UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Classifiers in standard Thai : a study of semantic relations between headwords and classifiers Placzek, James Anthony 1978

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1978_A8 P53.pdf [ 9.22MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094442.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094442-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094442-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094442-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094442-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094442-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094442-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094442-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094442.ris

Full Text

C L A S S I F I E R S I N STANDARD T H A I : A STUDY OF SEMANTIC  RELATIONS  BETWEEN HEADWORDS AND C L A S S I F I E R S by James A n t h o n y B. A., U n i v e r s i t y  Placzek  o f W i n d s o r , 1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS  We a c c e p t  this  t h e s i s a s conforming  to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r , 1978 © James A n t h o n y P l a c z e k , 1978  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall, make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  LINGUISTICS  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5  Date  OCT. 3. 1978  ABSTRACT Standard sively  and  Thai c l a s s i f i e r s  comprehensively.  in  grammars o f t h e e n t i r e  by  giving  a few  some p a r t i c u l a r The  have never  That  i s , they have been  l a n g u a g e and  examples.  Specific  c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  criteria as w e l l .  The  relation  usally  and  by  deal with  a given c l a s s i f i e r  obvious  and  are  semantic  syntactic  between s e m a n t i c  r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s unclear.  included  exclusively.  Often there are obvious  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  exclu-  are u s u a l l y d i s c u s s e d  papers  aspect of c l a s s i f i e r s  a p u z z l e i n many c a s e s .  been s t u d i e d  criteria  syntactic  crite-  Equally unclear i s the  r e l a t i o n between headword and c l a s s i f i e r , a r e l a t i o n which i s the basis of the c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  In is  this  study,  drawn f r o m  Haas vided  (1965). and The  gory  the T h a i - E n g l i s h Student's A semantic  first  definition  of T h a i  classifiers  D i c t i o n a r y by  of c l a s s i f i e r s  are found  category i s Repeaters. t o be  one-place  M.R.  i s pro-  t o have a r e l a t i o n s h i p  Standard Measures (inexact units  Members o f t h i s  Repeaters  and  these  o f hyponymy w i t h t h e  important  Temporary  as measures a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  are  headword.  category, divided  ( e x a c t n o n - e n t i t i e s ) and  used  cate-  predicates.  category i s P a r t i a l  Measures are another  of  list  v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s are d e s c r i b e d .  A second found  a near-complete  into Measures  intention  the s p e a k e r ) . The  remaining  category i s found  t o c o n t a i n non-compound-  iii  able  classifiers  o f two t y p e s : t h o s e w i t h v e r y g e n e r a l  erents  (size,  stages  of d e c r e a s i n g semantic e q u i v a l e n c e with the sense of  the  same f o r m  labelled  shape,  e t c . ) and t h o s e c l a s s i f i e r s  ref-  as f u l l  substantive  "General U n i t s " ,  Extended with a s i n g l e with several  Classifiers sense  noun.  the l a t t e r are seen  i n various  The f o r m e r  "Extended  type i s  classifiers".  t o be o f two t y p e s : t h o s e  (or a p p a r e n t l y "meaningless")  s e n s e s , o n l y some o f w h i c h  and t h o s e  qualify  as E x t e n d e d  Classifiers. A  The do  apparently meaningless  n o t o c c u r as s u b s t a n t i v e nouns a t a l l .  lection  o f nouns c l a s s i f i e d  (according for  classifiers  The c o m p l e t e  by e a c h o f t h e s e two  t o Haas 1965) i s made and e a c h c l a s s  common s e m a n t i c f e a t u r e s .  information possible  / l e m / and / a n /  On t h e b a s i s  f r o m n e i g h b o u r i n g and r e l a t e d  sense e q u i v a l e n t  to "sickle"  classifiers i s examined  of comparative  languages,  c r i t e r i a of extension are e s t a b l i s h e d  and a b a s i c  col-  various  f o r /lem/,  i s indicated  by t h e  data. The sions  case with /an/ i s r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t  a r e much w i d e r  fied.  Based  and a l a r g e r  on p r o m i n e n t  basic  sense  of " s t i c k "  sible  paths  of semantic  Finally,  native  compounds . c l a s s i f i e d  by / a n / , a  i s h y p o t h e s i z e d f o r / a n / and t h e p o s extension are suggested.  The s e n s e  Classifier  attributed  s p e a k e r s when i t f u n c t i o n s  becomes a f a c t o r  i t s exten-  number o f nouns i s c l a s s i -  a "meaningful" Extended  "body") i s e x a m i n e d .  since  as a f u l l  i n choosing the sense  to this  (/tua/, f o r m by  substantive  noun  " b o d y - s h a p e " as t h e  iv basic  sense with  classifier  In c o n c l u d i n g  function.  remarks, s u g g e s t i o n s  applications  of the  c o g r a p h y and  semantic r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Thai  of cal  the and  area.  The  of  results  of  t h i s paper to and  information  Supervisor:  i s stressed.  the lexi  languages  n e c e s s i t y of f u r t h e r p h o n o l o g i c a l ,  ethnographic  Signature  method and  a r e made a b o u t  histori  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS L I S T OF TABLES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .  .  .  .  . .  . .  . .  1*0 INTRODUCTION .. . . . 1.1 AIMS 1 . 2 METHOD . . 1 . 3 THEORETICAL BASIS . . . 1.4 TERMINOLOGY AND CONVENTIONS 1.4.1 TERMINOLOGY .. . .  .  . .  . . FIGURES  .. .  p. p. p. p. p.  i i i v vii  viii  1 1 3 5 9 11  . . .  . .  p. p. p. p. p. p..  ..  .  p.  13  2.0 D E F I N I T I O N AND SELECTION OF C L A S S I F I E R S 2.1 SYNTACTIC DEFINITIONS . . .... 2.2 SEMANTIC DEFINITIONS . . . . 2.3 C L A S S I F I E R SELECTION . . . .  p.. p. p. p.  15 1519 26  3.0 REPEATERS . . .... • . . . . 3.1 IN SEARCH OF COMMON SEMANTIC FACTORS 3.2 DEFINING CRITERIA 3.3 FUNCTIONS OF THE REPEATER CONSTRUCTION 3 . 4 REPEATERS: BASIC SYSTEM OR "WASTEBASKET CATEGORY"? . . . . .  p . 30 p . 32 P- 36 p . 43  4.0 PARTIAL REPEATERS . . . . . . . 4.1 PARTIAL REPEATERS AS A CATEGORY .. 4.2 SEMANTIC RELATIONS BETWEEN PARTIAL REPEATER AND HEADWORD . . .. . 4.3 CATEGORY OVERLAP . . . . . 4.3.1 MULTIPLE SENSES IN DIFFERENT CATEGORIES . . . . . . 4.3.2 HOW PARTIAL REPEATERS CAN BECOME FULL REPEATERS . . . . . 4.3.3 HOW C L A S S I F I E R S CAN BECOME PARTIAL REPEATERS: COMPOUNDING . 4.3.4 IRREGULAR COMPOUNDS . . . 4.3.5 COMPOUNDING OF C L A S S I F I E R S . ...  p.. 50 p.. 50-  1.4.2  PHONOLOGICAL SYMBOLS.  1.4.3 GLOSSES AND  •  •  DEFINITIONS .  .-  . . . .  . .  . . .  p..  47  p.. 53 p . 63 p.. 63 p . 65 p . 67 p . 75 p . 77  . . p . 81. . p . 81 . p . 84 . p . 85 . p . 94 . p . 95 . p . 97  5.0 MEASURES . . . . . . . 5.1 INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC FEATURES 5.2 MEASURES AND REPEATERS . . . . 5.3 STANDARD MEASURES AS NON-ENTITIES 5.3.1 STANDARD MEASURES AS HEADWORDS 5.4 TEMPORARY MEASURES ., .. . . 5.5 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY INFORMATION 6.0 OTHERS . . . . . . 6.0.1 GENERAL UNITS . ... 6.0.2 EXTENDED C L A S S I F I E R S . 6.1 CRITERIA OF CATEGORIZATION  P « 12  .  .  p . 100 p . 102 p . )9 p. m 1(  .  vi 7.0 EXTENSIONS 7.1 BASIC SENSE 7.2 DIACHRONY AND SYNCHRONY . . . . 7.3 IN SEARCH OF A SENSE FOR / l e m / . . . 7.3.1 THE CLASS OF / l e m / . . . . . 7.3.2 CRITERIA OF C L A S S I F I C A T I O N FOR KNIVES IN NEIGHBOURING AND RELATED LANGUAGES 7.3.3 A BASIC. SENSE FOR / l e m / . . . . 7.4 IN SEARCH OF A SENSE FOR / a n / . . . 7.4.1 NOUNS C L A S S I F I E D BY / a n / . . . 7.4.2 C L A S S I F I E R S CO-OCCURRING WITH / a n / . 7.4.3 HYPOTHESIZED STRUCTURE . . . . . 7.4.4. COMPONENT I AL REFORMULATION . . . 7.4.5 ALTERNATIVE STRUCTURES . .. .. . . 7.4.6 / a n / AS WASTEBASKET . . . . . . 7.5 THE SEMANTIC EXTENSIONS OF / t u a / . .  p . 125 p . 129 p . 131 p . 131 p . 134 p . 134 p . 137 p.. 142 p . 144 p . 146  S.O CONCLUSIONS . . ... .. .. . . 8.1 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1 CONFIRMATIONS 8.1.2 CONTRIBUTIONS . . . . . . 8.2 THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS . . . . 8.3 APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . 8.4 FURTHER RESEARCH  p . 159 p . 159 p . 159 p.-160 p.. 164 p . 169 p . 173  BIBLIOGRAPHY  p . 176  . . . . . .  ..  ..  .  .  p. p. p. p. p.  H5 115 120 121 121  Vll  TABLES AND TABLES:  FIGURES  . . .  1. P h o n o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y o f S t a n d a r d T h a i 2. C l a s s i f i e r s C o - o c c u r r i n g W i t h R e p e a t e r s i n Haas 1965 • • 3.. S e m a n t i c " B a s i c n e s s " i n C l a s s i f i e r P h r a s e s 4. IP..&.2P P r e d i c a t e s as B a s e s o f S i m p l e , Compound & Complex Heads . . . . 5. Complex N o m i n a l s as IP & 2P P r e d i c a t e s 6. Items W i t h D i f f e r e n t S e n s e s i n D i f f e r e n t Categories . . . ... . . . . 7. D i v e r g e n t S e n s e s o f a S i n g l e L e x i c a l Item as Compound Member and as P a r t i a l R e p e a t e r 8. L e x i c a l T r a n s p a r e n c y Between M e a s u r e and F u l l Substantive • . . . . 9. Primacy of Information i n C l a s s i f i e r Categories • • • • • ••• • . 10. C l a s s i f i e r s W i t h " E x t e n d e d " S e n s e s • 11. C l a s s i f i e r s C o - o c c u r r i n g W i t h / l e m / • 12. C r i t e r i a o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n by / l e m / • 13.. C r i t e r i a o f E x t e n s i o n i n F i g u r e s 6 & 7 • 14. Items C l a s s i f i e d by / a n / and C r i t e r i a o f Extension . . . . . . • . 15. Headnouns o f / t u a / A c c o r d i n g t o P o s i t i o n i n the. S t r u c t u r e i n F i g u r e s 7 & 8 • • 1.6. C r i t e r i a o f E x t e n s i o n f o r t h e S e m a n t i c S t r u c t u r e o f / t u a / as G i v e n i n F i g u r e s 7 & 8 • •-• • • • • • •• • FIGURES: 1. S e m a n t i c S t r u c t u r e o f T h a i C l a s s i f i e r s 2. C a t e g o r i e s o f C l a s s i f i e r s • • • 3. V i s u a l I m p r e s s i o n s o f Keys • • • 4. C a t e g o r i e s o f C l a s s i f i e r s i n T h a i • 5.. C r i t e r i a o f C l a s s i f i e r C a t e g o r i e s 6. Rough S e m a n t i c S t r u c t u r e o f / a n / • 7. F e a t u r a l S e m a n t i c S t r u c t u r e o f / a n / • 8. Rough S e m a n t i c S t r u c t u r e o f / t u a / • 9. F e a t u r a l Semantic S t r u c t u r e of / t u a /  • • • • • • • •  p.  12  p. p.  32 47  p. p.  55 56  p.  64  p.  72  p.  92  p . 99 p . 109 p . 122 p . 123 p . 141 p.. 143 p.  151  p.  158  p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p.  40 52 59 101 113 136 138 148 149  viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e ing  t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o t h e f o l l o w -  people: Dr.  S. J . B e l l ,  Professors practical Tip  f o r encouragement, a d v i c e ,  R. J . G r e g g and M. D. K i n k a d e f o r  advice  and Sunantha Hengrasami f o r p a t i e n c e  l o n g h o u r s o f d i f f i c u l t and r e p e t i t i v e Niti  helpful  Khaodiar  obscure  provide  semantics. Professor of  this  helping  i n the search  references. J . P. Denny and T.W.  copies  of their  Both p r o f e s s o r s  Gething  for willingness  own work o n c l a s s i f i e r s Denny and G e t h i n g  J . R. Cooke g a v e h e l p f u l  advice  and T h a i  as w e l l as  at various  stages  thesis.  Tip  Placzek  All  of the Thai  advice,  questioning.  and f a m i l y f o r t i m e c o n t r i b u t e d as  Chan W h i t e f o r a c t i v e l y  Professors to  with  informants.  Marjorie for  patience,  and s u p p o r t .  Placzek  Mr.  and p a t i e n c e .  again  f o r those  d a y s and n i g h t s  s p e a k e r s who c o n t r i b u t e d  a n d ray f e l l o w - s t u d e n t s  of Linguistics  of typing.  examples and who d i d t h e  same. Weaknesses a n d e r r o r s t o be f o u n d i n t h e t h e s i s of course,  my own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  remain,  1 1.0  INTRODUCTION  1.1  AIMS This paper focuses  in  Standard Thai  original the  aim  was  members o f  tion  according  on  a p a r t i c u l a r s y n t a c t i c phenomenon  commonly c a l l e d t o examine t h e  the  "noun c l a s s i f i e r s " . semantic d i s t i n c t i o n s  e n t i r e category.  This  to which c l a s s i f i e r s  required  c o u l d be  s y n t a c t i c types.  definition  more a c c u r a t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e  from o t h e r  found  defini-  that  a  semantic  classifier  func-  functions.  A review of  the  literature  t h a t most t r a d i t i o n a l  writers  I 9 6 0 , S i l a p a s a r n 1968, the  I t was  a  among  distinguished  from other  tion  The  same s u b - c a t e g o r i e s  on  on  the  Sirijaroen of  Thai  classifiers  subject  e t a l 1974)  showed  (Poosakritsana had  essentially  classifiers:  ( i ) shape, appearance (ii) condition, position ( i i i ) kind, type (iv) groups (v) m e a s u r e s Other a n a l y s t s , u s i n g  strict  1964)  Generative-Transformational  19 70)  and  componential a n a l y s i s  t i o n ) were f o u n d t o c o n t a i n the  additional categories  b a s e d on which are  relatively identical  e r s " here) are  structuralist theory  (Denny, p e r s o n a l  these analyses  arbitrary criteria. i n form to t h e i r  m e n t i o n e d by  Those  headword  some w r i t e r s , n o t  communicaand  many  featured  to ignore  traditional  obvious s y n t a c t i c  and  classifiers (called  "Repeat-  a t a l l by  semantic analyses  differences,  of  were  others. Generally,  (Noss  (Warotamasikkhadit  similar categories,  that  criteria  tended  structuralist  2  grammars to i g n o r e semantic r e l a t i o n s , and no p l a i n e d c l e a r l y the a c t u a l processes i n v o l v e d . the  approach  ex-  A summary of  shortcomings of most d e s c r i p t i o n s i s as f o l l o w s : (i)  inadequacy of c a t e g o r i e s : not a l l c l a s s i f i e r s are accounted f o r ( i i ) o v e r l a p of c a t e g o r i e s (although t h i s i s p r o b a b l y i n evitable ) ( i i i ) c o n f u s i o n of semantic and s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i a and f a i l ure t o r e l a t e the two; e s p e c i a l l y f a i l u r e to supply a semantic s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r r e p e a t e r s and p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s ( c l a s s i f i e r s with a form i d e n t i c a l t o p a r t of a compound headword) (iv) a r b i t r a r y s e l e c t i o n of c r i t e r i a of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n (v) f a i l u r e to r e l a t e d i v e r g e n t senses of a s i n g l e form as f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e noun, as noun compound member, and as c l a s s i f i e r (vi) f a i l u r e to r e l a t e d i f f e r e n t senses of a s i n g l e c l a s s i f i e r ; e s p e c i a l l y t o s p e c i f y the base sense and the dimensions along which the d i f f e r e n t senses are r e l a ted. That i t has not been p o s s i b l e t o c o n t i n u e the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n p u r e l y semantic terms i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the necess i t y of at l e a s t attempting t o c l a r i f y the matters above. the  listed  S i n c e i t i s not f e a s i b l e to examine the s t r u c t u r e of  c a t e g o r y of c l a s s i f i e r s on a p u r e l y semantic b a s i s  (there-  by i g n o r i n g the obvious syntax-based c a t e g o r i e s ) , the next f o u r s e c t i o n s of t h i s paper w i l l d e a l with ( i ) Repeaters (section ( i i ) P a r t i a l Repeaters ( s e c t i o n ( i i i ) Measures (section (iv) "True" C l a s s i f i e r s ( s e c t i o n Measures,  3) 4) 5) 6)  however, are d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y by semantic  criteria.  "True" C l a s s i f i e r s are i n f a c t simply the r e s i d u e ; t h a t i s , they are c l a s s i f i e r s which are not Repeaters, P a r t i a l ers  or Measures.  Repeat-  They w i l l be examined i n d e t a i l and at  l e a s t two s u b - c a t e g o r i e s e x t r a c t e d . What c a t e g o r i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t between  classifi-  3 ers  on a p u r e l y  subsequent factors  level will  h a v e t o be c o n s i d e r e d  t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n  and t h e s y n t a c t i c  teraction sis  semantic  i s summarized  does n o t a c t u a l l y  classifiers  categories  i n F i g u r e 5,  listed  above.  p . 113.  here t o suggest f u r t h e r  Thus t h i s  There  applications  and  semantic  (ii)  v a l u e s and d i s t i n c t i o n s .  t o two b a s i c h y p o t h e s e s ,  was a l s o f e l t  between t h e c r i t e r i a criteria  fiers, of  used  o f human p e r c e p t i o n The e m p h a s i s on t h e o f language  as f o l l o w s :  used  t h e r e s h o u l d be some t o group  of semantic  words u n d e r  relationship one  classifier,  the v a r i o u s types of c l a s s i e x t e n s i o n , and t h e p r i n c i p l e s  compounding.  METHOD  As m e n t i o n e d sifiers well  that  to categorize  the c r i t e r i a  noun  1.2  between  c a t e g o r i e s o f c l a s s i f i e r s , whether s y n t a c t i c a l l y o r s e m a n t i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d , w i l l have s e m a n t i c d e f i n ing c r i t e r i a . the c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c a n be t r a c e d t o b a s i c p e r c e p t u a l and/or c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s .  It  the  8.  was t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  a s p e c t and on t h e " r e a l w o r l d " b a s i s  gave r i s e  between  and a r e a s o f r e s e a r c h  and t h e " r e a l w o r l d " , i n t e r m s  cultural  (i)  area of i n t e r e s t  the-  i s o n l y enough t i m e and s p a c e  beyond t h e b a s i c c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d i n s e c t i o n  language  This i n -  deal with semantic d i s t i n c t i o n s  themselves.  A second  of semantic  above, t h e l i t e r a t u r e  was s t u d i e d f i r s t .  as t h e c r i t e r i a  such c r i t e r i a The occurring  used  on S t a n d a r d  Thai  clas-  V a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s were n o t e d , as to establish  these c a t e g o r i e s ,  where  were e v i d e n t .  d a t a base  was t h e nouns f u r n i s h e d w i t h commonly c o -  classifiers  i n t h e T h a i - E n g l i s h Student's  Dictionary  by Mary R. Haas and  (1965).  T h i s was s u p p l e m e n t e d  o p i n i o n s from n a t i v e  speakers  and d e f i n i t i o n s  T h a i - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y b y G. B. M c F a r l a n d Thai-English Dictionary tionaries  grouped  list  of c l a s s i f i e r s  classifiers  which  not enter into  not  supply a s a t i s f a c t o r y  to the a p p l i c a t i o n  the  analysis  for  t h e odd range  find  possible  culled  f r o m Hass 1965 was  classified  which  change r e s p o n s i b l e In the case of  c r i t e r i a o f e x t e n s i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d n e i g h b o u r i n g and r e l a t e d  and t h e p a t h s  but which  classifies  langua-  In the case of /an/, exten-  i n a chain-like Only  fashion  a rough  o f e x t e n s i o n was  and t h e s i z e  hypothesis of the outlined. classifi-  a seemingly u n r e l a t e d group  e n t e r s i n t o compounds  using  o f / l e m / were t h e n c o m p a r e d t o  sense.  was much l a r g e r .  also  sources)  approach t o  T h i s method was t h e n a p p l i e d t o a n o t h e r common er  could  were t h e c l a s s i -  t o Haas 1965 and o t h e r  o f nouns i n e a c h c l a s s .  t o proceed  group  which  informants  of a kind of componential  t h e most l i k e l y b a s i c  b a s i c sense  and w h i c h  a  range o f  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e nouns  The members o f t h e c l a s s  the class  crite-  and i n some  t h e wide semantic  meaning f o r . These  i n f o r m a t i o n from  dic-  words.  of the process of semantic  s i o n was s e e n of  -  (according  led  comparative  due to  any compounds  / l § m / and / a n / .  t h e s e two i t e m s  ges .  Other  T h e r e were o n l y two c l a s s i f i e r s  did  /lem/,  (19 7 2 ) .  a r e t h e most c o m m o n l y - o c c u r r i n g  nouns t h e y c l a s s i f y .  by  (1969) a n d t h e  f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y . T h i s method i s o l a t e d  c a s e s t h e most p e r p l e x i n g ,  fiers  from the  a c c o r d i n g t o s y n t a c t i c c a t e g o r y and a s e m a n t i c  r i o n was s o u g h t of  o f S. S e t h a p u t r a  were c o n s u l t e d f o r s p e c i f i c  The b a s i c  by i n f o r m a t i o n  and h a s a s e m a n t i c  o f nouns  v a l u e when  5 functioning "body". other  as a f u l l  I t was c h o s e n s i m p l y  items The  of this  final  structure tions  s u b s t a n t i v e noun.  type  result  i s /tua/  as an example; t h e r e  a r e many  Thai.  was h y p o t h e s e s  of the three  f o r the study  item  i n Standard  classifiers  of h i s t o r i c a l  This  about t h e semantic  examined, w i t h semantic  implica-  change.  1.3 THEORETICAL BASIS In terms o f c u r r e n t l y - d e b a t e d tions, at  this  all.  p a p e r c o u l d be s a i d  Nevertheless  there  are d e f i n i t e  "schools" or of general  theoretical  posi-  t o have no t h e o r e t i c a l  t i o n s made o r m e t h o d o l o g y r e l i e d certain  formal  areas  where  basis  assump-  on a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f and i n f o r m a l  theoretical  positions. One  principle  ed b y n o t i n g between the  adhered  a distinction  "God's t r u t h "  first  strictly  expression data-based,  to i n this  paper can best  be s t a t -  o f t e n drawn i n l i n g u i s t i c  analysis  and " h o c u s - p o c u s " ( e . g . s e e B u r l i n g 1968), referring  to linguistic  and t h e second  analysis that i s  to analyses  which  greater degrees of a b s t r a c t i o n i n the l i n g u i s t i c  allow  model o f t h e  l a n g u a g e phenomenon b e i n g  s t u d i e d . The aim and o r i e n t a t i o n o f  this  within the f i r s t  is  paper are d e f i n i t e l y  made t o j u s t i f y  syntactic  a l l important  a p p r o a c h . An a t t e m p t  u n i t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e  c a t e g o r i e s and s e m a n t i c s t r u c t u r e s p r o p o s e d  Justification  f o r semantic d i s t i n c t i o n s  mantic analogies  made i n o t h e r  or a t l e a s t  i n the vocabularies  languages.  It is felt  areas  i s sought  i n similar se-  of the vocabulary  of r e l a t e d  and  below.  of Thai,  neighbouring  that the information presented  i s use-  6 ful  enough a n d t h e i n f o r m a l  d e s c r i p t i o n c l e a r enough  t h o s e who w i s h t o p r o p o s e f o r m a l Other i n f o r m a l  rules w i l l  theoretical positions  be a b l e  that t o do s o .  a r e i n d i c a t e d by  the  two h y p o t h e s e s m e n t i o n e d on page 3.  and  p h o n o l o g y t o be t h e two a s p e c t s o f l a n g u a g e w h i c h a r e  the  most b a s i c b e c a u s e b o t h o f t h e s e a s p e c t s have  manifestations:  semantics  through a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  phonology through a phonetic The  basis"  o f what L y o n s  of language.  semantics  real-world aspect,  aspect.  e m p h a s i s on p e r c e p t i o n  sideration  I consider  and c u l t u r e i s b a s e d on c o n -  (1977:440) c a l l s  Lyons p o i n t s  the " o n t o l o g i c a l  out that  ...the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i d e n t i f y i n g e n t i t i e s , p r o p e r t i e s , a c t i o n s , r e l a t i o n s , e t c . i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e way i n which they a r e r e f e r r e d t o o r denoted i n p a r t i c u l a r l a n g u a g e s ... p r e s u p p o s e s t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f some n e u t r a l o n t o l o g i c a l framework. This  framework i s b u i l t  He c o n t i n u e s  up o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s  Lyons  mentions.  (p. 442):  We o b v i o u s l y c a n n o t o p e r a t e w i t h c a t e g o r i e s o f t h i s k i n d w i t h o u t m a k i n g some m i n i m a l o n t o l o g i c a l assumpt i o n s : i . e . , a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t what t h e r e i s i n t h e world. The o n t o l o g i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t we w i l l make (and we w i l l t a k e them t o be m i n i m a l and r e l a t i v e l y u n c o n t r o v e r s i a l ) are those of naive r e a l i s m . The think,  viewpoint of naive  since  i t i s a safe  realism  i s an i m p o r t a n t one, I  assumption  that  t h e o r i g i n a l and  b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n s i n a l a n g u a g e were made b y p e o p l e and societies the fers  who r e l i e d  world.  s o l e l y on a " n a i v e l y r e a l i s t i c "  In a s i m i l a r v e i n ,  t o i n s i g h t s t o be g a i n e d  investigator The  would  "step  Lakoff about  outside  view o f  (1977:236-7) a l s o r e -  "natural  of formal  f a c t s " i f the  theories".  u n i v e r s a l i t y o f an o n t o l o g i c a l b a s i s  i n naive  real-  7  ism  i s , of course, not e a s i l y  like  to r e l a t e the notion  o f human p e r c e p t i o n perceptual  basis  psychology  and  larities  of naive  as a b a s i s  realism  and t h e n o t i o n  of l i n g u i s t i c  structure.  t h e m s e l v e s h a v e some c l a i m  use i s widespread i n world  to u n i v e r s a l i t y .  l a n g u a g e s and t h e s i m i -  ( e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e b a s e d on  o f shape) i n c l a s s i f i e r  languages i n A s i a ,  class  l a n g u a g e s o f A u s t r a l i a and A f r i c a  verb"  languages of North America i s s t r i k i n g  and  classifiers  Denny 19 76  and h a s b e e n  etc.).  This  makes c l a s s i f i e r s ,  i fnot truly  then a t l e a s t of greater  cance.  There are a l s o c l e a r semantic p a r a l l e l s  n o n - c l a s s i f i e r languages,  lish.  Waldron  English anything  (e.g.  written  ( s e e L y o n s 1977, A l l a n 1977, F r i e d r i c h 1970,  versal,  in  noun-  "classificatory  commented u p o n b y many o f t h e g r a m m a r i a n s who h a v e on  A  o f l a n g u a g e g r o u n d s i t i n u n i v e r s a l human  between s e m a n t i c c l a s s e s  a criterion  However, I w o u l d  physiology.*  Classifiers Classifier  established.  than intra-language  of the appropriate  signifi-  t o be f o u n d  s u c h as " s h e e t o f p a p e r " i n E n g -  (1976:132) n o t e s how e a s i l y brick, ball,  uni-  stick,  etc.)  shape^words i n  c a n be a p p l i e d t o  shape, r e g a r d l e s s  of composition.  * S e e L e n n e b e r g (1967:356) o n s i m i l a r i t i e s i n c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s i n t h e " l a n g u a g e o f e x p e r i e n c e " , and R o s c h (1973:143) on p e r c e p t u a l s a l i e n c e a s a f a c t o r i n f o r m i n g c e n t r a l examp l e s from which c l a s s e s d e v e l o p . F r i e d r i c h c l a i m s (1970:403) t h a t shape i s a "semantic p r i m i t i v e " , a l t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p e r c e p t u a l l y based. G i b s o n (1950:205) f o u n d t h a t s p a c i a l a s p e c t s a r e among t h e most p r i m i t i v e c o n c e p t s r e t a i n e d i n c a ses of "psychic b l i n d n e s s " ( v i s u a l a g n o s i a ) . I t i s "generall y a c c e p t e d " , a c c o r d i n g t o L y o n s (19 77:247) t h a t t h e r e " a r e p e r c e p t u a l and c o g n i t i v e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s t o a c q u i r e l i n g u i s t i c a l l y p e r t i n e n t d i s t i n c t i o n s o f s o u n d and m e a n i n g " . He a l s o n o t e s t h a t e v e n a l l o w i n g f o r b i o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l u n i v e r s a l s , there i s a great deal of s t r u c t u r e remaining f r e e to v a r y between i n d i v i d u a l l a n g u a g e s .  a The  most r e m a r k a b l e e v i d e n c e o f  er c l a s s e s  i s the  wteen c l a s s i f i e r  classes  out  by  pointed  out  similarities  E.  V.  in  ical  salience  to referents b a s e d on  between c o g n i t i v e  development  (see  L e n n e b e r g 1967:332, f o r  classes  various  a  and  example).  classifier  i t i s not  classifier of  of  classes  controver-  t o be  based  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  belief-system  chy.  and  by  some k i n d  not  phys-  of  similarly  of  that  the  on  on  be  d e p e n d upon t h e  true  that  a perceptual  is fossilized  by  the  a biological hierar-  to s e l e c t or  (color, size, outline)  Allen  and  to  "overwhelming evidence to  perceiver."  " I t may  been e s t a b l i s h e d classification  therefore  1976a,  (1977:248) r e f e r s  upon t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s  s p a t i a l properties  is  l i f e - s u p p o r t system  Denny 1974,  of c u l t u r a l s a l i e n c e  meanings r e a c t  culture  Lyons  (1950:213) f o u n d  these properties  (see  by  extension  Cultural salience  technology,  a society  mediated  of m e t a p h o r i c a l  objects.  Lenneberg 1967).  Gibson  the  s a l i e n c e , however, must be  which are  "superimposition"  the  have  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the  especially  fy  Other w r i t e r s  salience  perceptual  cultural  that  (1973:79ff.).  objects. This  and  as  parameters, I think  perceptual  be-  over-extensions,  assumption to consider  the  classifi-  children's  this near-universality  of p e r c e p t u a l  sial  and  Clark  semantic c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  and  u n i v e r s a l i t y of  cross-language semantic correspondence  pointed  In view of  the  and  show modi-  that  personality  and  (1977:296-7) c o n c l u d e s  most noun c l a s s e s  basis;  but  conventions  presumably that  have most  restrict  novation." Denny r e l a t e s t h e  complexity  and  number o f  categories  in-  9 directly  to the l e v e l  examples  of t r i b a l  since  their  of technology  of the c u l t u r e .  p e o p l e who do n o t have r i g i d  t e c h n o l o g y does n o t i n v o l v e p l a n k s ,  such shaped m a t e r i a l s  (1976b:127).  S i l v e r m a n on G i l b e r t e s e w h i c h p o s i t s  as  a possible  fish-hooks,  correct,  ecological variables play  classifies  p l o t s of land  as w e l l .  birds  classes  bricks, or  "means o f s u s t e n a n c e "  meaning f o r a c l a s s i n G i l b e r t e s e  includes  classification  flat  Dixon  gives  He a l s o r e f e r s t o a p a p e r  by  core  He  and t r e e s .  which  I t this i s  an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n  (1968:120) n o t e s  as f e m a l e f o r m y t h o l o g i c a l  that  Dyirbal  reasons.  Cross-language h i e r a r c h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n have  -been p o s i t e d b y v a r i o u s  (1975:112) a r g u e s t h a t is  writers  the organization  paradigmatic, not h i e r a r c h i c a l .  a given ships ther  item  of that  i n a given item  rectly,  t o a l l other  This  i s defined  by t h e r e l a t i o n -  i n that  Generalizations  about T h a i  structure, r a and s u b o r d i -  n o t be d e a l t w i t h h e r e d i -  beyond t h e scope o f t h i s  are pointed  paper-  o u t , however, i n s e c t i o n  cultural  values  are also  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r e  riously  systems  That i s , the p o s i t i o n of  items  issue w i l l  as i t i s c o n s i d e r e d  Some i m p l i c a t i o n s  1.4.0  structure  of c l a s s i f i e r  t h a n by i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o s u p e r o r d i n a t e  nate items only.  since  as w e l l , b u t B e c k e r  restricted, i s a noto-  complex o n e .  TERMINOLOGY AND CONVENTIONS In S t a n d a r d T h a i ,  classifiers  occur  i n close  juncture  with numerals, demonstratives, d e s c r i p t i v e a d j e c t i v e s , tive  8.  clauses  and o t h e r  terms used  rela-  to specify individual enti-  10  ties,  units  and a m o u n t s .  which  o c c u r , one w i t h n u m e r a l s ,  environments (CLF)  plus  HW + NUM noun).  mentioned  numeral  + CLF  T h e r e a r e two b a s i c  above.  and t h e o t h e r w i t h t h e o t h e r The c o m b i n a t i o n o f c l a s s i f i e r  (NUM) a p p e a r s  where HW  word o r d e r s  i n the c l a s s i f i e r  s t a n d s f o r "headword"  phrase  (usually a  An example i s  1*1 maa saam t u a dog The  3  BODY-SHAPE  other basic  "three  dogs"  word o r d e r i s e x e m p l i f i e d b y  1.2 maa t u a dam dog The b a s i c  BODY-SHAPE b l a c k elements  "a b l a c k d o g "  h e r e c a n be s y m b o l i z e d by HW •+• C L F  where I r e p r e s e n t s  the specifying  tives,  adjectives  descriptive  c a n be r e f e r r e d  objects  and r e l a t i v e  t o as " I n d i c a t o r s "  Reference to s a l i e n t f o l l o w s Denny  categories  after  (1976a)  of demonstra-  clauses..  Haas  characteristics and o t h e r s .  o f t h e shape o f The s y m b o l s  extended  i n one d i m e n s i o n  S2D - s a l i e n t l y  extended  i n two d i m e n s i o n s  S3D - s a l i e n t l y  extended  i n three  were f o u n d p r e f e r r a b l e  thing,  flat  pressions  thing",  often  obscured d i s t i n c t i o n s  v.s. v e r t i c a l i t y . a class  which  F o r example,  f o r example,  included  i n T h a i both round f r u i t  w i t h / l u u k / "S3D  shape".  terms  since  like  "long  these l a t t e r ex-  s u c h as h o r i z o n t a l i t y  and sometimes  square shapes  used  dimensions.  to simpler  o r "round t h i n g "  These  (1942).  a r e : SID - s a l i e n t l y  These  + I  over-restricted  w i t h "round" and d i c e  things.  are c l a s s i f i e d  11  1.4.1  TERMINOLOGY As  ing  carefully  as p o s s i b l e ,  terms w i t h t h e s e n s e s (i)  classes  I would l i k e  given  below:  o f headwords - a s d e t e r m i n e d  with a given c l a s s i f i e r  chairs  (ii)  articles  of clothing  a r e i n one c l a s s /tua/.  to  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  composition  classes  i s an e m p i r i c a l  are Repeaters  as M e a s u r e s .  o f any k i n d , f o r  as c l a s s e s .  with  to refer The  o f membership o f  matter,  categories of c l a s s i f i e r s  already  phrase.  and f o r t a b l e s a n d  and c r i t e r i a  analyses.  classifier  I t i s only p r a c t i c a l  extent,  linguistic  co-occurrence  because they can occur  the c l a s s i f i e r the r e s u l t s  by  i n a typical  F o r example, a l l nouns f o r a n i m a l s body-shaped  t o use the f o l l o w -  -as p r o v i d e d by v a r i o u s  Some c a t e g o r i e s m e n t i o n e d and P a r t i a l  Repeaters,  The e x t e n t , c o m p o s i t i o n  as w e l l  and c r i t e r i a  o f membership i n c a t e g o r i e s i s a t h e o r e t i c a l  matter.  Other terms with meanings s p e c i f i c to t h i s thesis are defined or explained when introduced.  Terms which are not  explained are to be considered as used with t h e i r non-technic a l sense, f o r example the term  "implication".  12 1.4.2 PHONOLOGICAL The phonetic by Haas  SYMBOLS  symbols used  t o r e p r e s e n t T h a i words i n a b r o a d  transcription  are similar  (1942) and w i d e l y u s e d  t o those o r i g i n a l l y  used  by t h o s e who s t u d y t h e T a i  languages:  Phonological  TABLE 1 Inventory of Standard  Thai  Consonants: Manner  1.  STOPS: v l e s s . a s p . unasp. vd. unasp. AFFRICATES asp. unasp. FRICATIVES NASALS FLAPS LATERALS SEMIVOWELS  ph P b  2.  3.  4.  th t d f  kh k  w  6. •?  ch c  s n r 1  m  5.  h J  j  Vowels: Height  FRONT  HIGH MID LOW  CENTRAL  BACK  i , i i e,ee a, 33 ae,aeae a,aa  u,uu o,oo o, 0 0  Tones: N  low  * falling  'high Places 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  w  rising  of a r t i c u l a t i o n : bilabial labiodental alveolar palatal velar glottal  Mid  tone  ed d i s t i n c t i v e venience  i s unmarked.  and i s i n c l u d e d  i n identifying  other than  The g l o t t a l  tones, such  i n some e x a m p l e s o n l y f o r c o n -  the item. as s t r e s s ,  are not represented except  stop i s not consider-  Suprasegmental  phenomena  j u n c t u r e , and i n t o n a t i o n  where r e l e v a n t  to the p o i n t  being  discussed. these sed  In f a c t  distinctions  as  c a s e where r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  i s necessary  GLOSSES AND In g e n e r a l ,  and  only  i s the  use  of  not  glosses  intended  used i n the  as  are  intended  as  a kind of  f o r the convenience of  comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n s  examples.  Glosses  are  lexical  items.  transcriptions  They a r e  to the  equivalents  intended  and  sentence without breakdown. the  The  be  repeating  right  departing  Adams and  given  classifier  f u n c t i o n and  cal  to a l l or p a r t of the To  text, a plus  sign  derlining  slashes  This  individual  divisions  "+"  to the  phonetic  glosses  are  in loose  entire  morphological  to t r y to  illus-  examples. glosses  of  classifi-  i s useful especially  in  form which appears is lexically  in  identi-  will be  be  i n examples i n t h e  used.  used to  Generally,  i n d i c a t e the  to i n d i c a t e the broad p h o n e t i c  to r e f e r  forms  headword.  show m o r p h o l o g i c a l  item,  (19 74)  p o s i t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r  where p o s s i b l e , q u o t e s w i l l an  a l s o used  p h r a s e s where t h e  the  the  below the  the  shown i n t h e  in capitals.  reader,  sense of the  t o o much f r o m  Conklin  of  and  (or below) the  t r a n s l a t i o n s are  the  Translations given  t o convey the  differences being  Following ers w i l l  written directly  o f example s e n t e n c e s .  quotes d i r e c t l y  morpholog-  a l s o u s e d t o t r y t o show  s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between c o n s t r u c t i o n s  ning  a comma, g l o s -  TRANSLATIONS  breakdown, p r o v i d e d  trate  of  PAUSE.  1.4.3  ical  the  form i n g e n e r a l  run-  and sense  of  f o r m and  un-  (as o p p o s e d t o  the  meaning). Where t h e  exact  content  of a d e f i n i t i o n  is crucial  to  14 the p o i n t being  discussed,  wise a l l d e f i n i t i o n s  a r e my  definitions own  are  footnoted.  responsibility.  Other-  15  2.0  D I F I N I T I O N AND SELECTION OF C L A S S I F I E R S . Allan  nition face are  (1977:285) s e e s two b a s i c  of classifiers:  structures  may  under s p e c i f i a b l e c o n d i t i o n s ,  syntactic, the  C l e a r l y , t h e s e two c r i t e r i a and ( i i ) s e m a n t i c .  literature  -that  on c l a s s i f i e r s  i s , most o f t h e  per  definitions.  see  that  the  2.1  (i) structurally  definitions i n  t o d a t e have been s y n t a c t i c c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  I f we compare A l l a n ' s  the  two s t a t e m e n t s , we  description.  Nevertheless,  o f the  classifier,  I. b e l i e v e  which captures  although  the true  i t may n o t  like  that func-  provide the  means o f i d e n t i f y i n g members o f t h e c a t e g o r y . SYNTACTIC DEFINITIONS Nung i s a T a i l a n g u a g e s p o k e n i n N o r t h V i e t n a m .  description  of c l a s s i f i e r  278)  defines  slot  i n the  is  pro-  s e m a n t i c s t a t e m e n t seems more  i s t h esemantic d e f i n i t i o n  best  are  s y n t a c t i c a p p r o a c h h a s a more p r e c i s e a n d d e f i -  a. mere g e n e r a l  tioning  characteris-  noun r e f e r s ( o r  Most o f the  statements that  nite r i n g t o i t , while  it  defi-  and ( i i ) they  o r imputed  o f t h e e n t i t y t o w h i c h an a s s o c i a t e d refer).  f o r the  ( i ) t h e y o c c u r a s morphemes i n s u r -  meaningful: they denote s a l i e n t  tics  criteria  classifiers  constructions  i n Nung, S a u l  as t h o s e f o r m s t h a t  Nung c l a s s i f i e r  can f i l l  In her (1966: the CL  p h r a s e : NUM-CL-HW-MOD, where MOD  a modifier. Jacob  (1965:145) i d e n t i f i e s  Khmer c l a s s i f i e r s  occurrence a f t e r numerals i n c l o s e defined  quite  similarly  s i v e study o f Standard word o r d e r  b y Noss Thai.  and p h o n o l o g i c a l  junture.  classifiers are  (1964) i n t h e Like  criteria  by t h e i r  most  J a c o b , he u s e s to define  comprehenboth  classifiers  16 as  "substantives  and  o c c u r r i n g w i t h weak s t r e s s d i r e c t l y  i n construction Classifiers  with, demonstratives"  do o c c u r  (Noss,  w i t h normal s t r e s s ,  But i t i s the c l a s s i f i e r  phrase  leted)  f o r the antecedent,  fier  which s u b s t i t u t e s  alone.  Furthermore,  normal s t r e s s  before,  p . 104).  as do p r o n o u n s .  ( u s u a l l y w i t h h e a d noun d e -  the occurrence  not the c l a s s i -  of c l a s s i f i e r s  i s l i m i t e d t o c a s e s where t h e n u m e r a l  with  "one" i s  deleted. The p r i m a r y p r o b l e m i n d e f i n i n g c l a s s i f i e r s is  t o d i s t i n g u i s h them f r o m p r o n o u n s .  f u n c t i o n as c l a s s i f i e r s ted person, of  /naaj/  classifiers  C e r t a i n pronouns can  i n many c o n t e x t s : e . g . / t n a n /  "person-in-authority".  must r e s o l v e  t h e problem o f making t h i s and p r o n o u n s .  the  phrase  stitutes  the c l a s s i f i e r  a "modifying phrase  ronments verbs,  other  than the c l a s s i f i e r  Allan's  phrase:  criterion  d e p e n d s o n an " a s s o c i a t e d  n o u n " , and t h i s  against  Berlin's analysis  (1968)  actions  of b l i n k i n g ,  such c l a s s i f i e r s (1977:307)  stabbing,  with / p e n / "be" ( i i ) above leads  "weight"  etc.)  also  him to  Allan's  objections  modifying verbs  has been g a p p e d .  argue for to  later  i n sentences  where a n a b s t r a c t h e a d n o u n ( s u c h a s t h e words f o r "distance",  in envi-  of T z e l t a l c l a s s i f i e r s  etc.  phrases  to the  when m o d i f y i n g  a r e weakened b y h i s own a c c e p t a n c e  of c l a s s i f i e r  stresses  One i m m e d i a t e  of c l a s s i f i e r s  or i n constructions  and / l a ? / " e a c h ; p e r " .  as comment  (1975:41).  i s the occurrence  f o r instance,  Greenberg  dis-  ( q u a n t i f i e r + CLF) c o n -  which serves  h e a d noun f u n c t i o n i n g a s t o p i c " problem with t h i s  "respec-  Any d e f i n i t i o n  t i n c t i o n between c l a s s i f i e r s fact, that  precisely  "time",  To b e a c c e p t a b l e , would have rather  definitions like  t o be r e p h r a s e d  than nouns.  headword a t  Of c o u r s e , on o c c u r r e n c e  found i n other  check  the  In f a c t ,  Alternatively,  necessity  phrase  this  of  is  as p a r t  of  Haas has  That i s ,  teria  for selection  constituting  c o n v e n i e n t way  lexicon,  to  the  classifier  to  grammar, avoid  all  the  appropriate  nor does  classifier  give a  suc-  she o u t l i n e her  given,  1965  w h i c h commonly  But she does not  t h e s e two s t r u c t u r a l i s t  two d i f f e r e n t  types  or f o r  cri-  listing  (listing all  d e f i n i t i o n by i n t e n s i o n a class). l a c k of  t h e members  of  ( l i s t i n g a l l the  The d r a w b a c k s  of  techniques  of d e f i n i t i o n .  d e s c r i b e d two s u c h t r a d i t i o n a l  by e x t e n s i o n  and t h e  specified  unclassified.  We c a n c o n s i d e r  the  form  item-  the  noun.  d e f i n i t i o n of c l a s s i f i e r s  of  i n the  a structuralist  she g i v e s  of  based  provided such a l i s t i n g i n her  cinct  has  occur  t h e most  a. l e x i c a l  occurs with a p a r t i c u l a r  291)  w i t h no  which are  of c h e c k i n g each d o u b t f u l form i n the  dictionary.  nouns as  classifiers  a given l e x i c a l  can a l s o  c o u l d be l i s t e d i n the  sentence-frame.  general,  o r w i t h a h e a d noun c a n  c a n b e shown t h a t  form-class  classifiers  the problem of  d e f i n i t i o n s of c l a s s i f i e r s  it  in  all.  environments  environment.  