UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Minority politics in Bangladesh Kabir, Muhammad Ghulam 1978

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MINORITY POLITICS IN BANGLADESH, 1947-1971 by. MUHAMMAD GHULAM KABIR B.A. (Honours), 1972, M.A. 1974, Uni v e r s i t y of Rajshahi A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of P o l i t i c a l Science) • We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1978 <_) Muhammad Ghulam Kabir, 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis 6 ABSTRACT The p a r t i t i o n i n g of India i n 1947 along r e l i g i o u s l i n e s l e f t a large minority community i n both India and, Pakistan. The purpose of th i s study i s to examine p o l i t i c s of the Hindu minority i n East Bengal from independence i n 1947 to the emergence of Bangladesh i n 19 7 1 . Two hypotheses have been examined i n the course of t h i s study. F i r s t l y , i t i s hypothesized that when a previously dominant community i s thrown into a minority p o s i t i o n , i t s leaders^ attempt to reconcile the community with the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n and attempt p o l i t i c a l readjustment involving compromises. The c o r o l l a r y hypothesis i s that the achievement of the goals of the minority i s dependent on the attitude and the i n t e r n a l cohesion of the dominant community. The evidences we fi n d from th i s study show that the Hindu minority i n East Bengal made compromises i n i t s stand on issues such as (1) a secular-democratic constitution, (2) Islamic nomenclature of the republic, and (3) reservation of the o f f i c e of the head of state for Muslims. However, they fought to e s t a b l i s h a j o i n t electorate system. They were successful i n attaining t h i s goal only with the d i v i s i o n of the Muslim p o l i t i c a l parties i n East Bengal, and l a t e r with the estrangement of the Muslims i n East and West Pakistan. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i L I S T OF TABLES i v ABBREVIATIONS V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i CHAPTER 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n ^ 1 2 I n i t i a l Chaos and t h e s t r u g g l e f o r C o n s t i t u t i o n a l S a f e g u a r d s : The F i r s t Phase o f M i n o r i t y P o l i t i c s , 1947-1954 17 3 The M a x i m i z a t i o n o f t h e H i n d u P o s i t i o n : The Second Phase o f M i n o r i t y P o l i t i c s , 1954-1958 . 56 4 R e t r e a t and R e g r o u p i n g : The T h i r d Phase o f M i n o r i t y P o l i t i c s , 1958-1971 94 5 C o n c l u s i o n 123 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 131 i i i L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e Page I R e l i g i o u s D i s t r i b u t i o n i n P a k i s t a n , 1951 2 I I P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e P o p u l a t i o n by R e l i g i o u s G roups f o r E a s t B e n g a l 3 I I I Growth R a t e o f R e l i g i o u s C o m m u n i t i e s i n E a s t B e n g a l as R e c o r d e d i n 1901 t o 1961 C e n s u s e s . . . 7 i v ABBREVIATIONS AL Awami League AML Awami M u s l i m League BPC B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s Committee CAP C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y o f P a k i s t a n EBDO E l e c t i v e B o d i e s ( D i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n ) O r d e r EBLA E a s t B e n g a l L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y EPCP Communist P a r t y o f E a s t P a k i s t a n EPSU E a s t P a k i s t a n S t u d e n t s U n i o n NAP N a t i o n a l Awami P a r t y SAC S t u d e n t s A c t i o n Committee NDF N a t i o n a l D e m o c r a t i c F r o n t SCF S c h e d u l e d C a s t e F e d e r a t i o n UF U n i t e d F r o n t UPP U n i t e d P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y \ v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My f o r e m o s t d e b t i s t o my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , . P r o f e s s o r J o h n R. Wood. He r e a d t h r o u g h t h e t h e s i s a t a l l s t a g e s w i t h g r e a t p a t i e n c e and made v a l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o t h e two o t h e r members o f my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , P r o f e s s o r R.S. M i l n e and P r o f e s s o r B a r r i e M. M o r r i s o n , who o f f e r e d u s e f u l comments. My f e l l o w g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , K. Ramanathan, D o n a l d C r o n e , K a n t i B a j p a i , and M. M u s t a f a A l a m a l s o h e l p e d me w h i l e I was w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . My B e n g a l i f r i e n d s on campus, p a r t i c u l a r l y J o s e p h D ' L i l v a , Syed M. B u l b u l , and S u d h i r K. Saha were a l s o a s o u r c e o f s u p p o r t . Above a l l / I s h o u l d l i k e t o e x t e n d my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o M i s s M a r g a r e t F r i e s e n and h e r s t a f f o f t h e I n t e r L i b r a r y L o a n d i v i s i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b r a r y . M o s t o f t h e r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s were b o r r o w e d f r o m d i f f e r e n t l i b r a r i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , and M i s s F r i e s e n was a l w a y s v e r y h e l p f u l i n s e c u r i n g them. F i n a l l y , my d e e p e s t g r a t i t u d e goes t o E v e l y n R i e d i g e r , w i t h o u t whose c o n s t a n t h e l p and e n c o u r a g e -ment t h i s s t u d y w o u l d n o t have been p o s s i b l e . v i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The h i s t o r y o f modern human c i v i l i z a t i o n i s f u l l o f i n s t a n c e s o f v i o l e n c e d e r i v i n g f r o m t h e h a t r e d o f one r e l i g i o u s community a g a i n s t a n o t h e r , o r one r a c e a g a i n s t a n o t h e r . M i l l i o n s o f p e o p l e have been k i l l e d o r d r i v e n o u t o f t h e i r h omeland b e c a u s e o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e d o m i n a n t r a c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , o r l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p . Many m i n o r i t y c o m m u n i t i e s have been c r u s h e d , condemned t o w i t h e r away, o r d e n i e d t h e r i g h t t o d e v e l o p . The I n d i a n s u b c o n t i n e n t , i n p a r t i c u l a r , has w i t n e s s e d many s c e n e s o f communal c o n f l i c t b etween m a j o r i t y and m i n o r i t y . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e m i n o r i t y p o l i t i c s i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a w h i c h i s now c a l l e d B a n g l a d e s h d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1947-1971. P r e s e n t - d a y B a n g l a d e s h was a p a r t o f P a k i s t a n u n t i l t h e l a t t e r ' s dismemberment i n 1971. I n d i a was p a r t i t i o n e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e " t w o - n a t i o n " t h e o r y , and P a k i s t a n came i n t o e x i s t e n c e as a M u s l i m s t a t e i n 1947. B u t t h i s M u s l i m s t a t e was l e f t w i t h a l a r g e n o n - M u s l i m m i n o r i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n 2 E a s t B e n g a l (now B a n g l a d e s h ) . The n o n - M u s l i m s made up n e a r l y o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f E a s t B e n g a l a f t e r p a r t i t i o n and a c c o u n t e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 14 p e r c e n t o f t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f P a k i s t a n . The H i n d u s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e b u l k o f t h e n o n - M u s l i m m i n o r i t y ; 13 o u t o f 14 p e o p l e i n t h e m i n o r i t y were H i n d u s . The o t h e r r e l i g i o u s m i n o r i t i e s c o n s i s t e d o f n e g l i g i b l e numbers o f C h r i s t i a n s , B u d d h i s t s , and P a r s i s . 2 S o c i a l l y , t h e H i n d u community was b r o a d l y d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s : u p p e r c l a s s C a s t e H i n d u s , and t h e l o w e r c l a s s S c h e d u l e d C a s t e s . The l a t t e r c o m p r i s e d n e a r l y 55 p e r c e n t o f t h e e n t i r e community. S i n c e t h e H i n d u s were t h e most i m p o r t a n t r e l i g i o u s m i n o r i t y , and p o l i t i c a l l y v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y d e a l s w i t h them. TABLE I R e l i g i o u s D i s t r i b u t i o n i n P a k i s t a n , 1951 A r e a M u s l i m C a s t e H i n d u S c h e d u l e d C a s t e C h r i s t i a n O t h e r s Q. 15 Q. "O % Q. "O Q, "5 P a k i s t a n 8 5 « 9 5-7 7 » 2 0*7 0*5 West P a k i s t a n 97*1 0*5 1 »1 1*3 -E a s t B e n g a l 7 6 » 8 10 12 0-3 0*9 S o u r c e : P o p u l a t i o n C e n s u s o f P a k i s t a n , 1951, T a b l e V I . The " o t h e r s " i n c l u d e t h e B u d d h i s t s and P a r s i s . No s e p a r a t e e n t r y was made f o r t h e s e two com-m u n i t i e s i n t h e c e n s u s f i g u r e s . \' I n I n d i a a s a whole b e f o r e p a r t i t i o n , H i n d u s were i n a m a j o r i t y w h i l e M u s l i m s were a m i n o r i t y . I n E a s t B e n g a l , t h e H i n d u s were p o l i t i c a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y , and s o c i a l l y f a r more a d v a n c e d t h a n t h e M u s l i m s . N u m e r i c a l l y t h e y were a m i n o r i t y , b u t t h e y d o m i n a t e d t h e f i e l d s o f t r a d e and commerce, t h e a d m i n i -s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s , and t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . The C a s t e H i n d u s l i v e d i n towns, and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g s and p r o p e r t i e s — i n some c a s e s more t h a n 85 p e r c e n t - - i n e a c h town o f E a s t B e n g a l 3 were owned by them. I n u n d i v i d e d B e n g a l , t h e y made up 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n . I n D a c c a and C h i t t a g o n g 4 t h e y / w e r e i n a m a j o r i t y . A l l n o t e w o r t h y i n d u s t r i a l c o n c e r n s , i n c l u d i n g n i n e c o t t o n m i l l s , two g l a s s f a c t o r i e s , f o u r m a t c h f a c t o r i e s , and one cement f a c t o r y were owned by them.^ They owned b i g i m p o r t - e x p o r t c o m p a n i e s , b i g b u s i n e s s e s , and had a c o n s i d e r a b l e s h a r e i n b a n k i n g . They a l s o had a n e a r - m o n o p o l y i n p r o f e s s i o n s s u c h a s law, m e d i c i n e , and t e a c h i n g . The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f government s e r v a n t s were H i n d u s . They were a l s o t h e b i g g e s t l a n d l o r d s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . TABLE I I P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e P o p u l a t i o n by R e l i g i o u s G r o u p s f o r E a s t B e n g a l Y e a r M u s l i m s H i n d u s O t h e r s 1901 66*1 33 «0 0*9 1911 67*2 31 »5 1 «3 1921 68«1 30*6 1 «3 1931 69«5 29 »4 1 »2 1941 70*3 28*0 1*8 1951 76»9 22 .0 1*1 S o u r c e : P o p u l a t i o n C e n s u s o f P a k i s t a n , 1951. V o l . 1 , S t a t e m e n t 2-D, p. 27-The B e n g a l i H i n d u s p l a y e d a v e r y p r o m i n e n t r o l e i n t h e 7 I n d i a n n a t i o n a l i s t movement and B e n g a l was t h e c y n o s u r e o f i t . U n t i l t h e end o f W o r l d War I , t h e f r e e d o m movement o f I n d i a was d o m i n a t e d by them. The f i r s t I n d i a n p r e s i d e n t o f t h e I n d i a n N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s was a B e n g a l i . A t t h e t u r n o f t h i s c e n t u r y , B e n g a l w i t n e s s e d t h e famous s w a d e s h i movement o v e r t h e i s s u e o f t h e p a r t i t i o n o f B e n g a l . A t t h e same t i m e , t e r r o r i s t movements were s p e a r h e a d e d by t h e H i n d u s , and t h e two l e a d i n g t e r r o r i s t g r o u p s , t h e J u g a n t a r D a l and t h e A n u s h i l a n S a m i t y , were b a s e d i n 4 E a s t B e n g a l . L a t e r , t h e s e t e r r o r i s t s were p e r s u a d e d t o j o i n t h e C o n g r e s s , and t h e y became t h e m a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r c e o f t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y . The l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e B e n g a l C o n g r e s s and 8 t h e t e r r o r i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s was drawn f r o m t h e H i n d u b h a d r a l o k . B e n g a l i p r o m i n e n c e i n t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement, however, d e c l i n e d w i t h t h e r i s e o f G a n d h i a f t e r t h e c l o s e o f W o r l d War 9 I . Two B e n g a l i s , C.R. Das and Subhas B o s e , u n s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a l l e n g e d t h e G a n d h i a n l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement i n t h e 1920s and 1930s. D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t B e n g a l i H i n d u s l o s t p r o m i n e n c e i n t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement, B e n g a l r e m a i n e d one o f t h e most v o l a t i l e c e n t r e s o f t h e f r e e d o m s t r u g g l e t h r o u g h t o t h e end o f t h e B r i t i s h r a j . B e f o r e p a r t i t i o n , t h e B e n g a l C o n g r e s s was d o m i n a t e d by E a s t B e n g a l c o n g r e s s m e n , and t h e i r nominee, Dr. P.C. Ghosh, became t h e f i r s t c h i e f m i n i s t e r o f 1 0 West B e n g a l a f t e r p a r t i t i o n . The two most i m p o r t a n t b a s e s o f C o n g r e s s s u p p o r t , t h e K h a d i P r a t i s t h a n o f S a t i s h Das G u p t a , and t h e Abhoy Ashram o f P.C. Ghosh, were l o c a t e d i n E a s t B e n g a l . The h i s t o r y o f t h e b i r t h o f P a k i s t a n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n p r e c e d e n t e d communal s t r i f e and b i t t e r n e s s . I n t h e f i n a l d a y s o f t h e P a k i s t a n movement when t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f p e a c e f u l n e g o t i a t i o n between t h e two c o m m u n i t i e s d i s a p p e a r e d , t h e c i t y o f C a l c u t t a w i t n e s s e d t h e g h a s t l y " C a l c u t t a K i l l i n g s " i n w h i c h t h o u s a n d s o f unarmed members o f b o t h c o m m u n i t i e s were s l a u g h t e r e d 11 i n u n r e s t r a i n e d communal w a r f a r e . The C a l c u t t a r i o t s were f o l l o w e d by t h e same k i n d o f communal v i o l e n c e i n t h e n e i g h -b o u r i n g p r o v i n c e o f B i h a r , and, as w e l l , i n t h e d i s t r i c t o f 1 2 N o a k h a l i i n E a s t B e n g a l . T h e s e b l o o d b a t h s u n d o u b t e d l y h e l p e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e C o n g r e s s l e a d e r s h i p t o f i n a l l y a c c e p t t h e M u s l i m demand f o r a s e p a r a t e homeland and t h e d i v i s i o n o f I n d i a on a r e l i g i o u s b a s i s . The H i n d u s d i d n o t f e e l s e c u r e i n t h e new P a k i s t a n b e c a u s e i t was meant t o be a M u s l i m s t a t e , and communal harmony was a l r e a d y u p s e t . The mass m i g r a t i o n o f H i n d u s and t r a n s f e r o f a s s e t s began as e a r l y as J u n e and J u l y o f 1947. A l m o s t a l l o f t h e H i n d u f a m i l i e s were j o i n t f a m i l i e s , and when t h e y d e c i d e d t o l e a v e P a k i s t a n , t h e y l e f t b e h i n d one o r two members o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o l o o k a f t e r t h e i r p r o p e r t y . C a l c u t t a was t h e c e n t r e o f B e n g a l ' s f i n a n c i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , and p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y , and t h e H i n d u s had t r a d i t i o n a l l i n k s w i t h t h i s c i t y . M o r e o v e r , most o f t h e u p p e r c l a s s H i n d u s had p r o p e r t y and r e l a t i v e s i n C a l c u t t a and o t h e r p a r t s o f West B e n g a l . As a r e s u l t , d i v i d e d f a m i l i e s were v e r y common among t h e H i n d u s i n E a s t B e n g a l a f t e r p a r t i t i o n . A t t h e t i m e o f i n d e p e n d e n c e , a l l h i g h - r a n k i n g H i n d u 1 4 c i v i l s e r v a n t s o p t e d f o r s e r v i c e i n I n d i a i n s t e a d o f P a k i s t a n . D i v i d e d f a m i l i e s , t h e t r a n s f e r o f a s s e t s and b u s i n e s s e s , and t h e m i g r a t i o n o f c i v i l s e r v a n t s a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e g r o w t h o f s u s p i c i o n among M u s l i m s t h a t t h e H i n d u s were t r y i n g t o weaken t h e new M u s l i m s t a t e . They o f t e n a c c u s e d t h e H i n d u s o f h a v i n g a " d i v i d e d , l o y a l t y " . The H i n d u m i n o r i t y i n E a s t B e n g a l began i t s l i f e i n t h e new p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m i n an a t m o s p h e r e o f communal h a t r e d , d i s t r u s t and d i s g r a c e . The H i n d u s had s t r u g g l e d f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f I n d i a and had been d e a d l y o p p o s e d t o t h e p a r t i t i o n o f Akhahd B h a r a t ( u n d i v i d e d I n d i a ) . To them, p a r t i -t i o n meant t h e " v i v i s e c t i o n " o f t h e i r m o t h e r l a n d . Under t h e 6 c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e y were n o t f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d t o c i t i z e n -s h i p o f P a k i s t a n . M o r e o v e r , t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y o f t h e M u s l i m s , t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e , w h i c h c a p t u r e d power i n P a k i s t a n , had waged a b i t t e r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e H i n d u s d u r i n g t h e p a s t s e v e r a l d e c a d e s . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e E a s t B e n g a l i H i n d u s f e l t i n s e c u r e when t h e y f o u n d t h a t t h e y were t o become c i t i z e n s o f P a k i s t a n by f a t e . M o s t o b s e r v e r s p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e H i n d u com-m u n i t y was l i k e l y t o d i m i n i s h i n s i z e , i n w e a l t h , and i n 1 5 t a l e n t . The exodus o f H i n d u s f r o m E a s t B e n g a l t o I n d i a c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f P a k i s t a n . As shown i n T a b l e I I I , t h e H i n d u p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n d r o p p e d by 21 p e r c e n t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1941-1951. I n v i e w o f t h e b l e a k p r o s p e c t o f t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e m i n o r i t y i n E a s t B e n g a l , t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s w i l l be e x a mined i n t h i s s t u d y : What was t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e H i n d u s t o t h e new p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m o f P a k i s t a n ? What g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s were f o l l o w e d by t h e H i n d u l e a d e r s h i p i n o r d e r t o s a f e g u a r d t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e community? How d i d t h e y e n d e a v o u r t o s a f e g u a r d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l framework of. P a k i s t a n ? How s u c c e s s f u l were t h e y i n m a x i m i z i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n and a c h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l s when t h e y h e l d t h e b a l a n c e between t h e two v y i n g M u s l i m p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n E a s t B e n g a l d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1954-1958? F i n a l l y , what was t h e s t r a t e g y o f t h e community d u r i n g t h e a u t o c r a t i c r u l e o f t h e Ayub r e g i m e and t h e r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g i n t e r l u d e o f t h e l a s t d a y s o f P a k i s t a n ? _ When we p r o c e e d t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e m i n o r i t y q u e s t i o n i n E a s t B e n g a l , we s h o u l d n o t e t h a t communal b i t t e r n e s s i n ( TABLE I I I Growth Rate o f Religious Communities i n East Bengal as Recorded i n 1901 t o 1961 Censuses Number of Persons i n Thousands and Percentage V a r i a t i o n Communities 1901 1911 P.C. i n c r -ease 1921 P.C. i n c r -ease 1931 P.C. i n c r -ease 1941 P.C. i n c r -ease 1951 P.C. i n c r -ease 1961 P.C i n a ease Muslims 19,113 21,202 11 22,646 7 24,731 9 29,509 19 32,227 9 40,890 27 Hindus (1) 9,545 9,952 4 10,166 2 10,453 3 11,747 12 9,239 -21 9,890 2 C h r i s t i a n s - - - - - 61 - 53 -13 107 102 149 40 Others 269 401 49 442 10 359 20 690 92 359 -48 421 17 T o t a l 28,927 31,555 33,254 _ 35,604 _ 41,997 — 41,932 — 50,840 — (1) Hindus included both Caste Hindus and Scheduled Caste, as Scheduled Caste Order was made i n 1936. Source: Population Census of Pakistan, 1961, B u l l e t i n No.2, p.15. ) 8 1 6 B e n g a l i s o f r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t o r i g i n . H i n d u s and M u s l i m s l i v e d s i d e by s i d e i n B e n g a l f o r c e n t u r i e s w i t h o u t any m a j o r communal s t r i f e . As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , t h e r e had been l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n c u l t u r e between t h e two c o m m u n i t i e s . As n o t e d by A.F. S a l a h u d d i n Ahmed: " I n f a c t , i n many r e s p e c t s , t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e u p p e r c l a s s H i n d u s was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e u p p e r c l a s s M u s l i m s , and t h i s c o n t i n u e d t o be so down t o t h e e a r l y p a r t o f 1 7 t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . . . " S i m i l a r l y , r u r a l M u s l i m s l e d l i v e s 1 8 t h a t were much t h e same as t h o s e o f t h e i r H i n d u n e i g h b o u r s . They were o p p r e s s e d by t h e same z a m i n d a r and t h e same money-l e n d e r i n t h e same way. They s h a r e d e a c h o t h e r ' s s o r r o w and h a p p i n e s s . Communal p o l i t i c s was g e n e r a t e d i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f B r i t i s h r u l e . E v e n S i r Syed Ahmed, t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l f a t h e r o f t h e P a k i s t a n movement, a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e i n c r e a s i n g h o s t i l i t y b etween t h e two c o m m u n i t i e s was due m a i n l y t o t h e r i s e o f 19 e d u c a t e d c l a s s e s . The m i n o r i t y q u e s t i o n has a t t r a c t e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n f r o m p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s t h o u g h i t has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n W o r l d War I and o t h e r m a j o r wars i n t h i s c e n t u r y . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and s o c i o l o g i s t s i n r e c e n t y e a r s have t a k e n i n i t i a t i v e s t o e x p l a i n e t h n i c i t y and m i n o r i t y p r o b l e m s . A t t h e c l o s e o f t h e Se c o n d W o r l d War, L o u i s W i r t h p i o n e e r e d t h e s t u d y o f m i n o r i t y p r o b l e m s and o f f e r e d a d e f i n i t i o n and a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f m i n o r i t i e s . He d e f i n e d a m i n o r i t y "as a g r o u p o f p e o p l e who, b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l o r c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a r e s i n g l e d o u t f r o m t h e o t h e r s i n t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l and u n e q u a l t r e a t m e n t , and who, t h e r e f o r e , r e g a r d t h e m s e l v e s as o b j e c t s o f c o l l e c t i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The e x i s t e n c e o f a m i n o r i t y i n a s o c i e t y i m p l i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d o m i n a n t g r o u p e n j o y i n g h i g h e r s o c i a l s t a t u s and g r e a t e r p r i v i l e g e s . M i n o r i t y s t a t u s c a r r i e s w i t h i t t h e o e x c l u s i o n f r o m f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e l i f e o f t h e s o c i e t y . " J.A. L a p o n c e has examined t h e p r o b l e m o f p r o t e c t i n g > m i n o r i t i e s f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e . A d d r e s s i n g h i m s e l f t o a h o s t o f q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o democracy and m i n o r i t i e s , t h e i m p a c t o f m i n o r i t i e s on p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , t h e e l e c t o r a l s y s t e m , p a r l i a m e n t , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and t h e j u d i c i a r y , L a p o n c e d e v e l o p s a d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h i s more a p p r o -p r i a t e t o o u r c a s e s t u d y . A c c o r d i n g t o him, "A m i n o r i t y i s a g r o u p o f p e o p l e who, b e c a u s e o f a common r a c i a l , l i n g u i s t i c , r e l i g i o u s o r n a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e w h i c h s i n g l e s them o u t f r o m t h e p o l i t i c a l l y d o m i n a n t c u l t u r a l g r o u p , f e a r t h a t t h e y may e i t h e r be p r e v e n t e d f r o m i n t e g r a t i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t o t h e n a t i o n a l community o f t h e i r c h o i c e o r be o b l i g e d t o do so a t t h e e x p e n s e 21 o f t h e i r i d e n t i t y . " By t h i s d e f i n i t i o n a m i n o r i t y c a n be a r a c i a l , l i n g u i s t i c , r e l i g i o u s , o r n a t i o n a l i t y g r o u p , d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e d o m i n a n t g r o u p by any o f t h e s e t r a i t s . A m i n o r i t y c a n e i t h e r s e e k t o m a i n t a i n a s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y o r t o i n t e g r a t e w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l community. W i t h t h e above d e f i n i t i o n i n mind, L a p o n c e makes an i m p o r t a n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f m i n o r i t i e s i n t o two g r o u p s : m i n o r i t i e s by w i l l , and m i n o r i t i e s by f o r c e . The key e l e m e n t o f t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e m i n o r i t y t o w a r d s t h e d o m i n a n t g r o u p . The m i n o r i t y may w i s h t o be a s s i m i l a t e d 10 w i t h i n t h e m a j o r i t y , o r i t may r e f u s e t o do s o . A c c o r d i n g t o him, "The m i n o r i t y t h a t d e s i r e s a s s i m i l a t i o n b u t i s b a r r e d i s a m i n o r i t y by f o r c e . The m i n o r i t y t h a t r e f u s e s a s s i m i l a t i o n i s 22 a m i n o r i t y by w i l l . " The N e g r o e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s e x e m p l i f y t h e f o r m e r , w h i l e t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s r e p r e s e n t t h e l a t t e r . A l t h o u g h a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t h e k e y c o n c e p t o f h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , L a p o n c e does n o t d e f i n e t h e t e r m . A s s i m i l a t i o n b e a r s b o t h s o c i o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n s . M i l t o n G o r d o n d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n has d i f f e r e n t d i m e n s i o n s l i k e c u l t u r a l , s t r u c t u r a l , m a r i t a l , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a l , a t t i t u d e r e c e p t i o n a l ( a b s e n c e o f p r e j u d i c e ) , 23 b e h a v i o u r r e c e p t i o n a l ( a b s e n c e o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) , and c i v i c . A m i n o r i t y may w i s h t o a s s i m i l a t e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l s e n s e , i n t h a t i t w o u l d be t r e a t e d e q u a l l y w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y , b u t may n o t w i s h t o u n d e r g o o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n p r o c e s s . I n my judgement, when t h e t e r m a s s i m i l a t i o n i s u s e d i n t h e p o l i t i c a l s e n s e , i n t e g r a t i o n w o u l d be a more a p p r o p r i a t e t e r m . I n t e g r a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h p r e v i o u s l y s e p a r a t e d o r s e g r e g a t e d e l e m e n t s a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r . A p o l i t i c a l l y i n t e -g r a t e d m i n o r i t y may o r may n o t be an a s s i m i l a t e d m i n o r i t y . L a p o n c e c o n c l u d e s t h a t m i n o r i t i e s by f o r c e do n o t want t o be t r e a t e d as a s e p a r a t e g r o u p , b u t , on t h e c o n t r a r y , want t o s h a r e f u n d a m e n t a l and c i v i l r i g h t s w i t h a l l o t h e r c i t i z e n s . M i n o r i t i e s by w i l l , m e a nwhile, demand p r e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s . W i t h r e g a r d t o e l e c t o r a l s y s t e m s , an i n t e r c o m m u n a l p a r t y s y s t e m b a s e d on membership o f b o t h d o m i n a n t and m i n o r i t y g r o u p s i s - f a v o u r e d by b o t h t y p e s o f . .11 the minorities because i t greatly increases t h e i r bargaining position. Separate electorates and the reservation of seats i n parliament often contribute to the development of communal part i e s , so they are not always seen as a means of safeguarding 24 the minority i n t e r e s t . Separate electorate and communal party systems may be rejected by the minority because under such circumstances i t would be i n a position of permanent minority, with a permanent place i n the opposition. Communal electorate and party systems increase the danger of r e i n f o r c i n g the cohesion of the dominant group and increasing anti-minority f e e l i n g s . As a r e s u l t , the tension between the minority and the majority i s a natural c o r o l l a r y of such a system. In the course of t h i s study, Laponce's categorization of minorities w i l l be used and his assertions r e l a t i n g to the e l e c t o r a l and party systems w i l l be tested. It should be noted that he does not present a comprehensive theory of minority p o l i t i c s i n his study. He i s primarily concerned about how to protect minorities i n modern democratic states. Moreover, some of his claims do not seem to be v a l i d i n a l l situations. For example, he i s of the opinion that the members of the minority groups are often associated with a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l 25 c l a s s . This might be true i n the case of the Negroes i n the United States, or Tamils i n S r i Lanka, or Chinese in Malaysia, but t h i s i s not so i n India, or i n Bangladesh. The nature of the problem of the minorities i s d i f f e r e n t i n d i f f e r e n t contexts. Whenever we.proceed to examine one problem of a c e r t a i n country, we should always have an eye on the peculiar aspect of the p o l i t i c a l culture of that country. If we try to 12 a p p l y a t h e o r y d e v e l o p e d i n t h e West t o S o u t h A s i a i n t o t o , t h a t m i g h t be an impediment t o a p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a phenomenon. I n v i e w o f t h e a b s e n c e o f any t h e o r y p e r t i n e n t t o t h e p a t t e r n o f m i n o r i t y b e h a v i o u r and t h e m a j o r i t y - m i n o r i t y r e l a t i o n a h i p i n E a s t B e n g a l , t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s w i l l be examined i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y : 1. When a p r e v i o u s l y d o m i n a n t community i s t h r o w n i n t o a m i n o r i t y p o s i t i o n , i t p e r c e i v e s a g r e a t t h r e a t t o i t s c o n t i n u e d dominance and s u r v i v a l . When i t f i n d s t h a t i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o r e g a i n i t s p r e v i o u s p o s i t i o n , i t s l e a d e r s a t t e m p t t o r e c o n c i l e t h e m i n o r i t y community w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , and a d o p t p r a g m a t i c p o l i c i e s t o a d j u s t t o t h e new p o l i t i c a l , s y s t e m . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e H i n d u s o f E a s t B e n g a l , t h i s p o l i t i -c a l r e a d j u s t m e n t i n v o l v e d a number o f compromises i n i t s p r e v i o u s p o l i t i c a l s t a n d on i s s u e s s u c h a s : 1) a s e c u l a r demo-c r a t i c c o n s t i t u t i o n ; .2) t h e I s l a m i c n o m e n c l a t u r e o f t h e r e p u b l i c ; 3) t h e r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e o f f i c e o f t h e hea d o f t h e s t a t e f o r M u s l i m s ; and 4) t h e e l e c t o r a l s y s t e m . 2. I t i s a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e g o a l s o f t h e m i n o r i t y i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e a t t i t u d e and i n t e r n a l c o h e s i o n o f t h e m a j o r i t y community. I f t h e l a t t e r i s a compact g r o u p , i t does n o t need t o be r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e m i n o r i t y . B u t i f i t i s d i v i d e d , t h e m i n o r i t y i s i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o b a r g a i n and t o m a x i m i z e i t s i n t e r e s t s . T h u s , i n t h e c a s e o f t h e H i n d u s o f E a s t B e n g a l , i t c a n be shown t h a t a t r a n s i t i o n t o o k p l a c e i n i t s p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . I n t h e f i r s t few y e a r s 13 a f t e r p a r t i t i o n , when t h e M u s l i m s were a c o h e s i v e community 2 g and communalism was a t i t s peak, t h e H i n d u community was p l u n g e d i n t o a c h a o t i c s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l d u r i n g w h i c h i t s l e a d e r s f o u g h t f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s a f e g u a r d s . A f t e r t h e 1954 e l e c t i o n s i n E a s t B e n g a l , t h e c o h e s i o n o f t h e d o m i n a n t M u s l i m community was l o s t . W i t h t h e s c h i s m i n t h e d o m i n a n t community, t h e H i n d u s were s u c c e s s f u l i n m a x i m i z i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n . Under a t t a c k f r o m t h e m a r t i a l l a w r e g i m e , t h e y r e t r e a t e d a f t e r 1958. L a t e r , as t h e M u s l i m s o f E a s t a n d West P a k i s t a n became more and more e s t r a n g e d t h e H i n d u s r e g r o u p e d w i t h t h e M u s l i m s i n a s t r u g g l e f o r an autonomous E a s t B e n g a l . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f m i n o r i t y p o l i t i c s i n t h e i n i t i a l c h a o t i c y e a r s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e c o v e r i n g t h e p e r i o d 19 47-1954. I n d o i n g s o , e m p h a s i s i s g i v e n t o t h e r o l e o f t h e H i n d u members i n t h e f i r s t C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y and i n t h e E a s t B e n g a l A s s e m b l y . C h a p t e r I I I d i s c u s s e s t h e r o l e o f t h e H i n d u members i n t h e s e c o n d C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y and i n U n i t e d F r o n t p o l i t i c s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1954-1958. C h a p t e r IV d e a l s w i t h t h e l a s t p h a s e o f m i n o r i t y p o l i t i c s i n B a n g l a d e s h d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1958-1971. I n C h a p t e r V, t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s and t h e a n s wers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s p o s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d . 14 NOTES - C h a p t e r I 1. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e " t w o - n a t i o n " t h e o r y , t h e H i n d u s and M u s l i m s o f I n d i a c o m p r i s e d two ' n a t i o n s ' and t h e s e two n a t i o n s c o u l d n o t s u c c e s s f u l l y l i v e t o g e t h e r i n one p o l i t i c a l u n i t . M.A. J i n n a h f o r m u l a t e d t h i s t h e o r y and demanded a s e p a r a t e homeland f o r t h e M u s l i m s o f t h e I n d i a n s u b c o n t i n e n t . To t h e H i n d u s and t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y t h i s t h e o r y was u n a c c e p t a b l e and t h e y o p p o s e d i t t o t h e v e r y l a s t m i n u t e o f t h e B r i t i s h r u l e i n I n d i a . F o r a f u l l a c c o u n t o f t h e " t w o - n a t i o n " t h e o r y and t h e p a r t i t i o n o f I n d i a , s ee H a f e e z M a l i k , Moslem N a t i o n a l i s m i n I n d i a and  P a k i s t a n ( W a s h i n g t o n : P u b l i c A f f a i r s P r e s s , 1963); A n i l S e a l , The Emergence o f I n d i a n N a t i o n a l i s m (London: C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 68) ; V.P. Menon, The  T r a n s f e r o f Power ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957) ; C H . P h i l i p s , e t a l . , The P a r t i t i o n o f I n d i a (London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1970); A b d u l Hamid, M u s l i m S e p a r a t i s m i n I n d i a (1858-1947) ( L a h o r e : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 6 7 ) ; C houdhury Mohammad A l i , The Emergence o f P a k i s t a n (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967); and H.V. Hodson, The G r e a t D i v i d e (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969). 2. The name o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f E a s t B e n g a l was changed t o E a s t P a k i s t a n w i t h t h e p r o m u l g a t i o n o f t h e 1956 C o n s t i t u t i o n . However, E a s t B e n g a l was o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o a s E a s t P a k i s t a n s i n c e 1947. I sometimes u s e t h e t e r m s E a s t B e n g a l and E a s t P a k i s t a n i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . 3. Samar Guha, Non-Muslims B e h i n d t h e C u r t a i n o f E a s t P a k i s t a n ( C a l c u t t a : A u t h o r , 19 5 0 ) , p.33. " 4. J.H. B r o o m f i e l d , E l i t e C o n f l i c t i n a P l u r a l S o c i e t y ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1968), p.5. 5. Guha, o p . c i t . , p.33. 6. M i n o r i t i e s i n P a k i s t a n ( K a r a c h i : P a k i s t a n P u b l i c a t i o n , n d . ) , PP.8-9; K.B. S a y e e d , The P o l i t i c a l System o f  P a k i s t a n ( B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1967), p.187; J.K. Ray, Democracy and N a t i o n a l i s m on T r i a l : A S t u d y o f  E a s t P a k i s t a n ( S i m l a : I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e o f A d v a n c e d S t u d y , •1968), p.35; and A r e a Handbook f o r B a n g l a d e s h ( 1 9 7 5 ) , p.321. 