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Classifiers in standard Thai : a study of semantic relations between headwords and classifiers Placzek, James Anthony 1978

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CLASSIFIERS IN STANDARD THAI: A STUDY OF SEMANTIC RELATIONS BETWEEN HEADWORDS AND CLASSIFIERS by James Anthony Placzek B. A., U n i v e r s i t y of Windsor, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS We accept t h i s t h e s i s a s conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978 © James Anthony Placzek, 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall, make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of LINGUISTICS The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date OCT. 3. 1978 ABSTRACT Standard Thai c l a s s i f i e r s have never been s t u d i e d e x c l u -s i v e l y and comprehensively. That i s , they have been i n c l u d e d i n grammars of the e n t i r e language and are u s u a l l y d i s c u s s e d by g i v i n g a few examples. S p e c i f i c papers u s a l l y d e a l w i t h some p a r t i c u l a r aspect of c l a s s i f i e r s e x c l u s i v e l y . The c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by a g i v e n c l a s s i f i e r are a p u z z l e i n many ca s e s . Often there are obvious semantic c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and obvious s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i a as w e l l . The r e l a t i o n between semantic and s y n t a c t i c c r i t e -r i a of classification is unclear. Equally unclear is the relation between headword and c l a s s i f i e r , a relation which is the basis of the c r i t e r i a of cla s s i f i c a t i o n . In t h i s study, a near-complete l i s t of T h a i c l a s s i f i e r s i s drawn from the T h a i - E n g l i s h Student's D i c t i o n a r y by M.R. Haas (1965). A semantic d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r s i s p r o -v i d e d and v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s are d e s c r i b e d . The f i r s t c ategory i s Repeaters. Members of t h i s c a t e -gory are found to be one-place p r e d i c a t e s . A second category i s P a r t i a l Repeaters and these are found to have a r e l a t i o n s h i p of hyponymy with the headword. Measures are another important category, d i v i d e d i n t o Standard Measures (exact n o n - e n t i t i e s ) and Temporary Measures ( i n e x a c t u n i t s used as measures a c c o r d i n g to the i n t e n t i o n of the s p e a k e r ) . The remaining category i s found to c o n t a i n non-compound-i i i a b l e c l a s s i f i e r s of two types: those with very g e n e r a l r e f -e rents ( s i z e , shape, e t c.) and those c l a s s i f i e r s i n v a r i o u s stages of d e c r e a s i n g semantic e q u i v a l e n c e with the sense of the same form as f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e noun. The former type i s l a b e l l e d "General U n i t s " , the l a t t e r "Extended c l a s s i f i e r s " . Extended C l a s s i f i e r s are seen to be of two types: those with a s i n g l e sense (or a p p a r e n t l y "meaningless") and those w i t h s e v e r a l senses, o n l y some of which q u a l i f y as Extended C l a s s i f i e r s . A The a p p a r e n t l y meaningless c l a s s i f i e r s /lem/ and /an/ do not occur as s u b s t a n t i v e nouns at a l l . The complete c o l -l e c t i o n of nouns c l a s s i f i e d by each of these two c l a s s i f i e r s ( a c c o r d i n g to Haas 1965) i s made and each c l a s s i s examined f o r common semantic f e a t u r e s . On the b a s i s of comparative i n f o r m a t i o n from neighbouring and r e l a t e d languages, v a r i o u s p o s s i b l e c r i t e r i a of e x t e n s i o n are e s t a b l i s h e d f o r /lem/, and a b a s i c sense e q u i v a l e n t to " s i c k l e " i s i n d i c a t e d by the da t a . The case with /an/ i s r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t s i n c e i t s exten-s i o n s are much wider and a l a r g e r number of nouns i s c l a s s i -f i e d . Based on prominent compounds . c l a s s i f i e d by /an/, a b a s i c sense of " s t i c k " i s hy p o t h e s i z e d f o r /an/ and the pos-s i b l e paths of semantic e x t e n s i o n are suggested. F i n a l l y , a "meaningful" Extended C l a s s i f i e r (/tua/, "body") i s examined. The sense a t t r i b u t e d to t h i s form by n a t i v e speakers when i t f u n c t i o n s as a f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e noun becomes a f a c t o r i n choosing the sense "body-shape" as the i v b a s i c sense with c l a s s i f i e r f u n c t i o n . In c o n c l u d i n g remarks, suggestions are made about the a p p l i c a t i o n s of the method and r e s u l t s of t h i s paper to l e x i cography and semantic r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Thai and languages of the a r e a . The n e c e s s i t y of f u r t h e r p h o n o l o g i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l and ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n i s s t r e s s e d . S i g n a t u r e of S u p e r v i s o r : V TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE . . . p. i ABSTRACT p. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS . . .. . . . p. v LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES . . . . p. v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . p. v i i i 1*0 INTRODUCTION .. . . . . . p. 1 1.1 AIMS . p. 1 1 .2 METHOD . . - p. 3 1 .3 THEORETICAL BASIS . . . . p. 5 1.4 TERMINOLOGY AND CONVENTIONS . . p. 9 1.4.1 TERMINOLOGY .. . . . . p.. 11 1.4.2 PHONOLOGICAL SYMBOLS. • • .- P« 12 1.4.3 GLOSSES AND DEFINITIONS . .. . p. 13 2.0 DEFINITION AND SELECTION OF CLASSIFIERS p.. 15 2.1 SYNTACTIC DEFINITIONS . . . . . . p. 15-2.2 SEMANTIC DEFINITIONS . . . . p. 19 2.3 CLASSIFIER SELECTION . . . . p. 26 3.0 REPEATERS . . .... • . . . . p. 30 3.1 IN SEARCH OF COMMON SEMANTIC FACTORS p. 32 3.2 DEFINING CRITERIA P- 36 3.3 FUNCTIONS OF THE REPEATER CONSTRUCTION p. 43 3 .4 REPEATERS: BASIC SYSTEM OR "WASTE-BASKET CATEGORY"? . . . . . p.. 47 4.0 PARTIAL REPEATERS . . . . . . . p.. 50 4.1 PARTIAL REPEATERS AS A CATEGORY .. p.. 50-4.2 SEMANTIC RELATIONS BETWEEN PARTIAL REPEATER AND HEADWORD . . .. . p.. 53 4.3 CATEGORY OVERLAP . . . . . p. 63 4.3.1 MULTIPLE SENSES IN DIFFERENT CATEGORIES . . . . . . p.. 63 4.3.2 HOW PARTIAL REPEATERS CAN BECOME FULL REPEATERS . . . . . p. 65 4.3.3 HOW CLASSIFIERS CAN BECOME PARTIAL REPEATERS: COMPOUNDING . p. 67 4.3.4 IRREGULAR COMPOUNDS . . . p. 75 4.3.5 COMPOUNDING OF CLASSIFIERS . ... p. 77 5.0 MEASURES . . . . . . . . . p . 81. 5.1 INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC FEATURES . p. 81 5.2 MEASURES AND REPEATERS . . . . . p. 84 5.3 STANDARD MEASURES AS NON-ENTITIES . p. 85 5.3.1 STANDARD MEASURES AS HEADWORDS . p. 94 5.4 TEMPORARY MEASURES ., .. . . . p. 95 5.5 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY INFORMATION . p. 97 6.0 OTHERS . . . . . . . . . p. 100 6.0.1 GENERAL UNITS . ... . . . p. 102 6.0.2 EXTENDED CLASSIFIERS . . . . p. 1 ()9 6.1 CRITERIA OF CATEGORIZATION . . . p. m v i 7.0 EXTENSIONS p. H 5 7.1 BASIC SENSE p. 115 7.2 DIACHRONY AND SYNCHRONY . . . . p. 120 7.3 IN SEARCH OF A SENSE FOR /lem/ . . . p. 121 7.3.1 THE CLASS OF /lem/ . . . . . p. 121 7.3.2 CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION FOR KNIVES IN NEIGHBOURING AND RELATED LANGUAGES p. 125 7.3.3 A BASIC. SENSE FOR /lem/ . . . . p. 129 7.4 IN SEARCH OF A SENSE FOR /an/ . . . p. 131 7.4.1 NOUNS CLASSIFIED BY /an/ . . . p. 131 7.4.2 CLASSIFIERS CO-OCCURRING WITH /an/ . p. 134 7.4.3 HYPOTHESIZED STRUCTURE . . . . . p. 134 7.4.4. COMPONENT I AL REFORMULATION . . . p. 137 7.4.5 ALTERNATIVE STRUCTURES . .. .. . . p.. 142 7.4.6 /an/ AS WASTEBASKET . . . . . . p . 144 7.5 THE SEMANTIC EXTENSIONS OF / t u a / . . p. 146 S.O CONCLUSIONS . . ... .. .. . . p. 159 8.1 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . p. 159 8.1.1 CONFIRMATIONS p. 159 8.1.2 CONTRIBUTIONS . . . . . . p.-160 8.2 THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS . . . . p.. 164 8.3 APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . p. 169 8.4 FURTHER RESEARCH p. 173 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . .. .. . . p. 176 V l l TABLES AND FIGURES TABLES: . . . 1. P h o n o l o g i c a l Inventory of Standard Thai p. 12 2. C l a s s i f i e r s C o - o c c u r r i n g With Repeaters i n Haas 1965 • • p. 32 3.. Semantic " B a s i c n e s s " i n C l a s s i f i e r Phrases p. 47 4. IP..&.2P P r e d i c a t e s as Bases of Simple, Compound & Complex Heads . . . . p. 55 5. Complex Nominals as IP & 2P P r e d i c a t e s p. 56 6. Items With D i f f e r e n t Senses i n D i f f e r e n t C a t e g o r i e s . . . ... . . . . p. 64 7. D i v e r g e n t Senses of a S i n g l e L e x i c a l Item as Compound Member and as P a r t i a l Repeater p. 72 8. L e x i c a l Transparency Between Measure and F u l l S u b s t a n t i v e • . . . . p. 92 9 . Primacy of Information i n C l a s s i f i e r C a t e g o r i e s • • • • • ••• • . p. 99 10. C l a s s i f i e r s With "Extended" Senses • p. 109 11. C l a s s i f i e r s C o - o c c u r r i n g With /lem/ • p. 122 12. C r i t e r i a of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n by /lem/ • p. 123 13.. C r i t e r i a of E x t e n s i o n i n F i g u r e s 6 & 7 • p. 141 14. Items C l a s s i f i e d by /an/ and C r i t e r i a of E x t e n s i o n . . . . . . • . p.. 143 15. Headnouns of / t u a / A c c o r d i n g t o P o s i t i o n i n the. S t r u c t u r e i n F i g u r e s 7 & 8 • • p. 151 1.6. C r i t e r i a of E x t e n s i o n f o r the Semantic S t r u c t u r e of / t u a / as Given i n F i g u r e s 7 & 8 • •-• • • • • • •• • p. 158 FIGURES: 1. Semantic S t r u c t u r e of Thai C l a s s i f i e r s • p. 40 2. C a t e g o r i e s of C l a s s i f i e r s • • • • p. 52 3. V i s u a l Impressions of Keys • • • • p. 59 4. C a t e g o r i e s of C l a s s i f i e r s i n Thai • • p. 101 5.. C r i t e r i a of C l a s s i f i e r C a t e g o r i e s p. 113 6. Rough Semantic S t r u c t u r e of /an/ • • p. 136 7. F e a t u r a l Semantic S t r u c t u r e of /an/ • • p. 138 8. Rough Semantic S t r u c t u r e of / t u a / • • p. 148 9 . F e a t u r a l Semantic S t r u c t u r e of / t u a / • p. 149 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to express my s i n c e r e thanks to the f o l l o w -i n g p e o p l e : Dr. S. J . B e l l , f o r encouragement, ad v i c e , and p a t i e n c e . P r o f e s s o r s R. J . Gregg and M. D. Kinkade f o r p a t i e n c e , p r a c t i c a l advice and support. T i p P l a czek and Sunantha Hengrasami f o r p a t i e n c e with long hours of d i f f i c u l t and r e p e t i t i v e q u e s t i o n i n g . Mr. N i t i Khaodiar and f a m i l y f o r time c o n t r i b u t e d as h e l p f u l i n f o r m a n t s . M a r j o r i e Chan White f o r a c t i v e l y h e l p i n g i n the s e a r c h f o r obscure r e f e r e n c e s . P r o f e s s o r s J . P. Denny and T.W. Gething f o r w i l l i n g n e s s to p r o v i d e c o p i e s of t h e i r own work on c l a s s i f i e r s and Th a i semantics. Both p r o f e s s o r s Denny and Gething as w e l l as P r o f e s s o r J . R. Cooke gave h e l p f u l a d v i c e at v a r i o u s stages of t h i s t h e s i s . T i p P l a czek again f o r those days and n i g h t s of t y p i n g . A l l of the Thai speakers who c o n t r i b u t e d examples and advi c e , and ray f e l l o w - s t u d e n t s of L i n g u i s t i c s who d i d the same. Weaknesses and e r r o r s to be found i n the t h e s i s remain, of course, my own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 AIMS Thi s paper focuses on a p a r t i c u l a r s y n t a c t i c phenomenon i n Standard T h a i commonly c a l l e d "noun c l a s s i f i e r s " . The o r i g i n a l aim was to examine the semantic d i s t i n c t i o n s among the members of the e n t i r e c a t e g o r y . T h i s r e q u i r e d a d e f i n i -t i o n a c c o r d i n g to which c l a s s i f i e r s c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from other s y n t a c t i c t y p e s . I t was found t h a t a semantic d e f i n i t i o n more a c c u r a t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d the c l a s s i f i e r f u n c -t i o n from ot h e r f u n c t i o n s . A review of the l i t e r a t u r e on T h a i c l a s s i f i e r s showed t h a t most t r a d i t i o n a l w r i t e r s on the s u b j e c t ( P o o s a k r i t s a n a I960, S i l a p a s a r n 1968, S i r i j a r o e n e t a l 1974) had e s s e n t i a l l y the same s u b - c a t e g o r i e s of c l a s s i f i e r s : ( i ) shape, appearance ( i i ) c o n d i t i o n , p o s i t i o n ( i i i ) k i n d , type ( i v ) groups (v) measures Other a n a l y s t s , u s i n g s t r i c t s t r u c t u r a l i s t c r i t e r i a (Noss 1964) G e n e r a t i v e - T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l theory (Warotamasikkhadit 19 70) and componential a n a l y s i s (Denny, p e r s o n a l communica-t i o n ) were found to c o n t a i n s i m i l a r c a t e g o r i e s , and many of the a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s t h a t these analyses f e a t u r e d were based on r e l a t i v e l y a r b i t r a r y c r i t e r i a . Those c l a s s i f i e r s which are i d e n t i c a l i n form to t h e i r headword ( c a l l e d "Repeat-e r s " here) are mentioned by some w r i t e r s , not at a l l by o t h e r s . G e n e r a l l y , t r a d i t i o n a l and semantic analyses tended to i g n o r e obvious s y n t a c t i c d i f f e r e n c e s , s t r u c t u r a l i s t 2 grammars to ignore semantic r e l a t i o n s , and no approach ex-plained c l e a r l y the actual processes involved. A summary of the shortcomings of most descriptions i s as follows: (i) inadequacy of categories: not a l l c l a s s i f i e r s are accounted f o r ( i i ) overlap of categories (although th i s i s probably i n -evitable ) ( i i i ) confusion of semantic and syntactic c r i t e r i a and f a i l -ure to r e l a t e the two; e s p e c i a l l y f a i l u r e to supply a semantic s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r repeaters and p a r t i a l r e -peaters ( c l a s s i f i e r s with a form i d e n t i c a l to part of a compound headword) (iv) a r b i t r a r y s e l e c t i o n of c r i t e r i a of categorization (v) f a i l u r e to r e l a t e divergent senses of a s i n g l e form as f u l l substantive noun, as noun compound member, and as c l a s s i f i e r (vi) f a i l u r e to r e l a t e d i f f e r e n t senses of a sing l e c l a s -s i f i e r ; e s p e c i a l l y to specify the base sense and the dimensions along which the d i f f e r e n t senses are r e l a -ted. That i t has not been possible to continue the inv e s t i g a -t i o n i n purely semantic terms i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the neces-s i t y of at l e a s t attempting to c l a r i f y the matters l i s t e d above. Since i t i s not f e a s i b l e to examine the structure of the category of c l a s s i f i e r s on a purely semantic basis (there-by ignoring the obvious syntax-based categories), the next four sections of t h i s paper w i l l deal with (i) Repeaters (section 3) ( i i ) P a r t i a l Repeaters (section 4) ( i i i ) Measures (section 5) (iv) "True" C l a s s i f i e r s ( s e c t i o n 6) Measures, however, are defined primarily by semantic c r i t e r i a . "True" C l a s s i f i e r s are i n f a c t simply the residue; that i s , they are c l a s s i f i e r s which are not Repeaters, P a r t i a l Repeat-ers or Measures. They w i l l be examined i n d e t a i l and at least two sub-categories extracted. What categories and relationships e x i s t between c l a s s i f i -3 ers on a p u r e l y semantic l e v e l w i l l have to be c o n s i d e r e d subsequent to an examination of the i n t e r a c t i o n of semantic f a c t o r s and the s y n t a c t i c c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d above. This i n -t e r a c t i o n i s summarized i n F i g u r e 5, p. 113. Thus t h i s t h e -s i s does not a c t u a l l y d e a l with semantic d i s t i n c t i o n s between c l a s s i f i e r s themselves. There i s o n l y enough time and space here t o suggest f u r t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s and areas of r e s e a r c h beyond the b a s i c c o n c l u s i o n s reached i n s e c t i o n 8. A second area of i n t e r e s t was the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and the " r e a l world", i n terms of human p e r c e p t i o n and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and d i s t i n c t i o n s . The emphasis on the semantic aspect and on the " r e a l world" b a s i s of language gave r i s e t o two b a s i c hypotheses, as f o l l o w s : ( i ) c a t e g o r i e s of c l a s s i f i e r s , whether s y n t a c t i c a l l y or s e m a n t i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d , w i l l have semantic d e f i n -i n g c r i t e r i a . ( i i ) the c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can be t r a c e d t o b a s i c p e r c e p t u a l and/or c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . I t was a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be some r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c r i t e r i a used t o group words under one c l a s s i f i e r , the c r i t e r i a used t o c a t e g o r i z e the v a r i o u s types of c l a s s i -f i e r s , the c r i t e r i a of semantic e x t e n s i o n , and the p r i n c i p l e s of noun compounding. 1.2 METHOD As mentioned above, the l i t e r a t u r e on Standard Thai c l a s -s i f i e r s was s t u d i e d f i r s t . V a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s were noted, as w e l l as the c r i t e r i a used to e s t a b l i s h these c a t e g o r i e s , where such c r i t e r i a were e v i d e n t . The data base was the nouns f u r n i s h e d with commonly co-o c c u r r i n g c l a s s i f i e r s i n the T h a i - E n g l i s h Student's D i c t i o n a r y by Mary R. Haas (1965). T h i s was supplemented by i n f o r m a t i o n and o p i n i o n s from n a t i v e speakers and d e f i n i t i o n s from the T h a i - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y by G. B. McFarland (1969) and the T h a i - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y of S. Sethaputra (19 72). Other d i c -t i o n a r i e s were c o n s u l t e d f o r s p e c i f i c words. The b a s i c l i s t of c l a s s i f i e r s c u l l e d from Hass 1965 was grouped a c c o r d i n g to s y n t a c t i c c a t e g o r y and a semantic c r i t e -r i o n was sought f o r each c a t e g o r y . T h i s method i s o l a t e d a group of c l a s s i f i e r s which are the most commonly-occurring and i n some cases the most p e r p l e x i n g , d u e - t o the wide semantic range of nouns they c l a s s i f y . There were on l y two c l a s s i f i e r s which d i d not e n t e r i n t o any compounds and which informants c o u l d not s u pply a s a t i s f a c t o r y meaning f o r . These were the c l a s s i -f i e r s /l§m/ and /an/. An examination of the nouns c l a s s i f i e d by these two items ( a c c o r d i n g to Haas 1965 and other sources) l e d to the a p p l i c a t i o n of a k i n d of componential approach to the a n a l y s i s of the process of semantic change r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the odd range of nouns i n each c l a s s . In the case of /lem/, p o s s i b l e c r i t e r i a of e x t e n s i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d u s i n g comparative i n f o r m a t i o n from neighbouring and r e l a t e d langua-ges . The members of the c l a s s of /lem/ were then compared t o f i n d the most l i k e l y b a s i c sense. In the case of /an/, exten-s i o n was seen t o proceed i n a c h a i n - l i k e f a s h i o n and the s i z e of the c l a s s was much l a r g e r . Only a rough h y p o t h e s i s of the b a s i c sense and the paths of e x t e n s i o n was o u t l i n e d . T h i s method was then a p p l i e d t o another common c l a s s i f i -er which a l s o c l a s s i f i e s a seemingly u n r e l a t e d group of nouns but which e n t e r s i n t o compounds and has a semantic v a l u e when 5 f u n c t i o n i n g as a f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e noun. T h i s item i s / t u a / "body". I t was chosen simply as an example; t h e r e are many other items of t h i s type i n Standard T h a i . The f i n a l r e s u l t was hypotheses about the semantic s t r u c t u r e of the three c l a s s i f i e r s examined, with i m p l i c a -t i o n s f o r the study of h i s t o r i c a l semantic change. 1.3 THEORETICAL BASIS In terms of c u r r e n t l y - d e b a t e d formal t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i -t i o n s , t h i s paper c o u l d be s a i d to have no t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s at a l l . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e r e are d e f i n i t e areas where assump-t i o n s made or methodology r e l i e d on are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c e r t a i n " s c h o o l s " or of g e n e r a l and i n f o r m a l t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s . One p r i n c i p l e adhered to i n t h i s paper can best be s t a t -ed by n o t i n g a d i s t i n c t i o n o f t e n drawn i n l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s between "God's t r u t h " and "hocus-pocus"(e.g. see B u r l i n g 1968), the f i r s t e x p r e s s i o n r e f e r r i n g to l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s t h a t i s s t r i c t l y data-based, and the second to analyses which a l l o w g r e a t e r degrees of a b s t r a c t i o n i n the l i n g u i s t i c model of the language phenomenon being s t u d i e d . The aim and o r i e n t a t i o n of t h i s paper are d e f i n i t e l y w i t h i n the f i r s t approach. An attempt i s made to j u s t i f y a l l important u n i t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the s y n t a c t i c c a t e g o r i e s and semantic s t r u c t u r e s proposed below. J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r semantic d i s t i n c t i o n s i s sought i n s i m i l a r s e -mantic a n a l o g i e s made i n other areas of the vocabulary of T h a i , or at l e a s t i n the v o c a b u l a r i e s of r e l a t e d and neighbouring languages. I t i s f e l t t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i s use-6 f u l enough and the i n f o r m a l d e s c r i p t i o n c l e a r enough t h a t those who wish to propose formal r u l e s w i l l be ab l e to do so. Other i n f o r m a l t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s are i n d i c a t e d by the two hypotheses mentioned on page 3. I c o n s i d e r semantics and phonology to be the two aspects o f language which are the most b a s i c because both of these aspects have r e a l - w o r l d m a n i f e s t a t i o n s : semantics through a p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspect, phonology through a p h o n e t i c a s p e c t . The emphasis on p e r c e p t i o n and c u l t u r e i s based on con-s i d e r a t i o n of what Lyons (1977:440) c a l l s the " o n t o l o g i c a l b a s i s " of language. Lyons p o i n t s out t h a t ...the p o s s i b i l i t y of i d e n t i f y i n g e n t i t i e s , p r o p e r t i e s , a c t i o n s , r e l a t i o n s , e t c . independently of the way i n which they are r e f e r r e d to or denoted i n p a r t i c u l a r languages ... presupposes the acceptance of some neu-t r a l o n t o l o g i c a l framework. T h i s framework i s b u i l t up of the c a t e g o r i e s Lyons mentions. He conti n u e s (p. 442): We o b v i o u s l y cannot operate with c a t e g o r i e s of t h i s k i n d without making some minimal o n t o l o g i c a l assump-t i o n s : i.e., assumptions about what th e r e i s i n the world. The o n t o l o g i c a l assumptions t h a t we w i l l make (and we w i l l take them t o be minimal and r e l a t i v e l y u n c o n t r o v e r s i a l ) are those of na i v e r e a l i s m . The v i e w p o i n t of n a i v e r e a l i s m i s an important one, I t h i n k , s i n c e i t i s a s a f e assumption t h a t the o r i g i n a l and b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n s i n a language were made by people and s o c i e t i e s who r e l i e d s o l e l y on a " n a i v e l y r e a l i s t i c " view of the world. In a s i m i l a r v e i n , L a k o f f (1977:236-7) a l s o r e -f e r s to i n s i g h t s to be gained about " n a t u r a l f a c t s " i f the i n v e s t i g a t o r would "step o u t s i d e of formal t h e o r i e s " . The u n i v e r s a l i t y of an o n t o l o g i c a l b a s i s i n na i v e r e a l -7 ism i s , of course, not e a s i l y e s t a b l i s h e d . However, I would l i k e t o r e l a t e the n o t i o n of naive r e a l i s m and the n o t i o n of human p e r c e p t i o n as a b a s i s of l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e . A p e r c e p t u a l b a s i s of language grounds i t i n u n i v e r s a l human psychology and p h y s i o l o g y . * C l a s s i f i e r s themselves have some c l a i m to u n i v e r s a l i t y . C l a s s i f i e r use i s widespread i n world languages and the s i m i -l a r i t i e s between semantic c l a s s e s ( e s p e c i a l l y those based on a c r i t e r i o n of shape) i n c l a s s i f i e r languages i n A s i a , noun-c l a s s languages of A u s t r a l i a and A f r i c a and " c l a s s i f i c a t o r y v e rb" languages of North America i s s t r i k i n g and has been commented upon by many of the grammarians who have w r i t t e n on c l a s s i f i e r s (see Lyons 1977, A l l a n 1977, F r i e d r i c h 1970, Denny 19 76 e t c . ) . T h i s makes c l a s s i f i e r s , i f not t r u l y u n i -v e r s a l , then a t l e a s t of g r e a t e r than i n t r a - l a n g u a g e s i g n i f i -cance. There are a l s o c l e a r semantic p a r a l l e l s to be found i n n o n - c l a s s i f i e r languages, such as "sheet of paper" i n Eng-l i s h . Waldron (1976:132) notes how e a s i l y shape^words i n E n g l i s h (e.g. b r i c k , b a l l , s t i c k , e t c . ) can be a p p l i e d to anything of the a p p r o p r i a t e shape, r e g a r d l e s s of compo s i t i o n . * See Lenneberg (1967:356) on s i m i l a r i t i e s i n comparative s t u d i e s i n the "language of experience", and Rosch (1973:143) on p e r c e p t u a l s a l i e n c e as a f a c t o r i n forming c e n t r a l exam-p l e s from which c l a s s e s develop. F r i e d r i c h claims (1970:403) t h a t shape i s a "semantic p r i m i t i v e " , although not n e c e s s a r i -l y p e r c e p t u a l l y based. Gibson (1950:205) found t h a t s p a c i a l aspects are among the most p r i m i t i v e concepts r e t a i n e d i n c a -ses of " p s y c h i c b l i n d n e s s " ( v i s u a l a g n o s i a ) . I t i s " g e n e r a l -l y accepted", a c c o r d i n g to Lyons (19 77:247) t h a t t h e r e "are p e r c e p t u a l and c o g n i t i v e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s to a c q u i r e l i n g u i s -t i c a l l y p e r t i n e n t d i s t i n c t i o n s of sound and meaning". He a l s o notes t h a t even a l l o w i n g f o r b i o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l u n i v e r -s a l s , there i s a g r e a t d e a l of s t r u c t u r e remaining f r e e to vary between i n d i v i d u a l languages. a The most remarkable evidence of the u n i v e r s a l i t y of c l a s s i f i -er c l a s s e s i s the cross-language semantic correspondence be-wteen c l a s s i f i e r c l a s s e s and c h i l d r e n ' s o v e r - e x t e n s i o n s , as p o i n t e d out by E. V. C l a r k ( 1 9 7 3 : 7 9 f f . ) . Other w r i t e r s have p o i n t e d out s i m i l a r i t i e s between c o g n i t i v e development and semantic c a t e g o r i z a t i o n (see Lenneberg 1967:332, f o r example). In view of t h i s n e a r - u n i v e r s a l i t y of c l a s s i f i e r c l a s s e s and of p e r c e p t u a l parameters, I t h i n k i t i s not a c o n t r o v e r -s i a l assumption to c o n s i d e r c l a s s i f i e r c l a s s e s to be based i n the p e r c e p t u a l s a l i e n c e of v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of phys-i c a l o b j e c t s . T h i s p e r c e p t u a l s a l i e n c e , however, must be mediated by c u l t u r a l s a l i e n c e and by some k i n d of m e t a p h o r i c a l e x t e n s i o n t o r e f e r e n t s which are not o b j e c t s . C u l t u r a l s a l i e n c e i s based on s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the technology, l i f e - s u p p o r t system and b e l i e f - s y s t e m of a s o c i e t y (see Denny 1974, 1976a, and e s p e c i a l l y Lenneberg 1967). Lyons (1977:248) r e f e r s to the " s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n " of c u l t u r a l s a l i e n c e on a b i o l o g i c a l h i e r a r -chy. Gibson (1950:213) found "overwhelming evidence to show t h a t meanings r e a c t upon t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s to s e l e c t or modi-f y the s p a t i a l p r o p e r t i e s ( c o l o r , s i z e , o u t l i n e ) and t h a t these p r o p e r t i e s t h e r e f o r e depend upon the p e r s o n a l i t y and the c u l t u r e of the p e r c e i v e r . " A l l e n (1977:296-7) concludes s i m i l a r l y t h a t " I t may be t r u e t h a t most noun c l a s s e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d on a p e r c e p t u a l b a s i s ; but presumably most c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s f o s s i l i z e d by conventions t h a t r e s t r i c t i n -n o v a t i o n . " Denny r e l a t e s the complexity and number of c a t e g o r i e s 9 d i r e c t l y to the l e v e l of technology of the c u l t u r e . He g i v e s examples of t r i b a l people who do not have r i g i d f l a t c l a s s e s s i n c e t h e i r technology does not i n v o l v e p l a n k s , b r i c k s , or such shaped m a t e r i a l s (1976b:127). He a l s o r e f e r s to a paper by Silverman on G i l b e r t e s e which p o s i t s "means of sustenance" as a p o s s i b l e core meaning f o r a c l a s s i n G i l b e r t e s e which i n c l u d e s f i s h - h o o k s , p l o t s of l a n d and t r e e s . I t t h i s i s c o r r e c t , e c o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s p l a y an important p a r t i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as w e l l . Dixon (1968:120) notes t h a t D y i r b a l c l a s s i f i e s b i r d s as female f o r m y t h o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s . Cross-language h i e r a r c h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n have -been p o s i t e d by v a r i o u s w r i t e r s as w e l l , but Becker (1975:112) argues t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r systems i s p a r a d i g m a t i c , not h i e r a r c h i c a l . That i s , the p o s i t i o n of a g i v e n item i n a g i v e n s t r u c t u r e i s d e f i n e d by the r e l a t i o n -s h i p s of t h a t item t o a l l other items i n th a t s t r u c t u r e , r a -the r than by i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o s u p e r o r d i n a t e and s u b o r d i -nate items o n l y . T h i s i s s u e w i l l not be d e a l t w i t h here d i -r e c t l y , as i t i s c o n s i d e r e d beyond the scope of t h i s paper-Some i m p l i c a t i o n s are p o i n t e d out, however, i n s e c t i o n 8. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about T h a i c u l t u r a l v a l u e s are a l s o r e s t r i c t e d , s i n c e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and c u l t u r e i s a noto-r i o u s l y complex one. 1.4.0 TERMINOLOGY AND CONVENTIONS In Standard T h a i , c l a s s i f i e r s occur i n c l o s e j u n c t u r e with numerals, demonstratives, d e s c r i p t i v e a d j e c t i v e s , r e l a -t i v e c l a u s e s and other terms used to s p e c i f y i n d i v i d u a l e n t i -10 t i e s , u n i t s and amounts. There are two b a s i c word orders which occur, one wit h numerals, and the other w i t h the other environments mentioned above. The combination of c l a s s i f i e r ( C L F ) p l u s numeral (NUM) appears i n the c l a s s i f i e r phrase HW + NUM + C L F where HW stands f o r "headword" ( u s u a l l y a noun). An example i s 1*1 maa saam tua dog 3 BODY-SHAPE "three dogs" The other b a s i c word order i s e x e m p l i f i e d by 1.2 maa tua dam dog BODY-SHAPE b l a c k "a b l a c k dog" The b a s i c elements here can be symbolized by HW •+• C L F + I where I r e p r e s e n t s the s p e c i f y i n g c a t e g o r i e s of demonstra-t i v e s , d e s c r i p t i v e a d j e c t i v e s and r e l a t i v e clauses.. These can be r e f e r r e d to as " I n d i c a t o r s " a f t e r Haas (1942). Reference to s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the shape of o b j e c t s f o l l o w s Denny (1976a) and o t h e r s . The symbols used ar e : SID - s a l i e n t l y extended i n one dimension S2D - s a l i e n t l y extended i n two dimensions S3D - s a l i e n t l y extended i n th r e e dimensions. These were found p r e f e r r a b l e to s i m p l e r terms l i k e "long t h i n g , f l a t t h i n g " , or "round t h i n g " s i n c e these l a t t e r ex-p r e s s i o n s o f t e n obscured d i s t i n c t i o n s such as h o r i z o n t a l i t y v . s . v e r t i c a l i t y . f o r example, and sometimes o v e r - r e s t r i c t e d a c l a s s which i n c l u d e d square shapes with "round" t h i n g s . For example, i n T h a i both round f r u i t and d i c e are c l a s s i f i e d with / l u u k / "S3D shape". 11 1.4.1 TERMINOLOGY As c a r e f u l l y as p o s s i b l e , I would l i k e to use the f o l l o w -i n g terms with the senses g i v e n below: ( i ) c l a s s e s of headwords -as determined by co-occurrence w i t h a g i v e n c l a s s i f i e r i n a t y p i c a l c l a s s i f i e r phrase. For example, a l l nouns f o r animals of any k i n d , f o r body-shaped a r t i c l e s of c l o t h i n g and f o r t a b l e s and c h a i r s are i n one c l a s s because they can occur with the c l a s s i f i e r / t u a / . I t i s onl y p r a c t i c a l to r e f e r to the r e s u l t s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as c l a s s e s . The extent, composition and c r i t e r i a of membership of c l a s s e s i s an e m p i r i c a l matter, ( i i ) c a t e g o r i e s of c l a s s i f i e r s -as p r o v i d e d by v a r i o u s l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s e s . Some c a t e g o r i e s mentioned a l r e a d y are Repeaters and P a r t i a l Repeaters, as w e l l as Measures. The extent, composition and c r i t e r i a of membership i n c a t e g o r i e s i s a t h e o r e t i c a l matter. Other terms with meanings specific to this thesis are defined or explained when introduced. Terms which are not explained are to be considered as used with their non-techni-cal sense, for example the term "implication". 12 1.4.2 PHONOLOGICAL SYMBOLS The symbols used t o r e p r e s e n t T h a i words i n a broad p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n are s i m i l a r t o those o r i g i n a l l y used by Haas (1942) and widely used by those who study the T a i languages: TABLE 1 P h o n o l o g i c a l Inventory of Standard Thai Consonants: Manner 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. STOPS: v l e s s . asp. ph t h kh unasp. P t k •? vd. unasp. b d AFFRICATES asp. ch unasp. c FRICATIVES f s h NASALS m n FLAPS r J LATERALS 1 SEMIVOWELS w j Vowels: Height FRONT CENTRAL BACK HIGH i , i i u,uu MID e,ee a, 33 o,oo LOW ae,aeae a,aa o, 0 0 Tones: N low * f a l l i n g ' h i g h w r i s i n g P l a c e s of a r t i c u l a t i o n : 1. b i l a b i a l 2. l a b i o d e n t a l 3. a l v e o l a r 4. p a l a t a l 5. v e l a r 6. g l o t t a l Mid tone i s unmarked. The g l o t t a l s t o p i s not c o n s i d e r -ed d i s t i n c t i v e and i s i n c l u d e d i n some examples on l y f o r con-venience i n i d e n t i f y i n g the item. Suprasegmental phenomena other than tones, such as s t r e s s , j u n c t u r e , and i n t o n a t i o n are not r e p r e s e n t e d except where r e l e v a n t to the p o i n t b e i ng d i s c u s s e d . In f a c t the o n l y case where r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of these d i s t i n c t i o n s i s necessary i s the use of a comma, g l o s -sed as PAUSE. 1.4.3 GLOSSES AND TRANSLATIONS In g e n e r a l , g l o s s e s are intended as a k i n d of morpholog-i c a l breakdown, p r o v i d e d f o r the convenience of the reader, and not i n t e n d e d as comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n s of the forms used i n the examples. Gloss e s are a l s o used to t r y to show semantic d i f f e r e n c e s between c o n s t r u c t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l l e x i c a l items. They are w r i t t e n d i r e c t l y below the p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of example sentences. T r a n s l a t i o n s g i v e n i n quotes d i r e c t l y to the r i g h t (or below) the g l o s s e s are l o o s e e q u i v a l e n t s and intended to convey the sense of the e n t i r e sentence without d e p a r t i n g too much from the m o r p h o l o g i c a l breakdown. The t r a n s l a t i o n s are a l s o used to t r y to i l l u s -t r a t e the d i f f e r e n c e s b e i n g shown i n the examples. F o l l o w i n g Adams and C o n k l i n (19 74) g l o s s e s of c l a s s i f i -e r s w i l l be g i v e n i n c a p i t a l s . T h i s i s u s e f u l e s p e c i a l l y i n r e p e a t i n g c l a s s i f i e r phrases where the form which appears i n the f u n c t i o n and p o s i t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r i s l e x i c a l l y i d e n t i -c a l to a l l or p a r t of the headword. To show mo r p h o l o g i c a l d i v i s i o n s i n examples i n the r u n -n i n g t e x t , a p l u s s i g n "+" w i l l be used. G e n e r a l l y , and where p o s s i b l e , quotes w i l l be used to i n d i c a t e the sense of an item, s l a s h e s to i n d i c a t e the broad p h o n e t i c form and un-d e r l i n i n g to r e f e r to the form i n g e n e r a l (as opposed to the meaning). Where the exact content of a d e f i n i t i o n i s c r u c i a l to 14 the p o i n t b e i n g d i s c u s s e d , d e f i n i t i o n s are f o o t n o t e d . Other-wise a l l d e f i n i t i o n s are my own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 15 2.0 DIFINITION AND SELECTION OF CLASSIFIERS. A l l a n (1977:285) sees two b a s i c c r i t e r i a f o r the d e f i -n i t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r s : ( i ) they occur as morphemes i n s u r -f a c e s t r u c t u r e s under s p e c i f i a b l e c o n d i t i o n s , and ( i i ) they are m e a n i n g f u l : they denote s a l i e n t o r imputed c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s of the e n t i t y t o which an a s s o c i a t e d noun r e f e r s (or may r e f e r ) . C l e a r l y , these two c r i t e r i a are ( i ) s t r u c t u r a l l y s y n t a c t i c , and ( i i ) semantic. Most of the d e f i n i t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e on c l a s s i f i e r s t o date have been s y n t a c t i c - t h a t i s , most of the statements t h a t can be c o n s i d e r e d p r o -per d e f i n i t i o n s . I f we compare A l l a n ' s two statements, we see t h a t the s y n t a c t i c approach has a more p r e c i s e and d e f i -n i t e r i n g t o i t , w h i l e the semantic statement seems more l i k e a. mere g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , I. b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s the semantic d e f i n i t i o n which captures the t r u e f u n c -t i o n i n g of the c l a s s i f i e r , although i t may not p r o v i d e the be s t means of i d e n t i f y i n g members of the c a t e g o r y . 2.1 SYNTACTIC DEFINITIONS Nung i s a T a i language spoken i n North Vietnam. In her d e s c r i p t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n Nung, S a u l (1966: 278) d e f i n e s c l a s s i f i e r s as those forms t h a t can f i l l the CL s l o t i n the Nung c l a s s i f i e r phrase: NUM-CL-HW-MOD, where MOD i s a m o d i f i e r . Jacob (1965:145) i d e n t i f i e s Khmer c l a s s i f i e r s by t h e i r o c currence a f t e r numerals i n c l o s e j u n t u r e . c l a s s i f i e r s are d e f i n e d q u i t e s i m i l a r l y by Noss (1964) i n the most comprehen-s i v e study of Standard T h a i . L i k e Jacob, he uses both word o r d e r and p h o n o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a t o d e f i n e c l a s s i f i e r s 16 as " s u b s t a n t i v e s o c c u r r i n g w i t h weak s t r e s s d i r e c t l y b e f o r e , and i n c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h , d e m o n s t r a t i v e s " (Noss , p . 