sehool-6onducted by a r e l i g i o u s denomination o t h e r than t h a t t o which they themselves b e l o n g . ^+ ;  Because the C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s a t S t . Mary's M i s s i o n and on Kuper I s l a n d were almost always f u l l ,  many p a r e n t s i n the overwhelmingly  Catholic  areas  o f southern Vancouver I s l a n d and the F r a s e r V a l l e y had e i t h e r t o d i s r e g a r d r e l i g i o u s p r e f e r e n c e s , and s e n d ' t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o the M e t h o d i s t C o q u a l e e t z a S c h o o l , o r do without r e s i d e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n .  I n f a c t , many  p a r e n t s were f l e x i b l e enough t o p e r m i t t h e i r young t o a t t e n d  Coqualeetza,  a l t h o u g h they u s u a l l y t r a n s f e r r e d them t o a C a t h o l i c s c h o o l when a  25 vacancy  arose.  P a r e n t s were sometimes p r e p a r e d t o i g n o r e r e l i g i o u s  d i f f e r e n c e s a l t o g e t h e r i f d o i n g so meant t h e i r c h i l d r e n c o u l d a t t e n d  26  a b o a r d i n g s c h o o l n e a r e r home.  32 R e l i g i o u s groups competed b i t t e r l y to p r o t e c t o r expand r e l i g i o u s reasons  churches  spheres  f o rrecruits.  The d e s i r e  o f i n f l u e n c e was one o f t h e m a i n  undertook ".residential education.  A. W. C o r k e r e n -  couraged the A n g l i c a n Church M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y t o continue  administer-  ing  the Depart-  the Alert  Bay I n d u s t r i a l  School,  arguing that otherwise  ment w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a n d i t o v e r t o t h e Roman C a t h o l i c s ; C a t h o l i c s accepted  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the Clayoquot  School fearing thati f  t h e y d i d n o t , C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n w o u l d be " p e r v e r t e d " b y P r o t e s t a n t 27 instruction.  C a t h o l i c s a t S t . M a r y ' s M i s s i o n h o p e d t o t r a i n a s many  c h i l d r e n a s p o s s i b l e t o "become g o o d C a t h o l i c s a n d r e a l i z e of defending and  t h e i r r e l i g i o n against the assaults o f non-Catholic  whites  Indians."^ T h u s r e c r u i t m e n t was o f t e n r e d u c e d  religious  sects.  School, capable found one  t h e need  themselves  When M e t h o d i s t s  to a numerical battle  a t S a r d i s b u i l t t h e new  between  Coqualeetza  o f h o l d i n g one h u n d r e d s t u d e n t s , C a t h o l i c s a t M i s s i o n " f o r c e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e n u m b e r [ o f p u p i l s ] up t o w a r d s  hundred because t h e P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r s a r e t h i s year p u t t i n g  f o r t h brave  efforts  t o draw t o t h e i r f r e e s c h o o l s t h e c h i l d r e n o f o u r  29 native neophytes." Hall,  continued  In fact,  to recruit  the p r i n c i p a l o f Coqualeetza,  Joseph  Roman C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n e v e n a f t e r  Superinten-  dent V o w e l l reminded him t h a t Department r e g u l a t i o n s " e x p l i c i t l y , f o r bade"  the admission  of children into  a school of a different  denomi-  30 nation.  S u c h c o m p e t i t i o n o f t e n became q u i t e h e a t e d .  C a t h o l i c p r i n c i p a l a t Kuper I s l a n d , accused  G.  Donckele,  the Methodist missionary j 5  C. M. T a t e o f s p r e a d i n g m a l i c i o u s r u m o u r s a b o u t t h e K u p e r I s l a n d S c h o o l i n order t o convince  C a t h o l i c I n d i a n s t o send t h e i r young t o C o q u a l e e t z a :  " n o t h i n g i s t o o l o w a n d mean f o r h i m t o s t o o p  to i n order t o carry h i s  33 31 point." J  Even Fred Thornberg attributed the abduction of h i s daughter to  overzealous r e l i g i o u s competition:  the Presbyterians at Alberni hoped by 32  t h e i r action to prevent her enrollment at the Catholic Clayoquot School. Catholic schools were s u f f i c i e n t l y widespread that most Catholic Indians who wished to attend could do so without t r a v e l l i n g great d i s tances from t h e i r homes. geneous groups of natives.  Consequently, the schools housed f a i r l y homoA l l children attending the Sechelt School were  of the Sechelt band; only Kootenays went to the Kootenay School; a l l those 33 attending at Kamloops came from l o c a l bands.  Of the 96 children ad-  mitted to the Kuper Island School between 1897 and 1906, a l l came from one of two d i f f e r e n t l i n g u i s t i c groups: S t r a i t s Salish.  61 were Halkomelem; 35 were  St. Mary's Mission was the most e t h n i c a l l y diverse 35  Catholic school, containing representatives of three language groups. In contrast, Protestant schools often contained c h i l d r e n of many backgrounds.  Protestant natives outnumbered Catholics only i n the north-  ern, coastal areas of B r i t i s h Columbia.  But, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the closure  of the Metlakatla S6hool i n 1909, and of the Port Simpson Boys' Home i n 1916, Protestants i n t h i s area had l i t t l e chance of gaining entry to a l o c a l school.  In addition, there were small numbers of Protestant c h i l -  dren scattered throughout other parts of the province—but enough i n any one area to support a boarding school.  not usually  Meanwhile, the  largest Protestant school i n the province—Coqualeetza—was located i n the Fraser Agency, where the native population was ninety percent Catholic.  Protestant o f f i c i a l s undertook the obvious s o l u t i o n ; import-  ing children from throughout B r i t i s h Columbia to Coqualeetza.  Table I  (page 34) i l l u s t r a t e s the l i n g u i s t i c backgrounds of the 489 students attending Coqualeetza between 1888 and 1911.  'Therc.;;wero" representatives of  34  TABLE I  Coqualeetza I n d u s t r i a l I n s t i t u t e : Origins of P u p i l s by L i n g u i s t i c Groups Linguistic  Bella  Group  Coola  Number o f P u p i l s  28  Carrier  4  Comox  7  Haida  37  Halkomelem  203  Kwakiutl  33  Lillooet  3 22  Nootka Okanagan  2  Sechelt  1  Shuswap  2 30  Squamish Straits  Salish  Thompson Tsimshian  19  5 78  Others  3  Not  Clear  8  Not  Given  4  TOTAL  489  35 dozens o f d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s , and ( e x c l u d i n g those l a b e l l e d " w h i t e " and  " I t a l i a n " ) f i f t e e n d i s t i n c t language groups.  Such a n a l y s i s does  not t a k e i n t o account f u r t h e r p o s s i b l e d i v i s i o n i n t o d i a l e c t groups, a l t h o u g h d i a l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s were sometimes g r e a t enough t o p r e v e n t 37 communicatxon. While C o q u a l e e t z a was t h e most extreme example o f e t h n i c m i x , other Protestant schools also contained grounds.  c h i l d r e n o f d i s p a r a t e back-  A l l H a l l o w s , f o r example, r e c r u i t e d from a minimum o f s i x  l i n g u i s t i c groups.  When o f f i c i a l s a t l y t t o n and A l e r t Bay c o n s i s -  t e n t l y f a i l e d t o o b t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t number o f p u p i l s l o c a l l y — e v e n though t h e r e were p l e n t y o f P r o t e s t a n t s i n t h e i r a r e a s — t h e y began, 39 l i k e C o q u a l e e t z a , t o seek them i n t h e n o r t h .  Broadly  speaking, i t  seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t f o r P r o t e s t a n t I n d i a n s — e s p e c i a l l y those i n t h e north—enrollment  a t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l was a more d i f f i c u l t  decisions  t h a n f o r C a t h o l i c s , i n v o l v i n g as i t o f t e n d i d a g r e a t e r s e p a r a t i o n o f p a r e n t and c h i l d . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e Government d e l i b e r a t e l y mixed n a t i v e s o f d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c backgrounds i n an e f f o r t t o b l u r and d e s t r o y t h e 40 native culture.  Some Canadian o f f i c i a l s a l s o applauded t h e s o c i a l  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f such mingling. Kwakiutls,  W i l l i a m H a l l i d a y , o l n d i a n Agent f o r t h e  observed t h a t s i n c e E n g l i s h was t h e o n l y common language,  c h i l d r e n had more i n c e n t i v e t o use i t .  He a l s o n o t e d a " f r i e n d l y 41  r i v a l r y " between c h i l d r e n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s .  B u t i t seems t h a t  i n B r i t i s h Columbia e t h n i c m i x t u r e was t h e r e s u l t o f n e c e s s i t y , n o t design:  i n o r d e r t o f i l l t h e i r s c h o o l s , some e d u c a t o r s were f o r c e d  far afield.  I t i s t r u e t h a t , i n t h e case o f t h e l y t t o n S c h o o l ,  recruit-  i n g c h i l d r e n from d i s t a n t a r e a s may have had t h e a n c i l l a r y and n o t  unwelcome e f f e c t o f r e n d e r i n g t r u a n c y — a p e r s i s t e n t problem  there—more  42 difficult. possible.  Most s c h o o l s , however, would have r e c r u i t e d l o c a l l y i f W. E. D i t c h b u r n ,  B r i t i s h Columbia, observed  i n charge o f s e v e r a l agencies i n 1913  i n southwestern  t h a t t h e r e were s e v e r a l g i r l s from  o t h e r agencies i n t h e A l e r t Bay G i r l s ' Home, and added:  "There s h o u l d  be p l e n t y o f g i r l s i n t h e Kwawkewlth agency alone t o f i l l  this school,  and I am o f the o p i n i o n t h a t every e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o o b t a i n  43 p u p i l s from t h i s b e f o r e t a k i n g any from o u t s i d e Boys and g i r l s attended i n approximately  e q u a l numbers.  boys and 187 g i r l s ; and 568 g i r l s .  i n 1910,  agencies."  B r i t i s h Columbia r e s i d e n t i a l I n 1894,  schools  the schools contained  425 boys and 411 g i r l s ;  i n 1920,  165  547 boys  These f i g u r e s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t the s i t u a t i o n  in individual institutions:  t h e r e were G i r l s ! s c h o o l s a t Y a l e , P o r t  Simpson, and A l e r t Bay; Boys' s c h o o l s a t P o r t Simpson, A l e r t Bay, and Lytton.  Most s c h o o l s were mixed, b u t not, u s u a l l y , i n e q u a l numbers.  Boys were r a t h e r more l i k e l y t o a t t e n d t h e s t r i c r t l y  "industrial"  s c h o o l s , g i r l s t h e "boarding" s c h o o l s , perhaps because fewer, and l e s s e l a b o r a t e f a c i l i t i e s were needed t o t e a c h g i r l s housekeeping and sewing  44 than t o i n s t r u c t boys i n t r a d e s . E d u c a t o r s wanted both sexes t o a t t e n d .  Boys were t o l e a r n t h e  v a l u e s and rhythms e s s e n t i a l t o f a r m i n g o r working f o r wages.  Girls  needed an e d u c a t i o n because they would have an i n e s t i m a b l e moral i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r f u t u r e husbands; and would have the c e n t r a l  respon-  s i b i l i t y f o r c r e a t i n g t h e h e a l t h y home c o n d i t i o n s which c o u l d o b v i a t e the need f o r f u t u r e b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s .  The p r i n c i p a l o f t h e A l e r t Bay  G i r l s ' Home, A l f r e d H a l l , argued t h a t i t was even more v i t a l t o t e a c h g i r l s than i t was t o t e a c h boys.  " I f we can save ( m o r a l l y ) the g i r l s  37  we s a v e a l s o t h e b o y s , " he w r o t e t h e C h u r c h M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y i n 1 8 9 2 ,  2+5 "but t h e c o n t r a r y i s n o t t r u e . "  T h e r e was a l s o a d e m o g r a p h i c  t i v e f o r the moral education o f Indian g i r l s . c h i l d - b e a r i n g age h a v i n g been d e c i m a t e d  impera-  The number o f women o f  t h r o u g h p r o s t i t u t i o n and v e n e r e a l  disease, inculcation o f correct values i n the r i s i n g generation o f girls  a p p e a r e d e v e n more e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e i m m e d i a t e s u r v i v a l o f t h e  r a c e t h a n i m p l a n t a t i o n o f new e c o n o m i c v i r t u e s i n b o y s . In  some a r e a s , p a r e n t s w e r e more w i l l i n g t o e n r o l l one s e x  than t h e other.  W i l l i a m H a l l i d a y wrote from A l e r t Bay t h a t K w a k i u t l s  f e a r e d e d u c a t i o n would t e a c h g i r l s n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p o t l a t c h . The  g i r l s ' c o o p e r a t i o n was a s e s s e n t i a l f o r e c o n o m i c a s f o r c u l t u r a l  reasons: A l l t h e I n d i a n marriages a r e arranged a t t h e p o t l a t c h , and g i f t s a r e g i v e n t o t h e f r i e n d s o f t h e b r i d e , who h a v e t h e u s e o f them f o r a s c e r t a i n time, d u r i n g which they expect t o double o r even t r e b l e them b e f o r e t h e y a r e u l t i m a t e l y g i v e n b a c k t o t h e d o n o r s . ^ 6 In  c o n t r a s t , t h e p r i n c i p a l a t W i l l i a m s Lake found  to  be v e r y a n x i o u s  for their girls  t h a t "the I n d i a n s  seem  t o attend school, but not t h e i r  boys. In  1 9 1 0 , Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l  schools  s c h o a r e v e r y o f t e n m i n i s t e r i n g t o a c l a s s w h i c h w o u l d be o u t c a s t s w i t h o u t s u c h a i d ; I r e f e r t o t h e i l l e g i t i m a t e o f f s p r i n g o f w h i t e men a n d I n d i a n women who a r e t h r o w n u p o n t h e i r m o t h e r s f o r s u p p o r t , a n d who h a v e no l e g a l s t a t u s a s I n d i a n s . ^ B u t i t was n o t t h e o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e o f t h e s c h o o l s t o e d u c a t e of mixed blood.  When f o u r " h a l f - b r e e d s " a p p l i e d f o r a d m i s s i o n  children to the  M e t l a k a t l a S c h o o l i n 1 8 8 9 , J . N. 0 . S c o t t " t o l d [ t h e m ] I c o u l d n o t e d u LLQ  c a t e them; I , h o w e v e r , made a n e x c e p t i o n i n f a v o r o f one o f t h e s e ? . " The  A c t i n g P r i n c i p a l a t K u p e r I s l a n d , G. C. V a n G o t h e n , c i t e d a r e g u -  l a t i o n i s s u e d by t h e Department i n 1 8 9 3 as s t a t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y :  "No  38 h a l f b r e e d . . . c a n be t a k e n [ i n t o t h e ] I n s t i t u t i o n w i t h o u t the e x p r e s s p e r m i s s i o n o f the Department, and o n l y under v e r y e x c e p t i o n a l c i r c u m stances."^  Joseph H a l l , o f C o q u a l e e t z a , wrote i n 1896  t h a t the  Depart-  ment d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e h a l f b r e e d s as I n d i a n s , "except i n the case o f those l i v i n g on Reserves."  S i n c e Government g r a n t s were p r o v i d e d o n l y  i f p u p i l s were c o n s i d e r e d l e g a l l y I n d i a n , H a l l c o n c l u d e d :  "I think  the time i s a t hand when we s h a l l have t o r e f u s e [ h a l f ] breed who  children  are n o t wards o f the Gov[ernmen]t. A l t h o u g h r e c r u i t e r s g e n e r a l l y gave f u l l - b l o o d e d I n d i a n s p r e f e r -  ence, h a l f b r e e d s c o n t i n u e d t o e n t e r most s c h o o l s .  When C a t h o l i c s com-  p l a i n e d t h a t the M e t h o d i s t s were r e c e i v i n g Government g r a n t s f o r educ a t i n g n o n - I n d i a n s , Agent D e v l i n examined the r e g i s t e r and c h i l d r e n a t C o q u a l e e t z a i n J a n u a r y o f 1897.  He c o n c l u d e d , i n Joseph H a l l ' s words,  t h a t "so many as 40 [ o u t o f about 100]  o f o u r p r e s e n t s c h o o l are  non  52 Indians."  I n f a c t , even C a t h o l i c s a d m i t t e d h a l f b r e e d s .  When A l b e r t  W i l s o n a p p l i e d t o have h i s h a l f - c a s t e daughter a d m i t t e d a t Kuper I s l a n d , G. Donckele h e s i t a t e d because W i l s o n "had t h e n a house o u t s i d e t h e Reservation."  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Donckele r e q u e s t e d the Agent t o a u t h o r i z e  the g i r l ' s e n t r y , a r g u i n g t h a t i t would n o t be t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f any 53  full-blooded Indians. C h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s were dead c o n s t i t u t e d a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n s . C o q u a l e e t z a between 1888 and 1911, f o r 438.  Of t h e s e , 198,  Of t h e 489 p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g complete  information i s available  o r 45 p e r c e n t , had l o s t one o r b o t h p a r e n t s :  82 had a l i v i n g f a t h e r but no mother; 86 had a mother but were f a t h e r -  54 l e s s ; 30 were w i t h o u t e i t h e r p a r e n t . - ^  The r e c o r d s o f the Kuper I s l a n d  S c h o o l c o n t a i n p e r t i n e n t d a t a on 171 c h i l d r e n e n r o l l i n g between 1890  and  39 1906.  E i g h t y - f i v e — a l m o s t 50 percent--came from families i n which  one or both parents had. died.  F i f t y had only a mother; 20 had only  a father; 15 were without either parent."^  The admissions  registers  of A l l Hallows School, at Yale, and St. George's School, at Lytton, do not contain complete information regarding parents, but they do indicate that the parents of many pupils were dead, and that several couples were separated or unmarried. Definite conclusions about the significance of the above i n formation cannot be reached without a c l e a r e r picture of orphanage rates i n the Indian population at large during this period. s t a t i s t i c s are not contained i n available census data.  Such  But one of the  most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the school children does seem to have been that many were orphans.  When the Port Simpson Boys' Home f i r s t  57 opened, i t housed "twenty-five orphans or lads from distant Reserves." A l f r e d H a l l wrote that because heathens would not leave t h e i r daughters i n h i s Alert Bay G i r l s ' Home, "those we have are orphans or the children  58 of Christian parents." There i s abundant evidence that i t was the death of parents that produced the enrollment of many Indian children.  At Kuper Island,  in 1899, the p r i n c i p a l claimed he was being deluged with applications, and explained:  "Through disasters, which, a few years ago b e f e l l a  a considerable number of Indians engaged i n the sealing industry, many children have been l e f t orphans and t h e i r guardians would also be glad  59 to have them placed i n the school." When a former p u p i l sent her daughter to A l l Hallows, she wrote the p r i n c i p a l : "I sent my l i t t l e r n 60 Marriage breakdown also prompted g i r l to you pecause | s i c j I am dying." applications.  Tommy P i e l asked Donckele to e n r o l l h i s two nieces at  40 Kuper I s l a n d ; one  was  "the daughter o f h i s s i s t e r Mary who  has  lately  6l been sent away by h e r husband." The  death o f o n l y one  enrollment:  p a r e n t d i d not,  however, always encourage  whether i t d i d so depended i n l a r g e p a r t on the  o f the c h i l d .  