t o headwords  Allan's  function i n constructions  in a classifier  be s u p p o r t e d i f  refer  There remains  occurring with c l a s s i f i e r apparent  to  N o s s ' s and  types:  Lyons (i)  a class) common  an a p p r o a c h l i k e  a comprehensive  list  of  (1977:  definition and  (ii)  properties Haas's  an o v e r a l l i n t e n s i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n on t h e  l a c k of  as  t h e members  are  one h a n d , of  the  18 class  on t h e o t h e r .  tempted t o c o m p i l e  " T h e r e h a s n o t b e e n anyone who the complete l i s t  (Warotamasikkhadit 1972:23). stitute  like  thesis.  repeaters,  function  and  as c l a s s i f i e r s ,  nouns,  classifiers  classifiers  on t h e f o r m - c l a s s  see t h a t  t h e two  classifiers  classifiers  i n order  like  /kammii/  which c l a s s i f y  (discussed  potentially  t o impose s t r i c t to provide  defining  a definite  num-  the e x t e n s i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n . .  little  insight  into  beyond e s t a b l i s h i n g  t h e head  categories  for locating  However, t h e y p r o v i d e handy r e classifiers  and j u d g i n g t h e  sta-  F o r example, b y t h e s e m a n t i c c r i a moment" i s a  I f t h e v e r b i s a c c e p t e d a s t h e headword  l o w i n g example, 2.1  classifiers  / p h r a p / "moment"  s u g g e s t e d b e l o w / p h r a p / "a f l a s h ;  sifier.  a by-pro-  ( a s Noss d o e s ) b a s e d on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  of questionable items.  teria  offer  relationship  and head words.  ference points  "marginal"  con-  types o f d e f i n i t i o n are interdependent,.  definitions  word — c l a s s i f i e r  / p h r a p / seems t o f i t i n t o  clas-  i n the  a classifier  folphrase:  khaw  maa phrap diaw HEAD + C L F +• I he come MOMENT alone "He came f o r o n l y a moment"  However, b y o t h e r s y n t a c t i c a  like  i t i s c l e a r l y necessary  Syntactic  tus  would i n f a c t  temporary measures  of forms which would c o n s t i t u t e  Thus we  of  However, w i t h  and t h e g e n e r a l  criteria ber  Such a l i s t  i n Thai"  the p o w e r s - o f - t e n group, pronouns which can  "handful" limited below)  of c l a s s i f i e r s  an e x t e n s i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n and i s , i n f a c t ,  duct of t h i s  has a t -  classifier.  c r i t e r i a /phrap/ i s rejected  The e x a m p l e s b e l o w show t h a t  w i t h numerals o r w i t h o t h e r  indicators.  as  i t cannot occur  2.2a  *khaw he  maa  he  There  maa  moment  p h r a p •! n i n san ( ^ t h i i SDDJ) moment/a la short [a. s e c o n d  come  i t occurs only i n the f i x e d phrase  with  /diaw/.  a r e a l a r g e number o f s u c h words w h i c h a r e  "limited" classifiers r i z i n g which 2.2  phrap  come /one (_two  2. 2b * khaw  In f a c t  tnirj  and  called  are not c o n s i d e r e d i n the  catego-  follows.  SEMANTIC DEFINITIONS Semantic  classifiers  definitions  are n o t - l i m i t e d  within specific  vantage,  n o t e d by  Denny  language  parallels  on f u n c t i o n r a t h e r between c r i t e r i a  environments.  languages  situations  w o u l d n o t be  fying,  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  and  the use  enumerating, required  of c l a s s i f i e r s . c l a s s e s - , and  serial  classifier u a g e s has  i n morphology.  counting,  i n most c a s e s as  The  of ad-  crossbased are  a l s o between t h e  T h e s e c r o s s - l a n g u a g e g e n e r a l i t i e s , c o u l d be wide v a r i a t i o n s  significant  These p a r a l l e l s  o f t e n have v e r y s i m i l a r  e t c . , seem t o be  additional  o b s c u r e d by d e f i n i t i o n s  than d i s t r i b u t i o n .  of l i s t i n g ,  An  (1976:131) i s t h a t  of s p e e c h - s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r i n g lated  to occurrences  types Unre-  the speci-  well.  captured despite  similarities  between  c a t e g o r i e s o v e r a l a r g e number o f u n r e l a t e d l a n g impressed  many o f t h e l i n g u i s t s  investigating  clas-  sifiers. "The  s t r o n g e s t evidence of semantic  classification  is  20 the  ability  sistently  of native speakers  and e a s i l y  ( A l l a n 1977:290).  where t h i s  ease  of original  It  includes  of  Thai novel c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  asr/khan/ planes  "long handle"  citea  Fula,  a list  are relatively or radiant  (like  charac-  o f languages  Examples  rare:  satellites  spots"; automobiles  most w h e e l e d (like  are classed  vehicles); boats).  air-  Most  as /khrian,/  "machine"  as / a n / ( t h e g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i e r ) . also stresses  the simple f a c t  h a v e m e a n i n g a n d c a n b e d i s c u s s e d i n many sifier  languages  discuss  fact  by n a t i v e speakers.  Thai c l a s s i f i e r s  classifiers  (but not a l l ) c l a s -  Thai speakers a r e able  but this  t h a t most T h a i c l a s s i f i e r s  that  i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h e  a l s o do d u t y a s n o u n s .  o n l y name I h a v e f o u n d i n T h a i grammar f o r c l a s s i f i e r s form-class  i s the f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n  word t o t e l l ral at  con-  has been r e p o r t e d .  a n d Navaho.  as / l a m / " t r u n k ; p a s s a g e w a y "  Allen  to  observed  classification  as /duarj/ "round  p i e c e s o f complex machinery or  Allan  Burmese, D y i r b a l ,  classed  new o b j e c t s  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r  teristics"  are  to classify  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  classifiers least  2 which  which  classify  as a  / l a k s a n a ' n a a m / "a  o f a noun".  are d i f f i c u l t  The  There  are seve-  f o r T h a i s t o g l o s s , and  s u c h a wide range  o f nouns  that  t h e y c a n n o t b e a s s i g n e d m e a n i n g s a t a l l b y many s p e a k e r s . These  two a r e e x a m i n e d i n s e c t i o n We h a v e n o t e d  both in  that  7.  Thai c l a s s i f i e r s  i n and out o f t h e c l a s s i f i e r  phrase.  a l l occurrences i s the function  viding ing,  unit  reference i n situations  contrasting  or emphasizing  occur i n environments The common  factor  of the c l a s s i f i e r  i n pro-  of enumerating,  indicat-  a particular  aspect of the  21 referent. Thai  That t h i s i s the b a s i c  I shall  I can f i n d reference the  t a k e t o be s e l f - e v i d e n t ,  exhibit  i t .  classifiers  Adams and C o n k l i n  unit  o f N o s s , who e m p h a s i z e s  that  too allow that  that is  classifiers  the c l a s s i f i e r  erating  also necessarily only  as a s p e c i f i e r . "  reasonable.  involves  i b l e with the notion As  2.5  But  .  function but to obtain: " I t  They a r g u e t h a t  specifying,  enum-  a relationship showing  however.  specifying of unit  a n d e n u m e r a t i n g a r e a l l compatreference.  of unit reference.  however, a l s o p r o v i d e u n i t  2.4  state  a s e m a n t i c d e f i n i t i o n , t h e n , we can. u s e t h e c r i t e r i o n  of p r o v i s i o n  2.3  They a l s o  i t "often  T h e y do h a v e c l e a r e x a m p l e s  a singularizing function, Singularizing,  classifier  semantic load,  i s difficult  (1964:  t o g e t d a t a w h i c h u n a m b i g u o u s l y demon-*  strates  I find  while a  have a s p e c i f y i n g  evidence f o r such functions  almost impossible  i n Thai  i s "one o f t h i s k i n d "  • u n i t ' as i t s main f o r c e " ( 1 9 7 5 : 1 3 ) .  (1975:11) t h a t  a l l t h e examples provide  may h a v e a n a d d i t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i v e has  of c l a s s i f i e r s i n  since  That c l a s s i f i e r s  i s c l e a r l y the opinion  meaning o f u n i t  106).  function  P r o n o u n s and p r o p e r  nouns,  reference:  khaw c a p a j she F u t go " S h e ' l l go." somchaj c a p a j Same F u t go^ "Somchaj w i l l g o . " n a k r i a n khon nirj c a p a j s t u d e n t PERSON a F u t go "A ( c e r t a i n ) s t u d e n t w i l l g o . "  whereas 2.3 and 2.4 a r e d e f i n i t e , 2.5 i s n o t .  This i s  d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t h e r e d u n d a n c y o f 2.6 and 2.7, b u t n o t 2.8: 2.6  *khaw khon n i x c a p a j she PERSON t h i s F u t go  22 2.7 *somchaaj Name A  2.8  nakrian  khon n i i ca p a j PERSON t h i s Fut go , khon n i i ca p a j  student PERSON t h i s Fut go  (assuming only one p e r son named Sorachai i s considered.)  "This student w i l l go."  This of course p a r a l l e l s the d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i o n of occurrence w i t h demonstratives used by Noss.  Non-definite  refer-  ence, then, may be a c r i t e r i a l p a r t of the f u n c t i o n of c l a s sifiers.  However, Adams and C o n k l i n  (1975:11) s t a t e t h a t  with I n d i c a t o r s the c l a s s i f i e r may " s i n g l e out the noun f o r a t t e n t i o n i n a d e i c t i c - l i k e process and d e f i n i t i z e " . c o n f l i c t s with the c o n c l u s i o n Conklin  a r r i v e d a t above.  This  Adams and  admit that, they "have no s i n g l e examples which c l e a r l y  demonstrate d e f i n i t e n e s s as the c l a s s i f i e r ' s Following  function".  Chafe ( 1 9 7 6 : 3 9 ) I w i l l take d e f i n i t e n e s s t o  mean an assumption on the p a r t of the speaker t h a t the hearer i s able t o i d e n t i f y the member o f a category which the speaker i s r e f e r r i n g t o u s i n g a d e f i n i t e noun.  Even f u r n i s h -  ed with a d e f i n i t i o n of d e f i n i t e n e s s , the concept i s s t i l l extremely d i f f i c u l t t o p i n down. can be i l l u s t r a t e d .  Nevertheless,  some f a c t s  Looking a t the examples g i v e n of  n i t e c l a s s i f i e r s we should  indefi-  t r y t o s e p a r a t e the semantic con-  t r i b u t i o n of the c l a s s i f i e r i t s e l f from t h a t o f the I n d i c a t o r . Generally  we can c o n s i d e r  a d j e c t i v e s t o be more n e u t r a l i n  t h i s i s s u e than o r d i n a l numerals and demonstratives  (which  are q u i t e d e f i n i t e ) o r / n i l ) / f o l l o w i n g the noun ( q u i t e i n d e f inite).  I f an a d j e c t i v e i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r / n i n / i n example  2.5,  the r e s u l t i s 2.9 n a k r i a n khon loo c a p a j aJ"The Vhandsome students s t u d e n t PERSON handsome ["SorneJ w i l l go." Fut go b.-f A > handsome student w i l l ("Some) go." n  23 As nite  the a l t e r n a t e  or i n d e f i n i t e  t r a n s l a t i o n s show, 2.9  sentence.  Choice  c o u l d be  of either  the k i n d of q u e s t i o n  w h i c h 2.9  answer:  2.10  khon n a j c a p a j p e r s o n w h i c h F u t go  2.11  2.9a  k h r a j ca paj  baarj*  who? F u t go  some  a n s w e r s 2.10  and  2.9b  I n i n t r o d u c i n g 2.10 variable,  the  2.9  c a n be  imagined  a situation  ness.  as  have i n t r o d u c e d a  new to  To e l i m i n a t e  o c c u r r i n g a t the beginning  informants, s t a t e  of  a  and  i s not.  that i t i s unclear  the hearer  were b e i n g r e f e r r e d  between d e f i n i t e  indefinite  t o know e x a c t l y to.  Thus  i s not  the  clear  to  speakers.  Evidence sifiers  we  C o n k l i n 1974:9).  would expect  w h i c h handsome s t u d e n t s  native  go?"  2.11.  " g r o u p o f handsome s t u d e n t s "  whether the speaker  distinction  2.11,  go?"  ( i n general) w i l l  answers  and  will  "group of s t u d e n t s " i s g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n  t h e hearer,, b u t  Even i n s u c h  "Who  (Adams and  c o n v e r s a t i o n where for  "Which p e r s o n  asked,to  "pronoun s u b s t i t u t e " f u n c t i o n a t t r i b u t e d  Thai c l a s s i f i e r s this  as an  defi-  alternative  w o u l d d e p e n d , f o r example, on c o u l d be u s e d  a  from  occurrence  versus  non-occurrence  seems t o g i v e more w e i g h t t o t h e c l a i m o f  of  clas-  definite-  Compare  2.12  khaw m i i maa he have dog  j a j saam t u a big 3 BODY-SHAPE  2.13  khaw m i i maa t u a j a j saam t u a he have dog BODY-SHAPE b i g 3 BODY-SHAPE "He has t h r e e d o g s , b i g o n e s . "  * Haas (1964:287) n o t e s t h a t "When / b a a n / o c c u r s a t t h e o f a q u e s t i o n , i t s u g g e s t s t h a t more t h a n one i t e m i s p e c t e d t o be m e n t i o n e d i n t h e a n s w e r . . . "  end ex-  24 F o r some i n f o r m a n t s , dog  owner may  2.13  n i t e p r e f e r e n c e from  that  hearer  implication  be  are conscious  so.  the matter  effect.  which r e s u l t s function.  from  I t may  example 2.13  But  likely  the c o n t r a s t e d  at l e a s t both  item,  speaker  and Thus  definitizing  must r e s t w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g sum-  of c l a s s i f i e r s  T h i s appears  do  t o be  a contrastive effect a l s o be  seem t o h a v e a secondary  and  an  a  effect  anaphoric  l i m i t e d , t o more f o r m a l u s a g e : f o r  i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be  other cases  defi-  o f t h e same r a n g e o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  some o c c u r r e n c e s  definitizing  a  likely.  Ultimately mary:  has  T h i s i n t u r n makes i t more  I t h i n k t h a t a c o n t r a s t i v e f u n c t i o n makes a f u n c t i o n more  the  s e t of c h o i c e s f o r a  able to i d e n t i f y  not n e c e s s a r i l y  that  Constrastive-  assums t h e h e a r e r  among a l i m i t e d  i n a statement.  the hearer w i l l  although  an  have o t h e r d o g s , s m a l l e r o n e s .  ness i m p l i e s t h a t the speaker  given s l o t  has  more f o r m a l t h a n  (the m a j o r i t y ) c l a s s i f i e r s  provide  2.12.  In  indefinite  s i n g u l a r u n i t reference.. It form  i s a l s o d e s i r a b l e t o be  i s f u n c t i o n i n g as  n o u n . We something  should  to cover  t o some o t h e r  When a f o r m  add  and  as. a f u l l  t o our d e f i n i t i o n Classifiers  may  be  the  classifiers  provide unit  whether i t i s o v e r t h y  This fact  of  substantive  reference  expressed  criterion  by  a  needed.  s u b s t a n t i v e noun f u n c t i o n (as does / k h o n / i n  o r p r e d i c a t e f u n c t i o n (as d o e s / t u a / i n 2.14  does not ple:  has  a classifier  this..  entity,  headword o r n o t .  2.10)  then  a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h when a  occur with  a headword.  Consider  below) i t  t h e f o l l o w i n g exam-  2.14  dek t u a l e k c h i l d body s m a l l  I t m i g h t be a r g u e d but  this  a full It  i s small."  t h a t /dek/ " c h i l d "  i s not so.  noun  "That c h i l d  i n 2.14 i s t h e headword,  The f o r m / t u a / must be f u n c t i o n i n g as  (part of the predicate  " t o have a s m a l l  c a n n o t be f u n c t i o n i n g as a c l a s s i f i e r  son" fy  i s the proper  humans  cal  classifier  (barring conscious  because /khon/  "per-  and t h e u s e o f / t u a / t o c l a s s i insults)  constitutes a categori  error:  2.15  *dek  tua  lek  ca  child  BODY-SHAPE  In o t h e r  cases  forms occur  function  i s to provide  paj  small  F u t go  without  headwords  unit reference  and y e t t h e i r  t o some mass,  event o r o b j e c t which i s n o t o v e r t l y expressed be assumed  t o have b e e n d e l e t e d f o r v a r i o u s  example w i t h ple  / p e n / "be" i s g i v e n  commodity,  b u t w h i c h must  reasons.  An  b e l o w i n s e c t i o n 3.2  (exam-  3.10) In order  and  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between f u n c t i o n as c l a s s i f i e r  f u n c t i o n as f u l l  have t o take tors  substantive  first  classifiers.  entity  i s clearly  classifier 2.16  t h e grammarian  will  or anphoric  i n a semantic s t r u c t u r e  A t any r a t e , i n example  t i o n s h i p between t h e f u l l "child"  noun,  i n t o account whatever d i c o u r s e  require this  taining  the  body").  substantive  faccon-  2.14, t h e r e l a -  noun / t u a / and / d e k /  n o t t h e same as t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  / k h o n / " p e r s o n " and t h e same headword i n  dek khon l e k c h i l d PERSON s m a l l "a s m a l l c h i l d " .  Thus w i t h  "limited"  classifiers  like  / p h r a p / "moment"  26  (examples  2.1  and  2.2  a b o v e ) and  w i t h p r e d i c a t e and  f u n c t i o n f o r forms which a l s o f u n c t i o n necessary to r e s o r t p r a c t i c a l working general rule a typical limited  o f thumb u s e d  classifier  as c l a s s i f i e r s , criteria  was  In f a c t  accompanied by v i g i l a n c e a g a i n s t  definition  nominal  least  f o r those c l a s s i f i e r s  which have a  possible  to i s o l a t e  fied,  semantic  f e a t u r e s which govern  Gething  (1968:817) f o u n d ,  to s p e c i f y  t h a t he was [+ B u d d h i s t ]  the ranks  features within the s e l e c t i o n  i n a semantic  /khon/.  The  t o be  of  specific i t has  t h e noun  of Thai Buddhist  proven classi-  classifiers.  s e t o f 10  morphemes  functionaries,  a b l e t o subsume a l l t h e common f e a t u r e s u n d e r and  the dimension  of r e l a t i v e  5 morphemes o f t h e s e t t a k e t h e c l a s s i f i e r chief  found  semantic  correlates  status. /oi)/;  for this  i n ( i ) t h e number o f r e l i g i o u s  f u n c t i o n a r i e s vow  to observe,  and  The  first  the others,  dichotomy precepts  ( i i ) the degrees  of  the  rela-  status. In  this  distinctive used  simply  enough.  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e noun c l a s s i f i e d ,  tive  function.  i s a c c u r a t e enough,  semantic  are  the  C L A S S I F I E R SELECTION At  used  i t is  occurrence with a numeral i n  and p r e d i c a t e o r f u l l  useful  noun  to provide a  of c l a s s i f i e r s .  phrase,  the semantic  not p r a c t i c a l l y 2.3  definition  classifiers  Note t h a t  to d i s t r i b u t i o n a l  full  s t u d y , t h e n , G e t h i n g has  been a b l e t o  components i n t h e nouns c l a s s i f i e d  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  two  classifiers  isolate  which can  semantically.  ( p e r s o n a l c o m m n i c a t i o n ) p o i n t s o u t , however, t h a t h i s  be  Gething find-  27  ings  c a n n o t be  applied to c l a s s i f i e r  s i n c e a f e a t u r e something l i k e differentiate selection mates.. things  /on/  The  Multiple  must  be  by  the  choice  the  fact  used f o r objects  characteristics This  classifier  and  with  inani-  revered  several  the  of d i f f e r e n t This  clas-  problem  "wastebasket"  lang-  classi-  commonly u s e d  of u n c e r t a i n  dif-  explanation  t h a t most c l a s s i f i e r  none o f  for objects  to  stupas.  same n o u n .  uages, i n c l u d i n g S t a n d a r d T h a i , have a fier,  the  /orj/ are  a problem, t o t h e  d e t e r m i n e d by  f u r t h e r complicated  by  o f a s i n g l e noun by  s e l e c t i o n , s i n c e the  to  to s p e c i f y  o f nouns r e f e r r i n g  classified  also presents  widely,  precepts] , used  images o f Buddha and  classification  of c l a s s i f i e r  is  relics,  classifiers  sifiers  classifier  inanimate objects holy  [+ 227  /khon/ cannot s e r v e  o f /or;/ as  like  ferent  and  s e l e c t i o n too  salient  classification.  t h u s becomes a n o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e f o r  the  speaker to s e l e c t . It  i s usually considered  an e s s e n t i a l s t e p  tial  semantic a n a l y s i s to define  This  i s often  to l i m i t  the  examined  b a c k on  boundaries.  domain t o be are  no  difficult  some o f h i s s e t s  domain t o be to f a l l  a very  direct  the  domain t o be  step.  Gething  arbitrarily.  i s imprecise,  analysed  use can  Such a c a s e occurs some c l a s s i f i e r s  (1972) i s f o r c e d  i t i s often  in section  7..  delimit  to define  l e a d to unique problems  i n examining the  the  convenient  to help  of s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i a  semantic c o r r e l a t e s to the  analysed.  I n c a s e s where  available syntactic criteria The  i n componen-  if  the  there  syntactic criteria.  semantic extension  Gething concludes  that  of "the  28  description ly  handled  of c l a s s i f i e r as a s e m a n t i c  (1968:818). an  earlier  article  Becker cally  Burling  matter  than  as p a r t  on Burmese  conclusioni n  classifiers.  (1975:112) i s o f l i k e criteria  To i l l u s t r a t e  convenient-  of the syntax..."  (1965) comes t o a s i m i l a r  against syntactic  selection.  u s e i n T h a i may be more  mind.  He a r g u e s  i n explaining  specifi-  classifier  h i s p o i n t he c o n t r a s t s t h e u s e o f  gender systems i n I E w i t h gender i n E n g l i s h .  He d e s c r i b e s  I n d o - E u r o p e a n number a n d g e n d e r s y s t e m s a s e s s e n t i a l l y nomic and s y n t a c t i c a l l y  r e l e v a n t : they are o v e r t l y  i n most c a s e s a n d s e r v e t o c l a s s i f y gender i s c o v e r t .  A river  F r e n c h and m a s c u l i n e line,  may b e c l a s s e d  speakers.  Becker  text-sensitive  syntactic  "but t h e r u l e s  would s u g g e s t  mined t h a n i t a c t u a l l y according  t o Becker,  classification.  Thai, and  specifying  that  t h e c h o i c e i s more d e t e r -  i s typologically  close  Covert  gender,  t o Burmese nume-  And w h i l e t h e use o f c l a s s i f i e r s i n classification  i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l r e p a r t e e and p o e t r y ) classification  constraints.  "We c a n n o t  make r u l e s  noun  subject to Ultimately  w i t h Haas who w r o t e i n an e a r l y p a p e r  (1942:203):  than i n  of a single  above a r e a l s o  c o n t e x t u a l and i n t e n t i o n a l  we must a g r e e  con-  c h o i c e o f gender,  i s " (Becker 1975:113).  t h e o t h e r problems mentioned  classifiers  as f e m i n i n e i n  s a y s t h a t one c o u l d w r i t e  rules  the cases of m u l t i p l e  similar  But i n E n g l i s h  o c c a s i o n s , as used by  Burmese seems t o b e more o p e n t o o r i g i n a l (especially  marked  i n German, b u t i n E n g l i s h i t i s mascu-  f e m i n i n e o r n e u t e r on d i f f e r e n t  different  ral  words.  taxo-  on T h a i  governing the  29  c h o i c e of c l a s s i f i e r to be used i n every g i v e n i n s t a n c e " . We  can s p e c i f y  the l i k e l i h o o d of the c h o i c e of a  c l a s s i f i e r within certain not most cases tion.  situational  l i m i t s but i n many i f  there remains an element of speaker's  A formal system of c l a s s i f i e r s e l e c t i o n  of broad  certain  to the  intenlevel  c a t e g o r i e s of c l a s s i f i e r s (but not to the l e v e l of  individual  c l a s s i f i e r s ) i s suggested  i n section  6.  30  3.0  REPEATERS In s e c t i o n  1 we  noted  t h a t grammarians  ed r e p e a t e r s as a m a j o r c a t e g o r y not  c o n s i d e r them  proach  was  unsatisfactory  e n c e t o a headword. and t h e y  at a l l .  while  That  the semantic  repeaters occur r e l a t i v e l y  i n mind t h a t i n t h e a v e r a g e  e v e n t h e most  common c l a s s i f i e r s  Most grammarians  163)  that repeaters are a d i s t i n c t (1977:295)  Burmese r e p e a t e r s  finds  mean s i m p l y  i n section  headnoun.  i t should  with  frequent-  H l a Pe  (1965:  However,  just  6.1.  section,  whole o r p a r t i a l ,  defining  classify  only  are a c o n s t i t u e n t "  T h e i r p o i n t of view i s  At t h i s  classifiers  have  b u t Adams and C o n k l i n ' s  o r compounds o f w h i c h t h e y  those  hand."  or conversation,  category.  In t h i s  (1974:4) i s n o t y e t c o n s i d e r e d . considered  refer-  t h a t the l a c k of a r a t i o n a l e f o r  analysis.  t h a t "Repeaters,  themselves  rarely,  o f T h a i would agree  f o r repeaters are provided,  criterion  their  text  this  " m y s t i f i e s " him, s o T h a i r e p e a t e r s  satisfactory  criteria  require-  although  do n o t o c c u r v e r y  ly..  eluded  very  F o r example,  Although  as A l l e n  ap-  w i t h numerals q u i t e r e g u l a r -  3.1 phom chaj mii , mii n i i " I used I ( m a l e ) u s e h a n d PAUSE HAND t h i s  be k e p t  seems  can a l s o occur with demonstratives,  very r a r e l y .  o r do  i s , they provide u n i t  They o c c u r  list-  The f o r m e r  the l a t t e r  s i n c e r e p e a t e r s do f i l l  ments t o be c l a s s i f i e r s .  ly,  of Thai c l a s s i f i e r s  t o be c l a s s i f i e r s  termed i n a d e q u a t e ,  have e i t h e r  stage,  by  "repeater" I  w h i c h h a v e t h e same f o r m  as  31 Traditional ple,  Silapasarn  grammarians 1968) t h a t  d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r function  of providing  In g e n e r a l , ples  this  have e m p h a s i z e d ( s e e , f o r exam-  classifiers  nouns m e r e l y b y s e r v i n g  unit reference  classifiers  headwords  this  conclusion  and  Conklin  as f u l l  are i d e n t i c a l  a r e nouns,  sify  t o some o t h e r  entity.  i n s e c t i o n 6 w h i c h show c l a s s i f i e r s  h a v e no a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c t i o n repeaters  the s p e c i a l  i s a c o r r e c t a n a l y s i s , a l t h o u g h some exam-  are presented  Since  a r e nouns: they a r e  that repeaters  which a r e n o t nouns.  further claim  nouns.  i n f o r m w i t h t h e headword, and  i t follows  i s provided  substantive  cannot  i n s e c t i o n 4.2, page; 54 . (1974:3) t h a t  "lexical  i d e n t i t y " I assume t h e y mean i d e n t i t y o f b o t h Support f o r t h i s  claim  l o w i n g s e c t i o n , and i n s e c t i o n  4.  Adams  a r e l a t i o n s h i p of  i d e n t i t y " h o l d s between r e p e a t e r  sense.  clas-  A d d i t i o n a l evidence f o r  "lexical  and  that  and headword.  i s provided  By form  i n the f o l -  32 3.1  I N SEARCH OF COMMON SEMANTIC FACTORS Adams and C o n k l i n  unclear  (1974:3)  b o u n d a r i e s between r e p e a t e r s  They a r e  probably r e f e r r i n g to  be c l a s s i f i e d a l t e r n a t i v e l y fiers. 1965  For  are  example,  the  krapho  ?  taakhaaj  these,  the  and  fact  486  "data  shows  non-repeaters..." t h a t some nouns  by r e p e a t e r s  among t h e  their  and by o t h e r  repeaters  can  classi-  l i s t e d i n Haas  following:  krathuuthaam  In a l l ,  found that  " p r i n c i p l e ; heading; ( l e g i s l a t i v e ) question" - c l a s s i f i e d by / k h o o / " p o i n t " , / r * a r ) / "matt e r " and by i t s e l f "stomach" - c l a s s i f i e d by / l u u k / ( f o r s m a l l round t h i n g s ) , / b a j / ( f o r c o n t a i n e r s ) and by itself "net" - c l a s s i f i e d b y / a n / (as a p h y s i c a l o b j e c t ) / p h i a n / (as a l a r g e f l e x i b l e , f u n c t i o n a l f l a t s h a p e ) and b y i t s e l f  35 d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i e r s  occurred with repeaters.  o n l y 7 o c c u r r e d more t h a n 2 o r  3 times.  These  Of  were:  T a b l e 2. Classifiers Classifier  Gloss  1 . hsaerj 2 . an 3 - khaarj 4 . jaai] 5. b a j  6.  point  luuk  (for s m a l l round things)  Of t h e of  the  r e m a i n i n g 28,  first  the  totals  the  19  of  group of  7.  9 are  remaining c l a s s i f i e r s 5 to  Occurrences  43  +  7 =  10  + 5 =  6 + 4 = 10  relative of  synonyms o f  members  these 9 are  added  synonyms i n T a b l e refer  parts  50 28 18 15 12 5  Occurrences  the r e s p e c t i v e  c l a s s i f i e d by shape,  i n Haas 1965  Number o f  place (for physical objects) side kind (for containers)  khSo  7.  C o - o c c u r r i n g with Repeaters  to  groups,  2. . 8 to  and 2 to p e o p l e .  Five  of  objects Most o f  to  33 these  19  occur  Table there  only  once.  2. c o n f i r m s  is a salient  Allen's observation  locative  "side"  are  and  "point"  the  sense of not  having  incomplete  1956:140). tic  "kind"  (and  having  However, many c l a s s i f i e r s  component o f  "part" are d e f i n i t e l y  repeaters  Table  Z  .  discrete jects. ical t o do  are  r e v e a l e d by  These c l e a r l y  objects? with  the  The  yields  with  in  Carroll  a m a j o r seman-  2,. 5 and  Fur-  7 in  cari r e f e r  to ob-  that are d i s c r e t e phys-  almost a l l of these  a specific  or  usually associated  classifiers  repeaters  senses of  d e f i n i n g of  boundaries  f o r t h e most p a r t p h y s i c a l  54  i s to  "semi-entity"  repeaters.  show t h a t r e p e a t e r s  e n t i t i e s which are Haas 1965  temptation  1936  not  thermore, s e m a n t i c domains t h a t a r e n o t with  The  clearly perceived ( s e e Whorf  /khaai]/  i t s synonyms),  " p a r t " or perhaps  boundaries  Others  prominent  most o f t e n b y  (for abstractions).  look, f o r a common f a c t o r o f in  a b s t r a c t i o n s are  classified  ( f o r body p a r t s ) , / j a a n /  /khoo/  and  these  that  component i n r e p e a t e r s .  have n o t i c e d t h a t body p a r t s among r e p e a t e r s ;  (1977:295)  space.  The  items 54  have  words  are korj kruaj kroop kradaj krapaw klooij klak khen coo  "wheel, c i r c l e " " f u n n e l , cone" "frame" "ladder" "purse, w a l l e t " "box" "small case" "a k i n d o f b a s k e t " " s c r e e n f o r shadow play"  chaaijkraan  "brazier"  krorj kroo krachoon krabook krapo? klSoi) koot D* ^ 3  "cage" " b a i l i n g scoop" "strainer" "cylinder" "bulb" "pipe" "funerary urn" "hook, b a r b " "stopper"  SDOIJ  "envelope * The " d i s c r e t e n e s s h e r e i s r e l a t i v e l y a r b i t r a r y . F o r examp l e / k r a d a j / " l a d d e r " a l s o means " s t a i r w a y , s t e p " , / k r a p a w / " p u r s e , w a l l e t " a l s o means " p o c k e t " .  34  turn "jar" dar) tiarj "bed" taw thun "float" thoo buarj "noose" thanuu b&w "crucible,socket? banlarj pin "pin(for topknot)"paw phaamuai) " s i l k l o i n c l o t h " faa phuarj "garland, cluster, phaeae string" fasaem "folder" morjkut met "seed, kernel, malet ^ grain" jaam "shoulder bag" rarj 130 "wheel" loo I0013 "coffin" worj samSo "anchor" loot huarj "ring, hoop" hao aarj "bowl, basin" aan  "shield" " b r a z i e r , oven" "pipe" "bow ( t h e weapon)" "throne" "target" "lid, cover" "bamboo r a f t "  n  fact  It  can be seen  it  seems to. b e t h e  a b l e as  repeaters,  by  /baj/  (as  as  /luuk/,  etc.  u s e d o f t e n as  dities,  s u c h as  One  /chaam/  A large be s e e n  as  extensive that of  This  is  inexact  /krapooi)/ "bowl",  /thuaj/  number o f  the  various  senses  abdominal a r e a ;  word c o v e r  "glass,  and commo-  cup",  a lesser  these containers,  /caan/  extent. use  as  a  good".  entire  group of  486  related  to  this  and compounds o f pregnancy".  an enormous s e m a n t i c  connections  such  t h o s e common c o n -  of m a t e r i a l  although to  domain o f w o r d - s e n s e s  "stomach;  alternate  K . , but not  accept-  common c l a s s i f i e r s  measures  etc.,  In  usually classified  t r u e even of  "can",  are  repeaters  s h a r i n g a component o f d e f i n e d s p a c e .  the  semantic  "0.  are  o r by o t h e r  i n f o r m a n t v o l u n t e e r e d that f o r  r e p e a t e r was  containers.  case that a l l containers  even though they  tainers  "plate",  "nest" •shield" "circle" "tube" "package" "saddle"  t h a t many o f t h e s e a r e  containers)  /an/,  "crown" "seed"  made i n t h e  range.  the  can  The most notion  is  word / t h o o i ] /  The compounds o f  this  By c o n s i d e r i n g any  language  ( s u c h as  and m u l t i p l e s e n s e s and synonyms)  it  is  compounds, possible  35 to  account  for  some 400  a k i n d of semantic still  a sizeable  definitively  of  the  residue,  486  repeaters  as  b a s e d on / t h o o * ) / .  however,  members There  and I am u n a b l e t o  meaning f o r r e p e a t e r s * .  n o n - c o n c l u s i o n and f e e l  that  state  I am n o t the wide  as  the  "place  e x p l a i n the meaning of  This gives  satis-  extent ac-  e s p e c i a l l y when i n f o r m a n t s c o n f i r m t h a t c o n - .  c a n be s e e n  sometimes  of  is  n o t i o n o f d e f i n e d s p a c e has n o t b e e n p r o p e r l y  counted f o r , tainers  the  structure  a class  f i e d with this  of  the  Nevertheless, pursued here  locative this  since  their  a container  contents in this  component w i d e r s i g n i f i c a n c e  avenue  of  another  p r o v e n more f r u i t f u l .  for"  It  enquiry w i l l  approach, is  also  not be  and way. as  well.  further  semantic,  o u t l i n e d i n . the next  has sub-section  (3.2). While i t  was s u r p r i s i n g t o d i s c o v e r  could occur  i n repeater phrases,  to d i s c o v e r  t h a t many o t h e r  obligatorily marginally "garment" 5.2  *s*a  not  saam 3  repeaters.  *Sia shirt  almost  can a l s o  For example,  SHIRT  /saa/  but  "three as  shirts"  w o u l d be a c l e a r l y  erroneous  as  saam 3  be  sia  immediately r e j e c t e d  combination such 3.3  common nouns w h i c h a r e  o b l i g a t o r i l y c l a s s i f i e d by / t u a /  shirt is  as  containers  was e v e n more s u r p r i s i n g  c l a s s i f i e d b y common c l a s s i f i e r s  acceptable is  it  that  kSon LUMP  •Other body p a r t s a l s o have l a r g e ranges o f e x t e n s i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y / t a a / " e y e " , / k h a a / " l e g " and / h u a / " h e a d " . These sometimes c o i n c i d e w i t h / t h o o n / e x t e n s i o n s .  36 In a n a t u r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n  one i n f o r m a n t  purposely  used the  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n example 2 above a n d r e c e i v e d a n i m m e d i a t e unquestioning  answer.  In discussions l a t e r  mant s t a t e d t h a t s h e d e t e c t e d  the question  the use o f these served  words a s r e p e a t e r s  w e l l by t h e u s u a l  ty  i s probably  classifier..  due t o t h e l e x i c a l  t o under-  I t i s as i f  made some s e n s e b u t  function not served  as  Thus t h e y  been a b l e  and had answered p r o m p t l y .  no p r a c t i c a l  infor-  t h e u n u s u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and  wondered a b o u t i t , b u t s h e h a d c l e a r l y stand  the second  better or equally  This marginal transparency  acceptabiliof repeaters.  w o u l d make a s much s e n s e as a c h i l d ' s  he g o e d i n  English. 3.2 DEFINING CRITERION T h e r e i s a. s i n g l e s e m a n t i c f a c t o r w h i c h s e r v e s tinguish repeaters the  fact  dicates  from a l l other  that repeaters (IP predicates)  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  substantive Allwood  words  logic  (2P p r e d i c a t e s ) .  i ti s f a i r l y  (butnot proper  I mean a s u b s t a n t i v e  common  Correspondingly, For  example,  t o support  1970:28).  1  For the  By a I P  word w h i c h c a n c o n v e y a  full  requiring  i t o r t o complete t h e meaning.  a 2P p r e d i c a t e r e q u i r e s  "hand*  classifiers  to consider  s e n s e i n a c t u a l s p e e c h a n d be u n d e r s t o o d w i t h o u t another substantive  pre-  nouns) as p r e d i c a t e s ( s e e  e t a l 1977:169 a n d B i e r w i s c h  predicate  This i s  as o n e - p l a c e  i n contrast to a l l other  which a r e two-place p r e d i c a t e s purposes o f formal  classifiers.  to dis-  i s a IP p r e d i c a t e :  another  substantive.  37 3.4 while  3x H ( x ) " T h e r e e x i s t s an x s u c h t h a t x i s a h a n d " , " p a r t " i s n e c e s s a r i l y a 2P  predicate:  3.5 3x P(x,3T) " T h e r e e x i s t s a n x s u c h t h a t x i s a p a r t of y." Parts, kinds, units fact  groups, c o n f i g u r a t i o n s  of things  a r e u s u a l l y 2P p r e d i c a t e s  flicts  c o n s i s t o f p a r t s - body p a r t s ,  with  considered  this parts  a n a l y s i s : body p a r t s  what m i g h t be c a l l e d  of.  This  i n turn  i s related to By  s u p p l i e d by e x p e c t e d  i s a locational factor.  able d i f f i c u l t y  i n the procedure described  speech i s t h a t  con-  ( f o r e x a m p l e ) may be  "back-  linguis-  and n o n - l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n o f u t t e r a n c e .  What b e i n g  of  e t c . - i n no way  many c a s e s t h i s  a IP p r e d i c a t e  I t causes  knowledge, o r o t h e r  -from context,  source-  In  consider-  below.  means i n t e r m s o f a c t u a l  t h e u s e o f a 2P p r e d i c a t e  of a second s u b s t a n t i v e  and  the category  t h e "background" o f a sense.  g r o u n d " I mean t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  nication.  The  i n E n g l i s h , b u t t h e y do n o t r e q u i r e u s t o  s t a t e what t h e y a r e p a r t s  context  abstract  i n English.  t h a t prominent s e m a n t i c domains w i t h i n  repeaters  tic  and f o r m a l  w i t h o u t some  situation,  input  shared  r e s u l t s i n a b r e a k d o w n o f commu-  F o r example, s u p p o s e y o u r f r i e n d p h o n e s y o u up,  without  any p r o p e r p r e a m b l e , demands  3.6 How many p a r t s This question  do y o u h a v e ( o v e r  there)?  c a n n o t be a n s w e r e d i n any s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d  way u n t i l  further information  What k i n d  of parts?  i s supplied: parts  o f what?  I m a g i n i n g t h e same s i t u a t i o n ,  tion 3.7 How many hands do y o u h a v e  (over  there)?  the ques-  38 w h i l e q u i t e odd, i s a q u e s t i o n which conveys a c l e a r and ry  c a n be a n s w e r e d . by the h e a r e r .  adopted  No f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s  Of c o u r s e  by t h e respondents  certain  i n such  of  which i s t h a t t h e respondent  in  a sort  sense test  of naive s o c i a l  necessa-  a t t i t u d e s must b e  a test,  t h e most  must c o n s i d e r e a c h  vacuum, r e s p o n d i n g  of the question i t s e l f . frame* c a n never  are f e l t  sense  In f a c t  such  obvious request  only to the a situational  be a b s o l u t e l y a c c u r a t e , and s e v e r a l  p r o b l e m s were e x p e r i e n c e d  with this  one.  The o r i g i n a l  frame  was 3.8 t h i p m i i N, juu k i i Nj_ NAME h a v e N, s t a y how-many N, "Tip, how many N's do y o u h a v e ? " which worked f a i r l y  w e l l i n the majority of cases.  b l e m was w i t h  the use o f t h e informant's  the  call  of  telephone  N and a l o c a t i o n  some nouns t h e f o r m 3.9  This  format)  name  One p r o -  (a r e s u l t o f  which i m p l i e d p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n  identical  t o the informant's.  Thus f o r  had t o be a l t e r e d t o  thii n a n m i i N, juu k i i N]_ at t h e r e h a v e N, s t a y how-many N, "How many N's a r e t h e r e ( o v e r ) t h e r e ? "  frame,in  t u r n , was f o u n d  t o be t o o r e s t r i c t i v e  i n loca-  •Boguslawski (1970:145) u r g e s t h a t o n l y u t t e r a n c e s f r o m g e n u ine communicative s i t u a t i o n s s h o u l d be s t u d i e d . While I q u i t e a g r e e , t h e p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f s u c h an a p p r o a c h a r e enough t o make work i m p o s s i b l e . L i n g u i s t i c s has a l w a y s d e p e n d e d t o a g r e a t e x t e n t on t h e a b i l i t y o f g r a m m a r i a n a n d i n f o r m a n t t o m e n t a l l y s u p p l y c o n t e x t and s i t u a t i o n t o an utterance. When t h i s a s p e c t o f l a n g u a g e h a s b e e n n e g l e c t e d t h e a n a l y s i s h a s b e e n c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y weakened.  39 tive  terms,  i n which case  a phone c a l l outerspace grasp  from  the  overseas.  were u n n e c e s s a r y  of the d i s t i n c t i o n  i n f o r m a n t was  asked  to  imagine  F o r t u n a t e l y phone c a l l s s i n c e i n f o r m a n t s had  sought  from  acquired a  d u r i n g t h e w o r k on  the  ma-  jority of simple cases. Other  p r o b l e m s were e n c o u n t e r e d  (mentioned  earlier  w i t h /pen/  ( a n d u s u a l l y w i t h an  separation, that a  As  division,  "false  3.10  in section  appears  3.10  does n o t Both  t o be  For  occurrence  refer  not  to  example  to the unexpressed  Alternatively, i n Nc-ss's  Examples c o n t a i n i n g / p e n /  /si*/  as r e p e a t e r s -  i n the f a c t  can u s u a l l y  that  also occur  judged  on  Thus However  would  / c h i n / seem t o  imbe  h e a d noun  ("it"in  "buy"  be  analysis  may  func-  (1964:107).  were a u t o m a t i c a l l y e x c l u d e d  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the p r o c e s s of i s o l a t i n g function  i s taken  as h e a d .  " p i e c e s o f p i e c e s " as t h i s  t i o n i n g as headword, as  c a n be  necessarily)  a head word*.  occurrences of the c l a s s i f i e r  the t r a n s l a t i o n ) .  could  that  creation,  of / c h i n /  an example o f c l a s s i f i e r  semantically related  lies  e t c . , but not  r e p e a t e r " c o u l d be p r o d u c e d .  /pen/  found  i n c h o a t i v e verb of  f u n c t i o n i n g as a c l a s s i f i e r ,  ply.  I t was  of  khaw s i i p e n c h i n saam chin t h e y buy be P I E C E 3 PIECE "They b o u g h t 3 p i e c e s ( o f i t ) "  3.10  from  ).  2.1  accumulation,  t h e g l o s s shows, t h e f i r s t  t o be  w i t h the use  Partial  forms which  justification  forms o c c u r r i n g c l a s s i f i e d in full, classifier  a more s t a n d a r d  for this  with  phrases,  and  /pen/ thus  basis.  * Thus i t -was n e c e s s a r y t o f r a m e a w i d e enough d e f i n i t i o n t o allow t h i s function. That i s , o c c u r r e n c e w i t h /pen/ s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d , e v e n t h o u g h s u c h o c c u r r e n c e i s n o t i n an o v e r t c l a s s i f i e r phrase.  40 The q u e s t i o n f o r m was c h o s e n neutral, timate  as  was t h e  verb / m i i / "to  the problems of  Nevertheless, reasonably  despite  implied  I P and 2P p r e d i c a t e s  i n Haas 1965  conversation,  as  repeaters  and b e a r  understanding.  t i o n e d above)  the  then,  It  can  a semantic  is  the  on t h e b a s i s  of t h e i r  contriabove. I am  clearly  dis-  nouns  classifiers. on t h e i r  burden which i s  questions  as  thus  a l l the  "stand  claim here,  status  The i n -  t e s t frame,  By " u n d e r s t a n d i n g " h e r e  t h a t no f u r t h e r  hearer.  for  o r as  can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a l l o t h e r  in  exist".  location described  such patching of  One-place predicates,  by the  to  c o n f i d e n t t h a t we h a v e b e e n a b l e t o  t i n g u i s h between  for  have;  contextually  c o n n e c t i o n of p o s s e s s i o n with e x i s t e n c e  buted to  listed  t o be t h e most  own" i n  sufficient  I mean  (as  men-  are  felt  necessary  then,  that  repeaters  categories  IP p r e d i c a t e s ,  of  classifiers  as  represented  figure 1 :  , Figure 1 Semantic S t r u c t u r e of T h a i  Classifiers  Classifiers repeaters  The s t a t u s alternative  of  IP p r e d i c a t e s  i n the  same  3.11  full  as  with  substantive  the nouns,  classifier  classifier.phrase.  a repeater.  sentence f u n c t i o n s  i n consonance  c a n p e r f o r m b o t h h e a d n o u n and  S i m p l e f u n c t i o n as classifier  is  f u n c t i o n o f r e p e a t e r s as  O n l y IP p r e d i c a t e s functions  others  a noun does  not,  therefore,  For example,/tua/  i n the  following  a noun:  tua khoorj khaw b o d y POSS he  tem p a j f u l l go  duaj also  make a  phiin khan rash  41  "His body i s c o v e r e d and  similar  2.51,  rash."  2.52)  *khaw m i i t u a s o o n t u a he have body 2 BODY  3.13  *khon  at best  unusual  soon  with  2  rences  mii  tua  SODIJ  tua  2  BODY  PERSON h a v e b o d y  only marginally acceptable,  and o n l y i n h i g h l y  Furthermore the acceptable  o f / t u a / i n 3.11 seems t o b e b o u n d t o o c c u r r e n c e  i s a member, e . g .  /tuakhaw/ " h i s body".  Other  occur-  r e q u i r e t h e compound / t u a t o n / w h i c h c a n b e g l o s s e d  something l i k e 3.14 p h i i ghost  " c o r p o r e a l i t y ^ as opposed t o s p i r i t u a l i t y : 1  maj  mii  NEG have  best a r b i t e r  tuaton body  at this  "A g h o s t  of a c c e p t a b i l i t y  a b r u p t phone c a l l s c e n a r i o : 3.15 * t h x i nan m i i t u a  and  (examples  t h e p o s s e s s i v e m a r k e r o r a compound o f w h i c h t h e p o s -  sessive  The  khon  or contrived s i t u a t i o n s .  