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Whose eyes, whose ears : chronology and perception Martell, Jan-Marie 1978

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W H O S E  E Y E S  -  W H O S E  E A R S  C H R O N O L O G Y AND P E R C E P T I O N BY JAN-MARIE MARTELL B . A . , NORTHERN M I C H I G A N U N I V E R S I T Y , 1 9 6 9 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R OF A R T S  IN THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S DEPARTMENT OF THEATRE  WE A C C E P T T H I S T H E S I S AS C O N F O R M I N G TO T H E R E Q U I R E D STANDARD  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA JANUARY, 1 9 7 8 .  ©  JAN-MARIE MARTELL, 1978.  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5  i i  ABSTRACT In  1972,  the  Federal  Treasury  project  for  fiscal  Nearly  from  year  between  finance  National  The  Film  and  lenging  expedition  on  the  West  Coast  Later  called  the  three  student  Columbia. them of  a  them black  From  salary  16mm  color  with  a  and  students  among  of  film  nearly  under  the  not  people  Ostensibly,  August,  involved  them  for  the  the  of  the film  equipment,  in  the  a  chal-  reserve  Columbia.  of  involved  British  government with  for  ideas  feet  supplied color  required a  paid  30,000 and  stock  Youth,  the  the  them  project,  film  For  with  employment  Indian  initiative  program),  of  and the  program  provided  amount  combination  the  the  locally  '  British  1972,  either  co-production  for  among  University  (Opportunities  originate  in  the  Unlike  1972  producer,  remote  from  employment  the  a  Project,  unlimited  a  summer  Canada,  Film  print  was  the  supplied  student  Island  week,  as  in-  makers.  Hesquiat,  work  stills.  summer  did  per  and  O.F.Y.  film  Vancouver  $110  as  of  supervision  across  to  makers  described  acting  to  dollars  start  the  employment  educational  million the  through  summer  in  institutions  May t h r o u g h  white  government program  film  a  be  providing  Hesquiat  Canada,  unique  at  Board,  projects  of  can  approach  film  of  Board  student  precipitated  a  of  production  quarter  what  Man,  innovative  film  film  educational  facilities  This  initiated  of one  Government  Treasury  Museum o f  projects. editing  the  to  the  National  Board,  students  stitutions. released  Federal  from  former for  students  or  the  film  from  project.  institutions  and  and  people  i l i was  logical.  As  an  National  Museum  age;  National  the  the  Treasury  would  Board  by  would  employed,  service, the  gain  films  Hesquiat. Hesquiat have out  The  not  Museum to  left the been  the  storage  vaults  project  was  A post  no  at  from  level,  conception  feeling  However,  the  goal  of  the  the of  Band  film  civil  would  money  ac-  for shot  from  writing,  National  and  the  at  the  no  films  projects  carried  N.F.B.  film  Film  point  finished the  the  film  in  film  their  nor  footage  Board  student  From  project,  bringing  original  films,  National projects  reached  the  Montreal,  the  closed.  with  the  Hesquiat  Film  rationalizations  that  •inexperi e n c e ,  tokenism,  conflicting, reasons  into  and  naivety,  combined  these  makers  during  material  exploited.  Neither  time,  man-hours  film  edit  produced  for  to  Government to  the  this  shot  investigation  and  of  of  student  finishing  from  foot-  Columbia.  explanations  of  and  Hesquiat  representatives  considered  the  footage  number  films  were  time  intention  the  mortem  films  the  obvious  of  lack  level.  make  Once  include:  poor  to  any  unearths  local  wanted  realized.  completion.  The  secure  project  expressed  Project  summer.  archival  Federal  acquire  to  Band  most  the  the  obligations  relegated Board;  to  and  British  Hesquiat  view,  had  in  a  projects,  and  fulfill  which  and  completed  would  exposed  Nevertheless,  elsewhere  makers  they  summer's  documentary  Treasury  or  with  footage,  been  be  winter  the  utilizing  Federal  workprint  whatever  by  Board  experience,  following  quire  of  the  of  acquire  Film  provided be  outcome  (lack  fear  indifference,  changing  for  and  of  aims  at  the  completed  at waste,  national films  i v give  only  ations  superficial  and  the  Through with  which  tions My why  of  explanation  resulting  interviews  to  examine  people  exploration perception  in of and  the this  use and  of  I  origins,  context material were  the  collision  materials,  letters,  project  action  for  of  energy  have aims,  emotion.  assembled  material  and  undertaken  blocked  in  expect-  and  chronological  was  of  this  expectadevelopments.  to  discover  circumstance.  V  TABLE  OF CONTENTS  Abstract List  of  ii Tables  vi  Acknowledgment  .  .  .  .  vii  Prologue  Chapter  Chapter  Chapter  Chapter  Chapter  viii  One  The  Two  The  Three  The  Four  Hesquiat  Film  Band  Project  National  and  the  Hesquiat Project..  The  Students  12  Museum M e e t s the Hesquiats  19  Meet  the  National  . . .  Six  The  Film  Students  Chapter  Seven  W i n d i n g Down  at  24  Film Board  Chapter  1  O r i g i n s and Objectives  Negotiations Between the B a n d , the Students, a n d t h e N a t i o n a l Museum  Five  .  . .  Hesquiat  30 35 52  Appendi x I  II  Charles  Hesquiat  Ehlers  Case.  Cultural  Newspaper Clippings  IV V  The  Film  "Qv* g i n a l " .  The  Film  Project;  Introductory Dennis  .  .  58  Project.  Newspaper III  .  Clippings..  67  Letters  Origins,  Results. L e t t e r s From Sawyer, N . F . B  71  Purpose, L e t t e r s ..  .  79 86  vi LIST  OF TABLES  TABLE 1 : H e s q u i a t Band Members and O r g a n i z a t i o n s I n v o l v e d i n Development o f the H e s q u i a t Cultural Project.  . 6  TABLE 2: Lines  of  Communication  for  the F i l m  Project  . .34  vi i  With  this  acknowledgment  appreciation,  respect,  support,  moral  this  both  thesis  and  I  and  wish  to  engender  admiration  material,  for  made  the  my  the  deepest people  completion  whose of  possible.  Dr.  A.  Stephen Dr.  J.  Reynertson  Charleson,  Norman  Sr.  & Lucille  Larzelere  Pro!ogue  "It was r e a l l y a matter of f i n d i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group of people, not wasting the money, and f i n d i n g them summer jobs. And at one point, nobody oared what they did. They could have sat in Vancouver a l l summer, twiddling t h e i r thumbs. The government was p r i m a r i l y doing a f r o n t i n g at $100 per week to a d i f f e r e n t group of students than the ones they were reaching with Opportunities For Youth. " Susan J . A n d e r s o n , F i l m Supervisor, h i r e d as A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Artifact C a t a l o g u e r f o r the N a t i o n a l Museum of Man, S p r i n g , 1972. Quote from a taped interview.  "I guess I had a misplaced idealism and wanted to make a t o t a l l y objective type of documentary that was non-exploitative and nonpartisan. That was right up u n t i l the point when we got there If the Band could r e t a i n ownership of the f i l m , reversing the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the National Firm Board and groups like that, then i t was the f i r s t sort of blow, in a media sense, for aboriginal rights. " B r i a n J . C l a y d e n , s t u d e n t from the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who s i g n e d the N a t i o n a l FiOm B o a r d contract t h a t i n v o l v e d him i n t h e Hesquiat C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t as p a r t o f a t h r e e member f i l m c r e w . Summer, 1972. Quote from a t a p e d interview.  "There was quite a few in the Bob Douglas boat, quite a few, even a dog in there. I went in there and saw a l l these faces, a l l staring blankly, s i t t i n g on t h i s big p i l e of gear. Really l o t s , pack sack, Jesus, everything you could think of seemed to be there . . .. I came in and sat down and said, 'Holy man! I t ' s r e a l l y gonna be something! 9  It was raining, so I came into the boat. They were [buying gas] or something. This guy came up to me and asked me after awhile if they could get naptha there. I said, 'yeah, sure. ' I was glad to make contact with one of them and  ix  i t turned out to be Alan. I found it looks like one of them is going f r i e n d l y anyway. '  out, "Oh, to be  So, I carried his f i v e gallon can to the gas s t a t i o n and held i t up for him too. I was so happy he was f r i e n d l y . " Stephen C h a r l e s o n , J r . , member o f the H e s q u i a t B a n d , who w o r k e d as an a r c h aeologist on t h e H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l P r o j e c t i n t h e Summer o f 1 9 7 1 . Winter, 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 , a n d S u m m e r , 1972 at HesquiatQuote from a taped interview.  "As long as they are aware that you are going to touch them, they have to be aware of what way they are going to be touched. You are in a sense e x p l o i t i n g people when you take pictures of them. And i t ' s your r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to give them some understanding into the way you are e x p l o i t i n g them, for what purpose you 're e x p l o i t i n g them, and what use your e x p l o i t a t i o n is going to have." Dr. A . J . Reynertson, Professor i n the Department of T h e a t r e , U n i v e r s i t y of British Columbia. Quote from a taped interview.  "The f i r s t words I heard were 'Anthropological Salvage'. I t ' s kind of a scary term. It sounded like we were going in to be a garbage crew, that we were going to dive for sunken treasure. It was very strange." W i l l i a m R o x b o r o u g h , s t u d e n t from the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and member o f t h e f i l m c r e w t h a t w e n t to H e s q u i a t i n May, 1972. Quote from a taped interview.  "It was r e a l l y the f i r s t band in B.C., if not in Canada, that said, 'We have a problem. We need some assistance in achieving a solution. ' And more importantly, what they 're in essence saying is that, 'We want and need to assume the major part of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for protection, preservation and eventually reconstruction of our own c u l t u r a l history. '"  Jim Haggarty, B . C . P r o v i n c i a l Museum, worked d i r e c t l y w i t h the Hesquiat Band i n c a r r y i n g o u t archaeological research. Quote from a taped interview.  "At the beginning we had no idea. We just knew that f i l m was f i l m and wouldn't i t be nice to make something out of t h i s [opportunity] . . We thought we could let a crew go up there and shoot w i l d l y and madly and i t would a l l hang, together. " John Raymond, C u l t u r a l Committee member in 1971-74 f o r H e s q u i a t I n d i a n Band, West C o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , B.C. Quote from a taped interview.  "It was blowing real hard when we got there .... We had to unload a l l this stuff. [The boat] was going up and down in the rain and Douglas seemed to be kind of a green horn . . .. He didn't even know how to be in the wind, you know, so he could load up the canoe without t i p p i n g us. I was thinking of the whole summer, how it was . . . going to be, because I already spent one summer with white people, working. I figured t h i s was going to be more e x c i t i n g . But when I saw the beginning and everything was going a l l haywire, I said, 'Jesus, I hope i t isn't going to be like t h i s a l l summer. '" Stephen  Charleson,  Jr.  CHAPTER ONE  THE  HESQUIAT  BAND AND THE H E S Q U I A T  PROJECT  We see shows of how Indians live and we see shows of people in school and a l l sorts of s t a t i s t i c s . Indians are s t i l l being looked at as s t a t i s t i c s . John  Raymond  1  They [Indian people] used a l l of the senses that they had and l i v e d harmoniously with that which surrounded them. They were cognizant of the l i m i t ations of nature, and the very fragile perch that Man had. [They] had to pay attention to the s p i r i t s . [They] were part of the complex whole. They knew that. We perhaps l o s t sight of i t . James  C o - o r d i n a t o r / D i r e c t o r f o r the Q u o t e fr?om a t a p e d i n t e r v i e w , British Columbia.  Haggarty  2  Hesquiat Cultural Project. S p r i n g , 1975 , V a n c o u v e r ,  A s s i s t a n t C u r a t o r , D i v i s i o n of A r c h a e o l o g y , Provincial Museum, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Quote from taped interview, Fall, 1974, Victoria, B.C.  HEREAFTER,  A L L QUOTES  FROM  INTERVIEWS  WITH  PERSONS  CITED.  Not  far  from  the  Highway  terminates  a  frame  small  up  to  two  the  petunias This a  is  a  a  loan  from T o f i n o Early  and  beads,  or  flat  black  might  The  piece  of  of  what  must  The takes  the  surface,  through the  no  the  holes The  wet,  be  dog,  a  holes  of  together  hangs  Transcanada  pitted  the  there  steps  leading  the  For  display  between  entrance,  cast-iron  ponder  stands  suspended  pot.  less  cases  items  the  of  sea  by  board  and  readily bushes, forest  net  crabs  on  than  that  con-  personal  painted  imagination  sees  only  small some  long  around until  West  and much  Coast  confirm.  floor.  the  white  representation  perhaps  a  the  a  mask,  penetrating  insect,  chewing  wolf.  of  decay  dead  trade  on-looker.  fragment  of  Pale  fading-red, of  of  brass  back mask  chewing through is  filled  nails. of  unpredictable,  cedar,  a  holes  there.  its  or  of  deep-blue  in  in  pieces  are  floats,  serpent,  small  the  and  dimensional  the  of  photographs,  wood,  turning  size  the  a  of  the  climate  on  two  made  cedar,  salahal  of  visitor  notice  will  a  and  old  glass  stimulate  roughs w i n d y ,  residents dense  piece  is  the  plank  Outside  over  seaweed,  wood  thickness  with  records,  unassuming  and  of  M a r i t i m e Museum.  gaze  bottles,  and  from  the  Columbia,  canoe  ground.  locally,  starfish,  a  where  residents.  fishing  blue  left  dugout  Coast  can  British  the  grow  scavenged  ships,  green  West  visitor  relics  To  the  marigolds  tain  from  into  Tofino's  dollar,  Tofino,  rotting  driven and  in  building.  door,  pipes  Government wharf  fir  Vancouver as  any  of  The  shore  and  hemlock  Few  Island the  tangles  conditions  that  is  local  >  with all  rot  combine  for  the  long the  term  preservation  decomposition  archaeologist the  burial  remains  made  caves  of is  precipitation The  dark  housed same  brown  the  tiny  found  on  the  the  metal,  the  of  in  glass  rapid.  will  find  or  shelter  preservation  the  Nootka  through the  by  mask  or  climate Even no  the  more  of  the  Only  whalers,  are  pitted  the  tiny  may  in  articles.  caves  tourists  than  resistant  the  same  an  incessant  wooden  from  where  more  porcelain.  from  taken  a  is  objects,  coffins,  bored  August,  the  wooden  in  that with  insects  ponder  in  the  that  the  little  Tofino.  given  under with  remains  material  enough  wooden  nourishment  In were  there  holes  museum"in  of  aid  artifacts  systematically  bone,  to  wooden  organic  digging  crumbled  articles  of  of  1972,  public  feelings  credence.  Archaeological removal  West  of  Coast  a  of  Indian  Mr.  and  people  Charles  Historic  mummified Vancouver  body  Ehlers  Sites from  Island.  shared was  Act,  the  The  privately charged,  Section  burial  4B,  caves  mummy was  found 3  in  a  shed In  of  a  salahal by  and  Mr.  logging  reserve,  untouched loggers  property  1969,  Hesquiat wall  on  had  operation  accidently  bushes  the  Ehlers  burial  insensible  miners.  One  had in  sold  Surrey,  Hesquiat  uncovered  caves  that  plunderings  Hesquiat  in  Band  of  Harbor  behind  had  B.C.  as  a  yet  on  dense been  tourists,  member  a  fishermen,  recalled  the  incident:  'See Appendix, "Mummy".  articles  from  the  Vancouver  Sun  and  Province,  4 I think i t was when they started logging off Yaksus. There was a b u l l dozer going along through there making a road. Connie was working on i t and they discovered this mummy and cave where there was a l l kinds of people buried in boxes . . . some of the white guys were crawling in the caves. [The Band] found out there were a lot of things missing. It was Connie who had a meeting with John Raymond and Rocky [Leonard Amos]. They were just trying to save the bodies and anything else that came out of the caves. 4 Stephen  Shifts been  in  awareness  stimulated  non-Indian  by  world.  Until  Band  would  maintained,  the  dead  or  is  accessible  at  the  first  caves  that  Indians  for  only  to had  the  no  by  seek  boat  or  Connie Band  fomented  forms  that  matter of  Indian  the  the  involving due  cultural  Hesquiat  resentment  and  the  the loggers,  dead  area,  the  Stephen  against  the  background  Harbor  often  with  the  However,  Charleson,  have  contact  respect  plane.  action  people  of  incidents  assumed  isolation  prompted  cousin,  ference  members  the  the  ever-changing  Hesquiat be  among  Charleson  of which  experience  Charleson's  kind  hostility  of  inter-  among  the  years:  Everytime we saw Connie, he'd t e l l us about the time when loggers went in and discovered this cave and a l l the goodies they found. This r e a l l y annoyed me that nothing was being done about i t .  W i n t e r , 1975, Richmond, Sun, September 7, 1972.  B . C . See A l s o E p i l o g u e , Vancouver " H e s q u i a t V a n d a l i s m Spawns M u s e u m " .  5 Finally we brought it to a Band meeting . . .. They said, "John, go ahead and do something about it." 3  John  For ilation their  years, into  own  school  the  systems  Younger  of  Indian  itical  in  aspects  a  of  band  traditions.  the tion  The  effects  to  cultural  little  know-  skills.  the  Hesquiat  Band  preside a  the  of  caves  over  cultural  mechanism  for  Hesquiat evolved  the  cultural into  the  of  the  committee.  The  behind  the  band  was  the  weight  counter-balance  erosion.  life.  pol-  renewal  to  of  changing  focus  and  the  to  and  culture,  residential  with  response  motivation to  of  in  formation  desire  expense  ways  native  assim-  erupting  to  at  and  left  establish  experience  the  of  diminished  minorities,  and  cost  demonstrations  the  another of  were  for  conscious by  and  Committee and  and  traditional  racial  protection,  necessary  under-lying  or  at  traditional  Hesquiats  political  among  life  and  the  reserve  distorted  America  Cultural  preservation,  catalyst  with  North  awareness  organized  of  borne  culture  The  values  language  Concurrent elsewhere  white  effectively  their  have  heritage.  