UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A comparison between verbal and written behavioural contracting with adolescents and their families Lipton, Harold Bruce 1977

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A COMPARISON BETWEEN VERBAL AND WRITTEN BEHAVIOURAL CONTRACTING WITH ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES by HAROLD BRUCE LIPTON B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1977 fc\ H a r o l d Bruce L i p t o n , 1977 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of P s y c h o l o g y The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date J a n u a r y 4, 1978 A b s t r a c t J u v e n i l e delinquency i s becoming a source of ever i n c r e a s i n g con-cern to the p u b l i c . To date, the area of adolescent research has been s o r e l y neglected i n the s o c i a l sciences and c o r r e c t i o n s f i e l d s . R i s i n g r a t e s of delinquent behaviour, costs of a d j u d i c a t i o n , treatment and compensation have reached the p o i n t where the search f o r e f f e c t i v e means of treatment and prevention i s becoming c r u c i a l . Thus f a r , most t r e a t -ment programmes have been unable to s u c c e s s f u l l y stem t h i s r i s i n g t i d e , and some may even c o n t r i b u t e to i t . The recent development of behavioural technology represents a promising prospect i n delinquent i n t e r v e n t i o n s , but a d d i t i o n a l research i s r e q u i r e d before these techniques can be con-s i d e r e d adequate. Behavioural c o n t r a c t i n g i s seen as one such s t r a t e g y that i s appropriate to a community preventive approach and focuses on the i n t e r a c t i o n s of f a m i l y members, which i s thought to be a v i t a l f a c t o r i n the development and maintenance of delinquent behaviours. The method attempts to r e s t o r e the r e c i p r o c i t y of r e i n f o r c e r s i n a f a m i l y w i t h an e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n of c o e r c i o n , h o s t i l i t y , negative, or otherwise poor i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . E v a l u a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s that t h i s approach may be most e f f e c t i v e when used i n conjunction w i t h other methods. Twenty-two f a m i l i e s r e f e r r e d to a community l a y agency f o r behavioural problems i n the adolescents and preadolescents at school or home were observed over a four to s i x week p e r i o d . Half the f a m i l i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a formal quid pro quo contract and the other h a l f i n v e r b a l i m p l i c i t c o n t r a c t s . A l l f a m i l i e s r e c e i v e d the agency's r e g u l a r programme of i n t e r v e n t i o n . Data c o n s i s t e d of s t r u c t u r e d separate i n t e r v i e w s of the i i i p a r e n t s and y o u t h , p r o g r e s s t o t r e a t m e n t g o a l s m o n i t o r e d by s t a f f , and s c h o o l b e h a v i o u r r a t i n g s c o m p l e t e d by t e a c h e r s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h groups showed c o n s i s t e n t p o s i t i v e p r o g r e s s on most measures, b u t no d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two approaches were o b s e r v e d on any o f t h e measures. The f o r m a l c o n t r a c t f a m i l i e s t e n d e d t o improve more r a p i d l y i n i t i a l l y b u t by t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a c t s , no d i f f e r e n c e s were a p p a r e n t . The i n v e s t i g a t o r c o n c l u d e d t h a t b o t h s t y l e s o f c o n t r a c t i n g may be e f f e c t i v e i n such s e t t i n g s , s i n c e t h e c o n t i n g e n c y d i f f e r e n c e s between a n o n i n s t i t u t i o n a l and a r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g may n o t p r e d i s p o s e one method t o be s u p e r i o r o v e r t h e o t h e r . The a d d i t i o n o f such methods may p r o v i d e t h e r a p i s t s w i t h more f l e x i b i l i t y i n t a i l o r i n g an i n t e r v e n -t i o n programme t o i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t s . S u p e r v i s o r i v T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v Acknowledgement v i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Operant T h e o r i e s o f D e l i n q u e n c y and P r e d e l i n q u e n c y 3 Treatment o f D e l i n q u e n c y 12 C o n t i n g e n c y C o n t r a c t i n g 24 Method 39 R e s u l t s 48 D i s c u s s i o n 59 R e f e r e n c e Notes 64 B i b l i o g r a p h y 65 A p p e n d i x A: Y o u t h O f f e n d e r s A c t 77 A p p e n d i x B: NIMH R e s e a r c h on D e l i n q u e n c y 79 A p p e n d i x C: Measurement I n s t r u m e n t s 81 App e n d i x D: I n f o r m a l F o l l o w - u p o f P r i o r C l i e n t s 95 L i s t o f T a b l e s v T a b l e 1. I n c i d e n c e o f R e f e r r a l P roblems by Group T a b l e 2. Summary T a b l e M u l t i v a r i a t e / U n i v a r i a t e Repeated Measures ANOVA on I n t e r v i e w Data T a b l e 3. Group Means on I n t e r v i e w Data T a b l e 4. Summary T a b l e Repeated Measures ANOVA on P r o g r e s s R e p o r t D a t a T a b l e 5. Group Means on P r o g r e s s R e p o r t Data T a b l e 6. Summary T a b l e M u l t i v a r i a t e / U n i v a r i a t e Repeated Measures ANOVA on HHSB S c a l e s T a b l e 7. Group Means on HHSB S c a l e s Page 41 49 51 53 54 55 58 v i Acknowledgement I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e members o f my a d v i s o r y committee: D r s . P.O. D a v i d s o n ( s u p e r v i s o r ) , J.T. Saunde r s , and D. D u t t o n , f o r t h e i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e and g u i d a n c e t h e y have p r o v i d e d . I a l s o w i s h t o tha n k the c o o r d i n a t o r and s t a f f o f P r o j e c t C o n t a c t f o r t h e t i m e and e f f o r t t h e y i n v e s t e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t . I hope t h a t t h e y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o o f f e r t h e i r e s s e n t i a l programme t o t h e p e o p l e o f Richmond, and t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s w i l l a c h i e v e t h e p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n t h e y d e s e r v e . F i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s who d e s e r v e a s p e c i a l m e n t i o n , f o r w i t h o u t t h e i r c o n s t a n t m o r a l s u p p o r t , t h i s p r o j e c t w o u l d have n e v e r a c h i e v e d f r u i t i o n . To my p a r e n t s , Saundra, T e r r y , and Bunny, I d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s w i t h l o v e and r e s p e c t . 