UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

"The west wind" by Tom Thomson (1877-1917) MacHardy, Carolyn Wynne 1978

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1978_A8 M32.pdf [ 10.32MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094423.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094423-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094423-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094423-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094423-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094423-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094423-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094423-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094423.ris

Full Text

"THE WEST WIND" BY TOM THOMSON (1877-1917) by CAROLYN WYNNE MACHARDY B.A., University of Alberta, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The Department of Fine Arts) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1978  (c) Carolyn Wynne MacHardy, 1978  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree 'that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1WS  Date  ABSTRACT This thesis discusses Tom Thomson's (1877-1917) l a s t and perhaps most famous canvas, The West Wind. Chapter One considers the facts concerning the painting and i t s sketch and reviews the various hypotheses advanced concerning the dating of the two works and the s i t e from which the sketch was  done.  In the absence of  any s p e c i f i c documents concerning The West Wind, i t i s necessary to refer to the testimonies of friends and acquaintances of Thomson, and occasionally to those of people whose interest i n Thomson prompted them to i n d i v i d u a l research and speculation.  It also outlines the history  of both the sketch and the canvas following the death of Thomson i n 1917 and problems concerning the t i t l e by which the canvas i s known. Chapter Two  i s a s t y l i s t i c analysis of a selection  of sketches and the associated canvases.  The aim of this  chapter i s to place The West Wind within the context of Thomson's previous work, outlining the development of his style, subject matter and technique. The t h i r d chapter explores the possible 'meanings' of The West Wind, the theme of the storm and the lone tree motif.  I t considers their use by his fellow a r t i s t s and  by Canadian poets i n the l a t t e r years of the nineteenth century and the early years of the twentieth century. Chapter Four reviews the various c r i t i c a l commentaries upon The West Wind.which show that although Thomson r e s t r i c t ed his painting a c t i v i t y to a very small and very s p e c i f i c ii  iii  a r e a o f Canada, The West Wind influences  transcends  and r e m a i n s a c o m p e l l i n g  the b r o a d e s t  sense.  i t s regional  image o f Canada i n  TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  v  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  vi  Chapter I. II. III. IV.  FACTS CONCERNING THE WEST WIND  1  THOMSON'S DEVELOPMENT AS AN ARTIST  17  THE THEMATIC BACKGROUND TO THE WEST WIND . . .  56  COMMENTARY ON THE WEST WIND  85  ILLUSTRATIONS SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  96 .  114  iv  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 1.  The West Wind  96  2.  The West Wind (sketch)  97  3.  Algonquin Park (Province of Ontario, August 31, 1974; Ministry of Transportation and Communications)  98  The Cauchon Lakes (National Topographic System Map of Canada; 3IL/2, Edition 3MCE, Series A751)  99  4.  5.  A Northern Lake  100  6.  The Drowned Land  101  7.  Morning Cloud  102  8.  Moonlight, Early Evening  103  9.  Red Leaves (sketch)  104  10..  Byng Inlet, Georgian Bay  105  11...  Byng Inlet, Georgian Bay (sketch) . . . . . . .  106  12.  In The Northland  107  13.  In The Northland (sketch)  108  14.  Northern River  109  15.  The Pool  110  16.  Decorative Panel I  17.  The Jack Pine  112  18.  Pine Island, Georgian Bay .  113  Ill  v  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e Instructor,  t o thank Doreen E. Walker,  Department  Senior  o f F i n e A r t s , f o r h e r time and  assistance  generously  g i v e n ; M i s s M e l v a Dwyer, F i n e  Librarian,  f o r s e c u r i n g many o f t h e n e c e s s a r y  m a t e r i a l s ; Mrs. C a t h e r i n e  and  I was i n Owen Sound;  reference  H a r r i s o n o f t h e Tom Thomson  M e m o r i a l G a l l e r y i n Owen Sound f o r t h e h e l p while  Arts  offered  a n d my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r  encouragement.  vi  support  CHAPTER I FACTS CONCERNING THE WEST WIND The West Wind (figure 1) i s today one of the great paintings of the Canadian Collection of the Art Gallery of Ontario, though i r o n i c a l l y the gallery turned i t down when i t f i r s t had the opportunity to acquire i t i n 1919. We must rely on A.Y. Jackson for some of the details of the fate of the painting between 1917 when i t was painted and 1926 when the A r t Gallery of Toronto Gallery of Ontario) acquired i t .  (now the Art  A.Y. Jackson  returned  to Toronto from overseas service i n 1919 and rented a studio on the top f l o o r of the Studio Building where The West Wind, C h i l l November.and "a dozen other canvases and about 200 sketches" had been stored after Thomson's death i n July 1917.^  Jackson put a price of $650 on the  painting and unsuccessfully encouraged the Art Gallery of 2 3 Toronto to buy i t . The price was then raised to $800 and the painting toured the United States i n a t r a v e l l i n g exhibition.^  In 1924 i t was one of a group of paintings  by Thomson sent to the B r i t i s h Empire E x h i b i t i o n at Wembley"': there they attracted some c r i t i c a l acclaim and The West Wind was one of the paintings considered f o r purchase by the Trustees of the Tate Gallery.  Upon i t s return to  Canada, the National Gallery of Canada wished to purchase 1  2 i t , but Dr. Harold Tovell, one of the members of the Art Gallery of Toronto, r e a l i s e d that the Gallery did not own a single work by Thomson and persuaded the Canadian Club to purchase i t and present i t to the Gallery i n March 1926.^  At the meeting of the Canadian Club on February 1,  1926, F.Y. McEachern, the President, made a motion,  seconded  by G. Wilson that the Executive of the Canadian Club of Toronto be empowered to purchase the picture painted by Tom Thomson e n t i t l e d THE WEST^WIND and present the same to the Art Gallery of Toronto as a contribution to their permanent c o l l e c t i o n of works by Canadian a r t i s t s , the picture to be purchased out of the surplus funds of the Club.g The report of the Honorary Treasurer for the Club Year ending A p r i l 20, 1926 l i s t s among expenses paid that year "Painting by Tom Thomson, "The West Wind" - $1,500.00."  9  In the years since i t s presentation to the Art Gallery of Toronto, the canvas has been widely exhibited across Canada and the United S t a t e s . ^ The sketch for The West Wind (figure 2) was acquired by Dr. J.M. MacCallum''"^ from the estate of Tom Thomson i n 1917 and was passed on to his sons upon h i s death i n 1944. It was  then acquired by the Quarter Century Club of Canada  Packers and presented to J.S. McLean on the occasion of his seventieth birthday i n May  1946.  J.S. McLean bequeathed  the sketch to the Art Gallery of Ontario i n 1970, where 12 i t hangs beside the finished picture based on i t . The sketch was not exhibited p u b l i c l y u n t i l 1937 and has not 13  been as widely exhibited as the canvas.  3  In 1920 Barker F a i r l e y reported that The West Wind canvas was unfinished"^ and Arthur Lismer reported that i t was wet on Thomson's easel when he died."'""'  This evidence  indicates that the canvas was painted during the winter of 1916-17 i n Thomson's Toronto studio.  Thomson would  generally go north to Algonquin Park as soon as the snow had melted s u f f i c i e n t l y  to provide access to the area,  and he would remain i n the north u n t i l the snow once again compelled him to return to Toronto. the winters  Thus i t was during  i n Toronto that he developed his large canvases,  based on a selection of the spring, summer and autumn 16 sketches. Thomson had l i k e l y returned to Toronto i n October or November of 1916 and he d i d not go north again 17 u n t i l towards the end of March 1917  ; thus the canvas's  execution may be placed between November of 1916 and March of 1917. The dating of the sketch i s a more d i f f i c u l t problem. . Several, dates are offered i n statements made by Thomson's friends and i t becomes a matter of assessing the v a l i d i t y of each, and - \ Joan Murray points out that the dating of The West Wind sketch i s complicated  by the fact that as  early as 1915 Thomson was making extensive use of the theme 18 of "large trees blown by the wind." In 1952 Mark Robinson stated that Thomson showed him the sketch i n 1915 and subsequently offered i t to him; 19 the o f f e r was, however, declined.  I f Robinson d i d indeed  see The West Wind sketch, and not one l i k e i t , i t must  4 have been before October 1915 when he enlisted i n the army.  He did not seen Thomson again u n t i l the spring of 20  1917, by which time The West Wind had been painted. though we do not know  of any e a r l i e r sketches  Al-  similar  enough to The West Wind to be confused with i t , i t seems almost certain that Robinson saw another sketch. An early dating for The West Wind sketch i s also indicated by Thoreau MacDonald who  said he had a dim  r e c o l l e c t i o n of seeing Thomson working on The West Wind 21 i n his studio i n Toronto during the winter of 1915-16. This seems to corroborate Robinson's statement but Thoreau MacDonald was only fourteen years old at this time, and this b r i e f testimony i s hardly s u f f i c i e n t  evidence.  The dating of the sketch i s also discussed by Peter Mellen and Dennis Reid. Mellen believes i t was  done i n  the summer of 1916 although he points out that i n a l e t t e r which Thomson wrote to Dr. MacGallum on October 24,  1916,  he indicated that he had done very l i t t l e sketching during the previous summer.  Nevertheless, Mellen suggests .that  Thomson had the opportunity to execute The West Wind sketch 22 and that of The Jack Pine during this summer. In his book The Jack Pine, Dennis Reid cites e v i dence to support his date of 1916  for the sketch.  He  links The West Wind sketch s t y l i s t i c a l l y to those of The Jack Pine, L i t t l e Cauction Lake and Rocks and Deep Water, suggesting that the four were done on a t r i p to L i t t l e Cauchon Lake which Thomson undertook i n the company of  5 Dr. MacCallum and Lawren Harris i n the spring of  1916.  23  Although the exact dates of this t r i p are not known, i t was  almost c e r t a i n l y i n the spring of 1916,  and Dr. Mac-  Callum confirms that The West Wind sketch was  done on  this t r i p . In the l i g h t of this c o n f l i c t i n g testimony, i t seems advisable to reject that of Robinson and MacDonald and to accept that The West Wind sketch was of 1916  and that the canvas was  done i n the spring  done i n the winter of  1916-17. The search for the s i t e of the sketch has  provided  a r i c h subject for speculation and controversy  over the  years..  The e a r l i e s t attempt to pinpoint the location  was made by Ed Godin i n 1930.  Although he was  unable  to locate the exact point of view, Godin believed that the sketch was  done at Kiosk i n the western end of Algon-  25 quin Park.  On the other hand, his son Edward E. Godin  said that The West Wind was done at Pembroke. Thomson went to Pembroke for a few days during the summer leaving his sketching equipment i n Camp; He t o l d me on his return that he had borrowed sketching equipment from the Sisters i n Convent there, saying that he had never seen anything that reached him as did the high wind and scenery of the Ottawa River west of Pembroke.2g We know, that Thomson was a f i r e ranger based at Achray (on the C.N.R. l i n e between Pembroke and North 27 Bay)  during the summer of 1916  imony that he actually saw  , but i f MacCallum's test-  the painting of the  sketch  6 during the spring of 1916 be accepted,  then this test-  imony of the Godins, father and son, must be rejected. Professor Dwight has assembled detailed evidence to support his b e l i e f that The West Wind was  painted at  Lake Achray, from the place where Thomson's cabin then stood.  By comparing photographs of the h i l l s on the  opposite shore at Achray with the h i l l s i n the sketch, he considered that they were indeed the same h i l l s , ing  for changes i n the t e r r a i n of the land due to  tree growth over the years.  allownew  In fact, Professor Dwight  thought he could not only i d e n t i f y the location, but also - • 28 the tree. In Algonquin suggestion.  Story, Audrey Saunders makes another  For her, The West Wind i s associated with  the Grand Lake d i s t r i c t that this was  for "even i f we had not known  the area where he had been working during  the summers  of 1915  and 1916,  i t would have been possible  to i d e n t i f y £l£7 with this part of the Park... the lakes are bigger and more windswept than i n the southern, sections, .29 and the whole region i s wilder, and more untouched.' i  Of other i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , the Watties believed that 30 the sketch was  done at Round Lake  and the Reverend Mr.  Arthur Reynolds of Annan, Ontario, suggested that i t was done at Fairy Lake near the lookout, on the road between 31 Dwight and H u n t s v i l l e . Dr. R.P. L i t t l e compared the view himself and agreed with the Reverend that the view 32 was very similar ; however, Winnifred Trainor assured  7 Dr. L i t t l e that The West Wind was  actually painted at  Cedar Lake i n the north of the Park.  In 1970 William  T. L i t t l e agreed that the sketch had been painted at Cedar Lake rather than Fairy Lake because "there i s a ruggedness about this picture that i s more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the craggy and clean-cut t e r r a i n of Cedar Lake than of the Lake of Bays country." A l l these opinions agree that the sketch was  un-  doubtedly done i n the Algonquin Park country but d i f f e r as to the exact s i t e .  There are, however, two documents  which o f f e r more s p e c i f i c evidence and i t i s important to note that these are first-hand accounts of the c i r cumstances i n which the sketch was actually painted. Without mentioning the sketch by name, Lawren Harris i n a lecture i n 1948  relates:  ...one afternoon i n early spring on the shore of one of the Cauchon Lakes i n Algonquin Park ... a dramatic thunderstorm came up. There was a wild rush of wind across the lake and a l l nature was tossed into turmoil. Tom and I were i n an abandoned shack. When the storm broke Tom looked out, grabbed his sketch box, ran out into the gale, squatted behind a big stump and commenced to paint i n a fury.25 In a l e t t e r of 1937, Dr. J.M. MacCallum states s p e c i f i c a l l y that The West Wind sketch was  done at this  time: It may interest you to know... that the West Wind was done at Lake Cauchon. Thomson, myself, Lome (sic) Harris and his cousin Chester were up there. It was blowing very hard and Lome Harris was painting farther up the shore. The wind blew down the tree of the picture and Harris f i r s t thought that Thomson was k i l l e d , but he soon sprang up, waved his hand to  8  him and went on p a i n t i n g . ^ Although Harris and MacCallum d i f f e r s l i g h t l y with respect to the locations of Thomson and Harris during the storm, the essence of the two accounts i s so similar that they were no doubt speaking of the same day and the same event.  MacCallum's account i s perhaps the most  valuable of the two for i t mentions the sketch by name, and since i t was i n his possession u n t i l the time of his death, i t seems unlikely that he would err i n i d e n t i f y i n g the work which he saw being painted that day. The two Cauchon Lakes are situated i n the north central portion of Algonquin Park and are part of the Petawawa River System (figure 3).  L i t t l e Cauchon Lake  l i e s d i r e c t l y to the east of Cauchon Lake, and both run almost due east and west.  They are long and narrow,  each being a l i t t l e less than a mile i n width at the maximum and approximately three miles long. Although the Canadian Northern Railway serviced this 37 area by 1915  , i t would seem more l i k e l y that Thomson  and his party reached the lakes v i a the system of lakes and portages which leads from Canoe Lake, the entrance to the Park v i a t r a i n from Toronto, to the Cauchon Lakes, a distance of approximately eighty miles. A study of the topographical map  of the two Cauchon  Lakes suggests that the most probable s i t e l i e s about 400 yards east of Davenport on the north side of L i t t l e Cauchon Lake (figure 4).  In addition to affording the  9 necessary wide view across the lake, this area was serviced by the r a i l r o a d , and thus the shoreline would have been p a r t i a l l y cleared.  The h i l l s i n this area do not  r i s e as sharply as do those on the other shores, and there is a sandy point from which i t would have been possible to gain the shore.  From this promontory, the h i l l s on the  south shore are very similar i n contour to those represented i n The West Wind.  It should also be noted that  Thomson would have had to be on the north shore looking south i n order to paint a west wind, and i n the sketch and the canvas, the foliage on the tree grows more abundantly on the leeward side than on the west, r e f l e c t i n g the predominance of westerly winds i n this area. There i s no evidence to prove conclusively that i t was Thomson who named the painting.  Neither  the  sketch nor the canvas were exhibited u n t i l after Thomson's death, and thus i t i s not known what they were c a l l e d during his l i f e t i m e .  The West Wind was  f i r s t exhibited  at the 1917 Canadian National Exhibition as West Wind, 38 Algonquin Park.. The location was subsequently dropped from the t i t l e and the painting became known simply as The West Wind.  39  Winifred Trainor r e c a l l e d that as late as 1917 ;  the  sketch had not been named^ and Dennis Reid, cautioning that Thomson named very few, i f any, of his sketches, 41 suggested that Dr. MacCallum named most of them. I f the t i t l e did not originate with Thomson, i t i s  10  indeed probable that Dr. MacCallum was responsible for naming the work.  MacCallum would have l i k e l y known  what Thomson might have wished to c a l l i t , and the fact that he was with Thomson when the sketch was done,  suggests  that he named i t on the basis of h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n that the wind was indeed a westerly one/  The West Wind i s  certainly an appropriate t i t l e f o r the painting.  FOOTNOTES CHAPTER I 1.  A.Y. Jackson, A Painter's Country. The Autobiography of A.Y. Jackson, with a Foreword by Naomi Jackson Groves (Toronto: Clarke, Irwin and Co. Ltd., 1958; reprint ed., Toronto: Clarke, Irwin and Co. Ltd., 1976), p. 52.  2.  Ibid, p. 55.  3.  In a l e t t e r to Mr. Harkness, January 10, 1922, A.Y. Jackson suggested that $700 to $800 would be a good price for The West Wind. (Tom Thomson F i l e , Tom Thomson Memorial Gallery, Owen Sound).  4.  T r a v e l l i n g Exhibition, American Tour, Group of Seven Canadian Painters, 1921; Shown at Worcester, November 1920; Rochester; Columbus; Toledo; Cleveland; Detroit; Buffalo, September 10 to October 3, 1921; Muskegan; Minneapolis.  5.  London (England), B r i t i s h Empire Exhibition, Section of Fine Arts, 1924, no. 239.  Canadian.  The other paintings by Thomson that were exhibited were: The Jack Pine (no. 240); Northern River (no. 241) and Twelve Studies (no. 242). 6.  F. B. Housser, A Canadian Art Movement. The Story of the Group of Seven (Toronto: The MacMillan Company of Canada, 1926), p. 211. The other paintings which were considered f o r purchase were Arthur Lismer's September Gale, J.E.H. MacDonald's Beaver Dam, James Wilson Morrice's Beaupre and A.Y. Jackson's Entrance to Halifax Harbour. The Tate Gallery bought A.Y. Jackson's painting. The c r i t i c a l commentaries on the paintings of Thomson and the other Canadian painters have been collected i n Press Comments on the Canadian Section of Fine Arts, B r i t i s h Empire Exhibition, 1924-1925 (Ottawa: The National Gallery of Canada, 1926).  7.  Jackson, A Painter's Country, p. 55.  8.  Quoted by S,L. Rodway, Secretary-Treasurer of the Canadian Club of Toronto, i n a l e t t e r to the author dated December 20, 1977. 11  12 9.  Ibid.  10.  Dennis Reid, The Group of Seven, Exhibition held at the National Gallery of Canada, 19 June - 8 September 1970 and at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 22 September - 31 October, 1970 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1970), p. 104. The following l i s t of exhibitions i n which The West Wind has been seen i s largely based on Reid's extensive research. Toronto, The Canadian National Exhibition, 1917, no. 214, repr. p. 66; Toronto, Art Gallery of Ontario, A Memorial Exhibition of Paintings by Tom Thomson, 13-29 February, 1920, no. 41; Group ofSeven American Tour, 1921, no. 27 (no. 29 i n Buffalo catalogue); Owen Sound, Exhibit of Paintings by Tom Thomson, 1922; Toronto, Art Gallery of Toronto, Retrospective Loan Exhibition of the Works of Members of The Ontario Society of A r t i s t s , 1922, no. 170; London, B r i t i s h Empire Exhibition, 1924, no. 239; Ottawa, The National Gallery of Canada, F i r s t National Gallery of Canada Annual, 1926, no. 162; Toronto, Art Gallery of Toronto, Art Gallery of Toronto Inaugural,29 January - 28 February, 1926, no. 259; Philadelphia, Department of Fine Arts, Sesquicentennial International Eposition, 1926, no. 1550; Paris, Musge du Jeu de Paume, Exposition d'Art Canadien sous Le Patronage O f f i c i e l du Gouvernement Canadien et du Gouvernement Francais, 11 A p r i l 11 May, 1927, no. 230; Toronto, Art Gallery of Toronto, Summer Exhibition, 1935, no. 69, repr. p. 23; Toronto, Art Gallery of Toronto, Loan Exhibition of Paintings, 193 5, no. 154; San Francisco, Golden Gate International Exhibition, Department of Fine Arts, Contemporary Art, 1935, no. 24; Toronto, Art Gallery of Toronto, Tom Thomson - Horatio Walker Exhibition, January 1941, no numeration; Toronto, Art Gallery of Toronto, Great Paintings, 1944, no. 74; New Haven, Yale University Art Gallery, Canadian Art, 1944, no numeration; Chicago, Art I n s t i t u t e of Chicago, Art of the United Nations, 1945, p. 14, repr.; Toronto, The Art Gallery of Toronto, The Development of Canadian Painting, January 1945, no. 133; Toronto, The Fine Arts P a v i l i o n , Canadian National Exhibition, August 27- September 11, 1945, no. 20; Hamilton, The Art Gallery of Hamilton, Inaugural Exhibition, December 1953- January 1954, no. 51, repr. p i . 