generations  of  people  dominant  cultural  importance  ledge  Indian  Raymond  build  barriers  action of  against  dominathe  TABLE Hesquiat  Band  Constance John  Members  and  Charleson  Hesquiat  (Rocky)  Amos  Hesquiat  Stephen  of  the  l o g g i n g o u t f i t when Band r e s e r v e l a n d .  Hesquiat Cultural Project, 1972. burial  caves  were  Committee  Museum o f  the p r o t e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of c u l t u r a l aspects o f Band e l d e r s : H e r e d i t a r y C h i e f Ben A n d r e w s , A l e x Band members i n c l u d i n g R o c k y Amos a n d J o h n R a y m o n d .  British  Columbia,  Victoria,  o f Band life. and Mary Amos,  B.C.  A b b o t t , Head, D i v i s i o n of A r c h a e o l o g y , f i r s t contacted e s t a b l i s h ways o f p r e s e r v i n g b u r i a l material.  Cultural  E v o l v e d as a the P r o j e c t , Museum a n d a material was  Development  Band member. A c t i v e i n Band p o l i t i c s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Important f o r c e i n f o r m a t i o n o f C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e and H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l Project. Elected chief in 1973.  Formed to e s t a b l i s h Committee comprised A l i c e P a u l ; younger  D o n a l d (Don) Committee to  In  N o n - I n d i a n , r e c e n t l y adopted i n t o t h e B a n d . Worked c l o s e l y with R o c k y Amos t o o r g a n i z e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e a n d H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l Project.  Cultural  Provincial  Involved  Band member w o r k i n g w i t h d i s c o v e r e d a n d l o o t e d on  Raymond  Leonard  Organizations  1  by  Hesquiat  Cultural  Project  c o n c e p t e n c o m p a s s i n g many a s p e c t s o f B a n d l i f e . D u r i n g the f i r s t y e a r of b u r i a l c a v e s were l o c a t e d and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e a i d o f t h e Provincial U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia M a s t e r ' s student in archaeology. Surface r e m o v e d f r o m c a v e s a n d t a k e n t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum f o r cataloguing.  Charleson,  Jr.  B a n d member h i r e d i n l a t e s p r i n g o f 1971 by t h e C u l t u r a l Committee to l o c a t e b u r i a l c a v e s i n H e s q u i a t H a r b o r and a s s i s t i n the removal of s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l i n the c a v e s . Worked i n the winter o f 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 to c l e a n and c a t a l o g u e artifacts.  7 Instead  of  prevent  further  decided  to  mining that  the  best  remained  Don  Abbott  at  possibilities  the  of  caves.  Columbia's  the  Provincial  open  the  to  of  was  in  with  the  burial  first  Museum i n  in  materials  to  the  Anthropology  the  Division  Victoria,  B.C.  representatives area  deter-  contacting of  of  to  Committee  professionals  referred  the  cement  Cultural  Department  Committee  them  caves  Hesquiat  After  Committee  to  the  preserving  the  talked  up  assistance  method  British  Sociology,  Archaeology  the  ihethe  of  walling  intrusions,  secure  University and  simply  of  There,  about  the  archaeological  investigation. Initially of  all  Band had  Band  governmental  life, in  the  the  because past  representatives  institutions of  with  the white  and  quality  of  dominated  were  their the  highly  skeptical  involvement  contact  they  in had  organizations:  It was protecting the Band from "rip off" .... It 's been Church and Government and the way they 've handled it, and archaeologists come along and handle the Indians in the same way. National Museum walked in and did t h e i r survey projects and walked away again. People haven't known what was going on. John  Caution  was  cial  Museum was  ship  with  Native  not  confined  undergoing  a  to  the  shift  in  Raymond  Hesquiats; approach  the to  Provin-  its  people:  Right now, our aims for our d i v i s i o n rotate around our involvement with Native people in everything we do. We're beginning to think in terms of f i v e , ten years  relation-  8  from now and how what we 're doing now is going to be viewed .... People say, "Well, you know, no one's going to r e a l l y care." My point has been, I don't know whether that is true or not because I haven 't talked to a lot of people about what's proposed. A l l I know is that we now can see better ways of doing things . . . . We have a f a i r l y good i n d i c a t i o n of c r i t i c i s m s of the past. Jim  During discussion trying Jim  to  the took  place  clarify  Haggarty',  vation  winter  of  the  the  the  outset,  tion  was  to  The of  1970 the  the  Museum c o u l d  the  artifacts  Hesquiats control  ownership  of  cave  develop  Once project  the  was  develop  for idea  accepted, out  representatives the  Cultural  project same  not  of  the  proceed  of  their the  secondary if  materials.  to  the  the  issue  archaeolo-  the  contract  summer.  concept  of  discussions that  from  Stoltfesquiaittwould  a  legal  to  be  followed. document  censure,  and  promise.  the  Band  from  guaranteeing working  governmental  for  Band protect  should At  the  the  further  that the  began  The  would  Band  plan  shield by  legal  that  internal  i d u a l o w o r k i ng  the  a  project  inten-  Band  outside  for  that  caves.  the  from  or  the  preser-  into  exploitation  himself  in  the  introducing. . outsiders  following  according  the  in  begin-  would  for  a  were  was  reasoned  Committee  the  They  that  contract  not  time,  of  play  especially in  of  representative,  possession  remained  involved  the  Museum  remaining  and  hours  elders.  established  materials,  become  long  Band  role  preservation  ning t o  of  Provincial  maintain  to  homes  1971,  the  of  were  and  with  question  gists  to  in  cultural  From  of  Haggarty  any Band,  institution  inditf-.' and  paying  his  wage. People of  affront  at and  the  Provincial  insult  to  Museum  their  reacted  personal  and  with  a  feeling  professional  i ntegri ty:  When we talked with John and Rocky about it, here was t h i s thing of t r y i n g to convince them, "I agree with what you are saying, that i t has been e x p l o i t a t i v e " , and I found myself saying, "but I'm d i f f e r e n t " . I suppose I was a l i t t l e naive. What John and Rocky were b a s i c a l l y saying, UWe don't believe you because other people have told us the same thing". And i t ' s probably true. In essence, I was no d i f f e r e n t and i t occurred to me that I was saying things that must have been said by people p r i o r to me, and they had, indeed, just gone in and done t h e i r work and come away, wrote papers, got promoted. The s i t u a t i o n within the p a r t i c u l a r Band remained the same. They s t i l l l i v e d in poverty. No one seems to:care. I t ' s just a c o l o n i a l , e x p l o i t a t i v e system at work. Jim  It  took  time  and  an  representatives  of  standing  reasons  of  Eventually, legal  bonds,  relaxed the  its  the  the  mutual and  Provincial  the  defensive to  began  same  stance the  of  the  to  time,  of  to  the  the  an  for  the under-  a  alongside-  Cultural  the  for  develop  necessity  emerge,  towards  success  co-operation  Museum  motivating  respect  at  pre-requisite  atmosphere  Haggarty  contract. the  Committee  Museum.  Trust  co-operative  was  arrange-  ment. Theoretically, and  the  The  first  burial  Provincial summer  caves  and  of  and  in  Museum the  many were  ways, working  project,  systematically  1971,  practically, toward was  cleaning  the  spent  them  out.  the same  Band goals.  locating Test  pits  10 beneath During  the the  British  burial  Columbia Master's both  catalogued  the  Columbia  for  While  that  work  to  records.  be  The  storage  the  to  a  and  the  the  idea  for  a  started  materials  soon  with  plans  for  had  for of  the  Band been  had  a  archaeological  samples.  the  of  University  Band  member,  Hesquiat,  the  Stephen  cleaned  University  of  and  British  a  in  Vancouver,  Haggarty  in  Victoria  traditional  memory  long  be  at  the  an  to  the  The  response  to  once  arch-  Band.  gained  stop  Band  to  house.  the  Provincial  the  innovative  entire  in  with,  the  facility  concern into  arose  to  long  Band  anthropological  faced  returned  general  and  house  would  been  affect  proceeded  compiled  blossomed  eventually  at  to  Jim  museum/learning  as  and  worked  artifacts  meet  the  material  1971-72,  brought  synthesis  idea  data  for  purpose.  on  problems  aeological  would  artifacts  dug  student  whom h a d  construction  was  What  of  continued  develop plan  were  following winter,  Charleson,  elders  sites  and  Museum  Gradually, momentum.  theft  of  project the  burial  that  Provincial  Museum. Summer carving during be  classes  were the  needed  work  vocabulary  and  be  to  The Committee caves  in  among  months  with  the  grammar. carry  response to  language,  envisioned  formative to  trained  in  make  Hesquiat  out  of the  the  of  many  Stephen first  every of  basket  multitude  planning.  elders  At  Harbor,  dancing,  to  the  ideas  songs,  members  professional's  Charleson, exploratory  illuminates  hired survey  what  would  stories,  Band  the  by  would  duties.  the  for  and  generated  A linguist  record  phase,  of  making,  Cultural  the  burial  realization  of  project Band  goals  members,  meant,  in  a  especially  personal those  of  sense, the  to  individual  younger  generation:  I guess for any one in the t r i b e who went out and found them [the oaves] the same way I did, they 'd probably feel the same way I did .... Each time we found a oave, i t seemed to make me feel, "Well, jeese, we've been hanging around here for quite a few years, Holy Man." It awakened a whole sense of belonging, you know. Like maybe one of my great-great grandfathers might be here, maybe his bones might be here. Even further back. When we were looking around, that 's what I kept thinking, you know, "Jesus, we're r e a l l y f i n d i n g out how come we're here. These people who are buried in these oaves are part of the big reason". Plans for of  for  the  ancestnial cultural  interfere  long  house  remains.  identity,  with  the  at  Hesquiat  The  included  materials  and  it  seemed  growth  of  that  that  spirit.  had no  a  burial  become one  crypt  symbols  could  Charleson:  Whatever happened in the beginning was carried on right through the s p i r i t of the whole thing. Everybody's looking at the caves in a real d i f f e r e n t way now. Everybody 's aware of them now, from the oldest guy to the youngest baby, you know. They a l l know what the caves are in Hesquiat, which reserves are t h e i r s , and they're s t a r t i n g to feel really possessive about it, s t a r t i n g to r e a l i z e that they have something. there thing  A lot of them are l i v i n g in towns, and they r e a l l y can know that they have somewhen they get l o s t .  CHAPTER TWO  THE  FILM  PROJECT,  ORIGINS & O B J E C T I V E S  We were approached by the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum the previous year to see if we could provide a physical anthropologist to the Hesquiat project. I arranged a contract with Jerry Cybulski for this purpose and when the N.F.B. and the National Museum began t h e i r j o i n t student f i e l d recording programme at about the same time I discus sed with Suki Anderson the idea of having some coverage of the Hesquiat Project in conjunction with a f i l m program'in ' Southern B.C. ... The museum's role in the f i l m pro^ gram. was to designate the area of operation and to provide some anthropological guidance which was where Suki Anderson came i n . :  The purpose of the f i l m project was to record what I thought at the time was a most i n t e r e s t i n g example of a spontaneously generated c u l t u r a l revival project in which t h i s m museum had some involvement in supplying spe+ c'i.alised personnel .... ... It is d i f f i c u l t at t h i s stage to evaluate the success of the Project .... The value of the overall project to the Museum has been mainly in the physical anthropology area in e s t a b l i s h i n g working relationships with Bands that has gone on to produce Oweekeno Project in which Jerry Cybulski is also involved. Both the Hesquiat and the Oweekeno Projects have yielded a great deal of important information on physical anthropology and Cybulski has published and submitted a number of papers r e s u l t i n g from the projects. George From a l e t t e r d a t e d E p i l o g u e , page 70.  May  19,  1977,  Ottawa,  F.  MacDonald  Ontario.  5  See  13 Prior the  to  the  beginning  of  in  actual a  Ottawa  and  funded  by  summer  employment  new  Federal  Survey  Man  would  Ottawa,  Sawyer, Board  appointed  in  students  in  British  work  of The  student  that  of  Survey,  and  eral  for  National  Film  film  Board  provided  circulated survey  Board  part  of  on of  not  out  Board a  The  share  administer  was  the  Dennis  be  Fil  hired,  institutions  in  in  As  stills,  the  in  of  film of  archival  Archaeological  comply  relegated  with  number  National  the  of  Museum a n d  Fed  manthe  responsibilities;  while  and  the  by-products  the  would  budget  employment  acquire  production  situations  by  of  National  would  the  work  Museum w o u l d  Film  the  Canada.  find  carried  the  and  of  Museum  educational film  be  student  aided  students  from  utilizing  filming  60  feom  vacations.  National  would  National  project,  objective  summer  in  the  film  Survey  a  in to  M a c D o n a l d , Head  for  document  being  as  Supervisor  who w o u l d  1972,  film  the  primary  April,  proposed  George  employment.  Board  would  plans  Canada  National  student  N.F.B.  Museum  work  the  year,  selected  to  their the  the  Treasury  hours  the  makers  objective,  footage  of  Archaeological  during  in  Approximately  Programme's  industry  Dr.  Project  Columbia,  film  funds  Treasury  ultimately  the  of  the  direct  as  Montreal.  15  for  plan.  Archaeological in  fiscal  Montreal  the  release  the  directed  National the  student  crews. The  tutions  first  information  providing  film  forwarded  courses  to  arrived  the  in  a  educational letter  sent  5 Dennis  Sawyer,  dated  Page  of  March  6,  1972.  According  5 See  87'  Epilogue  for  copy  of  letter  to  this  insti by  14 communique, funds  for  students  the  the  Federal  purpose  enrolled  in  16mm  film  equipment  they  were  attending.  ation  and  living  processing, specified and  finishing  of film  from  courses the  The  print  "allocated  who w e r e  program away  and  from  sound  of  N.F.B.  of  material  would  some  opportunities"^  educational  extent the  had  p r o v i d i n g work  expenses  work  the  Government  able  to  for  obtain  institutions provide  home,  16mm  stock.  The  transportfilm  stock,  letter  responsibility  for  clearly  ownership  gathered:  All materials produced under the Program becomes the property of the National Museum of Man. If the Museum wishes to take any of the record material acquired under the Program to a further stage of refinement i t will make appropriate arrangements directly with the respective institutions and cover the costs of such work.7 }  In  late  Vancouver, George  March  British  early  administering  had  talked  with  possibility the  of  funds  the  her  film  Page  Ibid.  to  becoming were  87'of  Susan  the  involved  released,  Epilogue  in  late in  the  J.  phone the  Anderson call  major  copy  from  responsibility  Columbia.  She  fall  1971  the  the  call that  of  of  British of  film  from the  about  project,  involvement  a phone saying  for  a  assume  program  MacDonald in  [ J received] [George MacDonald]  See  April,  Columbia received  MacDonald asking  for  when  or  wi  became  him money  letter.  and official:  15  . . .had come through and what they wanted was to send f i l m crews with some of t h e i r crews -going out on archaeological digs in B r i t i s h Columbia .... So they wanted me to find f i l m crews for those digs, (at that point I think three of them) .... He wondered if I wanted to be a supervisor for the three archaeological f i l m crews in the Province. Susan  The carried  program out  was  during  summers:  summer,  reshooting  and  first  during  the  second,  for  the  first  by  of  the  aspects  films  summer's  Anderson's and  and  were  during  never  paut  phases  to  shooting  initial  editing  a  and  of  third the  final  objectives  behind  perceptions  of  the  plan  overall  the  Program  were  marked  cynicism:  The government was p r i m a r i l y concerned with doing a $i<pnt at $100 per week to a d i f f e r e n t group .of students than the ones they were [reaching] with Opportunities For Youth . . . WHAT  DO YOU MEAN  BY  FRONTING?  Well, they have summer student employment programs in a l l branches of the Federal Government, and the National Film Board has been i n c r e d i b l y r e s i s t a n t in saying, "We are professionals and those are just students who don't know  Spring,  1975,  be  work.  retrospective  motivations of  finishing  o  into  successive  the  Finished  tentatively  three  during  summer.  divided  Anderson  Victoria,  B.C.  From a  taped  interview.  16  anything." The Treasury Board gust stood up and screamed that that p a r t i c ular branch had to take [on the project] or i t was bad p u b l i c i t y for them if they didn 't . . .. The only way the Government could get summer student employment in the [film] industry was to put pressure on the National Film Board. WHAT WAS M O T I V A T I N G THE F E D E R A L G O V E R N MENT TO PROCEED WITH A P R O J E C T THAT MET WITH R E S I S T A N C E FROM THE PRODUCING A G E N C Y , THE NATIONAL F I L M BOARD?  Publicity, strictly publicity. Summer student employment has a very minor function of exposing students to the Federal C i v i l Service. . .[at the same time] a l l these i n s t i t u t i o n s are desperately short of man-hours in t h e i r regular budgets . . .. These students come in to catch up what the Federal Government refuses to give enough budget to do. I t ' s true in a l l departments, not just the National Museum.^ Shortly in  the  Spring  him  asking  was  too  of  if  she  scheduled student regional  equipped,  to and  two  date  in  programs.  