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The use of folk elements in Marshak’s dramas for children : The kitten’s house and The twelve months Perel, Renia 1978

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THE USE OF FOLK ELEMENTS IN MARSHAK'S DRAMAS FOR CHILDREN: THE KITTEN'S HOUSE AND THE TWELVE MONTHS by RENIA PEREL B.A.; U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of SLAVONIC STUDIES We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1978 (o) Renia P e r e l , 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Depart-ment or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Renia P e r e l Department of S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Pl a c e Vancouver,.Canada V6T 1W5 31 August 19 78 ABSTRACT Samuil I a k o v l e v i c h Marshak (1887-1964), the v i r t u a l founder of c h i l d r e n ' s drama i n S o v i e t R u s s i a , made wide and frequent use of f o l k elements i n the seven p l a y s t h a t he wrote f o r c h i l d r e n . The> two p l a y s s t u d i e d here, Koshkin dom (The K i t t e n ' s House) and Dvenadtsat' mesiatsev (The Twelve Months), are c l o s e to f o l k t a l e s i n form as w e l l as i n the world view t h a t they p r e s e n t . The K i t t e n ' s House, a verse p l a y , i s a d r a m a t i z a t i o n of the t y p i c a l animal t a l e o f f o l k -l i t e r a t u r e . The Twelve Months, a p l a y mainly i n prose w i t h some verse i n i t , i s a mixture of animal l o r e , magic and f a n t a s y , w i t h a more i n v o l v e d p l o t . T h i s study attempts t o i d e n t i f y the f o l k elements i n these p l a y s and to show how the p l a y s are l i n k e d w i t h f o l k -l i t e r a t u r e i n g e n e r a l and Russian f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e i n p a r t i c u l a r . Furthermore, The Twelve Months i s seen t o be d e r i v e d from a Czech f o l k t a l e . An attempt i s a l s o made to show how Marshak uses f o l k elements to p r o j e c t c e r t a i n s o c i a l v a l u e s . Seen a g a i n s t the background of h i s l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y h i s s u s t a i n e d endeavour t o improve c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n , Marshak"s p l a y s can be r e a d i l y understood t o be d e l i b e r a t e l y designed instruments of s o c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. THE MAN AND HIS WORK • 1 I I . THE KITTEN'S HOUSE . . . . . . . 13 I I I . THE TWELVE MONTHS 37 IV. CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 NOTES 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I t i s a p l e a s a n t duty to acknowledge the h e l p I have -r e c e i v e d from my teachers and my f r i e n d s i n w r i t i n g t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . The chairman of my t h e s i s committee, Dr. M. H. F u t r e l l , had been most l i b e r a l w i t h h i s h e l p and has encour-aged me through some very d i f f i c u l t times. D r ; C. J . G. Turner,-my second reader, has g i v e n me much v a l u a b l e a d v i c e , f o r which I am deeply g r a t e f u l . I wish to express my i n d e b t -edness to P r o f e s s o r B. Czaykowski, Head of the Department of S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s , . f o r h i s encouragement. P r o f e s s o r Miron P e t r o v s k i i , of Kiev, was most sympa-t h e t i c and helped me with v a l u a b l e comments on f o l k l o r e and on Marshak's work d u r i n g my v i s i t t o Moscow i n 1977. I am a l s o most g r a t e f u l t o Marshak's f a m i l y , i n p a r t i c u l a r to M a r i i a Andreevna M a r s h a k M a r s h a k ' s daughter-in-law, and her two sons, Iakov and A l e k s a n d r . My v i s i t t o t h e i r home i n the summer of 1977, and my c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h them, helped me g r e a t l y to understand Marshak the man. I would a l s o l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to my f r i e n d T i r t h a n k a r Bose f o r many i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s , and to Ruby Toren f o r her care i n t y p i n g t h i s t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , I wish t o acknowledge an e s s e n t i a l debt of deep a p p r e c i a t i o n to my f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y t o my husband M o r r i s f o r h i s unceasing support. i v \ CHAPTER I THE MAN AND HIS WORK The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to e v a l u a t e the l i t e r a r y achievement of Samuil I a k o v l e v i c h Marshak (1887-1964) i n the sphere of c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e i n R u s s i a , of which he i s acknowledged to be the f a t h e r . Marshak was- a p r o l i f i c author and h i s s t o r i e s and p l a y s f o r c h i l d r e n seem w e l l on the way to becoming p a r t of the h e r i t a g e of Russian l i t e r a -t u r e . His appeal and h i s power are l a r g e l y dependent upon h i s a b i l i t y to t e l l h i s s t o r i e s v i v i d l y and e n t e r t a i n i n g l y , and a t the same time to r e i t e r a t e the simple, b a s i c t r u t h s of s o c i a l l i v i n g . S i nce these are p r e c i s e l y the q u a l i t i e s t h a t one f i n d s i n f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e o f the world, i t i s l e g i t -imate to ask how f a r Marshak was a c t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by the f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e t h a t he knew — b o t h Russian and f o r e i g n . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l attempt to show, through a c l o s e study of two of Marshak's p l a y s f o r c h i l d r e n , Koshkin Pom (The K i t t e n ' s House) and Dvenadtsat' Mesiatsev (The Twelve Months), t h a t elements of the f o l k t a l e are r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e i n the p l a y s , t h a t these elements are used by Marshak to achieve c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c ends, and t h a t such a purpose saves the works from being merely ephemeral entertainment and makes them l i t e r a r y p i e c e s t h a t a d u l t s as w e l l as c h i l d r e n can enjoy. The two p l a y s chosen here are p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l to the c r i t i c , f o r they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the numerous 2 themes, techniques, and m o t i f s t h a t Marshak uses i n h i s v a r i o u s works. Both p l a y s have the form of f o l k t a l e s . The  K i t t e n ' s House, a verse p l a y , can be seen as the t y p i c a l animal t a l e of f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e . On the other hand, The . Twelve Months, a p l a y mainly i n prose w i t h some ve r s e i n - i t , i s a mixture of animal l o r e , magic and f a n t a s y w i t h a more i n v o l v e d p l o t . Both p l a y s have s t r o n g elements of humour, which i s u s u a l l y l i g h t and gay but o c c a s i o n a l l y verges on the s a t i r i c . In both cases Marshak uses the technique of the f o l k t a l e t o s i m p l i f y the a c t i o n of the p l a y s , thereby, e n a b l i n g c h i l d r e n t o comprehend t h e i r content and to enjoy i t . T h i s s i m p l i c i t y i s achieved by p r o v i d i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l theme, a l i v e l y p l o t , memorable c h a r a c t e r s and an u n c l u t t e r e d s t y l e . A t the same time, the d i r e c t n e s s gained from the f o l k t a l e form allows the v a l i d i t y and r e a l i t y of the theme t o remain unchanged. I t i s hoped t h a t when, i n l a t e r chap-t e r s of t h i s study, the d i f f e r e n t components of the p l a y s are examined i n d e t a i l , Marshak's debt to h i s understanding of f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be c l e a r l y a p p r e c i a t e d . The v i t a l i t y and s i m p l i c i t y t h a t we f i n d i n Marshak's work i s an accurate r e f l e c t i o n of h i s l i f e . A.man who was admired even i n e a r l y youth by major l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s of h i s time and went on to become a s o c i a l f o r c e by h i m s e l f , Marshak never l o s t the i d e a l i s m and love of l i t e r a t u r e w i t h which he s t a r t e d l i f e . In h i s autobiography, A t , L i f e ' s Beginning, Marshak says: "Seventy years i s a long s t r e t c h i n a man's 3 l i f e , and even i n the h i s t o r y of a country. I t i s hard t o look back over such a long l i f e . " " ' " C o ntrary t o these . remarks, Marshak looks a t h i s boyhood wi t h such freshness of mind, and d e s c r i b e s events w i t h such v i v i d n e s s t h a t i t seems t h a t a l l t h i s c o u l d have happened to him only y e s t e r d a y , and t h a t he i s s t i l l the l i t t l e boy p l a y i n g i n h i s y a r d seventy years ago. These e a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s of h i s formative years i n R u s s i a provide an i n s i g h t i n t o the background of h i s f a m i l y and i n t o h i s c h a r a c t e r . He was born i n t o a Jewish family,on the t h i r d of November, 1887, i n Chizhovka, a suburb of Voronezh, i n a house near a soap f a c t o r y , where h i s s e l f - e d u c a t e d f a t h e r worked as a master chemist. Although Marshak s e n i o r had spent h i s ch i l d h o o d and youth p o r i n g over the pages of a n c i e n t J e w i s h . s c r i p t u r e s , he had decided t o cut s h o r t h i s s t u d i e s , and a t the age of eigh t e e n had exchanged the a n c i e n t yellowed f o l i o s f o r a f a c t o r y c a u l d r o n , working as an a p p r e n t i c e i n d u s t r i a l chemist and e v e n t u a l l y becoming a f a c t o r y foreman. His i n t e r e s t was i n chemical i n v e n t i o n s of i n d u s t r i a l v a l u e . To have h i s own l a b o r a t o r y was .his dream, but without a degree and without money, he was f o r c e d to work f o r other people and had to s u f f e r as a r e s u l t . His s e c r e t formulas were u s u a l l y taken over by the p l a n t owners, and when h i s s e r v i c e s were no longer r e q u i r e d he was f o r c e d t o look f o r new employment, t a k i n g h i s f a m i l y w i t h him. As a consequence, the young Marshak had to b u i l d and break r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n t i n u a l l y , 4 and was more and more thrown upon books as constant compan- .. i o n s . About h i s mother, Marshak says t h a t although she was from a s t r i c t p a t r i a r c h a l home, she belonged to the young g e n e r a t i o n of women who concerned themselves w i t h the i s s u e s of the day, such as p o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o n , e t h i c s ; e q u a l i t y f o r women, who went to t h e a t r e s and read Turgenev, Goncharov and Dickens. Thus, at a very e a r l y . a g e he a c q u i r e d from h i s parents a d e s i r e f o r knowledge and a r e s p e c t f o r work and c r e a t i v i t y . Moreover, the a f f e c t i o n a t e f a m i l y . l i f e coupled w i t h the e n r i c h e d c u l t u r a l environment worked towards i n s t i l l i n g i n the young boy a g r e a t love f o r p o e t r y , so t h a t by the time he was ten years o l d he began t o compose some of h i s own. Marshak's f i r s t s c h o o l years were spent i n the s m a l l town of Ostrogozhsk, near Voronezh. There he attended the High School, and was an.outstanding student. In h i s a u t o b i -ography he records i n minute d e t a i l l i f e i n the s c h o o l , the p r e v a l e n t a t t i t u d e s towards l e a r n i n g , and the methods of t e a c h i n g . He d e s c r i b e s h i s f r i e n d s , h i s t e a c h e r s , and above a l l shares h i s excitement i n h i s attempts a t t r a n s l a t -i n g Homer and w r i t i n g p o e t r y . During the summer h o l i d a y s i n 1902, when h i s f a m i l y was l i v i n g i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g , Marshak had the good f o r t u n e to meet the famous c r i t i c of a r t and l i t e r a t u r e , V l a d i m i r V a s i l ' e v i c h Stasov, who was impressed by the young l a d ' s t a l e n t . Marshak's connection w i t h Stasov proved to be the g r e a t e s t formative i n f l u e n c e on h i s l i f e . 5 He frequented Stasov's home where he met many famous w r i t e r s , p a i n t e r s , and musicians of R u s s i a , among them G o r ' k i i , Repin and Glazunov, who confirmed Stasov's b e l i e f i n young Marshak's a b i l i t y . In t h i s b r i l l i a n t c i r c l e o f c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s of e s t a b l i s h e d fame, t h i s f o u r t e e n - y e a r - o l d was accepted w i t h a f f e c t i o n and r e s p e c t . He r e c e i v e d support and i n s t r u c t i o n by example from h i s mentors, and e v e n t u a l l y had the r a r e f o r t u n e t o be i n v i t e d t o l i v e i n the household of Maxim G o r ' k i i h i m s e l f . In h i s autobiography Marshak r e c a l l s how, s o o n . a f t e r meeting him a t Stasov's house, Gor'kii came up to him and, g i v i n g him a f r i e n d l y pat on the arm, began a c o n v e r s a t i o n , l i s t e n i n g to Marshak wi t h deep a t t e n t i o n . L e a r n i n g t h a t Marshak had been unwell and t h a t St. P e t e r s b u r g d i d not s u i t h i s h e a l t h , Gor'kii at once began to make arrangements f o r Marshak t o l i v e w i t h h i s f a m i l y at Y a l t a . The i n i t i a l meeting at Stasov's home dev e l o p e d . i n t o a c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p between,Marshak and Gor'kii, which c o n t i n -ued throughout t h e i r l i v e s . The admiration they had f o r 2 each other i s found amply.in t h e i r correspondence, p a r t i c u -l a r l y i n t h e i r exchanges d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r mutual i n t e r e s t i n c r e a t i n g a body of l i t e r a t u r e f o r c h i l d r e n . They agreed t h a t new books needed to be w r i t t e n b a s e d on r e a l l i f e and drawing upon the a r t s and.sciences. From 1906 Marshak devoted h i m s e l f wholly t o w r i t i n g , embarking on h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r as an o c c a s i o n a l j o u r n a l -3 i s t . In 1911 he l e f t on.a to u r o f the Middle East as 6 correspondent f o r Vseobshchaia gazeta (The U n i v e r s a l News-, paper). T h i s tour was a most important event i n h i s l i f e . He not only gathered m a t e r i a l s f o r h i s w r i t i n g s but a l s o met and f e l l i n l o v e w i t h S p f i i a M i l 1 v i d s k a i a . She became h i s w i f e i n the autumn of 1912 and e x e r t e d the d e e p e s t . i n f l u e n c e on him throughout h i s l i f e . . Soon a f t e r t h e i r marriage, the Marshaks went t o England where they s t u d i e d E n g l i s h i n t e n -s i v e l y and gained admission to the E a s t London C o l l e g e , Samuil to the F a c u l t y of A r t s and S p f i i a - t o , the F a c u l t y of S c i e n c e . In a cottage nearby where they l i v e d i n England they met the O i l e r s , who had e s t a b l i s h e d a s c h o o l which emphasized simple l i v i n g i n a n a t u r a l environment.^ The b e n e f i t of the system g r e a t l y appealed to Marshak and l a t e r i n s p i r e d him to s t a r t a s c h o o l on s i m i l a r l i n e s i n Krasnodar. Marshak's l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y i n England c o n s i s t e d of t r a n s -l a t i n g i n t o Russian major E n g l i s h works, such as poems by Blake, Wordsworth and Burns, as w e l l as nursery rhymes. The r i c h E n g l i s h h e r i t a g e of nursery rhymes f a s c i n a t e d him and s t a r t e d him t h i n k i n g of nursery rhymes f o r Russian c h i l d r e n . Thus, i t was through Marshak t h a t an e n t i r e l y new t r a d i t i o n of f o l k l o r e and c h i l d r e n ' s verse was t r a n s p l a n t e d from England to R u s s i a . The Marshaks r e t u r n e d to R u s s i a j u s t b e f o r e the outbreak of World War I. Because of h i s poor h e a l t h Marshak was not e n l i s t e d i n the army. : During the war h i s work l a y w i t h homeless and orphaned c h i l d r e n . The i n t e r e s t he had 7 always had i n c h i l d r e n now became more focused, and h i s c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h them brought out h i s c r e a t i v e t a l e n t f o r which R u s s i a , a t t h a t p o i n t i n her h i s t o r y , had p a r t i c u l a r need. The g e n e r a l l i t e r a r y . s c e n e i n t h e . S o v i e t Union by the mid-twenties was f u l l of f r a n t i c a c t i v i t y and complexity, producing many l i t e r a r y f a c t i o n s , some of whom were i n agreement w i t h Lenin's approach to the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e of the p a s t , w h i l e others were c r i t i c a l of i t . Lenin's death on January 21, 1924 l e f t an uneasy p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . In the area of education the new r u l e r s were combat-i n g not only the problems of i l l i t e r a c y but a l s o what was perhaps the more important problem, t h a t of c r e a t i n g a l i t e r a t u r e s u i t e d t o the p o l i t i c a l i d e a l s of the s t a t e . The s t r o n g f a c t i o n a l i s m i n the world.of l i t e r a t u r e i n R u s s i a was r e f l e c t e d i n the u n c e r t a i n t y of S o v i e t p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g the n u r t u r i n g of a new l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e . The a n t i - t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s wanted the weeding out o f ' a l l "bourgeois" t e n d e n c i e s , among which they i n c l u d e d the elements of f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e because they claimed t h a t the f o l k t r a d i t i o n i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . Slogans such as "Down w i t h the f a i r y t a l e ! " "Those i n defence of the f a i r y t a l e are a g a i n s t contemporary peda-gogy" were commonly heard a t t e a c h e r s ' conferences and a t l i t e r a r y debates.