1 A Comparison Between V e r b a l and W r i t t e n B e h a v i o u r a l C o n t r a c t i n g w i t h A d o l e s c e n t s and t h e i r F a m i l i e s H a r o l d L i p t o n U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia I n t r o d u c t i o n Contemporary s o c i e t y i s e v i d e n c i n g i n t e n s e c o n c e r n o v e r t h e r i s i n g dilemma o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y ( L i p s i t z , 1977). S p i r a l l i n g c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a d j u d i c a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t o f young o f f e n d e r s have l e d t o f r e q u e n t demands f o r a c t i o n ( D a v i d s o n and Seidman, 1975). Recent s t a t i s t i c s u n d e r s c o r e t h e s t r a i n p l a c e d on p o l i c e , t h e c o u r t s , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s by y o u t h i n c r i s e s . C a n a d i a n p o l i c e apprehended n e a r l y 225,000 y o u t h s i n 1976, and 45,000 of them app e a r e d i n c o u r t , d o u b l e t h a t o f a decade ago ( L e w i s , 1977). Over h a l f t h e a r r e s t s f o r s e r i o u s c r i m e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1970 were p e o p l e under e i g h t e e n y e a r s o l d ( D e l a n e y , 1977). E l e v e n p e r c e n t o f a l l y o u t h w i l l be apprehended b e f o r e t h e i r e i g h t e e n t h b i r t h d a y ( L i p s i t z , 1977; N i e t z e l e t a l . , 1977; Shah, 1975), and t h i s i s p r o b a b l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d because most d e l i n q u e n t s w i l l n o t appear i n c o u r t (Amos, 1969), and o n l y one t h i r d w i l l be f o r m a l l y c h a r g e d by p o l i c e i n Canada ( M c N e i l , 1977). S o c i e t y e x a c e r b a t e s t h i s dilemma i n t h a t young a d o l e s c e n t s " . . . a r e t h e most o v e r l o o k e d and u n d e r s e r v e d o f a l l t h e n a t i o n ' s m i n o r s , a c o n -d i t i o n t h a t r e f l e c t s s o c i e t y ' s deep m i s t r u s t o r even d i s l i k e o f e a r l y a d o l e s c e n t s . . . " ( D e l a n e y , 1977). T h i s and o t h e r c l a r i o n c a l l s have spawned a tremendous volume of d e l i n q u e n c y r e s e a r c h t h a t a r e v i e w o f t h i s scope c o u l d not hope t o c o v e r . There a r e some c e n t r a l i s s u e s t o 2 t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t w i l l be examined t h a t d e a l w i t h o p e r a n t concep-t u a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t ' s b a c k g r o u n d , and t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n and p r e v e n t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r . These developments have o c c u r r e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n t h e l a s t decade ( D a v i d s o n and Seidman, 1975) and t h e r e -f o r e a r e s t i l l b e i n g s t u d i e d e x t e n s i v e l y . E x a c t l y what c o n s t i t u t e s a d e l i n q u e n t has posed a d i f f i c u l t c o n c e p -t u a l c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e many d e f i n i t i o n s o f d e l i n q u e n c y a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . I n Canada, t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t ' s A c t o f 1908 d e f i n e s a d e l i n q u e n t as anyone who . . . v i o l a t e s any p r o v i s i o n o f t h e C r i m i n a l Code o r o f any f e d e r a l o r p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e , o r o f any b y l a w o r o r d i n a n c e o f any m u n i c i p a l i t y , o r who i s g u i l t y o f s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y o r any s i m i -l a r f orm o f v i c e , o r who i s l i a b l e by r e a s o n o f any o t h e r a c t , t o be committed t o an i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l o r j u v e n i l e r e f o r m a t o r y under t h e p r o -v i s i o n o f any f e d e r a l o r p r o v i n i c a l s t a t u t e . ( M o r r i s , 1976, p . 8 ) . S i m i l a r l y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau d e f i n e s d e l i n q u e n c y t h i s way: J u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y c a s e s a r e t h o s e r e f e r r e d t o c o u r t s f o r a c t s d e f i n e d i n t h e s t a t u t e s o f t h e s t a t e as t h e v i o l a t i o n of l a w o r m u n i c i p a l o r -d i n a n c e by c h i l d r e n o r y o u t h o f j u v e n i l e age, o r f o r conduct so s e r i o u s l y a n t i s o c i a l as t o i n -t e r f e r e . w i t h t h e r i g h t s o f o t h e r s o r t o menace t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t h i m s e l f o r o f t h e community. (Cavan, 1962, p. 15). Shah (1975) and Cavan (1962) u r g e d t h a t any d e f i n i t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y s h o u l d a l s o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t p u b l i c t o l e r a n c e o f n o n c o n f o r m i n g b e h a v i o u r , and a d d i t i o n a l l y , t h a t d e l i n q u e n c y s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as p a r t o f a con-t inuum o f c o n f o r m i t y - n o n c o m f o r m i t y t o s o c i a l norms. F r i e d m a n (1969a) c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t v i e w i n g d e l i n q u e n c y as a u n i t a r y e n t i t y , a d v o c a t i n g t h a t 3 i t i s a c o v a r i a t e w i t h o t h e r b e h a v i