be  travel  At  for  this  of  briefed,  crews.  from There  British  Anderson's before  intervening up,  hired,  the  period,  student  oriented,  processing  Bold-faced  call  most G o v e r n m e n t - f u n d e d  setting  arrangements,  From t a p e d i n t e r v i e w . the writer.  time  the  remained  mid-May  MacDonald  another  limit  the  During  with  additional  to  months  required  located,  two  budget  three.  head-quarters  had  locate  the  than  starting  conversation  Anderson received  in to  less  summer  first  would  projects  appointment,  her  1972,  much money  Columbia  makers  after  questions  and  are  a  film and  shipping  those  of  17 of  the  film  totally  new  much money  for  would  the  field to  envisioned  sites.  involve  the  left  the added  to the  film  the  sites.  artifacts The  additional to  their  In  number  of  extant  of  various  the  and  this  decedents,  field  began  two  addition  to  to  approach the  plans  of at  resistance.  context  would of  were  that for  have  at  not  last  each  to  those  people  the  arch-  enthusiastic  directing the  sit-  archaeological  unearthed  directors  there  filming  offer  Indians,  being  to  Anderson,  historic  responsibility summer's  addition,  surface.  according  geographic  living  in  found.  crews  films,  Ultimately  behind  aeological  problem  a  Now,  be  directors  receive  establish  the  crew  to  too  slated  about  had began  MacDonald  who  projects problems  uations,  of  organizing.  Other being  digs  needed  a  film  minute.  The  was:  Nobody was interested in f i l m . [MacDonald's] supervisors in B.C. were hopelessly unenthusiastic about i t . Each supervisor would also have to spend time in places other than t h e i r archaeological s i t e s to organize other kinds of footage for t h e i r [ p a r t i c u l a r ] f i l m . Obviously, if you're doing an archaeological s i t e in Prince Rupert, in Prince Rupert Harbor, you need to spend a lot of time . . .taking pictures of the Indians. What was a c t u a l l y happening was . . . even if they knew enough about f i l m to know that that's what was needed, they didn't have the kind of rapport in the community . . . to be able to do that kind of thing successfully. Susan  Originally, had  not  been  Hesquiat  considered  as  and a  the site  Hesquiat for  film,  Anderson  Cultural but  the  Project cultural  18 revival  project  filming  could  ered  the  at  Hesquiat James  developing  be  undertaken  Archaeological  appeared  Haggarty,  as  He w o r k e d  and  serve  Band  and  the  a  as  Film  for a  and  offered  many  Survey  logical  director  Project. could  there  of the  of  film  situation  where  the  obstacles  encount-  sites  addition:  archaeology Provincial  perfect  a  Anderson in  There  the  Museum  intermediary  Supervisor.  avoided.  Hesquiat in  Victoria  between  remained  knew  the  just  Hesquiat  enough  time  ) to  introduce  the  idea  introduce  them  to  one  have  a  would  filming to  be  sion of  at  week  Hesquiat.  clarified the  the  were  Hesquiat  to  the  Band's or The the  so  Band,  Cultural to  idea  seemed  in  of  the  the  students  Committee,  prepare  details  Project  select  for  four  simple;  execution Film  and  every-  month's  what for  Program.  and  remained the  inclu-  CHAPTER  THE  THREE  N A T I O N A L MUSEUM MEETS  THE  HESQUIATS  When you 're going into a foreign culture, which you are when you',re dealing with the ethnographic film, you tend to carry your culture with you and see through your eyes, hear with your ears. That's not going to give you any insights into another culture. It means you're walking around with a l i t t l e envelope on your head. You 've got to get rid of that envelope. Dr.  From  a  taped  interview,  A.  J.  fall,  Reyne&ifeson  1974,  10  Vancouver,  B.C.  20 Concurrent filming  site,  reached  the  1972.  how  for  istered. Museum  it  was  with  month  Curator,  from  the  idea  of  for  and  film film  the  The  was  film  the  was  to  good  in  projects  had  going  in  were  at  there  theory,  in was but  the  of  be  knew  admin-  the  National  the  projects  directors  being  working  pulled  together  orientation  Haggarty,  the  spring,  Museum  to  in  preparation, James  already  B.C.  involved crew  a  by  Provincial  intention  be  people  because  as  released  projects  plans.  by  Hesquiat  by e a r l y  was  the  projects  advised  seemed  be  how i t  Archaeology  projects  to  at  organization,  of  film  archaeological  existing  Division  rumors  out  reluctance  to  into  going  or  of  Victoria  archaeological  MacDonald. one  stand  and  confined  integration  the  No one  toiinvolve  not  under  Board.  purpose,  the  in  was  did  Hesistancy  Museum  seemed,  what  What  consideration  surrounding  Provincial  Treasury  much,  the  rumors  Money,  Federal  with  and  Assistant  Provincial  Museum,  heard  the  to  away  Museum  no  "lead  Haggarty  stay  time".  The  expressed  uncertai nty:  You really need to take time to break any work of this kind into a community. If they [were] talking about moving onto a reserve, .... I i.[could] well see it would be a disaster. However, appearances, the  the  answered  construction  ethnographic  Hesquiat  of  a  filming  Hesquiat  would  National  Museum  absorb  Cultural  needs  of  the  traditional  Project, National  long  would  be  possible.  some  of  excess  project,  but  more  to  Museum.  house  meant  A film  money  all  Plans that  project  allotted  importantly,  outward  here  to was  at the a  for  21 situation  where  and  the  The  addition  film  native  a  ives:  people  of  program  fulfill  rapport  the  film  the  during  Film  would  funding  for  the  also  be  through  Hesquiat  the  and  seemingly  If  the  Hesquiats  iate  intention  that  she  when  it  try  to  would  Hesquiat.  to  be  could  the  project,  crew  at  Rocky  James  Anderson Victoria  the  Band,  of  with  and  the  from  the  could object-  record  of  young  people  residential  generating  to  Museum  Committee's  permanent  away  established.  National  advertising.  very  of  schools.  additional  To  add  film  National  become  quickly.  to  Museum  the  project.  film  the  Cultural  to  members  make  lived  with  introduced  to  a in  involved,  Anderson  Cultural  with  and  to  Hesquiat  meeting  met  the  Haggarty  Amos,  been  the Film  many  required  Committee  of  Haggarty  Committee  immed-  the  suggested  on  April  reconnaissance  trip  Victoria,  Alberni,  Port  the  members  on  that  all  of  at  once,  them  appriase  the  living  Cultural  Committee  15,';. to  date, discuss  conditions  for  the  Hesquiat.  Anderson with  be  way  going  assembling  In  Anderson  film  were  join  Committee  for  use  months  and  the  institution  perfect.  the  meet  Vancouver.  film  by  to  Cultural  Hesquiats  dovetail  confirmation  Band's  and  to  already  expedient  educational  the  was  had  Project  perfect  Program  had  area  governmental  relatively  publicity  Project  elements  a  summer a  a  Hesquiat  w o u l d make  material  an  equally  of  cultural Band  of  Hesquiat  seemed  number  between  Alice  travelled that  the  and  Paul, to  the  Cultural  Larry  Paul,  Hesquiat.  Cultural  It  on  April  Committee, Alex was  Committee  and  Together  (John  Mary  during  first  15.  Amos),  this  heard  Raymond,  trip  about  from the  22 National In  Museum's view  the  starting  had  to  of  proposed  the  date  for  be made. T h e  directly allowed  the for  fact  film  that  the  only  Hesquiat  Hesquiat  pressure  project.  of  from the  weeks  remained  Project,  Cultural  arising  consideration  two  a  quick  Committee the  short  proposed  before decision  experienced lead  film  time  project:  We had to make up our minds wham bam. A l l the other [film] crews were spoken for . . .. It was a pressure to get the crew accepted or rejected [by the Cultural Commi t t e e as a whole]. To say, "Yes", you want them, or "No", you didn't. We thought that there was an opportunity and if we didn 't take it, we'd lose i t . John  Financial siderations. the  Anderson  students  lines  on  of  the  Hesquiat.  In  arations  per  in  boat to  the  crew  film  required  to and  on  if  funding played the  con-  board  consistent  with  the  guide-  This  were  amount by  crew on  scheduled  been  into  the  field.  for  the  Cultural  important come  make  to  part to  its  to  could transport  the  Project, in an  prep-  a  Anderson  Since  at  date take  budgeted  for  in  while  the  1,  then  be  crew  could  had  to  would  the  May  Hesquiat,  Committee  Band's and  that  an  the  room  film  crews  out  to  of  pay  Vancouver  to  part  incurred  the  money  gear  additional  placed  N.F.B.  Tofino  Band  and  rate  expenses  work  considerations  pressure  the  formed  offering  diem  leave  from  the  also  was  addition,  time  transfer  by  actual  archaeology  chartered  cial  a  established  excess  the  necessity  Raymond  Band finan-  adding  to  the  immediate  deci s i on. Thus  it  was,  in  spite  of  obviously  conflicting  elements,  23 that the of  the  Cultural  Committee  film  students  to  involvement  Hesquiat  the  Cultural  discuss  Band  agreed film  expected  to  at  least  and  to  outline  from  the  film  meet the  crew  with quality in  the  Project.  \  CHAPTER  NEGOTIATIONS  BETWEEN THE  THE  FOUR  BAND,  NATIONAL  THE  STUDENTS  MUSEUM  It was just protecting the Band from "rip off". Today you might be quite sincere in saying, "I agree in everything you are doing and I ' l l never write anything about the Band or' give my impression about the Band in print or for sale to public or for publication". You might be quite sincere in that. Twenty years from now, who knows, you look back over your notes and you write some articile on the Hesquiats and i t might be altogether d i f f e r e n t than what the Hesquiats think of themselves and the project. This is what we were concerned with. John  Raymond  AND  25 After  her  trip  to  Committee,  Anderson  University  and  outlined entail,  the  what  selection  Hesquiat:  B.  Within  J.  the  Cultural  and  Rocky  was  frought  the  Band's  salaries  of  week,  three  This  with  caution  at  this  Anderson  and  for  total  the  students  sound  tape,  that  the  sign  a  in or  and  any  students  contract  the  Band  to  be  to  the  would  to  a  Band, be  and  to  Roxborough. two  members  of  John  Raymond  between  Band  and  The  in  primary  revolved  of  Band  students  reason  any  stills,  the  of  Band's  ownership  of  consideration  filmed  how  insisted Museum  alone  was  Anderson  had  suggested  that  the  following  summer.  process,  materials  finished  material  film-making  quarter-inch  National  Archival  during  by  demands.  the of  demand  Committee the  Susan  produced  footage,  The  representatives  year.  Band's  material  16mm  material.  film  representatives, the  for  between  preceeding  around  of  by  the  agreement  the  Committee  ownership  with  the  go  Band;  fear.  Museum  guaranteeing  continued  misunderstanding  with  contractual  the  written  minimal  produced.  the  form  and  Preoccupation  B.  to  outsiders  students  the  and  U.B.C.  a  the  between  control  and  made  of  Provincial  the  Martell,  and  would  exploitation  precipitated  Discussions  paid,  work  in  had  the  summer's  from  Hesquiat  She  involvement  such  and  be  met  Fraser  Columbia.  the  would  Simon  of  fear  Band  what  Cultural  stage  was  the  of  through  encounter  hesitations  Hesquiat  students  the  first  the  British  students  for  project as  J.  the  Committee  Amos.  of  students  Clayden,  the  with  students  University  for  estimated  tentative  contacted  the  briefly  Hesquiat  of  films  led were  little  value  film  program  the  assumed  The  Band,  that  26 finished  films  would  be  an  inevitable  outcome  of  the  film  project.  I can remember having some very o p t i m i s t i c discussions with John and Rocky about what can be done, knowing very l i t t l e and needing a hell of a lot of input from people familiar with the techniques of f i l m making. I think that was one of the very real reasons the Cultural Committee went after control of the footage, so that i t wouldn't s i t and do nothing. James  The albeit  film  haltingly.  detailing would  project  where  would,  in  of  National  the  Film  arisen.  No one  film  vaults  Anderson editing inite  to  sell  the  1972  the  be  formulated,  did  not  reach  a  original,  not  just  was  decided  working  for  the  while  Legal  knew the  the  were  that  for  summer.  program  in  to  the  salaried  print,  students  the  supervision  through  had  be  of  work  the  Band.under  would  not  the  yet  destined  for  the  Montreal. plans  for  the  second  problematical.  shooting, She  stage  the  that  complications  entirely  was  being  original  N.F.B.  understood  project  being  It  Museum,  arrangement  during  film  Board.  of  was  reside.  effect,  National  Hesquiat  Discussions  the  ultimately  for  Haggarty  was  in  Hesquiat  The  processing  and  a  in  position  Cultural  summer's only work which  Committee:  They [the National Museum] were t a l k i n g about i t [ f i n i s h i n g the f i l m s ] , but I knew the Federal Government well enough to know that the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i t r e a l l y happening were t o t a l l y up in the a i r .... One of the big problems with this project was getting money for the travel expenses to send people out in the f i e l d .  defprint she  had  27  Now, obviously , in a project where everybody 's doing e d i t i n g , you 're most l i k e l y to get money again. That seemed to me like a p o s s i b i l i t y , that there would be another project s i m i l a r in nature the next summer with far lower costs, simply s a l a r i e s and stock costs, nothing else. If  the  Band  in  ownership  National some  to  to  the  Museum.  solid  which  insisted  procure  in  ownership  Band  With  material  would,  on  the  with  effect,  finishing  could  be  the  to  eliminate for  material,  advantageous  workprint,  which  money  of  the  procure the  that  Band  the  for  the  would  finishing  National  portion  shift  have money,  Museum's  of  the  need  film  project:  We talked about where the o r i g i n a l f i l m would end up, because of the Hesquiat contract. I got my f i r s t copy of the contract from Haggarty before the 15th of April. So I knew what we were up against in terms of what we were going to do about it. I said as far as I was concerned, if the Hesquiat Band wanted to have t o t a l control over the e d i t i n g , of whatever film footage came out of that project, the way I saw it, the National Museum would probably be quite happy to have that happen, because that would mean that someone else would be paying at least part of the editing costs. Susan  Transfer National in  the  Museum  mind  with  the  tion  with  of  of  Band. the  ownership to  the  the  of  Hesquiat  National  However, lawyer  the  for  the  Band  Museum  when  film  Anderson  materials  did  not  present  representative  Anderson National  discussed Museum:  from  the problems  talking the  situa-  28 [He] had a oat f i t when I eventually got to t a l k i n g to him d i r e c t l y , because there 's no way a government agency can e f f e c t i v e l y do something that w i l l be owned outright by somebody else .... It's a totally i l l e g a l situation. If the Federal Government spends money on a project, that project 's output is the property of the Federal Government. Susan  When crew  had  it been  came  to  asked  the to  Band  sign,  contract the  Anderson  that  National  each  Museum  of  the  later  film said:  . . .those contracts [tiere] a re-?striction of t h e i r own [the f i l m crew's] personal a c t i v i t i e s . . .that no matter how i t ' s worded, it couldn't legally apply to the corporation, because nobody in the corporation or agent of the corporation was going to sign one of those contracts. In fact, for the f i l m crew, if the contracts were challenged, they were null and voide anyway, but if the Band wanted them signed, then [the f i l m crew] could go in there and sign them, . . .but never t e l l the Band that the National Museum as a' corporation couldn't and wouldn't sign that contract. Susan  She the  Band  contract a  told  contract was  contract  access  to  representatives presented  worded,  involving the  viewing  and  of  problems  explained  film,tthen of  the  the  Cultural because  that  they  material,  Anderson  Committee of  the  way  if  they  insisted  would  have  to  under  a  that the on  limit  "uses  contract"  . . .1 was very clear, because I knew at that point that the f i l m had to be owned by the National Museum .... The material was the property of the National Museum, but the pictures could be the property of the Hesquiat Band, and therefore, we could negotiate about how they were used.  29 This  kind  of  artifacts,  private  restriction the of  item, the  From actual  to  tiate  but  to  or the  the  the  worked the  use the  had  of  was use  the  details  used and  required. of  the  Band.  Cultural  is  Bands,  Museum  kind  of  when  a  technically  limited  point  was  problems  to  the  owns  wishes  of  arrangement  of  view,  delayed,  of  advantage  before  Indian  owners  was  Committee.  Museum's  The  between  The  item This  contracts  actual out.  been  individuals  National  signing  field be  of  donors  suggested  the  contract  the  film  Band lay  with  as the  ownership with  crew  the  began  long  the  students  did  Band  as  not to  shooting  in  have  negor at  Hesquiat. On through to  the  basis  Anderson,  Hesquiat,  of the  without  assurances students filming  coming were  from  given  equipment.  the  National  permission  to  Museum travel  CHAPTER  THE  STUDENTS  MEET  THE  FIVE  NATIONAL  FILM  BOARD  He [Dennis Sawyer] turned off a lot of people, because the N.E.B. obviously didn't care and they were not going to work in the kind of project where nobody cared what kind of material they produced. Susan  Anderson  31 The  National  students ienced  were  in  arrived Hesquiat evident  going  making  in  that  Project the  students.  The  as  expectation  of  feet  20,000  be and of  of  usable the  return  terms  of The  on  a  revelation  had  already  had  been  Anderson to  would  The  involve  a  issuing  film  N.F.B.  in  the  film  of  if  April  22,  1,500 out  the  to  budget, in  terms  rather  in  and A n d e r s o n  discovered projects,  way  to  set  travel,  1977.  