^ Few w r i t e r s a l r e a d y engaged i n w r i t i n g i m a g i n a t i v e books f o r c h i l d r e n escaped harsh c r i t i c i s m or an o u t r i g h t ban on t h e i r books. V. .Maiakovskii's "Skazka o 8 Pete, t o l s t o m rebenke, i o Sime, k o t o r i i t o n k i i " (The Story about Pete, the Chubby Baby, and about Sim Who Is T h i n ) , K. C h u k o v s k i i ' s " K r o k o d i l " ( C r o c o d i l e ) , and other of h i s s t o r i e s f o r c h i l d r e n , and Marshak's "Skazki" (Tales) were banned under the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t f a n t a s y and i m a g i n a t i o n were incom p a t i b l e w i t h the s o c i a l i s t s t r u g g l e . In r e a c t i o n to t h i s extremism Marshak defended the v a l i d i t y of imagination- i n . c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e on a r t i s t i c grounds. He claimed t h a t pedagogues cannot be judges of a r t unless they are a r t i s t s as w e l l . T a l k i n g about f a n t a s y , he d e c l a r e d : I t . e n r i c h e s the i m a g i n a t i o n of the c h i l d , i t opens up a f a i r y - t a l e world to him, a t the base of which l i e s the r e a l world f i l l e d w i t h i t s r e a l i s t i c , a u t h e n t i c and d i v e r s e c h a r a c t e r s . 7 In t h i s he was a c t i v e l y supported by the M i n i s t e r of Educa-t i o n , A. Lunacharskii", and the w r i t e r , M. G o r ' k i i . Each a f f i r m e d the value of the p a s t and of i m a g i n a t i v e w r i t i n g f o r c h i l d r e n . By 1934, when Marshak was g i v i n g h i s address "About Great L i t e r a t u r e f o r L i t t l e Ones" at the F i r s t A l l -o Union Congress of S o v i e t W r i t e r s , the S o v i e t educators had already undergone a process of s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n , and, as t h e i r accomplishments d u r i n g the e a r l i e r decade were,found wanting, the f o l k t a l e s were r e h a b i l i t a t e d , the process beginning slowly but c o n s t a n t l y g a t h e r i n g momentum. Marshak d i d not c o n s i d e r the s e r i o u s c o n t r o v e r s y over the f o l k elements i n c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e as a p e r s o n a l a t t a c k . He 9 s a i d i n h i s l e t t e r t o G o r ' k i i on June 30, 1930 .that ' . . .•the d i s p u t e i n L i t e r a t u r n a i a gazeta [The L i t e r a r y Newspaper] i s not about me. The d i s p u t e i s between people who t r y to c r e a t e c o n s c i e n t i o u s , honest S o v i e t c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e , and sponsors of cheap l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l . 9 Some c o n s i d e r a b l e time b e f o r e the b e g i n n i n g of the c o n t r o -versy over approaches to c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e and the use of f o l k techniques i n i t , Marshak. .came to h i s own c o n c l u s i o n s about the a e s t h e t i c and e d u c a t i v e v a l u e s of these elements. In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s dramatic t a l e s (1922) he says: "In every t a l e [skazka], i n every work of a r t the c h i l d longs to see the whole of l i f e ; he i s not merely being e n t e r t a i n e d , but l e a r n s from i t . " ^ Marshak h e l d to these views w i t h complete s i n c e r i t y u n t i l h i s death on June 4, . 1964. As the b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l review given above shows, d u r i n g the e a r l y nineteen-twenties Marshak became f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d as a c h i l d r e n ' s author. However, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to c l a s s i f y him by t h i s genre alone or to d i v i d e h i s work i n t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s , because h i s l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t i e s were m u l t i f a r i o u s , coming t o prominence at d i f f e r e n t stages i n h i s l i f e . Perhaps he i s b e s t d e s c r i b e d by Kornei Chukovskii, another famous Russian author of c h i l -dren's books. He i s reputed to.have s a i d t h a t there are f i v e Marshaks: the p l a y w r i g h t , the w r i t e r of c h i l d r e n ' s books, the t r a n s l a t o r , the l y r i c a l poet and the s a t i r i s t . ^ ' ' " Marshak's dramatic t a l e s i n v e r s e , co-authored w i t h E. 10 V a s i l ' e v a , were f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n book form i n Krasnodar., 12 i n 1922. Returning t o Petrograd i n 1923, h i s a c t i v i t i e s became more i n t e n s i f i e d i n the f i e l d of c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a -t u r e , and he appealed to other prominent w r i t e r s t o j o i n him i n the c r e a t i o n of a.new l i t e r a t u r e f o r c h i l d r e n . He worked i n "TIUZ" (Theatre f o r Young Viewers); wrote a l i g h t humorous s t o r y i n v e r s e , "Skazka o glupom myshonke" (The Story about the S i l l y Mouse), an admonitory poem, "Pozhar" ( F i r e ) , a humorous poem, "Morozhenoe" (Ice cream), an i l l u s t r a t e d animal book w i t h epigrammatic v e r s e s , "Detki v k l e t k e " (Babies of the Zoo), and t r a n s l a t e d E n g l i s h verses f o r c h i l -dren, among them "The House t h a t Jack B u i l t . " But i t i s not only i n c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e t h a t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s are o u t s t a n d i n g : he a l s o t r a n s l a t e d Shakespeare's Sonnets, Blake's "Songs of Innocence" and "Songs of Experience," works by Keats, Wordsworth, S h e l l e y , Burns, and K i p l i n g . To these we must add h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s v e r s e s , , b a l l a d s and poems from s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t languages, d a t i n g from 1913 through t o 1962. He t r a n s l a t e d from Armenian (1939), Georgian (1959), Kazakh (1955), L a t v i a n (1947), L i t h u a n i a n (1945), T a t a r (1946), B e l o r u s s i a n (1950), U k r a i n i a n (1952), Uzbek (1947) and Y i d d i s h (1936). Going o u t s i d e the l i t e r a t u r e s of the S o v i e t Union, Marshak-trans-l a t e d works from B u l g a r i a (1954), Canada (1958),.Czechoslo-v a k i a (1942), England (1913), F i n l a n d (1913), France (1950), Germany (1950), Ghana (1961), Hungary (1952), I n d i a (1913), I t a l y (1952), Poland (1946), Senegal (1960), S e r b i a (1956), S i e r r a - L e o n e (1962) and the U n i t e d S t a t e s (1957). Such a wealth of sources r e q u i r e s a study devoted to Marshak's-t r a n s l a t i o n s alone. Here i t i s enough f o r our purpose t o note the breadth o f h i s i n t e r e s t s as an element of c r e a t i v e i n s p i r a t i o n . Marshak wrote most of h i s l y r i c a l poems and l y r i c a l epigrams very l a t e i n h i s l i f e . W r i t i n g of h i s p o e t r y , A. T v a r d o v s k i i says: His poetry i s f i l l e d w i t h c l a r i t y of thought, y o u t h f u l energy and a l i v e l y humour. I f the poet i s sad, he i s not weak or without hope, but courageously accepts the i n e v i t a b l e . 1 3 As a s a t i r i s t , Marshak i s mostly remembered f o r h i s stimu-l a t i n g and sharp j o u r n a l i s t i c p i e c e s d u r i n g the Second World War, which i n s p i r e d i n h i s countrymen h a t r e d and contempt f o r the enemy.and a l s o imbued them with optimism and f a i t h . The e i g h t - volumes of Marshak's works p u b l i s h e d so f a r bear testimony not only to h i s wide and v a r i e d i n t e r e s t s but a l s o to h i s e s s e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e , c o n s t r u c t i v e and o p t i m i s t i c approach t o l i f e and l i t e r a t u r e . The two p l a y s s t u d i e d i n the p r e s e n t d i s s e r t a t i o n are p a r t i c u l a r l y good examples of Marshak's approaches to l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e i r r i c h a p p l i c a t i o n of f o l k elements to the task of making l i f e ' s experiences comprehensible to the c h i l d . The f o l l o w i n g f o u r ^ l i n e epigram sums up h i s philosophy of l i f e and a r t : The f i r s t . k e y t o l i f e i s a r t . The second.key i s p o e t r y . 12 Without the f i r s t : — y o u r . p o e t r y i s numb, And without the s e c o n d — y o u r ve r s e i s mute. x^ Marshak d i e d on June 4,.1964, and was b u r i e d a t the Novpdevich'e cemetery in.Moscow. Above h i s grave t h e r e stands a monument by the s c u l p t o r Nikogosian p o r t r a y i n g him as he i s remembered by those who knew him: bent over a book wit h a pen i n h i s hand. I t i s s a i d t h a t a man i s b e s t remembered f o r h i s deeds, and the deeds of a w r i t e r c o n s i s t of h i s w r i t i n g s . Many famous w r i t e r s today remember w i t h g r e a t . p r i d e the f a c t t h a t a t one time they were Marshak's a p p r e n t i c e s . In h i s book S. I. Marshak, B. Galanov r e c a l l s the f o l l o w i n g anec-dote. S h o r t l y a f t e r Marshak's death s e v e r a l w r i t e r s were d i s c u s s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of i s s u i n g i n h i s memory a s p e c i a l c o l l e c t i o n ( b i b l i o t e e h k a ) of-Marshak*s books f o r c h i l d r e n . "In t h a t case," one famous prose w r i t e r remarked, "they w i l l have t o , i n c l u d e my books too." In sa y i n g t h a t , e x p l a i n s Galanov, t h i s w r i t e r showed how g r e a t l y indebted he f e l t . 15 towards Marshak. Samuil I a k o v l e v i c h Marshak has l e f t a legacy o f l i t e r a t u r e which assures him of s u r v i v a l f o r many f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . CHAPTER I I THE K I T T E N ' S HOUSE F o r the p u r p o s e . o f t h i s t h e s i s the term " f o l k e l e m e n t " i s d e f i n e d as any t h e m a t i c o r s t r u c t u r a l m a t e r i a l t a k e n from the f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e t o Marshak . These e lements must be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d b e f o r e we can b e g i n t o see what use Marshak made of them i n the p l a y s . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , t h i s s tudy does n o t aim mere ly a t an enumerat ion of f o l k e l e m e n t s . What i t does aim at i s t o i d e n t i f y these elements i n M a r s h a k ' s p l a y s i n oaider to see how they f u n c t i o n as l i t e r a r y components i n t h e s e p l a y s . In M a r s h a k ' s K o s h k i n  dom (The K i t t e n ' s House) and i n D v e n a d t s a t ' m e s i a t s e v (The Twelve Months) a wide v a r i e t y o f f o l k elements i s t o be f o u n d , such a s : m a g i c a l c r e a t u r e s , o b j e c t s and h a p p e n i n g s . P a r a l l e l s can be found not o n l y i n R u s s i a n but i n t h e f o l k -l i t e r a t u r e o f the w o r l d . Many o f the f o l k - m o t i f s used by Marshak a r e , as we s h a l l s e e t prominent e n t r i e s i n the M o t i f -16 Index o f F o l k L i t e r a t u r e . A t the same t ime the n u r s e r y rhymes, c h i l d r e n ' s s o n g s , p r o v e r b s and charms t h a t Marshak uses are forms t h a t he borrowed from f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e i n which h i s i n t e r e s t was d e e p , as we have seen i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . S i n c e the s tudy o f f o l k l o r e i s of such -basic i m p o r -tance i n t h i s t h e s i s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to have a c l e a r i d e a 13 14 of what we mean by the term " f o l k l o r e . " As a working d e f i -n i t i o n we may use the f o l l o w i n g statement by Ar c h e r T a y l o r : F o l k l o r e c o n s i s t s of m a t e r i a l s t h a t are handed on t r a d i t i o n a l l y from g e n e r a t i o n t o ge n e r a t i o n without a r e l i a b l e a s c r i p t i o n t o an i n v e n t o r or author. . . . V e r b a l f o l k l o r e i n c l u d e s words con s i d e r e d f o r t h e i r own sake and words o c c u r r i n g as connected d i s c o u r s e . . . . • T y p i c a l words t h a t the f o l k l o r i s t s t u d i e s without regard f o r t h e i r use i n connected d i s c o u r s e are . . . p e r s o n a l names (both f a m i l y and C h r i s t i a n names), and nicknames. F o l k l o r e i n the form of connected d i s c o u r s e i n c l u d e s t a l e s of v a r i o u s k i n d s , . . . c h i l d r e n ' s songs, charms, and proverbs.17 The r e l e v a n c e of st u d y i n g f o l k l o r e i n the context of Marshak has been noted by the S o v i e t s c h o l a r , V. A. V a s i - . 18 lenko. However, no attempt has been made, so f a r , t o co n s i d e r h i s works i n the l i g h t of f o l k l o r e . While t h i s study hopes t o take adequate note of the f o l k elements, the i n t e n t i o n i s not to venture i n t o the f o l k l o r i s t ' s ground of determining the o r i g i n or s o c i a l relevance of such elements. The purpose i s simply t o see how l i t e r a r y values emerge as a r e s u l t of Marshak's use of f o l k elements. * * * * * * * Of the seven p l a y s t h a t Marshak wrote f o r c h i l d r e n , only two, Koshkin dom (The K i t t e n ' s House) and Dvenadtsat'  mesiatsev (The Twelve Months), form the s u b j e c t of t h i s study. Needless t o say, r e f e r e n c e w i l l be made to the other f i v e p l a y s whenever necessary. They are: Skazka pro k o z l a (The T a l e of the B i l l y Goat) , Petrushka-1 n o s t r a n e t s (Petru-shka the F o r e i g n e r ) , Teremok (The L i t t l e Tower), G o r i a 15 b o i a t ' s i a — s c h a s t ' i a ne v i d a t ' (Fear Woe—-See No Luck) , and Umnye ves h c h i ( I n t e l l i g e n t T h i n g s ) . More i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g a l l seven p l a y s , i n c l u d i n g p l a c e and date of f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n and f i r s t performance, i s given i n an appendix to t h i s study. Marshak 1s.plays have a s p e c i a l importance inasmuch as h i s o r i g i n a l l i t e r a r y work f o r c h i l d r e n began i n the t h e a t r e . As we have seen i n Chapter I , h i s i n t e r e s t l a y i n working f o r c h i l d r e n . While i n charge of refugee c h i l d r e n i n Russia d u r i n g World War I, he helped t o organize a p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e a t r e f o r them. He r e a l i z e d c l e a r l y t h a t drama i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of a c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n of l i f e and s e l f - . e x p r e s s i o n , as becomes e v i d e n t upon watching c h i l d r e n a t 19 p l a y . Together wi t h the poet - p l a y w r i g h t E. I. V a s i l ' e v a (pseudonym, Cherubina de G a b r i a k ) , Marshak produced a book, t i t l e d : T e a t r d l i a d e t e i (Theatre f o r C h i l d r e n ) . T h i s book contained a c o l l e c t i o n of p l a y s , some w r i t t e n by Marshak, some by V a s i l ' e v a , and some by the two authors i n c o l l a b o r a -t i o n . Some of the pl a y s w r i t t e n j o i n t l y are: Vo l s h e b n a i a p alochka (The Magic Wand) , L e t a i u s h c h i i sunduk (The F l y i n g Trunk), F i n i s t i a s n y i s o k o l (Phoenix, the B r i g h t F a l c o n ) , T a i r i Zore ( T a i r and Zore), and Opasnaia p r i v y c h k a (A Dan-20 gerous H a b i t ) . The p l a y s ' w r i t t e n by Marshak alone are: G o r e - z l o s c h a s t i e (Woe and M i s f o r t u n e ) , Petrushka, Skazka pro  k o z l a (The Ta l e of the B i l l y Goat), and Koshkin dom (The K i t t e n ' s H o u s e ) . 