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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Attendance at Indian residential schools in British Columbia, 1890-1920 1978

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ATTENDANCE AT INDIAN RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1 8 9 0 - 1 9 2 0 by JAMES W. REDFORD B.A., Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 7 5 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FUl^ILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of History We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1 9 7 8 © James ¥. Redford, 1 9 7 8 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree t h a t the Library shall make it freely available f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying o f this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by his representatives. It is understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of History The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS Date 2 October 1978 i i ABSTRACT I n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , m i d d l e c l a s s C a n a d i a n r e f o r m e r s t r i e d t o use e d u c a t i o n t o change t h e v a l u e s and rhythms o f w o r k i n g c l a s s , i m m i g r a n t , and I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . They used b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s , however, o n l y i n t h e case o f I n d i a n s . E d u c a t o r s e x p e c t e d b o a r d i n g s s c h o o l s t t o g i v e them complete c o n t r o l o v e r t h e en v i r o n m e n t o f t h e i r p u p i l s , t h u s making i t p o s s i b l e t o r e a r a g e n e r a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l l y and o c c u p a t i o n a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d I n d i a n s . They d i d n o t e x p e c t t h e i r e f f o r t s t o be b l u n t e d o r r e s h a p e d by e x i s t i n g I n d i a n rhythms. Because I n d i a n s were outnumbered, and because t h e i r c u l t u r e was und e r a t t a c k f r o m many d i r e c t i o n s , h i s t o r i a n s t o o have g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t n a t i v e rhythms had a n e g l i - g i b l e i m p a c t on r e s i d e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n . Most a c c o u n t s o f t h e s c h o o l s p o r t r a y them as e i t h e r a s s i s t i n g o r v i c t i m i z i n g a d e c i m a t e d and e s s e n - t i a l l y h e l p l e s s m i n o r i t y . T h i s t h e s i s uses Government r e p o r t s , s c h o o l r e c o r d s , c o r r e s - pondence, and o r a l a c c o u n t s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e way e d u c a t o r s and I n d i a n s made a t t e n d a n c e d e c i s i o n s . I t shows t h a t I n d i a n s p l a y e d a v i t a l r o l e i n d e c i d i n g whether c h i l d r e n went t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l ; w h i c h c h i l d r e n went; a t what ages t h e y e n r o l l e d ; how l o n g t h e y s t a y e d ; and how much c o n t a c t t h e y r e t a i n e d w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s and c u l t u r e w h i l e i n a t t e n - dance. I t c l a r i f i e s some o f t h e e m o t i o n a l , economic, and c u l t u r a l needs w h i c h c o n d i t i o n e d I n d i a n s ' a t t e n d a n c e d e c i s i o n s . By e x a m i n i n g how e x i s t i n g n a t i v e p a t t e r n s o f l i f e m o d i f i e d a v e r y d e t e r m i n e d campaign t o c o n t r o l and a l t e r I n d i a n s o c i e t y , t h e t h e s i s i i i h opefully sheds l i g h t as well on the gradual, adaptive, and f l u i d process of "directed" c u l t u r a l change. Residential schools were not simply an "imposed" s o c i a l experience, but a mutual and changing r e l a t i o n s h i p shaped by Indians as well as whites. i v CONTENTS C h a p t e r I . EDUCATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE: BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR INDIANS 1 I I . INDIAN FAMILIES AND ENROLLMENT: POWER TO REFUSE 15 I I I . APPLICATION AND RECRUITMENT: THE PROCESS OF SELECTION . . 26 IV. THE SCHOOL REGIMEN AND TRUANCY: POWER TO COMPEL V. FRAGMENTATION OF FAMILIES: EXTENT AND DURATION 62 V I . EPILOGUE 72 ABBREVIATIONS Z 75 NOTES 76 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 95 SOURCES CONSULTED • 97 V TABLES I . C o q u a l e e t z a I n d u s t r i a l I n s t i t u t e : O r i g i n s o f P u p i l s by L i n g u i s t i c Groups 3^ I I . Ages a t A d m i s s i o n ^3 I I I . l e n g t h s o f E n r o l l m e n t 69 Residential Schools, 1890-1920 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to express s p e c i a l thanks to my advisor, Michael I g n a t i e f f , f o r suggesting the topic, and f o r r a i s i n g many of the ques- tions I have t r i e d to answer. 1 CHAPTER I EDUCATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE: BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR INDIANS " E d u c a t i o n , " wrote the Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n I876, " i s t h e p r i m a r y v e h i c l e i n t h e c i v i l i z a t i o n and advance- ment o f t h e I n d i a n R a c e — w i t h o u t i t b u t l i t t l e p r o g r e s s i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n may be expected.""'" Government and 'church o f f i c i a l s b e l i e v e d t h e y c o u l d p r e v e n t t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f Canada's n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n o n l y i f t h e y i n - v e s t e d i t s r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n w i t h t h e v a l u e s and rhythms o f an i d e a l , i n d u s t r i a l i z e d w o r k i n g c l a s s . From t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , c h u r c h e s began c o n d u c t i n g day s c h o o l s i n t h e I n d i a n v i l l a g e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , b u t , a l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , f a i l e d t o i n d u c e n a t i v e p a r e n t s t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o c l a s s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . I n an e f f o r t t o overcome a t t e n d a n c e p r o b l e m s , and c r e a t e a n d a c c u l t u r a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t more i n t e n s e t h a n day s c h o o l s , Government and c'hurches u n d e r t o o k j o i n t l y , between 1890 and 1920, t o i n t i r o d u c e and p e r f e c t a system o f b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W h i l e w h i t e e d u c a t o r s r e g a r d e d t h e I n d i a n as "a b l a n k s h e e t o f pa p e r , c u l t u r a l l y s p e a k i n g , who was t o be w r i t t e n upon w i t h European 2 c u l t u r e , " i t i s now e v i d e n t t h a t he was n o t t h e p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t o f imposed c u l t u r e . E x i s t i n g s o c i a l , economic, and c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s con- d i t i o n e d I n d i a n r e s p o n s e t o w h i t e e d u c a t i v e e f f o r t s . Y e t , perh a p s be- cause o n l y w h i t e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s l e f t documentary r e c o r d s , t h e i r assump% t i o n s c o n t i n u e t o permeate most h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g . H i s t o r i a n s have 2 shown l i t t l e interest in explaining Indian reaction as a significant aspect of residential school history. Thus H. J. Vallery's early, ¥higgish ac- count of Indian schooling i s concerned essentially with statutory and administrative developments. The educational program i n i t i a l l y en- countered some opposition from primitive Indians, who, "having l i t t l e foresight," clung to their pernicious customs; hut once they recognized "itheffutility" of such ,a course, "education was used very extensively to 3 assist the Indians change their method of living. A pair of recent writers have demonstrated deep sympathy for the Indian culture and have succeeded i n shifting attention from administrative to social issues. But in illuminating one aspect of the schools' attack on native culture, Robert Levine and Freda Cooper have contributed l i t t l e to our understanding of how Indian rhythms conditioned the school experience. In fact, by emphasizing the victimization of Indians, they have re- inforced the tendency to see "white subjects and red objects."'' To date, the only study to attempt to focus the s t i l l "blurred and undif- ferentiated features" of Indian pupils i s Jacqueline Gresko's analysis 7 of the Qu'Appelle School i n the Northwest Territories. A history of Indian education i n British Columbia must, therefore, describe and ex- plain not just the policies of white educators, but also the reaction of Indians: only then w i l l the complete picture begin to emerge. Examining attendance patterns should illuminate not only how o f f i c i a l s attempted to direct acculturation through education, but" also how Indians responded to their efforts. Jacqueline Gresko has lamented that while an attendance study would be the best means of assessing the social relationship and experience which residential schools produced, adequate Q records "are d i f f i c u l t to find or to establish." Fortunately, the 3 Department of Indian A f f a i r s required d e t a i l e d reports from i t s agents, superintendents, p r i n c i p a l s , and school inspectors. Combined with l e t t e r s , d i a r i e s , autobiographies, and o r a l h i s t o r i e s , they provide a multitude of impressionistic i n s i g h t s . F o r t u i t o u s l y preserved attendance reg- i s t e r s contain quantitative data against which the h i s t o r i a n can mea- 9 sure generalizations. -x- * *- The use of "boarding schools to " c i v i l i z e " Indians has a long h i s t o r y i n Canada. Francois de Montmorency-Laval, head of the Roman Catholic Church i n New France, mixed French and Indian c h i l d r e n i n such an i n s t i t u t i o n i n 1665. His experience prefigured almost exactly that of educators more than two centuries l a t e r : he had trouble keeping the young Indians at school because the parents have an extraordinary love f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and can scarcely make up t h e i r minds to be separated from them. .. j^and, moreover] they depend on t h e i r c h i l d r e n , when they are somewhat advanced In years, f o r the support of t h e i r family.10 Protestant groups undertaking s i m i l a r experiments i n the early nine- teenth century received encouragement from the Government of Canada: i t decided, i n 18^-51 to replace i t s gunpowder issues to Indians with education grants. Thus, a pattern of Church-operated, Government-sub- s i d i z e d boarding schools took root. The systematic introduction of Indian boarding schools i n the 1880s and and 1890s was, however, part o f a wider movement to use education as a t o o l of s o c i a l change. Urban middle c l a s s reformers hoped to use schools to change the habits and values of s o c i a l groups not sharing t h e i r economic assumptions and c u l t u r a l heritage. By view- in g environment as a d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n the formation o f character, these reformers became convinced that s o c i a l manipulation was both 4 n e c e s s a r y and p o s s i b l e . The c h i l d was a s e e d whose g r o w t h c o u l d be shaped a c c o r d i n g t o i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s e i t h e r t o good o r t o e v i l ends. I d e a l l y , t h e f a m i l y e n s u r e d p r o p e r c h a r a c t e r development by p r o v i d i n g a m o r a l s e t t i n g , s c r e e n e d f r o m u n d e s i r a b l e i n f l u e n c e s , where s o c i a l v i r t u e s c o u l d t h o r o u g h l y p e n e t r a t e and i n d e l i b l y c o l o u r t heyyoung minds o f f u t u r e c i t i z e n s . R e formers f e l t , however, t h a t w o r k i n g c l a s s , i m m i g r a n t , and I n d i a n f a m i l i e s were n o t m e e t i n g t h e i r p r o t e c t i v e and e d u c a t i v e o b l i g a t i o n s . P a r e n t s c o u l d n o t i n s t i l l i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n adequate s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e o r c o r r e c t a s p i r a t i o n s when t h e y t h e m s e l v e s l a c k e d s u c h q u a l i t i e s . A n o t h e r agency would have t o r e p l a c e t h e s e 12 f a m i l i e s a s "an a s y l u m f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and c u l t u r e o f c h i l d h o o d , " and make good c i t i z e n s o f c h i l d r e n who m i g h t o t h e r w i s e mature i n t o d e s t r u c t i v e , r e t r o g r e s s i v e , o r burdensome e l e m e n t s i n s o c i e t y . The agency r e f o r m e r s s e l e c t e d was s c h o o l i n g . P r o p o n e n t s o f e d u c a t i o n sought r e f o r m i n two l i n k e d a r e a s o f w o r k i n g c l a s s l i f e . F i r s t , t h e y wanted t o e l i m i n a t e j u v e n i l e p a u p e r i s m and c r i m e , w h i c h seemed t o menace t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e w e l l - b e i n g o f the n a t i o n . Second, t h e y w i s h e d t o n u r t u r e a work f o r c e more f u l l y i n tune w i t h t h e rhythms o f i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g s o c i e t y . S c h o o l s must, t h e r e f o r e ? , i n s t i l l a new sense o f s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n i n s e v e r a l k ey a r e a s . "The m i g r a t o r y ' h a b i t s ' o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s were p e r c e i v e d as p a r t o f t h e i r g e n e r a l want o f d i s c i p l i n e , " s t a t e s I a n Davey, " a l o n g w i t h t h e i r u n p u n c t u a l i t y , i r r e g u l a r work h a b i t s , a f f e c t i o n f o r a l c o h o l , and i n a b i l i t y 13 t o save money." S t a b i l i t y , p u n c t u a l i t y , s o b r i e t y , and t h r i f t were some o f t h e e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s s c h o o l s would promote. I n c u l c a t i o n o f s u c h v a l u e s would r e d u c e c r i m e . And i n s t e a d o f c a u s i n g t h e l a b o u r i n g c l a s s e s t o d e s p i s e t h e i r p o s i t i o n , as some f e a r e d , s u c h e d u c a t i o n would lb make them more amenable t o f a c t o r y d i s c i p l i n e . M i d d l e c l a s s r e f o r m e r s c o n s i d e r e d t h e v a s t numbers o f non A n g l o - Saxon i m m i g r a n t s a r r i v i n g i n Canada towards t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y an even more d i s t r e s s i n g p r o b l e m : i n a d d i t i o n t o o v e r c o m i n g t h e s o c i a l and economic d e f i c i e n c i e s o f w o r k i n g c l a s s l i f e , t h e y would have t o t r a n s c e n d t h e i r c u l t u r a l i n f e r i o r i t y . Most r e f o r m e r s c o n s i d e r e d i t a x i o m a t i c t h a t c u l t u r a l h e t e r o g e n i t y weakened any s o c i e t y , and t h a t A n glo-Saxon c i v i l i z a t i o n was, i n any c a s e , t h e most advanced."'"^ Immi- g r a n t s were e s p e c i a l l y numerous i n t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , where t h e i r p r e s e n c e sometimes c a u s e d g r a v e m i s g i v i n g s . Saskatchewan S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r J . T. M. A nderson d i d n o t t h i n k i t p o s s i b l e t h a t a d u l t i m m i g r a n t s would e v e r become " t r u e C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s , imbued w i t h t h e h i g h e s t A n glo-Saxon i d e a l s , " and added: "Were i t n o t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e c o m p e l l e d t o a t t e n d t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s , where t h e y o b t a i n a knowledge o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e , t h e i r p r e s e n c e m i g h t w e l l 16 g i v e us cause f o r a l a r m . " I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e i n f l u x o f A s i a n s s p a r k e d v i o l e n t p r o t e s t s ; even c h a r i t a b l e g r o u p s t r y i n g t o ease t h e e n t r y o f O r i e n t a l s i n t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y v i e w e d them as a p o t e n t i a l 17 t h r e a t . Thus, e d u c a t o r s hoped t o use s c h o o l i n g b o t h t o t e a c h immig- g r a n t s "the v a l u e s o f an e x p a n d i n g m e r c a n t i l e s o c i e t y , " . -.and'to " C a n a d i a n i z e " them as e x p e d i t i o u s l y as p o s s i b l e . A d e s i r e t o use e d u c a t i o n as an i n s t r u m e n t o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l a l s o prompted t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s c h o o l s f o r Canada's n a t i v e p o p u l a - t i o n . The I n d i a n f a m i l y was p r o d u c i n g c h i l d r e n who m i g h t w e l l p r o v e c u l t u r a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y t r o u b l e s o m e . S c h o o l would have t o v a n q u i s h " d e l e t e r i o u s home i n f l u e n c e s " — t h o s e " i r r e g u l a r h a b i t s and customs i n c i d e n t t o l i f e i n t h e wigwam"—and be t h e " w e l l o r d e r e d home" which t h e I n d i a n , l i k e t h e i m m i g r a n t and w o r k i n g c l a s s c h i l d , l a c k e d 6 19 S c h o o l s would have t o t a k e c h i l d r e n — " r a w m a t e r i a l " — a n d "mould" them 20 i n t o good c i t i z e n s . " Without e d u c a t i o n , " wrote Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t i n h i s 1910 r e p o r t as S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n , "... t h e I n d i a n s 21 would produce an u n d e s i r a b l e and o f t e n a dangerous element i n s o c i e t y . " G e n e r a l l y , however, r e f o r m e r s seem t o have been l e s s a l a r m e d by t h e u n t u t o r e d I n d i a n t h a n by t h e s t r e e t t u r c h i n o r i m m i g r a n t . I n d i a n s r a n a f o u l o f t h e l a w p r i n c i p a l l y t h r o u g h t h e i r use o f l i q u o r , r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h any a n t i s o c i a l a c t i v i t y ; and t h e m a j o r i t y were i s o l a t e d f r o m w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t s . Moreover, w h i l e t h e number o f i m m i g r a n t s appeared t o be i n c r e a s i n g d r a m a t i c a l l y , t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n had been i n p r e c i p i t o u s d e c l i n e f o r most o f t h e c e n t u r y . Concerned C a n a d i a n s 22 u s u a l l y v i e w e d t h e I n d i a n as a "poor doomed sava g e . " The d r i v e t o e r a d i c a t e t h e " p r i m i t i v e " I n d i a n c u l t u r e t h u s s p r a n g l e s s f r o m d e f e n s i v e t h a n f r o m p h i l a n t h r o p i c and e v a n g e l i s t i c i m p u l s e s . There was a l s o an economic r a t i o n a l e f o r p r o m o t i n g I n d i a n edu- c a t i o n . I n most u n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s , p e o p l e do n o t o r g a n i z e t h e i r work h a b i t s around a r b i t r a r i l y d e f i n e d p e r i o d s o f t i m e , b u t a r e 23 g i v e n t o " a l t e r n a t e b o u t s o f i n t e n s e l a b o u r and o f i d l e n e s s . " I n d i a n s were no e x c e p t i o n . Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l F r a n k P e d l e y spoke o f " t h e p e c u l i a r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l t e n d e n c y o f t h e I n d i a n t o p r e f e r employment w h i c h g i v e s q u i c k r e t u r n s and a l l o w s o f i n t e r m i t t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n r e - 2k l i e v e d by p e r i o d i c a l i n d u l g e n c e i n r e c r e a t i o n . " L i k e i m m i g r a n t and w o r k i n g c l a s s e d u c a t i o n , I n d i a n s c h o o l i n g aimed a t e r a d i c a t i n g p r e - i n d u s t r i a l work rhythms, and c u s t o m s — l i k e t h e p o t l a t c h — w h i c h i n h i b i t e d t h e i n c u l c a t i o n o f t h r i f t , p u n c t u a l i t y , and o r d e r . O f f i c i a l s hoped e d u c a t i o n would t r a n s f o r m I n d i a n s f r o m f i s h e r m e n and h u n t e r s i n t o f a r m e r s 7 and wage-earners. There were several reasons why they desired t h i s occupational change. F i r s t , f i s h i n g and hunting were i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n f e r i o r to more regular pursuits. They necessitated seasonal m i g r a t i o n s — " t h e nomadic habits which are f a t a l to the a c q u i s i t i o n of even elementary c i v i l i z a - 25 t i o n . " Second, and more tangible, the Indians' continued devotion to t r a d i t i o n a l occupations threatened to make the Government's reserve p o l i c y unworkable. A member of the 1888 Commission i n q u i r i n g i n t o the condition of co a s t a l Indians t o l d the natives that they should scale down t h e i r land claims. Although i n past times they had been " l i t t l e b etter than wild animals that rove over the h i l l s , " and had thus re- quired large t r a c t s of land to survive, they would soon acquire new, 26 better occupations that would obviate such needs. Third, admini- s t r a t o r s were convinced that the growth of settlement would soon ren- der t r a d i t i o n a l Indian pursuits impossible, and that unless the Indian were equipped with new s k i l l s and rhythms, he would become a serious f i n a n c i a l burden f o r the Government. F i n a l l y , Indians were valued both as p o t e n t i a l consumers and as a v i t a l labour supply. As one school p r i n c i p a l wrote i n 1907: "With the excessive demand f o r labour, i t would be l i t t l e short of c r i m i n a l to neglect the t r a i n i n g of the thou- 27 sands of Indian c h i l d r e n i n t h i s province. But working c l a s s , immigrant, and Indian c h i l d r e n — t h e very ones f o r whom educators considered t h e i r influence most v i t a l — h a d uniformly poor records of school attendance. Although, by the 1880s, most working cla s s c h i l d r e n were enrolled i n school, formal education remained "some- thing to be f i t t e d i n with the other needs of the f a m i l y — t h e work of 28 the farm, of the workshop, or the home." The p r i n c i p a l of. the 8 Victoria Boys' School explained in 1891 that the generally irregular attendance "arises from real or supposed necessity for keeping children 29 at home to aid their parents at certain seasons of the year." The head of the Sapperton School was more specific in his 1897 report: "The older boys are employed during the summer and autumn at the box factory of the Brunette Saw Mills, and so attend only for a short time during the 30 year." Thus, although 10b of the 105 children aged six to sixteen, who lived i n Chilliwack in 1895,were enrolled in school, only 63 of them attended on the average day. At Lytton, 30 of 32 were enrolled, but 31 the average attendance was only a l i t t l e over fifteen. Indeed, local opposition prevented the introduction of universal compulsory education for British Columbia children between seven and fifteen u n t i l 1921. Immigrants often "saw no reason why they should be deprived 32 of free labour while their children were in school," or could not understand why educators f e l t newcomers must abandon their language and cultural heritage to be good Canadians. They were more willing to send their children to schools in which their original culture had a place. Japanese immigrants in British Columbia attended public schools when possible, but supplemented, and to some extent countered such instruction 33 with their own. Norwegians created an isolated community near Bella Coola, and established their own school, i n order to retain "a measure 3^ of control over the secular and religious education of their children."