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Georges Seurat, "Une baignade à Asnières" Thom, Ian MacEwan 1977

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GEORGES SEURAT: UNE BAIGNADE A ASNIERES by Ian MacEwan Thorn B.A. (Hons.), U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF FINE ARTS We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1977 © Ian MacEwan Thorn, 1977 In presenting th is thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of F i N£- AfZT$ The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date > H , ^ ) t<tf ft BP 7 4-4 4 6 C - i i -S i nce i t s completion i n 188*4, Georges-Pierre Seurat's Une  Baignade a A s n i e r e s has been regarded i n f o r m a l terms. The work has been seen as an important formal study, which i s an only p a r t -i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l s y n t h e s i s of h i s a r t i s t i c antecedents: the s u b j e c t matter, and to a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent the s t y l e of the i m p r e s s i o n i s t s , modified by the a r t i s t ' s study of D e l a c r o i x ' s use of c o l o u r , the theory of Ogden Rood, and I n g r i s t and Puvean c l a s s i c i s m . I t i s the c o n t e n t i o n of t h i s w r i t e r t h a t t h i s approach, which ig n o r e s such f a c t o r s as the c l a s s of the f i g u r e s and the l o c a t i o n of the scene - or i n s h o r t , the s u b j e c t matter - i n f a c t misses the main t h e s i s of the work. By examining Seurat's career before the Baignade, and the circumstances of i t s c r e a t i o n , we hope to suggest t h a t f a r from being devoid of meaningful content, the work i s t o be seen as an i r o n i c and c r i t i c a l s o c i a l comment. The work-ingmen are here at l e i s u r e , and yet f a r from being f r e e and happy; they are condemned to c o n d i t i o n s which make t h e i r l e i s u r e worse than none at a l l . T h i s i d e a i s what Seurat intended to convey t o the a r t - v i e w i n g b o u r e o i s i e . Although the means are s u b t l e , a c a r e f u l examination of the p i c t o r i a l evidence makes the c o n c l u s i o n i n e v i t a b l e . - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF FIGURES i v LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1: SEURAT'S CAREER BEFORE THE BAIGNADE .... 12 CHAPTER 2: UNE BAIGNADE A ASNIERES 29 CONCLUSION 52 FIGURES 63 NOTES 114 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 126 APPENDIX 133 - i v -LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1: Satyr and Goat, c. 16*7$, P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 2. S t u d i e s (Brest Notebook), 1880, C a l l i a n : Georg C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 3 i Manet. Coin des J a r d i n s des T u i l e r i e s , c. 1862, P a r i s : Musee du Louvre. F i g u r e 4. Manet. Rue Mosnier au bec-de-gaz, 187$, Chicago: A r t I n s t i t u t e . F i g u r e 5. Manet. The B a l l o o n , 1862, P a r i s : B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e . F i g u r e 6. S t u d i e s ( B r e s t Notebook), 1880., F i g u r e 7. S t u d i e s (Brest Notebook), 1880-1, Besancon: Besson C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 8. F a c t o r i e s i n Moonlight, c. 1883, New York: Tarnopol C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 9 . The Railway Embankment, c. 1883. F i g u r e 10. Homme A s s i s , c. 1883. F i g u r e 11. Mme. Seurat Reading, c. 1883, New York: Lewyt C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 12. Hommage a Pu v i s , 1881, P a r i s : Beres C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 13. Puvis de Chavannes. The Poor Fisherman, 1880-1, P a r i s : Musee du Louvre. F i g u r e 14. Hoer, c. 1883, New York: Guggenheim Museum. F i g u r e 15. M i l l e t . The Hoer, 1860-2, USA: p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 16. Woman Leaning on a Parapet, c. 1881, P a r i s : Angrand C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 17. Burnt-out Palace of the T u i l e r i e s , c. 1&82. F i g u r e 18. Faneuses a Montfermeil, c. 1881-2, P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 19. Stonebreaker, c. 1883, B r a d f o r d : Hanley C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 20. F a c t o r i e s , c. I883, Troyes: Levy C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 21. Hobo, c. 1886, P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . L i s t of F i g u r e s (Cont'd) F i g u r e 22. F i g u r e s i n the S t r e e t , c. 1883, S w i t z e r l a n d : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 23. L T I n v a l i d e , c. 1881, New York: Rothbart C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 24. Une Baignade a A s n i d r e s , 1883-4, London: N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . F i g u r e 25. Les Deux R i v e s , 1883, Glasgow: A r t G a l l e r y and Museum F i g u r e 26. Le Pont de Courbevoie ( A s n i e r e s ? ) , 1883. F i g u r e 27. La Seine a A s n i l r e s , 1883, P a r i s : Renand C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 28. Chevaux dans l e Fle u v e , 1883, London: Courtauld I n s t i t u t e . F i g u r e 29. Cheval et Bateaux, 1883, P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 30. Baigneurs, 1883, P a r i s : Renand C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 31. L ' A r c - e n - C i e l , 1883, New York: Davis C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 32. Personnage A s s i s , 1883, C l e v e l a n d : Museum of A r t . F i g u r e 33. Cinque Personnages Males, 1883, P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 34. Vetements, 1883, London: Tate G a l l e r y . F i g u r e 35. Vetements et Chapeau, 1883, S c o t l a n d : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 36. Jeune Garcon et Cheval, 1883, Edinburgh: S c o t t i s h N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Modern A r t . F i g u r e 37. S t u d i e s (Brest Notebook), 1880. F i g u r e 38. Garqons se Baignant, 1883, P a r i s : Gourgand C o l l e c t i o n F i g u r e 39. Baigneur A s s i s , 1883, Kansas C i t y : Nelson-Atkins Museum. F i g u r e 40. Etude F i n a l e , 1883-4, New York: Levy C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 41. L'Echo, 1883-4, New York: Wetmore C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 42. Garqon de Dos, 1883-4, P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 43. Nude, 1883-4, London: M o r r i s o n C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 44. Garcon A s s i s , 1883-4, New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y A r t G a l l e r y . - v i -L i s t of F i g u r e s (Cont'd) F i g u r e 45. Jambe, 1883-4, Stockholm: Bonnier C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 46. R e c l i n i n g Man, 1883-4, B a s e l : B e y e l e r C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 47. Man, 1883-4, New York: Seligman C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 48. Man, 1883-4, P a r i s : Musee du Louvre. F i g u r e 49. Vetements, 1883-4, Pomfret Center: O r s w e l l C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 50. Une Dimanche apres-midi a L ' l l e de l a Grande J a t t e , 1884-6, Chicago: A r t I n s t i t u t e . - v i i -LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS H Hauke, Cesar M. de. Seurat et Son Oeuvre. 2 v o l s . P a r i s : Gruend, 1961. DR Dorra, H e n r i , and Rewald, John. Seu r a t : L'Oeuvre p e i n t , b i o g r a p h i e , et catalogue c r i t i q u e . P a r i s : Les Beaux A r t s , (ca. 1959). de L e i r i s de L e i r i s , A l a n . The Drawings of Edouard Manet. Berk e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1969. - v i i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o thank Bradford C o l l i n s , my a d v i s o r , f o r h i s t a c t , p a tience and support, both moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l . IMT -1-Georges Seurat's Une Baignade a Asnieres was f i r s t exhibited i n May of 1884. The f i r s t c r i t i c a l comments.date from shortly a f t e r the opening of the Salon des Independants. The f i r s t published reference to the Baignade i s Roger Marx's review of the Independants i n Le V o l t a i r e of May 16, 1884. Marx, although non-commital, does express pleasure at the " i n d i c a t i o n 1 of serious q u a l i t i e s . " C a l l i n g the painting impressionist as he 2 does, i t seems not unreasonable to suggest that Marx found some-thing i n the work to d i s t i n g u i s h i t from the paintings of the older "impressionists" - Monet and Renoir. 3 What Marx means by the phrase "marque d'un temperament" i s d i f f i c u l t to assess, but i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d i t i s the imprint of Seurat's mind which appealed to Marx. Only a day l a t e r Trublot (Paul Alexis) commented on the work in Le C r i du Peuple. Une Baignade (Asnieres), by Monsieur Seurat (Georges), boulevard de Magenta. - This i s a fake Puvis de Chavannes. What ri d i c u l o u s bathers, men and g i r l s / s i c7 ' . But painted with such earnestness that i t i s almost ^ moving, and I dare not r i d i c u l e i t f u r t h e r . Despite the aperqu of Seurat's earnestness, Trublot/Alexis makes a fundamental mistake when he assumes that Seurat intended to emulate Puvis. While formal and perhaps c o l o u r i s t i c debts are c e r t a i n l y present, we hope to show that the content of the picture i s very much removed from Puvis. In 1886 Bernheim-Jeune, at the behest of Camille Pissarro, included Seurat i n an exhibition of impressionist paintings which he sent to New York. The work received notice i n three newspapers, - 2 -Seurat's b i g study of boys b a t h i n g , a " p l e i n - a i r " e f f e c t , w i l l r e c e i v e an a t t e n t i o n which might b e t t e r be bestowed upon P i s s a r r o ' s remarkably t r u t h f u l and b e a u t i f u l drawings of peasants, and S e r r e t ' s d e l i g h t f u l l i t t l e s t u d i e s of rChildren. . There i s more humanity here. The reviewer f o r the New York D a i l y Tribune r e q u i r e s i n h i s a r t an a n e c d o t a l q u a l i t y which, w h i l e p o s s i b l e t o read i n t o P i s s a r r o , i s not found i n Seurat's p i c t u r e . The second American reviewer was much more h o s t i l e towards the Baignade:: The great master, from h i s own p o i n t of view must s u r e l y be Seurat, whose monstrous p i c t u r e of the "Bathers" consumes so l a r g e a p a r t of G a l l e r y D. T h i s i s a p i c t u r e con-ceived i n a coarse, v u l g a r and commonplace mind - the work of a man seeking d i s t i n c t i o n by the v u l g a r q u a l i f i c a t i o n and expedient of s i z e . I t i s bad from every p o i n t of view i n c l u d i n g h i s own. While c e r t a i n l y u n f a i r i n a c c u s i n g Seurat of "seeking d i s t i n c t i o n " through the c r e a t i o n of a l a r g e p i c t u r e , the w r i t e r i s by no means i n c o r r e c t when he c a l l s the work v u l g a r . T h i s was s u r e l y cue of the o b j e c t i o n s of the Salon j u r o r s . I t i s a f a i l i n g of the review' erf;that he could not p e r c e i v e t h a t the work would have been a f a i l u r e i f i t had not been v u l g a r i n m i d d l e - c l a s s terms. The t h i r d American reviewer echoes h i s c o l l e a g u e a t the Sun 7 i n c a l l i n g the work "uncouth," and f e e l s t h a t t h i s work r e v e a l s "the uncompromising s t r e n g t h of the i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s c h o o l . " What t h i s "uncompromising s t r e n g t h " e n t a i l e d i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n . I t does, however, seem f a i r l y c e r t a i n , i n view of the use of "uncouth" as a d e s c r i p t i v e term, t h a t i t i s the s u b j e c t matter which i s r e f e r r e d t o . The ^ s t r e n g t h " which i s s t r e s s e d i n d i c a t e s a w i l l i n g n e s s to d e a l w i t h l i f e as i t i s i n a l l i t s uncouth elements. Signac was the f i r s t to d i s c u s s i n d e t a i l the importance 9 of Seurat's use of c o l o u r i n 1899 , and i t i s i n f a c t t h i s f e a t u r e which has to a l a r g e extent dominated the l i t e r a t u r e of the p a i n t i n g s i n c e then. I t was not u n t i l 1925 t h a t a n a r t i c l e devoted to the B a i g -nade appeared - t h i s on the o c c a s s i o n of i t p a s s i n g i n t o the c o l l e c t i o n of the T r u s t e e s of the Courtauld Fund, and thence to 10 11 the Tate G a l l e r y . J . B. Manson's a r t i c l e , w hile extremely g e n e r a l , does make s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s : t h a t i t i s , 12 while extremely f o r m a l , q u i t e unacademic ; and t h a t while being 13 an " i m p r e s s i o n i s t " p i c t u r e , i t i s d i s t i n c t and i n d i v i d u a l . The a r t i c l e does not, however, speak of the s u b j e c t matter; the major i t y of the t e x t being confined to d e s c r i p t i o n and comments on the t r a n s i t i o n a l nature of the image. F i n a l l y , however, the work i s t r e a t e d as an a r t o b j e c t : I t owes i t s f i n e q u a l i t y of d e c o r a t i o n to i t s very harmonious and.intimate r e l a t i o n -s h i p of mass and l i n e . ^ Roger Fry was p a r t i c u l a r l y a ttached to the Baignade f o r i t s f o r m a l q u a l i t i e s : ...the s e c r e t of t h i s great composition, the compelling harmony of a l l these forms... and the remarkable j u s t n e s s of Seurat's c o m p o s i t i o n a l balance. T h i s harmonious balance, which Seurat owes to P u v i s , and perhaps a t l e a s t i n p a r t to P i e r o , was a l s o remarked upon by _4-Robert Rey i n h i s La Renaissance du Sentiment C l a s s i q u e . As Rey suggested, Seurat had, d e s p i t e choosing a s u b j e c t which was 16 " f a m i l i a r " , created an image which was f a r from the " s e n s u a l 17 tumult" of i m p r e s s i o n i s t p i c t u r e s such as Renoir's Luncheon of the Boating P a r t y . In 1941, Benedict N i c h o l s o n p u b l i s h e d the f i r s t e x t e n s i v e 18 study of the p i c t u r e . In h i s a r t i c l e the e v o l u t i o n of the work i s t r a c e d through the three sketches known to him (H 89, DR 92; H 88, DR 95 and H 91, BR 96). Otherwise, he comments 19 b r i e f l y on Seurat's use of d u l l c o l o u r s and Chevreul's t h e o r y . L i k e Rey and F r y before him, N i c h o l s o n comments on the formal p r o p e r t i e s of the work. However, ...analyses of t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n f a i l to r e v e a l any new f a c t s about Seurat's r e a l i n t e n t i o n s . What i s worthy of n o t i c e i s t h a t These strange elemental beings have no organic i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p . There i s no sense of c o n t i n u i t y from one bather to another. I t i s as though each f i g u r e had been painted on a drop c u r t a i n and lowered i n t o p l a c e at h i s c o r r e c t d i s -tance from the s p e c t a t o r so as to e x i s t independantly i n h i s own atmosphere. They are not acquainted with one another, these bathers, nor show any i n t e r e s t i n the behaviour, thoughts or appearance of each o t h e r . Yet N i c h o l s o n f e e l s t h a t they are " u n i t e d i n the common purpose 22 of r e c r e a t i o n . " N i c h o l s o n d i s t i n g u i s h e d the Baignade from the works of the i m p r e s s i o n i s t s because Seurat does not d e a l with " l i f e i n all i t s - 5 -23 moods of g a i e t y , sadness, debauchery, /and/ l o v e " but "the 24 s o c i e t y of common people" , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of "people 25 and t h i n g s . " N i c h o l s o n d e s c r i b e s these f i g u r e s as "cogs i n 26 a s o c i a l machine," and y e t , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , f e e l s t h a t They p r o f i t from the l e i s u r e s o c i e t y p r o v i d e s f o r them. 28 and that the Baignade i s symbolic of "organised l e i s u r e . " While many of N i c h o l s o n ' s conceptions are c o r r e c t , we w i l l argue t h a t r a t h e r than viewing t h i s s i t u a t i o n f a v o u r a b l y , Seurat i n -tended t h a t we see i t i n a very unfavourable l i g h t . In 1946 John Rewald, with e x t e n s i v e a s s i s t a n c e from F e l i x 29 Feneon, p u b l i s h e d h i s study of S e u r a t . H i s comments on the Baignade are e s s e n t i a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e , and echo Signac and Feneon i n a n a l y z i n g the c o l o u r and the c o m p o s i t i o n a l dynamics. Indeed, although he quotes Feneon's statements i n d i c a t i n g t h a t Seurat was 30 of a n a r c h i s t l e a n i n g s , he does not d i s c u s s the s u b j e c t matter at a l l , and makes the e x t r a o r d i n a r y a s s e r t i o n t h a t "there i s no 31 sadness i n the p i c t u r e s of Seurat." In the same year, Douglas Cooper p u b l i s h e d a short pamphlet 32 on the p i c t u r e . In h i s a r t i c l e , Cooper d e t a i l s the h i s t o r y of the work, and b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e s the t e c h n i c a l v a r i a t i o n s found i n i t . Why the Baignade was r e j e c t e d by the Salon j u r y i s a vexing q u e s t i o n ; Cooper f e e l s t h a t i t i s because the work i s too matter-33 o f - f a c t , and t h a t i t was the l a c k of a "moral u p l i f t " which l e d t o i t s r e j e c t i o n . -6-Cooper f e e l s t h a t : The s u b j e c t of Une Baignade i s an everyday-scene on the banks of the Seine i n one of the w o r k i n g - c l a s s suburbs of P a r i s . . . . T h e motionless f i g u r e s a l l f a c e the same way and show no i n t e r e s t i n each other; they appear an a i m l e s s and chance c o l l e c t i o n of people, each occupied w i t h h i s own p r i v a t e r e l a x a t i o n , united only by t h e i r commo^^ a b s o r p t i o n i n a p l e a s u r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e . There i s t h e r e f o r e "no moral to be d i s c o v e r e d , no s i t u a t i o n t o 35 be understood" , the p i c t u r e e x p r e s s i n g "the a t t i t u d e to l i f e of a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y at a p a r t i c u l a r time, as w e l l as the 36 r e l a t i o n of man to h i s world." Cooper does not provide us w i t h any clue as to what t h i s " a t t i t u d e " i s , or how man r e l a t e s t o h i s w o r l d . The work is about p l e a s u r e pure and simple, i n Cooper's o p i n i o n : the sun i s s h i n i n g , the c o l o u r s a r e . l i g h t , the water i s smooth, and nothing moves. Cooper r a i l s a g a i n s t those who t r e a t the p i c t u r e 37 i n only formal terms, and y e t seems to have been seduced by the e x q u i s i t e f ormal harmony and c l a s s i c a l calm, i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t a l l i s r i g h t i n the world which these men and boys occupy. In 1958, W i l l i a m Homer pointed out the Baignade's k i n s h i p 38 with P u v i s ' The Happy Land : both works r e l a t e a group of f i g u r e s on a shore to a l a r g e expanse of water; i n each there are s a i l b o a t s on the water; both are p a l e i n c o l o u r , and have a st r o n g t h r u s t from the upper l e f t t o lower r i g h t ; and f i n a l l y both are s t a t i c and calm i n tone. In the same a r t i c l e , Homer began h i s s t u d i e s of Seurat's c o l o u r t h e o r y . 