29; Vancouver, The Vancouver Art Gallery, Group of Seven, March 29 - A p r i l 25, 1954, no. 63, repr; Toronto, Art Gallery of Toronto, Comparisons, January 11February 3, 1957, no. 78; Vancouver, The Vancouver Art Gallery, Images for a Canadian Heritage, September 23- October 30, 1966, no. 70; Ottawa, The National Gallery of Canada, Three Hundred Years of Canadian Art, Summer 1967, no. 200, repr. p. 127; Owen Sound, The Tom Thomson Memorial Gallery and Museum of Fine  13 Art, F i r s t Anniversary Exhibition, May 24 - June 9, 1968, no. 7; Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada, The Group of Seven, June 19- September 8, 1970, no. 68, repr. p. 104; Toronto, Art Gallery of Ontario, The Art of Tom Thomson, October 30 - December 12, 1971, no. XVI, repr. p. 64; Owen Sound, The Tom Thomson Memorial Gallery and Museum of Fine Arts, The Tom Thomson Memorial Exhibition, May 4 - June 1, 1977;. no. 1. 11.  Dr. James MacCallum was a Toronto eye specialist ~who became the patron of Tom Thomson and the Group of Seven. In January of 1914 he and Lawren Harris financed the construction of the Studio Building on Severn Street, and this became the headquarters of these a r t i s t s .  12.  Toronto, The Art Gallery of Ontario, The J.S. McLean C o l l e c t i o n of Painting, 1968, no. 80.  13.  Reid, Group? of Seven, p. 102. The sketch has been seen i n the following exhibitions: Toronto, The Mellors G a l l e r i e s , Loan E x h i b i t i o n of Works by Tom Thomson, March 13-31, 1937, no. 81; Toronto, The Art Gallery of Toronto, Tom Thomson-Horatio Walker Exhibition, January 1941, no numeration; Ottawa, The National Gallery of Canada, Paintings and Drawings from the C o l l e c t i o n of J.S. McLean, 1952, no. 88, repr.; Hamilton, The Art Gallery of Hamilton, Inaugural Exhibition, December 1953 to January 1954, no. 52; Toronto, The Art Gallery of Toronto, Comparisons, January 11-February 3, 1957, no. 77; Vancouver, The Vancouver Art Gallery, Images for a Canadian Heritage, September 23 - October 30, 1966, no. 69, repr. and i n colour on the front cover-; Toronto, The Art Gallery of Ontario, The J.S. McLean C o l l e c t i o n of Canadian Paintings, September 19- October 20, 1968, no. 80, repr.; Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada, The Group of Seven, June 19- September 8, 1970, no. 66, repr. p. 102; Toronto, Art Gallery of Ontario, The Art of Tom Thomson,October 30 - December 12, 1971, no. 99, repr. p. 85.  14.  Barker F a i r l e y , "Tom Thomson and Others," The 4 (March 1920): 246.  15.  Joan Murray, The Art of Tom Thomson, Exhibition organ*, ized for the Art Gallery of Ontario, October 30 to December 12, 1971 (Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1971), p. 45. Murray's source i s A Lismer, "Tom Thomson: A Tribute", unpublished manuscript i n the possession of Marjorie.i Lismer Bridges, p. 11. Lismer was i n Halifax at this time and must have obtained his information from J.E.H. MacDonald, Lawren Harris or Dr. MacCallum.  16.  Reid, Group of Seven, p.  J  109.  Rebel  14 17.  In a l e t t e r which he wrote to Dr. MacCallum on A p r i l 21, Thomson said he had been i n the Park "for over three weeks." (McMichael C o l l e c t i o n ) .  18.  Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 44.  19.  Ottelyn Addison and Elizabeth Harwood, Tom Thomson. The Algonquin Years (Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1969), P- 55. Mark Robinson (1967-1955) was a ranger i n Algonquin Park during the years Thomson was v i s i t i n g this area. He was i n the army from October of 1915 to Spring of 1917.  20.  "Mark Robinson Talks About Tom Thomson. Toronto, October 1956." Published i n William T. L i t t l e , The Tom Thomson Mystery ( Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1970), p. 195.  21.  Addison, The Algonquin Years, p. 55. Thoreau MacDonald (b. 1901) was the son of Thomson's painting companion, J.E.H. MacDonald.  22.  Peter Mellen, The Group of Seven (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1970), p. 49.  23.  Dennis Reid, The Jack Pine (Ottawa: The National Gallery of Canada, 1975), p. 19.  24.  Letter from Dr. MacCallum to Miss A.L. Beatty, Secretary to the Curator of the A r t Gallery of Toronto, dated 14 May 1937. (Library, A r t Gallery of Ontario). Quoted i n Reid, Group of Seven, p. 104.  25.  Letter from Ed Godin to Blodwen Davies, dated November 17, 1930. (Public Archives of Canada). Ed Godin was the ranger with whom Thomson worked on Lake Achray during the summer of 1916.  26.  Letter from Edward E. Godin to Blodwen Davies, dated June 15, 1931. (Public Archives of Canada). Edward E. Godin was the son of Ed Godin and was also a f i r e ranger at Achray with Thomson during the summer of 1916.  27.  The l e t t e r s referred to"in the two preceeding footnotes attest to t h i s .  28.  Letter from Professor Dwight to Martin Baldwin at the Art Gallery of Ontario, dated January 14, 1955. (Art Gallery of Ontario, L i b r a r y ) . Dwight notes that the actual trees upon the s i t e at Achray are white pines, but he suggests that Thomson "substituted  15 two twisted red pines as might be found on the top of a h i l l or some other very exposed p o s i t i o n . It i s f a i r l y obvious I think that he put them into the foreground of THE WEST WIND to accentuate the idea of a windy day." Professor T.W. Dwight was a Professor of Forestry at the University of Toronto. In 1908, while a student i n the Faculty of Forestry at the University of Toronto, he accompanied the f i r s t "forestry f i e l d practice camp" to Burnt Lake, Algonquin Park. Ottelyn Addison, Early Days i n Algonquin Park (Toronto: McGrawH i l l Ryerson Limited,.1974), p. 101. 29.  Audrey Saunders, Algonquin Story (Toronto: Department of Lands and Forests, 1947), p. 174.  30.  Addison, Algonquin Years, p. 54. Tom Wattie was a s t a f f member of Algonquin Park from 1909 to 1929, stationed at North Tea Lake. (Ibid, p.91, footnote 25.)  31.  R.P. L i t t l e , "Some Recollections of Tom Thomson and Canoe Lake," Culture 16 (June 1955): 203. Dr. L i t t l e was a former guide i n Algonquin Park.  32.  Ibid, p. 203.  33.  Ibid, p. 203.  34.  L i t t l e , The Tom Thomson Mystery, p. 34. William T. L i t t l e was P r o v i n c i a l Judge of the P r o v i n c i a l Court (Family Division) of York County, Ontario, at the time this book was published.  35.  Lawren Harris, "The Group of Seven i n Canadian History," The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association (Toronto, 1948), p. 33.  36.  cf. footnote 24.  37.  Atlas of Canada (Ottawa: Government of Canada, Department of the Interior, 1915), pp. 43-44.  38.  Toronto, Fine Arts P a v i l i o n , Canadian National Exhibition, 25 August - 10 September, 1917, no. 214, repr. p. 66.  39.  Toronto, The Art Gallery of Toronto, A Memorial Exhibition of Paintings by Tom Thomson and a C o l l e c t i o n of Japanese Colour Prints, February 13-29, 1920, no. 41; here the work i s simply e n t i t l e d West Wind.'  40.  Addison, The Algonquin Years, p. 93, f n . 49. Winifred : Trainor i s rumoured to have been Thomson's g i r l f r i e n d .  16 41.  Dennis Reid, "Photographs by Tom Thomson," National Gallery of Canada B u l l e t i n 16 (1970): 3, footnote 12. Reid notes that " I t should. . .. be remembered that Thomson named very few, i f any, of his own paintings. Dr. MacCallum appears to have t i t l e d most of the sketches." In a l e t t e r to the author dated January 19, 1978, Reid explains that this was the result of his observation that i n most instances when a name i s written on a sketch, i t i s i n Dr. MacCallum's handwriting. The notation i n this case i s usually a description of place.  CHAPTER II THOMSON'S DEVELOPMENT AS AN ARTIST In 1913, Thomson exhibited his f i r s t large canvas, A Northern Lake (figure 5), at the Ontario Society of A r t i s t s exhibition.'*" and .one  I t was received favourably by c r i t i c s ,  .reviewer commented that:  Tom Thomson's Northern Lake i s remarkable f o r i t s f i d e l i t y to the northern shore; boulders and undergrowth i n the foreground, the brown water turned to the deep blue of the sky under the fresh gale that i s putting white caps on the l i t t l e lake.2 The canvas was purchased by the Ontario government for $250 , a factor which no doubt influenced Thomson's decision to continue painting large exhibition pieces. The painting, described by Dr. MacCallum as "one of the small northern lakes swept by a northwest wind..."^, was based on at least four sketches that Thomson had done on a t r i p to Mississauga with William Broadhead i n late August and September of 1912^  and was worked up i n the  studio of Rous and Mann i n Toronto during the winter of 1912-13.  6  A comparison  of A Northern Lake with Thomson's previous  work indicates the s i g n i f i c a n t advances made i n this canvas. 1912  F. Housser reported that the sketches done on the  f a l l t r i p were "low i n tone and laboured; just shore-  lines and o l d swamps; mist on lakes and smoky dawns; moods 17  18 smudged i n t o p a n e l s . " ^ by Dr. MacCallum who  A s i m i l a r c r i t i q u e was  offered  s a i d that the sketches were "dark...,  muddy i n c o l o u r , t i g h t and not wanting i n t e c h n i c a l defects"  , and A l b e r t Robson, Thomson's a r t d i r e c t o r at  G r i p , c a l l e d the sketches " t i m i d and execution" northern  but  self-conscious i n  conceded that they "had  character."  caught the  He p a r t i c u l a r l y r e c a l l e d one  the sketches " o f drowned land which impressed me the w i e r d l o n e l i n e s s of the country."  The  The  of  as having  Drowned Land  i s today i n the c o l l e c t i o n of the A r t G a l l e r y of (figure 6  real  Ontario  ). two  most a r r e s t i n g q u a l i t i e s of The  Drowned Land  are the acute sense of photographic f i d e l i t y which Thomson achieved  and  the d i s p l a y o f h i s great  technical virtuosity.  I t i s even p o s s i b l e that Thomson used a photograph as b a s i s f o r the composition''"''", but he was  using a r e a l i s t i c  commercial a r t work, and  i t i s also possible  a that  approach to counterbalance h i s that he was  not yet aware of  the  freedom w i t h which he would l a t e r develop h i s canvases. In t h i s p i c t u r e , Thomson's i n t e r e s t i s i n the the water and  the sky,  there i s no presence of man  in  i s kept to the bottom t h i r d o f  the  the work.  The  canvas and  there i s a b l u f f of t r e e s across  ground.  horizon  and  In the foreground the t r e e s and  been r e p r e s e n t e d  land,  painstakingly,  and  the middle  the deadheads have  the t h i n a p p l i c a t i o n  of p a i n t i n much of the area permits the canvas to show through.  A l s o o f i n t e r e s t i s Thomson's use  of a low-key  19  palette  o f p r i m a r i l y brown, g r e y  It  was  from  sketches  and  done a t t h e same t i m e  Drowned L a n d t h a t Thomson d e v e l o p e d too  i s a northern Ontario  itself  i s very  above r i s e s over  the  The  occupy  the  lower  the middle  ledge are  guiding  third.  On  canvas.  the viewer's  vertical  elements  four horizontal The from  and  eye  and  photographic l i k e n e s s the  larger  scale  more p h y s i c a l l y canvas.  The  palette knife impression The  and  foreground  s i d e o f the  foreground  beyond the upper  perielements,  and,as t h e  they a l s o u n i t e  Thomson has  Lake,  and  solidity  and  only  the  different  abandoned  has  a brush,  giving  a  t e x t u r e of these  the  because  become  the a c t o f p a i n t i n g  the a  tactile rocks.  u s e d by Homer Watson, S u z o r - C o t e  were e x h i b i t i n g  i n Toronto  Thomson w o u l d have b e e n e x p o s e d t o s u c h  while  hills  r o c k s have been d e f i n e d w i t h  instead of with  C u l l e n who  far  composition.  of A Northern  p a l e t t e k n i f e was  Maurice  the  o f t h e e a r l i e r work, p e r h a p s  involved with  o f the  foreground  h a n d l i n g o f the p a i n t i s  Drowned L a n d .  and  slightly  toward the f a r shore  o f the  This  fore-  shore  the  t h e w a t e r and  i n the composition,  treatment  a rocky  These t r e e s are r e p o u s s o i r  layers  t h a t o f The  the canvas:  extend  The  the-composition  view i s from  either  as  Lake.  to the o p p o s i t e  up  third  t r e e s whose t o p s  meters o f the  but  horizon i s located  t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e way  occupies  of  The  the water  sky.  A Northern  landscape,  different.  ground ledge a c r o s s  blue.  an  s k e t c h i n g w i t h B e a t t y and M a c D o n a l d who  at this  and time,  approach were  also  20 experimenting with this technique. The water i s l i v e l y and i s rendered with a brush, the whitecaps are emphasized with a f l i c k of white on the dark green water, and a l i g h t green stroke on the distant h i l l s brightens the f a r shore.  A l i v e l y , textured brush-  stroke i s also seen i n the treatment of the sky. R.H. Hubbard points out that the arrangement of rocks and trees before water and distant h i l l s was adopted by the other members of the future Group of Seven, and that 12 this was continued by Thomson i n later canvases.  Elabor-  ating on this point, Barry Lord notes that Thomson and the others moved the trees to the centre of the canvas shortly thereafter to "break with the conventions of the picturesque. Certainly Thomson did not use this p a r t i c u l a r format again: he retained his interest i n the basic composition of water, far h i l l s and sky, but abandoned the use of symmetrical enframing trees on either side of the composition. In transposing the small sketches of 1912 into A Northern Lake, Thomson succeeds i n imbuing a degree of spontaneity into the composition, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the water and the sky. He also expands h i s palette and introduces greater colour, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l i g h t green patch along the h i l l s i n the background and i n the foliage on the l e f t .  Moreover, this canvas i s not so painstakingly  photographic as The Drowned Land.  Thomson has broken the  bonds of h i s realism and attempts a freer interpretation of the landscape.  Following his success i n the 1913 Ontario Society of A r t i s t s exhibition, Thomson went north to Algonquin Park from May  to November."^  He continued to explore  the compositional p o s s i b i l i t i e s of rocks, water and distant hills,  and became interested i n the effects of l i g h t on  water; nevertheless, he maintained a low-key palette. A.Y.  Jackson describes these sketches as being: surprisingly sombre and dead i n colour, and... peculiar i n composition, i n that many of them were of an upright panel shape, showing a low shoreline and a big sky. The country i n them seemed always to be viewed extensively. There were no gay l i t t l e rapids or wood i n t e r i o r s , or patterned rocks, but only the opposite shores of lakes, far h i l l s , or wide stretches of country. Thomson's use of an upright panel as well as his  preference for dark and low-key colours may have been the r e s u l t of his close association with both J.W. and J.E.H. MacDonald.  In 1913  Beatty  these two a r t i s t s were  frequently Thomson's sketching companions, and were perhaps the most experienced painters with whom he was i n contact.  Both had been impressed by the Barbizon painters  during their trips abroad: Beatty was reported to have f e l t "a s p i r i t u a l a f f i n i t y with the Barbizons" and "raved about Corot's habit of doing the same scene i n one hundred varying 16 moods."  Similarly, MacDonald i s known to have been i n t e r -  ested i n the work of the Barbizon p a i n t e r s . ^ Thus i t i s understandable that Thomson's early sketches are so reminiscent of this t r a d i t i o n i n their low horizon, wide panorama and dark colour scheme. Upon his return to Toronto i n November of 1913, Thomson  was  introduced to A.Y. Jacks on.  Although this was the  f i r s t meeting between the two a r t i s t s , Thomson had seen Jackson's Edge of the Maple Wood at the 1911 Ontario Society 19  of A r t i s t s exhibition and i s reported to have remarked that " i t f i r s t opened his eyes to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of 20  Canadian landscape." At the time of their meeting, Jackson was painting The Northland, now known as Terre 21  Sauvage  i n Lawren Harris's studio, and Thomson went back 22  several times to watch i t s development. While Edge of the Maple Wood i s an impressionistic interpretation of a Quebec farmyard developed i n tones of pale green, Terre Sauvage i s , i n contrast, a bold PostImpressionist description of the Georgian Bay landscape. In i t Jackson uses a bold black l i n e to delineate the simple contours of the trees silhouetted against the sky, and he makes extensive use of the Impressionist device of placing complementary colours side by side to brighten the canvas: the red maple i s seen beside the green f i r tree and i t s orange leaves are silhouetted against the royal blue sky. Jackson retains the strong sense of contact with the earth of the e a r l i e r work, but the pattern of l i n e s created by the shadows of the trees i n Edge of the Maple Wood i s now used to delineate the masses of rock i n Terre Sauvage. By January of 1914, Thomson and Jackson were sharing a studio i n the new Studio Building erected by Lawren Harris and Dr. MacCallum..  A legend has grown up about this  association : i t i s said that Thomson's contribution lay  23 in imparting his love of the northland to Jackson Jackson i s said to have taught Thomson how canvases and how  24  while  to b u i l d up  to combine pure colours by using l i t t l e 25  separate strokes or "clean/-cut dots."  He also t o l d  Thomson about "Europe, the art schools, famous paintings... 26 and the Impressionist school." Thomson exhibited two canvases i n the 1914 Ontario Society of A r t i s t s exhibition: Morning Cloud (figure 7) 27 and Moonlight, Early Evening (figure 8).  Like A Northern  Lake of the previous year, these two canvases are views of the far shore, though the foreground rocks have been eliminated, r e s u l t i n g i n compositions of only three hori z o n t a l bands: water, land (far h i l l s ) and sky.  The  horizon l i n e i s very low and the sky predominates.  The  omission of the repoussoir trees which were present i n A Northern Lake has eliminated a l l v e r t i c a l elements i n the two compositions, emphasizing the h o r i z o n t a l i t y of each.  Thomson concentrates on the sky and on the water,  and the far shore i s i n d i s t i n c t , general, and not associated with any s p e c i f i c locale. Of the two works executed over this winter, Moonlight, Early Evening i s the most progressive and certainly the boldest i n terms of technique.  Morning Cloud only suggests  the sun behind the cloud, whereas Moonlight, Early Evening centres on the moon as a compositional element and the emanating  l i g h t i s portrayed by means of large radiating  brushstrokes.  In Morning Cloud Thomson blends short  24 brushstrokes and soft, subdued colours to create the impression of a light-infused scene.  In the water, the  brushstrokes are longer than those i n the sky. Morning Cloud i s similar to J.W. Beatty's Evening 28 Cloud of the Northland. , a work with which Thomson would have been familiar.  In each work we f i n d a diagonally  sweeping clouded area, a low shoreline and a vast sky. However, Thomson's interpretation of the theme i s d i s t i n c t l y Impressionistic i n style while Beatty's i s c l e a r l y situated within the Barbizon manner. Joan Murray suggests that the "increased daring with which Thomson applied h i s knowledge" was due to Jackson's 29 advice while he was painting the canvases , and Dennis Reid assumes that.Moonlight, Early Evening was probably 30 painted "under Jackson's direct tutorship."  The  technical influence of Jackson on Thomson during this time was certainly decisive, but t h e i r association i n the Studio Building over the winter of 1913-14 has obscured the l i k e l y sources f o r Thomson's interest i n sunlight or moonlight f a l l i n g on water. 31 It was i n sketches such as Stormy Evening  of the  summer of 1913 that Thomson f i r s t manifested an interest in this s p e c i f i c subject matter,  The theme was common  among the French Impressionists and through h i s reading of Studio,  Thomson would certainly have been familiar with  reproductions of Monet's Waterloo Bridge and The Houses of 32 Parliament.  The theme was p a r t i c u l a r l y prevalent i n  Canadian art at the turn of the century. examples available, one may of 1896 , J.W. 33  Of the many  c i t e B l a i r Bruce s Marine Sunset 1  Mo r r i c e ' s Quebec Citadel by Moonlight of  approximately the same date ^, and Maurice Cullen's Cap 35 Diamond of c. 1904-05. 3  The theme continued to be explored i n the f i r s t decades of the twentieth century by Canadian a r t i s t s , and of those a r t i s t s close to Thomson, i t was J.E.H. MacDonald who  was  p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n i t , for example, i n Early Evening, 36 Winter of 1912. MacDonald was most impressed by the Scandinavian painter Gustaf Fjaestad when he v i s i t e d the Exhibition of Contemporary Scandinavian Art i n Buffalo i n 37 1913  .  In a 1931 lecture he describes a work by Fjaestad  e n t i t l e d Moonlight on a Mountain Lake as a composition "where water and cloud r e f l e c t i o n s beat i n a calm rhythm of colour and solemnity.  