-^ Indian day schools faced both enrollment and attendance problems. Many isolated villages had no schools at a l l ; and where schools did exist, many school-age children completely ignored them. For example, there were 65 children, aged six to fifteen l i v i n g at Quamichan in 1901, but only 17 pupils were enrolled in the day school. At Skidegate, there were 37 s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n ; 21 p u p i l s were e n r o l l e d i n t h e s c h o o l . I n a l l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , o n l y kj p e r c e n t o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n were 35 e n r o l l e d e i t h e r i n r e s i d e n t i a l o r day s c h o o l s . The average d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e o f t h o s e on day s c h o o l r o l l s i n 1901 was j u s t o v e r 50 p e r c e n t . Many o f t h e s c h o o l s were l o c a t e d i n w i n t e r v i l l a g e s w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s v a c a t e d ' f o r up t o f i v e months o f each y e a r d u r i n g t h e f i s h i n g and h o p - p i c k i n g s e a s o n s . Some t e a c h e r s t r i e d t o f o l l o w t h e I n d i a n s on t h e i r m i g r a t i o n s , b u t u s u a l l y w i t h l i t t l e s u c c e s s . O f t e n , I n d i a n s o f a s i n g l e v i l l a g e s c a t t e r e d t o many d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s d u r i n g t h e summer months, making any a t t e m p t t o f o l l o w i m p o s s i b l e . Even when t e a c h e r s were a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h s c h o o l s a t t h e c a n n e r i e s , 37 a t t e n d a n c e was " u n c e r t a i n and i n t e r m i t t e n t s i n c e c h i l d r e n ' s l a b o u r was i n g r e a t demand. Some g r o u p s , s u c h as t h e s o u t h e r n H a i d a , " d i d e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o r e d u c e absence f r o m s c h o o l and even t o o k t h i s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g i n t e r i n s u l a r m i g r a t i o n s . " More o f t e n , p a r e n t s were i n d i f f e r e n t o r even h o s t i l e t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t , even i n t h e w i n t e r v i l l a g e s , p u p i l s s t a y e d away "on t h e 39 s l i g h t e s t p r e t e x t . " ^ Those s t u d e n t s who went r e g u l a r l y t o s c h o o l s t i l l s p e n t "some t w e n t y h o u r s o u t o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r . . . a m i d t h e d i r e c t l y r ~ i kO o p p o s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e r a n c h e r i a |_Indian homej." C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s c h o o l s were c o m p l e t e l y i n e f f e c t i v e as t o o l s o f t h e s o r t o f s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g e d u c a t o r s had i n mind: "The I n d i a n who has been s u b j e c t t o s u c h t e a c h i n g , i f i n d e e d he has e x p e r i e n c e d any i n t e r r u p t i o n a t a l l kl t o h i s l i s t l e s s h a b i t s and nomadic ways, soon resumes them." A d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n seemed a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o s u c c e s s : an i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h b o t h g u a r a n t e e d r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e and o f f e r e d more t h o r o u g h 10 environmental control. Educators were well aware of the potential advantages of hoard- ing schools, not just for Indians, hut for working class and immigrant children as well. Nevertheless, except in the case of Indians, authori- ties generally constructed such institutions only in extreme cases: in England, for chronic truants "whose attendance was unlikely to improve bz without a spell under s t r i c t supervision"; in Canada, for neglected a and delinquent children of the most troublesome sort. One exception was a hoarding school established i n the Cache Creek area in 1875 for the children of geographically dispersed white farmers. But "public feeling ^3 was very inimical about the success of this system of education," and after a series of financial and moral scandals, declining enrollment forced i t s closure in 1890. While o f f i c i a l s admitted that "in many instances... results ob- tained at [Indian day] schools equal those of the common-schools of the 1(4 rural d i s t r i c t s , " most concluded that overall, the successful reform of Indians required a more intensive system of education than did the re- form of other groups. Although the percentage of enrolled working class children actually attending school was often almost as low as the same figure for Indian pupils, a much smaller proportion of Indian than working class children bothered to enroll i n the f i r s t place. Deputy Superintendent General James Smart argued in 1897 that "heredity has done ' much to overcome in white children the natural aversion to the monotonous work and confinement of schools, but Indian children...possess this in i t s strongest form." If Indians had greater need of intensive forms of acculturation than Anglo-Saxon Canadians of the labouring classes, at least one o f f i c i a l contended that they also had more right to special care 11 t h a n i m m i g r a n t s : "As the o r i g i n a l owners o f t h e s o i l o f t h i s n o r t h e r n c o n t i n e n t . . . t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e have m o r a l c l a i m s t o our sympathy and a s s i s t a n c e as no i m m i g r a n t o r newcomer e v e r has had o r can have." Per h a p s because t h e y seemed t o pose more d i f f i c u l t p roblems o f c o n t r o l , o r because a w i l l i n g Government and C h u r c h b u r e a u c r a c y was a l - r e a d y i n p l a c e , o r because h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e seemed t o p o i n t t h e way, I n d i a n s were t h e o n l y " u n a c c u l t u r a t e d " group t o undergo t h e b o a r d - 4? i n g s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e t h a t makes a s t u d y o f t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e p a t t e r n s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t . Such a s t u d y may c l a r i f y t h e n a t u r e o f one o f the most c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s a t d i r e c t e d a c c u l t u r a t i o n t h a t Canadians have e v e r u n d e r t a k e n . And by e l u c i d a t i n g t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s o c i a l and economic p a t t e r n s o f a 48 s u p p o s e d l y " s i c k and d e m o r a l i z e d m i n o r i t y " b l u n t e d o r d e f l e c t e d t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i v e d r i v e , i t may s u g g e s t some o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f any p r o - gram o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l . •* -x- * The Roman C a t h o l i c O b l a t e s opened t h e f i r s t b o a r d i n g s c h o o l f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s a t M i s s i o n i n I863. B u t though a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t h o u g h t i t s u p e r i o r t o day s c h o o l s , I t was n o t w i d e l y e m u l a t e d . u n t i l a l - most t h i r t y y e a r s l a t e r . I n 1879, t h e C a n a d i a n Government s e n t N i c h o l a s D a v i n t o i n v e s t i g a t e A m e r i c a n approaches t o I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n . On h i s r e - t u r n , D a v i n recommended t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n Canada o f " i n d u s t r i a l " b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s f o r I n d i a n s , on t h e model o f t h e one R i c h a r d Henry P r a t t was s e t t i n g up a t C a r l i s l e , P e n n s y l v a n i a . I n 1883, a s y s t e m a t i c e f f o r t t o c o n s t r u c t b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s began on t h e p r a i r i e s ; and a y e a r l a t e r , S i r John A. Macdonald, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , as w e l l as P r i m e M i n i s t e r , announced t h a t he was d i s c u s s i n g w i t h >: 12 i n t e r e s t e d r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s u c h s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Run by t h e c h u r c h e s , t h e y would be e l i g i b l e f o r a i d f r o m t h e Government, and s u b j e c t t o i t s g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n . Government and c h u r c h e s c r e a t e d B r i t i s h C o lumbia's s y s t e m o f " b o a r d i n g " and " i n d u s t r i a l " s c h o o l s d u r i n g t h e t h r e e decades a f t e r 1890. " B o a r d i n g " s c h o o l s were g e n e r a l l y s m a l l e r t h a n " i n d u s t r i a l " s c h o o l s , and d i d n o t o f f e r as f o r m a l a program o f manual t r a i n i n g . The term " r e s i - d e n t i a l " s c h o o l encompasses b o t h t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s . Map 1 (page 13) summarizes and l o c a t e s t h e t w e n t y r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s w h i c h o p e r a t e d — n o t a l l c o n c u r r e n t l y — b e t w e e n 1890 and 1920. By 1920, a l l b u t one o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s w h i c h were e v e r t o o p e r a t e i n t h e p r o v i n c e had been e s t a b l i s h e d . The p e r i o d 1890-1920 has a d d i t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e : i t was a t i m e o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , o f b u r e a u c r a t i c debate r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l u e o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s ; and a t i m e d u r i n g w h i c h t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n rhythms c o n t i n u e d t o be an i m p o r - t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t o f a t t e n d a n c e . I n 1920, t h e Government u n d e r t o o k a v i g o r o u s campaign t o promote and expand t h e e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , i t empowered i t s o f f i c e r s t o f o r c i b l y e n r o l l c h i l d r e n . W i t h - i n a few y e a r s , r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s exceeded day s c h o o l s i n e n r o l l m e n t . A l t h o u g h o f f i c i a l s o f t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s would have l i k e d a l l I n d i a n c h i l d r e n t o a t t e n d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s a t some t i m e , t h e y were w e l l aware t h a t s u c h an o b j e c t i v e was w e l l beyond t h e i r r e a c h . I n 1901, t h e t o t a l I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a between t h e ages o f s i x and f i f t e e e n was 3 i ^ 5 - The t o t a l number e n r o l l e d i n a l l Government-aided s c h o o l s , r e s i d e n t i a l and day, was 1,^96, o r ^3 p e r c e n t . Those on t h e r o l l i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s c o n s t i t u t e d 19.7 p e r c e n t o f s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n ; t h e a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e was o n l y 17.6 p e r c e n t 13 MAP 1 Residential Schools, 1890-1920 p, ̂ T o r t Simpson Boys' / G i r l s * (M) Metlakatla (A) (RC) Roman Catholic (A) Anglican (MJ Methodist (P) Presbyterian Kitimat (M) » Stuart Lake (RCi ( l a t e r at Fraser Lake) •Williams LakeVRC) Al e r t Bay G i r l s ' / i d u s t r i a l (A) • Kamloops (RC) St. George's (A) Ahousaht (p) Clayoquot (RC) A l t e r n i (P) Sechelt (RC) • A l l Hallows (A) -Squamish (RCJ oq^ualeetza (M) Q St. Mary^g- Kuper Island (RC) 14 of children six to fifteen (N=608). In 1920, there were 4,284 school- age children: 53-9 percent were enrolled i n a i l schools; 26 percent in residential schools; and 22.3 percent (W=955) were actually in residen- 49 t i a l school classes on the average day. Since there were pupils in the schools younger than six and older than fifteen, these figures actually overstate the attendance of the given age group. While the aggregate number who attended residential schools depended on the rate of turnover, there i s some evidence that a con- siderable proportion of young Indians never saw the inside of a class- room, residential or .day. Of natives l i v i n g on British Columbia re- serves in 196l, over 6l percent of those born i n I896 or earlier had no schooling whatsoever; approximately one in three of those born between 1897 and I916 had been toincither day nor residential s c h o o l . S i n c e day schools continued to be the preponderant form of native education during this period, i t i s probably accurate to assume that only a minority of Indian children ever went to residential school. Succeed- ing chapters w i l l attempt to c l a r i f y who selected that minority, how they did so, what their choice indicated, and what attendance meant for those involved. 15 CHAPTER I I INDIAN FAMILIES AND ENROLLMENT: POWER TO REFUSE I n most r e s p e c t s , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f C a n a d i a n I n d i a n s i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d t h o s e o f American n a t i v e s . One s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , however, was t h e degree o f c o n t r o l t h e y r e t a i n e d o v e r e n r o l l m e n t i n b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s . By th e e a r l y 1900s, A m e r i c a n o f f i c i a l s were u s i n g c o e r c i o n t o f i l l s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s . An A r i z o n a H o p i r e c a l l s t h e r e s u l t s : B e f o r e s u n r i s e on t h e t e n t h o f September the p o l i c e came t o O r a i b i and s u r r o u n d e d t h e v i l l a g e , w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f c a p t u r i n g t h e c h i l d r e n . . . a n d t a k i n g them t o s c h o o l b y f o r c e . They h e r d e d us a l l t o g e t h e r a t t h e e a s t end o f t h e mesa...The p e o p l e were e x c i t e d , t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e mothers were c r y i n g , and the men wanted t o f i g h t . 1 I n Canada, s u c h s c e n e s d i d n o t n o r m a l l y o c c u r . U n t i l 1920, p a r e n t s p o s s e s s e d and f r e q u e n t l y e x e r c i s e d t he r i g h t t o r e f u s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e n r o l l m e n t i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . From 1894, J u s t i c e s and I n d i a n A g ents had the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y t o 2 commit I n d i a n c h i l d r e n u n d e r s i x t e e n t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . B u t , be- f o r e 1920, t h e y c o u l d do so o n l y i f "a day s c h o o l i s p r o v i d e d , and t h e 3 c h i l d does n o t a t t e n d . ' R e g u l a t i o n s t h u s g u a r a n t e e d p a r e n t s t h e a l - t e r n a t i v e o f a day s c h o o l : i n e f f e c t , e d u c a t o r s c o u l d n o t f o r c i b l y s e p a r a t e c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I n p r a c t i c e , even a t t e n d a n c e a t day s c h o o l g e n e r a l l y r e m a i n e d v o l u n t a r y . F o r i t was Department p o l i c y , f o r m a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d by Dep u t y j a S u p e r i h t e n d e n t G e n e r a l James Smart i n I 8 9 8 , " t o r e f r a i n f r o m c o m p u l s o r y measures, and t r y t h e e f f e c t o f m o r a l s u a s i o n 16 4 and an a p p e a l t o s e l f - i n t e r e s t . " I n 1920, t h e Government p a s s e d amendments t o t h e I n d i a n A c t w h i c h e l i m i n a t e d i t s o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o v i d e day s c h o o l s . By a u t h o r i z i n g t h e c o m p u l s o r y e n r o l l m e n t i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s o f a l l I n d i a n c h i l d r e n between seven and f i f t e e n , t h e changes " g i v e t h e department c o n t r o l and remove f r o m the I n d i a n p a r e n t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f h i s c h i l d . T h e f i r s t e x p l i c i t y a d m i s s i o n o f c o e r c e d r e c r u i t m e n t o f p u p i l s f o r a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i s con- t a i n e d i n a November 1923 e n t r y o f the F r a s e r Lake S c h o o l D i a r y : " I t was n o t an e a s y m a t t e r t o have t h e p a r e n t s l e t £their c h i l d r e n J go. The p o l i c e m a n Mr. Manson was w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l t o f o r c e t h e p a r e n t s t o t h e 6 e f f e c t . " Cases o f c o m p u l s o r y e n r o l l m e n t u n d o u b t a b l y o c c u r r e d p r i o r t o 7 1920, b u t t h e y were s c a t t e r e d and p r o b a b l y u n a u t h o r i z e d . I n h i s r e p o r t t o t h e Department f o r t h e y e a r ended 30 June 1904, J . R. M o t i o n , p r i n c i p a l o f t h e A l b e r n i B o a r d i n g S c h o o l , w r o t e : " F o r l a c k o f p r o p e r a c c o m o d a t i o n no e f f o r t was made d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r t o r e c r u i t more g p u p i l s ; s e v e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n s b e i n g r e f u s e d f o r t h a t r e a s o n . " B u t F r e d T h o r n b e r g , a w h i t e man l i v i n g a t Ahousaht, c h a r g e d i n a l e t t e r t o t h e V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t t h a t M o t i o n had f o r c i b l y a b d u c t e d h i s h a l f - c a s t e d a u g h t e r on 23 September 1903= She was s c r e a m i n g and r u n n i n g as h a r d as she c o u l d , and t h i s b i g man was i n f u l l chase a f t e r h e r . . . I t r i e d t o p r e v e n t him, b u t he gave me a heavy push, t h a t n e a r l y tumbled me down a Rocky B l u f f . . . I was a f o o l t o t h i n k t h a t I an o l d man (63 y e a r s ) a l s o a C r i b b l e [~sic~1 would be a b l e t o p r e v e n t s u c h a b i g Man t o do as [ j i e ] p l e a s e d . . . Mr. M o t i o n o f c o u r s e i n t h e end c a p t u r e d h e r . . . a n d commanded h e r t o pack up and come w i t h him. The C o l o n i s t d e c l i n e d t o p u b l i s h t h e l e t t e r , f e a r i n g " p o s s i b l e a c t i o n f o r damages," and i n s t e a d s e n t c o p i e s t o I n d i a n S u p e r i n t e n d e n t V o w e l l 17 9 and. t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The outcome o f t h e c a s e i s unknown. There i s , i n a d d i t i o n , a t l e a s t one;;recorded i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i t s e l f a u t h o r i z e d t h e c o m p u l s o r y e n r o l l - ment o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . I n 1911, i t s o f f i c e r s t o o k two t e n y e a r o l d g i r l s f r o m t h e i r m o t h e r s , on t h e grounds t h a t s i n c e t h e l a t t e r were " n o t o r i o u s l y bad women," t h e y were " u n f i t t o have c h a r g e " o f t h e i r d a u g h t e r s . The m o t h e r s " f l e d f r o m p l a c e t o p l a c e , t o p r e v e n t t h e g i r l s b e i n g p l a c e d i n s c h o o l , " b u t t h e Department e v e n t u a l l y succeeded i n e n r o l l i n g t h e two c h i l d r e n i n C o q u a l e e t z a . These c a s e s were, however, e x c e p t i o n s . N o r m a l l y , p a r e n t s o r g u a r d i a n s had t h e power t o d e c i d e w h i c h c h i l d r e n , i f any, went t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . D e p a r t m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e head o f t h e f a m i l y s i g n a document, g i v i n g t h e s c h o o l c h a r g e o v e r h i s c h i l d . F r e q u e n t l y , p a r e n t s s h a r e d the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s w i t h t h e i r c h i l - d r e n . A. W. N e i l l , I n d i a n Agent on t h e west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d , r e p o r t e d i n 1906 t h a t a t t e n d a n c e was "too o f t e n l e f t t o t h e i n c l i n a t i o n o f the c h i l d , i t b e i n g e n t i r e l y a g a i n s t t h e customs o f the I n d i a n s t o use p r e s s u r e , f a r l e s s f o r c e , t o make t h e i r c h i l d r e n do a n y t h i n g a g a i n s t t h e i r i n c l i n a t i o n . G. D o n c k e l e , a B e l g i a n m i s s i o n a r y who was p r i n - c i p a l o f t h e Kuper I s l a n d S c h o o l f r o m 1890 u n t i l 1906, made the same o b s e r v a t i o n : "The P u p i l s a r e f r e e and i n d e p e n d e n t from t h e i r P a r e n t s 12 as f a r as a t t e n d a n c e a t S c h o o l i s c o n c e r n e d . " P r i n c i p a l s a t t e m p t i n g t o f i l l t h e i r s c h o o l s had t o work w i t h i n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by t h e I n d i a n f a m i l y ' s r i g h t t o r e f u s e e n r o l l m e n t . When J . N. 0. S c o t t sought p u p i l s f o r t h e newly-opened M e t l a k a t l a S c h o o l i n I889, some p a r e n t s i n f o r m e d him c u r t l y t h a t "what we want f r o m t h e 18 Government i s our land, and not schools or education." Scott was obliged to start the school with only six pupils; gradually enrollment rose, but only "by the Indians sending or bringing their children" 13 themselves. Joseph Hall, principal of Coqualeetza, tried to recruit pupils on Vancouver Island i n January of 1897, out without success: Parentswwere apparently quite aware of their rights and not about to be rushed: "Indians do not come to a decision at once in matters of 14 this kind." Continuing h o s t i l i t y to education among local natives forced o f f i c i a l s of the Alert Bay Industrial School to import at least half of their pupils from distant, more favourably disposed tribes; the Girls' Home at Alert Bay remained closed for several years because parents simply refused to part with their daughters."^ Faced with the unwelcome task of persuading parents, not a l l principals took the honourable course. Nicholas Coccola recorded that on the eve:-' of the opening of the Kootenay School "the f a i t h f u l old man Alban came to t e l l me secretly that the Indians were not to trust their children to white women though called Sisters." Alarmed, Coccola decided that only a dramatic i n i t i a t i v e could fo r e s t a l l serious trouble for the new school. Following Sunday Church services, he marched [the children] into the school houses...the parents... followed to see where the march was leading. The Sisters were on the porch...[they] received the children who entered and closljing] the doors,, told the crowd to go back to camp.l6 The parents, apparently too surprised to resist, quietly l e f t the schoolyard. As Coccola's biographer notes: "The birds were in the 17 cage, almost without knowing how." While Coccola did not state how, or even i f , he eventually obtained the parents' signatures, some recruiters allegedly used trickery. The Roman Catholic principal at Kuper Island, G. Donckele, 1 9 asserted i n a letter to Superintendent Vowell that G. M. Tate, Methodist founder of Coqualeetza, had used false pretenses on more than one occasion to overcome parental intransigence. He suggested that Tate misled parents about what they were signing. It should be noted, how- ever, that Donckele made his accusations in the context of long and bitter h o s t i l i t y between the two schools, and that his evidence was largely hearsay: I have been told by one party that Eugene was under the influence of liquor at the time the Rev. Mr. Tate extorted the so-called application from him, and another party informed me that the whole document was drawn up by Mr. Tate and that the same paper does not even show a signature mark of Eugene or of any of his relations.18 I n i t i a l l y , there was a good deal of opposition to enrollment at residential schools, especially among older Indians. To some extent, this opposition was an instinctive defense of traditional customs and beliefs. The history of their contact with white c i v i l i z a t i o n had made natives a wary group. During the preceding century, European settlers had decimated the Indian population by introducing disease and alcohol. Then, in the 1870s and 1880s, the Government set out to control and alter the Indian way of l i f e . Imposed land settlements and the 1884 law prohibiting the potlatch provoked widespread discontent among natives. Many f e l t that the schools would prove "an additional snare to the poor Indian." 1 9 Parents also recognized that residential education would inter- rupt their own patterns of instruction. Largely imitative, native edu- cation necessitated l i v i n g constantly around older Indians who possessed v i t a l knowledge. Among the Bella Goola, for example, a boy, as he increases in strength, follows his father on hunting expeditions <3r fishing. The mother teaches her daughter how to make baskets, and they [her daughters] follow her when she gathers berries, or when she cooks and performs household duties.^0 20 Young c h i l d r e n i m i t a t e d i n t h e i r p l a y t h e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e I n d i a n way o f l i f e , as t h e y o b s e r v e d i t f i r s t - h a n d : t h e y r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e i r games n o t j u s t a d u l t o c c u p a t i o n s , b u t a l s o c u l t u r a l e v e n t s s u c h as t h e 21 p o t l a t c h . G r a n d p a r e n t s r e c o u n t e d f a m i l y h i s t o r i e s , and used p o p u l a r l o r e t o t r a n s m i t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a c c e p t e d v a l u e s . W h i l e t h i s t r a - d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , so i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m e v e r y d a y l i f e and c o n t a c t s , m i g h t c o n t i n u e c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h a t t e n d a n c e a t day s c h o o l , i s o l a t i o n w i t h i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s would mean i t s a l m o s t t o t a l i n t e r r u p t i o n . The e m o t i o n a l trauma o f s e p a r a t i o n seems t o have f i g u r e d l a r g e l y i n t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f p a r e n t s t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i v e d i n l a r g e , ex- tend e d f a m i l i e s . O f t e n , s e v e r a l c o n j u g a l u n i t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h r e e o r more g e n e r a t i o n s , l i v e d i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f t h e same l a r g e house. I n h e r a n a l y s i s o f C o a s t S a l i s h f a m i l i e s , C l a u d i a L e w i s s p e c u l a t e s t h a t , t h e e m o t i o n a l t i e between p a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n may n o t have been as i n t e n s e and c l o s e as we e x p e r i e n c e i t , i n o u r n u c l e a r f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s . . . y e t t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t c h i l d r e n - - a l l c h i l d r e n — w e r e c h e r i s h e d and t h a t , i n s p i t e o f t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n code o f b e h a v i o r , good w i l l was t h e b a s i c f e e l i n g conveyed.22 Most o f t h o s e who o b s e r v e d t h e I n d i a n f a m i l y about t h e t u r n o f t h e cen- t u r y emphasized w i t h o u t q u a l i f i c a t i o n t h e u n u s u a l c l o s e n e s s o f p a r e n t and c h i l d . Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l H a y t e r Reed spoke o f t h e "fondness f o r t h e i r o f f s p r i n g , w h i c h i s so a d m i r a b l e a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f I n d i a n p a r e n t s " ; Agent P e r r y , w r i t i n g f r o m t h e Nass a r e a , f e l t com- p e l l e d t o m e n t i o n " t he d e l i g h t t a k e n among mothers i n t h e c a r e o f , and d e v o t i o n t o , t h e i r c h i l d r e n " ; a c c o r d i n g t o .•.Frobeh:Bpper;iIndians •around 23 h i s C l a y o q u o t S c h o o l were " p a s s i o n a t e l y f o n d " o f t h e i r young. Two s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l changes d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d may have been i n t e n s i f y i n g s u c h e m o t i o n a l t i e s . Due p a r t i a l l y t o t h e e f f o r t s o f 21 24 w h i t e m i s s i o n a r i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t h e e x t e n d e d I n d i a n f a m i l y was a p p a r e n t l y g i v i n g way i n most a r e a s t o a c l o s e r a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f 25 t h e w e s t e r n European n u c l e a r model. The c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f h o u s i n g seems t o o f f e r t h e b e s t e v i d e n c e o f c h a n g i n g f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . From t h e e a r l y 1900s, a g e n t s commonly r e p o r t e d t h a t I n d i a n s were abandoning t h e i r l a r g e , t r a d i t i o n a l d w e l l i n g s . I n S k i d e g a t e , i n t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e s , t h e r e were o n l y two w e s t e r n - s t y l e houses i n 1885, h u t t w e l v e 26 y e a r s l a t e r , t h e l a s t o f t h e b i g I n d i a n houses s t o o d empty. Agent N e i l l r e p o r t e d f r o m t h e west c o a s t o f Van c o u v e r I s l a n d i n 1908 t h a t " i t i s t h e custom now g e n e r a l l y t o b u i l d a house o f moderate d i m e n s i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r t h e use o f "only one f a m i l y , i n s t e a d o f t h e huge s t r u c t u r e s . . . 27 w h i c h used t o be t h e r u l e . " i f C l a u d i a l e w i s i s c o r r e c t a b out t h e d i f f u s i o n o f e m o t i o n i n e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s , t h i s move tow a r d s s m a l l e r , n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s may have f u r t h e r t i g h t e n e d bonds between p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g the r e l u c t a n c e o f p a r e n t s t o s i g n t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t o b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s . Thus t h e v e r y s u c c e s s o f one a t t e m p t t o d i r e c t s o c i a l change may have i n d i r e c t l y hampered the p r o g r e s s o f a n o t h e r form o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l . The s econd development c o n c e i v a b l y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s between p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n was demographic. A l t h o u g h t h e r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e o f p r e v i o u s decades was che c k e d as e a r l y as 1890 i n some p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e , t h e t o t a l I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n c o n t i n u e d 28 t o d e c r e a s e u n t i l 1929. O f f i c i a l s a g r e e d t h a t d i s e a s e s t r u c k p a r - t i c u l a r l y a t young p e o p l e . I n 1907, f o r example, d e a t h s f r o m m e a s l e s 29 and i n f l u e n z a were " l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o i n f a n t s and young c h i l d r e n . " I n f a n t m o r t a l i t y was n o t t h e o n l y cause o f p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e , however; lo w f e r t i l i t y was a l s o a f a c t o r . D e s c r i b i n g t h e e f f e c t o f v e n e r e a l 22 d i s e a s e s , H e l e n Godere s t a t e s : " I t i s a p p a r e n t . . . t h a t t h e d e c l i n e i n t h e K w a k i u t l p o p u l a t i o n was due n o t o n l y t o c o n t i n u a l l o s s e s , b u t 30 a l s o t o a l a c k o f any h e a l t h y c a p a c i t y t o r e p l a c e t h o s e l o s s e s . " C h i l d m o r t a l i t y and l o w f e r t i l i t y meant t h a t t h e r e were f e w e r I n d i a n c h i l d r e n t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , n o t o n l y a b s o l u t e l y , b u t a l s o as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . V i s i t o r s t o t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e s i n t h e 1880s remarked 31 r o u t i n e l y on t h e s m a l l number o f c h i l d r e n . That t h o s e r u n n i n g r e s i - d e n t i a l s c h o o l s were t r y i n g t o r e c r u i t f r o m f a m i l i e s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n were c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a r e may have made t h e i r t a s k even more d i f f i c u l t . Most e v i d e n c e c o n f i r m s the p i c t u r e o f s m a l l , , c l o s e l y k n i t n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s f e e l i n g v e r y a c u t e l y t h e s e p a r a t i o n caused b y y e n r o l l m e n t . A l f r e d H a l l d e s c r i b e d f t h e s t r u g g l e o f one man who b r o u g h t h i s d a u g h t e r t o t h e A l e r t Bay G i r l s ' Home: "You c a n n o t t h i n k how s o r r o w f u l he l o o k e d a f t e r he had y i e l d e d h e r t o o u r c a r e — s u r e l y i t was l i k e c u t t i n g o f f a 32 r i g h t hand." A f o r m e r p u p i l a t A l e r t Bay, Mrs. Edward J o y c e , r e c a l l s t h a t she was a t f i r s t v e r y e x c i t e d about e n r o l l i n g i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , "but a f t e r I g o t t h e r e , I had a d i f f e r e n t f e e l i n g a l t o g e t h e r . . . 