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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Whose eyes, whose ears : chronology and perception Martell, Jan-Marie 1978

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W H O S E E Y E S - W H O S E E A R S CHRONOLOGY AND P E R C E P T I O N B Y J A N - M A R I E M A R T E L L B . A . , NORTHERN M I C H I G A N U N I V E R S I T Y , 1 9 6 9 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R OF A R T S I N T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S D E P A R T M E N T O F T H E A T R E WE A C C E P T T H I S T H E S I S AS C O N F O R M I N G TO T H E R E Q U I R E D STANDARD T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A J A N U A R Y , 1 9 7 8 . © J A N - M A R I E M A R T E L L , 1 9 7 8 . In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 i i ABSTRACT In 1 9 7 2 , t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a , t h r o u g h t h e F e d e r a l T r e a s u r y B o a r d , i n i t i a t e d a u n i q u e summer e m p l o y m e n t p r o j e c t f o r s t u d e n t s o f f i l m p r o d u c t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l i n -s t i t u t i o n s . N e a r l y one q u a r t e r o f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s was r e l e a s e d f r o m t h e T r e a s u r y B o a r d a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e 1972 f i s c a l y e a r to f i n a n c e what can be d e s c r i b e d as a c o - p r o d u c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d , a c t i n g as p r o d u c e r , and t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f M a n , p r o v i d i n g s u p e r v i s i o n f o r ' t h e f i l m p r o j e c t s . The e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s u p p l i e d e q u i p m e n t , e d i t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and s t u d e n t f i l m m a k e r s . T h i s i n n o v a t i v e a p p r o a c h to s t u d e n t summer e m p l o y m e n t p r e c i p i t a t e d f i l m p r o j e c t s a c r o s s C a n a d a , among them a c h a l -l e n g i n g f i l m e x p e d i t i o n to H e s q u i a t , a r e m o t e I n d i a n r e s e r v e on t h e West C o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L a t e r c a l l e d t h e H e s q u i a t F i l m P r o j e c t , t h e p r o g r a m i n v o l v e d t h r e e s t u d e n t f i l m m a k e r s f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . From May t h r o u g h A u g u s t , 1972 , t h e g o v e r n m e n t p a i d them a s a l a r y o f $110 p e r w e e k , p r o v i d e d them w i t h 3 0 , 0 0 0 f e e t o f 16mm c o l o r f i l m and work p r i n t f o r t h e p r o j e c t , and s u p p l i e d them w i t h a n e a r l y u n l i m i t e d amount o f f i l m s t o c k f o r c o l o r and b l a c k and w h i t e s t i l l s . U n l i k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e r e q u i r e d f r o m s t u d e n t s u n d e r O . F . Y . ( O p p o r t u n i t i e s F o r Y o u t h , a f o r m e r g o v e r n m e n t summer e m p l o y m e n t p r o g r a m ) , t h e i d e a s f o r t h e f i l m p r o g r a m d i d n o t o r i g i n a t e e i t h e r w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s o r f r o m among t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d l o c a l l y i n t h e p r o j e c t . O s t e n s i b l y , t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and p e o p l e i l i was l o g i c a l . As an o u t c o m e o f t h e s u m m e r ' s p r o j e c t s , t h e N a t i o n a l Museum w o u l d a c q u i r e d o c u m e n t a r y and a r c h i v a l f o o t -a g e ; t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d w o u l d f u l f i l l o b l i g a t i o n s to t h e T r e a s u r y B o a r d by u t i l i z i n g a r e l e g a t e d number o f m a n - h o u r s p r o v i d e d by t h e F e d e r a l T r e a s u r y B o a r d ; and s t u d e n t f i l m m a k e r s w o u l d be e m p l o y e d , be e x p o s e d to t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t c i v i l s e r v i c e , g a i n e x p e r i e n c e , and a c q u i r e f i l m s to e d i t d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g w i n t e r o r summer . The H e s q u i a t Band w o u l d a c -q u i r e w o r k p r i n t w i t h w h i c h t o s e c u r e f i n i s h i n g money f o r w h a t e v e r f i l m s t h e y w a n t e d to make f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l s h o t a t H e s q u i a t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , no f i l m s were p r o d u c e d f r o m t h e H e s q u i a t f o o t a g e , and a t t h e t i m e o f t h i s w r i t i n g , no f i l m s have been c o m p l e t e d f r o m f o o t a g e s h o t f o r f i l m p r o j e c t s c a r r i e d o u t e l s e w h e r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The H e s q u i a t Band r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and t h e s t u d e n t f i l m m a k e r s l e f t t h e p r o j e c t f e e l i n g e x p l o i t e d . From t h e i r p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e m o s t o b v i o u s g o a l o f t h e p r o j e c t , f i n i s h e d f i l m s , had n o t been r e a l i z e d . N e i t h e r t h e N . F . B . n o r t h e N a t i o n a l Museum e x p r e s s e d any i n t e n t i o n o f b r i n g i n g t h e f i l m p r o j e c t s t o c o m p l e t i o n . Once t h e o r i g i n a l f i l m f o o t a g e r e a c h e d t h e s t o r a g e v a u l t s o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d i n M o n t r e a l , t h e p r o j e c t was c o n s i d e r e d c l o s e d . A p o s t mortem i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e H e s q u i a t F i l m P r o j e c t u n e a r t h s e x p l a n a t i o n s and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s t h a t i n c l u d e : l a c k o f t i m e , n a i v e t y , • i n e x p e r i e n c e , and f e a r a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , c o m b i n e d w i t h t o k e n i s m , i n d i f f e r e n c e , w a s t e , p o o r c o n c e p t i o n and c o n f l i c t i n g , c h a n g i n g a i m s a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l . H o w e v e r , t h e s e r e a s o n s f o r (lack o f c o m p l e t e d f i l m s i v g i v e o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the c o l l i s i o n o f e x p e c t -a t i o n s and t h e r e s u l t i n g use o f m a t e r i a l s , e n e r g y and e m o t i o n . T h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s and l e t t e r s , I have a s s e m b l e d m a t e r i a l w i t h w h i c h to e x a m i n e p r o j e c t o r i g i n s , a i m s , and e x p e c t a -t i o n s o f p e o p l e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . My e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l was u n d e r t a k e n to d i s c o v e r why p e r c e p t i o n and a c t i o n were b l o c k e d i n t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e . V T A B L E OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i A c k n o w l e d g m e n t . . . . v i i P r o l o g u e v i i i C h a p t e r One The H e s q u i a t Band and t h e H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t . . . 1 C h a p t e r Two The F i l m P r o j e c t O r i g i n s and O b j e c t i v e s 12 C h a p t e r T h r e e The N a t i o n a l Museum M e e t s t h e H e s q u i a t s 19 C h a p t e r F o u r N e g o t i a t i o n s Between t h e B a n d , t h e S t u d e n t s , and t h e N a t i o n a l Museum . . . 24 C h a p t e r F i v e The S t u d e n t s Meet t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d . . 30 C h a p t e r S i x The F i l m S t u d e n t s a t H e s q u i a t 35 C h a p t e r S e v e n W i n d i n g Down 52 A p p e n d i x I C h a r l e s E h l e r s C a s e . N e w s p a p e r C l i p p i n g s . . . 58 II H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t . N e w s p a p e r C l i p p i n g s . . 67 I I I The F i l m "Qv* g i n a l " . L e t t e r s 71 IV The F i l m P r o j e c t ; O r i g i n s , P u r p o s e , R e s u l t s . L e t t e r s . . . 79 V I n t r o d u c t o r y L e t t e r s From D e n n i s S a w y e r , N . F . B 86 vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 : Hesquiat Band Members and O r g a n i z a t i o n s Involved in Development of the Hesqu ia t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t . . 6 TABLE 2: L i n e s of Communication f o r the F i lm P r o j e c t . .34 v i i W i t h t h i s a c k n o w l e d g m e n t I w i s h t o e n g e n d e r my d e e p e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n , r e s p e c t , and a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e p e o p l e whose s u p p o r t , b o t h m o r a l and m a t e r i a l , made t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . D r . A . J . R e y n e r t s o n S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n , S r . D r . Norman & L u c i l l e L a r z e l e r e P r o ! o g u e "It was r e a l l y a matter of f i n d i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group of people, not wasting the money, and f i n d i n g them summer jobs. And at one point, nobody oared what they did. They could have sat in Vancouver a l l summer, twiddling t h e i r thumbs. The government was p r i m a r i l y doing a f r o n t i n g at $100 per week to a d i f f e r e n t group of students than the ones they were reaching with Opportunities For Youth. " S u s a n J . A n d e r s o n , F i l m S u p e r v i s o r , h i r e d as A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A r t i f a c t C a t a l o g u e r f o r t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f M a n , S p r i n g , 1 9 7 2 . Q u o t e f r o m a t a p e d i n t e r v i e w . "I guess I had a misplaced idealism and wanted to make a t o t a l l y objective type of documentary that was non-exploitative and non-partisan. That was right up u n t i l the point when we got there If the Band could r e t a i n ownership of the f i l m , reversing the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the National Firm Board and groups like that, then i t was the f i r s t sort of blow, in a media sense, for aboriginal r i g h t s . " B r i a n J . C l a y d e n , s t u d e n t f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who s i g n e d t h e N a t i o n a l FiOm B o a r d c o n t r a c t t h a t i n v o l v e d him i n t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t as p a r t o f a t h r e e member f i l m c r e w . Summer, 1972 . Q u o t e f r o m a t a p e d i n t e r v i e w . "There was quite a few in the Bob Douglas boat, quite a few, even a dog in there. I went in there and saw a l l these faces, a l l s t a r i n g blankly, s i t t i n g on t h i s big p i l e of gear. Really l o t s , pack sack, Jesus, everything you could think of seemed to be there . . .. I came in and sat down and said, 'Holy man! I t ' s r e a l l y gonna be something!9 It was raining, so I came into the boat. They were [buying gas] or something. This guy came up to me and asked me after awhile if they could get naptha there. I said, 'yeah, sure. ' I was glad to make contact with one of them and i x i t turned out to be Alan. I found out, "Oh, it looks like one of them is going to be f r i e n d l y anyway. ' So, I carried his f i v e gallon can to the gas s t a t i o n and held i t up for him too. I was so happy he was f r i e n d l y . " S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n , J r . , member o f t h e H e s q u i a t B a n d , who w o r k e d as an a r c h -a e o l o g i s t on t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t i n t h e Summer o f 1 9 7 1 . W i n t e r , 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 , and Summer, 1972 a t H e s q u i a t -Q u o t e f r o m a t a p e d i n t e r v i e w . "As long as they are aware that you are going to touch them, they have to be aware of what way they are going to be touched. You are in a sense e x p l o i t i n g people when you take pictures of them. And i t ' s your r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to give them some under-standing into the way you are e x p l o i t i n g them, for what purpose you 're e x p l o i t i n g them, and what use your e x p l o i t a t i o n is going to have." D r . A . J . R e y n e r t s o n , P r o f e s s o r i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e a t r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Q u o t e f r o m a t a p e d i n t e r v i e w . "The f i r s t words I heard were 'Anthropological Salvage'. I t ' s kind of a scary term. It sounded like we were going in to be a garbage crew, that we were going to dive for sunken treasure. It was very strange." W i l l i a m R o x b o r o u g h , s t u d e n t f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and member o f t h e f i l m c rew t h a t went t o H e s q u i a t i n M a y , 1972 . Q u o t e f r o m a t a p e d i n t e r v i e w . "It was r e a l l y the f i r s t band in B.C., if not in Canada, that said, 'We have a problem. We need some assistance in achieving a s o l u t i o n . ' And more importantly, what they 're in essence saying is that, 'We want and need to assume the major part of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for protection, preservation and eventually reconstruction of our own c u l t u r a l history. ' " J i m H a g g a r t y , B . C . P r o v i n c i a l Museum, w o r k e d d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e H e s q u i a t Band i n c a r r y i n g o u t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . Q u o t e f r o m a t a p e d i n t e r -v i e w . "At the beginning we had no idea. We just knew that f i l m was f i l m and wouldn't i t be nice to make something out of t h i s [opportunity] . . We thought we could let a crew go up there and shoot w i l d l y and madly and i t would a l l hang, together. " J o h n R a y m o n d , C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e member i n 1971-74 f o r H e s q u i a t I n d i a n B a n d , West C o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , B . C . Q u o t e f r o m a t a p e d i n t e r v i e w . "It was blowing real hard when we got there .... We had to unload a l l this stuff. [The boat] was going up and down in the rain and Douglas seemed to be kind of a green horn . . .. He didn't even know how to be in the wind, you know, so he could load up the canoe without t i p p i n g us. I was thinking of the whole summer, how it was . . . going to be, because I already spent one summer with white people, working. I figured t h i s was going to be more e x c i t i n g . But when I saw the beginning and everything was going a l l haywire, I said, 'Jesus, I hope i t isn't going to be like t h i s a l l summer. '" S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n , J r . CHAPTER ONE THE HESQUIAT BAND AND THE HESQUIAT PROJECT We see shows of how Indians live and we see shows of people in school and a l l sorts of s t a t i s t i c s . Indians are s t i l l being looked at as s t a t i s t i c s . J o h n R a y m o n d 1 They [Indian people] used a l l of the senses that they had and l i v e d harmoniously with that which surrounded them. They were cognizant of the l i m i t -ations of nature, and the very f r a g i l e perch that Man had. [They] had to pay attention to the s p i r i t s . [They] were part of the complex whole. They knew that. We perhaps l o s t sight of i t . 2 James H a g g a r t y C o - o r d i n a t o r / D i r e c t o r f o r t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t . Q u o t e fr?om a t a p e d i n t e r v i e w , S p r i n g , 1975 , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A s s i s t a n t C u r a t o r , D i v i s i o n o f A r c h a e o l o g y , P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Q u o t e f r o m t a p e d i n t e r v i e w , F a l l , 1974 , V i c t o r i a , B . C . H E R E A F T E R , ALL QUOTES FROM INTERVIEWS WITH PERSONS C I T E D . Not f a r f r o m t h e G o v e r n m e n t w h a r f where t h e T r a n s c a n a d a H i g h w a y t e r m i n a t e s i n T o f i n o , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e r e s t a n d s a s m a l l f r a m e b u i l d i n g . To t h e l e f t o f p l a n k s t e p s l e a d i n g up to t h e d o o r , a r o t t i n g d u g o u t canoe hangs s u s p e n d e d b e t w e e n two p i p e s d r i v e n i n t o t h e g r o u n d . O u t s i d e t h e e n t r a n c e , p e t u n i a s and m a r i g o l d s grow f r o m a p i t t e d c a s t - i r o n p o t . T h i s i s T o f i n o ' s West C o a s t M a r i t i m e Museum. F o r l e s s t h a n a d o l l a r , a v i s i t o r can g a z e o v e r t h e d i s p l a y c a s e s t h a t c o n -t a i n r e l i c s s c a v e n g e d l o c a l l y , and p o n d e r i t e m s on p e r s o n a l l o a n f r o m T o f i n o r e s i d e n t s . E a r l y f i s h i n g r e c o r d s , o l d p h o t o g r a p h s , p i e c e s o f b r a s s f r o m s h i p s , s t a r f i s h , s e a w e e d , and c r a b s a r e t h e r e . P a l e g r e e n and b l u e b o t t l e s , g l a s s n e t f l o a t s , d e e p - b l u e t r a d e b e a d s , o r a f l a t p i e c e o f w o o d , p a i n t e d i n f a d i n g - r e d , w h i t e and b l a c k m i g h t s t i m u l a t e t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e o n - l o o k e r . The p i e c e o f wood i s two d i m e n s i o n a l i n i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f what must be a d o g , a sea s e r p e n t , o r p e r h a p s a w o l f . The u n a s s u m i n g v i s i t o r s e e s o n l y a f r a g m e n t o f a m a s k , and t a k e s no n o t i c e o f t h e s m a l l h o l e s o f d e c a y p e n e t r a t i n g t h e s u r f a c e , h o l e s made by some l o n g d e a d i n s e c t , c h e w i n g t h r o u g h t h e c e d a r , t u r n i n g a r o u n d and c h e w i n g b a c k t h r o u g h t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e b o a r d u n t i l much o f t h e mask i s f i l l e d w i t h h o l e s t h e s i z e o f s m a l l n a i l s . The c l i m a t e o f t h e West C o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d i s w e t , roughs w i n d y , and u n p r e d i c t a b l e , as any o f t h e l o c a l > r e s i d e n t s w i l l r e a d i l y c o n f i r m . The s h o r e t a n g l e s w i t h d e n s e s a l a h a l b u s h e s , c e d a r , f i r and h e m l o c k t h a t a l l r o t t o g e t h e r on t h e f o r e s t f l o o r . Few c o n d i t i o n s c o m b i n e f o r t h e l o n g t e r m p r e s e r v a t i o n o f wooden a r t i f a c t s i n a c l i m a t e where t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l i s r a p i d . Even an a r c h a e o l o g i s t d i g g i n g s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w i l l f i n d no more t h a n t h e c r u m b l e d r e m a i n s o f wooden o b j e c t s , o r t h e more r e s i s t a n t a r t i c l e s made o f b o n e , m e t a l , g l a s s o r p o r c e l a i n . O n l y i n b u r i a l c a v e s i s t h e r e e n o u g h s h e l t e r f r o m t h e i n c e s s a n t p r e c i p i t a t i o n to a i d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f wooden a r t i c l e s . The d a r k brown wooden c o f f i n s , t a k e n f r o m t h e c a v e s t h a t h o u s e d t h e r e m a i n s o f t h e N o o t k a w h a l e r s , a r e p i t t e d w i t h t h e same t i n y h o l e s b o r e d t h r o u g h by t h e same t i n y i n s e c t s t h a t f o u n d n o u r i s h m e n t i n t h e mask t o u r i s t s may p o n d e r i n t h e l i t t l e m u s e u m " i n T o f i n o . In A u g u s t , 1972 , f e e l i n g s I n d i a n p e o p l e s h a r e d p r i v a t e l y were g i v e n p u b l i c c r e d e n c e . M r . C h a r l e s E h l e r s was c h a r g e d , u n d e r t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s A c t , S e c t i o n 4 B , w i t h t h e r e m o v a l o f a m u m m i f i e d body f r o m t h e b u r i a l c a v e s on t h e West C o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . The mummy was f o u n d 3 i n a s h e d on p r o p e r t y M r . E h l e r s had s o l d i n S u r r e y , B . C . In 1 9 6 9 , a l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n i n H e s q u i a t H a r b o r on a H e s q u i a t r e s e r v e , had a c c i d e n t l y u n c o v e r e d b e h i n d a d e n s e w a l l o f s a l a h a l b u s h e s b u r i a l c a v e s t h a t had as y e t been u n t o u c h e d by t h e i n s e n s i b l e p l u n d e r i n g s o f t o u r i s t s , f i s h e r m e n , l o g g e r s and m i n e r s . One H e s q u i a t Band member r e c a l l e d t h e i n c i d e n t : ' S e e A p p e n d i x , a r t i c l e s f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r Sun and P r o v i n c e , "Mummy". 4 I think i t was when they started logging off Yaksus. There was a b u l l -dozer going along through there making a road. Connie was working on i t and they discovered this mummy and cave where there was a l l kinds of people buried in boxes . . . some of the white guys were crawling in the caves. [The Band] found out there were a lot of things missing. It was Connie who had a meeting with John Raymond and Rocky [Leonard Amos]. They were just t r y i n g to save the bodies and anything else that came out of the caves. 4 S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n S h i f t s i n a w a r e n e s s among t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e have o f t e n been s t i m u l a t e d by e v e r - c h a n g i n g f o r m s o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e n o n - I n d i a n w o r l d . U n t i l t h e i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g t h e l o g g e r s , H e s q u i a t Band members assumed t h a t r e s p e c t due t h e d e a d w o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d , no m a t t e r t h e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e d e a d o r t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e H e s q u i a t H a r b o r a r e a , w h i c h i s a c c e s s i b l e o n l y by b o a t o r p l a n e . H o w e v e r , t h e e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e c a v e s p r o m p t e d C o n n i e C h a r l e s o n , S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n ' s f i r s t c o u s i n , t o s e e k Band a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e k i n d o f i n t e r -f e r e n c e t h a t had f o m e n t e d r e s e n t m e n t and h o s t i l i t y among t h e I n d i a n s f o r y e a r s : Everytime we saw Connie, he'd t e l l us about the time when loggers went in and discovered this cave and a l l the goodies they found. This r e a l l y annoyed me that nothing was being done about i t . W i n t e r , 1 9 7 5 , R i c h m o n d , B . C . See A l s o E p i l o g u e , V a n c o u v e r S u n , S e p t e m b e r 7, 1 9 7 2 . " H e s q u i a t V a n d a l i s m Spawns M u s e u m " . 