His pictures were...painted i n 38  large p o i n t i l l i s m of touches of related colour."  The  description of this work i s reminiscent of Thomson's sketches done during the summer of 1913 and of his large canvas Moonlight, Early Evening, and i t i s possible that Thomson was inspired by MacDonald's enthusiasm for Fjaestad's work: MacDonald may even have had a reproduction of Moonlight on a Mountain Lake i n his possession.  However, the prevalence  of this theme among Thomson's colleagues and i n the works being exhibited i n Toronto at this time cautions against too strenuous an attempt to pinpoint the exact source of Thomson' s i n s p i r a t i o n ; rather, i t i s clear that Thomson was  26  making use of a part of the thematic vocabulary of the day. The canvases which Thomson executed during the following winter of 1914-15 r e f l e c t another change in his painterly thinking as a r e s u l t of his a c t i v i t i e s during the summer and f a l l of 1914. In late A p r i l or early May of 1914, Thomson and Arthur Lismer spent three weeks sketching together i n 39  Algonquin Park  , but i t i s impossible to i d e n t i f y any  of Thomson's sketches done during this t r i p . ^ his  Following  t r i p with Lismer, Thomson went to Dr. MacCallum's summer  home on Georgian Bay for two or three weeks before returning to Algonquin Park i n August.^  Some of the sketches done  at Georgian Bay were used to develop canvases the following winter. The most important development i n Thomson's art was the r e s u l t of a t r i p which he, Jackson, Lismer and Varley A-2  took to Algonquin Park i n the f a l l of 1914.  Jackson  was reportedly pleased with the results of Thomson's work during the summer of 1914 when they were not together, and noticed i n p a r t i c u l a r the "freshness" and "breadth i n A- 3  /JiisJ handling of brushes and pigment."  Under the eye  of Jackson i n the f a l l of 1914, Thomson was "transposing, eliminating, designing, experimenting, finding happy colour motives amid tangle and confusion, r e v e l l i n g i n n44 paint, and intensely interested. The sketch of Red Leaves (figure 9 ) ^ , although i  i  i  27  not  w o r k e d up i n t o  directions  i n which  i n h i s career. trees  a large  indicates the  Thomson was w o r k i n g  The v i e w  and s h r u b s  canvas,  at this  point  i s through a foreground screen o f  to a r i v e r  and t h e o p p o s i t e s h o r e .  In 46  choice of motif i t i s very s i m i l a r and to  i ti s likely  to Jackson's  t h a t J a c k s o n was e n c o u r a g i n g Thomson  a t t e m p t more i n t i m a t e  scenes:'  Thomson's  w i t h a r t nouveau through h i s t r a i n i n g artist this and  sketch, p a r t i c u l a r l y  flat, to  as a  and by h i s r e a d i n g o f a r t magazines  the f o l i a g e  quoise  abstractions  commercial i s evident i n  The f o l i a g e and l i t t l e  i s reduced to  attempt  i s made  t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n except by t h e use  to i n d i c a t e  through  familiarity  i n t h e shape o f t h e b r a n c h e s  on t h e t r e e s .  monochrome  add d e p t h  Red M a p l e  the trees  the water i s a dark  and the sky.  of tur-  The h i l l  seen  s i l h o u e t t e w i t h a shape o n l y  s u g g e s t e d b y Thomson. The  u s e o f a r t n o u v e a u d e v i c e s on s u c h a monumental  scale,  as i n t h e s k e t c h o f Red L e a v e s ,  result  o f a more i n t i m a t e a p p r o a c h  no  l o n g e r d e a l i n g w i t h panoramic  seems t o be t h e  to the motif.  views,  When  as i n h i s p r e v i o u s  w o r k s , Thomson changes h i s t e c h n i q u e , p r e f e r r i n g  the f l a t  art  nouveau v o c a b u l a r y to t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y  realistic  one  o f The Drowned L a n d  one o f  Morning  Cloud.  During lot be  or the i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c  the t r i p ,  Lismer noted  o f f i n e wood i n t e r i o r s selecting h i smaterial  rich  t h a t Thomson "has a  i n colour  carefully  - he seems t o  and u s i n g a f i n e r  sense  28 of colour than h i s previous works show", and he attributed 47 this to Jackson's influence.  When Thomson returned  to Toronto i n November of 1914, Dr. MacCallum was pleased to note that "his colour had broadened marvellously, but the o l d f e e l i n g and sympathy remained:. The sketches were much higher i n key, with not a trace of muddiness, but painted i n clean, pure colour ranging from one end of 48 the spectrum to the other." " -  The use of the smaller format of the panel always adds a greater degree of f l e x i b i l i t y to Thomson's hand, and i n Red Leaves he uses a 'gestural' impasto i n which he covers the surface of the panel with a profusion of brushstrokes whose d i r e c t i o n a l forces define the organic aspects of each natural form.  Like A.Y. Jackson, Thomson  permits the actual board of the sketch to show through i n the area around the trees and the leaves, and the result i s a u n i f i c a t i o n of the composition by means of these contour l i n e s .  The use of the natural colour of the board  by Thomson and Jackson i n these sketches i s similar to Jackson's black contour l i n e i n Terre Sauvage f o r i t delineates the masses, forcing them to emerge sharply from the background.  However, the webbed contour l i n e i s no  longer  painted on the work, but i s an i n t e g r a l part'of the board on which the paint i s being applied, creating a l i g h t and airy f e e l i n g throughout the sketch. In view of the obvious a r t nouveau.elements present i n Thomson's sketches of this f a l l , as well as i n those of  Jackson, i t i s curious to note thevreaction of Jackson and Varley to Thomson's work.  A.Y. Jackson declares  that Thomson i s showing "decided c u b i s t i c a l tendencies" and suggests that he might "have to use a r e s t r a i n i n g 49 influence on him yet"  , and i n a l e t t e r written at approx-  imately the same time, Varley says that "Tom developing into a new Cubist.""^  i s rapidly  It would be a mistake  to attach too much s p e c i f i c importance to the mention of Cubism i n these comments.  Thomson undoubtedly uses a  greater degree of abstraction than the other a r t i s t s i n interpreting the landscape, but we have yet to establish the extent to which he or any of his associates were conversant with the aims of Cubism.  The mention of Cubism  may refer to Thomson's two-dimensionality for many of his sketches are e s s e n t i a l l y f l a t despite the bold colours and the use of a receding  colour (blue) for the water and the  sky. Thomson l i k e l y returned to Toronto i n November of 1914 and shared studio space with Jackson u n t i l the l a t t e r l e f t 52 for Montreal.  He exhibited three canvases at the 1915  Ontario Society of A r t i s t s exhibition: Northern River, 53 S p l i t Rock, Georgian Bay and Pine Island, Georgian Bay. Although only three were exhibited, i t i s almost certain that Thomson executed at least one more canvas during the winter of 1914-15.  Byng Inlet, Georgian Bay (figure 10)  was based on a sketch by the same name done on his summer 54 of 1914 t r i p to Georgian Bay.  30 The Georgian Bay sketches are remarkably  different  from both the sketches Thomson had done the previous summer and from those he would do i n the f a l l of 1914. Dennis Reid suggests that these sketches "represented the f i r s t clear steps that he took i n accomplishing his 55  personal s t y l e . "  The change i n composition i s i n part  due to the geographical differences of the Georgian Bay area.  Thomson was no longer presented with broad panoramas  of  lake, h i l l s and sky, but rather with "low whalebacks  of  fundamental .strata. . . /JwhichJ support a few struggling  conifers and junipers. . . ."; a: rugged land where "even i n the inner bays the pines are bent and twisted i n acknowledgement of the convincing power of the wind." In  the sketch for Byng Inlet, Georgian Bay (figure 11),  Thomson f a i t h f u l l y reproduces the t e r r a i n described above, again working with a horizontal format.  A.Y. Jackson had  explored a s i m i l a r theme during his 1913 t r i p to Georgian Bay, and his work Night, Georgian Bay (then known as Land 57  of the Leaning Pine)  may have been a source of i n s p i r a -  tion f o r Thomson's interpretation.  Unlike Jackson, Thomson  prefers a more intimate view of the subject and situates himself d i r e c t l y i n front of the group of bent trees. These trees, situated on a rocky promontory, extend across the middle ground of the sketch i n an even, horizontal band, e f f e c t i v e l y h a l t i n g the distant panorama found i n Jackson's work. Thomson uses his commercial art vocabulary i n the  31 s t y l i z e d , f l a t clusters of foliage on the trees.  He  appears to have adopted i t i n part to convey the e f f e c t of  trees silhouetted against the sky, as did Jackson i n  Terre Sauvage.  The board i s allowed to show through  i n the sketch, enhancing the sense of spontaneity i n the wind-bent trees; however, i n the large canvas, Thomson s t a b i l i z e s and anchors these trees by delineating them with black contour l i n e s .  The tops of the trees i n the sketch  extend to the upper perimeters of the board, and there is l i t t l e space between the foreground rocks and the trees of the middle ground.  The r e s u l t i s a f e e l i n g of the  proximity of the spectator to the trees..  However, i n  translating the sketch to the canvas, Thomson increases the foreground space by enlarging the land masses, and he brings the tops of the trees firmly within the boundaries of the canvas.'  Despite the-rapidity of the brush-  strokes i n the sketch, they are a l l f a i r l y uniform i n texture.  In the rendering of the sky, the brushstrokes  are free and rapid, proceeding i n a variety of directions. In his use of colour, Thomson has 'opened up' considerably, but he i s s t i l l t i e d to a l i t e r a l c o l o u r i s t i c representation of the main areas: blue-yellow f o r the sky, dark blue for the trees silhouetted against the sky, green for  the masses of foliage and blue for the water.  lightening of the sky i n the sketch may be due  The  , i n part,  to the three weeks spent sketching with Lismer i n the spring of 1914.  Although there does not appear to be a direct  32 stylistic  l i n k with Lismer's  seem p r o b a b l e lighter  dark  colourful The Varley  and L i s m e r  and  i s seen  Thomson r e t a i n s  trees,  a r e now  explore a  lighter,  more  i n the comparison  b u t he  that  the dark  lightens  o f the  Jackson,  between  canvas.  colours for depicting  The  rocky foreground  i n d i c a t i n g Thomson's i n c r e a s i n g  s u b j e c t i v e r a t h e r than Jackson's  throughout  use  masses  on  dots  He  of pure  colour  t o e n h a n c e i t : f o r example  , in  the water.  c o l o u r scheme o f Byng I n l e t  when compared w i t h M o r n i n g i t i s clear  green  confidence  of colour.  technique of p l a c i n g  t h e r e d dabs o f p a i n t The  literal  the c o m p o s i t i o n  the  the other areas c o n s i d e r a b l y ,  the f o r e g r o u n d .  orange,  the In  bright yellow with occasional splashes of  a l s o uses  and  Thomson t o abandon h i s  i n t h e s k e t c h and  especially  in  colouring,  considerably  i n f l u e n c e o f the i n t e r v e n i n g t r i p w i t h  canvas,  and  encouraged  i t would  palette.  c o l o u r used  the  time,  t h a t L i s m e r , whose work was  i n tone,  previous  work o f t h i s  Cloud  appears  o f o n l y one  almost year  t h a t Thomson i s m o v i n g r a p i d l y  harsh  earlier,  i n his colour  development. Thomson's s k e t c h e s works o f a r t and and  a r e now  are remarkable  f r e e d o m ; however, when he  or  e x h i b i t i o n p i e c e s , he was  at  a satisfactory  differ  from  each  technique.  c o n s i d e r e d autonomous for their  transposed not As  spontaneity them i n t o  always a b l e to a result,  o t h e r c o n s i d e r a b l y and  his  canvases  arrive canvases  o f t e n appear  to  be  33 odd mixtures of styles and techniques.  In the canvas  Byng Inlet, Thomson uses f l a t art nouveau patterns to render the forms of the trees but i n the water he uses short, choppy brushstrokes arranged horizontally across the surface as i n Moonlight,. Early Evening, although i n this e a r l i e r work the brushstrokes are not as horizontal nor as colourful.  In the delineation of the rocks he  uses longer brushstrokes of equal width to physically his way  through the curves of the land masses,  'force'  emphasizing  the dynamic forces therein. The treatment of the sky i s an elaboration of this Post-impressionist brushstroke: the strokes l i e i n h o r i zontal layers across the surface of the canvas, but they appear to have been applied rapidly for they are not uniform i n size or evenly applied. brushstroke for the sky was  Thomson's use of this  l i k e l y a development from his  works of the previous winter, and i t may be noted that the technique i s an e f f e c t i v e one for painting the sky on the larger scale demanded by the canvas. It i s possible that another canvas was  done during  the winter of 1914-15, although i t certainly dates from the 1915 portion of the season.  In the Northland i s signed  58 and dated 1915  (figure 12)  and has  traditionally  been assumed to date from the winter of 1915-16.  Joan  Murray includes i t i n a discussion of the works of the 59 winter of 1915-16 and Dennis Reid also believes that i t 60 was done at this time. However, i t s close s i m i l a r i t y  34 to N o r t h e r n R i v e r ( f i g u r e . 14) o f the w i n t e r o f 1914-15 suggests t h a t i t was  done e a r l i e r .  The two canvases  are  c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y s i m i l a r i n t h a t each i s a view through a s c r e e n o f t r e e s , and the d i s p o s i t i o n o f elements i n each i s a m i r r o r image o f those i n the o t h e r work.  In  a d d i t i o n , the two canvases are e x a c t l y the same s i z e , an o c c u r r e n c e which i s r a r e i n Thomson's work: N o r t h e r n R i v e r i s a v e r t i c a l format, 45" x 40" and I n The N o r t h l a n d i s h o r i z o n t a l i n format, 40" x 45". I n The N o r t h l a n d i s c o n s i d e r e d by Dennis R e i d t o be a r e - w o r k i n g o f the N o r t h e r n R i v e r theme and he a l s o p o i n t s out the s t y l i s t i c l i n k s between A.Y.  Jackson's F r o z e n Lake,  E a r l y S p r i n g , A l g o n q u i n P a r k ^ and Thomson's N o r t h e r n R i v e r . ^ The r e a l l i n k , however, appears to be between the J a c k s o n work and I n The N o r t h l a n d .  Thomson adopts from J a c k s o n  the i d e a o f v i e w i n g a scene through a s c r e e n o f t r e e s a r r a n g e d a l o n g the f o r e g r o u n d o f the canvas; he a l s o borrows Jackson's use o f a t r e e p l a c e d d i a g o n a l l y a c r o s s the canvas to u n i t e the v a r i o u s h o r i z o n t a l elements o f the c o m p o s i t i o n . The s i m i l a r i t y i n the t r e a t m e n t s o f the f o r e g r o u n d i s a l s o worthy o f n o t e : each a r t i s t c a r e f u l l y d e l i n e a t e s the g e n t l y r o l l i n g curves o f the mounds o f h a r d e a r t h .  The  t r e e s i n Thomson's c o m p o s i t i o n s l a n t i n v a r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s , as do those i n the J a c k s o n work, but those i n N o r t h e r n R i v e r are u n i f o r m and conform t o the p l u m b - l i n e . In h i s use o f c o l o u r i n I n The N o r t h l a n d Thomson d e p a r t s from J a c k s o n and uses many o f the c o l o u r s which  now  35 become standard i n his work.  The water i s a deep royal  blue and i s rendered i n long., horizontal brushstrokes; the i n d i v i d u a l brushstrokes only become apparent upon close scrutiny.  Thomson brightens the orange foreground  rocks, renders the foliage i n vibrant yellows and uses bright red to indicate the foliage on the small tree s l i g h t l y to the right of centre; this foliage becomes the focal point of the composition. A comparison between the painting and i t s sketch 63 (figure 13) reveals one s i g n i f i c a n t difference.  In  the canvas Thomson adds an upright tree trunk to the extreme  l e f t foreground.  This tree creates a s p e c i f i c  point from which the landscape may be entered by the viewer, and i t also serves to ' f i l l i n ' an area which i n the sketch had been void.  More importantly, this  tree stresses the flatness of both the canvas and the composition  itself.  During the winter of 1915-16,  Thomson again works  with this compositional format i n The Pool (figure 1 5 ) ^ , but a more intimate view of the landscape i s adopted, r e s u l t i n g i n the dismissal of almost a l l sky. The Pool i s remarkable f o r i t s use of bright reds, greens and yellows.  ;  Thomson places complementary colours  side by side to achieve a radiating e f f e c t : f o r instance, red  foliage i s placed beside green, and the blue water i s  seen against an orange undercoat of paint. An interesting contradiction i n Thomson's work becomes apparent when the sense of depth i n The Pool i s  36 studied. for  Thomson makes use of the t r a d i t i o n a l devices  introducing depth to a painting: bright, warm colours  are placed i n the foreground; the water i n the middle ground i s rendered i n cool shades of blue and green, as i s the background from which a l l warm colours are excluded; and the foreground foliage i s represented 'clearly  and  precisely while that i n the background i s not seen i n d e t a i l nor as c l e a r l y .  However, despite these devices,  The Pool remains a b a s i c a l l y f l a t composition.  The fore-  ground foliage i s represented i n f l a t abstract shapes and the bright yellow leaves form a garland around the pool and the opposite shore.  The pool i t s e l f i s rendered i n  long, f l a t brushstrokes of green and blue applied on an earthy orange undercoat, but the colour and the brushstrokes do not change substantially as the f a r shore i s neared; the impression of depth i n the scene i s reduced.  thus  The  foliage on the f a r shore i s rendered i n s t r i c t l y v e r t i c a l brushstrokes of pale greens and blues.  In The Northland  is a s i m i l a r l y f l a t canvas, but i t i s not as decorative as The Pool. Thomson's further experiments with decorative a r t during the winter of 1915-16 seem to have coincided with a change i n studio companions and mentors.  His association  with A.Y. Jackson, who had encouraged him i n the use of various Impressionist techniques, ended i n January 1915 when Jackson moved to Montreal, and when Thomson returned to Toronto i n November of 1915, h i s closest association  37 was  w i t h H a r r i s and MacDonald who  were s t i l l  i n Toronto.  At t h i s time, both H a r r i s and MacDonald were working i n an extremely d e c o r a t i v e  s t y l e : H a r r i s was  a s e r i e s of snow scenes and houses, and MacDonald was  continuing  painting  his studies  doing p r e p a r a t o r y  of  sketches f o r  65 his  l a r g e canvas, The  exerted  Tangled Garden.  on Thomson by  particularly  The  influence  t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n seems to have been  strong.  66 Harris's  sketch  In The Ward  reflects  of a l l the a r t i s t s at t h i s time and e s t i n g comparison w i t h The  Pool.  the  concerns  serves as an i n t e r -  The  flat,  decorative  treatment of the m o t i f i n Thomson's work i s a l s o present i n that of H a r r i s , and close-up,  intimate  almost a l l sky and  l i k e Thomson, H a r r i s adopts a  view of h i s s u b j e c t which excludes atmosphere.  l a r g e t r e e extending the height  Harris places  a single  of the sketch  i n the  foreground, s l i g h t l y to the l e f t of centre;  this tree re-  i n f o r c e s the f l a t n e s s o f the composition, as do the i n The It  extreme  trees  Pool. i s i n the p a l e t t e used by each a r t i s t  s i m i l a r i t y between these two  that  the  works i s most remarkable: i t  almost appears that the same p a l e t t e was c i r c u l a t i n g between Thomson and H a r r i s . i n the sky  The  same t u r q u o i s e  i n each work, the same red,  the same p a l e green and  i s present  the same mauve,  the same r o y a l b l u e .  The  bold  y e l l o w f o l i a g e which i n each work assumes the same shape would appear to be a H a r r i s device  as i t f i r s t appears  38 i n his 1913  Houses.^7  The sharing of s t y l i s t i c voc-  abularies at this time among the Toronto a r t i s t s makes i t d i f f i c u l t to ascertain who new  advance.  was  responsible for each  It must be noted that both Harris and  MacDonald were deeply aware of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of decorative art, and this may  well be the factor which  inspired Thomson to brighten his palette further and to simplify and bolden his composition. The drive towards decorative art by Thomson, Harris and MacDonald was motivated by their reading of magazines such as Studio and Jugend, and i n the case of MacDonald and Thomson, by their careers as commercial a r t i s t s . more importantly,  But  i t presented another possible solution  to the problem of dealing with the northern Canadian landscape.  A.Y.  Jackson claims- that Impressionism  "was  too involved a technique to express the movement and 68  complex character of our northern wilds" that "we  , stating  frankly abandoned any attempt after l i t e r a l  painting and treated our subjects with the freedom of the decorative designer, just as the Swedes had done, l i v i n g i n a land where the topography and climate are 69  similar to our  own."  This s h i f t had already begun i n 1914 when the a r t i s t s , although experimenting with the Impressionist  technique,  had found i t inadequate when confronting the motif from a very close range, and had adopted instead an art nouveau vocabulary.  