UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Dream and reality among five North American Indian peoples : an examination of the literature Gould, Sheila Arlene 1978

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1978_A8 G69.pdf [ 8.28MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094433.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094433-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094433-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094433-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094433-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094433-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094433-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094433-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094433.ris

Full Text

D R E A M A N D R E A L I T Y A M O N G F I V E N O R T H A M E R I C A N INDIAN P E O P L E S A N E X A M I N A T I O N O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E by S H E I L A A R L E N E G O U L D B . A . , University of British Columbia, 1971 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F "THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES Department of Anthropology and Sociology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A A p r i l , 1978 © Sheila Arlene Gould, 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Anthropology and Sociology The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date Anril 28. 1978 i i A B S T R A C T This thesis consists of an examination of fifteen anthropological dream studies. Its contention is that in these studies, the dream complexes of the Navaho, Mohave, Hopi, Iroquois and Ojibwa Indians tend to appear as manifestations of these peoples' conceptions about the distinction between real and imaginary experiences. It is suggested that this portrayal is trans-mitted through a language of description which is based on western theoret-ical conceptions of reali ty . It is recommended that a metalanguage be developed so that non-western experiences of dream and other psycholog-ical phenomena can be communicated as ' rea l ' experiences. T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S Chapter I. I N T R O D U C T I O N The Language of Description II. T H E N A V A H O D R E A M C O M P L E X ... The Presentation of Will iam Morgan "Navaho D r e a m s " (1932) The Presentation of J . S . Lincoln The Dream in Primitive Cultures (1935) III. T H E M O H A V E D R E A M C O M P L E X . The Presentation of W.J . Wallace "The Dream in Mohave L i f e " (1947) The Presentation of George Devereux "Mohave Dreams of Omen and Power" (1956) " D r e a m Learning and Individual Ritual Differences in Mohave Shamanism" (1957) "Pathogenic Dreams in Non-Western 'Societies" (1966) IV. T H E HOPI D R E A M C O M P L E X The Presentation of Dorothy Eggan "The Significance of Dreams for Anthropological Research" (1949) "The Manifest Content of Dreams: A Challange to Social Science" (1952) "The Personal Use of Myth in D r e a m s " (1955) " D r e a m A n a l y s i s " (1961) "Hopi Dreams in Cultural Perspective" (1966) V . T H E IROQUOIS D R E A M C O M P L E X The Presentation of A . F . C . Wallace iv "Dreams and Wishes of the Soul: A Type of Psychoanalytic Theory among the Seventeenth-Century Iroquois" (1958) The Presentation of Harold Blau " D r e a m Guessing" (1963) IV. T H E OJIBWA D R E A M C O M P L E X 124 The Presentation of Paul Radin "Ojibwa and Ottawa Puberty D r e a m s " (1936) The Presentation of Irving Hallowell "The Role of Dreams in Ojibwa Culture" (1966) VII. C O N C L U S I O N 147 Non-Western Dreams V s . Western Realities VIII. R E F E R E N C E N O T E S ,. 172 IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY 174 A C K N O W L E D G E M E NTS I would like to express my appreciation to the members of my thesis advis committee. Much thanks to Mike Kew and Robin Ridington whose cr i t i ca l evaluations resulted in the clarification of many of the ideas expressed in this thesis. Special thanks to E l v i Whittaker for her careful guidance and continuous encouragement throughout the long preparation of this work. C H A P T E R I T H E L A N G U A G E O F D E S C R I P T I O N It i s the p u r p o s e of this t h e s i s to e x p l o r e the c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d r e a m as it has been p o r t r a y e d i n the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l d r e a m s t u d i e s of f i v e N o r t h A m e r i c a n Indian c u l t u r e s . B y r e f e r r i n g to t h e i r d r e a m s , these p e o p l e s h a v e a p p a r e n t l y been able to a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i s p e r t i n e n t to t h e i r p e r s o n a l w e l l - b e i n g and total l i f e s i t u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h the a n t h r o -p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e attests to this a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l l y i m p o r t a n t status of the d r e a m a m o n g n o n - w e s t e r n p e o p l e s , the s tudy of the at t i tudes and p r a c -t i c e s w h i c h s u r r o u n d it has p l a y e d only a m i n o r r o l e in the h i s t o r y of a n -t h r o p o l o g y . .In m a n y r e s p e c t s it has p l a y e d the p a r t of a footnote to the m o r e p r o m i n e n t p u r s u i t s of m a g i c and r e l i g i o n . It is the c o n t e n t i o n of th is t h e s i s that this s i t u a t i o n m a y exis t b e c a u s e the l i t e r a t u r e has not p r e s e n t e d the p h e n o m e n a i n v o l v e d in t e r m s of v i a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e p r o b l e m w h i c h i m m e d i a t e l y p r e s e n t s i t s e l f in the l i t e r a t u r e on the n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m is one w h i c h is c e n t r a l to a n t h r o p o l o g y : t r a n s l a t i o n . It is the t a s k of the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t to c o m m u n i c a t e the n o n - w e s t e r n c u l t u r a l i t e m he has o b s e r v e d by t r a n s l a t i n g it into an e q u i v a l e n t w e s t e r n i d i o m . In o r d e r to a c c o m p l i s h this t a s k he m u s t f i r s t f i n d an a p p r o p r i a t e f r a m e of r e f e r e n c e . In the c a s e of d r e a m , m o s t a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have e m p l o y e d the concept of the s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r th is p u r p o s e . T h u s we see s u c h w o r d s as " v i s i o n " , " p o w e r " , " o m e n " , and " g u a r d i a n s p i r i t " b e i n g u s e d to d e s c r i b e and t r a n s l a t e the event of the n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m c o m p l e x . ^ It is s u g g e s t e d , h o w e v e r , that these t e r m s tend t o w a r d a l i e n a t i o n r a t h e r than c o m m u n i c a t i o n . 2 This is because they do not seem to refer to any event with which the reader can personally identify.^ They are vestiges of another age, a pre - scientific age. They refer to experiences which our ancestors might have had but which we, with the benefit of a scientific education, 'know' are merely 'superstitions'. When applied cross-culturally therefore these terms seem to cancel out the credibility of the experience they are supposed to describe. As such the non-western event tends to take on the appearance of superstition or 'false belief. While the language of the supernatural refers to the experiences of our ancestors, it also seems to refer to the reality of our ancestors. That is, our reality is a scientific one. Because these terms do not refer to any scientifically real experience, they tend to connote not only a 'false belief but also a 'false perception' of reality. Their usage implies that the 'be-liever' does not know that the things he 'believes in' are not real. By referring experiences to the phenomena of reality perception, the language of the supernatural tends to hinder the serious investigation of the non-western events it attempts to describe. The association with 'false perception' seems to place these events in a category of experiences which are alien to western perception. It suggests that there is no;: possibility of relating the event to a western experience or of translating it into western idiom. It would appear that this may be the reason for the apparent lack of inquiry into the significance of the dream for non-western peoples. The case of the dream would appear to be unique in this problem of translation in that the anthropological references to supernatural phenomena 3 are often a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i m p l i c i t o r e x p l i c i t sugges t ion that the d r e a m i t s e l f has a r e a l i t y va lue f o r the n o n - w e s t e r n e r . T h i s s e e m s to have o c -c u r r e d to the extent the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s s e e m to be d o m i n a t e d by the p o r t r a y a l of the r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h the n o n - w e s t e r n e r has w i t h r e a l i t y r a t h e r than of the r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h he has with d r e a m . It is the p u r p o s e of this t h e s i s to e x a m i n e this s i tuat ion in an attempt to d i s c o v e r whether o r not there m a y be a ' r e a l ' e x p e r i e n c e behind this apparent m i s p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y in the n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m c o m p l e x e s . T h e f o l l o w i n g pages w i l l c o n s i s t of an e x a m i n a t i o n of the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of the d r e a m c o m p l e x e s of the N a v a h o , M o h a v e , H o p i , I r o q u o i s and O j i b w a p e o p l e s . T h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h w i l l be e x a m i n e d spans a p e r i o d of t h i r t y - f o u r ' y e a r s f r o m 1932 to 1966. E x c e p t f o r J a c k s o n L i n c o l n ' s T h e  D r e a m in P r i m i t i v e C u l t u r e s (1935), this m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t s of i n d i v i d u a l a r t i c l e s w h i c h are devoted to the d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the attitudes and p r a c t i c e s w h i c h e a c h a n t h r o p o l o g i s t has o b s e r v e d to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d r e a m in the c u l t u r e of his study. In e a c h c a s e , r e f e r e n c e w i l l be m a d e to a m i n i m u m of two p a p e r s . F o r the N a v a h o , a p o r t i o n of L i n c o l n ' s w o r k w i l l be u s e d along w i t h an e a r l i e r p a p e r by W i l l i a m M o r g a n (1932). A n a r t i c l e by W . J . W a l l a c e (1947) and three l a t e r p a p e r s by G e o r g e D e v e r e u x (1956, 1957, 1966) have been s e l e c t e d f o r the M o h a v e . A l l of the i n f o r m a t i o n on the H o p i c o m e s f r o m the r e s e a r c h e s of D o r o t h y E g g a n (1949, 1952, 1955, 1961, 1966). T h e r e is one f a i r l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e p a p e r by A n t h o n y W a l l a c e (1958) f o r the I r o q u o i s as w e l l as a b r i e f one by H a r o l d B l a u (1963). F o r the O j i b w a there are two p a p e r s , one by P a u l R a d i n (19 36) and the other by I r v i n g H a l l o w e l l (1966). E a c h d r e a m study w i l l be e x a m i n e d in t e r m s of the m a n n e r in w h i c h it p o r t r a y s the n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m c o m p l e x . U p o n the c o m p l e t i o n of e a c h e x a m i n a t i o n , there w i l l be a c o m p a r a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h w i l l be c o n c e r n e d with the a p p e a r a n c e of c e r t a i n t h e m a t i c c o n n e c t i o n s . T h e s e t h e m e s w i l l be t r a c e d f r o m t h e i r f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e in L i n c o l n ' s w o r k and w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as , 1. the inf luence of c u l t u r e on the d r e a m ; 2. the inf luence of the d r e a m on c u l t u r e ; 3. the n o n - w e s t e r n p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . It is to be e m p h a s i z e d that the p r e s e n t i n q u i r y is not d i r e c t e d at the e t h n o c e n t r i c i t y of d r e a m r e s e a r c h e r s but r a t h e r at the e t h n o c e n t r i c i t y of the language of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n i t s e l f . T h e intention is to d e -m o n s t r a t e the d o m i n a t i o n of this language o v e r past as w e l l as p r e s e n t a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t r a n s l a t i o n s of n o n - w e s t e r n e x p e r i e n c e . 5 C H A P T E R II T H E N A V A H O D R E A M C O M P L E X A . T h e P r e s e n t a t i o n of W i l l i a m M o r g a n : " N a v a h o D r e a m s " (1932) In " N a v a h o D r e a m s " (193Z)\ W i l l i a m M o r g a n f o c u s e s on N a v a h o d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . It is M o r g a n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n that his i n f o r m a n t s use c e r t a i n " r e a s o n i n g p r o c e s s e s " w h e n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e i r d r e a m s . H e sees i n these p r o c e s s e s " c e r t a i n types of c a u s a l i t y " w h i c h J e a n P i a g e t d e m o n s t r a t e d to exist in the thought p r o c e s s e s of F r e n c h c h i l d r e n under the age of eight . T h r e e d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a n t s w e r e use d to d e m o n s t r a t e the p r e s e n c e of these thought p r o c e s s e s a m o n g the N a v a h o . T h e f i r s t i s C , a s h a m a n who has a case of repetet ive d r e a m s : L a s t m o n t h , he d r e a m e d that m a n y gods c a m e after h i m . T h e y t r i e d to d r a g h i m away to a m o u n t a i n . M a n y Y e i (who a r e p r o m i n e n t in the N i g h t Chant) w e r e a m o n g these gods . T h e s e gods w e r e t r y i n g to k i l l h i m . S i n c e then, he has had this d r e a m again and a g a i n . H e a s k e d O what he m u s t do about the d r e a m . O s a i d that the m e d i c i n e and m a s k s w h i c h he handled w e r e too s t r o n g ; that the gods w e r e t r y i n g to k i l l h i m . H e m u s t have a Night C h a n t . ( M o r g a n 1932: 390) M o r g a n r e m a r k s that, to his k n o w l e d g e , the N i g h t C h a n t is a c e r e m o n y " p r i m a r i l y f o r the c u r i n g of s i c k n e s s . " H e t e l l s us that it was e x p l a i n e d to h i m that, al though C was not s i c k , "the c e r e m o n y w o u l d m e a n good heal th f o r the next few y e a r s . " F r o m this e x p l a n a t i o n , M o r g a n c o n c l u d e s , " H e r e , then, w a s v e r i f i e d i n f o r m a t i o n that a N a v a h o c e r e m o n y c o u l d p r e -vent future i l l n e s s . " T h e l o g i c i n v o l v e d in this c o n c l u s i o n i s not out l ined f o r the r e a d e r . M o r g a n c o n t i n u e s . We are f i r s t g iven a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of N a v a h o attitudes t o w a r d s d r e a m s i n g e n e r a l . We are to ld that, " d r e a m s a r e g e n e r a l l y w a r n i n g s . " W h e t h e r a d r e a m is " g o o d " o r " b a d " is g e n e r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d " b y the d i s -t u r b i n g nature of the effect w h i c h p e r s i s t s after the d r e a m e r has awakened If a d r e a m is " b a d " , a N a v a h o " a s s u r e s that s o m e t h i n g u n d e s i r a b l e is going to happen to h i m , and he m u s t do s o m e t h i n g to f o r e s t a l l i t . " It should be noted h e r e that l a t e r on in the p a p e r , M o r g a n adds that, "In case a N a v a h o is m o d e r a t e l y worried about a d r e a m . . . he m a y p r a y at dawn in the d o o r of his hogan . . . " H e r e he t e l l s us that d i a g n o s t i c i a n s are a v a i l a b l e "to d i s c o v e r the c a u s e of the d r e a m , what is going to happen, and how to p r o h i b i t the ant ic ipated event . " H e e x p l a i n s that, " U s u a l l y the d r e a m e r f e e l s s i c k by the t i m e he c o m e s to the d i a g n o s t i c i a n , and, c o n -sequent ly , u n l e s s the d r e a m c l e a r l y r e v e a l s a c a u s e , s u c h as the h o s t i l i t y of the Y e i gods i n C ' s d r e a m , the d i a g n o s t i c i a n , often i n a t r a n c e - s t a t e , w i l l obtain the cause of the s i c k n e s s without r e f e r e n c e to the d r e a m . " R e t u r n i n g to the case at hand, M o r g a n then d e s c r i b e s the attitude of C towards his r e c u r r i n g d r e a m : H e was c o n v i n c e d that his d r e a m was a w a r n i n g , and that u n l e s s s o m e t h i n g w e r e done, he w o u l d be s i c k . H e was s a t i s f i e d that the gods w e r e h o s t i l e , e s p e c i a l l y the Y e i , and he knew that his c e r e m o n i a l p a r a p h e n a l i a conta ined p o w e r f u l f o r c e s . T h r o u g h p h y s i c a l contact and the constant p r o x i m i t y i n his hogan of c e r e m o n i a l objec ts , these f o r c e s c o u l d enter h i m and cause h i m to be s i c k . H e was c e r t a i n the Y e i p a r t i c u l a r l y needed p r o p i t i a t i o n and the N i g h t Chant w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be a p p r o -p r i a t e . In a d d i t i o n , the c e r e m o n y w o u l d r i d h i m of these u n d e s i r a b l e f o r c e s a l r e a d y in his body . ( M o r g a n 1932: 391) A t this point M o r g a n gives us h is own attitude t o w a r d the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . H e is d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h it: T h e d e s c r i p t i o n l e a v e s m u c h to be d e s i r e d f r o m the white m a n ' s point of v i e w . What c a u s e d the Y e i to be h o s t i l e ? What agency w a r n e d C by a d r e a m ? ( M o r g a n 1932: 391) F r o m t h i s , M o r g a n leads us d i r e c t l y into the q u e s t i o n of N a v a h o thought p r o c e s s e s . R e f e r r i n g to the w o r k of J e a n P i a g e t , he notes that N a v a h o d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s the p r e s e n c e of s ix of the seventeen types of c a u s a l i t y w h i c h P i a g e t found in the thought p r o c e s s e s of F r e n c h c h i l d r e n under the age of eight . H e f u r t h e r adds that, " N o doubt, a l l of P i a g e t ' s types c o u l d be d e m o n s t r a t e d in the g e n e r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n of an adult N a v a h o . A t this point , the r e a d e r m i g h t w i s h to r e f l e c t upon what o p i n i o n , if any, he has f o r m e d of the adult N a v a h o f r o m M o r g a n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n thus f a r . T h e language of d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h M o r g a n has e m p l o y e d i n this i n t r o -d u c t o r y s e c t i o n i s , what we m i g h t c a l l , the language of the s u p e r n a t u r a l . We have r e a d of hos t i le " g o d s " who are t r y i n g to k i l l C , of " p o w e r f u l f o r c e s " w h i c h can emanate f r o m C ' s " c e r e m o n i a l p a r a p h e n a l i a " and cause h i m to b e c o m e s i c k . T h e effect of this d e s c r i p t i o n is s u c h that by the t i m e M o r g a n t e l l s us of his d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the N a v a h o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , m o s t of us are p r o b a b l y quite r e a d y to agree w i t h h i m . But it is at this point that s o m e t h i n g i n t e r e s t i n g o c c u r s . T h e w a y i n w h i c h M o r g a n e x p r e s s e s his d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n is by a s k i n g the q u e s t i o n s "What c a u s e d the Y e i to be 8 h o s t i l e ? " and " W h a t agency w a r n e d C by a d r e a m ? " T h e s e , h o w e v e r , are not the ques t ions w h i c h M o r g a n sets out to a n s w e r . T h e fact that he t u r n s d i r e c t l y to the p r o b l e m of c a u s a l i t y in N a v a h o thought p r o c e s s e s i n d i c a t e s that the q u e s t i o n w h i c h he p e r h a p s is set t ing out to a n s w e r i s , W h y do the N a v a h o think s u c h things about d r e a m s ? It would s e e m t h e r e f o r e that this s e c t i o n i s s u g g e s t i n g two things : t h e r e is s o m e t h i n g w r o n g w i t h the w a y N a v a h o i n t e r p r e t d r e a m s and there is s o m e t h i n g w r o n g w i t h the w a y the N a v a h o th ink . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n is soon r e i n f o r c e d by the explanat ion M o r g a n o f f e r s f o r the ex is tence of these thought p r o c e s s e s a m o n g the N a v a h o : So l o n g as d r e a m s and other m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the u n c o n s c i o u s can p r o d u c e s e r i o u s p h y s i o -l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s , these types of c a u s a l i t y w i l l p e r s i s t , r e g a r d l e s s of c o m p u l s o r y e d u -c a t i o n and a l l i e d a c t i v i t i e s . So long as white d o c t o r s confine t h e i r t r e a t m e n t to the p u r e l y p h y s i c a l c a u s e s of s i c k n e s s , t h e r e w i l l r e m a i n an e s s e n t i a l need f o r the t r i b a l c e r e m o n i e s , w h i c h d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h the p s y c h o g e n i c f a c t o r s of s i c k n e s s . ( M o r g a n 1935: 392) T h e p a s s a g e is at f i r s t c o n f u s i n g . T h e f i r s t sentence a p p e a r s to i m p l y that d r e a m s ' i n g e n e r a l ' and, t h e r e f o r e , d r e a m s a m o n g white adults as w e l l as N a v a h o adults can p r o d u c e s u c h d i s t u r b a n c e s . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , of c o u r s e , w o u l d m e a n that white adults w o u l d be subject to the s a m e c a u s a l thought p r o c e s s e s . H o w e v e r , i n the s e c o n d sentence it b e c o m e s c l e a r that M o r g a n is s p e a k i n g of p s y c h o s o m a t i c i l l n e s s e s and i s i m p l y i n g that the N a v a h o are i n need of p s y c h i a t r i c h e l p . H e s e e m s to be s u g g e s t i n g that s u c h help w o u l d not only e l i m i n a t e the need f o r the " t r i b a l c e r e m o n i e s " but that it w o u l d e l i m i n a t e the need f o r the c a u s a l thought p r o c e s s e s as w e l l . T h e i m a g e of the N a v a h o w h i c h s e e m s to be e m e r g i n g f r o m the p a p e r is t h e r e f o r e one of a people who have thought p r o c e s s e s w h i c h are not only c a u s a l but w h i c h a r e a b n o r m a l . T h i s i m a g e is soon c o n c r e t i z e d as M o r g a n o f f e r s a w e s t e r n analogy . A d v i s i n g us against a c o n c l u s i o n about how " c h i l d l i k e " a N a v a h o m a y be, he notes that, " T h e o n l y p e r m i s s i b l e c o m p a r i s o n is w i t h the m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s of white adults at L o u r d e s or of white pat ients in h o s p i t a l w a r d s . " A s M o r g a n does not e l a b o r a t e f u r t h e r , it s e e m s we m u s t c o m e to our own c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the b a s i s f o r this c o m p a r i s o n . W h i l e M o r g a n does not state that the i l l n e s s e s of these "white a d u l t s " are p s y c h o s o m a t i c , he does s e e m to be s u g g e s t i n g that these i l l n e s s e s i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i r r a t i o n a l thought p r o c e s s e s . In o t h e r w o r d s , it w o u l d appear that these are people who are not ' t h i n k i n g s t r a i g h t ' . We m i g h t speculate that the r e a s o n a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h c h i l d r e n is not p e r m i s s i b l e is b e c a u s e , f o r c h i l d r e n , such thought p r o c e s s e s r e p r e s e n t a n o r m a l state of m i n d . It s e e m s t h e r e f o r e that the c o m p a r i s o n w i t h white adults at L o u r d e s and i n h o s p i t a l w a r d s i n v o l v e s a v i e w of N a v a h o t h i n k i n g as a b o r m a l t h i n k i n g T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s i n h a r m o n y w i t h the p r e v i o u s r e f e r e n c e to the p o s s i b l e benefi ts of p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t f o r these p e o p l e . T h e d i s c u s s i o n i n g e n -e r a l s e e m s to evoke an i m a g e of the N a v a h o adult as be ing i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n f e r i o r to the w e s t e r n adult . T h e next s e c t i o n of M o r g a n ' s p a p e r c o n s i s t s of the ac tual d e l i n e a t i o n of the s ix c a u s a l thought p r o c e s s e s i n N a v a h o d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . W e a r e again r e f e r r e d to the case of C . H a v i n g told us about the " p o w e r f u l f o r c e s " i n C ' s " c e r e m o n i a l p a r a p h e n a l i a " , M o r g a n now p r o c e e d s to d e m o n -strate that C ' s . ' b e l i e f that these " f o r c e s " w e r e p r e s e n t i n both the objects and i n his own body is a type of c a u s a l i t y " b y p a r t i c i p a t i o n " . M o r g a n quotes P i a g e t who states that this is w h e r e two t h i n g s , between w h i c h there s u b s i s t r e l a t i o n s of r e s e m b l a n c e o r of g e n e r a l a f f i n i t y , a r e c o n -c e i v e d as having s o m e t h i n g i n c o m m o n w h i c h enables t h e m to act upon one another at a d i s t a n c e . . . ( M o r g a n 1932: 393) T h e n , w i t h r e s p e c t to C ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to these o b j e c t s , C h i m s e l f h a v i n g " c h a r g e d t h e m w i t h p o w e r " , M o r g a n t e l l s us that this is an i l l u s t r a -t ion of " m a g i c a l c a u s a l i t y " . P i a g e t d e s c r i b e s this in the f o l l o w i n g way: T h e subject r e g a r d s his g e s t u r e s , his thoughts , or the objects he handles as c h a r g e d w i t h e f f i c a c y , thanks to the v e r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n s w h i c h he e s t a -b l i s h e s between those g e s t u r e s etc . , and the things a r o u n d h i m . ( M o r g a n 1932: 393) T h i r d l y , M o r g a n repeats his o b s e r v a t i o n that, . . . C is so s u r e that he w i l l have to get s i c k , as long as the gods intend to k i l l h i m , that he is p r e p a r e d to spend eight h u n d r e d d o l l a r s i n o r d e r to p r e v e n t i t . ( M o r g a n 1932: 393) H e states that this i s a f o r m of " m o r a l c a u s a l i t y " w h e r e b y , a c c o r d i n g to P i a g e t , the c h i l d e x p l a i n s the e x i s t e n c e of a g iven m o v e m e n t o r of a g i v e n f e a t u r e by i ts n e c e s s i t y , but this n e c e s s i t y is purvely m o r a l : the c l o u d s " m u s t " advance i n o r d e r to m a k e night when m e n go to bed to s l e e p . ( M o r g a n : 1932: 393) W i t h these three e x a m p l e s c o m e s a r e i n f o r c e m e n t of the s e e m i n g i n t e l l e c -t u a l i n f e r i o r i t y of the N a v a h o adult . E a c h d e m o n s t r a t e s that the N a v a h o d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c a u s a l t h i n k i n g . Not only a r e C ' s ' b e l i e f s ' about " g o d s , d r e a m s , and s i c k n e s s " e x p o s e d but C h i m s e l f is e x p o s e d . H e is r e v e a l e d to be s o m e o n e who m e r e l y ' t h i n k s ' that there are " p o w e r f u l " f o r c e s " in his " c e r e m o n i a l o b j e c t s " ; s o m e o n e who m e r e l y ' t h i n k s ' that these f o r c e s a r e p r e s e n t in his own body; and s o m e o n e who m e r e l y ' think that he c a n p r e v e n t these " p o w e r f u l f o r c e s " f r o m m a k i n g h i m s i c k and the " g o d s " f r o m k i l l i n g h i m by s p e n d i n g eight h u n d r e d d o l l a r s on a " c e r e m o n y " . M o r g a n n e i t h e r asks n o r a n s w e r s the q u e s t i o n of whether or not C e x p e r -ienced good heal th f o l l o w i n g the c e r e m o n y . T h u s , i t t s e e m s that both N a v a h o d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and N a v a h o thought p r o c e s s e s a r e d i s c r e d i t e d . B e f o r e c o n t i n u i n g with the a n a l y s i s , M o r g a n m a k e s an i n t e r e s t i n g d i g -r e s s i o n . H a v i n g noted the p r e s e n c e of " m y t h m a t e r i a l s " i n N a v a h o d r e a m s , he d i s c u s s e s the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n of " i n f l u e n c i n g the m a n i f e s t content of d r e a m s " . H e states: It i s be ing c o n t i n u a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d on white subjects that if they b e l i e v e or are to ld that a c e r t a i n d r e a m m e a n s that a c e r t a i n event w i l l o c c u r , then v e r y f r e q u e n t l y this d r e a m w i l l p r e c e d e the s p e c i f i c event w h i c h they had no c o n s c i o u s r e a s o n to p r e d i c t . T h e s i m p l e s t explanat ion f o r this s e e m s to be that t h e i r u n c o n s c i o u s was aware of c e r t a i n " s i g n s " of the a p p r o a c h i n g event , b e f o r e t h e i r c o n s c i o u s m i n d r e c o g n i z e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these s i g n s . In other c a s e s , c o n s c i o u s o r u n c o n s c i o u s s u s p i c i o n s that an event had taken p l a c e w o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t to cause the d r e a m whose t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w o u l d o r d i n a r i l y f o r e t e l l the event : ( M o r g a n 1932: 394) T h e n , not ing a g e n e r a l l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n on "the i n f l u e n c e of m y t h s and other f o r m s of c u l t u r a l suggest ion on the d r e a m s of i n d i v i d u a l s " , he m a k e s , an e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n : 12 N e e d l e s s to say , v e r y l i t t le is known about this q u e s t i o n of i n f l u e n c i n g the m a n i f e s t contents of d r e a m s , and one r e a s o n is that those p s y c h o l o g i s t s who are s tudying d r e a m s do not p u b l i s h what they say to t h e i r p a t i e n t s . A l l we know is that e a c h one f inds the d r e a m s y m b o l i s m w i t h w h i c h he is f a m i l i a r . ( M o r g a n 1932: 394-395) T h e o b s e r v a t i o n w o u l d s e e m to have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the study of c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s on d r e a m content . M o r e than t h i s , it s e e m s to have i m -portant i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the study of the N a v a h o d r e a m c o m p l e x . But M o r g a n does not use these p h e n o m e n a to e x p l a i n N a v a h o d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . H e r e t u r n s ins tead to a d i s c u s s i o n of c a u s a l thought p r o c e s s e s . We a r e next i n t r o d u c e d to a new i n f o r m a n t and a new c a s e . H a v i n g " a w a k e n e d one m o r n i n g w i t h the f e e l i n g of be ing s t r a n g l e d " the i n f o r m a n t , J , " c o n s u l t e d L , a d i a g n o s t i c i a n , who s a i d that d 's eagle had c l u t c h e d at his throat , and he m u s t have the E a g l e C h a n t " . M o r g a n c l a i m s that this i s an e x a m p l e of a " p h e n o m e n i s t i c " type of c a u s a l i t y . O f t h i s , P i a g e t s tates , two facts g iven together i n p e r c e p t i o n , and s u c h that no r e l a t i o n s u b s i s t s between t h e m except c ont igui ty in t i m e and s p a c e , are r e g a r d e d as b e i n g c o n n e c t e d by a r e l a t i o n of c a u s a l i t y . . . ( M o r g a n 1932: 397) W h i l e it is d i f f i c u l t f o r us to q u e r y M o r g a n ' s c o n c l u s i o n , there is one q u e s -t ion w h i c h does c o m e to m i n d : H o w d i d the d i a g n o s t i c i a n c o m e to the c o n -c l u s i o n that the eagle had been the cause of the " f e e l i n g of b e i n g s t r a n g l e d " ? A s it h a p p e n s , M o r g a n does not s e e m to have a s k e d the d i a g n o s t i c i a n this q u e s t i o n . A s s u c h one tends to q u e s t i o n his b a s i s f o r s ta t ing that there i s "no r e l a t i o n " between the two o c c u r r e n c e s apart f r o m " c o n t i g u i t y i n t i m e and s p a c e . " 13 T h e next c a s e M o r g a n i n t r o d u c e s to us d e m o n s t r a t e s the las t two types of c a u s a l i t y , that of " f i n a l i s m " and that of " m o t i v a t i o n " . T h e i n f o r m a n t i s a m a n w h o , having d e v e l o p e d an a b s c e s s i n his eye , c a m e to the white d o c -tor on his r e s e r v a t i o n f o r t r e a t m e n t : • T h i s Indian sa id that a l o n g t i m e ago a d e e r r a n c l o s e to h i m . Its h o r n s b r u s h e d his e y e s . F o r m a n y days he c o u l d s c a r c e l y s e e . R e c e n t l y w h i l e c h o p p i n g w o o d , a s p l i n t e r c a m e into his e y e . H e p u l l e d it out. T h a t night he d r e a m e d of d e e r . S i n c e then he has d r e a m e d of d e e r e v e r y night . If D r . o w o u l d stop his d r e a m i n g of d e e r , then his eye w o u l d get w e l l . H e was t o l d that his eye m u s t be taken out. H e r e f u s e d . H e was to ld that i f th is w e r e not done he w o u l d l o s e both eyes and w o u l d p r o b a b l y d i e . T h e Indian r e p l i e d that he had l i v e d a l o n g t i m e and d i d not c a r e w h e t h e r he d i e d . T h e n he went away. ( M o r g a n 1932: 398) A s an a s i d e , M o r g a n c o m m e n t s that, It should be added that the p r o b a b l e facts a r e that he sought D r . o in an effor t to save anything up to a thousand d o l l a r s (the cost of a c e r e m o n y ) ; and that he went away not to d i e , but to f ind a d i a g n o s -t i c i a n . ( M o r g a n 1932: 398) I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough we a r e then i n f o r m e d that, " T h i s N a v a h o ' s e x p o s i t i o n of h is case is p e c u l i a r l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these Indians . . . " A g a i n M o r g a n quotes P i a g e t to d e s c r i b e this attitude: on the one hand t h e r e i s an absence of the d e s i r e to f i n d l o g i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r one ' s s ta tements , and on the o ther , s y n c r e t i s m c o m b i n e s w i t h jux tapo-s i t i o n to p r o d u c e an e x c e s s of s u b j e c t i v e and affec t ive r e l a t i o n s at the expense of l o g i c a l i m p l i -c a t i o n s . ( M o r g a n 1932: 398) It a p p e a r s t h e r e f o r e that N a v a h o t h i n k i n g i s not only c a u s a l , it is i l l o g i c a l . M o r g a n goes on to state that the N a v a h o ' s d e s i r e "that h i s d r e a m m i g h t be stopped i n o r d e r that h e a l i n g m i g h t p r o c e e d . " is an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the c a u s a l i t y of f i n a l i s m w h i c h P i a g e t d e s c r i b e s i n the f o l l o w i n g way. T h e deep and s t u b b o r n f i n a l i s m of the c h i l d shows w i t h what d i f f i c u l t y e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y f r e e s i t s e l f f r o m s c h e m a s due to i n t e r n a l and p s y c h i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s . ( M o r g a n 1932: 398) It a p p e a r s t h e r e f o r e that the i l l o g i c a l i t y of N a v a h o t h i n k i n g s t e m s f r o m a d i f f i c u l t y in the s e p a r a t i o n of e x t e r n a l f r o m i n t e r n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n c l u s i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e it s e e m s to be d i r e c t e d at a r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h the m a n a p p e a r s to p o s i t between d r e a m s and p h y s i o -l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . T h a t i s , the d i s c u s s i o n to this point has s e e m e d to suggest that the m a n ' s w i s h to have his d r e a m s stopped s t e m s f r o m a ' b e l i e f that there is a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between his eye i n j u r y and his repete t ive d r e a m s o r , m o r e s i m p l y , between the d e e r of his r e a l e x p e r i e n c e and the d e e r of his d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . B u t M o r g a n ' s r e f e r r a l of this case to a c a u s -al i ty of f i n a l i s m i n d i c a t e s that he h i m s e l f does not ' b e l i e v e ' i n the e x i s t e n c e of s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s i i n t u r n suggests that the N a v a h o do not have a ' t rue p e r c e p t i o n 1 of " e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y " as o p p o s e d to " i n t e r n a l and p s y c h i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s . " T h a t i s , one r e c e i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n that the N a v a h o are a p e o p l e who have a ' f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n ' of r e a l i t y . S p e c u l a t i n g on what a d i a g n o s t i c i a n w o u l d do in t h i s c a s e , M o r g a n c o m m e n t s : . . . a cause or c a u s e s f o r the i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h w e r e p r e v e n t i n g the n o r m a l h e a l i n g p r o c e s s w o u l d undoubtedly be r e v e a l e d to h i m . . . In these c a s e s a " m o t i v a t i o n " type of c a u s a l i t y is apparent , w h e r e gods o r the s p i r i t s of m e n revenge t h e m s e l v e s b e c a u s e the subject has done s o m e t h i n g w h i c h he ought not to have done o r has o m i t t e d to do s o m e -thing w h i c h he should have done. ( M o r g a n 19 32: 399) 15 T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n m a k e s it evident that these " g o d s " and " s p i r i t s " a r e not r e a l but are m e r e l y ' b e l i e v e d ' to be r e a l . It a l s o s e e m s to suggest fehat this ' b e l i e f is both i n t r i n s i c to and p e r h a p s dependent upon the p h e n o m e n o n of c a u s a l t h i n k i n g . T h e s i tuat ion i s s u c h that it s e e m s once again we m u s t c o n -c lude that the N a v a h o do not p e r c e i v e r e a l i t y c o r r e c t l y . T h i s c o n c l u d e s the d i s c u s s i o n of the s ix types of c a u s a l i t y . H o w e v e r , once a g a i n , M o r g a n has n e g l e c t e d to p r o v i d e us w i t h any f o l l o w - u p to the case he has d e s c r i b e d . In c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the fact that he has just t o l d us that " T h i s N a v a h o ' s e x p o s i t i o n of his c a s e is p e c u l i a r l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these Indians . . . " , s u c h a f o l l o w - u p s e e m s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t . If s u c h attitudes a r e the n o r m then the t r e a t m e n t i n v o l v e d is p o s s i b l y s a t i s f a c t o r y to these p e o p l e . T h i s is a p o s s i b i l i t y w i t h w h i c h M o r g a n has not deal t . T h e neglec t of this a r e a of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s c u r i o u s . It i s as if the p a p e r has f o c u s e d on the d i s h a r m o n y of N a v a h o t h i n k i n g w i t h w e s t e r n t h i n k i n g r a t h e r than on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between N a v a h o t h i n k i n g and the N a v a h o c o n c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e . One tends to suspect that, despi te its s e e m i n g i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h w e s t e r n l o g i c , N a v a h o d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n exis ts i n a h a r m o n i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the N a v a h o c o n c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e as a w h o l e . O n e f u r t h e r suspec ts that i f the w e s t e r n c a t e g o r i e s of d e s c r i p t i o n ( i . e. , c a u s a l thought p r o c e s s e s ) w e r e r e m o v e d f r o m the data , this r e l a t i o n s h i p m i g h t e m e r g e and r e v e a l a new l o g i c - - o n e that i s u n i q u e l y N a v a h o i n c h a r a c t e r . T h e r e is a s e c o n d p r o b l e m w h i c h a r i s e s f r o m M o r g a n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of this c a s e . It is b e c o m i n g apparent that M o r g a n m a y be u s i n g two r u l e s of t r a n s l a t i o n : one f o r the N a v a h o adult and one f o r the white adult . H e 16 suggested p r e v i o u s l y that d r e a m s c o u l d p r o d u c e p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s a m o n g the N a v a h o . But when M o r g a n ' s i n f o r m a n t here p o s i t s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between his d r e a m s and the a b s c e s s i n his eye , M o r g a n r e f e r s not to " p s y c h o -genic f a c t o r s of s i c k n e s s " but to the c a u s a l thought p r o c e s s of " f i n a l i s m " . T h u s , once a g a i n , N a v a h o thought p r o c e s s e s a r e d i s c r e d i t e d . It does not s e e m to o c c u r to M o r g a n that the m a n ' s attitude c o u l d be analagous to w e s t e r n att i tudestoward p s y c h o s o m a t i c i l l n e s s . T h e 'double s t a n d a r d ' i n M o r g a n ' s t r a n s l a t i o n is e s p e c i a l l y apparent i n the c l o s i n g notes of the p a p e r . H e r e we a r e a b r u p t l y i n f o r m e d that, . . . the thought p r o c e s s e s and d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of white m e n are s o m e t i m e s a n a l a g o u s , i f not s i m i l a r to those of the adult N a v a h o . ( M o r g a n 1932:403) T h i s ' a n a l o g y f o l l o w s : F o r e x a m p l e , t r i a l and e r r o r has i n t r o d u c e d the w i d e s p r e a d c u s t o m of i n t e r p r e t i n g c e r t a i n d r e a m s i n a way that i s opposite to t h e i r m a n i f e s t m e a n i n g , a l though, it so h a p p e n s , that this "a c o n t r a r i o " m e t h o d has gained no c r e d e n c e a m o n g the N a v a h o . . . ( M o r g a n 1932: 403) W h i l e we have spent nine pages r e a d i n g that N a v a h o d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is the r e s u l t of c e r t a i n thought p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h a m o n g white c h i l d r e n d i s a p -p e a r b e f o r e the age of eight , we are now t o l d i n one sentence that white "a c o n t r a r i o " d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s the r e s u l t of a p r o c e s s of " t r i a l and e r r o r " . T h e n , i n one m o r e short sentence , we are t o l d that this s y s t e m ' of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is undoubtedly w e l l - f o u n d e d : T h a t c e r t a i n d r e a m s w o u l d be so i n t e r p r e t e d is p r o b a b l e , because the a p p r e h e n s i o n s of an i n d i v i d u a l so often f ind e x p r e s s i o n i n his d r e a m s ; but i n a s m u c h as these a p p r e h e n s i o n s are e x a g -17 g e r a t e d the event , i n r e a l i t y , t u r n s out o t h e r w i s e . ( M o r g a n 1932: 403-404) T h e d e s c r i p t i o n i s r e m i n i s c e n t of the e a r l i e r r e f e r e n c e to the p h e n o m e n o n of the s t a n d a r d d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h i s p h e n o m e n o n s e e m s to be as a p -p l i c a b l e to the a c o n t r a r i o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as it had s e e m e d to be to the N a v -aho i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . H o w e v e r , as b e f o r e , M o r g a n f a i l s to m a k e use of the p h e n o m e n o n as a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n . Instead he p r o c e e d s to e x p l a i n to u s , in three m o r e shor t s e n t e n c e s , that the a c o n t r a r i o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d i s p r o v e s the N a v a h o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : It has been stated that the N a v a h o have an e a s i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d r i t u a l f o r c o p i n g w i t h the c a u s e s and r e s u l t s of d i s t u r b i n g d r e a m s ; they m a y p r a y at s u n r i s e . If the r i t u a l w e r e m o r e d i f f i c u l t , i f the N a v a h o w e r e re t i cent about t h e i r d r e a m s , and if they w e r e i n the habit of n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r d r e a m s , then the n a t u r a l c o u r s e of events w o u l d show t h e m that m a n y d r e a m s i n d i c a t e d an opposi te i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . S i n c e p r a y e r g e n e r a l l y i n t e r v e n e s i n the p r e d i c t e d or f e a r e d outcome of a d r e a m , the c o m m o n l y accepted i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s m a y s u r v i v e unchanged and u n e l a b o r a t e d . . . ( M o r g a n 1932: 404) T h u s , without s u p p o r t i n g his c l a i m , M o r g a n a p p a r e n t l y upholds the a c o n -t r a r i o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as t rue i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a l l o w s the N a v a h o i n t e r p r e -tat ion to s i n k into u s e l e s s p r a y e r and r i t u a l . M o r g a n ' s a p p r o a c h to a c o n t r a r i o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is t h e r e f o r e quite d i f -f e r e n t f r o m his a p p r o a c h to N a v a h o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h e r e a s o n s f o r th is d i s p a r i t y i n t r e a t m e n t are not a p p a r e n t . It s e e m s h o w e v e r that they m a y i n v o l v e the p r o b l e m of l o g i c a l i t y o r r a t i o n a l i t y . T h a t i s , the p a p e r tends to c r e a t e the i m p r e s s i o n that, in c o n t r a s t to N a v a h o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a c o n t r a r i o 18 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has a r a t i o n a l b a s i s i n the p r o c e s s of " t r i a l and e r r o r " . It does not take m u c h s p e c u l a t i o n to c o m e to the c o n c l u s i o n that the e m p h a s i s on r a t i o n a l i t y i n M o r g a n ' s p a p e r i n v o l v e s a v i e w of the N a v a h o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as be ing ' w r o n g ' . F r o m the i n t r o d u c t o r y r e m a r k about one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n l e a v i n g " m u c h to be d e s i r e d f r o m the white m a n ' s point of v i e w " to the c l o s i n g c o m m e n t about the N a v a h o i g n o r a n c e of the a c o n t r a r i o o u t c o m e s of d r e a m s , it s e e m s to have been i m p r e s s e d upon us that the N a v -aho have a ' f a l s e b e l i e f about d r e a m s . It has s e e m e d that the r e a s o n the N a v a h o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e f a l s e is b e c a u s e they are i l l o g i c a l or i r r a t i o n a l . T h r o u g h o u t the p a p e r t h e r e s e e m s to have r u n an u n d e r l y i n g c u r r e n t of o p p o s i t i o n between what we m i g h t c a l l the ' i r r a t i o n a l ' N a v a h o and the ' r a t i o n a l ' w e s t e r n e r . T h i s o p p o s i t i o n has c o m e to the f o r e f r o n t w i t h the f i n a l r e f e r e n c e to the i n t e r v e n t i o n of p r a y e r and r i t u a l i n the N a v a h o s ' r e a l i z a t i o n of the a p -p a r e n t l y l o g i c a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e a c o n t r a r i o o u t c o m e s of d r e a m s . It s e e m s t h e r e f o r e that the apparent double s t a n d a r d i n the p a p e r m a y be b a s e d on a v i e w of N a v a h o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as ' i r r a t i o n a l ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h e s p e c i f i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s of c a u s a l i t y in d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n u l t i m a t e l y suggest that this i r r a t i o n a l i t y s t e m s f r o m a ' f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n ' of r e a l i t y . T h i s c o n n e c t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c a u s a l i t i e s of f i n a l i s m and m o t i v a t i o n but it c o u l d p r o b a b l y be seen i n a l l s ix types of c a u s a l i t y . We m i g h t specula te t h e r e f o r e that the p a p e r ' s t r e a t m e n t of the N a v a h o a r i s e s f r o m a v i e w of t h e i r d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as a m i s p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . D i s c u s s ion M o r g a n ' s p a p e r has d e s c r i b e d N a v a h o d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as a m a n i -19 f e s t a t i o n of c a u s a l thought p r o c e s s e s . T h e e x p e r i e n c e o r event of the N a v -aho d r e a m c o m p l e x t h e r e f o r e has s e e m e d to be p o r t r a y e d as an e x p e r i e n c e of i l l o g i c a l and a b n o r m a l t h i n k i n g . A s s u c h , the N a v a h o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of d r e a m and of r e a l i t y have been r e n d e r e d f a l s e . It has been o b s e r v e d that there is a d i s p a r i t y in the t r e a t m e n t w h i c h has been a c c o r d e d the N a v a h o s y s t e m of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the w e s t e r n s y s t e m of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h i s d i s p a r i t y w o u l d appear to s t e m f r o m a v i e w of the N a v a h o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as i r r a t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . It i s s u g g e s t e d , h o w e v e r , that the e m p h a s i s on w e s t e r n c a t e g o r i e s of thought has o b s c u r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between N a v a h o d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the N a v a h o c o n -c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e . It is specula ted t h e r e f o r e that there is an e x p e r i e n c e of the N a v a h o d r e a m c o m p l e x w h i c h has not been c o m m u n i c a t e d by and w h i c h indeed l i e s beyond M o r g a n ' s c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s c h e m e of c a u s a l thought p r o c e s s e s . B . T h e P r e s e n t a t i o n of J . S . L i n c o l n : T h e D r e a m Hh P r i m i t i v e C u l t u r e s (1935) A p a r t f r o m c o n t a i n i n g an e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n of the N a v a h o d r e a m c o m p l e x , L i n c o l n ' s T h e D r e a m i n P r i m i t i v e C u l t u r e s , const i tutes the only s u r v e y study w h i c h has e v e r been u n d e r t a k e n in the a r e a of the n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m . It is s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i c h L i n c o l n has m a d e on the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the attitudes and p r a c t i c e s of n o n - w e s t e r n p e o p l e s throughout the w o r l d . T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s r e v o l v e a r o u n d t h r e e b a s i c t h e m e s . B e c a u s e these t h e m e s set the stage f o r L i n c o l n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the N a v a h o d r e a m c o m p l e x , they w i l l be dealt wi th f i r s t . 20' T h e t h r e e t h e m e s w h i c h d o m i n a t e L i n c o l n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e 1. the i n f l u e n c e of c u l t u r e on the d r e a m , 2. the " r e a l i t y " of the d r e a m f o r n o n - w e s t e r n p e o p l e s , and 3. the i n f l u e n c e of the d r e a m on c u l t u r e . W i t h the help of F r e u d i a n t h e o r y , L i n c o l n e v e n t u a l l y i n t e r - r e l a t e s these t h r e e t h e m e s to conc lude that, . . . m u c h of p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e i s d e r i v e d f r o m the dead fa ther or a n c e s t o r s p i r i t , who c o m m u n i -cates t h r o u g h the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m o r v i s i o n , 'the d r e a m i m a g e b e i n g a c c e p t e d by the p r i m i t i v e as the r e a l fa ther o r a n c e s t o r . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 94-95) T h e e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t in this c o n c l u s i o n is the " c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m " . T h i s is a ' d r e a m w h i c h is p r o d u c e d by the c u l t u r e and w h i c h , i n t u r n , p r o -d u c e s i t e m s of c u l t u r e . A c c o r d i n g to L i n c o l n this m u t u a l i n f l u e n c e is o p e r a -t i v e b e c a u s e "the p r i m i t i v e m i n d " has a s s i g n e d " a r e a l i t y v a l u e " to the d r e a m T h e i n f l u e n c e of c u l t u r e upon the d r e a m is the t h e m e w h i c h d o m i n a t e s the f i r s t p a r t of the book, the " H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w of D r e a m I n t e r p r e t a t i o n " . ' It is h e r e that L i n c o l n i n t r o d u c e s us to the fact that m o s t n o n - w e s t e r n c u l t u r e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the e x i s t e n c e of two types of d r e a m s : T h e d r e a m s and v i s i o n s of s o - c a l l e d p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s a lways f a l l into two d i s t i n c t c l a s s e s , the unsought , o r spontaneous d r e a m s o c c u r r i n g i n s l e e p , here c a l l e d " i n d i v i d u a l " d r e a m s , and the sought o r i n d u c e d " c u l t u r e p a t t e r n " d r e a m s of s p e c i a l t r i b a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 22) A l t h o u g h m o s t of us are f a m i l i a r w i t h o n l y one t y p e , the " i n d i v i d u a l " d r e a m , L i n c o l n i n f o r m s us that, " i n ages p r i o r to m o d e r n s c i e n c e , " w e s t e r n p e o p l e s e x p e r i e n c e d these s a m e two types of d r e a m s . F u r t h e r m o r e , they 21 c o n s i d e r e d both types to be i m p o r t a n t i n the guidance of t h e i r w a k i n g l i v e s . T h e s e c o n d o r " c u l t u r e p a t t e r n " t y p e , w h i c h L i n c o l n r e f e r s to as the " v i s i o n s of r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e " , was u s u a l l y i n d u c e d o r " s o l i c i t e d " . T o i l l u s t r a t e , L i n c o l n t e l l s us that in E g y p t , T h e K i n g s when i n a d i f f i c u l t s i tuat ion would i m p l o r e the G o d s f o r g u i d a n c e . T h e y w o u l d go to a t e m p l e , and after p r a y e r and s l e e p , a d r e a m w o u l d a n s w e r t h e i r w i s h e s . C u r e s w e r e a l s o obtained i n this w a y . . . Of ten f a s t i n g took p l a c e b e f o r e i n c u b a t i o n , and m a g i c i a n s taught the p r i v a t e m a g i c of how to evoke d r e a m s without going to the t e m p l e s , and a l s o s e c u r e d d r e a m s by e v o k i n g the d e a d . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 4-5) E v e n t u a l l y , h o w e v e r , both the v i s i o n and the i n d i v i d u a l d r e a m began to l o s e s i g n i f i c a n c e . L i n c o l n a t t r ibutes this l o s s to the d e v e l o p m e n t of r a t i o n a l i s m . L i n c o l n o b s e r v e s that by the t i m e of M a r t i n L u t h e r " d i v i n e d r e a m s " had begun to be " m i s t r u s t e d " . T h e n , not ing L u t h e r ' s c o n c e r n wi th the p r e s e n c e of s in in d r e a m s , e s p e c i a l l y c a r n a l s i n , he c o n c l u d e s that this i n d i c a t e s that t h e r e was a l s o a " r e c o g n i t i o n of d r e a m s as e x p r e s s i o n s of d e s i r e s " . A s this " r a t i o n a l s p i r i t " d e v e l o p e d , the " v i s i o n " g r a d u a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d a l together . F u r t h e r m o r e , A s r a t i o n a l i s m took the p l a c e of a n i m i s m , i n so f a r as this can be s a i d to have taken p l a c e , d r e a m s b e c a m e m e r e f a n t a s m s of the h u m a n m i n d whose m e a n i n g and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to the m e n t a l s p i r i t of the p a r t i c u l a r t i m e s . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 1) T h u s , f o r a t i m e , a l l d r e a m s " p a s s e d into the l i m b o of i n s i g n i f i c a n c e " . W i t h the a p p e a r a n c e of F r e u d ' s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of D r e a m s , the " i r r a t i o n a l " d r e a m f i n a l l y r e g a i n e d i m p o r t a n c e . L i n c o l n d e s c r i b e s this w o r k as , 22 the f i r s t genuine s c i e n t i f i c t r e a t m e n t of the subject , and the one r e l i a b l e author i ty w h i c h m a k e s it p o s s i b l e to t reat d r e a m s w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i r t r u e nature and s i g n i -f i c a n c e as e x p r e s s i o n s of u n c o n s c i o u s p r o c e s s e s . ' ( L i n c o l n 1935: 11) T h u s d r e a m s w e r e " p r o v e d " to be r e v e l a t i o n s of h u m a n , r a t h e r than d i v i n e , n a t u r e . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of r a t i o n a l i s m and the s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t o c c u r r e d only i n w e s t e r n s o c i e t y . T h u s , E x i s t i n g and r e c e n t nat ive c u l t u r e s s t i l l have d r e a m s and v i s i o n s of high r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i -c a n c e , and i n t e r p r e t the o r d i n a r y i n d i v i d u a l d r e a m s w i t h a v i e w to the d a i l y guidance of l i f e , an attitude i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s s i m i l a r to the t r e a t m e n t a c c o r d e d by the e a r l y E u r o p e a n c i v i -l i z a t i o n s as a l l u d e d to above . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 3) L i n c o l n i n t r o d u c e s the t e r m s , " c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m " and " i n d i v i d u a l d r e a m " and t e l l s us that both " o c c u r in m a n y c u l t u r e a r e a s w i t h e i t h e r or both r e g a r d e d by the n a t i v e s as an i m p o r t a n t event of i n d i v i d u a l and c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e " . R e g a r d i n g the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m he o b s e r v e s that its " h i g h e s t d e v e l o p m e n t " o c c u r s among the N o r t h A m e r i c a n Indians . T h e t e r m i t s e l f r e f e r s to those s t e r e o t y p e d d r e a m s c o n c e p t u a l l y (to the Indian) i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m v i s i o n s , w h i c h r e f l e c t the Indian's r e l a t i o n to the s u p e r n a t u r a l , and both as to f o r m and m a n i f e s t content are d e t e r m i n e d by the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n . (The C r o w vi is ion , the Ottawa p u b e r t y f a s t i n g d r e a m s , Y u m a m y t h d r e a m i n g , e t c . ) . T h e i r contents r e f l e c t only the r e s p e c t i v e b e l i e f s of the d i f f e r e n t a r e a s i n the s u p e r n a t u r a l , and they o c c u r only w h e r e the c u l t u r e r e q u i r e s a p e r i o d of f a s t i n g , i s o l a t i o n , o r s e l f - t o r t u r e , o r s o m e f o r m of t r a i n i n g or i n s t r u c t i o n . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 191-192) 23 T h u s , we f ind that, l i k e the v i s i o n s of ancient t i m e s , the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m has a r e l a t i o n s h i p with the " s u p e r n a t u r a l " . L i n c o l n f u r t h e r notes that it is a l s o p r o d u c e d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . W e r e a d that it i s (1) Induced by c o n s c i o u s a u t o - s u g g e s t i o n u s u a l l y p r e c e d e d by a p e r i o d of f a s t i n g , i s o l a t i o n , o r t o r t u r e . T h e i n d i v i d u a l s e e k i n g a v i s i o n has his m i n d c o n c e n t r a t e d on a l i m i t e d c u l t u r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d f i e l d . . . . (2) Induced by f o r m a l suggest ion or i n s t r u c t i o n of m e d i c i n e m e n . . . . (3) Induced by f o r m a l p a r e n t a l s u g g e s t i o n w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n to the c h i l d v i s i o n s e e k e r to keep d r e a m i n g u n t i l he d r e a m s r ight . . . ( L i n c o l n 19 35: 326) T h u s , in content and m e t h o d of p r o d u c t i o n it is apparent that there is a p a r a l l e l between the obsolete v i s i o n of w e s t e r n e x p e r i e n c e and the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m of n o n - w e s t e r n e x p e r i e n c e . F i n a l l y the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m c l e a r l y r e v e a l s the inf luence of c u l t u r e on the " f o r m and m a n i f e s t content" of the d r e a m . W h i l e L i n c o l n e s t a b l i s h e s the i n f l u e n c e of c u l t u r e on the d r e a m he a l s o s e e m s to e s t a b l i s h a c e r t a i n s t e r e o t y p e d i m a g e of the n o n - w e s t e r n e r who e x p e r i e n c e s these d r e a m s . T h e e v o l u t i o n a r y tone of his d i s c u s s i o n tends to r e i n f o r c e a l l the negat ive connotat ions of the w o r d " p r i m i t i v e " . In m u c h the s a m e w a y as M o r g a n , L i n c o l n t h e r e f o r e l e a v e s us w i t h the i m p r e s s i o n that his subjects are s o m e h o w i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n f e r i o r to w e s t e r n e r s . H e does not suggest , as d i d M o r g a n , that w e s t e r n p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t c o u l d r e m e d y this m e n t a l state . B e c a u s e he i m p l i e s that the d e v e l o p m e n t of r a t i o n a l i s m a m o n g w e s t e r n p e o p l e s depended upon a sor t of e v o l u t i o n a r y m e n t a l d e v e l o p -24 m e n t , we m i g h t a s s u m e that the s a m e d e v e l o p m e n t a m o n g n o n - w e s t e r n p e o p l e s w o u l d depend upon the s a m e p r o c e s s . H o w e v e r , we f i n d that the s a m e r u l e does not apply to the " p r i m i t i v e " , at l e a s t in the m a t t e r of the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m w h i c h " d i s a p p e a r s when the c u l t u r e b r e a k s down b e -cause of white o r other i n f l u e n c e . " In both c a s e s , t h e r e f o r e , not only w o u l d it a p p e a r that r a t i o n a l i s m is s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c a n be taught, but it w o u l d a l s o appear that n o n - w e s t e r n m a n is ' i r r a t i o n a l m a n ' . T h e s t e r e o t y p e d i m a g e of the " p r i m i t i v e " i s f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the s e c o n d theme: the r e a l i t y of the d r e a m f o r the n o n - w e s t -e r n e r . W h i l e M o r g a n had hinted at such a p h e n o m e n o n a m o n g the N a v a h o , L i n c o l n e x p l i c i t l y states that m a n y " p r i m i t i v e s " r e g a r d the d r e a m as a " r e a l e v e n t " . Q u a l i f y i n g his v i e w i n r e f e r e n c e to T y l o r ' s , L i n c o l n r e m a r k s that w h i l e m o s t of these p e o p l e s " d o d i s t i n g u i s h between d r e a m s and the p e r c e p -t ions of w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e " , they often r e g a r d the d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e "as Inaving a g r e a t e r r e a l i t y va lue than an a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . " T o i l l u s t r a t e , he r e l a t e s the f o l l o w i n g s tory : . . . . an Indian a c c u s e d W . B . G r u b b of s t e a l i n g , and d e m a n d e d an i n d e m n i t y f o r thefts f r o m his g a r d e n . H e had d r e a m e d that G r u b b had s to len f r o m h i m . A r g u m e n t w i t h the Indian showed that he r e a l i z e d that G r u b b had not been i n p e r s o n in h is g a r d e n , but he s a i d , "If you had been there y o u w o u l d have taken t h e m . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 29) L i n c o l n c l a i m s that the Indian " r e g a r d e d the d r e a m act as having been r e a l l y w i s h e d by G r u b b " . H e c o n c l u d e s that, whi le the two e x p e r i e n c e s a r e not c o n f u s e d , "the d r e a m is g iven r e a l i t y va lue at the expense of ac tual e x p e r -25 ience . . . " T h i s l a t t e r s tatement is r e m i n i s c e n t of M o r g a n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the N a v a h o . Q u o t i n g P i a g e t , M o r g a n had suggested that his i n f o r m a n t s d i s -p l a y e d " a n e x c e s s of subjec t ive and affect ive r e l a t i o n s at the expense of l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s " . ( M o r g a n : 398) S t i l l quot ing P i a g e t , he had gone on to suggest " w i t h what d i f f i c u l t y e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y f r e e s i t s e l f f r o m s c h e m a s due to i n t e r n a l and p s y c h i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s " a m o n g these p e o p l e . ( M o r g a n : 398) It w o u l d s e e m that both L i n c o l n and M o r g a n p o s i t e d a c o n n e c t i o n b e -tween t h e i r i n f o r m a n t s ' b e l i e f s ' about d r e a m and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y . It a p p e a r s that they v i e w e d these attitudes t o w a r d s d r e a m s as i n d i c a t i v e of a m i n d w h i c h does not d i s t i n g u i s h between d r e a m and r e a l i t y as we d o . C o n t i n u i n g w i t h the theme of " r e a l i t y " , L i n c o l n o f f e r s us f u r t h e r e x a m p l e s . H e c i tes c a s e s " w h e r e an ac t ion i n a d r e a m entai ls r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the act as if c o m m i t t e d i n r e a l i t y " . H e t e l l s us that the A s h a n t i have an " a d u l t e r y f i n e " f o r d r e a m s of a d u l t e r y and that the K a i of N e w G u i n e a a r e known to give a c t u a l p u n i s h m e n t f o r s u c h a d r e a m . C o n c l u d i n g , he states that, F a n t a s y and p e r c e p t i o n s of the e x t e r n a l w o r l d , t h e r e f o r e are not n e c e s s a r i l y and a lways i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e a m o n g p r i m i t i v e s , a l though c a s e s of s u c h c o n f u s i o n do o c c a s i o n a l l y o c c u r , but both a r e i n m a n y c a s e s of equivalent v a l u e as f o r m s of object ive r e a l i t y . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 30) T o f i n d this r e a s o n f o r th is p h e n o m e n o n , L i n c o l n r e f e r s to F r e u d i a n t h e o r y and the fact that this s a m e " o v e r v a l u a t i o n of f a n t a s y " is a l so found a m o n g n e u r o t i c s . In F r e u d i a n thought, " f a n t a s y r e p r e s e n t s the e x p r e s s i o n of deep a n t i - s o c i a l w i s h e s of the u n c o n s c i o u s m i n d . . . " T h e s e w i s h e s are " u n a c -ceptable to the c o n s c i o u s m i n d and c u l t u r a l l y i n c a p a b l e of be ing l i v e d out i n 26 r e a l i t y " . T h u s , they are e x p r e s s e d by f a n t a s y . T h e fantasy i s then t r e a t e d "as r e a l " b e c a u s e these w i s h e s are r e t a i n e d : "In other w o r d s , the w i s h gives the l i f e to the f a n t a s y " . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the n e u r o t i c of w e s t e r n s o c i e t y puts the f i n i s h i n g touch on our p o r t r a i t of the p r i m i t i v e . T h e a t t r ibut ion of a r e a l i t y v a l u e to the d r e a m is r e v e a l e d to be a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of i r r a t i o n a l o r a b n o r m a l t h i n k i n g . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n is as it was in M o r g a n ' s p a p e r : the n o n -w e s t e r n e r not o n l y has a ' fa lse b e l i e f about d r e a m s but he has a ' fa lse p e r c e p -t i o n ' of r e a l i t y . F r o m the theme of r e a l i t y L i n c o l n l e a d s into the theme of the d r e a m ' s inf luence on c u l t u r e . T h e m o s t f a m i l i a r e x a m p l e of this is of c o u r s e T y l o r ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n of the d r e a m ' s inf luence on the e m e r g e n c e of s u c h concepts as the s o u l and the a f t e r - l i f e . L i n c o l n , h o w e v e r , p r o v i d e s us wi th an e n t i r e c h a p t e r of s u c h e x a m p l e s and d e m o n s t r a t e s the i n f l u e n c e of the d r e a m on p r a c t i c a l l y a l l aspec ts of c u l t u r e . S p e a k i n g g e n e r a l l y at f i r s t , L i n c o l n i n f o r m s us that, It i s known that d r e a m s i n f l u e n c e the m o o d of the next day and give r i s e to b e h a v i o r a p p r o p r i a t e to the d r e a m s i t u a t i o n . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 49-50) H e next points out the inf luence of d r e a m s on " c u l t u r a l a c t i o n " and " o n e v e r y -day l i f e and a c t i o n s " because of v a r i o u s " b e l i e f s " about t h e m . T h e r e a r e , f o r e x a m p l e , those c a s e s w h e r e , "If y o u d r e a m of s u c h and s u c h a thing you m u s t do such and s u c h a t h i n g . " F i n a l l y , L i n c o l n i n f o r m s us that n u m e r o u s " s p e c i -f i c c u l t u r e i t e m s o r i g i n a t e d in d r e a m s . " O f these L i n c o l n p r e s e n t s e x a m p l e s f r o m a l m o s t a l l o v e r the w o r l d and f r o m " a l m o s t a l l a s p e c t s of p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e " . We f i n d that not o n l y have d r e a m s given r i s e to v a r i o u s " r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s " but to, 27 . . . m a n y types of " t o t e m s " , m a n y s a c r i f i c i a l ac ts ; n u m e r o u s c u r e s , c h a r m s , m e d i c i n e and S h a m a n i s t i c p o w e r s ; as w e l l as m a g i c , taboos and w i t c h c r a f t ; m a n y i n s t a n c e s of c e r e m o n i e s , songs and d a n c e s ; s p e c i f i c objects and m e t h o d s of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y w o r k s of art ; i n d i v i d u a l c a r e e r s both n o r m a l and a b n o r m a l ; acts of m u r d e r and c a n n i b a l i s m , w a r , s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , n a m e s , m y t h s and d r a m a . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 93) T h u s L i n c o l n is able to conc lude that, " a l a r g e p a r t of p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e i s a r e s u l t of the d r e a m , o r m o r e a c c u r a t e l y a r e s u l t of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s e s behind the d r e a m " . W h i l e the d i s c u s s i o n thus f a r has been l i m i t e d to " p r i m i t i v e " s o c i e t i e s , L i n c o l n now i n t r o d u c e s us to the fact that the d r e a m ' s i n f l u e n c e can be seen a m o n g " n o n - p r i m i t i v e s " as w e l l : A l t h o u g h the b e l i e f i n the i m p o r t a n c e of the d r e a m and its i n f l u e n c e grows l e s s as people b e c o m e l e s s a n i m i s t i c a l l y m i n d e d , s t i l l there are m a n y c a s e s w h e r e the d r e a m gives f o r m to the s o l u t i o n of p r o b l e m s , and to l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n s on w h i c h the m i n d is p r e v i o u s l y c o n c e n t r a t e d a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l s of " c i v i l i z e d " n a t i o n s . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 90) S o m e of these i n d i v i d u a l s are D a n t e , T a r t i n i , C o n d o r c e t , C o n d i l l a c , R o b e r t L o u i s S t e v e n s o n and C o l e r i d g e . W h i l e the r e a d e r m i g h t w o n d e r why t h e r e are not m o r e e x a m p l e s a m o n g w e s t e r n p e o p l e s , he m u s t be s a t i s f i e d w i t h statements about the d r e a m ' s i n f l u e n c e be ing dependent upon a n i m i s t i c th inking : P r o b a b l y it is because of this e q u a l v a l u a t i o n given to both fantasy and the e x t e r n a l w o r l d that so m u c h of p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e is a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the d r e a m . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 92) 28 H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d his three t h e m e s , L i n c o l n begins to re la te t h e m to F r e u d i a n thought. We have seen the i n f l u e n c e of c u l t u r e on the f o r m and content of the c u l t u r e pat tern d r e a m , the r e a l i t y of the d r e a m in its i m p o r -tance in and c o n t r o l of m u c h of "the c o u r s e of l i f e " , and the i n f l u e n c e of the d r e a m on c u l t u r e i n its p r o d u c t i o n of n u m e r o u s c u l t u r e i t e m s . We are now told that m o s t of these c u l t u r e i t e m s o r i g i n a t e i n the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m . F u r t h e r m o r e they a r e p r e s e n t e d to the d r e a m e r by "the g u a r d i a n s p i r i t , p r o -t e c t o r , o r ' t o t e m ' " , a " b e i n g " w h i c h L i n c o l n c l a i m s " i s a s s o c i a t e d and i n t e r -p r e t e d by the p r i m i t i v e as dead r e l a t i v e , and v e r y often as the dead f a t h e r . " O n this b a s i s , t h e r e f o r e , he c o n c l u d e s that " . . . this m a k e s the t o t e m o r  fa ther the c a r r i e r of c u l t u r e . " , A l t h o u g h he has p r o v i d e d no p r e v i o u s p r o o f f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the t o t e m as the f a t h e r , L i n c o l n p u r s u e s this a s s o c i a t i o n and l i n k s it to F r e u d i a n t h e o r y . F i r s t he states that the p r i m i t i v e has " a n e m o t i o n a l a t t i tude" of c o n f l i c t t o w a r d s "the g u a r d i a n a n c e s t o r o r f a t h e r " . H e n c e we f ind a twofold p u r p o s e e x p r e s s e d in the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n v i s i o n ; i n the f i r s t p l a c e the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the c u l t u r e , o r the g r o u p , that the i n d i v i d u a l s h a l l c o m p l y w i t h the a n c e s t r a l and t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n ; and i n the s e c o n d p l a c e the w i s h of the i n d i v i d u a l to r e c e i v e the b l e s -s ings and J&avouiE-s f r o m the " t o t e m " fa ther o r a n c e s t o r , w h o m at the s a m e t i m e he r e g a r d s , f o r s o m e r e a s o n not apparent on the s u r f a c e of the d r e a m , w i t h h o s t i l i t y and f e a r . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 97) S e c o n d l y , he r e - i n f o r c e s the " f a t h e r " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by r e f e r r i n g us to those c a s e s w h e r e the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m o c c u r s at p u b e r t y . H e t e l l s us that, because the youth " m u s t renounce his infanti le attitudes t o w a r d s the p a r e n t s 29 and face his own c u l t u r a l m i l i e u as an adult , he i n s t i n c t i v e l y t u r n s to the a n c e s t o r o r fa ther f o r g u i d a n c e , o r is c o m p e l l e d to do so by the t r i b a l c u s t o m to go out and seek a v i s i o n " . In this m a n n e r , then, L i n c o l n d e m o n s t r a t e s an O e d i p a l m o t i v e behind the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m . H e c o n c l u d e s that, T h i s c o n f l i c t a p p e a r s to be one of the i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v e s behind the c u l t u r e i n i t i a t i n g d r e a m s , hence behind c u l t u r e i t s e l f . ( L i n c o l n T9 35: 98) W h i l e L i n c o l n ' s t h e o r y is v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g it is s t i l l , after a l l , only t h e o r y . What i s s i g n i f i c a n t about L i n c o l n ' s a p p r o a c h i s his a d h e r e n c e to the F r e u d i a n s c h o o l . T h a t i s , it is evident that L i n c o l n s u p p o r t s this s c h o o l b e c a u s e he sees it as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of r a t i o n a l i s m and the s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t . It i s f u r t h e r evident that b e c a u s e he sees it as r e p r e s e n t i n g these things he a l s o sees it as be ing ' t r u e ' . H i s attitude is best d e m o n s t r a t e d by his d e s c r i p t i o n of F r e u d ' s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of D r e a m s . T o h i m , it i s : . . . the f i r s t genuine s c i e n t i f i c t r e a t m e n t of the subjec t , and the one r e l i a b l e author i ty w h i c h m a k e s it p o s s i b l e to t reat d r e a m s w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i r t rue nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e as e x p r e s s i o n s of u n c o n s c i o u s p r o c e s s e s . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 11) T h e n again , in r e f e r e n c e to M a r t i n L u t h e r , we r e a d that, "the r e c o g n i t i o n of d r e a m s as e x p r e s s i o n s of d e s i r e s is t a c i t l y a d m i t t e d " . In r e f e r e n c e to " p r i m -i t i v e s " we r e a d that, " m a n y p r i m i t i v e s have a lways d i m l y r e a l i z e d " and have had " t r u e intuition^"cf c e r t a i n t ruths r e g a r d i n g d r e a m s . T h e s e are "that the d r e a m r e p r e s e n t s a w i s h , and is a p h e n o m e n o n whose i m p o r t a n c e is r e c o g -n i z e d f o r guidance i n d a i l y l i fe and f o r the d i a g n o s i s of i l l n e s s " . T h e r e a d e r m i g h t note h e r e that, whi le the w e s t e r n e r ' r e c o g n i z e s ' , the n o n - w e s t e r n e r 30 only ' d i m l y r e a l i z e s ' the t r u t h about d r e a m . In any case there a p p e a r s to be no doubt in L i n c o l n ' s m i n d that d r e a m s a r e , "the d i s g u i s e d o r u n d i s g u i s e d e x p r e s s i o n s of w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t s o r c o n f l i c t s of d e s i r e w h i c h exist in the u n -c o n s c i o u s m i n d s of i n d i v i d u a l s " . T h e acceptance of F r e u d i a n v i e w s and the r e j e c t i o n of p r i m i t i v e v i e w s r e v e a l s s o m e t h i n g of an i n c o n s i s t e n c y in L i n c o l n ' s at t i tude. In e a r l i e r d i s -c u s s i o n s he had t r e a t e d p r i m i t i v e attitudes as the f a l s e b e l i e f s of an a n i m i s t i c m e n t a l i t y . But here he r e f e r s to t h e m as ' d i m r e a l i z a t i o n s ' and ' t rue i n t u i -t i o n s ' of the t rue s i g n i f i c a n c e of d r e a m . It c o m e s as s o m e t h i n g of a shock to the r e a d e r to be s u d d e n l y told that the p r i m i t i v e ' s use of d r e a m s f o r g u i d -ance and d i a g n o s i s has been " c o r r o b o r a t e d by m o d e r n p s y c h o l o g y " . A l l at once we are f a c e d w i t h what s e e m s l i k e two v e r y s i m i l a r uses of the d r e a m . T h a t i s , this c o r r o b o r a t i o n by w e s t e r n p s y c h o l o g y i m p l i e s that the p r i m i t i v e attitude m i g h t be as c o r r e c t o r as ' t r u e ' as the F r e u d i a n one . O n e t h e r e f o r e w o n d e r s what the d i f f e r e n c e a c t u a l l y is and why the F r e u d i a n v i e w is 'be t te r ' than the p r i m i t i v e . L i n c o l n s e e m s unaware that his d i s c u s s i o n s m i g h t r a i s e s u c h q u e s t i o n s . T h e r e a d e r is left to p u z z l e the p r o b l e m out f o r h i m s e l f . W h i l e L i n c o l n has d e s c r i b e d the use of d r e a m s by p r i m i t i v e s , he has not d e s c r i b e d the use of d r e a m s by w e s t e r n p s y c h o a n a l y s t s . We are t h e r e -f o r e f o r c e d to m a k e our own c o m p a r i s o n s . T h e d i s c u s s i o n of p r i m i t i v e attitudes has shown us that p r i m i t i v e s use d r e a m s to d e t e r m i n e not o n l y i d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s but l i f e - l o n g c a r e e r s . W i t h r e s p e c t to the d i a g n o s i s of i l l n e s s he has g iven e x a m p l e s of " c u r e s , c h a r m s , s p e c i a l m e d i c i n e , and the p o w e r of a s h a m a n " w h i c h have o r i g i n a t e d i n d r e a m s . W h i l e the p s y c h o a n a l y s t 31 does not use d r e a m s to d e t e r m i n e the d a i l y o r l i f e - l o n g a c t i v i t i e s of his pa t ients , he does use t h e m to d e t e r m i n e what p r o b l e m s are i n f l u e n c i n g these a c t i v i t i e s . T h e n , w h i l e the d r e a m does not r e v e a l " c u r e s " o r " s p e c i a l m e d i -c i n e " to h i m it does r e v e a l the " c o n f l i c t s of d e s i r e " w h i c h are c a u s i n g his p a t i e n t ' s i l l n e s s . T h u s , on a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l , it w o u l d appear that whi le the n o n - w e s t e r n e r u s e s m a n i f e s t content to f ind c u r e s , the F r e u d i a n p s y c h o -analys t uses latent content to f i n d c a u s e s . T h i s suggests another d i f f e r e n c e : whi le the n o n - w e s t e r n e r s e e m s to focus on the outer or p h y s i c a l l i f e , the p s y c h o a n a l y s t would s e e m to focus on the i n n e r or m e n t a l l i f e . T h u s , L i n -c o l n ' s r e f e r e n c e s to ' d i m r e a l i z a t i o n s ' and ' t rue i n t u i t i o n s ' s e e m to b e c o m e c l e a r e r : whi le the n o n - w e s t e r n e r p e r c e i v e s an i m p o r t a n c e i n the d r e a m , he a p p a r e n t l y does not r e a l i z e in w h i c h d i r e c t i o n this i m p o r t a n c e r e a l l y l i e s . It took F r e u d to ' d i s c o v e r ' that the d r e a m is a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of m a n ' s m e n t a l r a t h e r than p h y s i c a l l i f e . T h i s points to what is p e r h a p s the m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e of a l l : white the " p r i m i t i v e " v i e w s e e m s to a s s o c i a t e the d r e a m w i t h a s u p e r n a t u r a l l i f e , the F r e u d i a n v i e w a s s o c i a t e s it w i t h an u n c o n s c i o u s l i f e . We m i g h t a s s u m e that f o r L i n c o l n the F r e u d i a n v i e w is 'bet ter ' s i m p l y because it is ' t r u e ' : L i n c o l n ' k n o w s ' that d r e a m s are r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the u n c o n s c i o u s r a t h e r than of the s u p e r n a t u r a l . W h i l e L i n c o l n a p p a r e n t l y accepts the F r e u d i a n v i e w to be ' t r u t h ' , we c a n -not do so . T h e u n c o n s c i o u s i s after a l l o n l y a t h e o r e t i c a l concept . L i n c o l n does not s e e m to take this into c o n s i d e r a t i o n . H e does not s e e m to see that, as a t h e o r e t i c a l concept , the u n c o n s c i o u s is on an equal foot ing w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l concept it r e p l a c e d i n the h i s t o r y of d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n — t h e 32 s u p e r n a t u r a l . T h a t i s , t h e r e s e e m s to be l i t t le d i f f e r e n c e between these two c o n c e p t s . B o t h r e f e r to and attempt to d e s c r i b e the unknown f a c t o r i n d r e a m p r o d u c t i o n . We m i g h t say that the m a i n d i f f e r e n c e between t h e m is one of l o c a t i o n . In a sense F r e u d s i m p l y r e - l o c a t e d the s u p e r n a t u r a l . H e put it i n the m i n d of the i n d i v i d u a l and gave it a new n a m e . H e d i d not r e m o v e , h o w e v e r , those hidden and m y s t e r i o u s f o r c e s w i t h w h i c h both the s u p e r n a t u r a l and the u n c o n s c i o u s are a s s o c i a t e d . L i n c o l n ' s apparent acceptance of F r e u d i a n t h e o r y as ' t r u t h ' , t h e r e f o r e , d i s a l l o w s a v i s i o n of the c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i t y of d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A s i n M o r g a n ' s p a p e r , the e m p h a s i s s e e m s to be on a r e l a t i o n s h i p of o p p o s i t i o n r a t h e r than one of r e l a t i v i t y : T h e r a t i o n a l m i n d r e f u s e s to r e g a r d d r e a m s as c a u s e d by the p r e s e n c e of s p i r i t s , o r as a j o u r n e y to the s p i r i t w o r l d , o r as a r e l i a b l e contact w i t h d e i t y . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 9) O n c e again we are p r e s e n t e d w i t h an i m a g e of n o n - w e s t e r n m a n as ' i r r a t i o n a l m a n " . It i s this i m a g e w h i c h p r o v i d e s the b a c k g r o u n d f o r L i n c o l n ' s d e s c r i p -t ion of the N a v a j o d r e a m c o m p l e x . T h e Navajo^ 7 a r e one of the few N o r t h A m e r i c a n p e o p l e s t o w a r d s w h o m L i n c o l n d i r e c t s any t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n . H i s o b s e r v a t i o n s , w h i l e b r i e f , a re v e r y acute . It m a y be r e c a l l e d f r o m M o r g a n ' s study that the N a v a j o have v a r i o u s m e t h o d s of d e a l i n g w i t h those d r e a m s w h i c h are " e m o t i o n a l l y upset t ing to the d r e a m e r " . B e c a u s e it is i m p o r t a n t to d e a l w i t h these d r e a m s L i n c o l n c o n c l u d e s that, "the bad d r e a m of the i n d i v i d u a l is r e g a r d e d as an a n t i - s o c i a l event . " H e states that, 33 . . . the N a v a j o a r e even d i m l y aware that a n t i -s o c i a l t e n d e n c i e s a r e l u r k i n g i n the d r e a m , hence the ef for ts of the group to c u r e the i n d i v i d u a l of h i s bad d r e a m s and r e s t o r e h i m as a healthy m e m b e r of s o c i e t y . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 36) H e then a p p l i e s the s a m e p r i n c i p l e to the N a v a j o t r e a t m e n t of i l l n e s s : . . . a N a v a j o who l o s e s contact w i t h his c u l t u r e t h r o u g h i l l n e s s i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a m e a n s of r e s t o r a t i o n in the c u r i n g r i t u a l s and c e r e m o n i e s . H i s e m o t i o n a l state of m i n d and an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s d r e a m s are the gauges f o r d e t e r m i n i n g what is i n g g e n e r a l r e g a r d e d o r i m p l i e d as h i s offence against the c u l t u r e w h i c h sets h i m out-side the i n t e g r a t e d s o c i a l p a t t e r n . H i s c u l t u r e p r o v i d e s , in the p r e s c r i p t i o n of a c u r i n g r i t u a l , f o r h i s r e - e n t r a n c e to s o c i e t y . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 247) T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s s e e m to suggest an a p p r o v a l of the N a v a j o p r a c t i c e s w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i r apparent g r o u n d i n g i n a concept of the d r e a m as an " a n t i -s o c i a l " event . T h a t i s , one tends to r e c e i v e the i m p r e s s i o n that L i n c o l n f e e l s the p r a c t i c e s are of s o c i a l benefi t . T h i s tone of a p p r o v a l i s soon d i m i n -i s h e d , h o w e v e r , as the d i s c u s s i o n n a r r o w s t o w a r d s a s p e c i f i c d e s c r i p t i o n of one of the " c u r i n g r i t u a l s " . In the " c u r i n g r i t u a l " d e s c r i b e d , it is L i n c o l n h i m s e l f who i s the pat ient . E v e n so we a r e to ld that the e x p e r i e n c e r e p r e s e n t s " a n u n u s u a l l y p u r e e x a m p l e of N a v a j o m e n t a l i t y r e l a t i v e l y u n i n f l u e n c e d by white c u l t u r e " . L i n c o l n a p p a r -ently c o n s u l t e d a N a v a j o " m e d i c i n e m a n " about one of h i s d r e a m s : I d r e a m e d of a v e r y l a r g e egg m a d e out of a h a r d r o c k y s u b s t a n c e . I c r a c k e d open the egg and out f l e w a young but f u l l g rown e a g l e . It was i n d o o r s and the eagle fbew a l l a round t r y i n g to f l y out, but it c o u l d not get out b e c a u s e the window w a s shut. ( L i n c o l n 1935: 32) 34 L i n c o l n states that he then p r e s e n t e d the m a n w i t h a gift of an abalone s h e l l . H e t e l l s us the m a n r e s p o n d e d by m e n t i o n i n g "that s o m e t i m e s white d o c t o r s had c u r e d Indians w h e r e m e d i c i n e m e n had f a i l e d , and Indian m e d i c i n e m e n had c u r e d white m e n w h e r e the white d o c t o r s had f a i l e d " . H e t o l d L i n c o l n to c o m e b a c k the next day and "he w o u l d hold a m e d i c i n e ' s i n g ' to appease the offended s p i r i t , and give the d r e a m e r as a c u r e f o r bad d r e a m s a m e d i -c ine d r i n k to be d r u n k out of the p o l i s h e d abalone s h e l l " . T h e ' s i n g ' w h i c h was c h o s e n was the E a g l e ' s i n g ' . Its p u r p o s e , L i n c o l n e x p l a i n s , w a s , "to 'blow away the w i n g s ' and r e l e a s e the eagle s p i r i t of the d r e a m " . W h i l e the d e s c r i p t i o n of the s i n g is too lengthy to quote in f u l l , what i s s i g n i f i c a n t about it is that it conta ins s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g r e a c t i o n s of L i n c o l n ' s . T h e f i r s t of these a p p e a r s in the d e s c r i p t i o n of the medic ine ; mart's, o r N a n a i ' s , s i n g i n g . L i n c o l n speaks of its " e m o t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y " and states that, "the f a i t h and f e r v o u r of f e e l i n g r e v e a l e d in his e x p r e s s i o n andfsinging a l m o s t s e e m e d to b r i n g the s p i r i t into p r e s e n c e . One c o u l d see that N a n a i knew he w a s t a l k i n g d i r e c t l y to the b i r d " . T h e n , as the s i n g i n g s u b s i d e s , L i n c o l n is to ld "to l o o k up t o w a r d s t h e ~ s m o k e hole and blow h a r d , to 'b low away the wings of the E a g l e s p i r i t on the w i n d " . I m m e d i a t e l y af ter he c a r r i e s out these i n s t r u c t i o n s he t e l l s us that, A t this point in the c e r e m o n y the n a t u r e and tone of the s i n g i n g changed and took on a l i g h t e r , a i r y , m o r e r e l e a s e d q u a l i t y , and s e e m e d to have the joyous sound of a b i r d s o a r i n g , f l y i n g to f r e e d o m . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 34) O n c o m p l e t i n g the d e s c r i p t i o n L i n c o l n begins to r e m a r k upon N a n a i ' s apparent 35 " a c c e p t a n c e of the m a n i f e s t content as r e v e a l i n g the whole p u r p o r t of the d r e a m " and his e s t a b l i s h m e n t of " d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s w i t h the f a n t a s y - r e a l i t y " . H e o b s e r v e s that, " T h e whole i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t r e m a i n e d i n the fantasy r e a l m " . In c o n c l u s i o n , he states that, T h e e m o t i o n a l tone of the m e d i c i n e m a n i n d i c a t e d f a i t h and b e l i e f in the s p i r i t as a r e a l i t y , and the e m o t i o n a l effect of the c e r e m o n y on a suggest ive patient w i t h no i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s i s t a n c e s would undoubtedly have r e a c t e d s t r o n g l y on the i m a g i n -a t i o n . ( L i n c o l n 19 3 5: 35) L i n c o l n ' s objec t ive d e s c r i p t i o n of the s ing r e c a l l s the p r e v i o u s l y noted o p p o s i t i o n between the r a t i o n a l w e s t e r n e r and the i r r a t i o n a l n o n - w e s t e r n e r . T h e r e f e r e n c e to N a n a i ' s " f a i t h and b e l i e f i n the s p i r i t as a r e a l i t y " stands i n s h a r p c o n t r a s t to L i n c o l n ' s apparent " i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s i s t a n c e s " . It is apparent that L i n c o l n and his r e a d e r s 'know' that the s p i r i t is not r e a l at a l l . T h e s u g -gest ion i s that w h i l e we are o p e r a t i n g i n the r a t i o n a l w o r l d of r e a l i t y , the N a v a h o a r e o p e r a t i n g i n the i r r a t i o n a l w o r l d of f a n t a s y . T h i s p o r t r a y a l is p r o b l e m a t i c i n that it s e e m s to c o n f l i c t wi th L i n c o l n ' s p r e v i o u s l y r e c o r d e d r e a c t i o n s to the s i n g . T h a t i s , his p e r s o n a l account of the event w o u l d s e e m to indicate that it d i d have an e m o t i o n a l effect on h i m . F o r e x a m p l e , at no t i m e did L i n c o l n state that N a n a i had s a i d he w o u l d be " t a l k i n g d i r e c t l y to the b i r d " . It a p p e a r s that L i n c o l n ' s r e f e r e n c e to such a p h e n o m e n o n i s a s u b -jec t ive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . It s e e m s that it is L i n c o l n who f e e l s N a n a i ' s " f a i t h and f e r v o u r of f e e l i n g . . . a l m o s t s e e m e d to b r i n g the s p i r i t into p r e s e n c e " . It s e e m s that it m a y be L i n c o l n h i m s e l f who f e e l s and h e a r s "the joyous sound of a b i r d s o a r i n g , f l y i n g to f r e e d o m " . One w o n d e r s whether the p r o b l e m of emot ions r e a c t i n g upon the i m a g i n a t i o n m a y be m o r e a p p l i c a b l e to L i n c o l n than to a " s u g g e s t i v e p a t i e n t " . O n the w h o l e , L i n c o l n ' s d i s c u s s i o n of the N a v a j o d r e a m c o m p l e x s e e m s to indicate that he has l i t t le fa i th in the e f f i c a c y of N a v a j o d r e a m t r e a t m e n t . It is s i g n i f i c a n t that he neglec ts to c o m m e n t upon the r e s u l t of his c u r i n g e x p e r i e n c e . It is even m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t that he neglec ts to c o m m e n t upon the r e s u l t s of s u c h t r e a t m e n t s f o r the N a v a j o t h e m s e l v e s . It was noted at the b e g i n n i n g of this d i s c u s s i o n that L i n c o l n ' s attitude t o w a r d the N a v a j o p r a c t i c e s had s e e m e d to be one of a p p r o v a l . T h i s note of a p p r o v a l had even s e e m e d to be p r e s e n t in his p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n of n o n - w e s t e r n attitudes towards the d r e a m in w h i c h he r e f e r r e d to e v i d e n c e s of " t r u e i n t u i t i o n s " about d r e a m s . It s e e m s s i g n i f i c a n t that in both c a s e s L i n c o l n ' s f u l l a p p r o v a l of the n o n - w e s t e r n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a p p a r e n t l y m e t w i t h the same o b s t a c l e - -the s u p e r n a t u r a l . In the f i r s t c a s e , the n o n - w e s t e r n attitudes s e e m e d to f a l l short of the w e s t e r n attitudes because of t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the s u p e r -n a t u r a l r a t h e r than w i t h the u n c o n s c i o u s . In the second c a s e , L i n c o l n s e e m e d to at tr ibute his r e a c t i o n to the " c u r i n g r i t u a l " to the fact that he was not a " s u g g e s t i v e p a t i e n t " who, it would s e e m , c o u l d c o m e to have " f a i t h and b e l i e f in the s p i r i t as a r e a l i t y " . T h a t i s , it s e e m s that it was the a t t r i -bution of a s u p e r n a t u r a l q u a l i t y to the d r e a m eagle w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d L i n c o l n 1 ! attitude t o w a r d the e x p e r i e n c e . T h e s i tuat ion again i n d i c a t e s that what is not p r e s e n t i n L i n c o l n ' s a n a l y s i s is the concept of c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i t y . If L i n c o l n had a p p l i e d this concept to his e x p e r i e n c e , he m a y have r e c o g n i z e d his own (apparent) e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t in the s i n g and m a y have a t t r ibuted it to an u n c o n s c i o u s r e s p o n s e to the eagle of his d r e a m . A s his a n a l y s i s stands it o n l y s e e m s to a l low f o r an e m o t i o n a l effect upon s o m e o n e who, b e i n g " s u g -g e s t i v e " , c o u l d b e l i e v e in the r e a l i t y of the d r e a m eagle . What is l a c k i n g is an a l lowance f o r a ' language of the d r e a m 1 w h i c h stands apart f r o m c u l t u r a l def ini t ions and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . If L i n c o l n had seen his e x p e r i e n c e in these t e r m s he m a y have been able to see beyond the o p p o s i t i o n of c u l t u r a l d e f i n i -t i o n s . H e m a y have been able to d i r e c t his v i s i o n beyond the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of N a n a i ' s eagle s p i r i t and f o c u s e d instead on the p o s s i b i l i t y of N a n a i ' s c l a i m that " s o m e t i m e s white d o c t o r s had c u r e d Indians w h e r e m e d i c i n e m e n had f a i l e d , and Indian m e d i c i n e m e n had c u r e d white m e n w h e r e the white d o c t o r s had f a i l e d " . D i s c u s s ion T h e p r e c e d i n g e x a m i n a t i o n has shown that w h i l e the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s tudies have d e s c r i b e d the N a v a j o d r e a m c o m p l e x , they have not a s c r i b e d any c r e d i b i l i t y towards the attitudes and p r a c t i c e s contained t h e r e i n . In both studies these attitudes and p r a c t i c e s s e e m to have been a c c o r d e d the status of ' f a l s e b e l i e f . A t no t i m e did e i t h e r M o r g a n or L i n c o l n suggest that the native attitudes c o u l d c o n s i s t of ' t rue b e l i e f . Indeed this status s e e m s to have been a c c o r d e d to w e s t e r n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ; a c o n t r a r i o i n t e r - > p r e t a t i o n in M o r g a n ' s study and F r e u d i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n in L i n c o l n ' s . F u r t h e r m o r e , both studies s e e m to have suggested that the ' f a l s e b e l i e f s ' of the N a v a j o w e r e connected wi th ' fa lse p e r c e p t i o n s ' of the r e a l w o r l d . T h i s w a s c o m m u n i c a t e d i n r e f e r e n c e s to what was a p p a r e n t l y i r r a t i o n a l th inking r e g a r d i n g the d i s t i n c t i o n between fantasy and r e a l i t y . N e i t h e r a n t h r o p o l o g i s t i n d i c a t e d that this t h i n k i n g was a n o r m a l state of a f f a i r s . M o r g a n suggested that the p r e s e n c e of c a u s a l thought p r o c e s s e s was due to the neglec t of p s y c h o g e n i c f a c t o r s of i l l n e s s . L i n c o l n , m a k i n g a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the " n e u r o t i c " of w e s t e r n c u l t u r e , a s s o c i a t e d the n o n - w e s t e r n t r e a t -m e n t of f a n t a s y as r e a l i t y wi th a re tent ion of a n t i - s o c i a l w i s h e s . T h i s u l t imate sugges t ion of ' a b n o r m a l i t y ' is i m p o r t a n t in that it s u p p o r t s o u r p r e v i o u s i m p r e s s i o n s r e a s s u r i n g us that we have not m e r e l y been ' r e a d i n g into ' the m a t e r i a l . It s e e m s apparent t h e r e f o r e that the m e n t a l i t y that p r o -duced the N a v a j o d r e a m c o m p l e x and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a k i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s between fantasy and r e a l i t y has been p o r t r a y e d as an ' i r r a t i o n a l m e n t a l i t y ' . T h e p r o b l e m w i t h the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p o r t r a y a l s is that they tend to o b s c u r e the event of the d r e a m c o m p l e x as it is e x p e r i e n c e d by the N a v a j o people t h e m s e l v e s . T h e only e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h s e e m to e m e r g e f r o m these studies are those of ' fa lse b e l i e f and ' fa lse p e r c e p t i o n ' . What is l a c k i n g is a N a v a j o f r a m e of r e f e r e n c e . What is lackiing is the c o m m u n i c a t i o n of an e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h l i e s beyond M o r g a n ' s s c h e m e of c a u s a l thought p r o c e s s e s and L i n c o l n ' s s c h e m e of n e u r o t i c thought p r o c e s s e s . T h e m a t i c C o n n e c t i o n s In L i n c o l n ' s T h e D r e a m in P r i m i t i v e C u l t u r e s it was r e v e a l e d that b e s i d e s the p h e n o m e n o n of the r e a l i t y v a l u e of d r e a m , m o s t n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m c o m p l e x e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by two other p h e n o m e n a : the i n f l u e n c e of c u l t u r e on the d r e a m and the inf luence of the d r e a m on c u l t u r e . T h e f i r s t of these was touched on by M o r g a n as w e l l . T h i s was when he r e f e r r e d to 39 the p r e s e n c e of " m y t h m a t e r i a l " in N a v a j o d r e a m s and then c o m m e n t e d on the p h e n o m e n o n of the s t a n d a r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a m o n g "white s u b j e c t s " . H e a lso o b s e r v e d that the w e s t e r n p s y c h o l o g i s t who is s tudying d r e a m s " f i n d s the d r e a m s y m b o l i s m with w h i c h he is f a m i l i a r " . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n suggests that d r e a m content can be c u l t u r a l l y i n f l u e n c e d . L i n c o l n ' s d e m o n s t r a t i o n of the s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r m and content of c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m s leads to the same c o n c l u s i o n . W h i l e both w r i t e r s noted the o p e r a t i o n of s u c h inf luence as " s u g g e s t i o n " , M o r g a n r e f e r r e d to " c u l t u r a l s u g g e s t i o n " and L i n c o l n r e f e r r e d to " a u t o - s u g g e s t i o n " , " f o r m a l s u g g e s t i o n " , and " f o r m a l p a r e n t a l s u g g e s t i o n " . In both c a s e s , h o w e v e r , we w e r e given no f u r t h e r explanat ions of the p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d . N e e d l e s s to say , the a t t r ibut ion of the p h e n o m e n a to " s u g g e s t i o n " does not e x p l a i n how it is p o s s i b l e to induce a d r e a m content . S u c h an e x p e r i e n c e would appear to be a l i e n to w e s t e r n p e o p l e s . A s L i n c o l n r e p o r t e d , these d r e a m s d i s a p p e a r e d "as the r a t i o n a l s p i r i t of E u r o p e a n m a n d e v e l o p e d and a s s u m e d s u p r e m e c o n t r o l in the v a l u a t i o n of the i n n e r w o r l d of m a n ' s m i n d and the outer w o r l d of nature and h u m a n c u l t u r e . " We m i g h t a s s u m e , t h e r e f o r e , that the i n d u c e m e n t is dependent upon, o r at l e a s t a s s o -c ia ted w i t h , an a n i m i s t i c m e n t a l i t y . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n would appear to be c o n t r a d i c t e d , h o w e v e r , by L i n c o l n ' s r e p o r t that s o m e m o d e r n w e s t e r n e r s have been known to have d r e a m s w h i c h give " f o r m to the so lut ion of p r o -b l e m s , and to l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n s on w h i c h the m i n d is p r e v i o u s l y c o n c e n t r a t e d " . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n is c o n f o u n d i n g . W h i l e these w e s t e r n d r e a m s would s e e m c o m p a r a b l e to the n o n - w e s t e r n o n e s , L i n c o l n has not d e s c r i b e d t h e m i n t e r m s of sugges t ion or a b e l i e f i n the r e a l i t y of f a n t a s y . T h e s i t u a -40 t ion is p u z z l i n g . N e i t h e r M o r g a n n o r L i n c o l n s e e m e d to c o n s i d e r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of these p h e n o m e n a to be i m p o r t a n t . It would s e e m , h o w e v e r , that h e r e i n m a y l i e the k e y to our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the event behind the n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m c o m p l e x e s . 41 C H A P T E R III T H E M O H A V E D R E A M C O M P L E X A . T h e P r e s e n t a t i o n of W . J . W a l l a c e : " T h e D r e a m in M o h a v e L i f e " (1947) In the p a p e r " T h e D r e a m i n M o h a v e L i f e " ^ W . J . W a l l a c e t e l l s us that of a l l the Y u m a n t r i b e s , "the M o h a v e d e v e l o p e d d r e a m i n g to its f u l l e s t " . A l l d r e a m s w e r e i m p o r t a n t and two types w e r e e x p e r i e n c e d . T h e s e w e r e "the t r a d i t i o n a l p o w e r - b e s t o w i n g d r e a m ( s u m a c h ahot, ' d r e a m l u c k y ' ) and the l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t , e v e r y d a y s leep e x p e r i e n c e s ( s u m a c h ' d r e a m ' ) " . W h i l e the s u m a c h ahot was "the b a s i s of s u c c e s s in l i f e " , not a l l M S h a v e e x p e r i -enced i t . S o m e , on the other hand, e x p e r i e n c e d m a n y of these d r e a m s . A s M o h a v e c u l t u r e d e t e r i o r a t e d h o w e v e r , the s u m a c h ahot a p p a r e n t l y " d i m i n -i s h e d in i m p o r t a n c e " . T o d a y the t e r m is u sed in r e f e r e n c e to " a n y good d r e a m " . W a l l a c e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the s u m a c h ahot, or p o w e r - b e s t o w i n g d r e a m , is s i m i l a r to L i n c o l n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , one v e r y i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e — t h e M o h a v e d r e a m s w e r e not i n -d u c e d . We r e a d , A great d r e a m c a m e unsought d u r i n g s l e e p without f a s t i n g , t r a i n i n g , o r the t a k i n g of n a r c o t i c s to induce i t . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 252) R e g a r d i n g the i m p o r t a n c e of the s u m a c h ahot, W a l l a c e e x p l a i n s that it was "the m o s t i m p o r t a n t e v e n t " of a m a n ' s l i f e . H e e x p l a i n s this s i g n i f i c a n c e in the f o l l o w i n g way: A s u m a c h ahot brought a s p e c i a l gift — c u r i n g or b e w i t c h i n g p o w e r , a m y t h or song , e n d u r a n c e , b r a v e r y i n w a r f a r e , a b i l i t y f o r p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r -s h i p — e v e n knowledge i t s e l f . T h e s e w e r e o b t a i n -able in no other way; a l l s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s o r funds of knowledge w e r e to be had by d r e a m i n g , and by d r e a m i n g a lone . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 252) F u r t h e r m o r e , knowledge w h i c h was l e a r n e d , but not d r e a m e d , was of l i t t le v a l u e . We r e a d : It was not enough to l e a r n a s h a m a n i s t i c p e r f o r m a n c e o r a song, because s u c h knowledge was u s e l e s s u n l e s s d r e a m e d . A m a n w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y admit that he had l e a r n e d a p a r t i c u l a r song o r m y t h f r o m a r e l a t i v e , but hastens to add, "I d r e a m e d that I would n e v e r f o r g e t m y song (or myth) and I n e v e r d i d " . T h e M o h a v e r e c o g n i z e d that an i n d i v i d u a l a c q u i r e d s k i l l t h r o u g h p r a c t i c e or i m i t a t e d songs , but r e g a r d e d his a c t i v i t i e s as n e i t h e r w h o l l y s u c c e s s -f u l n o r s i g n i f i c a n t unless he had d r e a m e d about t h e m f i r s t . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 252) T h e s u m a c h ahot was a p p a r e n t l y e x p e r i e n c e d " d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e or in the e a r l y y e a r s of a d u l t h o o d " . H o w e v e r , we a l s o r e a d that it was often " b e l i e v e d " to have f i r s t o c c u r r e d b e f o r e b i r t h : O f t e n this was b e l i e v e d to have happened b e f o r e the d r e a m e r left his m o t h e r ' s w o m b ; d r e a m s in l a t e r l i f e w e r e r e p e t i t i o n s of the p r e n a t a l d r e a m and m e r e l y to r e f r e s h the m e m o r y . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 253) F u r t h e r m o r e , even though the d r e a m was a spontaneous one, it had a s t a n d a r d content . W a l l a c e d e s c r i b e s this as f o l l o w s : T h e d r e a m e r ' s s p i r i t j o u r n e y e d to A v i k w a m e , the s a c r e d m o u n t a i n upon w h i c h m a n was c r e a t e d , and spoke with M a s t a m h o , the c u l t u r e h e r o , or w i t h some other d e i t y . H e r e s p e c i a l p o w e r s w e r e c o n f e r r e d and the s p i r i t was taught a p a r t i c u l a r song . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 253) T h i s p h e n o m e n o n of a s tandard content in the s u m a c h ahot leads W a l l a c e to the i n e v i t a b l e i s s u e of the inf luence of c u l t u r e on the f o r m and content of the d r e a m . C o m m e n t i n g on the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n of c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s on the d r e a m , W a l l a c e s p e c u l a t e s : H o w f a r the c u l t u r e c a n d i r e c t the u n c o n s c i o u s is u n c e r t a i n , but it s e e m s p r o b a b l e that d r e a m s o r at l e a s t i t e m s in t h e m , can be i n d u c e d t h r o u g h s u g -g e s t i o n . A d r e a m is not c r e a t e d by the u n c o n s c i o u s out of nothing; c u l t u r a l sugges t ion undoubtedly acts upon the i m a g i n a t i v e f a c u l t y of the i n d i v i d u a l so that he sees and h e a r s what t r a d i t i o n s u g g e s t s . ( Wal lace 1947: 253) L i k e M o r g a n and L i n c o l n , W a l l a c e uses the t e r m " s u g g e s t i o n " to d e s c r i b e the m a n n e r in w h i c h one 's c u l t u r e can i n f l u e n c e one 's d r e a m s . H e a lso l e a v e s the t e r m u n d e f i n e d . H o w e v e r , what is s i g n i f i c a n t about W a l l a c e is that he, unl ike L i n c o l n , has r e s e r v a t i o n s about a p p l y i n g this explanat ion to the t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n d r e a m . H e does not at tr ibute the M o h a v e a b i l i t y to d r e a m in a p r e s c r i b e d p a t t e r n to c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e . Instead, he at tr ibutes a M o h a v e a b i l i t y to d r e a m " s o m e of the expec ted e l e m e n t s " of a p r e s c r i b e d p a t t e r n d r e a m to c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e : T h a t a m a n recounted his e x p e r i e n c e o n l y i n this f o r m was not, as a r u l e , the r e s u l t of c o n s c i o u s f r a u d , but r a t h e r , of c u l t u r a l expec ta t ion . G r o w i n g up wi th a f i r m b e l i e f i n the a l l - s u f f i c i e n c y of p e r -s o n a l r e v e l a t i o n s , a youth was c o n d i t i o n e d to expect a s u m a c h ahot. O t h e r m e n had had t h e m and m a n y t i m e s he had h e a r d t h e m t e l l of t h e i r r e v e l a t i o n s o r s i n g the songs o r r e c i t e the m y t h s w h i c h had been given to t h e m by the d e i t i e s . S o o n e r or l a t e r he had a s t i r r i n g d r e a m w h i c h i m p r e s s e d h i m as s o m e -thing i m p o r t a n t (!'a great t h i n g " ) . P e r h a p s it d i d not c o n f o r m e x a c t l y to the d r e a m s he had h e a r d 44 others t e l l about, but m o r e often than not it had s o m e of the expected e l e m e n t s in i t . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 253) T h u s , W a l l a c e is of the o p i n i o n that, r a t h e r than inf luence the d r e a m i n g of the s u m a c h ahot, M o h a v e c u l t u r e i n f l u e n c e d the t e l l i n g of the s u m a c h ahot. H e states that, W h e t h e r o r not his d r e a m fit ted the t r a d i t i o n a l type , a youth, in r e c i t i n g the e x p e r i e n c e , u n c o n -s c i o u s l y o r c o n s c i o u s l y f o l l o w e d the p r e s c r i b e d p a t t e r n . A l l d r e a m s are g iven o r d e r and c o h e r e n c y o n l y t h r o u g h the t e l l i n g of t h e m . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 253) W h i l e the w o r d i n g m a y be vague , it is c l e a r that W a l l a c e i s c l a i m i n g the d r e a m that was r e p o r t e d was not n e c e s s a r i l y the one that was d r e a m e d : T h e M o h a v e youth went just a l i t t le f a r t h e r in e l a b o r a t i n g his s leep i m a g e r y to fit a t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n . In its f i n a l f o r m a s u m a c h ahot was a m o s a i c of e x p e r i e n c e d d r e a m events and things seen and h e a r d . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 253) In a footnote W a l l a c e adds that if the d r e a m w e r e not n a r r a t e d in the c o r r e c t p a t t e r n , the youth w o u l d be c o r r e c t e d by his o l d e r l i s t e n e r s . T h u s , it w o u l d a p p e a r that the c u l t u r e i n f l u e n c e s the f o r m and content of the r e p o r t e d d r e a m f a t h e r than that of the a c t u a l d r e a m . B e s i d e s d e t e r m i n i n g the n a r r a t i o n of the s u m a c h ahot, W a l l a c e f u r t h e r suggests that the M o h a v e c u l t u r e a lso d e t e r m i n e s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e m e m -b r a n c e of this d r e a m : T h e acceptance of his r e v e l a t i o n by o thers was i m p o r t a n t in m a k i n g a m a n b e l i e v e that he had a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d the events as he r e c o u n t e d t h e m . A constant r e p e t i t i o n of the happenings often m a k e the n a r r a t o r u n c e r t a i n as to whether lh-e had m e r e l y d r e a m e d about t h e m . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 253) 45 It should be noted h e r e that W a l l a c e ' s a p p l i c a t i o n of the t e r m " b e l i e v e " is c o n f u s i n g as it i m p l i e s that the M o h a v e w e r e not c e r t a i n whether or not they had d r e a m e d these e x p e r i e n c e s . F r o m the context of the g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n , h o w e v e r , we m a y a s s u m e that the t e r m is intended to m e a n that the M o h a v e c a m e to ' th ink ' that they had a c t u a l l y d r e a m e d the events . T h a t i s , they p e r c e i v e d o r r e m e m b e r e d the s u m a c h ahot as a d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . It m a y be that W a l l a c e ' s use of " b e l i e v e " is i n s t e a d a r e f l e c t i o n of his o p i n i o n of the M o h a v e c l a i m that these e x p e r i e n c e s had been d r e a m e d . In any c a s e , whi le he speaks of ac tual events r a t h e r than r e a l events , W a l l a c e , l i k e M o r g a n and L i n c o l n , e v e n t u a l l y c o m e s to m a k e an a s s o c i a t i o n between his i n f o r m a n t s ' attitudes t o w a r d s d r e a m s and his i n f o r m a n t s ' attitudes t o w a r d s r e a l i t y : D r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s and ac tual events are not v e r y f a r apart in the M o h a v e m i n d and the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two is not v e r y i m p o r t a n t . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 253) O n c e again the s u g g e s t i o n s e e m s to be that the n o n - w e s t e r n e r does not d i s -t i n g u i s h between d r e a m and r e a l i t y as we do . A t this point it) b e c o m e s i m p o r t a n t to r e c o g n i z e that W a l l a c e ' s p r e s e n -tat ion of the p r o b l e m of r e a l i t y p e r c e p t i o n s e e m s to d i f f e r f r o m the p r e s e n -tat ions of M o r g a n and L i n c o l n . In the N a v a h o s tudies there was an e m p h a s i s on the p h e n o m e n o n as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of i r r a t i o n a l but a p p a r e n t l y c u r a b l e t h i n k i n g . H e r e i n s t e a d , W a l l a c e ' s r e f e r e n c e to the c l o s e n e s s of d r e a m s and a c t u a l events " i n the M o h a v e m i n d " c o u l d be t a k e n to m e a n that the p h e n o m e n o n is one of c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n . T h a t i s , the d e s c r i p t i o n m i g h t 46 suggest that the two e x p e r i e n c e s are i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n a unique p e r c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k . T h i s n o t i o n , h o w e v e r , is not s u p p o r t e d by W a l l a c e ' s p r e v i o u s s t a t e m e n t s . It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that the d i s c u s s i o n i t s e l f o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the s u p p o s i t i o n that the M o h a v e do not d r e a m what they c l a i m to d r e a m . R a t h e r than at tr ibute this p r o b l e m to " c o n s c i o u s f r a u d " , W a l l a c e suggested that the M o h a v e m e r e l y c a m e to think they had d r e a m e d s o m e t h i n g w h i c h was a c t u a l l y a m i x t u r e of d r e a m s and w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . H e a t t r ibuted the n a r r a t i o n of an o r i g i n a l d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e in a p r e s c r i b e d p a t t e r n to " c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n " . H e then r e f e r r e d to the i n f l u e n c e of v a r i o u s other f a c t o r s " i n m a k i n g a m a n b e l i e v e that he had a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d the events as he r e c o u n t e d t h e m " and in m a k i n g h i m " u n c e r t a i n as to whether they had r e a l l y o c c u r r e d or whether he had m e r e l y d r e a m e d about t h e m " . It s e e m s c l e a r , t h e r e f o r e , that W a l l a c e is not p o s t u l a t i n g an i m m e d i a t e c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n of a c o m b i n a t i o n of d r e a m s and w a k i n g events as a d r e a m . T h e d e s c r i p t i o n s s e e m to i m p l y that " c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n " and other f a c t o r s f i r s t c o n d i t i o n the i n d i v i d u a l to n a r r a t e a d r e a m in the t r a d i t i o n a l way and then inf luence h i m to r e c a l l this n a r r a t e d f o r m of the d r e a m (or a f o r m w h i c h has been e l a b o r a t e d by the subsequent addi t ion of w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s ) as h a v i n g been the a c t u a l , the o r i g i n a l d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . T h e s u g g e s t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , that these e x p e r i e n c e s b e c o m e f u s e d " i n the M o h a v e m i n d " and are p e r c e i v e d in m e m o r y as d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s . T h a t i s , the p h e n o -m e n o n is not p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s of a c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n but r a t h e r i n t e r m s of a c u l t u r a l c o n f u s i o n of d r e a m s and ac tual e v e n t s . T h e M o h a v e is p o r t r a y e d as s o m e o n e who m i s t a k e s a c t u a l events f o r d r e a m s - - s o m e o n e who does not know that his r e a l e x p e r i e n c e s w e r e not d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e s u g g e s t i o n is t h e r e f o r e as it was i n the s tudies of M o r g a n and L i n c o l n . It s e e m s that l i k e the N a v a h o , the M o h a v e have a f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . W h i l e W a l l a c e suggests that d r e a m and w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s are c o n -f u s e d both in the s u m a c h ahot and in "the M o h a v e m i n d " , he does not attempt to separate or d i s e n t a n g l e these e x p e r i e n c e s f o r u s . H e does not t e l l the r e a d e r what was r e a l l y d r e a m e d as opposed to what was r e a l l y l e a r n e d w h i l e awake . T h e only r e f e r e n c e he m a k e s to the a c t u a l d r e a m content i s when he te l l s us that it " i m p r e s s e d " the youth "as s o m e t h i n g i m p o r t a n t " and that it u s u a l l y " h a d s o m e of the expected e l e m e n t s in i t . " T h e d i s t i n c -t i o n , h o w e v e r , b e c o m e s i m p o r t a n t as we r e a d W a l l a c e ' s f i n a l notes on the s u m a c h ahot. W h i l e he had o r i g i n a l l y m e n t i o n e d that the n a r r a t i o n of the s u m a c h ahot "was not, as a r u l e , the r e s u l t of c o n s c i o u s f r a u d " , i n his c o n c l u d i n g c o m m e n t s W a l l a c e notes that c e r t a i n l y " t h e r e was r o o m f o r a great d e a l of d e l i b e r a t e f r a u d " . T h e p o s s i b i l i t y , h o w e v e r , is q u i c k l y d i s p e l l e d : A n y m a n c o u l d a s s e r t that a p a r t i c u l a r p o w e r had been g iven to h i m i n a s u m a c h ahot. F e w , h o w e v e r , l a i d c l a i m to s p e c i a l gifts f o r f e a r that a l a c k of s u c c e s s w o u l d r e v e a l t h e i r d e c e i t . S u c c e s s d e t e r m i n e d the v a l i d i t y of a c l a i m . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 253) H e continues by i n f o r m i n g us that one who was u n s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s a c t i v i t i e s w o u l d have been exposed as a c h a r l a t a n . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n is c o n f o u n d i n g . T h a t i s , it has s u d d e n l y and u n a c c o u n t a b l y been r e v e a l e d to us that there was a test a v a i l a b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the ac tual i ty of a d r e a m that we have jusfe been to ld does not even e x i s t . W a l l a c e has stated that, " S u c c e s s d e -t e r m i n e d the v a l i d i t y of a c l a i m " . T h a t i s , there was a test w h i c h , a p p a r -ent ly , c o u l d d e t e r m i n e who had r e a l l y d r e a m e d a s u m a c h ahot and who had only p r e t e n d e d to d r e a m i t . T h i s c r e a t e s an o b v i o u s p r o b l e m . A c c o r d i n g to W a l l a c e , no one e v e r r e a l l y d r e a m e d a s u m a c h ahot. T h e y only d r e a m e d s o m e t h i n g that was " s t i r r i n g " , s o m e t h i n g that i m p r e s s e d t h e m as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t , s o m e t h i n g that m a y have had s o m e but need not have had any of the expected e l e m e n t s in it . T h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of this d r e a m s e e m to be so g e n e r a l that one w o n d e r s how it would have been p o s s i b l e to avoid h a v i n g had s u c h a d r e a m . B u t the m a i n p r o b l e m w h i c h is c r e a t e d c o n c e r n s the a v a i l a b i l i t y of knowledge w h i c h W a l l a c e ' s c o n c l u s i o n s have i m p l i e d . T h a t i s , it can be i n f e r r e d that a l l of the r e l e v a n t knowledge c o u l d be l e a r n e d by anyone w h i l e awake. It has been i m p l i e d that none of it was ' r e a l l y ' d e p e n -dent upon a d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . T h e o r e t i c a l l y then, a l l who c l a i m e d to have had a s u m a c h ahot s h o u l d have been e q u a l l y k n o w l e d g e a b l e and e q u a l l y s u c -c e s s f u l . But W a l l a c e has r e v e a l e d to us that they w e r e not . W h i l e m o s t p a s s e d t h e r e w e r e at l e a s t s o m e f a i l u r e s and these W a l l a c e does not account f o r . T h e fact of these except ions i n d i c a t e s that the ac tual d r e a m , no m a t t e r what it ' r e a l l y ' c o n s i s t e d of, quite p o s s i b l y d i d have s o m e t h i n g to do w i t h a s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n of k n o w l e d g e . T h i s r e v e l a t i o n of the ex is tence of a test f o r the s u m a c h ahot b r i n g s to the s u r f a c e one aspect of the M o h a v e d r e a m c o m p l e x w h i c h W a l l a c e has c o n s i s t e n t l y i g n o r e d : p o w e r . T h a t i s , we have just l e a r n e d that the d r e a m does s e e m to have s o m e t h i n g to do w i t h one 's p o w e r to apply knowledge and 49 a b i l i t i e s s u c c e s s f u l l y . W h i l e W a l l a c e had o r i g i n a l l y stated that it was this aspect of p o w e r w h i c h in fact m a d e the s u m a c h ahot i m p o r t a n t to the M o h a v e , he f a i l s to i n c o r p o r a t e it into his r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . In fact , we m i g h t say that it was d i s m i s s e d by a s s o c i a t i o n when he c l a i m e d that the s u m a c h ahot was not r e a l l y d r e a m e d anyway. In any c a s e , it s e e m s that s u m a c h ahot is a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h the s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n of k n o w l e d g e . It is b e c o m i n g apparent that, no m a t t e r what its content, this M o h a v e d r e a m is_ a v i a b l e s o u r c e of j j p o w e r " / W a l l a c e ' s neglec t of the p h e n o m e n o n of p o w e r n e c e s s i t a t e s a r e - a p p r a i -s a l of his d i s m i s s a l of the s u m a c h ahot as an ac tual d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that whi le W a l l a c e d i s c u s s e d a g e n e r a l p r o b a b i l i t y that d r e a m s o r d r e a m i t e m s can be i n d u c e d t h r o u g h c u l t u r a l s u g g e s t i o n , he d i d not apply this p r o b a b i l i t y to the s u m a c h ahot. A l t h o u g h he hinted that the u s u a l a p p e a r a n c e of s o m e of the t r a d i t i o n a l e l e m e n t s was due to c u l t u r a l s u g g e s t i o n , at no t i m e did he suggest that a l l of these e l e m e n t s , that i s , the e n t i r e s u m a c h ahot, c o u l d be i n d u c e d in this w a y . Without any p r i o r defense o r explanat ion he s i m p l y pos tula ted a w a k i n g content and a s u b s e -quent c o n f u s i o n between it and the d r e a m . T h i s c h a i n of events s e e m s to indicate that W a l l a c e pos tula ted a w a k i n g content because he did not b e l i e v e that the M o h a v e c o u l d d r e a m in a p r e s c r i b e d p a t t e r n . T h e p a p e r a p p e a r s to be b a s e d on the a s s u m p t i o n that the M o h a v e did not o r c o u l d not d r e a m as they so c l a i m e d . It is suggested that as l o n g as this a s s u m p t i o n r e m a i n s u n s u p p o r t e d we cannot uphold any of W a l l a c e ' s c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the nature of "the M o h a v e m i n d " . 50 L e a v i n g the d i s c u s s i o n of the s u m a c h ahot "Wallace goes on to talk about the " i n d i v i d u a l d r e a m " o r s u m a c h . We f ind that this too is a s p o n -taneous d r e a m . F u r t h e r m o r e , an e x a m i n a t i o n of these d r e a m s " i s thought to shed l ight on f o r t h c o m i n g e v e n t s " . W h i l e i n s o m e c a s e s the d r e a m w i l l p o r t r a y the ac tual event , in m o s t i n s t a n c e s we f i n d that, "a p a r t i c u l a r event , a n i m a l or object f o r e t o k e n s s u c c e s s , w a r n s of d a n g e r , o r i n f o r m s about a r e m o t e h a p p e n i n g " . T o i l l u s t r a t e , W a l l a c e p r e s e n t s a l i s t of s t a n -d a r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . H e e x p l a i n s that the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l u s u a l l y i n t e r p r e t his own d r e a m a c c o r d i n g to the " c u r r e n t b e l i e f s c o n c e r n i n g d r e a m o m e n s " . H o w e v e r , "If he is u n c e r t a i n , he m a y ask an o l d e r p e r s o n o r a s h a m a n to i n t e r p r e t h is d r e a m f o r h i m " . R e g a r d i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of d r e a m s , we f i n d that the M o h a v e have two c a t e g o r i e s of " u n f a v o r a b l e " d r e a m s : U n p r o p i t i o u s d r e a m s are of two t y p e s , both often e x p e r i e n c e d . A d r e a m m a y p o r t e n d f a i l u r e i n s o m e e n d e a v o r ( s u m a c h a c h i m k ) o r , even m o r e f o r e b o d i n g , a r e d r e a m s in w h i c h d e a d r e l a t i v e s appear ( s u m a c h a l a i k ) . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 256) F u r t h e r m o r e they have v a r i o u s ways of d e a l i n g w i t h these u n f a v o r a b l e d r e a m s . In the c a s e of a s u m a c h a c h i m k , If a hunter o r a w a r r i o r has such a d r e a m b e f o r e an e x p e d i t i o n , he stays at h o m e ; a g a m b l e r r e f u s e s to p l a y a game of c h a n c e . A m a n often waits u n t i l he has a f a v o r a b l e d r e a m b e f o r e u n d e r t a k i n g a n y -thing i m p o r t a n t . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 256) T h e s u m a c h a l a i k , w h i c h W a l l a c e states is " a n o m e n of i l l n e s s , o r , m o r e often, death'.' , is d e s c r i b e d by one of his i n f o r m a n t s as f o l l o w s : A s u m a c h a l a i k is w h e r e you d r e a m of the o l d f o l k s who have gone. Y o u see t h e m as they 51 w e r e and f e e l bad o v e r i t . Y o u think about y o u r bad d r e a m and pre t ty soon you get s i c k . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 256) H o w e v e r , in the case of s u c h a d r e a m , W a l l a c e t e l l s us that, " B a t h s and f u m i g a t i o n w i t h a r r o w weed p r e v e n t r e c u r r e n t v i s i t a t i o n s " . A s e c o n d ex-a m p l e of this d r e a m is one i n w h i c h "a m a n m a y r e c e i v e w a r n i n g that a s o r c e r e r is t r y i n g to k i l l h i m " . In this c a s e , if the d r e a m e r r e c o g n i z e s the s o r c e r e r , he should confront h i m . A c c o r d i n g to an i n f o r m a n t , "he w i l l f e e l a s h a m e d and stop w i t c h i n g y o u " . R e g a r d i n g the M o h a v e attitude t o w a r d s i n d i v i d u a l d r e a m s , W a l l a c e states that the d e g r e e of i m p o r t a n c e " v a r i e s somewhat a c c o r d i n g to i n d i v i -d u a l s " . H o w e v e r , " A n effor t i s u s u a l l y m a d e to r e c a l l a l l s l e e p - i m a g e s " . We are to ld that they are d i s c u s s e d f r e e l y and that t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s "a f a v o r i t e topic of c o n v e r s a t i o n a m o n g f r i e n d s " . A s W a l l a c e c o n c l u d e s his p a p e r he o b s e r v e s that w h i l e M o h a v e d r e a m s have undergone changes w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of " C a u c a s i a n " c u l t u r e , they " s t i l l p r o f o u n d l y inf luence the l i f e of e v e r y M o h a v e " . We r e a d that, O v e r t and c o v e r t b e h a v i o r are both affected by what one d r e a m s . A f a v o r a b l e d r e a m b r i n g s on l ight h e a r t e d n e s s , a bad one, d e p r e s s i o n and even t e a r s . A s in the old days the M o h a v e v a l i d a t e m u c h of what happens in t h e i r l i v e s by r e f e r r i n g it to t h e i r d r e a m s but it is now the i n d i v i d u a l d r e a m w h i c h is s i g n i f i c a n t , not the c u l t u r a l l y p a t t e r n e d t r a d i t i o n a l d r e a m . ( W a l l a c e 1947: 258) T h e s ta tement i s r e m i n i s c e n t of L i n c o l n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n on the effect of d r e a m s in g e n e r a l . H e had stated that, It i s known that d r e a m s i n f l u e n c e the m o o d of the next day and give r i s e to b e h a v i o u r a p p r o -p r i a t e to the d r e a m s i t u a t i o n . ( L i n c o l n 1935: 49-50) T h u s it w o u l d appear that whi le d r e a m s i n f l u e n c e a l l of u s , the M o h a v e have an act ive a w a r e n e s s of this i n f l u e n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , because they a l s o have c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of d r e a m s we m i g h t speculate that it is r e a l l y the c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w h i c h i n f l u e n c e s o r d e t e r m i n e s t h e i r m o o d s and b e h a v i o r . H o w e v e r these p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i l l have to await d i s c u s s i o n . F o r now, it is evident that al though W a l l a c e m a y be s k e p t i c a l about the m a t t e r of c u l t u r e i n f l u e n c i n g d r e a m s , he at l e a s t a g r e e s p a r t l y w i t h L i n c o l n about d r e a m s i n f l u e n c i n g c u l t u r e in the g e n e r a l a r e a of m o o d and b e h a v i o r . D i s c u s s ion W a l l a c e ' s s tudy, l i k e those of M o r g a n and L i n c o l n , has s e e m e d to p o r t r a y the event of the M o h a v e d r e a m c o m p l e x i n t e r m s of f a l s e b e l i e f and f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n . T h i s p o r t r a y a l w o u l d a p p e a r to s t e m f r o m the u n s u p -p o r t e d a s s u m p t i o n that the f o r m and content of a d r e a m cannot be p r e d e -t e r m i n e d . It has been o b s e r v e d that W a l l a c e ' s r e f e r e n c e to the p o s s i b i l i t y of t e s t i n g the ac tual i ty of the s u m a c h ahot i n d i c a t e s that not only w o u l d there s e e m to be a d r e a m i n v o l v e d in this e x p e r i e n c e but that this d r e a m w o u l d s e e m to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " p o w e r " just as the M o h a v e have c l a i m e d . It is suggested that the M o h a v e d r e a m c o m p l e x m i g h t t h e r e f o r e be r e i n v e s t i gated in t e r m s of the p h e n o m e n o n of " p o w e r " i n future r e s e a r c h e s . T h e m a t i c C o n n e c t i o n s O n a c o m p a r a t i v e b a s i s it is evident that W a l l a c e ' s p a p e r c e n t r e s on the s a m e three t h e m e s w h i c h L i n c o l n had e s t a b l i s h e d i n his s tudy. W a l l a c e h o w e v e r , d e p a r t s f r o m L i n c o l n ' s c o n c e p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d r e a m s and c u l t u r e . H e does not at tr ibute the s u m a c h ahot to c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e . Instead he suggests that the s u m a c h ahot is a c o m b i n a t i o n of d r e a m and w a k i n g events w h i c h the M o h a v e c o m e to r e g a r d as a d r e a m . T h e p a p e r i m p l i e s t h e r e f o r e that the c u l t u r e i n f l u e n c e s the m a n n e r in w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l s h a l l 1. r e p o r t his i n i t i a l d r e a m , 2. c o m b i n e this d r e a m w i t h w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e and shape t h e m into the expected p a t t e r n , and 3. c o m e to p e r c e i v e th is c o m b i n a t i o n of events as a d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . A s such there would s e e m to be no ques t ion of the d r e a m i n f l u e n c i n g cul -t u r e . T h a t i s , the s u p p o s e d d r e a m p r o d u c t s are r e a l l y w a k i n g p r o d u c t s w h i c h , b e c a u s e of c u l t u r a l expec ta t ion , the i n d i v i d u a l only ' t h i n k s ' he ha d r e a m e d . T h e r e is t h e r e f o r e an a g r e e m e n t w i t h L i n c o l n ' s theme of the n o n - w e s t e r n m i s p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . W a l l a c e ' s c l a i m i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r ent in that it p r e s u p p o s e s a p e r c e p t i o n of w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s as d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e i d e a , h o w e v e r , is the s a m e : the M o h a v e m i s p e r c e i v e r e a l i t y . B . T h e P r e s e n t a t i o n of G e o r g e D e v e r e u x 1. " M o h a v e D r e a m s of O m e n and P o w e r " (19 56) In " M o h a v e D r e a m s of O m e n and P o w e r " (1956) , G e o r g e D e v e r e u x d e s c r i b e s the M o h a v e attitudes t o w a r d s d r e a m s in a m a n n e r s i m i l a r to W a l l a c e . A g a i n we are to ld that, " d r e a m o c c u p i e s the f o c a l p o s i t i o n " in M o h a v e l i f e . D e v e r e u x a lso notes the M o h a v e d i s t i n c t i o n between two types of d r e a m s . H e r e f e r s to t h e m as " o r d i n a r y (omen) d r e a m s and great (power) d r e a m s " . R e g a r d i n g the i m p o r t a n c e of the d r e a m to the M o h a v e he te l l s us that " they hold that a l l d r e a m s have a m e a n i n g , al though it is not a lways u n d e r s t o o d " . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n leads h i m to v i e w M o h a v e d r e a m s f r o m a new p e r s p e c t i v e . W h i l e he notes that i n " M o h a v e b e l i e f " there are both " s t r u c t u r a l and p s y c h o d y n a m i c d i f f e r e n c e s " between these two types of d r e a m s , D e v e r e u x f inds a b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y in t h e i r ro le as o m e n d r e a m s . In both c a s e s he te l l s us that a d r e a m "does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t what w i l l a c t u a l l y h a p p e n , but what c o u l d h a p p e n . " T h e not ion is i n t e r e s t i n g . H o w -e v e r , D e v e r e u x is doubtful about the ac tual i ty of the " o m e n " : P e r h a p s a b e l i e f in the m e a n i n g f u l n e s s of a l l d r e a m s r e s u l t s f r o m a s c r i b i n g p r o p h e t i c q u a l i t i e s to a d r e a m after an event o c c u r s that s e e m s to have been p r e d i c t e d o r f o r e -shadowed by the e a r l i e r d r e a m . ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 18) T u r n i n g to a d e s c r i p t i o n of the two t y p e s , he e x p l a i n s that the " p o w e r d r e a m s " . . . bestow upon those who have t h e m c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s o r p o w e r s , o r e lse e n s u r e that s o m e events of m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e w i l l take p l a c e . ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 18) T h e n c o n c e r n i n g i n d i v i d u a l " o m e n d r e a m s " , he o b s e r v e s that, B y c o n t r a s t , o m e n d r e a m s s e e m to r e f e r to s p e c i f i c and m o r e r e s t r i c t e d types of o c c u r -r e n c e s . T h u s , a w o m a n m a y have a p o w e r -d r e a m in a d o l e s c e n c e , w h i c h indica tes that she is to have c h i l d r e n - - s u r e l y a m a j o r event in the l i f e of a w o m a n . B y c o n t r a s t , d u r i n g p r e g n a n c y she m a y have an o m e n - d r e a m - -d r e a m i n g of m a l e or f e m a l e r e g a l i a - - w h i c h f o r e c a s t s the sex of the c h i l d about to be b o r n . ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 18-19) F i n a l l y , whi le c e r t a i n m i n o r events m a y o c c u r , "without t h e i r b e i n g p r e d i c t e d by an o m e n d r e a m . " , O n the w h o l e , no m a j o r feat is p o s s i b l e i n l i f e without h a v i n g had an a p p r o p r i a t e p o w e r -d r e a m , w h i c h bestows upon the d r e a m e r the c a p a c i t y to b e c o m e a s h a m a n , a w a r r i o r , a f e r t i l e w o m a n , etc . ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 19) C o n c e r n i n g the o r i g i n and m e a n i n g of the d r e a m s we are to ld that o r d i n a r y d r e a m s . . . c o m e f r o m the D a y o r f r o m the N i g h t , def ined as p e r s o n i f i e d e n t i t i e s - - d e p e n d i n g on w h e t h e r one has the d r e a m d u r i n g the night o r d u r i n g a nap in the c o u r s e of the day . (Deve reux 19 56: 19) T h e d e s c r i p t i o n of the m e a n i n g is s i m i l a r to W a l l a c e ' s : . . . these d r e a m s m a y , o r m a y not , be u n d e r -standable on awakening ; t h e i r i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y depends on the p r e s e n c e of c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d o m e n s y m b o l s o r - - p e r h a p s - - u p o n the subjec t ive i m p r e s s i o n w h i c h they m a k e on d r e a m e r s o r l i s t e n e r s . (Deve reux 19 56: 19) B y c o n t r a s t , the p o w e r d r e a m s have a " d i v i n e o r i g i n " . R e g a r d i n g this type , D e v e r e u x r e f e r s us to the d r e a m s e x p e r i e n c e d by s h a m a n s as be ing " a c o m p r e h e n s i v e e x a m p l e of the t y p e . " H e te l l s us that " . . . M o h a v e s h a m a n i s m and the whole m a t t e r of c u r i n g p o w e r s is s t i l l v e r y m u c h a l ive . . . " T h e statement s e e m s to be in c o n f l i c t w i t h W a l l a c e ' s point that the su m a c h ahot had " d i m i n i s h e d in i m p o r t a n c e . " D e v e r e u x does not m e n t i o n any s u c h d i m i n i s h i n g and uses the p r e s e n t tense when r e f e r r i n g to a l l p o w e r d r e a m s . In any c a s e , D e v e r e u x begins his d e s c r i p t i o n by r e f e r r i n g us to 56 the m o s t i m p o r t a n t feature of these d r e a m s . T h i s is the r o l e of the C r e -ation M y t h w h i c h . . . e s t a b l i s h e s a set of p r e c e d e n t s f o r e v e r y -thing, that happens in h u m a n l i f e . ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 19-20) D e v e r e u x d e s c r i b e s the s h a m a n ' s e x p e r i e n c e as f o l l o w s : In M o h a v e b e l i e f , the future s h a m a n d r e a m s of that p o r t i o n of the C r e a t i o n M y t h , w h i c h p e r t a i n s to his future " s p e c i a l i t y " , whi le s t i l l in the m a t e r n a l w o m b . ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 20) T h e d e s c r i p t i o n c o n c u r s w i t h W a l l a c e ' s . H o w e v e r D e v e r e u x m a k e s the f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n that, in spite of the r o l e of the C r e a t i o n M y t h , the s h a m a n s ' d r e a m s are not i d e n t i c a l . H e notes that this " p e r s o n a l f a c t o r " is v e r y i m p o r t a n t to a s h a m a n : H e n c e , no s h a m a n w i l l t e l l of his " e x p e r i e n c e s ! 1 o r p e r f o r m his c u r e — w h i c h i n c l u d e s a n a r r a t i v e of the m y t h i c a l p r e c e d e n t - - i n the p r e s e n c e of another s h a m a n , l e s t the l a t t e r be a n g e r e d by d i v e r g e n c e s and b e w i t c h h i m . ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 20) In c o n s i d e r i n g the M o h a v e c l a i m s about knowledge d r e a m i n g D e v e r e u x p r o v e s to be as s k e p t i c a l as W a l l a c e . H e f i r s t f o c u s e s on the c l a i m that the s h a m a n ' s o r i g i n a l d r e a m o c c u r r e d b e f o r e b i r t h : What p r o b a b l y happens is t h i s : A n a d o l e s c e n t , who has been a v e r y turbulent c h i l d , has a d r e a m w h i c h s e e m s to r e s e m b l e a s t a n d a r d p o r t i o n of the C r e a t i o n M y t h , w h i c h he has h e a r d b e f o r e . A t this point ,he m a y r e c a l l that he was f r e q u e n t l y spoken of as a future s h a m a n , s i m p l y because his b e h a v i o r was so t u r b u l e n t . H e is t h e r e f o r e i n -c l i n e d to v i e w this d r e a m as the f i r s t i n t i m a t i o n of budding s h a m a n i s t i c p o w e r s . ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 21) L i k e W a l l a c e , D e v e r e u x r e f e r s to ' c u l t u r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d e x p e c t a t i o n s ' but a l so i n c l u d e s p o s s i b l e "genuine p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e p r e s s i o n s " as be ing the f a c t o r s w h i c h l e a d the s h a m a n to a s c r i b e the sense of " f a m i l i a r i t y " to an " i n t r a - u t e r i n e d r e a m " ins tead of to the ac tual w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e of " r e p e a t e d l i s t e n i n g to s i n g e r s and w i t n e s s i n g of a c t u a l s h a m a n i s t i c c u r e s . L i k e W a l l a c e , D e v e r e u x t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e s that the d r e a m is not r e a l l y a d r e a m but r a t h e r a " s u m of d r e a m e l e m e n t s and l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l " . H e notes , as d i d W a l l a c e , that s h a m a n s and l a i t y a l ike know that " m u c h of this f i n a l p r o d u c t was l e a r n e d in a m a t t e r of fact w a y . " H e adds: T h a t , h o w e v e r , s e e m s quite i r r e l e v a n t to t h e m s ince that w h i c h t r u l y m a t t e r s w a s , by d e f i n i t i o n , l e a r n e d in d r e a m . ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 22) F u r t h e r m o r e , i f one l e a r n s the m a t e r i a l i n w a k i n g , but does not l e a r n it in a d r e a m , . . . h is knowledge is s i m p l y not e f f e c t i v e . H e has the object ive k n o w l e d g e , but not the p o w e r w h i c h m a k e s this knowledge e f f e c t i v e , and w h i c h m u s t c o m e i n d r e a m . ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 22) T h u s , In the end , the s h a m a n c o m e s up w i t h a sui table and c o m p l e t e " d r e a m " , w h i c h he now b e l i e v e s to have d r e a m e d in its e n t i r e t y both i n the w o m b and, a g a i n , d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . ( D e v e r e u x 19 56: 21) T h u s , l i k e W a l l a c e ' s p a p e r , D e v e r e u x ' s i m p l i e s that M o h a v e c u l t u r e i n f l u e n c e s the n a r r a t i o n of a d r e a m r a t h e r than the p r o d u c t i o n of a d r e a m . T h e r e is a vague hint that c u l t u r a l sugges t ion m a y cause the adolescent d r e a m w h i c h " s e e m s to r e s e m b l e a s t a n d a r d p o r t i o n of the C r e a t i o n M y t h " but l i k e W a l l a c e , D e v e r e u x n e v e r a c t u a l l y states t h i s . H e s i m p l y r e f e r s to the fact that the youth had a l r e a d y been exposed to the m y t h and expected to b e c o m e a s h a m a n anyway. H e then goes on to d i s c u s s the p r o b a b i l i t y of c u l t u r a l expecta t ion in both the shaping of the d r e a m into the t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m and the b e l i e f in it, or r e m e m b r a n c e of i t , as an ac tual d r e a m . O n this point D e v e r e u x is not c l e a r . L i k e W a l l a c e he uses the w o r d " b e l i e v e s " in r e f e r e n c e to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s attitude but p r o j e c t s the idea that the s h a m a n c o m e s to r e m e m b e r these e x p e r i e n c e s as h a v i n g been d r e a m e d . B e c a u s e it is not l i k e l y that the s h a m a n thinks of h i m s e l f as h a v i n g a b e l i e f about his d r e a m , it is p r o b a b l y safe to c o n c l u d e that, l i k e W a l l a c e , D e v e r e u x intended to indicate r e m e m b r a n c e r a t h e r than b e l i e f . A s s u c h , the p a p e r s e e m s to support the idea that c u l t u r e i n f l u e n c e s the p e r c e p t i o n of d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s r a t h e r than the d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s t h e m s e l v e s . D e v e r e u x , l i k e W a l l a c e , m a k e s no attempt to separa te the w a k i n g and d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h he suggests the M o h a v e fuse t o g e t h e r . H e is even m o r e vague than W a l l a c e c o n c e r n i n g the content of the a d o l e s c e n t s h a m a n ' s d r e a m . H e does not even p r o p o s e that it r e s e m b l e s the C r e a t i o n M y t h but says ins tead that it " s e e m s to r e s e m b l e " the m y t h to the b o y . N o r does he p r o p o s e a p r o c e s s by w h i c h it m i g h t be p o s s i b l e to confound d r e a m s and w a k i n g e v e n t s . L i k e W a l l a c e , he r e f e r s the p h e n o m e n o n not to c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n but to " c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s " . T h e suggest ion is that d r e a m s and w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s b e c o m e f u s e d i n the m i n d of the i n d i v i d u a l so that he c o m e s to v i e w t h e m as having a c o m m o n d r e a m o r i g i n . It s e e m s t h e r e -f o r e that the M o h a v e have a f a l s e b e l i e f about the o r i g i n of the s u m a c h ahot. 59 It a l so s e e m s that this f a l s e b e l i e f s t e m s f r o m a l a c k of d i s t i n c t i o n (in m e m o r y ) between d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s and w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . It a p p e a r s t h e r e f o r e that D e v e r e u x ' s i n f o r m a n t s , l i k e those of M o r g a n , L i n c o l n and W a l l a c e , have a f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . B e f o r e c l o s i n g the d i s c u s s i o n of the p o w e r d r e a m , D e v e r e u x m a k e s a f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g its p r o d u c t i o n . H e states: T h e r e is sound e v i d e n c e that p o w e r d r e a m s of a s p e c i f i c type c o m e to those who seek t h e m , be it only u n c o n s c i o u s l y . ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 22) T o 1 ( i l lus t ra te , he t e l l s us of a m a n who, s h o r t l y af ter w i t n e s s i n g his wife die in c h i l d b i r t h , " r e c e i v e d o b s t e t r i c a l p o w e r s " . T h e addi t ion of this i n f o r m a t i o n is as c o n f u s i n g as W a l l a c e ' s r e f e r e n c e to the e x i s t i n g of a test f o r this d r e a m . D e v e r e u x has just f i n i s h e d t e l l i n g us that the p o w e r d r e a m is r e a l l y p r o d u c e d by an i n t e r m i n g l i n g of and c o n f u s i n g of d r e a m s and w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . But now he is s u g g e s t i n g that this d r e a m can a c t u a l l y be p r o d u c e d - - a s a r e a l d r e a m - - b y i n d i v i d u a l v o l i t i o n . O n e is baff led as to the r e a s o n f o r the p o s t u l a t i o n of a w a k i n g content in the p o w e r d r e a m in the f i r s t p l a c e . But D e v e r e u x does not p u r s u e this q u e s t i o n of v o l i t i o n . H e m a k e s no suggest ion w h a t s o e v e r that it m i g h t p l a y a p a r t in the p r o d u c t i o n of even the " r e a l r e m e m b e r e d d r e a m s " of the adolescent s h a m a n s . A s W a l l a c e , t h e r e f o r e , D e v e r e u x l e a v e s us i n c o m p l e t e c o n f u -s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the ac tual i ty of the M o h a v e p o w e r d r e a m . D e v e r e u x ' s r e f e r e n c e to the p o s s i b l e r o l e of v o l i t i o n in the p r o d u c t i o n of a p o w e r d r e a m s e e m s s i m i l a r to W a l l a c e ' s r e f e r e n c e to the ex is tence of a test f o r the v a l i d i t y of a p o w e r d r e a m . In both c a s e s the r e a d e r is l e d 60 to r e - e x a m i n e the p r e l i m i n a r y c l a i m s in the m a t t e r of the ac tual i ty of the p o w e r d r e a m . A r e - r e a d i n g of D e v e r e u x ' s d e s c r i p t i o n reve.ais that he , l i k e W a l l a c e , has f a i l e d to e x p l a i n why the M o h a v e do not d r e a m as they c l a i m to. H e does not t e l l us why the M o h a v e do not d r e a m k n o w l e d g e . It s e e m s he s i m p l y a s s u m e s that they do not or p e r h a p s cannot . H i s subsequent p o s t u l a t i o n of a w a k i n g content and of a c o n f u s i o n between d r e a m and w a k i n g events in M o h a v e thought would t h e r e f o r e s e e m to s t e m f r o m this s ingle a s s u m p t i o n . W h i l e f o c u s i n g on the M o h a v e c l a i m that knowledge is d r e a m e d , D e v e r -eux, l i k e W a l l a c e , does not attempt to account f o r the c l a i m that d r e a m i n g knowledge gives it e f f e c t i v e n e s s or " p o w e r " . H e had r e p o r t e d that, What m a t t e r s is e x c l u s i v e l y the p o w e r , and not the knowledge of the songs and other e l e m e n t s of the c u r i n g r i t e . ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 23) E v e n though his own statement attests to the c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e of p o w e r in the d r e a m , D e v e r e u x does not m a k e any i n q u i r y w h a t s o e v e r into this p h e n o m e n o n . H e m a k e s no attempt to c o n s i d e r how d r e a m i n g knowledge c o u l d m a k e knowledge e f f e c t i v e . T h e suggest ions that the p o w e r d r e a m is not r e a l l y a d r e a m and that a l l the re levant '.knowledge can a c t u a l l y be l e a r n e d by anyone in w a k i n g l i f e , s e e m to m a k e the e n t i r e idea of p o w e r f r o m a d r e a m m e a n i n g l e s s . T h i s , of c o u r s e , c r e a t e s a p a r a d o x : W h y would the M o h a v e bother to speak of p o w e r or c l a i m that a d r e a m m a k e s knowledge effec t ive i f , in r e a l i t y , there w e r e no s u c h thing? A p p r o a c h e d f r o m this angle we begin to see that the m a t t e r of p o w e r cannot be r a t i o n -a l i z e d as e a s i l y as the m a t t e r of the p o w e r d r e a m . It is evident that a 61 r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of the ent i re p h e n o m e n o n is n e c e s s a r y . In D e v e r e u x ' s c o n c l u s i o n , we see the f a m i l i a r theme of i r r a t i o n a l i t y . In an attempt at a b r i e f p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of the M o h a v e s h a m a n , D e v e r e u x c l a i m s that t h e i r p o w e r d r e a m s a r e " a p p r e c i a b l y m o t i v a t e d by a g g r e s s i v e e l e m e n t s . " E x p l a i n i n g , he r e p o r t s that, It is a m a j o r tenet of M o h a v e b e l i e f s c o n c e r n i n g w i t c h c r a f t that s o m e s h a m a n s b e c o m e w i t c h e s i n t h e i r old age, as do the s i n g e r s of c e r t a i n s o -c a l l e d " s h a m a n i s t i c song c y c l e s . " ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 23) It is sa id that they " b e w i t c h people they l i k e , in o r d e r to have an i m p o s i n g ret inue in the other w o r l d . " In o r d e r - t o m a i n t a i n this " r e t i n u e " , h o w e v e r , " they t h e m s e l v e s m u s t die a v i o l e n t d e a t h . " T h u s , it i s stated that a s h a -m a n w i l l e v e n t u a l l y " d e l i b e r a t e l y p r o v o k e the s u r v i v i n g r e l a t i v e s of his v i c t i m s into k i l l i n g h i m " . C l a i m i n g that s u c h c a s e s are w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d , he c o n c l u d e s : We m a y t h e r e f o r e v i e w the c u r i n g a c t i v i t e s of s h a m a n s as " r e a c t i o n f o r m a t i o n s " against d e s t r u c t i v e i m p u l s e s that f i r s t showed t h e m -s e l v e s in a turbulent c h i l d h o o d . E v e n t u a l l y s u c h infant i le m u r d e r o u s i m p u l s e s f i n d t h e i r w a y into b e h a v i o r in the f o r m of w i t c h c r a f t ; t h i s , in t u r n , c r e a t e s guilt f e e l i n g s and c a u s e s the w i t c h to seek d e a t h - p u n i s h m e n t by getting h i m s e l f m u r d e r e d . ( D e v e r e u x 1956: 24) L i k e M o r g a n and L i n c o l n , t h e r e f o r e , D e v e r e u x s e e m s to have found a p s y c h o l o g i c a l f r a m e of r e f e r e n c e w i t h i n w h i c h he is able to e x p l a i n the b e h a v i o r of M o h a v e s h a m a n s . T h e p r o b l e m with this p o r t r a y a l is that it does not s e e m to d e s c r i b e the " c u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s " i n t e r m s of any e x p e r i e n c e beyond this event of " r e a c t i o n f o r m a t i o n " . A s s u c h , these " c u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s 62 tend to a p p e a r not as e x p e r i e n c e s of c u r i n g but as e x p e r i e n c e s of p s y c h o -l o g i c a l a b n o r m a l i t i e s . T h e s h a m a n i s t i c attitudes appear as i r r a t i o n a l at t i tudes . L i k e M o r g a n ' s r e f e r e n c e to c a u s a l thought p r o c e s s e s and L i n -c o l n ' s r e f e r e n c e to apparent n e u r o t i c thought p r o c e s s e s , D e v e r e u x ' s a n a l y s i s tends to d i s c r e d i t not only the attitudes of his i n f o r m a n t s but the m i n d s of his i n f o r m a n t s . A l t h o u g h D e v e r e u x r e s t r i c t s his p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s to M o h a v e s h a -m a n s , the t h e m e of i r r a t i o n a l i t y w o u l d appear to apply to the l a y p o p u l a t i o n as w e l l . T h a t i s , the apparent r e d u c t i o n of w i t c h c r a f t to a p s y c h o l o g i c a l a b n o r m a l i t y would s e e m to indicate that the liaity's ' b e l i e f in both w i t c h e s and w i t c h c r a f t is a ' f a l s e b e l i e f . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n is that the attitudes of s h a m a n s and l a i t y a l ike are i r r a t i o n a l a t t i tudes , be ing grounded in an i n c o r -rec t p e r c e p t i o n of the r e a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n . D i s c u s s ion It has been o b s e r v e d that D e v e r e u x ' s d i s c u s s i o n s e e m s to p o r t r a y the M o h a v e s u m a c h ahot as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of f a l s e b e l i e f about d r e a m s (with r e s p e c t to the o r i g i n of a c o m b i n a t i o n of d r e a m s and w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s ) and a f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y (with r e s p e c t to the apparent l a c k of d i s -t i n c t i o n in m e m o r y between d r e a m s and w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s ) . It has f u r t h e r been o b s e r v e d that this d i s c u s s i o n , l i k e that of W a l l a c e , s e e m s to be b a s e d on the a s s u m p t i o n that the M o h a v e do not d r e a m the s u m a c h ahot. T h i s apparent a s s u m p t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n the p a r a d o x i c a l s i tuat ion of the M o h a v e c l a i m i n g that the knowledge or m y t h m u s t be d r e a m e d to be e f f e c t i v e w h e n , in r e a l i t y , no one e v e r d r e a m s it anyway. It m a y be r e c a l l e d that a s i m i -63 l a r s i tuat ion was c r e a t e d in W a l l a c e ' s p a p e r . W h i l e both a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s noted that the v e r y s i g n i f i c a n c e of the " p o w e r d r e a m " l i e s in its a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h " p o w e r " (or m a k i n g d r e a m knowledge and a b i l i t i e s e f fec t ive ) , n e i t h e r a p p r o a c h e d the p r o b l e m f r o m this angle . N e i t h e r c o n s i d e r e d the q u e s t i o n of how d r e a m i n g knowledge and a b i l i t i e s m a k e s one s u c c e s s f u l in the w a k i n g a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e m . Indeed, n e i t h e r suggested the p o s s i b i l i t y that it a c t u -a l l y c o u l d . T h e i r n e g l e c t of this q u e s t i o n of " p o w e r " is as p u z z l i n g as t h e i r d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h the M o h a v e c l a i m s about the a c t u a l i t y of the s u m a c h ahot. It is suggested that a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of the p h e n o m e n o n of this M o h a v e " p o w e r d r e a m " is n e c e s s a r y before we c a n c o m e to any c o n c l u s i o n s about its r e l a t i o n to M o h a v e c u l t u r e i t e m s or - to M o h a v e p e r c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y . T h e m a t i c C o n n e c t i o n s In r e l a t i o n to the p r e v i o u s s tudies it is evident that " M o h a v e D r e a m s of O m e n and P o w e r " is a l s o based on the t h e m e s of the i n f l u e n c e of c u l t u r e on d r e a m s , the inf luence of d r e a m s on c u l t u r e and the n o n - w e s t e r n p e r c e p -t i o n of r e a l i t y . In a l l three a r e a s Devereux's attitudes a p p e a r to p a r a l l e l those of W a l l a c e . L i k e W a l l a c e ' s p a p e r , D e v e r e u x ' s a p p e a r s to p o s i t a c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e not on the p r o d u c t i o n of a d r e a m but on the n a r r a t i o n of a d r e a m . In a d d i t i o n , D e v e r e u x ' s p a p e r points to a c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e o p e r -ating in the p r o d u c t i o n of an u l t imate p e r c e p t i o n of the c u l t u r a l l y m o l d e d f o r m of the d r e a m as an ac tual d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . T h e n , because it denies the inf luence of c u l t u r e on the d r e a m , D e v e r e u x ' s study a l s o i m p l i c i t y denies the i n f l u e n c e of the d r e a m on c u l t u r e : d r e a m p r o d u c t s are r e a l l y w a k i n g p r o d u c t s . F i n a l l y , it a s s o c i a t e s the e n t i r e p o w e r d r e a m p h e n o m e n o n with a c e r t a i n c o n f u s i o n a m o n g the M o h a v e c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . It m i g h t be noted that w h i l e L i n c o l n and M o r g a n suggested that t h e i r i n f o r m a n t s think that t h e i r d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s are r e a l e x p e r i e n c e s both W a l l a c e and B e v e r e u x suggested that t h e i r i n f o r m a n t s think that t h e i w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s are d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s . 2. " D r e a m L e a r n i n g and I n d i v i d u a l R i t u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n M o h a v e S h a m a n i s m " (1957) D e v e r e u x ' s 1957 p a p e r , " D r e a m L e a r n i n g and I n d i v i d u a l R i t u a l D i f f e r -ences in M o h a v e S h a m a n i s m " is d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h the i s s u e of a c u l t u r a l inf luence on d r e a m i n g . H e f o c u s e s on what is ' r e a l l y ' d r e a m e d by the M o h a v e s h a m a n s in t h e i r p o w e r d r e a m s . I n t r o d u c i n g the p r o b l e m , D e v e r e u x te l l s us that, . . . it should be s t r e s s e d that d r e a m s in those p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d r e a m l i f e and encourage the r e c a l l and n a r r a t i o n of d r e a m s , tend to be quite l o n g and e l a b o r a t e and m a y t h e r e -f o r e confront the p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t w i t h r e a l d i f f i -c u l t i e s in i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . . ( D e v e r e u x 1957: 1036) H o w e v e r , It m a y be taken f o r g r a n t e d that no m a t t e r how lengthy the ac tual d r e a m m a y be and no m a t t e r how g r e a t l y c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g and e x p e c -tat ion m a y f a c i l i t a t e its total r e c a l l , the M o h a v e s h a m a n or s i n g e r is not l i k e l y to d r e a m , e i t h e r in a s ingle night o r in i n s t a l l m e n t s , the ent i re text of a m y t h or song c y c l e . ( D e v e r e u x 1957: 1037) D e v e r e u x does not t e l l us why this " m a y be taken f o r g r a n t e d " but o b s e r v e s ins tead that, T h i s i n f e r e n c e i s m a t e r i a l l y s t rengthened by the fact that M o h a v e c u l t u r e p r o v i d e s a m o d e l f o r equat ing an a l l u s i v e " c a t c h p h r a s e " with a b r o a d m y t h i c a l m e a n i n g . ( D e v e r e u x 1957: 1037) B e f o r e e x a m i n i n g the p r o b l e m , D e v e r e u x r e i t e r a t e s the c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d in his 1956 p a p e r . T h i s t i m e h o w e v e r , he c l a r i f i e s his p o s i t i o n by r e f e r r i n g to p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y . F i r s t he uses the F r e u d i a n concept 66 of " d a y r e s i d u e " to e x p l a i n the p r o d u c t i o n of the ac tual s h a m a n i s t i c d r e a m : It m u s t a l so be r e c o g n i z e d that a book r e a d , a s t o r y h e a r d , o r a p l a y seen d u r i n g the day m a y p r o v i d e m o s t of the raw m a t e r i a l (known in p s y c h o a n a l y s i s as "the day res idue") f r o m w h i c h the f o l l o w i n g n i g h t ' s d r e a m is c o n s t r u c t e d ( D e v e r e u x 1957: 1036) T h u s , he c o n c l u d e s that, . . . it is quite p r o b a b l e that a youth who has just attended a c u r i n g r i t u a l m a y , in the c o u r s e of the f o l l o w i n g night , have one or m o r e d r e a m s p e r t a i n i n g to and d e r i v e d f r o m this ( n o n - l o g i c a l ) e x p e r i e n c e . ( D e v e r e u x 19 57: 1036) What was left o b s c u r e in the 1956 p a p e r is t h e r e f o r e r e s o l v e d . A c c o r d i n g to this s ta tement , d r e a m s are i n f l u e n c e d or d e t e r m i n e d not by c u l t u r e but by " d a y r e s i d u e " . Next D e v e r e u x touches on the d i f f e r e n c e s between the ac tual d r e a m and the r e p o r t e d d r e a m . W h e r e a s in 1956 he had a s s o c i a t e d the c o m b i n a t i o n of w a k i n g and d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , here he a s s o c i a t e s it w i t h the p r o c e s s of " s e c o n d a r y e l a b o r a t i o n " : . . . it is l i k e l y that this d r e a m w i l l p r e o c c u p y h i m d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g day , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e , b e c a u s e of his t e m p e r m e n t a l b e h a v i o r , he is l i k e l y to have h e a r d r e p e a t e d l y that he is bound u l t i m a t e l y to b e c o m e a s h a m a n . . . T h i s p r e o c -cupat ion w i l l l e a d to a " s e c o n d a r y e l a b o r a t i o n " of the d r e a m , w h i c h w i l l p r o b a b l y c o n s i s t in the e x p a n s i o n of the a c t u a l l y d r e a m e d m a t e r i a l by the addi t ion of i n f o r m a t i o n about m y t h s , s o n g s , and r i t u a l s a c q u i r e d in a w a k i n g state. ( D e v e r e u x 1957: 1036-1037) T h u s what was vague i n 19 56 about how d r e a m s and w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s c o u l d be confounded is now d e f i n e d . It is a t t r ibuted to the p r o c e s s of " s e c -o n d a r y e l a b o r a t i o n " , a p r o c e s s w h i c h we m i g h t a s s u m e has u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a t i o n . In spite of this new e x p l a n a t i o n , D e v e r e u x s u m s up his d i s c u s s i o n 67 by r e f e r r i n g once again to this 1956 c o n c l u s i o n . T h i s t i m e , h o w e v e r , he p r e s e n t s it in the m o r e g e n e r a l context of a n o n - w e s t e r n m e n t a l i t y : T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n f e r e n c e s suggest that what is d r e a m e d and what is juxtaposed and c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h the d r e a m the f o l l o w i n g day are i n s e p a r a b l e - - t h e m o r e so s ince a good m a n y p r i m i t i v e s do not d i f f e r e n t i a t e too s h a r p l y between what was d r e a m e d and what was thought or e x p e r i e n c e d . K r o e b e r (1952) has s p e c i f i c a l l y s t r e s s e d that the growth of c i v i l i z a t i o n is in the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n of g r e a t e r r e a l i s m and of a m o r e s y s t e m a t i c s e p a r a t i o n of d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e f r o m r e a l e x p e r i e n c e . ( D e v e r e u x 1957: 1037) T h e s e w o r d s r e c a l l L i n c o l n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s of a n i m i s m and r a t i o n a l i s m and the d i f f e r e n c e s "between p r i m i t i v e and c i v i l i z e d m e n t a l i t y . " O n c e again the p h e n o m e n o n is p o r t r a y e d i n t e r m s of a l a c k of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between d r e a m and r e a l i t y , r a t h e r than a c u l t u r a l integrat ioncof these e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s e m p h a s i s is r e i n f o r c e d when D e v e r e u x ' s r e f e r e n c e to K r o e b e r puts the p h e n o m e n o n in an e v o l u t i o n a r y context . A g a i n the s u g g e s t i o n is that the M o h a v e do not p e r c e i v e r e a l i t y c o r r e c t l y . T h e r e p e t i t i o n of the 1956 attitudes towards M o h a v e m e n t a l i t y c r e a t e s one f u n d a m e n t a l and unavoidable p r o b l e m in the 19 57 p a p e r . T h i s s t e m s f r o m the r e f e r e n c e to the p r o c e s s of s e c o n d a r y e l a b o r a t i o n . If this p r o c e s s appl ies to w e s t e r n and n o n - w e s t e r n m a n a l i k e , then w e s t e r n m a n too should c o n f u s e , as w e l l as c o m b i n e , his d r e a m s and w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . But D e v e r e u x ' s r e f e r e n c e to e v o l u t i o n a r y d e v e l o p m e n t i n d i c a t e s that it is the opposite p r o c e s s w h i c h o c c u r s in the w e s t e r n m i n d . It w o u l d a p p e a r that D e v e r e u x , l i k e s o m e of the p r e v i o u s w r i t e r s , m a y be o p e r a t i n g a c c o r d i n g to a double s t a n d a r d . A f t e r o u t l i n i n g the p r o c e s s e s of " s e c o n d a r y e l a b o r a t i o n " and the f u s i n g of d r e a m s w i t h things that w e r e r e a l l y "thought or e x p e r i e n c e d " , D e v e r e u x a p p r o a c h e s the p r o b l e m of the content of the a c t u a l d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . H e does not e x p l a i n to us why "the ent i re text of a m y t h or song c y c l e " cannot be d r e a m e d . H e s i m p l y states that it is "not l i k e l y " to happen and s u g g e s t s , It m u s t t h e r e f o r e be a h i g h l y c o n d e n s e d and p o s s i b l y a l l u s i v e d r e a m v e r s i o n of a l o n g m y t h w h i c h both the d r e a m e r and his s o c i e t y define as an ac tual d r e a m i n g of the m y t h . ( D e v e r e u x 19 57: 1037) D e v e r e u x c o m e s to this c o n c l u s i o n after o b s e r v i n g the o p e r a t i o n of a f u n c -I t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n c e between "the s i n g i n g of a b r i e f s o n g " and "the n a r r a t i o n of the ent i re m y t h " . H e h y p o t h e s i z e s that a s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p m a y be o p e r a t i v e between m y t h and d r e a m . T h a t i s , T h e p o w e r - g i v i n g and k n o w l e d g e - i m p a r t i n g d r e a m m a y be nothing m o r e than an e x t r e m e c o n d e n s a t i o n of and a l l u s i o n to the m y t h . . . ( D e v e r e u x 1957: 1038) T h u s the d r e a m w o u l d be v i e w e d "as a c o m p l e t e equivalent of the ent i re m y t h " . R e f e r r i n g to p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y once m o r e , D e v e r e u x suggests that the m y t h can be v i e w e d as an " a s s o c i a t i o n " to the a l l u s i v e d r e a m . In c o n c l u s i o n , he m a k e s a b r i e f r e f e r e n c e to the m a t t e r of " p o w e r " . H e notes that the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d r e a m is that i t " i m p a r t s s u p e r n a t u r a l e f f e c t i v e -n e s s to one 's r e c i t a t i o n of the m y t h , p e r f o r m a n c e of the r i t e , and s i n g i n g of the song, whose ac tual text is l e a r n e d i n a w a k i n g state . " H e does not speculate h o w e v e r , on how or why the d r e a m " i m p a r t s s u p e r n a t u r a l e f f e c -t i v e n e s s " o r on what this " s u p e r n a t u r a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s " o r " p o w e r " m i g h t be analagous to in w e s t e r n c u l t u r e . In the f i n a l s e c t i o n of the p a p e r , D e v e r e u x t u r n s once m o r e to the t h e m e of i r r a t i o n a l i t y and it soon b e c o m e s c l e a r to the r e a d e r that there m a y be a r e a s o n f o r D e v e r e u x ' s l a c k of r e f e r e n c e to the p r o b l e m of " p o w e r " i n the M o h a v e d r e a m c o m p l e x . A s in 1956, the theme of i r r a t i o n a l i t y e m e r g e s f r o m a d i s c u s s i o n of M o h a v e s h a m a n s . O n c e again D e v e r e u x r e f e r s us to the s h a m a n ' s attitude t o w a r d his p a r t i c u l a r v e r s i o n of the " m y t h , song cyc le , or r i t u a l " w h i c h p e r t a i n s to his s p e c i a l i t y . T h i s t i m e he i l l u s t r a t e s the a t t i -tude by r e l a t i n g the d r e a m of a M o h a v e s i n g e r . T h i s d r e a m f o c u s e s on a s t ruggle o v e r d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s of the s a m e so n g . D e v e r e u x c l a i m s that the d r e a m d e m o n s t r a t e s the " i d i o s y n c r a t i c n e u r o t i c i s m " of M o h a v e s p e c i a l -i s t s w h i c h " i s g r a t i f i e d by s u c h t r i f l i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . " H e c o n c l u d e s that . . . the s h a m a n is a f u n d a m e n t a l l y n e u r o t i c p e r s o n who is fortunate enough to be able to cope wi th his p r o b l e m s by m e a n s of s o c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d s y m p -t o m a t i c d e f e n s e s , ins tead of h a v i n g to i m p r o v i s e his own ( s o c i a l l y p e n a l i z e d ) s y m p t o m s and d e f e n s e s , l i k e the p s y c h o t i c of o u r s o c i e t y . ( D e v e r e u x 1957: 1044) F i n a l l y , S o - c a l l e d b o r d e r l i n e p s y c h o t i c c a s e s i n our own s o c i e t y a c q u i r e what only they b e l i e v e to be m a g i c a l p o w e r s by m e a n s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h are in effect i d e n t i c a l wi th those by m e a n s of w h i c h the s h a m a n a c q u i r e s his s o c i a l l y sanc t ioned and accepted p o w e r s . . . ( D e v e r e u x 19 57: 1044) In this d e s c r i p t i o n not only does the s h a m a n ' s m e n t a l state s e e m to be def ined but a l s o the nature of his " p o w e r " . It would s e e m that this " p o w e r " is not only " s u p e r n a t u r a l " , it is " m a g i c a l " . T h a t i s , it a p p e a r s to be a c o m p l e t e l y f i c t i t i o u s concept . D e v e r e u x ' s apparent r e v e l a t i o n of the nature of M o h a v e " p o w e r " c l a r i f i e s the p r e v i o u s neglec t of this p h e n o m e n o n as w e l l as the p r e v i o u s e m p h a s i s on the p r o b l e m of M o h a v e r e a l i t y p e r c e p t i o n . A s i n the 1956 p a p e r , the s u g g e s t i o n is that a l l M o h a v e are i r r a t i o n a l - - i f not n e u r o t i c . T h i s can be i n f e r r e d f r o m the fact that the s h a m a n ' s " m a g i c a l " p o w e r s are a lso " s o c i a l l y sanc t ioned and accepted p o w e r s " . It s e e m s apparent that s h a m a n s and n o n - s h a m a n s a l ike ' b e l i e v e ' in the r e a l i t y of m a g i c a l p o w e r s . T h u s the M o h a v e p o w e r d r e a m and the M o h a v e m i n d w h i c h ' b e -l i e v e s ' i n it tend to l o s e a l l c r e d i b i l i t y . It s e e m s that the M o h a v e d r e a m c o m p l e x is a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of f a l s e b e l i e f s about d r e a m s and f a l s e p e r c e p -tions of r e a l i t y . D i s c u s s i o n T h e a s s o c i a t i o n of the M o h a v e s h a m a n s w i t h " b o r d e r l i n e p s y c h o t i c c a s e s " a p p e a r s to have s t rengthened D e v e r e u x ' s 1956 p o r t r a y a l of the M o h a v e d r e a m c o m p l e x as an event of f a l s e b e l i e f andffalse p e r c e p t i o n . T h e 1957 p a p e r i s , h o w e v e r , s t i l l b a s e d on the u n s u p p o r t e d a s s u m p t i o n ' that the d r e a m s w h i c h the M o h a v e c l a i m to have a r e not the d r e a m s they a c t u a l l y have . T h e w e s t e r n analogy w o u l d t h e r e f o r e s e e m to be p r e m a t u r e . It is suggested that this p r o b l e m of ac tual i ty be i n v e s t i g a t e d in future r e -s e a r c h e s. T h e m a t i c C o n n e c t i o n s D e v e r e u x ' s a p p l i c a t i o n of p s y c h o a n a l y t i c concepts to the p h e n o m e n a of the M o h a v e d r e a m c o m p l e x s e e m s to m o v e the d r e a m out of the sphere of c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s . T h e r e does not s e e m to be any q u e s t i o n of the c u l t u r e i n f l u e n c i n g the p o w e r d r e a m o r the p o w e r d r e a m i n f l u e n c i n g the c u l t u r e . T h e theme of r e a l i t y m i s p e r c e p t i o n , h o w e v e r , would appear to be v e r y s t r o n g . i-3. " P a t h o g e n i c D r e a m s in N o n - W e s t e r n S o c i e t i e s " (1966) In the 1966 p a p e r , " P a t h o g e n i c D r e a m s in N o n - W e s t e r n S o c i e t i e s " ^ , D e v e r e u x is c o n c e r n e d not w i t h the ac tual i ty of the p o w e r d r e a m but w i t h the ac tual i ty of the "pathogenic d r e a m " . H e is not q u e r y i n g the c l a i m s of h is i n f o r m a n t s but of h is f e l l o w a n t r h o p o l o g i s t s who have a p p l i e d the t e r m " p a t h o g e n i c " to those n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m s w h i c h a r e found to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i l l n e s s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he is q u e s t i o n i n g the ac tual i ty of the c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between d r e a m and i l l n e s s that this t e r m d e s c r i b e s . B a s i n g his a r g u m e n t on his o b s e r v a t i o n s of M o h a v e d r e a m s , D e v e r e u x d e m o n s t r a t e s that in the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s , the native i n f o r m a n t does not s p e c i f y a r e l a t i o n s h i p of c a u s a l i t y between a d r e a m and an i l l n e s s , whether these o c c u r " s i m u l t a n e o u s l y " o r " i n s e q u e n c e " . T h e r e f o r e , he states that, It is suggested that, owing to defec t ive data , m a n y pathogenic d r e a m s have been m i s i d e n t i f i e d as p a t h o g e n i c , and that, c o n v e r s e l y , b w i n g to a l a c k of adequate i n f o r m a t i o n about nat ive d r e a m t h e o r y , some d e f i n i t e l y pathogenic d r e a m s w e r e m i s t a k e n l y b e l i e v e d to be o m e n d r e a m s and the l i k e . ( D e v e r e u x 1966: 226) A m o n g the M o h a v e , D e v e r e u x f inds only one c a t e g o r y of " t r u l y pathogenic d r e a m s " . T h e s e are " those in w h i c h the s o u l u n d e r g o e s i l l n e s s - c a u s i n g adventures (v is i t to the land of the d e a d , f o r e x a m p l e ) , o r e l s e i n w h i c h the s o u l (and the d r e a m ) is i n v a d e d by a m a l i g n a n t a d v e r s a r y , s u c h as a 72 w i t c h . " In c o n c l u s i o n , he suggests that u n l e s s the "na t ive d r e a m t h e o r y " s p e c i f i e s a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a d r e a m and an i l l n e s s , the a n t h r o -p o l o g i s t should e m p l o y s u c h t e r m s of d e s c r i p t i o n as " o m e n d r e a m s g e n e r -a l i z e d f a t e - f o r e t e l l i n g d r e a m s , s y m p t o m a t i c , p a t h o g n o m o n i c , or a u t o s c o p i c d r e a m s . " B e f o r e b e g i n n i n g his a n a l y s i s , D e v e r e u x l o o k s at M o h a v e p o w e r d r e a m s f r o m a new p e r s p e c t i v e . H e suggests that they have a c u l t u r a l r o l e : T h e d r e a m alone v a l i d a t e s l e a r n i n g c u l t u r a l l y : anyone can l e a r n to s i n g a m e d i c i n e s o n g , but its s i n g i n g is t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y i n e f f e c t i v e and r e m a i n s a p u r e l y e x t r a c u l t u r a l , i n d i v i d u a l act , u n l e s s it is b a c k e d and v a l i d a t e d by the p r o p e r s h a m a n i s t i c d r e a m s . L i k e w i s e , bn t h e o r y , a n e w l y i n t r o d u c e d i t e m or fact b e c o m e s a M o -have c u l t u r a l i t e m only if s o m e o n e can d r e a m of that fact be ing p r e s e n t a l r e a d y at the t i m e of c r e a t i o n . D r e a m is both the f u n n e l that a d m i t s and the s ieve that re jec ts facts and events in r e g a r d to M o h a v e c u l t u r e . It is the sole l e g i t i m a t e m e a n s w h e r e b y new e l e m e n t s c a n be c u l t u r a l l y " n a t u r a l i z e d . " ( D e v e r e u x 1966: 221) D e v e r e u x r e l a t e s the attitude to ancient H i n d u and B i b l i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of c r e a t i o n w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e that m a n k i n d " tends to see r e a l i t y as a p r o j e c t i o n of p s y c h i c f o r c e s and m a t e r i a l s . " H e suggests that the M o h a v e apply this s a m e idea "to c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y . " F i n a l l y , he c o n c l u d e s that "the M o h a v e  i n t e r p r e t t h e i r c u l t u r e in t e r m s of d r e a m s , r a t h e r than d r e a m s in t e r m s  of t h e i r c u l t u r e , at leas t in t h e o r y . " D e v e r e u x ' s o b s e r v a t i o n c o m e s c l o s e to L i n c o l n ' s v i e w of the d r e a m as an i n i t i a t o r of c u l t u r e . H o w e v e r , the f i n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n of "at l e a s t in 73 t h e o r y " r e m i n d s us of his p r e v i o u s l y e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g the r e a l i t y of the p h e n o m e n o n : c u l t u r e i t e m s are r e a l l y l e a r n e d in w a k i n g l i fe and are only a l l u d e d to by the d r e a m . It would s e e m that D e v e r e u x sees the d r e a m as a m e d i a t o r r a t h e r than as an i n i t i a t o r of c u l t u r e . But this v i e w -point does not t o u c h the p r o b l e m of the c l a i m e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d r e a m e d k n o w l e d g e . T h e p o r t r a y a l in g e n e r a l ( D e v e r e u x : 1956, 1957, 1966) a l m o s t suggests that d r e a m i n g m a k e s knowledge effec t ive only ' i n the M o h a v e m i n d ' . W h i l e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between M o h a v e d r e a m s and p o w e r r e m a i n s u n a p p r o a c h e d , D e v e r e u x does attempt to define another r e l a t i o n s h i p : the a s s o c i a t i o n between M o h a v e d r e a m s and i l l n e s s . T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of this e x e r c i s e l i e s in its i n t r o d u c t i o n of a p p a r e n t l y u n i v e r s a l c a t e g o r i e s of d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . F o r the f i r s t t i m e we see a ' d r e a m t e r m i n o l o g y ' being used to define M o h a v e " d r e a m t h e o r y and m e d i c i n e " . A s subst i tut ions f o r the t e r m " p a t h o g e n i c " , D e v e r e u x f i r s t uses the t e r m " s y m p t o m a t i c " and " p a t h o g n o m o n i c " . H i s d e f i n i t i o n s a r e vague and it is not c l e a r whether these t e r m s r e f e r to one o r two d i f f e r e n t types of d r e a m s . H o w e v e r , we are told both t e r m s are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use in those c a s e s w h e r e "the i l l n e s s m a y p r e c e d e the d r e a m " . In s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to the M o h a v e he states that, E v e r y d r e a m r e l a t e d in any w a y to i l l n e s s is held to be p a t h o g n o m o n i c and to p o s s e s s d i a g n o s t i c v a l u e . In b r i e f , f r o m the nat ive d i a g n o s t i c i a n ' s point of v i e w , any d r e a m r e l a t e d to i l l n e s s c a n , f u n c t i o n a l l y , be t r e a t e d as a s y m p t o m . Indeed, i n e v e r y i l l n e s s the d i a g n o s t i c i a n p r o m p t l y i n v e s t i -gates the p a t i e n t ' s d r e a m s , so as to m a k e the p r o p e r d i a g n o s i s and p r o g n o s i s . ( D e v e r e u x 1966: 222) e then p r o c e e d s to d e s c r i b e the p r o c e s s by w h i c h i l l n e s s b e c o m e s a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h this d r e a m : . . . it is f a i r l y c e r t a i n that a p e r s o n who m o r e o r l e s s c o n s c i o u s l y suspects that he has a c e r t a i n i l l n e s s w i l l , s o o n e r o r l a t e r , p r o d u c e the type of d r e a m w h i c h , i n h i s c u l t u r e , is h a b i t u a l l y c o r -r e l a t e d wi th that type of i l l n e s s . . . . In such i n s t a n c e s the c u l t u r a l tenet that i l l n e s s X p r e -supposes a c e r t a i n type of d r e a m i s , to a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c y . ( D e v e r e u x 1966: 224) T h e s tatement r e c a l l s M o r g a n ' s d i s c u s s i o n of the s t a n d a r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . D e v e r e u x d i f f e r s f r o m M o r g a n on two counts : w h i l e M o r g a n states that the d r e a m is the r e s u l t of an " u n c o n s c i o u s " a w a r e n e s s of s igns that the event w i l l o c c u r , D e v e r e u x states that the d r e a m is the r e s u l t of " c o n s c i o u s ' s u s p i c i o n s that the d r e a m e r a l r e a d y has an i l l n e s s . It s e e m s that D e v e r e u x has h e r e d e p a r t e d f r o m his 19 56 s p e c u l a t i o n about the " b e l i e f " i n the m e a n -i n g f u l n e s s of d r e a m s r e s u l t i n g " f r o m a s c r i b i n g p r o p h e t i c q u a l i t i e s to a d r e a m after an event o c c u r s that s e e m s to have been p r e d i c t e d o r f o r e -shadowed by the e a r l i e r d r e a m . " A l t h o u g h his 1966 c o n c l u s i o n is s t i l l b a s e d on an ' a f ter the fact ' type of p e r s p e c t i v e , it does give the p r o c e s s u n i v e r s a l i t y and t h e r e f o r e c r e d i b i l i t y . T h a t i s , it s e e m s to be p o r t r a y e d as a ' r e a l ' e x p e r i e n c e . L e a v i n g the p a t h o g n o m o n i c and s y m p t o m a t i c d r e a m s u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , D e v e r e u x goes on to a second c a t e g o r y of d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s is known as the " a u t o s c o p i c " o r " s e l f - d i a g n o s t i c " type of d r e a m . H e states: S u c h p a t h o g n o m o n i c d r e a m s can a lso be s c r u t i n i z e d f r o m the opposi te point of v i e w , that i s , as the p r o d u c t s of u n c o n s c i o u s auto-s c o p y , or s e l f - d i a g n o s i s , in a d r e a m . ( D e v e r e u x 1966: 224) It is not c l e a r whether the t e r m s " p a t h o g n o m o n i c " and " a u t o s c o p i c " r e f e r to the s a m e type of d r e a m o r to two d i f f e r e n t types of d r e a m s , o r even whether the a u t o s c o p i c v a r i e t y i s a s u b s p e c i e s of the p a t h o g n o m o n i c d r e a m . H o w e v e r , r e f e r r i n g to H i p p o c r a t e s and A r i s t o t l e , D e v e r e u x states that in c l a s s i c a l G r e e c e these d r e a m s " w e r e held to r e v e a l a latent i l l n e s s , because in d r e a m s one 's attention is e n t i r e l y f o c u s e d on o n e s e l f , and i s w i t h d r a w n f r o m d i s t r a c t i n g e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y . " H e a l s o r e p o r t s that c o n t e m p o r a r y p s y c h o l o g i s t s F e r e n c z i (1927) and B a r t e m e i e r (1950) have m a d e s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s . We are then i n t r o d u c e d to a s i m i l a r type of d r e a m : A c l o s e l y r e l a t e d group of d r e a m s can be v i e w e d , without unduly s t r e t c h i n g the m e a n i n g of M o h a v e d r e a m t h e o r y and m e d i c i n e , as m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of an i n t e r n a l s t ruggle i n v o l v i n g the ins t inc ts or s u c h enti t ies as heal th and i l l n e s s , whose bat t leground the o r g a n i s m as a whole has b e c o m e and w h i c h m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s a l s o in d r e a m . ( D e v e r e u x 1966: 224) It is u n c l e a r whether this is D e v e r e u x ' s own c a t e g o r y o r if he has d r a w n it f r o m m o d e r n p s y c h o l o g y o r c l a s s i c a l G r e e c e . It is a l s o u n c l e a r w h e t h e r , in any of the c a s e s m e n t i o n e d so f a r , the M o h a v e see the s a m e k i n d of r e l a -t i o n s h i p s i n t h e i r d r e a m s that D e v e r e u x d o e s . W e should p r o b a b l y a s s u m e that they do because of the grounds upon w h i c h the p a p e r i t s e l f i s f o u n d e d . T h a t i s , D e v e r e u x is a r g u i n g against the use of the t e r m " p a t h o g e n i c " u n l e s s the i n f o r m a n t s p e c i f i c a l l y states that a d r e a m c a u s e s an i l l n e s s . F u r t h e r -m o r e , he d i d state that a l l of the d r e a m s w h i c h the M o h a v e a s s o c i a t e w i t h i l l n e s s are " h e l d to be p a t h o g n o m o n i c and to p o s s e s s d i a g n o s t i c v a l u e . " H o w e v e r , at no t i m e does he cite a s p e c i f i c case of a M o h a v e stat ing o r 5 76 s u g g e s t i n g that a d r e a m is s e l f - d i a g n o s t i c o r that it is a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of an i n t e r n a l s t r u g g l e . T h u s the q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s o b s c u r e . C o n c l u d i n g his d i s c u s s i o n of a u t o s c o p i c d r e a m s , D e v e r e u x f i n a l l y speculates that, . . . w h e n e v e r s u c h a u t o s c o p i c o r s y m p t o m a t i c d r e a m s p r e c e d e in t i m e the obvious onset of i l l n e s s a c e r t a i n l a x i t y of speed and thought habit tends to v i e w these d r e a m s as pathogenic o r as o m e n d r e a m s . ( D e v e r e u x 1966: 224) E a r l i e r he had stated that i l l n e s s p r e c e d e d both p a t h o g n o m o n i c and s y m p t o -m a t i c d r e a m s . T h e r e f e r e n c e to the s y m p t o m a t i c d r e a m here is t h e r e f o r e r a t h e r c u r i o u s . H o w e v e r he c o n c l u d e s by stat ing that, even though a n t h r o -p o l o g i s t s have r e f e r r e d to the M o h a v e d r e a m s as pathogenic and o m e n d r e a m s , " e v e n a b r i e f s u p p l e m e n t a r y i n q u i r y r e v e a l s that nor> s u c h m e a n -ing is a c t u a l l y i m p l i e d by the M o h a v e t h e m s e l v e s . " T h e only other c a t e g o r y of d r e a m w h i c h D e v e r e u x m e n t i o n s is the " o m e n d r e a m " . R e f e r r i n g to L e v y - B r u h l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of this d r e a m , D e v e r e u x states that it is "the p r o p h e t i c i n t i m a t i o n (omen) of s o m e subsequent event ( L e v y - B r u h l , 1922). " T h e only f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e he m a k e s to this t e r m is in c o n n e c t i o n with W a l l a c e ' s M o h a v e p a p e r in w h i c h W a l l a c e had s p e c i f i e d "that sumatc a l a y k d r e a m s are o m e n s of i l l n e s s . " D e v e r e u x d i s a g r e e s w i t h this d e s c r i p t i o n and r e f e r s us ins tead to the t e r m s " p a t h o g n o m o n i c " and " s y m p t o m a t i c " and " a u t o s c o p i c " as be ing m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e . T h e n , in a b r i e f note t o w a r d s the end of the p a p e r he states that, i n W a l l a c e ' s ex-a m p l e , "the d r e a m is l i n k e d to the i l l n e s s by al together n o n - p r o p h e t i c m e c h a n i s m s , even in M o h a v e thought" . R e c a l l i n g W a l l a c e ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s 77 we tend to agree w i t h D e v e r e u x . It m a y be r e c a l l e d that W a l l a c e stated that, T o d r e a m of the dead ( s u m a c h alaik) is an o m e n of i l l n e s s , or m o r e often, death . H e had then i l l u s t r a t e d this s tatement by quoting an i n f o r m a n t : A. s u m a c h a l a i k is w h e r e y o u d r e a m of the o l d f o l k s who have gone. Y o u see t h e m as they w e r e and f e e l bad o v e r i t . Y o u think about y o u r bad d r e a m and p r e t t y soon y o u get s i c k . It t h e r e f o r e s e e m s c l e a r that the m e c h a n i s m w h i c h l i n k s the d r e a m to the i l l n e s s is not p r o p h e t i c . It is d i f f i c u l t , h o w e v e r , to dec ide what m e c h a n i s m a c t u a l l y does l i n k the two. T h e c h o i c e s D e v e r e u x has g i v e n us a r e p a t h o -g n o m o n i c andfeutoscopic . If we i n t e r p r e t D e v e r e u x c o r r e c t l y the d r e a m is n e i t h e r p a t h o g n o m o n i c n o r s y m p t o m a t i c as it is one w h i c h p r e c e d e s i l l n e s s . But n e i t h e r does it appear to be a u t o s c o p i c , at leas t in the m i n d of the i n -f o r m a n t . T h a t i s , the i n f o r m a n t does not state that the d r e a m r e v e a l e d that he was o r w o u l d be s i c k o r d i a g n o s e d his i l l n e s s f o r h i m . Instead he suggests that, 'you b e c o m e s i c k after t h i n k i n g about the d r e a m ' . T h u s , w h i l e it is not c l e a r what k i n d of r e l a t i o n s h i p the i n f o r m a n t is p o s i t i n g between the d r e a m and the s i c k n e s s , it is even l e s s c l e a r what kind of r e -l a t i o n s h i p D e v e r e u x is p o s i t i n g . O n a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of D e v e r e u x ' s c a t e g o r i e s , it b e c o m e s doubtful whether they are r e a l l y any m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e in the d e s c r i p t i o n of M o h a v e d r e a m s than is the t e r m , " p a t h o g e n i c " . F o r the t e r m " p a t h o g n o m o n i c " , he has r e f e r r e d to the effect of ' c o n s c i o u s s u s p i c i o n 1 in o p e r a t i o n w i t h t r a d -i t i o n a l d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i l l n e s s . T h i s explanat ion t h e r e f o r e 78 depends upon the ex is tence of a s t a n d a r d o r of a t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . H o w e v e r , at one point , D e v e r e u x i n t e r j e c t s the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : S i n c e i l l n e s s - a n d - d e a t h is p r a c t i c a l l y the p r o t o -type of " b a d n e s s " unpleasant d r e a m s are s o m e -t i m e s i n t e r p r e t e d as h e r a l d i n g s i c k n e s s , even if they conta in no s p e c i f i c e l e m e n t t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c e r t a i n i l l n e s s . M o r e o v e r , s o m e d r e a m s are held to f o r e t e l l i l l n e s s o r t r o u b l e even when they conta in nothing s p e c i f i c -a l l y unpleasant . . . ( D e v e r e u x 1966: 223) T h u s it is evident that the m e c h a n i s m of the t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w o u l d not apply in this c a s e . N o r w o u l d it be e x p l a i n e d by the t e r m " a u t o s c o p i c " a c c o r d i n g to D e v e r e u x ' s d e f i n i t i o n of the w o r d . W h i l e D e v e r e u x ' s c a t e g o r i e s of d e s c r i p t i o n are o n l y v a g u e l y d e f i n e d , his a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e m as s e e m i n g l y u n i v e r s a l types of d r e a m s tends to suggest that they are u n i v e r s a l l y v a l i d and ef fec t ive i n d i c a t o r s of i l l n e s s . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n , h o w e v e r , is q u i c k l y d i s p e l l e d as we r e a c h D e v e r e u x ' s d i s c u s s i o n of the one type of d r e a m w h i c h r e a l l y is pathogenic i n M o h a v e s o c i e t y . We r e a d : S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , the o n l y t r u l y pathogenic M o h a v e d r e a m s are those in w h i c h the s o u l u n d e r -goes i l l n e s s - c a u s i n g a d v e n t u r e s ( v i s i t to the l a n d of the d e a d , f o r e x a m p l e ) , or e lse in w h i c h the s o u l (and the d r e a m ) is invaded by a m a l i g n a n t a d v e r s a r y , s u c h as a w i t c h . ( D e v e r e u x 1966: 225) T h i s sudden i n t r o d u c t i o n into a w o r l d of " s o u l s " and t h e i r v i s i t s to "the land of the d e a d " and i n v a s i o n s by w i t c h e s and other m a l i g n a n t a d v e r s a r i e s f o r c e s us to confront the M o h a v e as the s t e r e o t y p e d ' i r r a t i o n a l n o n - w e s t e r n e r ' who ' b e l i e v e s ' i n the w o r l d of the s u p e r n a t u r a l and who a l l o w s his ' b e l i e f to c o n t r o l h i m to the extent that he ' t h i n k s ' that his d r e a m s are the r e a l e x p e r -i e n c e s of his s o u l . T h e r e s u l t of this c o n f r o n t a t i o n is that it b e c o m e s d i f f i c u l t to accept the v a l i d i t y of the pathogenic d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . It s e e m s apparent that D e v e r e u x h i m s e l f does not accept this d r e a m as be ing a v a l i d ( real ) e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s is i n d i c a t e d by the fact that he m a k e s no attempt to e x p l a i n the d r e a m in t e r m s of u n i v e r s a l p r o c e s s e s by w h i c h it c o u l d cause i l l n e s s . T h a t i s , when he spoke of the other c a t e g o r i e s of d r e a m s he r e f e r r e d us to the w e s t e r n p a r a l l e l s . H e r e f e r r e d us to the m e c h a n i s m of c o n s c i o u s s u s p i c i o n s and t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and to the p r o c e s s of s e l f - d i a g n o s i s . T h i s tflended to v a l i d a t e the n o n - w e s t e r n e x p e r i e n c e s . H e e x p l a i n e d how d r e a m s c a n p r e d i c t , d i a g n o s e , o r r e v e a l latent i l l n e s s . W h e n s p e a k i n g of pathogenic d r e a m s , h o w e v e r , he does not e x p l a i n to us how d r e a m s can cause i l l n e s s . Indeed it w o u l d s e e m that the M o h a v e only ' b e l i e v e ' or ' th ink ' that they do . T h e only r e f e r e n c e point we are given is the concept of the s u p e r n a t u r a l . A l l we s e e m to l e a r n of pathogenic d r e a m s is that they depend upon a b e l i e f i n a s o u l , a b e l i e f i n the a b i l i t y of w i t c h e s to invade both the s o u l and the d r e a m and, by i m p l i -c a t i o n , a b e l i e f in the r e a l i t y of the d r e a m . T h u s , the M o h a v e e x p e r i e n c e s e e m s to be p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s of a m i s p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . T h e p o r t r a y a l is c o n f u s i n g and tends to r e f l e c t upon the c r e d i b i l i t y of the other n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s D e v e r e u x has c a t e g o r i z e d . D i s c u s s i o n In spite of the apparent f r a m e w o r k of u n i v e r s a l c a t e g o r i e s of d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e in D e v e r e u x ' s p a p e r , the pathogenic d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e of the M o h a v e has s e e m e d to appear as an event of f a l s e b e l i e f and f a l s e p e r c e p -t i o n . It is suggested that this p o r t r a y a l s t e m s f r o m the d e s c r i p t i o n of the e x p e r i e n c e i n t e r m s of s u p e r n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n a . T h a t i s , the M o h a v e has been p r e s e n t e d as s o m e o n e who ' b e l i e v e s i n ' the r e a l i t y of the s u p e r n a t u r a l as w e l l as the a b i l i t y of the s u p e r n a t u r a l to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d r e a m e x p e r i -e n c e . It is suggested that future r e s e a r c h e s m i g h t invest igate the p o s s i b i l i t y that there is a ' r e a l ' event behind these apparent s u p e r n a t u r a l ' b e l i e f s ' of the M o h a v e . C o n n e c t i o n s U n l i k e D e v e r e u x ' s p r e v i o u s p a p e r s , " P a t h o g e n i c D r e a m s i n N o n - W e s t e r n S o c i e t i e s " is not grounded on the p r o b l e m of the p r o d u c t i o n of M o h a v e d r e a m s . It d o e s , h o w e v e r , s e e m to r e j e c t the i d e a of the c u l t u r e ' s i n f l u e n c e on d r e a m s and the d r e a m ' s inf luence on c u l t u r e . W h i l e the f i r s t theme does not appear at a l l , the second b e c o m e s a p o s s i b i l i t y as D e v e r e u x o b s e r v e s the c u l t u r a l r o l e of M o h a v e d r e a m s . It s e e m s h o w e v e r , that the d r e a m is be ing p r e s e n t e d as a m e d i a t o r r a t h e r than as an i n i t i a t o r of c u l t u r e i t e m s . T h e p r e s e n c e of the t h i r d t h e m e , the p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y , is s t i l l p r e v a l e n t . 81 C H A P T E R IV T H E H O P I D R E A M C O M P L E X A . T h e P r e s e n t a t i o n of D o r o t h y E g g a n 1. " T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e of D r e a m s f o r A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h " (1949) In " T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e of D r e a m s f o r A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h " ^ , D o r o t h y E g g a n is c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e m o n s t r a t i n g the i m p o r t a n c e of the d r e a m f o r c u l t u r e and p e r s o n a l i t y s t u d i e s . She f inds that the a s s o c i a t i o n of the d r e a m w i t h F r e u d i a n p s y c h o l o g y has been a h i n d r a n c e to a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i -gat ion. It is her f e e l i n g that m a n y have found this i n t e r p r e t a t i v e s y s t e m to be " u n a c c e p t a b l e " , both e m o t i o n a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . In any case it is her o p i n i o n that a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s should be l o o k i n g to the m a n i f e s t r a t h e r than the latent content of d r e a m s . She contends that the m a n i f e s t content of the d r e a m , u s e d "as a f o r m of p e r s o n a l d o c u m e n t " , c a n y i e l d " s i g n i f i c a n t o b -s e r v a t i o n s " f o r c u l t u r e and p e r s o n a l i t y s t u d i e s . She i l l u s t r a t e s this by r e f e r e n c e to the H o p i I n d i a n s . E g g a n begins the p a p e r by e s t a b l i s h i n g the g e n e r a l i m p o r t a n c e of the d r e a m . She def ines it as a " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a r r a n g e m e n t " of m e n t a l a c t i v i t y . She then suggests that, as s u c h , it is a l s o p r o b a b l y a u n i v e r s a l f o r m of m e n t a l a c t i v i t y . F i n a l l y , she d e s c r i b e s the status of the d r e a m i n n o n -w e s t e r n c u l t u r e s : In this c o n n e c t i o n students m u s t r e c o g n i z e a w i d e l y noted p r i m i t i v e p r e o c c u p a t i o n with d r e a m s , as w e l l as the f r e q u e n t l y r e c o r d e d fact that fantasy has f o r n o n l i t e r a t e peoples 82 v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of r e a l i t y . ( E g g a n 1949: 178) In a footnote E g g a n r e f e r s to L i n c o l n ' s d e f i n i t i o n of the n o n - w e s t e r n s i t u -ation and states that she is doubtful of "the ' e q u a l ' v a l u a t i o n of f a n t a s y and r e a l i t y " i n the H o p i attitudes towards d r e a m . But she adds that, " o n the other hand, it is s e l d o m d i s m i s s e d as m e a n i n g l e s s . " L e a v i n g the p r o b l e m a s i d e , she states that the fact d r e a m s are h e l d to be i m p o r t a n t is s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and, then t u r n s to a d i s c u s s i o n of the H o p i d r e a m c o m p l e x . It w i l l be noted , h o w e v e r , that a p r e l i m i n a r y i n t r o d u c t i o n to the H o p i d r e a m c o m p l e x has been m a d e . We have l e a r n e d that l i k e the N a v a h o and the M o h a v e , the H o p i m a y p o s s i b l y give a r e a l i t y va lue to the d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . T u r n i n g to "the nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e of d r e a m s a m o n g the H o p i I n d i a n s , " E g g a n f i r s t d i s c u s s e s H o p i m e t h o d s of d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . She f inds that they have no c u l t u r a l l y s t a n d a r d i z e d " d r e a m l o r e " . F u r t h e r m o r e , E v e n w h e r e a d r e a m r e f e r e n t s e e m s to be i n v e s t e d w i t h an a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l H o p i d e f i n i t i o n , an i n f o r m a n t m o s t f r e q u e n t l y e x p l a i n s s u c h an e lement i n his own d r e a m s i n t e r m s of p e r s o n a l v i e w p o i n t and c o n s i d e r s the d r e a m " g o o d " o r " b a d " in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h his e m o t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l state upon a w a k e n i n g . ( E g g a n 1949: 178) T h i s attitude is s i m i l a r to that d e s c r i b e d by D e v e r e u x (1966) and W a l l a c e (1947) f o r the M o h a v e . E g g a n a lso f inds that in m o s t c a s e s , the H o p i w i l l not d r e a m in t e r m s of s y m b o l s . E v e n when t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d s y m b o l s do appear in d r e a m s they w i l l m o s t often be t r a n s l a t e d in t e r m s of t h e i r " w a k i n g v a l u e " . T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s l e a d E g g a n to c o n c l u d e that, . . . anxiety o r other states of m i n d , e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h d r e a m i n g m e c h a n i s m s , u t i l i z e c u l t u r a l l y d e r i v e d s y m b o l s w h i c h b e c o m e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y i n d u c e d r e s p o n s e s - - e . g. , e a r s r i n g i n g , sweat ing , c r y i n g and t r e m b l i n g - -and are thus i n t e r p r e t e d by the d r e a m e r . ( E g g a n 1949: 179) T u r n i n g to the H o p i t r e a t m e n t of d r e a m s , E g g a n f inds that, despi te the m i n i m u m of " d r e a m l o r e " and the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s between these t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and ac tual i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , d r e a m s s t i l l have a c o n s i d e r a b l e inf luence in the l i v e s of the H o p i . Not only is t h e r e "a H o p i b e l i e f that they are s i g n i f i c a n t " but there are " d e f i n i t e r u l e s " f o r t r e a t i n g t h e m : . . . in o r d e r to negate the effects of a bad d r e a m it m u s t be to ld i m m e d i a t e l y on a w a k e n -i n g , even though a re luctant l i s t e n e r m u s t be a r o u s e d in the m i d d l e of the night; after this r e c i t a l the d r e a m e r m u s t go outs ide and spit f o u r t i m e s . O n the other hand, if the d r e a m is a good one, it m u s t be r e m e m b e r e d in d e t a i l but not to ld unt i l it c o m e s t r u e . ( E g g a n 1949: 179) E g g a n does not t e l l us what these d r e a m effects m i g h t b e . N o r does she t e l l us how m a n y d r e a m s c o m e t rue o r how l o n g this f u l f i l l m e n t t a k e s . H o w e v e r , she does m a k e a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n in r e f e r e n c e to the negat ion of the effects of bad d r e a m s . She v i e w s it as a f o r m of e m o -t i o n a l r e l e a s e : Spi t t ing f o u r t i m e s is a p r o c e s s by w h i c h the H o p i r i d t h e m s e l v e s of bad thoughts and v a r i o u s f o r m s of d a n g e r . In this c o n n e c t i o n there m a y be e v i d e n c e of a d i m u n d e r s t a n d i n g that d r e a m s are an e m o t i o n a l outlet and that an i n d i v i d u a l m u s t c o m p l e t e the p r o c e s s of e l i m i n a t i o n f o r an i m p e r f e c t d r e a m by c l e a r i n g the e m o t i o n a l s l a t e . ( E g g a n 1949: 179) E g g a n ' s r e f e r e n c e h e r e to the " d i m u n d e r s t a n d i n g " of the H o p i r e c a l l s L i n c o l n ' s r e f e r e n c e to the ' d i m a w a r e n e s s ' of the N a v a h o ( L i n c o l n 1935: 36) wi th r e s p e c t to the " a n t i - s o c i a l t e n d e n c i e s " of the d r e a m . L i k e her p r e d e c e s s o r , E g g a n f a i l s to substantiate e i t h e r the i n f e r e n c e that the d r e a m is an " e m o t i o n a l out le t " o r the a s s e r t i o n that the H o p i u n d e r s t a n d i n g of this p r o c e s s is o n l y a " d i m " u n d e r s t a n d i n g . She s i m p l y c o n c l u d e s : T h u s , c o n v i n c e d of the i m p o r t of s u c h f a n t a s i e s , the H o p i tend to d r e a m m u c h and to r e m e m b e r t h e i r d r e a m s . ( E g g a n 1949: 179) In a d d i t i o n , she notes (as W a l l a c e and D e v e r e u x d i d of the M o h a v e ) that the H o p i often e l a b o r a t e t h e i r d r e a m s when t e l l i n g t h e m . S e e i n g this as a f o r m of " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n " she c o n s i d e r s it to be " u s e f u l " f o r h e r p u r p o s e s . C o n c e r n i n g the ques t ion of d r e a m content , E g g a n m a k e s the o b s e r v a -t ion "the H o p i a l s o tend to w o r k out a p e r s o n a l d e l i n e a t i o n of t h e i r p r o b l e m s at the m a n i f e s t l e v e l " . She d i s c o v e r s that this is done " i n s u r p r i s i n g l y c o m p l e t e and honest d e t a i l " . F u r t h e r m o r e , " g r e a t c o n s i s t e n c y is apparent in the i n d i v i d u a l p a t t e r n of d r e a m s o v e r m o n t h s and y e a r s , so m u c h so that it s e e m s l i k e l y that a c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l ' s d r e a m s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d f r o m a m o n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l i n g of H o p i d r e a m s . " I l l u s t r a t i n g , E g g a n p r e s e n t s f i f t e e n d r e a m s of one i n f o r m a n t w h i c h ' s p a n a p e r i o d of f ive y e a r s . She d e m o n s t r a t e s that the d r e a m s and the d r e a m e r ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s r e v e a l u n s u s p e c t e d " u n c e r t a i n t y , f e a r s , w i s h e s , and b u r d e n of u n c o n s c i o u s g u i l t " . She states : . . . the d r e a m s i i n t h e m s e l v e s are a f o r m of p r o j e c t i v e p h e n o m e n o n and r e p r e s e n t a p r o c e s s of f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n both in s leep and after awak-e n i n g , w h e r e the c r i t i c a l funct ion of the c o n s c i o u s m i n d is o f f - g u a r d and only p a r t i a l l y o p e r a t i n g . ( E g g a n 1949: 197) In c o n c l u s i o n , E g g a n f inds that, T h e e v i d e n c e is s t r o n g throughout our m a t e r i a l that d r e a m s , and H o p i t r e a t m e n t of t h e m , p r o v i d e a " s a f e t y v a l v e " , v a r i o u s l y e f f e c t i v e , w h i c h c a n contr ibute to m e n t a l hea l th , o r f u r n i s h a c lue to the l a c k of i t . ( E g g a n 1949: 197) She extends this c o n c l u s i o n not only to the d r e a m s of a l l H o p i but to "the d r e a m s of the m e m b e r s of any s o c i e t y w h i c h l a y s s t r e s s upon t h e m . " It is h e r sugges t ion that d r e a m s can be used f o r " t h r o w i n g into r e l i e f the u n s o -c i a l i z e d r e s i d u e of the p e r s o n a l i t y , as w e l l as those a r e a s w h e r e a c u l t u r e has s u c c e e d e d in a p p l y i n g the m o s t ef fec t ive c o n t r o l and s u p p o r t . " T h u s the m a n i f e s t content of the d r e a m is e s t a b l i s h e d as a v a l u a b l e s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s between c u l t u r e and p e r -s o n a l i t y . D i s c u s s ion It was noted that o u r i n t r o d u c t i o n to H o p i c u l t u r e was b a s e d on a r e f -e r e n c e to the r e a l i t y v a l u e of fantasy a m o n g " n o n l i t e r a t e p e o p l e s " . E g g a n d i d not p u r s u e this theme in the p a p e r . H o w e v e r , she d i d not give us any other explanat ion f o r the g e n e r a l i m p o r t a n c e w h i c h the d r e a m s e e m s to have f o r the H o p i . F o r e x a m p l e , she stated that bad d r e a m s are to ld on awakening and that steps are then taken to negate t h e i r bad e f f e c t s . But she d i d not t e l l us why d r e a m s are to ld o r why they have e f f e c t s . She spok of such m a t t e r s as e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e and the r e s o l u t i o n of p r o b l e m s but only in r e f e r e n c e to her own v i e w of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l effects of the H o p i d r e a m c o m p l e x . T h u s at the end of the p a p e r , w h i l e we m a y have l e a r n e d that the H o p i m i g h t have a " d i m u n d e r s t a n d i n g " of the d r e a m as an " e m o -t i o n a l o u t l e t " , we s t i l l do not know why they are " c o n v i n c e d of the i m p o r t of such f a n t a s i e s " . It is suggested that E g g a n ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n tends to have an i n v a l i d a t i n g effect on the H o p i attitudes and p r a c t i c e s . T h a t i s , the d i s c u s s i o n m a k e s it apparent that the H o p i do not have a ' t rue p e r c e p t i o n ' of the d r e a m e x p e r -i e n c e . T h e y do not s e e m to know the ' r e a l ' r e a s o n behind t h e i r t r e a t m e n t of i t . A t one point it is even stated that they " a r e u n a w a r e of how r e v e a l i n g these s e e m i n g l y i l l o g i c a l d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s aret ' . T h e fact of this p o r t r a y would suggest that future r e s e a r c h e s m i g h t focus on H o p i i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r a t h e r than a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the e x p e r i -e n c e . T h e m a t i c C o n n e c t i o n s T h e v a l u e of E g g a n ' s p a p e r l i e s i n her d e m o n s t r a t i o n of the u s e f u l n e s s of m a n i f e s t d r e a m content i n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . T h e d i s c u s s i o n of c u l t u r a l s t r e s s e s and supports being r e v e a l e d in d r e a m hints at a c u l t u r a l inf luence on the d r e a m . H o w e v e r , E g g a n does not e l a b o r a t e this t h e m e . She does not d i s c u s s the p r o d u c t i o n of the d r e a m at a l l . N o r does she r e f e r to c u l t u r e i t e m s o r i g i n a t i n g i n d r e a m s . T h e r e is o n l y the theme of r e a l i t y and even this is only an u n d e r l y i n g t h e m e . We m i g h t say , t h e r e f o r e , that this p a p e r r e p r e s e n t s a d e p a r t u r e f r o m the studies of M o r g a n , L i n c o l n , W a l l a c e and D e v e r e u x . T h a t i s , E g g a n does not a p p e a r to be c o n c e r n e d w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c u l t u r e and the d r e a m . Instead she s e e m s to be i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c u l t u r e and the i n d i v i d u a l as r e f l e c t e d i n the d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . 2. " T h e M a n i f e s t Content of D r e a m s : A C h a l l e n g e to S o c i a l S c i e n c e " ^ (1952) In this s e c o n d p a p e r , E g g a n attempts to e s t a b l i s h the i m p o r t a n c e of m a n i f e s t d r e a m content f o r c u l t u r e and p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h e s . She f o -c u s e s on the p r o b l e m of the u n i v e r s a l i t y of d r e a m i n g and f inds support f o r this u n i v e r s a l i t y in the h y p o t h e s i s that the d r e a m is "the g u a r d i a n of s l e e p " E g g a n begins by r e f e r r i n g to the p h y s i o l o g i c a l aspec ts of d r e a m i n g . She notes that the " r e l a x a t i o n of m u s c u l a r c o n t r o l " i n v o l v e s a l i b e r a t i o n of " r e f l e c t i v e e n e r g y " whichi lxsual ly turns i n w a r d s " . A s s u c h , E v e n in the d r o w s y p r o l o g u e to f a l l i n g as leep the a v e r a g e i n d i v i d u a l f a c e s h i m s e l f m o r e h o n e s t l y in the l ight of his s u c c e s s e s , f a i l u r e s , p r o b l e m s , joys and f e a r s than he does at any other t i m e . ( E g g a n 1952: 470) A p p a r e n t l y , this r e l a x a t i o n of m u s c u l a r c o n t r o l i n v o l v e s " a r e l a x a t i o n of the q u a l i t y w h i c h F r e u d has c a l l e d c e n s o r s h i p . " T h u s , the " p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s " of the body p r o v i d e f o r " e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e " and the r e s o l u t i o n of inner c o n f l i c t s : A u t o m a t i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o t e c t i v e and r e g e n e r a t i v e m e c h a n i s m s d u r i n g s leep a r e accepted f a c t s , and there is a l so m u c h e v i -dence w h i c h i n d i c a t e s that e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e t h r o u g h fantasy at night f r e q u e n t l y enables the i n d i v i d u a l to l i v e w i t h h i m s e l f m o r e e a s i l y t h r o u g h the d a y , as f o r ins tance the c o w a r d whose d r e a m s cons tant ly m a k e h i m a h e r o . ( E g g a n 1952: 472) We are to ld that this " p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n " i s c a r r i e d o v e r into w a k i n g l i f e : C o n s e q u e n t l y we f ind the p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e of m i l d a m n e s i a o r w a k i n g c e n s o r s h i p in the f o r m of defec t ive m e m o r y , so that the r e -c o r d e d m a n i f e s t content of any one d r e a m r a r e l y gives a c l e a r p i c t u r e . (Eggan 1952: 472) W h i l e E g g a n s u p p o r t s the F r e u d i a n concept of c e n s o r s h i p she does not support the a p p l i c a t i o n of s y m b o l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m s . T o i l l u s t r a t e its i n a d e q u a c y she p r e s e n t s e x a m p l e s of H o p i d r e a m s and d e m o n s t r a t e s that the m a n i f e s t content i t s e l f often r e v e a l s the "real i ty- s i t u a t i o n " of the d r e a m e r W h i l e she does not rule out "the d e e p e r l e v e l of d r e a m w o r k " , she f i n d s that m u c h v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l c a n be m i s s e d "without r e f e r e n c e to g e o g r a p h i c and c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d , and to d r e a m e r a s s o c i a t i o n s " . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n leads to a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of her 1949 d e f i n i -t ion of the d r e a m : T h u s d r e a m s and the e l a b o r a t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d into the r e c i t a l of t h e m , an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the d r e a m e r ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the d r e a m , are a l l face ts of a p r o j e c t i v e p r o c e s s in w h i c h the d r e a m e r r e s p o n d s to his own m i n d ' s i m a g e s of his c u l t u r -a l l y o r i e n t e d w o r l d as it i s , o r as he w i s h e s o r f e a r s it to be.( E g g a n 1952: 480) She a lso repeats h e r 1949 o b s e r v a t i o n that the tendency of d r e a m s to w o r k out p r o b l e m s o v e r a p e r i o d of t i m e a l lows us to see unique pat terns w i t h r e s p e c t to both the i n d i v i d u a l and the c u l t u r e : T h e s e repeated t h e m e s , o r d r e a m s , not only c a l l attention to a r e a s of t e n s i o n in the p e r s o n -a l i t y of the subjec t , but to c u l t u r a l s t r e s s e s and c u l t u r a l s u p p o r t s in a s o c i e t y , as w h e r e the t e n s i o n s a r e m i t i g a t e d by the e x a g g e r a t i o n of a c u l t u r a l concept s u c h as a " g u a r d i a n s p i r i t " , o r p e r s o n a l d r i v e s are c o n d e m n e d by c u l t u r a l s a n c t i o n s . ( E g g a n 1952: 481) 89 H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d the va lue of the m a n i f e s t content , E g g a n p r o c e e d s to d i s c u s s the n e c e s s i t y of d e v i s i n g a s y s t e m w h e r e b y d r e a m s can be s t u d i e d m o s t e f f i c i e n t l y . She p r e s e n t s a c h a r t i n w h i c h d r e a m e l e m e n t s are c a t e -g o r i z e d to p r e v a l e n t t h e m e s . T h e tabula t ion i l l u s t r a t e s the c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h w h i c h c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s w i l l appear o v e r a p e r i o d of y e a r s . D i s c u s s i o n In content E g g a n ' s p r e s e n t study d i f f e r s l i t t le f r o m her 1949 p a p e r . No new c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l is p r e s e n t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the H o p i d r e a m c o m p l e x and no new c o n c l u s i o n s are r e a c h e d c o n c e r n i n g i t . T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p a p e r would s e e m to l i e in the a s s o c i a t i o n it e s t a b l i s h e s between d r e a m i n g and the p r o t e c t i v e and r e g e n e r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s of s l e e p . T h a t i s , this a s s o c i -ation suppor ts the case f o r the u n i v e r s a l i t y of d r e a m and t h e r e f o r e f o r the need of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n into the p h e n o m e n o n . T h e r e v e l a t i o n of the v i e w . i t o f f e r s of "the d i s h a r m o n y of the c u l t u r a l i d e a h and the f u n c t i o n a l  fac ts of a c u l t u r e " , e s t a b l i s h e s the d r e a m as an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e of i n f o r -m a t i o n on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l and his c u l t u r e . T h e m a t i c C o n n e c t i o n s In " T h e M a n i f e s t Content of D r e a m s : A C h a l l e n g e to S o c i a l S c i e n c e " none of the three t h e m e s can be seen to be p r e s e n t . A s in 1949, h o w e v e r , E g g a n continues to e m p h a s i z e the d r e a m as an i n d i c a t o r of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l and his c u l t u r e . 3. " T h e P e r s o n a l U s e of M y t h i n D r e a m s " (1955) 3 " T h e P e r s o n a l U s e of M y t h in D r e a m s " is a study of the i n t e r a c t i o n 90 between m y t h and d r e a m in H o p i c u l t u r e . E g g a n i l l u s t r a t e s this i n t e r a c t i o n by r e f e r e n c e to the d r e a m s of one of h e r H o p i i n f o r m a n t s . T h i s i n f o r m a n t , S a m , is a m a n who is in c o n f l i c t o v e r " h i s a m b i v a l e n t d e s i r e to be bahana (White) and to be a good H o p i " . It is E g g a n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n that one t h i r d of his three h u n d r e d and ten d r e a m s " u s e s p e c i f i c f o l k l o r e c h a r a c t e r s o r t h e m e s " , a l l of w h i c h apply to his " p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s " . F r o m t h i s , E g g a n c o n c l u d e s that S a m . . . uses H o p i m y t h s to fuse his p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s with those of his c u l t u r e ' s h e r o e s , thus r e d u c i n g his own anxiety about t h e m . ( E g g a n 1955: 107) T o i l l u s t r a t e this " m a n i p u l a t i o n " of " f a n t a s y " , E g g a n c a l l s attention to the c o n s i s t e n t a p p e a r a n c e in S a m ' s d r e a m s of one s p e c i f i c f o l k l o r e c h a r a c t e r . T h i s is a d u m a l a i t k a w h i c h E g g a n t r a n s l a t e s as " g u i d e o r g u a r d i a n s p i r i t " . W h i l e the concept of the d u m a l a i t k a is evident a m o n g the H o p i , E g g a n f inds it to be " r a t h e r vague and u n s t r e s s e d " . She t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e s that, as a c o n s e q u e n c e of his f e e l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y w i t h r e s p e c t to his p e o p l e , S a m . . . e l a b o r a t e d the concept of d u m a l a i t k a . . . into an e v e r p r e s e n t and act ive s p i r i t who c o m e s to h i m i n d r e a m s , takes h i m to w i t c h e s ' m e e t i n g s and on t r e a s u r e hunts , gives h i m s t r e n g t h , w i s -d o m , and a d v i c e , r e s c u e s h i m f r o m dangerous s i t u a t i o n s , and always a s s u r e s h i m that he is on the r ight r o a d and that his e n e m i e s are w r o n g . ( E g g a n 1955: 111) T h e f o r m s i n w h i c h this " p e r s o n a l g u i d e " a p p e a r s are v a r i o u s but a l l " a p p e a r in H o p i t a l e s " . H e u s u a l l y c o m e s in " h u m a n f o r m f o r the p u r p o s e of e n c o u r a g i n g o r h e l p i n g the d r e a m e r i n f e a r - p r o v o k i n g s i t u a t i o n s . " A p p a r e n t l y , S a m f e e l s " e n c o u r a g e d and h a p p i e r " af ter d r e a m i n g of this 91 d u m a l a i t k a . E g g a n ' s d i s c u s s i o n is p u z z l i n g w i t h r e s p e c t to the m a n n e r in w h i c h S a m ' s d r e a m s are p r o d u c e d . A l t h o u g h she m a k e s repeated r e f e r e n c e to the a p p e a r a n c e of the d u m a l a i t k a in S a m ' s d r e a m s , she m a k e s no r e f e r -ence at a l l to the m a n n e r in w h i c h this a p p e a r a n c e is e f f e c t e d . She speaks of S a m in t e r m s of his " u s e " of H o p i m y t h s and his " e l a b o r a t i o n of the concept of the d u m a l a i t k a . H o w e v e r it is apparent that she does not r e a l l y see S a m as an ac t iva t ing f o r c e in this p r o c e s s . T h e r e is no suggest ion that S a m or any other H o p i d r e a m e r c o n s c i o u s l y m a n i p u l a t e s the contents of his d r e a m s . N o r is there any r e f e r e n c e to any kind of sugges t ion o r expectat ion b e i n g o p e r a t i v e in this d r e a m p r o d u c t i o n . It w o u l d s e e m that the d r e a m is ' s o m e t h i n g w h i c h happens ' to one. It is E g g a n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n that S a m ' s d r e a m s r e v e a l a " m a n i p u l a t i n g of the p r o b l e m s o l v i n g q u a l i t y both of m y t h s and his d r e a m s " . She states that, . . . his f a n t a s i e s not only give a sense of r e a l i t y to h is d e s i r e to be w i s e , s t r o n g , c o u r -ageous , a good r u n n e r , and a good hunter who is h o n o r e d by his p e o p l e , and p l e a s i n g to and p r o t e c t e d by s u p e r n a t u r a l s ; but he is a l so f r e q u e n t l y able t h r o u g h fantasy to operate w i t h -in the c u l t u r a l s tock of i m a g i n a t i v e h a p p e n i n g s - -e l a b o r a t e d o r d i s t o r t e d to be s u r e - - b u t s t i l l f a m i l i a r enough to give h i m a r e a s s u r i n g sense  6~f identi ty w i t h his p e o p l e , even when r e j e c t e d  by t h e m . ( E g g a n 1955: 116) T h e o b s e r v a t i o n r e c a l l s L i n c o l n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of N a v a h o d r e a m t r e a t m e n t ( L i n c o l n 1935: 36, Z47). L i n c o l n suggested that N a v a h o " c u r i n g r i t u a l s and c e r e m o n i e s " not only funct ioned to r e s t o r e the d r e a m e r to s o c i e t y but i n d i c a t e d that he had been guil ty of " a n offense against the c u l t u r e " . H e 92 r e l a t e d this " o f f e n c e " to the ( F r e u d i a n ) " a n t i - s o c i a l t e n d e n c i e s " of the d r e a m . S i m i l a r i l y , E g g a n states that a l l anxiety d r e a m s show one 's " i n -f r i n g e m e n t of the m o r a l c o d e " and " d i r e c t an i n d i v i d u a l t o w a r d c o n f o r m i t y . " She extends this o b s e r v a t i o n to inc lude not only d r e a m t r e a t m e n t but the d r e a m p r o c e s s i t s e l f . T h e d r e a m p r o c e s s is s a i d to have a p o s i t i v e effect on " i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g y " : . . . to the extent that they m a y be m a n i p u l a t e d by the p r o c e s s e s of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , d i s t o r t i o n or i n v e r s i o n to give the d r e a m e r a sense of unity  w i t h his c u l t u r e , o r f r e e d o m f r o m group d e r o g a -t i o n , they l i k e w i s e p l a y a p o s i t i v e r o l e in i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g y . ( E g g a n 1955: 117) T h e d r e a m t r e a t m e n t is s e e n i n a s i m i l a r r o l e : In this c o n n e c t i o n we m u s t r e m e m b e r that o r a l c o n f e s s i o n of the " b a d thoughts" in a d r e a m , w h i c h is H o p i c u s t o m - - i n i t s e l f an obl ique a d m i s -s i o n of e r r o r r - > - f r e q u e n t l y leads in t u r n to the c o n f e s s i o n of ques t ionable b e h a v i o r and thus to the p a r t i a l w o r k i n g out of t e n s i o n - p r o v o k i n g gui l t . ( E g g a n 19 55: 117) It would s e e m that the H o p i e x p e r i e n c e s u n i f i c a t i o n - - o r a sense of i t - - b o t h i n his d r e a m l i f e and his w a k i n g l i f e . E g g a n c o n c l u d e s by i n f o r m i n g us that S a m ' s d u m a l a i t k a has l e d to an " i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t in the p o s s i b i l i t y of a m o r e act ive p e r s o n a l g u i d e " in his v i l l a g e . (It m i g h t be noted here that the s i tuat ion is s i m i l a r to L i n c o l n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the o r i g i n of c u l t u r e i t e m s in d r e a m s . ) E g g a n o b s e r v e s that the H o p i concept of the d u m a l a i t k a is no l o n g e r as vague as it had been: " T h e n a m e r e m a i n s the s a m e , but in the v i l l a g e the s p i r i t has b e c o m e m o r e r e a l . " B e s i d e s d e m o n s t r a t i n g the inf luence of the d r e a m in H o p i c u l t u r e , this c o n c l u d i n g r e m a r k m a k e s a s tatement about the H o p i p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . It i s apparent that E g g a n ' k n o w s ' that the d u m a l a i t k a is not r e a l even though the H o p i ' b e l i e v e ' that it i s . T h u s the H o p i are r e v e a l e d to have a f a l s e bel ief : T h e sugges t ion is that they do not know that the dumala i tka -is not r e a l . It w o u l d a p p e a r , t h e r e f o r e , that t h e i r f a l s e b e l i e f is b a s e d on a f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . D i s c u s s ion W h i l e E g g a n r e f e r s to the e l a b o r a t i o n of the d u m a l a i t k a concept by her i n f o r m a n t , she m a k e s no m e n t i o n of the m e t h o d by w h i c h this e l a b o r a t i o n is e f f e c t e d . T h e l a c k of s u c h an e x p l a n a t i o n is c o n f u s i n g . W h i l e the p a p e r suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of such a d r e a m v i s i t o r a p p e a r i n g in the d r e a m s of other H o p i i n S a m ' s v i l l a g e , E g g a n does not indica te how this a p p e a r a n c e m i g h t o c c u r . T h i s p r o b l e m is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the ques t ion of the d u m a l a i t -k a ' s ident i ty . T h a t i s , w h i l e E g g a n i m p l i e s that this f i g u r e is ' r e a l ' f o r S a m and other H o p i , she a l s o i m p l i e s that it is not ' r e a l ' f o r h e r . T h a t i s , she speaks of it as a " c o n c e p t " . T h i s tends to c r e a t e the i m p r e s s i o n that the e x p e r i e n c e of the d u m a l a i t k a is an event of f a l s e b e l i e f and f a l s e p e r -c e p t i o n . T h i s p o r t r a y a l does not account f o r the p r o b l e m of the m a n n e r in w h i c h the d u m a l a i t k a c o m e s to appear in H o p i d r e a m s . It is suggested that the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of this q u e s t i o n in future r e s e a r c h e s m i g h t r e v e a l a ' r e a l ' event behind the e x p e r i e n c e of the H o p i d u m a l a i t k a . T h e m a t i c C o n n e c t i o n s A l t h o u g h E g g a n speaks of an i n t e r a c t i o n between d r e a m s and m y t h , she does not indica te the p r o c e s s by w h i c h c u l t u r a l f i g u r e s are able to m a k e t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e in H o p i d r e a m s . T h i s l e a v e s the theme of the i n f l u e n c e of c u l t u r e on the d r e a m as yet untouched by h e r . H o w e v e r , she does s e e m to touch upon the theme of the inf luence of the d r e a m on c u l t u r e . T h i s is i n d i c a t e d by the r e f e r e n c e to the i n f l u e n c e w h i c h S a m ' s d r e a m s have had on the concept of the d u m a l a i t k a in his v i l l a g e . T h e theme of r e a l i t y is a l s o p r e s e n t to the extent that the p a p e r i m p l i e s that the H o p i are m i s t a k e n about the r e a l i t y of the " c o n c e p t " of the d u m a l a i t k a . 4. " D r e a m A n a l y s i s " (1961) E g g a n ' s f o u r t h p a p e r , " D r e a m A n a l y s i s " ^ , a p p e a r e d three y e a r s af ter the 1958 c o n f i r m a t i o n of jthe d r e a m ' s u n i v e r s a l i t y by D e m e n t and K l e i t m a n . It c o n s i s t s of a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of d r e a m a n a l y s i s in a n t h r o p o l o g y . E g g a n ' s e m p h a s i s is once m o r e upon the i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of F r e u d i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i v e m e t h o d s in the study of n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m s . She repeats h e r c r i t i c i s m of s y m b o l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : It is f a r e a s i e r to equate " b e a r " w i t h " f a t h e r " a n d / o r wi th " m o t h e r ' s b r o t h e r " and stop t h e r e , then to take one 's i n f o r m a n t back t h r o u g h l a b o r e d a s s o c i a -t ions to that t r a u m a t i c day when he was p l a y i n g alone by a s t r e a m and was suddenly c o n f r o n t e d by a b e a r . F r o m that point , there m a y be a b r i d g e , t h r o u g h m o r e a s s o c i a t i o n s , to e q u a l l y t r a u m a t i c m a l e auth-o r i t y in his c h i l d h o o d , and to the fact that he r e s e n t e d Weirding sheep f o r his m o t h e r ' s b r o t h e r y e s t e r d a y . But if these b r i d g e s cannot be found, m a y an a n t h r o -p o l o g i s t ajSjsume_ they are t h e r e , and thus i n t e r p r e t the d r e a m ? ( E g g a n 1961: 555) E g g a n points out that the " b o r r o w i n g " of p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r e t i c a l technique cannot be j u s t i f i e d "without c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h e m t h r o u g h the use of p s y c h o -95 analy t i c techniques wi th the d r e a m e r s . " She suggests that even if this w e r e f e a s i b l e , the analyt ic s i tuat ion i t s e l f c o u l d give r i s e to a c e r t a i n u n i f o r m i t y a m o n g the d r e a m s : W o u l d a H o p i Indian , o r a white C h i c a g o a n , or a K u m a of N e w G u i n e a , r e p o r t i n g his d r e a m s to his a n a l y s t , r e c o r d the s a m e n u m b e r and k i n d of d r e a m s d u r i n g the s a m e p e r i o d of t i m e if he w e r e not under a n a l y s i s ? ( E g g a n 1961: 557) T h e o b s e r v a t i o n s e e m s s i m i l a r to M o r g a n ' s (1932) note about p s y c h o l o g i s t s f i n d i n g the s y m b o l i s m of t h e i r s tudies in the d r e a m s of t h e i r p a t i e n t s . But l i k e M o r g a n , E g g a n f a i l s to speculate f u r t h e r on h e r o b s e r v a t i o n . She s i m p l y c o n c l u d e s that w e s t e r n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c techniques are not suited to the study of n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m s . W h i l e the latent content of n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m s cannot be r e a d i l y u t i -l i z e d , the m a n i f e s t content c a n . E g g a n f inds that the m a n i f e s t content is v a l u a b l e as "both a p r o j e c t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y and a r e f l e c t i o n of the c u l t u r e " . W i t h r e s p e c t to this she o b s e r v e s that, in m a n y n o n - w e s t e r n c u l t u r e s , D r e a m s are not only r e m e m b e r e d and t o l d , but are an act ive f o r c e in c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n i n g and p e r s o n a l i t y e x p r e s s i o n . ( E g g a n 1961: 552) F u r t h e r m o r e , n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m r e s e a r c h e s have shown that, . . . c u l t u r a l l y induced p r e o c c u p a t i o n with the N d r e a m i n g p r o c e s s , in r e s p o n s e to v a r y i n g c u l t u r a l c o n c e p t s , can operate . . . to m a i n -ta in group unity and i n d i v i d u a l e q u i l i b r i u m . . . ( E g g a n 1961: 552) In this o b s e r v a t i o n she r e f e r s us to H a l l o w e l l (1955) who e m p h a s i z e d the status of the d r e a m as " a s e l f - r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e " and to E r i k s o n (1956) who d e v e l o p e d the concepts of " e g o - s y n t h e s i s " and " e g o - i d e n t i t y " . She states : A n d the d r e a m p r o c e s s , i n f l u e n c e d by c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s , f r e q u e n t l y gives a c l e a r p i c t u r e of a c u l t u r a l l y const i tuted s e l f - i m a g e " w a l k i n g a t i g h t - r o p e " t o w a r d the m e n t a l e q u i l i b r i u m of egoident i ty b a l a n c e d by a " p o l e " of c u l t u r a l l y s h a r e d d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s . ( E g g a n 1961: 554) T h u s she suggests that the d r e a m is not only a " u n i v e r s a l p r o c e s s " as e s t a b l i s h e d by D e m e n t and K l e i t m a n (1958), but that it is "a p r o c e s s w h i c h is adaptive w i t h r e s p e c t to the i n d i v i d u a l and f u n c t i o n a l w i t h r e s p e c t to the g r o u p . " T u r n i n g to h e r own w o r k on H o p i d r e a m s , E g g a n puts f o r t h h e r a s s u m p t ions c o n c e r n i n g the nature of d r e a m s : . . . d r e a m f o r m s are the e x p r e s s i o n of unique s e q u e n c e s of p e r s o n a l events , w h i c h are p e r c e i v e d t h r o u g h a c u l t u r a l s c r e e n , but they are the r e s u l t of u n d e r l y i n g p r o c e s s e s that r e p r e s e n t constants in h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e . . . ( E g g a n 1961: 565) T h u s she c o n c l u d e s that, . . . d r e a m s , by c a l l i n g the d r e a m e r s ' attention to v i o l a t i o n s of the m o r a l c o d e , not only tend to p u s h h i m t o w a r d c u l t u r a l c o n f o r m i t y , but a lso 1 tend to indicate to an i n v e s t i g a t o r the d e g r e e to w h i c h the i n f o r m a n t has m a d e the c u l t u r a l code h i s f o w n . . . ( E g g a n 1961; 570) We are again r e f e r r e d to the u s e f u l n e s s of c a t e g o r i z i n g d r e a m e l e m e n t s in a char t f o r m and to the c o n s i s t e n c y and c u l t u r a l c o n f o r m i t y of the pat terns w h i c h are r e v e a l e d by s u c h t a b u l a t i o n . C o n c l u d i n g , E g g a n m a k e s another sugges t ion w i t h r e s p e c t to the i n t e r -ac t ion between c u l t u r e and m a n i f e s t d r e a m content . She suggests that the p r a c t i c e of t e l l i n g d r e a m s has m a d e " H o p i d e i t i e s " b e c o m e m o r e " r e a l " in H o p i c u l t u r e . A l t h o u g h she uses the w o r d , " m o r e " , she does not t e l l us what s t a n d a r d of c o m p a r i s o n she is u s i n g . In any case it w i l l be noted that she m a d e a s i m i l a r statement in the c l o s i n g r e m a r k s of h e r 19 55 p a p e r . T h e r e we w e r e t o l d that the d u m a l a i t k a had b e c o m e m o r e r e a l i n S a m ' s v i l l a g e . H e r e we are to ld that a l l dei t ies have b e c o m e m o r e r e a l to a l l H o p i . In both c a s e s we are given a f i n a l i m p r e s s i o n of the H o p i as a people who have both a f a l s e b e l i e f about d r e a m s and a f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . In a c l o s i n g note , E g g a n s u m s up her p a p e r by s u g g e s t i n g that a n t h r o -p o l o g i s t s " m a k e a c o o p e r a t i v e attack on the a n a l y s i s of m a n i f e s t d r e a m content in e r o s s - c u l t u r a l study of p e r s o n a l i t y " . She r e c o m m e n d s the s u b -st i tut ion of the t e r m " a n a l y s i s " f o r the t e r m " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " as the la t ter suggests that there is " u l t i m a t e m e a n i n g " in a d r e a m . D i s c u s s i o n In e s s e n c e the 1961 p a p e r d i f f e r s l i t t le f r o m E g g a n ' s p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . A n added o b s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n s the p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e of the analy t i c s i t u a -t ion on the t e l l i n g of d r e a m s . E g g a n c o m e s to no c o n c l u s i o n s about the i m p l i c a t i o n s of s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p . One c o u l d speculate h o w e v e r that the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s i tuat ion m i g h t be p a r a l l e l to the analyt ic s i t u a t i o n . T h i s m i g h t be a topic in future r e s e a r c h e s . T h e m a t i c C o n n e c t i o n s W h i l e E g g a n p o s i t s an i n t e r a c t i o n between d r e a m and c u l t u r e , she does not suggest that c u l t u r e can c o n t r o l d r e a m content or that c u l t u r e i t e m s can o r i g i n a t e i n d r e a m s . T h e theme of r e a l i t y p e r c e p t i o n , h o w e v e r , does o c c u r to the extent that the H o p i appear to ' th ink ' that t h e i r de i t ies are r e a l . 98 5. " H o p i D r e a m s in C u l t u r a l P e r s p e c t i v e " (1966) 5 " H o p i D r e a m s in C u l t u r a l P e r s p e c t i v e " is d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d with the r e l a t i o n between d r e a m s and c u l t u r e . It f o c u s e s on the a s s o c i a t i o n between the a p p e a r a n c e of c u l t u r a l i m a g e r y in the H o p i d r e a m s and i n f r i n g e m e n t s of the H o p i t r i b a l c o d e . E g g a n f inds that this aspect of H o p i d r e a m s is i n t r i c a t e l y i n v o l v e d with a unique c o n c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e and a unique c o n c e p -t ion of r e a l i t y . In p r e v i o u s p a p e r s , E g g a n f o c u s e d on the i m p o r t a n c e of the d r e a m to a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . She e m p h a s i z e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g q u a l i t i e s of the d r e a m d e m o n s t r a t i n g that d r e a m a n a l y s i s c o u l d r e v e a l v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between H o p i c u l t u r e and H o p i p e r s o n a l i t y . It is not u n t i l this 1966 p a p e r , h o w e v e r , that E g g a n f i n a l l y te l l s us what attitude the H o p i t h e m s e l v e s have t o w a r d the d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . S u r p r i s i n g l y enough we d i s c o v e r that t h e i r attitude p a r a l l e l s Eggan's . It appears that they too see the d r e a m in t e r m s of its p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g q u a l i -t ies wi th r e s p e c t to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . We r e a d : A n d the H o p i , wi th a w i s d o m often shown by n o n l i t e r a t e g r o u p s , acknowledges the d r e a m as a type of t h o u g h t - a c t i o n in w h i c h h i k w s i e x p l o r e s the w o r l d w i t h i n and the w o r l d w i t h -out, often b r i n g i n g the two into c l o s e r a l i g n m e n t , t h r o u g h i m a g e s and e x p e r i e n c e s p r o v i d e d by H o p i r e l i g i o n . ( E g g a n 1966: 242) T o i l l u s t r a t e the use of c u l t u r e i m a g e s and e x p e r i e n c e s , E g g a n p r e s e n t s a group of d r e a m s in w h i c h the H o p i f i g u r e P a l u l k o n , or W a t e r S e r p e n t , p l a y s a p r e d o m i n a n t r o l e . She finds that e a c h d r e a m in this set 99 . . . c a l l s attention to p e r s o n a l i n f r i n g e m e n t s of the t r i b a l code t h r o u g h the use of imagery-d r a w n f r o m the d r a m a t i z a t i o n in i t . ( E g g a n 1966: 249) E g g a n at t r ibutes this unique use of c u l t u r a l i m a g e r y to the H o p i concept of r e a l i t y . In the c o n c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e of the H o p i , E g g a n o b s e r v e s , . . . r e a l i t y does not d w e l l e x c l u s i v e l y in p r o p o s i t i o n s that can be e x a m i n e d t h r o u g h m a t h e m a t i c a l equations and s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i -m e n t , as it does i n o u r i n t e l l e c t u a l w o r l d . ( E g g a n 1966: 250) D r a w i n g on this c o m p a r i s o n , E g g a n again r e f e r s us to the H o p i t e r m , " H i k w s i ' i She equates h i k w s i w i t h the w e s t e r n " p s y c h e " . She o b s e r v e s that m o s t of the " i n t e l l e c t u a l w o r l d " of the west accepts " b e i n g " only " i n its p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s . " A s s u c h , o u r " p s y c h e " tends to be a concept r a t h e r than a r e a l i t y . In c o n t r a s t , F o r the H o p i h i k w s i , B r e a t h B o d y , as the v i t a l aspect of t h e i r b e i n g , is not c o n f i n e d w i t h i n the m o r t a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n that is an i n d i v i d u a l H o p i , even d u r i n g its s o j o u r n in the U p p e r w o r l d , It c a n be p r o j e c t e d t h r o u g h thought, p r a y e r , and d r e a m s , and can thus , in one s e n s e , i n t e r a c t w i t h distant people and t h i n g s . It is at once p e r s o n a l and u n i -v e r s a l ; in s o m e contexts it is p a r t of 'a 'ne  h i m u (the M i g h t y S o m e t h i n g ) . ( E g g a n 1966: 251) T h u s it would s e e m that the d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e , or at leas t h i k w s i , has a c e r t a i n r e a l i t y f o r the H o p i . T h e c o n c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e of the H o p i i n v o l v e s a " c o n c e p t of e x i s t e n c e " without t i m e o r space in the w e s t e r n s e n s e : 100 . . . this H o p i f e e l i n g of t i m e l e s s n e s s in o a r s e n s e , of the cont inui ty , or m o r e e x a c t l y the c o e x i s t e n c e of events (the m a n i f e s t i n g and m a n i f e s t e d ) t h r o u g h t i m e , and the n o n r e s t r i c t i v e aspec ts of t h e i r concept of s p a c e , give a v a l i d i t y to H o p i d r e a m s e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h w e , w i t h our l i n g u i s t i c a l l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d concepts of t i m e and s p a c e , cannot know. ( E g g a n 1966: 253-254) In r e f e r e n c e to the w o r k of E l i a d e (I960) E g g a n d e s c r i b e s the H o p i e x p e r i e n c e as " a total r e v e l a t i o n of r e a l i t y " . T u r n i n g to the concept of " h e a r t " , E g g a n o b s e r v e s that this " t o t a l r e v e l a t i o n of r e a l i t y " regula tes a l l H o p i l i f e " t h r o u g h the H o p i a n G o o d H e a r t . " She e x p l a i n s that "thought is a f o r m of e n e r g y that acts upon anything w i t h w h i c h it c o m e s i n contact , e i t h e r in w a k i n g l i fe or in s l e e p " . It m u s t be " o r g a n i z e d " in one 's hear t f o r , . . . even one heart b u r d e n e d w i t h m a l i c e , w o r r y , o r doubt, al though it m i g h t not be v i s i b l e to a m o r t a l o b s e r v e r , c o u l d defeat the ent i re c o m m u n i t y ' s i n t e r a c t i o n wi th l i f e - g i v i n g f o r c e s . ( E g g a n 1966: 254) E g g a n sees the H o p i ' s attitude as being'E'lthe m a j o r f a c t o r in t h e i r deep sense of c u l t u r a l cont inui ty and t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e to change . " She c o n c l u d e s : A good heart i n c l u d e d c o n f o r m i t y to a l l r u l e s of H o p i good conduct , both e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l ; it was a p o s i t i v e t h i n g . If a H o p i d i d not keep a good hear t , he o r his c h i l d r e n , m i g h t f a l l i l l and d i e , o r the c e r e m o n i e s - and thus the v i t a l c r o p s - m i g h t f a i l , f o r , as has been s a i d , only those w i t h good h e a r t s w e r e effec t ive i n p r a y e r . Doubt was kahopi-.; and t h r o u g h r e i t e r a t i o n and d r a m a , the d r e a m l i k e L o w e r w o r l d withLits s p i r i t inhabitants b e c a m e as ' ' feal"aas the U p p e r w o r l d . (Eggan 1966: 255) W h i l e E g g a n f o l l o w s the t r a d i t i o n of the p r e v i o u s p a p e r s by d e s c r i b i n g the / H o p i d r e a m in t e r m s of an apparent r e a l i t y v a l u e , h e r r e f e r e n c e s to the c o n c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e of the H o p i gives us an added insight into this v i e w . A l t h o u g h t h e i r u n i v e r s e m a y be only v a g u e l y def ined i n the p a p e r , we are at leas t e n c o u r a g e d to v i e w the r e a l i t y of the d r e a m in t e r m s of a c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e s . O n the other hand, the f a m i l i a r r e f e r e n c e to the r e a l i t y of d e i t i e s l i k e P a l u l k o n and v a r i o u s " s p i r i t i n h a b i t a n t s " b r i n g s us b a c k to the p e r s p e c t i v e of the H o p i as ' b e l i e v e r s ' - - ' p e r c e i v e r s 1 of a f a l s e r e a l i t y . S u m m a r i z i n g , E g g a n states that the d r e a m can t h e r e f o r e be s e e n as a " t r i a n g u l a r p r o d u c t i o n " w h i c h i n c l u d e s a " latent content " , the " p e r s o n a l i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n " of the d r e a m e r , and "the r e l a t i o n of the d r e a m s to c u l t u r a l p r o v i s i o n . " In r e f e r e n c e to p e r s o n a l i t y o r g a n i -z a t i o n , E g g a n notes that t h e r e i s : 1. " a s t r o n g l y c o n t r o l l e d ego s t r u c t u r e " 2. " a c u l t u r a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d s u p e r e g o " 3. " s t r o n g o v e r t c o n t r o l i n a l l e m o t i o n a l s i tuat ions . . . except v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n and s e x u a l a c t i v i t y " C o n c e r n i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n between d r e a m and c u l t u r a l p r o v i s i o n s , she c o n c l u d e s that, T h u s we f i n d that P a l u l u k o n , as a c o m p l e t e l y over t c u l t u r a l concept , is taken o v e r in i n d i v i d u a l d r e a m s , as are other d r a m a t i c . c u l t u r a l c h a r a c -t e r s , not in the sense of sought v i s i o n s that are so f r e q u e n t l y i m p o r t a n t in n o n l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e s , but s i m p l y as e v e r y d a y , c u l t u r a l l y def ined s y m -bols that are a p p l i c a b l e to p e r s o n a l s i tuat ions i n the d r e a m e r ' s l i f e s i tuat ion at the t i m e of the d r e a m . 102 T h e c o n c l u s i o n s are e s s e n t i a l l y the s a m e as i n 1955. H e r e , h o w e v e r , E g g a n does r e f e r to the p r o d u c t i o n of the d r e a m . W h i l e she neglec ts to t e l l us how these i m a g e s are able to appear in d r e a m s , she at least c a n c e l s out the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n s c i o u s i n d u c e m e n t . In fact she does not indicate that there is any c o n s c i o u s i n v o l v e m e n t w h a t s o e v e r in the d r e a m p r o d u c t i o n : it would s e e m t:o b e ' s o m e t h i n g w h i c h M a p p e n s ' . W h i l e E g g a n o b s e r v e s no c o n s c i o u s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the d r e a m e x p e r -ience i t s e l f , she does r e f e r to a c o n s c i o u s i n v o l v e m e n t in the w a k i n g r e a c t i o n to it . C o n t i n u i n g h e r d i s c u s s i o n of c u l t u r a l p r o v i s i o n s she c o n c l u d e s , as in 1955, that . . . it is obvious that a c u l t u r a l s t r e s s on d r e a m s , and defini te r u l e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e m , m u s t have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r an i n d i v i d u a l d r e a m e r , if only because they e m p h a s i z e r e c a l l and " c o n f e s -s i o n " of the bad thoughts in a d r e a m , a p r a c t i c e that r e s u l t s in a d i s c u s s i o n of d r e a m s and a t e n -d e n c y to f u r t h e r w o r k out p r o b l e m s in t h e m t h r o u g h " c o n f e s s i o n " of ques t ionable b e h a v i o r . ( E g g a n 1966: 262) R e g a r d i n g the p r a c t i c e of d r e a m t e l l i n g , E g g a n i n t e r j e c t s a c o m m e n t on the p r o c e s s of " s e c o n d a r y e l a b o r a t i o n " and the consequent p r o d u c t i o n of a " d r e a m s t o r y " . It m a y be r e c a l l e d that in an e a r l i e r p a p e r she had stated that s u c h - i n f o r m a t i o n would be v a l u a b l e in the type of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l d r e a m a n a l y s i s she is p r o p o s i n g . H e r e she m a k e s a second o b s e r v a t i o n : . . . it is a l m o s t a lways p o s s i b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h c l e a r l y between the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i l l o g i c a l d r e a m and the c u l t u r a l l y a v a i l a b l e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h it . ( E g g a n 1966: 263) T h e c o m m e n t is s i g n i f i c a n t in t e r m s of the d i f f i c u l t y w h i c h both W a l l a c e and D e v e r e u x w e r e noted to have had i n d e t e r m i n i n g what p a r t of M o h a v e d r e a m s w e r e r e a l l y w a k i n g e l a b o r a t i o n s o r a s s o c i a t i o n s . N e i t h e r of thes m e n s e e m e d to not ice any d i f f e r e n c e in the q u a l i t i e s of the m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e d in the M o h a v e d r e a m r e p o r t s . T h e c o n f o r m i t y c o u l d be attr ibute to the deepness w i t h w h i c h d r e a m s and w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s c o u l d be f u s e d in the ' M o h a v e m i n d ' . C o n c l u d i n g the p a p e r , E g g a n repeats her o b s e r v a t i o n of the H o p i ' a w a r e n e s s ' of the d r e a m as h i k w s i ' s " s t a t e m e n t about the d r e a m e r ' s p r e s e n t s i tuat ion and c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n . " She notes f u r t h e r that, " T h i s is a c o n s c i o u s , c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c b e l i e f , o t h e r w i s e d r e a m s w o u l d not r e q u i r e s p e c i f i c t r e a t m e n t . " F i n a l l y she repeats that when a H o p i has a d r e a m , he " s i m p l y e x p e r i e n c e s it as a cont inuat ion of his w a k i n g l i f e . " D i s c u s s i o n " H o p i D r e a m s in C u l t u r a l P e r s p e c t i v e " is s i g n i f i c a n t in that it is the f i r s t attempt by an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t i n this group to re la te a d r e a m c o m p l e x to the c o n c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e of the i n f o r m a n t s . T h i s has put the r e a l i t y of the H o p i d r e a m in a new f r a m e w o r k . T h a t i s , the d r e a m w o r l d p a r a l l e l s the w a k i n g w o r l d in the absence of t i m e and s p a c e . A s s u c h h i k w s i e x p e r -i e n c e s it as a cont inuat ion of the w a k i n g w o r l d . A s E g g a n t u r n s to the wak ing v a l u e of P a l u l k o n and other c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r s , h o w e v e r , this p e r s p e t ive on r e a l i t y is l o s t . R e f e r e n c e s to " s p i r i t " and " d e i t y " tend to r e d u c e the c o n c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e to an e x p e r i e n c e of f a l s e b e l i e f and f a l s e p e r c e p -t i o n . It is suggested that the d e l e t i o n of s u c h r e f e r e n c e s f r o m the d e s c r i p t ion m i g h t r e s u l t in the c o m m u n i c a t i o n of the H o p i u n i v e r s e as a ' r e a l ' uni v e r s e . T h e m a t i c C o n n e c t i o n s : A s in 1955, E g g a n has again d e m o n s t r a t e d an i n t e r a c t i o n between H o p i d r e a m s and H o p i c u l t u r e . H o w e v e r she continues to focus on the d r e a m as a r e f l e c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h his c u l t u r e . She m a k e s no r e f e r e n c e to a r e l a t i o n s h i p between d r e a m s and c u l t u r e . T h e theme of r e a l i t y m i s p e r c e p t i o n continues to be evident . 105 C H A P T E R V T H E I R O Q U O I S D R E A M C O M P L E X A . T h e P r e s e n t a t i o n of A n t h o n y W a l l a c e : " D r e a m s and the W i s h e s of the S o u l : A T y p e of P s y c h o a n a l y t i c T h e o r y a m o n g the S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y I r o q u o i s " (1958) " D r e a m s and the W i s h e s of the S o u l : A T y p e of P s y c h o a n a l y t i c T h e o r y a m o n g the S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y I r o q u o i s " ' ' is the p r i m a r y s o u r c e of i n f o r -m a t i o n f o r the I r o q u o i s d r e a m c o m p l e x . W r i t t e n b y A . F . C . W a l l a c e i n 1958, it is a d e s c r i p t i o n of "the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , r e l a t i v e to d r e a m s , r e p o r t e d by J e s u i t m i s s i o n a r i e s a m o n g the s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y I r o q u o i s . " It is W a l l a c e ' s o b s e r v a t i o n that this " p r i m i t i v e " g r o u p u s e d " a t h e o r y of the m i n d s i m i l a r i n m a n y e s s e n t i a l s to that e x p r e s s e d by S i g m u n d F r e u d and his i n t e l l e c t u a l h e i r s in W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n of two c e n t u r i e s l a t e r . " In a footnote he def ines this " p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y " as " a n y t h e o r y of d r e a m s w h i c h r e g a r d s the d r e a m as the s y m b o l i c e x p r e s s i o n of u n c o n s c i o u s w i s h e s . " W a l l a c e i n t r o d u c e s the I r o q u o i s d r e a m c o m p l e x by o b s e r v i n g that the I r o q u o i s p e o p l e l o o k e d to d r e a m s " f o r g u i d a n c e i n a l l i m p o r t a n t a f f a i r s of l i f e . " A c c o r d i n g to one J e s u i t , F a t h e r F r e m i n these p e o p l e s c a r r i e d out the d i c t a t e s of t h e i r d r e a m s by act ing out the events w h i c h o c c u r r e d in t h e m . H e d e s c r i b e s the d r e a m as the sole " D i v i n i t y " of the I r o q u o i s p e o p l e . W h i l e m o s t n a t i o n s o b s e r v e d t h e i r " m o s t i m p o r t a n t " d r e a m s i n this m a n n e r , we r e a d that a m o n g the S e n e c a , . . . w h a t e v e r it be that they think they have done in t h e i r d r e a m s they b e l i e v e t h e m s e l v e s a b s o l u t e l y o b l i g e d to execute at the e a r l i e s t m o m e n t . (Wallace 1958: 235) In r e f e r e n c e to the ra t ionale f o r s u c h p r a c t i c e s , F a t h e r F r e m i n d e s c r i b e s the case of a m a n who m i g h t have d r e a m e d that he was taken p r i s o n e r and b u r n e d a l i v e . A c c o r d i n g l y he would be . . . bound and b u r n e d l i k e a capt ive on the next d a y , b e i n g p e r s u a d e d that by thus s a t i s f y i n g his d r e a m , this f i d e l i t y w i l l aver t f r o m h i m the p a i n and i n f a m y of c a p t i v i t y and death , w h i c h a c c o r d - ' ing to what he has l e a r n e d f r o m his D i v i n i t y , he is o t h e r w i s e bound to s u f f e r a m o n g his e n e m i e s . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 235) A p p a r e n t l y , l i k e the H o p i p r a c t i c e of spi t t ing f o u r t i m e s , the I r o q u o i s p r a c t i c e a p r e v e n t a t i v e one. W a l l a c e states that although it has d i m i n i s h e d in s t r e n g t h , the " f a i t h in d r e a m s is s t i l l a l i v e " today. H e notes f o r e x a m p l e that, F o r m a n y S e n e c a , d r e a m s even today c o n t r o l the c h o i c e and o c c a s i o n of c u r i n g c e r e m o n i e s , m e m -b e r s h i p in the " s e c r e t " m e d i c i n e s o c i e t i e s , the s e l e c t i o n of f r i e n d s , and the d e g r e e of c o n f i d e n c e in l i f e . A t the N e w Y e a r ' s c e r e m o n y , people s t i l l go about a s k i n g that t h e i r d r e a m s be g u e s s e d , and a p a r t i c u l a r l y vivfed d r e a m s t i l l is brought to a c l a i r v o y a n t ( u s u a l l y a woman) f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 236) R e g a r d i n g the " t h e o r y " behind the I r o q u o i s p r a c t i c e s , W a l l a c e notes that it "was b a s i c a l l y p s y c h o a n a l y t i c . " H e states : W h i l e it is evident that I r o q u o i a n and F r e u d i a n d r e a m t h e o r y are not p r e c i s e l y the s a m e (and the I r o q u o i a n t h e o r y i n t r o d u c e d an a n i m i s t i c t h e s i s as w e l l as the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c one) , the d i f f e r e n c e s are n o t c m u c h m o r e m a r k e d than the d i f f e r e n c e s between, f o r i n s t a n c e , J u n g i a n and F r e u d i a n v a r i e t i e s of p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 234) E l a b o r a t i n g , W a l l a c e r e f e r s us to F a t h e r R a g u e n e a u who in 1649 d e s c r i b e d an I r o q u o i s ' b e l i e f that " o u r s o u l s " have c e r t a i n " d e s i r e s " w h i c h are both " i n b o r n and c o n c e a l e d . " H e states: N o w they b e l i e v e that our s o u l m a k e s these n a t u r a l d e s i r e s known by m e a n s of d r e a m s , w h i c h are its l a n g u a g e . A c c o r d i n g l y , when these d e s i r e s are a c c o m p l i s h e d , it is s a t i s -f i e d ; but, on the c o n t r a r y , if it be not g r a n -ted what it d e s i r e s , it b e c o m e s a n g r y , and not only does not give its body the good and h a p p i n e s s that it w i s h e d to p r o c u r e f o r it , but o f t e n it a l so r e v o l t s against the body, c a u s i n g v a r i o u s d i s e a s e s , and even death . . . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 236) F a t h e r R a g u e n e a u notes that this ' b e l i e f c a u s e s m o s t of the I r o q u o i s to r e m e m b e r t h e i r d r e a m s and "to p r o v i d e the s o u l w i t h what it has p i c t u r e d to t h e m d u r i n g t h e i r s l e e p . " It is W a l l a c e ' s o b s e r v a t i o n that the I r o q u o i s " r e c o g n i z e d " that the d r e a m content " m i g h t c o n c e a l r a t h e r than r e v e a l the s o u l ' s t rue w i s h . " H e r e f e r s us to F a t h e r R a g u e n e a u ' s d i s c u s s i o n of " m e d i c i n e - m e n " who w e r e b e l i e v e d to have the a b i l i t y tp see " in to the depths of the s o u l " . We r e a d : T h e s e see the n a t u r a l and hidden d e s i r e s that it has , though the s o u l has d e c l a r e d nothing by d r e a m s , o r though he who m a y have had the d r e a m s had c o m p l e t e l y forgot ten t h e m . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 237) T h i s m e t h o d was r e s o r t e d to in c a s e s of i l l n e s s f o r it was a lso ' b e l i e v -e d ' that the g r a n t i n g of " these n a t u r a l d e s i r e s " was one of the best m e t h o d s of r e s t o r i n g heal th . T u r n i n g to the q u e s t i o n of i l l n e s s in g e n e r a l , W a l l a c e notes that there w e r e three " s o u r c e s " of " d i s e a s e or b o d i l y i n f i r m i t y " . H e d e s c r i b e s the f i r s t two as " n a t u r a l i n j u r i e s " and " w i t c h c r a f t " . Q u o t i n g F a t h e r J o u v e n c y , W a l l a c e t e l l s us the t h i r d was the m i n d of the patient h i m s e l f , w h i c h d e s i r e s s o m e t h i n g , and w i l l vex the body of the s i c k m a n u n t i l it p o s s e s s e s the thing r e q u i r e d . F o r they think that there are i n e v e r y m a n c e r t a i n i n b o r n d e s i r e s , often unknown to t h e m s e l v e s , upon w h i c h the happiness of i n d i v i d u a l s d e p e n d s . (Wallace 1958: 237) S e e i n g a s i m i l a r i t y between these ' b e l i e f s ' and the v i e w s of w e s t e r n p s y c h -ology , W a l l a c e c o n c l u d e s that t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s of i n t u i t i o n , these people " h a d a c h i e v e d a great d e a l of p s y c h o l o g i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . " We r e a d : T h e y r e c o g n i z e d c o n s c i o u s p a r t s of the m i n d . T h e y knew the great f o r c e of u n c o n s c i o u s n d e s i r e s , and w e r e aware that the f r u s t r a t i o n of these de s i r e s , c o u l d cause m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l ( " p s y c h -s o m a t i c " ) i l l n e s s . T h e y u n d e r s t o o d that these d e s i r e s w e r e e x p r e s s e d i n s y m b o l i c f o r m by d r e a m s , but that the i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d not a lways p r o p e r l y i n t e r p r e t these d r e a m s h i m s e l f . T h e y had noted the d i s t i n c t i o n between the m a n i f e s t and latent content of d r e a m s , and e m p l o y e d what sounds l i k e the technique of f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n to u n c o v e r the latent m e a n i n g . A n d they c o n s i d e r e d that the best m e t h o d f o r the r e l i e f of p s y c h i c and p s y c h o s o m -atic d i s t r e s s was to give the f r u s t r a t e d d e s i r e s a t i s f a c t i o n , e i ther d i r e c t l y or s y m b o l i c a l l y . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 237-238) T h e statement is r e m i n i s c e n t of L i n c o l n ' s r e f e r e n c e to the N a v a h o being " d i m l y a w a r e " and E g g a n ' s r e f e r e n c e to the H o p i having a " d i m u n d e r s t a n d -i n g " . T h a t i s , W a l l a c e te l l s us that the I r o q u o i s " r e c o g n i z e d " , " k n e w " , 109 " u n d e r s t o o d " , and " n o t e d " c e r t a i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c c o n c e p t s . In a l l t h r e e c a s e s the n o n - w e s t e r n v i e w s s e e m to be p r e s e n t e d as ' b e l i e f s ' w h i c h i n d i -cate a; p a r t i a l p e r c e p t i o n of the ' t r u t h ' about d r e a m s . T h e p r o b l e m w i t h this p o r t r a y a l is that it does not inc lude any e v i d e n c e f o r the ' t r u t h ' of the w e s t e r n v i e w . W a l l a c e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the I roquois attitudes suggests that the f u l l p e r c e p t i o n of the ' t r u t h ' about d r e a m s is p r e v e n t e d by the " a n i m i s t i c t h e s i s " of the I r o q u o i s d r e a m c o m p l e x . A s in L i n c o l n ' s s tudy, there s e e m s to be an o p p o s i t i o n here between the n o n - w e s t e r n concept of the s u p e r n a t u r a l and the w e s t e r n concept of the u n c o n s c i o u s . In both c a s e s it is the u n c o n s c i o u s w h i c h is p r e s e n t e d as the r e a l i t y . T h e sugges t ion is that the I r o q u o i s have a f a l s e b e l i e f about d r e a m s and a f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y . C o n t i n u i n g , W a l l a c e d e s c r i b e s c e r t a i n " d r e a m - g u e s s i n g r i t e s " w h i c h w e r e held at M i d w i n t e r , d u r i n g i l l n e s s and at v a r i o u s other t i m e s t h r o u g h -out the y e a r . T h e c o n s i s t e d of the p r o p o u n d i n g of r i d d l e s " i n a s a c r e d g a m e " : E a c h p e r s o n or a group announced his " o w n and s p e c i a l d e s i r e or ' O n d i n o n c ' - - a c c o r d i n g as he is able to get i n f o r m a t i o n and enl ightenment by d r e a m s - - n o t openly , h o w e v e r , but t h r o u g h R i d d l e s . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 239) W h e n the d r e a m s w e r e g u e s s e d the d e s i r e s w e r e f u l f i l l e d . W a l l a c e does not state what c r i t e r i a w e r e used f o r the s e l e c t i o n of the d r e a m s to be gue-ssed in these " r i t e s " . N o r does he t e l l us who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e m . T h e next p a r t of the p a p e r c o n c e r n s the f u l f i l l m e n t of n i g h t m a r e s . T h e e x a m p l e s W a l l a c e o f f e r s r e v e a l that, in m a n y c a s e s , a v e r y r e a l i s t i c s e m -110 blance of the d r e a m was acted out. We r e a d in F a t h e r L a l e m e n t ' s r e p o r t of one m a n who went t h r o u g h the p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r his fate of c a p t i v i t y and death by b u r n i n g , " b e l i e v i n g that after this i m a g i n a r y c a p t i v i t y he would n e v e r be a c t u a l l y a p r i s o n e r . " W i t h r e g a r d to d r e a m s of a g g r e s s i o n we f ind that the f o r m of the ac t ing out depended on who the v i c t i m of the d r e a m was : D r e a m s in w h i c h h o s t i l i t y was d i r e c t e d at m e m b e r s of other nations w e r e p r o p e r l y s a t i s f i e d by ac t ing t h e m out both in p a n t o -m i m e and in r e a l l i f e ; but bad d r e a m s about m e m b e r s of the s a m e c o m m u n i t y w e r e acted out only in s o m e s y m b o l i c f o r m , w h i c h had a p r o p h y l a c t i c effect . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 240) It m i g h t be noted that the f i n a l p h r a s e of this s ta tement , in its r e f e r e n c e to "a p r o p h y l a c t i c e f f e c t " , is the f i r s t Indication in the p a p e r that the I r o q u o i s c l a i m s about the p r e v e n t i v e effect of the p r a c t i c e m i g h t be v a l i d . But W a l l a c e does not c o m m e n t f u r t h e r on this p o s s i b i l i t y and l e a v e s us w o n d e r -ing whether he was s tat ing an o p i n i o n or m e r e l y r e p o r t i n g a ' b e l i e f . Next to be d i s c u s s e d are those d r e a m s in w h i c h "a s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g " is m e t . T h e d e s c r i p t i o n is r e m i n i s c e n t of L i n c o l n ' s r e f e r e n c e to " g u a r d i a n s p i r i t s " and E g g a n ' s r e f e r e n c e to the d u m a l a i t k a of S a m ' s d r e a m s . W a l l a c e too r e f e r s to these ' b e i n g s ' as " g u a r d i a n s p i r i t s " . H e states that such a " s p i r i t " would p r o m i s e "to be a f r i e n d and p a t r o n " and to give " s p e -c i a l p o w e r s " to the d r e a m e r . We f ind that, l i k e the M o h a v e , the I roquois e x p e r i e n c e d these d r e a m s at p u b e r t y . H o w e v e r , the I r o q u o i s d r e a m s w e r e not spontaneous ones . T h e " g u a r d i a n s p i r i t s " w e r e " d e l i b e r a t e l y I l l sought" . A boy w o u l d r e t i r e to the woods by h i m s e l f f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y two weeks t i m e taking no n o u r i s h m e n t but w a t e r . Q u o t i n g f r o m F a t h e r L a l e -m e n t ' s r e p o r t , W a l l a c e p r e s e n t s an e x a m p l e of one of these d r e a m s . A f t e r w a i t i n g sixteen d a y s , a boy h e a r d a v o i c e w h i c h s a i d , " T a k e c a r e of this m a n , and let h i m end his fas t . " H e then saw " a n old m a n " d e s c e n d i n g f r o m the sky: T h i s m a n a p p r o a c h e d , gazed k i n d l y at h i m , and s a i d , " H a v e c o u r a g e , I w i l l take c a r e of thy l i f e . It is a fortunate thing f o r thee, to have taken m e f o r thy m a s t e r . " ( W a l l a c e 1958: 241) H e t e l l s the boy that he w i l l l i v e a long l i f e , that he w i l l have four c h i l d r e n , three boys and a g i r l , and that after the b i r t h of the las t c h i l d his wife would " h o l d the r e l a t i o n of a s i s t e r " to h i m . F a t h e r L a l e m e n t adds that this m a n " f r e q u e n t l y r e a p p e a r e d with a s s u r a n c e s of h e l p . " H e a l s o states that m o s t of the p r e d i c t i o n s he had m a d e " c a m e t r u e " . W a l l a c e h i m s e l f m a k e s no c o m m e n t on the m a t t e r . R e t u r n i n g to the subject of i l l n e s s , W a l l a c e states that s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s , " p r o t e c t o r s " and " p e r s e c u t o r s " a l i k e , often c a m e to the s i c k . H e does not e l a b o r a t e on this r e f e r e n c e to " p e r s e c u t o r s " . H o w e v e r , he states that in s u c h c a s e s "the a p p r o p r i a t e t h e r a p e u t i c r i t u a l " c o u l d be " d e d u c e d f r o m the identi ty of the s p i r i t . " H e a l s o r e f e r s to d r e a m s w h i c h w e r e i n -t e r p r e t e d to m e a n that the s i c k p e r s o n wanted a f r i e n d . T h u s , we r e a d that, D u r i n g the E a g l e S o c i e t y C e r e m o n y , the s i c k p e r s o n is g iven a " c e r e m o n i a l f r i e n d " ; t h e r e -after the two treat one another as k i n f o l k , and 112 the r e l a t i o n s h i p of m u t u a l h e l p f u l n e s s is l i f e - l o n g . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 241) B e f o r e c l o s i n g this d i s c u s s i o n , W a l l a c e f i n a l l y m a k e s m e n t i o n of the m a t -t e r of the " e f f e c t i v e n e s s " o M s u c h p r a c t i c e s . H e t e l l s us that the e f f e c t i v e -n e s s of this " d r e a m - t h e r a p y " was at t i m e s even " a d m i t t e d " by the J e s u i t p r i e s t s "who had n e i t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l insight nor r e l i g i o u s s y m p a t h y f o r the p r i m i t i v e d r e a m - t h e o r y . " R a t h e r than p u r s u i n g this d i s c u s s i o n , W a l l a c e c o n c l u d e s it by r e f e r r i n g us to I r o q u o i s 1 r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s of c u r e s w h i c h f a i l e d . T h e f i n a l s e c t i o n of the p a p e r c o n s i s t s of W a l l a c e ' s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the d r e a m s he has been d e s c r i b i n g . H e f inds that " t h e r e w e r e two m a j o r types of d r e a m s o r v i s i o n s r e c o g n i z e d by the s o c i e t y and s e p a r a t e l y i n s t i -t u t i o n a l i z e d . . . " H e c a l l s these , " s y m p t o m a t i c d r e a m s and v i s i t a t i o n  d r e a m s . " T h e new r e f e r e n c e to " v i s i o n s " is not e x p l a i n e d . We m i g h t a s s u m e that l i k e L i n c o l n , W a l l a c e m a y be equating v i s i o n s wi th d r e a m s . In any event we f ind that, A s y m p t o m a t i c d r e a m e x p r e s s e d a w i s h of the d r e a m e r ' s s o u l . T h i s w i s h was i n t e r p r e t e d e i ther by the d r e a m e r h i m s e l f of by a c l a i r v o y a n t , who f o r a fee d i a g n o s e d the w i s h . . . . T h e s e d iagnoses s e r v e d as s ignals f o r the execut ion of v a r i o u s r a t h e r c o n v e n t i o n a l pa t terns of ac t ing out the w i s h , e i ther l i t e r a l l y o r s y m b o l i c a l l y . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 244) O n c e again he states that, S o m e of these ac t ing-out pat terns w e r e p r o -p h y l a x e s against the fate i m p l i c i t in the w i s h . . . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 244) H o w e v e r it is s t i l l not apparent whether he is m e r e l y r e p o r t i n g the I roquois attitude o r p r e s e n t i n g his own o p i n i o n as w e l l . C o n t i n u i n g , he states that, 113 T h i s sor t of ac t ing out s e e m s to have been b a s e d on the idea that a w i s h , a l though i r r a t i o n a l and d e s t r u c t i v e t o w a r d self or f r i e n d s , was fa te -f u l , and that the only way of f o r e s t a l l i n g r e a l i -za t ion of an e v i l - f a t e d w i s h was to f u l f i l l it s y m b o l i c a l l y . O t h e r s w e r e c u r a t i v e of e x i s t i n g d i s o r d e r s , and p r o p h y l a c t i c only in the sense of p r e v e n t i n g ul t imate death if the w i s h w e r e too long f r u s t r a t e d . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 244) C o n c l u d i n g the d i s c u s s i o n he a lso o b s e r v e s that the d r e a m s w e r e acted out in d i f f e r e n t ways a c c o r d i n g to whether the r e q u i r e d ac t ion was " m u n d a n e o r s a c r e d and c e r e m o n i a l . " H e notes that the d r e a m s of the s i c k often i n v o l v e d p e r i o d i c p e r f o r m a n c e of the " c e r e m o n i a l a c t i o n " f o r the r e m a i n d e r of the person's l i f e . F u r t h e r m o r e , a s i c k p e r s o n m i g h t c a l l f o r v a r i o u s " f e a s t s " , " d a n c e s " , and " r i t e s " at any t i m e . A d r e a m e r m i g h t a l s o see a new n o n s a c r e d r i te in a d r e a m . W h i l e this would s e e m to be an e x a m p l e of the inf luence of the d r e a m on c u l t u r e , W a l l a c e does not m e n t i o n this aspect of the s i t u a t i o n . N o r does he give any otiher i n s t a n c e s of s u c h d r e a m i n n o -v a t i o n . T h e second type of e x p e r i e n c e , the v i s i t a t i o n d r e a m , " s h o w e d p o w e r f u l s u p e r n a t u r a l beings who u s u a l l y spoke p e r s o n a l l y to the d r e a m e r , g i v i n g h i m a m e s s a g e of i m p o r t a n c e f o r h i m s e l f and often a lso f o r the e n t i r e c o m -m u n i t y . " W a l l a c e o b s e r v e s that s o m e of these d r e a m s i n v o l v e d " p e r s o n a l i t y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s " : S o m e t i m e s these w e r e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n d r e a m s , in w h i c h the l o n g i n g s , doubts , and c o n f l i c t s of the d r e a m e r w e r e suddenly and r a d i c a l l y r e s o l v e d ; the d r e a m e r e m e r g e d f r o m his v i s i o n wi th a new sense of d i g n i t y , a new c a p a c i t y f o r p l a y i n g a hi ther to d i f f i c u l t r o l e , and a new f e e l i n g of health and w e l l b e i n g . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 245) 114 T h e d e s c r i p t i o n is s i m i l a r to E g g a n ' s d i s c u s s i o n of the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g q u a l i t i e s of the d r e a m , e s p e c i a l l y with r e s p e c t to the happy and e n c o u r a g e d f e e l i n g s w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m S a m ' s d u m a l a i t k a d r e a m s . Indeed, W a l l a c e notes that the I roquois " g u a r d i a n s p i r i t " is often i n v o l v e d in these p e r s o n a l i t y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . H e r e f e r s again to the p u b e r t y fas ts : R e t i r i n g alone to the w o o d s , f a s t i n g and m e d i t a t i n g in s o l i t u d e , the youth after a week or two of s e l f -d e n i a l and thought e x p e r i e n c e d a v i s i o n in w h i c h a s u p e r n a t u r a l be ing c a m e to h i m , p r o m i s e d a id and p r o t e c t i o n , and gave h i m a t a l i s m a n . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 245) L i k e L i n c o l n , W a l l a c e sees this " g u a r d i a n s p i r i t " as a subst i tut ion f o r the b o y ' s p a r e n t s : In a s e n s e , the g u a r d i a n s p i r i t took the p l a c e of the parents upon w h o m the boy had hi ther to d e p e n d e d , and f r o m w h o m he had now to e m a n -cipate hiimself e m o t i o n a l l y if he w e r e to b e c o m e a whole m a n . (Wal lace 1958: 245-246) W h i l e the d i s c u s s i o n i m p l i e s that the " g u a r d i a n s p i r i t " is r e a l l y a p r o d u c t of the b o y ' s i m a g i n a t i o n , W a l l a c e does not touch on the p r o b l e m of how this i m -age is able to a p p e a r . N o r does he suggest any r e a s o n why the boy would think that this i m a g e was a " s p i r i t " . Instead he continues by stating that, G u a r d i a n s p i r i t s v a r i e d in c h a r a c t e r and p o w e r : s o m e gave c l a i r v o y a n t p o w e r s ; s o m e gave u n u s u a l hunting l u c k and s k i l l ; s o m e gave l u c k , c o u r a g e , s t rength and s k i l l in w a r . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 246) T h e r e is no m e n t i o n of any s t a n d a r d f o r m u l a f o r these d r e a m s . N o r is there any q u e s t i o n i n g of the ac tual i ty of the e x p e r i e n c e s o r of the p o w e r s they w e r e sa id to bes tow. T h e e m p h a s i s on the s u p e r n a t u r a l however s e e m s to d r a i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of any c r e d i b i l i t y . U n l i k e W a l l a c e ' s d i s c u s s i o n of the " s o u l " , there is no r e f e r e n c e of a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c c o u n t e r p a r t f o r the g u a r d -ian s p i r i t " . A s s u c h there s e e m s to be no explanat ion f o r it apart f r o m the " a n i m i s t i c t h e s i s " of the I roquois " d r e a m t h e o r y " . T h e d i s c u s s i o n suggests that this " s p i r i t " ex is ts only in the I roquois i m a g i n a t i o n . T h e c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n of the p a p e r c o n s i s t s of W a l l a c e ' s a n a l y s i s of the I roquois e x p e r i e n c e . H e o b s e r v e s that the d r e a m t h e o r y is in a g r e e -m e n t wi th an o v e r a l l theme of f r e e d o m in I roquois c u l t u r e : T h e i n t o l e r a n c e of e x t e r n a l l y i m p o s e d r e s t r a i n t s , the p r i n c i p l e of i n d i v i d u a l independence and auto-n o m y , the m a i n t e n a n c e of an a i r of i n d i f f e r e n c e to p a i n , h a r d s h i p , and l o n e l i n e s s - - a l l these are the negat ive e x p r e s s i o n , as it w e r e , of the p o s i -t ive a s s e r t i o n that w i s h e s m u s t be s a t i s f i e d , that f r u s t r a t i o n of d e s i r e is the root of a l l e v i l . But m e n are n e v e r e q u a l l y aware and e q u a l l y t o l e r a n t of a l l t h e i r d e s i r e s ; and d r e a m s t h e m -s e l v e s , c a r e f u l l y e x a m i n e d , are p e r h a p s the q u i c k e s t p o r t a l to that shadowy r e g i o n w h e r e the m a s k e d and b a n i s h e d w i s h e s exist in l i m b o . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 246) H e t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e s that the p r a c t i c e of ac t ing out d r e a m s r e p r e s e n t s this latent content or " u n d e r l y i n g w i s h " of the d r e a m . H e f u r t h e r notes that this a c t i v i t y is a p a s s i v e one in r e l a t i o n to the m o r e act ive nature of the ac tual d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . H e states that, D r e a m s are not to b r o o d o v e r , to a n a l y z e , and to p r o m p t l o n e l y and independent ac t ion ; they are to be t o l d , o r at least hinted at, and it is f o r other people to be a c t i v e . T h e d r e a m e r is f e d ; he is d a n c e d o v e r ; he is rubbed w i t h a s h e s ; he is sung to; he is g iven v a l u a b l e p r e s e n t s ; he is accepted as a m e m b e r of a m e d i c i n e s o c i e t y . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 247) 116 T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n r e c a l l s E g g a n ' s d i s c u s s i o n of H o p i d r e a m t r e a t m e n t . L i k e E g g a n , W a l l a c e c o m e s to d e s c r i b e n o n - w e s t e r n d r e a m t r e a t m e n t as a f o r m of r e l e a s e . H e t e l l s us that the acttrngout r e p r e s e n t s " s o m e s t r o n g , if u n c o n s c i o u s , w i s h e s to be p a s s i v e , to b e g , to be c a r e d f o r . " In this s e n s e , t h e r e f o r e , " a n act ive m a n i f e s t d r e a m content is f u l f i l l e d by a p a s s i v e , r e -c e i v i n g a c t i o n . " H e c o n c l u d e s : T h e c u l t u r e of d r e a m s m a y be r e g a r d e d as a u s e f u l e s c a p e - v a l v e in I r o q u o i s l i f e . In t h e i r d a i l y a f f a i r s , I roquois m e n w e r e b r a v e , a c t i v e , s e l f - r e l i a n t , and autonomous ; they c r i n g e d to no one and begged f o r n o t h i n g . But no m a n can b a l a n c e f o r e v e r on such a p i n n a c l e of m a s c u -l i n i t y , w h e r e a s k i n g and being given are unknown. I roquois m e n d r e a m t ; and, without s h a m e , they r e c e i v e d the f r u i t s of t h e i r d r e a m s and t h e i r souls w e r e s a t i s f i e d . ( W a l l a c e 1958: 247) A l t h o u g h W a l l a c e ' s p r o n o u n c e m e n t of the p r a c t i c e as an " e s c a p e - v a l v e " is a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l to E g g a n ' s r e f e r e n c e to a " s a f e t y v a l v e " there a r e notable d i f f e r e n c e s in the c o n c l u s i o n s of the two w r i t e r s . E g g a n speaks of e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e in both d r e a m s and d r e a m t r e a t m e n t f o r a l l H o p i and indeed f o r a l l peoples who t reat d r e a m s with i m p o r t a n c e . W a l l a c e , h o w e v e r , is c o n c e r n e d with the d r e a m t r e a t m e n t alone and this only in r e l a t i o n to "the t y p i c a l I r o q u o i s m a l e " . T h e s e x u a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n is c o n f u s i n g as the p a p e r i t s e l f contains m a n y e x a m p l e s w h i c h feature I r o q u o i s w o m e n in this p r a c -t ice of ac t ing out d r e a m s . W a l l a c e does not e x p l a i n this r e s t r i c t i o n . W h i l e W a l l a c e ' s c o n c l u s i o n is i n t e r e s t i n g f r o m a p s y c h o l o g i c a l point of v i e w , it is c o n f u s i n g f r o m an e t h n o l o g i c a l point of v i e w . Not only does he omit w o m e n f r o m his c o n c l u s i o n , he o m i t s the native r a t i o n a l e i t s e l f . T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the I r o q u o i s d r e a m c o m p l e x is p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s of the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c r a t h e r than the I roquois v i e w . T h a t i s , W a l l a c e does not r e f e r to the I roquois c l a i m that the f u l f i l l m e n t of a d r e a m p r e v e n t s its ac tual o c c u r r e n c e . T h e o m i s s i o n m a k e s it apparent that this is not the ' r e a l ' r e a s o n f o r the I roquois p r a c t i c e s . T h e suggest ion is that the I r o -quois do not know the ' r e a l ' r e a s o n f o r t h e i r p r a c t i c e s . D i s c u s s i o n It w o u l d s e e m that the I r o q u o i s d r e a m c o m p l e x has been c o m m u n i c a t e d as an event of f a l s e b e l i e f and f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n . It is suggested that this p o r t r a y a l r e s u l t s f r o m the p a p e r ' s apparent e m p h a s i s on w e s t e r n d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as ' t r u e ' d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , as w e l l as f r o m its d e s c r i p -t ion of the I roquois d r e a m c o m p l e x , in t e r m s of an " a n i m i s t i c t h e s i s " . It is suggested that future r e s e a r c h e s be f o c u s s e d on a c o m p a r i s o n of the I r o q u o i s and p s y c h o a n a l y t i c s y s t e m s w i t h r e s p e c t to the c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i t y of the e x p e r i e n c e s they appear to i n v o l v e . T h e m a t i c C o n n e c t i o n s L i k e the m a j o r i t y of his p r e d e c e s s o r s , W a l l a c e does not t o u c h upon the p r o b l e m of d r e a m p r o d u c t i o n . T h e r e is no ques t ion of a c u l t u r a l i n -f luence on d r e a m s in the p a p e r . N o r is t h e r e any ques t ion of the d r e a m i n f l u e n c i n g c u l t u r e in spite of the effect we have seen it to have on I roquois b e h a v i o r . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , an a p p e a r a n c e of the t h e m e of r e a l i t y m i s -p e r c e p t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to an apparent ' b e l i e f i n the r e a l i t y of the s u p e r -n a t u r a l beings who are s a i d to appear in d r e a m s . 118 B . T h e P r e s e n t a t i o n of H a r o l d B l a u : " D r e a m G u e s s i n g : A C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s " (1963) H a r o l d B l a u ' s " D r e a m G u e s s i n g : A C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s is another d e s c r i p t i v e p a p e r on the I r o q u o i s d r e a m c o m p l e x . B l a u f o c u s e s on the D r e a m G u e s s i n g Ri te of the p r e s e n t day O n o n d a g a in r e l a t i o n to the H u r o n " F e a s t of D r e a m s " d e s c r i b e d by the J e s u i t s . H e f inds that the two " c e r e -m o n i e s " are s i m i l a r wi th r e s p e c t to " t i m e , d u r a t i o n and p u r p o s e " . B o t h o c c u r at m i d w i n t e r . W h i l e the H u r o n l a s t e d three days and three n i g h t s , the O n o n d a g a l a s t s three n i g h t s . F i n a l l y , " T h e m a j o r p u r p o s e s of both c e r e m o n i e s are to a l l e v i a t e s y m p t o m s , c u r e a f f l i c t e d m i n d s , guess d r e a m s , and f u l f i l l the d e s i r e s of the i n d i v i d u a l . " H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d a b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i s o n , Bfcau p r o c e e d s to i sola te s p e c i f i c e l e m e n t s of the c e r e m o n i e s . H e d e s c r i b e s these e l e m e n t s in the f o l l o w i n g way: 1. G o i n g F r o m C a b i n to C a b i n : T h e f i r s t p a r t of both c e r e m o n i e s c o n s i s t s of what B l a u r e f e r s to as " G o i n g F r o m C a b i n to C a b i n " . H e states that, a m o n g the H u r o n , d r e a m e r s went f r o m c a b i n to c a b i n "to a l e r t the people to the d i s t u r b i n g e l e m e n t s guiding t h e m . " H e a lso notes that, T h i s b e h a v i o r is g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of an u n f u l f i l l e d d e s i r e , or a s p i r i t f o r c e r e q u e s t i n g r e c o g n i t i o n and s a t i s -f a c t i o n after having a p p e a r e d to the i n d i v i d u a l in a d r e a m . ( B l a u 1963: 234) T h e O n o n d a g a p r a c t i c e is p a r a l l e l . T h e d i f f e r e n c e is that the d r e a m e r s t r a v e l between only two p o i n t s . T h e s e a r e the houses of t h e i r m o i e t i e s , the " L o n g h o u s e and M u d h o u s e " . H e states: W h e n the g u e s s i n g of d r e a m s takes p l a c e , c a r e is taken to a ler t the people in e a c h house of the 119 a p p r o a c h of an i n d i v i d u a l f r o m the other house , or opposite m o i e t y . ( B l a u 1963: 234-236) 2. R i d d l e s : T h e next e l e m e n t c o n s i s t s of the r i d d l e s w h i c h the d r e a m e r s p r o p o s e . W h i l e the H u r o n c e r e m o n y i n v o l v e d d r e a m e r s p r e s e n t i n g the r i d d l e s to those in the cabins they v i s i t e d , the O n o n d a g a d r e a m e r s send r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e i r own m o i e t y to p r e s e n t r i d d l e s to the opposite m o i e t y . 3. G e n o r o s i t y : T h e t h i r d e l e m e n t is " g e n o r o s i t y " . A m o n g the H u r o n , e a c h guess i n v o l v e d the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the i t e m g u e s s e d to the d r e a m e r . T h e p r e s e n t i n g c e a s e d only when the c o r r e c t i t e m was g u e s s e d . O n the other hand, the O n o n d a g a p r e s e n t only the c o r r e c t i t e m . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i r c e r e m o n y r e q u i r e s that the i t e m be g u e s s e d " i n e a c h r i t u a l h o u se . " 4. F o o d S y m b o l i s m : B l a u t e l l s us that, at s o m e t i m e in the h i s t o r y of this c e r e m o n y , food i t e m s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d "of ten r e p l a c i n g or ac t ing as s u b -stitute s y m b o l s f o r the r e a l i t e m s . " A m o n g the O n o n d a g a today this is "a m a j o r m e t h o d of d r e a m g u e s s i n g . " B l a u f inds that, C u l t u r a l l y a p p r o v e d d r e a m s , i . e . , those of known r i t u a l v a l u e and s p i r i t u a l i m p o r t are l i n k e d to foods somehow adjudged to be r e l a t e d to the i t e m . ( B l a u 1963: 238) E a c h d r e a m is a s s o c i a t e d with at l e a s t two food s y m b o l s . T h e f o r m of the c e r e m o n y r e q u i r e s that one s y m b o l be g u e s s e d at the L o n g h o u s e and the other at the M u d h o u s e . T h e guesses are d i f f e r e n t but both r e f e r to the d r e a m e d i t e m . T h e house of the opposi te m o i e t y is a p p r o a c h e d f i r s t . O n s e c u r i n g a c o r r e c t g u e s s , the d r e a m e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e t u r n s to his own r i t u a l house . W h e n the guess is s e c u r e d here the two are put together and 120 p r e s e n t e d to the d r e a m e r wi th an announcement of the n a m e s of those who guessed the d r e a m . 5. R e j o i c i n g : T h e f i f th e l e m e n t is a " R e j o i c i n g " . H e r e B l a u r e f e r s us to the joy e x p r e s s e d by a l l when the d r e a m is f i n a l l y g u e s s e d . 6. C h a r m s and T o k e n s : A s stated above , the O n o n d a g a p r e s e n t only the c o r r e c t l y g u e s s e d i t e m . B l a u a lso notes that even the c h o i c e of the d r e a m is somewhat s e l e c t i v e : T o d a y at O n o n d a g a , s ince d r e a m s have a c q u i r e d an acceptable s t y l e , only m e d i c i n e d r e a m s o r s p i r i t d r e a m s are r e g a r d e d as v a l i d f o r g u e s s i n g at this r i t e . C o n s e q u e n t l y the object g iven af ter the c o r r e c t guesses have been m a t c h e d are l i m i t e d to food i t e m s and c h a r m s . ( B l a u 1963: 240-241) H e does not e l a b o r a t e , h o w e v e r , on the p r e c i s e nature of these d r e a m s o r t h e i r d r e a m e r s . H e continues by c o m m e n t i n g on the status of the c h a r m s as " s e m i - s a c r e d o b j e c t s " . We f i n d that, T h e s e c h a r m s m a y l a t e r be u t i l i z e d as p r o t e c t i v e p o w e r or " g o o d m e d i c i n e , " in p r e v e n t i n g r e c u r r e n c e of " b a d d r e a m s " , or i l l n e s s . T h e y a lso m a y be i n s t r u m e n t a l in e i t h e r white o r b l a c k m a g i c , i . e . , f o r good o r e v i l p u r p o s e s and to effect the o u t c o m e of events and the for tunes of o t h e r s . ( B l a u 1963: 241) B l a u does not state his o p i n i o n of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of this u s e . H o w e v e r , his use of w o r d s s u c h as " p o w e r " and " m a g i c " tend to re legate the p r a c t i c e s to the r e a l m of supers t i t i ion . C o n c l u d i n g , he m a k e s a f i n a l note on the Onondaga d r e a m e r s ' p r a c t i c e of thanking the g u e s s e r s " w i t h tobacco and other s m a l l p r e s e n t s . " 7. T a l l y : A m o n g the O n o n d a g a a r e c o r d of the d r e a m s is kept by the l e a d e r s of e a c h h o u s e . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n is announced at the end of the c e r e m o n y on the c l o s i n g night . A s i m i l a r p r a c t i c e is r e p o r t e d f o r the H u r o n s . O n c o m p l e t i n g the c o m p a r i s o n , B l a u turns to a d i s c u s s i o n of the p r e s e n c e of this p r a c t i c e a m o n g other c o n t e m p o r a r y I roquois g r o u p s . A l -though e l e m e n t s are p r e s e n t , he f inds that n o w h e r e does the d r e a m g u e s s i n g a p p r o a c h "the c o m p l e x i t i e s and r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the O n o n d a g a r i t e . " H o w e v e r this r i te is only a par t of a l a r g e r I roquois " d r e a m c o m p l e x " . In r e f e r e n c e to t h i s , B l a u e x p l a i n s that, a m o n g the I r o q u o i s p e o p l e , D r e a m s funct ion in m a n y w a y s , e a c h p e c u l i a r to its own c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n and subject to l o c a l v a r i a t i o n . T o m e n t i o n but a few; d r e a m s are a v e h i c l e f o r a t ta ining m e m b e r s h i p in m e d i c i n e s o c i e t i e s . T h e y m a y r e v e a l m e t h o d s u t i l i z e d in c u r i n g i l l n e s s . T h e y m a y r e v e a l p r e d i c t i o n s of i m p o r t a n t events , or the outcome of a p a r t i c u l a r event . P o w e r f r o m a n i m a l and nature s p i r i t s a r e bes towed upon p e o p l e t h r o u g h d r e a m s . D r e a m s are a m e a n s of c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h the d e a d . ( B l a u 1963: 245) B l a u a lso notes that " S u p e r n a t u r a l sanc t ion is oftieai obtained t h r o u g h d r e a m s . A t this p o i n t , it should be noted here that even though B l a u ' s p a p e r is not an a n a l y t i c a l one, it s e e m s to c a r r y an u n d e r c u r r e n t of d i s c r e d i t a b i l i t y . T h a t i s , the d i s c u s s i o n abounds in s u p e r n a t u r a l l y t inged w o r d s l i k e , " c e r e m o n y " , " s e m i - s a c r e d " , " s p i r i t f o r c e " , " m a g i c " , and " p o w e r " , w h i c h tend to d i s -c r e d i t both the p r a c t i c e s and the p r a c t i t i o n e r s . It would a p p e a r that the I roquois " d r e a m c o m p l e x " is being r e l e g a t e d to the s p h e r e of 'bel ief ! . E v e n the r e f e r e n c e to the o r i g i n of c u r i n g m e t h o d s i n d r e a m s s e e m s to l a c k c r e d i b i l i t y . It is as if these are things w h i c h are m e r e l y ' b e l i e v e d i n ' . C o n c l u d i n g his study, B l a u m a k e s an o b s e r v a t i o n w h i c h is s i m i l a r to W a l l a c e ' s in his e m p h a s i s on d r e a m s as " d e s i r e s " . H e states: T h e D r e a m G u e s s i n g Ri te is a m e t h o d of s a t i s f y i n g the u n d e r l y i n g I r o q u o i s need to have t h e i r d e s i r e s f u l f i l l e d , and to act as agents in f u l f i l l i n g the d e s i r e s of o t h e r s . ( B l a u 1963: 245) B l a u does not speak of this f u l f i l l m e n t in r e l a t i o n to I roquois p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e as W a l l a c e d i d . Instead he s e e m s to at t r ibute the p r a c t i c e to the s a m e f a c t o r s that the I roquois do: T h e i r d r e a m s m u s t be g u e s s e d , because these r e p r e s e n t a d i s t u r b i n g e l e m e n t . ( B l a u 1963: 245) F u r t h e r m o r e , he at t r ibutes the group i n v o l v e m e n t in this f u l f i l l m e n t to the I roquois p r i n c i p l e of a c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t : T h e people m u s t help in f u l f i l l i n g the d e s i r e s of o thers b e c a u s e of h a d a e n i d a s e h , the c o o p e r -ative s p i r i t of h e l p i n g one another , a c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e in I roquois s o c i e t y . ( B l a u 1963: 245) B l a u r e p o r t s that the O n o n d a g a t h e m s e l v e s " s a y that this is what M i d w i n t e r R i t e s a r e a l l about . . . " F a t h e r L e J e u n e r e p o r t s that the n a m e f o r these " o b s e r v a n c e s " c a n be t r a n s l a t e d into t'the g r o u n d " in the sense of b e i n g "the p r o p and m a i n t e n a n c e of t h e i r whole State. " F r o m these o b s e r v a t i o n s B l a u c o n c l u d e s that we m i g h t t r a n s l a t e the O n o n d a g a t e r m f o r this c e r e m o n y as " g r a n t i n g d e s i r e s " r a t h e r than " g u e s s i n g d r e a m s " f o r , W h e n a p p l i e d to this c e r e m o n y and as a g e n e r a l concept , the w o r d d r e a m and the w o r d d e s i r e are p r o b a b l y i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . ( B l a u 1963: 246) D i s c u s s ion L i k e W a l l a c e , B l a u does not s e e m to p r e s e n t the I roquois p r a c t i c e s as v i a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Instead they appear as e x p e r i e n c e s of s u p e r n a t u r a l b e l i e f . T h e p a p e r tends to give the i m p r e s s i o n that the H u r o n and O n o n d a g a d r e a m c o m p l e x e s are events of f a l s e b e l i e f and f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n . It is suggested that future i n q u i r y into s u c h p h e n o m e n a as the r e p o r t e d d r e a m o r i g i n of c u r i n g m e t h o d s m a y r e s u l t in the e m e r g e n c e of the I roquois d r e a m c o m p l e x as a v i a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l event . T h e m a t i c C o n n e c t i o n s T h e theme of the inf luence of c u l t u r e on the d r e a m is absent f r o m B l a u ' p a p e r . T h e theme of the inf luence of the d r e a m on c u l t u r e is p r e s e n t in the s ingle i s o l a t e d o b s e r v a t i o n that d r e a m s " m a y r e v e a l m e t h o d s u t i l i z e d in c u r i n g i l l n e s s . " T h i s is an i s o l a t e d i t e m , h o w e v e r , and the g e n e r a l tone of the p a p e r tends to throw doubt on the ac tual i ty of s u c h an o c c u r r e n c e . T h e theme of r e a l i t y m i s p e r c e p t i o n s e e m s to be p r e s e n t w i t h r e s p e c t to the apparent ' b e l i e f in the r e a l i t y of the s u p e r n a t u r a l . 124 C H A P T E R V I T H E O J I B W A D R E A M C O M P L E X A . T h e P r e s e n t a t i o n of P a u l R a d i n : " O j i b w a and Ottawa P u b e r t y D r e a m s " (1936) P a u l R a d i n ' s " O j i b w a and Ottawa P u b e r t y D r e a m s " deals w i t h the changes w h i c h o c c u r r e d in the t r a d i t i o n a l " f a s t i n g - d r e a m p a t t e r n " of the O j i b w a and Ottawa Indians as t h e i r c u l t u r e d i s i n t e g r a t e d . E x c e p t f o r a b r i e f i n t r o -d u c t i o n , the p a p e r c o n s i s t s of ac tual d r e a m r e p o r t s . R a d i n i n t r o d u c e s his subject in the f o l l o w i n g way: T h e s a l i e n t fact i n that d i s i n t e g r a t i o n was the m a n n e r in w h i c h the ac tual d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e was g r a d u a l l y f r e e d f r o m its s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l t r a p p i n g s and was r e m e m b e r e d and told as a p e r s o n a l d r e a m . I do not think it is too m u c h to say that d u r i n g the f u l l f u n c t i o n i n g of the c u l t u r e , no d r e a m was e v e r r e t o l d except in a defini te p a t t e r n , one that had been r i g o r o u s l y f i x e d by the p u b e r t y f a s t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . ( R a d i n 1936: 233) T h e r e are two things w h i c h s e e m u n c l e a r in this s ta tement . T h e f i r s t is whether or not the d r e a m s w e r e d r e a m e d as w e l l as r e t o l d " i n a defini te p a t t e r n " . T h e s e c o n d is whether it was a l l d r e a m s o r a l l p u b e r t y d r e a m s w h i c h w e r e r e t o l d in this p a t t e r n . H o w e v e r , R a d i n continues by t e l l i n g us that, as the c u l t u r e d i s i n t e g r a t e d , d r e a m s " r e l a p s e d into t h e i r t rue s i g n i f -i c a n c e " : A s the p u b e r t y f a s t i n g e x p e r i e n c e los t its s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , d r e a m s , in g e n e r a l , los t t h e i r s and r e l a p s e d into t h e i r t rue s i g n i f i c a n c e , that of b e i n g m o r e o r l e s s s y m b o l i c a l d i s g u i s e s and d i s t o r t i o n s of p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . ( R a d i n 1936: 233) In a d d i t i o n , he suggests that " this o r i g i n a l m e a n i n g " m u s t have a lways ex is ted as s o m e t h i n g of a threat to the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n . T o i l l u s t r a t e he d e s c r i b e s the m a n n e r in w h i c h p u b e r t y d r e a m s w e r e h a n d l e d . H e states: A m o n g the O j i b w a and O t t a w a , as is w e l l k n o w n , a r i g o r o u s s u p e r v i s i o n was e x e r c i s e d o v e r the f a s t e r s and the f o r m in w h i c h t h e i r d r e a m s w e r e c a s t . In fact , the f o r m and not a l i t t le of its content w e r e s p e c i f i c a l l y given to the young and i m p r e s s i o n a b l e c h i l d . D r e a m s w h i c h d i d not l e n d t h e m s e l v e s to this m o l d w e r e s i m p l y r e j e c t e d . ( R a d i n 1936: 233) T h e r e f e r e n c e to d r e a m s being r e j e c t e d if they d i d not " l e n d t h e m s e l v e s to this m o l d " i n d i c a t e s that s o m e d r e a m s d i d fit the p a t t e r n . But again it is not c l e a r whether R a d i n is s p e a k i n g of a c t u a l d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s o r of d r e a m r e p o r t s in r e f e r e n c e to this p a t t e r n . T h e p r e v i o u s e m p h a s i s on the w o r d " r e t o l d " and the p r e s e n t e m p h a s i s on the " y o u n g and i m p r e s s i o n -able c h i l d " be ing " g i v e n " the f o r m and content of the d r e a m suggest that a d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e was not n e c e s s a r y to this p a t t e r n . T h u s , he c o n c l u d e s that, T h e m o m e n t the e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s d i s i n t e g r a t e d , then, the p u r e l y p e r s o n a l content of the d r e a m s e i z e d the o p p o r t u n i t y a f f o r d e d and e a s i l y r e g a i n e d its o l d a s c e n d a n c y . ( R a d i n 1936: 233) T h i s s tatement c l a r i f i e s the s e c o n d p r o b l e m . R a d i n ' s tone here suggests that the p e r s o n a l d r e a m s had been c o m p l e t e l y s u p p r e s s e d and t h e r e f o r e a l l d r e a m s , p u b e r t y and n o n - p u b e r t y a l i k e , had been r e p o r t e d in the s a m e p a t t e r n . T h u s we m i g h t conc lude that w h i l e this c u l t u r e was f u n c t i o n i n g , 126 a l l d r e a m s w e r e t o l d a c c o r d i n g to a p a t t e r n w h i c h was g iven to the i n d i v i d -u a l when he u n d e r t o o k his fast at p u b e r t y . In o r d e r to i l l u s t r a t e the " h i s t o r i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " of the p a t t e r n d r e a m , R a d i n p r e s e n t s d r e a m r e p o r t s f r o m v a r i o u s p e r i o d s of t i m e . T h e s e r e p o r t s consti tute the r e m a i n d e r of the p a p e r . T h e y are i n f o u r g r o u p s and c o r r e s p o n d to f o u r d i f f e r e n t t i m e p e r i o d s . T h e f i r s t g r o u p c o n s i s t s of two d r e a m s f r o m the e a r l y p a r t of the nineteenth c e n t u r y . T h e s e c o n d c o n s i s t s of one d r e a m and is dated a g e n e r a t i o n l a t e r . R a d i n states that these groups r e p r e s e n t "the o l d p u b e r t y d r e a m f o r m u l a " . T h e t h i r d group was c o l l e c t e d by R a d i n h i m s e l f in the 1920's. H e states that in t h e s e , "the p u r e l y p e r s o n a l c content of the d r e a m is e v e r y w h e r e a p p a r e n t . " T h e f o u r t h g r o u p , c o l l e c t e d by R a d i n as w e l l , is dated 1926. H e f inds that in these "the p u b e r t y p a t t e r n is c o m p l e t e l y gone. " T h i s is the set in w h i c h R a d i n shows p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r -est . It c o n s i s t s of the d r e a m s of two Ottawa i n f o r m a n t s , J . S h . and J . P . T h e s e are the o n l y i n f o r m a n t s R a d i n attempts to analyze in any w a y . In this c o n n e c t i o n , he c o n c l u d e s f r o m one of J . P . ' s d r e a m s that the m a n has a p r o b l e m of s e x u a l ident i ty . H e f u r t h e r specula tes that, H a d Ottawa c u l t u r e been f u n c t i o n i n g I doubt whether J . P . would have a d m i t t e d to those g u a r d i n g his p u b -e r t y f a s t i n g that he had e v e r had s u c h a d r e a m . H a d he a d m i t t e d i t , his f a s t i n g w o u l d have t e r m i n a t e d i m m e d i a t e l y and he w o u l d p r o b a b l y have been f o r c e d to put on a w o m a n ' s d r e s s and b e c o m e a b e r d a c h e . F r o m this the b r e a k d o w n of his c u l t u r e s a v e d h i m . ( R a d i n 1936: 236) T h i s is the only c o n c l u s i o n he r e a c h e s i n the p a p e r r e g a r d i n g the i n t e r p r e t -ation of d r e a m s . It is w i t h this s ta tement that R a d i n l e a v e s us to our r e a d -127 ing of the d r e a m r e p o r t s w h i c h he^ has sugges ted w i l l ' s p e a k f o r t h e m s e l v e s ' . W h i l e R a d i n ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n has been r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f , it has been s u f -f i c i e n t to p r o v i d e the r e a d e r w i t h a c e r t a i n p e r s p e c t i v e f o r his r e a d i n g of the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m s w h i c h f o l l o w . A s s u c h , it b e c o m e s q u e s t i o n a b l e how m u c h of the p a p e r a c t u a l l y is a l l o w e d to " s p e a k f o r i t s e l f " . It is e v i -dent that R a d i n ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n has p r o j e c t e d a negat ive attitude t o w a r d the c u l t u r a l l y pa t te rned d r e a m . R a t h e r than d i s c u s s the n a t u r e of the f a s t i n g p a t t e r n , he e m p h a s i z e d the hold it a p p a r e n t l y had on these p e o p l e . It was p r e s e n t e d as an o p p r e s s i v e p h e n o m e n o n : a c u l t u r a l m a l f o r m a t i o n of a v i t a l n a t u r a l function. T h e d e s c r i p t i o n of its c o n t r o l over the m i n d s of "the young and i m p r e s s i o n a b l e c h i l d " is e s p e c i a l l y c o m p e l l i n g in this r e g a r d and the r e a d e r is p r o b a b l y quite r e l i e v e d to hear that the p a t t e r n did e v e n t u a l l y d i s -a p p e a r . T h i s r e a c t i o n is a l s o l i k e l y when one r e a d s of the fate l i f e w o u l d have held f o r J . P . had the pat tern s t i l l e x i s t e d . It w o u l d s e e m that the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m has few r e d e e m i n g q u a l i t i e s f o r R a d i n . R a d i n ' s attitude is unique among the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s d i s u s s e d so f a r . W a l l a c e (1947) and D e v e r e u x (1956, 1957) w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h the p r o b l e m of such t r a d i t i o n a l l y p a t t e r n e d d r e a m s a m o n g the M o h a v e . B o t h m e n a d -d r e s s e d t h e m s e l v e s to the ques t ion of the ac tual i ty of these d r e a m s and d e c i d e d that they w e r e r e a l l y the r e s u l t of a c e r t a i n m e n t a l f u s i o n of d r e a m s and w a k i n g events . A l t h o u g h R a d i n i m p l i e s that the p a t t e r n of these d r e a m s e m e r g e d f r o m the p r o c e s s of n a r r a t i o n , he does not p u r s u e the p r o b l e m of what his i n f o r m a n t s ' b e l i e v e d ' they had d r e a m e d . R a t h e r than the s p e c i f i c ques t ion of the d r e a m ' s a c t u a l i t y , he s e e m s to be i n t e r e s t e d in the b r o a d e r 128 ques t ion of its m a n i p u l a t i o n by c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s e s . T h e d r e a m r e p o r t s w h i c h consti tute the r e m a i n d e r of the p a p e r are i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the I roquois d r e a m c o m p l e x . T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y t rue of the e a r l y p u b e r t y d r e a m a c c o u n t s . In the f i r s t of these , w h i c h R a d i n quotes f r o m J . G . K o h l ' s K i t c h i - G a m i , W a n d e r i n g s round L a k e  S u p e r i o r (228 ff . ), we f i n d that the i n f o r m a n t gives an explanat ion f o r the p r a c t i c e : " K i t c h i - M a n i t o u , " the old m a n went on, after another p a u s e , "sent us our m i d e s f r o m the east , and his prophets l a i d it down as a law that we should l e a d o u r c h i l d r e n into the f o r e s t so soon as they a p p r o a c h m a n ' s estate , and show t h e m how they m u s t fast , and d i r e c t t h e i r thoughts to h i g h e r th ings ; and in r e t u r n it is p r o m i s e d us that a d r e a m s h a l l be then sent t h e m as a r e v e l a t i o n of t h e i r f a t e - - a c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h e i r v o c a t i o n - - a c o n s e c r a t i o n and devot ion to D e i t y , and an e t e r n a l r e m e m b r a n c e and good o m e n f o r t h e i r path of l i f e . ( R a d i n 1936: 237) T h i s i n f o r m a n t t e l l s K o h l how his grandfa ther e x p l a i n e d the fast to h i m : 'It is now high t i m e that I should l e a d thee to the f o r e s t , and that thou shouldst fas t , and that t h y m i n d m a y be c o n f i r m e d , s o m e t h i n g to be done f o r thy heal th , and that thou m a y s t l e a r n thy future and thy c a l l i n g . ' ( R a d i n 1936: 237) A c c o r d i n g l y , he l e d the boy into the f o r e s t and p r e p a r e d a bed f o r h i m in the b r a n c h e s of a t r e e . H e to ld h i m not to take any food or w a t e r . H e was to l ie s t i l l " a n d await p a t i e n t l y the things that would then happen. " K o h l i n f o r m s the r e a d e r that if the youth w e r e to have a " b a d d r e a m " o r a " n i g h t -m a r e " , the d r e a m i n g was " r e n d e r e d i m p o s s i b l e " f o r that s p r i n g . T h e boys w e r e to ld that if this happened to t h e m they w e r e "to give up the a f f a i r at once , c o m e down f r o m the t r e e , and r e t u r n h o m e , and t r y again and again t i l l the r ight d r e a m c o m e s . " T h e d r e a m s t h e m s e l v e s are r a t h e r lengthy . H o w e v e r they s e e m to focus on the youth 's encounter wi th one o r m o r e d r e a m c h a r a c t e r s who p r e s e n t h i m with gifts and p r o m i s e h i m future a s s i s t a n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , in the case of the f i r s t i n f o r m a n t , the d r e a m e r m e e t s wi th " f o u r w h i t e -h a i r e d old m e n " who t e l l h i m the f o l l o w i n g : T h o u g h seest here a round us a l l the good gifts of G o d - - h e a l t h , and s t r e n g t h , and l o n g l i f e , and a l l the c r e a t u r e s of n a t u r e . L o o k on our white h a i r : thine s h a l l b e c o m e the s a m e . A n d that thou m a y s t avoid i l l n e s s , r e c e i v e this box w i t h m e d i c i n e . U s e it in case of n e e d ; and w h e n e v e r thou art in d i f f i c u l t y , think of u s , and a l l thou seest w i t h us . Whenffrkoiu p r a y e s t to u s , we w i l l help thee, and i n t e r c e d e f o r thee w i t h the M a s t e r of L i f e . L o o k a r o u n d thee once m o r e ! L o o k , and forget it not ! We give thee a l l the b i r d s , and e a g l e s , and w i l d b e a s t s , and a l l the other a n i m a l s thou seest f l u t t e r i n g and r u n n i n g in our w i g w a m . T h o u shalt b e c o m e a f a m o u s hunter , and shoot t h e m a l l ! 