39 Sven Lovgren's i n t e r e s t i n g study The Genesis of Modernism only touches on Seurat's work before 1884-5. However, i n prepar-i n g the ground f o r h i s study of La Grande J a t t e , LoVgren com-40 of the p i c t u r e - and on Seurat's soon-developed f r i e n d s h i p s ments upon the extremely i n t r o v e r t e d and melancholy c h a r a c t e r 41 i n Z o l a ' s c i r c l e . 4 2 Henri Dorra and John Rewald p o i n t out that the f i n a l s ketch f o r the Baignade was e x h i b i t e d i n February and March of 1884, at a showing f o r the C e r c l e des A r t s L i b e r a u x - u n f o r t u n -a t e l y we have no r e c o r d of p u b l i c r e a c t i o n , i f indeed there was any. N e i t h e r w r i t e r suggests any s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the Baignade. In commenting on e a r l i e r panels of peasants and workers, 45 however, they do note the i n f l u e n c e of M i l l e t and P i s s a r r o . Kenneth C l a r k ' s chapter on the B a i g n a d e ^ i s c e r t a i n l y the f i n e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n of the work as p a i n t i n g . Lord C l a r k does not, however, f e e l t h a t there i s a n y t h i n g of a s o c i a l nature i n , 47 t h i s work. Eugenia Herbert's e x c e p t i o n a l l y important study, The A r t i s t 48 and S o c i a l Reform, while p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the p o s t -Baignade a c t i v i t i e s of Seurat and the other n e o - i m p r e s s i o n i s t s , does b r i e f l y d i s c u s s the p a i n t i n g . Herbert notes t h a t the p a i n t -i n g i s a d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to the elegant bathing ^ and b o a t i n g scenes of the i m p r e s s i o n i s t s . and i s s e t i n A s n i e r e s , "then very much a working c l a s s d i s t r i c t 50 dominated by f a c t o r i e s . " Robert Herbert's Seurat's Drawings, although only concerned with the Baignade i n a s u b s i d i a r y f a s h i o n , makes a number of o b s e r v a t i o n s about Seurat's a r t as a whole. Herbert comments on - 8 -51 Seurat's new use of the i n d u s t r i a l suburbs as s u b j e c t matter, 52 h i s sympathy f o r workers and peasants, and the f a c t t h a t c r i t -i c i s m of the b o u r g e o i s i e i s i m p l i c i t i n such s u b j e c t matter. Of the Baignade, Herbert d i s c u s s e s the d e f i n i n g r o l e of the drawings, and notes the p e c u l i a r d i s p a r i t y of technique between the s o l i d and heavy f i g u r e s and the l i g h t n e s s of the landscape * • 55 and r i v e r . 56 De Hauke's gr e a t oeuvre catalogue, while i n d i s p e n s i b l e f o r any s e r i o u s work on Seurat, does not i n c l u d e a c r i t i c a l study of the a r t i s t ' s work. We must note, however, t h a t he does not i n c l u d e 57 one of the sketches f o r the Baignade i n h i s catalogue, although the work i n q u e s t i o n seems a u t h e n t i c . A thorough, and almost o v e r l y c o n v i n c i n g study by W i l l i a m 58 Homer, d i s c u s s e s the use of technique i n the Baignade. Homer d i s t i n g u i s h e s three types of brushstroke - the heavy, pasty p a i n t of the f i g u r e s , the rough balaye* of the g r a s s , and the long para-59 l l e l s t r o k e s of the water. Homer c h a r a c t e r i z e s Seurat as wish-in g to combine P u v i s ' sense of d e c o r a t i v e d e s i g n with a modern d i v i s i o n i s t approach and contemporary s u b j e c t matter... 61 R u s s e l l ' s study of Seurat p o i n t s out the t r a n s i t i o n a l 62 nature of the Baignade ; Seurat's use of i m p r e s s i o n i s t technique, combined w i t h more s o l i d s t y l e , and h i s attempts a t using Ogden 63 Rood's c o l o u r system. Yet f o r a l l t h i s , R u s s e l l f e e l s t h a t 64 Seurat i s making a comment. The p r e c i s e nature of t h i s comment i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e ; Seurat, however, probably shared the l e f t -65 i s t views of h i s f r i e n d s . R u s s e l l f e e l s t h a t -9-...the mere f a c t of h i s wishing to democ-r a t i z e A r c a d i a and p i c t u r e i t i n the l i k e -ness of p l e a s u r e s of tjag w o r k i n g - c l a s s was a gesture of d e f i a n c e . . R u s s e l l p o i n t s out Seurat's a f f i n i t i e s with P u v i s , but notes the 67 f a c t of modern s u b j e c t matter i n S e u r a t . The author's most i n t e r e s t i n g suggestions are two, which he does not f u l l y e l a b o r a t e upon. He suggests ...that the s u b j e c t matter of the p a i n t i n g was planned as c a r e f u l l y as i t s mathematics, or as the r e l a t i o n between the top of the head of the c e n t r a l f i g u g g and the r o o f l i n e of the C l i c h y f a c t o r i e s . F i n a l l y >\ and most i n t e r e s t i n g l y , R u s s e l l suggests t h a t the s m a l l f e r r y boat i s ...the bark of o f f i c i a l d o m , i n d i f f e r e n t i f not a c t u a l l y h o s t i l e to^fche unorganized working-men on the bank... making towards the pleasure-ground of La Grande J a t t e . P i e r r e C ourthion, although n o t i n g , as had many w r i t e r s before 70 him, Seurat's i n t e r e s t i n the working c l a s s , does not d i s c u s s the Baignade i n such terms. Rather, he views the d i s p a r a t e t e c h -niques and somewhat s t i f f nature of the Bai gnade as being the r e s u l t of Seurat's youth, the Baignade f u n c t i o n i n g as a t e s t p i e c e f o r h i s s k i l l . 71 Jean S u t t e r ' s study of the n e o - i m p r e s s i o n i s t s d e a l s with Seurat at some l e n g t h . S u t t e r i s a t some pains to p o i n t out the dualism of the Baignade: the impressionism of the landscape and s u b j e c t matter as a whole, and the sense of permanence>and 72 c l a s s i c a l calm of the f i g u r e s . I t i s , however, these formal -10-concerns which occupy S u t t e r , v i r t u a l l y to the e x c l u s i o n of sub-j e c t matter. In 1976, the Baignade was the s u b j e c t of one of the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y ' s P a i n t i n g i n Focus e x h i b i t i o n s . The s m a l l pamphlet by 73 C e c i l Gould, which was the catalogue of the e x h i b i t , i s the most re c e n t d i s c u s s i o n of the p i c t u r e . Gould d i s c u s s e s the image i n terms of what he c a l l s "th e c r i s i s of impressionism", t h i s being the doubts and d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by a r t i s t s such as Renoir and P i s s a r r o i n the e a r l y 74 e i g h t e e n - e i g h t i e s . There was, Gould f e e l s , a d e s i r e to s o l i d i f y and strengthen the e t h e r e a l and l i g h t s t r u c t u r e s of p i c t u r e s such as Renoir's The Swing. T h i s c r i s i s would account f o r the d i v e r s i t y found i n the p i c t u r e i t s e l f - w a t e r / f i g u r e s and between the croquetons and the drawings. T h e r e f o r e , Seurat i s to be seen as attempting to couch old i m p r e s s i o n i s t s u b j e c t n a t t e r i n a new formal language. A b r i e f examination of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s two s t r a i n s of thought about the Baignade. The o l d e r , and more p r e v a l e n t , i s t h a t which suggests that the primary import of the p i c t u r e l i e s i n i t s f o r m a l a s p e c t s : the s o l i d i t y of the f i g u r e s , the geometric o r g a n i z a t i o n and the beginning of an ordered use of c o l o u r . T h i s view i s expressed by A l e x i s ( T r u b l o t ) , and i s continued through Ch r i s t o p h e , F r y , Cooper, Dorra, Homer and most r e c e n t l y , Gould. The other s c h o o l of thought which has only emerged i n f a i r l y r e c e n t times, suggests that the key to the Baignade l i e s not i n f o r m a l and t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , but i n the s u b j e c t matter. T h i s essay seeks to expand on the suggestion of the H erberts and 75 R u s s e l l , t h a t there i s "more than meets the eye" i n these s u l l e n -11-f i g u r e s by the Se i n e . In s h o r t , t o answer the q u e s t i o n s , why, i f these people are a t l e i s u r e , do they look so unhappy, and what d i d Seurat mean by i t ? -12-CHAPTER 1: SEURAT'S CAREER BEFORE THE BAIGNADE -13-In 1879, Seurat was posted to the coastal town of Brest, to perform his national service."'" This posting marked the end of his 2 formal a r t i s t i c t r a i n i n g . Of t h i s year, 1879-80, spent i n Brest, we have one a r t i s t i c record, the so-called Brest notebook. The notebook, some s i x t y leaves, has received scant attention i n Seurat l i t e r a t u r e , perhaps due to the d i s p e r s a l of the leaves. 3 The d i f f i c u l t y of assessing these drawings has led to an unfort-unate neglect, and perhaps an overly strong emphasis on the reading Seurat did at this period. The drawings themselves are remarkable i n that they are so fundamentally d i f f e r e n t from his e a r l i e r student drawings. His student drawings, which can be characterized by H 299, (Satyr and Goat), are marked by an immense care and attention to subtle s h i f t s of shadow, and minute modulations of form. In the Satyr and Goat (figure 1), as i n the best n a t u r a l i s t i c work, the flow of l i g h t i s p r e c i s e l y documented, and contour i s c a r e f u l l y set. The drawing i s thus t y p i c a l l y academic, rigourous, c a r e f u l , and yet mechanistic and detached. The drawings of the Brest notebook are, i n contrast, rapid notations. The subjects are recorded with extreme speed and economy. There i s almost nothing of the shading and hatching of his student drawings H 319 (figure 2 ) . A few strokes are used to record the outline, and t h i s s u f f i c e s to convey a sense of volume and movement. The Brest notebook, unlike the student drawings, confronts situations and characters of the natural world. While a sense of volume had always been part of Seurat's a r t , a sense of movement i s not found i n the student drawings. This new movement i s -14-i n d i c a t i v e of the s h i f t away from the posed, and thus c o n t r o l l e d , models of the s t u d i o s i t u a t i o n t o the world a t l a r g e . There i s a constant mix of c h a r a c t e r s i n these drawings -middle c l a s s and worker - h i s peers, and those who are q u i t e apart from h i s experience. A l l are observed i n an almost m a t t e r - o f - f a c t f a s h i o n . T h i s treatment of s u b j e c t matter i s not, of course, p e c u l i a r t o Seurat. Here, he shows h i m s e l f very much a p a r t of h i s times -honing h i s o b s e r v a t i o n a l s k i l l s , as had many n a t u r a l i s t w r i t e r s and a r t i s t s before him. We may yet be more s p e c i f i c , however; f o r Seurat stands, as we s h a l l see, w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c t r a d i t i o n i n a l a r g e r n a t u r a l i s m : that of the f l a n e u r . B a u d e l a i r e i n h i s famous essay, The P a i n t e r of Modern L i f e , c h a r a c t e r i z e s C o n s t a n t i n Guys as a " l o v e r of crowds."^ A crowd allows anonymity and permits the r e c o r d i n g of s m a l l i d i o s y n c r a t i c d e t a i l . Guys i s f o r B a u d e l a i r e a f l a n e u r , a "non-I"; he f l o a t s at a d i s t a n c e , and yet i s n e i t h e r unthinking nor u n f e e l i n g . He can, and does f e e l the h o r r o r of war; he can, and does love as a l o v e r ; but t h i s i s not evident i n the a p p a r e n t l y emphemeral and t r i t e products of h i s hand. The " I " i s not d i r e c t l y p resent; Guys might be a machine i n making h i s work so "non-I", so o u t s i d e of s e l f . The essence of the work i s i n t e l l e c t u a l r a t h e r than emotional; B a u d e l a i r e ' s flaVieur f e e l s with h i s i n t e l l e c t r a t h e r than h i s emotions. The whole i s t h e r e f o r e v a s t l y g r e a t e r than the sum of the p a r t s of the work. I t i s a l l the more remarkable that B a u d e l a i r e should have l i g h t e d upon Guys as the p a i n t e r of modern l i f e , f o r Guys, w h i l e i n f i n i t e l y m a l l e a b l e , d i d not r e a l l y adopt the i n t e l l e c t u a l stance -15-which B a u d e l a i r e r e q u i r e d . As a consequence one has a f e e l i n g of unease when t r y i n g t o r e l a t e B a u d e l a i r e ' s c a l l f o r the "hero-6 i c i s m of modern l i f e " t o the p a l l i d products of Guys' hand. The concept of the f l a n e u r i s perhaps more v i v i d and i n t e r -e s t i n g when one c o n s i d e r s the work of Manet. In the e a r l y seven-t i e s , he begins to r e c o r d , seemingly at random, i s o l a t e d events i n and of the s t r e e t s . These random, or a p p a r e n t l y random, draw-ings are an i n t e r e s t i n g statement of the Baudelairean i d e a l : a concern f o r modern l i f e . The seemingly c o l d r e n d e r i n g s c o n t a i n 7 a good d e a l more of the a r t i s t than i s immediately apparent. Manet's n a t u r a l i s m was, l i k e Emile Z o l a ' s , much more poi n t e d than might appear t o the c a s u a l o bserver. While one cannot c a l l Manet a crusader, t o suggest that he was i n d i f f e r e n t to p o l i t i c s and s o c i e t y would be t o s e r i o u s l y underestimate him. Drawings such as de L e i r i s 170, Coin du J a r d i n des T u i l e r -i e s , ( f i g u r e 3) and de L e i r i s 502, Rue Mosnier au bec-du-gaz, ( f i g u r e 4 ) , are good examples of Manet's detached imagery of the "non-I". Both are o b s e r v a t i o n a l , m a t t e r - o f - f a c t i n tone. Yet a work such as The B a l l o o n ( f i g u r e 5) , which on the s u r f a c e i s only an i n d i f f e r e n t r e c o r d i n g of an event, i n f a c t makes a d i r e c t com-ment about progress and French s o c i e t y i n the l a s t h a l f of the 8 century. Thus Manet i s the i d e a l f l a n e u r , committed, i f you care to look and t h i n k , and yet not v u l g a r l y r h e t o r i c a l . Seurat's drawings are o f t e n s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to those of h i s p r edecessor. Both d e a l t with the c a s u a l l y encountered s u b j e c t - drawings such as de L e i r i s numbers 246, 269 and 291, would seem to be of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n r e l a t i o n t o Seurat. The lone f i g u r e i s i s o l a t e d ; l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n i s made of s e t t i n g - o n l y enough to -16-o r i e n t the viewer. The B r e s t notebook has e s s e n t i a l l y o n l y one s u b j e c t , as do most f i g u r e drawings: the i n d i v i d u a l , whether middle c l a s s or worker, going about h i s business or i n some cases f a i l i n g t o do so. In H 332, a c o b b l e r p l y s h i s t r a d e . Despite r e l a t i v e economy of means, Seurat has been c a r e f u l t o s p e c i f y who t h i s f i g u r e i s , by showing him at work. In another drawing, H 350, a c l e a n e r scrubs a w a l l . Both f i g u r e s work at s o l i t a r y occupations of a r a t h e r d r e a r y n a t u r e . Drawings such as the two mentioned, l i k e others i n the Brest notebook, i n i s o l a t i o n are worthy of l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n , but i f without e d i t o r i a l r h e t o r i c , they are not without comment about manual labou r and i t s nature - the s t u l t i f y i n g r e -p e t i t i o n and p a i n f u l boredom. The tone of most of the drawings i s n e u t r a l ; there i s v i r t u a l l y no emotion - where emotion appears i t i s m e l a n c h o l i c . A sad, r e -signed sense of d e s p a i r i s evident i n the d e j e c t e d slouches of H 364 ( f i g u r e 6 ) , H 374, and H 331 ( f i g u r e 7); the l a t t e r drawing the more remarkable f o r i t s r e f e r e n c e t o Degas' Absinthe D r i n k e r . I f we d e f i n e n a t u r a l i s m as r e c o r d i n g what one sees, Seurat i s not g r e a t l y d i f f e r e n t from the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s . The I m p r e s s i o n i s t s d i d not, however, choose to see people. Seurat i s concerned w i t h people i n a way t h a t Monet, and even Renoir, are not. While Seurat's a r t i s not e s s e n t i a l l y n e g ative i n tone, i t does not (at l e a s t at t h i s p o i n t ) have an a r t i f i c i a l g a i e t y about i t . He observes what comes before h i s eye and e x e r c i s e s h i s a r t i n d e c i d i n g what to r e c o r d and what not to r e c o r d . The Brest notebook r e p r e s e n t s a passage from the dead I n g r i s t e t r a d i t i o n of the student drawings to an a r t of some modernity and -17-r e l e v a n c e to Seurat's own s i t u a t i o n - as a modern a r t i s t , as a man i n t e r e s t e d i n events, i n p o l i t i c s and modern l i f e . He emerges as an i n d i v i d u a l who g i v e s c o n s i d e r a b l e thought and, as we s h a l l see, d i r e c t i o n t o h i s work. In November of 1881, Seurat returned to P a r i s from B r e s t . We know l i t t l e of h i s a c t i v i t y f o r the r e s t of 1881. I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t , however, t h a t the remarkable development of h i s mature drawing s t y l e begins. During the next s i x months, Seurat worked almost e x c l u s i v e l y with c h a r c o a l and paper, c r e a t i n g s u p e r b l y atmospheric drawings which, d e s p i t e o f t e n mundane su b j e c t matter, r e t a i n an element of mystery and strangeness. The s u b j e c t s of these drawings are i n c r e d i b l y v a r i e d . The urban drawings, houses (H 537), and s t r e e t s (H 564), are of a mysterious, inky b l a c k n e s s . There are a l s o images of the i n -c r e a s i n g l y i n d u s t r i a l o u t s k i r t s of P a r i s , f a c t o r i e s , (H 536, f i g -ure 8; H 550), and the r a i l w a y (H 471, f i g u r e 9; H 472; H 478). The P a r i s i a n s drawn by Seurat are middle and working c l a s s . There are many w e l l - d r e s s e d and d i s c r e e t l a d i e s (H 495), but a l s o a remarkable number of d e r e l i c t s , (H 490, f i g u r e 10), l a b o u r e r s , (H 520), l a u n d r e s s e s , (H 493), and s t r e e t s e l l e r s (H 450). Des-p i t e the v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t s , the tone i s v i r t u a l l y unchanged: non-commital and d i s t a n t . T h i s l a c k of emotion i s even t r u e of p o r t r a y a l s of h i s mother and f a t h e r (H 584, f i g u r e 11; H 600). The r e t u r n from Brest marks the r e a l i n t r o d u c t i o n of p a i n t -ing i n t o Seurat's oeuvre as w e l l . His p a i n t i n g s p r i o r t o 1882 are c o n f i n e d t o a copy a f t e r Ingres, and a r a t h e r melancholy p o r t r a i t of h i s c o u s i n . -18-One of the things that Seurat does appear to have done during the l a s t few days of 1881 was to r e e s t a b l i s h , or rather e s t a b l i s h , some contacts i n the art world of P a r i s . With Aman-Jean, he joined many other young a r t i s t s who found some work and encourage-ment in the studio of Puvis de Chavannes. Puvis de Chavannes was then engaged on the decorative scheme^, for the Pantheon and employed several young men to help prepare* the canvas and a s s i s t i n the laying i n of the fi g u r e s . It i s only within the l a s t year that an attempt has been made to assess Puvis' importance f o r the art of the late nineteenth century. The exhibition Puvis de Chavannes and the Modern Tradi-q t i o n has shown how widespread was his influence. That he was immensely admired by the younger generation i s indisputable. Even