2 1 16 In these e a r l y p l a y s Marshak was not too concerned about f o l l o w i n g s t r i c t dramatic p r i n c i p l e s . They are not so 22 much p l a y s as c h a r a c t e r sketches (skazki v T i t s akh). The K i t t e n ' s House was f i r s t known under i t s s u b t i t l e as Skazka v odnom d e i s t v i i . P'esa v s t i k h a k h (A One-Act T a l e . A P l a y i n V e r s e ) , which "humorously p o r t r a y e d the s p o i l e d and s e l f i s h Aunt K i t t e n who i s l e f t i n the end without a f r i e n d 23 and without s h e l t e r . " Marshak wrote the second v e r s i o n a f t e r a lapse of t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , c a l l i n g i t now, Skazka v t r e k h d e i s t v i i a k h (A Three-Act T a l e , 1945), which was a l s o i s s u e d i n a separate e d i t i o n by "De t g i z " i n 1947. In t h i s v e r s i o n he r e i n f o r c e s the s a t i r i c a l t r a i t s (of Aunt K i t t e n ) by c r e a t i n g an image of a complacent, i d l e , b a nal P h i l i s t i n e , 24 surrounded by f l a t t e r i n g f a l s e f r i e n d s . The f i n a l v e r s i o n was p u b l i s h e d i n 1948, t i t l e d : Koshkin dom. P'esa V dvukh d e i s t v i i a k h (The K i t t e n ' s House. A Two-Act P l a y ) , which was w r i t t e n f o r performance a t the S. Obraztsov C e n t r a l Govern-25 ment Puppet Theatre i n 1947. T h i s i s the v e r s i o n t h a t i s p r i n t e d i n volume two of Marshak's c o l l e c t e d works. The p l o t of The K i t t e n ' s House may be summarized as f o l l o w s : A r i c h and v a i n K i t t e n , who p l a c e s money above a l l and cares only f o r the f r i e n d s h i p of f l a t t e r e r s , r e f u s e s t o help her two h a l f - s t a r v e d nephews. When they come begging to her door she t e l l s her ser v a n t V a s i l i i , the c a t , t o d r i v e them away. But when a c c i d e n t a l l y her house burns down and she l o s e s a l l her p o s s e s s i o n s , she f i n d s nobody t o he l p her. 17 Every.one of her former f r i e n d s - r e f u s e s t o take her i n on some p r e t e x t or other. F i n a l l y , wandering from house to house, she comes to the poor hut i n which her nephew k i t t e n s l i v e . U n l i k e h e r s e l f , her nephews understand the p l i g h t of the poor and needy, and they take her i n . They a l l become f r i e n d s , and together they b u i l d a house f o r themselves. As t h i s summary shows, the p l o t of The K i t t e n ' s House i s a simple one. The a c t i o n p rogresses without c o m p l i c a t i o n and no secondary episodes are brought i n to d i s t r a c t our a t t e n t i o n from the conduct of the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e easy to r e s o l v e the a c t i o n i n t o d i s t i n c t sequen-ces. The p l a y begins with some b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n given by the Chorus and the N a r r a t o r . Then we see the r e j e c t i o n of the poor nephew k i t t e n s by t h e i r Aunt K i t t e n . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by the scene of the p a r t y , which i l l u s t r a t e s what we have heard from the Chorus and the N a r r a t o r about the r i c h K i t t e n ' s way of l i v i n g . Then comes the c r i s i s of the a c t i o n i n the form of t h e . f i r e i n which the Aunt K i t t e n l o s e s her a l l . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s the t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the course, of the a c t i o n , f o r from t h i s p o i n t begins the Kitten's~ r e - e d u c a t i o n . She l e a r n s the t r u t h a b o u t ; s o c i a l l i v i n g through her. m i s f o r t u n e , through the f a l s e n e s s of money-loving f r i e n d s , and through the kindness of her poor r e l a t i o n s . Once she l e a r n s these t h i n g s she i s shown proceeding.towards a h a p p i e r l i f e than she has ever had-. The p l a y i s concerned with the r e - e d u c a t i o n of an 18 arrogant c r e a t u r e , Aunt K i t t e n . , She s t a r t s out as a smug, arrogant and greedy c r e a t u r e , but a t the end of the p l a y we see t h a t she a l t e r s her malignant d i s p o s i t i o n through a s e r i e s of extremely c r i t i c a l events: the l o s s of a l l her pos s e s s i o n s i n the f i r e , the f a l s e n e s s o f her f r i e n d s j and the kindness of her.poor nephew k i t t e n s . T h i s sequence of events i l l u s t r a t e s the theme of the p l a y i n as much as i t att a c k s a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s and p r a i s e s c o - o p e r a t i o n and s h a r i n g . The theme of the p l a y i s t h a t a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s separates people from one another w h i l e s h a r i n g and c o - o p e r a t i o n b r i n g people t o g e t h e r . The major .events of the p l a y b r i n g out the theme q u i t e c l e a r l y . These events are: a) the appearance of the two k i t t e n s , begging t h e i r Aunt K i t t e n f o r h e l p , b) her r e f u s a l on the ground t h a t people should be able t o fend f o r themselves, c) the l o s s of her house and, consequently, her wealth, d) her f r i e n d s ' r e f u s a l t o a s s i s t her, e) her appeal to her nephews f o r h e l p , and f) t h e i r r e a d y . a s s i s t a n c e t o her. As we go from the beginning t o the end of t h i s sequence we f i n d a s h a r p l y drawn c o n t r a s t between two kinds of behav-i o u r , one of which dominates over the other a t the b e g i n n i n g , only to be r e p l a c e d at the c o n c l u s i o n of the p l a y by,the other. The p l o t of the p l a y i s t h e r e f o r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e v e r s a l n ot only of the f o r t u n e of the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r but a l s o of the e t h i c a l d i r e c t i o n of her a c t i o n s * The theme of the p l a y i s thus expressed by the c e n t r a l event of the p l a y , t h a t i s , the f a l l o f Aunt K i t t e n . A t the same time, i t i s r e i n f o r c e d by the openly s a t i r i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of her s o c i a l p r e t e n s i o n s and conduct. Since s a t i r e i s o b v i o u s l y the r h e t o r i c a l mode used i n the p l a y , i t i s necessary to look c l o s e l y at the form i t takes here. Satire.has'been d e f i n e d i n many ways. A good work-able d e f i n i t i o n of s a t i r e i s found i n Webster's New World  D i c t i o n a r y of the American Language; A l i t e r a r y work i n which v i c e s , f o l l i e s , s t u p i d i t i e s , abuses, e t c . are h e l d up to r i d i c u l e and contempt.21 Another d e f i n i t i o n of s a t i r e i s g i v e n by Northrop F r y e , who says t h a t Two things,, then, are e s s e n t i a l t o s a t i r e ; one i s w i t or humour founded on f a n t a s y or a sense of grotesque or absurd, the o t h e r i s the o b j e c t of attack.27 Both these d e f i n i t i o n s are a p p l i c a b l e to The K i t t e n ' s House because i t has a s h a r p l y d e f i n e d o b j e c t of a t t a c k which i s so t r e a t e d as to be made r i d i c u l o u s by reason of i t s f o l l y and a b s u r d i t y . What makes us laugh at Aunt K i t t e n and a l l her f a i r - w e a t h e r f r i e n d s i s t h e i r assumption of human manners, t h a t i s to say, a t t i t u d e s t h a t are not n a t u r a l t o them and which f o r t h a t reason make them l u d i c r o u s . S a t i r e can.be given, a s p e c i a l t w i s t by t r a n s f e r r i n g i t s s e t t i n g from the human t o an animal c o n t e x t . The use of animals i n s a t i r e p r o v i d e s detachment to the s p e c t a t o r which makes i t e a s i e r f o r him to observe t h e i r behaviour without any sense of p e r s o n a l involvement; had the c h a r a c t e r s been 20 human, t h e i r behaviour might seem grotesque or absurd. An-other reason why animals are used i n a s a t i r i c p l o t i s t h a t i t focuses the s p e c t a t o r ' s a t t e n t i o n upon the a b s u r d i t y of p a r t i c u l a r types o f conduct by g i v i n g such conduct an unex-pected s e t t i n g . The s p e c t a t o r ends up by seei n g the animals both as animals and as humans l i k e themselves. In t h i s l a t -t e r i d e n t i t y of the c h a r a c t e r s , t h e i r conduct appears t o be r i d i c u l o u s p r e c i s e l y because what we o r d i n a r i l y assume t o be human behaviour appears as animal behaviour. By using the technique of an animal f a b l e Marshak achieves two l e v e l s of p e r c e p t i o n and so c o n t r o l s our i m a g i n a t i v e response t o h i s p l a y . A t a deeper l e v e l , t h i s process r e v e a l s how s a t i r e f u n c t i o n s by i n c r e a s i n g the awareness of our mental e n v i r o n -ment and our re a d i n e s s to c o r r e c t f a l s e , n o t i o n s and admit new ones. This i s the t r a d i t i o n a l understanding of the f u n c t i o n of s a t i r e and t h i s f u n c t i o n i s c l e a r l y f u l f i l l e d by. The K i t t e n ' s House. Because s a t i r e , has t h i s f u n c t i o n , , w r i t e r s w i t h s t r o n g s o c i o l o g i c a l views have found i t a powerful means of r e - e d u c a t i o n , although approaches t o s a t i r e by such w r i t e r s have taken d i f f e r e n t forms. In the works o f Juvenal and Horace we can d i s t i n g u i s h two modes of s a t i r e . One can be c a l l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and o b j e c t i v e , the other admonitory and s u b j e c t i v e . - J u v e n a l i a n s a t i r e g i v e s the s k e t c h i e s t of advice as to a way of conduct, w h i l e the Hora-t i a n k i n d of s a t i r e i s most i n t e r e s t e d i n o u t l i n i n g an i d e a l code of conduct. These two d i f f e r e n t types o f s a t i r i s t a l s o d i f f e r as t o the f u n c t i o n of satire-. While Juve n a l and h i s f o l l o w e r s wrote i n order to punish, Horace and the Horatians wrote i n order t o make people b e t t e r . I t i s the l a t t e r mode• t h a t Samuil Marshak adopted. Since Marshak's purpose was e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s t r u c t i v e and i t s e x p r e s s i o n dramatic, i t i s u s e f u l t o bear i n mind the theory of the s o c i a l impact of drama propounded by another d r a m a t i s t w i t h a s t r o n g s o c i o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t , B e r t o l t B r e c h t . His e x p l a n a t i o n of the purposes of h i s "ep i c t h e a t r e " has some b e a r i n g on the i n s t r u c t i o n a l f u n c t i o n of s a t i r e . He w r i t e s t h a t i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l "dramatic" t h e a t r e , "the stage embodies a sequence of events, i n v o l v e s the s p e c t a t o r i n an a c t i o n and uses up h i s energy, h i s w i l l 2 8 to a c t i o n . " In the e p i c t h e a t r e , "the stage n a r r a t e s the sequence, makes the [spec t a t o r ] an observer but awakes h i s 29 energy." T h i s awakened energy, t h a t i s , t h i s p e r c e p t i o n of a t e n s i o n between what IS•and what OUGHT to be leads the s a t i r i s t t o b e l i e v e — a t l e a s t to h o p e — t h a t change i s p o s s i -b l e . In Marshak's p l a y , f o r example, when the wealthy Aunt K i t t e n r e f u s e s t o a i d her orphaned r e l a t i o n s when they are hungry and c o l d , her a c t i o n shows the world as i t I S — i t s r e a l i t y . But when the poor r e l a t i o n s are con f r o n t e d w i t h a s i m i l a r request from t h e i r Aunt K i t t e n , who had on the previous n i g h t i g n o r e d t h e i r p l i g h t , they a s s i s t her as they OUGHT t o . This i l l u s t r a t e s how the dichotomy between what IS and what OUGHT t o be can be brought out and i n t h i s way 22 i n c r e a s e s the s p e c t a t o r ' s awareness and changes h i s i d e a s . S a t i r e makes t h i s p l a y an e f f e c t i v e instrument of s o c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n . To make t h i s instrument doubly e f f e c -t i v e , Marshak has g i v e n the p l o t a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y o f d i s t a n c e by p u t t i n g i n animal c h a r a c t e r s on.the one hand and the Chorus and N a r r a t o r on the other. I t w i l l be r e a d i l y seen t h a t both these d e v i c e s are i n f a c t taken from f o l k -l i t e r a t u r e . Although the Chorus i s - a c l a s s i c a l d e v i c e , Marshak's use i n The K i t t e n ' s House i s analogous t o the dev i c e used i n Russian f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e t o begin and end a t a l e (skazka) or a Russian e p i c song (bylina) . Marshak's use o f the Chorus i n t h i s p l a y i s t y p i c a l of what we f i n d i n Russian f o l k t r a d i t i o n s , and i t puts the p l a y i n t o the form of a f o l k t a l e . A t a l e of t h a t k i n d begins w i t h a p r i s k a z k a (analogous t o the zapev i n a b y l i n a ) , and c l o s e s w i t h a 30 kontsovka. These are s e c t i o n s of the t a l e which frame the c e n t r a l p a r t of the s t o r y . The p r i s k a z k a has an e x p o s i t o r y f u n c t i o n . a n d g i v e s a l l the background i n f o r m a t i o n needed t o put the main body of the n a r r a t i v e i n t o proper p e r s p e c t i v e , but i t i s not connected t h e m a t i c a l l y . I t s aim i s to produce a s p e c i a l mood. Here i s an example of the p r i s k a z k a i n the s t o r y o f "The P r i n c e s s Who Never Smiled": When you come to t h i n k of i t , how g r e a t i s God's world! Ri c h people and poor people, l i v e i n i t , and a l l of them have room to l i v e , and the Lord watches over a l l o f them. The wealthy ones l i v e i n . i d l e n e s s , the wretched ones i n t o i l . To each h i s l o t i s given.31 An example of the kontsovka i s taken.from the s t o r y of "The Wicked S i s t e r s " : I was t h e r e ,too, I drank mead and wine and saw e v e r y t h i n g . Everyone was c h e e r f u l . Only the e l d e s t s i s t e r came to g r i e f , f o r she was t a r r e d up i n a b a r r e l and thrown i n t o the sea, and God d i d not p r o t e c t her: she sank to the bottom and vanished without a trace.3 2 In The K i t t e n ' s House, the f u n c t i o n s of these d e v i c e s are performed by the Chorus and N a r r a t o r . The Chorus prepares the ground f o r the audience by t a l k i n g about the K i t t e n and her house i n a g e n e r a l way and then, to focus the a t t e n t i o n . of the s p e c t a t o r on the s t o r y , c o n c l u d e s — a g a i n i n the manner of the f o l k t a l e — w i t h t h i s d i r e c t address to the audience: npo 6 o r a T H f i KOUIKHH A O M MH H CKa3Ky noBeneM. ndcHflH ,na noroflH— CKa3Ka S y n e T B n e p e f l H l 3 3 (About the r i c h k i t t e n ' s house, We w i l l s t a r t the t a l e r i g h t i n . S i t a. l i t t l e , w a i t a w h i l e — The t a l e w i l l soon begin!) The purpose of these l i n e s i s to arouse the s p e c t a t o r ' s c u r i o s i t y . Both the p r i s k a z k a i n the t a l e and the Chorus i n the p l a y aim to engage the s p e c t a t o r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n and to produce a mood of wonderment. This mood i s c r e a t e d by p r e s e n t i n g a p i c t u r e of the K i t t e n ' s prosperous l i v i n g : her b i g house, her l u x u r i o u s f u r n i s h i n g s , her e l a b o r a t e c l o t h e s and j e w e l l e r y . But a t the same time the a t t i t u d e of the Chorus i s mocking, as can be seen from the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : BfciHfleT K o u i K a H a nporyJiKy J\a npoft.neT no nepeyjiny— C M O T P H T JTigflH, He nhUTia: flo qero >Ke xopoiua! fla He iaK O H a caMa, KaK y3opHaH T e c t M a , KaK y3opHan T e c t M a , 3oJiOTaH 6axpoMa. fla H e Tan ee TecBMa, KaK yroflBfl H noMa.34 (When the k i t t e n goes out for a s t r o l l , Walking up and down the lane, People breathlessly proclaim: Oh, how lovely.she i s ! But not so much herse l f , As the embroidered braid, As the embroidered braid, And the golden fringe. But not so much the embroidered braid, As her comforts and her home.) This i r o n i c a l colouring, emphasizing the fabulous unreality of the Kitten's house i s also a note of caution, which i s frequently part of a s t o r y t e l l e r ' s embellishment i n f o l k -l i t e r a t u r e . While the function of the priskazka i s to engage the attention and i n t e r e s t of the audience, the function of the kontsovka i s to release the audience from the s p e l l of the story and to help.them to view i t from a distance. In Marshak's play, the Chorus supplies not only the priskazka but also the kontsovka. At the end of the play the Chorus reappears to give the audience a f i n a l report on the events with which the play ends. By•informing.them that the Kitten's house has burned down-beyond recognition, the Choru implies that the "former" Kitten i s gone and that a "changed Kitten has now taken her place. The Chorus further informs us: a) t h a t "the o l d K i t t e n " i s a sit-at-home now, b) t h a t s h e - l i v e s w i t h her nephews, c) t h a t she catches mice i n the c e l l a r , d) t h a t her s e r v a n t , the " o l d c a t , " i s a l s o much wi s e r now (implying t h a t t h i s r e f l e c