5 Finally 3 we brought it to a Band meeting . . .. They said, "John, go ahead and do something about it." J o h n Raymond F o r y e a r s , I n d i a n p e o p l e have b o r n e t h e c o s t o f a s s i m -i l a t i o n i n t o t h e d o m i n a n t w h i t e c u l t u r e a t the e x p e n s e o f t h e i r own c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . The r e s e r v e and r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s y s t e m s e f f e c t i v e l y d i s t o r t e d and d i m i n i s h e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f I n d i a n v a l u e s and t r a d i t i o n a l ways o f l i f e . Y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n s o f H e s q u i a t s were l e f t w i t h l i t t l e know-l e d g e o f t h e i r l a n g u a g e o r t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e s k i l l s . C o n c u r r e n t w i t h p o l i t i c a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n s e r u p t i n g e l s e w h e r e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a and i n r e s p o n s e t o c h a n g i n g p o l -i t i c a l a w a r e n e s s among r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s , t h e H e s q u i a t Band o r g a n i z e d a C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e t o p r e s i d e o v e r c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f band l i f e and t o e s t a b l i s h a m e c h a n i s m f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n , p r o t e c t i o n , and r e n e w a l o f H e s q u i a t c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . The e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e c a v e s e v o l v e d i n t o t h e c a t a l y s t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e c o m m i t t e e . The u n d e r - l y i n g m o t i v a t i o n and f o c u s b e h i n d t h e band a c t i o n was t h e c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e t o c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e t h e w e i g h t o f d o m i n a -t i o n by a n o t h e r c u l t u r e , and t o b u i l d b a r r i e r s a g a i n s t t h e e f f e c t s o f c u l t u r a l e r o s i o n . TABLE 1 H e s q u i a t Band Members and O r g a n i z a t i o n s I n v o l v e d In D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t , 1 9 7 2 . C o n s t a n c e C h a r l e s o n Band member w o r k i n g w i t h l o g g i n g o u t f i t when b u r i a l c a v e s were d i s c o v e r e d and l o o t e d on Band r e s e r v e l a n d . J o h n Raymond N o n - I n d i a n , r e c e n t l y adopted i n t o t h e B a n d . Worked c l o s e l y w i t h Rocky Amos to o r g a n i z e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e and H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t . L e o n a r d ( R o c k y ) Amos Band member. A c t i v e i n Band p o l i t i c s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I m p o r t a n t f o r c e i n f o r m a t i o n o f C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e and H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t . E l e c t e d c h i e f i n 1 9 7 3 . H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e Formed t o e s t a b l i s h t h e p r o t e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f Band l i f e . C o m m i t t e e c o m p r i s e d o f Band e l d e r s : H e r e d i t a r y C h i e f Ben A n d r e w s , A l e x and Mary A m o s , A l i c e P a u l ; y o u n g e r Band members i n c l u d i n g Rocky Amos and J o h n R a y m o n d . P r o v i n c i a l Museum o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , B . C . D o n a l d (Don) A b b o t t , H e a d , D i v i s i o n o f A r c h a e o l o g y , f i r s t c o n t a c t e d by H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e t o e s t a b l i s h ways o f p r e s e r v i n g b u r i a l m a t e r i a l . H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t E v o l v e d as a c o n c e p t e n c o m p a s s i n g many a s p e c t s o f Band l i f e . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e P r o j e c t , b u r i a l c a v e s were l o c a t e d and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e a i d o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum and a U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M a s t e r ' s s t u d e n t i n a r c h a e o l o g y . S u r f a c e m a t e r i a l was removed f r o m c a v e s and t a k e n to t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum f o r c a t a l o g u i n g . S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n , J r . Band member h i r e d i n l a t e s p r i n g o f 1971 by t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e to l o c a t e b u r i a l c a v e s i n H e s q u i a t H a r b o r and a s s i s t i n t h e r e m o v a l o f s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l i n t h e c a v e s . Worked i n t h e w i n t e r o f 1971-72 to c l e a n and c a t a l o g u e a r t i f a c t s . 7 I n s t e a d o f s i m p l y w a l l i n g up t h e c a v e s w i t h c e m e n t to p r e v e n t f u r t h e r i n t r u s i o n s , t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e d e c i d e d to s e c u r e t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n d e t e r -m i n i n g t h e b e s t method o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e b u r i a l m a t e r i a l s t h a t r e m a i n e d i h e t h e c a v e s . A f t e r f i r s t c o n t a c t i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , t h e C o m m i t t e e was r e f e r r e d t o t h e D i v i s i o n o f A r c h a e o l o g y a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a , B . C . T h e r e , Don A b b o t t t a l k e d to t h e C o m m i t t e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a b o u t the p o s s i b i l i t i e s open to them i n t h e a r e a o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y t h e Band r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were h i g h l y s k e p t i c a l o f a l l g o v e r n m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n Band l i f e , b e c a u s e o f t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e c o n t a c t t h e y had had i n t h e p a s t w i t h w h i t e d o m i n a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s : It was protecting the Band from "rip off" .... It 's been Church and Govern-ment and the way they 've handled it, and archaeologists come along and handle the Indians in the same way. National Museum walked in and did t h e i r survey projects and walked away again. People haven't known what was going on. J o h n Raymond C a u t i o n was n o t c o n f i n e d to t h e H e s q u i a t s ; t h e P r o v i n -c i a l Museum was u n d e r g o i n g a s h i f t i n a p p r o a c h to i t s r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h N a t i v e p e o p l e : Right now, our aims for our d i v i s i o n rotate around our involvement with Native people in everything we do. We're begin-ning to think in terms of f i v e , ten years 8 from now and how what we 're doing now is going to be viewed .... People say, "Well, you know, no one's going to r e a l l y care." My point has been, I don't know whether that is true or not because I haven 't talked to a lot of people about what's proposed. A l l I know is that we now can see better ways of doing things . . . . We have a f a i r l y good i n d i c a t i o n of c r i t i c i s m s of the past. J i m H a g g a r t y D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1970 and 1 9 7 1 , l o n g h o u r s o f d i s c u s s i o n t o o k p l a c e i n t h e homes o f Band e l d e r s . T h e y were t r y i n g to c l a r i f y w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , J i m H a g g a r t y ' , t h e r o l e t h e Museum c o u l d p l a y i n t h e p r e s e r -v a t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s r e m a i n i n g i n t h e c a v e s . From t h e o u t s e t , t h e H e s q u i a t s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e i r i n t e n -t i o n was to m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l and p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l s . The q u e s t i o n o f p r e s e r v a t i o n r e m a i n e d s e c o n d a r y t o t h e i s s u e o f o w n e r s h i p o f c a v e m a t e r i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e a r c h a e o l o -g i s t s were t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t t h a t was b e g i n -ning to d e v e l o p f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g summer . Once t h e i d e a o f i n t r o d u c i n g . . o u t s i d e r s i n t o t h e Band p r o j e c t was a c c e p t e d , t h e c o n c e p t o f a l e g a l c o n t r a c t began t o d e v e l o p o u t o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t f o l l o w e d . The Band r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e a s o n e d t h a t a l e g a l d o c u m e n t w o u l d p r o t e c t t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e f r o m i n t e r n a l Band c e n s u r e , s h o u l d t h e p r o j e c t n o t p r o c e e d a c c o r d i n g to p l a n and p r o m i s e . A t t h e same t i m e , a c o n t r a c t w o u l d s h i e l d t h e Band f r o m f u r t h e r e x p l o i t a t i o n f r o m t h e o u t s i d e by g u a r a n t e e i n g t h a t any i n d i t f - . ' i d u a l o w o r k i ng S t o l t f e s q u i a i t t w o u l d be w o r k i n g f o r t h e B a n d , and n o t f o r h i m s e l f o r f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n p a y i n g h i s w a g e . P e o p l e a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum r e a c t e d w i t h a f e e l i n g o f a f f r o n t and i n s u l t to t h e i r p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e g r i t y : When we talked with John and Rocky about it, here was t h i s thing of t r y i n g to convince them, "I agree with what you are saying, that i t has been e x p l o i t a t i v e " , and I found myself saying, "but I'm d i f f e r e n t " . I suppose I was a l i t t l e naive. What John and Rocky were b a s i c a l l y saying, UWe don't believe you because other people have told us the same thing". And i t ' s probably true. In essence, I was no d i f f e r e n t and i t occurred to me that I was saying things that must have been said by people p r i o r to me, and they had, indeed, just gone in and done t h e i r work and come away, wrote papers, got promoted. The s i t u a t i o n within the p a r t i c u l a r Band remained the same. They s t i l l l i v e d in poverty. No one seems to:care. I t ' s just a c o l o n i a l , e x p l o i t a t i v e system at work. J i m H a g g a r t y I t t o o k t i m e and an a t m o s p h e r e o f c o - o p e r a t i o n f o r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum to d e v e l o p an u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e a s o n s m o t i v a t i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a c o n t r a c t . E v e n t u a l l y , m u t u a l r e s p e c t began t o e m e r g e , a l o n g s i d e - t h e l e g a l b o n d s , and a t t h e same t i m e , t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e r e l a x e d i t s d e f e n s i v e s t a n c e t o w a r d s t h e Museum. T r u s t was t h e p r e - r e q u i s i t e to t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e a r r a n g e -m e n t . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , and i n many w a y s , p r a c t i c a l l y , t h e Band and t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum were w o r k i n g t o w a r d t h e same g o a l s . The f i r s t summer o f t h e p r o j e c t , 1 9 7 1 , was s p e n t l o c a t i n g b u r i a l c a v e s and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c l e a n i n g them o u t . T e s t p i t s 10 b e n e a t h t h e b u r i a l s i t e s were dug f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s a m p l e s . D u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g w i n t e r , 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M a s t e r ' s s t u d e n t and Band member , S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n , b o t h o f whom had w o r k e d a t H e s q u i a t , c l e a n e d and c a t a l o g u e d t h e a r t i f a c t s b r o u g h t to t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . W h i l e work on t h e a r t i f a c t s p r o c e e d e d i n V a n c o u v e r , Band e l d e r s c o n t i n u e d t o meet w i t h J i m H a g g a r t y i n V i c t o r i a to d e v e l o p c o n s t r u c t i o n p l a n s f o r a t r a d i t i o n a l l o n g h o u s e . The p l a n was t o be a s y n t h e s i s o f memory and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e c o r d s . The i d e a f o r t h e l o n g h o u s e a r o s e i n r e s p o n s e to s t o r a g e p r o b l e m s t h e Band w o u l d be f a c e d w i t h , o n c e t h e a r c h -a e o l o g i c a l d a t a had been c o m p i l e d a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum and t h e m a t e r i a l had been r e t u r n e d to t h e B a n d . G r a d u a l l y , t h e i d e a f o r a m u s e u m / l e a r n i n g f a c i l i t y g a i n e d momentum. What s t a r t e d as a g e n e r a l c o n c e r n to s t o p t h e t h e f t o f b u r i a l m a t e r i a l s s o o n b l o s s o m e d i n t o an i n n o v a t i v e p r o j e c t t h a t w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y a f f e c t t h e e n t i r e Band and t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum. Summer c l a s s e s i n l a n g u a g e , d a n c i n g , b a s k e t m a k i n g , and c a r v i n g were e n v i s i o n e d among t h e m u l t i t u d e o f i d e a s g e n e r a t e d d u r i n g t h e f o r m a t i v e months o f p l a n n i n g . A l i n g u i s t w o u l d be n e e d e d t o work w i t h t h e e l d e r s to r e c o r d s t o r i e s , s o n g s , v o c a b u l a r y and g r a m m a r . A t e v e r y p h a s e , Band members w o u l d be t r a i n e d to c a r r y o u t many o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s d u t i e s . The r e s p o n s e o f S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n , h i r e d by t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e to make t h e f i r s t e x p l o r a t o r y s u r v e y f o r t h e b u r i a l c a v e s i n H e s q u i a t H a r b o r , i l l u m i n a t e s what t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f p r o j e c t g o a l s m e a n t , i n a p e r s o n a l s e n s e , t o i n d i v i d u a l Band m e m b e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o f t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n : I guess for any one in the t r i b e who went out and found them [the oaves] the same way I did, they 'd probably feel the same way I did .... Each time we found a oave, i t seemed to make me feel, "Well, jeese, we've been hanging around here for quite a few years, Holy Man." It awakened a whole sense of belonging, you know. Like maybe one of my great-great grandfathers might be here, maybe his bones might be here. Even further back. When we were looking around, that 's what I kept thinking, you know, "Jesus, we're r e a l l y f i n d i n g out how come we're here. These people who are buried in these oaves are part of the big reason". P l a n s f o r t h e l o n g h o u s e a t H e s q u i a t i n c l u d e d a b u r i a l c r y p t f o r a n c e s t n i a l r e m a i n s . The m a t e r i a l s had become s y m b o l s o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , and i t seemed t h a t no one c o u l d i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e g r o w t h o f t h a t s p i r i t . C h a r l e s o n : Whatever happened in the beginning was carried on right through the s p i r i t of the whole thing. Everybody's looking at the caves in a real d i f f e r e n t way now. Everybody 's aware of them now, from the oldest guy to the youngest baby, you know. They a l l know what the caves are in Hesquiat, which reserves are t h e i r s , and they're s t a r t i n g to feel r e a l l y possessive about it, s t a r t i n g to r e a l i z e that they have something. A lot of them are l i v i n g in towns, and there they r e a l l y can know that they have some-thing when they get l o s t . CHAPTER TWO THE F I L M P R O J E C T , ORIGINS & O B J E C T I V E S We were approached by the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum the previous year to see if we could provide a physical anthropol-ogist to the Hesquiat project. I arranged a contract with Jerry Cybulski for this purpose and when the N.F.B. and the National Museum began t h e i r j o i n t student f i e l d re-cording programme at about the same time I discus sed with Suki Anderson the idea of having some coverage of the Hesquiat Project in conjunction with a f i l m program'in ' Southern B.C. ... The museum's role in the f i l m pro^ gram.: was to designate the area of operation and to provide some anthropological guidance which was where Suki Anderson came i n . The purpose of the f i l m project was to record what I thought at the time was a most i n t e r e s t i n g example of a spontaneously gener-ated c u l t u r a l revival project in which t h i s m museum had some involvement in supplying spe+ c'i.alised personnel .... ... It is d i f f i c u l t at t h i s stage to evaluate the success of the Project .... The value of the overall project to the Museum has been mainly in the physical anthropology area in e s t a b l i s h i n g working r e l a t i o n s h i p s with Bands that has gone on to produce Oweekeno Project in which Jerry Cybulski is also involved. Both the Hesquiat and the Oweekeno Projects have yielded a great deal of important information on physical anthropology and Cybulski has published and submitted a number of papers r e s u l t i n g from the projects. 5 G e o r g e F . M a c D o n a l d From a l e t t e r d a t e d May 1 9 , 1 9 7 7 , O t t a w a , O n t a r i o . See E p i l o g u e , page 7 0 . 13 P r i o r t o t h e a c t u a l r e l e a s e o f f u n d s i n A p r i l , 1972 , t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new f i s c a l y e a r , p l a n s c i r c u l a t e d i n O t t a w a and i n M o n t r e a l f o r t h e p r o p o s e d f i l m s u r v e y to be f u n d e d by t h e F e d e r a l T r e a s u r y B o a r d as p a r t o f a s t u d e n t summer e m p l o y m e n t p l a n . D r . G e o r g e M a c D o n a l d , Head o f t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f C a n a d a f o r t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man i n O t t a w a , w o u l d d i r e c t t h e f i l m p r o j e c t , a i d e d by D e n n i s S a w y e r , a p p o i n t e d as P r o j e c t S u p e r v i s o r feom t h e N a t i o n a l F i l B o a r d i n M o n t r e a l . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 s t u d e n t s w o u l d be h i r e d , 15 s t u d e n t s u l t i m a t e l y s e l e c t e d f r o m e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t o d o c u m e n t on f i l m and i n s t i l l s , t h e work o f t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f C a n a d a . The P r o g r a m m e ' s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e was t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f s t u d e n t f i l m m a k e r s who w o u l d n o t f i n d work i n t h e f i l m i n d u s t r y d u r i n g t h e i r summer v a c a t i o n s . As b y - p r o d u c t s o f t h a t o b j e c t i v e , t h e N a t i o n a l Museum w o u l d a c q u i r e a r c h i v a l f o o t a g e o f t h e work b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , a n d t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d w o u l d c o m p l y w i t h t h e Fed e r a l T r e a s u r y B o a r d i n u t i l i z i n g a r e l e g a t e d number o f man-h o u r s f o r s t u d e n t e m p l o y m e n t . The N a t i o n a l Museum and t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d w o u l d s h a r e p r o d u c t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; t h e N . F . B . w o u l d a d m i n i s t e r t h e b u d g e t w h i l e t h e N a t i o n a l Museum p r o v i d e d f i l m i n g s i t u a t i o n s and d i r e c t e d t h e s t u d e n t f i l m c r e w s . The f i r s t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r w a r d e d t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d i n g f i l m c o u r s e s a r r i v e d i n a l e t t e r s e n t by 5 D e n n i s S a w y e r , d a t e d M a r c h 6 , 1 9 7 2 . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s 5 See Page 87' o f E p i l o g u e f o r c o p y o f l e t t e r 14 c o m m u n i q u e , t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t had " a l l o c a t e d some f u n d s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r o v i d i n g work o p p o r t u n i t i e s " ^ f o r s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n f i l m c o u r s e s who were a b l e t o o b t a i n 16mm f i l m e q u i p m e n t f r o m t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e y were a t t e n d i n g . The p r o g r a m w o u l d p r o v i d e t r a n s p o r t -a t i o n and l i v i n g e x p e n s e s away f r o m home, 16mm f i l m s t o c k , p r o c e s s i n g , work p r i n t and s o u n d s t o c k . The l e t t e r c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d t h e e x t e n t o f N . F . B . r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o w n e r s h i p and f i n i s h i n g o f t h e m a t e r i a l g a t h e r e d : All materials produced under the Program becomes the property of the National Museum of Man. If the Museum wishes to take any of the record material acquired under the Program to a further stage of refinement} i t will make appropriate arrangements directly wi with the respective institutions and cover the costs of such work.7 In l a t e M a r c h o r e a r l y A p r i l , S u s a n J . A n d e r s o n o f V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e c e i v e d a phone c a l l f r o m G e o r g e M a c D o n a l d a s k i n g h e r to assume t h e m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e f i l m p r o g r a m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . She had t a l k e d w i t h M a c D o n a l d i n t h e l a t e f a l l o f 1971 a b o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e c o m i n g i n v o l v e d i n t h e f i l m p r o j e c t , and when t h e f u n d s were r e l e a s e d , t h e i n v o l v e m e n t became o f f i c i a l : [ J received] a phone call from him [George MacDonald] saying that the money See Page 8 7 ' o f E p i l o g u e f o r c o p y o f l e t t e r . I b i d . 