33 Mom and Dad had g o n e — w o u l d n ' t see them a g a i n f o r a l o n g t i m e . " J M a r g a r e t B u t c h e r , a t e a c h e r a t K i t i m a t , r e c o r d e d i n a p e r s o n a l l e t t e r t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e p u p i l s as t h e y a w a i t e d t h e r e t u r n o f t h e i r p a r e n t s f r o m t h e l o g g i n g camps: "How e x p e c t a n t t h e c h i l d r e n were a l l t h a t week l o o k i n g up t h e I n l e t , s u r m i s i n g w h i c h day t h e y would come. T a l k - 34 i n g a l l t h e t i m e o f Mother o r F a t h e r o r Baby." B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s , who, " w i t h t h e r a r e s t e x c e p t i o n s , " were " s t r i c t l y u t i l i t a r i a n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s t a n d a r d o f e d u c a t i o n t h e y d e s i r e [ d ] f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , w e r e f r e q u e n t l y u n a b l e t o p e r - c e i v e much m a t e r i a l advantage t o be d e r i v e d from i t . I n 1910, Duncan 23 Campbell Scott reflected, on the occupational s i t u a t i o n of the province's natives. He noted that they had always been self-supporting, and that "the advent of white population, which i n the west caused the complete disappearance of the buffalo, d i d not occasion any serious change i n t h e i r source of food-supply." Moreover, "they e a s i l y adapted themselves to the demands made upon them as labourers and general helpers," with the r e s u l t that "they are of considerable i n d u s t r i a l importance as a labour f a c t o r throughout the province." This, Scott affirmed, was p a r t l y why, f o r those undertaking educational work i n B r i t i s h Columbia, "the d i f f i c u l t i e s to be met with are even greater than i n the other provinces." As Agent Ha l l i d a y wrote of the Nimpkish band, many parents "look at i t from the standpoint that, as they were able to get 37 along without education, t h e i r c h i l d r e n can a l s o . " ^ I r o n i c a l l y , the province's i n t o l e r a n t r a c i a l a ttitudes benefitted the Indians economi- c a l l y , and made new s k i l l s and knowledge seem even l e s s important: when Or i e n t a l immigration was r e s t r i c t e d , the demand f o r native labour rose. But i f education promised l i t t l e future return, parents were well aware that i t would exact immediate cost. There was an abundance of work which c h i l d r e n could do: to send them to school meant economic s a c r i f i c e . When J. No 0. Scott t r i e d to r e c r u i t p u p i l s f o r thelindustrf r&alvisehool at Metlakatla i n 1889, he discovered that school-age boys played an important r o l e i n the economy of the Indian family: "A few... said they would l i k e to send t h e i r boys to t h i s school at the end of the f i s h i n g season; but while the f i s h i n g l a s t e d they were very useful, 39 and could not well be spared." In the New Westminster Agency, "they a l l — i n c l u d i n g men, women, boys and g i r l s — o b t a i n e d employment and good wages at the d i f f e r e n t canning establishments." Most often, the men 24 and. l a r g e r boys h a n d l e d t h e b o a t s and n e t s ; t h e women and c h i l d r e n worked i n t h e c a n n e r i e s . A p p a r e n t l y t h e y c o u l d b e g i n a t a v e r y e a r l y age. James Sewid r e c a l l s t h a t he went f i s h i n g , as a member o f a s e i n - 41 i n g crew, when he was t e n . F i s h i n g was n o t t h e o n l y economic a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d . On V ancouver I s l a n d ' s west c o a s t , "the l a d s go s e a l i n g 42 a t an e a r l y age." I n t h e Skeena a r e a , women and c h i l d r e n g a t h e r e d w i l d 43 b e r r i e s and s t o r e d them f o r w i n t e r use. Among th e T s i m s h i a n , c h i l d r e n 44 helpedd t o c a r r y w h i l e on h u n t s . A p h o t o g r a p h t a k e n about 1899 f o r t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , showing " I n d i a n P l a c e r M i n e r s on t h e i r Way t o t h e Mines n e a r G l a d w i n B.C." i n c l u d e s two boys r o u g h l y n i n e t o 45 t w e l v e y e a r s o f age. L e s s f o r m a l , b u t e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e f a m i l y economy m i g h t a l s o d i s c o u r a g e e n r o l l m e n t . B a b y s i t t i n g ; d u t i e s were com- mon. The p a r e n t s o f C l a r a C l a r e w i t h d r e w h e r from t h e A l l H a l l o w s 46 S c h o o l so t h a t she c o u l d h e l p c a r e f o r a younger, s i c k l y s i s t e r . "Antodme" l e f t t h e W i l l i a m s Lake S c h o o l t o c a r e f o r h i s p a r e n t s , " b o t h 47 o f them n e a r l y b l i n d . " Because o f t h e i r p r e c a r i o u s demographic s i t u a t i o n , n a t i v e s were e s p e c i a l l y a n x i o u s t h a t t h e i r young l i v e i n t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e e n v i r o n - ment. F e a r t h a t s c h o o l s were u n h e a l t h y , o r even u n c e r t a i n t y about con- d i t i o n s i n them, m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t e n r o l l m e n t . Agent Deasy s t a t e d t h a t t h e H a i d a " t a k e a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e i r c h i l - d r e n , and w i l l n o t send them away f r o m home, where t h e y c a n n o t l e a r n 48 o f t h e i r h e a l t h . " N a t i v e s f r o m some bands i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y t o l d t h e 1916 R o y a l Commission on I n d i a n A f f a i r s t h a t t h e y were " a f r a i d t o send c h i l d r e n t o [ t h e b o a r d i n g s c h o o l a t ] M i s s i o n on a c c o u n t o f h e a l t h 25 49 conditions." Many Indians seem to have been extremely uneasy about entrusting t h e i r c h i l d r e n to an unknown and possibly harmful environ- ment. Margaret Butcher described the way sickness i n the Kitimat Home affected native a t t i t u d e s towards i t : The Indians are so i l l o g i c a l , they do not consider the number of chi l d r e n who are brought through d e l i c a c y and sickness to strength and f i t n e s s , they only look at and count the c h i l d r e n who are si c k and 'are k i l l e d by the Home'. 5 0 P r i n c i p a l s were well aware of the possibly disastrous e f f e c t i l l n e s s or death could have on Indians' perception of t h e i r school, and con- sequently on future enrollment. Donckele f e l t a sense of r e l i e f a f t e r he sent one s i c k g i r l home from Kuper Island: " I f her malady would have proven f a t a l at the School, there would have been great excitement 51 amongst the Indians. Thus a number of f a c t o r s figured i n the frequent r e f u s a l of Indian parents to e n r o l l t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n r e s i d e n t i a l school: suspicion of white intentions; preference f o r t r a d i t i o n a l Indian education; t i g h t - ening f a m i l i a l t i e s ; the dubious economic value of formal schooling; the unavoidable f i n a n c i a l s a c r i f i c e i t involved; and worry over school health conditions. The next chapter w i l l begin by i n v e s t i g a t i n g some of the countervailing considerations which prompted parents to apply f o r t h e i r children's admission. 2 6 CHAPTER I I I APPLICATION AND RECRUTTMENT: THE PROCESS OF SELECTION A l t h o u g h m a n y — p r o b a b l y m o s t — I n d i a n p a r e n t s k e p t t h e i r c h i l - d r e n a t home f i o r r e a s o n s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r , a s i g n i f i c a n t m i n o r i t y v o l u n t a r i l y e n r o l l e d t h e i r young i n b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a t t e m p t t o answer a number o f c l o s e l y r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s about t h e ways i n w h i c h p a r e n t s and e d u c a t o r s j o i n t l y d e t e r m i n e d w h i c h c h i l d r e n s t a y e d a t home, and w h i c h c h i l d r e n went t o s c h o o l . What prompted some p a r e n t s t o overcome t h e o b v i o u s o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e s c h o o l s , and c o n c l u d e t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n was d e s i r a b l e ? Which c h i l d r e n d i d t h e y choose t o e n r o l l i n t h e s c h o o l s ? What d i d t h a t c h o i c e i n d i c a t e a bout t h e i r c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s ? ' C o n v e r s e l y , w h i c h c h i l d r e n d i d e d u c a t o r s seek t o r e c r u i t , and what d i d t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e i n d i c a t e about t h e i r s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s ? T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l show t h a t s e l e c t i n g s t u d e n t s was a complex p r o c e s s i n w h i c h I n d i a n s , as w e l l as e d u c a t o r s , p l a y e d a v i t a l r o l e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t n o t t o o v e r s i m p l i f y t h e r e a c t i o n o f I n d i a n s . Most I n d i a n c h i l d r e n d i d n o t , a p p a r e n t l y , go t o b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s . Never- t h e l e s s , a l m o s t a l l r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a succeeded i n o b t a i n i n g t h e number o f s t u d e n t s f o r w h i c h t h e Government o f f e r e d them g r a n t s . I n f a c t , a f t e r a wave o f i n i t i a l o p p o s i t i o n , I n d i a n s i n many p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e seem t o have e x p e r i e n c e d a r u s h o f e n t h u s i a s m 27 f o r t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n s . A y e a r a f t e r t h e o p e n i n g o f the K o o t e n a y S c h o o l , N i c h o l a s G o c c o l a , who had f e l t o b l i g e d t o t a k e h i s f i r s t r e c r u i t s by s u r p r i s e , r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p a r e n t s "seem now h i g h l y p l e a s e d , and come and o f f e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , more t h a n we a r e a l l o w e d by t h e Govern- ment a t p r e s e n t t o take."''' A t K u p e r I s l a n d , " c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s s a t i s - f a c t i o n " among b o t h p a r e n t s and p u p i l s gave way w i t h i n two y e a r s t o a d e l u g e o f a p p l i c a t i o n s . The p r i n c i p a l s t a t e d i n 1892 t h a t " n e a r l y e v e r y I n d i a n i s now d e s i r o u s o f h a v i n g h i s c h i l d r e n e d u c a t e d , " and announced t h a t he was c o n s e q u e n t l y a b l e t o be much more s e l e c t i v e i n d e c i d i n g w h i c h c h i l d r e n t o a d m i t . The 1916 R o y a l Commission on I n d i a n A f f a i r s h e a r d s e v e r a l t r i b e s c o m p l a i n t h a t t h e r e were n o t enough r e s i d e n - 3 t i a l s c h o o l s . E n t h u s i a s m d i d n o t c o m p l e t e l y r e p l a c e o p p o s i t i o n : b o t h s e n - t i m e n t s were u s u a l l y p r e s e n t i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s . Moreover, t h e p r e - dominant a t t i t u d e a t any one t i m e c o u l d be r e v e r s e d w i t h a s t o n i s h i n g a l a c r i t y . The Kamloops S c h o o l was "so p o p u l a r " i n 1890 t h a t "the p r e - s e n t number o f p u p i l s m i g h t e a s i l y be q u a d r u p l e d . " Only two y e a r s l a t e r , however, t h e d e p a r t u r e o f an i n f l u e n t i a l p r i e s t combined w i t h i n c o m p e t e n t management p r o d u c e d so much d i s c o n t e n t t h a t the s c h o o l had t o be c l o s e d . I t was reopened i n 1893» and by 1895 was a g a i n i n u n d a t e d w i t h a p p l i c a - t i o n s , some p a r e n t s even o f f e r i n g payment t o have t h e i r c h i l d r e n a d m i t s t e d . Throughout B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , e d u c a t o r s g i f t e d w i t h v a r y i n g shades o f t a c t and competence e n c o u n t e r e d I n d i a n s o f d i s p a r a t e c u l - t u r a l background and e x p e r i e n c e : n a t u r a l l y , r e a c t i o n s d i f f e r e d f r o m p l a c e t o p l a c e , and f r o m y e a r t o y e a r . B u t t h e s c h o o l s g e n e r a l l y s u c - ceeded i n g e t t i n g t h e number o f c h i l d r e n t h e y d e s i r e d . 28 While the majority of Indians discerned l i t t l e tangible benefit in schooling, there were times when aspects of education appeared use- f u l . The French Catholics who ran the Kootenay School maintained that the Indians in the area eventually welcomed agricultural instruction because "tous comprennent que le gibier disparait...[et qu']ils seront obliges de vivre du produit de leurs f e r m e s . M o s t o f f i c i a l s believed Indians valued education "in proportion as i t helps them to hold their own in business relations with other nationalities," and that such contact and competition was "expanding more rapidly in British Columbia than elsewhere." On the west coast of Vancouver Island, for example, Indians found i t easier to obtain work in lumber camps and sawmills i f 7 they could speak English. S t i l l , even those natives convinced of education's value rarely Q considered i t "absolutely necessary"; they did not take the decision to enroll in a residential school lightly. Indians generally found day schools an easier alternative. Thus Peter Kelly's Haida stepfather, convinced that "education would become the important factor...in the lives of a l l young children," signed papers committing Peter to Coqualeetza in 1897, But i t took three years of further reflection before he f i n a l l y concluded thetsacrifice was worthwhile, and actually 9 l e t Peter attend. The desire for social advancement could inspire parents to look with favour on the education of their children. Members of one band in the New Westminster Agency were particularly interested in education because "they wish to see a l l their people put on a level with their white neighbours.""^ William Halliday recorded a speech made by one Kwakiutl father: "I allowed [my daughter] to go to school with pride 29 i n my h e a r t t o t h i n k t h a t she would be a b l e t o g e t ahead o f t h e o t h e r g i r l s o f o u r p e o p l e . T h e f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l p u p i l s sometimes d i d e x p e r i e n c e a d r a m a t i c enhancement o f t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t u s . A m i n i s t e r i n M a s s e t t r e c o r d e d t h a t one H a i d a boy who r e t u r n e d f r o m M e t l a k a t l a f o r 12 h o l i d a y s "walks about h e r e q u i t e t h e c e n t r e o f an a d m i r i n g crowd." A l t h o u g h s c h o o l s o f t e n f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o r e c r u i t because I n d i a n s f e a r e d t h e y were u n h e a l t h y , t h e r e v e r s e was o c c a s i o n a l l y t r u e as w e l l : t h e p a r t i c u l a r l y good h e a l t h r e c o r d s o f i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s c o u l d encourage p a r e n t s t o e n r o l l t h e i r c h i l d r e n . E. Robson r e p o r t e d from C o q u a l e e t z a i n 1895 t h a t , due t o t h e c o n c e r n e d e f f o r t s o f h i s t e a c h e r s , "the h e a l t h o f t h o s e i n t r u s t e d t o t h e i r c a r e has been s u c h , when c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n o u t s i d e , as t o c o n s t i t u t e a s t r o n g 13 r e a s o n f o r a t t e n d a n c e a t s c h o o l , i n t h e minds o f p a r e n t s . " A t W i l l i a m s l a k e , i n 1910, p a r e n t s were p u r p o r t e d l y so i m p r e s s e d w i t h h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s c h o o l t h a t t h e y n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y e n r o l l e d t h e i r 14 c h i l d w i t h t h e remark, "I'm a f r a i d h e ' l l d i e i f I keep him." The I n d i a n s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s c h o o l s d i d n o t j u s t d i f f e r f r o m p l a c e t o p l a c e , o r f r o m y e a r t o y e a r : a t any s i n g l e t i m e , I n d i a n s o f t h e same v i l l a g e m i g h t h o l d c o n t r a s t i n g v i e w s . r e W h i l e I M a r g a r e t B u t c h e r was e x a s p e r a t e d because the m a j o r i t y o f K i t i m a t I n d i a n s seemed t o f o c u s e x c l u s i v e l y on h e a l t h p roblems i n t h e s c h o o l , and i g n o r e t h e s t a f f ' s e f f o r t s t o n u r s e s i c k c h i l d r e n , she p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a few n a t i v e s l o o k e d a t t h e s c h o o l f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e : The m o r t a l i t y amongst t h e o u t s i d e c h i l d r e n i s g r e a t e r t h a n i n t h e Home. One man who has l o s t 7 c h i l d r e n has brought h i s boy t o us h o p i n g we c a n c a r r y him t h r o u g h and a n o t h e r has b r o u g h t h i s one p r e c i o u s l i t t l e son he has l o s t n i n e o t h e r c h i l d r e n and has o n l y a boy o f 22 o r so b e s i d e s . So you see t h e y do n o t a l l blame t h e Home and t h e r e i s s m a l l doubt t h a t t h e r e g u l a r l i v i n g , good f o o d , c l e a n l i n e s s e t c . h e l p t o k i l l o r s t a y t h e d i s e a s e i n many. 1-5 30 P a r e n t s e n r o l l i n g t h e i r young i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t h e a l t h c o n - d i t i o n s were b e t t e r i n t h e s c h o o l s t h a n a t home were p r o b a b l y more numerous a f t e r t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . F o r i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e s c h o o l s ' e x i s t e n c e , t h e s c h o o l s were d e m o n s t r a b l y u n h e a l t h y . Duncan Cam p b e l l S c o t t acknowledged i n 1913 t h a t p o o r accommodation and t h e f a i l - u r e t o s c r e e n a p p l i c a n t s had c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s p r e a d o f t u b e r c u l o s i s and s e v e r e l y i m p a i r e d t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s c h o o l s . " I t i s q u i t e w i t h i n t h e mark," he w r o t e , " t o s a y t h a t f i f t y p e r c e n t o f the c h i l d r e n who p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e s e s c h o o l s d i d n o t l i v e t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e 16 e d u c a t i o n w h i c h t h e y had r e c e i v e d t h e r e i n . " S c h o o l s began r e q u i r i n g t h e m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f a p p l i c a n t s a t v a r i o u s t i m e s - - K u p e r I s l a n d by 1893; C o q u a l e e t z a i n 1897—but a s t r i c t d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o a c c e p t o n l y t h e h e a l t h i e s t c h i l d r e n d i d n o t 17 become o f f i c i a l Department p o l i c y u n t i l about 1910. I n 1911, a d o c t o r examined e a c h c h i l d a d m i t t e d t o t h e L y t t o n S c h o o l f o r d e f e c t i v e l i m b s , p o o r e y e s i g h t o r h e a r i n g , s c r o f u l a , f i t s , and s m a l l p o x . B u t s i n c e o f f i c i a l s a t L y t t o n d i d n o t f i n d i t e a s y t o r e c r u i t p u p i l s , t h e i r minimum s t a n d a r d s were n o t , a p p a r e n t l y , t o o e x a c t i n g . I v o r C i s c o was a d m i t t e d i n 1912 even though he had "some s l i g h t e n l a r g e m e n t o f t h e l y m p h a t i c g l a n d s " ; A n g e l i n a B a r r a c k , who had bad e y e s i g h t , exzema, and c o n g e n i t a l s y p h i l i s , was a c c e p t e d on t h e grounds t h a t 18 t r e a t m e n t would improve h e r . ' Even a t K u p e r I s l a n d , where t h e r e was n o r s h o r t a g e o f a p p l i c a n t s , t h e p r i n c i p a l c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e D o c t o r had approved a g i r l who was s c r o f u l o u s and d e a f , as w e l l as b e i n g an " i d i o t . " 1 9 S t r o n g r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s o r c o n v i c t i o n s c o u l d i n f l u e n c e I n d i a n s t o a c c e p t r e s i d e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n . The l a y p r i n c i p a l o f t h e Kamloops 31 School found i t beyond h i s power to maintain attendance a f t e r the i n - 20 f l u e n t i a l Father Lejacq departed i n 1892. Dedication to the Roman Catholic Church and respect f o r the advice of i t s p r i e s t s may well have helped prompt the Sechelt Indians—former p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Father Durieu's r i g i d l y d i s c i p l i n e d s o c i a l "system"—to construct t h e i r own boarding 21 school i n 1903- When in f l u e n z a struck Indians i n the Stuart Lake area i n about 1917, parents who had disobeyed the p r i e s t ' s i n j u n c t i o n to ensure t h e i r children's attendance construed i t as divine r e t r i b u t i o n 22 f o r t h e i r disobedience. Conversely, r e l i g i o u s questions could prevent enrollment. Indians who retained t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l b e l i e f s feared that education w 23 would separate t h e i r Children from them a f t e r death. In addition, as Agent Frank Devlin reported, many of those who are not attending school are most anxious to go, but there i s not accommodation f o r them. Their parents are very p a r t i c u l a r about sending t h e i r ' childrehyto'--any";-sehool-6onducted by a r e l i g i o u s denomination other than that to which they themselves belong. ̂ + Because the Catholi c schools at St. Mary's Mission and on Kuper Island were almost always f u l l , many parents i n the overwhelmingly Catholic areas of southern Vancouver Island and the Fraser Valley had e i t h e r to d i s - regard r e l i g i o u s preferences, and send'their c h i l d r e n to the Methodist Coqualeetza School, or do without r e s i d e n t i a l education. In f a c t , many parents were f l e x i b l e enough to permit t h e i r young to attend Coqualeetza, although they usually transferred them to a Catholic school when a 25 vacancy arose. Parents were sometimes prepared to ignore r e l i g i o u s d ifferences altogether i f doing so meant t h e i r c h i l d r e n could attend 26 a boarding school nearer home. 32 R e l i g i o u s groups competed b i t t e r l y f o r r e c r u i t s . The d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t o r expand r e l i g i o u s s p h e r e s o f i n f l u e n c e was one o f t h e main r e a s o n s c h u r c h e s u n d e r t o o k " . r e s i d e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n . A. W. C o r k e r en- co u r a g e d the A n g l i c a n C h u r c h M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y t o c o n t i n u e a d m i n i s t e r - i n g t h e A l e r t Bay I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , a r g u i n g t h a t o t h e r w i s e t h e D e p a r t - ment would p r o b a b l y hand i t o v e r t o t h e Roman C a t h o l i c s ; C a t h o l i c s a c c e p t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e C l a y o q u o t S c h o o l f e a r i n g t h a t i f t h e y d i d n o t , C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n would be " p e r v e r t e d " by P r o t e s t a n t 27 i n s t r u c t i o n . C a t h o l i c s a t S t . Mary's M i s s i o n hoped t o t r a i n as many c h i l d r e n as p o s s i b l e t o "become good C a t h o l i c s and r e a l i z e t h e need o f d e f e n d i n g t h e i r r e l i g i o n a g a i n s t t h e a s s a u l t s o f n o n - C a t h o l i c w h i t e s and I n d i a n s . " ^ Thus r e c r u i t m e n t was o f t e n r e d u c e d t o a n u m e r i c a l b a t t l e between r e l i g i o u s s e c t s . When M e t h o d i s t s a t S a r d i s b u i l t t h e new C o q u a l e e t z a S c h o o l , c a p a b l e o f h o l d i n g one hundred s t u d e n t s , C a t h o l i c s a t M i s s i o n f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s " f o r c e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e number [ o f p u p i l s ] up towa r d s one hundred because t h e P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r s a r e t h i s y e a r p u t t i n g f o r t h b r a v e e f f o r t s t o draw t o t h e i r f r e e s c h o o l s t h e c h i l d r e n o f o u r 29 n a t i v e n e o p h y t e s . " I n f a c t , t h e p r i n c i p a l o f C o q u a l e e t z a , J o s e p h H a l l , c o n t i n u e d t o r e c r u i t Roman C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n even a f t e r S u p e r i n t e n - d e n t V o w e l l reminded him t h a t Department r e g u l a t i o n s " e x p l i c i t l y , f o r - bade" t h e a d m i s s i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n t o a s c h o o l o f a d i f f e r e n t denomi- 30 n a t i o n . S uch c o m p e t i t i o n o f t e n became q u i t e h e a t e d . G. D o n c k e l e , C a t h o l i c p r i n c i p a l a t Kuper I s l a n d , a c c u s e d the M e t h o d i s t 5 m i s s i o n a r y j C. M. Tate o f s p r e a d i n g m a l i c i o u s rumours about t h e Kuper I s l a n d S c h o o l i n o r d e r t o c o n v i n c e C a t h o l i c I n d i a n s t o send t h e i r young t o C o q u a l e e t z a : " n o t h i n g i s t o o low and mean f o r him t o s t o o p t o i n o r d e r t o c a r r y h i s 33 31 point." J Even Fred Thornberg attributed the abduction of his daughter to overzealous religious competition: the Presbyterians at Alberni hoped by 32 their action to prevent her enrollment at the Catholic Clayoquot School. Catholic schools were sufficiently widespread that most Catholic Indians who wished to attend could do so without travelling great dis- tances from their homes. Consequently, the schools housed f a i r l y homo- geneous groups of natives. A l l children attending the Sechelt School were of the Sechelt band; only Kootenays went to the Kootenay School; a l l those 33 attending at Kamloops came from local bands. Of the 96 children ad- mitted to the Kuper Island School between 1897 and 1906, a l l came from one of two different linguistic groups: 61 were Halkomelem; 35 were Straits Salish. St. Mary's Mission was the most ethnically diverse 35 Catholic school, containing representatives of three language groups. In contrast, Protestant schools often contained children of many backgrounds. Protestant natives outnumbered Catholics only i n the north- ern, coastal areas of British Columbia. But, especially after the closure of the Metlakatla S6hool in 1909, and of the Port Simpson Boys' Home in 1916, Protestants in this area had l i t t l e chance of gaining entry to a local school. In addition, there were small numbers of Protestant c h i l - dren scattered throughout other parts of the province—but not usually enough in any one area to support a boarding school. Meanwhile, the largest Protestant school in the province—Coqualeetza—was located i n the Fraser Agency, where the native population was ninety percent Catholic. Protestant o f f i c i a l s undertook the obvious solution; import- ing children from throughout British Columbia to Coqualeetza. Table I (page 34) illustrates the linguistic backgrounds of the 489 students atten- ding Coqualeetza between 1888 and 1911. 