t s her own r e f o r m a t i o n ) , and e) t h a t he now works i n the daytime, but hunts at n i g h t . F i n a l l y , reviewing the c o - o p e r a t i o n and u n i t y between the K i t t e n , her servant and her nephews, the Chorus p r e d i c t s a b r i g h t e r f u t u r e i n these c o n c l u d i n g l i n e s : C K O P O BHpaCTyT C H P O T K H , CTaHyr Soxi&iiie c T a p o i l T e T K H . T e C H O )KHTB H M BieTBepOM HyjKHo CTaBHTB H O B HB ,n;oM!3 5 (Soon the orphans w i l l grow t a l l , Not l i k e t h e i r o l d aunt, who i s s m a l l , Because t h i s foursome needs more room, They w i l l b u i l d a new house soon.) As i n the kontsovka of the f o l k t a l e , the Chorus's i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e a s e s the audience from the h o l d of the events of the p l a y by p l a c i n g them at a d i s t a n c e , and t h i s d i s t a n c e i s achieved because those events are no longer being acted out but r e p o r t e d . T h i s d i s t a n c e a l s o h e l p s , by r e l e a s i n g the audience from the g r i p of the immediate event, to p o i n t the c o n t r a s t between the K i t t e n now and as she had been. Another d e v i c e used i n Russian f o l k t a l e s i s the z a c h i n or b e g i n n i n g , t h a t f o l l o w s the p r i s k a z k a . . The z a c h i n i s a f a r commoner and more s t a b l e component of the s t r u c t u r e of the t a l e . I t r e p r e s e n t s a t r a d i t i o n a l , f o r m u l a i c opening, such as, "Once upon a time t h e r e l i v e d . . . , " e t c . , and d e f i n e s the l o c a t i o n and the type of a c t i o n . Marshak's r a s s k a z c h i k or N a r r a t o r leads i n w i t h : ^HJia-6ujia KouiKa Ha CBeTe, 3aMopcKaH, AHropcKan. JKHJia oua He T a K , K a K flpyrne KOIUKH:37 (There l i v e d — t h e r e was a K i t t e n on e a r t h , F o r e i g n , P e r s i a n . She l i v e d u n l i k e other k i t t e n s : ) and goes on to d e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l her r i c h and comfortable l i f e , her home and her s e r v a n t . The N a r r a t o r concludes by s i g n a l l i n g the b e g i n n i n g of the a c t i o n : BO T npHiiuiH K SoraTOH TeTKe flBa n J i e M H H H H K a - C H P O T K H . riocTy-qaJiHCb non; O K H O M , tjTOdH H X BnyCTHJIH B flOM.38 (There they came to t h e i r r i c h aunt Two l i t t l e nephews t h a t were orphaned. There they knocked on the window o u t s i d e , — -In order to be allowed i n s i d e . ) Marshak a l s o uses the N a r r a t o r , again i n the manner o f f o l k -l i t e r a t u r e , t o break the sequence of the a c t i o n i n the p l a y . T h i s d e v i c e i s s i m i l a r t o the i n t e r m e d i i ( i n t e r l u d e s ) of Russian folk-drama. These i n t e r l u d e s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o R u s s i a through the s c h o o l drama from Poland. The i n t e r m e d i i were used as comic r e l i e f d u r i n g the s t a g i n g of medieval 39 . . . mystery p l a y s . Instead of p r o v i d i n g comic r e l i e f , as i n the medieval mystery p l a y s , here the N a r r a t o r s i g n a l s the end of one episode and the beginning of another. In The . K i t t e n ' s House the N a r r a t o r appears seven times: 1) a f t e r the i n i t i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n by the Chorus, 2) a f t e r the K i t t e n d r i v e s her hungry nephews away, 3) b e f o r e the a r r i v a l of the 27 K i t t e n ' s guests a t her house, 4) a f t e r the p a r t y i s over and b e f o r e the f i r e ; 5) a f t e r the f i r e and b e f o r e the K i t t e n and her s e r v a n t take to the road to seek s h e l t e r w i t h her f r i e n d s , 6) a f t e r she i s r e f u s e d s h e l t e r by her f r i e n d s , and 7) b e f o r e Aunt K i t t e n f i n d s s h e l t e r w i t h her poor nephews. The f u n c t i o n of the Chorus and the N a r r a t o r , then, i s to present the a c t i o n and t o comment, upon i t . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e i r s i s an ambivalent s t a t u s because, although they are not w i t h i n the p l a y proper, they are very much p a r t o f the t o t a l work, and without them the p l a y would l o s e i t s p e c u l i a r f l a v o u r of d i d a c t i c i s m i n the f o l k manner. In t h e i r c a p a c i t y - a s p r e s e n t e r s of the p l a y they make no judgments upon, i n d i v i d u a l s or upon p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n s . T h e i r judgments are statements o f u n i v e r s a l a t t i t u d e s and values and these are i m p l i e d as much i n t h e i r remarks, p a r t i c u l a r l y the c o n c l u d i n g ones, as i n the v e r y . f a c t t h a t they choose to p r e s e n t such a p l o t and such a c a s t of c h a r a c t e r s . The c h a r a c t e r s i n The K i t t e n ' s House are conceived as s o c i a l s t e r e o t y p e s , embodying c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s . At the same time they are i n d i v i d u a l i z e d by manner and speech. They remain s t e r e o t y p e s because they are r e a l l y p e r s o n i f i c a -t i o n s of c e r t a i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . For example, Aunt K i t t e n i s a s e l f i s h , arrogant, g r a s p i n g c r e a t u r e who t y p i f i e s the shortcomings of the wealthy, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n her a v e r s i o n to h e l p i n g o t h e r s . Her f r i e n d s , Mrs. Rooster, Mrs. Goat, and Mrs. P i g are c a s t i n the same mould,.as we f i n d out i n the 28 course of the action: when the Kitten i s i n trouble, these fair-weather friends, true to type, refuse to share lodgings with her. When the Kitten i s surprised at being.refused assistance by Mrs. Rooster, she asks: A 3 a ^ e M ace B 3Ty cpeny TH 3 B M a M e H H K o6e,o:y?40 (Then why have you i n v i t e d me To have lunch with you on Wednesday?) Mrs. Rooster r e p l i e s : H 3BaJia He H a B c e r n a , H c e r o f l H H H e cpena.41. (I c a l l e d you for Wednesday, But I didn't mean you to be a permanent guest.) The Kitten leaves Mrs. Rooster's house i n the hope that her other friends w i l l welcome her,.but both Mrs. Goat and Mrs. Pig turn her away. None of these characters i s - able to break out of her type. In a l l they do they conform to a stereotype. On another l e v e l , the use of stereotypes i s also seen i n the conversion of the Kitten and her servant. The Kitten goes from one extreme on the scale of behaviour to the other. Whereas i n i t i a l l y she was very s e l f i s h , inconsiderate and pretentious, aft e r her misfortune and her eventual reformation the Kitten devotes herself t o t a l l y to caring for her nephews and becomes the humble, kindly and loving aunt t y p i c a l of f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e . Once circumstances force her to make the change, she remains as she promises to be: H 6yny B S M - BTopan MaTb. Mbinieft H O B H T B H Syfly, MBITB H 3 H K O M nocy,n;y. . . 4 2 (I w i l l be your second mother. I w i l l c a t c h mice [ f o r you], Wash dishes w i t h my tongue...) That these .promises are genuine and a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d out by the K i t t e n , i s confirmed by the Chorus a t the end of the p l a y . Such b r o a d l y conceived s t e r e o t y p e s .of behaviour c o u l d , however, e a s i l y make the p l a y d u l l . Marshak saves i t from such tediousness by a t t r i b u t i n g to h i s animal c h a r a c t e r s some humorous and at the same time t h e m a t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r - t r a i t s . The K i t t e n , . i n her attempt t o e s t a b l i s h her s o c i a l s u p e r i o r i t y , f l a u n t s her genealogy and her posses^ s i o n s b e f o r e h e i r guests. She c l a i m s : Kouma: fl H 3 c e M B H 3 a M o p c K o f t : Mofi n p a s e f l—K O T AHropcKHfi! 3a2crn, Bacujinii, BepxHHft C B e T H n o K a a t H ero n o p T p e T . KypHiia: KaK OH n y u i H C T ! J J e T y x : KaK OH x o p o i u ! KouiKa: OH H a M e H H ^ y T B - ^ y T B noxo*. . . A 3 f l e c B MOH r o c T H H a s , K O B P H H 3 e p K a j i a . KynHJia n n a H H H o a y o f l H o r o ocjia.43 ( K i t t e n : I come from a f a m i l y . o f f o r e i g n e r s : My great-grandfather-was a P e r s i a n c a t ! V a s i l i i , t u r n on the upper l i g h t And show h i s p o r t r a i t . Mrs. Rooster: Oh,.how f l u f f y he i s ! Mr. Rooster: Oh, how good he l o o k s ! K i t t e n : He looks a b i t l i k e me... 30 And here i s my guest room, Carpets, m i r r o r s . The piano I bought. From a c e r t a i n donkey.) When her house catches f i r e her main concern i s f o r her po s s e s s i o n s . She implores the firemen to save her P e r s i a n rug, her f u r n i t u r e and belongings,.because she views her s t a t u s i n terms o f her p o s s e s s i o n s . Her p r e t e n s i o n s make her p a r t i c u l a r l y r i d i c u l o u s not only because she borrows human manners but a l s o because she t r i e s to impress these manners upon other animals. Her f r i e n d s a f f e c t . s u p e r i o r a i r s which are expressed through t h e i r human mannerisms, but they c o n s t a n t l y r e v e a l t h e i r t r u e i d e n t i t y as animals. Thus, the goats i n t e r s p e r s e t h e i r speech w i t h b l e a t i n g s , the p i g s grunt, and the r o o s t e r says cock-a-doodle-doo along w i t h "thank you." These animal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s serve at once t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e these c h a r a c t e r s and .to make the whole s i t u a -t i o n absurdly comic. T h e i r behaviour seems p a r t i c u l a r l y s i l l y , not only because i t i s r i d i c u l o u s f o r an animal t o copy human behaviour but because the behaviour they copy i s f o o l i s h when seen even i n human beings themselves. As has been p o i n t e d out above, Marshak a b s t r a c t s c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s of behaviour from the human world and s e t s them i n the animal world. By being s e t at a d i s t a n c e , those p a t t e r n s of behav-i o u r thus appear i n t h e i r t r u e nature. The e s s e n t i a l p o i n t to remember i n d i s c u s s i n g Marshak's use of c h a r a c t e r s i s t h a t by red u c i n g behaviour t o broad s t e r e o t y p e s , Marshak achieves the d i r e c t n e s s of a folk-drama w h i c h , i s simple i n form but u n i v e r s a l i n appeal. T h i s impression of s i m p l i c i t y i s s p e c i a l l y r e i n f o r c e d by Marshak's s t y l e which shows, perhaps more,than anything else-, h i s indebtedness to the f o l k t r a d i t i o n . The K i t t e n ' s House i s w r i t t e n i n rhymed v e r s e of the s o r t commonly found i n , Russian f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e . In g e n e r a l , the verse l i n e s are s h o r t and s t r u n g out e i t h e r i n c o u p l e t s or i n q u a t r a i n s , thus g i v i n g pace to the movement of the p l a y i In the b e g i n n i n g the Chorus opens w i t h a rhyming c o u p l e t which i s a l s o the rhythmic m o t i f i n the p l a y : BK M - 6O M ! TH J T H-6O M ! Ha flBOpe B b l C O K H H flOM'.'^ (Ding-dong! D i n g - d a i r e ! There's a b i g house out there.) F i r s t sung by the Chorus, t h i s m o t i f i s soon p i c k e d up by the N a r r a t o r , who i n d i c a t e s the e p i s o d i c changes i n the p l a y . Toward the end of the p l a y - t h e rhyme i s again p i c k e d up by the Chorus, but a t . t h e very end i t i s sung by a l l . In• each r e c u r r i n g c o u p l e t the second l i n e i s ' changed to b l e n d w i t h the s i t u a t i o n i n t h e - p l a y . For example, w h i l e i n the f i r s t c o u p l e t the Chorus informs the audience.of "a l a r g e house," i n the second c o u p l e t the N a r r a t o r informs the audience of the ownership and newness of the house. During the f i r e scene the rhyme i s i n t e n s i f i e d through t h e , r e p e t i -t i o n of the f i r s t and second l i n e s t o s i g n a l the outbreak of-the f i r e : 32 TH J I H - T H J I H , TH J I H - T H J I H , TH J I H - T H J I H , T H J I H-6O M ! 3 a r o p e j i c H KOIUKHH B O M ! 3 a r o p e J i c H KOIUKHH B O M , ^ 5 (Ding-dong, Ding-dong, Ding-dong-bells! There's a f i r e where the k i t t e n d w e l l s ! There's a f i r e where the k i t t e n dwells!) Marshak giv e s prominence to these l i n e s i n the p l a y , f o r he was indeed very fond of them. They were l i n e s from a c h i l -dren's song t h a t "gave b i r t h t o the dramatic t a l e , The  K i t t e n ' s House," he wrote t o A. N. Avakova ( A p r i l 1 9 5 8 ) . 4 6 When we compare the o r i g i n a l folk-rhyme w i t h Marshak's own, i t can be seen t h a t except f o r one l i n e he preserved the o r i g i n a l f o l k rhyme. Marshak's rhyme: TH J I H - T H J I H , T H J I H-6O M ! 3 a r o p e j i c H KOIUKHH B O M ! EejKHT Kypnua c B e j j p o M , ^ (Ding-dong-bells! There's a f i r e where the k i t t e n d w e l l s ! The hen runs w i t h a p a i l of water,) The o r a l folk-rhyme: flOH, J J O H , flOH. 3 a r o p e j i c H KOIUKHH B O M , EexcHT KypHiia c B e f l p o M , 3aJiHBaeT KOIUKHH B O M . 48 (Ding-dong-bells. There's a f i r e where the k i t t e n d w e l l s . The hen runs w i t h a p a i l o f water, Hel p i n g as she ought to.) V a r i e t y i s added t o t h i s p a t t e r n by u s i n g a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r -ent s o r t of v e r s e , made up of a l t e r n a t i n g long and s h o r t 33 l i n e s . The f o l l o w i n g v e r s e s , spoken by the Chorus and the N a r r a t o r r e s p e c t i v e l y , i l l u s t r a t e t h i s . The Chorus s a y s : EH M - 6O M ! TH J T H-SO M ! Ha HBope — B H C O K H B B O M . C T aBeHKH pe3 Hue, OK na pacnHCHbie. A Ha JiecTHHu;e KOBep — UIH T H H 3OJIOTOM y3dp. no y3ppHOMy KOBpy CxoflHT K o u i K a noyTpy. y H e e , y KOUIKH., Ha H o r a x canoacKH, Ha H o r a x canoKKH, A B ymax c e p e a c K t i . Ha canoscKax — -JlaK-JiaK. A cepe>KKH — B p H K - 6 p H K . ^ 9 ( D i n g - d o n g ! D i n g - d a r e ! T h e r e ' s a b i g house o u t t h e r e . L i t t l e s h u t t e r s f r e t t e d , Windows d e c o r a t e d . . A c a r p e t e d s t a i r c a s e —-E m b r o i d e r e d i n g o l d . A l o n g t h i s p a t t e r n e d c a r p e t A k i t t e n c o m e s . d o w n . i n the m o r n i n g . She h a s , the k i t t e n has-, L i t t l e shoes on h e r f e e t , L i t t l e shoes on h e r f e e t , L i t t l e e a r r i n g s , i n h e r e a r s . On the shoes — L a c q u e r , l a c q u e r . The e a r r i n g s g o . — J i n g l e - j i n g l e . ) The N a r r a t o r s a y s : CJiymailTe, neTH: 3KHJia-.6bijra KoraKa H a c B e i e , 3aMopcKaH, •_. . A H F p p C K a H . 5KHJia OHa He TaK, KaK npyrne KOUIKH: CnaJia He Ha poroacKe , A B ywTHOH c n a n e H K e , Ha KppBaTKe M a J i e H b K O H , yKpHBajiacb aJiUM 34 TeruiHM ojjenjiOM H B nonyniKe nyxoBOH Y T o n a J i a T O J I O B O H . ^ ° ( L i s t e n , c h i l d r e n : There l i v e d , t here was a k i t t e n on e a r t h , F o r e i g n :.' P e r s i a n . She l i v e d u n l i k e other k i t t e n s : She d i d not sleep.on a b a s t mat, But i n a cosy l i t t l e bedroom, On a t i n y l i t t l e bed.. She covered h e r s e l f With a warm red b l a n k e t , And her head r e s t e d On a s o f t , down p i l l o W i ) The language of the p l a y i s of the s i m p l e s t k i n d , d i r e c t and non-metaphorical, there being o n l y two i n s t a n c e s of - f i g u r a t i v e language: namely, t h i s metaphor: H JierKHH oroHeK B3o6pajiCH no O6O H M , ' BcKapaSKajicH Ha CTOJT-H pa3JieTejicH poeM 3oJioTOKpfcjj[HX rraeJi.^l (And the l i g h t f i r e Clambered up the wa l l p a p e r , Scrambled on the t a b l e And b u r s t f o r t h i n a swarm Of golden-winged bees.) and t h i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n : C T p e c K O M , i n e j i K a H b e M H r p o M O M BcTaJi o r o H B Han H O B H M JJOMOM, 0 3 H p a e T C H KpyroM, MauieT KpacHHM pyKaBOM.