the fact that Toulouse-Lautrec should caricature a Puvis compos-i t i o n (Lautrec's Bois Sacre which introduces moderns into Puvis' c l a s s i c a l arcadia), speaks of a certain p o s i t i o n . Signal evidence of how highly Seurat regarded his i s offered by an incident which occurred shortly before Seurat's death. In The Circus, 1890-1, the l a s t work exhibited by Seurat, there i s a s l i g h t s p a t i a l d i f f i c u l t y i n the positioning of the horse. Seurat was heard to remark, at the opening of Les Independants, 10 that he was a f r a i d that Puvis would notice his mistake. Puvis de Chavannes was a decorator i n an age when v i r t u a l l y a l l important painting was easel painting. He created huge decor-ative schemes i n Palaces of Justice, l i b r a r i e s , and the l i k e . Puvis, i n f a c t , received v i r t u a l l y every large decorative scheme available for almost t h i r t y years. The obvious question i s , of -19-course: why? What did Puvis have that Monet, Renoir or even Manet lacked? The quality of permanence seems to have been Puvis' greatest asset; his c l a s s i c i z i n g forms speak of s o l i d i t y and calm. He excelled at creating a mood of quiet dignity through pale and often chalky colouring, pseudo-classical f i g u r e s , and warm, gentle landscapes. He appealed to an ambiguous emotional sense, a certain i l l - d e f i n e d sweetness which we f i n d somewhat vapid. Puvis' work e l i c i t e d considerable emotional response i n his own day, however. In 1880-1, he was engaged on one of his most celebrated works, the Poor Fisherman. Featuring a profoundly pathetic f i g u r e , the image was shown at the Salon of-1381. Like so much of Puvis' work, i t s meaning i s unclear. We are presented with a seeming Ch r i s t - f i g u r e , an imago ^pietatis, but one that lacks any r e a l power. We do not f e e l anything more than a s l i g h t sympathy for the fisherman, i f indeed we f e e l that. The position of the a r t i s t i s unclear, as i s that of the observer. I f the painting i s intended to be an expression of sympathy fo r the poor (as i t seems to be), i t i s somewhat oblique. The work denies any specificity; i t i s rather a tone piece. The suggestive tone i s appealing, and herein l i e s i t s f a u l t ; the image i s sapped of a l l force. There can i n fact be no bite without greater s p e c i f i c i t y . Perhaps the painter of the Solemn  Land could not bring himself to introduce r e a l suffering or pov-erty into Arcadia. This work seems to have interested Seurat a great deal, for i n 1881 he painted Hommage "a Puvis (H 6, DR 4, figure 12), which refers d i r e c t l y to the Poor Fisherman (figure 13). The small -20-panel i s o l a t e s the Poor Fisherman as a p a i n t i n g , an o b j e c t ; p l a c i n g i t i n a suburban landscape. I t has been suggested by F i o r e l l a 11 Minervino t h a t Seurat combines these two seemingly incongrous elements, to suggest that there i s a need t o combine the c l a s s i c i s m of P u v i s with the s p o n t a n e i t y of nature and I m p r e s s i o n i s t technique. 12 Minervino may not be e n t i r e l y wrong i n t h i s view, but i t seems l i k e l y t h a t Seurat was l e s s d i s i n t e r e s t e d . In Seurat's p a i n t i n g the e s s e n t i a l elements of the P u v i s are s i m p l i f i e d so as to become almost i c o n i c and, i n t e r e s t i n g l y , more d i s t a n t . The p a i n t i n g (Poor Fisherman) i s t i g h t e n e d up and compressed, c r e a t i n g an almost square s u b s e c t i o n of the p a n e l . The o b j e c t - n a t u r e of the Poor  Fisherman s u b s e c t i o n i s f u r t h e r emphasized by the heavy areas of shadow on the top and r i g h t , which serve t o push the p i c t u r e away from the s u r f a c e . The landscape i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o t h i s c l o s u r e . I t i s u n r e s t r i c t e d and expansive, d e s p i t e the s m a l l s i z e of the p a n e l . I t i s a n a t u r a l i s t i c d e p i c t i o n of a r e a l i t y , where the Poor Fisherman i s an a r t i f i c i a l r e n d e r i n g of a f i c t i o n . There i s then a r e a l i t y , and an o b j e c t w i t h i n t h a t r e a l i t y . Seurat i s s u r e l y commenting on P u v i s ' treatment of the s u b j e c t . Just as the Poor Fisherman of the panel does not r e l a t e t o the l a r g e r sphere of the p a n e l , P u v i s ' d e p i c t i o n of the poor f i s h e r does not r e l a t e t o the r e a l i t y of the working c l a s s e s . The im-p l i c a t i o n i s c l e a r : i f one i s t o show workers, show them as they are, not set i n an i d y l l i c never-never land of p a s t e l c o l o u r s , and misty atmosphere. Puvis i s the l a s t important b a s t i o n of academic a r t , a c l a s s i c i s t i n an i m p r e s s i o n i s t , soon to be p o s t - i m p r e s s i o n i s t , world. T h i s Seurat admires, and yet while paying t r i b u t e t o Puvis -21-i n the Hommage panel, he must of needs go beyond him. In the spring of 1882, Seurat went to Barbizon. By the 1880s, t h i s journey had become a common one - indeed by Seurat's time, Barbizon boasted an a r t i s t ' s supply shop. The impression-i s t s had come to paint the countryside; and while Seurat did the same, his major interests lay elsewhere. While i n Barbizon, Seurat introduced peasants into his work; peasants who, for the most part, work i n the f i e l d s . It would therefore appear that Seurat went to Barbizon not because everyone else did, but rather because of i t s associations with M i l l e t . Seurat was probably exposed to M i l l e t i n a number of ways, but two events were probably of major importance: the 1879 estate sale, and more importantly, the publication i n 1881 of Sensier's memoir. Sensier stresses the directness and honesty of M i l l e t ' s s t y l e . 13 M i l l e t ' s statement, "I paint things as I see them," no doubt appealed to Seurat's n a t u r a l i s t i c side. The recasting of M i l l e t i s evident i n the theme of the hoer (H 103, DR 42, figure 14). Here i s another example of Seurat r e l a t i n g to, and yet subtly adjusting an idea. M i l l e t ' s painting (figure 15) i s savage and bru t a l , wrenching at the viewer's s e n s i b i l i t i e s . Seurat's panel has none of these q u a l i t i e s ; i t i s placid and anonymous. Seurat does not need to paint i n the r e l e n t l e s s l y physical fashion of M i l l e t . Where M i l l e t e l i c i t s an emotional, v i s c e r a l response (indeed could be said to demand i t ) , Seurat appeals to the i n t e l l e c t . Like Manet, Seurat understates his case. If we cannot make the associations which are necessary, we miss the point. -22-Seurat, i n evoking M i l l e t , relates himself to the socially-conscious art of the generation of 1848. M i l l e t , despite his protests, was perceived as sympathetic to s o c i a l i s t ideas as la t e 14 as 1886. Here Seurat d i f f e r s markedly from the impressionists who, with the exception of Pissarro, apparently displayed l i t t l e i n terest i n s o c i a l themes or ideas. On his return to Paris, Seurat's inte r e s t i n the people con-tinued. He turned from peasants back to the stree t s . There are more drawings of the type we have seen previously - street people (H 671) and d r i f t e r s (H 514). The subjects seem to speak of a general d i s - a f f e e t i o n found i n the lower classes (H 462, figure 16). One of the works Seurat executed upon his return i s a small panel of the Burnt-out Palace of the T u i l e r i e s (H 13, DR 60, f i g -ure 17). The T u i l e r i e s .was a large palace which adjoined the Louvre on what i s now the Jardin des T u i l e r i e s . It housed many government o f f i c e s , and during the r e b e l l i o n of 1871, the workers of the commune burned i t as a seat of unjust government. Seurat had not experienced the Commune of 1871. His father had taken the family from the c i t y during the uprising, and by the time the family returned to Paris, there were v i r t u a l l y no traces of the uprising l e f t . The major exception was the Palace of the T u i l e r i e s , which remained as a reminder against challenging authority (also because of indecision as to what to do with the large area now freed). Compositionally the picture i s of l i t t l e i n t e r e s t , but sel e c t -ing that p a r t i c u l a r subject i s at the very least highly suggestive. Seurat could not have been unaware of the association of the ruin with the struggle for emancipation of the worker. -23-A second t r i p t o Barbizon i n the f a l l of 1882, or e a r l y s p r i n g of 1883, deepened Seurat's t i e s w i t h M i l l e t ' s form of n a t u r a l i s m . We f i n d s m a l l panels of workers i n the f i e l d s - g l e a n e r s , people 15 r a k i n g and g a t h e r i n g ; f i g u r e s which, as R u s s e l l suggests, occur c o n s t a n t l y i n M i l l e t . These s t u d i e s (H 34, DR 10, f i g u r e 18; H 60, DR 41; H 62, DR 19) combined wi t h the e a r l i e r more p a r t i -c u l a r i z e d " p o r t r a i t s " (H $9, DR 20; H 15, DR 30; H 16, DR 44) of more solemn (one might even say s u l l e n ) bent, r e p r e s e n t Seurat's comments upon, and a b s o r p t i o n o f , M i l l e t ' s s u b j e c t matter and c o n t e x t . The second t r i p t o B a r b i z o n a l s o i n t r o d u c e d new s u b j e c t mat-t e r i n the form of stonebreakers (H 33, DR 20, f i g u r e 19). There are t e n s m a l l panels d e a l i n g w i t h the s u b j e c t of stonebreakers, as w e l l as at l e a s t f i v e drawings - e i t h e r s i n g l y or i n groups. Each f i g u r e i s i s o l a t e d i n h i s j o b ; even i n the groups there i s no communication other than working at the same job i n the same p l a c e . Seurat's s t e a d f a s t r e f u s a l t o g i v e these f i g u r e s any humanity has l e d others to suggest that the a r t i s t was not r e a l l y 16 concerned w i t h s u b j e c t matter. S u r e l y , however, the very f a c t of employing t h i s s u b j e c t so many times suggests some i n t e r e s t i n the i d e a of the theme. The use of t h i s motif must i n e v i t a b l y cause us to c o n s i d e r 17 Courbet's famous essay of 1848. C l a r k has suggested t h a t the reason f o r the profoundly negative r e a c t i o n t o Courbet's Stone-breakers was not so much what was t h e r e , as what was not t h e r e . The p i c t u r e l a c k s any sense of hope. Max Buchon, i s h i s annonce f o r the e x h i b i t i o n of the Stonebreakers and the B u r i a l a t Ornans, begins h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the former: -24-Les Casseurs de p i e r r e s sont un t a b l e a u a deux personnages grand comme nat u r e , un enfant et un v e i l l a r d , 1'alpha et 1'omega, l ' a u r o r e et l a c r e p u s c u l e de cet e x i s t e n c e de f o r c a t s . In Bouchon and C l a r k ' s s o c i a l i s t view of the work these two f i g u r e s are indeed p r i s o n e r s . For the o l d man there i s no escape, he i s r e s i g n e d t o constant t o i l u n t i l he d i e s . More d e v a s t a t i n g however, i s the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the boy w i l l j u s t as s u r e l y f o l l o w the same path. Courbet p r e s e n t s these workers t o us with l i t t l e e l a b o r a t i o n . There i s v i r t u a l l y no space i n the p i c t u r e . The f i g u r e s are f o r c e d upon us, a l l o w i n g us no convenient escape. We are f o r c e d t o d e a l with these men, not as men; but as o b j e c t s or r a t h e r machines. The image i s unpleasant; the only way we are allowed to f i n i s h the i d e a t i o n i s n e g a t i v e l y . One cannot, i n the face of. such evidence, c l i n g t o the myth of the peasant i n a s y l v a n a r c a d i a . The coldness of p r e s e n t a t i o n may have led.. Proudhon to take Courbet as the p a i n t e r of humanitarian anarchism. Whatever the reason, however, Proudhon's w r i t i n g s a s s o c i a t e d Courbet with the a n a r c h i s t i c idea of f r e e i n g the peasant from h i s l i f e of drudgery. Thus th e r e was more i n v o l v e d than j u s t t a k i n g advantage of bour-geoi s g u i l t . The r e a c t i o n could not help but be negative i n P a r i s , t h a t most bourgeois of c i t i e s . Whether Courbet intended the p i c t u r e to have that message remains i n doubt, but there can be l i t t l e doubt that the p i c t u r e was p e r c e i v e d as such by the supporters of Courbet, and by the middle c l a s s a l i k e . Seurat was, we must assume, aware of the a s s o c i a t i o n s i n h e r -ent i n such s u b j e c t matter and not i n c i d e n t a l l y of Courbet's r o l e -25-i n the Commune of 1&71. Assuming h i s awareness of these a s s o c i a -t i o n s , he has i n using the s u b j e c t annexed Courbet's p o s i t i o n to h i s own mind s e t . While i t i s o b v i o u s l y impossible t o make c a t e - . g o r i c a l statements about Seurat's p o s i t i o n ( l a c k i n g , as we do, hard e v i d e n c e ) , i t i s s u r e l y not unreasonable t o suggest t h a t Seurat has gone one step f u r t h e r than Courbet i n these p a n e l s . By d e p r i v i n g these f i g u r e s of even the l i t t l e humanity a f f o r d e d them i n Courbet, by making them i n s i s t e n t p a r t s of h i s imagery, Seurat has shown us t h e i r p l i g h t i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , even more v i v i d l y than Courbet d i d . As i n works by Manet - the o l d s o l i e r i n Rue Mosnier decked  with F l a g s - the workers are t h e r e , but not t h e r e ; and yet f i n a l l y are d e f i n i t e l y and d i s t u r b i n g l y t h e r e . Seurat seems t o have been sympathetic t o the p o s t i o n of the stonebreakers he saw i n Bar b i z o n . The extreme a u s t e r i t y of t h i s sympathy, completely devoid of the c l o y i n g s e n t i m e n t a l i t y M i l l e t was sometimes g u i l t y o f , has l e d , however, t o the assumption t h a t Seurat was completely o b j e c t i v e and unmoved by the world around him. On the second t r i p t o Barbizon, Seurat a l s o contined the s e r i e s of panels which d e p i c t e d workers i n the f i e l d s - H 58, DR 59, f o r example - which make r e f e r e n c e to M i l l e t ' s s u b j e c t matter, while d i s p e n s i n g w i t h the semi-pious overtones which the l a t t e r gave t o h i s work. On h i s r e t u r n t o P a r i s , Seurat continued working outdoors and executed s e v e r a l landscapes which are remarkable f o r t h e i r l u c i d i t y and very c l o s e to the i m p r e s s i o n i s t s i n technique. Soon, however, h i s work i n the " b a n l i e u e " turned to more urban s u b j e c t matter: f a c t o r i e s . -26-Seurat was by no means the f i r s t French a r t i s t to use f a c t o r -i e s as s u b j e c t matter. There are numerous smokestacks c r e e p i n g i n t o the p a s t e l world of the i m p r e s s i o n i s t s . He i s , however, the f i r s t to d e a l with f a c t o r y as f a c t o r y . There are f o u r panels which centre on f a c t o r i e s and t h a t d e p r e s s i n g f e a t u r e of i n d u s t r i a l P a r i s , l a Zone: the barren defense a r e a s , devoid of v e g e t a t i o n , which surrounded the f a c t o r i e s . There i s a p e c u l i a r , austere q u a l i t y to most of these p a n e l s , but p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g i s H 75, DR 13 ( f i g u r e 20), a s m a l l p i c t u r e probably executed i n l a t e 1882, or very e a r l y 1883. The c o l o u r i s extremely low key, as though e v e r y t h i n g was s o i l e d . T h i s , of course, i s the case; and the p a i n t i n g i s a remarkable study of urban (or r a t h e r suburban, where c i t y and country meet) d e s o l a t i o n . There i s no s i g n of l i f e , no h i n t of warmth i n the work. I t i s almost as i f the h o r r o r s of the s i t u a t i o n - the smok-ing f a c t o r i e s , the dead landscape, the sharp, b r u t a l b u i l d i n g s -have a l r e a d y succeeded i n e r a d i c a t i n g t h a t pale i n h a b i t a n t , the modern i n d u s t r i a l worker. Man's own c r e a t i o n has, by i m p l i c a t i o n , destroyed him. Seurat's i n t e r e s t i n the f a c t o r i e s once a g a i n l e d him back to the P a r i s i a n people: workers before a f a c t o r y (H 550), l a u n -dresses (H 648), a s t r e e t washer (H 56l) and i s o l a t e d , anonymous f i g u r e s (H 573, H 603). The l a t t e r are a p a r t of the d i s a f f e c t e d to which Seurat so o f t e n r e t u r n s (H 645, f i g u r e 21; H 521). There i s a l s o a s m a l l panel of urban f i g u r e s (H 69, DR 59, f i g u r e 22), lounging and s t r o l l i n g , seemingly s u f f e r i n g from the most urban of f a t e s : ennui. - 2 7 -T h i s panel has l i n k s t o the e a r l i e s t work of Seurat, the haunting panel and drawings of the ' I n v a l i d e ' (H 12, DR 9 , f i g -ure 23; H 460, H 459) - the d e s p a i r i n g c h a r a c t e r l o o k i n g over the parapet of the Seine, contemplating, i t seems, s u i c i d e . How are we to assess these works? G e n e r a l l y , i t i s f a i r t o say t h a t Seurat i s sympathetic to the p o s i t i o n of the worker and the peasant. We know l i t t l e of Seurat's p o l i t i c s , indeed he makes no statements of any kind which are p o l i t i c a l . I t i s not, however, impossible to suggest h i s l e a n i n g s . Seurat's l a t e r f r i e n d s amongst the n e o - i m p r e s s i o n i s t s , namely D u b o i s - P i l l e t , Signac, Cross, P i s s a r r o , Luce - and amongst c r i t i c s A l e x i s , Feneon, and Verhaeren, are to a man s o c i a l i s t . 19 Indeed, Herbert 1 suggests t h a t P i s s a r r o may have j o i n e d the neo-i m p r e s s i o n i s t s more f o r t h e i r p o l i t i c s than t h e i r a r t . A l l of the other n e o - i m p r e s s i o n i s t s c o n t r i b u t e d drawings (and Signac money) t o a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l i s t organs, most not-a b l y Le Temps Nouveaux. Feneon wrote of Seurat, i n a l e t t e r t o Rewald: . . . h i s l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c f r i e n d s and those who supported h i s work i n the press belonged to a n a r c h i s t c i r c l e s , and i f h i s o p i n i o n s had d i f f e r e d r a d i c a l l y from t h e i r s , the f a c t would have been remarked. 