o u r , p e r s o n a l i t y , and o t h e r p a t h o l o g i e s . O t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s r e f l e c t c u l t u r a l o r i n t e r a c t i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t s ( f o r example, see Gibbens and A h r e n f e l d t , 1969; W i r t and B r i g g s , 1962). Shah (1975) d e s c r i b e s a p r e d e l i n q u e n t , u n l i k e a d e l i n q u e n t l e g a l l y apprehended f o r h i s b e h a v i o u r , as a s o u r c e o f c o n c e r n because h i s b e h a v i o u r c o u l d p r e d i s p o s e him t o l e g a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . S i n c e a l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n m i g h t l e a d t o t h e a r r e s t o f y o u t h f o r p e t t y v i o l a t i o n s n e a r l y a l l m i n o r s commit (Shah, 1975; O h l i n , 1973), a more a c c e p t a b l e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n r e f l e c t i n g t h e aims o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be used. I t s t a t e s t h a t . . . i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n , a c h i l d might be r e g a r d e d as d e l i n q u e n t when h i s a n t i s o c i a l c o nduct i n f l i c t e d s u f f e r i n g upon o t h e r s , o r when h i s f a m i l y f o u n d him d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l , so t h a t he became a s e r i o u s c o n c e r n t o t h e community, w h i c h t h e n r e a c t e d p u n i t i v e l y . A l l t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e s u b j e c t t o d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . ( Gibbens and A h r e n f e l d t , 1969, p. 24) Operant T h e o r i e s of D e l i n q u e n c y and P r e d e l i n q u e n c y Operant c a u s a l t h e o r i e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y a r e e m p i r i c a l l y based upon o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s between s t a b l e f a m i l i e s and f a m i l i e s o f d e l i n q u e n t a d o l e s c e n t o f f s p r i n g . These d i f f e r e n c e s , f o u n d p r i m a r i l y i n t h e i n t e r -a c t i o n among f a m i l y members and i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y , i n d i c a t e t h a t f a m i l i e s i n c o n f l i c t o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e have few p o s i t i v e exchanges w i t h e ach o t h e r , and a r e more f r e q u e n t l y c o e r c i n g e a c h o t h e r t h a n c o o p e r a t i n g and h e l p i n g (Weathers and L i b e r m a n , 1975b). R a t h e r t h a n i s o l a t i n g t h e a d o l e s c e n t from h i s f a m i l y , t h e o p e r a n t a p p r o a c h c o n s i d e r s him w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y n e t w o r k w h i c h L i p s i t z (1977) f e l t was p o t e n t i a l l y t h e most e f f e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e on t h e development 4 of a p e r s o n . Friedman (1969a) s t a t e d t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t ' s f a m i l i a l s t a t u s , he i s s t i l l an i n t e g r a l member o f t h e f a m i l y who i s a t t e m p t i n g t o come t o g r i p s w i t h two major c o n t r o l l e r s o r r e i n f o r c e r s i n h i s l i f e , t h e f a m i l y and t h e p e e r group. The p e e r group r e p r e s e n t s a s o u r c e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n e x t e r n a l t o t h e f a m i l y , b u t w h i c h can s t i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a r e s u l t o f t h e same l o n g term s o c i a l f o r c e s t h a t shape t h e f a m i l y s u c h as s c h o o l , employment, s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y , and so on. As a r e s u l t , t he v a l u e s o f d e v i a n t groups a r e o f t e n found t o f o l l o w g e n e r a l s o c i a l v a l u e s (McCord and McCord, 1969). P o l l a k (1969) d e f i n e d t h e f a m i l y as a sys t e m o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n t g r a t i f i c a t i o n and development and " . . . s i n c e members o f a f a m i l y a c t as c h i e f g r a t i f i e r s o f major need a r e a s f o r one a n o t h e r , t h e y must be a b l e t o g i v e as w e l l as t o r e c e i v e f r o m one a n o t h e r i n p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r t h a t o p e r a t e under an exchange p r i n c i p l e " ( P o l l a k , 1969, p. 13). D e l i n q u e n c y c o n s i s t s , i n h i s v i e w , of a r e a c t i o n t o a n x i e t y c r e a t e d by an i m b a l a n c e i n t h e g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f immediate needs v e r s u s f u t u r e development. Cavan (1962) a l s o f e l t a major i s s u e was t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t t o d e l a y g r a t i f i c a t i o n and t h e t e n d e n c y t o j u d g e b e h a v i o u r a l o p t i o n s i n t h e narrow terms o f p l e a s u r e v e r s u s p u n i s h m e n t / d i s a p p r o v a l . The t e e n a g e r i s more c a p a b l e o f c o m m i t t i n g s e v e r e forms o f o f f e n s e s , and i s t h u s more l i k e l y t o come to t h e a t t e n t i o n o f a u t h o r i t i e s s i n c e h i s b e h a v i o u r i s more v i s i b l e and r e p r e s e n t s more o f a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e p a r e n t s ' a u t h o r i t y t h a n a c h i l d ' s ( D e l a n e y , 1977). F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n h i s l i f e , w i t h t h e development of new c o n c e p t i o n s o f p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r s t a n d a r d s , t h e p r e a d o l e s c e n t or a d o l e s c e n t may be comparing c u r r e n t p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o u r w i t h i d e a l g o a l s , and t h e d i s p a r i t y may have some s t r o n g d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s on 5 f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n ( L i p s i t z , 1977). A v e r y commonly c i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p a r e n