UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The senate appointments of R. B. Bennett 1930 to 1935 McEwen, Irene H. 1978

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THE SENATE APPOINTMENTS OF R. B. BENNETT 1930 t o 1935 by IRENE H. MCEWEN B.A. Honors, C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f H i s t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columb We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 19/8 © I r e n e H. McEwen, 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree t h a t the Library shall make it freely available for r e f e r e n c e and study . I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this t h e s i s for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department o r by his representatives. It is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of History The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date 6 October 1978 ABSTRACT R e s e a r c h i n t h e R. B. Ben n e t t Papers s e v e r a l y e a r s ago u n c o v e r e d t h e v e r y s e r i o u s c o n t r o v e r y w h i c h had s u r r o u n d e d t h e appointment o f Sask-atchewan S e n a t o r A r t h u r M a r c o t t e and l e d t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d , " R e l i g i o u s and R a c i a l I n f l u e n c e s on a Senate A p p o i n t m e n t , 1931." The q u e s t i o n a r o s e as t o whether t h a t case was an i s o l a t e d one o r whether t h e r e were o t h e r Senate a p p o i n t m e n t s e q u a l l y t r o u b l e s o m e t o B e n n e t t d u r i n g h i s t e n u r e as Prime M i n i s t e r o f Canada from 1930 t o 1935. T h i s t h e s i s p r o p o s e s t o answer t h a t q u e s t i o n by e x p l o r i n g i n d e t a i l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g a l l t h i r t y - t h r e e o f B e n n e t t ' s a p p o i n t m e n t s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e s u c c e s s f u l , as w e l l as many o f t h e u n s u c c e s s -f u l , c a n d i d a t e s . I n a p e r u s a l , t h i s t i m e on m i c r o f i l m , o f a l l t h e p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e Senate t o be found i n t h e B e n n e t t Papers as w e l l as a r e a d i n g o f t h e major newspapers o f t h a t day, i t was f o u n d t h a t w h i l e none o f t h e o t h e r Senate s e l e c t i o n s g e n e r a t e d a n y t h i n g l i k e t h e t u r m o i l w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e M a r c o t t e a p p o i n t m e n t , each, i n i t s own way, d i d cause B e n n e t t c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n c e r n . The Prime M i n i s t e r had some v e r y d e f i n i t e g u i d e l i n e s i n making h i s s e l e c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e l i g i o n , r a c e , geography, age and p o l i t i c a l s e r v i c e . Through t h e y e a r s he sought t o adhere t o them, b u t e x t e n u a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s f r e q u e n t l y made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r him t o g i v e e q u a l w e i g h t t o them a l l . Whatever t h e c r i t e r i a f o r each c h o i c e made, u n d o u b t e d l y B e n n e t t was d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n e v e r y one o f t h e t h i r t y - t h r e e a p p o i n t m e n t s . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i v Chapter I . INTRODUCTION 1 I I . 1931: JULY, SEPTEMBER. . . 5 I I I . 1932: FEBRUARY, OCTOBER. . 21 IV. 1933: DECEMBER 32 V . 1935: JULY 50 V I . 1935: AUGUST 73 V I I . CONCLUSION 102 APPENDIX 109 BIBLIOGRAPHY 110 i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS There a r e many p e o p l e who g i v e a s s i s t a n c e i n b r i n g i n g a t h e s i s t o i t s c o n c l u s i o n , b u t no one c o n t r i b u t e s more t h a n one's f a c u l t y a d v i s e r . I would l i k e t o o f f e r a v e r y s p e c i a l thank you t o P r o f . C h a r l e s W. Humphries who o f f e r e d i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e and had i n f i n i t e p a t i e n c e . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank P r o f . H. B l a i r Neatby o f C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y who f i r s t encouraged me t o d e l v e i n t o t h e B e n n e t t P a p e r s . My g r a t i t u d e a l s o t o J o y c e P i k e who would n o t l e t me use my b r o k e n l e g as an excuse f o r p r o c r a s t i n a t i n g and lo a n e d me a m i c r o f i l m r e a d e r so t h a t I c o u l d c o n t i n u e my r e s e a r c h a t home. I must make s p e c i a l m e n t i o n o f my f r i e n d , B e t t y G a l l , who n o t o n l y encouraged me t o f i n i s h what I had s t a r t e d , b u t t y p e d t h e f i n a l m a n u s c r i p t . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank my f a m i l y who p u t w i t h l a t e meals and a house s t r e w n w i t h p a p e r s f o r what must have seemed an i n t e r m i n a b l e t i m e . i v CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION R i c h a r d B e d f o r d B e n n e t t was d e e p l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e Senate t h r o u g h o u t h i s f i v e - y e a r t e n u r e as Prime M i n i s t e r o f Canada. He made t h i r t y - t h r e e a p p o i n t m e n t s t o t h e upper chamber w h i c h S i r John A. Macdonald once d e s c r i b e d as t h e p r o v i s i o n f o r a " s o b e r second t h o u g h t i n l e g i s l a t i o n . " When B e n n e t t and h i s C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y came t o power i n J u l y 1930, t h e Senate was made up o f n i n e t y - s i x members--twenty-four from Quebec, t w e n t y - f o u r from O n t a r i o , t w e n t y - f o u r from t h e t h r e e M a r i t i m e p r o v i n c e s , and t w e n t y - f o u r from t h e f o u r w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . Between 1930 and 1935, however, v a c a n c i e s o c c u r r e d i n e v e r y r e g i o n - - n i n e i n Quebec, seven i n O n t a r i o , s i x i n Nova S c o t i a , t h r e e i n New B r u n s w i c k , t h r e e i n S a s k a t -chewan, two i n M a n i t o b a , one i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , one i n A l b e r t a and one i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . Then, as now, i t was t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t o make Senate a p p o i n t m e n t s . No doubt he was i n f l u e n c e d t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t by c a b i n e t c o l l e a g u e s and p a r t y s u p p o r t e r s , b u t i n each o f t h e t h i r t y - t h r e e a p p o i n t m e n t s , t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n appears t o have been h i s . C o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e Senate a p p o i n t m e n t s was v e r y keen. A s t o n i s h -i n g l y , more t h a n e l e v e n t h o u s a n d pages o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e l a t i v e t o t h i s s u b j e c t p a s s e d t h r o u g h B e n n e t t ' s o f f i c e d u r i n g t h e f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d . From a l l a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y , a s p i r a n t s and s u p p o r t e r s o f a s p i r a n t s sought t o p u t i n w r i t i n g t h e i r v i e w s on t h e a p p o i n t m e n t s . Quebec l e d t h e way w i t h t h e amassing o f 3,031 pages; Saskatchewan f o l l o w e d w i t h 2,215, O n t a r i o w i t h 2,078 and New Br u n s w i c k w i t h 1,975. A l b e r t a a c c u m u l a t e d 1 2 761 pages on b e h a l f o f i t s one s e a t , M a n i t o b a 745 f o r i t s two s e a t s , Nova S c o t i a a mere 672 f o r i t s s i x . P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e f e w e s t number, o n l y 17 i n a l l , w h i l e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a m u s t e r e d 54. The l a r g e volume o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e from Quebec r e f l e c t e d t h e p r o -p e n s i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l F r e n c h C anadians t o p e t i t i o n i n s u p p o r t o f t h e i r f a v o r i t e c a n d i d a t e s . O f t e n such p e t i t i o n s f i l l e d hundreds o f pages, f r e q u e n t l y t h e y were r e p e t i t i v e . The A c a d i a n s e a t s i n New B r u n s w i c k and Nova S c o t i a evoked a s i m i l a r r e s p o n s e as d i d A l b e r t a ' s s o l e s e a t and Saskatchewan's f i r s t v a c a n c y . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t B e n n e t t p u t v e r y l i t t l e s t o c k i n such p e t i -t i o n s . Once he remarked t h a t t h e y were "so e a s i l y signed."'* F o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f new s e n a t o r s , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r e s t a b l i s h e d h i s own a s t u t e g u i d e l i n e s . The f a c t o r o f r e l i g i o n was o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e . P r e c e d e n t had e s t a b l i s h e d t h e number o f Roman C a t h o l i c s e a t s i n each p r o v i n c e . E x c e p t f o r u n u s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t must be f o l l o w e d w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n . B e n n e t t was P r o t e s t a n t , b u t he welcomed s u g g e s t i o n s from s e n i o r members o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y and f r e q u e n t l y c a r r i e d on v e r y f r a n k exchanges o f v i e w s w i t h them. He b e l i e v e d i t was e s s e n t i a l t o have t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e h i e r a r c h y b e f o r e a C a t h o l i c appointment was made. The r a c i a l f a c t o r was i m p o r t a n t t o o , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e a s t e r n Canada. F o r example, i n New Br u n s w i c k and Nova S c o t i a an A c a d i a n s e n a t o r must s u c c e e d an A c a d i a n ; i n O n t a r i o t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f F r a n c o - O n t a r i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n must be m a i n t a i n e d ; i n Quebec t h e r e c o u l d be no a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l number o f F r e n c h / E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c / P r o t e s t a n t s e a t s . I n t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s geography t o o must p l a y a r o l e . The v a r i o u s r e g i o n s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e s were e n t i t l e d t o t h e i r s h a r e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . C o n s i d e r a t i o n 3 must be g i v e n t o t h e age o f t h e c a n d i d a t e . The Prime M i n i s t e r e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t , b a r r i n g e x c e p t i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e a p p o i n t e e s h o u l d 2 n o t be o v e r s i x t y - f i v e . I t was a l s o d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e would-be s e n a t o r have t h e s u p p o r t o f h i s l o c a l p a r t y l e a d e r s . F i n a l l y , as might be e x p e c t e d , a p r i m a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o a Senate appointment was l o n g - t i m e s e r v i c e t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . The r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e l a s t - m e n t i o n e d g u i d e l i n e was d u l y r e s p e c t e d . Of t h e t h i r t y - t h r e e B e n n e t t a p p o i n t e e s , a l l b u t n i n e had s a t i n t h e House o f Commons o r i n one o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s ; o n l y f i v e had n e v e r r u n f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e . Of c o u r s e , t h e r e was a degree o f adherence t o t h e o t h e r g u i d e l i n e s . However, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g es, an a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o show t h a t f r e q u e n t l y e x t e n u a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o r c e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t o abandon one o r more o f h i s g u i d e l i n e s and t o make c h o i c e s w h i c h he would n o t o t h e r w i s e have made. The c o m p l e x i o n o f t h e a p p o i n t m e n t s made on seven d i f f e r e n t o c -c a s i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i v e y e a r s shows a s i g n i f i c a n t change between t h e e a r l i e r a p p o i n t m e n t s and t h o s e made i n t h e d y i n g days o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The f i r s t s i x t e e n s e l e c t i o n s made between J u l y 1931 and December 1933 i n -c l u d e d no s i t t i n g members o f t h e House o f Commons and b u t one member o f a l e g i s l a t u r e ; t h e s e v e n t e e n s e l e c t e d i n 1935 i n c l u d e d e l e v e n members o f t h e House, one member o f t h e M a n i t o b a l e g i s l a t u r e , and t h r e e c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . The t h i r t y - t h r e e a p p o i n t m e n t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e t h r e e made i n 1931 and c o n c l u d i n g w i t h t h e s e v e n -t e e n made i n t h e l a s t months o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c a s e s o f a number o f u n s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n an attempt t o show t h e dilemma w h i c h B e n n e t t had t o f a c e when s e v e r a l e q u a l l y q u a l i f i e d p e o p l e v i e d f o r a s i n g l e Senate s e a t . NOTES """University o f New B r u n s w i c k , R. B. B e n n e t t P a p e r s , ( u n l e s s o t h e r -w i s e s p e c i f i e d , a l l subsequent q u o t a t i o n s a r e from t h e B e n n e t t p a p e r s . These p a p e r s were r e a d on m i c r o f i l m s b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f New B r u n s w i c k L i b r a r y and a t t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, Ottawa. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p a p e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e Senate a p p o i n t m e n t s i n Saskatchewan were r e a d i n t h e o r i g i n a l s a t t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada i n 1971) R. B. B e n n e t t t o C. C. P e a r s o n , 16 May 1934, p. 425509. 2 B e n n e t t t o R. H. Kennedy, 23 J a n . 1932, p. 420356. 4 CHAPTER I I 1931: JULY, SEPTEMBER A l t h o u g h R. B. B e n n e t t assumed t h e m a n t l e o f Prime M i n i s t e r o f Canada on 7 August 1930, i t was n o t u n t i l 6 J u l y 1931 t h a t he made h i s f i r s t two Senate a p p o i n t m e n t s , A r t h u r M a r c o t t e from Saskatchewan and Pat Burns from A l b e r t a , w i t h t h e n o m i n a t i o n o f G e n e r a l A. D. McRae from B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o l l o w i n g two months l a t e r . The a p p o i n t m e n t s o f Burns and McRae met w i t h a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l a p p r o v a l from t h e w e s t e r n p r e s s , most o f w h i c h was L i b e r a l , w h i l e t h e appointment o f M a r c o t t e r e c e i v e d v e r y l i t t l e p r e s s coverage even i n h i s own p r o v i n c e o f Saskatchewan. I t i s p r o b a b l y s a f e t o s a y t h a t no Senate appointment gave B e n n e t t more p l e a s u r e t h a n t h a t o f Pat Burns and t h a t none was made more r e l u c t a n t l y t h a n t h a t o f A r t h u r M a r c o t t e . Pat Burns had n e v e r a p p l i e d f o r a s e n a t o r s h i p n o r had he been a p o l i t i c a l l y - a c t i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e . In h i s c a s e , t h e appointment was t r u l y a g i f t o f t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t o an o l d f r i e n d who was an o u t s t a n d -i n g c i t i z e n o f A l b e r t a and w e s t e r n Canada. A r t h u r M a r c o t t e , on t h e o t h e r hand, made h i s f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n j u s t a few weeks a f t e r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s came t o power and k e p t up a s t e a d y b a r r a g e o f l e t t e r s u n t i l he became a s e n a t o r some t e n months l a t e r . When t h e Prime M i n i s t e r announced i n R e g i n a i n l a t e December 1930 t h a t t h e Saskatchewan v a c a n c y would be f i l l e d by a C a t h o l i c , t h e o b j e c t i o n s w h i c h he r e c e i v e d from many C o n s e r v a t i v e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e and from members o f t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e government o f P r e m i e r J . T. M. Anderson c o u l d 5 h a r d l y have been u n e x p e c t e d , g i v e n t h e p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e t h e r e a t t h a t t i m e . Many C o n s e r v a t i v e s h a r b o r e d a n t i - C a t h o l i c f e e l i n g s , some o f t h e s e t r a c e a b l e t o t h e l a t e 1920's and t h e appearance i n Saskatchewan o f t h e Ku K l u x K l a n . F r u s t r a t e d by t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o d e f e a t t h e L i b e r a l s a t t h e p o l l s and be-l i e v i n g t h a t a good d e a l o f t h e L i b e r a l s u c c e s s was due t o i t s v i r t u a l s t r a n g l e h o l d on t h e C a t h o l i c v o t e , many C o n s e r v a t i v e s had been a r e c e p t i v e a u d i e n c e when Klansmen v e h e m e n t l y a t t a c k e d g r o w i n g s e c t a r i a n i s m i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l system. U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y , some o f t h i s r e s e n t m e n t a g a i n s t t h e " e x p a n d i n g i n f l u e n c e " o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h s p i l l e d o v e r i n t o p a r t y r a n k s . I t was n o t l o n g b e f o r e C a t h o l i c s who had been l i f e - l o n g C o n s e r v a t i v e s were made t o f e e l unwelcome i n t h e g o v e r n i n g r a n k s o f t h e p a r t y . B e n n e t t , t h e n l e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n , d e p l o r e d t h i s t u r n o f e v e n t s and d i d e v e r y t h i n g i n h i s power t o ease t h e s i t u a t i o n , b u t w i t h o n l y p a r t i a l s u c c e s s . B e f o r e t h e Saskatchewan e l e c t i o n i n June 1929, C o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r J . T. M. Anderson had a s s u r e d B e n n e t t t h a t "our Roman C a t h o l i c f r i e n d s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o see we a r e n o t t h e monsters o f i n t o l e r a n c e our o p p o s i t i o n p a i n t u s " t o wh i c h t h e n a t i o n a l p a r t y l e a d e r r e p l i e d w i t h o b v i o u s r e l i e f , "Few t h i n g s have p l e a s e d me more t h a n h e a r i n g t h a t our Roman C a t h o l i c f r i e n d s no l o n g e r r e g a r d you as a b i g o t . " The e l e c t i o n o f 6 June b r o u g h t g r e a t j u b i l a t i o n i n Co n s e r -v a t i v e p a r t y r a n k s . A l t h o u g h t h e y had n o t a c h i e v e d an o v e r - a l l m a j o r i t y , t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s were a b l e t o fo r m a C o - o p e r a t i v e government w i t h t h e h e l p o f f o u r P r o g r e s s i v e s and s i x Independents--most o f whom had been f i n a n c e d b y t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s — t h u s u n s e a t i n g t h e L i b e r a l government wh i c h had been i n power f o r t w e n t y - f o u r y e a r s . There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t Anderson had g a r n e r e d a s i z e a b l e a n t i - C a t h o l i c v o t e as had a number o f t h e 2 Independents e l e c t e d . 7 One o f t h e main p l a n k s i n t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p l a t f o r m had been t h e a b o l i t i o n o f s e c t a r i a n i s m i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s . When t h e new C o - o p e r a t i v e government i n t r o d u c e d amendments t o t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t w h i c h p r o h i b i t e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f r e l i g i o u s emblems and t h e w e a r i n g o f r e l i g i o u s garb i n t h e s c h o o l s , n o t u n e x p e c t e d l y t h e C a t h o l i c s o b j e c t e d s t r e n u o u s l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t a f f e c t e d a few p u b l i c s c h o o l s w h i c h o n l y C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e d . I n e a r l y 1931, a f t e r a s t u d y o f e l e m e n t a r y p u p i l s i n F r e n c h C a n a d i a n com-m u n i t i e s had shown t h a t t h e l a t t e r were s c h o l a s t i c a l l y i n f e r i o r t o t h e i r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o u n t e r p a r t s , P r e m i e r A n d e r s o n as M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d a f u r t h e r amendment w h i c h a b o l i s h e d t h e use o f F r e n c h i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f s c h o o l and a n o t h e r w h i c h s p e c i f i e d t h a t a l l s c h o o l t r u s t e e s must be a b l e t o speak and w r i t e E n g l i s h and be a b l e t o conduct m e e t i n g s i n E n g l i s h . These language r e s t r i c t i o n s , on t o p o f t h e r e l i g i o u s l e g i s l a t i o n , a r o u s e d t h e anger o f F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s a l l a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y and made them u n y i e l d i n g i n t h e i r demand t h a t t h e i r chosen r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , A r t h u r M a r c o t t e , be ap-3 p o i n t e d t o t h e S e n a t e t o s u c c e e d t h e l a t e S e n a t o r J . G. T u r r i f f . B e n n e t t s d e c i s i o n t o a p p o i n t a C a t h o l i c had n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h i s s c h o o l l e g i s l a t i o n , however. In 1921 t h e p r o v i n c e ' s o n l y C a t h o l i c s e n a t o r , t h e l a t e Ben P r i n c e , had been succeeded by James C a l d e r , a P r o t e s t a n t . The Prime M i n i s t e r was c o n v i n c e d t h a t C a t h o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s h o u l d be r e s t o r e d i n s p i t e o f o p p o s i t i o n from many l o c a l C o n s e r v a t i v e s . He was j u s t as c e r t a i n t h a t t h e appointment s h o u l d go t o t h e n o r t h inasmuch as t h e o t h e r f i v e s e n a t o r s came from t h e s o u t h , "on o r s o u t h o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y l i n e . " What he d i d n o t concede was t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c s e l e c t e d s h o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y be a F r e n c h C a n a d i a n . He f r e q u e n t l y p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e F r e n c h i n Saskatchewan were o n l y f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and o n l y t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n . S u r e l y t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g 8 C a t h o l i c s had as s t r o n g , i f n o t a s t r o n g e r , c l a i m t o t h e appointment t h a n d i d t h e F r e n c h . I n B e n n e t t ' s e y e s , f i f t y - e i g h t y e a r o l d A r t h u r M a r c o t t e was j u s t one o f many C a t h o l i c c a n d i d a t e s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d , and t h e f a c t t h a t he l i v e d i n P o n t e i x i n t h e s o u t h - w e s t e r n p a r t o f t h e p r o v i n c e a l l but e l i m i n a t e d him as f a r as t h e Prime M i n i s t e r was c o n c e r n e d . M a r c o t t e , a n a t i v e o f Quebec, was a l o n g - t i m e C o n s e r v a t i v e w o r k e r who had r u n u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r t h e Saskatchewan l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1912 and 1917 and f o r t h e House o f Commons i n 1926. He had been P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Bar A s s o c i -a t i o n f o r t h e J u d i c i a l D i s t r i c t o f G r a v e l b o u r g s i n c e 1925 and was V i c e - P r e s i d e n t o f t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n C a t h o l i c A s s o c i a t i o n from 1925 u n t i l 1929.^ M a r c o t t e and h i s s u p p o r t e r s s t r e s s e d i n l e t t e r s and p e t i t i o n s t h a t o n l y by a p p o i n t i n g a F r e n c h Canadian c o u l d B e n n e t t show t h a t he d i d n o t condone t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e Anderson government. A C a t h o l i c was n o t enough; t h e c h o i c e had t o be a F r e n c h C a t h o l i c . They contended t h a t as l o n g as t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n a p p o i n t e e was a t r u e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h i s p e o p l e , i t d i d n o t m a t t e r where he l i v e d . He would be r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l o f h i s p e o p l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e , n o t a p a r t i c u l a r g e o g r a p h i c area.-"" There i s no doubt t h a t M a r c o t t e had t h e s u p p o r t o f most o f t h e c h u r c h h i e r a r c h y i n t h e p r o v i n c e as w e l l as t h a t o f B e n n e t t ' s c a b i n e t c o l l e a g u e s from Quebec, A r t h u r Sauve, M a u r i c e Dupre and A l f r e d D u r a n l e a u . The a t t i t u d e o f h i s F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g s u p p o r t e r s from a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y was perhaps b e s t summed up by M a n i t o b a S e n a t o r Aime Benard when he w r o t e : I s u p p o r t M a r c o t t e n o t because he i s M a r c o t t e , b u t because he i s a Frenchman and a C o n s e r v a t i v e , because he i s a c c e p t a b l e t o b o t h t h e F r e n c h p e o p l e and t o t h e C a t h o l i c a u t h o r i t i e s and t o our own P a r t y . I f you can name me a n o t h e r man from N o r t h e r n Saskatchewan who has a l l t h e s e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s I am r e a d y t o meet you and, a l l t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , t o s u p p o r t him. However, Be n n e t t c o n t i n u e d t o see i t as a r e l i g i o u s r a t h e r t h a n a r a c i a l 9 q u e s t i o n , and i n answer t o y e t a n o t h e r l e t t e r from M a r c o t t e , he s a i d : N e i t h e r you n o r anyone e l s e has met t h e argument t h a t t h e n e x t s e n a t o r s h o u l d come from t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e p r o -v i n c e and be a C a t h o l i c . You r e s i d e i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e p r o v i n c e and, t h e r e f o r e , do n o t q u a l i f y f o r t h i s v a c a n c y . I t was P r e m i e r Anderson who h e l p e d put an end t o t h e impasse when he i n t r o d u c e d t h e above-mentioned language amendments. A f t e r r e a d i n g an account o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e b i l l , A. W. M e r r i a m , B e n n e t t ' s p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y , w i r e d A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l M. A. MacPherson: HOPE YOU REALIZE THIS MAKES CONDITIONS VERY DIFFICULT FOR CHIEF AND WILL PROBABLY RESULT IN DOWNFALL OF FEDERAL CON-SERVATIVE ADMINISTRATION. IT WILL DIVIDE COUNTRY AND DO MORE TO WRECK CANADIAN UNITY AT THIS TIME THAN ANY OTHER SINGLE THING THAT HAS HAPPENED FOR MANY YEARS. AM VERY MUCH AFRAID IT WILL RESULT„IN IMMEDIATE APPOINTMENT OF FRENCH CATHOLIC TO SENATE. A l t h o u g h t h e appointment was n o t made f o r a n o t h e r f o u r months, t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e Anderson government l e d t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f A r t h u r M a r c o t t e . B e n n e t t , who had s a i d he " p o s i t i v e l y w i l l n o t become a p a r t y t o a l l t h e s e n a t o r s l i v i n g i n t h e s o u t h , " e v e n t u a l l y bowed t o t h e p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e b e i n g e x e r t e d on him by F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s r i g h t a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y and a p p o i n t e d a s i x t h s e n a t o r f r o m t h e s o u t h . I t i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t t h e Prime M i n i s t e r c o u l d have w i t h s t o o d t h i s p r e s s u r e and f o l l o w e d t h e d i c t a t e s o f h i s own b e l i e f s had t h e r e been one o u t s t a n d i n g E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g C a t h o l i c who had t h e s u p p o r t o f b o t h t h e c h u r c h and t h e p a r t y , b u t such was n o t t h e c a s e . J . J . Leddy and J o s e p h F o l e y , t h e two l e a d i n g c a n d i d a t e s , were b o t h from t h e n o r t h and were l o n g - t i m e C o n s e r v a t i v e s t a l w a r t s , b u t i n t h e t u r b u l e n t days o f t h e l a t e 1920's, one had a n t a g o n i z e d t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c i a n s by h i s outs p o k e n condemnation o f Anderson's p r o p o s e d s c h o o l l e g i s l a t i o n , w h i l e t h e o t h e r had l o s t t h e b a c k i n g o f t h e c h u r c h h i e r a r c h y by s i d i n g 10 w i t h h i s p a r t y r a t h e r t h a n w i t h h i s c h u r c h . J . J . Leddy from S a s k a t o o n had been a Supreme D i r e c t o r o f t h e K n i g h t s o f Columbus i n Canada and was c o n s i d e r e d t o be i t s o u t s t a n d i n g member i n n o r t h e r n Saskatchewan. He had been a v i c t i m o f t h e a n t i - C a t h o l i c f e e l i n g a t t h e 1928 C o n s e r v a t i v e c o n v e n t i o n when, d e s p i t e h i s l o n g y e a r s o f s e r v i c e t o t h e p a r t y , he had been f r o z e n out o f a p o s i t i o n on t h e e x e c u t i v e . H i s b e l i e f s l a t e r f o r c e d him t o condemn t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e government's s c h o o l l e g i s l a t i o n , and he t h e r e b y g a i n e d t h e a n i m o s i t y o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e - l e d government a t t h e same t i m e as he r e i n f o r c e d h i s p o s i t i o n as an o u t s t a n d i n g C a t h o l i c layman. Thus, when asked t o comment on Leddy's c l a i m s , t h e c h u r c h h i e r a r c h y gave him f u l l and e n t h u s i a s t i c endorsement, w h i l e members o f t h e 9 Anderson government condemned him w h o l e h e a r t e d l y . J o s e p h F o l e y , on t h e o t h e r hand, had m a i n t a i n e d a d i s c r e e t s i l e n c e o v e r t h e l e g i s l a t i o n and t h u s became t h e most, a c c e p t a b l e C a t h o l i c i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n s o f a r as t h e A nderson government was c o n c e r n e d . F o l e y a l s o had t h e s u p p o r t o f Saskatchewan S e n a t o r s H. W. L a i r d and A. B. G i l l i s , and f o r m e r Prime M i n i s t e r A r t h u r Meighen c o n f i r m e d t h a t he would have a p p o i n t e d F o l e y i n 1921 t o r e p l a c e t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n Ben P r i n c e had i t n o t been f o r t h e l a s t -m i nute i n t r u s i o n o f James C a l d e r . Meighen went on t o say t h a t he r e c a l l e d t h e "manly way he a c c e p t e d t h e s i t u a t i o n " and t h a t he w i s h e d t h e r e was some-t h i n g he c o u l d do t o h e l p him. W i t h t h e c h u r c h h i e r a r c h y , however, i t was a d i f f e r e n t s t o r y . As B i s h o p J o s e p h Prud'homme o f P r i n c e A l b e r t and S a s k a t o o n s a i d , " I s t r o n g l y oppose t h e appointment o f Mr. F o l e y o f N o r t h B a t t l e f o r d i f you i n t e n d t o a p p o i n t a C a t h o l i c as Mr. F o l e y can n o t i n any way r e p r e s e n t w o r t h i l y t h e C a t h o l i c s . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r F o l e y , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r c o u l d no more see h i s way c l e a r t o a p p o i n t i n g him o v e r t h e o b j e c t i o n s o f h i s own c h u r c h t h a n he c o u l d t o c h o o s i n g Leddy o v e r t h e o b j e c t i o n s o f a l m o s t a l l o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c i a n s i n Saskatchewan. He had l i t t l e c h o i c e , t h e r e f o r e , b u t t o accede t o t h e demands o f t h e F r e n c h Canadians and e l e v a t e A r t h u r M a r c o t t e t o t h e S e n a t e . I r o n i c a l l y , i n a p p o i n t i n g M a r c o t t e as he d i d , B e n n e t t l o s t a good p o l i t i c a l w o r k e r i n Saskatchewan. Once he had o b t a i n e d t h e p o s i t i o n he c o v e t e d , M a r c o t t e seldom appeared i n Saskatchewan, c h o o s i n g i n s t e a d t o spend h i s f r e e t i m e i n Quebec. I n 1934 he a r o u s e d t h e i r e o f h i s f e l l o w C o n s e r v a t i v e s when he r e f u s e d t o appear i n G r a v e l b o u r g on b e h a l f o f t h e l o c a l C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e . I n a l o n g and b i t t e r l e t t e r t o M. A. MacPherson, a copy o f w h i c h he s e n t t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r , M a r c o t t e i n d i c a t e d - he was n o t w i l l i n g t o " f o r -g i v e and f o r g e t " t h e abuses o f t h e Anderson government a g a i n s t members o f h i s r e l i g i o n and r a c e . The f a c t t h a t he had r e c e i v e d h i s appointment because t h e Prime M i n i s t e r wanted i t t o be known t h a t he, t o o , d e p l o r e d t h e e x c e s s e s o f t h e Saskatchewan government was e i t h e r f o r g o t t e n o r i g n o r e d . M a r c o t t e c o m p l a i n e d t o MacPherson o f i n c i d e n t s d a t i n g back t o 1928 and a l s o about t h e f a c t t h a t A n derson had n o t i n c l u d e d a C a t h o l i c i n h i s c a b i n e t and had a b o l i s h e d t h e j u d i c i a l d i s t r i c t o f G r a v e l b o u r g as an "economy" measure. F u r t h e r m o r e , he c l a i m e d t h a t i n i t s r e d i s t r i b u t i o n b i l l , t h e government had made i t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r a F r e n c h C a n a d i a n C o n s e r v a t i v e t o get e l e c t e d i n t h e G r a v e l b o u r g d i s t r i c t . But perhaps t h e c h i e f r e a s o n f o r M a r c o t t e ' s a n i m o s i t y towards t h e Anderson government s u r f a c e d when he reminded MacPherson t h a t " o u t s i d e o f y o u r s e l f , t h e members o f y o u r government have b i t t e r l y f o u g h t a g a i n s t my appo i n t m e n t ." * "* F o r B e n n e t t , M a r c o t t e ' s a t t i t u d e was l i k e a s l a p i n t h e f a c e . " I had n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t i d e a t h a t any such c o n d i t i o n as t h a t t o w h i c h you r e f e r e x i s t e d between you and t h e Anderson government," he w r o t e . " I n t h e l i g h t o f you r l e t t e r , I r e a l i z e how g r e a t a s t r a i n y o u r appointment was upon many o f o u r P a r t y f r i e n d s . " The f o l l o w i n g day he remarked t o a f r i e n d , "There i s 12 no s u c h t h i n g as g r a t i t u d e i n p o l i t i c s . " Perhaps B e n n e t t s h o u l d have r e a l i z e d t h a t M a r c o t t e saw no r e a s o n w h a t e v e r t o be g r a t e f u l f o r an a p p o i n t -ment t h a t he f e l t had been r i g h t f u l l y h i s . * * * * The v a c a n c y i n A l b e r t a o c c u r r e d f o u r months a f t e r t h e one i n Sask-atchewan, on 11 A p r i l 1931 upon t h e d e a t h o f S e n a t o r P r o s p e r E. L e s s a r d . Once a g a i n B e n n e t t announced t h a t t h e new a p p o i n t e e would be a C a t h o l i c b u t , as had been t h e c a s e i n Saskatchewan, a t no t i m e d i d he i n t i m a t e t h a t i t s h o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y be a F r e n c h C a t h o l i c . He had a l s o made up h i s mind t h a t t h e appointment w o u l d go t o t h e s o u t h a l t h o u g h S e n a t o r L e s s a r d was f r o m Ed-monton. He a g a i n r e c e i v e d many p e t i t i o n s from F r e n c h C a n a d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y u r g i n g t h e e l e v a t i o n o f one o f t h e i r r a c e , b u t t h e s i t u -a t i o n i n A l b e r t a was d i f f e r e n t i n t h a t no s i n g l e c a n d i d a t e had t h e i r b ack-13 ing. I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e Prime M i n i s t e r would have g i v e n more s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o one o f t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n c a n d i d a t e s had he n o t r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e e v e n t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s few months would l i k e l y f o r c e him t o a p p o i n t M a r c o t t e . A l t h o u g h t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s f e l t t h e y were e n t i t l e d t o b o t h a p p o i n t m e n t s , t h e one i n Saskatchewan was much more m e a n i n g f u l t o them be-cause o f t h e p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e t h e r e . The newspapers i n Quebec had t r e a t e d t h e M a r c o t t e b i d i n Saskatchewan as a "cause c e l e b r e " , b u t t h e y were n o t i n c l i n e d t o muster such s u p p o r t f o r t h e A l b e r t a h o p e f u l s . The way was paved, t h e r e f o r e , f o r t h e appointment o f an E n g l i s h C a t h o l i n A l b e r t a , and Pat Burns was t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s c h o i c e . Burns was b o r n i n 1856 and moved west i n 1878 t o engage i n t h e c a t t l e t r a d e . He was a boyhood f r i e n d o f W i l l i a m MacKenzie o f MacKenzie and Mann and t h i s c o n t a c t no doubt 13 h e l p e d him t o o b t a i n t h e c o n t r a c t t o s u p p l y meat t o t h e r a i l r o a d c o n s t r u c -t i o n crews i n Saskatchewan i n 1888-89 and l a t e r i n A l b e r t a . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e l e d him i n t o t h e w h o l e s a l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i v e s t o c k i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and i n t o t h e meat p a c k i n g b u s i n e s s i n C a l g a r y . He was t h e f i r s t man t o s h i p w e s t e r n l i v e s t o c k by r a i l r o a d t o e a s t e r n m a r k e t s . D e s p i t e many s e t b a c k s , i n c l u d i n g b e i n g burned out t w i c e , Pat Burns and Company grew t o such an e x t e n t t h a t he was a b l e t o s e l l i t t o Dominion S e c u r i t i e s i n 1928 f o r f i f t e e n m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . Burns remained as Chairman o f t h e Board o f t h i s company and was a d i r e c t o r o f t h e Bank o f M o n t r e a l , o f I m p e r i a l L i f e and o f C a l g a r y and Ed-monton C o r p o r a t i o n , L i m i t e d . Burns was a l s o a p h i l a n t h r o p i s t , a l t h o u g h t h e w i d e s p r e a d a s s i s t a n c e he gave t o t h e needy was l i t t l e p u b l i c i z e d . I n r e c o g -n i t i o n o f such deeds, however, t h e Pope c o n f e r r e d on him t h e K n i g h t Commander 14 o f t h e Order o f S a i n t G r e g o r y t h e G r e a t . Burns's s e v e n t y - f i f t h b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n marked t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e C a l g a r y Stampede f e s t i v i t i e s o f 1931 w i t h seven hundred a t t e n d i n g h i s b i r t h -day d i n n e r and an a d d i t i o n a l f i f t e e n t h o u s a n d s h a r i n g i n h i s huge b i r t h d a y cake l a t e r i n t h e e v e n i n g . The h i g h p o i n t o f t h e e v e n i n g was t h e r e a d i n g o f a t e l e g r a m from Prime M i n i s t e r B e n n e t t a n n o u n c i n g h i s appointment t o t h e Senate a l o n g w i t h t h e comment, "You have g i v e n g e n e r o u s l y t o e v e r y good cause and y o u r l i f e has been an i n s p i r a t i o n t o t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n . " P r e m i e r Brownlee o f t h e U n i t e d Farmers o f A l b e r t a welcomed h i s e l e v a t i o n s a y i n g , "No c h o i c e c o u l d p o s s i b l y be more p o p u l a r o r b e t t e r d e s e r v e d and c o u l d meet w i t h more g e n e r a l a p p r o v a l from t h e c i t i z e n s o f A l b e r t a . " Burns a l s o r e c e i v e d c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s from t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r s o f A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan and t h e P r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a l l o f whom were p r e s e n t t o h e l p him c e l e b r a t e h i s b i r t h d a y . There were a number o f o t h e r a p p l i c a n t s v y i n g f o r t h e A l b e r t a s e a t 14 i n c l u d i n g Judge E m i l y Murphy, Adeodot B o i l e a u , Dr. Luc L e B e l and J . Romeo M i q u e l o n , b u t none, w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f Mrs. Murphy, was as w e l l known o r as w e l l l o v e d as Burns. Judge E m i l y Murphy o f Edmonton was h o p e f u l t h a t t h e Prime M i n i s t e r would a p p o i n t h e r i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e t h i r t e e n - y e a r s t r u g g l e she and t h e o t h e r members o f t h e "Famous F i v e " had c a r r i e d on t o have women d e c l a r e d e l i g i b l e f o r t h e Senate. She p o i n t e d out t h a t no w e s t e r n C a n a d i a n woman had s e r v e d i n t h e Senate and t h a t t h e v a c a n c y e x i s t e d i n Edmonton where she l i v e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , h e r a n c e s t o r s , t h e Fergusons and t h e Gowans, had been members o f t h e S e n a t e , t h e House o f Commons o r one o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s f o r o v e r a c e n t u r y ; i t was h e r d e s i r e t o f o l l o w i n t h e i r f o o t -s t e p s . She f e l t she c o u l d do " r i g h t e x c e l l e n t work f o r y o u r Government" and t h a t " g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e p e o p l e o f Canada a r e e x p e c t i n g my a p p o i n t -ment." Be n n e t t r e p e a t e d l y t o l d Mrs. Murphy and h e r s u p p o r t e r s t h a t she was not e l i g i b l e because t h e s e a t " b e l o n g e d " t o t h e C a t h o l i c s , b u t she c l a i m e d t h a t she would be r e p r e s e n t i n g women from a l l a c r o s s t h e c o y n t r y and r e l i g i o n d i d n o t m a t t e r . F i n a l l y B e n n e t t w r o t e " w i t h some r e l u c t a n c e " t o t e l l h e r he t h o u g h t i t " w e l l t h e r e s h o u l d be no m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , no f a l s e hopes o f an appointment w h i c h cannot be made." Ben n e t t had made up h i s mind t h a t t h e appointment would go t o a C a t h o l i c and nobody c o u l d change h i s mind about t h a t , n o t even t h e p e r s u a s i v e E m i l y Murphy. Adeodot B o i l e a u had c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t f o r t h e appointment from F r e n c h C a n a d i a n g r o u p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e i n t h e n o r t h . He a l s o g a i n e d t h e b a c k i n g o f v a r i o u s C a t h o l i c e t h n i c groups and o f D. M. Duggan, t h e A l b e r t a C o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r . I n h i s m i d - f o r t i e s , B o i l e a u was a good p l a t f o r m s p e a k e r who had s u p p o r t e d t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y f o r t w e n t y f i v e y e a r s . He d i d n o t make a s t r o n g b i d on h i s own b e h a l f ; m e r e l y he s t a t e d t h a t i f , i n v i e w o f 15 t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n t h e v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s as w e l l as t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f A l b e r t a , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r d e c i d e d t o f a v o r him w i t h t h e a p p o i n t -17 ment, he would be " d e e p l y a p p r e c i a t i v e . " Dr. Luc L e B e l had s t r o n g support a l s o from v a r i o u s F r e n c h C a n a d i a n groups as w e l l as from many E n g l i s h C a t h o l i c s . L e B e l had come t o A l b e r t a from R i v i e r e du Loup, Quebec, a f t e r t h e 1917 e l e c t i o n . He had r u n p r o -v i n c i a l l y i n 1905, f e d e r a l l y i n 1908 and 1911 and, l i k e so many l o n g -s u f f e r i n g C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n Quebec, he was d e f e a t e d each t i m e . In 1917 he chose t o r u n as a U n i o n i s t c a n d i d a t e ; he l o s t n o t o n l y t h e e l e c t i o n b u t h i s p r a c t i c e as w e l l . I t was t h e n he d e c i d e d t o move west and make a new s t a r t . He s e t t l e d i n Lac L a b i c h e where he v e r y q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as one o f t h e town's l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s . L e B e l sought t h e s u p p o r t o f s e v e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s a s k i n g them t o a pproach t h e Prime M i n i s t e r on h i s b e h a l f . 18 But i t was t o no a v a i l ; he, t o o , was doomed t o d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . Romeo M i q u e l o n had been a r e s i d e n t o f C a l g a r y s i n c e 1886 and had t h e s u p p o r t o f B i s h o p K i d d , Armand Lavergne who was deputy s p e a k e r o f t h e House o f Commons, t h e F r e n c h C a n adian A s s o c i a t i o n o f C a l g a r y and s e v e r a l members o f p a r l i a m e n t . He d i d n o t w r i t e t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t o seek an a p p o i n t m e n t , but he d i d have h i s nephew, a member o f t h e Quebec L e g i s l a t i v e A s sembly, approach t h e F r e n c h Canadian members o f p a r l i a m e n t on h i s b e h a l f . B e n n e t t does n o t seem t o have g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o M i q u e l o n ' ; even 19 though t h e y were o l d f r i e n d s . Of a l l t h e A l b e r t a n s who a p p l i e d f o r a s e n a t o r s h i p , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t E m i l y Murphy would have r e c e i v e d t h e most s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n had a n o t h e r v a c a n c y o c c u r r e d . She had w i d e s p r e a d s u p p o r t and was b e n e f i c i a r y o f mounting p r e s s u r e on t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s t o a p p o i n t a woman t o c o u n t e r -b a l a n c e t h e f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n b e i n g made by L i b e r a l C a i r i n e W i l s o n . 16 The t h i r d s e n a t o r t o be named i n 1931 was G e n e r a l A. D. McRae o f Vancouver. He was e l e v a t e d t o t h e Senate on 4 September, a s h o r t t i m e a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f S e n a t o r S. J . Crowe. A f t e r t h e c o m p e t i t i o n he had e n c o u n t e r e d i n h i s a p p o i n t m e n t s t o t h e two p r a i r i e s e a t s , B e n n e t t must have found i t a p l e a s a n t t a s k t o make h i s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a appointment w i t h l i t t l e o r no o p p o s i t i o n . O n l y two men, H. S. Clements and C. H. D i c k i e , made b i d s t o s u c c e e d S e n a t o r Crowe. But t h e s e were b u t t o k e n b i d s and b o t h s a i d t h e y would w i t h d r a w t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s i n f a v o r o f G e n e r a l McRae. D i c k i e made t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i f t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h o u g h t McRae would be more v a l u a b l e i n t h e c a b i n e t , he would be g l a d t o r e s i g n h i s Vancouver I s l a n d s e a t so t h a t McRae c o u l d seek e l e c t i o n t o t h e House o f Commons. However, 20 t h i s s u g g e s t i o n was n e v e r s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d . There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t i n G e n e r a l McRae, Be n n e t t had a p p o i n t e d a man o f o u t s t a n d i n g a b i l i t y . He had a r r i v e d i n Vancouver i n 1907 a f t e r a s u c c e s s f u l c o l o n i z a t i o n v e n t u r e on t h e p r a i r i e s and t o o k an a c t i v e p a r t i m m e d i a t e l y i n t h e s a l e o f r a i l w a y t o w n s i t e l a n d s . A l r e a d y a w e a l t h y man, he became i n v o l v e d i n b o t h l u m b e r i n g and f i s h i n g b u t , when t h e war b r o k e o u t , he s e v e r e d a l l h i s c o r p o r a t i o n t i e s t o become a L i e u t e n a n t - C o l o n e l i n charge o f remount p u r c h a s i n g west o f W i n n i p e g . I n 1917 he was h onored w i t h t h e Order o f Commander o f t h e Bath f o r m e r i t o r i o u s s e r v i c e ; i n 1918 he was seconded t o t h e I m p e r i a l s w i t h t h e r a n k o f M a j o r G e n e r a l t o o r g a n i z e t h e M i n i s t r y o f I n f o r m a t i o n . A f t e r an a b o r t i v e a t t e m p t t o g a i n power i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e e a r l y 1920's w i t h h i s P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y , he was e l e c t e d t o t h e House o f Commons i n 1926 s u b s e q u e n t l y t o h e l p o r g a n i z e R. B. B e n n e t t ' s campaign t o g a i n t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y i n 1927. He was C o n s e r v a t i v e campaign o r g a n i z e r i n t h e 1930 e l e c t i o n and, a l t h o u g h much o f t h e s u c c e s s o f t h a t campaign was a t t r i b u t e d t o him, he l o s t h i s own s e a t i n Vancouver N o r t h and t e m p o r a r i l y r e t i r e d from p u b l i c l i f e . Most o f t h e p r e s s r e a c t i o n t o McRae's appointment was p o s i t i v e / t h e o n l y somewhat n e g a t i v e n o t e a p p e a r i n g i n t h e ; V a n c o u v e r Sun. In an e d i t o r i a l headed "End o f a P r o m i s i n g C a r e e r " , t h e Sun s a i d t h e a p p o i n t -ment r e c a l l e d t h e s a y i n g , " A n o t h e r good man gone wrong" and s t a t e d t h a t "a man w i t h h i s e n e r g y , i m a g i n a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a c i t y b e l o n g s i n t h e f r o n t l i n e o f p u b l i c l i f e o r nowhere." The e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r conceded t h a t McRae might have been e l i g i b l e f o r t h e " e l d e r s t a t e s m a n ' s p a r a d i s e " a f t e r t w e n t y more y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , b u t n o t y e t ; h i s t a l e n t s s h o u l d have been e n l i s t e d t o h a n d l e t h e unemployment s i t u a t i o n where more t h a n a h a l f m i l l i o n p e o p l e were j o b l e s s . The Vancouver P r o v i n c e wondered a l o u d whether o r n o t i t s h o u l d c o n g r a t u l a t e McRae, but i t had no doubt t h a t t h e Senate d e s e r v e d c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s . The P r o v i n c e hoped t h a t McRae would a c t 22 as a " t o n i c " i n t h e upper chamber and " j a r i t out o f i t s h a b i t u a l c a l m . " However, McRae h i m s e l f d i d n o t s h a r e t h i s p e s s i m i s t i c v i e w o f t h e Senate and he w i r e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h a t he would be " d e l i g h t e d " t o a c c e p t . A few days l a t e r he r e p o r t e d t h a t h i s appointment had gone o v e r "100%" w i t h t h e a c t i v e members o f t h e p a r t y a l t h o u g h some o f h i s f r i e n d s t h o u g h t he s h o u l d " c l e a n up t h e dog d r i v e l i n V i c t o r i a . " He a d m i t t e d t h a t p u b l i c r e g a r d f o r t h e Senate was a t a v e r y low ebb and e x p r e s s e d hope t h a t t h e Prime M i n i s t e r would s u c c e e d i n h i s e f f o r t s " t o r e s t o r e i t t o s omething l i k e 23 i t s o l d u s e f u l n e s s and r e s p e c t . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t a l t h o u g h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , l i k e Saskatchewan b e f o r e t h e appointment o f M a r c o t t e , had no C a t h o l i c s e n a t o r , a t no t i m e d i d B e n n e t t s u g g e s t t h a t a C a t h o l i c be a p p o i n t e d on t h e west c o a s t . P r e s u mably t h e C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e was n o t l a r g e enough o r perhaps s u f f i c i e n t l y v o c a l t o i n f l u e n c e t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t o 18 c o n s i d e r t h e f i l l i n g o f t h e v a c a n c y by a member o f t h e m i n o r i t y . There i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t e i t h e r t h e F r e n c h o r t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g C a t h o l i c s e x p e c t e d s u c h an a p p o i n t m e n t , b u t perhaps t h e speed w i t h w h i c h B e n n e t t named G e n e r a l McRae headed o f f a s p a t e o f p e t i t i o n s from C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a -t i o n s t h e l i k e o f w h i c h f l o o d e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s o f f i c e b e f o r e t h e v a c a n c i e s i n A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan were f i l l e d . NOTES For a more complete summary o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s in Saskatchewan p r e c e d i n g M a r c o t t e ' s campaign and a p p o i n t m e n t , see I r e n e H. McEwen, " R e l i g i o u s and R a c i a l I n f l u e n c e s on a Senate A p p o i n t m e n t , 1931," Saskatchewan H i s t o r y XXV ( W i n t e r 1972):18-34. 2 J . T. M. Anderson t o B e n n e t t , 6 May 1929; p. 25259; B e n n e t t t o A n d e r s o n , 11 May 1929, p. 25267; F. R. M a c M i l l a n t o Gen. A. D. McRae, 18 June 1929, p. 25350. Canadian A n n u a l Review o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s , (C.A.R.), 1929-30, T o r o n t o , C a n a d i a n Review Company, 1931, -.p. 483; I b i d . , p. 253. 4 Be n n e t t t o A r t h u r M a r c o t t e , 9 J a n . 1931, p. 429851; B e n n e t t t o Rev. J . O'Leary, 29 J a n . 1931, p. 430234; V a r i o u s F r e n c h C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n s t o B e n n e t t , 15 Dec. 1 9 3 0 - J u l y 1931, pp. 429177-429254; Be n n e t t t o Rev. F. T. F o l e y , 24 Feb. 1931, p. 429723. 5 S a s k a t o o n S t a r P h o e n i x , 7 J u l y 1931, pp. 1, 2. Be n n e t t t o B i s h o p 0. C. C h a r l e b o i s , 26 J a n . 1931, p. 429874; M a r c o t t e t o B e n n e t t , 16 J a n . 1931, pp. 429884-5; M a r c o t t e t o B e n n e t t , 3 Feb. 1931, pp. 429959-61; B i s h o p J . M. R. V i l l e n e u v e t o B e n n e t t , 27 Dec. 1930, pp. 429865-6; A r t h u r Sauve t o R o b e r t W e i r , 27 Dec. 1930, p. 429868; Sauve t o B e n n e t t , 17 J a n . 1931, p. 429887; Sen. Aime-Benard t o Sen. H. W. L a i r d , 5 Dec. 1930, pp. 429829-33. 7 Be n n e t t t o M a r c o t t e , 7 Feb. 1931, p. 429962. g A. W. M e r r i a m t o M. A. MacPherson, 5 March 1931, p. 351714. 9 B e n n e t t t o F o l e y , 24 Feb. 1931, p. 429723; J . J . Leddy t o R. J . Manion, 25 March 1931, p. 429757; B e n n e t t t o Leddy, 18 A p r i l 1931, p. 429769; R e g i n a L e a d e r - P o s t , 23 March 1931, p. 5. 1 0 A r t h u r Meighen t o L a i r d , 6 Dec. 1930, p. 429291; L a i r d t o Manion, 11 Dec. 1930, 429274; Anderson t o B e n n e t t , 9 Dec. 1930, p. 428480; Anderson t o B e n n e t t , 9 Dec. 1930, p. 428666; J o s e p h F o l e y t o B e n n e t t , 24 J a n . 1931, p. 429300; B i s h o p J o s e p h Prud'homme t o B e n n e t t , 26 Feb. 1931, p. 429759. n c o p y , M a r c o t t e t o MacPherson, 12 June 1934, pp. 351409-12. 19 20 n c o p y , M a r c o t t e t o MacPherson, 12 June 1934, pp. 351409-12. 12 Ben n e t t t o M a r c o t t e , 25 June 1934, p. 351443; B e n n e t t t o J . F. B r y a n t , 26 June 1934, p. 351434. 13 Dr. C. C a r l y l e Tathan t o B e n n e t t , 11 A p r i l 1931, p. 431305; H. R. M i l n e r t o B e n n e t t , 15 A p r i l 1931, p. 431096. 14 C a l g a r y D a i l y H e r a l d , 6 J u l y 1931, p. 4; S a s k a t o o n S t a r - P h o e n i x , 7 J u l y 1931, p. 2. " ^ C a l g a r y D a i l y H e r a l d , 7 J u l y 1931, pp. 1, 4, 7; L e t h b r i d g e H e r a l d , 8 J u l y 1931, p. 4; R e g i n a L e a d e r - P o s t , 7 J u l y 1931, p. 14. Judge E m i l y Murphy t o B e n n e t t , 13 A p r i l 1931, p. 431178; w i r e , Murphy t o B e n n e t t , 30 A p r i l 1931, p. 431221; B e n n e t t t o Murphy, 1 May 1931, p. 431189. 17 T. C h a l i f o u r t o B e n n e t t , 4 May 1931, p. 430776; w i r e , D. M. Duggan t o B e n n e t t , 10 May 1931, p. 430796;A. B o i l e a u t o B e n n e t t , 20 June 1931, p. 430805; M i l n e r t o B e n n e t t , 20 A p r i l 1931, p. 431163. I Q Dr. Luc L e B e l t o C o l . Frank J a m i e s o n , 20 A p r i l 1931, p. 431023; L e B e l t o B e n n e t t , 13 May 1931, p. 431063. 19 S. H. Row t o B e n n e t t , 29 A p r i l 1931, p. 431115; C h a r l e s C a r r t o B e n n e t t , 30 A p r i l 1931, p. 431117; J . E. T e t r i a u l t , M.P. t o B e n n e t t , 6 May 1931, p. 431122; Romeo M i q u e l o n t o Dr. G. D. S t a n l e y , M.P., 23 May 1931, p. 431129 20 H. S. Clements t o B e n n e t t , 4 S e p t . 1931, p. 431485; C, H, D i c k i e t o B e n n e t t , 1 Sept. 1931, p. 431488. 21 Vancouver Sun, 4 Sept. 1931, p. 1; V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t , 5 S e p t . 1931, pp. 1, 2; Vancouver P r o v i n c e , 5 S e p t . 1931, pp. 1, 24, 22 Vancouver Sun, 5 Sept. 1931, p. 6; Vancouver P r o v i n c e , 5 S e p t , 1931, p. 6. 23 w i r e , A. D. McRae t o B e n n e t t , 2 S e p t . 1931, p. 431501; McRae t o B e n n e t t , 5 Sept. 1931, p. 431503. CHAPTER I I I 1932: FEBRUARY, OCTOBER The y e a r 1932 was marked by s i x new Senate a p p o i n t m e n t s - - f o u r i n F e b r u a r y and two i n O c t o b e r . U n d o u b t e d l y t h e b e s t known a p p o i n t e e was f o r m e r Prime M i n i s t e r A r t h u r Meighen who was e l e v a t e d on 3 F e b r u a r y , s u b s e q u e n t l y t o be named government l e a d e r i n t h e Senate and a M i n i s t e r w i t h o u t P o r t f o l i o i n t h e B e n n e t t c a b i n e t . A l s o named on t h a t d a t e were two men from Nova S c o t i a , W. H. Dennis and Dr. John A. MacDonald, and from M o n t r e a l } C . C. B a l l a n t y n e . I n O c t o b e r two more Quebec v a c a n c i e s were f i l l e d b y J . H. R a i n v i l l e and A. J . Brown. The appointment o f Meighen was h a i l e d by most o b s e r v e r s as an e x c e l l e n t move b y B e n n e t t . Meighen d i d n o t seek t h e p o s i t i o n h i m s e l f , b u t R o b e r t A. R e i d , a T o r o n t o l a w y e r who was w e l l known t o B e n n e t t , s u g g e s t e d t h a t Meighen would make an o u t s t a n d i n g r e p l a c e m e n t f o r t h e l a t e S i r George F o s t e r and f o r Senate l e a d e r W. B. W i l l o u g h b y who was e x p e c t e d t o r e s i g n due t o i l l h e a l t h . I t was R e i d ' s o p i n i o n t h a t such a move would be v e r y b e n e f i c i a l as f a r as p u b l i c o p i n i o n was c o n c e r n e d ; t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s were echoed by S e n a t o r Edward M i c h e n e r o f C a l g a r y . B e n n e t t p r o m i s e d b o t h men he would g i v e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s . W i t h i n a few weeks t h e appointment was made. "* The T o r o n t o Globe r e p o r t e d t h a t f o r a t i m e t h e r e was some doubt as t o what t h e a t t i t u d e o f some Quebec s e n a t o r s would be. However, an u n o f f i c i a l c a n v a s s o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s e n a t o r s e v e n t u a l l y c o n f i r m e d t h a t Meighen would be a c c e p t a b l e t o them; h i s c h o i c e as l e a d e r o f t h e S e n a t o r i a l 21 22 caucus would be unanimous. The H a l i f a x H e r a l d i n an e d i t o r i a l e n t i t l e d " A b l e L e a d e r s h i p , " s a i d t h a t Meighen's appointment " r e c a l l s t o p a r l i a m e n t perhaps t h e most consummate d e b a t o r o f our t i m e s , and w i l l g i v e t h e Senate such l e a d e r s h i p as i t has n o t e n j o y e d f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . " I t added t h a t Meighen would h e l p r e s t o r e p u b l i c c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e Senate w h i c h 2 s h o u l d be much more t h a n a " p o l i t i c a l h u n t i n g g r o u n d . " Meighen, o f c o u r s e , had had an i l l u s t r i o u s c a r e e r . F i r s t e l e c t e d t o t h e House o f Commons i n 1908, he became l e a d e r o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y and Prime M i n i s t e r o f Canada i n J u l y 1920. H i s government was d e f e a t e d by t h e L i b e r a l s i n December 1921 and he s u f f e r e d p e r s o n a l d e f e a t i n h i s home r i d i n g o f P o r t a g e l a P r a i r i e . I n J a n u a r y 1922 he was e l e c t e d i n a by-e l e c t i o n i n G r e n v i l l e , O n t a r i o ; i n 1925 he was e l e c t e d once a g a i n , t h i s t i m e s u c c e s s f u l i n P o r t a g e l a P r a i r i e . He s e r v e d b r i e f l y as Prime M i n i s t e r i n 1926 b u t i n t h e e l e c t i o n o f t h a t y e a r t h e L i b e r a l s were r e - e l e c t e d and Meighen h i m s e l f r e j e c t e d by t h e v o t e r s o f P o r t a g e l a P r a i r i e . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r R. B. B e n n e t t succeeded Meighen as l e a d e r o f t h e C o n s e r v a -t i v e p a r t y and L e a d e r o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n , , A t t h i s p o i n t Meighen t o o k up 3 r e s i d e n c e i n T o r o n t o where he remained u n t i l summoned t o t h e S e n a t e . U n q u e s t i o n a b l y Meighen was a v e r y e f f e c t i v e s e n a t o r and B e n n e t t had l i t t l e r e a s o n t o r e g r e t t h e appointment o f h i s f o r m e r c o l l e a g u e . Three y e a r s l a t e r , however, e v e n t s o c c u r r e d w h i c h l e f t b o t h men v e r y b i t t e r . I n J a n u a r y 1935 B e n n e t t r e f u s e d t o p r o c e e d w i t h a R o y a l Com-m i s s i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e a l l e g a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g Meighen's conduct as an O n t a r i o Hydro Commissioner. Meighen b e l i e v e d t h a t o n l y i n an i m p a r t i a l h e a r i n g by a f e d e r a l j u d g e c o u l d h i s name be c l e a r e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e he c o n s i d e r e d t h e O n t a r i o L a t c h f o r d - S m i t h i n q u i r y t o have been "a p o l i t i c a l i n q u i s i t i o n o f t h e most u n s c r u p u l o u s and u n - B r i t i s h c h a r a c t e r . " B e n n e t t 23 s t r e s s e d t h a t he d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e L a t c h f o r d - S m i t h r e p o r t and t h a t i t was " o b v i o u s y o u r v i e w was h o n e s t l y h e l d and i t d o e s n ' t r e f l e c t on y o u r honor as a p u b l i c s e r v a n t . " T h e r e f o r e he c o u l d "see no r e a s o n f o r a f u r t h e r c o m m i s s i o n . " Meighen had no c h o i c e b u t t o a c c e p t t h e 4 Prime M i n i s t e r ' s d e c i s i o n . I n l a t e September B e n n e t t r e q u e s t e d Meighen t o speak t o a Con-s e r v a t i v e r a l l y i n W i n n i p e g and t h e l a t t e r r e f u s e d . Meighen s t a t e d t h a t as l e a d e r o f t h e Senate he f e l t he s h o u l d n o t t a k e p a r t i n t h e e l e c t i o n campaign a l t h o u g h he a d m i t t e d such a d e c i s i o n was " d i f f i c u l t i n l i g h t o f y o u r r e q u e s t . " A f t e r t h e e l e c t i o n B e n n e t t w r o t e Meighen t h a t h i s r e f u s a l t o speak had h u r t him "more t h a n I can s a y " and added t h a t "your c o l l e a g u e s f e e l much as I do." I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t Meighen's r e f u s a l t o go t o W i n n i -peg was a r e s u l t o f t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s d e c i s i o n n o t t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e R o y a l Commission, b u t t h i s would be l i t t l e c o n s o l a t i o n t o t h e b e l e a g u e r e d 5 B e n n e t t . * * * * The F e b r u a r y 3 1932 Nova S c o t i a a p p o i n t m e n t s went t o two men o f v e r y d i f f e r e n t b a c k g r o u n d s . Dr. John A l e x a n d e r MacDonald was a p h y s i c i a n from S t . P e t e r ' s , Cape B r e t o n I s l a n d , who had f i r s t been e l e c t e d t o t h e Nova S c o t i a l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1916. He was r e - e l e c t e d i n 1920 and 1925, b u t he r e s i g n e d s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e l a t t e r e l e c t i o n t o s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n t e s t a s e a t i n t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . In 1926 he met t h e o n l y d e f e a t o f h i s p o l i -t i c a l c a r e e r , b u t he was e l e c t e d a g a i n i n 1930 t o t h e House o f Commons. S u b s e q u e n t l y he gave up h i s s e a t so t h a t f o r m e r Nova S c o t i a P r e m i e r E. N. Rhodes c o u l d j o i n t h e B e n n e t t c a b i n e t . T h i s a c t i o n no doubt paved t h e way f o r h i s a p pointment t o t h e Senate some s e v e n t e e n months l a t e r . And s o , a t t h e r e l a t i v e l y young age o f f o r t y - n i n e , MacDonald w i t h d r e w from t h e 24 a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l scene t o t a k e h i s s e a t i n t h e Senate as a C a t h o l i c r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e from Nova S c o t i a . W. H. Dennis was a l s o i n h i s f o r t i e s , b u t h i s c a r e e r had been v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t . A l t h o u g h a C o n s e r v a t i v e , he had n e v e r r u n f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e . He.;was w i d e l y known and r e s p e c t e d f o r h i s o u t s p o k e n d e f e n c e o f any cause w h i c h was good f o r t h e M a r i t i m e s . A j o u r n a l i s t , Dennis had f i r s t j o i n e d t h e H a l i f a x H e r a l d i n 1900 and became v i c e - p r e s i d e n t and b u s i n e s s manager i n 1911. A t t h e t i m e o f h i s appointment t o t h e S e n a t e , he was managing d i r e c t o r and p u b l i s h e r o f t h e H e r a l d . D e n n i s ' s appointment was v e r y w e l l r e c e i v e d p a r t i c u l a r l y by coalmen and r a i l w a y m e n who c l a i m e d he was "a l o n g t i m e t r i e d and t r u e f r i e n d o f o u r s . " B e n n e t t must have been h e a r t e n e d by t h e l a r g e number o f t e l e g r a m s c o n g r a t u l a t i n g him on t h i s a ppointment because he commented t e n days l a t e r t h a n D e n n i s was 7 "perhaps as u s e f u l a C a n a d i a n as t h e r e i s i n t h e M a r i t i m e s . " There were no o t h e r s e r i o u s c o n t e n d e r s f o r t h e s e two s e a t s a l -though one member o f p a r l i a m e n t , W. A. B l a c k , d i d i n f o r m B e n n e t t t h a t he would l i k e one o f t h e a p p o i n t m e n t s . B l a c k c l a i m e d t h a t i t would be s a f e t o open up h i s H a l i f a x s e a t and s u g g e s t e d t h a t perhaps W. H. Dennis c o u l d r u n , b u t t h e Prime M i n i s t e r r e j e c t e d t h e i d e a o f an u n n e c e s s a r y b y - e l e c t i o n . B e n n e t t p r o m i s e d he would " e x p l a i n t h i n g s when I see y o u . " B l a c k t h u s r e -c e i v e d t h e same answer as a dozen o r so o t h e r C o n s e r v a t i v e members o f p a r l i a m e n t a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y who c r a v e d t h e s e r e n i t y and s e c u r i t y o f a Senate s e a t . B e n n e t t had no i n t e n t i o n o f making a p p o i n t m e n t s t o t h e Senate from w i t h i n h i s p a r l i a m e n t a r y c a u c u s ; c o n t e n d e r s f o r ' t h e Senate s e a t s g would have t o w a i t u n t i l t h e end o f t h e t e r m . * * * * Of t h e t h r e e Quebec men a p p o i n t e d i n 1932, one was named i n 25 F e b r u a r y , t h e o t h e r two i n O c t o b e r . C h a r l e s C. B a l l a n t y n e , t h e f i r s t a p p o i n t e e , was a M o n t r e a l m a n u f a c t u r e r who had been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e M i l i t i a f o r many y e a r s . I n 1916 he had r a i s e d a s e r v i c e b a t t a l i o n f o r o v e r s e a s . I n 1917 he j o i n e d t h e n e w l y - f o r m e d U n i o n government as M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, e v e n t u a l l y t o become M i n i s t e r o f M a r i n e and F i s h e r i e s and M i n i s t e r o f N a v a l S e r v i c e s . B a l l a n t y n e was one o f t h r e e U n i o n i s t c a n d i -d a t e s e l e c t e d i n Quebec i n t h e wartime e l e c t i o n , b u t he was d e f e a t e d as a 9 C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e i n 1921. A p p a r e n t l y S i r R o b e r t Borden t h o u g h t v e r y h i g h l y o f B a l l a n t y n e ' s a b i l i t i e s . He d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o w r i t e t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r on h i s be-h a l f when h i s f o r m e r c o l l e a g u e a s k e d him t o do so. B a l l a n t y n e d e c l i n e d t o t a k e t h e u s u a l p a t h o f h a v i n g f r i e n d s send l e t t e r s and t e l e g r a m s i n s u p p o r t o f h i s a p p l i c a t i o n . I n s t e a d he t o l d Borden t h a t he f e l t h i s l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e e n t i t l e d him t o t h e a p p o i n t m e n t , "but i f t h e Prime M i n i s t e r has someone e l s e i n mind, t h a t i s a l l r i g h t . " Borden a s s u r e d B e n n e t t t h a t he f e l t t h e r e was no more d e s e r v i n g man t h a n B a l l a n t y n e and t h a t , i n f a c t , "he d e s e r v e s even h i g h e r o f f i c e t h a n t h a t w h i c h he s e e k s . . " The Prime M i n i s t e r r e c e i v e d a n o t h e r h i g h recommendation o f B a l l a n t y n e from J . W. M c C o n n e l l , t h e i n f l u e n t i a l M o n t r e a l newspaper p u b l i s h e r , who c a l l e d him "an o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r " and "a s t a u n c h and l o y a l s u p p o r t e r o f y o u r s . " A p p a r e n t l y B e n n e t t had hoped t h a t M c C o n n e l l h i m s e l f would c o n s i d e r t h e S e n a t o r s h i p , b u t s i n c e he would n o t a c c e p t t h e o f f e r , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r f e l t t h e P a r t y " s h o u l d have g r a t i t u d e enough t o g i v e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and i f p o s s i b l e , e f f e c t t o any w i s h you may have i n a m a t t e r o f t h i s k i n d . " The Prime M i n i s t e r meant what he s a i d ; w i t h i n two weeks t h e s i x t y - f i v e y e a r o l d B a l l a n t y n e was named t o t h e Senate."