^ 2 (With,a c r a s h , a crack and a r o l l of thunder The f i r e stood up above the new h o u s e , And> l o o k i n g r o u n d i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , Waved i t s f i e r y - r e d s l e e v e . ) Such imagery heightens the v i s u a l images of the f i r e . How-ever, words and phrases t y p i c a l of f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e , such as 35 are found i n c r a d l e - s o n g s , , f o l k - s o n g s and t a l e s , are e a s i l y , i d e n t i f i a b l e i n the p l a y . In the opening l i n e s of the Chorus we f i n d these d i m i n u t i v e s : "sapozhki," " s e r e z h k i , " and e p i t h e t s : " s t a v e n ' k i reznye," "okna r a s p i s n y e . " F u r t h e r -more, keeping i n mind h i s e d u c a t i o n a l purpose, Marshak a l s o uses simple words and c o n s t r u c t i o n s of o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n . Words such as " d e t s k i i sad," " s t a l ' n a y a myshelovka," "pozharnyi kran" h e l p t o c r e a t e an i l l u s i o n of contemporane-i t y . T h e r e f o r e , the combined a l l u s i o n s t o f o l k l o r e and t o . contemporary f a c t s h e l p t o c r e a t e a f e e l i n g of dgja vu, t h a t i s , a f a m i l i a r experience f o r the community or f o r the i n d i -v i d u a l c h i l d , because the p l a y d e a l s w i t h . e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d o b j e c t s . Moreover, by p r o j e c t i n g h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y i n t o i t , the c h i l d l e a r n s an o b j e c t l e s s o n . In The K i t t e n ' s House Marshak f a m i l i a r i z e s h i s viewer or reader not o n l y w i t h the f o l k t r a d i t i o n but a l s o w i t h the f i n e s t l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n of the f a b l e . Reminiscent of a moral appended to a f a b l e , t h a t i s , the c o n c l u s i v e under-s t a n d i n g which i s d e r i v e d from the s t o r y , the poor nephew-k i t t e n s become the b e a r e r s of i t i n t h i s p l a y . One of them says: KT.O 3HaeT, KaK MOKpa Bona, K a K cTpauieH xenon; JnoTbiH, T O T He O C T S B H T HHKorna npoxoHOix 6e3 npHK)Ta!^3 (I f you know of t h i r s t f o r water, And of c o l d you cannot bear, You w i l l always f i n d some q u a r t e r For a passer-by to share.) 36 R e f e r r i n g t o these l i n e s d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Sovetskoe i s k u s s t v o ( S o v i e t Art,. 14 September 1945)., Marshak s a i d : . . .. the moral i n t h i s s t ory- [The . K i t t e n ' s House] does not d i f f e r from morals i n other t a l e s . . I t - i s simple, and I t h i n k u s e f u l , but I have no d e s i r e to e x p l a i n i t i n my own words. To do t h a t would be l i k e t a k i n g the cream o f f the m i l k . The m i l k be-comes t a s t e l e s s and the cream a b i t too r i c h . . . . I b e l i e v e t h a t the viewer, young or o l d , w i l l w i t h out any doubt agree w i t h the p o s i t i o n taken here [ i n the play] and w i l l have no d e s i r e t o p l a y the r o l e of the i n h o s p i t a b l e Mrs. Goat or Mrs. Pig.54 This statement c l e a r l y conveys Marshak's p h i l o s o p h y , t h a t i s , t h a t one can a r r i v e a t the understanding of a moral not by e x p l a i n i n g i t , but only by e x p e r i e n c i n g the dramatic a c t i o n i n the p l a y . As can be seen from the above, the s i m p l i c i t y of the s t y l e has the advantage of f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n upon i t s simple message. Since there i s no l i n g u i s t i c d e v i ce to d i s t r a c t us, we may f o l l o w the f o r t u n e s of the K i t t e n by c o n t i n u a l l y e v a l u a t i n g her a t t i t u d e s and her conduct. A t the same time, the f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e form helps to g i v e the p l a y the a i r of n a t u r a l u n c o n t r i v e d wisdom t h a t such l i t e r a t u r e always has-, r e f l e c t i n g as i t does the unchanging co r e . o f s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e . Marshak*s achievement l i e s i n p u t t i n g t h a t e x p e r i e n c e i n i t s s i m p l e s t form, which i s n e v e r t h e l e s s e f f e c t i v e as a v e h i c l e of communication. CHAPTER I I I THE .TWELVE MONTHS Marshak's p l a y , The Twelve Months, i s c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t i n scope and tone from The K i t t e n ' s House, but s i m i l a r l y r o o t e d i n f o l k - i m a g i n a t i o n . The Twelve Months (1943) i s based on a Czech f o l k t a l e "0 d v a n d c t i mesickach" (About the Twelve Months), c o l l e c t e d and p u b l i s h e d by Bozena 55 Nemcova' (1820-1862) . Marshak wrote two v e r s i o n s of the t a l e , both of which appeared i n 1943. One was a prose t a l e e n t i t l e d "The Twelve Months — - A S l a v i c T a l e " ; the other the p l a y w i t h which we are concerned here, which Marshak c a l l e d The Twelve Months — A Dramatic T a l e . Marshak acknowledged the f a c t t h a t he had heard a v e r b a l account of a Czech or Bohemian legend,"About the Twelve Months," long b e f o r e h i s w r i t i n g of the prose v e r s i o n of "The Twelve Months." But he denied having any knowledge of Bozena Nemcova-'s v e r s i o n . This d e n i a l gave r i s e t o - a l i v e l y d i s c u s s i o n between h i m s e l f and the S o v i e t c r i t i c V. V. Smirnova. The charge of exces-s i v e indebtedness t o the Czech t a l e seems to have t r o u b l e d Marshak c o n s t a n t l y . Even twenty years a f t e r the. p u b l i c a t i o n of the prose t a l e and the dramatic v e r s i o n of The Twelve  Months. (and a y e a r b e f o r e ' h i s death) he wrote to the.drama c r i t i c S. B. Rassadin (27 June 1963) and c a t e g o r i c a l l y denied having known anything of the Czech author's s t o r y . ^ He 38 added t h a t he c o u l d not even remember the s p e l l i n g of her name (Nemcova" or Nimcova) . In another statement to Rassadin concerning the source of the t a l e he emphasized the f a c t t h a t he e n r i c h e d the o r i g i n a l s t o r y by expanding i t s p l o t , 57 adding new c h a r a c t e r s , and so on. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o accept these d i s c l a i m e r s a t . f a c e v a l u e . I t i s a f a c t t h a t Marshak not only knew the Czech language but a l s o knew s e v e r a l Czech authors and t r a n s l a t e d many of t h e i r works i n t o Russian. There i s , above a l l the i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e f a c t t h a t Nemcova's-tale "About the Twelve Months" appeared long b e f o r e Marshak's two v e r s i o n s of the t a l e . The resemblances t h a t Marshak's works bear t o the e a r l i e r Czech t a l e are so g r e a t as t o m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t t r e a t i n g the p a r a l l e l s as mere a c c i d e n t s . Marshak's v e r s i o n of the prose t a l e "The Twelve Months — " A S l a v i c T a l e " i s almost i d e n t i c a l w i t h Nemcova's i n p l o t and s t r u c t u r e , w i t h minor changes i n the opening and c l o s i n g of the s t o r y . The p a r a l l e l s and d i f f e r e n c e s between Marshak's prose s t o r y "The Twelve Months — A S l a v i c T a l e " and Nemcov^'s "About the Twelve Months" w i l l be c l e a r from the f o l l o w i n g comparison: Nemcova'1 s - t a l e : Marshak's prose t a l e : # There was a mother. * H2£f~: T ^ e symbols, used here i n d i c a t e the f o l l o w i n g : " - " the same " + " p a r t l y s i m i l a r "• * " m o d i f i e d 39 She had two daughters. One was her own. One was a stepdaughter. The daughter's name was Holena. tf The stepdaughter's name was Maruska. The daughter was u g l y . The stepdaughter was beau t i f u l . -The stepdaughter d i d a l l the work. The stepdaughter was happy i n her work. The stepdaughter was p a t i e n t . The stepdaughter was k i n d . Each day the mother and Holena grew meaner toward Maruska (beating her, making i m p o s s i b l e demands), but i n s p i t e of i t ; she grew more b e a u t i f u l each day. One day i n the middle o f wi n t e r Holena decided t h a t she wanted t o s m e l l v i o l e t s . + (No name) + (No name) The mother's harshness i s s t r e s s e d . The emphasis i s on the Stepdaughter's beauty. The focus i s on her l i f e of hard work. + The Stepmother decided t h a t she'wanted snowdrops f o r her Daughter's name day. (The s u b p l o t i n the p l a y The Twelve Months s u p p l i e s a Queen who wanted snow-drops and o f f e r e d a reward to anyone who would b r i n g them t o her.) She ordered Maruska t o f e t c h her some. Maruska p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t the i m p o s s i b l e r e q u e s t . 40 A f t e r b e i n g s c o l d e d and t h r e a t e n e d w i t h death by H o l e n a , and b e i n g thrown o u t s i d e , Maruska had no c h o i c e b u t t o go f i n d v i o l e t s . C r y i n g b i t t e r l y and t r y i n g to see t h r o u g h heaps o f snow to f i n d a way o u t , she p r a y e d t o God t o t a k e h e r from t h i s w o r l d . Suddenly she saw a l i g h t ' i n the d i s t a n c e . She j o u r n e y e d u p h i l l t o r e a c h i t . There was a f i r e on top o f the h i l l . Around the f i r e t h e r e were twelve s t o n e s . On the twelve s tones t h e r e s a t twelve men. Three were w h i t e - m o u s t a c h e d . Three younger o n e s . Three s t i l l y o u n g e r . And t h r e e more,, the y o u n g e s t o f a l l who were t h e h a n d -somest . There i s no d i r e c t . t h r e a t o f d e a t h by the Stepmother . + There i s no a p p e a l t o God. + There was a f i r e i n the c l e a r i n g . + No s t o n e s . No s t o n e s , as n o t e d above . The men are i d e n t i f i e d by the names o f the,months. . These twelve men were the t w e l v e months. A t f i r s t they l o o k e d a t h e r w i t h o u t s a y i n g a n y t h i n g . She asked p o l i t e l y to be a l l o w e d to warm h e r s e l f by the f i r e . 41 When a s k e d by J a n u a r y what she was d o i n g i n t h e c o l d o f w i n t e r , s h e e x p l a i n e d h e r q u e s t , g i v i n g d e t a i l s as t o how t h i s came a b o u t . Then March waved h i s m a g i c wand and made t h e snow m e l t and t h e v i o l e t s bloom. " Q u i c k l y g a t h e r t h e f l o w e r s , " s a i d M a r c h . She r e t u r n e d home s a f e l y w i t h t h e f l o w e r s . The s t e p m o t h e r and H q l e n a were amazed and a s k e d M a r u s k a how she g o t t h e f l o w e r s . She t o l d them t h e s t o r y . The n e x t day H o l e n a f e l t l i k e h a v i n g b e r r i e s and o r d e r e d M a r u s k a t o g e t h e r some. A f t e r some n a m e c a l l i n g , t h r e a t s , e t c . , M a r u s k a was driven o u t t o go and f e t c h b e r r i e s - a t t h e h e i g h t o f a snowstorm. + The m a g i c i s p e r f o r m e d f i r s t by J a n u a r y , t h e n F e b r u a r y , t h e n M a r c h , a f t e r w h i c h snowdrops a p p e a r e d . + They c a l l e d h e r s t u p i d f o r n o t b r i n g i n g b e r r i e s , mushrooms, cucumbers, p e a r s , a p p l e s , e t c . The D a u g h t e r l e f t i m m e d i a t e l y t o g e t a l l she c o u l d f r o m t h e t w e l v e Months i n t h e hope o f s e l l i n g some o f t h e l o o t and m a k i n g money. Not t h e S t e p d a u g h t e r , b u t t h e D a u g h t e r h e r s e l f went. Once more she came upon t h e t w e l v e months and a s k e d them t o h e l p h e r . J u n e waved h i s wand and summer a p p e a r e d . The D a u g h t e r met them and demanded t h a t t h e y f u l f i l l h e r w i s h . J a n u a r y r e f u s e d t o obey h e r . He t o l d h e r , " T h e r e i s no s u c h t h i n g as summer b e f o r e s p r i n g , and s p r i n g b e f o r e -w i n t e r . " 42 The f o r e s t was f i l l e d w i t h b e r r i e s . She p i c k e d them and r e t u r n e d home, guided by the moon (the same as when sh e < c a r r i e d the v i o l e t s home). The stepmother and Holena saw her come w i t h the b e r r i e s . They ate them up and gave only one t o Maruska. On the t h i r d day Holena wanted red apples. Maruska was f o r c e d t o go out i n s e a r c h of them. As b e f o r e , she met the twelve months and got the apples, but on l y two t h i s time.. The stepmother and Holena were angry, and a f t e r e a t i n g the two apples they wanted more. So Holena decided to go and get some h e r s e l f , a g a i n s t her mother 1s wishes. She encountered the twelve months s i t t i n g on twelve stones. January c r e a t e d a huge storm. The Daughter c o u l d n e i t h e r see through the heavy snow, nor c a t c h her b r e a t h through the w h i r l i n g wind. F i n a l l y she f e l l i n t o a s n o w d r i f t wherein her whole body was covered w i t h snow. The Daughter never r e t u r n e d . As the Daughter d i d not r e t u r n , her mother went out the next day to look f o r her. The same i n c i d e n t , but occurs e a r l i e r as noted, (No stones, as noted.) She gave rude answers to J a n u a r y 1 s . q u e s t i o n s . January waved h i s wand and i t began t o snow h e a v i l y , and the angry c o l d wind began to blow. Holena c o u l d not see. She began to wander around, to stumble, e t c . She began to swear a t Maruska and God. No swearing or r e f e r e n c e to God. The stepmother waited i n v a i n f o r her daughter's r e t u r n 43 She went out i n search of-, her daughter. The stepmother walked and walked, searched and searched, but the snow kept f a l l i n g and the cold wind kept blowing. The mother and daughter froze i n the snow. Meanwhile Maruska prepared lunch, but neither of them came home. Again she pre-pared dinner, but s t i l l they did not return. She wondered, "0 God, what could have happened to them"?," She kept on praying for her s i s t e r and mother. The next day she waited with breakfast, she waited with lunch, but they never came. * The Stepdaughter's concern i s not mentioned. Thus the good Maruska was l e f t with a cottage, a cow and a piece of land. Eventually a su i t o r came. They married and l i v e d happily.in peace.. + The Stepdaughter grew up, got married, r a i s e d . c h i l -dren and l i v e d a long and happy l i f e . The story goes that she had such a beau-t i f u l house that no other l i k e i t was to be seen i n the whole world. There the flowers bloomed and the f r u i t s ripened e a r l i e r than anywhere el s e . They say that a l l the twelve Months used to v i s i t her at once. Who knows — maybe i t was so. This comparison shows that Marshak was, heavily indebted to Nemcovd, no matter how many disclaimers he made. At the same time, i t i s only f a i r to note that Marshak had no lack of imagination, as his modification of Nemcova''s pl o t shows. In p a r t i c u l a r , his dramatic version of The Twelve Months .has a g r e a t v a r i e t y of events and i t s p l o t development takes many strange turns not found i n Nemcovd's s t o r y . When we compare with.Marshak's prose t a l e the dramati v e r s i o n of The Twelve Months, we f i n d t h a t i t d i d not change i n i t s broad l i n e s , although he made c o n s i d e r a b l e a d d i t i o n s t o . t h e p l o t . The a c t i o n of the p l a y begins on the day b e f o r e the New Year. We meet the simple, p o o r l y - d r e s s e d , hard-working Stepdaughter g a t h e r i n g brushwood deep i n the f o r e s t . A l l the b i r d s , animals and magic beings of the f o r e s t know her and she knows them. She i s a f a m i l i a r f i g u r e . She understands the language of the. animals and they do not f e a r her. The twelve Months, who are b r o t h e r s , know her very w e l l too. They have seen her o f t e n enough working i n the f o r e s t i n a l l kinds of weather i n a l l seasons For h e r kindness and hard work she r e c e i v e s the g i f t s o f nature from the Months. They have the power to b r i n g f o r t h any.season at w i l l i n a s i n g l e hour. As e a r l y as the second scene of A c t I, Marshak g i v e s us one of h i s major a d d i t i o n s to the p l o t by b r i n g i n g i n the young Queen, who i s c e n t r a l to the development of the p l o t . By i n t r o d u c i n g h er, Marshak p r o v i d e s both an e x t e n s i o n of the p l o t and a c o n t r a s t t o the main c h a r a c t e r , the Step-, daughter. The Queen i s . a l s o the c a t a l y s t of the p l o t . She proclaims a "snowdrop law," a c c o r d i n g to which she demands t h a t a basket of snowdrops be found and d e l i v e r e d to her 45 palace on New Year's Eve. The person.who f u l f i l l s her wish w i l l be rewarded with,a basket of g o l d equal t o the amount of snowdrops brought i n . On the day the p l a y b e g ins, t h a t i s , the day b e f o r e New Year's day, the Stepmother and her Daughter,.greedy f o r wealth, send out the Stepdaughter i n t o the c o l d f o r e s t at t w i l i g h t t o search f o r snowdrops. Having reached a c l e a r i n g deep i n the f o r e s t , she sees a f i r e around which are seated twelve b r o t h e r s c a l l e d the Months. She g r e e t s them p o l i t e l y and asks to be, allowed t o warm h e r s e l f , b y the f i r e . A f t e r she t e l l s them why she i s t h e r e , they h e l p her w i t h her problem. They b r i n g s p r i n g i n s t a n t l y and everywhere appear snowdrops, which she puts i n her basket. But as an added gesture of f r i e n d s h i p between her and the b r o t h e r s , Month A p r i l g i v e s her a magic r i n g and teaches her how t o invoke i t s power i n case of danger, w i t h the s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t she must never r e v e a l i t s s e c r e t to anyone. Otherwise the Month-br o t h e r s can never a s s i s t her. Upon her r e t u r n from the f o r e s t she prese n t s the basket of snowdrops•to the Stepmother and the .wicked Daughter, who take i t to the p a l a c e t o c l a i m the reward. Having r e t u r n e d home exhausted by her o r d e