It i s Lawren Harris who  outlines most s u c c i n c t -  39 ly this s h i f t i n s t y l e : L i v i n g and wandering the North, and more or less l i t e r a l l y copying a great v a r i e t y of her motives led to a decorative treatment of her great wealth of material i n designs and colour patterns conveying her moods of seasons and places with suggestions of her pervading s p i r i t . It seemed the only way to embody the charm of so many of her motives and the i n t r i c a c i e s of her e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y r i c h patterns. The a r t i s t s saw decorative patterns everywhere in the North, and material for every possible form of embellishment for our daily l i f e , and a l l of i t waiting to be used to create a home for the s p i r i t of a new-seeing people. This decorative phase touches the whole glorious display of nature, and creates patterns i n the f l a t , re-expressing her moods. Thomson's awareness of art nouveau i s c l e a r l y established i n a series of seven panels which he executed for  Dr. MacCallum's cottage on Georgian Bay during the  winter of 1915-16.  During the f a l l of 1915,  Dr. MacCallum  commissioned Thomson, Lismer: and MacDonald to paint a group of panels to decorate the l i v i n g room of his cottage, intending to provide the a r t i s t s with a l i v e l i h o o d during the f i r s t years of the war;  the panels were then executed  over the winter of 1915-16 and i n s t a l l e d the following April.  7 1  Though Thomson produced seven decorative panels for the cottage, only three were placed i n p o s i t i o n .  The  other four were stored i n Jackson's studio for a number of years and were then donated to the National Gallery of 72  Canada i n the MacCallum Bequest. The panels have received very l i t t l e attention i n studies of Thomson's work, perhaps because they were intend-  40  ed as nothing more than pure decoration, and as such, were seen as simply extensions of his career as a commercial artist.  A l l the panels are v e r t i c a l i n format, and unlike  those by the other a r t i s t s , they deal only with landscape motifs, consisting of either a single tree or a group of trees. 73  In Decorative Panel I (figure 16)  , f o r example,  Thomson creates a very f l a t and l i n e a r composition with no sense of depth whatever.  He outlines the s t y l i z e d tree  and i t s foliage with heavy contour l i n e s ; the colours are s o l i d and f l a t , enhancing the o v e r a l l two-dimensiona l i t y of the composition, but they do not approximate r e a l i t y ; and the tonality of the composition as a whole i s dark and low-key with the exception of the bright red leaves placed along the trunk of the tree. With these panels, Thomson's decorative art reaches i t s height.  They are not based on sketches, as f a r as  is known, and are not the result of direct observation of a p a r t i c u l a r scene.  Thus they d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y  from works l i k e The Pool which., though decorative, retain a link with the p a r t i c u l a r landscape of northern Ontario. Thomson went north again i n the spring of 1916  though  the actual date of his departure from Toronto i s not known.^ It was  at this time that the sketching t r i p occurred with  Harris and Dr. MacCallum which has been mentioned above. It i s here accepted that The West Wind sketch was  done on  this t r i p , and although there i s no similar testimony, i t  41 is assumed that the sketch for The Jack Pine was done at this t i m e . ^  also  These sketches were then worked  up into large canvases i n Thomson's shack behind the Studio Building i n Toronto during the winter of 1916-17. The composition of both The Jack Pine and The West Wind i s i n many ways a return to that of A Northern Lake of 1913.  From a foreground ledge the viewer looks across  a body of water to the h i l l s and the sky beyond.  However,  i n the 1916-17 compositions, a single tree stands to the right of centre, uniting the four horizontal layers.  In  each, the tree extends beyond the top of the canvas, bringing  the foreground area, including the tree, closer to  the viewer. It seems that The Jack Pine (figure 17) was 76 f i r s t of the two paintings to be executed.  the  The com-  p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t s a lingering effect -of the decorative art nouveau vocabulary used i n The Pool and i n the panels of the previous winter; however, Thomson i s now again working with nature i n the context of a s p e c i f i c landscape and as a result, The Jack Pine i s not as decorative as the panels. The form of the jack pine i t s e l f i s the most arresting element of the painting. The hanging tendrils of the tree r e c a l l Northern River of 1915, but the drooping masses of foliage r e c a l l Harris's treatment of snow-laden boughs i n works such as Snow of c. 1915-16.  ^  The treatment of the water' and the sky i n The Jack Pine  42 deserves p a r t i c u l a r l y close scrutiny.  For the f i r s t time,  Thomson has presented each area i n the same terms: long, broad brushstrokes i n pastel shades.  The use of this type  of brushstroke was not unprecedented among the Toronto group at this time.  As early as 1912, Lawren Harris had  used a similar technique i n Building the Ice House, Hamilton and he continued to use variations of i t intermittently up u n t i l the time that Thomson painted The Jack Pine. One may note the sky i n In The Ward of 1916 i n this  connec-  tion . Although the basic composition of The West Wind i s so similar to The Jack Pine, Thomson adopts an e n t i r e l y 79 d i f f e r e n t technique i n The West Wind. The correspondence 80  here between the sketch canvas  (figure 1  (figure  2 ) and the finished  ) i s close except that the p o s i t i o n of the  tree has changed s l i g h t l y .  In the sketch the tree i s placed  just to the right of centre, with the result that i t s branches extend far into the l e f t hand side of the compos i t i o n , creating an imbalance with the right side which is empty.  In the canvas, Thomson positions the tree further  to the right to correct the balance between the two sides. Large portions of the board are v i s i b l e i n the sketch, not only i n the area around the tree, but also i n the water and i n the sky.  The tree trunk i s defined with one large  stroke of purple, and the clumps of dark foliage are defined with a minimum number of brushstrokes.  The foreground  ledge i s vague and undefined, and i s rendered i n shades of  43  p u r p l e ; p u r p l e i s the b a s i c c o l o u r i n the sketch to such an  extent  that i t may  be considered  an e x e r c i s e i n  v a r i a t i o n s of p u r p l e , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the patches o f b r i g h t blue  sky.  Thomson's predominant i n t e r e s t i n the sketch appears to be the c r e a t i o n o f the mood of a p a r t i c u l a r day. sombre t o n a l i t y and  the a t t e n t i o n g i v e n to  the v a r i o u s masses o f the clouds and  The  indicating  the whitecaps on  water suggest that Thomson's concern i s to secure  the  a record  of the scene under these p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s . The  r e n d e r i n g of the t r e e i n the l a r g e canvas, as  a l r e a d y mentioned, bears an exact  correspondence w i t h  the  sketch though Thomson i s more exact and p a i n s t a k i n g i n his  t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s element onto the canvas:  In  the  sketch, Thomson uses the sketch board as an o u t l i n e around the t r e e ; i n the canvas, he uses the v e r m i l i o n undercoat of p a i n t to o u t l i n e the f o l i a g e and dark c o n t o u r / l i n e s 81 to  o u t l i n e the trunk and The  foreground  the branches of the t r e e .  ledge i s e l a b o r a t e d upon and  given  d e f i n i t i o n i n the canvas; Thomson breaks the area i n t o sepa r a t e components, d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by s i z e , shape and  colour,  and he expands h i s c o l o u r scheme: r e d i s added, as i s green i n some areas.  However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  whether the foreground  area i s composed of bare r o c k s ,  mounds of hard e a r t h or moss-covered r o c k s . o f the d i s t a n t h i l l s  to e s t a b l i s h  The  configuration  i s very s i m i l a r to The Jack Pine.  In both canvases, the h i l l s are i n d i s t i n c t and are  out-  44 lined, top and bottom, by the vermilion underpaint. In both the brushstrokes of blue paint are s t r i c t l y vertical.  The h i l l s i n The West Wind, unlike those i n The  Jack Pine, do not bear traces of snow, suggesting an e a r l i e r time i n the season. The treatment of the water i n The West Wind r e c a l l s the .earlier painting A Northern Lake.  Thomson i s concerned  i n each to present the wind blowing along the water, on  creating whitecaps?  In The West Wind, the brushstrokes  i n the water are short and choppy, l i k e the water i t s e l f , and they are no longer rendered i n variations of a single hue, but are pink, yellow, turquoise, beige and purple. In technique they r e c a l l those of Byng Inlet, but are much longer and l i g h t e r . The contrast between the broad, regular horizontal bands i n The Jack Pine and the short, choppy brushstrokes i n The West Wind i s s t r i k i n g and establishes that Thomson i s now  concerned with a vastly d i f f e r e n t interpretation of  the landscape. Thomson's treatment of the sky i n The West Wind i s perhaps the most i n t r i g u i n g aspect of this painting, as he was reported to have been d i s s a t i s f i e d with the f i n a l 83 results  , though the extent of his concern and the reasons  for i t are not known.  Joan Murray suggests that Thomson  was forced to look out of his studio window  f o r the ren-  dering of the sky i n the large canvas, the indications of the sketch being f e l t inappropriate for the large work.  45 She  bases her  clouds  argument on h e r  i n the  canvas a r e n o t  conviction  t h a t the  i n unison with  the  blowing  direction  84 o f the wind i n the  t r e e i n the  M u r r a y ' s n o t i o n t h a t The failure"  due  to the  sketch. West Wind i s a  "magnificent  disharmony between the wind i n the 85  sky  and  t h a t i n the  tree  seems t o ; d e r i v e h o t  m e t e o r o l o g i c a l problem at a l l , painterly  one.  further with While he  this  i s s e e k i n g t o do  treatment dynamism.  istic this  o f any  rocks  Jack  The  treatment  sky w i t h  Pine.  The  sky  a  decorto  chooses  i t is parallel  o f an  sky.  of  combine  form  a r t nouveau  The  tree  though p r e s e n t nor  real-  stylized  to the p i c t u r e  composition  express  to  a r t nouveau t r e e  and  on  i s t h e most  b u t he  tree against a n a t u r a l i s t i c  does n o t weaken t h e  Pine.  i n order  i s a combination  d i s h a r m o n y n o t i c e d by M u r r a y ,  extent,  Jack  o f t h e p r e v i o u s work,  one,  of the  flat,  result  experimenting  so by m o v i n g f r o m  s t y l i z e d water,  been f l a t t e n e d u n t i l The  the  and  a dynamic v a r i a t i o n  t o a more r e a l i s t i c  against less  stylized  i n The  o f Thomson's c a n v a s e s ,  realistic  o f The  i n creating  a  a technical  West Wind Thomson i s  the b a s i c c o m p o s i t i o n  interested  theme and  ative  from  the problem p r e s e n t e d  retaining  i s now  the  I n The  but  from  has plane.  t o some  diminish i t s  force of expression. That from  Thomson c h o s e t o e n l a r g e , o f a l l ' t h e  the p r e v i o u s  the lone  s k e t c h i n g season,  tree motif,  interested  i n this  indicates  particular  two  with  the e x t e n t  sketches  deal with  t o w h i c h he  c o m p o s i t i o n a l theme.  was  Never-  46 theless,  we must n o t e  between  the  two  some s i g n i f i c a n t  canvases.  The t r e a t m e n t o f is  radically  water are as  to  the  i n d i f f e r e n t ways.  The J a c k P i n e i t tree  is  slopes  The West W i n d ,  the  right,  tree,  as  hill  rather  foreground of  is  same i n e a c h  the  each  i n the  other.  is  left  in  the  i n the  close  to  foreIn  to  same  location  upper  crest  of  The d i s p o s i t i o n o f  two p a i n t i n g s  and  in  left  the  a l t h o u g h each  techpicture,  while  the these  form m i r r o r  A l t h o u g h the p o s i t i o n i n g o f  that  in  lower r i g h t  and e x t e n d s b e y o n d t h e  t h e r e c a n be no d o u b t  whereas  different. to  the  harmonious  different  from lower  than i n the h o l l o w .  images  so  t h e mood o f  stands  which stands  l a n d masses  s k y and  lower r i g h t h a n d p a r t ,  now s i t s  two  In each p a i n t i n g the  tree  land rises  i n The J a c k P i n e ,  are  to  from upper  f o u n d i n the  and t h e  other,  s k y and t h e w a t e r  on w h i c h t h e  the  f a s h i o n and a r e  and w h i l e b o t h c o n t r i b u t e :  do so  sky i n the  I n The J a c k P i n e  painted i n similar  ground ledge  the  and t h e  be i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m e a c h  nique, they  the water  different.  The West W i n d ,  differences  top  is  of  the the  highly  tree canvas,  sty-  86 lized,  they  The t r e e as  does  left  are  two d i f f e r e n t  i n The J a c k P i n e the  tree  bends o v e r  to  the  double,  of  the  tree,  of  it;  the  the  one  to  its  and s t r a i g h t  small tree  of  there  left  tree.  tall  shape  downward t h r u s t  I n The West W i n d ,  a s l i g h t l y smaller  of pine  perfectly  reflecting  t h e b a c k g r o u n d and the tree.  stands  right  in  large  species  of  the  the is  to  its  hills  tendrils  a  large  and two  small  ,  47 subsidiary trunk  trees to e i t h e r  o f the  direct  er  trees repeat  and  c o n t r a s t t o t h a t i n The  out  this  Jack  movement t o t h e  a circular  suggests  large tree.  large tree leans pronouncedly  in  points  s i d e o f the  P i n e , and  left.  rhythm w i t h i n t h i s  t h a t Thomson a d o p t e d  t h e s t r o n g movement f r o m  right  t o the  i t to  to l e f t  The left,  the s m a l l -  Peter  Mellen  group o f t r e e s counterbalance  across  the  sur-  87 f a c e o f the  canvas.  There i s a l s o the in  two  paintings.  in  The  Jack the  o f an  canvases  directly  P i n e one  darker  ment as  analysis and  an  techniques interest  senses  their  the r i s i n g  o f The  sketches be  artist. and  and  reds, mauves.  sun  o f the  morning  West Wind s u g g e s t s  the  offered  He  styles  had  any  establish  f o r he  r e g a r d i n g Thomson's  and poses  to p l o t  rarely  some t e n t a t i v e  a natural ability  quickly  attempt  o f Thomson's l a r g e  suggests  i n experimentation,  impedes  instead  and  t o the mood o f e a c h work:  of a s e l e c t i o n  course, i n h i s development.  in  i s consistently brighter  i n darker blues  related  tonality  c l u s i o n s w h i c h may  to  Pine  of colour i n  afternoon.  This  and  Jack  West Wind i s r e n d e r e d  colours, are  while end  The  i n t h e use  i t s c o l o u r scheme, u s i n g b o l d y e l l o w s , g r e e n s  w h i l e The The  a difference  an  this,  develop-  assimilate  coupled with h i s  c h r o n o l o g i c a l problems absolutely systematic  T r a n s i t i o n p o i n t s are abandoned a t e c h n i q u e ,  to i n t r o d u c e i t to h i s v o c a b u l a r y  subsequent works.  to  con-  and  difficult preferring  re-use i t  48  Nevertheless, although Thomson did not follow a well-regimented course of development, certain stages of s t y l i s t i c development may be discerned i n his works. His  f i r s t works are tight and r e a l i s t i c ,  such as  The Drowned Land of 1912, but he rapidly moves into a looser yet s t i l l academic approach such as that exemplified by A Northern Lake of 1913.  Under the influence of Im-  pressionism, he then begins to break up his brushstroke (Morning Cloud) and to add colour (Byng Inlet, Georgian Bay). An increasing reliance on his commercial manifests i t s e l f when he approaches  art training  the motif from a more  intimate range (Red Leaves, In The Northl and and The Pool), culminating i n the series of seven panels for Dr. MacCallum' s summer home on Georgian Bay i n 1915-16.  At the  end of his career, before his premature death i n July of 1917, he returns to a more n a t u r a l i s t i c interpretation of the landscape while maintaining an art nouveau vocabulary for  the rendering of certain forms.  Thus, i n his l a s t  canvas, The West Wind, he s i m p l i f i e s the forms of the h i l l s on the opposite shore, but for the foreground land mass and the large tree he offers a d i s t i n c t l y art nouveau i n t e r pretation.  The rendering of the sky and of the water, how-  ever, suggests a return to a more n a t u r a l i s t i c vocabulary. The West Wind stands at the end of his evolution as an a r t i s t .  It does manifest a return to a concern with  greater naturalism, but lacking s t y l i s t i c resolution, i t remains much within the context of Thomson's previous work.  FOOTNOTES CHAPTER II 1.  A Northern Lake, o i l on canvas, 30" x 36"; Collection of the Ontario Department of Public Works. Reproduced i n Mellen, Group of Seven, p. 31 i n colour. The Ontario Society of A r t i s t s Exhibition was held from March 14 to A p r i l 11, 1913. A Northern Lake was no. 88 i n the catalogue, but was not reproduced.  2.  Fergus Kyle, "The Ontario Society of A r t i s t s , " Yearbook of the Arts i n Canada (Toronto: J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1913), pp. 186-7.  3.  Addison, The Algonquin Years, p. 89.  4.  J.M. MacCallum, "Painter of the North," The Canadian Magazine, March 1918, p. 376.  5.  Murray, Thomson, p. 22.  6.  Albert H. Robson, Tom Thomson (Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1937), p. 7.  7.  . Housser, A Canadian Art Movement, p. 62.  8.  MacCallum, "Painter of the North," p. 376.  9.  Robson, Tom Thomson, p. 6.  10.  The Drowned Land, o i l on canvas board, 6-7/8" x 913/16", signed recto l . r . 'Tom Thomson'; Art Gallery of Ontario. Reproduced i n colour i n David Silcox and Harold Town, Tom Thomson, The Silence and the Storm (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1977), p. 39.  11.  Dennis Reid, "The Photographs of Tom Thomson," p. 5. Reid points out the s i m i l a r i t i e s between The Drowned Land and one of the surviving Thomson photographs but does not attempt to take the comparison further. I concur with his judgment.  12.  R.H. Hubbard, Tom Thomson (Toronto: Society for Art Publications. McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1962), p. 7.  49  50 13.  Barry Lord, The History of Painting i n Canada. Toward a People's Art (Toronto: NC Press, 1974), p. 126.  14.  Reid, Group of Seven, p. 53.  15.  Montreal, The Montreal Arts Club, Catalogue of an Exhibition of Paintings by the Late Tom Thomson, Foreword by A.Y. Jackson, March 1 - 21, 1919, n.p. Hereafter l i s t e d as Jackson, Foreword.  16.  Dorothy Hoover, J.W. Beatty (Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1948), p. 10.  17.  Nancy E. Robertson, J.E.H. MacDonald, R.C.A. 18731932, Exhibition organized for the Art Gallery of Toronto, November 13 - December 12, 1965 (Toronto: Art Gallery of Toronto, 1965), p. 6.  18.  Jackson, A Painter's Country, p. 31.  19.  Edge of the Maple Wood, o i l on canvas, 22%" x 26", signed and dated l . r . 'A.Y. JACKSON/1910'; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n colour i n Mellen, Group of Seven, p. 15. Toronto, Art Gallery of Toronto, A.Y. Jackson Paintings 1902-1953, Foreword by Arthur Lismer, October - November 1953, p. 5. Lismer states that he, MacDonald and Thomson saw Edge of the Maple Wood at this exhib i t i o n and that they discussed i t s quality.  20.  Housser, A Canadian Art Movement, p. 78.  21.  Terre Sauvage, o i l on canvas, 50" x 60", signed and dated l . r . 'AY JACKSON/1913'; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n colour i n Mellen, Group of Seven, p. 34.  22.  Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 25.  23.  Jackson, A Painter's Country, p. 32.  24.  Ibid, p. 35.  25.  Housser, A Canadian Art Movement, p. 92. Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 26.  26.  Jackson, A Painter's Country, p. 34.  27.  The Ontario Society of A r t i s t s exhibition was held from March 14 - A p r i l 11, 1914. Morning Cloud, o i l on canvas, 28%" x 39-7/8";  51 Private Collection, Sarnia, Ontario. Reproduced i n colour i n Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 57, Plate I I . Moonlight,Early Evening, then known as Moonlight, o i l on canvas, 20-3/4" x 30"; Purchased by the National Gallery of Canada from the 1914 Ontario Society of A r t i s t s exhibition. Reproduced i n black and white i n Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 67, no. 13. 28.  Evening Cloud of the Northland, 1910, o i l on canvas, 38%" x 55-3/4"; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n black and white i n Mellen, Group of Seven, p. 30.  29.  Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 26.  30.  Reid, Group of Seven, p. 55.  31.  Stormy Evening, o i l on canvas board, 10" x 7-7/8"; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 66, no. 10 i n black and white.  32.  Studio 32 (1904): 167. The treatment of the water i n Morning Cloud i s p a r t i c u l a r l y close to that used by Monet in. Waterloo Bridge.  33.  William B l a i r Bruce, Marine Sunset, o i l on canvas, 11" X - 1 4 V ; C o l l e c t i o n of Mr. and Mrs. Jules Loeb, Toronto. Reproduced i n Toronto, Art Gallery of Ontario, Impressionism i n Canada 1895-1935, catalogue by Joan Murray, November 17, 1974 - January 5, 1975, p. 17. This catalogue w i l l henceforth be referred to as Murray, Impressionism.  34.  James Wilson Morrice, Quebec Citadel by Moonlight, o i l on canvas, 21-7/8" x 15-1/8"; C o l l e c t i o n of Miss F. Eleanore and Mr. David R. Morrice, Montreal. Reproduced i n Murray, Impressionism, p. 41.  35.  Maurice Cullen, Cap Diamond,oil on canvas, 57%" x 68-3/4"; C o l l e c t i o n of the Art Gallery of Hamilton. Reproduced i n Murray, Impressionism, p. 26.  36.  