t s o f d e l i n q u e n c y prone f a m i l i e s i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n methods o f d i s c i p l i n e . W h i l e p u n i s h -ment has been found t o be e f f e c t i v e i n s h a p i n g c o o p e r a t i o n (Wahler e t a l . , 1977.v ^  n o t e 1 ) , p a r e n t s o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s t e n d t o be h a r s h i n t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e and i n c o n s i s t e n t i n i t s use ( F r i e d m a n , 1969b; Cavan, 1962). They s e t too many r u l e s and p u n i s h i n f r a c t i o n s i n c o n s i s t e n t l y ( A l e x a n d e r and P a r s o n , 1975). Johnson and L o b i t z (1974) f o u n d t h a t p a r e n t s c o u l d produce d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n on a cue f r o m the e x p e r i m e n t e r , and d i d so by i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f demands on t h e i r c h i l d r e n w h i c h i n c r e a s e d t h e f r e q u e n c y o f n e g a t i v e r e s p o n d i n g , and s u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e a b s o l u t e amount o f n o n c o m p l i a n c e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f r a t e s o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r i n c h i l d r e n were found t o o v e r l a p between d e v i a n t s and non-d e v i a n t s , b ut the b e s t d i s c r i m i n a t o r s between n o r m a l f a m i l i e s and f a m i l i e s r e f e r r e d f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n were p a r e n t a l n e g a t i v e n e s s and f r e q u e n c y o f commands. Other e v i d e n c e a l s o p o i n t s t o t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t r a i n i n g p a r e n t s t o r e d u c e demand f r e q u e n c y and i n c r e a s e c l a r i t y o f r e q u e s t s i n o r d e r t o maximize chances of c o m p l i a n c e (Wahler e t a l . , 1977, n o t e 1 ) . L i p s i t z (1977) f e l t t h a t t h r e e b a s i c c o n c l u s i o n s emerged from t h e p a r e n t i n g r e s e a r c h on m i d d l e c l a s s f a m i l i e s : extreme p a r e n t i n g s t y l e s , e i t h e r a u t h o r i t a r i a n o r p e r m i s s i v e , were n o t h e l p f u l ; d e m o c r a t i c i n t e r a c t i o n s were most f a c i l i t a t i n g t o t h e a d o l e s c e n t s ' development; and p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and s t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o u r s h o u l d change as t h e t e e n a g e r matures. Condry and Simon (1974) found t h a t c h i l d r e n who a r e a d u l t o r i e n t e d have p a r e n t s d e s c r i b e d as more a c t i v e i n t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , ' 6 more n u r t u r a n t , more c o n s i s t e n t and demanding i n d i s c i p l i n e , and more a v a i l a b l e f o r comp a n i o n s h i p . P e e r o r i e n t e d c h i l d r e n had n a g g i n g and r e j e c t i n g mothers who had poor d i s c i p l i n a r y methods, d e s c r i b e d as l a c k i n g i n c o n t r o l and n e g l e c t f u l . McCord and McCord (1969) have f o u n d t h a t c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n j u s t a t e c h n i q u e o f p a r e n t i n g because i t t r a n s m i t s a v a l u e t o a d o l e s c e n t s t h a t may be s u f -f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g t o c o u n t e r even t h e p r e s e n c e o f a c r i m i n a l r o l e model, w h i c h was f o u n d t o be a h i g h l y c o r r e l a t i n g f a c t o r w i t h d e l i n q u e n c y . Empey and Lubeck (1971) found i n t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f com-m u n i t y programme r e s i d e n t s , t h a t a l m o s t h a l f t h e male d e l i n q u e n t s v i e w e d d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l as i m p o r t a n t , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f the community. F a m i l i e s o f d e l i n q u e n t s a l s o t e n d t o have p o o r i n t e r a c t i o n a l n e t -works t h a t Friedman (1969a) c h a r a c t e r i z e d as immature, i r r e s p o n s i b l e , h o s t i l e , and r e j e c t i n g . A l a r g e body o f l i t e r a t u r e has d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f d e l i n q u e n t s ' f a m i l i e s a r e i n f r e q u e n t , u n p r o d u c t i v e , and c o n s i s t u s u a l l y o f more n e g a t i v e t h a n p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s ( A l e x a n d e r and P a r s o n s , 1975; S t u a r t and L o t t , 1972; S t u a r t , 1971; P a t t e r s o n and R e i d , 1970; Tharp and W e t z e l , 1969). D i s r u p t i o n s o f r o u t i n e s o f t e n l e a d t o r e s t a t e m e n t s o f f a m i l y r u l e s t h a t a r e done i n a n e g a t i v e l y r e i n f o r c i n g manner (Tharp and W e t z e l , 1969). As a r e s u l t o f t h e i n f r e q u e n c y o f p a r e n t - c h i l d d i a l o g u e , i t s o c c u r r e n c e may be i n t e r p r e t e d as an a t t e n t i o n a l r e s p o n s e , and t h e r e f o r e p o s i t i v e l y r e i n f o r c i n g . Even i f t h e d i a l o g u e i s n e g a t i v e , i t can s t i l l be an a t t e n t i o n a l r e s p o n s e , so t h a t any b e h a v i o u r t h a t l e d t o i t , even a m a l a d a p t i v e f o r m , i s l i k e l y t o o c c u r a g a i n . I n t h i s way, p a r e n t s can c o n d i t i o n t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o behave d e v i a n t l y w i t h o u t 7 i n t e n d i n g t o do so (Wahler e t a l . , 1977, n o t e 1; S t u a r t , 1971; J o h nson and Brown, 1969). S t u a r t (1971) and P a t t e r s o n and R e i d (1970) have f o u n d t h a t i n c r e a s i n g t h e amount o f p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t f o r d e s i r e d b e h a v i o u r can d e c r e a s e t h e i n c i d e n c e o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r i n b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n . The t h e r a p i s t s ' r o l e s were seen t o be