occurrence  1972:391)  y e t the repeater phrases i n  3.12  are  (from S e t h a p u t r a  examples have been g i v e n i n s e c t i o n 2  person  as  with  juu  h a s no b o d y . "  as a r e p e a t e r i s t h e k i itua  t h e r e h a v e b o d y s t a y how-many BODY  i s just  t o o ambiguous t o b e a c c e p t a b l e , p a r t l y b e -  cause / t u a / enters i n t o  s o many compounds w i t h a l t e r n a t e  senses.  The o c c u r r e n c e  o f / t u a / i n 3.15 above m i g h t b e  to r e f e r  t o t h e s e n s e o f / t u a / i n a n y one o f t h e s e  depending on v a r i o u s f a c t o r s these of  are g r e a t l y reduced  the l i s t e n e r .  member a r e l i s t e d Informants, port  that they  of s i t u a t i o n ,  context  taken  compounds, (although  h e r e ) o r o f e x p e r t i s e on t h e p a r t  The v a r i o u s s e n s e s  o f / t u a / a s compound  i n s e c t i o n 7. i n rejecting  feel  3.15 a s a v a l i d q u e s t i o n , r e -  t h e q u e s t i o n e r m i g h t be i n q u i r i n g  about  42 the  body-shape  own b o d i e s ,  of  even w i t h o u t  Reference  to  figure".  Thus,  tive  some a n i m a l o r  the  the  classifier  is  something l i k e section  7.5)  it  still  as  cannot  sense of  /tua/  there i s  "body"  (as  no r e l a t i o n s h i p  /tua/  of  notion of the  "animate  relatively  3.15)  is  motive  the  a repeater,  However, retains  at  animate  /khon/  also  enters  into  compounds w i t h / k h o n /  as  being  One  last  has  its  we have  sense,  3.13  the  (with and  an a d d i t i o n a l  examples. functioning  number o f  remarkable  the  in  lexical  form "body"  while clearly  are  is  classifier  i n 3.12,  these  sense of  compounds.  i n that the  /khon/  entire  T h i s d e p e n d s on t h e  compound member and t h e  com-  sense  sense of / k h o n /  as  clas-  identical. i m p l i c a t i o n of  IP p r e d i c a t e s  standard  the  a large  a s i n g l e s e n s e and t h a t  of / k h o n /  sive.  of  "person",  a hyponym o f / k h o n / .  are  Since  nor a c t i v e ,  pound i s  sifier  least part  active."  unacceptability  A word l i k e as  or  as  a b s t r a c t e d sense i t  neither  for  have,  are  argued  of  The  seems t o  full  aa c l a s s i f i e r  than  "body,  substan-  and 3 . 1 5  i d e n t i t y b e t w e e n h e a d w o r d and c l a s s i f i e r . also  kaaj/  in a  3.13  their  /thiinan/.  a full  occur  why 3 . 1 2 ,  "body-shape" rather  and t h u s  than  expression  can occur  One r e a s o n  that the  rather  u s u a l l y with / r a a  although / t u a /  phrase.  unacceptable  locative  human b o d y i s  n o u n i n some c a s e s ,  object,  measure  Words f o r  is  that  the  the  claim that  categories  (defined i n section c o n c e p t s s u c h as  and  "horsepower"  are  The  implication that  clearly  5)  repeaters  of repeater are  mutually  "kilogram",  2P p r e d i c a t e s  IP p r e d i c a t e s  all  as  correlate  and exclu-  "light-year" defined exactly  here. with  43 - e n t i t i e s " i n Thai i s a l s o examined i n s e c t i o n  3.3  FUNCTIONS OF THE  5.  REPEATER CONSTRUCTION  Below are some examples which i l l u s t r a t e cases where repeaters  bear c l e a r semantic f u n c t i o n a l l o a d s .  they can serve  F i r s t of  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the b a s i c sense of a noun  from i t s e x t e n s i o n s .  The  most common example i s  3.16a  baan soon baan house 2 HOUSE "two homes"  3.16b  baan soorj lan house 2 PROTECTIVE COVER "two houses"  where the c l a s s i f i e r / l a g / i s a semantic e x t e n s i o n noun / l a g / "back" and configuration.  all*  t h e r f o r e i m p l i e s a concrete  This leaves  the r e p e a t e r  from  the  physical  construction  avai-  l a b l e f o r emphasis on the t o t a l concept of /baan/ as "home; l o c a t i o n of the f a m i l y ; hometown; r e g i o n of b i r t h . " I t i s not c l e a r whether the r e p e a t e r the most b a s i c sense, s i n c e one  must always g i v e  c o u l d argue f o r example,  t h a t the b a s i c sense of /baan/ is- g i v e n i n 3.16a i s g i v e n i n 3.16b.  The  n o t i o n of " b a s i c sense" w i l l be  cussed more thoroughly i n s e c t i o n 7, theoretical point.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note, however, t h a t source f o r  (as w i t h /thoorj/ " b e l l y " ) and s i n c e body  p a r t s are u s u a l l y r e p e a t e r s repeaters  dis-  where i t i s a major  body p a r t s i n p a r t i c u l a r are a very p r o d u c t i v e semantic e x t e n s i o n  or t h a t i t  the semantic f u n c t i o n a l l o a d of  as markers of non-extended sense (=basic sense) i s  thereby i n c r e a s e d .  Regardless of which sense i s s e l e c t e d  f o r the c l a s s i f i e r , the senses of the c l a s s i f i e r and  the  44 head are  always i d e n t i c a l .  identity" trated  i n the  t a k e n as of  s t r e s s e d by  an  This  Adams and  discussion  i s part Conklin  of / t u a /  use  of  This  bear the  focus  from the tics  the  case,  alternative classifiers  t h e h e a r e r on  above.  of  the  r e f e r e n t of  possibility  of  referent.  by  This  illus-  f a c t may  f o r the  be  category  lable,  repeaters  can  reference  f o r the  less  repeater  the  e x i s t because the abstract  indefinite provide  reference  of f o c u s i n g  head in. t o t a l  the  danger of  head, r e f e r e n c e  i s not  kind  they provide  Adams e t a l  location.  the  reported 3.17a  t o be  unit  exist  un-  not  unmarked  d e f i n i t e or  Repeaters serve on  specific  to  charac-  Along with simple  unit  f o r c e of s i n g u l a r i t y d e s c r i b e d  (1975:11).  seemed p u z z l i n g . that  arising  avai-  I t would  s i n g u l a r or p l u r a l ,  There i s another sense o f t e n g i v e n first  commonly  i s held  without focusing  o r on  general.  characteris-  which would not  b a r e noun i n T h a i  in  t o mark i n d e f i n i t e  (Lekawatana e t a l , 1969:88).  on  or  One  i n comparisons  f o r repeaters  i n f o r m a n t has like  krabuaj nin baj ladle one CONTAINER "one c o c o n u t - s h e l l l a d l e "  of  w i t h each part..  s t r u c t u r e were e m p l o y e d .  or concrete,  attention  ambiguity  with s p e c i f i c  simply  the  ( f o r example,/baan/)  whole c o n t r a s t s  function  unit reference  teristics,  f o r i t e m s where  the  contrast The  that  i s common  semantic f u n c t i o n  i s necessitated  the  then,  When a l t e r n a t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  at  "lexical  (1974:3) and  additional defining criterion  seems t o be  repeaters  by  the  repeaters. It  for  of  which  consistently  3.17b  while  45 krabuaj nirj krabuaj ladle one LADLE "one c o c o n u t - s h e l l l a d l e "  the senses of the headnouns i n 3.17a  and  3.17b  are  g e n e r a l l y the same, there i s an i m p l i c a t i o n of " k i n d " i n the r e p e a t e r phrase; t h a t i s , "kind of l a d l e " .  She  reports  t h a t with the r e p e a t e r phrase the i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t have "so many / k r a b u a j / " , one  and a l i t t l e one.  or t h a t you have, say,  you  a big  T h i s i s c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t from the  full  sense of " k i n d " i n 3.18  krabuaj  nirj  jaarj  ladle  one  KIND "one  k i n d of c o c o n u t - s h e l l  Other examples where informants  ladle"  agreed on some i m p l i c a -  t i o n of " k i n d " were the compounds /huanaa/ "head, c h i e f , l e a d e r " , and 3.19  /phuunam/ " l e a d e r " .  phuunam leader  was  soon 2  phuunam LEADER  c l e a r l y i n t e r p r e t e d as two  Leader of a country  For example  "two  leaders"  d i f f e r e n t kinds of  ( p o l i t i c a l ) and  leaders.  l e a d e r of a r e l i g i o n  were suggested.. Y. R. Chao (1968:597) o b s e r v e s : . . . . i t may seem out of p l a c e to put measures with meanings l i k e "type, q u a l i t y " under group measures of t h i n g s . However, t h i n g s b e l o n g i n g to a group u s u a l l y have some p r o p e r t y i n common, so much so t h a t i t i s poss i b l e i n formal l o g i c t o t u r n around and d e f i n e "property" simply as membership i n a class. Chao elsewhere notes(pp. 496-7) t h a t ...form c l a s s e s can sometimes be d e f i n e d by enumeration without s t a t i n g any common p r o p e r t y possessed by a l l of their members. [Continued i n a footnote} T h i s i s i n f a c t R u s s e l l ' s p r i n c i p l e of a b s t r a c t i o n , a c c o r d ing to which the (common) p r o p e r t y of a c l a s s of o b j e c t s c o n s i s t s simply of the  46 f a c t t h a t t h e o b j e c t s a r e t h e members o f t h a t c l a s s . ... See B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l , P r i n c i p l e s o f M a t h e m a t i c s , C a m b r i d g e , 1903, p p . 166, 219-220. This equivalence of m u l t i p l i c i t y mechanism c o n n e c t i n g  There i s another  g e n e r a l assumption,  that c l a s s i f i e r s  classify  words i n t o c l a s s e s . repeaters, member.  "kinds" of  more d i r e c t  connec-  as m e n t i o n e d i n s e c t i o n  2 . i s  a unit The  The  the r e f e r e n t s of s u b s t a n t i v e headlogical  implication  i s being c l a s s i f i e d use  (even  though i t i s the c l a s s i f i e r  When a p l u r a l i t y mantically result  a class with  which t e l l s  the e q u i v a l e n t of s i n g l e t o n  is a plurality  of  the c l a s s i f i e r  T h i s may  and  the  classes,  sort  and  as h a v i n g ,  e x p l a i n why  phrase  alternatively,  se-  logical  h e a d n o u n must be  l o g i c member and  i s most l i k e l y b a s e d  A single classifier  class).  the  class  Adams and  on  idenbe (1974:  classifier  semantic  with /khon/ "person"  must  Conklin  more " c e n t r a l t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p h r a s e " .  ty" of t h i s  signals  members a r e  5) r e s e r v e judgement on w h e t h e r t h e h e a d o r t h e is  only  classes.  However, i n f o r m a l  distinct.  with  that are being discussed  o f members i s i n d i c a t e d  Semantically, tical.  into  i s that  of a numeral w i t h the c l a s s i f i e r  t h e number o f members o f t h e c l a s s  kept  the  however. The  one  k i n d s c o u l d be  " s o many / k r a b u a j / " w i t h  / k r a b u a j / as r e p o r t e d . tion,  and  "Centralirelationships.  c a n be  the head or the c l a s s i f i e r  as  seen more  basic: 3.20  n a k r i a n soorj khon student 2 PERSON  "two  students"  I n t e r m s o f c l a s s membership, / n a k r i a n / " s t u d e n t "  i s a member  47 of the c l a s s  of /khon/"people".  argued t h a t /khon/ r e f e r s  t o an e s s e n t i a l  dent, h i s o r her humanity. isolated,  A t t h e same t i m e i t c o u l d be  As a c l a s s  / k h o n / i s more b a s i c .  attribute  of a s t u -  f r o m w h i c h members a r e  As a n e n t i t y  t o which  attri-  b u t e s a r e p r e d i c a t e d , / n a k r i a n / i s more b a s i c : Table Semantic  "Basicness"  Head  in Classifier  >  entity  class  ^  attribute  3 t h e a r r o w s i n d i c a t e t h e more " b a s i c " e l e m e n t .  Some a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e h e a d and r e p e a t e r Repeaters. construction  Phrases  Classifier  member  In T a b l e  3  f o r the semantic i d e n t i t y o f  i s presented  i n t h e next  There a l e x i c a l i z i n g i s discussed  s e c t i o n on  Partial  f u n c t i o n of the repeater  i n connection  w i t h noun compounds.  One example i s 3.21 khamthaam saam khamthaam question  3  QUESTION  where t h e u s e o f a r e p e a t e r partial-repeater  (and  questions"  c l a u s e i n s t e a d o f an  clause serves  /khamthaam/ i s a s i n g l e  "three  to establish the fact  compound n o u n .  The most  f r u s t r a t i n g ) possible function of repeaters  corse,  to c l a s s i f y  which a s p e c i f i c  acceptable that  interesting i s , of  t h e headword as a member o f a c l a s s t o  class-sense  c a n be a s s i g n e d ,  as d i s c u s s e d  above . 3.4 REPEATERS: BASIC SYSTEM OR It  i s common t o v i e w r e p e a t e r s  w h i c h do n o t f i t i n t o peated  "WASTEBASKET"  only  to satisfy  CATEGORY?  as a r e s i d u e , as words  t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c l a s s e s and a r e r e the requirements  of the s y n t a c t i c  48  pattern. be  Denny  (1975:245-6) c o n s i d e r s  Burmese r e p e a t e r s t o  "dummy e l e m e n t s " w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e no m e a n i n g t o t h e p h r a s e .  He p r e s e n t s  evidence  f o rthis,  Burmese i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  from that i n T h a i .  also point out that country "correct" c l a s s i f i e r In s p i t e  that repeaters  an  open c a t e g o r y  are  t h e view I would l i k e  which i n c l u d e s p o t e n t i a l l y In the case  to objects with  tion,  salient  arrangement, e t c .  teristics sifier  f o l k who m i g h t n o t know t h e  are focused  always p o t e n t i a l l y this  as r e p e a t e r s  this  view i s found  (ii) (iii) The  a l l nouns  ( a n d e s p e c i a l l y when t h e s e  available. being  remains,  (Adams e t a l (1975:6  " c r e a t e d " when n e e d e d . )  func-  charac-  upon i n d i s c o u r s e ) , t h e r e l e v a n t The r e p e a t e r  refer-  o f shape,  )  clashowever, express  Support f o r  i n the following:  t h e o v e r l a p o f more s p e c i f i c c l a s s i f i e r s w i t h r e p e a t e r s , as d e s c r i b e d above, ( e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f nouns r e f e r r i n g t o c o n t a i n e r s i n r e peater phrases) t h e tendency f o r items which a r e IP p r e d i c a t e s t o be a t l e a s t m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e a s r e p e a t e r s , a s d e s c r i b e d above, and the p o s s i b i l i t y of a class-sense f o r repeaters, perhaps as l o c a t i v e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e f i n e d s p a c e . use of repeaters speakers,  picture  o f r e p e a t e r s , d o e s n o t a c t u a l l y do s o .  would have l e s s concepts  while  as a w a s t e b a s k e t d e v i c e by  ticated  cal  here  which  o f IP p r e d i c a t e nouns  characteristics  r e p l a c e s the repeater..  (i)  to present  a r e i n some way v e r y b a s i c a n d r e p r e s e n t  IP p r e d i c a t e s .  ring  Informants  o f t e n use r e p e a t e r s .  of this,  is  b u t the s y n t a c t i c system i n  seeming t o c o n t r a d i c t t h i s  familiarity  with  (e.g. of r e l i g i o n ,  unsophis-  general  Country  folk  certain abstract or technil a w , o r a r t s ) and w o u l d  tend  49 to  use  repeaters  fy  the  nouns r e f e r r i n g  w e l l b e due t o the  semantic  s h o u l d the  the  to  large  domain o f  they  device.  are  /an/  class.  It  sub-domain of  are  enumerate  or  This could  abstractions  so r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e ,  function is  functions is  such concepts.  n a t u r a l l y q u i t e u s e f u l as  But t h i s  sifier  to  speci-  very within  repeaters.  Because r e p e a t e r s here,  need a r i s e  entirely  such a  i n section  7.  proposed  "catch-all"  secondary.  i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t way as  discussed  as  The a  clas-  residual  50  4.0  PARTIAL REPEATERS  4.1  PARTIAL REPEATERS AS Adams and  A CATEGORY  C o n k l i n , we  tween r e p e a t e r s w h i c h c a n " p e r s o n " ) and say,  as  r e p e a t e r s which c l a s s i f y  latter  "PR  Repeaters"  type w i l l  be  where i t i s n e c e s s a r y repeating" w i l l  be  make a d i s t i n c t i o n  also partially  /krachoon/ " s t r a i n e r " ) .  to here the  have noted,  The  /khon/  will  be  (like, referred  repeating repeaters)  t o as  to d i s t i n g u i s h  (like  only themselves  former type  (partially  referred  repeat  be-  "Exclusive  them.  The  and  Repeaters"  term  used f o r the dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p  "full or  pro-  cess. One  d r a w b a c k t o Adams and  Conklin*s  approach i s the  mous t a s k o f d i s c e r n i n g w h e t h e r a g i v e n c l a s s i f i e r only i t s e l f . lexicon every  To do  (were s u c h  classifiable  tive result. tem  And  ( i n gapping,  t h e r the PR  item  while  information available head, i n o r d e r given  i n q u e s t i o n was  Repeaters  like  process  understood in  this  c o u l d n e v e r be  like,  paper.  sys-  s u r e whe-  not.  say, how  as  " l a u n d r y m a n , washerwoman" /m±i/"hand" e n t e r the  term  into  a thoroughgoing Nevertheless,  very  "compound" i s  o f noun compounding i n T h a i i s s t i l l and  of  nega-  classifier  a l a r g e number o f compounds s u c h  compounds, d e p e n d i n g on The  or t e s t i n g  / k h o n / " p e r s o n " , when f u n c t i o n i n g as  khon sak phaa p e r s o n wash c l o t h e s Repeaters  entire  a definite  of the  a repeater or  classifies  of the  there)  to provide  the f l e x i b i l i t y  f o r i n s t a n c e ) one  nouns, e n t e r i n t o 4.1  so would r e q u i r e a s e a r c h  enor-  understood.  very  e x p l a n a t i o n i s not  few  poorly  attempted  some o f t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d  51 are  discussed  i n section  kasiko:>n chaaw n a a khon tham n a a all  4.3.3.  s e m a n t i c component o f " p e r s o n " i n  varying degrees of l e x i c a l suffix  /-koon/  transparency: the f i r s t  (from S a n s k r i t ) ;  i n ; inhabitant  146); the t h i r d  lexical  i n the f r e e  can be c l a s s i f i e d by /khon/.  of  repetition  to  be c o n s i d e r e d  the  a Partial  main d i f f e r e n c e between t h e l a s t degree  cy  a p p e a r s more t o be  rather  of l e x i c a l  transparency. a question  and  3 examples.  first  lexicalization,  i s highest  the l a s t  c a n be s e e n as a s y n t a c t i c  u n i t which a c t s  related  lexicalization  dently about  Partial  and  two  repeating  B o t h s e m a n t i c and  This  i n most c a s e s  of  degree  (repetition  forms  into  syntactic a  single  • L e x i c a l i z a t i o n i n the sense of the c r e a t i o n i t e m , as u s e d by L y o n s (1977:549)  the  operate indepen-  (but see  t h e compounding o f / t u a - / i n s e c t i o n  then  of a  compounding and  are p r o c e s s e s which  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Semantically  t o be f o u n d i n t h e s e  i n formality  relationship  as head..  have  Gradients of l e v e l  i n v o l v e t h e c o m p o u n d i n g o f two  lexical  would  However, t h e t r a n s p a r e n -  also  lowest.  form) w i t h s e m a n t i c c o r r e l a t e s . criteria  two  of degrees of transparency  of l e x i c l i z a t i o n * a r e The  first  criteria  i t e m and t h e f i r s t  than presence - or — absence.  formality  A l l three  the s y n t a c t i c  The  1965:  i t e m , however,  as n o n - r e p e a t e r s o f some k i n d .  is  of  Only the l a s t  o f t h e f o r m /khon/..  in,the  o f " (Haas  i t e m /khon/.  R e p e a t e r by  i n the  the second  b o u n d s t e m /chaaw/ " d w e l l e r  w o u l d be c a l l e d  nouns:  "farmer; a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t " "farmer; country person" " f a r m e r , on who f a r m s "  o f which have a b a s i c  borrowed  C o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g  speculations  4.3.3)  o f a new  lexical  52 To  create three d i f f e r e n t  c a t e g o r i c a l r o l e s f o r /khon/  (N,  Full  of  i t s sense i n a l l three r o l e s .  across  R e p e a t e r a n d PR Repeater) o b s c u r e s  Adams a n d C o n k l i n ' s  repeaters"  about p a r t i a l  (1974:3), t h e former c a t e g o r y  group r e p e a t e r s  and p a r t i a l  sary to stress that while the p a r t i a l  Thus many p a r t i a l As  gory and  While  repeaters  these  repeaters repeaters  repeaters  together,  i n Figure  also overlap with are not f u l l  logical to  each  non-repeaters.  repeaters  at a l l .  a r e d e f i n a b l e as a  kinds  into  category.  but the cate-  of c r i t e r i a of repeaters,  F i g u r e 2. of C l a s s i f i e r s Others  Partial  blank  down  2,.  Repeaters  Exclusive Repeaters  and non-  i t i s neces-  are also a definable category,  Categories  The  breaking  i t c a n and does o v e r l a p t h e c a t e g o r y  as r e p r e s e n t e d  Full  repeaters originates  i t i s only  i s f o r m e d on t h e b a s i s o f d i f f e r e n t thus  classifiers,  categories overlap with  a r g u e d i n s e c t i o n 3, r e p e a t e r s  Partial  among  b a s i c dichotomy o f "repeaters  " r e p e a t e r s , whole o r p a r t i a l " .  other,  rule  6 and 10 b e l o w ) .  Some o f t h e c o n f u s i o n in  Such u n i f o r m i t y o f sense  r o l e s i s b y no means t h e g e n e r a l  (see Tables  the uniformity  Repeaters  F u l l Repeaters which a l s o partially repeat (=PR R e p e a t e r s ) space  i n this  Other C l a s s i f i e r s which also partially repeat  figure will  be f i l l e d  i n sub-  sequent s e c t i o n s . The  strict  d i s t i n c t i o n drawn b e t w e e n E x c l u s i v e R e p e a t e r s  53 and  PR  mer  category  while  R e p e a t e r s may  the  must  be  repeat  l a t t e r may  distinction  has  justified  an  fully  o r may  that both categories are  the  fact  to provide  not  unfortunate  by  repeat result:  capable  t h a t the  unit  fully.  for-  reference, However,  i t obscures the  o f a. f u l l - r e p e a t i n g  the fact  rela-  tionship. The to  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n worked o u t  some e x t e n t  these  the  same d i s t i n c t i o n s , i s a l s o s u b j e c t  criticisms,  and  the  undermined.  therefore,  stability  E x c l u s i v e Repeater  latter  type  like  "full  cover  repeater"  will  this  place predicates, tial  full  full  repeating  (no  thesis, cate-  capitals).  become cumbersome repeating process")  r e t a i n e d as  a k i n d of  (e.g. terms  short-form  have a l r e a d y  established that because they  repeaters  are  one-  i t r e m a i n s t o e x p l a i n t h e mechanism o f  par-  repeating. SEMANTIC RELATIONS BETWEEN PARTIAL REPEATER AND The  that  se-  (written with c a p i t a l s )  a u n i q u e g r o u p among c l a s s i f i e r s  4.2  remainder of  is  term. A s s u m i n g t h a t we  are  be  categories  to  made b e t w e e n s t a t i c  of p h r a s e can  "a f o r m X p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e  most o b v i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  they  classify  compounds. PR  be  d y n a m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u c h as the  of the  Throughout the  the d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l  g o r i e s s u c h as  Since  based  on  riously  and  i n t h i s paper, b e i n g  As  phrases. 4.2  khaw she  of p a r t i a l  HEAD  repeaters  c o m p l e x h e a d n o u n s , some o f w h i c h a r e  with  I t may phap fold  full be  repeaters,  verbs  c a n n o t be  p o s s i b l e to consider phaa waj saam cloth in-place 3  the  phap FOLD  is  noun  heads  classifier  of in  54 "She t o be  f o l d e d the  a partial  c l o t h i n t o three  repeater,  but  folds."  / p h a p / and  / p h a a / seem t o  be  l e s s u n i f i e d a construction  (as V + N o r v e r b + o b j e c t )  than  an  /phaa/ can  by  NP  other  o r a noun compound,  nouns s u c h as / k r a d a a t /  etc." not  It i s clear that  the  a l s o be  replaced  " p a p e r " , /naxj/ " s k i n ,  leather,  v e r b /phap/ i s c l a s s i f i e d  t h e p r e d i c a t e /phap p h a a / .  The  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of  /phap/  as a f u l l  repeater  i s a l s o o p p o s e d by  / p h a p / as  v e r b and  as noun, t h e v e r b r e f e r r i n g t o t h e  the  noun t o  test  the  resultant state,  for repeaters.  of c l o t h or  as  t i o n of  verb.  the  repeaters,  the  an  result  Thus f o r p a r t i a l  d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be  Complex headnouns o f p a r t i a l  two  situation  i n Table 4(see next  a l t h o u g h 4.3b makes 4.4b this  and  can  are  i n terms of our  i s c o n f i r m e d by  es. by  For  i n the  as  something  for  ac-  full heads.  p h r a s e s can  be  difference  be-  reduced-context  not test  acceptable,  4.4b  is.  f r a m e a IP p r e d i c a t e ,  e a s i l y be  1968.  glossed  that  This and  Fasold  as r e l a t i v e  example, /khon .gaan/ " w o r k e r " w o u l d be  i n f o r m a n t s as  the  t o noun  The  frame  measure  important p o i n t s : f i r s t ,  informants i n Fasold  t h a t most compounds c o u l d  informal  repeaters,  repeater  action,  the  l o c a t i o n * of  of  page).  n o t e two  4.5b  an  restricted  types i s i l l u s t r a t e d  I n T a b l e 4 we  or  two-place p r e d i c a t e s .  tween t h e  senses  /phap/ a l s o f a i l s  I t i s b e t t e r s e e n as  occurrence,  b o t h o n e - p l a c e and  the d i s t i n c t  here,  found claus-  explained  like  * I t c a n be s e e n as a l o c a t i o n b e c a u s e /hceaerj/ " p l a c e " l a r l y . r e p l a c e s /phap/ i n t h e c l a s s i f i e r s l o t .  regu-  55  4.6  k h o n t h i i tham jjaan p e r s o n REL do work  I P & 2P P r e d i c a t e s IP  Predicate  4.3: S i m p l e Noun  "a p e r s o n who  Table 4 as B a s e s o f S i m p l e , Compound & Complex Heads Base 2P P r e d i c a t e B a s e Heads  4.3a m i i k h o n j u u k i i k h o n h a v e p e r s o n s t a y howmany PERSON "How many p e o p l e a r e there?" 4.4: Compound Noun  4.3b  *mii baj juu k i i baj h a v e S2D-shape s t a y how-manyS 2D—SHAPE  4.4b  m i i b a j maaj j u u k i i b a j h a v e S2D-shape-wood s t a y how-many S2D—SHAPE "How many ( t r e e ) l e a v e s are there?  4.5b  *mii baj j a j juu k i i baj h a v e S2D-shape l a r g e s t a y how-many S2D-SHAPE  Heads  m u khonchaaj juu k i i hon have person-use s t a y how-many PERSON "How many s e r v a n t s are there?" k  4.5:Complex 4.5a  NP  works"  Heads  (N + A d j )  m i i khon d i i j u u k i i khon have p e r s o n good s t a y how-many PERSON "How many g o o d p e o p l e are t h e r e ? "  NOTE: / b a j m a a j / h a s two s e n s e s : l e a f o f any p l a n t i n g e n e r a l , and l e a f o f a t r e e . The f o r m e r s e n s e c a n b e r e p l a c e d b y s e n s e s on an i n t e r m e d i a t e l y g e n e r a l l e v e l , e . g . : /bajphak/ "vegetable l e a f " . B o t h s e n s e s c a n be r e p l a c e d by s p e c i f i c terms, e.g.: / b a j c h a a / " t e a l e a f " , / b a j t o o r j / "banana ( t r e e ) l e a f " . Two in  c l a s s e s o f compounds, however,  t h i s way  by h i s  (ii)  stem, t r u n k " ,  locative  nouns  like  /khaarjnaj/  down t h e compound i n t o a r e l a t i v e one word" In T a b l e  (Fasold 4  "leaf"  and / t o n m a a j /  and  In the case o f /tonmaaj/, Fasold's  was  glossed  informant:  (i) p l a n t p a r t s , i n c l u d i n g /bajmaaj/ "plant;  c o u l d n o t be  "inside"  informant clause,  .  could not break  "insisting  that i t  1968:199).  b o t h 4.3b  and 4.5b  are unacceptable  i n the  56 sense that a hearer 4.7  invariably  baj a'raj S2D-shape what  demands  "Leaves o f what?"  I n terms o f p r e d i c a t e s i t i s c l e a r the  second p o s i t i o n The  is  still  s i n c e /khonchaj  / "servant"  would accept  speakers  I queried  idea,  p o i n t about T a b l e  4  T h a t 4.4a i s a c c e p t a b l e  speakers  single  requires a variable to f i l l i t .  second important  also acceptable.  t h a t f o r 4.4b a n d 4.5b  i s a very  i t as a v a l i d  about t h i s  /khon d i i /  i s unremarkable  common word a n d most  compound.  agreed  A l l native  t h a t / k h o n c h a j / was a  "a g o o d p e r s o n "  i n 4.5a i s j u s t as  c l e a r l y n o t a compound, y e t i t i s a c c e p t a b l e . sion  t o b e drawn i s t h a t t h e h e a d i s a f u l l  a noun.  Adams a n d C o n k l i n  S u m m a r i z i n g , we f i n d  i s t h a t 4.5a  The c o n c l u -  NP, n o t m e r e l y  (1974) a l s o r e f e r  t o head NP's.  t h a t compounds, w h e t h e r t h e y a r e  b a s e d on I P o r 2P p r e d i c a t e s , a r e t h e m s e l v e s I P p r e d i c a t e s but as  Noun P h r a s e s b a s e d on 2P p r e d i c a t e s r e m a i n 2P p r e d i c a t e s , i n Table  5: Table  5  Complex N o m i n a l s a s I P & 2P P r e d i c a t e s IP P r e d i c a t e s  2P P r e d i c a t e s  Compounds b a s e d on I P p r e d i cates (e.g. /khonchaj/)  Complex NP b a s e d on 2P p r e d i c a t e s (e.g:/baj  jaj/)  Compounds b a s e d on 2P p r e d i cates (e.g: /bajmaaj/ Complex NP b a s e d on I P p r e d i c a t e s ( e . g . /khon d i i / ) The  main c o n c l u s i o n s  that p a r t i a l  repeaters  heads, and t h a t t h e r e  t o be drawn f r o m T a b l e 4 , t h e n , a r e  are only  acceptable  with  IP p r e d i c a t e  i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n a c c e p t a b i l i t y  57  whether t h e head i s a f u l l There  i s , however, a f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n  b a s e d on 2P p r e d i c a t e s they not  compound o r s i m p l y  ( l i k e /bajmaaj/  f u n c t i o n as IP p r e d i c a t e s as c a p a b l e  4.8  of repeating  *bajmaaj leaf  is. only  a very  of / b a j / alone  saam 3  portant  sify  acceptable  as c l a s s i f i e r .  frame, they a r e  IP p r e d i c a t e s .  Thus  a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e use  The r e s t r i c t i o n  h e r e may  have  l e n g t h o f t h e compound, b u t a more i m -  f a c t o r i s the f a c t  transparent  although  bajmaaj LEAF  marginally  s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h  on compounds  "leaf"):  i n our t e s t  as s i m p l e  N + Adj.  t h a t t h e compound i s l e x i c a l l y  a n d b a s e d on a c l a s s i f i e r  a wide range o f nouns.  which i s used t o c l a s -  In d i s c u s s i n g repeaters, the  c l a i m was made ( s e c t i o n 4.2.4)  ;  that the repeater  con-  struction  i s always p o t e n t i a l l y  a v a i l a b l e f o r IP p r e d i c a t e s  when t h e y  a r e t o be c l a s s i f i e d ,  but that the presence of s a -  lient the  characteristics  repeater  cusing  a lexical  characteristic,  on  referring  this  to the s a l i e n t  the p r e - e x i s t i n g s a l i e n t  characteristic  compound t o r e p e a t :  to f a l l  system of f u l l  compounds w h i c h s e e m  general  like-  A speaker would have t o i g n o r e  t h e more b a s i c a n d more g e n e r a l  disprove  transparently  case / b a j / i n /bajmaaj/) i n o r d e r  There a r e other to  i f t h e head  o f r e p l a c e m e n t i s much more  obligatory.  (perhaps c o n s c i o u s l y ) (inthis  How  unit directly  the process  and i n e f f e c t  marker  cause  t o be r e p l a c e d b y a more common c l a s s i f i e r f o -  on t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  contains  ly,,  i n t h e r e f e r e n t o f t h e head would  at f i r s t  back  repeating. glance  r u l e r e q u i r i n g the c l a s s i f i e r  in a  58 4.9a  luukkuncaeae saam subsidiary-lock 3  4.10a  khamthaam  saam  word-ask As  was  POINT  where more t h a n one including  of  the speaker.  We  of  what t h e r e s u l t  can  2.3,  the f i n a l  choice  i s p o s s i b l e , depends  the i n t e n t i o n  and p o i n t o f  l o o k a t t h e a b o v e examples  w o u l d be  To b e g i n w i t h , we  4.9b  keys"  "three questions"  in section  several factors,  peaters.  "three  khOD  3  p o i n t e d out  a classifier,  dook FLOWER-SHAPE  * luukkuncaeae saam subsidiary-lock 3  i f t h e y were u s e d find  of  on view  i n terms  as p a r t i a l  re-  that  luuk {SUBSIDIARY (_SMALL-S 3D-SHAPE  is  o n l y m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , and  glossed fier  senses  /dook/  situation  f o r the c l a s s i f i e r .  (used  i n 4.9b  i n 49a) we  then The  only with  one  alternative  i s much p r e f e r r e d . .  To  need t o l o o k a t the semantic  of  the  classi-  e x p l a i n the relations  b e t w e e n / l u u k / a s member o f t h e compound h e a d and  as  fier.  f o r /luuk/  as  Haas  (1965:487) l i s t s  the f i r s t  member o f a  the f o l l o w i n g senses  compound:  (i) (ii) (iii)  s u b o r d i n a t e or dependent person y o u n g o f a n i m a l s and b i r d s ; l a r v a e c e r t a i n types of f r u i t ( e s p e c i a l l y  (iv)  c e r t a i n S3D  (where s e n s e s  ( i ) and  coconuts)  objects ( i i ) probably  s h o u l d be  combined).  c o n t r a s t Haas has d i f f e r e n t u s e s f o r / l u u k / as (i.) f o r f r u i t o f any k i n d (ii) f o r mountains (iii)  f o r c e r t a i n S3D  Thus t h e s e n s e  of  classifier:  "subsidiary device" i s normally  / l u u k kuncaeee/ has  In  objects  l a b l e f o r / l u u k / as a c l a s s i f i e r . in  classi-  the sense  As  not  compound member,  of " s u b s i d i a r y "  avai/luuk/  59 i s supported by the f a c t t h a t the f u l l word f o r " l o c k i s M  /maeae kuncaeae/, m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y mother + l o c k . Thus t h e r e a r e t h r e e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g /luuk kuncaeae/ "key": (i)  C l a s s i f y w i t h /doDk/ as a "flower-shape".  T h i s sense  a p p a r e n t l y i n c l u d e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f both  blossom  and stem, s i n c e keys a r e c o n s i d e r e d by informants t o normally have a c l u s t e r - l i k e design, i n t h e i r  handles,  of t h e f o l l o w i n g types : Figure 3 V i s u a l Impressions  o f Keys  til Arrows, f i r e w o r k s and i n c e n s e s t i c k s a r e a l s o s i f i e d with /dook/ i n t h i s sense, row"  clas-  / l u u k thanuu/ " a r -  c o n t a i n s / l u u k / as the base of the compound a l s o ,  and the semantic r e l a t i o n s h i p s between head member and c l a s s i f i e r , i n c l u d i n g the r e s t r i c t i o n on the use of / l u u k / as c l a s s i f i e r , p a r a l l e l those b e i n g d i s c u s s e d here f o r /luuk kuncaeae/.  /dook/ i s a l s o used f o r  f l o r a l designs on p r i n t e d c l o t h and p a t t e r n s i n general. ( i i ) c l a s s i f y with / l u u k / : (a) as a s u b s i d i a r y member i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p , o r as a s u b s i d i a r y d e v i c e , i d e n t i c a l to the sense o f the compound head.  But these senses,  60 as  shown by  to  /luuk/  Haas(1965), are not normally  as c l a s s i f i e r .  sense i s correspondingly Informants say  The  use  of /luuk/  only marginally  that country  people  as  incorrect  liently  and  2 dimensional  not  (ii)&  There i s a l s o the sifiers, tend  and  strong  4.10b  3 dimensional.  sort  at a l l ,  saInfor-  has  i m p l i c a t i o n here that f o r (e.g.  " s m a l l S3D  (e.g.  clas-  object")  " s u b s i d i a r y or  element"). in  *khamthaam word-ask  saam 3  the u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y l i e s of  object.  (ii)b*.  t o p r e - e m p t more a b s t r a c t s e n s e s  Similarly,  the  sense  s e n s e s as p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s  subordinate  tion  not  (ii)b.  s i n c e keys are  mants r e p o r t t h a t 4.,9b, i f a c c e p t a b l e sense  this  acceptable.  with  a s m a l l r o u n d S3D  T h i s sense i s c l e a r l y  in  might use i t .  There i s a l s o the danger of ambiguity (b)  available  " q u e s t i o n " as  kham WORD  i n the c l a s s i n g  a single  word.  of the  In f a c t  o f compound where t h e s e n s e o f  complex  no-  /khamthaam/ i s  the p a r t s  i s lost  in  * The a m b i g u i t y b e t w e e n s e n s e ( i i ) a and ( i i ) b i s t h e b a s i s o f a f a v o r i t e j o k e on f o r e i g n e r s i n Bangkok. B a s e d on t h e common p a t t e r n o f w o r l d l a n g u a g e s o f N u m e r a l + Noun, f o r e i g n e r s l e a r n i n g T h a i a r e l i k e l y t o a s k a q u e s t i o n l i k e Ymii l u u k k i i l u u k / h a v e + c h i l d + how-many + CLP, i n t e n d i n g t o i n q u i r e a b o u t t h e number o f c h i l d r e n a p e r s o n h a s . Unfortun a t e l y , the a p p r o p r i a t e c l a s s i f i e r f o r c h i l d r e n i s /khon/ "person". The u s e o f / l u u k / as c l a s s i f i e r w o u l d more l i k e l y be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h t h e s e n s e o f " s m a l l r o u n d o b j e c t " ( u n l e s s m o u n t a i n s o r f r u i t were b e i n g d i s c u s s e d ) . This forces a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e headword s i n c e i n a r e p e a t i n g p h r a s e t h e s e n s e o f t h e h e a d must be i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f t h e c l a s sifier. T h e r e f o r e t h e i n q u i r y i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a s k i n g how many s m a l l r o u n d o b j e c t s a p e r s o n has.. I f the person being a s k e d i s a m a l e , t h e l i k e l y answer i s /s5orj/ "Two!" w i t h a c companying howls of l a u g h t e r .  61 the  whole  (these are d i s c u s s e d  i n section  4.3.3  below).  s e n s e o f t h e f o r m as a compound member i s u n l i k e of  t h e same f o r m i n any  o t h e r (unbound) g r a m m a t i c a l  In. summary, t h e n , we  find  c e p t i o n s c a n be ses  utilize  explained  role.  (whether that  items  the c l a s s i f i e r i s  i t e m as c l a s s i f i e r .  i n terms o f d i v e r g e n c e o f t h e  o f t h e same f o r m i n i t s two  functional roles:  compound and  as c l a s s i f i e r .  establishing  an a d d i t i o n a l d e f i n i n g  r e p e a t e r s : as w i t h f u l l  sense  t h a t compounds b a s e d on  w h i c h c a n be u s e d as c l a s s i f i e r s a r e p e a t e r or not) w i l l  any  The  This  sen-  as b a s e  i s an e s s e n t i a l criterion  Ex-  of  factor i n  for  partial  r e p e a t e r s t h e s e n s e s o f t h e same f o r m  as member o f t h e headnoun c o m p l e x and  as c l a s s i f i e r  must  be  identical. This contention  i s s u p p o r t e d by  the f a c t  that  disparate  s e n s e s o f a r e p e a t e d f o r m s i m p l y do n o t o c c u r , e x c e p t b y incidence  ( s e e example 4.17  below).  striction  also holds f o r c l a s s i f i e r s  where two  a l t e r n a t i v e senses  The  co-  lexical  identity re-  /baj/,  f o r example,  like  are a v a i l a b l e  i n the  classifier  role: (i)  t h e s e n s e o f "S2D-shape",. as i n t h e b s e n t e n c e s o f Table  (ii)  4 .  the sense of " c o n t a i n e r " which occurs o n l y peating  4.11  krabuaj ladle  While tial all  the g l o s s  classifier saam 3  phrases such  as  baaj CONTAINER  o f 4.4b  i n non-re-  "three l a d l e s "  shows t h a t s e n s e  ( i ) occurs i n par-  r e p e a t e r phrases, the sense of " c o n t a i n e r " cannot. compounds b a s e d  on / b a j / ,  t h e f o r m / b a j / has  the  In  sense  62 of  "S2D-shape", n e v e r  tion  o f sense  the sense  of "container".  ( i ) a s head, member a n d s e n s e  The c o m b i n a -  ( i i ) as c l a s s i f i e r  s i m p l y does n o t o c c u r Further support for  w h i c h Haas  i s found  i n t h e example o f / m i i khwaa/,  (1965:406) g i v e s t h r e e s e n s e s ,  straightforwardly referential,  the f i r s t  t h e o t h e r two more  metaphori-  cal: (i) (ii)  right right  hand h a n d man  (iii)  something  that  i s second  These would be c l a s s i f i e d "person",  and ( i i i )  where s e n s e sifier  b y ( i ) / m i i / "hand",  group c l o s e l y criteria  related  appearing  i s that  t o be a u n i f i e d  In both p a r t i a l  can occur i n r e p e a t e r s and  o f h e a d member a n d o f c l a s s i f i e r  identical. identity  the tendency a. s p e c i f i c  o f h e a d member a n d c l a s s i f i e r ,  o f compounds t o c o n s i s t  term  relationship  implies support  i n partial  taken  o f a g e n e r a l term  with plus  f o r t h e view o f a hyponymic  repeating.  We c o u l d t h e n  r e p e a t e r s i n terms o f s e t s and p r o p e r  Table 4,  example 4 . 4 a , t h e c l a s s i f i e r  one  ( a n d one p r o p e r  kind  then,  repeaters, are i n fact defined  r e p e a t e r s a n d some n o n - r e p e a t e r s  (loosely defined).  This  partial  so f a r has found,  to f u l l  r e p e a t e r s , the sense  must b e  as c l a s -  shared with e i t h e r repeaters or non-repeaters.  Both p a r t i a l  full  The c a s e  i s t h e o n l y c a s e where r e p e a t i n g o c c u r s .  repeaters, while i n i t i a l l y  compounds  ( i i ) /khon/  /jaaq/ "kind", respectively.  What o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n  by  t o one  a s h e a d member i s synonymous w i t h s e n s e  (cased))  partial  nature  subsets.  identifies  subset of the class)  interpret In  s e r v a n t s as  o f p e o p l e , and  63 in  4.5a  good p e o p l e are  in  4.4b  the  native  status  speakers  of / b a j /  sounds  is  a k i n d of / b a j /  odd t o n a t i v e  It  speakers  repeaters  is  logical  that  nate c l a s s e s .  This  is  repeaters  described  i n section  the  other  for  full  the  category of p a r t i a l  category of repeaters  to  gory of  Repeaters  since  the  (as  category of p a r t i a l  examined a l i t t l e  more  only  repeaters  of  of  the  course,  superordi-  to  the  claim  headwords,  there are  no  as other  classes.  and a l s o  u s e d h e r e as  consider  "leaf"  l i m i t e d to  all partial  repeaters  Since  venient  thus  members  superordinate  is  that /bajmaaj/  h y p o n y m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h PR  the  non-repeaters  an i n d e p e n d e n t n o u n .  synonymous w i t h t h e i r  3:  and f u r t h e r  is  to  in contrast,  are  prevents  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f hyponymy  of  repeaters,  the  repeaters with the  division  the  basic  PR R e p e a t e r s as  i n Figure  2)  repeaters.  overlaps  category of  of repeaters  one,  it  is  a subset  rather  with  than of  more  of  the  some  The o v e r l a p w i l l  nonand concategener-  be  closely.  CATEGORY OVERLAP  4.3.1  MULTIPLE SENSES I N DIFFERENT CATEGORIES I n many c a s e s  senses for  say  still  But  terms..  there are  that f u l l  4.3  as  to  "S2D-shape".  The i m p l i c a t i o n o f  al  2P p r e d i c a t e  c a n be e x t e n d e d  o n l y on f o r m a l o r  the  one k i n d o f p e o p l e .  compound h e a d a n d c l a s s i f i e r  PR R e p e a t e r s .  members  as  as  from c o n s i d e r i n g i t  It  between  classed  of  the  example  it  is  necessary to  same f o r m w h i c h f a l l  the f o l l o w i n g :  distinguish  into different  different categories,  64  Table Items W i t h D i f f e r e n t Partial  B  Senses In D i f f e r e n t  Item  As  Repeater  kon  bottom of a t h i n g ; b u t t o c k s o f an a n i mal  krabook  cylinder;  As  Repeater  As  Non-Repeater  buttocks of a person bamboo sel camera  socket  Categories  ves-  cylinder;  socket  tube  klooi) klum  tube cluster;group;ball  koorj  p i l e ; crowd; g r o u p ; d i v i s i o n of a department  troop,milita-, ry d i v i s i o n  khi*  leg shackle; ing part  tiebeam;joist  baj  s m a l l . S2D  tua  l i v i n g thing; agent; r e p r e s e n t a tive; digit; lett e r of the a l p h a bet; character or role i n a a play etc..  body  khan  long  ( e l f f o r ) wheeled l a n d v e h i c l e s except oxcarts  and  join-  shape  like  those  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the the s y n t a c t i c form of the  partial  repeater  group; ball  p i l e ; crowd; group; d i v i s i o n of a department  container  handle  With c l a s s i f i e r s rect  group of p e r - c l u s t e r ; sonal friends  i n Table 6  sense i n t e n d e d classifier  or non-repeater.  This  , there by  phrase:  the  shape  is a dispeaker  repeater,  i s i n contrast,  again.  65 with items sense  /khon/"person"  which retain, t h e i r  i n a l l three types of c l a s s i f i e r  4.3.2  HOW  PARTIAL REPEATERS CAN  For first  Repeaters  enter into  Partial do  like  Repeaters  not u s u l l y  4.12b  There  Repeaters.  The  i s , they  as F u l l  Repeaters)  is illustrated  " t h r e e cameras"  klooj)  ruup  klODJ)  thaaj  saam  "camera".  (i) pipe,  3  /klSoiy'  Haas  i s tested  i n the  reduced-  r e p e a t e r w i t h t h e mean-  (1965:16) l i s t s  i t s senses  ( i i ) camera, b i n o c u l a r s . compound u s e d  as a noun  Yet the f u l l i n 4.12b.  social  "camera" has and  risen  /kloojj t h a a j r u u p / . historical t e e r e d by  time one  /klSoi)/  Some r e d u c t i o n must h a v e alone to s u b s t i t u t e f o r  T h i s seems t o be  and  this  a development over  i s s u p p o r t e d by  informant.  one  i n f r e q u e n c y o f usage f o r v a r i o u s  technological reasons.  