15 . . .had come through and what they wanted was to send f i l m crews with some of t h e i r crews -going out on archaeological digs in B r i t i s h Columbia .... So they wanted me to find f i l m crews for those digs, (at that point I think three of them) .... He wondered if I wanted to be a supervisor for the three archaeological f i l m crews in the Province. o S u s a n A n d e r s o n The p r o g r a m was d i v i d e d t e n t a t i v e l y i n t o p h a s e s t o be c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e s u m m e r s : s h o o t i n g d u r i n g t h e f i r s t summer, r e s h o o t i n g and i n i t i a l e d i t i n g d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d , and f i n i s h i n g d u r i n g a t h i r d and f i n a l summer . F i n i s h e d f i l m s were n e v e r p a u t o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e f i r s t s u m m e r ' s w o r k . A n d e r s o n ' s r e t r o s p e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e P r o g r a m and o f t h e m o t i v a t i o n s b e h i n d t h e o v e r a l l p l a n were m a r k e d by a s p e c t s o f c y n i c i s m : The government was p r i m a r i l y con-cerned with doing a $i<pnt at $100 per week to a d i f f e r e n t group .of students than the ones they were [reaching] with Opportunities For Youth . . . WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY FRONTING? Well, they have summer student employment programs in a l l branches of the Federal Government, and the National Film Board has been i n c r e d i b l y r e s i s t a n t in saying, "We are professionals and those are just students who don't know S p r i n g , 1975 , V i c t o r i a , B . C . From a t a p e d i n t e r v i e w . 16 anything." The Treasury Board gust stood up and screamed that that p a r t i c -ular branch had to take [on the pro-ject] or i t was bad p u b l i c i t y for them if they didn 't . . .. The only way the Government could get summer student employment in the [film] industry was to put pressure on the National Film Board. WHAT WAS MOTIVATING THE FEDERAL G O V E R N -MENT TO PROCEED WITH A PROJECT THAT MET WITH R E S I S T A N C E FROM THE PRODUCING A G E N C Y , THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD? P u b l i c i t y , s t r i c t l y p u b l i c i t y . Summer student employment has a very minor function of exposing students to the Fed-eral C i v i l Service. . .[at the same time] a l l these i n s t i t u t i o n s are desperately short of man-hours in t h e i r regular budgets . . .. These students come in to catch up what the Federal Government refuses to give enough budget to do. I t ' s true in a l l de-partments, not just the National Museum.^ S h o r t l y a f t e r h e r f i r s t c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h M a c D o n a l d i n t h e S p r i n g o f 1 9 7 2 , A n d e r s o n r e c e i v e d a n o t h e r c a l l f r o m him a s k i n g i f she w o u l d l o c a t e two a d d i t i o n a l c r e w s . T h e r e was t o o much money i n t h e b u d g e t t o l i m i t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o j e c t s t o t h r e e . A t t h e t i m e o f A n d e r s o n ' s a p p o i n t m e n t , l e s s t h a n two months r e m a i n e d b e f o r e t h e s c h e d u l e d s t a r t i n g d a t e i n m i d - M a y f o r most G o v e r n m e n t - f u n d e d s t u d e n t summer p r o g r a m s . D u r i n g t h i s i n t e r v e n i n g p e r i o d , a r e g i o n a l h e a d - q u a r t e r s r e q u i r e d s e t t i n g u p , s t u d e n t f i l m m a k e r s had t o be l o c a t e d , b r i e f e d , h i r e d , o r i e n t e d , and e q u i p p e d , and t r a v e l a r r a n g e m e n t s , p r o c e s s i n g and s h i p p i n g From t a p e d i n t e r v i e w . B o l d - f a c e d q u e s t i o n s a r e t h o s e o f t h e w r i t e r . 17 o f t h e f i l m n e e d e d o r g a n i z i n g . Now, i n a d d i t i o n , two t o t a l l y new p r o j e c t s had t o be f o u n d . O t h e r p r o b l e m s began to s u r f a c e . In a d d i t i o n to t h e r e b e i n g t o o much money f o r t h e number o f e x t a n t f i l m i n g s i t -u a t i o n s , t h e f i e l d d i r e c t o r s o f t h e v a r i o u s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d i g s s l a t e d to r e c e i v e f i l m c r e w s began to o f f e r r e s i s t a n c e . M a c D o n a l d e n v i s i o n e d f i l m s , a c c o r d i n g t o A n d e r s o n , t h a t w o u l d e s t a b l i s h a g e o g r a p h i c and h i s t o r i c c o n t e x t f o r e a c h o f t h e s i t e s . U l t i m a t e l y t h i s a p p r o a c h w o u l d have t o i n v o l v e t h e l i v i n g d e c e d e n t s , t h e I n d i a n s , o f t h o s e p e o p l e who l e f t b e h i n d t h e a r t i f a c t s b e i n g u n e a r t h e d a t t h e a r c h -a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . The f i e l d d i r e c t o r s were n o t e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t t h e a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d i r e c t i n g a f i l m c rew a d d e d t o t h e i r s u m m e r ' s p l a n s a t t h e l a s t m i n u t e . The p r o b l e m w a s : Nobody was interested in f i l m . [MacDonald's] supervisors in B.C. were hopelessly unenthusiastic about i t . Each supervisor would also have to spend time in places other than t h e i r arch-aeological s i t e s to organize other kinds of footage for t h e i r [ p a r t i c u l a r ] f i l m . Obviously, if you're doing an arch-aeological s i t e in Prince Rupert, in Prince Rupert Harbor, you need to spend a lot of time . . .taking pictures of the Indians. What was a c t u a l l y happening was . . . even if they knew enough about f i l m to know that that's what was needed, they didn't have the kind of rapport in the community . . . to be able to do that kind of thing successfully. S u s a n A n d e r s o n O r i g i n a l l y , H e s q u i a t and t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t had n o t been c o n s i d e r e d as a s i t e f o r f i l m , b u t t h e c u l t u r a l 18 r e v i v a l p r o j e c t d e v e l o p i n g t h e r e o f f e r e d a s i t u a t i o n where f i l m i n g c o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n and many o f t h e o b s t a c l e s e n c o u n t -e r e d a t t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y f i l m s i t e s a v o i d e d . H e s q u i a t a p p e a r e d as a l o g i c a l a d d i t i o n : A n d e r s o n knew James H a g g a r t y , d i r e c t o r o f a r c h a e o l o g y i n t h e H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t . He w o r k e d f o r t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a and c o u l d s e r v e as a p e r f e c t i n t e r m e d i a r y b e t w e e n t h e H e s q u i a t Band and t h e F i l m S u p e r v i s o r . T h e r e r e m a i n e d j u s t e n o u g h t i m e ) t o i n t r o d u c e t h e i d e a t o t h e B a n d , s e l e c t t h e s t u d e n t s and i n t r o d u c e them t o t h e B a n d ' s C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e , and e v e r y -one w o u l d have a week o r so t o p r e p a r e f o r f o u r m o n t h ' s f i l m i n g a t H e s q u i a t . The i d e a seemed s i m p l e ; what r e m a i n e d to be c l a r i f i e d were t h e d e t a i l s o f e x e c u t i o n f o r t h e i n c l u -s i o n o f t h e H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t i n t h e F i l m P r o g r a m . CHAPTER THREE THE NATIONAL MUSEUM MEETS THE HESQUIATS When you 're going into a foreign culture, which you are when you',re dealing with the ethnographic film, you tend to carry your culture with you and see through your eyes, hear with your ears. That's not going to give you any insights into another culture. It means you're walking around with a l i t t l e envelope on your head. You 've got to get rid of that envelope. D r . A . J . R e y n e & i f e s o n 1 0 From a t a p e d i n t e r v i e w , f a l l , 1 9 7 4 , V a n c o u v e r , B . C . 20 C o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f H e s q u i a t as a f i l m i n g s i t e , r u m o r s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e f i l m p r o j e c t s had a l r e a d y r e a c h e d t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a by e a r l y s p r i n g , 1972 . M o n e y , i t s e e m e d , was g o i n g to be r e l e a s e d by t h e F e d e r a l T r e a s u r y B o a r d . No one a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum knew how m u c h , f o r what p u r p o s e , o r how i t was g o i n g to be a d m i n -i s t e r e d . What d i d s t a n d o u t was t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museum t o i i n v o l v e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t s i n B . C . H e s i s t a n c y and r e l u c t a n c e to be i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t s was n o t c o n f i n e d to t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l crew d i r e c t o r s w o r k i n g u n d e r M a c D o n a l d . The f i l m p r o j e c t s were b e i n g p u l l e d t o g e t h e r w i t h one month f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r e p a r a t i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o e x i s t i n g p l a n s . James H a g g a r t y , A s s i s t a n t C u r a t o r , D i v i s i o n o f A r c h a e o l o g y a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum, h e a r d t h e r u m o r s and was a d v i s e d by p e o p l e i n t h e Museum to s t a y away f r o m the f i l m p r o j e c t s b e c a u s e t h e r e was no " l e a d t i m e " . The i d e a o f f i l m seemed good i n t h e o r y , b u t H a g g a r t y e x p r e s s e d u n c e r t a i n t y : You really need to take time to break any work of this kind into a community. If they [were] talking about moving onto a res-erve, .... I i.[could] well see it would be a disaster. H o w e v e r , t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t , to a l l o u t w a r d a p p e a r a n c e s , a n s w e r e d n e e d s o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museum. P l a n s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a t r a d i t i o n a l l o n g h o u s e meant t h a t e t h n o g r a p h i c f i l m i n g w o u l d be p o s s i b l e . A f i l m p r o j e c t a t H e s q u i a t w o u l d a b s o r b some o f e x c e s s money a l l o t t e d to t h e N a t i o n a l Museum p r o j e c t , b u t more i m p o r t a n t l y , h e r e was a 21 s i t u a t i o n where r a p p o r t b e t w e e n a g o v e r n m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n and t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e o f an a r e a had a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d . The a d d i t i o n o f t h e H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t to t h e N a t i o n a l Museum f i l m p r o g r a m seemed e q u a l l y e x p e d i e n t f o r t h e B a n d , and c o u l d f u l f i l l a number o f t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e ' s o b j e c t -i v e s : f i l m w o u l d make a r e l a t i v e l y p e r m a n e n t r e c o r d o f c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l f o r e d u c a t i o n a l use w i t h t h e y o u n g p e o p l e o f t h e Band d u r i n g t h e summer months away f r o m r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . F i l m w o u l d a l s o be a p e r f e c t way o f g e n e r a t i n g a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g t h r o u g h p u b l i c i t y and a d v e r t i s i n g . To add f i l m t o t h e H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t and t h e H e s q u i a t s t o t h e N a t i o n a l Museum F i l m P r o g r a m was s e e m i n g l y p e r f e c t . I f t h e H e s q u i a t s were g o i n g to become i n v o l v e d , many e l e m e n t s had t o d o v e t a i l v e r y q u i c k l y . A n d e r s o n r e q u i r e d i m m e d -i a t e c o n f i r m a t i o n by t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e B a n d ' s i n t e n t i o n to j o i n t h e f i l m p r o j e c t . H a g g a r t y s u g g e s t e d t h a t she t r y t o meet w i t h t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e on A p r i l 1 5 , ' ; . when i t w o u l d be a s s e m b l i n g to make a r e c o n n a i s s a n c e t r i p to H e s q u i a t . C o m m i t t e e members l i v e d i n V i c t o r i a , P o r t A l b e r n i , and V a n c o u v e r . In m e e t i n g w i t h t h e members on t h a t d a t e , A n d e r s o n c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d to a l l o f them a t o n c e , d i s c u s s t h e f i l m p r o j e c t , and a p p r i a s e t h e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e f i l m c r e w a t H e s q u i a t . A n d e r s o n met t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e on A p r i l 1 5 . T o g e t h e r w i t h James H a g g a r t y and t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e , ( J o h n R a y m o n d , R o c k y A m o s , A l i c e P a u l , L a r r y P a u l , A l e x and Mary A m o s ) , A n d e r s o n t r a v e l l e d t o H e s q u i a t . I t was d u r i n g t h i s t r i p f r o m V i c t o r i a t h a t t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e f i r s t h e a r d a b o u t t h e 22 N a t i o n a l M u s e u m ' s p r o p o s e d f i l m p r o j e c t . In v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y two weeks r e m a i n e d b e f o r e t h e s t a r t i n g d a t e f o r t h e H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t , a q u i c k d e c i s i o n had to be made. The H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e e x p e r i e n c e d d i r e c t l y t h e p r e s s u r e a r i s i n g f r o m t h e s h o r t l e a d t i m e a l l o w e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s e d f i l m p r o j e c t : We had to make up our minds wham bam. A l l the other [film] crews were spoken for . . .. It was a pressure to get the crew accepted or rejected [by the Cultural Comm-i t t e e as a whole]. To say, "Yes", you want them, or "No", you didn't. We thought that there was an opportunity and if we didn 't take it, we'd lose i t . J o h n Raymond F i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y a l s o f o r m e d p a r t o f t h e B a n d ' s c o n -s i d e r a t i o n s . A n d e r s o n was o f f e r i n g t o pay room and b o a r d f o r t h e s t u d e n t s on a p e r d i e m r a t e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e g u i d e -l i n e s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e N . F . B . T h i s amount w o u l d be i n e x c e s s o f t h e a c t u a l e x p e n s e s i n c u r r e d by t h e c rew w h i l e a t H e s q u i a t . In a d d i t i o n , i f t h e f i l m c rew c o u l d make i t s p r e p -a r a t i o n s i n t i m e to l e a v e V a n c o u v e r on May 1 , t h e d a t e t h e a r c h a e o l o g y and work c r e w s were s c h e d u l e d t o t a k e a c h a r t e r e d b o a t f r o m T o f i n o to H e s q u i a t , t h e n A n d e r s o n c o u l d t r a n s f e r t o t h e Band money t h a t had been b u d g e t e d t o t r a n s p o r t t h e f i l m c rew and g e a r o u t i n t o t h e f i e l d . S i n c e t h e Band r e q u i r e d a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g f o r t h e C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t , f i n a n -c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n a d d i n g t o t h e p r e s s u r e p l a c e d on t h e C o m m i t t e e to come to an i m m e d i a t e d e c i s i o n . T h u s i t w a s , i n s p i t e o f o b v i o u s l y c o n f l i c t i n g e l e m e n t s , 23 t h a t t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e a g r e e d to a t l e a s t meet w i t h t h e f i l m s t u d e n t s t o d i s c u s s f i l m and t o o u t l i n e t h e q u a l i t y o f i n v o l v e m e n t t h e Band e x p e c t e d f r o m t h e f i l m c rew i n t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t . \ CHAPTER FOUR NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN THE BAND, THE STUDENTS AND THE NATIONAL MUSEUM It was just protecting the Band from "rip off". Today you might be quite sincere in saying, "I agree in everything you are doing and I ' l l never write anything about the Band or' give my impression about the Band in print or for sale to public or for p u b l i c a t i o n " . You might be quite sincere in that. Twenty years from now, who knows, you look back over your notes and you write some articile on the Hesquiats and i t might be altogether d i f f e r e n t than what the Hesquiats think of themselves and the project. This is what we were con-cerned with. J o h n Raymond 25 A f t e r h e r t r i p t o H e s q u i a t w i t h t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e , A n d e r s o n c o n t a c t e d s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . She o u t l i n e d b r i e f l y f o r t h e s t u d e n t s what t h e s u m m e r ' s work w o u l d e n t a i l , e s t i m a t e d what s a l a r i e s w o u l d be p a i d , and made a t e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n o f t h r e e s t u d e n t s f r o m U . B . C . t o go t o H e s q u i a t : B . J . C l a y d e n , J . M a r t e l l , and B . R o x b o r o u g h . W i t h i n t h e w e e k , t h e s t u d e n t s met w i t h two members o f t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e f o r t h e H e s q u i a t B a n d ; J o h n Raymond and R o c k y A m o s . T h i s f i r s t e n c o u n t e r b e t w e e n Band and s t u d e n t s was f r o u g h t w i t h h e s i t a t i o n s and f e a r . The p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r t h e B a n d ' s c a u t i o n a t t h i s s t a g e o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e f i l m p r o j e c t was f e a r o f e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e Band by o u t s i d e r s s u c h as had p r e c i p i t a t e d t h e c o n t r a c t u a l a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e Band and t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n t h e p r e c e e d i n g y e a r . D i s c u s s i o n s b e t w e e n t h e C o m m i t t e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , S u s a n A n d e r s o n and t h e s t u d e n t s r e v o l v e d a r o u n d t h e B a n d ' s demand f o r t o t a l c o n t r o l and o w n e r s h i p o f any m a t e r i a l p r o d u c e d by t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e f o r m o f s t i l l s , 16mm f o o t a g e , q u a r t e r - i n c h s o u n d t a p e , o r any w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l . The C o m m i t t e e i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museum s i g n a c o n t r a c t g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e B a n d ' s d e m a n d s . P r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h o w n e r s h i p o f t h e f i l m e d m a t e r i a l s l e d t h e Band t o a m i n i m a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f how f i n i s h e d f i l m s were t o be p r o d u c e d . A r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l a l o n e was o f l i t t l e v a l u e t o t h e B a n d , and A n d e r s o n had s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e f i l m p r o g r a m w o u l d be c o n t i n u e d d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g summer . The B a n d , m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e f i l m - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , a s s u m e d t h a t 26 f i n i s h e d f i l m s w o u l d be an i n e v i t a b l e o u t c o m e o f t h e f i l m p r o j e c t . I can remember having some very o p t i m i s t i c discussions with John and Rocky about what can be done, knowing very l i t t l e and needing a hell of a lot of input from people f a m i l i a r with the techniques of f i l m making. I think that was one of the very real reasons the Cultural Committee went after control of the footage, so that i t wouldn't s i t and do nothing. James H a g g a r t y The f i l m p r o j e c t f o r H e s q u i a t was b e i n g f o r m u l a t e d , a l b e i t h a l t i n g l y . D i s c u s s i o n s d i d n o t r e a c h a s t a g e o f d e t a i l i n g where t h e f i l m o r i g i n a l , n o t j u s t t h e work p r i n t , w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y r e s i d e . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w o u l d , i n e f f e c t , be w o r k i n g f o r t h e B a n d . u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museum, w h i l e b e i n g s a l a r i e d t h r o u g h t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d . L e g a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s had n o t y e t a r i s e n . No one knew t h e o r i g i n a l w o u l d be d e s t i n e d f o r t h e f i l m v a u l t s o f t h e N . F . B . i n M o n t r e a l . A n d e r s o n u n d e r s t o o d t h a t p l a n s f o r t h e s e c o n d s u m m e r ' s e d i t i n g p r o j e c t were e n t i r e l y p r o b l e m a t i c a l . The o n l y d e f -i n i t e a r r a n g e m e n t was f o r s h o o t i n g , p r o c e s s i n g and work p r i n t d u r i n g t h e 1972 summer . She was i n a p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h she had t o s e l l t h e p r o g r a m to t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e : They [the National Museum] were t a l k i n g about i t [ f i n i s h i n g the f i l m s ] , but I knew the Federal Government well enough to know that the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i t r e a l l y happen-ing were t o t a l l y up in the a i r .... One of the big problems with this project was getting money for the travel expenses to send people out in the f i e l d . 