e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n r e i n f o r c i n g f a m i l y c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e c l e a r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f demands, and t h e n e g o t i a t i n g and c o m p r o m i s i n g o f t a s k s and r e i n f o r c e m e n t s . P a t t e r s o n and R e i d (1976, n o t e 2) have a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t a v e r s i v e b e h a v i o u r i n f a m i l i e s may be a f u n c t i o n of one member u s i n g c o e r c i v e p a i n f u l s t i m u l i t o change t h e b e h a v i o u r i n o t h e r s , p e r h a p s because the power o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e i n f o r c e r s d e c r e a s e d (Weiss e t a l . , 1974). F o r e v e r y d e v i a n t r e s p o n s e , P a t t e r s o n and R e i d c o u l d o f t e n f i n d a t r i g g e r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g b e h a v i o u r i n o t h e r f a m i l y members. A l a r g e p a r t o f a c h i l d ' s c o e r c i v e b e h a v i o u r was f ound t o be p r e c e d e d by an a t t a c k f r o m someone e l s e i n t h e f a m i l y w h i c h was f r e q u e n t l y h a l t e d upon e m i s s i o n o f t h e c h i l d ' s c o e r c i v e r e s p o n s e . The use of v e r b a l punishment t e n d e d t o d o u b l e the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a g g r e s s i o n would o c c u r i n t h e c h i l d i n t h e n e x t t i m e frame. S i n c e c o e r c i v e b e h a v i o u r p roduced a d e s i r e d consequence, i t was more l i k e l y t h a t t h i s c o e r c i v e p a t t e r n would o c c u r a g a i n i n o r d e r t o p r o d u c e f u r t h e r d e s i r e d c o nsequences, so t h a t c o e r c i o n w o u l d become a p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o u r r e p l a c i n g t h e p r e v i o u s l y n o n c o e r c i v e b e h a v i o u r . C a l l e d an e s c a l a t i o n c y c l e , t h e p a t t e r n may r e s u l t i n c o e r c i o n b e i n g u s e d e a r l i e r i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f f a m i l y members t h a n when d e s i r e d consequences were o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h more p l e a s a n t means. The mother was i d e n t i f i e d by P a t t e r s o n and R e i d as most o f t e n t r i g g e r i n g a g g r e s s i o n i n t h e o f f s p r i n g , and t h i s seems t o s u p p o r t o t h e r f i n d i n g s t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r 8 and r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e mother t o t h e d e l i n q u e n t i s most c r u c i a l (Cavan, 1962), and has t h e s t r o n g e s t e f f e c t on t h e c h i l d ( L i p s i t z , 1977; L a r s o n , F i t z g e r a l d , and M a r t i n , 1971). P a t t e r s o n and R e i d f o u n d t h a t a f t e r s u c c e s s f u l t h e r a p y , t h e p e r c e p t i o n s between t h e mother and h e r c h i l d r e n w ould become more p o s i t i v e . They s t r e s s e d r e d u c i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y o f commands and e l i c i t o r s o f a g g r e s s i o n , w h i l e i n c r e a s i n g t h e c o n s i s t e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p a r e n t i n g . W a h l e r , and h i s r e s e a r c h team, have a l s o n o t e d t h a t p a r e n t a l cues c a n a c c o u n t f o r as much of a c h i l d ' s d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r as p a r e n t a l l y c o n t r o l l e d c o n s e q u e n c e s , and t h e r e f o r e , t h e r a p y s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e a n t e c e d e n t s and c o n s e q u e n t s o f t h o s e exchanges c o n s i d e r e d d e v i a n t . P o l l a k (1969) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s a t i s -f a c t o r y human i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y a t any g i v e n t i m e s h o u l d l e a d t o f u t u r e s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r a c t i o n . He saw p a r e n t i n g as n o t o n l y a p r o c e s s o f t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n , b u t a l s o a p a t t e r n o f c h a n g i n g p a r e n t a l r o l e s as y o u t h grew up. As f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s become more complex t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f a p r o b l e m i n c r e a s e s , and t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e f a m i l y s ystem i m p l i e s t h a t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n one f a m i l y member a r e bound t o a f f e c t a n o t h e r . P a t t e r s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 7 3 ) , have s t a t e d t h a t w h i l e c h i l d manage-ment can be improved w i t h o u t a l t e r i n g p a r e n t a l p r o b l e m s , u l t i m a t e l y p a r e n t s w i t h problems a r e more l i k e l y t o r e v e r t t o o l d c h i l d r e a r i n g p a t t e r n s w h i c h may have been p a r t o f the o r i g i n a l p r o blem. Wahler e t a l . (1977, n o t e 1) a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e r a p e u t i c change was l e s s l i k e l y t o be m a i n t a i n e d i n f a m i l i e s w i t h d i f f i c u l t l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Blechman (1974) has o b s e r v e d t h a t f a m i l i e s i n c o n f l i c t a r e a l s o a v e r s e t o p r o b l e m s o l v i n g and t e n d t o d i s r u p t s u c h e f f o r t s t h r o u g h f r e q u e n t use o f i n s u l t s , c o m p l a i n t s , p u n i s h i n g s t a t e m e n t s , and p l a c i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e 9 o f p e r s o n a l i n v e s t m e n t s o v e r group compromises. They a l s o t e n d t o d w e l l on t h e i r problems w i t h o u t a t t e n d i n g t o , a g r e e i n g on, o r n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h s u g g e s t e d compromises. C o n f l i c t u a l f a m i l i e s have o f t e n n e v e r a c q u i r e d p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s k