'Therc.;;wero" representatives of 34 TABLE I C o q u a l e e t z a I n d u s t r i a l I n s t i t u t e : O r i g i n s o f P u p i l s by L i n g u i s t i c Groups L i n g u i s t i c Group Number o f P u p i l s B e l l a C o o l a 28 C a r r i e r 4 Comox 7 H a i d a 37 Halkomelem 203 K w a k i u t l 33 L i l l o o e t 3 Nootka 22 Okanagan 2 S e c h e l t 1 Shuswap 2 Squamish 30 S t r a i t s S a l i s h 19 Thompson 5 T s i m s h i a n 78 O t h e r s 3 Not C l e a r 8 Not G i v e n 4 TOTAL 489 35 dozens of d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s , and (e x c l u d i n g those l a b e l l e d "white" and " I t a l i a n " ) f i f t e e n d i s t i n c t language groups. Such a n a l y s i s does not take i n t o account f u r t h e r p o s s i b l e d i v i s i o n i n t o d i a l e c t groups, although d i a l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s were sometimes great enough to prevent 37 communicatxon. While Coqualeetza was the most extreme example o f e t h n i c mix, other P r o t e s t a n t schools a l s o contained c h i l d r e n of d i s p a r a t e back- grounds. A l l Hallows, f o r example, r e c r u i t e d from a minimum of s i x l i n g u i s t i c groups. When o f f i c i a l s a t l y t t o n and A l e r t Bay c o n s i s - t e n t l y f a i l e d to o b t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t number of p u p i l s l o c a l l y — e v e n though there were p l e n t y of P r o t e s t a n t s i n t h e i r a r e a s — t h e y began, 39 l i k e Coqualeetza, to seek them i n the north. Broadly speaking, i t seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t f o r P r o t e s t a n t I n d i a n s — e s p e c i a l l y those i n the n o r t h — e n r o l l m e n t at r e s i d e n t i a l school was a more d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s than f o r C a t h o l i c s , i n v o l v i n g as i t o f t e n d i d a grea t e r s e p a r a t i o n of parent and c h i l d . In the United S t a t e s , the Government d e l i b e r a t e l y mixed n a t i v e s of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c backgrounds i n an e f f o r t to b l u r and destroy the 40 n a t i v e c u l t u r e . Some Canadian o f f i c i a l s a l s o applauded the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of such mingling. W i l l i a m H a l l i d a y , o l n d i a n Agent f o r the Kwak i u t l s , observed t h a t s i n c e E n g l i s h was the only common language, c h i l d r e n had more i n c e n t i v e t o use i t . He a l s o noted a " f r i e n d l y 41 r i v a l r y " between c h i l d r e n of the d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s . But i t seems th a t i n B r i t i s h Columbia e t h n i c mixture was the r e s u l t of n e c e s s i t y , not design: i n order to f i l l t h e i r schools, some educators were f o r c e d f a r a f i e l d . I t i s true t h a t , i n the case of the l y t t o n School, r e c r u i t - i n g c h i l d r e n from d i s t a n t areas may have had the a n c i l l a r y and not unwelcome e f f e c t of rendering t r u a n c y — a p e r s i s t e n t problem there—more 42 d i f f i c u l t . Most schools, however, would have r e c r u i t e d l o c a l l y i f possible. W. E. Ditchburn, i n charge of several agencies i n southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia, observed i n 1913 that there were several g i r l s from other agencies i n the A l e r t Bay G i r l s ' Home, and added: "There should be plenty of g i r l s i n the Kwawkewlth agency alone to f i l l t h i s school, and I am of the opinion that every e f f o r t should be made to obtain 43 p u p i l s from t h i s before taking any from outside agencies." Boys and g i r l s attended B r i t i s h Columbia r e s i d e n t i a l schools i n approximately equal numbers. In 1894, the schools contained 165 boys and 187 g i r l s ; i n 1910, 425 boys and 411 g i r l s ; i n 1920, 547 boys and 568 g i r l s . These fi g u r e s do not nec e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t the s i t u a t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n s : there were G i r l s ! schools at Yale, Port Simpson, and A l e r t Bay; Boys' schools at Port Simpson, A l e r t Bay, and Lytton. Most schools were mixed, but not, usually, i n equal numbers. Boys were rather more l i k e l y to attend the s t r i c r t l y " i n d u s t r i a l " schools, g i r l s the "boarding" schools, perhaps because fewer, and l e s s elaborate f a c i l i t i e s were needed to teach g i r l s housekeeping and sewing 44 than to i n s t r u c t boys i n trades. Educators wanted both sexes to attend. Boys were to learn the values and rhythms e s s e n t i a l to farming or working f o r wages. G i r l s needed an education because they would have an inestimable moral i n - fluence on t h e i r future husbands; and would have the c e n t r a l respon- s i b i l i t y f o r creating the healthy home conditions which could obviate the need f o r future boarding schools. The p r i n c i p a l of the A l e r t Bay G i r l s ' Home, Alf r e d H a l l , argued that i t was even more v i t a l to teach g i r l s than i t was to teach boys. " I f we can save (morally) the g i r l s 3 7 we save a l s o t h e b o y s , " he wrote t h e Ch u r c h M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y i n 1 8 9 2 , 2+5 "but t h e c o n t r a r y i s n o t t r u e . " There was a l s o a demographic i m p e r a - t i v e f o r t h e m o r a l e d u c a t i o n o f I n d i a n g i r l s . The number o f women o f c h i l d - b e a r i n g age h a v i n g been d e c i m a t e d t h r o u g h p r o s t i t u t i o n and v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e , i n c u l c a t i o n o f c o r r e c t v a l u e s i n t h e r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n o f g i r l s a ppeared even more e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e immediate s u r v i v a l o f t h e r a c e t h a n i m p l a n t a t i o n o f new economic v i r t u e s i n boys. I n some a r e a s , p a r e n t s were more w i l l i n g t o e n r o l l one s e x t h a n t h e o t h e r . W i l l i a m H a l l i d a y wrote f r o m A l e r t Bay t h a t K w a k i u t l s f e a r e d e d u c a t i o n would t e a c h g i r l s n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p o t l a t c h . The g i r l s ' c o o p e r a t i o n was as e s s e n t i a l f o r economic as f o r c u l t u r a l r e a s o n s : A l l t h e I n d i a n m a r r i a g e s a r e a r r a n g e d a t the p o t l a t c h , and g i f t s a r e g i v e n t o t h e f r i e n d s o f t h e b r i d e , who have t h e use o f them f o r a s c e r t a i n t i m e , d u r i n g w h i c h t h e y e x p e c t t o d o u b l e o r even t r e b l e them b e f o r e t h e y a r e u l t i m a t e l y g i v e n back t o t h e donors.^6 I n c o n t r a s t , t h e p r i n c i p a l a t W i l l i a m s Lake f o u n d t h a t "the I n d i a n s seem t o be v e r y a n x i o u s f o r t h e i r g i r l s t o a t t e n d s c h o o l , b u t n o t t h e i r b oys. I n 1 9 1 0 , Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s s c h o a r e v e r y o f t e n m i n i s t e r i n g t o a c l a s s w h i c h would be o u t c a s t s w i t h o u t s u c h a i d ; I r e f e r t o t h e i l l e g i t i m a t e o f f s p r i n g o f w h i t e men and I n d i a n women who a r e thrown upon t h e i r mothers f o r s u p p o r t , and who have no l e g a l s t a t u s as I n d i a n s . ^ But i t was n o t t h e o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e o f t h e s c h o o l s t o e d u c a t e c h i l d r e n o f mixed b l o o d . When f o u r " h a l f - b r e e d s " a p p l i e d f o r a d m i s s i o n t o t h e M e t l a k a t l a S c h o o l i n 1 8 8 9 , J . N. 0 . S c o t t " t o l d [them] I c o u l d n o t edu- LLQ c a t e them; I , however, made an e x c e p t i o n i n f a v o r o f one o f these?." The A c t i n g P r i n c i p a l a t Kuper I s l a n d , G. C. Van Gothen, c i t e d a r e g u - l a t i o n i s s u e d by t h e Department i n 1 8 9 3 as s t a t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y : "No 38 halfbreed...can be taken [ i n t o the] I n s t i t u t i o n without the express permission of the Department, and only under very e x c e p t i o n a l circum- s t a n c e s . " ^ Joseph H a l l , of Coqualeetza, wrote i n 1896 t h a t the Depart- ment d i d not recognize halfbreeds as Indians, "except i n the case of those l i v i n g on Reserves." Since Government grants were provided only i f p u p i l s were considered l e g a l l y Indian, H a l l concluded: " I t h i n k the time i s at hand when we s h a l l have to refuse [ h a l f ] breed c h i l d r e n who are not wards of the Gov[ernmen]t. Although r e c r u i t e r s g e n e r a l l y gave f u l l - b l o o d e d Indians p r e f e r - ence, halfbreeds continued to enter most schools. When C a t h o l i c s com- p l a i n e d t h a t the Methodists were r e c e i v i n g Government grants f o r edu- c a t i n g non-Indians, Agent D e v l i n examined the r e g i s t e r and c h i l d r e n a t Coqualeetza i n January of 1897. He concluded, i n Joseph H a l l ' s words, that "so many as 40 [out of about 100] of our present school are non 52 Indians." I n f a c t , even C a t h o l i c s admitted halfbreeds. When A l b e r t Wilson a p p l i e d to have h i s h a l f - c a s t e daughter admitted at Kuper I s l a n d , G. Donckele h e s i t a t e d because Wilson "had then a house outside the Reservation." Nevertheless, Donckele requested the Agent to a u t h o r i z e the g i r l ' s e ntry, arguing t h a t i t would not be to the e x c l u s i o n of any 5 3 f u l l - b l o o d e d Indians. C h i l d r e n whose parents were dead c o n s t i t u t e d a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l school populations. Of the 489 p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g Coqualeetza between 1888 and 1911, complete i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e f o r 438. Of these, 198, or 45 percent, had l o s t one or both parents: 82 had a l i v i n g f a t h e r but no mother; 86 had a mother but were f a t h e r - 54 l e s s ; 30 were without e i t h e r parent.-^ The records of the Kuper I s l a n d School c o n t a i n p e r t i n e n t data on 171 c h i l d r e n e n r o l l i n g between 1890 and 39 1906. Eighty-five—almost 50 percent--came from families in which one or both parents had. died. F i f t y had only a mother; 20 had only a father; 15 were without either parent."^ The admissions registers of A l l Hallows School, at Yale, and St. George's School, at Lytton, do not contain complete information regarding parents, but they do indicate that the parents of many pupils were dead, and that several couples were separated or unmarried. Definite conclusions about the significance of the above in- formation cannot be reached without a clearer picture of orphanage rates in the Indian population at large during this period. Such sta t i s t i c s are not contained in available census data. But one of the most striking characteristics of the school children does seem to have been that many were orphans. When the Port Simpson Boys' Home f i r s t 57 opened, i t housed "twenty-five orphans or lads from distant Reserves." Alfred Hall wrote that because heathens would not leave their daughters in his Alert Bay Girls' Home, "those we have are orphans or the children 58 of Christian parents." There i s abundant evidence that i t was the death of parents that produced the enrollment of many Indian children. At Kuper Island, in 1899, the principal claimed he was being deluged with applications, and explained: "Through disasters, which, a few years ago befell a a considerable number of Indians engaged in the sealing industry, many children have been l e f t orphans and their guardians would also be glad 59 to have them placed in the school." When a former pupil sent her daughter to A l l Hallows, she wrote the principal: "I sent my l i t t l e r n 60 g i r l to you pecause | sic j I am dying." Marriage breakdown also prompted applications. Tommy Pi e l asked Donckele to enroll his two nieces at 40 Kuper Island; one was "the daughter of h i s s i s t e r Mary who has l a t e l y 6l been sent away by her husband." The death of only one parent did not, however, always encourage enrollment: whether i t did so depended i n large part on the age of the c h i l d . Young chi l d r e n might be a greater economic bufdentthan a s i n g l e parent could support. Mrs. Purser sent her three c h i l d r e n under the age of 12 to the Kuper Island School i n 1905 because her hus- band's recent death meant that she would have to go out to work, and would no longer have the time or f i n a n c i a l resources to give them the 62 care and attention they required. In contrast, an older c h i l d could be an economic asset to a s i n g l e parent, by performing tasks previously done by the deceased parent. Thus Donckele discharged one older boy from Kuper Island, explaining: "On account of his mother having died /To l a t e l y he w i l l have to help h i s f a t h e r at home." A f t e r her husband died, Mrs. Sam Crocker enrolled her twelve year old son, Abraham, at Kuper Island, on the grounds that she was "without any means of sustain- ing her family." But when Abraham reached the age of sixteen or seven- teen, Mrs. Crocker asked the p r i n c i p a l to discharge himmbecause she was 64 destitutei?. and needed "to have him home to help her." Thus the age of the c h i l d at the time his parent died l a r g e l y determined whether his enrollment would be f i n a n c i a l l y advantageous. I t i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r how the apparent willingness of Indian f a m i l i e s to e n r o l l young orphans r e l a t e s to ongoing s o c i a l changes. The t r a d i t i o n a l , extended family of most B r i t i s h Columbia Indians had a multitude of "grandparents, aunts, uncles, and co-wives to share i n 6^ the care of the many c l o s e l y r e l a t e d c h i l d r e n of the house." When a c h i l d l o s t one or both parents, co-resident r e l a t i v e s outside h i s 41 immediate n u c l e a r c i r c l e e n l a r g e d t h e i r a l r e a d y p a r t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s c a r e . D i d t h e f r e q u e n t e n r o l l m e n t o f orphans i n d i c a t e t h e breakdown o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l way o f d e a l i n g w i t h s u c h c h i l d r e n ? What does t h e f a c t t h a t so many orphans were s e n t t o b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s t e l l us about n a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n , and t h e changes i n t h e I n d i a n f a m i l y ? The l a s t c h a p t e r p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e s m a l l number o f c h i l d r e n , com- b i n e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g n u c l e a r i z a t i o n o f the I n d i a n f a m i l y , p r o d u c e d a t i g h t e n i n g o f e m o t i o n a l bonds between p a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s c o r r e c t , p a r e n t s i n g e n e r a l p r e s u m a b l y f o u n d i t h a r d t o p a r t w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Bereaved p a r e n t s , however, s h o u l d have f o u n d s e p a r a - t i o n f r o m t h e i r r e m a i n i n g f a m i l y e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t ; and ought t o have been l e s s ( n o t more) w i l l i n g t h a n o t h e r p a r e n t s t o e n r o l l t h e i r c h i l d r e n — u n l e s s economic v i c i s s i t u d e s meant t h e y c o u l d no l o n g e r c a r e f o r them. But what o f o t h e r r e l a t i v e s ? D i d t h e y no l o n g e r a i d widowed p a r e n t s by baby- s i t t i n g , o r by p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t ? The c o m p a r a t i v e r a r i t y o f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d have i n c r e a s e d t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e y would have hadh b o t h t h e e m o t i o n a l needs and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s t o b a b y s i t ^ p a r t i a l o r - phans; o r t o adopt t o t a l o r p hans. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h a t a u n t s , u n c l e s , and g r a n d p a r e n t s were a p p a r e n t l y l e s s l i k e l y t h a n b e f o r e t o c o - r e s i d e w i t h nephews, n i e c e s , and g r a n d c h i l d r e n may have made s u c h a i d l e s s p r o b a b l e . F o r w h i l e i n t e n s i f y i n g e m o t i o n a l t i e s between c h i l d r e n and t h e i r own p a r - e n t s , t h e d i v i s i o n o f e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s i n t o n u c l e a r g r o u p s c o u l d have weakened bonds between t h e same c h i l d r e n and t h e i r o t h e r r e l a t i v e s , by r e - d u c i n g t h e amount o f c o n t a c t t h e y had w i t h e a c h o t h e r , and by d i m i n i s h i n g t h e i r s ense o f community and m u t u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t m i g h t a l s o have been more d i f f i c u l t f o r r e l a t i v e s who l i v e d i n s m a l l , s e p a r a t e houses t o c a r e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n o f s i n g l e w o r k i n g p a r e n t s . C l e a r l y , however, 4 2 we need t o know much more about t h e e x a c t s t a t e o f t h e I n d i a n f a m i l y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , and have a c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s e p a r a t e r e s i d e n c e s , b e f o r e we can a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n why I n d i a n s seem t o have been p a r t i c u l a r l y w i l l i n g t o e n r o l l orphans i n b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s . The p o l i c i e s o f s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s may p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n t h e l a r g e number o f orphans i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . A l t h o u g h J . H. Van Den B r i n k e x a g g e r a t e s when he s a y s r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s were " o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d f o r orphans and c h i l d r e n f r o m p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s , o f f i c i a l s a p p a r e n t l y d i d g i v e p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f or p h a n s . A t Kuper I s l a n d , f o r example, D o n c k e l e a d m i t t e d orphans who were t o o young, o r who even had s e v e r e p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p s — c h i l d r e n he would o t h e r w i s e Cry have r e f u s e d . I n 1902, he had s i x t e e n s t u d e n t s on t h e r o l l f o r whom he r e c e i v e d no g r a n t : w h i l e n o t o b l i g e d t o admit so many, he f o u n d i t "a v e r y h a r d m a t t e r t o r e f u s e a d m i t t a n c e f o r an orphan o r a d e s t i t u t e 68 c h i l d . " By 1 9 2 4 , i t was e x p l i c i t Government p o l i c y t h a t "orphans, c h i l d r e n o f d e s t i t u t e p a r e n t s and t h o s e l i v i n g some d i s t a n c e f r o m day s c h o o l s on t h e r e s e r v e s a r e g i v e n t h e p r e f e r e n c e , when t h e number o f v a c a n c i e s i s l i m i t e d . " ^ The ages a t w h i c h c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s c o u l d be an i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r n o t j u s t o f t h e way e d u c a t o r s s e l e c t e d p u p i l s , b u t o f t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f economic and a f f e c t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e f a m i l y ' s d e c i s i o n . T a b l e I I (page 4 3 ) i s a f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e ages a t a d m i s s i o n o f p u p i l s i n f i v e 7 0 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . The p u p i l s e n t e r i n g C o q u a l e e t z a r a n g e d f r o m as young as t h r e e t o as o l d as t w e n t y - f o u r . The mode age o f e n t r y was t e n . The median was e l e v e n : an e q u a l number o f c h i l d r e n 43 TABLE II Ages at Admission;; Age Number of Pupils Coqualeetza Kuper Island Lytton/Yale Kamloops 3 8 2 4 9 5 21 1 6 33 3 5 7 44 9 21 2 8 32 12 29 2 9 40 10 27 5 10 47 33 34 3 11 39 9 18 3 12 43 6 25 7 13 46 3 24 1 14 35 1 34 15 37 l 11 16 33 1 5 17 9 18 9 1 Over 18 4 Not Known 7 7 Total 489 96 242 24 TOTAL KNOWN 489 89 235 24 Li4 entered, under t h e age o f e l e v e n and o v e r t h e age o f e l e v e n . The median was t e n a t Kuper I s l a n d , L y t t o n / Y a l e , and Kamloops. I n t h e o r y , t h e I n d i a n Department wanted day s c h o o l s , when a v a i l a b l e , t o p r e p a r e younger c h i l d r e n f o r t h e more advanced t r a i n i n g 7 t h e y c o u l d g e t i n t h e l a r g e r and o f t e n more d i s t a n t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , t h i s s y s t e m worked. Many o f t h e c h i l d r e n who t r a v e l l e d f rom t h e n o r t h t o a t t e n d a t C o q u a l e e t z a and L y t t o n were o l d e r p u p i l s who came o n l y a f t e r s p e n d i n g t i m e i n day o r s m a l l b o a n d i n g s c h o o l s 72 c l o s e r t o home. However, t h e p r i n c i p a l s o f most r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s t r i e d t o g e t c h i l d r e n w h i l e t h e y were s t i l l as young as p o s s i b l e . The Department i t s e l f acknowledged t h a t i t "would be h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e , i f i t were p r a c t i c a b l e , t o o b t a i n e n t i r e p o s s e s s i o n o f a l l I n d i a n c h i l - 73 d r e n a f t e r t h e y a t t a i n t o t h e age o f seven o r e i g h t y e a r s . " A t Kuper I s l a n d , G. D o n c k e l e had t r o u b l e g e t t i n g y ounger c h i l d r e n when t h e s c h o o l f i r s t opened; b u t when a p p l i c a t i o n s m u l t i p l i e d , he l e t h i s o l d e r p u p i l s go, r e p l a c i n g them w i t h s e v e n and e i g h t y e a r o l d s — m o s t l o c a l 74 c h i l d r e n w i t h no p r e v i o u s s c h o o l i n g . I f o l d e r , D o n c k e l e w r o t e , " t he danger i s t h a t t h e y have a l r e a d y c o n t r a c t e d many o f t h e v i c e s o f t h e o l d e r p e o p l e , and once t h e y have t a k e n r o o t i t i s v e r y h a r d t o e r a d i c a t e 75 them." ^ S i m i l a r l y , t h e p r i n c i p a l a t Kamloops asked a r e c r u i t e r t o b r i n g "un e n f a n t de 8 a 9 ans, ou meme de 7 a n s . " ^ The d i f f e r e n t r e c r u i t i n g p o l i c y no doubt a c c o u n t s f o r t h e much h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t e e n a g e r s e n t e r i n g C o q u a l e e t z a and L y t t o n , as compared w i t h Kuper I s l a n d and Kamloops. S i n c e t e n o r e l e v e n was an age a t w h i c h c h i l d r e n m i g h t be assumed c a p a b l e o f b e g i n n i n g t o u n d e r t a k e s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s i n t h e f a m i l y economy, t h e f a c t t h a t h a l f were t h i s age o r o l d e r when e n r o l l e d k5 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s c h o o l s were n o t b e i n g used e x c l u s i v e l y as a f r e e b a b y s i t t i n g s e r v i c e f o r t h o s e who would o t h e r w i s e have been a d r a i n on t h e i r f a m i l y ' s f i n a n c e s . The e x a c t degree t o w h i c h c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e f a m i l y a t t e n o r e l e v e n i s , o f c o u r s e , p r o b - l e m a t i c . Mrs. Sam C r o c k e r , m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , e v i d e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d h e r t w e l v e y e a r o l d s o n a f i n a n c i a l burden, and b e l i e v e d t h a t h i s e n r o l l m e n t h e l p e d h e r . I n c o n t r a s t , when h e r husband d i e d , t h e mother o f t w e l v e y e a r o l d " E m i l e " p e r s i s t e n t l y b a d gered D o n c k e l e t o r e l e a s e h e r son. Donckele r e s i s t e d , a r g u i n g t h a t E m i l e "would be o n l y a b i l l o f expense 77 t o h e r . " P e r h a p s i n t h i s c a s e i n c r e a s e d a f f e c t i v e needs out w e i g h e d an i n c r e a s i n g l y m a r g i n a l economic burden. Whatever t h e e x a c t age a t w h i c h t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s c h i l d r e n made began t o exceed t h e c o s t o f t h e i r m a i n t e n a n c e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t e n r o l l m e n t was e x a c t i n g economic s a c r i f i c e from a number o f t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h a t h a l f o f t h e c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g were under t e n o r e l e v e n i n d i c a t e s t h a t a f f e c t i v e t i e s d i d n o t p r e v e n t a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f p a r e n t s f r o m e n r o l l i n g t h e i r v e r y young c h i l d r e n , A l t h o u g h t h e d a t a i s f a r f r o m c o n c l u s i v e , one m i g h t s p e c u l a t e t h a t , on b a l a n c e , most p a r e n t s had r a t h e r more t o g a i n t h a n l o s e e c o n o m i c a l l y by e n r o l l m e n t ; and t h a t e m o t i o n a l bonds p l a y e d a l e s s v i t a l r o l e o v e r a l l t h a n m i g h t have been e x p e c t e d . Whether r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f i n a n c i a l a d vantages t o be r e a l i z e d by e n r o l l i n g v e r y young c h i l d r e n was what a c t u a l l y prompted p a r e n t s t o do so,no doubt depended i n l a r g e p a r t on the economic s i t u a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y o r band. W h i l e on t h e west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d p a r e n t s made "generous d o n a t i o n s o f f i s h and v e n i s o n " t o one s c h o o l " w i t h o u t t h o u g h t o f c o m p e n s a t i o n , " a t L y t t o n and Y a l e t h e y o b j e c t e d t o a s c h o o l p o l i c y r e q u i r i n g t h a t t h e y s u p p l y 46 79 t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s s hoes. Thus, p a r e n t s and e d u c a t o r s j o i n t l y s e l e c t e d p u p i l s . E d u c a t o r s u s u a l l y a t t e m p t e d t o g e t young, d e m o n s t r a b l y h e a l t h y c h i l d r e n o f b o t h s e x e s . They gave p r e f e r e n c e t o f u l l - b l o o d e d I n d i a n s , t o orphans, and t o members o f t h e i r own r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n . When n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o f i l l t h e i r s c h o o l s , t h e y r e c r u i t e d n a t i v e s o f d i v e r s e o r i g i n s . I n d i a n s who a g r e e d t o e n r o l l t h e i r young were o f t e n t h o s e who b e l i e v e d i n t h e f u t u r e v a l u e o f e d u c a t i o n as a t o o l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l and s o c i a l advancement; o r p e r h a p s , on o c c a s i o n , t h o s e who hoped f o r s u p e r i o r h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s c h o o l s . C h i l d r e n f r e q u e n t l y went t o t h e s c h o o l as t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e d e a t h o f one o r b o t h p a r e n t s — m o s t o f t e n t o a s c h o o l r u n by t h e i r own r e l i g i o u s s e c t . A f f e c t i v e t i e s d i d n o t p r e - v e n t p a r e n t s f r o m e n r o l l i n g v e r y young c h i l d r e n ; n o r d i d economic c o n - s i d e r a t i o n s p r e c l u d e t h e e n t r y o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n . 