A CRITICAL EDITION OF GEORGE WHETSTONE'S AN HEPTAMERON OF CIVILL DISCOURSES (1582) bv DIANA SHKLANKA B.A. Honours, University of Saskatchewan, 1961 M.A., Corn e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1963 M.Sc, Simmons College, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of English We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1977 (c) Diana Shklanka, 1977 In presenting this thesis in partial • fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of English The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 9 May 1977 i i ABSTRACT This d i s s e r t a t i o n provides a c r i t i c a l o l d - s p e l l i n g e d i t i o n of George whetstone's An Heptameron of C i v i l l Discourses (1582). The text follows the p r i n c i p l e s formulated by McKerrow, Greg, and Bowers. Ten known extant copies of the Heptameron have been c o l l a t e d : the Folger Shakes-peare L i b r a r y STC 25337, copy 3, has been used as the c o n t r o l text. The textual apparatus includes a textual introduction, a b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the Heptameron, and l i s t s of substantive emendations, emendations of accidentals, press variants, and variants i n the 1593 e d i t i o n , e n t i t l e d A u r e l i a , The Paragon of Pleasure and P r i n c e l y Delights. The c r i t i c a l introduction summarizes Whetstone's l i f e and works; rel a t e s the Heptameron to the Renaissance i n t e r e s t i n I t a l y , to the i d e a l of c i v i l i t y , to courtesy l i t e r a t u r e , to dialogue l i t e r a t u r e , to marriage l i t e r a t u r e , and to Renaissance prose f i c t i o n ; discusses Whetstone's sources; and examines the book's structure. The notes explain mytho-l o g i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l , l i t e r a r y , and contemporary a l l u s i o n s ; i d e n t i f y proverbs; suggest sources; and i l l u s t r a t e the accuracy of Whetstone's observations on I t a l y . A bibliography, a glossary, and indices of proper nouns, s t o r i e s , and f i r s t l i n e s of poems complete the c r i t i c a l apparatus. The d i s s e r t a t i o n shows that Whetstone, drawing both on h i s own experi-ence of I t a l y and on a v a r i e t y of l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s and sources, fuses f a c t and fancy into a c a r e f u l l y constructed l i t e r a r y work, i n which discussions, dramatic entertainments, poems, and tales are themati-c a l l y integrated, progressing towards a d e f i n i t e r e s o l u t i o n i n the Seventh Day's Exercise. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS page Prefatory Note v CRITICAL INTRODUCTION Whetstone's L i f e and Works >vii The Heptameron of C i v i l ! Discourses: 1. I t a l i a n Influence : xxvi 2. The Ideal of C i v i l i t y .xxxix 3. Renaissance Courtesy L i t e r a t u r e x l i x 4. Dialogue L i t e r a t u r e l i x 5. Marriage L i t e r a t u r e l x v i 6. The Heptameron and Prose F i c t i o n l x x i i 7. Whetstone's Sources lxxxv 8. The Structure of the Heptameron x c v i i Footnotes c x i i TEXTUAL INTRODUCTION • c x v i i i Footnotes cxxv B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Description of the Heptameron c x x v i i Substantive Emendations cxxix Emendations of Accidentals cxxxi Press Variants c x l v i C o l l a t i o n with A u r e l i a c l i T i t l e pages of the Heptameron and of A u r e l i a c l x AN HEPTAMERON OF CIVILL DISCOURSES The F i r s t Day's Exercise The Second Day's Exercise The Third Day's Exercise The Fourth Day's Exercise The F i f t h Day's Exercise The Sixth Day's Exercise The Seventh Day's Exercise EXPLANATORY NOTES Glossary Index of Proper Names Index of Stories Index of F i r s t Lines of Poems LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED Primary Texts Secondary Sources V PREFATORY NOTE;' This e d i t i o n seeks to make a v a i l a b l e , for the scholar and the student of Elizabethan l i t e r a t u r e , an accurate text of An Heptameron of C i v i l l Discourses, a work that has received i n s u f f i c i e n t c r i t i c a l a ttention. I am of course indebted to Thomas C. Izard's pioneer