taken p l a c e which allows  form f o r  Apparently,  t h e many compounds i n t o w h i c h /klDDJ)/ e n t e r s , t h e  meaning  by  TUBE-SHAPE " t h r e e c a m e r a s "  a c c e p t i t as a f u l l  "camera" i s t h e t r i p l e of  (that  kloon, TUBE-SHAPE  context frames,  as  way  must  ways i n w h i c h  Repeaters  first  they  klooj) saam tube-shape 3  M o s t i n f o r m a n t s , when  of  a r e two  w h i c h a r e n o t PR  tube-shape-emit-image  ing  Repeaters  h a v e an a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c t i o n  c a n become F u l l 4.12a  phrase.  BECOME REPEATERS  t o become P a r t i a l  compounds.  single  She  said  that  real  information volunf o r country  folk,  / k l 3 o r j / a l o n e m i g h t be i n t e r p r e t e d as a p i p e f o r s m o k i n g , r a t h e r than a camera.  T h a t w o u l d be  shaped  culture.  view  object i n their  of c u l t u r a l  salience.  See  t h e most p r o m i n e n t section  1.3  tube-  for a re-  The ers  o t h e r way  i n which p a r t i a l  is illustrated  by  s y n c h r o n i c a l l y both for  a single 4.13a  full  forms.  as b o t h  type  4.13b  khamnaam saam kham word-name 3 WORD "three nouns"  most o f t h e members o f t h i s  whether a l l of the  full  and  partial The  acceptability  less  group  and  Full  greater  above examples a r e  repeaters.  The  of these  forms i n b o t h  i s generally less  these  acceptability  full  f o r m s as p a r t i a l  of repeaters  and  compiled  partial  repeaters.  i s again based  on  transparency.  on  the r e c u r s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s k i n d of  triple  among  acceptability  my  knowledge t h e r e  The  Repeater  make a b o u t  To  building.  exhibit  acceptable  l i s t was  o n l y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n I can  a g r e e m e n t ) on  greater l e x i c a l  tion  repeaters  are  repeater r o l e s i s that there  The  also partial  s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n PR  f r o m Haas 1965.  (and  and  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e disagreement, though,  informants  the  repeaters  are  "battalion" "military division" " m i l i t a r y company" "wrist" "(railroad) station platform"  informants, o r no  repeat-  e x a m p l e s o f compounds w h i c h  khamnaam saam khamnaam noun 3 NOUN " t h r e e nouns"  koorjphan koorj p h o n koo:rj r o o j khoo m i i chaanchaalaa etc.  little  become  speaker:  O t h e r words o f t h i s  To  other  repeaters  i s no  necessary  m a i n c o n s t r a i n t seems t o b e  combinations  semantic  of  restric-  compound-  length.  Such  as  koDrjthap*aakaat troop-force-air are  left  unclassified  "airforce" i n Haas 1965,  but  are  acceptable  as  67 classified ferred.  by  That  /kDDJ) / and makes b o t h  These r e p e a t e d  appears  used  to c l a s s i f y  these  classifiers  classifier  since i t unifies  contributes  to this divergence  t h i s because of t h e i r  here  subsections of s o c i e t y  n o s c e n t i p o i n t of  /klSoi) / ter  available  semantic  differ  a t any  HOW  pounding.  roles. like  may  be  When  (see s e c t i o n due  to the  i n Haas 1965  (especially  the  c r o s s o v e r does not  c h a n g e as much as was  o n l y s u b t l y , and  g i v e n p o i n t of time  2.3) fact  refer  to  military) cog-  seem t o d e p e n d the case  seem t o be f o r my  above f o r t h e f u l l  C L A S S I F I E R S CAN  Fasold  sense,  s t a t u s as compounds.  S e m a n t i c a l l y , the p a r t i a l  the p r e f e r e n c e noted 4.3.3  Lexi-  view.  "camera".  phrases  such  used.  i n t h e two  be  of  In  c o r r e l a t e with e x p e r t i s e or  This k i n d of category on h i s t o r i c a l  classi-  behave a m b i v a l e n t l y  lexicalized  lexicalization  where l e x i c a l i z a t i o n may  general  senses  available.  of senses  t h a t most o f t h e e x a m p l e s a v a i l a b l e distinct  repeaters.  t h e compound i n t o a s i n g l e  ambivalent  are f u l l y  i s pre-  it will  identical  are not  R e p e a t e d compounds p r o b a b l y  Inconsistent  partial  o r a r e p e a t e r w i l l be  calization,  they  latter  o f t h e compound  t h a t compound,unless  other c l a s s i f i e r s  they repeat  The  r e p e a t i n g , namely t h a t i f a  i n the o v e r t form  compound member and a case,  /Toorj t h a p / .  compounds a r e e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e  rule posited for partial fier  by  (1963) has  and  with  full  repea-  alternatively  informants,  repeater  with  phrase.  BECOME PARTIAL REPEATERS:COMPOUNDING  w r i t t e n i n depth  H e r e , however, we  a b o u t T h a i noun com-  s h o u l d c o n f i n e our d i s c u s s i o n  68 to  aspects  fication.  o f compounding  w h i c h have i m p l i c a t i o n s  F a s o l d ' s main a i m was  from sentences v i a r e l a t i v e general types  clauses  type i s f u l l y  l e x i c a l compounds.  meaning n o t d e r i v a b l e f r o m t h e meaning  for  1968:80).  of  Y. R. Chao p o i n t s  their  out that  t h i s paper I w i l l  lexicalized"  members*' the u s u a l  i s t o ask  refer  compounds.  test  "whether  as t h e sum  meaning o f t h e whole w h i c h c a n n o t  be g a t h e r e d f r o m t h e m e a n i n g s In  of t h e i r  o f morphemes h a s t h e same m e a n i n g  m e a n i n g s , o r a new  These  of metaphorical  s u c h t r a n s f o r m e d o r i d i o m a t i c meanings  a given s t r i n g  Three  Drocess.  f o r m s w h i c h "have b e e n a s s i g n e d a s o r t  (Fasold  compounds  ( F a s o l d 1968:79).  are excepted from t h i s  The f i r s t are  t o g e n e r a t e noun  for classi-  of the p a r t s "  to this  (Chao 1 9 6 8 : 1 6 8 ) .  t y p e o f compound as  I t h i n k i t i s a p p a r e n t as w e l l  "fully that  few, i f any, compounds a r e 1 0 0 % l e x i c a l i z e d and t h e r e i s a r a n g e o f d e g r e e s o f o p a c i t y up t o f u l l lexicalization identity generally  also reduces  the l i k e l i h o o d  the r u l e  that with t h i s  therefore surprising  that  "metaphorical" be d i s a l l o w e d .  informants  Full  of p r e s e r v i n g the  o f h e a d member and c l a s s i f i e r s e n s e s .  pounding, p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g w i l l  of  lexicalization.  Thus  i tis  t y p e o f comAnd  accept. F a s o l d ' s  i tis example  a l e x i c a l i z e d compound i n a p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r p h r a s e , / t a a -  naam/ " u n d e r g r o u n d waterway": 4.14  taanaam  saam  taa  o p e n i n g - w a t e r 3 OPENING " t h r e e u n d e r g r o u n d w a t e r w a y s " Such a c c e p t a b i l i t y  must be e x p l a i n e d  i n terms o f l e x i c a l  i d e n t i t y o f h e a d member a n d c l a s s i f i e r , a s I h a v e t r i e d t o show i n t h e g l o s s e s . The s e n s e o f " o p e n i n g " r a t h e r t h a n t h e  69  u s u a l sense of of  i s t h e b e s t one  t o c h o o s e as  the c l a s s i f i e r because of the r e s t r i c t i o n s  occurrence was  "eye"  of / t a a / i n /taanaam/.  a l s o suggested  by  an  The  informant,  the  imposed by  sense of  / t a a / occurs  i n various  "node; k n o t  ( o f wood); meshwork,  grate;  or opening;  p o i n t of  Thus F a s o l d ' s simply  a poor c h o i c e .  latively  recoverable  w h o l e ) and be  example o f a  this  The  ready  sense of the  shown j u s t  of  lexicalized  compound b a s e i s r e -  into  because  the sense of  the  t h e compound  can  compound t h a n  C a r e must be  taken  s i o n between d e g r e e s o f l e x i c a l i z a t i o n  speakers  lexicalized  can  still be  as  repeater.  a partial  and  /bajmaaj/  may  n o t be  compound  recover  members) may  (that  individual  c l a s s i f i e d by  "leaf".  impli-  one  of  Fully  example  / t a a naam/  to avoid  confu-  i n compounds: an i n i s , one senses  where n a t i v e f o r compound  i t s members f u n c t i o n i n g  Examples a r e / k h o n c h a j /  so c l a s s i f i e d .  like  "example" i s a b e t t e r  or l e x i c a l i z e d  "underground waterway".  completely  main  (e.g. 4.8), a n d (e.g. 4.10)  c l a s s i f i e r /tuajaan/  a "metaphorical"  4.15  The  b e e n o u t l i n e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f words  The  was  compounds f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h a v e a l -  /bajmaaj/ "leaf" /khamthaam/ " q u e s t i o n "  of  time".  c l a s s i f i e d i n a p a r t i a l repeater phrase.  cations  grid,  " m e t a p h o r i c a l " compound  (and n o t b l e n d e d  c a n be  the  "opening"  compounds m e a n i n g small hole  sense  lexicalized  "servant"  compounds,  however,  Consider  khaw jok tuajaarj saam tuajaarj he raise example 3 EXAMPLE " He g a v e t h r e e e x a m p l e s . "  Here / t u a j a a r j /  "example, s a m p l e " i s n o t  exactly a f u l l y  lexi-  70 calized tic  compound s i n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i m a g i n e some seman-  connection  ("body" and compound.  t o t h e s e n s e o f t h e members i n  "kind").  contains  However i t i s o b v i o u s l y a v e r y  U n l i k e t h e compound / b a j m a a j /  only very marginally the  functioning  acceptable  form / b a j / with as  It  i s not  that,  as  only with  full  filled  by  a IP p r e d i c a t e . a full  repeater  be  as  /baj/  c l a s s i f i e d only  Nevertheless,  or  The  fact  The  3.2.  that i t i s  i s e x p l a i n e d by  shape" i t o f t e n occurs  repeater phrase.  context  (because i t  t h e same s e m a n t i c v a l u e  a F u l l Repeater.  l i k e / b a j / " s m a l l S2D  parent  " l e a f " which i s  a repeater  can  opaque  a F u l l R e p e a t e r as d e f i n e d i n s e c t i o n  i s unacceptable  classified  as  c l a s s i f i e r ) /tuajaan/  w i t h what a p p e a r s t o be /tuajaan/  isolation:  the  i n an  fact ap-  second p r e d i c a t e p l a c e i s  situation.  Compare t h e f o l l o w i n g : 4.16a  ton n i i m i i baj l a a j baj p l a n t t h i s h a v e S2D-shape s e v e r a l S2D-SHAPE " T h i s t r e e has a l o t o f l e a v e s "  4.16b  ?phaa n i i m i i tuajaarj l a a j tuajaarj c l o t h t h i s h a v e s a m p l e s e v e r a l SAMPLE "(We h a v e ) s e v e r a l s a m p l e s o f t h i s c l o t h "  4.16c  phom m i i p h a a twajaan l a a j tuajaan, I ( m a l e ) h a v e c l o t h - s a m p l e s e v e r a l SAMPLE "I have s e v e r a l ( c l o t h ) s a m p l e s . "  I n f o r m a n t s r e p o r t t h a t 4.16b ward.  Example 4.16c  i s completely  j a a r j / i s f u n c t i o n i n g as peater;  i s acceptable acceptable  a p a r t i a l repeater,  t h a t i s /phaa t u a j a a r j /  t h o u g h awk-  but  not  here  a full  " ( c l o t h ) sample" i s a  /tuare-  unified  compound. I n 4.16a  / b a j / can  occur  as  an  apparent repeater  only  71 when some word l i k e place. like and  /ton/ satisfies  I n e x a c t l y t h e same way, / t u a j a a n / r e q u i r e s a word  /phaa/ "cloth".  The  positions f i l l e d  by / t o n /  i n 4.16a  b y / p h a a / i n 4,16b a n d c may b e f i l l e d  by o t h e r  words o r  s u p p l i e d by the s i t u a t i o n for  the second p r e d i c a t e -  - b u t t h e p o s i t i o n s must b e  meaningful communication  calized  to occur,  /tuajaarj/ i s a l e x i -  compound b u t a 2P p r e d i c a t e .  F u r t h e r m o r e , / t u a j a a r j / c a n n o t be c l a s s i f i e d partial  repeater  phrase..  There does o c c u r  but i n such a case,  dependent 4.17  must e x i s t  example o f a p a r t i a l  classifier  of  repeater for i n -  khoD duu p e n t u a j a a r j s a k t u a r e q u e s t s e e b e s a m p l e o n l y BODY-SHAPE "Let»s s e e a s a m p l e ( o f t h e f i s h , o r o f t h e a n i m a l , f o r example)".  means  already hypothesized,  between r e p e a t e d  that se-  f o r m s , 4.17 i s n o t  r e p e a t e r p h r a s e s i n c e / t u a / as head  member means s o m e t h i n g l i k e  the  "representation" while  "body-shape".  The o c c u r r e n c e  / t u a / as  of the c l a s s i -  / t u a / d e p e n d s on t h e s e c o n d p r e d i c a t e p o s i t i o n ; commodity o r s u b j e c t t h a t t h e s a m p l e i s o f .  p a p e r were b e i n g  discussed,  o r /phasasn/, t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  the c l a s s i f i e r  classifier  commodity w h i c h t h e s a m p l e r e p r e s e n t s . tence  in a  (or i n c i d e n t a l ) reasons:  mantic i d e n t i t y  fier  a partial  /tua/ i s the c l a s s i f i e r  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r i n c i p l e  an  alone  a kind of cons-  t r u c t i o n which has t h e appearance o f b e i n g phrase,  filled  might be c a l l e d  a "false  that i s  I f samples  w o u l d be / b a j /  f o r the material or Thus / t u a / i n s e n -  Partial  Repeater".  72 There  seems t o be a t e n d e n c y  member t o e x t e n d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n that  i s , "abstraction"  of greater  abstraction;  i n the sense of i n d i r e c t  b a s i c v i s u a l , and t a c t i l e common c l a s s i f i e r s  f o r s e n s e s o f a compound  perceptions.  listed  r e l a t i o n to  F o r example, s e e t h e  below:  Table  7  D i v e r g e n t Senses o f a S i n g l e L e x i c a l Item ; and as P a r t i a l R e p e a t e r  as Compound  Form  Sense  luuk  subsidiary; young  tua  agent; symbol  kham  (nominalizer f o r verbal actions)  word  khritaT)  paraphernalia; ingredie n t s ; equipment; instrument; d e v i c e , t r i c k  complex machine;  as Compound  Member  Sense  dependent;  representative;  as P a r t i a l  fruit;  Member  Repeater  s m a l l S3D  shape  body-shape  engine  NOTE. 1: I d e n t i c a l s e n s e s w h i c h o c c u r i n b o t h c o l u m n s ( t h e y ^.rnust e x i s t i n o r d e r f o r p a r t i a l , r e p e a t i n g t o o c c u r ) a r e not l i s t e d i n t h i s t a b l e . NOTE 2: The c l a s s i f i e r / b a j / seems an e x c e p t i o n h e r e t o t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t s e n s e as compound member i s l e s s d i r e c t l y b a s e d on p e r c e p t i o n t h a n i s s e n s e as c l a s s i f i e r . However, as m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , / b a j / d o e s n o t o c c u r as a P a r t i a l Repeater in:the sense o f " c o n t a i n e r " (which i s l e s s d i r e c t l y b a s e d i n p e r c e p t i o n t h a n t h e s e n s e o f / b a j / as compound member, "S2Dshape". / b a j / as " c o n t a i n e r " i s a non-repeating c l a s s i f i e r . . There Repeaters  also  seems t o be an o p p o s i t e t e n d e n c y  t o f o c u s on p h y s i c a l  the headwords: shape,  and  social  status,  those based  second  a relative  Other  s u c h as o c c u r r e n c e o r i n s t a n c e ,  location  and v a r i o u s  types o f measures  on o t h e r s e n s e s , s u c h as h e a r i n g , t e n d n o t  t o be e x p r e s s e d by t h e u s e o f p a r t i a l The  of the r e f e r e n t s of  s i z e , , g r o u p i n g and arrangement.  more g e n e r a l a t t r i b u t e s , kind,  attributes  for Partial  repeating.  t y p e o f compound F a s o l d  clause  cannot d e r i v e  c o n s i s t s o f compounds with, a t l e a s t  from one  73 b o u n d member, / c h a a r j p h l a a j / " b u l l e l e p h a n t "  i s his  ( F a s o l d 1968:80).  only i n  compound  (and  tactically. tricted In sense  i n names). That  T a b l e 4. we  The  of the  a second  4.18  as  saw  a substantive alone- provided  t h e u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f / b a j / as  o f / b a j j a j / " s m a l l S2D  by  the acceptable /bajmaaj/  syntactic does  just  as  "leaf" the  i s the  abi-  since  a b i l i t y are  the a d j e c t i v e  well  b a j samkhan saam baj S 2 D - s h a p e - i m p o r t a n t 3 S2D-SHAPE " t h r e e c e r t i f i c a t e s o r documents" e n t e r compounds w i t h e q u a l  d e p e n d i n p a r t on  cy of occurrence,  549)  a  requirements  ease.  The  f o r s u i t a b i l i t y as a second, p r e d i c a t e - p o s i t i o n  caused  predicate  sin-  unacceptable  Items w i t h t h i s  category  a  shape" + " l a r g e * as  d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s  predicate-position.  Verbs can  kind  forms.  etc.  /samkhan/ '•important"  to  to other occurring  i t e m / m a a j / "wood" t o s a t i s f y  restricted  ria  syn-  a substantive i s res-  in relation  occur  crucial  c o m p l e x h e a d and  not  as  bound  i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e f r o m p r e v i o u s men-  situation,  compound.  of  i s , occurrence  shape" can  h e a d w o r d and  lity  I t i s a bound f o r m - but  this  2P p r e d i c a t e s a r e b o u n d s e m a n t i c a l l y . / b a j /  that additional  gle  / p h l a a j / occurs  c o n t r a s t t o s y n t a c t i c b i n d i n g , forms bound i n the  of being  In  form  distributionally  " s m a l l S2D  tion,  The  example  social  cultural  factors  responsible for  prominence, e t c .  /kloOij/ t o undergo semantic  "tube"  criteappear frequen-  F a c t o r s of  change from  t o t h e IP p r e d i c a t e " c a m e r a " .  the  Lyons  assumes t h a t l e x i c a l i z a t i o n o f compounds i s a  this 2P  (1977:  matter  L  74:  that*can  o n l y be  a c c o u n t e d f o r i n terms of s t r a t e g i e s , r a t h e r  than r u l e s What i s t h e  e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between /-maaj/  /-jaj/  i n combination with  of the  compound, and  supplying  the  called  can  idiosyncratic  implication; tionships  r e s i d u e " by  that i s , given  can  cannot.  o f / b a j / "S2D the  limits.  two  baj  may  two  may  In the p r e s e n t s h a p e " and  plied  out  khoorj  ton  the  the  along  the  "use  f o r , use  as"  can  verb  In such cases  the  nouns and  t a k e n t o be  d e r l y i n g sentence.  an  the  relation-  combination can  only  e x p e r i e n t i a l (or pragmatic)  "leaf  of a t r e e " .  leaves  o f any  p l a n t , not  The  notion  of p o s s e s s i o n  the  two  In o t h e r  recovered  subject  object  compounds t h e v e r b  as  Pasold similarity  by the  compound a r e and  trees,  i s sup-  /maaj/,  identity,  o v e r t form of  members o f t h e the  only  forms t h e m s e l v e s .  r e g u l a r l y be  appears i n the two  of  forms, c e r t a i n r e l a -  j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f / b a j / and  mants when no  are  lines  t h a t / b a j m a a j / means  4.)  senses of  is  (1977:540).  example, g i v e n  and  about  Lyons  notes that r e l a t i o n s h i p s of possession, and  as  maaj  to the  i n Table  i n p a r t by  w e l l as by  This  / m a a j / "wood", t h e h e a r e r  within logical  also refer  as p o i n t e d  be  first.  lexical  S2D-shape POSS t r u n k - w o o d (It  head  But i t  e x i s t between - t h e i r r e f e r e n t s , o t h e r  Informants suggest  4.19  the  s e c o n d member  about the head.  s e c o n d member i s r e l a t e d t o t h e "the  relate  the  clearly  since i t also supplies information  T h i s second l o t of i n f o r m a t i o n  ships  /baj/is  think of  additional information  d o e s more t h a n t h i s how  we  /baj/?  and  inforcompound.  usually of  or  the  un-  adjective  75  a p p e a r s and  Fasold posits underlying  T h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f an as  underlying  subjects  recover  the  explanation  IP p r e d i c a t e / t o n m a a j / " t r e e " .  fills  an a r g u m e n t s l o t  most l i k e l y 4.20  f o r /baj  expansion of  baj  t i i pen  Thus we ble  could  no  enough i n f o r m a t i o n  4.3.4  one  of  hint  jaj/.  as  one  Infor-  of  the  of /bajmaaj/: This i s  s u c h IP  predicate the  jaj  S2D-shape  t h a t the  a 2P  large than the  compound  s e c o n d member o f  itself.  an  accepta-  p r e d i c a t e must i n some way  to suggest the  one  j a j / , however, s i n c e  more i n f o r m a t i o n  compound b a s e d on  satisfying  be  speculate  No  us  i t is baj  S2D-shape REL which p r o v i d e s  /baj  a IP p r e d i c a t e w h i c h s e r v e s  arguments f o r / b a j / i n t h e i r  objects.  structure gives  t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n / b a j m a a j / and  mants c a n  or  to the  hearer  a IP  argument p o s i t i o n s o f t h e  supply  predicate  base.  IRREGULAR COMPOUNDS We  h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r i n g examples where t h e  of  the  compound i s t h e h e a d .  is  so g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t when " t h e  the head", a c c o r d i n g  t o Noss  This  i s not first  There are s e v e r a l items l i s t e d  are  listed  as  For  example  by  the  khanorakhexj sweet + b a s k e t huacuk h e a d + clump chao^thaarj o p e n i n g + way phompia? h a i r + queue jaamet ^ medicine + p i l l aahaankrapoorj f o o d + can In these  cases,  only  member  case,  constituent i s  (1864:64) " t h e  regular".  classified  the  first  but not  compound i s i r -  i n Haas 1965  s e c o n d member o f  the  which compound.  "basket-shaped Chinese p a s t r y " "topknot" "way; means; o p p o r t u n i t y " "queue, p i g t a i l " "pill; tablet" "canned  food"  b o t h compound members a r e  nouns.  76 A n o t h e r common f a c t o r the  is  the  simple f a c t  the  compound w h i c h b e s t p r o v i d e s u n i t r e f e r e n c e  which i s the  u s e d as  classifier.  s e c o n d member i s  ple explains  the  last  example  the  the  c o m p l e x compounds, b u t appears  container  classifier  s p e c i f i e d , are  counted i n the p o d .  The c l a s s i f i e r  provide unit reference of  more common There are  these  prici-  (as  in  in  is  more  of  the  not paths  peas,  if  I n d i v i d u a l peas are is  actually  count-  a compound  "way" a n d / k a s a e k h a j /  /thaaij/,  and / h o n / i s  time,  of  " l o n g cow-pea" + t u r n " a rememdy f o r a difficulty"  since  only i t  u s u a l l y u s e d as or ways,  and / h o n / a  /thaarj/  classiis  also  classifier.  further  examples  o f d o u b l e compounds  b o t h members p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e u n i t r e f e r e n c e either  same  center  "pod" since  /honthaarjkasaekhaj/  two d o u b l e c o m p o u n d s : / h o n t h a a n /  a far  one  c a s e when  classifier  i n the  c l a s s i f i e d by / f a k /  "seeds."  for points  as  bean + pod + l o n g way + p a t h - f c o r r e c t  is  fier  This  the  same:  /thuafakjaaw/  "improve".  the  the p r i n c i p l e of s e l e c t i o n  t o be t h e  thuafakjaaw honthaankasaekhaj  /met/  clearly  is  of  above).  Other c a s e s have  e d as  is  member  why many c o m b i n a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e a c o n t a i n e r  second p o s i t i o n use  classifier  This  a common c l a s s i f i e r .  the  of  that  member c a n s e r v e  as  classifier.  and i n  The b e s t  where fact  example  of  is  haarjraan  business  + shop  When c l a s s i f i e d by / h a a r j / emphasized;  "stores, firms, blishments"  the g e n e r a l  when c l a s s i f i e d b y / r a a n /  commercial  commercial the  aspect  specific  estais  location  77 and s t r u c t u r e o f b u i l d i n g ,  booth or s t a l l  is  N o t i c e t h a t many o f t h e s e compounds we c u s s i n g c a n n o t be e x p a n d e d t o c o m p l e t e are  merely  have been  and / h o n t h a a n /  sentences because  "way"  of a d d i t i o n ,  /haairj r a a n /  a r e examples o f t h i s  type.  s u c h compounds i s u s u a l l y v e r y g e n e r a l , b u t  f r o m s u c h compounds as / j a a m e t / though  dis-  c o - o r d i n a t e compounds where t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  tween members i s s i m p l y one  of  emphasized.  the sense i s s t i l l  "pills;  general,  "firms" sense  where, a l -  t h e s e c o n d member o f t h e Co-ordinate  t h e above examples a r e t h e t h i r d  type of  compound F a s o l d e x c e p t s f r o m t h e p r o c e s s o f d e r i v a t i o n sentences through r e l a t i v e 4.3.5  COMPOUNDING OF We  CLASSIFIERS  h a v e t o u c h e d on some a s p e c t s o f noun c o m p o u n d i n g i n  pounds f o r m e d seen t h a t  to  with c l a s s i f i e r s  container c l a s s i f i e r s  to a material.  gallon cans").  ing  (i.e.-,  c a n be  classifier  has  a r e com-  place?  added  We  after  a noun r e -  form,  (e.g.  In o t h e r c a s e s a s e m a n t i c a l l y bound  classifier  "animal-like"  5 -  classifif i l l -  (e.g. / b a j m a a j / " l e a f ) .  are other l e s s do  /nam  i n square  a 2 P p r e d i c a t e ) o f t e n c o m b i n e s w i t h t h e noun  example, why  have  a modifying role  of the m a t e r i a l  from s u g a r palm, i n s o l i d  t h e s e c o n d argument There  the  The  i n the f i r s t  show t h e t y p e o r t h e c o n d i t i o n  taan p i i p / " s u g a r  er  from  clauses.  T h a i b u t t h e most i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s : Why  ferring  be-  different  tablets"  compound s e r v e s as a m o d i f i e r f o r t h e f i r s t . compounds l i k e  The  they  M  t r a n s p a r e n t c a s e s , however.  small animals, i n s e c t s  and worms o f t e n  / t u a / t o be p r e f i x e d ,  while larger,  a n i m a l s do n o t r e q u i r e  this prefix?  more  Por require  78 Why d o e s / b a j / e n t e r not of  as " c o n t a i n e r " ? /tua/,  i s that  compounds as "S2D-shape" and  One p o s s i b l e  since  explanation,  shape i s t h e p r i m a r y  c r i t e r i o n , a n d p r o m i n e n c e as f o o d ,  transport,  make c e r t a i n t y p e s o f a n i m a l s c u l t u r a l l y insects,  worms, l a r v a e  mals by t h i s easily  recognized  are up  classified  not plants  a s arms o r l e g s  ambiguity  to place This  by / t u a /  o r human  ficatory teria,  system.  use,in flict  ( o r superhuman).  e s p e c i a l l y shape.  between t h e p e r c e p t u a l  teristic  which  the /tua/  prefix  of l i v i n g  things.  of the b a s i c  classicri-  types o f c r i t e r i a  units  This  come i n t o  creates  a con-  and t h e n o n - p e r c e p t u a l t h e compounding  t o make them f i t b e t t e r  into the  Many worms a n d i n s e c t s h a v e a p p e a r a n c e s a n d c h a r a c movements u n l i k e t h e more e a s i l y  especially and  things  Perhaps t o c l e a r  (perhaps l o g i c a l ) c l a s s e s , which r e q u i r e s  classes.  features  a r e b a s e d on p e r c e p t u a l  case a f a c t o r o f animacy.  o f some headwords i n o r d e r  ani-  However, w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  knowledge*, o t h e r  this  then  Now t h e c l a s s o f  i n the category  Most c l a s s e s  would  marginally  a l l living  of modification  etc.  l a n d mammals, f o r  (like fish).  includes  them w i t h o u t d o u b t  biological  (like  t h e s e m a r g i n a l members r e q u i r e  s u g g e s t s some k i n d  pets,  T h e y o f t e n do n o t h a v e  example) o r a s h e a d a n d t a i l things  classificatory  salient,  e t c . a r e s e e n as o n l y  criterion.  i n the case  the animals which a r e prominent  culture.  Many i n s e c t s a r e f e l t  studied  animals,  i n the technology  o r heard but remain un-  *The B u d d h i s t e m p h a s i s on t h e e x t r e m e r a n g e o f l i f e - f o r m s and t h e i n j u n c t i o n t o a v o i d k i l l i n g o f l o w e r f o r m s , i n c l u d i n g insects', may h a v e h a d some i n f l u e n c e .  79 seen.  One  informant  move a t a l l . n o t be  t h e y must be  creatures,  o f t e n do  animate a t a l l .  n o t seem they  t o , have t h e c l a s s i f i e r  names i n o r d e r f o r them t o be  transformers,  factor  classified  of being  added  a sort  of promotion  obthese  to  unambiguously.  active  chemical reagents, k i t e s ,  also enjoy  might  Thus  7 a g r o u p o f compounds w i t h / t u a / c a n be  h a v e a common s e m a n t i c  to  But w i t h c l o s e r  c o n s i d e r e d animate b e i n g s .  when r e f e r r e d  In s e c t i o n  may  they  p u r e l y c a s u a l p e r c e p t u a l terms,  c o n s i d e r e d t o be  servation  their  On  added t h a t  seen  agents:  etc.  to  robots,  These o b j e c t s  t o animate s t a t u s  through  compounding. Some i n f o r m a n t s of r e s p e c t . Size  had  T h i s would agree  is a criterion  animals, their  e m p h a s i z e t h a t / t u a / has with the  o f r e s p e c t and  are h i g h l y respected. own  a connotation  ideas presented  e l e p h a n t s , the  In t r a d i t i o n a l  above.  largest  usage  elephants  classifier.  Thus, compounding o f a headnoun w i t h a c l a s s i f i e r in  some c a s e s  serve to r e i n f o r c e  In o t h e r c a s e s sification, sense  sense,  as  system.  t h e compounding d o e s n o t a f f e c t  the  clas-  / t u a / seems t o have e x t e n d e d i t s  or i t s f u n c t i o n  physical  the c l a s s i f i c a t o r y  can  ( o r b o t h ) t o p l a c e e m p h a s i s on  e x i s t e n c e o f a r e f e r e n t by means o f a i n English.  In t h i s  ed a c o m p l e m e n t a r y f u n c t i o n of c a s s e t t e tapes t a p e s were o l d .  an  sense  to that  i n f o r m a n t was  L e a s t s h e be  t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t a p e s was  the  reflexive  i t seems t o h a v e of /an/.  heard  discussion  to say t h a t  misunderstood o l d , she  In a  develop-  her  as m e a n i n g  emphasized  that  that i t was  80  the  t a p e s t h e m s e l v e s w h i c h were 4.21  o l d by  t u a t h e e p man eerj body-tape 3P-PRO s e l f  saying  ?  "the tape  itself"  /tua'eei]/ i s the standard r e f l e x i v e pronoun i n Thai be a p p l i e d  t o nouns  i n general.  The nouns c a n be  by v a r i o u s  s t a t u s - r e l a t e d p r o n o u n s where  replaced  necessary.  t h e l e s s , / t u a t h e e p / i n t h e a b o v e example w o u l d be by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e not of  classifier  /muan/ " r e e l "  by / t u a / .  Thus i t i s a l s o  classifiers  can have v a r i o u s  classification.  functions  Never-  classified  o r by / a n / , b u t the  compounding  beyond r e i n f o r c i n g 7 that  at least  i s a l s o p e r f o r m e d by / a n / i n i t s c a p a -  as " w a s t e b a s k e t " c l a s s i f i e r  entity.  that  I t w i l l be s e e n i n s e c t i o n  one o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s city  apparent  and c a n  and m a r k e r o f p h y s i c a l  81  5.0  MEASURES What a r e m e a s u r e s ?  reference of a s o r t cal  classifier  Measuring  h a v e no  immediately  of  and  can  phrases,  fiers.  many c a s e s  Since they provide  we  The  perceived natural units. natural units  are not r e l e v a n t .  are s t i l l without  Apples  f r u i t o r by measured.  any  in  typi-  classi-  of apples  c a n be  as  there  (the i n d i v i d u a l  In such  some do  not.  One  groups  the  kilo-  fruit)  s o l d by  cases,  M e a s u r e s seem t o p r o v i d e u n i t natural units.  are  masses.  s o l d by  c a n a l s o , however, b e  the dozen.  d e p e n d e n c e on  t h e n a t u r a l u n i t s and  sugar  But  a r e i g n o r e d and  a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e same way  natural units  individual  slot  s h o u l d c o n s i d e r them t o be  F o r example, b o t h a p p l e s a n d gram.  the c l a s s i f i e r  seems t o o c c u r most o f t e n w i t h masses which,  where o b v i o u s  these u n i t s  fill  unit  the  the  apples  reference  Some m e a s u r e s  use  common a s p e c t o f ,  m e a s u r i n g i s t h a t , as w i t h c l a s s i f i e r s  i n g e n e r a l , measures  a r e m e a s u r e s of_ s o m e t h i n g : a commodity  i s presupposed  in  T h a i i t must a p p e a r as  t h e headword.  and  Thus a l l m e a s u r e s  a r e 2P p r e d i c a t e s . 5.1  INTRINSIC & EXTRINSIC FEATURES T h e r e i s some d i s a g r e e m e n t  fiers and  i n the  literature  as t o t h e d e g r e e o f d i s t i n c t i o n between  measures.  classifier  Greenberg  languages  (1975:30) f o u n d  the c l a s s i f i e r  that  on  classi-  classifiers " i n numeral  construction  i s almost  always i d e n t i c a l with the measure c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g  82 rules  of  word o r d e r . "  granted that struction  (1970:7) a l s o  where t r u e c l a s s i f i e r s  will  patterning  Jones  follow  i s so  the  similar,  One  possible  s u r e s and  what i s t h e  3)  who  point  out  that  ture i n c l a s s i f i e r differing"  types. of  the  despite  and  The  head, w h i l e the  tinction,  but  Saul  a category  i n Nung w h i c h s h e  may  refer,  as  can and  refers  (1965:285) r e f e r s  a more d e t a i l e d  to  an  to  intrinsic  an  of  as  sight  and  (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)  solidity extension motion or r e s t number figure  Opposed t o as  color,  feature feature.  this  dis-  similar  con-  quantifiers", "non-inherent".  what i s meant b y  T h e s e seem t o be  a  two  extrinsic  "imposed  (1977:298) t o  struc-  "radically  headnoun i n the  e x p l a n a t i o n of  to  (1974:  assume t o be  "inherent"  John Locke's  1689  There Locke l i s t s  p r i m a r y q u a l i t i e s u t t e r l y i n s e p a r a b l e from the  of  dis-  in surface  safely  Essay c o n c e r n i n g Human u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  e s t a t e s o e v e r i t be".  the  Conklin  there i s a  characterizes  description  does A l l a n  syntactic  seem t o h a v e come t o  clusions-  con-  b e t w e e n mea-  Adams and  uniformity  further  other writers  I f the  difference  measure r e f e r s  C o n k l i n o f f e r no  we  the  ( w h i c h we  classifier  measure  motivation for  measure p h r a s e s ,  Adams and  For  the  between c l a s s i f i e r "true"  the  i t for  measures?  i s p r o v i d e d by  relationship  s e m a n t i c one)  and  e x p l a n a t i o n of  classifiers  occur,  same p a t t e r n .  t i n c t i o n between c l a s s i f i e r s  takes  body  b a s e d on  5  " i n what  the  senses  touch:  these Locke s p e c i f i e s taste,  smell  and  the  secondary q u a l i t i e s  sound, which are  not  in  such  objects  83  themselves, tions ties  but  i n us.  a r e powers t o produce Allan  i s the b a s i s  uage, and he h a s referring  finds  these various sensa-  t h a t none o f t h e s e s e c o n d a r y  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i n any  classifier  done a v e r y e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y .  t o sounds o c c u r i n T h a i but  lang-  Classifiers  there i s general  t a n c e t o c o n s i d e r them nouns,, p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e  quali-  reluc-  they are  often  innovated. In T h a i , the c r i t e r i a  the sense which i s predominant of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  in establishing  f o r objects i s , of course,  the sense  of v i s i o n ,  s m e l l and  t a s t e o f t h e r e f e r e n t h a v e no  import  t h e s o u n d o n l y m a r g i n a l l y , as m e n t i o n e d  above.  e a s i l y p e r c e i v e d by  supplemented  the t a c t i l e  s e e i n g and v e r i f i e d , b y  In p e r c e i v i n g a c t i o n s , used,  by  vision  i s also  a l t h o u g h s o u n d i s o f some i m p o r t a n c e Culturally  Thai classes.  salient T h e s e do  p e n d e n c e on v i s i o n : t u s a r e two  criteria  they are based  as w e l l  Locke  as  is  as u n i t s  on  linear,  sense  here.  and  to  social  desta-  o f number.  that  i f we  t o m e a s u r e s i n most  a r e a l and v o l u m e t r i c  A l l these are regarded  i n t r i n s i c . T h a i measures a l s o  tween m e a s u r e s and criteria  the primary  of the r e f e r e n t  time, which are not mentioned clear  touching.  examples.  units  and  and  Shape i s most  so r e s t r i c t e d  T h a i s t a n d a r d measures are s i m i l a r languages:  at a l l ,  The  are a l s o very important i n  n o t seem t o be  function  sense.  refer  by L o c k e  want t o c h a r a c t e r i z e other c l a s s i f i e r s ,  other than those of  Locke.  we  t o weight,  at a l l .  price  Thus i t  the d i f f e r e n c e will  by  have to  be-  isolate  84 5.2  MEASURES AND Standard  full  REPEATERS.  measures i n g e n e r a l  r e p e a t e r s , as  5.1  are mutually  the u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y of  * k i l o k r a m saam k i l o k r a m kilogram 3 KILOGRAM  5.2  5.1  c o u l d o n l y be  even then itself  acceptable  makes 5.2  i s not  as  a  "false  unacceptable.  enough o f an  entity  i n i t s own  ( l i k e /khaeaen/ a b o v e ) b u t o t h e r s A n o t h e r i l l u s t r a t i v e example i s kloorj box  measure.  saam 3  to a type of  [b.  b.  "Three boxes o f  being referred  and  are  a mass.  individual  classifier,  temporary head  examples  t o by  type  or  t h e NUM  +  synonymy  as r e q u i r e d i n a  t h e r e f o r e o n l y one  to here:  full  of e n t i t y  is  boxes. i s a measure p h r a s e ,  a commodity  i n the r e a l  For  three  boxes."  where t h e  There i s the necessary  the  h e a d w o r d i s c l a s s e d as  as  and  t h e o t h e r hand, 5.3b  pens t o o c c u r  repeater or a  are being r e f e r r e d  p a r t of the phrase.  repeater phrase,  boxes."  i s a repeater phrase  type  t h e h e a d and  a full  classi-  not.  "Three  BOXFUL  un-  substantive  a.  of e n t i t y  this  to f u l l  are  with  reference  t o be  kloo*} / a . BOX  Example 5.3a  occurrences  On  repeater";  seems t o be  right  Some m e a s u r e s a r e r e l a t e d  which i s ambiguously e i t h e r  between  (full)  identical,  /kilokram/ supplies unit  nouns  CLF  lexically  Example 5.1  i n turn.  refers  shows:  r  fied  5.3  5.2  the u t t e r redundancy of measuring something  acceptable because although it  and  *khaeaen saam khaeaen arm 3 ARM S LENGTH.  S i n c e i t s head and c l a s s i f i e r a r e n o t 5.2  exclusive with  world  (which  in this  i n natural units,  where case  the hap-  rather  than  t h e p u r p o s e s o f measurement t h e n a t u r a l u n i t s  i r r e l e v a n t ) ..  I t was  claimed  above t h a t  measures  are  85 2P p r e d i c a t e s . are  filled  larger  Here the  by two d i f f e r e n t  boxes  word r e f e r s  and s e v e r a l to  the  full  ones.  the  commodity m e a s u r e d .  o f measurement  of  any  Here a l s o  ry  measure  Repeater of  the  5.3  not  conflict  is  quite  opposed to  the  refers  larger  standard;  the  lar-  constitute  to  the  boxes.  the  makes  the  overlap.  between s t a t i c  the  units Here  larger  boxes  to  use  categories,the  5.3  as  a  tempora-  T e m p o r a r y M e a s u r e and  In terms of p r o c e s s e s ,  and(temporarily)  and d y -  categories  i n terms of  speaker  categories  the  measuring are  two  Full  processes  entirely  distict.  STANDARD MEASURES AS NON-ENTITIES S t a n d a r d Measures w i l l  tions  d e v e l o p e d by c o m p l e x  amassed  commodities.  parison  to  be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e societies  T h e s e measures  some a b s o l u t e  standard,  i n v o l v e some k i n d o f  technology  standard  etc.)  process. their to  The h e a d -  collectively  apparent:  i n t e n t i o n of  repeating  as  The c l a s s i f i e r  t h a t commodity,  boxes.  three  size.  namic p r o c e s s e s s t r a t e g y or  smaller  empty b o x e s  are  (arguments)  of / k l D D i ] / " b o x " :  These s m a l l e r boxes  o f measurement  c o u l d be o f  kinds  (empty)  smaller  ger  the u n i t s  two p r e d i c a t e - p o s i t i o n s  containers,  (see  of v i s u a l  T'sou,  are  as  mediators  1977)  deal with  abstractheir  s t a n d a r d i z e d by com-  and t h e  (such  Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  exactness  that  as  to  as  comparison  weighing i n the  must  scales,  perception  of S t a n d a r d Measures a quality in clear  is  .  contrast  impact.  As w i t h a l l d i s t i n c t i o n s , tween o p p o s i n g p o l e s  here.  there  is  an a r e a o f g r a y  A good example  is  a unit  of  be-  86  weight. value  C o i n s have l o n g  served  and even today T h a i  formal  measure o f weight  as u n i t s o f b o t h w e i g h t and  one-baht c o i n s (=15 grams).  A t what p o i n t d i d t h e  form baht cease t o r e f e r t o the concrete and  begin  Clearly the  a r e u s e d a s an i n -  object  t o r e f e r t o t h e a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t o f 15 g r a m s ?  no o v e r n i g h t  change o c c u r r e d  and t h e development o f  a b s t r a c t s e n s e may n o t e v e n h a v e o c c u r r e d  isolated  villagers  areas.  sumption o f t h i s paper i s t h a t such a process d e p e n d s on a c o n c e p t u a l ly perceived  only  This  of abstraction direct-  b y t o u c h ) and  s e c o n d a t t r i b u t e maybe u n d e r s t o o d ,  length,  c a s e w o u l d be an o b j e c t or distance.  measures o f t i m e . object  rious  cases, The  a s a measure o f w e i g h t ,  Common r e c u r r e n t e v e n t s w o u l d become  But t h e p o i n t  of t r a n s f e r of sense  t o some a b s t r a c t s t a n d a r d  cultural  per-  i n most  t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f some s o r t o f t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e .  simplest  -in  A basic as-  a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n an o b j e c t  (by v i s i o n p r i m a r i l y , v e r i f i a b l e  of the  a t t r i b u t e o f t h a t o b j e c t which i s n o t so immediately  ceived.  the  y e t f o r some  i n remote areas which a r e n o t p a r t  money economy o f t h e c e n t r a l d e v e l o p e d  an  (the coin)  from  measure d e p e n d s on v a -  d e v e l o p m e n t s s u c h as  (i) (ii)  c o n v e n t i o n a l agreement o r d e c r e e a requirement o f p r e c i s i o n , i n t u r n n e c e s s i t a t e d by r e f i n e m e n t o f m a t e r i a l and amassing o f c o l l e c t i o n s o f goods  (iii)  a requirement o f u n i v e r s a l i t y w i t h i n  short,  tion.  a l l the trappings  For t h i s  classification their visual  of higher  level  a cultural social  l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g y and o r g a n i z a t i o n ^ of objects  on a p e r s o n a l  area  organizathe o l d  b a s i s , p r i m a r i l y by  i m p a c t and s e c o n d a r i l y b y t h e i r  function,is i r -  87  relevant. Standard  Measures, then,  standard non-technical unit sual  impact,  fier  system.  entities entity  based  primarily  on i m m e d i a t e v i -  w h i c h i s t h e b a s i s o f much o f t h e T h a i Standard  themselves.  are d i s t i n c t .  ontological  c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e k i n d o f non-  classi-  measures a r e e x a c t , b u t t h e y a r e n o t Thus u n i t r e f e r e n c e a n d s t a t u s a s an Lyons  (1977:442-446) d e s c r i b e s t h r e e  c a t e g o r i e s which are, roughly, t h e f o l l o w i n g :  (i) First-order  entities:  . . . i t i s characteristic of a l l f i r s t - o r d e r entities (persons, animals and t h i n g s ) t h a t , under normal c o n d i t i o n s , t h e y a r e r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t as t o t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l p r o p e r t i e s ; t h a t t h e y a r e l o c a t e d , a t any p o i n t i n t i m e , i n what i s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a t l e a s t , a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e ; and t h a t t h e y a r e p u b l i c l y o b s e r v a b l e . . . [ c o n t i n u e d i n a f o o t n o t e ! They a r e what S t r a w s o n r e f e r s t o a s b a s i c p a r t i c u l a r s . . (ii)  Second-order  entities:  By s e c o n d - o r d e r e n t i t i e s we s h a l l mean e v e n t s , p r o cesses, s t a t e s - o f - a f f a i r s , e t c . , which a r e located, i n time and which, i n E n g l i s h , a r e s a i d t o o c c u r o r t a k e p l a c e , r a t h e r t h a n t o e x i s t ..... But s e c o n d - o r d e r e n t i t i e s a r e much more o b v i o u s l y p e r c e p t u a l and c o n c e p t u a l c o n s t r u c t s t h a n f i r s t order e n t i t i e s are; the c r i t e r i a f o r r e - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a r e l e s s c l e a r - c u t and t h e a b i l i t y t o r e f e r t o them a s i n d i v i d u a l s d e p e n d s , t o some c o n s i d e r a b l e degree, upon t h e g r a m m a t i c a l p r o c e s s o f n o m i n a l i z a tion. ... s e c o n d - o r d e r e n t i t i e s a r e o b s e r v a b l e , and u n l e s s t h e y a r e i n s t a n t a n e o u s e v e n t s , have a t e m p o r a l d u r a tion... (iii)  Third-order e n t i t i e s :  ...by t h i r d - o r d e r e n t i t i e s we s h a l l mean s u c h a b s t r a c t e n t i t i e s as p r o p o s i t i o n s , w h i c h a r e o u t s i d e t i m e and s p a c e . Ultimately,  Lyons summarizes w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t  445)  "To s a y t h a t s o m e t h i n g  than  that  i texists  i s an e n t i t y  and c a n be r e f e r r e d  (19 77:  i s t o s a y no more to..."  88 Existence to  and c a p a b i l i t y  the a c c e p t a b i l i t y  situational the  of a given  frame d e s c r i b e d  f r a m e was  plurality  E n g l i s h ) b u t t h i s may same r e s u l t s  of being  be  r e f e r r e d to are b a s i c  f o r m as a r e p e a t e r  above.  