age  Young c h i l d r e n might be a g r e a t e r economic b u f d e n t t h a n  a s i n g l e parent could support. under the age  Mrs.  P u r s e r s e n t her t h r e e  children  o f 12 to the Kuper I s l a n d S c h o o l i n 1905 because her hus-  band's r e c e n t d e a t h meant t h a t she  would have to go out to work,  would no l o n g e r have the time o r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s  and  to g i v e them the  62  care  and  a t t e n t i o n they r e q u i r e d .  I n c o n t r a s t , an o l d e r c h i l d  be an economic a s s e t to a s i n g l e p a r e n t , by p e r f o r m i n g t a s k s done by the deceased p a r e n t .  Thus Donckele d i s c h a r g e d  from Kuper I s l a n d , e x p l a i n i n g :  "On  one  could  previously  older  boy  account o f h i s mother h a v i n g d i e d /To  l a t e l y he w i l l have t o h e l p h i s f a t h e r a t home." d i e d , Mrs.  Sam  C r o c k e r e n r o l l e d h e r twelve y e a r o l d son,  Kuper I s l a n d , on the grounds t h a t she i n g her f a m i l y . " teen, Mrs.  A f t e r her  But  was  Abraham, a t  "without any means o f s u s t a i n -  when Abraham reached the age  C r o c k e r asked the p r i n c i p a l to d i s c h a r g e  destitutei?. and needed "to have him  husband  o f s i x t e e n o r sevenhimmbecause she  home t o h e l p h e r . "  64  was  Thus the age  of  the c h i l d a t the time h i s p a r e n t d i e d l a r g e l y determined whether h i s e n r o l l m e n t would be f i n a n c i a l l y I t i s not  advantageous.  e n t i r e l y c l e a r how  the apparent w i l l i n g n e s s o f  Indian  f a m i l i e s to e n r o l l young orphans r e l a t e s t o ongoing s o c i a l changes. traditional, multitude  extended f a m i l y o f most B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n s had  o f "grandparents, aunts, u n c l e s ,  and  or both parents,  co-resident  a  co-wives t o share i n 6^  the c a r e o f the many c l o s e l y r e l a t e d c h i l d r e n o f the house." c h i l d l o s t one  The  r e l a t i v e s outside  When a his  41 immediate n u c l e a r c i r c l e his  care.  enlarged t h e i r already p a r t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  Did the f r e q u e n t e n r o l l m e n t o f orphans i n d i c a t e the  o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l way  of d e a l i n g w i t h such  t h a t s o many o r p h a n s w e r e s e n t t o b o a r d i n g a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n , The  and  children?  breakdown  What d o e s t h e  schools t e l l  fact  us a b o u t n a t i v e  the changes i n the I n d i a n f a m i l y ?  l a s t c h a p t e r p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e s m a l l number o f c h i l d r e n ,  com-  b i n e d w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g n u c l e a r i z a t i o n o f the I n d i a n f a m i l y , produced t i g h t e n i n g o f e m o t i o n a l bonds between p a r e n t s hypothesis  i s correct, parents  with their children.  their children.  i n general presumably found  to part  Bereaved p a r e n t s , however, s h o u l d have found  separa-  family especially difficult;  (not more) w i l l i n g than  other parents  and  ought  to e n r o l l t h e i r  u n l e s s e c o n o m i c v i c i s s i t u d e s m e a n t t h e y c o u l d no l o n g e r c a r e what o f o t h e r r e l a t i v e s ? sitting,  D i d t h e y no  o r by p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t ?  b o t h t h e e m o t i o n a l needs and  The  f i n a n c i a l resources  phans; o r t o adopt t o t a l orphans. grandparents  On  g r a n d c h i l d r e n may  For while i n t e n s i f y i n g emotional  children—  f o r them.  comparative  rarity  to babysit ^partial  than before  h a v e made s u c h  But  babyof  would have hadh  the o t h e r hand, t h a t a u n t s ,  were a p p a r e n t l y l e s s l i k e l y  nephews, n i e c e s , and  t o have  l o n g e r a i d widowed p a r e n t s by  c h i l d r e n s h o u l d have i n c r e a s e d the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e y  and  I f this  i t hard  t i o n from t h e i r remaining been l e s s  and  a  or-  uncles,  to co-reside with  aid less  t i e s b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n and  probable.  t h e i r own  par-  e n t s , the d i v i s i o n o f extended f a m i l i e s i n t o n u c l e a r groups c o u l d have w e a k e n e d b o n d s b e t w e e n t h e same c h i l d r e n and d u c i n g t h e amount o f c o n t a c t t h e y h a d  t h e i r other relatives,  w i t h e a c h o t h e r , and  t h e i r s e n s e o f community and m u t u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . b e e n more d i f f i c u l t  f o r r e l a t i v e s who  parents.  re-  by d i m i n i s h i n g  I t m i g h t a l s o have  l i v e d i n small, separate  care f o r the c h i l d r e n o f s i n g l e working  by  Clearly,  houses t o  however,  42  we n e e d t o know much more a b o u t t h e e x a c t s t a t e o f t h e I n d i a n f a m i l y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , and have a c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the  social significance  of separate  residences, before  we c a n  of  adequately  e x p l a i n why I n d i a n s  seem t o h a v e b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y w i l l i n g t o e n r o l l  orphans i n boarding  schools.  The  policies  o f s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s may p a r t i a l l y  l a r g e number o f o r p h a n s i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . Den B r i n k e x a g g e r a t e s intended  when he s a y s  J . H. V a n "originally  f a m i l i e s , o f f i c i a l s  t o the a p p l i c a t i o n s o f orphans.  Kuper I s l a n d , f o r example, Donckele admitted o r who e v e n h a d s e v e r e  Although  r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s were  f o r orphans and c h i l d r e n from p r o b l e m  apparently d i d give preference  explain the  At  o r p h a n s who w e r e t o o y o u n g ,  p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p s — c h i l d r e n he w o u l d  otherwise  Cry  have r e f u s e d . he  I n 1902,  r e c e i v e d no g r a n t :  "a v e r y h a r d m a t t e r  he h a d s i x t e e n s t u d e n t s  o n t h e r o l l f o r whom  w h i l e n o t o b l i g e d t o a d m i t s o many, he f o u n d i t  t o refuse admittance  f o r an orphan o r a d e s t i t u t e  68 B y 1 9 2 4 , i t was e x p l i c i t G o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y t h a t  child."  children o f d e s t i t u t e parents  and those  living  some d i s t a n c e f r o m d a y  s c h o o l s on t h e r e s e r v e s a r e g i v e n t h e p r e f e r e n c e , vacancies  when t h e n u m b e r o f  i s limited."^  The  ages a t w h i c h c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l  c o u l d be a n i m p o r t a n t  schools  i n d i c a t o r n o t j u s t o f t h e way e d u c a t o r s  pupils, but of the r e l a t i v e  selected  i m p o r t a n c e o f economic and a f f e c t i v e Table  I I (page 4 3 ) i s a  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e ages a t a d m i s s i o n  of pupils i n five  considerations i n the family's decision. frequency  "orphans,  70  B r i t i s h Columbia r e s i d e n t i a l schools.  The p u p i l s e n t e r i n g  ranged f r o m as young as t h r e e t o as o l d as t w e n t y - f o u r . o f e n t r y was t e n .  The m e d i a n was e l e v e n :  Coqualeetza  The mode a g e  an e q u a l number o f c h i l d r e n  43 TABLE I I Ages at Admission;;  Number of Pupils Age  Coqualeetza  Kuper Island  Lytton/Yale  Kamloops  3  8  4  9  5  21  1  6  33  3  5  7  44  9  21  2  8  32  12  29  2  9  40  10  27  5  10  47  33  34  3  11  39  9  18  3  12  43  6  25  7  13  46  3  24  1  14  35  1  34  15  37  l  11  16  33  1  17  9  18  9  Over 18  4  Not Known  2  5  1  7  7  Total  489  96  242  24  TOTAL KNOWN  489  89  235  24  Li4 e n t e r e d , u n d e r t h e age o f e l e v e n  and o v e r t h e age o f e l e v e n .  was t e n a t K u p e r I s l a n d , L y t t o n / Y a l e , In theory, available,  The m e d i a n  and Kamloops.  t h e I n d i a n Department wanted day s c h o o l s ,  t o p r e p a r e y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n f o r t h e more a d v a n c e d  when training  7 they  c o u l d g e t i n t h e l a r g e r a n d o f t e n more d i s t a n t r e s i d e n t i a l  O c c a s i o n a l l y , t h i s system worked.  Many o f t h e c h i l d r e n who  from t h e n o r t h t o attend a t Coqualeetza  schools.  travelled  and L y t t o n were o l d e r p u p i l s  who came o n l y a f t e r s p e n d i n g t i m e i n d a y o r s m a l l b o a n d i n g  schools  72 c l o s e r t o home. tried  However, t h e p r i n c i p a l s  t o get c h i l d r e n while they  were s t i l l  o f most r e s i d e n t i a l  schools  as young as p o s s i b l e .  The  Department i t s e l f a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t i t "would be h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e , if  i t were p r a c t i c a b l e , t o o b t a i n e n t i r e p o s s e s s i o n  dren a f t e r they  of a l l Indian 73  a t t a i n t o t h e age o f s e v e n o r e i g h t y e a r s . "  chil-  At  K u p e r I s l a n d , G. D o n c k e l e h a d t r o u b l e g e t t i n g y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n when t h e s c h o o l f i r s t o p e n e d ; b u t when a p p l i c a t i o n s m u l t i p l i e d , p u p i l s g o , r e p l a c i n g them w i t h s e v e n a n d e i g h t y e a r  he l e t h i s o l d e r  olds—most  local  74  c h i l d r e n w i t h no p r e v i o u s s c h o o l i n g . I f o l d e r , Donckele wrote, "the d a n g e r i s t h a t t h e y h a v e a l r e a d y c o n t r a c t e d many o f t h e v i c e s o f t h e o l d e r people,  and once they  have t a k e n  root i t i s very hard  to eradicate  75 them." ^ bring  Similarly,  "un e n f a n t  t h e p r i n c i p a l a t Kamloops asked a r e c r u i t e r t o  de 8 a 9 a n s , o u meme de 7 a n s . " ^  The d i f f e r e n t  r e c r u i t i n g p o l i c y no d o u b t a c c o u n t s f o r t h e much h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f teenagers entering Coqualeetza and  and L y t t o n , a s compared w i t h Kuper I s l a n d  Kamloops. Since  capable  t e n o r eleven  o f beginning  was a n a g e a t w h i c h c h i l d r e n m i g h t be a s s u m e d  t o undertake s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s i n the f a m i l y  economy, t h e f a c t t h a t h a l f w e r e t h i s a g e o r o l d e r when e n r o l l e d  k5 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s c h o o l s were n o t b e i n g u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y a s a f r e e b a b y s i t t i n g s e r v i c e f o r t h o s e who w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e b e e n a d r a i n on t h e i r f a m i l y ' s f i n a n c e s .  The e x a c t d e g r e e t o w h i c h  children  were  able t o contribute t o t h e f a m i l y a t t e n o r eleven i s , o f course, lematic.  M r s . Sam C r o c k e r , m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r ,  evidently considered her  t w e l v e y e a r o l d s o n a f i n a n c i a l burden, and b e l i e v e d t h a t h i s helped her.  prob-  enrollment  I n c o n t r a s t , when h e r h u s b a n d d i e d , t h e m o t h e r o f t w e l v e  year o l d "Emile" p e r s i s t e n t l y badgered Donckele t o r e l e a s e h e r son. Donckele r e s i s t e d ,  arguing that Emile  " w o u l d be o n l y a b i l l  o f expense  77 to her."  Perhaps i n t h i s case  i n c r e a s e d a f f e c t i v e needs  an i n c r e a s i n g l y m a r g i n a l economic b u r d e n . which  outweighed  W h a t e v e r t h e e x a c t age a t  t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s c h i l d r e n made b e g a n t o e x c e e d  the cost of  t h e i r m a i n t e n a n c e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t e n r o l l m e n t was e x a c t i n g e c o n o m i c s a c r i f i c e from  a number o f t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n .  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h a t h a l f o f t h e c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g w e r e under t e n o r e l e v e n i n d i c a t e s t h a t a f f e c t i v e t i e s d i d n o t prevent c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f p a r e n t s f r o m Although  t h e d a t a i s f a r from  e n r o l l i n g t h e i r v e r y young  a  children,  c o n c l u s i v e , one m i g h t s p e c u l a t e t h a t , o n  b a l a n c e , m o s t p a r e n t s h a d r a t h e r more t o g a i n t h a n l o s e e c o n o m i c a l l y by e n r o l l m e n t ; and t h a t e m o t i o n a l bonds p l a y e d a l e s s v i t a l r o l e t h a n m i g h t have been expected.  overall  Whether r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f i n a n c i a l  a d v a n t a g e s t o be r e a l i z e d b y e n r o l l i n g v e r y y o u n g c h i l d r e n was w h a t a c t u a l l y p r o m p t e d p a r e n t s t o do so,no d o u b t depended i n l a r g e p a r t on the economic s i t u a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y o r band.  While  on t h e  w e s t c o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d p a r e n t s made " g e n e r o u s d o n a t i o n s  of fish  and v e n i s o n " t o one s c h o o l " w i t h o u t t h o u g h t  at Lytton  and  o f compensation,"  Yale they objected t o a school p o l i c y r e q u i r i n g that they  supply  46 79 t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s shoes. Thus, p a r e n t s and e d u c a t o r s j o i n t l y u s u a l l y attempted sexes.  selected pupils.  t o g e t young, demonstrably  healthy children of both  They gave p r e f e r e n c e t o f u l l - b l o o d e d I n d i a n s , t o o r p h a n s ,  t o members o f t h e i r own r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n . to f i l l  Educators  When n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r  t h e i r schools, they r e c r u i t e d n a t i v e s of diverse  I n d i a n s who  agreed  origins.  t o e n r o l l t h e i r y o u n g were o f t e n t h o s e who  i n t h e f u t u r e v a l u e o f e d u c a t i o n as a t o o l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l and advancement;  o r perhaps,  o n o c c a s i o n , t h o s e who  conditions i n the schools.  and  believed social  hoped f o r s u p e r i o r  health  C h i l d r e n f r e q u e n t l y went t o t h e s c h o o l as  t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e d e a t h o f one o r b o t h p a r e n t s — m o s t a s c h o o l r u n b y t h e i r own r e l i g i o u s s e c t .  often to  Affective t i e s d i d not pre-  v e n t p a r e n t s from e n r o l l i n g v e r y young c h i l d r e n ; n o r d i d economic s i d e r a t i o n s preclude the entry of older  children.  con-  47  CHAPTER I V  THE  SCHOOL REGIMEN AND TO  I n 1911,  at Lytton.  POWER  COMPEL  G e o r g e D i t c h a m was  I n d u s t r i a l School,  TRUANCY:  f i r e d , as p r i n c i p a l o f S t .  I n h i s l a s t annual  t e r l y d e s c r i b e d t h e s i t u a t i o n he  was  George's  r e p o r t , Ditcham  bit-  leaving:  There a r e o n l y f i v e s m a l l b o y s a t s c h o o l — s o m e f i n i s h e d and o t h e r s a b s c o n d e d . . . o n e f o l l o w e d t h e o t h e r l i k e c a t t l e , and a s t h e e x p e n s e was t o o g r e a t f o r c o n s t a b l e s t o b r i n g t h e m b a c k and h o l d them a t s c h o o l , t h e y a r e s t i l l away.- 1  Parents  encouraged the runaways, e x p l a i n i n g t o S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r  i n J u l y o f 1910 severely."  t h a t t h e i r boys were "worked t o o h a r d  Green d i s m i s s e d  the  I n d i a n s ' c h a r g e s as  and  punished  "greatly  b u t s o o n a t e a c h e r q u i t t h e s c h o o l w i t h o u t n o t i c e , and,  too  exaggerated,"  in a letter  the missionary s o c i e t y which ran the s c h o o l , "complained of the m e n t t h e b o y s e n d u r e d a t t h e h a n d s o f Mr.  Ditcham."  investigation,  the A n g l i c a n Bishop  Westminster confirmed  r u m o u r s o f Mr.  D i t c h a m ' s t e m p e r and  o f New  Green  After a  punishment o f the boys."  to  treat-  personal  3  "the The  m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t y r e p l a c e d D i t c h a m w i t h L e o n a r d Dawson, a man  whom t h e  4 s c h o o l ' s most r e c e n t p r i n c i p a l has i n the s c h o o l ' s admissions years  Dawson was  and  attendance  "dictatorial."  r e g i s t e r s d u r i n g the  i n c h a r g e make i t p l a i n t h a t he  c o n t r o l the truancy problem. s t a y i n g at the  d e s c r i b e d as  failed  P u p i l s r a n away i n d r o v e s ,  s c h o o l o n l y a few  to stop  seven or  sometimes  days between e s c a p e s . T h e i r  r e m a i n e d e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same a s when D i t c h a m h a d  Entries  complaints  been p r i n c i p a l :  Indians  48 a t L y t t o n t o l d the 1916 was  "too  Royal Commission t h a t d i s c i p l i n e a t S t . George's  harsh." While t h e r e are, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , no r e l i a b l e t r u a n c y  i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c evidence  statistics,  i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l t h o u g h the problem was  unusu-  a l l y acute and enduring a t L y t t o n , most o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s were a l s o plagued,  a t l e a s t p e r i o d i c a l l y , by runaways.  such a s e r i o u s problem a t C o q u a l e e t z a  i n 1894  D e s e r t i o n s became  and 1895  t h a t Church author-  i t i e s i n s t a l l e d Joseph H a l l as p r i n c i p a l s p e c i f i c a l l y because he reputed to be  "a s t r o n g d i s c i p l i n a r i a n . " .  Lake complained  o f poor attendance  7  i n 1902,  was  The p r i n c i p a l a t W i l l i a m s explaining that  "the  g c h i l d r e n r a n away too f r e q u e n t l y and too e a s i l y . "  Rashes o f t r u a n c y  threw the Kuper I s l a n d S c h o o l i n t o near chaos on more than one A f t e r s e v e r a l boys d i s a p p e a r e d  i n September 1894,  t h a t he might l o s e c o n t r o l o f the s i t u a t i o n  occasion.  the p r i n c i p a l  worried  "unless some check be  Q  p l a c e d on the P u p i l s . "  y  T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l t r y to c l a r i f y why  r a n from the b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s , and how  pupils  o f f i c i a l s d e a l t w i t h the problem.  I n d i r e c t l y , i t w i l l demonstrate t h a t the c o n f l i c t between n a t i v e  and  s c h o o l rhythms c o u l d make r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s a t r y i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r educators,  and a p r o f o u n d l y t r a u m a t i c one f o r c h i l d r e n .  