study, George Whetstone, Mid-Elizabethan Gentleman of Letters (1942), which attempts to uncover the few facts of Whetstone's l i f e and which suggests some of h i s l i t e r a r y sources. The work of David N. Beauregard, however, whose c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n of the Heptameron remains an unpublished d i s s e r t a t i o n (Ohio State University, 1967), i s not duplicated here. Beauregard's e d i t i o n i s incomplete and does not provide an adequate textual and c r i t i c a l apparatus. His i n t r o -duction outlines a few of the s p e c i f i c l i t e r a r y influences on Whetstone, focusing p r i m a r i l y on Castiglione and Tilney, whereas my c r i t i c a l i n t r o -duction discusses the s o c i a l and l i t e r a r y i d e a l s and t r a d i t i o n s that give r i s e to and merge i n the prose narrative that i s the Heptameron. In the Introduction and the Explanatory Notes, when quoting from Renaissance texts I have modernized the usage of u-v and i - j and have expanded typographical abbreviations. Dates given are those of f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n , unless otherwise noted. Except where accurate modern editions are a v a i l a b l e , references are to the primary texts, which I have generally consulted i n the University M i c r o f i l m s e r i e s of STC books. My a u t h o r i t i e s for names, t i t l e s , and dates are A. W. P o l l a r d and G. R. Redgrave, A S h o r t - T i t l e Catalogue of Books Printed i n England, Scotland and Ireland, v i and of English Books Printed Abroad, 1475-1640 (London: Bibliog. Society, 1926; 2nd ed., 1976, only Vol. 2 available); Dizionario enciclopedico della letteratura Italiana, 6v. (Unedi: Laterza, 1966-70); and Alexandre Cioranesco, Bibliographie de l a litterature francaise du seizieme siecle (Paris: Klincksieck, 1959). I am indebted to Dr. E. Bongie for her help in translating the Latin passages in the Heptameron. v i i CRITICAL INTRODUCTION Whetstone's L i f e and Works Few d e t a i l s of whetstone's l i f e are known, and even fewer are v e r i f i -able. Although the name of George Whetstone repeatedly creeps into discussions of Shakespeare's sources, into works on S i r P h i l i p Sidney, and into l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i e s — for Whetstone i s s t i l l most often r e c a l l e d only as the author of Promos and Cassandra and of a me t r i c a l eulogy of Sidney — the biographical information provided i s sketchy and incomplete, i f not inaccurate. Even the dates assigned to whetstone's b i r t h and death are often u n r e l i a b l e and sometimes misleading. Au t h o r i t i e s such as the Dictionary of National Biography and the Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a perpetuate a l a r g e l y legendary, highly coloured account of the author of the Heptameron. According to S i r Sidney Lee i n the DNB, Whetstone squandered h i s patrimony i n wild l i v i n g at court then "subsequently devoted much energy to denunciations of the depravity of London, and declared that he was fraudulently deprived of h i s property," met George Gascoigne and Thomas Churchyard while f i g h t i n g i n the Low Countries i n 1572, returned to London to take up w r i t i n g only as a l a s t resort i n an unsuccessful attempt to earn h i s l i v i n g , sought adventure on a voyage with S i r Humphrey G i l b e r t , f i n a l l y returned to the l i f e of a p r o f e s s i o n a l writer and s o l d i e r , witnessed the Battle of Zutphen, and died at an unknown date and place. Lee's account i s not far-fetched, but h i s stereotyped p i c t u r e of Whetstone the reformed rake and Elizabethan v i i i adventurer cannot be authenticated. Whetstone may very well have been such a swashbuckling figure, or he may have been the sober English n a t i o n a l i s t and Protestant suggested by h i s l a t e r works and by Watson's de s c r i p t i o n of him as "Morall Whetstone":^ we simply do not know. Nor are bibliographers more r e l i a b l e as a source of information about Whetstone's l i f e and works; for instance, the "G.W." who wrote The Cures of the Diseased,in Remote Regions (London, 1598) i s frequently i d e n t i f i e d i n l i b r a r y catalogues, apparently on the authority of a conjecture made 2 by Charles Singer i n 1915, with the George Whetstone who died i n 1587. I t i s to Thomas C. Izard, whose study George whetstone, Mid-Elizabethan Gentleman of Letters f i r s t appeared i n 1942, that we owe the f i r s t s c h o l a r l y attempt to s i f t out h i s t o r i c a l data from unsubstantiated hearsay.