i n the  Another requirement of  (which presupposes c o u n t a b i l i t y an i n c i d e n t a l  c a n be o b t a i n e d  by u s i n g  factor.  in  Roughly  the  f r a m e s w h i c h do n o t  require p l u r a l i t y . Although status status cal,  as an e n t i t y  I will  as a I P p r e d i c a t e  the remainder of t h i s  and q u a n t a  (read  (1977:463) "measures")  and e n u m e r a b l e . *  5.5  between  of a substance.  He  phom  glass  I(male)  Although the p a r a l l e l s  a clear  and e n t i t i e s  of t h i s  and n o n - e n t i t y ,  "my  "my  like  an  "my  drink"  of such a quantum  whiskey"  drink" out  between  the s t r u c t u r e of Thai  repeaters  distinction  reflected  g l a s s ; my  container:  which Lyons p o i n t s  do e x i s t ,  d i s t i n c t i o n between  and one b a s i s  considers  a limited  amount w o u l d r e q u i r e a  kasaew khaarj  measures  between  entities  re-identifiable  that expressions  ambiguous  l a w khooxj phom w h i s k e y POSS I ( m a l e )  POSS  in  "kind":  To make i t a s p e c i f i c  ty  draws p a r a l l e l s  t o be ' I n d i v i d u a t e d ,  I t i s true  p h r a s e i n T h a i w o u l d be  5.4  and  interchangeably  r e g u l a r l y i n E n g l i s h , but the e q u i v a l e n t  a n d a more g e n e r a l  identi-  are equivalent  "entity"  and  thesis.  amount o f w a t e r o r g o l d  occur  statuses  "IP p r e d i c a t e " and  Lyons l a t e r  above)  ( i n Lyons' terms) are not proven  assume t h a t t h e two  use the terms  (as d e f i n e d  and  (standard)  i s a division  makes measures,  between  enti-  i n the s y n t a c t i c d i s t i n c t i o n  89 between t h o s e T'sou and  nouns w h i c h c a n r e p e a t  (1977:1215) m a i n t a i n s  d i s t a n c e imply  measures as h a v i n g  of  entity  ent  certain  a "definite  or e n t i t i e s "  inexact quantity.  adding  that units  no s t a t u s as e n t i t y  On t h e o t h e r hand he s e e s  crete  and t h o s e w h i c h  (T'sou  of weight,  f o r their  collections  sense  cannot. volume  referents.  and t e m p o r a r y  of a well-defined d i s -  1977:1218), b u t w i t h  a  sense  T ' s o u g i v e s some e x a m p l e s i n E n g l i s h ,  t h a t t h e r a n g e of. e a c h k i n d o f m e a s u r e may b e d i f f e r -  in different (i)  languages: + exact |_+ e n t i t y - exact + entity  two h e a d o f c a t t l e  (ii)  two h e r d s  (iii)  of cattle  20,000 pounds o f c a t t l e  (iv)  two k i n d s  ^ t i t y ]  e x  of c a t t l e  f"'  f?J1  [_— e n t i t y I The second of  first  t o groups,  course,  scription Standard sures  t y p e seems t o r e f e r the t h i r d  to kinds. presented  so f a r here,  entities  four categories are supported  cle gory  agrees  with  b u t t h a t temporary  and g r o u p s ) c a n b e .  by d i s t r i b u t i o n a l  occur with  o r d i n a l numerals  p o u n d o f c h i c k e n " ) , and o n l y c a t e g o r y fractional  numerals  Although glossed  (as i n * " h a l f  meaT'sou's  evidence i n  I can not occur with a Chinese  g l o s s e d as " o f " ( a s i n "2 h e a d o f c a t t l e " ) . I I I cannot  the de-  namely, t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t  Measures a r e n o t e n t i t i e s ,  only category  e n t i t i e s , the  t o s t a n d a r d m e a s u r e s and t h e l a s t ,  T'sou's a n a l y s i s  (such as p h y s i c a l  Chinese:  to physical  parti-  Only  cate-  (e.g.*"the  IV cannot  occur  third  with  a kind of chicken").  T h a i has no c o u n t e r p a r t  t o the Chinese  as " o f " , t h e r e s t r i c t i o n on " h a l f  particle  a kind" applies i n  90 Thai  as w e l l a s i n C h i n e s e .  more s i g n i f i c a n t of  concerns  o r d i n a l s and standard  One a r e a o f d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h i s  the restriction  on  measures i n C h i n e s e :  co-occurrence such  a combi-  nation i spossible i n Thai: 5.6  saam wan 3 DAY "the f i r s t  5.7  kiloo thii saam p e n khoorj khun daeasr) KILOGRAM t h i r d be POSS Mr. NAME "The t h i r d k i l o g r a m ( e . g . o f r i c e , o r a n g e s , f o r M r . Dang."  5.8  rasaek khaw phoo c a j first he satisfied t h r e e d a y s h e was s a t i s f i e d " .  kilomet thii haa KILOMETER fifth "They're r e p a i r i n g  Use  with  an o r d i n a l  etc.) i s  n i i kamlarj; soom. t h i s PROG r e p a i r the f i f t h  kilometer  (ofthis  road)"  number p r e s u p p o s e s some s t a t u s as  entity.  I t a l s o p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t t h e e n t i t y b e a member o f  a series  o r some k i n d o f o r d e r .  an  expression  odd,  like  "the  In both  m e a s u r e were b l e n d e d  entity,which  i n t h e case  and E n g l i s h ,  t h i r d pound o f c h i c k e n " i s s l i g h t l y  b u t w o u l d be m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e  standard  Thai  with  i f t h e sense o f the  t h e sense o f p h y s i c a l ;  o f meat w o u l d b e a lump o r a p a c k a g e .  T h i s b l e n d i n g i s v e r y common i n c a s u a l s p e e c h a n d i s p r o b a b l y the b a s i s f o r t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y Thai.  This sentence  could occur  i n a s h o p , f o r exam-  when t h e c u s t o m e r i s o r d e r i n g , a n d b e f o r e t h e g o o d s o r -  dered do  5.7 a n d 5.8 i n  I n e x a m p l e 5.7 t h e r e n e e d b e no p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e o f  a container. ple,  o f examples  were a c t u a l l y m e a s u r e d o u t .  Nevertheless,  t h e examples  p r e s u p p o s e some s e c o n d p r e d i c a t e - p o s i t i o n ( e . g . " r i c e "  5.7)  The t i m e - l a p s e  stitutes  o f some a c t i v i t y  or state i n fact  for  con-  t h e s e c o n d p r e d i c a t e - p o s i t i o n f o r measures o f t i m e .  Thus i n 5.6, b e i n g  satisfied  i s the relevant state.  Use w i t h  91  an o r d i n a l  seems t o p r e s u p p o s e t h e s e n s e  ser  than use with  extent  strative a sense  u s u a l l y developed ble  a demonstrative.  i m p l i e s more s e n s e of nearness  object,  of entity  from  a b a s i c sense  " k i l o m e t e r " c a n a l l be u s e d indications  some T h a i S t a n d a r d  les-  a demon-  s i n c e t h e r e must b e  of pointing to a  visi-  " k i l o g r a m " and / k i l o m e t /  o f s t a t u s as e n t i t y  Thus, a l -  occur  with  t h e s e c a n be e x p l a i n e d by  (i)  a b l e n d i n g o f t h e s e n s e o f t h e measure w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l l y s a l i e n t p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e matt e r and form o f t h e s u b s t a n c e measured ( e . g . 1 k i l o m e t e r and 1 p i e c e o f r o a d )  (ii)  t h e requirement o f a second p r e d i c a t e - p o s i t i o n which can be f i l l e d by p r e v i o u s mention o r s i t u a t i o n . The s u b s t a n c e i m p l i e d by t h i s second p r e d i c a t i o n i s subj e c t t o t h e b l e n d i n g mentioned i n ( i ) .  (iii)  t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an a l t e r n a t e s e n s e f o r some S t a n d a r d Measures. I n some c a s e s t h i s s e n s e i s a p a r a l l e l p e r c e p t i b l e e n t i t y ( e . g . 1 d a y (24 h o u r s ) a n d p e r i o d of sunshine)  sures  standard  sure  itself  this  simple.  degrees  as a n o u n .  o r temporary  A simple  One p r o b l e m  of l e x i c a l  a relatively and f u l l  f o r Standard  can i t s e l f test  be  Mea-  classified  o f whether a measure  s h o u l d be t o c h e c k w h e t h e r t h e mea-  i s classifiable.  m e a s u r e and a s f u l l  sures  o f s t a t u s as e n t i t y  i s whether o r n o t a c l a s s i f i e r  when i t o c c u r s  of  Use w i t h  with demonstratives.  Measures,  Another i n d i c a t i o n  is  to a  as o p p o s e d t o d i s t a n c e , and t h e word i s  /wan/ "day", / k i l o k r a m /  though 2 c l e a r  of entity  U n f o r t u n a t e l y matters  are not  i s t h a t t h e r e i s a wide range o f  transparency  between senses  substantive.  We h a v e s e e n  o f a n i t e m as one example  t r a n s p a r e n t c o n n e c t i o n between temporary nouns w i t h / k l o o i j /  "box" (example 5.3).  mea-  Other  92  examples a r e  less  t r a n s p a r e n t , f o r example Table 8  Item  S e n s e as  niw kham thlaw dian  Measure  inch mouthful, trip month  Many i t e m s , belong  l i k e /niw/  to a group which,  S e n s e as Noun o r  f i n g e r , toe word, s p e e c h t o roam, t o t r a v e l moon  word  " i n c h " and  / d i a n / "month" a b o v e  to f u r t h e r confound  and  ambivalently  standard  of t h i s  type  i n E n g l i s h a r e words l i k e  barrel,  e t c . : a l l informal, roughly  the  temporary measures.  issue,  Other  fier as  "day"  a  which  technology The  classi-  d i s c u s s e d above i s a member o f t h i s  group  well. T'sou  (19 76:1239) f i n d s  "pound" c a n n o t  co-occur  " y e a r " , however, c a n . are fundamentally due  examples  s t a b l e measures  o f s u p p l y i n g a more a b s o l u t e s t a n d a r d .  /wan/  are  a fathom, a f o o t ,  h a v e become s t a n d a r d i z e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f capable  Verb  that i n Chinese  with o r d i n a l numerals. T h e r e f o r e he  different  from  argues  this  distinct  and  The  word f o r  t h a t time  p h y s i c a l measures,  t o t h e a n t i q u i t y o f time measurements.  are indeed  t h e word f o r  I f time  measures probably units  ancient, I think i t i s probably  b e c a u s e some o f them a r e n a t u r a l l y  occurring like  "year",  "month" and  "day".  correlates:  the seasons,  p h a s e s o f t h e moon, d u s k and  The  items  language which r e f e r  lexical  These u n i t s have s a l i e n t l y p e r c e p t i b l e  o f any  w o u l d become s t a n d a r d i z e d o n l y r e l a t i v e l y  late  to these i n the  dawn. events exis-  93 tence of the language. In c o n t r a s t , social  units  interaction  o f weight  and money a r e d e p e n d e n t on  and t e c h n o l o g y .  Only  refined  products  n e e d t o be w e i g h e d .  The u s e o f s i m p l e b a l a n c e s and d i r e c t l y  perceptible  as m e a s u r e s w o u l d a l s o p r e d a t e  entities  measures o f w e i g h t . and  T h e n e e d a n d t h e means t o m e a s u r e  d i s t a n c e come r e l a t i v e l y  time u n i t s group;  mentioned  that  standard  later  weight  i n human d e v e l o p m e n t .  The  a b o v e a r e members o f t h e " a m b i v a l e n t "  i s , they are n a t u r a l l y  occurring  e n t i t i e s but  have been p r o v i d e d w i t h s t a n d a r d i z e d s e n s e s .  Other  sures such  seem t o b e much  as " c e n t u r y " , "minute", and " s e c o n d "  Standard Measures.  more p r i m a r i l y  time  Thus i f s i g n i f i c a n t  mea-  dif-  f e r e n c e s c a n b e f o u n d b e t w e e n t i m e m e a s u r e s l i k e /wan/ "day" (a d i r e c t l y - p e r c e p t i b l e u n i t : r o u g h l y e q u a l t o a p e r i o d , o f sunshine)  and / n a t i i /  " m i n u t e " ( p u r e l y a s t a n d a r d measure) i t  would c o n s t i t u t e good s u p p o r t f o r t h e p e r c e p t u a l b a s i s o f classification. Unfortunately, both  i t e m s seem t o p e r f o r m  f u n c t i o n s : a S t a n d a r d Measure l i k e a repeater. 5.9  is  *wan day  A contruction saam 3  days" days.  can g l o s s  i n the sense  cannot  o c c u r as  like  wan DAY  marginally acceptable t o the extent that  formants  t h e whole p h r a s e  i n isolation i n -  as s o m e t h i n g  o f 3 dawn-to-dusk p e r i o d s o r 3  However, when a n o r m a l  utterance o f a sentence to  /natii/  a l l t h e same  make u p a s e n t e n c e  situation  i s sought  containing 5 . 9 (i.e.,  like  "three  working f o r the  informants try  c o n t a i n i n g . i t } none c a n be  found.  94  Example  5.9  neither  the n a t u r a l u n i t  tii/  can occur  stratives must  /wan/  as r e p e a t e r s .  /wan/  and / n a t i i /  unit  of the f a c t  With o r d i n a l s  are equally  that  Thus  nor t h e S t a n d a r d Measure  t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d e q u a l l y  regardless  and w i t h demon-  a c c e p t a b l e and  t o be S t a n d a r d  one i s b a s e d  /na-  both  Measures  on a p e r c e p t i b l e  and t h e o t h e r i s n o t .  5.3.1  STANDARD MEASURES AS We  full  d o e s n o t seem t o o c c u r i n a c t u a l s p e e c h .  Standard Measures  have seen t h a t  repeaters.  HEADWORDS  Compound S t a n d a r d  are unacceptable  Measures  as  do o c c u r ; f o r  example charjluarj  monetary o r weight u n i t + government  kamlarjmaa  power  + horse  piisaeaen,  year  +  = "official  unit of  money o r  weight"  = "horsepower"  light  =  "lightyear"  etc. But  these are unacceptable 5.10  It cannot  *niwfut saam niw ( E n g l i s h ) i n c h 3 INCH i s n o t t o be assumed, occur  i n t h e headword  c a n be c l a s s i f i e d nor  as p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r s :  however, position.  i f the c l a s s i f i e r  t h a t S t a n d a r d Measures A Standard  Measure  i s neither a repeater  a p a r t i a l repeater: 5.11  niw inch  SOOTJ 2  The a l t e r n a t e s e n s e levant  jaarj KIND o f /niw/,  to the d i s c u s s i o n  This kind the speaker  "two k i n d s o f i n c h e s "  of phrase  i s talking  "finger"  i s not considered r e -  here. could only occur i n a sentence  about  /niw/ " i n c h e s " .  That  where  is, the  95  non-entity is  being  i s being  r e f e r r e d t o and ( t h e r e f o r e ) i t s e x i s t e n c e  asserted.  objectified,  That  reified,  i s , t h e c o n c e p t o f an i n c h i s b e i n g  i n a conversation  a m e t a l i n g u i s t i c one: a c o n v e r s a t i o n material or distance being metalinguistic headwords. sures  context  i n general  measured.  i n such a  t h a t Standard Measures can occur  I n t h e example  i s f u n c t i o n i n g as a s u b s t a n t i v e as a S t a n d a r d M e a s u r e .  dard  Measures a r e never themselves  5.4 TEMPORARY  above, / n i w / a c t s  i t s func-  way i t i s t r u e  that  are c l a s s i f i e r s  unit reference  t h u s 2P p r e d i c a t e s  w h i c h p e r f o r m t h e same  and q u a n t i f y  and c a n n o t b e f u l l  I t i s again  a headword. repeaters,  Adams and C o n k l i n  f o r anything  They a r e Standard  expressed  They a r e " . . . a r -  c a n f u n c t i o n as t h e u n i t o f measure-  ment"  (19 74:3.  noun,  including classifiers,  My e m p h a s i s . )  Of c o u r s e even P u l l  Temporary Measures d i f f e r they  provide  like  who h a v e  c e n t r a l p o i n t about Temporary Measures.  bitrary,  Stan-  classified.  o f s e m a n t i c f u n c t i o n as S t a n d a r d Measures: t h e y  Measures.  as an  MEASURES*  Temporary Measures  indefinite  mea-  In f a c t  noun a n d h a s l o s t  In t h i s  as  predicate-  a n d h a s no n e e d o f a n o t h e r n o u n .  tion  the  I t i s only  was t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t a s e c o n d  independent e n t i t y  kind  about measures, n o t t h e  N o t e a l s o t h a t one c r i t e r i a u s e d t o d e s c r i b e  p o s i t i o n be f i l l e d .  it  which i s , i n a sense,  are not standardized  here they  mean any  Repeaters.  from S t a n d a r d Measures  and n o t e x a c t :  *Y. R. Chao's t e r m (Chao 1 9 6 8 : 5 8 5 ) . nonstandard measures.  a mouthful,  i n that a truck-  Temporary Measures =  96 load  o r a day's journey a r e examples.  ness o f f u n c t i o n really precise tity  possible way..  m e n t i o n e d b y Adams & C o n k l i n , to characterize  by r e f e r r i n g t o t h e p h y s i c a l u n i t  to the container.  information  involved  or natural  on q u a n -  ( i . e . the  e n t i t y ) o r by r e f e r -  T h e r e i s no e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e -  tween t h e u s e o f c o n t a i n e r - u n i t s r y measures..  i t i snot  temporary measures i n a v e r y  Temporary measures p r o v i d e  group, arrangement, s e t , p a r t ring  Due t o t h e a r b i t r a r i -  In the l a s t  and o t h e r u n i t s  as t e m p o r a -  s e c t i o n we saw how t h e s t a n d a r d  Measure s e n s e i s o f t e n b l e n d e d w i t h t h e s e n s e o f t h e n a t u r a l unit  involved.  units,  There i s a s i m i l a r tendency with  but the blending  t a i n e r has e x i s t e n c e right.  i s easier  to resist,  container  since  the con-  when empty, as an e n t i t y i n i t s own  F o r example, c o n s i d e r  t h e " a m b i v a l e n t " measure/tharj/i  / t h a r j / N. 1. a b u c k e t , p a i l , t u b , b a r r e l , t a n k . C. 2. u n i t o f c a p a c i t y e q u i v a l e n t t o 20 l i t e r s ; (loosely) a bucketful, a barrelful, e t c . (Haas 1965:214) As either  classifier, exactly,  p o r a r y measure. contents.  the  tinguishable. der of  As noun i t r e f e r s  to the contents,  to the container,  not the  a l w a y s be some s e m a n t i c s p i l l o v e r b y  d e p e n d i n g on t h e c u l t u r a l s a l i e n c e  i n question,  contents  refers  as a s t a n d a r d measure, o r " l o o s e l y " a s a tem-  There w i l l  association, tainer  /than/ c l e a r l y  but the container  as u n i t  as commodity m e a s u r e d a r e u s u a l l y No- b l e n d i n g  e n t i t y takes place,  of the con-  o f m e a s u r e and clearly  dis-  o f S t a n d a r d M e a s u r e and f i r s t - o r -  as i s t h e c a s e w i t h s t a n d a r d  measures  weight. T h e r e a r e numerous and complex i n d i g e n o u s T h a i  systems  97  of weights  a n d m e a s u r e s , some w e l l - s t a n d a r d i z e d .  been g e n e r a l l y d i s c a r d e d some v e r y metric  traditional  (except  f o r those a s s o c i a t e d  c r a f t s ) i n favor  INFORMATION  temporary measures and as f u l l  can  with  of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  We have s e e n how some f o r m s c a n f u n c t i o n  other  have  system.  5.5 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY  as  These  categories?  repeater.  We h a v e c l a i m e d  that  be u s e d as a temporary measure.  tial  repeaters  like  like  /chin/ "piece".  B u t what o f t h e  any c l a s s i f i e r  T h i s would i n c l u d e  par-  / b a j / "S2D s h a p e " and n o n - r e p e a t e r s E v e n when s u c h c l a s s i f i e r s  u s e d as measures t h e y quantity  alternatively  still  o f t h e headword,  provide  but only  information  are not on t h e  incidentally.  The p r i -  y  mary f u n c t i o n o f / b a j / a n d / c h i n / i s t o p r o v i d e by  means o f f o c u s i n g  a t t e n t i o n on a r e l e v a n t  shape i n t h e c a s e o f / b a j / and t h e p a r t i t i v e unit  i n the case of / c h i n / .  also providing criteria  This sider  the c o l l o q u i a l  /iiak/  i s determined a t l e a s t  ring  the a c t i o n .  The  quantity  lient  aspect  without  In f a c t the  together.  i s a l s o the case with  perceptually  nature of the  as e n t i t y and q u a n t i f i c a t i o n a r e i n e x t r i -  tity  is  reference  a t t r i b u t e : the  c a n n o t be done  some q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n .  of status  c a b l y b o u n d up  This  unit  Since  "a g u l p "  the period  o f water o r l i q u i d action.  where t h e s t a t u s  Conas e n -  i n p a r t by t h e time e l a p s e d  an i n s t a n t a n e o u s  of this  second-order e n t i t i e s .  i s relatively  or point-of-time  du-  short, i t occurrence.  swallowed i s a l s o a very s a -  Compare / i i a k /  "a g u l p " t o  98  / h i i a k / "a gasp or s i g h " where the same s o r t of time element i s i n v o l v e d , but the v o l u m e t r i c i m p l i c a t i o n i s c l e a r l y much less salient.  A g u l p can c l e a r l y be c o n s i d e r e d a non-stan-  dard measure o f l i q u i d volume, while a gasp or s i g h i s f a r l e s s l i k e l y t o be c o n s i d e r e d a volume of a i r expended or i n haled.  Anything,  however, i s a p o t e n t i a l temporary measure,  and / h i i a k / i s no e x c e p t i o n . of unusual  Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e t o conceive  s i t u a t i o n s where a s i g h o r a gasp c o u l d be used  as measures.  The d i f f e r e n c e i n the s a l i e n c e of a g u l p as a  volume, as opposed t o a gasp as a volume i s based on e n c y c l o pedic  (as opposed to l e x i c a l ) f a c t o r s : a gulp of water i s  u s u a l l y an i n t e n t i o n a l a c t focused on the volume of water; a s i g h i s o f t e n an i n v o l u n t a r y a c t focused on some e x t e r n a l or secondary s i g n i f i c a n c e  (such as a s i g n a l t h a t one i s t i r e d ,  etc..) . Returning  t o our comparison of measures and c l a s s i f i e r s  l i k e / b a j / and / c h i n / , we have seen t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the former c l a s s i f i e r i s focused on the d i r e c t l y - p e r c e p t i b l e a t t r i b u t e , the shape.  But i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o p r o v i d e d  on the q u a n t i t y i n v o l v e d .  Shape and " p a r t i t i v e n e s s " are a s -  p e c t s of n a t u r a l e n t i t i e s , but not of i n d e f i n i t e masses or commodities c o n s i d e r e d g e n e r a l l y . The primary  d i f f e r e n c e , then, between measures and non-  measures (which are not f u l l r e p e a t e r s ) seems t o be t h a t whereas the non-measures p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the p e r c e p t i b l e u n i t p r i m a r i l y and i n f o r m a t i o n on q u a n t i t y s e c o n d a r i l y , temporary measures p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on q u a n t i t y p r i m a r i l y  99  and  on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Measures p r o v i d e  of entities  i n f o r m a t i o n on q u a n t i t y f i r s t  no i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e n t i t y , entity zations  i s salient  secondarily.  and p r o v i d e  w h e t h e r o r n o t some f o r m o f  i n t h e commodity  a r e summarized  Standard  i n Table  Table  measured.  These g e n e r a l i -  9.  9  Primacy of Information in- C l a s s i f i e r s C l a s s i f i e r Category  Primary (Focus)  F u l l Repeater (e.g.. / p r a t h e e t / "country")  S t a t u s as E n t i t y (itself)  Whole e n t i t y i n c o n t r a s t to any s p e c i f i c aspect  Standard Measure (e.g. / k i l o k r a r n / "kilogram")  Quantity  None  Quantity  S a l i e n t charact e r i s t i c o f entity  Salient charact e r i s t i c of entity  Quantity  Others: (a) i f measure f u n c t i o n emp h a s i z e d (e.g. / b a j / "S2D shape") (b) i f s t a t u s as e n t i t y emphasized (e.g. /baj/ " S 2 D shape")  Information  Secondary Information  Whether the e n t i t y or q u a n t i t y i s primary depends on the speaker's  i n t e n t i o n and i s o f t e n unmarked except f o r  s i t u a t i o n a l or c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s , such as the type of q u e s t i o n one i s responding t o .  100  6.0  OTHERS We  have so  f a r d i s t i n g u i s h e d and  major c a t e g o r i e s s e e n as  independent  themselves of  the  ry  classifiers:  entities,  t o a c t as  their  had  abstracted  no  the  speaker,  overt  were s e e n as  capable of  /baj/  "S2D The  defi-  become  standardized,  Measures  of o c c u r r i n g without  and  Partial  c o m p o u n d a b l e morphemes, some Full  thus  Ambivalent  exclusive.  a c t i n g as  inten-  Measures  measure.  mutually  Tempora-  to the  criteria.  (tech-  (PR  re-  Repeat-  Repeaters,  and  a s e c o n d argument  (e.g.  shape"|  remaining c l a s s i f i e r s  specifically are  u n i t o r as  alternatively  incapable  for  (non-standard)  u n i t s w h i c h had  R e p e a t e r s were s e e n as  peaters  o r as  syntactic distributional  Full  reference  The r e p e t i t i o n  to express a q u a n t i t y .  a l t e r n a t e s e n s e s as  were  enough u n i t  measures, a c c o r d i n g  with  the  e i t h e r Standard Measures  non-entities)  m e a s u r e s were t r a d i t i o n a l  others  Repeaters  classifiers.  M e a s u r e s were s e e n as  of  ers)  providing  own  M e a s u r e s : u n i t s u s e d as  tion  Full  some o f  same f o r m c o n s t i t u t e d a s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i o n  nition. nical  of Thai  described  than  "other",  capable of p a r t i a l  equivalent  to Hla  do,  in fact  are  included  categorized  Pe's  (provided i n the as  the  types  of  One  condition  three  Hla  Pe.  have not  been l a b e l l e d  a l t h o u g h many o f  repeating.  Do  that  the p a r t i a l l y  group)..  Thus T h a i and  There are  i n Burmese? repeating  classifiers  mutually  two  /baj,/  they c o n s t i t u t e a group  "true c l a s s i f i e r s "  distinct  them, l i k e  more  i s m e n t i o n e d above, t h a t  "others" can  exclusive  conditions, Partial  They  be types,  however. Repeaters  101  overlap with both F u l l dition  i s that  Repeaters  a l lclassifiers  and O t h e r s .  which  are not Standard  a r e p o t e n t i a l l y u s a b l e as n o n s t a n d a r d likely  The o t h e r  con-  Measures  m e a s u r e s , some more  than o t h e r s .  These  divisions  c o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d i n a  table:  Figure 4 Categories of C l a s s i f i e r s Full  Repeaters  Others  Partial  Re p e a t e r s  PR Repeaters  Exclusive Repeaters  "True"  Classifiers  PR  Standard Measures  "True" Classifiers  I"*  p o t e n t i a l nonstandard measures-*-| Here t h e r e s i d u a l  The  final  this  group  u n l a b e l l e d group  section.  has been r e d u c e d s t i l l  will  Nonstandard  on s p e a k e r s ' i n t e n t i o n .  measures a r e n o t i n c l u d e d  That  s u r e i s o n l y an a l t e r n a t i v e Repeater, monyms  e t c . Ambivalent  (primarily  f o r ease  sifier".  i s a problem  t o u s e as a F u l l  the term  "classifier"  i n section  dependence  Repeater,  non-standard  measure.  w i t h t h e use o f t h e term clarity  simplicity)  paper.  S t a n d a r d M e a s u r e s no l e s s  PR  o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) : one s e n s e as  "True  Clas-  ( I hope n o t a t t h e e x I would l i k e  to reserve  f o r the wide-ranging d e f i n i t i o n  2 of this  mea-  m e a s u r e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be h o -  For terminological  pense o f t e r m i n o l o g i c a l  their partial  i n the  i s , u s e as a n o n s t a n d a r d  S t a n d a r d M e a s u r e , t h e o t h e r as There  further.  be d e s c r i b e d more f u l l y i n  boxes p r o p e r i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e  at  i n Thai  arrived  T h a t makes R e p e a t e r s a n d  "true" c l a s s i f i e r s .  Thus t h e t e r m  102  " T r u e C l a s s i f i e r a'* i s n o t  an  e n t i r e l y happy c h o i c e  g r o u p of non-measures which are lack  of  a better  marks a r o u n d The  term i t w i l l  a static  v i e w e d above i n s e c t i o n  5.  can  be  by  not  e x i s t i n the  misleading  apply across  (e.g.  categories,  nal functioning  of  amount o f  ces  are  of  6.0.1  of  with  quotation  categorization  have been  s e t t i n g up  4.  relationships  e t c . ) , nevertheless explain  a great  classifier  information  criteria  the  deal  s y s t e m and  of  even p r o v i d e  a  selection.  categorization.  have b e e n f i l l e d  that  categories  categorical  6.1,  do  a b o u t the: i n t e r -  about c l a s s i f i e r the  re-  itself  d i s t i n c t i o n s that  obscuring  reviewed below i n s e c t i o n  we  are  system  These  a f t e r the  cri-  blank  spa-  in.  The  There are  group i t s e l f  group of  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 43  splits  "Others"  items  i n t o 2 subgroups.  l a b e l l e d "Extended C l a s s i f i e r s " , i s d i s c u s s e d  next section.. the  i n a p o s i t i o n t o examine t h e  more c l o s e l y .  group.  these,  into  For  GENERAL UNITS  little  this  retained  most s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f  Figure  Now a  do  the  proposed here i s the teria  Repeaters.  Although c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  l a n g u a g e ; by  t h a t h a v e b e e n s e t up  The  be  Full  this  "true".  l i m i t a t i o n s of  certain  not  for  The  following  categories,  other subgroup d i v i d e s  (occasionally overlapping)  with a small  K i n d s : /khanaan/ /camphuak/ /chanit/ /prakaan/  relatively  number o f  (inevitable)  in One  in  the  neatly  semantic  sub-  exceptions:  -a k i n d of m e d i c i n e ; a p r e s c r i p t i o n or formula -group, type, s p e c i e s -kind, s o r t , category, v a r i e t y , type -kind, t h i n g , item, p o i n t , count (law)  103  /prapheet/ /phan/( W) / p h a n / (ti??f) / p h a n / (4fuQ) /jaarj/ /sathaan/ Occasions: /khrarj,/ /khamrop/  Ajuat/ /taa/  /thoot/ /thii/ /nat/ /hon/ /too-n/ /hiiak/ /juk/  /soot/ /rSop/  /waaraV /chabap/  r e s p e c t , means -kind, category, c l a s s , type, d i s t i n c t i o n , difference, subdivision -sort, group, c l a s s -kind, type, s o r t - s t r a i n , breed, species -kind, s o r t ( i n g e n e r a l ) - ( e l e g . ) k i n d , i t e m , r e s p e c t , means -occasion -time, r o u n d , t u r n -occasion, time, p e r i o d (of a l a r g e r period) -eye; t u r n ( i n a game); c r u c i a l moment; time -section, part, relay, s h i f t -time, i n s t a n c e , o c c a s i o n (recurrent) -shot, round; meeting, event -time, o c c a s i o n -part, s e c t i o n ( o f space o r time) -a s i g h o r g a s p -age, e r a , p e r i o d -case, i n s t a n c e , s e c t i o n , p a r t -round o r c y c l e -time, o c c a s i o n , p e r i o d -issue, e d i t i o n , copy; banknote; l o t t e r y t i c k e t ; l e t t e r ; document  Sides: /khaarj/ /daan/ /baai)/ /faaj/ /thit/  - s i d e ; one o f a p a i r - s i d e ; p a r t ( o f a room); s e c t i o n ( o f a c i t y ) ; f i e l d (of study); viewpoint -side, part - s i d e , team, p a r t y , g r o u p - d i r e c t i o n , p o i n t o f t h e compass  Parts: /soot/ /suan/ /chin/ /maatraa/ /toon/ /thost/ /siarj/  -case, instance, s e c t i o n , p a r t -part, portion - p i e c e , p a r t ( o f a n y t h i n g whole) - s e c t i o n o r c l a u s e ( o f law) -(severed) p a r t ; s e c t i o n (of space or time) -section, part, relay, shift -piece, part, f r a c t i o n  General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : /tamnasT}/ - p o s i t i o n , rank /hasaer)/ -place, location /khanaat/ - s i z e , extent, degree /santhaan/ -shape, appearance, o u t l i n e , form, teristic What i s t h e s e m a n t i c b a s i s  charac-  ( i f any) f o r t h e c a t e g o r y  of  104 which these  g r o u p s a r e members?  s e m a n t i c f a c t o r s have a l r e a d y of  capable  and most  been d e s c r i b e d  t h e g r o u p : as n o n - r e p e a t e r s  non-entities.  The f i r s t  they  obvious  i n the i s o l a t i n g  a r e 2P p r e d i c a t e s and  They a r e n o t compoundable and t h e r e f o r e n o t  of p a r t i a l  repeating.  They a r e n o t S t a n d a r d  Mea-  sures . Further,  a high  level  in  the senses  in  t h e r a n g e o f nouns t h e y  difficult Units are  of a l l the General  concept  listed  of v i s u a l  classified.  object, but /jaarj/  ing  information the object  ject  and  "Generality" i s a  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n classifiers  General  information  Units  result  which  b a s e d on a  (with  exceptions  on t h e s p e c i f i c  F o r example, / l u u k / of the v i s u a l  shape  "S3D s h a p e "  impact  o f an  " k i n d " i n v o l v e s the assessment o f p e r c e p -  plus  t h e added c o g n i t i v e o p e r a t i o n  to a superordinate  "piece" requires  is  impact.  be s e e n a s a d i r e c t  tual  so f a r presented,  can c l a s s i f y .  say, those  b e l o w ) do n o t g i v e  the object  both  to describe p r e c i s e l y , but the General  more c o m p l e x t h a n ,  can  Units  seem t o b e b a s e d on c r i t e r i a  criterion  of  o f g e n e r a l i t y c a n be n o t e d ,  category.  the a d d i t i o n a l operation  t o some w h o l e , some c o l l e c t i o n ,  of r e l a t -  Similarly  of r e l a t i n g  /chin/ t h e ob-  o r some mass o f w h i c h i t  part. A classifier  ceptually-based, of r e l a t i n g  like  /santhaan/  yet s t i l l  the object  "shape" i s u n d e n i a b l y  per-  involves the a d d i t i o n a l operation  t o some s u p e r o r d i n a t e  6.1 m i i l a k s a n a s a n t h a a n klom have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c SHAPE r o u n d " ( I t ) has t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f round  category  0  shape."  as i n  105  Some vague o r i n d i s t i n c t classified er),  by /ruup/  s h a p e , on t h e o t h e r hand, w o u l d b e  "image, f o r m ,  o r b y v a r i o u s nouns m e a n i n g  do n o t n o r m a l l y f u n c t i o n  shape"  "form,  (a p a r t i a l  repeat-  image, e t c . " w h i c h  as c l a s s i f i e r s .  F o r example,  6.2 c h a n h e n p e n r a a n t a k h u m K f e m . ) s e e be s h a p e i n d i s t i n c t " I saw a n i n d i s t i n c t s h a p e . " Similarly, like  among t h e G e n e r a l U n i t s a r e s e v e r a l  / s o o t / "case,  i n s t a n c e , e t c . " w h i c h do n o t r e f e r  physical  o b j e c t o r event  require  complex c o g n i t i v e  An  at a l l .  I assume t h a t  exception to the generality  q u i t e unique  of Occasions.  or event  be s e e n  of s e t t i n g  Occasions refer  up y e t a n o t h e r  are certainly  as a k i n d o f occasion.  t o avoid the neces-  subgroup o f measures.  not Standard  substances. product  t o second-order The s i m i l a r i t y  of t h e i r  frequency  s u r e s and o f t h e f a c t o r The  units  factor of generality  the remaining  f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c /thaeaew/ /phain/ /warn/  essential  shape  as t e m p o r a r y to their  mea-  sense.  o f r e f e r e n c e i s n o t common t o  General Units, either,  ceptions which a r e unmistakably  than  group t o measures i s a  of occurrence  o f time  units, but  of occurrence r a t h e r  of this  The  M e a s u r e s a n d t h e y do  to naturally-occurring perceptually salient  they r e f e r  all  T h i s group  o c c u r r i n g on e a c h  However, t h e g r o u p h a s b e e n i n c l u d e d h e r e sity  also  of reference of these  and c o u l d a l t e r n a t i v e l y  measure o f t h e a c t i o n  these  t o any  operations to i d e n t i f y .  General Units i s the sub-category is  items  There  a r e some e x -  uncompoundable y e t s u p p l y i n -  characteristics:  " l i n e , row; s e c t i o n , d i s t r i c t " " s t r i p s , sheets; sections, p l o t s " "slice; ring"  106  Except f o r these items, the General U n i t s group c o u l d be s a i d to convey very g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n about  the head,  as opposed to the more p a r t i c u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n found i n the PR N a t u r a l u n i t s , such as / b a j / w i t h the sense of " S 2 D shape", / t u a / with the sense of "body shape", e t c .  As an example  of the g e n e r a l i t y of the group of General U n i t s , c o n s i d e r /santhaan/  "shape, appearance,  etc."  T h i s item i s a hypony-  mic s u p e r o r d i n a t e of the p a r t i a l r e p e a t i n g c l a s s i f i e r s  above,  as w e l l as of the e x c e p t i o n s , the General U n i t s which convey i n f o r m a t i o n on shape. Of the a t y p i c a l G e n e r a l U n i t s which r e f e r to shape, /thaeaew/ " l i n e , row,etc."  specifically  can be seen as a r e p e a t e r ,  but o n l y i n an i n c h o a t i v e sense, as w i t h a verb of c r e a t i o n or c o n s t r u c t i o n . For example 6.3  thahaan tan thaeaew saam thaeaew soldier set-up l i n e 3 LINE "The s o l d i e r s formed three l i n e s . "  /thaeaew/ does occur i n some compounds but these are mostl y v e r b a l and do not occur i n c l a s s i f i e r  phrases.  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of /thaeaew/ as a General U n i t i s based on non-occurrence  as a p a r t i a l r e p e a t e r .  This r e s t r i c -  t i o n of occurrence i n t u r n i s based upon some s o r t of u n s u i t a b i l i t y of /thaeaew/ f o r f u r t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n i n compounding, although a d j e c t i v e s are a c c e p t a b l e i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h /thaeasw/.  For example, */thaeasw thahaan/  line + soldier, i s  unacceptable, but /thaeasw jaaw/ "a l o n g l i n e " i s q u i t e a l l right.  The  a d d i t i o n a l senses of /thaeaew/, " s e c t i o n ,  are l i m i t e d to occurrences with demonstratives  district"  and are thus  107  not  considered  full  classifiers.  There i s disagreement lity  of a structure  6.4  among i n f o r m a n t s  like  phainthxidin land  saam phiin 3 { a . * LARGE S2D (b.  On t h e b a s i s  area,  flipped  for  over l i k e  the c l a s s i f i e r ,  a Partial  more g e n e r a l The with  of  and cannot  With the sense of " p l o t " making / p h i i n /  Unit.  then, General U n i t s  also exhibit a high However, t h e r e  l e s s formal) c l a s s i f i e r s  only  /haeasrj/ " p l a c e " , explanation  the category  factor:  6.4  c a n be  by r e f e r r i n g t o  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the r e f e r e n t s o f t h e headnouns.  "kind"  hypothesize  noted,  considered  i s fixed  as p r o v i d i n g u n i t r e f e r e n c e  General Units  (therefore  The  "land"  who  6.4b w o u l d be a c c e p t a b l e ,  many b o r r o w i n g s .  /jaarj/  that  Repeater, not a General  characterized  " l a n d " r e f e r s t o an  One i n f o r m a n t  a S2D o b j e c t .  With t h e exceptions  repeated  6.4a w o u l d be r e j e c t e d ,  i n t h e compound / p h i i n t x i d i n /  t o be u n a c c e p t a b l e e x p l a i n e d be  o f synonymy b e t w e e n  phrase,  not a shaped o b j e c t .  SHAPE  PLOT  of the requirement  elements i n a c l a s s i f i e r /phiin/  on t h e a c c e p t a b i -  that  the l e v e l  at a certain level  common  h e r e as w e l l , e s p e c i a l l y  I can o f f e r  "piece".  as t o why  t h e members  a r e n o t corapoundable i s t o  o f g e n e r a l i t y may be a r e l e v a n t o f g e n e r a l i t y , c o n c e p t s do n o t  admit o f hyponymic v a r i e t i e s ,  only  i n d i v i d u a l cases.  these v a r i e t i e s  that usually require  are  F o r example,  expressed.  of f o r m a l i t y  a r e many v e r y  and / c h i n /  of General Units  level  a compound when  the concept of " s i z e "  Itis they  h a s an  108  u n l i m i t e d range no  o f examples from  b i g to s m a l l , but  commonly a c c e p t e d k i n d s o f s i z e .  e x p l a n a t i o n e i t h e r why  the exceptions are not  o n l y some s u g g e s t i o n s . m i g h t be thing  related  I h a v e no  This u n s u i t a b i l i t y  to the i n c h o a t i v e sense  formed r a t h e r than something  items  including  several similar  are  /phiit/  "line;  "be  range  can  line  exceptions  may  be  or c h a i n of mountains" repeating  occur with the i n c h o a t i v e verb  another  possible  common f a c t o r  i n the General U n i t s group:  (or "double")  shape f e a t u r e s . For  among  t h e y a l l have  and /rial]  (SID)  of s t a n d i n g o b j e c t s  /phiin/  c a n be  astrip  (SID)  of c l o t h  /waen/  c a n be  a s l i c e (S2D)  generalization  of General U n i t s i s based  or land  o f a n y t h i n g (SID)  is for certain: to a large  or  e x t e n t on  i n understanding  (personal  (SID)  (S3D) category  the f a c t of the  classifying.  * As p o i n t e d o u t by Denny  secon-  (S2D) *  Because the  members c a n n o t e n t e r compounds, t h e p r o c e s s  i n g becomes e v e n more i m p o r t a n t  the  example,  /thaeaew/ i s a l i n e  One  (in  arranged".  There  dary  row;  o f t h e above a r e c a p a b l e o f p a r t i a l  (except /thiw/)  kan/  "formed"  i n m e a n i n g t o /thaeaew/. T h e s e  /naeaew/  all  some-  existing.  "a t h a t c h (S2D o b j e c t ) ; a row" ,. "row o f t r e e s , row o f m o u n t a i n s " " l i n e of mountains; l i n e of descent; general); order; sort" " l i n e ; row; strip"  All  of  compoundable,  are:  /tap/ /thiw/ /th±ak/  its  satisfying  o f /thaeasw/ as  simply  are  f o r compounding  However, o t h e r c o m p o u n d a b l e c l a s s i f i e r s units,  there  communication).  that  compoundprocess  109 6.0.2  EXTENDED C L A S S I F I E R S Among t h e  senses  "Others"  as c l a s s i f i e r s  transparency  a r e f o u r words w h i c h h a v e which d i f f e r  to v a r y i n g degrees  from  their  senses  as n o u n s .  said  t o have l o s t  their  senses  as f u l l  thus  can  o n l y be  classifier, a list lost  entered  any  clearly  nouns t h e y  The  Classifiers Use  with  listed  lem  CLF f o r k n i v e s , b o o k s , oxcarts, candles, etc. CLF f o r s m a l l S l D p h y s i c a l objects; physical o b j e c t s i n g e n e r a l , oddshaped o b j e c t s ; a l s o used to provide u n i t r e f e r e n c e t o g e n e r a l terms (as i n s t a n c e s ) - a " w a s t e basket" category of c l a s sification.  The  similarity  The  items  i n Table  ded  senses  er"  g i v e n i n T a b l e 6 c o u l d be  is  kept  any with  k i n d , and o n l y one  Thus we  of Table  10  of Table  t h a t items  r a n g e of. 10:  -none  to Table  10.  The  6 i s not  i n Table  10  senses  c o u l d c o n s i d e r / b a j / "S2D  as  10  are not  as  are  exten-  "non-repeatl o n g as i t  repeaters  6 have m u l t i p l e  ( o r some) o f w h i c h t h e y  accidental.  them) e x h i b i t  added t o T a b l e  i n Table  as Noun  - w i t h s e n s e as " r o p e " - i n compounds w i t h s e n s e as " s e l f ; body; substance" -none  (and many more l i k e  i n mind t h a t i t e m s  i n Table  Use  CLF f o r e l e p h a n t s CLF f o r g i a n t s , demons, hermits, etc.  those  plus  "Extended" Senses  chiak ton  like  for..."  as  10  as C l a s s i f i e r  6  be  Some o f them i n t u r n h a v e  four are  Table  an  ( i n the r o l e  p e r c e i v a b l e connection to the f u l l  classify.  Item  A l l f o u r can  "classifier  o f t h e nouns t h e y c l a s s i f y .  of  s u b s t a n t i v e nouns and  in a dictionary  n o t a s noun) a s s i m p l y  developed  senses,  non-repeaters.  s h a p e " as a  partial  of  110 Repeater. an  / b a j / ( w i t h t h e same s e n s e ) c a n be c l a s s e d as  Extended C l a s s i f i e r  repeating  classifier  6.5 k r a d a a t  as i n  3  S2D-SHAPE  T h u s , any c l a s s i f i e r  "three  sheets  w h i c h h a s no a l t e r n a t i v e  of paper" f u n c t i o n as a  non-compounded s u b s t a n t i v e noun a l s o f u n c t i o n s a s an  Extended C l a s s i f i e r  i n the cases  repeat.  this  Items w i t h  (ii)  difficulty item with  (iii)  refer  function are character-  term"  f o r n a t i v e speakers  i n supplying the  a. m e a n i n g , a n d i n some  l a c k o f a f u n c t i o n as f u l l  use of c l a s s i f i e r s  items  where i t does n o t p a r t i a l l y  alternative  i z e d b y ( i ) u s e as a " c l a s s  The  as a n o n - ( p a r t i a l )  saam b a j  paper  full  when i t i s u s e d  i n this  t o shapes.  role  cases  substantive  i s very  noun.  common.  Most  Some, e x a m p l e s a r e :  6.6 mamuarj saam t o n mango 3 PLANT  " t h r e e mango t r e e s "  6.7 luukkuncaeas saam dODk key 3 FLOWER-SHAPE  "three  keys"  6.8 ma.a saam t u a dog An  3  exception  a class  "three  i s the c l a s s i f i e r  dogs" /khon/ "person"  t e r m b u t r e t a i n s t h e same s e n s e  tions:- f u l l sifier  BODY-SHAPE  repeating, p a r t i a l  which i s  i n a l l of i t s func-  r e p e a t i n g a n d as E x t e n d e d  Clas  i n s u c h c a s e s as  6.9 dek  saam  child The lexical opacity.  