Homesickness was  n a t u r a l l y a prominent cause o f d i s c o n t e n t .  W i l l i a m s Lake, the I n d i a n Agent found  At  that  an I n d i a n c h i l d , no matter how w e l l he may be t r e a t e d a t any s c h o o l , when he goes home does not l i k e to l e a v e h i s p a r e n t s . Consequently, when the v a c a t i o n i s over and c h i l d r e n r e t u r n t o s c h o o l , t h e i r whole mind i s on t h e i r p a r e n t s f o r about two weeks, and d u r i n g t h a t time they t h i n k o f n o t h i n g e l s e but r u n n i n g away.10 Economic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to t h e i r f a m i l i e s caused to p l a y t r u a n t . 1894,  When f o u r boys escaped  some c h i l d r e n  from the Kuper I s l a n d S c h o o l i n  F a t h e r Donckele wrote the I n d i a n Agent t h a t "no reasons  were g i v e n  49 f o r t h e i r t r u a n c y , h u t I presume t h a t t h e f i s h i n g c h i e f l y the cause February  of  of it." "'" he was  "found w i t h h i s f a t h e r a t a f i s h i n g  C h i l d r e n a l s o ran from activities t o be  were  Issac Charley deserted Coqualeetza i n  1  I898;  attractions  camp."  12  the schools to take p a r t i n t r a d i t i o n a l  t h a t t h e s c h o o l was  interrupting.  able to r e p o r t from A l e r t  Bay  I898  in  A. W.  C o r k e r was  fortunate  that " i n spite of  the  r e p e a t e d r e q u e s t o f the o l d people f o r t h e i r boys t o a t t e n d the w i n t e r dances, at  they stuck to t h e i r s t u d i e s very w e l l . "  Coqualeetza l e f t f o r C u l t u s Lake,  13  In contrast,  pupils  f i v e m i l e s away, t o w i t n e s s  the  14  traditional festivities.  S i m i l a r l y , many b o y s d e s e r t e d K u p e r  each y e a r d u r i n g J a n u a r y and w i n t e r dances were the gatherings" proved  February;  a c c o r d i n g t o Donckele,  "primary cause."  In fact,  such a s t r o n g a t t r a c t i o n  i n 1897  t h e f o r e m a n moved t h e i r q u a r t e r s n e x t t o t h e b o y s '  Island  the  these "nocturnal t h a t Donckele dormitory:  The  t  escape  time."  fact  t h a t no  a s p e c t o f t h e i r h e r i t a g e was  i n the s c h o o l s p r o b a b l y encouraged assist  and  "Then i f  any o f t h e b o y s t a k e a n o t i o n t o a t t e n d t h e d a n c e s t h e y have t o d u r i n g t h e day  annual  at c u l t u r a l events.  usually permitted  children to play truant i n order to  Groups o f boys p e r i o d i c a l l y  attempted  dances a t the Kuper I s l a n d S c h o o l , but wheneverrDonckele  caught  their  them  16 at own  i t , he p u n i s h e d language—though  went t o s c h o o l .  them.  Nor were c h i l d r e n a l l o w e d t o use  m o s t knew l i t t l e  Using oral h i s t o r i e s  i f a n y E n g l i s h when t h e y and  Department r e p o r t s ,  l e v i n e and F r e d a C o o p e r h a v e shown c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t , 1890s,  their first Robert  starting  almost a l l r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . i n B r i t i s h Columbia  i n the  tried  to  17  suppress n a t i v e languages.  Manuscript sources from the schools  corroborate this conclusion.  I n 1906,  S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r Green  officially  50 approved a l i s t of rules f o r Coqualeetza. peated:  Twice weekly, children re-  "We must not t a l k Indian (except when allowed)"; i n f r a c t i o n s 18  were "reported n i g h t l y . "  The "Conduct Books" of the Kuper Island School 19 show that pupils there were punished routinely f o r '-talking Indian." As Cooper and Levine point out, a rule prohibiting an individual's native language, suddenly imposed, i s "not l i k e a rule against staying up l a t e . . . i t i s more comparable to a rule requiring a c e r t a i n number of breaths per 20 minute, a l l day long."  Combined with the often harsh d i s c i p l i n e used  i n i t s enforcement, i t almost c e r t a i n l y encouraged truancy. D i s l i k e of the school routine also promoted truancy.  In the  Indian home, with i t s p r e - i n d u s t r i a l rhythms, time was not c a r e f u l l y measured.  But "once within the school gates, the c h i l d entered the new 21  universe of discipined time."  Educators considered the r i g i d l y struc-  tured way they ran the schools as important as any of the subjects on the curriculum. The medium was also the e s s e n t i a l message: The value of time i s p r a c t i c a l l y exemplified to [the p u p i l ] i n the class room?^ at recreation, or i n any fatigue work which he may be required to perform, by the recurrence every day of the hour at which each duty has to commence and again of the time by which i t should be completed.22 The b e l l became the symbol of the new rhythms the Indian c h i l d must adopt.  Mrs. A. Cooper, who attended Coqualeetza i n the 1890s, remem-  bers that "everything was on time, and you had to be on time...every23 thing was done by the b e l l . "  Margaret Butcher recorded the d a i l y  routine of the Kitimat School:  a series of b e l l s cut the day into per-  f e c t l y compartmentalized units of time, to each of which corresponded 24 a s p e c i f i c place and a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y . A system of rules and punishmentsforced children to be i n the r i g h t place at the r i g h t time.  Coqualeetza's l i s t of rules stipulated: "We m  51 must be punctual...We must n o t break bounds...We must n o t go t o the 25 d o r m i t o r i e s i n daytime." show t h a t those who late,"  The Kuper I s l a n d S c h o o l ' s "Conduct Books"  f a i l e d to obey such p r e c e p t s were punished.  "slow i n g e t t i n g up,"  " p l a y i n g d u r i n g work h o u r s , " and  "Coming  "breaking  bounds" were some o f the i n f r a c t i o n s which commonly l e d t o punishment. P e n a l t i e s n o r m a l l y i n v o l v e d a f u r t h e r d e p r i v a t i o n o f freedom, 26 "confinement," o r "work a t r e c e s s . " Being plunged  suchaas  i n t o such a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t rhythm o f e x i s t e n c e  27 was  "awfully hard"  f o r children.  Margaret  Butcher d e s c r i b e s the  at K i t i m a t o f s i x s m a l l B e l l a C o o l a y o u n g s t e r s :  arrival  "They were here t h e r e  and everywhere.  I'd g e t one b e s i d e me  t o do some sewing  be m i s s i n g — g o n e  out t o p l a y . . . I f i t was p l a y time why  and two  would  need they s t o p  28 when a b e l l rang?" As they l e a r n e d what was expected o f them, many p u p i l s became d i s c o n t e n t e d . One o f f i c i a l saw i n Kamloops p u p i l s " t h a t 29 r e s t l e s s n e s s a k i n t o a caged-up b i r d s e e k i n g i t s freedom." At Stuart Lake, Joseph A l l a r d observed how  such f e e l i n g s sometimes l e d t o a c t i o n :  They stood o r s a t s u l l e n l y i n the c o r n e r s o f the r e c r e a t i o n r r o o m and gave the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e i r g r e a t e s t d e s i r e was t o g e t out of t h e i r p r i s o n . . . A few remained w i l d and missed no chance t o run away i n t o the woods c l o s e by the s c h o o l and then t o t h e i r home o r even t o the f a r away grounds where t h e i r p a r e n t s had gone.30 Another cause o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was had t o perform.  the manual l a b o u r p u p i l s  E d u c a t o r s b e l i e v e d I n d i a n c h i l d r e n needed "to be  taught  31 to  work q u i t e as much as they do t o r e a d o r s p e l l . "  day,  F o r h a l f o f each  t h e r e f o r e , c h i l d r e n o v e r about the age o f e i g h t worked a t chores o r  trades.  Many s c h o o l s emphasized f a r m i n g s k i l l s ,  i m p r a c t i c a l i t y f o r most c o a s t a l I n d i a n s .  despite t h e i r  apparent  D a i r y i n g , s a i d Joseph H a l l o f  Coqualeetza, has...the advantage o f c r e a t i n g and f o s t e r i n g a l a r g e number o f v e r y important q u a l i t i e s and h a b i t s . . . c a r e f u l n e s s , c l e a n l i n e s s , promptness,  52 r e g u l a r i t y , g e n t l e n e s s , t h e c o n n e c t i o n "between c a u s e a n d b e t w e e n t h e u s e o f r i g h t means and b e s t r e s u l t s . 3 2 S i n c e a l l t h e s c h o o l s r a n on e x t r e m e l y a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k c h i l d r e n d i d was vival  a s i t was  as  a pedagogical  t i g h t budgets,  as i m p o r t a n t  instrument.  effect, ;  most o f  f o r the  -  the  schools * sur-  "Training" i n  " t r a d e s " o f t e n o c c u r r e d o n l y when t h e s c h o o l r e q u i r e d s u c h  specific work;  or  skills  as  33 continued  e v e n i n t h e a b s e n c e o f an i n s t r u c t o r .  y  Indians a p p r e c i a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n such p r a c t i c a l c a r p e n t r y , b u t more o f t e n t h e y r e s e n t e d t h e m e n i a l P u p i l s a t K a m l o o p s showed a  labour o f the  schools.  " n a t u r a l r e p u g n a n c e " t o m a n u a l work;  at  34 W l l l i a m s L a k e , i t was  "disagreeable both  to parents  Kootenay Indians at f i r s t o b j e c t e d t o farm confused  sex r o l e s :  "According  h i m s e l f to d i g or plough.  The  and  work because t h e y f e l t i t  t o K o o t e n a y i d e a man gun  was  children."  the  should not  t o y f o r b o y s and  humble  the  tool  "boys r a n  away  for  35 men,  t h e r e s t was  from  t h e f i e l d s where t h e y were d i g g i n g p o t a t o e s  in Luckaluck able.  One  man  he  He  f o r women."  Creek.  At Coqualeetza, and  were f o u n d  fishing  S o c i a l p r e t e n s i o n s c o u l d a l s o make w o r k u n d e s i r -  withdrew h i s daughter  the p r i n c i p a l ' s heritage.  left  wishes,  from  the Kuper I s l a n d School  a p p a r e n t l y b e c a u s e he  t o l d D o n c k e l e t h a t "he  d i d not wish t h a t h i s daughter  was  had  a tyhee  s h o u l d do  any  an and  against  "aristocratic" that  consequently  work i n t h e k i t c h e n  37 l a u n d r y o r s e w i n g room." I n e x p l a i n i n g t r u a n c y , p u p i l s and school food. that  A f t e r Tobie  " t h e i r boy  missed  had  from  Kuper I s l a n d ,  o n l y a s m a l l piece of bread  the a l l e g a t i o n  Kamloops S c h o o l  fled  parents  as r i d i c u l o u s .  informed  almost  always  h i s parents  charged  to eat"; Donckele d i s -  C h i l d r e n who  t h e i r p a r e n t s t h a t " t h e y had  deserted not  the  sufficient  39 food, but  had  to  'catch l i t t l e  f i s h and  mentioned  t o e a t them r a w . ' " - "  At  53 S t u a r t Lake, Joseph A l l a r d found that the parents o f t r u a n t s  "often  40 u n j u s t l y a c c u s e d me o f s t a r v i n g t h e m . " t h a t t h e change i n d i e t c o u l d of t h e i r p u p i l s :  the doctor  School o f f i c i a l s  admitted  have a d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t on t h e h e a l t h advised  that three  p u p i l s a t Kuper I s l a n d  who "were u s e d t o l i v e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y o n f i s h a n d o i l " be s e n t home. B u t S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r G r e e n r e p o r t e d f r o m a l l t h e s c h o o l s he v i s i t e d that the food  was " p l e n t i f u l a n d g o o d , " o r " p l a i n ,  41  b u t good and abun-  42 dant." However, t h e s c h o o l s and  operated under severe f i n a n c i a l  t h a t f a c t was f r e q u e n t l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r menus.  D o n c k e l e was i n f u r i a t e d w i t h new d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n s f e a r i n g a mass e x o d u s o f h i s p u p i l s .  At Kuper I s l a n d , issued  L a t e r he r e p o r t e d  b u t t e r w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e l a t t e r would have had o n l y  and  tea."  Noting  i n 1894,  "a good d e a l o f  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , " and o b s e r v e d t h a t had t h e s t a f f n o t s h a r e d  black  constraints—  their  "drybread  t h a t t h e o l d e r boys had been d o i n g heavy farm  land-clearing, the p r i n c i p a l concluded:  d r e n on t o o s m a l l a budget.  work  "Such a k i n d o f work would  c e r t a i n l y e n t i t l e them t o a t l e a s t a p l a t e o f p o r r i d g e w i t h l e s s r -i 43 [_one-half o u n c e j o f b u t t e r on t h e i r b r e a d i n t h e m o r n i n g . " I t seems a p p a r e n t t h a t m o s t s c h o o l s  with  t r i e d t o feed  M r s . E. J o y c e r e c a l l s  a t A l e r t B a y was r e g u l a r a n d " q u i t e a l l r i g h t ,  than  t o o many  chil-  that the Spartan d i e t  b u t a l o t o f t i m e s we  44 were h u n g r y . "  says f l a t l y : feeding," selves  i l o e G l e m i n e , who w e n t t o t h e s c h o o l  " Y o u go h u n g r y a l l t h e t i m e i n t h e r e . "  y  To p r e v e n t  t h e p r i n c i p a l a t F r a s e r Lake d e c i d e d t o l e t p u p i l s h e l p  t o "whatever there  R. H a l l ,  at Williams 45  a p u p i l there  i s being  a t the time,  served."  46  But according  w h a t was s e r v e d  Lake,  "underthem-  t o Mrs.  "wasn't f i t t o g i v e  47 to dogs."  C h i l d r e n who r e s o r t e d  to pilfering to satisfy their  appetites  54 a t K a m l o o p s w e r e shown v i v i d l y  "how s u c h a c t i o n s w o u l d " b r i n g t h e m t o  48 the p e n i t e n t i a r y f o r a few y e a r s . " r ~i " s t e a l i n g plumbs | s i c ] " The  A t Kuper I s l a n d , a boy caught  49  was p u t o n a d i e t o f b r e a d a n d w a t e r .  v a r i o u s means u s e d  t o e l i m i n a t e t h e n a t i v e c u l t u r e , and  t o make c h i l d r e n a c c e p t t h e new r o u t i n e , w o r k l o a d , unhappiness,  and encouraged  truancy.  and d i e t , i n c r e a s e d  R e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n and ex-  hortation played a central role i n a l lthe schools. o f t e n clergymen  who w i s h e d  Principals  were  t o make t h e i r p u p i l s d o c i l e t h r o u g h t h e  internalization of correct religious values:  " I t i s o n l y by thoroughly  imbuing t h e minds o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n w i t h s e n t i m e n t s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y t h a t t h e i r proud  a n d s t u b b o r n d i s p o s i t i o n c a n be  c i p a l s g e n e r a l l y gave c a t e c h i s m t h e preeminent curriculum. 1906,  place i n the  "academic"  W r i t i n g t o t h e C h u r c h M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y from A l e r t Bay i n  Alfred Hall t r i e d to reassure o f f i c i a l s  tinue t o support the i n d u s t r i a l school. he  s u b d u e d . P r i n -  explained, " i t  so t h a t they would  "Although a government  i s v i r t u a l l y g i v e n o v e r t o t h e CMS.  conschool,"  Mr. C o r k e r h a s  q u i t e a . f r e e h a n d a n d t h e p u p i l s a r e t a u g h t a s much o f t h e B i b l e a s i f t h e CMS h a d b u i l t t h e s c h o o l . " -  5 1  P u p i l s f o u n d t h e emphasis on r e l i g i o n onerous.  One S u n d a y a t  C o q u a l e e t z a , P e t e r K e l l y made t h e m i s t a k e o f w h i s t l i n g , reprimanded  by Joseph H a l l :  a n d was s t e r n l y  " I t i s n ' t you that f e e l s l i k e  w h i s t l i n g on  52 a Sunday m o r n i n g — i t ' s t h e D e v i l , b o y — r e m e m b e r t h a t ! " r e c a l l s t h a t the r e v i v a l meetings trinsic  M r s . A. C o o p e r  held a t Coqualeetza stressed thei n -  e v i l of the Indian heritage,  a n d were a s o u r c e o f g e n u i n e  53 fear. Joe Clemine, o f W i l l i a m s Lake, has s i m i l a r memories. There was " n o t h i n g b u t r e l i g i o n i n my d a y s , n o t h i n g e l s e , " he s t a t e s . "You v  54  g o t t o p r a y e v e r y move y o u make i n t h e r e .  The schools also attempted to I n s t i t u t e complete surveillance of the pupils' l i v e s , and to u n f a i l i n g l y rebuke any transgression of established rules.  E r i k Erikson has noted that the philosophy  of t r a -  d i t i o n a l Sioux d i s c i p l i n e d i f f e r e d fundamentally from that of the Europeans.  The Sioux believed a " c h i l d should be permitted  to be an  i n d i v i d u a l i s t while young," but "the dominating classes i n Western c i v i l i z a t i o n . . . h a v e Been guided by the conviction that a systematic regulation of functions and impulses i n e a r l i e s t childhood i s the 55 surest safeguard f o r l a t e r e f f e c t i v e functioning i n society." ^  Most  B r i t i s h Columbia Indians appear to have resembled the Sioux i n t h e i r conception  of correct d i s c i p l i n e .  White administrators and educators  a l l agreed that B r i t i s h Columbia natives were too mild with t h e i r children. Agent Halliday wrote of the Kwakiutls: In t h e i r home l i f e there i s no such thing asscompulsory obedience. I f a c h i l d i s asked to do anything and does i t , i t i s well, but i f i t refuses, no attention i s paid to the r e f u s a l . The children are allowed to do as they please. From the Queen Charlottes, Agent Deasy asserted that " i t i s proverbial of the Indian that he w i l l not chastise the young."  He claimed:  "I  have been among Indians f o r h a l f a century, and have [yet] to see the 57 f i r s t parent chastising his or her c h i l d . " In contrast, school o f f i c i a l s employed elaborate systems to detect and penalize disobedient children. Many thought "continual super58 59 v i s i o n " necessary; and used student monitors to achieve i t . For minor v i o l a t i o n s of routine and rules, pupils i n most schools experienced an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the stern school regime. the p r i n c i p a l reported:  At St. Mary's Mission,  "We usually punish the boys by giving them  l i n e s to write, depriving them of play, or by giving them a meal on t h e i r knees i n the r e f e c t o r y . A t Kuper Island, a boy who used "bad  56  language" received "bread and water f o r dinner"; f o r breaking bounds, another was punished by "confinement and kneeling down"; f o r "writing  6l l e t t e r s to g i r l s , " a t h i r d received a "public reprimand." There i s no doubt that resentment of the new d i s c i p l i n e was added reason f o r students to play truant.  an  While Donckele consistently  denied that his pupils received harsh treatment, he sometimes described p r i o r punishment which might have angered truahtsantoFelix," f o r example, ran away shortly a f t e r he "had to take his breakfast of water and bread, with a plate containing 18 stolen pencils placed before him." and "Albert" l e f t the school i n March 1899,  "Charles"  two days aTter they were  62  forced to write l i n e s .  Joe Clemine describes a more serious re-  b e l l i o n against d i s c i p l i n e which occurred at Williams Lake.  A l l the  boys were "locked up" a f t e r two of them acted a " l i t t l e rough."  Feeling  "just l i k e prisoners," they decided to break out, even though i t was winter, and the snow was deep: I was one of them.  "Seventeen boys ran out of that house.  We beat i t — b e e n locked up i n there f o r son long 63  so we had to beat i t . . . . " Most schools also used some corporal punishment.  A few educators  were i n i t i a l l y reluctant to do so, fearing the reaction of Indian parents.  Even i n the public schools, where "the rod would appear to be  the c h i e f means employed to obtain necessary d i s c i p l i n e , " parental  64 complaints concerned administrators.  But Indian parents were gener-  a l l y even more sensitive than white parents, f o r corporal punishment had l i t t l e place i n t h e i r heritage.  Indians used physical abuse less often  as punishment than as one element of puberty r i t e s : s p e c i a l circumstances, an e l d e r l y man  i n these very  would whip boys "even to the  6^  point of shedding blood."  To be beaten by a white man,  as a form of  57 opprobrium..was, h o w e v e r , i n t o l e r a b l e . the an  school awful  a t S t . Mary's M i s s i o n ,  disgrace It  t o be  C.  Ghirouse, i n charge  observed that  "the  Indian  of  thinks i t  struck.  i s c l e a r , however, t h a t o f f i c i a l s  Columbia r e s i d e n t i a l schools p u p i l s do  E.  t h e i r bidding.  i n the m a j o r i t y  of  British  u s e d some f o r m o f p h y s i c a l t h r e a t t o make  At Coqualeetza, c o r p o r a l punishment  was  67 " r e s o r t e d t o more o r l e s s , Port  Simpson G i r l s '  when o t h e r means f a i l . "  Home d e a l t w i t h  The  "extreme c a s e s " by  s t a f f of  "whipping  the  or  68 s o l i t a r y confinement." Fraser lake faced  Mrs.  R.  H a l l describes  f o r s p e a k i n g t h e i r own  what c h i l d r e n  language:  "They h a d  at these  69 s t r a p s , these t h i c k s t r a p s t h a t the In the  f i f t e e n y e a r s . f o l l o w i n g the  S i s t e r s c a r r i e d under t h e i r  opening o f the Kuper I s l a n d School,  o f f i c i a l s dispensed progressively harsher d i s c i p l i n e . "Thomas" was 1903,  he  turned  suffered  i n by  "Antoine"  " w h i p p i n g and  aprons."  When n i n e  its  year old  f o r s t e a l i n g apples i n September  confinement."  Two  months l a t e r ,  he  70 received  the  same p u n i s h m e n t f o r " s k u l k i n g . "  which probably i n s p i r e d a delegation Indian  Agent a few  years l a t e r that  I t was  of Indians "the  such  treatment  to complain.,to the  small c h i l d r e n should  local;  not  be  71 punished severely." recurring,  No  doubt i t a l s o i n s p i r e d truancy.  seemingly unsolvable  p r o b l e m w h i c h had  initially  Yet,  the  prompted  the p r i n c i p a l a t Kuper I s l a n d to seek a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r "whipping  or  72 l a s h i n g w i t h a c a t o' I n the  nine  tails"  e a r l y y e a r s of the  was  schools'  c o n v i n c e d t h a t s t r o n g m e a s u r e s m u s t be t h e y must compel the  truancy  itself.  existence,  officials  became  taken to c o n t r o l truancy;  a t t e n d a n c e o f p u p i l s who  that  voluntarily enrolled.  P a r e n t s o f a p p l i c a n t s were r e q u i r e d  t o s i g n a document c o m m i t t i n g  c h i l d r e n f o r a s e t number o f y e a r s ,  or  " u n t i l s u c h t i m e as  the  their  Department  58 considers  i t advisable  the  contracts  out  the  to grant h i s or her  forbade c h i l d r e n to leave,  73  discharge.  temporarily  The  terms  of  or permanently,  with-  74 a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f the  Department.  But  a d i s t u r b i n g number o f  75  Indians  "only laughed at the  idea." ^  Donckele o f Kuper I s l a n d , t h a t the m a n n e r t o make t h e t h e y have s i g n e d ; Pupils.  P u p i l s and otherwise,  Department must a c t  "in a  t h e i r P a r e n t s comply w i t h the there  w i l l be  like  vigorous agreement  a continual changing  of  1 , 7 6  During the  1890s,  I n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s , tinued attendance. he  Most p r i n c i p a l s b e l i e v e d ,  the  schools  had  o f f i c i a l s lacked  Joseph H a l l faced  t o o k o v e r C o q u a l e e t z a i n I896.  little  the  control over  truants.  l e g a l power t o compel con-  a v e r y f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n when  Departmental r e g u l a t i o n s stated  that  i f parents of a d i f f e r e n t C h r i s t i a n f a i t h raised r e l i g i o u s objections, school  o f f i c i a l s must r e l e a s e  t h e i r c h i l d r e n immediately.  Numerous  C a t h o l i c p a r e n t s took advantage of t h a t p r o v i s i o n to keep t h e i r  young  77 out  of Coqualeetza.  halfbreeds, i n w h a t he  not  a s one  not  s u r e i f he  l e g a l l y wards o f the  termed a "loose  d e c e s s o r s had that,  H a l l was  way  had  the power t o  Government, t o a t t e n d .  of doing business,"  force  Moreover,  some o f h i s  pre-  enrolled c h i l d r e n without obtaining written contracts, judge t o l d him,  i f the p a r e n t s a p p l i e d f o r r " a w r i t  so  of  7R Habeas C o r p u s " t h e y would u n q u e s t i o n a b l y r e c e i v e i t . Early schools sources to compel the "moral p e r s u a s i o n "  the  f i n a n c i a l and  return of truant p u p i l s .  He  the p r a i r i e s ,  contrasted  the  logistical  re-  Donckele noted  frequently failed,,and that there  means a t h i s d i s p o s a l . w i t h t h a t on  also lacked  w e r e no  that stronger  situation in British  Columbia  where  by k e e p i n g a d e t a c h m e n t o f M o u n t e d P o l i c e , a s I h a v e w i t n e s s e d a t the S t . Joseph's I n d u s t r i a l School, they can p r e v e n t [ p u p i l s ] from  59 r u n n i n g away, b u t h e r e we h a v e no means w h a t s o e v e r o f c o m p e l l i n g them t o s e n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l and t o make them s t a y f o r a c e r t a i n l e n g t h o f time.79 T h u s , when two 1899,  A.  boys s u c c e s s f u l l y escaped from the Kamloops S c h o o l i n  Garion  had  q u i j e p u i s s e me He  l e f t no  tion:  no  means t o r e t r i e v e them:  f i e r p o u r a l l e r a l a r e c h e r c h e de  doubt t h a t continued  "Les  "Je n ' a i p e r s o n n e a"  parents  ces  deux  enfants."  a t t e n d a n c e d e p e n d e d on p a r e n t a l  ou a m i s q u i m e t t e n t des  enfants  a l'ecole  coopera-  doivent  80 e t r e p r e t s a" l e s r a m e n e r [ l o r s q u ' ] i l s When t h e s c h o o l s i n p r a c t i c e , decide  desertent."  were f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d , I n d i a n s  w h e t h e r and  how  even t h o u g h t h a t powerewas o f f i c i a l l y  ities.  The  30  record of pupils discharged  J u n e 1906  r e v e a l s t h a t one  often,  long enrolled p u p i l s stayed  school,  til  could  in  invested i n school  author-  from the Kuper I s l a n d School  p u p i l " l e f t without  permission";  un-  of  81 another, that her  " m o t h e r k e p t h e r home."  The  Coqualeetza  i s r e p l e t e w i t h e n t r i e s s u c h as t h a t f o r J o s e p h Andrews:  Register  "Was  dis-  c h a r g e d b e c a u s e t a k e n away b y h i s f a t h e r f o r a h o l i d a y and  was  returned";  mother  or that f o r Theresa D i l l y :  September] "Ran  1899-  away A u g [ u s t ]  Discharged March  "unless  he  her  or that f o r Edith  Oct[ober]  1, [l9]00."  J o s e p h H a l l t o l d t h e f a t h e r o f one  would engage t o b r i n g [ h e r ] b a c k [ t o  w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e t i m e and b r i n g her back at a l l . "  ^  Waitt: 82  Lack-  a t t e n d a n c e , p r i n c i p a l s i n s t e a d made f u l i u u s e  o f t h e i r power t o deny i t . that  31, 1900";  9, 1900...[Discharged]  i n g r e a l power t o e n f o r c e  girl  " S t o l e n away b y  not  truant  Coqualeetza]  t o r e m a i n f o r a t e r m o f y e a r s he n e e d  The  W i l l i a m s L a k e S c h o o l was  plagued  not  with  r u n a w a y s i n 1902; the p r i n c i p a l s t a t e d t h a t because the Indians "didnnot seem t o f i n d a n y t h i n g r e p r e h e n s i b l e i n t h i s . . . we were f o r c e d t o s e t a n 84 e x a m p l e i n h a v i n g a f e w o f them e x p e l l e d . "  6.0 By beginning 1896,  about the  t u r n of the  century,  h o w e v e r , some s c h o o l s  to assert t h e i r l e g a l authority over truants.  were  In February  Donckele acknowledged r e c e i p t o f a Department " c i r c u l a r "  e v i d e n t l y i n s t r u c t e d him  to compel the  attendance of p u p i l s ,  of  which according  85 to the  terms of t h e i r signed  Principal,  G.  C.  Van  run from the  school,  and  t o the  returned  contracts.  I n September, the  G o t h e n , i n f o r m e d A g e n t Lomas t h a t two and  asked:  S c h o o l as  " W i l l you  Acting  boys  had  k i n d l y have b o t h boys  soon as p o s s i b l e [ j ? ] " A few  days  arrested  later,  86 Van  G o t h e n t h a n k e d Lomas f o r " p r o m p t a c t i o n " i n t h e Despite  s i m i l a r instances  few  years,  h o w e v e r , D o n c k e l e and  one  w h i c h d r a g g e d on  and  other  administrators  because o f the  distance  Donckele swore out  informations  "should  [ h e ] make any  Devlin,  along  g o i n g t o have the  law  enforced  that  law  later—only  t o be  Fraser,  and  letter."  governing Indian the  costs  and  he  has  To  prevent the  of enforcing  a f t e r D e v l i n had  Superintendent V o w e l l — t h a t  it.  s o u g h t and W i l l i e was  a n s w e r e d me  i s but  returned.  i n July,  I t was  the  the  Agent  assurance:  that I  t h a t he  Indians  not  well,  warrants to  was  has  from  a mere l e t t e r , "  obtained  and  f o r h i s f a t h e r as  Donckele s e n t the  schools  return  Peace,  S u p e r i n t e n d e n t V o w e l l t o t e l l him  c o n t e n t s o f my  o f f e r e d t o pay  the  had  a J u s t i c e of the  a r r e s t of W i l l i e ,  opposition."  noted the  treat  pupil's  w i t h a c o p y o f t h e p e r t i n e n t r e g u l a t i o n s , and  " I h a v e w r i t t e n t o Mr.  "the  before  on  next  as a t e s t c a s e o f s o r t s .  f r o m w h i c h he  to r e t u r n from holidays  w a r r a n t s f<$r t h e  seemed t o  stubborn r e s i s t a n c e of the  When W i l l i e f a i l e d  received  the  Department's w i l l i n g n e s s to compel the  of t r u a n t s , b o t h because of the family,  of c l e a r compulsion during  f o r s e v e r a l m o n t h s i n 1900  I t became a g a u g e o f t h e  matter.  thinking Donckele  u n t i l t t h r e e months formal  f o r c i b l y returned  approval  to the  of  school.  61 B o t h he a n d h i s f a t h e r , who a f e w m o n t h s e a r l i e r h a d b e e n " l a u g h i n g a l l the time t h a t there  i s no p o l i c e m a n a f t e r h i m , " w e r e r e p o r t e d  t o be  " v e r y much f r i g h t e n e d . " In succeeding spread.  B y 19131  years,  s u c h e n f o r c e m e n t o f a t t e n d a n c e became w i d e -  "the p r i n c i p a l a t W i l l i a m s L a k e was b e i n g much  t h a n he h a d b e e n i n 1902:  "As s o o n a s [ a p u p i l ] i s m i s s i n g ,  stricter  the reverend  88 p r i n c i p a l h i m s e l f s t a r t s t r a c i n g him u n t i l brought back." School,  w i t h i t s s e r i o u s t r u a n c y p r o b l e m s , made e x t e n s i v e  s t a b l e s t o b r i n g e r r a n t p u p i l s back t o school. gan  t o punish parents  i n J a n u a r y o f 1918,  who a b e t t e d  truancy.  The L y t t o n use o f coneta  I t s a u t h o r i t i e s even be-  A f t e r M a t t h e w S m i t h r a n home  h i s f a t h e r was " p u n i s h e d f o r H a r b o u r i n g . . . s e n t  J a i l . . . b y Indian Agent."  P e r h a p s f r o m f e a r o f p r o s e c u t i o n , many  around L y t t o n b e g a n — c o n t r a r y t o almost a l l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i r behavior—to  help school o f f i c i a l s  enforce  attendance,  to parents past  someereturning  89 pupils repeatedly  t o t h e s c h o o l from which they had r u n .  T r u a n t p u p i l s a l m o s t a l w a y s f a c e d c o r p o r a l punishment on t h e i r return.  A t K u p e r I s l a n d , w h i p p i n g was f i r s t  discocuraging runaways. remaining. the  e m p l o y e d a s a means o f  P r i n c i p a l s hoped t o f r i g h t e n t h e c h i l d r e n i n t o  A t K a m l o o p s , A. G a r i o n  whipped r e t u r n e d  t r u a n t s , and asked  I n d i a n A g e n t t o come a n d s p e a k t o them; i f h e c o u l d  "faire  craindre  90 l e s enfants, an  ce s e r a i t b i e n . "  e f f i c a c i o u s t o o l f o rensuring  discipline  There i s l i t t l e attendance.  e v i d e n c e t h a t f e a r was  Where p a r e n t s  "too h a r s h " — a s a t L y t t o n — r e c r u i t m e n t  considered  o f new p u p i l s became  91 an i m p o s s i b l e t a s k . M o r e o v e r , f e a r c o u l d p r o d u c e e x a c t l y w h a t i t was s u p p o s e d t o p r e v e n t , a s D o n c k e l e f o u n d one e v e n i n g i n F e b r u a r y 1897: I w a r n e d them, t h a t s h o u l d t h e y p e r s i s t i n b r e a k i n g t h e r e g u l a t i o n s [ r e g a r d i n g t r u a n c y ] . . . a n e x e m p l a r y p u n i s h m e n t w o u l d s u r e l y be i n f l i c t e d o n some o f t h e c u l p r i t s . A s s o o n a s I was t h r o u g h s p e a k i n g 92 I w e n t up t o t h e d o r m i t o r i e s w i t h t h e b o y s , b u t G u s t a v e r a n o u t o f t h e house and d i s a p p e a r e d i n t h e d a r k n e s s . . . .  62  CHAPTER V FRAGMENTATION OF FAMILIES: AND  EXTENT  DURATION  Residential schools were designed to acculturate the Indian c h i l d more r a p i d l y than day schools by providing educators with t o t a l control of his environment.  Boarding the c h i l d would not only ensure  his regular attendance, but l a r g e l y eliminate the retrograde influences of his heathen, nomadic family.  The degree of separation which the  schools should t r y to e f f e c t between pupils and t h e i r homes was matter of debate among administrators.  a  In the early 1890s, most thought  such associations ought to be kept to an absolute minimum by constructing the schools some distance from r e s e r v e s .  1  Parents, however, were much  less w i l l i n g to e n r o l l t h e i r young when i t necessitated great  separa-  t i o n — a f a c t which helped prompt Deputy Superintendent General James Smart to conclude i n 1899  that the i n s t i t u t i o n s should be b u i l t on re-  serves, "where the parents can see the children from time to time, and  2 thus greatly mitigate the sense of separation."  This chapter w i l l inves-  tigate the extent to which attendance at r e s i d e n t i a l schools isolated children from t h e i r f a m i l i e s ; and how and the r e s u l t i n g i s o l a t i o n ,  long, f o r most pupils, attendance,  continued.  While attendance always involved a degree of separation between parents and children, i t divided s i b l i n g s somewhat l e s s often. ' Of the 489 pupils attending Coqualeetza between 1888  and 1911,  at l e a s t  199  63 had  a b r o t h e r o r s i s t e r who a l s o a t t e n d e d — a l m o s t  always c o n c u r r e n t l y .  F i f t y - o n e f a m i l i e s s e n t 2 c h i l d r e n ; n i n e t e e n s e n t 3; s i x s e n t 4; t w o  5;  sent  a  n d one s e n t  6.  A minimum o f  46  (N-45/96)  percent  e n t e r i n g t h e K u p e r I s l a n d S c h o o l b e t w e e n 1897  a n d 1906  of pupils  had s i b l i n g s i n  4 attendance. it  Although the records are d i f f i c u l t  precisely,  w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t e v e n more o f t h e p u p i l s a t S t . G e o r g e ' s ( L y t t o n )  and A l l H a l l o w s was  to calculate  ( Y a l e ) h a d f a m i l y members i n a t t e n d a n c e  t h e case a t C o q u a l e e t z a and K u p e r I s l a n d .  r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o emerge.  w i t h them  I n s t a n c e s o f more  Hope D u n c a n a t t e n d e d A l l H a l l o w s  than distant  w i t h two  a u n t s ; when t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a m a l g a m a t e d w i t h t h e B o y s ' S c h o o l a t L y t t o n , she a l s o had an u n c l e present.'' There i s evidence t h a t s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s b o n d s a n d t o o k them i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  were aware o f s u c h  A t Kuper I s l a n d ,  r e g i s t e r r e c o r d s t h a t i n December o f  I896  Johnny t o t h e D o c t o r a t Duncan's."  A t C o q u a l e e t z a , Anna Tanasse and  "Wo.  36  the attendance  took h i s brother  h e r s i s t e r , M a r y , who h a d e n t e r e d t h e s c h o o l a y e a r a n d a h a l f a p a r t , w e r e b o t h g r a n t e d a h o l i d a y o f o n e week o n t h e same d a y i n O c t o b e r  1897.  7  The  e x i s t e n c e o f f a m i l y g r o u p s i n t h e s c h o o l s may h e l p , t o e x p l a i n  the w i l l i n g n e s s o f parents t o e n r o l l f a i r l y c o u l d c o n t i n u e , i f i n a t t e n u a t e d form, tion.  young c h i l d r e n :  family  ties  within the walls o f the i n s t i t u -  When James a n d M a r y F o r r e s t e n r o l l e d t h e i r s i x y e a r o l d s o n ,  Jimmy, a t C o q u a l e e t z a , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e y a l s o e n r o l l e d t w e l v e y e a r o l d E m i l y and e i g h t y e a r o l d Martha.  M o r e o v e r , L o u i s a , who was f i f t e e n , h a d  a l r e a d y been i n t h e s c h o o l f o r a y e a r , and would presumably Q t o w a t c h o u t f o r them.  be a b l e  One m u s t be c a r e f u l , h o w e v e r , n o t t o o v e r -  state the s o c i a l implications o f brothers attending with s i s t e r s :  though  64  enrolled i n the same school, they worked i n d i f f e r e n t classes, and l i v e d i n d i f f e r e n t dormitories.  On the other hand, the relationship  between brothers (or between s i s t e r s ) may have grown increasingly close i n unfamiliar and sometimes threatening surroundings:  on several  occasions, brothers appear to have escaped together from the l y t t o n School.  9  Most of the schools permitted parents to v i s i t t h e i r children periodically.  One of the main attributes of St. Mary's Mission, accord-  ing to i t s p r i n c i p a l , was that, being close to both r a i l and water transportation, i t was e a s i l y accessible to parents. ^  Even at Clayoquot,  1  where school o f f i c i a l s had d e l i b e r a t e l y selected a s i t e secluded from Indian v i l l a g e s , a special house was constructed so v i s i t i n g parents could remain overnight."'"  1  Almost a l l r e s i d e n t i a l schools i n v i t e d par-  ents and friends to a s s i s t at examinations, award ceremonies,  or dramas  12 staged by students.  Naturally the frequency—indeed, the p o s s i b i l i t y —  of v i s i t s depended on the distance of the school from the pupils' home. While recognizing t h e i r value i n r e c o n c i l i n g parents and pupils to r e s i d e n t i a l education, school o f f i c i a l s l i k e d to keep such v i s i t s under t i g h t control.  