1 ( R a d i n 1936: 240) In the s e c o n d p u b e r t y e x p e r i e n c e the d r e a m e r m e e t s the Sun who states: N o w l o o k out to thy r ight and thy le f t . Do.st thou know the f o u r p e r s o n s that s u r r o u n d thee? T h e y are a p r e s e n t w h i c h I, the great s o u r c e of l i f e , m a k e thee . T h e s e f o u r are in thee . T h e y w i l l c o m e f r o m thee. T h e y are thy four s o n s . T h y f a m i l y s h a l l be i n c r e a s e d . But thou, t h y s e l f , shalt l i v e l o n g , and thy h a i r s h a l l b e c o m e l i k e to m i n e in c o l o u r . . . . "In r e m e m b r a n c e of thy v i s i t to m e , " the Sun c o n t i n u e d , " a n d f o r a good o m e n , I give thee this b i r d , w h i c h s o a r s high above u s , and this white b e a r wi th the b r a s s c o l l a r . " ( R a d i n 1936: 243) R e g a r d i n g the ac tual i ty of these gi f ts , K o h l ' s i n t e r p r e t e r t e l l s h i m that, 130 T h e gift is r a t h e r a s p i r i t u a l p r e s e n t . T h e i d e a o r i m a g e of the thing is g iven t h e m , and they then have p e r m i s s i o n a f t e r w a r d s to m a k e the best use of it they c a n . ( R a d i n 1936: 243) K o h l does not ask the i n t e r p r e t e r about the ac tual i ty of the " p r o t e c t i n g s p i r i t s " . In this connec t ion it is i n t e r e s t i n g to note that this i s the t e r m w h i c h the above i n f o r m a n t appl ies to his " p r e s e n t s " . In m o s t of the r e p o r t s it is r e v e a l e d that the d r e a m e r s d i d not have to accept the f i r s t d r e a m o r ' s p i r i t ' w h i c h c a m e to t h e m . R a t h e r , they w e r e u s u a l l y i n s t r u c t e d to wait u n t i l they had a d r e a m w h i c h was acceptable to t h e m . T h i s a c c e p t a b i l i t y s e e m s to have been b a s e d on the type of gifts a p a r t i c u l a r " g u a r d i a n s p i r i t " had to o f f e r . W i t h r e s p e c t to the l a t e r d r e a m s of R a d i n ' s c o l l e c t i o n , it is i n t e r e s t i n g to note that here too we f ind the gift m o t i f . In the 1926 d r e a m of J . S h . , we r e a d : A n o l d m a n t o l d m e that this d r e a m of m i n e was an o l d - t i m e d r e a m . H e s a i d , " S p i r i t s have c o m e to y o u , y o u w i l l be a scout and w i l l have the p o w e r of be ing i n v i s i b l e . If y o u think of these s p i r i t s , no one w i l l be able to see you when y o u are on the w a r p a t h " . A n d y o u know, P a u l , he was r i g h t . I r e a l l y have this p o w e r and I have f r e q u e n t l y thought of m y d r e a m . ( R a d i n 1936: 257) R a d i n states that this d r e a m " d o e s not p o s s e s s the r e m o t e s t r e s e m b l a n c e to the o l d e r p u b e r t y e x p e r i e n c e . . . " and m a k e s no c o m m e n t on J . S h . 's c l a i m that the d r e a m gave h i m an ac tual " p o w e r " . It a p p e a r s that J . S h . 's c l a i m is b a s e d on a ' b e l i e f in s u p e r n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n a . T h e s i tuat ion would s e e m to c o n t r a d i c t R a d i n ' s s u g g e s t i o n that such d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s d i s a p -p e a r e d w i t h a c c u l t u r a t i o n . R a d i n does not c o m m e n t . T h e p r o b l e m is 131 r e m i n i s c e n t of W a l l a c e ' s and D e v e r e u x ' s h a n d l i n g of the m a t t e r of " p o w e r " in M o h a v e d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s In a l l three c a s e s the ac tual i ty of s u c h p o w e r s e e m s to be d i s c o u n t e d by the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ' d e s c r i p t i o n of the concept in t e r m s of ' s u p e r n a t u r a l b e l i e f . In the case of the M o h a v e , how-e v e r , we saw that the data suggested there m a y be a ' r e a l ' event behind this concept . It is suggested that this p o s s i b i l i t y m i g h t be i n v e s t i g a t e d a m o n g the O j i b w a as w e l l . W i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the las t d r e a m in the 1926 s e r i e s , R a d i n ' s p a p e r is c o n c l u d e d . T h e r e is no f u r t h e r w o r d f r o m h i m on the nature of the d r e a m s o r on the h i s t o r i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n he has suggested they should i l l u s t r a t e . In r e t r o s p e c t , h o w e v e r , s o m e of the i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h has been r e v e a l e d by the p u b e r t y d r e a m r e p o r t s puts c e r t a i n o f - R a d i n ' s i n t r o -d u c t o r y c o n c l u s i o n s in q u e s t i o n . O n e point i n p a r t i c u l a r s e e m s i n c o n s i s t e n t wi th the data . T h i s is R a d i n ' s c o n c l u s i o n that the d i s a p p e a r a n c e of the p u b e r t y p a t t e r n f o r m u l a " s a v e d " J . P . f r o m having to b e c o m e a b e r d a c h e . It o c c u r s to the p r e s e n t w r i t e r that had J . P . undergone a f a s t i n g e x p e r i -ence he m a y not have had to accept s u c h a fate . T h a t i s , i f s u c h a d r e a m w e r e not acceptable to h i m , he c o u l d have wai ted f o r one that w a s . W h i l e R a d i n ' s F r e u d i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d r e a m and p e r s o n a l m o r a l v i e w p o i n t tend to confuse the a r g u m e n t , we c a n at l e a s t speculatelthat the e x p e r i e n c e of a c u l t u r a l l y p a t t e r n e d d r e a m would have def ined J . P . 's r o l e f o r h i m . We can a s s u m e that this w o u l d have o c c u r r e d even if the p a t t e r n w e r e only the r e s u l t of the p r o c e s s of n a r r a t i o n . E i t h e r w a y it w o u l d s e e m that J . P . w o u l d have been " s a v e d ' f r o m the c o n f l i c t of ident i ty that R a d i n suggests he 132 h a d . T h e c o n f u s i o n in R a d i n ' s p a p e r about the ac tual i ty of the p a t t e r n d r e a m s m a k e s it d i f f i c u l t f o r us to c o m e to any c o n c l u s i o n s about his t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s . H o w e v e r , it is sugges/ted that the tone of R a d i n ' s i n t r o d u c t o r y r e m a r k s is s u f f i c i e n t to p r e j u d i c e the r e a d e r ' s attitude towards both the d r e a m r e p o r t s and those who r e p o r t e d t h e m . T h a t i s , one r e c e i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n that the O j i b w a and Ottawa are 'better o f f without s u c h " c u l -t u r a l t r a p p i n g s " . T h e r e is no i n d i c a t i o n that a pa t tern d r e a m or p a t t e r n d r e a m r e p o r t c o u l d have been b e n e f i c i a l to anyone in anyway. T h e y s e e m to be p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n a f r a m e w o r k of m e a n i n g l e s s r i t u a l . T h e y a r e not d e s c r i b e d in t e r m s of any p e r s o n a l or s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . E v e n t h e i r r e a l i t y is in doubt. A l l that the d e s c r i p t i o n s e e m s to indicate is that the O j i b w a and Ottawa p r o b a b l y ' b e l i e v e d ' in the r e a l i t y of s p i r i t s and in the a b i l i t y of these s p i r i t s to appear in d r e a m s . T h a t i s , the event w h i c h is c o m m u n i c a t e d s e e m s to be one,of f a l s e b e l i e f and f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n . D i s c u s s i o n It would appear that the O j i b w a d r e a m c o m p l e x has been p o r t r a y e d as an event of f a l s e b e l i e f and f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n . But whi le R a d i n has s u g -gested that the " c u l t u r a l t r a p p i n g s " of the d r e a m s u p p r e s s e d its n a t u r a l content he has not e s t a b l i s h e d that the d r e a m in fact has a ' n a t u r a l content ' . It is suggested that future studies m i g h t l o o k at this p r o b l e m of n a t u r a l v e r s u s c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s e s in the d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . T h e m a t i c C o n n e c t i o n s : 133 W h i l e the subject of R a d i n ' s p a p e r is the c u l t u r e p a t t e r n d r e a m , R a d i n does not touch upon the m a t t e r of the p r o d u c t i o n of this d r e a m . T h e t h e m e of the c u l t u r a l inf luence of the d r e a m is t h e r e f o r e absent as is the theme of the d r e a m ' s i n f l u e n c e on c u l t u r e . rA theme of a m i s p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y h o w e v e r , s e e m s to be d i r e c t e d at a ' b e l i e f in the r e a l i t y of s u p e r n a t u r a l f i g u r e s who appear in d r e a m s . / B . T h e P r e s e n t a t i o n of I r v i n g H a l l o w e l l : " T h e R o l e of D r e a m s in O j i b w a C u l t u r e ! ' (1966) -> In " T h e R o l e of D r e a m s i n O j i b w a C u l t u r e " , I r v i n g H a l l o w e l l f o l l o w s an a p p r o a c h w h i c h is v e r y s i m i l a r to that taken by D o r o t h y E g g a n in " H o p i D r e a m s in C u l t u r a l P e r s p e c t i v e " . It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that E g g a n d i s c u s s e d the H o p i d r e a m c o m p l e x w i t h i n the f r a m e w o r k of the H o p i " c o n c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e " . H e r e , H a l l o w e l l d i s c u s s e s the O j i b w a d r e a m c o m p l e x w i t h i n the f r a m e w o r k of O j i b w a " c o g n i t i v e 6)r ientation" . H a l l o w e l l f o c u s e s on the n e c e s s i t y of the d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e . L i k e E g g a n , he r e p o r t s the 1958 f indings of D e m e n t and K l e i t m a n c o n c e r n i n g the u n i v e r s a l i t y of the d r e a m . In a d d i t i o n , he r e f e r s us to the h y p o t h e s i s advanced by D e m e n t (I960) that, " a o c e r t a i n amount of d r e a m i n g e a c h night is a n e c e s s i t y . " W h i l e D e m e n t sees this n e c e s s i t y at the p s y c h o b i o l o g i c a l l e v e l , H a l l o w e l l sees a s o c i o c u l t u r a l p a r a l l e l : X If d r e a m i n g m a y be c o n s i d e r e d to be a n e c e s s i t y at the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l of p s y c h o b i o l o g i c a l a d j u s t -m e n t , h e r e , at the l e v e l of group adapt ion, the O j i b w a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d r e a m s m a y be seen as a p o s i t i v e and n e c e s s a r y f a c t o r in the m a i n t e n a n c e of the s o c i o c u l t u r a l s y s t e m that gives m e a n i n g to t h e i r l i v e s . Imaginat ive p r o c e s s l i n k e d wi th t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s p l a y a v i t a l r o l e in p s y c h o -c u l t u r a l adaptat ion . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 271) A s s u c h , he states the p u r p o s e of his study: What I w i s h l t b do here is to show how the d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e of a group of N o r t h A m e r i c a n Indians , the O j i b w a , i n t e r p r e t e d as a c t u a l e x p e r -i e n c e s of the se l f , funct ioned as a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r in the o p e r a t i o n of t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l s o c i o c u l t u r a l s y s t e m . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 271) B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g the r o l e of d r e a m s in O j i b w a c u l t u r e , H a l l o w e l l d i r e c t s our attention to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s "as ac tual e x p e r i e n c e s of the s e l f " . H e devotes c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e to this d i s -c u s s i o n and begins by r e f e r r i n g us to the attitude t o w a r d d r e a m in g e n e r a l . H e e x p l a i n s that this attitude is one w h i c h is c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d : T h e c a p a c i t y f o r r e c a l l i n g , c o m m u n i c a t i n g , and i d e n t i f y i n g " m o r e or l e s s c o h e r e n t i m a g e r y s e q u e n c e s d u r i n g s l e e p " as a " d r e a m " not only i m p l i e s c o m p l e x p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s , but a c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d attitude t o w a r d a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of subjec t ive e x p e r i e n c e . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 270) T h i s , in t u r n , i m p l i e s a cont inuing sense of self : W e a s s u m e the ex is tence of a sense of the c o n t i n u i t y of a s e l f in t i m e and a c a p a c i t y f o r o b j e c t i f y i n g s e l f - r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e . We take it f o r granted that the subject a s s o c i a t e s m e m -o r y i m a g e s r e c a l l e d f r o m his p e r i o d of s leep w i t h a c o n t i n u i n g se l f in the s a m e way that m e m o r y i m a g e s f r o m past e x p e r i e n c e when awake can be r e c a l l e d and s e l f - r e l a t e d . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 270) T o i l l u s t r a t e , he r e f e r s us to our own attitude t o w a r d d r e a m s . H e points out that the " m e m o r y i m a g e s " f r o m o u r w a k i n g and d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s are 135 not fused i n our m i n d s . H e notes that "a d i c h o t o m y ex is ts in our t h i n k i n g . " T h a t i s , T h e w o r l d of d r e a m s is c o n s i d e r e d to be a w o r l d of u n r e a l i t y , i m a g e r y , and f a n t a s y , as c o m p a r e d w i t h the " r e a l " w o r l d of p e r c e p t i o n . T h e d r e a m s I r e p o r t a re r e c o g n i z e d as m i n e , but they a r e not c o n s i d e r e d the equivalent of other p e r s o n a l e x p e r i -e n c e s . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 270) H a l l o w e l l r e m i n d s us that he is s p e a k i n g h e r e of w e s t e r n cogni t ive o r i e n t a -t ion: In the cogni t ive o r i e n t a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s in other c u l t u r e s , h o w e v e r , s u c h a s h a r p d i c h o t o m y m a y not e x i s t , o r m a y exis t o n l y to a l e s s e r d e g r e e . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 270) W e f i n d , t h e r e f o r e , that in other c u l t u r e s , D r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s m a y be i n t e r p r e t e d , in s o m e c a s e s , as the l i t e r a l equivalent of the e x p e r i e n c e s of i n d i v i d u a l s when f u l l y awake . Indeed, the p s y c h o l o g i c a l depth of this attitude is attested by the fact that even in a c c u l t u r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s , the " r e a l i t y " of d r e a m s m a y p e r s i s t . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 270) T o i l l u s t r a t e this attitude, H a l l o w e l l d e s c r i b e s two c a s e s c i t e d by D e v e r e u x (1951). T h e s e are s i m i l a r to the type r e p o r t e d by L i n c o l n (1935). In the f i r s t the d r e a m e r s e e m s to suggest that the d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e r e a l l y o c -c u r r e d . In the s e c o n d , the d r e a m e r s behave as if they w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r d r e a m b e h a v i o r . T o c l a r i f y this atti tude, H a l l o w e l l r e f e r s us to the t r a d i t i o n a l T y l o r i a n t r e a t m e n t of this p r o b l e m of " r e a l i t y " . T y l o r , in 1878, ()p. 137) had stated that, . . . the savage o r b a r b a r i a n has n e v e r l e a r n e d to m a k e that r i g i d d i s t i n c t i o n between i m a g i n a t i o n and r e a l i t y , to e n f o r c e w h i c h is one of the m a i n r e s u l t s of s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 271) In a n s w e r to this H a l l o w e l l m a k e s the f o l l o w i n g point : What I should l i k e to e m p h a s i z e here is the fact that it is i n c o n c e i v a b l e that m a n c o u l d have e v o l v e d without m a k i n g s o m e d i s t i n c t i o n between d r e a m s , o r v i s i o n s , and the object ive r e a l i t i e s of his ac tual p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 273) H e expla ins that m a n has a c e r t a i n c a p a c i t y f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g subjec t ive f r o m object ive e x p e r i e n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , this d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n is c u l t u r a l l y p a t t e r n e d . T h u s , It is t h r o u g h concepts p e r t a i n i n g to the nature of the se l f , and to the nature of the objects in the u n i v e r s e other than self , that the i n d i v i d u a l r e c e i v e s his b a s i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 273) T u r n i n g to the O j i b w a , H a l l o w e l l now begins to apply these concepts to d i s c l o s e a unique p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n a unique c u l t u r a l u n i v e r s e . H f i r s t o b s e r v e s that, O j i b w a c u l t u r e def ines a p s y c h o l o g i c a l f i e l d of conduct f o r i n d i v i d u a l s in w h i c h t h e i r cogni t ive o r i e n t a t i o n - - i n the d i m e n s i o n of se l f to o t h e r -is e l a b o r a t e d wi th p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s upon the i n t e r a c t i o n of " p e r s o n s " in a " s o c i e t y " that is c o s m i c in s c o p e . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 273) T h e r e are two types of " p e r s o n s " in the O j i b w a u n i v e r s e . T h e s e are " h u -m a n beings and o t h e r - t h a n - h u m a n p e r s o n s " . C o n c e r n i n g the " o t h e r - t h a n 1 -h u m a n p e r s o n s " , H a l l o w e l l notes that he has e m p l o y e d this t e r m to a v o i d u s i n g the w o r d , " s u p e r n a t u r a l " , a concept he f inds both " a m b i g u o u s " and not " i n d i g e n o u s " to O j i b w a c u l t u r e . C i t i n g i l l u s t r a t i v e anecdotes , he notes 137 that these p e r s o n s " a r e thought of as p e r s o n s ; they m a y be a d d r e s s e d as s u c h , and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e m is cast in a p e r s o n a l m o d e . " T h u s , we f ind that a l l " p e r s o n s " are " u n i f i e d by t r a d i t i o n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d r ights and o b l i g a t i o n s . " A s s u c h they consti tute the c e n t r a l c o r e of the O j i b w a u n i -v e r s e . H a l l o w e l l s t r e s s e s that, T h i s aspect of t h e i r m e t a p h y s i c s of be ing p e r m e a t e s the content of t h e i r cogni t ive p r o c e s s e s ; p e r c e i v i n g , r e m e m b e r i n g , i m -a g i n i n g , c o n c e i v i n g , j u d g i n g , and r e a s o n i n g . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 273) H e c o n c l u d e s : T h u s it is w i t h i n an i n t r i c a t e web of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r - t h a n - h u m a n , as w e l l as h u m a n p e r s o n s , that the O j i b w a i n d i v i d u a l s t r i v e s f o r p i m a d a z i w i n , l i f e in the f u l l e s t s e n s e . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 274) T h e v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the o t h e r - t h a n - h u m a n p e r s o n s i n c l u d e c o n j u r i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s in w h i c h these p e r s o n s " m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s v o c a l l y , the v o i c e s i s s u i n g f r o m the lodge being d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m e a c h other and f r o m the v o i c e of the c o n j u r e r who kneels w i t h i n . " T h e s e p e r s o n s a l s o consti tute the c h i e f c h a r a c t e r s of O j i b w a m y t h s w h i c h , H a l l o w e l l i n f o r m s u s , are not c o n s i d e r e d to be f i c t i o n . H e o b s e r v e s that a l l m y t h p e r s o n a l i t i e s are r e f e r r e d to as " o u r g r a n d f a t h e r s . " H e states that the " r e p e a t e d rec i ta t ion . " of the m y t h s c o m b i n e d w i t h the " p e r c e p t u a l e x p e r i e n c e " of the c o n j u r i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s give these o t h e r - t h a n - h u m a n p e r s o n s " r e a l i t y " a m o n g the O j i b w a . T h e c l o s e s t i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h a h u m a n b e i n g g e n e r a l l y has w i t h " o t h e r -138 t h a n - h u m a n p e r s o n s " o c c u r s in d r e a m . H a l l o w e l l e x p l a i n s that s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n on the whole " i n v o l v e s no v i t a l d i s t i n c t i o n between s e l f - r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e when awake and e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g s leep w h i c h are r e c a l l e d and s e l f - r e l a t e d . " T h e d e s c r i p t i o n is s i m i l a r to E g g a n ' s c l a i m that the H o p i e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r d r e a m s as cont inuat ions of t h e i r w a k i n g l i v e s . In n e i t h e r c a s e , h o w e v e r , are the e x p e r i e n c e s r e p o r t e d to be c o n f u s e d . A c -c o r d i n g to H a l l o w e l l ; Q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s are r e c o g n i z e d as w e l l as the fact that the k i n d of p e r s o n s who p l a y the m a j o r r o l e in d r e a m s are not those w i t h w h o m the i n d i v i d u a l is m o s t c o n c e r n e d i n w a k i n g l i f e . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 274) In this c o n n e c t i o n , H a l l o w e l l r e m i n d s us that these " p a w a g a n a k " or " d r e a m v i s i t o r s " a p p e a r e d "not as s t r a n g e r s or u n f a m i l i a r f i g u r e s but as w e l l - k n o w n l i v i n g enti t ies of the O j i b w a w o r l d . " A s s u c h he o b s e r v e s that, " S u c h r e l a -t ions c o u l d not be i n t e r p r e t e d as other than e x p e r i e n c e s of the s e l f . " H a l -l o w e l l does not b r o a c h the subject of how these pawaganak w e r e m a d e to appear in d r e a m s . T h e o n l y r e f e r e n c e to d r e a m p r o d u c t i o n is a footnote w h i c h states that after the n a r r a t i o n of m y t h s on w i n t e r n i g h t s , " c h i l d r e n w e r e e n c o u r a g e d to d r e a m about t h e i r o t h e r - t h a n - h u m a n g r a n d f a t h e r s . " W h i l e the c o m m e n t b r i n g s to m i n d the r e f e r e n c e s to " s u g g e s t i o n " m a d e by s u c h w r i t e r s as L i n c o l n and W a l l a c e , H a l l o w e l l does not b r i n g out this point at a l l . Instead he f o c u s e s on the r o l e w h i c h the pawaganak p l a y e d i n d r e a m s , a r o l e w h i c h he f inds "was c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d as i m m e n s e l y v i t a l to the w e l f a r e of the i n d i v i d u a l . " In the next s e c t i o n H a l l o w e l l turns to the r e l a t i o n s h i p "between d r e a m s , the m o t i v a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s , and the f u n c t i o n i n g of t h e i r s o c i o c u l t u r a l s y s t e m . " H e o b s e r v e s that i n t e r a c t i o n s wi th pawaganak w e r e " h i g h l y m o t -i v a t e d " i n that they w e r e " a m e a n s of a c h i e v i n g a p e r s o n a l l i f e adjustment consonant w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v a l u e s of the O j i b w a w o r l d . " C l a r i f y i n g , he states that, . . . d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s have s i g n i f i c a n c e wi th r e l a t i o n to the s o c i a l s y s t e m and c o m m u n i t y l i f e because they are not only i n f l u e n t i a l c o m -ponents of ac tual conduct but b e c a u s e they v a l i d a t e s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s , l i k e c u r i n g , w h i c h b e c o m e a v a i l a b l e to other p e r s o n s . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 280) T h u s we l e a r n that the O j i b w a , l i k e the H o p i , are i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r d r e a m s i n the a r e a of b e h a v i o r . F u r t h e r m o r e , l i k e the M o h a v e , they l o o k to d r e a m s f o r the v a l i d a t i o n of k n o w l e d g e . In contras t to his p r e d e c e s s o r s , H a l l o w e l l h y p o t h e s i z e s a r a t i o n a l e f o r the e x i s t e n c e of these p h e n o m e n a . H e f inds th is r a t i o n a l e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p these p h e n o m e n a b e a r to the o p e r -ation of the s o c i o c u l t u r a l s y s t e m as a w h o l e . T h e f i r s t a r e a H a l l o w e l l looks at is that of b e h a v i o r . H e r e he o b s e r v e s that s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s wi th o t h e r - t h a n - h u m a n p e r s o n s , as w i t h h u m a n p e r -s o n s , " i n v o l v e r e c i p r o c a l r ights and o b l i g a t i o n s . " F u r t h e r m o r e these r ights and obl igat ions are " r e i n f o r c e d by the s a m e s a n c t i o n s " whether they i n v o l v e h u m a n or o t h e r - t h a n h u m a n p e r s o n s . T h u s , the i n d i v i d u a l who f a i l s to f u l -f i l l an o b l i g a t i o n i s gui l ty of " b a d c o n d u c t " and w i l l s u f f e r the penal ty of i l l n e s s . H a l l o w e l l e x p l a i n s that, A n y k i n d of bad conduct on m y par t is s a i d to " f o l l o w m e " . I w i l l i n e v i t a b l y b e c o m e i l l , o r m y c h i l d r e n m a y get s i c k , or m y wife m a y d i e . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 280) T h e s i tuat ion has a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y to that d e s c r i b e d f o r the H o p i by E g g a n . We m i g h t equate " b a d c o n d u c t " w i t h the H o p i " b a d h e a r t " o r " k a h o p i b e h a v i o r . In a d d i t i o n , H a l l o w e l l f inds that, T h e f e a r of b e c o m i n g i l l and the anxiety e n -g e n d e r e d by any s e r i o u s s i c k n e s s is the m a j o r s a n c t i o n of the O j i b w a s o c i o c u l t u r a l s y s t e m . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 280) We f ind that "the bad conduct of h u m a n beings is b e l i e v e d to be the m a j o r s o u r c e of i l l n e s s " . T h u s , " i n e v e r y case of s e r i o u s s i c k n e s s an i n d i v i d u a l m u s t r e f l e c t upon what k i n d of m i s d e e d s he m a y have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r in the p a s t " . We f i n d that even w h e r e s o r c e r y is i n v o l v e d , "the reputed act of the s o r c e r e r is i n t e r p r e t e d as r e t a l i a t i o n f o r s o m e p r e v i o u s bad conduct on the p a r t of the v i c t i m in his i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h the s o r c e r e r " . H a l l o w e l l cont inues by p o i n t i n g out that there s e e m s to be a r e l a t i o n -ship between this i l l n e s s s a n c t i o n and the l a c k of o v e r t f o r m s of s o c i a l c o n t r o l in O j i b w a s o c i e t y . U s i n g the c a t e g o r i e s of W h i t i n g (1959), he o b -s e r v e s that O j i b w a s o c i a l c o n t r o l " c o n f o r m s to the type W h i t i n g d e s c r i b e s as o p e r a t i n g t h r o u g h the m e c h a n i s m of c o n s c i e n c e or s u p e r e g o . " T h i s , he f i n d s , is t y p i f i e d by " a highly d e v e l o p e d sense of p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one 's conduct , s e n s i t i v i t y to guil t , and r e a d i n e s s to accept b l a m e f o r one 's a c t i o n s " . H a l l o w e l l t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e s that, . . . it is n e c e s s a r y that the O j i b w a i n d i v i d u a l be g r o o m e d f o r independent a c t i o n , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c a p a c i t y f o r b e a r i n g a heavy b u r d e n of 141 m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h s e l f -d i s c i p l i n e . A t the s a m e t i m e he needs to d e v e l o p an i n n e r sense of p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y in o r d e r to face the v i c i s s i t u d e s of l i f e . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 281) T h e r e is an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l in th is d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h A . F . C . W a l l a c e ' s p a p e r on the I r o q u o i s . It w i l l be n o t e d that both W a l l a c e and H a l l o w e l l e m p h a s i z e the i n d e p e n d e n t n a t u r e of t h e i r s u b j e c t s . W e f i n d , h o w e v e r , that w h i l e one g r o u p acts out t h e i r d r e a m s , the other m u s t k e e p t h e i r d r e a m s to t h e m s e l v e s . T h a t i s , a m o n g the O j i b w a the r e c o u n t i n g of a d r e a m c o n -tact w i t h a p a w a g a n a k c o n s t i t u t e d a v i o l a t i o n of this " o t h e r - t h a n - h u m a n p e r s o n " . W a l l a c e and H a l l o w e l l t h e r e f o r e c o m e to d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s about the b e -h a v i o r a l r e s u l t s of t h e i r i n f o r m a n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e s . W h i l e W a l l a c e n o t e d that the d r e a m s l e a d the i n d i v i d u a l to a b e h a v i o r of t e m p o r a r y d e p e n d e n c e , H a l l o w e l l notes that it l e a d s h i m to a b e h a v i o r of p e r m a n e n t i n d e p e n d e n c e . It s e e m s that H a l l o w e l l ' s a n a l y s i s f i n d s an even c l o s e r p a r a l l e l in E g g a n ' s d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e of c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y the d u m a l a i t k a , i n H o p i d r e a m s . W h i l e E g g a n d i s c u s s e d the H o p i c h a r a c t e r s as c u l t u r a l s y m -b o l s w h i c h d i r e c t e d the i n d i v i d u a l to c u l t u r a l c o n f o r m i t y , H a l l o w e l l d i s c u s s e d the O j i b w a c h a r a c t e r s as a c t i v e a s s i s t a n t s who help the i n d i v i d u a l a c h i e v e his goal of " a good l i f e , f r e e f r o m i l l n e s s , h u n g e r , and m i s f o r t u n e ( i . e . , p l m a d a z T w i n ) " . T h e d i f f e r e n c e a p p e a r s to l i e in the r e a l m of e f f e c t i v e n e s s that e a c h a n t h r o p o l o g i s t f o c u s e s o n . T h a t i s , f o r H a l l o w e l l , the d r e a m s i n f l u e n c e o r d e t e r m i n e the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e . But w h i l e E g g a n speaks of S a m ' s d r e a m s as g i v i n g " a sense of r e a l i t y to his d e s i r e to be w i s e , s t r o n g , c o u r a g e o u s " , her o b s e r v a t i o n tends to r e m a i n in the r e a l m of S a m ' s i m a g i n a t i o n , i n his " s e n s e " of s e l f . T h u s , whi le E g g a n e m -p h a s i z e s the r o l e of s u c h c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r s as c u l t u r a l s y m b o l s who d i r e c t the i n d i v i d u a l t o w a r d c o n f o r m i t y , she does not s p e c i f i c a l l y suggest that they d i r e c t h i m to the d e v e l o p m e n t of c e r t a i n s t e r e o t y p e d p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . C o n t i n u i n g , H a l l o w e l l f o c u s e s on the r o l e of the o t h e r - t h a n - h u m a n p e r s o n s in the d e v e l o p m e n t of the r e q u i r e d O j i b w a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . H e states that these p e r s o n s w e r e p o w e r f u l and c o u l d help the O j i b w a in t h e i r d a i l y s t r u g g l e s . In fact , he f inds that t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e was a " n e c e s s i t y " . A s s u c h it was sought in a " d r e a m f a s t " . H a l l o w e l l d e s c r i b e s this fast in the f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : In a b o r i g i n a l days it was c u s t o m a r y to send boys between the ages of ten and f i f teen out to fast f o r s i x o r seven n i g h t s . T h e y b e c a m e suppl iants in need of help ; they w e r e said to p r o v o k e the " p i t y " of t h e i r o t h e r - t h a n - h u m a n g r a n d f a t h e r s . C o m i n g to t h e i r aid these p a w a g a n a k " b l e s s e d " t h e m , as E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g i n f o r m a n t s p h r a s e it , by o f f e r i n g to s h a r e t h e i r knowledge and p o w e r . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 282) A s s u c h , H a l l o w e l l states that the d r e a m fast was the m o s t i m p o r t a n t e x p e r i e n c e of one's l i f e : . . . . t h e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s he e s t a b l i s h e d with his pawaganak d e t e r m i n e d a great d e a l of his d e s t i n y as an i n d i v i d u a l . H e m e t the " p e r s o n s " on w h o m he c o u l d m o s t f i r m l y depend in the f u t u r e . H e a l s o a c q u i r e d knowledge of the s p e c i a l i z e d p o w e r s that would be of p o t e n t i a l benefi t to his f e l l o w h u m a n b e i n g s . ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 288-289) T h u s H a l l o w e l l c o n c l u d e s that the d r e a m fast was a n e c e s s a r y ins t i tu t ion 143 in the s o c i o c u l t u r a l s y s t e m of the a b o r i g i n a l O j i b w a . It should be noted here that al though H a l l o w e l l has spoken of a f o r m a l -i z e d " d r e a m f a s t " i n w h i c h the pawaganak a p p e a r e d to the i n d i v i d u a l , he s t i l l has not touched on the p r o b l e m of how these " d r e a m v i s i t o r s " are able to appear in these d r e a m s . H e d o e s , h o w e v e r , m a k e an o b s e r v a t i o n about c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n . A s an as ide he r e m a r k s that, . . . m a n y songs of the O j i b w a are not c o m p o s e d in the o r d i n a r y sense but are the c o n s e q u e n c e s of d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s . " ( H a l l o w e l l 1966: 283) In this he r e f e r s us to the w o r k of D e n s m o r e (1910) on O j i b w a m u s i c . H o w -e v e r lie'.makes no c o m m e n t on the p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d in s u c h d r e a m c r e a t i o n s . R a t h e r this p h e n o m e n o n is p r e s e n t e d as s o m e t h i n g of a ' c u r i o s i t y ' , m u c h l i k e the I r o q u o i s ' c u r i n g m e t h o d s ' of B l a u ' s o b s e r v a t i o n . T h u s the only a r e a of inf luence H a l l o w e l l s e e m s to see between d r e a m and c u l t u r e is that of p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o r . L i k e R a d i n , H a l l o w e l l notes that the d r e a m fast is no l o n g e r a fea ture of O j i b w a l i f e . H o w e v e r , in c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to R a d i n , he f inds that today, " i n the d r e a m s of a c c u l t u r e d i n d i v i d u a l s who n e v e r underwent a d r e a m fas t , we f ind a m a n i f e s t content that is i n t e r p r e t e d as a great b l e s s i n g , so that the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c e r t a i n d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e s r e m a i n e d the s a m e f o r i n d i v i d u -als l o n g after the p e r i o d when the a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e f l o u r i s h e d . " I 144 The example he provides is s i m i l a r to the one Radin reported for his 1926 informant. This is the dream in which a "gift" was received. Ha Howell ' s informant also receives a g i f t . Furthermore, like J . S h . , he experiences proof of his " b l e s s i n g ' . He tells Hallowell that he had had a gun f i red at him but felt no bullet enter his body. Of this , Hallowell states, W. B. was absolutely confident with respect to his invulnerability to bullets and if he had gone to war I am sure this would have given him unusual courage. (Hallowell 1966: 285) Thus while Hallowell sees some degree of effectiveness in W. B . ' s experience, he tends to invalidate the experience and reduce W. B . ' s claims of power to ' supernatural b e l i e f s ' . The result is the same as it was with Radin's paper. The Ojibwa seem to appear to have a ' false perception' of reality. Returning to his discussion, of the aboriginal system, Hallowell concludes that the dream played a necessary and vital role in the lives of the Ojibwa people. Not only did the dream fast experience determine individual destinies, but it imposed obligations which "reinforced a type of personality structure that, functioning p r i m a r i l y with emphasis upon inner control rather than outward coercion, was a necessary psychological component in the operation of the Ojibwa sociocultural system. " D i s c u s s i o n T h e e m p h a s i s on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of " o t h e r - t h a n - h u m a n p e r s o n s " i n both d r e a m s and w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s p e r m i t s a v i e w of the ' r e a l i t y ' of the d r e a m in t e r m s of c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n r a t h e r than m i s p e r c e p t i o n . But as we a p p r o a c h the case of W . B . , the l o s s of c r e d i b i l i t y with r e s p e c t to the ' r e a l i t y ' of his " p o w e r " to be i n v i s i b l e to b u l l e t s , tends to r e f l e c t b a c k upon this o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e " o t h e r - t h a n - h u m a n p e r s o n s " s e e m to be r e d u c e d to e x p e r i e n c e s of s u p e r n a t u r a l b e l i e f and the O j i b w a c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e m s e e m to be f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n s after a l l . A s s u c h , the event of the O j i b w a d r e a m c o m p l e x tends to appear as an e x p e r i e n c e of the i m a g i n a t i o n . T h e apparent l a c k of c o m m u n i c a t i o n of the O j i b w a e x p e r i e n c e as a ' r e a l e x p e r i e n c e would appear to be a s s o c i a t e d wi th the paperfes e m p h a s i s on the t r a n s l a t i o n of concepts r a t h e r than events . It is suggested that future i n -q u i r y into s u c h p h e n o m e n a as d r e a m i n d u c e m e n t m a y r e s u l t in the d e s c r i p -t ion of the O j i b w a d r e a m c o m p l e x as a v a l i d (real) p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h e m a t i c C o n n e c t i o n s T h e theme of the c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e on d r e a m is absent f r o m H a l l o w e l l ' s s tudy. T h e theme of the d r e a m ' s i n f l u e n c e on c u l t u r e is p r e s e n t to the ex-tent that Hal loweir rdela tes the d r e a m e x p e r i e n c e to O j i b w a p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and m o d e s of b e h a v i o r . O n e instance of c u l t u r a l innovat ion in d r e a m s is m e n t i o n e d . H o w e v e r , the e x a m p l e r e m a i n s i s o l a t e d and tends to appear as an object of c u r i o s i t y . T h e theme of the m i s p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y is p r e s e n t and is extended to the r e a l i t y of the d r e a m as w e l l as to the 146 r e a l i t y of the o t h e r - t h a n - h u m a n p e r s o n s who appear in the d r e a m . 147 C H A P T E R VII N O N - W E S T E R N D R E A M S V E R S U S W E S T E R N R E A L I T I E S In the preceding chapters three themes have been, traced through the literature on the dream complexes of five North American peoples. The reader w i l l recall that these themes were derived f rom the observations of J . S. Lincoln in his survey study, The Dream in Primitive Cultures. In his investigations, Lincoln had found t-hat in the majority of those societies where dreams are considered to be important, there apparently occur the following: 1. an influence of the culture on the dream as manifested by the phenomenon of the culture pattern dream; 2. an influence of the dream on the culture as manifested by the phenomenon of culture items originating in dreams; and 3. an overvaluation of fantasy as manifested by the treatment of the dream experience as a real experience. Despite the relationship between the dream and culture which the first two phenomena indicated, the anthropological dream literature we have been studying seems to have been dominated , either explicitly or implic i t ly , by the relationship which the third phenomenon indicated: the relationship between the dream and reality. Each of the studies we have examined has revolved around a description of the attitudes and practices which the investigator observed in connection with the dream in the society of 'his study. In a l l cases, however, there seemed to be an implicit understanding that the attitudes which the informants had toward their dreams were ' incorrect ' attitudes, that i s , ' false b e l i e f s ' . In some cases the anthropologist made direct reference to the ' r e a l ' meaning of dreams. Morgan, for example, suggested that the " r i tuals" of the Navaho interfered with their perception of the a contrario meaning of dreams. The implication seemed to be that the a contrario meaning is the ' t rue ' meaning. In other cases we were told that the informants' attitudes or practices 148 indicated they actually did have some awareness of such apparently 1 true' meanings of dreams but that this awareness was clouded in some way. Thus, Lincoln and Eggan both spoke of their informants being dimly cognizant of the dream as an expression of anti-social tendencies. Wallace referred to a recognition of psychoanalytic concepts underneath the animistic facade of the Iroquois dream complex. In many cases, the trend of the discussion was such that it tended to convey the impression that the native attitudes and practices existed for reasons other than those which had been reported by the informants. That i s , the anthropologists seemed to be postulating a ' r e a l ' reason for the native practices - an underlying motive of which the natives themselves were apparently unaware. Morgan, for instance, seemed to imply that there was a 'need' for causal thinking among the Navaho. Lincoln indicated there was a primitive ' need' for the overvaluation of fantasy. Wallace and Devereux both claimed that the Mohave only thought they experienced the sumach ahot. It was their suggestion that they came to recal l what was really a combination of actual events and dreams as a dream experience. Eggan and A . F . C . Wallace associated the behavior of their informants with a 'need' for emotional release. Hallowell presented the Ojibwa quest for a pawaganak in terms of a cultural 'need' to develop a certain personality structure. In one way or another, therefore, it seems that the anthropologists have substituted western explanations of the dream complexes for the non-western ones. The problem with this substitution is that it has taken place without any apparent justification on the part of the investigators. That i s , while the implications of this line of inquiry would seem to be that the informants were simply mistaken about the true significance of dreams, in no case has this been explicitly argued by an investigator. Thus, in the case of the Navaho, neither Lincoln nor Morgan explained why the native interpretations could not be viewed as being correct . At no time did they provide us with any evidence that Navaho curing methods did not achieve the results which the Navaho claimed they did. They simply proceeded to analyze them. Morgan associated them with causal thought 149 processes and Lincoln indicated that they were the result of the Navaho being only partially aware of the dream as an expression of "anti -social tendencies". When discussing the Mohave dream complex, Wallace and Devereux did not speculate about the possibility that the Mohave could have the standard content dreams they claimed to have. Nor did they consider the possibility that these dreams might give the claimed effectiveness to knowledge and abilities. Rather, they referred to an apparent lack of distinction between dreams and actual events among the Mohave. Eggan did not discuss the Hopi explanation of why the practice of telling dreams and then spitting four' times would ward off their effects or why these dreams would have effects on waking activities. Instead she tended to direct our attention to the significance of the practice as an indication that the Hopi have "a dim understanding" of the dream as an emotional outlet. In like manner, A . F . C . Wallace did not seem to be concerned with the Iroquois c laim that acting out dreams prevents them from coming true. Rather, he referred to the significance of the practice as a manifestation of a psychological need for passivity in the Iroquois male. Radin did not discuss what significance the culture pattern dream held for the Ojibwa. Referring us to the "true significance" of the dream, he instead described the Ojibwa dream in terms of "cultural trappings". While Hallowell reported that the Ojibwa viewed this dream as a source of knowledge and power, he focused on it instead as an apparent source of specific personality traits. He also implied that rather than being a source of "power", the dream might constitute a source of "courage" for the dreamer. In most cases, therefore, the inquiries seemed to provide us with an explanation for the existence of the native dream complex. They would appear to have been motivated by the question: Why do the informants hold these attitudes towards their dreams? The nature of the answers they have provided is such that one would suspect the question itself involves a view of the native attitudes as being ' w r o n g ' . This inference is supported by the absence of any suggestion in any of the studies 150 that the native explanations might be correct or ' true' ones. That i s , none of the investigators discussed the possibility that the native dream complex might consist of ' true bel ief . In addition to the apparent portrayal of the native dream complexes as phenomena of ' false bel ief , the dream studies seemed to describe the non-western attitudes towards dreams in terms of - or at least in association with - certain elements that would indicate to a western reader that the informants have an attitude toward fantasy as reality. In some cases, the belief in or treatment of fantasy (especially the fantasy of the dream experience) as a form of reality was the explicit observation of the anthropologist. This observation took one of two forms: 1. the informant was suggested to perceive his dream expe riences as real experiences (Lincoln, Eggan, Hallowell) or , 2. the informant was suggested to perceive his real (waking) experiences as dream experiences (Wallace, Devereux). But in most cases it seemed to be implici t ly communicated through the anthropologist's references to an associated ' be l ief in (the reality of) the supernatural. As discussed in Chapter I, the equation of the supernatural with fantasy stems f rom the fact that the term "supernatural" does not refer to any commonly accepted (scientific) reality in western society. The general suggestion that the non-westerners view fantasy as reality has tended to imply that they have a ' false perception' of reality. That i s , for the western reader, references to the reality of the dream or of supernatural phenomena would seem to be indicative of a mind which does not know that fantasy experiences are not real experiences - a mind which does not perceive reality correctly . In most cases, this suggestion of ' false perception' has tended to combine with prel iminary impressions of ' false bel ief to suggest that the dream complex ; ;may be a result of this apparent lack of recognition of the boundaries between reality and fantasy. That i s , the impression which has tended to be transmitted is that the dream complex is in itself an experience in which one misperceives reality and therefore misinterprets his dreams. It was observed at the beginning of this chapter that most non-western dream complexes were apparently characterized by two phenomena which have played only a minor role in the anthropological dream literature: the influence of culture on dreams and of dreams on culture. At this point it becomes apparent that these dream phenomena and the relationship between dream and culture which they seem to involve may have been obscured by the problem of reality perception in the literature. T h e i r existence, however, seems to indicate that there may be an event behind the non-western dream complex which has not yet emerged f rom the anthropological descriptions - an event which lies beyond the experiences of false belief and false perception. At this point, therefore, it becomes important to attempt to discover the reason for the apparent domination of the relationship between dream and reality over the relationship between dream and culture. That i s , it becomes important to uncover the basis for the apparent association of the phenomena of the non-western dream complexes with the phenomena of reality perceptions. While the anthropological dream studies seem to have presented the non-western dream complexes in terms of the relationship between dream and reality, this is not the relationship upon which the practices of these dream complexes would appear to be based. They seem to involve a relationship not between dream experiences and real experiences , but between dream experiences and waking experiences. F o r example, we have read of the Navaho, the Mohave, the Hopi and the Iroquois taking steps to ensure that events which were indicated by dreams would not occur in waking l i fe . We also saw the Iroquois and the Ojibwa taking steps to ensure that they would have dreams upon which they could plan l i fe- long careers . This relationship between the dream and waking life is one which would seem to play very little part in the western cultural attitude towards dream. It would seem that 152 the western interest in the dream revolves around its significance for personality analysis. As one recent researcher put it, " . . . it is more important to understand the patient who is having the dream than it is to understand the dream the patient 1 is h a v i n g . " It would seem that, in contrast to the non-western emphasis , our interest in dreams revolves around their significance not in relation to the outer self or waking life but instead in relation to an inner self or subconscious l i fe . Recently, a book has appeared which is outstanding in its departure f rom this traditional view. Written by a western psychologist, Patricia Garfield, it is 2 entitled Creative Dreaming . As the title suggests, the emphasis of the book is not onithe analysis of dreams but on the use of dreams. Garf ield is not concerned with teaching us how to analyze an existing dream content but rather with teaching us how to produce a desired dream content. It is her intention to teach the reader a method of dream control whereby he can produce creative dreams. The term "creative d r e a m " refers to the following experiences': 1. "healing dreams" of the type experienced by the ancient Greeks, A s s y r i a n s , Egyptians, and Chinese; 2. artistic dreams of the the type experienced by such people as Wil l iam Blake, Guiseppe Tar t ini , and Robert Louis Stevenson; and 3. problem-solving dreams of the type experienced by such people as anthropologist Hermann V . Hilprecht and scientists F r i e d r i c h A . Kekuie and Otto Loewi. The method of dream production Garfield proposes is one which she has devised from an examination of the dream experiences of people f rom western and non-western cultures alike. The book consists, therefore, of a presentation of those practices which she has found to be effective in the production of a desired dream content. She begins by referr ing to "ancient dreamers" who sought dreams of advice and healing f rom various deities. The only anthropologist who spoke of this ancient practice was L i n c o l n . It w i l l be remembered that he seemed to dismiss it as a manifestation of animistic belief. Garf ield , however, focuses on this practice as a manifestation 153 of "dream