7. F o r a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f B e n g a l i i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e n a t i o n l i s t movement, see Myron W e i n e r , P a r t y B u i l d i n g i n a New N a t i o n : I n d i a n N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1967), pp.324-327; and M a r c u s P. F r a n d a , P o l i t i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t and P o l i t i c a l D ecay i n B e n g a l ( C a l c u t t a : F i m a K.L. Mukhopadhyaya, 1971), pp.31-35. 15 8. The term %'bhadralok' i s key to the understanding of Bengali Hindu society. The term bhadralok l i t e r a l l y means "respectable people" or "gentlemen". They are the dominant e l i t e i n both r u r a l and urban society, and are drawn mainly from the three highest castes of the Hindu society. They usually have a landed in t e r e s t , or are employed i n professional occupations. They are d i s t i n -guished from others by th e i r deportment, th e i r speech, t h e i r s t y l e of housing, t h e i r eating habits, t h e i r occupations, and t h e i r associations. Bengali Hindu society of today i s s t i l l dominated by the bhadralok. For an analysis of the bhadralok, see Broomfield, op.ci t . , pp. 5-20. 9. For a discussion of the declining role of the Bengalis i n the n a t i o n a l i s t movement, see Leonard A. Gordon, Bengal:/ The N a t i o n a l i s t Movement 1876-1940 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974). 10. Weiner, op.ci t . , p.326. 11. For an account of the Calcutta Riots, see S i r Francis Tuker, While Memory Serves (London: Cassel, 1950). 12. For an account of the Noakhali Riots and Gandhi's peace e f f o r t , see Atulya Ghosh, Noakhali (Calcutta: np., 1947); and Trailakya Nath Chakravorty, Jele T r i s h Bachar O Bharater  Swadhinata Sangram (Thirty Years i n Prison and the Indian Independence Struggle) (Mymensingly: Author, 19 68) , pp. 356-360. 13. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, India Wins Freedom (Calcutta: Orient Longmans, 19 5 9 ) . 14. At the time of p a r t i t i o n i n 19 47, the t o t a l Muslim repre- ' sentation i n the Indian C i v i l Service (ICS) and Indian P o l i t i c a l Service (IPS) cadres was only nine per cent. Out of the t o t a l 95 Muslim ICS-IPS o f f i c e r s who opted for service i n Pakistan, only two were Bengalis. While the number of Muslim o f f i c e r s i n Bengal was very i n s i g n i f i c a n t , that of Hindus was equal to the B r i t i s h ICS-IPS o f f i c e r s i n Bengal i n early 19 47. Hindus had more representation i n the lower administrative services. See Ralph Braibanti, "Public Bureaucracy and Judiciary i n Pakistan", i n Joseph La Palombara, ed., Bureaucracy and P o l i t i c a l Development (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967), 2nd ed., pp.364-365; and Muzaffar Ahmed Choudhury, The C i v i l Service  i n Pakistan (Dacca: NIPA, 1963), p.78. 15. Keith C a l l a r d , Pakistan: A P o l i t i c a l Study (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1957), p.265. 16. Rajni Kothari, P o l i t i c s i n India (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1 9 7 0 ) , p.62. 16 17. A . F . S a l a h u d d i n Ahmed, S o c i a l I d e a s and S o c i a l Change i n  B e n g a l , 1818-1835 ( L e i d e n : J . J . B r i l l , 1 9 65), p.17. 18. B a d r u d d i n Umar, S a m p r a d a h a (Communalism) ( D a c c a : Mowla B r o t h e r s , 1966); Ghulam M u r s h i d , S w a d h i n a t a Sangramer  S a n s k r i t i k P a t a b h u m i ( C u l t u r a l B a c k g r o u n d o f I n d e p e n d e n c e S t r u g g l e ) ( C a l c u t t a : A s s o c i a t e d P r i n t e r s , 1 9 7 1). 19. C i t e d i n C h o u d h u r y Mohammad A l i , o p . c i t . , p . 9 . 20. L o u i s W i r t h , "The P r o b l e m o f M i n o r i t y G r o u p s " , i n R a l p h L i n t o n , e d . , The S c i e n c e o f Man i n t h e W o r l d C r i s i s (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1945), p.346. 21. J.A. L a p o n c e , The P r o t e c t i o n o f M i n o r i t i e s ( B e r k e l e y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1960), p.6. 22. I b i d . , p.12. 23. F o r an a n a l y s i s o f t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n p r o c e s s , s ee M i l t o n M. Go r d o n , A s s i m i l a t i o n i n A m e r i c a n L i f e (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 6 4 ) ; and h i s e s s a y , "Toward a G e n e r a l T h e o r y o f R a c i a l and E t h n i c Group R e l a t i o n s " , i n Natha n G l a z e r and D a n i e l P. M o y n i h a n , e d s . E t h n i c i t y ( Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975), pp. 84-110. H i s h y p o t h e s e s a r e t h a t i n a m a j o r i t y - m i n o r i t y g r o u p c o n t a c t c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n w i l l o c c u r f i r s t , a c c u l t u r a t i o n may t a k e p l a c e w i t h o u t o t h e r t y p e s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n , and f i n a l l y , i f s t r u c t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n o c c u r s a l o n g w i t h o r s u b s e q u e n t t o a c c u l t u r a t i o n , a l l o t h e r t y p e s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n w i l l i n e v i t a b l y t a k e p l a c e . G o r d o n , i n G l a z e r and M o y n i h a n , p.84. 24. L a p o n c e , o p . c i t . , pp.178-180; a l s o C h a p t e r s V I I and V I I I . 25. I b i d . , p.13. 26. The t e r m communalism i s u s e d i n t h e I n d i a n s u b c o n t i n e n t t o d e n o t e p o l i t i c s b a s e d on r e l i g i o u s l i n e s . I u s e t h e t e r m i n t h a t s e n s e h e r e . 17 CHAPTER I I I N I T I A L CHAOS AND THE STRUGGLE FOR CONSTITUTIONAL SAFEGUARDS: THE FIRST PHASE OF MINORITY POLITICS, 1947-1954 A u g u s t 14, 1947 marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new e r a i n t h e p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f E a s t B e n g a l . W i t h i n d e p e n d e n c e and p a r t i t i o n , a c c o m p a n i e d by an u n p r e c e d e n t e d communal h o l o c a u s t , t h e e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l m a t r i x was c o m p l e t e l y c h a n g e d . The a c h i e v e m e n t o f P a k i s t a n i n d i c a t e d t h e r e v e r s a l o f t h e dominance o f t h e H i n d u s i n E a s t B e n g a l . The p l a c e o f t h e H i n d u e l i t e s o f t h e p r e p a r t i -t i o n e r a was t a k e n o v e r by West P a k i s t a n i s , r e f u g e e M u s l i m s f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f I n d i a , and B e n g a l i M u s l i m s . The H i n d u s f a c e d a u n i q u e s i t u a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y were n o t p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t P a k i s t a n and t h e p a r t i t i o n o f B e n g a l . The r e s u l t i n g dilemma among t h e H i n d u s c h a r t e d t h e c o u r s e o f H i n d u p o l i t i c s f o r t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e . The o b j e c t o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o examine how t h e d e f e a t e d H i n d u e l i t e t r i e d t o s a f e g u a r d t h e H i n d u i n t e r e s t i n P a k i s t a n i n t h e f i r s t c o n f u s i n g y e a r s o f t h e newly b o r n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . I n i t i a l R e a c t i o n t o P a r t i t i o n The H i n d u s were t h e champions o f I n d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m and f o u g h t f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f " u n d i v i d e d " I n d i a . When P a k i s t a n a c t u a l l y came i n t o b e i n g , i t was a g r e a t s h o c k f o r t h e H i n d u s . The t y p i c a l H i n d u a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h i s new n a t i o n was d e s c r i b e d by P r a v a s h C h a n d r a L a h i r y , a l e a d i n g C o n g r e s s l e a d e r o f E a s t B e n g a l , i n h i s memoirs. R e c a l l i n g t h e f i r s t day o f i n d e p e n d e n c e i n h i s home town, R a j s h a h i , he l a m e n t e d t h a t he 18 was a f r e e d o m f i g h t e r o f t h e I n d i a n n a t i o n l i s t movement. I t was u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t he was no l o n g e r an I n d i a n , b u t had t o 1 become a P a k i s t a n i . He had t o a c c e p t t h i s d i s h o n o u r . He f u r t h e r added t h a t t h e H i n d u s ' e y e s e x p r e s s e d "a s e n s e o f 2 d e f e a t b u t t h e y had t o k e e p an a r t i f i c i a l s m i l i n g f a c e " . P r o f e s s o r Samar Guha, s e c r e t a r y o f t h e E a s t B e n g a l M i n o r i t i e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , a l s o b e w a i l e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e H i n d u s o f E a s t 3 B e n g a l were "no l o n g e r I n d i a n s " . I n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y o f P a k i s t a n (CAP), K i r a n S h a n k a r Roy, l e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n C o n g r e s s p a r t y , f r a n k l y a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y was n o t v e r y happy b e c a u s e o f t h e d i v i s i o n 4 o f I n d i a , and t h e p a r t i t i o n o f B e n g a l . I t was q u i t e n a t u r a l f o r t h e H i n d u s t o have p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t P a k i s t a n b e c a u s e i t meant t h e d e f e a t o f t h e i r much c h e r i s h e d symbol o f I n d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m , a symbol w i t h w h i c h t h e y I d e n t i f i e d f o r a l o n g t i m e . P a k i s t a n was t o become a M u s l i m homeland, and t h e y c o u l d e a s i l y s e e t h a t t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s w o u l d be v e r y r e s t r i c t e d . The H i n d u f e a r was r e d o u b l e d by t h e f a c t t h a t p o l i t i c a l power was c a p t u r e d by t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e , w h i c h a l l o w e d no p l a c e f o r H i n d u s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e n a . I n v i e w o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p r o s p e c t s i n P a k i s t a n , a l m o s t a l l p r o m i n e n t H i n d u l e a d e r s m i g r a t e d t o I n d i a . However, o f t h e l e a d i n g H i n d u p o l i t i c i a n s , K i r a n S h a n k a r Roy and D.N. D u t t a , l e a d e r and d e p u t y l e a d e r r e s p e c t i v e l y o f t h e C o n g r e s s a s s e m b l y p a r t y i n u n d i v i d e d B e n g a l l e g i s l a t i v e a s s e m b l y , d e c i d e d t o s t a y on i n E a s t B e n g a l . The ' H i n d u l e a d e r s who c h o s e t o r e m a i n i n P a k i s t a n were m o t i v a t e d 19 by t h e d i s p o s i t i o n t o take t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e now b e f a l l e n 5 H i n d u community i n P a k i s t a n , and some o f them d i d n o t have t h e n e c e s s a r y b a s e o f s u p p o r t i n West B e n g a l t o engage i n p o l i t i c s t h e r e . The mass m i g r a t i o n o f H i n d u s t o I n d i a s t a r t e d i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e p a r t i t i o n . By t h e m i d d l e o f 1948, a b o u t one m i l l i o n H i n d u s had m i g r a t e d t o West B e n g a l . The s t r e a m o f m i g r a n t s was r e l a t i v e l y t h i n b e f o r e t h e 1950 r i o t s a f t e r w h i c h more t h a n one m i l l i o n H i n d u s c r o s s e d t h e b o r d e r i n t h e y e a r 7 ' 19 50. D u r i n g t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e m i g r a t i o n was m o s t l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e b h a d r a l o k s e c t i o n o f t h e H i n d u community. I n most c a s e s , t h e y w o u l d s e n d t h e young and f e m a l e members o f t h e f a m i l y t o I n d i a , l e a v i n g b e h i n d one o r two o l d e r members t o l o o k a f t e r t h e i r p r o p e r t y o r p r o f e s s i o n s . P o l i t i c a l S t r u c t u r e o f P a k i s t a n A f t e r I n d e p e n d e n c e I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f m i n o r i t y p o l i t i c s i n t h e new r e p u b l i c , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have some i n s i g h t i n t h e w o r k i n g o f t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m a t t h a t t i m e . The P a k i s t a n movement was s p e a r h e a d e d by t h e M u s l i m L eague and a f t e r i n d e -p e n d e n c e , power was c a p t u r e d by i t b o t h a t t h e c e n t r e and i n t h e p r o v i n c e s . Mohammad A l i J i n n a h was t h e u n d i s p u t e d l e a d e r o f t h e p a r t y and became t h e f i r s t G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l o f P a k i s t a n . He e x e r c i s e d h i s a u t h o r i t y i n t h e same way t h a t B r i t i s h G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l s d i d . The f i r s t P a k i s t a n C a b i n e t a p p o i n t e d by him was much more l i k e a v i c e r e g a l " e x e c u t i v e c o u n c i l " . ^ The n o m i n a t i o n s t o t h e C a b i n e t were made by him p e r s o n a l l y and 10 he a l s o d e c i d e d t h e i r p o r t f o l i o s . As n o t e d by K.B. S a y e e d , "With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f Mr. L i a q u a t A l i Khan, t h e o t h e r M u s l i m 20 League members o f t h e . . . c a b i n e t were n o t o u t s t a n d i n g l e a d e r s o f t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e . . . P r o m i n e n t M u s l i m League l e a d e r s l i k e Mr. K h a l i q u z z a m a n , Mr. H.S. Suhrawardy, t h e P r e m i e r o f B e n g a l , 11 and Nawab I s m a i l had n o t been n o m i n a t e d . . . " An i m p o r t a n t t h i n g t o n o t e i s t h a t p o p u l a r B e n g a l i M u s l i m L e a g u e l e a d e r s were e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e t o p h i e r a r c h y o f t h e e m e r g i n g r u l i n g e l i t e o f P a k i s t a n . B e f o r e p a r t i t i o n , t h e B e n g a l M u s l i m League was l a r g e l y d o m i n a t e d by H.S. Suhrawardy and A b u l Hashim, g e n e r a l s e c r e t a r y o f t h e B e n g a l M u s l i m L e a g u e . B u t on t h e eve o f p a r t i t i o n , t h e y were e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e l e a d e r -s h i p o f t h e p a r t y and government by t h e shrewd m a n o e u v e r i n g o f t h e c e n t r a l l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e . They were r e p l a c e d by t h e members o f more c o n s e r v a t i v e and l a n d l o r d - d o m i n a t e d w i n g o f t h e p a r t y l e d by Khwaja N a z i m u d d i n and Akram Khan.. F a z u l Huq, f o r m e r c h i e f m i n i s t e r and t h e most p o p u l a r M u s l i m l e a d e r o f B e n g a l , was a l s o o u s t e d f r o m t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e a few y e a r s b e f o r e i n d e p e n d e n c e . Huq, S uhrawardy, and Hashim were t h e a d v o c a t e s o f a more o r l e s s i n d e p e n d e n t E a s t e r n P a k i s t a n a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f .the h i s t o r i c L a h o r e R e s o l u t i o n . J i n n a h f e a r e d t h a t t h e c o n t i n u e d p r e s e n c e o f Suhrawardy and Huq on t h e s c e n e m i g h t l e a d t o a s e p a r a t i s t movement i n B e n g a l . So he o p t e d f o r t h e s u b s e r v i e n t B e n g a l i M u s l i m League g r o u p l e d by N a z i m u d d i n . The l a n d l o r d g r o u p had common i n t e r e s t s w i t h West P a k i s t a n i l e a d e r s and f e a r e d mass p o l i t i c s . On t h e o t h e r hand, Suhrawardy and Huq were mass l e a d e r s and r e p r e s e n t e d t h e r i s i n g B e n g a l i M u s l i m m i d d l e c l a s s . As e a r l y as 1948, t h e e x c l u s i o n o f p o p u l a r B e n g a l i l e a d e r s r e s u l t e d i n t h e g r o w t h o f a s e n s e o f f r u s t r a t i o n 21 among a s e c t i o n o f B e n g a l i M u s l i m l e a d e r s . T h i s f r u s t r a t i o n was u l t i m a t e l y m a n i f e s t e d i n a ' f i s s i p a r o u s t e n d e n c y ' i n E a s t 1 2 B e n g a l , and p r o v i n c i a l autonomy became an i m p o r t a n t theme i n t h e p o l i t i c s o f P a k i s t a n a l m o s t f r o m t h e day o f i t s i n c e p t i o n . M i n o r i t y P a r t i e s B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f H i n d u p o l i t i c i a n s i n t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y o f P a k i s t a n and i n t h e E a s t B e n g a l L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , l e t us t u r n t o t h e o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e m i n o r i t y p a r t i e s . B e f o r e p a r t i -t i o n , t h e I n d i a n N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s was t h e p a r t y o f I n d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m , and t h e H i n d u s o f E a s t B e n g a l were s o l i d l y b e h i n d i t . W i t h g r o w i n g communal p o l i t i c s , t h e M u s l i m League s u c c e s s f u l l y m o b i l i z e d t h e M u s l i m masses o f E a s t B e n g a l i n t o i t s f o l d , w h i l e t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y was f u r t h e r i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e M u s l i m masses and f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s became a H i n d u p a r t y . A f t e r p a r t i t i o n , most o f t h e i n f l u e n t i a l c o n g r e s s l e a d e r s l e f t P a k i s t a n . E v e n K i r a n S hankar Roy, l e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n C o n g r e s s P a r t y i n t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y , l e f t P a k i s t a n w i t h i n e i g h t months t o t a k e up a m i n i s t e r i a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e West B e n g a l C a b i n e t . The C o n g r e s s p a r t y u n d e r w e n t a s p l i t i n t h e m i d d l e o f 1948 as a r e s u l t o f a c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e f u t u r e s t r a t e g y o f t h e p a r t y . A g r o u p o f C o n g r e s s l e a d e r s was o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t u n d e r t h e c h a n g e d . c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y as s u c h w o u l d go a g a i n s t t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e m i n o r i t y community, a n d t h e H i n d u l e a d e r s w o u l d f u r t h e r be i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e g e n e r a l M u s l i m p u b l i c . A n o t h e r s e c t i o n o f t h e C o n g r e s s 22 p a r t y b e l i e v e d t h a t u n d e r t h e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m o f s e p a r a t e e l e c t o r a t e s , i t w o u l d be w i s e r t o c o n t i n u e t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e C o n g r e s s , and t o r e t a i n i t s p r e v i o u s name. They f e l t t h a t b e c a u s e o f , t h e s e n t i m e n t a l t i e s o f t h e H i n d u s w i t h t h e C o n g r e s s , 13 i t w o u l d be a b l e t o c o n t i n u e t o a t t r a c t t h e i r v o t e s . D.N. D u t t a , d e p u t y l e a d e r o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e E a s t B e n g a l L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y (EBLA) and a member o f t h e CAP, and K.K. D u t t a , a n o t h e r member o f t h e EBLA, were t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e f o r m e r g r o u p . They c o n v e n e d a c o n f e r e n c e c a l l e d t h e " E a s t e r n P a k i s t a n P o l i t i c a l C o n v e n t i o n " a t C o m i l l a on J u l y 18, 1948. The C o n v e n t i o n r e s o l v e d t o f o r m a new p a r t y c a l l e d t h e " P a k i s t a n Gana S a m i t y " ( P a k i s t a n P e o p l e ' s A s s o c i a t i o n ) whose membership . . 14 w o u l d be open t o a l l , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f c a s t e , c r e e d o r r e l i g i o n . D.N. D u t t a and h i s a s s o c i a t e s were o f t h e v i e w t h a t " w i t h t h e p a r t i t i o n , t h e t i m e had come when communalism s h o u l d be f o u g h t by f o r g i n g a programme m a i n l y f o r e c o n o m i c u p l i f t m e n t o f t h e 1 5 masses r e g a r d l e s s o f any community d i s t i n c t i o n s . " I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Gana S a m i t y , D.N. D u t t a l a u n c h e d a p r o v i n c e - w i d e campaign f o r a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e . H i s p a r t y a l s o h e l d t h e v i e w t h a t t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y s h o u l d 1 6 be c o n f i n e d t o I n d i a . The e c o n o m i c p l a t f o r m o f t h e p a r t y a t t r a c t e d t h e o t h e r e x i s t i n g m i n o r H i n d u p a r t i e s t o j o i n hands w i t h t h e Gana S a m i t y . L a t e r , i t was j o i n e d by t h e s o c i a l i s t members o f t h e C o n g r e s s , a s e c t i o n o f t h e F o r w a r d B l o c , and t h e P a k i s t a n S o c i a l i s t P a r t y , h e a d e d by a l e g e n d a r y f i g u r e o f 1 7 t h e I n d i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e movement, T r a i l a k y a N a t h C h a k r a v o r t y . The name o f t h e p a r t y was c h a n g e d t o U n i t e d P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y (UPP) i n 1954. S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Gana S a m i t y , t h o s e who d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h t h i s d i s s e n t i n g g r o u p , r e c o n s t i t u t e d t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y a s t h e P a k i s t a n N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s a t a c o n f e r -1 8 ence o f t h e rump Congressmen f r o m a l l o v e r E a s t B e n g a l . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e P a k i s t a n N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s w o u l d keep no 19 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n k w i t h t h e p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n I n d i a . A new 250-member body was f o r m e d , an eight-member committee was a p p o i n t e d t o d r a f t a p a r t y c o n s t i t u t i o n , and t h e e x i s t i n g d i s t r i c t and l o w e r l e v e l c o m m i t t e e s were r e c o g n i z e d as u n i t s o f t h e p a r t y . 2 ^ T h i s g r o u p o f H i n d u l e a d e r s a r g u e d t h a t w h e t h e r t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y r e m a i n e d as s u c h o r c h a n g e d i t s name, H i n d u s w o u l d be s u b j e c t e d t o i n t i m i d a t i o n i n t h e p r e v a i l i n g communal a t m o s p h e r e . T h u s , t h e y needed a p a r t y and l e a d e r s h i p w h i c h 21 c o u l d s u p p o r t t h e i r c a u s e and h e l p i n k e e p i n g up t h e i r m o r a l e . A l t h o u g h t h e Gana S a m i t y was formed w i t h t h e n o v e l o b j e c t i v e t o f o r g e a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y h a v i n g membership f r o m b o t h H i n d u s and M u s l i m s , i t f a i l e d t o a t t r a c t any M u s l i m s u p p o r t . I t t h e r e f o r e m a i n t a i n e d i t s e x i s t e n c e as a H i n d u p a r t y , and championed t h e i r c a u s e s . The two H i n d u p a r t i e s were s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s on p a p e r o n l y , and t h e members o f t h e Gana S a m i t y r e t a i n e d t h e i r i d e n t i t y 22 as t h e C o n g r e s s B l o c i n t h e CAP and t h e EBLA. Members o f t h e s c h e d u l e d c a s t e s f o r m e d t h e l a r g e s t H i n d u g r o u p i n E a s t B e n g a l , and were e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y f a r b e h i n d t h e c a s t e H i n d u s . The C o n g r e s s p a r t y e n j o y e d t h e 23 s u p p o r t o f t h e s c h e d u l e d c a s t e s . A s e c t i o n o f t h e d i s s a t i s -f i e d s c h e d u l e d c a s t e members formed t h e S c h e d u l e d C a s t e F e d e r a t i o n (SCF) b e f o r e p a r t i t i o n . The SCF had l o n g been i n a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e M u s l i m League and, as a r e s u l t , was r e w a r d e d w i t h a c a b i n e t p o s t i n t h e C e n t r a l C a b i n e t o f P a k i s t a n . J.N. M a n d a l / l e a d e r o f t h e SCF, was a p p o i n t e d a C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r i n t h e i n t e r i m C a b i n e t o f I n d i a i n 19 46 f r o m t h e M u s l i m League q u o t a . A f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e , he became M i n i s t e r f o r Law and L a b o u r i n t h e f i r s t P a k i s t a n C e n t r a l C a b i n e t . The SCF c o o p e r a t e d c l o s e l y w i t h t h e M u s l i m League a f t e r i n d e -p endence . I f we l o o k a t t h e w o r k i n g o f t h e m i n o r i t y p a r t i e s we f i n d t h a t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were l i m i t e d t o t h e f o u r w a l l s o f t h e a s s e m b l i e s , and t h a t t h e y had l i t t l e mass c o n t a c t . L a h i r y m a i n t a i n s t h a t , "Though t h e r e was a p a r t y c a l l e d P a k i s t a n N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s a f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e i n E a s t B e n g a l , i t c o u l d n o t l a u n c h any d e m o c r a t i c movement. T h i s was n o t p o s s i b l e f o r 24 any H i n d u - l e d p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . " "Whatever mass c o n t a c t we h a d , " he a d d s , "was i n t h e f o r m o f a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e i r g r i e -25 v a n c e s i n t h e a s s e m b l y . " Under t h e e x i s t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h o u g h t h e C o n g r e s s "was s e c u l a r and d e m o c r a t i c i n i t s avowed c r e e d , i t had no o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o c o n c e n t r a t e more on 2 6 p r o t e c t i o n o f m i n o r i t i e s . " J i n n a h and t h e M i n o r i t i e s The CAP was s e t up i n p u r s u a n c e o f an announcement by t h e B r i t i s h government, d a t e d J une 3, 1947. I t s t o t a l membership was 79, o f w h i c h 41 were f r o m E a s t B e n g a l . T h e r e were 13 s e a t s r e s e r v e d f o r t h e H i n d u s o f E a s t B e n g a l and a l l b u t one b e l o n g e d t o t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y . T h r e e o t h e r m i n o r i t y members were e l e c t e d f r o m West P a k i s t a n . A l l M u s l i m members e x c e p t two 25 b e l o n g e d t o t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e . The members o f t h e CAP were e l e c t e d i n d i r e c t l y by t h e members o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e a s s e m b l i e s . The f i r s t s e s s i o n o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y met i n K a r a c h i on A u g u s t 10, 1947, u n d e r t h e a b l e l e a d e r s h i p o f J i n n a h . M a n d a l , t h e S c h e d u l e d C a s t e a s s o c i a t e o f t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e , was e l e c t e d t e m p o r a r y p r e s i d e n t o f t h e i n a u g u r a l s e s s i o n o f t h e CAP. T h i s was a g e s t u r e o f g o o d w i l l t o t h e m i n o r i t i e s , a l t h o u g h t h e m o t i v e b e h i n d i t was p r o b a b l y t o show t h e w o r l d t h a t t h e newly b o r n M u s l i m s t a t e o f P a k i s t a n had a p l a c e f o r t h e m i n o r i t i e s . "Today, g e n t l e m e n , " M a n d a l d e c l a r e d on t h e o c c a s i o n o f h i s e l e c t i o n , " i t g i v e s me much p l e a s u r e t o d e c l a r e t h a t t h e e l e c t i o n a s C h a i r m a n o f a member f r o m a m i n o r i t y community a u g u r s v e r y w e l l w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n o f P a k i s t a n , b e c a u s e P a k i s t a n t o d a y i s t h e r e s u l t o f p e r s i s t e n t and l e g i t i -mate demand o f t h e m i n o r i t y community, namely, M u s l i m s o f I n d i a . . . P e o p l e o f m i n o r i t y c o m m u n i t i e s i n P a k i s t a n may be a s s u r e d , as t h e y have been a s s u r e d r e p e a t e d l y by t h e M u s l i m L eague l e a d e r s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y Q u a i d - i - A z a m Muhammad A l i J i n n a h , t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f m i n o r i t y c o m m u n i t i e s w o u l d n o t o n l y 27 be t r e a t e d j u s t l y and f a i r l y b u t g e n e r o u s l y t o o . " J i n n a h was e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t o f t h e CAP t h e n e x t day. I n h i s a d d r e s s o f f e l i c i t a t i o n K i r a n S h a n k a r Roy, l e a d e r o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n C o n g r e s s p a r t y o u t l i n e d h i s p a r t y ' s p o l i c y : "As f a r as we a r e c o n c e r n e d , S i r , i f t h e P a k i s t a n w h i c h y o u have i n y o u r m i n d means a s e c u l a r d e m o c r a t i c S t a t e , a S t a t e w h i c h w i l l make no d i f f e r e n c e between a c i t i z e n and a c i t i z e n , w h i c h w i l l d e a l f a i r l y w i t h a l l i r r e s p e c t i v e o f c a s t e , c r e e d o r community, I a s s u r e y o u t h a t y o u s h a l l have o u r u t m o s t c o o p e r a -2 8 t i o n . " He f r a n k l y a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y was n o t v e r y happy b e c a u s e o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f I n d i a , and t h e p a r t i t i o n i n g o f B e n g a l . "But as t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t has been a g r e e d upon by t h e two p a r t i e s , " he d e c l a r e d , "we a c c e p t i t l o y a l l y , and s h a l l work f o r i t l o y a l l y . We a c c e p t t h e c i t i z e n s h i p o f P a k i s t a n 29 w i t h a l l i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . " "And i n t u r n , " he c o n t i n u e d , "we s h a l l e x p e c t t h e r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e m i n o r i t y g u a r a n t e e d i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , g u a r a n t e e d n o t o n l y i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n b u t a c t u a l l y r e s p e c t e d i n t h e day t o day w o r k i n g o f t h e government. J i n n a h , i n h i s r e p l y t o t h e g r e e t i n g s , , made s e v e r a l a s s u r a n c e s t o t h e m i n o r i t i e s . I n h i s s p e e c h , w h i c h was l a t e r d e s c r i b e d by H i n d u s as t h e " C h a r t e r o f M i n o r i t y R i g h t s " i n P a k i s t a n , J i n n a h d e c l a r e d : " I know t h e r e a r e p e o p l e who do n o t q u i t e a g r e e w i t h t h e d i v i s i o n o f I n d i a and t h e p a r t i t i o n o f P u n j a b and B e n g a l . Much has b e e n s a i d a g a i n s t i t , b u t now i t has b een a c c e p t e d , i t i s t h e d u t y o f e v e r y one o f us t o l o y a l l y a b i d e by i t and h o n o u r a b l y a c t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e agr e e m e n t w h i c h i s now f i n a l and b i n d i n g on a l l . . . I f y o u change y o u r p a s t and work t o g e t h e r i n a s p i r i t t h a t e v e r y o n e o f y o u , no m a t t e r what community he b e l o n g s t o , no m a t t e r what r e l a t i o n s he had w i t h y o u i n t h e p a s t , no m a t t e r what h i s c o l o u r , c a s t e o r c r e e d , i s f i r s t , s e c o n d and l a s t a c i t i z e n o f t h i s S t a t e w i t h e q u a l r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s and o b l i g a t i o n s , t h e r e w i l l be no end t o t h e p r o g r e s s 31 y o u w i l l make." He further declared, "you are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other places of worship i n this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any r e l i g i o n or caste or c r e e d — t h a t has nothing to 32 do with the business of the State." And he concluded with these words: "In course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not i n the r e l i g i o u s sense, because that i s the personal f a i t h of each i n d i v i d u a l , 3 3 but i n the p o l i t i c a l sense as c i t i z e n s of the State." Jinnah, as a pragmatic p o l i t i c i a n made thi s pronouncement because he knew that at that c r i t i c a l juncture of history i t was not possible for Pakistan to survive without the minorities. They were dominant in the economic l i f e of the country. It was already apparent that Hindus had been s h i f t i n g t h e i r c a p i t a l and business to what the press c a l l e d "safe zones" i n India. Dawn, the organ of the Muslim League, alleged that an estimated c a p i t a l of 200 crores had been shifted to India by early July, 1947. This was termed "Hindu h o s t i l i t y " to Paki-stan, "motivated by a desire to h i t the Pakistan Exchequer by 34 denying i t a big source of revenue." If Hindus l e f t Pakistan en masse i t would also create insurmountable problems i n the administrative f i e l d . East Bengal's administrative machinery, i n p a r t i c u l a r , was largely manned by Hindus. Moreover, i f there was a mass exodus from Pakistan, i t would r e s u l t i n an i n f l u x of more refugees from India than Pakistan could accommodate. It would also be a heavy blow to the economy of Pakistan because while Hindu migrants were prosperous people, Muslim 28 35 refugees from India were mainly a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . Jinnah was even ready i n 19 47 to change the name and the character of the Muslim League Party. It was reported that a Pakistan National League would be formed which would replace the Muslim League, and be open to a l l c i t i z e n s of Pakistan 3 6 i r r e s p e c t i v e of r e l i g i o n , caste, or creed. Dawn, i n an e d i t o r i a l c a l l e d " P o l i t i c a l Readjustments", held that i t would e f f e c t i v e l y remove any li n g e r i n g doubts of the minorities as 37 to t h e i r status. However, this proposal was not carried out when the Muslim League Council met i n Karachi late i n December, 1947 and the l i q u i d a t i o n of the Party at that moment was deemed 3 8 unwise by the leadership. While Jinnah 1s aforementioned pronouncements i n the CAP were hailed by the minorities, they caused some s t i r among the r i g i d and uncompromising advocates of an Islamic state. Some argued that Jinnah's statement amounted to the abandonment of the 39 ideals of the Muslim League. Dawn quickly attempted to correct t h i s 'misinterpretation 1. It/pointed out that Jinnah merely meant the non-Muslims would not be debarred from p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the administration of Pakistan and that they would not be 40 discriminated against by i t s laws, or suffer economically. This session of the CAP appointed a 15-member Committee on Fundamental Rights of Citizen s of Pakistan and on Matters Relating to Mi n o r i t i e s . The appointment of t h i s committee was obviously made to assure the minorities that t h e i r rights and interests would be safeguarded i n Pakistan. But the happy atmosphere of communal harmony began to wane with the onset of the communal frenzy i n both India and Pakistan, and tension between the two countries soon increased over the issue of the accession of princely states l i k e Hyderabad and Kashmir. Minorities as Champions'of. East Bengal Interest The Hindu parliamentarians, i n the absence of any other opposition p a r t i e s , championed Bengali interests i n the CAP and in the EBLA. They could read the growing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of Bengali Muslims against the central r u l i n g e l i t e . By voicing the demands of East Bengal, they hoped to forge greater unity with Bengali Muslims, thereby making t h e i r stay i n East Bengal easier. When the f i r s t session of the CAP was convened on February 24, 1948, Professor Raj Kumar Chakraverty of the Congress party moved an amendment motion which sought to have a s i t t i n g of the CAP held i n Dacca at least once a year. He suggested that he did not move the amendment from any sense of narrow provincialism, but from a high sense of duty to the 41 people of Eastern Pakistan. Two Bengali Muslims, Tamizuddm Khan and Begum Shaista Ikramullah, supported the motion. How-ever, i t was not carr i e d because Liaquat A l l Khan, prime minister of Pakistan, pointed out that Dacca was facing serious problems of accommodation. Instead, the President was empowered to convene a session of the CAP outside Karachi. Thus, Dacca 42 could be the place of assembly session at a l a t e r time. The demand for Bengali as one of the state languages of Pakistan was also f i r s t voiced by the Hindu members. D.N. Dutta moved on February 25, 1948 an amendment which sought to make Bengali one of the o f f i c i a l languages of the Constituent 30 A s s e m b l y . "The S t a t e l a n g u a g e . . . , " he demanded, " s h o u l d be t h e l a n g u a g e w h i c h i s u s e d by t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e S t a t e , and f o r t h a t , S i r , I c o n s i d e r t h a t B e n g a l i l a n g u a g e 43 i s a l i n g u a f r a n c a o f o u r S t a t e . " He f u r t h e r c l a i m e d t h a t he v o i c e d " t h e s e n t i m e n t s o f t h e 44 v a s t m i l l i o n s " o f t h e c o u n t r y . H i s amendment p r o p o s a l was 45 s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r members o f t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y . The m o t i o n was o p p o s e d by L i a q u a t A l i Khan who a l l e g e d t h a t t h e mover t r i e d " t o c r e a t e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s 46 o f P a k i s t a n . " He f u r t h e r d e c l a r e d , " P a k i s t a n has b e en c r e a t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e demand o f a h u n d r e d m i l l i o n M u s l i m s i n t h e s u b c o n t i n e n t and t h e l a n g u a g e o f a h u n d r e d m i l l i o n M u s l i m s i s U r d u and, t h e r e f o r e , i t i s wrong f o r him (Dutta) now t o t r y and c r e a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a t as t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e o f P a k i s t a n b e l o n g s t o one p a r t o f P a k i s t a n , t h e r e f o r e t h e l a n g u a g e w h i c h i s s p o k e n t h e r e s h o u l d become t h e S t a t e l a n g u a g e o f P a k i s t a n . P a k i s t a n i s a M u s l i m S t a t e and i t must have as 47 i t s l i n g u a f r a n c a t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e M u s l i m n a t i o n . " L i a q u a t ' s p r o n