The p r i n c i p a l at Kamloops complained i n 1891 and  1892 that the school's location on a reserve.caused "too many v i s i t o r s . " Their presence, he claimed, produced  "considerable uneasiness" among 13  pupils, and "inconvenience to the o f f i c e r s i n charge."  The directors  of the Fraser Lake School at f i r s t encouraged v i s i t s , but when huge crowds of Indians continued to invade the school each Sunday, t h e i r patience wore thin.  Not only parents, but many young Indians came,  "bringing camp ideas," and upsetting d i s c i p l i n e .  However, a l l attempts  to l i m i t the v i s i t s to parents, or to certain hours, soon f a i l e d .  Indians  65 i n s i s t e d on seeing their children or friends, and inspecting the conditions i n which they l i v e d .  Although those at Fraser Lake f i n a l l y  agreed to stay " i n the place that has "been assigned to them," instead r  n  14  of "wander^ingj a l l over the house," table.  not a l l natives were so trac-  At Kitimat, the old c h i e f "would come to the Home, walk r i g h t  i n to any room and s i t down f o r a talk...At times he would go up to the Dormitories and examine the bedding etc. Where schools were close to the reserves, pupils were often allowed weekend breaks.  At Alberni, inmates could spend Friday nights,  and Saturday u n t i l 5 P.M. with t h e i r f a m i l i e s . ^ 1  When parents were  i n the v i l l a g e at Kitimat, "the children are allowed down to t h e i r own Homes on S a t u r d a y ] aft^ernoon] provided they are 'called f o r ' and 17 brought back." On the other hand, educators were reluctant to entrust pupils to t h e i r parents f o r longer summer vacations.  Early i n the 1890s, the 18  Department urged schools not to l e t pupils go home during the summer. A. Garion reported from Kamloops i n 1894 that " i t i s decidedly a great advantage to keep the children under constant supervision during the whole year."  He permitted three weeks of "relaxation" within the school,  l e t t i n g only a few favoured students v i s i t t h e i r parents f o r one or two  days.  19  However, i t soon became evident to most p r i n c i p a l s , and to the Department, that the only p r a c t i c a l course was to allow pupils a few weeks to be with t h e i r parents during the summer.  In h i s f i r s t  year  of operation at Kuper Island, G. Donckele took his pupils boating and picnicking instead of l e t t i n g them go home.  But they "would be whole  days pining around the buildings f o r t h e i r parents, and the consequence  66 was that a good, many got s i c k . "  Equally, parents had such great need  of t h e i r older children as helpers during the f i s h i n g season that  "un-  less extreme measures he taken, the Parents w i l l f o r c i b l y take away their children."  Out of necessity, Donckele began allowing a f i v e to 20  sixk week break during the f i s h i n g season.  Summer holidays became an  area i n which Indians vigorously asserted t h e i r r i g h t s :  when a rumour  circulated at Kuper Island i n 1895 that the holidays were to be abolished, 21 three boys attempted to set the school on f i r e . Holidays at many coastal schools lasted four to s i x weeks f o r older pupils, even though the Department o f f i c i a l l y allowed only three 22 weeks.  Pupils took longer holidays because the f i s h i n g season was 23  longer.  Not only parents, but cannery owners as well encouraged them 24  to stay away;  they were an irreplaceable labour force.  The length of  holidays could thus r e f l e c t the state of the f i s h i n g industry.  While  pupils at A l e r t Bay normally took longer holidays than o f f i c i a l l y sanctioned, A. W. Corker reported i n  I898 that "owing to a poor f i s h i n g 25  season the old pupils returned to the school at once."  Originally  designed to overcome the i r r e g u l a r i t y and disruption caused by children's work, r e s i d e n t i a l schools were obliged to adapt, i n some measure, to the rhythms of the Indian family. Schools also granted s p e c i a l permission to i n d i v i d u a l students to go home at other times of the year to v i s i t or help t h e i r parents. For example, Donckele wrote from Kuper Island i n 1900 that: On Friday evening F e l i x came to my room and asked me i f he could go to Cowichan to cut down his mother's oats...As h i s mother i s a widow I allowed him leave of absence from Saturday to the following Wednesday.26 At Kamloops, the p r i n c i p a l stated that s p e c i a l v i s i t s were allowed " i n 27 case of serious sickness or death i n the family of the p u p i l . " The  67 p o l i c y was a p p a r e n t l y  common t o a l l s c h o o l s :  " A n n i e " was home f r o m 28  K u p e r I s l a n d f o r t h i r t y - o n e d a y s i n 1895 b e c a u s e h e r f a t h e r d i e d ; i n 1915>  S y d n e y W e s l e y t r a v e l l e d a l l t h e way f r o m L y t t o n t o h i s home 29  a t K i n c o l i t h , n o r t h o f P r i n c e Rupert, t o see h i s d y i n g mother. who w e r e t h e m s e l v e s s i c k a l s o a l m o s t a l w a y s w e n t home. c h i l d r e n p r e f e r r e d t o be t o g e t h e r to  a v o i d "both c o n t a g i o n  i n such cases;  P a r e n t s and  and p r i n c i p a l s  and bad p u b l i c i t y f o r t h e i r  up t o t e n y e a r s .  They b e l i e v e d I n d i a n s  schools  n e e d e d cUan u n u s u a l l y  p e r i o d o f most c a r e f u l m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g . "  were r e l u c t a n t t o h a v e t h e i r f a m i l i e s s p l i t  hoped  schools.  E d u c a t o r s wanted t o keep c h i l d r e n i n t h e b o a r d i n g for  Pupils  Parents, 30  up f o r s o l o n g .  long however,  In  t h e e a r l y 1890s, t h e y s i g n e d c o n t r a c t s c o m m i t t i n g t h e i r y o u n g f o r to the  f i v e years;  contracts which  felt  little  compunction about removing t h e i r c h i l d r e n e a r l i e r  t h e need o r d e s i r e arose.  A t Kuper I s l a n d , parents  withdrew 32  d a u g h t e r s " a s s o o n a s t h e y were a b l e t o g i v e a s s i s t a n c e . " the  granted  Department f u l l d i s c r e t i o n r e g a r d i n g l e n g t h o f stay.-^'iiBut-most  Indians if  a f t e r 1895> "they h a d t o a c c e p t  three  their  Moreover,  i n d i s c r i m i n a t e admittance o f a p p l i c a n t s , combined w i t h p o o r h e a l t h  c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s c h o o l s , m e a n t t h a t many c h i l d r e n r e m a i n e d o n l y periods  before  i l l n e s s f o r c e d them t o l e a v e .  Once t h e s c h o o l s b e g a n t o e n f o r c e power o f p a r e n t s  the signed  contracts, the  t o determine t h e l e n g t h o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s a t t e n -  d a n c e was s e v e r e l y d i m i n i s h e d . still  I n a d d i t i o n , while h e a l t h problems  e n d e d t h e s c h o o l i n g o f many c h i l d r e n p r e m a t u r e l y ,  processes  meant t h a t more p u p i l s who e n t e r e d  of remaining  short  several  years.  screening  were p h y s i c a l l y c a p a b l e  68 Table of enrollment  I I I ( p a g e 69)  i s a frequency  of p u p i l s admitted  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  to Coqualeetza  b e t w e e n 1888  lengths  and  1902;  33 and  discharged  f r o m K u p e r I s l a n d b e t w e e n 1890  lengths of enrollment it  was  two  at  Kuper I s l a n d .  a t t h e two  W h i l e o n l y 23.4  percent  o r more, o v e r  Island o f f i c i a l l y stayed that long. several trends:  K u p e r I s l a n d were p r e d o m i n a n t l y  who  s e v e n months students  of those  at Kuper  difference probably  t h e y had  reflects  were  teenagers  a l r e a d y begun, w h i l e those  younger c h i l d r e n w i t h notprevious  a high p r o p o r t i o n of Coqualeetza's  at  edu-  e a r l y p u p i l s were C a t h o l i c s  c u t s h o r t t h e i r s t a y by e x p r e s s i n g r e l i g i o u s o b j e c t i o n s o r by  f e r r i n g t o a C a t h o l i c s c h o o l ; and, to  three years,  percent  median  considerably:  of Coqualeetza*s  39  The  The  many o f t h e c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g C o q u a l e e t z a  needed t o f i n i s h e a n e d u c a t i o n  cation;  1906.  schools d i f f e r e d f a i r l y  y e a r s , t e n months a t C o q u a l e e t z a ;  were e n r o l l e d f i v e y e a r s  who  and  finally,  trans-  Kuper I s l a n d o f f i c i a l s  seem  have been e s p e c i a l l y e n e r g e t i c i n c o m p e l l i n g t h e r e t u r n o f t r u a n t s . Enrollment  sarily  d i d not,  i n attendance  of course,  mean t h a t t h e c h i l d  f o r the e n t i r e p e r i o d .  l e f t on t h e r o l l f o r m o n t h s o r e v e n y e a r s because s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s  mistakenly  C h i l d r e n were  a f t e r t h e y had  expected  was  sometimes  ceased to  them t o r e t u r n .  w e r e p e r i o d i c a l l y a b s e n t f o r e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s due  neces-  attend  Many  to i l l n e s s  others  o r t.  .  34 truancy. B e t w e e n I 8 9 O a n d 1920, t h e number o f p u p i l s a c t u a l l y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s on t h e a v e r a g e d a y was u s u a l l y  35 e i g h t y t o n i n e t y - f i v e r p e r c e n t o f t h e n u m b e r on t h e i r r o l l s . t h e s i t u a t i o n c o u l d :be much w o r s e i n i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s . p u p i l s e n r o l l e d a t L y t t o n i n O c t o b e r o f 1918,  12  t h e m o n t h due  9 had  from h o l i d a y s .  to i l l n e s s , On  17  " a b s c o n d e d , " and  Of  missed time not yet  the o t h e r hand, a n a l y s i s o f the l e n g t h s  Of  course,  88 during returned of  69  TABLE I I I Lengths of Enrollment  Number of Pupils ¥ears on Roll  Coqualeetza  Kuper Island  Less than 1  66  16  1-2  38  29  2-3  45  15  3-4  42  13  4-5  35  13  5-6  14  17  6-7  12  14  7-8  4  16  8-9  9  4  9-10  9  5  10-11  10  11-12  6  12-13  3  More than 13  2  Not Known  10  Total  305  142  TOTAL KNOWN  295  142  70 enrollment  of students  fragmentation  a t any  one  o f some f a m i l i e s ,  more t h a n a s i n g l e b o a r d i n g  not  c h i l d r e n who  understate  the  actual  since a minority of pupils  school.  C a t h o l i c p u p i l s l a t e r attended The  s c h o o l may  For  e x a m p l e , many o f  attended Coqualeetza's  a t S t . Mary's M i s s i o n .  attended  r e s i d e n t i a l schools  before  1920  do  a p p e a r t o have been s e r i o u s l y a l i e n a t e d from t h e i r f a m i l i e s o r  native patterns  of l i f e  when t h e y r e t u r n e d  s t a t e s t h a t y o u n g H a i d a who  home.  J . H.  Van  Den  w e n t b a c k t o t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e s  long absences" found themselves  "permanently estranged  Brink  "after  from the  life  37 there."  I t i s c l e a r , h o w e v e r , t h a t o n l y a m i n o r i t y w e r e away f r o m  t h e i r f a m i l i e s f o r unreasonably long periods; l e a s t some c o n t a c t although  with reserve  life  while  and  enrolled i n school.  some a d m i n i s t r a t o r s b e l i e v e d b o a r d i n g  I n d i a n c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e i r own equipping  them t o l i v e  p e o p l e and  among w h i t e s ;  and  t h a t most r e t a i n e d  schools  at  Thus,  were a l i e n a t i n g  environment, without while parents  adequately  occasionally  39 claimed  that pupils returned  evident  t h a t most resumed f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h l i t t l e  and  pursued the  away t o  home " d i s o b e d i e n t  same o c c u p a t i o n s  R e g i s t e r shows t h a t t h o s e who w i t h the  were d e a d ; s h e  difficulty,  t h e y n e v e r gone  residence  or p a r t i a l l y  Coqualeetza  o r p h a n e d went  M a r y Maye, whose m o t h e r  Both of C h r i s s i e K e l l y ' s  with her brother.  Ahousaht School  them, t o u n c l e s  with t h e i r families  Examination of the  were t o t a l l y  with her f a t h e r .  t o o k up  r e p o r t o f the t h e y had  to l i v e  r e l a t i v e s t h e y d i d have.  dead, went t o l i v e  if  i t is  school.  a f t e r they completed t h e i r s c h o o l i n g .  1911  conceited,"  t h e y w o u l d have, had  Students almost always returned  to l i v e  and  Similarly,  shows t h a t b o y s r e t u r n e d  i f they d i d not;  and  t o o k up  to  a life  was  parents the parents of  fishing  and  sealing.  boarding  S'JL  I n North Vancouver, g i r l s  school helped  t h e i r m o t h e r s make b a s k e t s  A few e x g p u p i l s o f the s c h o o l s attempted had  educated  to s e l l to tourists  t o work a t t h e t r a d e s  l e a r n e d , o r w o r k e d p r i m a r i l y f o r wages.  c i p a l a t Kamloops,  a t t h e Squamish  "Still,"  noted  they  the p r i n -  " t h e y a l w a y s r e m a i n i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r own  43 people."  E. P a l m e r P a t t e r s o n I I i s t h u s c o r r e c t  "Social relationships frequently l e f t  when h e  states:  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d community t i e s were  r -1 44 u n c h a n g e d b y |_the new e d u c a t i o n ' s j i n t r o d u c t i o n . "  72  CHAPTER V I EPILOGUE  R e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s f o r I n d i a n s c o n s t i t u t e d one o f t h e m o s t r a t i o n a l l y planned  and r e s o l u t e l y executed  campaigns o f d i r e c t e d  acculturation o f the l a t e nineteenth century. s p i r e d b y t h e same m i d d l e  c l a s s theories o f environmentalism,  Darwinism, and e n l i g h t e n e d h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m efforts,  I t was a c a m p a i g n i n -  t h a t prompted  i n many p a r t s o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n w o r l d ,  prove the "unsucessful," the f o r e i g n , Canadian reformers  Social  similar  t o c o n t r o l and i m -  and t h e g e n e r a l l y m i s l e d .  used e d u c a t i o n e x t e n s i v e l y t o t r y t o change t h e /al':  v a l u e s and c u l t u r e o f working  class,  immigrant,  and I n d i a n  children.  But t h e s i n g u l a r l y c o n c e r t e d form e d u c a t i o n took i n t h e case I n d i a n s makes i t a p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v i t i n g a r e a o f s t u d y .  of the  I n few forums  a r e t h e l i n e s o f c u l t u r a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n more c l e a r l y d r a w n , o r t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l more e f f e c t i v e l y t e s t e d . When a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d m i s s i o n a r i e s f i r s t b e g a n boarding  building  s c h o o l s i n t h e 1 8 8 0 s , t h e y h o p e d t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n s  produce a generation o f completely a s s i m i l a t e d n a t i v e s . completely  as p o s s i b l e from t h e i r f a m i l i e s and c u l t u r e ,  pass t h e i r f o r m a t i v e years i n a m e t i c u l o u s l y planned, environment.  Having  would  I s o l a t e d as children  would  civilizing  l e a r n e d new t r a d e s , a n d i n t e r n a l i z e d new  occu-  p a t i o n a l r h y t h m s , t h e y w o u l d n o t r e t u r n t o t h e i r r e s e r v e s , b u t move i n stead t o white the g e n e r a l  settlements o r c i t i e s ,  community."  1  "and t h u s become a m a l g a m a t e d w i t h  73 By t h e t h a t the all  t u r n o f the century,  however, o f f i c i a l s  e x - p u p i l s " t o a l l i n t e n t s and  t h e i r deepest i n t e r e s t s ,  recognized  purposes remain Indians,  a f f e c t i o n s and  ambitions  centred  with  in  their  2 reserves."  I t was  a t t e n d a n c e was  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y p l a i n t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l  not,  in itself,  e r a d i c a t e the Indian's sequently,  educators  an i n f l u e n c e s u f f i c i e n t l y p o w e r f u l  a t t a c h m e n t t o h i s p e o p l e and  adjusted  school  his culture.  t h e i r stated objectives to  more c l o s e l y w i t h t h e i r a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s .  I n 1910,  S c o t t announced t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n  to Con-  correspond  Duncan C a m p b e l l  aimed " t o f i t the  Indian  3 for  civilized  life  i n h i s own  environment."  This a l t e r a t i o n of goal i n e f f e c t constituted administrative acknowledgement o f the nature  and  c a p a c i t y o f I n d i a n rhythms t o i n f l u e n c e  outcome o f w h i t e  n a l l y conceived  boarding  acculturative efforts.  schools  c h a n g e , o v e r whose o p e r a t i o n a a n d control.  But  r e s u l t s they  patterns of l i f e  and  efforts  c o n d i t i o n e d thousands of everyday d e c i s i o n s  e c o n o m i c , and  many t o e n r o l l ;  tween f a m i l y and  Parents  decided,  outeof  of  the  and,  t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , how  c h i l d e x i s t e d during attendance.  eduNative  concern-  a combination  c u l t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , whether t o  the s c h o o l s ' programs a c c o r d i n g r e f u s i n g t h e new  complete  social destinies of Indian children.  d e t a i l s of attendance.  how  social  would e x e r c i s e  c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l ; w h i c h c h i l d r e n t o s e n d ; a t w h a t age go;  of  origi-  Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s — d e t e r m i n e d the  c a t i o n a l experiences  emotional,  instruments  a whole range o f f a c t o r s — n o t j u s t the  churches o r of the  ing  as p o w e r f u l  Educators  the  send  t o l e t them  much c o n t a c t  Children reacted  to t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l rhythms,  means o f c o e r c i o n .  And,  a f t e r the  beto  sometimes  d i s c i p l i n e w i t h such p e r s i s t e n c e t h a t o f f i c i a l s  d r i v e n t o s e e k new  of  were  conclusion of  their  74 e d u c a t i o n , most p u p i l s resumed i n t e r r u p t e d n a t i v e p a t t e r n s o f l i f e , i n s t e a d o f t r y i n g t o j o i n the white community. Of course, t h e r e were some f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g attendance a t residential schools—such impact  as h e a l t h p r o b l e m s — a n d o t h e r s a f f e c t i n g t h e  o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s — s u c h as enduring p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t even  educated  I n d i a n s i n t h e white p o p u l a t i o n — o v e r which n e i t h e r admini-  s t r a t o r s n o r I n d i a n s had any r e a l c o n t r o l .  