*^ The o t h e r two Quebec a p p o i n t m e n t s f o l l o w e d e i g h t months l a t e r - - A l b e r t 26 J . Brown, a M o n t r e a l e r who had been b o r n i n t h e E a s t e r n t o w n s h i p s , and J . H. R a i n v i l l e , a l s o a M o n t r e a l e r , were named t o t h e Se n a t e . Brown, s e v e n t y y e a r s o l d , was one o f f i v e B e n n e t t a p p o i n t e e s who had n e v e r r u n f o r p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e . He was g r a d u a t e d i n Law from M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y i n 1886, a g o l d m e d a l i s t , and had been a p p o i n t e d a Queen's C o u n c i l i n 1899. He formed h i s own law f i r m i n 1907 and i t had become w i d e l y known t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . He had been a g o v e r n o r o f M c G i l l f o r some y e a r s and i n 1923 he was p r e s e n t e d w i t h an h o n o r a r y D o c t o r o f Laws degree from t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n . He had a l s o been a c t i v e i n h o s p i t a l work, s e r v i n g as a g o v e r n o r o f t h e M o n t r e a l G e n e r a l , t h e C h i l d r e n ' s M e m o r i a l H o s p i t a l , A l e x a n d r a H o s p i t a l and t h e Verdun P r o t e s t a n t H o s p i t a l . In a d d i t i o n he was a l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n t h e M o n t r e a l b u s i n e s s community, s e r v i n g as a v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f t h e R o y a l Bank, t h e M o n t r e a l T r u s t Company, t h e Dominion E n g i n e e r i n g Works L i m i t e d and t h e Canada Steamship L i n e s . He was a d i r e c t o r o f a number o f o t h e r w e l l - k n o w n companies, such as t h e S t e e l Company o f Canada. Brown was a p p o i n t e d t o r e p l a c e Dr. W. L. McDougald who had r e s i g n e d a f t e r b e i n g c e n s u r e d by h i s f e l l o w s e n a t o r s f o r h i s p a r t i n t h e B e a u h a r n o i s s c a n d a l . He s u c -ceeded McDougald as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r W e l l i n g t o n d i s t r i c t i n t h e E a s t e r n t o w n s h i p s , a l t h o u g h b o t h men l i v e d i n Montreal.'''"'' B e n n e t t had been warned by a c o r r e s p o n d e n t some months e a r l i e r t h a t t h e E a s t e r n t o w n s h i p s r e s i d e n t s f e l t v e r y s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e y d i d n o t want a n o t h e r o u t s i d e r a p p o i n t e d f o r t h e i r d i s t r i c t . T h i s f e e l i n g was a p p a r e n t l y encouraged by A r t h u r Wood, e d i t o r o f t h e S h e r b r o o k e D a i l y R e c o r d , who had f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d h i s s t r o n g f e e l i n g s i n p r i n t . Such was t h e s t a t u r e o f Brown, however, t h a t when he was a c t u a l l y named t o t h e S e n a t e , Wood wro t e t h a t he was "a n a t i v e o f t h e t o w n s h i p s and w i l l w o r t h i l y r e p r e s e n t h i s o l d home and r e f l e c t upon us some s h a r e o f h i s c o n s i d e r a b l e a c h i e v e m e n t . " * ^ There were a number o f t o w n s h i p s r e s i d e n t s who would have made wo r t h y s e n a t o r s . These i n c l u d e d Dr. George Hume, Dr. Warren W. Lynch and Dr. C. W. C o l b y . I n each c a s e , t h e i r names were g i v e n some c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Dr. Hume had t h e s t r o n g b a c k i n g o f S e n a t o r R. H. Pope who f e l t t h a t Hume would have t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e community a t l a r g e . Hume h i m s e l f d i d n o t c o n t a c t t h e Prime M i n i s t e r u n t i l j u s t a few days b e f o r e t h e appointment was made, b u t h i s s u p p o r t e r s had been a c t i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e summer o f 1932, w r i t i n g l e t t e r s and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d e l e g a t i o n s on h i s b e h a l f . When Brown was a p p o i n t e d , Hume wro t e t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h a n k i n g him f o r r e c e i v i n g y e t a n o t h e r d e l e g a t i o n " a t such a busy t i m e " and p l e d g i n g h i s c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . He p r o m i s e d t h a t he would t r y t o overcome t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i s s u p p o r t e r s o v e r t h e naming o f •A * 1 3 a n o n - r e s i d e n t . Dr. Warren W. Lynch was h i g h l y recommended by A r t h u r R e i d o f t h e Sher b r o o k e Weekly Telegram who s a i d t h a t he c o u l d mount a "tremendous" d e l e g a t i o n on Dr. Lynch's b e h a l f b u t t h a t he would n o t a l l o w i t . L y n c h , an o u t s t a n d i n g s u r g e o n , was t h e son o f Judge W. Ly n c h , a l o n g - t i m e Con-14 s e r v a t i v e . Dr. C. W. C o l b y was s u g g e s t e d by R. S. Wh i t e , M.P. A c c o r d -i n g t o W h i t e , C o l b y was a man o f g r e a t l e a r n i n g who had f i l l e d t h e c h a i r o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e a t H a r v a r d and a t M c G i l l . He was a " t o w n s h i p s man t h r o u g h and t h r o u g h " whereas A l b e r t J . Brown was n o t r e g a r d e d as a t o w n s h i p s man even though he had been b o r n t h e r e . B e n n e t t a p p a r e n t l y gave s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o C o l b y f o r he wro t e t o W h i t e : That I s h o u l d have i n mind t h e one o f whom you were t h i n k i n g a t t h e same t i m e makes me f e e l t h a t p o s s i b l y I may be a w i s e r man t h a n I t h o u g h t . ^ 28 Mere t h o u g h t s , however, were n o t s u f f i c i e n t a p p a r e n t l y t o o b t a i n t h e appointment f o r C o l b y who q u i t e p o s s i b l y was n o t even aware t h a t he was under c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r such an honor. J . H. R a i n v i l l e , t h e f i n a l Quebec appointment i n 1932, was a l s o a l a w y e r , h a v i n g been g r a d u a t e d from L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y i n 1900. I n 1908 he had been n a r r o w l y d e f e a t e d i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , b u t i n 1911 he w r e s t e d t h e Chambly-Vercheres f e d e r a l s e a t away from t h e L i b e r a l s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n . He a c t e d b r i e f l y as de p u t y s p e a k e r o f t h e House o f Commons i n t h e t u m u l t u o u s days b e f o r e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e U n i o n government, b u t he s u b s e q u e n t l y r e s i g n e d t h a t p o s i t i o n d u r i n g t h e c o n s c r i p t i o n d e b a t e . R a i n v i l l e was one o f f i v e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s who v o t e d i n f a v o r o f t h e M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e s A c t and t h i s a l l b u t g u a r a n t e e d h i s d e f e a t i n t h e e n s u i n g e l e c t i o n . T h e r e a f t e r , R a i n v i l l e had l i t t l e c h o i c e b u t t o work b e h i n d t h e p o l i t i c a l s c e n e s ; i n 1928 he was C o n s e r v a t i v e o r g a n i z e r i n Quebec. I n 1930he was a p p o i n t e d Chairman o f t h e M o n t r e a l H a r b o r s B o a r d , a p o s i t i o n he f i l l e d w i t h a p p a r e n t d i s t i n c t i o n . The G a z e t t e r e p o r t e d t h a t h i s d e p a r t u r e from t h a t b o a r d t o t a k e up h i s new p o s i t i o n i n t h e Senate would be " r e g r e t t e d i n many q u a r t e r s . . . . H e s p e n t much t i m e a t t h e H a r b o r s Board o f f i c e and a t t e n d e d many banquets on i t s b e h a l f . " P. E. B l o n d i n , s p e a k e r o f t h e S e n a t e , f e l t t h a t R a i n v i l l e d e s e r v e d th e appointment p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e he "was l e f t a s i d e e v e r s i n c e he v o t e d i n t h e War Measures w h i l s t S e v i g n y and I r e c e i v e d w o n d e r f u l g r a t i f i c a t i o n . " S e n a t o r R. H. Pope was n o t e n t h u s i a s t i c , however, and l a t e r c l a i m e d t h a t R a i n v i l l e ' s a b i l i t i e s as an o r g a n i z e r were " v e r y q u e s t i o n a b l e . " B e n n e t t d i d n o t agree a p p a r e n t l y . He had s u f f i c i e n t c o n f i d e n c e i n R a i n v i l l e t o make him t h e r e c i p i e n t o f two major p o l i t i c a l a p p o i n t m e n t s , something 29 w h i c h was u n u s u a l when t h e r e were so many l i n e d up a w a i t i n g t h e l a r g e s s e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t . ^ As i t t u r n e d o u t , B e n n e t t ' s 1932 ap p o i n t m e n t s were t h e l e a s t c o n t r o v e r s i a l o f a l l t h o s e he made. The s e l e c t i o n o f A r t h u r Meighen was r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d , even by t h e man who had been p r o m i s e d t h e a p p o i n t -ment. I n Nova S c o t i a b o t h MacDonald and Dennis were w e l l - k n o w n , p o p u l a r f i g u r e s . Two o f h i s Quebec a p p o i n t e e s were o v e r s i x t y , b u t t h i s f a c t r o u s e d l i t t l e o r no comment. Both Armand L a v e r g n e , d e p u t y s p e a k e r o f th e House o f Commons, and C. N. D o r i o n , M.P., were v e r y d i s a p p o i n t e d t h a t t h e y had been u n a b l e t o s e c u r e one o f t h e s e a t s f o r a l o n g - t i m e s u p p o r t e r , Ludger B a s t i e n , b u t t h e y r e a l i z e d t h e r e would be o t h e r v a c a n c i e s . I t was f o u r t e e n months b e f o r e B e n n e t t was r e a d y t o make any f u r t h e r appointments and by t h a t t i m e he was d e l u g e d w i t h r e q u e s t s from a l l s i d e s . NOTES Ro b e r t A. R e i d t o B e n n e t t , 30 Dec. 1931, pp. 42689-28; B e n n e t t t o R e i d , 12 J a n . 1932, p. 426829; Sen. E. M i c h e n e r t o B e n n e t t , 12 J a n . 1932, p. 426830. 2 T o r o n t o - G l o b e , 1 Feb. 1932, pp. 1,3; I b i d . , 3 Feb. 1932, p. 1; I b i d . , 4 Feb. 1932, p. 4; H a l i f a x H e r a l d , 4 Feb. 1932, p. 6. 3 Canadian P a r l i a m e n t a r y Guide ( h e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as G u i d e ) , 1935, p. 101; Gordon Don a l d s o n , F i f t e e n Men, ( T o r o n t o : Doubleday Canada L i m i t e d , 1969), pp. 99-113. 4 copy, A r t h u r Meighen t o P r e m i e r George Henry, 6 March 1933, p. 419257; copy, Meighen t o Henry, 27 March 1933, p. 419258;copy, Henry t o Meighen, 10 Nov. 1933, p. 419276; Meighen t o B e n n e t t , 1 May 1934, p. 419282; Meighen t o M e r r i a m , 23 J u l y 1934, p. 419316; Meighen t o B e n n e t t , 23 J u l y 1934, p. 419317; B e n n e t t t o Meighen, 7 J a n . 1935, pp. 419389-90. 5 w i r e , Meighen t o B e n n e t t , 1 O c t . 1935, p. 419367; B e n n e t t t o Meighen, 31 Oct. 1935, p. 419371. 6 G u i d e , 1935, p. 96; H a l i f a x C h r o n i c l e , 9 J a n . 1932, p. 1; I b i d . , 3 Feb. 1932, p. 1; Ben n e t t t o Dugal d S t e w a r t , 12 Feb. 1932, p. 420562. 7 Benn e t t t o S t e w a r t , 12 Feb. 1932, p. 420562; A. L. Kennedy t o B e n n e t t , 4 Feb. 1932, p. 420210; D. S. Y o u l d t o B e n n e t t , 4 Feb. 1932, p. 420212; w i r e , C. W. Lunn t o B e n n e t t , 4 Feb. 1932, p. 420214; T o r o n t o G l o b e , 1 Feb. 1932, p. 3; H a l i f a x H e r a l d , 4 Feb. 1932, p. 4 8W. A. B l a c k , M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 2 Nov. 1931, p. 419960; B l a c k t o B e n n e t t , 9 J a n . 1932, p. 419963; B e n n e t t t o B l a c k , 23 J a n . 1932, p. 420137. 9 G u i d e , 1935, p. 72; Mason Wade, The F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s 1770-1967, 2 v o l s . ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n o f Canada, 1968), v o l . 2, pp. 674, 750, 1070. 1 0 C . C. B a l l a n t y n e t o S i r R o b e r t Borden, 5 May 1931, p. 422950; Borden t o B e n n e t t , 6 May 1931, p. 422951; J . W. M c C o n n e l l t o B e n n e t t , 8 J a n . 1932, pp. 422960-1; B e n n e t t t o M c C o n n e l l , 18 J a n . 1932, p. 422962. 1 1 G u i d e , 1935, p. 76; M o n t r e a l G a z e t t e , 7 Oct. 1932, p. 1. 12 C. H. Brown t o B e n n e t t , 5 J u l y , 1932, p. 422908; A r t h u r Wood t o B e n n e t t , 12 O c t . 1932, p. 422947. 30 31 13 Sen. R. H. Pope t o B e n n e t t , 26 Sept. 1932, p. 419722; Pope t o B e n n e t t , 29 Se p t . 1932, p. 424481; Dr. George Hume t o B e n n e t t , 1 Oct. 1932, p. 424485; Hume t o B e n n e t t , 8 Oct. 1932, p. 424493. 14 A r t h u r R e i d t o B e n n e t t , u n d a t e d , p. 419926. 1 5 R . S. Wh i t e , M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 16 Se p t . 1932, p . 423422; B e n n e t t t o W h i t e , 19 S e p t . 1932, p. 423423. Wade, F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s , v o l . 2, pp. 730, 742, 752; Sen. P. E. B l o n d i n t o B e n n e t t , 19 A p r i l 1932, p. 425266; Pope t o B e n n e t t , 9 S e p t . 1935, p. 419769; G u i d e , 1935, p. 105; M o n t r e a l G a z e t t e , 7 Oc t . 1932, p. 1. CHAPTER IV 1933: DECEMBER As t h e y e a r 1933 drew t o a c l o s e , Prime M i n i s t e r B e n n e t t was f a c e d w i t h mounting p r e s s u r e from h i s s u p p o r t e r s t o f i l l t h e Senate v a c a n c i e s w h i c h by t h e n numbered t h i r t e e n - - t w o i n Saskatchewan, f o u r i n O n t a r i o , t h r e e i n Quebec, t h r e e i n New B r u n s w i c k , and one i n Nova S c o t i a . On 30 December he made seven a p p o i n t m e n t s , two i n Saskatchewan, t h r e e i n O n t a r i o , two i n Quebec, l e a v i n g one s e a t i n each o f t h e l a t t e r two p r o v i n c e s v a c a n t . The s e a t s i n New Br u n s w i c k and Nova S c o t i a were a l s o l e f t v a c a n t . The two Saskatchewan v a c a n c i e s were f i l l e d b y R. B. Hor n e r and W a l t e r M. A s e l t i n e , b o t h o f whom were f a r m e r s from t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f th e p r o v i n c e . R a l p h Byron H o r n e r was b o r n i n 1884 a t N o r t h C l a r e n d o n , Quebec. He r e c e i v e d h i s e a r l y e d u c a t i o n t h e r e and a t b u s i n e s s c o l l e g e i n Ottawa. He moved west i n 1906 t o homestead a t B l a i n e Lake, s i x t y m i l e s n o r t h o f Saskatoon,where he e v e n t u a l l y became one o f t h e most s u c c e s s f u l f a r m e r s i n t h e d i s t r i c t . He r a n t w i c e f o r t h e Saskatchewan l e g i s l a t u r e — i n 1917 and 1929--but was d e f e a t e d b o t h t i m e s . I n 1931 he was named a d i r e c t o r o f t h e Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s ; t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r he was a p p o i n t e d a d i r e c t o r o f t h e Dominion A g r i c u l t u r e and C r e d i t C o r p o r a t i o n . "* When S e n a t o r T u r r i f f d i e d i n 1930, Hor n e r w r o t e t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e appointment s h o u l d go t o t h e n o r t h and t o a f a r m e r ; he would l i k e t o be c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e p o s t . S. N. H o r n e r , 32 33 a P r o g r e s s i v e member o f t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e government, w r o t e recommending h i s b r o t h e r , as d i d P r e m i e r A nderson and A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l M. A. MacPherson. In f a c t , when B e n n e t t announced t h a t t h e s e a t would be f i l l e d by a C a t h o l i c , b o t h Anderson and MacPherson s e n t w i r e s o f p r o t e s t , s t a t i n g e m p h a t i c a l l y t h a t t h e f i r s t a ppointment s h o u l d n o t go t o a C a t h o l i c . I t s h o u l d be g i v e n t o H o r n e r . The l a t t e r had w i d e s p r e a d s u p p o r t , p a r t i c u -l a r l y i n t h e n o r t h , w i t h many w i r e s and p e t i t i o n s b e i n g s e n t t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r on h i s b e h a l f . That appointment went t o M a r c o t t e , o f c o u r s e , but w i t h t h e d e a t h o f S e n a t o r W. B. W i l l o u g h b y f o l l o w e d by t h a t o f S e n a t o r J . H. Ross i n 1932, H o r n e r ' s s u p p o r t e r s renewed t h e i r e f f o r t s , t h i s t i m e w i t h t h e a s s u r a n c e t h a t b o t h a p p o i n t m e n t s would go t o t h e n o r t h and l i k e l y t o t h e c o u n t r y . The f a c t t h a t H o r n e r was a l o n g - t i m e C o n s e r v a t i v e w o r k e r , a d e f e a t e d c a n d i d a t e , who had t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e A nderson g o v e r n -ment , was i m p o r t a n t , b u t t h e d e c i s i v e f a c t o r was t h a t he was a f a r m e r l i v i n g i n t h e n o r t h . I t was p r i m a r i l y a case o f b e i n g t h e r i g h t man i n t h e r i g h t 2 p l a c e a t t h e r i g h t t i m e . Much t h e same c o u l d be s a i d f o r f o r t y - s e v e n y e a r o l d A s e l t i n e , t h e second Saskatchewan a p p o i n t e e . A s e l t i n e was b o r n i n O n t a r i o where he r e c e i v e d h i s h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . He t h e n a t t e n d e d t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , g r a d u a t i n g w i t h a B a c h e l o r o f A r t s degree i n 1909. A f t e r | i e s t u d y o f Law f o r f o u r y e a r s , he was c a l l e d t o t h e b a r i n Saskatchewan., s u b s e q u e n t l y t o s e t t l e i n Rosetown where he v e r y soon became a c t i v e w i t h t h e l o c a l Con-s e r v a t i v e s . In 1916, A s e l t i n e h e l p e d W i l l i a m Badger, t h e f i r s t C o n s e r v a t i v e e v e r t o be e l e c t e d from t h a t p a r t o f t h e p r o v i n c e , t o w i n a p r o v i n c i a l s e a t . That y e a r he became S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r o f t h e Rosetown p r o v i n c i a l con-s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n , a p o s t w h i c h he h e l d u n t i l 1925 when he assumed 34 t h e p r e s i d e n c y . He was a l s o S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r o f t h e K i n d e r s l e y F e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n and h e l p e d e l e c t t h e l o c a l c a n d i d a t e t o t h e U n i o n government i n 1917. I n 1926 he c o n t e s t e d Rosetown con-s t i t u e n c y , b u t he was d e f e a t e d ; i n 1930 he n a r r o w l y l o s t t h e n o m i n a t i o n t o W. J . Loucks who s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r was e l e c t e d t o t h e House o f Commons. I n t h e same y e a r , A s e l t i n e was e l e c t e d Mayor o f Rosetown by an overwhelming m a j o r i t y , a p o s i t i o n he h e l d u n t i l 1934. As a Senate hope-f u l , A s e l t i n e was s t r o n g l y recommended by Loucks who r e p o r t e d , "When I d e f e a t e d him f o r t h e n o m i n a t i o n he went t o work j u s t as i f he were t h e c a n d i d a t e , and I t h i n k much c r e d i t i s due him f o r my v i c t o r y . " A l s o 3 he had t h e s u p p o r t o f many o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e n o r t h . B e s i d e s b e i n g a l a w y e r , A s e l t i n e was a l a r g e - s c a l e f a r m e r who o p e r a t e d s i x s e c t i o n s i n t h e Rosetown d i s t r i c t , t h e f i r s t man t o i n t r o d u c e s t r i p f a r m i n g . He was a s h a r e h o l d e r i n t h e Rosetown Hiway R e f i n e r i e s and Rosetown Hiway S a l e s . He s e r v e d as v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Saskatchewan F i s h and Games A s s o c i a t i o n , as Chairman o f t h e Rosetown S c h o o l Board from 1920-1927, as member o f t h e c o u n c i l s o f b o t h t h e Dominion and P r o v i n c i a l 4 Bar A s s o c i a t i o n s . Thus A s e l t i n e had been a l e a d i n g c i t i z e n i n t h e Rosetown d i s t r i c t f o r many y e a r s , and he l o o k e d on h i s appointment as a t r i b u t e t o t h e p e o p l e o f Rosetown as w e l l as t o h i m s e l f . He a s s u r e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r i t would be h i s aim t o r e p r e s e n t a g r i c u l t u r e t o t h e b e s t o f h i s a b i l i t y , and c e r t a i n l y he had t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o do s o . ^ As might be e x p e c t e d , t h e r e were many o t h e r a s p i r a n t s f o r two s e n a t e s e a t s . These i n c l u d e d J . J . Leddy, J o s e p h F o l e y , C h a r l e s H o l l i n r a k e , James Hagerman, P h i l l i p W a l t e r s , George Braden and A. E. Whitmore. Leddy and F o l e y made what amounted t o t o k e n b i d s f o r t h e y r e a l i z e d t h e r e was no p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n o t h e r C a t h o l i c b e i n g a p p o i n t e d i n Saskatchewan a t t h a t 35 t i m e . S e v e r a l S a s k a t o o n men a l s o a p p l i e d , i n c l u d i n g H o l l i n r a k e and Hagerman. C h a r l e s H o l l i n r a k e was a h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d l a w y e r who had l i v e d i n S a s k a t o o n f o r t w e n t y y e a r s . He had t a k e n p a r t i n a l l t h e p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s i n S a s k a t o o n and d i s t r i c t f o r many y e a r s , was a p a s t p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Saskatchewan C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n and had a l s o been generous i n h i s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . James Hagerman was a w e l l - t o - d o f a r m e r who a l s o l i v e d i n S a s k a t o o n . A good o r g a n i z e r , he had r u n f e d e r a l l y i n S outh B a t t l e f o r d i n 1925 and 1926. He was recommended by s e v e r a l members o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e and a l s o b y Dr. W a l t e r M u r r a y , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan. However, t h e f e e l i n g i n Saskatchewan Con-s e r v a t i v e c i r c l e s was t h a t S a s k a t o o n had r e c e i v e d enough a p p o i n t m e n t s and 7 b e n e f i t s from t h e government; t h e s e n a t o r s h i p s s h o u l d go e l s e w h e r e . One man w i t h a t h i c k f i l e o f recommendations was P h i l l i p W a l t e r s , t h e mayor o f M e l v i l l e , who made a d e t e r m i n e d e f f o r t t o s e c u r e t h e n o m i n a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e Saskatchewan e t h n i c community. A German L u t h e r a n and an Orangeman, W a l t e r s managed t o s e c u r e t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e German C a t h o l i c s and o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e l a r g e -s c a l e campaign o f l e t t e r s and p e t i t i o n s was n o t spontaneous; i t may have been c a r e f u l l y o r c h e s t r a t e d by W a l t e r s h i m s e l f . In any c a s e , i t does n o t seem t h a t B e n n e t t gave him any s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . George Braden, an a r t i c u l a t e f a r m e r from R o s t h e r n , was a n o t h e r c a n d i d a t e . He t o o had con-9 s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t b u t n o t enough t o edge out e i t h e r Horner o r A s e l t i n e . One o f t h e more i n t e r e s t i n g campaigns f o r appointment was waged by t h e many f r i e n d s o f A. E. ( B e r t ) Whitmore, a well-known R e g i n a businessman. A p e r s i s t e n t c o r r e s p o n d e n t on h i s b e h a l f was F a t h e r A t h o l M u r r a y , f o u n d e r o f N o t r e Dame C o l l e g e a t W i l c o x , t h i r t y m i l e s south-west o f R e g i n a . So 36 d e t e r m i n e d was F a t h e r M u r r a y t o a r r a n g e t h e appointment f o r Whitmore t h a t he s u g gested--and he must s u r e l y have been t h e o n l y C a t h o l i c i n t h e p r o v i n c e t o ' d o s o - - t h a t t h e f i r s t Senate appointment s h o u l d go n o t t o a C a t h o l i c as Benn e t t had p r o c l a i m e d i t would b u t t o h i s f r i e n d and t h e b e n e f a c t o r o f N o t r e Dame, t h e P r o t e s t a n t B e r t Whitmore. P r e m i e r Anderson a l s o spoke v e r y h i g h l y o f Whitmore. So d i d S e n a t o r A. D. McRae who r a t e d him " t h e most o u t -s t a n d i n g c i t i z e n i n Saskatchewan" a t t h e same t i m e a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t t h e Prime M i n i s t e r h i m s e l f knew him so w e l l t h a t i t was u n n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s s h i s c l a i m s . But geography was a g a i n s t Whitmore i n 1933, j u s t as r e l i g i o n had been i n 1931. A l r e a d y t h e r e were two s e n a t o r s from R e g i n a and B e n n e t t f i r m l y b e l i e v e d i t would be unwise t o a p p o i n t a t h i r d . A l s o , t h e s i t u a t i o n was c o m p l i c a t e d b y t h e p r o m o t i o n o f a n o t h e r l e a d i n g c i t i z e n o f R e g i n a . Henry B l a c k , who had " g r a t u i t o u s l y c a r r i e d on r e l i e f work f o r two y e a r s " was h i g h l y recommended t o o . I t would have been d i f f i c u l t f o r B e n n e t t t o choose one man o v e r t h e other.'''"'' In h i s f i n a l c h o i c e s , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r d i d n o t waver from h i s p l a n t o g i v e b o t h a p p o i n t m e n t s t o t h e n o r t h . I n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s g u i d e l i n e s , he chose t h e two men who w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n had made g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e cause o v e r t h e y e a r s . No doubt t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s were d i s a p p o i n t e d , b u t on t h e wh o l e , t h e ap p o i n t m e n t s o f Horn e r and A s e l t i n e met w i t h g e n e r a l a p p r o v a l . •k k -k "k I n O n t a r i o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r had f o u r v a c a n c i e s t o f i l l , t h e f o u r t h h a v i n g a r i s e n o n l y a few weeks b e f o r e t h e ap p o i n t m e n t s w i t h t h e de a t h o f S e n a t o r J . H. F i s h e r from P a r i s . The l o n g e s t s t a n d i n g v a c a n c y was t h a t l e f t b y t h e d e a t h 8 August 1932 o f S e n a t o r N. A. B e l c o u r t , t h e F r a n c o - O n t a r i a n 37 from Ottawa. S e n a t o r Andrew Haydon, a l s o from t h e Ottawa a r e a , had d i e d 10 November 1932; S e n a t o r Gideon R o b e r t s o n , acknowledged as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f l a b o r i n t h e s e n a t e , d i e d 25 August 1933. B e n n e t t ' s hands were somewhat t i e d . The B e l c o u r t v a c a n c y had t o go t o a F r e n c h C a n a d i a n a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e F r a n c o - O n t a r i a n community; R o b e r t s o n s h o u l d be succeeded by a l a b o r man. I n a d d i t i o n , H o r a t i o Hocken, a f o r m e r member o f p a r l i a m e n t and one-time mayor o f T o r o n t o , had been p r o m i s e d t h e f i r s t Senate v a c a n c y a t t h e t i m e o f t h e 1930 e l e c t i o n . A l t h o u g h he had d e f e r r e d h i s c l a i m a t t h e t i m e o f Meighen's a p p o i n t m e n t , B e n n e t t was d e t e r -mined n o t t o ask him t o do so a g a i n . However, t h e Prime M i n i s t e r r e a l i z e d t h a t i t would cause p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s s h o u l d he a p p o i n t a T o r o n t o n i a n t o what had been an e a s t e r n O n t a r i o s e a t . No doubt t h i s i s one r e a s o n he d e l a y e d Hocken's appointment as l o n g as he d i d . I n t h e end, t h e d e a t h o f S e n a t o r F i s h e r r e l i e v e d him o f t h a t p r o b l e m . That e v e n t a l l o w e d him t o a p p o i n t A l f r e d F r i p p , i n d i r e f i n a n c i a l s t r a i t s , t o t h e Ottawa v a c a n c y ; Hocken was a p p o i n t e d t o r e p l a c e S e n a t o r F i s h e r . The F r a n c o - O n t a r i a n v a c a n c y went t o L o u i s C S t e , a l a w y e r from Ottawa who had been a member o f t h e O n t a r i o l e g i s l a t u r e s i n c e 1929. The l a b o r s e a t B e n n e t t l e f t u n f i l l e d and, i n f a c t , he n e v e r d i d f i n d a s u i t a b l e r e p l a c e m e n t f o r R o b e r t s o n . H o r a t i o C. Hocken was a r e t i r e d p u b l i s h e r who had s e r v e d i n t h e House o f Commons f o r f o u r c o n s e c u t i v e p a r l i a m e n t s between 1917 and 1930. He had been a c o n t r o l l e r i n t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l o f T o r o n t o f o r f i v e y e a r s and mayor f o r two. I n 1930 when he had c o n s i d e r e d r e t i r i n g because o f age and i l l h e a l t h , he was p r e v a i l e d upon t o r u n a g a i n . Then, a t t h e l a s t m i n u t e , he was asked t o s t a n d a s i d e so t h a t T. L. Church c o u l d r u n i n h i s p l a c e . A t t h i s t i m e , he went t o t h e r e s c u e o f t h e Orange S e n t i n e l and 12 p r o c e e d e d t o keep i t a f l o a t f o r two y e a r s a t g r e a t p e r s o n a l f i n a n c i a l l o s s . 38 When he ag r e e d t o d e f e r t o C h u r c h , C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y o f f i c i a l s p r o m i s e d Hocken t h e f i r s t a v a i l a b l e Senate s e a t and t h a t seemed a s a t i s f a c t o r y arrangement f o r a man o f s e v e n t y - t h r e e . A l t h o u g h R. B. Ben n e t t was no t a p a r t y t o t h i s agreement, he f e l t t h a t he and t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y were m o r a l l y o b l i g a t e d t o f o l l o w i t t h r o u g h even though Hocken 13 was c o n s i d e r a b l y o l d e r t h a n he b e l i e v e d t h e new s e n a t o r s s h o u l d be. At t h e t i m e o f S i r George F o s t e r ' s d e a t h i n l a t e 1931, Hocken had had e v e r y r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e appointment would be h i s , b u t t h e Prime M i n i s t e r a s ked him t o s t a n d a s i d e i n f a v o r o f A r t h u r Meighen. When S e n a t o r B e l c o u r t d i e d , Hocken r e a l i z e d t h a t h i s s e a t had t o go t o a F r e n c h C a n a d i a n . However, when S e n a t o r Hayden d i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g November, he was j u s t i f i e d i n f e e l i n g t h a t h i s l o n g - a w a i t e d appointment was imminent. He went so f a r as t o hope t h a t he would be i n t h e Senate b e f o r e t h e s e s s i o n ended so t h a t he c o u l d t a k e advantage o f t h e r a i l w a y 14 p ass on adjournment! However, t h i s was n o t t o be. The Prime M i n i s t e r gave Hocken h i s word t h a t t h e n e x t appointment would be h i s , b u t , because o f c o m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g f rom t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n v a c a n c y , he would n o t move i m m e d i a t e l y . B e n n e t t d i d n o t w i s h t o make one appointment w i t h o u t t h e o t h e r and he had n o t been a b l e t o come up w i t h t h e name o f a F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e p a r t y and t o t h e F r a n c o - O n t a r i a n community. The Prime M i n i s t e r had hoped t o r e s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m i n t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r o f 1933, b u t by May he d e c i d e d t o postpone t h e whole m a t t e r . He c l a i m e d i t u n d e s i r a b l e t o make t h e O n t a r i o a p p o i n t m e n t s when t h e r e were v a c a n c i e s s t i l l i n Nova S c o t i a , New B r u n s w i c k , Quebec and Saskatchewan. He s e t t l e d t h e m a t t e r by d e c i d i n g ; i t "was n o t thought d e s i r a b l e t o i n c u r t h e e x t r a expense o f making a p p o i n t m e n t s a t t h e moment." Thus po o r Hocken had t o b i d e h i s t i m e ; he must w a i t u n t i l B e n n e t t was p r e p a r e d t o make h i s move. 39 As d i f f i c u l t as t h i s must have been f o r him, Hocken had always been a l o y a l p a r t y man; he was p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t t h e judgment o f h i s o l d f r i e n d . When t h e appointment f i n a l l y d i d come, he was o v e r j o y e d . P r o b a b l y no man was h a p p i e r t o r e t u r n t o t h e h a l l o w e d h a l l s o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t b u i l d i n g s t h a n H o r a t i o C. Hocken.'''"' The second E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g O n t a r i o s e n a t o r named on 30 December 1933 was s i x t y - s e v e n y e a r o l d A l f r e d E r n e s t F r i p p , K.C., o f Ottawa. F r i p p and t h e Prime M i n i s t e r were o l d f r i e n d s , t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p d a t i n g back t o 1911 when t h e y were deskmates i n t h e House o f Commons. F r i p p had been a member o f t h e O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t u r e from 1908 t o 1911 and had s a t i n t h e House o f Commons from 1911 u n t i l 1921. F r i p p l a t e r c l a i m e d t h a t , d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , he had been c o m p e l l e d t o see an a v e r a g e o f s i x t y p e r s o n s a day a l l l o o k i n g f o r government p o s i t i o n s , a t i m e - c o n s u m i n g a c t i v i t y d e t r i m e n t a l t o h i s law p r a c t i c e . I n 1931 he was c o n f r o n t e d w i t h e x t r e m e l y , h e a v y m e d i c a l expenses because h i s w i f e t o o k i l l . He had f i r s t a p p l i e d f o r a s e n a t o r s h i p i n J a n u a r y 1932 j u s t b e f o r e t h e appointment o f M e i g h e n , a d m i t t i n g t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r , f o r whom he had done c o n s i d e r a b l e l e g a l work o v e r t h e y e a r s , t h a t he was i n "bad f i n a n c i a l shape." I t was F r i p p ' s b e l i e f t h a t w i t h a s e n a t o r s h i p , h i s c r e d i t o r s would n o t push him. T h e r e f o r e , when S e n a t o r B e l c o u r t d i e d i n A u g u s t , he a p p l i e d once a g a i n . R e a s o n i n g t h a t i n a mixed E n g l i s h - F r e n c h community such as Ottawa, an E n g l i s h m a n s h o u l d be a l t e r n a t e d w i t h a Frenchman, he c l a i m e d he s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d t o s u c c e e d B e l c o u r t . Of c o u r s e , t h i s was out o f t h e q u e s t i o n from t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , a l t h o u g h he was v e r y c o n c e r n e d about F r i p p whose f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n was w o r s e n i n g w i t h e v e r y p a s s i n g day.*^ A f t e r t h e d e a t h o f Haydon, Be n n e t t t o l d him f r a n k l y t h a t t h e r e was no p o s s i b i l i t y o f an appointment because o f t h e p r i o r commitment t o Hocken. But F r i p p , whose bank was by t h e n p r e s s i n g 40 him f o r payment, argued t h a t he d i d n o t see how Hocken c o u l d e x p e c t an Ottawa v a c a n c y . However, Be n n e t t was adamant t h a t t h e p r o m i s e s made t o Hocken i n 1930 were t o be h o n o r e d even i f i t meant a p p o i n t i n g a T o r o n t o man t o an Ottawa v a c a n c y . He s u g g e s t e d t o F r i p p t h a t he l o o k around f o r a n o t h e r s u i t a b l e p o s i t i o n . F r i p p , who was a p p r o a c h i n g h i s s i x t y - s e v e n t h b i r t h d a y , s u g g e s t e d he c o u l d q u a l i f y f o r t h e R a i l w a y Board a l t h o u g h he s t i l l p r e f e r r e d t h e Senate p a r t l y because he b e l i e v e d he c o u l d s t i l l be - . 1 7 o f s e r v i c e as an o r g a n i z e r . In t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , - i t was t h e d e a t h o f S e n a t o r F i s h e r w h i c h made i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e Pr i m e M i n i s t e r t o a p p o i n t F r i p p t o t h e Haydon v a c a n c y and s t i l l f u l f i l l h i s o b l i g a t i o n t o Hocken. B e n n e t t had been d e e p l y t r o u b l e d b y F r i p p ' s problems and t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o name him t o t h e Senate g r e a t l y r e l i e v e d h i s mind. Never-t h e l e s s , F r i p p was a w o r t h y r e c i p i e n t . H i s - f i n a n c i a l p r oblems had r i s e n i n p a r t because o f h i s generous c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t i m e t o l o n g p o l i t i c a l s e r v i c e , but i t was t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l o s s o f income d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n and t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y expense o f a r o u n d - t h e - c l o c k n u r s i n g c a r e f o r h i s w i f e w h i c h p l a c e d him i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g t o beg h i s f r i e n d "R. B." f o r 18 h e l p . In o n l y one o t h e r i n s t a n c e - - t h a t o f Dr. E m i l e F o r t i n i n Quebec--d i d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r make a Senate appointment b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on f i n a n c i a l need. However, i n b o t h c a s e s t h e ap p o i n t m e n t s c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d on t h e b a s i s o f l o n g - t i m e s e r v i c e t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . The t h i r d appointment i n O n t a r i o , t h a t o f L o u i s C 6 t e , was a l s o a d i f f i c u l t one t o make, b u t f o r q u i t e d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s . B e n n e t t s t r u g g l e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f whom t o name t o r e p l a c e S e n a t o r B e l c o u r t f o r more t h a n a y e a r and, as 1933 drew t o a c l o s e , he seemed no c l o s e r t o a d e c i s i o n . There were a number o f a s p i r a n t s f o r t h e p o s i t i o n , b u t no one man seemed 41 t o s t a n d o u t . The Prime M i n i s t e r d i d n o t f e e l f r e e t o make t h e F r a n c o -O n t a r i a n appointment w i t h o u t t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e w i s h e s o f t h e Fr e n c h community and t h o s e o f t h e F r e n c h C anadian c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e o n l y man f o r whom t h e r e had been any degree o f u n a n i m i t y was Judge A l b e r t C o n s t a n t i n e a u who d i d n o t want t h e p o s i t i o n , C o n s t a n t i n e a u had been a c o u n t y c o u r t j u d g e i n P r e s c o t t and R u s s e l l f o r t h i r t y - t w o y e a r s ; as such he was a - p o l i t i c a l . He r e a l i z e d t h a t as a judge he c o u l d n o t a s p i r e t o a s e n a t o r s h i p , n o r d i d he d e s i r e i t . But i t seemed t h a t t h o s e i n t h e p r o v i n c e who hoped t o see him assume t h e m a n t l e o f S e n a t o r B e l c o u r t as l e a d e r o f t h e F r a n c o - O n t a r i a n s gave t h i s no c o n s i d e r a -t i o n . They i n u n d a t e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r w i t h l e t t e r s and p e t i t i o n s on h i s b e h a l f even though C o n s t a n t i n e a u t o l d them on more t h a n one o c c a s i o n t h a t 19 he c o u l d n o t and would n o t assume an a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l r o l e . L o u i s C 6 t e , whom Ben n e t t e v e n t u a l l y a p p o i n t e d , was fr o m a v e r y o l d and d i s t i n g u i s h e d C a n a d i a n f a m i l y . H i s a n c e s t o r , J e a n C 6 t e , had m a r r i e d t h e d a u g h t e r o f Abraham M a r t i n - - f o r whom t h e P l a i n s o f Abraham was named--i n 1635. L o u i s h i m s e l f was m a r r i e d t o a g r a n d d a u g h t e r o f S i r H e c t o r L a n g e v i n , a F a t h e r o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n . He was a h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d c o r p o r a t i o n l a w y e r who had been Crown A t t o r n e y and C l e r k o f t h e Peace f o r t h e u n i t e d c o u n t i e s o f P r e s c o t t and R u s s e l l from 1919 t o 1922. I n 1925 t h e O n t a r i o government had s e l e c t e d him as one o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s t o r e p o r t on F r e n c h - E n g l i s h s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e ; h i s work on t h a t commission b r o u g h t h im w i d e s p r e a d r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e F r e n c h community. He h e l d an h o n o r a r y D o c t o r o f Laws degree from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Ottawa and was a member o f t h e Order o f S t . John o f J e r u s a l e m . He was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h numerous F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s o c i e t i e s , t h e K n i g h t s o f Columbus, and t h e A l l i a n c e F r a n c a i s e , and was "an a r d e n t s u p p o r t e r o f t h e Bonne E n t e n t e movement f o r c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s between t h e 42 E n g l i s h and F r e n c h t h r o u g h o u t t h e D o m i n i o n . " A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Ottawa E v e n i n g J o u r n a l , CSte was r e g a r d e d "as one o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g F r e n c h 20 C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s o f O n t a r i o . " In t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n o f 1929, CSte s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n t e s t e d t h e Ottawa E a s t c o n s t i t u e n c y and s e r v e d as a member o f t h e O n t a r i o l e g i s l a t u r e u n t i l he was named t o t h e S e n a t e . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t f o r some months t h e Prime M i n i s t e r had CSte i n mind, b u t h e l d up h i s appointment because o f t h e w i s h e s o f P r e m i e r George Henry who had no d e s i r e t o f a c e a b y - e l e c t i o n . By t h e end o f 1933 ,with h i s government's t e r m draw-i n g t o a c l o s e and w i t h a b y - e l e c t i o n no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e , Henry was p r e p a r e d t o r e l e a s e h i s s u p p o r t e r , t h u s l e a v i n g B e n n e t t f r e e t o make t h e a p p o i n t m e n t . The news o f C S t e ' s e l e v a t i o n became p u b l i c on 30 December* when upon s h a k i n g hands w i t h him a f t e r a C a n a d i a n C l u b l u n c h e o n , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r s a i d , " H e l l o , S e n a t o r . " He t h e n c o n f i r m e d t o a somewhat s t a r t l e d Ottawa C i t i z e n r e p o r t e r s t a n d i n g by, "He's a S e n a t o r now!" A t t h e age o f f o r t y - t h r e e , L o u i s CSte had j u s t become th e youngest member o f Canada's upper house. I t would n o t seem t h a t CSte had p u r s u e d t h e s e n a t o r s h i p b u t , l i v i n g i n Ottawa as he d i d , he may v e r y w e l l have made approaches on a p e r s o n a l b a s i s . In any case he d i d n o t a p p l y i n w r i t i n g h i m s e l f and t h e r e was o n l y one recommenda-21 t i o n on h i s b e h a l f , t h a t o f t h e R e c t o r o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Ottawa. Among t h e o t h e r a p p l i c a n t s f o r t h i s s e n a t o r s h i p was H a r r y M o r e l , a f o r m e r l o n g - t i m e member o f t h e O n t a r i o l e g i s l a t u r e from Mattawa. M o r e l had t h e b a c k i n g o f S e n a t o r George Gordon from Sudbury; o f Hon. C h a r l e s McCrea and Hon. W i l l i a m F i n l a y s o n , b o t h members o f t h e O n t a r i o c a b i n e t ; and o f B i s h o p D. J . S c o l l a r d from S a u l t S t e . M a r i e . The Prime M i n i s t e r l o o k e d on h i s a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e sympathy a l t h o u g h he r e c o g n i z e d he c o u l d n o t a p p o i n t him w i t h o u t " c a n v a s s i n g e v e r y avenue." M o r e l was i n 43 t h e advanced s t a g e s o f d i a b e t e s and he had g a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e sympathy on t h a t a c c o u n t . F u r t h e r , S e n a t o r Gordon had p e r s u a d e d h im t o g i v e up a s a f e p r o v i n c i a l s e a t t o r u n i n t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1930 . He was d e f e a t e d i n t h a t e l e c t i o n p a r t l y because o f i l l h e a l t h d u r i n g t h e campaign. In c o m p e n s a t i o n , he had been g i v e n a j o b by t h e O n t a r i o government as a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h n o r t h e r n development b u t , as F i n l a y s o n n e r v o u s l y a d m i t t e d , M o r e l had done l i t t l e work and h i s government f e a r e d an i n q u i r y . The v a c a n t s e n a t o r s h i p might p r o v i d e "a c o n v e n i e n t way out o f t h e dilemma." However, t h e r e was one major p r o b l e m . M o r e l d i d n o t have t h e s u p p o r t o f h i s f e l l o w F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s . As A. B e l a n g e r , P r e s i d e n t o f L a S o c i e t e de S t . J e a n B a p t i s t e d'Ottawa put i t , M o r e l had " n o t h i n g t h a t may recommend him as a w o r t h y o r even a t o l e r a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h i s com-p a t r i o t s o f O n t a r i o . " B e l a n g e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e new s e n a t o r s h o u l d come from e a s t e r n O n t a r i o as had t h e l a t e S e n a t o r B e l c o u r t , and he s u g g e s t e d 22 L o u i s C 6te o r C. A. S e g u i n as w o r t h y c a n d i d a t e s . C. A. S e g u i n , a member o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e from R u s s e l l , had q u i t e w i d e s p r e a d s u p p o r t i n c l u d i n g t h a t o f members o f p a r l i a m e n t F r a n k Shaver and C h a r l e s B e l e e and o f M.L.A. J o s e p h S t . D e n i s o f V a n k l e e k H i l l , O n t a r i o . S e g u i n was an e x c e l l e n t p l a t f o r m s p e a k e r ; one s u p p o r t e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t he c o u l d be o f a s s i s t a n c e p o l i t i c a l l y because "he c o u l d speak t o t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n l a b o r e r s i n t h e n o r t h i n language t h e y c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d . " A p p a r e n t l y , 23 however, t h a t was n o t enough t o t i p t h e s c a l e s i n h i s f a v o r . One a p p l i c a n t whose o n l y b a c k i n g was h i m s e l f was A l f r e d Limoges o f V e r n e r . He f i r s t w rote t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r i n J a n u a r y 1933 s a y i n g he would l i k e t o do some t h i n g f o r t h e c o u n t r y by s e r v i n g i n t h e Senate. A l r e a d y e i g h t y - f o u r y e a r s o f age, he r e a s o n e d h i s appointment would be s h o r t - t e r m ; b e f o r e l o n g Mr. Bennett would be f r e e t o make a n o t h e r s e l e c t i o n . A month 44 l a t e r he w r o t e a g a i n . He u n d e r s t o o d t h e a p p o i n t m e n t s were t o be put o f f f o r a y e a r , b u t he hoped t h e Prime M i n i s t e r would make an e x c e p t i o n i n h i s c a s e . He "might be dead by n e x t y e a r . " A y e a r went by b e f o r e he w r o t e a g a i n . Then he d e c l a r e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h he was e i g h f y f i v e y e a r s o f age, he d i d n o t f e e l t h e y e a r s . "A woman has t h e age she l o o k s and a man t h e age he f e e l s . I f e e l a good d e a l younger t h a n e i g h t y - f i v e , " he w r o t e . Limoges's l o n g - t i m e g o a l had been t o f i n d a cheaper p r o c e s s f o r t h e r e f i n i n g o f n i c k e l , and he had s u g g e s t e d t h a t a p r i z e o f one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s be o f f e r e d f o r t h e d i s c o v e r y o f such a p r o c e s s . H i s i n t e r e s t i n an appointment c e n t e r e d on h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t as a s e n a t o r he c o u l d work i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l t o f u r t h e r t h i s aim. However, Limoges n e v e r d i d get an o p p o r t u n i t y t o put h i s p l a n i n t o e f f e c t . The v a c a n t s e n a t o r -s h i p was n o t d e s t i n e d f o r him. As Prime M i n i s t e r , B e n n e t t r e c e i v e d t housands o f l e t t e r s f rom a s p i r -i n g s e n a t o r s and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s . Even when t h e r e was no chance f o r an a p p o i n t m e n t , he o r h i s s t a f f p l a c a t e d each o f them w i t h t h e a s s u r a n c e t h a t h i s o r h e r a p p l i c a t i o n would be c o n s i d e r e d i n due t i m e . However i n one i n s t a n c e , B e n n e t t d e c l a r e d v e h e m e n t l y t o h i s s u p p o r t e r s t h a t t h e i r man had no chance. That man was T. L. (Tommy) C h u r c h , t h e f o r m e r mayor o f T o r o n t o who had r u n i n Hocken's p l a c e i n 1930, o n l y t o be d e f e a t e d . I n a v e r y f r a n k l e t t e r t o J . G. I n k s t e r , m i n i s t e r o f Knox Church i n T o r o n t o , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r s a i d t h a t Church had caused him a g r e a t d e a l o f t r o u b l e as Leader o f t h e O p p o s i t i o n . He added: H i s s e l f i s h n e s s was so a p p a r e n t , o u r s u p p o r t e r s u r g e d me t o t a k e a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n w h i c h I d i d n o t t a k e . . . . I know t h e s e r v i c e s he has r e n d e r e d , b u t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o r e a s o n w i t h him o r t o i n d u c e him t o b e l i e v e t h a t any o p i n i o n o t h e r t h a n h i s own i s sound....he was a g r e a t C h i e f M a g i s t r a t e b u t has t h e u n f o r t u n a t e h a b i t o f e m b a r r a s s i n g h i s f r i e n d s and r e n d e r i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n a t t i m e s i n t o l e r a b l e . ^ 45 W i t h B e n n e t t f e e l i n g as he d i d about C h u r c h , i t i s i r o n i c t h a t i n t h e n i n e b y - e l e c t i o n s h e l d from June 1933 t o O c t o b e r £34, o n l y one Con-s e r v a t i v e was e l e c t e d . The l o n e v i c t o r was Tommy C h u r c h , t h e s u c c e s s -f u l c a n d i d a t e i n T o r o n t o E a s t on 24 September 1934. The Prime M i n i s t e r must have welcomed t h e new member w i t h mixed e m o t i o n s ! There were numerous o t h e r a p p l i c a n t s f o r t h e v a c a n c i e s i n O n t a r i o , but none seem t o have been g i v e n a n y t h i n g more t h a n c u r s o r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . J . A. B e l l , g e n e r a l c h airman o f t h e o r d e r o f R a i l r o a d T e l e g r a p h e r s f o r t h e C.P.R., had wide s u p p o r t from l a b o u r t o s u c c e e d Gideon R o b e r t s o n ; C h a r l e s R. H a r r i s o n , a s e n i o r c o n d u c t o r w i t h t h e C.P.R., had t h e s u p p o r t o f a number o f p o l i t i c i a n s t o f i l l t h e same p o s t . N e i t h e r , a p p a r e n t l y , 26 was s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r . He was v e r y c o n s c i o u s t h a t t h e eyes o f l a b o r were upon him--not j u s t i n O n t a r i o b u t r i g h t a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y - - a n d he had no d e s i r e t o make a wrong move i n t h a t r e g a r d . F o r t h a t r e a s o n he was c o n t e n t t o l e a v e R o b e r t s o n ' s s e a t v a c a n t f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g . I n a p p o i n t i n g Hocken and F r i p p , he had once a g a i n chosen men who were o l d e r t h a n he p r e f e r r e d , b u t he had been a b l e t o a v o i d t h e naming o f Hocken t o t h e Ottawa v a c a n c y , an a c t w h i c h would have b r o u g h t t h e w r a t h o f a t l e a s t t h e Ottawa p a p e r s on h i s head. In Quebec, t h e r e were t h r e e v a c a n c i e s , b u t Ben n e t t f i l l e d o n l y two o f them, t h o s e s e a t s g o i n g t o G. A. Fauteux and L u c i e n Moraud. A n d r 6 Fauteux was a v e t e r a n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l wars i n Quebec, h a v i n g r u n and been d e f e a t e d i n t h e f o u r f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s h e l d between 1921 and 1930. A r t h u r Meighen h e l d him i n such h i g h esteem t h a t he named him S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l i n b o t h 1921 and 1926 even though he d i d n o t h o l d a s e a t i n t h e House o f Commons. He had been an i n d e f a t i g a b l e worker on b e h a l f o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y b u t , l i k e so many o f h i s c o m p a t r i o t s i n t h e p a r t y , he 46 s u f f e r e d a t t h e p o l l s because o f t h e c o n s c r i p t i o n i s s u e . He was an e x c e l l e n t o r a t o r and h i g h l y t h o u g h t o f i n b o t h t h e E n g l i s h and F r e n c h c o m m u n i t i e s . I t was s u g g e s t e d by W. C. P i t f i e l d t h a t p r o m i s e s o f a Senate s e a t had been made t o Fau t e u x when he had ag r e e d t o r u n i n 1930, a l t h o u g h F a u t e u x h i m s e l f n e v e r made such a c l a i m . I n f a c t , he made no w r i t t e n a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e p o s i t i o n , a t l e a s t n o t t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r . 27 F a u t e u x , f i f t y - n i n e , was a l a w y e r by p r o f e s s i o n and l i v e d i n Outremont. L u c i e n Moraud, t h e o t h e r Quebec a p p o i n t e e , was from Quebec C i t y . He was t h e f o u r t h o f t h e s e n a t o r s named by B e n n e t t who had n e v e r been c a n d i d a t e s f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e . I n 1918 he had been e l e c t e d a member o f t h e Board o f Examiners o f t h e B a r , s u b s e q u e n t l y t o become a l e c t u r e r i n t h e Law f a c u l t y and a member o f t h e Board o f Gov e r n o r s o f L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y . He was a d i r e c t o r and a member o f t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e Ca n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s from 1930 u n t i l 1933. He was a d i r e c t o r as w e l l o f t h e B e a u h a r n o i s Power C o r p o r a t i o n , Sun T r u s t and Les P r e v o y a n t s du Canada. L i k e F a u t e u x , t h e f o r t y - e i g h t y e a r o l d Moraud had n o t a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y f o r a s e n a t o r s h i p b u t , when he r e c e i v e d n o t i c e o f h i s a p p o i n t m e n t , he w i r e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r 28 t o thank him "from t h e bottom o f my h e a r t . " I t c o u l d w e l l be t h a t b o t h F a u t e u x and Moraud had approached t h e Quebec c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s r a t h e r t h a n B e n n e t t . The Prime M i n i s t e r f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d Quebec a p p l i c a n t s t o t h e Quebec m i n i s t e r s . When M a u r i c e Dupre c o n s u l t e d h im about one a s p i r i n g s e n a t o r , B e n n e t t had r e p l i e d f i r m l y , 29 'This i s a m a t t e r t o be c o n s i d e r e d by t h e M i n i s t e r s from Quebec." I n any c a s e , g i v e n t h e p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d by Sauve, D u r a n l e a u and Dupre a t t h e t i m e o f M a r c o t t e ' s campaign, i t i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t B e n n e t t would make F r e n c h C a n a d i a n a p p o i n t m e n t s i n Quebec w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g t h a t p r o v i n c e ' s c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . NOTES 1 G u i d e , p. 1935, p. 88; R e g i n a L e a d e r - P o s t , 30 Dec. 1933, p. 1; I b i d . , 3 J a n . 1934, p. 4; S a s k a t o o n S t a r - P h o e n i x , 2 J a n . 1934, p. 9. 2 S . N. H o r n e r t o B e n n e t t , 7 Dec. 1930, p. 429611; R. B. H o r n e r t o B e n n e t t , 12 Dec. 1930, p. 429615; R. B. H o r n e r t o B e n n e t t , 7 March 1931, pp. 429656-7; MacPherson t o B e n n e t t , 9 J a n . 1931, p. 429635; MacPherson t o M e r r i a m , 17 J a n . 1931, p. 429643; J . A. Boyd t o B e n n e t t , 24 Aug. 1932, p. 429663. 3W. M. A s e l t i n e t o B e n n e t t , 2 Dec. 1930, pp. 428591-6; W. J . Loucks t o B e n n e t t , 8 Dec. 1930, p. 428607; w i r e , K i n d e r s l e y C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n t o B e n n e t t , 10 Dec. 1930, p. 428607; W. G. K i n g t o B e n n e t t , 13 Dec. 1930, p. 428616; S. E. J o h n s t o n t o B e n n e t t , 1 Feb. 1931, p. 428628. 4 R e g i n a L e a d e r - P o s t , 30 Dec. 1933, p. 1; I b i d . , 3 J a n . 1934, p. 4; S a s k a t o o n S t a r - P h o e n i x , 2 J a n . 1934, p. 9; G u i d e , 1935, p. 71. 5 A s e l t i n e t o B e n n e t t , 30 Dec. 1933; p. 428630. 6 E . B. H a f f n e r t o B e n n e t t , 20 Dec. 1933, p. 429603. 7 U n s i g n e d memorandum c o n t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about a number o f p o t e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e s , i n c l u d i n g Hagerman. T h i s memo was p r o b a b l y s u b m i t t e d by R o b e r t Weil M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 15 Dec. 1933, p. 428529. W a l t e r s s o l i c i t e d s u p p o r t from dozens o f e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , b o t h P r o t e s t a n t and C a t h o l i c . D. S. J o h n s t o n e , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Saskatchewan Con-s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n from 1930-1932, r e p o r t e d t o B e n n e t t t h a t W a l t e r s had o f f e r e d him money f o r h i s s u p p o r t , pp. 428672-428840. 9 Braden's f i l e c o n t a i n s many s i n c e r e l e t t e r s o f s u p p o r t and a number o f a r t i c u l a t e l e t t e r s w h i c h he w r o t e t o B e n n e t t , p. 428937-429010. 1 0 A n d e r s o n t o B e n n e t t , 9 Dec. 1930, p. 428572; F a t h e r A t h o l M u r r a y t o B e n n e t t , 6 Aug. 1932, p. 430548; B e n n e t t t o M u r r a y , 5 J a n . 1933, p. 430553; McRae t o B e n n e t t , 27 Dec. 1932, p. 430554; M u r r a y t o B e n n e t t , 24 O c t . 1933, pp. 430573-5. n B e n n e t t t o McRae, 1 Feb. 1933, p. 430555. 12 A. J . A n d e r s o n , M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 10 Nov. 1932, p. 426661. 47 48 H. C. Hocken t o B e n n e t t , 13 J a n . 1932, p. 426659; B e n n e t t t o Hocken, 16 J a n . 1932, p. 426660; Wm. P. P r i c e t o B e n n e t t , 18 Nov. 1932, p. 426667; B e n n e t t t o P r i c e , 19 Nov. 1932, p. 426668. 1 4 B e n n e t t t o A l f r e d F r i p p , 26 J a n . 1933, p. 426509; Hocken t o B e n n e t t , 14 Nov. 1932, p. 426662. 1 5 H o c k e n t o B e n n e t t , 31 J a n . 1933, p. 426680; B e n n e t t t o Hocken, 1 Feb. 1933, p. 426681; Hocken t o B e n n e t t , 10 A p r i l 1933, pp. 426684-6; Ben n e t t t o Hocken, 29 May 1933, p. 426687; G u i d e , 1935, p. 88. 1 6 F r i p p t o B e n n e t t , 27 Oct. 1933, p. 426519; F r i p p t o B e n n e t t , 15 J a n . 1932, p. 426496; F r i p p t o B e n n e t t , 9 Aug. 1932, pp. 426500-1. 17 F r i p p t o B e n n e t t , 14 J a n . 1933, p. 426507; F r i p p t o B e n n e t t , 25 J a n . 1933, p. 426508; B e n n e t t t o F r i p p , 26 J a n . 1933, p. 426509; F r i p p t o B e n n e t t , 16 May 1933, p. 426518. 1 8 P . D. Ross t o B e n n e t t , 27 March 1933, p. 426515; B e n n e t t t o F r i p p , 31 Oct. 1933, p. 426521. 19 C o n s t a n t i n e a u ' s f i l e c o n t a i n s dozens o f l e t t e r s from C a t h o l i c c l e r g y and laymen who sought h i s a p p o i n t m e n t , pp. 426094-426196. 20 G u i d e , 1935, p. 80; Ottawa E v e n i n g J o u r n a l , 2 J a n . 1934, p. 3. 2 1 D r . A. A. A l l e n t o B e n n e t t , 20 Dec. 1933, p. 427258; Ottawa C i t i z e n , 2 J a n . 1934, p. 15. 22 Hon. Chas. McCrea t o B e n n e t t , 13 Aug. 1932, p. 426868; B i s h o p D. J . S c o l l a r d t o B e n n e t t , 20 Aug. 1932, pp. 426876-8; B e n n e t t t o M o r e l , 5 Oct. 1932, p. 426879; Sen. George Gordon t o B e n n e t t , 26 Aug. 1932, p. 426882; Hon. Wm. F i n l a y s o n t o B e n n e t t , 27 Aug. 1932, p. 426889; A. B e l a n g e r t o B e n n e t t , 17 O c t . 1932, p. 426906. 2 3 C h a s . B e l e e , M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 1 S e p t . 1932, p. 427227; Dr. A. A. A l l e n t o B e n n e t t , 20 Dec. 1933, p. 427258. 24 A l f r e d Limoges t o B e n n e t t , 9 J a n . 1933, pp. 426805-6; Limoges t o B e n n e t t , 22 Feb. 1933, p. 426808; Limoges t o M e r r i a m , 5 March 1934, p. 426817. 25 B e n n e t t t o Rev. J . G. I n k s t e r , 18 Dec. 1933, p. 426396. See J . A. B e l l f i l e , pp. 425949-56; B e n n e t t t o B e l l , 18 J a n . 1935, p. 427434; B e n n e t t t o C. R. H a r r i s o n , 7 O c t . 1933, p. 426720; H a r r i s o n t o B e n n e t t , 5 Dec. 1933, p. 426732. 49 G u i d e , 1935, p. 82; W. C. P i t f i e l d t o B e n n e t t , 26 J a n . 1933, p. 424117; A. F o r e s t t o B e n n e t t , 26 S e p t . 1933, p. 424123. G u i d e , 1935, p. 102; L u c i e n Moraud t o B e n n e t t , 30 Dec. 1933, p. 424968. B e n n e t t t o M a u r i c e Dupre, 9 May 1933, p. 423135. CHAPTER V 1935: JULY Prime M i n i s t e r B e n n e t t d i d n o t make any f u r t h e r Senate a p p o i n t m e n t s u n t i l 1935. On 20 J u l y he rewarded t e n o f h i s f o l l o w e r s , on 14 August s i x a d d i t i o n a l v a c a n c i e s were f i l l e d , and t h e f i n a l one was made 15 Au g u s t . E l e v e n o f t h e s e v e n t e e n a p p o i n t m e n t s made i n t h e d y i n g days o f t h e a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n went t o members o f p a r l i a m e n t who had rem a i n e d f a i t h f u l t o t h e end. The L i b e r a l - o r i e n t e d W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s s u g g e s t e d t h a t B e n n e t t had l e t t h e v a c a n c i e s p i l e up because he wanted t o s t r e n g t h e n h i s c o n t r o l o f p a r l i a m e n t by r e t a i n i n g t h e p a t r o n a g e i n h i s hands. There i s p r o b a b l y a good d e a l o f t r u t h i n t h a t s t a t e m e n t . F u r t h e r , a f t e r t h e d i s a s t r o u s r e s u l t s o f t h e by-e l e c t i o n s i n 1933 and 1934 when t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s l o s t a l l b u t one o f n i n e c o n t e s t s , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r had no i n t e n t i o n o f c r e a t i n g u n n e c e s s a r y v a c a n c i e s i n t h e House o f Commons by a p p o i n t i n g s i t t i n g members t o t h e Sen a t e . How-e v e r , he r e a l i z e d t h a t many o f them had l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m s t o t h e v a c a n c i e s . Thus he h e l d them a l l up u n t i l he c o u l d r e w a r d t h e f a i t h f u l w i t h o u t j e o p a r d i z -i n g h i s government! The 20 J u l y l i s t saw f o u r s e l e c t i o n s made i n Nova S c o t i a , t h r e e i n O n t a r i o , and one each i n t h e p r o v i n c e s o f P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , New B r u n s w i c k and Quebec. Of t h e s e t e n , seven were members o f t h e House o f Commons and t h r e e were c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . I n Nova S c o t i a , t h r e e o f t h e f o u r a p p o i n t m e n t s went t o members o f th e a b o u t - t o - b e d i s s o l v e d p a r l i a m e n t - - E . N. Rhodes, Thomas C a n t l e y and F e l i x P a t r i c k Q u i n n - - w h i l e t h e f o u r t h went t o J . P. L. Robicheau~who T f i l l e d 50 51 t h e l o n g - v a c a n t s e a t o f t h e deceased S e n a t o r E. L. G i r r o i r . The b e s t known o f t h e f o u r r e c i p i e n t s was Edgar N e l s o n Rhodes, M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e i n t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e government and f o r m e r P r e m i e r o f Nova S c o t i a . Rhodes had had a l o n g and i l l u s t r i o u s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r and may have been t h e most r e s p e c t e d o f B e n n e t t ' s c a b i n e t c o l l e a g u e s . F i r s t e l e c t e d t o t h e House o f Commons i n 1908, Rhodes was r e - e l e c t e d i n 1911 and 1917. He was a p p o i n t e d Speaker o f t h e House i n 1917 and 1918, and t h e n r e t i r e d f rom p o l i t i c s i n 1921. However, i n 1925 he answered t h e c a l l o f h i s p a r t y t o r u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r a s e a t i n t h e Nova S c o t i a l e g i s l a t u r e . He was named P r e m i e r and P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y on 16 J u l y . On 11 August i n 1930 he r e s i g n e d t h e P r e m i e r s h i p t o a c c e p t t h e p o r t f o l i o o f M i n i s t e r o f F i s h e r i e s i n t h e n e w l y - e l e c t e d C o n s e r v a t i v e government; t h r e e weeks l a t e r he was e l e c t e d by a c c l a m a t i o n t o t h e s e a t v a c a t e d f o r him by John A l e x a n d e r MacDonald. I n a c a b i n e t s h u f f l e i n F e b r u a r y 1932, Rhodes became M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e , t h e p o s t he h e l d u n t i l h i s appointment t o t h e S e n a t e . S e v e r a l months b e f o r e b e i n g named t o t h e S e n a t e , Rhodes had announced t h a t he would be r e t i r i n g f r o m a c t i v e p o l i t i c s a t t h e end o f t h e s e s s i o n be-cause o f i l l h e a l t h . I n an e d i t o r i a l e n t i t l e d " S e n a t o r s , " t h e Globe and M a i l g r e e t e d h i s appointment w i t h t h e s e words: Fo r e v e r y one a p p o i n t m e n t , a hundred a r e o u t r a g e d i n t h e i r d e e p e s t p o l i t i c a l f e e l i n g s . . . . b u t from t i m e t o t i m e a p o l i t i c a l chance does e n a b l e a Prime M i n i s t e r t o make a Senate appointment t h a t p r o m i s e s as w e l l as r e w a r d s , and t h i s was g r a s p e d i n t h e case o f E. N. Rhodes. I l l h e a l t h t h a t f o r c e d h i s r e s i g n a t i o n i s a m i s f o r t u n e t o t h e c o u n t r y as w e l l as t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . . . . H e i s one o f t h e few members o f t h e B e n n e t t c a b i n e t who has n o t been overshadowed by h i s l e a d e r . . . . H i s a b i l i t i e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e House. The Ottawa C i t i z e n s a i d t h a t t h e appointment "rounds o f f t h e l o n g and d i s -2 t i n g u i s h e d c a r e e r o f one o f Nova S c o t i a ' s most d i s t i n g u i s h e d s o n s . " As was t h e c a s e i n a number o f i n s t a n c e s i n 1935, t h e r e had been no 52 c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e two men c o n c e r n i n g t h e Senate s e a t . But because t h e Prime M i n i s t e r had worked a l o n g s i d e him f o r f i v e y e a r s , he c o u l d be s u r e t h a t Rhodes would be a genuine a s s e t t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y i n t h e upper house. Thomas C a n t l e y , t h e second a p p o i n t e e from Nova S c o t i a , was a v e t e r a n p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n from P i c t o u , h a v i n g been e l e c t e d i n 1925, 1926 and a g a i n i n 1930. C a n t l e y f i r s t approached t h e Prime M i n i s t e r about a Senate appointment s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e 1930 e l e c t i o n . On 2 November 1931 he reminded B e n n e t t o f t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n , p o i n t i n g out t h a t h i s f o u r e l e c t i o n c o n t e s t s - - h e r a n i n 1921 and was d e f e a t e d — c o n s t i t u t e d perhaps h i s " s m a l l e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e P a r t y and t o t h e c o u n t r y . " He a s s u r e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h a t P i c t o u C ounty was i n good shape and t h a t he had an e x c e l l e n t c a n d i d a t e i n mind t o r e p l a c e him s h o u l d he be e l e v a t e d t o t h e Sen a t e . C a n t l e y ' s f r i e n d s w o r r i e d about t h e s t a t e o f h i s h e a l t h and f i n a n c e s ; t h e y saw a Senate appointment as t h e i d e a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s . As e a r l y as J a n u a r y 1932 ( b e f o r e t h e e l e v a t i o n o f W. H. Dennis and John A. MacDonald), i t had been p o i n t e d out t o B e n n e t t t h a t C a n t l e y ' s h e a l t h would make a n o t h e r campaign e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . To t h i s t h e Prime M i n i s t e r was 3 n o n - c o m m i t t a l , s a y i n g o n l y t h a t he had " t h e h i g h e s t r e g a r d " f o r C a n t l e y . By e a r l y 1935, n o t o n l y had h i s f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n worsened, b u t he s u f f e r e d from an o s s i f i e d h i p c o n d i t i o n . News o f t h i s l e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t o admit t h a t he was " v e r y w o r r i e d about o u r mutual f r i e n d Thomas C a n t l e y . " However, B e n n e t t i n d i c a t e d t h a t , as C a n t l e y was w e l l o v e r s e v e n t y , he b e l i e v e d he was t o o o l d f o r t h e appointment even though he was "a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d and a warm a d m i r e r o f h i m . " Up u n t i l 16 J u l y , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r s t i l l i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e s e a t s h o u l d go t o a younger man. But t h a t e v e n i n g t h e p r e s s r e p o r t e d t h a t C a n t l e y ' s f i f t y - o n e y e a r o l d son C h a r l e s , one o f 53 Canada's best-known m e t a l l u r g i s t s , had drowned i n Maine f o l l o w i n g a h e a r t a t t a c k . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s t r a g e d y , c o u p l e d w i t h B e n n e t t ' s n a t u r a l compassion f o r h i s o l d f r i e n d , i n f l u e n c e d him t o change h i s mind. To g i v e C a n t l e y t h e appointment he d e s i r e d would save him t h e n e c e s s i t y o f c o n t e s t i n g s t i l l a n o t h e r e l e c t i o n w h i c h , he a d m i t t e d , "would have been a n i g h t m a r e . " C a n t l e y ' s d a u g h t e r D o r o t h y i n d i c a t e d t h e d e p t h o f h e r f a t h e r ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n when she w r o t e , "You have r e l i e v e d him o f w o r r y , honoured him and made him as happy 4 as i s humanly p o s s i b l e . " L i k e C a n t l e y , F e l i x P a t r i c k Quinn had been a member o f t h e House o f Commons s i n c e 1925. He had a l s o r u n f o r t h e Nova S c o t i a l e g i s l a t u r e — i n 1916--when he was d e f e a t e d i n a c l o s e c o n t e s t . Quinn's campaign f o r e l e v a t i o n t o t h e Senate was a s h o r t one, s t a r t e d j u s t one month b e f o r e h i s appointment when he made a p p l i c a t i o n t o r e p l a c e S e n a t o r P. F. M a r t i n , 5 t h e C a t h o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who d i e d 2 May 1935. Quinn had t h e s u p p o r t o f S e n a t o r W. H. D e n n is and t h e Rev. C. J . M a r t i n who recommended t h a t he be a p p o i n t e d t o r e p l a c e h i s l a t e f a t h e r . S u p p o r t came f o r him from a number o f o t h e r members o f t h e c l e r g y . The Ottawa C i t i z e n n o t e d t h a t t h e Quinn f a m i l y " f o r many y e a r s has been p r o m i n e n t i n H a l i f a x m e r c a n t i l e l i f e " and c o n c l u d e d t h a t , w i t h t h e appointment o f t h e s i x t y - y e a r o l d member o f p a r l i a m e n t , t h e "House o f Commons l o s e s an a c c o m p l i s h e d t e n o r . When t h e Commoners sang songs d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v a l p r e c e d i n g a r o l l - c a l l v o t e , he was i n v a r i a b l y l e a d e r o f t h e c h o r u s e s . " ^ The f o u r t h appointment i n Nova S c o t i a , t h a t o f J . P. L. R o b i c h e a u , b r o u g h t t o an end t h e l o n g w a i t f o r a s u c c e s s o r t o t h e A c a d i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , S e n a t o r E. L. G i r r o i r who had d i e d i n May 1932. R o b i c h e a u had dropped out o f c o l l e g e when h i s mother d i e d l e a v i n g f i v e younger c h i l d r e n t o c a r e f o r . 54 He had t a k e n up t e l e g r a p h y and e v e n t u a l l y went t o Saskatchewan where he spent t e n y e a r s as a s t a t i o n agent i n Moose Jaw and S a s k a t o o n . I n 1918 he r e t u r n e d home t o p u r c h a s e a farm and a lumber b u s i n e s s . I n t h e p r o -v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n o f 1925, he w r e s t e d C l a r e c o u n t y away from t h e L i b e r a l s , a s e a t t h e y had h e l d f o r f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s , b u t he was d e f e a t e d i n 1928. In t h r e e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s he was an o r g a n i z e r f o r h i s l o c a l member o f p a r l i a m e n t , H. B. S h o r t , who showed h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n by making e v e r y e f f o r t t o s e c u r e a s e n a t e s e a t f o r him. S h o r t approached t h e Prime M i n i s t e r on Robi c h e a u ' s b e h a l f s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f G i r r o i r p o i n t i n g o ut t h a t t h e r e were more A c a d i a n s i n D i g b y County t h a n anywhere e l s e i n t h e p r o v i n c e and, o f a l l t h e A c a d i a n s , R o b i c h e a u had t h e s t r o n g e r c l a i m . He emphasized t h a t R o b i c h e a u had made no p e r s o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n , b u t he was v e r y w o r t h y . I t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e c o u n t y were e x p e c t i n g S h o r t t o o b t a i n t h e a ppointment f o r R o b i c h e a u b e c a u s e he r e c e i v e d dozens o f w i r e s u r g i n g him t o "get t h e Senate appointment f o r J o h n . " Robicheauhad t h e s u p p o r t as w e l l o f Thomas L. Deveau, s e c r e t a r y o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C l a r e m u n i c i -p a l i t y , and o f a l a r g e segment o f t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p o p u l a t i o n o f C l a r e . A c c o r d i n g t o one c o r r e s p o n d e n t , R o b i c h e a u was f l u e n t i n b o t h languages and h i s name was " h e l d i n t h e h i g h e s t r e g a r d f o r i n t e g r i t y and a b i l i t y . N o t h i n g would p l e a s e us E n g l i s h p e o p l e more t h a n t o have him r e c e i v e t h e a p p o i n t m e n t . " At t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f S h o r t , R o b i c h e a u wrote t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r a d m i t t i n g t h a t C l a r e County had " s t r o n g h o p e s " f o r t h e a p p o i n t m e n t , b u t e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t he d i d n o t want t o convey t h e i d e a t h a t he was " t h e b e s t and o n l y p e r s o n q u a l i f i e d . My c o m p e t i t o r s a r e a l l w o r t h y men and I have t h e k i n d e s t f e e l i n g s towards them. Honor can f a l l on b u t one o f u s . " I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , however, t h e honor d i d f a l l on John R o b i c h e a u , much t o t h e s a t i s -7 f a c t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e o f C l a r e c o u n t y . 