27 Now, obviously , in a project where everybody 's doing e d i t i n g , you 're most l i k e l y to get money again. That seemed to me like a p o s s i b i l i t y , that there would be another project s i m i l a r in nature the next summer with far lower costs, simply s a l a r i e s and stock costs, nothing else. I f t h e Band i n s i s t e d on o w n e r s h i p o f t h e m a t e r i a l , t h e s h i f t i n o w n e r s h i p to t h e Band c o u l d be a d v a n t a g e o u s f o r t h e N a t i o n a l Museum. W i t h t h e w o r k p r i n t , t h e Band w o u l d have some s o l i d m a t e r i a l w i t h w h i c h to p r o c u r e f i n i s h i n g m o n e y , w h i c h w o u l d , i n e f f e c t , e l i m i n a t e t h e N a t i o n a l M u s e u m ' s need t o p r o c u r e f i n i s h i n g money f o r t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e f i l m p r o j e c t : We talked about where the o r i g i n a l f i l m would end up, because of the Hesquiat contract. I got my f i r s t copy of the con-tract from Haggarty before the 15th of A p r i l . So I knew what we were up against in terms of what we were going to do about i t . I said as far as I was concerned, if the Hesquiat Band wanted to have t o t a l control over the e d i t i n g , of whatever f i l m footage came out of that project, the way I saw it, the National Museum would prob-ably be quite happy to have that happen, because that would mean that someone else would be paying at least part of the edit-ing costs. S u s a n A n d e r s o n T r a n s f e r o f o w n e r s h i p o f t h e f i l m m a t e r i a l s f r o m t h e N a t i o n a l Museum t o t h e H e s q u i a t Band d i d n o t p r e s e n t p r o b l e m s i n t h e m i n d o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museum r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t a l k i n g w i t h t h e B a n d . H o w e v e r , when A n d e r s o n d i s c u s s e d t h e s i t u a -t i o n w i t h t h e l a w y e r f o r t h e N a t i o n a l Museum: 28 [He] had a oat f i t when I eventually got to t a l k i n g to him d i r e c t l y , because there 's no way a government agency can e f f e c t i v e l y do something that w i l l be owned outright by somebody else .... I t ' s a t o t a l l y i l l e g a l s i t u a t i o n . If the Federal Government spends money on a project, that project 's output is the property of the Federal Government. S u s a n A n d e r s o n When i t came to t h e Band c o n t r a c t t h a t e a c h o f the f i l m c rew had been a s k e d to s i g n , t h e N a t i o n a l Museum l a t e r s a i d : . . .those contracts [tiere] a re-?-striction of t h e i r own [the f i l m crew's] personal a c t i v i t i e s . . .that no matter how i t ' s worded, it couldn't l e g a l l y apply to the corporation, because nobody in the corporation or agent of the corporation was going to sign one of those contracts. In fact, for the f i l m crew, if the contracts were challenged, they were null and voide anyway, but if the Band wanted them signed, then [the f i l m crew] could go in there and sign them, . . .but never t e l l the Band that the National Museum as a' corporation couldn't and wouldn't sign that contract. S u s a n A n d e r s o n She t o l d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e t h a t t h e Band c o n t r a c t p r e s e n t e d p r o b l e m s b e c a u s e o f t h e way t h e c o n t r a c t was w o r d e d , and e x p l a i n e d t h a t i f t h e y i n s i s t e d on a c o n t r a c t i n v o l v i n g f i l m , t t h e n t h e y w o u l d have to l i m i t a c c e s s to t h e v i e w i n g o f t h e m a t e r i a l , u n d e r a " u s e s c o n t r a c t " . . .1 was very clear, because I knew at that point that the f i l m had to be owned by the National Museum .... The material was the property of the National Museum, but the pictures could be the property of the Hesquiat Band, and therefore, we could negotiate about how they were used. 29 T h i s k i n d o f c o n t r a c t had been u s e d b e t w e e n o w n e r s o f a r t i f a c t s , p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s and I n d i a n B a n d s , when a r e s t r i c t i o n o f use was r e q u i r e d . The Museum t e c h n i c a l l y owns t h e i t e m , b u t t h e use o f t h e i t e m i s l i m i t e d t o t h e w i s h e s o f t h e d o n o r s o r t h e B a n d . T h i s k i n d o f a r r a n g e m e n t was s u g g e s t e d to t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e . From t h e N a t i o n a l M u s e u m ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , as l o n g as t h e a c t u a l s i g n i n g o f c o n t r a c t s was d e l a y e d , w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e f i e l d t h e a c t u a l p r o b l e m s o f Band o w n e r s h i p d i d n o t have t o be w o r k e d o u t . The a d v a n t a g e l a y w i t h t h e Band t o n e g o r tiate t h e d e t a i l s b e f o r e t h e f i l m c rew began s h o o t i n g a t H e s q u i a t . On t h e b a s i s o f a s s u r a n c e s c o m i n g f r o m t h e N a t i o n a l Museum t h r o u g h A n d e r s o n , t h e s t u d e n t s were g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n to t r a v e l t o H e s q u i a t , w i t h o u t f i l m i n g e q u i p m e n t . CHAPTER F I V E THE STUDENTS MEET THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD He [Dennis Sawyer] turned off a lot of people, because the N.E.B. obviously didn't care and they were not going to work in the kind of project where nobody cared what kind of material they produced. S u s a n A n d e r s o n 31 The N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d was t h e o n l y c o n t a c t t h e f i l m s t u d e n t s were g o i n g t o have t h a t summer w i t h p e o p l e e x p e r -i e n c e d i n m a k i n g d o c u m e n t a r y f i l m s . When D e n n i s S a w y e r a r r i v e d i n V a n c o u v e r , a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n d a y s b e f o r e t h e H e s q u i a t F i l m P r o j e c t was s c h e d u l e d t o b e g i n , i t became e v i d e n t t h a t t h e N . F . B . w o u l d n o t be c o n t r i b u t i n g any o f i t s e x p e r t i s e , e x c e p t as a m e c h a n i s m f o r i s s u i n g c h e c k s to t h e s t u d e n t s . The N . F . B . was n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e q u a l i t y o r w i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s e d f i l m p r o j e c t s , and S a w y e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d be f u l f i l l e d i f e v e n 1 ,500 f e e t o u t o f 2 0 , 0 0 0 f e e t f o r e a c h f i l m p r o j e c t t u r n e d o u t to be u s a b l e m a t e r i a l . 1 1 The N . F . B . w o u l d a d m i n i s t e r t h e b u d g e t , and t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d n o t be m e a s u r e d i n t e r m s o f r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t o r i n f i n i s h e d f i l m s , b u t r a t h e r i n t e r m s o f money s p e n t on s t u d e n t summer e m p l o y m e n t . The m e e t i n g b e t w e e n S a w y e r , t h e s t u d e n t s and A n d e r s o n was a r e v e l a t i o n t o e v e r y o n e . S a w y e r d i s c o v e r e d t h a t A n d e r s o n had a l r e a d y s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s f o r f i l m p r o j e c t s , s o m e t h i n g he had been d o i n g a c r o s s C a n a d a on h i s way to V a n c o u v e r . A n d e r s o n l e a r n e d t h a t t h e f i l m p r o j e c t s , s e t up by t h e N a t i o n a l Museum t o i n v o l v e a g r e a t amount o f t r a v e l , were m i n i m a l l y b u d g e t e d : Vie a l l arrived at Peter Jones ' o f f i c e [Vancouver Regional Office of N.F.B. j executive -producer] with the students interested in the programme. T e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 2 2 , 1 9 7 7 . 32 We found out that they had to have equipment, that they were going to get paid $400 per month, and minimal expenses, very basic travel to and from the projects. The National Museum had set these kids up to be t r a v e l l i n g with projects. They were going to be t r a v e l l i n g around to the d i f f e r e n t archaeolog— iical s i t e s in the Province. S u s a n A n d e r s o n More s u r p r i s i n g f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t h a n t h e f i n a n c i a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s f a c i n g t h e p r o g r a m d i r e c t o r was t h e l a c k o f s u p p o r t , i n t e r m s o f i n t e r e s t o r e x p e r i e n c e , d e m o n s t r a t e d by S a w y e r i n h i s t a l k w i t h t h e f i l m s t u d e n t s : Dennis Sawyer said very c l e a r l y to the group of people there that they [the N.F.B.] didn't care about the f i l m , that they couldn 't care less whether anybody ran anything through t h e i r cameras or not that summer, that a l l the N.F.B. was concerned with was t h i s bloody p u b l i c i t y of student employment so that they could get those people \the Federal Treasury Board] off t h e i r backs. S u s a n A n d e r s o n S a w y e r i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e N . F . B . w o u l d n o t p u t any o f t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s a t a n y o n e ' s d i s p o s a l f o r the c o m p l e t i o n o f f i l m s s t a r t e d u n d e r t h i s f i l m p r o g r a m . The p r o g r a m had been s e t up i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e d i r e need f o r s t u d e n t summer e m p l o y -ment and no f u n d s had been a l l o c a t e d f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e f i l m s . Many o f t h e s t u d e n t s p r e s e n t a t t h a t m e e t i n g (15 had been s e l e c t e d f o r t h e f i v e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o j e c t s ) , r e f u s e d to work on t h e p r o j e c t s i n c e no one i n t h e p r o d u c i n g a g e n c y was 33 c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e q u a l i t y o r p u r p o s e o f t h e work t o be p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e summer. The s t u d e n t s who c h o s e to r e m a i n i n v o l v e d , n a i v e l y f e l t t h a t t h e p r o j e c t s t i l l c o n t a i n e d e n o u g h p o s i t i v e v a l u e s i n c e t h e y w o u l d be w o r k i n g f o r t h e N a t i o n a l Museum, and i n t h e c a s e o f t h e H e s q u i a t f i l m c r e w , f o r t h e I n d i a n B a n d . The m e e t i n g c o n c l u d e d w i t h t h e s i g n i n g o f a c o n t r a c t b e t w e e n t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d and t h e r e m a i n i n g s t u d e n t s . The u n h e e d e d f i n e p r i n t c o n t a i n e d t h e N . F . B . ' s r i g h t to a l l m a t e r i a l s p r o d u c e d by t h e s t u d e n t s w h i l e u n d e r c o n t r a c t t o t h e N . F . B . I t was a s t a n d a r d c o n t r a c t u s e d by t h e N . F . B . w i t h f r e e - l a n c e f i l m m a k e r s to c a r r y o u t work f o r t h e B o a r d n o t h a n d l e d by i n - h o u s e s t a f f . By t h e end o f t h e m e e t i n g , a l l t h e l i n e s o f c o n t a c t and c o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r t h e H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t had been e s t a b l i s h e d . The t o n e f o r t h e p r o j e c t had been s e t . C o m m i t m e n t s had been made and p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e j o u r n e y to H e s q u i a t c o u l d b e g i n . 34 T A B L E 2 L i n e s o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r the F i l m P r o j e c t MONTREAL OTTAWA NATIONAL FILM BOARD D e n n i s S a w y e r , P r o d u c e r . NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MAN G e o r g e M a c D o n a l d , C h i e f , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y . VANCOUVER REGIONAL O F F I C E FOR N ' T D . MUSEUM F i l m P r o j e c t C o - o r d i n a t o r , S u s a n A n d e r s o n . V I C T O R I A P R O V I N C I A L MUSEUM OF B . C A s s i s t a n t C u r a t o r J i m H a g g a r t y . HESQUIAT LOCATION OF HESQUIAT PROJECT AND FILM CREW CHAPTER SIX THE FILM STUDENTS AT HESQUIAT Fantastic! It would be a chance to learn some more about photography, give me a chance to learn some more about how to put a f i l m together, and the prospect of having 45,000 feet of color stock free of charge to shoot in a perfect s e t t i n g with an ideal subject . . .[it] just sounded like paradise, which is why I got involved, plus the salary was nice. B . J . C l a y d e n 1 2 Even if you 're going in to just take footage, record footage, I think that you have to have an extremely detailed knowledge of what the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n is that you 're going to get into --in documentary in p a r t i c u l a r , where supposedly what you 're t r y i n g to put on f i l m is what is out there and not what is i n s i d e year head. To find out what is out there takes a lot of thought and a lot of thought process. D r . A . J . R e y n e r t s o n From a t a p e d i n t e r v i e w , V a n c o u v e r , B . C . , 1 9 7 5 . 3 6 A c c o r d i n g to s c h e d u l e , the f i l m s t u d e n t s l e f t V a n c o u v e r f o r H e s q u i a t a t t h e end o f A p r i l , The two week i n t e r l u d e b e t w e e n t h e m e e t i n g w i t h t t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e s and t h e a c t u a l day o f d e p a r t u r e -was. f i l l e d w i t h f r a n t i c l i s t m a k i n g and s e a r c h i n g f o r i t e m s to c o v e r e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e e v e n t u a l i t y t h a t m i g h t p r e s e n t i t s e l f to t h e f i l m s t u d e n t s a t t h e r e m o t e and r a i n y b l u f f o f t h e H e s q u i a t R e s e r v e . The c rew s c r o u n g e d and b o u g h t t a r p a p e r , a s t a p l e g u n , c h i c k e n w i s e , t a r p s , s l e e p i n g b a g s , k e r o s e n e , l a n t e r n s , m a t c h e s , a x e s , k n i v e s , p l a s t i c c o n t a i n e r s ! - ; r a i n g e a r , p l a y i n g c a r d s , and b o o k s to t e l l them what t h e y d i d n ' t know a b o u t t h e N o r t h West C o a s t I n d i a n s , t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , and f i l m . The f i l m e x p e d i t i o n began as an a d v e n t u r e f o r t h e f i l m s t u d e n t s . L e a v i n g T o f i n o w i t h a l l t h e p e o p l e d e s t i n e d t o s p e n d t h e summer t o g e t h e r , s u r r o u n d e d i n t h e c h a r t e r e d b o a t by t h e p i l e s o f g e a r and s u p p l i e s , t h e s e n s a t i o n o f h e i g h t -e n e d e x p e r i e n c e l e f t most o f t h e n o n - I n d i a n s s p e e c h l e s s , w i d e - e y e d and a b i t sea s i c k , r o c k e d as t h e y were f o r most o f t h e h o u r t r i p t o H e s q u i a t by c h o p p y w a v e s , r a i n and w i n d t h a t none o f t h e l o c a l p e o p l e w o u l d have v e n t u r e d o u t i n e x c e p t to keep t h e c i t y p e o p l e on t h e i r p r e d e t e r m i n e d s c h e d u l e . The b o a t r i d e f r o m T o f i n o t o H e s q u i a t t h r e a d e d n o r t h -w e s t t h r o u g h c h a n n e l s f o r m e d by t r e e - c o v e r e d r o c k y l a n d f o r m a t i o n s , p a s t Varguis i s l a n d , F l o r e s I s l a n d , o u t S y d n e y I n l e t t o t h e open P a c i f i c , t o t h e mouth o f H o t S p r i n g s Cove where t h e "Bob D o u g l a s " b o a t t u r n e d i n to p i c k up one more p e r s o n and L a r r y P a u l ' s s p e e d b o a t . When t h e y r o u n d e d t h e 37 p o i n t and e n t e r e d t h e q u i e t o f t h e l o n g c o v e , t h e c r e w s saw w h a t w w o u l d be t h e i r c l o s e s t c o n t a c t w i t h s u p p l i e s : t h e Hot S p r i n g s Cove gas s t a t i o n and f i s h camp where l o c a l p e o p l e and f i s h e r m e n b o u g h t g a s , f o o d , b e e r „and. hard l i q u o r , m a i l e d l e t t e r s and s o l d f i s h . On t h e w h a r f j e t t i n g o u t i n t o t h e w a t e r f r o m t h e r e d and w h i t e f r a m e b u i l d i n g s , S t e v e and Mi Hire C h a r ! e s o n , S t e v e ' s s i s t e r , s t o o d w a t c h i n g t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e b o a t f i l l e d w i t h t h e s t r a n g e r s S t e v e w o u l d be d i g g i n g n e x t to i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p i t s a t H e s q u i a t , home r e s e r v e o f S t e v e ' s B a n d . He h a d n ' t e x p e c t e d t h e f i l m crew and had no i d e a o f who any o f t h e p e o p l e w e r e . T r a d i t i i o n a l l y H e s q u i a t had a l w a y s been t h e f o c u s o f Band l i f e , t h e s p i r i t u a l C e n t e r f o r i d e n t i t y as a H e s q u i a t . Band e l d e r s had grown up t h e r e , and d e s p i t e t h e o s t e n s i b l e c u r r e n t d e s e r t i o n o f t h e l a n d , a l l s i g n i f i c a n t Band memory was t i e d t o t h a t l o c a t i o n by r i g h t o f h i s t o r y and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n . T h a t f o c u s was s u s t a i n e d and g i v e n new e n e r g y by t h e C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t , e v e n t h o u g h most o f t h e b u i l d i n g s on t h e r e s e r v e , t a n g l e d i n b r i a r s and l o s t i n d i l a p i d a t i o n , w o u l d n e v e r be r e s t o r e d . In 1972 , o n l y t h r e e band m e m b e r s , G e o r g e I g n a c e , h i s d a u g h t e r P a t r i c i a and h i s g r a n d d a u g h t e r , J a n i c e , s h a r e d p l a n s to r e m a i n a t H e s q u i a t f o r t h e summer and much o f t h e w i n t e r , w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t d e v e l o p e d as d i s c u s s e d . G e o r g e was one o f t h e Band e l d e r s , a man r i c h i n t h e k n o w l e d g e o f H e s q u i a t t r a d i t i o n s , s o n g s , and s t o r i e s , p i e c e s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n t h a t f o r m e d t h e i m p e t u s b e h i n d t h e C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t t h a t b r o u g h t s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p l u s -38 Band members to work as c o o k s , c a r p e n t e r s , c a r v e r s , b a s k e t m a k e r s , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and f i l m m a k e r s . E v e r y o n e was g r a d u a l l y a s s e m b l e d t o u n d e r t a k e t h e work o f t h e s e c o n d summer o f t h e C u l t u r a l r e v i v a l p r o j e c t . The f i r s t two weeks a t H e s q u i a t were s p e n t s o l v i n g t h e most i m m e d i a t e p r o b l e m f a c i n g e v e r y o n e a t H e s q u i a t : l i v i n g accommodations f o r t h e c r e w s . E v e r y d a y , r e p a i r s were t a k e n a l i t t l e f u r t h e r . C e d a r l o g s h a u l e d o f f t h e b e a c h e s were c u t and s p l i t i n t o s h a k e s f o r t h e r o o f s o f t h e b u i l d i n g s . S t o r a g e a r e a s and s h e l v e s were c r e a t e d , and p l a s t i c was p u t o v e r windows t h a t no l o n g e r h e l d g l a s s . The c r e w s w o r k e d t o g e t h e r , g r a d u a l l y b e c o m i n g f a m i l i a r w i t h one a n o t h e r . The f i l m crew l e a r n e d d u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h a t none o f t h e Band members knew a b o u t t h e f i l m p r o j e c t and had been g r e a t l y s u r p r i s e d to see t h e a d d i t i o n a l w h i t e p e o p l e t h a t c o m p r i s e d t h e f i l m c r e w . W h i l e accommodations were r e a d i e d a t H e s q u i a t , t h e N a t i o n a l Museum r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , S u s a n A n d e r s o n , w o r k e d i n V a n c o u v e r t o c l a r i f y t h e c o n t r a c t p e r m i t t i n g t h e use o f d n l m a t H e s q u i a t . B e f o r e t h e c o n t r a c t was c o m p l e t e d , A n d e r s o n t e l e p h o n e d t h e f i l m crew to t e l l them to r e t u r n t o town to p i c k up t h e f i l m e q u i p m e n t and f i l m s t o c k , s i n c e t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e had g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t o f f i l m g e a r i n t o H e s q u i a t , e v e n w i t h o u t . t h e s i g n a t u r e s on t h e c o n t r a c t . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f J u n e , t h e crew r e t u r n e d t o V a n c o u v e r and c o l l e c t e d a l l t h e f i l m m a t e r i a l s : 3 0 , 0 0 0 f e e t o f 16mm c o l o r r e v e r s a l s t o c k , b o t h Kodak ECO 7252 , and EF 7 2 4 1 , 7 2 4 2 ; a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s o f q u a r t e r - i n c h m a g n e t i c s o u n d r e c o r d i n g t a p e ; t w e n t y d o z e n r o l l s o f 35mm s l i d e f i l m , and b l a c k and 39 w h i t e 35mm s t o c k ; two 16mm Canon Scoopic s i l e n t c a m e r a s ; one B o l e x 16mm r e f l e x c a m e r a w i t h a 12-120mm A n g e n i e u x l e n s ; and s t i l l c a m e r a s and d a r k room e q u i p m e n t . The N a g r a IV t a p e r e c o r d e r was b e i n g s h a r e d w i t h a n o t h e r f i l m crew w o r k i n g o u t o f V a n c o u v e r and w a s n ' t s c h e d u l e d f o r H e s q u i a t use u n t i l t h e m i d d l e o f t h e summer . I f t h e g e a r and m a t e r i a l s d i d n ' t e x c i t e t h e c r e w , t h e n t h e p r o s p e c t o f a c t u a l l y u s i n g a l l o f i t c e r t a i n l y d i d , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r b e i n g i n t h e f i e l d f o r n e a r l y , a month w i t h o u t t h e t o o l s o f f i l m m a k i n g . The s t u d e n t f i l m m a k e r s c o n s t r u c t e d a d a r k r o o m i n t h e c o r n e r o f one o f t h e o l d b u i l d i n g s , u s i n g p l a s t i c g a r b a g e p a i l s f o r r i n s i n g t a n k s , and w a t e r p a c k e d by hand f r o m t h e w e l l t h a t p r o v i d e d <<• a l l o f t h e c l e a n w a t e r n e e d s o f t h e H e s q u i a t p r o j e c t . To b e g i n w i t h , t h e r e were many a c t i v i t i e s t o p h o t o g r a p h and i n f i n i t e r e a l m s o f I n d i a n c u l t u r e t o e x p l o r e . A f t e r a month w i t h o u t e q u i p m e n t , t h e s t u d e n t s were w i l l i n g to s i g n n e a r l y a n y t h i n g t h a t w o u l d a l l o w them t o b e g i n s h o o t i n g . A f t e r p e r m i s s i o n had been g i v e n , t h e t h r e e s t u d e n t s s o u g h t c l a r i f i c a t i o n as to who t h e y were a c t u a l l y w o r k i n g f o r . The H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t had i n s p i r e d t h e i r l o y a l t y . They w a n t e d t o s u p p o r t t h e P r o j e c t and do w h a t e v e r was n e c e s s a r y to a i d t h e Band i n e s t a b l i s h i n g o w n e r s h i p o v e r t h e f i l m m a t e r i a l : That was the thing about the f i l m i n g that we a l l fel>t i d e a l i s t i c about. I know I did. The contract was breaking ground. If the Band could r e t a i n ownership of the f i l m , reversing the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the N.F.B. and groups l i k e , t h a t , then i t was the f i r s t blow, in a media sense, for aboriginal r i g h t s . B . J . C l a y d e n 40 The s t u d e n t s f e l t a n a t u r a l a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e B a n d , and l o o k e d t o t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e f o r l e a d e r s h i p and d i r e c t i o n i n t h e k i n d s o f f i l m s t h e Band a c t u a l l y w a n t e d and n e e d e d . The c o n t r a c t was due t o a r r i v e f o r s i g n i n g a t any t i m e , and i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t w i t h c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n s c o m i n g to a c l o s e , t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e w o u l d t h e n have t i m e to d i s c u s s i n d e t a i l how f i l m c o u l d b e s t s e r v e t h e H e s q u i a t s . The f i l m c rew d i d n o t p e r c e i v e t h a t d i r e c t i o n c o u l d n o t come f r o m t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e b e c a u s e o f a l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e o f f i l m and b e c a u s e t h e C o m m i t t e e was s p e n d i n g most o f i t s t i m e and e n e r g y a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t . The c o n f u s i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m n o t r e a l i z i n g where t h e d i r e c t i o n w o u l d have t o c o m e , i f a n y t h i n g was g o i n g to be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h a t summer, l e f t t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h s t r o n g i n n e r c o n f l i c t : I wanted to make a f i l m for the Band, not knowing what the Band wanted and not being able to communicate well enough through the d i f f e r e n t cultures to understand what was wanted and not having the personal strength to just take a very subjective view of the s i t u a t i o n and impose myself on it, which is probably what we should have done. B . J . C l a y d e n The a c t u a l d i r e c t o r s o f t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t l i v e d i n V a n c o u v e r and h e l d f u l l t i m e j o b s d u r i n g t h e summer. In t h e m i d d l e o f J u n e , J o h n Raymond and R o c k y Amos f l e w i n t o H e s q u i a t f o r t h e weekend w i t h c o n t r a c t s i n hand f o r t h e f i l m crew to s i g n . A n d e r s o n had a l r e a d y s e e n t h e c o n t r a c t s , had c a l l e d t h e f i l m c r e w , and t o l d them t h a t t h e y were f r e e to 41 s i g n t h e d o c u m e n t s , b u t t h a t t h e l e g a l i t y o r b i n d i n g f o r c e i n t h e c o n t r a c t s was open t o d o u b t . The s t u d e n t s were c o n -f u s e d and d i s i l l u s i o n e d i n d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t t h e B a n d ' s d e s i r e f o r o w n e r s h i p r i g h t s o v e r t h e f i l m m a t e r i a l c o u l d n o t be e n f o r c e d l e g a l l y . I t was J a t e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e Band c o n t r a c t w o u l d be v o i d i n a c o u r t o f law s i n c e t h e c o n t r a c t r e s t r i c t e d p u b l i c a c c e s s t o a p u b l i c p l a c e . T h i s was news t o t h e s t u d e n t s . An I n d i a n r e s e r v e i s Crown L a n d and s e t a s i d e f o r use by t h e I n d i a n s . F u r t h e r , b e c a u s e i t i s Crown L a n d , t h e N a t i o n a l Museum, as a Crown C o r p o r a t i o n , n e e d s no o n e ' s p e r m i s s i o n to move o n t o an I n d i a n r e s e r v e : . . .They need nobody's permission to do anything on Crown Land. The Archaeological Survey goes out and surveys and digs .holes in the ground. They don't need anybody's permission. I t ' s just a p u b l i c i t y point to do that. Legally_ i t needs no permission .... And that was the way they saw this whole project. S u s a n A n d e r s o n The s t u d e n t s s i g n e d t h e c o n t r a c t , u n d e r s t a n d i n g v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e l e g a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f how t h e c o n t r a c t w o u l d a f f e c t t h e N . F . B . , o r how t h e Band a c t u a l l y p l a n n e d t o use t h e d o c u m e n t . The t o n e f o r t h e summer had been s e t ; t h e s t u d e n t s began to f e e l l i k e pawns i n someone e l s e ' s game. In a d d i t i o n t o a l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e o v e r a l l f i l m p r o j e c t and d o u b t t h a t as a g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s t h e y c o u l d make f i l m s , t h e crew members were s t y m i e d by o t h e r c o n f l i c t s as w e l l : t h e i n e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e f i l m c r e w meant t h e y o v e r l o o k e d t h e e x t e n t o f a d a p t a t i o n and 42 p l a n n i n g n e c e s s a r y to u n d e r t a k e a f i l m p r o j e c t o f t h i s k i n d . T h e y were i n c a p a b l e o f f o r m u l a t i n g and c a r r y i n g o u t a p r o p e r p l a n , and no one on t h e c rew r e a l i z e d t h a t e n t h u s i a s m was n o t e n o u g h : We were r e a l l y naive as far as documentary f i l m making went, and maybe we didn't have the confidence we could do i t . But I'm sure we could have, if we hadn 't f e l t so much pressure to please somebody else, and not knowing who, not being mature enough to please ourselves, to put f i l m above everything else. B . J . C l a y d e n , In a d d i t i o n to t h e p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s f e l t by t h e f i l m m a k e r s , a l a c k o f B a p p o r t e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e H e s q u i a t Band and t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r r o l e as f i l m m a k e r s . T h i s gap grew o u t o f t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g , i n A p r i l , b e t w e e n t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n V a n c o u v e r , J o h n Raymond and R o c k y A m o s . I t was d u r i n g t h i s f i r s t d i s c u s s i o n t h a t t h e p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r s c o m m u n i c a t e d a s t r o n g s e n s e o f p r o t e c t i v e n e s s t o w a r d s t h e Band and t o l d t h e f i l m s t u d e n t s t o l e a v e Band d e c i s i o n s t o Band m e m b e r s . The d i r e c t o r s f e a r e d t h e i n t r u s i o n o f o u t s i d e r s i n t o t h e e s t a b -l i s h e d Band p r o c e s s e s . Now a n o t h e r e l e m e n t was a d d e d t o n a i v e t y and b l i n d e n t h u s i a s m : I know we came on r e a l l y strong and atmost scared outsiders of the project and I'm glad we did, because people went into i t in the right way, with fear. J o h n Raymond 43 As a r e s u l t of these s t rong warn ings , the crew members became a f r a i d of Band members and f e l t s e l f - c o n s c i o u s about being p resent in the Indian C u l t u r e . They began to keep to t h e m s e l v e s , making invo lvement with Band members working at Hesqu ia t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . The crew was b l i n d to the most impor tant r e s o u r c e f o r f i l m , the people themse lves . S e v e r a l Band members saw c l e a r l y at the time that a d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n by the f i l m crew would have improved the s i t u a t i o n , as v o i c e d by Stephen C h a r l e s o n : If i t had been clear in your minds that you were working for us, you wouldn 't have had to worry about the National Museum, the N.F.B. or anybody else, just have to worry about the kind of gob you were doing for us. Ask us what you should shoot. Instead i t seemed l i k e you guys listened to the N.F.B. or Suki [Susan] Anderson or something l i k e that. Never asked what we thought about the whole thing. S ince the f i l m s tudents were aware of many u n r e s o l v e d a s p e c t s of the p r o j e c t t r o u b l i n g the o r g a n i z e r s in both Vancouver and Ottawa, they began to see themselves as an i m p o s i t i o n ori the Band, an element that had been u n n e c e s s a r i l y f o i s t e d on the Hesqu ia t P r o j e c t . They f e l t t h e t d i r e c t o r s of the Hesqu ia t C u l t u r a l Committee had been cornered i n t o a c c e p t i n g the f i l m p r o j e c t p r e m a t u r e l y . Th is idea found r e i n f o r c e m e n t in the shyness Bind members d i s p l a y e d towards the f i l m crew dur ing the i n i t i a l days of c o n t a c t at H e s q u i a t , when the Indians were wondering who the e x t r a white people were. Instead of r e c o g n i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r -e n c e s , the crew i n t e r p r e t e d the d i s t a n c e as ev idence that 44 t h e f i l m crew was a d i s r u p t i o n , an u n a c c e p t e d e l e m e n t to be d i s t r u s t e d . Band members saw them i n a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t m a n n e r : Welt, when you guys f i r s t came, I didn 't know which one of you were archaeologists and which ones were photographers. When you f i r s t arrived at Hesquiat, no one knew what your jobs were. You guys were a l l just strangers. White people coming to work for us. It took a few days, maybe a few weeks, before f i n a l l y we distinguished you guys apart, you know. You, B i l l y , and B. J. were photographers, and Haggarty, Bob and Allan were archaeologists. S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n The f i l m crew had come to H e s q u i a t as a work team t o c a r r y o u t a s p e c i f i c j o b . S i n c e Band members d i d n ' t know how a f i l m was m a d e , t h e y assumed t h a t what t h e f i l m crew was d o i n g was p a r t o f t h a t unknown p r o c e s s . The s t u d e n t s d i d n ' t know t h a t t h e Band saw them as e x p e r t : We didn't think of you guys as some kind of imposition or anything like that, you know. We thought we'd hired some people with a lot of technical knowledgeiin making a movie. I guess if you guys didn't know what you were doing, we expected you to ask. If you were in trouble, we had no i n d i c a -tion that you were in trouble. We thought you were just going about your job normally, whatever you were doing. S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n The f e e l i n g s o f i s o l a t i o n and d i s o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t t h e f i l m crew was e x p e r i e n c i n g were n a t u r a l i n a new s i t u a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n a n o t h e r c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e 45 was no one a t H e s q u i a t who c o u l d s t i m u l a t e a t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s i n t o p o s i t i v e a w a r e n e s s . The c r e w r e q u i r e d i n s i g h t i n t o t h e m s e l v e s and i n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f e n t e r i n g a n o t h e r c u l t u r e , and t h e y n e e d e d to a c q u i r e p a t -i e n c e f o r w a t c h i n g and r e l a t i n g what was s e e n to be t h e g o a l s o f t h e f i l m . W h i l e t h e N a t i o n a l Museum r e p r e s e n t a t i v e had v e r b a l l y o u t l i n e d what k i n d o f f i l m i c m a t e r i a l w o u l d s a t i s f y t h e Museum, no one i n t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e had a c l e a r i d e a o f what t h e Band w a n t e d . E v e r y o n e u n c o n s c i o u s l y e x p e c t e d e v e r y o n e e l s e t o know, w h e n , i n f a c t , no one knew s p e c i f i c i a l l y how to f u l f i l l any o f t h e g e n e r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s i n v o l v e d . On a more p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , t h e l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n and r a p p o r t b e t w e e n crew and Band c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t no t i m e had been s p e n t by t h e crew i n g e t t i n g to know t h e H e s q u i a t p e o p l e and t h e i r c u l t u r e , t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e B a n d , o r t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t . A b l i n d -n e s s d i s t o r t e d t h e f i l m m a k e r s ' v i s i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , \ i t had been s u g g e s t e d by A n d e r s o n t h a t A l i c e P a u l , t h e c o o k f o r t h e p r o j e c t , w o u l d make an e x c e l l e n t s u b j e c t f o r a s h o r t f i l m on b a s k e t m a k i n g . No one a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e amount o f t i m e i t t a k e s to f i l m e v e n a s t a t i c t a s k , s u c h as t h e w e a v i n g o f a b a s k e t . S i n c e t h e r e was n o t e n o u g h money t o h i r e Band members to work s o l e l y f o r t h e f i l m c r e w , t h e p e o p l e who had been s i n g l e d o u t by A n d e r s o n as f i l m s u b j e c t s were a l m o s t t o t a l l y p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t o f more 46 i m m e d i a t e c o n c e r n . A l i c e P a u l f o r e x a m p l e , was c o o k i n g f o r n e a r l y 30 p e o p l e a t H e s q u i a t . A s i d e f r o m t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e n e e d s o f t h e f i l m c r e w , A l i c e s i m p l y d i d n o t have t h e e n e r g y o r i n c l i n a t i o n t o weave a b a s k e t f o r a f i l m . She n o r m a l l y w o r k e d q u i c k l y , w e a v i n g f o r p l e a s u r e and f o r i n t e n d e d s a l e s . L a t e r t h a t summer , A l i c e t o l d one o f t h e f i l m crew members t h a t many y e a r s b e f o r e , a man had come t o H e s q u i a t and had t a k e n p h o t o g r a p h s o f h e r m o t h e r m a k i n g b a s k e t s . She f e l t h e r m o t h e r was a f a r b e t t e r b a s k e t w e a v e r , and s i n c e t h e p h o t o g r a p h s were a l r e a d y t a k e n o f h e r m o t h e r , t h e c rew s h o u l d s p e n d i t s t i m e t r y i n g to l o c a t e t h a t m a t e r i a l . A l i c e , l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d a p i c t u r e i n the C u r t i s C o l l e c t i o n as b e i n g t h a t o f h e r m o t h e r . F i l m i n g p r o b l e m s were n o t l i m i t e d to t r y i n g to f i n d t i m e f o r e l d e r s t o be f i l m e d . T h e r e was d i f f i c u l t y i n f i l m i n g t h e y o u n g e r p e o p l e as w e l l . The crew had no i n s i g h t i n t o t h e k i n d s o f e m b a r r a s s e m e n t Band members e x p e r i e n c e d when t h e f i l m i n g p r o c e s s was new t o them and n o t y e t u n d e r s t o o d . The f i l m crew was shy and c o u l d n ' t e a s e t h e same f e e l i n g s i n t h e p e o p l e t h e y were f i l m i n g . R e s i s t a n c e to b e i n g f i l m e d was a s t a n c e t h e c rew d i d n ' t r e c o g n i z e ; i t a s s u m e d i f i t was w o r k i n g f o r t h e B a n d , t h e n Band members w o u l d somehow m a g i c a l l y c o -o p e r a t e . C h a r l e s o n d e s c r i b e d Band f e e l i n g s : I had the veal funny image in my head of you guys who were going around to take pictures of these guys who were kneeling on the ground [doing archaeo-logy] . It seemed real funny. I didn't want to be in on it, because everybody looked real s i l l y . That's when I knew i t was going to be a r e a l l y weird summer, 47 when I started f e e l i n g real uncomfortable right from the beginning, because I didn't think of myself being in this movie where a l l they did was just be kneeling down through the whole thing. I guess I was thinking about a whole d i f f e r e n t f i l m than you guys were at that time .... I guess the other people that were there f e l t about the same as me. They were-kind of shy. If they had a piece of d i r t on t h e i r face when you guys came around, they rubbed i t off. Because they wanted to look good in the pictures. The f i l m crew had n o t e x p l a i n e d i t s i n t e n t i o n s ; no c o n -s c i o u s l y f o r m e d m e t h o d s o f a p p r o a c h e x i s t e d . I t assumed t h e Band had been t o l d a b o u t f i l m m a k i n g and u n d e r s t o o d whatwwas r e q u i r e d . The c rew went t h r o u g h a l l t h e m o t i o n s o f s h o o t i n g s c e n e s , w i t h l i t t l e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e r e a l i t y o f what t h e y were d o i n g . B u t b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s as f i l m m a k e r s and t h e p e o p l e t h e y were f i l m i n g was a v a s t d i s t a n c e . As an a r c h a e o l o g i s t , S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n s e n s e d t h e f i l m c r e w was m i s s i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e f i n d i n g s a t t h e S u r v e y p i t s : Tt seemed like they were in the wrong places at the wrong times a lot of the time. We 'd be doing something important in arch-aeology or something like that and you guys weren't there. We'd a l l be working away, wondering, "Where the hell are they? There's something r e a l l y important going on right here". Not even there. If they wanted the whole story, they were missing a l o t . The f i l m c r e w was b l i n d to t h e i n s i g h t f u l d e t a i l s o f e v e n t s t h a t a d o c u m e n t a r y f i l m must c a p t u r e i f t h e s u r f a c e r e a l i t y o f a s i t u a t i o n i s t o be p e n e t r a t e d , and t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e r e a l i t y r e v e a l e d . . 48 R e m a i n i n g d i r e c t i o n l e s s , t h e c r e w c o u l d n o t o r d e r i t s a p p r o a c h . I t s a t t e n t i o n s c a t t e r e d i n t r y i n g to r e c o r d e v e r y -t h i n g r a t h e r t h a n s e l e c t i n g t h e t e l l i n g e v e n t s . E v e n t u a l l y t h e f i l m crew e n d e d up w o n d e r i n g what to s h o o t . When a t t e n t i o n was p l a c e d on one p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y t o s h o o t f a r more f o o t a g e t h a n t h e a c t i v i t y w a r r a n t e d , b e c a u s e t h e crew c o u l d n o t i m a g i n e how t h e m a t e r i a l w o u l d be e d i t e d . L a c k o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f w o r k p r i n t s h i p -ments b a c k to H e s q u i a t was a n o t h e r o b s t a c l e t h a t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e c r e w ' s l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . U n p r o c e s s e d f i l m m a i l e d f r o m H e s q u i a t on W e d n e s d a y s b a r e l y had t i m e t o r e a c h V a n c o u v e r i n t i m e f o r p r o c e s s i n g and r e s h i p p i n g b a c k t o T o f i n o , and on t o H e s q u i a t on t h e f o l l o w i n g W e d n e s d a y ' s m a i l p l a n e f l i g h t . A minimum o f one o r two w e e k ' s d e l a y was i n e v i t a b l e . H o w e v e r , f o r r e a s o n s t h e f i l m c r e w n e v e r u n d e r s t o o d , t h e f i r s t s h i p -ment o f w o r k p r i n t f r o m V a n c o u v e r d i d n o t r e a c h H e s q u i a t u n t i l v e r y l a t e i n J u l y . T h e r e were e n o u g h m i s t a k e s i n t h e f i r s t r o l l o f f i l m to p u t t h e f i l m crew on t h e r i g h t t r a c k , t e c h -n i c a l l y . As i t w a s , by t h e t i m e i t d i d v i e w t h e f o o t a g e , m i s t a k e s o f t h a t f i r s t week o f s h o o t i n g had o n l y been d u p l i - : ca ted , t i m e and a g a i n , d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v e n i n g weeks o f f i l m i n g . The t y p e s o f e r r o r s were e l e m e n t a r y and e a s i l y c o r r e c t e d . The c rew had a d o p t e d t h e h a b i t o f n o t u s i n g a t r i p o d . The r e s u l t i n g f o o t a g e was s h a k y and c o u l d n o t be j u s t i f i e d by t h e s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . I t had a l s o r e l i e d t o o h e a v i l y on t h e a u t o m a t i c t h r o u g h - t h e-1 e n s l i g h t m e t e r i n g s y s t e m w i t h o u t r e a l i z i n g t h a t - s o m e l i g h t i n g s i t u a t i o n s were f o o l i n g t h e s y s t e m . / 49 The r e s u l t s were s h o t s t h a t "wowed" as t h e c a m e r a p a n n e d o v e r a s c e n e w i t h v a r y i n g l i g h t l e v e l s , o r s h o t s o f u n d e r -e x p o s e d s u b j e c t s a g a i n s t l i g h t b a c k g r o u n d s s u c h as t h e s k y o r o c e a n . One o f t h e c a m e r a s was s c r a t c h i n g t h e f i l m e m u l s i o n . A s i n g l e l e t t e r s e n t t o t h e c r e w , i f n o t t h e work p r i n t i t s e l f , w o u l d h a v e a l e r t e d t h e c r e w ifeo what t h e f i l m s u p e r v i s o r must have been s c r e e n i n g i n V a n c o u v e r . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e t e c h n i c a l f l a w s was t h e f l a t , u n i n -t e r e s t i n g , l i f e l e s s q u a l i t y o f t h e f o o t a g e . The human d e t a i l were m i s s i n g . C l o s e ups t o g i v e t h e a u d i e n c e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e m e a n i n g b e h i n d e v e n t s were n o t t h e r e . No amount o f e d i t i n g , v o i c e - o v e r n a r r a t i o n , o r m u s i c w o u l d c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e l a c k o f i n s i g h t . Wi t h the:project goi ng i n t o i t s f i n a l m o n t h , t h e c rew f e l t t o t a l l y d e m o r a l i z e d and u n a b l e to o b j e c t i v e l y s o r t t h r o u g h t h e p r o b l e m s i n t h e f o o t a g e . In t h e t i m e t h a t r e m a i n e d t h e most s u c c e s s f u l s h o o t i n g e x p e r i e n c e a r o s e o u t o f t h e c e l e b r a t i o n , " H e s q u i a t D a y s " , a r r a n g e d by t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e t o b r i n g H e s q u i a t s to t h e c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t t o see what was b e i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d . A p o t l a t c h was g i v e n , w i t h I n d i a n d a n c i n g , s i n g i n g and game p l a y i n g . The c e l e b r a t i o n l a s t e d t h r e e d a y s and p r o v i d e d p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h v i s u a l and a u d i o m a t e r i a l . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e c rew f e l t i t had a d e f i n i t e p u r p o s e and f o c u s . I t s e t t o w o r k , and t h e H e s q u i a t s r e s p o n d e d : Most of them up there ^Hesquiat Days* when a lot of them came up3 saw you guys for the first time. Saw you running around doing your whole movie thing. Seeing you taking pictures during their celebration3 they all figured they were 50 gonna be in i t then, you know. "Ah, this movie in Hesquiat, t h i s is our part". S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n H o w e v e r , s y n c s o u n d was n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e e q u i p -ment and i n e x p e r i e n c e l e d t h e c rew t o a t t e m p t what p r o -f e s s i o n a l s w o u l d have a c c o m p l i s h e d i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y . W i t h -o u t c r y s t a l s y n c f a c i l i t i e s i n b o t h c a m e r a and t a p e r e c o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t r u n n i n g s p e e d b e t w e e n b o t h m a c h i n e s , i t w o u l d l a t e r , i n e d i t i n g , b e v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o s y n c h r o n i z e t h e s o u n d o f s i n g i n g and drum b e a t s w i t h t h e a c t u a l f i l m i m a g e s o f p e o p l e s i n g i n g and drum s t i cks ' - la i t t i ng d r u m s . T h e r e were p e o p l e a t H e s q u i a t who c o u l d have g i v e n a i d t o t h e c rew i n f i n d i n g i t s way i n t o a n o t h e r c u l t u r e e v e n i f t h e f i l m m a k i n g c o n t i n u e d t o be t r o u b l e d . One band member , S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n , had w o r k e d w i t h t h e a r c h a e o l o g i s t s t h e p r e v i o u s summer and o b s e r v e d t h e s l o w p r o c e s s o r o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t t h e a r c h a e o l o g i s t s had u n d e r g o n e . H i s e x p e r i e n c e as an I n d i a n i n t h e w h i t e c u l t u r e made him i n t e n s e l y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n , and he had d e f i n i t e i d e a s a b o u t what k i n d o f f i l m s t h e Band n e e d e d . S t e p h e n a t t e m p t e d t o c o m m u n i c a t e t o t h e f i l m c rew t h a t i t s h o u l d f i r s t o f a l l r e l a x , l o o k a r o u n d , and t h e n make up i t s own m i n d a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e f i l m s . What would have made i t successful is if the people went up there would be people who knew what they were doing, knew t h e i r equipment, knew what they need 51 to make a f i l m , everything .... Get those same people to ask for help when they are there. Hold a meet-ing. Find out who you're going to ask,, what the most important thing w i l l be to be filmed in each part. Then go find out from somebody else, who 's in charge of t h i s , who knows this the best, get help from them. Sit down and t a l k to them, one at a time. Find out exactly from them what you should photograph, what the most important steps are, whatever the procedure is, whatever t h e i r job i s . Then go and watch them for awhile. Then i t would make a lot of sense. Get people you're f i l m i n g r e a l l y involved in the process. Tell them what i t i s . Explain to them that they might have to do something over again. It 's some kind of motion. Tell them that they shouldn't be self-conscious when they're singled out of the whole bunch. I guess every:day make sure you involve them. Get them to work for you and t e l l you when something important is going to happen. Show some of them how to [use the equipment]. The c rew was u n a b l e t o a p p l y t h e a d v i c e and r e m a i n e d s t y m i e d by c o n f l i c t s . By t h e end o f A u g u s t , e v e r y o n e had l o s t t h e w i l l t o t r y . The f i l m had been s p e n t , and e n t h u s i a s m was g o n e , e v e n f o r S t e p h e n who had been k e e n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e f i l m p r o j e c t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g : We gave up on thinking about how I wanted the f i l m to be or the whole thing like that. I think everybody else got that way around the same time, too. P a t t e r n s had been e s t a b l i s h e d and i t was t o o l a t e f o r any o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e t o p u s h t h e f i l m p r o j e c t i n a n o t h e r d i -r e c t i o n : We didn't want to help, you know, or we didn't even think of helping, I guess, helping you guys and. t e l l i n g you guys, "Hey, come on over here with your equipment. There 's something important happening here. See that a r t i f a c t , we're r e a l l y proud of i t . We want you to shoot i t for us" . . .. We placed you guys outside. We didn't want to work you guys too much. I don't know why. Maybe i t looked like you guys weren 't enjoying it, I guess, otherwise we 'd be thinking, "These guys r e a l l y like to take pictures. I wonder what t h e y ' l l take pictures of next". Instead we were saying, "These guys wouldn't like to walk a l l the way over here with t h e i r stuff", it was that kind of f e e l i n g . S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n CHAPTER SEVEN WINDING DOWN A l l during Hesquiat Bays, they thought they were being filmed. The people knew that you guys were there for the Hesquiat Film, and since a l l that happened, a l l the footage and that seemed to have disappeared, you know. It 's not even talked about any more. They forgot a l l about the f i l m , I think. Maybe there's s t i l l a few of us who remember i t ' s s t i l l there. But I think there was probably quite a big disappointment they didn 't see a movie come out of it, but not too much, 'cause it 's not r e a l l y as real as i t is to a l l you people out there. You guys care about i t more than we do. S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n 53 By t h e end o f t h e summer , a v a s t number o f b l a c k and w h i t e s t i l l s and c o l o r s l i d e s , p l u s most o f t h e 16mm f i l m s t o c k had been s h o t and s e n t to V a n c o u v e r f o r p r o c e s s i n g . The crew n u m b l y c a t a l o g u e d t h e 35mm m a t e r i a l , p a c k e d g e a r , and went b a c k to V a n c o u v e r e n g u l f e d i n f e e l i n g t h a t t h e f i l m e x p e r i e n c e had been a f a i l i n g and w a s t e f u l v e n t u r e . I t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e c rew t o e v a l u a t e t h e e v e n t s t h a t had d e v e l o p e d a t H e s q u i a t , and to d e t e r m i n e why t h e i n i t i a l e n t h u s i a s m had n o t f o u n d f u l f i l l m e n t . The c o n t r a c t between t h e N a t i o n a l Museum and t h e Band d i d n o t e x i s t . J o h n Raymond c o n t i n u e d to be e n g a g e d i n a c q u i r i n g p h y s i c a l p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e f i l m m a t e r i a l , w i t h o u t a c t u a l l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n " w o r k p r i n t " and tforjgiiinal". In l i g h t o f s u b s e q u e n t e v e n t s , t h e a s s u r -a n c e s g i v e n to Raymond by t h e N a t i o n a l Museum were i r o n i c . I realty s t i l l didn't know enough about what we had, that we r e a l l y had the control of the f i l m that the National Museum assured us, because the only con-tact we had, George MacDonald, gave us a l l the assurances. But I never r e a l l y f e l t , I s t i l l know that there is a negative or something somewhere in Montreal that can't be,wwon't have anything don It to i t . He assures us that we have complete control over i t and that that thing in Montreal can't be touched.13 J o h n Raymond The m o s t i m p o r t a n t d e t a i l o f o w n e r s h i p was b e i n g o v e r l o o k e d See E p i l o g u e Page 7 8 , l e t t e r f r o m D e n n i s S a w y e r , d a t e d J u l y 2 2 , 1976 . 54 where w o u l d t h e " o r i g i n a l " be s t o r e d and w o u l d t h e r e be a c c e s s to i t ? The people in the Archaeology-Ethnology D i v i s i o n [National Museum of Man] made if p e r f e c t l y clear that they thought the Band ought to have the footage .... The lawyer for the Corporation said that they would be w i l l -ing to set up what is called a "uses contract". S u s a n A n d e r s o n The u s e s c o n t r a c t was n e v e r p r e s e n t e d to t h e H e s q u i a t s f o r s i g n i n g . A f t e r t h e c l o s e o f t h e s u m m e r ' s f i l m p r o g r a m , t h e d e c i s i o n was made i n O t t a w a t h a t i t w o u l d n o t be c o n t i n u e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . T h e r e w o u l d be no f u n d s f o r e d i t i n g . W i t h o u t c o m p l e t i o n money o r a c c e s s to t h e o r i g i n a l f o o t a g e now s t o r e d i n t h e N . F . B . v a u l t s , t h e c o s t s to t h e Band f o r f i n i s h i n g ifehe f i l m s w o u l d be e x c e s s i v e , b e c a u s e t h e Band w o u l d h a v e , to r a i s e , * i n a d d i t i o n to f u n d i n g c o s t s , f u n d s t o pay f o r t h e p r i n t i n g o f a d u p l i c a t e n e g a t i v e , s i n c e Band a c c e s s to t h e o r i g i n a l d i d n o t e x i s t . A t t h e same t i m e e a r l y i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 7 3 , J o h n Raymond and R o c k y Amos r e s i g n e d as d i r e c t o r s o f t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t , l e a v i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s u n f i n i s h e d b e t w e e n t h e Band and t h e N a t i o n a l Museum and t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d . The N . F . B . had h'eVerc e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e i m a g e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f i l m e m u l s i o n ; h o w e v e r t h e N . F . B . d i d c l a i m o w n e r s h i p i n t h e f i l m m a t e r i a l on w h i c h t h e i m a g e s were s t o r e d . S i n c e t h e Band had n o t been d e a l i n g w i t h t h e N . F . B . t h e r e was no p o s s i b l e way f o r them to know t h e u l t i m a t e o u t -55 come o f t h e o w n e r s h i p s t r u g g l e . D e n n i s Sawyer o f t h e N . F . B . knew a b o u t t h e demands f o r o w n e r s h i p by t h e H e s q u i a t s , b u t a c c o r d i n g to A n d e r s o n : What had happened was that a l l the 'original from a l l of the prog eats stored in the labin'-Vancouver was bundled up and sent off to Montreal when the projects were over. So the N.F.B. had i t in its vault and w i l l not release i t to anybody which means if the National Museum was going to pay somebody to edit a f i l m out of the footage, tHejy obviously need for somebody to have access to the o r i g i n a l , once the e d i t i n g is done so that they <-.-can do the A & B r o l l i n g . The National Film Board w i l l not give permission for that. They w i l l allow the dupe o r i g i n a l out, but not the o r i g i n a l at a l l . The National Museum was screaming about that because the f i l m i n g was done for them, and to be denied access to the o r i g i n a l was r i d i c u l o u s . I f t h e Band o r a n y o n e e l s e w a n t e d t o c o m p l e t e f i l m s f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l s h o t t h a t summer, i t w o u l d have to pay f o r t h e d u p l i c a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l . Even w i t h a " u s e s c o n -t r a c t " , t h e Band w o u l d n o t have d i r e c t and i m m e d i a t e c o n t r o l o f a l l t h e f i l m m a t e r i a l . No one to d a t e has s e e n a l l o f t h e f o o t a g e s h o t a t H e s q u i a t . T h e r e i s no way a t t h i s t i m e to e s t a b l i s h t h e v i a b i l i t y o f t r y i n g to c o m p l e t e a f i l m f r o m t h e f o o t a g e . The Band has no i m m e d i a t e p l a n s to e d i t t h e f i l m . W i t h o u t c o m p l e t e d f i l m s , t h e s u m m e r ' s p r o j e c t must r e m a i n an u n -f i n i s h e d e x p e r i e n c e . B u t t h e r e i s an a l t e r n a t e e n d i n g to t h i s s t o r y , a " m i g h t have b e e n " : Probably that movie, if the movie was made in Hesquiat that summer and finished in the winter, i t would prob-ably play a big part in the t r i b e . Hesquiat Days. In the night time, they'ed)have a continuous showing of i t . People look at it, look at it, look at it and look at i t . That's what would have happened if i t was a good movie. Maybe at Christmas time or when somebody gets married, during a Band meeting or after a Band meeting, they could whip out the old projector and see the Hesquiat movie again. It would have been t h e i r s . It would have been like an Indian dance. It would have been like a boat in the f l e e t . It would be a part of l i f e . Addition to the year. Some-thing to put in the year. Something to look forward to. That's what i t would have done. S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n 57 APPENDIX 58 APPENDIX I N e w s p a p e r A r t i c l e s P e r t a i n i n g to t h e C h a r l e s E h l e r s C a s e 59 VANCOUVER P R O V I N C E , A u g u s t 1 , 1972 Removed from Island cave }*pt**<*~ *c - wriQu.r-ie*, Mystery of Surrey mummy cleared up The owner of a mummified body found in Surrey at the weekend said Monday he re-moved it from a cave on Van-couver Island to save it from animals and humans. Charlie Ehlers said in a tele-phone interview that when he discovered the cave four years a?o. many of the old Indian artifacts inside it were still in-tact. But each summer as he re-turned to the cave, near a logging road about 35 miles southwest of his Tofino home, more and more articles had been destroyed by vbears, other animals and humans. Ehlers, 47, said he finally took the mummy and th« it was in from the cave April when he found it to be the only undamaged artifact left. More than 30 R C M P mem-bers converged on a house in Surrey Saturday night after a man reported he had found a body in a box in a house he had purchased from Ehlers. John Stertz, a contractor, had bought the house and property for a subdivision and with John Niemi, a lock-smith, was installing locks. They found an old box under a table and took it to the front yard where they broke it open and found an almost •mm-- . 4-2"-• ••»,:' , • .* Old house in Surrey where mummified body was found. ed human brown can-perfecUy body vas. Ehlers had been moving his belongings to his permanent home in Tofino but said Mon-day he couldn't find the mum-my and box and figured it had been stolen. The next he heard of it was Sunday noon when To-fino R C M P came looking for him. He said they took him to a police car where they search-ed and handcuffed him and put him in jail for six hours until two Surrey R C M P of-ficers arrived. Ehlers said he managed to convince the police there was no foul play Involved by tak-ing them to the cave where he found the mummy and by producing a letter to the Van-couver museum offering the artifact to them. "The police were sure sur-prised when I showed them the cave," Ehlers said. He signed a statement and was released. The mummy was taken to Royal Columbian Hospital after its discovery and two university of B.C. anthropolo-gists were to inspect it today in an attempt to determine its age, sex and date of death. Grave or museum? 60 VANCOUVER PROVINCE A u g u s t 3 , 1972 Coroner will decide disimte over mummy MprOV. A U G • 319i'2 w ^ .n attempl will be made Frank said the cave is near the site of the old cannery op-erated by J . H . Todd & Son on Tofino Inlet at the mouth of the Kennedy River. • A U G A  l  today by archaeologist Ber -na rd S imonson to acquire a m u m m i f i e d body found in a S u r r e y house last weekend as an exhibit for the P r o v i n c i a l M u s e u m . But Joe Frank, a councillor for the Tofino Indians at Opit-sat, says he will do every-thing in his power to have the Indian body brought back and given a decent burial. Coroner Doug Jack of New Westminster said Simonson contacted him Wednesday and said he hoped to be able to ob-tain the mummy. "He is now on his way to Tofino to meet with the Indian leaders get their permission the mummy." / Jack said pathologist Dr. Cam Coady and Dr. K.R. Don-nelly of the department of anatomy at U B C examined the body Wednesday and found it well mummified. "It is a female and very old but no one would attempt to guess the age," Jack said. "There were some fragments ">f woven cloth on the chest and head which looked like iinen. It was definitely white man's cloth." Jack said the woman's knees were drawn up to her chest and the feet crossed. The left arm was across the chest and the right arm was along the side of the body. The head was turned to the left. " T h e r e was an Indian v i l -lage t h e m when the cannery was operat ing in the 1920s and 1930s. There was a great epi-demic in 1925 and 1926 and people were d y i n g like f l i e s . " R C M P said a recent inspec-t ion showed there are s t i l l more art i facts in it and anoth-er bid w i l l be m a d e to have i t sealed off. Frank said most of the m e m b e r s of counci l were out ers a n d / f i s h i n g Wednesday night and to t a k * the earl iest they could meet would be this m o r n i n g . " I don 't know what their decis ion will be. B u t what w o u l d y o u do if this was one of yours?" The mummy was found last weekend in a Surrey house that had just been bought by John Stertz. The previous owner. Charlie Ehlers of Tofi-no, said he removed the mummy from the cave last April when he found that hu-mans and animals were de-stroying the artifacts. He had known about it for four years. E a r l i e r Wednesday ar-chaeologist Simonson said he is considering action against Ehlers for removing the mummy from the cave. " A decis ion w i l l l i k e l y be made today on what to do w i t h the m u m m y . I guess I w i l l have to m a k e that dec i -sion and it w i l l depend on what the Indians have to F r a n k said he had known about the body for years and made an a t t e m p t to have the t c a v e sealed off about f i v e years ago. He said he didn ' t rea l ize the body had been taken unt i l police phoned h i m ear l ier i n the day. " I think we should be left alone. Can ' t you let us rest in p e a c e ? " 61 VANCOUVER SUN & P R O V I N C E , A u g u s t 4 , 1972 . AT VICTORIA MUSEUM Indian body held - " T ! ' ^ ? ^ " < i i ? l$7£play ta. m u s e . The rem woman who was buried in a Vancouver Island cave no more than 100 years ago are ! now being held by the provin-cial museum in Victoria. Provincial archaeologist Bjorn Simonson said Thurs-day the remains would be re-turned to the local Indian tribe near Tofino ii that was their wish. "I think the interest of the Indians overrides the archeo-logical interest,*} -Simonson said. \ The body was found in a house in Surrey last weekend by John Stertz, wh'p had just purchased the house. Charlie Ehlers of Tofino, th^ previous owner, said he had \remov the mummy from a veav«r'at Tofino inlet last April. Doug Jack of New Westmin-ster, as coroner for the area where the body was found, took charge of it but released it to Simonson Thursday. Simonson said he thought there was only a remote pos-sibility that the Indians would approve of the museum keep-ing the remains. "If they agreed, we would store, it, but I doubt very much if it would- ever be dis-played," he said. "I don't go along with that sort of display — it amounts, to an indignity. "I don't-think you'd like to-Bee. your grandmother's" re-urn. "Our policy is to go along with the Indians and right now they're on the backs of the anthropologists and others for disturbing Indian burial grounds." Simonson said it was not technically correct to refer to the remains as a "mummy" since no special preserving process was used in the Indi-an burials. He said the re-markable state of preserva-tion was due to the extremely dry condition of the burial cave. Jnder provincial statute, /he Archeological and Histor-ic Sites Protection Act, it is il-legal to knowingly disturb burial sites, he said. The act provides for a maxi-mum fine of $1,000 or six months in jail, or both, on conviction. "This kind of vandalism is not tolerated by the Indians nor by ourselves," Simonson added. Two other mummmies are still lying undisturbed in hid-ded caves along Tofino Inlet, said Mrs. Elsie Seymour, cu-rator of the West Coast Mari-time Museum. The area along the inlet was a traditional burial ground for the Clayquot Indians, she said, and there are probably • more bodies ia caves no ona knows about. Museum plans to return to cave A mummified body discov-ered in a Surrey house., last weekend has gone to the Pro-vincial Museum in Victoria until arrangements' can be made for its final resting place. j Archaeologist/Bernard Si-« monson said Thursday muse- ; um officials hope the mummy j will be returned to its burial { cave on Tofino Inlet at the j mouth of the Kennedy River. I Even if the mummy,remains j at the museum it will not be i put on display, he said. Two J museum representatives are j currently in the Tofino area to ; discuss the situation with the j Indian band. < 62 VANCOUVER P R O V I N C E , A u g u s t 5 , 1972 . More Indian mummies secret Island caves TOFINO — At least two more Indian mummies are in secret caves in Tofino Inlet near this West Coast Vancou-ver Island village. Mrs. Elsie Seymour, cura-tor of the West Coast Mari-time Museum, says many local residents have known about the preserved historical bodies lor about four years but have kept their; exact [location secret from \stra. [gers. She says her husband, Nick, Ihas been to the caves near the mouth of the Kennedy Tiiver and has a photograph of the mummies, one a male and the other a female. Tne mummy, which was re-cently removed from a West Coast cave and taken to Sur-rey by Charlie Ehlers of Tofi-no, is now reported to be at the Provincial Museum in Vic-toria. Mrs. Seymour says one of the two mummies she knows of b-a's been "messed about" by/ animals or humans. The other, the female, is intact. She at first thought the mummy found curlier was the intact female but her husband went id the cave this week sisd s:i;<t the mummies were Mr.