Early Evening, Winter, o i l on canvas, 33" x 28"; A r t Gallery of Ontario. Reproduced i n Robertson, MacDonald, p. 18, no. 8, i n black- and white.  37.  Buffalo, Albright Art Gallery, Exhibition of Contemporary Scandinavian Art, January 4-16, 1913. Lawren Harris and J.E.H. MacDonald t r a v e l l e d to Buffalo to see this exhibition. Mellen, Group of Seven, p. 22.  52 38.  J.E.H. MacDonald, Scandinavian Art, Typewritten notes for a lecture given at the Art Gallery of Toronto on A p r i l 17, 1931. Copy i n the Art Gallery of Ontario Library.  39.  Addison, The Algonquin Years, p. 28.  40.  Reid, Group of Seven, p. 74. Reid refers the reader to Evan H. Turner, "A Current General Problem and a S p e c i f i c Issue," Canadian Art 20 (March-April 1963): 108-111 for a discussion of a work which may have been produced on this t r i p .  41.  Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 31.  42.  Reid, Group of Seven, p. 76.  43.  Blodwen Davies, A Study of Tom Thomson, with a Foreword by A.Y. Jackson (Toronto: The Discus Press, 1935; reprint ed., Vancouver: M i t c h e l l Press Ltd., 1967), p. 61.  44.  Jackson, "Foreword," n.p.  45.  Red Leaves, o i l on panel, 8%" x 10%"; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n colour i n Mellen, Group of Seven, p. 41. Thomson adopted this standard size of sketching panel i n 1914.  46.  Red Maple,oil on panel, 8%" x 10%", McMichael C o l l e c t i o n , Kleinburg, Ontario. Reproduced i n black and white i n Reid, Group of Seven, p. 79, no. 49.  47.  Letter from Arthur Lismer to Dr. MacCallum, dated October 11, 1914. McMichael C o l l e c t i o n , Kleinburg.  48.  MacCallum, "Painter of the North," p.  49.  Letter from A.Y. Jackson to Dr. MacCallum, dated 13 October, 1914, i n the National Gallery of Canada. Partly reproduced i n Reid, Group of Seven, p. 69.  50.  Letter from Varley to Dr. MacCallum, no date, National Gallery of Canada Archives; Quoted i n part i n Reid, Group of Seven, p. 70.  51.  Reid, Group of Seven, p. 76.  52.  Reid, Jack Pine, p. 11. Jackson appears to have l e f t Toronto for Montreal i n December of 1914.or January of 1915.  53.  The 1915 Ontario Society of A r t i s t s Exhibition was held from March 13 to A p r i l 10. The canvases which  376.  53 Thomson exhibited were Northern River, o i l on canvas, signed recto l . r . 'Tom Thorns on', 45" x 40"; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n colour i n Mellen, Group of Seven, p. 51. S p l i t Rock, Georgian Bay, o i l on canvas, 36" x 45"; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n black and white i n Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 72, no. 39. Pine Island, Georgian Bay, o i l on canvas, 60%" x 50%"; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 72, no. 40. 54.  Byng Inlet, Georgian Bay, o i l on canvas, signed recto l . r . 'Tom Thomson', 28-3/4" x 30%"; McMichael C o l l e c t i o n , Kleinburg. Reproduced i n colour i n Silcox and Town, The Silence and The Storm, p. 93.as Summer Shore, Georgian Bay. The sketch i s Georgian Bay, Byng Inlet, o i l on panel, 8%" x 10%"; The Roberts Gallery, Toronto. Reproduced i n colour i n Silcox and Town, The Silence and The Storm, p. 92.  55.  Reid, Group of Seven, p. 76.  56.  Charles Comfort, "Georgian Bay Legacy," Canadian Art 8 (Spring 1951): 106.  57.  Night, Georgian Bay, o i l on canvas, signed and dated 1.1. 'AY JACKSON/1913' , 21" x. 25%"; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n Reid, Group of Seven, p. 47, no. 14, i n black and white.  58.  In The Northland, signed and dated l . r . 'Tom Thomson 15 ', o i l on canvas, 40" x 45"; Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. Reproduced i n black and white i n Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 82, no. 83.  59.  Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 42.  60.  Reid, Jack Pine, p. 15.  61.  Frozen Lake, Early Spring, Algonquin Park, signed l . r . A Y JACKSON, o i l on canvas, 32" x 39"; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n Reid, Group of Seven, p. 70, no. 38.  62.  Reid, Jack Pine, p. 11.  63.  Blue Lake, o i l on panel, 8%" x 10%"; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 82, no. 84.  1  54 64.  The P o o l , o i l on c a n v a s , 30" x 32V; N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada. Reproduced i n c o l o u r i n P a t r i c i a G o d s e l l , Enjoying Canadian P a i n t i n g (Don-Mills, Ontario: G e n e r a l P u b l i s h i n g Company L t d . , 1976), p.125.  65.  The T a n g l e d G a r d e n , o i l on b o a r d , 48" x 60"; N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . o f Canada. Reproduced i n c o l o u r i n M e l l e n , Group o f S e v e n , p . 67.  66.  I n The Ward, o i l on b o a r d , 10%" x 13-3/4"; N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada. Reproduced i n c o l o u r i n Bess H a r r i s and P e t e r C o l g r o v e , Lawren H a r r i s (Toronto: M a c M i l l a n a n d Company, 1969) , p . 25~.  67.  H o u s e s , o i l on b o a r d , 32" x 36"; C o l l e c t i o n o f J . C . Fraser, Toronto. Reproduced i n c o l o u r i n H a r r i s and C o l g r o v e , L a w r e n H a r r i s , p . 36.  68.  A.Y. J a c k s o n ,  "Arthur  Lismer-^ H i s C o n t r i b u t i o n t o  Canadian  A r t . " Canadian  A r t 7 (1950): 89.  69.  Jackson,  " F o r e w o r d , " n.p.  70.  Q u o t e d i n H a r r i s and C o l g r o v e , L a w r e n H a r r i s , p . 45. Unfortunately, t h i s statement by H a r r i s i s n o t dated.  71.  D e n n i s R e i d , The M a c C a l l u m B e q u e s t and t h e Mr. and Mrs. H.R. Jackman G i f t , E x h i b i t i o n a t t h e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada, J a n u a r y 25- F e b r u a r y 23, 1969 ( O t t a w a : N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada, 1969), p . 23.  72.  I b i d , p . 69. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e i s a l m o s t no d o c u m e n t a t i o n a b o u t t h e s e p a n e l s e i t h e r b y Dr. M a c C a l l u m o r b y t h e a r t i s t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o m m i s s i o n , a n d why Thomson p r o d u c e d f o u r p a n e l s t h a t were t o o l a r g e i s a mystery. I t s h o u l d perhaps be n o t e d t h a t t h e p a n e l s were t o o l a r g e b y a v e r y s m a l l d e g r e e : t h o s e t h a t d i d f i t t h e i r i n t e n d e d l o c a t i o n s m e a s u r e d 47-3/4" x 33" w h i l e t h o s e t h a t were t o o l a r g e m e a s u r e d 47%" x 38".  73.  D e c o r a t i v e P a n e l I , o i l on b o a r d , 47%" x 38"; N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada. Reproduced i n c o l o u r i n S i l c o x and Town, The S i l e n c e and t h e Storm, p.- 48.  74.  Addison,  75.  Reid,  76.  As h a s b e e n m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , The West Wind was s a i d t o h a v e b e e n u n f i n i s h e d and wet o n Thomson's e a s e l when he d i e d , and t h e r e i s no r e f e r e n c e t o The J a c k P i n e as b e i n g u n f i n i s h e d .  The A l g o n q u i n Y e a r s , p . 50.  Jack Pine,  p . 22.  55 The Jack Pine, o i l on canvas, 50%" x 55"; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n colour i n Silcox and Town, The Silence and the Storm, p. 124. 77.  Snow, o i l on canvas, 27" x 42"; McMichael Collection, Kleinburg. Reproduced i n colour i n Mellen, Group of Seven, p. 46.  78.  Building The Ice House, Hamilton, 1912, o i l on board, 10%" x 12%"; L.S.H. Holdings Limited. Reprduced i n Reid, Group of Seven, p. 59, no. 27 i n black and white.  79.  The West Wind, o i l on canvas, 47%" x 54-1/8"; Art Gallery of Ontario. Reproduced i n colour i n Silcox and Town, The Silence and the Storm, p. 175.  80.  The West Wind, o i l on board, 8%" x 10%"; Art Gallery of Ontario. Reproduced i n Silcox and Town, The Silence and The Storm, p. 174, i n colour.  81.  We must thank Joan Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 45 for this observation.  82.  The wind has to be blowing at least 12-15 whitecaps w i l l occur.  83.  Addison, The Algonquin Years, p. 93, footnote It was Winifred Trainor who r e c a l l e d t h i s .  84.  Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 45.  85.  Ibid, p. 45.  86.  In his l e t t e r to Martin Baldwin of January 14, 1955, Professor Dwight notes that the tree i n The West Wind is a red pine while that i n The Jack Pine, i s , as the t i t l e indicates, a jack pine.  87.  Mellen, Group of Seven, p. 60.  knots before 49.  CHAPTER I I I THE THEMATIC  BACKGROUND TO  THE WEST WIND Thomson's with A Northern exhibition  a concern w i t h m o t i f s which might  express  approximately  sketches  f o l l o w i n g h i s 1913 s u c c e s s  Lake a t t h e O n t a r i o S o c i e t y o f A r t i s t s  reflect  most s u c c i n c t l y Only  l a r g e canvases  thirty  were d e v e l o p e d  may be r e a s o n a b l e  his vision  o f the northland.  o f more t h a n  into  five  l a r g e canvases"*" a n d s o i t  to attach special  significance  m o t i f s w h i c h he d i d c h o o s e t o p u r s u e o n The  o f these  The c a n v a s  i s essen-  t h e m o t i f o f t h e l o n e t r e e w i t h i n t h e theme o f a  storm.  The s t o r m ,  is  rendered  is  highly  reflected  i nnaturalistic  i n the water and i n the sky, terms w h i l e  the lone t r e e  stylized.  Thomson h a d a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d  t h e t r e e m o t i f i n The  P i n e ; b u t now h e i n t r o d u c e s t h e theme o f t h e s t o r m ,  creating searching  a dynamic s t a t e m e n t . for a 'realization'  p r e s e n t e d by the lone not  canvas.  images a n d i t must be s t u d i e d i n terms  o f i t s i n h e r e n t themes a n d m o t i f s .  Jack  to the  West W i n d i s one o f t h e most p o w e r f u l a n d  enduring  tially  hundred  B o t h p a i n t i n g s show o f the varying  Thomson  possibilities  t r e e a n d s o f a r as i s known, he d i d  concern h i m s e l f with  this  motif  during the l a s t  spring  57 or summer of h i s l i f e . Thomson's pursuit of both motif and theme i n The West Wind may be related to the similar interests of Lismer, MacDonald, Jackson and Harris p r i o r to 1917. In 1913, the theme of the storm was explored by MacDonald, Lismer and Jackson i n the Georgian Bay area and by Thomson i n Algonquin Park.  During their 1913  v i s i t s to Georgian Bay, MacDonald and Lismer each produced important canvases whose essential theme i s the state of flux i n the northern sky and i t s r e f l e c t i o n i n the clouds and on the water.  A lingering influence of Constable's 2  skies suggests i t s e l f i n both MacDonald's The Lonely North 3 and Lismer's Georgian Bay,  and i n each, the landscape  plays a subordinate role to the water and the sky. Thomson explored the same theme i n Algonquin Park and painted A Northern Lake i n 1913.  A similar interest  i n the storm's effect on the water and the sky i s present i n this canvas, but Thomson's interpretation of the theme includes a more d e f i n i t i v e treatment of the actual landscape than that of MacDonald or Lismer. A.Y. Jackson's v i s i t to Georgian Bay i n 1913 produced a d i f f e r e n t response.^  In Night, Georgian Bay,  he chose to depict "an autumn gale. . . /_when7 . . . the whole shoreline of the bay seems to crouch and the crooked trees lean the same d i r e c t i o n as the w a v e s . W i t h i n the Toronto group immediately associated with Thomson, this was the f i r s t large work that actually focussed on the trees as  58 the vehicles by which the motion of the wind may  be  expressed, and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note that Thomson was  inspired by these same aspects of Georgian Bay when  he went there during the summer of 1914.  As noted i n  the previous chapter, he created several large canvases during the following winter of 1914-15, two of which are based on the theme of trees blowing i n the wind. Of Byng Inlet, Georgian Bay (figure 10) and Pine Island, Georgian Bay (figure 18), i t i s the l a t t e r which states this theme the most emphatically.  The island on  which the group of trees stands i s not separated from the viewer by an expanse of water, hence the trees are i n the foreground of the canvas.  There can be no doubt that  Thomson was. i n part influenced by Jackson's 1913 treatment of the theme;. however, the Georgian Bay area i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noted for, "crooked windblown pines.. . .on the islands. . . /whose limbs twist away from the p r e v a i l i n g west wind and 7  wave l i k e black banners against unbroken stretches of pure sky'.'"', and Thomson would not have needed a previous example using this particular, subject matter. Thomson's interest i n the tree as motif seems to have been present from an early stage i n his career.  Indicating  a date of 1912, Mark Robinson r e c a l l e d that Thomson asked him where he could f i n d "a pine, with the old branches coming out low down and large branches, the u g l i e s t o l d thing you know of, and bark, on some of i t ; old pine i s preferred.  59 There are a number of sketches which might be ident i f i e d as the one that was  ultimately produced after  Robinson had referred Thomson to an appropriate  subject,. g  but the precise i d e n t i f i c a t i o n cannot be established. None were developed into large canvases. The use of a single tree as one of the main, i f not the dominant, compositional and paintings p r i o r to 1917  elements i n sketches  i s seen i n MacDonald's  1914 Q  Winter Sunshine and 1914-15 - 1917  Evening T h o r n h i l l ,  i n which he uses a single large tree to establish his composition and to unite the various horizontal planes.  Harris  also places a large tree whose top extends beyond the upper edge of the composition i n his 1916 Ward.  sketch In  The  Yet. i t must .be admitted that the s i t u a t i o n of  the tree i n the works of MacDonald and Harris i s very d i f f e r e n t from any i n Thomson's work: the former two  place  their trees against a c i t y or suburban countryscape whereas Thomson's are situated i n Algonquin Park.  In a l l  the works the s t r u c t u r a l r o l e of the tree within the work i s the same, and each a r t i s t has reduced a l l extraneous elements u n t i l the tree becomes a dominant feature of the composition.  However, i t i s only i n The Jack Pine and  The West Wind that the tree i s elevated to the p o s i t i o n of primary landscape motif. Following his 1913  Georgian Bay,  Lismer continued  explore the theme of stormy weather, creating i n Breezy Weather, Georgian Bay and i n 1916  1914  A West Wind,  to  60 Georgian Bay,^  In the l a t t e r canvas he introduces to  the foreground a small tree which bears the force of the wind.  This canvas i s very important within the con-  text of Lismer's subsequent development of the theme, but s t y l i s t i c a l l y i t i s not as close to The West Wind as the previous examples cited which use the lone tree motif. Lismer's tree does not break the upper edge of the canvas, nor i s i t situated i n the extreme foreground of the composition.  Rather than a reduction of elements, Lismer's  development of the theme at this point involves the addition of elements.  Even so, by 1916,  trees blowing  in the wind had become part of the thematic vocabulary of these a r t i s t s - one may also c i t e MacDonald's The Elements^ i n this connection - and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that i n his sketches of the summer of 1916, Thomson extended his lone tree motif to include the theme of the storm. Although influenced by the explorations of his fellow painters i n the area of Georgian Bay, Thomson's f i n a l statement of the theme emerged i n Algonquin Park, united with the lone tree motif i n The West Wind.  However,  despite the p a r a l l e l s and thematic s i m i l a r i t i e s between Thomson and his fellow painters, The West Wind i s very much an epic statement unto i t s e l f and remains one of the most compelling images to have emerged i n Canadian painting during the second decade of the twentieth century. But there are additional currents within the c u l t u r a l  climate of the time, which may have influenced Thomson's paintings i n general and The West Wind i n p a r t i c u l a r . In 1971, Joan Murray, c i t i n g evidence that Thomson read poetry, noted that he " s p e c i f i c a l l y quoted fragments from (William Wilfred) Campbell i n his t i t l e s and Campbell may have been the source of some of his themes 12 as well." She points out that: the general tone of Campbell's nature verse with i t s odes to the sunset ( Glory of the Dying Day'), studies of wind ('Wind and 'The Wind Dancer ) and numerous reveries on autumn colour or winter snow form a convincing p a r a l l e l to Thomson's choice of subject matter, 1  1  1  and she notes an undeniable p a r a l l e l between Thomson's Northern River and Campbell's poem of the same name.^ Murray does not, however, extend her study to The West Wind, except to note that the west wind was a common 15 landscape theme at the turn of the century  together 16  with the theme of the wind and i t s effect on trees. Pursuing this matter further, more p a r a l l e l s with Campbell's work and with the work of other poets working at the same time become apparent, and suggest that i n choosing the theme of the west wind, Thomson was working with a thematic vocabulary that was prevalent i n the turnof-the-century Canadian poetry. William Wilfred Campbell, whose Collected Poems appeared i n Toronto i n 1905''", had abandoned the Anglican 7  ministry i n 1891 and was a c i v i l servant i n Ottawa at the time of the publication of this book.  Like Duncan Campbell  62 Scott (1862-1947) and Archibald Lampman (1861-1899), who also combined careers as c i v i l servants with the writing of poetry, Campbell derived his i n s p i r a t i o n from the countryside surrounding Ottawa, working around the Bruce Peninsula between Lake Huron and Georgian Bay.  By 1906 he  was  a popular and respected poet i n both Canada and i n B r i t a i n : Andrew Carnegie ordered f i v e hundred copies of Collected Poems for the Carnegie L i b r a r i e s and i n 1906 Campbell was presented to Their Majesties when he received an honorary ' 18 degree from the University of Aberdeen. In  the Introduction to his Collected Poems, Campbell  notes that: Poetry may have many messages; but above a l l stands the eternal appeal from l i f e and nature... In the work of the great nature poets, the very strength and beauty of the verse i s owing to the fact that the thought and imagination dwell upon the human, and nature as a f f e c t i n g the human, rather than upon the mere objective nature, as solely an esthetic aspect. The greatness of such verse consists i n i t s l o f t y emotion, whereby i t conveys to the soul an impressive sense of the majesty of l i f e and death. It i s not merely the work of the l i t e r a r y a r t i s t , who paints i n words on a sort of l i t e r a r y canvas, but whether the idea be death or a season, the mood is a creation of a soul strongly imbued with a f e e l i n g of the sublimity of life.-^g The themes and motifs present i n the nature poems of Campbell show a f f i n i t i e s with the work Thomson would do ten years l a t e r . of  The wind i s the s p e c i f i c i n s p i r a t i o n  three of his poems, and an underlying preoccupation  with i t i s to be found i n a number of his works.  Unlike  Thomson, Campbell views the wind as a l i g h t and often whimsical or frivolous s p i r i t .  In Wind, he describes i t s  63  ephemeral  presence:  A l l u n s e e n I w a l k t h e meadows, Or I wake t h e wheat, S p e e d i n g o ' e r t h e tawny b i l l o w s W i t h my phantom f e e t ^ Q and of  i n The Wind's R o y a l t y , he the  celebrates  this  monarch  skies:  H e r e r e i g n s a k i n g , t h e h a p p i e s t known on e a r t h , That b l i t h e s o m e monarch m o r t a l s c a l l the wind, Who r o v e s t h e g a l l e r i e s w i d e i n v a g r a n t m i r t h , H i s c o u r t i e r c l o u d s o b e d i e n t t o h i s mind; Or when he s l e e p s h i s s e n t i n e l s t a r s a r e s t i l l , W i t h e t h i o p g u a r d s o ' e r t o p p i n g some g r a v e h i l l . ^  And pine  one wonders w h e t h e r  the " e t h i o p  guards" are  perhaps  trees. I n The Wind D a n c e r ,  a l t h o u g h the wind  i s not  as a p o w e r f u l and awesome f o r c e as i n Thomson's Campbell  uses m u s i c a l i m a g e r y . s i m i l a r  by The West Wind. A r t h u r L i s m e r l i k e n s  to t h a t  seen  canvas,  suggested  the t r e e  i n the  22 canvas  to "a harp o f the wind"  draws an a n a l o g y b e t w e e n t h e w i n d  and  i n h i s poem,  i n the t r e e s  and  Campbell a  stringed instrument: F o r when a w i n d - b r e a t h wakes t h e w o r l d And s t i r s e a c h drowsed t r e e L i k e m a g i c s i l v e r works h i s bow In f i d d l i n g s m e r r i l y . ^ I n The  Dryad,  C a m p b e l l u s e s t h e more s p e c i f i c  imagery: H e r s o u l was sown w i t h t h e s e e d o f t h e t r e e Of o l d when t h e e a r t h was young; And g l a d w i t h t h e l i g h t o f i t s m a j e s t y The l i g h t o f h e r b e a u t i f u l b e i n g upgrew. And t h e w i n d s t h a t swept o v e r l a n d and s e a , And l i k e a h a r p e r t h e g r e a t boughs s t r u n g , Whispered her a l l things new.^  harp  64 as does his contemporary, B l i s s Carman who,  i n Songs  of the Sea Children V,refers to himself as "a harpstring 25 i n the wind."  The presence of the harp image i n both  the poetry of the period and i n Thomson's canvas r e f l e c t s an a f f i n i t y between painting, poetry and music. In^The Dryad, Campbell describes a lone tree whose majesty and placement i n the 'foreground' of the poem evokes an association with the tree i n The West Wind: The tree reached forth to the sun and the wind And towered to heaven above... ot  26 Associations continue to suggest themselves i n the following lines': But a l l things come to an end at l a s t When the wings of being are f u r l e d . And there blew one night a maddening b l a s t From those wastes where ships dismantle and drown, That ravaged the forest and thundered past, And i n the wreck of that ruined world The dryad's tree went down.27 Thomson's canvas i s concerned with the tree as i t stands blowing i n the wind, and ostensibly i t gives no i n d i c a t i o n of blowing over.  