55 There were a number of other Acadians i n Nova Scotia who made strong bids for the honor, including Hubert Aucoin, Dr. B. A. LeBlanc and Raymond d'Entremont. Aucoin was a former member of the Nova Scotia l e g i s -lature f o r Inverness County and was junior whip from 1925 to 1928. He had been an assistant organizer for h i s party i n the province and helped at the p o l l s i n 1925, 1926 and 1930. An outstanding orator, he gave excellent speeches i n both languages at E. N. Rhodes's nomination meeting i n Richmond. He was l a r g e l y responsible f o r swinging the support of the Acadian people behind Rhodes when they opposed him because he was not a Catholic as was hi s predecessor, John A. MacDonald. At the time of G i r r o i r ' s death, he was l i v i n g i n Halifax and had considerable support i n that area from both the English and French. , For example, Edward Whelan, Secretary of Ward Two of the Halifax C i t y and County Conservative Association, strongly supported h i s candidature, assuring the Prime Minister that Aucoin had the endorsation of the English and the I r i s h i n h i s ward. There were numerous p e t i t i o n s sent to Bennett on Aucoin's behalf, mainly from the Acadian groups i n the Halifax area. Apparently Aucoin was unaware that such endorsations were reaching the Prime Mi n i s t e r . In October 1933, he wrote saying that he f e l t he would be a good representative of the Acadian people. He believed he had Acadian support i n Inverness as well as in other French settlements i n Cape Breton, i n the Halifax area and i n the west counties. He discounted the press rumors that the appointment might go to one other than an Acadian saying that such a move would be "both u n f a i r and unsound p o l i t i c a l l y . " Of course, Bennett had no intention of appointing a non-Acadian. But the fac t that Aucoin was s t i l l thought of as a representative of Inverness worked against him. There were already two senators from Cape Breton and the Prime Minist e r g did not i n any way seem disposed to appoint a t h i r d . 56 The same s i t u a t i o n a f f e c t e d Dr. B. A. L e B l a n c , a f o r m e r M.L.A. from Richmond c o u n t y . He had s t r o n g s u p p o r t from t h e c l e r g y ; a number o f p r i e s t s s e n t l e t t e r s and r e s o l u t i o n s on h i s b e h a l f . I t was p o i n t e d out by one, F a t h e r P. R o b i t a i l l e , t h a t t h e A c a d i a n s wanted someone w i t h more t h a n a F r e n c h name, r e f e r r i n g t o t h e f a c t t h a t S e n a t o r G i r r o i r , a l t h o u g h an A c a d i a n , c o u l d n o t speak F r e n c h . A n o t h e r p r i e s t , F a t h e r A. Boudreau, e m p h a s i z e d ' t h a t Dr. L e B l a n c was "pure A c a d i a n , a member o f t h e K n i g h t s o f Columbus, and a p r a c t i c a l C a t h o l i c " who had f o u g h t f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y s i n c e 1906. F a t h e r A. B r i a n d was c o n c e r n e d about t h e rumor t h a t t h e G i r r o i r v a c a n c y might go t o a n o n - C a t h o l i c . Not o n l y would t h a t be a g r e a t d i s a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h e A c a d i a n s who numbered between f i f t y - f i v e and s i x t y t h o u s a n d , b u t i t would d e s t r o y t h e r e c o g n i z e d C a t h o l i c p r o p o r t i o n o f M a r i t i m e r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s i n t h e upper house. W h i l e a s s u r i n g him t h a t t h i s was n o t h i s i n t e n t i o n , B e n n e t t p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e f e e l i n g was t h a t t h e appointment s h o u l d go t o 9 a w e s t e r n A c a d i a n ; Cape B r e t o n a l r e a d y had i t s f a i r s h a r e o f s e n a t o r s . Raymond d'Entremont was from Yarmouth and h i s s u p p o r t e r s i n t h a t a r e a f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e appointment s h o u l d come t o t h e i r c o u n t y . George K i l l a m , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Yarmouth County C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n , f e l t t h a t d'Entremont s h o u l d r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . He was a l i f e - l o n g w o r k e r f o r t h e p a r t y and was a " f i n e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f one o f t h e o l d e s t A c a d i a n f a m i l i e s . " K i l l a m b e l i e v e d t h a t d'Entremont, who was f l u e n t i n b o t h l a n g u a g e s , would be a r e a l h e l p t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n t h e c o u n t y s h o u l d he be i n Ottawa. D'Entremont h i m s e l f b e l i e v e d t h a t d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h Ottawa would s t r e n g t h e n t h e p a r t y and p o i n t e d out t h a t he had been a c t i v e s i n c e 1904 when he had made t h e f i r s t o f t h r e e a t t e m p t s t o w i n t h e c o u n t y f o r h i s p a r t y . W. H. S u r e t t e and a number o f o t h e r d i s t r i c t l e a d e r s a l s o s u p p o r t e d d'Entremont , p r o m o t i n g t h e i r c l a i m t h a t t h e c l e r g y s u p p o r t e d . 57 h i m because o f h i s c h a r a c t e r and s t a n d i n g and because i t was t h e t u r n o f Yarmouth c o u n t y t o r e c e i v e t h e A c a d i a n a ppointment. They added, "We o f t h e l a i t y demand i t as our i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t . I t i s a m a t t e r o f j u s t i c e due t o t h e F r e n c h and t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s o f t h i s c o u n t y by a C o n s e r v a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n a t O ttawa." They added t h a t d'Entremont had been a c t i v e l o n g e r t h a n R o b i c h e a u and t h u s d e s e r v e d t h e r e c o g n i t i o n . Not a l l t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n t h e a r e a a g r e e d , however. M. C. Denton, P r e s i d e n t o f t h e D i g b y L i b e r a l - C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n , c l a i m e d l a t e r t h a t a d e l e g a t i o n had been t o see him c h a r g i n g t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r f a v o r i n g d'Entremont had been w r i t t e n by a L i b e r a l p r i e s t and t h a t e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e p r i e s t s who had s i g n e d t h e p e t i t i o n were L i b e r a l s . He added t h a t rumor was t h a t many o f t h o s e s i g n i n g t h e p e t i t i o n had been t o l d t h a t L e B l a n c and R o b i c h e a u were out o f t h e r u n n i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y had s u p p o r t e d d'Entremont o n l y t o b r i n g t h e appointment t o t h e w e s t . * ^ Of c o u r s e , Denton may have been p r e j u d i c e d because he was a s t r o n g s u p p o r t e r o f R o b i c h e a u , b u t c h a r g e s s u c h as t h e s e c o u l d h a r d l y have h e l p e d d 1 E n t r e m o n t ' s c a s e . I n any e v e n t , t h e appointment went t o R o b i c h e a u . Thus t h e w e s t e r n A c a d i a n s o b t a i n e d t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t h e Senate i n Ottawa. * * * * U n q u e s t i o n a b l y t h e l e a s t c o n t r o v e r s i a l o f t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s 1935 a p p o i n t m e n t s was t h a t o f John A l e x a n d e r Macdonald o f P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . M a cdonald, a M i n i s t e r w i t h o u t P o r t f o l i o i n t h e B e n n e t t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , was i n t h e u n i q u e p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g a s e n a t o r r e s i g n p u r p o s e l y so t h a t he might be a p p o i n t e d . I n t h e f a l l o f 1934, S e n a t o r John McLean had d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f h i s r e s i g n a t i o n i n f a v o r o f Macdonald and had r e c e i v e d t e n t a t i v e a p p r o v a l f o r t h e move. I n November, Macdonald s u r -p r i s e d e v e r y o n e , i n c l u d i n g t h e P r e m i e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e , W. J . P. M a c M i l l a n , 58 w i t h t h e announcement o f h i s r e t i r e m e n t a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e K i n g ' s County C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n . M a c M i l l a n , who was p r e s e n t a t t h a t m e e t i n g , t o l d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h a t he f e l t Macdonald s h o u l d have f i r s t a d v i s e d t h e e x e c u t i v e , b u t he s u r m i s e d t h a t he "may be c o u n t i n g on t h e S e n a t o r s h i p now h e l d by John McLean." B e n n e t t a d m i t t e d t h a t Macdonald had n o t t o l d him o f h i s i n t e n t i o n t o r e s i g n . However he added t h a t he d i d n o t t h i n k t h i s o v e r s i g h t was " a t t r i b u t a b l e t o l a c k o f t h o u g h t b e c a u s e he has a lways been so c o n s i d e r a t e . . . . I hope t h a t t h i n g s w i l l work out so t h a t I can a p p o i n t him t o t h e p o s i t i o n you m e n t i o n . " I n F e b r u a r y 1935 Macdonald i n f o r m e d h i s l e a d e r t h a t he had no i n t e n t i o n o f a s k i n g f o r w r i t t e n commit-ment as " v e r b a l a s s u r a n c e i s good enough f o r S e n a t o r McLean and m y s e l f , " b u t he d i d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e S e n a t o r "would v e r y much a p p r e c i a t e h a v i n g a l e t t e r f rom y o u . " A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f B e n n e t t h a v i n g w r i t t e n ? . such a l e t t e r , he d i d as he had p r o m i s e d and a p p o i n t e d Macdonald t o s u c c e e d McLean. There i s no doubt t h a t Macdonald was a w o r t h y r e c i p i e n t . He had been e l e c t e d t o t h e P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1908, 1911 and 1923 and d u r i n g t h e war s e r v e d as D i r e c t o r o f N a t i o n a l S e r v i c e and H o n o r a r y F u e l and Food C o n t r o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r h i s p r o v i n c e . He was e l e c t e d t o t h e House o f Commons i n 1925, 1926 and 1930 where he s e r v e d as M i n i s t e r w i t h o u t P o r t f o l i o i n t h e b r i e f Meighen a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1926 and under t h a t o f B e n n e t t . A f t e r e l e v a t i n g him t o t h e S e n a t e , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r showed what h i g h r e g a r d he had f o r Macdonald by w r i t i n g : I c o n g r a t u l a t e you upon p o s s e s s i n g t h o s e q u a l i t i e s w h i c h w a r r a n t e d a f r i e n d such as S e n a t o r McLean making way f o r y o u r appointment a t t h i s t i m e . I am bound t o s a y t h a t my e x p e r i e n c e s u p p o r t s t h e v i e w t a k e n by S e n a t o r McLean.12 One s u r p r i s i n g t h i n g about t h e McLean-Macdonald s u c c e s s i o n i s t h a t 59 McLean was a P r e s b y t e r i a n and Macdonald a C a t h o l i c , y e t a t no t i m e was t h i s even mentioned by any o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d n o r d i d i t evoke any l e t t e r s o f p r o t e s t . I t meant t h a t o f t h e f o u r P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d s e n a t e s e a t s , two were h e l d by C a t h o l i c s and two by P r o t e s t a n t s , a p p a r e n t l y a s i t u a t i o n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e p e o p l e o f t h a t p r o v i n c e . There were o n l y two o t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r appointment t o t h e Senate from P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . One came from W. F r e d e r i c k Prowse who f e l t t h a t because h i s f a t h e r and g r a n d f a t h e r had s e r v e d i n C o n s e r v a t i v e governments, he d e s e r v e d a r e w a r d . The o t h e r came from John H. M y e r s , t h e member o f p a r l i a m e n t from Queens County. Myers argued t h a t Queens County d e s e r v e d a second r e p r e s e n t a t i v e because i t was "by f a r more t h i c k l y p o p u l a t e d " t h a n K i n g s county$ i t had o n l y one S e n a t o r w h i l e K i n g s had two. S h o u l d t h e r e be an appointment he d e s e r v e d i t more t h a n anyone because o f h i s t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s i n a c t i v e p o l i t i c s . He s t r e s s e d t h a t he d i d n o t want t o embarrass t h e Prime M i n i s t e r , b u t he would l i k e t o be c o n s i d e r e d an a p p l i c a n t . Under t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o f c o u r s e , n e i t h e r man s t o o d a chance. A f t e r r e c e i v i n g t h e u s u a l f o r m a l acknowledgment from 13 t h e Prime M i n i s t e r , n o t h i n g f u r t h e r was h e a r d from them. * * * * The t h r e e v a c a n c i e s i n O n t a r i o were f i l l e d by L t . C o l . James A r t h u r s , D onald S u t h e r l a n d and Mrs. I v a F a l l i s . F o r A r t h u r s , i t was t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f a p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r d a t i n g back t o 1908 when he was f i r s t e l e c t e d t o t h e House o f Commons f o r P a r r y Sound. He c o n t e s t e d t h e n e x t s i x f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s and s ucceeded each t i m e . D u r i n g t h e war he r a i s e d and commanded t h e 162nd b a t t a l i o n and s e r v e d i n F r a n c e u n t i l May 1917. E a r l y i n 1932 he i n f o r m e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h a t he would l i k e t o be e l e v a t e d t o t h e Senate and t h a t he f e l t h i s r i d i n g c o u l d s a f e l y be 60 opened up. B e n n e t t , who was no more d i s p o s e d t o a p p o i n t i n g A r t h u r s t h a n any o t h e r s i t t i n g member o f p a r l i a m e n t , t o l d him i t was d o u b t f u l t h a t h i s w i s h e s c o u l d be met. There t h e m a t t e r l a y u n t i l 1935 when h i s s e l e c t i o n was announced. A l t h o u g h t h e r e was no c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n t h e i n t e r v e n i n g t h r e e y e a r s , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t A r t h u r s t o o k advantage o f t h e i r i n f o r m a l m e e t i n g s i n t h e House o f Commons t o r e m i n d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r o f h i s d e s i r e . I n any c a s e , a f t e r t w e n t y - s e v e n y e a r s i n t h e House o f Commons, James A r t h u r s became a s e n a t o r . A t t h e age o f s i x t y - e i g h t , he was c e r t a i n l y o l d e r t h a n B e n n e t t ' s f a s t - d i s a p p e a r i n g age g u i d e l i n e , b u t , o b v i o u s l y , h i s r e c o r d as a s u c c e s s f u l p o l i t i c i a n and a l o y a l f o l l o w e r o f h i s p a r t y overcame t h e age h a n d i c a p . ^ The second O n t a r i o r e c i p i e n t a l s o h u r d l e d t h i s b l o c k . D o n a l d S u t h e r l a n d was a s e v e n t y - t w o y e a r o l d f a r m e r from I n g e r s o l l . He was a l s o a v e t e r a n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l w a r s, a l t h o u g h he had known h i s s h a r e o f e l e c t o r a l d e f e a t s . F i r s t e l e c t e d t o t h e O n t a r i o l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1902, he r a n s u c c e s s -f u l l y a g a i n i n 1905. I n 1908 he was d e f e a t e d i n b o t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n c o n t e s t s . However i n 1911 he r a n s u c c e s s f u l l y i n South O x f o r d t o become t h e f i r s t C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n c e c o n f e d e r a t i o n t o be e l e c t e d from t h a t r i d i n g f o r e i t h e r t h e L e g i s l a t u r e o r t h e House o f Commons. Three e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s e s f o l l o w e d i n 1917, 1921 and 1925, b u t i n 1926 a f t e r b e i n g named a M i n i s t e r w i t h o u t P o r t f o l i o i n t h e s h o r t - l i v e d Meighen c a b i n e t , he met d e f e a t a t t h e p o l l s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n e i g h t e e n y e a r s . 15 In 1930 he was d e f e a t e d a g a i n , t h i s t i m e by o n l y t w e n t y v o t e s . E a r l y i n 1932 S u t h e r l a n d e x p r e s s e d t h e d e s i r e t o be named t o t h e S e n a t e . O b v i o u s l y he f e l t t h a t h i s t e n e l e c t i o n c o n t e s t s , s i x o f w h i c h were s u c c e s s f u l , e n t i t l e d him t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . He a l s o s t r e s s e d t h e f a c t t h a t South O x f o r d had n e v e r been so honored and t h e f a r m e r s i n 61 O n t a r i o were a l m o s t w i t h o u t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e upper House. The v a c a n c y w h i c h he o r i g i n a l l y sought went t o Meighen, b u t when S e n a t o r B e l c o u r t d i e d l a t e r i n t h e y e a r , he renewed h i s r e q u e s t o n l y t o be t o l d t h a t t h e s e a t was n o t a v a i l a b l e . S u t h e r l a n d c o u l d g a i n some s o l a c e , however, from t h e v e r y warm r e p l y he r e c e i v e d from t h e Prime M i n i s t e r . On w r i t i n g t o h i s "dear o l d f r i e n d " B e n n e t t s a i d : Whenever I t h i n k o f you I do so w i t h a f e e l i n g o f p r o f o u n d esteem and r e g a r d , f o r i t i s one o f t h e p l e a s a n t memories o f my l i f e t o r e c a l l my a c q u a i n t a n c e and a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h you. He went on t o e x p l a i n t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o g r a n t S u t h e r l a n d ' s w i s h because t h e s e a t i n q u e s t i o n " b e l o n g e d " t o t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s . H i s d i f f i c u l t y was t o make a d e c i s i o n between t h e Ottawa d i s t r i c t and n o r t h e r n O n t a r i o . In A p r i l 1934, S u t h e r l a n d was p e r s u a d e d t o once a g a i n c o n t e s t t h e South O x f o r d r i d i n g i n a b y - e l e c t i o n . As had been t h e case i n 1930, he l o s t t o h i s L i b e r a l opponent. However, h i s e f f o r t s on b e h a l f o f h i s p a r t y d i d n o t go u n n o t i c e d . H i s namesake, Dr. Donald S u t h e r l a n d , M i n i s t e r o f N a t i o n a l Defence and t h e member f o r N o r t h O x f o r d , m entioned t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h a t t h e m a t t e r . o f S u t h e r l a n d ' s appointment was b r o u g h t up e v e r y t i m e he v i s i t e d t h e c o u n t y . He s t r e s s e d t h a t h i s e l e v a t i o n t o t h e Senate was " e x c e e d i n g l y i m p o r t a n t from my s t a n d p o i n t . " B e n n e t t made no commit-ments b u t , when t h e ti m e came t o f i l l t h e f i n a l O n t a r i o v a c a n c i e s , he d i d n o t f o r g e t h i s o l d f r i e n d . Q u i t e o b v i o u s l y he was i n f l u e n c e d by t h e recom-mendations o f S u t h e r l a n d and t h a t o f O n t a r i o ' s A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , W. H. P r i c e , one among s e v e r a l who back e d t h i s c a n d i d a t e . S t i l l , p r o b a b l y i t was t h e f a c t t h a t he had h i g h p e r s o n a l r e g a r d f o r t h e f a r m e r - p o l i t i c a n t h a t t i p p e d t h e s c a l e s i n S u t h e r l a n d ' s f a v o r . ^ The t h i r d and f i n a l O n t a r i o r e c i p i e n t o f a Senate s e a t was 62 I v a C ampbell F a l l i s , a f a r m e r ' s w i f e from P e t e r b o r o u g h and a l o n g - t i m e w o r k e r f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . Mrs. F a l l i s , an o u t s t a n d i n g o r a t o r , had f i r s t a c h i e v e d prominence a t Win n i p e g i n 1927 when, t o g e t h e r w i t h Madame Fremont o f Quebec, she was as k e d t o speak t o t h e d e l e g a t e s . T h i s marked t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t women had been p l a c e d on t h e agenda t o a d d r e s s a n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n . L a t e r she a d m i t t e d t h a t i t was a t Winnipeg t h a t t h e i d e a o f h e r becoming a s e n a t o r was f i r s t m e n tioned t o h e r . However, i t was n o t u n t i l December 1933 t h a t she h e r s e l f s u g g e s t e d t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h a t t h e t i m e was r i g h t f o r t h e naming o f a second woman t o t h e upper house. A t t h a t t i m e B e n n e t t gave h e r no encouragement, s a y i n g t h a t i t was u n l i k e l y t h a t he c o u l d a p p o i n t a second woman f r o m O n t a r i o when t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s had none. Mrs. F a l l i s was c o n t e n t t o a c c e p t him a t h i s word, b u t she d i d ask him t o l e t h e r know i f he changed h i s mind so t h a t she c o u l d "muster s u p p o r t . " B e n n e t t d i d change h i s mind a p p a r e n t l y b u t t h i s t o o k p l a c e w i t h o u t any f u r t h e r u r g i n g from Mrs. F a l l i s . She d i d as she had p r o m i s e d and l e t h e r "case r e s t . " P r o b a b l y she was as s u r p r i s e d as anyone, t h e r e f o r e , when t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t e l e p h o n e d h e r the news t h a t she would be j o i n i n g C a i r i n e W i l s o n i n t h e Sena t e . The main r e a s o n f o r B e n n e t t ' s a b o u t - f a c e i n t h e f i l l i n g o f t h i s O n t a r i o v a c a n c y was t h a t he and h i s a d v i s o r s f e l t t h a t i f a woman were t o be named, she s h o u l d "come fr o m t h e c o u n t r y . " Mrs. F a l l i s more t h a n s a t i s f i e d t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t ; she and h e r husband had farmed on t h e Soo L i n e s o u t h o f Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan f o r e i g h t y e a r s p r i o r t o l o c a t i n g 17 i n N o r t h Monaghan Township where t h e y farmed f o r a n o t h e r f i f t e e n y e a r s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were many s t r o n g women a p p l i c a n t s from a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y , few o f them were from p r e d o m i n a n t l y r u r a l a r e a s . I n 1933, B e n n e t t c l a i m e d 63 he s e a r c h e d f o r a c a n d i d a t e from among h i s s u p p o r t e r s i n r u r a l Saskatchewan b u t t o no a v a i l , w h i l e i n M a n i t o b a where a v a c a n c y a r o s e t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e o n l y woman t o be g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n was Mrs. R o b e r t Rogers o f Winn i p e g who d i e d b e f o r e any d e c i s i o n was reached.The l e a d i n g c a n d i d a t e s i n Quebec were from M o n t r e a l w h i l e Mrs. F a l l i s ' s c h i e f r i v a l s i n O n t a r i o l i v e d i n T o r o n t o . A t one p o i n t B e n n e t t d i d g i v e some t h o u g h t t o naming a Quebec woman t o t h e S e n a t e , b u t a p p a r e n t l y he d i d n o t r e c e i v e encouragement f o r such a move from h i s c a b i n e t c o l l e a g u e s from t h a t p r o v i n c e ; he dropped t h e i d e a . Presumably h i s O n t a r i o c o l l e a g u e s were n o t a g a i n s t t h e i d e a o f a p p o i n t -i n g a woman a l t h o u g h Mrs. F a l l i s b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was B e n n e t t h i m s e l f who i n f l u e n c e d t h e c a b i n e t i n h e r f a v o r . I n t h i s r e g a r d , she may have g i v e n "the P rime M i n i s t e r more c r e d i t t h a n he d e s e r v e d . I n f a c t , B e n n e t t was n o t c o n v i n c e d t h a t women d e s e r v e d much r e c o g n i t i o n . To a c o r r e s p o n d e n t i n M a n i t o b a where women had f i r s t a c h i e v e d t h e f r a n c h i s e i n p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s , and t o one i n Quebec where t h e y d i d n o t y e t have i t , h i s answer was t h e same. Women had n o t been i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a as l o n g as men and t h e r e f o r e t h e y d i d n o t d e s e r v e e q u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n : We must remember t h a t t h e men have s u s t a i n e d t h e s t r u g g l e f o r many y e a r s and n o t u n t i l t h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n has come i n t o t h e ^ f i e l d w i l l t h e r e be e q u a l i t y between men and women i n t h a t r e g a r d . Whoever was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t , t h e f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f Mrs. F a l l i s was a p o p u l a r one and i t overshadowed t h e o t h e r two O n t a r i o a p p o i n t m e n t s . Whether o r n o t i t had b e n e f i c i a l p o l i t i c a l r e s u l t s i s open t o q u e s t i o n . The Globe and M a i l doubted i t w o u l d , s a y i n g t h a t i t might get t h e h o p e d - f o r v o t e s i n r u r a l O n t a r i o , b u t chances were i t would n o t . As t h e paper n o t e d w r y l y , "There a r e many t h i n g s t h a t n e i t h e r Mr. Ben n e t t n o r h i s p r o p h e t s know about women." The Win n i p e g F r e e P r e s s n o t e d t h a t Mrs. F a l l i s "combines t h e a b i l i t y o f p e r f o r m i n g most o f t h e heavy d u t i e s 64 o f f a r m l i f e w i t h t h a t o f an e l o q u e n t p l a t f o r m s p e a k e r " and added t h a t a l t h o u g h she was a " d a u g h t e r o f O n t a r i o " , she had a l s o l i v e d on a S a s k a t -chewan f a r m , a p o i n t i n h e r f a v o r as f a r as t h a t w e s t e r n L i b e r a l p a p e r was A 1 9 c o n c e r n e d . There were two o t h e r women i n O n t a r i o who r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t some c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e S e n a t e , Mrs. W. P l u m p t r e and Mrs. G e r t r u d e Van Koughnet, b o t h from T o r o n t o . B e n n e t t a d m i t t e d t o a c o r r e s p o n d e n t , B e s s i e Gowan Fe r g u s o n o f t h e M a i l and Empire , t h a t he had t h e " h i g h e s t r e g a r d " f o r Mrs. P l u m p t r e , t h a t she would " u n d o u b t e d l y have had my s u p p o r t , b u t when o n l y one appointment was b e i n g made, i t had t o be from t h e c o u n t r y . " Mrs. P l u m p t r e made no a p p l i c a t i o n h e r s e l f b u t , a c c o r d i n g t o F e r g u s o n , she was eager t o " l a y h e r hand t o t h e p l o w " i n t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e cause a l t h o u g h 20 t h e L i b e r a l s were "wooing h e r . " Mrs. Van Koughnet had t h e b a c k i n g o f a number o f p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s i n c l u d i n g P r e m i e r George H e n r y j Hon. C h a r l e s McCreaj Hon. W i l l i a m H. P r i c e ; E a r l Lawson, M.P.; H. C. S c h o l f i e l d , M.L.A.; and S i r Thomas Wh i t e . She was t h e s u b j e c t o f a l o n g a r t i c l e i n S a t u r d a y N i g h t on 25 March 1933 i n w h i c h h e r a c t i v i t i e s as a S u p e r v i s i n g Commissioner o f S o l d i e r s A i d Committee o f O n t a r i o were d e t a i l e d , a l o n g w i t h h e r work on dozens o f o t h e r committees. In s p i t e o f t h e h i g h recommendations she r e c e i v e d , Mrs. Van Koughnet does n o t seem t o have been s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d , a t f i r s t because i t was f e l t t h e appointment o f a woman s h o u l d go t o a n o t h e r p r o v i n c e , i n t h e end because 21 she was n o t "from t h e c o u n t r y . " There were a number o f O n t a r i o men v y i n g f o r t h e Senate s e a t s i n c l u d -i n g Sam C h a r t e r s , W i l l i a m F. G a r l a n d and W. G. W e i c h e l . The p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r o f Sam C h a r t e r s d a t e d back t o 1902 when he f i r s t r a n f o r t h e O n t a r i o l e g i s l a t u r e . He was d e f e a t e d t h a t y e a r and a g a i n 65 i n 1905 b e f o r e b e i n g e l e c t e d t o t h e House o f Commons i n 1908 and i n 1911. He r e s i g n e d h i s s e a t i n 1913 b u t was a g a i n a s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e i n 1917 as he was i n t h e n e x t f o u r f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s . From 1921 t o 1926 he was a s s i s t a n t whip; from 1926 t o 1930 he was c h i e f w h i p . C h a r t e r ' s r e q u e s t f o r a Senate s e a t was one t h e Prime M i n i s t e r f e l t he c o u l d n o t s a t i s f y a l t h o u g h he t u r n e d him down w i t h r e g r e t s t a t i n g t h a t " I have a v e r y s p e c i a l a f f e c t i o n f o r you, and i n p u r e l y p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s I do n o t t h i n k you c o u l d make any a p p e a l t o me i n v a i n . B u t , " he added, " t h e r e a r e many o t h e r f a c t s t o c o n s i d e r . " W i l l i a m F. G a r l a n d was from C a r l e t o n c o u n t y and had been a member o f t h e House o f Commons f o r t w e n t y y e a r s . He r e p o r t e d t h a t he was i n a " p r e c a r i o u s " f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n . He would l i k e any p o s i t i o n i f t h e Senate were n o t p o s s i b l e . B e n n e t t s u g g e s t e d t o G a r l a n d t h a t he s h o u l d " l o o k around and see i f you can f i n d some p o s i t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e w h i c h i s t h e g i f t o f t h e Government, w h i c h you c o u l d f i l l s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t o y o u r s e l f and t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e . " G a r l a n d r e p l i e d , l i s t i n g s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e a p p o i n t -23 ments, b u t t h e r e t h e m a t t e r ended. He d i d n o t r e c e i v e h i s p o s i t i o n . W. G. W e i c h e l , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e W a t e r l o o M u t u a l F i r e I n s u r a n c e Co., was a n o t h e r man who had g i v e n yeoman s e r v i c e t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . He t o o was doomed t o d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . W e i c h e l had r e p r e s e n t e d W a t e r l o o N o r t h i n b o t h t h e House o f Commons and t h e O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t u r e , h a v i n g f i r s t been e l e c t e d i n 1911 when he d e f e a t e d W. L. M a c k e n z i e K i n g . He f o u g h t s i x e l e c t i o n campaigns, w i n n i n g i n t h r e e o f them. H i s f i n a l campaign was i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n o f 1934 when he was s o u n d l y d e f e a t e d by h i s L i b e r a l opponent p r i m a r i l y , he f e l t , because o f t h e S e p a r a t e S c h o o l q u e s t i o n . W e i c h e l had t h e b a c k i n g o f a number o f German-Lutheran groups i n W a t e r l o o as w e l l as t h e s u p p o r t o f many f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s . But t h i s was 66 n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o i n f l u e n c e t h e Prime M i n i s t e r who s t a t e d q u i t e d e f i n i t e l y 24 t h a t he c o u l d make no p r o m i s e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e S e n a t e . O b v i o u s l y W e i c h e l was n o t as c l o s e t o B e n n e t t as e i t h e r A r t h u r s o r S u t h e r l a n d . W i t h so many v y i n g f o r so few p o s i t i o n s , he s t o o d a l m o s t no chance o f b e i n g s e l e c t e d . Thus, w i t h h i s f i n a l t h r e e O n t a r i o a p p o i n t m e n t s , B e n n e t t s e l e c t e d two f a i t h f u l p a r t y s t a l w a r t s who had r u n i n a t o t a l o f s e v e n t e e n e l e c t i o n s and a woman who had n e v e r c o n t e s t e d an e l e c t i o n b u t who had been a t i r e l e s s w o rker i n C o n s e r v a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o v e r t h e y e a r s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e what r o l e , i f any, B e n n e t t ' s c a b i n e t c o l l e a g u e s p l a y e d i n t h e s e s e l e c t i o n s . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f S u t h e r l a n d , t h e r e was v i r t u a l l y no c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e Prime M i n i s t e r and h i s c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s from O n t a r i o c o n c e r n i n g p o t e n t i a l s e n a t o r s . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e s u b j e c t was d i s c u s s e d i n caucus o r i n f o r m a l l y i n t h e House o f Commons b u t , from t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a p p o i n t m e n t s , i t would appear t h a t A r t h u r s and S u t h e r l a n d were B e n n e t t ' s p e r s o n a l c h o i c e s and t h a t , a l t h o u g h he may have been a d v i s e d t o a p p o i n t a woman from t h e c o u n t r y , i t was he who chose Mrs. F a l l i s . * * * * The s i t u a t i o n i n New B r u n s w i c k was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t w i t h R. B. Hanson t a k i n g a v e r y a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h e Senate s e l e c t i o n s . The man who became the f i r s t B e n n e t t a p p o i n t e e i n New B r u n s w i c k , George B. J o n e s , had f i r s t been recommended by Hanson i n J a n u a r y 1933 s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f S e n a t o r I r v i n g Todd. Hanson s a i d t h a t t h e member o f p a r l i a m e n t from R o y a l had been t h e " b r a i n s " o f t h e p a r t y i n New B r u n s w i c k s i n c e 1908 when he won t h e f i r s t o f n i n e s u c c e s s i v e p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s . He e n t e r e d t h e House o f Commons i n 1921 and was named M i n i s t e r o f L abor i n t h e Meighen c a b i n e t i n 1926. 67 J ones appears t o have been h i g h l y r e g a r d e d by a l l who knew him. J u s t i c e J . B. M. B a x t e r , t h e f o r m e r P r e m i e r o f New B r u n s w i c k , spoke v e r y h i g h l y o f him. A. D. Ganong, a f e l l o w member o f p a r l i a m e n t , s a i d t h a t J ones was h i s f i r s t c h o i c e f o r t h e Senate and, i f a l l t h e o t h e r a p p l i c a n t s were t o be asked f o r t h e i r second c h o i c e , each would name J o n e s . A descendant o f U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s , J ones was a merchant who had been P r e s i d e n t o f Jones B r o t h e r s L t d . f o r t h i r t y - n i n e y e a r s . W h i l e he n e v e r a p p l i e d i n w r i t i n g f o r t h e a p p o i n t m e n t , i t seems t o have been a l m o s t a f o r e g o n e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t he would f i l l one o f t h e t h r e e New B r u n s w i c k 25 v a c a n c i e s . F i l l i n g t h e r e m a i n i n g two v a c a n c i e s posed a g r e a t e r p r o b l e m f o r t h e Prime M i n i s t e r . That i s q u i t e l i k e l y why he d e l a y e d t h o s e d e c i s i o n s u n t i l mid-August a t w h i c h t i m e he chose A. J . Leger and B. F. S m i t h . * * * * * I n Quebec, t h e r e were f o u r v a c a n c i e s and h e r e a g a i n B e n n e t t d e l a y e d a l l b u t one appointment u n t i l A u g u s t . The man h onored on 20 J u l y was A r t h u r Sauve, a member o f t h e c a b i n e t and f o r m e r C o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r i n Quebec. Sauve had had a l o n g and e v e n t f u l p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . He s e r v e d as Mayor o f S t . B e n S i t from 1906 u n t i l 1923. I n 1908 he e n t e r e d t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A ssembly upon w i n n i n g t h e f i r s t o f s i x p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s . I n 1916 he was a p p o i n t e d t h e l e a d e r o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n t h e Assembly, and i n 1922 he was u n a n i m o u s l y c o n f i r m e d i n t h a t p o s i t i o n by f i v e h undred c o n v e n t i o n d e l e g a t e s . A f t e r t h e e l e c t i o n o f 1927, he announced h i s r e s i g n a t i o n as p a r t y l e a d e r and, a t t h e c o n v e n t i o n i n J u l y 1929 when he a g a i n r e f u s e d t o c o n t i n u e , Sauve was r e p l a c e d by C a m i l i e n Houde. In 1930 he r e s i g n e d h i s s e a t i n Two M o u n t a i n s t o r u n f o r t h e House o f Commons, was e l e c t e d and s u b s e q u e n t l y named P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l , a p o s t he h e l d u n t i l h i s appointment 68 t o t h e Sen a t e . A j o u r n a l i s t by p r o f e s s i o n , Sauve was P r e s i d e n t o f L'Union des J o u r n a l i s t e s o f M o n t r e a l , t h e well- k n o w n a u t h o r o f pamphlets on t o p i c s such as " S t . John B a p t i s t C e l e b r a t i o n " and "The F o u n d a t i o n o f t h e L i b e r a l - C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y s u c c e e d i n g t o t h e T o r y P a r t y . " H i s appointment met w i t h a g e n e r a l l y f a v o r a b l e r e a c t i o n from h i s j o u r n a l i s t i c p e e r s . La P a t r i e , La P r e s s e and t h e M o n t r e a l D a i l y S t a r a l l welcomed h i s e l e v a t i o n . Each commented on h i s l o n g and arduous c a r e e r d e v o t e d t o p u b l i c s e r v i c e . The S t a r f e l t he would make a " w i s e , r e s e r v e d , and v a l u a b l e S e n a t o r . " The Quebec C h r o n i c l e - T e l e g r a p h c o n s i d e r e d t h a t Sauve and Rhodes were perhaps t h e o u t s t a n d i n g a p p o i n t e e s . As t o t h e f u t u r e o u t l o o k f o r t h e once P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l , t h e newspaper commented t h a t t h e " s e c l u s i o n o f t h e Upper House comes l i k e t h e happy e n d i n g i n t h e l a s t a c t o f a melodrama, a f t e r y e a r s o f p o l i t i c a l m i s f o r t u n e and f r u s t r a t i o n . " The Globe and M a i l s a i d t h a t Sauve who had been "badgered b u t always o b e d i e n t . . . . w i l l r e s t i n p e a c e , s a f e a t l a s t from s l i n g s and arrows from J e a n - F r a n c i s P o u l i o t ' s i n t e r r o g a t o r y w i t . . . . / H e / has s u f f e r e d much and squirmed o f t e n . " 2 ^ However, one o f Sauve's f o r m e r c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e Quebec L e g i s l a t i v e A ssembly was v e r y much a g a i n s t h i s ap p o i n t m e n t . On 11 J u l y C. E. G a u l t , M.L.A., had w r i t t e n t o " r e g i s t e r my p r o t e s t i f Sauve i s t o be a p p o i n t e d " . He e x p l a i n e d : He has been a d e t r i m e n t t o and l i v e d on t h e p a r t y f o r t h e p a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . Both he and D u r a n l e a u have r u i n e d t h e p r o s -p e c t s f o r t h e i r p a r t y i n t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s and i f t h e y a r e c a n d i d a t e s t h e y w i l l be snowed under. L e t them go down t o o b l i v i o n . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t by t h e t i m e B e n n e t t r e c e i v e d G a u l t ' s l e t t e r , he had a l r e a d y made up h i s mind t o a p p o i n t Sauve t o t h e Senate (and, i n c i d e n t a l l y , D u r a n l e a u t o t h e Quebec B e n c h ) , b u t b e f o r e t h e announcements were made, he w r o t e t o a s s u r e him t h a t he had r e a d h i s l e t t e r " w i t h g r e a t c a r e . " He 69 added, "The s i t u a t i o n i s n o t w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y , b u t I hope when a d e c i s i o n i s r e a c h e d , i t w i l l commend i t s e l f t o our f r i e n d s . " A month l a t e r , a f t e r h i s f i n a l s e l e c t i o n s had been made, he w r o t e G a u l t a g a i n : You perhaps do n o t r e a l i z e t h a t i f t h e w i s h e s o f members o f t h e government w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t a r e n o t met, t h e y c o n t i n u e on b u t t h e i r s e r v i c e s a r e h a l f - h e a r t e d , and i f t h e y r e t i r e w i t h o u t r e c o g n i t i o n , t h e y a r e t h e n a s o u r c e o f w o r r y t o t h e p a r t y i t s e l f . ^ 7 T here i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t B e n n e t t was t h i n k i n g o f Sauve when he w r o t e t h a t l e t t e r , a l t h o u g h perhaps i t c o u l d a p p l y e q u a l l y t o o t h e r M.P.'s whose " r e t i r e m e n t " t o t h e upper house had been a r r a n g e d . That he wr o t e so f r a n k l y i n d i c a t e s B e n n e t t ' s r e s p e c t f o r G a u l t ' s o p i n i o n ; he wanted i t u n d e r s t o o d why he had made t h e appointment so opposed by t h e M.L.A. NOTES Winn i p e g F r e e P r e s s , 22 J u l y 1935, p. 1. 2 T o r o n t o Globe and M a i l , 23 J u l y 1935, p. 4; Ottawa C i t i z e n , 22 J u l y 1935, p. 11. Gu i d e , 1937, p. 76; Thomas C a n t l e y t o B e n n e t t , 2 Nov. 1931, p. 420146; H. S. MacKay t o B e n n e t t , 11 J a n . 1932, p. 420147; B e n n e t t t o MacKay, 14 J a n . 1932, p. 420150. E. L. Haney t o B e n n e t t , 29 Dec. 1934, p. 420155; Be n n e t t t o Rev. James C a r r u t h e r s , 5 J a n . 1935, p. 420156; B e n n e t t t o Rev. A. M. S a n f o r d , 12 J a n . 1935, p. 420160; B e n n e t t t o Rev. Frank B a i r d , 16 J u l y 1935, p. 420162; S a i n t John T e l e g r a p h - J o u r n a l , 16 J u l y 1935, p. 1; C a n t l e y t o B e n n e t t , 22 J u l y 1935, p. 420167; M a r i a n C. Hayden t o B e n n e t t , 26 J u l y 1935, p. 420171. "F. P. Quinn t o B e n n e t t , 20 June 1935, p. 420382. 6 S e n . W. H. Dennis t o B e n n e t t , 24 June 1935, p. 420384; Rev. C. J . M a r t i n t o B e n n e t t , 15 J u l y 1935, p. 420388; w i r e s from members o f t h e C a t h o l i c c l e r g y t o B e n n e t t , 44. 420390-420400; Ottawa C i t i z e n , 22 J u l y 1935, p. 11. 7 J . P. L. R o b i c h e a u t o B e n n e t t , 6 June 1932, p. 420447; H. B. S h o r t t o B e n n e t t , 18 May 1932, p. 420405; w i r e s t o S h o r t s u p p o r t i n g R o b i c h e a u , pp. 420408-41; S h o r t t o B e n n e t t , 25 May 1932, p. 420444; W. A. L i v i n g s t o n e t o B e n n e t t , 7 June 1932, p. 420456; T. L. Deveau t o B e n n e t t , 5 J a n . 1934, p. 419969; Deveau t o B e n n e t t , 19 J a n . 1935, p. 420529; J . D. T h i b a u l t t o B e n n e t t , 9 Feb. 1935, p. 420537; G u i d e , 1937, p. 107. g A. H. C o r m i e r t o B e n n e t t , 16 May 1932, p. 420034; Howard W e n t z e l l t o B e n n e t t , 30 May 1932, p. 420041; Edward Whelan t o B e n n e t t , 27 June 1932, p. 420043; H u b e r t A u c o i n t o B e n n e t t , 17 O c t . 1933, p. 420063; D. W. Moore t o B e n n e t t , u n d a t e d , p. 420065. B e n n e t t t o F a t h e r M a ubourquette, 7 June 1932, p.. 420252; F a t h e r P. R o b i t a i l l e t o B e n n e t t , 7 June 1932, p. 420265; F a t h e r A. Boudreau t o B e n n e t t , 11 Dec. 1933, p. 420272; F a t h e r A. B r i a n d t o B e n n e t t , 10 J a n . 1934, p. 420274; B e n n e t t t o B r i a n d , 15 J a n . 1934, p. 420275; B e n n e t t t o B i s h o p E. A. L e B l a n c , 3 Dec. 1934, p. 420282. 70 71 George K i l l a m t o B e n n e t t , 1 June 1932, p. 420235; R. d'Entremont t o B e n n e t t , 18 June 1932, p. 420239; W. H. S u r e t t e t o B e n n e t t , 4 O c t . 1933, p. 420247; M. C. Denton t o B e n n e t t , 21 May 1934, p. 420279. 1 ] " P r e m i e r W. J . P. M a c M i l l a n t o B e n n e t t , 27 Nov. 1934, p. 422605; B e n n e t t t o M a c M i l l a n , 1 Dec. 1934, p. 422606; J . A. MacDonald t o B e n n e t t , 11 Feb. 1935, p. 422613; copy, MacDonald t o A. F. McQuaid, 28 J a n . 1935, p. 422611; copy, MacDonald t o Sen. John McLean, 29 J a n . 1935, p. 422612. 12 Ben n e t t t o MacDonald, 1 Aug. 1935, p. 422621; G u i d e , 1937, p. 96. 13 W. F. Prowse t o B e n n e t t , 24 J a n . 1935, p. 422610; J . H. M y e r s , M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 1 March 1935, p. 422614. 14 G u i d e , 1937, p. 68; C o l . James A r t h u r s t o B e n n e t t , 9 J a n . 1932, p. 425930; B e n n e t t t o A r t h u r s , 12 J a n . 1932, p. 425931. 1 5 G u i d e , 1937, p. I l l ; Donald S u t h e r l a n d t o B e n n e t t , 1 J a n . 1932, p. 427374; R. J . K e l l y t o B e n n e t t , 9 J a n . 1931 / s i c / , p. 427380. 1 6 S u t h e r l a n d t o B e n n e t t , 26 O c t . 1932, p. 427386; B e n n e t t t o S u t h e r l a n d , 29 O c t . 1932, p. 427389; P r i c e t o B e n n e t t , 28 Dec. 1933, p. 427402; Dr. Donald S u t h e r l a n d t o B e n n e t t , 25 Oct. 1934, p. 427405; S u t h e r l a n d t o B e n n e t t , 4 March 1935, p. 427407. 17 I v a F a l l i s t o B e n n e t t , 26 Dec. 1933, p. 426529; B e n n e t t t o F a l l i s , 29 Dec. 1933, p. 426531; F a l l i s t o B e n n e t t , 1 J a n . 1934, p. 426537; newspaper c l i p p i n g s s e n t by I v a F a l l i s t o B e n n e t t , pp. 426540-1. 1 Q F a l l i s t o B e n n e t t , 22 J u l y 1935, p. 426542; B e n n e t t t o B e s s i e Gowan F e r g u s o n , 6 Aug. 1935, p. 426546; B e n n e t t t o C o l . W. C. H. Wood, 17 Aug. 1935, p. 422837; I r e n e J o l y t o B e n n e t t , 22 O c t . 1934, p. 424613; Ben n e t t t o Mrs. J . H. C a t h c a r t , 17 Aug. 1935, p. 427847; B e n n e t t t o Mrs. W. C. Kennedy, 4 A p r i l 1934, p. 425747; Be n n e t t t o F e r g u s o n , 14 Aug. 1935, p. 425773. 19 T o r o n t o Globe and M a i l , 23 J u l y 1935, p. 4; Win n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , 22 J u l y 1935, p. 1. 20 Fer g u s o n t o B e n n e t t , 22 J u l y 1935, p. 426545; B e n n e t t t o F e r g u s o n , 6 Aug. 1935, p. 426546. 21 J . E a r l Lawson, M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 26 Dec. 1933, p. 427470; w i r e , Henry t o B e n n e t t , 26 Dec. 1933, p. 427486; S i r Thomas White t o B e n n e t t , 27 Dec. 1933, p. 427490; P r i c e t o B e n n e t t , 29 Dec. 1933, p. 427496; S a t u r d a y N i g h t , 25 March 1933. 72 22 Sam C h a r t e r s t o B e n n e t t , 20 J u l y 1934, pp. 426300-2; Be n n e t t t o C h a r t e r s , 21 J u l y 1934, p. 426303. 23 W. F. G a r l a n d , M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 10 June 1935, p. 426602; B e n n e t t t o G a r l a n d , 19 June 1935, p. 426604. 24 W. V. U t t l e y t o B e n n e t t , 17 Feb. 1934, p. 427611; W. G. W e i c h e l t o B e n n e t t , 22 June 1934, p. 427676; B e n n e t t t o W e i c h e l , 25 June 1934, p. 427678. 25 Ben n e t t t o J . B. M. B a x t e r , 14 J a n . 1933, p. 420639; A. D. Ganong, M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 6 J a n . 1933, p. 421419; R. B. Hanson t o B e n n e t t , 13 J a n . 1933, p. 421421. 2 6 G u i d e , 1937, p. 108; La P a t r i e , 22 J u l y , 1935, p. 422826; La P r e s s e , 22 J u l y 1935, p. 422827; M o n t r e a l D a i l y S t a r , u n d a t e d , p. 422828; T o r o n t o Globe and M a i l , 23 J u l y 1935, p. 4; Quebec C h r o n i c l e - T e l e g r a p h , 22 J u l y 1935, p. 4. C. E. G a u l t t o B e n n e t t , 11 J u l y 1935, p. 425302; B e n n e t t t o G a u l t , 18 J u l y 1935, p. 425303; B e n n e t t t o G a u l t , 20 Aug. 1935, p. 422860. CHAPTER VI 1935: AUGUST W i t h t h e r e l e a s e o f h i s 20 J u l y l i s t , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r had made t e n p o l i t i c a l f r i e n d s v e r y happy and d i s a p p o i n t e d dozens more. F o r t h o s e c a n d i d a t e s i n M a n i t o b a , New B r u n s w i c k and Quebec, hope s t i l l r e i g n e d , b u t t h e y were t o r e m a i n i n suspense u n t i l mid-August. M a n i t o b a , t h e o n l y p r o v i n c e w h i c h had n o t y e t r e c e i v e d an appointment from B e n n e t t , a w a i t e d word on i t s two v a c a n c i e s , NewBrunswick a n t i c i p a t e d two, Quebec t h r e e . In M a n i t o b a , one s e a t had been v a c a n t s i n c e F e b r u a r y 1934 when S e n a t o r R o b e r t F o r k e d i e d ; t h e second became a v a i l a b l e i n May 1935 on t h e d e a t h o f S e n a t o r F. L. S c h a f f n e r . The two s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s were C o l . Henry A. B. M u l l i n s from t h e M a r q u e t t e c o n s t i t u e n c y i n w e s t e r n M a n i t o b a and John Thomas H a i g o f W i n n i p e g . Henry M u l l i n s , b o r n i n E n g l a n d , came t o L i n d s a y , O n t a r i o a t t h e age o f t e n and was e d u c a t e d t h e r e b e f o r e g o i n g west t o M a n i t o b a . D u r i n g th e war he s e r v e d as C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f S u p p l y and T r a n s p o r t west o f t h e Gr e a t L a k e s , a p o s i t i o n he f i l l e d w i t h d i s t i n c t i o n . He was a d i r e c t o r o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s F i d e l i t y and G u a r a n t y I n s u r a n c e Company and t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n S e c u r i t y Company. M u l l i n s ' s p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y d a t e d back t o 1899 when he was f i r s t e l e c t e d t o t h e M a n i t o b a l e g i s l a t u r e . He r e t i r e d from a c t i v e p o l i t i c s i n 1903 and d i d n o t seek e l e c t i o n a g a i n u n t i l 1925 when he e n t e r e d t h e House o f Commons. He was d e f e a t e d i n 1926 t o be r e - e l e c t e d i n 1930 a t t h e age s i x t y - n i n e . M u l l i n s a p p l i e d t o succeed S e n a t o r F o r k e s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s 73 74 d e a t h , b u t t h e Pri m e M i n i s t e r would n o t c o n s i d e r o p e n i n g up h i s s e a t . H i s o n l y o t h e r l e t t e r t o B e n n e t t was w r i t t e n 10 J u l y 1935 t o deny t h e rumor w h i c h was b e i n g c i r c u l a t e d t h a t he had t a k e n up r e s i d e n c e i n T o r o n t o . He e x p l a i n e d t h a t he had p u r c h a s e d a house i n T o r o n t o f o r h i s d a u g h t e r , t h a t h i s w i f e s t a y e d t h e r e w h i l e he was i n Ottawa, but t h a t he h i m s e l f had n o t changed h i s p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e . " I have no a p o l o g y t o o f f e r f o r h a v i n g i n any way n e g l e c t e d my d u t y o r l o y a l t y t o y o u , " M u l l i n s added. When he was a p p o i n t e d , t h e Win n i p e g F r e e P r e s s welcomed t h e news. I t p r e d i c t e d t h a t M u l l i n s , one o f t h e b e s t i n f o r m e d men i n t h e c a t t l e b u s i n e s s i n Canada, would c o n t i n u e t o r e n d e r u s e f u l p u b l i c s e r v i c e i n h i s new r o l e o f s e n a t o r . * John T. H a i g , who was s i x t e e n y e a r s younger t h a n M u l l i n s , was b o r n i n C o l b o r n e , O n t a r i o , and moved t o M a n i t o b a a t an e a r l y age. An Honor g r a d u a t e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , he t a u g h t s c h o o l f o r a t i m e b e f o r e p u r s u i n g t h e s t u d y o f law. He was named a K.C. i n 1927. He was P r e s i d e n t o f S e c u r i t y C o n s t r u c t i o n Company L t d . , v i c e p r e s i d e n t o f F i n a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n , L t d . , and U n i v e r s a l L i f e A s s u r a n c e and A n n u i t y Company, L t d . An a v i d c u r l e r and lawn b o w l e r , he had s e r v e d as P r e s i d e n t o f t h e M a n i t o b a C u r l i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e Dominion C u r l i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , and t h e M a n i t o b a Lawn B o w l i n g A s s o c i a t i o n . Haig^'S p o l i t i c a l l i f e was spent i n t h e M a n i t o b a l e g i s l a t u r e w i t h f o u r t e e n y e a r s ' s e r v i c e as w e l l on t h e Win n i p e g S c h o o l Board. He was f i r s t e l e c t e d t o t h e l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1914, was d e f e a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , and r e - e l e c t e d f o u r t i m e between 1920 and 1932. H a i g c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f a "dark h o r s e " c a n d i d a t e , b u t a t t h e u r g i n g o f many f r i e n d s , he w r o t e t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r on 20 J u l y 1935. H i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n Committee o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n w h i c h had chosen B e n n e t t l e a d e r h i g h l i g h t e d h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . He a s s u r e d B e n n e t t he would be " r i g h t on t h e j o b " when 75 an e l e c t i o n came a l o n g whether o r n o t he was a p p o i n t e d ; n e v e r t h e l e s s i f t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a d a r k h o r s e would smooth t h e way, "Barkus i s w i l l i n g . " He em-p h a s i z e d t h a t he was w r i t i n g i n t h e " s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e , " t h a t he would n o t f e e l h u r t i f t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t o o k no a c t i o n . S t i l l he d i d c h a r a c -t e r i z e h i s s e r v i c e s t o h i s c i t y and p r o v i n c e o v e r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s as " v e r y e n e r g e t i c . " As o f 8 A u g u s t , B e n n e t t ' s r e p l y was t h a t t h e r e were "many d i f -f i c u l t i e s i n t h e way as t h e r e always a r e w i t h s e n a t e p o s i t i o n s " t o w h i c h he added, " I may t e l e p h o n e you f o r I assume you have seen Mr. /T. G./ Murphy , . . 2 on h i s t r i p w e s t . " There i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Murphy d i d c o n t a c t H a i g , t h e f i f t y - s e v e n y e a r o l d new a p p o i n t e e whom t h e F r e e P r e s s h a i l e d as a " l e a d i n g and p o p u l a r c i t i z e n o f W i n n i p e g . " The M a n i t o b a c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r had n o t i n c l u d e d H a i g ' s name on t h e l i s t o f c a n d i d a t e s s u b m i t t e d a month e a r l i e r . That l i s t o f p o t e n t i a l a p p o i n t e e s i n c l u d e d t h e names o f a number o f o t h e r c a n d i d a t e s who had been i n t o u c h w i t h B e n n e t t - - M u l l i n s , Thomas Hay, Dr. H. C. Hodgson, 3 Hugh R. Ross and Dr. R. M. Simpson among o t h e r s . Thomas Hay seemed t o be t h e man whom Murphy f e l t had t h e s t r o n g e s t c l a i m . A member o f a p i o n e e r M a n i t o b a f a m i l y who had g i v e n l o n g s e r v i c e t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y , he had been a c a n d i d a t e i n f i v e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s and two p r o v i n c i a l between 1917 and 1930. He had been e l e c t e d t h r e e t i m e s t o t h e House o f Commons f o r S p r i n g f i e l d c o n s t i t u e n c y , i n 1917, i n 1925 and i n 1930. He f i r s t a p p l i e d t o r e p l a c e R o b e r t F o r k e i n November 1934, t e l l i n g t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h a t he h i m s e l f had d i s c o u r a g e d h i s f r i e n d s from s e n d i n g p e t i t i o n s . B e n n e t t r e p l i e d t h a t no p e t i t i o n s were n e c e s s a r y ; i n any e v e n t , h i s r e q u e s t would be d i f f i c u l t t o f i l l . " I f i t were p o s s i b l e t o do, I would be o n l y t o o g l a d t o do s o , b u t t h e m a t t e r i s by no means e n t i r e l y i n my hands," he c a u t i o n e d . Murphy f e l t t h a t Hay d e s e r v e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n because o f t h e number 76 o f t i m e s he had o f f e r e d h i m s e l f as a c a n d i d a t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n two p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s when th e s i t u a t i o n s were "more o r l e s s h o p e l e s s . " I n t h e i r l e t t e r s o f recommendation, Hay's many f r i e n d s m e ntioned h i s l o n g s e r v i c e and h i s M a n i t o b a f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d . There i s no doubt t h a t Hay's appointment would have been a p o p u l a r one, b u t a p p a r e n t l y w i t h o n l y two s e a t s a v a i l a b l e , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r d e c i d e d t h a t o n l y one s h o u l d go a s e n i o r p o l i t i c i a n . H a r r y M u l l i n s had been t h a t c h o i c e . Dr. H. C. Hodgson o f W i n n i p e g had g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e s e r v i c e t o t h e p a r t y as an o r g a n i z e r , n e v e r as a c a n d i d a t e . He had been P r e s i d e n t o f t h e M a n i t o b a C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1928, c h i e f o r g a n i z e r i n t h e p r o v i n c e f o r t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1930. On recommending him, James S t i t t , M.P.} c l a i m e d t h a t he had g i v e n g r e a t s e r v i c e w i t h " v e r y l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n " f o r t h e . " t h a n k l e s s j o b " o f p a r t y o r g a n i z e r . O t h e r f r i e n d s s u p p o r t e d him, i n c l u d i n g A r c h b i s h o p A l f r e d A. S i n n e t t o f W i n n i p e g , a p o i n t w h i c h B e n n e t t s a i d he con-s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t b ecause Hodgson was n o t a C a t h o l i c . The Prime M i n i s t e r i n d i c a t e d t o t h e A r c h b i s h o p t h a t Hodgson s t o o d l i t t l e c hance, however. Many o f t h e o l d t i m e r s who had g i v e n l o n g e r s e r v i c e would f e e l t h a t t h e a ppointment s h o u l d n o t go t o a younger man whose s e r v i c e had been r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t . 3 E f f o r t s t o s e c u r e t h e p o s i t i o n f o r Hugh R. Ross were u n i q u e ; t h e o n l y l e t t e r Ross e v e r w r o t e t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r was on b e h a l f o f a n o t h e r man, n o t h i m s e l f . However, Ross had t h e f e r v e n t b a c k i n g o f a l a r g e number o f U n i t e d C hurch a d h e r e n t s who seemed t o have t a k e n i t as t h e i r p e r s o n a l m i s s i o n t o s e c u r e a Senate s e a t f o r him. T h e i r l e t t e r campaign s t a r t e d i n 1933 months b e f o r e a v a c a n c y e x i s t e d and c o n t i n u e d u n t i l mid-1935. M e n t i o n was made o f h i s c a n d i d a t u r e i n 1921, b u t f o r t h e most p a r t , h i s s u p p o r t e r s s t r e s s e d h i s good c i t i z e n s h i p and o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r . I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether Ross h i m s e l f was even aware o f t h e s e e f f o r t s , b u t few Senate a p p l i c a n t s 77 f o r a s e a t were f a v o r e d w i t h so many s i n c e r e a c c o l a d e s . Dr. R. M. Simpson was t h e man about whom Ross had w r i t t e n t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t o suggest a c a n d i d a c y f o r e i t h e r t h e Senate o r t h e L i e u t e n a n t -G o v e r n o r s h i p . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Simpson f o r e i t h e r p o s i t i o n had been recom-mended by a w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t group and he h i m s e l f made no s e c r e t t h a t he would welcome an appointment p r i m a r i l y because h i s f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n was shaky. The Prime M i n i s t e r conceded t h a t Simpson had n e v e r b e f o r e asked f o r a n y t h i n g , t h a t h i s r e q u e s t was n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e , b u t he t o l d him t h a t i f i t c o u l d n o t be met, he hoped " y o u ' l l a c c e p t i t as p a r t o f t h e f o r t u n e s o f war." A t a l a t e r d a t e , Murphy a d v i s e d t h a t d e s p i t e Simpson's " s t r o n g c l a i m s , " h i s h e a l t h was such t h a t h i s appointment would be u n w i s e . I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t B e n n e t t had been g i v i n g h im s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , b u t Murphy's 7 assessment would n o t have h e l p e d Simpson's c a u s e . T. G. Murphy's l i s t made i t o b v i o u s t h a t l i t t l e o r no c o n s i d e r a t i o n had been g i v e n t o t h e women o f t h e p r o v i n c e i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y had h e l d t h e f r a n c h i s e l o n g e r t h a n i n any o f t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . Of t h e f i f t e e n names l i s t e d , o n l y one was t h a t o f a woman, Mrs. H. G. Brown, and she m e r i t e d m e n t i o n o n l y as one o f f o u r p e o p l e who had " a l s o s u b m i t t e d t h e i r c l a i m s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n . " L i t t l e wonder, t h e n , t h a t B e n n e t t w r o t e t o Mrs. J . H. C a t h c a r t on 17 August 1935 t o say t h a t , i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p p o i n t i n g a woman t o one o f t h e two M a n i t o b a v a c a n c i e s , "our f r i e n d s d i d n o t t h i n k i t p o s s i b l e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . " He hoped she would agree t h a t " i t was more o r l e s s d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e , t o a p p o i n t a woman w i t h o n l y ..8 two v a c a n c i e s . " I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , B e n n e t t seems t o have made up h i s own mind a l t h o u g h he had d i s c u s s e d t h e ap p o i n t m e n t s w i t h Murphy and o t h e r l e a d i n g p a r t y members o f M a n i t o b a . H i s c h o i c e was one man from a r u r a l r i d i n g , 78 t h e second from t h e p r o v i n c e ' s major m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a : A l t h o u g h M u l l i n s was o l d e r t h a n he w o u l d have p r e f e r r e d , a p p a r e n t l y because o f h i s l o n g s e r v i c e B e n n e t t o v e r l o o k e d t h a t f a c t . * * * * There were s t i l l two s e n a t o r s t o be s e l e c t e d i n New B r u n s w i c k . The Prime M i n i s t e r f a c e d d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r , a l t h o u g h he had made a p o p u l a r move i n a p p o i n t i n g George Jones on 20 J u l y , t h e two r e m a i n i n g o p e n i n g s i n h i s n a t i v e p r o v i n c e were n o t so e a s y t o f i l l . S t r o n g c o m p e t i t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o f l o u r i s h f o r t h e A c a d i a n s e a t o f t h e l a t e S e n a t o r P a s c a l P o i r i e r , and, f o l l o w i n g t h e d e f e a t o f t h e New B r u n s w i c k C o n s e r v a t i v e government i n J u n e , t h e r e were more a s p i r a n t s t h a n e v e r f o r t h e second s e a t . B e n n e t t ' s f i n a l c h o i c e o f A. J . Leger and B. F. S m i t h was q u i t e a c c e p t a b l e t o most C o n s e r v a -t i v e s , b u t many c a n d i d a t e s were d i s a p p o i n t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e f o r m e r P r e m i e r , L. P. D. T i l l e y . The c h o i c e o f A n t o i n e J . L e g e r , a l a w y e r from Moncton, was o f l i t t l e s u r p r i s e t o most o b s e r v e r s ; i t had l o n g been rumored t h a t he would be named t o e i t h e r t h e Senate o r bench. Leger had t a k e n an a c t i v e p a r t i n e v e r y e l e c t i o n s i n c e 1904, a c a n d i d a t e i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s o f 1917, 1925 and 1930, a s u c c e s s i n t h e l a s t two. I n 1925 he had been named P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r and C l e r k o f t h e Crown i n Chancery i n t h e c a b i n e t o f P r e m i e r J . B. M. B a x t e r , p o s i t i o n s w h i c h he r e t a i n e d under P r e m i e r T i l l e y . A d i r e c t o r and l e g a l a d v i s o r o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f A c a d i a n s , f o r o v e r t w e n t y y e a r s he had been as w e l l t h e l e g a l a d v i s o r and d i r e c t i n g s p i r i t o f La S o c i e t e 1'Assomption, a m u t u a l and f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t y o f o v e r t e n t h o u s a n d members. A s h o r t t i m e b e f o r e , Leger had w r i t t e n a h i g h l y p r a i s e d book about La S o c i e t e . The campaign f o r L e g e r ' s appointment began i n O c t o b e r 1933 a few days a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f P a s c a l P o i r i e r and c o n t i n u e d unabated. The c h i e f h u r d l e 79 Leger f a c e d was t h a t Westmorland (county, h i s t e r r i t o r y , a l r e a d y had f o u r s e n a t o r s w h i l e seven o t h e r c o u n t i e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e had none. E v i d e n t l y B e n n e t t was as c o n c e r n e d about t h i s i n e q u i t a b l e g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n i n New B r u n s w i c k as he had been about t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Saskatchewan a t t h e tim e o f M a r c o t t e ' s appointment. When he a s k e d L e g e r and h i s s u p p o r t e r s i f t h e y c o u l d see any way round t h e p r o b l e m o f Westmorland's o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e y argued t h a t P o i r i e r , one o f t h r e e A c a d i a n s e n a t o r s , had come from t h e s o u t h ; h i s s u c c e s s o r s h o u l d come from t h e r e t o o . As f a r as t h e A c a d i a n s were c o n c e r n e d , t h e f a c t t h a t Westmorland had more t h a n i t s s h a r e o f E n g l i s h -s p e a k i n g s e n a t o r s was r e a l l y i r r e l e v a n t . The s e a t was A c a d i a n ; L e g e r was t h e i r chosen l e a d e r . Dr. J . C. Webster echoed t h i s v i e w , b u t he d i d admit t h a t i f he c o u l d have h i s way, t h e p o s i t i o n would go t o t h e b e s t man a v a i l a b l e , r e g a r d l e s s o f r a c e . He r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t such a t h o u g h t was i d e a l i s t i c . *^ I n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t by t h e end o f November 1933 B e n n e t t had a l r e a d y made a t e n t a t i v e d e c i s i o n t o a p p o i n t Leger even though such had n o t had t h e s u p p o r t o f h i s New B r u n s w i c k m i n i s t e r , R. B. Hanson. H i s c o n c e r n was t h a t , once Leger was a p p o i n t e d he would be l o s t as a p o l i t i c a l w o r k e r , t h a t he would s i m p l y a t t e n d t h e s e s s i o n , draw h i s s a l a r y and " d e p a r t hence t o a t t e n d t o h i s law p r a c t i c e . " Too, Hanson d e p l o r e d t h e f a c t t h a t L e g e r was c o n d u c t i n g such a v i g o r o u s campaign, c h a r g i n g h im w i t h " a l l o w i n g , i f n o t f a t h e r i n g , p e t i t i o n s . " However, h i s most e f f e c t i v e argument was t h a t i t would be a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a r e p l a c e m e n t f o r h im s h o u l d L e g e r l e a v e t h e p r o v i n c i a l government. P r e m i e r T i l l e y a g r e e d w i t h t h i s assessment and t h e Prime M i n i s t e r a s s u r e d him i n F e b r u a r y 1934 t h a t " t h e r e w i l l be no need f o r making t h e ap p o i n t m e n t s t o t h e Senate a t t h e moment."*"'' There t h e m a t t e r l a y u n t i l J u l y 1935 when t h e campaign t o s e c u r e t h e Senate s e a t f o r Leger g a i n e d new momentum. I n June t h e T i l l e y government 80 s u f f e r e d an overwhelming d e f e a t and even Leger l o s t h i s s e a t . H i s s u p p o r t e r s were more a n x i o u s t h a n e v e r t o s e c u r e t h e s e a t t h a t had u n d o u b t e d l y been p r o -mised t o him. N e e d l e s s t o s a y , B e n n e t t was p r e s s u r e d from o t h e r q u a r t e r s t o a p p o i n t t h e c a n d i d a t e s t h e y f a v o r e d ; f o r a t i m e he c o n t e m p l a t e d naming L e g e r t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f New B r u n s w i c k i n s t e a d o f t o t h e Sen a t e . A l t h o u g h he had c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t f o r such a move, B e n n e t t was u n a b l e t o c a r r y i t t h r o u g h : Leger r e f u s e d t o r e l i n q u i s h h i s c l a i m t o t h e Senate s e a t . L i k e l y h i s s u p p o r t e r s would have been s a t i s f i e d w i t h e i t h e r a p p o i n t m e n t - - t h e y con-s i d e r e d t h e A c a d i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e Supreme C o u r t i n a d e q u a t e - - b u t Leger had h i s h e a r t s e t on t h e S e n a t e . Not even t h e u s u a l l y p e r s u a s i v e Prime M i n i s t e r c o u l d change h i s mind. Thus i t was t h a t on 14 August A n t o i n e Leger j o i n e d S e n a t o r s 0. Turgeon and T. J . Bourque as t h e A c a d i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h e 12 Senate from New B r u n s w i c k . P r o b a b l y t h e odd man out because o f L e g e r ' s i n t r a c t a b i l i t y was F e r d i n a n d J . Robidoux f r o m S h e d i a c , Westmorland c o u n t y . Born i n S h e d i a c , Robidoux had s e t t l e d i n Kent c o u n t y i n 1900 and i t was t h e r e i n 1908 t h a t he r a n u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r t h e House o f Commons, e n t e r i n g t h e c o n t e s t a g a i n i n 1911, t h a t t i m e t o be e l e c t e d . He had always been a l o y a l p a r t y man, s u p p o r t i n g even t h e M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e A c t , a d e c i s i o n w h i c h l e d t o h i s d e f e a t i n 1917. By h i s own a d m i s s i o n , Robidoux l o s t many f r i e n d s "whose esteem I p r i z e d . " S u b s e q u e n t l y he r e t u r n e d t o S h e d i a c t o make a new s t a r t . In a p p l y i n g f o r t h e a p p o i n t m e n t , Robidoux r e a d i l y conceded t h a t Leger was an " e x c e l l e n t man" , b u t he s u g g e s t e d t h a t he would make a w o r t h y a d d i t i o n t o t h e Supreme C o u r t . He reminded t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h a t , o f t h e f i v e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s who had s u p p o r t e d t h e M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e A c t , o n l y he had not been rewarded w i t h a f e d e r a l government a p p o i n t m e n t . I t was t r u e t h a t t h e B a x t e r government had put him on t h e L i q u o r Board and t h a t he s e r v e d on 81 t h e Hydro E l e c t r i c Commission ( f o r w h i c h he was p a i d o n l y when a t t e n d i n g s i t t i n g s ) , b u t he was p r e p a r e d t o r e s i g n from b o t h p o s i t i o n s i f he were named t o t h e S e n a t e . I r o n i c a l l y , many A c a d i a n s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t , h a v i n g been g i v e n t h e s e two p o s i t i o n s , Robidoux had been " l o o k e d a f t e r " a l t h o u g h 13 n e i t h e r was comparable t o a Senate s e a t i n s t a t u r e o r r e m u n e r a t i o n . . Former Prime M i n i s t e r R o b e r t Borden f e l t s t r o n g l y about Robidoux, s t a t i n g "he was an e s p e c i a l l y l o y a l f r i e n d and s u p p o r t e r f o r whose w e l f a r e I f e e l g r e a t c o n c e r n . " J . D. Hazen, C h i e f J u s t i c e o f t h e Supreme C o u r t o f New B r u n s w i c k , spoke h i g h l y o f him, s t r e s s i n g t h a t h i s appointment would be r e c e i v e d w i t h f a v o r by f r i e n d s o f t h e p a r t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e A c a d i a n s . T. A r s e n a u l t , M.P., echoed t h i s v i e w p o i n t and r e c o u n t e d how, a t g r e a t p e r s o n a l expense, Robidoux had o r g a n i z e d and p u b l i s h e d M o n i t e u r A c a d i e n f o r t h e e l e c t i o n s o f 1925 and 1926 and t h e N a t i o n f o r t h e e l e c t i o n o f 1930, t h u s g i v i n g t h e C o n s e r -v a t i v e p a r t y a v o i c e among t h e A c a d i a n s i n New B r u n s w i c k . B e n n e t t who had s u f -f e r e d s i m i l a r f i n a n c i a l l o s s e s k e e p i n g t h e R e g i n a D a i l y S t a r a f l o a t must have 14 f e l t a pang o f sympathy a t t h i s r e m i n d e r o f s i m i l a r e ndeavours. U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r R o b i d o u x , t h e i n f l u e n t i a l R. B. Hanson was no l o n g e r one o f h i s s u p p o r t e r s . I n i t i a l l y , when t h e q u e s t i o n o f f i l l i n g t h e A c a d i a n v a c a n c y had o c c u r r e d , he had f a v o r e d him o v e r L e g e r . Then w i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t L e g e r , n o t R obidoux, had t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c l e r g y , he changed h i s mind. Hanson i n s i s t e d t h a t he h i m s e l f c o n t i n u e d t o t h i n k v e r y h i g h l y o f him, but Robidoux would n o t have t h e f u l l b a c k i n g o f h i s p e o p l e - - h i s f a t h e r was Quebec-born; t h e r e f o r e he c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a t r u e A c a d i a n . B e s i d e s , h i s w i f e was P r o t e s t a n t . ^ A l t h o u g h p r o b a b l y t h e b e s t known, Robidoux was by no means t h e o n l y u n s u c c e s s f u l A c a d i a n a s p i r a n t t o t h e u p p e r house. Among o t h e r s who made a b i t t o s u c c e e d t h e l a t e S e n a t o r P o i r i e r were Aime P. Bourque, Hermene 82 B o u l a y , A l e x a n d r e - J . D o ucet, Dr. A l b e r t Sormony and Edouard de Grace. Aime Bourque, a r e t i r e d o f f i c i a l o f t h e C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l , does n o t appear t o have been an a c t i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e , b u t a p p a r e n t l y t h a t f a c t d i d n o t p r e v e n t him from making a p p l i c a t i o n . A t s e v e n t y - f i v e y e a r s o f age, i t would seem t h a t h i s s o l e m i s s i o n i n l i f e was t o d i s c o v e r p e r p e t u a l m o t i o n , a p u r s u i t w h i c h had o c c u p i e d him f o r f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s . Why he c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y e n t i t l e d him t o a Senate s e a t he d i d n o t say. However, when he went t o Los A n g e l e s a y e a r a f t e r h i s f i r s t l e t t e r o f a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e s e l f - p r o f e s s e d " w e l l known c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e S e n a t e " was c a r e f u l t o g i v e t h e Prime M i n i s t e r h i s change o f a d d r e s s , t o a s s u r e him t h a t he c o n t i n u e d t o work on h i s p r o j e c t w i t h f a i t h t h a t he was " l i k e l y t o s u c c e e d any day s o o n." B e n n e t t who had r e p l i