1 0 4 ) . C l a s s i f i e r s do o c c u r w i t h normal s t r e s s , as do p r o n o u n s . But i t i s t h e c l a s s i f i e r p h r a s e ( u s u a l l y w i t h head noun d e -l e t e d ) w h i c h s u b s t i t u t e s f o r the a n t e c e d e n t , no t t h e c l a s s i -f i e r a l o n e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f c l a s s i f i e r s w i t h normal s t r e s s i s l i m i t e d t o cases where t h e numeral " o n e " i s d e l e t e d . The p r i m a r y p r o b l e m i n d e f i n i n g c l a s s i f i e r s p r e c i s e l y i s t o d i s t i n g u i s h them from p r o n o u n s . C e r t a i n pronouns can f u n c t i o n as c l a s s i f i e r s i n many c o n t e x t s : e . g . / t n a n / " r e s p e c -t e d p e r s o n , / n a a j / " p e r s o n - i n - a u t h o r i t y " . Any d e f i n i t i o n o f c l a s s i f i e r s must r e s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m of making t h i s d i s -t i n c t i o n between c l a s s i f i e r s and p r o n o u n s . Greenberg s t r e s s e s t h e f a c t , t h a t t h e c l a s s i f i e r p h r a s e ( q u a n t i f i e r + CLF) c o n -s t i t u t e s a " m o d i f y i n g p h r a s e which s e r v e s as comment t o the head noun f u n c t i o n i n g as t o p i c " ( 1975 :41 ) . One immediate p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s i s the o c c u r r e n c e o f c l a s s i f i e r s i n e n v i -ronments o t h e r t h a n the c l a s s i f i e r p h r a s e : when m o d i f y i n g v e r b s , f o r i n s t a n c e , o r i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h / p e n / " b e " and / l a ? / " e a c h ; p e r " . A l l a n ' s c r i t e r i o n ( i i ) above a l s o depends on an " a s s o c i a t e d n o u n " , and t h i s l e a d s him t o argue a g a i n s t B e r l i n ' s a n a l y s i s (1968) o f T z e l t a l c l a s s i f i e r s f o r a c t i o n s o f b l i n k i n g , s t a b b i n g , e t c . A l l a n ' s o b j e c t i o n s to s u c h c l a s s i f i e r s a r e weakened by h i s own a c c e p t a n c e l a t e r (1977:307) o f c l a s s i f i e r p h r a s e s m o d i f y i n g v e r b s i n s e n t e n c e s where an a b s t r a c t head noun (such as t h e words f o r " t i m e " , " d i s t a n c e " , " w e i g h t " e t c . ) has been g a p p e d . To be a c c e p t a b l e , d e f i n i t i o n s l i k e N o s s ' s and A l l a n ' s would have to be r e p h r a s e d t o r e f e r t o headwords i n g e n e r a l , r a t h e r t h a n n o u n s . There remains the p r o b l e m o f c l a s s i f i e r s o c c u r r i n g w i t h c l a s s i f i e r f u n c t i o n i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h no a p p a r e n t headword a t a l l . Of c o u r s e , d e f i n i t i o n s o f c l a s s i f i e r s which a r e b a s e d on o c c u r r e n c e i n a c l a s s i f i e r p h r a s e o r w i t h a head noun can be s u p p o r t e d i f i t can be shown t h a t a g i v e n l e x i c a l f o r m f o u n d i n o t h e r environments can a l s o o c c u r i n t h e s p e c i f i e d e n v i r o n m e n t . In f a c t , t h i s i s t h e most c o n v e n i e n t way t o c h e c k t h e f o r m - c l a s s o f a. l e x i c a l i t e m -A l t e r n a t i v e l y , as p a r t o f a s t r u c t u r a l i s t grammar, a l l c l a s s i f i e r s c o u l d be l i s t e d i n the l e x i c o n , t o a v o i d the n e c e s s i t y o f c h e c k i n g each d o u b t f u l f o r m i n the a p p r o p r i a t e s e n t e n c e - f r a m e . Haas has p r o v i d e d s u c h a l i s t i n g i n h e r 1965 d i c t i o n a r y . That i s , she g i v e s the c l a s s i f i e r w h i c h commonly o c c u r s w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r n o u n . But she does not g i v e a s u c -c i n c t d e f i n i t i o n o f c l a s s i f i e r s nor does she o u t l i n e h e r c r i -t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n of the c l a s s i f i e r g i v e n , o r f o r l i s t i n g nouns as u n c l a s s i f i e d . We can c o n s i d e r t h e s e two s t r u c t u r a l i s t t e c h n i q u e s as c o n s t i t u t i n g two d i f f e r e n t types o f d e f i n i t i o n . Lyons (1977: 291) has d e s c r i b e d two s u c h t r a d i t i o n a l t y p e s : ( i ) d e f i n i t i o n by e x t e n s i o n ( l i s t i n g a l l the members o f a c l a s s ) and ( i i ) d e f i n i t i o n by i n t e n s i o n ( l i s t i n g a l l t h e common p r o p e r t i e s o f a c l a s s ) . The drawbacks o f an a p p r o a c h l i k e H a a s ' s a r e the l a c k of an o v e r a l l i n t e n s i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n on the one hand, and the l a c k o f a comprehensive l i s t o f the members of the 18 c l a s s on the o t h e r . "There has not been anyone who has a t -tempted to compile the complete l i s t of c l a s s i f i e r s i n T h a i " (Warotamasikkhadit 1972:23). Such a l i s t would i n f a c t con-s t i t u t e an e x t e n s i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n and i s , i n f a c t , a by-pro-duct of t h i s t h e s i s . However, wi t h "marginal" c l a s s i f i e r s l i k e r e p e a t e r s , the powers-of-ten group, pronouns which can f u n c t i o n as c l a s s i f i e r s , temporary measures l i k e /kammii/ " h a n d f u l " l i m i t e d c l a s s i f i e r s l i k e /phrap/ "moment" ( d i s c u s s e d below) and the g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i e r s which c l a s s i f y p o t e n t i a l l y and nouns, i t i s c l e a r l y necessary to impose s t r i c t d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i a on the f o r m - c l a s s i n order to p r o v i d e a d e f i n i t e num-ber of forms which would c o n s t i t u t e the e x t e n s i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n . . Thus we see t h a t the two types of d e f i n i t i o n are interdependent,. S y n t a c t i c d e f i n i t i o n s o f f e r l i t t l e i n s i g h t i n t o the head word — c l a s s i f i e r r e l a t i o n s h i p beyond e s t a b l i s h i n g c a t e g o r i e s of c l a s s i f i e r s (as Noss does) based on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r s and head words. However, they p r o v i d e handy r e -f e r e n c e p o i n t s f o r l o c a t i n g c l a s s i f i e r s and judging the s t a -tus of q u e s t i o n a b l e i tems. For example, by the semantic c r i -t e r i a suggested below /phrap/ "a f l a s h ; a moment" i s a c l a s -s i f i e r . I f the verb i s accepted as the headword i n the f o l -lowing example, /phrap/ seems to f i t i n t o a c l a s s i f i e r phrase: 2.1 khaw maa phrap diaw HEAD + CLF +• I he come MOMENT alone "He came f o r o n l y a moment" However, by ot h e r s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i a /phrap/ i s r e j e c t e d as a c l a s s i f i e r . The examples below show t h a t i t cannot occur w i t h numerals or with o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s . 2.2a *khaw maa t n i r j phrap he come /one moment (_two 2. 2b * khaw maa phrap •! n i n san (^thii SDDJ) he come moment/a l a s h o r t [a. second In f a c t i t occurs o n l y i n the f i x e d phrase w i t h /diaw/. There are a l a r g e number of such words which are c a l l e d " l i m i t e d " c l a s s i f i e r s and are not c o n s i d e r e d i n the c a t e g o -r i z i n g which f o l l o w s . 2.2 SEMANTIC DEFINITIONS Semantic d e f i n i t i o n s are n o t - l i m i t e d t o occurrences of c l a s s i f i e r s w i t h i n s p e c i f i c environments. An a d d i t i o n a l ad-vantage, noted by Denny (1976:131) i s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t c r o s s -language p a r a l l e l s would not be obscured by d e f i n i t i o n s based on f u n c t i o n r a t h e r than d i s t r i b u t i o n . These p a r a l l e l s are between c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and a l s o between the types of s p e e c h - s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r i n g the use of c l a s s i f i e r s . Unre-l a t e d languages o f t e n have v e r y s i m i l a r classes-, and the s i t u a t i o n s of l i s t i n g , enumerating, s e r i a l c o u n t i n g , s p e c i -f y i n g , e t c . , seem to be r e q u i r e d i n most cases as w e l l . These cross-language g e n e r a l i t i e s , c o u l d be captured d e s p i t e wide v a r i a t i o n s i n morphology. The s i m i l a r i t i e s between c l a s s i f i e r c a t e g o r i e s over a l a r g e number of u n r e l a t e d l a n g -uages has impressed many of the l i n g u i s t s i n v e s t i g a t i n g c l a s -s i f i e r s . "The s t r o n g e s t evidence of semantic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s 20 the a b i l i t y of n a t i v e speakers t o c l a s s i f y new o b j e c t s con-s i s t e n t l y and e a s i l y on the b a s i s of t h e i r observed c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s " ( A l l a n 1977:290). A l l a n c i t e a a l i s t of languages where t h i s ease of o r i g i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been r e p o r t e d . I t i n c l u d e s Burmese, D y i r b a l , F u l a , and Navaho. Examples of T h a i n o v e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are r e l a t i v e l y r a r e : s a t e l l i t e s a r e c l a s s e d as /duarj/ "round o r r a d i a n t s p o t s " ; automobiles asr/khan/ " l o n g handle" ( l i k e most wheeled v e h i c l e s ) ; a i r -p l anes as /lam/ "trunk; passageway" ( l i k e b o a t s ) . Most p i e c e s of complex machinery are c l a s s e d as /khrian,/ "machine" or as /an/ (the g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i e r ) . A l l e n a l s o s t r e s s e s the simple f a c t t h a t c l a s s i f i e r s have meaning and can be d i s c u s s e d i n many (but not a l l ) c l a s -s i f i e r languages by n a t i v e speakers. T h a i speakers are a b l e to d i s c u s s T h a i c l a s s i f i e r s but t h i s i s probably due to the f a c t t h a t most Thai c l a s s i f i e r s a l s o do duty as nouns. The on l y name I have found i n T h a i grammar f o r c l a s s i f i e r s as a for m - c l a s s i s the f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n /laksana'naam/ "a word to t e l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a noun". There are seve-r a l c l a s s i f i e r s which are d i f f i c u l t f o r Thais t o g l o s s , and at l e a s t 2 which c l a s s i f y such a wide range of nouns t h a t they cannot be assig n e d meanings a t a l l by many spe a k e r s . These two are examined i n s e c t i o n 7. We have noted t h a t T h a i c l a s s i f i e r s occur i n environments both i n and out of the c l a s s i f i e r phrase. The common f a c t o r i n a l l occurrences i s the f u n c t i o n of the c l a s s i f i e r i n p r o -v i d i n g u n i t r e f e r e n c e i n s i t u a t i o n s of enumerating, i n d i c a t -i n g , c o n t r a s t i n g or emphasizing a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the 21 r e f e r e n t . That t h i s i s the b a s i c f u n c t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r s i n Tha i I s h a l l take t o be s e l f - e v i d e n t , s i n c e a l l the examples I can f i n d e x h i b i t i t . That c l a s s i f i e r s i n T h a i p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e i s c l e a r l y the o p i n i o n of Noss, who emphasizes t h a t the meaning of u n i t c l a s s i f i e r s i s "one of t h i s k i n d " (1964: 106). Adams and C o n k l i n too a l l o w t h a t w h ile a c l a s s i f i e r may have an a d d i t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i v e semantic l o a d , i t " o f t e n has • u n i t ' as i t s main for c e " ( 1 9 7 5 : 1 3 ) . They a l s o s t a t e . (1975:11) t h a t c l a s s i f i e r s have a s p e c i f y i n g f u n c t i o n but t h a t evidence f o r such f u n c t i o n s i s d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n : " I t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e t o get data which unambiguously demon-* s t r a t e s the c l a s s i f i e r as a s p e c i f i e r . " They argue t h a t enum-e r a t i n g a l s o n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s s p e c i f y i n g , a r e l a t i o n s h i p I f i n d o n l y r e a s o n a b l e . They do have c l e a r examples showing a s i n g u l a r i z i n g f u n c t i o n , however. S i n g u l a r i z i n g , s p e c i f y i n g and enumerating are a l l compat-i b l e w i t h the n o t i o n of u n i t r e f e r e n c e . As a semantic d e f i n i t i o n , then, we can. use the c r i t e r i o n of p r o v i s i o n of u n i t r e f e r e n c e . Pronouns and proper nouns, however, a l s o p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e : 2.3 khaw ca paj she Fut go " S h e ' l l go." 2.4 somchaj ca paj Same Fut go^ "Somchaj w i l l go." 2.5 n a k r i a n khon nirj ca paj student PERSON a Fut go "A ( c e r t a i n ) s tudent w i l l go." But whereas 2.3 and 2.4 are d e f i n i t e , 2.5 i s n o t . Th i s i s demonstrated by the redundancy of 2.6 and 2.7, but not 2.8: 2.6 *khaw khon n i x ca paj she PERSON t h i s Fut go 22 2.7 *somchaaj khon n i i ca paj (assuming only one per-Name PERSON t h i s Fut go son named Sorachai i s A , considered.) 2.8 nakrian khon n i i ca paj student PERSON this Fut go "This student w i l l go." This of course p a r a l l e l s the defining c r i t e r i o n of occurrence with demonstratives used by Noss. Non-definite r e f e r -ence, then, may be a c r i t e r i a l part of the function of c l a s -s i f i e r s . However, Adams and Conklin (1975:11) state that with Indicators the c l a s s i f i e r may "single out the noun for attention i n a d e i c t i c - l i k e process and d e f i n i t i z e " . This c o n f l i c t s with the conclusion arrived at above. Adams and Conklin admit that, they "have no single examples which c l e a r l y demonstrate definiteness as the c l a s s i f i e r ' s function". Following Chafe (1976:39) I w i l l take definiteness to mean an assumption on the part of the speaker that the hear-er i s able to i d e n t i f y the member of a category which the speaker i s r e f e r r i n g to using a d e f i n i t e noun. Even f u r n i s h -ed with a d e f i n i t i o n of definiteness, the concept i s s t i l l extremely d i f f i c u l t to pin down. Nevertheless, some facts can be i l l u s t r a t e d . Looking at the examples given of i n d e f i -n i t e c l a s s i f i e r s we should t r y to separate the semantic con-t r i b u t i o n of the c l a s s i f i e r i t s e l f from that of the Indicator. Generally we can consider adjectives to be more neutral i n th i s issue than ordinal numerals and demonstratives (which are quite d e f i n i t e ) or / n i l ) / following the noun (quite indef-i n i t e ) . If an adjective i s substituted f o r / n i n / i n example 2 . 5 , the r e s u l t i s 2.9 nakrian khon loo ca paj aJ"The Vhandsome students student PERSON handsome ["SorneJ w i l l go." Fut go b.-fnA > handsome student w i l l ("Some) go." 23 As the a l t e r n a t e t r a n s l a t i o n s show, 2.9 c o u l d be a d e f i -n i t e or i n d e f i n i t e sentence. Choice of e i t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e would depend, f o r example, on the k i n d of q u e s t i o n asked,to which 2.9 c o u l d be used as an answer: 2.10 khon naj ca paj person which Fut go "Which person w i l l go?" 2.11 k h r a j ca paj baarj* who? Fut go some "Who ( i n g e n e r a l ) w i l l go?" 2.9a answers 2.10 and 2.9b answers 2.11. In i n t r o d u c i n g 2.10 and 2.11, we have i n t r o d u c e d a new v a r i a b l e , the "pronoun s u b s t i t u t e " f u n c t i o n a t t r i b u t e d t o T h a i c l a s s i f i e r s (Adams and C o n k l i n 1974:9). To e l i m i n a t e t h i s 2.9 can be imagined as o c c u r r i n g a t the b e g i n n i n g of a c o n v e r s a t i o n where "group of s t u d e n t s " i s g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the hearer,, but "group of handsome s t u d e n t s " i s not. Even i n such a s i t u a t i o n informants, s t a t e t h a t i t i s u n c l e a r whether the speaker would expect the hearer to know e x a c t l y which handsome students were being r e f e r r e d t o . Thus the d i s t i n c t i o n between d e f i n i t e and i n d e f i n i t e i s not c l e a r to n a t i v e speakers. Evidence from occurrence versus non-occurrence of c l a s -s i f i e r s seems to g i v e more weight to the c l a i m of d e f i n i t e -ness. Compare 2.12 khaw m i i maa j a j saam tua he have dog b i g 3 BODY-SHAPE 2.13 khaw m i i maa tua j a j saam tua he have dog BODY-SHAPE b i g 3 BODY-SHAPE "He has three dogs, b i g ones." * Haas (1964:287) notes t h a t "When /baan/ occurs a t the end of a q u e s t i o n , i t suggests t h a t more than one item i s ex-p e c t e d to be mentioned i n the answer..." 24 For some informants, 2.13 has an i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t the dog owner may have other dogs, s m a l l e r ones. C o n s t r a s t i v e -ness i m p l i e s t h a t the speaker assums the hearer has a d e f i -n i t e p r e f e r e n c e from among a l i m i t e d s e t of c h o i c e s f o r a g i v e n s l o t i n a statement. T h i s i n t u r n makes i t more l i k e l y t h a t the h e a r e r w i l l be a b l e to i d e n t i f y the c o n t r a s t e d item, although not n e c e s s a r i l y so. But a t l e a s t both speaker and h e a r e r are conscious of the same range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Thus I t h i n k t h a t a c o n t r a s t i v e f u n c t i o n makes a d e f i n i t i z i n g f u n c t i o n more l i k e l y . U l t i m a t e l y the matter must r e s t w i t h the f o l l o w i n g sum-mary: some occurrences of c l a s s i f i e r s do seem to have a d e f i n i t i z i n g e f f e c t . T h i s appears to be a secondary e f f e c t which r e s u l t s from a c o n t r a s t i v e e f f e c t and an anaphoric f u n c t i o n . I t may a l s o be l i m i t e d , t o more formal usage: f o r example 2.13 i s c o n s i d e r e d to be more fo r m a l than 2.12. In o t h e r cases (the m a j o r i t y ) c l a s s i f i e r s p r o v i d e i n d e f i n i t e s i n g u l a r u n i t reference.. I t i s a l s o d e s i r a b l e t o be a b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h when a form i s f u n c t i o n i n g as a c l a s s i f i e r and as. a f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e noun. We s h o u l d then add to our d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r s something to cover t h i s . . C l a s s i f i e r s p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e to some other e n t i t y , whether i t i s overthy expressed by a headword or not. T h i s f a c t may be the c r i t e r i o n needed. When a form has s u b s t a n t i v e noun f u n c t i o n (as does /khon/ i n 2.10) or p r e d i c a t e f u n c t i o n (as does / t u a / i n 2.14 below) i t does not occur with a headword. Consider the f o l l o w i n g exam-p l e : 2.14 dek tua l e k c h i l d body s m a l l "That c h i l d i s s m a l l . " I t might be argued t h a t /dek/ " c h i l d " i n 2.14 i s the headword, but t h i s i s not so. The form / t u a / must be f u n c t i o n i n g as a f u l l noun ( p a r t of the p r e d i c a t e "to have a s m a l l body"). I t cannot be f u n c t i o n i n g as a c l a s s i f i e r because /khon/ "per-son" i s the proper c l a s s i f i e r and the use of / t u a / to c l a s s i -f y humans ( b a r r i n g conscious i n s u l t s ) c o n s t i t u t e s a c a t e g o r i c a l e r r o r : 2.15 *dek tua l e k c a paj c h i l d BODY-SHAPE s m a l l Fut go In other cases forms occur without headwords and y e t t h e i r f u n c t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e t o some mass, commodity, event or o b j e c t which i s not o v e r t l y expressed but which must be assumed t o have been d e l e t e d f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s . An example wi t h /pen/ "be" i s g i v e n below i n s e c t i o n 3.2 (exam-p l e 3.10) In order t o d i s t i n g u i s h between f u n c t i o n as c l a s s i f i e r and f u n c t i o n as f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e noun, the grammarian w i l l have to take i n t o account whatever d i c o u r s e or anphoric f a c -t o r s r e q u i r e t h i s f i r s t e n t i t y i n a semantic s t r u c t u r e con-t a i n i n g c l a s s i f i e r s . At any r a t e , i n example 2.14, the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between the f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e noun / t u a / and /dek/ " c h i l d " i s c l e a r l y not the same as the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c l a s s i f i e r /khon/ "person" and the same headword i n 2.16 dek khon l e k c h i l d PERSON s m a l l "a s m a l l c h i l d " . Thus with " l i m i t e d " c l a s s i f i e r s l i k e /phrap/ "moment" 26 (examples 2.1 and 2.2 above) and with p r e d i c a t e and f u l l noun f u n c t i o n f o r forms which a l s o f u n c t i o n as c l a s s i f i e r s , i t i s necessary to r e s o r t to d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c r i t e r i a t o p r o v i d e a p r a c t i c a l working d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r s . In f a c t the g e n e r a l r u l e of thumb used was occurrence w i t h a numeral i n a t y p i c a l c l a s s i f i e r phrase, accompanied by v i g i l a n c e a g a i n s t l i m i t e d c l a s s i f i e r s and p r e d i c a t e or f u l l nominal f u n c t i o n . Note t h a t the semantic d e f i n i t i o n i s a c c u r a t e enough, simply not p r a c t i c a l l y u s e f u l enough. 2.3 CLASSIFIER SELECTION At l e a s t f o r those c l a s s i f i e r s which have a s p e c i f i c semantic r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the noun c l a s s i f i e d , i t has proven p o s s i b l e t o i s o l a t e semantic f e a t u r e s w i t h i n the noun c l a s s i -f i e d , f e a t u r e s which govern the s e l e c t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r s . Gething (1968:817) found, i n a semantic s e t of 10 morphemes used to s p e c i f y the ranks of Thai Buddhist f u n c t i o n a r i e s , t h a t he was a b l e to subsume a l l the common f e a t u r e s under [+ Buddhist] and the dimension of r e l a t i v e s t a t u s . The f i r s t 5 morphemes of the s e t take the c l a s s i f i e r / o i ) / ; the o t h e r s , /khon/. The c h i e f semantic c o r r e l a t e s f o r t h i s dichotomy are t o be found i n ( i ) the number of r e l i g i o u s p r e c e p t s the f u n c t i o n a r i e s vow to observe, and ( i i ) the degrees of r e l a -t i v e s t a t u s . In t h i s study, then, Gething has been a b l e to i s o l a t e d i s t i n c t i v e components i n the nouns c l a s s i f i e d which can be used to d i f f e r e n t i a t e two c l a s s i f i e r s s e m a n t i c a l l y . Gething (personal commnication) p o i n t s out, however, t h a t h i s f i n d -27 i n g s cannot be a p p l i e d to c l a s s i f i e r s e l e c t i o n too w i d e l y , s i n c e a f e a t u r e something l i k e [+ 227 precepts] , used t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e /on/ and /khon/ cannot s e r v e to s p e c i f y the s e l e c t i o n of /or;/ as c l a s s i f i e r of nouns r e f e r r i n g to i n a n i -mates.. The inanimate o b j e c t s c l a s s i f i e d by /orj/ are r e v e r e d t h i n g s l i k e h o l y r e l i c s , images of Buddha and s t u p a s . M u l t i p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a s i n g l e noun by s e v e r a l d i f -f e r e n t c l a s s i f i e r s a l s o p r e s e n t s a problem, to the e x p l a n a t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r s e l e c t i o n , s i n c e the c h o i c e of d i f f e r e n t c l a s -s i f i e r s must be determined by the same noun. T h i s problem i s f u r t h e r complicated by the f a c t t h a t most c l a s s i f i e r l a n g -uages, i n c l u d i n g Standard T h a i , have a "wastebasket" c l a s s i -f i e r , used f o r o b j e c t s w i t h none of the commonly used s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f o r o b j e c t s of u n c e r t a i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T h i s c l a s s i f i e r thus becomes another a l t e r n a t i v e f o r the speaker to s e l e c t . I t i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d an e s s e n t i a l s t e p i n componen-t i a l semantic a n a l y s i s to d e f i n e the domain to be a n a l y s e d . T h i s i s o f t e n a very d i f f i c u l t s t e p . Gething (1972) i s f o r c e d to l i m i t some of h i s s e t s a r b i t r a r i l y . In cases where the domain to be examined i s i m p r e c i s e , i t i s o f t e n convenient to f a l l back on a v a i l a b l e s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i a to h e l p d e l i m i t the boundaries. The use of s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i a to d e f i n e the domain to be analysed can l e a d to unique problems i f there are no d i r e c t semantic c o r r e l a t e s to the s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i a . Such a case occurs i n examining the semantic e x t e n s i o n of some c l a s s i f i e r s i n s e c t i o n 7.. Gething concludes t h a t "the 28 d e s c r i p t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r use i n T h a i may be more co n v e n i e n t -l y handled as a semantic matter than as p a r t of the syntax..." (1968:818). B u r l i n g (1965) comes to a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n i n an e a r l i e r a r t i c l e on Burmese c l a s s i f i e r s . Becker (1975:112) i s of l i k e mind. He argues s p e c i f i -c a l l y a g a i n s t s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i a i n e x p l a i n i n g c l a s s i f i e r s e l e c t i o n . To i l l u s t r a t e h i s p o i n t he c o n t r a s t s the use of gender systems i n IE w i t h gender i n E n g l i s h . He d e s c r i b e s Indo-European number and gender systems as e s s e n t i a l l y t a x o -nomic and s y n t a c t i c a l l y r e l e v a n t : they are o v e r t l y marked i n most cases and serve t o c l a s s i f y words. But i n E n g l i s h gender i s c o v e r t . A r i v e r may be c l a s s e d as fe m i n i n e i n French and masculine i n German, but i n E n g l i s h i t i s mascu-l i n e , f e m i nine or neuter on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s , as used by d i f f e r e n t s p e a k e r s . Becker says t h a t one c o u l d w r i t e con-t e x t - s e n s i t i v e s y n t a c t i c r u l e s s p e c i f y i n g c h o i c e of gender, "but the r u l e s would suggest t h a t the c h o i c e i s more d e t e r -mined than i t a c t u a l l y i s " (Becker 1975:113). C o v e r t gender, a c c o r d i n g t o Becker, i s t y p o l o g i c a l l y c l o s e t o Burmese nume-r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . And wh i l e the use of c l a s s i f i e r s i n Burmese seems t o be more open t o o r i g i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l r e p a r t e e and poetry) than i n T h a i , the cases of m u l t i p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a s i n g l e noun and the other problems mentioned above are a l s o s u b j e c t to s i m i l a r c o n t e x t u a l and i n t e n t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s . U l t i m a t e l y we must agree with Haas who wrote i n an e a r l y paper on Thai c l a s s i f i e r s (1942:203): "We cannot make r u l e s governing the 29 choice of c l a s s i f i e r to be used i n every given instance". We can specify the l i k e l i h o o d of the choice of a cert a i n c l a s s i f i e r within c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n a l l i m i t s but i n many i f not most cases there remains an element of speaker's inten-t i o n . A formal system of c l a s s i f i e r s e l e c t i o n to the l e v e l of broad categories of c l a s s i f i e r s (but not to the l e v e l of i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s i f i e r s ) i s suggested i n section 6. 30 3.0 REPEATERS In s e c t i o n 1 we noted t h a t grammarians have e i t h e r l i s t -ed r e p e a t e r s as a major category of T h a i c l a s s i f i e r s or do not c o n s i d e r them to be c l a s s i f i e r s at a l l . The former ap-proach was termed inadequate, w h i l e the l a t t e r seems very u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s i n c e r e p e a t e r s do f i l l the semantic r e q u i r e -ments to be c l a s s i f i e r s . That i s , they p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r -ence to a headword. They occur with numerals q u i t e r e g u l a r -l y , and they can a l s o occur with demonstratives, although v e r y r a r e l y . For example, 3.1 phom chaj m i i , m i i n i i "I used t h i s hand." I(male) use hand PAUSE HAND t h i s Although r e p e a t e r s occur r e l a t i v e l y r a r e l y , i t s h o u l d be kept i n mind t h a t i n the average t e x t or c o n v e r s a t i o n , even the most common c l a s s i f i e r s do not occur v e r y f r e q u e n t -ly.. Most grammarians of Thai would agree with H la Pe (1965: 163) t h a t r e p e a t e r s are a d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r y . However, j u s t as A l l e n (1977:295) f i n d s t h a t the l a c k of a r a t i o n a l e f o r Burmese r e p e a t e r s " m y s t i f i e s " him, so Thai r e p e a t e r s have eluded s a t i s f a c t o r y a n a l y s i s . In t h i s s e c t i o n , d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i a f o r r e p e a t e r s are p r o v i d e d , but Adams and C o n k l i n ' s c r i t e r i o n t h a t "Repeaters, whole or p a r t i a l , c l a s s i f y only themselves or compounds of which they are a c o n s t i t u e n t " (1974:4) i s not y e t c o n s i d e r e d . T h e i r p o i n t of view i s c o n s i d e r e d i n s e c t i o n 6.1. At t h i s stage, by " r e p e a t e r " I mean simply those c l a s s i f i e r s which have the same form as t h e i r headnoun. 31 T r a d i t i o n a l grammarians have emphasized (see, f o r exam-p l e , S i l a p a s a r n 1968) t h a t c l a s s i f i e r s are nouns: they are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r nouns merely by s e r v i n g the s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n of p r o v i d i n g u n i t r e f e r e n c e to some oth e r e n t i t y . In g e n e r a l , t h i s i s a c o r r e c t a n a l y s i s , although some exam-p l e s are pre s e n t e d i n s e c t i o n 6 which show c l a s s i f i e r s t h a t have no a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c t i o n as f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e nouns. Since r e p e a t e r s are i d e n t i c a l i n form with the headword, and c l a s s i f i e r s are nouns, i t f o l l o w s t h a t r e p e a t e r s cannot c l a s -s i f y headwords which are not nouns. A d d i t i o n a l evidence f o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n s e c t i o n 4.2, page; 54 . Adams and C o n k l i n f u r t h e r c l a i m (1974:3) t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p of " l e x i c a l i d e n t i t y " h o l d s between r e p e a t e r and headword. By " l e x i c a l i d e n t i t y " I assume they mean i d e n t i t y of both form and sense. Support f o r t h i s c l a i m i s p r o v i d e d i n the f o l -lowing s e c t i o n , and i n s e c t i o n 4. 32 3 .1 IN SEARCH OF COMMON SEMANTIC FACTORS Adams and C o n k l i n (1974:3) f o u n d t h a t t h e i r " d a t a shows u n c l e a r b o u n d a r i e s between r e p e a t e r s and n o n - r e p e a t e r s . . . " They are p r o b a b l y r e f e r r i n g t o the f a c t t h a t some nouns can be c l a s s i f i e d a l t e r n a t i v e l y by r e p e a t e r s and by o t h e r c l a s s i -f i e r s . F o r example, among the 486 r e p e a t e r s l i s t e d i n Haas 1965 are the f o l l o w i n g : krathuuthaam " p r i n c i p l e ; h e a d i n g ; ( l e g i s l a t i v e ) q u e s t i o n " - c l a s s i f i e d by / k h o o / " p o i n t " , / r * a r ) / "mat -t e r " and by i t s e l f k r a p h o ? " s t o m a c h " - c l a s s i f i e d by / l u u k / ( f o r s m a l l r o u n d t h i n g s ) , / b a j / ( f o r c o n t a i n e r s ) and by i t s e l f t a a k h a a j " n e t " - c l a s s i f i e d by / a n / (as a p h y s i c a l o b j e c t ) / p h i a n / (as a l a r g e f l e x i b l e , f u n c t i o n a l f l a t s h a p e ) and by i t s e l f In a l l , 35 d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i e r s o c c u r r e d w i t h r e p e a t e r s . Of t h e s e , o n l y 7 o c c u r r e d more t h a n 2 o r 3 t i m e s . These w e r e : T a b l e 2. C l a s s i f i e r s C o - o c c u r r i n g w i t h Repeaters i n Haas 1965  C l a s s i f i e r G l o s s Number o f O c c u r r e n c e s 1 . hsaerj p l a c e 43 + 7 = 50 2 . an ( f o r p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s ) 28 3 - khaarj s i d e 18 4 . jaai] k i n d 10 + 5 = 15 5 . b a j ( f o r c o n t a i n e r s ) 12 6. khSo p o i n t 6 + 4 = 10 7. l u u k ( f o r s m a l l r o u n d 5 t h i n g s ) Of t h e r e m a i n i n g 28, 9 are r e l a t i v e synonyms o f members o f t h e f i r s t g roup o f 7. O c c u r r e n c e s o f t h e s e 9 a r e added t o the t o t a l s o f the r e s p e c t i v e synonyms i n T a b l e 2. . F i v e of t h e 19 r e m a i n i n g c l a s s i f i e r s r e f e r t o g r o u p s , 8 t o o b j e c t s c l a s s i f i e d by shape , 5 t o p a r t s a n d 2 to p e o p l e . Most o f 33 these 19 occur o n l y once. Table 2. confirms A l l e n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n (1977:295) t h a t t h e r e i s a s a l i e n t l o c a t i v e component i n r e p e a t e r s . Others have n o t i c e d t h a t body p a r t s and a b s t r a c t i o n s are prominent among r e p e a t e r s ; these are c l a s s i f i e d most o f t e n by /khaai]/ " s i d e " ( f o r body p a r t s ) , / j a a n / " k i n d " (and i t s synonyms), and / k h o o / " p o i n t " ( f o r a b s t r a c t i o n s ) . The temptation i s t o look, f o r a common f a c t o r of " p a r t " or perhaps " s e m i - e n t i t y " i n the sense of not having c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d boundaries or having incomplete boundaries (see Whorf 1936 i n C a r r o l l 1956:140). However, many c l a s s i f i e r s w i t h a major seman-t i c component of " p a r t " are d e f i n i t e l y not r e p e a t e r s . F u r -thermore, semantic domains t h a t are not u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e p e a t e r s are r e v e a l e d by c l a s s i f i e r s 2,. 5 and 7 i n Table Z . These c l e a r l y show t h a t r e p e a t e r s cari r e f e r t o d i s c r e t e e n t i t i e s which are f o r the most p a r t p h y s i c a l ob-j e c t s . Haas 1965 y i e l d s 54 r e p e a t e r s t h a t are d i s c r e t e phys-i c a l o b j e c t s ? The senses of almost a l l of these items have to do w i t h the d e f i n i n g of a s p e c i f i c space. The 54 words are korj "wheel, c i r c l e " krorj k r u a j " f u n n e l , cone" kroo kroop "frame" krachoon krad a j " l a d d e r " krabook krapaw "purse, w a l l e t " krapo? klooij "box" klSoi) k l a k " s m a l l case" koot khen "a k i n d of b a s k e t " D* 3^ coo "screen f o r shadow p l a y " chaaijkraan " b r a z i e r " S D O I J "cage" " b a i l i n g scoop" " s t r a i n e r " " c y l i n d e r " "bulb" "pipe" " f u n e r a r y urn" "hook, barb" "stopper" "envelope * The " d i s c r e t e n e s s here i s r e l a t i v e l y a r b i t r a r y . For exam-p l e / k r a d a j / " l a d d e r " a l s o means "stairway, s t e p " , /krapaw/ "purse, w a l l e t " a l s o means "pocket". 34 turn "jar" dar) tiarj "bed" taw thun "float" thoo buarj "noose" thanuu b&w "crucible,socket? banlarj pin n "pin(for topknot)"paw phaamuai) "s i l k loincloth" faa phuarj "garland, cluster, phaeae string" fasaem "folder" morjkut met "seed, kernel, malet ^ grain" jaam "shoulder bag" rarj 130 "wheel" loo I0013 "coffin" worj samSo "anchor" loot huarj "ring, hoop" hao aarj "bowl, basin" aan " s h i e l d " " b r a z i e r , o v e n " " p i p e " "bow ( the weapon)" " t h r o n e " " t a r g e t " " l i d , c o v e r " "bamboo r a f t " " c r o w n " " s e e d " " n e s t " • s h i e l d " " c i r c l e " " t u b e " " p a c k a g e " " s a d d l e " I t can be seen t h a t many of t h e s e are c o n t a i n e r s . In f a c t i t seems to. be the c a s e t h a t a l l c o n t a i n e r s a re a c c e p t -a b l e as r e p e a t e r s , even though they a r e u s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d by / b a j / (as c o n t a i n e r s ) o r by o t h e r common c l a s s i f i e r s s u c h as / l u u k / , / a n / , e t c . T h i s i s t r u e even o f t h o s e common c o n -t a i n e r s u s e d o f t e n as i n e x a c t measures of m a t e r i a l and commo-d i t i e s , s u c h as / k r a p o o i ) / " c a n " , / t h u a j / " g l a s s , c u p " , / c a a n / " p l a t e " , / c h a a m / " b o w l " , e t c . , a l t h o u g h to a l e s s e r e x t e n t . One i n f o r m a n t v o l u n t e e r e d that f o r t h e s e c o n t a i n e r s , use as a r e p e a t e r was " 0 . K . , b u t not g o o d " . A l a r g e number of the e n t i r e group of 486 r e p e a t e r s can be seen as s h a r i n g a component of d e f i n e d s p a c e . The most e x t e n s i v e domain o f w o r d - s e n s e s r e l a t e d t o t h i s n o t i o n i s t h a t o f the v a r i o u s senses and compounds o f the word / t h o o i ] / " s tomach; a b d o m i n a l a r e a ; p r e g n a n c y " . The compounds of t h i s word c o v e r an enormous s e m a n t i c r a n g e . By c o n s i d e r i n g any s e m a n t i c c o n n e c t i o n s made i n the language (such as compounds, a l t e r n a t e and m u l t i p l e senses and synonyms) i t i s p o s s i b l e 35 t o account f o r some 400 of t h e 486 r e p e a t e r s as members of a k i n d of s e m a n t i c s t r u c t u r e b a s e d on / t h o o * ) / . T h e r e i s s t i l l a s i z e a b l e r e s i d u e , however, and I am u n a b l e t o s t a t e d e f i n i t i v e l y a c l a s s meaning f o r r e p e a t e r s * . I am not s a t i s -f i e d w i t h t h i s n o n - c o n c l u s i o n and f e e l t h a t the wide e x t e n t o f the n o t i o n of d e f i n e d space has n o t been p r o p e r l y a c -c o u n t e d f o r , e s p e c i a l l y when i n f o r m a n t s c o n f i r m t h a t c o n - . t a i n e r s can be seen as the " p l a c e f o r " t h e i r c o n t e n t s and sometimes e x p l a i n the meaning o f a c o n t a i n e r i n t h i s way. T h i s g i v e s t h e l o c a t i v e component w i d e r s i g n i f i c a n c e as w e l l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s avenue o f e n q u i r y w i l l not be f u r t h e r p u r s u e d h e r e s i n c e a n o t h e r a p p r o a c h , a l s o s e m a n t i c , has p r o v e n more f r u i t f u l . I t i s o u t l i n e d i n . the n e x t s u b - s e c t i o n (3.2). W h i l e i t was s u r p r i s i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h a t c o n t a i n e r s c o u l d o c c u r i n r e p e a t e r p h r a s e s , i t was even more s u r p r i s i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h a t many o t h e r common nouns w h i c h are a l m o s t o b l i g a t o r i l y c l a s s i f i e d by common c l a s s i f i e r s can a l s o be m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e as r e p e a t e r s . F o r example, / s a a / "garment" i s o b l i g a t o r i l y c l a s s i f i e d by / t u a / b u t 5.2 * s * a saam sia s h i r t 3 SHIRT " t h r e e s h i r t s " i s not i m m e d i a t e l y r e j e c t e d as would be a c l e a r l y e r r o n e o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s u c h as 3.3 * S i a saam kSon s h i r t 3 LUMP •Other body p a r t s a l s o have l a r g e ranges o f e x t e n s i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y / t a a / " e y e " , / k h a a / " l e g " and / h u a / " h e a d " . These sometimes c o i n c i d e w i t h / t h o o n / e x t e n s i o n s . 36 In a n a t u r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n one informant p u r p o s e l y used the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n example 2 above and r e c e i v e d an immediate u n q u e s t i o n i n g answer. In d i s c u s s i o n s l a t e r the second i n f o r -mant s t a t e d t h a t she d e t e c t e d the unusual c o n s t r u c t i o n and wondered about i t , but she had c l e a r l y been a b l e t o under-stand the q u e s t i o n and had answered promptly. I t i s as i f the use of these words as r e p e a t e r s made some sense but serv e d no p r a c t i c a l f u n c t i o n not s e r v e d b e t t e r o r e q u a l l y as w e l l by the u s u a l c l a s s i f i e r . . T h i s m a r g i n a l a c c e p t a b i l i -t y i s pr o b a b l y due t o the l e x i c a l t r a n s p a r e n c y of r e p e a t e r s . Thus they would make as much sense as a c h i l d ' s he goed i n E n g l i s h . 3.2 DEFINING CRITERION There i s a. s i n g l e semantic f a c t o r which s e r v e s t o d i s -t i n g u i s h r e p e a t e r s from a l l o t h e r c l a s s i f i e r s . T h i s i s the f a c t t h a t r e p e a t e r s can be c o n s i d e r e d as one-place p r e -d i c a t e s (IP p r e d i c a t e s ) i n c o n t r a s t t o a l l o t h e r c l a s s i f i e r s which are two-place p r e d i c a t e s (2P p r e d i c a t e s ) . For the purposes o f f o r m a l l o g i c i t i s f a i r l y common to c o n s i d e r s u b s t a n t i v e words (but not proper nouns) as p r e d i c a t e s (see Allwood e t a l 1977:169 and B i e r w i s c h 1970:28). By a IP p r e d i c a t e I mean a s u b s t a n t i v e word which can convey a f u l l sense i n a c t u a l speech and be understood without r e q u i r i n g another s u b s t a n t i v e t o support i t or t o complete the meaning. C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , a 2P p r e d i c a t e r e q u i r e s another s u b s t a n t i v e . For example, "hand*1 i s a IP p r e d i c a t e : 37 3.4 3x H(x) "There e x i s t s an x such t h a t x i s a hand", wh i l e " p a r t " i s n e c e s s a r i l y a 2P p r e d i c a t e : 3.5 3x P(x,3T) "There e x i s t s an x such t h a t x i s a p a r t of y." P a r t s , k i n d s , groups, c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and fo r m a l a b s t r a c t u n i t s of t h i n g s are u s u a l l y 2P p r e d i c a t e s i n E n g l i s h . The f a c t t h a t prominent semantic domains w i t h i n the ca t e g o r y of r e p e a t e r s c o n s i s t of p a r t s - body p a r t s , e t c . - i n no way con-f l i c t s with t h i s a n a l y s i s : body p a r t s ( f o r example) may be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t s i n E n g l i s h , but they do not r e q u i r e us t o s t a t e what they are p a r t s o f . T h i s i n t u r n i s r e l a t e d t o what might be c a l l e d the "background" of a sense. By "back-ground" I mean the i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by expected l i n g u i s -t i c c o n t e x t and n o n - l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n of u t t e r a n c e . In many cases t h i s i s a l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r . I t causes c o n s i d e r -a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n the procedure d e s c r i b e d below. What b e i n g a IP p r e d i c a t e means i n terms of a c t u a l speech i s t h a t the use of a 2P p r e d i c a t e without some i n p u t of a second s u b s t a n t i v e -from context, s i t u a t i o n , shared knowledge, or other s o u r c e - r e s u l t s i n a breakdown of commu-n i c a t i o n . For example, suppose your f r i e n d phones you up, and without any proper preamble, demands 3.6 How many p a r t s do you have(over t h e r e ) ? T h i s q u e s t i o n cannot be answered i n any s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d way u n t i l f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i s s u p p l i e d : p a r t s of what? What k i n d of p a r t s ? Imagining the same s i t u a t i o n , the ques-t i o n 3.7 How many hands do you have (over t h e r e ) ? 38 w h i l e q u i t e odd, i s a q u e s t i o n which conveys a c l e a r sense and can be answered. No f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s are f e l t n e c essa-r y by the h e a r e r . Of course c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s must be adopted by the respondents i n such a t e s t , the most obvious of which i s t h a t the respondent must c o n s i d e r each r e q u e s t i n a s o r t of na i v e s o c i a l vacuum, responding o n l y t o the sense of the q u e s t i o n i t s e l f . In f a c t such a s i t u a t i o n a l t e s t frame* can never be a b s o l u t e l y a c c u r a t e , and s e v e r a l problems were experie n c e d w i t h t h i s one. The o r i g i n a l frame was 3.8 t h i p m i i N, juu k i i Nj_ NAME have N, s t a y how-many N, "T i p , how many N's do you have?" which worked f a i r l y w e l l i n the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s . One p r o -blem was w i t h the use of the informant's name (a r e s u l t of the telephone c a l l format) which i m p l i e d p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n of N and a l o c a t i o n i d e n t i c a l t o the i n f o r m a n t ' s . Thus f o r some nouns the form had t o be a l t e r e d t o 3.9 t h i i nan m i i N, juu k i i N]_ at t h e r e have N, s t a y how-many N, "How many N's are t h e r e (over) t h e r e ? " T h i s frame,in t u r n , was found to be too r e s t r i c t i v e i n l o c a -•Boguslawski (1970:145) urges t h a t o n l y u t t e r a n c e s from genu-i n e communicative s i t u a t i o n s s h o u l d be s t u d i e d . While I q u i t e agree, the p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of such an approach are enough t o make work i m p o s s i b l e . L i n g u i s t i c s has always depended to a g r e a t extent on the a b i l i t y of grammarian and informant t o m e n t a l l y s u p p l y c o n t e x t and s i t u a t i o n t o an u t t e r a n c e . When t h i s a spect of language has been n e g l e c t e d the a n a l y s i s has been c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y weakened. 39 t i v e terms, i n which case the informant was asked to imagine a phone c a l l from o v e r s e a s . F o r t u n a t e l y phone c a l l s from outerspace were unnecessary s i n c e informants had a c q u i r e d a grasp of the d i s t i n c t i o n sought d u r i n g the work on the ma-jority of simple c a s e s . Other problems were encountered w i t h the use of /pen/ (mentioned e a r l i e r i n s e c t i o n 2.1 ) . I t was found t h a t w i t h /pen/ (and u s u a l l y w i t h an i n c h o a t i v e verb of c r e a t i o n , s e p a r a t i o n , d i v i s i o n , accumulation, e t c . , but not n e c e s s a r i l y ) t h a t a " f a l s e r e p e a t e r " c o u l d be produced. For example 3.10 khaw s i i pen c h i n saam c h i n they buy be PIECE 3 PIECE "They bought 3 p i e c e s (of i t ) " As the g l o s s shows, the f i r s t o ccurrence of / c h i n / i s taken t o be f u n c t i o n i n g as a c l a s s i f i e r , not a head word*. Thus 3.10 appears t o be an example of c l a s s i f i e r as head. However 3.10 does not r e f e r t o "pieces of p i e c e s " as t h i s would im-p l y . Both occurrences of the c l a s s i f i e r / c h i n / seem t o be s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the unexpressed head noun ( " i t " i n the t r a n s l a t i o n ) . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , / s i * / "buy" may be f u n c -t i o n i n g as headword, as i n Nc-ss's a n a l y s i s (1964:107). Examples c o n t a i n i n g /pen/ were a u t o m a t i c a l l y excluded from c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the process of i s o l a t i n g forms which c o u l d f u n c t i o n as r e p e a t e r s - P a r t i a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t forms o c c u r r i n g c l a s s i f i e d w i t h /pen/ can u s u a l l y a l s o occur i n f u l l , c l a s s i f i e r phrases, and thus can be judged on a more standard b a s i s . * Thus i t -was necessary to frame a wide enough d e f i n i t i o n t o allow t h i s f u n c t i o n . That i s , occurrence with /pen/ should be i n c l u d e d , even though such occurrence i s not i n an o v e r t c l a s s i f i e r phrase. 40 The q u e s t i o n f o r m was c h o s e n to be the most c o n t e x t u a l l y n e u t r a l , as was the v e r b / m i i / " t o h a v e ; t o e x i s t " . The i n -t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n of p o s s e s s i o n w i t h e x i s t e n c e thus c o n t r i -b u t e d t o t h e problems o f i m p l i e d l o c a t i o n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , d e s p i t e s u c h p a t c h i n g o f t h e t e s t f r a m e , I am r e a s o n a b l y c o n f i d e n t t h a t we have been a b l e t o c l e a r l y d i s -t i n g u i s h between IP and 2P p r e d i c a t e s f o r a l l the nouns l i s t e d i n Haas 1965 as r e p e a t e r s or as c l a s s i f i e r s . O n e - p l a c e p r e d i c a t e s , t h e n , can " s t a n d on t h e i r own" i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , and b e a r a s e m a n t i c b u r d e n w h i c h i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . By " u n d e r s t a n d i n g " here I mean (as men-t i o n e d above) t h a t no f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s a r e f e l t n e c e s s a r y by t h e h e a r e r . I t i s t h e c l a i m h e r e , t h e n , t h a t r e p e a t e r s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f rom a l l o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s o f c l a s s i f i e r s on the b a s i s of t h e i r s t a t u s as IP p r e d i c a t e s , as r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 1 : , F i g u r e 1 Semantic S t r u c t u r e of T h a i C l a s s i f i e r s C l a s s i f i e r s r e p e a t e r s o t h e r s The s t a t u s of IP p r e d i c a t e s i s i n consonance w i t h the a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f r e p e a t e r s as f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e nouns, O n l y IP p r e d i c a t e s can p e r f o r m b o t h headnoun and c l a s s i f i e r f u n c t i o n s i n the same c l a s s i f i e r . p h r a s e . S i m p l e f u n c t i o n as a noun does n o t , t h e r e f o r e , make a c l a s s i f i e r a r e p e a t e r . F o r e x a m p l e , / t u a / i n the f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e f u n c t i o n s as a n o u n : 3.11 t u a khoorj khaw tem p a j d u a j p h i i n khan body POSS he f u l l go a l s o r a s h 41 "His body i s covered w i t h r a s h . " (from Sethaputra 1972:391) and s i m i l a r examples have been g i v e n i n s e c t i o n 2 (examples 2.51, 2.52) y e t the r e p e a t e r phrases i n 3.12 *khaw m i i tua soon tua he have body 2 BODY 3.13 *khon soon khon m i i t u a SODIJ tua person 2 PERSON have body 2 BODY are a t b e s t o n l y m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , and o n l y i n h i g h l y unusual or c o n t r i v e d s i t u a t i o n s . Furthermore the a c c e p t a b l e occurrence of / t u a / i n 3.11 seems t o be bound t o occurrence w i t h the p o s s e s s i v e marker or a compound of which the pos-s e s s i v e i s a member, e.g. /tuakhaw/ " h i s body". Other o c c u r -rences r e q u i r e the compound / t u a t o n / which can be g l o s s e d as something l i k e " c o r p o r e a l i t y 1 ^ as opposed to s p i r i t u a l i t y : 3.14 p h i i maj m i i tu a t o n ghost NEG have body "A ghost has no body." The b e s t a r b i t e r of a c c e p t a b i l i t y as a r e p e a t e r i s the abrupt phone c a l l s c e n a r i o : 3.15 * t h x i nan m i i tua juu k i i tua a t t h e r e have body s t a y how-many BODY and t h i s i s j u s t too ambiguous t o be a c c e p t a b l e , p a r t l y be-cause / t u a / e n t e r s i n t o so many compounds with a l t e r n a t e senses. The occurrence of / t u a / i n 3.15 above might be taken to r e f e r t o the sense of / t u a / i n any one of these compounds, depending on v a r i o u s f a c t o r s of s i t u a t i o n , c o n t e x t (although these are g r e a t l y reduced here) or of e x p e r t i s e on the p a r t of the l i s t e n e r . The v a r i o u s senses of / t u a / as compound member are l i s t e d i n s e c t i o n 7. Informants, i n r e j e c t i n g 3.15 as a v a l i d q u e s t i o n , r e -p o r t t h a t they f e e l the q u e s t i o n e r might be i n q u i r i n g about 42 the b o d y - s h a p e of some a n i m a l o r o b j e c t , r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r own b o d i e s , even w i t h o u t the l o c a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n / t h i i n a n / . R e f e r e n c e t o t h e human body i s u s u a l l y w i t h / r a a k a a j / " b o d y , f i g u r e " . T h u s , a l t h o u g h / t u a / can o c c u r as a f u l l s u b s t a n -t i v e noun i n some c a s e s , i t s t i l l cannot o c c u r i n a f u l l c l a s s i f i e r p h r a s e . One r e a s o n why 3 .12 , 3.13 and 3.15 are u n a c c e p t a b l e i s t h a t t h e sense o f / t u a / a a c l a s s i f i e r i s s o m e t h i n g l i k e " b o d y - s h a p e " r a t h e r t h a n " b o d y " (as argued i n s e c t i o n 7 .5) and thus t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p o f l e x i c a l i d e n t i t y between headword and c l a s s i f i e r . The c l a s s i f i e r / t u a / a l s o seems t o h a v e , as a t l e a s t p a r t o f i t s s e n s e , t h e n o t i o n o f "animate o r a c t i v e . " S i n c e the f o r m " b o d y " ( w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e l y a b s t r a c t e d sense i t has i n 3 .12 , 3.13 and 3.15) i s n e i t h e r animate n o r a c t i v e , we have an a d d i t i o n a l m o t i v e f o r t h e u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y of t h e s e e x a m p l e s . A word l i k e / k h o n / " p e r s o n " , w h i l e c l e a r l y f u n c t i o n i n g as a r e p e a t e r , a l s o e n t e r s i n t o a l a r g e number of compounds. However, compounds w i t h / k h o n / a re r e m a r k a b l e i n t h a t / k h o n / r e t a i n s a s i n g l e sense and t h a t the sense o f the e n t i r e com-pound i s a hyponym of / k h o n / . T h i s depends on the sense of / k h o n / as compound member and the sense o f / k h o n / as c l a s -s i f i e r b e i n g i d e n t i c a l . One l a s t i m p l i c a t i o n of the c l a i m t h a t a l l r e p e a t e r s a r e IP p r e d i c a t e s i s t h a t the c a t e g o r i e s o f r e p e a t e r and s t a n d a r d measure ( d e f i n e d i n s e c t i o n 5) a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u -s i v e . Words f o r c o n c e p t s s u c h as " k i l o g r a m " , " l i g h t - y e a r " and "horsepower" a re c l e a r l y 2P p r e d i c a t e s as d e f i n e d h e r e . The i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t IP p r e d i c a t e s c o r r e l a t e e x a c t l y w i t h 43 - e n t i t i e s " i n Thai i s also examined i n section 5. 3.3 FUNCTIONS OF THE REPEATER CONSTRUCTION Below are some examples which i l l u s t r a t e cases where repeaters bear clear semantic functional loads. F i r s t of a l l * they can serve to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the basic sense of a noun from i t s extensions. The most common example i s 3.16a baan s o o n baan house 2 HOUSE "two homes" 3.16b baan soorj lan house 2 PROTECTIVE COVER "two houses" where the c l a s s i f i e r / l a g / i s a semantic extension from the noun / l a g / "back" and therfore implies a concrete p h y s i c a l configuration. This leaves the repeater construction a v a i -l a b l e f o r emphasis on the t o t a l concept of /baan/ as "home; loca t i o n of the family; hometown; region of b i r t h . " It i s not clear whether the repeater must always give the most basic sense, since one could argue f o r example, that the basic sense of /baan/ is- given i n 3.16a or that i t i s given i n 3.16b. The notion of "basic sense" w i l l be d i s -cussed more thoroughly i n section 7, where i t i s a major t h e o r e t i c a l point. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note, however, that body parts i n p a r t i c u l a r are a very productive source f o r semantic extension (as with /thoorj/ "belly") and since body parts are usually repeaters the semantic functional load of repeaters as markers of non-extended sense (=basic sense) i s thereby increased. Regardless of which sense i s selected f o r the c l a s s i f i e r , the senses of the c l a s s i f i e r and the 44 head are always i d e n t i c a l . T h i s i s p a r t of the " l e x i c a l i d e n t i t y " s t r e s s e d by Adams and C o n k l i n (1974:3) and i l l u s -t r a t e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n of / t u a / above. T h i s f a c t may be taken as an a d d i t i o n a l d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i o n f o r the c a t e g o r y of r e p e a t e r s . I t seems to be the case, then, t h a t f o r items where the use of a l t e r n a t i v e c l a s s i f i e r s i s common ( f o r example,/baan/) r e p e a t e r s bear the semantic f u n c t i o n of f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n of the h e a r e r on the r e f e r e n t of the head in. t o t a l o r i n g e n e r a l . T h i s f o c u s i s n e c e s s i t a t e d by the danger of ambiguity a r i s i n g from the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n t r a s t w i t h s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s of the r e f e r e n t . The whole c o n t r a s t s w i t h each part.. When a l t e r n a t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s not commonly a v a i -l a b l e , r e p e a t e r s can f u n c t i o n simply to mark i n d e f i n i t e u n i t r e f e r e n c e f o r the head, r e f e r e n c e which would not e x i s t un -less the r e p e a t e r s t r u c t u r e were employed. I t would not e x i s t because the bare noun i n T h a i i s h e l d to be unmarked f o r a b s t r a c t or c o n c r e t e , s i n g u l a r or p l u r a l , d e f i n i t e o r i n d e f i n i t e (Lekawatana e t a l , 1969:88). Repeaters s e r v e to p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e without f o c u s i n g on s p e c i f i c c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s , on k i n d or on l o c a t i o n . A l ong w i t h simple u n i t r e f e r e n c e they p r o v i d e the f o r c e of s i n g u l a r i t y d e s c r i b e d by Adams et a l (1975:11). There i s another sense o f t e n g i v e n f o r r e p e a t e r s which at f i r s t seemed p u z z l i n g . One informant has c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d t h a t i n comparisons l i k e 3.17a krabuaj n i n baj l a d l e one CONTAINER "one c o c o n u t - s h e l l l a d l e " 45 3.17b krabuaj nirj krabuaj la d l e one LADLE "one coconut-shell l a d l e " while the senses of the headnouns i n 3.17a and 3.17b are generally the same, there i s an implication of "kind" i n the repeater phrase; that i s , "kind of l a d l e " . She reports that with the repeater phrase the implication i s that you have "so many /krabuaj/", or that you have, say, a b i g one and a l i t t l e one. This i s c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t from the f u l l sense of "kind" i n 3.18 krabuaj nirj jaarj l a d l e one KIND "one kind of coconut-shell l a d l e " Other examples where informants agreed on some implica-t i o n of "kind" were the compounds /huanaa/ "head, chief, leader", and /phuunam/ "leader". For example 3.19 phuunam soon phuunam leader 2 LEADER "two leaders" was c l e a r l y interpreted as two d i f f e r e n t kinds of leaders. Leader of a country ( p o l i t i c a l ) and leader of a r e l i g i o n were suggested.. Y. R. Chao (1968:597) observes: . . . . i t may seem out of place to put measures with meanings l i k e "type, q u a l i t y " under group measures of things. However, things belonging to a group usually have some pro-perty i n common, so much so that i t i s pos-s i b l e i n formal l o g i c to turn around and define "property" simply as membership i n a c l a s s . Chao elsewhere notes(pp. 496-7) that ...form classes can sometimes be defined by enumeration without s t a t i n g any common pro-perty possessed by a l l of t h e i r members. [Continued i n a footnote} This i s i n f a c t Russell's p r i n c i p l e of abstraction, accord-ing to which the (common) property of a class of objects consists simply of the 46 f a c t t h a t the o b j e c t s are the members of t h a t c l a s s . ... See B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l , P r i n c i p l e s of Mathematics, Cambridge, 1903, pp. 166, 219-220. T h i s e q u i v a l e n c e of m u l t i p l i c i t y and kinds c o u l d be the mechanism c o n n e c t i n g "so many / k r a b u a j / " with " k i n d s " of / k r a b u a j / as r e p o r t e d . There i s another more d i r e c t connec-t i o n , however. The g e n e r a l assumption, as mentioned i n s e c t i o n 2 . i s t h a t c l a s s i f i e r s c l a s s i f y the r e f e r e n t s of s u b s t a n t i v e head-words i n t o c l a s s e s . The l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t w i t h r e p e a t e r s , a u n i t i s b e i n g c l a s s i f i e d i n t o a c l a s s w i t h o n l y one member. The use of a numeral w i t h the c l a s s i f i e r s i g n a l s the number of members of the c l a s s t h a t are b e i n g d i s c u s s e d (even though i t i s the c l a s s i f i e r which t e l l s the c l a s s ) . When a p l u r a l i t y of members i s i n d i c a t e d and members are s e -m a n t i c a l l y the e q u i v a l e n t of s i n g l e t o n c l a s s e s , the l o g i c a l r e s u l t i s a p l u r a l i t y of c l a s s e s . S e m a n t i c a l l y , the c l a s s i f i e r and head noun must be i d e n -t i c a l . However, i n f o r m a l l o g i c member and c l a s s must be kept d i s t i n c t . T h i s may e x p l a i n why Adams and C o n k l i n (1974: 5) r e s e r v e judgement on whether the head or the c l a s s i f i e r i s more " c e n t r a l t o the s t r u c t u r e of the phrase". " C e n t r a l i -ty" of t h i s s o r t i s most l i k e l y based on semantic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A s i n g l e c l a s s i f i e r phrase with /khon/ "person" can be seen as h a v i n g , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , the head or the c l a s s i f i e r as more b a s i c : 3.20 n a k r i a n soorj khon student 2 PERSON "two s t u d e n t s " In terms of c l a s s membership, / n a k r i a n / "student" i s a member 47 of the c l a s s of /khon/"people". At the same time i t c o u l d be argued t h a t /khon/ r e f e r s t o an e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e of a s t u -dent, h i s or her humanity. As a c l a s s from which members are i s o l a t e d , /khon/ i s more b a s i c . As an e n t i t y t o which a t t r i -butes are p r e d i c a t e d , / n a k r i a n / i s more b a s i c : Table 3 Semantic " B a s i c n e s s " i n C l a s s i f i e r Phrases  Head C l a s s i f i e r member > c l a s s e n t i t y ^ a t t r i b u t e In T a b l e 3 the arrows i n d i c a t e the more " b a s i c " element. Some a d d i t i o n a l evidence f o r the semantic i d e n t i t y o f head and r e p e a t e r i s pr e s e n t e d i n the next s e c t i o n on P a r t i a l Repeaters. There a l e x i c a l i z i n g f u n c t i o n of the r e p e a t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h noun compounds. One example i s 3.21 khamthaam saam khamthaam q u e s t i o n 3 QUESTION "three q u e s t i o n s " where the use of a r e p e a t e r c l a u s e i n s t e a d of an a c c e p t a b l e p a r t i a l - r e p e a t e r c l a u s e s e r v e s t o e s t a b l i s h the f a c t t h a t /khamthaam/ i s a s i n g l e compound noun. The most i n t e r e s t i n g (and f r u s t r a t i n g ) p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n of r e p e a t e r s i s , o f c o r s e , to c l a s s i f y the headword as a member of a c l a s s to which a s p e c i f i c c l a s s - s e n s e can be ass i g n e d , as d i s c u s s e d above . 3.4 REPEATERS: BASIC SYSTEM OR "WASTEBASKET" CATEGORY? I t i s common to view r e p e a t e r s as a r e s i d u e , as words which do not f i t i n t o the e s t a b l i s h e d c l a s s e s and are r e -peated o n l y t o s a t i s f y the requirements of the s y n t a c t i c 48 p a t t e r n . Denny (1975:245-6) c o n s i d e r s Burmese r e p e a t e r s to be "dummy elements" which c o n t r i b u t e no meaning t o the phrase. He p r e s e n t s evidence f o r t h i s , but the s y n t a c t i c system i n Burmese i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n T h a i . Informants a l s o p o i n t out t h a t c o u n t r y f o l k who might not know the " c o r r e c t " c l a s s i f i e r o f t e n use r e p e a t e r s . In s p i t e of t h i s , the view I would l i k e to p r e s e n t here i s t h a t r e p e a t e r s are i n some way ve r y b a s i c and r e p r e s e n t an open c a t e g o r y which i n c l u d e s p o t e n t i a l l y a l l nouns which are IP p r e d i c a t e s . In the case o f IP p r e d i c a t e nouns r e f e r -r i n g t o o b j e c t s w i t h s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of shape, f u n c -t i o n , arrangement, e t c . (and e s p e c i a l l y when these c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s a re focu s e d upon i n d i s c o u r s e ) , the r e l e v a n t c l a s -s i f i e r r e p l a c e s the repeater.. The r e p e a t e r remains, however, always p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e . (Adams e t a l (1975:6 ) express t h i s as r e p e a t e r s b e i n g " c r e a t e d " when needed.) Support f o r t h i s view i s found i n the f o l l o w i n g : ( i ) the o v e r l a p of more s p e c i f i c c l a s s i f i e r s w i t h r e -p e a t e r s , as d e s c r i b e d above, ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the oc-currence of nouns r e f e r r i n g t o c o n t a i n e r s i n r e -p e a t e r phrases) ( i i ) the tendency f o r items which are IP p r e d i c a t e s t o be a t l e a s t m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e as r e p e a t e r s , as d e s c r i b e d above, and ( i i i ) the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c l a s s - s e n s e f o r r e p e a t e r s , p e r -haps as l o c a t i v e s a s s o c i a t e d with d e f i n e d space. The use of r e p e a t e r s as a wastebasket d e v i c e by un s o p h i s -t i c a t e d speakers, w h i l e seeming t o c o n t r a d i c t t h i s g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of r e p e a t e r s , does not a c t u a l l y do so. Country f o l k would have l e s s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h c e r t a i n a b s t r a c t or t e c h n i -c a l concepts (e.g. of r e l i g i o n , law, or a r t s ) and would tend 49 t o use r e p e a t e r s s h o u l d the need a r i s e t o enumerate o r s p e c i -f y the nouns r e f e r r i n g t o s u c h c o n c e p t s . T h i s c o u l d v e r y w e l l be due to the l a r g e s u b - d o m a i n o f a b s t r a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s e m a n t i c domain o f r e p e a t e r s . Because r e p e a t e r s a r e so r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , as p r o p o s e d h e r e , t h e y a r e n a t u r a l l y q u i t e u s e f u l as s u c h a " c a t c h - a l l " d e v i c e . But t h i s f u n c t i o n i s e n t i r e l y s e c o n d a r y . The c l a s -s i f i e r / a n / f u n c t i o n s i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t way as a r e s i d u a l c l a s s . I t i s d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 7. 50 4.0 PARTIAL REPEATERS 4.1 PARTIAL REPEATERS AS A CATEGORY Adams and C o n k l i n , we have noted, make a d i s t i n c t i o n be-tween r e p e a t e r s which can a l s o p a r t i a l l y r e p e a t ( l i k e /khon/ "person") and r e p e a t e r s which c l a s s i f y o n l y themselves ( l i k e , say, /krachoon/ " s t r a i n e r " ) . The former type w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o here as "PR Repeaters" ( p a r t i a l l y r e p e a t i n g r e p e a t e r s ) and the l a t t e r type w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as " E x c l u s i v e Repeaters" where i t i s necessary t o d i s t i n g u i s h them. The term " f u l l r e p e a t i n g " w i l l be used f o r the dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p or p r o -c e s s . One drawback to Adams and C o n k l i n * s approach i s the enor-mous ta s k of d i s c e r n i n g whether a g i v e n c l a s s i f i e r c l a s s i f i e s o n l y i t s e l f . To do so would r e q u i r e a search of the e n t i r e l e x i c o n (were such i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e there) or t e s t i n g of every c l a s s i f i a b l e head, i n order t o p r o v i d e a d e f i n i t e nega-t i v e r e s u l t . And g i v e n the f l e x i b i l i t y of the c l a s s i f i e r s y s -tem ( i n gapping, f o r i n s t a n c e ) one c o u l d never be s u r e whe-t h e r the item i n q u e s t i o n was a r e p e a t e r or n o t . PR Repeaters l i k e /khon/"person", when f u n c t i o n i n g as nouns, e n t e r i n t o a l a r g e number of compounds such as 4.1 khon sak phaa person wash c l o t h e s "laundryman, washerwoman" whi l e Repeaters l i k e , say, /m±i/"hand" e n t e r i n t o very few compounds, depending on how the term "compound" i s understood. The p r o c e s s of noun compounding i n T h a i i s s t i l l v e r y p o o r l y understood and a t h o r o u g h g o i n g e x p l a n a t i o n i s not attempted i n t h i s paper. N e v e r t h e l e s s , some of the problems i n v o l v e d 51 are d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 4.3.3. Co n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g nouns: kasiko:>n "farmer; a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t " chaaw naa "farmer; country p e r s o n " khon tham naa "farmer, on who farms" a l l o f which have a b a s i c semantic component of "person" i n v a r y i n g degrees of l e x i c a l t r a n s p a r e n c y : the f i r s t i n the borrowed s u f f i x /-koon/ (from S a n s k r i t ) ; the second i n , t h e bound stem /chaaw/ "d w e l l e r i n ; i n h a b i t a n t o f " (Haas 1965: 146); the t h i r d i n the f r e e l e x i c a l item /khon/. A l l t h r e e can be c l a s s i f i e d by /khon/. Only the l a s t item, however, would be c a l l e d a P a r t i a l Repeater by the s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i a of r e p e t i t i o n of the form /khon/.. The f i r s t two would have to be c o n s i d e r e d as non-repeaters of some k i n d . S e m a n t i c a l l y the main d i f f e r e n c e between the l a s t item and the f i r s t two i s degree of l e x i c a l t r a n s p a r e n c y . However, the t r a n s p a r e n -cy appears more to be a q u e s t i o n of degrees of t r a n s p a r e n c y r a t h e r than presence - or — absence. G r a d i e n t s of l e v e l of f o r m a l i t y and of l e x i c l i z a t i o n * a r e a l s o t o be found i n these 3 examples. The f i r s t i s h i g h e s t i n f o r m a l i t y and degree of l e x i c a l i z a t i o n , the l a s t lowest. P a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g then can be seen as a s y n t a c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p ( r e p e t i t i o n of a form) w i t h semantic c o r r e l a t e s . Both semantic and s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i a i n v o l v e the compounding of two forms i n t o a s i n g l e l e x i c a l u n i t which a c t s as head.. T h i s compounding and the r e l a t e d l e x i c a l i z a t i o n are processes which operate indepen-d e n t l y of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n most cases (but see s p e c u l a t i o n s about the compounding of / t u a - / i n s e c t i o n 4.3.3) • L e x i c a l i z a t i o n i n the sense of the c r e a t i o n of a new l e x i c a l item, as used by Lyons (1977:549) 52 To c r e a t e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i c a l r o l e s f o r /khon/ (N, F u l l Repeater and PR Repeater) obscures the u n i f o r m i t y of i t s sense i n a l l t h r e e r o l e s . Such u n i f o r m i t y of sense acr o s s r o l e s i s by no means the g e n e r a l r u l e among c l a s s i f i e r s , (see Tables 6 and 10 below). Some of the c o n f u s i o n about p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s o r i g i n a t e s i n Adams and C o n k l i n ' s b a s i c dichotomy of "rep e a t e r s and non-r e p e a t e r s " (1974:3), the former c a t e g o r y b r e a k i n g down i n t o " r e p e a t e r s , whole or p a r t i a l " . While i t i s o n l y l o g i c a l t o group r e p e a t e r s and p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s t o g e t h e r , i t i s neces-s a r y t o s t r e s s t h a t w h i l e these c a t e g o r i e s o v e r l a p w i t h each o t h e r , the p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s a l s o o v e r l a p w i t h n o n - r e p e a t e r s . Thus many p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s are not f u l l r e p e a t e r s a t a l l . As argued i n s e c t i o n 3, r e p e a t e r s a re d e f i n a b l e as a ca t e g o r y . P a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s are a l s o a d e f i n a b l e c a t e g o r y , but the c a t e -gory i s formed on the b a s i s o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f c r i t e r i a and thus i t can and does o v e r l a p the ca t e g o r y of r e p e a t e r s , as r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2,. F i g u r e 2. C a t e g o r i e s of C l a s s i f i e r s F u l l Repeaters Others E x c l u s i v e Repeaters P a r t i a l Repeaters F u l l Repeaters which a l s o p a r t i a l l y r e p e a t (=PR Repeaters) Other C l a s -s i f i e r s which a l s o p a r t i a l l y r e p e a t The blank space i n t h i s f i g u r e w i l l be f i l l e d i n sub-sequent s e c t i o n s . The s t r i c t d i s t i n c t i o n drawn between E x c l u s i v e Repeaters 53 and PR Repeaters may be j u s t i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t the f o r -mer category must repe a t f u l l y to p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e , w h i l e the l a t t e r may or may not r e p e a t f u l l y . However, the d i s t i n c t i o n has an u n f o r t u n a t e r e s u l t : i t obscures the f a c t t h a t both c a t e g o r i e s are capable of a. f u l l - r e p e a t i n g r e l a -t i o n s h i p . The c a t e g o r i z a t i o n worked out i n t h i s paper, b e i n g based to some extent on the same d i s t i n c t i o n s , i s a l s o s u b j e c t t o these c r i t i c i s m s , and the s t a b i l i t y of the c a t e g o r i e s i s s e -r i o u s l y undermined. Throughout the remainder of t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e f o r e , the d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l be made between s t a t i c c a t e -g o r i e s such as E x c l u s i v e Repeater ( w r i t t e n w i t h c a p i t a l s ) and dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p s such as f u l l r e p e a t i n g (no c a p i t a l s ) . S i n c e the l a t t e r type of phrase can become cumbersome (e.g. "a form X p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the f u l l r e p e a t i n g process") terms l i k e " f u l l r e p e a t e r " w i l l be r e t a i n e d as a k i n d of s h o r t - f o r m cover term. Assuming t h a t we have a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t r e p e a t e r s are a unique group among c l a s s i f i e r s because they are one-p l a c e p r e d i c a t e s , i t remains t o e x p l a i n the mechanism of p a r -t i a l r e p e a t i n g . 4.2 SEMANTIC RELATIONS BETWEEN PARTIAL REPEATER AND HEAD The most obvious c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s i s t h a t they c l a s s i f y complex headnouns, some of which are noun compounds. As with f u l l r e p e a t e r s , verbs cannot be heads of PR phrases. I t may be p o s s i b l e to c o n s i d e r the c l a s s i f i e r i n 4.2 khaw phap phaa waj saam phap she f o l d c l o t h i n - p l a c e 3 FOLD 54 "She f o l d e d the c l o t h i n t o three f o l d s . " t o be a p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r , but /phap/ and /phaa/ seem to be l e s s u n i f i e d a construction (as V + N or verb + o b j e c t ) than an NP or a noun compound, /phaa/ can a l s o be r e p l a c e d by other nouns such as / k r a d a a t / "paper", /naxj/ " s k i n , l e a t h e r , e t c . " I t i s c l e a r t h a t the verb /phap/ i s c l a s s i f i e d here, not the p r e d i c a t e /phap phaa/. The c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of /phap/ as a f u l l r e p e a t e r i s a l s o opposed by the d i s t i n c t senses of /phap/ as verb and as noun, the verb r e f e r r i n g to the a c t i o n , the noun t o the r e s u l t a n t s t a t e , /phap/ a l s o f a i l s the frame t e s t f o r r e p e a t e r s . I t i s b e t t e r seen as an i n f o r m a l measure of c l o t h or as an occurrence, r e s u l t or l o c a t i o n * of the a c -t i o n of the v e r b . Thus f o r p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s , as f o r f u l l r e p e a t e r s , the d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d t o noun heads. Complex headnouns of p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r phrases can be both one-place and two-place p r e d i c a t e s . The d i f f e r e n c e be-tween the two types i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the reduced-context s i t u a t i o n i n Table 4(see next page). In T a b l e 4 we can note two important p o i n t s : f i r s t , t h a t although 4.3b and 4.5b are not a c c e p t a b l e , 4.4b i s . T h i s makes 4.4b i n terms of our t e s t frame a IP p r e d i c a t e , and t h i s i s confirmed by informants i n F a s o l d 1968. F a s o l d found t h a t most compounds c o u l d e a s i l y be g l o s s e d as r e l a t i v e c l a u s -e s . For example, /khon .gaan/ "worker" would be e x p l a i n e d by informants as something l i k e * I t can be seen as a l o c a t i o n because /hceaerj/ " p l a c e " regu-l a r ly. r e p l a c e s /phap/ i n the c l a s s i f i e r s l o t . 55 4.6 khon t h i i tham jjaan person REL do work "a person who works" Table 4 IP & 2P P r e d i c a t e s as Bases of Heads Simple, Compound & Complex IP P r e d i c a t e Base 2P P r e d i c a t e Base 4.3: Simple Noun Heads 4.3a m i i khon juu k i i khon have person s t a y how-many PERSON "How many people are t h e r e ? " 4.3b * m i i b a j juu k i i b a j have S2D-shape s t a y how-manyS 2D—SHAPE 4.4: Compound Noun Heads m u khonchaaj juu k i i 4.4b m i i baj maaj juu k i i baj k h o n have S2D-shape-wood s t a y have person-use s t a y how-many S2D—SHAPE how-many PERSON "How many ( t r e e ) l e a v e s "How many se r v a n t s are there? are t h e r e ? " 4.5:Complex NP Heads (N + Adj) 4.5a m i i khon d i i juu k i i 4.5b * m i i b a j j a j juu k i i baj khon have S2D-shape l a r g e have person good s t a y s t a y how-many S2D-SHAPE how-many PERSON "How many good people are t h e r e ? " NOTE: /bajmaaj/ has two senses: l e a f of any p l a n t i n g e n e r a l , and l e a f of a t r e e . The former sense can be r e p l a c e d by senses on an i n t e r m e d i a t e l y g e n e r a l l e v e l , e.g.: /bajphak/ "vegetable l e a f " . Both senses can be r e -p l a c e d by s p e c i f i c terms, e.g.: /b a j c h a a / " t e a l e a f " , / b a j t o o r j / "banana ( t r e e ) l e a f " . Two c l a s s e s of compounds, however, c o u l d not be g l o s s e d i n t h i s way by h i s informant: ( i ) p l a n t p a r t s , i n c l u d i n g /bajmaaj/ " l e a f " and /tonmaaj/ " p l a n t ; stem, trunk", and ( i i ) l o c a t i v e nouns l i k e /khaarjnaj/ " i n s i d e " . In the case of /tonmaaj/, F a s o l d ' s informant c o u l d not break down the compound i n t o a r e l a t i v e c l a u s e , " i n s i s t i n g t h a t i t was one word" ( F a s o l d 1968:199). In Table 4 both 4.3b and 4.5b are unacceptable i n the 56 sense t h a t a hear e r i n v a r i a b l y demands 4.7 baj a ' r a j S2D-shape what "Leaves of what?" In terms of p r e d i c a t e s i t i s c l e a r t h a t f o r 4.4b and 4.5b the second p o s i t i o n s t i l l r e q u i r e s a v a r i a b l e t o f i l l i t . The second important p o i n t about Table 4 i s t h a t 4.5a i s a l s o a c c e p t a b l e . That 4.4a i s a c c e p t a b l e i s unremarkable s i n c e /khonchaj / " s e r v a n t " i s a very common word and most speakers would accept i t as a v a l i d compound. A l l n a t i v e speakers I q u e r i e d about t h i s agreed t h a t /khonchaj/ was a s i n g l e i d e a , /khon d i i / "a good person" i n 4.5a i s j u s t as c l e a r l y not a compound, y e t i t i s a c c e p t a b l e . The c o n c l u -s i o n to be drawn i s t h a t the head i s a f u l l NP, not merely a noun. Adams and C o n k l i n (1974) a l s o r e f e r t o head NP's. Summarizing, we f i n d t h a t compounds, whether they are based on IP or 2P p r e d i c a t e s , are themselves IP p r e d i c a t e s but Noun Phrases based on 2P p r e d i c a t e s remain 2P p r e d i c a t e s , as i n Table 5: Table 5 Complex Nominals as IP & 2P P r e d i c a t e s  IP P r e d i c a t e s 2P P r e d i c a t e s Compounds based on IP p r e d i -c a t e s (e.g. /khonchaj/) Compounds based on 2P p r e d i -c a t e s (e.g: /bajmaaj/ Complex NP based on IP pr e d i -cates (e.g. /khon d i i / ) Complex NP based on 2P p r e d i c a t e s (e.g:/baj j a j / ) The main c o n c l u s i o n s to be drawn from Table 4 , then, are th a t p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s are onl y a c c e p t a b l e with IP p r e d i c a t e heads, and t h a t there i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n a c c e p t a b i l i t y 57 whether the head i s a f u l l compound or simply N + A d j . There i s , however, a f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n on compounds based on 2P p r e d i c a t e s ( l i k e /bajmaaj/ " l e a f " ) : although they f u n c t i o n as IP p r e d i c a t e s i n our t e s t frame, they are not as capable of r e p e a t i n g as simple IP p r e d i c a t e s . Thus 4.8 *bajmaaj saam bajmaaj l e a f 3 LEAF i s . o n l y a v e r y m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o the use of / b a j / alone as c l a s s i f i e r . The r e s t r i c t i o n here may have something t o do wit h l e n g t h of the compound, but a more im-p o r t a n t f a c t o r i s the f a c t t h a t the compound i s l e x i c a l l y t r a n s p a r e n t and based on a c l a s s i f i e r which i s used t o c l a s -s i f y a wide range of nouns. In d i s c u s s i n g r e p e a t e r s , the c l a i m was made ( s e c t i o n 4.2.4) ; t h a t the r e p e a t e r con-s t r u c t i o n i s always p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r IP p r e d i c a t e s when they are to be c l a s s i f i e d , but t h a t the presence of s a -l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the r e f e r e n t of the head would cause the r e p e a t e r t o be r e p l a c e d by a more common c l a s s i f i e r f o -c u s i n g on t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . How i f the head t r a n s p a r e n t l y c o n t a i n s a l e x i c a l u n i t d i r e c t l y r e f e r r i n g to the s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , the process of replacement i s much more l i k e -ly,, and i n e f f e c t o b l i g a t o r y . A speaker would have to i g n o r e (perhaps c o n s c i o u s l y ) the p r e - e x i s t i n g s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c marker ( i n t h i s case / b a j / i n /bajmaaj/) i n order t o f a l l back on the more b a s i c and more g e n e r a l system of f u l l r e p e a t i n g . There are other compounds which seem a t f i r s t g l a n c e to d i s p r o v e t h i s g e n e r a l r u l e r e q u i r i n g the c l a s s i f i e r i n a compound to repeat: 58 4.9a luukkuncaeae saam dook s u b s i d i a r y - l o c k 3 FLOWER-SHAPE "three keys" 4.10a khamthaam saam khOD word-ask 3 POINT "three q u e s t i o n s " As was p o i n t e d out i n s e c t i o n 2.3, the f i n a l c h o i c e of a c l a s s i f i e r , where more than one i s p o s s i b l e , depends on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g the i n t e n t i o n and p o i n t of view of the speaker. We can l o o k a t the above examples i n terms of what the r e s u l t would be i f they were used as p a r t i a l r e -p e a t e r s . To b e g i n with, we f i n d t h a t 4.9b * luukkuncaeae saam luuk s u b s i d i a r y - l o c k 3 {SUBSIDIARY (_SMALL-S 3D-SHAPE i s o n l y m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , and then o n l y with one of the g l o s s e d senses f o r the c l a s s i f i e r . The a l t e r n a t i v e c l a s s i -f i e r /dook/ (used i n 49a) i s much p r e f e r r e d . . To e x p l a i n the s i t u a t i o n i n 4.9b we need to look a t the semantic r e l a t i o n s between / l u u k / as member of the compound head and as c l a s s i -f i e r . Haas (1965:487) l i s t s the f o l l o w i n g senses f o r / l u u k / as the f i r s t member of a compound: ( i ) s u b o r d i n a t e or dependent person ( i i ) young of animals and b i r d s ; l a r v a e ( i i i ) c e r t a i n types of f r u i t ( e s p e c i a l l y coconuts) ( i v ) c e r t a i n S3D o b j e c t s (where senses ( i ) and ( i i ) probably s h o u l d be combined). In c o n t r a s t Haas has d i f f e r e n t uses f o r / l u u k / as c l a s s i f i e r : (i.) f o r f r u i t of any k i n d ( i i ) f o r mountains ( i i i ) f o r c e r t a i n S3D o b j e c t s Thus the sense of " s u b s i d i a r y d e v i c e " i s normally not a v a i -l a b l e f o r / l u u k / as a c l a s s i f i e r . As compound member, / l u u k / i n /luuk kuncaeee/ has the sense of " s u b s i d i a r y " 59 i s supported by the f a c t that the f u l l word f o r "lock M i s /maeae kuncaeae/, morphologically mother + lock. Thus there are three p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g /luuk kuncaeae/ "key": (i) C l a s s i f y with /doDk/ as a "flower-shape". This sense apparently includes the impression of both blossom and stem, since keys are considered by informants to normally have a c l u s t e r - l i k e design, i n t h e i r handles, of the following types : Figure 3 Visu a l Impressions of Keys til Arrows, fireworks and incense s t i c k s are also c l a s -s i f i e d with /dook/ i n t h i s sense, /luuk thanuu/ "ar-row" contains /luuk/ as the base of the compound also, and the semantic relationships between head member and c l a s s i f i e r , including the r e s t r i c t i o n on the use of /luuk/ as c l a s s i f i e r , p a r a l l e l those being discussed here f o r /luuk kuncaeae/. /dook/ i s also used f o r f l o r a l designs on printed c l o t h and patterns i n general. ( i i ) c l a s s i f y with /luuk/: (a) as a subsidiary member i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p , or as a subsidiary device, i d e n t i c a l to the sense of the compound head. But these senses, 60 as shown by Haas(1965), are not n o r m a l l y a v a i l a b l e to / l u u k / as c l a s s i f i e r . The use of / l u u k / i n t h i s sense i s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y o n l y m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . Informants say t h a t country people might use i t . There i s a l s o the danger of ambiguity w i t h ( i i ) b . (b) as a s m a l l round S3D o b j e c t . T h i s sense i s c l e a r l y i n c o r r e c t s i n c e keys are s a -l i e n t l y 2 d i m e n s i o n a l and not 3 d i m e n s i o n a l . I n f o r -mants r e p o r t t h a t 4.,9b, i f a c c e p t a b l e a t a l l , has sense ( i i ) & and not sense ( i i ) b * . There i s a l s o the s t r o n g i m p l i c a t i o n here t h a t f o r c l a s -s i f i e r s , senses as p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s (e.g. " s m a l l S3D o b j e c t " ) tend to pre-empt more a b s t r a c t senses (e.g. " s u b s i d i a r y or s u b o r d i n a t e element"). S i m i l a r l y , i n 4.10b *khamthaam saam kham word-ask 3 WORD the u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y l i e s i n the c l a s s i n g of the complex no-t i o n of " q u e s t i o n " as a s i n g l e word. In f a c t /khamthaam/ i s the s o r t of compound where the sense of the p a r t s i s l o s t i n * The ambiguity between sense ( i i ) a and ( i i ) b i s the b a s i s of a f a v o r i t e joke on f o r e i g n e r s i n Bangkok. Based on the common p a t t e r n of world languages of Numeral + Noun, f o r e i g n -er s l e a r n i n g T h a i are l i k e l y t o ask a q u e s t i o n l i k e Ymii luuk k i i l u u k / have + c h i l d + how-many + CLP, i n t e n d i n g to inquire about the number of c h i l d r e n a person has. U n f o r t u -n a t e l y , the a p p r o p r i a t e c l a s s i f i e r f o r c h i l d r e n i s /khon/ "person". The use of / l u u k / as c l a s s i f i e r would more l i k e l y be i n t e r p r e t e d with the sense of "small round o b j e c t " (unless mountains or f r u i t were b e i n g d i s c u s s e d ) . T h i s f o r c e s a r e -i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the headword s i n c e i n a r e p e a t i n g phrase the sense of the head must be i d e n t i c a l to t h a t of the c l a s -s i f i e r . T h e r e f o r e the i n q u i r y i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a s k i n g how many s m a l l round o b j e c t s a person has.. I f the person b e i n g asked i s a male, the l i k e l y answer i s /s5orj/ "Two!" wit h ac-companying howls of l a u g h t e r . 