items  3  khon PERSON  i n Table  transparency,  "three  children"  10 make a g o o d example o f d e g r e e s o f  from r e l a t i v e l y  The c l a s s i f i e r  transparent  /ch±ak/ i s r a p i d l y  to total  dropping  out of  Ill use  as  elephants  However, is  for  lose  Thai  their  speakers  significance who s t i l l  p r o b a b l y a g r e a t d e a l of  the  form,  as  i n modern  would use / c h ± a k /  c o n f l i c t between  l i s t e d i n T a b l e 10.  With / t o n /  the  situation  Finally,  with / l e m / ,  no c o n n e c t i o n  at  stantive  noun s e n s e ,  and e x c l u s i v e  f u n c t i o n as  classifiers  like  al  between  fiers  /chiak/  senses  as  items  w h i c h do n o t  nouns  to  I n one c o n c e p t i o n classifiers "True"  in Thai.  Full  of  is  as  to  all,  classifiers  sed i n d e t a i l  below.  as  any s u b has  transition-  we a r e  there  are  two  and a m e a n i n g  the  for  can-  classifiers..  o n l y two  reserving  the  and / a n / )  "true"  label  classifiers  Standard Measures.  (namely,/lem/  classi-  function only.  f u n c t i o n as  as m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , and n o t  to  do d u t y as  i n T a b l e 10  nouns a t  is  morpheme.  classifier  c a n be s e e n  classifier  that  left  of  transparency/opacity,  which can a l s o  However,  Repeaters  a free  c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  "meaningless"  which  These are  two  discus-  CRITERIA OF CATEGORIZATION The b i g g e s t  fact  all  them e v e n i n t h e i r they  Classifier,  not  occur  scale  and / t o n /  connection note  n o t be a s s i g n e d  6.1  of  and s e n s e s r e s t r i c t e d In this  are  sort  as  two u s e s  except / t o n /  In t h i s  appears  there  the  similar,  developed.  no l o n g e r  society.  the  one w h i c h has p r e v e n t e d  analysis) Repeaters, teria,  problem i n c a t e g o r i z i n g  is  the  mixture  we h a v e  claimed,  subsumed u n d e r t h e  in-general"). correlates  of  with this  status  a straightforward  semantic  and s y n t a c t i c  (and  "entity"  criterion as  entity.  (or of  perhaps  full  Partial  in  semantic criteria-  c a n be i s o l a t e d by s e m a n t i c  term  The s y n t a c t i c  classifiers  cri-  "entity-  repetition Repeaters  are  112 d i s t i n g u i s h e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e i r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e and s e c o n d a r i l y by hyponymy between head and c o n s i d e r the group sifiers.  classifier.  unlabelled i n Figure 4:  the  Finally,  "True" C l a s -  T h i s group i s i s o l a t e d p r i m a r i l y by n e g a t i v e  t a c t i c and  semantic c r i t e r i a ,  ties..  c l e a r e s t common p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  The  only  as non-repeaters and  syn-  non-entithese  r e s i d u a l words i s t h e i r b a s i c f u n c t i o n as c l a s s i f i e r s :  they  p r o v i d e r e f e r e n c e to v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of whatever the. headword r e f e r s . t o , and  these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are i n t u r n  used to p r o v i d e u n i t reference.. "Natural E n t i t y " i s a term which n i c e l y emphasizes d i s t i n c t i o n between the u n i t s d i s c u s s e d above and  the  the  "arti-  f i c i a l " u n i t s of Standard Measures, i s o l a t e d on the b a s i s of t h i s a r t i f i c i a l i t y and tus.  on the b a s i s of t h e i r n o n - e n t i t y  sta-  However, we have e a r l i e r emphasized t h a t o n l y Repeaters  are i n themselves complete e n t i t i e s .  Furthermore, the term  proposed  i s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l one.  The  c l a i m here then w i l l  be simply  t h a t while a l l c l a s s i f i e r s p r o v i d e u n i t r e f e r e n c e ,  Standard Measures p r o v i d e s t a n d a r d i z e d u n i t s and p r o v i d e u n i t s which are The  entities.  r e s i d u a l group i s f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o those  f i e r s which are capable which are not.  We  of  p a r t i a l repeating  have been u s i n g the i n i t i a l s  " p a r t i a l l y repeating") "PR  Repeaters  and "PR"  f o r r e p e a t e r s of t h i s type.  classi-  those (for The  label  U n i t s " w i l l be used f o r these words, which mostly r e f e r  to shapes, f u n c t i o n s , groups and p a r t s . The  second group of r e s i d u a l words, those which cannot  enter i n t o compounds or  p a r t i a l l y repeat,  c o n t a i n s the  two  113  subgroups d i s c u s s e d high  level  specific ers. ed  o f g e n e r a l i t y , and  and  later  their ed.  as  can  be  i n Figure  5 below.  i n the  are  The  ad h o c  which  a  are  classifi-  i n terms of  two-valu-  features proposed  here  elements s e l e c t e d f o r  specific  c l a i m of u n i v e r s a l i t y  features  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  Extended C l a s s i f i e r s  represented  i n t h i s t h e s i s are  criteriality No  Units,  h a v e vague m e a n i n g s o r none a t a l l as  These c r i t e r i a  features  and  above: General  distinctions  i s made.  being  In F i g u r e  examin-  5 syntactic  underlined.. Figure 5 of C l a s s i f i e r  Criteria  Categories  +unit  /  \  -standard  \  -(-entity +full repeating -partial repeating j +partial  /  Exclusive Repeaters  -entity - f u l l re-  Standard Measures  -(-partial repeating  repeating * " I PR R e p e a t e r s n n P R  In F i g u r e  +standard -entity  5 the  -partial repeating  I « . U  n  i  t  A  s  f e a t u r e f+standard]  a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y - d e r i v e d standard exactly..  The  negative  value  refers  to the  use  (i)  direct  perception  vide (ii)  of  r e f e r s to the  to q u a n t i f y  this  the  use  of  headword  f e a t u r e , [-standard^,  of (vision,  unit reference  direct  —-general -extended sense I Extended Classifiers  ' +general / General Units  T  perception  verified  to f i r s t - o r d e r  (vision  and  by  touch) to  pro-  entities,  hearing,  p r i m a r i l y ) to  114 provide unit (iii)  cultural  r e f e r e n c e to second-order  v a l u e s and d i s t i n c t i o n s  distinctions)  i n interaction  to provide u n i t An  alternative  (19 76) f e a t u r e  with  entities,  (including  and  logical  ( i ) and ( i i ) above,  reference to third-order  entities.  t o t h e f e a t u r e ^ s t a n d a r d ] i s T'sou's  e x a c t ] , w h i c h makes a p p r o x i m a t e l y  t h e same  distinction. Figure tion of  5 a l s o p r o v i d e s the rough  of c l a s s i f i e r  the broad  selection, at least  categories specified  data, f o r a  schematiza-  to the general  here.  level  115 7.0  EXTENSIONS  7.1  BASIC SENSE B e f o r e we  c a n examine t h e two  above, f o r which  senses  classifiers  are not r e a d i l y  available  need  derived  more i m p o r t a n t l y , w h e t h e r s u c h s e n s e s  deed  worth  to i n s i s t to  positing. that  i n English  this  paper  lexical  I do n o t  infinitives,).,  Yet i t i s a b a s i c  except  It i s a factor  (1977:9) c o n c u r s . here, c l a s s i f i e r s criteria  of the t o t a l  providing  items  dif-  situa-  or not.  Jones  described  semantic  makes i t w o r t h  the p o s s i b i l i t y  of  not r e a d i l y g l o s s e d .  expressed i n lengthy para-  of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  such senses  fact  at least  f o r those c l a s s i f i e r s  Sometimes t h e s e s e n s e s must be  glossing  This  of  examples,  communication  together according to  t o examine c a r e f u l l y  or l i s t s  assumption  Within the broad categories being group  a sense  ( f o r example,  cause semantic  are s i g n i f i c a n t  i n the m a j o r i t y of cases.  the e f f o r t  are i n -  i n very general citation-form always  be  i t i s necessary  items have a sense  that  native  senses c o u l d  a l l lexical  t i o n whether t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s  phrases  think that  or syntactic differences  ferences.  a t how  to  s p e a k e r s , we and,  to look generally  mentioned  is a different  The  inconvenience of  matter' f r o m t h e i r  validi-  ty. There  a r e more " m e a n i n g l e s s "  All  of the c l a s s i f i e r s  cal  characteristics  t o be d i f f i c u l t non-entities  of t h i s  classifiers  than these  t y p e , however, r e f e r  (in at least  one  of t h e i r  senses)  t o f u r n i s h w i t h meanings because  l i k e / b a j / "S2D. s h a p e "  o r because  to  two.  physiand  seem  they r e f e r  to  through a h i s -  116 torical  p r o c e s s o f e x t e n s i o n o f meaning t h e r e l a t i n g  have been  obscured.  Underlying classifiers of  criteria  any  attempt  w i t h a sense  classification  c a n be  to f u r n i s h  these  i s the assumption  "meaningless"  that  the  criteria  equated w i t h the sense of the  clas-  sifier. J . P . Denny  ( p e r s o n a l communication)  t h e meaning o f a c l a s s i f i e r l a t e d noun s e n s e . from  He  has  c a n n o t be d e r i v e d  stresses  that  He  does  c a n be a u s e f u l t h a t does  the r e -  i t c a n o n l y be  derived  a l l o w , however, t h a t  have  as n o u n s , w i t h t h e same o r r e l a t e d i n t h e two  different  as  noun  separate, but i d e n t i c a l /wan/  N .  1. day..  C.  alternative  sense.  In t h o s e  syntactic  t h e r e seems t o be no s i g n i f i c a n t  f e r e n c e between the f o l l o w i n g s t y l e s  of l i s t i n g  roles  semantic  dif-  i n Haas  1965:  senses:  2. d a y  (p.  501)  "classifier for": /hoo/  N . 1. p a c k a g e  C.  2. e l f f o r p a c k a g e s ,  t h i n g s wrapped i n p a c k a g e s . ( p . 577) (iii)  the sense  almost a l l of the c l a s s i f i e r s  are i d e n t i c a l ,  (ii)  classifier  to the understanding of the grouping  c a s e s where t h e s e n s e s  (i)  by t h e  occur.  In T h a i , functions  clue  that  from  an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e words c l a s s i f i e d  in question.  emphasized  identical  V.  3. t o wrap,  for  package  senses:  /phajaarj/ ...N,C. s y l l a b l e , (p.355). / r i a n / . . . N . c o i n : medal; d o l l a r . C. (p. 591).  2.  idem.  117  where N=Noun,  C=Classifier,  the p r e c e d i n g . 2 senses) For tions  Of t h e s e  examples, o n l y / r i a n /  and / p h a j a a r j / a r e l i s t e d those  as f u l l  classifiers nouns w i t h  ( f o r the f i r s t  b y Haas as r e p e a t e r s * .  w h i c h do n o t h a v e a l t e r n a t i v e  identical  a r e a b l e , i n most c a s e s , probably  and idem=the same i n m e a n i n g as  senses,  native  speakers  t o come u p w i t h a m e a n i n g .  done u n c o n s c i o u s l y i n a way s i m i l a r  func-  to that  This i s outlined  on p.116 a c c o r d i n g t o Denny; n a m e l y r e v i e w i n g t h e k i n d s o f headwords w i t h w h i c h t h e g i v e n c l a s s i f i e r Some c l a s s i f i e r s b u t no s e n s e  a s noun.  do h a v e c l e a r , With these  Haas 1965 as t o t h e s t y l e a sense with  as c l a s s i f i e r .  "classifier  easily  again  occurs.  elicited  senses,  there i s v a r i e t y i n  o f e n t r y : some e n t r i e s  Others  for...".  usually  have a d d i t i o n a l  simply  have  information  F o r example  / c h i n / C. 1. p i e c e ( o f a n y t h i n g w h o l e ) h e n c e , c l a s s i f i e r f o r p i e c e s o f c l o t h i n g , f u r n i t u r e , b r e a d , meat, b o n e s , work ( a s p e c i f i c t a s k ) e t c . ( p . 1 4 7 ) * * / j a a r j / C. 1. k i n d , s o r t , v a r i e t y ( h e n c e e l f f o r a r t i c l e s , u t e n s i l s , s p o r t s , e t c . ) ( p . 604) * I n some c a s e s Haas f u r n i s h e s an e n t r y w i t h a c l a s s i f i e r b u t d o e s n o t s u p p l y t h e e n t r y w i t h s e n s e as a noun o r v e r b . T h e s e must be e r r o r s s i n c e a c l a s s i f i a b l e f o r m must be a b l e t o a c t as h e a d and t h e r e f o r e b e a f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e . • * / c h i n / c a n be u s e d t o c l a s s i f y c l o t h i n g w h i c h i s i n c o m p l e t e : c u t b u t n o t y e t sewn. In t h i s sense / c h i n / c l a s s i f i e s p i e c e s of c l o t h , n o t c l o t h i n g . In o t h e r c a s e s ^ / c h i n / c a n c l a s s i f y c o l l e c t i o n s o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s l i k e /khriary m i i / " t o o l " /khr*arj j o t / " i n s i g n i a o f rank" e t c . H e r e i t seems t o be r e f e r r i n g t o p a r t s o f a w h o l e c o l l e c t i o n w h i c h may t h e m s e l v e s be d i s c r e t e o b j e c t s , / c h i n / may h a v e a g e n e r a l i z e d s p e c i f y i n g f u n c t i o n when i t c l a s s i f i e s s u c h c o l l e c t i o n s , much l i k e t h e c l a s s i f i e r / a n / w i t h which i t i s o f t e n j o i n e d i n e l a b o r a t e c o l l o q u i a l expressions. F o l l o w i n g the p a t t e r n o f t h i s second s e n s e , / c h i n / can p r o b a b l y c l a s s i f y / k h r i a r j r i a n / " f u r n i t u r e " and / k r t a i ] nurjhom/ " c l o t h e s , w a r d r o b e " , a l t h o u g h I h a v e no a g r e e m e n t f r o m i n f o r m a n t s on t h i s . y  118  There a r e other as  classifier  e n t r i e s as w e l l which l i s t  i n the s t y l e  "classifier  for...".  h a v e s u p p l i e d my own g l o s s , b a s e d a g a i n on  t h e nouns c l a s s i f i e d  those  nouns.  Por these  S3D s h a p e "  Such g l o s s e s  type,  are quite  p r a g m a t i c a l l y u s e f u l and c a n be j u s t i f i e d  by r e f e r e n c e t o  nouns c l a s s i f i e d  classifiers.  are r e l a t i v e l y  and c o n t r a s t s w i t h  (or  other  easy t o p o s i t , s i n c e t h e m a j o r i t y  ers which a r e n o t e a s i l y w h i c h do n o t o c c u r  given  as f u l l  common  of c l a s s i f i speakers  substantive  classify  nouns)  i n terms o f  salient  characteristics.  W i t h t h e two " m e a n i n g l e s s " c l a s s i f i e r s , informal process  a more a c c u r a t e As  however, s u c h an  becomes i n a d e q u a t e b e c a u s e o f t h e w i d e  o f s e n s e s o f t h e nouns t h e y find  They  meanings b y n a t i v e  a r a n g e o f nouns w h i c h i s q u i t e u n i f o r m  I  of the c l a s s i f i e r to  are the "small  q u i t e u n f a m i l i a r to n a t i v e speakers.  a sense  (rather informally)  and t h e r e l a t i o n  Such g l o s s e s  only  classify.  way t o s u p p l y  has o f t e n been p o i n t e d  example) t h e c o n n e c t i o n  I t i s necessary  range  to  a s e n s e f o r / l e m / and / a n / .  o u t ( s e e N o s s , 1964:105, f o r  b e t w e e n t h e nouns c l a s s i f i e d  by  these  i t e m s h a s o b v i o u s l y b e e n o b s c u r e d b y s e m a n t i c c h a n g e due t o cultural  and h i s t o r i c a l  some e x t e n s i o n not  only  other  essary  according  There has o b v i o u s l y  to criteria  In order  to explore  i n c l u d i n g the end-point  t o have a p l a c e  such a p o i n t  t o begin,  been  o f shape and f u n c t i o n ,  i n t h e case o f / l e m / and /an/,  classifiers.  tension,  factors.  b u t i n many o f t h e the path  of this  ex-  and t h e b e g i n n i n g ,  i t i s nec-  a point of entry.  We h a v e  i n t h e r a n g e o f nouns w i t h i n one c l a s s .  semantic range c o n s t i t u t e s the end-point.  Various  This  paths of  119  e x t e n s i o n c a n be (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)  using  p a t h o f e x t e n s i o n c a n be  result  i s known, as w e l l  a l o n g t h e way. ing,  be r e f e r r e d There  (iii) (iv)  These  from  well  traced  factor  is still  H e r e s u c h an o r i g i n a l  t o as t h e b a s i c are at l e a s t  i f the  sense.  f o u r ways t o e s t a b l i s h  the  a basic  sense f o r /lem/  and / a n / .  overlapping  indication  c a n be  amassed i n t h i s  t e n s i o n c a n be p r o v i d e d .  or not.  One  major  exercise  s e t s , and of  find-  same i s g e n e r a l l y above f o r t r a c -  However, a g r e a t d e a l  way,  of the semantic s t r u c t u r e  whether o r not t h i s  The  o f t h e methods l i s t e d  the path of semantic e x t e n s i o n .  struction  central  overlapping set:  methods a p p l y b e s t t o c l o s e - k n i t  information  is  will  c h o o s e t h e s e n s e w h i c h l i n k s t h e o t h e r (more p e r i pheral) meanings. c h o o s e t h e s e n s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f o r m when i t i s used i n i s o l a t i o n . ( t h e f i r s t two methods a r e s u g g e s t e d by N i d a 1975:143) d i r e c t l y e l i c i t t h e " b e s t example" of t h e s e t . ( f r o m R o s c h 1973:143) c h o o s e t h e s e n s e w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t number o f semant i c components i n common w i t h t h e o t h e r members o f the s e t .  true of the a p p l i c a t i o n ing  miss-  sense  h a v e l i m i t e d u s e when a p p l i e d b e l o w t o t h e p r o b l e m ing  final  of the p o s s i b l e routes  However, an e s s e n t i a l  sense of a c l o s e l y - k n i t  (ii)  fairly  as s o m e t h i n g  the s t a r t i n g - p o i n t .  (i)  evidence  polysemy compounding common c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s p e r c e i v e d by n a t i v e s p e a k e r s between items known f a c t s a b o u t t h e b e h a v i o u r o f c l a s s i f i e r s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e p r o p o s e d i n t h i s p a p e r , and t h e most common c r i t e r i a s u c h as shape and f u n c t i o n .  (v)  The  traced  and  at l e a s t  resulting  from  a  rough  the  ex-  q u e s t i o n remains,  i s t o be  of  a historical  and  that  recon-  120  7.2 DIACHRONY AND The  approach used h e r e has c l e a r i m p l i c a t i o n s  historical claims of  SYNCHRONY  semantics of Thai  and i n f a c t  about h i s t o r i c a l f a c t .  t h i s paper a r e best  the claims  verifiable  Nevertheless the conclusions  s e e n as s y n c h r o n i c  from s e m a n t i c e v i d e n c e as i t i s r e v e a l e d Since  makes  f o r the  statements  derived  i n present-day  made h e r e a r e b a s e d on s y n c h r o n i c  data.  evidence  t h e y must a g r e e w i t h o t h e r  synchronic  logical  evidence.  be a p p a r e n t b e l o w , t h e s t r u c t u r e s  posited  h e r e c a n be d i s p r o v e d  As w i l l  l i n g u i s t i c and p s y c h o -  by h i s t o r i c a l o r c u l t u r a l  evi-  dence . A completely diachronic knowledge o f b o t h t r a d i t i o n a l of  Thai  ancient  history.  worthwhile endeavour. principle  approach would r e q u i r e and c l a s s i c a l T h a i  S u c h an a p p r o a c h i s u l t i m a t e l y a  Lyons r e f e r s t o t h e  B o t h Denny  On  (1976i>:128) and Noss  of h i s t o r i c a l  the other  example, u s i n g subject  questionnaires  that  synchronic  rather  dence t h a t  i s neither  language"  (above) p o i n t  (1977:  out the  approach  (for  a n d a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s ) w o u l d be and c u r r e n t  events.  t h e method t o be employed b e l o w i s  than d i a c h r o n i c  b e c a u s e i t i s b a s e d on e v i -  h i s t o r i c a l nor p s y c h o l o g i c a l .  distinction,  nature are c l e a r l y  c u l t u r a l and  study.  to f a c t o r s of idiosyncrasy  an a b s o l u t e  that  hand, a t o t a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l  I have c l a i m e d  not  widely-recognized  independently of the s o c i a l ,  economic h i s t o r y o f t h e p e o p l e s p e a k i n g  importance  c u l t u r e , and  that, " t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f a language  c a n n o t be s t u d i e d  620).  a good  since  significant,  This i s  f a c t o r s of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  e s p e c i a l l y t h e emphasis  plac-  121 ed  on  perceptual  salience.  Also,  in difficult  cases  s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e paths of  extension  sonal  s e n s e " and " t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y  sense before  before  primarily supplied  by  with  i s not  this  an  close  historical  one  the  essential claim connection  of  and  this thesis.  the  to  of  the  Put  noun,  fact,  development  the  semantic  structures  i n other  words, t h e  that process  the  a  re-  accord structures  change of  of change.  i n the  (synchronic)  that  would n e c e s s i t a t e  r e s u l t s of h i s t o r i c a l  but  I t i s because  them i n t o  l e x i c o n i s at  contemporary  actual  to b r i n g  r e c o r d „they e x i s t w h o l l y  "...the study ical  of  classifiers  facts.  In  s e n s e as  with h i s t o r i c a l  inevitably reflect  a fossil  original  these s t r u c t u r e s  historical  speakers.  data  s p e c i f i e d at a l l ) i s probably  historically  p r e s e n t e d below are and  native  be  a  i t d e p e n d s e s s e n t i a l l y on  evidence contradictory  formulation  ing  "per-  simple  a p p r o a c h t a k e n b e l o w t o be  since  ( i f i t can  o u t l i n e d below f o r three  w i t h the  the  d i c t i o n a r i e s and  sense  identical  of  I consider  linguistic  basic  this  axioms of  t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y c o m p l e x " have d e f i n i t e i n f l u e n c e .  Nevertheless,  the  social  e x i s t , the  where  But  meanlike  present.  In  this  crossroads  of  a histor-  view of  language..."  way  (Leech  1974:226).  7.3  IN SEARCH OF  7.3.1  THE The  ary  CLASS OF only  i s as  T a b l e 11  A SENSE FOR  way  /lem/ t h a t /lem/  "classifier and  classified  by  /lem/  can  for....".  be The  12 h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d /lem/.  Some a r e  entered  i n t o the  referents  listed  from v a r i o u s  relatively  dictionbelow i n  sources  doubtful  to  but a l l  be  122 possibilities for  have been i n c l u d e d h e r e .  example, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of / c h i b n / "spoon" and /soom/  " f o r k " by /lem/ s i n c e modern speakers for  these.  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D o u b t f u l cases a r e ,  use other  classifiers  of /gaa/ "(elephant«s)tusks"  by /lem/ i s a t t e s t e d o n l y by F r a n k f u r t e r (1900:53), and such classification  i s today o b s o l e t e .  Classifiers classifier t  Table 11 C o - o c c u r r i n g With /lem/ /daam/ /khan/ /an/  / m i i t ( p h r a a ) / "knives" /khwaan/ "axe" /kankaj/ "scissors /khiaw/ "sickle" /kanchiag, p h a a j / "paddle, o a r " /chao n/ "spoon" /miitkoon/ "razor" /siw/ "chisel" /coop/ "hoe" /daap/ "sword" /daapplaajpiin/ "bayonet" /thuan/ "lance" /rjaa (chaarj) / "(elephant) tusk" /soom/ "fork" /khem/ "needle" /khemmut/ "pin" /kwian/ "oxcart" /lian, loo/ "sled, sledge" "book" /narjsii/ /phat/ "fan" /thian/ "candle" /rom/ "umbrella" /wii/ "comb" /(thaj)khraat/"harrow,rake ..... "wheelbarrow"  x  X X X  X  x x x x  others  x  X X X X X X  R (/kanchiarj/)  x. x x  /khaag/  X X  /tua/  /chabap, r iarj, phuuk/ X  /thasasn/ x x  X  Notes: S t r a i g h t r a z o r s take /daam/ "handle, h i l t , h o l d e r , sheath". Modern s t y l e r a z o r s take /an/ (the g e n e r a l c l a s s i fier). The c l a s s i f i e r /khan/ means "long handle". The " o t h e r s " column c o n t a i n s c l a s s i f i e r s with the f o l l o w i n g senses: R means " r e p e a t e r " ; /khaan/ means " s i d e ; one of a p a i r " ; / t u a / means "body-shaped"; /chabap/ means " i s s u e ; copy"; / r i a l ) / means " s t o r y " ; /phuuk/ means " ( t i e d ) bundle" and  123 /thaeasij/ means " b a r , i n g o t " . T h e r e i s no T h a i f o r m wheelbarrows because they a r e seldom ( i f ever) used and t h u s t h e y a r e n o t commonly r e f e r r e d t o . An at  least  listed The  x in a classifier one i n f o r m a n t ,  c o l u m n o p p o s i t e an i t e m means t h a t  dictionary  t h a t i t e m as b e i n g  or grammatical  classified  item /haarjsia/ "rudder,  sified  given f o r by T h a i s ,  tiller,  by / l e m / b u t t h e i n f o r m a n t  by t h a t  s o u r c e has  classifier.  helm" might a l s o be  who s u g g e s t e d  this  clas-  was n o t  sure. T a b l e UL Criteria  of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  CRITERIA:-  °  knives axe scissors sickle paddle, oar spoon razor chisel hoe sword bayonet lance, spear tusk fork needle pin oxcarts sled,sledge books fan candle umbrella comb harrow,rake wheelbarrow  h  a  P CUR  PNT  CUT  x (x) X X (x) X (X) (x) (x) X X x (dig) X X (X) X X X X X x(hold x *(transport) x *(transport)  e  S2D  HAN  X X X X X X (x) X X X X X X X X X  X X X X X X X X X X (x)  X X  (x)  (X)  X (X) X X X (X) X (X) (X)  X  X X  (X)  (x)* X X (X) (x)  X X X  characteristic  X* (x)*  (x) (X)  X (X)  X X X X X X X  X*  (x)*  PCE  x X X X  an x i n a c r i t e r i a  confident that T  X  X  X* (x) X X  characteristic - further, al  s  SID  I n T a b l e 12. reasonably  £  by / l e m /  the item that  t o an e x t e n t  that  X X X X  (x)(comb) (x)(rake) (transport)  c o l u m n means t h a t I am opposite item  possesses  exhibits  sufficient  the  f o r that  that criteri-  character-  124 istic  t o be  perceptually salient.  acteristics  which are  criterial  p r i m a r i l y used f o r p i e r c i n g ,  stabbing,  x f o r a given  item  enough t o be  that  the  combination  I have i n s u f f i c i e n t but  exhibited  to a s i g n i f i c a n t  an x  salient the  assume t h a t  the  characteristic  and  characteristic  the c h a r a c t e r i s x's  mean  i n f o r m a t i o n on  the  item  criterion by  object.  of t h a t column i s  that item.  seem an  in  unusual  An a s t e r i s k  combination  These cases  are  of  explained  t e x t below.  The the  first  question  criteria  en  characteristic  to  a certain  about Table  s e l e c t e d as  extent  on  the  salient.  required  t o match s a l i e n t reasons,  semantic extension  a definite on  and  an  unusually  to  an  with  knives  i t can  be  and  listed.  implements.  premature.  This  s h a p e and  in particular.  called  a knife,  routes  linguistic  of  evi-  is primarily  f u n c t i o n of There  l a r g e number o f s h a p e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  object before  shape,  implement  the b a s i s of the p u r e l y  and  the  a giv-  technological information i s  to the h i g h l y c u l t u r a l l y - v a r i a b l e i n general  on  c l a i m about the exact  be  concern-  s a l i e n c e of  the  characteristics  d e n c e p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e may  implements  The  f u n c t i o n of  more e t h n o g r a p h i c a l  these  12. i s , o f c o u r s e ,  depends t o a l a r g e e x t e n t  Further,  due  etc.  Bracketed  extent  i n d i c a t e s what may  jabbing,  and  exhibit  salient.  factual  question,  after  of  i t e m does not  considered  char-  are:  PCE:  tic  For  salient  s a l i e n t l y e x t e n d e d i n one d i m e n s i o n ( l e n g t h ) s a l i e n t l y e x t e n d e d i n two d i m e n s i o n s ( f l a t ) with a handle, e i t h e r long or s h o r t curved or round pointed p r i m a r i l y used f o r c u t t i n g or chopping  means t h a t I f e e l  ing  various  SID: S2D: HAN: CUR: PNT: CUT:  No  in  The  are  essential  at l e a s t  in  125  E n g l i s h : i t must be l o n g , f l a t and sharp,  u s u a l l y p o i n t e d , and  w i t h a handle.  Such a l i s t  of e s s e n t i a l and prominent c h a r -  a c t e r i s t i c s may  be the reason f o r k n i v e s appearing i n c l a s -  ses together with a b e w i l d e r i n g a r r a y of t h i n g s : A l l a n 291)  r e f e r s to a c l a s s i n F u l a f o r t r e e s , bladed  (1977:  instruments  ( k n i f e , r a z o r , sword), g r a s s s h e l t e r s , armpits and  life!  Even more v a r i a b l e i s the c u l t u r a l s a l i e n c e of a g i v e n shape or  function characteristic. Despite the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s mentioned above, some p o s s i -  bilities  are more l i k e l y  than o t h e r s , as i s shown by  c l a s s e s which are a c t u a l l y formed i n T h a i and o t h e r  the languages.  A comparison of c l a s s e s c o n t a i n i n g k n i v e s i n neighbouring r e l a t e d languages i n Table 12- .  allows the s e l e c t i o n of the c r i t e r i a  T h e p a t t e r n i n g i n Table 12.  and  used  e v e n t u a l l y allows  the p o s i t i n g of a b a s i c sense f o r /lem/. 7.3.2  CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION FOR AND  KNIVES IN NEIGHBOURING  RELATED LANGUAGES  From the l i m i t e d comparative pattern, energes  d a t a a v a i l a b l e to me,  f o r o n l y one of the items i n Table 12. ,  a full This  p a t t e r n i n g depends very much on the c r i t e r i a s e l e c t e d and low i s an attempt lar  to j u s t i f y  the s e l e c t i o n of these  particu-  criteria. The c r i t e r i o n of " f l a t n e s s " or S2D  neighbouring  language with a c l a s s i f i e r  s i m i l a r l i n e s to those of T h a i . of  be-  Chinese has  the c l a s s i f i e r  shape i s used i n a system c o n s t r u c t e d on  K a i p i n g , a southern  dialect  t s i a n g 33 which i s used to c l a s -  s i f y the f o l l o w i n g r e f e r e n t s : c h a i r s , t a b l e s , papers, maps and k n i v e s , a c c o r d i n g to Chang (19 77:100).  126  Chinese 33  as a f u l l  it  refers  speakers  Thai  to a flatness,  in  an S2D  a dialect  i s disputed.  Heimbach  i n W h i t e Meo  are  k n i v e s , spoons,  are  listed  rate  Although languages, salience nection tions  Examples pieces  by  guns,  items and  (in a  to these items  rab  sepaAl  i n these  evidence of i t s  Nevertheless,, the e x i s t e n c e of such a languages  systems i n South  of Vietnam,is  at least  shows t h a t  such  objects,  con-  connec-  of paper,  hoes,  sickles,  scythes.  hollow tree"  Mnong N j u a , a  items  f o r "long pointed  (certain include  wagons, a u t o m o b i l e s ,  sticks,  grouping i n Meo  r e p o r t e d (Lyman 1974:91) t o h a v e a  vehicles  of c l a s s i f i e d  in similar  East A s i a .  carj, w h i c h i s u s e d  planting  tree),  things held  other  listed  to  rab i s a  area of f i e l d .  shape i s a l s o v e r y prominent  classifier, flat  tools,  scissors,  f o r a large  shape i s  possible.  classifier language  that  whose r e l a t i o n  Elsewhere  t h i s does n o t c o n s t i t u t e d i r e c t  i n nearby  are  and  rab i s also  shape i s s a l i e n t  i n Thai.  SID  long  S2D  o f S2D  Items c l a s s i f i e d  hammers.  (Heimbach 1 9 6 9 : 4 5 5 ) .  tsianq and  (1969:274) r e p o r t s t h a t  as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e c l a s s :  e n t r y ) as c l a s s i f i e r  of  to s t r e t c h "  a criterion  f o r implements  axes and  sense  of a language  the hand, t h i n g s w i t h h a n d l e s .  chisels  the b a s i c  shape.  c a s e o f e x t e n s i o n by  i n W h i t e Meo,  classifier  that  s u b s t a n t i v e i s "to extend,  Another found  report  razors,  tools  and  letters  objects,  weapons)".  (epistles),  b o a t s , machetes,  p o c k e t k n i v e s , axes,  A separate entry g i v e s "trunk as t h e s e n s e  o f t h e same f o r m  needles  spears,  (of a dead with a func-  127 tion  as  noun.  A s i m i l a r grouping based Chrau,  a Chamic l a n g u a g e  on SID  speakers are found i n Vietnam.  lists  the Chrau  a list  tively)  classified  objects"  (Burling  The of  classifier  of objects  Thomas  including knives.  in. the tong group.  Knives are  s i n which  and a r c s shape  or curve i s prominent  i n many  Chrau White  (above) Meo  includes rings  includes  i n the rab class  of a r i v e r  following /llran/  /loo  /loo  /  entries  a r e f o u n d i n Haas  curved  1969:492).  Bur-  the  transport,  The  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t .  mortars  rice-cutting knives  tools,  (Denny 1 9 7 6 : 1 2 8 ) .  ny  and  "Thai-style"  (Heimbach  i s used f o r c u t t i n g  seems t o De  (alternaslender  mese, w h i c h n e i g h b o u r s T h a i b u t i s u n r e l a t e d , h a s fier  thin"  f o r "long  k n i v e s w i t h hooked ends, h a l f - m o o n sickles  "long,  1965:251).  f a c t o r of roundness  and r i c e  (1971:133)  tong w i t h the sense  i n Burmese with, c h a u n  these groupimgs.  hoes,  i s a l s o found i n  o f the. M a l a y o - P o l y n e s i a n f a m i l y .  Chrau  for  shape  classipaths  notion of curved  Furthermore,  (1965:476 &  the  495):  1. t o move a l o n g ; t o s l i d e , t o s k i d 2. a s l e d ; a s l e d g e u s e d i n h a r v e s t i n g by /lem/)  (classified  1. a. w h e e l o f a c a r t o r wagon 2. t o r o l l ( a w h e e l o r r o u n d o b j e c t ) 3. c r u d e o x c a r t u s e d i n h a r v e s t i n g ( c l a s s i f i e d /lem/) l * a n / wheeled  These  polysemous  between s l i d i n g  vehicles entries  and r o l l i n g  (a c o l l e c t i v e show c l e a r  transport  i n the r e s t r i c t e d  Manitcharoen  gives  including  o f /loo/  term)  connections i n Thai  main o f rough h a r v e s t v e h i c l e s . a wide d e f i n i t i o n  by  do-  (1977:827)  a n y t h i n g round  also  128 used al,  to support s u c h as  and  move a v e h i c l e , o r r o u n d t h i n g s  a coin. on  He  clearly  describes  pulled  along  755).  There i s a c l e a r connection  manufacturing verb  /fan  candles.  t h i a n / as  shaped candles compound v e r b the  l o n g wooden r o l l e r s  i s common and of the  to  Thai.  There knives  ed  i n the  Lao-English  1.. n . 4. Lao is  shape  2.  n.  for knives.  ball,  the  of  compound  into cylinderThis  i n most d i c t i o n a r i e s . of roundness to  by  (Kerr  anything  stars,  In T h a i  senses of  Finally  But  classify  closely related  dua:ng w h i c h i s  19 72:550) w i t h  there  objects  that  the  the  may  round.  Thai  a salient  of e x t e n s i o n W h i t e Meo  of  n.  list-  the  disc.  round  objects.  /duan^/ w h i c h  same r a n g e . o f nouns  the  Lao  classifier  except,of  sense of /dual)/ i s u s u a l l y  of l i g h t , cognate,  etc."  Especially in  i t i s clear that  here  i s p r i m a r i l y roundness.  is a clear indication be  3.  stamps, k n i v e s ,  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  a criterion  noted  wax  classified  "round t h i n g ; s o u r c e  criterion  these  to the p r o c e s s  entry:  view of the  as  are  used f o r almost e x a c t l y the  as  (1977:  a T a i language very  /dua;ng/ i s cognate t o the  given  i n s t e a d of wheels  roll  listed  Dictionary  e l f . for lights,  course,  the  and  criterion  i s f o u n d i n Lao,  following  device  u s i n g h a n d , f o o t o r wooden i n s t r u m e n t .  c l e a r e s t use  knives  a  here  / l ± a n / as  Manitcharoen defines  to p r e s s  i n gener-  t h a t the  handle  enough c h a r a c t e r i s t i c the  classifier  class. rab  We  have  classifies  to  of act  already things  with  h a n d l e s and t h i n g s h e l d . i n t h e hand g e n e r a l l y . C a m p b e l l and Shaweevongse (1962:346) i n c l u d e i n t h e i r l i s t o f o b j e c t s classified  by  /lem/  "things  with  handles  s u c h as  oxcarts,  129 wheel barrows bars  etc."  This  which r u n p a r a l l e l along each  (/kwian/). can a l s o  teria  Burling  (1965:252)  that  review has centered  i n Burmese f o r "hand  For ex-  that grooves,  lines  or cuts  pointed instruments  material.  the w e t - r i c e  c a n b e made b y b l a d e d  or wheels,  Some i n f o r m a n t s s a y t h a t  ed w i t h / l e m / because  o f t h e way t h e y  fields.  especially  oxcarts  cut into  (Burling  1965:251)  through water. the f a c t  excellence,  rather  Evidence against  we a p p l y t h e 4 methods  a basic  sense f o r / l e m / ,  above  t h e n methods  found earth  (p.119) to p o -  ( i i ) and ( i i i ) do  (approach  i i ) , /lem/  or books. example  educated  speakers,  The " b e s t examples"  o f words c l a s s i f i e d b y / l e m / ( a p p r o a c h  tional  is  of the  " s o m e t h i n g l o n g a n d p o s s i b l y r o u n d " t o some  the b e s t are  and c u t t e r s  suggested  In i s o l a t i o n  but nothing at a l l to o t h e r s .  knives  "cutting"  are c l a s s i f i e d i n T h a i by / k h a n / " l o n g h a n d l e "  not prove very u s e f u l .  set  or f o r cutting"  such a connection  line-drawers  "tools  A BASIC SENSE FOR / l e m /  If  means  of boats  earth  than by / l e m / .  7.3.3  sit  count-  Burmese s i n seems t o encompass  through a l i n k i n g  that plows,  are  in a  the soft  or machinery which are used f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  par  tools".  o f f u n c t i o n a r e o f t e n e q u a l l y as s i g n i f i c a n t . note  on c r i t e r i a  knives  but c r i -  instruments,  in  oxcarts  of shape,  ample,  soft  shows  to the long  side of Thai  be c l a s s i f i e d by l e " * , a c l a s s i f i e r  This  of  i s probably reference  i i i ) are  of the either  However, b o t h t h e sense i n i s o l a t i o n and a r e skewed b y t h e f a c t  c i t y people with l i t t l e  agricultural  that  a l l informants  acquaintance  implements o r w i t h weapons.  with  tradi-  The s e n s e s  130  given are simply the most prominent members of the class i n contemporary c u l t u r e . and  I t might be assumed that methods ( i )  (iv) are equivalent,  of /lem/  below and  but a comparison of the  of /tua/ i n section 7.5  discussions  shows t h i s i s not  wholly so: a basic sense f o r /lem/can be posited using  ap-  proach ( i v ) , while t h i s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r /tua/ as w i l l described i n section  7.5.  In Table 12. there i s o n l y one item  which exhibits a l l the  s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l a s s of /lem/. /khiaw/ " s i c k l e " .  T h i s item i s  It i s doubtful i f piercing i s a s a l i e n t  f u n c t i o n of s i c k l e s , but t h i s i s not a g r e a t shortcoming it  be  as  i s demonstrable t h a t the f u n c t i o n of p i e r c i n g i s dependent  upon a p o i n t e d shape t o a f a r g r e a t e r extent than, say,  the  f u n c t i o n of c u t t i n g i s dependent upon any p a r t i c u l a r shape. I t has a l r e a d y been noted above  that various  instruments  can a f f e c t a mass m a t e r i a l i n v a r i o u s ways t h a t a l l have a common e f f e c t : c r e a t i n g l i n e a r l e s i o n s .  In f a c t c u t t i n g  be the most p r o d u c t i v e c r i t e r i o n of semantic these o p e r a t i o n s are seen  extension i f a l l  by native speakers as s i m i l a r .  Thus /khiaw/ " s i c k l e " e x h i b i t s a l l the important classification.  c r i t e r i a of  Knives i n g e n e r a l e x h i b i t the same range,  s i n c e roundness and pointedness  are b r a c k e t e d o n l y because  of the g e n e r i c nature of the item. of /lem/  may  Thus, as the b a s i c sense  i n T h a i we can p o s i t the sense  c u t t i n g instrument with a handle  of a bladed, p o i n t e d  and e i t h e r a s t r a i g h t  or  curved b l a d e . I t i s probably r e l e v a n t t h a t o x c a r t s , s l e d s and  sledges  are a s s o c i a t e d with s i c k l e s i n the process of h a r v e s t i n g .  131  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t these items are c l a s s i f i e d through chains of a sledge  of c r i t e r i a .  For example the c u t t i n g a c t i o n  may have been the c r i t e r i o n f o r t r a n s f e r of /lem/  c l a s s s t a t u s from knives harvest  indirectly  t o sledges  and from these the common  t r a n s p o r t f u n c t i o n o f sledges  have been t h e c r i t e r i o n of e x t e n s i o n w r i t i n g a t the t u r n of the century  and e a r l y c a r t s may to c a r t s .  Frankfurter,  (1900:54), thought t h a t  /kwian/ " o x c a r t " was i n the c l a s s of /lem/ "perhaps from the traces i t leaves  on the ground".  A l l other v e h i c l e s are  c l a s s i f i e d w i t h /khan/ "long handle", and t h i s leads s u s p i c i o n t h a t e a r l y c a r t s and sledges s i n g l e tongue p r o j e c t i n g i n f r o n t . oxcarts  were not b u i l t with a  One informant f e l t  that  t r a d i t i o n a l l y had a t r i a n g u l a r s o r t of e x t e n s i o n i n  f r o n t t o which oxen were yoked. and  t o the  extension  The "handles" of the c a r t  t o wheelbarrows suggest t h a t the farmers them-  s e l v e s o f t e n had t o push the c a r t s out of r u t s , or s o f t f i e l d s . 7.4  IN SEARCH OF A SENSE FOR /an/  7.4.1 .NOUNS CLASSIFIED BY /an/ The  c l a s s i f i e r /an/ i s f o r s m a l l , long o b j e c t s  l o o s e l y when a speaker i s unsure of the proper  and i s used  classification  of something, u s u a l l y , but not always, a p h y s i c a l  object.  With /pen/ "be" i t a l s o f u n c t i o n s as k i n d of r e l a t i v i z e r or nominalizer  i n forcmal w r i t i n g , as i n the f o l l o w i n g example:  7.1. khaw he  choop like  maak much  7.2 khaw he  chSop like  pen an be NOM  "He l i k e s i t very much". maak much  "He l i k e s i t a g r e a t  deal".  T h i s i s a c t u a l l y a f i x e d c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r a number of expres-  132 sions,  including  /pen /pen /pen  an k h a a t / an d i i / an t o k l o r j /  "absolutely, definitely "very w e l l ; w i l l i n g l y " " i t ' s agreed"  /pen  an maak/  " i n g r e a t q u a n t i t y , i n g r e a t numbers"  Of  the  w i t h /an/,  300 21  which r e f e r clubs,  entries  i n Haas 1965  which are  a r e compounds b e g i n n i n g  to s t i c k l i k e  spears,  e t c . , and  Thai alphabet.  form  "wood"  as s t a f f s , ,  rods,  e x t e n s i o n t o some s y m b o l s  T h e r e i s an  varied morphological  classified  w i t h /maaj/  implements such by  not"  a d d i t i o n a l g r o u p o f 20  which r e f e r  to s t i c k l i k e  i n the  words o f implements.  The  second  most common g r o u p o f compounds b e g i n s  /khrsarj/  "sign;  machine;  ingredients; paraphernalia;  with equip-  ment, e t c . " w i t h n i n e o c c u r r e n c e s . From- t h e f o r e g o i n g i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e r e portant ever,  factor  of a sense  of  "implement" i n t h i s  among t h e words c l a s s i f i e d  referents  are  entities,  thus  by  /an/  a b s t r a c t i o n s i n the sense  i s an  class.  imHow-  a r e s e v e r a l whose of b e i n g t h i r d - o r d e r  not p h y s i c a l l y p e r c e p t i b l e .  The  g r o u p i s as  follows: /cut xin/ /ubaaj/  "weak p o i n t " /muunheet/ "cause" "trick, device, / p h i i n raap/"(geom.) p l a n e " plot" /kron/ "(math) r o o t " /najoobaj/ "policy" / r a t t h a p r a s a a s a n o o b a j / "governmental a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y " 9  A similar c o u l d be type  and  o v e r l a p p i n g group c o n s i s t s  considered either  or s p e c i f i c  /tuajaarj/ /nimi't/^ /basaepjaan/ /basaepchabap/  example.  o f words t h a t  a b s t r a c t o r c o n c r e t e , as T h i s second  group i s  "sample, e x a m p l e " " s i g n , omen" " s e t example, p a t t e r n " " p a t t e r n , model"  general  133 /phaeaen/ " p l a n , scheme" /phseaenkaan/ " p l a n , p r o j e c t scheme" /pha^aenphan/ " p l a n , l a y o u t , scheme" /khrianmii/ " t o o l , instrument" /khratanf ajCf a a / " e l e c t r i c a l appliances" /khrtarjjot/ " i n s i g n i a of rank" /khrifcarjalaj/ "spare p a r t s " /khriarjwat/ "measuring i n s t r u m e n t s " /khriai^maaj/ " s i g n , mark, s y m b o l , s i g n a l " /khrasaijmaaj k h r i a r j m i i / " t o o l s , i n s t r u m e n t s " /khr±arjmaajkaakabaat/ "mark w i t h c r o s s e d l i n e s " /khcorjkhwan/ "gift" /khDorj l a p / "genitalia" / s irjkhobrj / "things " /khaawkh^arj / " b e l o n g i n g s , equipment" /kon/ "mechanical d e v i c e " /khoopkheet/ "limit" One  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the use  g r o u p i s as f o l l o w s : rality fic  and  Where a word o r p h r a s e  /an/  i s used  For. example, w i t h / k h r i a r j m i i /  sify use  at a l l .  refers of  refers  /jaa-rj/  sense  to tools  " k i n d " o r one  of instruments,  same as t h a t added by specified",  very closely ly  to provide u n i t  tool,  thing," etc.  a concretizing tools,  and  The  refers  will  he  will  or sentence  except  of t o o l s ,  /an/.  o f any  In t h i s  the use  classifier:  t h a t with /an/  a t l e a s t n o t when / a n /  classifier  f u n c t i o n due  /an/  is suitable  other p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s h e l d i n the s e t s among t h e  will he  class  case  the  i s the unit  of  i s not  i s used  to i t s association with  most common s e m a n t i c  If  "one  the u n i t  clashe  of /an/  r e f e r e n c e t o g e n e r a l terms l i k e The  i f the  a member o f t h e  by  a. s p e c i -  not need t o  to kinds  use  gene-  latter..  