o uncement t h a t P a k i s t a n was a M u s l i m S t a t e was b i t t e r l y r e s e n t e d by t h e o p p o s i t i o n C o n g r e s s l e a d e r o f t h e CAP, S r i s C h a n d r a C h a t t o p a d h y a y a . He a s s e r t e d , "So l o n g my i d e a was t h a t P a k i s t a n i s n o t a M u s l i m S t a t e b u t a p e o p l e ' s s t a t e and i t b e l o n g s t o b o t h M u s l i m s as w e l l as t o n o n - M u s l i m s . I f t o d a y t h e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e L e a d e r o f t h e House i s a c c e p t e d , t h e n i t i s a m a t t e r o f s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e n o n - M u s l i m s w h e t h e r t h e y have any r i g h t t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e f r a m i n g o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n as w e l l . T h a t i s r e a l l y v e r y i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e i n 31 4 t h a t c a s e , M u s l i m s o n l y . . . s h o u l d frame t h e i r own C o n s t i t u t i o n . " T a m i z u d d i n Khan, D e p u t y P r e s i d e n t o f t h e A s s e m b l y , i n h i s r e p l y t o t h e d e b a t e , m a i n t a i n e d t h a t J i n n a h i n h i s f i r s t s p e e c h t o t h e A s s e m b l y h a d made i t c l e a r t h a t a l l m i n o r i t i e s h a d e q u a l 49 r i g h t s w i t h t h e M u s l i m s . The l a n g u a g e i s s u e g a t h e r e d v e l o c i t y i n E a s t B e n g a l i n e a r l y M a r c h , 19 48, when t h e s t u d e n t s o f D a c c a U n i v e r s i t y l a u n c h e d a movement f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e B e n g a l i l a n g u a g e 5,0 as one o f t h e s t a t e l a n g u a g e s . On M a r c h 11, 1948, t h e y s t a g e d a s t r i k e w h i c h was f o l l o w e d by more s t u d e n t u n r e s t i n t h e p r o v i n c e o v e r t h e n e x t few d a y s . However, t h e H i n d u l e a d e r s were n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e " A c t i o n Committee" w h i c h was formed by d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t and y o u t h 51 g r o u p s o f D a c c a t o l e a d t h e movement. The l a n g u a g e d i s t u r -b a n c e c o m p e l l e d Khwaja N a z i m u d d i n , p r e m i e r o f E a s t B e n g a l , t o s i g n an a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s p l e d g i n g t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f B e n g a l i . When t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f t h e EBLA met on M a r c h 15, 1948, M a n o r a n j a n D h a r , P r a t a p C h a n d r a Guha Roy, and N e l l i e Sen G u p t a e x p r e s s e d t h e i r f u l l s u p p o r t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s and p r o t e s t e d 53 a g a i n s t t h e i r p e r s e c u t i o n by p o l i c e . N a z i m u d d i n moved a r e s o l u t i o n on A p r i l 6, 1948, t h a t B e n g a l i s h o u l d be a d o p t e d as 54 t h e o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e o f t h e p r o v i n c e r a t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h . D.N. D u t t a and o t h e r H i n d u members p u t f o r w a r d a number o f amendments w h i c h recommended t o t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y t h a t 55 B e n g a l i be made one o f t h e s t a t e l a n g u a g e s o f P a k i s t a n . S i n c e t h e demand f o r B e n g a l i was a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h e CAP and i n t h e EBLA by H i n d u members, t h e r u l i n g p a r t y t r i e d t o c r e a t e an i m p r e s s i o n i n t h e p u b l i c mind t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e move-ment had been i n s p i r e d by t h e h o s t i l e H i n d u l e a d e r s o f I n d i a . ^ Dawn ev e n a l l e g e d t h a t i t was due t o t h e m a c h i n a t i o n s o f f i f t h 57 c o l u m n i s t s , i n o t h e r w ords, t h e H i n d u s . The l a n g u a g e i s s u e became i n s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a few y e a r s a f t e r t h i s e v e n t , o n l y t o t a k e a s e r i o u s t u r n i n 1952 when t h e c e n t r a l r u l i n g e l i t e r e v i v e d i t s a t t e m p t t o impose U r d u as t h e s o l e s t a t e l a n g u a g e o f P a k i s t a n . By t h a t t i m e t h e g r o w i n g M u s l i m o p p o s i t i o n i n E a s t B e n g a l was t a k i n g d e f i n i t e shape and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n s l i k e t h e Awami League and t h e Y o u t h League were g a i n i n g momentum and s u p p o r t . The famous F e b r u a r y movement, w h i c h c o m p e l l e d t h e government t o r e c o g n i z e B e n g a l i as one o f t h e s t a t e l a n g u a g e s , was l e d b y t h e s e g r o w i n g M u s l i m o p p o s i t i o n g r o u p s , and t h e H i n d u l e a d e r s had l i t t l e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i t . K.K. D u t t a . : d e c l a r e d on t h e f l o o r o f t h e CAP t h a t " t h e move-ment was n u r t u r e d by t h e M u s l i m s and i t was c a r r i e d on by t h e 5 8 M u s l i m s a l o n e u n a i d e d by anyone f r o m o u t s i d e . " D e s p i t e t h e i r n o n - i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e movement, H i n d u members i n t h e EBLA made f i e r y s p e e c h e s and s u p p o r t e d t h e c a u s e i n s i d e t h e A s s e m b l y . M a n o r a n j a n Dhar a s k e d f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n f r o m t h e P r e m i e r a b o u t t h e p o l i c e f i r i n g on t h e s t u d e n t s . D.N. D u t t a , B.K. Das, and G o v i n d a L a i B a n e r j e e a l s o v o i c e d t h e 59 demands o f t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s f o r B e n g a l i . S i m i l a r l y , H i n d u members o f t h e CAP s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d t h e m o t i o n o f Nur Ahmed, a B e n g a l i M u s l i m , t h a t B e n g a l i a l o n g w i t h U r d u s h o u l d be made 6 0 t h e s t a t e l a n g u a g e o f P a k i s t a n . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f H i n d u n o n - i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e l a n g u a g e movement i s t h a t t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y h a d by t h a t t i m e become an i n s i g n i f i c a n t f o r c e i n t e r m s o f mass f o l l o w i n g . A n o t h e r i s t h a t t h e g r o w i n g M u s l i m o p p o s i t i o n f o r c e s were h e s i t a n t t o be se e n as c o l l a b o r a -t i n g w i t h t h e H i n d u s . S t r u g g l e f o r C o n s t i t u t i o n a l S a f e g u a r d s The ' f i r s t b i g s t e p ' i n f r a m i n g t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n was t a k e n w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e " O b j e c t i v e s R e s o l u t i o n " o r t h e "Aims and O b j e c t s " o f t h e f u t u r e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f P a k i s t a n . On M a r c h 7, 19 49, L i a q u a t A l i Khan moved t h e O b j e c t i v e s R e s o l u t i o n : " I n t h e name o f A l l a h , t h e B e n i f i c e n t , t h e M e r c i f u l ; WHEREAS s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e e n t i r e u n i v e r s e b e l o n g s t o God A l m i g h t y a l o n e and t h e a u t h o r i t y w h i c h He has d e l e g a t e d t o t h e S t a t e o f P a k i s t a n t h r o u g h i t s p e o p l e f o r b e i n g e x e r c i s e d w i t h i n t h e l i m i t p r e s c r i b e d by Him i s a s a c r e d t r u s t ; T h i s C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p e o p l e o f P a k i s t a n r e s o l v e s t o frame a c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e s o v e r e i g n i n d e p e n d e n t S t a t e o f P a k i s t a n ; WHEREIN t h e S t a t e s h a l l e x e r c i s e i t s powers and a u t h o r i t y t h r o u g h t h e c h o s e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e p e o p l e ; WHEREIN t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f de m o c r a c y , f r e e d o m , e q u a l i t y , t o l e r a n c e and s o c i a l j u s t i c e , as e n u n c i a t e d by I s l a m , s h a l l be f u l l y o b s e r v e d ; WHEREIN t h e M u s l i m s s h a l l be e n a b l e d t o o r d e r t h e i r l i v e s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e s p h e r e s i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g s and r e q u i r e m e n t s o f I s l a m as s e t o u t i n t h e H o l y Quran and t h e Sunna; WHEREIN a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n s h a l l be made f o r t h e m i n o r i t i e s f r e e l y t o p r o f e s s and p r a c t i s e t h e i r r e l i g i o n s a nd d e v e l o p t h e i r c u l t u r e s ; WHEREBY t h e t e r r i t o r i e s now i n c l u d e d i n o r i n a c c e s s i o n w i t h P a k i s t a n and s u c h o t h e r ' t e r r i t o r i e s as may h e r e a f t e r be i n c l u d e d i n o r a c c e d e t o P a k i s t a n s h a l l f o r m a F e d e r a t i o n where t h e u n i t s w i l l be 34 autonomous w i t h s u c h b o u n d a r i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e i r powers and a u t h o r i t y as may be p r e s c r i b e d ; WHEREIN s h a l l be g u a r a n t e e d f u n d a m e n t a l r i g h t s i n c l u d i n g e q u a l i t y o f s t a t u s , o f o p p o r t u n i t y and b e f o r e law, s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l j u s t i c e , and f r e e d o m o f t h o u g h t , e x p r e s s i o n , b e l i e f , f a i t h , w o r s h i p and a s s o c i a t i o n , s u b j e c t t o law and p u b l i c m o r a l i t y . WHEREIN a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n s s h a l l be made t o s a f e g u a r d t h e l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s o f m i n o r i t i e s and b a c kward and d e p r e s s e d c l a s s e s ; WHEREIN t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e j u d i c i a r y s h a l l be f u l l y s e c u r e d ; WHEREIN t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e t e r r i t o r i e s o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n , i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e and a l l i t s r i g h t s i n c l u d i n g i t s s o v e r e i g n r i g h t s on l a n d , s e a and a i r s h a l l be s a f e g u a r d e d ; So t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f P a k i s t a n may p r o s p e r and a t t a i n t h e i r r i g h t f u l and h o n o u r e d p l a c e amongst t h e n a t i o n s o f t h e W o r l d and make t h e i r f u l l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w a r d s i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e a c e and p r o g r e s s and h a p p i -n e s s o f humanity."61 The O b j e c t i v e s R e s o l u t i o n , w h i c h c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f u t u r e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f P a k i s t a n was g o i n g t o be b a s e d on " I s l a m i c P r i n c i p l e s " , was a t t a c k e d by t h e H i n d u members. They a r g u e d t h a t P a k i s t a n was a c o u n t r y c o n s i s t i n g o f p e o p l e p r o f e s s i n g v a r i o u s r e l i g i o n s , and t h e f r a m i n g o f t h e c o n s t i t u -t i o n s h o u l d n o t c a u s e any a p p r e h e n s i o n o r d i s t r u s t among any s e c t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e . They p a r t i c u l a r l y o b j e c t e d t o t h e f i r s t two c l a u s e s o f t h e R e s o l u t i o n . The f i r s t c l a u s e o f t h e R e s o l u t i o n was a t t a c k e d by t h e H i n d u s b e c a u s e i t wanted t o make God t h e u l t i m a t e s o v e r e i g n a u t h o r i t y . B.K. D u t t a and R a j Kumar C h a k r a v e r t y i n t h e i r amendments t o t h i s c l a u s e s o u g h t t o make t h e p e o p l e t h e 6 3 s o v e r e i g n a u t h o r i t y i n t h e S t a t e . T h e i r a n x i e t y was t h a t i f s o v e r e i g n t y b e l o n g e d t o God, i n s t e a d o f t h e p e o p l e , t h e n P a k i s t a n w o u l d n o t be a d e m o c r a t i c s t a t e . They a s k e d t h a t 64 r e l i g i o n be k e p t s e p a r a t e f r o m p o l i t i c s . They were a l s o v e r y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e g r o w i n g i n f l u e n c e o f t h e Ulema ( I s l a m i c s c h o l a r s ) who a d v o c a t e d an I s l a m i c C o n s t i t u t i o n f o r P a k i s t a n . ^ B.K. D u t t a h e l d t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s r e s o l u t i o n a f t e r t h e d e m i s e o f J i n n a h was t o him s y m p t o m a t i c o f t h e " r i s i n g t i d e " o f communal p o l i t i c s . ^ K.K. D u t t a a l s o a d v a n c e d a r g u m e n t s i n f a v o u r o f p e o p l e ' s s o v e r e i g n t y . He a r g u e d t h a t t h e b a s i c f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i a p l e s o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n must be t h e d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s o f g o v e rnment. He demanded, "a f i r m , b o l d , d e f i n i t e , u n e q u i v o c a l p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f P a k i s t a n as a d e m o c r a t i c s t a t e , w i t h a l l t h e powers v e s t e d i n t h e p e o p l e . . . " He a l s o e x p r e s s e d h i s f e a r t h a t some Ulema were t r y i n g t o i n t e r p r e t I s l a m i c d e m o c r a c y as a t h e o c r a c y where t h e m i n o r i t y c o u l d be t r e a t e d as "dhimmies" ( i n f e r i o r c i t i z e n s ) who c o u l d n o t have any s h a r e 6 8 i n g overnment and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The f o u r t h c l a u s e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e mocracy, "as e n u n c i a t e d by I s l a m " was a l s o v e h e m e n t l y o p p o s e d by t h e H i n d u s f o r i t i m p l i e d t h a t d e m o cracy was s u b j e c t t o i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n by M u s l i m s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own r e l i g i o n . H i n d u s f e a r e d t h a t t h i s w o u l d mean t h a t P a k i s t a n w o u l d n o t be a c o m p l e t e d emocracy, b u t a d e m o c r a c y t h a t was s u b j e c t t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by t h e m a j o r i t y community. "We s h a l l r e s e n t i t , " B.K. D u t t a d e c l a r e d , " f o r g e n e r a t i o n s u n d e r t h i s c l a u s e . . . y o u (have) 36 condemned us f o r e v e r t o an i n f e r i o r s t a t u s and p r e v e n t e d f o r a l l t i m e t o come P a k i s t a n f r o m g r o w i n g up i n t o a c o u n t r y o f 69 w e l l - k n i t , homogeneous p e o p l e . " He f u r t h e r c l a i m e d t h a t u n d e r t h i s c l a u s e t h e m i n o r i t i e s w o u l d be w i t h o u t any l e g i t i -70 mate r i g h t t o s h a r e power." The " e n a b l i n g c l a u s e " , t h e f i f t h o f t h e R e s o l u t i o n , was a l s o o p p o s e d by t h e C o n g r e s s members, t h o u g h i t d i d n o t c r e a t e as much f u r o r as t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d two c l a u s e s . T h ey o p p o s e d t h i s c l a u s e b e c a u s e i t amounted t o ma k i n g I s l a m t h e S t a t e r e l i g i o n o f P a k i s t a n , w h i c h w o u l d j e o p a r d i z e t h e i n t e r e s t o f n o n - M u s l i m s . P.H. Barma demanded t h a t s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s be made t o e n a b l e n o n - M u s l i m s t o o r d e r t h e i r l i v e s i n a c c o r d a n c e 71 w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g s and r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e i r own r e l i g i o n s . The M u s l i m League t r i e d t o c o n v i n c e t h e m i n o r i t y members t h a t t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s w o u l d be f u l l y p r o t e c t e d u n d e r t h e f u t u r e c o n s t i t u t i o n . S a r d a r N i s h t a r , C e n t r a l C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r , c l a r i f i e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e M u s l i m League and a s k e d t h e non - M u s l i m s n o t t o be m i s l e d by t h e p r o p a g a n d a o f 72 some s o - c a l l e d Ulema,. M a u l a n a Usmani, l e a d e r o f t h e p r o -M u s l i m League Ulema, a l s o made i t c l e a r t h a t n o n - M u s l i m s were 7 g u a r a n t e e d a l l c i v i c and r e l i g i o u s r i g h t s i n an I s l a m i c s t a t e . However, S.C. C h a t t o p a d h y a y a , l e a d e r o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y , i n h i s c o n c l u d i n g r e m a r k s on t h e d e b a t e , s t a t e d h i s o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e I s l a m i c c l a u s e s and e x p r e s s e d h i s hope t h a t t h e c o n s t i -t u t i o n w o u l d be f r a m e d i n s u c h a way t h a t i t w o u l d s u i t non-M u s l i m s as w e l l a s M u s l i m s . He hoped t h e t i m e w o u l d come when p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s b a s e d on r e l i g i o u s l i n e s w o u l d c e a s e t o e x i s t so t h a t t h e r e w o u l d n o t be any p r o v i s i o n i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h m i g h t d e b a r a n o n - M u s l i m f r o m b e c o m i n g t h e Head o f t h e 74 S t a t e . L i a q u a t a s s u r e d t h e m i n o r i t i e s t h a t "A n o n - M u s l i m c a n be t h e h e a d o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n u n d e r a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l 75 g o v e r n m e n t . . . " He a l s o a s k e d them n o t t o be m i s l e d by t h e p r o p a g a n d a o f t h e " s o - c a l l e d Ulema who were a c t u a l l y t h e 'enemies o f I s l a m ' . " ^ A l t h o u g h L i a q u a t d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e n o n - M u s l i m s were e q u a l i n e v e r y r e s p e c t i n an I s l a m i c s t a t e , he made i t a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r t h a t P a k i s t a n was f o u n d e d t o f a s h i o n t h e l i v e s o f M u s l i m s 77 i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g and t r a d i t i o n s o f I s l a m . The a d o p t i o n o f t h e r e s o l u t i o n was o p p o s e d t o o t h and n a i l by t h e o p p o s i t i o n . They f o u g h t t o make t h e c o n s t i t u i o n d e m o c r a t i c and s e c u l a r . However, a l l o f t h e i r e i g h t e e n amendments were b r u s h e d a s i d e . The d e b a t e ended w i t h a s o l e m n a s s u r a n c e f r o m L i a q u a t t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e m i n o r i t i e s would" be f u l l y p r o t e c t e d . The r e s o l u t i o n was a d o p t e d on M a r c h 12, 19 49. On t h e same day, a t w e n t y - f i v e member B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s Committee (BPC) was s e t up t o d r a f t t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 1950s s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s had t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e p o l i t i c s o f P a k i s t a n . Mohammad A l i J i n n a h was d e a d , and t h e r i v a l r y between E a s t B e n g a l and t h e i P u n j a b t o o k a s e r i o u s t u r n . Khwaj.a N a z i m u d d i n was t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , b u t h i s powers were g r e a t l y c u r t a i l e d by t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e Government o f I n d i a ( Second Amendment) A c t o f 1950. Under s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , L i a q u a t A l i Khan p r e s e n t e d t h e I n t e r i m R e p o r t o f t h e BPC on September 28, 1950. The I n t e r i m 38 R e p o r t a r o u s e d mass p r o t e s t s a l l o v e r E a s t B e n g a l b e c a u s e o f i t s u n d e m o c r a t i c and a n t i - E a s t B e n g a l n a t u r e . E v e n t h e E a s t 78 B e n g a l M u s l i m L eague p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t i t . O p p o s i t i o n p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s c o n v e n e d a "Grand N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n " on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i n D a c c a i n e a r l y November, 1950. The C o n v e n t i o n r e s o l v e d t h a t a d e m o c r a t i c , f e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f P a k i s t a n be e s t a b l i s h e d , and a d r a f t C o n s t i t u t i o n f o r P a k i s t a n was a l s o 79 p r o p o s e d . However, t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y had no i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h i s a n t i - B P C movement i n E a s t B e n g a l . P e r h a p s a f t e r t h e 1950 r i o t s t h e H i n d u community was more c a u t i o u s n o t t o o f f e n d t h e r u l i n g p a r t y , and t h e y k e p t t h e m s e l v e s a l o o f f r o m a g i t a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . B e s i d e s , a l t h o u g h t h e I n t e r i m R e p o r t was t h o r o u g h l y u n d e m o c r a t i c , i t d i d n o t c o n t a i n any p r o v i s i o n s f o r an I s l a m i c n o m e n c l a t u r e o f t h e S t a t e , o r any r e l i g i o u s q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f 80 head o f s t a t e . Thus t h e BPC R e p o r t d i d n o t c o n c e r n them g r e a t l y . M o r e o v e r , t h e r i s i n g M u s l i m o p p o s i t i o n was a l s o a l e r t n o t t o be c a l l e d 'enemy a g e n t s ' f o r a l i g n i n g i t s e l f w i t h t h e H i n d u s . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e B P C , R e p o r t was p o s t p o n e d i n t h e f a c e o f r i s i n g o p p o s i t i o n f r o m E a s t B e n g a l . L i a q u a t moved t h e I n t e r i m R e p o r t o f t h e Committee on F u n d a m e n t a l R i g h t s and on M a t t e r s R e l a t i n g t o M i n o r i t i e s on O c t o b e r 4, 1950. B u t i t c o n t a i n e d o n l y t h e R e p o r t o f t h e Sub-c o m m i t t e e on F u n d a m e n t a l R i g h t s , so t h e H i n d u s o p p o s e d i t s g c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h o u t t h e R e p o r t o f t h e M i n o r i t y S ubcommittee. They p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e y were a n x i o u s f o r t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s a f e g u a r d s , and w i t h o u t t h e s e s a f e g u a r d s s p e c i f i e d i n t h e M i n o r i t y Subcommittee R e p o r t , t h e R e p o r t o f t h e F u n d a m e n t a l 39 8 2 R i g h t s S ubcommittee c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d . T h e i r o p p o s i t i o n was s e t a s i d e on t h e p l e a t h a t i t w o u l d d e l a y t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n -8 3 m a k i n g p r o c e s s . T h r e e M u s l i m i n d e p e n d e n t members f r o m West P a k i s t a n v o t e d w i t h t h e O p p o s i t i o n on t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e 84 R e p o r t . On t h e w h o l e , t h e m i n o r i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were happy w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t on f u n d a m e n t a l r i g h t s . " I am happy t o n o t e , " d e c l a r e d P r o f e s s o r C h a k r a v e r t y , " t h a t a l l c i t i z e n s have been d e c l a r e d e q u a l b e f o r e l a w . . . I am happy t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e s h a l l be no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on g r o u n d s o f r e l i g i o n , c a s t e , s e x . . . I am happy f u r t h e r t o n o t e t h a t f r e e d o m o f c o n s c i e n c e and t h e r i g h t t o p r o f e s s , p r a c t i s e and p r o p a g a t e 8 5 r e l i g i o n has b e e n g u a r a n t e e d . . . " The E l e c t o r a t e I s s u e : S e p a r a t e o f J o i n t ? D u r i n g t h e e n t i r e p e r i o d o f c o n s t i t u t i o n - m a k i n g i n P a k i s t a n , t h e e l e c t o r a t e i s s u e r e c e i v e d t h e most a t t e n t i o n f r o m t h e H i n d u s . The C o n g r e s s p a r t y h a d a l w a y s been o p p o s e d t o t h e s e p a r a t e e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m i n u n d i v i d e d I n d i a . They b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s e p a r a t e e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m had u l t i m a t e l y b e en r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r i s e o f t h e ' t w o - n a t i o n ' t h e o r y , and t h e b i r t h o f P a k i s t a n . A f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e , when t h e y were thrown i n t o t h e m i n o r i t y p o s i t i o n , t h e y d i d n o t change t h e i r p r e v i o u s i d e o l o g i c a l s t a n d on t h e e l e c t o r a t e i s s u e . S.C. C h a t t o p a d h y a y a r e i t e r a t e d t h e C o n g r e s s p o l i c y when he d e c l a r e d t h a t , "We, t h e C o n g r e s s p e o p l e , s t i l l s t i c k t o o u r o n e - n a t i o n t h e o r y and we b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f P a k i s t a n , M u s l i m s and n o n - M u s l i m s , c o n s i s t o f one 8 6 n a t i o n and t h e y a r e a l l P a k i s t a n i s . " The i s s u e o f j o i n t v e r s u s s e p a r a t e e l e c t o r a t e was z e a l o u s l y d e b a t e d by H i n d u 40 members o f t h e CAP i n A p r i l , 1952 when t h e e x i s t i n g e l e c t o r a l law was amended by t h e Government o f I n d i a ( T h i r d Amendment) B i l l t o p r o v i d e a s e p a r a t e e l e c t o r a t e f o r S c h e d u l e d C a s t e s . The C o n g r e s s P a r t y members p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h i s ' v i v i s e c t i o n ' o f t h e H i n d u community. They c l a i m e d t h a t a l l t h e H i n d u s i n E a s t B e n g a l were i n f a v o u r o f a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e and r e f e r r e d 87 t o t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e M i n o r i t y C o n f e r e n c e i n M a r c h , 1952 . They were o p p o s e d t o s e p a r a t e e l e c t o r a t e s b e c a u s e t h e y knew t h a t u n d e r t h a t s y s t e m t h e y w o u l d become "a p e r p e t u a l m i n o r i t y " h a v i n g no s h a r e i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e country-. A communally d i v i d e d e l e c t o r a l s y s t e m w o u l d k e e p t h e m i n o r i t i e s away f r o m e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n u n d e r t h e e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l a l i g n m e n t s , so t h e y were e a g e r t o have a j o i n t e l e c -t o r a t e even t h o u g h t h e c h a n c e s o f H i n d u s t o be e l e c t e d t o a s s e m b l i e s w o u l d d i m i n i s h t o a g r e a t e x t e n t . B u t t h e y were h o p e f u l t h a t t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m w o u l d make t h e M u s l i m l e a d e r s r e s p o n s i v e t o H i n d u demands. They hoped f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s e c u l a r p a r t i e s i n E a s t B e n g a l where t h e y w o u l d be a b l e t o p l a y s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i t i c a l r o l e s . The i s s u e o f t h e e l e c t o r a t e was one o f t h e most d e l i c a t e i s s u e s f o r t h e H i n d u s , and was a r e c u r r e n t theme i n t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y o f P a k i s t a n . T h i s i s s u e w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . A d o p t i o n o f t h e BPC R e p o r t Khwaja N a z i m u d d i n , who s t e p p e d i n t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f P r i m e M i n i s t e r a t t h e d e a t h o f L i a q u a t A l i Khan, p r e s e n t e d t h e R e p o r t o f t h e BPC on December 2 2 , 1 9 5 2 . N a z i m u d d i n ' s R e p o r t l e d t o 41 8 9 p r o t e s t s i n West P a k i s t a n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n P u n j a b . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t was p o s t p o n e d i n t h e f a c e o f P u n j a b o p p o s i t i o n t o i t . M e a n w h i l e , Ghulam Muhammed, who was b o t h G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l and t h e m a i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f P u n j a b i i n t e r e s t s , d i s m i s s e d N a z i m u d d i n on A p r i l 17, 1953, u s i n g t h e A n t i - A h m a d i D i s t u r b a n c e s as a p r e t e x t . < A f t e r h i s d i s m i s s a l , Mohammad A l i o f B o g r a was i n s t a l l e d a s t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r . He moved a n e x t BPC R e p o r t f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n on O c t o b e r 7, 1953. B o g r a came w i t h a p a r i t y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r m u l a i n t h i s BPC R e p o r t w h i c h s a t i s f i e d t h e P u n j a b i i n t e r e s t s . The H i n d u i members o p p o s e d t h e I s l a m i c e m p h a s i s o f t h e new BPC R e p o r t . They s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d t h e p r o v i s i o n t h a t no law w o u l d be e n a c t e d w h i c h was r e p u g n a n t t o t h e Quran and Sunna. They a s k e d t o keep t h e p e r s o n a l laws o f H i n d u s f r e e f r o m t h e p u r v i e w o f s u c h a p r o v i s i o n . They a l s o r e s e n t e d t h e p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a government o r g a n i z a t i o n t o p r o p a g a t e I s l a m i c t e a c h i n g . They s h a r p l y c r i t i c i z e d t h e n o m e n c l a t u r e o f t h e s t a t e and t h e r e l i g i o u s q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e head o f 4 - 4 - 9 0 s t a t e . When t h e i r o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e p r o p o s e d c o n s t i t u t i o n were n o t h e e d e d , H i n d u members o f t h e CAP w a l k e d o u t and a b s e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s f r o m f u r t h e r d e l i b e r a t i o n s on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . S.C. C h a t t o p a d h y a y a , l e a d e r o f t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y made a s t a t e -ment b e f o r e w a l k i n g o u t . "We, t h e H i n d u s , " he s t a t e d , " f o r m a b o u t 14 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . We a r e c i t i z e n s o f t h e S t a t e o f P a k i s t a n and a l w a y s a n x i o u s t o make P a k i s t a n a p r o s -p e r o u s d e m o c r a t i c , modern S t a t e . We, i n o u r humble way have b e e n w o r k i n g i n t h e A s s e m b l y and i t s C o m m i t t e e s , t o make a s u i t a b l e C o n s t i t u t i o n , b u t t h e r e c e n t t r e n d and p r o c e e d i n g o f t h i s House have been a d i s a p p o i n t m e n t t o a l l o f u s . . . f r o m t h e t r e n d s o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s h i t h e r t o , we f e e l t h a t any f u r t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n by u s , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e H i n d u m i n o r i t y , i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n - m a k i n g , w i l l be o f no e f f i c a c y . So t h e members o f my P a r t y have r e s o l v e d n o t t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e R e p o r t o f t h e B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s Committee i n 91 t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t o f t h i n g s . . . " The two S c h e d u l e d C a s t e members who were M u s l i m League a s s o c i a t e s a l s o f o l l o w e d t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y . However, t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y came b a c k t o t h e CAP a t t h e f i n a l s t a g e o f t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e R e p o r t i n September, 1954. P r o f e s s o r C h a k r a v e r t y made i t c l e a r i n h i s s p e e c h t h a t t h e y came b a c k a t t h a t s t a g e o n l y t o l o d g e t h e i r p r o t e s t "more s t r o n g l y and c r i t i c a l l y , " and t o make i t known 92 t h a t t h e y were n o t a p a r t y t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . The H i n d u s and t h e A b o l i t i o n o f t h e Z a m i n d a r i System W h i l e t h e H i n d u members o f t h e CAP were f i g h t i n g f o r a s e c u l a r d e m o c r a t i c c o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e EBLA were engaged i n s a f e g u a r d i n g H i n d u i n t e r e s t s and v o i c i n g t h e g r i e v a n c e s o f t h e m i n o r i t i e s i n t h e d a y - t o - d a y l i f e o f t h e p r o v i n c e . B e f o r e i n d e p e n d e n c e , l a n d o w n e r s h i p i n E a s t B e n g a l was m o n o p o l i z e d by H i n d u s . N e a r l y 75 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d h o l d i n g s , i n c l u d i n g a l l o f t h e b i g g e s t z a m i n d a r i h o l d i n g s b e l o n g e d t o 93 them. W h i l e t h e z a m m d a r s were H i n d u s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e t e n a n t s were M u s l i m s . T h e r e were r i s i n g t i d e s o f movements f o r t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e z a m i n d a r i s y s t e m b e f o r e i n d e p e n d e n c e . Though t h e B e n g a l M u s l i m League was d o m i n a t e d by b i g M u s l i m l a n d l o r d s , i t championed t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e s y s t e m w i t h o u t 94 any c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e l a n d l o r d s . A B i l l t o t h i s e f f e c t was moved by t h e M u s l i m League g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e B e n g a l 95 L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y b e f o r e p a r t i t i o n . S i n c e t h e C o n g r e s s P a r t y o f B e n g a l was c o n t r o l l e d by t h e H i n d u s , i t o p p o s e d t h e 96 a b o l i t i o n o f t h e z a m i n d a r i s y s t e m . I t a l s o o p p o s e d t h e B e n g a l T e n a n c y (Amendment) A c t o f 1928, and t h e Money L e n d e r s 97 B i l l . A f t e r p a r t i t i o n , t h e y c o n t i n u e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o l a n d r e f o r m and s t r o v e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r l a n d e d i n t e r e s t . The E a s t B e n g a l S t a t e A c q u i s i t i o n and T e n a n c y B i l l was moved by t h e M u s l i m League i n t h e v e r y f i r s t s e s s i o n o f t h e EBLA on A p r i l 7, 19 48. The mover o f t h e B i l l c l a i m e d t h a t i t w o u l d b r i n g a b o u t "a v e r i t a b l e r e v o l u t i o n " i n t h e s o c i o - e c o n o -m i c s t r u c t u r e by m a k i n g t h e t i l l e r o f t h e s o i l t h e owner o f 9 8 t h e l a n d he c u l t i v a t e d . The B i l l p r o v i d e d t h a t a t t h e t i m e o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e z a m i n d a r i s , no p e r s o n w o u l d be e n t i t l e d t o r e t a i n any l a n d i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n i n e x c e s s o f 200 s t a n d a r d b i g h a s o r a q u a n t i t y o f t e n s t a n d a r d b i g h a s p e r p e r s o n o f h i s f a m i l y , w h i c h e v e r was g r e a t e r . I t a l s o s o u g h t t o g i v e s i x t o f i f t e e n t i m e s t h e n e t income o f t h e r e n t r e c e i v e r as compensa-t i o n . A l t h o u g h M u s l i m L e a g u e l e a d e r s were c o m m i t t e d t o t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e z a m i n d a r i s y s t e m w i t h o u t any c o m p e n s a t i o n , t h e y made p r o v i s i o n f o r i t b e c a u s e , f i r s t , t h e p a r t y l e a d e r -s h i p i n t h e p r o v i n c e was now f i r m l y i n t h e hands o f M u s l i m l a n d l o r d s , and s e c o n d , j o t e d a r s (minor l a n d l o r d s ) were p r e d o m i n a n t l y M u s l i m s . The g r o w i n g i n f l u e n c e o f t h e j o t e d a r s c a n be d i s c e r n e d f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t i n i t s s e c o n d d r a f t t h e B i l l p r o v i d e d f o r 200 b i g h a s p e r f a m i l y w h i l e i n t h e o r i g i n a l B i l l , i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e i n d e p e n d e n c e , e a c h f a m i l y was p r o v i d e d w i t h 100 b i g h a s . However, t h e mover o f t h e B i l l a r g u e d t h a t t h e w h o l e s a l e a p p r o p r i a t i o n w i t h o u t any c o m p e n s a t i o n w o u l d c r e a t e g r e a t i n s e c u r i t y e v e r y w h e r e w h i c h was bound t o s t i f l e a l l p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and c a u s e d i s a s t r o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s i n t h e 99 e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e new s t a t e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t c l a s s i n t e r e s t s p r e v a i l e d o v e r p a r t y p o l i c y w h i l e t h e B i l l was under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , b o t h t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e and t h e C o n g r e s s l e a d e r s a p p r o a c h e d t h e w h o l e q u e s t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own c l a s s i n t e r e s t s . ^ 0 0 M u s l i m League l e a d e r s s u c h as A.T. M a z h u r u l Huque, Abdus Salam, Shamsuddin Ahmed, and M a j i b u r Rahman 101 o p p o s e d any k i n d o f c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e z a m m d a r s . Huque e v e n c o m p l a i n e d t h a t c o m p e n s a t i o n had been a d v o c a t e d by t h o s e 102 who had some i n t e r e s t s i n t h e z a m i n d a r i s y s t e m . Rahman d i r e c t l y a t t a c k e d t h e mover o f t h e B i l l ( h i m s e l f a Zamindar) 103 f o r f a i l i n g t o s a f e g u a r d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e t e n a n t s . 