0 These a t t i t u d e s were not only found i n the neo-impression-i s t c i r c l e , however. Since the 1840s, when George Sand had espoused s o c i a l i s m , such d o c t r i n e s had been important i n French i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e . In French l i t e r a t u r e , these sentiments are found i n the novels of Z o l a and i n B e l g i a n , i n the p o e t r y of Verhaeren. In the v i s u a l a r t s , Van Gogh before Seurat had d e a l t -28-w i t h the s u f f e r i n g s of miners i n Belgium and the peasants of southern France. K r o p o t k i n , who asks a r t i s t s t o ...show the people the u g l i n e s s of contemporary l i f e . J-i s e x p r e s s i n g what many a r t i s t had a l r e a d y begun t o do. Seurat's work forms an unmistakable p a t t e r n , r e l a t i n g t o the p o l i t i c a l l e f t , and s t r o n g l y suggesting the need f o r b e t t e r treatment of peasant and worker. Seurat at t h i s p e r i o d a l s o .turns h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h a t other most notable f e a t u r e of P a r i s : the r i v e r S e i n e . There are a num-ber of i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c essays of the r i v e r , i n c l u d i n g H 74 , DR 75 which may be Courbevoie. In these panels of boaters and fishermen, Seurat e x p l o r e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of men t o the r i v e r and l e a r n s to d e p i c t the now s l u g g i s h , now sparkling Seine. In Seurat's p o s t - B a r b i z o n p a i n t i n g s then, there are two un-equal s t r a i n s : a concern f o r the i n d u s t r i a l , f a c t o r i e s and work-e r s , and a concern f o r the Seine. In the s p r i n g of 1883 the stage i s set f o r the Baignade. -29-CHAPTER 2: UNE BAIGNADE A ASNIERES -30-In the l a t e s p r i n g of 1883, probably May, Seurat began h i s most ambitious p r o j e c t so f a r : the p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the p a i n t i n g Une Baignade a A s n i e r e s . Buoyed no doubt by a modest success at the S a l o n of t h a t winter''", he now began a p r o j e c t of v a s t l y g r e a t e r s c a l e (the p a i n t i n g i s 2 by 3 metres) and complexity than any of h i s previous p i c t u r e s . For none of h i s e a r l i e r works are there any drawings or s t u d i e s . For the Baignade there are f i f t e e n o i l s ketches, and nine drawings. Such p r e p a r a t i o n s would seem to suggest t h a t Seurat conceived of the Baignade as a Salon debut from i t s c o n c e p t i o n . Indeed the whole program of i t s p a i n t i n g up to and i n c l u d i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of a modello suggest an approach q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the e a r l i e r p l e i n - a i r , r a p i d l y executed, p a n e l s . Seurat has f a l l e n back on h i s sound academic t r a i n i n g , producing a composition s l o w l y and c a r e f u l l y from a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s and drawings, the f i n a l p a i n t i n g being e n t i r e l y a product of the s t u d i o . The modello f o r the work was e x h i b i t e d i n February and March of 1884 at the C e r c l e des A r t s L i b e r a u x . There i s no r e c o r d of any p u b l i c r e a c t i o n . The completed work was submitted to the Salon at the end of March. I t was r e j e c t e d and not shown u n t i l May 15, when the S a l o n des Independants opened. The Baignade (H 92, DR 98, f i g u r e 24) shows us e l e v e n people i n , on or by the Seine. F i v e of the f i g u r e s s i t or l i e on the l e f t bank i n v a r i o u s s t a t e s of undress. Two of them, the c e n t r a l f i g u r e and t h a t on the extreme l e f t , wear summer c l o t h i n g . The c e n t r a l f i g u r e has l e f t h i s c l o t h e s i n a p i l e beside him. The others on the r e l a t i v e l y steep bank remain f u l l y c l o t h e d - perhaps t a k i n g a b r i e f r e s t from work. Two s m a l l boys are i n the water -31-near the bank - the n e a r e r perhaps b u g l i n g with h i s hands t o an unseen f o e ; the f a r t h e r with h i s back towards us. The r i v e r i s p l a c i d , and t h e r e are a v a r i e t y of boats on t h i s wide s t r e t c h : three s m a l l s a i l b o a t s , a r a c i n g s h e l l and three people i n a s m a l l boat making i t s way a c r o s s . The l a s t -mentioned are a woman h o l d i n g a white p a r a s o l ; and a t o p - h a t t e d man - being rowed to the land on the r i g h t , by a man i n a s m a l l boat decorated with a l a r g e French f l a g . The land to the r i g h t i s the l i e de l a Grande J a t t e , the s i t e of Seurat's next p i c t u r e . In the background i s a b r i d g e and a row of f a c t o r y smoke-s t a c k s . From the c e n t r a l one, smoke b i l l o w s upward and o f f t o the l e f t , s uggesting a very s l i g h t breeze (although we must note t h a t the f l a g i s u n f u r l e d ) . The c o l o u r s are l i g h t but somewhat chalky, and none are c l o s e t o f u l l s a t u r a t i o n . Most are p r i s m a t i c , but there are s t i l l e a r t h tones, which he was not to dispense w i t h u n t i l much l a t e r when 2 he adopted a f u l l y i m p r e s s i o n i s t p a l e t t e at the urging of S i g n a c . C o m p o s i t i o n a l l y , the p i c t u r e i s b u i l t around the major d i a -g o n al of the shore. T h i s descends from about t w o - t h i r d s up the l e f t edge t o almost the r i g h t c o r n e r . There i s a s t r o n g h o r i z o n -t a l r i g h t a c r o s s the p i c t u r e , at about the t w o - t h i r d s mark of the v e r t i c a l ( i . e . 2:1); there i s , f i n a l l y a s t r o n g v e r t i c a l running through the main f i g u r e at about the same p r o p o r t i o n (2:1). 3 As Homer has noted , the p a i n t i s a p p l i e d i n a number of d i f -f e r e n t methods^": the grass and t r e e s being executed i n rough c r i s s -c r o ss or balaye s t r o k e s , the water i n l o n g t h i n , p a r a l l e l s t r o k e s of s l i g h t l y d i f f e r i n g tone, the sky i n a f a i r l y rough scumbling -32-s of the p a i n t . Although there i s t h i s v a r i e t y of s t r o k e r , a l l these s e c t i o n s have a l i g h t n e s s , almost a s p a r k l e to them. The f i g u r e s a r e , however, p a i n t e d i n a more t r a d i t i o n a l , more f i n i s h e d manner. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n technique has the e f f e c t of making the f i g u r e s much more s o l i d , p h y s i c a l l y h e a v i e r . These dense, earth-bound c r e a t u r e s seem out of p l a c e i n t h i s almost w e i g h t l e s s w orld. This heaviness i s echoed i n the q u a l i t y of the l i g h t i n the p i c t u r e . U n l i k e i m p r e s s i o n i s t images of s i m i l a r scenes, Renoir's Luncheon of the Boating P a r t y f o r example, there i s a d u l l n e s s , a haze, over a l l i n the Seurat. Rather than being l i g h t and en-v i g o r a t i n g , the atmosphere i s heavy and o p p r e s s i v e . The breeze i s v i r t u a l l y n o n e x i s t a n t , the heat i s b l i s t e r i n g and the r i v e r s l u g -5 g i s h . Rey c h a r a c t e r i z e d the work as being of a c l a s s i c a l calm. Torpor would seem t o be a more accurate d e s c r i p t i o n . The f i g u r e s are l i s t l e s s and weary, they have none of the v i v a c i t y and j o i e de v i v r e which i s such an important p a r t of the r i v e r i n e composi-.tions of the i m p r e s s i o n i s t s . T h i s i s something c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t from an i m p r e s s i o n i s t p i c t u r e . These f i g u r e s are not happy and are not e n j o y i n g a p l e a s a n t a f t e r n o o n on the r i v e r b a n k . As we have p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, th e r e are s e v e r a l s t u d i e s f o r the Baignade, and i t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a sequence f o r the s t u d i e s and t r a c e the e v o l u t i o n of Seurat's 6 c o n c e p t i o n . The f i r s t sketch i s probably t h a t known as Les Deux Rives (H 79, DR 84, f i g u r e 25), now i n Glasgow. In i t , N i c h o l s o n sug-7 g e s t s , Seurat seems t o remain reasonably f a i t h f u l t o the topography -33-of the a r e a . In the background i s the A s n i e r e s b r i d g e and some smokestacks. The l e f t bank of the Seine i s more i r r e g u l a r , and not as high as i n the f i n a l work. The panel i s a l s o devoid of any h i n t of l i f e . The p o s i t i o n of the next s k e t c h , Le Pont de Courbevoie (Asnieres?) ( f i g u r e 26), i n the e v o l u t i o n of the p i c t u r e i s pro-b l e m a t i c . U n l i s t e d i n de Hauke, i t i s catalogued at number 84 b i s i n Dorra-Rewald, and yet there i s no evidence to suggest t h a t 8 they are connected i n any way. The panel i s , however, of some s i g n i f i c a n c e , e s t a b l i s h i n g as i t does a number of the f i n a l f e a t -ures of the p a i n t i n g . The importance of the l e f t bank, although i l l - d e f i n e d here, i s a s s e r t e d by the mass at the l e f t of the p a n e l . The smoking s t a c k i s i n t r o d u c e d i n v i r t u a l l y the same h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n as i n the f i n a l work. The h o r i z o n t a l t h r u s t of the bridge i s a s s e r t e d . F i n a l l y , two boats are i n t r o d u c e d : a s m a l l s a i l b o a t t o the r i g h t and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , the s m a l l rowboat with the three people - two customers, a woman with a p a r a s o l , and a man i n a top hat, t r a n s p o r t e d by a boatman. F i n a l l y , i t r e p r e s e n t s an experiment i n c o l l a p s i n g the p i c t u r e space, thus c l a r i f y i n g the background i n a way not found i n the e a r l i e r s k e t c h . T h i s p r o x i -mity t o the b r i d g e i s r e j e c t e d i n the f i n a l work, but Seurat does maintain the g r e a t e r c l a r i t y i n t r o d u c e d here. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of people i n t o the landscape seems to have been a two-fold p r o c e s s . There e x i s t a number of sketches which c l e a r l y seem to have been executed en p l e i n - a i r and yet a g r e a t e r number which were probably executed i n the s t u d i o . La Seine a A s n i e r e s (H 83, DR 85, f i g u r e 27) b r i n g s us much c l o s e r to the b r i d g e , r a i s e s our p o i n t of view and i n t r o d u c e s -34-three ( p o s s i b l e f o u r ) people; two (or t h r e e , the t h i r d being the o b j e c t on the l e f t edge) on the shore, and a f i g u r e i n the r i v e r . Just above the f i g u r e i n the water i s a low boat, p o s s i b l y one of the type i n t r o d u c e d i n the preceeding s k e t c h . G e n e r a l l y , t h i s composition i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; and Seurat soon abandons i t f o r a more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d bank area, as w e l l as a deeper space which allows the r e t e n t i o n of a s t r i p of the Grande J a t t e . As i s now e v i d e n t , Seurat takes c o n s i d e r a b l e l i b e r t i e s with the form of the r i v e r b a n k and the shape of the space-box. The next sketch seems l i k e l y t o have been p a i n t e d out of doors, but i t i s probably the l a s t one Seurat p a i n t e d en p l e i n - a i r . The sketch Chev.aux - dans Le Fleuve (H 86, DR 88, f i g u r e 28) r e t a i n s s e v e r a l of the f e a t u r e s i n t r o d u c e d i n the second s k e t c h : the s t r o n g h o r i z o n t a l of the b r i d g e , the r e l a t i v e l y shallow space, the high l e f t bank, and the two boats on the r i v e r (the p o s i t i o n s have, however, been a l t e r e d and the rowboat i s awkwardly d e p i c t e d head-on). Into the foreground he has i n t r o d u c e d a b l a c k horse, being Q washed, and a white horse, with a man a s t r i d e i t . N i c h o l s o n sug-g e s t s t h a t Seurat's placement of horses i n the r i v e r i s f a n t a s y . It appears, on the c o n t r a r y , t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e was q u i t e common du r i n g the p e r i o d . One author r e p o r t s seeing horses being washed i n the Seine, and reproduces a drawing of the s u b j e c t by Jacomb U A 10 Hood. The horses i n the r i v e r seem to have i n t e r e s t e d Seurat s u f -f i c i e n t l y f o r them to have been r e t a i n e d i n the next s k e t c h , Cheval  et Bateaux (H 85, DR 87, f i g u r e 29). T h i s work, which might be c a l l e d an omnibus of h i s ideas to date, was e v i d e n t l y not executed out of doors, but i n the studio. While retaining the high l e f t bank and the horizontal of the bridge, a number of major changes have occurred. There are now three figures seated on the r i v e r -bank, the one on the l e f t perhaps an i n i t i a l study for the l e f t figure of the f i n a l picture. The horse has been moved to the middleground separate from the figure i n the water who, now turn-ing his back to us, occupies a position s i m i l a r to that i n the f i n a l version. There are now three boats on the r i v e r : two of the small rowboats - one midstream with one passenger and carry-ing a t r i c o l o u r , the other with three passengers - and the l a s t , a small and distant sailboat. The viewpoint i n t h i s panel i s higher, cutting off the sky and La Grande Jatte to the r i g h t . The o v e r a l l e f f e c t i s cluttered and untidy; there i s no easy movement into the panel. The eye i s tripped up on too many snags and un-needed b i t s of business. Seurat's next sketch seeks to remedy some of these problems. Baigneurs (H 87, DR 86, figure 30), while retaining the three figures seated on the bank, reorganizes them; thus making the f i g -ure i n white the most important. There are now three figures i n the water, two standing and one swimming. A horse remains i n the picture, but i s now pushed into the lower right corner - unfortun-ately seeming to be, as i t no doubt was, an after-thought. The area occupied by the Grande Jatte has been expanded by a s h i f t to the r i g h t , thus reducing the importance of the bridge and factories i n the background. The jumble of boats i n the r i v e r has been thinned, leaving only a single s a i l b o a t . The water i s treated here in a fashion which i s rougher but t e c h n i c a l l y s i m i l a r to that - 3 6 -i n the p i c t u r e i t s e l f - l o n g , t h i n , approximately p a r a l l e l s t r o k e s of c o l o u r . This sketch seems t o be an experiment with a set of b u i l d i n g b l o c k s , consequently i t i s rough and j a r r i n g . There has been l i t t l e attempt to smooth any rough s p o t s . In what i s l i k e l y the next s k e t c h , L T A r c - e n - C i e l (H 89 , DR 92, f i g u r e 3 1 ) , Seurat e s t a b l i s h e s the shape of the l e f t b a n k , which up to t h i s p o i n t has been amorphous. The forward p o i n t , the cove i n the mid-ground, the second p o i n t and the s t r o n g but g e n t l e d i a g o n a l undergo l i t t l e a l t e r a t i o n . The p r o p o r t i o n s of the background are e s t a b l i s h e d i n a form which i s e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged i n the Baignade i t s e l f . The t i p of the l i e de La Grande J a t t e i s at the r i g h t ; the long s t r e t c h of the Pont d ' A s n i e r e s , with a row of smokestacks behind i t , i s i n the c e n t r e . As i n the f i n a l work, from the c e n t r a l stack a cloud of smoke b i l l o w s upward. At the l e f t s i d e , Seurat has r e - i n t r o d u c e d the s m a l l group of houses and t r e e s seen i n the f i r s t s k e t c h . T h i s placement of equal weights at e i t h e r end of the span of the b r i d g e seems t o have been e s s e n t i a l i n the dynamics of the composition. Although Seurat experimented with a composition without t h i s system of balance, he i n e v i t a b l y returned to t h i s scheme, which i s f i r s t broached i n the Deux Rives s k e t c h . The composition r e q u i r e s a sense of s t a s i s , of calm, and t h i s i s achieved by c o n f i r m i n g the major h o r i z o n t a l t h r u s t . There are three f i g u r e s s i t t i n g on the bank, but as N i c h o l s o n s u g g e s t s ^ , Seurat seems to have f e l t t h a t - o n l y the f i g u r e on the l e f t was worth developing f u r t h e r . -37-The most e x t r a o r d i n a r y p a r t of t h i s panel i s , however, the rainbow. T h i s d e l i c a t e arch seems i l l - s u i t e d to these s t a i d and s i l e n t f i g u r e s . There i s no h i n t of r a i n (present or r e c e n t ) i n t h i s or any of the other p a n e l s . In a l l of them the sun i s s h i n -i n g , so as to create a b r i g h t , i f hazy, i l l u m i n a t i o n . I t would t h e r e f o r e appear t h a t Seurat Included the rainbow i n t h i s p a n e l f o r other than n a t u r a l i s t i c reasons. We must ask why Seurat might have i n c l u d e d the rainbow i n t h i s image. In attempting to determine Seurat's motive i t i s worth exam-i n i n g the e f f e c t of the rainbow of the tone of the p a n e l . T r a -12 d i t i o n a l l y , the rainbow has been used as a symbol of hope, and i t seems not u n l i k e l y t h a t i t performs a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n here. There i s l i t t l e movement i n the p a n e l , the f i g u r e s are very s o l i d -l y p l anted on the ground, the c o l o u r s are l i g h t but of low i n t e n s -i t y . In the background, smoke r i s e s from the s t a c k . None of the f i g u r e s communicate i n any way, and i t i s only through the r i v e r t h a t any sense of summer and i t s s p a r k l e i s r e l a y e d . The rainbow, however, adds an element of l i f e and hope. Our negative r e a c t i o n s are stayed; something i s about to change, the monotony of the s i t u a t i o n may be r e l i e v e d . The o p t i m i s t i c note expressed i n the A r c - e n - C i e l p a n e l soon vanishes. The panel Personnage A s s i s (H 80, DR 93, f i g u r e 32) e l i m i n a t e s the rainbow; f u r t h e r , the space between foreground and background i s a b r i d g e d . We and the lone f i g u r e are c l o s e r than ever t o the f a c t of the i n d u s t r i a l background. The shape of the bank i s preserved, however; as i s the balance e s t a b l i s h e d between the two landforms on e i t h e r end of the b r i d g e . - 3 8 -The figure i s pushed right up to the picture plane so as to almost s p i l l into our space. This man, incongruously dressed i n a dark jacket and bowler hat, i s perhaps a reference to or a preliminary idea f o r the farther of the two crouched figures i n the completed work. He i s c l e a r l y not enjoying himself. Although almost forced into our space, he remains i n s u l a r . Why he i s here, and whether he should be, are l e f t i n doubt. The ef f e c t of his presence i s to dampen and d u l l the image. It gives to an other-wise pleasant landscape a decidedly negative tone. Seurat seems to have had some d i f f i c u l t y i n deciding on poses and number of figures, as i s evident i n the works we have looked at so f a r . The sketch Cinq Personnages Males (H 82, DR 94, f i g -ure 33) represents an attempt to sort out some of these d i f f i ^ c u l t i e s . None of the figures are given any r e a l context, save that they are s i t t i n g , standing, or l y i n g down. The penultimate figure on the right seems to be a v a r i a t i o n on the figure i n the sketch just discussed - s l i g h t l y less formal (he i s now without any outer jacket) although hardly cheerier. In the background, two figures stand i n the water - one nude and one clothed - both apparently staring at some distant object. While the nude figure seems to be quite successful, Seurat apparently found both figures uncongenial and u t i l i z e d neither. The most inter e s t i n g aspects of t h i s panel are the two remaining fig u r e s , on the extreme right and on the extreme l e f t . The figure on the right i s a preliminary version of what i s to become the main f i g u r e . In t h i s f i r s t version the figure, while incomplete, i s already s i t t i n g with his hands i n the same posi-t i o n as i n the f i n a l work, his shoulders s l i g h t l y hunched over. -39-His head, however, i s completely l o s t t o us; there i s no h i n t of f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n . The f i n a l f i g u r e i n t h i s panel i s remarkably c l o s e to the pose of the f i g u r e i n the same p o s i t i o n ( i . e . the lower l e f t corner) i n the f i n a l work. Even the d e t a i l s of cos-tume, hat and long white overcoat, remain l a r g e l y unchanged i n the f i n a l work. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n i f Veternents (H 81, DR 89, f i g -ure 34) f i t s i n t o the sequence of sketches a t t h i s p o i n t , the p i c t u r e ' s e v o l u t i o n being somewhat p u z z l i n g i n any case. Perhaps Seurat had seen a p i l e of d i s c a r d e d c l o t h e s when o r i g i n a l l y s k e t c h i n g out of doors. He seems t o have l i k e d the i dea of a p i l e of c l o t h i n g f o r use i n d e f i n i n g the space, or perhaps as a way of r e f e r r i n g t o Manet's Dejeuner sur l ' h e r b e . The most i n t e r -e s t i n g element of the p a n e l i s however, the treatment of the water, f o r here i t i s most c l e a r l y l i k e t h a t of the f i n a l work. Long t h i n s t r o k e s of s l i g h t l y d i f f e r i n g c o l o u r g i v e the work a form of s p a r k l e or g l i s t e n . The second, and more remarkable, p o i n t about the d e p i c t i o n of the water i s the presence of a green patch f l o a t -i n g on i t . T h i s would seem to be a patch of weed or a l g a e , some-t h i n g which i s found i n about the same p o s i t i o n i n the Baignade i t s e l f . The premise f o r the sketch i s , however, the d i s c a r d e d p i l e of c l o t h e s . Here i t i s i l l - d e f i n e d ; and i n the next s k e t c h , V#tements et Chapeau (H 90, DR 90, f i g u r e 35), Seurat f u r t h e r examines the problem. In t h i s sketch a hat, t r o u s e r s and s h i r t c l e a r l y emerge where, i n the previous s k e t c h , there was an i n -d e c i p h e r a b l e jumble. T h i s more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d group i s used i n the f i n a l work. -4-0-T h i s s k e t c h , even more d e c i s i v e l y than the l a s t , c o n c e n trates on the form on the r i v e r bank. Seurat here explores the use of the l i g h t e r - c o l o u r e d r i f t as a device to d e f i n e space. The back-ground i s brought c o n s i d e r a b l y c l o s e r than Seurat has had i t f o r some time, p l a c i n g more emphasis on the b r i d g e and the smoking stacks behind i t . A c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of Seurat's l a c k of experience i n d e a l i n g w i t h a c o m p o s i t i o n a l problem t h i s complex i s found i n the next s k e t c h . Jeunes Garcons et Cheval (H 88, DR 95 , f i g u r e 3 6 ) , because of the shape of the s h o r e l i n e must c l o s e l y r e l a t e t o the sketch j u s t d i s c u s s e d . The work r e i n t r o d u c e s f i g u r e s , i n c l u d i n g a young man washing a horse. Seurat seems, however, to have found the idea of the horse i n the water unrewarding, and with t h i s s ketch d i s c a r d s i t ; although he does not abandon the idea of f i g u r e s i n the water. The background has r e t r e a t e d i n t o the d i s t a n c e once more, although i n doing t h i s Seurat has created another d i f f i c u l t y : r e s o l v i n g the t r a n s i t i o n from middle t o background. Here, t h i s t r a n s i t i o n does not r e a l l y e x i s t , being abrupt i n the extreme. In the background, we see the emphasis on the bridge and the smoking stac k s r e t a i n e d ; only here i t i s more i n s i s t e n t than anything t o t h i s p o i n t . Seurat has placed two f i g u r e s on the shore: i n the foreground a crouched f i g u r e , and i n the middleground a r e c l i n i n g f i g u r e . The r e c l i n i n g f i g u r e i s u t i l i z e d i n the same pose i n the background of the f i n a l composition. The major f i g u r e i n t h i s s k e t c h i s a refinement on f i g u r e s i n the s i x t h and seventh croquetons. Seurat, however, i n r e f i n i n g -41-and c l a r i f y i n g the f i g u r e , t urns to a much e a r l i e r drawing from the Brest notebook (H 370, f i g u r e 37). Unlike the drawing, how-ever, t h i s f i g u r e i s much more u p r i g h t and a l e r t . He s t a r e s o f f a c r o s s the r i v e r at an unseen source of i n t e r e s t . The next s k e t c h , Garcons se Baignant (H 84, DR 91, f i g u r e 38), r e i n t r o d u c e s b a t h e r s , with two f i g u r e s i n the water. In the foreground, the d i s c a r d e d p i l e of c l o t h i n g i s used once more, now i n t r o d u c i n g a p a i r of boots. On the second p o i n t of the bank, a new f i g u r e i s i n t r o d u c e d . T h i s man, dressed i n white, i s used i n the f i n a l work i n approximately the same p o s i t i o n ; although Seurat there expands the foreground, thus t h r u s t i n g the second p o i n t f u r t h e r back i n t o space. The next croqueton, Baigneur A s s i s (H 91, DR 96, f i g u r e 39), i s of major importance. For the f i r s t time, the two primary f i g -ures appear i n r e l a t i o n to each other, i n p o s i t i o n s c l o s e t o the f i n a l v e r s i o n . The l e f t f i g u r e i s v i r t u a l l y u n a l t e r e d from the t w e l f t h s k e t c h . The major f i g u r e f i r s t seen i n the n i n t h sketch has been placed on the edge of the bank, h i s l e g s d a n g l i n g i n the water. The p i l e of d i s c a r d e d c l o t h i n g i s placed behind him estab-l i s h i n g a r o l e f o r t h i s d e v i ce w i t h i n the l a r g e r context of the composition. The main f i g u r e i s d e f i n e d somewhat more c l e a r l y , Seurat having now g i v e n us a p r o f i l e view. S l i g h t l y hunched, he s t a r e s out over the water. On the r i g h t , the Grande J a t t e has again emerged, thus de-l i m i t i n g the bridge and f a c t o r i e s . The form of the long f a c t o r y b u i l d i n g s i s d e f i n e d f o r the f i r s t time i n these s t u d i e s , as are the b u i l d i n g s at the r i g h t . The number of smokestacks ( e i g h t ) -42-i s determined and the c e n t r a l stack i s e s t a b l i s h e d as the one which w i l l spew out i t s b l a c k fumes. In the r i v e r which i n t h i s , the penultimate o i l s k e t c h , i s t r e a t e d very c l o s e l y to the technique of the f i n a l work, we a g a i n see a f l o a t i n g mass of green v e g e t a t i o n . As may be c l e a r l y seen, Seurat's c o m p o s i t i o n a l method was, at l e a s t at t h i s p o i n t i n h i s c a r e e r , somewhat d i s o r g a n i z e d . I t was perhaps l a t e i n 1883 or January 1884 when Seurat re-examined the sketches he had made so f a r , and attempted to c o n s o l i d a t e t h i s v a r i e t y of ideas i n t o a workable format. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the Etude F i n a l e (H 93, DR 97, f i g u r e 40) . The composition l a i d out i n the sk e t c h we have j u s t d i s c u s s e d i s r e t a i n e d with two s u b t l e and important s h i f t s : more space i s added at the r i g h t , thus i n c r e a s i n g the p o r t i o n of La Grand J a t t e v i s i b l e ; and more space i s added to the foreground, thus pushing the two f i g u r e s i n the p r e v i o u s sketch away from the p i c t u r e plane. On the shore, there are now f o u r f i g u r e s and a dog: the major c e n t r a l f i g u r e ; the reclining man, h i s back to us and h i s dog at the lower l e f t . In the middleground t h e r e i s the crouched f i g -ure, who now wears the straw hat found i n the f i n a l work; and on the second p o i n t of la n d , the f i g u r e dressed i n white seen i n the t h i r t e e n t h s k e t c h . The two p i l e s of c l o t h i n g sketched e a r l i e r are placed i n a c o n v i n c i n g manner - that of the e l e v e n t h sketch to the f a r l e f t , and t h a t of the t e n t h and f o u r t e e n t h sketches beside the main f i g u r e , now w i t h the a d d i t i o n of h i s straw hat. In the water, there are three f i g u r e s , two of which are to remain: the s m a l l boy i n the red hat h a l l o o i n g , and the more -43-distant figure looking back over h i s shoulder. The t h i r d , at the f a r r i g h t , i s eliminated by Seurat i n the f i n a l version, i n favour of a s c u l l e r . On the r i v e r , which i s quite roughly painted, are two s a i l -boats and once again there i s a patch of green f l o a t i n g i n the water, just above the second bather. In t h i s synthesis, Seurat makes one very subtle but important change, of a type not suggested by the additive and selective processes we have just been describing: he reduces the i n t e n s i t y of the colour. By t h i s reduction of colour, he a l t e r s and cools our reactions, reduces our pleasure i n the image. The work i s rough, however, even at t h i s point; there.-'remain a number of points with which Seurat was obviously un s a t i s f i e d . Once he had the basic composition, he sought to refine the poses of several f i g u r e s . To do so he turned to drawings. 13 There are nine, possibly ten, drawings f o r the Baignade. They are a l l sublime variations and refinements of ideas united in the f i n a l study. The drawings can be broken down as follows: one drawing of the boy hallooing (H 591, DR 97a); one drawing of the other bather (H .596, DR 97c); a drawing of the main figure (H 598, DR 97b); two drawings of the crouched figure (H 594, DR 97d and H 595); three drawings of the r e c l i n i n g man (H 589, DR 97h; H 590, DR 97g and H 591, DR 97f); and f i n a l l y , a drawing of the p i l e of clothes by the main figure (H 593, DR 97e). A l l of the drawings were executed i n the studio, and a l l employ the technique of his mature s t y l e , conte on Michallet Ingres paper. -44-The f i r s t drawing, Echo ( f i g u r e 41), a c t s as the v e h i c l e f o r r e f i n i n g the very rough i n d i c a t i o n of the f i g u r e i n the f i n a l study. Seurat uses the drawing to d e f i n e p o i n t s of emphasis, p r i -m a r i l y the cheek and hand, i n the f i n a l p a i n t i n g . The drawing a l s o serves to b r i n g the f i g u r e more s h a r p l y i n t o f o c u s , a focus which i s not found i n the study. The second drawing d e f i n e s f o r the f i r s t time the pose of the second bather. Garcon de Dos ( f i g u r e 42) shows us, i n v i r t u a l l y complete d e t a i l , the f i g u r e as i t appears i n the p i c t u r e . , The shaded face turned back towards the viewer, the s t r o n g l y l i t back and the s l i g h t hunch of the shoulders are a l l used i n the f i n a l v e r s i o n . There i s here, perhaps, a r e f e r e n c e t o I n g r e s ' Bather  of V a l p i n c o n , i n which the f i g u r e adopts a s i m i l a r pose. The drawing i s a l s o an i n t e r e s t i n g document of the working method the a r t i s t used. A model was h i r e d and drawn i n the s t u d i o -here we can see an e a s e l and a window i n the background. T h i s c a r e f u l study i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o an i m p r e s s i o n i s t approach to s i m i l a r s u b j e c t matter, and r e c a l l s the v i g o r o u s approach of Seurat's student y e a r s . The study of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e ( f i g u r e 43) i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g f o r two reasons: the use of the nude model, and the s u b t l e s h i f t s i n the ligh,t and pose of the f i g u r e . The use of the nude i s i n the best t r a d i t i o n of Seurat's t r a i n i n g . T h i s c a r e f u l study of the model al l o w s Seurat t o get at the essence of the f i g u r e ' s s t r u c t u r e , and d e p i c t him with the sense of s o l i d i t y r e q u i r e d i n the f i n a l work. Seurat keeps us at about the same d i s t a n c e as i n the f i n a l s k e tch, but b r i n g s the whole i n t o much g r e a t e r f o c u s , and d e f i n e s -45-the l i g h t - f a l l f o r the f i n a l work. , Seurat's drawings are o f t e n , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , more c o l o u r i s t i c than h i s p a i n t i n g s ; and t h i s work i s no e x c e p t i o n . We get a remarkably r i c h range of tone i n the f i g u r e , from the h i g h l i g h t s , on the s h o u l d e r s , arm and l e g , t o the half-shadow on the back and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , the f a c e . The face i n shadow, i n combination w i t h the pose, s e r v e s t o d e f i n e the tone of the image. Here the head i s lower, the should-ers more hunched and the chest more caved-in than i n any of the sketches. There i s an unmistakably gloomy, depressed f e e l i n g to the f i g u r e . His i n t r o s p e c t i o n and m e l a n c h o l i c pose do not speak of a happy i n d i v i d u a l . The f i r s t of two drawings f o r the crouched f i g u r e ( f i g u r e 44) again c l a r i f i e s and focuses the f i g u r e , t o a g r e a t e r degree than e x i s t s i n the f i n a l croqueton. Here t h i s i n v o l v e s changes i n costume and pose, and a d e f i n i t i o n of the l i g h t - f a l l . The drawing e l i m i n a t e s the f i g u r e ' s dark s h i r t or v e s t , and s u b s t i -t u t e s a l i g h t one. In a d d i t i o n , the l e g s of h i s t r o u s e r s are r o l l e d up. In terms of pose, l i k e the l a s t f i g u r e d i s c u s s e d , the drawing hunches the shoulders a l i t t l e more and lowers the head. While d e f i n i n g the face more by sharpening the p r o f i l e , Seurat deepens the shadows upon i t ; thus making the f i g u r e more removed from the viewer. The l i g h t - f a l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the draw-ing i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t of the f i n a l work; t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of the h i g h l i g h t s on the arms and hat, which serve to t h r u s t the fa c e deeply i n t o shadow. The second drawing a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s f i g u r e i s Jambe ( f i g u r e 45). In t h i s drawing, Seurat s t u d i e s the volumes of the -46-f i g u r e ' s l e g s , i n a d d i t i o n t o f u r t h e r c l a r i f y i n g the f a l l of l i g h t and shadow. Although not a major drawing, t h i s work d i s p l a y s an e x q u i s i t e sense of c o n t r o l , and i s a superb r e n d e r i n g of three dimensions through the use of l i g h t and shadow. The f i r s t of the drawings which r e l a t e t o the r e c l i n i n g man (figu r e . 46) removes us s l i g h t l y from the f i g u r e . We are g i v e n more i n f o r m a t i o n about him, i n t h a t Seurat has decided t o i n c l u d e the whole f i g u r e . Seurat has a l s o lengthened the f i g u r e ' s white j a c k e t , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t he i s a butcher or some s i m i l a r shopkeeper. The other two drawings concentrate on the head and shoulders of the f i g u r e . The f i r s t of these ( f i g u r e 47) shows us a c l o s e r view of the f i g u r e ' s head, and d e p i c t s h i s overcoat as being w r i n -kled and animated by shadow. His f a c i a l f e a t u r e s begin t o emerge from the heavy shadow of the p r e v i o u s drawing. Although the pose and form of the f i g u r e are more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n the drawing j u s t mentioned, Seurat was s t i l l u n s a t i s f i e d . In the t h i r d d r a w i n g ( f i g u r e 48) , the f i g u r e i s brought much c l o s e r t o i t s f i n a l form. The f i g u r e ' s f a c i a l f e a t u r e s are b e t t e r d e l i n -eated - the l a r g e ear, the dark patch of the eye and nose; and the head i s turned s l i g h t l y more towards us. Seurat has a l s o smoothed out the c l o t h of the f i g u r e ' s coat, t r a n s f o r m i n g i t i n t o the hard s h e l l of the f i n a l p i c t u r e . The f i n a l drawing ( f i g u r e 49) i s a study of the c l o t h i n g of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e . Here Seurat r e f i n e s the form of the p i l e , i s o l a t e s the boots and p o s i t i o n s the hat more c a r e f u l l y . With the data provided by these drawings and the f i n a l s k e t c h , Seurat now begins the p i c t u r e i t s e l f . -47-There are s e v e r a l changes which occur between the f i n a l sketch and the completed p a i n t i n g . On the bank e v e r y t h i n g i s moved s l i g h t l y to the r i g h t , so as not to i n t e r f e r e with the l e f t edge of the p i c t u r e . The f i g u r e crouched on the second p o i n t of land i s now j o i n e d by a r e c l i n i n g man, who i s not i n the f i n a l sketch but appears i n the t w e l f t h study. The r e c l i n i n g man i n the foreground i s moved s l i g h t l y i n t o the space, as he i s i n the drawing; and h i s dog i s c l e a r l y e l a b -o r a t e d . The c e n t r a l boy/man i s moved s l i g h t l y deeper i n t o the space of the p i c t u r e - c l e a r l y s e p a r a t i n g him, and h i s p i l e of c l o t h -i n g , from everyone e l s e i n the p i c t u r e . Seurat r e t a i n s the g r e a t e r hunching of the shoulders found i n the drawing, as w e l l as the shaded f a c e . His p i l e of c l o t h e s i s f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d , and the upturned hat and the boots are a m p l i f i e d i n d e t a i l . The crouched f i g u r e on the near p o i n t i s very s i m i l a r to the drawing, save here he i s provided with an orange sash around h i s w a i s t . The young boy h a l l o o i n g i s very s i m i l a r to the drawing, the major change being the cap which i s now more c l o s e l y f i t t i n g . The other bather i s pushed f u r t h e r back i n space, to appear i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the patch of green f l o a t i n g i n the water. On the r i v e r , a number of changes have o c c u r r e d . On the l e f t s i d e another s a i l b o a t has been added, and on the r i g h t , a s h e l l . The most important change, however, i s the r e i n t r o d u c t i o n of the s m a l l rowboat of the second and f i f t h sketches, with i t s load of passengers and a boatman. -48-The background i s much the same as that i n the f i n a l s k e t c h , except t h a t here i t i s c l a r i f i e d by a g r e a t e r f o c u s . T e c h n i c a l l y , Seurat i n t r o d u c e s a number of new t h i n g s not found i n the sketches. F i r s t l y , he has used a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t techniques i n a p p l y i n g the p a i n t ; whereas f o r m e r l y , i n the sketches, a f a i r l y uniform technique had been used. For the g r a s s , and most of the f o l i a g e , Seurat used a rough c r i s s - c r o s s s t r o k e ; f o r the water, the p a i n t i s a p p l i e d i n q u i t e long p a r a l l e l s t r o k e s ( t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t rue near the s m a l l f e r r y ) ; however, f o r the people and the background of the br i d g e and f a c t o r i e s , Seurat employed a much smoother, p a s t i e r s t r o k e which has the e f f e c t of s o l i d i f y i n g and weighing down the f i g u r e s . The other major t e c h n i c a l change i s h i s use of value con-t r a s t ; through the use of auras, he s o l i d i f i e s and monumental-i z e s the f i g u r e s . T h i s technique, v i s i b l e i n some of the draw-ings (notably f i g u r e 43 and f i g u r e 45), p l a c e s a dark contour a g a i n s t a l i g h t ground, and v i c e v e r s a . T h i s c r e a t e s a hard, b l o c k - l i k e f i g u r e , which i s not m i t i g a t e d by the a p p l i c a t i o n of r e f l e c t e d tone. We are presented with seven f i g u r e s on, or i n the water be s i d e , the l e f t bank of the Seine. On the water are f i v e boats, three s a i l b o a t s and two p r o p e l l e d by hand - one, to the extreme r i g h t , a p p a r e n t l y a r a c i n g s h e l l , the other a p p a r e n t l y a s m a l l 14 commercial f e r r y . In the background, there i s a b r i d g e , and some f a c t o r i e s and a row of smokestacks, one of which sends a cloud of smoke spewing upwards. The sun i s s h i n i n g , the wind i s blowing f a i n t l y , the water i s calm, e v e r y t h i n g i s as i t should be. And y e t , there i s none -49-of the joy so r e a d i l y found i n s i m i l a r i m p r e s s i o n i s t p i c t u r e s . 