^ Izard suggests that the commonly accepted version of Whetstone's l i f e most l i k e l y originated with John Berkenhout's Biographia L i t e r a r i a (1777), which i n turn i s indebted to George Steevens "the Shakespearean commentator, phrasemaker, p r a c t i c a l joker, and wag extraordinary": Berkenhout reports that Steevens said of Whetstone, "He i s c e r t a i n l y the most quaint and contemptible w r i t e r , both i n prose and verse, I ever met with." This picturesque asperity stuck. From that day to t h i s i t has been the routine ending for accounts of Whetstone. Also i n t h i s Steevens-Berkenhout sketch the misinformation that Whetstone turned s o l d i e r e arly i n l i f e and was as a r e s u l t reduced to beggary seems to have originated.^ What l i t t l e we are now able to reconstruct of Whetstone's l i f e i s based p r i m a r i l y on information from an i n q u i s i t i o n post mortem a f t e r the death of h i s father Robert Whetstone, who died 10 August 1557; from the w i l l of Robert whetstone; and from a few references i n the Calendar of State Papers. Further information may be gleaned, le s s c e r t a i n l y , from supposedly autobiographical passages i n George Whetstone's writings. i x Whetstone's father, Robert, was a haberdasher who owned property i n London and York as well as i n the counties of Essex, L e i c e s t e r , Stafford, Kent, Somerset, and Middlesex. By h i s f i r s t wife he had one son, Robert, and by h i s second wife, Margaret Barnard, he had four sons, Bernard, George, John, and Francis.^ The ingenious c a l c u l a t i o n s of early biographers, based on the recorded fa c t that the eldest son Robert was seventeen i n 1557 when Robert senior died, conclude that George was probably born i n 1544 — the date accepted by S i r Sidney Lee i n the DNB; however, Izard's equally ingenious but more convincing c a l c u l a -tions, based on the fa c t that Margaret Whetstone was carrying her f i f t h c h i l d i n 1557, a r r i v e at a birthdate f or George of 1551.^ Aft e r Robert senior's death, Margaret married Robert Browne of Walcot i n Northampton-shire,'' and George may have been a frequent v i s i t o r to t h e i r country home — such a v i s i t may be behind Thomas Churchyard's reference, i n the prefatory remarks to Whetstone's The Censure of a_ L o y a l l Subject, to "my good f r i e n d M.G.W. at h i s departure into the Countrey" ( s i g . g A l v ) . Whetstone's claim, on the t i t l e page of one of h i s many elegi e s , that he was present at the death of h i s f r i e n d George Gascoigne at Stamford i n L i n c o l n s h i r e i s thus e a s i l y credited, f o r Stamford i s only four miles from Walcot. In Northamptonshire a l s o , Whetstone may have experienced at f i r s t - h a n d the h o s p i t a l i t y of Holdenby, the showpiece of i t s age, the palace b u i l t by S i r Christopher Hatton, to whom he dedicated the Heptameron. The education of George Whetstone i s not documented, but h i s writings reveal a t r a d i t i o n a l Renaissance humanist background and t r a i n i n g . The Heptameron exhibits the author's f a m i l i a r i t y with c l a s s i c a l and X contemporary Renaissance texts, r h e t o r i c a l s k i l l s , and l i t e r a r y devices. We do know that Whetstone's brothers Bernard and Francis matriculated from St. John's College at Cambridge i n 1563 and 1573 r e s p e c t i v e l y , Q and that Francis was admitted to Gray's Inn i n 1578. The evidence for believing that George was s i m i l a r l y educated may not be conclusive but i s c e r t a i n l y persuasive: i n the e p i s t l e prefacing The Rocke of Regard, hi s f i r s t published work, Whetstone refers to h i s lodgings i n Holborne, a d i s t r i c t near the Inns of Court ( s i g . ^ 3 r ) , and he addresses one of the poems i n the same work to "my e s p e c i a l l friends and companions, the Gentlemen of Furnivals In" ( s i g . 