Still,  these two groups  j o i n t l y made the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f d e c i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the s c h o o l s . It  i s u n f o r t u n a t e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t w r i t e r s have p o r t r a y e d I n d i a n s as  e s s e n t i a l l y passive during t h i s period.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s view,  they  were a decimated and b e w i l d e r e d m i n o r i t y , f i t o n l y t o "be p i t i e d , 4 converted,  and a d m i n i s t e r e d . "  The p e r s p e c t i v e o f the l a s t one hundred  y e a r s r e i n f o r c e s such assumptions:  Indians, apparently  "losers" i n  the c u l t u r a l " b a t t l e " which t r a n s p i r e d , l e t s l i p c o n t r o l o f t h e i r own d e s t i n y ; and watched p o w e r l e s s l y as they were helped o r v i c t i m i z e d by schemes o f s o c i a l m a n i p u l a t i o n . noted,  I n f a c t , as Robert  B e r k h o f e r has  "both groups behaved a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own c u l t u r a l systems."^  Examining the. way each group made attendance  d e c i s i o n s r e v e a l s much  not o n l y about i t s c u l t u r a l assumptions, b u t a l s o about s o c i a l problems and changes i t was e x p e r i e n c i n g . formation.  trans-  But t h a t does n o t mean I n d i a n s were q u i e s c e n t - - o r r e a c t e d  without r e f e r e n c e t o important  c u l t u r a l rhythms.  a mutual and p e r p e t u a l l y changing of  I n d i a n s o c i e t y was undergoing  Any r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  phenomenon; t o examine t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s  o n l y one o f i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s i s t o see n o t h a l f a p i c t u r e , b u t a  g r a v e l y d i s t o r t e d image.  75  ABBREVIATIONS  AA:  Anglican Church Archives,  University of B r i t i s h  Columbia  CMSA: C h u r c h M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y A r c h i v e s , m i c r o f i l m , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y DIAN: Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s D i s t r i c t B r i t i s h Columbia IA:  Annual Report o f the Department  Office Archives,  [Branch] of Indian  Nanaimo,  Affairs  OC:  Orchard C o l l e c t i o n , i n the A u r a l H i s t o r y C o l l e c t i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia  OR:  Records o f the Oblate M i s s i o n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, m i c r o f i l m , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y  -PABC:  Provincial Archives  SGIS:  S t . George's I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l ,  UCA:  uunited  of B r i t i s h  Columbia Lytton, British  Church A r c h i v e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  Columbia  76  NOTES Chapter I ^Canada, Department of the Interior, Report of the Deputy Superintendent General of Indian A f f a i r s f o r the Year Ended g l December I876 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 18$7), p. 6. Prom 1880 to 1937, a separate Department of Indian A f f a i r s existed. From 1937 to 1950, the Indian A f f a i r s Branch was part of the Department of Mines and Resources. Whatever p a r t i c u l a r Government Department to which the Branch belonged i n any given year, i t always issued i t s own annual report, abbreviated henceforth as IA. U n t i l 1892 (Year Ended 31 December I892), reports are f o r the calendar year, January to December. Between 1893 (lear Ended 30 June I893) and 1906, reports conclude i n June of each year. After 1907 (Year Ended 31 March 1907), reports conclude i n March. In a l l future references, reports w i l l be c i t e d by the year i n which they conclude.  2 E. Palmer Patterson I I , The Canadian Indian: A History Since 1500 (Don M i l l s : C o l l i e r MacMillan, 1972), p. 109. -^H. J . Vallery, "A History of Indian Education i n Canada" (M.A. thesis, Queen's University, 1942), pp. 97, 104, 121. ^Robert Levine and Freda Cooper, "The Suppression of B.C. Languages: F i l l i n g i n the Gaps i n the Documentary Record," Sound Heritage IV  (1976): 43-75. •^James W. S't. G. Walker, "The Indian i n Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Writing," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association, H i s t o r i c a l Papers (1971): 29. ^Gareth Stedman Jones, "Class Expression Versus S o c i a l Control? A Critique of Recent Trends i n the S o c i a l History of Leisure," History Workshop Journal 4 (Autumn 1977): 163. Discussing the historiography of l e i s u r e , Jones comments: " I t i s as i f class c o n f l i c t i n England had been a l a r g e l y one-sided a f f a i r conducted by capitalism and i t s representatives; as i f the r u r a l and urban masses...were simply a blank page upon which each successive stage of capitalism has successf u l l y imposed i t s imprint." (163) 7 Jacqueline Gresko, "White 'Rites' and Indian 'Rites': Indian Education and Native Responses i n the West, 1870-1910," i n Western Canada Past and Past and Present, ed. A. W. Rasporich (Calgary: McClelland & Stewart,  1975')? PP- 163-181. 8  I b i d . , p. 174.  The paper w i l l make frequent use of detailed attendance records from four s p e c i f i c schools. The Roman Catholic School on Kuper Island was  77 one of the f i r s t of the new " i n d u s t r i a l " i n s t i t u t e s opened i n 1890. The Government helped'! transform the Methodist Coqualeetza Home at Sardis into a f u l l - f l e d g e d i n d u s t r i a l school i n 1892-3, making i t "the largest and most complete establishment of i t s kind i n the province." IA, 1893» p. 220. The Anglican A l l Hallows G i r l s " Home at Yale operated from 1885 u n t i l 1918, when i t amalgamated with St. George's I n d u s t r i a l School at l y t t o n . St. George's, also Anglican, had opened i n 1903. The schools represent each of the three main r e l i g i o u s denominations i n volved i n Indian r e s i d e n t i a l education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Together, they also dealt with a f a i r l y diverse sample of the province's natives. ^John Calam, "An H i s t o r i c a l Survey of Boarding Schools and Public School Dormitories i n Canada" (M.A. thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962), p. 51.  1(  "''"'"See N e i l Sutherland, Children i n English-Canadian Society: Framing the Twentieth-Century Consensus (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976), pp. 17-21 and passim.  12 Joseph F. Kett, Rites of Passage: Adolescence i n America, 1790 to the Present (New Yorki Basic Books, 1977), P- 123. 13 I a n Davey, "The Rhythm of Work and the Rhythm of School (Typescript, n.d.), p. 13. 14 David Rubinstein, School Attendance i n London, 1870-1904: A S o c i a l History (Hull: University of Hull, 1969), pp. 2-3. J  "^See Allan Smith, "American Culture and the Concept of Mission i n Nineteenth Century English Canada," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association, H i s t o r i c a l Papers (l97l): 169-182. Smith argues that English Canadians, l i k e Americans saw themselves as representing "a s p e c i a l and chosen society." (170) " ^ J . T. M. Anderson, The Education of the New-Canadian (Toronto: Dent & Sons, 1918), pp. 8, 26-27.  J . M.  17 See W. Peter Ward, "The Oriental Immigrant and Canada's Protestant Clergy, I858-I925," BC Studies 22 (Summer 1974): 40. 18 Haley P. Bamman, "Patterns of School Attendance i n Toronto, 1844I878: Some S p a t i a l Considerations," i n Education and S o c i a l Change: Themes from Ontario's Past, eds. Michael B. Katz and Paul H. Mattingly (New York: New York University Press, 1975), P- 218. 19  IA,  1889, P. x i ; IA, 18?6, p. gg.  20  IA, 1907, p. 415. 21  I A , 1910, p. 273.  22 Ronald G. Haycock, The Image of the Indian (Waterloo: Lutheran University, 1972), p. 1.  Waterloo  78 23  E. P. Thompson, " T i m e , W o r k - D i s c i p l i n e , a n d I n d u s t r i a l P a s t a n d P r e s e n t 38 ( D e c e m b e r 1967): 73.  2  ^EA,  1907,  Capitalism,"  p. x x i v .  26 s h C o lpu.m bxixai,i i P. a p e r s R e l a t i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n A p p o i n t e d t o \A, B r i t i1907, Enquire i n t o t h e C o n d i t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e North-West Coast (Victoria: R i c h a r d ¥olfenden, 1888), p . 47. 2  2 ?  IA,  1907,  p.  415.  28 R. D. G i d n e y , " E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n i n U p p e r C a n a d a : i n K a t z a n d M a t t i n g l y , p . 18.  A Reassessment,"  29  ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, " P u b l i c Schools Report, I 8 9 O - I 8 9 I , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1892 ( V i c t o r i a ! R i c h a r d W o l f e n d e n , 1892), p . 204. ° B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1896-1897," S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , I898 ( V i c t o r i a : R i c h a r d W o l f e n d e n , I898), p . 234. 3  31 B r i t i s h Columbia, " P u b l i c Schools Report: S t a t i s t i c a l Returns, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , I896 ( V i c t o r i a : R i c h a r d Wolfenden, pp. i i - v . J  1894-1895,"  I896),  32 R o b e r t M. S t a m p , " E d u c a t i o n a n d t h e E c o n o m i c a n d S o c i a l M i l i e u : The E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n S c e n e f r o m t h e 1870s t o 1914," i n C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n : A H i s t o r y , e d s . J . D o n a l d W i l s o n , R o b e r t M. S t a m p , a n d L o u i s - P h i l i p p e Audet (Scarborough: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1970), p . 304.  33 H. K e i t h H u t c h i n s o n , " D i m e n s i o n s o f E t h n i c E d u c a t i o n : The J a p a n e s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1880-1940" (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1972), p p . 57-63.  34  J o r g e n D a h l i e , " L e a r n i n g on t h e F r o n t i e r : Scandinavian Immigrants and E d u c a t i o n i n W e s t e r n Canada," C a n a d i a n a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n 1 ( D e c e m b e r 1972): 60.  1901,  3 5  IA,  3 6  Ibid.,  3 7  IA,  pp.  pp.  1897,  38-51, 158-167.  38-39.  p . 88.  T O  J . H. V a n Den B r i n k , The H a i d a I n d i a n s : ( L e i d e n , E. J . B r i l l , 1970), p .  1876-1970 3 9  IA,  1888, p .  102.  4 0  IA,  1877,  49.  P-  41 ^IA,  1876, . 33P  C u l t u r a l Change m a i n l y between  139-  79 42 R u b i n s t e i n , p. 5343 ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, " P u b l i c S c h o o l s Report, 1874-1875," S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1876 ( V i c t o r i a : R i c h a r d Wolfenden, I876), p. 98. ^1A,  1896,  p.  xxxvii.  ^IA,  1897,  p.  xxvi.  ^ IA,  1913.  P.  303.  6  ;  47 As one r e c e n t o b s e r v e r has n o t e d , "no o t h e r group i n Canadian has e x p e r i e n c e d government p o l i c y s e p a r a t i n g p a r e n t and c h i l d . the Japanese i n the Second World War were removed as a group." Spears, "An Experiment, i n F a i l u r e , " Vancouver P r o v i n c e , 4 J u l y p. 10. 48 W i l s o n Duff, The I n d i a n H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia: v o l . 1: Impact o f the White Man ( V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1964), p.  ^ IA, 9  1901,  pp. 38-51, 158-167; I A , 1920,  -^W. T. Stanbury, "The BC S t u d i e s 19 (Autumn  E d u c a t i o n Gap:  1973), P-  27.  historyEven James 1978, The  45.  pp. 34, 62-67.  Urban I n d i a n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia,"  Chapter I I "'"Leo W. Simmons, ed., Sun C h i e f : The A u t o b i o g r a p h y (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1942), p. 100.  o f a Hopi I n d i a n  2 I n d i a n A f f a i r s E d u c a t i o n D i v i s i o n , The E d u c a t i o n o f I n d i a n C h i l d r e n i n Canada (Toronto: The Ryerson P r e s s , 1965), p. 53  IA,  1920,  p.  13.  4  IA, I898, p. x x v i . T h u s . a l t h o u g h Agent H a l l i d a y r e p o r t e d from the Kwawkewlth Agency i n 1906 t h a t "a few p a r e n t s were f i n e d f o r not s e n d i n g the c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l , " i t i s c l e a r t h a t compulsion was seldom employed. Seven y e a r s l a t e r , Agent Deasy was s t i l l u r g i n g the Department t o i n s t i t u t e c o e r c i o n : "We s h a l l n e v e r make the I n d i a n r e a l i z e the importance o f e d u c a t i o n u n t i l we t a k e h o l d o f him and compel attendance a t s c h o o l . " IA, 1906, p. 232; IA, 1913, p. 408. 5  IA,  1920,  p.  13.  ^"Memoirs and d i a r y j' I n d i a n S c h o o l a t F t . S t . James, l a t e r F r a s e r Lake. 'Lejac I n d i a n S c h o o l , ' 1916-1922. F r . Joseph A l l a r d , " 5 November 1923, Records o f the O b l a t e M i s s i o n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, m i c r o f i l m , r e e l 712, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y . The s c h o o l d i a r y was k e p t not by A l l a r d but by an unnamed s c h o o l t e a c h e r . A l l a r d ' s memoirs appear a t v a r i o u s p l a c e s t h r o u g h o u t the d i a r y . H e n c e f o r t h , r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s source w i l l be s h o r t e n e d t o A l l a r d Memoirs o r F r a s e r l a k e D i a r y ; the  '80 abbreviation OR w i l l indicate the Oblate Records held on microfilm i n the University of B r i t i s h Columbia l i b r a r y . With respect to compulsory enrollment, see also Charles Moser, Reminiscences of the West Coast of Vancouver Island ( V i c t o r i a : Acme Press, 1926), p. 126. Moser states that compulsion began i n 1922. 7  The p r i n c i p a l of the Old Sun's Boarding School i n Alberta admitted i n 1913 that "compulsion has to be used to get the parents to bring t h e i r children to the school." IA, 1913, p. 578. 8  IA,  1904, p. 392.  F r e d Thornberg to Editor of V i c t o r i a Colonist, 1 August 1904; E d i t o r of V i c t o r i a Colonist to Fred Thornberg, 31 August 1904; Editor of V i c t o r i a Colonist to Attorney-General Charles Wilson, 31 August 1904, MSS, P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. Henceforth, the P r o v i n c i a l Archives w i l l be abbreviated PABC. 9  IA,  1911, p. 495.  iA,  1906, p. 257.  10  n  12 G. Donckele to W. lomas, 1 October 1894, MS, Department of Indian A f f a i r s D i s t r i c t Office Archives, Nanaimo, B r i t i s h Columbia. Henceforth, references to the a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n at t h i s location w i l l be abbreviated DIAN. 13  IA,  1889, p. 120.  """^Joseph H a l l to E. Robson, 14 January 1897,  MS, PABC.  I A , 1907, p. 235. The extent of Indian h o s t i l i t y i s f o r c e f u l l y expressed i n the report from the A l e r t Bay G i r l s ' Home f o r 1907: "This home was reopened i n August. Only three pupils entered, and as two of these l e f t i n three weeks, i t was closed." IA, 1907, p. 39515  16 Fr. Nicholas Coccola, Memoirs, i n (Coccola) " l e t t e r s and Papers,  1929," OR, r e e l 705-  1881-  "^Denys Nelson, "The L i f e and Work of Father Coccola" (Typescript, PABC,  1924), p. 39-1 Q  G. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 5 May 1905; 22 August 1905, MSS, DIAN. 1 9  IA,  1891, p.  G. Donckele to W.  Robertson,  169.  20 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, B.C. Heritage Series: Our Native Peoples: v o l . 10: B e l l a Coola ( V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l Museum,  1953;, PP. 35-36. 21  C l e l l a n S. Ford, Smoke from Their F i r e s : The L i f e of a Kwakiutl Chief (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1941), p. 33.  81 22 Claudia Lewis, Indian Families of the Northwest Coast: The Impact of Change (Chicago! The University of Chicago Press, 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 41. I A , 1895, P> x x i i ; IA, 1911, P- 236; Froben Epper, "Christie Indian I n d u s t r i a l School," i n B r i t i s h Columbia Orphan's Friend [ H i s t o r i c a l Number, PABC] (December 1913), p. 175. 2 3  24 Such o f f i c i a l s appear to have made a f a i r l y concerted e f f o r t to change the co-residency patterns of Indians. At A l e r t Bay, A l f r e d H a l l "wished to teach his charges to...have homes of t h e i r own instead of l i v i n g i n the community houses. At Kuper Island, both G. Donckele and Agent W. Robertson f e l t that discouraging young couples from l i v i n g with t h e i r parents would help avert domestic problems. Their opinions were shared by most other administrators. Elizabeth Healey, comp., A History of A l e r t Bay and D i s t r i c t (Vancouver: J. ¥. Bow & Co., 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 26; G. Donckele to W. Robertson, 13 November 1902, MS, DIAN; IA, 1911, p. 377. 25 The change was not, of course, a l i n e a r progression from extended to nuclear family; nor did the change occur to the same extent i n a l l places at the same time. Claudia Lewis found modified versions of the extended family among the Coast Salish as l a t e as 1954. Lewis, pp. 89-95^Brink, p. 6 0 .  2  2 7  28  29  I A , 1908,  p.  257.  D u f f , p. 39. I A , 1907,  p. x x i i .  30 Helen Codere, Fighting with Property: A Study of Kwakiutl Potlatching and Warfare, 1792-1930 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, I966), p. 5k. 31 Brink, p. 65. A l f r e d H a l l to Church Missionary Society, 3 September 1895> Church Missionary Society Archives, North P a c i f i c Mission, B r i t i s h Columbia, O r i g i n a l Letters ( i n ) to 1900, microfilm, r e e l 4 9 , University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library. Henceforth, the abbreviation CMSA w i l l r e f e r to the microfilm records of the Church Missionary Society which are held i n the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library. 33 Mrs. E. Joyce, Interview No. 9 6 5 - 1 , Orchard Collection, PABC. Henceibrforth, the Orchard C o l l e c t i o n w i l l be abbreviated as 0C. 34 ^Margaret Butcher, Correspondence, 1917, MSS, PABC. Butcher's papers deal with the period 19l6-1919> Their disorganized state makes i t d i f f i c u l t to c i t e precise dates; only the year of each reference w i l l , therefore, be given. J  J  3 2  J  •^IA, 1903,  p. x x v i i i .  82  1910, P- 327.  37 IA, 1907,  P- 235.  1907,  P- 247.  >IA, 1889,  P- 120.  >IA, 1890, P- 128. 41 James P. Spradley, Guests Never Leave Hungry: The Autobiography of James Sewid, A Kwakiutl Indian (Montreal: McGill-Queen's Press, 1972), p. 60. ^IA,  1902, p. 266.  ^IA,  1903, p. 245.  44 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, B.C. Heritage Series: Our Native Peoples: v o l . 1: Tsimshian ( V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l Museum,  1952), p. 37. ^ IA, 1899, P. [272]. 5  46 Clara Clare, Interview No. 400-1: "An Indian Child at School i n Yale, B.C.," 0C, PABC. 47 , IA, 1893, P- 136. The report does not provide Antoine's f u l l name. 4 8  I A , 1912, p. 396.  49 B r i t i s h Columbia, Report of the Royal Commission on Indian A f f a i r s f o r the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 4 v o l s . ( V i c t o r i a : A c m e Press,  1916), 3:  651.  ^°Margaret Butcher, Correspondence, 1919, MSS, PABC. 51  G . Donckele to W. Robertson,  25 October 1900, MS, DIAN. Chapter I I I  1  IA, 1891, p. 136.  