e d t o h i s f i r s t l e t t e r by s a y i n g t h a t he had r e a d i t " w i t h i n t e r e s t " was f o r c e d t o t e l l him what he had t o l d so many o t h e r s : t h e r e were a l r e a d y f o u r s e n a t o r s from h i s c o u n t y o f Westmorland; i t would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o name a f i f t h . Bourque may have p r o v i d e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r w i t h a few l i g h t moments; Hermene B o u l a y c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t . O r i g i n a l l y from t h e p r o v i n c e o f Quebec, B o u l a y l i v e d i n Kedgewick, New B r u n s w i c k . He made t h e c l a i m t h a t R e s t i g o u c h e -Madawaska s h o u l d have a s e n a t o r and t h a t he would be a l o g i c a l c h o i c e as a p p o i n t e e . Back i n R i m o u s k i he had been an u n s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e i n 1908 b u t was e l e c t e d i n 1911 t o s i t i n t h e House o f Commons u n t i l 1917. B o u l a y s a i d he would " a c c e p t " an appointment i n Quebec i f one were n o t a v a i l a b l e i n New B r u n s w i c k . When he was n o t chosen f o r e i t h e r , he w r o t e a s c a t h i n g l e t t e r t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r . B e n n e t t r e p l i e d t o t h a t l e t t e r , a d m i t t i n g t h a t he d i d so because B o u l a y "was an o l d C o n s e r v a t i v e and Member o f P a r l i a m e n t . " He showed r e m a r k a b l e r e s t r a i n t e x p l a i n i n g t h a t , had he remained i n Quebec, h i s " c l a i m s c o u l d n o t have been e a s i l y o v e r l o o k e d " b u t i n New B r u n s w i c k t h e m i n i s t e r : 83 would n o t s u p p o r t him. I t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t B o u l a y would have had much s u p p o r t i n Quebec even i f he were s t i l l l i v i n g t h e r e , b u t by a n s w e r i n g as he d i d , B e n n e t t no doubt hoped t o keep him on t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i d e i n t h e upcoming e l e c t i o n . A c a n d i d a t e o f q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t t y p e was A l e x a n d r e Doucet from N o t r e Dame i n Kent County. Doucet had r u n i n f i v e e l e c t i o n s - - f o u r f e d e r a l and one p r o v i n c i a l — a n d was s u c c e s s f u l i n t h r e e o f them. He was d e f e a t e d f e d e r a l l y i n 1921 b u t was s u c c e s s f u l i n a b y - e l e c t i o n i n 1923 and t h e g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1925. D e f e a t e d a g a i n i n 1926, he was i n f l u e n t i a l i n g e t t i n g T. A r s e n a u l t e l e c t e d i n 1930. I n 1931 he won a p r o v i n c i a l b y - e l e c t i o n i n G l o u c e s t e r " a g a i n s t g r e a t odds". T h i s r e c o r d o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y l e d him t o b e l i e v e t h a t he had e a r n e d a p r o m o t i o n t o t h e S e n a t e . Doucet was recom-mended by S e n a t o r P. F. M a r t i n , b u t he d i d n o t seem t o have t h e b a c k i n g o f any o t h e r i n f l u e n t i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e f i g u r e , perhaps because he d i d n o t 18 s o l i c i t s u c h b a c k i n g as so many o t h e r c a n d i d a t e s d i d . Dr. A l b e r t Sormony o f Edmundston was a r a t h e r c o n t r o v e r s i a l f i g u r e . He had c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t from t h e l o c a l c l e r g y and from B i s h o p A r t h u r Melanson o f G r a v e l b o u r g , Saskatchewan. B i s h o p M e l a n s o n , who had e a r l i e r w r i t t e n t o e x t o l t h e v i r t u e s o f L e g e r , s u g g e s t e d t h a t i f B e n n e t t d i d n o t want t o a p p o i n t a n o t h e r s e n a t o r from Westmorland, t h e c h o i c e o f Sormony, "a p e r f e c t gentleman o f knowledge and a c t i o n " , would s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m . Many p a r i s h p r i e s t s s e n t w i r e s and p e t i t i o n s on h i s b e h a l f . I t i s i n t e r e s t -i n g t h a t , i n so d o i n g , most o f them a s k e d as w e l l t h a t A n t o i n e Leger be named t o s u c c e e d Judge Byrne o f t h e New B r u n s w i c k Supreme C o u r t and t h a t J . E. L eger be a p p o i n t e d as A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f P o s t a l S e r v i c e s f o r S a i n t John. However, Sormony's campaign r a i s e d t h e i r e o f a number o f p a r t y members who c l a i m e d he was n o t a t r u e C o n s e r v a t i v e ; perhaps f o r t h i s r e a s o n he d i d n o t r e c e i v e 84 v e r y s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A n o t h e r c a n d i d a t e from t h e n o r t h was J . Edouard de Gr a c e , a s c h o o l i n s p e c t o r from C a m p b e l l t o n . De G r a c e , who had been a c t i v e s i n c e 1908, was a f e d e r a l c a n d i d a t e i n 1921 and had t a k e n p a r t i n t h e e l e c t i o n s o f 1925, 1926 and 1930. When he a p p l i e d s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e de a t h o f S e n a t o r P o i r i e r , de Grace r e c e i v e d a r a t h e r b i t t e r r e p l y from B e n n e t t . The Prime M i n i s t e r was s t i l l s m a r t i n g from t h e d e f e a t o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e i n a r e c e n t b y - e l e c t i o n i n Restigouche-Madawaska; t h e L i b e r a l s had t a k e n t h e s e a t from t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s w i t h a s i x - t h o u s a n d v o t e m a j o r i t y . He c o m p l a i n e d t h a t i t would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o s e l e c t a s e n a t o r t o r e p r e s e n t t h e A c a d i a n i n t e r e s t s i n n o r t h e r n New B r u n s w i c k "when a p p a r e n t l y a l l a r e o f t h e o p p o s i n g p o l i t i c a l f a i t h . " However, R. B. Hanson s u g g e s t e d t h a t , i f Ben n e t t found i t i m p o s s i b l e t o choose between Leger and Robidoux, t h e two Westmorland c a n d i d a t e s , he s h o u l d g i v e some c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o de Grace. He was a " r e s p e c t a b l e , e d u c a t e d A c a d i a n " whom he had s u p p o r t e d f o r s c h o o l i n s p e c t o r . The New Br u n s w i c k T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n r e p o r t e d t h a t he had g i v e n e x c e l l e n t s e r v i c e and t h a t i t would be g r a t i f y i n g n o t o n l y t o them, b u t t o t h e Ca n a d i a n T e a c h e r s F e d e r a t i o n , i f one o f t h e i r members r e c e i v e d t h e ap p o i n t m e n t . B e n n e t t p r o m i s e d t o c o n s i d e r him, 20 b u t i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t de Grace had o n l y an o u t s i d e chance a t b e s t . The f i l l i n g o f t h e o t h e r New B r u n s w i c k s e a t posed q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m f o r t h e Prime M i n i s t e r . The man he f i n a l l y named, a l b e i t somewhat r e l u c t a n t l y , was s e v e n t y y e a r o l d Benjamin F r a n k l i n S m ith who had been an a c t i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n c e 1903. I n t h a t y e a r he c o n t e s t e d t h e f i r s t o f seven p r o v i n -c i a l e l e c t i o n s , d e f e a t e d o n l y once, i n 1921. He a l s o r a n i n f o u r f e d e r a l c o n t e s t s t o be e l e c t e d i n 1925 and a g a i n i n 1930 w i t h t h e l a r g e s t m a j o r i t y e v e r r e c o r d e d b y a c a n d i d a t e i n E a s t F l o r e n c e v i l l e . S m i t h , a w h o l e s a l e produce merchant, was p r e s i d e n t o f B. F. S m i t h , L t d . , t h e S a i n t John V a l l e y 85 Produce Exchange and t h e A s s o c i a t e d S h i p p e r s o f New B r u n s w i c k . When S e n a t o r I r v i n g Todd d i e d i n December,1932, Smith made an un-u s u a l move f o r a p o t e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e . He w r o t e t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t o say t h a t he f e l t n o t h i n g s h o u l d be done about f i l l i n g t h e v a c a n c y u n t i l e l e c t i o n t i m e , a p o i n t w i t h w h i c h B e n n e t t c o n c u r r e d . However, Smith's f r i e n d s were n o t o f t h e same mind and t h e y were q u i c k t o s u g g e s t t h a t he be e l e v a t e d t o t h e upper house. He was recommended by G. H. B l a k e n y , t h e mayor o f Moncton, and Hugh John Flemming. H. H. H a t f i e l d r e p o r t e d t h a t t h r o u g h h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h S m i t h i n t h e p o t a t o b u s i n e s s , he knew what f i n a n c i a l s a c r i f i c e s he had made f o r t h e p a r t y . I n November 1934 i t was rumored i n t h e New B r u n s w i c k p r e s s t h a t Thomas B e l l , M.P., would be named t o t h e S e n a t e . T h i s b r o u g h t f o r t h a s t r o n g p r o t e s t from B. E. C l i f f who a d v i s e d Hanson t h a t i f B e l l and n o t Smith got t h e a p p o i n t m e n t , t h e y might as w e l l " k i s s C a r l e t o n - V i c t o r i a goodbye." C l i f f added t h a t B e l l would be o f no h e l p i n t h e upcoming e l e c t i o n ; t h e y "might as w e l l have o l d S e n a t o r P o i r i e r , and he i s dead." Hanson a g r e e d w i t h h i s s e n t i -ments. He contended t h a t a l t h o u g h B e n n e t t seemed "not t o o w e l l d i s p o s e d t o a p p o i n t i n g Frank S m i t h , " from a p o l i t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t S m i t h s h o u l d get one 21 E n g l i s h s e a t , George Jones t h e o t h e r . I n J u l y 1935, S m i t h was u n a b l e t o see t h e Prime M i n i s t e r i n p e r s o n b e f o r e l e a v i n g f o r home; he had t o be c o n t e n t w i t h e x p r e s s i n g h i s v i e w s by l e t t e r . He remarked t h a t he u n d e r s t o o d B e n n e t t ' s d i s t r e s s o v e r t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e c e n t e l e c t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e and a s s u r e d him t h a t , i f he were t e n y e a r s younger, he would r u n a g a i n . However, he was p a s t s e v e n t y , he had s u f f e r e d b u s i n e s s r e v e r s e s i n t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s ; a younger man s h o u l d t a k e o v e r . He s u g g e s t e d Hugh J . Flemming. S m i t h p o i n t e d out t h a t h i s c o n s t i t u e n c y had been L i b e r a l when he began; now i f any s e a t were s a f e i n New B r u n s w i c k , i t was C a r l e t o n - V i c t o r i a . He contended t h a t he had made as many s a c r i f i c e s as any 86 man and t h a t h i s c o n s t i t u e n c y , w h i c h had n o t had a s e n a t o r s i n c e c o n f e d e r a t i o n , was e x p e c t i n g t h e honor. F u r t h e r , t h e a r e a from S a i n t John e x t e n d i n g a l o n g t h e S a i n t ' John R i v e r t o Quebec was w i t h o u t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . H i s appointment would r e c t i f y t h a t s i t u a t i o n . A few days a f t e r w r i t i n g t h i s l e t t e r , S m i t h s u f f e r e d t h e l o s s o f h i s f a m i l y home by f i r e . T h i s e l i c i t e d an e x p r e s s i o n o f sympathy from t h e Prime M i n i s t e r who too k t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f o r m him t h a t t h e m a t t e r o f t h e s e n a t e was " d i f f i c u l t , e s p e c i a l l y because o f t h e r e c e n t l o s s by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment." I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t B e n n e t t was s t i l l n o t w i l l i n g t o concede an a p p o i n t -ment f o r S m i t h , b u t a l e t t e r a r r i v e d a few days l a t e r from R. B. Hanson t o swing t h e pendulum i n h i s f a v o r . Hanson w r o t e : I know y o u r a n t i p a t h y a g a i n s t t h e appointment o f Frank S m i t h , b u t e v e r y d i c t a t e o f wisdom prompts me t o s t a n d by t h i s recom-mendation. H i s appointment w i l l be more p o p u l a r i n S a i n t John t h a n any o t h e r man, i n c l u d i n g T i l l e y and B e l l . But most i m p o r t a n t , t h e e x e c u t i v e o f C a r l e t o n - V i c t o r i a t e l l me i f he i s n o t a p p o i n t e d , t h e y cannot get a c a n d i d a t e , and I cannot be l e f t i n t h i s p o s i t i o n . S m i t h i s n o t i n on t h i s , as he h a s n ' t communicated w i t h me s i n c e he l e f t Ottawa. I t i s n o t c l e a r why B e n n e t t was so r e l u c t a n t t o a p p o i n t S m i t h . The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e two men was v e r y c o r d i a l and c e r t a i n l y S m i t h seemed unaware t h a t t h e Prime M i n i s t e r had any n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s towards him. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t age was a f a c t o r . A t s e v e n t y , S m i t h was o l d e r t h a n B e n n e t t would have p r e f e r r e d , b u t s i x o f h i s o t h e r 1935 Senate a p p o i n t e e s were p a s t s i x t y - f i v e . I n any c a s e , t h r e e weeks a f t e r r e c e i v i n g Hanson's f r a n k l e t t e r and i n s p i t e o f t h e p r e s s u r e s b e i n g e x e r t e d on b e h a l f o f f o r m e r P r e m i e r L. P. D. T i l l e y , B e n n e t t e l e v a t e d S m i th t o t h e S e n a t e . F o r T i l l e y , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s f a i l u r e t o a p p o i n t him t o t h e Senate must have been t h e g r e a t e s t d i s a p p o i n t m e n t o f h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . When h i s government had been d e f e a t e d i n J u n e , q u i t e n a t u r a l l y he l o o k e d t o h i s f r i e n d s 87 i n Ottawa t o f i n d h im a m e a n i n g f u l p o s i t i o n . F o r him, t h e Senate was a l o g i c a l c h o i c e . C e r t a i n l y T i l l e y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s were n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e i n l i g h t o f t h e n a t u r e and l e n g t h o f h i s p u b l i c s e r v i c e . He had " t a k e n t h e stump f o r t h e p a r t y i n e v e r y e l e c t i o n , f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l " s i n c e t h e age o f n i n e -t e e n . He was f i r s t e l e c t e d t o t h e l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1912; he became a member o f t h e newly-formed B a x t e r government i n 1925; he was named M i n i s t e r o f Lands i n 1931; two y e a r s l a t e r he succeeded B a x t e r as P r e m i e r and c o n t i n u e d t o h o l d t h e Lands p o r t f o l i o . Throughout t h a t whole p e r i o d , he had c a r r i e d on h i s Law p r a c t i c e b u t had g i v e n ' i t ' v e r y l i t t l e t i m e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e 1931; c o n s e q u e n t l y he had had l i t t l e t o f a l l back on once he was d e f e a t e d . In e a r l y J u l y , T i l l e y met w i t h R. B. Hanson t o d i s c u s s h i s p r o s p e c t s and he t h e n w r o t e t o h i s good f r i e n d , S i r George P e r l e y : The s u p p o r t f o r my a p p l i c a t i o n i s s t r o n g . I was d e e p l y h u r t when when R. B. Hanson i n t i m a t e d a County C o u r t J u d g e s h i p f o r K i n g s and A l b e r t C o u n t i e s was t o be my r e w a r d . You can imagine my f e e l i n g s . I f I am f o r c e d t o t a k e i t I suppose I w i l l have t o , b u t I f e e l h u r t . :'. beyond words t o t h i n k t h a t t h e Government, composed i n n e a r l y e v e r y i n s t a n c e o f warm p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s , s h o u l d hand me out a p o s i t i o n o f t h i s k i n d , i n s t e a d o f a p o s i t i o n o f S e n a t o r s h i p , where I can s t i l l be o f some p u b l i c s e r v i c e t o my P r o v i n c e and c o u n t r y . ^ 3 No doubt P e r l e y d i s c u s s e d t h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h B e n n e t t and f o r w a r d e d him a copy o f t h e l e t t e r . O n 2 August t h e Prime M i n i s t e r w i r e d T i l l e y , "Am a n x i o u s t o speak 24 w i t h you. P l e a s e t e l e p h o n e me i m m e d i a t e l y upon y o u r a r r i v a l i n S a i n t J o h n . " As a r e s u l t o f t h e e n s u i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h e f o r m e r P r e m i e r a g r e e d t o t a k e t h e County C o u r t a p p o i n t m e n t , p r o b a b l y r e a l i z i n g he had v e r y l i t t l e c h o i c e . T h i s must have been a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t m e e t i n g f o r B e n n e t t . I t was T i l l e y who had nominated him a t t h e l e a d e r s h i p c o n v e n t i o n e i g h t y e a r s e a r l i e r . A t t h a t T i l l e y f a r e d b e t t e r t h a n t h e f o r m e r p r e m i e r s o f o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . J . T. M. Anderson o f Saskatchewan, S. F. T o l m i e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , George Henry o f O n t a r i o — e a c h sought government a p p o i n t m e n t s , each was. r e j e c t e d out o f hand. 88 There were a number o f o t h e r a p p l i c a n t s f o r t h i s r e m a i n i n g Senate s e a t , i n c l u d i n g Thomas B e l l , R. W. Grimmer, C. P. H i c k e y , W. S. Montgomery and D a v i d A. S t e w a r t . Thomas B e l l , member o f p a r l i a m e n t f o r S a i n t J o h n - A l b e r t c o u n t i e s , f i r s t a p p l i e d i n J a n u a r y 1933 t o s u c c e e d S e n a t o r J . W._ D a n i e l . A l t h o u g h he i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were many o t h e r s a f t e r t h a t s e a t , B e n n e t t d i d p r o m i s e t o d i s c u s s t h e m a t t e r w i t h him. He must have g i v e n B e l l no hope when t h e y met because t h e r e was no f u r t h e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between them; s t i l l B e l l ' s name 25 came up s e v e r a l t i m e s i n 1934 and 1935 as t h a t o f a p o t e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e . R. W. Grimmer, a p o p u l a r f o r m e r member from C h a r l o t t e County, had been an M.L.A. f o r e i g h t y e a r s and an M.P. f o r n i n e . He had r e t i r e d i n 1930 t o make way f o r A r t h u r D. Ganong whose f a m i l y had been s t a u n c h Con-s e r v a t i v e s u p p o r t e r s f o r t h i r t y y e a r s . I n 1931 Grimmer had been a p p o i n t e d t o t h e Department o f M a r i n e and F i s h e r i e s , b u t t h a t p o s i t i o n ended i n 1933 when he t u r n e d s i x t y - f i v e . He was s t r o n g l y recommended by C h a r l e s M u r c h i e , Chairman o f t h e E l e c t i o n Committee f o r C h a r l o t t e County,,who w r o t e s e v e r a l l e t t e r s on h i s b e h a l f . However, a p p a r e n t l y f o r m e r P r e m i e r B a x t e r d i d n o t f a v o u r h i s a p p o i n t m e n t . Grimmer was n e v e r r e a l l y g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . C. P. H i c k e y was a p h a r m a c i s t from Chatham whose s u p p o r t e r s a t t e m p t e d t o p e r s u a d e t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h a t t h e v a c a n c y s h o u l d go t o an I r i s h C a t h o l i c . H i c k e y was t h e i r c h o i c e . They argued t h a t S e n a t o r John McDonald, t h e I r i s h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who had been a p p o i n t e d by A r t h u r Meighen i n 1921, was i n a c t u a l f a c t from Nova S c o t i a . He had o n l y a summer home i n New B r u n s w i c k . N a t u r a l l y t h i s f a c t c aused g r e a t r e s e n t m e n t among t h e C a t h o l i c s o f New B r u n s w i c k . B e n n e t t r e p l i e d t h a t t h e r e were a l r e a d y f o u r C a t h o l i c s e n a t o r s ; he c o u l d n o t change t h a t b a l a n c e " w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g a d i f f i c u l t y w h i c h w i l l e x t e n d t o many o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada." He a g r e e d t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n was 89 u n f a i r b u t i t was beyond h i s power t o r e c t i f y i t . As he commented t o H i c k e y , " I am n o t t h e complete m a s t e r i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . . . . p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s must be 27 d i s r e g a r d e d i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . " S t i l l a n o t h e r a p p l i c a n t , W. S. Montgomery, was t h e manager o f t h e D a l h o u s i e Land Company i n D a l h o u s i e . He hoped t o get t h e appointment f o r R e s t i g o u c h e w h i c h had n e v e r had a s e n a t o r . He had c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t from a c q u a i n t a n c e s , b u t no s t r o n g s u p p o r t from members o f p a r l i a m e n t and c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s — q u i t e t h e o p p o s i t e , i n f a c t . R. B. Hanson, on h e a r i n g o f t h e move t o s e a t Montgomery, w r o t e t o B e n n e t t e n c l o s i n g a l e t t e r from t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Restigouche-Madawaska i n w h i c h he s a i d he was v e r y much a g a i n s t t h e a p p o i n t m e n t . Hanson added t h a t i n h i s own o p i n i o n such an appointment "would be a d i s g r a c e f u l one. He i s no t t h e t y p e who s h o u l d go t o t h e S e n a t e . I n e v e r met him y e t b u t what he was i n a s e m i - i n t o x i c a t e d c o n d i t i o n . " B e n n e t t agreed t h a t he had h e a r d much t h e same from Judge B a x t e r and a s s u r e d Hanson t h a t " I f a n c y I have much t h e same o p i n i o n m y s e l f . " There was t h o u g h t g i v e n t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t R e s t i g o u c h e s h o u l d have a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t h e S e n a t e . A f t e r a l l , i t d i d c o n t r i b u t e c o n s i d e r a b l e revenue from i t s p o t a t o c r o p s , p u l p and p a p e r i n -d u s t r i e s and l u m b e r i n g . A p p a r e n t l y t h e Prime M i n i s t e r r emained u n c o n v i r i e e d 28 o f t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r such a move. D a v i d A. S t e w a r t , f o r m e r M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works i n t h e T i l l e y g o v e r n -ment, was i n complete agreement w i t h t h o s e who were a n x i o u s t h a t R e s t i g o u c h e be r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e Sen a t e . He hoped t o be t h e one chosen t o f i l l s uch a s e a t . As f o r t h e rumor t h a t B. F. S m i t h was b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d , he r e a s o n e d t h a t w h i l e S m i t h had t h e b a c k i n g t o get r e - e l e c t e d i n C a r l e t o n - V i c t o r i a , i t would be i m p o s s i b l e t o e l e c t a C o n s e r v a t i v e i n R e s t i g o u c h e . T h e r e f o r e t h a t a r e a would have t o be g i v e n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e S e n a t e . S t e w a r t , who 90 had been a member o f t h e New B r u n s w i c k l e g i s l a t u r e f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s p r i o r t o h i s d e f e a t i n J u n e , a d m i t t e d n e e d i n g a p o s i t i o n b ecause o f f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s . He had sp e n t a l l h i s means e d u c a t i n g h i s t h r e e s o n s . L i k e so many d e f e a t e d c a n d i d a t e s from a l l a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y , he l o o k e d t o t h e f e d e r a l 2' C o n s e r v a t i v e government f o r a s s i s t a n c e . He t o o was doomed t o d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . The i n f l u e n c e o f R. B. Hanson was a p p a r e n t i n a l l t h r e e New B r u n s w i c k a p p o i n t m e n t s . U n l i k e t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s , Hanson chose t o become d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e l e c t i o n s . B e n n e t t a p p ears t o have p l a c e d s t o c k i n h i s a d v i c e . A l t h o u g h C a l g a r y had been h i s home f o r many y e a r s , t h e Prime M i n i s t e r m a i n t a i n e d c l o s e t i e s w i t h h i s n a t i v e p r o v i n c e . He was p a r t i c u l a r l y a n x i o u s t o make s e l e c t i o n s w h i c h would p r o v e a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e p a r t y s t a l w a r t s t h e r e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , he d e c i d e d t o a p p o i n t Frank Smith when h i s p e r s o n a l c h o i c e would have been T i l l e y who was l e s s p o l i t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . * * * * I n Quebec, t h r e e v a c a n c i e s r e m ained. These were f i l l e d b y two m e d i c a l d o c t o r s - - D r . E m i l e F o r t i n and Dr. Eugene Paquet--and a l a w y e r - -C h a r l e s B o u r g e o i s , K. C. F o r t i n and B o u r g e o i s were c u r r e n t members o f p a r l i -ament, Paquet a f o r m e r member and l o n g - t i m e C o n s e r v a t i v e w o r k e r i n Quebec. P r o b a b l y few o f t h e B e n n e t t Senate a p p o i n t e e s w i s h e d more d e s p e r a t e l y f o r t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t d i d Dr. F o r t i n , a p h a r m a c i s t and p h y s i c i a n from L e v i s . F o r t i n was a widower w i t h t e n c h i l d r e n , seven o f whom were s t i l l s t u d e n t s ; he h i m s e l f was i n p o o r h e a l t h ; h i s p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y had a l l b u t f i n i s h e d h i s m e d i c a l p r a c t i c e . He had been an o r g a n i z e r i n 1925, an u n s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e i n 1926, an o r g a n i z e r a g a i n f o r t h e 1928 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , and a c a n d i d a t e - - w i t h success:thjs5t±me--in 1930. F o r t i n had a p p l i e d f o r a Senate s e a t " s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f S e n a t o r J u l e s T e s s i e r i n J a n u a r y 1934. A few months l a t e r he asked t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t o l e t him know i f he had no chance; he would have t o r e t u r n t o what was l e f t o f h i s p r a c t i c e . He s t r e s s e d t h a t t h i n g s were " g e t t i n g more s e r i o u s a l l t h e t i m e . " B e n n e t t w r o t e t o h i s "dear o l d f r i e n d " i m m e d i a t e l y upon r e c e i v i n g t h e l e t t e r s a y i n g , "Do n o t be-come despondent. We a l l have t r o u b l e s . . . w h e n you r e t u r n t o t h e House, I w i l l have a t a l k w i t h y o u . " Perhaps t h e Prime M i n i s t e r i n f o r m e d F o r t i n i n p e r s o n t h a t t h e r e were no p l a n s t o make ap p o i n t m e n t s a t t h a t t i m e . There was no f u r t h e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f o r a y e a r . However, i n June 1935 B e n n e t t p r o v e d t h a t he had n o t f o r g o t t e n F o r t i n ' s problems when he w r o t e t o M a u r i c e Dupre: I t h i n k s o m e t h i n g has t o be done f o r p o o r o l d Dr. F o r t i n i f i t i s a t a l l p o s s i b l e . You know t h e n a t u r e and t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s e r v i c e he has rendered.30 Dupre a s s u r e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h a t he was " a t h i s d i s p o s a l " t o do a n y t h i n g he s u g g e s t e d . The way had been paved f o r t h e appointment o f t h e f i f t y - s e v e n y e a r o l d F o r t i n , b u t a p p a r e n t l y no one t o l d h im o f B e n n e t t ' s i n t e n t i o n . " P l e a s e don't f o r g e t me," he w i r e d on 17 J u l y ; " F o r God's sake don't f o r g e t me," he w i r e d a g a i n on 13 August l e s s t h a n a month l a t e r . One more day and an o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l announced h i s appointment f o r t h e d i v i s i o n o f de l a 31 D u r a n t a y e . F o r t i n ' s o r d e a l was o v e r . H i s s t o r y was r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h a t o f A l f r e d F r i p p whose appointment r e s c u e d him from d i r e f i n a n c i a l s t r a i t s . B o t h had many f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s who w r o t e on t h e i r b e h a l f . S t r e s s was l a i d on l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e t o t h e p a r t y , b u t t h e i r f i n a n c i a l woes loomed l a r g e . Compassion p l a y e d a major r o l e i n b o t h d e c i s i o n s u n d o u b t e d l y . Perhaps t h e r e was a s i d e t o Prime M i n i s t e r B e n n e t t n o t ;too w e l l : k n o w n o u t s i d e o f C o n s e r v a t i v e c i r c l e s . Dr. Eugene Paquet, a l s o a p h y s i c i a n , was t e n y e a r s o l d e r t h a n F o r t i n . 92 He had been a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l l y f o r t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s . He had r u n s u c c e s s -f u l l y i n L ' I s l e t i n 1904, 1908 and 1911, a n o t a b l e f e a t because i t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r a C o n s e r v a t i v e t o get e l e c t e d i n t h e Quebec d i s t r i c t i n L a u r i e r ' s day. Dr. Paquet f i r s t a p p l i e d f o r t h e Senate i n J a n u a r y 1933, a p e t i t i o n b e a r i n g t h e s i g n a t u r e s o f s c o r e s o f Bonaventure c i t i z e n s a r r i v i n g i n Ottawa t h e same day. He reminded B e n n e t t t h a t , s i n c e a r r i v i n g i n Bonaventure i n 1917, he had worked v e r y h a r d , t h a t he woul d l i k e l y have been s u c c e s s f u l a t t h e p o l l s i n 1926 had h i s opponents n o t i n t r o d u c e d t h e c o n s c r i p t i o n i s s u e . I n 1930 he had campaigned a c t i v e l y f o r E. A. D. Morgan, a l a w y e r . A l t h o u g h Morgan was d e f e a t e d , t h e L i b e r a l m a j o r i t y was r e d u c e d t o 36 v o t e s . P aquet, who had a g r e e d a t t h a t t i m e t o s t a n d a s i d e so t h a t Morgan c o u l d r u n , had been a s s u r e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r , J . H. R a i n v i l l e , t h a t he would be a p p o i n t e d t o t h e Senate a t t h e f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t y . P o s t m a s t e r G e n e r a l A r t h u r Sauve l a t e r con-f i r m e d t h a t he would get "what was p r o m i s e d t o h i m . " Paquet h i m s e l f d i d n o t r a i s e t h i s s u b j e c t w i t h t h e Prime M i n i s t e r . He d i d s t a t e t h a t as d i r e c t o r o f p a t r o n a g e he was " s t i l l d e v o t i n g my t i m e t o t h e cause o f t h e p a r t y " ; a Senate appointment would " i n c r e a s e my p r e s t i g e i n Bonaventure and a s s u r e v i c t o r y f o r the n e x t e l e c t i o n . " I n l a t e J u l y 1935, E. A. D. Morgan w r o t e t o S i r George P e r l e y t o re m i n d h im o f Paquet's s e r v i c e t o t h e p a r t y . He s a i d t h a t a l t h o u g h he d i d n o t w i s h t o c o m p l a i n , he wanted t o p o i n t out t h a t "not one o f t h e o l d C o n s e r v a t i v e s from t h e Quebec d i s t r i c t has had a l o o k - i n on t h e plums." T h i s s i t u a t i o n was r e c t i f i e d on 14 August when Paquet j o i n e d F o r t i n i n t h e 32 S e n a t e , s u c c e e d i n g t o t h e s e a t o f H. S. B e l a n d i n t h e d i v i s i o n o f Lauzon. The f i n a l Senate appointment made by R. B. B e n n e t t was t h a t o f C h a r l e s B o u r g e o i s from T r o i s R i v i e r e s . A l t h o u g h t h e o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l naming B o u r g e o i s was d a t e d 15 A u g u s t , i t was n o t r e l e a s e d i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e p r e s s . There had been mounting s p e c u l a t i o n as t o who t h e a p p o i n t e e might be. The name o f 93 B o u r g e o i s was n o t g i v e n a h i g h r a t i n g , p erhaps because h i s s t a y i n t h e House o f Commons had been r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t . He had been an u n s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e i n 1926, b u t t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o n t e s t i n g o f a b y - e l e c t i o n i n August 1931 b r o u g h t him i n t o t h e House o f Commons. In h i s e a r l y y e a r s he had been a c t i v e i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s , s e r v i n g as alderman o f T r o i s R i v i e r e s i n 1911 and as mayor i n 1913. He had been B a t o n n i e r o f t h e l o c a l b a r i n 1921, 1922, 1925 and 1926, and he s e r v e d as B a t o n n i e r G e n e r a l f o r t h e p r o v i n c e o f Quebec i n 1926. Pope P i u x XI c r e a t e d him a Commander o f t h e O r d e r o f S t . S y l v e s t e r i n 1932. I n December 1933 B o u r g e o i s w r o t e t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r d i s c l a i m i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e " p r e m a t u r e " campaign w h i c h had been s t a r t e d on h i s be-h a l f w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o S e n a t o r J a c q u e s Bureau's v a c a n t s e a t ; he a d m i t t e d t h a t he had t o l d h i s s u p p o r t e r s o f h i s i n t e r e s t "when t i m e matures f o r i t . " However, i n t e r e s t i n B o u r g e o i s was b e i n g e x p r e s s e d even though he may n o t have been t a k i n g an a c t i v e p a r t . There were recommendations from a number o f c h u r c h l e a d e r s ; t h e mayor o f T r o i s R i v i S r e s a s s u r e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h a t he was " P r e s i d e n t o f many b e n e v o l e n t s o c i e t i e s f o r h e l p i n g t h e needy....a v e r y r e s p e c t f u l and r e s p e c t e d c i t i z e n . " There were d i s s e n t i n g v o i c e s , however. J . V e r r e t t e o f t h e R. B. B e n n e t t C l u b o f T r o i s R i v i e r e s c h a r g e d t h a t t h e a ppointment o f B o u r g e o i s would be a d i s g r a c e ; t h e r e were o t h e r members o f p a r l i -ament who d e s e r v e d i t more. " B o u r g e o i s has been a t h o r o u g h - p a c e d c u r s e t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y i n T r o i s R i v i e r e s , " he stormed.by l e t t e r t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r , e n c l o s i n g a condemnatory newspaper a r t i c l e t o s t r e n g t h e n h i s c l a i m . . Even a f t e r t h e appointment was made, an anonymous w r i t e r c o n t i n u e d t o a t t a c k t h e appointment i n venomous t e r m s , r e t u r n i n g t o t h e Prime M i n i s t e r s e v e r a l p i c t u r e s he had o f him. A s i d e from t h i s o u t b u r s t , t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e r e -a c t i o n t o t h e appointment o f B o u r g e o i s . U n d o u b t e d l y t h e p e o p l e o f T r o i s R i v i g r e s 94 33 were g r a t i f i e d t o have t h e s e a t go t o a l o n g - t i m e r e s i d e n t o f t h e i r c i t y . The numerous o t h e r a s p i r a n t s f o r t h e s e f i n a l Quebec s e a t s i n c l u d e d J.-A. B a r r e t t e , P i e r r e B e r t r a n d , P a u l L a c o s t e and Ludger B a s t i e n . B e n n e t t may w e l l have become aware o f J.