a l i n the f o r e s t , the Stepdaughter f a l l s a s l e e p and when she awakes the f o l l o w i n g morning she d i s c o v e r s t h a t the magic r i n g i s • m i s s i n g from her f i n g e r , the Daughter having s t o l e n i t w h i l e she was a s l e e p . Meanwhile, at the p a l a c e , as the Stepmother and.the Daughter are about to leave with the reward, the Queen questions them and discovers that they are impostors, and that i t was the Stepdaughter who had found the snowdrops. This discovery further complicates the p l o t , as the Queen now decides to have the Stepdaughter show her and her party the place where she found the snowdrops; t h i s the Stepdaughter refuses to do. She also refuses a basket of gold, twelve velvet dresses, s i l v e r s l i p p e r s , bracelets for each hand and • rings for each finger. She w i l l be content only i f she can have her ring returned. But when the Daughter i s forced to give the ring back, the Queen wants to know where the Step-daughter obtained i t . Again she refuses to reveal her secret. The Queen commands that the Stepdaughter be punished for her stubbornness and throws the rin g into the water. But at that moment the Stepdaughter utters the magic words and she -is saved by the twelve Months> while the Queen and her party are enveloped i n a snowstorm. Suddenly i t a l l quietens down and the cycle of.the seasons begins. Spring appears f i r s t , followed immediately by summer, then by autumn, and l a s t l y by winter. No sooner do snowdrops appear than they are replaced by summer flowers and f r u i t s . Moments l a t e r i t becomes" cold and rainy and soon snow begins to f a l l . The Queen and her party experience a l l the seasons at once. The Queen i s overcome by wonder and begins to appreciate the power and beauty of nature and to understand the narrowness of man's greedy attempts, to exp l o i t nature. She learns to 47 admire the heroine for her goodness that l e t s her be at one with nature and receive nature's bounty. The power of nature i s further demonstrated by the action of brother January, who. metes out j u s t i c e . He gives the angry Stepmother and Daughter coats of dog fur and turns them into a pair of dogs to p u l l the Queen's sled back to the palace. Meanwhile the Stepdaughter enjoys a song and game with the twelve Months in.the f o r e s t . She confesses to Month A p r i l her loss (the r i n g ) , but he returns i t to her, saying that because she did not reveal the secret she can have i t back and i t w i l l always protect her from e v i l . Month January assures her that she should have no fear and that she w i l l return home to be the sole owner of her house, and that from now on they w i l l be guests at her house, ensuring her safety and prosperity. Viewed i n terms of the main c o n f l i c t , the play c o n s i s t s 1 o f the struggle between the forces of good and e v i l . The c o n f l i c t reaches i t s highest point when the Stepdaughter refuses to disclose the secret of where she obtained the snowdrops and the magic r i n g . Here, more than anywhere else, she makes a f i n a l choice against betrayal and falsehood. She i s w i l l i n g and ready to s a c r i f i c e her l i f e for the prin-. c i p l e s she believes i n , and because of t h i s she eventually triumphs by being loved and respected by a l l . Commenting on her struggle, A p r i l says to her: B e p H - G B G e K O J i e i K O . . . . H O C H e r o ; f H Bcerjja Te6e 48 T e r u i o H C B e T J i o 6 y f l e T ; H B C T y a c y , H B M e T e J i b , H . B oceHHHH TyMaH. X O T B H roBopHT, " q T O AnpejiB-MecHu; o b M a H M H B h i a, a HHKorna Te6n a n p e J i B C K o e cojiHii.e He o6MaHeT]59 (Take your r i n g . Wear i t and y o u ' l l always have warmth and l i g h t , whether there i s a wi n t e r f r o s t , or a storm, or an autumn m i s t . Although they say A p r i l i s a f i c k l e month, the A p r i l sun, take i t from me, w i l l never deceive you.) Even the Queen says, t u r n i n g t o the P r o f e s s o r , CMOTpHTe, BeflB 3T O Ta caMan n e B y n i K a , VLTO noHCHeK-HHKH Hauuia... TOJIBKO KaKaH oHa n a p f l f l H a a ! ^ (Look, t h i s i s the same g i r l t h a t found the snow-., drops. But how gorgeously dressed she i s now!) The S o l d i e r , s t r u c k by the Stepdaughter's beauty, r e p l i e s , TaK T O M H O, Bauie BejmqecTBO, O H H caMbie.^-(No mistake about i t , Your Majesty, t h a t ' s her a l l r i g h t . ) Now, addr e s s i n g the Stepdaughter h e r s e l f , the S o l d i e r c o n t i n -ues, . ^ H C T O KoponeBa!^1 (.. . . you look, l i k e a Queen.). This- l a s t speech is-most s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r i t c l e a r l y -acknowledges the r e v e r s a l of r o l e s i n the p l a y . The poor,, downtrodden g i r l becumes'rich and powerful, w h i l e the mighty Queen becomes a humble s u b j e c t of chastisement by the power of nature. From the f r i e n d l e s s : , sad and persecuted orphan of the beg i n n i n g , she turns i n t o the most admired and s u c c e s s f u l of a l l c h a r a c t e r s a t the end. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of her s t a t u s w i t h i n the p l a y i s s i g n a l l e d when, i n the f o r e s t , the Queen, the P r o f e s s o r and the S o l d i e r n o t i c e her 49 dressed i n the f i n e garments g i v e n to her by the twelve Months. I t i s c l e a r t h a t Marshak's dramatic v e r s i o n of the t a l e i s much more complex i n theme and s t r u c t u r e than the Czech t a l e . These c o m p l e x i t i e s j u s t i f y h i s c l a i m to o r i g i -n a l i t y . Even though he might have taken the o u t l i n e of the s t o r y from an e x i s t i n g f o l k t a l e , as seems l i k e l y , he made i t h i s own by h i s a d d i t i o n s which allowed him t o i n t e n s i f y the moral c o n f l i c t of the t a l e . At the same time he r e t a i n s the b a s i c form of f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e of - t h i s s o r t , t h a t i s , of the k i n d of f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e t h a t p r e s e n t s a c o n t r a s t between v i r t u e and wickedness, promises the e v e n t u a l v i c t o r y of v i r t u e , and proclaims i t s rewards. , Marshak's h e r o i n e , the p e r secuted Stepdaughter, i s endowed w i t h every v i r t u e w h i l e those who persecute her are f l a t l y wicked. The Stepmother and the Daughter are c r u e l , greedy and envious, while the Queen, i s arrogant and c r u e l i n her s e l f i s h n e s s . .Yet, because of her g r e a t e r i n t e l l i g e n c e and i m a g i n a t i o n , she undergoes a change of h e a r t and l e a r n s to a p p r e c i a t e the Stepdaughter. T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n shows a degree of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , a p a t t e r n which i s not common i n f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e . For i n a d d i t i o n to the f o l k c h a r a c t e r s , Marshak i n t r o d u c e s i n The  Twelve Months more s o p h i s t i c a t e d types such as the.Queen and the P r o f e s s o r . His l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d a d d i t i o n s are the C h a n c e l l o r y the Lady i n W a i t i n g , and an assortment of o f f i -c i a l s and s e r v a n t s . T h e i r f u n c t i o n mainly i s to i l l u m i n a t e the abuse of the Queen's power and to r e f l e c t t h e i r own powerlessness- i n the l i g h t of her chaotic government. How-ever, the Soldier i s one e x c e p t i o n to t h i s r u l e . Although a servant of the Queen, he i s shown to have deep r o o t s i n 6 2 Russian f o l k l o r e . His main f u n c t i o n i n the p l a y i s to l i n k the two sides of the s t o r y together and at the same time to r e t a i n the s t r u c t u r e and form of a f o l k - s t o r y . Mar-shak e s t a b l i s h e s t h i s l i n k i n the beginning of the p l a y , when he arranges a chance meeting i n the f o r e s t between the Soldier and the Stepdaughter. But i t i s what they say t o each ot h e r , and the way t h a t they say i t , t h a t h e lps to r e t a i n the s t r u c t u r e and form of a f o l k - s t o r y , as w i l l be c l e a r l y seen from the f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n between them: COJIflAT. 3jjpaBHH Hcenaw, KpacaBHiia! Tbi *ieMy yue 3 T O pajjyeiiibCH — - KJiajj HaniJia HJIH xopomyio H O B O C T B ycJibixaJia? naduepuua Mauiem pyKou u CMeemcsi euie 3eoHue. fla T H CK35KH, c Mero Te6n civiex pa36HpaeT. MoaceT, H H n o c M e i o c B c TO6OH BMecTe. nAflyEPHUA. fla B H He noBepHTe! COJIflAT. OT^ero ace? MBI, coJiflaTH, Ha cBoeM B 'eKy Bcero HacJiHuiajiHCb, Bcero HarjTHJjejracB. BepHTB — BepHM, a B o6MaH He jjaeMCH. nAOTEPHILA. TyT 3 ana c SejiKaMH B ropejiKH nrpaji, Ha 3TOM- CaMOM MecTel C0J1JJAT. Hy? nAfl^EPHIIA. ^ t e C T a a npaBfla! B O T Kax HauiH pe6n-THIIIKH H a y j i H i i e nrpaioT. „ropH, ropH H C H O , MTO6BI He noracjio..." OH sa H H M H , O H H O T Hero, no C H e r y jja Ha flepeBo. Heme j j p a 3 H H T : ,,noflCKO^H, noHeko^H, noflnpHrHH, noflnpurHH!" COJiJJAT. TaK no-HaiueMy H roBopai? nAJJ^EPHIIA. no-HaiueMy. COJIflAT. Cna^cHTe Ha M H J I O C T B ! nAfl^EPHHA. B O T Bbi-MHe H He BepHTe! COJIflAT. KaK He BepHTB! . HuH^e fleHB-TO. Kanofi? CTapoMy rony KOHeu, HOBOMy — HaMano. A JI eine O T flefla cBoero cjibixaji, 6yflTO ero Rep. eMy paccKa3BiBaJi, ^ T O B 3 T O T fleHB BCHKoe Ha CBeTe 6biBaeT — ; yMea T O J I B K O noflCTepe^B na noflrjiHjjeTB. 3TO JIH A H B O , *ITO 6ejiKH c 3 anutaMH B r o p e j i K H HrpaiqT! lion HOBBIH TOR H . He TaKoe ony^iaeTCH. nAfl^EPHIlA. A MTO ace? COJIflAT. fla TaK J I H , HeT J I H , a roBopHJi MOH nen, MTO B c a M b i H KaHyH HoBoro rofla flOBexiocB ero fleny co BCeMH flBeHaflUaTbH) MeCHI^aMH BCTpeTHTBCH. nAiuTJEPHHA. fla Hy? COJIflAT. HncTan npaBfla. KpyrnbiH ron ciapnK pa30M yBHflaJi: H 3HMy, H jieTo, H-BecHy, H oceHB. Ha BCIO XCH3.H& 3 a n o M H H J i , cbiHy paccKa3aJi H BHyKaM paccKa3aTB Bejien. TaK :flo weHH OHO H AOUIJIO . 63 (SOLDIER. H e l l o , my p r e t t y one! What's making you so happy? Have you found a t r e a s u r e t r o v e or -heard some good news? Come on, t e l l us what's so funny! Maybe I can have a laugh w i t h you too. STEPDAUGHTER* You-won't b e l i e v e me. SOLDIER. I don't know about t h a t . We s o l d i e r s have heard and seen l o t s o f t h i n g s i n our l i v e s . . We b e l i e v e a l l r i g h t .but we don't - l e t anybody f o o l us. STEPDAUGHTER. Here, on t h i s v ery spot, a hare and two s q u i r r e l s were p l a y i n g catch a minute ago. SOLDIER. Is t h a t so? STEPDAUGHTER. Cross my h e a r t ! J u s t l i k e our k i d s p l a y i n g i n the s t r e e t s . " F i r e , burn h i g h — Flame, never d i e ! " The hare was-tearing a f t e r the s q u i r r e l s , when oops! — up a t r e e they went — - and not only t h a t — - they kept t e a s i n g him from the t r e e : "Come on, jump up here." SOLDIER* And they-spoke l i k e t h a t i n our own language? STEPDAUGHTER. They d i d . SOLDIER. What do you know! STEPDAUGHTER. You see, you. don't b e l i e v e me. SOLDIERi Not b e l i e v e you on a day l i k e today? Oh, no. Today, you know y o u r s e l f , i s the end of the o l d year and the begin n i n g of the new. And I heard my gra n d f a t h e r say t h a t h i s gra n d f a t h e r used to t e l l him t h a t on a day l i k e today anything can happen i n the world — a l l you have t o do i s to look sharp not t o miss i t . That's no g r e a t wonder, to see s q u i r r e l s and hares p l a y c a t c h . Even more marvelous t h i n g s happen on New Year's Eve. STEPDAUGHTER. What th i n g s ? SOLDIER. W e l l , my gr a n d f a t h e r t o l d me t h a t once on New Year's Eve h i s gra n d f a t h e r met a l l the twelve months to g e t h e r . STEPDAUGHTER. Did he r e a l l y ? SOLDIER. Cross, my h e a r t ! The o l d man saw the whole year, w i n t e r and summer, s p r i n g and f a l l , a l l at the same time. I t was such a s i g h t he c o u l d never f o r g e t i t . He t o l d h i s son about i t and ordered him t o t e l l the g r a n d c h i l d r e n . That's how I come t o know the s t o r y . ) In g e n e r a l , however, Marshak's p r e s e n t a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r f o l l o w s the t y p i c a l method o f f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e of p r e s e n t i n g a b s o l u t e q u a l i t i e s r a t h e r than blends, o f q u a l i t i e s * T h i s allows him to c r e a t e a simple, but e f f e c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n of good and e v i l . The sympathy of the audience f o r the v i r t u o u s Stepdaughter can be readi l y . e n g a g e d because her goodness.is as unambiguous as i s the wickerness o f her p e r s e c u t o r s . Moreover, t h i s c l e a r r e c o g n i t i o n on the p a r t 53 of the audience i s p o s s i b l e because, as i n f o l k t a l e s , i n The Twelve Months Marshak p r e s e n t s h i s c h a r a c t e r s as b r o a d l y conceived types c l a s s i f i e d by t h e i r p r o p e n s i t y f o r e i t h e r good or e v i l . For example, the hard-working Stepdaughter, the greedy Stepmother- and her l a z y Daughter form two opposing f o r c e s i n a way t y p i c a l of both Russian and non-Russian f o l k t r a d i t i o n s . A p a r a l l e l t h a t r e a d i l y comes t o mind i s the s t o r y of C i n d e r e l l a . In l i k e manner, Marshak d e p i c t s i n h i s . p l a y the Stepdaughter as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of goodness and v i r t u e . These q u a l i t i e s m a n i f e s t themselves i n whatever she says or does. They stand out e s p e c i a l l y when compared w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of other c h a r a c t e r s i n the p l a y -, such as the Stepmother, the Daughter.and the Queen. For example, having j u s t r e t u r n e d from g a t h e r i n g brushwood i n the f o r e s t , the Stepdaughter i s asked by her Stepmother and the Daughter to go out again i n t o the d e s o l a t e , w i n t r y wasteland i n search of snowdrops. Even though she knows t h a t HbiKrae H n p o n a c T B He MyflpeHo — T a K H KPVJKHT , T a K H B a J i H T c Hbr.64 (There's n o t h i n g e a s i e r then l o s i n g your l i f e today — i t j u s t w h i r l s you around and blows you over.) she obeys t h e i r command because she i s d u t i f u l . A g a i n s t her sweetness of c h a r a c t e r i s p i t t e d the c r u e l greed.of the Stepmother and Daughter, who show no concern f o r the g i r l ' s s a f e t y ; they are more concerned w i t h the b a s k e t f u l of g o l d promised by the Queen i n her p r o c l a m a t i o n as a reward f o r the snowdrops. The acknowledgement of the Stepdaughter's kindness i s d r i v e n home by an encounter she has i n the f o r e s t w i t h the S o l d i e r . Although she i s s h i v e r i n g w i t h c o l d and f a t i g u e , she can s t i l l sympathize w i t h the S o l d i e r ' s problem of f i n d i n g a p e r f e c t unflawed f i r t r e e as commanded by h i s c a p r i c i o u s Queen. The Stepdaughter puts a s i d e her own t r o u b l e s t o comfort the S o l d i e r and h e l p him. She says:. JJ,afiTe-Ka H BaM ejio*iKy OJJHV noKaacy.. . He nonpHjjeT JIH oHa B a M ? YacTaKan KpacHBan ejioHKa —' B e i o ^ K a B BeTO^Ky.65 (Come, l e t me show you a f i r t r e e I know h e r e ' — - i t may be j u s t what you want. I t ' s a b e a u t i f u l t r e e ; every twig on i t matches every o t h e r twig.) Gazing upon the marvellous t r e e , t h e , S o l d i e r senses her g r e a t intimacy with nature and expresses h i s admiration f o r her i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : T H , B H J J H O , 3Jjecb B Jiecy C B O H . HenapoM SejiKH c 3aHiiaMH npn Te6e B ropejiKH HrpaioT!