01 v); Whetstone's fellow-writers and associates George Gascoigne, Thomas Watson, and Thomas Churchyard had been law students at the Inns of C o u r t a n d William Webbe i n his Discourse of English Poetrie (1586) singles out Whetstone as one "of the learned company of Gentlemen Sc h o l l e r s , and students of the U n i v e r s i t i e s , and Innes of Courte" ( s i g . C4 r). Further d e t a i l s of Whetstone's l i f e i n the early 1570's may be gathered from passages i n The Rocke of Regard which are autobiographical i n tone. Whetstone himself claims that The Rocke of Regard i s based on h i s own experiences: he addresses h i s f i r s t book "To a l l the young Gentlemen of England, . . . For whose behalfe and forewarning, I have c o l l e c t e d together a number of my unlearned devises (invented for the most, of experience)" ( s i g . I f 2 r ) ; and he describes the fourth section, which portrays "the miseries of dice, the mischiefes of q u a r e l l i n g , and the f a l l of p r o d i g a l i t i e " ( s i g . K l r ) , as "the Ortchard of Repentance, the which for the most part, I planted with experience" ( s i g . j?2 v). Ignoring the s i g n i f i c a n t phrases "invented f o r the most" and " f o r the x i most part," l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y read two narratives i n "The Ortchard of Repentance" as undiluted autobiography. The f i r s t n a r r a t i v e , "The honest mans adventures" (sigs. K3 r-L7 r), i s a poem t e l l i n g how the speaker, as a young man, seeks to make h i s way at court; "When coine, and clothes were spent," he finds i t "Hie time to trudge" and takes up s o l d i e r i n g ; he grows old, i s wounded, and leaves the wars penniless; he ends as a farmer, poor and embittered. Since the speaker i s obviously an old man and since Whetstone was about twenty-five when The Rocke of Regard was published, the poem may be dismissed as a record of whetstone's l i f e . The second narrative, "Inventions of P. Plasmos touching h i s hap and hard fortune" (s i g s . 0 8 r f f . ) , a c o l l e c t i o n of poems and prose commentaries, i s more convincing as autobiography. Plasmos confesses that an unhappy a f f a i r with a l i g h t woman made him spend h i s l i v i n g — he complains of being i n want — and involved him i n "a certaine quarel" i n which he "a l i t l e before" maimed h i s r i g h t hand ( s i g . P 3 V ) . In an e a r l i e r poem i n the same book, addressed to "his e s p e c i a l l f r i e n d and kinseman, maister Robert Cudden of Grayes In," the speaker, Whetstone, had also mentioned a maimed hand acquired as a r e s u l t of h i s rashness and rage ( s i g . M3 r); thus, the way i s c l e a r to i d e n t i f y Plasmos with Whetstone. Nevertheless, how much of the "Inventions" i s Whetstone's own story? The prodigal son motif appeared frequently i n Renaissance f i c t i o n , i n both courtly and popular works i t was made fashionable by Ly l y as a r e s u l t of the vogue of Euphues (1578), and i t was l a t e r exploited by Greene i n The Repentance (1592) and i n Greenes Mourning Garment (1590). In w r i t i n g the "Inventions of P. Plasmos," Whetstone undoubtedly drew on h i s own experience, but x i i he cast that experience into a t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a r y frame (as he was l a t e r to do i n the Heptameron); i n f a c t , he may have helped to popularize the prodigal son theme. That the story of Plasmos i s l a r g e l y autobiography i s further corrobora-ted by Whetstone at the end of A Touchstone for the Time: No man was ever assaulted with a more daungerous strategeme of cosonage then my s e l f e , with which my l i f e and l i v i n g was hardly beset. No man hath more cause to thanke God for a free delivery than my s e l f e , nor anie man ever sawe more suddaine vengeance a f f l i c t e d upon his adversaries, than I myselfe of mine: as l i v e l y appeareth i n the