1 0 M e a n w h i l e , two m i n i s t e r s a d v o c a t e d c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r z a m i n d a r s . The mover p r o p o s e d t o s e n d t h e B i l l f o r s c r u t i n y t o a S p e c i a l Committee c o n s i s t i n g o f f o r t y - f i v e members. Two M u s l i m members, Abdus Salam and Madar Bux, o p p o s e d s e n d i n g t h e B i l l t o a S p e c i a l Committee o f w h i c h a b o u t h a l f o f the.members were 1 05 t h e m s e l v e s z a m i n d a r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, B.K. Das, l e a d e r o f t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y s u p p o r t e d t h e m o t i o n t o s e n d t h e B i l l t o a S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e . I U U The R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee was t a k e n up f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e EBLA on November 15, 19 49. The R e p o r t recommended two s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s i n t h e B i l l . T h e s e w o u l d r e d u c e t h e maximum l a n d h o l d i n g s t o 100 b i g h a s , and l o w e r t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n f r o m two t o t e n t i m e s t h e a n n u a l income a s compared t o t h e s i x t o f i f t e e n t i m e s o f t h e o r i g i n a l B i l l . A l o n g w i t h t h e H i n d u s , t h r e e b i g M u s l i m l a n d l o r d s appended 107 t h e i r n o t e s o f d i s s e n t f r o m t h e R e p o r t . Some members o f t h e Committee r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t s t i c k t o any p a r t y p r i n c i p l e s w h i l e t h e y s a t on t h e c o m m i t t e e . On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , some members o f b o t h p a r t i e s o p p o s e d t h e i r own 10 8 p a r t y members. When t h e B i l l was c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e A s s e m b l y , h e a t e d d e b a t e t o o k p l a c e on t h e q u e s t i o n o f compensa-t i o n and t h e c e i l i n g o f l a n d h o l d i n g s . A C o n g r e s s member, A.C. A d h i k a r y , demanded t h a t t h e B i l l be s e n t t o t h e S p e c i a l Committee f o r r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e c a u s e some " f u n d a m e n t a l " c h a n g e s had b een made i n i t . M a n o r a n j a n Dhar, and o t h e r 109 C o n g r e s s l e a d e r s s u p p o r t e d him. C o n g r e s s l e a d e r s l i k e S.K. A c h a r i y a , Dhar, D.N. D u t t a and o t h e r s demanded more and " f a i r " c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e z a m i n d a r s . T hey a l s o c r i t i c i z e d 11 0 t h e c e i l i n g on l a n d h o l d i n g p e r f a m i l y . M u s l i m L e a g u e r K h a i r a t H o s s a i n and o t h e r s a s k e d f o r a c q u i s i t i o n w i t h o u t any 111 . c o m p e n s a t i o n . However, a l l t h e amendments t o t h e B i l l were d e f e a t e d and t h e B i l l was p a s s e d i n December, 1950. A r t i c u l a t i o n o f M i n o r i t y G r i e v a n c e s W i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y i n E a s t B e n g a l i n 1947, t h e m i n o r i t i e s were t o s s e d i n t o a h o s t i l e s i t u a t i o n . They had t o f a c e s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e s i n t h e i r d a y - t o -day l i f e . A f t e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e new p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l i n D a c c a , t h e government f a c e d a c u t e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s f o r g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e s and f o r g o v e r n m e n t s e r v a n t s . B e f o r e i n d e p e n d e n c e , a m a j o r i t y o f t h e h o u s e s i n D a c c a b e l o n g e d t o H i n d u s . S i n c e a l a r g e number o f t h e H i n d u s l e f t P a k i s t a n a f t e r p a r t i t i o n , t h e p r o v i n c i a l g overnment f o u n d an o p p o r t u n i t y . t o r e q u i s i t i o n H i n d u h o u s e s f o r t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d p u r p o s e s . T h i s " r u t h l e s s r e q u i s i t i o n " was t h e g r e a t e s t c o m p l a i n t i n o t h e r a r e a s t o o . C o n g r e s s members s u c h as G.C. B h a t t a r c h e r j e e , P.C. L a h i r y , and J.N. B h a d r a made c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t r e q u i s i -t i o n i n g and o t h e r m i n o r i t y g r i e v a n c e s i n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f 11 2 EBLA m 1948. T h e i r o t h e r c o m p l a i n t s were a g a i n s t t h e s e i z u r e o f f i r e a r m s f r o m t h e m i n o r i t y c o m m u n i t i e s , i l l e g a l h a r a s s m e n t by t h e M u s l i m N a t i o n a l G u a r d s , e x t r a c t i o n o f l a r g e sums f o r t h e Q u a i d - i - A z a m R e l i e f F und, and a r b i t r a r y a r r e s t s o f m i n o r i t y l e a d e r s . S i m i l a r c o m p l a i n t s b y t h e H i n d u members were 113 l o d g e d i n t h e CAP. T h ey a l s o v o i c e d m i n o r i t y g r i e v a n c e s i n 114 a l m o s t e v e r y s e s s i o n o f t h e EBLA and t h e CAP. They a l s o p r o t e s t e d t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p o l i c y a g a i n s t t h e H i n d u s i n t h e g r a n t i n g o f e x p o r t and i m p o r t 115 l i c e n s e s . They s u s p e c t e d t h a t t h i s was done d e l i b e r a t e l y t o p a t r o n i z e r i s i n g M u s l i m b u s i n e s s m e n . B e s i d e s v o i c i n g t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s i n s i d e a s s e m b l i e s , t h e y r e s o r t e d t o s u b m i t t i n g memoranda t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l and c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t s t o r e d r e s s . . 116 t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s . 47 When H i n d u l e a d e r s t r i e d t o v o i c e t h e g r i e v a n c e s o f t h e . m i n o r i t y , t h e y were o f t e n a t t a c k e d by t h e r u l i n g p a r t y and t h e p r e s s f o r t h e i r a l l e g e d " d i v i d e d l o y a l t y " o r d i s l o y a l t y t o . P a k i s t a n . Dawn made a number o f e d i t o r i a l comments a g a i n s t 117 them a s " d e l i b e r a t e r e c a l c i t r a n t s . " T h e s e a l l e g a t i o n s were b a s e d on t h e f a c t t h a t i n most c a s e s t h e m i n o r i t y l e a d e r s had a p o r t i o n o f t h e i r f a m i l y l i v i n g i n I n d i a . Some o f them e v e n 118 t o o k a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n West B e n g a l p o l i t i c s . A c r i t i c a l H i n d u w r i t e r a l s o a d m i t t e d t h a t o f - t h e t h i r t e e n H i n d u members o f t h e CAP, s i x l i v e d p e r m a n e n t l y i n C a l c u t t a , I n d i a . S i m i -l a r l y , o n l y a few H i n d u members o f t h e EBLA r e s i d e d i n E a s t B e n g a l p e r m a n e n t l y . T h e s e C a l c u t t a - b a s e d members u s e d t o go t o 119 D a c c a and K a r a c h i a t t h e t i m e o f a s s e m b l y s e s s i o n s , and 1 2 t h e i r l o y a l t y was q u e s t i o n e d on t h e f l o o r s o f t h e a s s e m b l i e s . D u r i n g t h e B u d g e t S e s s i o n o f t h e CAP ( L e g i s l a t u r e ) i n 1950, B.K. D u t t a ' s s p e e c h was i n t e r p r e t e d by r u l i n g p a r t y l e a d e r s as d i s l o y a l , and t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y d e c i d e d n o t t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e r e s t o f t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e S e s s i o n . M o r e o v e r , t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y had no newspaper i n E a s t B e n g a l , so i t s members had t o depend on t h e newpapers o f West B e n g a l t o p u b l i s h t h e i r v i e w s — w h i c h r e i n f o r c e d g o v e r n m e n t a t t a c k s on t h e i r d i s l o y a l t y . Khwaja N a z i m u d d i n d e c l a r e d on J u n e 8, 19 48 t h a t t h o s e who s u p p o r t e d t h e West B e n g a l p a p e r s had "no r i g h t t o l i v e i n 121 P a k i s t a n . " W h i l e t h e m i n o r i t y l e a d e r s were n o t v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n s a f e g u a r d i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e m i n o r i t i e s , t h e Governments o f I n d i a and P a k i s t a n d i d p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d o i n g s o . 48 On A p r i l 19, 1948 t h e Neogy-Ghulam Muhammed a g r e e m e n t between I n d i a and P a k i s t a n was c o n c l u d e d t o p r o t e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f 122 t h e m i n o r i t i e s i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s . I n F e b r u a r y , 19 50, t h e r e was a g a i n a communal f l a r e - u p i n w h i c h t h o u s a n d s o f H i n d u s were k i l l e d , f o l l o w e d by an u n p r e c e d e n t e d l e v e l o f H i n d u m i g r a t i o n f r o m E a s t B e n g a l . I n e a r l y M a r c h o f t h a t y e a r , t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a a s k e d P a k i s t a n t o s t o p t h e communal d i s t u r b a n c e s , o t h e r w i s e he w o u l d t a k e " o t h e r s t e p s . " T h i s w a r n i n g p r o d u c e d good r e s u l t s . The P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f P a k i s t a n i m m e d i a t e l y v i s i t e d I n d i a , and t h e famous " D e l h i P a c t " was s i g n e d on A p r i l 8, 1950 w h i c h e a s e d communal t e n s i o n i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s . From t h e above d i s c u s s i o n i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e H i n d u m i n o r i t y had l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s o f P a k i s t a n i n t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f i t s e x i s t e n c e . M i n o r i t y members made 123 c o m p l a i n t s a b o u t t h e i r i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . E v e n t h e S c h e d u l e d C a s t e members who c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h t h e Mus-l i m L e a g u e c o u l d h a r d l y e x e r t any i n f l u e n c e on g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y , e x c e p t i n some c a s e s o f p e r m i t s and s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r 12 4 t h e i r community. J.N. M a n d a l , l o n g t i m e a s s o c i a t e o f t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e and a c e n t r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r u n t i l h i s e x i t t o I n d i a , l e f t P a k i s t a n i n d i s g u s t w i t h o u t even t e n d e r i n g h i s r e s i g n a t i o n a f t e r t h e r i o t s o f 1950. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e H i n d u l e a d e r s h i p c o n c e n t r a t e d i t s e f f o r t s on v o i c i n g t h e g r i e v a n c e s o f t h e community i n t h e a s s e m b l i e s , and s t r u g g l e d t o make t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n more s e c u l a r and d e m o c r a t i c . C o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g y was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s p l i t i n t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y . A s e c t i o n o f t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y , w h i c h i n 194 8 f o r m e d t h e Gana S a m i t y , was more p r a g m a t i c i n r e a l i z i n g t h e c h a n g e d p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t and i n o u t l i n i n g t h e s t r a t e g y o f t h e H i n d u community t h e r e b y . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e e n t i r e H i n d u community was u n d e r a t t a c k f r o m t h e d o m i n a n t community. As a r e s u l t , t h e p r e v i o u s h o s t i l i t y and d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n between t h e C a s t e H i n d u and S c h e d u l e d C a s t e p o l i t i c i a n s were removed t o a l a r g e e x t e n t . The SCF was i n c r e a s i n g l y d r i f t i n g away f r o m i t s f o r m e r a l l y , t h e r u l i n g M u s l i m L e a g u e , and m a k i n g p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e s w i t h t h e C o n g r e s s and Gana S a m i t y . The r e s u l t i n g u n i t e d e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f t h e C a s t e H i n d u s and S c h e d u l e d C a s t e l e a d e r s c a n be s e e n f r o m t h e M i n o r i t y C o n f e r e n c e s o f 1948 and 1952, and a l s o i n t h e i r v a r i o u s j o i n t s t a t e m e n t s a r t i c u l a t i n g m i n o r i t y demands. The u n d e r c u r r e n t s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s i n P a k i s t a n were r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g . I n t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n o f E a s t B e n g a l i n e a r l y 1954, t h e r u l i n g M u s l i m League was e n t i r e l y r o u t e d , o p e n i n g a s e r i e s o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r b o t h t h e n a t i o n a l i s t B e n g a l i M u s l i m s and t h e H i n d u s . The r u l i n g e l i t e o f P a k i s t a n was overwhelmed w i t h a c r i s i s w h i c h l e d t o t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y when i t was on t h e p o i n t o f a d o p t i n g t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n i n O c t o b e r , 1954. W i t h t h e d i s s o l u t i o n began a new c h a p t e r i n t h e p o l i t i c s o f P a k i s t a n , one i n w h i c h t h e m i n o r i t y H i n d u s began t o p l a y a more e f f e c t i v e r o l e . 50 NOTES - C h a p t e r I I 1. P r a v a s h C h a n d r a L a h i r y , P a k - B h a r a t e r Rup Rekha. (A S k e t c h o f I n d o - P a k i s t a n ) ( N a d i a : Shayma P r a k a s h a n i , 1 9 6 8 ) , V o l . 1 , pp.36-67. 2. I b i d . , p.33. 3. Samar Guha, Non-Muslims, p.37. 4. C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y o f P a k i s t a n ( h e r e a f t e r CAP), D e b a t e s , V o l . 1 . ( 1 ) , p.13, A u g u s t 11, 1947. 5. T r a i l a k y a N a t h C h a k r a v o r t y , J i b a n S m r i t i (Memoirs) ( C a l c u t t a : B e n g a l P u b l i s h e r s L t d . , 1969), p.71. 6. M a r c u s F. F r a n d a , P o l i t i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t and P o l i t i c a l  Decay i n B e n g a l , p.236; and K a n t i B. P a k r a s i , The  U p r o o t e d ( C a l c u t t a : E d i t i o n s I n d i a , 1971), p.23. By t h e end o f 1947, (West) P a k i s t a n r e c e i v e d 5.5 m i l l i o n r e f u g e e s f r o m I n d i a a n d a b o u t 3.5 m i l l i o n H i n d u s and S i k h s h a d l e f t West P u n j a b f o r I n d i a . K.B. S a y e e d , The C e n t r a l G o v e r n - ment o f P a k i s t a n , 1947-1951 (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , M c G i l l , 1956) p.80. 7. F r a n d a , o p . c i t . , p.236. 8. S a y e e d , o p . c i t • , pp.15-51. 9. I b i d . , p.68. 10. I b i d . , p.55. 11. I b i d . , and a l s o M a u l a n a A b u l Kalam A z a d , I n d i a Wins F r e e - dom ( C a l c u t t a : O r i e n t Longman's, 1959), pp.164-165. 12. F o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e s , s e e K.B. S a y e e d , P a k i s t a n : The F o r m a t i v e Phase (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 968), 2nd ed. , pp.274-278; A b u l Mansur Ahmad, Am'ar Dekha R a j i n i t i r P a n c h a s a B a c h a r a ( F i f t y Y e a r s o f P o l i t i c s as I See I t ) ( D a c c a : N a u r o j , 1968), A t a u r Rahman Khan, O j a r a t i r D u i B a c h a r a (Two Y e a r s o f C h i e f M i n i s t e r s h i p ) ( Dacca: A v i j a n P u b l i s h i n g House, 1964) . 13. J . Sen G u p t a , E c l i p s e o f E a s t P a k i s t a n ( C a l c u t t a : Renco, 1963), p.40; and L a h i r y , o p . c i t . , pp.362-367. 14. Dawn ( K a r a c h i ) , J u l y 20, 1948. 15. Sen G u p t a , o p . c i t . , p.42. 16. Dawn, o p . c i t . 17. Sen G u p t a , o p . c i t . , p.41. 51 18. Dawn, A u g u s t 20, 1948. 19. I b i d . 20. I b i d . 21. Sen D u p t a , o p . c i t . , p.41. 22. I b i d . 23. S c h e d u l e d C a s t e s u p p o r t f o r t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y c a n be s e e n f r o m t h e 19 46 e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s . I n t h i s e l e c t i o n t h e S c h e d u l e d C a s t e F e d e r a t i o n won o n l y 12 p e r c e n t o f t h e S c h e d u l e d C a s t e v o t e s , whereas t h e C o n g r e s s won a l m o s t a l l H i n d u s e a t s i n B e n g a l . Government o f I n d i a , 1945-1946 E l e c t i o n R e s u l t s ( p u b l i s h e d i n 1948), pp.24, 71 . 24. L a h i r y , o p . c i t . , p.171. 25. I b i d . , p.172. 26. Sen G u p t a , o p . c i t . , p.40. 27. CAP, D e b a t e s , V o l . 1 ( 1 ) , p.2, A u g u s t 10, 1947. 28. I b i d . , V o l . 1 ( 2 ) , p.13, A u g u s t 11, 1947. 29. I b i d . 30. I b i d . 31. I b i d . , p.19. 32. I b i d . , p.20. 33. I b i d . 34. Dawn, J u l y 11, 1947. 35. CAP ( L e g i s l a t u r e ) ( h e r e a f t e r CAP (L) ) , V o l . 1 ( 3 ) , p.29. F e b r u a r y 28, 1948. 36. Dawn, November 26, 1947. 37. I b i d . , November 27, 1947. 38. I b i d . , December 17, 1947. 39. S a y e e d , The C e n t r a l Government...pp.47-48. 40. Dawn e d i t o r i a l : " P e r v e r s e P r o p a g a n d a " , A u g u s t 26, 1947; c i t e d i n S a y e e d , o p . c i t . , p.48. 52 41. CAP, D e b a t e s , V o l . 2 ' ( 1 ) , p p . 5 - 6 , F e b r u a r y 24, 1948. 42. I b i d . , pp.6-7. 43. I b i d . , V o l . 2 ( 1 ) , p.15, F e b r u a r y 25, 1948. 44. I b i d . 45. I b i d . , s e e t h e s p e e c h e s o f P.H. Barma, B.K. D u t t a , and S.C. C h a t t o p a d h y a y a . 46. I b i d . , p.17. 47. I b i d . 48. I b i d . , p.20 . 49. I b i d . , p.22. 50. F o r a f u l l and a u t h o r i t a t i v e a c c o u n t o f t h e l a n g u a g e movement, s e e B a d r u d d i n Umar, Purbo B a n q l a r Bhasa A n d o l a n  O T a t k a l i n R a j n i t i (Language Movement and C o n t e m p o r a r y P o l i t i c s i n E a s t B e n g a l ) , V o l s . 1 and 2, ( D a c c a : Mowla B r o t h e r s , 1969 and 1975); and Hasan H a f i z u r Rahman, Ek u s h e F e b r u a r y ( F e b r u a r y 2 1 s t ) ( D a c c a : P u t h i P a t r a P r a k a s h a n i , 1954). 51. Umar, o p . c i t . , V o l . 1 , pp.59-61. 52. I b i d . , pp.77-82. 53. I b i d . , pp.83-88. 54. E a s t B e n g a l L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y ( h e r e a f t e r E B L A ) , P r o c e e d i n g s , V o l . 1 ( 4 ) , pp.57-58, A p r i l 6 , 1948. 55. I b i d . , pp.134-161, A p r i l 8, 1948. 56. Umar, o p . c i t . , pp.72-73. 57. Dawn, December 16, 1947. 58. CAP, D e b a t e s , V o l . 1 1 ( 3 ) , p.22, A p r i l 10, 1952. 59. EBLA, P r o c e e d i n g s , V o l . 7, pp.53-58, F e b r u a r y 21, 1952. 60. CAP, D e b a t e s , V o l . 1 1 ( 3 ) , A p r i l 10, 1952. (See s p e e c h e s o f P r o f e s s o r R a j Kumar C h a k r a v e r t y , K.K. D u t t a , B. Nandy, and D.N. D u t t a ) . 61. I b i d . , V o l . 5 ( 1 ) , pp.1-2, March 7, 19 49. 62. I b i d . , p.8. 63. I b i d . , V o l . 5 ( 2 ) , pp.13-17, M a r c h 8, 1949. 53 64. I b i d . . B.K. D u t t a , pp.. 13.-17. 65. F o r a . d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e Ulema i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , see L e o n a r d B i n d e r , R e l i g i o n and P o l i t i c s i n P a k i s t a n ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1961) and a l s o F r e e l a n d A b b o t , I s l a m and P a k i s t a n ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968). 66. CAP, D e b a t e s , o p . c i t . . p.15. March 8 r 1949. 67. I b i d . , K.K. D u t t a , p.22. 68. I b i d . , pp.22-23. 69 . I b i d . , V o l . 5 ( 3 ) , p.27, M a r c h 9, 1949 • 70. I b i d . , p.28. 71 . I b i d . , pp.32-33. 72. I b i d . , V o l . 5 ( 4 ) , pp.55-61, March 10, 1949 . 73. I b i d . , V o l . 5 ( 3 ) , pp.43-49, M a r c h 9, 1949. 74. I b i d . , V o l . 5 ( 5 ) , pp.89-90, March 12, 1949. 75. I b i d . , p.95. 76. I b i d . , p.94. 77. I b i d . , V o l . 5 ( 1 ) , p.2, March 7, 1949. 78. F o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a n t i -BPC R e p o r t move-ment, see-Uinar, o p _ . c i t . , V o l . 2 , pp.380-416. 79. I b i d . , pp.390-404. 80. CAP, D e b a t e s , V o l . 8 ( 1 ) . A n n e x u r e . pp .16-57, September 28, 1950. 81 . I b i d . , V o l . 8 ( 2 ) , pp.66-68, O c t o b e r 4 , 1950. 82. I b i d . , p.66. 83. I b i d . 84. I b i d . , p.117. 85. I b i d . , V o l . 8 ( 3 ) , pp.160-161, O c t o b e r 6, 1950 86. I b i d . , V o l . 5 ( 5 ) , p.93, M a r c h 12, 1949. 87. I b i d . , V o l . 1 1 ( 3 ) , p.50, A p r i l 10, 1952. , 54 88, 89. 90. 91 . 92. 93. 94, See s p e e c h e s o f B.K. D u t t a , D.N. D u t t a , B.C. Nandy, P r o f e s s o r C h a k r a v e r t y , S.C. C h a t t o p a d h y a y a , V o l . 1 1 ( 3 - 8 ) , A p r i l 10-19, 1952. J.K. Ray, Democracy and N a t i o n a l i s m on T r i a l , pp.6 3-76. CAP, D e b a t e s , V o l . 1 5 ( 3 - 2 0 ) , O c t o b e r 8-November 2, 1953. I b i d . , V o l . 1 5 ( 2 0 ) , pp.658-659, November 2, 1953. I b i d . , V o l . 1 5 ( 3 1 ) , pp.504-505, September 21, 1954. Rounaq J a h a n , P a k i s t a n : F a i l u r e i n N a t i o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n , p.18. F o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Z a m i n d a r i s y s t e m , s e e B a d r u d d i n Umar, C h i r o s t h a i i B o n d o b a s t a O B a n q l a d e s h e r  K r i s h a k (Permanent S e t t l e m e n t and P e a s a n t s o f B a n g l e d e s h ) ( D a c c a : S u b a r n a P r a k a s h a n , 1972). Ahmad, o p . c i t . , p.249. 95. Umar, op.cit. , pp.122-134. 96. Ibid. , p.123. 97. EBLA, p.23, Proceedings, speech by Monohar Dhali, Vol.4 November 30, 19 49. (3) , 98. Ibid. , Vol.1 ( 4 ) , p.88, A p r i l 8, 1948. 99. Ibid.. , p.94. 100. For a detailed analysis of the class p o l i t i c s of a b o l i t i o n of the zamindari system, see Badruddin Purbo Banqlar Bhasa Andolan..., Vol.2, pp.127-183 the Umar, 101 . EBLA, Proceedings, Vol.1 ( 4 ) , pp.97-102, A p r i l 7, 1948 102. Ibid. , p.98. 103. Ibid. , pp.101-102. 104. Ibid. , pp.102-103, 118-119. 105. Ibid. , pp.99, 111-112. 106. Ibid. , pp.114-115. 107. Ibid. , Vol. 4 ( 1 ) , pp.202-203. 108. Ibid. , p.87. 109. Ibid. , pp.56-84. 110. Ibid. , pp.56-84. 55 111. I b i d . , p . 1 91 . 112. EBLA, P r o c e e d i n g s , V o l . 2 , pp.2-60, J u n e 7 and 10, 1948. 113. CAP ( L ) , D e b a t e s , V o l . 1 (8 and 9 ) , pp.286, 219, M a r c h 6 and 9, 1948. 114. F o r example, s e e EBLA, P r o c e e d i n g s , V o l . 3 ( 3 ) , V o l . 4 ( 1 ) , 1949 ; V o l . 5 ( 1 ) , 1951; V o l . 6 ( 2 ) , 1952; CAP (L) , D e b a t e s , V o l . 1 ( 5 ) , 1951; V o l . 1 ( 9 ) , 1952. 115. EBLA, P r o c e e d i n g s , S p e e c h by B i n o d e B e h a r i M a l l i c k , V o l . 4 ( 4 ) , p.135, December 10, 1952. 116. Guha, o p . c i t . , pp.72-75, and Ray, o p . c i t . , p.31. 117. Dawn, A u g u s t 27, O c t o b e r 17 and November 2, 19 48. 118 L a h i r y , o p . c i t . , p.132. 11 9 Guha, o_p_ . c i t . , p . 2 9 . 120 EBLA, P r o c e e d i n g s , V o l . 3 ( 3 ) , p.7, M a r c h 26, 1949 and C A P ( L ) , D e b a t e s , V o l . 1 ( 6 ) , p.198, March 20, 1950. 121 EBLA, P r o c e e d i n g s , V o l . 3 , p.52, J u n e 8, 1948. 122. R e c u r r e n t Exodus o f M i n o r i t i e s f r o m E a s t P a k i s t a n (New D e l h i : The I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n o f J u r i s t s , 1 965), p.5. 123. EBLA, P r o c e e d i n g s , V o l . 1 ( 4 ) , p.80, A p r i l 6, 1948 (B.K. D a s ) , V o l . 4 ( 1 ) , p.63, November 15, 1949. 124. L e t t e r o f R e s i g n a t i o n o f M a n d a l , c i t e d i n R e c u r r e n t Exodus o f M i n o r i t i e s . . . , pp.354-372. 125. CAP, D e b a t e s , s e e S p e e c h o f B.K. D u t t a , V o l . 1 1 ( 3 ) , pp.49-50, A p r i l 10, 1952. 56 CHAPTER I I I MAXIMIZATION OF THE HINDU POSITION: THE SECOND PHASE OF MINORITY POLITICS, 1954-1958 The y e a r 1954 was a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f E a s t B e n g a l i n t h a t i t marked t h e h i s t o r i c v i c t o r y o f t h e U n i t e d F r o n t (UF) i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s . The v i c t o r y u s h e r e d i n a new o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e H i n d u m i n o r i t y t o p l a y an e f f e c t i v e r o l e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . The r e s u l t i n g c h a nge i n P a k i s t a n i p o l i t i c s made i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e H i n d u s n o t o n l y t o s a f e g u a r d e f f e c t i v e l y , b u t t o m a x i m i z e t h e i r i n t e r e s t . The s c h i s m i n t h e m a j o r i t y community p l a c e d them i n p o s i t i o n , u n t h i n k a b l e a f t e r p a r t i t i o n , t o become an i m p o r t a n t component o f t h e r u l i n g c o a l i t i o n g o v ernments b o t h a t t h e c e n t r e and i n E a s t B e n g a l . They now t o o k p a r t i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s n o t as members o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n , b u t as an i n f l u e n t i a l p a r t n e r o f t h e r u l i n g c o a l i t i o n g o v e r n -ment. B u t t h e i r membership o f t h e r u l i n g c o a l i t i o n p a r t y was n o t o b t a i n e d w i t h o u t p a y i n g a p r i c e . T h e y had t o make compro-m i s e s on a number o f d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e c h a n g i n g p o s i t i o n o f t h e H i n d u m i n o r i t y . G r o w i n g S e c u l a r i s m and t h e R i s e o f t h e B e n g a l i O p p o s i t i o n G roups D u r i n g t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f P a k i s t a n , t h e p e o p l e o f E a s t B e n g a l were d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h t h e m i s r u l e o f t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e , and t h e s l o g a n s o f ' I s l a m ' and 'Muslim n a t i o n h o o d ' l o s t t h e i r a p p e a l . B e n g a l i M u s l i m s became f r u s t r a t e d by t h e s h e e r n e g l e c t o f t h e i r p r o v i n c e by t h e i r f e l l o w M u s l i m b r o t h e r s o f West P a k i s t a n . They were b e c o m i n g more a n x i o u s a b o u t t h e s l o w d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r own p r o v i n c e , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t o f West P a k i s t a n u n d e r t h e p a t r o n a g e o f t h e c e n t r a l r u l i n g e l i t e o f t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e . They a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s c r e a t e d i n t h e s e r v i c e s , p r o f e s s i o n s , and b u s i n e s s by t h e m i g r a t i o n o f H i n d u s , were q u i c k l y a b s o r b e d by West P a k i s t a n i s and n o n - B e n g a l i M u s l i m r e f u g e e s . The e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l c h a g r i n o f t h e B e n g a l i M u s l i m s l e d t o t h e f o r m a -t i o n o f t h e Awami M u s l i m League (AML) i n e a r l y 19 49 by t h e ' v e r n a c u l a r e l i t e ' . The AML q u i c k l y s e i z e d a l l a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o expand i t s s u p p o r t b a s e . The l a n g u a g e movement o f 1952 s u p p l i e d i t w i t h a u n i v e r s a l l y p o p u l a r i s s u e w h i c h was c r u c i a l t o i t s d e v e l o p m e n t . By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1953, t h e AML had become t h e most o r g a n i z e d p o l i t i c a l f o r c e i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The m a i n p l a n k s o f t h e 4 4 - p o i n t programme o f t h e AML were f u l l p r o v i n c i a l autonomy f o r E a s t B e n g a l and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f B e n g a l i as one o f t h e s t a t e l a n g u a g e s o f P a k i s t a n . The l a n g u a g e movement had a f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p a c t on t h e p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e B e n g a l i M u s l i m masses who had o n l y a few y e a r s b a c k e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y b a c k e d t h e P a k i s t a n movement. As t h e y began t o r e v i e w t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h West P a k i s t a n , B e n g a l i n a t i o n a l i s m was f o s t e r e d ; a phenomenon w h i c h has b e en r i g h t l y d e s c r i b e d by B a d r u d d i n Umar a s "Musalmaner Swadesh 2 P r a t t a b a r t a n " ( ( B e n g a l i ) M u s l i m ' s R e t u r n Home). The AML became t h e a v a n t - g a r d e o f r i s i n g B e n g a l i n a t i o n a l i s m . W i t h g r o w i n g e s t r a n g e m e n t between E a s t and West P a k i s t a n , 58 t h e s a l i e n c e o f r e l i g i o u s i d e n t i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e B e n g a l i M u s l i m s receded.. A l o n g w i t h t h e b a n i s h m e n t o f u p p e r c l a s s H i n d u s , went t h e c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e B e n g a l i M u s l i m s . On t h e o t h e r hand, B e n g a l i M u s l i m s f o u n d t h a t a m u t u a l i t y o f i n t e r e s t d e v e l o p e d between them and t h e H i n d u s a g a i n s t t h e i r common enemy, i . e . t h e West P a k i s t a n i r u l i n g e l i t e . As a r e s u l t , communalism began t o l o s e i t s a p p e a l among B e n g a l i M u s l i m s . The p r o c e s s was h e l p e d by t h e a n t i - B P C movement o f 1950, and t h e l a n g u a g e movement o f 19 52. W i t h t h e g r a d u a l d e c l i n e o f communalism, s e c u l a r p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s now opened t h e membership o f t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o H i n d u s , and were r e a d y t o l a u n c h j o i n t s t r u g g l e s w i t h t h e H i n d u s w h i c h were q u i t e u n t h i n k a b l e a f t e r p a r t i t i o n . The d e c i s i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e d i s s i d e n t B e n g a l i M u s l i m s t o f o r g e p o l i t i c a l u n i t y w i t h t h e H i n d u s was a r a d i c a l s t e p t o w a r d s a newer p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n E a s t B e n g a l . The f i r s t p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o open membership t o a l l c o m m u n i t i e s was t h e Y o u t h L e a g u e . I t was f o r m e d i n 1951 by t h e Communists t o m o b i l i z e a l l s e c t i o n s o f E a s t B e n g a l ' s p o p u l a t i o n on a minimum programme o f s e c u l a r i s m , a n t i - f e u d a l i s m , 3 a n d u n f e t t e r e d d e m o c r a c y . The Y o u t h League c o u n t e r e d t h e communal c u l t u r a l p o l i c y o f t h e M u s l i m League and p l a y e d a v e r y 4 i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e l a n g u a g e movement. I n A p r i l 1952, i t o r g a n i z e d a s t u d e n t f r o n t c a l l e d t h e E a s t P a k i s t a n S t u d e n t s U n i o n . T h i s u n i o n , whose ma i n p l a n k s were non-communalism and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s m , g r a d u a l l y became one o f t h e most p o w e r f u l s t u d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . I n t e r m s o f membership and l e a d e r s h i p , t h e Communist 5 P a r t y o f E a s t P a k i s t a n (EPCP) was p r e d o m i n a n t l y a H i n d u p a r t y . Thus i t was e a s y f o r t h e government t o r e p r e s s t h e EPCP by b r a n d i n g them "enemy ( I n d i a n ) a g e n t s " . As a r e s u l t , i t d e c i d e d t o p e n e t r a t e o t h e r p o p u l a r p a r t i e s i n an a t t e m p t t o i n c o r p o r a t e non-communal, a n t i - f e u d a l , and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t p l a n k s i n t h e i r p l a t f o r m s . I n 1951, i t r e s o l v e d t o work t h r o u g h t h e AML. How-e v e r , H a j i Danesh (a f o r m e r member o f t h e Communist P a r t y o f I n d i a ) a n d some o f h i s a s s o c i a t e s , d e f i e d t h i s o f f i c i a l d e c i s i o n and f o r m e d t h e G a n a t a n t r i D a l ( D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y ) i n e a r l y 1953. I n f a c t , t h e G a n a t a n t r i D a l was t h e f i r s t s e c u l a r p a r t y i n E a s t B e n g a l , and o p e n e d i t s d o o r t o t h e H i n d u s . I t was s u c c e s s f u l i n d r a w i n g s u p p o r t f r o m b o t h H i n d u s and M u s l i m s , b u t i t s l e a d e r s h i p r e m a i n e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y M u s l i m . I n 1953, A.K. F a z l u l Hug who had s u f f e r e d i n t h e p o l i t i c a l w i l d e r n e s s s i n c e t h e d e f e a t o f h i s p a r t y i n t h e 1946 e l e c t i o n s , o r g a n i z e d t h e K r i s h a k S r a m i k P a r t y (KSP - P e a s a n t s and Workers p a r t y ) t o f i g h t t h e f o r t h c o m i n g e l e c t i o n . The KSP was composed m a i n l y o f h i s f o l l o w e r s and f r i e n d s . I t l a c k e d any d e f i n i t e p r o -gramme .r.-and i t s m a i n c a p i t a l was t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f i t s l e a d e r . The 19 54 E l e c t i o n s I n M a r c h 1954, h i s t o r i c p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s were h e l d i n E a s t B e n g a l . The m i n o r i t y p a r t i e s f o u g h t f o r t h e 72 s e a t s r e s e r v e d f o r them. The most p r o m i n e n t m i n o r i t y p a r t i e s on t h e e l e c t o r a l s c e n e were t h e C o n g r e s s , t h e U n i t e d P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y ( f o r m e r l y t h e Gana S a m i t y ) , and t h e S c h e d u l e d C a s t e F e d e r a t i o n . The f i r s t two p a r t i e s were t h e m a j o r c o n t e n d e r s 60 f o r c a s t e H i n d u s e a t s . The m i n o r i t y l e a d e r s a t t e m p t e d t o f o r m an a l l i a n c e on t h e eve o f t h e e l e c t i o n , b u t due t o t h e e a r l i e r s p l i t between t h e C o n g r e s s and t h e UPP, t h e y f a i l e d t o do s o . The UPP t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o f o r m an e l e c t o r a l a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e SCF and t o f i g h t t h e e l e c t i o n u n d e r t h e b a n n e r o f t h e 7 M i n o r i t y U n i t e d F r o n t . The l e a d e r s o f t h e SCF, f o r t a c t i c a l r e a s o n s , d e c i d e d t o f i g h t t h e e l e c t i o n on t h e i r own. They t h o u g h t t h a t by c o n t e s t i n g t h e e l e c t i o n u n d e r t h e i r own p a r t y b a n n e r , t h e y w o u l d be a b l e t o a t t r a c t more s c h e d u l e d c a s t e v o t e s . They were a l s o m o t i v a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t a n o t h e r g r o u p o f t h e SCF, u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f D.N. B a r o r i (a M u s l i m League a s s o c i a t e and a p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r u n t i l t h e e l e c t i o n s ) was i n t h e f i e l d . They t h o u g h t t h a t i f t h e y d i d n o t f i g h t t h e e l e c t i o n u n d e r t h e i r own p a r t y b a n n e r , a n o t h e r g r o u p o f t h e SCF m i g h t g e t an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a t t r a c t more s c h e d u l e d c a s t e v o t e s . The l a t t e r g r o u p o f t h e SCF was i n f a v o u r o f a s e p a r a t e e l e c t o r a t e and f a i l e d t o w i n a s i n g l e s e a t , w h i l e t h e f o r m e r g r o u p g a i n e d t w e n t y - s e v e n o u t o f t h i r t y - e i g h t s c h e d u l e d c a s t e s e a t s . On t h e eve o f t h e e l e c t i o n , a l l t h e a n t i - M u s l i m L eague f o r c e s r e a l i z e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o be g a i n e d by f o r m i n g a u n i t e d f r o n t a g a i n s t t h e g o v e r n i n g M u s l i m L e a g u e . The r e s u l t -a n t U n i t e d F r o n t (UF) was composed o f t h e AML, t h e KSP, t h e N e z a m - i - I s l a m (a m i n o r p a r t y o f M u s l i m Ulema o p p o s e d t o t h e M u s l i m League and f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , an a l l y o f Huq), and t h e G a n a t a n t r i D a l . The UF drew up a 2 1 - p o i n t m a n i f e s t o w h i c h i n c l u d e d a l l t h e p o p u l a r demands o f E a s t B e n g a l . The two most i m p o r t a n t demands o f t h e 2 1 - p o i n t p r o g r a m were f u l l 61 r e g i o n a l autonomy f o r E a s t B e n g a l ( e x c l u d i n g d e f e n c e , f o r e i g n a f f a i r s , and c u r r e n c y ) and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f B e n g a l i as one o f t h e s t a t e l a n g u a g e s . However, t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d programme was f u l l o f c o n f l i c t i n g g o a l s . The UF, a c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s a n t a g o n i s t i c p a r t i e s , was u n i t e d m a i n l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e r u l i n g p a r t y r a t h e r t h a n b e c a u s e o f any p o s i t i v e p o l i c y , and f a c t i o n a l i s m was p r e s e n t f r o m t h e 9 v e r y b e g i n n i n g . The UF c o a l i t i o n won a l a n d s l i d e v i c t o r y i n t h e e l e c t i o n . I t c a p t u r e d 223 o u t o f 237 M u s l i m s e a t s i n a House o f 309, w h i l e t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e b a r e l y managed t o s u r v i v e by w i n n i n g o n l y 10 s e a t s . A l l t h e i m p o r t a n t l e a d e r s o f t h e L e a g u e , i n c l u d i n g t h e m i n i s t e r s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t , were d e f e a t e d . The UF o b t a i n e d 97 1/2 p e r c e n t o f t h e M u s l i m v o t e s , and was l a t e r j o i n e d by t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t and one K h i l a f a t - i -R a b b a n i p a r t y members. The p a r t y s t r e n g t h i n t h e E a s t B e n g a l p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l y 1 0 i n A p r i l 1954 was as f o l l o w s : M u s l i m S e a t s M i n o r i t y S e a t s U n i t e d F r o n t U n i t e d F r o n t 227 C o n g r e s s 24 Awami League 143 M u s l i m L e a g u e 10 S c h e d u l e d C a s t e KSP 48 F e d e r a t i o n 27 N e z a m - i - I s l a m 22 U n i t e d P r o g r e s - G a n a t a n t r i D a l 13 s i v e P a r t y 13 K h i l a f a t - i - R a b b a n i 1 G a n a t a n t r i D a l 3 Communist P a r t y 4 I n d e p e n d e n t 1 237 72 227 The v i c t o r y o f t h e UF i n t h e E a s t B e n g a l e l e c t i o n s s e t t h e s t a g e f o r t h e m i n o r i t i e s t o p l a y a c r u c i a l r o l e i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f P a k i s t a n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n E a s t B e n g a l . The v i c t o r y t h r e w t h e c e n t r a l r u l i n g e l i t e o f P a k i s t a n i n t o an u n e a s y p r e d i c a m e n t b e c a u s e i t s B e n g a l i l e a d e r s had l o s t t h e i r c r e d i b i l i t y . I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e e l e c t o r a l v i c t o r y , t h e UF l e a d e r s a p p e a l e d t o t h e B e n g a l i members o f t h e CAP t o 11 r e s i g n and t o " r e s p e c t t h e w i s h e s o f t h e p e o p l e . " L a t e r , t h e r i v a l r y between t h e P u n j a b i G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , Ghulam Muhammed, and t h e B e n g a l i g r o u p o f t h e CAP r e a c h e d i t s c l i m a x when t h e l a t t e r t r i e d t o c u r t a i l t h e power o f t h e f o r m e r by p a s s i n g a number o f b i l l s i n t h e CAP by i t s n u m e r i c a l s t r e n g t h 1 2 and by f o r m i n g an a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e S i n d h i g r o u p . The p e r i o d between 1954 and 1958 was c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y e x t r e m e 1 3 i n s t a b i l i t y and p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e s . I n t h i s b r i e f p e r i o d t h e r e were f i v e g o v e r n m e n t s a t t h e c e n t r e . E a s t B e n g a l had t h r e e g o v e r n m e n t s and was u n d e r g o v e r n o r ' s r u l e f o r n e a r l y two y e a r s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n gave t h e m i n o r i t i e s a u n i q u e c h a n c e t o " f i s h i n t r o u b l e d w a t e r s " and t o m a x i m i z e t h e i r i n t e r e s t . D i s m i s s a l o f t h e UF Government and t h e D i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e CAP I n e a r l y A p r i l 1954, t h e UF formed i t s g o v ernment w i t h F a z l u l Huq as t h e c h i e f m i n i s t e r , b u t t h e s e e d s o f d i s u n i t y i n t h e UF were p r e s e n t f r o m t h e v e r y s t a r t . The two m a j o r p a r t i e s , t h e KSP and AML c o u l d n o t a g r e e on t h e s e l e c t i o n o f 14 < m i n i s t e r s , and F a z l u l Huq f o r m e d a four-member c a b i n e t , t h r e e b e l o n g i n g t o h i s p a r t y , a n d a f o u r t h drawn f r o m h i s a l l i e d p a r t y , N e z a m - i - I s l a m . However, he e n l a r g e d t h e c a b i n e t on May 15, 1954, and t h e AML was i n c l u d e d i n i t . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e H i n d u members were n o t p a r t o f t h e UF g o v e r n m e n t , t h o u g h t h e y e x t e n d e d t h e i r f u l l s u p p o r t t o t h e new g o v ernment. The c e n t r a l r u l i n g e l i t e o f P a k i s t a n c o u l d n o t a c c e p t t h e UF v i c t o r y , and t h e UF m i n i s t r y was d i s m i s s e d by t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t w i t h i n two months o f i t s a s s u m p t i o n o f power by 15 i n v o k i n g A r t i c l e 92A. The c e n t r a l government a c c u s e d t h e UF g o vernment o f " b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n " o f P a k i s t a n 1 6 and c a l l e d Huq a s e l f - c o n f e s s e d t r a i t o r . A f t e r t h e d i s m i s s a l .of t h e UF m i n i s t r y , t h e r e f o l l o w e d a d r a m a t i c p e r i o d o f a l l i a n c e f o r m a t i o n among t h e d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s i n t h e c o u n t r y . The r e - a l i g n m e n t o f p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s was q u i c k e n e d when t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , Ghulam Muhammed, d i s s o l v e d t h e f i r s t CAP i n O c t o b e r , 1954. He c h a r g e d t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g CAP had f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e a c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e c o u n t r y o v e r t h e p r e v i o u s s e v e n y e a r s and t h a t i t had l o s t i t s l e g i t i m a c y . So he "magnanimously" a c c e p t e d t h e p o p u l a r demand 1 7 and o r d e r e d i t s d i s s o l u t i o n . However, i t i s c l e a r t h a t he d i s s o l v e d i t n o t b e c a u s e i t had f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e a c o n s t i t u -t i o n b u t r a t h e r b e c a u s e i t had p r o d u c e d a c o n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h 1 8 was n o t a c c e p t a b l e t o him and t h e P u n j a b i g r o u p . The a c t o f t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l was p r e c i p i t a t e d by t h e " s u r p r i s i n g a g g r e s s i v e n e s s " o f t h e B e n g a l i g r o u p i n t h e l a s t few weeks o f 19 t h e f i r s t CAP. The UF l e a d e r s h a i l e d t h e d i s s o l u t i o n b e c a u s e i t opened a new p o s s i b i l i t y f o r t h e UF t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e c e n t r a l g overnment. The C o n g r e s s p a r t y a l s o welcomed t h e d i s s o l u t i o n , and i t s l e a d e r , S.C. C h a t t o p a d h y a y a d e c l a r e d : "The M u s l i m L e a g u e w i l l n o t be a b l e t o t h r u s t on t h e m i n o r i t y 20 a c o n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h t h e y r e j e c t e d w h o l e s a l e . 64 R e s t o r a t i o n o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y Government  and t h e F o r m a t i o n o f t h e Se c o n d CAP A f t e r t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e CAP, Ghulam Muhammed n o m i n a t e d a s o - c a l l e d " m i n i s t r y o f t a l e n t s " . T h e r e was no c e n t r a l l e g i s l a t u r e and Ghulam Muhammed began t o r u l e t h e c o u n t r y be d e c r e e . H i s " c o n t r o l l e d d e m o c r a c y " l a s t e d f o r a b o u t one y e a r , d u r i n g w h i c h p e r i o d he made a number o f manoeuvers i n o r d e r t o w i n t h e s u p p o r t o f one o f t h e B e n g a l i g r o u p s and p r o v i d e l e g i t i m a c y t o h i s r u l e . As t h e UF was a l r e a d y a d i v i d e d h ouse and i t s two l e a d e r s , H.S. Suhrawardy and F a z l u l Huq had been a r c h r i v a l s f o r a l o n g t i m e , Ghulam Muhammed had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p l a y one a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r . M o r e o v e r , t h e UF l e a d e r s had s u f f e r e d p o l i t i c a l o b l i v i o n s i n c e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f P a k i s t a n , and t h e y f o u n d i t i r r e s i s t i b l e t o come t o t e r m s w i t h a G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l who c o u l d r e - i n s t a l l a government i n E a s t B e n g a l . Under s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , H.S. Suhrawardy j o i n e d t h e c e n t r a l c a b i n e t i n December 1954. He was g i v e n an u n d e r -s t a n d i n g by t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l t h a t he wou l d be made P r i m e M i n i s t e r i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r j o i n i n g t h e c a b i n e t , and he w o u l d be e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e t a s k o f c o n s t i t u t i o n - m a k i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , 21 t h e n e x t e l e c t i o n w o u l d be h e l d w i t h i n one y e a r . To t h e i r s u r p r i s e , t h e AML l e a d e r s f o u n d t h a t a nominee o f F a z l u l Huq, Abu H o s s a i n S a r k a r , was a l s o a p p o i n t e d a m i n i s t e r a l o n g w i t h S u hrawardy. T h i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l was p l a y i n g w i t h b o t h g r o u p s s e p a r a t e l y , a t a c t i c w h i c h c o n t r i -b u t e d t o t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e UF. W i t h t h e p r o s p e c t o f r e s t o r a t i o n o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y g o v e r n -ment i n E a s t B e n g a l , i n t e r - p a r t y c o n f l i c t i n t h e UF r e a c h e d t h e p o i n t o f no r e t u r n i n e a r l y 1955. The AML, b e i n g t h e m a j o r i t y p a r t y o f t h e UF, made no s e c r e t o f t h e f a c t t h a t i t wanted t h e c h i e f m i n i s t e r s h i p and c o n t r o l o v e r t h e m i n i s t r y as a w h o l e . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e AML p a s s e d a v o t e o f no c o n f i -d e n c e i n F a z l u l Huq as t h e l e a d e r o f t h e UF on F e b r u a r y 17, 1955. T h i s no c o n f i d e n c e r e s o l u t i o n b r o u g h t t h e f i n a l s p l i t i n t h e UF. The AML and KSP were now v y i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r f o r t h e f a v o u r o f t h e c e n t r a l government i n o r d e r t o r e t u r n t o power i n E a s t B e n g a l . s M e a n w h i l e , t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l was t r y i n g t o c o n v e n e a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n i n o r d e r t o p a s s a c o n s t i t u t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o h i s t e r m s . He i s s u e d an o r d i n a n c e t o t h a t e f f e c t 22 m A p r i l 1955 w i t h S u h r a w a r d y ' s b a c k i n g . The KSP, t h e C o n g r e s s , and t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e i n E a s t B e n g a l v e h e m e n t l y o p p o s e d t h i s p r o p o s a l on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e p r o p o s e d c o n v e n -23 t i o n was u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . T h ey a l s o demanded a new c o n s t i -t u e n t a s s e m b l y . They were prompted by t h e f e a r t h a t i n s u c h a c o n v e n t i o n t h e p o w e r f u l G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l w o u l d be a b l e t o impos a c o n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h w o u l d s e r v e P u n j a b i i n t e r e s t s . However, t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l ' s i n t e n t i o n s were f r u s t r a t e d by a d e c i s i o n o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t o f P a k i s t a n on A p r i l 10, 19 55. The c o u r t r u l e d a g a i n s t t h e summoning o f a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n and a s k e d t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l i n s t e a d t o c a l l a new c o n s t i t u e n t a s s e m b l y . The r u l i n g o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t s t i r r e d new a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e P a k i s t a n i c e n t r a l r u l i n g e l i t e . P r i m e M i n i s t e r B o g r a , who was c o m p l e t e l y a t t h e m ercy o f t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l a f t e r t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e C A P , , f e l t renewed hope i n t h e p r o s p e c t o f a f u t u r e a s s e m b l y where he c o u l d e s t a b l i s h h i m s e l f as t h e l e a d e r o f t h e House, w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e B e n g a l i members. S i n c e H.S. Suhrawardy h i m s e l f was a p o s s i b l e c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e f u t u r e p r i m e m i n i s t e r s h i p , B o g r a o p t e d f o r t h e KSP i n h i s a l l i a n c e - m a k i n g . I n a b i d t o g a i n KSP s u p p o r t , he r e s t o r e d i t t o government i n E a s t B e n g a l i n J u n e 1955, when t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l was o u t o f t h e c o u n t r y . Abu H o s s a i n S a r k a r , t h e nominee o f Huq, for m e d t h e new UF g o v e r n m e n t . Of t h e o r i g i n a l UF, t h e S a r k a r m i n i s t r y e n j o y e d t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e KSP, a s p l i n t e r g r o u p o f t h e AML o f 20 members, t h e Nezam-i-I s l a m , and t h e G a n a t a n t r i D a l . A n o t h e r 19 members o f t h e AML j o i n e d t h e KSP a t t h e t i m e o f t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e new g o v e r n -ment. The H i n d u members p l a y e d a c r u c i a l p a r t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e S a r k a r m i n i s t r y . I n s p i t e o f t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p s o f t h e UF, i t w o u l d n o t have been p o s s i b l e f o r t h e KSP t o f o r m a government w i t h o u t t h e s o l i d s u p p o r t o f t h e m i n o r i t y b l o c o f 72 members. A s a r e w a r d , t h r e e m i n o r i t y members were accommodated i n t h e m i n i s t r y , two o f whom b e l o n g e d t o t h e C o n g r e s s , and t h e t h i r d t o t h e SCF. B.K. Das, l e a d e r o f t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y , was g i v e n c h a r g e o f t h e i m p o r t a n t F i n a n c e p o r t f o l i o . A l l t h e m i n o r i t y g r o u p s were unanimous i n t h e i r s u p p o r t o f t h e new government. The r e a s o n s f o r m i n o r i t y s u p p o r t have been a n a l y z e d by J.K. Ray. He m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e m i n o r i t i e s " r e f u s e d t o s i d e w i t h S uhrawardy, t h e a u t h o r o f t h e g h a s t l y C a l c u t t a r i o t s o f 1946, i n t h e AML-KSP t u s s l e . F u z l u l new UF g r o u p - 195 67 Huq, m o r e o v e r , a s s u r e d them t h a t he wou l d f i t h t f o r a s e c u l a r d e m o c r a t i c C o n s t i t u t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m , i n t h e new C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y w h i c h , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t , had t o be c o n v e n e d soon by t h e 25 G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l . " A f t e r t h e r e a l i g n m e n t o f f o r c e s , t h e s t r e n g t h o f 26 d i f f e r e n t p a r t i e s o f t h e UF was e s t i m a t e d as f o l l o w s : A p r i l 1954 A p r i l 1955. AML 132 104 AML ( s p l i n t e r group) 0 20 KSP 48 67 N e z a m - i - I s l a m 22 22 G a n a t a n t r i D a l 13 13 K h i l a f a t - i - R a b b a n i 1 1 H i n d u g r o u p s 72 72 The AML so o n r e a l i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e H i n d u s u p p o r t i n t h e e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . I n a b i d t o woo t h e H i n d u l e a d e r s t o s u p p o r t t h e AML, i t d r o p p e d t h e word 'Muslim' f r o m i t s n o m e n c l a t u r e and a d o p t e d t h e new name Awami Le a g u e (AL) a few months l a t e r . The AL l e a d e r s h i p was aware t h a t t h e H i n d u s had p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t w o r k i n g i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h a p a r t y h a v i n g communal n o m e n c l a t u r e and membership r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e M u s l i m s o n l y . The AL now opened i t s d o o r t o no n - M u s l i m s a s w e l l . However, i t w o u l d be u n f a i r t o s a y t h a t t h e A L was s o l e l y m o t i v a t e d by t h e d e s i r e t o woo t h e H i n d u s . The l e f t i s t e l e m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e p a r t y c h a i r m a n , M a u l a n a B h a s a n i , had l o n g b e e n t r y i n g t o make t h e AML a s e c u l a r p a r t y . 68 The s e c o n d C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y o f P a k i s t a n (CAP) was summoned t o meet on J u l y 7, 1955. The members o f t h e new CAP were e l e c t e d i n d i r e c t l y by t h e members o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l i e s . The p a r t y c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e CAP was as f o l l o w s : M u s l i m L e a g u e 26 U n i t e d F r o n t (KSP) 16 Awami League 13 C o n g r e s s 4 S c h e d u l e d C a s t e F e d e r a t i o n 3 U n i t e d P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y 2 O t h e r s . . 16 80 The new CAP had an e q u a l number o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m b o t h w i n g s o f P a k i s t a n . I t s c o m p o s i t i o n was d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h f i r s t CAP i n t h a t t h e M u s l i m League was no l o n g e r t h e m a j o r i t y p a r t y . W h i l e i t was t h e m a j o r i t y p a r t y i n West P a k i s t a n , i t h a d no f o o t i n g i n E a s t B e n g a l . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e E a s t B e n g a l p a r t i e s had no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e CAP f r o m West P a k i s t a n . T h i s s i t u a t i o n c o m p e l l e d t h e m a j o r p a r t i e s o f t h e two w i n g s t o compromise, and a compromise f o r m u l a was a g r e e d upon by t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e , AL, and KSP. The M u r r e e P a c t was s i g n e d when t h e s e c o n d CAP met f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e on J u l y 7, 2 8 19 55. The f i v e - p o i n t a g r e e m e n t was a s f o l l o w s : 1 . One u n i t i n West P a k i s t a n 2. F u l l r e g i o n a l autonomy f o r E a s t B e n g a l 3. P a r i t y i n a l l s p h e r e s 4. J o i n t e l e c t o r a t e 5. B e n g a l i and U r d u - two s t a t e l a n g u a g e s By s i g n i n g t h i s P a c t , t h e B e n g a l i s s u r r e n d e r e d t h e i r n u m e r i c a l m a j o r i t y and a l s o l i m i t e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f o r m a n t i -P u n j a b i c o a l i t i o n s w i t h p o l i t i c i a n s f r o m t h e s m a l l e r p r o v i n c e s o f West P a k i s t a n . On t h e o t h e r hand, West P a k i s t a n g a v e i n t o t h e E a s t P a k i s t a n i demands f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f B e n g a l i , f u l l p r o v i n c i a l autonomy, t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e , and p a r i t y i n p a r l i a m e n t a r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , c i v i l s e r v i c e r e c r u i t m e n t , and d e v e l o p m e n t a l r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n . M u s l i m League-UF Government a t t h e C e n t r e and t h e 19 56 C o n s t i t u t i o n A f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e P a c t , t h e q u e s t i o n a r o s e o f e l e c t i n g a new p r i m e m i n i s t e r o f P a k i s t a n . The M u s l i m League and t h e AL d e c i d e d t o f o r m a c o a l i t i o n g overnment, and as a p a r t o f t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e - A L a g r e e m e n t i t was u n d e r s t o o d t h a t 29 H.S. Suhrawardy w o u l d h e a d t h e new g o v ernment. However, F a z l u l Huq d e c i d e d t o b l o c k t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r s h i p o f h i s a r c h - r i v a l and made n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e a t t h e e l e v e n t h h o u r . ^ ^ A l t h o u g h b o t h F a z l u l Huq and H.S. Suhrawardy demanded f u l l r e g i o n a l autonomy, a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e , and t h e a d o p t i o n o f B e n g a l i as one o f t h e s t a t e l a n g u a g e s , F a z l u l Huq's b i d t o f o r m t h e m i n i s t r y seemed more a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e . Huq r e p r e s e n t e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e B e n g a l i members i n c l u d i n g t h e m i n o r i t i e s , and he d i d n o t demand t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r s h i p . As a r e s u l t , t h e M u s l i m League-UF c o a l i t i o n g o v e r n m e n t was i n s t a l l e d on A u g u s t 12, 19 55 w i t h C h o u d h u r y Mohammad A l i as t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r . The n i n e m i n o r i t y members o f E a s t B e n g a l i n t h e CAP p l a y e d 70 an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e r a p i d m i n i s t r y - m a k i n g drama t h a t was t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e c e n t r a l c a p i t a l . B.K. Das, l e a d e r o f t h e C o n g r e s s , d e s c r i b e d l a t e r i n t h e CAP how t h e y made i t p o s s i b l e t o b r i n g t h e c o a l i t i o n t o power. W i t h o u t t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e m i n o r i t i e s t h e AL arid KSP were e q u a l l y b a l a n c e d i n t h e CAP, so t h e i r s u p p o r t was v e r y c r u c i a l . The b a s i s o f t h e m i n o r i t i e s ' s u p p o r t was an u n d e r s t a n d i n g on t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e . " I t was," B.K. Das r e v e a l e d , "on t h e b a s i s o f an u n d e r t a k i n g g i v e n i n w r i t i n g t h a t we j o i n e d t h e U n i t e d F r o n t P a r t y and t h e u n d e r -t a k i n g was a b o u t p r o v i d i n g j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m i n t h e „31 C o n s t i t u t i o n . The m i n o r i t y members were i m m e d i a t e l y r e w a r d e d f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t w i t h m i n i s t e r i a l p o s i t i o n s . K.K. D u t t a (UPP) and A.K. Das (SCF) were i n c l u d e d i n t h e c e n t r a l c a b i n e t . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a l l o f t h e H i n d u p a r t i e s were accommodated i n t h e c e n t r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t s . The C o n g r e s s ha d a l r e a d y b e e n g i v e n c a b i n e t p o s t s i n E a s t B e n g a l , so t h e UPP was accommodated i n t h e c e n t r a l c a b i n e t . The SCF, b e i n g t h e l a r g e s t H i n d u g r o u p , was g i v e n m i n i s t e r i a l r e w a r d s b o t h a t t h e c e n t r e and i n E a s t B e n g a l . The f i r s t t h i n g t h e c o a l i t i o n g o v e r n m e n t d i d was t o p a s s t h e One U n i t B i l l i n t h e CAP i n September 1955. The CAP began d e l i b e r a t i o n s on t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n on J a n u a r y 9, 1956. W i t h t h e r e o p e n i n g o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e b a t e , t h e H i n d u members were a g a i n v o c a l i n a s s e r t i n g t h e i r demand. They c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s m a i n l y on t h r e e i s s u e s , n amely: t h e I s l a m i c n o m e n c l a t u r e o f t h e r e p u b l i c , t h e r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e h e a d o f t h e s t a t e f o r M u s l i m s , and t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e . 71 A l t h o u g h t h e H i n d u members were p a r t o f t h e c o a l i t i o n p a r t y , t h e y v e h e m e n t l y o p p o s e d t h e c l a u s e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d i s s u e s . The H i n d u members' o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e I s l a m i c n o m e n c l a t u r e o f t h e s t a t e stemmed f r o m t h e o b v i o u s r e a s o n t h a t i t meant a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n f o r n o n - M u s l i m s i n P a k i s t a n . D r . S.K. Sen (UPP), i n t h e c o u r s e o f d e b a t e , c o n c l u d e d : "Now, by g i v i n g t h i s name " I s l a m i c " , what do we f i n d — n o n - M u s l i m s , i f t h e y want t o s t a y h e r e , I am p a i n e d t o s a y b e c a u s e i t i s s h o c k i n g , t h e y must a c c e p t a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n . I t means t h a t i n an I s l a m i c s t a t e t h e y have t o embrace t h a t r e l i g i o n i f t h e y want t o r i s e t o f u l l s t a t u r e ; o t h e r w i s e t h e y w i l l h a v e t o l e a v e t h e c o u n t r y . You w i l l have 3 2 t o bow t o a p o s i t i o n o f i n f e r i o r i t y . " He a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h e H i n d u members' d i s s o c i a t i o n f r o m t h e c o a l i t i o n p a r t y m e e t i n g when t h e n o m e n c l a t u r e was d i s c u s s e d t h e r e . T h ey (Hindus) a r g u e d t h a t t h e I s l a m i c n o m e n c l a t u r e w o u l d h e l p c r e a t e m i s c h i e f 3 3 by t h e Ulema and o t h e r f a n a t i c e l e m e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t w o u l d r e s u l t i n a g r e a t e r exodus o f H i n d u s t o I n d i a . They n o t e d t h a t , when L i a q u a t A l i Khan was a l i v e , t h e r e was no p l a c e f o r s u c h n o m e n c l a t u r e o r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e h ead o f t h e s t a t e 1 i n t h e B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s Committee R e p o r t . The AL was a g a i n s t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f an I s l a m i c s t a t e , and o n a d i v i s i o n on t h i s c l a u s e t h e o p p o s i t i o n m a r s h a l l e d t h e h i g h e s t number o f v o t e s ( 2 2 o p p o s e d as a g a i n s t 4 7 i n f a v o u r ) . The H i n d u members, i n c l u d i n g t h e two c e n t r a l m i n i s t e r s and a p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r (who was a l s o a member o f t h e C A P ) , v o t e d 34 w i t h t h e o p p o s i t i o n . T h ey a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t r i c t p a r t y 72 d i s c i p l i n e should not be imposed at the time of framing the cons t i t u t i o n . The minority members vigorously opposed A r t i c l e 3 2 (2) which provided for a Muslim head of state. They put forward the same argument that the clause was derogatory to the rights guaranteed to the minorities i n the chapter on fundamental ri g h t s , and to the clauses which provided for equal opportuni-t i e s and equal rights for a l l c i t i z e n s of Pakistan. They also added that A r t i c l e 32 (2 ) relegated non-Muslims to the status of second-class c i t i z e n s . Hindu members, including the two central ministers, moved amendments to t h i s clause and on a 3 6 d i v i s i o n on t h i s clause, voted with the opposition. However, the minority members were not as c r i t i c a l about these two provisions as they were about the separate electorate system. Mahfuzul Huq noted: "But t h i s time, the Hindu repre-sentatives took a (more) moderate attitude towards the Islamic provisions than they had taken i n the f i r s t Assembly. This was mainly due to the fact that i n the second Assembly they were not i n the Opposition but rather an important component of the 37 r u l i n g c o a l i t i o n party." However, I cannot agree with Huq that the Hindus toned down the i r opposition to these Islamic provisions only because they were an important partner of the r u l i n g c o a l i t i o n . They were interested in getting a democratic consti t u t i o n which would tr e a t a l l c i t i z e n s equally, i r r e s p e c t i v e of r e l i g i o n . The d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n was discussed i n the meetings of the c o a l i t i o n party for about two months and a l l the provisions e x c e p t i n g t h r e e — t h e I s l a m i c n o m e n c l a t u r e o f t h e r e p u b l i c , t h e r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e o f f i c e o f t h e head o f s t a t e f o r M u s l i m s , 38 and t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e system--were u n a n i m o u s l y a d o p t e d . The H i n d u s , one m i g h t c o n c l u d e , were happy w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n . As f o r t h e n o m e n c l a t u r e i s s u e , t h e y knew t h a t g i v e n a d e m o c r a t i c c o n s t i t u t i o n w i t h - e q u a l r i g h t s f o r e v e r y c i t i z e n , t h e name o f t h e r e p u b l i c r e a l l y m a t t e r e d l i t t l e . A s A.K. D u t t a a d m i t t e d , "An i n t e l l i g e n t H i n d u . . . w i l l n o t be ' a f r a i d o f t h i s n o m e n c l a t u r e i n t h e l e a s t ; he w i l l u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n i t . He w i l l l o o k t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f and t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n w i l l show t h a t i t i s a d e m o c r a t i c 39 s t a t e o f h i g h s t a n d a r d . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o be a f r a i d o f . . . " F u r t h e r m o r e , i n a p a r l i a m e n t a r y d e m o c r a c y t h e head o f s t a t e i s a f i g u r e h e a d o n l y . The c o n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r a c a b i n e t f o r m o f government w i t h a p r i m e m i n i s t e r a s ' i t s h e a d . T h e r e was no d i s q u a l i f y i n g p r o v i s i o n f o r H i n d u s b e c o m i n g p r i m e m i n i s t e r . The f o l l o w i n g comments by K.K. D u t t a c o n f i r m s t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f H i n d u a t t i t u d e s . He o b s e r v e d , " I must a d m i t t h a t i n t h e body o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n t h e r e has been no d i s c r i - , m i n a t i o n i n t h e r i g h t s between a M u s l i m and a n o n - M u s l i m . The C o n s t i t u t i o n has b e e n q u i t e f a i r and p r o v i s i o n s have been made 40 g i v i n g e q u a l r i g h t s t o t h e M u s l i m s and n o n - M u s l i m s . " The F i g h t f o r a J o i n t E l e c t o r a t e 1 A l t h o u g h t h e H i n d u s seemed r e a d y t o compromise on t h e I s l a m i c n o m e n c l a t u r e o f t h e r e p u b l i c and t h e r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e o f f i c e o f t h e h e a d o f s t a t e f o r M u s l i m i s s u e s , t h e y were n o t r e a d y t o f o r g o t h e i r ' i r r e d u c i b l e minimum' demand f o r a j o i n t electorate. They had been opposed to separate electorates i n individed India, just as they had been opposed to the "two-nation" theory. To them, the acceptance of separate electorates meant the acceptance of the "two-nation" theory. After independence, they continued t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of the separate electorates system. The minority groups passed resolutions in favour of a j o i n t electorate i n t h e i r party meetings as early 41 as 19 48. The Hindu opposition to separate electorates i n the CAP can be traced back to early 1952 when the CAP amended the Government of India Act, 19 35 to provide separate electorates 42 for the scheduled castes. The Hindus also opposed the Government of India Act (Amendment: 5th and 6th schedule) B i l l , 1951 which sought to perpetuate separate electorates i n Sind. They demanded that the passage of the b i l l would not a f f e c t the e l e c t o r a l rules of East Bengal. The r u l i n g party gave them an assurance, i n that regard. ^ The clause pertaining to the e l e c t o r a l system was debated in the CAP on February 21, 1956, only nine days before the f i n a l adoption of the constitution. Both the AL and Hindu members opposed the government proposal. B.K. Das, S.K. Sen, Gour Chandra Bala, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, and Mahmud A l i moved 44 amendments seeking a j o i n t electorate. The arguments of the Hindu members were the same.as they were before. They main-tained that a separate electorates, system would relegate them to a position of eternal subordination, and they would be 45 dependent on the majority community for a "crumb of favour." The p r e v a i l i n g separate electorates system, instead of safe-g u a r d i n g m i n o r i t y i n t e r e s t s , w o u l d l e a v e them p e r m a n e n t l y v u l n e r a b l e . They w o u l d n o t be e f f e c t i v e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s o f t h e c o u n t r y , f o r M u s l i m l e a d e r s w o u l d n o t have t o be r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e H i n d u p o p u l a t i o n . The H i n d u l e a d e r s t h o u g h t t h a t i f a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e were a c c e p t e d , t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e M u s l i m l e a d e r s w o u l d be c h a n g e d . D.N. D u t t a showed t h e H i n d u l o g i c i n h i s s p e e c h on t h e e l e c t o r a t e i s s u e . He m a i n -t a i n e d , "We w i l l be a b l e t o e l e c t 72 members o u t o f 309 ( o f E a s t B e n g a l A s s e m b l y ) , w h i c h means, S i r , t h a t 237 members, who w i l l f o r m t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y , w i l l n o t be r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e H i n d u s . . . I am p r e p a r e d t o be r u l e d by M u s l i m s i f as a m a t t e r o f f a c t I h a v e g o t t h e r i g h t o f e l e c t i n g them t o t h e A s s e m b l y so t h a t t h e y w i l l be my.chosen r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s t h e y w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e t o u s , and we s h a l l f e e l , S i r , t h a t we have g o t a s h a r e i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e „46 c o u n t r y . They were a l s o o p p o s e d t o s e p a r a t e e l e c t o r a t e s b e c a u s e t h e y m i g h t a g g r a v a t e communal t e n s i o n and l e a d t o p e r i o d i c communal 47 r i o t s . One o f t h e b i g g e s t p r o b l e m s o f t h e m i n o r i t y community i n t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e was t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f communal p e a c e and s e c u r i t y . Thus t h e y a d v o c a t e d a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e i n t h e hope t h a t i t w o u l d c r e a t e a more c o n g e n i a l a t m o s p h e r e f o r t h e H i n d u s t o c o n t i n u e t o l i v e i n E a s t B e n g a l . T h ey were a l s o m o t i v a t e d by t h e hope t h a t a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m w o u l d l e a d t o t h e emergence o f s e c u l a r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n E a s t B e n g a l . They t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y w o u l d be a b l e t o p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h o s e p o l i t i c a l 76 p a r t i e s and t h u s be a b l e t o s a f e g u a r d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s more e f f e c t i v e l y . T h e i r b e l i e f was s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e emergence o f s e c u l a r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s l i k e t h e AL and G a n a t a n t r i D a l w h i c h p u r s u e d non-communal p o l i c i e s . However, i t was o b v i o u s t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e w o u l d r e d u c e t h e number o f m i n o r i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n b o t h l e g i s l a t u r e s . I t seems t h a t t h e y were f u l l y aware o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l l o s s , b u t t h e y were h o p e f u l o f f u t u r e g a i n s . As p o i n t e d o u t by P r o f e s s o r Raj Kumar C h a k r a v e r t y as e a r l y as 1952, d u r i n g t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y d e b a t e s : " S i r , we know t h a t i f t h e s y s t e m o f j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e i s a c c e p t e d , none o f us s i t t i n g on t h i s s i d e o f t h e House has a c h a n c e o f b e i n g r e t u r n e d t o t h e l e g i s l a t u r e b u t , S i r , we a r e p r e p a r e d f o r t h a t c o n t i n g e n c y . We know t h a t r i s k . We a r e r e a d y t o go i n t o p o l i t i c a l o b l i v i o n . We a r e r e a d y to~ e f f a c e o u r s e l v e s , b u t we a r e s u r e and we a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e s y s t e m o f j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e w i l l h e l p t h e b u i l d i n g up o f a s t r o n g and u n i t e d c o u n t r y b a s e d on p e a c e , g o o d w i l l and c o n t e n t m e n t o f a l l s e c t i o n s o f t h e i ..4 8 p e o p l e . " As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e - U n i t e d F r o n t g o v e rnment a t t h e c e n t r e was f o r m e d on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e w o u l d be p r o v i d e d i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n . A t t h e t i m e o f a c t u a l c o n s t i t u t i o n - m a k i n g , West P a k i s t a n M u s l i m League l e a d e r s p r e s s e d f o r s e p a r a t e e l e c t o r a t e s . As a r e s u l t , t h e r u l i n g c o a l i t i o n c o u l d n o t come t o , a c o n s e n s u s a b o u t t h e e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m and t h e i s s u e - w a s s h e l v e d u n t i l t h e l a s t moment. The m i n o r i t y members were h o p e f u l t h a t t h e y w o u l d be a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e c o a l i t i o n p a r t y , so t h e y d i d not q u i t t h e c o a l i t i o n g o v e r n m e n t when p r o v i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e n o m e n c l a t u r e and M u s l i m head o f s t a t e were p a s s e d . They e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e i r c o a l i t i o n p a r t n e r s w o u l d r e s p e c t t h e e a r l i e r a g r e e m e n t on a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e . S i n c e t h e UF g o v e r n -ment i n E a s t B e n g a l was h e a v i l y d e p e n d e n t on m i n o r i t y s u p p o r t , t h e r u l i n g c o a l i t i o n a t t h e c e n t r e had t o d e v i s e a compromise f o r m u l a i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n m i n o r i t y s u p p o r t . The r e s u l t i n g compromise was A r t i c l e 145 o f t h e C o n s t i t u -t i o n w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h a t p a r l i a m e n t , a f t e r a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e \ v i e w s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l i e s , w o u l d p a s s an A c t o n t h e e l e c t o r a t e i s s u e . However, H i n d u members demanded t h a t t h e i s s u e s h o u l d be s e t t l e d i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A s s e m b l y b e c a u s e i t was an i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r t o them. I f t h e r e were a c l e a r p r o v i s i o n i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , i t c o u l d n o t be amended e a s i l y , so t h e y o p p o s e d t h e i d e a o f p o s t p o n i n g t h e i s s u e f o r p a r l i a m e n t 49 t o d e c i d e . When A r t i c l e 145 was p u t t o a v o t e , a l l o f t h e H i n d u members, e x c e p t i n g t h e two c e n t r a l m i n i s t e r s , v o t e d w i t h 4-1, . . . 