that  Anderson  something  he  Vancouver. up were  Vie a l l arrived at Peter Jones ' o f f i c e [Vancouver Regional Office of N.F.B. j executive -producer] with the students interested in the programme.  interview,  or  Sawyer's  even  but  budgeted:  Telephone  the  and  turned  its  employment.  projects,  amount  to  measured  films,  film  his  be  of  quality  projects,  students  Sawyer  any  administer  not  summer  on  became  the  project  finished  for  it  the  checks  with  would  would  Sawyer,  Sawyer  contributing  for  each  Canada  great  begin,  film exper-  before  fulfilled  students  the  days  would  everyone.  that  When D e n n i s  be  be  the  people  film  student  between  with  concerned  project or  contact  proposed  for  on  across  learned  not  not  the  the  selected  doing  scheduled  was  1 1  to  films.  to  feet  spent  meeting  summer  was  investment  money  that  only  ten  project  of  the  approximately  of  material.  was  Museum  the  success  was  a mechanism  N.F.B.  completion  out  have  N.F.B.  except  the  to  Vancouver,  Film  Board  documentary  expertise,  with  Film  by  the  National  minimally  32  We found out that they had to have equipment, that they were going to get paid $400 per month, and minimal expenses, very basic travel to and from the projects. The National Museum had set these kids up to be t r a v e l l i n g with projects. They were going to be t r a v e l l i n g around to the d i f f e r e n t archaeolog— iical s i t e s in the Province. Susan  More  surprising  complications support, Sawyer  in  in  facing  terms  his  of  talk  for  the  the  program  students  interest  with  the  Anderson  than  director  or  the was  experience,  film  financial the  lack  of  demonstrated  by  students:  Dennis Sawyer said very clearly to the group of people there that they [the N.F.B.] didn't care about the f i l m , that they couldn 't care less whether anybody ran anything through their cameras or not that summer, that a l l the N.F.B. was concerned with was t h i s bloody p u b l i c i t y of student employment so that they could get those people \the Federal Treasury Board] off t h e i r backs. Susan  Sawyer  insisted  facilities started up  in  ment the  this  response and  no  the  anyone's  under  N.F.B.  disposal  film  would for  program.  the  The  to  the  dire  need  for  funds  had  been  allocated  not  put  any  completion  program  student for  the  had  summer  of  their  of  films  been  set  employ-  completion  of  films. Many  selected work  at  that  Anderson  on  of  the  students  for  the  five  the  project  present  British  since  no  at  that  meeting  Columbia p r o j e c t s ) , one  in  the  producing  (15  had  refused agency  been to was  33 concerned produced  with during  involved, enough  the The  between The  naively  the with not  fine  It  By  the  The made  tone and  for  Film  by a  film  by  of  the  students project  they  would  case  of  work  who  be  the  to  chose  still  be to  remain  contained  working  Hesquiat  of  for  the  the  signing  Board  and  the  the  students  makers  for film  the crew,  contract  remaining  while  carry  a  N.F.B.'s  contract  to  of  out  right  under  used  to  contract  by  work  students.  the for  all to  N.F.B. the  Board  staff. meeting,  Hesquiat  project  preparations  the  standard  the the  with  contained  in-house  end  communication  the  print  was  free-lance handled  the  since  concluded  produced  N.F.B.  The  that  in  purpose  Band.  National  unheeded  materials  felt  and  meeting the  or  summer.  value  Museum, Indian  quality  the  positive  National for  the  for  had the  all  the  Project  been  lines had  set.  journey  of  been  contact  established.  Commitments to  Hesquiat  and  had  could  been begin.  34 TABLE  Lines  of  Communication  2  for  the  Film  Project  MONTREAL  OTTAWA  N A T I O N A L F I L M BOARD Dennis Sawyer, Producer.  NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MAN George MacDonald, C h i e f , Archaeological Survey.  VANCOUVER REGIONAL Film  VICTORIA  O F F I C E FOR N ' T D . MUSEUM Project Co-ordinator, Susan A n d e r s o n .  PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF B . C Assistant Curator Jim Haggarty.  HESQUIAT LOCATION  OF H E S Q U I A T AND F I L M CREW  PROJECT  THE  FILM  CHAPTER  SIX  STUDENTS  AT  HESQUIAT  Fantastic! It would be a chance to learn some more about photography, give me a chance to learn some more about how to put a f i l m together, and the prospect of having 45,000 feet of color stock free of charge to shoot in a perfect s e t t i n g with an ideal subject . . .[it] just sounded like paradise, which is why I got involved, plus the salary was nice. B.  J.  Clayden  1 2  Even if you 're going in to just take footage, record footage, I think that you have to have an extremely detailed knowledge of what the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n is that you 're going to get into --in documentary in p a r t i c u l a r , where supposedly what you 're t r y i n g to put on f i l m is what is out there and not what is i n s i d e year head. To find out what is out there takes a lot of thought and a lot of thought process. Dr.  From  a  taped  interview,  A.  Vancouver,  J .  Reynertson  B.C.,  1975.  3 6  According for  Hesquiat  between atives  the and  frantic  the  list  cards, North  Coast  Indians,  ened  tell  of  experience  gear  and  left  most  and  of  hour  trip  none  of  the  local  keep  the  city  wind in  that  except  to  bit  sea to  they  as  an  all  the  sick,  Hesquiat  of  in  people  they  would on  lanterns, playing the  film. for  the  film  destined  to  chartered of  boat  height-  speechless, were  waves, have  their  staple  know a b o u t  sensation  choppy  people  a  gear,  and  the  the  Hesquiat  kerosene, rain  every  to  the  didn't  as  with  paper,  non-Indians  by  represent-  itself  people  the  rocked  interlude  cover  adventure  the  supplies, of  to  tar  bags,  surrounded  wide-eyed the  a  bought  Vancouver  filled  bluff  environment,  with  together,  was.  containers!-;  began  Tofino  -  present  what  the  week  items  rainy  and  them  expedition  Leaving  piles  and  plastic  West  summer  might  left  Committee  for  sleeping  to  two  departure  that  books  film  The  searching  tarps,  students  Cultural  of  remote  knives,  film  April,  scrounged  wise,  axes,  the  the  day  and  the  crew  the  withtthe  actual  at  The  students.  by  of  and  The  spend  end  eventuality  chicken  matches,  the  making  students  Reserve. gun,  at  schedule,  meeting  conceivable film  to  for rain  most and  ventured  out  predetermined  schedule. The west  boat  through  formations, Inlet  to  where  the  person  from  channels past  the  and  ride  open  "Bob  formed  Varguis  Paul's  to  by  island,  Pacific,  Douglas"  Larry  Tofino  to  boat speed  Hesquiat  threaded  tree-covered Flores  the  mouth  turned boat.  in  rocky  Island, of to  Hot pick  When t h e y  out  northland Sydney  Springs up o n e rounded  Cove more the  37 point  and  entered  whatwwould Springs and  be  Cove  their gas  fishermen  letters water  and  Mi Hire C h a r ! e s o n , of  the  next  boat  to  in  of  Steve's  no  idea  the  any  of  Band  elders  current was  the had  grown  to  tradition.  of  That  focus  Project,  the  reserve,  tangled  Ignace,  restored. his  daughter  shared  plans  of  the  winter,  as  discussed.  in  the  pieces  of  the  Victoria  and  all  though and  only  and  and  lost  his  was  one  of  the  and arrival  be  digging  home  reserve and  had  band  the  Band  the  students of  of  Hesquiat.  ostensible Band  and  memory  cultural  new  energy  members,  elders,  impetus the  would  George  daughter,  Janice,  and  Project  from  by  b u i l d i n g s on  songs,  British  a  summer  Cultural the  focus  dilapidation,  grand  for  formed  University  mailed  the  the  the  in  traditions,  brought  as  given  of  three  the  that  people  into  the  history  most  not  the  of  sustained  Hesquiat  Hot  crew  significant  right  or  that  been  despite  whether  Project  film  and  Hesquiat  tradition  the  always  at  of  the  Steve  Hesquiat,  there,  1972,  out  would  identity  briars  saw  were.  had  Patricia  George  at  expected  remain  knowledge  Cultural of  to  Steve  for  by  crews  local  watching  Center  even  In  stood  people  was  in  where  buildings,  pits  land,  location  Cultural  be  the  that  the  never  up  the  supplies:  jetting  strangers  Hesquiat  spiritual  desertion  tied  the  with  camp  frame  He h a d n ' t  Traditiionally life,  the  cove,  b e e r „and. hard l i q u o r ,  sister,  with  long  wharf  archaeological  who  Band  food,  white  Steve's  Band.  of  fish  On t h e  and  filled  the  contact  and  gas,  fish.  red  of  closest  bought  the  quiet  station  sold  from  the  much  developed a  and  man  rich  stories,  behind  the  University  Columbia,  plus  -  38 Band  members  makers,  to  work  as  archaeologists assembled  summer  the C u l t u r a l  The most  first  immediate  accommodations a  little  and  split  areas  that  learned about  the  film  additional  Museum  Before film  the  equipment  even  the  this  project  contract contract  to  tell  without.the  June, film  the  Susan  materials:  both  Kodak  E C O 7252 ,  twenty-four  hours  of  tape;  twenty  dozen  the  of  at  town  of  was p u t  taken were  over together,  The f i l m  surprised the  film  at  pick  knew to  crew. the National  film  into  Hesquiat,  A t the b e g i n n i n g  7242;  all  reversal approximately  sound  film,  the  up t h e  gear  16mm c o l o r  slide  to  Hesquiat.  and c o l l e c t e d  magnetic  see  C o m m i t t e e had  contract.  of  crew  i n Vancouver  dnlm  to  cut  Storage  worked  Hesquiat,  film  a n d EF 7 2 4 1 ,  35mm  beaches  worked  Vancouver  feet  were  B a n d members  use o f  the  living  buildings.  the C u l t u r a l  on t h e to  solving  Anderson telephoned  to  quarter-inch  rolls  the  Anderson,  transport  30,000  the  greatly  readied  since  returned  of  comprised  return  signatures  o f f the  of  was c o m p l e t e d ,  stock,  second  Hesquiat:  The crews  none  permitting  to  at  one a n o t h e r .  that  were  spent  and p l a s t i c  and had been  f o r the  crew  roofs  with  that  the  day, repairs  hauled  glass.  people  them  and f i l m  permission  stock,  time  white  Every  created,  familiar  of  were  everyone  logs  held  basket  E v e r y o n e was  t h e work  Hesquiat  facing  accommodations  the  crew  given  were  representative,  clarify  at  carvers,  project.  f o r the  no l o n g e r  during  revival  crews.  shakes  makers.  undertake  Cedar  becoming  While  of  f o r the  into  gradually  the  problem  and s h e l v e s  windows  to  two w e e k s  further.  carpenters,  and f i l m  gradually of  cooks,  recording  and b l a c k and  39 white  35mm  stock;  two  Bolex  16mm  reflex  camera  still  cameras  recorder  was  out  of  the  middle  The corner pails well  a  sign  old  month nearly  and  tools  To  water  of  begin  infinite  without  the  a  would  use  until  didn't all  field  plastic by  of  for  from  needs  of  many  them  were to  the  the the  activities  culture  students  allow  in  garbage  hand  were  Indian  the  working  darkroom  water  there of  tape  using  the  and  making.  using  clean  realms  that  in  film  IV  materials  actually  packed  with,  equipment,  anything  of  crew  one  lens;  Hesquiat  and  constructed  and  <<• a l l  for  being  buildings,  tanks,  project.  of  Nagra  film  gear  after  makers  the  the  cameras;  Angenieux The  another  prospect  the  silent  12-120mm  scheduled If  the  film  provided  photograph  After  of  with  especially  rinsing  that  Hesquiat  to  one  for  then  a  Scoopic  equipment.  wasn't  without  student  of  room  summer.  did,  month  Canon  with  shared  and  the  crew,  certainly  nearly, a  to  of  the  dark  being  Vancouver  excite it  and  16mm  to  explore.  willing  begin  shooti ng. After  permission  clarification Hesquiat  as  Project  to had  support  the  Band  establishing  in  Project  had  who  been  they  given,  were  do  whatever  ownership  three  actually  inspired t h e i r and  the  over  students  working  loyalty.  for.  They w a n t e d  was  necessary  the  film  to  aid  material:  That was the thing about the f i l m i n g that we a l l fel>t i d e a l i s t i c about. I know I did. The contract was breaking ground. If the Band could r e t a i n ownership of the f i l m , reversing the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the N.F.B. and groups l i k e , t h a t , then i t was the f i r s t blow, in a media sense, for aboriginal rights. B.  J.  Clayden  sought The to the  40 The  students  looked  to  in  kinds  the  The it  was  detail  crew  did  was  how  film  the  The  direction  would  could  accomplished  best  that  Committee the  confusion  that  for  for  serve  the  of  spending  come, left  not  students  to  Hesquiat  with  the  film  time  going  film  from  of  its  a  discuss  The  realizing was  and  to  come  of  the  anything  the  time  knowledge  of  from  time,  coming  not  most  aspects  if  any  needed.  Hesquiats.  of was  at  and  direction  and  have  could  lack  Band,  and  negotiations  direction  other  summer,  wanted  then  a  the  leadership  would  resulting  to  with  signing  contract  because  have  alliance  actually  arrive  Committee  administering  Project.  Band  with  perceive  the  natural  Committee  to  that  Committee  because  energy  due  Cultural  not  Cultural and  films  expected the  a  Cultural of  contract  close, in  the  felt  and Cultural  where to  the  be  strong  inner  conflict:  I wanted to make a f i l m for the Band, not knowing what the Band wanted and not being able to communicate well enough through the d i f f e r e n t cultures to understand what was wanted and not having the personal strength to just take a very subjective view of the s i t u a t i o n and impose myself on it, which is probably what we should have done. B.  The lived In  in  the  to  called  directors  Vancouver  middle  Hesquiat crew  actual  for  of the  sign. the  film  and  June,  crew,  the  Hesquiat  held  full  John  Raymond  weekend  Anderson  of  with had  and  time  contracts  already  told  them  Clayden  Cultural  jobs  and  J.  during  Rocky in  the  that  they  the  Amos  hand  seen  Project  for  flew  into  the  film  contracts, were  summer.  free  had to  41 sign in  the  the  fused for  documents,  contracts and  was  ownership  contract  would  restricted  be  Crown  Land,  one's  the  by t h e  National  permission  to  The  discovering film  Jater a to  a  of  that  law  public  Indians. Museum, onto  binding  students the  material  reserve  move  or  explained  court  An I n d i a n  use  legality  doubt.  the  in  access  students. for  in  was  void  the  to  over  It  public  aside  no  open  rights  legally.  the  that  disillusioned  enforced  to  but  were  con-  Band's  could  desire  not  be  that  the  Band  since  the  contract  place. is  force  Crown  Further, as  a  an  Indian  This  was  news  Land  and  set  because  Crown  it  is  Corporation,  needs  reserve:  . . .They need nobody's permission to do anything on Crown Land. The Archaeological Survey goes out and surveys and digs .holes in the ground. They don't need anybody's permission. I t ' s just a p u b l i c i t y point to do that. Legally_ i t needs no permission .... And that was the way they saw this whole project. Susan  The  students  little  of  affect  the  the  legal  N.F.B.,  document.  students In of  the  the  began  film  to  overall  by  crew  other meant  contract,  how t h e  tone feel  to  film  they  the  implications or  The  addition  individuals stymied  signed  a  for like  lack  project  c o u l d make conflicts they  of  Band  the  of  the  in  had  doubt  films, well:  overlooked  the  planned been  someone in  that  the  crew  the  very  contract  actually  confidence  and  as  understanding  how  summer  pawns  Anderson  as  a  to  set;  else's the  would  the game.  strength group  members  of  of  were  inexperience  extent  use  of  the  adaptation  and  42 planning They  were  plan, not  necessary  and  to  undertake  incapable  of  no  the  one  on  a  film  formulating crew  project  and  realized  of  carrying that  this  out  a  kind. proper  enthusiasm  was  enough:  We were r e a l l y naive as far as documentary f i l m making went, and maybe we didn't have the confidence we could do i t . But I'm sure we could have, if we hadn 't f e l t so much pressure to please somebody else, and not knowing who, not being mature enough to please ourselves, to put f i l m above everything else. B.  In  addition  to  film  makers,  a  Band  and  the  students  grew  out  of  students  and  the  gap  Vancouver, first  John  the  sense  of  students  directors lished naivety  and  Bapport in  their  first  that  the  leave the  processes. blind  role  film  Rocky  as in  It  directors the to  Hesquiat This  between  was  the in  during  this  communicated Band  and  told  Band members.  outsiders  Now a n o t h e r  the  the  makers.  April,  Amos.  towards  of  by  representatives  decisions  intrusion  felt  between  project  Band  Clayden,  existed  Committee  protectiveness  to  conflicts  meeting,  Raymond a n d  feared  Band  of  personal  Cultural  discussion  strong film  lack  the  J.  element  into was  the added  enthusiasm:  I know we came on r e a l l y strong and atmost scared outsiders of the project and I'm glad we did, because people went into i t in the right way, with fear. John  Raymond  a the The  estabto  43 As  a result  of  these  strong  warnings,  the crew members  became a f r a i d  of  Band members and f e l t  being  in  the  present  themselves, Hesquiat most  involvement  with  virtually  impossible.  The  resource  for  film,  Band members saw c l e a r l y  orientation as  Culture.  making  important  Several  Indian  voiced  by  the  film  They  began to  to  Band members w o r k i n g  at  crew was b l i n d  at  about  keep  the  crew would  self-conscious  people  the  the  themselves.  time  have  to  that  improved  a  different  the  situation,  by S t e p h e n C h a r l e s o n :  If i t had been clear in your minds that you were working for us, you wouldn 't have had to worry about the National Museum, the N.F.B. or anybody else, just have to worry about the kind of gob you were doing for us. Ask us what you should shoot. Instead i t seemed l i k e you guys listened to the N.F.B. or Suki [Susan] Anderson or something like that. Never asked what we thought about the whole thing. Since aspects  of  Vancouver  the  ori the  Hesquiat the  when  the  in  the  Indians  Instead  ences,  the  crew  the  began to  Project.  