ende of my booke i n t i t u l e d The rocke of regarde, imprinted many yeares past. ( s i g . K4 V) Whetstone goes on to bemoan the huge deceitfulness of friends as w e l l as of strangers, to complain of h i s more than three years of " c o s t l y sute" and "greevous oppression," and to praise the wisdom and grave judgement of the Lord Chancellor who r e l i e v e d and released him from "the t o i l e of Law." After publishing The Rocke of Regard, Whetstone appears to have t r a v e l l e d abroad. Plasmos mentions a projected t r i p to France, and a commendatory poem i n "The Ortchard of repentance" i s headed "A caveat to G.W. at h i s going into Fraunce, written by h i s f r i e n d R.C." ( s i g . 0 3 r ) . Such a t r i p might account for the f a c t , extensively documented by Izard, that Whetstone's l a t e r writings reveal a marked indebtedness to French l i t e r a r y works, e s p e c i a l l y to Marguerite de Navarre's Hep tameron and to the tr a n s l a t i o n s of Mexia by Antoine du Verdier and Claude Gruget. In 15 78, whetstone p a r t i c i p a t e d i n one of S i r Humphrey G i l b e r t ' s voyages: the dedicatory l e t t e r to Promos and Cassandra (1578) announces his intentions to accompany G i l b e r t ( s i g . A3 r), and that he did so i s shown by references i n the Calendar of State Papers and i n accounts of G i l b e r t ' s x i i i 1578 e x p e d i t i o n . 1 Z Thomas Churchyard h u r r i e d l y commemorated the occasion by a poem e n t i t l e d "A matter touching the Journey of S i r Humfrey Gilbarte Knight," included i n h i s Discourse of the Queenes Majesties Entertaine- ment i n Suffolk and Norffolk (1578), i n which he singles out a few s a i l o r s : Miles Morgan gaynes good Fame, and Whetstone steps i n place, And seekes by t r a v e l l , and by toyle, to winne him double grace. ( s i g . H4 V) The exact purpose of t h i s expedition i s not known. I t consisted of ten or eleven ships; Whetstone served on the vice-admiral ship, the Hope, commanded by S i r Humphrey G i l b e r t ' s half-brother, Carew Raleigh. Dissension broke out among the commanders of the ships, and only seven ships, i n c l u d i n g the Hope, f i n a l l y s a i l e d with G i l b e r t on November 19, 1578. 1 3 There are no records for whetstone's l i f e between 1578 and h i s m i l i t a r y career a f t e r 1585, but he did publish several works, i n c l u d i n g the Heptameron and sections of The English Myrror, at t h i s time, and he claims to have made a journey to I t a l y i n 1580. References to t h i s I t a l i a n journey occur not only i n the Heptameron, but also i n The Honorable Reputation of a. Souldier (1585) , i n The English Myrror (1586), and i n The Censure of a_ L o y a l l Subject (1587). In the Heptameron, Whetstone's e p i s t l e to S i r Christopher Hatton states that he wrote the book i n order to acknowledge "many received favours, of a Right noble I t a l i a n Gentleman" (p. 3): I have likewise committed to memorie, the c i v i l l disputations, and speaches of sundry well Courted Gentlemen, and Gentle-women, his Guestes, during the time of my intertainment, with Segnior Phyloxenus (for so covertly I name him, l e a s t x i v i n giving him, his true honorable Tytles i n England, I should make a passage for Envie, to i n j u r i e him i n I t a l y ) . . . . (p. 4) In the e p i s t l e "Unto the f r i e n d l y Reader," Whetstone repeats h i s assertion that the book i s a f a c t u a l account, based on h i s v i s i t to I t a l y : I have, with w e l l advised Judgement, bethought mee, of suche memorable Questions and Devices, as I heard and sawe presented, i n this most noble I t a l i a n Gentlemans Pallace, the Christmas twelvemoneths past . . . . (p. 6) And he hints at h i s own unfortunate experiences: Some w i l l (perchaunce more of envie to heare a stranger commended, then of p i t t i e to bemone my hard fortune, or fowle usage) say, I have as j u s t cause to complaine, of i n j u r i e s received at Roane, Rome, and Naples, as to commend the vertues and good intertainment, of Segnior Philoxenus . . . . (pp. 7-8) Whetstone begins the Heptameron by describing, i n the