61 the whole (these are d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 4.3.3 below). The sense of the form as a compound member i s u n l i k e any sense of the same form i n any o t h e r (unbound) grammatical r o l e . In. summary, then, we f i n d t h a t compounds based on items which can be used as c l a s s i f i e r s (whether the c l a s s i f i e r i s a r e p e a t e r or not) w i l l u t i l i z e t h a t item as c l a s s i f i e r . Ex-c e p t i o n s can be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of d i v e r g e n c e o f the sen-ses of the same form i n i t s two f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s : as base of compound and as c l a s s i f i e r . T h i s i s an e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n e s t a b l i s h i n g an a d d i t i o n a l d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i o n f o r p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s : as w i t h f u l l r e p e a t e r s the senses of the same form as member of the headnoun complex and as c l a s s i f i e r must be i d e n t i c a l . T h i s c o n t e n t i o n i s supported by the f a c t t h a t d i s p a r a t e senses of a r e p e a t e d form simply do not o c c u r , except by co-i n c i d e n c e (see example 4.17 below). The l e x i c a l i d e n t i t y r e -s t r i c t i o n a l s o h olds f o r c l a s s i f i e r s l i k e / b a j / , f o r example, where two a l t e r n a t i v e senses are a v a i l a b l e i n the c l a s s i f i e r r o l e : ( i ) the sense of "S2D-shape",. as i n the b sentences of Table 4 . ( i i ) the sense of " c o n t a i n e r " which occurs o n l y i n non-re-p e a t i n g c l a s s i f i e r phrases such as 4.11 krabuaj saam baaj l a d l e 3 CONTAINER "three l a d l e s " While the g l o s s of 4.4b shows t h a t sense ( i ) occurs i n p a r -t i a l r e p e a t e r phrases, the sense of " c o n t a i n e r " cannot. In a l l compounds based on / b a j / , the form / b a j / has the sense 62 of "S2D-shape", never the sense of " c o n t a i n e r " . The combina-t i o n of sense ( i ) as head, member and sense ( i i ) as c l a s s i f i e r simply does not o c c u r -F u r t h e r support i s found i n the example of / m i i khwaa/, f o r which Haas (1965:406) g i v e s t h r e e senses, the f i r s t s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y r e f e r e n t i a l , the o t h e r two more metaphori-c a l : ( i ) r i g h t hand ( i i ) r i g h t hand man ( i i i ) something t h a t i s second nature to one These would be c l a s s i f i e d by ( i ) / m i i / "hand", ( i i ) /khon/ "person", and ( i i i ) / j a a q / " k i n d " , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The case where sense as head member i s synonymous wi t h sense as c l a s -s i f i e r ( c a s e d ) ) i s the o n l y case where r e p e a t i n g o c c u r s . What our i n v e s t i g a t i o n so f a r has found, then, i s t h a t p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s , while i n i t i a l l y appearing t o be a u n i f i e d group c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o f u l l r e p e a t e r s , are i n f a c t d e f i n e d by c r i t e r i a shared w i t h e i t h e r r e p e a t e r s or non - r e p e a t e r s . Both p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s and some non-repeaters can occur i n compounds ( l o o s e l y d e f i n e d ) . In both p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s and f u l l r e p e a t e r s , the sense of head member and of c l a s s i f i e r must be i d e n t i c a l . T h i s i d e n t i t y of head member and c l a s s i f i e r , taken w i t h the tendency of compounds t o c o n s i s t of a g e n e r a l term p l u s a. s p e c i f i c term i m p l i e s support f o r the view of a hyponymic r e l a t i o n s h i p i n p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g . We c o u l d then i n t e r p r e t p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s i n terms of s e t s and proper s u b s e t s . In Table 4 , example 4.4a,the c l a s s i f i e r i d e n t i f i e s s e r v a n t s as one k i n d (and one proper subset of the c l a s s ) of people, and 63 i n 4 . 5 a good p e o p l e a r e c l a s s e d as one k i n d o f p e o p l e . But i n 4 .4b t h e s t a t u s o f / b a j / as 2P p r e d i c a t e s t i l l p r e v e n t s n a t i v e s p e a k e r s f r o m c o n s i d e r i n g i t as an i n d e p e n d e n t n o u n . I t sounds odd t o n a t i v e s p e a k e r s t o say t h a t / b a j m a a j / " l e a f " i s a k i n d o f / b a j / " S 2 D - s h a p e " . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f hyponymy between compound head and c l a s s i f i e r i s thus l i m i t e d t o o n l y PR R e p e a t e r s . I t can be extended t o a l l p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s o n l y on f o r m a l o r l o g i c a l terms. . The i m p l i c a t i o n of the hyponymic r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h PR r e p e a t e r s i s t h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r members of the s u p e r o r d i -na te c l a s s e s . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t , of c o u r s e , t o the c l a i m t h a t f u l l r e p e a t e r s a r e synonymous w i t h t h e i r headwords, as d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 3 : f o r f u l l r e p e a t e r s t h e r e are no o t h e r members o f the s u p e r o r d i n a t e c l a s s e s . S i n c e the c a t e g o r y o f p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s o v e r l a p s w i t h the c a t e g o r y o f r e p e a t e r s and a l s o w i t h the c a t e g o r y o f n o n -r e p e a t e r s , and f u r t h e r s i n c e the d i v i s i o n o f r e p e a t e r s and n o n - r e p e a t e r s i s u s e d h e r e as the b a s i c one , i t i s more c o n -v e n i e n t t o c o n s i d e r the PR R e p e a t e r s as a s u b s e t o f the c a t e -g o r y of Repeaters (as i n F i g u r e 2) r a t h e r t h a n o f some g e n e r -a l c a t e g o r y o f p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s . The o v e r l a p w i l l be examined a l i t t l e more c l o s e l y . 4 .3 CATEGORY OVERLAP 4 . 3 . 1 MULTIPLE SENSES IN DIFFERENT CATEGORIES In many cases i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h d i f f e r e n t senses o f the same form which f a l l i n t o d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s , f o r example the f o l l o w i n g : 64 Table B Items With D i f f e r e n t Senses In D i f f e r e n t C a t e g o r i e s  Item As P a r t i a l Repeater As Repeater As Non-Repeater kon bottom of a t h i n g ; b u t t o c k s of an ani-mal krabook c y l i n d e r ; s o cket klooi) tube klum c l u s t e r ; g r o u p ; b a l l koorj p i l e ; crowd; group; d i v i s i o n of a de-partment k h i * l e g s h a c k l e ; j o i n -i n g p a r t baj small. S2D shape t u a l i v i n g t h i n g ; agent; r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e ; d i g i t ; l e t -t e r of the a l p h a -b e t ; c h a r a c t e r or r o l e i n a a p l a y etc.. khan l o n g handle b u t t o c k s of a person bamboo v e s -s e l camera group of p e r -s o n a l f r i e n d s t r o o p , m i l i t a - , r y d i v i s i o n t i e b e a m ; j o i s t c y l i n d e r ; s o c k e t tube c l u s t e r ; group; b a l l p i l e ; crowd; group; d i v i s i o n of a department c o n t a i n e r body shape ( e l f f o r ) wheel-ed l a n d v e h i c l e s except o x c a r t s With c l a s s i f i e r s l i k e those i n Table 6 , t h e r e i s a d i -r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sense i n t e n d e d by the speaker and the s y n t a c t i c form of the c l a s s i f i e r phrase: r e p e a t e r , p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r or non-repeater. T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t , again. 65 with items l i k e /khon/"person" which r e t a i n , t h e i r s i n g l e sense i n a l l t h r e e types of c l a s s i f i e r phrase. 4.3.2 HOW PARTIAL REPEATERS CAN BECOME REPEATERS For Repeaters to become P a r t i a l Repeaters they must f i r s t e n t e r i n t o compounds. There are two ways i n which P a r t i a l Repeaters which are not PR Repeaters ( t h a t i s , they do not u s u l l y have an a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c t i o n as F u l l Repeaters) can become F u l l Repeaters. The f i r s t way i s i l l u s t r a t e d by 4.12a klooj) saam kloon, tube-shape 3 TUBE-SHAPE "three cameras" 4.12b klooj) t h a a j ruup saam klODJ) tube-shape-emit-image 3 TUBE-SHAPE "three cameras" Most informants, when /klSoiy' i s t e s t e d i n the reduced-context frames, accept i t as a f u l l r e p e a t e r w i t h the mean-i n g of "camera". Haas (1965:16) l i s t s i t s senses as a noun as ( i ) p i p e , ( i i ) camera, b i n o c u l a r s . Yet the f u l l form f o r "camera" i s the t r i p l e compound used i n 4.12b. Ap p a r e n t l y , of the many compounds i n t o which /klDDJ)/ e n t e r s , the one meaning "camera" has r i s e n i n frequency of usage f o r v a r i o u s s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l reasons. Some r e d u c t i o n must have taken p l a c e which a l l o w s /klSoi)/ alone t o s u b s t i t u t e f o r /kloojj thaaj ruup/. T h i s seems to be a development over r e a l h i s t o r i c a l time and t h i s i s supported by i n f o r m a t i o n v o l u n -t e e r e d by one informant. She s a i d t h a t f o r country f o l k , / k l 3 o r j / alone might be i n t e r p r e t e d as a p i p e f o r smoking, r a t h e r than a camera. That would be the most prominent tube-shaped o b j e c t i n t h e i r c u l t u r e . See s e c t i o n 1.3 f o r a r e -view of c u l t u r a l s a l i e n c e . The o t h e r way i n which p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s become r e p e a t -ers i s i l l u s t r a t e d by o t h e r examples of compounds which are s y n c h r o n i c a l l y both f u l l r e p e a t e r s and a l s o p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s f o r a s i n g l e speaker: 4.13a khamnaam saam khamnaam 4.13b khamnaam saam kham noun 3 NOUN word-name 3 WORD "three nouns" "three nouns" Other words of t h i s type are koorjphan " b a t t a l i o n " koorj phon " m i l i t a r y d i v i s i o n " koo:rj r o o j " m i l i t a r y company" khoo m i i " w r i s t " chaanchaalaa " ( r a i l r o a d ) s t a t i o n p l a t f o r m " e t c . To i n f o r m a n t s , most of the members of t h i s group e x h i b i t l i t t l e or no semantic d i f f e r e n c e between PR and F u l l Repeater forms. There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e disagreement, though, among informants whether a l l of the above examples are a c c e p t a b l e as b o t h f u l l and p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s . The l i s t was compiled from Haas 1965. The o n l y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n I can make about the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of these forms i n both f u l l and p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r r o l e s i s t h a t t h e r e i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s a c c e p t a b i l i t y (and l e s s agreement) on these forms as p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s . The g r e a t e r a c c e p t a b i l i t y of r e p e a t e r s i s again based on g r e a t e r l e x i c a l t r a n s p a r e n c y . To my knowledge t h e r e i s no necessary semantic r e s t r i c -t i o n on the r e c u r s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s k i n d of compound-b u i l d i n g . The main c o n s t r a i n t seems t o be of l e n g t h . Such t r i p l e combinations as koDrjthap*aakaat t r o o p - f o r c e - a i r " a i r f o r c e " are l e f t u n c l a s s i f i e d i n Haas 1965, but are a c c e p t a b l e as 67 c l a s s i f i e d by /kDDJ) / and by /Toorj thap/. The l a t t e r i s p r e -f e r r e d . That makes both these c l a s s i f i e r s p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s . These re p e a t e d compounds are e x c e p t i o n s t o the g e n e r a l r u l e p o s i t e d f o r p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g , namely t h a t i f a c l a s s i -f i e r appears i n the o v e r t form of the compound i t w i l l be used to c l a s s i f y t h a t compound,unless i d e n t i c a l senses of compound member and c l a s s i f i e r are not a v a i l a b l e . In such a case, o t h e r c l a s s i f i e r s o r a r e p e a t e r w i l l be used. L e x i -c a l i z a t i o n , s i n c e i t u n i f i e s the compound i n t o a s i n g l e sense, c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h i s d i v e r g e n c e of senses i n the two r o l e s . Repeated compounds p r o b a b l y behave a m b i v a l e n t l y l i k e t h i s because of t h e i r ambivalent s t a t u s as compounds. When they r e p e a t they are f u l l y l e x i c a l i z e d (see s e c t i o n 2.3) I n c o n s i s t e n t l e x i c a l i z a t i o n here may be due to the f a c t t h a t most of the examples a v a i l a b l e i n Haas 1965 r e f e r t o d i s t i n c t s u b s e c t i o n s of s o c i e t y ( e s p e c i a l l y the m i l i t a r y ) where l e x i c a l i z a t i o n may c o r r e l a t e w i t h e x p e r t i s e or cog-n o s c e n t i p o i n t of view. T h i s k i n d of c a t e g o r y c r o s s o v e r does not seem to depend on h i s t o r i c a l semantic change as much as was the case with /klSoi) / "camera". S e m a n t i c a l l y , the p a r t i a l and f u l l r e p e a -t e r phrases d i f f e r o n l y s u b t l y , and seem to be a l t e r n a t i v e l y a v a i l a b l e a t any g i v e n p o i n t of time f o r my informants, with the p r e f e r e n c e noted above f o r the f u l l r e p e a t e r phrase. 4.3.3 HOW CLASSIFIERS CAN BECOME PARTIAL REPEATERS:COMPOUNDING F a s o l d (1963) has w r i t t e n i n depth about Thai noun com-pounding. Here, however, we should c o n f i n e our d i s c u s s i o n 68 t o aspects of compounding which have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n . F a s o l d ' s main aim was to generate noun compounds from sentences v i a r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s ( F a s o l d 1968:79). Three g e n e r a l types are excepted from t h i s Drocess. The f i r s t type i s f u l l y l e x i c a l compounds. These are forms which "have been a s s i g n e d a s o r t o f m e t a p h o r i c a l meaning not d e r i v a b l e from the meaning of t h e i r members*' ( F a s o l d 1968:80). Y. R. Chao p o i n t s out t h a t the u s u a l t e s t f o r such transformed or i d i o m a t i c meanings i s to ask "whether a g i v e n s t r i n g of morphemes has the same meaning as the sum of t h e i r meanings, or a new meaning of the whole which cannot be gathered from the meanings of the p a r t s " (Chao 1968:168). In t h i s paper I w i l l r e f e r t o t h i s type of compound as " f u l l y l e x i c a l i z e d " compounds. I t h i n k i t i s apparent as w e l l t h a t few, i f any, compounds are 100% l e x i c a l i z e d and t h e r e i s a range of degrees of o p a c i t y up to f u l l l e x i c a l i z a t i o n . F u l l l e x i c a l i z a t i o n a l s o reduces the l i k e l i h o o d of p r e s e r v i n g the i d e n t i t y of head member and c l a s s i f i e r senses. Thus i t i s g e n e r a l l y the r u l e t h a t with t h i s " m e t a p h o r i c a l " type of com-pounding, p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g w i l l be d i s a l l o w e d . And i t i s t h e r e f o r e s u r p r i s i n g t h a t informants accept. F a s o l d ' s example of a l e x i c a l i z e d compound i n a p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r phrase, / t a a -naam/ "underground waterway": 4.14 taanaam saam t a a opening-water 3 OPENING "three underground waterways" Such a c c e p t a b i l i t y must be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of l e x i c a l i d e n t i t y o f head member and c l a s s i f i e r , as I have t r i e d t o show i n the g l o s s e s . The sense of "opening" r a t h e r than the 6 9 u s u a l sense of "eye" i s the b e s t one t o choose as the sense of the c l a s s i f i e r because of the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by the occurrence of / t a a / i n /taanaam/. The sense of "opening" was a l s o suggested by an informant, / t a a / occurs i n v a r i o u s compounds meaning "node; knot (of wood); meshwork, g r i d , g r a t e ; s m a l l h o l e or opening; p o i n t of time". Thus F a s o l d ' s example of a " m e t a p h o r i c a l " compound was simply a poor c h o i c e . The sense of the compound base i s r e -l a t i v e l y r e c o v e r a b l e (and not blended i n t o the sense of the whole) and t h i s can be shown j u s t because the compound can be c l a s s i f i e d i n a p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r phrase. The main i m p l i -c a t i o n s of l e x i c a l i z e d compounds f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n have a l -ready been o u t l i n e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n of words l i k e /bajmaaj/ " l e a f " (e.g. 4.8), a n d /khamthaam/ " q u e s t i o n " (e.g. 4.10) The c l a s s i f i e r / t u a j a a n / "example" i s a b e t t e r example of a " m e t a p h o r i c a l " or l e x i c a l i z e d compound than / t a a naam/ "underground waterway". Care must be taken to a v o i d c o n f u -s i o n between degrees of l e x i c a l i z a t i o n i n compounds: an i n -completely l e x i c a l i z e d compound ( t h a t i s , one where n a t i v e speakers can s t i l l r e c o v e r i n d i v i d u a l senses f o r compound members) may be c l a s s i f i e d by one of i t s members f u n c t i o n i n g as a p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r . Examples are /khonchaj / " s e r v a n t " and /bajmaaj/ " l e a f " . F u l l y l e x i c a l i z e d compounds, however, may not be so c l a s s i f i e d . C o n s i d e r 4.15 khaw jok tuajaarj saam tuajaarj he r a i s e example 3 EXAMPLE " He gave t h r e e examples." Here / t u a j a a r j / "example, sample" i s not e x a c t l y a f u l l y l e x i -70 c a l i z e d compound s i n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e to imagine some seman-t i c c o n n e c t i o n t o the sense of the members i n i s o l a t i o n : ("body" and " k i n d " ) . However i t i s o b v i o u s l y a v e r y opaque compound. U n l i k e the compound /bajmaaj/ " l e a f " which i s o n l y very m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e as a r e p e a t e r (because i t c o n t a i n s the form / b a j / w i t h the same semantic v a l u e as / b a j / f u n c t i o n i n g as c l a s s i f i e r ) / t u a j a a n / can be c l a s s i f i e d o n l y w i t h what appears to be a F u l l Repeater. N e v e r t h e l e s s , / t u a j a a n / i s not a F u l l Repeater as d e f i n e d i n s e c t i o n 3.2. I t i s unacceptable as a IP p r e d i c a t e . The f a c t t h a t i t i s c l a s s i f i e d o n l y with a f u l l r e p e a t e r i s e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t , l i k e / b a j / "small S2D shape" i t o f t e n occurs i n an ap- parent f u l l r e p e a t e r phrase. The second p r e d i c a t e p l a c e i s f i l l e d by c o n t e x t or s i t u a t i o n . Compare the f o l l o w i n g : 4.16a t o n n i i m i i b a j l a a j b a j p l a n t t h i s have S2D-shape s e v e r a l S2D-SHAPE "Thi s t r e e has a l o t of l e a v e s " 4.16b ?phaa n i i m i i tuajaarj l a a j tuajaarj c l o t h t h i s have sample s e v e r a l SAMPLE "(We have) s e v e r a l samples of t h i s c l o t h " 4.16c phom m i i phaa twajaan l a a j tuajaan, I(male) have cloth-sample s e v e r a l SAMPLE "I have s e v e r a l ( c l o t h ) samples." Informants r e p o r t t h a t 4.16b i s a c c e p t a b l e though awk-ward. Example 4.16c i s completely a c c e p t a b l e but here / t u a -jaarj/ i s f u n c t i o n i n g as a p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r , not a f u l l r e -p e a t e r ; t h a t i s /phaa tuaj a a r j / " ( c l o t h ) sample" i s a u n i f i e d compound. In 4.16a / b a j / can occur as an apparent r e p e a t e r o n l y 71 when some word l i k e / t o n / s a t i s f i e s the second p r e d i c a t e -p l a c e . In e x a c t l y the same way, / t u a j a a n / r e q u i r e s a word l i k e /phaa/ "cloth". The p o s i t i o n s f i l l e d by / t o n / i n 4.16a and by /phaa/ i n 4,16b and c may be f i l l e d by o t h e r words or s u p p l i e d by the s i t u a t i o n - but the p o s i t i o n s must be f i l l e d f o r meaningful communication t o occur, / t u a j a a r j / i s a l e x i -c a l i z e d compound but a 2P p r e d i c a t e . Furthermore, / t u a j a a r j / cannot be c l a s s i f i e d alone i n a p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r phrase.. There does occur a k i n d of cons-t r u c t i o n which has the appearance of b e i n g a p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r phrase, but i n such a case, / t u a / i s the c l a s s i f i e r f o r i n -dependent (or i n c i d e n t a l ) r e a s o n s : 4.17 khoD duu pen tuajaarj sak tua re q u e s t see be sample on l y BODY-SHAPE "Let»s see a sample (of the f i s h , o r of the animal, f o r example)". On the b a s i s of the p r i n c i p l e a l r e a d y h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h a t s e -mantic i d e n t i t y must e x i s t between rep e a t e d forms, 4.17 i s not an example of a p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r phrase s i n c e / t u a / as head member means something l i k e " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " while / t u a / as c l a s s i f i e r means "body-shape". The occurrence of the c l a s s i -f i e r / t u a / depends on the second p r e d i c a t e p o s i t i o n ; t h a t i s the commodity or s u b j e c t t h a t the sample i s o f . I f samples of paper were b e i n g d i s c u s s e d , the c l a s s i f i e r would be / b a j / or /phasasn/, the a p p r o p r i a t e c l a s s i f i e r f o r the m a t e r i a l or commodity which the sample r e p r e s e n t s . Thus / t u a / i n sen-tence might be c a l l e d a " f a l s e P a r t i a l Repeater". 72 There seems to be a tendency f o r senses of a compound member to extend i n the d i r e c t i o n of g r e a t e r a b s t r a c t i o n ; t h a t i s , " a b s t r a c t i o n " i n the sense of i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n to b a s i c v i s u a l , and t a c t i l e p e r c e p t i o n s . For example, see the common c l a s s i f i e r s l i s t e d below: Table 7 Diver g e n t Senses of a S i n g l e L e x i c a l Item as Compound Member ; and as P a r t i a l Repeater  Form Sense as Compound Member Sense as P a r t i a l Repeater luuk s u b s i d i a r y ; dependent; young f r u i t ; s m a l l S3D shape tua agent; r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ; symbol body-shape kham ( n o m i n a l i z e r f o r v e r b a l a c t i o n s ) word khritaT) p a r a p h e r n a l i a ; i n g r e d i -e n t s ; equipment; i n s t r u -ment; d e v i c e , t r i c k complex machine; engine NOTE. 1: I d e n t i c a l senses which occur i n both columns (they ^.rnust e x i s t i n order f o r p a r t i a l , r e p e a t i n g to occur) are not l i s t e d i n t h i s t a b l e . NOTE 2: The c l a s s i f i e r / b a j / seems an e x c e p t i o n here t o the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t sense as compound member i s l e s s d i -r e c t l y based on p e r c e p t i o n than i s sense as c l a s s i f i e r . However, as mentioned above, / b a j / does not occur as a P a r t i a l Repeater in:the sense o f " c o n t a i n e r " (which i s l e s s d i r e c t l y based i n p e r c e p t i o n than the sense of / b a j / as compound member, "S2Dshape". / b a j / as " c o n t a i n e r " i s a non-repeating c l a s s i f i e r . . There a l s o seems to be an o p p o s i t e tendency f o r P a r t i a l Repeaters t o focus on p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of the r e f e r e n t s of the headwords: shape, size,, grouping and arrangement. Other more g e n e r a l a t t r i b u t e s , such as occurrence or i n s t a n c e , k i n d , s o c i a l s t a t u s , l o c a t i o n and v a r i o u s types of measures and those based on other senses, such as h e a r i n g , tend not to be expressed by the use of p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g . The second type of compound F a s o l d cannot d e r i v e from a r e l a t i v e c l a u s e c o n s i s t s of compounds with, at l e a s t one 73 bound member, /chaarjphlaaj/ " b u l l e l e p h a n t " i s h i s example ( F a s o l d 1968:80). The form / p h l a a j / occurs o n l y i n t h i s compound (and i n names). I t i s a bound form- but bound syn-t a c t i c a l l y . That i s , occurrence as a s u b s t a n t i v e i s r e s -t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r o c c u r r i n g forms. In c o n t r a s t to s y n t a c t i c b i n d i n g , forms bound i n the sense of b e i n g 2P p r e d i c a t e s are bound s e m a n t i c a l l y . / b a j / " s m a l l S2D shape" can occur as a s u b s t a n t i v e a l o n e - p r o v i d e d L t h a t a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e from p r e v i o u s men-t i o n , s i t u a t i o n , e t c . In Table 4. we saw the u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y of / b a j / as a s i n -g l e headword and of /baj j a j / " s m a l l S2D shape" + "large* as a compound. The c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s u nacceptable complex head and the a c c e p t a b l e /bajmaaj/ " l e a f " i s the a b i -l i t y of the item /maaj/ "wood" to s a t i s f y the requirements of a second p r e d i c a t e - p o s i t i o n . Items wi t h t h i s a b i l i t y are not r e s t r i c t e d by s y n t a c t i c category s i n c e the a d j e c t i v e /samkhan/ '•important" does j u s t as w e l l 4.18 baj samkhan saam baj S2D-shape-important 3 S2D-SHAPE "three c e r t i f i c a t e s or documents" Verbs can enter compounds wit h equal ease. The c r i t e -r i a f o r s u i t a b i l i t y as a second, p r e d i c a t e - p o s i t i o n appear to depend i n p a r t on s o c i a l f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f r e q u e n -cy of occurrence, c u l t u r a l prominence, e t c . F a c t o r s of t h i s k i n d caused / k l o O i j / t o undergo semantic change from the 2P p r e d i c a t e "tube" to the IP p r e d i c a t e "camera". Lyons (1977: 549) assumes t h a t l e x i c a l i z a t i o n of compounds i s a matter 74: t h a t * c a n o n l y be accounted f o r i n terms of s t r a t e g i e s , r a t h e r than r u l e s What i s the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between /-maaj/ and / - j a j / i n combination w i t h / b a j / ? / b a j / i s c l e a r l y the head of the compound, and we can t h i n k of the second member as s u p p l y i n g a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the head. But i t does more than t h i s s i n c e i t a l s o s u p p l i e s i n f o r m a t i o n about how the second member i s r e l a t e d to the f i r s t . T h i s i s c a l l e d "the i d i o s y n c r a t i c r e s i d u e " by Lyons (1977:540). T h i s second l o t of i n f o r m a t i o n may be along the l i n e s of an i m p l i c a t i o n ; t h a t i s , g i v e n two l e x i c a l forms, c e r t a i n r e l a -t i o n s h i p s can e x i s t between - t h e i r r e f e r e n t s , other r e l a t i o n -s h i p s cannot. In the p r e s e n t example, g i v e n the combination of / b a j / "S2D shape" and /maaj/ "wood", the hearer can o n l y r e l a t e the two w i t h i n l o g i c a l and e x p e r i e n t i a l (or pragmatic) l i m i t s . Informants suggest t h a t /bajmaaj/ means 4.19 baj khoorj ton maaj S2D-shape POSS trunk-wood " l e a f of a t r e e " . ( I t may a l s o r e f e r to the l e a v e s of any p l a n t , not o n l y t r e e s , as p o i n t e d out i n Table 4 .) The n o t i o n of p o s s e s s i o n i s sup-p l i e d i n p a r t by the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of / b a j / and /maaj/, as w e l l as by the senses of the two forms themselves. P a s o l d notes t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s of p o s s e s s i o n , i d e n t i t y , s i m i l a r i t y and "use f o r , use as" can r e g u l a r l y be r e c o v e r e d by i n f o r -mants when no verb appears i n the o v e r t form of the compound. In such cases the two members of the compound are u s u a l l y nouns and are taken to be the s u b j e c t and o b j e c t of the un-d e r l y i n g sentence. In o t h e r compounds the verb or a d j e c t i v e 75 appears and F a s o l d p o s i t s u n d e r l y i n g s u b j e c t s or o b j e c t s . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of an u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e g i v e s us one h i n t as t o the d i f f e r e n c e between /bajmaaj/ and /baj j a j / . I n f o r -mants can r e c o v e r a IP p r e d i c a t e which serves as one of the arguments f o r / b a j / i n t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n of /bajmaaj/: T h i s i s the IP p r e d i c a t e /tonmaaj/ " t r e e " . No such IP p r e d i c a t e f i l l s an argument s l o t f o r /baj j a j / , however, s i n c e the most l i k e l y expansion of i t i s 4.20 baj t i i pen baj j a j S2D-shape REL be S2D-shape l a r g e which p r o v i d e s no more i n f o r m a t i o n than the compound i t s e l f . Thus we c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t the second member of an a c c e p t a -b l e compound based on a 2P p r e d i c a t e must i n some way s u p p l y enough i n f o r m a t i o n to suggest to the hearer a IP p r e d i c a t e s a t i s f y i n g one of the argument p o s i t i o n s of the base. 4.3.4 IRREGULAR COMPOUNDS We have been c o n s i d e r i n g examples where the f i r s t member of the compound i s the head. This i s not the o n l y case, but i s so g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t when "the f i r s t c o n s t i t u e n t i s not the head", a c c o r d i n g to Noss (1864:64) "the compound i s i r -r e g u l a r " . There are s e v e r a l items l i s t e d i n Haas 1965 which are l i s t e d as c l a s s i f i e d by the second member of the compound. For example khanorakhexj sweet + basket "basket-shaped Chinese p a s t r y " huacuk head + clump "topknot" chao^thaarj opening + way "way; means; o p p o r t u n i t y " phompia? h a i r + queue "queue, p i g t a i l " jaamet ^ medicine + p i l l " p i l l ; t a b l e t " aahaankrapoorj food + can "canned fo o d " In these cases, both compound members are nouns. 76 A n o t h e r common f a c t o r i s the s i m p l e f a c t t h a t the member o f the compound which b e s t p r o v i d e s u n i t r e f e r e n c e i s the one which i s u s e d as c l a s s i f i e r . T h i s i s c l e a r l y the case when t h e s e c o n d member i s a common c l a s s i f i e r . T h i s same p r i c i -p l e e x p l a i n s why many c o m b i n a t i o n s w h i c h have a c o n t a i n e r i n the s e c o n d p o s i t i o n use the c o n t a i n e r as c l a s s i f i e r (as i n t h e l a s t example a b o v e ) . O t h e r cases have the c l a s s i f i e r i n t h e c e n t e r of more complex compounds, b u t the p r i n c i p l e of s e l e c t i o n o f the c l a s s i f i e r appears t o be t h e same: t h u a f a k j a a w bean + pod + l o n g " l o n g cow-pea" honthaankasaekhaj way +path - f c o r r e c t + turn " a rememdy f o r a d i f f i c u l t y " / t h u a f a k j a a w / i s c l a s s i f i e d by / f a k / " p o d " s i n c e p e a s , i f s p e c i f i e d , a re c o u n t e d i n the p o d . I n d i v i d u a l peas are c o u n t -ed as / m e t / "seeds." /honthaarjkasaekhaj/ i s a c t u a l l y a compound of two d o u b l e compounds: / h o n t h a a n / "way" and / k a s a e k h a j / " i m p r o v e " . The c l a s s i f i e r i s / t h a a i j / , s i n c e o n l y i t and / h o n / p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e and / h o n / i s u s u a l l y u s e d as a c l a s s i -f i e r f o r p o i n t s of t i m e , not p a t h s o r ways, / t h a a r j / i s a l s o a f a r more common c l a s s i f i e r . T h e r e a r e f u r t h e r examples of d o u b l e compounds where b o t h members p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e u n i t r e f e r e n c e and i n f a c t e i t h e r member can s e r v e as c l a s s i f i e r . The b e s t example of t h e s e i s haarjraan b u s i n e s s + shop " s t o r e s , f i r m s , c o m m e r c i a l e s t a -b l i s h m e n t s " When c l a s s i f i e d by / h a a r j / the g e n e r a l c o m m e r c i a l a s p e c t i s e m p h a s i z e d ; when c l a s s i f i e d by / r a a n / the s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n 77 and s t r u c t u r e o f b u i l d i n g , booth or s t a l l i s emphasized. N o t i c e t h a t many of these compounds we have been d i s -c u s s i n g cannot be expanded to complete sentences because they are merely c o - o r d i n a t e compounds where the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween members i s simply one of a d d i t i o n , /haairj r a a n / " f i r m s " and /honthaan/ "way" are examples of t h i s t y pe. The sense of such compounds i s u s u a l l y v e r y g e n e r a l , but d i f f e r e n t from such compounds as /jaamet/ " p i l l s ; t a b l e t s " where, a l -though the sense i s s t i l l g e n e r a l , the second member of the compound serve s as a m o d i f i e r f o r the f i r s t . C o - o r d i n a t e compounds l i k e the above examples are the t h i r d type of compound F a s o l d excepts from the p r o c e s s of d e r i v a t i o n from sentences through r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s . 4.3.5 COMPOUNDING OF CLASSIFIERS We have touched on some aspects of noun compounding i n T h a i but the most important q u e s t i o n remains: Why are com-pounds formed with c l a s s i f i e r s i n the f i r s t p l a c e ? We have seen t h a t c o n t a i n e r c l a s s i f i e r s can be added a f t e r a noun r e -f e r r i n g t o a m a t e r i a l . The c l a s s i f i e r has a m o d i f y i n g r o l e to show the type or the c o n d i t i o n of the m a t e r i a l (e.g. /nam taan p i i p / " s u g a r from sugar palm, i n s o l i d form, i n square 5 -g a l l o n c a n s " ) . In o t h e r cases a s e m a n t i c a l l y bound c l a s s i f i -e r (i.e.-, a 2 P p r e d i c a t e ) o f t e n combines with the noun f i l l -i n g the second argument (e.g. / b a j m a a j / " l e a f M ) . There are o t h e r l e s s t r a n s p a r e n t cases, however. Por example, why do s m a l l animals, i n s e c t s and worms o f t e n r e q u i r e the c l a s s i f i e r / t u a / to be p r e f i x e d , while l a r g e r , more " a n i m a l - l i k e " animals do not r e q u i r e t h i s p r e f i x ? 78 Why does / b a j / e n t e r compounds as "S2D-shape" and not as " c o n t a i n e r " ? One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n , i n the case of / t u a / , i s t h a t s i n c e shape i s the primary c l a s s i f i c a t o r y c r i t e r i o n , and prominence as food, t r a n s p o r t , p e t s , e t c . would make c e r t a i n types of animals c u l t u r a l l y s a l i e n t , then i n s e c t s , worms, l a r v a e e t c . are seen as o n l y m a r g i n a l l y a n i -mals by t h i s c r i t e r i o n . They o f t e n do not have f e a t u r e s e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d as arms or l e g s ( l i k e l a n d mammals, f o r example) or as head and t a i l ( l i k e f i s h ) . Now the c l a s s of t h i n g s c l a s s i f i e d by / t u a / i n c l u d e s a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s which are not p l a n t s or human (or superhuman). Perhaps t o c l e a r up ambiguity these m a r g i n a l members r e q u i r e the / t u a / p r e f i x to p l a c e them without doubt i n the categor y of l i v i n g t h i n g s . T h i s suggests some k i n d of m o d i f i c a t i o n of the b a s i c c l a s s i -f i c a t o r y system. Most c l a s s e s are based on p e r c e p t u a l c r i -t e r i a , e s p e c i a l l y shape. However, w i t h the development of b i o l o g i c a l knowledge*, oth e r types of c r i t e r i a come i n t o u s e , i n t h i s case a f a c t o r of animacy. T h i s c r e a t e s a con-f l i c t between the p e r c e p t u a l u n i t s and the non-perceptual (perhaps l o g i c a l ) c l a s s e s , which r e q u i r e s the compounding of some headwords i n order t o make them f i t b e t t e r i n t o the c l a s s e s . Many worms and i n s e c t s have appearances and ch a r a c -t e r i s t i c movements u n l i k e the more e a s i l y s t u d i e d animals, e s p e c i a l l y the animals which are prominent i n the technology and c u l t u r e . Many i n s e c t s are f e l t or heard but remain un-*The Buddhist emphasis on the extreme range of l i f e - f o r m s and the i n j u n c t i o n t o a v o i d k i l l i n g of lower f o r m s , i n c l u d -i n g insects', may have had some i n f l u e n c e . 79 seen. One informant added t h a t they o f t e n do not seem to move at a l l . On p u r e l y c a s u a l p e r c e p t u a l terms, they might not be c o n s i d e r e d to be animate a t a l l . But w i t h c l o s e r ob-s e r v a t i o n they must be c o n s i d e r e d animate b e i n g s . Thus these c r e a t u r e s , when r e f e r r e d t o , have the c l a s s i f i e r added to t h e i r names i n order f o r them to be c l a s s i f i e d unambiguously. In s e c t i o n 7 a group of compounds w i t h / t u a / can be seen to have a common semantic f a c t o r of b e i n g a c t i v e agents: r o b o t s , t r a n s f o r m e r s , chemical reagents, k i t e s , e t c . These o b j e c t s may a l s o enjoy a s o r t of promotion to animate s t a t u s through compounding. Some informants emphasize t h a t / t u a / has a c o n n o t a t i o n of r e s p e c t . T h i s would agree w i t h the i d e a s p r e s e n t e d above. S i z e i s a c r i t e r i o n of r e s p e c t and e l e p h a n t s , the l a r g e s t animals, are h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d . In t r a d i t i o n a l usage elephants had t h e i r own c l a s s i f i e r . Thus, compounding of a headnoun w i t h a c l a s s i f i e r can i n some cases serve to r e i n f o r c e the c l a s s i f i c a t o r y system. In other cases the compounding does not a f f e c t the c l a s -s i f i c a t i o n , / t u a / seems to have extended i t s sense or i t s f u n c t i o n (or both) to p l a c e emphasis on the p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e of a r e f e r e n t by means of a r e f l e x i v e sense, as i n E n g l i s h . In t h i s sense i t seems to have develop-ed a complementary f u n c t i o n t o t h a t of /an/. In a d i s c u s s i o n of c a s s e t t e tapes an informant was heard to say t h a t her tapes were o l d . L e a s t she be misunderstood as meaning t h a t the content of the tapes was o l d , she emphasized t h a t i t was 80 the tapes themselves which were o l d by s a y i n g 4.21 tuatheep man ?eerj body-tape 3P-PRO s e l f "the tape i t s e l f " / t u a'eei]/ i s the standa r d r e f l e x i v e pronoun i n T h a i and can be a p p l i e d t o nouns i n g e n e r a l . The nouns can be r e p l a c e d by v a r i o u s s t a t u s - r e l a t e d pronouns where necess a r y . Never-t h e l e s s , / t u a t h e e p / i n the above example would be c l a s s i f i e d by the a p p r o p r i a t e c l a s s i f i e r /muan/ " r e e l " or by /an/, but not by / t u a / . Thus i t i s a l s o apparent t h a t the compounding of c l a s s i f i e r s can have v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s beyond r e i n f o r c i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I t w i l l be seen i n s e c t i o n 7 t h a t a t l e a s t one of these f u n c t i o n s i s a l s o performed by /an/ i n i t s capa-c i t y as "wastebasket" c l a s s i f i e r and marker of p h y s i c a l e n t i t y . 81 5.0 MEASURES What are measures? S i n c e they p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e of a s o r t and can f i l l the c l a s s i f i e r s l o t i n t y p i -c a l c l a s s i f i e r phrases, we s h o u l d c o n s i d e r them to be c l a s s i -f i e r s . Measuring seems to occur most o f t e n w i t h masses which, have no immediately p e r c e i v e d n a t u r a l u n i t s . But t h e r e are many cases where obvious n a t u r a l u n i t s are i g n o r e d and groups of these u n i t s are c o n s i d e r e d i n the same way as masses. For example, bo t h apples and sugar can be s o l d by the k i l o -gram. The n a t u r a l u n i t s of apples (the i n d i v i d u a l f r u i t ) a re not r e l e v a n t . Apples can a l s o , however, be s o l d by the i n d i v i d u a l f r u i t or by the dozen. In such cases, the apples are s t i l l measured. Measures seem t o p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e without any dependence on n a t u r a l u n i t s . Some measures use the n a t u r a l u n i t s and some do n o t . One common asp e c t of , measuring i s t h a t , as w i t h c l a s s i f i e r s i n g e n e r a l , measures are measures of_ something: a commodity i s presupposed and i n T h a i i t must appear as the headword. Thus a l l measures are 2P p r e d i c a t e s . 5.1 INTRINSIC & EXTRINSIC FEATURES There i s some disagreement i n the l i t e r a t u r e on c l a s s i -f i e r s as to the degree of d i s t i n c t i o n between c l a s s i f i e r s and measures. Greenberg (1975:30) found t h a t " i n numeral c l a s s i f i e r languages the c l a s s i f i e r c o n s t r u c t i o n i s almost always i d e n t i c a l with the measure construction, including 82 r u l e s of word o r d e r . " Jones (1970:7) a l s o takes i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t where t r u e c l a s s i f i e r s occur, the measure con-s t r u c t i o n w i l l f o l l o w the same p a t t e r n . I f the s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n i n g i s so s i m i l a r , what i s the m o t i v a t i o n f o r the d i s -t i n c t i o n between c l a s s i f i e r s and measures? One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e between mea-sures and c l a s s i f i e r s i s p r o v i d e d by Adams and C o n k l i n (1974: 3) who p o i n t out t h a t d e s p i t e the u n i f o r m i t y i n s u r f a c e s t r u c -t u r e i n c l a s s i f i e r and measure phrases, t h e r e i s a " r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r i n g " r e l a t i o n s h i p (which we can s a f e l y assume to be a semantic one) between c l a s s i f i e r and headnoun i n the two t y p e s . The " t r u e " c l a s s i f i e r r e f e r s to an i n t r i n s i c f e a t u r e of the head, w h i l e the measure r e f e r s to an e x t r i n s i c f e a t u r e . Adams and C o n k l i n o f f e r no f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s d i s -t i n c t i o n , but o t h e r w r i t e r s seem to have come to s i m i l a r con-c l u s i o n s - S a u l (1965:285) r e f e r s to "imposed q u a n t i f i e r s " , a c a t e g o r y i n Nung which she c h a r a c t e r i z e s as "non-inherent". For a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of what i s meant by " i n h e r e n t " we may r e f e r , as does A l l a n (1977:298) to John Locke's 1689 Essay c o n c e r n i n g Human understanding . There Locke l i s t s 5 primary q u a l i t i e s u t t e r l y i n s e p a r a b l e from the body " i n what e s t a t e soever i t be". These seem to be based on the senses of s i g h t and touch: ( i ) s o l i d i t y ( i i ) e x t e n s i o n ( i i i ) motion or r e s t ( i v ) number (v) f i g u r e Opposed to these Locke s p e c i f i e s the secondary q u a l i t i e s such as c o l o r , t a s t e , s m e l l and sound, which are not i n o b j e c t s 83 themselves, but are powers t o produce these v a r i o u s sensa-t i o n s i n us. A l l a n f i n d s t h a t none of these secondary q u a l i -t i e s i s the b a s i s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n any c l a s s i f i e r l a n g -uage, and he has done a v e r y e x t e n s i v e survey. C l a s s i f i e r s r e f e r r i n g t o sounds occur i n Thai but t h e r e i s g e n e r a l r e l u c -tance to c o n s i d e r them nouns,, p r o b a b l y because they are o f t e n i n n o v a t e d . In T h a i , the sense which i s predominant i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r o b j e c t s i s , of course, the sense of v i s i o n , supplemented by the t a c t i l e sense. The s m e l l and t a s t e of the r e f e r e n t have no import a t a l l , and the sound o n l y m a r g i n a l l y , as mentioned above. Shape i s most e a s i l y p e r c e i v e d by s e e i n g and v e r i f i e d , by t o u c h i n g . In p e r c e i v i n g a c t i o n s , v i s i o n i s a l s o the primary sense used, although sound i s of some importance here. C u l t u r a l l y s a l i e n t c r i t e r i a are a l s o very important i n T h a i c l a s s e s . These do not seem to be so r e s t r i c t e d t o de-pendence on v i s i o n : f u n c t i o n of the r e f e r e n t and s o c i a l s t a -tus are two examples. T h a i s t a n d a r d measures are s i m i l a r to measures i n most languages: they are based on l i n e a r , a r e a l and v o l u m e t r i c u n i t s as w e l l as u n i t s of number. A l l these are regarded by Locke as i n t r i n s i c . T h a i measures a l s o r e f e r t o weight, p r i c e and time, which are not mentioned by Locke a t a l l . Thus i t i s c l e a r t h a t i f we want t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the d i f f e r e n c e be-tween measures and o t h e r c l a s s i f i e r s , we w i l l have to i s o l a t e c r i t e r i a o ther than those of Locke. 