of  many  organizers  unresolved in  They  had been felt  prematurely.  shyness the  unnecessarily  thetdirectors  This  recognizing  days  of  idea  who the  individual  the  distance  contact extra  of  into found  B i n d members d i s p l a y e d  initial  interpreted  both  see t h e m s e l v e s as an  Committee had been c o r n e r e d  were w o n d e r i n g  of  aware  an e l e m e n t t h a t  project  crew d u r i n g  were.  they  Hesquiat  film  were  troubling  Band,  Cultural  reinforcement film  students  the p r o j e c t  on the  accepting  the  film  and O t t a w a ,  imposition foisted  the  at  white  towards Hesquiat, people  and c u l t u r a l as e v i d e n c e  differthat  44 the be  film  crew  distrusted.  was  a  disruption,  Band  members  an  saw  unaccepted  them  in  a  element  totally  to  different  manner:  Welt, when you guys f i r s t came, I didn 't know which one of you were archaeologists and which ones were photographers. When you f i r s t arrived at Hesquiat, no one knew what your jobs were. You guys were a l l just strangers. White people coming to work for us. It took a few days, maybe a few weeks, before f i n a l l y we distinguished you guys apart, you know. You, B i l l y , and B. J. were photographers, and Haggarty, Bob and Allan were archaeologists. Stephen  The  film  out  a  film doing know  crew  specific was  made,  was  part  that  the  had  come  to  Hesquiat  job.  Since  they  assumed  of Band  that saw  Band  as  a  members  that  what  as  work  team  didn't  the  unknown p r o c e s s . them  Charleson  film The  to  carry  know  how a  crew  was  students  didn't  expert:  We didn't think of you guys as some kind of imposition or anything like that, you know. We thought we'd hired some people with a lot of technical knowledgeiin making a movie. I guess if you guys didn't know what you were doing, we expected you to ask. If you were in trouble, we had no i n d i c a tion that you were in trouble. We thought you were just going about your job normally, whatever you were doing. Stephen  The film  feelings  crew  especially  was in  of  isolation  experiencing another  were  cultural  and  Charleson  disorientation  natural setting.  in  a  new  that  the  situation,  Unfortunately,  there  45 was of  no  one  at  negative  H e s q u i a t who  feelings  into  required  insight  into  entering  another  culture,  ience  for  goals  of  watching the  While outlined no  one  Band to  fulfill  and  transposition  and  into  the  needed  what  was  The  to  crew  process  of  acquire  seen  of  Museum  to  filmic  representative  material  pat-  be  the  Everyone  unconsciously expected  fact,  the  no  one  general  a  had  verbally  satisfy  Committee  in  had  would  Cultural  of  clear  idea  the  of  what  everyone  knew s p e c i f i c i a l l y how  expectations  of  the  Museum, the  else to  different  involved. a more  rapport  fact  that  know  the  practical  between  no  time  or  the  crew  had  Hesquiat  Band,  level, and  been  people history  distorted  the  been  suggested  by A n d e r s o n  project, basket  would  make  making. to  film  film  of  the  lack  Band c o u l d  spent  and  ness  takes  a  awareness.  they  relating  National  when,  On  the  positive  themselves  and  kind  the  any  groups  and  the  wanted.  know,  stimulate  film.  what  in  could  by  their the  makers' that  of  be  the  communication  attributed  crew  culture,  getting  to  the  history  of  project.  vision.  For  Paul,  the  excellent  subject  for  No o n e  accounted  for  amount  even  a  static  task,  such  as  A  blind-  example,\it  an  the  the  in  cultural  Alice  to  a  the  cook short of  had  for  the  film  time  weaving  on it  of  a  basket. Since to  work  singled  there  solely out  preoccupied  was  for  not  the  by A n d e r s o n with  other  enough  film as  money  crew, film  aspects  the  to  people  subjects of  the  hire  Band who  were  Hesquiat  members  had  been  almost Project  totally of  more  46 immediate  concern.  Alice  nearly  people  Hesquiat.  that  30  conflicted  simply  did  not  basket  for  a  pleasure  and  told  of  man  one had  at with  have  film. for the  come  the  or  inclination  She  n o r m a l l y worked  intended crew  weaver,  and  since  of  mother,  the  crew  for  elders  younger kinds  of  be  was  they  stance  the  the  operate.  was  were  crew  new  and  then  Charleson  her  its  identified  not  The  of  crew  them  couldn't  B a n d members described  picture  to  trying  no  better taken to  locate  in  the  to  find  in  time  filming  the  insight  into  the  experienced  when  the  the  same  Band  a  her  far  trying  ease  would  a  of  time  yet  it  before,  already  not  recognize;  was  for  Alice  were  and  Resistance  a  weaving  summer,  difficulty  had  weave  mother.  limited  B a n d members to  a  her  was  to  photographs  photographs  that  Alice  quickly, that  for  activities  crew,  mother  spend  cooking  many y e a r s  taken  felt  There  filming. didn't  had  should  well.  shy  were  Band,  that  the  filmed.  as  process  crew  members  She  embarrassement  people  for  problems  to  Later  and  being  film  sales.  Alice,later  people  filming film  baskets.  C o l l e c t i o n as  Filming  the  energy  basket  Curtis  from  the  Hesquiat  material.  Aside  was  the  making  that  example,  of  mother  her  for  needs  film  to  Paul  to  understood. feelings  being  assumed somehow  filmed  if  it  in  I had the veal funny image in my head of you guys who were going around to take pictures of these guys who were kneeling on the ground [doing archaeology] . It seemed real funny. I didn't want to be in on it, because everybody looked real s i l l y . That's when I knew i t was going to be a r e a l l y weird summer,  the  was  was  magically  feelings:  The  a  working co-  47  when I started f e e l i n g real uncomfortable right from the beginning, because I didn't think of myself being in this movie where a l l they did was just be kneeling down through the whole thing. I guess I was thinking about a whole d i f f e r e n t f i l m than you guys were at that time .... I guess the other people that there f e l t about the same as me. kind of shy. If they had a piece on t h e i r face when you guys came they rubbed i t off. Because they look good in the pictures. The  film  crew  had  not  explained  sciously  formed methods  Band  been  had  required. scenes, were  with  they  As crew  an  was  about  The crew  intentions;  approach  film  went  little  doing.  people  told  of  its  insight  existed.  making  through into  were They wereof d i r t around, wanted to  It  all  the  motions  shooting  the  reality  were  filming  was  distance.  vast  Stephen  importance  film  of  as  the  the  whatwwas  themselves  missing  assumed  understood  between  archaeologist,  con-  and  But  a  no  Charleson  of  the  of what  makers  sensed  findings  at  they  and  the  the  film  the  Survey  pits:  Tt seemed like they were in the wrong places at the wrong times a lot of the time. We 'd be doing something important in archaeology or something like that and you guys weren't there. We'd a l l be working away, wondering, "Where the hell are they? There's something r e a l l y important going on right here". Not even there. If they wanted the whole story, they were missing a lot. The  film  crew  that  a  of  situation  a  r e a l i ty  was  documentary is  revealed..  blind film to  be  to  the  must  insightful  capture  penetrated,  details  of  events  if  the  surface  reality  and  the  essence  of  the  48 Remaining approach. thing the  Its  rather  film  be  of  back  to  the  from  Hesquiat  one  far the  in  not  trying  telling what  to  events.  to  shoot.  the  not  every-  When  footage  than  its  Eventually  activity,  could  order record  particular  more crew  time  for  to  Hesquiat  on  reasons of  very  late  roll  of  learning  on  there  was  activity  imagine  one  how t h e  or  two  film  crew  from  There  film  to  put  the  As  it  was,  mistakes  of  time The  crew  resulting  that and  had  of  footage  situational  the  automatic  the week  time back  the  was  material  context.  It  /  lighting  it  the  the  and  not  could  had  also  light  plane  mistakes  did  mailed  Vancouver and  view had  not  metering were  track,  tech-  footage, been  dupli-:  of  easily  relied  until  first  weeks  be  ship-  the  only  a  However,  Hesquiat  the  and  on  flight.  first  in  right  using  situations  film  reach  the  intervening  of  interfered  Tofino,  reach  elementary  through-the-1ens  that-some  on  ship-  inevitable.  not  shooting  habit  shaky  did  time  were  to  mail  was  enough  of  to  understood,  crew  during  errors  adopted  the  realizing  first  were  film  by  again,  types  had  delay  never  that  Unprocessed  reshipping  Vancouver  July.  nically.  barely  week's  workprint  obstacle  experience.  and  of  f o l l o w i n g Wednesday's  workprint in  frequency  another  Wednesdays  the  the  the  was  processing  A minimum o f  ment  over  Hesquiat  crew's  in  The  shoot  on  control  with  cated,  the  could  edited.  Lack  for  crew  up w o n d e r i n g  placed  because  the  scattered  selecting  ended  to  warranted,  ments  than  was  tendency  would  attention  crew  attention a  directionless,  filming. corrected.  tripod.  The  justified too  by  heavily  system fooling  on  without the  system.  49 The  results  over  a  scene  exposed or  were  shots  with  subjects  ocean.  varying against  One o f  the  emulsion.  A single  work  print  itself,  film  supervisor Coupled  teresting, were the  editing, for  month, ively  the  experience  time arose  by  cultural  potlatch playing.  was The  potentially time set  the  the to  work,  insight. felt  of  the  that out  with  the  visual  the  there.  in the  see  Indian  a  audio  being  Hesquiats  unin-  human  insight  into of  compensate into  its  unable  final  to  object  shooting  singing  Days",  days  and  and  to A  game  provided  For  the  and  focus.  responded:  Most of them up there ^Hesquiat Days* when a lot of them came up saw you guys for the first time. Saw you running around doing your whole movie thing. Seeing you taking pictures during their celebration they all figured they were 3  detail  accomplished.  purpose  3  the  Hesquiats  material.  definite  flat,  "Hesquiat  bring  three  the  ifeo w h a t  successful  dancing,  lasted  and  had  was  not  No a m o u n t  and  celebration,  what  sky  footage.  most  to  the  film  The  would  the  under-  Vancouver.  audience  music  Committee  celebration  the  or  in  demoralized  remained  given,  it  not  if  footage.  the  as  crew  was  of  the  Wi t h t h e : p r o j e c t goi ng  Cultural  felt  the  problems  of  such  the  flaws  panned  shots  crew,  screening  give  were  totally  to  and  been  to  or  the  alerted  narration,  project  rich  crew  ups  camera  scratching  to  technical  events  through  the  arranged  of  crew  sort In  the  Close  behind  lack  have  the  backgrounds was  have  as  levels,  sent  quality  voice-over  the  cameras  the  lifeless  meaning  light light  would  with  "wowed"  letter  must  missing.  that  first It  50  gonna be in i t then, you know. "Ah, this movie in Hesquiat, t h i s is our part". Stephen  However, ment  and  sound  inexperience  fessionals out  sync  would  crystal  to  maintain  it  would  a  the  facilities  in  synchronize  the  actual  images  not  possible  crew  accomplished  constant  later,  film  led  have  sync  was  in  sound of  of  to in  both  running  editing,be  Charleson  attempt a  virtually  people  pro-  way.  tape  both  and  beats drum  Withrecorder  machines,  impossible  drum  singing  equip-  what  and  between  and  the  different  camera  speed  singing  with  to  with  the  s t i c k s ' - l a i t t i ng  drums. There to  the  the  were  people  in  finding  crew  film  Stephen  making  previous  summer  that  archaeologists  Indian the  in  the  process  what  kind  of  Stephen it its  should  white  of  way to  worked  observed had  culture  the  attempted  could  another  troubled.  with the  the  slow  made  him  and  he  have  given  culture One  process  band  His  or  had  if  member, the  orientation  experience  intensely  aid  even  archaeologists  undergone.  Band to  who  into  be  acculturation,  films  first  own m i n d  and  had  Hesquiat  its  continued  Charleson,  the  at  as  conscious  definite  ideas  the  crew  an of about  needed.  communicate  of  all  relax,  about  the  content  look of  to  around, the  film  and  then  films.  What would have made i t successful is if the people went up there would be people who knew what they were doing, knew t h e i r equipment, knew what they need  that  make  up  51  to  make a f i l m ,  everything  ....  Get those same people to ask for help when they are there. Hold a meeting. Find out who you're going to ask,, what the most important thing w i l l be to be filmed in each part. Then go find out from somebody else, who 's in charge of t h i s , who knows this the best, get help from them. Sit down and t a l k to them, one at a time. Find out exactly from them what you should photograph, what the most important steps are, whatever the procedure is, whatever t h e i r job i s . Then go and watch them for awhile. Then i t would make a lot of sense. Get people you're filming really involved in the process. Tell them what i t i s . Explain to them that they might have to do something over again. It 's some kind of motion. Tell them that they shouldn't be self-conscious when they're singled out of the whole bunch. I guess every:day make sure you involve them. Get them to work for you and t e l l you when something important is going to happen. Show some of them how to [use the equipment]. The stymied lost  the  crew by  was  unable  conflicts.  will  to  enthusiasm  was  interested  in  the  By  try.  gone,  to  The even  film  apply  the  end  film for  project  the of  had  August, been  Stephen at  advice  the  and  everyone  spent,  who  had  remained had  and  been  keenly  beginning:  We gave up on thinking about how I wanted the f i l m to be or the whole thing like that. I think everybody else got that way around the same time, too. Patterns outside rection :  had  been  influence  established  and  to  film  push  the  it  was  too  project  in  late  for  any  another  di-  We didn't want to help, you know, or we didn't even think of helping, I guess, helping you guys and. t e l l i n g you guys, "Hey, come on over here with your equipment. There 's something important happening here. See that a r t i f a c t , we're r e a l l y proud of i t . We want you to shoot i t for us" . . .. We placed you guys outside. We didn't want to work you guys too much. I don't know why. Maybe i t looked like you guys weren 't enjoying it, I guess, otherwise we 'd be thinking, "These guys r e a l l y like to take pictures. I wonder what t h e y ' l l take pictures of next". Instead we were saying, "These guys wouldn't like to walk a l l the way over here with t h e i r stuff", it was that kind of f e e l i n g . Stephen  Charleson  CHAPTER  SEVEN  WINDING  DOWN  A l l during Hesquiat Bays, they thought they were being filmed. The people knew that you guys were there for the Hesquiat Film, and since a l l that happened, a l l the footage and that seemed to have disappeared, you know. It 's not even talked about any more. They forgot a l l about the f i l m , I think. Maybe there's s t i l l a few of us who remember i t ' s s t i l l there. But I think there was probably quite a big disappointment they didn 't see a movie come out of it, but not too much, 'cause it 's not r e a l l y as real as i t is to a l l you people out there. You guys care about i t more than we do. Stephen  Charleson  53 By  the  end  white  stills  stock  had  and  been  crew  numbly  and  went  back  It had  a  color  slides,  plus  to  developed  The not  had  exist.  at  the  not  found  John  ances  given  to  In  the  the  by  of  of  Vancouver  the  for  in  to  evaluate  and  to  determine  16mm  film  gear,  that  wasteful  crew  and  packed  feeling  and  black  processing.  35mm m a t e r i a l ,  failing  the  possession  Raymond  number  most  engulfed  Raymond  light  to  vast  the  venture.  the  events  why  the  that  initial  fulfillment.  between  understanding  tforjgiiinal".  a  Hesquiat,  physical  and  sent  been  for  contract  acquiring actually  had  and  Vancouver  impossible  enthusiasm  did  summer,  catalogued  experience  was  the  shot  The  film  of  National  Museum  continued of  the  to  film  distinction of the  the  engaged  material,  between  subsequent National  be  and  the  Museum w e r e  in without  "work  events,  Band  print" assur-  ironic.  I realty s t i l l didn't know enough about what we had, that we r e a l l y had the control of the f i l m that the National Museum assured us, because the only contact we had, George MacDonald, gave us a l l the assurances. But I never r e a l l y f e l t , I s t i l l know that there is a negative or something somewhere in Montreal that can't be,wwon't have anything don It to i t . He assures us that we have complete control over i t and that that thing in Montreal can't be touched.13 John  The  most  important  detail  See E p i l o g u e Page J u l y 22, 1976.  78,  of  ownership  letter  from  was  being  Dennis  Raymond  overlooked  Sawyer,  dated  54 where  would  access  to  the  "original"  be  stored  and  would  there  be  it?  The people in the ArchaeologyEthnology D i v i s i o n [National Museum of Man] made if p e r f e c t l y clear that they thought the Band ought to have the footage .... The lawyer for the Corporation said that they would be w i l l ing to set up what is called a "uses contract". Susan  The  uses  contract  for  signing. After  decision the  was  finishing  have,  funds  to  pay  access in  the  resigned leaving  as  to  summer's  money  the  the  would  be  no  access  be  of  directors  negotiations  of  the  The  N.F.B.  had  h'eVerc  in  the  film  emulsion;  ownership  in  the  film  material  there  was  no  Band  possible  had  way  not  for  Film  the  which  to  Band  the  for  Band  negative,  and  the  footage  costs,  At  the  since  same  Rocky  time  Amos  Project,  Band  interest  been  editing.  and  the  Board.  however  them  to  Cultural  between  on  for  because  Raymond  continued  original  exist.  expressed  contained  the  the  the  be  funding  Hesquiat  National  not  duplicate  not  unfinished  and  a  program,  costs  to  John  the  Museum  Since  the  of  did  1973,  National  stored.  