But the leftward leaning of the tree  creates a sense of the moment arrested i n time and a heightened f e e l i n g of u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . We do not know that this tree w i l l not blow over: and i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that i n MacCallum's account of the circumstances of The West Wind sketch, the tree was  f e l l e d by the wind shortly  thereafter. Campbell's associations with the pine tree were derived from his reading of Ossian and are overtly C e l t i c i n character.  In 1905  he wrote:  65 As the beechwood i s Greek, and the maple and elm-wood Gothic, so the pinewood i s d i s t i n c t l y C e l t i c . There i s an undefiled wildness and sense of primitive savagery under i t s mighty shades, where i n the s t i l l e s t days you can hear a needle drop for h a l f a mile, and where, at other times, the wind roars l i k e the A t l a n t i c i n the swaying tops. Its poetry i s more of Ossian than of Homer.2g While Thomson may have been aware of Campbell's sources, this would be hard to establish.  Both Campbell  and Thomson were of Scottish descent, though as far as is known, Thomson did not express any p a r t i c u l a r interest i n his Scottish ancestry.  Nevertheless, his response  to the majesty of the pine tree was  similar to Campbell's.  The mythological personifications upon which Campbell r e l i e d i n much of his nature poetry are conspicuously absent from Thomson s work, but Joan Murray's link 1  between the subject matter of Campbell's poetry and that of Thomson's paintings must certainly be accepted. The themes with which Campbell dealt- especially those of the wind and of the tree blowing i n the windare present i n the works of other poets at this time. bald Lampman, Duncan Campbell Scott, Charles G.D.  Archi-  Roberts  (1860-1943) and B l i s s Carman (1861-1929) are known as 29 the 'Confederation Poets' or the 'Poets of the S i x t i e s ' . Although deeply influenced by the nineteenth century romantic t r a d i t i o n i n poetry, their work was  inspired by-  and responded d i r e c t l y to- the Canadian landscape.  Each  worked within a very small area of Canada, as did Thomson: Scott and Lampman worked i n the Great Lakes area of Ontario  66  and Roberts  and Carman worked i n the Maritimes.  each poet was  Although  d i s t i n c t i n h i s approach to nature,  their  s o l i d a r i t y o f theme u n i t e d them and they were very popular in  the l a t t e r years of the n i n e t e e n t h century and the  first  decades of the t w e n t i e t h century. L i k e W i l f r e d Campbell, f a s c i n a t e d by the wind.  A r c h i b a l d Lampman was  Included i n h i s volume  the M i l l e t , p u b l i s h e d i n Ottawa i n 1888,  Among  i s a poem e n t i t l e d  Lament of the Winds i n which he deals w i t h t h i s presence, u s i n g the wind as a symbol to convey  ephemeral those  aspects of the human c y c l e to which Campbell r e f e r r e d i n h i s 1905  Introduction.  Storm i s c l o s e r to Campbell's  The Dryad, but Lampman's concept  of the wind i s more  s o p h i s t i c a t e d and i n f i n i t e l y more complex He uses the wind to unleash h i s own  than  Campbell's.  soul, desperately  t r y i n g to immerse h i m s e l f i n nature: 0 Wind, w i l d - v o i c e d b r o t h e r , i n your n o r t h e r n cave, My s p i r i t a l s o being so beset With p r i d e and p a i n , I heard you beat and rave, G r i n d i n g your chains w i t h f u r i o u s howl and f r e t , Knowing f u l l w e l l t h a t a l l earth's moving things i n h e r i t The same chained might and madness of s p i r i t That none may q u i t e f o r g e t .  I most t h a t l o v e you, Wind, when you are f i e r c e and f r e e , In these d u l l f e t t e r s that cannot long remain; Lo, I w i l l r i s e and break my thongs and f l e e F o r t h to your d r i f t and b e a t i n g , t i l my b r a i n Even f o r an hour grow w i l d i n your d i v i n e embraces, And then creep back i n t o mine e a r t h l y t r a c e s , And b i n d me w i t h my c h a i n . ^ n  The  concept of the wind i n t h i s poem i s s i m i l a r to  that i n The West. Wind.  Here the wind i s a primal force  and the poet stands i n awe of i t s freedom and lack of restrictions.  I t i s seen as the antithesis of man  i t becomes apparent that although man temporarily a t t a i n  and  can aspire to - and  the s p i r i t of the wind, he must u l -  timately return to his chained state. The theme of the wind occupies many of the poems of Lampman's contemporary,  B l i s s Carman.  Carman was  born i n Fredericton i n 1861 and was educated at the u n i v e r s i t i e s of New  Brunswick, Edinburgh and Harvard.  Reluctant to remain i n New  Brunswick, he moved to New  England i n 1886 where he remained f o r the rest of his l i f e , except for t r i p s to Canada and abroad.  He was widely  read on both sides of the A t l a n t i c and devoted his maturity 31 to editing and writing. In The Wind and the Tree, Carman personifies the s p i r i t of man  i n the tree,which remains chained to the land i n  d i r e c t contrast to the wind which i s free: The lover Wind i s away, away, Leaving a word with the lady Tree; For his heart i s out on the golden bay, Trampling the perilous floor of sea. The lady Tree from her lonely h i l l Sends a sigh through the world to roam The Wind's wild way at the Wind's sweet w i l l ; But her heartabides at home, at home.22 In both this poem and The West Wind, the tree and the wind are  presented as separate elements whose i d e n t i t i e s ,  nevertheless, are inextricably bound up with each other. The wind i n Thomson's canvas i s revealed by the tree for the  68 tree derives i t s present form from the wind.  Again,  the concept i s one of antitheses: free versus bound, a i r versus ground, and i n the case of the poem, male versus female.  Like Lampman, Carman i s obsessed by  the wind as a natural force to which man can aspire but never subdue.  In A Windflower, he poignantly pleads:  Surely the wind i s but the wind And I a broken waif thereon.^3 Carman i s preoccupied with the wind, as were Thomson and the poets of the day, but i t i s Carman who feels compelled to question i t , displaying a d e f i n i t e ambivalence and lack of resolution i n his own attitude to i t . In Summer Storm, Carman describes the v i s u a l effects of wind as i t presages the coming storm, dwelling on the moment before the actual storm breaks: The h i l l t o p trees are bowing Under the coming of storm. The low gray clouds are t r a i l i n g Like squadrons that sweep and form, With their ammunition of r a i n . ^ Wilfred Campbell, Archibald Lampman and B l i s s Carman established themselves very early i n their careers and were s u f f i c i e n t l y well-known by 1889 to be included i n William D. L i g h t h a l l ' s Songs of the Great Dominion, pub35 lished i n London.  In addition to s i g n i f y i n g the already  established reputation of those poets included i n his book, L i g h t h a l l ensured that their fame would continue to spread, introducing readers to poets with whom they may not have been previously f a m i l i a r .  The book enjoyed wide  69 appeal and popularity i n both England and Canada and was held i n high regard, being one of the f i r s t anthologies of Canadian poetry to appear. Among the many poems i n this anthology relevant to our discussion, one may The Autumn Tree.  single out Charles Heavysege's  In the Introduction to the c o l l e c t i o n ,  L i g h t h a l l informs the reader that Heavysege (1816-1876) "was  o r i g i n a l l y a drama-composing carpenter, then a  j o u r n a l i s t i n Montreal, and wore out his soul at the  drudgery  of the l a t t e r occupation and i n poverty." Although of a generation before Thomson, Heavysege was  interested i n the theme of the wind i n the trees, a  t r a d i t i o n that continued into the poetry of Thomson's contemporaries: Hark to the sighing of yon fading tree, Yon tree that rocks, as i f with sense distressedIt seems complaining that i t s destiny Should send the gale to desolate i t s breast. E. Pauline Johnson i s also represented i n L i g h t h a l l ' s anthology.  The daughter of the Head Chief of the Six  Nations and an English woman, Johnson was born on the oo  Six  Nations Indian Reserve near Brantford, Ontario.  was very popular i n her day: she gave the f i r s t of her own work i n 1892  recital  and continued to do so u n t i l i l l  health forced her retirement i n 1908.  In the course of her  r e c i t a l travels, she v i s i t e d most of Canada, the United States and England.  She  However, her most important poem,  The Song My Paddle Sings, was not published u n t i l  1912  70  i n F l i n t and Feather, the complete c o l l e c t i o n of her 39 poems.  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note that this book  was published i n Toronto close to the time when Thomson was beginning to paint seriously. In The Songs My Paddle Sings, Johnson beseeches: West wind, blow from your p r a i r i e nest Blow from the mountains, blow from the west The s a i l i s i d l e , the s a i l o r too; 0! wind of the west, we wait for you.^Q The poem ends with a p a r t i c u l a r l y northern Canadian image, and one that strongly evokes the image of the tree i n The West Wind: And up on the h i l l s against the sky, A f i r tree rocking i t s l u l l a b y , Swings, swings, i t s emerald wings, Swelling the song that my paddle s i n g s . ^ Johnson's concern with the west wind i s an e n t i r e l y  diff-  erent one from Thomson's as she i s awaiting i t s a r r i v a l . What i s important i n this poem i s the use of the two imagesthat of the tree and that of the wind - as i n Carman's The Wind and The Tree and as i n The West Wind." Between 1914 and 1916 Carman again used the motif of the lone tree i n combination with the wind i n his poem The Pine.  The poem was not published u n t i l 1929  i n the volume Wild Garden  and i t thus seems impossible  that Thomson would have read i t . Again, the use of the tree and the wind i n this poem creates a mood s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from The West Wind,  but the imagery of the  poem i s remarkably similar to both The Jack Pine and The West Wind, and there can be no doubt that this theme was  71 prevalent during the time that these two works were painted. T a l l as a mast in; morning l i g h t Stands our old pine against the sky, A sentinel upon the height To watch the wheeling days go by. His dark boughs etched against the blue Are l i k e a p r i n t of old Japan,Some war-god marking the review Of the mysterious march of man. Eastward above the sleeping land He sees the growing dawn unfold, U n t i l the Holyoke ranges stand Purpled against the s i l e n t gold.  Unwearying through snow and r a i n He signals courage from the steep, And when night settles on the p l a i n He has his starry watch to keep. Then when the winter storms arise, And the gay leaves are f l e d i n fear,In a great grieving voice he cries His reassurance, "I am h e r e ! " ^ The poetry which has been discussed so f a r r e f l e c t s an overwhelming  concern on the part of the poets with  a g l o r i f i c a t i o n of the wind, especially when i t manifests i t s e l f i n a storm.  The theme of the storm was very much  a part of the c u l t u r a l thought i n Canada p r i o r to 1913 when Lismer and MacDonald stated i t i n paint i n Georgian Bay at the same time that Thomson was exploring i t i n A l gonquin Park.  Of greater significance, though, i s the  fact that i n Campbell's The Dryad, Heavysege's The Autumn Tree, Johnson's The Song My Paddle Sings, and Carman's The Wind and The Tree and The Pine, the motif of the lone  72 tree  i s present, p l a y i n g a very  role  i n conjunction with  important  and v e r y  specific  the wind.  I n J o h n s o n ' s poem, i t i s t h e w e s t w i n d t h a t i s s p e c ifically  mentioned;  thus,  as i n Thomson's c a n v a s ,  t r e e m o t i f and the west wind a r e p r e s e n t e d to each other.  i n relation  The s p e c i f i c m e n t i o n o f t h e w e s t w i n d  may a l s o b e f o u n d The  i n t h e work o f B l i s s  Word i n t h e B e g i n n i n g  'Word' i s " t h e l o n g A p r i l i a n  i s essentially  cry"  Carman's  wise!",  a n d "Be  Carman c l e a r l y  free!".  c l a s s i c a l mythology  4 5  season.  the advent o fthe  Carman's s y m b o l i s m  i n which Zephyrus,  stems  the west wind,  t h e r a i n - p r o d u c i n g s p r i n g wind. ** 4  The the  says  "Be s w i f t ! " ,  poem, i t becomes t h e b e a r e r  s p e c i f i c messages o f t h i s  is  t o "Go f a r ! " ,  a s s o c i a t e s t h e west wind w i t h  o f s p r i n g and i n t h i s  from  and throughout t h e  4 4  t h e West Wind e l a b o r a t e s o n t h i s  message, b i d d i n g t h e e l e m e n t s "Be  The  t o t h e poem, t h e S o u t h Wind c o n s i s t e n t l y  "Come f o r t h " w h i l e  theme  Carman.  celebration o f the return o f s p r i n g to nature.  prelude  the lone  poem i s t o o l o n g t o q u o t e i n i t s e n t i r e t y , b u t  f o l l o w i n g passages  illuminate  Carman's b a s i c  phil-  o s o p h y o f s p r i n g a n d t h e k i n s h i p b e t w e e n man a n d n a t u r e : T h i s i s t h e Word t h a t came To t h e s p i r i t o f Man, And shook h i s s o u l l i k e a f l a m e In the b r e a t h o f a f a n , T i l l i t b u r n e d as a l i g h t i n h i s as a c o l o u r t h a t grew And p r o s p e r e d u n d e r t h e t a n . The And  eyes,  S o u t h Wind s a i d , "Come f o r t h " , t h e West Wind s a i d , "Be f r e e ! "  73 Then he rose and put on the new garb, And knew he should be The master of knowledge and joy, though sprung.from1 the tribes Of the earth and the a i r and the sea. Donald Stephens has noted that for Carman "spring i s the time when... the wind cannot be grasped as a physical 48 object but i s present i n a l l things."  He further ex-  plains that: the wind, for Carman, i s more than a physical phenomenon, constantly r i s i n g and f a l l i n g and blending; ... He associates i t with l i f e and death and searches for the reasons why i t does not give notice as to when i t w i l l come... The wind for Carman becomes a meaningful symbol, as i t r e f l e c t s the c o n f l i c t s and ambiguities of l i f e . ^ g In Our Lady of the Rain from the 1904 volume Songs from a Northern Garden, Carman e x p l i c i t l y associates the west wind with the coming of spring, expressing a profound desire for communion with nature: Be thou the west wind's brother And k i n to the b i r d and tree The soul of Spring may utter Her oracles to thee.^Q In Sonnet L from Songs of the Sea Children, the west wind i s male while the flower i s female, r e c a l l i n g the use of similar imagery i n The Wind and the Tree.  Again,  an antithesis between that which i s free and that which i s bound i s suggested, and although spring i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned,  the west wind bears connotations of renewal  and regeneration:  74 I was t h e w e s t w i n d o v e r t h e g a r d e n , Out o f t h e t w i l i g h t marge and deep; Y o u were t h e s u l t r y l a n g u o r o u s f l o w e r , F a m i s h e d and l a i d to.sleep.^ In  S o n n e t XIV,  the west wind  i s a nostalgic  spring  wind: The n i g h t w i n d f r o m t h e West, The b r o a d eaves o f t h e s k y , B r i n g s back across the o r c h a r d h i l l s The memories o f a t h o u s a n d s p r i n g s w i t h and i n S o n n e t V I I , t h e w i n d coming west  of spring,  him;^  i s again associated with  although i t i s not r e f e r r e d  the  t o as t h e  wind: Once more i n e v e r y t r e e - t o p I h e a r the h o l l o w wind A - b l o w i n g the l a s t remnants Of w i n t e r f r o m t h e l a n d . ^ S o n n e t LXXIV  of  spring  returns  as m e s s e n g e r s ,  again  t o t h e theme o f t h e w i n d s  as i n The Word i n t h e B e g i n n i n g :  Once when t h e w i n d s o f s p r i n g came home From t h e f a r c o u n t r i e s where t h e y roam, I h e a r d them t e l l Of t h i n g s I c o u l d n o t u n d e r s t a n d , And s t r a n g e a d v e n t u r e s i n a l a n d Where a l l was w e l l . ^ ^ In  E a r t h Voices,Carman e x p l a i n s  and a s s o c i a t i o n s regenerative  o f the s p r i n g wind,  powers:  I h e a r d the s p r i n g wind w h i s p e r Above t h e brushwood fire, "The w o r l d i s made f o r e v e r Of t r a n s p o r t and d e s i r e . " I am t h e b r e a s t o f b e i n g , The p r i m a l u r g e o f t h i n g s ; I am t h e w h i r l o f s t a r d u s t , I am t h e l i f t o f w i n g s .  the s p e c i f i c outlining i t s  functions  75 " I am t h e s p l e n d i d i m p u l s e T h a t comes b e f o r e t h e t h o u g h t , The j o y and e x a l t a t i o n Wherein the l i f e i s caught. " A c r o s s the s l e e p i n g furrows I c a l l the b u r i e d seed, And b l a d e and bud and b l o s s o m Awaken a t my n e e d . ^ ^ Wilfred but  while  does n o t Unlike the  Campbell a l s o  dedicated  the wind i s p r e s e n t imbue i t w i t h  Carman, he  the  i n t h e s e poems,  same d e g r e e o f  does n o t  s p e c i f i c wind of  mention  s p r i n g , but  fundamental k i n s h i p  between t h i s  man.  writes:  In  Spring--  he  poems t o  spring, Campbell  importance.  t h e w e s t w i n d as  he  yearns f o r the  s e a s o n and  the  being same  soul  of  Season o f l i f e ' s renewal, love's r e b i r t h , And a l l hope's young e s p o u s a l s , i n y o u r dream I f e e l o n c e more t h e a n c i e n t s t i r r i n g s o f e a r t h ! Now i n y o u r moods b e n i g n o f sun and w i n d , The w o r n and aged, w i n t e r - w r i n k l e d earth, F o r g e t t i n g s o r r o w , s l e e p and i c l d snows, T u r n s j o y f u l t o t h e g l a d sun b l a n d and k i n d , And i n h i s k i s s f o r g e t s h e r a n c i e n t woes.  And I , t o o , b l i n d and dumb, and f i l l e d w i t h f e a r , L i f e - g y v e d and f r o z e n , l i k e a p r i s o n e d t h i n g , F e e l a l l t h i s g l o r y o f the wakening y e a r , And my h e a r t , f l u t t e r i n g l i k e a young b i r d ' s w i n g , D o t h tune i t s e l f i n j o y f u l g u i s e t o s i n g The s p l e n d o u r and hope o f a l l t h e s p l e n d i d y e a r , The m a g i c dream o f s p r i n g . , ^ A r c h i b a l d Lampman's r e s p o n s e t o Carman and essential he  writes:  Campbell's,  component o f  and  to  again,  t h i s "season.  spring  is  similar  the wind i s In A p r i l  an  i n the  Hills  I f e e l the tumult of new b i r t h ; I waken with the wakening earth; I watch the bluebird i n her mirth; And wild with wind and sun, A treasurer of immortal days, I roam the glorious world with praise, The h i l l s i d e s and the woodland ways, T i l l earth and I are one.^y The celebration of spring pervades much of the nature poetry being created i n Canada at this time.  After the  cloak of winter had been shed, the poets viewed spring as the moment of r e b i r t h and rejuvenation and immersed themselves i n i t s various manifestations The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of their own  i n the landscape.  souls with that of nature  was ,• sought, and i n many cases, attained, through a mystical communion with nature. A similar s p i r i t of celebration pervades many of the works of Thomson.  For him,  spring was  the season during  which he could free himself of Toronto and return to A l gonquin Park to commence sketching again. romantically described how  "the northern  Dr. MacCallum spring radiant  with hope bursting r i o t o u s l y forth from the grim embrace of winter always found him i n the woods ready to chronicle 58 i t s beauties" , and Thomson i s reported to have planned a series of d a i l y sketches recording the unfolding of spring 59 i n Algonquin Park i n  1917.  The spring season was  c l e a r l y associated with the  west wind i n B l i s s Carman's mind, although he occasionally referred to the less s p e c i f i c "winds of spring".  A similar  concern with the phenomenon of the wind i n spring has been  77 seen i n the poetry of Archibald Lampman and Wilfred Campbell.  It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that both Lawren Harris  and Dr. MacCallum stated that The West Wind sketch done i n the spring and the suggestion may  was  be offered that  The West Wind i s i n part a painting about spring, using the t r a d i t i o n a l connotations of the west wind and winds of spring to reveal this message.  the  Thomson may  have  had a nostalgia and yearning for the return of spring similar to that of the poets when he chose to create this large canvas based on a spring sketch i n his Toronto studio during the winter of 1916-17. A fascination with the wind has been seen i n the poetry of Thomson's day. and manifestations,  The poets studied i t i n a l l i t s forms but for Carman and Lampman, i t became  a symbol of freedom and mobility, contrasting with the earthbound existence of man. were akin  The s p i r i t s of these poets  to the wind: they too were r e s t l e s s , i t i n e r a n t  and romantic.  In many of the poems, the other natural  elements, and one must include man less i n the face of the storm.  here, are quite help-  Thomson was  also fascinated  and stimulated by the spectacle of a storm and one may believe that i t s appeal for him was  well  heightened by the fact  that i t took place i n the north of Algonquin Park, away from human habitation.  In The West Wind, man's absence i s so  t o t a l that his signature i s not even affixed to the canvas. The West Wind i s a painting about the wind and tree.  Unlike the 1913 A Northern Lake, which was  the  inspired  78 by a similar experience, the 1917 canvas reveals the tree bending under the onslaught of the wind, e x i s t i n g i n a fundamental relationship with i t .  