f i r s t person, h i s supposed v i s i t to Philoxenus's palace, but he soon adopts the persona of Cavaliero Ismarito, " i n whiche name heereafter, I w i l l present those actions that touch my s e l f e " (p. 23). In h i s prefatory remarks to The Honorable Reputation of a. Souldier, Whetstone says that he was present at a quarrel i n v o l v i n g an insolent Spaniard i n Thurin i n 1580 and was lodged i n Milan near the River Po ( s i g s . A2 r-A3 v). In The English Myrror, i n order to e s t a b l i s h the c r e d i b i l i t y of h i s report of the actions of Catholic Englishmen i n I t a l y , he declares that he speaks as an eye-witness: "In the beginning of November 1580, I returned from Naples to Rome" ( s i g . K6 V). F i n a l l y , i n The Censure of EI L o y a l l Subject, one of the three speakers, "Weston," says that he was i n Rome i n 1580 before he v i s i t e d Venice ( s i g . F4 r v ) . Weston may be i d e n t i f i e d with Whetstone on the grounds that he appears to represent the author's views and that h i s name i s possibly a variant s p e l l i n g of "Whetstone." If we believe Whetstone's statements that he was i n I t a l y i n 1580, we XV may then accept Izard's reconstruction, based on these passages and on references i n the Heptameron, of Whetstone's i t i n e r a r y to include Roane (or possibly Rouen), Turin, Bologna, Rome, Naples, T i v o l i , Loreto, Ravenna, and Venice."*"^ Whetstone's return to England seems to have plunged him into l i t i g a t i o n , for at the end of A Touchstone for the Time (1584) he ref e r s to his l e g a l problems ( s i g . K4 V). Did these stem from settlements of h i s father's estates? We know that George Whetstone and h i s brother Bernard served i n Leic e s t e r ' s campaign i n the Low Countries sometime a f t e r 1585, but there has been some confusion as to whether George witnessed Sidney's death, which he describes i n h i s poem S i r P h i l l i p Sidney, His Honorable L i f e , His V a l i a n t Death, and True Vertues (1587). Izard, contending that Whetstone's account of Sidney's death i s secondhand and l a r g e l y derived from h i s brother Bernard, does not place George i n the Low Countries u n t i l a f t e r the Battle of Zutphen.''"^ However, recent research by R. C. Strong and J. A. Van Dorsten shows that there were two Whetstones i n Leicester's t r a i n , the second most probably being George. B i l l e t i n g l i s t s i n d i c a t e that, whether or not George Whetstone was present at the B a t t l e of Zutphen, he c e r t a i n l y was i n the Low Countries as a member 16 of the same army at the time of Sidney's death. The Sidney elegy was printed i n the f a l l of 1587, and i n a l e t t e r prefacing the poem, the publisher Thomas Cadman refer s to the death of Whetstone i n the Low Countries ( s i g . A4 r). The episode surrounding Whetstone's death i s e a s i l y reconstructed from e n t r i e s i n the Calendar of State Papers.^' In August 1587, at Burghley's prompting, Whetstone was appointed a commissary of musters under Thomas Digges, "although x v i a l l places were furnished" (p. 244). As mustermaster, Digges frequently complained of the trouble he was experiencing over h i s m i l i t a r y accounts and of the abuses perpetrated by h i s captains; and i n a l e t t e r to Burghley, dated September 12, he laments the death of Whetstone,- saying that he was honest and j u s t and was s l a i n "no doubt because he could not be corrupted" (p. 311). Whetstone quarrelled with one of the captains, Edmund Udall (whom he had praised i n the Sidney elegy, s i g . B l r ) , and i n the ensuing duel, whetstone was f a t a l l y wounded. Digges suggests that the quarrel broke out because Whetstone, i n the course of h i s duty, attempted to check Udall's accounts; and S i r Richard Bingham reports to Walsingham that the two men " f a l l i n g out i n t o some speeches overnight, met by chance the next day, and so unknown to any went themselves without the town, where i t was the said Whetstones':. chance to be s l a i n " (p. 321). Udall, formerly i n Sidney's service, was at f i r s t held responsible, but was eventually cleared