= . Seymour says the mummies were the remains c: members oi iho Ciayoquot Indian tr ibe. 63 VANCOUVER P R O V I N C E , A u g u s t 15 , 1972 VANCOUVER S U N , A u g u s t 14 , 1972 \gAN CHARGED T O F I N O — A of re-moving skeletal rcnfai?f.--}ias been laid against a m a r r « * ^ > allegedly removed tiie ido-ycar-old mummified body of an Indian woman from j rock shelter here last A p r i l . / , I tCMP said Charlo/ Ehlers of Tofino has beery charged under Section 4 / l i ) of ihe 1972 Archcolc-gica^jnd llistor-I ical Site-. Protection Act. The section stares: "No per-son shall knowingly destroy, desecrate, or .''alter a furial place or reraore from it skele-tal remains?' The act pro-vides for a maximum fine of ;$1,000 or six months in jail, or : both, on conviction. Removing mummy results in charge PrOV. A U G 151972 ° bpetial to The Province TOFINO — Charle Ehlers is scheduled to appear in pro-vincial court Wednesday to enter his plea on a charge of taking a mummy from its burial place. The charge results'from an information signed in Tofino Monday, under Section 4 (B) of the 1972, Archeological and Historical Sites Protection Act. The section states: "No person shall knowingly desec-rate or alter a burial place or remove from it skeletal re-mains." have to bring it back to Van-couver again." Ehlers said the mummy had been in a cave about 20 miles on the highway from Tofino and then about 17 miles into the bush. He said he had been hunting for black bears when he found it. "I was back there in April and just bones were left of the o t h e r two mummies. My mummy only weinhfd about five or It pouipds." She mummy now is re-fine mummy now IB I C Worted to be at the Provincia The act provides for a max- Aluseum in Victoria. imum fine of ,$1,000, six / : months in jail or btyh, on c o n / viction y / ^ e Ehlers said Monda h  would plead not gihlt/. He said he took the mummy from a cave on Vancouver Island in * April — four years after he found it — because bears had damaged two others in the isme place. The mummified Indian body was discovered two weeks ago by contractor John Stertz in a Surrey house he bought from Ehlers. "It was obviously a human body," Stertz said. "It was in a sitting position, with its head turned to the left and its hands straight down." Stertz said the mummy was in a makeshift plywood box wrapped in brown canvas. He immediately contacted the po-lice. Ehlers said he had taken the box to Surrey in the trunk of his car intending to give it to the Vancouver Museum. "I brought it over on the week-end and the museum was closed. I was going to go back." Frank, a councillor foi the Tofino Indians at Opitsat has said he will do everything in his power to have the bod; brought back and given a de cent burial. He said he hat known about the body fo years and made an attempt ti have the cave sealed off aboi five years ago. He said he left the mummy in its box at the Surrey house along with other personal property, rather than moving it to a farm he owns in Clov-erdale. "I didn't want to take Vl out to Cloverdale and then 64 VANCOUVER P R O V I N C E , A u g u s t 1 7 , 1 9 7 2 . eacls not -emit1 'G''ifo AUG TOFINO (Special) — A man charged with removing a mummified Indian body from its burial cave on Vancouver Island pleaded y not guii Wednesday and \yas rem/fid ed for trial Sept. 2'. Charles Karl Ehlers, 47. of Tofino. was charged after a mummy was found July 31 in J5 E l l t l l i l J l X Y 1 ? m t J a Surrey house he previously owned. / Meanwhile, provincial ar-cheologist Bernard Simonson said in Victoria he had been told by members of the Clay-oquot Indian Band they want the mummy returned, and now is awaiting an official re-quest from the band leaders. . The well-preserved body of the adult female Indian is being kept in the provincial museum in Victoria. The charge against Ehlers is the first iaid under the Ar-cheological and Historic Sites Protection Act. designed to protect Indian burial grounds. 65 H E S Q U I A T V A N D A L I S M S P A W N S M U S E U M ndians act to guard buna r>y RON r.fsr: On? day in 1970 some loggers w o r k i n g on the west coast of V a n c o u v e r I s land • s t u m b l e d upon a bush-scrccned cave just above tbe Udul :nc . Tney went i n . i g n o r i n g the w a r n i n g ' ! of two Hesquiat In-dians who were w o r k i n g wi th them. Inside, they found it was a tomb for long-dead m e m b e r s cf the Hesquiat tr ibe . There were skeletons and even some bodiec w h i c h ap-peared m u m m i f i e d , the flesh r p p a r e n t i y preserved by the s a i l a i l of l i u sea coast sanc-tuary . The l'ig'-'ers took out one of tlm hexics. sat it up in the mouth ' i f the rave and took picture- of their f ind . That did it for the present-i l : i v l h sfiuiat people. T h e r e hail her i I!!-I";MII!: reports of v a n d a l i s m ati.J p i racv :>v mis-guided and greedy souvenir hunters , and the leaders of the Indian band d e t e r m i n e d to stop it . They also decided to take steps to preserve their her i -tage by honoring their ances-tors i n a way that wo ul d i m -press the white m a n . The story was told in a spe-c i a l in te rv iew granted The Sun this week by R o c k y A m o s , c h a i r m a n of the Hes-q u i a t C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e , which for two years has been d i r e c t i n g archeo log ica l . an-thropologica l and l inguis t i c studies of the old Hesquiat v i l -lage n e a r E s t c v a n point , north of Tofino. A n d A m o s , 23. a V a n c o u v e r heavy construct ion w o r k e r , leaves no doubt that the l i e s -quiats themselves are d i rec t -ing the professionals . E v e r y b o d y w o r k i n g on the site had to sign a contract acknowledging that the l l c s -quiats re ta in the r ights to finds which m a y have price-VANCOUVER S U N , S e p t e m b e r 7, 1972 less h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e . T h a t even appl ied to a f i l m crew-h i r e d t h r o u g h the N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d by the N a t i o n a l 31useum of M a n i n O t t a w a . The c r e w of three spent the s u m m e r snooting act iv i t ies at the dig but the Hesquiat C u l -t u r a l C o m m i t t e e is hanging on to the f i l m unt i l i l s disposi t ion is agreed upon. If any c o m m e r c i a l use is m a d e of the f i l m the money is to go to the band . A n d even if i t ' s o n l y used for educat ional purposes , the c o m m i t t e e is going to take a hand in the e d i t i n g to m a k e sure that the p i c t u r e tel ls the true s tory . The a n c e s t r a l bones have been co l lec ted f r o m nine b u r i -a l caves , e x a m i n e d and ca ta l -ogued and stored away for eventual e n s h r i n m e n t i n a m u s e u m - a r c h i v e s b u i l d i n g 1o be ca l l ed the C u l t u r a l Ro-scareh C e n t r e . A r t i f a c t s that t e l l of e a r l y h i s tor i c and prehis tor i c l i v i n g condi t ions have a lso been co l lec ted , s tudied and cata-logued. T r i b a l legends and songs have been taped in an a m b i -tious p r o g r a m to recreate the H e s q u i a t l anguage (a N o o t k a d i a l e c t ) , w h i c h was s l i p p i n g into disuse . A n d this s u m m e r c o n c t r u c -t ion began on a t r a d i t i o n a l cedar -s lab longhouse w h i c h w i l l serve as a centre for d a n c i n g and othei cul ture de-velopment at the vi l lage w h i c h h a d been a l l but a b a n -doned . M o s t of the b a n d had m o v e d a w a y i n recent y e a r s , to an-other Hesquia t reserve at n e a r b y Hot Spr ings Cove, to P o r t A l b e r n i , V i c t o r i a or V a n -c o u v e r . " B u t a l r e a d y people are t a l k i n g about going b a c k , " sa id c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r J o h n R a y m o n d , who, l i k e A m o s , l i v e s in V a n c o u v e r . Since the c o m m i t t e e was set up A m o s and R a y m o n d have been busy negot ia t ing wi th v a r i o u s author i t ies , w h i c h turned out to be a two-way d e a l . They had to convince feder-al and p r o v i n c i a l authori t ies that the pro ject deserved f i -n a n c i a l a i d , and they had to h i re the sc ient i f ic f ie ld w o r k -ers a f ter m a k i n g sure they s a w eye-to-cyc w i t h the con-cept. " W e were pret ty suspicious at f i r s t , " a d m i t t e d R a y m o n d . 66 from molesters " I N D I A N S TO GUARD B U R I A L S " c o n t i n u e d . The significance of the work was host described by Or. Je-rome S. Cybulski of the de-partment of anthropology at University of California. Cybulski, who spent la summer at the site on a nr. from his university. CNuMlnod in a paper last fal^fiow the scientists systematically re-corded variatiwis in bones and teeth, y He s*fd preliminary esti-niatc»*'1>ased on specific bone cnurUs indicated that about VTO individuals are repre-sented in the collection nf skeletal bones from nine caves. Most of the caves yielded between three and It individuals, and one had as many as RO. "The skeletal material from the llesquial harbor will offer a significant contribution to knowledge about the physical variation of early indigenous populations of the B.C. coast," he wrote. "It i* currently (be largest sample with specified prove- , nance to be collected and ana-lysed from the territories of t h e ethnographically-defined Nontka-speaking peonies, and the first collection of skeletal material from this particular area of the west coast of Van-couver Island." He said continued study of the bones should pinpoint ge-netic differences between peo-ple who lived in various lo-calities. The project is also signifi-cant, he said, because people of the band are taking an ac-tive part in it. and the infor-mation obtained showed that, skeletal remains need not be removed from burial areas in order to be studied scientifi-cally. About 10 persons worked on the project last year and this year the number was stepped up to n o . Work on the long-house provided employment for band members, but many other band members contrib-uted work and services. In charge at the scene of the work in both summers was hereditary chief Ben Andrews. The researchers, and the hand members who worked with them, were bunked in re-fitted cabins on the isolated reserve, and for recreation, they hiked five miles to the Estevan Point lighthouse to play volleyball. Access to the old village is by charter plan*" or fishlmat so thire jwe're few detrac-tions._ ve didn't allow liquor on project," chuckled Amos. "We wanted everyone to real-ize it is serious." Field work ended for the year at the end of August but the studies will continue through the winter and work will resume at the site next summer. Attracting a lot of attention is ihe linguistic program, which got into full operation this year under linguist Dr. Barbara Efrat. Rand elders have been talk-ing into tape recorders in the Hesquiat dialect and English, telling all they can remember of (he legends, thing specific information about events and places and describing life in the old days. Thus, succeeding genera-tions will Iran h o w b a kets were woven, how frh was cut, dried and s a l t e d , w h a t herbs were u-cd for medicinal pur-poses, how lonuhouses were built and spate utilized. An English alphabet is tn bp created for the Hesquiat words and graded language lesions gi\ cn Square nails and boxes held together with wooden pegs found among the artifacts in-dicate the bodies were put in the caves before the trading ships came to the coast in the 18th century. History still seems close to the M l l a g " . where 'he church built bv pioneer Benedictine missionary Father A. J. Bra-bant still stands. Ami the Hesquiats are find-ing their place m history One of the first things they did this slimmer was hide the bell from the church, dedicated to the Hesquiat people in 1884. The bell had been removed from the old church tower and there were stories that some-body was going t^ i "rescue" it as a memento of the past. It was all a misunderstand-ing, someone said later, but a plane chartered by the "res-cuers" was turned back at the beach and band members hid the bell in the bush. Later this summer six of the Hesquiats carried the bell 1,000 feet to the project, where it was used to signal the work day. VANCOUVER S U N , O c t o b e r 14 , 1972 . Ft?,. Special to The Sun TOFINO — Charles Carl Ehlers was fined $300 in pro-vincial court here Friday after he was found guilty of removing skeletal human re-mains from a burial place. Ehlers was charged July 30 under the Archaeological and Historic Site Protection Act. Ehlers — Aphaloma Char-lie, as he is known here — moved one of two mummified bodies he discovered in a cave at Kennedy Cove, about 35 miles from here. The offence wasn't discov-ered until John Stertz bough! several acres of Surrey prop-erty from Ehlers and discov-ered the remains in a plywood bos under a table in one of two houses there. Stertz and a friend pried the box open and discovered the body, estimated to ^e 50 to 60 years old, curled u|) in a fetal position. / The mummy/was trans-ferred to the. mo/gue at Royal Columbian j Hospital in New Westminster yhcre patholo-gist Dr. ICaTnpbcll Joseph Coady examined it and identi-fied it as a mummified female body which he described as "light as balsa wood." Dr. Coady testified that it was impossible to determine cause of death. Ehlers was arrested by Tn-fino RCMP July 30, but re-leased later that eve:::.,, ( n e He admitted rem" ' " ? body from the. cave. . 1 2 r i am S h e i l a Gay O^. ' i 0 p the Boehm, archeologis'. Muse-. Vancouver Ccntenni.-. (osti-um in November. VJ' •[ •.0\'.c.r ficd that she received ;;.,'~ a s k. from Ehlers at that l:-.,,,^ be ing if the museum v. i n c 0 [ interested in securin;. nstUu-the mummies for H i ' ' lion. ' nat the Mrs. Boehm replied n u t museum was intcre.: ( 0 that it was against th'. t r o m remove the remain' their burial place. ,-,( the Ehlers moved one .„ a n d bodies early this spiK.^,, he look it to Surrey v | : .1. moved there. ,,),! \ n . i Dan David, a 68-ye a: , r y^\. dian who has lived in ii-. -)tjfiedl no area all his life, ' . , . v e {„ ' that he was at the i . r the 1923 for the burial v c l. s woman removed by F.!.'..., r n e a Although he hariD'l s..-j had Jo the spot since, Da ;.p ( 0 it no problem leading in Friday before appe;:< court. rovin-| In passing sentence. \-: o w c n . 1 cial Judge T. G. he iColthurst commented r e . was satisfied that the h e moved by Ehlers '-. . jtermed skeletal r c m s i - , < c led ing thai the evidence ! p j v i d |b'y the. Crown and . ^ m c s proved that the cave • v . u r i a l within the meaning of place. ('rown "The evidence of th' Ehl-ftiid ihe statement by ) i e ers also satisfies m-- :.. -nains did remove skeletal >:. <• from their burial place.' APPENDIX II N e w s p a p e r A r t i c l e s P e r t a i n i n g to t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t VANCOUVER S U N , May 1 1 , 1 972 . I B U R , A L C A V E S \ (or ont to aid Mmli'ins of. J l r t q u i n l H a r b o r 1 on 'the wes t roast i f Y a n c o u - I 1 v c r I s land have beer! granted j S5 .00n to continue a r c h c o l o g i - j c a ! e x a m i n a t i o n of t r i b a l buri- j al caves in the a r e a . T h e grant , f r o m a SGI,000 c u l t u r a l fund e a r m a r k e d by the Indian af fa i rs d e p a r t m e n t for use in B . C . , was made by a s c r e e n i n g commit tee of rep-resenta t ives f r o m the U n i o n of • B . C . Indian Chiefs and f r o m the depar tment . A s i m i l a r grant last y e a r p e r m i t t e d a start on gather-i n : : a r t i fac ts beinjf' looLcd by j \i.v.lors lu the area . This ear two' m e m b e r s of 1he Hesquia t barid and a pro-fess ional adviser will under-take s y s t e m a t i c r e m o v a l of surface m a t e r i a l in the search for Njirial t reasures such as b a s k e ' ^ o r k / i n d tools. The genua prnvides for pay-ment of Vtolal of $2,700 to the two band m e m b e r s for their su tr. mer 's work . T h e Hesquiat C u l t u r a l C o m -mittee w h i c h is d i r e c t i n g the \w.rb. has plans, for b u i l d i n g a : ])-,:.:.-.< ur.i to d i sp lay the t rea -sures eventua l ly . Other gram; : approved by the screening commit tee at a meeting this week: j V a n c o u v e r Indian W a r D a n c e C l u b . S3.000 to stage. , the t h i r d in te rna t iona l w a r : dance c o m p e t i t i o n s : C a r i b o o I n d i a n franco C l u b , S 1.300 to buy m a t e r i a l s to ' make costumes, two d r u m s :>oil .1 tape recorder . M e m b e r s oT the eoiiunitlre are N'ol! |)erril:>an. chief of the V. e.-i.!>nnk b a n d : l .ou D e m - i . rais of '.he union staff. J a c k ; Meek, c o m m u n i t y services of- i i . .r the d e p a r t m e n t : and \ •le-ii M c K i n u n n . the depart- ! : . n d ' s regional superv isor of ; adult educat ion . ! 70 VANCOUVER S U N , J u l y 14 , 1 9 7 2 . 4 1 l"<li.au viJhrpre on Island -ft-C ^^ : • — a ^ ' T * ' Canadian I ress VICTORIA — An archaeo-logical project at an ancient Indian village on the west coast of Vancouver Island has yielded artifacts more than | 2,000 years old. John Raymond, a member of the Hesquiat band, said Friday radiocarbon dating of bone and stone implements indicate they were in use about 480 BC. phis or minus 200 years. Hesquiat is about 30 miles northwest of Tofino. near Hot Spring Cove. Raymond said the. artifacts indicate the Indi-a n cullure has been continu-ous at. Hesquiat for more than 2.000 years. The archaeological project £ _ w a ? £tart«flUb> "years''ago' at the request of the band. Fed cral and provincial govern nicnts provided funds, as well as trained personnel. J im Haggarty. assistant curator/fU archaeology at the provurcial museum, is in charge/of the dig- / ftn unusual a/pect of the project is that^Jn'dian men and women are/being trained in archaeological field work. It is also part of a larger cultural program launched by the band — a museum to house the artifacts is nearly completed. The band also plans,.to build an authentic longhouse for use as a cultur-} and educational centre. Elderly men are building cedar canoes, one of them a large ocean-going West Coast canoe. This winter several members of the band will be trained at the provincial mu-seum here as museum cura- ' tors. '•'There's a big cultural re-vival going on at Hesquiat," said Haggarty. "Everyone is involved — men, women and children." 71 APPENDIX III L e t t e r s Wr i t ten to and from George MacDonald and Dennis Sawyer to Determine How the Hesqu ia t Band Could Obtain the " O r i g i n a l " F i lm M a t e r i a l from the Nat iona l F i lm Board Storage V a u l t s in Montreal 72' ^ /"George Am MacDonald * *- ^National Museum of Man,, '745 Hoo 4 Roaa, Richmond/ B.C. ?V6Y^2T4 February 9, 1976 Director, l V "Ottawa, Ontario *5t*=? Dear Mr. MacDonald, *^-T"&»* Mohave heard aKfew rumblings out here tnat films are going to "•^ %*"t>6, made or are i n the process of being .made from the if'^-i^footage*taken i n the summer of 1972 N.F.B./National V Museum: student'^ film "project. I would dike Ato know -what, i f anything, lb "being v "Jdone/j with tne footage that was snot up at "Hesquiat during that c same 'project.^ ^V-^re^you r intending "to incorporate that footage into any of the^ _^filmsJbeing~p"lanned-oCor the rest^of the project's footage? "Who I" vl"1ia8 access to the original Hesquiat footage? {By original, I * mean the material f i r s t put through the camera that cannot "be re- / •placed and from which prints are later taken.) * Where aoes the situation rest vis "a vis the Hesquiats? Who tyrconxrols tne footage and i t s use? .Is the N.F.B. prepared to r e - : v . ' ^Lease the original or are people taking prints from i t to; be> ^i.^:^:--•theniused i n place of the original? Would the Hesquiats be -able^>'-. 105f.ge%tthe .original, without going ..to. the. mtermedlatevor internegative ^rint€stage,?:from the N.F.B " .? ic ^ \ f ^Myinterest in this matter springs from my involvement i n the * jr* * project„ back-in '72, as a stuaent film maker who went to Hesquiat'; ~qVi---1 •.amzin - the process of assembling interShTews with local-people* who^  were involved and I am trying to access the project~from this ena * s^vi!<of«3*hings•. 'To- know the ultimate outcome of ^ the project,. viv a vi8:'. j,_the footage, would help snape the ev&Shiation., ^ I ffiSjSTO^Ihank..you i n advance for your reply to-tnese questions. 