-A. B a r r e t t e ' s p o s s i b l e c a n d i d a c y t h r o u g h t h e r e c e i p t o f a n e g a t i v e l e t t e r i n March 1932. W r i t t e n on Senate l e t t e r h e a d , i t b o r e t h e s i g n a t u r e , "A few members o f t h e S e n a t e , " i n e f f e c t no s i g n a t u r e a t a l l . I t s u g g e s t e d t h e r e was " l o t s o f n o n s e n s e " about t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f B a r r e t t e t o s u c c e e d S e n a t o r L e g r i s . They were s u r e t h e M P r i m e M i n i s t e r "was t o o f u l l o f d i g n i t y t o r e p l a c e him by such a f o o l . . . . w e do n o t want any more d i s g r a c e i n t h i s room; we have a l r e a d y t o o much." Whether o r n o t t h e l e t t e r was a u t h e n t i c , i t was bound t o r o u s e t h e c u r i o s i t y o f B e n n e t t , e s p e c i a l l y as he was soon t o r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was h i g h l y commendatory. To B a r r e t t e ' s s u p p o r t e r s he e v e n t u a l l y r e p l i e d t h a t he knew t h e i r c a n d i d a t e w e l l - - t h e y had e n t e r e d t h e House o f Commons t o g e t h e r i n 1911. However, t h e r e would be a p r o b l e m i n o p e n i n g up h i s s e a t . I t was n o t u n t i l 18 J u l y 1935 t h a t B a r r e t t e u n d e r t o o k t o make a p p l i c a t i o n h i m s e l f . He w r o t e : I c l a i m j u s t i c e and r e w a r d f o r l o n g s e r v i c e . I have a l a r g e f a m i l y and I am p o o r . The T r i n i t y , D u r a n l e a u ^ R a i n v i l l e , and C a r t i e r a r e a g a i n s t me. I have c o n f i d e n c e i n you. He w r o t e a g a i n on 1 August t o r e q u e s t appointment t o t h e d i s t r i c t o f S h a w i n i g a n " i n t h e name o f o u r o l d f r i e n d s h i p and i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f my l o n g s e r v i c e . " A f t e r t h e appointment had gone t o B o u r g e o i s , B e n n e t t e x p l a i n e d t o a s u p p o r t e r o f B a r r e t t e t h a t i t had been mandatory t o name a r e s i d e n t o f T r o i s Rivi§res. He hoped B a r r e t t e c o u l d be h o n o r e d a t a l a t e r d a t e . Qf c o u r s e , t h a t day n e v e r came. B a r r e t t e was l e f t t o f a c e once a g a i n t h e v o t e r s o f B e r t h i e r , 35 t o c o n t e s t t h e c o n s t i t u e n c y where he had worked so h a r d f o r t h i r t y y e a r s . P i e r r e B e r t r a n d was a member o f t h e Quebec L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly from S t . Sauveur who had begun h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r as an a l d e r m a n , a p o s i t i o n he 95 h e l d f o r t w e l v e y e a r s . I n t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1921, he had been d e f e a t e d as a C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e i n Quebec West, b u t i n 1923 he was e l e c t e d t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l house i n S t . Sauveur. D e f e a t e d i n 1927, he was s u c c e s s f u l i n 1931. B e r t r a n d had s t a r t e d h i s c a r e e r as a l a b o r e r , and a l t h o u g h he e v e n t u a l l y became a s u c c e s s f u l shoe m a n u f a c t u r e r , l e t t e r s and p e t i t i o n s t e s t i f i e d t h a t he c o n t i n u e d t o have t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e l a b o r i n g c l a s s . B e n n e t t seemed t o have a h i g h r e g a r d f o r B e r t r a n d . He t o l d him t h a t t h e p a r t y l e a d e r s i n Quebec f e l t i t was " a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t h a t you be i n t h e n e x t p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n as a c a n d i d a t e . . . . t h e r e i s g r e a t work f o r you t o do i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s -l a t u r e . An appointment t o t h e Senate might come a t a l a t e r d a t e . " E v i d e n t l y t h e r e had been some hope t h a t B e r t r a n d would be a p p o i n t e d f o r S h a w i n i g a n , b u t B e n n e t t p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s o f T r o i s - R i v i e r e s had a s t r o n g e r c l a i m . They demanded t h a t t h e t h i r d l a r g e s t c i t y "be s e c u r e i n i t s r e p r e s e n t a -36 t i o n i n t h e Senate" . A c t i o n was t a k e n a c c o r d i n g l y . P a u l L a c o s t e , a l a w y e r from M o n t r e a l whose f a t h e r and g r a n d f a t h e r had been s e n a t o r s , f e l t he was e n t i t l e d t o t h e p o s i t i o n t o o . He d i d have c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t from E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g C o n s e r v a t i v e s such as R. L. Borden and C. H. Cahan, b u t he r o u s e d o n l y a n t a g o n i s m i n B e n n e t t who remarked t o Cahan, " I am f a m i l i a r w i t h P a u l L a c o s t e ' s c l a i m s , b u t I cannot t h i n k t h a t h i s 37 p e r s i s t e n c e i n u r g i n g t h e s e c l a i m s improves h i s c h a n c e s . " The u n s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e on whose b e h a l f t h e s t r o n g e s t campaign was waged was Ludger B a s t i e n from Quebec C i t y . B a s t i e n h i m s e l f made no a p p l i c a t i o n , b u t t h e campaign f o r h i s appointment began i n September 1932 w i t h t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f a p e t i t i o n c o n t a i n i n g f i f t e e n h undred names. Deputy Speaker Armand Lavergne and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , C. N, Dorion,,M.P., made a d e t e r m i n e d b i d t o s e c u r e t h e Senate s e a t f o r him. A m a n u f a c t u r e r , B a s t i e n had been a member o f t h e Quebec Assembly from 1922 t o 1927 and an u n s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e i n 1927 and 1931. 96 A c c o r d i n g t o D o r i o n , he was from one o f Quebec's most d i s t i n g u i s h e d f a m i l i e s and had "spent a s m a l l f o r t u n e " on b e h a l f o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . Of Huron e x t r a c t i o n w i t h " F r e n c h b l o o d i n h i s v e i n s , " he was G r e a t C h i e f o f t h e Huron r e s e r v e o f t h e Young L o r e t t e , a f a c t w h i c h Lavergne m a i n t a i n e d would have a b e n e f i c i a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n a l l a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . The campaign c o n t i n u e d u n a b a t e d u n t i l t h e Prime 38 M i n i s t e r made h i s f i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n s i n August 1935. t When B a s t i e n had been p a s s e d o v e r i n f a v o r o f A. J . Brown and J . H. R a i n v i l l e i n O c t o b e r 1932, Lavergne had p e r s i s t e d i n h i s campaign on h i s c a n d i d a t e ' s b e h a l f . He a t t e m p t e d t o put p r e s s u r e on S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l M a u r i c e Dupre because he c l a i m e d he was " t h e o n l y one a g a i n s t B a s t i e n . " He reminded h i s c o l l e a g u e t h a t he had done him f a v o u r s i n t h e p a s t i n c l u d i n g h i s h e l p i n s e c u r i n g h i s n o m i n a t i o n ; i n r e t u r n he wanted h i s s u p p o r t f o r B a s t i e n ' s a p p l i c a t i o n . Dupre was n o t p e r s u a d e d ; he c o n t i n u e d t o oppose B a s t i e n . Lavergne t h e n renewed h i s r e q u e s t t o B e n n e t t o n l y t o r e c e i v e t h e judgment t h a t B a s t i e n " i s s t i l l an I n d i a n under t h e A c t and would n o t , t h e r e f o r e , be e l i g i b l e f o r a p p o i n t m e n t . " A t t h a t Lavergne "begged t o d i f f e r " w i t h t h e Prime M i n i s t e r by s t a t i n g : /My/ o p i n i o n i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by M. P l a x t o n o f t h e Department o f J u s t i c e , M. C h a r l e s L a n c t o t , A s s i s t a n t A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l f o r Quebec, M. L o u i s S t . - L a u r e n t , and many o t h e r p r o m i n e n t l a w y e r s who u n a n i m o u s l y h o l d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e f a c t o f Mr. B a s t i e n b e i n g an I n d i a n would n o t i n any way d i s q u a l i f y him as a S e n a t o r . The o n l y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u e s t e d a r e t h o s e o f t h e B.N.A. A c t , t h e Ca n a d i a n R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s , and n o t h i n g i n t h e I n d i a n A c t p r e v e n t s an I n d i a n n o t l i v i n g i n t h e R e s e r v e s , o f e x e r c i s i n g t h e r i g h t s o f an o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n . 3 9 B e n n e t t r e - a f f i r m e d t h a t B a s t i e n was i n e l i g i b l e . However, he i n f o r m e d Dupre t h a t Lavergne was " p r e s s i n g v e r y h a r d " and a s k e d h im t o d i s c u s s t h e m a t t e r w i t h him. Then i n December 1934, B e n n e t t s u g g e s t e d t h a t Lavergne h i m s e l f g et i n t o u c h w i t h Dupre a g a i n . Two months l a t e r Dupre r e p o r t e d t o t h e Prime t h a t Lavergne was adamant; he had made B a s t i e n ' s appointment t h e c o n d i t i o n 97 " s i n e qua non" f o r h i s s u p p o r t o f t h e p a r t y i n t h e n e x t e l e c t i o n . Dupre was now r e a d y t o compromise. He o b s e r v e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h he d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h e s e l e c t i o n o f B a s t i e n would h e l p t h e p a r t y , p e r h a p s something c o u l d be done f o r him " i n v i e w o f h i s p a s t s e r v i c e s . " 4 ^ Whatever chance B a s t i e n might have had was p r o b a b l y e r a s e d by t h e sudden d e a t h o f Armand Lavergne on 5 March 1935. The campaign o f t h e f o r m e r N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r was e x t r a o r d i n a r y . I n no o t h e r appointment had any one f o u g h t so t e n a c i o u s l y t o s e a t a l o n g - t i m e f r i e n d and s u p p o r t e r . I t i s h a r d t o fathom h i s m o t i v e s . Perhaps t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s , i t had d e v e l o p e d i n t o n o t h i n g more t h a n a b a t t l e o f w i l l s between Dupre and h i m s e l f . C. N. D o r i o n c o n t i n u e d t o p r e s s on B a s t i e n ' s b e h a l f and w i r e d B e n n e t t on 10 August t h a t h i s appointment would s e c u r e h i s r e - e l e c t i o n . 41 " O t h e r w i s e , t h e s i t u a t i o n i s v e r y b a d . " However, t h e Prime M i n i s t e r was n o t p r e p a r e d t o o v e r r u l e Dupre. He dug i n h i s h e e l s . U n l i k e h i s a c t i o n s i n t h e M a r c o t t e a f f a i r , B e n n e t t d i d n o t y i e l d t o t h e p r e s s u r e t h a t had c o n t i n u e d u n r e l e n t i n g l y f o r t h r e e l o n g y e a r s . NOTES Gu i d e , 1937, p. 101; C o l . Henry M u l l i n s , M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 14 Feb. 1934, p. 428244; B e n n e t t t o M u l l i n s , 23 Feb. 1934, p. 428246; M u l l i n s t o B e n n e t t , 10 J u l y 1935, p. 428250; W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , 15 Aug. 1935, p. 1. 2 G u i d e , 1937, p. 85; W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , 15 Aug. 1935, p. 1; J . T. H a i g t o B e n n e t t , 20 J u l y 1935, p. 428173; B e n n e t t t o H a i g , 8 Aug. 1935, p. 428174. 3 T. G. Murphy t o B e n n e t t , 12 J u l y 1935, pp. 427814-6. 4 Thomas Hay, M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 12 Nov. 1934, p. 428189; B e n n e t t t o Hay, 14 Nov. 1934, p. 428191. 5 D r . H. C. Hodgson t o B e n n e t t , 2 Feb. 1934, pp. 428048-9; James S t i t t , M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 20 Feb. 1934, p. 428134; B e n n e t t t o A r c h b i s h o p A. A. S i n n e t t , 26 Feb. 1934, p. 428146. 6 E . H. Sharpe t o B e n n e t t , 16 May 1934, p. 428343; W. H. Newman t o B e n n e t t , 1 S e p t . 1935, p. 428352; See f i l e f o r g e n e r a l l e t t e r s o f recom-m e n d a t i o n , pp. 428300-72. 7 Dr. R. M. Simpson t o B e n n e t t , 20 Aug. 1934, p. 428432; B e n n e t t t o Hodgson, 31 Aug. 1934, p. 428434; Murphy t o B e n n e t t , 12 J u l y 1935, pp. 427814-6. o Murphy t o B e n n e t t , 12 J u l y 1935, pp. 427814-6; B e n n e t t t o C a t h c a r t , 17 Aug. 1935, p. 427847. 9 Gu i d e , 1937, p. 91; A. J . Leger t o B e n n e t t , 2 Oct. 1933, p. 421467. 1 0 B e n n e t t t o L e g e r , 5 Oct. 1933, p. 421470; B e n n e t t t o B. A. B o u r g e o i s , 6 O c t . 1933, p. 421490; B o u r g e o i s t o B e n n e t t , 7 O c t . 1933, p. 421499; Dr. J . C. Webster t o B e n n e t t , 18 Oct. 1933, p. 421581; Leger t o B e n n e t t , 14 Oct. 1933, p. 421556. n B e n n e t t t o W. W. Hubbard, 3 J a n . 1934, p. 421115; R. B. Hanson t o B e n n e t t , 13 Dec. 1933, pp. 421683-6; B e n n e t t t o T i l l e y , 15 Feb. 1934, p. 421693. 12 George L. H a r r i s t o B e n n e t t , 3 J u l y 1935, p. 421695; T. A r s e n a u l t , M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 9 J u l y 1935, p. 421701; B e n n e t t t o B i s h o p C h i a s s o n , 16 J u l y 1935, p. 421721; B i s h o p C h i a s s o n t o B e n n e t t , 26 J u l y 1935, p. 421743; B e n n e t t t o B i s h o p C h i a s s o n , 6 Aug. 1935, p. 421744; Sen. T. J . Bourque t o B e n n e t t , 1 J u l y 1935, p. 422174. 99 13 Bourque t o B e n n e t t , 30 S e p t . 1933, p. 422131; F. J , Robidoux t o A r t h u r Beauchesne, 20 Nov. 1933, pp. 422146-51; H a r r i s t o B e n n e t t , 3 J u l y 1935, p. 421695; Robidoux t o B e n n e t t , 6 J u l y 1935, pp. 422178-80, 14 Borden t o B e n n e t t , 2 Oct. 1933, p. 422137; J . D. Hazeh t o B e n n e t t , 5 O c t . 1933, p. 422143; T. A r s e n a u l t t o B e n n e t t , 6 Feb. 1934, p. 422158; See Volumes 67, 616, and 617 i n t h e Be n n e t t Papers f o r a d e t a i l e d r e p o r t o f B e n n e t t ' s f i n a n c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e R e g i n a D a i l y S t a r 1 5 H a n s o n t o B e n n e t t , 24 J u l y 1935, p. 420766. •^Bourque t o B e n n e t t , 2 Oct. 1933, p. 420647:; B e n n e t t t o Bourque, 4 Oct. 1933, p. 420648; Bourque t o B e n n e t t , 7 Nov. 1934, p. 420740. 17 H. B o u l a y t o B e n n e t t , 7 J a n . 1933, p. 420876; B o u l a y t o B e n n e t t , 1 J u l y 1934, p. 420938; B e n n e t t t o B o u l a y , 19 J u l y 1935, p. 420964; B e n n e t t t o B o u l a y , 21 Aug. 1935, pp. 420978-82. 1 R A . - J . Doucet t o B e n n e t t , 21 O c t . 1933, p. 421107; D. A l l a i r e t o B e n n e t t , 14 March 1933, p. 421109; Sen. P. F. M a r t i n t o B e n n e t t , 20 Nov. 1933, p. 421111. 19 Dr. A. Sormony t o B e n n e t t , 15 Dec. 1933, p. 422210; B i s h o p A. Melanson t o B e n n e t t , 9 J a n . 1934, p. 422229. 20 J . E. deGrace t o B e n n e t t , 31 O c t . 1933, p. 420986; B e n n e t t t o deGrace, 10 Nov. 1933, p. 420988; Hanson t o B e n n e t t , 24 Nov. 1933, p. 420989; 0. V. B. M i l l e r t o B e n n e t t , 14 A p r i l 1934, p. 421029. 21 F r e d C. S q u i r e s t o B e n n e t t , 31 Dec. 1932, pp. 422493-5; B. F. S m i t h , M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 3 J a n . 1933, p. 422499; G. H. B l a k e n y t o B e n n e t t , 6 J a n . 1933, p. 422501; H. H. H a t f i e l d t o B e n n e t t , 18 J a n . 1933, p. 422509; Hugh J . Flemming t o B e n n e t t , 13 Feb. 1933, p. 422533; B. E. C l i f f t o Hanson, 27 Nov. 1934, p. 420748; Hanson t o R. K. F i n l a y s o n , 29 Nov. 1934, p. 420750. 22 S m i t h t o B e n n e t t , 8 J u l y 1935, p. 422547; B e n n e t t t o S m i t h , 24 J u l y 1935, p. 422549; Henson t o B e n n e t t , 24 J u l y 1935, p. 420766. 23 B e n n e t t t o Ward P i t f i e l d , 6 Aug. 1935, p. 422595; T i l l e y t o S i r George P e r l e y , 23 J u l y 1935, p. 422599. 24 w i r e , B e n n e t t t o T i l l e y , 2 Aug. 1935, p. 422603. 25 T. B e l l , M. P., t o B e n n e t t , 16 J a n . 1933, p. 420872; B e n n e t t t o B e l l , 19 J a n . 1933, p. 420873. •100 26 C h a r l e s M u r c h i e t o B e n n e t t , 5 J a n . 1933, p. 421213; M u r c h i e t o B e n n e t t , 26 S e p t . 1933, p. 421227; B e n n e t t t o M u r c h i e , 30 S e p t . 1933, p. 421228; H. W. Grimner t o B e n n e t t , 9 J a n . 1935, p. 421232; M u r c h i e t o B e n n e t t , 6 Feb. 1935, p. 421229. 27 G. M. McDadeto B e n n e t t , 13 J a n . 1933, p. 421259; B e n n e t t t o McDade, 16 J a n . 1933, p. 421261; Be n n e t t t o F a t h e r E. A. B a r r y , 28 J a n . 1933, p. 421281; B e n n e t t t o C. P. H i c k e y , 19 J a n . 1934, p. 421368. 28 W. S. Montgomery t o B e n n e t t , 12 A p r i l 1933, p. 421863; Hanson t o B e n n e t t , 9 March 1933, p. 421760; B e n n e t t t o Hanson, 15 March 1933, p. 421761. 29 D a v i d S t e w a r t t o B e n n e t t , 9 J u l y 1935, p. 422567; S t e w a r t t o B e n n e t t , 19 J u l y 1935, p. 422575. 30 Dr. E m i l e F o r t i n t o B e n n e t t , 20 Dec. 1933, p. 424141; F o r t i n t o B e n n e t t , 14 J a n . 1934, pp. 424151-4; F o r t i n t o B e n n e t t , 23 May 1934, p. 424204; B e n n e t t t o F o r t i n , 25 May 1934, p. 424206; B e n n e t t t o Dupre, 12 June 1935, p. 424224. 31 Dupre t o B e n n e t t , 15 June 1935, p. 424226; w i r e , F o r t i n t o B e n n e t t , 17 J u l y 1935, p. 424227; w i r e , F o r t i n t o B e n n e t t , 13 Aug. 1935, p. 424228; P r i v y C o u n c i l n o t i c e o f a p p o i n t m e n t , p. 424229. 32 Dr. Eugene Paquet t o B e n n e t t , 26 J a n . 1933, p. 425158; Paquet t o B e n n e t t , 12 Feb. 1933, p. 425165; Dr. F. B e r n i e r t o B e n n e t t , 28 Feb. 1934, pp. 425180-3; J . E. L a f o r c e t o B e n n e t t , 6 Feb. 1934, p. 425184; E. A. D. Morgan t o P e r l e y , 24 J u l y 1935, p. 425201; P r i v y C o u n c i l n o t i c e o f a p p o i n t -ment, p. 425206. 33 G u i d e , 1937, p. 73; C h a r l e s B o u r g e o i s t o B e n n e t t , 4 Dec. 1933, pp. 424981-2; G. H. R o b i c h o n t o B e n n e t t , 1 Dec. 1933, p. 425026; J . V e r r e t t e t o B e n n e t t , 30 J u l y 1935, pp. 425037-8; u n s i g n e d l e t t e r t o B e n n e t t , 17 Aug. 1935, p. 425049. 34 u n s i g n e d l e t t e r t o B e n n e t t , March 1932, p. 423050; J . E. Ladouceur t o B e n n e t t , 15 June 1934, p. 423084; J . A. Nadeau t o B e n n e t t , 10 June 1935, p. 423095; J.-A. B a r r e t t e t o B e n n e t t , 18 J u l y 1935, p. 423100. 35 B a r r e t t e t o B e n n e t t , 1 Aug. 1935, p. 423101; B e n n e t t t o F a t h e r H e c t o r Deny, 17 Aug. 1935, p. 423103. 36 P e t i t i o n from l a b o r e r s s t a t i n g t h a t B e r t r a n d had h e l p e d Dupre get e l e c t e d i n a c o u n t y where a L i b e r a l had been e l e c t e d f o r f i f t y y e a r s . There were many s i m i l a r p e t i t i o n s s u b m i t t e d , p. 423187; p e t i t i o n s u b m i t t e d t o B e n n e t t o u t l i n i n g B e r t r a n d ' s p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y , u n d a t e d , p. 423278; H. E. L a v i g u e u r t o B e n n e t t , 1 S e p t . 1933, p. 423355; B e n n e t t t o B e r t r a n d , 19 Aug. 1935, p. 423355. i o : i 37 See L a c o s t e f i l e , pp. 424737-424811; B e n n e t t t o Cahan, 6 Nov. 1934, p. 424810. 38 Armand Lavergne t o B e n n e t t , 21 S e p t . 1932, pp. 423034-5; C. N. D o r i o n , M.P., t o B e n n e t t , 22 S e p t . 1932, p. 423039; D o r i o n t o B e n n e t t , 3 Feb. 1933, p. 423041; Lavergne t o B e n n e t t , 8 Oct. 1932, p. 423043. 39 Lavergne t o Dupre, 26 A p r i l 1933, pp. 423132-3; Dupre t o B e n n e t t , 3 May 1933, p. 423134; Lavergne t o B e n n e t t , 14 Dec. 1933, p. 423136; Lavergne t o B e n n e t t , 10 A p r i l 1934, p. 423140; Bennett t o L a v e r g n e , 11 A p r i l 1934, p. 423142; Lavergne t o B e n n e t t , 13 A p r i l 1934, p. 423143. 40 B e n n e t t t o L a v e r g n e , 18 A p r i l 1934, p. 423145; Lavergne t o B e n n e t t , 1 May 1934, p. 423146; B e n n e t t t o Dupre, 16 May 1934, p. 423147; B e n n e t t t o L a v e r g n e , 9 Nov. 1934, p. 423152; Bennet t o L a v e r g n e , 8 Dec. 1934, p. 423159; Dupre t o B e n n e t t , 13 Feb. 1935, p. 423172. w i r e , D o r i o n t o B e n n e t t , 10 Aug. 1935, p. 423174; B e n n e t t t o Dupre, 9 May 1933, p. 423135. CHAPTER VII CONCLUSION R. B. Bennett was an experienced parliamentarian. He understood well that the Senate of Canada was designed to give equal representation to the sections or regions of the country and to safeguard the minority and sectional rights and interests of a l l Canadians. Certain major minorities had acquired a kind of prescriptive right to representation i n the Senate: the Acadians i n New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; the French-speaking Canadians i n Ontario; the English-speaking Catholics i n the predominately English-speaking provinces; the English-speaking Catholics and Protestants i n Quebec. In his choice of senators, the Prime Minister was prepared to honor that t r a d i t i o n . In the weighing of decision-making f a c t o r s — h i s g u i d e l i n e s — unquestionably Bennett considered the element of r e l i g i o n to be of para-mount importance. Over and over again his papers r e f l e c t that attitude. But his interpretation of that particular element raised real problems for him i n Saskatchewan i n 1931 when he sought i n fairness to restore to the Catholics a seat that had been t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e i r s . The province's considerable Protestant Conservatives objected strenuously, but the Prime Minister successfully dismissed what he considered to be their unrealistic objections. It was the introduction of the r a c i a l factor by the very vocal French Canadian minority that troubled him. They insisted that the seat be assigned not only to a Catholic, but to the French Canadian Catholic, Arthur Marcotte. For a time he held out. 102 103 Religion was the issue, not race; the secondary factor was regional. On those grounds, southerner Marcotte was t o t a l l y unacceptable. The correspondence shows that there were two northerners qua l i f i e d to meet both the regional and religious needs. But J. J. Leddy proved unaccept-able to the Conservative-led provincial government, Joseph Foley to the i n f l u e n t i a l Catholic hierarchy. No other prospect emerged from among the English-speaking Catholics of the north to counterbalance the massive support f o r Marcotte mustered not only i n Saskatchewan but i n French Canadian Catholic conclaves across the nation. Much against his w i l l , the Prime Minister was forced to appoint a man whose qualifications did not satisfy his own regional guideline. A probe of the Bennett Papers indicates that Bennett's guidelines served him better i n his other appointments. Never again did his desig-nation of an issue as a religious one create the problems he confronted i n the Marcotte case. In fact, often i t made his choice clear-cut. In Alberta i n 1931, for example, the Catholic Pat Burns had clear preference over Emily Murphy whose appeal as a representative of women could not counter-balance her Protestantism. In 1932 the Presbyterian C. C. Ballantyne succeeded l o g i c a l l y to the t r a d i t i o n a l l y Protestant seat i n Quebec. With l i k e ease, F. P. Quinn, an I r i s h Catholic, was appointed in Nova Scotia i n 1935 to the seat once held by the I r i s h Catholic Senator Martin. Even in an unusual case i n 1935 where a seat once designated Protestant was assigned to a Catholic, there was no controversy. In Prince Edward Island, Senator John McLean, a Protestant, resigned his seat expressly to make way for J. A. Macdonald, an extraordinary move in the history of Senate appointments. The fact that Macdonald was a Catholic and that therefore the ratio of Protestant/Catholic representation would stand at two to two instead of the existing three to one raised no 104 comment. As for those appointments where he deemed race to be the major factor, Bennett encountered l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y with one troublesome exception. To be sure, he was subjected to considerable pressure from those who sought to influence his choice. For instance, i n Ontario i n 1935 Bennett found i t necessary to remind a number of people that the Senator Belcourt vacancy "belonged" to the French Canadians. In his mind, the only question to be resolved was one of region: which was to be represented, northern Ontario or eastern? His eventual appointment of Louis Cote from Ottawa st i r r e d no charge that the seat had been unfairly placed. Rumors abounded i n Nova Scotia i n 1933 and 1934 that the vacant Acadian seat might be f i l l e d by an English-speaking Catholic. Bennett himself had no such thought. J. P. L. Robicheau was his f i r s t choice among several Acadians, the only group he considered. The one troublesome aspect of that appoint-ment was the need for some regional consideration, a minor problem easily resolved. In New Brunswick in 1935 he had to face again a blurring of guidelines somewhat reminiscent of the Marcotte case. Racial considerations brought about the appointment of A. J. Le'ger of Westmorland county, even though that meant that five out of the ten senators came from that county. Bennett feared that that situation could provoke regional dissatisfaction because so many other counties had none. But for the Acadians, at any rate, Le'ger was the proper choice; they were quite prepared to i n s i s t that Bennett overlook regional considerations. There were other situations where the Prime Minister could not be persuaded. He adhered s t r i c t l y to his regional guideline i n Saskatchewan i n 1933, for instance, when he chose Aseltine and Horner, two northerners who met his regional requirements. In his considerations of religion, race, and region, Bennett faced 105 decision-making problems similar to those of other Prime Ministers. In a l i k e way, service to the party weighed heavily. However, there must be some significance i n the fact that i n his f i r s t sixteen selections made between 1931 and 1933, only f i f t y percent had l e g i s l a t i v e experience. Perhaps this could be read to mean that i n the early days of his adminis-tration, Bennett had made a sincere effort to achieve a balance, seeking not exclusively those with legislative,experience but perhaps reasoning that those with a diversity of experience would bring strength to the Senate. Businessman Burns, lawyers Brown, Marcotte, Fauteux and Moraud, publisher Dennis, farmers Horner and Aseltine—these represented the diversity of his choice i n the early years. By contrast, of his seventeen appointments i n 1935, a l l but one had l e g i s l a t i v e experience. Iva F a l l i s was the lone outsider. She had been a party organizer, but her appoint-ment was probably made because of her support from the feminists. Of course, Bennett's appointments of members of his caucus was not at a l l unusual and can be defended on the grounds that the Senate i s a l e g i s l a t i v e body and i t would therefore seem l o g i c a l that i t s make-up include those with l e g i s l a t i v e experience. Russell Hopkins points out that during the years 1926-1966 more than two-thirds of the Senators had some kind of l e g i s l a t i v e apprenticeship, usually i n the House of Commons, prior to their appointment. As w i l l be seen i n the chart, Bennett's percentage was not appreciably over that figure, i n spite of his 1935 selections. Undoubtedly Bennett's f i n a l appointments—those made i n the disastrous days of his waning administration—represent a compromise. Nowhere was this more obvious than i n his retreat from the age specif-i c a t i o n . Early on i n his career, he had recognised that public confidence 106 i n the Senate was at a low ebb. He had hoped to restore i t s status by naming younger men. To that principle, he adhered successfully i n his early years. Six of the sixteen appointeesof that era were under f i f t y . But quite a different situation prevailed at the l a s t . Of the 1935 appointees, not one was under f i f t y , seven were i n their s i x t i e s , four i n their seventies. Obviously, as his mandate drew to a close, Bennett had to y i e l d to the entreaties of senior members of caucus. He realized that many of them had accepted reduced fin a n c i a l earnings as a result of their p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and that many were victims of the depression. Should this compromise on Bennett's part suggest that he did a disservice to the Senate, i t might be pointed out that he could j u s t i f y his a c t i o n s — a t least to himself—by claiming that, from a great number of petitioners, he selected only those men whose character was publicly recognized. In terms of service, few could quibble with the choice of such as seventy year old Smith of New Brunswick, of seventy-four year old Mullins of Manitoba, of seventy-two year old -Sutherland and sixty-nine year old Arthurs of Ontario, or seventy-eight year old Cantley of Nova Scotia. There i s no doubt that Bennett was motivated i n some of his appointments by his need to respect p o l i t i c a l obligations: the 1930 promise to Hocken who had stepped aside i n favor of Church had to be f u l f i l l e d i n 1933; Dr. J. A. MacDonald of Nova Scotia, who had resigned i n favor of E. N. Rhodes, received an appointment i n 1932; Dr. Eugene Paquet, who had stood aside for E. A. D. Morgan i n 1930, was placed i n 1935* Each, however, had given many years of service to the Conservative party, and no objections were voiced concerning their selections.' The question as to how large a part friendship played i n Bennett's 107 appointments i s bound to r i s e . Almost a l l , i f not a l l , appointees were well known to him. Twenty had sat i n the House of Commons with him; four had been members of a provincial legislature while he was national party leader. Certainly many of them would have to be categorized as personal friends but i t would be inaccurate and unfair to say that friendship with the Prime Minister was a passport to the Senate. Nor can i t be said that Bennett used the Senate to r i d himself of p o l i t i c a l embarrassments, a charge often levelled at other Prime Ministers. In his eyes appointment to the Senate was a high honor. It i s doubtful that he even contemplated the choice of someone whom he knew to be less than worthy. It i s obvious that a l l thirty-three appointments were favored with Bennett's personal attention. He gave very serious thought to the l e t t e r s and other forms of written communication which inundated his o f f i c e , p a rticularly i n the early years. By 1933 there was a slight s h i f t i n his approach and he was inclined to inform the aspirant that he should f i r s t seek the support of his cabinet minister. Of course a l l communications from cabinet ministers, members of parliament, and prov-i n c i a l legislators received his personal attention. Of the English-speaking cabinet ministers, R. B. Hanson of New Brunswick appears to be the only one who became personally involved i n each of the Senate appoint-ments from his province. His forthright advice was based on his instinct for the "grass roots" feeling and Bennett followed i t with confidence. The French-speaking ministers from Quebec participated actively as well, but they observed l i t t l e r e s t r i c t i o n as to area, involving themselves not merely regionally but offering advice on French Canadian vacancies regardless of where they occurred. Also, the name of Sir Robert Borden 108 appears on many pieces of correspondence, but i t does not seem that Bennett was unduly influenced by him. It i s safe to say that the mountain of correspondence which comprises the "Senate" section of the Bennett papers does not t e l l the whole story of the reasoning behind his choices. Potential appointments were no doubt discussed i n caucus and i n the confines of Bennett's o f f i c e . However, i t i s equally safe to say that i t i s unlikely that the preferences and opinions expressed there served as anything more than a guide for the Prime Minister. The conclusion i s that i t i s i n his correspondence that his philosophy and rationale are to be found. In his Senate appointments, perhaps i t could be said that R. B. Bennett l i v e d up to his reputation of running a "one-man govern-ment." The f i n a l decisions were truly his own. There i s no denying, however, that by his own li g h t s he did honor his precepts as to the calibre of Canadian who should s i t i n the Senate. SENATE APPOINTMENTS 1930-1935 Date Appointed Name Prov Age Religion M.'P. ex-M.P. ex-M . L . A . M . L . A . Def. Cand Org. Page Reference 6 July 1931 Burns, Pat A l t a . 75 R.C. 5,12-14 II • Marcotte, A. Sask. <^8 R.C. x b-J.2,111 4 Sept 1931 McRae, A . D . B.C. 56 Presby. x X 16-18 3 Feb 1932 Meighen, Arthur Ont. 58 Presby. X X 21-23,29 ti Dennis, W.H. H . S . 44 u.c.c. . _ 2 1 , 2 4 , 2 9 ti MacDonald, J . A . . N .S , 48 R.C. X X - . - 21,23 it Ballantyne, C . C . Que. 65 Presby. X 25 _ 6 Oct 1932 Brown, A . J . Que. 7P Presby. 21,26 II R a i n v i l l e , J . H . Que. 57 R.C. X X 21,28 30 Dec 1933 Aseltine, W.M. Sask. 47 U . C . C . X X 32-34 . it Horner, R.B. Sask. 49 u.c.c. X X 32,33 . n Co*te, Louis Ont-. 43 R.C. X 40-42 II Fripp, A . E . Ont. 6? C.ofE . X X X 39,40 it Hocken, H.C. Ont. 76 Method. X 37-40 II Fauteux, G.A. Que. 58 R.C. X X 45,4b II Moraud, Lucien Que. 4 8 R.C. 46 20 July 1935 Cantley, Thomas N.S. 78 Presby. X 5 0 . 5 2 , 5 3 it Quinn, F .P . N.S. 60 R.C. x 50,53 it Rhodes, E . N . N.S. 59 Baptist X X 50,51 II Robicheau, J . P . L . N.S. 60" R.C. X X 50,53 II Arthurs, James Ont. 69 Presby. X 5 9 . 6 0 . 6 6 ti F a l l i s , Iva Ont. 52 u.c.c. X 59.62-64.66 . II Sui&herland, I). Ont. 72 Presby. X X 59-61 .66 II Sauve, Arthur Que. 6 0 R.C. X X 67-69 it Jones, G.B. N.B. 69 Presby. X X X 66-67 ti Macdonald, J . A . P . E . I . " 6 1 R.C. X X 2 3 , 5 7 , 5 8 14 Aug 1935 Haig, J . ' l 1 . Man. 57 U . C . C . X X 7 ? , 7 4 II / Mull ins , H.A. Man. 74 Method. X X 73.74.78 II Lfeger, A . J . N.B. 5 4 R.C. X 67.78-80 ti Smith, E . J . N.B. 7 0 Baptist X X X 84-86 n For t in , Emile Que. 5 7 R.C. X X ?0,91 II Paquet, Eugene Que. 67 R.C. X x 90.91.92 15 Aug 1935 Bourgeois, Chas. Que. 56 R.C. X 9 2 , 9 3 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCE Bennett, R. B. R. B. Bennett Papers. University of New Brunswick Library, Fredericton, N. B. Microfilm Reproduction Film Nos. 335-344, P P . 418570-431511. NEv/SPAPERS Calgary Daily Heraldf July 1931 . Halifax Chronicle. Jan. Feb. 1932; July 1935. Halifax Herald. Feb. 1932; July 1935 . La Patrie. Quebec, July 1935. La Presse. Quebec, July 1935. Moncton Daily Times. July 1935. Montreal Gazette. Oct. 1932; Dec. 1933; Aug. 1 9 3 5 . Montreal Star. Dec. 1933; Aug. 1935. Ottawa Citizen. Dec. 1933; July 1935 . Ottawa Journal. Dec. 1933; Jan. 1934; July 1935 . Quebec Chronicle-Telegraph. July, Aug. 1935. Regina Leader-Post. July 1931; Dec. 1933; Jan. 1934. Saint John Telegraph Journal. July, August 1935. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. July 1931; Jan. 1934. Toronto Globe and Mail. Feb. 1932; July 1935. Vancouver Province. Sept. 1931 . Vancouver Sun. Sept. 1 9 3 1 . Victoria Daily Colonist. Sept. 1931. Winnipeg Free Press. July, Aug. 1935 . BOOKS AND MANUSCRIPTS Beaverbrook, Lord. Friends: Sixty Years of Intimate Personal Relation- ship with Richard Bedford Bennett. Toronto: Heinemann, 1959* Campbell, E. Colin. "Appointees to Public Office: The Case of Canadian Senators." Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University, 1973. Donaldson, Gordon. Fifteen Men. Toronto: Doubleday Canada Ltd., 1969. Kunz, F. A. The Modern Senate of Canada. 1925-1963. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965 . 110 I l l Macquarrie, Heath. The Conservative Party. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart Ltd., 1965. Neatby, H. B l a i r . William Lyon Mackenzie King. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1963. Stubbs, Roy St. George. Prairie Portraits. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart Ltd., 1954. Taylor, A. J. P. Beaverbrook. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972. Turner, John N. "The Senate of Canada: with special reference to period, 1924-49." A thesis i n two volumes, University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1949. Wade, Mason. The French Canadians 1770-1967, v o l . 2. Toronto: MacMillan of Canada, 1968. Watkins, Ernest. R. B. Bennett. Toronto: Kingswood House, 1963* Wilbur, J. R. H., ed. The Bennett New Deal: Fraud or Portent? Toronto: The Copp Clark Publishing Company, 1968. Williams, John R. The Conservative Party of Canada: 1920-1949. Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press, 1956. PERIODICALS Connolly, John J. "The Senate of Canada." The Parliamentarian (December 1971) : 9 5 - 1 0 3 . Dawson, W. F. "Resignation and Removal of Canadian Senators." The Parliamentarian (January 1975) : 1 2 - 2 0 . Hopkins, E. Russell. "The Senate of Canada: I867-I967." 73 Canadian Banker (Winter 1 9 6 6 ) : 2 0 - 3 1 . McEwen, Irene H. "Religious and Racial Influences on a Senate Appointment, 1 9 3 1 . " Saskatchewan History XXI" (Winter 1 9 7 2 ) : 18-34. Meighen, Arthur. "The Canadian Senate." Queen's Quarterly (Summer 1 9 3 7 ) : Vol. 44: 152-163. SPEECHES AND GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS Bench, J. J. "The "Senate of Canada, Its Purpose and Function." An address delivered by the Hon. J. J. Bench, K. C. to the Junior Chamber of Commerce, Hamilton, Ontario, 20 Nov. 1944* 112 Fergusson, Muriel McQueen. "The Senate of Canada." Ottawa, 1974. Mimeographed. Hopkins, E . R u s s e l l . "The Senate of Canada." A memorandum prepared by E . Russell Hopkins, Law Clerk and Parliamentary Counsel of the Senate (1956-1975). Mimeographed. Extracts from the F i n a l Report of the Special Joint Committee on the Constitution of Canada, 1972. Chapter 13. "The Senate." Extract from document e n t i t l e d : "The Constitution and the People of Canada," published by the Government of Canada i n February 1969, containing proposals on the revis ion of the role and the powers of the Senate. Canada. The Debates of the Senate. "The Senate, I ts Powers and Usefulness . " Speeches by: Hon. Sen. Charles Murphy (Senate Debates, p . 105,) 1 March 1934; Hon. Sen. Raoul Dandurand (Senate Debates, p . 136,) 8 March 1934; Rt . Hon. Sen. Arthur Meighen (Senate Debates, p . 139/) 8 March 1934; Hon. Sen. C. W. Robinson (Senate Debates, p . 164,) 15 March 1934. Canadian Parliamentary Guide. Government Publicat ions , Ottawa. 1932-1937* 

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