^ (You seem to be a t home i n the f o r e s t . No wonder s q u i r r e l s and hares p l a y c a t c h as you look.on.) This i n c i d e n t a l s o d e f i n e s the g i r l ' s c h a r a c t e r i n . a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e way. The S o l d i e r ' s wondering remark i s a spontaneous r e c o g n i t i o n o f her oneness w i t h a l l t h a t i s -good i n nature. In her Stepmother's house we never see her g a i e t y nor ever hear her laugh, as we do i n the f o r e s t . Her memories of c h i l d h o o d and youth are reawakened by the l i v e -l i n e s s and s p i r i t o f the animals. When the s q u i r r e l s laugh at the hare's s h o r t t a i l she laughs w i t h them. Because,she r e t a i n s her deep l o v e . f o r nature, nature has no r e l u c t a n c e to r e v e a l i t s e l f to her. She i s t h e r e f o r e the r i g h t person to be granted a meeting w i t h the twelve Months. Thus , i t becomes apparent t h a t t h i s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h nature, t y p i c a l of f o i k - l i t e r a t u r e , i s the s e c r e t of her s u r v i v a l i n a h o s t i l e human world. The p l a y becomes a p a r a b l e not only of the triumph of v i r t u e . o v e r wickedness, but a l s o of the union between man and n a t u r e . The v i r t u o u s h e r o i n e i s , as we have seen, c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the s e l f i s h and greedy Stepmother, her Daughter and the young Queen. Of these, the Queen i s the most i n t e r e s t i n g as an i n d i v i d u a l . Marshak\s a d d i t i o n of t h i s f i g u r e to the p l o t shows how s k i l f u l l y - h e expands the thematic s t r u c t u r e of the p l a y . The Queen's s e l f i s h - a c t i o n s not o n l y make the p l o t more v a r i e d than i t i s i n the t a l e , but a l s o i l l u s t r a t e the d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e of greed i n man's world. The Queen i s c e n t r a l t o the p l o t s t r u c t u r e because ,the denouement comes through her a c t i o n i n p e r s e c u t i n g the h e r o i n e f o r her own narrow and s e l f i s h purpose. But her f u n c t i o n i s not l i m i t e d to p l o t mechanics, f o r her a c t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e how e x t e n s i v e l y mankind has been c o r r u p t e d by greed and s e l f i s h n e s s . I f the Stepmother and her Daughter are v i c i o u s , the Queen i s the more so, because she has more power over other human beings , than they have. By b r i n g i n g her i n , Marshak t h e r e f o r e e s c a l a t e s the o p e r a t i o n s o f greed and s e l f i s h n e s s . As a r e s u l t , the heroine's goodness shines out the more b r i g h t l y . The Queen i s i n t e r e s t i n g because she i s shown as a more i n t e l l i g e n t . i n d i v i d u a l than the Stepmother and Daughter. The Queen has one s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y t o the h e r o i n e . They are both orphans. But whereas t h i s m i s f o r t u n e has taught the heroine h u m i l i t y , i t has turned the Queen.into a w i l f u l and s e l f - c e n t e r e d person. At times the Queen appears t o be more s e n s i b l e and more i m a g i n a t i v e than her fawning s u i t e and the t u t o r s who surround her. Although she knows q u i t e w e l l what i s expected of her, she d e l i b e r a t e l y mocks t h e i r attempts to educate her.. At times the c l a s h between h e r s e l f and her i n s t r u c t o r s evokes genuine amusement on the p a r t o f the audience.. For example, d u r i n g one of her a r i t h m e t i c l e s s o n s , the P r o f e s s o r asks her what seven times e i g h t makes. She r e p l i e s n o n c h a l a n t l y : H e . n o M H i o I T O - T O . . . • 3 T O M e H H HHKorjja He HHTepeco-B a j i b . . . 6 7 (I cannot r e c a l l . I t never i n t e r e s t e d me very much.) However, as she becomes bored w i t h the l e s s o n , she b u l l i e s the p r o f e s s o r openly by s a y i n g : A BU 3HaeTe, ^ITO H M o r y B a c Ka3HHTt>? H jjaace cero- .. JJHH,. ecjiH. 3axo^yl^ (Do you know t h a t I can have you executed? Even today, i f I f e e l l i k e i t . ) T h i s t h r e a t b r i n g s the P r o f e s s o r i n t o t o t a l submission. He • i s now anxious t o say yes to her every whim. The f o l l o w i n g d i a l o g u e i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s c l e a r l y : IIPOOECCOP. CKOJTBKO 6 y j j e T u i e c T B i o u i e c T B , ' B a n i e BeJlH^eCTBO? KOPOJIEBA. OflHHHanHaTB. nPOOECCOP. C o B e p m e H H o B e p H o , B a u i e B e j i H ^ e c T B O . ^ " (PROFESSOR. What does s i x times s i x make, Your Majesty? QUEEN. Elev e n . PROFESSOR. That's p e r f e c t l y c o r r e c t , Your Majesty.) Amusing as t h i s i n c i d e n t i s , i t does not c o n c e a l the abuse, of power by the Queen. She w i l l . h a v e her way, no matter by what means. T h i s i n c i d e n t i s thus o f a p i e c e with.her command t h a t r e q u i r e d snowdrops t o be brought t o her on New Year's Eve. I t a l s o shows t h a t she d e l i b e r a t e l y r e j e c t s self-improvement i n favour of w i l f u l n e s s . Her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h others a l s o r e v e a l s a l a c k of d i s c i p l i n e i n moral v a l u e s . For example, she i s approached by the C h a n c e l l o r d u r i n g one of her l e s s o n s w i t h the P r o f e s -s o r , and asked to i n d i c a t e her r o y a l w i l l by w r i t i n g "hang" or "pardoned" on a document which no-one dares ask her to read. She h e s i t a t e s b r i e f l y , not over the s e r i o u s n e s s of the request, but r a t h e r over the l e n g t h of the words which denote the v e r d i c t . She says: '_ Jlymuie HanHiuy" .„Ka3HHTB." STO Kopo^e;^ (I'11.write "hang." I t ' s s h o r t e r . ) Her r a t i o n a l e f o r w r i t i n g "hang" i s the same as f o r " s i x times s i x make eleven." Her l a c k of m o t i v a t i o n f o r s e l f -improvement and her l a c k of d i s c i p l i n e i n moral val u e s r e i t e r a t e s her i n d i f f e r e n c e towards any e x e r t i o n not d i r e c t l y connected w i t h her whims. Although the P r o f e s s o r subse-q u e n t l y chides her f o r making a c h o i c e f o r the wrong reason 58 and t e l l s her to t h i n k f i r s t b e f o r e s i g n i n g a nything, her r e p l y t o him i s as f o l l o w s : E C J I H . 6H H cjiyuiajiacb Bac, H 6H T O J I B K O H flejiajia, I T O jjyMajia, flyMajia, nyMajia H nop, KOHeii, HaBepHo, comna 6BI c yMa HJIH npHflyMaJia 6or 3HaeT MTO.*.. ( I f . 1 l i s t e n e d t o you, I would be t h i n k i n g and t h i n k i n g , and i n the end I would most l i k e l y go, insane, and then God knows what I might t h i n k up.) Yet the Queen's very w i l f u l n e s s makes her a somewhat sympa-t h e t i c f i g u r e f o r the audience because i t emphasizes her youth and d i r e c t i o n l e s s u p b r i n g i n g as an orphan. Even her much-abused servants have some a f f e c t i o n . f o r her. For example, one of her l o y a l s e r v a n t s , the S o l d i e r , has an i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t i n t o her nature.,; which he r e v e a l s to the heroine during, t h e i r f o r e s t encounter: 72 KaK He.HcajiKo! HeKOMy noy^HTt ee yMy-pa3yMy. (I'm-sorry f o r her... There i s nobody around t o put good sense i n t o her head.) In A c t IV, Scene 1, Marshak shows t h a t as soon as the Queen leaves behind her i s o l a t e d e x i s t e n c e , she a l s o leaves behind her boredom and f r u s t r a t i o n s . . While i n the f o r e s t i n search of snowdrops she unexpectedly encounters both the r e a l i t i e s ( c o l d , f r o s t , snow, t r e e s , animals) and the mysteries (changes of a l l seasons w i t h i n a s i n g l e hour) of l i f e . In t h i s environment s h e ' i s overcome by a c h i l d l i k e c u r i o s i t y . Instead of t y r a n n i z i n g over her t e a c h e r s , she d e r i v e s , p l e a s u r e from l e a r n i n g . She pleads w i t h them to show her the w i l d animals t h a t she had never seen b e f o r e but only heard of from the P r o f e s s o r , and she adds: H H He nyMana, M T O Ha CBeTe 6biBaioT T a o e B b i c o K H e . cyrpo6bi H T a x n e c T p a H H b i e , K p H B u e jjepeBBH. MHe S T O aayme H P S B H T C H ! 7 3 (I never thought t h a t such huge s n o w d r i f t s e x i s t e d , and such strange crooked t r e e s . I even l i k e a l l t h i s ! ) Not only does she l i k e what she sees i n the f o r e s t , but she a l s o r e a l i z e s t h a t she i s the b e n e f i c i a r y of t h i s wonderful experience, as she t e l l s the P r o f e s s o r : . . . 3a c e r o j j H H u i H H H .jjeHb, H M H o r o M y Hay ^ H J i a c B ! EoJiBine y3HaJia, *ieM y Bac 3a T p n r o f l a ! ^ ( I ' v e . l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l today, more i n a s i n g l e day than I l e a r n e d from you. i n th r e e years.) I t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t her statement communicates a sense of p r i d e : i n her achievement. P o s s i b l y Marshak i s advancing here the s o c i a l t h e s i s t h a t the Queen's s e l f i s h n e s s and arrogance were consequences of her a l i e n a t i o n from the l i f e of nature and t h a t her harshness r e f l e c t e d the a r i d l i f e of the c o u r t which was empty of human f e e l i n g s . A g a i n s t t h i s h a r s h and u n j u s t s o c i e t y , a s o c i e t y c o r r u p t e d by s e l f i s h greed, Marshak holds up the i d y l l i c w o r l d of the f o r e s t , where v i r t u e i s rewarded and v i c e punished by some a l l - p o w e r f u l agency. Elements o f f o l k -l i t e r a t u r e h e lp t o p r o j e c t t h i s v i s i o n of p e r f e c t j u s t i c e . We have here the b a s i c f o l k - p a t t e r n of the young heroine s u b j e c t e d t o p e r s e c u t i o n , her c h a r a c t e r — h e r courage, compassion and f o r t i t u d e — put to the t e s t o f s u f f e r i n g , and of her being rewarded f o r p a s s i n g the t e s t by. being 60 r a i s e d above her p e r s e c u t o r s . In s p i t e of the e l a b o r a t e arrangement of the p l o t s , i t i s easy to f i n d i n i t the ener-g e t i c t h r u s t of a s i m p l i s t i c moral t h e s i s . We must remember t h a t Marshak wrote The Twelve Months, as he wrote The K i t t e n ' s House, f o r c h i l d r e n and t h a t he wrote wi t h an 75 e d u c a t i o n a l purpose i n mind. We have seen t h a t The . K i t t e n ' s House argues a g a i n s t s e l f i s h n e s s and advances the value of s h a r i n g and c o o p e r a t i o n . The -Twelve Months, too, argues a g a i n s t s e l f i s h n e s s and greed by i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e i r dehumanizing i n f l u e n c e , as we see i t i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the Stepmother and Daughter i n t o dogs. But t h i s p l a y i s f a r more ambitious than The K i t t e n ' s House, both i n i t s s t r u c t u r a l and i n i t s moral scope. The a c t i o n of the p l a y i s c o n s t r u c t e d as a t e s t to which the h e r o i n e i s put. T h i s t e s t — of her hardihood, i n t e g r i t y , and courage takes the form of her quest f o r snowdrops, and i n i t i a t e s the c h a i n of events i n the p l a y . Marshak's s k i l l l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t he makes t h i s t e s t c e n t r a l not o n l y t o the progress of the a c t i o n but t o the development of the moral t h e s i s ; the t e s t to which the Stepdaughter i s . p u t not o n l y sends her on her quest but a l s o d e f i n e s her i d e n t i t y as.the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l t h a t i s "good" i n the world of the p l a y . I t i s thus obvious t h a t The Twelve Months has- not o n l y a l a r g e r range of a c t i o n than The K i t t e n ' s House, but has a f a r g r e a t e r complexity of s t r u c t u r e . However, i t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t here, as i n The K i t t e n ' s House, Marshak i s e x p l o r i n g the problems of s o c i a l conduct i n showing how a h i g h e r c l a r i t y -can and does emerge from, a l l t h i s f a n t a s y . The e t h i c a l message of both p l a y s i s simple, though by no means t r i v i a l , as Marshak's express purpose of moulding young minds r e q u i r e d i t to be. That purpose'also demanded t h a t the message, i n a d d i t i o n to being simple, should a l s o be unambiguous. T h i s i s the e f f e c t . t h a t Marshak achieves by choosing to c l o t h e a moral i n a f a i r y - t a l e . T h i s s t r a t e g y -c l e a r l y p a r a l l e l s what he does i n the s m a l l e r framework of The K i t t e n ' s House. The f o l k t a l e , whether i t i s a s h o r t f a b l e or a long f a i r y - t a l e , grants an immediacy of compre-hension to i t s e t h i c a l message because i t s u n c l u t t e r e d p r o g r e s s i o n p l a c e s i n c l e a r o r d e r the experience of l i f e as i t i s l i v e d and as i t should be. T h i s i s the understanding t h a t u n d e r l i e s Marshak's.use o f f o l k elements both i n The  K i t t e n ' s House and i n The Twelve Months. CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION In the p l a y s s t u d i e d here, Marshak t r i e s t o formulate c e r t a i n b a s i c s o c i a l experiences by u s i n g a l i t e r a r y form t h a t i s a t once a t t r a c t i v e and c l o s e to the common man. As-we have seen i n the f i r s t chapter of t h i s study, Marshak's express aim was to educate people, p a r t i c u l a r l y c h i l d r e n , i n whom he saw the f u t u r e o f n a t i o n s . His c h o i c e of f o l k - m o t i f s as s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s was not. a c a s u a l one but one i n t e g r a l l y l i n k e d w i t h h i s purpose, because he thereby enables h i s audience or reader to re c o g n i z e c e r t a i n broad p a t t e r n s of conduct. The f o l k - m o t i f s used by Marshak r e v e a l s o c i a l concepts by t r a c i n g out certain..- p a t t e r n s of c h a r a c t e r and connecting them w i t h p a t t e r n s of a c t i o n . A survey of c h a r a c t e r s i n The K i t t e n ' s House t e l l s us immediately t h a t we are i n a world of s a t i r e , f o r t h i s p l a y i s f i l l e d w i t h . c r e a t u r e s who p r i d e themselves on t h e i r human p r e t e n s i o n s , as the K i t t e n and her f r i e n d s do. Thus the world of these c h a r a c t e r s s t r i k e s us immediately as f a l s e and s h a l l o w T h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y egotism o f Aunt K i t t e n i s juxtaposed t o the kindness of her nephew-kittens, who embody the i d e a l s o c i a l and moral views. In t h i s r e s p e c t they are the a n t i t h e s i s o f Aunt K i t t e n and her f a l s e f r i e n d s . But i n or d e r t o focus s h a r p l y on t h i s s i n g l e dimension of r e a l i t y l o c a t e d i n the s a t i r i c w o r l d, Marshak adds c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s which are c l e a r l y - a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k -m o t i f s , the k i n d t h a t are found i n the Motif-Index of F o l k  L i t e r a t u r e . For example, the p l a y opens i n a s t a t e of t e n s i o n because of the " r e f u s a l of the g r e a t to a s s o c i a t e w i t h the l o w l y , " and because of the " i n h o s p i t a l i t y t o the orphans." The " f i r e " m o t i f appears c l e a r l y as "punishment" f o r the K i t t e n ' s i n h o s p i t a l i t y , and a l s o shows " h e l p f u l animals [beavers] e x t i n g u i s h i n g the f i r e . " Aunt K i t t e n ' s " r e v e r s a l of f o r t u n e " and her " d i s c o v e r y " t h a t she has no f r i e n d s are some of the t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k - m o t i f s Marshak uses i n t h i s p l a y to r e v e a l the c h a r a c t e r p a t t e r n s and the,nature of the s i t u a t i o n found t h e r e . In The Twelve Months Marshak uses s i m i l a r t echniques, although the composition of the p l a y is,more complex. The c a s t of c h a r a c t e r s alone shows us t h a t Marshak has focused on more'than a s i n g l e dimension of r e a l i t y . At one extreme we have the d u t i f u l and k i n d Stepdaughter and the world of the twelve Month b r o t h e r s whose e x t r a o r d i n a r y g i f t i s to h e l p others through t h e i r u n l i m i t e d magical power., At the other extreme i s the wicked and greedy Stepmother and her Daughter. In between we have the whimsical Queen and her fawning c o u r t a t t e n d a n t s . Thus the w o r l d o f The .Twelve Months encompasses a wider range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s moving from r e a l i t y t o f a n t a s y and to the m i l d l y s a t i r i c . But there i s no g r e a t e r problem i n understanding each of these l e v e l s than there i s i n the s i n g l e dimension of r e a l i t y t h a t i s . f o u n d i n The K i t t e n ' s  House, f o r the f o l k - m o t i f s , being the s m a l l e s t u n i t s of r e a l i t y ( a c t o r , item or i n c i d e n t ) , enable us to see i n each of these the c h a r a c t e r p a t t e r n s and the c o n f l i c t i n g ideas they r e p r e s e n t . For example, as the p l a y opens we see a sharp - c o n t r a s t between the k i n d and obedient "heroine" (Stepdaughter) and the " c r u e l Stepmother and S t e p s i s t e r " (Daughter). They immediately a s s i g n . a " d i f f i c u l t task" t o her which leads her i n t o the encounter w i t h the " s u p e r n a t u r a l helpers". who g i v e her a "magic r i n g " to " p r o t e c t her from an a t t a c k , " but when "the magic r i n g i s s t o l e n " the "magic wisdom" (the charm) r e s t o r e s the l o s s . Subsequently, as i n The K i t t e n ' s House, there i s a " r e v e r s a l of f o r t u n e " i n which the heroine i s "rewarded" and the a n t a g o n i s t s are "punished." Furthermore, the magical powers r e v e a l e d t o the h e r o i n e by the.twelve Months p a r a l l e l the s t r e n g t h of her own ch a r a c t e r , , f o r they are m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the d u r a b i l i t y and m u t a b i l i t y i n nature as she i s i n r e a l i t y . Another e x t e n s i o n o f the hero i n e i s the Queen. She too i s a f f e c t e d by the magical f o l k - m o t i f s and i t i s o n l y when she encounters "nature phenomena" concerning "the behaviour of t r e e s and p l a n t s " and "weather phenomena" t h a t s h e - i s - capable of change a t the end of the p l a y . Thus i t can be seen, t h a t the e x t e n s i v e use of f o l k - m o t i f s i n both of these p l a y s helps t o c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c h a r a c t e r s and to determine the themes and s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . 65 Both t h e m a t i c a l l y and i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s The K i t t e n 1 s  House and The Twelve' Months show a f f i n i t i e s w i t h f o l k -l i t e r a t u r e i n g e n e r a l and Russian f o l k - l i t e r a t u r e i n p a r t i c u l a r . The theme of a t t a c k i n g greed and s e l f i s h n e s s and p r a i s i n g kindness and s h a r i n g i s found i n a v a r i e t y of Russian f o l k t a l e s , which i n f l u e n c e d many Russian and f o r e i g n w r i t e r s to compose " l i t e r a r y " t a l e s and f a b l e s . Such, f o r example, are the profound and h i g h l y a r t i s t i c t a l e s of Pushkin and the f a b l e s of K r y l o v , i n which.each d e a l s , as Marshak does, w i t h the s t r u g g l e of good and e v i l , kindness and s e l f i s h n e s s , . a n d so on. The i m p l i c a t i o n here i s t h a t the themes Marshak deal s w i t h are u n i v e r s a l i n o r i g i n and appeal, and t h e r e f o r e must concern mankind i n g e n e r a l i n forming s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s i n which goodness and kindness can p r e v a i l . i NOTES "'"S. Marshak, At L i f e ' s Beginning, trans. Katherine Hunter B l a i r (New York: 1964), p. 19. 2 S. Marshak, Sobranie sochinenii v vos'mi tomakh (Moscow: 1968-72), Vol. 87" Where not otherwise indicated, future references to Marshak's works w i l l be given according to this e d i t i o n by volume and page. 3 An account of Marshak's professional career appears i n : B. Galanov, S. Ta. Marshak (Moscow: 1965); and I. S. Marshak, "Materialy k b i o g r a f i i , " i n Zhizn' 1 tvorchestvo Marshaka, eds. B. Galanov, I. Marshak and M. Petrovskii (Moscow: 1975). 4 I. S. Marshak, "Materialy k b i o g r a f i i , " i n Zhizn' i  tvorchestvo Marshaka, pp. 431-435. 5 36-38. M. P e t r o v s k i i , Kornei ChukoVskii (Moscow: 1962), pp. 6 I b i d . 7 Marshak, Sobran1e sochinenii, Vol. 6, 210. g S. Ia. Marshak, "Sodoklado detskoi l i t e r a t u r e , " i n Pervyi Vsesoiuznyi s"ezd sovetskikh p i s a t e l e i , 193 4, steno-g r a f i c h e s k i i otchet (Moscow: 1934), pp. 20-38;. E. 0. Putilova, I s t o r i i a , k r i t i k i sovetskoi detskoi l i t e r a t u r y 1929-193 6 (Leningrad: 1975) , pp.. 79-99. 9 Marshak, Sobranie sochinenii, V o l . 8, 115. "^Ibid. , v o l . 6, 186. "^Galanov, S. Ia. Marshak, p. 7. 12 Only four of these early plays are included i n Marshak, Sobranie sochinenii, Vol. 2, 491-530. A l l other early plays by Marshak or i n collaboration with E. I. V a s i l ' -eva, and editions of plays other than the present e d i t i o n , are not available at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. However, references to most of these early plays appear i n : Marshak, Sobranie sochinenii, Vol. 8, 477-478; and I. S. Marshak, "Teatr d l i a d etei: 1920-1923," i n Zhizn' 1 tvor- chestvo Marshaka, pp. 4 51-4 8 6. 13 A. Tvardovskn, "0 poezn Marshaka," i n Marshak, Sobranie sochinenii, Vol. 5, 622. 66 14 S. Marshak, L i r i c h e s k i e epigramy (Moscow: 1970), p. 70. 15 Galanov, S. Ta. Marshak, p. 4. 16 S t i t h Thompson,. Motif-Index of F o l k - L i t e r a t u r e (Copenhagen: 1958), V o l . 6. 17 Arc h e r T a y l o r , i n Standard D i c t i o n a r y of F o l k l o r e , Mythology and Legend, ed. M a r i a Leach (New York; 1949), V o l . A--1, 402-403. 18 V. A. V a s i l e n k o , " D e t s k i i f o l ' k l o r , " Russkoe narod- noe poeticheskoe t v o r c h e s t v o , eds. A. M. Novikova and A. V. Kokorev (Moscow: 1969) , p. 365. 19 Marshak, Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , V o l . 6, 184. 2^See note 12. 21 For more d e t a i l s see Appendix. 22 Galanov, S. l a . Marshak, p. 214. 23 I b i d . , p. 211. 24 T, • , I b i d . 25 See Appendix. 2 6 Webster's New World D i c t i o n a r y o f the American  Language, C o l l e g e E d i t i o n (Cleveland, 1953) . 27 Northrop F r y e , "The Mythos of Winter: Irony and S a t i r e , " i n S a t i r e : Modern Essays i n C r i t i c i s m , ed. Ronald Paulson (Inglewood C l i f f s > New J e r s e y : .1971), p. 234. 2 8 See B e r t o l t B r e c h t , Brecht on Theatre, ed. and t r a n s . John W i l l e t t (New York: 19 64), p. 37. 29 T, . , I b i d . 30 E. V. Pomerantseya, "S k a z k i , " i n Russkoe narodnoe t v o r c h e s t v o , eds. P. G. Bogatyrev e t . a l . (Moscow: 1966), pp. 154-156; l a . N. S i d o r o v a , " B y l i n y , " i b i d ; , pp. 202-203; and A. A. Kaiev, "S k a z k i , " i n Russkoe narodnoe poeticheskoe  t v o r c h e s t v o , pp. 186-189. 31 Aleksandr Afanas'ev, Russian F a i r y T a l e s , t r a n s . Norbert Guterman (New York: 1973), p. 360. 32 J I b i d . 68 3 3Marshak, Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , V o l . 2, 275. I b i d . 3 5 I b i d . , 303. 3 6 S e e note 30. 3 7Marshak, Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , V o l . 2, 275. 3 8 I b i d . , 276. 3 9 Y . M. Sokolov, "Folk Drama," i n Russian F o l k l o r e , t r a n s . C a t h e r i n e Ruth Smith, i n t r o . F e l i x J . Oinas ( D e t r o i t : 1971), p. 500. 4 (^Marshak, Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , V o l . 2, 292. I b i d . 4 2 I b i d . , 301. 4 3 I b i d . , 280-281. 4 4 I b i d . , 274. 4 5 I b i d . , 288. 4 6 I b i d . , V o l . 8, 324. 4 7 I b i d . , V o l . 2, 288. 4 8 P . V. Shein • (L.C. s p e l l i n g : Schein) , V e l i k o r u s ' v  s v o i k h pesniakh, obriadakh, obychaiakh, v e r o v a n i i a k h , skaz-kakh, legendakh i t.p. (St. P e t e r s b u r g : 1898-1900) , Second e d i t i o n , Tom. I, item no,. 270. 4 9Marshak, Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , V o l . 2, 274. 5 0 i b i d . , . 2 7 5 . 5 1 I b i d . , .287. I b i d . 5 3 l b i d . ! , 300. 5 4 " P , e s a - s k a z k a , " Sovetskoe i s k u s s t v o , 14 September 1945,.p. 3. 55 Bozena Nemcova", "O d v a n d c t i mesickakh," i n Vybrane"  s p i s y , S t a t n i n a k l a d a t e l s t v i kra"sne l i t e r a t u r y , hudby i umeni (Prague: 1 9 5 7 ) , V o l . 3 , 4 4 9 - 4 5 6 . ^Marshak, Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , V o l . 8 , 4 7 8 . 5 7 I b i d . , 4 7 8 - 4 7 9 . 5 8 The summaries which f o l l o w are based on: Marshak, Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , V o l . 6 , 4 9 2 - 4 9 8 ; and Nemcova, V o l . 3 , 4 4 9 - 4 5 6 . 59 Marshak, Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , V o l . 2 , 368.; S. Mar-shak, "Twelve Months," i n S o v i e t Scene: S i x Pl a y s of Russian  L i f e , t r a n s . Alexander Bakshy i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Paul S. Nathan (New Haven: 1 9 4 6 ) ,-pp. 2 9 1 - 3 4 8 . Most t r a n s l a t e d q u o t a t i o n s w i l l be given a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s u n s p e c i f i e d e a r l i e r e d i t i o n . 6 0 Marshak, Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , V o l . 2 , 3 7 1 . 6 1 I b i d . 6 2 N. I. Kravtsov,. " F o l ' k l o r feodal'nogo obshchestva," i n Russkoe narodnoe poeticheskoe t v o r c h e s t v o , ed. N. I . Kravtsov (Moscow: 1 9 7 1 ) , pp. 2 9 1 - 2 9 4 . 6 3 Marshak, Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i , V o l . 2 , 3 0 9 - 3 1 0 . I b i d . , 3 2 4 . 6 5 T , . . I b i d . , 3 1 2 . I b i d . 6 7 I b i d . , 3 1 6 . 6 8 I b i d . , 3 1 7 . I b i d . , 3 1 7 -7 0 T , I b i d . , 3 1 6 . I b i d . 72 / z I b i d . , 3 i r . 73 / J I b i d . , 3 5 4 . I b i d . , 3 7 4 . 70 See Chapter I, p. 8. 7 6 The phrases t h a t f o l l o w i n i n v e r t e d commas here and i n the next paragraph r e f e r to f o l k - m o t i f s i n d i c a t e d i n Thompson/ Motif-Index of F o l k - L i t e r a t u r e . BIBLIOGRAPHY Afanas'ev, Aleksandr. Rus s 1an F a i r y T a l e s . Trans. Norbert Guterman. New York: Pantheon Books, 1973. Alexander, A l e x E. Russian F o l k l o r e . An•Anthology i n T r a n s l a t i o n . Belmont, Mass.: Nordland P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1975. The Arbuthnot Anthology of C h i l d r e n ' s L i t e r a t u r e . F o u r t h E d i t i o n . Revised by Zena S u t h e r l a n d . Glenview, 111.: S c o t t , Foresman and Company, 1976. Babushkina, A. P. I s t o r i l a r u s s k o i d e t s k o i l i t e r a t u r y . Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe uchebno-pedagogicheskoe i z d a t e l ' s t v o m i n i s t e r s t v a p r o s v e s h c h e n i i a RSFSR, 19 48, B e t t e l h e i m , Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment. The Meaning  and Importance of F a i r y T a l e s . NewYork: V i n t a g e Books, 1977. Bogatyrev, e t a l , eds. Russkoe narodnoe t v o r c h e s t v o . Moscow: I z d a t e l ' s t v o v y s s h a i a s h k o l a , 1966. Brecht, B e r t o l t . Brecht on Theatre. The Development o f an  A e s t h e t i c . Ed. and t r a n s . John W i l l e t t . New York: H i l l and Wang, 196 4. C o s t e l l o , D. P. and I. P. Foote, eds. Russian F o l k L i t e r a -t u r e . One of a s e r i e s : Konovalpv, S., gen. ed. Oxford Russian Readers. Oxford: At the Clarendon P r e s s , 1967. "Dramaturgiia d l i a d e t e i . " In: Ocherki i s t o r i i r u s s k o i s o v e t s k o i d r a m a t u r g i i , .1934-1967. V o l . 3. Leningrad: I z d a t e l ' s t v o I s k u s s t v o , 1963-1968. Dundes, A l a n . The Study of F o l k l o r e . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1965. The F a b l e s of Aesop. Designs on wood by Thomas. Bewick. 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" In: V s e s o i u z n y i s"ezd s o v e t s k i k h p i s a t e l e i , p e r v y i , 19 34. S t e n o g r a f i c h e s k i l o t c h e t . Moscow: G o s i z d a t , Khudo-zhestvennaia l i t e r a t u r a , 1934. . Twelve Months. In: S o v i e t Scene: S i x Pl a y s o f . Russian L i f e i Trans. Alexander Bakshy i n c o l l a b . w i t h Paul S. Nathan. New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1946. 73 Marshak, S. Ia . Zhizn' i t v o r c h e s t v o . . . Marshak i d e t s k a i a literaturaT" Ed. B~. Galanov, I. Marshak, and M. P e t r o v s k i i . Moscow: D e t s k a i a l i t e r a t u r a , 1975. Morton, Miriam. A Harvest of Russian C h i l d r e n ' s L i t e r a t u r e . B erkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1970. Nemcova", Bozena. "0 dvana'cti mesickakh. " In: Nemcovd, Vybrane s p i s y . Prague: S t ^ t n i n a k l a d e t e l s t v i krasne l i t e r a t u r y , hudby i umeni, 1957. V o l . 3. Novikova, A. M. and A. V. Kokorev, eds. Russkoe narodnoe  poeticheskoe t v o r c h e s t v o . Moscow: I z d a t e l ' s t v o V y s s h a i a Shkola, 19 69. Opie, Iona and P e t e r , eds. The Oxford D i c t i o n a r y - of Nursery  Rhymes. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975. P e l l o w s k i , Anne. The World of C h i l d r e n ' s L i t e r a t u r e . New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1968. "P*esa-skazka." In: Sovetskoe i s k u s s t v o . Moscow: 14 Sep-, tember 1945. P e t r o v s k i i , M. Kornei C h u k o v s k i i . Moscow: G o s i z d a t d e t s k o i l i t e r a t u r y . m i n i s t e r s t v a p r o s v e s h c h e n i i a RSFSR, 1962. Propp, V. Morphology of the F o l k t a l e . Second E d i t i o n . Revised and e d i t e d by Louis A. Wagner. A u s t i n , Texas: U n i v e r s i t y of Texas P r e s s , 1973. Pushkin, A. S. " S k a z k i . " In: Pushkin, Polnoe sobranie s o c h i n e n i i v d e s i a t i tomakh.- Moscow: I z d a t e l ' s t v o Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1962-1966. V o l . 4. 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" U e h i t e l ' , drug, master (o Marshake)." In: K n i g i 1 sud'by. S t a t ' i i vospominaniia. Moscow: S o v e t s k i i pisatel" 1"^ 1968. Sokolov> Y. M. R u s s i a n . F o l k l o r e . Trans. Catherine Ruth Smith. D e t r o i t : F o l k l o r e A s s o c i a t e s , 1971. S o s i n , Gene. "The C h i l d r e n ' s Theater and Drama i n S o v i e t E d u c a t i o n . " In: Through the Glass of S o v i e t L i t e r a -t u r e . Ed. E r n e s t J . Simmons. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. Thompson, S t i t h . The F o l k t a l e . New York: The Dryden P r e s s , 1946. • . Motif-Index of F o l k L i t e r a t u r e . Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger, 1958. V o l . 6. Varneke, B. V. His t o r y . o f the Rus s i an Theatre: Seventeenth Through Nineteenth Century. O r i g i n a l t r a n s . B o r i s B r a s o l . Revised and e d i t e d by B e l l e M a r t i n . New York: The MacMillan Company, 1951. Webster's New World D i c t i o n a r y of the American Language. C o l l e g e E d i t i o n . C l e v e l a n d and New York: The World P u b l i s h i n g Company, 19 53. Wosien, M a r i a - G a b r i e l e . The Russian F o l k - T a l e . Some S t r u c -t u r a l and Thematic Aspects~ D i s s . London, 1969. Munich: V e r l a g Otto Sagner,,1969. Z h i r m u n s k i i , V. I n t r o d u c t i o n to M e t r i c s . The Theory of  V e r s e . Trans. C. F. Brown. The Hague: Mouton and Company, 1966. APPENDIX-PUBLICATIONS,. PERFORMANCES. AND TITLES OF. MARSHAK'S SEVEN. PLAYS AS NOTED IN THE APPENDIX OF HIS COLLECTED WORKS, IN VOL. 2, 1968 Date o f Date and/or O r i g i n a l T i t l e Subsequent T i t l e ( s ) - P r e s e n t T i t l e Changes i n F i r s t P l a c e o f F i r s t t h e Text P u b l i c a - P e r f o r m a n c e t i o n 1922 K r a s n o d a r . Skazka p r o kozla.: Pro kozla.. Skazka p r o k o z l a To be n o t e d P'esa v dvuch k a r t i n a k h (About the B i l l y Goat) (The T a l e o f the i n a l l r e -(The T a l e o f t h e B i l l y B i l l y Goat) . p u b l i c a t i o n s Goat: A P l a y i n Two Scenes) 1927 1950, Moscow P e t r u s h k a - i n o s t r a n e t s — P e t r u s h k a - — S. O b r a z t s o v ( P e t r u s h k a the i r i o s t r a n e t s " Puppet F o r e i g n e r ) ( P e t r u s h k a the T h e a t r e F o r e i g n e r ) 1940 1941, Moscow... Teremok: Terem-teremok Teremok — S. Obraztsov.. P'esa v s t i k h a k h ( T o w e r - L i t t l e Tower) (The L i t t l e Puppet (The L i t t l e Tower: Tower) T h e a t r e A P l a y i n Ve r s e ) 1922 K r a s n o d a r - K o s h k i n dom: Skazka v K o s h k i n dom: Skazka v K o s h k i n dom. To be n o t e d odnom d e i s t v i i . t r e k h d e i s t v i i a k h (The K i t t e n ' s . i n a l l r e -P'esa.v s t i k h a k h . (The K i t t e n ' s House: A House) p u b l i c a t i o n s (The K i t t e n ' s House:.A, P l a y i n Three A c t s ) One-Act T a l e . A . P l a y . . and i n V e r s e ) Koshkin.dom: P'esa v dvukh d e i s t v i i a k h (The K i t t e n ' s House: A . P l a y i n Two A c t s ) Date o f F i r s t P u b l i c a -t i o n Date and/or P l a c e o f F i r s t P e r f o r m a n c e O r i g i n a l T i t l e Subsequent T i t l e ( s ) P r e s e n t T i t l e Changes i n the T e xt 1943 1947, Moscow, D v e n a d t s a t ' m e s i a t s e v : D v e n a d t s a t ' m e s i a t s e v : '.' Dve n a d t s a t ' To be n o t e d T h e a t r e f o r the Young S l a v i a n s k a i a s k a z k a . . P 1 e s a v 3-kh S l a v i a n s k a i a s k a z k a . P'esa v 4-kh m e s i a t s e v : D r a m a t i c h e s k a i a i n a l l r e -p u b l i c a t i o n s V i e w e r d e i s t v i i a k h i 6 - t i k a r t i n a k h s . pr.ologom i epilogom.. . .- (The Twelve Months: A. S l a v i c T a l e . A T h r e e - A c t P l a y w i t h S i x Scenes, P r o l o g u e and E p i l o g u e ) d e i s t v i i a k h (The Twelve Months: A S l a v i c T a l e . A F o u r - A c t P l a y ) s k a z k a (The Twelve Months: : A D r a m a t i c T a l e ) !922 K r a s n o d a r G o r e - z l o s c h a s t ' e . . ^'Gore-zioscnas t ' e: G o r i a b o i a t ' s i a — To be n o t e d (Woe and Bad Luck) -•^Skdzka-ko'medi-ia v s c h a s t ' i a ne v i d a t ' : i n a l l r e -* 3-kh d e i s t v i i a k h i 5 - t i k a r t i n a k h (Woe and Bad Luck: A Sk a z k a - k o m e d i i a ( F e a r Woe—See No Luck: a^ Comic'.Tale) p u b l i c a t i o n s Comic T a l e i n Three A c t s w i t h F i v e Scenes) a l s o s u b t i t l e d Skazka- komediia. v 3-kh d e i s t - v i i a k h (A Comic T a l e i n Three A c t s ) 1945 1965, Moscow Umnye v e s h c h i : S k a z k a Umnye v e s h c h i : To be n o t e d L i t t l e v 6 - t i k a r t i n a k h S k a z k a - k o m e d i i a v i n a l l r e -T h e a t r e o f ( I n t e l l i g e n t T h i n g s : t r e k h d e i s t v i i a k h , p u b l i c a t i o n s t h e USSR A T a l e i n S i x Scenes) v s h e s t i k a r t i n a k h . ( I n t e l l i g e n t T h i n g s : A Comic T a l e i n Three A c t s , i n S i x Scenes) 

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