15 As R u s s e l l has noted, i f one was t o look f o r the spot from which Seurat p a i n t e d , even i n Seurat's day i t would have been im-p o s s i b l e t o f i n d . Seurat took c o n s i d e r a b l e l i b e r t i e s with the landscape, a l t e r i n g i t beyond r e c o g n i t i o n . Yet, he d i d not simply c a l l the p i c t u r e Une Baignade, but Une Baignade a A s n i e r e s , thus g i v i n g the work a s p e c i f i c geographic l o c a t i o n . A s n i e r e s , to the n o r t h and west of P a r i s , was i n Seurat's day a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l ( p o p u l a t i o n about 7,000) manufacturing town, being p a r t i c u l a r l y noted f o r perfumes and t o i l e t r i e s , and l a t e r some l i g h t manufactured goods.' The town was mixed r e s i d -e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l , and although b l e s s e d with a chateau, was d e c i d e d l y lower c l a s s . I t was and i s a town of no remarkable a t t r i b u t e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y (and by Seurat's day t h i s was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d ) , A s n i e r e s was an area used by P a r i s i a n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n . The r i v e r here was f a i r l y wide and q u i t e slow, making i t i d e a l f o r rowing, canoeing, and, when the breeze allowed i t , s a i l i n g . The popular-i t y of the area f o r t h i s purpose i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d by the f o u r p l e a s u r e c r a f t on the water. A s n i e r e s i s downstream from P a r i s , and i n the 1850s Baron Haussman used A s n i e r e s as the main outflow of the P a r i s i a n sewers. The 1900 Baedeker guide to P a r i s s p e c i f i c a l l y comments on the " f o u l 17 l i q u o r " of the "great P a r i s i a n sewers." Th e r e f o r e a new l i g h t i s cast upon the p i c t u r e ; the water i n which our bathers stand i s p o l l u t e d and no doubt s m e l l s i t . I t i s thus no s u r p r i s e to f i n d t h i s c ast of c h a r a c t e r s so glum. -50-The patch of green i n the water i s now e a s i l y e x plained as a patch of weeds, which, no doubt, t h r i v e d i n the n u t r i e n t - r i c h water. V i r t u a l l y the e n t i r e cast of f i g u r e s looks towards the l i e de La Grande J a t t e , which was then becoming a f a s h i o n a b l e p l e a s u r e 18 ground. T h i s i s where the f a s h i o n a b l y dressed couple i n the f e r r y are being conveyed - a world from which a l l on the bank are cut o f f . T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n must cause us t o once again examine the p i c t u r e . I t has a l r e a d y been suggested t h a t there i s an immense heaviness to the f i g u r e s , but t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of the c r u c i a l c e n t r a l f i g u r e . In the f i n a l p i c t u r e Seurat has used two d e v i c e s t o g i v e f u r t h e r emphasis to t h i s f e e l i n g . A s t r o n g v e r t i -c a l i s e s t a b l i s h e d through the f i g u r e , and i t i n t e r s e c t s at the top of the f i g u r e ' s head with the dominant h o r i z o n t a l - the l i n e of the b r i d g e and f a c t o r i e s . The f i g u r e i s r i g i d l y locked i n t o p o s i t i o n ; he seems inc a p a b l e of movement. And i n the background, f a c t o r i e s where men such as these work, send up a cloud of smoke. Russel i s s u r e l y r i g h t when he suggests that the Baignade i s ...a profound comment upon modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . Seurat d e a l s with working people and t h e i r l o t . When they are able to take some r e c r e a t i o n , i t i s by a smelly, weed-infested, p o l l u t e d r i v e r ; and the a i r they breathe i s p o l l u t e d as w e l l . 20 Far from R u s s e l l ' s democratized A r c a d i a , Seurat here d e p i c t s a p r o f o u n d l y unhappy and unpleasant scene. The f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Baignade and P u v i s ' The  Happy Land a l s o take on a new l i g h t . Seurat, by u t i l i z i n g the -51-composition and c o l o u r of P u v i s ' work, makes an i r o n i c comparison between the i d y l l of P u v i s ' a r t and the r e a l i t i e s of modern indus-t r i a l s o c i e t y . When Seurat submitted t h i s work t o the Salon, i t was r e j e c t e d . The reasons f o r t h i s r e j e c t i o n can now perhaps be suggested. In the Baignade, Seurat d e a l s with the working c l a s s and r e l a t e s them to a s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n . I t i s , however, a group of unhappy, de-pressed workers i n what P a r i s i a n s knew t o be an unpleasant l o c a -21 t i o n . The viewer i s thus f o r c e d to c o n s i d e r the worker's l o t ; and t h i s , f o r a bourgeois P a r i s i a n , was not a plea s a n t or d e s i r -able pastime. The c o n c l u s i o n , that Seurat intended to evoke such a s s o c i a -t i o n s , i s suggested by the image i t s e l f , but a l s o by the p a t t e r n he e s t a b l i s h e d i n h i s pre-Baignade work. Seurat, i t now seems ev i d e n t , was very much i n t e r e s t e d i n the p l i g h t of the' worker. T h i s s u r e l y i s why, when h i s f r i e n d s Aman-Jean and Ernest Laurent were p r e p a r i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y , a P o r t r a i t of a Woman and a Hommage  N 22 a Beethoven, Seurat chose a contemporary working c l a s s s u b j e c t f o r the S a l o n . F i n a l l y , i t i s s u r e l y not unreasonable t o suggest t h a t the su b j e c t matter of Seurat's work, i n a d d i t i o n to the use of c o l o u r , was of i n t e r e s t to Signac when the two met i n 1884. 23 Rey was c o r r e c t when he c h a r a c t e r i z e d the Baignade as being f a r from the s p i r i t of impressionism. Just how f a r would have been impossible f o r him to imagine. -52--53-The h i s t o r y of the s o c i a l i s t movement i n n i n e t e e n t h century France i s one of immense c o m p l i c a t i o n s . T h i s i s l a r g e l y due to the f a c t t h a t i t was some time before any s i n g l e group gained 1 ascendancy. I t becomes even more co n f u s i n g when one attempts 2 to r e l a t e i t to the l i t e r a r y and v i s u a l a r t s - f i r s t l y , because few a r t i s t s were w i l l i n g t o produce o v e r t l y p r o p a g a n d i s t i c works, and secondly, because s e v e r a l a r t i s t s were extremely changeable 3 when i t came t o p o l i t i c a l p e r s u a s i o n . Marx never achieved a pre-eminent p o s i t i o n i n French s o c i a l i s t 4 c i r c l e s . There was a good d e a l of competition i n the f o l l o w e r s of Saint-Simon, Proudhon and l a t e r the a n a r c h i s t , K r o p o t k i n . Yet, d e s p i t e t h i s v a r i e t y of choices and a l l e g i a n c e s , there was, by Seurat's time, a d i s t i n c t t r a d i t i o n of a r t i s t s and w r i t e r s a t t a c k -i n g the s t a t u s quo and i t s s u p p o r t e r s , the b o u r g e o i s i e . I t i s i n mid-century that we f i n d the f i r s t s i g n s of s o c i a l l y conscious p a i n t i n g , when i t makes a dramatic appearance i n P a r i s ; s p e c i f i c a l l y i n Gustave Courbet's Stonebreakers and The B u r i a l at Ornans. The nature of Courbet's p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s remains co n t r o -5 v e r s i a l , but, whatever they may have i n f a c t been, Proudhon and more i m p o r t a n t l y , the p u b l i c , p e r c e i v e d Courbet as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l views. While Courbet's p a i n t i n g s are s t i l l , i n Goldman's terms, 6 " a n e c d o t a l " , the anecdotes they r e l a t e are not p a l a t a b l e . Cour-7 bet's d e s i r e to make a " l i v i n g a r t " , and h i s conscious abandon-8 ment of "the i d e a l i z e d " , provided c r i t i c s and viewers with a l l 9 the data r e q u i r e d . Supporters and c r i t i c s "sensed" the l a t e n t c r i t i c a l content. -54-The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the t r u l y humble - the peasant as he was -l e d t o extremely adverse r e a c t i o n on the p a r t of c o n s e r v a t i v e aud-i e n c e s . Courbet's peasants are ugly and b r u t a l ; i t was t h i s coarse-ness which offended the b o u r g e o i s i e . The use of such s u b j e c t matter (peasants and manual l a b o u r e r s ) soon became f i r m l y i d e n t i f i e d with r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l sentiments i n the minds of the p u b l i c . T h i s was to cause the other g r e a t p a i n t e r of peasants and peasant themes a good d e a l of d i s t r e s s ; f o r M i l l e t , u n l i k e Courbet, never considered h i m s e l f or wanted to be considered 10 a s o c i a l i s t . Despite M i l l e t ' s d i s c l a i m e r s , works such as The Man Leaning on a Hoe, which "seemed to admit t h a t the human i s not . 1 X always v a s t l y s u p e r i o r t o the animal" , aroused " i n some minds a 12 whole world of p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l problems." Yet, as Robert 13 Herbert has noted, M i l l e t must have been aware of the manner i n which h i s work was going to be i n t e r p r e t e d ; and t h e r e f o r e we must, as h i s contemporaries d i d , b e l i e v e him sympathetic to the s o c i a l i s t i d e a l of a more e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y . In l i t e r a t u r e there was a s i m i l a r c u r r e n t , although as Herbert 14 has pointed out, i t has a s t r o n g l y romantic tone. George Sand d e c l a r e d h e r s e l f a s o c i a l i s t , and wrote of the p l i g h t of the peasant. G a u t i e r was reminded of Sand's Mare au D i a b l e when he saw M i l l e t ' s Sower. V i c t o r Hugo was s t r o n g l y sympathetic to the p l i g h t of the worker, and documents the l i v e s of workers i n Les  Mi s e r a b i e s . The overt s o c i a l concern of Courbet, which culminated i n h i s a c t i v e r o l e i n the Commune and subsequent e x i l e , was not found i n the next g e n e r a t i o n . The "modern l i f e " of B a u d e l a i r e d i d not i n -clude any r e c o g n i t i o n of the p l i g h t of the worker. The impression-/i-slts devoted themselves not to peasants and the country, but rather to the bourgeoisie and the c i t y . Although recent research has proven unsuspected s o c i a l interest 15 in Manet, the majority of the "generation of 1871" was amazingly nonpartisan. The notable exception to the lack of p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l conviction i s Pissarro, and yet his art gives l i t t l e r e f l e c t -16 ion of the r a d i c a l views he i s known to have held. The period was not, however, without considerable " r a d i c a l " p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . In the early 1870s, anarchists began attempt-ing to form unions, encouraging the working classes to u t i l i z e t h e i r power of numbers. Worker's Congresses were established i n an attempt to consolidate power, and better the working man's l o t . 17 This was to lead to f i v e s o c i a l i s t deputies being elected i n 1885. While there was l i t t l e recognition of these s o c i a l changes i n the v i s u a l arts, i n l i t e r a t u r e there was an attempt to document the l i v e s of the lower classes. The n a t u r a l i s t writers, beginning with the Goncourts and most s i g n i f i c a n t l y Zola, examined unsparingly the l i f e of the c i t y and the lower classes. Zola and, by implication, the other n a t u r a l i s t s recorded i n a s c i e n t i f i c manner untinged by moral overtones. Therefore i n the 18 novels of the Goncourts, the l i f e of a prostitute i s recorded without the sense of moral outrage f e l t by the middleclasses. In the v i s u a l a r t s , Courbet's Demoiselles au bord de l a Seine, which . was equally v i l i f i e d , provides an i n t e r e s t i n g counterpoint. Seurat i s known to have been fond of the work of several 19 20 authors: the Goncourts, Huysmans, Zola and Sand. These, and Hugo, a l l share the quality of being anti-bourgeois, although not -56-e q u a l l y f o r the worker. The Goncourts c o n f i n e d themselves to a c c u r a t e , and thus u n p a l a t a b l e , reportage of the l i v e s of the d e c l a s s e . J . K. Huysmans expressed a common sentiment i n Au Rebours when the c h i e f c h a r a c t e r , the Duke des E s s e i n t e s , shouts "a bas l e s Bourgeois." The c h a r a c t e r i s decadent simply because Huysmans wished to poi n t out, and thus contravene and escape from, the r e s t r i c t i n g conventions of m i d d l e c l a s s s o c i e t y . Huysmans a l s o d e a l t w i t h the harsher r e a l i t i e s , however, and as 21 Herbert has suggested, Seurat's drawings might e a s i l y be seen as i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Huysman's prose which so v i v i d l y d e s c r i b e s the s q u a l o r of the i n d u s t r i a l suburbs... From the ramparts one sees the marvelous and t e r r i b l e view of the p l a i n s which l i e ex-hausted a t the f e e t of the c i t y . On the h o r i z o n , a g a i n s t the sky, t a l l b r i c k chimneys vomit i n t o the clouds t h e i r b o i l i n g s o o t . . . A great s i l e n c e covers the p l a i n , s i n c e the rumbling of P a r i s has q u i e t e d l i t t l e by l i t t l e and the noise of the f a c t o r i e s i n the d i s t a n c e a r r i v e s only h e s i t a n t l y . At times, however, one hears l i k e a h o r r i b l e groan the muffled and harsh w h i s t l e of the t r a i n s from the Gare du Nord which pass, hidden by the embankments p l a n t e d i n a c a c i a and ash t r e e s . . . Towards dusk, i n these moments when the smoky clouds r o l l over the dying day, the landscape becomes i n d e f i n i t e and s t i l l more sad; the f a c t o r i e s show only b l u r r e d o u t l i n e s , inky masses sopped up by a l i v i d sky; the women and c h i l d r e n have gone home, the p l a i n - \_ seems even l a r g e r and, alone, along the dusty path, the beggar...returns to s h e l t e r , sweating, exhausted, down-and-out, p a i n f u l l y mounting the s l o p e , sucking on h i s long empty c l a y p i p e . . . And i t i s e s p e c i a l l y then t h a t the d o l e f u l charm of the suburbs has i t s e f f e c t ; i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y then t h a t the a l l - p o w e r f u l beauty of nature glows, because the s i t e i s i n per-f e c t harmony wi t h the profound d i s t r e s s of the f a m i l i e s who people i t . -57-Huysmans wrote i n these terms only two years before Seurat began drawing and p a i n t i n g s i m i l a r s u b j e c t s . There was thus a moveimant towards g r e a t e r s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s -ness i n French l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s . Although not o v e r t l y propagand-i s t s , the w r i t e r s mentioned so f a r do d e a l with modern s u b j e c t matter i n a s o c i a l l y - c o n s c i o u s f a s h i o n . The realm of the a r t i s t i s no l o n g e r d i s t i n c t from modern l i f e , but r a t h e r comments upon and e l u c i d a t e s i t . I t i s , however, i n the work of Emile Zola and h i s c i r c l e t h a t we f i n d the c l e a r e s t e x p r e s s i o n of a new s o c i a l awareness on the p a r t of the a r t i s t . As e a r l y as 1880, Zola had expressed doubts as to the d i r -e c t i o n , or r a t h e r l a c k of d i r e c t i o n , of the i m p r e s s i o n i s t s . When asked by Monet and Renoir to speak up f o r them, Zola responded with l e s s than the v i g o u r the a r t i s t s expected. He r e g r e t t e d . . . t h a t not one a r t i s t of t h i s group /_the impression-i s t s ^ has r e a l i z e d p o w e r f u l l y and d e f i n i t i v e l y the new formula...they show themselvegoto be u n f i n i s h e d , i l l o g i c a l , exaggerated, impotent. The formula of which he speaks i s "contemporary n a t u r a l i s m . " The probable reason f o r Z o l a ' s l a c k of enthusiasm i s , perhaps paradox-i c a l l y , r e v e a l e d i n a l e t t e r C a m i l l e P i s s a r r o wrote to h i s son i n 1883> concerning contemporary l i t e r a t u r e : . . . i t i s c l e a r that from now on the novel must be c r i t i c a l ; sentiment, or r a t h e r s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , cannot be t o l e r a t e d without danger i n a r o t t e n s o c i e t y ready t o f a l l a p a r t . ^ S u r e l y i t i s t h i s l a c k of c r i t i c i s m t h a t Z o l a r e g r e t s . The im-p r e s s i o n i s t s d e a l t with contemporary l i f e , but only i t s p l e a s a n t -58-a s p e c t s . I t was not u n t i l 1885, however, t h a t Z o l a wrote f u r t h e r of h i s formula. He expressed h i s i d e a s through the c h a r a c t e r Claude L a n t i e r , the p r o t a g o n i s t of the n o v e l L TOeuvre. A f t e r some years away from P a r i s , L a n t i e r r e t u r n s to f i n d t h a t s e v e r a l p a i n t e r s have become s u c c e s s f u l using h i s i d e a s , h i s formula. L a n t i e r determines that he must b e t t e r a l l h i s i m i t a t o r s . And what a stroke i t would be i f , i n the midst of a l l those unconscious copies by the impotent, i n the midst of those f e a r f u l s l y attempts by the c l e v e r f e l l o w s a master was r e v e a l e d , c a r r y i n g the formula i n t o e f f e c t w i t h the a u d a c i t y of h i s s t r e n g t h , s p a r i n g no one, s e t t i n g the formula a f o o t as i t should be set up, s o l i d and complete to be the t r u t h of t h i s c l o s e of the c e n t u r y . ^ The s u b j e c t matter which L a n t i e r chooses t o accomplish t h i s with i s P a r i s and the c i t y ' s i n h a b i t a n t s : Look, t h i s i s i t . I stand under the b r i d g e , w i t h the Port S a i n t - N i c o l a s , the crane and the barges wit h a l l the p o r t e r s busy unloading them, i n the foreground, see? That's P a r i s at work, under-stand: h e f t y l a b o u r e r s , w i t h bare arms and chests and p l e n t y of muscle I...Now on the other s i d e , t h e r e ' s the swimming-bath, P a r i s at p l a y t h i s time. T h e r e ' l l be an odd boat or something t h e r e , to f i l l the c e n t r e , but I'm not too sure about t h a t . I s h a l l have to work i t out a b i t f i r s t . . . T h e r e ' 1 1 be the Seine,„of course, between the two, a good broad s t r e t c h . . . 