to  Hesquiats  funds  excessive,  printing  original  spring  film would  vaults,  would  the  it  or  N.F.B.  to  that  raise , * in addition  for to  the  There  ifehe f i l m s  would  early  the  presented  Ottawa  year.  in  never  of  in  completion  stored  Band  close  made  following  Without now  the  was  Anderson  in  the  images  the  N.F.B.  did  the  images  were  dealing know  with  the  the  claim  N.F.B.  ultimate  out-  55 come  of  the  knew  about  according  ownership the  to  struggle.  demands  for  Dennis  ownership  Sawyer  by  the  of  the  N.F.B.  Hesquiats,  but  Anderson:  What had happened was that a l l the 'original from a l l of the prog eats stored in the labin'-Vancouver was bundled up and sent off to Montreal when the projects were over. So the N.F.B. had i t in its vault and w i l l not release i t to anybody which means if the National Museum was going to pay somebody to edit a f i l m out of the footage, tHejy obviously need for somebody to have access to the o r i g i n a l , once the e d i t i n g is done so that they <-.can do the A & B r o l l i n g . The National Film Board w i l l not give permission for that. They w i l l allow the dupe o r i g i n a l out, but not the o r i g i n a l at a l l . The National Museum was screaming about that because the f i l m i n g was done for them, and to be denied access to the o r i g i n a l was ridiculous. If  the  Band  or  anyone  the  material  the  d u p l i c a t i o n of  tract", of  all  the the  No  film  Hesquiat.  The  Band  completed finished But have  that the  Band w o u l d  one  viability  shot  else  to  has  summer,  to  it  original. not  have  complete would  Even  have  with  direct  films  and  a  to  from  pay  "uses  for  con-  immediate  control  material. date  There of  wanted  is  trying no  has  seen  no way to  the  at  plans  summer's  of  this  complete  immediate  films,  all  a to  the  footage  time film  to from  edit  project  the  must  shot  establish the  at the  footage.  film. remain  Without an  un-  experience. there  been":  is  an  alternate  ending  to  this  story,  a  "might  Probably that movie, if the movie was made in Hesquiat that summer and finished in the winter, i t would probably play a big part in the t r i b e . Hesquiat Days. In the night time, they'ed)have a continuous showing of it. People look at it, look at it, look at it and look at i t . That's what would have happened if i t was a good movie. Maybe at Christmas time or when somebody gets married, during a Band meeting or after a Band meeting, they could whip out the old projector and see the Hesquiat movie again. It would have been t h e i r s . It would have been like an Indian dance. It would have been like a boat in the f l e e t . It would be a part of l i f e . Addition to the year. Something to put in the year. Something to look forward to. That's what i t would have done. Stephen  Charleson  57  APPENDIX  58  APPENDIX  Newspaper  Articles  Charles  I  Pertaining  Ehlers  Case  to  the  59  VANCOUVER  PROVINCE,  August  1,  1972  Mystery of Surrey mummy cleared up Removed  from Island cave  }*pt**<*~  The owner of a mummified body found in Surrey at the weekend said Monday he removed it from a cave on Vancouver Island to save it from animals and humans.  *c  wriQu.r-ie*,  •mm-  Charlie Ehlers said in a telephone interview that when he discovered the cave four years a?o. many of the old Indian artifacts inside it were still intact. But each summer as he returned to the cave, near a logging road about 35 miles southwest of his Tofino home, more and more articles had been destroyed by bears, other animals and humans.  4-2"-  - . •  ••»,:'  ,  • .*  Old house in Surrey where mummified body was found.  v  Ehlers, 47, said he finally took the mummy and th« it was in from the cave April when he found it to be the only undamaged artifact left. More than 30 R C M P members converged on a house in Surrey Saturday night after a man reported he had found a body in a box in a house he had purchased from Ehlers. John Stertz, a contractor, had bought the house and property for a subdivision and with John Niemi, a locksmith, was installing locks. They found an old box under a table and took it to the front yard where they broke it open and found an almost  perfecUy body vas.  ed human brown can-  Ehlers had been moving his belongings to his permanent home in Tofino but said Monday he couldn't find the mummy and box and figured it had been stolen. The next he heard of it was Sunday noon when Tofino R C M P came looking for him. He said they took him to a police car where they searched and handcuffed him and put him in jail for six hours until two Surrey R C M P officers arrived. Ehlers said he managed to convince the police there was  no foul play Involved by taking them to the cave where he found the mummy and by producing a letter to the Vancouver museum offering the artifact to them. "The police were sure surprised when I showed them the cave," Ehlers said. He  signed a statement and was released. The mummy was taken to Royal Columbian Hospital after its discovery and two university of B . C . anthropologists were to inspect it today in an attempt to determine its age, sex and date of death.  60 Grave  or  museum?  Coroner will decide VANCOUVER August  3,  PROVINCE  disimte over mummy  1972  MprOV.•  A U G  A U G • 319i'2  A .n n attempl a t t e m p l will w i l l be made made today by archaeologist B e r n a r d S i m o n s o n to a c q u i r e a m u m m i f i e d body found i n a S u r r e y house last weekend as an e x h i b i t f o r the P r o v i n c i a l Museum. But Joe Frank, a councillor for the Tofino Indians at Opitsat, says he will do everything in his power to have the Indian body brought back and given a decent burial.  w  ^  Frank said the cave is near the site of the old cannery operated by J . H . Todd & Son on Tofino Inlet at the mouth of the Kennedy River. " T h e r e was a n Indian v i l lage t h e m when the c a n n e r y was o p e r a t i n g i n the 1920s a n d 1930s. There was a g r e a t epid e m i c i n 1925 a n d 1926 a n d people were d y i n g like f l i e s . " R C M P said t i o n showed more artifacts er bid w i l l be sealed off.  a recent inspecthere are still i n it and anothm a d e to h a v e i t  Coroner Doug Jack of New Westminster said Simonson contacted him Wednesday and said he hoped to be able to obtain the mummy. " H e is now Frank said most of the on his way to Tofino to meet m e m b e r s of c o u n c i l were out with the Indian leaders ers a n d / f i s h i n g W e d n e s d a y night a n d get their permission to t a k * the e a r l i e s t they could meet the m u m m y . " / w o u l d be this m o r n i n g . " I don't k n o w what t h e i r d e c i s i o n Jack said pathologist D r . will be. B u t what w o u l d y o u Cam Coady and Dr. K . R . Dondo if this was one of yours?" nelly of the department of anatomy at U B C examined The mummy was found last the body Wednesday and weekend in a Surrey house found it well mummified. that had just been bought by John Stertz. T h e previous "It is a female and very old owner. Charlie Ehlers of Tofibut no one would attempt to no, said he removed the guess the age," Jack said. "There were some fragments mummy from the cave last ">f woven cloth on the chest April when he found that huand head which looked like mans and animals were deiinen. It was definitely white stroying the artifacts. He had man's cloth." known about it for four years. Jack said the woman's knees were drawn up to her chest and the feet crossed. The left arm was across the chest and the right arm was along the side of the b o d y . The head was turned to the left.  Earlier  Ehlers  for  removing  mummy from the cave.  F r a n k said he h a d k n o w n about the body f o r y e a r s a n d made an to have the c a v e sealed off about f i v e y e a r s ago. H e s a i d he d i d n ' t r e a l i z e the body h a d been t a k e n until police phoned h i m e a r l i e r i n the d a y . " I think we should be left alone. C a n ' t y o u let us r e s t i n p e a c e ? "  attempt  ar-  is considering action against  " A d e c i s i o n w i l l l i k e l y be m a d e today on what to do w i t h the m u m m y . I guess I w i l l h a v e to m a k e that d e c i sion a n d it w i l l d e p e n d on what the Indians h a v e to  t  Wednesday  chaeologist Simonson said he the  61  VANCOUVER  AT  VICTORIA  SUN & P R O V I N C E ,  August  4,  1972.  MUSEUM  Indian body held  The rem - "who T !was ' ^buried ? ^ in" a< i i ? l$7£play ta. m u s e . woman urn. Vancouver Island cave no "Our policy is to go along more than 100 years ago are with the Indians and right ! now being held by the provinnow they're on the backs of cial museum in Victoria. the anthropologists and others Provincial archaeologist for disturbing Indian burial Bjorn Simonson said Thursgrounds." day the remains would be reSimonson said it was not turned to the local Indian technically correct to refer to tribe near Tofino ii that was the remains as a "mummy" their wish. since no special preserving "I think the interest of the process was used in the IndiIndians overrides the archeoan burials. He said the relogical interest,*} -Simonson markable state of preservasaid. \ tion was due to the extremely The body was found in a dry condition of the burial house in Surrey last weekend cave. by John Stertz, wh'p had just Jnder provincial statute, purchased the house. Charlie /he Archeological and HistorEhlers of Tofino, th^ previous ic Sites Protection Act, it is ilowner, said he had \remov legal to knowingly disturb the mummy from a eav«r'at burial sites, he said. Tofino inlet last April. The act provides for a maxiDoug Jack of New Westminmum fine of $1,000 or six ster, as coroner for the area months in jail, or both, on where the body was found, conviction. took charge of it but released "This kind of vandalism is it to Simonson Thursday. not tolerated by the Indians Simonson said he thought nor by ourselves," Simonson there was only a remote posadded. sibility that the Indians would Two other mummmies are approve of the museum keepstill lying undisturbed in hiding the remains. ded caves along Tofino Inlet, "If they agreed, we would said Mrs. Elsie Seymour, custore, it, but I doubt very rator of the West Coast Marimuch if it would- ever be distime Museum. played," he said. The area along the inlet was "I don't go along with that a traditional burial ground for sort of display — it amounts, the Clayquot Indians, she to an indignity. said, and there are probably "I don't-think you'd like to- • more bodies ia caves no ona Bee. your grandmother's" reknows about. v  Museum to  plans  return to  cave  A mummified body discovered in a Surrey house., last weekend has gone to the Provincial Museum in Victoria until arrangements' can be made for its final resting place. j Archaeologist/Bernard Si-« monson said Thursday museum officials hope the mummy j will be returned to its burial { cave on Tofino Inlet at the j mouth of the Kennedy River. I Even if the mummy,remains j at the museum it will not be i put on display, he said. Two J museum representatives are j currently in the Tofino area to ; discuss the situation with the j Indian band. < ;  62  VANCOUVER  PROVINCE,  August  5,  1972.  More Indian mummies secret Island caves T O F I N O — A t least two more Indian mummies are in secret caves in Tofino Inlet near this West Coast Vancouver Island village. Mrs. Elsie Seymour, curator of the West Coast M a r i time Museum, says many local residents have known about the preserved historical bodies lor about four years but have kept their; exact [location secret f r o m \stra. [gers. She says her husband, Nick, Ihas been to the caves near the mouth of the Kennedy Tiiver and has a photograph of the mummies, one a male and the other a female. Tne mummy, which was re-  cently removed from a West Coast cave and taken to Surrey by Charlie Ehlers of Tofino, is now reported to be at the Provincial Museum in V i c toria. Mrs. Seymour says one of the two mummies she knows of b-a's been "messed about" by/ animals or humans. The other, the female, is intact. She at first thought the mummy found curlier was the intact female but her husband went id the cave this week sisd s:i;<t the mummies were Mr.= . Seymour says the mummies were the remains c: members oi iho Ciayoquot I n d i a n tribe.  63  VANCOUVER  PROVINCE,  August  15,  1972  Removing mummy results in charge PrOV.  A U G  151972  °  bpetial to Thehave Province to bring it back to VanTOFINO — Charle Ehlers couver again." is scheduled to appear in provincial court Wednesday to Ehlers said the mummy had enter his plea on a charge of been in a cave about 20 miles taking a mummy from its on the highway from Tofino burial place. and then about 17 miles into the bush. He said he had been The charge results'from an hunting for black bears when information signed in Tofino he found it. "I was back there Monday, under Section 4 (B) in April and just bones were of the 1972, Archeological and left of the o t h e r two Historical Sites Protection mummies. My mummy only Act. The section states: "No weinhfd about five or It person shall knowingly desecpouipds." rate or alter a burial place or remove from it skeletal remains."  VANCOUVER  SUN, August  14,  1972 :  \gAN  CHARGED  TOFINO—A of removing skeletal rcnfai?f.--}ias been laid against a m a r r « * ^ > allegedly removed tiie idoycar-old mummified body of an Indian woman from j rock shelter here last A p r i l . / , ItCMP said C h a r l o / Ehlers of Tofino has beery charged under Section 4 / l i ) of ihe 1972 Archcolc-gica^jnd llistorI ical Site-. Protection Act. The section stares: " N o person shall knowingly destroy, desecrate, or .''alter a f u r i a l place or reraore from it skeletal remains?' The act provides for a maximum fine of ;$1,000 or six months in jail, or both, on conviction. :  The act provides for a maximum fine of ,$1,000, six months in jail or btyh, on c o n / viction y/^e Ehlers said Monday/he would plead not gihlt/. He said he took the mummy from a cave on Vancouver Island in April — four years after he found it — because bears had damaged two others in the isme place.  She mummy now is refine mummy now IB I Worted to be at the Provincia Aluseum in Victoria. / Frank, a councillor foi the Tofino Indians at Opitsat has said he will do everything in his power to have the bod; brought back and given a de cent burial. He said he hat * known about the body fo years and made an attempt ti have the cave sealed off aboi five years ago.  The mummified Indian body was discovered two weeks ago by contractor John Stertz in a Surrey house he bought from Ehlers. "It was obviously a human body," Stertz said. "It was in a sitting position, with its head turned to the left and its hands straight down." Stertz said the mummy was in a makeshift plywood box wrapped in brown canvas. He immediately contacted the police. Ehlers said he had taken the box to Surrey in the trunk of his car intending to give it to the Vancouver Museum. "I brought it over on the weekend and the museum was closed. I was going to go back." He said he left the mummy in its box at the Surrey house along with other personal property, rather than moving it to a farm he owns in Cloverdale. "I didn't want to take Vl out to Cloverdale and then  64  VANCOUVER  PROVINCE,  August  17 ,  1 972.  eacls not -emit1 J5 E l l t l l i l J l X  'G''ifo AUG 1 ? m t T O F I N O (Special) — A man charged with removing a mummified Indian body from its burial cave on Vancouver Island pleaded y not guii Wednesday and \yas rem/fid ed for trial Sept. 2'. Charles K a r l Ehlers, 47. of Tofino. was charged after a mummy was found July 31 in  /  Y J  a Surrey house he previously owned. Meanwhile, provincial archeologist Bernard Simonson said in Victoria he had been told by members of the Clayoquot Indian Band they want the mummy returned, and now is awaiting an official request from the band leaders. .  The well-preserved body of the adult female Indian is being kept in the provincial museum in Victoria. The  charge against Ehlers  is the first iaid under the Archeological and Historic Sites Protection  Act. designed to  protect Indian burial grounds.  65  H E S Q U I A T  V A N D A L I S M  S P A W N S  M U S E U M  ndians act to guard b u n a  r>y RON r.fsr:  On? day i n 1970 some loggers w o r k i n g on the west coast of V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d •stumbled upon a bushs c r c c n e d cave just above tbe Udul:nc. T n e y went i n . i g n o r i n g the w a r n i n g ' ! of two Hesquiat Indians who were w o r k i n g w i t h them. Inside, they found it w a s a tomb for long-dead m e m b e r s cf the Hesquiat t r i b e . There were skeletons a n d even some bodiec w h i c h app e a r e d m u m m i f i e d , the flesh r p p a r e n t i y p r e s e r v e d b y the s a i l a i l of l i u sea coast sanctuary. The l'ig'-'ers took out one of tlm hexics. sat it up in the mouth ' i f the r a v e a n d took picture- of their f i n d . That did it for the presenti l : i v l h sfiuiat people. T h e r e hail her i I!!-I";MII!: reports of v a n d a l i s m ati.J p i r a c v :>v misguided and greedy s o u v e n i r  VANCOUVER  h u n t e r s , a n d the l e a d e r s of the I n d i a n band d e t e r m i n e d to stop i t . T h e y also d e c i d e d to take steps to p r e s e r v e t h e i r h e r i tage by h o n o r i n g t h e i r ancestors i n a w a y that w o u l d i m press the white m a n . The story w a s told in a spec i a l i n t e r v i e w granted T h e Sun this week b y R o c k y A m o s , c h a i r m a n of the H e s q u i a t Cultural Committee, w h i c h f o r two y e a r s has been directing archeological. anthropological and l i n g u i s t i c studies of the old H e s q u i a t v i l lage n e a r E s t c v a n point, n o r t h of Tofino.  less historical value. That e v e n a p p l i e d to a f i l m crewhired through the National F i l m B o a r d b y the N a t i o n a l 31useum of M a n i n O t t a w a . T h e c r e w of t h r e e spent the s u m m e r snooting a c t i v i t i e s at the d i g but the H e s q u i a t C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e is h a n g i n g on to the f i l m u n t i l i l s d i s p o s i t i o n is a g r e e d u p o n . If a n y c o m m e r c i a l use i s m a d e of the f i l m the m o n e y is to go to the b a n d . A n d even if it's only used f o r educational p u r p o s e s , t h e c o m m i t t e e is g o i n g to t a k e a h a n d i n the e d i t i n g to m a k e sure that the p i c t u r e tells the t r u e s t o r y .  