47 CHAPTER I V THE SCHOOL REGIMEN AND TRUANCY: POWER TO COMPEL I n 1911, George Ditcham was f i r e d , as p r i n c i p a l o f S t . George's I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , a t L y t t o n . I n h i s l a s t a n n u a l r e p o r t , Ditcham b i t - t e r l y d e s c r i b e d t h e s i t u a t i o n he was l e a v i n g : There a r e o n l y f i v e s m a l l b o y s a t s c h o o l — s o m e f i n i s h e d and o t h e r s absconded...one f o l l o w e d t h e o t h e r l i k e c a t t l e , and as t h e expense was t o o g r e a t f o r c o n s t a b l e s t o b r i n g them back and h o l d them a t s c h o o l , t h e y a r e s t i l l away.-1- P a r e n t s encouraged t h e runaways, e x p l a i n i n g t o S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r Green i n J u l y o f 1910 t h a t t h e i r boys were "worked t o o h a r d and p u n i s h e d t o o s e v e r e l y . " Green d i s m i s s e d the I n d i a n s ' c h a r g e s as " g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e d , " b u t soon a t e a c h e r q u i t t h e s c h o o l w i t h o u t n o t i c e , and, i n a l e t t e r t o t h e m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t y w h i c h r a n t h e s c h o o l , " c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e t r e a t - ment th e boys endured a t t h e hands o f Mr. D i t c h a m . " A f t e r a p e r s o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e A n g l i c a n B i s h o p o f New W e s t m i n s t e r c o n f i r m e d "the 3 rumours o f Mr. Ditcham's temper and punishment o f t h e b o y s . " The m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t y r e p l a c e d Ditcham w i t h L e o n a r d Dawson, a man whom th e 4 s c h o o l ' s most r e c e n t p r i n c i p a l has d e s c r i b e d as " d i c t a t o r i a l . " E n t r i e s i n t h e s c h o o l ' s a d m i s s i o n s and a t t e n d a n c e r e g i s t e r s d u r i n g the seven y e a r s Dawson was i n c h a r g e make i t p l a i n t h a t he f a i l e d t o s t o p o r c o n t r o l t h e t r u a n c y p r oblem. P u p i l s r a n away i n d r o v e s , sometimes s t a y i n g a t t h e s c h o o l o n l y a few days between e s c a p e s . T h e i r c o m p l a i n t s remained e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same as when Ditcham had been p r i n c i p a l : I n d i a n s 48 at Lytton t o l d the 1916 Royal Commission that d i s c i p l i n e at St. George's was "too harsh." While there are, unfortunately, no r e l i a b l e truancy s t a t i s t i c s , i mpressionistic evidence indicates that although the problem was unusu- a l l y acute and enduring at Lytton, most other r e s i d e n t i a l schools were also plagued, at l e a s t p e r i o d i c a l l y , by runaways. Desertions became such a serious problem at Coqualeetza i n 1894 and 1895 that Church author- i t i e s i n s t a l l e d Joseph H a l l as p r i n c i p a l s p e c i f i c a l l y because he was 7 reputed to be "a strong d i s c i p l i n a r i a n . " . The p r i n c i p a l at Williams Lake complained of poor attendance i n 1902, explaining that "the g c h i l d r e n ran away too frequently and too e a s i l y . " Rashes of truancy threw the Kuper Island School i n t o near chaos on more than one occasion. A f t e r several boys disappeared i n September 1894, the p r i n c i p a l worried that he might lose c o n t r o l of the s i t u a t i o n "unless some check be Q placed on the P u p i l s . " y This chapter w i l l t r y to c l a r i f y why p u p i l s ran from the boarding schools, and how o f f i c i a l s dealt with the problem. I n d i r e c t l y , i t w i l l demonstrate that the c o n f l i c t between native and school rhythms could make r e s i d e n t i a l schools a t r y i n g experience f o r educators, and a profoundly traumatic one f o r c h i l d r e n . Homesickness was n a t u r a l l y a prominent cause of discontent. At Williams Lake, the Indian Agent found that an Indian c h i l d , no matter how well he may be treated at any school, when he goes home does not l i k e to leave his parents. Consequently, when the vacation i s over and c h i l d r e n return to school, t h e i r whole mind i s on t h e i r parents f o r about two weeks, and during that time they think of nothing else but running away.10 Economic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to t h e i r f a m i l i e s caused some c h i l d r e n to play truant. When four boys escaped from the Kuper Island School i n 1894, Father Donckele wrote the Indian Agent that "no reasons were given 49 f o r t h e i r t r u a n c y , h u t I presume t h a t t h e f i s h i n g a t t r a c t i o n s were c h i e f l y t h e cause o f i t . " 1 " ' " I s s a c C h a r l e y d e s e r t e d C o q u a l e e t z a i n 12 F e b r u a r y o f I898; he was "found w i t h h i s f a t h e r a t a f i s h i n g camp." C h i l d r e n a l s o r a n f r o m t h e s c h o o l s t o t a k e p a r t i n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e s c h o o l was i n t e r r u p t i n g . A. W. C o r k e r was f o r t u n a t e t o be a b l e t o r e p o r t f r o m A l e r t Bay i n I898 t h a t " i n s p i t e o f t h e r e p e a t e d r e q u e s t o f t h e o l d p e o p l e f o r t h e i r boys t o a t t e n d t h e w i n t e r 13 dances, t h e y s t u c k t o t h e i r s t u d i e s v e r y w e l l . " I n c o n t r a s t , p u p i l s a t C o q u a l e e t z a l e f t f o r C u l t u s Lake, f i v e m i l e s away, t o w i t n e s s t h e 14 t r a d i t i o n a l f e s t i v i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , many boys d e s e r t e d Kuper I s l a n d each y e a r d u r i n g J a n u a r y and F e b r u a r y ; a c c o r d i n g t o D o n c k e l e , t h e a n n u a l w i n t e r dances were t h e " p r i m a r y c a u s e . " I n f a c t , t h e s e " n o c t u r n a l g a t h e r i n g s " p r o v e d s u c h a s t r o n g a t t r a c t i o n i n 1897 t h a t Donckele and t the foreman moved t h e i r q u a r t e r s n e x t t o t h e boys' d o r m i t o r y : "Then i f any o f t h e boys t a k e a n o t i o n t o a t t e n d t h e dances t h e y have t o escape d u r i n g t h e day t i m e . " The f a c t t h a t no a s p e c t o f t h e i r h e r i t a g e was u s u a l l y p e r m i t t e d i n t h e s c h o o l s p r o b a b l y encouraged c h i l d r e n t o p l a y t r u a n t i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t a t c u l t u r a l e v e n t s . Groups o f boys p e r i o d i c a l l y a t t e m p t e d t h e i r dances a t t h e Kuper I s l a n d S c h o o l , b u t wheneverrDonckele c a u g h t them 16 a t i t , he p u n i s h e d them. Nor were c h i l d r e n a l l o w e d t o use t h e i r own l a n g u a g e — t h o u g h most knew l i t t l e i f any E n g l i s h when t h e y f i r s t went t o s c h o o l . U s i n g o r a l h i s t o r i e s and Department r e p o r t s , R o b e r t l e v i n e and F r e d a Cooper have shown c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t , s t a r t i n g i n t h e 1890s, a l m o s t a l l r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t r i e d t o 17 s u p p r e s s n a t i v e l a n g u a g e s . M a n u s c r i p t s o u r c e s f r o m t h e s c h o o l s c o r r o b o r a t e t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . I n 1906, S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r Green o f f i c i a l l y 50 approved a l i s t of rules for Coqualeetza. Twice weekly, children re- peated: "We must not talk Indian (except when allowed)"; infractions 18 were "reported nightly." The "Conduct Books" of the Kuper Island School 19 show that pupils there were punished routinely for '-talking Indian." As Cooper and Levine point out, a rule prohibiting an individual's native language, suddenly imposed, i s "not like a rule against staying up late... i t i s more comparable to a rule requiring a certain number of breaths per 20 minute, a l l day long." Combined with the often harsh discipline used in i t s enforcement, i t almost certainly encouraged truancy. Dislike of the school routine also promoted truancy. In the Indian home, with i t s pre-industrial rhythms, time was not carefully measured. But "once within the school gates, the child entered the new 21 universe of discipined time." Educators considered the r i g i d l y struc- tured way they ran the schools as important as any of the subjects on the curriculum. The medium was also the essential message: The value of time i s practically exemplified to [the pupil] in the class room?^ at recreation, or in any fatigue work which he may be required to perform, by the recurrence every day of the hour at which each duty has to commence and again of the time by which i t should be completed.22 The b e l l became the symbol of the new rhythms the Indian child must adopt. Mrs. A. Cooper, who attended Coqualeetza in the 1890s, remem- bers that "everything was on time, and you had to be on time...every- 23 thing was done by the b e l l . " Margaret Butcher recorded the daily routine of the Kitimat School: a series of bells cut the day into per- fectly compartmentalized units of time, to each of which corresponded 24 a specific place and a specific activity. A system of rules and punishmentsforced children to be in the right place at the right time. Coqualeetza's l i s t of rules stipulated:m"We 51 must be punctual...We must not break bounds...We must not go to the 25 dormitories i n daytime." The Kuper Island School's "Conduct Books" show that those who f a i l e d to obey such precepts were punished. "Coming l a t e , " "slow i n ge t t i n g up," "playing during work hours," and "breaking bounds" were some of the i n f r a c t i o n s which commonly led to punishment. Penalties normally involved a f u r t h e r deprivation of freedom, suchaas 26 "confinement," or "work at recess." Being plunged into such a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t rhythm of existence 27 was "awfully hard" f o r c h i l d r e n . Margaret Butcher describes the a r r i v a l at Kitimat of s i x small B e l l a Coola youngsters: "They were here there and everywhere. I'd get one beside me to do some sewing and two would be missing—gone out to p l a y . . . I f i t was play time why need they stop 28 when a b e l l rang?" As they learned what was expected of them, many pup i l s became discontented. One o f f i c i a l saw i n Kamloops p u p i l s "that 29 restlessness akin to a caged-up b i r d seeking i t s freedom." At Stuart Lake, Joseph A l l a r d observed how such f e e l i n g s sometimes l e d to action: They stood or sat s u l l e n l y i n the corners of the recreationrroom and gave the impression that t h e i r greatest desire was to get out of t h e i r prison...A few remained wild and missed no chance to run away into the woods close by the school and then to t h e i r home or even to the f a r away grounds where t h e i r parents had gone.30 Another cause of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was the manual labour p u p i l s had to perform. Educators believed Indian c h i l d r e n needed "to be taught 31 to work quite as much as they do to read or s p e l l . " For h a l f of each day, therefore, c h i l d r e n over about the age of eight worked at chores or trades. Many schools emphasized farming s k i l l s , despite t h e i r apparent i m p r a c t i c a l i t y f o r most coa s t a l Indians. Dairying, s a i d Joseph H a l l of Coqualeetza, has...the advantage of creating and f o s t e r i n g a large number of very important q u a l i t i e s and habits...carefulness, c l e a n l i n e s s , promptness, 52 r e g u l a r i t y , g e n t l e n e s s , t h e c o n n e c t i o n "between cause and e f f e c t , between the use o f r i g h t means and b e s t r e s u l t s . 3 2 ; - S i n c e a l l t h e s c h o o l s r a n on e x t r e m e l y t i g h t b u d g e t s , most o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l work c h i l d r e n d i d was as i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e s c h o o l s * s u r - v i v a l as i t was as a p e d a g o g i c a l i n s t r u m e n t . " T r a i n i n g " i n s p e c i f i c " t r a d e s " o f t e n o c c u r r e d o n l y when th e s c h o o l r e q u i r e d s u c h work; o r 33 c o n t i n u e d even i n t h e absence o f an i n s t r u c t o r . y I n d i a n s a p p r e c i a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n s u c h p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s as c a r p e n t r y , b u t more o f t e n t h e y r e s e n t e d the m e n i a l l a b o u r o f t h e s c h o o l s . P u p i l s a t Kamloops showed a " n a t u r a l r e p u g nance" t o manual work; a t 34 W l l l i a m s L a k e , i t was " d i s a g r e e a b l e b o t h t o p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n . " K o otenay I n d i a n s a t f i r s t o b j e c t e d t o f a r m work because t h e y f e l t i t c o n f u s e d s e x r o l e s : " A c c o r d i n g t o K o o t e n a y i d e a man s h o u l d n o t humble h i m s e l f t o d i g o r p l o u g h . The gun was t h e t o y f o r boys and t h e t o o l f o r 35 men, t h e r e s t was l e f t f o r women." A t C o q u a l e e t z a , "boys r a n away fro m t h e f i e l d s where t h e y were d i g g i n g p o t a t o e s and were f o u n d f i s h i n g i n L u c k a l u c k C r e e k . S o c i a l p r e t e n s i o n s c o u l d a l s o make work u n d e s i r - a b l e . One man w i t h d r e w h i s d a u g h t e r f r o m t h e Kuper I s l a n d S c h o o l a g a i n s t t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s w i s h e s , a p p a r e n t l y because he had an " a r i s t o c r a t i c " h e r i t a g e . He t o l d D o n c k e l e t h a t "he was a t y h e e and t h a t c o n s e q u e n t l y he d i d n o t w i s h t h a t h i s d a u g h t e r s h o u l d do any work i n t h e k i t c h e n 37 l a u n d r y o r s e w i n g room." I n e x p l a i n i n g t r u a n c y , p u p i l s and p a r e n t s a l m o s t a l w a y s m e n t i o n e d s c h o o l f o o d . A f t e r T o b i e f l e d f r o m Kuper I s l a n d , h i s p a r e n t s c h a r g e d t h a t " t h e i r boy had o n l y a s m a l l p i e c e o f b r e a d t o e a t " ; D onckele d i s - m i s s e d t h e a l l e g a t i o n as r i d i c u l o u s . C h i l d r e n who d e s e r t e d t h e Kamloops S c h o o l i n f o r m e d t h e i r p a r e n t s t h a t " t h e y had n o t s u f f i c i e n t 39 f o o d , b u t had t o ' c a t c h l i t t l e f i s h and t o e a t them raw.'"-" A t 5 3 S t u a r t L a k e , J o s e p h A l l a r d f o u n d t h a t t h e p a r e n t s o f t r u a n t s " o f t e n 40 u n j u s t l y a c c u s e d me o f s t a r v i n g them." S c h o o l o f f i c i a l s a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e change i n d i e t c o u l d have a d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t on the h e a l t h o f t h e i r p u p i l s : t h e d o c t o r a d v i s e d t h a t t h r e e p u p i l s a t K u p e r I s l a n d 41 who "were used t o l i v e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on f i s h and o i l " be s e n t home. But S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r Green r e p o r t e d f r o m a l l t h e s c h o o l s he v i s i t e d t h a t t h e f o o d was " p l e n t i f u l and good," o r " p l a i n , b u t good and abun- 42 d a n t . " However, t h e s c h o o l s o p e r a t e d u n d e r s e v e r e f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s — and t h a t f a c t was f r e q u e n t l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r menus. A t K u p e r I s l a n d , D o nckele was i n f u r i a t e d w i t h new d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n s i s s u e d i n 1894, f e a r i n g a mass exodus o f h i s p u p i l s . L a t e r he r e p o r t e d "a good d e a l o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , " and o b s e r v e d t h a t had t h e s t a f f n o t s h a r e d t h e i r b u t t e r w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e l a t t e r would have had o n l y " d r y b r e a d w i t h b l a c k t e a . " N o t i n g t h a t t h e o l d e r boys had been d o i n g heavy f a r m work and l a n d - c l e a r i n g , t h e p r i n c i p a l c o n c l u d e d : "Such a k i n d o f work would c e r t a i n l y e n t i t l e them t o a t l e a s t a p l a t e o f p o r r i d g e w i t h l e s s t h a n r -i 43 [_one-half o u n c e j o f b u t t e r on t h e i r b r e a d i n t h e m o r n i n g . " I t seems a p p a r e n t t h a t most s c h o o l s t r i e d t o f e e d t o o many c h i l - d r e n on t o o s m a l l a budget. Mrs. E. J o y c e r e c a l l s t h a t t h e S p a r t a n d i e t a t A l e r t Bay was r e g u l a r and " q u i t e a l l r i g h t , b u t a l o t o f t i m e s we 44 were hungry." iloe Glemine, who went t o t h e s c h o o l a t W i l l i a m s L ake, 45 s a y s f l a t l y : "You go hungry a l l t h e t i m e i n t h e r e . " y To p r e v e n t "under- f e e d i n g , " the p r i n c i p a l a t F r a s e r Lake d e c i d e d t o l e t p u p i l s h e l p them- 46 s e l v e s t o "whatever t h e r e i s b e i n g s e r v e d . " But a c c o r d i n g t o Mrs. R. H a l l , a p u p i l t h e r e a t t h e t i m e , what was s e r v e d "wasn't f i t t o g i v e 47 t o dogs." C h i l d r e n who r e s o r t e d t o p i l f e r i n g t o s a t i s f y t h e i r a p p e t i t e s 54 a t Kamloops were shown v i v i d l y "how s u c h a c t i o n s would "bring them t o 48 t h e p e n i t e n t i a r y f o r a few y e a r s . " A t Kuper I s l a n d , a boy ca u g h t r ~i 49 " s t e a l i n g plumbs | s i c ] " was p u t on a d i e t o f b r e a d and w a t e r . The v a r i o u s means used t o e l i m i n a t e t h e n a t i v e c u l t u r e , and t o make c h i l d r e n a c c e p t t h e new r o u t i n e , w o r k l o a d , and d i e t , i n c r e a s e d u n h a p p i n e s s , and encouraged t r u a n c y . R e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n and ex- h o r t a t i o n p l a y e d a c e n t r a l r o l e i n a l l t h e s c h o o l s . P r i n c i p a l s were o f t e n c l e r g y m e n who w i s h e d t o make t h e i r p u p i l s d o c i l e t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f c o r r e c t r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s : " I t i s o n l y by t h o r o u g h l y i m b u i n g t h e minds o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n w i t h s e n t i m e n t s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y t h a t t h e i r p r o u d and s t u b b o r n d i s p o s i t i o n c a n be s u b d u e d . P r i n - c i p a l s g e n e r a l l y gave c a t e c h i s m t h e p r e e m i n e n t p l a c e i n t h e "academic" c u r r i c u l u m . W r i t i n g t o t h e C h u r c h M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y f r o m A l e r t Bay i n 1906, A l f r e d H a l l t r i e d t o r e a s s u r e o f f i c i a l s so t h a t t h e y would con- t i n u e t o s u p p o r t t h e i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l . " A l t h o u g h a government s c h o o l , " he e x p l a i n e d , " i t i s v i r t u a l l y g i v e n o v e r t o t h e CMS. Mr. C o r k e r has q u i t e a . f r e e hand and t h e p u p i l s a r e t a u g h t as much o f t h e B i b l e as i f t h e CMS had b u i l t t h e s c h o o l . " - 5 1 P u p i l s f o u n d t h e emphasis on r e l i g i o n o nerous. One Sunday a t C o q u a l e e t z a , P e t e r K e l l y made t h e m i s t a k e o f w h i s t l i n g , and was s t e r n l y r e p r i m a n d e d by J o s e p h H a l l : " I t i s n ' t y o u t h a t f e e l s l i k e w h i s t l i n g on 52 a Sunday m o r n i n g — i t ' s t h e D e v i l , b oy—remember t h a t ! " Mrs. A. Cooper r e c a l l s t h a t t h e r e v i v a l m e e t i n g s h e l d a t C o q u a l e e t z a s t r e s s e d t h e i n - t r i n s i c e v i l o f t h e I n d i a n h e r i t a g e , and were a s o u r c e o f g e n u i n e 53 f e a r . v Joe C l e m i n e , o f W i l l i a m s Lake, has s i m i l a r memories. There was " n o t h i n g b u t r e l i g i o n i n my da y s , n o t h i n g e l s e , " he s t a t e s . "You 54 g o t t o p r a y e v e r y move you make i n t h e r e . The schools also attempted to Institute complete surveillance of the pupils' lives, and to unfailingly rebuke any transgression of established rules. Erik Erikson has noted that the philosophy of tra- ditional Sioux discipline differed fundamentally from that of the Europeans. The Sioux believed a "child should be permitted to be an individualist while young," but "the dominating classes in Western civilization...have Been guided by the conviction that a systematic regulation of functions and impulses in earliest childhood i s the 55 surest safeguard for later effective functioning i n society." ^ Most British Columbia Indians appear to have resembled the Sioux in their conception of correct discipline. White administrators and educators a l l agreed that British Columbia natives were too mild with their children. Agent Halliday wrote of the Kwakiutls: In their home l i f e there i s no such thing asscompulsory obedience. If a child i s asked to do anything and does i t , i t i s well, but i f i t refuses, no attention i s paid to the refusal. The children are allowed to do as they please. From the Queen Charlottes, Agent Deasy asserted that " i t i s proverbial of the Indian that he w i l l not chastise the young." He claimed: "I have been among Indians for half a century, and have [yet] to see the 57 f i r s t parent chastising his or her child." In contrast, school o f f i c i a l s employed elaborate systems to detect and penalize disobedient children. Many thought "continual super- 58 59 vision" necessary; and used student monitors to achieve i t . For minor violations of routine and rules, pupils in most schools experienced an intensification of the stern school regime. At St. Mary's Mission, the principal reported: "We usually punish the boys by giving them lines to write, depriving them of play, or by giving them a meal on their knees in the r e f e c t o r y . A t Kuper Island, a boy who used "bad 56 language" received "bread and water for dinner"; for breaking bounds, another was punished by "confinement and kneeling down"; for "writing 6 l letters to g i r l s , " a third received a "public reprimand." There i s no doubt that resentment of the new discipline was an added reason for students to play truant. While Donckele consistently denied that his pupils received harsh treatment, he sometimes described prior punishment which might have angered truahtsantoFelix," for example, ran away shortly after he "had to take his breakfast of water and bread, with a plate containing 18 stolen pencils placed before him." "Charles" and "Albert" l e f t the school in March 1899, two days aTter they were 62 forced to write lines. Joe Clemine describes a more serious re- bellion against discipline which occurred at Williams Lake. A l l the boys were "locked up" after two of them acted a " l i t t l e rough." Feeling "just like prisoners," they decided to break out, even though i t was winter, and the snow was deep: "Seventeen boys ran out of that house. I was one of them. We beat it—been locked up in there for son long 63 so we had to beat i t . . . . " Most schools also used some corporal punishment. A few educators were i n i t i a l l y reluctant to do so, fearing the reaction of Indian par- ents. Even in the public schools, where "the rod would appear to be the chief means employed to obtain necessary discipline," parental 64 complaints concerned administrators. But Indian parents were gener- all y even more sensitive than white parents, for corporal punishment had l i t t l e place in their heritage. Indians used physical abuse less often as punishment than as one element of puberty r i t e s : i n these very special circumstances, an elderly man would whip boys "even to the 6^ point of shedding blood." To be beaten by a white man, as a form of 57 opprobrium..was, however, i n t o l e r a b l e . E. C. G h i r o u s e , i n c h a r g e o f t h e s c h o o l a t S t . Mary's M i s s i o n , o b s e r v e d t h a t "the I n d i a n t h i n k s i t an a w f u l d i s g r a c e t o be s t r u c k . I t i s c l e a r , however, t h a t o f f i c i a l s i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s used some f o r m o f p h y s i c a l t h r e a t t o make p u p i l s do t h e i r b i d d i n g . A t C o q u a l e e t z a , c o r p o r a l punishment was 67 " r e s o r t e d t o more o r l e s s , when o t h e r means f a i l . " The s t a f f o f t h e P o r t Simpson G i r l s ' Home d e a l t w i t h "extreme c a s e s " by " w h i p p i n g o r 68 s o l i t a r y c o n f i n e m e n t . " Mrs. R. H a l l d e s c r i b e s what c h i l d r e n a t F r a s e r l a k e f a c e d f o r s p e a k i n g t h e i r own l a n g u a g e : "They had t h e s e 69 s t r a p s , t h e s e t h i c k s t r a p s t h a t t h e S i s t e r s c a r r i e d under t h e i r a p r o n s . " I n t h e f i f t e e n y e a r s . f o l l o w i n g t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e K u p e r I s l a n d S c h o o l , i t s o f f i c i a l s d i s p e n s e d p r o g r e s s i v e l y h a r s h e r d i s c i p l i n e . When n i n e y e a r o l d "Thomas" was t u r n e d i n by " A n t o i n e " f o r s t e a l i n g a p p l e s i n September 1903, he s u f f e r e d " w h i p p i n g and c o n f i n e m e n t . " Two months l a t e r , he 70 r e c e i v e d t h e same punishment f o r " s k u l k i n g . " I t was s u c h t r e a t m e n t w h i c h p r o b a b l y i n s p i r e d a d e l e g a t i o n o f I n d i a n s t o complain.,to t h e l o c a l ; I n d i a n Agent a few y e a r s l a t e r t h a t "the s m a l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d n o t be 71 p u n i s h e d s e v e r e l y . " No doubt i t a l s o i n s p i r e d t r u a n c y . Y e t , t h e r e c u r r i n g , s e e m i n g l y u n s o l v a b l e p r o b l e m w h i c h had i n i t i a l l y prompted t h e p r i n c i p a l a t K uper I s l a n d t o seek a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r " w h i p p i n g o r 72 l a s h i n g w i t h a c a t o' n i n e t a i l s " was t r u a n c y i t s e l f . I n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e s c h o o l s ' e x i s t e n c e , o f f i c i a l s became c o n v i n c e d t h a t s t r o n g measures must be t a k e n t o c o n t r o l t r u a n c y ; t h a t t h e y must compel t h e a t t e n d a n c e o f p u p i l s who v o l u n t a r i l y e n r o l l e d . P a r e n t s o f a p p l i c a n t s were r e q u i r e d t o s i g n a document c o m m i t t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r a s e t number o f y e a r s , o r " u n t i l s u c h t i m e as t h e Department 58 73 c o n s i d e r s i t a d v i s a b l e t o g r a n t h i s o r h e r d i s c h a r g e . The t e rms o f t h e c o n t r a c t s f o r b a d e c h i l d r e n t o l e a v e , t e m p o r a r i l y o r p e r m a n e n t l y , w i t h - 74 o u t the a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f t h e Department. But a d i s t u r b i n g number o f 7 5 I n d i a n s " o n l y l a u g h e d a t t h e i d e a . " ^ Most p r i n c i p a l s b e l i e v e d , l i k e D o n ckele o f Kuper I s l a n d , t h a t t h e Department must a c t " i n a v i g o r o u s manner t o make th e P u p i l s and t h e i r P a r e n t s comply w i t h t h e agreement t h e y have s i g n e d ; o t h e r w i s e , t h e r e w i l l be a c o n t i n u a l c h a n g i n g o f P u p i l s . 