i l l s , and t h e i r n e g a t i v e b e h a v i o u r i s a f u n c t i o n o f r e m a i n i n g i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t f a i l t o s a t i s f y t h e i r needs and w h i c h hampers t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o r a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s k i l l s (Blechman e t a l . , 1976). From t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , any t e c h n i q u e t h a t c o u l d engender t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s k i l l s i n t h e f a m i l y s h o u l d be a p r o m i s i n g t h e r a p e u t i c s t r a t e g y . N e g o t i a t i o n w i t h i n a f a m i l y s ystem, c r u c i a l t o p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , i s u n i q u e f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s a c c o r d i n g t o Weiss e t a l . (1974). R e i n f o r c e m e n t s t o be t r a d e d u s u a l l y cannot be a p p r a i s e d i n terms o f c u r r e n c y v a l u e . The f a m i l y o p e r a t e s w i t h i n a c l o s e d s y s t e m i n w h i c h the e m i s s i o n and r e c e p t i o n o f r e i n f o r c e r s a r e v e r y dependent upon the b e h a v i o u r o f o t h e r f a m i l y members. Any n e g o t i a t i o n between t h e s e members cannot be done i n t h e same way t h a t a c o m m e r c i a l d e a l i s t r a n s a c t e d as t h e use o f many b u s i n e s s t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as p l a c i n g p r i o r i t y on p e r s o n a l g a i n c o u l d be v e r y damaging t o f a m i l y i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Thus, t h e a c t o f n e g o t i a t i o n i n v o l v e s a v e r y s e n s i t i v e and a b s t r a c t p r o c e s s t h a t can have p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on t h e f a m i l y ' s subsequent c o m m u n i c a t i o n , b o t h i n s i d e and o u t s i d e t h e f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t . K i f e r e t a l . (1974) f o u n d t h a t d e l i n q u e n t s o f t e n came t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s because o f t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . T r a i n i n g i n n e g o t i a t i o n s k i l l s seemed t o i n c r e a s e the i n c i d e n c e o f n e g o t i a t i o n and agreement w i t h i n t h e i r s m a l l s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n o f f a m i l i e s . D e l i n q u e n t s have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d from n o n d e l i n q u e n t s by t h e i r 10 r e s p o n s e t o e d u c a t i o n a l demands ( S w i f t e t a l . , 1973). These d i f f e r e n c e s have been r e l i a b l y measured u s i n g s u c h i n s t r u m e n t s as t h e Hahnemann H i g h S c h o o l B e h a v i o r R a t i n g S c a l e ( S p i v a c k and S w i f t , 1973), and a r e i n d i c a -t i v e o f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h a n d l i n g n o t o n l y s c h o o l , b u t most o f t h e demands o f the a d o l e s c e n t p e r i o d . P r o f i l e s can be g e n e r a t e d u s i n g t h i s s c a l e t h a t a r e u s e f u l i n d e s i g n i n g programmes f o r b o t h d e l i n q u e n t and n o n d e l i -quent s t u d e n t s r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . S t u a r t e t a l . (1976) have n e a t l y d e s c r i b e d how t h e s c h o o l , f a m i l y , and p e e r c o n s t e l l a t i o n can o p e r a t e . P a r e n t s and/or t e a c h e r s i n a d e q u a t e l y cue and/or r e i n f o r c e p o s i -t i v e b e h a v i o u r i n y o u t h ; p a r e n t s and/or t e a c h e r s r e i n f o r c e d e v i a n t be-h a v i o u r by o v e r a t t e n d i n g t o i t ; p e e r p r e s s u r e r e i n f o r c e s p r o b l e m a t i c b e h a v i o u r o v e r p r o s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . They recommended t h e r a p y be d i r e c t e d t o a d u l t s as t h e p r i m e m e d i a t o r s o f a d o l e s c e n t s and s u g g e s t e d e v a l u a t i n g i t by m e a s u r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n a l changes i n t h e f a m i l y . The s c h o o l may be c h a r g e d w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of i d e n t i f y i n g p r e d e l i n q u e n c y because i t has t h e most d a y t i m e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e t e e n a g e r s , and as a r e s u l t , e f f i c i e n t s c h o o l programmes s h o u l d work w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l , w h i l e c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e f a m i l y and o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s (Van Dyke, 1970). They can i n c o r -p o r a t e s u c h f e a t u r e s as p r o v i d i n g y o u t h w i t h same sexed t e a c h e r s who r e p r e s e n t d e s i r a b l e r o l e models, p r o v i d i n g adequate numbers o f p r o f e s -s i o n a l s i n a p r e v e n t i v e r a t h e r t h a n r e m e d i a l s e n s e , a d j u s t i n g c o u r s e c o n t e n t t o t e a c h p r e d e l i n q u e n t s more l i f e a d j u s t m e n t s k i l l s , o f f e r i n g some j o b p l a c e m e n t s e r v i c e s a s w e l l a s r e t r a i n i n g d r o p o u t s , and u t i l i z i n g t h e s c h o o l s more d u r i n g t h e summer b r e a k f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . The d e l i n q u e n t o r p r e d e l i n q u e n t who i s f a c e d w i t h academic f a i l u r e and d r o p p i n g out o f s c h o o l i s v e r y o f t e n s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d t h r o u g h s u c h 11 messages as n o t b e i n g b r i g h t , n o t h a v i n g any decent employment p r o s p e c t s , and b e i n g u n a b l e t o compete o r compare h i m s e l f w i t h t h o s e who f i n i s h s c h o o l . These s t e r e o t y p e s may even be more h a r m f u l t o t h e a d o l e s c e n t ' s f u t u r e t h a n t h e a c t o f d r o p p i n g o u t o f s c h o o l because t h e y o b s c u r e t h e r e a l