The painting  does seem to belong within the current of Canadian nature poetry of this period, p a r t i c u l a r l y those poems concerned with the. relationship between nature's opposites. r e c a l l i n g Carman's The Wind and the Tree,  In  Campbell's  The Dryad and Heavysege's The Autumn Tree, one can see that Thomson was also concerned with the interplay of elements: tangible (tree) and ephemeral (wind); earthbound (tree) and free (wind); and permanent (tree) and impermanent, (wind). his  I t i s interesting to note that i n  canvas, Thomson has not only emphasized the tree i n  the foreground but also the ledge upon which i t stands. The same brown colour continues down through the trunk of the tree into the foreground land mass, creating a powerful sense of the fundamental kinship between the tree and the s o i l from which i t springs.  The variety of  form and colour i n the actual mound on which the tree stands even suggests the subterranean roots of the tree. Many of the poets of Thomson's day were concerned with recording the v i s u a l phemonena presented to their eyes.  But the poetry we have discussed above goes beyond  mere description of the landscape, and reveals the poets to be deeply i n touch with the very soul of nature, using her motifs as a point of departure for the expression of their own souls.  Thomson may well have f e l t himself iden-  79 t i f i e d with  the n a t u r a l  Lawren H a r r i s , s k e t c h was  elements  recalling  t h e day  done, r e m a r k e d  as  d i d these poets.  on w h i c h The  Indeed,  West Wind  that:  He was one w i t h t h e s t o r m ' s f u r y , s a v e t h a t h i s a c t i v i t y , w h i l e k e y e d t o a h i g h p i t c h , was nonetheless controlled. I n t w e n t y m i n u t e s Tom h a d c a u g h t i n l i v i n g p a i n t t h e power and drama o f s t o r m i n the n o r t h . Here was s y m b o l i z e d , i t came to me, t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t i n l i f e : he must a c c e p t i n deep s i n g l e n e s s o f p u r p o s e t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f l i f e i n . man and i n g r e a t n a t u r e and t r a n s f o r m t h e s e i n t o c o n t r o l l e d and o r d e r e d and v i t a l expressions of meaning.^ It  is interesting  a similar has  that  r e a s s u r i n g - to note  l i n k b e t w e e n Thomson and  b e e n n o t e d by  rather  - and  than  Northrop  Frye.  the a r t h i s t o r i c a l  the poets  that  of this period  Working from  a n g l e , F r y e has  the  literary,  concluded  the C o n f e d e r a t i o n p o e t s : ... a r e r o m a n t i c and s u b j e c t i v e p o e t s , a t b e s t when c o n f r o n t i n g n a t u r e i n s o l i t u d e , i n moods o f n o s t a l gia, r e v e r i e , o b s e r v a t i o n o r e x t r a - s e n s o r y awareness. T h e i r s e n s i b i l i t y i s e m o t i o n a l i n o r i g i n , and t h e y a t t a i n c o n c e p t u a l p r e c i s i o n by means o f e m o t i o n a l p r e c i s i o n . . . T h i s s u b j e c t i v e and l y r i c a l s e n s i b i l i t y , s h a r p and c l e a r i n i t s e m o t i o n a l f o r e g r o u n d b u t i n c l i n e d to g e t vague a r o u n d t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r i n g e s , i s d e e p l y r o o t e d i n the Canadian t r a d i t i o n . Most o f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e a p p e a r i n t h e Group o f S e v e n p a i n t e r s , i n Tom Thomson and E m i l y C a r r , w i t h t h e i r odd m i x t u r e o f a r t n o u v e a u and c o s m i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s . , - .  FOOTNOTES CHAPTER III 1.  Housser, A Canadian Art Movement, p. 95 reports that Thomson did over f i v e hundred sketches, and i n the most recent book on Tom Thomson, Silcox and Town, The Silence and the Storm, p. 15, the authors state that they had over f i v e hundred works to choose from when selecting material for the book. The most complete l i s t of Thomson works, sketches and canvases, remains Joan Murray's 1971 catalogue. No one has yet compiled a catalogue raisonne of Thomson's works.  2.  The Lonely North, signed and dated lower r i g h t : J.E.H. MacDonald '13, o i l on canvas, 30" x 40"; Collection of Mrs. David Stratford, Vancouver. Reproduced i n colour i n Mellen, Group of Seven, p. 29.  3.  Georgian Bay, signed and dated lower l e f t : 'A. Lismer/ 1913, o i l on canvas, 28%" x 36"; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n black and white i n Reid, Group of Seven, p. 65, no. 37.  4.  Reid, Group of Seven, p. 46.  5.  Housser, A Canadian Art Movement, p. 87.  6.  Ibid, p. 87.  7.  "Mark Robinson Talks...", i n Little., The Tom Thomson Mystery, p. 188.  8.  I t may have been The Ragged Pine (McMichael Collection, Kleinburg) or The Lone Pine, reproduced i n Addison, The Algonquin Years, p. 45.  9.  Winter Sunshine, signed lower l e f t : 'J.E.H. MacDonald', o i l on canvas, 20" x 30"; The Art Gallery of Ontario. Reproduced i n Robertson, MacDonald, p. 22, no. 14. Evening, Thornhi11, signed lower left:'JM', o i l on board, 28%" x 36%"; Beaverbrook Art Gallery. Reproduced i n Robertson, MacDonald, p. 25, no. 19.  10.  Breezy Weather, Georgian Bay, o i l on canvas, 20-1/8" x 24-1/8"; New Brunswick Museum, St. John. Reproduced in Barry Lord, "Georgian Bay and the Development of the September Gale Theme i n Arthur Lismer's Painting 80  81 1912-21," The National Gallery of Canada B u l l e t i n 9-10 (1967): 34. A West Wind, Georgian Bay, o i l on canvas, 25%" x 31%"; National Gallery of Canada. Reproduced i n Reid, Group of Seven, p. 93, no. 57 as A Westerly Gale, Georgian Bay. Joan Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 45, suggested that the t i t l e of this work was the immediate i n s p i r a t i o n for the t i t l e of Thomson's The West Wind. 11.  The Elements, signed and dated lower l e f t : 'J.E.H. MacDonald '16', o i l on board, 28" x 36-1/8"; The Art Gallery of Ontario. Reproduced i n colour i n Mellen, Group of Seven, p. 69.  12.  Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 19. That Thomson read poetry was indicated i n a personal interview Murray had with A.Y. Jackson on March 4, 1971, and she also refers the reader to a l e t t e r from Louise Henry to Blodwen Davies dated March 11, 1931, p. 10. (Blodwen Davies Papers, Public Archives of Canada). In addition, i t must be noted that Arthur Lismer, "Tom Thomson (1877-1917) Canadian Painter," The Educational Record of the Province of Quebec 80 (July-September 1954): 172 remembers that Thomson read poetry.  13.  Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 19.  14.  Ibid, p. 35. Murray also notes.that Thomson's 1912 painting e n t i t l e d Sky (The Light That Never Was) bears a t i t l e which occurs i n the Introduction'to Collected Poems. Ibid, p. 19.  15.  Ibid,; p. 45.  16.  Ibid, p. 32.  17.  The Collected Poems of .Wilfred Campbell (Toronto: William Briggs, 1905).  18.  Carl F. Klinck, ed., L i t e r a r y History of Canada, 2nd ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976), p.  19.  Collected Poems, p. v i i .  20. ..Wilfred Campbell, "Wind," i n Collected Poems, stanza 3, lines 9-12. 21. Wilfred Campbell, "The Wind's Royalty," i n Collected Poems, stanza 2, lines 9-14. 22.  Arthur Lismer, "The West Wind," The. McMaster Monthly 43 (January 1934): 163.  438.  82 23.  Wilfred Campbell, "The Wind Dancer," i n Collected Poems, stanza 5, lines 17-20.  24.  Wilfred Campbell, "The Dryad," i n Collected Poems, stanza 1, lines 1-7.  25.  B l i s s Carman, "Songs of the Sea Children V," i n The Pipes of Pan (Boston: The Page Company, 1906), stanza 1, l i n e 3.  26.  Wilfred Campbell, "The Dryad," i n Collected Poems, stanza 2, lines 8-9.  27.  Ibid, stanza 7, lines 43-48.  28.  The Evening Journal (Ottawa), A p r i l 8, 1905, n.p. Quoted i n Carl F. Klinck, Wilfred Campbell: A Study i n Late P r o v i n c i a l Victorianism (Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1942), p. 21.  29.  Malcolm Ross, ed., Poets of the Confederation (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1960), p. v i i . Ross refers to Roberts, Carman, Lampman and Scott as the "Confederation Poets" while Donald Stephens, B l i s s Carman (New. York: Twayne Publishers Inc., 1966), p. 128 refers to this same group as "the s i x t i e s group" and singles out Carman and Roberts as the leaders. Wilfred Campbell was closely associated with this group but he i s not included among them.  30.  Archibald Lampman, "Storm," i n Among the M i l l e t (Ottawa: J . Durie and Son, 18887^ stanza 7, lines 43-49 and stanza 10, lines 64-70.  31.  Malcolm Ross, Poets of the Confederation, p. 128.  32.  Lome Pierce, ed., B l i s s Carman's Scrapbook (Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1931), p. 22. The Wind and the Tree appeared as a broadsheet i n New York i n August 1892 and was published i n Lippincotts i n 1893.  33.  B l i s s Carman, "A Windflower," i n Low Tide on Grand Pre (Chicago and Cambridge: Stone and Kimball, 1893), stanza 5, lines 19-20. ;  The poem was written at Fredericton and appeared i n the Toronto Globe (Christmas 1889). Pierce, B l i s s Carman's Scrapbook, p. 13. ;  34.  B l i s s Carman, "Summer Storm," i n John R. Sorfleet, ed., The Poems of B l i s s Carman (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1976), stanza 1, lines 1-5.  83 The poem was written on January 31, 1913. Poems, p. 168.  Sorfleet,  35.  William Douw L i g h t h a l l , Songs of the Great Dominion: Voices from the Forests and Waters, The Settlements and C i t i e s of Canada (London: Walter Scott, 1889).  36.  Ibid, p. xxix.  37.  Charles Heavysege, "The Autumn Tree," i n Songs of the Great Dominion, stanza 1, lines 104.  38.  F l i n t and Feather. The Complete Poems of E. Pauline Johnson~ Introduction by Theodore Watts-Dunton (Don M i l l s , Ontario: General Publishing Co. Ltd., Paperjacks 1972), p. xix.  39.  Ibid.  40.  E. Pauline Johnson, "The Song My Paddle Sings," i n F l i n t and Feather, stanza 1, lines 1-4.  41.  Ibid, stanza 8, lines 49-53.  42.  The poem appeared as a" manuscript i n a notebook dated January 1914. On the verso of the front:'cover i s written "Moonshine, July 1914". The l a s t l y r i c i s dated January 1916. Information obtained from Miss Kinnear, Vancouver Public Library, March 9, 1978.  43.  B l i s s Carman, "The Pine," i n Wild Garden (London: John Lane, 1929), stanzas.1-3, lines 1-12 and stanzas 6-7, lines 21-28.  44.  B l i s s Carman, "The Word i n the Beginning," i n The Pipes of Pan, Prelude, stanza 3, l i n e 15.  45.  Ibid, stanza 2, l i n e 8; stanza 4, l i n e 20; stanza 6, l i n e 32; stanza 8, l i n e 44 and stanza 10, l i n e 56 respectively.  46.  P h i l i p Mayerson, C l a s s i c a l Mythology i n Literature, Art and Music (Lexington, Mass.- Xerox College P r i n t i n g , 1971), p.35:  47.  B l i s s Carman, "The Word i n the Beginning," stanzas 9 and 10, lines 49-60.  48.  Stephens, B l i s s Carman, p. 66.  49.  Ibid, p. 49.  50.  B l i s s Carman, "Our Lady of the Rain," i n Songs from a Northern Garden (Boston: L.C. Page and Co, 1904),  84 stanza 21,.lines 161-168. 51.  B l i s s Carman, "Songs of the Sea Children L," i n The Pipes of Pan, stanza 1, lines 1-4.  52.  B l i s s Carman, "Songs of the Sea Children XIV," i n The Pipes of Pan, stanza 2, lines 10-13.  53.  B l i s s Carman, "Songs of the Sea Children VII," i n The Pipes of Pan, stanza 1, lines 1-4.  54.  B l i s s Carman, "Songs of the Sea Children LXXIV," i n The Pipes of Pan, stanza 1, lines 1-6.  55.  B l i s s Carman, "Earth Voices," i n Later Poems (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1921), stanzas 1-5, lines 1-16.  56.  Wilfred Campbell, "Spring ," i n Collected Poems, stanzas 1 and 2, lines 1-8 and stanza 13, lines 76-82.  57.  Archibald Lampman, " A p r i l i n the H i l l s , " i n Lyrics of Earth (Boston: Copeland and Day, 1895), stanza 5, lines 33-40.  58.  J.M.  59.  "Mark Robinson Talks About Tom Thomson," i n L i t t l e , Tom Thomson Mystery, p. 199. Thomson apparently t o l d Robinson that "I have something unique i n art that no other a r t i s t has every attempted... I have a record of the weather for 62 days, r a i n or shine, or snow, dark or bright, I have a record of the days i n a sketch." This statement which has been attributed to Thomson has not been substantiated by the series of sketches themselves.and i t seems that there may be cause to doubt whether they were i n fact executed.  60.  Lawren Harris, "The Group of Seven i n Canadian History,' p. 33.  61.  Northrop Frye, "Poetry," i n The Arts i n Canada. A Stock-taking at Mid-Century, ed. Malcolm Ross (Toronto The Macmillan Company of Canada Ltd., 1958), p. 84.  MacCallum, "Painter of the North," p.  380.  CHAPTER IV COMMENTARY ON THE WEST WIND In t h e y e a r s s i n c e 1917 The West Wind has become i n d e l i b l y p r i n t e d on the minds o f Canadians.  Many have  seen i t i n i t s permanent home, The A r t G a l l e r y o f O n t a r i o , or i n e x h i b i t i o n s a c r o s s t h e : c o u n t r y , and many more have been exposed t o i t through books, p o s t c a r d s and o t h e r reproductions. i t s execution,  By 1943,  b a r e l y twenty s i x y e a r s a f t e r  A.Y. J a c k s o n was a b l e t o c l a i m t h a t i t  was  "the b e s t known p a i n t i n g i n t h i s / J T o r o n t o J  and  as l a t e as 1974,  city"''",  Kay K r i t z w e i s e r , i n a mood o f r e c k l e s s  abandon, v e n t u r e d t o suggest t h a t The Weist Wind " w i t h i t s scudding clouds,  f u r i o u s l y chopping waves and t h e a r t  nouveau branches t h r u s t i n g o u t o f r e d r o c k s i s Canada's 2  n e a r e s t t h i n g t o the Mona L i s a . " Response t o t h e p a i n t i n g has been c o n s i s t e n t l y p o s i t i v e over the y e a r s , contributed  and. t h i s response i n i t s e l f has  t o a s s u r i n g The West Wind a foremost p o s i t i o n  i n t h e annals o f Canadian a r t h i s t o r y .  But t h e commentaries  themselves r e v e a l two d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s on w h i c h t h e canvas has been a p p r e c i a t e d The  and enjoyed.  f i r s t type o f commentary w h i c h may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d  i s t h a t w h i c h responds t o the p a i n t i n g w i t h and u n q u a l i f i e d a p p r e c i a t i o n .  85  intuitive  One o f t h e e a r l i e s t responses  86 in this manner was  that offered by the reviewer for The  Art News of New York who  commented on both The Jack Pine  and The West Wind a f t e r seeing them at the B r i t i s h Empire Exhibition at Wembley.  He noted that:  The magnificent "The Jack Pine" by the late Tom Thomson i s possibly the best thing i n the Gallery, though many w i l l prefer another work by this arti s t , "The West Wind"... Nothing can be less academic than these two compositions and at the same time nothing less freakish - there i s the boldest s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , the most emphatic statement, and the strongest colour k n i t together i n the most harmonious way. In the l a t t e r picture one can hear the wind howling 2 In 1928 S.W.  Perry suggested that:  It i s the i n v i s i b l e wind, a s p i r i t power, which exerts i t s force upon the p l i a n t forms of nature and gives them l i f e and action.^ Albert Robson's response to The West Wind was,  like  that of the reviewer f o r The Art News, based on his apprec i a t i o n of the way  i n which Thomson handled the composition:  One can almost f e e l the cool west wind as i t sweeps out of the purple h i l l s across the turbulent lake, and sings through the gnarled and wind-blown pine i n the foreground. This picture has caught the mood of the time and place and transmits i t to the observer i n a masterly and poetical interpretation. The movement of the clouds and water both interpret the almost . ceremonial pomp of the march of the wind. The billowing s a i l - l i k e curve of the arrangement of pine foliage adds materially to the suggestion of blow. The vague suggestion of harp shape i n the pine i s more than a beautiful s p a c e - f i l l i n g arrangement; i t may be a deliberate and f a n c i f u l l i b e r t y taken with actual representation to carry the suggestion of the music of the wind i n the pines.^ One of the most perceptive and sympathetic of the early commentaries on the paintings of Thomson was offered by Northrop Frye i n 1940.  For Frye:  87 What i s essential i n Thomson i s the imaginative i n s t a b i l i t y , the emotional unrest and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n one feels about a country which has not been l i v e d i n : the tension between the mind and a surrounding not integrated with i t . This i s the key to both his colour and design... Thomson has a marked preference for the t r a n s i t i o n a l over the f u l l season: he likes the delicate pink and green t i n t s on the birches i n early spring and the i r r e s o l u t e s i f t i n g of the f i r s t snow through the spruces; and his autumnal studies are sometimes a Shelleyan hectic decay i n high winds and spinning leaves, sometimes a Keatsian opulence and g l u t . 6  But curiously enough, Frye did not refer s p e c i f i c a l l y to The West Wind i n connection with the above.  He  responded  instead to the formal elements of the painting, and his b r i e f discussion of i t centred on his thesis that Thomson " i s primarily a painter of linear distance."  Frye noted  that: This focussing on the farthest distance makes the foreground, of course, a shadowy blur; a foreground tree- even the tree i n "West Wind" - may be only a green blob to be looked past, not at.y A response similar to that of Perry was Joan Murray i n 1971. The the ful are  offered by  For Murray,  innovation i n Thomson's The West Wind l i e s i n creation of an image which s t i l l bears a powermessage on the forces of nature - for those who able to see and comprehend.g  By contrast, the second group of commentaries choose not to place The West Wind i n i t s own  time but rather i n  a contemporary context, e x t o l l i n g i t s virtues i n terms of the s p e c i f i c associations which i t holds f o r the viewer. While these commentaries are again highly appreciative of the painting, i t i s because they interpret i t i n symbolic  88  terms although none go so far as to suggest that this i s the 'meaning' intended by Thomson. Responding to his own Canadian nationalism and that of the members of the Group of Seven at this time,  F.B.  Housser remarked that: ... this picture has i n i t the same s p i r i t of reverence as the r e l i g i o u s paintings of the o l d masters. What they f e l t for their madonnas Thomson, re-experienced i n his contact with northern nature. "West Wind" has a fullness and richness of colour, a power and sureness of execution rarely equalled i n paint. There is the dignity of a great symphonic march i n the succession of the oncoming waves. One sees the water i n the middle distance l i k e the side of a harp. On the other side of the lake, s t i l l h i l l s calmly blocked against a moving sky seem s t i f f e n i n g to the breeze. It i s northern nature poetry which could not have been created anywhere else i n the world but i n Canada.g While we may be tempted to wonder why was  The West Wind  an image associated only with northern Canada for  Housser, we f i n d a s i m i l a r theme appearing i n the writings of Blodwen Davies i n the 1930's. In 1930 Davies stressed the symbolic importance the painting to Canadians,  of  suggesting that:  It i s an interpretation of something we have experienced ourselves. We know our country through our interpreters, the poets, painters and musicians;, they present aspects of l i f e which we f e e l but cannot express for ourselves. This picture i s an expression of what we f e e l about the beauty of Canada. I t i s a symbol of Canadian character- sturdy, vigourous and direct. -^Q In 1935,  though not s i n g l i n g out The West Wind, Davies  attached special importance  to the pines which Thomson  painted: The pines that a r t i s t s considered unpaintable were  89 to him beautiful i n the i n f i n i t e variety of t h e i r forms and compositions. There i s something courageous about these trees that have adapted themselves to the furious elemental heat... that fragrant, evergreen foliage, pyramided up to a delicate, aspiring t i p , seems to symbolize man's deathless s p i r i t u a l yearning to reach to that which i s not yet attained, i n spite of a l l the bufferings of experience and i n i t i a t i o n . Thomson r e a l i z e d character and significance in such things, and gave us these symbols i n a form that passed on the i n s i s t e n t message of the new world to those not yet so sensitive to the subjective world about them. In 1936 Arthur Lismer referred to the continuing importance of The West Wind i n the development of Canadian culture: Thomson's West Wind, painted nearly twenty years ago, i s a type of painting that has set a stage expressive of our national theme of background and mood- against such a setting a l l things i n music, architecture, poetry and drama may happen. and i n 1940 he again commented on the painting, believing that h i s response to i t was shared by most, i f not a l l , Canadians: Tom Thomson's picture i s the work of a great Canadian, who understood the North country. That i s why the pine tree, swaying i n the wind, r e s i s t i n g the impact of weather, appeals to our own sympathies with the lakes, trees and a l l the elements of beauty i n the Canadian background. We f e e l , when we look at this masterpiece, the impress of truth. We recognize i t s great and eternal q u a l i t i e s . This view of The West Wind was echoed as recently as as 1974 by Barry Lord who also saw i t as an emblem or a symbol, though of a different kind of nationalism.  