control" . She maintains that the dreams, including the appearance of deities in them, were "predetermined" by the d r e a m e r . She states that the dream occurred because the dreamer "expected" it to. Furthermore, she reports that such "dream control" or "dream incubation" has been practiced in various ways by various peoples throughout the course of history. One of the groups to whom Garfield looks for guidance in dream control techniques is one of our North A m e r i c a n Indian tribes: the Ojibwa. Specifically, she refers us to their "vis ion quest", the "culture pattern d r e a m " reported by Radin and Hallowell . While her discussion of this dream is a brief one, it represents a significant departure f r o m the anthropological approaches. F o r the first time since L i n c o l n ' s 1935 investigation, we see the themes of the influence of culture on dream and of the dream on culture emerging. It seems that Garfield is not concerned with the association between the vis ion quest and the ' be l ief in such supernatural f igures as "guardian s p i r i t s " . She focuses on the association between the vision quest and the practice of producing both standard and creative dream contents. As such, she discusses those Ojibwa practices which she considers to be necessary for the production of a desired dream: . . . the belief in importance of dreaming, reward for dreaming, external suggestion to dream, self-suggestion to dream, intense concentration on the desired dream, thinking about dreams, relating to dream images, and using symbols f rom dreams (and possibly enhancement of dreaming by fasting and isolation). (Garfield 1974: 88) The reader w i l l find this reference to "suggestion" a famil iar one. Lincoln attributed the non-western culture pattern dreams to this phenomenon. However, he also attributed them to a ' be l ief i n the reality of the dream. A s i m i l a r line was followed in the studies of Wallace and Devereux where reference was made to the possibility of the workings of "suggestion" (Wallace) and "cultural expectations" (Devereux) on the production of the sumach ahot. However, like L i n c o l n ' s study, these papers came to focus on the phenomenon in terms of an apparent lack of distinction between dreams and actual events. It would seem therefore that al l of the dream researches under study have focused on the beliefs about or perceptions of the dream experience rather than on the practices around which they revolve. Garfield, however, has investigated the practices. She has demonstrated, it would seem, that they are highly significant in themselves, regardless of the 'bel iefs ' with which they might be associated. Garfield also speaks of the origin of culture items in Ojibwa dreams. Specifically, she refers to the origin of "dream songs" in the vision quest . While Hallowell had made a brief reference to this Ojibwa dream feature, Garfield elaborates. She observes that the dream songs had great importance for the dreamer in his waking moments: By singing the song softly in times of danger or serious undertaking, the dreamer believed that the supernatural power granted in his great dream was strengthened. (Garfield 1974: 86) She also notes that a s i m i l a r phenomenon has occurred among those of her students who have produced such dream compositions. Apparently they have found that these dream songs have "great emotional force" for them. Garfield suggests that the "powerful responses" which the Indians experience are probably not dependent upon the "belief in supernatural beings" at a l l . She suggests that these compositions provoke such reactions because they " . . . encapsulate a piece of the d r e a m e r ' s deepest sense of s e l f . " That statement is significant for its ultimate separation of belief and practice. That i s , while our anthropologists would seem to have treated the non-western practices as if their existence were dependent upon the non-western beliefs about or perceptions of them, Garfield does just the opposite. Here the belief is subordinate to the practice. It is even suggested that, but for a rationalizing function, the belief is irrelevant to the practice. Thus, f rom an experience of ' false bel ief and ' false perception' , the non-western culture pattern dream seems to have been transformed into a practice of dream control which is associated with a belief in supernatural phenomena. While Garfield has translated the non-western phenomenon as an experience of dream control, it soon becomes apparent that she has also made a translation of a conceptual nature. That i s , for Garfield the dream is a product of the d r e a m e r ' s imaginative processes. This is the concept upon which our initiation into the practice of dream control proceeds. In the first place, we are told that dreams have a fundamental "shapability": Patients in therapy describe having Freudian-type dreams . . . when they consult a Freudian analyst. The same patient, when he switches to a Jungian therapist, begins to have Jungian-type dreams . . . This change is not merely a shift of emphasis in interpretation but a shift in actual dream content. The patient has learned to shape his dreams according to the wishes and expectations of his therapist. (Garfield 1974: 16) It is G a r f i e l d ' s suggestion that, rather than leave our dreams to such alien influences, we should take an active role in the shaping of their contents ourselves. In the second place, she observes that the dream state itself allows us almost unlimited access to the mental repository of al l the knowledge and experience we have acquired over the years . She suggests that this situation makes the dream an ideal state for creativity. Furthermore, it is her opinion that this situation also makes the practice of dream control an ideal means of integrating the personality. She sees the communication between the waking and dreaming selves culminating in the creation of a unified personality. To demonstrate this unification, she refers us to a c a r r y - o v e r effect of dream behavior. In essence this observation is the same as the one which Lincoln made about dreams having an influence on mood and behavior. In fact, this observation is possibly a fa i r ly common one - at least 156 among those who are in the habit of recall ing their dream experiences. G a r f i e l d ' s point is that we should take advantage of the d r e a m ' s shapability and c a r r y - o v e r effect and deal with our problems while we are in the dream state itself. Reporting that both she and her students have experienced success i n such endeavours, she suggests that we attempt to control the outcomes of anticipated situations so that, if and when they occur in waking life , we w i l l be capable of dealing with them effectively. Thus, G a r f i e l d ' s concept of the process of dream control seems to be dependent upon her concept of the dream as a product of the d r e a m e r ' s imagination. A s such, the process of dream control emerges as a process of self -control . At this point, it becomes very tempting to apply G a r f i e l d ' s conception of the waking-dreaming relationship to the dream complexes of our five North A m e r i c a n Indian tribes. The validation of the dream as a determining influence on the moods and behavior of the dreamer gives many of the non-western pract ices new significances. This seems especial ly true of those whose reported purpose was "to negate the effects of a bad d r e a m " (Hopi; Eggan), or to " forestal l " an event which was indicated by a dream (Navaho; Morgan), such as the "realization of an evil-fated w i s h " (Iroquois; Wallace). But it is even true of those practices which involve an attitude toward the dream as an indicator of i l lness . F o r example, the seemingly ' i r rat ional ' wish of M o r g a n ' s Navaho informant to have his dream cured so that the healing of his injured eye might proceed appears now as a relatively ' rational' reques t. Even the Mohave dreams of knowledge take on new significance in terms of the "power" they are supposed to give the dreamer in the application of kmowledge.. F inal ly , the validation of the dream as a controllable and potentially creative mental activity make the culture pattern dream not only a credible experience, but a desirable experience. That i s , in terms of the knowledge which would seem to become available to the dreamer at this time, it takes on the appearance of being 157 a perfect opportunity for the discovery and development of the d r e a m e r ' s existing capabilities. Even the acquisition of a "guardian spir i t " seems like a desirable step. G a r f i e l d in fact encourages us to build such "dream friends" into our dreams. She states: We can build into our dream world friendly images that w i l l help us not only in our dreams but in our waking life as wel l . We can make dream friends who w i l l provide us with solutions to our problems and with marvellous creative products. (Garfield 1974: 14) But herein lies the problem of Garf ie ld ' s translation of the non-western experience. Her choice of words signifies that she 'knows' that supernatural beings do not appear in dreams. Thus, while Garfield does not deny the non-western experience itself, she does seem to deny the non-western interpretation of it . She encourages us to seek s i m i l a r "dream fr iends" . But she refers to them as the "thought f o r m s " of the d r e a m e r ' s own mind. Both the dream experience and the supernatural experience are therefore portrayed as products of the imagination. As such the non-western dream complex s t i l l appears as an event of false belief and false perception. The problem of reality perception seems almost impossible to solve. It seems as though the western attempt to translate the non-western experience may be doomed to failure by the non-western insistence on ' believing' in the supernatural. But perhaps we should look at the problem in another way. It may be that the problem is not the non-westerner 's ' bel ief but the westerner 's ' knowledge' . While we have seen some of the theoretical conceptions of dream on which the anthropological portrayals have been based, we might now look at what coneptions of reality they involve. In recent years social scientists have become increasingly aware of the problem of the conceptualizations of social realit ies . Much of this interest would seem to be 3 due to the work of the late Alfred Schutz. In his writings , Schutz examined the problem of the social construction of realities. Expanding upon the ideas of Wil l iam James, Schutz conceptualized the western experience of reality as an experience 158 of "multiple real i t ies" . Paramount among these realities, or "finite provinces of meaning" , is the reality of "the everyday w o r l d " . This is a world which is taken for granted - a world whose reality our "natural attitude" does not doubt. The everyday world is governed by a "pragmatic motive" . Action is geared into and affects the "outer w o r l d " . Finally this world is an "intersubjective w o r l d " . Subordinate to the everyday world are those worlds wti ch become realities through a suspension of belief in the paramountcy of the everyday reality. These are "the world of dreams, of imageries and phantasms, and especially the world of art, the world of religious experience, the world of scientific contemplation, the play world of the child, and the world of the insane". As we attend to each of these worlds we shift an "accent of reality" onto them. As our attention lapses, this accent of reality is shifted back onto the everyday world . (Schutz 1962: 208-212; 229-232) Because each of these provinces of meaning is finite, that i s , unique in its cognitive style, category of experiences and accent of reality, direct communication between them is not possible. We always return to the everyday world and interpret our experiences in termsof this paramount reality. ..The passage f rom one world to another is therefore experienced as a shock or what Kierkegaard has described as a'leap". (Schutz 1962: 232) The finite nature of these multiple realities necessitates that communication with them be performed indirec t ly . As Schutz points out, language itself " . . . obstinately resists serving as a vehicle for meanings which transcend its own presuppositions." (Schutz 1962: 233) Elaborating on this problem, Berger and Luckmann 4 (1967) point out that such communication is car r ied on through the use of "symbolic universes" which interpret the co-existence of realities for us . F o r example, psychological theory, which is grounded i n an even greater scientific universe, may provide us with an explanation of the dream experience. This explanation both translates and integrates the experience into the reality of everyday l i fe . At the same time it mitigates the shock that accompanies the leap f rom one reality to another and 159 ensures that the reality of everyday life w i l l retain its paramount status. (Berger and Luckmann 1967: 95-96) These conceptualizations of social realities are important to our understanding of the anthropological presentations of non-western dream complexes. They seem to suggest an immediate explanation for the portrayal of the non-western dream experience in terms of an apparent reality value. As Schutz has demonstrated, the paramount reality in western life is characterized by action which has an effect on the outer world and by intersubjectivity. These in fact would appear to be characteristics of the non-western dream complexes as described in the literature. In the first case, we read of behavior which would seem to signify that the informants 'believed' that their dream experiences could somehow influence their waking experiences. That i s , we saw steps being taken for the apparent purpose of preventing the occurrence of anticipated events. This would suggest a ' b e l i e f that dream experiences have a potential capability for pnodicing an effect upon the outer world . In the second case, we read of the apparent involvement of various supernatural phenomena in dream experiences. This would suggest that the informants 'bel ieved' they could communicate with others in dream experiences. Both these phenomena tend to indicate that the informants have given the dream experience a sustained note of reality. It would seem therefore that the appearance of the dream as a real experience in the literature may stem from the appearance of these two aspects of outer-directedness and intersubjectivity. Both characteristics would seem to indicate that there is a direct communication between the finite world of dre.am and the paramount world of everyday life. That i s , they suggest that the non-westerner has perhaps incorporated the dream experience into the paramount reality. There is, however, one problem with this suggestion: it is based on a western theoretical construction of reali t ies . Of al l the anthropological researchers , only two seemed to make reference to the cultural relativity of reality. These were Eggan and Hallowell . But while both writers noted 160 this concept, neither seemed to be able to extend it beyond the description of the perceptual universe of their informants. In both cases such descriptions were followed by references to supernatural 'bel iefs ' which seemed to indicate that the perceptual universe itself was a product of the non-western imagination. This tended to give it the appearance of a ' false reality' . It would seem that what was overlooked in both cases was the relativity of the supernatural itself. That i s , the concept, of the supernatural can only be defined in terms of the paramount reality of western culture. It is meaningless once we step outside the boundaries of our own cultural experiences of reality. Thus, it would appear that the question of the non-western dream complex is not a question of the non-westerner 's perception of reality but rather of the westerner 's perception of reality. That i s , the anthropological descriptions under study seem to have depicted reality as an absolute, universally recognizable experience. It is apparent that this view must be modified so as to account for multiple cultural realit ies . It seems we must recognize western reality as being only one version of the total reality of human existence. It seems we must accept the possibility that there are phenomena which we have not yet experienced or admitted to our western framework of reality. A recognition of the cultural relativity of reality puts the anthropological translation of the non-western dream complex i n an entirely different perspective. It would seem that the anthropological descriptions have projected a view not only of reality as an absolute experience but also of dream as an absolute experience. Each seemed to involve a view of the non-westerner experiencing the d r e a m as we do -but identifying it incorrectly . The possibility which presents itself now is that the non-western dream complexes might be phenomena of experience rather than perception. Signs of the possibility have appeared within the literature . These signs range from the uniqueness of the attitudes themselves to our discovery of their basis in a possible waking-dreaming relationship to Garf ie ld ' s observation of the apparent "shapability" of the dream experience. A l l of these phenomena suggest there is a difference between the western and non-western experiences of dreaming. This was especially apparent in those cases where we saw evidence of culture pattern dreams or of dreams i n which culture items appeared to originate. Most curious in this respect is the literature on the Mohave. That i s , both Wallace and Devereux presented cases against the actuality of the sumach ahot. It would appear now that their reason for doing so may have involved the fact that such dreams are not generally known to be part of the western experience. Interestingly enough, however, it would seem from L i n c o l n ' s report that such dreams have been experienced in the western world . One point which seems especially relevant here is the role of memory . Presuming both westerners and non-westerners experience the same amount of dreaming, it would seem that the non-we s terner ' s memory of his dreams may be superior to the we s term J e r ' s . While the role of memory was commented on by a few anthropologists, it is interesting that none related the westerner 's seeming lack of memory to his potential for a knowledge of his own dream experiences. There was no suggestion that we piossibly have s i m i l a r experiences which we just do not recal l when we waken. In any case, a l l of these considerations suggest that the experience of the dream is one which is determined not by one's relationship to reality but by one's relationship to culture. That i s , it seems the dream may be a cultural experience. A s the foregoing analyses indicate, the anthropological dream researchers have apparently utilized western ' knowledge' of the dream and of reality as a tool of analysis rather than as a basis of comparison. This may explain the portrayal of the dream complexes in terms of the non-westerner 's relationship with reality rather than in terms of his relationship with dream. It is evident, however, that more researches w i l l be required for the discovery of the nature of this dream relation-ship. It is also evident that before such investigations can take place, we must become aware of our own cultural relationship to the dream experience. 162 The nature of the relationship which the westerner has with his dreams would seem to be most c learly revealed by a consideration of what the hypothetical concept of the reality of dream implies . While some anthropologists indicated that such views may exist among some non-western peoples, they did not elaborate upon them. It would seem that the concept is one which some western thinkers have posed as a philosophical problem - others as their worst nightmare. The following passage, taken from the writings of Berger and Luckmann, i l lustrates ' : Just because the 'night -s ide" has its own reality, often enough of a sinister kind, it is a constant threat to the taken-for-granted matter-of-fact , "sane" reality of life in society. The thought keeps suggesting itself (the "insane" thought par excellence) that, perhaps, the bright reality of everyday life is but an i l lusion, to be swallowed up at any moment by the howling nightmares of the other, the night-side reality. (Berger and Luckmann 1967: 98) Berger and Luckmann's conceptualization of this situation is significant for its revelation of the relationship we would appear to have with the paramount reality. The reader w i l l note that, rather than being seen as an experience that could be added to and perhaps enhance the everyday reality, the hypothetically real dream is seen i n terms of threatening to ' swallow up' the paramount reality. That i s , it would seem that more than any other finite province of meaning, the dream tends to be viewed as existing in direct opposition to the reality of the everyday world . The opposition between reality and .dream is one which has been consistently observed throughout our examination of the anthropological dream studies. That i s , in each case the anthropological presentation seemed to be grounded upon a concept of the dream as faitasy - a product of the imagination. The reader may r e c a l l , however, that this view of the dream as a product of the mind is one which is relatively recent in western history. Lincoln pointed out that western man, like non-western man, once 'believed' in the reality of the dream experience . Like the non-westerner we once looked to the dream for supernatual advice and guidance. We also rel ied upon our dream experiences for the guidance of our waking experiences. Lincoln explained that we 163 discontinued such practices with the dawn of rationalism and the scientific method. One ;might say the implication here was that the dawn of rationalism and the scientific method was the dawn of our 1 true' perception of reality. That i s> it was at this time we ' discovered' that the experience of dream was merely i l lusory . What had been considered to be ' real ' communications with the super-natural were exposed as " irrat ional products of the human mind" (lincoln 1935). They regained significance only with F r e u d ' s ' d i s c o v e r y ' that this manifest irrationality had what we might ca l l a ' latent rationality' . Thus, to this day dreams in western society have apparently remained in the hands of specialists (psychologists or psychiatrists) who are equipped with a ' scientific method' for interpreting them - or for using them to interpret the personality which has created them. One of the most interesting aspects of the establishment of the dream as a product of the imagination was the effect it ;had on the problem of ultimate responsibility for dream behavior. The reader may recal l L i n c o l n ' s reference to the views of Mart in Luther in this regard. According to Raymond de Becker (1968)"*, the q.uestion of the d r e a m ' s ultimate origin in the natural or supernatural realm was a philosophical problem for early Christ ian thinkers. While the ultimate banishment of the supernatural f rom the dream has a very long and complex history, what is significant for our purposes is that the development of the concept of the unconscious tended to relieve the individual of responsibility for his dream behavior. It would appear that this attitude has persisted to the present day. The noted /psychologist Calvin S. Hall '(1972)6 corroborates this: . . . people don't feel responsible for what they dream. A dream is something that happens while they are aslee p and they feel they do not have control over it as they do over events in waking l i fe . (Hall 1972: 14) What this attitude signifies is that the westerner tends to view his dreams as being the experience of a self other than the self who participates in the paramount reality. 164 It would appear that we have a concept of a dream self which is distinct f rom the waking self, that i s , the self of the everyday world . While neither Schutz nor Berger and Luckmann remarked upon this phenomenon, it would appear that the dream experience may be unique among the other finite provinces of meaning with respect to this identity of self. It should be emphasized here that we are speaking of the concept of self. Although we may feel like the same person while we are experiencing a dream, we do not seem to conceptualize our experience in these terms when we return to the paramount reality. This situation would seem to be an aspect of the necessity of indirect communication with such finite provinces of meaning. While we cannot go into a discussion of the relationships between the dream self, the unconscious and the waking self, it would seem that the unconscious acts as a mediating concept linking together yet separating the world of everyday life and the world of dream. It would also seem that it prevents the dream from having a direct relevance to the everyday world . (This would presumably threaten the paramountcy of the reality of the everyday world . ) What is significant about this situation is that it appears not to have any correlative in the non-western societies we have been studying. It would appear that in .these societies the dream was treated as though it were directly relevant to the waking experience. Thus, for example, we saw the Navaho, Hopi, and Iroquois peoples taking steps to ensure that the events which were signified by their dreams would not occur in their waking l ives . We saw the Mohave interpreting their dreams as indicating i l lness . We saw the Ojibwa, the Iroquois, and the Mohave apparently planning careers according to their dream experiences. The reader w i l l note that the above examples have been constructed so that they do not suggest any causal connection between the dream and waking experience. Once a causal connection is implied, it would seem that such descriptions cease to communicate the relevance of the dream to waking and instead begin to communicate the apparent reality of the dream. One suspects that perhaps this is what has happened in the literature, particularly with regard to those references to dreams being viewed as warnings and steps being taken to fores ta l l consequences. Even without the introduction of causal language it is easy to gain the impression f rom these des-criptions that the dream has a potential for affecting events in the everyday world . In this respect, however, we might do well to take a lesson from Devereux, whose article on pathogenic dreams pointed out the perpetuation of many fallacies in this area ;because of such assumptions. In any case, the important consideration here is that the descriptions of the non-western dream complexes indicate that the dream exists in a relationship of direct relevance with the waking experience. There does not seem to be any symbolic universe such as psychology to mediate between these two experiences. But here we must remember that the role of a symbolic universe is to translate and integrate an experience into the paramount reality - the paramount western reality. That i s , the definition or conceptualization of the dream in terms of the paramount reality is a western phenomenon. As we observed previously, it would :appear that what we are dealing with in the non-western cultures is a system in which dreams are translated into *or become meaningful in terms of waking experiences rather than in terms of a paramount cultural reality. This situation suggests that the mediating (factor between these two experiences may be the self. The possibility which a r i s e s is that what has seemed to appear as a lack of distinction between dream (fantasy) experiences - and real experiences may actually be a lack of distinction between a dream self and a waking self. Rather than being based on a concept of the reality of the dream, the non-western dream complexes could be based on a concept of the unity of the self. They might revolve around an image of one self passing through two states (of waking and dreaming). In any case, this is a possibility which could be investigated in future researches, particularly in regard to those peoples who have been reported to accept responsibility for their dream behavior (see Chapter II). F o r now it is important to recognize that such conceptual-izations as a dream self or an unconscious are cultural constructs. It is important to recognize that we cannot approach the dream complexes of other cultures while continuing to define the dream in terms of our own paramount reality. 166 T h e phenomenon of the d r e a m / r e a l i t y / dichotomy in western society was remarked on by one anthropologist, Hallowell , who noted that The world of dreams is considered to be a world of unreal i ty , imagery, and fantasy, as compared to the " r e a l " world of perception. (Hallowell 1966: 270) Interestingly enough, Hallowell was also the only researcher who used an alternative term to describe the non-human inhabitants of his informants' universe. The term was "other-than-human persons" . What is significant is that even with this neutral nomenclature, Hallowell did not seem to succeed in communicating any experience beyond that of ' false bel ief and ' false perception' . By the end of the paper, it was apparent that these " p e r s o n s " were merely products of the Ojibwa imagination after a l l . It seemed impossible for us not to conclude that the Ojibwa were mistaken about the reality of these "persons" . What this situation suggests is that the problem of our fantasy/reality dichotomy is being peroetuated by language itself. It would seem that the anthropological translation of the non-western dream complexes has been dominated by a language which is based on the construction and maintenance of experience in terms of the paramount reality of western culture. Just as it cannot communicate the realities of our finite provinces of meaning, so it would seem that this language cannot communicate the realities of other cultural groups. Not only does it translate such experiences into our everyday reality but in doing so it ensures that this reality w i l l remain paramount. We have seen this occurring each time an anthropologist employed such words as "supernatural" , "power" , "ceremony" , " r i t u a l " , " v i s i o n " , "guardian s p i r i t " , or even "other-than-human person" . These words in themselves seem to signify unreality. Because they do not refer to any western (scientific) reality, they tend to suggest that the apparent experiences are only ' believed' or imagined to be real and in fact have no reality or existence outside of the informants' own minds. It seems therefore that our immediate problem is to find a metalanguage which is capable of translating experience in terms of multiple cultural realities. 167 In recent years a problem of a s i m i l a r nature was encountered in the field of psychology. This problem emerged in the I960's with a growing interest among the l a y population in what is commonly r e f e r r e d to as "mind expansion". As experimentation and exploration of psychological experience increased, it became evident to many psychologists that the scientists of the mind were far behind the lay population in the exploration of these mental states. The paucity of research was such that there was not even a language -available to describe such experiences. In 1969, Charles Tart edited a book which dealt with these 7 psychological states as a group. It was entitled Altered States of Consciousness. By this term, which he abbreviates to " A S C " , Tart intends to describe those psychological experiences which are qualitatively differentifrom our "normal state of consciousness". The category of A S C therefore includessuch states as those which we attempt to describe by words such as " d r e a m " , " trance" , " v i s i o n " , or "hypnosis" as well as those states which we deem to be "pathological" and associate with mental i l lness . The concept has considerable significance for c ross -cul tural comparison in that is is grounded on the (apparent) premise that the majority of A S C have yet to be understood, defined, or even experienced in western society. At this point in time the language of "states of consciousness" would seem to be an ideal one for c ross -cul tural comparison . It is truly a language of comparison in that the only reality to which it refers is the reality of human consciousness itself. The implementation of the language of A S C in anthropological research would certainly require considerable investigation. While the framework itself seems to be ideally suited to our purposes, the slpecifics of labelling would present a problem. F o r ' e x a m p l e , g when applied cross-culturally, the term "altered states of consciousness" itself suggests that there is one normal state of consciousness which is universally experienced. There is also the problem of labelling the specific experiences described by such 168 terms as "vision" , "power" , " r i t u a l " and the like. It would seem that before we can even begin to tackle this problem we must f i r s t become famil iar with the meaning of such terms in western culture. As Tart points out, we do not seem to have any clear cultural conceptions of the experiences of such common words as "trance, hypnosis, dream, and ecstasy . " It would seem advantageous therefore for anthropologists to work more closely with those psychologists and psychiatrists who are currently working on the definitions of such experiences. Perhaps one of the most valuable methods of developing an awaneness of those states of consciousness which make up the realities of western culture would be to look to our informants as teachers. By sharing our experiences and seeking our informants' reactions to them, we might be able to reach an understanding of the nature and scope of our own subjective states of consciousness. The development of such an awareness might in turn assis t ' us in our attempt to both observe and understand the experiences of our informants. Eventually we might be able to develop categories of description for c ross -cul tural comparison. Ideally the labels used to classify these states would be acultural, perhaps mathematical in character. Those experiences which do not appear to have correlatives in other cultures could be identified in categories of 'unexplained phenomena' . In this manner, we could eventually construct cultural models in terms of sets of A S C . Each culture might be conceptualized as a subset of a universal set of an unlimited and unknown number of states of consciousness. Experiences such as dream could therefore be observed individually as well as i n relation to the cultural set to which they belong. By studying the interactions and interrelationships between these states, we could conceiveably attain a vision of the possible reality constructions within a given culture. The most valuable feature of the language of A S C for anthropology would seem to be its automatic validation of human experience. Because it is a language which 169 relates to the reality of consciousness rather than to the reality of any one particular culture, no human experience can be expressed as 1 i m p o s s i b l e ' . Here the ultimate reality is the unknown. This language seems ideal therefore not only for describing such states as the dream but for describing those experiences which we commonly refer to in the language of supernatural phenomena. Within the framework of consciousness, the concept of the supernatural is communicated as an experience rather than as a belief. By using the A S C framework, therefore, we could describe such phenomena as the Hopi dumalaitka or the Ojibwa pawaganak as actual experiences. The use of this framework makes it implicit that while we may not understand these phenomena, we do recognize them as real experiences. The reference of the non-western dream complexes to the framework of human consciousness seems to release them from the realm of belief and transport them to the realm of experience. No longer must they appear as phenomena of ' false bel ief and ' false perception' . They may now be communicated as phenomena of cultural experience and cultural perception. That i s , it seems that the attitudes and practices we have observed in the literature may revolve around a unique cultural experience of the dream state itself. Because these attitudes and practices appear to involve an application of dream experiences to waking experiences (and perhaps vice versa) it is further suggested that we tentatively define these non-western events as cultural states of consciousness which involve a cultural use of the dream experience. The problem of the non-western dream complex has revealed itself to be a problem of anthropological translation. The problem is certainly not unique to the study of the non-western dream. The reference of phenomena to the realm of the supernatural is a problem which has plagued anthropology for years . It is perhaps the i r o n y of the discipline that while we profess to seek knowledge about other  cultures, we do not generally accept knowledge from other cultures. The exposition of this situation in the preceding pages has made it apparent that a clarification of the role of the anthropologist is in order . Tradi t ional ly , this role has been one of translation. We have seen that in their attempts to translate the event of the non-western dream complex, our investigators were dependent upon a language which is defined by the boundaries of western cultural perception and experience. The inadequacy of this language has made it apparent that not only the non-western dream complexes but all those non-western phenomena which the existing literature describes in terms of supernatural ' bel ief must be re-defined. Our task today is therefore one of re-translation. Anthropological observations must be re-translated into a metalanguage which w i l l reflect human experience in terms of unknown cultural realit ies . It has been the suggestion of this thesis that future researchers might be able to develop such a language by substituting the framework of human consciousness for the framework of super-natural phenomena. The use of this framework would allow the anthropologist to acquire knowledge not only about non-western peoples but f rom non-western peoples as wel l . It would allow us to both perceive and translate non-western knowledge as knowledge. It has been suggested that the acquisition of anthropological knowledge might be accomplished by a dependence upon the informant as teacher in future dream researches. By way of conclusion, I would like to initiate this approach by allowing three of our informants to speak for themselves on the matter of dream and reality in their respective cultures. Thei r statements were discovered amidst the dream reports which were recorded by Eggan and Lincoln . F i r s t l y , to respond to the anthropological translation of the Hopi dumalaitka as a "guardian s p i r i t " , I cal l upon one of Eggan's informants: I don't know about that dumalaitka. The o Id people used to say that he is part of everybody. I think maybe that is what that is in dreams . . . (Eggan 1957: 35) Secondly, to respond to the anthropological description of an apparent lack of distinction between dream experiences and real experiences among non-western peoples, I cal l upon one of L i n c o l n ' s Navaho informants who reacted to one of his dreams in the following way':' I thought the dream was reality. (Lincoln 1935: 221) Thirdly , to respond to our treatment of the dream experience as an absolute experience, I cal l upon another of L i n c o l n ' s informants, a man called "White H a i r " : V\e dream and you dream too. Of course our dreams are different. We do a little something about our dreams . . . (Lincoln 1935: 210) R E F E R E N C E N O T E S C H A P T E R I 1. The term "dream complex" is borrowed from Harold Blau who has used this phrase in his paper " D r e a m Guessing: A Comparative A n a l y s i s " (1963). See Chapter V for a discussion of this work. 2. These terms do not appear to refer to any commonly accepted reality in western culture. They seem to describe religious ' b e l i e f rather than scientific "knowledge' . C H A P T E R II 1. Wil l iam Morgan, Navaho dreams. A m e r i c a n Anthropologist 34(1932):252-258. 2. Morgan 's source is Jean Piaget, The chi ld ' s concept of physical causality (New York, Harcourt Brace, 1930). 3. J . S. Lincoln, The dream in primitive culture (London, Cresset Press, 1935). 4. While Morgan used the spelling "Navaho", Lincoln uses "Navajo!'. C H A P T E R III 1. W. J . Wallace, The dream in Mohave l i fe . Journal of A m e r i c a n Folklore 60 (1947):252-258. 2. George Devereux, Mohave dreams of omen and power. Tomorrow 4(3) (.1956): 17-24. 3. George Devereux, Dream learning and individual ritual differences in Mohave shamanism. American Anthropologist 59(6) (1957): 1036-1045. 4. George Devereux, Pathogenic dreams in non-western societies, in Grunebaum and Cal lois , e d s . , The dream and #iuman societies (Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1966). C H A P T E R IV 1. Dorothy Eggan, The significance of dreams for anthropological research. American Anthropologist 51 (1949):177-198. 2. Dorothy Eggan, The manifest content of dreams: A challenge to social science. American Anthropologist 54 (1952): 469-485. 3. Dorothy Eggan, The personal use of myth in dreams. Journal of A m e r i c a n Folklore Imago 12(1) (1955):71-76. 4. Dorothy Eggan, Dream analysis, in Kaplan, B., e d . , Studying personality cross-cul tural ly (Evanston, Illinois, Row, Peterson and C o . , 1961). 5. Dorothy Eggan, Hopi dreams in cultural perspective, in Grunebaum and Callois , e d s . , The dream and human societies (Berkeley and L o s Angeles, University of California Press, 1966). C H A P T E R V 1. Anthony F . C . Wallace, Dreams and wishes of the soul: A type of psycho-analytic theory among the seventeenth century Iroquois. A m e r i c a n Anth-ropologist 60 (1958)t:?S4-248 2. Harold Blau, Dream guessing: A comparative analysis. Ethno-History 10 (1963):233-249. 3. While Blau uses the term "dream complex" only in passing, it would seem to be a valuable phrase for cross-cul tural description in that it avoids the connotation of ' be l ief . C H A P T E R VI 1. C . M i l l e r , Dreams and dreaming: The current state of the art . The A m e r -ican Journal of Psychoanalysis 35 (1975): 144. • 2. Patricia Garf ield , Creative dreaming (New York, Simon and Schuster, 1974). 3. Alf red Schutz, Collected papers, e d . , M . Natanson, V o l . I, Part III (I) On multiple realities, ; (The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 1962). 4. P. Berger and T . Luckmann, The social construction of reality (Garden City, New York , Anchor Books, 1967). 5. Raymond de Becker, The understanding of dreams (London, Al len and Unwin, 1968). 6. Calvin S. Hall and V . J . Nordby, The individual and his dreams (New York, The New A m e r i c a n Library, Inc. , Signet Books, 1972). 7. Charles^C. Tart , e d . , Altered states of consciousness (New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. , 1969). 8. Tart has more recently used the term "discrete states of consciousness". See Charles C . Tart , Discrete states of consciousness, in Lee et a l , e d s . , Symposium on Consciousness (ISew York , The Viking Press , 1976) 174 BIBLIOGRAPHY I . A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L D R E A M STUDIES A . Selected Sources: Dream Studies on the Navaho, Mohave, Hopi, Iroquois and Ojibwa B L A U , H . 1963 D E V E R E U X , G . 1957 D E V E R E U X , G . 1956 D E V E R E U X , G . 1966 E G G A N , D . 1961 D r e a m guessing: A comparative analysis . Ethno-History 10(3):233-249 Dream learning and individual ritual differences in Mohave shamanism. A m e r i c a n Anthropologist 59(6): 1036-1045. Mohave dreams of omen and power. Tomorrow 4(3): 17-24 Pathogenic dreams in non-western societies, in Grunebaum and Cal lo is , e d s . , The dream and human societies. Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press. D r e a m analysis, in Kaplan, B . , e d . , Studying personality c ross -cul tural ly . Evanston, Illinois, Row, Peterson and Co. E G G A N , D . 1966 E G G A N , D . 1952 E G G A N , D . 1955 E G G A N , D . 1949 H A L L O W E L L , I. 1966 Hopi dreams in cultural perspective, in Grunebaum and Cal lois , e d s , , The dream and human societies. Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press. The manifest content of dreams: A challenge to social science. A m e r i c a n Anthropologist 54:469-485. The personal use of myth i n dreams. Journal of A m e r i c a n folklore Imago 12(l):71-76. The significance of dreams for anthropological research. A m e r i c a n Anthropologist 51:177-198. The role of dreams in Ojibwa culture, in Grunebaum and Cal lois , e d s . , The dream and human societies. Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press. 175 L I N C O L N , J . 1935 The dream in primitive cultures. London, Cresset Press. M O R G A N , W. 1932 Navaho dreams. A m e r i c a n Anthropologist 34:390-405. R A D I N , P. 1936 Ojibwa and Ottawa puberty dreams, in Lowie, R. H . , e d . , Essays presented to A . L . Kroeber . Berkeley, University of California Press. W A L L A C E , A . 1958 Dreams and 'wshes of the soul: A type of psychoanalytic theory among the seventeenth century Iroquois. A m e r i c a n Anthropologist 60,:<234-248. W A L L A C E , W. 1947 The dream in Mohave l i fe . Journal of American Folklore 60:252-258. B. Other North A m e r i c a n Indian Dream Studies B E N E D I C T , R. 1923 The concept of the guardian spirit in North A m e r i c a . Memoirs.of the A m e r i c a n Anthropological Association 1923, No. 29. New York, Kraus Reprint Corporation, 1964. B E N E D I C T , R. 1922 The vision in plains culture. A m e r i c a n Anthropologist,24:1-23. B L U M E N S O H N , p.-1933 The fast among North American Indians. A m e r i c a n Anthropologist 35:451-469. C A R P E N T E R , E . 1959 Alcohol in the Iroquois dream quest. A m e r i c a n Journal of Psychiatry 116:148-151. D E V E R E U X , G . 1951 Reality and dream. New York, International Universities Press. D I T T M A N N , A . A N D M O O R E , H . 1957 Disturbance in dreams as related to peyotism among the Navaho. A m e r i c a n Anthropologist 59(4):642-649. E G G A N , D . 1957 Hopi dreams and a life history sketch, in Kaplan, B . , e d . , Primary records in culture and personality, V o l . 2, (16): 1-147. T h e ' M i c r o c a r d Foundation, Madison. G I F F O R D , E . 1926 Yuma dreams and omens. Journal of A m e r i c a n Folklore 39:39-66. 176 H A L L O W E L L , I. 1956 Aggression in Salteaux society, in Kluckhohn and M u r r a y , e d s . , Personality in nature, society, and culture. New York, A l f r e d A . Knopf. H A L L O W E L L , I. 1938 Freudian symbolism in the dream of a Salteaux Indian. Man 38:47-48. H O N I G M A N N , J . 1961 The interpretation of dreams in anthropological fieldwork: A case study, in Kaplan, B., e d . , Studying personality cross-culturally. Evanston, Illinois, Row, Peterson and Co . K I N G , A . 1943 The dream biography of a mountain Maidu. Character and Personality 11:227-234. K L U C K H O H N , C . A N D M O R G A N , W. 1951 Some notes on Navaho dreams, in Wilbur .and Muensterberger, e d s . , Essays in honor of Geza Roheim. New York , International Universities Press . P E T T I T T , G . 1955 The vision quest and the guardian spiri t , in Hoebel, Jennings and Smith, e d s . , Readings in anthropology. New York, Toronto, London, M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company Ltd . R I D I N G T O N , R. 1971 Beaver dreaming and singing,..in Lotz , J . , e d . , Pilot not commander (Essays in honor of Diamond Jenness). T O F F E L M I E R , G . A N D L U O M A L A , K . 1936 Dreams and dream interpretation of the Diegueno Indians of Southern Calfornia . Psychanalytic Quarterly 2; 195-225. C . General Non-Western Dream Studies B U R R I D G E , K . 1956 A note on Tangu dreams. Man 56:121-122. B O U R G U I G N O N , E . 1954 Dreams and dream inteietation in Haiti . A m e r i c a n Anthropologist 56:262-268. B E R E S F O R D -S T O O K E , G . 1928 Akamba ceremonies connected with dreams. Mart28:176-177. C H A P L I N , J . 1958 A note on central Afr i can dream concepts (Nsenga of Southern Rhodesia). Man 58:90-92. 177 E L I A D E , M . 1966 Iniation dreams and visions among the Siberian shamans, in Grunebaum and Cal lois , e d s . , The dream and human societies. Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press . v E L WIN, J . 1937 A note on the theory and symbolism of dreams among the Baiga. British J ournal of Medical Psychology 16:237-254. E L WIN, V . 1941 F O S T E R , G . 1973 H A N D Y , E . 1936 H O D G S O N , A . 1926 Dreams of Indian aboriginal lepers . Man 41:55-60. Dreams, character, and cognitive orientation in Tzintzuntzan. Ethos 1(1): 106-121. Dreaming in relation to spiri t kindred and sickness in Hawaii, in Lowie, R. H . , e d . , Essays presented to A . L . Kroeber . Berkeley, University of California Press. Dreams in Central A f r i c a . Man:26:66-68. H O L M A N , , . D . 1958 Noone of the U l u . London, The T r a v e l Book Club. L A U F E R , B. 1931 Inspirational dreams in eastern A s i a . Journal of A m e r i c a n Folklore 44:208-216. L E E , S. 1958 Social influences in Zulu dreaming. Journal of Social Psychology 47(2):265-283. M E G G I T T , M . 1962 N O O N E , R. A N D H O L M A N , D . 1972 Dream interpretation among the Mae Enga of New Guinea, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 18(3):2l6-229. In search of the dream people. New York , Morrow. R E A Y , M . 1962 The sweet witchcraft of the Kuma dream experience. Mankind 5(ll):459-463. S C H N E I D E R , D . 1955 Bibliography of dreams im ethnology. Harvard University, Department of Social Relations. S E L I G M A N , C . 1927 Dreams and dream interpretations, in Rattram, R . S . , e d . , Religion and art in Ashanti . Oxford, Claredon Press . 178 S T E W A R T , K . 1953 S T E W A R T , K . 1931 S T E W A R T , K . 1954 T A B E R , F . 1972 Culture and personality in two primitive groups. Complex 9:3-23. Dream theory in Malaya. Complex 6:21-33. Mental hygiene and world peace. Mental Hygiene 38(3). How real are dreams? Practical Anthropology 19(3): 108-109. II G E N E R A L A N T H R O P O L O G I C A L STUDIES B A S T I D E , R. 1966 B E R G E R , P. A N D L U C K M A N N , T . 1967 D ' A N D R A D E , R. 1966 G L A D S T O N , I. 1959 The sociology of the dream, in Grunebaum and Cal iois , e d s . , The dream and human societies. Berkeley and Los Angeles, Universityt ,of California Press. The social construction of reality. Garden City, New York , Anchor Books (Doubleday and Company). Anthropological studies of dreams, in Hsu, F . L . K . , e d . , Psychological anthropology. Homewood, Illinois, The Dorsey Press, Inc. Medicine and .anthropology. New York , International Universities Press . H A L L O W E L L , I. 1961 The self and its behavioral environment, in Culture and experience. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press . K L U C K H O H N , C . 1944 L O W I E , R . 1924 The influence of psychiatry on anthropology during the past one hundred years , in H a l l , J , K . et a l , e d s . , 100 years of A m e r i c a n psychiatry. New York, Columbia University Press. The primitive rel igion. New York , Liveright , Black and Gold Edition Reprint. 179 M I S H L O V E , J . 1975 The roots of consciousness. New York and Berkeley, Random House Inc. and The Bookworks. M O R G A N , W. 1931 Navaho treatment of sickness: Diagnosticians. A m e r i c a n Anthropologist 33:390-402. S C H U T Z , A . 1962 Collected papers, ed. M . Natanson, V o l . I, The problem of social reality. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff. I l l G E N E R A L P S Y C H O L O G I C A L STUDIES A R N O L D -F O R S T E R , M . 1921 D E B E C K E R , R. 1968 F A R A D A Y , A . 1973 F R O M M , E . 1951 G A R F I E L D , P. 1974 G R E E N L E A F , E . 1973 Studies in dreams. London, George, A l l e n , and Unwin Ltd . The understanding of dreams. London, Al len and Unwin Ltd . Dream power. Berkeley, Berkeley Publishing Corporation. The forgotten language. New York , Grove Press, Inc. Creative dreaming. New York, Simon and Schuster: Senoi dream groups. Psychotherapy: Theory , /Research , and Practice 10(3):218-222. H A L L , C . 1954 A primer of Freudian psychology. New York, New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y . H A L L , C . A N D N O R D B Y , V . 1972 The individual and his dreams. New York , The New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , . Inc. (Signet Books). L O W Y , S. ' 1942 Psychological and biological foundations of dream interpre-tation, Chapter X , The biological status of dreams, and some contributions to the theory of affect. London, \Kegan Paul , Trench, Trubner and C o . M I L L E R , C . 1975 ROSSI, E . 1972 T A R T , C , E D . 1969 Dreams and dreaming: The current state of the art . The A m e r i c a n J ournal of Psychoanalysis 35:135-146. Dreams and the growth of personality. New York, Pergamon Press. Altered /states of consciousness. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094433/manifest

Comment

Related Items