84 5.2 MEASURES AND REPEATERS. Standard measures i n g e n e r a l are mutually e x c l u s i v e w i t h f u l l r e p e a t e r s , as the u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y of 5.1 and 5.2 shows: 5.1 * k i l o k r a m saam k i l o k r a m 5.2 *khaeaen saam khaeaen k i l o g r a m 3 KILOGRAM arm 3 ARMrS LENGTH. S i n c e i t s head and c l a s s i f i e r are not l e x i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l , 5.2 c o u l d o n l y be a c c e p t a b l e as a " f a l s e ( f u l l ) r e p e a t e r " ; even then the u t t e r redundancy of measuring something with i t s e l f makes 5.2 u n a c c e p t a b l e . Example 5.1 seems to be un-a c c e p t a b l e because although / k i l o k r a m / s u p p l i e s u n i t r e f e r e n c e i t i s not enough of an e n t i t y i n i t s own r i g h t t o be c l a s s i -f i e d i n t u r n . Some measures are r e l a t e d t o f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e nouns ( l i k e /khaeaen/ above) but o t h e r s are n o t . Another i l l u s t r a t i v e example i s 5.3 kloorj saam kloo*} box 3 / a . BOX a. "Three boxes." [b. BOXFUL b. "Three boxes of boxes." which i s ambiguously e i t h e r a f u l l r e p e a t e r or a temporary measure. Example 5.3a i s a r e p e a t e r phrase where the head r e f e r s to a type of e n t i t y and three i n d i v i d u a l examples or occurrences of t h i s type are b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o by the NUM + CLF p a r t of the phrase. There i s the necessary synonymy between the head and the c l a s s i f i e r , as r e q u i r e d i n a f u l l r e p e a t e r phrase, and t h e r e f o r e o n l y one type of e n t i t y i s b e i n g r e f e r r e d to here: boxes. On the o t h e r hand, 5.3b i s a measure phrase, where the headword i s c l a s s e d as a commodity (which i n t h i s case hap-pens to occur i n the r e a l world i n n a t u r a l u n i t s , r a t h e r than as a mass. For the purposes of measurement the n a t u r a l u n i t s are i r r e l e v a n t ) .. I t was c l a i m e d above t h a t measures are 85 2P p r e d i c a t e s . Here the two p r e d i c a t e - p o s i t i o n s (arguments) a r e f i l l e d by two d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of / k l D D i ] / " b o x " : t h r e e l a r g e r boxes and s e v e r a l (empty) s m a l l e r b o x e s . The h e a d -word r e f e r s to the s m a l l e r empty boxes as opposed to the l a r -g e r f u l l o n e s . These s m a l l e r boxes c o l l e c t i v e l y c o n s t i t u t e the commodity measured. The c l a s s i f i e r r e f e r s t o the u n i t s o f measurement o f t h a t commodity, the l a r g e r b o x e s . Here t h e u n i t s o f measurement a r e n o t s t a n d a r d ; the l a r g e r boxes c o u l d be of any s i z e . Here a l s o the c o n f l i c t between s t a t i c c a t e g o r i e s and d y -namic p r o c e s s e s i s q u i t e a p p a r e n t : i n terms of c a t e g o r i e s , t h e s t r a t e g y o r i n t e n t i o n of the speaker to use 5.3 as a t e m p o r a -r y measure makes the c a t e g o r i e s Temporary Measure and F u l l Repeater o v e r l a p . In terms of p r o c e s s e s , the two p r o c e s s e s o f r e p e a t i n g a n d ( t e m p o r a r i l y ) measur ing a r e e n t i r e l y d i s t i c t . 5.3 STANDARD MEASURES AS NON-ENTITIES S t a n d a r d Measures w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d here as a b s t r a c -t i o n s d e v e l o p e d by complex s o c i e t i e s to d e a l w i t h t h e i r amassed c o m m o d i t i e s . These measures are s t a n d a r d i z e d by com-p a r i s o n to some a b s o l u t e s t a n d a r d , and the c o m p a r i s o n must i n v o l v e some k i n d of t e c h n o l o g y (such as w e i g h i n g s c a l e s , s t a n d a r d c o n t a i n e r s , e t c . ) as m e d i a t o r s i n the p e r c e p t i o n p r o c e s s . A n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of S t a n d a r d Measures i s . t h e i r e x a c t n e s s (see T ' s o u , 1977) a q u a l i t y i n c l e a r c o n t r a s t t o t h a t of v i s u a l i m p a c t . As w i t h a l l d i s t i n c t i o n s , t h e r e i s an a r e a of g r a y b e -tween o p p o s i n g p o l e s h e r e . A good example i s a u n i t of 86 weight. Coins have long s e r v e d as u n i t s of both weight and v a l u e and even today T h a i one-baht c o i n s are used as an i n -fo r m a l measure of weight (=15 grams). A t what p o i n t d i d the form baht cease t o r e f e r t o the c o n c r e t e o b j e c t (the c o i n ) and begin t o r e f e r to the a b s t r a c t concept of 15 grams? C l e a r l y no o v e r n i g h t change o c c u r r e d and the development of the a b s t r a c t sense may not even have o c c u r r e d y e t f o r some i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e r s i n remote areas which are not p a r t of the money economy of the c e n t r a l developed a r e a s . A b a s i c a s -sumption of t h i s paper i s t h a t such a process of a b s t r a c t i o n depends on a c o n c e p t u a l a s s o c i a t i o n between an o b j e c t d i r e c t -l y p e r c e i v e d (by v i s i o n p r i m a r i l y , v e r i f i a b l e by touch) and an a t t r i b u t e of t h a t o b j e c t which i s not so immediately p e r -c e i v e d . T h i s second a t t r i b u t e maybe understood, i n most cases, o n l y through the use of some s o r t of t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e . The s i m p l e s t case would be an o b j e c t as a measure of weight, l e n g t h , or d i s t a n c e . Common recurrent events would become measures of time. But the p o i n t of t r a n s f e r of sense from the o b j e c t to some a b s t r a c t standard measure depends on va-r i o u s c u l t u r a l developments such as ( i ) c o n v e n t i o n a l agreement or decree ( i i ) a requirement of p r e c i s i o n , i n t u r n n e c e s s i t a t e d by refinement of m a t e r i a l and amassing of c o l l e c t i o n s of goods ( i i i ) a requirement of u n i v e r s a l i t y w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l area - i n s h o r t , a l l the t r a p p i n g s of hi g h e r l e v e l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n . For t h i s l e v e l of technology and o r g a n i z a t i o n ^ the o l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of o b j e c t s on a p e r s o n a l b a s i s , p r i m a r i l y by t h e i r v i s u a l impact and s e c o n d a r i l y by t h e i r f u n c t i o n , i s i r -87 r e l e v a n t . Standard Measures, then, c o n t r a s t w i t h the k i n d of non-st a n d a r d n o n - t e c h n i c a l u n i t based p r i m a r i l y on immediate v i -s u a l impact, which i s the b a s i s of much of the T h a i c l a s s i -f i e r system. Standard measures are exact, but they are not e n t i t i e s themselves. Thus u n i t r e f e r e n c e and s t a t u s as an e n t i t y are d i s t i n c t . Lyons (1977:442-446) d e s c r i b e s t h r e e o n t o l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s which are, roughly, the f o l l o w i n g : ( i ) F i r s t - o r d e r e n t i t i e s : . . . i t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l f i r s t - o r d e r e n t i t i e s (persons, animals and t h i n g s ) t h a t , under normal c o n d i t i o n s , they are r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t as to t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l p r o p e r t i e s ; t h a t they are l o c a t e d , a t any p o i n t i n time, i n what i s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a t l e a s t , a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l space; and t h a t they are p u b l i c -l y o b s e r v a b l e . . . [continued i n a f o o t n o t e ! They are what Strawson r e f e r s t o as b a s i c p a r t i c u l a r s . . ( i i ) Second-order e n t i t i e s : By second-order e n t i t i e s we s h a l l mean events, p r o -ces s e s , s t a t e s - o f - a f f a i r s , e t c . , which are located, i n time and which, i n E n g l i s h , are s a i d t o occur or take p l a c e , r a t h e r than t o e x i s t ..... But second-order e n t i t i e s are much more o b v i o u s l y p e r c e p t u a l and c o n c e p t u a l c o n s t r u c t s than f i r s t -o r der e n t i t i e s are; the c r i t e r i a f o r r e - i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n are l e s s c l e a r - c u t and the a b i l i t y to r e f e r t o them as i n d i v i d u a l s depends, to some c o n s i d e r a b l e degree, upon the grammatical process of n o m i n a l i z a -t i o n . ... second-order e n t i t i e s are obs e r v a b l e , and u n l e s s they are instantaneous events, have a temporal d u r a -t i o n . . . ( i i i ) T h i r d - o r d e r e n t i t i e s : ...by t h i r d - o r d e r e n t i t i e s we s h a l l mean such ab-s t r a c t e n t i t i e s as p r o p o s i t i o n s , which are o u t s i d e time and space. U l t i m a t e l y , Lyons summarizes w i t h the statement (19 77: 445) "To say t h a t something i s an e n t i t y i s t o say no more than t h a t i t e x i s t s and can be r e f e r r e d t o . . . " 88 E x i s t e n c e and c a p a b i l i t y of b e i n g r e f e r r e d to are b a s i c to the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a g i v e n form as a r e p e a t e r i n the s i t u a t i o n a l frame d e s c r i b e d above. Another requirement of the frame was p l u r a l i t y (which presupposes c o u n t a b i l i t y i n E n g l i s h ) but t h i s may be an i n c i d e n t a l f a c t o r . Roughly the same r e s u l t s can be o b t a i n e d by u s i n g frames which do not r e q u i r e p l u r a l i t y . Although s t a t u s as a IP p r e d i c a t e (as d e f i n e d above) and s t a t u s as an e n t i t y ( i n Lyons' terms) are not proven i d e n t i -c a l , I w i l l assume t h a t the two s t a t u s e s are e q u i v a l e n t and use the terms "IP p r e d i c a t e " and " e n t i t y " i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n the remainder of t h i s t h e s i s . Lyons l a t e r (1977:463) draws p a r a l l e l s between e n t i t i e s and quanta (read "measures") of a substance. He c o n s i d e r s an amount of water or g o l d t o be 'Individuated, r e - i d e n t i f i a b l e and enumerable.* I t i s t r u e t h a t e x p r e s s i o n s l i k e "my d r i n k " occur r e g u l a r l y i n E n g l i s h , but the e q u i v a l e n t of such a phrase i n T h a i would be ambiguous between a l i m i t e d quantum and a more g e n e r a l " k i n d " : 5.4 law khooxj phom whiskey POSS I(male) "my whiskey" To make i t a s p e c i f i c amount would r e q u i r e a c o n t a i n e r : 5.5 kasaew khaarj phom g l a s s POSS I(male) "my g l a s s ; my d r i n k " Although the p a r a l l e l s which Lyons p o i n t s out between measures and e n t i t i e s do e x i s t , the s t r u c t u r e of T h a i makes a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between r e p e a t e r s and (standard) measures, and one b a s i s of t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s a d i v i s i o n between e n t i -t y and n o n - e n t i t y , r e f l e c t e d i n the s y n t a c t i c d i s t i n c t i o n 89 between those nouns which can repe a t and those which cannot. T'sou (1977:1215) maintains t h a t u n i t s of weight, volume and d i s t a n c e imply no s t a t u s as e n t i t y f o r t h e i r r e f e r e n t s . On the oth e r hand he sees c e r t a i n c o l l e c t i o n s and temporary measures as having a " d e f i n i t e sense of a w e l l - d e f i n e d d i s -c r e t e e n t i t y or e n t i t i e s " (T'sou 1977:1218), but wit h a sense of i n e x a c t q u a n t i t y . T'sou g i v e s some examples i n E n g l i s h , adding t h a t the range of. each k i n d of measure may be d i f f e r -ent i n d i f f e r e n t languages: ( i ) two head of c a t t l e ( i i ) two herds of c a t t l e + exact |_+ e n t i t y - exact + e n t i t y ( i i i ) 20,000 pounds of c a t t l e ^ t i t y ] ( i v ) two kin d s of c a t t l e f"' e x f ? J 1 [_— e n t i t y I The f i r s t type seems t o r e f e r t o p h y s i c a l e n t i t i e s , the second to groups, the t h i r d to standar d measures and the l a s t , of course, to k i n d s . T'sou's a n a l y s i s agrees w i t h the de-s c r i p t i o n p r e s e n t e d so f a r here, namely, the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t Standard Measures are not e n t i t i e s , but t h a t temporary mea-sures (such as p h y s i c a l e n t i t i e s and groups) can be. T'sou's f o u r c a t e g o r i e s are supported by d i s t r i b u t i o n a l evidence i n Chinese: o n l y category I can not occur w i t h a Chinese p a r t i -c l e g l o s s e d as " o f " (as i n "2 head of c a t t l e " ) . Only c a t e -gory I I I cannot occur w i t h o r d i n a l numerals (e.g. *"the t h i r d pound of c h i c k e n " ) , and o n l y category IV cannot occur w i t h f r a c t i o n a l numerals (as i n * " h a l f a k i n d of c h i c k e n " ) . Although Thai has no c o u n t e r p a r t to the Chinese p a r t i c l e g l o s s e d as " o f " , the r e s t r i c t i o n on " h a l f a k i n d " a p p l i e s i n 90 T h a i as w e l l as i n Chinese. One a r e a o f d i f f e r e n c e which i s more s i g n i f i c a n t concerns the r e s t r i c t i o n on co-occurrence of o r d i n a l s and standard measures i n Chinese: such a combi-n a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e i n T h a i : 5.6 saam wan rasaek khaw phoo c a j 3 DAY f i r s t he s a t i s f i e d "the f i r s t t h r e e days he was s a t i s f i e d " . 5.7 k i l o o t h i i saam pen khoorj khun daeasr) KILOGRAM t h i r d be POSS Mr. NAME "The t h i r d k i l o g r a m (e.g. of r i c e , oranges, e t c . ) i s f or Mr. Dang." 5.8 k i l o m e t t h i i haa n i i kamlarj; soom. KILOMETER f i f t h t h i s PROG r e p a i r "They're r e p a i r i n g the f i f t h k i l o m e t e r (of t h i s r o a d ) " Use w i t h an o r d i n a l number presupposes some s t a t u s as e n t i t y . I t a l s o presupposes t h a t the e n t i t y be a member of a s e r i e s or some k i n d o f o r d e r . In both T h a i and E n g l i s h , an e x p r e s s i o n l i k e "the t h i r d pound of c h i c k e n " i s s l i g h t l y odd, but would be m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e i f the sense of the stan d a r d measure were blended with the sense of p h y s i c a l ; e n t i t y , w h i c h i n the case o f meat would be a lump o r a package. T h i s b l e n d i n g i s very common i n c a s u a l speech and i s probably the b a s i s f o r the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f examples 5.7 and 5.8 i n T h a i . In example 5.7 t h e r e need be no p h y s i c a l presence o f a c o n t a i n e r . T h i s sentence c o u l d occur i n a shop, f o r exam-p l e , when the customer i s o r d e r i n g , and b e f o r e the goods o r -dered were a c t u a l l y measured out. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the examples do presuppose some second p r e d i c a t e - p o s i t i o n (e.g. " r i c e " f o r 5.7) The ti m e - l a p s e of some a c t i v i t y o r s t a t e i n f a c t con-s t i t u t e s the second p r e d i c a t e - p o s i t i o n f o r measures of time. Thus i n 5.6, b e i n g s a t i s f i e d i s the r e l e v a n t s t a t e . Use with 91 an o r d i n a l seems t o presuppose the sense of e n t i t y t o a l e s -s e r extent than use wit h a demonstrative. Use wit h a demon-s t r a t i v e i m p l i e s more sense of e n t i t y s i n c e t h e r e must be a sense of nearness as opposed to d i s t a n c e , and the word i s u s u a l l y developed from a b a s i c sense o f p o i n t i n g t o a v i s i -b l e o b j e c t , /wan/ "day", / k i l o k r a m / "kilogram" and / k i l o m e t / " k i l o m e t e r " can a l l be used w i t h d e m o n s t r a t i v e s . Thus, a l -though 2 c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s of s t a t u s as e n t i t y occur w i t h some Thai Standard Measures, these can be e x p l a i n e d by ( i ) a b l e n d i n g of the sense of the measure with the c u l -t u r a l l y s a l i e n t p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the mat-t e r and form of the substance measured (e.g. 1 k i l o -meter and 1 p i e c e of road) ( i i ) the requirement of a second p r e d i c a t e - p o s i t i o n which can be f i l l e d by p r e v i o u s mention or s i t u a t i o n . The substance i m p l i e d by t h i s second p r e d i c a t i o n i s sub-j e c t t o the b l e n d i n g mentioned i n ( i ) . ( i i i ) the e x i s t e n c e of an a l t e r n a t e sense f o r some St a n -d a r d Measures. In some cases t h i s sense i s a p a r a l -l e l p e r c e p t i b l e e n t i t y (e.g. 1 day (24 hours) and p e r i o d of sunshine) Another i n d i c a t i o n of s t a t u s as e n t i t y f o r Standard Mea-sures i s whether or not a c l a s s i f i e r can i t s e l f be c l a s s i f i e d when i t occurs as a noun. A simple t e s t of whether a measure i s s t a n d a r d or temporary s h o u l d be to check whether the mea-sure i t s e l f i s c l a s s i f i a b l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y matters are not t h i s s i m p l e . One problem i s t h a t t h e r e i s a wide range of degrees of l e x i c a l t r ansparency between senses of an item as measure and as f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e . We have seen one example of a r e l a t i v e l y t r a n s p a r e n t c o n n e c t i o n between temporary mea-sures and f u l l nouns w i t h / k l o o i j / "box" (example 5.3). Other 92 examples are l e s s t r a n s p a r e n t , f o r example Table 8 Item Sense as Measure Sense as Noun or Verb niw kham thlaw d i a n i n c h mouthful, word t r i p month f i n g e r , toe word, speech to roam, to t r a v e l moon Many items, l i k e /niw/ " i n c h " and / d i a n / "month" above belong to a group which, to f u r t h e r confound the i s s u e , are a m b i v a l e n t l y s t a n d a r d and temporary measures. Other examples of t h i s type i n E n g l i s h are words l i k e a fathom, a f o o t , a b a r r e l , e t c . : a l l i n f o r m a l , r o u g h l y s t a b l e measures which have become s t a n d a r d i z e d w i t h the development of technology capable of s u p p l y i n g a more ab s o l u t e s t a n d a r d . The c l a s s i -f i e r /wan/ "day" d i s c u s s e d above i s a member of t h i s group as w e l l . T'sou (19 76:1239) f i n d s t h a t i n Chinese the word f o r "pound" cannot co-occur w i t h o r d i n a l numerals. The word f o r "year", however, can. T h e r e f o r e he argues t h a t time measures are fundamentally d i f f e r e n t from p h y s i c a l measures, pr o b a b l y due to the a n t i q u i t y of time measurements. I f time u n i t s are indeed t h i s d i s t i n c t and a n c i e n t , I t h i n k i t i s probably because some of them are n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g l i k e "year", "month" and "day". These u n i t s have s a l i e n t l y p e r c e p t i b l e c o r r e l a t e s : the seasons, phases of the moon, dusk and dawn. The l e x i c a l items of any language which r e f e r to these events would become s t a n d a r d i z e d o n l y r e l a t i v e l y l a t e i n the e x i s -93 tence of the language. In c o n t r a s t , u n i t s of weight and money are dependent on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and technology. Only r e f i n e d p r o d u c t s need to be weighed. The use of simple balances and d i r e c t l y p e r c e p t i b l e e n t i t i e s as measures would a l s o predate s t a n d a r d measures of weight. The need and the means to measure weight and d i s t a n c e come r e l a t i v e l y l a t e r i n human development. The time u n i t s mentioned above are members of the "ambivalent" group; t h a t i s , they are n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g e n t i t i e s but have been p r o v i d e d w i t h s t a n d a r d i z e d senses. Other time mea-sures such as "century", "minute", and "second" seem to be much more p r i m a r i l y Standard Measures. Thus i f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -f e r e n c e s can be found between time measures l i k e /wan/ "day" (a d i r e c t l y - p e r c e p t i b l e u n i t : roughly equal t o a period, of sunshine) and / n a t i i / " minute"(purely a st a n d a r d measure) i t would c o n s t i t u t e good support f o r the p e r c e p t u a l b a s i s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , both items seem t o perform a l l the same f u n c t i o n s : a Standard Measure l i k e / n a t i i / cannot occur as a r e p e a t e r . A c o n t r u c t i o n l i k e 5 . 9 *wan saam wan day 3 DAY i s m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e t o the extent t h a t i n i s o l a t i o n i n -formants can g l o s s the whole phrase as something l i k e "three days" i n the sense of 3 dawn-to-dusk p e r i o d s or 3 working days. However, when a normal s i t u a t i o n i s sought f o r the u t t e r a n c e of a sentence c o n t a i n i n g 5 . 9 ( i . e . , informants t r y to make up a sentence containing.it} none can be found. 94 Example 5.9 does not seem t o occur i n a c t u a l speech. Thus n e i t h e r the n a t u r a l u n i t /wan/ nor the Standard Measure /na-t i i / can occur as r e p e a t e r s . With o r d i n a l s and w i t h demon-s t r a t i v e s /wan/ and / n a t i i / are e q u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e and both must t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d e q u a l l y t o be Standard Measures r e g a r d l e s s of the f a c t t h a t one i s based on a p e r c e p t i b l e u n i t and the o t h e r i s n o t . 5.3.1 STANDARD MEASURES AS HEADWORDS We have seen t h a t Standard Measures are unacceptable as f u l l r e p e a t e r s . Compound Standard Measures do occur; f o r example charjluarj monetary or weight u n i t + government = " o f f i c i a l u n i t of money or weight" kamlarjmaa power + horse = "horsepower" piisaeaen, year + l i g h t = " l i g h t y e a r " e t c . But these are unacceptable as p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s : 5.10 *niwfut saam niw ( E n g l i s h ) i n c h 3 INCH I t i s not to be assumed, however, t h a t Standard Measures cannot occur i n the headword p o s i t i o n . A Standard Measure can be c l a s s i f i e d i f the c l a s s i f i e r i s n e i t h e r a r e p e a t e r nor a p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r : 5.11 niw SOOTJ jaarj i n c h 2 KIND "two k i n d s of i n c h e s " The a l t e r n a t e sense of /niw/, " f i n g e r " i s not c o n s i d e r e d r e -l e v a n t to the d i s c u s s i o n here. T h i s k i n d of phrase c o u l d o n l y occur i n a sentence where the speaker i s t a l k i n g about /niw/ " i n c h e s " . That i s , the 95 n o n - e n t i t y i s be i n g r e f e r r e d t o and ( t h e r e f o r e ) i t s e x i s t e n c e i s b e i n g a s s e r t e d . That i s , the concept of an i n c h i s be i n g o b j e c t i f i e d , r e i f i e d , i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n which i s , i n a sense, a m e t a l i n g u i s t i c one: a c o n v e r s a t i o n about measures, not the m a t e r i a l or d i s t a n c e b e i n g measured. I t i s o n l y i n such a m e t a l i n g u i s t i c context t h a t Standard Measures can occur as headwords. Note a l s o t h a t one c r i t e r i a used t o d e s c r i b e mea-sur e s i n g e n e r a l was the requirement t h a t a second p r e d i c a t e -p o s i t i o n be f i l l e d . In the example above, /niw/ a c t s as an independent e n t i t y and has no need of another noun. In f a c t i t i s f u n c t i o n i n g as a s u b s t a n t i v e noun and has l o s t i t s f u n c -t i o n as a Standard Measure. In t h i s way i t i s t r u e t h a t S t a n -d a r d Measures are never themselves c l a s s i f i e d . 5.4 TEMPORARY MEASURES* Temporary Measures are c l a s s i f i e r s which perform the same k i n d of semantic f u n c t i o n as Standard Measures: they p r o v i d e i n d e f i n i t e u n i t r e f e r e n c e and q u a n t i f y a headword. They are thus 2P p r e d i c a t e s and cannot be f u l l r e p e a t e r s , l i k e Standard Measures. I t i s again Adams and C o n k l i n who have expressed the c e n t r a l p o i n t about Temporary Measures. They are " . . . a r -b i t r a r y , f o r anything can f u n c t i o n as the u n i t of measure-ment" (19 74:3. My emphasis.) Of course here they mean any noun, i n c l u d i n g c l a s s i f i e r s , even P u l l Repeaters. Temporary Measures d i f f e r from Standard Measures i n t h a t they are not s t a n d a r d i z e d and not exa c t : a mouthful, a t r u c k -*Y. R. Chao's term (Chao 1968:585). Temporary Measures = nonstandard measures. 96 l o a d o r a day's journey are examples. Due to the a r b i t r a r i -ness of f u n c t i o n mentioned by Adams & C o n k l i n , i t i s not r e a l l y p o s s i b l e to c h a r a c t e r i z e temporary measures i n a very p r e c i s e way.. Temporary measures p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on quan-t i t y by r e f e r r i n g t o the p h y s i c a l u n i t i n v o l v e d ( i . e . the group, arrangement, s e t , p a r t or n a t u r a l e n t i t y ) or by r e f e r -r i n g to the c o n t a i n e r . There i s no e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e be-tween the use of c o n t a i n e r - u n i t s and oth e r u n i t s as tempora-r y measures.. In the l a s t s e c t i o n we saw how the st a n d a r d Measure sense i s o f t e n blended w i t h the sense of the n a t u r a l u n i t i n v o l v e d . There i s a s i m i l a r tendency with c o n t a i n e r u n i t s , but the b l e n d i n g i s e a s i e r t o r e s i s t , s i n c e the c o n -t a i n e r has e x i s t e n c e when empty, as an e n t i t y i n i t s own r i g h t . For example, c o n s i d e r the "ambivalent" measure/tharj/i / t h a r j / N. 1. a bucket, p a i l , tub, b a r r e l , tank. C. 2. u n i t of c a p a c i t y e q u i v a l e n t to 20 l i t e r s ; ( l o o s e l y ) a b u c k e t f u l , a b a r r e l f u l , e t c . (Haas 1965:214) As c l a s s i f i e r , / t h a n / c l e a r l y r e f e r s to the c o n t e n t s , e i t h e r e x a c t l y , as a s t a n d a r d measure, or " l o o s e l y " as a tem-p o r a r y measure. As noun i t r e f e r s to the c o n t a i n e r , not the c o n t e n t s . There w i l l always be some semantic s p i l l o v e r by a s s o c i a t i o n , depending on the c u l t u r a l s a l i e n c e of the con-t a i n e r i n q u e s t i o n , but the c o n t a i n e r as u n i t of measure and the contents as commodity measured are u s u a l l y c l e a r l y d i s -t i n g u i s h a b l e . No- b l e n d i n g of Standard Measure and f i r s t - o r -der e n t i t y takes p l a c e , as i s the case with st a n d a r d measures of weight. There are numerous and complex indigenous Thai systems 9 7 of weights and measures, some w e l l - s t a n d a r d i z e d . These have been g e n e r a l l y d i s c a r d e d (except f o r those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some very t r a d i t i o n a l c r a f t s ) i n f a v o r of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l m e t r i c system. 5.5 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY INFORMATION We have seen how some forms can f u n c t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e l y as temporary measures and as f u l l r e p e a t e r . But what of the other c a t e g o r i e s ? We have c l a i m e d t h a t any c l a s s i f i e r can be used as a temporary measure. T h i s would i n c l u d e p a r -t i a l r e p e a t e r s l i k e / b a j / "S2D shape" and non-repeaters l i k e / c h i n / " p i e c e " . Even when such c l a s s i f i e r s are not used as measures they s t i l l p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the q u a n t i t y of the headword, but o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y . The p r i -y mary f u n c t i o n of / b a j / and / c h i n / i s t o p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e by means of f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on a r e l e v a n t a t t r i b u t e : the shape i n the case of / b a j / and the p a r t i t i v e nature of the u n i t i n the case of / c h i n / . T h i s cannot be done without a l s o p r o v i d i n g some q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . In f a c t the c r i t e r i a of s t a t u s as e n t i t y and q u a n t i f i c a t i o n are i n e x t r i -c a b l y bound up t o g e t h e r . T h i s i s a l s o the case wi t h second-order e n t i t i e s . Con-s i d e r the c o l l o q u i a l / i i a k / "a g u l p " where the s t a t u s as en-t i t y i s determined a t l e a s t i n p a r t by the time e l a p s e d du-r i n g the a c t i o n . Since the p e r i o d i s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t , i t i s p e r c e p t u a l l y an instantaneous or p o i n t - o f - t i m e o c c u r r e n c e . The q u a n t i t y of water or l i q u i d swallowed i s a l s o a very s a -l i e n t aspect of t h i s a c t i o n . Compare / i i a k / "a g u l p " to 98 / h i i a k / "a gasp or sigh" where the same sort of time element i s involved, but the volumetric implication i s c l e a r l y much less s a l i e n t . A gulp can c l e a r l y be considered a non-stan-dard measure of l i q u i d volume, while a gasp or sigh i s f a r less l i k e l y to be considered a volume of a i r expended or i n -haled. Anything, however, i s a p o t e n t i a l temporary measure, and / h i i a k / i s no exception. Thus i t i s possible to conceive of unusual si t u a t i o n s where a sigh or a gasp could be used as measures. The difference i n the salience of a gulp as a volume, as opposed to a gasp as a volume i s based on encyclo-pedic (as opposed to l e x i c a l ) f a c t o r s : a gulp of water i s usually an in t e n t i o n a l act focused on the volume of water; a sigh i s often an involuntary act focused on some external or secondary s i g n i f i c a n c e (such as a s i g n a l that one i s t i r e d , etc..) . Returning to our comparison of measures and c l a s s i f i e r s l i k e /baj/ and /chin/, we have seen that information provided by the former c l a s s i f i e r i s focused on the d i r e c t l y - p e r c e p t i -ble a t t r i b u t e , the shape. But information i s also provided on the quantity involved. Shape and "partitiveness" are as-pects of natural e n t i t i e s , but not of i n d e f i n i t e masses or commodities considered generally. The primary difference, then, between measures and non-measures (which are not f u l l repeaters) seems to be that whereas the non-measures provide information on the percepti-ble unit p r i m a r i l y and information on quantity secondarily, temporary measures provide information on quantity primarily 99 and on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e n t i t i e s s e c o n d a r i l y . Standard Measures p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on q u a n t i t y f i r s t and p r o v i d e no i n f o r m a t i o n on the e n t i t y , whether or not some form of e n t i t y i s s a l i e n t i n the commodity measured. These g e n e r a l i -z a t i o n s are summarized i n Table 9. Table 9 Primacy of Information in- C l a s s i f i e r s  C l a s s i f i e r Category Primary Information Secondary Informa-(Focus) tion F u l l Repeater (e.g.. /pratheet/ "country") Standard Measure (e.g. /kilokrarn/ "kilogram") Others: (a) i f measure function em-phasized (e.g. /baj/ "S2D shape") (b) i f status as ent i t y empha-sized (e.g. /baj/ " S 2 D shape") Status as Entity ( i t s e l f ) Quantity Quantity S a l i e n t c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c o f en-t i t y Whole en t i t y i n contrast to any s p e c i f i c aspect None S a l i e n t charac-t e r i s t i c o f en-t i t y Quantity Whether the entity or quantity i s primary depends on the speaker's intention and i s often unmarked except for s i t u a t i o n a l or contextual clues, such as the type of question one i s responding to. 100 6.0 OTHERS We have so f a r d i s t i n g u i s h e d and d e s c r i b e d some of the major c a t e g o r i e s of T h a i c l a s s i f i e r s : F u l l Repeaters were seen as independent e n t i t i e s , p r o v i d i n g enough u n i t r e f e r e n c e themselves to a c t as t h e i r own c l a s s i f i e r s . The r e p e t i t i o n of the same form c o n s t i t u t e d a s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i o n f o r d e f i -n i t i o n . Measures were seen as e i t h e r Standard Measures ( t e c h -n i c a l a b s t r a c t e d n o n - e n t i t i e s ) or as (non-standard) Tempora-r y Measures: u n i t s used as measures, a c c o r d i n g to the i n t e n -t i o n of the speaker, to express a q u a n t i t y . Measures thus had no o v e r t s y n t a c t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c r i t e r i a . Ambivalent measures were t r a d i t i o n a l u n i t s which had become s t a n d a r d i z e d , w i t h a l t e r n a t e senses as u n i t or as measure. Measures and F u l l Repeaters were seen as mutually e x c l u s i v e . P a r t i a l r e -p e a t e r s were seen as compoundable morphemes, some (PR Repeat-ers) capable of a l t e r n a t i v e l y a c t i n g as F u l l Repeaters, and others i n c a p a b l e of o c c u r r i n g without a second argument (e.g. / b a j / "S2D shape"| The remaining c l a s s i f i e r s have not been l a b e l l e d more s p e c i f i c a l l y than "other", although many of them, l i k e /baj,/ are capable of p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g . Do they c o n s t i t u t e a group e q u i v a l e n t to Hla Pe's " t r u e c l a s s i f i e r s " i n Burmese? They do, i n f a c t ( p r o v i d e d t h a t the p a r t i a l l y r e p e a t i n g " o t h e r s " are i n c l u d e d i n the group).. Thus T h a i c l a s s i f i e r s can be c a t e g o r i z e d as t h r e e d i s t i n c t and mutually e x c l u s i v e types, the types of Hla Pe. There are two c o n d i t i o n s , however. One c o n d i t i o n i s mentioned above, t h a t P a r t i a l Repeaters 101 o v e r l a p w i t h both F u l l Repeaters and Others. The o t h e r con-d i t i o n i s t h a t a l l c l a s s i f i e r s which are not Standard Measures are p o t e n t i a l l y u s a ble as nonstandard measures, some more l i k e l y than o t h e r s . These d i v i s i o n s c o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d i n a t a b l e : F i g u r e 4 C a t e g o r i e s of C l a s s i f i e r s i n T h a i F u l l Repeaters Others E x c l u s i v e Repeaters P a r t i a l Re peaters Standard Measures PR Repeaters "True" C l a s s i f i e r s PR "True" C l a s s i f i e r s I"* p o t e n t i a l nonstandard measures-*-| Here the r e s i d u a l group has been reduced s t i l l f u r t h e r . The f i n a l u n l a b e l l e d group w i l l be d e s c r i b e d more f u l l y i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Nonstandard measures are not i n c l u d e d i n the boxes proper i n order to i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r p a r t i a l dependence on speakers' i n t e n t i o n . That i s , use as a nonstandard mea-sure i s o n l y an a l t e r n a t i v e to use as a F u l l Repeater, PR Repeater, e t c . Ambivalent measures are c o n s i d e r e d t o be ho-monyms ( p r i m a r i l y f o r ease of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) : one sense as Standard Measure, the ot h e r as non-standard measure. There i s a problem w i t h the use of the term "True C l a s -s i f i e r " . For t e r m i n o l o g i c a l c l a r i t y (I hope not at the ex-pense of t e r m i n o l o g i c a l s i m p l i c i t y ) I would l i k e to r e s e r v e the term " c l a s s i f i e r " f o r the wide-ranging d e f i n i t i o n a r r i v e d a t i n s e c t i o n 2 of t h i s paper. That makes Repeaters and Standard Measures no l e s s " t r u e " c l a s s i f i e r s . Thus the term 102 "True C l a s s i f i e r a'* i s not an e n t i r e l y happy c h o i c e f o r t h i s group of non-measures which are not F u l l Repeaters. For l a c k of a b e t t e r term i t w i l l be r e t a i n e d with q u o t a t i o n marks around " t r u e " . The l i m i t a t i o n s of a s t a t i c c a t e g o r i z a t i o n have been r e -viewed above i n s e c t i o n 5. Although c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i t s e l f can be m i s l e a d i n g (e.g. by s e t t i n g up d i s t i n c t i o n s t h a t do not e x i s t i n the language; by o b s c u r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t a p ply a c r o s s c a t e g o r i e s , e t c . ) , n e v e r t h e l e s s the c a t e g o r i e s t h a t have been s e t up do e x p l a i n a g r e a t d e a l about the: i n t e r -n a l f u n c t i o n i n g of the c l a s s i f i e r system and even p r o v i d e a c e r t a i n amount of i n f o r m a t i o n about c l a s s i f i e r s e l e c t i o n . The most s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of the c a t e g o r i c a l system proposed here i s the c r i t e r i a of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . These c r i -t e r i a are reviewed below i n s e c t i o n 6.1, a f t e r the blank spa-ces of F i g u r e 4. have been f i l l e d i n . 6.0.1 GENERAL UNITS Now we are i n a p o s i t i o n to examine the group of "Others" a l i t t l e more c l o s e l y . There are approximately 43 items i n t h i s group. The group i t s e l f s p l i t s i n t o 2 subgroups. One of these, l a b e l l e d "Extended C l a s s i f i e r s " , i s d i s c u s s e d i n the next section.. The other subgroup d i v i d e s r e l a t i v e l y n e a t l y i n t o the f o l l o w i n g ( o c c a s i o n a l l y o v e r l a p p i n g ) semantic sub-c a t e g o r i e s , w i t h a s m a l l number of ( i n e v i t a b l e ) e x c e p t i o n s : Kinds: /khanaan/ -a k i n d of medicine; a p r e s c r i p t i o n or formula /camphuak/ -group, type, s p e c i e s / c h a n i t / - k i n d , s o r t , category, v a r i e t y , type /prakaan/ - k i n d , t h i n g , item, p o i n t , count (law) 103 /prapheet/ /phan/( W) /phan/ (ti??f) /phan/ (4fuQ) / j a a r j / / s a thaan/ Occasions: /khrarj,/ /khamrop/ A j u a t / / t a a / / thoot/ / t h i i / / n a t / /hon/ /too-n/ / h i i a k / / j u k / /soot/ /rSop/ /waaraV /chabap/ S i d e s : /khaarj/ /daan/ /baai)/ / f a a j / / t h i t / r e s p e c t , means -kind, category, c l a s s , type, d i s t i n c t i o n , d i f f e r e n c e , s u b d i v i s i o n - s o r t , group, c l a s s -kind, type, s o r t - s t r a i n , breed, s p e c i e s -kind, s o r t ( i n g e n e r a l ) - ( e l e g . ) k i n d , item, r e s p e c t , means -occasion -time, round, t u r n -occasion, time, p e r i o d (of a l a r g e r p e r i o d ) -eye; t u r n ( i n a game); c r u c i a l moment; time - s e c t i o n , p a r t , r e l a y , s h i f t -time, i n s t a n c e , o c c a s i o n ( r e c u r r e n t ) -shot, round; meeting, event -time, o c c a s i o n -part, s e c t i o n (of space or time) -a s i g h or gasp -age, e r a , p e r i o d -case, i n s t a n c e , s e c t i o n , p a r t -round or c y c l e -time, o c c a s i o n , p e r i o d - i s s u e , e d i t i o n , copy; banknote; l o t t e r y t i c k e t ; l e t t e r ; document -side ; one of a p a i r -s i d e ; p a r t (of a room); s e c t i o n (of a c i t y ) ; f i e l d (of s t u d y ) ; viewpoint -side, p a r t -side, team, p a r t y , group - d i r e c t i o n , p o i n t of the compass Parts: / s o o t / /suan/ / c h i n / /maatraa/ /too n / / t h o s t / / s i a r j / -case, i n s t a n c e , s e c t i o n , p a r t - p a r t , p o r t i o n - p i e c e , p a r t (of anything whole) - s e c t i o n or c l a u s e (of law) -(severed) p a r t ; s e c t i o n (of space time) - s e c t i o n , p a r t , r e l a y , s h i f t - p i e c e , p a r t , f r a c t i o n or General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : /tamnasT}/ - p o s i t i o n , rank /hasaer)/ /khanaat/ /santhaan/ - p l a c e , l o c a t i o n - s i z e , extent, degree -shape, appearance, o u t l i n e , form, charac-t e r i s t i c What i s the semantic b a s i s ( i f any) f o r the ca t e g o r y of 104 which these groups are members? The f i r s t and most obvious semantic f a c t o r s have a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d i n the i s o l a t i n g of the group: as non-repeaters they are 2P p r e d i c a t e s and n o n - e n t i t i e s . They are not compoundable and t h e r e f o r e not capable of p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g . They are not Standard Mea-sures . F u r t h e r , a h i g h l e v e l of g e n e r a l i t y can be noted, both i n the senses of a l l the General U n i t s so f a r pres e n t e d , and i n the range of nouns they can c l a s s i f y . " G e n e r a l i t y " i s a d i f f i c u l t concept to d e s c r i b e p r e c i s e l y , but the General U n i t s seem to be based on c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which are more complex than, say, those c l a s s i f i e r s based on a c r i t e r i o n of v i s u a l impact. General U n i t s (with e x c e p t i o n s l i s t e d below) do not g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on the s p e c i f i c shape of the o b j e c t c l a s s i f i e d . For example, / l u u k / "S3D shape" can be seen as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the v i s u a l impact of an o b j e c t , but / j a a r j / " k i n d " i n v o l v e s the assessment of percep-t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n p l u s the added c o g n i t i v e o p e r a t i o n of r e l a t -i n g the o b j e c t to a s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r y . S i m i l a r l y / c h i n / " p i e c e " r e q u i r e s the a d d i t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n of r e l a t i n g the ob-j e c t t o some whole, some c o l l e c t i o n , or some mass of which i t i s p a r t . A c l a s s i f i e r l i k e /santhaan/ "shape" i s undeniably p e r -c e p t u a l l y - b a s e d , y e t s t i l l i n v o l v e s the a d d i t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n of r e l a t i n g the o b j e c t to some s u p e r o r d i n a t e category as i n 6.1 m i i l a k s a n a 0 santhaan klom have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c SHAPE round " ( I t ) has the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of round shape." 105 Some vague or i n d i s t i n c t shape, on the oth e r hand, would be c l a s s i f i e d by /ruup/ "image, form, shape" (a p a r t i a l r e p e a t -e r ) , or by v a r i o u s nouns meaning "form, image, e t c . " which do not normally f u n c t i o n as c l a s s i f i e r s . For example, 6.2 chan hen pen raantakhum Kfem.) see be shape i n d i s t i n c t "I saw an i n d i s t i n c t shape." S i m i l a r l y , among the General U n i t s are s e v e r a l items l i k e / s o o t / "case, i n s t a n c e , e t c . " which do not r e f e r to any p h y s i c a l o b j e c t or event a t a l l . I assume t h a t these a l s o r e q u i r e complex c o g n i t i v e o p e r a t i o n s t o i d e n t i f y . An e x c e p t i o n t o the g e n e r a l i t y of r e f e r e n c e of these General U n i t s i s the sub-category of Occasions. T h i s group i s q u i t e unique and c o u l d a l t e r n a t i v e l y be seen as a k i n d of measure of the a c t i o n or event o c c u r r i n g on each o c c a s i o n . However, the group has been i n c l u d e d here t o a v o i d the neces-s i t y of s e t t i n g up y e t another subgroup of measures. The Occasions are c e r t a i n l y not Standard Measures and they do r e f e r to n a t u r a l l y - o c c u r r i n g p e r c e p t u a l l y s a l i e n t u n i t s , but they r e f e r to second-order u n i t s of occurrence r a t h e r than substances. The s i m i l a r i t y of t h i s group to measures i s a product of t h e i r frequency of occurrence as temporary mea-sures and of the f a c t o r of time e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r sense. The f a c t o r of g e n e r a l i t y of r e f e r e n c e i s not common to a l l the remaining General U n i t s , e i t h e r , There are some ex-ceptions which are unmistakably uncompoundable y e t supply i n -f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c shape c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : /thaeaew/ " l i n e , row; s e c t i o n , d i s t r i c t " / p h a i n / " s t r i p s , s h e e t s ; s e c t i o n s , p l o t s " /warn/ " s l i c e ; r i n g " 106 Except f o r these items, the General Units group could be said to convey very general information about the head, as opposed to the more p a r t i c u l a r information found i n the PR Natural units, such as /baj/ with the sense of " S 2 D shape", /tua/ with the sense of "body shape", etc. As an example of the generality of the group of General Units, consider /santhaan/ "shape, appearance, etc." This item i s a hypony-mic superordinate of the p a r t i a l repeating c l a s s i f i e r s above, as well as of the exceptions, the General Units which convey information on shape. Of the a t y p i c a l General Units which re f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y to shape, /thaeaew/ " l i n e , row,etc." can be seen as a repeater, but only i n an inchoative sense, as with a verb of creation or construction. For example 6.3 thahaan tan thaeaew saam thaeaew s o l d i e r set-up l i n e 3 LINE "The s o l d i e r s formed three l i n e s . " /thaeaew/ does occur i n some compounds but these are most-l y verbal and do not occur i n c l a s s i f i e r phrases. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of /thaeaew/ as a General Unit i s based on non-occurrence as a p a r t i a l repeater. This r e s t r i c -t i o n of occurrence i n turn i s based upon some sort of unsuit-a b i l i t y of /thaeaew/ f o r further s p e c i f i c a t i o n i n compounding, although adjectives are acceptable i n constructions with /thaeasw/. For example, */thaeasw thahaan/ l i n e + s o l d i e r , i s unacceptable, but /thaeasw jaaw/ "a long l i n e " i s quite a l l r i g h t . The additional senses of /thaeaew/, "section, d i s t r i c t " are li m i t e d to occurrences with demonstratives and are thus 107 not c o n s i d e r e d f u l l c l a s s i f i e r s . There i s disagreement among informants on the a c c e p t a b i -l i t y of a s t r u c t u r e l i k e 6.4 p h a i n t h x i d i n saam p h i i n l a n d 3 {a.* LARGE S2D SHAPE (b. PLOT On the b a s i s of the requirement of synonymy between repeated elements i n a c l a s s i f i e r phrase, 6.4a would be r e j e c t e d , / p h i i n / i n the compound / p h i i n t x i d i n / " l a n d " r e f e r s t o an area, not a shaped o b j e c t . One informant who c o n s i d e r e d 6.4 t o be unacceptable e x p l a i n e d t h a t " l a n d " i s f i x e d and cannot be f l i p p e d over l i k e a S2D o b j e c t . With the sense of " p l o t " f o r the c l a s s i f i e r , 6.4b would be a c c e p t a b l e , making / p h i i n / a P a r t i a l Repeater, not a General U n i t . With the exceptions noted, then, General U n i t s can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as p r o v i d i n g u n i t r e f e r e n c e by r e f e r r i n g t o more g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e f e r e n t s of the headnouns. The General U n i t s a l s o e x h i b i t a h i g h l e v e l of f o r m a l i t y w i t h many borrowings. However, th e r e are many ve r y common ( t h e r e f o r e l e s s formal) c l a s s i f i e r s here as w e l l , e s p e c i a l l y / j a a r j / " k i n d " /haeasrj/ " p l a c e " , and / c h i n / " p i e c e " . The o n l y e x p l a n a t i o n I can o f f e r as to why the members of the category of General U n i t s are not corapoundable i s to hypo t h e s i z e t h a t the l e v e l of g e n e r a l i t y may be a r e l e v a n t f a c t o r : at a c e r t a i n l e v e l of g e n e r a l i t y , concepts do not admit of hyponymic v a r i e t i e s , only i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s . I t i s these v a r i e t i e s t h a t u s u a l l y r e q u i r e a compound when they are expressed. For example, the concept of " s i z e " has an 108 u n l i m i t e d range of examples from b i g to s m a l l , but t h e r e are no commonly accepted kinds of s i z e . I have no s a t i s f y i n g e x p l a n a t i o n e i t h e r why the exceptions are not compoundable, o n l y some s u g g e s t i o n s . T h i s u n s u i t a b i l i t y f o r compounding might be r e l a t e d to the i n c h o a t i v e sense of /thaeasw/ as some-t h i n g formed r a t h e r than something simply e x i s t i n g . However, other compoundable c l a s s i f i e r s are "formed" u n i t s , i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l s i m i l a r i n meaning to /thaeaew/. These items a r e : / t a p / "a t h a t c h (S2D o b j e c t ) ; a row" ,. / t h i w / "row of t r e e s , row of mountains" /th±ak/ " l i n e of mountains; l i n e of descent; l i n e ( i n g e n e r a l ) ; o r d e r ; s o r t " /naeaew/ " l i n e ; row; s t r i p " / p h i i t / " l i n e ; row; range or c h a i n of mountains" A l l of the above are capable of p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g and a l l (except /thiw/) can occur with the i n c h o a t i v e verb / r i a l ] kan/ "be arranged". There may be another p o s s i b l e common f a c t o r among the exceptions i n the General U n i t s group: they a l l have secon-dary (or "double") shape f e a t u r e s . For example, /thaeaew/ i s a l i n e (SID) of s t a n d i n g o b j e c t s (SID) / p h i i n / can be a s t r i p (SID) of c l o t h or l a n d (S2D) * /waen/ can be a s l i c e (S2D) of anything (SID) or (S3D) One g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s f o r c e r t a i n : Because the ca t e g o r y of General U n i t s i s based to a l a r g e extent on the f a c t t h a t i t s members can not enter compounds, the process of compound-i n g becomes even more important i n understanding the process of c l a s s i f y i n g . * As p o i n t e d out by Denny ( p e r s o n a l communication). 109 6.0.2 EXTENDED CLASSIFIERS Among the "Others" are f o u r words which have developed senses as c l a s s i f i e r s which d i f f e r to v a r y i n g degrees of t r a n s p a r e n c y from t h e i r senses as nouns. A l l f o u r can be s a i d t o have l o s t t h e i r senses as f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e nouns and thus can o n l y be e n t e r e d i n a d i c t i o n a r y ( i n the r o l e as c l a s s i f i e r , not as noun) as simply " c l a s s i f i e r f o r . . . " p l u s a l i s t of the nouns they c l a s s i f y . Some of them i n t u r n have l o s t any c l e a r l y p e r c e i v a b l e c o n n e c t i o n to the f u l l range of. nouns they c l a s s i f y . The f o u r are l i s t e d i n T a b l e 10: Table 10 C l a s s i f i e r s with "Extended" Senses  Item Use as C l a s s i f i e r Use as Noun  ch i a k CLF f o r elephants - w i t h sense as "rope" ton CLF f o r g i a n t s , demons, - i n compounds wit h hermits, e t c . sense as " s e l f ; body; substance" lem CLF f o r k n i v e s , books, -none o x c a r t s , c a n d l e s , e t c . an CLF f o r s m a l l SlD phys- -none i c a l o b j e c t s ; p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s i n g e n e r a l , odd-shaped o b j e c t s ; a l s o used to p r o v i d e u n i t r e f -erence to g e n e r a l terms (as i n s t a n c e s ) -a "waste-basket" c a t e g o r y of c l a s -s i f i c a t i o n . The s i m i l a r i t y of Table 10 to Table 6 i s not a c c i d e n t a l . The items i n Table 6 (and many more l i k e them) e x h i b i t exten-ded senses l i k e those of Table 10. The senses as "non-repeat-e r " g i v e n i n Table 6 c o u l d be added to Table 10 as long as i t i s kept i n mind t h a t items i n Table 10 are not r e p e a t e r s of any k i n d , and t h a t items i n Table 6 have m u l t i p l e senses, with only one (or some) of which they are non-repeaters. Thus we c o u l d c o n s i d e r / b a j / "S2D shape" as a p a r t i a l 110 Repeater. / b a j / (with the same sense) can be c l a s s e d as an Extended C l a s s i f i e r when i t i s used as a n o n - ( p a r t i a l ) r e p e a t i n g c l a s s i f i e r as i n 6.5 kradaat saam baj paper 3 S2D-SHAPE "three sheets of paper" Thus, any c l a s s i f i e r which has no a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c t i o n as a f u l l non-compounded s u b s t a n t i v e noun a l s o f u n c t i o n s as an Extended C l a s s i f i e r i n the cases where i t does not p a r t i a l l y r e p e a t . Items wi t h t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c t i o n are c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by ( i ) use as a " c l a s s term" ( i i ) d i f f i c u l t y f o r n a t i v e speakers i n s u p p l y i n g the item with a. meaning, and i n some cases ( i i i ) l a c k of a f u n c t i o n as f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e noun. The use of c l a s s i f i e r s i n t h i s r o l e i s very common. Most items r e f e r t o shapes. Some, examples a r e : 6.6 mamuarj saam ton mango 3 PLANT "three mango t r e e s " 6.7 luukkuncaeas saam dODk key 3 FLOWER-SHAPE "three keys" 6.8 ma.a saam tua dog 3 BODY-SHAPE "three dogs" An e x c e p t i o n i s the c l a s s i f i e r /khon/ "person" which i s a c l a s s term but r e t a i n s the same sense i n a l l of i t s f u n c -tions:- f u l l r e p e a t i n g , p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g and as Extended C l a s s i f i e r i n such cases as 6.9 dek saam khon c h i l d 3 PERSON "three c h i l d r e n " The items i n Table 10 make a good example of degrees of l e x i c a l transparency, from r e l a t i v e l y t r a n s p a r e n t to t o t a l o p a c i t y . The c l a s s i f i e r /ch±ak/ i s r a p i d l y dropping out of I l l use as e l e p h a n t s l o s e t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n modern s o c i e t y . However, f o r T h a i s p e a k e r s who s t i l l would use / c h ± a k / t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y a g r e a t d e a l of c o n f l i c t between the two uses of the f o r m , as l i s t e d i n T a b l e 10 . W i t h / t o n / the s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r , except / t o n / no l o n g e r appears as a f r e e morpheme. F i n a l l y , w i t h / l e m / , no c o n n e c t i o n at a l l i s l e f t to any s u b -s t a n t i v e noun s e n s e , and e x c l u s i v e f u n c t i o n as c l a s s i f i e r has d e v e l o p e d . In t h i s s o r t o f s c a l e of t r a n s p a r e n c y / o p a c i t y , c l a s s i f i e r s l i k e / c h i a k / and / t o n / can be seen as t r a n s i t i o n -a l between senses as nouns which can a l s o do d u t y as c l a s s i -f i e r s and senses r e s t r i c t e d to c l a s s i f i e r f u n c t i o n o n l y . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n note t h a t i n T a b l e 10 t h e r e are two i tems which do not o c c u r as nouns a t a l l , and a meaning c a n -not be a s s i g n e d to them even i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n as c l a s s i f i e r s . . In one c o n c e p t i o n they c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d the o n l y two " t r u e " c l a s s i f i e r s i n T h a i . However, we are r e s e r v i n g the l a b e l " T r u e " C l a s s i f i e r , as ment ioned above, f o r c l a s s i f i e r s which are not F u l l Repeaters and not S t a n d a r d M e a s u r e s . These two " m e a n i n g l e s s " c l a s s i f i e r s ( n a m e l y , / l e m / and / a n / ) a re d i s c u s -s e d i n d e t a i l b e l o w . 6 .1 CRITERIA OF CATEGORIZATION The b i g g e s t problem i n c a t e g o r i z i n g c l a s s i f i e r s (and i n f a c t the one which has p r e v e n t e d a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d s e m a n t i c a n a l y s i s ) i s the m i x t u r e of semant ic and s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i a -R e p e a t e r s , we have c l a i m e d , can be i s o l a t e d by s e m a n t i c c r i -t e r i a , subsumed under the term " e n t i t y " (or perhaps " e n t i t y -i n - g e n e r a l " ) . The s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i o n of f u l l r e p e t i t i o n c o r r e l a t e s w i t h t h i s s t a t u s as e n t i t y . P a r t i a l R e p e a t e r s are 112 distinguished primarily by t h e i r s y n t a c t i c structure and only secondarily by hyponymy between head and c l a s s i f i e r . F i n a l l y , consider the group unlabelled i n Figure 4 : the "True" Clas-s i f i e r s . This group i s i s o l a t e d p r i marily by negative syn-t a c t i c and semantic c r i t e r i a , as non-repeaters and non-enti-ties.. The c learest common p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these r e s i d u a l words i s t h e i r basic function as c l a s s i f i e r s : they provide reference to various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of whatever the. headword r e f e r s . t o , and these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are i n turn used to provide unit reference.. "Natural E n t i t y " i s a term which n i c e l y emphasizes the d i s t i n c t i o n between the units discussed above and the " a r t i -f i c i a l " units of Standard Measures, i s o l a t e d on the basis of t h i s a r t i f i c i a l i t y and on the basis of t h e i r non-entity s t a -tus. However, we have e a r l i e r emphasized that only Repeaters are i n themselves complete e n t i t i e s . Furthermore, the term proposed i s a controversial one. The claim here then w i l l be simply that while a l l c l a s s i f i e r s provide unit reference, Standard Measures provide standardized units and Repeaters provide units which are e n t i t i e s . The r e s i d u a l group i s further divided into those c l a s s i -f i e r s which are capable of p a r t i a l repeating and those which are not. We have been using the i n i t i a l s "PR" (for " p a r t i a l l y repeating") for repeaters of this type. The l a b e l "PR Units" w i l l be used for these words, which mostly r e f e r to shapes, functions, groups and parts. The second group of r e s i d u a l words, those which cannot enter into compounds or p a r t i a l l y repeat, contains the two 113 subgroups d i s c u s s e d above: General U n i t s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h l e v e l of g e n e r a l i t y , and Extended C l a s s i f i e r s which are s p e c i f i c and have vague meanings or none at a l l as c l a s s i f i -e r s . These c r i t e r i a can be r e p r e s e n t e d i n terms of two-valu-ed f e a t u r e s as i n F i g u r e 5 below. The f e a t u r e s proposed here and l a t e r i n t h i s t h e s i s are ad hoc elements s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r c r i t e r i a l i t y i n the s p e c i f i c d i s t i n c t i o n s b e i n g examin-ed. No c l a i m of u n i v e r s a l i t y i s made. In F i g u r e 5 s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s are underlined.. F i g u r e 5 C r i t e r i a of C l a s s i f i e r C a t e g o r i e s +unit / \ - s t a n d a r d +standard - e n t i t y \ -(-entity - e n t i t y Standard + f u l l r e - - f u l l r e - Measures p e a t i n g - p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g j -(-partial - p a r t i a l + p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g r e p e a t i n g / r e p e a t i n g I —-E x c l u s i v e * n n " «T . A ' - g e n e r a l Repeaters I P R U n i t s +general -extended PR Repeaters / sense General I U n i t s Extended C l a s s i f i e r s In F i g u r e 5 the f e a t u r e f+standard] r e f e r s to the use of a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y - d e r i v e d standard to q u a n t i f y the headword exactly.. The negative v a l u e of t h i s f e a t u r e , [-standard^, r e f e r s to the use of ( i ) d i r e c t p e r c e p t i o n ( v i s i o n , v e r i f i e d by touch) to p r o -v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e to f i r s t - o r d e r e n t i t i e s , ( i i ) d i r e c t p e r c e p t i o n ( v i s i o n and h e a r i n g , p r i m a r i l y ) to 114 p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e to second-order e n t i t i e s , and ( i i i ) c u l t u r a l values and d i s t i n c t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s ) i n i n t e r a c t i o n with ( i ) and ( i i ) above, to p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e to t h i r d - o r d e r e n t i t i e s . An a l t e r n a t i v e to the f e a t u r e ^ s t a n d a r d ] i s T'sou's (19 76) f e a t u r e exact] , which makes approximately the same d i s t i n c t i o n . F i g u r e 5 a l s o p r o v i d e s the rough data, f o r a schematiza-t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r s e l e c t i o n , a t l e a s t t o the g e n e r a l l e v e l of the broad c a t e g o r i e s s p e c i f i e d h e r e . 115 7.0 EXTENSIONS 7.1 BASIC SENSE Before we can examine the two c l a s s i f i e r s mentioned above, f o r which senses are not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to n a t i v e speakers, we need t o l o o k g e n e r a l l y a t how senses c o u l d be d e r i v e d and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , whether such senses are i n -deed worth p o s i t i n g . I do not t h i n k t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n s i s t t h a t a l l l e x i c a l items have a sense ( f o r example, to i n E n g l i s h i n f i n i t i v e s , ) . , Yet i t i s a b a s i c assumption of t h i s paper t h a t except i n very g e n e r a l c i t a t i o n - f o r m examples, l e x i c a l o r s y n t a c t i c d i f f e r e n c e s always cause semantic d i f -f e r e n c e s . I t i s a f a c t o r of the t o t a l communication s i t u a -t i o n whether these d i f f e r e n c e s are s i g n i f i c a n t or n o t . Jones (1977:9) c o n c u r s . W i t h i n the broad c a t e g o r i e s b e i n g d e s c r i b e d here, c l a s s i f i e r s group items together a c c o r d i n g to semantic c r i t e r i a i n the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s . T h i s f a c t makes i t worth the e f f o r t to examine c a r e f u l l y a t l e a s t the p o s s i b i l i t y of p r o v i d i n g a sense f o r those c l a s s i f i e r s not r e a d i l y g l o s s e d . Sometimes these senses must be expressed i n l e n g t h y p a r a -phrases or l i s t s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The inconvenience of g l o s s i n g such senses i s a d i f f e r e n t matter' from t h e i r v a l i d i -t y . There are more "meaningless" c l a s s i f i e r s than these two. A l l of the c l a s s i f i e r s of t h i s type, however, r e f e r t o p h y s i -c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i n a t l e a s t one of t h e i r senses) and seem to be d i f f i c u l t to f u r n i s h with meanings because they r e f e r t o n o n - e n t i t i e s l i k e / b a j / "S2D. shape" or because through a h i s -116 t o r i c a l p r ocess of e x t e n s i o n of meaning the r e l a t i n g c r i t e r i a have been obscured. U n d e r l y i n g any attempt to f u r n i s h these "meaningless" c l a s s i f i e r s w i t h a sense i s the assumption t h a t the c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can be equated with the sense of the c l a s -s i f i e r . J.P. Denny ( p e r s o n a l communication) has emphasized t h a t the meaning of a c l a s s i f i e r cannot be d e r i v e d from the r e -l a t e d noun sense. He s t r e s s e s t h a t i t can o n l y be d e r i v e d from an examination of the words c l a s s i f i e d by the c l a s s i f i e r i n q u e s t i o n . He does allow, however, t h a t the sense as noun can be a u s e f u l c l u e t o the understanding of the g r o u p i n g t h a t does o c c u r . In T h a i , almost a l l of the c l a s s i f i e r s have a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c t i o n s as nouns, with the same or r e l a t e d sense. In those cases where the senses i n the two d i f f e r e n t s y n t a c t i c r o l e s are i d e n t i c a l , t h e r e seems t o be no s i g n i f i c a n t semantic d i f -f e r e n c e between the f o l l o w i n g s t y l e s of l i s t i n g i n Haas 1965: ( i ) s e p a r a t e , but i d e n t i c a l senses: /wan/ N . 1. day.. C. 2. day (p. 501) ( i i ) " c l a s s i f i e r f o r " : /hoo/ N . 1. package C. 2. e l f f o r packages, f o r t h i n g s wrapped i n packages. V. 3. to wrap, package (p. 577) ( i i i ) i d e n t i c a l senses: /phajaarj/ . . . N , C . s y l l a b l e , (p.355). / r i a n / . . . N . c o i n : medal; d o l l a r . C. 2. idem. (p. 591). 117 where N=Noun, C = C l a s s i f i e r , and idem=the same i n meaning as the p r e c e d i n g . Of these examples, on l y / r i a n / ( f o r the f i r s t 2 senses) and /phajaarj/ are l i s t e d by Haas as r e p e a t e r s * . For those c l a s s i f i e r s which do not have a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c -t i o n s as f u l l nouns with i d e n t i c a l senses, n a t i v e speakers are a b l e , i n most cases, t o come up w i t h a meaning. T h i s i s pro b a b l y done u n c o n s c i o u s l y i n a way s i m i l a r to t h a t o u t l i n e d on p.116 a c c o r d i n g t o Denny; namely r e v i e w i n g the kinds of headwords wi t h which the g i v e n c l a s s i f i e r u s u a l l y o c c u r s . Some c l a s s i f i e r s do have c l e a r , e a s i l y e l i c i t e d senses, but no sense as noun. With these a g a i n there i s v a r i e t y i n Haas 1965 as to the s t y l e of e n t r y : some e n t r i e s simply have a sense as c l a s s i f i e r . Others have a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h " c l a s s i f i e r f o r . . . " . For example / c h i n / C. 1. p i e c e (of anything whole) hence, c l a s s i f i e r f o r p i e c e s of c l o t h i n g , f u r n i t u r e , bread, meat, bones, work (a s p e c i f i c task) e t c . (p. 147)** / j a a r j / C. 1. k i n d , s o r t , v a r i e t y (hence e l f f o r a r t i c l e s , u t e n s i l s , s p o r t s , e t c.) (p. 604) *In some cases Haas f u r n i s h e s an e n t r y w i t h a c l a s s i f i e r but does not supply the e n t r y w i t h sense as a noun or v e r b . These must be e r r o r s s i n c e a c l a s s i f i a b l e form must be able t o a c t as head and t h e r e f o r e be a f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e . • * / c h i n / can be used to c l a s s i f y c l o t h i n g which i s incomplete: cut but not y e t sewn. In t h i s sense / c h i n / c l a s s i f i e s p i e c e s of c l o t h , not c l o t h i n g . In o ther cases^/chin/can c l a s s i f y c o l l e c t i o n s or genera-l i z a t i o n s l i k e /khriary m i i / " t o o l " /khr*arj j o t / " i n s i g n i a of rank" e t c . Here i t seems t o be r e f e r r i n g t o p a r t s of a whole c o l l e c t i o n which may themselves be d i s c r e t e o b j e c t s , / c h i n / may have a generalized s p e c i f y i n g f u n c t i o n when i t c l a s s i f i e s such c o l l e c t i o n s , much l i k e the c l a s s i f i e r /an/ wi t h which i t i s o f t e n j o i n e d i n e l a b o r a t e c o l l o q u i a l ex- y p r e s s i o n s . F o l l o w i n g the p a t t e r n of t h i s second s e n s e , / c h i n / can probably c l a s s i f y / k h r i a r j r i a n / " f u r n i t u r e " and /krtai] nurjhom/ " c l o t h e s , wardrobe", although I have no agreement from informants on t h i s . 118 There are other e n t r i e s as w e l l which l i s t o n l y a sense as c l a s s i f i e r i n the s t y l e " c l a s s i f i e r f o r . . . " . Por these I have s u p p l i e d my own g l o s s , based again ( r a t h e r i n f o r m a l l y ) on the nouns c l a s s i f i e d and the r e l a t i o n of the c l a s s i f i e r to those nouns. Such g l o s s e s are the "sma l l S3D shape" type, q u i t e u n f a m i l i a r to n a t i v e speakers. Such g l o s s e s are q u i t e p r a g m a t i c a l l y u s e f u l and can be j u s t i f i e d by r e f e r e n c e to nouns c l a s s i f i e d and c o n t r a s t s w i t h o t h e r c l a s s i f i e r s . They are r e l a t i v e l y easy t o p o s i t , s i n c e the m a j o r i t y of c l a s s i f i -e rs which are not e a s i l y g i v e n meanings by n a t i v e speakers (or which do not occur as f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e nouns) c l a s s i f y a range of nouns which i s q u i t e uniform i n terms of s a l i e n t common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . With the two "meaningless" c l a s s i f i e r s , however, such an i n f o r m a l p r o c e s s becomes inadequate because of the wide range of senses of the nouns they c l a s s i f y . I t i s necessary to f i n d a more acc u r a t e way to supply a sense f o r /lem/ and /an/. As has o f t e n been p o i n t e d out (see Noss, 1964:105, f o r example) the con n e c t i o n between the nouns c l a s s i f i e d by these items has o b v i o u s l y been obscured by semantic change due to c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s . There has o b v i o u s l y been some e x t e n s i o n a c c o r d i n g t o c r i t e r i a of shape and f u n c t i o n , not only i n the case of /lem/ and /an/, but i n many of the other c l a s s i f i e r s . In order to ex p l o r e the path of t h i s ex-t e n s i o n , i n c l u d i n g the end-point and the beginning, i t i s nec-e s s a r y t o have a p l a c e t o begin, a p o i n t of e n t r y . We have such a p o i n t i n the range of nouns w i t h i n one c l a s s . T h i s semantic range c o n s t i t u t e s the end-point. Various paths of 119 e x t e n s i o n can be t r a c e d u s i n g evidence from ( i ) polysemy ( i i ) compounding ( i i i ) common c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( i v ) semantic r e l a t i o n s p e r c e i v e d by n a t i v e speakers between items (v) known f a c t s about the behaviour of c l a s s i f i e r s , i n c l u d i n g those proposed i n t h i s paper, and the most common c r i t e r i a such as shape and f u n c t i o n . The path of e x t e n s i o n can be f a i r l y w e l l t r a c e d i f the f i n a l r e s u l t i s known, as w e l l as something of the p o s s i b l e r o u t e s along the way. However, an e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i s s t i l l m iss-i n g , the s t a r t i n g - p o i n t . Here such an o r i g i n a l sense w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as the b a s i c sense. There are a t l e a s t f o u r ways to e s t a b l i s h the c e n t r a l sense of a c l o s e l y - k n i t o v e r l a p p i n g s e t : ( i ) choose the sense which l i n k s the other (more p e r i -pheral) meanings. ( i i ) choose the sense a s s o c i a t e d with the form when i t i s used i n i s o l a t i o n . (the f i r s t two methods are suggested by Nida 1975:143) ( i i i ) d i r e c t l y e l i c i t the "best example" of the s e t . (from Rosch 1973:143) ( i v ) choose the sense with the g r e a t e s t number of seman-t i c components i n common with the other members of the s e t . These methods apply b e s t to c l o s e - k n i t o v e r l a p p i n g sets, and have l i m i t e d use when a p p l i e d below to the problem of f i n d -i n g a b a s i c sense f o r /lem/ and /an/. The same i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e of the a p p l i c a t i o n of the methods l i s t e d above f o r t r a c -i n g the path of semantic e x t e n s i o n . However, a g r e a t d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n can be amassed i n t h i s way, and at l e a s t a rough i n d i c a t i o n of the semantic s t r u c t u r e r e s u l t i n g from the ex-t e n s i o n can be p r o v i d e d . One major q u e s t i o n remains, and t h a t i s whether or not t h i s e x e r c i s e i s to be a h i s t o r i c a l r e c o n -s t r u c t i o n or not. 120 7.2 DIACHRONY AND SYNCHRONY The approach used here has c l e a r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the h i s t o r i c a l semantics of Th a i and i n f a c t makes v e r i f i a b l e c l a i m s about h i s t o r i c a l f a c t . N e v e r t h e l e s s the c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s paper are best seen as s y n c h r o n i c statements d e r i v e d from semantic evidence as i t i s r e v e a l e d i n present-day d a t a . S i n c e the c l a i m s made here are based on s y n c h r o n i c evidence they must agree with other s y n c h r o n i c l i n g u i s t i c and psycho-l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e . As w i l l be apparent below, the s t r u c t u r e s p o s i t e d here can be d i s p r o v e d by h i s t o r i c a l or c u l t u r a l e v i -dence . A completely d i a c h r o n i c approach would r e q u i r e a good knowledge of both t r a d i t i o n a l and c l a s s i c a l Thai c u l t u r e , and of T h a i a n c i e n t h i s t o r y . Such an approach i s u l t i m a t e l y a worthwhile endeavour. Lyons r e f e r s to the w i d e l y - r e c o g n i z e d p r i n c i p l e that, "the h i s t o r y of the voc a b u l a r y o f a language cannot be s t u d i e d independently of the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and economic h i s t o r y of the people speaking t h a t language" (1977: 620). Both Denny (1976i>:128) and Noss (above) p o i n t out the importance of h i s t o r i c a l study. On the other hand, a t o t a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l approach ( f o r example, u s i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s ) would be s u b j e c t to f a c t o r s of i d i o s y n c r a s y and c u r r e n t e vents. I have claimed t h a t the method to be employed below i s sy n c h r o n i c r a t h e r than d i a c h r o n i c because i t i s based on e v i -dence t h a t i s n e i t h e r h i s t o r i c a l nor p s y c h o l o g i c a l . T h i s i s not an ab s o l u t e d i s t i n c t i o n , s i n c e f a c t o r s of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l nature are c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t , e s p e c i a l l y the emphasis p l a c -121 ed on p e r c e p t u a l s a l i e n c e . A l s o , i n d i f f i c u l t cases where s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e paths of e x t e n s i o n e x i s t , the axioms of "per-s o n a l sense b e f o r e s o c i a l sense" and " t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y simple b e f o r e t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y complex" have d e f i n i t e i n f l u e n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , I c o n s i d e r the approach taken below to be a p r i m a r i l y l i n g u i s t i c one s i n c e i t depends e s s e n t i a l l y on data s u p p l i e d by d i c t i o n a r i e s and n a t i v e s peakers. In a c t u a l f a c t , the b a s i c sense ( i f i t can be s p e c i f i e d at a l l ) i s p r o b a b l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l l y o r i g i n a l sense as noun, but t h i s i s not an e s s e n t i a l c l a i m of t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s because of t h i s c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n with h i s t o r i c a l development t h a t h i s t o r i c a l evidence c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o the semantic s t r u c t u r e s o u t l i n e d below f o r three c l a s s i f i e r s would n e c e s s i t a t e a r e -f o r m u l a t i o n of these s t r u c t u r e s to b r i n g them i n t o a c c o r d with the h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s . Put i n o t h e r words, the s t r u c t u r e s p r e s e n t e d below are the r e s u l t s of h i s t o r i c a l change of mean-i n g and i n e v i t a b l y r e f l e c t t h a t process of change. But l i k e a f o s s i l r e c o r d „they e x i s t wholly i n the p r e s e n t . In t h i s way "...the study of the l e x i c o n i s at the c r o s s r o a d s of a h i s t o r -i c a l and contemporary (synchronic) view of language..." (Leech 1974:226). 7.3 IN SEARCH OF A SENSE FOR /lem/ 7.3.1 THE CLASS OF /lem/ The o n l y way t h a t /lem/ can be entered i n t o the d i c t i o n -ary i s as " c l a s s i f i e r f o r . . . . " . The r e f e r e n t s l i s t e d below i n Table 11 and 12 have been r e p o r t e d from v a r i o u s sources to be c l a s s i f i e d by /lem/. Some are r e l a t i v e l y d o u b t f u l but a l l 122 p o s s i b i l i t i e s have been included here. Doubtful cases are, for example, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of /chibn/ "spoon" and /soom/ "fork" by /lem/ since modern speakers use other c l a s s i f i e r s for these. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of /gaa/ "(elephant«s)tusks" by /lem/ i s attested only by Frankfurter (1900:53), and such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s today obsolete. Table 11 C l a s s i f i e r s Co-occurring With /lem/  c l a s s i f i e r t /daam/ /khan/ /an/ others /miit(phraa)/ "knives" /khwaan/ "axe" /kankaj/ "scissors /khiaw/ " s i c k l e " /kanchiag, phaaj/ x X "paddle, oar" "spoon" "razor" " c h i s e l " "hoe" "sword" /chao n/ /miitkoon/ /siw/ /coop/ /daap/ /daapplaajpiin/ "bayonet" /thuan/ /rjaa (chaarj) / x x x x x X X X X X X X X X R (/kanchiarj/) /soom/ /khem/ /khemmut/ /kwian/ / l i a n , loo/ /n a r j s i i / /phat/ /t h i a n / /rom/ / w i i / /(thaj)khraat/"harrow,rake ..... "wheel-barrow" "lance" "(elephant) tusk" "fork" "needle" "pin" "oxcart" "sled, sledge" "book" "fan" "candle" "umbrella" "comb" x. x x X X X /khaag/ /tua/ /chabap, r iarj, phuuk/ /thasasn/ x x X Notes: Straight razors take /daam/ "handle, h i l t , holder, sheath". Modern s t y l e razors take /an/ (the general c l a s s i -f i e r ) . The c l a s s i f i e r /khan/ means "long handle". The "others" column contains c l a s s i f i e r s with the following sen-ses: R means "repeater"; /khaan/ means "side; one of a pa i r " ; /tua/ means "body-shaped"; /chabap/ means "issue; copy"; / r i a l ) / means "story"; /phuuk/ means "(tied) bundle" and 123 /thaeasij/ means "bar, i n g o t " . There i s no T h a i form g i v e n f o r wheelbarrows because they are seldom ( i f ever) used by T h a i s , and thus they are not commonly r e f e r r e d t o . An x i n a c l a s s i f i e r column o p p o s i t e an item means t h a t at l e a s t one informant, d i c t i o n a r y or grammatical source has l i s t e d t h a t item as b e i n g c l a s s i f i e d by t h a t c l a s s i f i e r . The item / h a a r j s i a / "rudder, t i l l e r , helm" might a l s o be c l a s -s i f i e d by /lem/ but the informant who suggested t h i s was not s u r e . Table UL C r i t e r i a of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n by /lem/ CRITERIA:- ° £ s h a P e SID S2D HAN CUR PNT CUT PCE k n i v e s X X X (x) (X) x (x) axe X X X X s c i s s o r s X X X X (x) s i c k l e X X X X X X (X) p a d d l e , o a r X X (X) (x) s p o o n X X X X (x) r a z o r (x) X X X c h i s e l X X X (x) X hoe X X (X) x ( d i g ) sword X X X (X) X X X b a y o n e t X (x) (X) X (X) X l a n c e , s p e a r X (X) X X t u s k X X X X f o r k X (X) X (X) X X n e e d l e X X X p i n X X x ( h o l d o x c a r t s X* X* x * ( t r a n s p o r t ) s l e d , s l e d g e ( x ) * X ( x ) * ( x ) * x * ( t r a n s p o r t ) b o o k s X f a n X x c a n d l e X X* X u m b r e l l a X (x) X X comb (X) X X (x)(comb) h a r r o w , r a k e w h e e l b a r r o w (x) X X X ( x ) ( r a k e ) X ( t r a n s p o r t ) In Table 12. an x i n a c r i t e r i a column means t h a t I am r e a s o n a b l y c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e i t e m o p p o s i t e p o s s e s s e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c -T f u r t h e r , t h a t t h a t i t e m e x h i b i t s t h e c r i t e r i -a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o an e x t e n t s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h a t c h a r a c t e r -124 i s t i c t o be p e r c e p t u a l l y s a l i e n t . The v a r i o u s s a l i e n t c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s which are c r i t e r i a l a r e : SID: s a l i e n t l y extended i n one dimension (length) S2D: s a l i e n t l y extended i n two dimensions ( f l a t ) HAN: w i t h a handle, e i t h e r l o n g or s h o r t CUR: curved or round PNT: p o i n t e d CUT: p r i m a r i l y used f o r c u t t i n g or chopping PCE: p r i m a r i l y used f o r p i e r c i n g , s t a b b i n g , j a b b i n g , e t c . No x f o r a g i v e n combination of item and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c means t h a t I f e e l the item does not e x h i b i t the c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c enough to be c o n s i d e r e d s a l i e n t . Bracketed x's mean th a t I have i n s u f f i c i e n t f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the item i n q u e s t i o n , but assume t h a t the c r i t e r i o n of t h a t column i s e x h i b i t e d to a s i g n i f i c a n t extent by t h a t item. An a s t e r i s k a f t e r an x i n d i c a t e s what may seem an unusual combination of s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and o b j e c t . These cases are e x p l a i n e d i n the t e x t below. The f i r s t q u e s t i o n about Table 12. i s , of course, concern-i n g the c r i t e r i a s e l e c t e d as s a l i e n t . The s a l i e n c e of a g i v -en c h a r a c t e r i s t i c depends to a l a r g e extent on the shape, and to a c e r t a i n extent on the f u n c t i o n of the implement l i s t e d . F u r t h e r , more e t h n o g r a p h i c a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d to match s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with implements. For these reasons, a d e f i n i t e c l a i m about the exact r o u t e s of semantic e x t e n s i o n on the b a s i s of the p u r e l y l i n g u i s t i c e v i -dence p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e may be premature. T h i s i s p r i m a r i l y due to the h i g h l y c u l t u r a l l y - v a r i a b l e shape and f u n c t i o n of implements i n g e n e r a l and knives i n p a r t i c u l a r . There are an u n u s u a l l y l a r g e number of shape c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e s s e n t i a l to an o b j e c t b e f o r e i t can be c a l l e d a k n i f e , at l e a s t i n 125 English: i t must be l o n g , f l a t and sharp, usually pointed, and with a handle. Such a l i s t of e s s e n t i a l and prominent char-a c t e r i s t i c s may be the reason f o r knives appearing i n c l a s -ses together with a bewildering array of things: A l l a n (1977: 291) refers to a class i n Fula f o r trees, bladed instruments (knife, razor, sword), grass shelters, armpits and l i f e ! Even more variable i s the c u l t u r a l salience of a given shape or function c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Despite the considerations mentioned above, some p o s s i -b i l i t i e s are more l i k e l y than others, as i s shown by the classes which are a c t u a l l y formed i n Thai and other languages. A comparison of classes containing knives i n neighbouring and related languages allows the s e l e c t i o n of the c r i t e r i a used i n Table 12- . T h e patterning i n Table 12. eventually allows the p o s i t i n g of a basic sense f o r /lem/. 7.3.2 CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION FOR KNIVES IN NEIGHBOURING AND RELATED LANGUAGES From the limited comparative data available to me, a f u l l pattern, energes for only one of the items i n Table 12. , This patterning depends very much on the c r i t e r i a selected and be-low i s an attempt to j u s t i f y the s e l e c t i o n of these p a r t i c u -l a r c r i t e r i a . The c r i t e r i o n of " f l a t n e s s " or S2D shape i s used i n a neighbouring language with a c l a s s i f i e r system constructed on s i m i l a r l i n e s to those of Thai. Kaiping, a southern d i a l e c t of Chinese has the c l a s s i f i e r tsiang 33 which i s used to c l a s -s i f y the following referents: chairs, tables, papers, maps and knives, according to Chang (19 77:100). 126 Chinese speakers r e p o r t t h a t the b a s i c sense of t s i a n q 33 as a f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e i s "to extend, to s t r e t c h " and t h a t i t r e f e r s t o a f l a t n e s s , an S2D shape. Another case of e x t e n s i o n by a c r i t e r i o n of S2D shape i s found i n White Meo, a d i a l e c t of a language whose r e l a t i o n t o T h a i i s d i s p u t e d . Heimbach (1969:274) r e p o r t s t h a t rab i s a c l a s s i f i e r i n White Meo f o r implements and t o o l s , t h i n g s h e l d i n the hand, t h i n g s w i t h h a n d l e s . Items c l a s s i f i e d by rab are k n i v e s , spoons, axes and hammers. Elsewhere o t h e r items are l i s t e d as b e l o n g i n g to the c l a s s : s c i s s o r s , guns, and c h i s e l s (Heimbach 1969:455). rab i s a l s o l i s t e d ( i n a sepa-r a t e entry) as c l a s s i f i e r f o r a l a r g e area of f i e l d . A l Although S2D shape i s s a l i e n t t o these items i n these languages, t h i s does not c o n s t i t u t e d i r e c t evidence of i t s s a l i e n c e i n T h a i . Nevertheless,, the e x i s t e n c e of such a con-n e c t i o n i n nearby languages a t l e a s t shows t h a t such connec-t i o n s are p o s s i b l e . SID shape i s a l s o v e r y prominent i n s i m i l a r g r ouping i n c l a s s i f i e r systems i n South East A s i a . Mnong Njua,a Meo language of Vietnam,is r e p o r t e d (Lyman 1974:91) to have a c l a s s i f i e r , carj, which i s used f o r "long p o i n t e d o b j e c t s , l o ng f l a t o b j e c t s , v e h i c l e s ( c e r t a i n t o o l s and weapons)". Examples of c l a s s i f i e d items i n c l u d e l e t t e r s ( e p i s t l e s ) , p i e c e s of paper, wagons, automobiles, boats, machetes, needles p l a n t i n g s t i c k s , hoes, r a z o r s , p o c k e t k n i v e s , axes, spears, s i c k l e s , s c y t h e s . A separate e n t r y g i v e s "trunk (of a dead t r e e ) , hollow t r e e " as the sense of the same form with a f u n c -127 t i o n as noun. A s i m i l a r grouping based on SID shape i s a l s o found i n Chrau, a Chamic language of the. Malayo-Polynesian f a m i l y . Chrau speakers are found i n Vietnam. Thomas (1971:133) l i s t s the Chrau c l a s s i f i e r tong w i t h the sense "long, t h i n " f o r a l i s t of o b j e c t s i n c l u d i n g k n i v e s . Knives are ( a l t e r n a -t i v e l y ) c l a s s i f i e d i n Burmese with, chaun f o r "long s l e n d e r o b j e c t s " ( B u r l i n g 1965:251). The f a c t o r of roundness or curve i s prominent i n many of these groupimgs. Chrau (above) i n c l u d e s r i n g s and mortars i n . the tong group. White Meo i n c l u d e s " T h a i - s t y l e " curved hoes, k n i v e s w i t h hooked ends, half-moon r i c e - c u t t i n g k n i v e s and r i c e s i c k l e s i n the rab c l a s s (Heimbach 1969:492). Bur-mese, which neighbours T h a i but i s u n r e l a t e d , has the c l a s s i -f i e r s i n which i s used f o r c u t t i n g t o o l s , t r a n s p o r t , paths and a r c s of a r i v e r (Denny 1976:128). The n o t i o n of curved shape seems to De ny to be s i g n i f i c a n t . Furthermore, the f o l l o w i n g e n t r i e s are found i n Haas (1965:476 & 495): / l l r a n / 1. to move along; to s l i d e , to s k i d 2. a s l e d ; a s ledge used i n h a r v e s t i n g ( c l a s s i f i e d by /lem/) /loo / 1. a. wheel of a c a r t or wagon 2. to r o l l (a wheel o r round o b j e c t ) 3. crude o x c a r t used i n h a r v e s t i n g ( c l a s s i f i e d by /lem/) /loo l * a n / wheeled v e h i c l e s (a c o l l e c t i v e term) These polysemous e n t r i e s show c l e a r c onnections i n T h a i between s l i d i n g and r o l l i n g t r a n s p o r t i n the r e s t r i c t e d do-main of rough h a r v e s t v e h i c l e s . Manitcharoen (1977:827) a l s o g i v e s a wide d e f i n i t i o n of /loo/ i n c l u d i n g a n y t h i n g round 128 used to support and move a v e h i c l e , or round t h i n g s i n gener-a l , such as a c o i n . He c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e s /l±an/ as a d e v i c e p u l l e d along on long wooden r o l l e r s i n s t e a d of wheels (1977: 755). There i s a c l e a r c o n n e c t i o n here to the p r o c e s s of manufacturing c a n d l e s . Manitcharoen d e f i n e s the compound verb / f a n t h i a n / as to p r e s s and r o l l wax i n t o c y l i n d e r -shaped candles u s i n g hand, f o o t or wooden instrument. T h i s compound verb i s common and l i s t e d i n most d i c t i o n a r i e s . But the c l e a r e s t use of the c r i t e r i o n of roundness to c l a s s i f y k n i v e s i s found i n Lao, a T a i language very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to T h a i . There knives are c l a s s i f i e d by dua:ng which i s l i s t -ed i n the L a o - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (Kerr 19 72:550) with the f o l l o w i n g e n t r y : 1.. n. shape 2. n. b a l l , a n y thing round. 