2  IA, 1891, p. 135; IA, 1892, p. 260.  ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Royal Commission, 1:  3:  561, 563, 650, 733; b: 775.  189, 236,  330; 2:  473, ^80;  IA, 1890, p. xxx; IA, 1892, p. 260; IA, 1893, P- 131; IA, 1895, P- 156; "Report of the Vicariate of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1893, English t r a n s l a t i o n , " OR, r e e l 712.  4  83 "'"Codex h i s t o r i c u s and v i s i t , S t . E u g e n e ' s ' M i s s i o n , OR, r e e l 712. ^IA, 1906, 7  8  p.  xxxiii.  I A , 1908,  p.  258.  I A , 1904,  p.  270.  9  A l a n M o r l e y , Roar o f the B r e a k e r s :  The 1 0  Cranbrook,  A Biography of P e t e r K e l l y  1895>"  / (Toronto:  Ryerson P r e s s , 1967), pp. 51-52.  I A , 1898,  p.  227.  "'"Hf. M. H a l l i d a y , P o t l a t c h and Totem: And the R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f an I n d i a n Agent ( T o r o n t o : J . M. Dent & Sons, 1935), P- 38. 1 2  I A , 1892,  p.  259.  I A , 1895,  P-  155.  I A , 1910,  p.  509.  1 3  1 4  "^Margaret B u t c h e r , Correspondence,  1917,  MSS,  PABC.  D u n c a n Campbell S c o t t , " I n d i a n A f f a i r s , 1867-1912," i n Canada and I t s P r o v i n c e s , eds. Adam S h o r t t and A r t h u r G. Doughty ( T o r o n t o : Glasgow, l6  Brook & Co., 1914), V I I :  615.  G . Donckele t o ¥. Lomas, 2 J a n u a r y 1893, MS, DIAN; C o q u a l e e t z a I n d u s t r i a l . / I n s t i t u t e R e g i s t e r o f A d m i s s i o n s and D i s c h a r g e s (Doomsday Book), A p r i l 1888-24 October 1911, M S i t U h i t e d r C h u i c h ^ of B r i t i s h Columbia. The R e g i s t e r w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be a b b r e v i a t e d as C o q u a l e e t z a R e g i s t e r ; UCA w i l l s t a n d f o r the U n i t e d Church A r c h i v e s . G. C. Van Gothen, o f Kuper I s l a n d , r e f e r r e d i n I896 t o a Department " c i r c u l a r " as s p e c i f y i n g c e r t a i n key q u e s t i o n s which an examining d o c t o r ought t o answerobefore a p p l i c a n t s were a d m i t t e d . But i n many s c h o o l s the r i g o r o u s e x a m i n a t i o n o f p r o s p e c t i v e p u p i l s was n o t s t a n d a r d p o l i c y u n t i l much l a t e r . I n 1910, t h e p r i n c i p a l o f the P o r t Simpson G i r l s ' Home s t a t e d : " I n compliance w i t h t h e r e q u e s t from t h e I n d i a n Department t h e e x a m i n a t i o n now g i v e n those s e e k i n g a d m i s s i o n has been made more r i g i d . " G. C. Van Gothen t o A. Iff. V o w e l l , 14 August 1896, MS, DIAN; IA, 1910, p. 521. 17  18 S t . George's I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , L y t t o n , R e g i s t e r o f A d m i s s i o n s , 7 J u l y 1911-1922; A l l H a l l o w s G i r l s ' S c h o o l , Y a l e , R e g i s t e r o f A d m i s s i o n s , 1910-1922, MSS, S t . George's I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , l y t t o n . Henceforth, t h e s e R e g i s t e r s w i l l be a b b r e v i a t e d as S t . George's A d m i s s i o n s R e g i s t e r and A l l H a l l o w s A d m i s s i o n s R e g i s t e r . The p r e s e n c e o f documents a t t h e S t o v G e o r g e t s o S c h o o l w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by the n o t a t i o n SGIS. 19  G.  Donckele t o ¥. Lomas, 13 May  1899,  MS,  DIAN.  IA, 1 8 9 2 , p. 260. 21  For a discussion of Durieu's "system," see E. M. Lemert, " L i f e and Death of an Indian State," Human Organization 13 ( F a l l 19.54): 23-27.  22 A l l a r d Memoirs, OR, r e e l I A , 1 8 9 7 , p. xxvi. I A , 1 8 9 6 , p. 8 8 . 25 ^Coqualeetza Register, MS,  712.  2 3  24  26  UCA.  G. C. Van Gothen to A. W. Vowell, 14 August I896; G. C. Van Gothen to A. ¥. Vowell, 8 September I 8 9 6 , MSS, DIAN; St. George's Admissions Register, MS, SGIS. 27  A.  ¥. Corker to CMS, 4 March I897, CMSA, r e e l 51; Moser, p. 128.  28  "Report of the Vicariate of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 8 9 8 , English transl a t i o n , " OR, r e e l 7 1 2 .  29  Report of the Vicariate of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 8 9 3 , English transl a t i o n , " OR, r e e l 712. J o s e p h H a l l to E. Robson, 24 July I896, MS, PABC; Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA.  30  G . Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 1 2 A p r i l 1 9 0 5 ; G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 5 May 1 9 0 5 ; G. Donckele to A. Green, 23 March 1 9 0 5 , MSS, DIAN. 31  F r e d Thornberg to E d i t o r of V i c t o r i a Colonist, 1 August 1 9 0 4 , MS, PABC. 3 2  I A , 1911, p. 3 7 6 ; IA, 1 9 0 7 , p. 448; "Report of the Vicariate of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 8 9 3 , English t r a n s l a t i o n , " OR, r e e l 7 1 2 . 33  34 Kuper Island I n d u s t r i a l School, Records of Admissions, 7 August 1897-7 A p r i l 1 9 0 6 , MSS, DIAN. 35  I A , 1 9 0 6 , p. 4 8 0 .  ?6  This discussion i s based on censuses published by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s . See, f o r example, IA, 1 9 0 1 , pp. I58-I67. 37 The.information f o r Table I i s drawn from the Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA. The l i n g u i s t i c d i v i s i o n s are taken from Duff, pp. 18-37. Different Nootka d i a l e c t groups were represented i n Coqualeetza— groups who were sometimes unable to understand each other. See B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, B.C. Heritage Series: Our Native Peoples: v o l . 5 Nootka ( V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l Museum, :  1952),  p.  9.  85 8  All  Hallows Admissions  3 9  IA,  1907,  3  p.  IA,  2 3 5 ;  R e g i s t e r , MS, S G I S . p . 599; I A ,  1 9 1 3 ,  1 9 1 6 ,  pp.  2 2 0 - 2 2 1 .  40 The A m e r i c a n I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r f r o m I889 t o 1 8 9 3 , Thomas J e f f e r s o n Morgan, wrote: "Education should seek t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e t r i b e s , and n o t t h e i r s e g r e g a t i o n . " F r a n c i s P a u l Pruscha, American I n d i a n P o l i c y i n C r i s i s : C h r i s t i a n Reformers and t h e I n d i a n , 1 8 6 5 - 1 9 0 0 (Norman: U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 299. ^IA,  1911,  p . 383.  42  See p p . 47-48. ^ IA,  1 9 1 3 ,  P.  ^IA,  1 8 9 4 ,  pp.  3  ^Alfred ^ IA, ^ IA, 6  7  4 9 7 .  2 5 8 - 2 5 9 ;  IA,  1 9 1 0 ,  H a l l t o CMS, 2 0 J u n e 1 8 9 2 ,  1911, 1 9 1 0 ,  p . 383. p. 4 0 6 .  1 9 1 0 ,  pp.  pp.  3 6 2 - 3 6 5 ;  IA,  1 9 2 0 ,  pp.  64-67.  CMSA, r e e l 49.  48 IA,  IA,  4 9  2 7 3 - 2 7 4 .  1 8 8 9 , P- 1 2 0 .  5°G. C. V a n G o t h e n t o ¥. Lomas, 7 S e p t e m b e r I896, ^ J o s e p h H a l l t o E. R o b s o n , 24 J u l y 7 S e p t e m b e r 1896, MSS, PABC. 5 2  Joseph  H a l l t o E. R o b s o n , 14 J a n u a r y 1 8 9 7 ,  Donckele  t o ¥. R o b e r t s o n ,  MS, DIAN.  I896; J o s e p h H a l l t o E. R o b s o n ,  3 January 1 9 0 2 ,  MS, PABC. MS, DIAN.  54 ^ C o q u a l e e t z a R e g i s t e r , MS, UCA.  55  K u p e r d l s l a n & d ' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , Records o f Admissions, c a . 1 8 9 0 - 7 A p r i l 1 9 0 6 , MSS, DIAN. D e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g t h e f i r s t t h i r t y - t w o s t u d e n t s a d mitted t o the school are i l l e g i b l e . St. George's Admissions MSS, S G I S .  Register; A l l Hallows Admissions  Register,  57 J  'IsohellMeFadden,  ( 1 8 7 4 - I 9 7 0 ) , ( m p . : 5 8  IA,  L i v i n g by B e l l s : The S t o r y o f F i v e I n d i a n S c h o o l s ; U n i t e d Church oT Canada, 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 1 1 .  1 8 9 8 , p . 338.  5 9  G. D o n c k e l e t o t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , F e b r u a r y 1 8 9 9 , MS, DIAN.  24  86 6  °IA, 1901,  p.  416.  ^"G. Donckele to W. Robertson, 2 November 1905,  MS, DIAN.  62 G. Donckele to "Mrs. Purser," 11 March 1905; Kuper Island I n d u s t r i a l School, Records of Admissions, 7 August 1897-7 A p r i l 1906, MSS, DIAN. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 19 December 1900,  MS, DIAN.  64 G. Donckele to ¥. Lomas, 20 September 1899; G. Donckele to ¥. Robertson, 13 June 1904; Kuper Island I n d u s t r i a l School, Records of Admissions, 7 August 1897-7 A p r i l 1906, MSS, DIAN.  6^  Lewis, p. 41. B r i n k , p. 120. ^G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 23 October 1895; Kuper Island I n d u s t r i a l School. Attendance Register f o r Quarter Ended 30 September 1899, MSS, DIAN. 66  ^ G. 8  69  Donckele to Ralph Smith, 10 February 1902,  I A , 1924,  MS, DIAN.  p. 15.  70 The samples include the 489 pupils entering the Coqualeetza School between March 1888 and 24 October 1911? "the 96 pupils entering the Kuper Island School between 7 August 1897 and 7 A p r i l 1906; 88 female pupils entering the A l l Hallows G i r l ' s School and St. George's I n d u s t r i a l School between 1910 and 1922; 154 male pupils entering St. George's I n d u s t r i a l School between 7 July 1911 and 1922; and the 24 pupils entering the Kamloops I n d u s t r i a l School between 19 May I89O and 21 July 1890. Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA; Kuper Island I n d u s t r i a l School, Records of Admissions, 7 August 1897-7 A p r i l 1906, MSS, DIAN; A l l Hallows Admissions Register, MS, SGIS; St. George's Admissions  Register, MS, SGIS; IA, 1890, pp. 126-127.  71 Ideally, both "day" and "boarding" schools would prepare children f o r " i n d u s t r i a l " schools. See IA, 1906, p. 251; IA, 1911, p. 380.  72  Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA; St. George's Admissions Register, MS, SGIS. 73  I A , 1890,  7  ^IA,  7  ^G.  p. x i i .  1892, p. 260. Donckele to ¥. Lomas, 9 March 1899,  MS, DIAN.  AIphonse-Marie Carion to unnamed p r i e s t , 13 September 1893, (Carion) "Letters and Papers, 1876-1910," OR, r e e l 705. G. Donckele to ¥. Robertson, 2 March 1901; Robertson, 21 November 1902, MSS, DIAN.  in  G. Donckele to ¥.  87 IA,  7 8  1 9 0 3 , p. 4 1 3 .  79 B r i t i s h Columbia, West V I (Michaelmas  R o y a l Commission, 2: 1906): 538.  30  Chapter 1  IA,  1 9 1 1 , p. 5 7 6 .  2  IA,  1 9 1 1 , p. 4 9 2 .  4 7 7 ; A l l Hallows  i n the  IV  A. R. H i v e s , "The New E n g l a n d Company" ( T y p e s c r i p t , A n g l i c a n A r c h i v e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a [ 1 9 5 8 ] ) , pp. 2 9 - 3 0 .  Church  4 A. W. H a r d i n g , " S t . G e o r g e ' s : I R e n d e r s O v e r 1 0 0 Y e a r s S e r v i c e t o I n t e r i o r Indian Children," Cariboo Contact 3 (January-February 1978): 4. •^St.  George's Admissions  B r i t i s h Columbia, 7  Morley,  8  IA,  9  G.  R e g i s t e r , MS,  SGIS.  R o y a l Commission, 2:  477.  pp. 5 0 - 5 1 .  1 9 0 2 , p. 4 2 3 . Donckele  1 0  IA,  1:L  G.  t o A. W.  V o w e l l , 2 0 S e p t e m b e r 1 8 9 4 , MS,  DIAN.  1 9 1 1 , p. 3 9 2 . Donckele  t o W. Eomas, 1 O c t o b e r  1 8 9 4 , MS,  DIAN.  12 C o q u a l e e t z a R e g i s t e r , MS, 1 3  IA,  UCA.  1 8 9 8 , p. 3 3 9 .  14 M o r l e y , pp. 5 0 - 5 1 . G . D o n c k e l e t o A. W. V o w e l l , 8 F e b r u a r y 1 8 9 7 ; 0 . D o n c k e l e V o w e l l , 1 6 F e b r u a r y 1 8 9 7 ; MSS, DIAN. 1 5  t o A.  W.  16 Kuper I s l a n d I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , Conduct Books, 1 January 1 8 9 1 - 1 1 J a n u a r y 1 9 0 7 , MSS, DIAN. H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s K u p e r I s l a n d C o n d u c t B o o k s .  17 L e v i n e and Cooper, pp. 4 3 - 7 5 18 G. H. R a l e y , " R u l e s , " i n " C o q u a l e e t z a I n d u s t r i a l I n s t i t u t e s c h o o l s , v a r i o u s p a p e r s , " MSS, PABC. 19 7  K u p e r I s l a n d C o r i d u c t i B o o k s , MSS,  20 L e v i n e a n d C o o p e r , p. 5 7 .  DIAN.  and o t h e r  88  21 22  Thompson, p . 84. IA,' 1889, p . x i .  23 iMrs. A. C o o p e r , I n t e r v i e w No. 732-1: "Coqualeetza R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l i n t h e 1 8 9 0 s , " 0C, PABC. 24 M a r g a r e t B u t c h e r , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , 1916, MSS, PABC. 25 G. H. R a l e y , " R u l e s , " i n " C o q u a l e e t z a I n d u s t r i a l I n s t i t u t e a n d o t h e r s c h o o l s , v a r i o u s p a p e r s , " MSS, PABC. 2 6  2 7  K u p e r I s l a n d C o n d u c t B o o k s , MSS, DIAN. C l a r a C l a r e , I n t e r v i e w No. 400-1, 0C, PABC. B u t c h e r , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , 1916,  Margaret 2 9  3  IA,  1913,  MSS, PABC.  PP- 396-397.  ° A l l a r d M e m o i r s , OR, r e e l  3 1  IA,  1911,  3 2  IA,  1903, p . 427.  712.  p . 502.  I A , 1913, p . 596; I A , 1912, p . 574. I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e 1928 Meriam Report s t a t e d : " A . . d i s t i n e t i o n i n t h e o r y i s drawn between i n d u s t r i a l work u n d e r t a k e n p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d and p r o d u c t i o n w o r k done p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . . . [ h o w e v e r ] t h e q u e s t i o n may v e r y p r o p e r l y b e r a i s e d a s t o w h e t h e r much o f t h e w o r k done b y I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s w o u l d n o t b e p r o h i b i t e d i n many s t a t e s b y t h e c h i l d l a b o r l a w s . " When o f f i c i a l s o f t h e K o o t e n a y S c h o o l d e c i d e d " t o c o m p l e t e l y change o u r m e t h o d o f I n d i a n trainingV"innabbuttl930, t h e y decreed: "Hard l a b o u r i s a b o l i s h e d . . . A n i n s t r u c t o r i s p r e s e n t a t a l l -times w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . " The m o s t s u c c e s s f u l s c h o o l s were t h o s e w h i c h made u s e o f t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n s k i M s f e i n e f f e c t s u b s t i t u t i n g t h e s c h o o l economy f o r t h e f a m i l y economy. A t A l b e r n i , i n . 1906, " t h e b o y s a n d g i r l s made a l a r g e d r i f t g i l l - n e t , which has been a g r e a t h e l p t o t h e s c h o o l , i n g i v i n g a supply o f f r e s h f i s h . " R o b e r t H.. Bremmer, e d . , C h i l d r e n a n d Y o u t h i n America: A D o c u m e n t a r y H i s t o r y , v o l . I I : 1866-1932, P a r t s S e v e n and E i g h t (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), I I : 1379; C o d e x h i s t o r i c u s a n d v i s i t , S t . E u g e n e ' s M i s s i o n , C r a n b r o o k , 19261 9 4 8 , " OR, r e e l 712; I A , I 9 0 6 , p . 430. 3 3  3  ^IA,  1893,  P- 131;  IA,  L 8  92,  p . 264; I A , 1911,  p. 502.  - ^ N e l s o n , p . 39. 3 6  3 7  Morley,  p . 50.  G . D o n c k e l e t o tf. l o m a s , 20 M a r c h 1894,  MS, DIAN.  Donckele to W. Lomas, 7 March 1897,  38  G.  MS, DIAN.  3 9  P . Dowling to J . M. R. Le Jeune, 8 July 1893,  i n (Le Jeune) "Letters,  1880-1927," OR, r e e l 708. 40 Allard. Memoirs, OR, r e e l ^IA,  712.  1892, p. 260.  42 IA, 1905, p. 451; IA, 1908, p. 448. Whether Inspector Green saw what the pupils t y p i c a l l y ate i s less than certain; schools may have been forewarned of h i s a r r i v a l . The school diary at Fraser Lake noted on 1 5 May 1922: "To-day an extra cleaning up was held, to prepare fcSr the v i s i t of the Chief Inspector, who i s announced f o r to-morrow." Fraser Lake Diary, OR, r e e l 712. 43 Q. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 24 January 1894; G. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 12 A p r i l 1894; G. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 12 June 1894, MSS, DIAN. 44 Mrs. E. Joyce, Interview No. 965-1, OC, PABC. 45 ^Joe Clemine, Interview No. 361-1, OC, PABC. 46 Fraser Lake Diary, 8 September 1922, OR, f e e l 712. 47 'Mrs. R. H a l l , Interview No. 1044-1: "A C a r r i e r Woman T e l l s of Her People and Her L i f e , " 0C, PABC. 48 J  B,  1903,  P.  431.  49 'Kuper Island Conduct Books, MSS, 5  °IA, 1896,  52 5 1  p.  DIAN.  385.  M o r l e y , p. 5 3 A l f r e d H a l l to CMS,  12 May I896, CMSA, r e e l  4 9 .  53 ^Mrs. A. Cooper, Interview No.  732-1, 00:, PABC.  54 ^Joe Clemine, Interview No. 36I-I, 0C, PABC. ^ E r i k Erikson, Childhood and Society,(New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 19  1963), I A , 1 pp. 9 1 1 ,154-155. p. 3 9 0 ; IA, 1 9 1 3 , P. ^ 0 9 . 5 7  5 6  58  I A , 1907, p. I A , 1 9 0 3 , p.  235. 425.  -^Kuper. IslandsSonductmBooks.TsMSS, DIAN; G. H. Raley, "Rules," i n "Coqualeetza I n d u s t r i a l I n s t i t u t e and other schools, various papers,"  90  MSS, PABC. 6  °IA, 1896, p. 391.  6 l  K u p e r I s l a n d Conduct Books, MSS, DIAN?  62  G. Donckele t o ¥. Lomas, 7 March 1897; G. Donckele t o ¥. Lomas, 1 March 1899, MSS, DIAN, 6 3  J o e Clemine, I n t e r v i e w No. 36I-I, OC, PABC.  ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, " P u b l i c S c h o o l s Report, 1894-1895," S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , R i c h a r d ¥olfenden, 1896), p. 201. The Report c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f c o r p o r a l punishment d i d "not speak w e l l f o r the t e a c h e r s . " (p. 201) The Vancouver Board o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s r e c e i v e d a number o f c o m p l a i n t s from p a r e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p h y s i c a l punishment o f c h i l d r e n . See Vancouver Board o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , Minute Book, 1 June 1892-31 November ["sic] I898, MS, Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s .  I896 ( V i c t o r i a :  ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f E d u c a t i o n , B.C. H e r i t a g e S e r i e s : Our N a t i v e P e o p l e s : v o l . 3: I n t e r i o r S a l i s h ( V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l Museum,  1952), p. 39. 6 6  6 ?  D O  I A , 1896, p. 379. IA  (  1897, p. 295-  MrsDoR(?.kHall, I n t e r v i e w No. 1044-1, OC, PABC.  69  7  I A , 1896, p. 391.  °Kuper I s l a n d Conduct Books, MSS, DIAN.  71 L e w i s , p. 42. 7Z  G.  Donckele t o A. ¥. V o w e l l , 1 F e b r u a r y 1897, MS, DIAN.  G.  Donckele t o ¥. Robertson, 7 January, 1901, MS, DIAN.  7 3  74 ^ E p p e r , p. 175^ G . Donckele t o ¥. Lomas, 2 December 1895, MS, DIAN. 7 6  G.  Donckele t otf.Lomas, 1 October 1894, MS, DIAN.  77 'Joseph H a l l t o E. Robson, 24 J u l y I896, MS, PABC; C o q u a l e e t z a R e g i s t e r , MS, UCA. 7 8  J o s e p h H a l l t o E. Robson, 24 J u l y 1896, MS, PABC.  G . Donckele t o A. ¥. V o w e l l , 30 A p r i l 1895; G. Donckele t o A. ¥. V o w e l l , 24 January 1894, MSS, DIAN. 7 9  80 A. Garion to unnamed p r i e s t , 12 August 1899; A. Garion to unnamed p r i e s t , 13 September 1893, i n (Garion) "Letters and Papers, I8761910," OR, r e e l 705.  81 Kuper Island I n d u s t r i a l School, Record of Discharges to 30 June 1906, MS, DIAN. 82 Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA. 83  J o s e p h H a l l to E. Robson, 24 July 1896, MS, PABC.  84  IA, 8  1902, p. 423.  ^G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 5 February 1896, MS, DIAN.  R6  G. C. Van Gothen to ¥. Lomas, 22 September 1896; G. C. Van Gothen to W. Lomas, n.d. [between 22 September and 30 September I896], MSS, ©IAN. G . Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 7 July I9OO5 G. Donckele to ¥. Robertson, 12 July 1900; G. Donckele to F. Devlin, 31 July 1900; G. Donckele to F. Devlin, 8 August I9OO5 G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 31 December 1900; G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 15 March 1901, MSS, DIAN. Part of the information described as being sent to fromiDonckele to Devlin was actually sent from Donckele to Robertson, who, i n turn, forwarded i t to Devlin. 87  8 8  I A , 1913, p. 412.  89 St.  George's Admissions Register, MS, SGIS.  ^A. Carion to unnamed p r i e s t , 12 August, 1899, i n (Carion) "Letters and Papers, I876-I9IO," OR, r e e l 705. 9  91 Leonard Dawson himself noted i n 1913 that the school was only part i a l l y f i l l e d , even though "there are plenty of boys among the Thompson River Indians who could and should come." IA, 1913, P- 599- To "solve" the problem, he lajter began importing pupils from the north. 92  G . Donckele to ¥. Lomas, 7 February 1897, MS, DIAN. Chapter V  "'"Jacqueline J . Kennedy [Gresko] c i t e s Deputy Superintendent General L. Vankoughnet as stating (ca. I885) that i n order to prevent parental v i s i t s and vacations at home "no I n d u s t r i a l School... should be upon an Indian reserve." Jacqueline J . Kennedy, "Qu'Appelle I n d u s t r i a l School: ¥hite 'RLte' f o r the Indians of the Old North-¥est" (M.A. thesis, Carleton University, 1970), pp. 72-73- See also IA, I89I, p. x i i i .  2  IA, 1899, p. x x x i i . p. x x x i i i .  See also IA, 1903, PP- x x v i i - x x v i i i and IA, 1906,  92 3  ^Coqualeetza Register, MS,  UCA.  4 Kuper Island I n d u s t r i a l School,, Records of Admissions, 7 August 7 A p r i l 1906, MSS, DIAN.  1897-  "'All Hallows Admissions Register; St. George's Admissions Register; St. George's School Quarterly Attendance Reports, 1918-1923, MSS, S.GISS Kuper Island I n d u s t r i a l School, Attendance Register,foraQuarterded Ended 31 December 1896, MS, DIAN.  7 Coqualeetza Register, MS, 8  UCA.  Ibid.  9  St. George's Admissions Register, MS, SGIS. 10  IA,  1906, p. 439.  11  IA,  1913, P. 501  I A , 1894, p. 170; IA, I A , 1892, p. 260; IA, 14 Fraser Lake Diary, 12 1922; 28 March 1922; 10 1923; 11 February 1923; 17 June 1923, OR, r e e l 12  1 3  1903, p. 419; IA, 1905, p. 3871891, p. 134. February 1922.]. 19 February 1922; 23 March September 1922; 9 December 1922; 4 February 4 March 1923; 11 March 1923; 29 A p r i l 1923; 712.  ^Margaret Butcher, Correspondence, 1918,  MSS, PABC.  ^McFadden, p. 16. "^Margaret Butcher, Correspondence, 1918, 18  G.  1 9  IA,  MSS, PABC.  Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 11 December 1893,  MS, DIAN.  1894, p. 168.  20 G. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 11 December 1893; G. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 7 May 1895; G. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 8 June 1894; G. C. Van Go then to A. Wii Vowell, 6 July I 8 9 6 , MSS, DIAN.  21  IA, I896, p. 386. Donckele's published account of the incident d i f f e r s from that contained i n h i s correspondence. In h i s annual report, he stated: "These boys, when questioned as to the reason f o r t h e i r misbehavior, said: 'We have done so because we were informed that hencef o r t h the holidays would be abolished.'" But i n a l e t t e r to Superintendent Vowell at the time, he wrote: "I can only surmise that they thought by setting the building on f i r e , they would be sent home on a long holiday. When questioned by Mr. Lomas whether they had any complaints against the management of the school, they  93 answered no." DIAN.  G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 20 November 1895,  MS,  22 Not a l l schools offered such holidays, however. The Clayoquot School abolished them altogether some years. At A l e r t Bay there was normally a break of about s i x weeks during the fishing; season. At Kuper Island, In the late 1890s, the smaller children took a three week vacation before the f i s h i n g season began. IA, 1904, p. 405; IA, 1909, p. 246; IA, 1911, p. 384. 23 Some continued t h e i r holidays i n d e f i n i t e l y simply because they did not wish to return to school. The records of the Coqualeetza and Lytton Schools show that many refused to return v o l u n t a r i l y ; while some were no doubt brought back by force, a considerable number were simply "discharged." Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA; St." George's Admissions Register; St. George's School, Monthly Returns of Trade Instruction, I9I8-I923, MSS, SGIS. 24 G. Donckele to ¥. Lomas, 5 September 1893; G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 11 December 1893; G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 20 August 1894, MSS, DIAN. 2 5  I A . 1898,  p.  333-  G. Donckele to ¥. Robertson, 2 7  I A , 1892, p.  8 September 1900,  MS,  DIAN.  260.  28 Kuper Island I n d u s t r i a l School, Attendance Register f o r Quarter Ended 31 March 1895, MS, DIAN, 29 'St.  Georgess Admissions  Register, MS,  SGIS.  °IA, 1906, p. 257; IA, 1901, p. 415. G. C. Van Gothen to A. ¥. Vowell, 14 August I896; G. Donckele to ¥. Robertson, 7 January 1901, MSS, DIAN. 3  31  32  G.  Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 10 September 1895,  MS,  DIAN.  33 The Coqualeetza sample i s limited to thesgO^tpupils entering the school before 1902, since data on discharges f o r pupils entering a f t e r that date i s spotty, and probably biased i n favour of those who l e f t e a r l i e s t . The Kuper Island sample may, however, be unavoidably distorted towards those who l e f t e a r l i e s t . Legible records do not permit the i s o l a t i o n of information regarding the lengths of stay of a s u f f i c i e n t l y large group of children entering before a given date; the sample consequently includes a l l students discharged from the school between i t s opening i n I89O and 30 June 1906. Hopefully, any d i s t o r t i o n caused by examining pupils grouped together because they were discharged w i l l be minimized by the length of time over which the sample extends. Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA; Kuper Island I n d u s t r i a l School, Record of Discharges to 30 June 1906, MSS, DIAN.  94 34 ^Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA; St. George's Admissions Register; St. George's School Quarterly Attendance Reports, 1918-1923, MSS, SGIS; Kuper Island I n d u s t r i a l School, Attendance Register f o r Quarters Ended 30 September 1894-31 March 1909, MSS, DIAN. ^IA,  School Statements, 1890-1920.  ~* St. George's School, Return o f Trades Instruction, October 1918, MS, SGIS. 37  B r i n k , p. 82.  3 8  I A , 1911, p. 387; IA, I9I3, P- 395-  3 9  B r i t i s h Columbia, Royal Commission, 3  s  5"1.  40 Coqualeetza 4l  I A , 1911,  Register, MS, UCA.  pp. 592-593.  42 ^IA,  1912, p. 578. ^ IA, 1910, p. 500. 44 3  Patterson, p. 110. Chapter VI "*"IA, 1887, p. lxxix-lxxx. 2  IA,  1901, p. xxix.  3  IA,  1910, p. 273.  4 Duff, p. 45. ^Robert F. Berkhofer J r . , Salvation and the Savage: An Analysis of Protestant Missions and American Indian Response, 1787-1862 (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, I965J, p. i x .  95  B I B L I O G R A P H I C A L NOTE  Finding manuscript  source  m a t e r i a l f o r a studyoof  s c h o o l s i s n o t always an easy t a s k .  The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s a n d t h e  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y c o n t a i n important material,  all  but spotty  w h i c h c a n o f t e n be l o c a t e d o n l y b y l a b o r i o u s l y s e a r c h i n g  catalogues School  residential  card  f o r r e f e r e n c e s t o l o n g l i s t s o f s e l e c t e d names o r p l a c e s .  r e c o r d s o f f e r t h e most f e r t i l e a r e a o f r e s e a r c h , b u t s i n c e  o f t h e s c h o o l s have been c l o s e d , t h e r e c o r d s ,  u s u a l l y been t r a n s f e r r e d elsewhere.  i f not lost,  When q u e s t i o n e d ,  almost  have  officials of  the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s n o r m a l l y r e f e r t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o church a u t h o r i t i e s , who i n t u r n s u g g e s t t h a t a n y s c h o o l r e c o r d s a r e i n D e p a r t ment h a n d s . Basically, may  s c h o o l r e c o r d s may be f o u n d i n f i v e p l a c e s .  be i n t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s t h e m s e l v e s  (as a t L y t t o n ) ; i n church  archives  (as i s Coqualeetza's  District  O f f i c e s ( l i k e t h e Kuper I s l a n d records  inaccessible,  They  "Doomsday B o o k " ) ; i n t f a e a D e p a r t m e n t ' s  because as y e t uncatalogued,  Departmental "archives" i n  Burnaby; o r i n t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada. the two l a s t mentioned l o c a t i o n s ,  although  i n Nanaimo); i n t h e  I was u n a b l e t o e x p l o r e  Department o f f i c i a l s  assured  me t h e r e was no r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l i n B u r n a b y . Although  there aretprobablysother sets o f e r e c o r d s o s M i l s i h o o l  B r i t i s h Columbia, I have reached them down.  At present,  a number o f dead ends t r y i n g t o t r a c k  t h e RG 1 0 f i l e  i nthePublic Archives i n Ottawa—  " R e c o r d s R e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n A f f a i r s " — w o u l d seem t h e m o s t  promising  96 p l a c e to seek f u r t h e r r e c o r d s . i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t may  The  published catalogue*  oflthisefile  contain f a i r l y extensive correspondence  B r i t i s h Columbia r e s i d e n t i a l  concerning  schools.  •^Public A r c h i v e s Canada ( P u b l i c Records D i v i s i o n ) , G e n e r a l I n v e n t o r y Series: No. 1: Records R e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n A f f a i r s (Ottawa: Information C a n a d a , 1975).  SOURCES CONSULTED Manuscript Sources School Records A l l Hallows G i r l s ' School, Yale. Register of Admissions, 1910-[1918] MS. SGIS. Coqualeetza Industrial I n s t i t u t e , Sardis. Quarterly Records of Admis sions and Discharges, Quarter Ended 30 September 1900-Quarter Ended 30 June 1905. MSS. UCA. . Register of Admissions and Discharges (Doomsday Book), A p r i l 1888-24 October 1911. MS. UCA. Kuper Island I n d u s t r i a l School. Conduct Books, 1 January 18911 January 190?. MSS. DIAN. . Correspondence Outward, 18 October 1892-27 July 1906.  MSS.  DIAN.  . Daily Journals, 1893-1920. MSS. DIAN. , Quarterly Attendance Records, Quarter Ended 30 September 1894-Quarter Ended 31 March 1909.  MSS. DIAN.  . Records of Admissions, ca. 1890-7 Apriltl906. MSS. DIAN. . Record of Discharges to 30 June 1906. MS. DIAN. St. George's I n d u s t r i a l School, Lytton. Monthly Returns of Trade Instruction, October 1918-December 1922. MSS. SGIS.S . Quarterly Attendance Records, Quarter Ended 31 December 1919-Quarter Ended 30 September 1923. MSS. SGIS. . Register of Admissions, 7 July 19H-1922. MS. SGIS. Letters and Papers Butcher, Margaret. Correspondence Outward, I916-I919. MSS. PABC. Church Missionary Society. Archives, North P a c i f i c Mission, B r i t i s h Columbia. Original Letters ( i n ) to 1900. Microfilm, r e e l s 49 and 51. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library.  98 Green, A. E. Correspondence Inward, 25 March 1912-10JJ;uiyl$9I2. MSS. Vancouver C i t y Archives. H a l l , Joseph. Correspondence to.tEc?.r-Robson, 8 July 1896-29 July 1898. MSS. PABC. Raley, G. H. "Papers Relating to Coqualeetza I n d u s t r i a l I n s t i t u t e and other schools." MSS. PABC. Records of the Oblate Missions of B r i t i s h Columbia. Microfilm, reels 705-714. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library. Thornberg, Fred. Correspondence, 1904. MSS. PABC. Theses and Essays Calam, John. "An H i s t o r i c a l Survey of Boarding Schools and Public School Dormitories i n Canada." M.A. thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I962. Davey, Ian. "The Rhythm of Work and the Rhythm of School." Typescript, n.d. Hives, A. R. "The New England Company." Typescript, AA, [l958]. Hutchinson, H. Keith. "Dimensions of Ethnic Education: The Japanese i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1880-1940." M.A. thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972. Kennedy, Jacqueline Judith. "Qu'Appelle I n d u s t r i a l School: White 'Rites' f o r the Indians of the Old North-West." M.A. thesis, Carleton University, 1970. . "Roman Catholic Missionary E f f o r t and Indian Acculturation i n the Fraser Valley, 1860-1900." B.A. essay, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I969. Nelson, Denys. "The L i f e and Work of Father Coccola." Typescript, PABC, 1924. Parminter, Alfred Vye. "The Development of Integrated Schooling f o r B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Children." M.A. thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964. Peterson, Lester Ray. "Indian Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia." M.A. thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959Vallery, H. J . "A History of Indian Education i n Canada." M.A. thesis, Queen's University, 1942. Walkem, Clarence. "Life of an Indian Lad i n a Residential School." Typescript, PABC, 1953-  99 Zeleny, C a r o l y n . "Governmental Treatment o f the I n d i a n Problem i n Canada." M.A. t h e s i s , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , n.d. [ c a . 1940'].  M i s c e l l a n e o u s Manuscript M a t e r i a l s Tate, C. M.  " A u t o s k e t c h . " T y p e s c r i p t , UCA,  1929-  Vancouver Board o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s . Minute Book, 1 June 1892I§1 November [ s i c ] I898. MS. Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s .  Printed  Sources  Government P u b l i c a t i o n s B r i t i s h Columbia. Papers R e l a t i n g t o the Commission Appointed t o E n q u i r e i n t o the C o n d i t i o n o f the I n d i a n s o f the North-West Coast. V i c t o r i a : R i c h a r d Wolfenden, 1888. . Report o f the Royal Commission on I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 4 v o l s . V i c t o r i a : Acme P r e s s , 1916. .' " P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t s . " S e s s i o n a l Papers. R i c h a r d Wolfenden, 1876-1902.  Victoria:  Canada. Department [Branch] o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . Annual Ottawa: Quee.nss[|Kingss]l PMnter, 1876-1950.  Reports.  >  Church and School P u b l i c a t i o n s A l l Hallows  i n the West. V a r i o u s I s s u e s ,  B r i t i s h Columbia PABC.  1899-1908.  AA.  Orphan's F r i e n d [ H i s t o r i c a l Number] (December  1913)«  ; C o q u a l e e t z a Commencement E x e r c i s e s . V a r i o u s I s s u e s 1920^1§J$4.. Special C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia l i b r a r y .  Golden C h r i s t i e J u b i l e e . 1950.  PABC.  B i o g r a p h i e s and Contemporary  Accounts  Anderson, J . T. M. The E d u c a t i o n o f the New-Canadian. Toronto: J . M. Dent & Sons, 1918. Crosby, Thomas. Up and Down the N o r t h P a c i f i c Coast By Canoe and M i s s i o n S h i p . Toronto: M e t h o d i s t Church, 1914. Ford, C l e l l a n S. Smoke from T h e i r F i r e s : The L i f e o f a K w a k i u t l * C h i e f . New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941.  100 H a l l i d a y , W. M. P o t l a t c h and Totem: And t h e R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f an I n d i a n Agent. Toronto: J.M.Dent & Sons, 1935. Morley, A l a n . R o a r t o f t h e B r e a k e r s : A Biography Toronto: The Ryerson P r e s s , 1967.  of Peter Kelly.  Moser, C h a r l e s . Reminiscences o f the West Coast o f Vancouver I s l a n d . V i c t o r i a : Acme P r e s s , 1926. P i e r c e , W. H. From P o t l a t c h t o P u l p i t . Vancouver: Vancouver Bindery,  1933Qoyawayma, P o l i n g a y s i . No T u r n i n g Back. Albuquerque: The U n i v e r s i t y o f New Mexico P r e s s , 1964. Simmons, Leo W., ed.,Sun C h i e f : TheAAutobiography o f a Hopi I n d i a n . New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1942. S p r a d l e y , James P. Guests Never Leave Hungry: The Autobiography James Sewid, A K w a k i u t l 'Indian. M o n t r e a l : McGill-Queen's U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972. W h i t t i n g t o n , R. The B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n and H i s F u t u r e . Methodist Church, 1906.  of  Toronto:  Articles C a r s t e n s , P e t e r . " C o e r c i o n and Change." I n Canadian S o c i e t y : P l u r a l ism, Change, and C o n f l i c t , pp. 126-145. E d i t e d by R i c h a r d J . Ossenberg. Scarborough: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1971. D a h l i e , Jorgen. " L e a r n i n g on t h e F r o n t i e r : S c a n d i n a v i a n Immigrants and E d u c a t i o n i n Western Canada." Canadian and I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n 1 (December 1972): 56-66. Gresko, J a c q u e l i n e . "White ' R i t e s ' and I n d i a n " R i t e s ' : I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n and Native Responses i n t h e West, 1870-1910." I n Western Canada P a s t and P r e s e n t , pp. I63-I8I. E d i t e d by A. W. R a s p o r i c h . C a l g a r y : M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart West, 1975Harding, A. W. "St. George's: Renders Over 100 Years S e r v i c e t o I n t e r i o r I n d i a n C h i l d r e n . " Cariboo C o n t a c t 3 (JanuaryFebruary 1978): 1-4. Jones,  GarethhStedman. " C l a s s E x p r e s s i o n Versus S o c i a l C o n t r o l ? A C r i t i q u e o f Recent Trends i n t h e S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f ' L e i s u r e ' . " H i s t o r y Workshop J o u r n a l 4 (Autumn 197;7): 162-170.  Lemert, E. M. " L i f e and Death o f an I n d i a n S t a t e . " Human O r g a n i z a t i o n 13 ( F a l l 1954): 23-27. L e v i n e , Robert and Cooper, Freda. "The S u p p r e s s i o n o f B.C. Languages: F i l l i n g i n the Gaps i n t h e Documentary Record." Sound H e r i t a g e  101 3 and 4 (1976): 43-75. S c o t t , D u n c a n C a m p b e l l . " I n d i a n A f f a i r s , 1867-1912." I n C a n a d a a n d I t s P r o v i n c e s , v o l . 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"The E d u c a t i o n Gap: U r b a n I n d i a n s i n B r i t i s h BC S t u d i e s 19 (Autumn 1973): 21-49.  Columbia."  Thompson, E. P. "Time, W o r k - D i s c i p l i n e , a n d I n d u s t r i a l C a p i t a l i s m . " P a s t a n d P r e s e n t 38 ( D e c e m b e r 1967): 56-97W a l k e r , James W. S t . G. "The I n d i a n i n C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l W r i t i n g . " C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . H i s t o r i c a l P a p e r s (1971): 21-51. Ward, W. P e t e r .  "The O r i e n t a l I m m i g r a n t a n d C a n a d a ' s P r o t e s t a n t C l e r g y , BG S t u d i e s 2 2 (Summer 1974): 40-55.  1858-1925,"  W i l s o n , J . D o n a l d . "No B l a n k e t To B e Worn i n S c h o o l : The E d u c a t i o n of Indians i n E a r l y Nineteenth-Century Ontario." H i s t o i r e S o c i a l e / S o c i a l H i s t o r y V I I (May 1974): 293-305.  Books B a r n e t t , Homer G. 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