0 I t seems f a i r l y c l e a r t h a t , although he denies L a n t i e r ' s p r o j e c t f r u i t i o n i n the n o v e l , Z o l a f e e l s t h a t a p a i n t e r must d e a l with l i f e i n a l l i t s a s p e c t s , both good and bad. -59-The year 1885 was a watershed f o r the expression of t h i s i d e a . Although not n a t u r a l i s t s of Z o l a ' s c i r c l e , Henri B e a u c l a i r e and G a b r i e l V i c a i r e , i n t h e i r s e n s a t i o n a l Les Deliquescences, express remarkably s i m i l a r ideas f o r and about modern poetry . The imagin-a r y author Adore F l o u p e t t e w r i t e s i n the p r e f a c e t o the work t h a t he dreams of c r e a t i n g ...a great modern poem i n which the n a t u r a l i s t i c e v o l u t i o n of the century would be summed up i n a few hundred l i n e s . A washer-woman's barge, a r a i l w a y s t a t i o n , a h o s p i t a l i n t e r i o r , a s l a u g h -terhouse, a horsemeat butcher, a l l today's p o e t r y was t h e r e and there a l o n e . ' A more d e c i d e d l y p o l i t i c a l view was expressed by Kropotkin i n P a r o l e s d'un R e v o l t e , a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n I 8 8 5 . Narrate f o r u s . . . i n your f e r v e n t p i c t u r e s the t i t a n i c s t r u g g l e of the masses a g a i n s t t h e i r oppressors;...show people the u g l i n e s s of con-temporary l i f e ^ g n d make us see the causes of t h i s u g l i n e s s . There was, as we have t r i e d t o suggest, a s t r o n g a n a r c h i s t -s o c i a l i s t thread i n French thought of the e a r l y e i g h t e e n - e i g h t i e s ; Seurat seems to have been keenly aware of t h i s as i t was d e v e l o p i n g . By the m i d - e i g h t i e s , Seurat developed s t r o n g connections with Z o l a ' s c i r c l e . He became f r i e n d s w i t h P a u l A l e x i s and attended 29 the salons of Robert Caze. I t seems f a i r t o suggest t h a t Seurat was t h e r e f o r e aware of Zola's views i n the e a r l y lSBOs. As we have t r i e d t o suggest, there was a current i n French a r t i s t i c c i r c l e s which advocated a more s o c i a l l y conscious a r t . Although perhaps more p r e v a l e n t i n l i t e r a t u r e , the trends which we have mentioned d i d appear i n the v i s u a l a r t s i n the l a t e 1870s -60-30 and early l$80s. As Herbert has suggested, R a f a e l l i was deal-ing with the "banlieue" i n the late 1870s; and van Gogh's draw-ings of miners i n the Borinage indicate a profound sympathy for these workers. In addition to these French a r t i s t s , i n Belgium the sculptor Constantin Meunier was immortalizing iron workers i n large-scale bronze sculpture. Within what was to become the neo-impressionist c i r c l e , there was a strongly p o l i t i c a l bent. Luce, Signac and Pissarro sub-scribed and contributed to Le Revolt! (and i t s subsequent public-ations La Revolte and Le Temps Nouveaux). Luce and Pissarro also provided i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r the c o l l o q u i a l publication Pere  Peinard. Signac, Seurat's greatest f r i e n d , wrote to Jean Grave, the editor of Le Revolte, that he was ...nurtured on your p r i n c i p l e s , on those of Reclus andoKropotkin - for i t i s you who have formed me. -It i s surely not unreasonable to suggest a s i m i l a r p o l i t i c a l con-32 sciousness on Seurat's part. If we grant that the analysis of the Baignade presented here i s v a l i d , then Seurat's l a t e r work must be considered in a new 33 l i g h t . Seurat's next major painting, Une Dimanche apres-midi  a L ' l l e de l a Grande Jatte can be a revealing case study. There are a remarkable series of p a r a l l e l s , and/or points of conjunction, between the Baignade and La Grande Jatte (figure 50). Yet, while there are differences, there are also d i r e c t l i n k s between them. The l i t t l e f e r r y , which appears i n midstream -61-i n the Baignade, a l s o appears i n the l a t e r work - about t h r e e -q u a r t e r s of the way along the shore of the i s l a n d . I t i s s u r e l y the same type of boat, with the t r i c o l o u r at the s t e r n . Secondly, i n both works there i s a r a c i n g s h e l l . I t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t the two works are t o be viewed as a 35 p a i r , the one showing the poorest of p l e a s u r e s - a solemn, un-happy group of i n d i v i d u a l s a g a i n s t an i n d u s t r i a l backdrop; the other a happy, ple a s a n t group i n a park. The c h a r a c t e r s of the Grande J a t t e r e l a t e to each other i n a way which i s unthinkable i n the Baignade. The two p a i n t i n g s complement and comment on each other. How, we may w e l l ask, can the workers of A s n i e r e s enjoy themselves on t h e i r parched s t r i p of g r a s s , when a short d i s t a n c e away are the p l e a s u r e s of La Grande J a t t e ? Yet i t i s not so simple i f , as 36 Schapiro suggests, the most prominent female f i g u r e i s a whore. The g e n t i l i t y i s a facade and t h e r e f o r e both works are f u r t h e r l i n k e d i n t h e i r condemnation of the m i d d l e c l a s s . In 1891, only two months a f t e r Seurat's death, Signac wrote th a t the " r e v o l u t i o n a r y " a r t of the n e o - i m p r e s s i o n i s t s showed the 37 "great s o c i a l t r i a l p i t t i n g the workers a g a i n s t c a p i t a l . " He c i t e d the i n n o v a t i o n of d e p i c t i n g workers and working c l a s s q u a r t e r s , as w e l l as the p o r t r a y a l of~the decadent p l e a s u r e s of the b o u r g e o i s i e . As a prime example of a r e v o l u t i o n a r y a r t i s t he chose Seurat, who, through h i s use of b i t i n g s a t i r e , expressed h i s ...keen sentiment of the v i l e n e s s of our epoch of t r a n s i t i o n . -62-Thus, f a r from being " f o o l i s h p a i n t i n g /_The Baignade/a s o c i a l or i s the only reasonable way to read w i t h f o r m a l problems, Seurat, l i k e works which mean. to read i n t o h i s /^Seurat's/ 40 p o l i t i c a l programme" , t h i s S e urat. While very concerned h i s great mentor P i e r o , painted -63-FIGURES -65-F i g u r e 2. S t u d i e s (Brest Notebook), 1880, p e n c i l , 15 x 24 cm., C a l l i a n : Georg C o l l e c t i o n . - 6 6 -F i g u r e 3 . Manet. Coin des J a r d i n s des T u i l e r i e s , c. 1 8 6 2 , wash, 1 7 . 8 x 1 1 . 2 cm., P a r i s : Musle -du Louvre. - 6 7 -F i g u r e 4 . Manet. Rue Mosnier au bec-de-gaz, 1 8 7 8 , l e a d and wash, 2 7 . 8 x 4 4 . 1 cm., Chicago: A r t I n s t i t u t e . -68-F i g u r e 5. Manet. The B a l l o o n , 1862, l i t h o g r a p h , 40.3 x 51.1 cm., P a r i s : B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e . -69-F i g u r e 6. S t u d i e s (Brest Notebook), 1880, p e n c i l and crayon, 15 x 21+ cm. -70-F i g u r e 7. S t u d i e s (Brest Notebook), 1880, p e n c i l , 15 x 2k cm., Besancon: Besson C o l l e c t i o n . -71-F i g u r e 8. F a c t o r i e s i n Moonlight, c. 1883, conte, 22 x 29 cm., New York: Tarnopol C o l l e c t i o n . - 7 2 -F i g u r e 9 . The Railway Embankment, c. ± 8 8 3 , conte, 2 3 x 3 0 . 5 cm. -73-F i g u r e 10. Homme A s s i s , c. 1883, conte, 32 x 25 cm. -74 F i g u r e 11. Mme. Seurat Reading, c. 1883, conte, New York Lewyt C o l l e c t i o n . -75-Figure 12 Hommage a P u v i s , 1881, o i l on p a n e l , 16.5 x 25.5 cm., P a r i s : Beres C o l l e c t i o n , -76-F i g u r e 13. Puvis de Chavannes. The Poor Fisherman, lggO - 1 , o i l on canvas, 155.5 x 192.5 cm., P a r i s : Musee de Louvre. -77-F i g u r e 14. Hoer, c. 1883, o i l on panel, 46 x 55.7 cm., New York Guggenheim Museum. Figure 15. M i l l e t . The Hoer, 1860-2, o i l on canvas, 80 x 99 cm., USA: p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . - 7 9 --80-Figure 17. Burnt-out Palace of the T u i l e r i e s , c. 1882, o i l on panel, 16 x 25 cm. -81--82-Figure 19. Stonebreaker, c. 1883, o i l on panel, 16.7 x 26 cm., Bradford: Hanley C o l l e c t i o n . - 8 3 -Figure 2 0 . F a c t o r i e s , c. 1 8 8 3 , o i l on canvas, 3 2 . 2 x 41 cm., Troyes: Levy C o l l e c t i o n . -84-F i g u r e 21. Hobo, c. 1886, conte, 24 x 31 cm., P a r i s p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . -85-Figure 22. Figures i n the S t r e e t , c. 1883, o i l on panel, 16.5 x 24.7 cm., S w i t z e r l a n d : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . -86-F i g u r e 23. L ' I n v a l i d e , c. 1881, o i l on panel, 25 x 16 cm., New York: Rothbart C o l l e c t i o n . -87-Figure 2t+. Une Baignade a A s n i e r e s , 1883-4, o i l on canvas, London: N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . - 8 8 -F i g u r e 2 5 . Les Deux Ri v e s , 1 8 8 3 , o i l on p a n e l , 1 6 x 2 5 cm., Glasgow: A r t G a l l e r y and Museum. Figure 26. Le Pont de Courbevoie (Asnieres?), 1883, o i l on panel, 16 x 25 cm. -90-F i g u r e 27. Le Seine a A s n i e r e s , 1883, o i l on panel, 16 x 25 cm., P a r i s : Renand C o l l e c t i o n . - 9 1 -F i g u r e 2 8 . C h e v e a u x d a n s l e F l e u v e , 1 8 8 3 , o i l o n p a n e l , 1 5 x 2 4 . 7 " c m . , L o n d o n : C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e . - 9 2 -Figure 2 9 . Cheval et Bateaux, 1 8 8 3 . o i l on panel, 1 5 x 2 4 . 5 cm., P a r i s : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . -93-F i g u r e 30. Baigneurs, 1883, o i l on p anel, 16 x 25 cm., P a r i s Renand C o l l e c t i o n . -94-Figure 31. L ' A r c - e n - C i e l , 1883, o i l on panel, 15.5 x 24.5 cm., New York: Davis C o l l e c t i o n . - 9 5 -F i g u r e 32. Personnage A s s i s , 1883, o i l on panel, 16 x 25 cm., C l e v e l a n d : Museum of A r t . -96-A F i g u r e 33. Cinque Personnages Males, 188*3, o i l on panel, 15 x 25 cm., P a r i s : P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n . -97-F i g u r e 34. yjtements, 1883, o i l on p a n e l , 16 x 24.7 cm., London: Tate G a l l e r y . -98-Figure 35. Vetements et Chapeau, 1883, o i l on panel, 17 x 26.5 cm., Scotland: private c o l l e c t i o n . -99-F i g u r e 36. Jeune Garcon et Cheval, 1883, o i l on panel, 16 x 25 cm., Edinburgh: S c o t t i s h N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Modern A r t . -100-F i g u r e 37. S t u d i e s (Brest Notebook), 1880, p e n c i l and crayon, 15 x 24 cm. -101-F i g u r e 38. Garcons se Baignant. 1883, o i l on p a n e l , 16 x 25 cm., P a r i s : Gourgand C o l l e c t i o n . -102 - 1 0 3 -F i g u r e 4 0 . E t u d e F i n a l e . 1 8 8 3 - 4 , o i l o n p a n e l , 1 5 . 7 x 24.7 cm., New Y o r k : L e v y C o l l e c t i o n . -104-F i g u r e 41. L'Echo. 1883-4, conte, 30.7 x 23.7 cm., New York: Wetmore C o l l e c t i o n . -105--106-F i g u r e 43. Nude, 1883-4, conte, 31.5 x 2k cm., London Morrison C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 44. Garcon A s s i s , 1883-4, conte, 24 x 30 cm., New Haven, Yale U n i v e r s i t y A r t G a l l e r y . -108-F i g u r e 45. Jambe, 1883-4, conte, 23 x 30 cm., Stockholm Bonnier C o l l e c t i o n . F i g u r e 46. R e c l i n i n g Man, 1883-4, conte, 24 x 31 cm., B a s e l : B e y e l e r C o l l e c t i o n . -110-F i g u r e 47. Man, 1883-4, conte, 24 x 30 cm., New York Seligman C o l l e c t i o n . - I l l -Figure 48. Man 1883-4, conte, 24.7 x 31.2 cm., Paris Musee du Louvre. -112-ure 49. Vetements, 1883-4, conte, 23 x 30 cm., Pomfret Center: Orswell C o l l e c t i o n . -113-Fi g u r e 50. Une Dimanche apres-midi a L ' l l e de l a Grande J a t t e . 1884-6, o i l on canvas, 205 x 308 cm., Chicago: A r t I n s t i t u t e . -114-NOTES -115-INTRODUCTION "'"Roger Marx, Le V o l t a i r e (Paris), 16 May 1884, as quoted i n Henri Dorra and John Rewald, L'Oeuvre Peint, Biographie, et Cata-logue Critique (Paris: Les Beaux Arts, n.d.), p. 102: Je reconnais de bonne grace dans son tab-leau impressioniste l ' i n d i c e de serieuses qualites, l a marque d'un temperament. 2 I b i d . 3 I b i d . ^(Trublot) Paul Alexis, Le C r i du Peuple (Paris), 17 May 1884, as quoted i n John Rewald, Georges Seurat, 2nd rev. ed. (New York: Wittenborn & Co., 1946), p. 14. While t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n owes a good deal to Rewald, I disagree with his rendering of the l a s t l i n e : Une Baignade (Asnieres), par M. Seurat (Georges), boulevard de Magenta. - Ceci, c'est un faux Puvis de Chavannes. Les droles de baigneurs et de baigneuses ( s i c ) I Mais c'est tellement convaincu que e'en est presque touchant, et que j'ose plus blaguer. 5New York Daily Tribune, 10 A p r i l 1886, as quoted i n Dorra-Rewald, Seurat, p. iCT. ^The Sun (New York), 11 A p r i l 1886, as quoted i n Dorra-Rewald, Seurat, p. 102. n 'The C r i t i c (New York), A p r i l 1886, as quoted i n Dorra-Rewald, Seurat, p. 102. The anonymous c r i t i c said i n part: ...and i n Seurat's large and uncouth com-posi t i o n "The Bathers," the uncompromising strength of the impressionist school i s f u l l y revealed. g I b i d . ^Paul Signac, D'Eugene Delacroix au Neo-impressionnisme, Introduction, and notes by Francoise Cashin. C o l l e c t i o n Miroirs de l ' A r t . (Paris: Hermann, 1964), pp. 99-100. 1 0 M a r t i n Davies, French School: Early 19th Century, Impress- i o n i s t s , Post-Impressionists etc., rev. by C e c i l Gould, National Gallery Catalogues (London: The National Gallery, 1970), p. 133. 1 ]-J.B. Manson, "La Baignade," Apollo 1 (May 1925), pp. 299-300. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 299. -116-1 3 I b i d . , p. 300. 1 4 I b i d . 15 • Roger E. F r y , Transformations (London;: Chatto & Windus, 1926), p. 191. l A Robert Rey, La Renaissance du Sentiment C l a s s i q u e ( P a r i s : Les Beaux A r t s , 1921), p. 117: ...a s u b i l ' i n f l u e n c e de l'epoque, c'est t o u t au p l u s dans l e ch o i x du s u j e t et du s i t e . S u jet f a m i l i e r et depourvu d ' i n t e n t i o n p i t t o r e s q u e ; s i t e des environs de P a r i s ; e f f e t de p l e i n a i r . Mais d e j a ce t a b l e a u e s t b i e n l o i n du tumulte s e n s u e l q u i v i b r e a t r a v e r s t o u t e s l e s G r e n o u i l l i e r e s . . . 1 7 I b i d . •^Benedict N i c h o l s o n , "Seutat's La Baignade," B u r l i n g t o n  Magazine 79 (November 1941), pp. 139-146. 1 9 I b i J d . , pp. .145-146. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 146. 2 1 I b i d . 2 2 I b i d . 2 3 I b i d . * I b i d . 2 5 I b i d . 2 6 I b i d . 2 7 I b i d . 28 I b i d . 29 Rewald, Seurat, 2nd r e v . ed. 3 0 I b i d . , p. 47. 3 1 I b i d . , p. 58. 32 Douglas Cooper, Georges Seurat: Une Baignade, A s n i e r e s , G a l l e r y Books, Number 9 (London: Percy Lund Humphries & Co., 1946). 33 - ^ I b i d . , p. 5 3 4 I b i d . , pp. 6-7 -117-Ibid., p. 4. 36 Ibid., p. 10. "^Ibid., p. 6. 3 g W i l l i a m I. Homer, "Seurat's Formative Period - 1880-1884," The Connoisseur 142 (May-September 1958), pp. 61-62. 39 Sven Lovgren, The Genesis of Modernism: Seurat, Gauguin, van Gogh, and French Symbolism i n the 1880's (Stockholm: Almquist & Wiskell, 1959). 4 0 I b i d . , p. 5. 4 1 I b i d . , pp. 3 and 37. 42 Dorra-Rewald, Seurat. ^ 3 I b i d . , p. x l i i . ^ D o r r a devotes the majority of his essay to discussing the compositional dynamics of l a t e r pictures i n l i g h t of•the theories of Charles Henri. ^ i b i d . , pp. 10 and 29. ^Kenneth d a r k , "Seurat: Une Baignade, Asnieres," i n Looking  at Pictures (London: John Murray, I960), pp. 132-141. ^ I b i d . , p. 132. 48 Eugenia Herbert, The A r t i s t and S o c i a l Reform: Art and  P o l i t i c s i n France and Belgium, 1885-1914 (New Haven: Yale Univers-i t y Press, 1961). 4 9 I b i d . , p. 182. 5°Ibid. 51 J Robert L. Herbert, Seurat's Drawings (New York: Shorewood Publishers, 1962), p. 87. 5 2 I b i d . , p. 96. 5 3 I b i d . , p. 98. 5 / f I b i d . , p. 104. 5 5 I b i d . 56 Cesar de Hauke, Seurat et Son Oeuvre, 2 v o l s . (Paris: Gruend, 1961). . 5?Dorra-Rewald> Seurat, 84 b i s . ^ W i l l i a m I. Homer, Seurat and the Science of Painting (Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press, 1964), pp. 87-89. -118-^There are, of course, four types of stroke i f one includes the dots which were added i n 1887. 6 o I b i d . , p. 97. ^ > 1John Russell, Seurat (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1965). 6 2 I b i d . , p. 119. 63 Ibid., pp. 118-119. 64 Ibid., p. 123. 6 5 I b i d . 66 Ibid., pp. 123-124. 67 Ibid. 68 Ibid., p. 124. 69 Ibid., p. 125. 70 Pierre Courthion, Georges Seurat, trans, by N. Guterraan (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1968), p. 72. 71 Jean Sutter, ed., The Neo-impressionists, trans, by Chantal Deliss (Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1970). 7 2 I b i d . , p. 28. 7^Cecil Gould, Seurat's Bathers, Asnieres and the C r i s i s of  Impressionism, Painting i n Focus, Number 6 (London: The National Gallery, 1976). ^ I b i d . , unpaged. 75 Russell, Seurat, pp. 124-5. -119-CHAPTER 1 Seurat's parents had paid 1500 francs to ensure that Seurat would remain i n Metropolitan France and shorten his service from three years to one. 2 As a boy, Seurat had attended a municipal drawing school close to his home, drawing after engravings and some casts. In 1#76, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He and his friend Aman-Jean were placed in the a t e l i e r of Henri Lehmann, a p u p i l of Ingres. There he began drawing casts and at the end of his time at the Ecole entered the l i f e classes. On the whole, the atmosphere of the Ecole seems to have been i l l - s u i t e d to Seurat and his time there was undistinguished. 3 The drawings were not f u l l y published u n t i l Cesar de Hauke's monograph. ^"Seurat was reading Blanc, Sutter, Rood and Helmholtz. While not denying the significance of this research, writers such as Homer, Rich, Dorra and Rewald concentrate on the reading to the exclusion of any discussion of the s h i f t s i n Seurat's a r t . ^Charles Baudelaire, The Painter of Modern L i f e and Other  Essays, trans, and ed. by Jonathan Mayne (London: Phaidon, 1964), p. 9. 6 I b i d . , p. 17. 7 For more on t h i s idea see Bradford R. C o l l i n s , "Manet's Rue Mosnier Decked with Flags," Burlington Magazine 117(November, 1975), pp. 709-714. 8 Ibid., passim. Q See Richard Wattenmaker's important essay, "Puvis de Chavannes and the Modern Tradition," i n his exhibition catalogue, Puvis de  Chavannes and The Modern Trad i t i o n (Toronto: The Art Gallery of Ontario, 1975). "^Henri Perruchot, La Vie de Seurat (Paris: Hachette, 1966), p. 47. In fact, Puvis did not even look at Seurat's picture. "^Andre Chastel, ed., L'Opera Complete d i Seurat, notes by F i o r e l l a Minervino, C l a s s i c i dell'Arte (Milan: R i z z o l i Editore, 1972), p. 91. 12 Feneon quotes Seurat as saying that he wanted "to make the impressionists permanent," see Dorra-Rewald, Seurat, p. I i i . -^Quoted i n Alfred Sensier, Jean-Francois M i l l e t : Peasant  and Painter, trans, by Helena de Kay (Boston: James R. Osgood and Co., 1881), p. 134. -120-"^Pissarro i n Camille Pissarro, Letters to his Son Lucien, 3rd ed., edited by John Rewald (Mamaroneck, N.Y.: Paul P. Appel, 1972), p. 10$. "^Russell, Seurat, pp. 44-5. l ft Homer, Science, passim., but p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i r s t chapter and Daniel C. Rich, Seurat and the evolution of "La Grande  Jatte (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1935), passim. 17 T.J. Clark, "A Bourgeois Dance of Death: Max Buchon on Courbet - I I , " Burlington Magazine 111 (May, 1969), p. 290. 18 Max Buchon, Annonce, as quoted i n T.J. Clark, "A Bourgeois Dance of Death: Max Buchon on Courbet - I," Burlington Magazine 111 ( A p r i l , 1969), p. 212. •^Herbert, A r t i s t and Social Reform, p. 185• 20 uRewald, Seurat, p. 47. Pierre Kropotkin, Paroles d Tun Revolte, 1885, p. 66f, as quoted i n Robert L. Herbert and Eugenia ¥. Herbert, " A r t i s t s and Anarchism: Unpublished Letters of Pissarro, Signac, and Others -I,*-' Burlington Magazine 102 (November-December, I960), p. 478. -121-CHAPTER' 2 •^ He had e x h i b i t e d a drawing, the P o r t r a i t of Aman-Jean, now i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum, which had been n o t i c e d by T r u b l o t / A l e x i s . 