3. n. d i s c . 4. e l f . f o r l i g h t s , s t a r s , stamps, k n i v e s , round o b j e c t s . Lao /dua;ng/ i s cognate to the Thai c l a s s i f i e r /duan^/ which i s used f o r almost e x a c t l y the same range.of nouns except,of course, f o r k n i v e s . In T h a i the sense of /dual)/ i s u s u a l l y given as "round t h i n g ; source of l i g h t , e t c . " E s p e c i a l l y i n view of the senses of the Lao cognate, i t i s c l e a r t h a t here the c r i t e r i o n of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y roundness. F i n a l l y there i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the handle of these o b j e c t s may be a s a l i e n t enough c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to a c t as a c r i t e r i o n of e x t e n s i o n of the c l a s s . We have a l r e a d y noted t h a t the White Meo c l a s s i f i e r rab c l a s s i f i e s t h i n g s with handles and t h i n g s h e l d . i n the hand g e n e r a l l y . Campbell and Shaweevongse (1962:346) i n c l u d e i n t h e i r l i s t of o b j e c t s c l a s s i f i e d by /lem/ " t h i n g s with handles such as o x c a r t s , 129 wheel barrows e t c . " T h i s i s p r o b a b l y r e f e r e n c e to the l o n g b a r s which r u n p a r a l l e l a l o n g each s i d e o f T h a i o x c a r t s ( / k w i a n / ) . B u r l i n g shows (1965:252) t h a t i n Burmese k n i v e s can a l s o be c l a s s i f i e d by le"* , a c l a s s i f i e r f o r "hand t o o l s " . T h i s r e v i e w has c e n t e r e d on c r i t e r i a of s h a p e , b u t c r i -t e r i a o f f u n c t i o n a r e o f t e n e q u a l l y as s i g n i f i c a n t . F o r e x -ample , n o t e t h a t g r o o v e s , l i n e s o r c u t s can be made by b l a d e d i n s t r u m e n t s , p o i n t e d i n s t r u m e n t s o r w h e e l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n a s o f t m a t e r i a l . Some i n f o r m a n t s say t h a t o x c a r t s a re c o u n t -ed w i t h / l e m / because o f the way t h e y c u t i n t o t h e s o f t e a r t h of the w e t - r i c e f i e l d s . Burmese s i n seems t o encompass " t o o l s o r m a c h i n e r y which a r e u s e d f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o r f o r c u t t i n g " ( B u r l i n g 1965:251) t h r o u g h a l i n k i n g of b o a t s " c u t t i n g " t h r o u g h w a t e r . E v i d e n c e a g a i n s t s u c h a c o n n e c t i o n i s f o u n d i n the f a c t t h a t p l o w s , l i n e - d r a w e r s and c u t t e r s o f t h e e a r t h p a r e x c e l l e n c e , a re c l a s s i f i e d i n T h a i by / k h a n / " l o n g h a n d l e " r a t h e r t h a n by / l e m / . 7 .3 .3 A BASIC SENSE FOR / l e m / I f we a p p l y the 4 methods s u g g e s t e d above (p.119) t o p o -s i t a b a s i c sense f o r / l e m / , t h e n methods ( i i ) and ( i i i ) do not p r o v e v e r y u s e f u l . In i s o l a t i o n (approach i i ) , / l e m / means " s o m e t h i n g l o n g and p o s s i b l y r o u n d " to some s p e a k e r s , b u t n o t h i n g a t a l l t o o t h e r s . The " b e s t examples" o f the s e t of words c l a s s i f i e d by / l e m / (approach i i i ) a r e e i t h e r k n i v e s or b o o k s . However, b o t h the sense i n i s o l a t i o n and the b e s t example are skewed by t h e f a c t t h a t a l l i n f o r m a n t s a re e d u c a t e d c i t y p e o p l e w i t h l i t t l e a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t r a d i -t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l implements o r w i t h weapons. The senses 130 given are simply the most prominent members of the class in contemporary culture. It might be assumed that methods (i) and (iv) are equivalent, but a comparison of the discussions of /lem/ below and of /tua/ in section 7.5 shows this is not wholly so: a basic sense for /lem/can be posited using ap-proach (iv), while this is insufficient for /tua/ as w i l l be described in section 7.5. In Table 12. there i s only one item which exhibits a l l the s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the class of /lem/. This item i s /khiaw/ " s i c k l e " . It i s doubtful i f p i e r c i n g i s a s a l i e n t function of s i c k l e s , but t h i s i s not a great shortcoming as i t i s demonstrable that the function of p i e r c i n g i s dependent upon a pointed shape to a f a r greater extent than, say, the function of cutt i n g i s dependent upon any p a r t i c u l a r shape. It has already been noted above that various instruments can a f f e c t a mass material i n various ways that a l l have a common e f f e c t : creating l i n e a r l e s i o n s . In f a c t cutting may be the most productive c r i t e r i o n of semantic extension i f a l l these operations are seen by native speakers as similar. Thus /khiaw/ " s i c k l e " exhibits a l l the important c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Knives i n general exhibit the same range, since roundness and pointedness are bracketed only because of the generic nature of the item. Thus, as the basic sense of /lem/ i n Thai we can p o s i t the sense of a bladed, pointed cutting instrument with a handle and either a s t r a i g h t or curved blade. It i s probably relevant that oxcarts, sleds and sledges are associated with s i c k l e s i n the process of harvesting. 131 I t i s possible that these items are c l a s s i f i e d i n d i r e c t l y through chains of c r i t e r i a . For example the cutting action of a sledge may have been the c r i t e r i o n f or transfer of /lem/ class status from knives to sledges and from these the common harvest transport function of sledges and early carts may have been the c r i t e r i o n of extension to car t s . Frankfurter, writing at the turn of the century (1900:54), thought that /kwian/ "oxcart" was i n the class of /lem/ "perhaps from the traces i t leaves on the ground". A l l other vehicles are c l a s s i f i e d with /khan/ "long handle", and t h i s leads to the suspicion that early carts and sledges were not b u i l t with a single tongue projecting i n fr o n t . One informant f e l t that oxcarts t r a d i t i o n a l l y had a triangular sort of extension i n front to which oxen were yoked. The "handles" of the cart and extension to wheelbarrows suggest that the farmers them-selves often had to push the carts out of ruts, or s o f t f i e l d s . 7.4 IN SEARCH OF A SENSE FOR /an/ 7.4.1 .NOUNS CLASSIFIED BY /an/ The c l a s s i f i e r /an/ i s f o r small, long objects and i s used loosely when a speaker i s unsure of the proper c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of something, usually, but not always, a physical object. With /pen/ "be" i t also functions as kind of r e l a t i v i z e r or nominalizer i n forcmal writing, as i n the following example: 7.1. khaw choop maak he l i k e much "He l i k e s i t very much". 7.2 khaw chSop pen an maak he l i k e be NOM much "He l i k e s i t a great deal". This i s a c t u a l l y a fixed construction f o r a number of expres-132 s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g /pen an khaat/ " a b s o l u t e l y , d e f i n i t e l y not" /pen an d i i / "very w e l l ; w i l l i n g l y " /pen an t o k l o r j / " i t ' s agreed" /pen an maak/ " i n g r e a t q u a n t i t y , i n great numbers" Of the 300 e n t r i e s i n Haas 1965 which are c l a s s i f i e d w i t h /an/, 21 are compounds be g i n n i n g w i t h /maaj/ "wood" which r e f e r to s t i c k l i k e implements such as s t a f f s , , r ods, c l u b s , spears, e t c . , and by e x t e n s i o n to some symbols i n the Thai a l p h a b e t . There i s an a d d i t i o n a l group of 20 words of v a r i e d m o r p h o l o g i c a l form which r e f e r to s t i c k l i k e implements. The second most common group of compounds begins with /khrsarj/ " s i g n ; machine; i n g r e d i e n t s ; p a r a p h e r n a l i a ; equip-ment, e t c . " w i t h n i n e o c c u r r e n c e s . From- the f o r e g o i n g i t would appear t h a t there i s an im-p o r t a n t f a c t o r of a sense of "implement" i n t h i s c l a s s . How-ever, among the words c l a s s i f i e d by /an/ are s e v e r a l whose r e f e r e n t s are a b s t r a c t i o n s i n the sense of being t h i r d - o r d e r e n t i t i e s , thus not p h y s i c a l l y p e r c e p t i b l e . The group i s as f o l l o w s : / c u t 9 x i n / "weak p o i n t " /muunheet/ "cause" / u b a a j / " t r i c k , d e v i c e , / p h i i n raap/"(geom.) p l a n e " p l o t " / k r o n / "(math) r o o t " / n a j o o b a j / " p o l i c y " / r a t t h a p r a s a a s a n o o b a j / "governmental a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y " A s i m i l a r and o v e r l a p p i n g group c o n s i s t s of words t h a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d e i t h e r a b s t r a c t or c o n c r e t e , as g e n e r a l type or s p e c i f i c example. T h i s second group i s / t u a j a a r j / "sample, example" /nimi't/^ " s i g n , omen" /basaepjaan/ "set example, p a t t e r n " /basaepchabap/ " p a t t e r n , model" 133 /phaeaen/ "plan, scheme" /phseaenkaan/ "plan, p r o j e c t scheme" /pha^aenphan/ "plan, l a y o u t , scheme" / k h r i a n m i i / " t o o l , instrument" /khratanf ajCf aa/ " e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e s " / k h r t a r j j o t / " i n s i g n i a of rank" /khrifcarjalaj/ "spare p a r t s " /khriarjwat/ "measuring ins t r u m e n t s " /khriai^maa j / " s i g n , mark, symbol, s i g n a l " /khrasaijmaaj k h r i a r j m i i / " t o o l s , i n s t r u m e n t s " /khr±arjmaajkaakabaat/ "mark with c r o s s e d l i n e s " /khcorjkhwan/ " g i f t " /khDorj l a p / " g e n i t a l i a " /s irjkhobrj / " t h i n g s " /khaawkh^arj / "belongings, equipment" /kon/ "mechanical d e v i c e " /khoopkheet/ " l i m i t " One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the use of /an/ with t h i s second group i s as f o l l o w s : Where a word or phrase i s of h i g h gene-r a l i t y and i s ambiguous between the g e n e r a l sense and a. s p e c i -f i c exemplary sense, /an/ i s used to i n d i c a t e the l a t t e r . . For. example, with / k h r i a r j m i i / " t o o l s , instruments", i f the speaker r e f e r s to t o o l s i n g e n e r a l , he w i l l not need to c l a s -s i f y at a l l . I f the speaker r e f e r s t o kinds of t o o l s , he w i l l use /jaa-rj/ " k i n d " or one of i t s c l o s e near-synonyms. I f he r e f e r s t o a s p e c i f i c example as b e i n g a member of the c l a s s of t o o l s of instruments, he w i l l use /an/. In t h i s case the sense added to a phrase or sentence by the use of /an/ i s the same as t h a t added by the use of any c l a s s i f i e r : "one u n i t of the type s p e c i f i e d " , except t h a t with /an/ the u n i t i s not v e r y c l o s e l y s p e c i f i e d , a t l e a s t not when /an/ i s used l o o s e -l y to p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e to g e n e r a l terms l i k e " d e v i c e , t o o l , t h i n g , " e t c . The c l a s s i f i e r /an/ i s s u i t a b l e f o r such a c o n c r e t i z i n g f u n c t i o n due to i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h hand t o o l s , and other p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s h e l d i n the hand. The most common semantic s e t s among the 3 0 0 words c l a s s i -134 f i e d by /an/ were: ( i ) SlD o b j e c t s : 119 o c c u r r e n c e s , ( i i ) hand implements ( t o o l s , weapons, etc.) or hand-held p a r t s of complex d e v i c e s : 83 o c c u r r e n c e s , ( i i i ) s i g n s , i n d i c a t o r s , symbols, i n s i g n i a , e t c . : 45 o c c u r -rences . ( i v ) machinery, moving p a r t s : 43 o c c u r r e n c e s , (v) SlD wooden " s t i c k - l i k e " o b j e c t s : 41 o c c u r r e n c e s . 7.4.2 CLASSIFIERS CO—OCCURRING WITH /an/ Not much i n f o r m a t i o n i s to be gained by examining a l t e r -nate occurrence of other c l a s s i f i e r s and /an/. The most com-monly o c c u r r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e c l a s s i f i e r i s / j a a r j / " k i n d " with 14 o c c u r r e n c e s . Next i s / c h i n / " p i e c e " with 13. The c l a s s i -f i e r / j a a r j / i s a p o t e n t i a l c l a s s i f i e r f o r almost any head. Co-occurrence with / c h i n / r e i n f o r c e s the sense of p h y s i c a l o b j e c t , as shown i n the f o l l o w i n g common idiom: • 7.3 pen c h i n pen an ( e l a b o r a t e c o l l o q u i a l ) "to be a good be PIECE be CLF s o l i d p i e c e ; w e l l o r g a n i z e d , w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d " (Haas 1965:148) Other a l t e r n a t i v e c l a s s i f i e r s o c c u r r i n g more than 5 times are / t u a / "body shape" /phaan/ " l a r g e 32D shape" / l u u k / "small S3D shape" / k h r i a n / "machine" /lem/ CLF In a l l , 21 d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i e r s are a l t e r n a t i v e s to /an/. 7.4.3 HYPOTHESIZED STRUCTURE The l a r g e number of nouns to be c o n s i d e r e d here, p l u s t h e i r extremely wide range of meanings, makes an approach l i k e t h a t used f o r /lem/ i m p r a c t i c a l . In a d d i t i o n , no c l e a r com-p a r a t i v e evidence i s a v a i l a b l e to me, u n l i k e the case with /lem/. There i s another source, however, f o r a b a s i c sense of /an/, a source not a v a i l a b l e f o r /lem/: the tendency f o r 135 many headwords of /an/ t o be compounds. The predominance of compounding elements allows a rough h y p o t h e s i s of a b a s i c sense and s t r u c t u r e of e x t e n s i o n f o r /an/. Using a s o r t of method of approximations, we can then t r y to r e f i n e the p i c -t u r e . Using frequency of occurrence of compound heads as a c r i -t e r i o n f o r a b a s i c sense of /an/, one p o s s i b l e h y p o t h e s i s of the paths of e x t e n s i o n of /an/ i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 5 (next page). In F i g u r e 5 the b a s i c sense of /an/ i s taken to be " s t i c k " because the most f r e q u e n t compound head c l a s s i f i e d was /maaj/. The sense of /maaj/ i n these cases i s r e l a t e d t o wood i n the form of a s t i c k , and i s e a s i l y r e l a t e d to / k h r i a r j / ( i n i t s v a r i o u s senses), which i s the next most common compounded headword. The sense as " s t i c k " i s a l s o the most t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y p r i m i t i v e , the s i m p l e s t and the most c o n c r e t e . I t i s p o s s i b l e to support some of the i n t e r n a l connec-t i o n s i n F i g u r e 5. For example, /maaj/ and. / m i i / "hand" occur i n a l a r g e number of a l l i t e r a t i v e or euphonic p a i r i n g s such as /khraarjmaaj k h r i a r j m i i / l i s t e d above. T h i s i d i o m a t i c grouping r e l a t e s a l l three items: / k h r i a r j , maaj/ and / m i i / . Haas (1965:420) s t a t e s t h a t such p a i r i n g s are " c h i e f l y f o r the sake of a l l i t e r a t i o n " and indeed sometimes nonsense s y l -l a b l e s are innovated to f u l f i l l the requirements of these p a i r i n g s . N evertheless i t i s t r u e that many of the p a i r s are formed on the b a s i s of a semantic r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p a i r e d members, o f t e n a r e l a t i o n s h i p of synonymy. Regardless of arguments f o r and a g a i n s t v a r i o u s i n t e r n a l F i g u r e 6 Rough Semantic S t r u c t u r e of /an/ 1 . s t i c k - r 2 . l o n g wooden o b j e c t s -3.alpha-b e t i c a l symbols with s t r a i g h t l i n e s 1-4.hand t o o l s 5. s m a l l <-8.any s o l i d s m a l l manip- o b j e c t [~ 9 .s i g n u l a b l e o b j e c t -6 .device •7.mater-i a l s r i o . machine t i l . t r i c k • 12.plan, p o l i c y -^13 .cause p l 4 . i n g r e -d i e n t s 15. apparatus »-16. equipment 1 • 1 7 . s u p e r s c r i p t a l p h a b e t i c a l symbols • 18.represen-t a t i o n • 19.example, p a t t e r n • 20.coins, i n s i g n i a 21. d e c i s i v e b l o w , t r i c k , movement 22. g o a l , endpoint 23 . s e t s , groups of s i m i l a r u t e n s i l s , products 24.spare p a r t s _ r 25.important moment Some examples from group 2 (long wooden o b j e c t s ) : shoulder p o l e , yoke, mast, a x l e , c r o s s , r a i l r o a d t i e , coat hanger Some examples from group 4 (hand t o o l s ) : hammer, spear, broom, p i k e , axe, rudder, c l u b , harpoon, cane, s t a f f , c r u t c h , hook, switch, rod, match s t i c k , s h o v e l , r a c k e t , l e v e r , paddle, l a d l e . 137 connections i n the hypothesized structure, there i s again a r e s i d u a l group which cannot e a s i l y be accommodated i n the structure outlined i n Figure 6. This group contains items l i k e /keesoon/ "pollen" /huukrataa j / "bow t i e ; bowknot" (ear + rabbit) /noon/ "comb (of fowl)" /cut 1D3n/ "weak point" (point + soft) /cua/ "gable" / k h r i i p / " f i n " etc. 7.4.4 COMPONENTIAL REFORMULATION It might also be objected that the items occupying the various nodes of Figure 6 are too semantically amorphous, and, because they are actual words i n English, that they carry various connotations not e x p l i c i t i n the representation. More suitable items, perhaps,, would be more l i k e formal seman-t i c components, more universal i n a p p l i c a t i o n and correspond-ingly less language-dependent. In f a c t such components could be provided and the general structure maintained. The r e s u l t i s Figure 7 (next page), where +object = f i r s t - o r d e r e n t i t y +manual = usually held i n the hand, handled +means = method of achieving a goal +purpose= goal to be achieved +instant= momentaneous, point-of-time -(-necessary = necessary to achieve some goal (=necessary-to-purpose) +integration = u n i t i n g various substances i n one mixture -(-gradation = occurring i n a series which i s graded according to some c r i t e r i o n such as rank, value, etc. +specif ic-to-purpose = s p e c i f i c a l l y created for a given purpose (focus): a component with (focus) i s more s a l i e n t than the same component without i t The type of componential analysis presented here d i f f e r s F i g u r e 7 F e a t u r a l Semantic S t r u c t u r e of /an/ l.+wood +S1D +object 2.+wood +S1D +means •purpose +object H3.+S1D +sign +alpha-b e t i c a l 4.+S1D +object +manual +means (focus) + p u r p o s e J p5.+object +manual +means •purpose \-6 ,+means •purpose 7,+purpose (focus) •neces-sary •sub-stance • _r . r 8.+object • s m a l l 9, +raeans • s i g n 10. +means •mechan-i c a l •complex •power |-ll.+means •purpose • a c t i o n 12, +means •purpose •p l a n 13, +purpose 1 •cause J ("14 ,+purpose •necessary +substance • i n t e g r a -t i o n }-15. +purpose +necessary +ob j e c t +complex u16 ,+purpose +necessary +object + p l u r a l + s p e c i f i c - t o purpose 17,+sign +alpha-b e t i c a l +super-s c r i p t •18,+sign +object 19, +sign +example 20, +sign + o f f i c i a l +gradation •21,+means +purpose +action +instant +important 22, +purpose •exact 23, +object + p l u r a l + s i m i l a r +set •24,+object +necessary +replace-ment ~ r2 5.+impor- ""i H I - t a n t & M + i n s t a n t l 139 from other componential analyses i n ce r t a i n ways. F i r s t of a l l , items i n formal componential analyses are u s a l l y re-' quired to have common components which are used to r e l a t e either the multiple senses of a single form or the members of a u n i f i e d semantic domain. The components are usually presented i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement with the "unique be-ginner" component being (redundantly) included i n a l l the items of the set. Common components and a h i e r a r c h i c a l r e -latio n s h i p , then, serve to unify the set semantically. The analysis then consists of posi t i n g components which d i s t i n -guish the members of the se t . In contrast, when t r y i n g to represent a cl a s s i f i e r class we are involved i n the description of a loosely kn i t group,because the unifying c r i t e r i o n i s not semantic. It i s phonological and syntactic, i n that the class i s creat-ed by co-occurrence (syntactic c r i t e r i o n ) with an i d e n t i c a l form (phonological). Thus the main problem i s to r e l a t e the items semantically rather than to d i f f e r e n t i a t e them. Pro-ceeding to the ri g h t i n the tree structure i n Figure 7 , then, we f i n d i n passing from one node to another that sometimes a feature i s dropped and i n other cases a feature i s added. There i s only one es s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e evident i n the str u c -turing of Figure 7 . That i s that each node must have at least one feature i n common with the node that dominates i t . The features i n common are i n fac t c r i t e r i a of extension, and should be distinguished from the c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which are represented by the t o t a l of non-redundant features at the node where a given item i s l i s t e d . For example the 140 c r i t e r i a of extension from node 1 to node 2 are: - [+wood] , [+S1D] , and [tobject] . The c r i t e r i a of c l a s -s i f i c a t i o n f o r node 2, however, are a d i f f e r e n t group: [+wood] , [ + S 1 D ] and j+means] ; t h a t i s , a l l the non-redundant features at node 2 . [+object] has been dropped from the l i s t because i t i s implied by S I D shape; [+purpose] has been dropped because i t i s redundantly implied by J^ +meansJ. Of course the whole process i s based on the assumption that extension takes place by some psychological process of asso-c i a t i o n of common features. The s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a of exten-sion between each node are given i n Table 1 3 (next page) The f i r s t way i n which the present analysis d i f f e r s from the more usual type of componential analysis i s i n the way the class of items i s u n i f i e d , then. In seeking to explain the paths of semantic extension we are t r y i n g to explain the r e l a -tionships bet-^een items with no components i n common, i n some cases. For example, oxcarts and candles were seen to be classed together by /lem/, yet neither shared a common feature of shape or function. This i s not a defect i n describing classes, however. As pointed out below, the unifying c r i t e r i a are more than simply semantic. Furthermore, Clark & Clark ( 1 9 7 7 : 4 6 7 ) c i t e evidence from Rosch & Hervis 1 9 7 5 that basic type categories i n English (e.g. f r u i t , vehicles, weapons,etc.) have no features common to a l l items. This was the case be-cause Rosch and Mervis included a range of t y p i c a l and a t y p i -c a l examples for each basic type. Thus the i r f r u i t category included apples and oranges as expected, but also o l i v e s and coconuts. 141 Table 13 C r i t e r i a of E x t e n s i o n i n F i g u r e 6 & 7 E x t e n s i o n From Node to Node C r i t e r i a 1 ... 2 +S1D, +wood, +object 1 ... 3 +S1D I ... 4 +S1D, +object 4 ... 7 +purpose (with s h i f t i n focus from +means) 4 ... 5 -(-manual, -t-object 4 ... 6 +purpose, +means 5 ... 8 +object 6 ... 9 -(-means, ( s p e c i f i c a t i o n to [+sign] ) 6 ... 10 +means 6 ... 11 +means, +purpose 6 ... 12 -(-means, -(-purpose 6 ... 13 -(-purpose, (with s h i f t i n v i e w p o i n t : g o a l becomes r e s u l t ) 7 ... 14 -(-substance, -fnecessary, +purpose 7 ... 15 -(-necessary, -(-purpose 7 ... 16 -(-necessary, -(-purpose 9 ... 17 +sign 9 ... 18 +sign 9 ... 19 +sign 9 ... 20 +sign I I ... 21 -means, +action, -(-purpose 12 ... 22 -(-purpose 15 ... 23 -(-object, ( s p e c i f i c a t i o n from [+com-plexj; to [ + p l u r a l ~\ , [+set3 ) 16 ... 24 -l-necessary, -(-object 21 ... 25 -(-instant, -(-important Note: Bracketed c r i t e r i a are superox*dinate c r i t e r i a which are not a c t u a l l y f e a t u r e s l i s t e d i n F i g u r e 7. They express r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f e a t u r e s r a t h e r than the f e a t u r e s themselves. Although they seem to be a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of c r i t e r i a they do express r e l a t i o n s h i p s bet'.-zeen the p o s i t e d f e a t u r e s . 142 From these and other f i n d i n g s Rosch and Mervis argued t h a t f r u i t coheres as a c a t e g o r y not be-cause each member shares any d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e s of f r u i t , but because each member shares a " f a -m i l y resemblance" w i t h the other members of the cat e g o r y . The g r e a t e r the resemblance, the more c e n t r a l i t i s to the ca t e g o r y . ( C l a r k & C l a r k , 1977:467) Thus a common f e a t u r e i n every member of the c l a s s i s not an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of t h i s a n a l y s i s . Another d i f f e r e n c e i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the t r e e s t r u c -t u r e i t s e l f . The d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of the t r e e s i n Figures 6 and 7 ( l e f t to ri g h t ) r e f e r s t o d i r e c t i o n of e x t e n s i o n , not to any h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n . Again no c l a i m i s made as to h i s -t o r i c a l r e a l i t y , although i m p l i c a t i o n s from the s t r u c t u r e p r e -sented here to a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l development (and v i c e versa) are u n d e n i a b l e . The s t r u c t u r e r e p r e s e n t s one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c l u e s g i v e n i n the s y n t a c t i c and semantic s t r u c t u r e of the language as to what a c t u a l l y happened over the course of the c e n t u r i e s . 7.4.5 ALTERNATIVE STRUCTURES F i g u r e s 6 and 7, then, r e p r e s e n t a p o s s i b l e d e s c r i p t i o n of the semantic s t r u c t u r e of the c l a s s of /an/ as i t has been produced by semantic e x t e n s i o n . L i t t l e can be s a i d to sup-p o r t t h i s h y p o t h e s i z e d s t r u c t u r e a g a i n s t othec e q u a l l y as l i k e l y s t r u c t u r e s . There i s a f u r t h e r refinement, however t h a t can h e l p to assess the i n f o r m a t i o n gathered so f a r . T h i s s t e p i s simply to look at the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between items c l a s s i f i e d ( i n t h i s case broad groups of items c l a s s i -f i e d ) and the c r i t e r i a of e x t e n s i o n as h y p o t h e s i z e d . T h i s i s done i n Table 14. 143 Table 14 Items C l a s s i f i e d by /an/ and C r i t e r i a of E x t e n s i o n Items by Group 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 1. - s t i c k X X X X 2. long wooden th i n g s X X X X X 3. ( s t r a i g h t ) l e t t e r s X X X X X 4. hand t o o l s w. long wooden handles X X X X X X X 5. s m a l l hand-h e l d o b j e c t s 6. d e v i c e (x) X X 7. m a t e r i a l s X X X X 8. any s m a l l o b j e c t X X 9. s i g n (x) X X X X 10.machine • X X 1 1 . t r i c k X X X 1 2 . p l a n , p o l i c y X X X 13.cause X X X 1 4 . i n g r e d i e n t s X X X X 15.apparatus •- . (x) X X . X • • 16.equipment (x) X X X 1 7 . s u p e r s c r i p t s X X X X 1 8 . r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n s X X X 19.example, p a t t e r n (x) X X X 20.coins, i n s i g n i a • . X X X X m X (x) • • 2 1 . d e c i s i v e t r i c k , blow, move X X X X X 22.goal, end X 23.sets X (x) 24.spare p a r t s X X X 25.important moment X X 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. The c r i t e r i a of 1. +S1D shape 2. +wood 3. +object 4. +purpose 5. +means 6. +small e x t e n s i o n ar 7,+manual 8 «4-sign 9,+necessary 10. +substance 11. +action 12. + i n s t a n t 13. +important 144 Here i t c a n be r e a d i l y seen t h a t no h o r i z o n t a l l i n e i s c o m p l e t e ; t h u s , u n l i k e the case w i t h / l e m / no s i n g l e i t e m e x -h i b i t s a l l the c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T h i s may v e r y w e l l be an i n d i c a t i o n o f a f a u l t y h y p o t h e s i s i n b a s i n g the s t r u c t u r e on / m a a j / " s t i c k " . There i s a t l e a s t one c r i t e r i o n w h i c h i s common t o a l l groups o f i tems except the most g e n e -a l ; t h a t i s , except groups 5, 8 and 25 . T h i s i s the f e a t u r e o f ^-purpose] . S i n c e ^ p u r p o s e } and j+means] a r e v e r y c l o s e -l y a s s o c i a t e d , t h i s may be an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a d i f f e r e n t b a -s i c sense i s more a c c u r a t e : perhaps node 6 " d e v i c e " . No m a t -t e r w h i c h node i n t h e s t r u c t u r e i s p o s i t e d as b a s i c , however , T a b l e 14 would remain u n a f f e c t e d . N o t i c e a l s o t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o the s t r u c t u r e h y p o t h e s i z e d , e x t e n s i o n has p r o c e e d e d i n c h a i n - l i k e f a s h i o n so t h a t nodes 1, 8 and 25, f o r example, have no f e a t u r e s i n common. Thus no rearrangement o f b a s i c sense o r c r i t e r i a of e x t e n s i o n i s l i k e l y to p r o d u c e as n e a t a p i c t u r e as w i t h / l e m / . P r o b a b l y w i t h s u c h extreme e x t e n -s i o n t o s u c h a wide w a s t e b a s k e t - l i k e sense no d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e o f / a n / would be n e a t . 7 .4 .6 / a n / AS WASTEBASKET As ment ioned a b o v e , / a n / i s the c l o s e s t e q u i v a l e n t i n T h a i t o t h e wastebasket c a t e g o r y common t o o t h e r c l a s s i f i e r languages ( c f Benton 1968:128, Adams e t a l 1975 :5 , Lyons 1977: 461, e t c . ) . Thus i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l a i n how, a l t h o u g h c e r t a i n ( s m a l l l o n g ) o b j e c t s a re p r i m a r i l y c l a s s i f i e d by / a n / , o t h e r s e c o n d - and t h i r d - o r d e r e n t i t i e s can be c l a s s i f i e d i n the same c l a s s . 145 It must be kept i n mind that a structure l i k e 7.4 *phonlamaaj saam an f r u i t 3 CLF would be unanimously rejected by a l l Thai speakers. Thus there are l i m i t s on the use of /an/ as a wastebasket, as there are l i m i t s on the occurrence of Repeaters, and the main constraint i n both cases i s the same: c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by sa-l i e n t natural unit pre-empts c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by more compre-hensive units (as with Repeaters) or more general units (as with /an/). The sense of /an/ has a dual sort of nature, then. I t refers to small physical objects and through t h i s reference has a concretizing, exemplifying function when used to c l a s -s i f y very general nouns (as described above) . I t also can be used to r e f e r to odd e n t i t i e s not e a s i l y c l a s -s i f i e d by other more common c l a s s i f i e r s or by Repeaters. In t h i s l a t t e r function it i s used more widely by children and the less-educated. In section 3.4 i t was argued that Repeat-ers, while capable of functioning as a wastebasket when com-mon c l a s s i f i e r s were unsatisfactory, were only able to do so because of the wide range of referents i n the category of Repeaters: any natural e n t i t y can repeat. The f a c t that /an/ seems to redundantly perform this same function, yet (as i s argued here) i s secondarily derived by a process of semantic extension, constitutes evidence that Repeaters do not prima-r i l y f u l f i l t h i s function. To account for t h i s wastebasket function of /an/, figure 7 could be extended at nodes 8, 25 and 22, where refer-146 ence to o b j e c t s , moments or a c t i o n s , and i n t e l l e c t u a l p o i n t s ( f i r s t , second and t h i r d o r d e r e n t i t i e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) be-comes very g e n e r a l i z e d . 7 .5 THE SEMANTIC EXTENSIONS OF / t u a / The c l a s s i f i e r / t u a / would be c a t e g o r i z e d as a PR Natu-r a l U n i t a c c o r d i n g to the c r i t e r i a of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n worked out above. Although n a t i v e speakers c o n s i s t e n t l y g i v e i t the meaning "body", and i t has a l i m i t e d f u n c t i o n as a noun wi t h the same sense, i t occurs with j u s t as c o n f u s i n g a range of headwords as do /lem/ and /an/. We can apply s i m i l a r tech-niques to / t u a / to a r r i v e a t a d e s c r i p t i o n of the r o u t e s of semantic e x t e n s i o n , the c r i t e r i a of e x t e n s i o n , and the b a s i c sense. In t h i s case, u n l i k e the previous two, there i s an ad-d i t i o n a l f a c t o r : the sense as noun. In f a c t the sense as noun c o n s t i t u t e s a whole complex of f a c t o r s , s i n c e the sense of the noun i n compounds has a l s o undergone c o n s i d e r a b l e ex-t e n s i o n . In attempting a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of extended sense (not a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , p l e a s e note) there are three e s s e n t i a l require-ments : ( i ) the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n must r e f l e c t d i s t i n c t i o n s and con-n e c t i o n s d e r i v e d from the language r a t h e r than from any " u n i v e r s a l " * system of episteraology. ( i i ) the b a s i c sense and c r i t e r i a of e x t e n s i o n must be c l e a r l y shown. b s x n ? deveioped. I t „ o u l d ^ ^ 7 2 ^ ^ ^ " ™ ^ 147 ( i i i ) the nodes or stages r e p r e s e n t i n g the r e s u l t of a p a r t i c u l a r e x t e n s i o n must correspond to a c t u a l l e x i -c a l items i n the language. In the case of /an/ ( s e c t i o n 7.4) requirements ( i ) and ( i i i ) were d i f f i c u l t t o f o l l o w , mainly s i n c e t h e r e was such a l a r g e number of items c l a s s i f i e d by /an/, c o v e r i n g a wide semantic range. Thus the d e v i c e of the rough semantic group-i n g was employed. A g i v e n noun might be i n c l u d e d as the r e -s u l t of the e x t e n s i o n to a "wastebasket" f u n c t i o n . I am not sure whether each of the 300 items c l a s s i f i e d by /an/ can be s p e c i f i e d by the 25 nodes of F i g u r e 7. In the case of / t u a / , there are approximately 120 items l i s t e d i n Haas 1965 as b e i n g c l a s s i f i e d with t h i s form. They form a much more c l o s e l y - k n i t group than the headwords f o r /an/. Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s p e c i f y where each item i s r e -p r e s e n t e d i n the suggested semantic s t r u c t u r e of the c l a s s of words c r e a t e d by the use of / t u a / as c l a s s i f i e r . Again, the f i r s t s t e p i s to choose a b a s i c sense. The two most l i k e l y c a n d i d a t e s , on simple i n s p e c t i o n , are " a n i -mal" and "body shape". There are s e v e r a l reasons f o r choos-i n g "body shape" as the b a s i c sense. F i r s t of a l l , "body" i s more g e n e r a l than "animal" i n t h a t , as Nida recommends, i t more e a s i l y r e l a t e s o t h e r senses. For example, i f "animal" were b a s i c and "body" a secondary e x t e n s i o n from i t , then i t would be necessary to e x p l a i n how "animal" can extend, through the sense of "body shape" to items with human shape (see F i g u r e 8 next page). I f shape i s the b a s i c sense, then human shapes (node 4) are d i r e c t , e a s i l y motivated c o n n e c t i o n s . 148 F i g u r e 8 Rough Semantic S t r u c t u r e of / t u a / body-shape b i r d shape 3. f i s h shape 4. human shape hs.< s i g n animal-shaped f u r n i -t u r e u-7. l i v i n g t h i n g s 3. beak shape 1 w r i t t e n s i g n 10.. s u r f a c e -s u p p o r t i n g f u r n i t u r e 11. s t a t u s 5 animals '12.. a c t i v e agents 13. s t a t u s 4 animals 14. a l p h a b e t i c a l l e t t e r s 15. numerals 16. worm-shape 17. p r i n c i p a l a c t o r s '18. n u m e r i c a l concepts s i g n = one e n t i t y r e f e r r i n g to another a c t i v e agents = th i n g s capable of performing some r o l e or duty s t a t u s = one of the f o l l o w i n g 5 r o u g h l y - d i v i d e d groups on a s c a l e of r e s p e c t and deference p a i d to animate t h i n g s by o r d i n a r y Thai, people: S t a t u s 1: h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d ( k i n g s , gods, Buddha images, e t c.) Stat u s 2: r e s p e c t e d (nobles, l e a d e r s , e t c .) St a t u s 3: equal, human Stat u s 4: l a r g e r animals with c l e a r appendages, such as head, limbs, t a i l S t a t u s 5: t i n y l i v i n g t h i n g s and low-status l a r g e r animals ( i n s e c t s , micro-organisms, some a q u a t i c i n v e r t e b r a t e s , worms, some rodents, some l i z a r d s ) 149 F i g u r e 9 F e a t u r a l Semantic S t r u c t u r e of / t u a / 1. + + + o b j e c t shape c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c l i v i n g • o b j e c t •shape •c h a r a c ^ t e r i s t i c • a c t i o n • b i r d 3. •shape • s t a t u s 4 •head • t a i l 4.. •shape •human • o b j e c t "5. • o b j e c t • c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c • s i g n be. • o b j e c t •shape s t a t u s 4 •support •quadruped u . 7 #  • o b j e c t • a g e n t i v e • l i v i n g '8. • o b j e c t •shape • c h a r a c t e r i s t i c • a c t i o n •beak 9. • s i g n •image 14. • s i g n •image, • a l p h a -b e t i c a l -10.. w 1 5 . -+S2D +sign •support +image • o b j e c t •nume-r i c a l '11.-'18. •numerical •concept 16. • s t a t u s 5 • o b j e c t • s t a t u s 5 +shape • l i v i n g •12. 17., •ag e n t i v e +agentive •^2 +primacy • o b j e c t • s t a t u s 4 • l i v i n g a g e n tive = capable of perf o r m i n g some r o l e or duty support = the main f u n c t i o n (of an o b j e c t ) i s to support a f l a t s u r f a c e f o r u t i l i t a r i a n purposes o b j e c t = f i r s t - o r d e r e n t i t y 150 The d e c i s i v e f a c t o r however , i s the f a c t t h a t as a noun, / t u a / i s c o n s i s t e n t l y g i v e n the meaning " b o d y " by n a t i v e s p e a k e r s . The sense " b o d y " i m p l i e s s h a p e , b u t n o t n e c e s s a r -i l y t h a t o f an a n i m a l b o d y . There a r e a l a r g e number o f t h e 120 i tems c l a s s i f i e d by / t u a / which a r e noun: compounds w i t h / t u a / as a s o r t o f p r e f i x . Por example : 7.5 t u a t a l o k saam tua agent+funny 3 BODY-SHAPE "three clowns" Hot a l l / t u a / compounds are c l a s s i f i e d b y/tua/. We have a l -ready d i s c u s s e d /tuajaarj / "sample", example" i n examples 4.15 and 4.16, of t h i s paper. Other examples are /tuathaeasn/ " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ; s u b s t i t u t e ; proxy" (Haas 1965:195) and / t u a -camnam/ "hostage". Both of these items r e f e r to humans e x c l u -s i v e l y , and must be c l a s s i f i e d w i t h /khon/ "person". Other items l i k e / t u a r o t / "body of. a c a r " are c l a s s i f i e d by /an/, / c h i n / " p i e c e " or by a r e p e a t e r . I t might be o b j e c t e d t h a t i n c o n s i d e r i n g both sense as noun and sense as c l a s s i f i e r , we are c o n f u s i n g two d i f f e r e n t cases and types of e x t e n s i o n , as i m p l i e d by Table 7. The d i f f e r e n c e i s not so g r e a t , however, i f we remember t h a t / t u a / i s a P a r t i a l Repeater i n many c a s e s . S i n c e synonymy must e x i s t between repeated elements (as argued i n s e c t i o n 4.2) the sense as noun and the sense as c l a s s i f i e r must be i d e n t i c a l . Thus any sense of / t u a / as compound head (or p r e f i x ; i t i s d i f f i c u l t to judge) w i l l be reproduced i n the c l a s s i f i e r as long as p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g i s the process 151 of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . In t h i s manner i t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t ad-d i t i o n a l senses as compound member " c r e a t e " i d e n t i c a l a d d i -t i o n a l senses as c l a s s i f i e r . F i g u r e 6 then, r e p r e s e n t s a h y p o t h e s i s about the v a r i o u s r o u t e s of e x t e n s i o n of the meaning of / t u a / . F i g u r e 9 t r a n s l a t e s these i n t o more a b s t r a c t semantic f e a t u r e s i n order to e x t r a c t the p r e c i s e c r i t e r i a of exten-sion.. Table 15 below l i s t s the 120 items c l a s s i f i e d by / t u a / i n Haas 1965 or c o n t a i n i n g / t u a / as f i r s t member of the com-pound i n K c F a r l a n d 1944 and Sethaputra 1965 (1972). Ques-t i o n a b l e items were confirmed by two or more informants as bei n g c l a s s i f i e d by /tua/. Table 15 Headnouns of / t u a / A c c o r d i n g to P o s i t i o n i n the S t r u c t u r e i n F i g u r e s © & d-Node i n F i g s 8 & 9 Item Glo s s  1. body shape santhaan shape, appearance, e t c . 2. bir d - s h a p e nok b i r d ; hammer of a gun wSw k i t e 3. f i s h - s h a p e kh5o 1 hook (head and ta^khooj t a i l ) b e t f i s h h o o k maajtajkhuu s h o r t vowel marker » ^ » ( 9 ) mut tack; peg; very s m a l l screw khemraut p i n ta^puukhuarj screw ta^puu n a i l t u a l i e k w r i t t e n numeral (9) (tua) aksoon w r i t t e n a l p h a b e t i c a l cha-r a c t e r (9) tuanarjsii w r i t t e n a l p h a b e t i c a l cha-„ r a c t e r (9) b u ' r i i c i g a r s , c i g a r e t t e s 4. human tuanaTj shadow puppet (5) shape tuachSat puppet (5) tukat a a d o l l (5) hunkrabook marionette (5) 152 5 . s i g n i f i c a t i o n quadruped ob-j e c t s w. p r i -mary f u n c t i o n of s u p p o r t i n g f l a t s u r f a c e 7. l i v i n g t h i n g s 8. beak' 9 . w r i t t e n c h a -r a c t e r s 1 0 . s u r f a c e - s u p p o r t i n g f u r n i t u r e 1 1 . s t a t u s 5 animates hunjon kraproorj sxakak kaarjkeerj iiam s l a jdksorj saroon tuasia s a n j a l a k khoon tuacam'uat t u a t a l o k tuasadaeaBrj t u a l e n t u a l a ^ k h ^ n phaj to'' to" 9 khriarj paeaerj maajaaw k a W i i k r a t a a j s a t robot ( 5 ) s k i r t v e s t t r o u s e r s , pants; a p r o n - l i k e garment f o r babies s h i r t b r a s s i e r e sarong "body" of s h i r t or coat (with out the s l e e v e s ) symbol, s i g n , mark ( 1 2 ) a c t o r ( 1 2 ) clown, b u f f o o n ( 1 2 ) clown, j e s t e r ( 1 2 ) a c t o r ; r o l e ( 1 2 ) a performer ( 1 2 ) a performer; the c a s t ( 1 2 ) t r a d i t i o n a l p l a y i n g cards ( r e p r e s e n t i n g an animal)(9 , 1 2 ) t a b l e d r e s s i n g t a b l e bench c h a i r bench with coconut g r a t e r animals (of any kind) (tua)paakkaa, penpoint or n i b phaj (tua)aksSon tualeek tuaphim t r a d i t i o n a l p l a y i n g cards ( r e p r e s e n t i n g an animal) ( 5 , 1 2 ) c h a r a c t e r , l e t t e r ( 3 , 1 4 , 1 2 ) numeral ( 3 , 1 5 , 1 2 ) p r i n t i n g type ( 1 2 ) as i n 6 , but not n e c e s s a r i l y quadruped bo •'rDorj thaaw hassock tuamalaeaer j (tua)sajdiian (tua) dakdaeae (tua)burj tuakaeaew tuakhran tuatun tuatasaen tuakaararj tuaphirj tuanoon tuamaj t u a c i i t t u a t i i t i n s e c t s (any kind) earthworm c h r y s a l i s (7) h a i r y c a t e r p i l l a r c a t e r p i l l a r ; l a r v a s c a l e - i n s e c t bamboo r a t ; mole hornet c o r a l p olyp bee worm; c a t e r p i l l a r silkworm t r i c h i n a (worm) i n t e s t i n a l worms 153 12. a c t i v e t h i n g s p r a c u ' f a j f a a p l i n . waw wiwchulaa tuakhuun tuachiam ( e l e c t r . ) charge l e e c h ; s t a p l e , clamp k i t e k i n d of k i t e (math.) m u l t i p l i e r (18) (tech.) b i n d i n g or j o i n i n g agent ( e l e c t r . ) t r a n s f o r m e r ( e l e c t r . ) conductor (math.) d i v i s o r tuakhuapkhuum(tech.) r e g u l a t o r tuabaxjkhap (tech.) governor tuacak cogwheel t u a s u a j , t u a s a n i a t a j i n x tuakratham (chem.) a reagent khrianplaeaerj tuanam tuahaan 13. s t a t u s 4 animates* satbok b*a marjkoon luuk si r j t o o hon amanut naak khrut 14.. a l p h a b e t i c a l c h a r a c t e r s (tua) akscp n l a n d animals w i l d animals dragon o f f s p r i n g of animals l i o n ; Chinese l i o n swan; legendary b i r d s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g (of mal form) iTaga,. legendary g i a n t snake Garuda l e t t e r (3,9,12) l e t t e r (3,9,12) anx-t u a n a n s i i   pha^anchana? consonant'(9,12) 15. numerical ch 16. worm-shape sara" 5 aksoonsuun, c t e r s t u a l e e k s t U a j i t j i i 17. p r i n c i p a l a c t o r s tuamaan tua'eek naar/eek phra^eek tuakaan tua^ee vowel (9,12) " h i g h " c l a s s consonant (9,12) numeral, number (3,9,12) worms, creepy-crawly beings; doodles, s c r i b b l e s Mara the e v i l one (12) p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r , r o l e , a c t o r (5,12) h e r o i n e ; wife(5,12) hero; husband(5,12) main c u l p r i t ; p r i n c i p a l a c t o r (5,12) main person; the one respon-s i b l e (5) • S p e c i f i c names of t h i s type of animal are too numerous to l i s t and have not been i n c l u d e d i n the b a s i c 120 items of t h i s t a b l e . 