5 0 t h e o p p o s i t i o n . The d e c i s i o n t o p o s t p o n e t h e e l e c t o r a t e i s s u e was n o n e t h e -l e s s a v i c t o r y on t h e p a r t o f t h e m i n o r i t i e s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t was d e f i n i t e l y one s t e p ahead o f t h e BPC R e p o r t o f 1952. The BPC R e p o r t had c l e a r l y recommended s e p a r a t e e l e c t o r a t e s f o r P a k i s t a n . M o r e o v e r , i t was a l m o s t c e r t a i n t h a t t h e E a s t B e n g a l A s s e m b l y w o u l d recommend a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e , b e c a u s e b o t h t h e AL arid KSP were c o m m i t t e d t o i t . The H i n d u members were g i v e n a d e f i n i t e a s s u r a n c e i n t h a t r e s p e c t . As B.K. Das l a t e r 78 d i s c l o s e d , "My e s t e e m e d f r i e n d s Mr. Abu H o s s a i n S a r k a r and Mr. H a s h i m u d d i n r a n g me f r o m h e r e ( D a c c a ) . . . They a l l s a i d , " W e l l , do n o t t r y t o have t h e m a t t e r d e c i d e d i n t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . B r i n g i t down t o t h e P r o v i n c e and we s h a l l g i v e y o u J o i n t E l e c t o r a t e . " N o t o n l y t h a t , a l o n g w i t h Mr. S a r k a r , my e s t e e m e d f r i e n d s M e s s r s . A s h r a f u d d i n C h o u d h u r y and Abdus Salam 51 went t o K a r a c h i , r e q u e s t e d me t o a g r e e t o t h e s a i d p r o p o s a l . " I n s p i t e o f t h e i r u n s u c c e s s f u l b i d t o g e t a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e , t h e H i n d u members were s u c c e s s f u l i n h a v i n g two amendments added t o t h e d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n . One p r o p o s e d by K.K. D u t t a d e a l t w i t h t h e r i g h t o f t h e r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i t i e s t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The s e c o n d , moved by R asa Raj M a n d a l , s o u g h t g u a r a n t e e s t h a t t h e S t a t e w o u l d s a f e g u a r d t h e l e g i t i m a t e r i g h t s and i n t e r e s t s o f m i n o r i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r due r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e 52 f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s e r v i c e s . B e i n g f r u s t r a t e d a t n o t g e t t i n g t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e H i n d u g r o u p s w i t h d r e w t h e i r s u p p o r t f r o m t h e U F - M u s l i m League c o a l i t i o n 53 g o v e r n m e n t a t t h e c e n t r e and i n E a s t B e n g a l . However, t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f t h e i r s u p p o r t d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l r u l i n g c o a l i t i o n b e c a u s e i t had a m a j o r i t y w i t h -o u t t h e H i n d u members. The H i n d u members ( e x c e p t f o r K.K. D u t t a a n d A.K. Das) a l o n g w i t h t h e AL and t h e G a n a t a n t r i D a l members w a l k e d o u t o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y on t h e day o f t h e 54 a d o p t i o n o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . T h ey t e r m e d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n 55 "an u n f o r t u n a t e p i e c e o f document." However, K.K. D u t t a 79 a p p e a l e d t o t h e m i n o r i t i e s t o j u d g e t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f i t s w o r k i n g . He a s k e d them t o work hand i n hand w i t h t h e M u s l i m s , b e c a u s e n o n - c o o p e r a t i o n w o u l d be s u i c i d a l f o r them. A f t e r t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e p o l i t i c a l s c e n e began t o c hange v e r y r a p i d l y . I n E a s t B e n g a l (now named E a s t P a k i s t a n a f t e r t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n ) , t h e S a r k a r m i n i s t r y was i n a s h a k y p o s i t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e w i t h -57 d r a w a l o f t h e H i n d u g r o u p s and t h e G a n a t a n t r i D a l . I t no l o n g e r commanded t h e m a j o r i t y s u p p o r t i n t h e E a s t P a k i s t a n A s s e m b l y , so i t was a f r a i d t o f a c e t h e A s s e m b l y . " D u r i n g t h e w h o l e 15 months o f i t s power," G.W. C h oudhury n o t e d , " i t 5 8 showed l i t t l e r e s p e c t t o p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r a c t i c e s . " Abu H o s s a i n S a r k a r was t r y i n g h a r d t o b r i n g b a c k t h e m i n o r i t y members i n o r d e r t h a t h i s c o a l i t i o n g o v ernment m i g h t s u r v i v e . He l u r e d them w i t h m i n i s t e r i a l p o s i t i o n s and a m b a s s a d o r i a l 59 a p p o i n t m e n t s . He was s u c c e s s f u l i n w i n n i n g a s e c t i o n o f t h e UPP l e d by P r a v a s h C h a n d r a L a h i r y . L a h i r y was g i v e n t h e p o r t -f o l i o o f f i n a n c e i n t h e S a r k a r m i n i s t r y . H i s a c c e p t a n c e o f a m i n i s t e r i a l p o s i t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a s p l i t i n t h e UPP. J . Sen G u p t a m a i n t a i n s t h a t L a h i r y c o u l d n o t r e s i s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n o f 6 C b e c o m i n g a m i n i s t e r , s u p e r s e d i n g h i s p a r t y l e a d e r D.N. D u t t a . However, L a h i r y e x p l a i n e d t h a t he and h i s o t h e r f r i e n d s c o u l d n o t a l i g n w i t h t h e AL, b e c a u s e t h e AL was l e d by Suhrawardy, " t h e f a t h e r o f t h e C a l c u t t a r i o t s . " I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y b e t t e r p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n , t h e H i n d u g r o u p s weakened i n t h e i r s o l i d a r i t y . The d e c r e a s e o f H i n d u u n i t y 80 stemmed f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were no l o n g e r i n t i m i d a t e d by t h e M u s l i m s , b u t were t r e a t e d w i t h more r e s p e c t . When t h e H i n d u g r o u p s w i t h d r e w t h e i r s u p p o r t f r o m t h e U F - M u s l i m League c o a l i t i o n , t h e y a s k e d t h e m i n i s t e r s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p a r t i e s t o r e s i g n . B u t K.K. D u t t a , A.K. Das, and Madhusudan S a r k a r d e f i e d t h e d e c i s i o n s o f t h e i r p a r t i e s . A s a r e s u l t , t h e y were e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e i r p a r t i e s . D u r i n g t h e s u b s e q u e n t m i n i s t r y -m a k i n g drama, some H i n d u members showed an o p p o r t u n i s t i c t e n d e n c y by d i s r e s p e c t i n g t h e i r p a r t y d e c i s i o n s and by a l i g n i n g w i t h one M u s l i m p a r t y o r a n o t h e r . S i n c e t h e S a r k a r m i n i s t r y l o s t t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e m i n o r i t i e s , t h e AL was m a k i n g e v e r y e f f o r t t o a l i g n w i t h them and come t o power i n E a s t P a k i s t a n . The AL l e a d e r s were o f t e n s e e n d r i v i n g t o t h e C o n g r e s s o f f i c e a t S u t r a p u r i n D a c c a . They were a l s o n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h t h e D.N. D u t t a g r o u p o f t h e UPP. The AL and t h e C o n g r e s s came t o a n a g r e e m e n t o n t h e b a s i s o f a f i v e - p o i n t programme. The a g r e e m e n t i n c l u d e d a f i r m commitment by t h e AL t o f i g h t f o r a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e and ( i n t h e e v e n t o f i t s coming t o power a t t h e c e n t r e ) t o amend t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n t o make i t s e c u l a r and d e m o c r a t i c . The AL a l s o gave an a s s u r a n c e t h a t a 23 p e r c e n t 6 2 q u o t a o f s e r v i c e s f o r t h e m i n o r i t i e s w o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d . As a r e s u l t o f t h e A L - C o n g r e s s a l i g n m e n t , t h e S a r k a r m i n i s t r y l o s t i t s m a j o r i t y . The A s s e m b l y was summoned t o meet o n A u g u s t 13, 19 56. I t was p r o r o g u e d o n l y f o u r h o u r s b e f o r e i t s m e e t i n g when t h e i n c u m b e n t m i n i s t r y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i t was g o i n g t o be d e f e a t e d i n a v o t e o f no c o n f i d e n c e . The S a r k a r m i n i s t r y f i n a l l y r e s i g n e d on A u g u s t 30, 1956. On' September 6, t h e 81 A L - C o n g r e s s c o a l i t i o n g o v ernment came t o power w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e UPP ( D u t t a g r o u p ) , t h e SCF, and t h e G a n a t a n t r i D a l . The c a b i n e t , h e a d e d by A t a u r Rahman Khan, had f o u r H i n d u members. The new c o a l i t i o n government, o u t o f n e c e s s i t y , had n o t o n l y t o a c c e d e t o t h e H i n d u s more t h a n t h e i r due s h a r e o f t h e c a b i n e t , b u t h a d t o make im m e d i a t e p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m . I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f power, t h e A t a u r m i n i s t r y p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l y t h a t a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e be p r o v i d e d f o r e l e c t i o n t o 6 3 t h e n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l i e s . The r e s o l u t i o n was p a s s e d by a v o t e o f 159 f o r , a n d 1 a g a i n s t . T h i s was a g r e a t v i c t o r y o f t h e m i n o r i t y p a r t i e s . I n t h e meantime, t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n West P a k i s t a n was a l s o r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g . A new p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , t h e R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y , was f o r m e d w h i c h i n c l u d e d a s e c t i o n o f t h e s i t t i n g M u s l i m League l e g i s l a t o r s . The R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y a l i g n e d w i t h t h e AL, and an A L - R e p u b l i c a n c o a l i t i o n g overnment h e a d e d by H.S. Suhrawardy came t o power a t t h e c e n t r e w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e m i n o r i t i e s on September 12, 19 56. R asa Raj M a n d a l , a S c h e d u l e d C a s t e member, was i n c l u d e d i n t h e c a b i n e t . When t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y met i n D a c c a , Suhrawardy i n t r o d u c e d t h e E l e c t o r a t e B i l l , 1956, on O c t o b e r 10. The E l e c t o r a t e B i l l p r o v i d e d f o r a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e f o r E a s t P a k i s t a n and s e p a r a t e e l e c t o r a t e s f o r West P a k i s t a n . I t was a compromise f o r m u l a t o s u i t t h e m a j o r p a r t i e s o f t h e c o a l i t i o n g o v e r n m e n t . The M u s l i m League and t h e KSP o p p o s e d t h e B i l l . 82 64 The B i l l was p a s s e d by 48 t o 19 v o t e s . The B i l l was p a s s e d i n a h u r r y , and t h e s e s s i o n o f t h e A s s e m b l y c o n t i n u e d f r o m e i g h t i n t h e m o r n i n g t o t h e s m a l l h o u r s o f t h e n e x t m o r n i n g . S u h r a -wardy wanted t o g e t t h e B i l l p a s s e d b e f o r e h i s s c h e d u l e d d e p a r t u r e f o r C h i n a on O c t o b e r 15. The h a s t e i n w h i c h t h e B i l l was p a s s e d r e v e a l s t h e u r g e n t d e s i r e o f t h e c o a l i t i o n g o v ernment t o f u l f i l l t h e demands o f t h e H i n d u s and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e H i n d u g r o u p s . E v e n t u a l l y , t h e E l e c t o r a t e B i l l was f u r t h e r amended by t h e E l e c t o r a t e (Amendment) B i l l , 19 57, t o p r o v i d e 65 f o r a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e i n b o t h w i n g s o f P a k i s t a n . Thus t h e m i n o r i t i e s won t h e i r b a t t l e f o r a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e t e n y e a r s a f t e r t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f P a k i s t a n . P o l i t i c a l C h a o s , U n s t a b l e M i n i s t r i e s , and t h e H i n d u s Once t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n was a d o p t e d , t h e p o l i t i c a l k a l e i d o s c o p e o f P a k i s t a n , and o f E a s t P a k i s t a n i n p a r t i c u l a r , was t a k i n g r a p i d t u r n s a l m o s t e v e r y d a y . T h e r e were t h r e e g o v e r n m e n t s a t t h e c e n t r e and t h r e e ( i n c l u d i n g one l a s t i n g o n l y 24 h o u r s ) i n E a s t P a k i s t a n d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1956-1958. The d i f f e r e n t M u s l i m p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s were v y i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r f o r power, and m a j o r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s l i k e t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e , AL, and t h e KSP u n d e r w e n t s p l i t s . T h a n k s t o t h e e x t r e m e l y c h a o t i c s t a t e o f t h e M u s l i m p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , t h e H i n d u s were o f t e n a b l e t o g e t t h e i r demands met. I n J u l y 1957, t h e AL u n d e r w e n t a s p l i t o v e r t h e i s s u e s o f f u l l r e g i o n a l autonomy f o r E a s t P a k i s t a n and f o r e i g n p o l i c y . The d i s s e n t i n g l e f t i s t s , ^ t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p a r t y c h a i r m a n , M a u l a n a B h a s a n i , f o r m e d t h e N a t i o n a l Awami P a r t y (NAP). The 83 f o r m a t i o n o f t h e NAP had s e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e A L - c o a l i t i o n g o v ernment i n E a s t P a k i s t a n . The NAP commanded t h e s u p p o r t o f 25 members i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l y who p r e v i o u s l y were s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e c o a l i t i o n p a r t y . The A t a u r m i n i s t r y was t h u s i n a v e r y s h a k y p o s i t i o n . The AL t r i e d i n v a i n t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e NAP by b r i n g i n g a s e c t i o n o f t h e KSP ( A z i z u l Huq group) i n t h e c o a l i t i o n g o v e r n -6 6 ment. As a r e s u l t , t h e dependence o f t h e m i n i s t r y on t h e H i n d u members was i n c r e a s e d more t h a n e v e r . As n o t e d by G.W. C h o u d h u r y : "The m i n i s t r y i s now a t t h e c o m p l e t e mercy o f t h e H i n d u members, even t h o u g h t h e y r e p r e s e n t o n l y 12 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . The e x p l o i t e d M u s l i m p e a s a n t s o f E a s t P a k i s t a n s u p p o r t e d t h e movement f o r P a k i s t a n i n t h e hope t h a t d o m i n a t i o n by t h e H i n d u m i n o r i t y w o u l d come t o an end, b u t t o d a y p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y i n E a s t P a k i s t a n h a s g i v e n t h e H i n d u members undue 6 7 p r e d o m i n a n c e i n t h e P r o v i n c e ' s a f f a i r s . " A t t h e c e n t r e , t h e R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y w i t h d r e w i t s s u p p o r t f r o m t h e c o a l i t i o n g o v e r n m e n t i n O c t o b e r 19 57, b e c a u s e o f S u h r a w a r d y 1 s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e R e p u b l i c a n demand t o d i s m a n t l e 6 8 one u n i t i n West P a k i s t a n . A new c o a l i t i o n was f o r m e d by t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e , t h e R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y and a s e c t i o n o f t h e KSP ( H a m i d u l Huq g r o u p ) . The H i n d u g r o u p s were n o t p a r t o f t h i s new c o a l i t i o n g o v ernment. The c o a l i t i o n g o v ernment was headed by I . I ; C h u n d r i g a r o f t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e . The M u s l i m League had a l w a y s b e e n o p p o s e d t o a j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e b e c a u s e , t o them, t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e meant t h e n e g a t i o n o f t h e " t w o - n a t i o n " t h e o r y and t h e i d e o l o g y o f P a k i s t a n . The 84 o n l y c o n d i t i o n o f t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e - R e p u b l i c a n a l l i a n c e was 69 t h a t t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m w o u l d be r e p e a l e d . C h u n d r i g a r d e c l a r e d on t h e day o f h i s a s s u m p t i o n o f power t h a t , " t h e R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y has i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e y w o u l d s u p p o r t t h e i m m e d i a t e s u b s t i t u t i o n 70 o f s e p a r a t e e l e c t o r a t e s f o r j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e s . " . However, t h e M u s l i m League and t h e R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y were a r c h e n emies and t h e i r u n e a s y a l l i a n c e e n d ed i n l e s s t h a n two months when t h e l a t t e r c h a n g e d i t s p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g t h e e l e c t o r a t e a g a i n . The R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y f i n a l l y came t o a d e c i s i o n n o t t o r e - o p e n t h e e l e c t o r a t e i s s u e . T h i s l e d t o t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f C h u n d r i g a r on December 11, 1957. On December 16, 1957, t h e R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y f o r m e d a n o t h e r government w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e AL and H i n d u members. They (AL-Hindus) d e c i d e d t o s u p p o r t t h e g o v e r n -ment w i t h o u t a c c e p t i n g any c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n s . The o n l y c o n d i t i o n o f t h e i r s u p p o r t was t h a t t h e c o a l i t i o n g overnment w o u l d s t i c k t o t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m and a r r a n g e an e a r l y 71 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n i n t h e c o u n t r y . The H i n d u s were e a g e r t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r v i c t o r y on t h e e l e c t o r a t e i s s u e , e v e n i f i t meant s a c r i f i c i n g m i n i s t e r i a l p o s i t i o n s . The new c a i n b e t had two H i n d u members b u t n e i t h e r o f them r e p r e s e n t e d any m i n o r i t y p a r t y . A f t e r t h e i r e x p u l s i o n f r o m t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p a r t i e s , K.K. D u t t a was now a member o f t h e R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y , and A.K. Das was an i n d e p e n d e n t s c h e d u l e d c a s t e member. By t h e end o f 1957, E a s t P a k i s t a n was f a c i n g a g r a v e e c o n o m i c c r i s i s . S m u g g l i n g a c r o s s t h e b o r d e r t o I n d i a t o o k an a l a r m i n g t u r n , c a u s i n g a s h o r t a g e o f e s s e n t i a l f o o d g r a i n s and 85 o t h e r c o m m o d i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , t h e v a l u e o f P a k i s t a n c u r r e n c y d r o p p e d . I n December 1957, t h e A t a u r M i n i s t r y o f E a s t P a k i s t a n , w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e m i l i t a r y , l a u n c h e d " O p e r a t i o n C l o s e D o o r " (OCD) t o p r e v e n t s m u g g l i n g a c r o s s t h e I n d o - P a k i s t a n b o r d e r . Some H i n d u b u s i n e s s m e n were s e c r e t l y e ngaged i n s m u g g l i n g and were b e i n g c h a s e d by t h e army. I n f a c t , t h e H i n d u s were t h e h a r d e s t h i t by t h e o p e r a t i o n , a n d t h e H i n d u members o f t h e EBLA p r o t e s t e d t h e g e n e r a l h a r a s s m e n t o f t h e i r community. C h i t t a R a n j a n S u t a r (a s c h e d u l e d c a s t e member) o f t h e NAP moved an a d j o u r n m e n t m o t i o n t o d i s c u s s OCD on M a r c h 13, 1958. H i s m o t i o n was s u p p o r t e d by t h e H i n d u members and t h e NAP members. B u t A t a u r d i s m i s s e d t h e c r i t i c s o f t h e OCD and a l l e g e d t h a t "Mr. S u t a r h a s d i s g r a c e d o u r Army 72 and by d i s g r a c i n g o u r Army he has d i s g r a c e d P a k i s t a n . " A t a u r ' s s t a n d o n t h e OCD s p e l l e d t h e doom o f h i s m i n i s t r y . The d i s m i s s a l o f t h e a d j o u r n m e n t m o t i o n c r e a t e d s e r i o u s r e p e r c u s s i o n s i n t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y . A s e c t i o n o f t h e C o n g r e s s l e a d e r s u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f B.K. Das, gave t h e i r u l t i m a t u m t o A t a u r Rahman Khan t o w i t h d r a w t h e army i m m e d i a t e l y . O t h e r w i s e t h e y w o u l d w i t h d r a w t h e i r s u p p o r t f r o m t h e c o a l i t i o n m i n i s t r y . When A t a u r f a i l e d t o a c t a c c o r d i n g l y , t h e y w i t h d r e w t h e i r 73 s u p p o r t . A l t h o u g h t h e H i n d u s f a i l e d t o c ompel A t a u r t o w i t h -draw t h e army, t h e y were s u c c e s s f u l i n p r e s s u r i z i n g t h e Noon g o v e r n m e n t a t t h e c e n t r e t o w i t h d r a w t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f S m u g g l i n g ( S p e c i a l Powers) O r d i n a n c e i n e a r l y 1958. "Thus t h e edge o f t h e a n t i - s m u g g l i n g o p e r a t i o n s , " n o t e d T a l u k d e r M a n i r u z z a m a n , " was b l u n t e d t o s a t i s f y t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e m i n o r i t y • _. .,74 community. "• 86 A f t e r t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f t h e m i n o r i t y s u p p o r t , t h e A t a u r m i n i s t r y on M a r c h 22, 1958, was a t t h e p o i n t o f c o l l a p s e '. b e c a u s e o f a d i v i s i o n o n a g o v e r n m e n t m o t i o n . However, i t s c o l l a p s e was a v o i d e d when t h e NAP d e c i d e d to, a b s t a i n from 75 v o t i n g . On M a r c h 31, 1958, G o v e r n o r F a z l u l Huq d i s m i s s e d t h e A t a u r m i n i s t r y and i n s t a l l e d a new c a b i n e t ( w i t h Abu H o s s a i n S a r k a r as t h e c h i e f m i n i s t e r ) on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e A t a u r m i n i s t r y had l o s t m a j o r i t y s u p p o r t . However, t h e AL w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t , managed t o o u s t t h e g o v e r n o r and t h e new c a b i n e t w i t h i n 24 h o u r s . The s i n k i n g A t a u r m i n i s t r y f i n a l l y s u f f e r e d a v o t e o f n o - c o n f i d e n c e on J u n e 18, 1958 when more m i n o r i t y members d e f e c t e d and t h e NAP d e c i d e d t o w i t h d r a w i t s s u p p o r t . A g a i n Abu H o s s a i n S a r k a r f o r m e d a c a b i n e t w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e L a h i r y g r o u p and t h e UPP and a s e c t i o n o f t h e SCF on J u n e 20. F i n a l l y , S a r k a r c o n f r o n t e d a v o t e o f n o n - c o n f i d e n c e and l o s t t h e m i n i s t r y on J u n e 25. The p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l y was s u s p e n d e d on J u n e 25. However, t h e AL p r e s s u r i z i n g t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n -ment managed t o come b a c k t o power on A u g u s t 25, 1958. B u t t h e p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s o f t h e c o u n t r y was t a k i n g d r a m a t i c t u r n s e v e r y day. I n t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e , no c l e a r m a j o r i t y c o u l d be f o r m e d among any o f t h e c o n t e s t i n g g r o u p s and t h e d e p u t y s p e a k e r o f t h e E a s t P a k i s t a n A s s e m b l y was s e r i o u s l y i n j u r e d when a f i g h t b r o k e o u t between t h e g o vernment and o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s on September 23. The d e p u t y s p e a k e r l a t e r d i e d i n h o s p i t a l . A f t e r f i f t e e n d a y s o f t h i s c h a o t i c e p i s o d e , m a r t i a l l a w was p r o c l a i m e d i n t h e whole c o u n t r y . The i m p o s i -t i o n o f m a r t i a l law on O c t o b e r 8, 1958 marked t h e c o l l a p s e o f 87 p a r l i a m e n t a r y d e m o cracy i n P a k i s t a n . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1954 t o 1958, t h e H i n d u m i n o r i t y a c h i e v e d a s i g n i f i c a n t a d v a n c e t o w a r d s e c u r i n g i t s i n t e r e s t s \ The s i t u a t i o n was c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e i n i t i a l y e a r s o f P a k i s t a n , when t h e H i n d u s c o u l d n o t p l a y an e f f e c t i v e r o l e i n t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e c o u n t r y . They were n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g a t o t a l l y s e c u l a r c o n s t i t u t i o n , b u t t h e y d e f i n i t e l y e x e r t e d i n f l u e n c e i n m a k i n g t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n more l i b e r a l -d e m o c r a t i c , t h e r e b y s a f e g u a r d i n g t h e m i n o r i t y i n t e r e s t s . T h e i r g r e a t e s t s u c c e s s was t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n . From 1955 t o 1958 t h e y s h a r e d power w i t h t h e M u s l i m s b o t h a t t h e c e n t r e and i n E a s t P a k i s t a n , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e two-month C h u n d r i g a r m i n i s t r y i n 1957. They r e c e i v e d m i n i s t e r i a l r e w a r d s d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o t h e i r s i z e . The S a r k a r m i n i s t r y had t h r e e H i n d u members. The A t a u r m i n i s t r y had f o u r H i n d u r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n a c a b i n e t o f t e n . T h ey were a l s o s u c c e s s f u l i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e 23 p e r c e n t s e r v i c e q u o t a f o r t h e H i n d u s . M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , H i n d u c o l l a -b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e c o a l i t i o n , g o v ernments r e s u l t e d i n a s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y among o r d i n a r y H i n d u s . T h e y s h e d t h e i r f e a r , and t h e i r m i g r a t i o n t o I n d i a d r o p p e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . T h u s , t h i s p e r i o d h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d by H i n d u l e a d e r s a s t h e t i m e when t h e H i n d u m i n o r i t y l i v e d m ost h a p p i l y i n E a s t P a k i s t a n . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e H i n d u s were more c o m p r o m i s i n g t h a n b e f o r e . When t h e y were c o a l i t i o n p a r t n e r s , t h e y d i d n o t i n s i s t on amending t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n t o d r o p t h e I s l a m i c n o m e n c l a t u r e o f t h e r e p u b l i c o r t h e d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f non-88 M u s l i m s t o t h e o f f i c e o f t h e head o f s t a t e . I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t t h e y s t a r t e d p l a y i n g an e f f e c t i v e r o l e o n l y when t h e M u s l i m p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s o f t h e UF l o s t c o h e s i o n i n 1955. The n e a r l y b a l a n c e d s t r e n g t h o f t h e two M u s l i m p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s made i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e H i n d u s t o p l a y a c r u c i a l r o l e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e i r s u p p o r t c o u l d now d e t e r m i n e t h e r i s e and f a l l o f m i n i s t r i e s . 89 NOTES - C h a p t e r I I I Rounaq J a h a n u s e s t h e t e r m " v e r n a c u l a r e l i t e " t o d e n o t e t h e . e x c l u d e d s e c t i o n o f t h e M u s l i m League who were m o b i l i z i n g s t r e n g t h w i t h t h e d e c r e a s e i n p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e M u s l i m L e a g u e . F o r an a c c o u n t o f t h e r i s e o f t h e Awami L e a g u e , s e e Rounaq J a h a n , P a k i s t a n : F a i l u r e i n  N a t i o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n (Dacca: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973), pp.38-49; and a l s o A b u l Mansur Ahmad, R a j n i t i r  P a n c h a s a B a c h a r a , pp.310-343. Ahmad was a t o p l e a d e r o f t h e A L and a t r u s t e d f r i e n d o f Suhrawardy. B a d r u d d i n Umar, S a n s k r i t i k S a m p r a d a y i k a t a (Communalism i n C u l t u r e ) ( D a c c a : J a n a m a i t r i P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1966), pp.8-11. T a l u k d e r M a n i r u z z a m a n , " R a d i c a l P o l i t i c s and t h e Emergence o f B a n g l a d e s h " i n P a u l R. B r a s s and M a r c u s F. F r a n d a , e d s . , R a d i c a l P o l i t i c s i n S o u t h A s i a ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: MIT P r e s s , 1973), p.228. I b i d . , p.229. See n e x t c h a p t e r , s e c t i o n on t h e l e f t i s t movement. M a n i r u z z a m a n , o p . c i t . , pp.228-231. L a h i r y , P a k - B h a r a t e r Rup Rekha, pp.363-379. K e i t h C a l l a r d , P a k i s t a n (New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n Company, 1957), p.248. J a h a n , o p . c i t . , p.45; and Ahmad, o p . c i t . , pp.333-335. T h e s e f i g u r e s a r e t a k e n f r o m Ahmad o p . c i t . , p.333, and L a h i r y o p . c i t . , p.379. However, t h e r e a r e some m i n o r v a r i a t i o n s on t h e s e f i g u r e s i n C a l l a r d , o p . c i t . , p.59; and M a h f u z u l Huq, E l e c t o r a l P r o b l e m s i n P a k i s t a n ( D a c c a : A s i a t i c S o c i e t y o f P a k i s t a n , 1966), p.81. W h i l e C a l l a r d u s e s t h e K a r a c h i n e w s p a p e r s f o r h i s d a t a , Huq does n o t m e n t i o n h i s s o u r c e . S i n c e b o t h Ahmad and L a h i r y were i m p o r t a n t l e a d e r s o f t h e a s s e m b l y , I c o n s i d e r t h e i r f i g u r e s more a c c u r a t e . R i c h a r d L . P a r k and R i c h a r d S. W h e e l e r , " E a s t B e n g a l Under G o v e r n o r ' s R u l e " , F a r E a s t e r n S u r v e y , 2 3 ( 9 ) , September 1954, pp. |<3-f . J.K. Ray, Democracy and N a t i o n a l i s m on T r i a l , pp.105-106 S t a n l e y Maron, ''The P r o b l e m o f E a s t P a k i s t a n " , P a c i f i c  A f f a i r s , 28 ( 2 ) , J u n e 1955, p.138. F o r a f u l l a c c o u n t o f t h i s p e r i o d , s e e Ahmad, o p . c i t . , 90 pp.322-562; Park and Wheeler, o p . c i t . ; R i c h a r d L. Park, "East Bengal: P a k i s t a n ' s T r o u b l e d P r o v i n c e " , Far E a s t e r n  Survey, 23 (5), May 1954, pp.70-74; S t a n l e y Maron, "A New Phase i n P a k i s t a n P o l i t i c s " , Far E a s t e r n Survey, 24 (11), November 19 55; R i c h a r d S. Wheeler, "Governor-General's Rule i n P a k i s t a n " , Far E a s t e r n Survey, 24 (1), January 1955; and G.W. Choudhury, "The E a s t P a k i s t a n P o l i t i c a l Scene, 1955-1957," ••''. P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , 30 (4), December 1957, pp.312-320. 14. However, t h i s disagreement d i d not b r i n g about any s p l i t i n the UF a t t h a t moment because F a z l u l Huq was the most popular l e a d e r of the UF. I t was a l r e a d y decided b e f o r e the e l e c t i o n t h a t he would become the c h i e f m i n i s t e r of the p r o v i n c e , w h i l e Suhrawardy would go to the c e n t r e . A f t e r the e l e c t o r a l v i c t o r y , a s e c t i o n o f the AML demanded the c h i e f m i n i s t e r s h i p i n r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t t h a t the AML was the l a r g e s t p a r t y i n the c o a l i t i o n . Suhrawardy, who was more eager to capture power at the c e n t r e , d i d not want to d i s p l e a s e F a z l u l Huq. So he d i s m i s s e d the AML's c l a i m to the c h i e f m i n i s t e r s h i p . Ahmad, o p . c i t . , pp.335-337. 15. A r t i c l e 92A of the Government of I n d i a A c t , 19 35 empowered the c e n t r a l government to d i s m i s s a p r o v i n c i a l government on grounds of emergency. circumstances. 16. Ray, o p . c i t . , pp.98-103; a l s o Ahmad, o p . c i t . , pp.338-340. 17. Maron, "The Problem of E a s t P a k i s t a n " , p.138. 18. K.B. Sayeed, P a k i s t a n : The Formative Phase (Karachi: P a k i s t a n P u b l i s h i n g House, 1960), p.420. 19. Maron, o p . c i t . , p.162. 20. R i c h a r d S. W h e e l e r , " G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l ' s R u l e i n P a k i s t a n " , p. 4. 21. Ahmad, o p . c i t . , pp.347-348. r 22. I b i d . , p.355. 23. I b i d . 24. T a m i z u d d i n Khan, a B e n g a l i and t h e s p e a k e r o f t h e CAP u n t i l i t s d i s s o l u t i o n i n O c t o b e r 1954, a p p e a l e d t o t h e S i n d H i g h C o u r t a g a i n s t t h e u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t o f t h e G o v e r n o r -G e n e r a l . The S i n d C o u r t u p h e l d h i s v i e w s . So t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l a p p e a l e d t o t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t whose d e c i s i o n went i n f a v o u r o f t h e l e g a l i t y o f t h e G o v e r n o r -G e n e r a l ' s power t o d i s s o l v e a C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . However, t h e c o u r t a l s o d e c l a r e d t h a t he had t o convene a new C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . 91 25. Ray, op.cit., p.112; also B.K. Das, CAP, Debates, Vol . 1 (1oTT P-470, September 5, 1955. 26. Ahmad, op.cit., p.357. 27. Keith C a l l a r d , o p . c i t . , p.64. The "Others" category consisted of the Firoz. Khan Noon group (3 members), Fazlur Rahman (Independent Muslim League), Dr. Khan Saheb, Mian Iftikharuddin (Azad Pakistan Party), F a z l u l Karim (Communist), three Muslim associates (Gibbon, Abdul Bari, S. Kirpaldas), and six state and t r i b a l leaders. 28. Ahmad, op.cit . , pp.366-367. 29. Ibid., pp.368-384. 30. Maron, "A New Phase i n Pakistan P o l i t i c s " , p.163; Ahmad, op.cit., pp.373-386. 31. National Assembly of Pakistan (hereafter NAP), Debates, Vol.2 ( 3 ) , p.199, October 10, 1956. 32. CAP, Debates, Vol.1' ( 7 6 ) , p.3369, February 1, 1956. 33. Ibid.. Vol.1 ( 8 0 ) , pp.3367-3697, February 29, 1956, speech of S.K. Sen, B.K. Dutta, B.K. Das, Rasa Raj Mandal. 34. Ibid., Vol.1 ( 7 6 ) , p.3411, February 21, 1956., 35. Ibid., Vol.1 ( 6 3 ) , p.2406, February 3, 1956, speech by B.K. Das. 36. Ibid., Vol.1 ( 7 6 ) , pp.3415-3430, February 21, 1956, speech of Gour Chandra Bala, Rasa Raj Mandal, B.K. Das, K.K. Dutta and B.K. Dutta. 37. Huq, op. c i t . , p.86. 38. CAP, Debates, Vol.1 ( 8 0 ) , p.3712, February 29, 1956. 39. Ibid., Vol. 1 ( 7 6 ) , p.3406, February 21, 1956. 40. Ibid., p.3411. 4 1 • Ibid., Vol.11 ( 3 ) , pp.49-50, speech of B.K. Dutta, A p r i l 10, 1952; and Huq, op.cit., pp.66-67. 42 See Chapter II, pp. 39-40. 43. CAP, Debates, Vol.9 ( 2 ) , p.33, A p r i l 11, 1951. 44. Ibid., Vol.1 ( 7 6 ) , pp.3434-3466, February 21, 1956. 92 45. I b i d . , V o l . 9 ( 4 ) , p.65, A p r i l 15, 1952. 46. I b i d . , p.75. 47. I b i d . , V o l . 1 ( 7 6 ) , p.3455, s p e e c h o f Rasa Raj M a n d a l , F e b r u a r y 21, 1956. 48. I b i d . , V o l . 1 1 ( 4 ) , p.71, A p r i l 15, 1956; a l s o s p e e c h o f S.K. Sen, V o l . 1 ( 7 6 ) , p.3450, F e b r u a r y 21, 1956. 49. I b i d . r s p e e c h o f B.K. Das, p.3447. 50. I b i d . , p.3468.. 51. E a s t P a k i s t a n A s s e m b l y , P r o c e e d i n g s , V o l . 1 5 ( 3 ) , p.208, O c t o b e r 1, 1956. 52. CAP, D e b a t e s , V o l . I ( 6 5 ) , p.2543, F e b r u a r y 6, 1956 and V o l . 1 ( 7 5 ) , p.3269, F e b r u a r y 20, 1956. 53. I b i d . , V o l . 1 ( 8 0 ) , pp.3672-3673, s p e e c h o f B.K. Das, F e b r u a r y 29, 1956; Huq, o p . c i t . , pp.112-113; L a h i r y , op. c i t . , pp.414-415. 54. I b i d . , p.3680. 55. I b i d . , p.3700, s p e e c h o f S.K. Sen. 56. I b i d . , pp.3709-3710. 57. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f E a s t P a k i s t a n p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n a t t h a t t i m e , s e e C h o u d h u r y , "The E a s t P a k i s t a n P o l i t i c a l S c e ne, 1955-1957", pp.312-320. 58. I b i d . , pp.315-320. 59. Ray, o p . c i t . , pp.12 3-124. 60. J . Sen G u p t a , E c l i p s e o f E a s t P a k i s t a n , p.251. 61. L a h i r y , o p . c i t . , pp.418-443. 62. Sen G u p t a , o p . c i t . , pp.251-252. 63. E a s t P a k i s t a n A s s e m b l y , P r o c e e d i n g s , V o l . 1 5 ( 3 ) , pp.156-228. 64. NAP, D e b a t e s , V o l . 2 (4) pp. 321-322, O c t o b e r 11, 1956. 65. I b i d . , V o l . 2 ( 1 2 ) , pp.839-875, A p r i l 22, 1957. 66. Ahmad, o p . c i t . , pp.520-525; Ray, o p . c i t . , p.133; C h o u d h u r y , o p . c i t . , pp.318-320. 93 67. - C h o u d h u r y , o p . c i t . , p.320. 68. Ray, o p . c i t . , pp.137-138;"Ahmad, o p . c i t . , pp.525-535. 69. Huq, o p . c i t . , p.140. 70. Dawn ( K a r a c h i ) , O c t o b e r 19, 1957, c i t e d i n Huq, o p . c i t . , p.140. ~~ 71. Huq, o p . c i t . , pp.144-145; Ahmad, o p . c i t . , p.543. 72. E a s t P a k i s t a n A s s e m b l y , P r o c e e d i n g s , V o l . 1 8 ( 2 ) , p . 5 1 f M a r c h 17, 1958. * 73. Khan, o p . c i t . , pp.306-308. 74. T a l u k d e r M a n i r u z z a m a n , The P o l i t i c s o f D e v e l o p m e n t ( D a c c a : G r e e n Book House L t d . , 1971), p.112. 75. Ray, o p . c i t . , p.145. 76. P.C. L a h i r y , I n d i a P a r t i t i o n e d and M i n o r i t i e s i n P a k i s t a n ( C a l c u t t a : W r i t e r s ' Forum, 1964), pp.33-34. 94 CHAPTER IV RETREAT AND REGROUPING: THE THIRD PHASE OF MINORITY POLITICS, 1958-1971 The coup d ' e t a t i n O c t o b e r 1958 by G e n e r a l Ayub Khan marked t h e c o l l a p s e o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y d e m o c r a c y and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new p e r i o d i n P a k i s t a n p o l i t i c s e n t i r e l y i d i f f e r e n t f r o m any p r e c e d i n g one. The i m p o s i t i o n o f m a r t i a l l a w was a c c o m p a n i e d by a t o t a l s u s p e n s i o n o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i -t i e s f o r a b o u t f o u r y e a r s . A l l t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s were banned, t h e n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l i e s were d i s s o l v e d , and t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n was a b r o g a t e d . The c e n t r a l and p r o v i n -c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s were d i s m i s s e d , and t h e r u l e o f t h e m i l i t a r y was e s t a b l i s h e d . Freedom o f t h e p r e s s and a s s o c i a t i o n were t a k e n away f r o m t h e p e o p l e , and heavy c e n s o r s h i p was imposed on t h e p r e s s . T e n s o f t h o u s a n d s o f p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s and w o r k e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n E a s t P a k i s t a n , were t h r o w n i n t o j a i l . P r o m i n e n t B e n g a l i p o l i t i c i a n s , i n c l u d i n g M a u l a n a B h a s a n i , H.S. Suhrawardy, and S h e i k h M u j i b u r Rahman were a r r e s t e d . Of a l l r e g i m e s i n P a k i s t a n , i t was Ayub's m a r t i a l l a w r e g i m e 2 w h i c h was most r e s e n t e d by t h e m i n o r i t y community. D u r i n g t h e Ayub r e g i m e , t h e H i n d u s , a l o n g w i t h t h e B e n g a l i M u s l i m s , were on t h e r e t r e a t , and were a l m o s t w i p e d o u t p o l i t i c a l l y . L a t e r , t h e y r e g r o u p e d w i t h t h e B e n g a l i n a t i o n a l i s t s i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e common enemy, t h e P a k i s t a n c e n t r a l r u l i n g e l i t e . 