1 , 7 6 D u r i n g t h e 1890s, t h e s c h o o l s had l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r t r u a n t s . I n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o f f i c i a l s l a c k e d t h e l e g a l power t o compel con- t i n u e d a t t e n d a n c e . J o s e p h H a l l f a c e d a v e r y f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n when he t o o k o v e r C o q u a l e e t z a i n I 8 9 6 . D e p a r t m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n s s t a t e d t h a t i f p a r e n t s o f a d i f f e r e n t C h r i s t i a n f a i t h r a i s e d r e l i g i o u s o b j e c t i o n s , s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s must r e l e a s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n i m m e d i a t e l y . Numerous C a t h o l i c p a r e n t s t o o k advantage o f t h a t p r o v i s i o n t o keep t h e i r young 77 o u t o f C o q u a l e e t z a . H a l l was n o t s u r e i f he had t h e power t o f o r c e h a l f b r e e d s , n o t l e g a l l y wards o f t h e Government, t o a t t e n d . Moreover, i n what he termed a " l o o s e way o f d o i n g b u s i n e s s , " some o f h i s p r e - d e c e s s o r s had e n r o l l e d c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t o b t a i n i n g w r i t t e n c o n t r a c t s , so t h a t , as one judge t o l d him, i f t h e p a r e n t s a p p l i e d f o r r " a w r i t o f 7R Habeas C o r p u s " t h e y would u n q u e s t i o n a b l y r e c e i v e i t . E a r l y s c h o o l s a l s o l a c k e d t h e f i n a n c i a l and l o g i s t i c a l r e - s o u r c e s t o compel t h e r e t u r n o f t r u a n t p u p i l s . D onckele n o t e d t h a t " moral p e r s u a s i o n " f r e q u e n t l y f a i l e d , , a n d t h a t t h e r e were no s t r o n g e r means a t h i s d i s p o s a l . He c o n t r a s t e d t h e s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h t h a t on t h e p r a i r i e s , where by k e e p i n g a detachment o f Mounted P o l i c e , as I have w i t n e s s e d a t t h e S t . J o s e p h ' s I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , t h e y c a n p r e v e n t [ p u p i l s ] f r o m 59 r u n n i n g away, b u t h e r e we have no means wh a t s o e v e r o f c o m p e l l i n g them t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l and t o make them s t a y f o r a c e r t a i n l e n g t h o f time.79 Thus, when two boys s u c c e s s f u l l y e s c a p e d from t h e Kamloops S c h o o l i n 1899, A. G a r i o n had no means t o r e t r i e v e them: "Je n ' a i p e r s o n n e a" q u i j e p u i s s e me f i e r p o u r a l l e r a l a r e c h e r c h e de c e s deux e n f a n t s . " He l e f t no doubt t h a t c o n t i n u e d a t t e n d a n c e depended on p a r e n t a l c o o p e r a - t i o n : "Les p a r e n t s ou amis q u i m e t t e n t des e n f a n t s a l ' e c o l e d o i v e n t 80 e t r e p r e t s a" l e s ramener [ l o r s q u ' ] i l s d e s e r t e n t . " When th e s c h o o l s were f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d , I n d i a n s c o u l d o f t e n , i n p r a c t i c e , d e c i d e whether and how l o n g e n r o l l e d p u p i l s s t a y e d i n s c h o o l , even though t h a t powerewas o f f i c i a l l y i n v e s t e d i n s c h o o l a u t h o r - i t i e s . The r e c o r d o f p u p i l s d i s c h a r g e d f r o m t h e Kuper I s l a n d S c h o o l un- t i l 30 June 1906 r e v e a l s t h a t one p u p i l " l e f t w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n " ; o f 81 a n o t h e r , t h a t h e r "mother k e p t h e r home." The C o q u a l e e t z a R e g i s t e r i s r e p l e t e w i t h e n t r i e s s u c h as t h a t f o r J o s e p h Andrews: "Was d i s - c h a r g e d because t a k e n away by h i s f a t h e r f o r a h o l i d a y and was n o t r e t u r n e d " ; o r t h a t f o r T h e r e s a D i l l y : " S t o l e n away by h e r mother S e p t e m b e r ] 1899- D i s c h a r g e d March 31, 1900"; o r t h a t f o r E d i t h W a i t t : "Ran away A u g [ u s t ] 9, 1900...[Discharged] O c t [ o b e r ] 1, [l9]00."82 L a c k - i n g r e a l power t o e n f o r c e a t t e n d a n c e , p r i n c i p a l s i n s t e a d made f u l i u u s e o f t h e i r power t o deny i t . J o s e p h H a l l t o l d t h e f a t h e r o f one t r u a n t g i r l t h a t " u n l e s s he would engage t o b r i n g [ h e r ] back [ t o C o q u a l e e t z a ] w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e t i m e and t o r e m a i n f o r a t e r m o f y e a r s he need n o t b r i n g h e r back a t a l l . " ^ The W i l l i a m s Lake S c h o o l was p l a g u e d w i t h runaways i n 1902; t h e p r i n c i p a l s t a t e d t h a t because t h e I n d i a n s " d i d n n o t seem t o f i n d a n y t h i n g r e p r e h e n s i b l e i n t h i s . . . we were f o r c e d t o s e t an 84 example i n h a v i n g a few o f them e x p e l l e d . " 6.0 By about t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , however, some s c h o o l s were b e g i n n i n g t o a s s e r t t h e i r l e g a l a u t h o r i t y o v e r t r u a n t s . I n F e b r u a r y o f 1896, D onckele acknowledged r e c e i p t o f a Department " c i r c u l a r " w h i c h e v i d e n t l y i n s t r u c t e d him t o compel t h e a t t e n d a n c e o f p u p i l s , a c c o r d i n g 85 t o t h e terms o f t h e i r s i g n e d c o n t r a c t s . I n September, t h e A c t i n g P r i n c i p a l , G. C. Van Gothen, i n f o r m e d Agent Lomas t h a t two boys had r u n f r o m t h e s c h o o l , and a s k e d : " W i l l you k i n d l y have b o t h boys a r r e s t e d and r e t u r n e d t o t h e S c h o o l as soon as p o s s i b l e [ j ? ] " A few days l a t e r , 86 Van Gothen t h a n k e d Lomas f o r "prompt a c t i o n " i n t h e m a t t e r . D e s p i t e s i m i l a r i n s t a n c e s o f c l e a r c o m p u l s i o n d u r i n g t h e n e x t few y e a r s , however, Donckele and o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s seemed t o t r e a t one w h i c h dragged on f o r s e v e r a l months i n 1900 as a t e s t c a s e o f s o r t s . I t became a gauge o f t h e Department's w i l l i n g n e s s t o compel t h e r e t u r n o f t r u a n t s , b o t h because o f t h e s t u b b o r n r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e p u p i l ' s f a m i l y , and because o f t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m w h i c h he had t o be r e t u r n e d . When W i l l i e f a i l e d t o r e t u r n f r o m h o l i d a y s on t h e F r a s e r , i n J u l y , D o nckele swore o u t i n f o r m a t i o n s b e f o r e a J u s t i c e o f t h e Peace, and r e c e i v e d w a r r a n t s f<$r t h e a r r e s t o f W i l l i e , and f o r h i s f a t h e r as w e l l , " s h o u l d [ h e ] make any o p p o s i t i o n . " D o n c k e l e s e n t the w a r r a n t s t o Agent D e v l i n , a l o n g w i t h a copy o f t h e p e r t i n e n t r e g u l a t i o n s , and t h e a s s u r a n c e : " I have w r i t t e n t o Mr. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t V o w e l l t o t e l l him t h a t I was g o i n g t o have t h e l a w e n f o r c e d and he has answered me t h a t he has n o t e d t h e c o n t e n t s o f my l e t t e r . " To p r e v e n t t h e I n d i a n s f r o m t h i n k i n g t h a t "the l a w g o v e r n i n g I n d i a n s c h o o l s i s b u t a mere l e t t e r , " D o n c k e l e o f f e r e d t o pay t h e c o s t s o f e n f o r c i n g i t . I t was n o t u n t i l t t h r e e months l a t e r — o n l y a f t e r D e v l i n had s o u g h t and o b t a i n e d t h e f o r m a l a p p r o v a l o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t V o w e l l — t h a t W i l l i e was f o r c i b l y r e t u r n e d t o t h e s c h o o l . 61 B o t h he and h i s f a t h e r , who a few months e a r l i e r had been " l a u g h i n g a l l t h e t i m e t h a t t h e r e i s no p o l i c e m a n a f t e r h im," were r e p o r t e d t o be " v e r y much f r i g h t e n e d . " I n s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s , s u c h e n f o r c e m e n t o f a t t e n d a n c e became wide- s p r e a d . By 19131 "the p r i n c i p a l a t W i l l i a m s Lake was b e i n g much s t r i c t e r t h a n he had been i n 1902: "As soon as [ a p u p i l ] i s m i s s i n g , t h e r e v e r e n d 88 p r i n c i p a l h i m s e l f s t a r t s t r a c i n g him u n t i l b r o u g h t back." The L y t t o n S c h o o l , w i t h i t s s e r i o u s t r u a n c y p r o b l e m s , made e x t e n s i v e use o f c o n e t a s t a b l e s t o b r i n g e r r a n t p u p i l s back t o s c h o o l . I t s a u t h o r i t i e s even be- gan t o p u n i s h p a r e n t s who a b e t t e d t r u a n c y . A f t e r Matthew S m i t h r a n home i n J a n u a r y o f 1918, h i s f a t h e r was " p u n i s h e d f o r H a r b o u r i n g . . . s e n t t o J a i l . . . b y I n d i a n A g ent." P e r h a p s f r o m f e a r o f p r o s e c u t i o n , many p a r e n t s around L y t t o n b e g a n — c o n t r a r y t o a l m o s t a l l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i r p a s t b e h a v i o r — t o h e l p s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s e n f o r c e a t t e n d a n c e , s o m e e r e t u r n i n g 89 p u p i l s r e p e a t e d l y t o t h e s c h o o l f r o m w h i c h t h e y had r u n . T r u a n t p u p i l s a l m o s t a l w a y s f a c e d c o r p o r a l punishment on t h e i r r e t u r n . A t Kuper I s l a n d , w h i p p i n g was f i r s t employed as a means o f d i s c o c u r a g i n g runaways. P r i n c i p a l s hoped t o f r i g h t e n t h e c h i l d r e n i n t o r e m a i n i n g . A t Kamloops, A. G a r i o n whipped r e t u r n e d t r u a n t s , and a s k e d t h e I n d i a n Agent t o come and speak t o them; i f he c o u l d " f a i r e c r a i n d r e 90 l e s e n f a n t s , ce s e r a i t b i e n . " There i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t f e a r was an e f f i c a c i o u s t o o l f o r e n s u r i n g a t t e n d a n c e . Where p a r e n t s c o n s i d e r e d d i s c i p l i n e " t o o h a r s h " — a s a t L y t t o n — r e c r u i t m e n t o f new p u p i l s became 91 an i m p o s s i b l e t a s k . Moreover, f e a r c o u l d produce e x a c t l y what i t was supposed t o p r e v e n t , as Donckele f o u n d one e v e n i n g i n F e b r u a r y 1897: I warned them, t h a t s h o u l d t h e y p e r s i s t i n b r e a k i n g t h e r e g u l a t i o n s [ r e g a r d i n g t r u a n c y ] . . . an e x e m p l a r y punishment would s u r e l y be i n - f l i c t e d on some o f t h e c u l p r i t s . As soon as I was t h r o u g h s p e a k i n g I went up t o t h e d o r m i t o r i e s w i t h t h e b o y s , b u t Gustave r a n o u t o f the house and d i s a p p e a r e d i n t h e d a r k n e s s . . . . 92 62 CHAPTER V FRAGMENTATION OF FAMILIES: EXTENT AND DURATION Residential schools were designed to acculturate the Indian child more rapidly than day schools by providing educators with total control of his environment. Boarding the child would not only ensure his regular attendance, but largely eliminate the retrograde influences of his heathen, nomadic family. The degree of separation which the schools should try to effect between pupils and their homes was a matter of debate among administrators. In the early 1890s, most thought such associations ought to be kept to an absolute minimum by constructing the schools some distance from reserves. 1 Parents, however, were much less willing to enroll their young when i t necessitated great separa- t i o n — a fact which helped prompt Deputy Superintendent General James Smart to conclude in 1899 that the institutions should be built on re- serves, "where the parents can see the children from time to time, and 2 thus greatly mitigate the sense of separation." This chapter w i l l inves- tigate the extent to which attendance at residential schools isolated children from their families; and how long, for most pupils, attendance, and the resulting isolation, continued. While attendance always involved a degree of separation between parents and children, i t divided siblings somewhat less often. ' Of the 489 pupils attending Coqualeetza between 1888 and 1911, at least 199 63 had a b r o t h e r o r s i s t e r who a l s o a t t e n d e d — a l m o s t a l w a y s c o n c u r r e n t l y . F i f t y - o n e f a m i l i e s s e n t 2 c h i l d r e n ; n i n e t e e n s e n t 3; s i x s e n t 4; two s e n t 5; a n d one s e n t 6. A minimum o f 46 p e r c e n t (N-45/96) o f p u p i l s e n t e r i n g t h e K u p e r I s l a n d S c h o o l between 1897 and 1906 had s i b l i n g s i n 4 a t t e n d a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e c o r d s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o c a l c u l a t e p r e c i s e l y , i t would appear t h a t even more o f t h e p u p i l s a t S t . George's ( L y t t o n ) and A l l H a l l o w s ( Y a l e ) had f a m i l y members i n a t t e n d a n c e w i t h them t h a n was t h e case a t C o q u a l e e t z a and Kuper I s l a n d . I n s t a n c e s o f more d i s t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o emerge. Hope Duncan a t t e n d e d A l l H a l l o w s w i t h two a u n t s ; when t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n amalgamated w i t h t h e Boys' S c h o o l a t L y t t o n , she a l s o had an u n c l e p r e s e n t . ' ' There i s e v i d e n c e t h a t s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s were aware o f s u c h bonds and t o o k them i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A t Kuper I s l a n d , t h e a t t e n d a n c e r e g i s t e r r e c o r d s t h a t i n December o f I896 "Wo. 36 t o o k h i s b r o t h e r Johnny t o t h e D o c t o r a t Duncan's." A t C o q u a l e e t z a , Anna Tanasse and h e r s i s t e r , Mary, who had e n t e r e d t h e s c h o o l a y e a r and a h a l f a p a r t , were b o t h g r a n t e d a h o l i d a y o f one week on t h e same day i n O c t o b e r 1897.7 The e x i s t e n c e o f f a m i l y groups i n t h e s c h o o l s may h e l p , t o e x p l a i n t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f p a r e n t s t o e n r o l l f a i r l y young c h i l d r e n : f a m i l y t i e s c o u l d c o n t i n u e , i f i n a t t e n u a t e d form, w i t h i n t h e w a l l s o f t h e i n s t i t u - t i o n . When James and Mary F o r r e s t e n r o l l e d t h e i r s i x y e a r o l d s o n , Jimmy, a t C o q u a l e e t z a , f o r example, t h e y a l s o e n r o l l e d t w e l v e y e a r o l d E m i l y and e i g h t y e a r o l d M a r t h a . Moreover, L o u i s a , who was f i f t e e n , had a l r e a d y been i n t h e s c h o o l f o r a y e a r , and would p r e s u m a b l y be a b l e Q t o watch o u t f o r them. One must be c a r e f u l , however, n o t t o o v e r - s t a t e t h e s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f b r o t h e r s a t t e n d i n g w i t h s i s t e r s : t h o u g h 64 enrolled in the same school, they worked in different classes, and lived in different dormitories. On the other hand, the relationship between brothers (or between sisters) may have grown increasingly close in unfamiliar and sometimes threatening surroundings: on several occasions, brothers appear to have escaped together from the lytton School. 9 Most of the schools permitted parents to v i s i t their children periodically. One of the main attributes of St. Mary's Mission, accord- ing to i t s principal, was that, being close to both r a i l and water transportation, i t was easily accessible to parents. 1^ Even at Clayoquot, where school o f f i c i a l s had deliberately selected a site secluded from Indian villages, a special house was constructed so vi s i t i n g parents could remain overnight."'"1 Almost a l l residential schools invited par- ents and friends to assist at examinations, award ceremonies, or dramas 12 staged by students. Naturally the frequency—indeed, the p o s s i b i l i t y — of v i s i t s depended on the distance of the school from the pupils' home. While recognizing their value in reconciling parents and pupils to residential education, school o f f i c i a l s liked to keep such v i s i t s under tight control. The principal at Kamloops complained in 1891 and 1892 that the school's location on a reserve.caused "too many vis i t o r s . " Their presence, he claimed, produced "considerable uneasiness" among 13 pupils, and "inconvenience to the officers in charge." The directors of the Fraser Lake School at f i r s t encouraged v i s i t s , but when huge crowds of Indians continued to invade the school each Sunday, their patience wore thin. Not only parents, but many young Indians came, "bringing camp ideas," and upsetting discipline. However, a l l attempts to limit the v i s i t s to parents, or to certain hours, soon failed. Indians 65 insisted on seeing their children or friends, and inspecting the con- ditions in which they lived. Although those at Fraser Lake f i n a l l y agreed to stay "in the place that has "been assigned to them," instead r n 14 of "wander^ingj a l l over the house," not a l l natives were so trac- table. At Kitimat, the old chief "would come to the Home, walk right in to any room and s i t down for a talk...At times he would go up to the Dormitories and examine the bedding etc. Where schools were close to the reserves, pupils were often allowed weekend breaks. At Alberni, inmates could spend Friday nights, and Saturday unt i l 5 P.M. with their families. 1^ When parents were in the village at Kitimat, "the children are allowed down to their own Homes on Saturday] aft^ernoon] provided they are 'called for' and 17 brought back." On the other hand, educators were reluctant to entrust pupils to their parents for longer summer vacations. Early in the 1890s, the 18 Department urged schools not to l e t pupils go home during the summer. A. Garion reported from Kamloops in 1894 that " i t i s decidedly a great advantage to keep the children under constant supervision during the whole year." He permitted three weeks of "relaxation" within the school, letting only a few favoured students v i s i t their parents for one or two days. 1 9 However, i t soon became evident to most principals, and to the Department, that the only practical course was to allow pupils a few weeks to be with their parents during the summer. In his f i r s t year of operation at Kuper Island, G. Donckele took his pupils boating and picnicking instead of letting them go home. But they "would be whole days pining around the buildings for their parents, and the consequence 66 was that a good, many got sick." Equally, parents had such great need of their older children as helpers during the fishing season that "un- less extreme measures he taken, the Parents w i l l forcibly take away their children." Out of necessity, Donckele began allowing a five to 20 sixk week break during the fishing season. Summer holidays became an area in which Indians vigorously asserted their rights: when a rumour circulated at Kuper Island in 1895 that the holidays were to be abolished, 21 three boys attempted to set the school on f i r e . Holidays at many coastal schools lasted four to six weeks for older pupils, even though the Department o f f i c i a l l y allowed only three 22 weeks. Pupils took longer holidays because the fishing season was 23 longer. Not only parents, but cannery owners as well encouraged them 24 to stay away; they were an irreplaceable labour force. The length of holidays could thus reflect the state of the fishing industry. While pupils at Alert Bay normally took longer holidays than o f f i c i a l l y sanctioned, A. W. Corker reported in I898 that "owing to a poor fishing 25 season the old pupils returned to the school at once." Originally designed to overcome the irregularity and disruption caused by children's work, residential schools were obliged to adapt, in some measure, to the rhythms of the Indian family. Schools also granted special permission to individual students to go home at other times of the year to v i s i t or help their parents. For example, Donckele wrote from Kuper Island in 1900 that: On Friday evening Felix came to my room and asked me i f he could go to Cowichan to cut down his mother's oats...As his mother is a widow I allowed him leave of absence from Saturday to the follow- ing Wednesday.26 At Kamloops, the principal stated that special v i s i t s were allowed "in 27 case of serious sickness or death in the family of the pupil." The 67 p o l i c y was a p p a r e n t l y common t o a l l s c h o o l s : " A n n i e " was home fr o m 28 K u per I s l a n d f o r t h i r t y - o n e days i n 1895 because h e r f a t h e r d i e d ; i n 1915> Sydney Wesley t r a v e l l e d a l l t h e way f r o m L y t t o n t o h i s home 29 a t K i n c o l i t h , n o r t h o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , t o see h i s d y i n g mother. P u p i l s who were t h e m s e l v e s s i c k a l s o a l m o s t a l w a y s went home. P a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n p r e f e r r e d t o be t o g e t h e r i n s u c h c a s e s ; and p r i n c i p a l s hoped t o a v o i d "both c o n t a g i o n and bad p u b l i c i t y f o r t h e i r s c h o o l s . E d u c a t o r s wanted t o keep c h i l d r e n i n t h e b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s f o r up t o t e n y e a r s . They b e l i e v e d I n d i a n s needed cUan u n u s u a l l y l o n g p e r i o d o f most c a r e f u l m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g . " P a r e n t s , however, 30 were r e l u c t a n t t o have t h e i r f a m i l i e s s p l i t up f o r so l o n g . I n th e e a r l y 1890s, t h e y s i g n e d c o n t r a c t s c o m m i t t i n g t h e i r young f o r t h r e e t o f i v e y e a r s ; a f t e r 1895> "they had t o a c c e p t c o n t r a c t s w h i c h g r a n t e d t h e Department f u l l d i s c r e t i o n r e g a r d i n g l e n g t h o f s t a y . - ^ ' i i B u t - m o s t I n d i a n s f e l t l i t t l e c o m p unction about r e m o v i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n e a r l i e r i f t he need o r d e s i r e a r o s e . A t Kuper I s l a n d , p a r e n t s w i t h d r e w t h e i r 32 d a u g h t e r s "as soon as t h e y were a b l e t o g i v e a s s i s t a n c e . " Moreover, th e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e a d m i t t a n c e o f a p p l i c a n t s , combined w i t h p o o r h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s c h o o l s , meant t h a t many c h i l d r e n r e m a i n e d o n l y s h o r t p e r i o d s b e f o r e i l l n e s s f o r c e d them t o l e a v e . Once t h e s c h o o l s began t o e n f o r c e t h e s i g n e d c o n t r a c t s , t h e power o f p a r e n t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l e n g t h o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s a t t e n - dance was s e v e r e l y d i m i n i s h e d . I n a d d i t i o n , w h i l e h e a l t h p r o b l e m s s t i l l ended t h e s c h o o l i n g o f many c h i l d r e n p r e m a t u r e l y , s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s e s meant t h a t more p u p i l s who e n t e r e d were p h y s i c a l l y c a p a b l e o f r e m a i n i n g s e v e r a l y e a r s . 68 T a b l e I I I (page 69) i s a f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e l e n g t h s o f e n r o l l m e n t o f p u p i l s a d m i t t e d t o C o q u a l e e t z a between 1888 and 1902; 33 and d i s c h a r g e d from K u p e r I s l a n d between 1890 and 1906. The median l e n g t h s o f e n r o l l m e n t a t t h e two s c h o o l s d i f f e r e d f a i r l y c o n s i d e r a b l y : i t was two y e a r s , t e n months a t C o q u a l e e t z a ; t h r e e y e a r s , s e v e n months a t K u per I s l a n d . W h i l e o n l y 23.4 p e r c e n t o f C o q u a l e e t z a * s s t u d e n t s were e n r o l l e d f i v e y e a r s o r more, o v e r 39 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e a t K uper I s l a n d o f f i c i a l l y s t a y e d t h a t l o n g . The d i f f e r e n c e p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s s e v e r a l t r e n d s : many o f t h e c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g C o q u a l e e t z a were t e e n a g e r s who needed t o f i n i s h e a n e d u c a t i o n t h e y had a l r e a d y begun, w h i l e t h o s e a t K u per I s l a n d were p r e d o m i n a n t l y younger c h i l d r e n w i t h n o t p r e v i o u s edu- c a t i o n ; a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f C o q u a l e e t z a ' s e a r l y p u p i l s were C a t h o l i c s who c u t s h o r t t h e i r s t a y by e x p r e s s i n g r e l i g i o u s o b j e c t i o n s o r by t r a n s - f e r r i n g t o a C a t h o l i c s c h o o l ; and, f i n a l l y , Kuper I s l a n d o f f i c i a l s seem t o have been e s p e c i a l l y e n e r g e t i c i n c o m p e l l i n g t h e r e t u r n o f t r u a n t s . E n r o l l m e n t d i d n o t , o f c o u r s e , mean t h a t t h e c h i l d was n e c e s - s a r i l y i n a t t e n d a n c e f o r t h e e n t i r e p e r i o d . C h i l d r e n were sometimes l e f t on t h e r o l l f o r months o r even y e a r s a f t e r t h e y had c e a s e d t o a t t e n d because s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s m i s t a k e n l y e x p e c t e d them t o r e t u r n . Many o t h e r s were p e r i o d i c a l l y a b s e n t f o r e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s due t o i l l n e s s o r t. . 34 t r u a n c y . Between I 8 9 O and 1920, t h e number o f p u p i l s a c t u a l l y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s on t h e average day was u s u a l l y 35 e i g h t y t o n i n e t y - f i v e r p e r c e n t o f t h e number on t h e i r r o l l s . Of c o u r s e , t h e s i t u a t i o n c o u l d :be much worse i n i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s . Of 88 p u p i l s e n r o l l e d a t L y t t o n i n O c t o b e r o f 1918, 12 m i s s e d t i m e d u r i n g t h e month due t o i l l n e s s , 17 "absconded," and 9 had n o t y e t r e t u r n e d f r o m h o l i d a y s . On t h e o t h e r hand, a n a l y s i s o f t h e l e n g t h s o f 69 TABLE III Lengths of Enrollment Number of Pupils ¥ears on Roll Coqualeetza Kuper Island Less than 1 66 16 1-2 38 29 2-3 45 15 3-4 42 13 4-5 35 13 5-6 14 17 6-7 12 14 7-8 4 16 8-9 9 4 9-10 9 5 10-11 10 11-12 6 12-13 3 More than 13 2 Not Known 10 Total 305 142 TOTAL KNOWN 295 142 70 e n r o l l m e n t o f s t u d e n t s a t any one s c h o o l may u n d e r s t a t e t h e a c t u a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f some f a m i l i e s , s i n c e a m i n o r i t y o f p u p i l s a t t e n d e d more t h a n a s i n g l e b o a r d i n g s c h o o l . F o r example, many o f C o q u a l e e t z a ' s C a t h o l i c p u p i l s l a t e r a t t e n d e d a t S t . Mary's M i s s i o n . The c h i l d r e n who a t t e n d e d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s b e f o r e 1920 do n o t a p p e a r t o have been s e r i o u s l y a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a m i l i e s o r n a t i v e p a t t e r n s o f l i f e when t h e y r e t u r n e d home. J . H. Van Den B r i n k s t a t e s t h a t young H a i d a who went back t o t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e s " a f t e r l o n g a b s e n c e s " f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s " permanently e s t r a n g e d f r o m t h e l i f e 37 t h e r e . " I t i s c l e a r , however, t h a t o n l y a m i n o r i t y were away f r o m t h e i r f a m i l i e s f o r u n r e a s o n a b l y l o n g p e r i o d s ; and t h a t most r e t a i n e d a t l e a s t some c o n t a c t w i t h r e s e r v e l i f e w h i l e e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o l . Thus, a l t h o u g h some a d m i n i s t r a t o r s b e l i e v e d b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s were a l i e n a t i n g I n d i a n c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e i r own p e o p l e and e n v i r o n m e n t , w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e l y e q u i p p i n g them t o l i v e among w h i t e s ; and w h i l e p a r e n t s o c c a s i o n a l l y 39 c l a i m e d t h a t p u p i l s r e t u r n e d home " d i s o b e d i e n t and c o n c e i t e d , " i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t most resumed f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y , and p u r s u e d t h e same o c c u p a t i o n s t h e y would have, had t h e y n e v e r gone away t o s c h o o l . S t u d e n t s a l m o s t a l w a y s r e t u r n e d t o l i v e w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s a f t e r t h e y c o m p l e t e d t h e i r s c h o o l i n g . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e C o q u a l e e t z a R e g i s t e r shows t h a t t h o s e who were t o t a l l y o r p a r t i a l l y orphaned went t o l i v e w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e s t h e y d i d have. Mary Maye, whose mother was dead, went t o l i v e w i t h h e r f a t h e r . B o t h o f C h r i s s i e K e l l y ' s p a r e n t s were dead; she t o o k up r e s i d e n c e w i t h h e r b r o t h e r . S i m i l a r l y , t h e 1911 r e p o r t o f t h e Ahousaht S c h o o l shows t h a t boys r e t u r n e d t o p a r e n t s i f t h e y had them, t o u n c l e s i f t h e y d i d n o t ; and t o o k up a l i f e o f f i s h i n g S ' JL and s e a l i n g . I n N o r t h Vancouver, g i r l s e d u c a t e d a t t h e Squamish b o a r d i n g s c h o o l h e l p e d t h e i r mothers make b a s k e t s t o s e l l t o t o u r i s t s A few e x g p u p i l s o f the s c h o o l s a t t e m p t e d t o work a t t h e t r a d e s t h e y had l e a r n e d , o r worked p r i m a r i l y f o r wages. " S t i l l , " n o t e d t h e p r i n - c i p a l a t Kamloops, " t h e y a l w a y s r e m a i n i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r own 43 p e o p l e . " E. P a l m e r P a t t e r s o n I I i s t h u s c o r r e c t when he s t a t e s : " S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and community t i e s were r -1 44 f r e q u e n t l y l e f t unchanged by |_the new e d u c a t i o n ' s j i n t r o d u c t i o n . " 72 CHAPTER V I EPILOGUE R e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s f o r I n d i a n s c o n s t i t u t e d one o f t h e most r a t i o n a l l y p l a n n e d and r e s o l u t e l y e x e c u t e d campaigns o f d i r e c t e d a c c u l t u r a t i o n o f t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t was a campaign i n - s p i r e d by t h e same m i d d l e c l a s s t h e o r i e s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s m , S o c i a l D a r winism, and e n l i g h t e n e d h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m t h a t prompted s i m i l a r e f f o r t s , i n many p a r t s o f t h e An g l o - S a x o n w o r l d , t o c o n t r o l and im- p r o v e t h e " u n s u c e s s f u l , " t h e f o r e i g n , and t h e g e n e r a l l y m i s l e d . C a n a d i a n r e f o r m e r s used e d u c a t i o n e x t e n s i v e l y t o t r y t o change t h e / a l ' : v a l u e s and c u l t u r e o f w o r k i n g c l a s s , i m m i g r a n t , and I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . But t h e s i n g u l a r l y c o n c e r t e d f o r m e d u c a t i o n t o o k i n t h e c a s e o f t h e I n d i a n s makes i t a p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v i t i n g a r e a o f s t u d y . I n few forums a r e t h e l i n e s o f c u l t u r a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n more c l e a r l y drawn, o r t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l more e f f e c t i v e l y t e s t e d . When a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and m i s s i o n a r i e s f i r s t began b u i l d i n g b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s i n t h e 1880s, t h e y hoped t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n s would produce a g e n e r a t i o n o f c o m p l e t e l y a s s i m i l a t e d n a t i v e s . I s o l a t e d as c o m p l e t e l y as p o s s i b l e f r o m t h e i r f a m i l i e s and c u l t u r e , c h i l d r e n would pass t h e i r f o r m a t i v e y e a r s i n a m e t i c u l o u s l y p l a n n e d , c i v i l i z i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . H a v i n g l e a r n e d new t r a d e s , and i n t e r n a l i z e d new o c c u - p a t i o n a l rhythms, t h e y would n o t r e t u r n t o t h e i r r e s e r v e s , b u t move i n - s t e a d t o w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t s o r c i t i e s , "and t h u s become amalgamated w i t h t h e g e n e r a l community." 1 73 By t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , however, o f f i c i a l s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e e x - p u p i l s " t o a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s r e m a i n I n d i a n s , w i t h a l l t h e i r d e e p e s t i n t e r e s t s , a f f e c t i o n s and a m b i t i o n s c e n t r e d i n t h e i r 2 r e s e r v e s . " I t was becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y p l a i n t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e was n o t , i n i t s e l f , an i n f l u e n c e s u f f i c i e n t l y p o w e r f u l t o e r a d i c a t e t h e I n d i a n ' s a t t a c h m e n t t o h i s p e o p l e and h i s c u l t u r e . Con- s e q u e n t l y , e d u c a t o r s a d j u s t e d t h e i r s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s t o c o r r e s p o n d more c l o s e l y w i t h t h e i r a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . I n 1910, Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t announced t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n aimed " t o f i t t h e I n d i a n 3 f o r c i v i l i z e d l i f e i n h i s own e n v i r o n m e n t . " T h i s a l t e r a t i o n o f g o a l i n e f f e c t c o n s t i t u t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e acknowledgement o f t h e c a p a c i t y o f I n d i a n rhythms t o i n f l u e n c e t h e n a t u r e and outcome o f w h i t e a c c u l t u r a t i v e e f f o r t s . E d u c a t o r s o r i g i - n a l l y c o n c e i v e d b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s as p o w e r f u l i n s t r u m e n t s o f s o c i a l change, o v e r whose o p e r a t i o n a a n d r e s u l t s t h e y would e x e r c i s e c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l . But a whole range o f f a c t o r s — n o t j u s t t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e c h u r c h e s o r o f t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s — d e t e r m i n e d t h e edu- c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and s o c i a l d e s t i n i e s o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . N a t i v e p a t t e r n s o f l i f e c o n d i t i o n e d t housands o f e v e r y d a y d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n - i n g d e t a i l s o f a t t e n d a n c e . P a r e n t s d e c i d e d , o u t e o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f e m o t i o n a l , economic, and c u l t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , whether t o send c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l ; w h i c h c h i l d r e n t o send; a t what age t o l e t them go; how many t o e n r o l l ; and, t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , how much c o n t a c t be- tween f a m i l y and c h i l d e x i s t e d d u r i n g a t t e n d a n c e . C h i l d r e n r e a c t e d t o t h e s c h o o l s ' programs a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r h y t h m s , sometimes r e f u s i n g t h e new d i s c i p l i n e w i t h s u c h p e r s i s t e n c e t h a t o f f i c i a l s were d r i v e n t o s e e k new means o f c o e r c i o n . And, a f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e i r 74 education, most pupils resumed interrupted native patterns of l i f e , instead of t r y i n g to j o i n the white community. Of course, there were some fa c t o r s a f f e c t i n g attendance at r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s — s u c h as health problems—and others a f f e c t i n g the impact of the i n s t i t u t i o n s — s u c h as enduring prejudice against even educated Indians i n the white p o p u l a t i o n — o v e r which neither admini- s t r a t o r s nor Indians had any r e a l c o n t r o l . S t i l l , these two groups j o i n t l y made the vast majority of decisions r e l a t i n g to the schools. I t i s unfortunate, therefore, that writers have portrayed Indians as e s s e n t i a l l y passive during t h i s period. According to t h i s view, they were a decimated and bewildered minority, f i t only to "be p i t i e d , 4 converted, and administered." The perspective of the l a s t one hundred years r e i n f o r c e s such assumptions: Indians, apparently " l o s e r s " i n the c u l t u r a l " b a t t l e " which transpired, l e t s l i p c o n t r o l of t h e i r own destiny; and watched powerlessly as they were helped or victi m i z e d by schemes of s o c i a l manipulation. In f a c t , as Robert Berkhofer has noted, "both groups behaved according to t h e i r own c u l t u r a l systems."^ Examining the. way each group made attendance decisions reveals much not only about i t s c u l t u r a l assumptions, but also about s o c i a l problems and changes i t was experiencing. Indian s o c i e t y was undergoing trans- formation. But that does not mean Indians were quiescent--or reacted without reference to important c u l t u r a l rhythms. Any r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a mutual and perpetually changing phenomenon; to examine the contributions of only one of i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s i s to see not h a l f a p i c t u r e , but a gravely d i s t o r t e d image. 75 ABBREVIATIONS AA: A n g l i c a n C h u r c h A r c h i v e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a CMSA: Church M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y A r c h i v e s , m i c r o f i l m , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b r a r y DIAN: Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s D i s t r i c t O f f i c e A r c h i v e s , Nanaimo, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a IA : A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e Department [ B r a n c h ] o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s OC: O r c h a r d C o l l e c t i o n , i n t h e A u r a l H i s t o r y C o l l e c t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a OR: Records o f t h e O b l a t e M i s s i o n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , m i c r o f i l m , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b r a r y -PABC: P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a SGIS: S t . George's I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , L y t t o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a UCA: u u n i t e d C hurch A r c h i v e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 76 NOTES Chapter I ^Canada, Department of the Interior, Report of the Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs for the Year Ended g l December I876 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 18$7), p. 6. Prom 1880 to 1937, a separate Department of Indian Affairs existed. From 1937 to 1950, the Indian Affairs Branch was part of the Department of Mines and Resources. Whatever particular Government Department to which the Branch belonged in any given year, i t always issued i t s own annual report, abbreviated henceforth as IA. Until 1892 (Year Ended 31 December I892), reports are for the calendar year, January to December. Between 1893 (lear Ended 30 June I893) and 1906, reports conclude in June of each year. After 1907 (Year Ended 31 March 1907), reports conclude in March. In a l l future references, reports w i l l be cited by the year in which they conclude. 2 E. Palmer Patterson II, The Canadian Indian: A History Since 1500 (Don Mills: Collier MacMillan, 1972), p. 109. -̂ H. J. Vallery, "A History of Indian Education in Canada" (M.A. thesis, Queen's University, 1942), pp. 97, 104, 121. ^Robert Levine and Freda Cooper, "The Suppression of B.C. Languages: F i l l i n g in the Gaps in the Documentary Record," Sound Heritage IV (1976): 43-75. •̂ James W. S't. G. Walker, "The Indian in Canadian Historical Writing," Canadian Historical Association, Historical Papers (1971): 29. ^Gareth Stedman Jones, "Class Expression Versus Social Control? A Critique of Recent Trends in the Social History of Leisure," History Workshop Journal 4 (Autumn 1977): 163. Discussing the historiography of leisure, Jones comments: "It i s as i f class conflict in England had been a largely one-sided a f f a i r conducted by capitalism and i t s representatives; as i f the rural and urban masses...were simply a blank page upon which each successive stage of capitalism has success- f u l l y imposed i t s imprint." (163) 7 Jacqueline Gresko, "White 'Rites' and Indian 'Rites': Indian Education and Native Responses in the West, 1870-1910," in Western Canada Past and Past and Present, ed. A. W. Rasporich (Calgary: McClelland & Stewart, 1975')? PP- 163-181. 8Ibid., p. 174. The paper w i l l make frequent use of detailed attendance records from four specific schools. The Roman Catholic School on Kuper Island was 77 one of the f i r s t of the new "industrial" institutes opened in 1890. The Government helped'! transform the Methodist Coqualeetza Home at Sardis into a full-fledged industrial school i n 1892-3, making i t "the largest and most complete establishment of i t s kind in the province." IA, 1893» p. 220. The Anglican A l l Hallows Girls" Home at Yale operated from 1885 until 1918, when i t amalgamated with St. George's Industrial School at lytton. St. George's, also Anglican, had opened in 1903. The schools represent each of the three main religious denominations in- volved in Indian residential education i n British Columbia. Together, they also dealt with a f a i r l y diverse sample of the province's natives. 1(^John Calam, "An Historical Survey of Boarding Schools and Public School Dormitories in Canada" (M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1962), p. 51. "''"'"See Neil Sutherland, Children in English-Canadian Society: Framing the Twentieth-Century Consensus (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976), pp. 17-21 and passim. 12 Joseph F. Kett, Rites of Passage: Adolescence in America, 1790 to the Present (New Yorki Basic Books, 1977), P- 123. 13 JIan Davey, "The Rhythm of Work and the Rhythm of School (Typescript, n.d.), p. 13. 14 David Rubinstein, School Attendance in London, 1870-1904: A Social History (Hull: University of Hull, 1969), pp. 2-3. "^See Allan Smith, "American Culture and the Concept of Mission in Nineteenth Century English Canada," Canadian Historical Association, Historical Papers (l97l): 169-182. Smith argues that English Canadians, like Americans saw themselves as representing "a special and chosen society." (170) "^ J . T. M. Anderson, The Education of the New-Canadian (Toronto: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1918), pp. 8, 26-27. 17 See W. Peter Ward, "The Oriental Immigrant and Canada's Protestant Clergy, I858-I925," BC Studies 22 (Summer 1974): 40. 18 Haley P. Bamman, "Patterns of School Attendance in Toronto, 1844- I878: Some Spatial Considerations," in Education and Social Change: Themes from Ontario's Past, eds. Michael B. Katz and Paul H. Mattingly (New York: New York University Press, 1975), P- 218. 1 9IA, 1889, P. x i ; IA, 18?6, p. gg. 2 0 IA, 1907, p. 415. 2 1IA, 1910, p. 273. 22 Ronald G. Haycock, The Image of the Indian (Waterloo: Waterloo Lutheran University, 1972), p. 1. 78 2\A, 1907, p. x x i i i . 23 E. P. Thompson, "Time, W o r k - D i s c i p l i n e , and I n d u s t r i a l C a p i t a l i s m , " P a s t and P r e s e n t 38 (December 1967): 73. 2^EA, 1907, p. x x i v . 26 B r i t i s h C o lumbia, P a p e r s R e l a t i n g t o t h e Commission A p p o i n t e d t o E n q u i r e i n t o t h e C o n d i t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e North-West C o a s t ( V i c t o r i a : R i c h a r d ¥olfenden, 1888), p. 47. 2 ? I A , 1907, p. 415. 28 R. D. Gidney, " E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n i n Upper Canada: A Reassessment," i n K a t z and M a t t i n g l y , p. 18. 29 ^ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , I 8 9 O - I 8 9 I , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1892 ( V i c t o r i a ! R i c h a r d Wolfenden, 1892), p. 204. 3°British C o l u m b i a , " P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , 1896-1897," S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , I898 ( V i c t o r i a : R i c h a r d Wolfenden, I898), p. 234. 31 J B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t : S t a t i s t i c a l R e t u r n s , 1894-1895," S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , I896 ( V i c t o r i a : R i c h a r d Wolfenden, I896), pp. i i - v . 32 R o b e r t M. Stamp, " E d u c a t i o n and t h e Economic and S o c i a l M i l i e u : The E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n Scene f r o m t h e 1870s t o 1914," i n C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n : A H i s t o r y , eds. J . Donald W i l s o n , R o b e r t M. Stamp, and L o u i s - P h i l i p p e Audet ( S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1970), p. 304. 33 H. K e i t h H u t c h i n s o n , "Dimensions o f E t h n i c E d u c a t i o n : The Japanese i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1880-1940" (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1972), pp. 57-63. 34 J o r g e n D a h l i e , " L e a r n i n g on t h e F r o n t i e r : S c a n d i n a v i a n I m m i g r a n t s and E d u c a t i o n i n Western Canada," C a n a d i a n and I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n 1 (December 1972): 60. 3 5 I A , 1901, pp. 38-51, 158-167. 3 6 I b i d . , pp. 38-39. 3 7 I A , 1897, p. 88. T O J . H. Van Den B r i n k , The H a i d a I n d i a n s : C u l t u r a l Change m a i n l y between 1876-1970 ( L e i d e n , E. J . B r i l l , 1970), p. 139- 3 9 I A , 1888, p. 102. 4 0 I A , 1877, P- 49. 41 ^ I A , 1876, P. 33- 79 42 Rubinstein, p. 53- 43 ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, " P u b l i c Schools Report, 1874-1875," S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1876 ( V i c t o r i a : Richard Wolfenden, I876), p. 98. ^1A, 1896, p. x x x v i i . ^ I A , 1897, p. x x v i . ^ 6 I A , 1913. P. 303. ; 47 As one recent observer has noted, "no other group i n Canadian history- has experienced government p o l i c y s e p a r a t i n g parent and c h i l d . Even the Japanese i n the Second World War were removed as a group." James Spears, "An Experiment, i n F a i l u r e , " Vancouver Province, 4 J u l y 1978, p. 10. 48 Wilson Duff, The Indian H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia: v o l . 1: The Impact of the White Man ( V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1964), p. 45. ^ 9 I A , 1901, pp. 38-51, 158-167; IA, 1920, pp. 34, 62-67. -̂ W. T. Stanbury, "The Education Gap: Urban Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia," BC Studies 19 (Autumn 1973), P- 27. Chapter I I "'"Leo W. Simmons, ed., Sun Chief: The Autobiography of a Hopi Indian (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1942), p. 100. 2 Indian A f f a i r s Education D i v i s i o n , The Education of I n d i a n C h i l d r e n i n Canada (Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1965), p. 5- 3 I A , 1920, p. 13. 4 IA, I898, p. x x v i . Thus.although Agent H a l l i d a y reported from the Kwawkewlth Agency i n 1906 t h a t "a few parents were f i n e d f o r not sending the c h i l d r e n to s c h o o l , " i t i s c l e a r t h a t compulsion was seldom employed. Seven years l a t e r , Agent Deasy was s t i l l urging the Department to i n s t i - t u t e c o e r c i o n : "We s h a l l never make the I n d i a n r e a l i z e the importance of education u n t i l we take hold of him and compel attendance at s c h o o l . " IA, 1906, p. 232; IA, 1913, p. 408. 5 I A , 1920, p. 13. ^"Memoirs and d i a r y j' I n dian School at F t . S t . James, l a t e r F r a s e r Lake. 'Lejac Indian School,' 1916-1922. F r . Joseph A l l a r d , " 5 November 1923, Records of the Oblate Missions of B r i t i s h Columbia, m i c r o f i l m , r e e l 712, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y . The school d i a r y was kept not by A l l a r d but by an unnamed school teacher. A l l a r d ' s memoirs appear at various places throughout the d i a r y . Henceforth, references to t h i s source w i l l be shortened to A l l a r d Memoirs or F r a s e r l a k e Diary; the '80 abbreviation OR w i l l indicate the Oblate Records held on microfilm in the University of British Columbia library. With respect to compulsory enrollment, see also Charles Moser, Reminiscences of the West Coast of Vancouver Island (Victoria: Acme Press, 1926), p. 126. Moser states that compulsion began in 1922. 7 The principal of the Old Sun's Boarding School in Alberta admitted i n 1913 that "compulsion has to be used to get the parents to bring their children to the school." IA, 1913, p. 578. 8IA, 1904, p. 392. 9Fred Thornberg to Editor of Victoria Colonist, 1 August 1904; Editor of Victoria Colonist to Fred Thornberg, 31 August 1904; Editor of Victoria Colonist to Attorney-General Charles Wilson, 31 August 1904, MSS, Provincial Archives of British Columbia. Henceforth, the Provincial Archives w i l l be abbreviated PABC. 1 0IA, 1911, p. 495. n i A , 1906, p. 257. 12 G. Donckele to W. lomas, 1 October 1894, MS, Department of Indian Affairs District Office Archives, Nanaimo, British Columbia. Hence- forth, references to the archival collection at this location w i l l be abbreviated DIAN. 1 3IA, 1889, p. 120. """̂ Joseph Hall to E. Robson, 14 January 1897, MS, PABC. 1 5IA, 1907, p. 235. The extent of Indian h o s t i l i t y i s forcefully ex- pressed in the report from the Alert Bay Girls' Home for 1907: "This home was reopened in August. Only three pupils entered, and as two of these l e f t in three weeks, i t was closed." IA, 1907, p. 395- 16 Fr. Nicholas Coccola, Memoirs, in (Coccola) "letters and Papers, 1881- 1929," OR, reel 705- "^Denys Nelson, "The Life and Work of Father Coccola" (Typescript, PABC, 1924), p. 39- -1 Q G. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 5 May 1905; G. Donckele to W. Robertson, 22 August 1905, MSS, DIAN. 1 9IA, 1891, p. 169. 20 British Columbia Department of Education, B.C. Heritage Series: Our Native Peoples: vol. 10: Bella Coola (Victoria: Provincial Museum, 1953;, PP. 35-36. 21 Clellan S. Ford, Smoke from Their Fires: The Life of a Kwakiutl Chief (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1941), p. 33. 81 22 Claudia Lewis, Indian Families of the Northwest Coast: The Impact of Change (Chicago! The University of Chicago Press, 1970), p. 41. 2 3IA, 1895, P> x x i i ; IA, 1911, P- 236; Froben Epper, "Christie Indian Industrial School," in British Columbia Orphan's Friend [Historical Number, PABC] (December 1913), p. 175. 24 Such o f f i c i a l s appear to have made a f a i r l y concerted effort to change the co-residency patterns of Indians. At Alert Bay, Alfred Hall "wished to teach his charges to...have homes of their own instead of l i v i n g in the community houses. At Kuper Island, both G. Donckele and Agent W. Robertson f e l t that discouraging young couples from l i v i n g with their parents would help avert domestic problems. Their opinions were shared by most other administrators. Elizabeth Healey, comp., A History of Alert Bay and District (Vancouver: J. ¥. Bow & Co., 1958), p. 26; G. Donckele to W. Robertson, 13 November 1902, MS, DIAN; IA, 1911, p. 377. 25 The change was not, of course, a linear progression from extended to nuclear family; nor did the change occur to the same extent i n a l l places at the same time. Claudia Lewis found modified versions of the extended family among the Coast Salish as late as 1954. Lewis, pp. 89-95- 2^Brink, p. 60. 2 7IA, 1908, p. 257. 2 8Duff, p. 39. 2 9IA, 1907, p. x x i i . 30 J Helen Codere, Fighting with Property: A Study of Kwakiutl Potlatching and Warfare, 1792-1930 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, I966), p. 5k. 31 J Brink, p. 65. 3 2 A l f r e d Hall to Church Missionary Society, 3 September 1895> Church Missionary Society Archives, North Pacific Mission, British Columbia, Original Letters (in) to 1900, microfilm, reel 4 9 , University of British Columbia Library. Henceforth, the abbreviation CMSA w i l l refer to the microfilm records of the Church Missionary Society which are held in the University of British Columbia Library. 33 J Mrs. E. Joyce, Interview No. 965-1 , Orchard Collection, PABC. Henceibr- forth, the Orchard Collection w i l l be abbreviated as 0C. 34 ^Margaret Butcher, Correspondence, 1917, MSS, PABC. Butcher's papers deal with the period 19l6-1919> Their disorganized state makes i t d i f f i c u l t to cite precise dates; only the year of each reference w i l l , therefore, be given. •^IA, 1903, p. x x v i i i . 82 37 1910, P- 327. IA, 1907, P- 235. 1907, P- 247. >IA, 1889, P- 120. >IA, 1890, P- 128. 41 James P. Spradley, Guests Never Leave Hungry: The Autobiography of James Sewid, A Kwakiutl Indian (Montreal: McGill-Queen's Press, 1972), p. 60. ^IA, 1902, p. 266. ^IA, 1903, p. 245. 44 British Columbia Department of Education, B.C. Heritage Series: Our Native Peoples: vol. 1: Tsimshian (Victoria: Provincial Museum, 1952), p. 37. ^ 5IA, 1899, P. [272]. 46 Clara Clare, Interview No. 400-1: "An Indian Child at School in Yale, B.C.," 0C, PABC. 47 , IA, 1893, P- 136. The report does not provide Antoine's f u l l name. 4 8IA, 1912, p. 396. 49 British Columbia, Report of the Royal Commission on Indian Affairs for the Province of British Columbia, 4 v o l s . ( V i c t o r i a : A c m e Press, 1916), 3: 651. ^°Margaret Butcher, Correspondence, 1919, MSS, PABC. 5 1G. Donckele to W. Robertson, 25 October 1900, MS, DIAN. Chapter III 1IA, 1891, p. 136. 2IA, 1891, p. 135; IA, 1892, p. 260. ^British Columbia, Royal Commission, 1: 189, 236, 330; 2: 473, ^80; 3: 561, 563, 650, 733; b: 775. 4IA, 1890, p. xxx; IA, 1892, p. 260; IA, 1893, P- 131; IA, 1895, P- 156; "Report of the Vicariate of British Columbia, 1893, English translation," OR, reel 712. 83 "'"Codex h i s t o r i c u s and v i s i t , St. Eugene's'Mission, Cranbrook, 1895>" OR, r e e l 712. ^IA, 1906, p. x x x i i i . 7 I A , 1908, p. 258. 8 I A , 1904, p. 270. 9 / Alan Morley, Roar of the Breakers: A Biography of P e t e r K e l l y (Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1967), pp. 51-52. 1 0 I A , 1898, p. 227. "'"Hf. M. H a l l i d a y , P o t l a t c h and Totem: And the R e c o l l e c t i o n s of an Indian Agent (Toronto: J . M. Dent & Sons, 1935), P- 38. 1 2 I A , 1892, p. 259. 1 3 I A , 1895, P- 155. 1 4 I A , 1910, p. 509. "^Margaret Butcher, Correspondence, 1917, MSS, PABC. l 6Duncan Campbell S c o t t , "Indian A f f a i r s , 1867-1912," i n Canada and I t s Provinces, eds. Adam Sh o r t t and Arthur G. Doughty (Toronto: Glasgow, Brook & Co., 1914), V I I : 615. 1 7G. Donckele to ¥. Lomas, 2 January 1893, MS, DIAN; Coqualeetza I n d u s t r i a l . / I n s t i t u t e R e g i s t e r of Admissions and Discharges (Doomsday Book), A p r i l 1888-24 October 1911, M S i t U h i t e d r C h u i c h ^ of B r i t i s h Columbia. The R e g i s t e r w i l l henceforth be abbreviated as Coqualeetza Register; UCA w i l l stand f o r the United Church Archives. G. C. Van Gothen, of Kuper I s l a n d , r e f e r r e d i n I896 to a Department " c i r c u l a r " as s p e c i f y i n g c e r t a i n key questions which an examining doctor ought to answerobefore a p p l i c a n t s were admitted. But i n many schools the r i g o r o u s examination of p r o s p e c t i v e p u p i l s was not stan- dard p o l i c y u n t i l much l a t e r . I n 1910, the p r i n c i p a l of the P o r t Simpson G i r l s ' Home s t a t e d : "In compliance w i t h the request from the I n d i a n Department the examination now given those seeking admission has been made more r i g i d . " G. C. Van Gothen to A. Iff. Vowell, 14 August 1896, MS, DIAN; IA, 1910, p. 521. 18 St. George's I n d u s t r i a l School, L y t t o n , R e g i s t e r of Admissions, 7 J u l y 1911-1922; A l l Hallows G i r l s ' School, Yale, R e g i s t e r of Admissions, 1910-1922, MSS, St. George's I n d u s t r i a l School, l y t t o n . Henceforth, these R e g i s t e r s w i l l be abbreviated as St. George's Admissions R e g i s t e r and A l l Hallows Admissions R e g i s t e r . The presence o f documents at the StovGeorgetsoSchool w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by the n o t a t i o n SGIS. 1 9G. Donckele to ¥. Lomas, 13 May 1899, MS, DIAN. IA, 1 8 9 2 , p. 260. 