3 / r IOWB sincerely, Jan M, Martell. National Museums Musees nationaux Canada Canada National Museum Musee national of Man de I'Homme 73 February 13, 19 76 Ms. J.M. M a r t e l l , 745 No. 4 Road, Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia. V6Y 2T4 Dear Ms. M a r t e l l : In r e p l y t o your e n q u i r y r e g a r d i n g the Hes q u i a t footage taken i n the 19 72 f i l m p r o j e c t of the NMM/NFB no f i n a l c o n t r a c t r e g a r d i n g use was ever s i g n e d b u t the agreement we d i d achieve was t o put usage of the footage e n t i r e l y under the c o n t r o l of the Hesquiat Band C o u n c i l . No p r i n t s have ever been made from the masters except the work p r i n t which i s i n the hands o f the Band C o u n c i l (or more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e i r c u l t u r a l committee.) The masters are d e p o s i t e d i n the Montreal f i l m b o a r d o f f i c e s under a r e s e r v e c l a u s e which r e s t r i c t s t h e i r use t o purposes approved i n w r i t i n g by the Band C o u n c i l . To date no use has been r e q u e s t e d and i n f a c t I have never even seen t h i s m a t e r i a l . I do not understand from your l e t t e r e x a c t l y what use you are pro p o s i n g b ut I can s t a t e t h a t the m a t e r i a l c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e i f the Band approves your p r o p o s a l and p r o v i d e s us wi t h a c o u n c i l r e s o l u t i o n to t h a t e f f e c t . Your q u e s t i o n about i n t e r n e g a t i v e s e t c . i s a t e c h n i c a l one which I am r e f e r r i n g t o Dennis Sawyer, the o f f i c e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o j e c t a t the NFB: f o r r e p l y t o you. Yours s i n c e r e l y , George") F. Mac Donald C h i e f ' A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada /cmv c c . Mr. Dennis Sawyer, NFB 74 N A T I O N A L F I L M B O A R D ^< " I I 1 ( 1 N A T I O N A L D U I J L M CANADA P.O. Box 6100, Stati o n A Montreal, Quebec H3C 3H5 March 9th, 1976 Ms Jan M. Martel 745 N°4 Road Richmond, B.C. V6Y 2T4 Dear Ms M a r t e l , Re: Summer Shooting Hesquiat Band 1972 Further to the rep l y from Dr. MacDonald re the above footage, other than the o r i g i n a l rushes p r i n t from the shooting, no use has been made of the footage due to the agreement made with the Band Council by the National Museum of Canada, also any sound recorded i s being held i n the same way. The NFB i s u n w i l l i n g t o release any of the above material without p r i o r consent i n w r i t i n g from the Band Council, to anybody. I would imagine a l s o that the NMM and NFB would have to be convinced that the use of the footage i n any tvpe of f i l m would have the normal approval clearance screening at workprint stage to ensure that the Hesquiat were not being shown on the screen i n a detrimental way. To ensure the a r c h i v a l value of the footage, once permission had been granted, only r e v e r s a l masters or internegatives would be supplied from our laboratorv. Dennis ""Sawyer Producer NFB/NMM Sponsor Programme 75 Richmond, B.C. 745 No. 4 fid. V6Y 2T4 March 13, 1976 Mr. Dennis Sawyer, Producer. P.O. Box 6100, Station A Montreal, Quebec H3C 3H5 Dear. Mr. Sawyer, Thank you for your reply to questions I had addressed to George MacDonald of the National Museum of Man. I How would the cost of a reversal master or internega-tive of the Hesquiat footage be handled? Am I correct i n assuming that whoever would be producing a film for the Band would have to raise those funds? If this i s the case, what i s the p6r foot cost of both the reversal , master and internegative process that would be done i n your laboratory? I understand that nothing can be done with the Hesquiat footage without Band Council approval. Thank you again for your help* would like Sincerely yours, Jan M. Martell. 76 NATIONAL FILM BOARD ^'---.V OFFICE NATIONAL DU FILM CANADA P . O . BOX 6100 S t a t i o n A Montreal, P . O . H3C 3H5 A p r i l 13th, 1976 Ms. Jan M. Martel, 745 No. 4 Road Richmond, B.C. V6Y 2T4 Dear Ms. Martel, The costs involved i n making the r e v e r s a l master on internegative and rush p r i n t from the material on the Hesquiat Band would have to be covered bv the person requesting the work to be done. Yes, you are c o r r e c t , the producer of the f i l m would have to allow f o r these costs i n the budget. A f u r t h e r p o i n t i s that the new p r i n t i n g materials would have to be made o p t i c a l l y because, otherwise, everything i n the frame would be f l i p p e d - l e f t f o r r i g h t , i . e . a l l the signs, l e t t e r i n g and hands would be as i f r e f l e c t e d i n a mirror. ______ S i n c e r e l y , > Dennis Sawyer, Producer. DS/lr 433 East 23rd Avenue Vancouver, B.C. July 17, 1976. Mr. Dennis Sawyer, Producer National Film Board P.O. Box 6100 Station A ^ Montreal, Quebec H3C 3H5 Dear Mr. Sawyer, Further to your l e t t e r of A p r i l 13, 1976 where you state that the new master f o r the Hesquiat footage would have to be f l i p p e d o p t i c a l l y i n order to avoid a l e f t -r i g h t mirrow switch of the image: Why would o p t i c a l p r i n t i n g be necessary to avoid t h i s e f f e c t ? How does the e f f e c t occur from reversal to an internegative? Where would the o p t i c a l p r i n t i n g have to be done? What i s the per foot cost of having the new master made? Thank you again f o r your help. Sincerely yours, Jan M a r t e l l N A T I O N A L F I L M B O A R D O F F I C E N A T I O N A L D U F I L M 78 CANADA P.O. Box 6100 S t a t i o n A M o n t r e a l Quebec J u l y 22nd 1976 Ms J a n M. M a r t e l l 433 E a s t 2 3 r d Avenue Vancouver B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Dear Ms M a r t e l l , Thanks f o r y o u r l e t t e r - I was w o n d e r i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t my answer t o y o u r r e q u e s t had r e a c h e d y o u . Why o p t i c a l p r i n t i n g ? W e l l t h a t i s t h e o n l y way we c a n make a r e v e r s a l m a s t e r p o s i t i v e , and I m e n t i o n t h a t method be c a u s e i f you i n t e n d t o c u t i n A&B r o l l , t h a t i s t h e recommended way. Then o f c o u r s e you t a k e o f f y o u r i n t e r n e g a t i v e and p r i n t f r o m t h a t . But s h o u l d y o u o n l y r e q u i r e a d ozen o r so p r i n t s , you c o u l d go t o i n t e r -neg s t r a i g h t away and p r i n t f r o m t h e c u t A&B i n t e r n e g . I t i s t h e c o s t f a c t o r t o be c o n s i d e r e d where t h e amount o f p r i n t s f o r r e l e a s e i s l a r g e when s i n g l e s t r i p p r i n t i n g i s c h e a p e r t h a n A&B. As f o r c o s t - so much depends on t h e t y p e of o r g a n i s a t i o n o r d e r i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s , i . e . v a r i o u s Government Departments g e t a r a t e w h i c h i s d i f -f e r e n t f r o m t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r and as f o r where the p r i n t i n g w o u l d be done, i t w o u l d have t o be h e r e b e c a u s e we c a n n o t t a k e a chance on t h e o r i g i n a l e v e r b e i n g m i s p l a c e d . I f I can be o f f u r t h e r h e l p p l e a s e l e t me know. Dejarjie-'Sawy' P r o d u c e r 79 APPENDIX IV L e t t e r s D e t a i l i n g t h e F i l m P r o j e c t O r i g i n , P u r p o s e , and R e s u l t s 80 433 East 23rd Avenue Vancouver, B.C. V5V 1X7 A p r i l 19, 1977 Mr. George MacDonald, .National Museumsof Man, C h i e f , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Esplanade L a u r i e r Ottawa, O n t a r i o K1A 0M8 Dear Mr. MacDonald: I am i n the process of p u l l i n g t o g e t h e r a paper f o r the Department of Theatre, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., t h a t examines the N a t i o n a l Museum/ N a t i o n a l Film-Board/ Hesquiat F i l m P r o j e c t o f 1972. Di s t a n c e impedes a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , so I am w r i t i n g i n hopes that, you w i l l have time t o answer my q u e s t i o n s . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing, s p e c i f i c a l l y as memory a l l o w s : How was the o v e r a l l p r o j e c t s t a r t e d ? Where d i d the i d e a o r i g i n a t e ? How d i d the N a t i o n a l Museum come to be i n v o l v e d ? What r o l e d i d the .National Museum p l a y i n the p r o j e c t ? What was the purpose of the p r o j e c t ? What were the aims of the p r o j e c t f o r the Museum? What were your p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ? To what extent were these g o a l s achieved? Has anything been done with the footage shot i n any of the f i l m i n g s i t u a t i o n s ? V i s a v i s the Hesquiat P r o j e c t : How d i d the N a t i o n a l Museum's aims f o r the p r o j e c t mesh with the Hesquiat P r o j e c t , as f a r as you were aware? From your p o i n t of view, how s u c c e s s f u l was the p r o j e c t ? What was the v a l u e of the p r o j e c t as a whole f o r the N a t i o n a l Museum? Thank you very much f o r your time on t h i s matter. Your response w i l l supply a m i s s i n g p o i n t of view, t h a t of t h e N a t i o n a l Museum. I have, s i n c e that.summer, been d i s s a t i s f i e d with my understanding of the u l t i m a t e outcome of the p r o j e c t a t Hesquiat and f e l t a b i t of d i g g i n g i n t o the past would c l a r i f y the o v e r a l l c o n t e x t . & Tnank you aga i n . S i n c e r e l y , Jan M. M a r t e l l H National Museums Musees nationaux g Canada Canada g j National Museum Musee national of Man de I'Homme May 19, 1977 Ms. J a n M. M a r t e l l 433 E a s t 2 3 r d Avenue V a n c o u v e r , B. C. V5V 1X7 Dear J a n : I have j u s t been t h r o u g h two p r o f e s s i o n a l m e e t i n g s and am o n l y now c a t c h i n g up w i t h e a r l i e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . I w i l l t r y t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n s you pose d t o me. We were a p p r o a c h e d by the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum the I p r e v i o u s y e a r t o see i f we c o u l d p r o v i d e a p h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t _J t o t h e H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t . I a r r a n g e d a c o n t r a c t w i t h J e r r y C y b u l s k i f o r t h i s p u r p o s e and when the N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d and t h e N a t i o n a l Museum began t h e i r j o i n t s t u d e n t f i e l d r e c o r d i n g programme a t ab o u t t h e same ti m e I d i s c u s s e d w i t h S u k i A n d e r s o n t h e i d e a o f h a v i n g some c o v e r a g e o f t h e H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a f i l m p r o -gramme i n S o u t h e r n B.C. The N a t i o n a l Museum's i n v o l v e m e n t was t h u s i n r e g a r d t o the s u p p o r t of t h e p h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y a t H e s q u i a t a s w e l l as t h e H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t b e i n g a s u b - p r o j e c t o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d / N a t i o n a l — Museum o f Man f i l m programme. The museum's/role i n the f i l m programme was t o d e s i g n a t e t h e a r e a o f o p e r a t i o n and t o p r o v i d e some a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l g u i d a n c e w h i c h was where S u k i A n d e r s o n came i n . The p u r p o s e o f t h e f i l m p r o j e c t was t o r e c o r d what I t h o u g h t a t the time was a most i n t e r e s t i n g example o f a s p o n t a n e o u s l y g e n e r a t e d c u l t u r a l r e v i v a l p r o j e c t i n w h i c h t h i s museum h a d some i n v o l v e m e n t i n s u p p l y i n g s p e c i a l i z e d p e r s o n n e l . I r e a l l y d i d n o t know how s u c c e s s f u l t h e p r o j e c t would u l t i m a t e l y b e , but. f r o m what I know now from J i m H a g g a r t y and Gay Boehm i t d i d i n d e e d s n o w b a l l i n t o s o m e t h i n g v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . I d i d n o t a n t i c i p a t e t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t w o u l d a r i s e r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e Band and the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t we w o u l d have i n J a c h i e v i n g w r i t t e n agreement w i t h t h e C u l t u r a l Committee. As y o u a r e p r o b a b l y aware, we have n o t ev e n seen t h e f i l m s h o t t h a t y e a r . The m a s t e r h a s r e m a i n e d i n the N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d ' s s t o r a g e v a u l t s and we r e s p e c t e d t he C u l t u r a l Committee's r e q u e s t t h a t t h e f i l m n o t be se e n o r u s e d w i t h o u t a w r i t t e n agreement. Ottawa K1A 0M8 12 82 Ms. J a n M. M a r t e l l Page 2 May 19, 1977 I t i s d i f f i c u l t a t t h i s s t a g e t o e v a l u a t e t h e s u c c e s s o f the P r o j e c t . I am v e r y i m p r e s s e d w i t h the p r o s p e c t u s you h ave d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e f i l m and i f t h a t i s a c h i e v e d , t h e n I f e e l t h e e n d e a v o u r was a s u c c e s s . The v a l u e o f t h e o v e r a l l p r o j e c t t o t h e museum ha s been m a i n l y i n t h e p h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y a r e a i n e s t a b l i s h i n g w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h Bands t h a t has gone o n t o p r o d u c e the Oweekeno P r o j e c t i n w h i c h J e r r y C y b u l s k i i s a l s o i n v o l v e d . B o t h the H e s q u i a t and t h e Oweekeno P r o j e c t s have y i e l d e d a g r e a t d e a l o f i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n on p h y s i c a l a n t h r o -p o l o g y and C y b u l s k i h a s p u b l i s h e d and s u b m i t t e d a number of p a p e r s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e p r o j e c t s . I hope t h i s b r i e f r e s p o n s e c o v e r s t h e t o p i c s i n w h i c h y o u a r e i n t e r e s t e and i f I c o u l d s u p p l y any f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n p l e a s e do n o t h e s i t a t e t o c o n t a c t me. Yours s i n c e r e l y , r George F/. MacDonald C h i e f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada / j h 83 433 F-ast 23rd Avenue Vancouver, B.C. V5V 1X7 April 19* 1977 Mr. Dennis Sawyer National Film Board P.O. Box 6100 Station A Montreal, Quebec Dear Mr. Sawyer: 1 am i n the process of pulling together a paper for the University of B.C. Department of Theatre that examines the National Museum/ National Film Board/ Hesquiat Film Project of 1972. A personal interview with you i s impeded by distance, so 1 write, hoping you w i l l have time to answer my questions. I am interested in knowing: How and why did the NFB become involved in 'the project as a whole? What was the role of the NFB in the project? What was the purpose of the project?--""" Was the NFB reluctant to be involved, i f so, wny? What'were the NFB expectations/ goals for the'project? From your point of view, how successful was the project in achieving those goals? What was the value of the project for the NFB? Thank you i n advance f o r jo g g i n g your memory on t h i s p r o j e c t . Since t h a t summer I have been d i s s a s t i s f i e d w i t h my understanding o f . t h e u l t i m a t e outcome of the p r o j e c t a t Hesquiat and f e l t a b i t of d i g g i n g winto the past would c l a r i f y the o v e r a l l context of the p r o j e c t . Again, thank you f o r your time. S i n c e r e l y , Jan-marie Kartell 84 NOTES FROM A TELEPHONE CONVERSATION WITH DENNIS SAWYER. A p r i l 2 2 , 1 9 7 7 . I f 1 , 5 0 0 - 2 , 0 0 0 f e e t o f f i l m was u s a b l e o u t o f 2 0 , 0 0 0 f e e t , t h e f i l m p r o j e c t w o u l d be deemed s u c c e s s f u l . T e c h n i c a l l y , i t was s u c c e s s f u l b e c a u s e o f t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who were e m p l o y e d . S i x t y p e o p l e c o m i n g f r o m Nova S c o t i a , New B r u n s w i c k , Q u e b e c , O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o r k e d on t h e f i l m p r o j e c t s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and O n t a r i o were e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by s t u d e n t s . F i v e s t u d e n t s came f r o m Q u e b e c . As many c o l l e g e s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s as was p o s s i b l e were i n c l u d e d and t h e r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d were i n v o l v e d . The c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i n g a s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n f o r a s i n g l e f i l m c r e w was b a s e d on i n t e r e s t by t h e N a t i o n a l M u s e u m , t h e v a l u e o f t h e p r o j e c t , and t h e l o c a t i o n ' s a c c e s s i b i l i t y . O w n e r s h i p and use o f t h e f i l m m a t e r i a l v a r i e d . In t h e c a s e o f H e s q u i a t , t h e H e s q u i a t s t o l d t h e N a t i o n a l Museum t h a t n o t h i n g was to be done w i t h t h e f i l m . The N a t i o n a l Museum became t h e c u s t o d i a n o f t h e m a t e r i a l . U n d e r its m a n d a t e , t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d i s t h e Q u e e n ' s C o u n c i l on F i l m and t h e N.F.B. r e t a i ns t h e f i l m m a t e r i a l u n t i l a l e g a l a g r e e m e n t i s s i g n e d w i t h t h e B a n d . A t t h e t i m e t h e f i l m p r o j e c t was b e i n g s e t u p , many p e o p l e i n g o v e r n m e n t were c o n c e r n e d by t h e d i r e n e c e s s i t y o f c r e a t i n g e m p l o y m e n t f o r s t u d e n t s . When t h e f i l m p r o j e c t was b e i n g e v a l u a t e d i n t h e f a l l o f 1972 , a. c o n f l i c t o f i m p o r t a n c e a r o s e b e t w e e n t h i s p r o j e c t and o t h e r s t h a t r e q u i r e d f u n d i n g . 85 L . I . P . ( L o c a l I n i t i a t i v e s P r o j e c t s ) was c r e a t e d i n r e s p o n s e t p c r i t i c i s m o f t h e s t u d e n t summer e m p l o y m e n t p r o j e c t s u n d e r O . F . Y . ( O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Y o u t h ) . On M a r c h 6 , 1 9 7 2 , S a w y e r s e n t a l e t t e r ( s e e p a g e s f o l l o w -i n g ) t o a l l t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s and s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g f i l m c o u r s e s . He was l e d ^ to b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d s p a n a t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d w i t h s h o o t i n g i n t h e f i r s t summer , e d i t i n g and r e - s h o o t i n g d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d , and c o m p l e t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i n a l s u m m e r ' s p r o j e c t . T i m e and d i s t a n c e a d d e d t o t h e c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g t h e H e s q u i a t F i l m P r o j e c t . S u s a n A n d e r s o n d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d a l l r e q u i r e m e n t s o r know t h e f u l l s t o r y . The o v e r a l l p r o j e c t d i d p r o v e s u c c e s s f u l i n a c q u i r i n g m a t e r i a l f o r t h e N a t i o n a l Museum and i n f u r t h e r i n g t h e c a r e e r s o f f i l m m a k e r s , b u t was o f l i t t l e v a l u e to t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d . 86 APPENDIX V L e t t e r Sent in March , 1971 to Schoo ls Across Canada from Dennis Sawyer, N a t i o n a l F i l m Board 87 NATIONAL FILM BOARD OFFICE NATIONAL DU FILM P.O. Box 6100, M o n t r e a l 1 0 1 , Quebec, M a r c h 6, 1972. D e a r As p a r t o f i t s S t u d e n t Summer Employment P r o g r a m , t h e F e d e r a l Government has a l l o c a t e d some f u n d s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r o v i d i n g work o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o s u i t a b l e s t u d e n t s c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n f i l m o r a l l i e d c o u r s e s i n v a r i o u s C a n a d i a n U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s . The f u n d s have been p l a c e d u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d and a r e t o be us e d t o p r o v i d e f i l m , s t i l l s a n d / o r sound c o v e r a g e o f many o f t h e p r o j e c t s b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y t h i s summer by t h e A r c h e o l o g y D i v i s i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man. The p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e f u n d s i s t o p r o v i d e some summer employment t o as many young p e o p l e as p o s s i b l e . H a v i n g i n m i n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t c o m m e r c i a l r e n t a l . c h a r g e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l f i l m and sound equipment a r e h i g h i t i s one o f t h e p r e c o n d i t i o n s o f c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n , a p a r t f r o m c o m petence, t h a t e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n s u p p l y i t s own s t u d e n t s w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e e q u i p m e n t a t no c o s t . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f equipment w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , be a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e number o f s t u d e n t s t h a t c a n be h i r e d f r o m any one i n s t i t u t i o n . A l l s u c h e q u i p m e n t , o f c o u r s e , w i l l be f u l l y i n s u r e d by t h e P r o g r a m . The P r o g r a m w i l l p r o v i d e e a c h s e l e c t e e w i t h s a l a r y , t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n and l i v i n g c o s t s when away f r o m home a r e a , 16 mm c o l o u r f i l m and sound s t o c k and l a b p r o c e s s i n g t o r u s h e s p r i n t . A l l m a t e r i a l s p r o -duced u n d e r t h e P r o g r a m become t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man. I f t h e Museum w i s h e s t o t a k e any o f t h e r e c o r d m a t e r i a l a c q u i r e d u n d e r t h e P r o g r a m t o a f u r t h e r s t a g e o f r e f i n e m e n t , i t w i l l make a p p r o p r i a t e a r r a n g e m e n t s d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e r e s p e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s and c o v e r t h e c o s t s o f any s u c h work. T h i s l e t t e r i s s i m p l y t o a l e r t y o u t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s p r o j e c t . The Museum i s now f i n a l i z i n g i t s summer p r o g r a m . As so o n a s we have a l i s t o f i t s p r i o r i t i e s we w i l l be i n t o u c h w i t h y o u w i t h a - 2 - 88 d e t a i l e d p l a n o f a c t i o n . I n t h e meantime, i f you C o u l d a s s e s s y o u r r e s o u r c e s i n terms o f a v a i l a b l e t a l e n t and e q u i p m e n t i t c o u l d e x p e d i t e m a t t e r s a t t h e n e x t s t a g e . ' • -S i n c e r e l y y o u r s , DS :ms D e n n i s Sawyer P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t o r F i l m S t u d e n t Summer Employment P r o g r a m 

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