u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e s . L i p s i t z (1977) c i t e d r e s e a r c h t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h a t d r o p p i n g o u t o f s c h o o l i s n o t a phenomenon i t s e l f t h a t can be r e d u c e d o r e l i m i n a t e d . I n s t e a d , i t seemed t o be i n d i c a t i v e o f o t h e r p roblems t h a t b e g i n e a r l i e r and a r e e v i d e n c e d by low a s p i r a t i o n s , low s e l f c o n c e p t s , p o o r academic a b i l i t y , and above av e r a g e l e v e l s o f d e l i n q u e n c y . C u r r e n t t r e n d s o f a t t e m p t i n g t o keep o l d e r a d o l e s c e n t s i n s c h o o l and w o r k i n g p r e v e n t i v e l y w i t h young c h i l d r e n were s c o r e d f o r i g n o r i n g t h e problems t h a t were o c c u r r i n g i n t h e l a t e r s c h o o l y e a r s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f s c h o o l i n g , a s i d e from i t s i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , a l s o c o n s i s t s o f an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r an a d o l e s c e n t t o be among h i s p e e r s w h i l e b e n e f i t t i n g f r o m an e d u c a t i o n (Cohen and F i l i p c z a k , 1971), and t h u s , t h i s p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e s h o u l d n o t be i g n o r e d when t r e a t i n g t h e d e l i n q u e n t o r p r e d e l i n q u e n t . S u c c e s s f u l m o d i f i c a t i o n o f p r o b l e m b e h a v i o u r i n c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e s i n t e r v e n t i o n i n b o t h home and s c h o o l , s i n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n one a r e a does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c a r r y o v e r t o t h e o t h e r ( P a t t e r s o n , 1974; P a t t e r s o n e t a l . , 1973). P a t t e r s o n (1974) s u c c e s s f u l l y m o d i f i e d conduct problems i n b o t h home and s c h o o l u s i n g programmes t a i l o r e d f o r each. Home t r e a t m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f t e a c h i n g p a r e n t s p r i n c i p l e s o f b e h a v i o u r a l manage-ment u s i n g d i d a c t i c , group m o d e l i n g , r o l e p l a y i n g , and c o n t r a c t i n g methods. S c h o o l t r e a t m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f d i r e c t b e h a v i o u r m o d i f i c a t i o n , c o n t i n g e n c y management and c o n t r a c t i n g methods between t h e y o u t h , t h e s c h o o l , and t h e f a m i l y . T e a c h e r s t o o k o v e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e programme 12 once i t was r u n n i n g s m o o t h l y . T e r m i n a t i o n and f o l l o w - u p measures i n -d i c a t e d s u c c e s s f u l c o n d i t i o n i n g o f p r o s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r i n t h e s c h o o l and e x t i n c t i o n o f p r o b l e m b e h a v i o u r a t home i n a m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s o f s o c i a l l y a g g r e s s i v e p roblems such as f i g h t i n g . A s o c i a l , p r o b l e m s such as r u n n i n g away showed l e s s s u c c e s s u s i n g t h e same e x t e r n a l o b s e r v a t i o n d a t a , but d i d i n d i c a t e s i m i l a r r a t e s o f s u c c e s s u s i n g p a r e n t r e p o r t d a t a . Treatment of D e l i n q u e n c y A n o t h e r major p a r t o f t h e d e l i n q u e n c y c o n t r o v e r s y c o n c e r n s t r e a t m e n t programmes. A s u r v e y o f programmes i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a -t e g i e s range f r o m d i r e c t l y m o d i f y i n g d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r (O'Leary and W i l s o n , 1975) t o t e a c h i n g s o c i a l l y r e i n f o r c i n g b e h a v i o u r s u c h as e s t a b -l i s h i n g s t r o n g p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( S c h w i t z g e b e l and K o l b , 1964), t h o u g h r e c e n t emphasis seems t o be on t h e f o r m e r t y p e ( S t u a r t and L o t t , 1972). Programmes can be c l a s s i f i e d as i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , community r e s i d e n t i a l , community n o n r e s i d e n t i a l , and p r e v e n t i v e . The s o a r i n g j u v e n i l e c r i m e r a t e and accompanying c o n c e r n p l a c e s extreme p r e s s u r e on t r e a t m e n t programmes t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e i r methods, and t h i s has l e d t o t h e development o f many new forms o f t r e a t m e n t . As p u b l i c f i s c a l s p e n d i n g becomes more r e s t r i c t e d , i t becomes n e c e s s a r y t o j u s t i f y t h e expense o f l a r g e sums o f money on j u v e n i l e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n methods, and u n f o r t u n a t e l y , many o f them have n o t h e l d up w e l l under t h i s c l o s e s c r u t i n y ( D a v i d s o n and R o b i n s o n , 1975). The c o n s t e r n a t i o n c r e a t e d by programme f a i l u r e s b r e e d s h e s i t a n c y a t d e v e l o p i n g new programmes f o r f e a r o f a d d i t i o n a l f a i l u r e , and t h u s t h e dilemma o f what t o do w i t h t h e j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r becomes even more c r u c i a l . 