Suggest-  ing.:that " i t s theme i s the staunch resistance of the trees to the unremitting harsh winds", Lord declared that: The tree i n the wind i s a symbol of the tenacious  90 g r a s p on the l a n d and on l i f e t h a t o u r n a t i o n has maintained. L i k e the t r e e , Canadians have had t o f i g h t to s u r v i v e . N o t h i n g comes e a s i l y i n t h i s country. Canadian, f a r m e r s and w o r k e r s h a v e h a d t o overcome g r e a t h a r d s h i p : And i n t h e s t r u g g l e t o b u i l d o u r n a t i o n u n d e r t h e dominance o f a s u c c e s s i o n o f t h e w o r l d ' s l e a d i n g i m p e r i a l i s t powers, we h a v e s i m i l a r l y h a d t o d i g i n and h o l d on, t o become and r e m a i n who we a r e . W h i l e one which are  obviously  f a c t must be alistic Le  faced  bias.  Devoir,  impact  would not wish  By  i t may  dealt with  sincerely held that  t h e y do  contrast;  d i d not  discuss  have h a d  i t only  to q u a r r e l w i t h  on  and  deeply  s h a r e an  these  opinions,  felt,  the  anglophone  nation-  Jules Arbec, w r i t i n g i n Montreal's The  West Wind i n terms o f  the p e o p l e o f Canada, b u t  in stylistic  any instead  terms:  T o u t e f o i s l e s t y l e de 1 ' a r t i s t e e v o l u e r a v e r s une s c h e m a t i s a t i o n e t une r e d u c t i o n de l a p e r s p e c t i v e . Le V e n t de l ' o u e s t i l l u s t r e t r e s b i e h c e t t e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : i c i , de g r a n d s t r a i t s l a r g e s o n t r e m p l a c e l e s t o u c h e s i m p r e s s i o n i s t e s e t l e s a r b r e s du p r e m i e r p l a n . r a m e n e n t l e l a c e t l a montagne a un p l a n u n i q u e . Ces s c e n e s t i e n n e n t beaucoup p l u s de l ' a r t d e c o r a t i f que du p a y s a g e mais e l l e s c o n s e r v e n t l e u r s o b r i e t e et leurs c o l o r i s . - ^ The  general  tone of  this  enthusiastic„than t h a t o f the that of Albert The  Robson, and  West Wind i s s i m p l y  o f Quebec. reasons  Francois  Group o f ...  Gagnon  r e v i e w e r f o r .The  points  and  to the  has  Thomson and the  French Canadians.  the  people the  Group  same measure He  or  that  r e c e n t l y suggested  been r e c e i v e d w i t h  p r a i s e by  fact  less  A r t News  a symbol o f Canada t o t h e  f o r w h i c h the works o f Tom  o f Seven h a v e n o t acclaim  not  commentary i s n o t i c e a b l y  notes  that  of the  Seven: had  put  forth  a vision  of  the  Canadian  landscape  91 i n a sort of pre-cultural state, devoid of the influence of difference cultures which transformed i t into inhabited t e r r i t o r y . . . The representation of the Quebec landscape, where traces are found on the environment of a different and older c u l ure, posed s p e c i f i c problems to the painters of the Group of Seven. Gagnon firmly believes that: the v i s i o n of an unspoiled Canada i s that of only one culture, the Anglo -Saxon, which dwells on the romantic v i s i o n of Nature s t i l l to be tamed and transformed and r e s i s t i n g conquest with a l l i t s latent, unexploited energy, ^ Yet we may  question whether The West Wind i s , i n fact,  a national symbol to the people of the other regions of Canada, or whether i t i s indeed possible to secure one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c image of this vast country whose c u l t u r a l and geographical d i s p a r i t i e s are so pronounced. The "North country" to which Arthur Lismer referred i n his 1940  commentary i s Algonquin Park, situated approx-  imately 150 miles to the north of Toronto.  It i s thus  a very s p e c i f i c part of Ontario and comprises 2,910  a mere  square miles on the southern fringe of the Canadian  Shield between Georgian Bay and the Montreal River. was  established by the Ontario Legislature i n 1893  was  envisioned as:  It and  a public park and forest reservation, f i s h and game preserve, health resort and pleasure ground for the benefit, advantage and enjoyment of the poeple of the Province.-^g Although the Park was early as 1902,  'discovered' by a r t i s t s as  ten years before Thomson f i r s t went there'  none of these previous a r t i s t s established such intimate  l i n k s w i t h i t as d i d Thomson,  He became, i n e f f e c t ,  the p a i n t e r o f A l g o n q u i n Park,  and A r t h u r L i s m e r  w i t h good r e a s o n , as Thomson's  that  land.  "Algonquin Park...  He d i d n e a r l y  suggested,  i s f o r e v e r known  a l l h i s painting  there,  20 literally The  living  appeal which  doubtedly who  and c e r t a i n l y  immense,  this  dying there."  a r e a h a d f o r Thomson was un-  a n d as L i s m e r  suggested,  i t was  Thomson  immortalized i t through h i s f i v e years o f s u s t a i n e d  and p r o l i f i c  activity.  Group o f S e v e n  P e t e r M e l l e n has n o t e d  ( a n d Tom Thomson may  that the  be i n c l u d e d h e r e )  were  m o t i v a t e d by: t h e g e n u i n e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i t was t h e n o r t h e r n l a n d s c a p e t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d and e x p r e s s e d the c o u n t r y ' s u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r . They b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r o c k s , t h e l a k e s and t h e f o r e s t s were t h e b a s i c symbols o f t h e C a n a d i a n i d e n t i t y . ^ \ and  i n Thomson's c a s e  t h e ' n o r t h ' was A l g o n q u i n  I t has r e c e n t l y b e e n s u g g e s t e d was  seldom  f a r fom c i v i l i z a t i o n "  that  Park.  "... Thomson  and t h a t  " H i s 'North'  22 was  the v a c a t i o n l a n d f o r the urban  south."  m a j o r i t y o f Thomson's w o r k s , i n c l u d i n g e x c l u d e any r e f e r e n c e s t o man ment, a n d i t may be a r g u e d latter-day  In and  and h i s e f f e c t  another  that  that  the Park  to another  o f the as-yet r e l a t i v e l y  But w h i l e o u r v i s i o n  changed, o u r a p p r e c i a t i o n  a  o f Canada.  years our focus has s h i f t e d  frontier-  on t h e e n v i r o n  t h a t Thomson was, i n f a c t ,  the northern f r o n t i e r  sixty  Territories. has  The West Wind,  r o m a n t i c , m o t i v a t e d by a b e l i e f  represented  Yet the  'North unspoil  and p e r c e p t i o n o f Canada  o f The West Wind n e e d n o t  n e c e s s a r i l y b e compromised. arate  t h e image i t s e l f  I f we a l l o w o u r s e l v e s  t o sep-  from t h e emphasis w h i c h has s i n c e  b e e n p l a c e d on i t s r e g i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , i t i s s t i l l possible  t o s e e i n Thomson's c a n v a s a message w h i c h  particular  relevance  under the onslaught  t o o u r own t i m e .  The t r e e ,  bears  bending  o f t h e s t o r m , i s p e r h a p s n o t so much  a symbol o f r e s i s t a n c e a n d t e n a c i t y i n t h e f a c e o f o v e r whelming h a r d s h i p , of  as a symbol o f a d a p t a t i o n  t h e f o r c e s w h i c h a c t upon i t w h i l e  maintains  i t s r o o t s and i t s i d e n t i t y .  is  time  indeed  acceptance  i t nevertheless In this  light i t  t o r e c o n s i d e r and r e - a s s e s s A r t h u r  famous s t a t e m e n t  Lismer's  o f 1934 t h a t The West W i n d " i s t h e s p i r i t  23 of  and  Canada made m a n i f e s t  i n a picture."  FOOTNOTES CHAPTER IV 1.  A.Y. Jackson, "Dr. MacCallum, Loyal Friend of A r t , " Saturday Night, December 11, 1943, p. 19.  2.  Kay Kritzweiser, "The Essential Tom Thomson," Globe and Mail, May 11, 1977.  3.  "The Triumph of Wembley.," The Art News (New York), May 31, 1924. Reproduced i n Press Comments on the Canadian Section of Fine Arts, B r i t i s h Empire Exhib i t i o n . ( Ottawa: The National Gallery of Canada, 1926), pp. 16-18.  4.  S.W. Perry, "The West Wind by Tom Thomson," The School 17 (November 1928): 227.  5.  Robson, Tom Thomson, p. 10.  6.  Northrop Frye, "Canadian and Colonial Painting," i n The Bush Garden. Essays on the Canadian Imagination (Toronto: House of Anansi Press Ltd., 1971), P- 200.  7.  Ibid, p.  8.  Murray, Tom Thomson, p. 45.  9.  Housser, A Canadian Art Movement, p.  10.  Blodwen Davies, Paddle and Palette. The Story of Tom Thomson (Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1930), p. 2.  11.  Davies, A Study of Tom Thomson, p. 46.  12.  Arthur Lismer, "Foreword," An Exhibition of Paintings by the 'Canadian Group of Painters', Toronto, Art Gallery of Toronto, January 1936, p. 3.  13.  Arthur Lismer, Canadian Picture Study (Toronto: The Art Gallery of Toronto, 1940), p. 19.  14.  Barry Lord, The History of Painting i n Canada, p.  15.  Jules Arbec, "Retrospective. Tom Thomson," Le Devoir, mai 19, 1972.  16.  Francois-Marc Gagnon, "La Peinture des Annees Trente  201.  94  120.  128.  95 au Quebec/ Painting i n Quebec i n the T h i r t i e s , " The Journal of Canadian Art History III ( F a l l 1976):3. 17.  Ibid, p. 4.  18.  Richard L. Lambert, ed., Renewing Nature's Wealth (Toronto: Department of Lands and Forests, 1967), pp. 167-172. Quoted i n Audrey Saunders, Algonquin Story, p. 85.  19.  In 1902 three members of the Toronto Art Students: League - W.W. Alexander, Robert Holmes and David Thomson (no r e l a t i o n to Tom Thomson) - took a canoe and sketching t r i p through the southern portion of the .Park, t r a v e l l i n g from Canoe Lake to Opeongo Lake. A r t i s t s J.W. Beatty and Tom McLean also v i s i t e d the area p r i o r to Thomson's f i r s t v i s i t i n 1912. Audrey Saunders, Algonquin Story, pp. 161-3.  20.  Arthur Lismer, "Tom Thomson (1877-1917) Canadian Painter," The Education Record of the Province of Quebec 80 (July-September 1954): 172.  21.  Mellen, Group of Seven, p. 200.  22.  Silcox and Town, The Silence and The Storm, p. 198.  23.  Arthur Lismer, "The West Wind," The McMaster Monthly 43 (January 1934): 163.  96  F i g u r e 1.  THE WEST WIND  Figure  2.  THE WEST WIND  (sketch)  F i g u r e 3.  ALGONQUIN PARK  Province or Ontario, August 31, 1974 M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Communications  99  Figure 4.  THE CAUCHON LAKES National Topographic System Map of Canada 31L/2 Edition 3MCE Series A751  100  F i g u r e 5.  A NORTHERN LAKE  F i g u r e 6.  THE DROWNED LAND  1 0 2  Figure 7.  MORNING CLOUD  103  Figure  8.  MOONLIGHT, EARLY EVENING  F i g u r e 9.  RED LEAVES  (sketch)  105  F i g u r e 10.  BYNG INLET, GEORGIAN BAY  106  107  F i g u r e 12.  IN THE NORTHLAND  108  Figure 13. IN THE NORTHLAND (sketch)  109  F i g u r e 14.  NORTHERN RIVER  110  Figure  15.  THE  POOL  Ill  F i g u r e 16.  DECORATIVE PANEL I  112  F i g u r e 17.  THE JACK PINE  113  Figure  18.  PINE ISLAND, GEORGIAN  BAY  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  BOOKS  Addison, Ottelyn. Early Days i n Algonquin Park. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited, 1974.  Toronto:  Addison, Ottelyn and Harwood, Elizabeth. Tom Thomson, The Algonquin Years. Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1969. Art  Gallery of Ontario. The Canadian Collection. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Company of Canada Limited, 1970.  B l i s s Carman's Poems. Limited, 1929.  Toronto: McClelland and Stewart  Buchanan, Donald W. The Growth of Canadian Painting. London and Toronto: C o l l i n s , 1950. Cappon, James. B l i s s Carman and the L i t e r a r y Currents and Influences of His Time. Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1930. Carman, B l i s s . By The Aurelian Wall and Other Elegies. Boston: Lamson, Wolffe and Company, 1898. .  The Pipes of Pan.  Boston: The Page Company,  1906. Colgate, William. Two Letters of Tom Thomson 1915 and Weston, Ontario: The Old Rectory Press, 1946.  1916.  Davies, Blodwen. A Study of Tom Thomson. Foreword by A.Y. Jackson. Toronto: The Discus Press, 1935; reprint ed., Vancouver: M i t c h e l l Press Limited, 1967. Thomson.  . Paddle and Palette. The Story of Tom Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1930.  F l i n t and Feather. The Complete Poems of E. Pauline Johns on. Toronto: Musson, 1912; Paperjacks, 1972. Frye, Northrop. The Bush Garden. Essays on the Canadian Imagination. Toronto: House of Anansi Press Ltd., 1971. 114  115 Frye, Northrop. The Educated Imagination. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1963, Godsell,. P a t r i c i a . Enjoying Canadian Painting. General Publishing Company Ltd., 1976.  Don M i l l s ;  Great Canadian Painting. A Century of Art, Toronto: The Canadian Centennial Publishing Company Ltd.,.1966. Groves, Naomi. Jackson. Irwin, 1968.  AY's Canada.  Toronto: Clarke and  Harris, Bess and Colgrove, R.G.P., eds. Lawren Harris. Introduction by Northrop Frye. Toronto: MacMillan of Canada, 1969. Harris, Lawren. The Story of the Group of Seven. Rous and Mann Press Limited, 1964. Hoover, Dorothy. 1948.  J.W. Beatty.  Toronto:  Toronto: The Ryerson Press,  Housser, F.B. A Canadian Art M o v e m e n t T h e Story of the Group of Seven. Toronto: The MacMillan Company of Canada Limited, 1926. Hubbard, R.H. The Development of Canadian Art. The National Gallery of Canada, 1963.  Ottawa:  . Tom Thomson. Toronto: Society for Art Publications. McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1962. Hunkin, Harry. There i s No F i n a l i t y A Story of the Group of Seven. Toronto: Burns and MacEachern Ltd., 1971. Jackson, Alexander Young. A Painter's Country: The Autobiography of A.Y. Jackson. Foreword by Naomi Jackson Groves. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin and Co. Ltd., 1958; reprint ed., Toronto: Clarke, Irwin and Co. Ltd., 1976. Klinck, Carl. F., ed. L i t e r a r y History of Canada. 3 vols. 2nd ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976. Klinck, Carl F. Wilfred Campbell. A Study i n Late Prov i n c i a l Victorianism. Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1942. Lee. H.D.C. B l i s s Carman. A Study i n Canadian Poetry. London: Buxton, 1912. Lighthall,. William Douw, ed. Songs of the. Great Dominion: .Voices from the Forests and Waters, The Settlements and C i t i e s of Canada. London: Walter Scott, 1889.  -  116 Lismer, Arthur. Canadian Picture Study, Art Gallery of Toronto, 1940. L i t t l e , William T. McGraw-Hill,  Toronto: The  The Tom Thomson Mystery. 1970.  Toronto:  Lord, Barry. The History of Painting i n Canada. Toward a People's Art. Toronto: N.C. Press, 1974. MacDonald, Thoreau. The Group of Seven. Ryerson Press, 1944.  Toronto: The  McLeish, John A.B. September Gale: A Study of Arthur Lismer of the Group of Seven. Toronto: J.M. Dent and Sons (Canada) Limited, 1955. McRae, D.G.W. The Arts and Crafts of Canada. Toronto: The MacMillan Company of Canada Limited, 1944. Mayerson, P h i l i p . C l a s s i c a l Mythology i n L i t e r a t u r e , Art and Music. Lexington, Massachusetts: Xerox College Printing, 1971. Mellen, Peter. The Group of Seven. and Stewart Limited, 19 70.  Toronto: McClelland  Ostiguy, Jean-Rene. Un Siecle de Peinture Canadienne 1870-1970. Quebec: Les Presses de l'Universite Laval, 1971. Pierce, Lome, ed. B l i s s Carman's Scrapbook. The Ryerson Press, 1931.  Toronto:  Press Comments on the Canadian Section of Fine Arts, B r i t i s h Empire Exhibition, 1924-19~2~1T Ottawa: The National Gallery of Canada, 1926. Reid, Dennis. A Bibliography of the Group of Seven. Ottawa: The National Gallery of Canada, 1971. . A Concise History of Canadian Painting. Toronto: The Oxford University Press, 1973. . The Jack Pine. of Canada, 1975.  Ottawa: The National Gallery  Robson, A.H. Canadian Landscape Painters. Ryerson Press, 1932. .  J.E.H. MacDonald.  Toronto: The  Toronto: The Ryerson Press,  1937. -  Tom Thomson.  Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1937.  117Ross, Malcolm, ed. The Arts i n Canada, A Stock-Taking at Mid-Century. Toronto: The MacMillan Company of Canada Ltd., 1958. __. Poets of the Confederation. McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1960. Saunders, Audrey. Algonquin Story. 2nd ed. Department of Lands and Forests, 1963.  Toronto:  Toronto:  Schoolman, Regina and Slatkin, Charles E. The Enjoyment of Art i n America. Philadelphia and New York: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1942. Scott, Duncan Campbell, ed. The Poems of Archibald Lampman. 4th ed. Toronto: Morang and. Company Ltd. and William Briggs, 1915. Silcox, David P. and Town, Harold. Tom Thomson. Silence and the Storm. Toronto: McClelland Stewart Limited, 1977. Smith, A.J.M. The Book of Canadian Poetry. W.J. Gage and Company Ltd., 1943.  The and  Toronto:  Sorfleet, John Robert, ed. The Poems of B l i s s Carman. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1976. Stephens, Donald. B l i s s Carman. Twayne's World Author Series, no. 8. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1966. The Collected Poems of Wilfred Campbell. Briggs, 1905.  Toronto: William  Yearbook of the Arts i n Canada. Compiled by the Arts and Letters Club of Toronto. London and Toronto: J.M. Dent and Sons Limited, 1913.  2.  EXHIBITION CATALOGUES  H i l l , Charles C. Canadian Painting i n the T h i r t i e s . T r a v e l l i n g Exhibition'organized by The National Gallery of Canada. Ottawa: The National Gallery of Canada, 1975. Montreal. The Arts Club. Catalogue of an Exhibition of Paintings by the Late Tom Thomson. Foreword by A.Y. Jackson. March, 1919. Murray, Joan. The Art of Tom Thomson; E x h i b i t i o n held at the Art Gallery of'Ontario, October 30- December 12, 1971. Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1971.  )  118 Murray, Joan, Impressionism i n Canada: 1895-1935. Exhibition held at the Art Gallery of Ontario, November 17, 1974 - January 5, 1975. Toronto: The Art Gallery of Ontario, 1974. Ottawa. The National Gallery of Canada. Three Hundred Years of Canadian Art. Ottawa, 1967. Paris. Musee du Jeu de Paume. Exposition d'art Canadien Sous le Patronage O f f i c i e l du Gouvernement Canadien et du Gouvernement Francais. Paris, 1927. Reid, Dennis. Le Groupe des Sept/ The Group of Seven. Exhibition held at the National Gallery of Canada, 19 June - 8 September 1970 and at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 22 September - 31 October 1970. Ottawa: The National Gallery of Canada, 1970. . The MacCallum Bequest and the Mr. and Mrs. H.R. Jackman G i f t . Exhibition held at .the National Gallery of Canada, January 25 - February 23, 1969. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1969. Robertson, Nancy E. J.E.H. MacDonald, R.C.A., 1873-1932. Exhibition held at the Art Gallery of Toronto, November 13 - December 12, 1965. Toronto: Art Gallery of Toronto, 1965. Toronto. The Art Gallery of Ontario. The J.S. McLean C o l l e c t i o n of Canadian Painting. Toronto, 1968. Toronto. Art Gallery of Toronto. An Exhibition of Paintings by the "Canadian Group of Painters". Foreword by Arthur Lismer. Toronto, January 1936. Vancouver. The Vancouver Art. Gallery. Images for a Canadian Heritage. Vancouver, 1966. Wembley. B r i t i s h Empire Exhibition. of Fine Arts. London, 1924. 3.  Canadian Section  PERIODICALS  Alford, John.. "Trends i n Canadian A r t . " The University of Toronto Quarterly. XIV (January 1945): 168-80. Comfort, Charles. "Georgian Bay Legacy. " (Spring 1951): 106-109.  Canadian Art 8  Davies, Blodwen. "Tom Thomson and the Canadian Mood." The New Outlook, 27 August 1930, pp. 826,836.  119 Dick, Stewart. "East and West." 2, 1929, p. 5.  Saturday Night, February  F a i r l e y , Barker. "Tom Thomson and Others." (March 1920); 244-248.  The Rebel 4  Frayne, Trent. "The Rebel Painter of the Pine Woods." MacLean's Magazine 66 (July 1953): 16,17,30-33. Gagnon, Francois-M. "La Peinture des Annees Trente au Quebec/ Painting i n Quebec i n the T h i r t i e s . " The Journal of Canadian Art History I I I ( F a l l 1976): 2-20. - Harris, Lawren. "The Group of Seven i n Canadian History." The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association. Toronto: 1948, pp. 28-38. Jackson, A.Y. "Dr. MacCallum, Loyal Friend of Art." Saturday Night, December 11, 1943, p. 19. Lismer, Arthur. "The West Wind." (January 1934): 163-164.  The McMaster Monthly 43  . "Tom Thomson (1877-1917) Canadian Painter." The Education Record of the Province of Quebec 80 (July-September 1954): 170-175. _. "Tom Thomson 1977-1917, A Tribute to a Canadian Painter." Canadian Art 5 (Christmas 1947): 59-62. L i t t l e , Dr. R.P. "Some Recollections of Tom Thomson and Canoe Lake." Culture 16 (June 1955): 200-208. Lord, Barry. "Georgian Bay and the Development of the September Gale Theme i n Arthur Lismer's Painting, 1912-21." The National Gallery of Canada B u l l e t i n 9-10 (1967): 28-38. MacCallum, J.M. "Tom Thomson: Painter of the North." The Canadian Magazine 50 (March 1918): 375-385. MacDonald, J.E.H. "Landmark of Canadian Art." 2 (November 1917): 45-50.  The Rebel  MacGregor, Roy. "The Great Canoe Lake Mystery." September 1973, pp. 30-32,44,48,50.  MacLeans,  McLean, J.S. "On The Pleasures of Collecting Paintings." Canadian Art 10 (Autumn 1952):3-7... Perry, S.W. "The West Wind by Tom Thomson." (November 1928): 226-228.  The School 17  120 Pleuman, Charles F. "Reflections on the Passing of Tom Thomson." Canadian Camping, Winter 1972, pp.6-8,9. Pringle, Gertrude. "Tom Thomson, The Man, Painter of the Wilds Was A Very Unique I n d i v i d u a l i t y . " Saturday Night, A p r i l 10, 1926, p. 5. Reid, Dennis. "Photographs by Tom Thomson." National Gallery of Canada B u l l e t i n 16 (1970): 2-36. Turner, Evan H. "A Current General Problem and a S p e c i f i c Issue." Canadian Art 20 (March-April 1963): 108-111. 4.  NEWSPAPER ARTICLES  Ayre. Robert. "Toronto Honors Memory of A r t i s t ; Exhibition of Thomson Paintings Includes Loans of P r i n c i p a l Works." The Montreal Standard, 1 February, 1941. Colgate, William. Direction."  "Tom Thomson, A r t i s t , Knew Wind Toronto Globe and Mail, 24 A p r i l ,  1945.  Davidson, T., •Arthur. "Tom Thomson Grew to Manhood i n L e i t h Area and Later Became Canada's Best Known Painter." Owen Sound Sun-Times, 21 January, 1956. "Fine Canadian Canvas for the Art Gallery. Canadian Club Formally Presents Tom Thomson's 'The West Wind'." Toronto Mail and Empire, 10 February, 1926. Kritzweiser, Kay. "The Essential Tom Thomson." Globe and Mail (Toronto), 11 May, 1977. MacFarlane, M.A. Picture."  " 'West Wind" Approved for Thomson's Globe and Mail (Toronto), 28 A p r i l , 1948.  "Thomson Painting Termed 'Best Known'." 13 March, 1972. "Tom  Winnipeg Tribune,  Thomson's Father Typifies Son's Rugged Scenes." Toronto Star, 4 February, 1926.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094423/manifest

Comment

Related Items