of i t s c l o s e near-synonyms.  the use  specified,  and  instruments",  example as b e i n g  added t o a p h r a s e  the type  "tools,  second  i s of h i g h  to i n d i c a t e the  i n g e n e r a l , he  I f the speaker  to a s p e c i f i c  tools  with this  i s ambiguous b e t w e e n t h e g e n e r a l s e n s e  exemplary sense,  speaker  of /an/  loose-  "device, for  such  hand  hand. 3 0 0 words  classi-  134  fied  by / a n /  were:  ( i ) S l D o b j e c t s : 119 o c c u r r e n c e s , ( i i ) h a n d i m p l e m e n t s ( t o o l s , weapons, e t c . ) o r h a n d - h e l d p a r t s o f complex d e v i c e s : 83 o c c u r r e n c e s , ( i i i ) s i g n s , i n d i c a t o r s , s y m b o l s , i n s i g n i a , e t c . : 45 o c c u r rences . ( i v ) m a c h i n e r y , m o v i n g p a r t s : 43 o c c u r r e n c e s , (v) S l D wooden " s t i c k - l i k e " o b j e c t s : 41 o c c u r r e n c e s . 7.4.2  C L A S S I F I E R S CO—OCCURRING WITH Not  nate  much i n f o r m a t i o n i s t o be  occurrence  of other  occurrences.  fier  object, 7.3  Other  and  classifier  Next i s / c h i n /  /jaarj/ i s a p o t e n t i a l  Co-occurrence  gained  classifiers  monly o c c u r r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e 14  /an/ by  /an/.  with / c h i n / reinforces  The  i s /jaarj/  "piece" with  classifier  examining  most com-  "kind"  13.  The  f o r almost the sense  alter-  any  of  with  classihead.  physical  as  shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g common i d i o m : • p e n c h i n p e n an ( e l a b o r a t e c o l l o q u i a l ) " t o be a g o o d be P I E C E be CLF s o l i d piece; well organized, well c o n s t r u c t e d " (Haas 1965:148)  alternative classifiers  /tua/ /phaan/ /luuk/ /khrian/ /lem/ In  o c c u r r i n g more t h a n  5 times  are  "body s h a p e " " l a r g e 32D s h a p e " " s m a l l S3D s h a p e " "machine" CLF  a l l , 21 d i f f e r e n t  classifiers  are  alternatives  to  /an/. 7.4.3  HYPOTHESIZED STRUCTURE The  their  l a r g e number o f nouns t o be  extremely  t h a t used parative /lem/. of  /an/,  considered here,  wide r a n g e o f meanings, makes an  f o r /lem/ evidence  impractical.  is available  There i s another a source  not  t o me,  source,  available  In a d d i t i o n ,  plus  approach no  clear  u n l i k e the case  like com-  with  however, f o r a b a s i c f o r /lem/: the tendency  sense for  135 many headwords o f / a n / compounding e l e m e n t s sense  and  structure  t o be  compounds.  a l l o w s a rough  The  hypothesis  of e x t e n s i o n f o r /an/.  method o f a p p r o x i m a t i o n s ,  we  can  predominance  then  of a  Using  of  basic  a sort  t r y to r e f i n e  the  of pic-  ture. Using terion  frequency  f o r a b a s i c sense  the paths  t o be  classified related  of /an/,  of e x t e n s i o n of /an/  (next page). taken  of occurrence  one  " s t i c k " because /maaj/.  The  t o wood i n t h e f o r m  a  of  i s represented i n Figure 5 sense  of /an/ i s  t h e most f r e q u e n t compound sense  and  is easily  related  ( i n i t s v a r i o u s senses), which i s the next The  most t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y p r i m i t i v e ,  head  of /maaj/ i n these cases i s  of a s t i c k ,  common compounded h e a d w o r d .  cri-  possible hypothesis  In F i g u r e 5 the b a s i c  was  to /khriarj/  o f compound h e a d s as  sense  as  "stick"  t h e s i m p l e s t and  most  i s also the  the  most  concrete. It  i s possible  to support  some o f t h e  tions  i n F i g u r e 5.  occur  i n a l a r g e number o f a l l i t e r a t i v e  such  as /khraarjmaaj  grouping Haas  relates  lables  khriarjmii/ l i s t e d  f o r m e d on  that  of a l l i t e r a t i o n "  Nevertheless  above.  such p a i r i n g s  and  This  pairings idiomatic  m a a j / and are  /mii/.  "chiefly  for  i n d e e d sometimes nonsense the requirements  i t i s true  the b a s i s of a semantic  that  of  o f a r g u m e n t s f o r and  of  syl-  these  many o f t h e p a i r s  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  p a i r e d members, o f t e n a r e l a t i o n s h i p Regardless  or euphonic  a l l three items: /khriarj,  are innovated to f u l f i l l  pairings.  connec-  F o r example, / m a a j / and. / m i i / "hand"  (1965:420) s t a t e s  the sake  internal  are  the  synonymy.  against various  internal  Figure 6 Rough S e m a n t i c S t r u c t u r e 1.stick-r2.long wooden objects -3.alphabetical symbols with straight lines 1-4.hand tools  5. s m a l l solid manipulable object -6 . d e v i c e •7.materials  of/an/  <-8.any small object  •17.superscript alphabetical symbols  [~ 9 . s i g n  • 18.representation  rio.  t  machine il.trick • 12.plan, policy  pl4.ingredients  _ r  25.important moment  22. g o a l , endpoint  15. apparatus equipment  • 20.coins, insignia 21. d e c i s i v e blow,trick, movement  ^-13 .cause  »-16.  • 19.example, pattern  23 . s e t s , groups o f similar utensils, products  1  24.spare parts  Some examples f r o m g r o u p 2 ( l o n g wooden o b j e c t s ) : s h o u l d e r p o l e , yoke, mast, a x l e , c r o s s , r a i l r o a d t i e , coat hanger Some examples f r o m g r o u p 4 (hand t o o l s ) :  hammer, s p e a r , broom, p i k e , a x e , r u d d e r , c l u b , h a r p o o n , c a n e , s t a f f , c r u t c h , hook, s w i t c h , r o d , match s t i c k , s h o v e l , r a c k e t , lever, paddle, l a d l e .  137  connections  i n the h y p o t h e s i z e d  s t r u c t u r e , there i s again a  r e s i d u a l group which cannot e a s i l y be s t r u c t u r e o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e 6.  accommodated i n the  This group c o n t a i n s  items  like /keesoon/ /huukrataa j / /noon/ /cut D3n/ /cua/ /khriip/ etc. 1  7.4.4  "pollen" "bow t i e ; bowknot" (ear + r a b b i t ) "comb (of f o w l ) " "weak p o i n t " ( p o i n t + s o f t ) "gable" "fin"  COMPONENTIAL REFORMULATION I t might a l s o be o b j e c t e d t h a t the items occupying  the  v a r i o u s nodes of F i g u r e 6 are too s e m a n t i c a l l y amorphous, because they are a c t u a l words i n E n g l i s h , t h a t they v a r i o u s connotations  and,  carry  not e x p l i c i t i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  More s u i t a b l e items, perhaps,, would be more l i k e f o r m a l semant i c components, more u n i v e r s a l i n a p p l i c a t i o n and i n g l y l e s s language-dependent. be p r o v i d e d  and  i s Figure 7  (next page), where  correspond-  In f a c t such components c o u l d  the g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e maintained.  The  result  +object = f i r s t - o r d e r e n t i t y +manual = u s u a l l y h e l d i n the hand, handled +means = method of a c h i e v i n g a g o a l +purpose= g o a l to be achieved +instant= momentaneous, p o i n t - o f - t i m e -(-necessary = necessary to achieve some g o a l (=necessary-topurpose) +integration = u n i t i n g v a r i o u s substances i n one mixture -(-gradation = o c c u r r i n g i n a s e r i e s which i s graded a c c o r d i n g to some c r i t e r i o n such as rank, v a l u e , e t c . +specif i c - t o - p u r p o s e = s p e c i f i c a l l y c r e a t e d f o r a g i v e n purpose ( f o c u s ) : a component w i t h (focus) i s more s a l i e n t than the same component without i t The  type  of componential a n a l y s i s presented  here d i f f e r s  Featural l.+wood +S1D +object  2.+wood +S1D +means •purpose +object H3.+S1D +sign +alphabetical 4.+S1D +object +manual +means (focus)  Figure 7 Semantic S t r u c t u r e  p5.+object +manual +means •purpose \-6 ,+means •purpose  _r  of /an/  8.+object •small  . r 9, •+raeans sign  7,+purpose (focus) •necessary •substance •  10. +means •mechanical •complex •power  17,+sign +alphabetical +superscript •18,+sign +object 19, + s i g n +example  |-ll.+means •purpose •action  20, + s i g n +official +gradation  12, +means •purpose •plan  •21,+means +purpose +action +instant +important  +purposeJ  13, +purpose 1 •cause J ("14 ,+purpose •necessary +substance •integration }-15. +purpose +necessary +ob j e c t +complex u  16 ,+purpose +necessary +object +plural +specific-to purpose  22, +purpose •exact 23, + o b j e c t +plural +similar +set •24,+object +necessary +replacement  ~ r2 5.+impor- ""i H I -tant & M +instantl  139  from other componential analyses all,  i n c e r t a i n ways.  items i n formal componential analyses  F i r s t of  a r e u s a l l y re-'  q u i r e d t o have common components which a r e used t o r e l a t e e i t h e r the m u l t i p l e senses of a s i n g l e form or the members of a u n i f i e d semantic domain. presented  The components a r e u s u a l l y  i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement with the "unique be-  g i n n e r " component being items of t h e s e t .  (redundantly)  i n c l u d e d i n a l l the  Common components and a h i e r a r c h i c a l r e -  l a t i o n s h i p , then, serve  t o u n i f y the s e t s e m a n t i c a l l y .  The  a n a l y s i s then c o n s i s t s of p o s i t i n g components which d i s t i n g u i s h t h e members of t h e s e t . In c o n t r a s t , when t r y i n g t o r e p r e s e n t class  a  classifier  we a r e i n v o l v e d i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of a l o o s e l y  k n i t group,because the u n i f y i n g c r i t e r i o n i s not semantic. It i s phonological  and s y n t a c t i c , i n t h a t the c l a s s i s c r e a t -  ed by co-occurrence ( s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i o n ) with an i d e n t i c a l form ( p h o n o l o g i c a l ) .  Thus the main problem i s t o r e l a t e t h e  items s e m a n t i c a l l y r a t h e r than t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e them. ceeding  Pro-  t o the r i g h t i n the t r e e s t r u c t u r e i n F i g u r e 7 , then,  we f i n d i n p a s s i n g  from one node to another t h a t sometimes  a f e a t u r e i s dropped and i n other cases a f e a t u r e i s added. There i s only one e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e evident t u r i n g of F i g u r e 7 .  i n the s t r u c -  That i s t h a t each node must have a t  l e a s t one f e a t u r e i n common with the node t h a t dominates i t . The  f e a t u r e s i n common are i n f a c t c r i t e r i a of e x t e n s i o n , and  should be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the c r i t e r i a o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which are represented  by the t o t a l of non-redundant  at the node where a g i v e n item i s l i s t e d .  features  For example the  140  c r i t e r i a of e x t e n s i o n from node 1 t o node 2 a r e : - [+wood] , [ + S 1 D ]  , and [tobject]  .  The c r i t e r i a o f c l a s -  s i f i c a t i o n f o r node 2 , however, a r e a d i f f e r e n t [+wood] , [ + S 1 D ]  and j+means] ; that i s , a l l the  non-redundant f e a t u r e s a t node 2 . from the l i s t  group:  [+object] has been  because i t i s i m p l i e d by S I D shape;  has been dropped  dropped  [+purpose]  because i t i s redundantly i m p l i e d by J^+meansJ.  Of course the whole p r o c e s s i s based on the assumption  that  e x t e n s i o n takes p l a c e by some p s y c h o l o g i c a l process of assoc i a t i o n of common f e a t u r e s .  The s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a o f exten-  s i o n between each node a r e g i v e n i n Table 1 3 (next page) The f i r s t way i n which the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s d i f f e r s the more u s u a l type of componential c l a s s of items i s u n i f i e d , then.  from  a n a l y s i s i s i n the way the  In s e e k i n g to e x p l a i n the  paths of semantic e x t e n s i o n we are t r y i n g to e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s bet-^een items with no components i n common, i n some cases.  For example, o x c a r t s and candles were seen to be  c l a s s e d t o g e t h e r by /lem/, y e t n e i t h e r shared a common f e a t u r e of shape or f u n c t i o n . c l a s s e s , however.  T h i s i s not a d e f e c t i n d e s c r i b i n g  As p o i n t e d out below, the u n i f y i n g  are more than simply semantic. (1977:467)  Furthermore,  Clark & Clark  c i t e evidence from Rosch & H e r v i s 1 9 7 5 t h a t b a s i c  type c a t e g o r i e s i n E n g l i s h  (e.g. f r u i t ,  have no f e a t u r e s common t o a l l items. cause Rosch and Mervis i n c l u d e d a range c a l examples f o r each b a s i c type. i n c l u d e d apples and oranges coconuts.  criteria  v e h i c l e s , weapons,etc.) T h i s was the case beof t y p i c a l and a t y p i -  Thus t h e i r f r u i t  category  as expected, but a l s o o l i v e s and  141 Table Criteria  of Extension i n F i g u r e 6 & 7  E x t e n s i o n From Node to Node 1 1 I 4  ... ... ... ...  2 3 4 7  13  Criteria +S1D, +wood, + o b j e c t +S1D +S1D, +object +purpose ( w i t h s h i f t i n f o c u s  from  +means) 4 4  ... ...  5 6  -(-manual, -t-object + p u r p o s e , +means  5 6  ... ...  8 9  6 6 6 6  ... ... ... ...  10 11 12 13  7 7 7 9 9 9 9 II 12 15  ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...  14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23  16 21  ... ...  24 25  +object -(-means, ( s p e c i f i c a t i o n to [+sign] ) +means +means, +purpose -(-means, -(-purpose -(-purpose, ( w i t h s h i f t i n v i e w p o i n t : g o a l becomes r e s u l t ) -(-substance, - f n e c e s s a r y , + p u r p o s e -(-necessary, -(-purpose -(-necessary, -(-purpose +sign +sign +sign +sign -means, + a c t i o n , -(-purpose -(-purpose -(-object, ( s p e c i f i c a t i o n f r o m [+complexj; t o [ + p l u r a l ~\ , [+set3 ) -l-necessary, -(-object -(-instant, -(-important  Note: Bracketed c r i t e r i a not  actually  are superox*dinate c r i t e r i a  features  listed  i n F i g u r e 7.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f e a t u r e s themselves. of  criteria  posited  Although t h e y do  features.  rather  t h e y seem t o be  which  They  than the  express features  a different  express r e l a t i o n s h i p s  are  kind  bet'.-zeen t h e  142 From t h e s e and o t h e r f i n d i n g s R o s c h a n d M e r v i s argued t h a t f r u i t c o h e r e s as a c a t e g o r y n o t b e c a u s e e a c h member s h a r e s any d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e s o f f r u i t , b u t b e c a u s e e a c h member s h a r e s a " f a m i l y r e s e m b l a n c e " w i t h t h e o t h e r members o f t h e category. The g r e a t e r t h e r e s e m b l a n c e , t h e more central i t i s to the category. (Clark & Clark, 1977:467) Thus a common f e a t u r e i n e v e r y member o f t h e c l a s s i s not  an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h i s Another  ture 7  itself.  difference  The d i r e c t i o n a l i t y  hierarchical  torical  reality,  sented here  relation. although  struc-  of extension, not to  A g a i n no c l a i m i s made as t o h i s implications  The s t r u c t u r e  as t o what a c t u a l l y  from  the structure  development  (and v i c e  pre-  versa)  r e p r e s e n t s one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  clues given i n the syntactic  language  of the tree  o f t h e t r e e s i n Figures 6 and  to direction  to actual h i s t o r i c a l  are undeniable. of  i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e  ( l e f t to right ) r e f e r s  any  analysis.  and s e m a n t i c  happened o v e r  structure  the course  of the of the  centuries. 7.4.5  ALTERNATIVE STRUCTURES F i g u r e s 6 and 7, t h e n ,  of  the semantic  produced port  structure  by semantic  represent a possible  of the class  extension.  this hypothesized structure  likely  structures.  There  Little  description  o f / a n / as i t h a s b e e n c a n be s a i d  t o sup-  a g a i n s t othec e q u a l l y a s  i s a further  refinement,  however  that  can help to assess  the information gathered  so f a r .  This  step i s simply to look at the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between  items  classified  fied)  and t h e c r i t e r i a  is  (in this  done i n T a b l e 14.  case broad  groups of items  o f e x t e n s i o n as h y p o t h e s i z e d .  classiThis  143 Table  14  Items C l a s s i f i e d  b y / a n / and  Items b y G r o u p  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1 1 . 12. 13.  1. - s t i c k X 2. l o n g wooden things X 3. ( s t r a i g h t ) X letters 4. h a n d t o o l s w. l o n g wooden handles X 5. s m a l l h a n d held objects 6. d e v i c e 7. m a t e r i a l s 8. any s m a l l object 9. s i g n 10.machine • 11.trick 12.plan,policy 13.cause 14.ingredients 15.apparatus •16.equipment 17.superscripts 18.representations 19.example, pattern 20.coins, insignia • 21.decisive trick, blow, move 2 2 . g o a l , end 23.sets 24.spare p a r t s 25.important moment 1.  X  X  X  X  X  Criteria  Extension  X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  (x) X X  X X  (x) X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X X X X X X X  X X X X  X  X  X  (x)  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  X  . (x) (x)  X X  X  X  X  .  of  X X X X X X X  . X  X  m  X  (x)  X X X X •  •  •  • X  X  X  X  X  (x) X  X  2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1 1 . 12. 13.  The c r i t e r i a o f e x t e n s i o n a r 1. +S1D s h a p e 2. +wood 3. + o b j e c t 4. + p u r p o s e 5. +means 6. + s m a l l  7,+manual 8 «4-sign 9,+necessary 10. + s u b s t a n c e 11. + a c t i o n 12. + i n s t a n t 13. + i m p o r t a n t  144 Here i t complete; hibits  can be r e a d i l y seen  thus,  a l l the  u n l i k e the criteria  w e l l be a n i n d i c a t i o n o f structure which i s  on / m a a j / common t o  al;  that i s ,  of  ^-purpose] .  sic  sense i s  ter  w h i c h node i n t h e  the  this  5,  There i s  at  of  except  items  8 and 25.  ^purpose}  and  perhaps  structure  is  structure hypothesized,  a picture s i o n to the  as  i n common. of  extension  with / l e m / .  ex-  the is  j+means]  the  criterion  most the  are  gene-  feature  very  node 6 " d e v i c e " .  Notice also  1,  is  closeba-  No m a t -  basic,  however,  that  according  has p r o c e e d e d  8 and 25,  likely  for  in  example, of  to produce  basic  as  Probably w i t h such extreme  s u c h a wide w a s t e b a s k e t - l i k e  neat  exten-  s e n s e no d e s c r i p t i o n  of  neat.  / a n / AS WASTEBASKET As m e n t i o n e d a b o v e ,  Thai  to  461,  (cf  etc.).  certain other  is  Benton 1968:128, Thus i t  (small  second-  same  /an/  the  closest  t h e w a s t e b a s k e t c a t e g o r y common t o  languages  the  one  Thus no r e a r r a n g e m e n t  s t r u c t u r e o f / a n / would be  7.4.6  least  This  extension  c h a i n - l i k e f a s h i o n s o t h a t nodes  criteria  i n basing  p o s i t e d as  would remain u n a f f e c t e d .  sense or  item  may be an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a d i f f e r e n t  more a c c u r a t e :  h a v e no f e a t u r e s  is  T h i s may v e r y  a f a u l t y hypothesis  except groups  associated,  to  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  a l l groups  ly  T a b l e 14  c a s e w i t h / l e m / no s i n g l e  "stick".  Since  t h a t no h o r i z o n t a l l i n e  long)  is  necessary to  objects  and t h i r d - o r d e r  class.  Adams e t  are  equivalent  other  a l 1975:5,  e x p l a i n how,  classifier Lyons  1977:  although  p r i m a r i l y c l a s s i f i e d by  entities  in  can be c l a s s i f i e d  /an/, in  145  I t must be kept i n mind t h a t a s t r u c t u r e 7.4  *phonlamaaj fruit  saam 3  like  an CLF  would be unanimously r e j e c t e d by a l l Thai speakers. there  are l i m i t s on the use  of /an/  there  are l i m i t s on the occurrence of Repeaters, and  Thus  as a wastebasket,  as the main  c o n s t r a i n t i n both cases i s the same: c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by  sa-  l i e n t n a t u r a l u n i t pre-empts c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by more comprehensive u n i t s  (as with Repeaters) or more g e n e r a l  units  (as  a d u a l s o r t of nature, then.  It  with / a n / ) . The  sense of /an/  has  r e f e r s to s m a l l p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s  and  has  f u n c t i o n when used to c l a s -  a c o n c r e t i z i n g , exemplifying  s i f y very g e n e r a l  through t h i s  nouns (as d e s c r i b e d  I t a l s o can be used to r e f e r to odd  reference  above) .  e n t i t i e s not  easily clas-  s i f i e d by o t h e r more common c l a s s i f i e r s or by Repeaters. t h i s l a t t e r f u n c t i o n it i s used more w i d e l y by c h i l d r e n the l e s s - e d u c a t e d .  In s e c t i o n 3.4  i t was  argued t h a t  In  and Repeat-  e r s , while capable of f u n c t i o n i n g as a wastebasket when common  c l a s s i f i e r s were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , were only a b l e t o do  because of the wide range of r e f e r e n t s Repeaters: any  i n the c a t e g o r y of  n a t u r a l e n t i t y can r e p e a t .  The  f a c t that  seems to redundantly perform t h i s same f u n c t i o n , y e t argued here) i s s e c o n d a r i l y extension, rily fulfil  so  /an/  (as i s  d e r i v e d by a process of semantic  c o n s t i t u t e s evidence t h a t Repeaters do not  prima-  this function.  To account f o r t h i s wastebasket f u n c t i o n of /an/, 7 could be extended at nodes 8, 25 and 22, where refer-  figure  146 ence to o b j e c t s , (first,  s e c o n d and  comes v e r y 7.5  moments o r  THE  third  order  classifier  points  respectively)  be-  according  to the  out  above.  Although native  the  meaning  "body", and  same s e n s e ,  o f headwords as do to / t u a /  /tua/  / t u a / w o u l d be  Unit  the  intellectual  generalized.  ral  niques  entities,  SEMANTIC EXTENSIONS OF  The  with  a c t i o n s , and  criteria  i t occurs  the  a PR  Natu-  o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n worked  and  a limited  f u n c t i o n as  with  as  /an/.  just We  can  criteria  of  a  confusing apply  t o a r r i v e a t a d e s c r i p t i o n of  semantic extension,  as  speakers c o n s i s t e n t l y give i t  i t has  /lem/  categorized  a  range  s i m i l a r tech-  the  extension,  noun  routes  and  the  of  basic  sense. In  this  ditional  case,  unlike  f a c t o r : the  the  s e n s e as  previous noun.  two,  In  fact  there the  i s an  sense  as  noun c o n s t i t u t e s a w h o l e c o m p l e x o f f a c t o r s , s i n c e t h e of  t h e noun i n compounds h a s  ad-  sense  a l s o undergone c o n s i d e r a b l e  ex-  tension. In a t t e m p t i n g  a representation  reconstruction, please  note) there  of are  extended sense three  (not  a  e s s e n t i a l require-  ments : (i)  t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n must r e f l e c t d i s t i n c t i o n s and c o n n e c t i o n s d e r i v e d from the language r a t h e r than from any " u n i v e r s a l " * s y s t e m o f e p i s t e r a o l o g y .  (ii)  t h e b a s i c s e n s e and c l e a r l y shown.  bsxn  ?  deveioped.  I  t  „  o u l d  criteria  of  extension  must  be  ^ ^ 7 2 ^ ^ ^ " ™ ^  147  (iii)  In (iii)  t h e nodes o r s t a g e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e s u l t o f a p a r t i c u l a r e x t e n s i o n must c o r r e s p o n d t o a c t u a l l e x i c a l items i n the language. the case of /an/  (section  were d i f f i c u l t t o f o l l o w ,  7.4)  mainly since  a l a r g e number o f i t e m s c l a s s i f i e d semantic range. ing  was  sult  employed.  A g i v e n noun m i g h t  In listed form  by  i n Haas 1965  i n the suggested  Again,  by  and  the use  the f i r s t  most l i k e l y  group-  as t h e r e -  function.  I am  group  to specify semantic  where e a c h  structure  o f / t u a / as  There  as t h e b a s i c  of the c l a s s  a basic  sense.  i t , then  extend,  sense,  are  are s e v e r a l reasons  The "ani-  f o r choos-  and  "animal" i n  relates "body" a  other senses. secondary  i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l a i n  through  the sense  of  "body s h a p e "  (see F i g u r e 8 next p a g e ) .  t h e n human s h a p e s  e a s i l y motivated connections.  of  sense.  i f " a n i m a l " were b a s i c  i t e m s w i t h human s h a p e the b a s i c  item i s r e -  classifier.  as N i d a recommends, i t more e a s i l y  e x t e n s i o n from  They  t h a n t h e headwords f o r  o f a l l , "body" i s more g e n e r a l t h a n  "animal" can  be  items  form.  c a n d i d a t e s , on s i m p l e i n s p e c t i o n ,  "body s h a p e "  example,  not  by / a n / c a n  with t h i s  s t e p i s to choose  "body s h a p e " .  First  is  semantic  included  items c l a s s i f i e d  as b e i n g c l a s s i f i e d  Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e  words c r e a t e d  that,  c o v e r i n g a wide  t h e c a s e o f / t u a / , t h e r e a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 120  presented  mal"  such  t h e 25 n o d e s o f F i g u r e 7.  a much more c l o s e l y - k n i t  /an/.  For  be  of the e x t e n s i o n t o a "wastebasket"  specified  ing  by / a n / ,  ( i ) and  t h e r e was  Thus t h e d e v i c e o f t h e r o u g h  s u r e w h e t h e r e a c h o f t h e 300  two  requirements  (node  4)  are  how  to  I f shape direct,  148  Figure  8  Rough S e m a n t i c S t r u c t u r e bodyshape  of /tua/  3.  bird shape  beak shape  3. fish shape 4. human shape  hs.< sign animalshaped furniture u  -7. living things  1  written sign  14. alphabetical letters  10.. surfacesupporting furniture  15. numerals  11. status 5 animals  16. wormshape  '12.. active agents  '18. numerical concepts  17. principal actors  13. status 4 animals s i g n = one e n t i t y r e f e r r i n g t o a n o t h e r a c t i v e a g e n t s = t h i n g s c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g some r o l e o r duty s t a t u s = one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g 5 r o u g h l y - d i v i d e d g r o u p s on a s c a l e o f r e s p e c t and d e f e r e n c e p a i d t o a n i m a t e t h i n g s b y o r d i n a r y Thai, p e o p l e : S t a t u s 1: h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d ( k i n g s , g o d s , Buddha images, e t c . ) S t a t u s 2: r e s p e c t e d ( n o b l e s , l e a d e r s , e t c . ) S t a t u s 3: e q u a l , human S t a t u s 4: l a r g e r a n i m a l s w i t h c l e a r a p p e n d a g e s , s u c h as h e a d , l i m b s , t a i l S t a t u s 5: t i n y l i v i n g t h i n g s and l o w - s t a t u s l a r g e r a n i m a l s ( i n s e c t s , m i c r o - o r g a n i s m s , some a q u a t i c i n v e r t e b r a t e s , worms, some r o d e n t s , some l i z a r d s )  149 Figure 9 F e a t u r a l Semantic S t r u c t u r e 1. + object + shape + characteristic living  •object •shape •charac^ teristic •action •bird 3. •shape •status •head •tail  of /tua/  '8. •object •shape •characteristic •action •beak  4  4.. •shape •human •object "5. •object •characteristic •sign  9. •sign •image  14. •sign •image, •alphabetical  be. •object •shape status 4 •support •quadruped  -10.. 15.+S2D +sign •support +image •object •numerical  u.  '11.•object •status •living  7 #  •object •agentive •living  '18. •numerical •concept  w  16. •status 5 +shape  5  •12. 17., •agentive +agentive •^2 +primacy •object •status 4 •living agentive support object  = c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g some r o l e o r d u t y = t h e main f u n c t i o n ( o f an o b j e c t ) i s t o s u p p o r t f l a t surface f o r u t i l i t a r i a n purposes = first-order entity  a  150  The d e c i s i v e /tua/  is  factor  however,  consistently given  speakers.  The s e n s e  ily  that  120  items c l a s s i f i e d  /tua/  as  7.5  of  a s o r t of  tuatalok  saam 3  a l l / t u a / compounds  ready d i s c u s s e d 4.15  and 4.16,  "representative;  sively, items  /tua  shape, are  as  a noun,  by  but  native  not  necessar-  a l a r g e number  BODY-SHAPE " t h r e e are c l a s s i f i e d "sample",  paper.  clowns"  by/tua/.  We  have a l -  example" i n examples  Other examples a r e /tuathaeasn/ proxy"  (Haas  1965:195)  w i t h /khon/  and / t u a -  t o humans  "person".  be o b j e c t e d  that  i n c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h s e n s e as  as i m p l i e d b y T a b l e 7.  and t y p e s o f e x t e n s i o n , i s not so g r e a t , Repeater  are confusing  two  i n many c a s e s .  between r e p e a t e d elements  Since  exist  4.2)  t h e s e n s e as noun and t h e s e n s e as c l a s s i f i e r  classifier  t o judge) w i l l  as p a r t i a l  The that  synonymy  (as a r g u e d i n s e c t i o n  Thus any s e n s e o f / t u a / as compound  as l o n g  different  however, i f we remember  must  i t is difficult  Other  repeater.  cases  prefix;  exclu-  by /an/,  we  identical.  with  tua  r o t / "body of. a c a r " a r e c l a s s i f i e d  /tua/ i s a Partial  the  example:  noun and s e n s e as c l a s s i f i e r ,  difference  of  noun: compounds  Both o f these items r e f e r  " p i e c e " o r by a  I t might  that "body"  which are  and must be c l a s s i f i e d  like  /chin/  There  substitute;  camnam/ " h o s t a g e " .  meaning  Por  /tuajaarj / of t h i s  fact  implies  by / t u a /  prefix.  the  the  an a n i m a l b o d y .  agent+funny Hot  "body"  is  repeating  must be  head ( o r  be r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e i s the process  151 of  classification.  ditional tional  senses  senses  Figure routes  In t h i s  manner i t c o u l d be s a i d  a s compound member  6 then,  represents  a hypothesis  i n order  Table  into  about t h e v a r i o u s  more a b s t r a c t  to extract the p r e c i s e c r i t e r i a  15 b e l o w l i s t s  t h e 120 i t e m s  Haas 1965 o r c o n t a i n i n g / t u a / as f i r s t  pound i n K c F a r l a n d tionable being  addi-  o f e x t e n s i o n o f t h e meaning o f / t u a / .  features  in  "create" identical  as c l a s s i f i e r .  Figure 9 t r a n s l a t e s these  sion..  that ad-  items  1944 a n d S e t h a p u t r a  were c o n f i r m e d  classified  of exten-  classified  by / t u a /  member o f t h e com-  1965 ( 1 9 7 2 ) .  Ques-  b y two o r more i n f o r m a n t s  as  by /tua/. Table  15  Headnouns o f / t u a / A c c o r d i n g t o P o s i t i o n i n F i g u r e s © & dNode i n F i g s  semantic  8 & 9  i n the Structure  Item  Gloss  1. body s h a p e  santhaan  shape, appearance, e t c .  2.  bird-shape  nok wSw  bird; kite  3.  fish-shape (head a n d tail)  kh5o 1 ta^khooj bet maajtajkhuu mut khemraut ta^puukhuarj ta^puu tualiek ( t u a ) aksoon  hook  tuanarjsii „ bu'rii 4. human shape  tuanaTj tuachSat tukataa hunkrabook  hammer o f a g u n  fishhook s h o r t vowel marker » ^ » ( 9 ) tack; peg; very s m a l l screw pin screw nail w r i t t e n n u m e r a l (9) w r i t t e n a l p h a b e t i c a l char a c t e r (9) written alphabetical char a c t e r (9) cigars, cigarettes shadow p u p p e t (5) p u p p e t (5) d o l l (5) m a r i o n e t t e (5)  152 hunjon kraproorj sxakak  kaarjkeerj iiam  sla  jdksorj  saroon  tuasia  5.  signification  sanjalak khoon tuacam'uat tuatalok  tuasadaeaBrj  tualen tuala^kh^n phaj quadruped obj e c t s w. p r i mary f u n c t i o n of s u p p o r t i n g f l a t surface  7.  living  things  8. beak' 9. written racters  cha-  to'' to" k h r i a r j paeaerj  maajaaw kaWii krataaj  dressing bench chair  table  bench w i t h coconut  grater  a n i m a l s ( o f any k i n d ) (tua)paakkaa, p e n p o i n t o r n i b  phaj  tuaphim  status 5 animates  table  sat  (tua)aksSon  11.  s y m b o l , s i g n , mark ( 1 2 ) actor (12) clown, b u f f o o n ( 1 2 ) clown, j e s t e r ( 1 2 ) actor; role (12) a performer ( 1 2 ) a performer; the cast ( 1 2 ) t r a d i t i o n a l p l a y i n g cards ( r e p r e s e n t i n g an a n i m a l ) ( 9 , 1 2 )  9  tualeek 1 0 . surface-support ing furniture  robot ( 5 ) skirt vest trousers, pants; a p r o n - l i k e g a r m e n t f o r babies shirt brassiere sarong "body" o f s h i r t o r c o a t ( w i t h out t h e s l e e v e s )  t r a d i t i o n a l playing cards ( r e p r e s e n t i n g an animal) ( 5 , 1 2 ) character, l e t t e r (3,14,12) numeral ( 3 , 1 5 , 1 2 ) p r i n t i n g type ( 1 2 )  as i n 6 , b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y bo •'rDorj thaaw h a s s o c k tuamalaeaerj  insects  (any k i n d )  (tua)sajdiian e a r t h w o r m ( t u a ) dakdaeae (tua)burj tuakaeaew tuakhran tuatun tuatasaen tuakaararj tuaphirj tuanoon tuamaj tuaciit tuatiit  quadruped  chrysalis (7) hairy caterpillar caterpillar; larva scale-insect bamboo r a t ; mole hornet coral polyp bee worm; c a t e r p i l l a r silkworm t r i c h i n a (worm) i n t e s t i n a l worms  153 12.  active  13. s t a t u s  things  4  p r a c u ' f a j f a a ( e l e c t r . ) charge plin. l e e c h ; s t a p l e , clamp waw kite wiwchulaa kind of k i t e tuakhuun (math.) m u l t i p l i e r (18) tuachiam (tech.) b i n d i n g or j o i n i n g agent khrianplaeaerj ( e l e c t r . ) t r a n s f o r m e r tuanam ( e l e c t r . ) conductor tuahaan (math.) d i v i s o r tuakhuapkhuum(tech.) r e g u l a t o r tuabaxjkhap (tech.) governor tuacak cogwheel tuasuaj, tuasaniat a jinx tuakratham (chem.) a r e a g e n t  animates* satbok b*a marjkoon luuk sirjtoo hon amanut naak khrut  14.. a l p h a b e t i c a l  characters ( t u a ) akscp n tuanansii pha^anchana? sara" aksoonsuun, 5  15. 16.  numerical worm-shape  ch  cters tualeek s tUajitjii  land animals w i l d animals dragon o f f s p r i n g of animals l i o n ; Chinese l i o n swan; l e g e n d a r y b i r d s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g ( o f anxmal f o r m ) iTaga,. l e g e n d a r y g i a n t s n a k e Garuda l e t t e r (3,9,12) , , l e t t e r (3,9,12) consonant'(9,12) v o w e l (9,12) " h i g h " c l a s s consonant numeral,  number  (9,12)  (3,9,12)  worms, c r e e p y - c r a w l y doodles, s c r i b b l e s  beings;  17. p r i n c i p a l a c t o r s tuamaan tua'eek naar/eek phra^eek tuakaan tua^ee  M a r a t h e e v i l one (12) p r i n c i p a l character, role, a c t o r (5,12) heroine; wife(5,12) hero; husband(5,12) main c u l p r i t ; p r i n c i p a l a c t o r (5,12) main p e r s o n ; t h e one r e s p o n s i b l e (5)  • S p e c i f i c names o f t h i s t y p e o f a n i m a l a r e t o o numerous t o l i s t and h a v e n o t b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e b a s i c 120 i t e m s o f this table.  154 tuakerj  t h e most d e s p e r a t e o u t l a w i n a gang; the s t a r o f a p e r f o r m i n g t r o u p ; t h e trump card, winning card; the f a v o r i t e horse or candidate (5,12) t u a t a r j t u a t i i t h e one r e s p o n s i b l e ; t h e chief, promoter of a cause or project (12) tuasamkhan chief culprit (12) khun k i n g ( c h e s s p i e c e ) (5) 13.  numerical,  concepts tuachapo? leeknuaj leekkhii tuatarj  (math.) p r i m e number (9,15) (math.) c a r d i n a l number(9,15) (math.) odd number (9,15) (math.) d i v i d e n d ; m u l t i p l i c a n d ( t h e number t o be d i v i ded, m u l t i p l i e d , e t c . ) ( 9 , 1 5 ) number t o be added (9,15) number t o be s u b t r a c t e d (9, 15)  tuabuak tualop  In  Table  possible be  15  t h e numbers i n b r a c k e t s  alternative  classified  structure;  number i n b r a c k e t s .  1.7)  role  12) ..  T h e r e i s no  F o r example,  resemble b i r d s  both  a  and  wings)*  Similarly,  characteristic  form  items  c a n be  seen  l e t t e r ^ /th/.  and  circle  why  an  Letters  are  rea-  item  of  tail,  as,  cannot  that  kites  ( e . g . head, activity  subsequent  kites  as  well.  Thai  of  fly-  with,  linear  f o r example,  in traditional  charac-  active  characters i n Thai s t a r t the  the  actors(group  a l s o p r i m e examples o f  * K i t e s are h i g h l y p e r s o n i f i e d female  These o t h e r  p o i n t out  characteristic  ( o r head) and  as a body and  also  the p a t h  f o r t h e i r b o d y - l i k e shape  alphabetical  T h e r e a r e male and  reason  informants  for their  could  "principal  or a c t o r " i s grouped with p r i n c i p a l  (group  items, i n d i c a t e  t h e g r o u p i n d i c a t e d by  For.example, /tua'eek/  appear t w i c e .  ing.  with  o r i t c o u l d be. a s s o c i a t e d t o / t u a / by  agents  tail  t h a t i s , the  with / t u a / f o r other reasons.  sons are p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n  ter,  after  i n the  symbolic culture.  155 representation. In a c a s e l i k e  letters,  perhaps  a single  criterion  was  the o r i g i n a l  actual path of extension (probably e i t h e r  or symbol).  However, t h e s e m a n t i c e v i d e n c e f r o m t h e l e x i c o n  tells  us o n l y  that  either  way i s p o s s i b l e  p a t h s were t a k e n , r e i n f o r c i n g s p e a k e r may c l a s s feels  a letter  i t t o be an a c t i v e  the v i s u a l  Another  o r numeral  agent  shape  In F i g u r e  physical  etc.",  o f shape  shape  which  (pecking or dipping  v e r y much t h e n e c e s s i t y o f  link  1 and 5  i n the stucture  by t h e f a c t  that  ( c f P o o s a k r i t s a n a 1960,  t o i n f o r m a n t s and t o M c F a r l a n d shape  I t has b o t h  of /tua/.  /santhaan/  t h e word u s e d by T h a i g r a m m a r i a n s  "form,  image".  1963),  o f some o b j e c t s ,  (1969:846).  Actual adds t h e  Now t h e word f o r " s y m b o l " , / s a n -  to r e f e r  to non-physical c h a r a c t e r i s -  tics  such as t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h a b i t s  Thus  "characteristic"  i s used  "shape, f o r the  Silapasarn  i s e x p r e s s e d by /ruupsanthaan/ which  j a l a k / c a n a l s o be u s e d  ure  or f i s h  i n sense t o g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  form /ruup-/  Simultaneously  8, t h e c o n n e c t i o n between g r o u p s  However, i t i s r e i n f o r c e d  according  he  a s p r i m a r y , t h e o t h e r as s e c o n d a r y .  seems t o me t o be t h e w e a k e s t  extends  as / t u a / b e c a u s e  of a gun.  and a c t i v i t y  I doubt  one c r i t e r i o n  criterion  Thus a modern  i n some way.  example i s t h e hammer  t h e head) o f a b i r d .  appearance,  both  / t u a / as c l a s s i f i e r .  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  positing  each o t h e r .  i m p a c t may s u g g e s t a s n a k e  also requires  and p e r h a p s  shape  of a person or animal.  as t h e c o n n e c t i n g l i n k  i n Fig-  8. Alternatively,  t h e s e n s e o f / t u a / c o u l d have e x t e n d e d t o  156 visual  s y m b o l s and a c t o r s  active  agency.  through the  I have been l a r g e l y  t a i n i n g what c o n n e c t i o n s  are  u s i n g a method c a l l e d t h e formants  to  group items  the g r o u p i n g . sort  is  scope  of  of  things  are  living  this  agents  a n i m a l s was status  the  small for l a t e to  the  size  shape  to  a factor  i n c l u d e d i n the the fier  fact  that  largest  in traditional Actors  to  etc.  to  the  Living  (group  Actors 1.7)  of shape  are  5 animals.  salient.  are It  ( s i n c e some l a r g e r but  this  had i t s  is  dividing  relevant This  they  and  is  to  proba-  often  too  may a l s o animals  related  are  to  own u n i q u e  re-  size:  classi-  culture.  the  factor  formed such a c l e a r as  the  of  primacy  and l a r g e  group,  symbolic representations,  group of m a r i o n e t t e s ,  blends gradually into  and j e s t e r s ,  that  both s p l i t .  were s p l i t m a i n l y b e c a u s e t h e  Furthermore,  was c o n s i d e r e d  be n o t i c e d  5 animals:  elephant,  some o f w h i c h c o u l d b e s e e n  etc.  are  status  5 group),  the  this  from a s u f f i c i e n t l y wide  will  be p e r c e p t u a l l y  among " p r i n c i p a l a c t o r s "  not.  it  criteria  of r e s p e c t  animal,  for  i n f o r m a t i o n of  The m a i n m o t i v a t i o n f o r  of s t a t u s  status  in-  thesis.  6).  4 animals, but not  b l y due t o  speakers,  criteria  symbolic representations  (group  12,  ascer-  i n t o s t a t u s 4 and s t a t u s 5 a n i m a l s .  d i v i d e d between  principal  the  S u c h an e n d e a v o u r  things and a c t o r s  divided  to  psychological  I n F i g u r e 8 and T a b l e 1 4 , groups  in  made b y m o d e r n - d a y  o n l y v a l u a b l e when g a t h e r e d  be beyond the  are  unsuccessful  and i n t r o s p e c t  .sample.  of group  " t r i a d method" which r e q u i r e s  Ultimately,  and c o n t r o l l e d  criterion  group of  puppets,  actors  through  some  dolls, clowns  157 This  c o u l d be t a k e n  as a n o t h e r  possible  route of extension,  but I have no evidence to p o s i t primacy to clowns over dramatic  actors.  Any s u c h p r i m a c y ,  nological priority. creep into ters  tic  and c u l t u r a l  evidence,  will  information to support  b e f o r e any h i s t o r i c a l  what we m i g h t c a l l  s u c h mat-  the l i n g u i s -  c l a i m c a n be a d v a n c e d .  o f some a p p a r e n t  groupings,  models o f t h e human f o r m  T h e s e two were merged b e c a u s e o f t h e p r i m a c y  criterion  o f shape t h r o u g h o u t  criterion and  Indeed,  be n o t i c e d t h a t g r o u p 16 i s composed o f two d i s t i n c t  groups: ing*.  precedence  be i g n o r e d a n d s e r v e t o u n d e r l i n e t h e n e e d f o r  In c o n t r a s t t o the s p l i t t i n g it  of h i s t o r i c a l  consideration surreptitiously.  cannot  historical  Thus m a t t e r s  o f c o u r s e would be c h r o -  the c l a s s i f i e r  o f human s h a p e a l o n e i s s u f f i c i e n t  to r e l a t e  these  items  regardless of t h e i r  and c l o t h of the  system.  The  to distinguish two d i s t i n c t i v e  functions. The It  criteria  o f e x t e n s i o n a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 16.  was c o n s i d e r e d u n n e c e s s a r y  criteria  of e x t e n s i o n with a l l the items  the study  o f / a n / i t was shown t h a t  t i v e when e x t e n s i o n p r o c e e d s ly  does  to present  that  a comparison  classified, approach  by c h a i n - l i k e  was  of  since i n ineffec-  s t e p s , as i t c l e a r -  here.  *That shape i s t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r i n c l u s i o n ' o f a r t i c l e s o f c l o t h i n g i s v e r y c l e a r : o n l y c l o t h i n g which t a k e s t h e shape o f t h e body i t c o v e r s i s c l a s s i f i e d w i t h / t u a / . Thus h a t s and s h o e s a r e n o t / t u a / and s k i r t s a n d s a r o n g s a r e a m b i g u o u s l y / t u a / o r / p h i i n / "S2D s h a p e " . Many names o f common a r t i c l e s o f c l o t h i n g a r e n o t l i s t e d i n T a b l e 15 b e c a u s e o f t h i s clear generalisation.  158 T a b l e 16 Criteria  o f Extension f o r the Semantic S t r u c t u r e s as G i v e n i n F i g u r e s 8 & 9  Extension from to Node Node 1 1  -  Criteria  2  +shape, + o b j e c t  3  +shape  (specification)  (specification)  1  -  4  •shape, +object  1  —  •object,  6  •shape, +object  1  -  5 7  •object,  2  —  8  5  -  •shape, +object, + c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , (part-whole)  9  •sign  1  6  10  •object  (function) +living  11  •object,  7  —  12  •agentive  13  •object,  14:  •sign,  +image  15  •sign,  +image  16  •status  17  •agentive  18  •numerical  9 9  —  11 12 15  -  (specification)  +living  —  -  (specification)  +characteristic  7 7  -faction  +living  5  Some g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e r e l a t i o n s various  c r i t e r i a a n d on t h e o v e r a l l  pothesized  of / t u a /  structures  significance  a r e made i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  between t h e of the hysection.  159 8.0 CONCLUSION 8.1.0 SUMMARY 8.1.1 CONFIRMATIONS T h i s t h e s i s has s e r v e d about Standard  Thai c l a s s i f i e r s  t u r e about t h e (i)  a r e nouns.  They c a n i n some c a s e s  (iii)  classify  v e r b a l headwords.  Their b a s i c f u n c t i o n i s to supply unit  referent (iv)  already stated i n the l i t e r a -  language:  Thai c l a s s i f i e r s  (ii)  to confirm the f o l l o w i n g f a c t s  o f some o t h e r l e x i c a l  The v a r i o u s s y n t a c t i c  inspection  reference to the  item.  c a t e g o r i e s which a r e apparent  o f some e x a m p l e s o f T h a i c l a s s i f i e r s  upon  are not d i s -  crete categories. (v) F u l l (vi)  Repeaters  Classifier  factors  a r e an open  category.  s e l e c t i o n d e p e n d s , i n many c a s e s ,  and on i n d i v i d u a l  speakers*  intentions,  on  cultural  but there i s  a p e r c e p t u a l b a s i s w h i c h may be common t o a l l l a n g u a g e s . (vii) tion  Shape  i s a very  important  criterion  (and p e r c e p t i o n ) o f f i r s t - o r d e r  (viii)  Most c l a s s i f i e r s  of the c l a s s i f i c a -  entities.  