2See Signac, Neo-Impressionnisme, p. 67. •^Horner, S c i e n c e , pp. 78-89. Sfe are not here i n c l u d i n g the 1887 a l t e r a t i o n s , when dots were a p p l i e d to the s m a l l boy's cap and the 'halo' was made around the main f i g u r e ' s hat. ^Rey, Renaissance, p. 117. ^To date no w r i t e r on Seurat has attempted t o arrange the s t u d i e s f o r the Baignade i n t o a sequence. ^ N i c h o l s o n , "La Baignade," p. 140. ^The measurements of the two panels (Les Deux R i v e s , 15.9 x 24.8 cm. and Le Pont de Courbevoie, 16 x 25 cm.), are s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t to cast doubt on the idea t h a t they were once two s i d e s of one pa n e l . ^ N i c h o l s o n , "La Baignade," p. 140. 1 0 P h i l i p G i l b e r t Hamerton, P a r i s i n Old and Present Times (London: Seeley and Co., 1892), p. 61. -^Ni c h o l s o n , "La Baignade," p. 140. l 2 I n C h r i s t i a n iconography i t symbolizes the union of man and God or r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . 1 3 T h e t e n t h (H 592) seems not only s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r i n s t y l e but a l s o , i n view of the other drawings, too f a r removed from the f i n a l work to be r e l a t e d . l i fThe presence of the t r i c o l o u r i n the c r a f t , e s p e c i a l l y one so l a r g e , would suggest t h a t t h i s i s not a p r i v a t e c r a f t , so too would the dress of i t s occupants - the top hat of the c e n t r a l gentleman and the more i n f o r m a l costume of the boatman. -'-^Russell, Seurat, p. 118. 1 6 Howard Saalman, Haussmann: P a r i s Transformed (New York: B r a z i l l e r , 1971), p. 20. " ^ K a r l Baedeker, P a r i s and En v i r o n s , 14th rev. ed. ( L e i p z i g : K a r l Baedeker, 1900), p. 291. 1 % u s s e l l , Seurat, p. 125. -122-1 9 I b i d . , p. 123. I b i d . 21 Joanna Richardson i n La V i e P a r i s i e n n e , 1852-16*70 (London: H. Hamilton, 1971), p. 212, comments on the p o p u l a r i t y of t a k i n g t r i p s down the sewers and d i s c u s s e s such a t r i p made by the P r i n c e s s e s Mathilde and C l o t h i l d e . T h i s would suggest t h a t t h e r e was a f a m i l -i a r i t y with what i s , t o our minds, one of the l e a s t a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s of A s n i e r e s . 22 Perruchot, La V i e , p. 80. 23 Rey, Renaissance. p. 117. -123-CONCLUSION -'-It could perhaps be argued that no group ever gained absolute ascendancy, although there i s l i t t l e doubt that Jean Grave's form of s o c i a l i s t anarchism, as espoused in a series of publications, Le Revolte, La Revolte, and f i n a l l y , Le Temps Nouveaux, was the most i n f l u e n t i a l i n a r t i s t i c c i r c l e s . 2 This conclusion contains many ideas f i r s t expressed by Eugenia Herbert, The A r t i s t and S o c i a l Reform: Art and P o l i t i c s i n France  and Belgium, 1885-1914. 3Even so, prominent a figure as Huysmans could s h i f t from a devout Catholic to a n t i - c l e r i c a l i n a few months. ^This i s perhaps, as Herbert suggests, A r t i s t and S o c i a l Reform, p. 3, because of the lack-lustre quality of thought found i n Jules Guesde, the Marxist leader and his colleagues. ^See T.J. Clark, Image of the People: Gustaye Courbet and the  1848 Revolution (London: Thames and Hudson, 1973). °Bernard Goldman, "Realist Iconography: Intent and C r i t i c i s m , " Journal of Aesthetics and Art C r i t i c i s m 18, no. 2 (December 1959), pp. 183-192, discusses t h i s idea i n depth. 7 I b i d . , p. 187. Linda Nochlin, "The Development and Nature of Realism i n the Work of Gustave Courbet: A Study of the Style and Its S o c i a l and A r t i s t i c Background" (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York University, 1963), p. 226. 9Goldman, "R e a l i s t , " p . 187. "^In a l e t t e r to Sensier, M i l l e t wrote: But, to t e l l the truth the peasant subjects suit my temperament best; f o r I must confess, that the human side of art i s what touches me most... quoted i n Sensier, M i l l e t , p. 93. 1 X I b i d . , p. 210. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 111. 13 Robert L. Herbert, Jean-Francois M i l l e t (London: Arts Council of Great B r i t a i n , 1976), p. 12. 14 Herbert, A r t i s t and S o c i a l Reform, p. 48. -124-15 C o l l i n s , "Rue Mosnier," op. c i t . Herbert, A r t i s t and S o c i a l Reform, p. 188. Pissarro seems l i k e Signac i n that he f e l t that an overtly propagandistic art i s a weak a r t . 1 7 I b i d . , p. 8. l^Manette Salomon. "^Russell, Seurat, p. 56. 2 0Perruchot, La Vie, p. 75. 21 Herbert, Drawings, pp. 82-3. 2 2J.-K. Huysmans, Croquis Parisiens, as translated and quoted by Herbert, Drawings, p. 83. 2 3 E m i l e Zola as quoted i n Lovgren, Genesis, p. 34. 2 ^ P i s s a r r o , Letters, p. 49. 2 5 ^Zola, L TOeuvre, 1885, as quoted i n Robert J. Neiss, Zola, Cezanne and Manet: A Study of L'Oeuvre (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Uni-v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1968), p. 241. 26 • Zola, L'Oeuvre, 1885, as quoted by Lovgren, Genesis, pp. 37-38. The p a r a l l e l s between t h i s imaginary work and Seurat's two great pictures, the Baignade and the Grande Jatte, are s t r i k i n g and suggest that Zola may have seen both the Seurat works. , Adore* Floupette (Henri yBeauclaire and Gabriel V i c a i r e ) , Les Deliquescences: Poemes Decadent d'Adore Floupette, 1885, as quoted i n Lo'vgren, Genesis, pp. 28-29. 28pierre Kropotkin, Paroles d'un Revolte, 1885, as quoted i n Herbert, A r t i s t and S o c i a l Reform, p. 14. ^ H e r b e r t , A r t i s t and Social Reform, p. 70. 3°Ibid., p. 181. 31 ^ Signac, Letter to Grave, as quoted i n Herbert, A r t i s t and  So c i a l Reform, p. 187. 3 2indeed Feneon s p e c i f i c a l l y addressed the question i n a l e t t e r to Rewald. 33 Not as the vacuous formal studies they have been taken to be - Homer, Fry et a l . 34 This sense of d i r e c t i o n may be a beginning of his theory of sad, downward l i n e s and e x h i l i r a t i n g , upward l i n e s , gleaned from his readings of de Superville and l a t e r expanded a f t e r contact with Charles Henry. -125--^The two paintings are almost the same si z e , the Baignade, 201 x 301 cm. and the Grande Jatte, 205 x 308 cm. This closeness i n size (the larger size of the l a t t e r i s accounted f o r by the p o i n t i l l i s t s frame) would further suggest that Seurat conceived of the works together. -^Meyer Schapiro, "Seurat and 'La Grande Jatte'," Columbia  Review 17 (November, 1935), p. 12. 37 Signac, Letter, 1891, as quoted i n Herbert, A r t i s t and So c i a l Reform, p. 190. 3^Ibid., p. 189. 3 9 i b i d . ^Antony Blunt, Foreward to Seurat, by Roger Fry (London: Phaidon, 1972), p. 5. -126-SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY -127-Baedeker, Karl. Paris and Environs. 14th rev. ed. Lei p z i g : Karl Baedeker, 1900. Chevalier, L. Classes LaborieuKes et Classes Dangereuses a Paris pendant l a premiere moitie du XIXe s i e c l e . P a r i s : Plon, ^l9W'. Chevalier, L. La Formation de l a Population Parisienne au XIXe si e c l e ^ P a r i s : Presse Universitaires de France. 19"50. Christophe, Jules. "Georges Seurat." Les Homines d'Aujourd rhui 8, number 368 / T 8 9 _ / . Clark, Timothy J . "A Bourgeois Dance of Death: Max Buchon on Cour-bet - I." Burlington Magazine 111 ( A p r i l 1969): pp. 208-212. Clark, Timothy J. "A Bourgeois Dance of Death: Max Buchon on Cour-bet - IT." Burlington Magazine 111 (May 1969): pp. 286-290. . Clark, Timothy J. Image of the People: Gustave Courbet and the  1848 Revolution. London: Thames and Hudson, 1973. C o l l i n s , Bradford. "Manet's Rue Mosnier Decked with Flags and the flaneur concept." Burlington Magazine 117 (Novettfber 1975), pp. 709-714. Cousturier, Lucie. Seurat. Cahiers d'aujourd'hui. P a r i s : G. Ores et Cie, /ca. 1926/. Davies, Martin. French School: Early 19th Century, Impressionists, Post-Impressionists etc. Revised by C e c i l Gould. National Gallery Catalogues. London: The National Gallery, 1970. de L e i r i s , Alan. The Drawings of Edoua-sd Manet. Berkeley: Uni-v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1969. Les Dessins de Georges Seurat. P a r i s : Bernheim-Jeune, no date. Dorra, Henri, and Rewald, John. Seurat: L'Oeuvre peint, biographie, et catalogue c r i t i q u e . P a r i s : Les Beaux Arts, (ca .1959). Eglingto.n, Guy. "The Theory of Seurat." International Studio 81 (1925):291. Fox, D.M. " A r t i s t s i n the Modern State: the 19th Century Back-ground." Journal of Aesthetics and Art C r i t i c i s m 22, number 2 (Winter 1963).135-148. Fry, Roger. Seurat, 3rd ed. Foreward by Antony Blunt. London: Phaidon, 1972. Fry, Roger. "Seurat's La Parade." Burlington Magazine 55 (December 1929):289-293. Fry, Roger. Transformations. London: Chatto and Windus, 1926. -128-Goldman, Bernard. "Realist Iconography: Intent and C r i t i c i s m . " Journal of Aesthetics and Art C r i t i c i s m 18, number 2 (December 1959):183-192. Goldwater, R.J. "Some Aspects of the Development of Seurat's Style."- Art B u l l e t i n 23 (June 1941):117-130. Gould, C e c i l . Bathers, Asnieres and the C r i s i s of Impressionism. Painting i n Focus, Number 6. London: The National Gallery, 1976. Grana, Cesar. Fact qnd Symbol. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971. Hamerton, P h i l i p G i l b e r t , Paris i n Old and Present Times. London: Seeley and Co., Limited, 1892. Hauke, Cesar M. de. Seurat et Son Oeuvre. 2 vols. P a r i s : Gruend, 1961. Herbert, Eugenia W. The A r t i s t and S o c i a l Reform: Art and P o l i t i c s  i n France and Belgium, 1885-1914. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961. Herbert, Robert L. "City Vs. Country: The Rural Image i n French Painting from M i l l e t to Gauguin." Artforum 8 (February 1970):44-45. Herbert, Robert L. " M i l l e t Revisited - I." Burlington Magazine 104 (July 1962):294-305. Herbert, Robert L. " M i l l e t Revisited - I I . " Burlington Magazine 104 (September 1962):377-385. Herbert, Robert L. Neo-Impressionism. New York: The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 1968. Herbert, Robert L. "A Rediscovered Drawing for Seurat's Baignade." Burlington Magazine 102 (August I960):368. Herbert, Robert L. "Seurat and Jules Cheret." Art B u l l e t i n 40 (June 1958):156-158. Herbert, Robert L. "Seurat and Puvis de Chavannes." Yale Univers- i t y Art Gallery B u l l e t i n 25 (October 1959):22-29. Herbert, Robert L. "Seurat i n Chicago and New York." Burlington  Magazine 100 (May 1958):146-154. Herbert, Robert L. Seurat's Drawings. New York: Shorewood Pub-l i s h e r s , 1962. Herbert, Robert L., and Herbert, Eugenia W. " A r t i s t s and Anarchism: Unpublished Letters of Pissarro, Signac, and Others - I." Burlington Magazine 102 (November-December I960):473-482. -129-Homer, William Innes. "Notes of Seurat's Palette." Burlington  Magazine 101 (May 1959).192-193. Homer, William Innes. Seurat and the Science of Painting. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1964. Homer, William Innes. "Seurat's formative period: 1880-1884." Connoisseur 142 (September 1958):58-62. Huysmans, J o r i s - K a r l . L'Art Moderne. P a r i s : Plon-Nourrit, (1883). Huysmans, J o r i s - K a r l . A Rebours. P a r i s : Fasquelle, (1929). Huysmans, J o r i s - K a r l . Croquis Parisiens. P a r s i : Plon, (1929). Jamot, Paul. "Ernest Laurent." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 4/5 (1911): 173-203. Kahn, Gustave. "Georges Seurat." L'Art Moderne 11 (1891):109. Kahn, Gustave. The Drawings of George Seurat. Translated by Stanley Appelbaum. New York: Dover Publications, 1971. Katz, L. "Seurat: Allegory and Image." Arts 32 ( A p r i l 1932): 40-47. Klingender, F.D. Art and the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution. Edited and revised by Arthur Elton. London: Evelyn, Adams and Mackay, 1968. Laprade, Jacques de. Georges Seurat. Monaco and P a r i s : J . Taupin, 1945. Laver, James. French Painting and the XlXth Century. London!: B.T. Batsford, 1937. Lhote, Andre. "Le Classisme de Seurat." Arts p2 (June 18, 1948). Lhote, Andre. Seurat. Paris: Braun, 1948. Lovgren, Sven. The Genesis of Modernism: Seurat, Gauguin, van Gogh, & French Symbolism i n the I880te. Stockholm: Almquist & Wiksell, 1959. Longhi, Roberto. "Un disegno per l a Grande Jatte e l a cuitura formule de Seurat." Paragone 1 (1950):40-43. Manson, J.B. "La Baignade." Apollo 1 (May 1925):299-300. Mitchells, K. "The Work of Art i n i t s S o c i a l Setting and i n i t s Aesthetic I s o l a t i o n . " Journal of Aesthetics and Art  C r i t i c i s m 25, number 4 (Summer 1967):369-374. Isaacson, J o e l . Monet: Le Dejeuner sur l'herbe. Art i n Context. London: A l l e n Lane, The Penguin Press, 1972. -130-Muehsam, Gerd, ed. French P a i n t e r s and P a i n t i n g s from the Fourteenth  Century t o Post-Impressionism. New York: F r e d e r i c k Ungar P u b l i s h i n g , 1970. Needham, H.A. Le Development de L ' E s t h e t i q u e S o c i o l o g i q u e en  France et en A n g l e t e r r e au XIXe s i e c l e . P a r i s : H. Champion, 1 9 2 6 . N e i s s , Robert J . Z o l a , Cezanne and Manet: A Study of L'Quevre. Ann Arbor, Mich.: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 . N i c h o l s o n , Benedict. "Seurat's La Baignade." B u r l i n g t o n Magazine (November 1 9 4 1 ) : 1 3 8 - 1 4 6 . N o c h l i n , Linda. "The Development and Nature of Realism i n the Work of Gustave Courbet: A Study of the S t y l e and I t s S o c i a l and A r t i s t i c Background." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 3 . N o c h l i n , L i n d a , ed. Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, 1 8 7 4 - 1 9 0 4 ; Sources and Documents. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e -H a l l , 1 9 6 6 . Nordau, Max. On A r t and A r t i s t s . T r a n s l a t e d by W.F. Harvey. P h i l -a d e l p h i a : George W. Jacobs & Co., no date. Perruchot, H e n r i . La V i e de Seurat. P a r i s : Hachette, 1 9 6 6 . P i s s a r r o , C a m i l l e . L e t t e r s t o h i s Son L u c i e n . 3 r d ed. E d i t e d by John Rewald. Mamaroneck, N.Y.: P a u l P. Appel, 1972. Prak, N i e l s Luning. "Seurat's Surface P a t t e r n and Subject M a t t e r . " Ar t B u l l e t i n 5 3 , number 3 (September 1 9 7 1 ) : 3 6 7 - 3 7 8 . Rewald, John. Georges Seurat. 2 n d r e v . ed. T r a n s l a t e d by L i o n e l A b e l . New York: Wittenborn & Company, 1 9 4 6 . Rewald, John. "Seurat: the Meaning of the Dots." A r t News 4 8 ( A p r i l 1 9 4 9 ) : 2 4 - 2 7 . ~ Rey, Robert. La Renaissance du Sentiment C l a s s i q u e . P a r i s : Les Beaux A r t s , 1 9 2 1 . R i c h , D a n i e l Catton. "The Place of Seurat." Chicago A r t I n s t i t u t e  Q u a r t e r l y 52 (February 1958):l-5. R i c h , D a n i e l Catton. Seurat and the E v o l u t i o n of "La Grande J a t t e . " Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1 9 3 5 . R i c h , D a n i e l Catton, ed. Seurat P a i n t i n g s and Drawings. Essay by Robert L. Herbert. Chicago: A r t I n s t i t u t e of Chicago, 1 9 5 8 . Richardson, Joanna, La V i e P a r i s i e n n e , 1 8 5 2 - 1 8 7 0 . London: H. Hamilton, ( 1 9 7 1 ) . -131-Robertson, M. "Michelangelo & Seurat." B u r l i n g t o n Magazines 95 (November 1953):371. R u s s e l l , John. Seurat. New York: F r e d e r i c k A. Praeger, 1965. Saalman, Howard. Haussmann: P a r i s Transformed. New York: George B r a z i l l e r , 1971. Schapiro, Meyer. "New L i g h t on Seurat." A r t News 57 ( A p r i l 1958):22-25 S c h a p i r o , Meyer. "Seurat and 'La Grande J a t t e ' . " Columbia Review 17 (November 1935):8-l6. Seligman, Germain. The Drawings of Georges Seurat. New York. C. V a l e n t i n , 1947-Se n s i e r , A l f r e d . J e an-Francois M i l l e t : Peasant and P a i n t e r . Trans-l a t e d by Helena de Kay. Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, 1881. Seurat and His Contemporaries. London: W i l d e n s t e i n & Company, 1937. Seurat, 1859-1891: P a i n t i n g s and Drawings. New York: Knoedler G a l l e r i e s , 1949. Shikes, Ralph E. The Indignant Eye: The A r t i s t as S o c i a l C r i t i c  i n P r i n t s and Drawings from the F i f t e e n t h Century t o  Picasso~ Boston: Beacon P r e s s , 1969. Signac, P a u l . D'Eugene D e l a c r o i x au Neo-Impressionnisme. I n t r o -d u c t i o n and notes by Fr a n c o i s e Cachin. C o l l e c t i o n M i r o i r s de l ' A r t . P a r i s : Hermann, 1964. Signac, P a u l . "Le Neo-Impressionisme." Gazette des Beaux-Arts s. 6, 111 January 1934) : 49- 59. S u t t e r , David. P h i l o s o p h i e des Beaux-Arts, Appliquee a La P e i n t u r e . P a r i s : J u l e s T a r d i e u , 1858. S u t t e r , Jean, ed. The Ne o - i m p r e s s i o n i s t s . T r a n s l a t e d by Chantel D e l i s s . Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic S o c i e t y , 1970. Venturx, L i o n e l l o . " P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a - S e u r a t - G r i s . " Diogenes 2 (Spring 1953):10-23. Wattenmaker, Richard J . Puvis de Chavannes and The Modern T r a d i t i o n . Toronto: The A r t G a l l e r y of O n t a r i o , 1975. Werner, B.E. "Georges Seurat." Kunst 65 (February 1932).147-152. Wheelwright, Edward. "Personal R e c o l l e c t i o n s of Jean-Francois M i l l e t . " The A t l a n t i c Monthly 38 (September 1876), pp. 257-276. -132-White, Barbara E h r l i c h . "The Bathers of 1887 and Renoir's Anti-Impressionism." Art B u l l e t i n 55, number 1 (March 1973): 106-126. Zola, Emile. Les Oeuvres Completes. Tome 12: L'Oeuvre. Par i s : F. Bernouard, (1927-1929). Zupnick, I.L. "Soc i a l C o n f l i c t of the Impressionists." Art Jour-nal 19, number 2 (Winter 1959-1960) .14-6-153. -133-APPENDIX -134-The Baignade a Asnieres was completed i n 1884, probably i n March. When submitted at the end of that month for consideration i n the Salon, i t was rejected. In 1884, there were a p a r t i c u l a r l y large number of r e j e c t i o n , and a Salon des Independants was organized. The Independants ac-cepted a l l submissions, and the Baignade was hung over the bar of a buvette i n the m i l i t a r y barracks where the show was held. After i t s exh i b i t i o n , the painting remained i n Seurat's possession. In 1886, Bernheim-Jeune, at the urging of Feneon and Pissarro, sent the painting to New York with a show i f impression-i s t works. The Baignade remained unsold, and when i t was returned 2 to Seurat i n 1887, he added the p o i n t i l l i s t touches now v i s i b l e . The work remained i n Seurat's possession u n t i l his death i n 1891, when i t was given to Seurat's family. In 1892, i t was shown i n the memorial exhibition of Seurat's work, at Les Independants. Probably i n 1900, the painting passed into F e l i x Feneon's possession. In 190$, i t appeared i n the Seurat retrospective held at Les Independants. Feneon kept i t u n t i l 1924. In that year i t was bought by the Trustees of the Courtauld Fund f o r the Tate Gallery. The work was transferred to the National Gallery i n 1961, where, i n 1976, i t was the subject of a Painting i n Focus exhib-i t i o n . The work, which i s o i l on canvas, measures 201 x 301.5 centimetres, and i s i n a good state of repair. -135-NQTES ^"Perhaps because i t was d i f f i c u l t to accommodate such a large picture. 2 These include the cap of the boy i n the water and the halo around the central figure's straw hat, as well as isolated sections i n the grass. 

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