154 tuakerj the most desperate outlaw i n a gang; the s t a r of a p e r f o r m i n g troup; the trump c a r d , winning c a r d ; the f a -v o r i t e horse or c a n d i d a t e (5,12) t u a t a r j t u a t i i the one r e s p o n s i b l e ; the chief, promoter of a cause or p r o j e c t (12) tuasamkhan c h i e f c u l p r i t (12) khun k i n g (chesspiece) (5) 13. numerical, concepts tuachapo? (math.) prime number (9,15) leeknuaj (math.) c a r d i n a l number(9,15) l e e k k h i i (math.) odd number (9,15) tuatarj (math.) d i v i d e n d ; m u l t i p l i -cand (the number to be d i v i -ded, m u l t i p l i e d , e tc.)(9,15) tuabuak number to be added (9,15) t u a l o p number to be s u b t r a c t e d (9, 15) In Table 15 the numbers i n b r a c k e t s a f t e r items, i n d i c a t e p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s t r u c t u r e ; t h a t i s , the items c o u l d a l s o be c l a s s i f i e d with / t u a / f o r other r e a s o n s . These other r e a -sons are p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n with the group i n d i c a t e d by the number i n b r a c k e t s . For.example, /tua'eek/ " p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c -t e r , r o l e or a c t o r " i s grouped w i t h p r i n c i p a l a c t o r s ( g r o u p 1.7) or i t c o u l d be. a s s o c i a t e d to / t u a / by the path of a c t i v e agents (group 12) .. There i s no reason why an item cannot appear t w i c e . For example, informants p o i n t out t h a t k i t e s resemble b i r d s both f o r t h e i r b o d y - l i k e shape (e.g. head, t a i l and wings)* and f o r t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a c t i v i t y of f l y -i n g . S i m i l a r l y , a l p h a b e t i c a l c h a r a c t e r s i n Thai s t a r t with, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c i r c l e (or head) and the subsequent l i n e a r form can be seen as a body and t a i l , as, f o r example, i n the l e t t e r ^ / t h / . L e t t e r s are a l s o prime examples of symbolic * K i t e s are h i g h l y p e r s o n i f i e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l T h a i c u l t u r e . There are male and female k i t e s as w e l l . 155 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In a case l i k e l e t t e r s , perhaps a s i n g l e c r i t e r i o n was the o r i g i n a l a c t u a l path of e x t e n s i o n (probably e i t h e r shape or symbol). However, the semantic evidence from the l e x i c o n t e l l s us o n l y t h a t e i t h e r way i s p o s s i b l e and perhaps both paths were taken, r e i n f o r c i n g each o t h e r . Thus a modern speaker may c l a s s a l e t t e r or numeral as / t u a / because he f e e l s i t t o be an a c t i v e agent i n some way. Simu l t a n e o u s l y the v i s u a l impact may suggest a snake or f i s h shape which a l s o r e q u i r e s / t u a / as c l a s s i f i e r . Another example i s the hammer of a gun. I t has both the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shape and a c t i v i t y (pecking or d i p p i n g the head) of a b i r d . I doubt very much the n e c e s s i t y of p o s i t i n g one c r i t e r i o n as primary,the other as secondary. In F i g u r e 8, the c o n n e c t i o n between groups 1 and 5 seems to me to be the weakest l i n k i n the s t u c t u r e of / t u a / . However, i t i s r e i n f o r c e d by the f a c t t h a t /santhaan/ "shape, appearance, e t c . " , the word used by Thai grammarians f o r the c r i t e r i o n of shape ( c f P o o s a k r i t s a n a 1960, S i l a p a s a r n 1963), extends i n sense to g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of some o b j e c t s , a c c o r d i n g to informants and to McFarland (1969:846). A c t u a l p h y s i c a l shape i s expressed by /ruupsanthaan/ which adds the form /ruup-/ "form, image". Now the word f o r "symbol", /san-j a l a k / can a l s o be used to r e f e r to n o n - p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s such as the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h a b i t s of a person or animal. Thus " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " i s used as the con n e c t i n g l i n k i n F i g -ure 8. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the sense of / t u a / c o u l d have extended to 156 v i s u a l symbols and a c t o r s t h r o u g h t h e c r i t e r i o n o f group 12, a c t i v e a g e n c y . I have been l a r g e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l i n a s c e r -t a i n i n g what c o n n e c t i o n s a r e made by modern-day s p e a k e r s , u s i n g a method c a l l e d t h e " t r i a d method" which r e q u i r e s i n -f o r m a n t s t o group i tems and i n t r o s p e c t to the c r i t e r i a f o r the g r o u p i n g . U l t i m a t e l y , p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s s o r t i s o n l y v a l u a b l e when g a t h e r e d f r o m a s u f f i c i e n t l y wide and c o n t r o l l e d . s a m p l e . Such an endeavour was c o n s i d e r e d t o be beyond t h e scope o f t h i s t h e s i s . In F i g u r e 8 and T a b l e 14, i t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t the groups o f l i v i n g things and a c t o r s a r e b o t h s p l i t . L i v i n g t h i n g s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o s t a t u s 4 and s t a t u s 5 a n i m a l s . A c t o r s a r e d i v i d e d between s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s (group 1.7) and p r i n c i p a l agents (group 6 ) . The main m o t i v a t i o n f o r d i v i d i n g a n i m a l s was the f a c t t h a t c r i t e r i a o f shape a r e r e l e v a n t t o s t a t u s 4 animals , b u t n o t t o s t a t u s 5 a n i m a l s . T h i s i s p r o b a -b l y due t o t h e s i z e o f s t a t u s 5 a n i m a l s : they a r e o f t e n too s m a l l f o r shape t o be p e r c e p t u a l l y s a l i e n t . I t may a l s o r e -l a t e t o a f a c t o r o f r e s p e c t ( s i n c e some l a r g e r a n i m a l s a re i n c l u d e d i n the s t a t u s 5 g r o u p ) , b u t t h i s i s r e l a t e d t o s i z e : the l a r g e s t a n i m a l , t h e e l e p h a n t , had i t s own u n i q u e c l a s s i -f i e r i n t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e . A c t o r s were s p l i t m a i n l y because t h e f a c t o r of p r i m a c y among " p r i n c i p a l a c t o r s " formed s u c h a c l e a r and l a r g e g r o u p , some o f w h i c h c o u l d be s e e n as s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , some n o t . F u r t h e r m o r e , the group of m a r i o n e t t e s , p u p p e t s , d o l l s , e t c . b l e n d s g r a d u a l l y i n t o the group of a c t o r s t h r o u g h clowns and j e s t e r s , e t c . 157 T h i s c o u l d be taken as another p o s s i b l e r o u t e of e x t e n s i o n , but I have no evidence to posit primacy to clowns over dramatic a c t o r s . Any such primacy, of course would be c h r o -n o l o g i c a l p r i o r i t y . Thus matters of h i s t o r i c a l precedence creep i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y . Indeed, such mat-t e r s cannot be ign o r e d and serve to u n d e r l i n e the need f o r h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n to support the l i n g u i s -t i c evidence, b e f o r e any h i s t o r i c a l c l a i m can be advanced. In c o n t r a s t t o the s p l i t t i n g of some apparent groupings, i t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t group 16 i s composed of two d i s t i n c t groups: what we might c a l l models of the human form and c l o t h -i n g * . These two were merged because of the primacy of the c r i t e r i o n of shape throughout the c l a s s i f i e r system. The c r i t e r i o n of human shape alone i s s u f f i c i e n t to d i s t i n g u i s h and to r e l a t e these items r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r two d i s t i n c t i v e f u n c t i o n s . The c r i t e r i a of e x t e n s i o n are g i v e n i n Table 16. I t was c o n s i d e r e d unnecessary to p r e s e n t a comparison of c r i t e r i a of e x t e n s i o n w i t h a l l the items c l a s s i f i e d , s i n c e i n the study of /an/ i t was shown th a t t h a t approach was i n e f f e c -t i v e when e x t e n s i o n proceeds by c h a i n - l i k e steps, as i t c l e a r -l y does here. *That shape i s the c r i t e r i o n f o r i n c l u s i o n ' of a r t i c l e s of c l o t h i n g i s very c l e a r : o n l y c l o t h i n g which takes the shape of the body i t covers i s c l a s s i f i e d with / t u a / . Thus hats and shoes a r e not / t u a / and s k i r t s and sarongs are ambiguous-l y / t u a / or / p h i i n / "S2D shape". Many names of common a r t i -c l e s of c l o t h i n g are not l i s t e d i n Table 15 because of t h i s c l e a r g e n e r a l i s a t i o n . 158 Table 16 C r i t e r i a of E x t e n s i o n f o r the Semantic S t r u c t u r e s of / t u a / as Given i n F i g u r e s 8 & 9 Ex t e n s i o n from t o C r i t e r i a Node Node 1 - 2 +shape, +object ( s p e c i f i c a t i o n ) 1 - 3 +shape ( s p e c i f i c a t i o n ) 1 - 4 •shape, +object ( s p e c i f i c a t i o n ) 1 — 5 • o b j e c t , + c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 1 - 6 •shape, +object ( s p e c i f i c a t i o n ) 1 - 7 • o b j e c t , + l i v i n g 2 — 8 •shape, +object, + c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , -faction (part-whole) 5 - 9 • s i g n 6 10 • o b j e c t ( f u n c t i o n ) 7 — 11 • o b j e c t , + l i v i n g 7 — 12 • a g e n t i v e 7 - 13 • o b j e c t , + l i v i n g 9 - 14: • s i g n , +image 9 — 15 • s i g n , +image 11 - 16 • s t a t u s 5 12 - 17 • a g e n t i v e 15 18 •numerical Some g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on the r e l a t i o n s between the v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a and on the o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the hy-p o t h e s i z e d s t r u c t u r e s are made i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . 159 8.0 CONCLUSION 8.1.0 SUMMARY 8.1.1 CONFIRMATIONS This t h e s i s has ser v e d to c o n f i r m the f o l l o w i n g f a c t s about Standard T h a i c l a s s i f i e r s a l r e a d y s t a t e d i n the l i t e r a -t u r e about the language: ( i ) T h a i c l a s s i f i e r s are nouns. ( i i ) They can i n some cases c l a s s i f y v e r b a l headwords. ( i i i ) T h e i r b a s i c f u n c t i o n i s to supply u n i t r e f e r e n c e to the r e f e r e n t of some other l e x i c a l item. ( i v ) The v a r i o u s s y n t a c t i c c a t e g o r i e s which are apparent upon i n s p e c t i o n of some examples of Thai c l a s s i f i e r s are not d i s -c r e t e c a t e g o r i e s . (v) F u l l Repeaters are an open c a t e g o r y . ( v i ) C l a s s i f i e r s e l e c t i o n depends, i n many cases, on c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s and on i n d i v i d u a l speakers* i n t e n t i o n s , but t h e r e i s a p e r c e p t u a l b a s i s which may be common to a l l languages. ( v i i ) Shape i s a very important c r i t e r i o n of the c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n (and p e r c e p t i o n ) of f i r s t - o r d e r e n t i t i e s . ( v i i i ) Most c l a s s i f i e r s have a meaning f o r n a t i v e speakers. Of the few which do not, many can be as s i g n e d senses by a c u r s o r y examination of the nouns they c l a s s i f y , b e c a u s e they c l a s s i f y a c c o r d i n g to a s i n g l e c r i t e r i o n ( u s u a l l y shape). The remaining c l a s s i f i e r s can be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of seman-t i c e x t e n s i o n over h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s . ( i x ) Repeaters have a s a l i e n t l o c a t i v e component. (x) The r e l a t i o n s h i p of f u l l r e p e a t i n g depends on the l e x i -c a l i d e n t i t y of repeated elements. 160 ( x i ) Even c l o s e l y r e l a t e d d i a l e c t s may d i f f e r i n the s e l e c -t i o n of a c r i t e r i a l f e a t u r e f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the same o b j e c t a c t i o n or concept. ( x i i ) C l a s s i f i e r s modify NP's r a t h e r than simple nouns. ( x i i i ) A mixture of semantic and s y n t a c t i c f a c t o r s are i n -v o l v e d i n the c l a s s i f i e r system and i n c l a s s i f i e r s e l e c t i o n . 8.1.2 CONTRIBUTIONS This t h e s i s has p r o v i d e d some da t a and made some c l a i m s which s h o u l d be u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the understanding of the T h a i c l a s s i f i c a t o r y system, t o the comparative l i n g u i s -t i c s of South East A s i a and p o s s i b l y to the l e x i c o g r a p h y o f t h a t a r e a : ( i ) A r e l a t i v e l y comprehensive l i s t of Thai c l a s s i f i e r s has been compiled. P r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s make the extent of the l i s t r a t h e r a r b i t r a r y , depending on which s y n t a c t i c de-f i n i n g c r i t e r i a one uses t o r e s t r i c t the l i s t t o a manageable s i z e . For t h i s reason, and a l s o f o r reasons of space, the l i s t has not been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s paper, but i s a v a i l a b l e on r e q u e s t . ( i i ) Comprehensive l i s t s have been p r o v i d e d of the e n t i r e c l a s s e s of nouns c l a s s i f i e d by /lem/ and / t u a / . Other c l a s -s i f i e r c l a s s e s have a l s o been enumerated but not p u b l i s h e d here. The b a s i c data has been c o l l e c t e d f o r f u t u r e compila-t i o n of such l i s t s f o r each c l a s s i f i e r . ( i i i ) Some l i g h t has been shed ( i n s e c t i o n 4) on the p u z z l e of the c e n t r a l i t y of the head or the c l a s s i f i e r i n the c l a s -161 s i f i e r p hrase. As an a t t r i b u t e of the head, the c l a s s i f i e r i s s u b o r d i n a t e ; as the e x p r e s s i o n of the c l a s s of which the the head i s a member, i t i s the head which i s s u b o r d i n a t e . ( i v ) "Independent" c l a s s i f i e r s c l a s s i f y v e r b a l heads. (v) There i s a semantic c o r r e l a t e of the r e p e a t e r c o n s t r u c -t i o n : f u l l r e p e a t e r s are e n t i t i e s i n terms of (a) b e i n g d i r e c t l y r e f e r r e d to (b) t h e i r e x i s t e n c e b e i n g a s s e r t e d and (c) t h e i r s t a t u s as IP p r e d i c a t e s , as d e f i n e d i n s e c t i o n 3 . 2 . Most r e p e a t e r s have a l o c a t i v e sense which may i n f a c t con-' s t i t u t e the c l a s s - s e n s e ( i n 3 l o o m f i e l d i a n terms) of the syn-t a c t i c c a t e g o r y . ( v i ) There i s a semantic c o r r e l a t e f o r the process of p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g : the e n t i r e headword i s a hyponym of the c l a s s i f i e r . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e s t r i c t e d to a fo r m a l nature i n the case of those p a r t i a l l y - r e p e a t i n g forms which do not a l s o f u l l y r e p e a t ( i . e . the PR U n i t s ) , s i n c e informants do not accept hyponymic statements u s i n g these forms as s e m a n t i c a l l y unbound morphemes (e.g. /bajmaaj/ i s not a k i n d of / b a j / be-cause / b a j / does not occur i n i s o l a t i o n ) . P a r t i a l Repeaters, l i k e F u l l Repeaters, r e q u i r e l e x i c a l i d e n t i t y between repeated elements. ( v i i ) Some i n f o r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d about the process of com-pounding i n T h a i . Some l e x i c a l items are s e m a n t i c a l l y bound forms ( l i k e / b a j / "S2D shape") and r e q u i r e compounding i n a l l occurrences as f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e nouns. Some items seem to r e q u i r e the p r e f i x i n g of a c l a s s i f i e r to r e i n f o r c e the c l a s -162 s i f i c a t o r y system (as i n /tuamalasasrj/ " i n s e c t " ) . Other items r e f e r r i n g t o commodities o f t e n have a c l a s s i f i e r t o show the c o n t a i n e r or the s t a t e of the commodity (as i n /plaakraptb*)/ "canned f i s h " ; i . e . f i s h + c a n ) . In s t i l l other cases com-pounding seems to be a case of i n n o v a t i o n to emphasize the sense of p h y s i c a l o b j e c t (as i n / t u a t e e p / "the tape i t s e l f " or / l e r a t h i a n / "candle", used i n d e s c r i b i n g the r e s u l t s of the p r o c e s s of manufacturing c a n d l e s ) . F u r t h e r , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d (and some examples were given) t h a t the sense of a form when i t f u n c t i o n s as compound head tended to be more a b s t r a c t , while sense as c l a s s i f i e r tended to be more c o n c r e t e . ( v i i i ) There i s an i m p l i c a t i o n of " k i n d s " i n f u l l r e p e a t i n g . T h i s i m p l i c a t i o n i s e x p l a i n e d i n terms of l e x i c a l i d e n t i t y between head and c l a s s i f i e r . Repeated forms c o n s t i t u t e a s i n g l e t o n c l a s s and the enumeration of members i s e q u i v a l e n t to the enumeration of c l a s s e s . ( i x ) Standard Measures are mutually e x c l u s i v e with r e p e a t i n g . T h i s i s not the case, however, w i t h Temporary Measures. (x) I f a d i s t i n c t i o n e x i s t s i n the semantic s t r u c t u r e of Thai between n a t u r a l l y - o c c u r r i n g u n i t s and s t a n d a r d i z e d u n i t s de-r i v e d by the. use of technology, i t i s not apparent i n e i t h e r Standard Measures or Temporary Measures, both of which may r e f e r t o n a t u r a l l y - o c c u r r i n g f i r s t - , second- or t h i r d - o r d e r e n t i t i e s . ( x i ) A d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c l a s s i f i e r s i s t h e i r f u n c -t i o n of p r o v i d i n g u n i t r e f e r e n c e to another s u b s t a n t i v e , the r e f e r e n t of the headword, whether t h i s second s u b s t a n t i v e i s 163 o v e r t l y p r e s e n t or not. T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t i n g u i s h e s c l a s s i f i e r f u n c t i o n from f u n c t i o n as a f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e noun ( x i i ) Repeaters f u n c t i o n to a l l o w a t t e n t i o n to be f o c u s e d on the e n t i r e e n t i t y as opposed to v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h a t e n t i t y . ( x i i i ) Repeaters f u n c t i o n as a "wastebasket" or g e n e r a l c a t e gory o n l y i n a l i m i t e d and secondary way. I n n o v a t i o n of r e -p e a t e r s i s a t l e a s t m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e due to t h e i r l e x i -c a l t r a n s p a r e n c y . (x i v ) Standard Measures cannot occur as headwords. (xv) One c a t e g o r y of T h a i c l a s s i f i e r s i s the General U n i t s . They r e f e r t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e f e r e n t s which are g e n e r a l l y on a h i g h e r taxonomic l e v e l than o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s (e.g. " s i z e " , "shape•,"kind", e t c . ) . General U n i t s cannot repeat or enter i n t o compounds. They have meanings and a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c t i o n as f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e nouns. With some e x c e p t i o n s , they do not r e f e r t o shape c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the headword. (xv i ) Extended C l a s s i f i e r s , l i k e General U n i t s c o n s t i t u t e a c a t e g o r y on the ( s y n t a c t i c ) b a s i s of t h e i r non-occurrence as r e p e a t e r s or compounds. They r e f e r to more c o n c r e t e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s of the h e a d - r e f e r e n t than the General U n i t s . They are f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d by d i f f e r i n g s e m a n t i c a l l y (to vary i n g degrees of l e x i c a l transparency) from the sense of the same form as f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e noun. In two cases t h e r e i s no a s s o c i a t e d noun at a l l and the c l a s s i f i e r s have l i t t l e or no meaning f o r n a t i v e speakers. ( x v i i ) The b a s i c sense of one of these two " e x c l u s i v e " c l a s s f i e r s , /lem/, i s "a bladed, p o i n t e d c u t t i n g instrument with 164 handle". The sense of /lem/ has extended d i r e c t l y (as oppos-ed to e x t e n s i o n i n c h a i n - l i k e f a s h i o n ) to f i r s t - o r d e r e n t i -t i e s o n l y . E x t e n s i o n has proceeded i n s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s , presumably due t o the l a r g e number of s a l i e n t shape and f u n c -t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of k n i v e s and t h e i r importance i n e a r l y t e chnology. ( x v i i i ) The b a s i c sense of /an/ c o u l d be a s t i c k of wood, s i n c e many of the nouns i t c l a s s i f i e s are compounds with /maaj/ meaning " s t i c k " or "wood". The sense of /an/ has ex-tended i n c h a i n - l i k e f a s h i o n through the sense of " d e v i c e " to c l a s s i f y v e r y a b s t r a c t t h i r d - o r d e r e n t i t i e s . ( x i x ) The probable b a s i c sense of / t u a / i s "body shape'}, where the body i s t h a t of a s e n t i e n t b e i n g . T h i s b a s i c sense has extended i n c h a i n — l i k e f a s h i o n i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t direct-t i o n s . In some cases e x t e n s i o n has been a c c o r d i n g to a l t e r -n a t i n g c r i t e r i a of shape and f u n c t i o n . (xx) Two d i f f e r e n t kinds of c r i t e r i a of e x t e n s i o n were found i n s t u d y i n g /lem/, /an/ and / t u a / : c r i t e r i a such as shape, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a c t i o n , f u n c t i o n , e t c . , and " m e t a - c r i t e r i a " of a more g e n e r a l nature, such as, f o c u s of a t t e n t i o n on a d i f f e r e n t aspect of the same r e f e r e n t , and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . 8.2 THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS As mentioned i n s e c t i o n 6, the e x p l a n a t o r y v a l u e of s t a -t i c c a t e g o r i e s i s very l i m i t e d , and i n some cases obscures dynamic s y n t a c t i c or semantic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s o l e b a s i s of a d i s t i n c t i o n between E x c l u s i v e Repeaters and PR Repeaters i s t h a t the former must repe a t while the l a t t e r can r e p e a t . 165 Tables of s t a t i c c a t e g o r i e s cannot d e a l with such d i s t i n c -t i o n s except by o v e r l a p p i n g the c a t e g o r i e s , which i n t u r n undermines the u s e f u l n e s s of the c a t e g o r y . The l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s k i n d of "taxonomic" l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s were o u t l i n e d i n e a r l y G e n e r a t i v e Theory (see Chomsky, 1957). The i n s i g h t s gained i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s and t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s ( r e s u l t i n g i n F i g u r e 5 ) c o u l d be r e f o r m u l a t e d i n a s e r i e s of p h r a s e - s t r u c t u r e r u l e s to account f o r the c h o i c e of a broad category, but not f o r the c h o i c e of s p e c i f i c c l a s s i f i e r s w i t h i n t h a t c a t e g o r y . The i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a l l y c o u l d be used by a grammarian who was i n t e r e s t e d i n w r i t i n g such r u l e s . U l t i -mately, the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the speaker's i n t e n t i o n and con-t e x t u a l and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s shown to be of c r u c i a l s i g n i f -i c a n c e i n many cases c o u l d o n l y be cap t u r e d by f o r m a l r u l e s of g r e a t complexity and these, as Becker (19 75:112) has p o i n t -ed out, "may suggest t h a t c l a s s i f i e r c h o i c e i s more determin-ed than i t a c t u a l l y i s " . The semantic c o r r e l a t e s of the major s y n t a c t i c catego-r i e s are c r i t e r i a l i n the case of r e p e a t e r s ( r e p e a t e r s are IP p r e d i c a t e s or e n t i t i e s - i n - g e n e r a l ) but not so i n the case of p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s . Although i t i s a d e f e n s i b l e c l a i m t h a t i n a l l p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g the head i s a hyponym of the c l a s s i -f i e r , other c a t e g o r i e s can a l s o be hyponymic; f o r example, /khon/ "person" f u n c t i o n s as an Extended C l a s s i f i e r i n 8.1 dek saam khon c h i l d 3 PERSON "three c h i l d r e n " but the r e l a t i o n s h i p between head and c l a s s i f i e r i s one of 166 hyponymy. Lyons (1977:438) f i n d s a p o s i t i v e b u t i n e x a c t c o r r e l a -t i o n between s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e and s e m a n t i c f u n c t i o n * He adds t h a t "what i s o n t o l o g i c a l l y i n d e t e r m i n a t e may be d e t e r -mined d i f f e r e n t l y by t h e g r a m m a t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s o f p a r t i c u l a r l a n g u a g e s " ( 1977 :499 ) . T h i s seems t o be t h e c a s e w i t h t h e d a t a h e r e : t h e o n l y j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r R e p e a t e r s as some kind of en t i t y i s the f a c t that speakers of Thai seem to con-sider them to be such e n t i t i e s . This may also apply to the loc a t i v e sense of body parts and bureaucratic or s o c i a l d i v i s i o n s , i f location i s indeed a common semantic f a c t o r i n these groups of repeaters.. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to speculate as well that i n the pro-cess of extension and the concomitant divergence of senses of the same form as c l a s s i f i e r and as f u l l substantive noun (or as noun compound member) we can see the process of " f o s s i l i z a -t i o n " at work, converting semantic values into s y n t a c t i c func-t i o n s . This i s the case with the two "meaningless" non-cora-poundable c l a s s i f i e r s /lem/ and /an/. Further, with the loss of a meaning the semantic functional load i s reduced almost to zero and the syntactic r o l e becomes the sole function of the item. In such a case, the need f o r a large number of d i s t i n c t i o n s (and therefore l e x i c a l items) within the cate-gory of c l a s s i f i e r s i s also reduced. The l o g i c a l r e s u l t i s reduction of the number of c l a s s i f i e r s , and there i s some e v i -dence for t h i s i n Thai. The sp e c i a l c l a s s i f i e r s / p i n / for sawblades and /chiak/ f o r elephants are f o r p r a c t i c a l purpo-ses obsolete. If a l l that i s required i s a single marker of 167 unit reference, we can expect the r i s e . o f a general c l a s s i f i -er, and thi s appears to be the case. The c l a s s i f i e r /an/ i s replacing many of the s p e c i a l c l a s s i f i e r s f o r implements of the old manual technology as Bangkok ( i f not Thailand) moves into the e l e c t r o n i c and the computer eras. Most of my i n f o r -mants regularly use /an/ when old-fashioned objects are d i s -cussed. There i s also considerable evidence that other lan-guages are reducing t h e i r c l a s s i f i e r inventory as technical change and semantic extension exert t h e i r influence. For example, Greenberg (1975:34) c i t e s evidence to t h i s e f f e c t from Gilyak, as do Dunn and Yanada (1958:50) f o r Japanese. We have also noted above that the compounding of c l a s s i -f i e r s i n some cases serves to reinforce c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The prefixed c l a s s i f i e r may occasionally replace the c l a s s i f i e r i n i t s usual p o s i t i o n . The inadequacy of the s i t u a t i o n a l sentence frames used to categorize items as repeaters points out another puzzling t h e o r e t i c a l problem. The "background" information required constitutes a sort of frame of reference or universe of d i s -course. Reference to hands, for example, presupposes bodies and people to which they are attached. This i n turn necessi-tates a hearer making such a presupposition i n order to make sense of a query about the number of hands. There i s a close association between status as ent i t y and possession i n Thai. Not only because the e x i s t e n t i a l verb / m i i / also means "have", but also because the possessive marker /khOOTj/ also means "thing, possession" (with stress and length modifications) as i n the following example: 168 8.2 khoon kharj khaw t h i n g POSS he " h i s t h i n g s " Perhaps t h i s n o t i o n of p o s s e s s i o n i s the mechanism which a l -lows " p a r t s " such as those items commonly used i n r e p e a t e r phrases (e.g. / m i i / "hand", / t h a l e e / "sea", etc.) to be seen as e n t i t i e s not r e q u i r i n g second p r e d i c a t e - p o s i t i o n s (argu-ments) to be f i l l e d . The second argument need not be s t a t e d i f i t i s presupposed by some expected r e l a t i o n of p o s s e s s i o n . One method of e x p l o r i n g a n a t i v e speaker's concept of e n t i t y i s to e l i c i t a f o l k taxonomy of " t h i n g s " . In i n i t i a l s e s s i o n s of the f i e l d w o r k f o r t h i s paper, t h i s area was ex-p l o r e d , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e Mathiot (1962) was so s u c c e s s f u l i n r e l a t i n g Papago f o l k taxonomy to s y n t a c t i c c a t e g o r i e s and r e a l - w o r l d d i s t i n c t i o n s such as shape. However, a f u l l t a x -onomy proved more d i f f i c u l t t o e l i c i t than expected, p a r t l y because of the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the informants, who were a l l g e n e r a l l y w e l l - e d u c a t e d . Denny (p e r s o n a l communication) ad-v i s e s t h a t the r e l a t i o n between l i n g u i s t i c and f o l k taxonomic s t r u c t u r e s i s s t i l l a r e l a t i v e l y unknown area and i t i s d i f -f i c u l t i n most cases to draw i n f e r e n c e s from one to the o t h e r . A c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c r i t e r i a of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n d i d not appear. Although th e r e was some o v e r l a p , i t i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t c a t e g o r i z a -t i o n proceeds by a mixture of s y n t a c t i c and semantic c r i t e r i a w h i l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a semantic matter based to a l a r g e extent on q u a l i t i e s extant i n (or imputed to) f i r s t - o r d e r e n t i t i e s c l a s s i f i e d , and on c u l t u r a l p a r a l l e l s from these e n t i t i e s to second- and t h i r d - o r d e r e n t i t i e s . These p a r a l l e l s 169 were not investigated c a r e f u l l y here, but with the increasing evidence f o r p a r a l l e l s i n English between words r e f e r r i n g to space and words r e f e r r i n g to time (see e s p e c i a l l y H. Clark 1973) the assumption of the existence of such semantic con-nections i s not c o n t r o v e r s i a l . There i s some synt a c t i c i n -fluence i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , however, as seen i n the e f f e c t of a c l a s s i f i e r overtly present i n the compound headnoun (as described i n section 4) and i n the tendency f o r /an/ to ex-pand and generalize i t s function to become a marker of unit reference i n general. There was only an i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to be seen, as well, between c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c r i t e r i a of ex-tension. I t i s true that many of the same c r i t e r i a are used i n the two processes since extension takes place by working i t s e f f e c t s on the c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . But the choice of a s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as the basis of a. semantic extension i s s t i l l the product of a variety of motives, only some of which are l i n g u i s t i c , and few of which are c l e a r l y established. Also, extension often involves "meta-features" or relationships between features (such as s h i f t of focus, generalization, s h i f t of viewpoint, part-to-whole, etc.) which seem to have no place i n straightforward c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n and c r i t e r i a f o r compounding was discussed i n sec-t i o n 4.. 3.3 APPLICATIONS The most important applications of the findings of this thesis are i n the areas of lexicography and comparative l i n -170 g u i s t i c s . The c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l i s t e d i n F i g u r e . 5' c o u l d be the b a s i s of a comprehensive c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the v a r i o u s senses of a g i v e n item. For example, i t i s r e l e v a n t and important to note t h a t /khon/ can occur i n t h r e e d i s t i n c t environments: as a Repeater, a P a r t i a l Repeater and as an Extended C l a s s i f i e r . F u r t h e r i t i s important to note t h a t /khon/ r e t a i n s i t s b a s i c sense i n a l l t h r e e r o l e s . The item /khon/, then c o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d by a s i n g l e e n t r y with 3 code symbols f o r the t h r e e r o l e s . A c l a s s i f i e r l i k e / b a j / , on the o t h e r hand, would r e q u i r e at l e a s t three s u b - e n t r i e s s i n c e / b a j / "S2D shape" i s a PR Unit, whereas / b a j / " c o n t a i n e r " i s an Extended C l a s s i f i e r , as i s /baj/ uS3D shape'! An item need be l i s t e d as noun o n l y i f i t a c t u a l l y occurs w i t h f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e f u n c t i o n ( i . e . , not i n the r o l e of s u p p l y i n g u n i t r e f e r e n c e to the r e f e r e n t of some oth e r o v e r t or i m p l i e d head-word) . F u r t h e r , f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e s can be l i s t e d as: ( i ) commonly c l a s s i f i e d (with the most f r e q u e n t c l a s s i f i e r s s u p p l i e d ) ( i i ) not u s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d ( i i i ) u s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d with General U n i t s (which need not be s u p p l i e d ) " C l a s s i f i e r f o r . . . " w i l l s t i l l be a u s e f u l p i e c e of i n -f o r m a t i o n but the l i s t of nouns c l a s s i f i e d can be more com-prehensive y e t at the same time more compact s i n c e b e t t e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made. I f s p e c i f i c routes of e x t e n s i o n are known, they can be r e f e r r e d t o . They, c o u l d be a u s e f u l mnemonic d e v i c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n b i l i n g u a l or s t u d e n t s ' d i c t i o n -171 a r i e s . There i s an ev e r - p r e s e n t danger of c o n f u s i n g h i s t o r i c a l development wi t h present-day d i s t i n c t i o n s . For example, i t i s d o u b t f u l i f modern speakers r e l a t e the form /lem/ d i r e c t l y t o a s i c k l e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , k n i v e s are perhaps the most promi-nent sub-domains w i t h i n the c l a s s o f /lem^ and most speakers p r o b a b l y see o x c a r t s , c a n d l e s and boat helms as somehow mar-g i n a l members of the s e t . Many of the more marginal members of the s e t are a l t e r n a t i v e l y c l a s s i f i e d (as shown i n Table ll), and use of /lem/ f o r needles ( f o r example) i s r e s t r i c t e d i n modern times t o p r o f e s s i o n a l t a i l o r s and dressmakers (Adams & C o n k l i n 19 74:7). Many of these marginal members are a l r e a d y o b s o l e t e , f o r example the use of /lem/ f o r elephant t u s k s , r e p o r t e d i n F r a n k f u r t e r (1900:53). Not a l l the marginal members are l i k e l y to di s a p p e a r , however, f o r some are s u b j e c t to a k i n d of p e t r i f i c a t i o n to r e l i c s t a t u s and are u n l i k e l y to be r e p l a c e d e a s i l y . The noun /kwian/ " o x c a r t " i s an example. T h e r e f o r e , although r a p i d l y changing c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and technology t h r e a t e n some of the more s e m a n t i c a l l y s p e c i f i c c l a s s i f i e r s , some c l a s s i f i c a t o r y connections u s u a l l y remain and the o n l y a c c u r a t e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i s a h i s t o r i c a l one. An i n t e r e s t i n g c o r o l l a r y t o t h i s f a c t i s the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t i f the h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s of some of the c l a s s i f i e r c l a s -ses were more.widely known, the use of the r e s p e c t i v e c l a s s i -f i e r s would pr o b a b l y d e c l i n e . I t i s e a s i e r t o accept and use an item as a p a r t of the s y n t a c t i c system of one's own l a n -guage than i t i s to accept the same form knowing the "un-172 modern" associations of i t s h i s t o r i c a l d e r i v a t i o n . Of course c i t y f o l k would be more prone to this kind of e f f e c t than the more t r a d i t i o n a l country f o l k . The implications of t h i s paper f o r semantic reconstruction of e a r l i e r forms of Thai are, I f e e l , quite s i g n i f i c a n t . Geth-ing has already made advances i n the h i s t o r i c a l semantics of Thai using comparative data (see Gething 1977). One major obstacle to such reconstruction (and i t s i m p l i -cations f o r c l a r i f y i n g the picture of genetic r e l a t i o n s i n the area) i s the lack of r e l i a b l e data on many South East Asian languages. Fortunately, many grammars and d i c t i o n a r i e s are now being published, the r e s u l t of an upsurge of int e r e s t i n the area during the Vietnam-American war. In addition, many capable l i n g u i s t s from South East Asian countries have now completed t h e i r t r a i n i n g and t h e i r future contributions are eagerly anticipated. A further caution i s necessary. Semantic reconstruction cannot proceed at a l l without, d e t a i l e d knowledge of h i s t o r i -c a l and c u l t u r a l factors (as was stressed i n section 7 ) . To an equal or perhaps greater extent, semantic reconstruction depends on complementary evidence from phonological recon-s t r u c t i o n . Without the l a t t e r i t i s d i f f i c u l t , and i n many cases impossible to t e l l whether items are cognate or not. The claims made about the basic sense of /lem/ were based on the incl u s i o n of any item glossed as "knife" i n the class of a "meaningful" c l a s s i f i e r i n other languages. In most cases the c l a s s i f i e r did not seem to be a cognate of /lem/, but one cannot be sure of the status of these other c l a s s i f i e r s 173 without comparative studies of the phonological r e l a t i o n s between languages, i f any. Further insights based on cognate items could help to es t a b l i s h many proto-meanings to a point near surety. For example, Thai contains a verb /lem/ "to crop, browse, nibble or graze (on f i e l d stubble); to trim or hem woven c l o t h ; to cut a l i t t l e , to cut l i t t l e by l i t t l e , etc." (from Manitcharoen 1977:852, and Haas 1965:491). Are these two forms (/lem/ and /lem/) cognate? The only d i f f e r -ence i s the tone, and tonal q u a l i t y i s perhaps the l e a s t s t a -ble phonological parameter. Lao has a s i m i l a r word. Should phonological information allow us to r e l a t e these two words i t would open up an e n t i r e l y new c r i t e r i o n of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n fo r Table 12. : a notion of slow gradual movement l i k e that of a heavy object on r o l l e r s , a grazing animal, or a worker reaping a large f i e l d by hand. I t i s my impression that such a sense i s u n l i k e l y , but there i s some amount of association with harvesting a c t i v i t y i n the class of /lem,/ and fresh e v i -dence can a l t e r the p o s s i b i l i t i e s r a d i c a l l y i n some cases. 3.4 FURTHER RESEARCH Areas that need further study have already been pointed out i n the discussion of weaknesses i n this thesis. These areas are mainly as follows: (i) The d i s t i n c t i o n of "inchoative*versus'established*may have wider s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the semantic structure of Thai than i t has been a l l o t t e d here. ( i i ) The same i s true of the notion of possession. Some kind of inalienable possession may very well be the c r i t e r i o n 174 of s t a t u s as r e p e a t e r i n some c a s e s . The p o s s e s s o r i s p a r t o f some k i n d of background k n o w l e d g e . In t h e case o f body p a r t s the background knowledge i s a u n i v e r s a l of the p a r a d i g m t y p e o f communicat ion s i t u a t i o n : i t i s a "known" p i e c e o f i n -f o r m a t i o n t h a t the h e a r e r i s a human. A f o l k taxonomy of the domain of " t h i n g s " would a l s o be a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s u n c l e a r a r e a . ( i i i ) The f a c t o r s w h i c h r e g u l a t e noun compounding i n T h a i a r e e s s e n t i a l t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . W h i l e F a s o l d 1968 i s a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s a r e a , the c r u -c i a l c o n n e c t i o n s between compound members, c o n n e c t i o n s which g o v e r n compounding, seem t o depend on more t h a n d e r i v a t i o n f r o m deep s t r u c t u r e s e n t e n c e s . Much more needs t o be l e a r n e d about compounding and c l a s s i f y i n g and the s t r a t e g i e s employed by s p e a k e r s who use t h e s e p r o c e s s e s . ( i v ) U l t i m a t e l y , i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f t h e c l a s s i -f i e r sys tem s h o u l d be a p p l i e d t o f u r t h e r i n g T h a i l e x i c o g r a p h y . A f i r s t s t e p i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i s t o c a r r y out t h e o r i g i n a l aim o f t h i s t h e s i s : an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e m a n t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h e members o f t h e o v e r a l l c a t e g o r y o f c l a s s i f i e r s . T h i s would have to p r o c e e d by s e m a n t i c domains which are more o r l e s s a r b i t r a r i l y d e l i m i t e d . T h i s t h e s i s has o n l y m a r g i n -a l l y t o u c h e d on the c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o p e r , and t h e r e i s of c o u r s e a g r e a t need t o have a t h o r o u g h p i c t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s between c l a s s i f i e r s a t t h i s l e v e l . 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