have a meaning  f o r native  speakers.  Of t h e few w h i c h do n o t , many c a n be a s s i g n e d s e n s e s cursory examination classify  according to a single  The r e m a i n i n g tic (ix)  o f t h e nouns  classifiers  have a s a l i e n t  (x) The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f f u l l cal  identity  of repeated  c l a s s i f y , b e c a u s e they  criterion  (usually  shape).  c a n be e x p l a i n e d i n t e r m s o f seman-  extension over h i s t o r i c a l Repeaters  they  by a  periods. locative  component.  r e p e a t i n g depends on t h e l e x i -  elements.  160  (xi)  Even c l o s e l y r e l a t e d d i a l e c t s may d i f f e r  tion  of a c r i t e r i a l  object (xii)  action  feature  i n the s e l e c -  forclassification  o f t h e same  or concept.  Classifiers  m o d i f y NP's r a t h e r  than simple  nouns.  (xiii)  A m i x t u r e o f s e m a n t i c and s y n t a c t i c f a c t o r s  volved  i n the c l a s s i f i e r  s y s t e m and i n c l a s s i f i e r  are i n selection.  8.1.2 CONTRIBUTIONS T h i s t h e s i s has p r o v i d e d which s h o u l d be u s e f u l the  Thai  tics that (i)  contributions  classificatory  of South East  some d a t a  Asia  and made some  to the understanding of  system, t o t h e comparative and p o s s i b l y  claims  linguis-  to the lexicography  of  area: A relatively  comprehensive  list  of Thai  c l a s s i f i e r s has  been c o m p i l e d .  P r a c t i c a l considerations  the  a r b i t r a r y , d e p e n d i n g on w h i c h s y n t a c t i c d e -  list  rather  fining  criteria  size.  For t h i s reason,  list on  one u s e s t o r e s t r i c t  has n o t been i n c l u d e d  the l i s t  t o a manageable  f o r reasons of space, the  i n t h i s paper, but i s a v a i l a b l e  request.  (ii)  Comprehensive l i s t s  classes  classes  here.  The b a s i c  tion (iii)  have been p r o v i d e d  o f nouns c l a s s i f i e d  sifier  of  and a l s o  make t h e e x t e n t o f  by / l e m / and / t u a / .  have a l s o been  enumerated  Other  f o r each  clas-  but not published  d a t a has been c o l l e c t e d f o r f u t u r e  of such l i s t s Some l i g h t  of the e n t i r e  compila-  classifier.  has been shed  (in section  4) on t h e p u z z l e  the c e n t r a l i t y o f t h e head o r the c l a s s i f i e r  i n the c l a s -  161  sifier is  phrase.  As an a t t r i b u t e  subordinate;  o f t h e head, t h e c l a s s i f i e r  as t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e c l a s s  o f which the  t h e h e a d i s a member, i t i s t h e h e a d w h i c h i s s u b o r d i n a t e . (iv)  "Independent" c l a s s i f i e r s  (v) T h e r e i s a s e m a n t i c tion:  full  v e r b a l heads.  correlate of the repeater construc-  repeaters are entities  (a) b e i n g d i r e c t l y  and  classify  i n terms o f  referred to  (b) t h e i r  existence being  asserted  (c) t h e i r  s t a t u s as I P p r e d i c a t e s , as d e f i n e d i n s e c t i o n  3.2. Most r e p e a t e r s have a l o c a t i v e stitute tactic (vi)  the class-sense  sense  w h i c h may i n f a c t c o n - '  ( i n 3 l o o m f i e l d i a n terms) o f t h e s y n -  category.  There i s a semantic  c o r r e l a t e f o r the process  of p a r t i a l  r e p e a t i n g : t h e e n t i r e headword i s a hyponym o f t h e c l a s s i f i e r . This r e l a t i o n s h i p case fully  i srestricted  o f those  partially-repeating  repeat  ( i . e . t h e PR U n i t s ) ,  a c c e p t hyponymic statements unbound morphemes  Partial  Repeaters,  Full  do n o t  f o r m s as s e m a n t i c a l l y  i s not a kind of / b a j / be-  Repeaters,  require  lexical  elements.  Some i n f o r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d a b o u t t h e p r o c e s s  p o u n d i n g i n T h a i . Some l e x i c a l forms  s i n c e informants  i n isolation).  like  i d e n t i t y between r e p e a t e d  i n the  f o r m s w h i c h do n o t a l s o  using these  (e.g. /bajmaaj/  cause / b a j / does n o t occur  (vii)  to a formal nature  items  o f com-  a r e s e m a n t i c a l l y bound  ( l i k e / b a j / "S2D s h a p e " ) a n d r e q u i r e compounding i n a l l  occurrences require  as f u l l  s u b s t a n t i v e nouns.  the p r e f i x i n g  of a c l a s s i f i e r  Some i t e m s to reinforce  seem t o the c l a s -  162 sificatory  system  (as i n /tuamalasasrj/  "insect").  referring  t o commodities o f t e n have a c l a s s i f i e r  container  or  the  "canned f i s h " ;  s t a t e of  i.e. fish  p o u n d i n g seems t o be  or /lerathian/ "candle", of m a n u f a c t u r i n g  Further,  i t was  given) that  the  head tended  t o be  t e n d e d t o be (viii) This  + can).  (as  cases  classifier. the  "the  tape  the  itself"  r e s u l t s of  (and  some e x a m p l e s  s e n s e as  the  as  were compound  classifier  If a distinction  in full  repeating.  i n terms of  lexical  identity  Repeated forms c o n s t i t u t e a equivalent  classes.  i s not  case,  "kinds"  e n u m e r a t i o n o f members i s  This  mutually  exclusive with  however, w i t h e x i s t s i n the  Temporary  of technology,  repeating.  Measures.  semantic s t r u c t u r e of  b e t w e e n n a t u r a l l y - o c c u r r i n g u n i t s and  standardized  i t i s not  apparent  to n a t u r a l l y - o c c u r r i n g f i r s t - ,  second- or  Thai  units  de-  in either  S t a n d a r d Measures or Temporary Measures, b o t h of which refer  com-  to emphasize  a f o r m when i t f u n c t i o n s  S t a n d a r d Measures are  the. u s e  the  candles).  i m p l i c a t i o n of  enumeration of  r i v e d by  t o show  concrete.  c l a s s and  the  items  /plaakraptb*)/  other  used i n d e s c r i b i n g the  (ix)  (x)  i n /tuateep/  implication i s explained  the  innovation  more a b s t r a c t , w h i l e  T h e r e i s an  singleton  (as i n  In s t i l l  hypothesized  sense of  more  b e t w e e n h e a d and  to  commodity  a case of  sense of p h y s i c a l o b j e c t  process  the  Other  may  third-order  entities. (xi)  A defining characteristic  tion  of p r o v i d i n g u n i t r e f e r e n c e  referent  of  the  of c l a s s i f i e r s  is their  func-  to another substantive,  headword, w h e t h e r t h i s  second s u b s t a n t i v e  the is  163  overtly present classifier (xii)  Repeaters  that  gory  s u b s t a n t i v e noun  f u n c t i o n t o a l l o w a t t e n t i o n t o be  entity  focused  as o p p o s e d t o v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Repeaters  f u n c t i o n as a  only i n a limited  peaters  on  of  i s at least  and  "wastebasket" or g e n e r a l  secondary  way.  Innovation  m a r g i n a l l y a c c e p t a b l e due  cate  of  to t h e i r  re-  lexi-  transparency.  (xiv)  Standard  (xv)  One  on  into  function  as  do  (xvi)  full  not  the  like  teristics  of the head-referent  a r e f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  associated  of l e x i c a l full  meaning f o r n a t i v e The  fiers,  /lem/,  than  the  repeat  exceptions,  of the  headword.  Units constitute a non-occurrence  General  as  charac-  Units.  They  semantically (to vary  from the  s u b s t a n t i v e n o u n . I n two the  (e.g.  alternative  t o more c o n c r e t e  differing  transparency)  noun a t a l l and  (xvii)  General  They r e f e r  general  U n i t s cannot  ( s y n t a c t i c ) b a s i s of t h e i r  o r compounds.  same f o r m as  General  Units.  categories  t o shape c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  repeaters  degrees  other  s u b s t a n t i v e n o u n s . W i t h some  refer  on  i s the General  They h a v e m e a n i n g s and  Extended C l a s s i f i e r s ,  category  than  etc.).  compounds.  headwords.  of r e f e r e n t s which are  taxonomic l e v e l  "shape•,"kind",  or enter  as  of Thai c l a s s i f i e r s  to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  a higher  "size",  they  Measures cannot occur  category  They r e f e r  ing  a full  entity.  (xiii)  ly  This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c distinguishes  f u n c t i o n f r o m f u n c t i o n as  the e n t i r e  cal  or not.  classifiers  sense of  cases  the  there  is  no  have l i t t l e  or  no  speakers.  b a s i c s e n s e o f one i s "a b l a d e d ,  of these  two  pointed cutting  "exclusive" class instrument  with  164 handle". ed  The  sense of /lem/  to extension  ties  only.  tion  in chain-like  E x t e n s i o n has  p r e s u m a b l y due  has  t o the  extended d i r e c t l y  fashion)  proceeded  to f i r s t - o r d e r  of k n i v e s  and  opposenti-  in several directions,  l a r g e number o f s a l i e n t  characteristics  (as  their  s h a p e and  importance  func-  in  early  technology. (xviii)  The  b a s i c sense of /an/  c o u l d be  s i n c e many o f t h e nouns i t c l a s s i f i e s /maaj/ meaning tended  "stick"  in chain-like  classify  very  ( x i x ) The  or  "wood".  (xx)  probable  in  criteria  to  has  direct-  been a c c o r d i n g t o  alter-  action,  aspect  of c r i t e r i a and  o f e x t e n s i o n were  /tua/: c r i t e r i a  f u n c t i o n , e t c . , and such  such  as  found  shape,  " m e t a - c r i t e r i a " of  as, f o c u s of a t t e n t i o n  o f t h e same r e f e r e n t , and  on  a  specialization.  THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS As  tic  e x t e n s i o n has  kinds  a more g e n e r a l n a t u r e ,  8.2  This b a s i c sense  fashion i n several different  s t u d y i n g /lem/, /an/  different  "device"  o f s h a p e and f u n c t i o n .  different  characteristic  ex-  b a s i c s e n s e o f / t u a / i s "body shape'}, where  I n some c a s e s  Two  sense of  has  abstract third-order entities.  extended i n c h a i n — l i k e  nating  with  sense of /an/  the  t h e body i s t h a t o f a s e n t i e n t b e i n g .  tions.  o f wood,  a r e compounds  The  f a s h i o n through  a stick  m e n t i o n e d i n s e c t i o n 6,  categories i s very  dynamic s y n t a c t i c of  a distinction  is  t h a t the  limited,  or semantic  the  explanatory  and  i n some c a s e s  relationships.  between E x c l u s i v e R e p e a t e r s  f o r m e r must r e p e a t  while  the  value  The and  latter  of  sta-  obscures sole basis PR  can  Repeaters repeat.  165 Tables tions  of s t a t i c  categories  cannot d e a l with  except by o v e r l a p p i n g  undermines  the usefulness  of  this kind  in  early Generative The  o f "taxonomic" l i n g u i s t i c  i n s i g h t s gained  categories  and t h e i r  i n turn  limitations  a n a l y s i s were o u t l i n e d  i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the various (resulting  i n Figure  i n a s e r i e s of phrase-structure  to account  f o r the choice  the  of s p e c i f i c  information  The  distinc-  ( s e e Chomsky, 1 9 5 7 ) .  limitations  c o u l d be r e f o r m u l a t e d  choice  the c a t e g o r i e s , which  of the category.  Theory  such  of a broad category,  classifiers  already presented  rules  but not f o r  within that category.  mately,  the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the speaker's  textual  and s i t u a t i o n a l i n many c a s e s  of great  complexity  ed  o u t , "may  ed  than i t a c t u a l l y i s " . The  ries  are c r i t e r i a l  of p a r t i a l  that c l a s s i f i e r  other  rules  choice  i s more  determin-  catego-  (repeaters are  o r e n t i t i e s - i n - g e n e r a l ) b u t n o t so i n t h e case Although  repeating  categories  8.1 dek saam child 3  i t i s a defensible claim  that  t h e h e a d i s a hyponym o f t h e c l a s s i -  c a n a l s o be h y p o n y m i c ; f o r example,  /khon/ "person" f u n c t i o n s  but  signif-  (19 75:112) h a s p o i n t -  i n the case of repeaters  repeaters.  a l l partial  fier,  as B e c k e r  by f o r m a l  semantic c o r r e l a t e s of the major s y n t a c t i c  IP p r e d i c a t e s  in  i n t e n t i o n and c o n -  o n l y be c a p t u r e d  and t h e s e ,  suggest  Ulti-  f a c t o r s shown t o be o f c r u c i a l  could  The  i n f o r m a l l y c o u l d be u s e d by a  g r a m m a r i a n who was i n t e r e s t e d i n w r i t i n g s u c h r u l e s .  icance  5 )  khon PERSON  as an E x t e n d e d C l a s s i f i e r i n "three c h i l d r e n "  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h e a d and c l a s s i f i e r  i s one o f  166 hyponymy. Lyons  (1977:438)  finds  t i o n between s y n t a c t i c adds t h a t  a positive  structure  "what i s o n t o l o g i c a l l y  mined d i f f e r e n t l y  but inexact  and semantic f u n c t i o n *  (1977:499).  data here:  the only  He  i n d e t e r m i n a t e may b e d e t e r -  by t h e g r a m m a t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s  languages"  correla-  of p a r t i c u l a r  T h i s seems t o b e t h e c a s e w i t h t h e  justification  f o r R e p e a t e r s a s some  k i n d o f e n t i t y i s the f a c t t h a t speakers o f T h a i seem t o cons i d e r them t o be such e n t i t i e s .  T h i s may a l s o a p p l y t o the  l o c a t i v e sense o f body p a r t s and b u r e a u c r a t i c o r s o c i a l divisions,  i f l o c a t i o n i s indeed a common semantic f a c t o r i n  these groups o f repeaters.. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s p e c u l a t e as w e l l t h a t i n the p r o cess o f e x t e n s i o n and the concomitant d i v e r g e n c e o f senses o f the same form as c l a s s i f i e r and as f u l l s u b s t a n t i v e noun (or as noun compound member) we can see t h e p r o c e s s o f " f o s s i l i z a t i o n " a t work, c o n v e r t i n g semantic v a l u e s i n t o s y n t a c t i c f u n c tions.  T h i s i s the case w i t h the two "meaningless" non-cora-  poundable  c l a s s i f i e r s /lem/ and /an/.  F u r t h e r , w i t h the l o s s  of a meaning the semantic f u n c t i o n a l l o a d i s reduced almost t o zero and the s y n t a c t i c r o l e becomes the s o l e f u n c t i o n o f the item.  In such a case, the need f o r a l a r g e number o f  distinctions  (and t h e r e f o r e l e x i c a l items) w i t h i n the c a t e -  gory of c l a s s i f i e r s i s a l s o reduced.  The l o g i c a l r e s u l t i s  r e d u c t i o n o f the number o f c l a s s i f i e r s , and t h e r e i s some e v i dence f o r t h i s i n T h a i .  The s p e c i a l c l a s s i f i e r s / p i n / f o r  sawblades and / c h i a k / f o r elephants a r e f o r p r a c t i c a l ses o b s o l e t e .  purpo-  I f a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s a s i n g l e marker of  167 u n i t r e f e r e n c e , we can expect the r i s e . o f a g e n e r a l er, and t h i s appears t o be the case.  classifi-  The c l a s s i f i e r /an/ i s  r e p l a c i n g many of the s p e c i a l c l a s s i f i e r s f o r implements of the o l d manual technology  as Bangkok ( i f n o t T h a i l a n d ) moves  i n t o the e l e c t r o n i c and the computer e r a s .  Most of my i n f o r -  mants r e g u l a r l y use /an/ when o l d - f a s h i o n e d o b j e c t s a r e d i s cussed.  There i s a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence  that other  lan-  guages a r e r e d u c i n g t h e i r c l a s s i f i e r i n v e n t o r y as t e c h n i c a l change and semantic e x t e n s i o n  exert t h e i r i n f l u e n c e .  example, Greenberg (1975:34) c i t e s evidence  to this  For effect  from G i l y a k , as do Dunn and Yanada (1958:50) f o r Japanese. We have a l s o noted above t h a t the compounding of c l a s s i f i e r s i n some cases  serves  t o r e i n f o r c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The  p r e f i x e d c l a s s i f i e r may o c c a s i o n a l l y r e p l a c e the c l a s s i f i e r i n i t s usual p o s i t i o n . The  inadequacy of the s i t u a t i o n a l sentence frames used  to c a t e g o r i z e items as r e p e a t e r s p o i n t s out another p u z z l i n g t h e o r e t i c a l problem.  The "background" i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d  c o n s t i t u t e s a s o r t of frame o f r e f e r e n c e or u n i v e r s e of d i s course.  Reference to hands, f o r example, presupposes  and people t o which they a r e a t t a c h e d .  bodies  This i n turn necessi-  t a t e s a hearer making such a p r e s u p p o s i t i o n i n order t o make sense of a query about the number o f hands.  There i s a c l o s e  a s s o c i a t i o n between s t a t u s as e n t i t y and p o s s e s s i o n Not but  i n Thai.  only because the e x i s t e n t i a l verb / m i i / a l s o means "have", a l s o because the p o s s e s s i v e marker /khOOTj/ a l s o means  "thing, possession"  (with s t r e s s and l e n g t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s ) as  i n the f o l l o w i n g example:  168 8.2  khoon kharj khaw t h i n g POSS he  Perhaps t h i s lows  (e.g.  entities  if  entity  filled.  The  plored,  the  some e x p e c t e d r e l a t i o n  fieldwork  because of generally that  d i s t i n c t i o n s s u c h as  the  the  relation  criteria  In  area  so  Denny  the  was  successful  informants,  (personal  i t i s generally  a mixture of  while c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on q u a l i t i e s  who  and  folk and  entities  classified,  and  entities  t o s e c o n d - and  on  in  f r o m one of  true  (or imputed  third-order  taxonomic  to the  difother.  Although  that  categoriza-  semantic  to)  parallels entities.  ad-  classification  appear.  s y n t a c t i c and  cultural  tax-  were a l l  i t is  i s a semantic matter based to extant  in  and  communication)  unknown a r e a  of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n d i d not  some o v e r l a p ,  ex-  than expected, p a r t l y  between l i n g u i s t i c  a relatively  of  initial  However, a f u l l  r e l a t i o n s h i p between c r i t e r i a  t i o n p r o c e e d s by  extent  shape.  i n most c a s e s t o draw i n f e r e n c e s  was  this  (1962) was  to e l i c i t  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of  is still  A close  there  stated  possession.  "things".  f o r t h i s paper,  well-educated.  structures  and  be  of  seen  (argu-  speaker's concept  a f o l k taxonomy o f  onomy p r o v e d more d i f f i c u l t  ficult  t o be  Papago f o l k taxonomy t o s y n t a c t i c c a t e g o r i e s  real-world  vises  a native  e s p e c i a l l y since Mathiot  relating  etc.)  repeater  s e c o n d argument n e e d n o t  exploring  i s to e l i c i t of  "sea",  in  r e q u i r i n g second p r e d i c a t e - p o s i t i o n s  method o f  sessions  mechanism w h i c h a l -  t h o s e i t e m s commonly u s e d  i t i s p r e s u p p o s e d by One  i s the  / m i i / "hand", / t h a l e e /  not  ments) t o be  things"  of p o s s e s s i o n  " p a r t s " s u c h as  phrases as  notion  "his  a  criteria large  first-order from These  these parallels  169 were not i n v e s t i g a t e d c a r e f u l l y here, but with the  increasing  evidence f o r p a r a l l e l s i n E n g l i s h between words r e f e r r i n g to space and words r e f e r r i n g to time (see e s p e c i a l l y H. 1973)  the assumption of the e x i s t e n c e  nections  i s not c o n t r o v e r s i a l .  Clark  of such semantic con-  There i s some s y n t a c t i c i n -  f l u e n c e i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , however, as seen i n the e f f e c t of a c l a s s i f i e r o v e r t l y present described  i n s e c t i o n 4) and  i n the compound headnoun i n the tendency f o r /an/  (as to  ex-  pand and g e n e r a l i z e i t s f u n c t i o n to become a marker of u n i t reference  i n general.  There was  o n l y an i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to be seen,  w e l l , between c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and tension. i n the two  c r i t e r i a of  ex-  I t i s t r u e t h a t many of the same c r i t e r i a are used processes s i n c e extension  takes p l a c e by  i t s e f f e c t s on the c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . choice  as  But  working the  of a s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as the  of a. semantic e x t e n s i o n  is s t i l l  basis  the product of a v a r i e t y of  motives, o n l y some of which are l i n g u i s t i c , and  few  are c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d .  involves  Also, extension  often  "meta-features" or r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f e a t u r e s  of which  (such  as  s h i f t of f o c u s , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , s h i f t of viewpoint, p a r t - t o whole, etc.) which seem to have no p l a c e i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The f i c a t i o n and tion  3.3  straightforward  r e l a t i o n s h i p between c r i t e r i a of  c r i t e r i a f o r compounding was  discussed  classii n sec-  4..  APPLICATIONS The  most important a p p l i c a t i o n s of the f i n d i n g s of  t h e s i s are i n the areas of l e x i c o g r a p h y  and  this  comparative l i n -  170 guistics. The  c r i t e r i a of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  c o u l d be  the  various and  basis  of  item.  For  example,  to note t h a t /khon/ can  e n v i r o n m e n t s : as  i n F i g u r e . 5'  a comprehensive c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  senses of a given  important  listed  a Repeater,  Extended C l a s s i f i e r .  occur  a Partial  Further  represented  by  f o r the  on  hand, would r e q u i r e a t l e a s t  other  s i n c e / b a j / "S2D is  an  roles.  s h a p e " i s a PR  E x t e n d e d C l a s s i f i e r , as  n e e d be  listed  substantive reference word) . (i)  as  noun o n l y  function  to the  full  like  three  that item  role  can  "container" item  with  full  of s u p p l y i n g  overt be  /baj/,  An  i f i t a c t u a l l y occurs i n the  3  sub-entries  u  (with  an  The  U n i t , whereas / b a j /  substantives  commonly c l a s s i f i e d  roles.  A classifier  r e f e r e n t o f some o t h e r  Further,  as  to note  i s / b a j / S 3 D shape'!  ( i . e . , not  distinct  a s i n g l e entry with  code symbols the  three  i n three  i t i s important  the  i t i s relevant  R e p e a t e r and  /khon/ r e t a i n s i t s b a s i c sense i n a l l t h r e e / k h o n / , t h e n c o u l d be  of  or  implied  listed  unit head-  as:  t h e most f r e q u e n t  classifiers  supplied) (ii)  not  (iii)  usually  classified  usually classified  not  be  prehensive  but  General  Units  (which need  supplied)  "Classifier formation  with  for..."  the  yet  list  at the  will  still  made.  are  can  referred to.  mnemonic d e v i c e ,  can  be  especially  If specific  routes  They,  in bilingual  of i n -  more com-  same t i m e more compact s i n c e  c a n be be  a useful piece  o f nouns c l a s s i f i e d  generalizations known, t h e y  be  better  of  c o u l d be  extension a useful  or students'  diction-  171 aries. T h e r e i s an e v e r - p r e s e n t d a n g e r o f c o n f u s i n g development w i t h present-day is  distinctions.  d o u b t f u l i f modern s p e a k e r s  to a s i c k l e . nent  relate  historical  F o r example, i t  the form  /lem/ d i r e c t l y  N e v e r t h e l e s s , k n i v e s a r e p e r h a p s t h e most  s u b - d o m a i n s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s o f / l e m ^ a n d most  probably  see oxcarts, candles  g i n a l members o f t h e s e t .  and b o a t  promi-  speakers  h e l m s a s somehow mar-  Many o f t h e more m a r g i n a l  members  of the s e t are a l t e r n a t i v e l y  classified  and  ( f o r example) i s r e s t r i c t e d i n  use o f /lem/ f o r needles  modern t i m e s  to professional  & C o n k l i n 19 7 4 : 7 ) . obsolete, reported Not  tailors  ( a s shown i n T a b l e l l ) ,  and d r e s s m a k e r s  Many o f t h e s e m a r g i n a l  members a r e a l r e a d y  f o r example t h e u s e o f / l e m / f o r e l e p h a n t i n Frankfurter  (Adams  tusks,  (1900:53).  a l l the marginal  members a r e l i k e l y  to disappear,  however, f o r some a r e s u b j e c t t o a k i n d o f p e t r i f i c a t i o n t o relic  s t a t u s and a r e u n l i k e l y  /kwian/ changing  " o x c a r t " i s an e x a m p l e . cultural  values  connections this An that  Therefore,  and t e c h n o l o g y  more s e m a n t i c a l l y s p e c i f i c  for  t o be r e p l a c e d e a s i l y .  classifiers,  although  The noun rapidly  t h r e a t e n some o f t h e some  classificatory  u s u a l l y r e m a i n and t h e o n l y a c c u r a t e e x p l a n a t i o n  i s a h i s t o r i c a l one. interesting  corollary  i f the h i s t o r i c a l  to this  fact  i s the p r o b a b i l i t y  b a s i s o f some o f t h e c l a s s i f i e r  clas-  s e s were m o r e . w i d e l y known, t h e u s e o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e c l a s s i fiers an  would p r o b a b l y  decline.  I t i s easier  i t e m as a p a r t o f t h e s y n t a c t i c  guage t h a n  i t i s to accept  t o accept  s y s t e m o f one's own  t h e same f o r m  and u s e lan-  k n o w i n g t h e "un-  172  modern" a s s o c i a t i o n s o f i t s h i s t o r i c a l d e r i v a t i o n .  Of course  c i t y f o l k would be more prone t o t h i s k i n d of e f f e c t the more t r a d i t i o n a l country The  than  folk.  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s paper f o r semantic r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of  e a r l i e r forms of Thai are, I f e e l , q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t .  Geth-  i n g has a l r e a d y made advances i n the h i s t o r i c a l semantics of T h a i u s i n g comparative data One  ( s e e Gething  1977).  major o b s t a c l e t o such r e c o n s t r u c t i o n (and i t s i m p l i -  cations f o r c l a r i f y i n g the p i c t u r e of genetic r e l a t i o n s i n the area) i s the l a c k of r e l i a b l e data on many South East A s i a n languages.  F o r t u n a t e l y , many grammars and d i c t i o n a r i e s  are now b e i n g p u b l i s h e d , t h e r e s u l t o f an upsurge o f i n t e r e s t i n the area d u r i n g the Vietnam-American war. In a d d i t i o n , many capable  l i n g u i s t s from South East A s i a n c o u n t r i e s have  now completed t h e i r t r a i n i n g and t h e i r f u t u r e c o n t r i b u t i o n s are e a g e r l y a n t i c i p a t e d . A f u r t h e r c a u t i o n i s necessary.  Semantic r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  cannot proceed a t a l l without, d e t a i l e d knowledge of h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s (as was s t r e s s e d i n s e c t i o n 7 ) .  To  an equal o r perhaps g r e a t e r extent, semantic r e c o n s t r u c t i o n depends on complementary evidence struction. cases The  from p h o n o l o g i c a l  Without the l a t t e r i t i s d i f f i c u l t ,  impossible  recon-  and i n many  t o t e l l whether items a r e cognate o r n o t .  claims made about the b a s i c sense o f /lem/  were based on  the i n c l u s i o n of any item g l o s s e d as " k n i f e " i n the c l a s s of a "meaningful" c l a s s i f i e r i n other languages. In most  cases  the c l a s s i f i e r d i d not seem to be a cognate of /lem/, but one  cannot be sure of the s t a t u s of these  other  classifiers  173 without  comparative s t u d i e s o f the p h o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s  between languages, i f any.  F u r t h e r i n s i g h t s based on cognate  items c o u l d h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h many proto-meanings t o a p o i n t near s u r e t y .  For example, T h a i c o n t a i n s a verb /lem/ " t o  crop, browse, n i b b l e or graze  (on f i e l d  hem woven c l o t h ; t o c u t a l i t t l e ,  s t u b b l e ) ; t o t r i m or  to cut l i t t l e  by l i t t l e ,  etc."  (from Manitcharoen 1977:852, and Haas 1965:491).  these  two forms (/lem/ and /lem/) cognate?  The o n l y  Are  differ-  ence i s the tone, and t o n a l q u a l i t y i s perhaps the l e a s t ble  p h o n o l o g i c a l parameter.  Lao has a s i m i l a r word. Should  p h o n o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a l l o w us t o r e l a t e these it for  sta-  two words  would open up an e n t i r e l y new c r i t e r i o n of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Table 12. :  a n o t i o n o f slow g r a d u a l movement l i k e  of a heavy o b j e c t on r o l l e r s ,  a g r a z i n g animal,  r e a p i n g a l a r g e f i e l d by hand.  that  o r a worker  I t i s my impression  t h a t such  a sense i s u n l i k e l y , but t h e r e i s some amount o f a s s o c i a t i o n with h a r v e s t i n g a c t i v i t y i n the c l a s s of /lem,/ and f r e s h e v i dence can a l t e r the p o s s i b i l i t i e s r a d i c a l l y i n some c a s e s .  3.4 FURTHER RESEARCH Areas t h a t need f u r t h e r study have a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d out i n the d i s c u s s i o n of weaknesses i n t h i s t h e s i s . areas  These  are mainly as f o l l o w s :  ( i ) The d i s t i n c t i o n of  "inchoative*versus'established*may  have wider s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the semantic s t r u c t u r e of Thai than i t has been a l l o t t e d (ii)  here.  The same i s t r u e of the n o t i o n of p o s s e s s i o n .  Some  k i n d of i n a l i e n a b l e p o s s e s s i o n may very w e l l be the c r i t e r i o n  174 of  status  as  repeater  i n some c a s e s .  The p o s s e s s o r  o f some k i n d o f b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e . parts type  the of  background knowledge i s  communication s i t u a t i o n :  formation  that  domain of  "things"  this (iii)  unclear  hearer  is  c a s e o f body  a u n i v e r s a l of it  is  a human.  part  the  paradigm  a "known" p i e c e  of  in-  A folk  of  the  taxonomy  w o u l d a l s o be a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n  to  F a s o l d 1968  to  area.  The f a c t o r s w h i c h r e g u l a t e noun compounding i n T h a i  essential  cial  the  In the  is  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . is  a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to  connections  between  this  compound members,  are  While  area,  the  connections  cru-  which  g o v e r n c o m p o u n d i n g , seem t o d e p e n d on more t h a n  derivation  from deep s t r u c t u r e  to  about  sentences.  Much more n e e d s  c o m p o u n d i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g a n d t h e  by speakers  who u s e  these  Ultimately,  fier  s y s t e m s h o u l d be a p p l i e d t o  aim o f  an a n a l y s i s  the  members  of  less  touched  the  of  on t h e  intricacies  is of  overall  to  carry  the  out  semantic  category of  This  criteria  classification  between  study of  the  employed  thesis  have  classifiers  at  distinctions  the  classi-  lexicography.  the  original  distinctions classifiers.  domains w h i c h a r e  delimited. of  of  furthering Thai  c o u r s e a g r e a t need t o  relations  Further  the  the  to proceed by semantic  arbitrarily  there i s of  direction  thesis:  T h i s would have  ally  into  this  between  or  insights  step i n this  strategies  learned  processes.  (iv)  A first  be  has  only marginproper,  a thorough this  more  and  picture  level.  between  classifiers.  175 the  content of the c l a s s e s ,  extension yield  solid  present, sifiers Thai.  i n cognate  classes  and i n p a r t i c u l a r i n related  the paths  languages  should  e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t o r e n l a r g e on what  about  semantic r e l a t i o n s  and a b o u t  of  i s known a t  b e t w e e n headwords a n d c l a s -  the o v e r a l l semantic  structure  of Standard  176 BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, K.L., B e c k e r , A . L . , & C o n k l i n , N.F.. 1975. "Savoring t h e D i f f e r e n c e s Among C l a s s i f i e r S y s t e m s " . Paper p r e sented a t the Eighth I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference of SinoT i b e t a n Languages and L i n g u i s t i c s . Adams, K.L., & C o n k l i n , N.F. 1973.. "Toward a T h e o r y o f N a t u r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , i n Papers from the N i n t h R e g i o n a l M e e t i n g o f t h e C h i c a g o L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y . Pp. 1-10. Adams, K.L., & C o n k l i n , N.F. 1974. "On t h e N u m e r a l C l a s s i f i e r i n Thai". Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Seventh I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s o f S i n o - T i b e t a n L a n g u a g e s and L i n g u i s t i c s .. A l l a n , K. 1976. 7: 99-117..  " C o l l e c t i v i z i n g " , i n Archivum  Allan,  " C l a s s i f i e r s " , i n L a n g u a g e 53.2: 285-311.  K..  1977.  Linguisticum  A l l w o o d , J . , A n d e r s s o n , L.G., & D a h l , 0. 1977. L o g i c i n Linguistics. Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : Cambridge. B a s s o , K.H. 1968.. "The W e s t e r n Apache C l a s s i f i c a t o r y V e r b System: A Formal A n a l y s i s " , i n Southwestern J o u r n a l o f A n t h r o p o l o g y 24: 252-266. Bazell, C E . 1966.. "The Sememe", i n R e a d i n g s i n L i n g u i s t i c s I I , E.. P. Hamp e t a l . ( e d s ) . U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press: Chicago. Pp. 329-340.. B e c k e r , A.L.. 1975. "A L i n g u i s t i c Image o f N a t u r e : The B u r mese N u m e r a l C l a s s i f i e r System", i n L i n g u i s t i c s 165: 109-122. B e n t o n , R.A. 1968. "Numeral and A t t r i b u t i v e C l a s s i f i e r s i n T r u k e s e " , i n O c e a n i c L i n g u i s t i c s , V o l . 7.2: 104-146. B e r l i n , B.. 1968. T z e l t a l Numeral C l a s s i f i e r s : A S t u d y i n E t h n o g r a p h i c S e m a n t i c s . Mouton: The Hague. B i e r w i s c h , M. 19 70. "On C l a s s i f y i n g S e m a n t i c F e a t u r e s " , i n M. B i e r w i s c h & K.E. H e i d o l p h ( e d s ) P r o g r e s s i n L i n g u i s t i c s . M o u t o n : The Hague. Bloomfield, L. New Y o r k . Boas,  1933..  Language.  Holt,  Rinehart & Winston:  F. 1964. " G e o g r a p h i c a l Names o f t h e K w a k i u t l I n d i a n s " , i n D . Hymes, ( e d ) . Pp. 171-181.  B o g u s l a w s k i , A. 1970. "On S e m a n t i c P r i m i t i v e s and M e a n i n g f u l n e s s " , i n A. G r e i m a s e t a l ( e d s ) S i g n , Language, C u l t u r e . . J a n u a L i n g u a r u m , S e r i e s M a j o r I.XX. Mouton:  177 The  Hague.  B u r l i n g , R. 1964. " C o g n i t i o n and Componential A n a l y s i s : God's T r u t h or Hocus Pocus?" i n American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 66: 20-28. B u r l i n g , R. 1965. "How t o Choose a Burmese Numeral C l a s s i f i e r " i n M.E. S p i r o ( e d ) , Context and Meaning i n C u l t u r a l Anthropology. The Free P r e s s : New York. Campbell, S. & Shaweevongse, C. 1962. The Fundamentals of The T h a i Language. T h a i - A u s t r a l i a Company:. Bangkok. C a r t e r , R.M. 1976. "Chipeweyan C l a s s i f i c a t o r y Verbs", i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of American L i n g u i s t i c s 42.1: 24-30. Chafe, W.L. 19 70. Meaning and the S t r u c t u r e of Language. U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s : Chicago. Chafe, W.L. 1976. "Givenness, C o n t r a s t i v e n e s s , D e f i n i t e n e s s , S u b j e c t s , Topics and P o i n t of View", i n C.N. L i (ed), S u b j e c t and T o p i c . Academic P r e s s : New York. Chan, Mae-chu. 19 77. " C l a s s i f i e r s " , i n Aspects of The K a i p i n g V e r n a c u l a r : A F i e l d Study Report. A group of term papers f o r Chinese 632, L i n g u i s t i c s I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii (Manoa). Pp. 86-104. Chao, Y-R. 1968. A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s : Berkeley & Los Angeles. Chomsky, N.  1957.  S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s . Mouton: The  Hague.  C l a r k , E..V. 1973. "What's i n a Word? On the C h i l d ' s A c q u i s i t i o n of Semantics i n h i s F i r s t Language", i n T.E. Moore, ( e d ) . C l a r k , H.H.. 1973. "Space, Time, Semantics and. the i n T.E. Moore, ( e d ) .  Child",  C l a r k , H.H. & C l a r k , E.V.. 1977. Psychology and Language. Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich: New York. C o n k l i n , H.C.. (ed)..  1964.  "Hanunoo C o l o r C a t e g o r i e s " , i n D. Hymes  C o n k l i n , H.C. 1972. F o l k C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : A T o p i c a l l y Arranged B i b l i o g r a p h y of Contemporary and Background References Through 1971. Department of Anthropology, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : New Haven. Cornyn, W.S. & Roop, D.H. U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : New Denny, J.P.  1974.  1968. Beginning Haven.  Burmese. Y a l e  " S e n s i t i v i t y to Environment i n  Algonquian  178 Languages". U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o Department of P s y c h o l o g y R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n No. 293. Denny, J . P . 1975. " M a r k e d n e s s i n C l a s s i f i c a t o r y Morpheme Schemes", i n P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S e c o n d C o n g r e s s o f t h e C a n a d i a n E t h n o l o g y . . S o c i e t y . N a t i o n a l Museums :Ottawa. Pp. 242-253. Denny, J . P . 1 9 7 6 a . "The E x t e n d e d n e s s Variable i n C l a s s i f i e r S e m a n t i c s : U n i v e r s a l F e a t u r e s and C u l t u r a l V a r i a t i o n " . . U n i v e r s i t y o f Western O n t a r i o Department o f P s y c h o l o g y R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n No. 354. 1  1  Denny, J . P . 1976b. "What a r e Noun C l a s s i f i e r s Good F o r ? " i n Papers From the Twelfth Regional Meeting of the C h i c a g o L i n g u i s t i c s S o c i e t y . Pp. 122-132.. D i x o n , R.M.W.  1968.,  "Noun C l a s s e s " ,  i n L i n g u a 21:  Dunn, C . J . & Y a n a d a , S. 1958. Teach Y o u r s e l f E n g l i s h U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s : London.  104=125.  Japanese.  F a s o l d , R.W.. 1968. "Noun Compounding i n Thai", Ph.D. t a t i o n i n L i n g u i s t i c s , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago. Frake, C O . 1964. "Diagnosis i n D. Hymes, ( e d ) .  disser-  o f D i s e a s e Among t h e Subanun",  F r a n k f u r t e r , 0., 1900. E l e m e n t s o f S i a m e s e Grammar. P r e s b y t e r i a n M i s s i o n P r e s s : Bangkok.  American  Friedrich, (Part  46.2  P. 1970. "Shape i n Grammar", i n L a n g u a g e 1 ) : 3 79-407.  G e t h i n g , T.W.. tics",in  1968. " S t r u c t u r a l Redundancy i n T h a i Language 44.4:813-819.  G e t h i n g , T.W. 19 72. A s p e c t s M o u t o n : The Hague.  of Meaning i n T h a i  Seman-  Nominals.  G e t h i n g , T.W.. 1977. " P o l y s e m y and H i s t o r i c a l S e m a n t i c s i n T h a i " , i n A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l L i n g u i s t i c s , M a r c h 1 9 7 7 . Pp. 99-103. G i b s o n , J . J . 1950. Houton, M i f f l i n  The P e r c e p t i o n o f t h e V i s u a l Company: B o s t o n .  World.  Greenberg, J.H. 19 75. "Dynamic A s p e c t s o f Word O r d e r i n t h e N u m e r a l C l a s s f i e r " , i n C.N. L i , ( e d ) . Word O r d e r and Word C h a n g e . U n i v e r s i t y of Texas P r e s s : A u s t i n . Haas, M.R. 1942. 18: 201-205.  "Numeral C l a s s i f i e r s  Haas, M.R.  T h a i - E n g l i s h Student's  1965.  i n Thai",  i n Language  Dictionary.  Stan-  179 ford  University  Press:  Stanford.  H e i m b a c h , E.A. P a p e r 75,  1969. White Meo-English South E a s t A s i a n Program,  Hla  "A 15:  Pe. in  1965. Lingua  Re-examination 163-185.  H y m e s , D., (ed). 1964. Language H a r p e r & Row: New York.  of  D i c t i o n a r y . Data Cornell University.  Burmese  i n Culture  J a c o b , J.M. 1965. "Notes on t h e Numerals e f f i c i e n t s i n O l d , M i d d l e , and Modern 15: 143-162.  'Classifiers' ', 1  and  Society.  and Numeral C o Khmer", i n L i n g u a  J o n e s , R.B. 1970. "Classifier Constructions i n South Asia, i n Journal of the American O r i e n t a l S o c i e t y 1-12. Kerr,  A.D. 1972. Lao-English tium Press: Washington.  Dictionary  (2 V o l s . ) .  East 90.1:  Consor-  K r a u s s , M.E. 1968. "Noun C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S y s t e m s i n A t h a p a s kan, Eyak, T l i n g i t , a n d Haida V e r b s " , i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n L i n g u i s t i c s 34.3: 194-203. L a k o f f , G. 19 7 7 . " L i n g u i t i c G e s t a l t s " , i n Papers from the T h i r t e e n t h Regional Meeting of the Chicago L i n g u i s t i c s Society. Pp. 236-246. Leech,  G.N.  1974.  Lekawatana, P. and T h a i . Bangkok.  Semantics.  Penguin:  Harmondsworth.  e t a l . 1969. A C o n t r a s t i v e Study of E n g l i s h M i m e o g r a p h e d at"~the E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e C e n t e r ,  Lekawatana, P. 19 7 0 . "Verb P h r a s e s i n T h a i : A S t u d y i n Deep C a s e R e l a t i o n s h i p s " , Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Michigan. L y m a n , T.A.. Hague.  19 7 4 .  Dictionary  o f Mong N j u a .  Lyons, J . 1968. Introduction to Theoretical C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : New York. Lyons, J . 1977. Semantics P r e s s : New York. I l c F a r l a n d , G.3. University  1969. Press:  M a n i t c h a r o e n , M. 19 7 7 . Company: Bangkok.  (2 V o l s . ) .  Thai-English Stanford.  Mouton:  Linguistics.  Cambridge  Dictionary.  Phochananukrom  Thai.  The  University  Stanford  Bamrungsan  180 M a t h i o t , M. 1962. "Noun C l a s s e s and F o l k Taxonomy i n P a p a go", i n A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 64.2: 340-350. Moore, T.E., ( e d ) . 1973. C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t and t h e A c q u i s i t i o n of Language. A c a d e m i c P r e s s : New Y o r k . N i d a , C.N. 19 75. The Hague.  Componential A n a l y s i s  of Meaning.  N o s s , R.B. 1964. T h a i R e f e r e n c e Grammar. I n s t i t u t e : Washington.  Foreign  Mouton Service  P o o s a k r i t s a n a , P.. 1960. L a k P h a s a T h a i , Chan P r a t h o m 5_. T h a i W a t t a n a P a n i c h Company: Bangkok.  Seuks  R o s c h , E.H. 1973. "On t h e I n t e r n a l S t r u c t u r e o f P e r c e p t u a l and S e m a n t i c C a t e g o r i e s " , i n Moore, T.E., ( e d ) . Saul,  J.E. 290.  1965..  " C l a s s i f i e r s i n Nung", i n L i n g u a 1 3 :  278-  S c h a f e r , E.H. 1948. "Noun C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n C l a s s i c a l n e s e " , i n Language 24: 408-413.  Chi-  S e t h a p u t r a , S. 1972. New M o d e l T h a i - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y Vols.). T h a i W a t t a n a P a n i c h Company: Bangkok. S i l a p a s a r n , P h r a y a U.. 1968.. L a k P h a s a T h a i . P a n i c h Company: Bangkok.  Thai  (2  Wattana  S i l v e r m a n , M.G. .1962. "Numeral C l a s s i f i e r s i n t h e G i l b e r t e s e L a n g u a g e " , i n A n t h r o p o l o g y Tomorrow 8: 41-58. S i r i j a r o e n , L . , Sopawong, W. & C h a l e e , W. 1974. Thai (Part 2 ) . Thai Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n : S l o b i n , D.I. 1971. Psycholinguistics. Scott, Company: G l e n v i e w .  Lak Phasa Bangkok.  Foresman  &  S t e w a r t , A.H. 1976. G r a p h i c R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Models i n L i n g u i s t i c Theory. Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press: Bloomington . Thai  Wattana P a n i c h Dictionary.  Company..  19 70..  Thomas, D.D. 1971.. C h r a u Grammar. Press: Honolulu.  Modern  English-Thai  U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii  T ' s o u , B.K. 1976.. "The S t r u c t u r e o f N o m i n a l C l a s s i f i e r S y s t e m s " , i n P.N. J e n n e r et a l , (eds). Austroasiatic S t u d i e s . ( P a r t 2 ) . Pp. 1215-1248. W a l d r o n , R. 1967. S e n s e and S e n s e D e v e l o p m e n t . D e u t s c h Company: L o n d o n .  Andre  181 Warotamasikkhadit,  U.  19 70.  Thai Syntax.  Mouton;. The  Hague.  Whorf, B.L. 1956. L a n g u a g e , T h o u g h t and R e a l i t y : S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s o f B e n j a m i n L e e Whorf, e d i t e d by J . B . C a r r o l l . W i l e y Company: New Y o r k . " Witherspoon, G.J. 1971. "Navaho C a t e g o r i e s o f O b j e c t s R e s t " , i n A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 73.1: 110-127.  at  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094442/manifest

Comment

Related Items