95 The M a r t i a l Law Regime arid t h e H i n d u s I n o r d e r t o l e g i t i m i z e i t s s e i z u r e o f power, t h e new r e g i m e blamed t h e p o l i t i c i a n s f o r b r i n g i n g P a k i s t a n t o t h e b r i n k o f d i s a s t e r . C h a r g e s o f c o r r u p t i o n and m i s c o n d u c t were l e v e l l e d by t h e r e g i m e a g a i n s t f o r m e r m i n i s t e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s . I n E a s t P a k i s t a n , t h e Awami L e a g u e , KSP, and NAP p a r t y members and H i n d u p o l i t i c i a n s were t h e p r i m a r y t a r g e t s o f t h e r e g i m e . M u s l i m L e a g u e r s were n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e r e g i m e ' s r e p r i s a l s , and t h i s c r e a t e d s u s p i c i o n among t h e m i n o r i t i e s t h a t t h e m i l i t a r y g overnment was p r o - M u s l i m League and a n t i - H i n d u . A l o n g w i t h B e n g a l i p o l i t i c a l M u s l i m l e a d e r s , p r o m i n e n t H i n d u l e a d e r s i n c l u d i n g M a n o r a n j a n D h a r , G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y o f t h e P a k i s t a n N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s u n t i l i t was banned, were a r r e s t e d . The m a r t i a l law r e g i m e i n i t s a t t e m p t t o p u t f u r t h e r c u r b s on p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , i s s u e d t h e E l e c t i v e B o d i e s ( D i s -3 q u a l i f i c a t i o n ) O r d e r (EBDO), 1959. The O r d e r was u s e d n o t o n l y a g a i n s t s o - c a l l e d c o r r u p t p o l i t i c i a n s , b u t a g a i n s t p o p u l a r l e a d e r s who were a p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t t o t h e r e g i m e . The t e r m " m i s c o n d u c t " d e f i n e d by t h e . o r d e r was wide enough i n i t s s c o p e 4 t o i n c l u d e s u b v e r s i v e a c t i v i t i e s , j o b b e r y , a n d c o r r u p t i o n . S i x p r o m i n e n t H i n d u l e a d e r s were d i s q u a l i f i e d f r o m p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n u n d e r EBDO. They were: S u r e s h C h a n d r a Das Gu p t a , f o r m e r p r e s i d e n t o f P a k i s t a n N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s and ex-MLA; B a s a n t a Kumar Das, f o r m e r l e a d e r o f t h e C o n g r e s s a s s e m b l y p a r t y and e x - m i n i s t e r o f c e n t r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s ; D.N. D u t t a , ex-MCA and p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r ; P r a v a s h C h a n d r a L a h i r y , f o r m e r p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r ; T r a i l a k y a N a t h C h a k r a v o r t y , ex-MLA; and Bejoy Chandra Roy, ex-MLA."' The EBDO t r i a l s were often f a r c i c a l and the tribunals constituted for the purpose often did not even examine any witnesses. The charges against Hindu p o l i t i c i a n s invariably included subversive a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r alleged association with anti-Pakistani organizations 7 and elements. At the i n i t i a l stage of martial law rule those Hindu leaders who were not put i n prison c e l l s were subjected to considerable harassment. The houses of prominent Hindu leaders were often watched and surrounded by i n t e l l i g e n c e people, thus r e s t r i c t i n g t h e i r movement. This had a very negative e f f e c t on ordinary Hindus, as they were now separated from th e i r leaders. The Hindus had. always looked to th e i r leaders to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r grievances i n and out of parliament. Now that t h e i r leaders were l i v i n g i n i s o l a t i o n , the morale of 8 common Hindus deteriorated. Moreover, i n order to enhance i t s public image, the regime launched a fresh attack on smuggling across the border. Under martial law, the seizure of goods i n a period of one month amounted to nearly the t o t a l of goods 9 seized i n the preceding eleven years. We have seen i n the preceding chapter how Hindus were affected by anti-smuggling measures under the Operation Close Door. The anti-smuggling operations were carried out by the army, and the Pakistan army being predominantly a West Pakistani i n s t i t u t i o n , had a n t i -India and anti-Hindu overtones. Thus, the new anti-smuggling operations h i t Hindus the hardest. The economic opportunities of the minorities were squeezed greatly during the Ayub regime. They were discriminated against i n the matter of granting import-export licences. The exi s t i n g Hindu enterprises also faced d i f f i c u l t y 1 0 when the question of renewal of government sanction arose. Some Hindu concerns, including the Chitta Ranjan Cotton M i l l s , were taken over by the government for alleged mismanagement which " i f allowed to continue would r e s u l t i n a loss of produc-11 t i o n of ess e n t i a l commodities." The p o l i c i e s of the regime caused a fresh wave of migration to India. However, migration 1 2 was extremely d i f f i c u l t because the border was t i g h t l y sealed. During the rule of Ayub Khan, the Hindu community suffered from a lack of e f f e c t i v e leadership because t h e i r leaders were not available to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r demands and grievances. Four d e f i n i t e patterns i n the Hindu leadership are found during t h i s period. One group of Hindu leaders, including Manoranjan Dhar, D.N. Dutta, and Phani Mazumdar, served terms i n prison at d i f f e r e n t times. The EBDO and the absence of any hope of future p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n during the Ayub regime led a second group to leave the country i n despair. Among prominent leaders, B.K. Dutta and P.C. Lahiry l e f t the country af t e r the imposition of martial law. Sris Chandra Chattapadhyaya, former leader of the Congress party i n the f i r s t CAP, had already been l i v i n g i n India. Not only p o l i t i c i a n s , but some highly placed Hindu o f f i c i a l s (including a High Court j u s t i c e and a CSP o f f i c e r ) l e f t the country and set t l e d down i n West 1 3 Bengal a f t e r the imposition of martial law. A t h i r d group, in the absence of any c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and parliamentary p o l i t i c s , 98 k e p t t h e i r d i s t a n c e f r o m a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n any p o l i t i c s . T h i s g r o u p i n c l u d e d l a w y e r s , d o c t o r s , and t e a c h e r s . The 14 H i n d u l e a d e r s h i p i n E a s t B e n g a l was r e l a t i v e l y o l d . The f o u r t h g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f t h e o l d e r l e a d e r s , most o f whom g r a d u a l l y r e t i r e d and t h e n d i e d . T h i s g r o u p i n c l u d e d s u c h p r o m i n e n t l e a d e r s a s S u r e s h C h a n d r a Das G u p t a , K.K. D u t t a , 1 5 H a r a n Ghosh Choudhury and K h i t i s h C h a n d r a B i s w a s . The B a s i c Democracy System P r e s i d e n t Aybu's m a r t i a l law r e g i m e l a c k e d l e g i t i m a c y . I n h i s a t t e m p t t o c r e a t e l e g i t i m a c y f o r t h e r e g i m e and t o b e g i n i n s t i t u t i o n - b u i l d i n g a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , Ayub i n t r o d u c e d a new s y s t e m o f l o c a l g o v ernment i n O c t o b e r 1959 known as t h e 1 6 B a s i c D e m o c r a c i e s . Under t h e new s y s t e m , 8,126 u n i o n c o u n c i l s were c r e a t e d , e a c h r e p r e s e n t i n g an a v e r a g e p o p u l a t i o n o f 10,000. E a c h u n i o n c o u n c i l c o n s i s t e d o f an a v e r a g e o f t e n members, c a l l e d B a s i c D e m o c r a t s , e l e c t e d d i r e c t l y by u n i v e r s a l a d u l t f r a n c h i s e , e a c h r e p r e s e n t i n g r o u g h l y a p o p u l a t i o n o f one 1 7 t h o u s a n d . The B a s i c D e m o c r a c i e s were e n t r u s t e d w i t h m u l t i p l e f u n c t i o n s : a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , d e v e l o p m e n t a l , l o c a l s e l f g o v e r n m e n t , 18 and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . T h e i r most i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n a f t e r Ayub p r o m u l g a t e d a c o n s t i t u t i o n i n 1962, was t o s e r v e a s t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e f o r t h e e l e c t i o n o f t h e p r e s i d e n t and t h e n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l i e s . U n i v e r s a l a d u l t f r a n c h i s e was r e p l a c e d by t h e e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e c o n s i s t i n g o f 80,000 B a s i c D e m o c r a t s , 40,000 f r o m e a c h w i n g . H i n d u r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e B a s i c D e m o c r a c i e s was m i n i m a l . I n t h e f i r s t B a s i c D e m o c r a c i e s e l e c t i o n i n 1959, only 4,965 Hindus were e l e c t e d J During the rule o f Ayub the system of Basic Democracies was further strengthened i n an attempt to create a permanent base of p o l i t i c a l support for the regime. The regime needed the support of the Basic Democrats to get i t s p r e s i d e n t i a l and assembly candidates elected. The regime injected m i l l i o n s of rupees into the r u r a l areas i n the name of the "Works Programme". This works programme was 20 supported by American a i d under the P L 480 programme. The Basic Democrats were entrusted with the implementation of the works programme, and the expenditures were never audited by government agencies. As a r e s u l t , they were provided with the opportunity to make fortunes just by appropriating a substantial portion of the works programme money. Thus, during the Ayub rul e , the Basic Democrats emerged as a "nouveau riche" class i n 21 the r u r a l areas. As noted by Rehman Sobhan, "...the Basic Democracies system (had) by 1964 become the monopoly of a 22 c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e socio-economxc c l a s s . " The growth of t h i s new Muslim kulak class i n the r u r a l areas was buttressed by the regime's decision to increase the maximum size of land-holdings from 100 to 350 standard bighas (125 acres) i n 1961. By t h i s time, i n the absence of Hindu landlords, the r i s i n g Muslim surplus peasants and jotedars had already consolidated t h e i r positions. The Basic Domocracies system resulted in the concentration of economic and p o l i t i c a l power in the same hands 23 i n the r u r a l areas. This fact i s substantiated i f we look at the socio-economic backgrounds of the Basic Democrats. They came from the top ten to f i f t e e n per cent of the r u r a l popula-100 t i o n , a n d t h e m a j o r i t y o f them were b e l o w f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s o f 24 age. When P r e s i d e n t Ayub f o r m e d h i s p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , t h e C o n v e n t i o n M u s l i m L e a g u e , i n 19 63, t h e y became i t s p r i m a r y 25 members. The A n t i - A y u b D e m o c r a t i c Movement By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 19 62 s t u d e n t u n r e s t a g a i n s t t h e m a r t i a l law r e g i m e began t o i n c r e a s e . S t u d e n t s o f D a c c a U n i v e r s i t y and o f o t h e r c i t i e s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e s t r e e t s f o r 2 6 t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f d e m o cracy and f o r t h e end o f m a r t i a l law. P r e s i d e n t Ayub t r i e d t o d i s m i s s t h e s t u d e n t s ' d e m o n s t r a t i o n s by a l l e g i n g t h a t communists f r o m C a l c u t t a and A g a r t a l a were 27 r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e E a s t P a k i s t a n u n r e s t . I n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h m a r t i a l law made Ayub p r o m u l g a t e a c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r P a k i s t a n on M a r c h 1, 1962. I t came i n t o e f f e c t on J u n e 8 o f t h e same y e a r w i t h t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f m a r t i a l law a f t e r f o r t y - f o u r months. The Ayub C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 19 62 p r o v i d e d f o r a p r e s i d e n t i a l f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t , w i t h g r e a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power i n t h e hands o f t h e p r e s i d e n t . I t a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l i e s w i t h l i m i t e d a u t h o r i t y . T h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n , l i k e i t s p r e d e c e s s o r , r e s e r v e d t h e o f f i c e o f 2 8 t h e h e a d o f t h e s t a t e o n l y f o r M u s l i m s . The p r e s i d e n t and t h e members o f t h e n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l i e s were t o be e l e c t e d by t h e B a s i c D e m o c r a t s . Ayub r u l e d a n o t h e r s e v e n y e a r s " t i l l t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e r e g i m e i n t h e 1968-1969 mass u p s u r g e . T h i s p e r i o d has b e en d e s c r i b e d a s t h e p e r i o d o f ' c o n s t i t u t i o n a l 29 a u t o c r a c y ' by a p r o m i n e n t s t u d e n t o f P a k i s t a n p o l i t i c s . A f t e r l i f t i n g m a r t i a l law a number o f p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s 101 including some Hindus who had been held since 1958 were freed. Dacca and other c i t i e s witnessed fresh p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s by the old parliamentary p o l i t i c i a n s . On June 25, 19 62, nine leading Bengali leaders of the defunct AL, the KSP, and the Muslim League made a statement demanding the framing of a new constitu t i o n based on parliamentary democracy and 31 universal adult franchise. This famous statement by the nine leaders was followed by province-wide agit a t i o n for the restoration of f u l l democracy and the subsequent formulation of the National Democratic Front (NDF) comprising the major p o l i t i c a l groups i n East Pakistan under the leadership of 32 Suhrawardy. The s t r i k i n g feature i s that no Hindu leaders were included among the nine leaders nor were they associated with the formation of the NDF» The Hindu absence from the p o l i t i c a l scene can be explained by the fact that the com-munity had suffered the loss of many of i t s prominent leaders either by death or by migration. The remaining Hindu leaders might have thought i t wise to wait and not enter into the bad books of the i r already h o s t i l e r u l e r s . Moreover, a l l the prominent Hindu p o l i t i c i a n s were based i n d i s t r i c t towns out-side of Dacca, so they were not re a d i l y available for any j o i n t e f f o r t taking place i n Dacca. The diminishing r o l e of the Hindus during the Ayub regime can be discerned by the 1962 and 1965 national and p r o v i n c i a l assemblies e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s . In both national assemblies the Hindu representation was n i l , and i n both p r o v i n c i a l assemblies there were only 102 f o u r n o n - M u s l i m members, i n c l u d i n g one B u d d h i s t , i n e a c h 33 a s s e m b l y . Ayub e n v i s a g e d a p a r t y l e s s p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m when he i n t r o d u c e d h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n , and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s r e m a i n e d banned e v e n a f t e r t h e 19 62 e l e c t i o n t o t h e n a t i o n a l and p r o -v i n c i a l a s s e m b l i e s . However, t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e a s s e m b l i e s made i t n e c e s s a r y f o r him t o c r e a t e p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e r e g i m e . Out o f t h i s n e c e s s i t y t h e r e g i m e p a s s e d t h e P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s B i l l , 19 62 w h i c h p r o v i d e d f o r t h e r e v i v a l o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s u n d e r s e v e r e r e s t r a i n t s . EBDOed p o l i t i c i a n s were d e b a r r e d f r o m j o i n i n g o r f o r m i n g a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . S i m i l a r l y , t h e v ban on t h e Communist P a r t y was n o t l i f t e d . The f o r m a t i o n o f any p o l i t i c a l p a r t y w o r k i n g a g a i n s t t h e " i n t e g r i t y " o r 34 " s e c u r i t y " o f P a k i s t a n was a l s o p r o h i b i t e d . Ayub r e c e i v e d t h e s u p p o r t o f a s e c t i o n o f t h e o l d M u s l i m League w h i c h he 35 r e v i v e d , and s u b s e q u e n t l y became i t s p r e s i d e n t . In E a s t P a k i s t a n an a t t e m p t was made by o p p o s i t i o n g r o u p s n o t t o r e v i v e t h e f o r m e r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and t o s t r u g g l e f o r t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f f u l l d e m o c r a c y u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e NDF A f t e r the death o f Suhrawardy i n December 1963, t h e NDF was hope-l e s s l y d i v i d e d and by t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r o f 19 64, a l l o f t h e m a j o r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n E a s t P a k i s t a n had r e - e m e r g e d . None o f t h e H i n d u p a r t i e s , however, was r e v i v e d a f t e r t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f t h e ban on p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s p r o b a b l y t h a t e x c e p t f o r M a n o r a n j a n Dhar, a l l o t h e r i m p o r t a n t H i n d u l e a d e r s were e i t h e r EBDOed, m i g r a t e d t o I n d i a , 103 o r d e a d . M o r e o v e r , t h e y t h o u g h t t h a t i n t h e e x i s t i n g c o n t e x t , when e a s t - w e s t h o s t i l i t y had i n t e n s i f i e d , i t was p o s s i b l e t o work w i t h s e c u l a r B e n g a l i p a r t i e s l i k e t h e Awami L e a g u e , NAP, and NDF. . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e H i n d u l e a d e r s h i p who had f e w e r e m o t i o n a l t i e s w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement o f t h e I n d i a n N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s o f t h e p r e - i n d e p e n d e n c e e r a . A l t h o u g h t h e H i n d u s d i d n o t r e v i v e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , t h e y d i d n o t r e m a i n t o t a l l y i n a c t i v e . I n l a t e 1963, a d o z e n H i n d u l e a d e r s met a t t h e r e s i d e n c e o f D.N. D u t t a a t C o m i l l a and h e l d c l o s e d d o o r d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t t h e f u t u r e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n o f t h e community. I t was r e s o l v e d i n t h i s m e e t i n g t h a t a g e n e r a l c o n f e r e n c e o f t h e m i n o r i t y w o u l d be h e l d i n D a c c a i n J a n u a r y 19 64. D.N. D u t t a was e l e c t e d c h a i r m a n o f t h e p r o p o s e d c o n f e r e n c e , w h i l e a r e c e p t i o n c o m m i t t e e w i t h T r a i l a k y a N a t h C h a k r a v o r t y a s c h a i r m a n was f o r m e d . However, t h i s c o n f e r e n c e c o u l d n o t be h e l d owing t o t h e o u t b r e a k o f communal v i o l e n c e i n D a c c a and o t h e r p l a c e s i n J a n u a r y o f t h a t y e a r . L a t e r , i n J u n e , a 22-member H i n d u d e l e g a t i o n u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f D.N. D u t t a met t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n o r and s u b m i t t e d a memo-randum. The memorandum v o i c e d t h e g r i e v a n c e s o f t h e m i n o r i t y community i n c l u d i n g t h e l a c k o f s e c u r i t y , meagre r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e a s s e m b l i e s and i n t h e s u p e r i o r c i v i l s e r v i c e s , and t h e 3 6 a b s e n c e o f a s e c u l a r c o n s t i t u t i o n . I n e a r l y J a n u a r y 19 64 communal v i o l e n c e b r o k e o u t i n D a c c a , K h u l n a , and some o t h e r p l a c e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o v e r t h e i s s u e o f t h e m i s s i n g s a c r e d h a i r o f P r o p h e t Muhammad, k e p t i n 104 the Hazratbal mosque i n the Indian part of Kashmir. The 1964 r i o t was the most serious instance of communal s t r i f e since 1950. However, the difference between the 1950 and 1964 r i o t s i s that the attitude of Bengali Muslims was t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t t h i s time. The r i o t s broke out t h i s time at the i n s t i g a t i o n of some of the leaders of Ayub's Convention Muslim League, and mainly participated i n by non-Bengali Muslims. The c a s u a l i t i e s were not great because most Bengali Muslims a c t i v e l y r e s i s t e d communal i n s t i g a t i o n . Leading p o l i t i c a l leaders including Maulana Bhasani, Sheikh Mujib, and Ataur Rahman Khan made pub-37 lxc appeals for communal peace. Dacca University student leaders condemned the r i o t i n g incidents and alleged that they were instigated by interested elements i n an attempt to dive r t 3 8 people from the anti-Ayub democratic movement. The leading newspapers of Dacca also launched a n t i - r i o t s propaganda, and seven editors of the popular Dacca newspapers i n j o i n t state-39 ments made repeated appeals for communal peace. An a l l - p a r t y committee representing d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , student organizations, and trade unions was formed. The committee made a statement e n t i t l e d "East Bengal Stands Against Communal 40 Riots." Thousands of copies of t h i s statement were d i s t r i b u t e d , and the committee brought out peace processions i n d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s i n East Pakistan. As a r e s u l t , the communal violence came to a halt immediately. It has been observed that the fate of the Hindu minority was often determined by Indo-Pakistani r e l a t i o n s . If the rel a t i o n s between the two countries deteriorated, the Hindu 105 41 m i n o r i t y w o u l d a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y s u f f e r . When t h e I n d o -P a k i s t a n i war b r o k e o u t o v e r K a s h m i r i n September 1 9 6 5 , i m p o r t a n t l e a d e r s o f t h e H i n d u community i n c l u d i n g T r a i l a k y a N a t h C h a k r a v o r t y and P h a n i Mazumdar were a r r e s t e d . Most o f them were n o t r e l e a s e d b e f o r e t h e m i d d l e o f 1966 , t h o u g h t h e h o s t i l i t y b e t w e e n t h e b e l l i g e r e n t s c e a s e d a f t e r t h e 17-day war. The 1964 r i o t and t h e 1965 war c a u s e d a n o t h e r wave o f H i n d u m i g r a t i o n t o I n d i a . I n t h e s e two y e a r s t h e number o f r e f u g e e s r e g i s t e r e d i n West B e n g a l was f a r g r e a t e r t h a n a l l t h o s e o f t h e p r e c e d i n g s e v e n y e a r s . ^ The L e f t i s t Movement and t h e H i n d u s The communist movement i n u n d i v i d e d B e n g a l had b een d o m i n a t e d by H i n d u s , t h o u g h i n i t i a l l y t h e Communist P a r t y was f o u n d e d i n 1920 by t h r e e M u s l i m communists, M u z a f f a r Ahmad, 44 Abdur R a z z a k , and A b d u l Hamim. The l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e 45 Communist P a r t y was l a r g e l y drawn f r o m t h e B e n g a l i b h a d r a l o k • When B e n g a l was p a r t i t i o n e d , more t h a n 1 0 , 0 0 0 communists 46 d e c i d e d t o s t a y on i n P a k i s t a n . The Communist P a r t y was s u b j e c t e d t o i n t e n s i v e r e p r e s s i o n by t h e P a k i s t a n government when i t a d o p t e d t h e Zhdanov l i n e a d v o c a t i n g a b l o o d y s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n i n S o u t h A s i a i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e . The p a r t y a t t e m p t e d t o foment p e a s a n t r e v o l t i n some p a r t s o f E a s t P a k i s t a n , b u t was i m m e d i a t e l y s u p p r e s s e d by t h e G o v e r n -ment. As a r e s u l t , a l a r g e number o f t h e p a r t y members were e i t h e r i m p r i s o n e d o r went u n d e r g r o u n d . The Communist P a r t y s u f f e r e d a g r e a t l o s s a f t e r t h e 1950 r i o t s , when t w o - t h i r d s o f 47 i t s members m i g r a t e d t o I n d i a . E v e n a f t e r t h i s m i g r a t i o n , t h 106 v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e m a i n i n g E a s t P a k i s t a n Communist P a r t y 48 (EPCP) members were H i n d u s . The EPCP was o u t l a w e d i n 1954. A f t e r t h a t , t h e p a r t y worked b o t h u n d e r g r o u n d and t h r o u g h open p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s l i k e t h e Awami L e a g u e , t h e G a n a t a n t r i D a l , and l a t e r t h e 49 N a t i o n a l Awami P a r t y when i t was f o r m e d i n 1957. A f t e r t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f m a r t i a l law, p r o m i n e n t communist l e a d e r s were e i t h e r a r r e s t e d o r went u n d e r g r o u n d w i t h w a r r a n t s o f a r r e s t h a n g i n g o v e r t h e i r h e a d s . L a l a S h a r a d i n d u De, Amal Sen, S a n t o s h B a n e r j e e , N a n i B h a t t a c h e r j e e , D h i r e n Das, Manmath De, R a t a n Sen, Amulya L a h i r y , V i s n u B h a t t a c h e r j e e and A j o y Roy s p e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y e l e v e n y e a r s i n p r i s o n e a c h and were o n l y r e l e a s e d i n 1969 when t h e a n t i - A y u b mass u p s u r g e f o r c e d him t o r e l e a s e a l l p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s . More communist l e a d e r s were thrown b e h i n d p r i s o n b a r s w i t h t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e 1965 war. Ranesh Das G u p t a , P u r n e n d u D a s t i d a r , J i t e n Ghosh, M a n i K r i s h n a Sen, R a b i N y o g i , Nagendra N a t h S a r k a r , S a t y e n Sen, Ranesh M a i t r a , J o y t i s h B o s e , and S h a n t i Sen were d e t a i n e d as s e c u r i t y 50 p r i s o n e r s and were r e l e a s e d i n 1969. W h i l e t h e above-men-t i o n e d l e a d e r s were i m p r i s o n e d , Mani S i n g h , Sukhendu D a s t i d a r , Sudhanashu '.Bimal, D u t t a , A n i l M u k h e r j e e , N a l i n i Das, Gyan C h a k r a v o r t y , Amar Sen, S u d h i n Roy, B a r i n D u t t a , and Khoka Roy e s c a p e d a r r e s t , went u n d e r g r o u n d , and c a r r i e d on p a r t y a c t i v i t i e s . The EPCP, u n t i l i t s s p l i t i n t o pro-Moscow and p r o - P e k i n g 51 g r o u p s i n 19 66, was l e d by Mani S i n g h . He was t h e s e c r e t a r y -g e n e r a l o f t h e EPCP f r o m 1951 u n t i l h i s a r r e s t i n l a t e 1967. 107 When t h e EPCP underwent a s p l i t a l o n g t h e same l i n e s as t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l communist movement, Mani S i n g h and most o f t h e s e n i o r H i n d u communists f o r m e d t h e pro-Moscow g r o u p . A l s o among t h e c a d r e s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e H i n d u s s i d e d w i t h t h e pro-Moscow g r o u p o f Mani S i n g h . The breakaway p r o - P e k i n g EPCP ( M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t ) was f o r m e d w i t h a n o t h e r H i n d u communist, Sukhendu D a s t i d a r , a s i t s s e c r e t a r y - g e n e r a l . B u t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e t o p l e a d e r s , as w e l l as t h e c a d r e s o f t h i s g r o u p , were M u s l i m s f r o m a c o m p a r a t i v e l y y o u n g e r age g r o u p w i t h b e t t e r 52 e d u c a t i o n . The EPCP (ML) l a t e r u nderwent f u r t h e r s p l i t s and a b o u t a h a l f d o z e n p r o - P e k i n g g r o u p s were a c t i v e i n E a s t P a k i s t a n i n t h e l a t e 60s. W i t h t h e l o n e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e S i r a j S i k d a r g r o u p , a l l o t h e r f a c t i o n s had H i n d u s i n t h e i r l e a d e r -53 s h i p . L i k e t h e EPCP, t h e c o m m u n i s t - d o m i n a t e d NAP a l s o u n d e r -went a s p l i t i n 1967, and t h e pro-Moscow NAP showed a p a t t e r n o f l e a d e r s h i p s i m i l a r ' t o t h e pro-Moscow EPCP. I t had a h i g h e r number o f H i n d u s among t h e t o p l e a d e r s h i p t h a n t h e p r o - P e k i n g 54 NAP l e d by M a u l a n a B h a s a n i . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s and w i t h f u r t h e r i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f a n t i - W e s t P a k i s t a n s e n t i m e n t s d u r i n g t h e Ayub r e g i m e , r a d i c a l p o l i t i c s h a d a g r e a t a p p e a l f o r t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n o f E a s t P a k i s t a n . D u r i n g m a r t i a l law, when a l l o t h e r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s r e m a i n e d more o r l e s s i n a c t i v e , t h e EPCP c a r r i e d on i t s a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r g r o u n d . I t had been e s p e c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n r e c r u i t i n g a l a r g e number o f s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h i t s f r o n t o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e E a s t P a k i s t a n S t u d e n t s U n i o n (EPSU). The t o p l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e EPSU i n t h e 60s now 108 p r o v i d e d t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e d i f f e r e n t l e f t i s t p o l i t i c a l 55 p a r t i e s . The 1960 g e n e r a t i o n o f B e n g a l i s t u d e n t s was more s e c u l a r t h a n i t s p r e d e c e s s o r b e c a u s e i t had n o t w i t n e s s e d any b i t t e r communal r e l a t i o n s , and had become i n c r e a s i n g l y dis-56 t r u s t f u l o f t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s p o l i t i c s . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t made i t e a s i e r f o r t h e o l d H i n d u communist l e a d e r s h i p t o a t t r a c t more s u p p o r t . W h i l e i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s a f t e r p a r t i t i o n , t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f t h e communist c a d r e s were f r o m t h e H i n d u community, n i n e t y p e r c e n t o f t h e c a d r e s o f t h e 57 d i f f e r e n t l e f t i s t p a r t i e s were M u s l i m s by 1970. L e f t i s t s t u d e n t s p l a y e d a l e a d i n g r o l e i n t h e 1968-1969 a n t i - A y u b mass u p s u r g e and b o t h g r o u p s o f t h e EPSU were a d o m i n a t i n g component o f t h e S t u d e n t s A c t i o n Committee (SAC) w h i c h l e d t h e movement i n E a s t P a k i s t a n . The 1 1 - p o i n t demands o f t h e SAC r e f l e c t e d r a d i c a l i s m o f t h e l e f t i s t s and t h e demands f o r autonomy by t h e 5 8 B e n g a l i n a t i o n a l i s t s . The H i n d u l e f t i s t s were a l s o v e r y p r o m i n e n t i n t h e p e a s a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n t h e t r a d e u n i o n 59 movement. D e s p i t e t h e i r p o o r s t a r t i n t h e e a r l y 1950s, t h e 6 0 communists had made a g r e a t a d v a n c e by 19 70. The communist g r o u p s had n o t l a u n c h e d any r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement s i n c e t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f 1948-1950. The membership o f t h e d i f f e r e n t communist g r o u p s were, i n most c a s e s , l i m i t e d t o t h e u r b a n , e d u c a t e d c l a s s . The H i n d u b h a d r a l o k d o m i n a t e d t h e B e n g a l Communist p a r t y s i n c e t h e 1930s. The H i n d u i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e communist g r o u p s s p r a n g more f r o m an i d e o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n t h a n f r o m any c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o s a f e -g u a r d t h e m i n o r i t y i n t e r e s t . However, some o f them m i g h t have 109 t h o u g h t t h a t t h e H i n d u s u r v i v a l i n P a k i s t a n c o u l d o n l y be s e c u r e d by e s t a b l i s h i n g a s o c i a l i s t s y s t e m . The N a t i o n a l i s t Movement and t h e H i n d u s I n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l e f t i s t s emerged as a s t r o n g f o r c e , however, t h e y f a i l e d t o c a p t u r e t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p o p u l a r movement i n E a s t P a k i s t a n . The E a s t P a k i s t a n p o l i t i c a l s c e n e was overwhelmed by t h e r i s e o f m i l i t a n t B e n g a l i n a t i o n a l i s m i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e Ayub r e g i m e . Ayub r u l e d P a k i s t a n f o r a p e r i o d o f e l e v e n y e a r s w i t h t h e b a c k i n g o f a c i v i l - m i l i t a r y b u r e a u c r a c y . B e n g a l i r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n i n t h e s e two i n s t i t u t i o n s was m i n i m a l . Ayub's r u l e had a dampening e f f e c t on t h e i n t e g r a t i v e p r o c e s s o f P a k i s t a n . B e n g a l i s had no a c c e s s t o Ayub's " r u l i n g c l a s s " w h i c h was e x c l u s i v e l y drawn f r o m t h e t o p e c h e l o n s o f t h e c i v i l and m i l i t a r y b u r e a u c r a c y . Thus t h e s e n s e o f f r u s t r a t i o n and i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s among B e n g a l i p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , p r e c i p i t a t e d d u r i n g t h e Ayub e r a , added new m i l i t a n c y t o B e n g a l i p o l i t i c a l demands. B e n g a l i r e s e n t m e n t a g a i n s t t h e P a k i s t a n i n a t i o n a l e l i t e was f u r t h e r e n h a n c e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e c o n o m i c f o r t u n e o f P a k i s t a n was m o n o p o l i z e d by a s m a l l g r o u p o f i n d u s t r i a l i s t s 6 2 f r o m West P a k i s t a n . B e n g a l i a l i e n a t i o n f r o m t h e P a k i s t a n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m was f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e d by r e p e a t e d a t t a c k s on B e n g a l i c u l t u r e and l a n g u a g e by t h e Ayub r e g i m e . In t h e 1965 p r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n , t h e B e n g a l i p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s j o i n e d t h e Combined O p p o s i t i o n P a r t i e s (COP) t o f i g h t P r e s i d e n t Ayub. I n s p i t e o f t remendous p o p u l a r e n t h u s i a s m i n E a s t P a k i s t a n , t h e COP c a n d i d a t e , Fatema J i n n a h , was d e f e a t e d . 