by the Council of War on the ground that the f i g h t was "Whetstone's own seeking" (p. 369). S i r Thomas Morgan, then governor of Bergen ap Zoom, t r i e d unsuccessfully to re-open the case. Udall returned from the Low Countries campaign to become Master 18 of the Revels at Lincoln's Inn. Whetstone l e f t a widow, Anne but the date of h i s marriage i s unknown and the i d e n t i t y of h i s wife remains a mystery. In addition to a commendatory verse prefixed to The Posies of George Gascoigne (1575), another i n Timothy Kendall's Flowers of Epigrammes (1577), and two poems i n The Paradise of Dainty Devices (1578 and 1580), whetstone published the following works, a l l of which are extant: The Rocke of Regard (1576). x v i i A Remembraunce of George Gaskoigne (1577). Promos and Cassandra (1578). A Remembraunce of S i r Nicholas Bacon (1579). An Heptameron of C i v i l l Discourses (1582). A Remembraunce of S i r James Pier (1582). A Remembraunce of Thomas l a t e Earle of Sussex (1583). A Mirour for Magestrates of Cyties- (1584); published with A Touchstone for the Time (1584). A Mirror of Treue Honnour and C h r i s t i a n N o b i l i t i e s (1585). The Honorable Reputation of a_ Souldier (1585). The English Myrror (1586). The Censure of a_ L o y a l l Subject (1587) . S i r P h i l l i p Sidney (1587). On the verso of the t i t l e of The Enemie to Unthryftinesse (a re-issue i n 1586 of A Mirour for Magestrates of Cyties and A Touchstone for the Time), whetstone's major publications are listed'; under the s u b t i t l e "Books redy to be printed" are included A Panoplie of Devices and The Image of C h r i s t i a n J u s t i c e , now l o s t works, although the l a t t e r may 20 re f e r , as Izard points out, to the t h i r d book of The English Myrror. The Rocke of Regard, c a l l e d by Whetstone "the f i r s t increase of my baren braine" ( s i g . jf3 r) , i s an exercise i n metrical and prose f i c t i o n . I t i s divided i n t o four parts, "The Castle of Delight," "The Garden of U n t h r i f t i n e s s , " "The Arbour of Vertue," and "The Ortchard of Repentance." The n a r r a t i v e s , drawn l a r g e l y from I t a l i a n authors, are designed as exemplary t a l e s , d r i v i n g home lessons on the benefits of v i r t u e and good conduct and the e v i l s of p r o d i g a l i t y and loose l i v i n g . Too often x v i i i the lessons have a preaching tone; at other times, however, the morals are merely tagged on to the otherwise unedifying novella material. Included i n the series of laments, i n the s t y l e of The Mirror for Magistrates, are the s t o r i e s of Bianca Maria, Cressid, Dom Diego, and the Bohemian Lady Barbara. These are intermingled with c l u s t e r s of admonitory, d i d a c t i c , Petrarchan, and laudatory verses, such as the " F i f t i e apples of admonition, l a t e growing on the tree of good govern-ment" (si g s . 0 1 v f f . ) , "Whetstons Invective against Dice" ( s i g s . N l r -0 1 v ) , and a v a r i e t y of poems on "Loves woes." Of e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i s the "Discourse of Rinaldo and G i l e t t a " (sigs. B 4 r f f . ) , " f i r s t written i n I t a l i a n by an unknowne authour," a prose tale which frequently reveals na r r a t i v e techniques s i m i l a r to those of Gascoigne's The Adventures of Master F.J. (1575) and Grange's The Golden Aphroditis (1577), and which looks forward to the narrative s k i l l exhibited i n the Heptameron. Promos and Cassandra apparently was never played upon the stage. The t i t l e page and the o f t - r e p r i n t e d preface point out that t h i s play was also written with marked moral i n t e n t . Again, Whetstone reveals a s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to I t a l i a n influence, f o r the story of Promos and Cassandra, which he r e t e l l s i n the Heptameron (pp. 125-37), occurs also i n C i n t i o ' s Ecatommiti (1565). As the primary source of Measure for Measure, Whet
UBC Theses and Dissertations
A critical edition of George Whetstone’s An Heptameron of Civill Discourses (1582) Shklanka, Diana 1977
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