And A m o s , 23. a V a n c o u v e r heavy construction w o r k e r , leaves no doubt that the l i e s quiats t h e m s e l v e s are d i r e c t ing the professionals. E v e r y b o d y w o r k i n g on the site h a d to sign a c o n t r a c t a c k n o w l e d g i n g that the l l c s quiats r e t a i n the r i g h t s to finds w h i c h m a y have p r i c e -  The ancestral bones h a v e been c o l l e c t e d f r o m nine b u r i a l c a v e s , e x a m i n e d and c a t a l ogued a n d stored a w a y f o r eventual enshrinment in a m u s e u m - a r c h i v e s b u i l d i n g 1o be c a l l e d t h e C u l t u r a l R o scareh Centre. A r t i f a c t s that t e l l of e a r l y historic and prehistoric living conditions have also been collected, studied and catalogued.  SUN, September  7,  1972  T r i b a l l e g e n d s a n d songs h a v e been t a p e d i n a n a m b i tious p r o g r a m to r e c r e a t e the H e s q u i a t l a n g u a g e (a N o o t k a dialect), which was slipping into disuse. A n d this s u m m e r c o n t r u c tion b e g a n on a t r a d i t i o n a l cedar-slab longhouse which w i l l s e r v e as a centre for d a n c i n g a n d othei c u l t u r e development at t h e v i l l a g e w h i c h h a d been a l l but a b a n doned. M o s t of the b a n d h a d m o v e d a w a y i n recent y e a r s , to a n other Hesquiat reserve at nearby Hot Springs Cove, to Port A l b e r n i , V i c t o r i a or Vancouver. "But a l r e a d y people a r e t a l k i n g about g o i n g back," said committee member John R a y m o n d , who, like A m o s , lives in V a n c o u v e r . Since the c o m m i t t e e w a s set up A m o s a n d R a y m o n d h a v e been b u s y n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h v a r i o u s authorities, which t u r n e d out to be a t w o - w a y deal. T h e y h a d to c o n v i n c e federal a n d p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t the p r o j e c t d e s e r v e d f i n a n c i a l a i d , a n d they h a d to h i r e the s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d w o r k ers a f t e r m a k i n g sure they s a w eye-to-cyc w i t h the c o n cept. " W e were pretty suspicious at f i r s t , " a d m i t t e d R a y m o n d . c  66  from molesters "INDIANS  TO GUARD  conti nued.  BURIALS"  The significance of the work was host described by Or. Jerome S. Cybulski of the department of anthropology at University of California. Cybulski, who spent la summer at the site on a nr. from his university. CNuMlnod in a paper last fal^fiow the scientists systematically recorded variatiwis in bones and teeth, y He s*fd preliminary estiniatc»*'1>ased on specific bone cnurUs indicated that about VTO individuals are repres e n t e d in the collection nf skeletal bones from nine caves. Most of the caves yielded between three and It individuals, and one had as many as RO. "The skeletal material from the llesquial harbor will offer a significant contribution to knowledge about the physical variation of early indigenous populations of the B.C. coast," he wrote. "It i* currently (be largest sample with specified prove- , nance to be collected and analysed from the territories of t h e ethnographically-defined Nontka-speaking peonies, and the first collection of skeletal material from this particular area of the west coast of Vancouver Island." He said continued study of the bones should pinpoint genetic differences between people who lived in various localities. The project is also significant, he said, because people of the band are taking an active part in it. and the information obtained showed that, skeletal remains need not be removed from burial areas in order to be studied scientifically. About 10 persons worked on the project last year and this year the number was stepped up to n o . Work on the longhouse provided employment for band members, but many other band members contributed work and services. In charge at the scene of the work in both summers was hereditary chief Ben Andrews. The researchers, and the hand members who worked with them, were bunked in refitted cabins on the isolated reserve, and for recreation, they hiked five miles to the Estevan Point lighthouse to play volleyball.  Access to the old village is by charter plan*" or fishlmat so thire jwe're few detractions._ ve didn't allow liquor on project," chuckled Amos. "We wanted everyone to realize it is serious." Field work ended for the year at the end of August but the studies will continue through the winter and work will resume at the site next summer. Attracting a lot of attention is ihe linguistic program, which got into full operation this year under linguist Dr. Barbara Efrat. Rand elders have been talking into tape recorders in the Hesquiat dialect and English, telling all they can remember of (he legends, t h i n g specific information about events and places and describing life in the old days. Thus, succeeding generations will I r a n h o w b a kets were woven, h o w f r h was cut, dried  and  salted, what  herbs  were u-cd for medicinal purposes, how lonuhouses were built and spate utilized. An English alphabet is tn bp created for the Hesquiat words and graded language lesions gi\ cn Square nails and boxes held together with wooden pegs found among the artifacts indicate the bodies were put in the caves before the trading ships came to the coast in the 18th century. History still seems close to the M l l a g " . where 'he church built bv pioneer Benedictine missionary Father A. J . Brabant still stands. Ami the Hesquiats are finding their place m history One of the first things they did this slimmer was hide the bell from the church, dedicated to the Hesquiat people in 1884. The bell had been removed from the old church tower and there were stories that somebody was going t^i "rescue" it as a memento of the past. It was all a misunderstanding, someone said later, but a plane chartered by the "rescuers" was turned back at the beach and band members hid the bell in the bush. Later this summer six of the Hesquiats carried the bell 1,000 feet to the project, where it was used to signal the work day.  VANCOUVER  SUN,  October  14,  1972.  Ft?,. Special to The Sun TOFINO — Charles Carl Ehlers was fined $300 in provincial court here Friday after he was found guilty of removing skeletal human remains from a burial place. Ehlers was charged July 30 under the Archaeological and Historic Site Protection Act. Ehlers — Aphaloma Charlie, as he is known here — moved one of two mummified bodies he discovered in a cave at Kennedy Cove, about 35 miles from here. The offence wasn't discovered until John Stertz bough! several acres of Surrey property from Ehlers and discovered the remains in a plywood  bos under a table in one of two houses there. Stertz and a friend pried the box open and discovered the body, estimated to ^e 50 to 60 years old, curled u|) in a fetal position. / The m u m m y / w a s transferred to the. mo/gue at Royal Columbian j Hospital in New Westminster y h c r e pathologist Dr. ICaTnpbcll Joseph Coady examined it and identified it as a mummified female body which he described as "light as balsa wood." Dr. Coady testified that it was impossible to determine cause of death. Ehlers was arrested by Tnfino R C M P July 30, but re-  leased later that eve:::.,, ( He admitted r e m " ' " body from the. cave. . am S h e i l a Gay O ^ . ' i p the Boehm, archeologis'. Muse. Vancouver Ccntenni.-. (ostium in November. VJ' •[ •. \'.c.r ficd that she received ;;.,'~ . from Ehlers at that l:-.,,,^ be ing if the museum v. [ interested in securin;. stUuthe mummies for H i ' ' lion. ' nat the n e  ?  1 2 r i  0  0  ask  i n c  0  n  Mrs. Boehm replied t museum was intcre.: ( that it was against th'. t remove the remain' their burial place. ,-,( the Ehlers moved one .„ d bodies early this spiK.^,, he look it to Surrey v .1. moved there. ,,),! \ . i Dan David, a 68-ye a: , y^\. dian who has lived in ii-. - jfiedl no area all his life, ' . , . {„ ' that he was at the i . r the 1923 for the burial v . woman removed by F.!.'..., Although he hariD'l s..-j had Jo the spot since, Da .p ( it no problem leading in Friday before appe;:< court. rovin| In passing sentence. \-: . cial Judge T. G. he iColthurst commented . was satisfied that the h moved by Ehlers '-. . jtermed skeletal r c m s i - , < ed ing thai the evidence pjvid |b'y the. Crown and . ^ proved that the cave • v . l within the meaning of place. ('rown "The evidence of th' Ehlftiid ihe statement by ) ers also satisfies m-- :.. -nains did remove skeletal >:. <• from their burial place.' n u  0  r o m  a n  | :  n  r  )t  ve  cl  s  rnea  ;  0  o  w  c  n  1  r e  e  cl  !  m  c  s  u r i a  ie  APPENDIX  Newspaper  Articles  Hesquiat  II  Pertaining  Cultural  to  Project  the  VANCOUVER  SUN,  May  11 ,  1 972  I  .  B  \  U  R  ,  (or to  1  A  L  C  A  V  E  S  ont aid  Mmli'ins of. J l r t q u i n l H a r b o r 1 on 'the w e s t roast i f Y a n c o u - I v c r I s l a n d h a v e beer! g r a n t e d j S 5 . 0 0 n to continue a r c h c o l o g i - j c a ! e x a m i n a t i o n of t r i b a l burial c a v e s in the a r e a . T h e g r a n t , f r o m a SGI,000 cultural fund e a r m a r k e d by the Indian a f f a i r s d e p a r t m e n t f o r use in B . C . , w a s m a d e by a s c r e e n i n g c o m m i t t e e of repr e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m the U n i o n of • B . C . Indian Chiefs and f r o m the d e p a r t m e n t . A s i m i l a r grant l a s t y e a r p e r m i t t e d a start on gatheri n : : a r t i f a c t s beinjf' looLcd by j \i.v.lors lu the a r e a . This e a r two' m e m b e r s of 1he H e s q u i a t barid and a prof e s s i o n a l a d v i s e r will u n d e r take systematic r e m o v a l of s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l in the s e a r c h for Njirial t r e a s u r e s such as b a s k e ' ^ o r k / i n d tools. The genua p r n v i d e s f o r p a y ment of Vtolal of $2,700 to the two b a n d m e m b e r s for t h e i r su tr. m e r ' s w o r k . The Hesquiat Cultural C o m mittee w h i c h is d i r e c t i n g the \w.rb. has plans, for b u i l d i n g a : ])-,:.:.-.< ur.i to d i s p l a y the t r e a sures e v e n t u a l l y . Other g r a m ; : a p p r o v e d by the s c r e e n i n g c o m m i t t e e at a meeting this w e e k : V a n c o u v e r Indian W a r D a n c e C l u b . S3.000 to stage. the t h i r d i n t e r n a t i o n a l w a r dance competitions: C a r i b o o I n d i a n franco C l u b , S 1.300 to buy m a t e r i a l s to make costumes, two d r u m s :>oil .1 tape r e c o r d e r . M e m b e r s oT the eoiiunitlre are N'ol! |)erril:>an. chief of the V. e.-i.!>nnk b a n d : l . o u D e m - i . rais of '.he u n i o n staff. J a c k ; Meek, c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s of- i i..r the d e p a r t m e n t : and \ •le-ii M c K i n u n n . the d e p a r t - ! : . n d ' s r e g i o n a l s u p e r v i s o r of ; adult e d u c a t i o n . !  j  j , :  '  70  VANCOUVER  4 1  SUN,  July  1972.  l"<li.au viJhrpre on Island :  Canadian I ress V I C T O R I A — An archaeological project at an ancient Indian village on the west coast of Vancouver Island has yielded artifacts more than | 2,000 years old. John Raymond, a member of the Hesquiat band, said Friday radiocarbon dating of bone and stone implements indicate they were in use about 480 BC. phis or minus 200 years. Hesquiat is about 30 miles northwest of Tofino. near Hot Spring Cove. Raymond said the. artifacts indicate the India n cullure has been continuous at. Hesquiat for more than 2.000 years. The  14,  archaeological project  •  —  -ft-C ^^ a ^ ' T * '  £ _ w a ? £tart«flUb> "years''ago' plans,.to at the request of the band. Fed cral and provincial govern nicnts provided funds, as well as trained personnel. J i m Haggarty. assistant curator/fU archaeology at the provurcial museum, is in charge/of the dig/  ftn unusual a/pect of the project is that^Jn'dian men and women are/being trained in archaeological field work. It is also part of a larger cultural program launched by the band — a museum to house the artifacts is nearly completed. The band also  build an authentic longhouse for use as a cultur} and educational centre. Elderly men are building cedar canoes, one of them a large ocean-going West Coast canoe. This winter several members of the band will be trained at the provincial museum here as museum cura- ' tors.  '•'There's a big cultural revival going on at Hesquiat," said Haggarty. "Everyone is involved — men, women and children."  71  APPENDIX Letters to  Written  to  and from George  D e t e r m i n e How the  "Original"  III  Hesquiat  Film Material Storage  MacDonald and D e n n i s Band C o u l d  from the  Vaults  in  Obtain  National  Montreal  Film  Sawyer  the Board  72'  '745 Hoo 4 Roaa, Richmond/ B.C. ?V6Y^2T4 February 9, 1976 ^ /"George Am MacDonald Director, *l V*- ^ N a t i o n a l Museum of Man,, "Ottawa, Ontario  *5t*=? Dear  Mr. MacDonald,  ^*-T"&»* Mohave heard a few rumblings out here tnat films are going to "•^%*"t>6, made or are i n the process of being .made from the if'^-i^footage*taken i n the summer of 1972 N.F.B./National VMuseum: student'^ f i l m "project. I would d i k e t o know -what, i f anything, l b "being "Jdone/j with tne footage that was snot up at "Hesquiat during that same 'project.^ K  A  v  c  ^V-^re^you intending "to incorporate that footage into any of t h e ^ _^filmsJbeing~p"lanned-oCor the rest^of the project's footage? "Who I" "1ia8 access to the o r i g i n a l Hesquiat footage? {By o r i g i n a l , I * mean the material f i r s t put through the camera that cannot "be r e •placed and from which p r i n t s are l a t e r taken.) * r  vl  /  Where aoes the s i t u a t i o n rest v i s "a v i s the Hesquiats? Who tyrconxrols tne footage and i t s use? .Is the N.F.B. prepared to r e - v . ' ^ L e a s e the o r i g i n a l or are people taking p r i n t s from i t to; be> ^i.^:^:-•theniused i n place of the o r i g i n a l ? Would the Hesquiats be -able^>'-. 105f.ge%tthe .original, without going ..to. the. mtermedlatevor internegative ^rint€stage,?:from the N.F.B .? " :  ic  ^ \ ^Myinterest i n t h i s matter springs from my involvement i n the * jr* * project„ back-in '72, as a stuaent f i l m maker who went to Hesquiat'; ~qVi---1•.amzin- the process of assembling interShTews with local-people* who^ were involved and I am t r y i n g to access the project~from t h i s ena * s^vi!<of«3*hings•. 'To- know the ultimate outcome of ^the project,. v i v a vi8 '. j,_the footage, would help snape the ev&Shiation., ^ I f  :  ffiSjSTO^Ihank..you i n advance f o r your reply to-tnese questions. 3 /  IOWB sincerely, r  Jan M, M a r t e l l .  National Museums Canada National Museum of Man  February  Musees nationaux Canada Musee national de I'Homme  73  13, 19 76  Ms. J.M. M a r t e l l , 745 No. 4 Road, Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia. V6Y 2T4 Dear Ms. M a r t e l l : In r e p l y t o y o u r e n q u i r y r e g a r d i n g t h e H e s q u i a t f o o t a g e t a k e n i n t h e 19 72 f i l m p r o j e c t o f t h e NMM/NFB n o f i n a l c o n t r a c t r e g a r d i n g u s e was e v e r s i g n e d b u t t h e a g r e e m e n t we d i d a c h i e v e was t o p u t u s a g e o f t h e f o o t a g e e n t i r e l y u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e H e s q u i a t Band C o u n c i l . No p r i n t s h a v e e v e r b e e n made f r o m t h e m a s t e r s e x c e p t t h e work p r i n t w h i c h i s i n t h e hands o f t h e Band C o u n c i l ( o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e i r c u l t u r a l committee.) The m a s t e r s a r e d e p o s i t e d i n t h e Montreal f i l m b o a r d o f f i c e s under a r e s e r v e c l a u s e which r e s t r i c t s t h e i r u s e t o p u r p o s e s a p p r o v e d i n w r i t i n g by t h e Band C o u n c i l . To d a t e no use h a s been r e q u e s t e d and i n f a c t I have n e v e r e v e n s e e n t h i s m a t e r i a l . I do n o t u n d e r s t a n d f r o m y o u r l e t t e r e x a c t l y what u s e y o u a r e p r o p o s i n g b u t I c a n s t a t e t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l c o u l d b e made a v a i l a b l e i f t h e Band a p p r o v e s y o u r p r o p o s a l a n d p r o v i d e s us with a council r e s o l u t i o n to that e f f e c t . Your q u e s t i o n about i n t e r n e g a t i v e s e t c . i s a t e c h n i c a l one w h i c h I am r e f e r r i n g t o Dennis Sawyer, t h e o f f i c e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o j e c t a t t h e NFB f o r r e p l y t o y o u . :  Yours  sincerely,  George") F. Mac D o n a l d Chief ' A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada /cmv c c .  Mr.  D e n n i s Sawyer,  NFB  74 NATIONAL FILM BOARD  ^<  " I I 1(1 NATIONAL DU I JLM  CANADA  P.O. Box 6100, S t a t i o n A M o n t r e a l , Quebec H3C 3H5  March 9 t h , 1976  Ms Jan M. M a r t e l 745 N°4 Road Richmond, B.C. V6Y 2T4  D e a r Ms M a r t e l , Re:  Summer S h o o t i n g H e s q u i a t Band 1972  F u r t h e r t o t h e r e p l y from Dr. MacDonald r e the above f o o t a g e , o t h e r than t h e o r i g i n a l rushes p r i n t from the s h o o t i n g , no use has been made o f t h e f o o t a g e due t o t h e agreement made w i t h the Band C o u n c i l by t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, a l s o any sound r e c o r d e d i s b e i n g h e l d i n t h e same way. The NFB i s u n w i l l i n g t o r e l e a s e any o f the above m a t e r i a l w i t h o u t p r i o r consent i n w r i t i n g from t h e Band C o u n c i l , t o anybody. I would imagine a l s o t h a t t h e NMM and NFB would have t o be c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e use o f t h e f o o t a g e i n any tvpe o f f i l m would have the normal a p p r o v a l c l e a r a n c e s c r e e n i n g a t w o r k p r i n t s t a g e t o ensure t h a t the H e s q u i a t were n o t b e i n g shown on t h e s c r e e n i n a d e t r i m e n t a l way. To ensure t h e a r c h i v a l v a l u e o f t h e f o o t a g e , once p e r m i s s i o n had been g r a n t e d , o n l y r e v e r s a l m a s t e r s o r i n t e r n e g a t i v e s would be s u p p l i e d from o u r l a b o r a t o r v .  Dennis ""Sawyer Producer N F B / N M M Sponsor Programme  75  745 No. 4 fid. Richmond, B.C. V6Y 2T4  March 13, 1976 Mr. Dennis Sawyer, Producer. P.O. Box 6100, Station A Montreal, Quebec H3C 3H5 Dear. Mr. Sawyer, Thank you f o r your reply to questions I had addressed to George MacDonald of the National Museum of Man. I would l i k e How would the cost of a r e v e r s a l master or internegat i v e of the Hesquiat footage be handled? Am I correct i n assuming that whoever would be producing a f i l m f o r the Band would have to r a i s e those funds? I f t h i s i s the case, what i s the p 6 r foot cost of both the reversal , master and internegative process that would be done i n your laboratory? I understand that nothing can be done with the Hesquiat footage without Band Council approval. Thank you again f o r your help* Sincerely yours,  Jan M. M a r t e l l .  