110 T h i s d e f e a t c o n v i n c e d S h e i k h M u j i b , t h e champion o f t h e r i s i n g B e n g a l i n a t i o n a l i s t movement, t h a t "Ayub c o u l d n o t be d i s l o d g e d u n d e r t h e e x i s t i n g e l e c t o r a l s y s t e m o f B a s i c Democracy. H a v i n g l o s t a l l hope o f a t t a i n i n g p o l i t i c a l power t h r o u g h e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s e s , t h e B e n g a l i p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s were now t h i n k i n g i n t e r m s o f l a u n c h i n g a mass movement a g a i n s t Ayub. T h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n was i n c r e a s e d by t h e 1965 Indo-Pak war, f o r d u r i n g t h e war, E a s t P a k i s t a n was t o t a l l y c u t o f f f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , and B e n g a l i s f e l t c o m p l e t e l y h e l p l e s s . S h e i k h M u j i b m i s s e d no o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o i t t h e s i t u a t i o n . As M a n i r u z z a m a n n o t e s , " S h e i k h M u j i b u r R a h m a n — a p o l i t i c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r p a r e x c e l l e n c e — t h o u g h t t h a t E a s t P a k i s t a n ' s s e n s e o f i s o l a t i o n c o u l d be m a n i p u l a t e d t o s p a r k a n a t i o n a l i s t e x p l o s i o n among t h e p o l i t i c a l l y d i s c o n t e n t e d and e c o n o m i c a l l y 6 3 f r u s t r a t e d B e n g a l i s . " A t a p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e , S h e i k h M u j i b d e c l a r e d , t h a t "The q u e s t i o n o f autonomy a p p e a r s t o be more i m p o r t a n t a f t e r t h e war. Time has come f o r making E a s t P a k i s t a n 6 4 s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n a l l r e s p e c t s . " A t t h i s o p p o r t u n e moment, S h e i k h M u j i b and h i s p a r t y , t h e Awami L e a g u e , came o u t w i t h a r a d i c a l programme t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e B e n g a l i s u p p o r t f o r t h e r i s i n g n a t i o n a l i s t movement. I n e a r l y 1966 S h e i k h M u j i b p u t f o r w a r d h i s famous s i x -65 p o i n t programme, " t h e c h a r t e r o f s u r v i v a l . " The s i x - p o i n t programme was a s i g n i f i c a n t d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e p a s t autonomy demands o f t h e B e n g a l i s . J a h a n n o t e s : " U n l i k e p r e v i o u s B e n g a l i demands, i t d i d n o t c a l l upon t h e c e n t r a l g o v ernment t o do more f o r E a s t P a k i s t a n , b u t . a s k e d t h e C e n t r a l government t o l e t -E a s t P a k i s t a n do more f o r i t s e l f . " 6 6 The programme demanded 111 6 7 maximum autonomy f o r E a s t P a k i s t a n . I t i m m e d i a t e l y s p a r k e d a p o l i t i c a l movement i n E a s t P a k i s t a n . C o m p l e t e s u p p o r t f o r t h e movement was shown i n d i f f e r e n t mass m e e t i n g s , s t u d e n t r a l l i e s , and s t r e e t c o r n e r m e e t i n g s . The c l i m a x o f t h e move-ment r e a c h e d on J u n e 7, 196 6 when a p r o v i n c e - w i d e h a r t a l ( g e n e r a l s t r i k e ) p a r a l y s e d t h e whole l i f e o f E a s t P a k i s t a n , Ayub b r a n d e d S h e i k h M u j i b as ' s e c e s s i o n i s t ' and t h r e a t e n e d t o 6 8 use t h e ' l a n g u a g e o f weapon'. S h e i k h M u j i b and h i s c l o s e a s s o c i a t e s were i m p r i s o n e d and a s o - c a l l e d ' A g a r t a l a C o n s p i r a c y C a s e ' was i n i t i a t e d a g a i n s t S h e i k h M u j i b and o t h e r s f o r an a l l e g e d " c o n s p i r a c y t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e s e c e s s i o n o f E a s t P a k i s t a n . " The s i x - p o i n t programme r e c e i v e d t o t a l s u p p o r t f r o m t h e H i n d u s . The p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t was t h a t t h e B e n g a l i n a t i o n a l i s t movement was t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f r e l i g i o u s P a k i s t a n i n a t i o n a l i s m . The H i n d u s a l w a y s c l a m o u r e d f o r a s e c u l a r d e m o c r a t i c c o n s t i t u t i o n , and t h e Awami League p r o m i s e d t h a t . The e x t r e m e r i g h t i s t spokesman o f H i n d u n a t i o n a l i s m i n I n d i a , O r g a n i z e r , commented t h a t t h e new movement r e f l e c t e d " t h e t r i u m p h o f c u l t u r a l n a t i o n a l i s m o v e r r e l i g i o u s n a t i o n a l -69 i s m . " To some H i n d u s i t was a f a i n t r a y o f hope f o r a u n i t e d B e n g a l , i f n o t a u n i t e d I n d i a . M o r e o v e r , t h e y t h o u g h t t h a t t h e i r l i v e s w o u l d be more s e c u r e i n a more autonomous E a s t P a k i s t a n , b e c a u s e u n d e r t h e s i x - p o i n t programme t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l y a n t i - H i n d u West P a k i s t a n i l e a d e r s o v e r E a s t P a k i s t a n w o u l d be r e m o t e . F i n a l l y , t h e Awami League a d v o c a t e d more f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h I n d i a , a p r o s p e c t w h i c h won 112 e n t h u s i a s t i c H i n d u s u p p o r t . A mass u p s u r g e i n 1968-1969 swept o v e r a l l p a r t s o f P a k i s t a n , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e Ayub r e g i m e and t h e r e l e a s e o f S h e i k h M u j i b and o t h e r p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s . A f t e r t h e f a l l o f Ayub, G e n e r a l Yahya Khan came t o power and a s e c o n d m a r t i a l law was p r o c l a i m e d i n P a k i s t a n . A l l p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s were a g a i n : s u s p e n d e d f o r t h e p e r i o d f r o m M a r c h t o December 1969. Yahya Khan p r o m i s e d a g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f u n i v e r s a l a d u l t f r a n c h i s e t o be h e l d i n l a t e 19 70. S h e i k h M u j i b and t h e A L p a r t i c i p a t e d f o r c e f u l l y i n t h e e l e c t i o n , 70 c a l l i n g i t a r e f e r e n d u m on t h e s i x - p o i n t programme. O v e r -w h e l m i n g p o p u l a r s u p p o r t f o r t h e Awami Le a g u e was m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s i n E a s t P a k i s t a n . I t won 167 s e a t s o u t o f 169 s e a t s i n E a s t P a k i s t a n . The West P a k i s t a n i l e a d e r s were n o t r e a d y t o c o n c e d e t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g v i c t o r y o f t h e Awami Le a g u e . The f i r s t s e s s i o n o f t h e n e w l y e l e c t e d a s s e m b l y was s c h e d u l e d f o r M a r c h 3, 1971, b u t i t was p o s t p o n e d by Yahya w i t h a v i e w t o p r e s s u r i n g t h e Awami League t o come t o t e r m s w i t h t h e West P a k i s t a n i l e a d e r s . The d e c i s i o n t o p o s t p o n e t h e a s s e m b l y s e s s i o n s p a r k e d s p o n t a n e o u s mass p r o t e s t s a l l o v e r E a s t P a k i s t a n . E a s t P a k i s t a n a p p e a r e d t o be on t h e v e r g e o f a t o t a l "mass r e v o l u t i o n " and t h e m a c h i n e r y o f t h e c e n t r a l g o v ernment was c o m p l e t e l y p a r a l y s e d . A f t e r a s e r i e s o f n e g o t i a t i o n s b etween S h e i k h M u j i b and Yahya w h i c h y i e l d e d no r e s u l t s , t h e l a t t e r d e c i d e d t o u n l e a s h a c i v i l war i n E a s t P a k i s t a n w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y l e d t o t h e emergence o f B a n g l a d e s h . I n t h e 19 70 e l e c t i o n , t h e Awami League r e c e i v e d u n q u a l i f i e d 113 support from the Hindus. The reasons for th e i r support for the six-point programme have been discussed e a r l i e r . In early 1970, the East Pakistan Minority Conference resolved to work 71 clos e l y with the majority community. This obviously meant working unitedly with the Awami League, which by that time had emerged as the symbol of Bengali n a t i o n a l i s t aspirations. Of the old Hindu p o l i t i c i a n s , Phani Mazumdar, Gour Chandra Bala, and A.K. Das joined the Awami League and fought the elec t i o n on i t s t i c k e t . Sheikh Mujib toured the densely Hindu populated areas with these Hindu leaders to win the i r support. However, only one Hindu was nominated for the national assembly elections, and eight for the p r o v i n c i a l assembly elections by the Awami 72 League. The reasons for t h i s poor Hindu representation among the Awami League candidates are that there were not many Hindu p o l i t i c i a n s with national stature available, and also that the Hindus were late entrants to the Awami League organization. The extent of the Hindu support for the Awami League can be shown by the fac t that none of the old Congressmen who decided to fi g h t the el e c t i o n i n the name of the Congress party i n some heavily concentrated Hindu areas, were successful i n getting 73 elected. The 1970 elections created high hopes among the Hindus. They were convinced that the Awami League v i c t o r y would improve 74 the conditions of the Hindu minority. Also, the Awami League slogans of J a i Bangla (Long Live Bengal), and Tomar Desh Amar  Desh Bangladesh, Bangladesh (Your country My Country Bangladesh Bangladesh) e a s i l y attracted Hindu support. Only a few days 114 before his death i n the middle of 1970, the former Hindu MLA Trailakya Nath Chakravorty made an extensive tour of India. He addressed many press conferences and receptions. He was also given a gala reception by a j o i n t session of the Indian Parliament. Everywhere he made emphatic declarations that i n the coming elections i n East Pakistan, the progressive forces would win. "I would not l i k e to die", he declared, "before 75 the elections." In his address to the Indian Parliament he recounted the r i s e of secularism i n East Pakistan. He expres-sed optimism that i f the progressive forces won, the Hindu 7 6 minority would not leave East Bengal anymore. He also predic-ted, with great accuracy, that, "Mujib w i l l show miracle i n 77 the e l e c t i o n . " In order to crush the n a t i o n a l i s t movement, the Pakistan army started a campaign of genocide i n Bangladesh on March 25, 1971. The Hindus i n p a r t i c u l a r were targets of the army. In the f i r s t few days of the Pakistan army's operations, t h e i r targets were the student dormitories, Bengali police and East Pakistan R i f l e s headquarters, and the Hindu populated areas of 7 8 Dacca. In other c i t i e s , too, Hindus became prime targets of the army crackdown. Prominent Hindu p o l i t i c i a n s , lawyers, doctors, businessmen, and teachers, whenever found, were k i l l e d by the army. During the entire period of the c i v i l war, they were discriminated against by the Pakistan army. Their houses were burnt, property looted, women raped, and temples , 79 destroyed. Under such circumstances, they either had to cross the border and take shelter i n India, or else had to fl e e 115 to the remotest v i l l a g e s where there were no army camps. Later, t h e i r l i v e s i n the v i l l a g e s were also made insecure when the Pakistan army recruited 10 0 ,000 Razakars, a Bengali collaborator m i l i t i a force. These Razakars, along with the l o c a l Muslim League, Jamaat-i-Islami and Nezam-i-Islam workers, car r i e d out indiscriminate k i l l i n g s and looting of v i l l a g e s where the Bengali g u e r r i l l a s were active. During the nine-month l i b e r a t i o n war period, nearly ten m i l l i o n refugees 8 0 f l e d to India, out of which seven m i l l i o n were Hindus. The ^ Pakistani army action against the Hindus was motivated by their attempt to create a r i f t among the Bengalis by inducing the poorer sections of the Muslims to engage i n looting and other kinds of oppression of t h e i r Hindu neighbours. Moreover, the West Pakistani leaders were keen to see East Pakistan's popu-l a t i o n reduced to parity with West Pakistan so that the Bengalis could never again claim a majority over West Pakistan. If they could push ten m i l l i o n Hindus into India, that would achieve t h e i r nefarious goal. During the war of l i b e r a t i o n , Bengali Muslims and Hindus fought shoulder to shoulder, though the Hindus bore the major brunt of the Pakistani m i l i t a r y oppression i n terms of loss of( property, l i f e and physical d i s l o c a t i o n . Information i s not available as to the exact numbers of Hindus i n the Bangladesh Mukti Bahini (Liberation Army). It i s clear that the over-whelming majority of the g u e r r i l l a s were Muslims, because the vast majority of them were recruited from school, college, 81 and university students. Although the Bangladesh government 116 i n e x i l e did not include any Hindus i n the cabinet, i t 8 2 agreed under diplomatic pressure from the Soviet Union to set up a Consultative Committee i n September 1971 which included two Hindu p o l i t i c a l leaders. During the Ayub and Yahya regimes, the Hindus suffered p o l i t i c a l l y and economically. The Hindus, as a p o l i t i c a l force, were suppressed to the extent of v i r t u a l non-existence. The rule of martial law, the Basic Democracy system, and the t o t a l l y undemocratic Ayub constitution pushed them out of the p o l i t i c a l arena. The biggest problem the community was facing was that of s u r v i v a l . This prompted the Hindu leaders not to get involved i n p o l i t i c s . However, the r i s e of Bengali nationalism raised new hopes among the Hindus, and they r e a d i l y gave i t t h e i r f u l l support. The l i b e r a t i o n of Bangladesh i n December 1971 with the help of the Indian army marked the end of a chapter of communal p o l i t i c s i n East Bengal. The v i c t o r y of the Bengali n a t i o n a l i s t movement under the leadership of the Awami League, a secular party f r i e n d l y i n i t s attitude towards India, opened up newer p o s s i b i l i t i e s for the Hindus i n the new republic of Bangladesh. They could now hope that Bangladesh would frame a secular constitution, and they would be able to play a more e f f e c t i v e role i n the p o l i t i c a l process. They also thought that the emergence of Bangladesh would put an end to discrimination against them, and t h e i r l o y a l t y to the country would no longer be questioned. 117 NOTES - Chapter IV 1. For a detailed discussion of the Ayub regime in Pakistan, see Rounaq Jahan. Pakistan: F a i l u r e in National Integra- t i o n , and Lawrence Z i r i n g . The Ayub Khan Era (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1 9 7 1 ) . 2 . P.C. Lahiry, India Partitioned and the Minor i t i e s i n  Pakistan, pp.36-74 . Two West Bengal Hindu j o u r n a l i s t s ' works contain emotional accounts of the martial law regime i n Pakistan: Sakuntal Sen, Inside Pakistan (Calcutta: Compass Publications, 1 9 6 4 ) ; and Amitava Gupta, Purbo Pakistan (East Pakistan) (Calcutta: Anandadhara Prakashan, 1969) . -3 . EBDO was promulgated by Ayub shortly af t e r the coup under which a t o t a l of 78 prominent p o l i t i c a l leaders were d i s q u a l i f i e d from p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n for a period of eight years ending on December 3 1 , 1966 . 4. K.B. Sayeed, The P o l i t i c a l System of Pakistan, p.94. 5. NAP, Debates, Vol.1 ( 1 2 ) , March 3 0 , 1964 , pp.698-699 . 6. Trailakaya Nath Chakravorty. Jiban Smriti, pp.86-89 . 7 . The Pakistan Observer (Dacca), March 2 6 , A p r i l 5 , and May 12 , 1960 . 8. Lahiry, op.cit., pp.37-78 . 9 . Sayeed, op.cit., p.94. 10 . Lahiry, o p . c i t . , p.39 . 1 1 . The Pakistan Observer, December 2 , 19 6 0 . 12. Only a very few migrations between India and Pakistan took place with government approval. Generally people from each side of the border managed to cross the border secretly. 13 . Government of Pakistan, Report of the Constitution Commission, 1 9 6 1 , pp.75-76 . 14 . Myron Weiner conducted a survey i n 1957-1958 of the changing patterns of leadership i n West Bengal. He found that the majority of>the Congress party leaders were born between 1900 and 1920 . The Congress leadership of East Bengal also would reveal the same pattern, because the leadership of the Congress party i n both Bengals came from the same stock. Moreover, the Hindu leadership i n East Pakistan was r e l a t i v e l y older because no new recruitment i n leadership took place there after the p a r t i t i o n . For West Bengal, 118 s e e Myron W e i n e r , " C h a n g i n g P a t t e r n s o f P o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n West B e n g a l " , i n P o l i t i c a l Change i n S o u t h  A s i a ( C a l c u t t a : F i r m a K.L. Mukhopadhyaya, 1963), pp.177-227. The l i s t i s c o m p i l e d f r o m L a h i r y , P a k - B h a r a t e r Rup Rekha, pp.362-372. F o r an a n a l y s i s o f t h e w o r k i n g o f t h e B a s i c D e m o c r a c i e s , s e e J a h a n , o p . c i t . , pp.109-142; S a y e e d , o p . c i t . , pp.144-2 60; Rehman Sobhan, B a s i c D e m o c r a c i e s i n E a s t P a k i s t a n ( D a c c a : B u r e a u o f E c o n o m i c R e s e a r c h , 1968); M. R a s h i d u z z -man, " P a k i s t a n ' s L o c a l B o d i e s and S o c i a l Change: The E m e r g i n g P a t t e r n o f L o c a l L e a d e r s h i p , " O r i e n t , 9 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , pp.125-128; and A.T.R. Rahman, An A n a l y s i s o f t h e  W o r k i n g o f B a s i c Democracy I n s t i t u t i o n s i n E a s t P a k i s t a n ( C o m i l l a : PARD, 1962). M a h f u z u l Huq. E l e c t o r a l P r o b l e m s i n P a k i s t a n , p.153. J a h a n , o p . c i t . , p.113. Huq, o p . c i t . , p.165. The e l e c t i o n t o t h e l o c a l c o u n c i l s h a d a l w a y s b een u n d e r t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m . The B a s i c D e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m d i d n o t change t h e e l e c t o r a l s y s t e m i n t h e l o c a l c o u n c i l e l e c t i o n s . B u t t h e H i n d u community, u n d e r t h e m a r t i a l law r e g i m e , was s u f f e r i n g f r o m a s e n s e o f i n s e c u r i t y , so t h e i r p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n t h e e l e c t i o n was v e r y l i m i t e d . F o r example i n t h e y e a r 1961 a l o n e , US $621 m i l l i o n was p r o v i d e d f o r t h e r u r a l works programme. Sobhan, o p . c i t . , p.105. J a h a n , o p . c i t . , p.122. Sobhan, o p . c i t . , p.88. I b i d . , p.240. F o r t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d d a t a , s e e Sobhan, o p . c i t . , pp.77-89; and J a h a n , o p . c i t . , pp.120-121, t a b l e s V I , 2,3,4 a n d 5. Sobhan, o p . c i t . , pp.259-260. The B a s i c D e m o c r a t s v i g o r o u s l y s u p p o r t e d t h e Ayub r e g i m e u n t i l i t s c o l l a p s e i n e a r l y 19 69, b u t t h e y c h a n g e d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a l l e g i a n c e w i t h t h e doom o f t h e r e g i m e . They q u i c k l y j o i n e d t h e AL and f o r m e d i t s backbone i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s . I t t e f a q ( D a c c a ) , F e b r u a r y 7, and M a r c h 17, 1962. I b i d . , M a r c h 23, 1962. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e 1962 C o n s t i t u t i o n , s ee 119 G.W. Choudhury , C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Development i n P a k i s t a n (Vancouver : The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 1969), 2nd e d . , p p . 1 7 8 - 2 4 9 . 29. K . B . Sayeed, o p . c i t . , p p . 1 0 1 - 1 2 6 . 30. I t t e f a q , June 9, 26, 1962. 31. I b i d . , June 25, 1962. The n i n e l e a d e r s i n c l u d e d t h r e e former c h i e f m i n i s t e r s of E a s t P a k i s t a n , N u r u l A m i n , Abu H o s s a i n S a r k a r , and A t a u r Rahman Khan, and a l s o s i x o t h e r l e a d e r s , Hamidul Huq Chowdhury, S h e i k h M u j i b , Eusuf A l i Chowdhury, Mahmud A l i , Sayed A z i z u l Huq, and P i r Mohsenuddin . 32. The NDF was formed by Suhrawardy a f t e r h i s r e l e a s e from j a i l and the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t o f the F r o n t was the r e s t o r a t i o n o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y democracy and u n i v e r s a l a d u l t f r a n c h i s e . The F r o n t was composed o f the Awami League , NAP, KSP, and some o t h e r l e a d e r s o f o t h e r g r o u p s . The f o r m a t i o n of the NDF was d e c l a r e d by a j o i n t s t a t e -ment by 54 l e a d e r s from the b o t h wings o f P a k i s t a n . The s i g n a t o r i e s d i d n o t i n c l u d e any H i n d u s . I t t e f a q , O c t o b e r 5, 19 62. 3. The 1962 f i g u r e i s taken from Huq, o p . c i t . , p . 1 6 5 ; and the 1965 f i g u r e i s t a k e n from The 1965 P r o v i n c i a l  Assembly E l e c t i o n R e s u l t s (Government o f P a k i s t a n P u b l i c a t i o n s ) . 34. J . K . Ray, Democracy and N a t i o n a l i s m on T r i a l , p p . 2 5 8 - 2 6 0 . 35. A n o t h e r s e c t i o n o f the M u s l i m League d i d not f a v o u r Ayub and r e v i v e d the P a k i s t a n M u s l i m League ( C o u n c i l ) . T h i s group o f the M u s l i m was l e d by Khwaja N a z i m u d d i n , and i t advocated p a r l i a m e n t a r y democracy. 36. C h a k r a v o r t y , o p . c i t . , pp .109-124 . A l s o , see H e r b e r t Fe ldman, "The Communal Problem i n the I n d o - P a k i s t a n S u b c o n t i n e n t , " P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , V o l . 4 2 (2) , 19 69, p p . 1 4 5 - 1 6 3 . 37. I t t e f a q , J a n u a r y 8 and 14, 1964. 38. I b i d . , January 6, 1964 39. I b i d . , January 12 and F e b r u a r y 23, 1964. 40. I b i d . , January 15 and 16, 19 64. 41. K e i t h C a l l a r d , P a k i s t a n , p . 2 6 5 . 42. C h a k r a v o r t y , o p . c i t . , p . 1 0 0 . 120 43. M a r c u s F r a n d a , " R a d i c a l P o l i t i c s i n West B e n g a l , " i n P a u l B r a s s and Marcus F r a n d a , e d s . , R a d i c a l P o l i t i c s i n  S o u t h A s i a ( Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1973), p.185, T a b l e 3.1. 44. F o r an e l a b o r a t e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e B e n g a l Communist movement, s e e F r a n d a , R a d i c a l P o l i t i c s i n West B e n g a l (Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1971) and Gene D. O v e r -s t r e e t and M a r s h a l l W i n d m i l l e r , Communism i n I n d i a ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1959). 45. F r a n d a , o p . c i t . , p .7. 46. F r a n d a , "Communism and R e g i o n a l P o l i t i c s i n E a s t P a k i s t a n , " i n P o l i t i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t and P o l i t i c a l Decay  i n West B e n g a l , p.231. By 1947 l e s s t h a n f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e membership o f t h e Communist P a r t y i n B e n g a l were M u s l i m s . A l s o , B a d r u d d i n Umar, P u r b o B a n g l a r Bhasa  A n d a l o n 0 T a t k a l i n R a j n i t i , V o l . 1 , p.30 9. 47. I b i d . , p.237. 48. Umar, o p . c i t . , p.30 6. 49. F o r an a c c o u n t o f t h e communist movement i n E a s t B e n g a l i n p o s t - p a r t i t i o n p e r i o d , s e e T a l u k d e r M a n i r u z z a m a n , " R a d i c a l P o l i t i c s and t h e Emergence o f B a n g l a d e s h " , i n B r a s s and F r a n d a , o p . c i t . , pp.-23-277; and Umar, o p . c i t . , pp.287-352. 50. I t t e f a q , F e b r u a r y 23, 1969. D u r i n g t h e Ayub r e g i m e t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f p o l i t i c a l . p r i s o n e r s were communists and H i n d u s . Ahmedul K a b i r , a NAP member o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l y , a l l e g e d t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s were s h o w i n g a communal a t t i t u d e b e c a u s e t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s were H i n d u s , Sangbad ( D a c c a ) , J u n e 27, 1966. 51. M a n i r u z z a m a n , o p . c i t . , p.239. 52. I b i d . , p.240. 53. I b i d . , pp. 240-252. F o r b i o g r a p h i c a l n o t e s on t h e Bang-l a d e s h communist l e a d e r s , s e e M a n i r u z z a m a n , " B a n g l a d e s h : An U n f i n i s h e d R e v o l u t i o n ? " J o u r n a l o f A s i a n S t u d i e s , V o l . 3 4(4) A u g u s t 1975, pp.909-911 . 54. I b i d . , p.240. 55. The most p r o m i n e n t EPSU l e a d e r s o f t h e e a r l y 60s a r e : Mohammad F a r h a d ( p r e s e n t g e n e r a l - s e c r e t a r y o f t h e p r o -Moscow Communist P a r t y o f B a n g l a d e s h ) ; K a z i Z a f a r Ahmad ( f o r m e r s e c r e t a r y - g e n e r a l o f t h e B a n g l a d e s h NAP ( B h a s a n i ) 121 and p r e s e n t s e c r e t a r y - g e n e r a l o f t h e U n i t e d P e o p l e s P a r t y (UPP); P a n k a j B h a t t a c h e r j e e ( p r e s e n t g e n e r a l -s e c r e t a r y o f t h e NAP ( M u z a f f a r ) ; Rashed Khan Menon (C o n v e n o r , B a n g l a d e s h C h a s i S a m i t y and a t o p l e a d e r o f t h e UPP); Begum M a t i a Chowdhury ( o r g a n i z i n g s e c r e t a r y o f t h e NAP ( M u z a f f a r ) ) ; S a i f u d d i n Manik (a l e a d i n g t r a d e u n i o n l e a d e r ) ; and H a i d e r A k b a r Khan Rano ( a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t t r a d e u n i o n l e a d e r ) . 56. F r a n d a , o p . c i t . , p.251. 57. M a n i r u z z a m a n , o p . c i t . , p.251. 58. F o r a c i s c u s s i o n o f t h e 1 1 - p o i n t programme, se e M a n i r u z z a m a n , o p . c i t . , pp.259-260. 59. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e l e f t i s t s i n t r a d e u n i o n movement se e K a mruddin Ahmad, L a b o u r Movement i n  E a s t P a k i s t a n ( D a c c a : Roushan A r a Ahmed, 1969); f o r t h e p e a s a n t movement, s e e Umar, o p . c i t . V o l . 1 1 , pp.184-314; and J i t e n Ghosh, G a r a d e r A r a l Theke ( L e t t e r s f r o m J a i l ) , ( D a c c a : N a u r o j K i t a b i s t a n , 1970); and S a t y e n Sen, Gram  B a n g l a r P a t h e p a t h e ( D a c c a : P u t h i p a t r a , 1967). 60. M a n i r u z z a m a n , o p . c i t . , pp.250-251. 61. J a h a n , o p . c i t . , pp.62,89. 62. I b i d . , p.60. 63. M a n i r u z z a m a n , o p . c i t . , p.258. 64. C i t e d i n M a n i r u z z a m a n , i b i d . 65. S h e i k h M u j i b u r Rahman, S i x - P o i n t s - Our Demand f o r  S u r v i v a l ( D a c c a : E a s t P a k i s t a n Awami L e a g u e , 1966). 66. J a h a n , o p . c i t . , p.167. 67. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s i x - p o i n t programme, se e J a h a n , o p . c i t . , pp.167-170. 68. I b i d . , p.180. 69. C i t e d i n F r o n t i e r ( C a l c u t t a ) , J u l y 3, 1971. 70. M a n i r u z z a m a n , o p . c i t . , p.261. 71. I t t e f a q , J a n u a r y 7, 1970. 72. I b i d . , December 20, 1970. 73. I b i d . , December 12 and 20, 1970. F o u r Congressmen r a n f o r n a t i o n a l a s s e m b l y s e a t s , and s i x f o r p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l y 122 s e a t s . The C o n g r e s s P a r t y a t t h a t t i m e was a l m o s t non-e x i s t e n t . A few o f t h e o l d C o n g r e s s l e a d e r s d e c i d e d t o f i g h t t h e e l e c t i o n i n t h e name o f t h e p a r t y . 74. L a l i t Kumar S a n y a l , B i p l a b T a p a s h M a h a r a j T r a i l a k y a N a t h ( R e v o l u t i o n a r y Hero M a h a r a j T r a x l a k y a Nath) ( C a l c u t t a : M a h a r a j S m r i t i Rakshma S a m i t y , 1974), p.6. 75. B e d o u i n (pseud.) M a h a r a j e r Chokhe B a n g l a d e s h ( B a n g l a d e s h i n t h e E y e s o f M a h a r a j ) ( C a l c u t t a : De's P u b l i s h i n g House, 1970) , p.1. 76. S a n y a l , o p . c i t . , p.6. 77. I b i d . , p.296. 78. M a n i r u z z a m a n , o p . c i t . , pp.266-267. 79. M. M a n i r u z z a m a n M i a , " V i o l a t i o n o f Human R i g h t s and G e n o c i d e i n B a n g l a d e s h , " i n K a b i r C h o u d h u r y , et. a l . , ed. A N a t i o n i s B o r n ( C a l c u t t a : C a l c u t t a U n i v e r s i t y B a n g l a -d e s h Sahayak S a m i t y , 1972), pp.29-30. 80. Z i l l u r R. Khan, " M i n o r i t i e s i n B a n g l a d e s h , " i n M a r v i n D a v i s , e d . B e n g a l : S t u d i e s i n L i t e r a t u r e , S o c i e t y and  H i s t o r y ( E a s t L a n s i n g : M i c h i g a n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976), p.104; George T. C u n l i n , e t a l . , D e m o g r a p h i c C r i s i s ( D a c c a : F o r d F o u n d a t i o n , 1975), p.5; New Y o r k T i m e s , September 2 1 , 1 9 7 1 . 81. M a n i r u z z a m a n , o p . c i t . , p.271. 82. F r o n t i e r , December 4, 1971. 123 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION By now i t s h o u l d be a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r t o t h e r e a d e r t h a t t h e H i n d u m i n o r i t y i n B a n g l a d e s h r e p r e s e n t s a u n i q u e c a s e . R a r e l y does one f i n d examples i n h i s t o r y where a p r e v i o u s l y d o m i n a n t community s u d d e n l y becomes a m i n o r i t y due t o new p o l i t i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . The H i n d u s were i n a m a j o r i t y i n u n d i v i d e d I n d i a , and when t h e y were thrown i n t o a m i n o r i t y p o s i t i o n i n E a s t B e n g a l t h e i r dominance was r e v e r s e d . P r e v i o u s l y d o wntrodden M u s l i m s s e i z e d e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l power i n t h e n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d M u s l i m homeland. As a r e s u l t , we f i n d a s h i f t i n g p a t t e r n o f m i n o r i t y b e h a v i o u r i n E a s t B e n g a l d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1947-1971. T h i s p a t t e r n c a n be d e s c r i b e d a n d e x p l a i n e d as f o l l o w s : 1. I n i t i a l Chaos and S t r u g g l e f o r C o n s t i t u t i o n a l S a f e g u a r d s : The H i n d u community i n E a s t B e n g a l was i n i t i a l l y s e i z e d w i t h b e w i l d e r m e n t when I n d i a was p a r t i t i o n e d a l o n g r e l i g i o u s l i n e s . The g r e a t s h o c k o f p a r t i t i o n , a c c o m p a n i e d by communal b l o o d s h e d , c a u s e d a c h a o t i c r e a c t i o n t o t h e new p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m o f P a k i s t a n . The e n t i r e H i n d u community was on t h e v e r g e o f d i s -i n t e g r a t i o n . One s e c t i o n o f i t i m m e d i a t e l y l e f t t h e c o u n t r y , f e a r i n g g r e a t l o s s e s o f s t a t u s and o p p o r t u n i t y i n t h e p r e d o m i -n a n t l y M u s l i m homeland. The i n i t i a l H i n d u m i g r a t i o n was l i m i t e d t o t h e w e l l - t o - d o H i n d u b h a d r a l o k w i t h s e r v i c e o r p r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s , who had some f o o t h o l d i n I n d i a . B u t most H i n d u s i n E a s t B e n g a l d i d n o t have a f o o t i n g i n West B e n g a l and c o u l d f 124 n o t b e g i n a new l i f e t h e r e . D e s p i t e t h e i r a b h o r r e n c e , t h e y had t o a c c e p t t h e c i t i z e n s h i p o f P a k i s t a n . S t i l l o t h e r s c h o s e t o r e m a i n i n E a s t B e n g a l t o s e e t h e a c t u a l w o r k i n g s o f t h e new p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m , and t h e n make t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o s t a y o r l e a v e . T h i s l a t t e r g r o u p was d i s i l l u s i o n e d by t h e 1950 r i o t s and t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e new p o l i t i c a l m a c h i n e r y , and t h e exodus o f H i n d u s a c c e l e r a t e d g r e a t l y a f t e r t h e 1950 r i o t s . A f t e r p a r t i t i o n , most o f t h e p r o m i n e n t H i n d u l e a d e r s l e f t E a s t B e n g a l i n d e s p a i r , h a v i n g l o s t a l l hopes f o r e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P a k i s t a n , where p o l i t i c a l power was b e i n g m o n o p o l i z e d by a s i n g l e M u s l i m communal p a r t y . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e H i n d u l e a d e r s h i p c o n c e n t r a t e d on a r t i c u l a t i n g m i n o r i t y g r i e v a n c e s and s e e k i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s a f e g u a r d s f o r t h e community. Some o f t h e H i n d u l e a d e r s were d e c e i v e d by t h e hope t h a t p a r t i t i o n was t e m p o r a r y and t h a t P a k i s t a n w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y go b a c k t o I n d i a . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t . f e w y e a r s o f P a k i s t a n , t h e H i n d u l e a d e r s h i p c o n c e n t r a t e d a l l i t s a t t e m p t s on th e p r e v e n t i o n o f t h e p a s s a g e o f an I s l a m i c c o n s t i t u t i o n . T h e i r demands f o r a s e c u l a r - d e m o c r a t i c c o n s t i t u t i o n were m o s t l y i g n o r e d by t h e r u l i n g M u s l i m L e a g u e . Among t h e H i n d u l e a d e r s , a s e c t i o n was p r a g m a t i c enough , t o s e v e r t h e e m o t i o n a l t i e s w i t h t h e C o n g r e s s p a r t y , and f o r m t h e Gana S a m i t y . They r e a l i z e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t h e r e d i r e c t i o n o f H i n d u p o l i t i c s t o w a r d s f o s t e r i n g u n i t y w i t h t h e d o m i n a n t community. I n an a t t e m p t t o a l l y w i t h t h e B e n g a l i M u s l i m s , t h e H i n d u l e a d e r s e s p o u s e d B e n g a l i c a u s e s i n t h e c e n t r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l i e s . 1 2 5 2 . Maximization of Minority Position: While they could not play an e f f e c t i v e r o l e during the f i r s t few years of independence, the Hindus made a s i g n i f i c a n t advance i n maximizing t h e i r position a f t e r the defeat of the Muslim League i n East Bengal i n the 1 9 5 4 elections. During the period 1 9 5 4 -1 9 5 8 , they shared p o l i t i c a l power with the majority community both at the centre and i n East Bengal. As an important component of the c o a l i t i o n government, they took part i n constitution-making. Their support was instrumental i n deter-mining the fate of the d i f f e r e n t c o a l i t i o n m i n i s t r i e s . They were successful i n getting t h e i r most important demand, the jo i n t electorate, incorporated i n the constitution. By t h i s time, the Hindus r e a l i z e d the hard r e a l i t i e s of Pakistan p o l i t i c s and were more moderate i n t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l demand for a purely secular constitution. They accepted the necessity of getting t h e i r other demands met by compromising on id e o l o g i c a l issues. The Hindu effectiveness dates back only to the defeat of the Muslim League i n East Pakistan. The r e s u l t i n g lack of cohesion between the Muslims of East and West Pakistan, and la t e r the s p l i t of the UF, made i t possible for the Hindus to play an e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l r o le and get the j o i n t electorate system incorporated i n the Constitution. The more the Muslim p o l i t i c a l groups were divided, the more e f f e c t i v e were the Hindus i n the p o l i t i c a l process. 3. Retreat and Regrouping: After the imposition of martial law, the Hindu community completely retreated. Hindu advancement i n 126 p o l i t i c s was ended with the collapse of the parliamentary system. The repressive, anti-Hindu and anti-Indian martial law regime forced the Hindus to retreat. Even when Ayub Khan i n s t a l l e d a quasi-constitutional government, they did not stage a comeback i n the p o l i t i c a l arena. Survival was the greatest problem facing the community, and the leaders opted for a timid existence of the community. The Hindus were always free to migrate to India. This very fact explains the lack of any serious e f f o r t oh the part of the Hindu leaders to rebuild t h e i r p o l i t i c a l base, and t h e i r gradual retreat. Had there been no opportunity to migrate to India, they would have made serious attempts to re-emerge p o l i t i c a l l y . The rapid p o l a r i z a t i o n i n the East-West Pakistan r e l a t i o n -ship during the Ayub era opened up newer p o s s i b i l i t i e s for the Hindus. The Muslim League and communal p o l i t i c s became t o t a l l y d i s c r e d i t e d among the Bengali Muslims. Bengali n a t i o n a l i s t Muslims were now f i g h t i n g against the r u l i n g West Pakistani Muslim e l i t e . The Bengali n a t i o n a l i s t s were espousing the causes of secularism, unfettered democracy, p r o v i n c i a l autonomy, and equal r i g h t s for a l l c i t i z e n s — c a u s e s for which the Hindus had fought a long time. The schism between the Muslims of the two wings of Pakistan led to the regrouping of vthe Hindus with the Awami League. The Hindu regrouping was manifested i n the 1970 elections and the Bangladesh l i b e r a t i o n movement. The uncompromising stand of the Hindus on the j o i n t electorate system explains t h e i r attempt to integrate them-127 s e l v e s p o l i t i c a l l y w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y community. They were aware o f what t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m w o u l d mean: t h e y w o u l d n o t be a b l e t o w i n as many s e a t s as t h e y c o u l d u n d e r t h e s e p a r a t e e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m . However, t h e y t h o u g h t t h a t o n l y t h r o u g h f o r g i n g p o l i t i c a l u n i t y w i t h t h e d o m i n a n t g r o u p c o u l d t h e y l i v e p e a c e f u l l y i n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y M u s l i m c o u n t r y . H i n d u p r i d e was a l s o a t t h e r o o t o f t h e i r demand. "The m i n o r i t i e s o f E a s t P a k i s t a n , " w r o t e T r a i l a k y a N a t h C h a k r a v o r t y , " a r e n o t u s e d t o b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d m i n o r i t i e s . They a r e t h e one who f o u g h t f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e c o u n t r y . I t was u n t h i n k a b l e f o r t h e H i n d u s t o a s k t h e M u s l i m community t o s a f e g u a r d t h e H i n d u i n t e r e s t t h r o u g h s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s . However, t h e j o i n t e l e c t o r a t e s y s t e m u l t i m a t e l y worked a g a i n s t t h e H i n d u s as a p o l i t i c a l f o r c e . I n t h e 19 73 e l e c t i o n s i n B a n g l a d e s h , o n l y 3.3 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l s e a t s i n p a r l i a m e n t were won by H i n d u s , and t h e y a l l b e l o n g e d t o t h e r u l i n g Awami 3 L e a g u e . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t when a p r e v i o u s l y d o m i n a n t g r o u p i s thrown i n t o a m i n o r i t y s i t u a t i o n , i t s l e a d e r s a t t e m p t t o r e c o n c i l e t h e community w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n and a t t e m p t p o l i t i c a l r e a d j u s t m e n t i n v o l v i n g c o m p r o m i s e s . The e v i d e n c e , d e s c r i b e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y , s u p p o r t s o u r h y p o t h e s i s . The H i n d u m i n o r i t y i n E a s t B e n g a l u n d e r w e n t s t a g e s o f p o l i t i c a l r e a d j u s t -ment and i t s l e a d e r s made compromises i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s t a n d . The c o r o l l a r y h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e g o a l s o f t h e m i n o r i t y i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e a t t i t u d e and i n t e r n a l 128 cohesion of the majority. I t i s now clear that the Hindus were successful i n a t t a i n i n g t h e i r goals only as long as the Muslim p o l i t i c a l parties i n East Pakistan were divided. The Hindu demand for a secular-democratic constitution was only achieved af t e r the estrangement of the Muslim community i n East and West Pakistan which ultimately resulted i n the emergence of Bangladesh. This thesis has shed new l i g h t on the understanding of the minority problem as well as on Laponce's assertions. His assertion that a minority by force wants an intercommunal party system i s not supported by the pattern of minority p o l i t i c s u n t i l 1958 . Despite the existence of the AL and other non-communal par t i e s , the Hindu leadership preferred to r e t a i n the existence of t h e i r p a r t i e s . The Hindus joined the AL only during the l a t t e r part of the Ayub regime with the r i s e of the n a t i o n a l i s t movement, and with the decline of the Hindu community as a p o l i t i c a l force. This leads me to conclude that the minority preference for an intercommunal party i s a function of d i f f e r e n t economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l factors. Also, Laponce's concept of assimilation needs further c l a r i f i c a t i o n . In the case of the Hindus of East Bengal, there was never any attempt to assimilate s o c i a l l y or r e l i g i o u s l y . However, i t has been found i n the present study that the Hindu community wished to integrate p o l i t i c a l l y with the majority insofar as they fought for and won a j o i n t electorate system. During the f i r s t few years, though they demanded a j o i n t electorate, they did not j o i n secular p o l i t i c a l parties dominated and led by the 129 M u s l i m s . L a t e r , however, d u r i n g t h e Ayub r e g i m e t h e y became e v e n more i n t e g r a t e d p o l i t i c a l l y by j o i n i n g t h e Awami League and o t h e r s e c u l a r p a r t i e s . The H i n d u m i n o r i t y i n B a n g l a d e s h has been d w i n d l i n g s i n c e t h e i n c e p t i o n o f P a k i s t a n . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e b r i e f e x i s t e n c e o f u n i t e d P a k i s t a n , t h o u s a n d s o f H i n d u s p a i d t h e p r i c e o f p a r t i t i o n w i t h t h e i r l i v e s and m i l l i o n s had t o s u f f e r u n b e a r a b l e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c d i s l o c a t i o n and d i s t r e s s . The n e a r - o b l i t e r a t i o n o f t h e H i n d u s d u r i n g t h e p a s t 30 y e a r s does n o t seem l i k e l y t o be r e v e r s e d i n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e H i n d u m i n o r i t y w i l l become an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f B a n g l a d e s h s o c i e t y and p o l i t i c s i n t h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n , when t h e r e w i l l be f e w e r memories o f communal p o l i t i c s , and when p o l i t i c s w i l l be b a s e d more on i d e o l o g i c a l l i n e s o r programmes t h a n on r e l i g i o u s i d e n t i t y . 1 3 0 NOTES - C o n c l u s i o n s P r a v a s h C h a n d r a L a h i r y , I n d i a P a r t i t i o n e d and M i n o r i t i e s  i n P a k i s t a n , pp.85-86; and A t u l y a Ghosh, P a k i s t a n O  Sampra d a i k Samasya ( P a k i s t a n and t h e Communal Problem) ( C a l c u t t a : C o n g r e s s Bhawan, 1956). T r a i l a k y a N a t h C h a k r a v o r t y , J i b a n S m r i t i , p.114. Z i l l u r R. 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