21 For a discussion of Durieu's "system," see E. M. Lemert, "Life and Death of an Indian State," Human Organization 13 (Fall 19.54): 23-27. 22 Allard Memoirs, OR, reel 712. 2 3IA, 1 8 9 7 , p. xxvi. 2 4IA, 1 8 9 6 , p. 8 8 . 25 ^Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA. 26 G. C. Van Gothen to A. W. Vowell, 14 August I896; G. C. Van Gothen to A. ¥. Vowell, 8 September I 8 9 6 , MSS, DIAN; St. George's Admissions Register, MS, SGIS. 2 7A. ¥. Corker to CMS, 4 March I897, CMSA, reel 51; Moser, p. 128. 28 "Report of the Vicariate of British Columbia, 1 8 9 8 , English trans- lation," OR, reel 7 1 2 . 29 Report of the Vicariate of British Columbia, 1 8 9 3 , English trans- lation," OR, reel 712. 3 0Joseph Hall to E. Robson, 24 July I896, MS, PABC; Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA. 3 1G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 12 April 1 9 0 5 ; G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 5 May 1 9 0 5 ; G. Donckele to A. Green, 23 March 1 9 0 5 , MSS, DIAN. 3 2Fred Thornberg to Editor of Victoria Colonist, 1 August 1 9 0 4 , MS, PABC. 3 3IA, 1911, p. 376; IA, 1 9 0 7 , p. 448; "Report of the Vicariate of British Columbia, 1 8 9 3 , English translation," OR, reel 7 1 2 . 34 Kuper Island Industrial School, Records of Admissions, 7 August 1897-7 April 1 9 0 6 , MSS, DIAN. 3 5IA, 1 9 0 6 , p. 4 8 0 . ?6 This discussion i s based on censuses published by the Department of Indian Affairs. See, for example, IA, 1 9 0 1 , pp. I58-I67. 37 The.information for Table I i s drawn from the Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA. The linguistic divisions are taken from Duff, pp. 18-37. Different Nootka dialect groups were represented in Coqualeetza— groups who were sometimes unable to understand each other. See British Columbia Department of Education, B.C. Heritage Series: Our Native Peoples: vol. 5 : Nootka (Victoria: Provincial Museum, 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 9. 85 3 8 A l l H a l l o w s A d m i s s i o n s R e g i s t e r , MS, SGIS. 3 9 I A , 1907, p. 2 3 5 ; I A , 1 9 1 3 , p. 599; I A , 1 9 1 6 , pp. 2 2 0 - 2 2 1 . 40 The A m e r i c a n I n d i a n Commissioner f r o m I889 t o 1 8 9 3 , Thomas J e f f e r s o n Morgan, w r o t e : " E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d s e e k t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e t r i b e s , and n o t t h e i r s e g r e g a t i o n . " F r a n c i s P a u l P r u s c h a , A m e r i c a n I n d i a n P o l i c y i n C r i s i s : C h r i s t i a n Reformers and t h e I n d i a n , 1 8 6 5 - 1 9 0 0 (Norman: U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 299. ^ I A , 1911, p. 383. 42 See pp. 47-48. ^ 3 I A , 1 9 1 3 , P. 4 9 7 . ^ I A , 1 8 9 4 , pp. 2 5 8 - 2 5 9 ; IA, 1 9 1 0 , pp. 3 6 2 - 3 6 5 ; IA, 1 9 2 0 , pp. 64-67. ^ A l f r e d H a l l t o CMS, 2 0 June 1 8 9 2 , CMSA, r e e l 49. ^ 6 I A , 1911, p. 383. ^ 7 I A , 1 9 1 0 , p. 4 0 6 . 48 IA, 1 9 1 0 , pp. 2 7 3 - 2 7 4 . 4 9 I A , 1 8 8 9 , P- 1 2 0 . 5°G. C. Van Gothen t o ¥. Lomas, 7 September I896, MS, DIAN. ^ J o s e p h H a l l t o E. Robson, 24 J u l y I896; J o s e p h H a l l t o E. Robson, 7 September 1896, MSS, PABC. 5 2 J o s e p h H a l l t o E. Robson, 14 J a n u a r y 1 8 9 7 , MS, PABC. Don c k e l e t o ¥. R o b e r t s o n , 3 J a n u a r y 1 9 0 2 , MS, DIAN. 54 ^ C o q u a l e e t z a R e g i s t e r , MS, UCA. 55 K u p e r d l s l a n & d ' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , Records o f A d m i s s i o n s , c a . 1 8 9 0 - 7 A p r i l 1 9 0 6 , MSS, DIAN. D e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g t h e f i r s t t h i r t y - t w o s t u d e n t s ad- m i t t e d t o t h e s c h o o l a r e i l l e g i b l e . S t . George's A d m i s s i o n s R e g i s t e r ; A l l H a l l o w s A d m i s s i o n s R e g i s t e r , MSS, SGIS. 57 J ' I s o h e l l M e F a d d e n , L i v i n g by B e l l s : The S t o r y o f F i v e I n d i a n Schools;- ( 1 8 7 4 - I 9 7 0 ) , ( m p . : U n i t e d Church oT Canada, 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 1 1 . 5 8 I A , 1 8 9 8 , p. 338. 5 9 G. Don c k e l e t o t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , 24 F e b r u a r y 1 8 9 9 , MS, DIAN. 86 6°IA, 1901, p. 416. ^"G. Donckele to W. Robertson, 2 November 1905, MS, DIAN. 62 G. Donckele to "Mrs. Purser," 11 March 1905; Kuper Island Industrial School, Records of Admissions, 7 August 1897-7 April 1906, MSS, DIAN. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 19 December 1900, MS, DIAN. 64 G. Donckele to ¥. Lomas, 20 September 1899; G. Donckele to ¥. Robertson, 13 June 1904; Kuper Island Industrial School, Records of Admissions, 7 August 1897-7 April 1906, MSS, DIAN. 6̂ Lewis, p. 41. 6 6Brink, p. 120. ^G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 23 October 1895; Kuper Island Industrial School. Attendance Register for Quarter Ended 30 September 1899, MSS, DIAN. ^8G. Donckele to Ralph Smith, 10 February 1902, MS, DIAN. 6 9IA, 1924, p. 15. 70 The samples include the 489 pupils entering the Coqualeetza School between March 1888 and 24 October 1911? "the 96 pupils entering the Kuper Island School between 7 August 1897 and 7 April 1906; 88 female pupils entering the A l l Hallows Girl's School and St. George's Industrial School between 1910 and 1922; 154 male pupils entering St. George's Industrial School between 7 July 1911 and 1922; and the 24 pupils entering the Kamloops Industrial School between 19 May I89O and 21 July 1890. Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA; Kuper Island Industrial School, Records of Admissions, 7 August 1897-7 April 1906, MSS, DIAN; A l l Hallows Admissions Register, MS, SGIS; St. George's Admissions Register, MS, SGIS; IA, 1890, pp. 126-127. 71 Ideally, both "day" and "boarding" schools would prepare children for "industrial" schools. See IA, 1906, p. 251; IA, 1911, p. 380. 72 Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA; St. George's Admissions Register, MS, SGIS. 7 3IA, 1890, p. x i i . 7^IA, 1892, p. 260. 7^G. Donckele to ¥. Lomas, 9 March 1899, MS, DIAN. AIphonse-Marie Carion to unnamed priest, 13 September 1893, in (Carion) "Letters and Papers, 1876-1910," OR, reel 705. G. Donckele to ¥. Robertson, 2 March 1901; G. Donckele to ¥. Robertson, 21 November 1902, MSS, DIAN. 8 7 7 8 I A , 1 9 0 3 , p. 4 1 3 . 79 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R o y a l Commission, 2: 4 7 7 ; A l l H a l l o w s i n t h e West V I (Michaelmas 1 9 0 6 ) : 5 3 8 . 30 C h a p t e r I V 1 I A , 1 9 1 1 , p. 5 7 6 . 2 I A , 1 9 1 1 , p. 4 9 2 . A. R. H i v e s , "The New E n g l a n d Company" ( T y p e s c r i p t , A n g l i c a n C h u r c h A r c h i v e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a [ 1 9 5 8 ] ) , pp. 2 9 - 3 0 . 4 A. W. H a r d i n g , " S t . G e o r g e ' s : I Renders Over 1 0 0 Y e a r s S e r v i c e t o I n t e r i o r I n d i a n C h i l d r e n , " C a r i b o o C o n t a c t 3 ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 8 ) : 4. •^St. George's A d m i s s i o n s R e g i s t e r , MS, SGIS. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R o y a l Commission, 2: 4 7 7 . 7 M o r l e y , pp. 5 0 - 5 1 . 8 I A , 1 9 0 2 , p. 4 2 3 . 9G. Donckele t o A. W. V o w e l l , 2 0 September 1 8 9 4 , MS, DIAN. 1 0 I A , 1 9 1 1 , p. 3 9 2 . 1 : LG. Do n c k e l e t o W. Eomas, 1 O c t o b e r 1 8 9 4 , MS, DIAN. 1 2 C o q u a l e e t z a R e g i s t e r , MS, UCA. 1 3 I A , 1 8 9 8 , p. 3 3 9 . 14 M o r l e y , pp. 5 0 - 5 1 . 1 5 G . Donckele t o A. W. V o w e l l , 8 F e b r u a r y 1 8 9 7 ; 0. Donckele t o A. W. V o w e l l , 1 6 F e b r u a r y 1 8 9 7 ; MSS, DIAN. 1 6 K u p e r I s l a n d I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , Conduct Books, 1 J a n u a r y 1 8 9 1 - 1 1 J a n u a r y 1 9 0 7 , MSS, DIAN. H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Kuper I s l a n d Conduct Books. 1 7 L e v i n e and Cooper, pp. 4 3 - 7 5 - 18 G. H. R a l e y , " R u l e s , " i n " C o q u a l e e t z a I n d u s t r i a l I n s t i t u t e and o t h e r s c h o o l s , v a r i o u s p a p e r s , " MSS, PABC. 19 7 K u p e r I s l a n d C o r i d u c t i B o o k s , MSS, DIAN. 2 0 L e v i n e and Cooper, p. 5 7 . 88 21 Thompson, p. 84. 22 IA,' 1889, p. x i . 23 iMrs. A. Cooper, I n t e r v i e w No. 732-1: " C o q u a l e e t z a R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l i n t h e 1890s , " 0C, PABC. 24 M a r g a r e t B u t c h e r , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , 1916, MSS, PABC. 25 G. H. R a l e y , " R u l e s , " i n " C o q u a l e e t z a I n d u s t r i a l I n s t i t u t e and o t h e r s c h o o l s , v a r i o u s p a p e r s , " MSS, PABC. 2 6 K u p e r I s l a n d Conduct Books, MSS, DIAN. 2 7 C l a r a C l a r e , I n t e r v i e w No. 400-1, 0C, PABC. M a r g a r e t B u t c h e r , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , 1916, MSS, PABC. 2 9 I A , 1913, PP- 396-397. 3°Allard Memoirs, OR, r e e l 712. 3 1 I A , 1911, p. 502. 3 2 I A , 1903, p. 427. 3 3 I A , 1913, p. 596; IA, 1912, p. 574. I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e 1928 Meriam R e p o r t s t a t e d : " A . . d i s t i n e t i o n i n t h e o r y i s drawn between i n d u s - t r i a l work u n d e r t a k e n p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d and p r o d u c t i o n work done p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . . . [ h o w e v er] t h e q u e s t i o n may v e r y p r o p e r l y be r a i s e d as t o whether much o f the work done by I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s would n o t be p r o - h i b i t e d i n many s t a t e s by t h e c h i l d l a b o r l a w s . " When o f f i c i a l s o f t h e Kootenay S c h o o l d e c i d e d " t o c o m p l e t e l y change o u r method o f I n d i a n t ra iningV" innabbut t l930, t h e y d e c r e e d : "Hard l a b o u r i s a b o l i s h e d . . . A n i n s t r u c t o r i s p r e s e n t a t a l l -times w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . " The most s u c c e s s f u l s c h o o l s were t h o s e w h i c h made use o f t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n s k i M s f e i n e f f e c t s u b s t i t u t i n g t h e s c h o o l economy f o r t h e f a m i l y economy. A t A l b e r n i , i n . 1906, " t h e boys and g i r l s made a l a r g e d r i f t g i l l - n e t , w h i c h has been a g r e a t h e l p t o t h e s c h o o l , i n g i v i n g a s u p p l y o f f r e s h f i s h . " R o b e r t H.. Bremmer, ed., C h i l d r e n and Yo u t h i n A m e r i c a : A Documentary H i s t o r y , v o l . I I : 1866-1932, P a r t s Seven and E i g h t (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), I I : 1379; Codex h i s t o r i c u s and v i s i t , S t . Eugene's M i s s i o n , Cranbrook, 1926- 1948," OR, r e e l 712; I A , I 9 0 6 , p. 430. 3 ^ I A , 1893, P- 131; IA, L 8 9 2 , p. 264; I A , 1911, p. 502. - ^ N e l s o n , p. 39. 3 6 M o r l e y , p. 50. 3 7 G . Donckele t o tf. lomas, 20 March 1894, MS, DIAN. 3 8G. Donckele to W. Lomas, 7 March 1897, MS, DIAN. 3 9P. Dowling to J. M. R. Le Jeune, 8 July 1893, in (Le Jeune) "Letters, 1880-1927," OR, reel 708. 40 Allard. Memoirs, OR, reel 712. ^IA, 1892, p. 260. 42 IA, 1905, p. 451; IA, 1908, p. 448. Whether Inspector Green saw what the pupils typically ate i s less than certain; schools may have been forewarned of his arrival. The school diary at Fraser Lake noted on 1 5 May 1922: "To-day an extra cleaning up was held, to prepare fcSr the v i s i t of the Chief Inspector, who i s announced for to-morrow." Fraser Lake Diary, OR, reel 712. 43 JQ. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 24 January 1894; G. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 12 April 1894; G. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 12 June 1894, MSS, DIAN. 44 Mrs. E. Joyce, Interview No. 965-1, OC, PABC. 45 ^Joe Clemine, Interview No. 361-1, OC, PABC. 46 Fraser Lake Diary, 8 September 1922, OR, feel 712. 47 'Mrs. R. Hall, Interview No. 1044-1: "A Carrier Woman Tells of Her People and Her L i f e , " 0C, PABC. 48 B , 1903, P. 431. 49 'Kuper Island Conduct Books, MSS, DIAN. 5°IA, 1896, p. 385. 5 1 A l f r e d Hall to CMS, 12 May I896, CMSA, reel 4 9 . 53 ^Mrs. A. Cooper, Interview No. 732-1, 00:, PABC. 54 ^Joe Clemine, Interview No. 36I-I, 0C, PABC. ^ E r i k Erikson, Childhood and Society,(New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 19 1963), pp. 154-155. 5 6IA, 1907, p. 235. 5 2Morley, p. 5 3 - 5 7IA, 1 9 1 1 , p. 3 9 0 ; IA, 1 9 1 3 , P. ^ 0 9 . 5 8IA, 1 9 0 3 , p. 425. -^Kuper. IslandsSonductmBooks.TsMSS, DIAN; G. H. Raley, "Rules," in "Coqualeetza Industrial Institute and other schools, various papers," 90 MSS, PABC. 6°IA, 1896, p. 391. 6 l K u p e r I s l a n d Conduct Books, MSS, DIAN? 62 G. Donckele to ¥. Lomas, 7 March 1897; G. Donckele t o ¥. Lomas, 1 March 1899, MSS, DIAN, 6 3 J o e Clemine, I n t e r v i e w No. 36I-I, OC, PABC. ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, " P u b l i c Schools Report, 1894-1895," S e s s i o n a l Papers, I896 ( V i c t o r i a : Richard ¥olfenden, 1896), p. 201. The Report concluded th a t the high incidence of c o r p o r a l punishment d i d "not speak w e l l f o r the teachers." (p. 201) The Vancouver Board of School Trustees r e c e i v e d a number of complaints from parents concerning the p h y s i c a l punishment of c h i l d r e n . See Vancouver Board of School Trustees, Minute Book, 1 June 1892-31 November ["sic] I898, MS, Vancouver C i t y Archives. ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, B.C. Heritage S e r i e s : Our Native Peoples: v o l . 3: I n t e r i o r S a l i s h ( V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1952), p. 39. 6 6 I A , 1896, p. 391. 6 ? I A , 1896, p. 379. D O I A ( 1897, p. 295- 6 9MrsDoR(?.kHall, Interview No. 1044-1 , OC, PABC. 7°Kuper I s l a n d Conduct Books, MSS, DIAN. 71 Lewis, p. 42. 7ZG. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 1 February 1897, MS, DIAN. 7 3G. Donckele to ¥. Robertson, 7 January, 1901, MS, DIAN. 74 ^Epper, p. 175- ^G. Donckele to ¥. Lomas, 2 December 1895, MS, DIAN. 7 6G. Donckele to tf. Lomas, 1 October 1894, MS, DIAN. 77 'Joseph H a l l t o E. Robson, 24 J u l y I896, MS, PABC; Coqualeetza R e g i s t e r , MS, UCA. 7 8 J o s e p h H a l l t o E. Robson, 24 J u l y 1896, MS, PABC. 7 9G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 30 A p r i l 1895; G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 24 January 1894, MSS, DIAN. 80 A. Garion to unnamed priest, 12 August 1899; A. Garion to unnamed priest, 13 September 1893, in (Garion) "Letters and Papers, I876- 1910," OR, reel 705. 81 Kuper Island Industrial School, Record of Discharges to 30 June 1906, MS, DIAN. 82 Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA. 8 3Joseph Hall to E. Robson, 24 July 1896, MS, PABC. 8 4 IA, 1902, p. 423. 8^G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 5 February 1896, MS, DIAN. R6 G. C. Van Gothen to ¥. Lomas, 22 September 1896; G. C. Van Gothen to W. Lomas, n.d. [between 22 September and 30 September I896], MSS, ©IAN. 8 7G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 7 July I9OO5 G. Donckele to ¥. Robertson, 12 July 1900; G. Donckele to F. Devlin, 31 July 1900; G. Donckele to F. Devlin, 8 August I9OO5 G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 31 December 1900; G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 15 March 1901, MSS, DIAN. Part of the information described as being sent to fromiDonckele to Devlin was actually sent from Donckele to Robertson, who, in turn, forwarded i t to Devlin. 8 8IA, 1913, p. 412. 89 St. George's Admissions Register, MS, SGIS. 9^A. Carion to unnamed priest, 12 August, 1899, in (Carion) "Letters and Papers, I876-I9IO," OR, reel 705. 91 Leonard Dawson himself noted i n 1913 that the school was only par- t i a l l y f i l l e d , even though "there are plenty of boys among the Thompson River Indians who could and should come." IA, 1913, P- 599- To "solve" the problem, he lajter began importing pupils from the north. 9 2G. Donckele to ¥. Lomas, 7 February 1897, MS, DIAN. Chapter V "'"Jacqueline J. Kennedy [Gresko] cites Deputy Superintendent General L. Vankoughnet as stating (ca. I885) that in order to prevent parental v i s i t s and vacations at home "no Industrial School... should be upon an Indian reserve." Jacqueline J. Kennedy, "Qu'Appelle Industrial School: ¥hite 'RLte' for the Indians of the Old North-¥est" (M.A. thesis, Carleton University, 1970), pp. 72-73- See also IA, I89I, p. x i i i . 2 IA, 1899, p. xxxii. See also IA, 1903, PP- xxvii-xxviii and IA, 1906, p. x x x i i i . 92 3 ^Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA. 4 Kuper Island Industrial School,, Records of Admissions, 7 August 1897- 7 April 1906, MSS, DIAN. "'All Hallows Admissions Register; St. George's Admissions Register; St. George's School Quarterly Attendance Reports, 1918-1923, MSS, S.GISS Kuper Island Industrial School, Attendance Register,foraQuarterded Ended 31 December 1896, MS, DIAN. 7 Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA. 8 I b i d . 9 St. George's Admissions Register, MS, SGIS. 1 0IA, 1906, p. 439. 1 1IA, 1913, P. 501 1 2IA, 1894, p. 170; IA, 1903, p. 419; IA, 1905, p. 387- 1 3IA, 1892, p. 260; IA, 1891, p. 134. 14 Fraser Lake Diary, 12 February 1922.]. 19 February 1922; 23 March 1922; 28 March 1922; 10 September 1922; 9 December 1922; 4 February 1923; 11 February 1923; 4 March 1923; 11 March 1923; 29 April 1923; 17 June 1923, OR, reel 712. ^Margaret Butcher, Correspondence, 1918, MSS, PABC. ^McFadden, p. 16. "^Margaret Butcher, Correspondence, 1918, MSS, PABC. 1 8G. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 11 December 1893, MS, DIAN. 1 9IA, 1894, p. 168. 20 G. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 11 December 1893; G. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 7 May 1895; G. Donckele to A. W. Vowell, 8 June 1894; G. C. Van Go then to A. Wii Vowell, 6 July I896, MSS, DIAN. 21 IA, I896, p. 386. Donckele's published account of the incident differs from that contained i n his correspondence. In his annual report, he stated: "These boys, when questioned as to the reason for their mis- behavior, said: 'We have done so because we were informed that hence- forth the holidays would be abolished.'" But i n a letter to Superintendent Vowell at the time, he wrote: "I can only surmise that they thought by setting the building on f i r e , they would be sent home on a long holiday. When questioned by Mr. Lomas whether they had any complaints against the management of the school, they 93 answered no." G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 20 November 1895, MS, DIAN. 22 Not a l l schools offered such holidays, however. The Clayoquot School abolished them altogether some years. At Alert Bay there was normally a break of about six weeks during the fishing; season. At Kuper Island, In the late 1890s, the smaller children took a three week vacation before the fishing season began. IA, 1904, p. 405; IA, 1909, p. 246; IA, 1911, p. 384. 23 Some continued their holidays indefinitely simply because they did not wish to return to school. The records of the Coqualeetza and Lytton Schools show that many refused to return voluntarily; while some were no doubt brought back by force, a considerable number were simply "discharged." Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA; St." George's Admissions Register; St. George's School, Monthly Returns of Trade Instruction, I9I8-I923, MSS, SGIS. 24 G. Donckele to ¥. Lomas, 5 September 1893; G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 11 December 1893; G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 20 August 1894, MSS, DIAN. 2 5IA. 1898, p. 333- G. Donckele to ¥. Robertson, 8 September 1900, MS, DIAN. 2 7IA, 1892, p. 260. 28 Kuper Island Industrial School, Attendance Register for Quarter Ended 31 March 1895, MS, DIAN, 29 'St. Georgess Admissions Register, MS, SGIS. 3°IA, 1906, p. 257; IA, 1901, p. 415. 3 1G. C. Van Gothen to A. ¥. Vowell, 14 August I896; G. Donckele to ¥. Robertson, 7 January 1901, MSS, DIAN. 3 2G. Donckele to A. ¥. Vowell, 10 September 1895, MS, DIAN. 33 The Coqualeetza sample i s limited to thesgO^tpupils entering the school before 1902, since data on discharges for pupils entering after that date i s spotty, and probably biased in favour of those who l e f t earliest. The Kuper Island sample may, however, be unavoidably distorted towards those who l e f t earliest. Legible records do not permit the isolation of information regarding the lengths of stay of a sufficiently large group of children entering before a given date; the sample consequently includes a l l students discharged from the school between i t s opening in I89O and 30 June 1906. Hopefully, any distortion caused by examining pupils grouped together because they were discharged w i l l be minimized by the length of time over which the sample extends. Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA; Kuper Island Industrial School, Record of Discharges to 30 June 1906, MSS, DIAN. 94 34 ^Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA; St. George's Admissions Register; St. George's School Quarterly Attendance Reports, 1918-1923, MSS, SGIS; Kuper Island Industrial School, Attendance Register for Quarters Ended 30 September 1894-31 March 1909, MSS, DIAN. ^IA, School Statements, 1890-1920. ~* St. George's School, Return of Trades Instruction, October 1918, MS, SGIS. 3 7Brink, p. 82. 3 8IA, 1911, p. 387; IA, I9I3, P- 395- 3 9 B r i t i s h Columbia, Royal Commission, 3s 5"1. 40 Coqualeetza Register, MS, UCA. 4 lIA, 1911, pp. 592-593. 42 ^IA, 1912, p. 578. ^ 3IA, 1910, p. 500. 44 Patterson, p. 110. Chapter VI "*"IA, 1887, p. lxxix-lxxx. 2IA, 1901, p. xxix. 3IA, 1910, p. 273. 4 Duff, p. 45. ^Robert F. Berkhofer Jr., Salvation and the Savage: An Analysis of Protestant Missions and American Indian Response, 1787-1862 (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, I965J, p. ix. 95 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE F i n d i n g m a n u s c r i p t s o u r c e m a t e r i a l f o r a s t u d y o o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s i s n o t alw a y s an easy t a s k . The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b r a r y c o n t a i n i m p o r t a n t b u t s p o t t y m a t e r i a l , w h i c h can o f t e n be l o c a t e d o n l y by l a b o r i o u s l y s e a r c h i n g c a r d c a t a l o g u e s f o r r e f e r e n c e s t o l o n g l i s t s o f s e l e c t e d names o r p l a c e s . S c h o o l r e c o r d s o f f e r t h e most f e r t i l e a r e a o f r e s e a r c h , b u t s i n c e a l m o s t a l l o f t h e s c h o o l s have been c l o s e d , t h e r e c o r d s , i f n o t l o s t , have u s u a l l y been t r a n s f e r r e d e l s e w h e r e . When q u e s t i o n e d , o f f i c i a l s o f the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s n o r m a l l y r e f e r t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o c h u r c h a u t h o r i t i e s , who i n t u r n s u g g e s t t h a t any s c h o o l r e c o r d s a r e i n D e p a r t - ment hands. B a s i c a l l y , s c h o o l r e c o r d s may be f o u n d i n f i v e p l a c e s . They may be i n t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s t h e m s e l v e s ( a s a t L y t t o n ) ; i n c h u r c h a r c h i v e s ( a s i s C o q u a l e e t z a ' s "Doomsday B o o k " ) ; i n tfaeaDepartment's D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s ( l i k e t h e K u p e r I s l a n d r e c o r d s i n Nanaimo); i n t h e i n a c c e s s i b l e , because as y e t u n c a t a l o g u e d , D e p a r t m e n t a l " a r c h i v e s " i n Burnaby; o r i n t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada. I was u n a b l e t o e x p l o r e t h e two l a s t m e ntioned l o c a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h Department o f f i c i a l s a s s u r e d me t h e r e was no r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l i n Burnaby. A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e t p r o b a b l y s o t h e r s e t s o f e r e c o r d s o s M i l s i h o o l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I have r e a c h e d a number o f dead ends t r y i n g t o t r a c k them down. A t p r e s e n t , t h e RG 1 0 f i l e i n t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s i n O t t a w a — "Records R e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n A f f a i r s " — w o u l d seem t h e most p r o m i s i n g 96 p l a c e t o seek f u r t h e r r e c o r d s . The p u b l i s h e d c a t a l o g u e * o f l t h i s e f i l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t may c o n t a i n f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . • ^ P u b l i c A r c h i v e s Canada ( P u b l i c Records D i v i s i o n ) , G e n e r a l I n v e n t o r y S e r i e s : No. 1: Records R e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n A f f a i r s (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, 1975). SOURCES CONSULTED Manuscript Sources School Records A l l Hallows Girls' School, Yale. Register of Admissions, 1910-[1918] MS. SGIS. Coqualeetza Industrial Institute, Sardis. Quarterly Records of Admis sions and Discharges, Quarter Ended 30 September 1900-Quarter Ended 30 June 1905. MSS. UCA. . Register of Admissions and Discharges (Doomsday Book), April 1888-24 October 1911. MS. UCA. Kuper Island Industrial School. Conduct Books, 1 January 1891- 1 January 190?. MSS. DIAN. . Correspondence Outward, 18 October 1892-27 July 1906. MSS. DIAN. . Daily Journals, 1893-1920. MSS. DIAN. , Quarterly Attendance Records, Quarter Ended 30 September 1894-Quarter Ended 31 March 1909. MSS. DIAN. . Records of Admissions, ca. 1890-7 Apriltl906. MSS. DIAN. . Record of Discharges to 30 June 1906. MS. DIAN. St. George's Industrial School, Lytton. Monthly Returns of Trade Instruction, October 1918-December 1922. MSS. SGIS.S . Quarterly Attendance Records, Quarter Ended 31 December 1919-Quarter Ended 30 September 1923. MSS. SGIS. . Register of Admissions, 7 July 19H-1922. MS. SGIS. Letters and Papers Butcher, Margaret. Correspondence Outward, I916-I919. MSS. PABC. Church Missionary Society. Archives, North Pacific Mission, British Columbia. Original Letters (in) to 1900. Microfilm, reels 49 and 51. University of British Columbia Library. 98 Green, A. E. Correspondence Inward, 25 March 1912-10JJ;uiyl$9I2. MSS. Vancouver City Archives. Hall, Joseph. Correspondence to.tEc?.r-Robson, 8 July 1896-29 July 1898. MSS. PABC. Raley, G. H. "Papers Relating to Coqualeetza Industrial Institute and other schools." MSS. PABC. Records of the Oblate Missions of British Columbia. Microfilm, reels 705-714. University of British Columbia Library. Thornberg, Fred. Correspondence, 1904. MSS. PABC. Theses and Essays Calam, John. "An Historical Survey of Boarding Schools and Public School Dormitories in Canada." M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, I962. Davey, Ian. "The Rhythm of Work and the Rhythm of School." Typescript, n.d. Hives, A. R. "The New England Company." Typescript, AA, [l958]. Hutchinson, H. Keith. "Dimensions of Ethnic Education: The Japanese in British Columbia, 1880-1940." M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1972. Kennedy, Jacqueline Judith. "Qu'Appelle Industrial School: White 'Rites' for the Indians of the Old North-West." M.A. thesis, Carleton University, 1970. . "Roman Catholic Missionary Effort and Indian Acculturation in the Fraser Valley, 1860-1900." B.A. essay, University of British Columbia, I969. Nelson, Denys. "The Life and Work of Father Coccola." Typescript, PABC, 1924. Parminter, Alfred Vye. "The Development of Integrated Schooling for British Columbia Indian Children." M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1964. Peterson, Lester Ray. "Indian Education i n British Columbia." M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1959- Vallery, H. J. "A History of Indian Education i n Canada." M.A. thesis, Queen's University, 1942. Walkem, Clarence. "Life of an Indian Lad in a Residential School." Typescript, PABC, 1953- 99 Zeleny, Carolyn. 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