76  NATIONAL FILM BOARD  ^'---.V CANADA  OFFICE NATIONAL DU FILM P.O.  BOX  6100  Station A Montreal, P . O . H3C 3H5  April  13th, 1976  Ms. Jan M. M a r t e l , 745 No. 4 Road Richmond, B.C. V6Y 2T4  Dear Ms. M a r t e l ,  The c o s t s  i n v o l v e d i n making the r e v e r s a l  master on i n t e r n e g a t i v e and r u s h p r i n t from the m a t e r i a l on the H e s q u i a t Band would have t o be c o v e r e d bv the p e r s o n requesting  t h e work t o be done.  Yes,  you a r e c o r r e c t , t h e p r o d u c e r o f t h e  f i l m would have t o a l l o w f o r t h e s e c o s t s i n t h e budget.  A f u r t h e r p o i n t i s t h a t t h e new p r i n t i n g m a t e r i a l s would have t o be made o p t i c a l l y b e c a u s e , o t h e r w i s e , everything  i n t h e frame would be f l i p p e d - l e f t  for right,  i . e . a l l t h e s i g n s , l e t t e r i n g and hands would be as i f reflected i n a mirror.  ______  Sincerely, Dennis  Sawyer,  Producer.  DS/lr  >  433 E a s t 23rd Avenue Vancouver, B.C. J u l y 17, 1976. Mr. Dennis Sawyer, Producer N a t i o n a l F i l m Board P.O. Box 6100 Station A ^ M o n t r e a l , Quebec H3C 3H5 Dear Mr.  Sawyer,  F u r t h e r t o y o u r l e t t e r of A p r i l 13, 1976 where you s t a t e t h a t the new master f o r the Hesquiat footage would have to be f l i p p e d o p t i c a l l y i n order t o a v o i d a l e f t r i g h t mirrow s w i t c h of the image: Why would o p t i c a l p r i n t i n g be necessary t o a v o i d t h i s e f f e c t ? How does the e f f e c t occur from r e v e r s a l to an i n t e r n e g a t i v e ? Where would the o p t i c a l p r i n t i n g have t o be done? What i s the p e r f o o t c o s t of having the new master made? Thank you a g a i n f o r your h e l p .  Sincerely yours,  Jan M a r t e l l  78 NATIONAL  FILM  BOARD  OFFICE  NATIONAL  DU  FILM  CANADA  P.O. Box 6100 Station A Montreal Quebec July  22nd  1976  Ms J a n M. M a r t e l l 433 E a s t 2 3 r d A v e n u e Vancouver B r i t i s h Columbia D e a r Ms  Martell,  T h a n k s f o r y o u r l e t t e r - I was y o u r r e q u e s t had r e a c h e d you.  wondering whether or not  my  answer  to  Why o p t i c a l p r i n t i n g ? W e l l t h a t i s t h e o n l y way we c a n make a r e v e r s a l m a s t e r p o s i t i v e , and I m e n t i o n t h a t method b e c a u s e i f you i n t e n d t o c u t i n A&B r o l l , t h a t i s t h e r e c o m m e n d e d way. Then o f c o u r s e you t a k e o f f y o u r i n t e r n e g a t i v e and p r i n t f r o m t h a t . B u t s h o u l d y o u o n l y r e q u i r e a d o z e n o r s o p r i n t s , y o u c o u l d go t o i n t e r n e g s t r a i g h t away a n d p r i n t f r o m t h e c u t A&B interneg. I t i s t h e c o s t f a c t o r t o be c o n s i d e r e d w h e r e t h e amount o f p r i n t s f o r r e l e a s e i s l a r g e when s i n g l e s t r i p p r i n t i n g i s c h e a p e r t h a n A&B. As f o r c o s t - s o much d e p e n d s on t h e t y p e o f o r g a n i s a t i o n o r d e r i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s , i . e . v a r i o u s Government Departments get a r a t e w h i c h i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r and a s f o r w h e r e t h e p r i n t i n g w o u l d be d o n e , i t w o u l d h a v e t o be h e r e b e c a u s e we c a n n o t t a k e a c h a n c e on t h e o r i g i n a l ever being misplaced. If  I can  be  of  further help  please  l e t me  know.  Dejarjie-'Sawy' Producer  79  APPENDIX Letters  Detailing  the  Purpose,  IV  Film  and  Project  Results  Origin,  80  433 E a s t 23rd Avenue V a n c o u v e r , B.C. V5V 1X7 April Mr. G e o r g e M a c D o n a l d , . N a t i o n a l Museumsof Man, C h i e f , A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey Esplanade L a u r i e r Ottawa, O n t a r i o K1A 0M8  19, 1977  o f Canada,  D e a r Mr. M a c D o n a l d : I am i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p u l l i n g t o g e t h e r a p a p e r f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e a t r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., t h a t e x a m i n e s t h e N a t i o n a l Museum/ N a t i o n a l F i l m - B o a r d / H e s q u i a t F i l m P r o j e c t o f 1972. D i s t a n c e i m p e d e s a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , s o I am w r i t i n g i n h o p e s t h a t , y o u w i l l h a v e t i m e t o answer my q u e s t i o n s . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n k n o w i n g , s p e c i f i c a l l y  a s memory  allows:  How was t h e o v e r a l l p r o j e c t s t a r t e d ? Where d i d t h e i d e a o r i g i n a t e ? How d i d t h e N a t i o n a l Museum come t o be i n v o l v e d ? What r o l e d i d t h e . N a t i o n a l Museum p l a y i n t h e p r o j e c t ? What was t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r o j e c t ? What were t h e a i m s o f t h e p r o j e c t f o r t h e Museum? What were y o u r p e r s o n a l expectations? To what e x t e n t were t h e s e g o a l s a c h i e v e d ? Has a n y t h i n g b e e n done w i t h t h e f o o t a g e s h o t i n any o f t h e filming situations? Vis  a v i s the Hesquiat  Project:  How d i d t h e N a t i o n a l Museum's a i m s f o r t h e p r o j e c t mesh w i t h t h e H e s q u i a t P r o j e c t , a s f a r a s y o u were aware? From y o u r p o i n t  o f v i e w , how s u c c e s s f u l was t h e p r o j e c t ?  What was t h e v a l u e Museum?  o f t h e p r o j e c t a s a whole f o r t h e N a t i o n a l  Thank y o u v e r y much f o r y o u r t i m e on t h i s m a t t e r . Your response w i l l s u p p l y a m i s s i n g p o i n t o f v i e w , t h a t o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museum. I h a v e , s i n c e that.summer, b e e n d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e u l t i m a t e outcome o f t h e p r o j e c t a t H e s q u i a t and f e l t a b i t o f d i g g i n g i n t o t h e p a s t would c l a r i f y t h e o v e r a l l c o n t e x t .  &  Tnank y o u a g a i n . Sincerely, Jan  M. M a r t e l l  National Museums Canada  Musees nationaux Canada  National Museum  Musee national  of Man  de I'Homme  H g  gj  May 19, 1 9 7 7  Ms. J a n M. M a r t e l l 433 E a s t 2 3 r d A v e n u e V a n c o u v e r , B. C. V5V 1X7 Dear J a n : I h a v e j u s t b e e n t h r o u g h t w o p r o f e s s i o n a l m e e t i n g s a n d am o n l y now c a t c h i n g up w i t h e a r l i e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . I w i l l t r y to a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s y o u p o s e d t o me. We w e r e a p p r o a c h e d b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum t h e I p r e v i o u s y e a r t o s e e i f we c o u l d p r o v i d e a p h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t _J to the Hesquiat P r o j e c t . I arranged a c o n t r a c t w i t h J e r r y Cybulski f o r t h i s p u r p o s e a n d when t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d a n d t h e N a t i o n a l Museum b e g a n t h e i r j o i n t s t u d e n t f i e l d r e c o r d i n g p r o g r a m m e a t a b o u t t h e same t i m e I d i s c u s s e d w i t h S u k i A n d e r s o n t h e i d e a o f h a v i n g some coverage o f the Hesquiat P r o j e c t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a f i l m p r o gramme i n S o u t h e r n B.C. The N a t i o n a l Museum's i n v o l v e m e n t w a s t h u s i n r e g a r d t o t h e s u p p o r t of t h e p h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y a t H e s q u i a t a s w e l l as t h e H e s q u i a t Project being a sub-project of the National Film Board/National — Museum o f M a n f i l m p r o g r a m m e . T h e m u s e u m ' s / r o l e i n t h e f i l m programme was t o d e s i g n a t e t h e a r e a o f o p e r a t i o n a n d t o p r o v i d e some a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l g u i d a n c e w h i c h w a s w h e r e S u k i A n d e r s o n came in. The p u r p o s e o f t h e f i l m p r o j e c t w a s t o r e c o r d w h a t I t h o u g h t a t t h e time was a most i n t e r e s t i n g example o f a s p o n t a n e o u s l y g e n e r a t e d c u l t u r a l r e v i v a l p r o j e c t i n w h i c h t h i s museum h a d some i n v o l v e m e n t i n s u p p l y i n g s p e c i a l i z e d p e r s o n n e l . I r e a l l y d i d n o t k n o w how s u c c e s s f u l t h e p r o j e c t would u l t i m a t e l y b e , but. f r o m w h a t I know now f r o m J i m H a g g a r t y a n d G a y Boehm i t d i d i n d e e d s n o w b a l l i n t o something v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . I d i d n o t a n t i c i p a t e t h e problems t h a t would a r i s e r e g a r d i n gt h e c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e B a n d a n d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t we w o u l d h a v e i n J a c h i e v i n g w r i t t e n agreement w i t h t h e C u l t u r a l Committee. As y o u a r e p r o b a b l y a w a r e , we h a v e n o t e v e n s e e n t h e f i l m s h o t t h a t y e a r . T h e master h a s remained i n t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board's s t o r a g e v a u l t s and we r e s p e c t e d t h e C u l t u r a l C o m m i t t e e ' s r e q u e s t t h a t t h e f i l m n o t b e seen o r used w i t h o u t a w r i t t e n agreement.  Ottawa K1A 0M8  12  82  Ms.  J a n M.  Martell  Page 2  May  19,  1977  I t i s d i f f i c u l t at t h i s stage to e v a l u a t e the s u c c e s s of the P r o j e c t . I am v e r y i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e p r o s p e c t u s y o u h a v e d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e f i l m a n d i f t h a t i s a c h i e v e d , t h e n I f e e l t h e e n d e a v o u r was a s u c c e s s . The v a l u e o f t h e o v e r a l l p r o j e c t t o t h e museum h a s b e e n m a i n l y i n t h e p h y s i c a l anthropology area i n e s t a b l i s h i n g working r e l a t i o n s h i p s with B a n d s t h a t h a s g o n e o n t o p r o d u c e t h e Oweekeno P r o j e c t i n w h i c h J e r r y Cybulski i s also involved. B o t h t h e H e s q u i a t a n d t h e Oweekeno P r o j e c t s have y i e l d e d a g r e a t d e a l o f i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n on p h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y a n d C y b u l s k i h a s p u b l i s h e d a n d s u b m i t t e d a number o f p a p e r s r e s u l t i n g from the p r o j e c t s . I hope t h i s b r i e f r e s p o n s e c o v e r s the t o p i c s i n w h i c h you a r e i n t e r e s t e and i f I c o u l d s u p p l y a n y f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n p l e a s e do n o t h e s i t a t e t o c o n t a c t me. Yours  sincerely,  r G e o r g e F/. Chief  MacDonald  Archaeological /jh  Survey  of  Canada  83  433 F-ast 23rd Avenue Vancouver, B.C. V5V 1X7 A p r i l 19* 1977 Mr. Dennis Sawyer National Film Board P.O. Box 6100 Station A Montreal, Quebec Dear Mr. Sawyer: 1 am i n the process of p u l l i n g together a paper f o r the University of B.C. Department of Theatre that examines the National Museum/ National Film Board/ Hesquiat Film Project of 1972. A personal interview with you i s impeded by distance, so 1 write, hoping you w i l l have time to answer my questions. I am interested i n knowing: How and why did the NFB become involved i n 'the project as a whole? What was the role of the NFB i n the project? What was the purpose of the project?--""" Was the NFB reluctant to be involved, i f so, wny? What'were the NFB expectations/ goals f o r the'project? From your point of view, how successful was the project i n achieving those goals? What was the value of the project f o r the NFB? Thank y o u i n a d v a n c e f o r j o g g i n g y o u r memory on t h i s p r o j e c t . S i n c e t h a t summer I have b e e n d i s s a s t i s f i e d w i t h my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f . t h e u l t i m a t e outcome o f t h e p r o j e c t a t H e s q u i a t and f e l t a b i t o f d i g g i n g w i n t o t h e p a s t would c l a r i f y t h e o v e r a l l c o n t e x t of the p r o j e c t . Again, thank you f o r your  time. Sincerely,  Jan-marie K a r t e l l  84  NOTES  FROM A T E L E P H O N E April  If feet, it  1,500  the f i l m  2,000  Quebec, projects.  and  offices  of  The single the  crew  of  became  Film  with  At people  Columbia worked  evaluated  arose  between  on t h e  were  film  equally  represented  included  and the  regional  Film  was b a s e d  Board  of is  were  involved.  a specific  on i n t e r e s t  location  the f i l m  with  material  told  material  a  In t h e  Museum  legal  on F i l m  that  Museum  U n d e r its m a n d a t e ,  Council  until  varied.  The N a t i o n a l  the m a t e r i a l .  Museum,  accessibility.  the N a t i o n a l  the f i l m .  the Queen's  for a  by t h e N a t i o n a l  and the l o c a t i o n ' s  the Hesquiats  the  and the  agreement  is  Band. the f i l m  employment  being  New B r u n s w i c k ,  were  i n government  creating  Scotia,  who w e r e  a s was p o s s i b l e  Board  the time  students  colleges  be d o n e  the  Nova  of  Technically,  As many  N.F.B. r e t a i ns t h e f i l m signed  successful.  Quebec.  the custodian  National  20,000  from  and use o f  was t o  out of  came  of Hesquiat,  nothing  from  students  the p r o j e c t ,  Ownership  was u s a b l e  t h e number  criterion for selecting  value  case  of  coming  the National  film  SAWYER.  C o l u m b i a and O n t a r i o  Five  universities  DENNIS  be d e e m e d  and B r i t i s h  British  students.  would  WITH  1977.  of film  because  Sixtypeople  Ontario  22,  feet  project  was s u c c e s s f u l  employed.  by  -  CONVERSATION  were  project  concerned  for students.  i n the f a l l  this  project  was b e i n g  of  set  u p , many  by t h e d i r e  necessity  When  1972,  and o t h e r s  the f i l m  a. c o n f l i c t that  project of  required  of was  importance funding.  85 L.I.P. tp  (Local  criticism  O.F.Y.  Initiatives of  to  all  courses. a  6,  the  final  summer's Time  and  all  requirements  of  film  Board.  to  during  employment  sent and  letter  that  shooting  the  a  schools  believe  with  created  in  response  projects  under  Youth).  Sawyer  distance  Hesquiat  material  led^  was  in  second,  and  pages  offering  film  project  would  the the  (see  first  summer,  completion  follow-  span editing  during  the  project.  the  The  summer  universities  period  re-shooting  for  1972,  He was  three-year  and  student  (Opportunities  On M a r c h ing)  the  Projects)  Film  added  Project. or  know  overall  project  for  National  the  makers,  but  was  to  the  Susan  the  full  did  prove  of  confusion  Anderson  not  understand  story. successful  Museum a n d little  did  surrounding  in  value  in  acquiring  furthering to  the  the  National  careers Film  86  APPENDIX V Letter  Sent  in  March,  1971 to  Canada from D e n n i s National  Film  Schools  Sawyer, Board  Across  87 NATIONAL FILM BOARD  OFFICE NATIONAL DU  FILM  P.O. B o x 6 1 0 0 , M o n t r e a l 1 0 1 , Quebec, M a r c h 6, 1 9 7 2 .  Dear  A s p a r t o f i t s S t u d e n t Summer E m p l o y m e n t P r o g r a m , t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t h a s a l l o c a t e d some f u n d s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r o v i d i n g work o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o s u i t a b l e s t u d e n t s c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n f i l m o r a l l i e d courses i n v a r i o u s Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s . The f u n d s h a v e b e e n p l a c e d u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board and a r e t o be used t o p r o v i d e f i l m , s t i l l s and/or sound coverage o f many o f t h e p r o j e c t s b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y t h i s summer b y t h e A r c h e o l o g y D i v i s i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f M a n . The p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e f u n d s i s t o p r o v i d e some summer e m p l o y m e n t t o a s many y o u n g p e o p l e a s p o s s i b l e . H a v i n g i n m i n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t c o m m e r c i a l r e n t a l . c h a r g e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l f i l m and sound equipment a r e h i g h i t i s one o f t h e p r e c o n d i t i o n s o f c a n d i d a t e selection, a p a r t f r o m c o m p e t e n c e , t h a t e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n s u p p l y i t s own s t u d e n t s w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e equipment a t no c o s t . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f equipment w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , be a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e number o f s t u d e n t s t h a t c a n be h i r e d f r o m a n y one i n s t i t u t i o n . A l l such equipment, o f course, w i l l be f u l l y i n s u r e d b y t h e P r o g r a m . The P r o g r a m w i l l p r o v i d e e a c h s e l e c t e e w i t h s a l a r y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d l i v i n g c o s t s w h e n a w a y f r o m home a r e a , 1 6 mm c o l o u r f i l m and s o u n d s t o c k a n d l a b p r o c e s s i n g t o r u s h e s p r i n t . A l l m a t e r i a l s p r o d u c e d u n d e r t h e P r o g r a m b e c o m e t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f M a n . I f t h e Museum w i s h e s t o t a k e a n y o f t h e r e c o r d m a t e r i a l a c q u i r e d u n d e r t h e P r o g r a m t o a f u r t h e r s t a g e o f r e f i n e m e n t , i t w i l l make a p p r o p r i a t e arrangements d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e r e s p e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s and cover t h e costs o f any such work. This l e t t e r i ssimply to alert you t o theexistence of this project. T h e Museum i s now f i n a l i z i n g i t s summer p r o g r a m . As soon a s we h a v e a l i s t o f i t s p r i o r i t i e s we w i l l b e i n t o u c h w i t h y o u w i t h a  -2-  88  d e t a i l e d p l a n of a c t i o n . In the meantime, i f you Could a s s e s s your r e s o u r c e s i n t e r m s o f a v a i l a b l e t a l e n t and e q u i p m e n t i t c o u l d e x p e d i t e m a t t e r s a t the next s t a g e . ' •-  Sincerely  DS  :ms  yours,  D e n n i s Sawyer Project Coordinator F i l m S t u d e n t Summer E m p l o y m e n t P r o g r a m  


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