13 I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Dean and R e p p u c c i (1974) have been c r i t i c a l o f t h e n e g l e c t o f j u v e n i l e c o r r e c t i o n s shown by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n g i v e n a d u l t c o r r e c t i o n s , s i n c e t h e changes t h a t accompany a d o l e s c e n c e i n g e n e r a l have a l s o been g r e a t l y i g n o r e d by p r o -f e s s i o n a l s ( D e l a n e y , 1977). " D e s p i t e t h e c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s age group, t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l and economic r e s o u r c e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h com-m u n i t y a r e n o t b e i n g a l l o c a t e d t o i t s s t u d y . I n f a c t , where t h i s age group i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be no r e s e a r c h community a t present'! ( L i p s i t z , 1977, p. x v ; see A p p e n d i x B ) . Dean and R e p p u c c i have c r i t i c i z e d many o f t h e o v e r f o u r hundred i n -s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s as b e i n g u n d e r s t a f f e d , o v e r s i z e d , e v i l , and u n n e c e s s a r y i n the f a c e o f o t h e r more v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , and i n c a p a b l e o f p r o v i d i n g t h e wide range o f s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d by a d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n o f young o f f e n d e r s . The n o t i o n s o f t r e a t i n g an a d o l e s c e n t w h i l e im-p r i s o n i n g him a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e t o them, and many p r o c e d u r e s d e s i g n e d t o r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g ones a r e doomed b e c a u s e , i n s t e a d o f r e p l a c i n g o l d s e r -v i c e s , t h e y a r e o f t e n used i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h them. A m o r a l i s s u e a l s o e x i s t s i n t h a t many t r e a t m e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s r e q u i r e l o n g e r p l a c e m e n t s t h a n o u t r i g h t c r i m i n a l i n c a r c e r a t i o n ( M o r r i s , 1976). Even w i t h the e x p a n s i o n and m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f many i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e y s t i l l l a g f a r b e h i n d t h e needs o f a d o l e s c e n t s and t h e demands o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s , and t h e e x t e n t o f t h e s e needs a r e o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o measure due t o t h e f a c t t h a t most apprehended d e l i n q u e n t s n e v e r r e a c h t h e c o u r t s ( L e w i s , 1977; O h l i n , 1973; Van Dyke, 1970; Amos, 1969). Many i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t programmes have f a i l e d f o r two a p p a r e n t r e a s o n s . They do not come t o g r i p s w i t h t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n f l u e n c e o f 14 p e e r s and t h e f a m i l y (O'Leary and W i l s o n , 1972), and t h e y do n o t f a c i l i t a t e a smooth t r a n s i t i o n from i n s t i t u t i o n t o s o c i e t y ( B u r c h a r d , 1973). I n s t i t u t i o n s t e n d t o b r i n g out n e g a t i v e b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s on the p a r t o f s t a f f and r e s i d e n t s a l i k e . Y o u t h s r a r e l y r e c e i v e t h e humane g u i d a n c e and a t t e n t i o n t h e y have m i s s e d a t home. They a r e c h a l l e n g e d t o escape by t h e v e r y p r e s e n c e o f i r o n b a r s , l o c k s and g a t e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y o f t e n l e a r n more d e s t r u c t i v e c r i m i n a l t e c h n i q u e s w h i l e i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l commitment. ( R e p o r t o f the J o i n t Committee, 1972, p.6) I n s t i t u t i o n s , o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d t o r e a s s u r e s o c i e t y by removing o f f e n d e r s f r o m t h e p u b l i c e y e, d e t e r r i n g c r i m e and r e h a b i l i t a t i n g o f f e n d e r s , have n o t succeeded (Burdman, 1969). F r e q u e n t l y , t h e y have n o t d e a l t w i t h t h e i n t e n d e d t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n ( S p e a r s , 1977), and when t h e y d i d , a c o n -s i d e r a b l e body o f r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t a more s k i l l e d and e x p e r i e n c e d o f f e n d e r emerged ( B i s h o p , 1973; B u e h l e r e t a l . , 1973; O h l i n , 1973; Empey and Lubeck, 1971; Amos, 1969). Much o f t h i s has been t r a c e d t o i n a d e -q u a c i e s i n t h e j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e s ystem ( L i p s t i z , 1977; N i e t z e l e t a l . , 1977; Shah, 1975; O h l i n , 1973; Empey and Lubeck, 1971), and t h e tendency f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s t o p e r m a n e n t l y s t i g m a t i z e y o u t h (Empey and Lubeck, 1971). I n Canada, j u d i c i a l r e f o r m has been p r o p o s e d (see A p p e n d i x A, The Young O f f e n d e r s A c t ) , but t h e government h a s , u n t i l now, b a l k e d a t i t s i m p l e -m e n t a t i o n because o f t h e p r o j e c t e d s t a g g e r i n g l e g a l c o s t s ( L e w i s , 1977). So the emphasis swings c i r c u i t o u s l y back t o e x i s t i n g programmes. One p o s i t i v e i n n o v a t i o n i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l programmes c o n c e r n s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f o p e r a n t t e c h n i q u e s ( N i e t z e l e t a l . , 1977; Dean and R e p p u c c i , 1974; B i s h o p , 1973; B u r c h a r d , 1973) w h i c h has l e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f more n a t u r a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t ( B u r c h a r d and H a r r i g , 1976). An example o f s u c h an i n n o v a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l 15 b e h a v i o u r a l programme i s t h e CASE I I p r o j e c t t h a t t o o k p l a c e w i t h i n t h e N a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g S c h o o l f o r Boys (Cohen and F i l i p c z a k , 1971). CASE I I c o n s i s t e d o f a t w e n t y - f o u r hour e d u c a t i o n a l system w i t h i n an i n s t i t u -t i o n a l s e t t i n g t h a t u t i l i z e d r e s p o n s e c o n t i n g e n t r e i n f o r c e m e n t , programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , and a c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e d t o encourage academic s u c c e s s i n a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h r e c o r d s o f p r i o r c o n s i s t e n t f a i l u r e . The programme was o r i e n t e d t o i n c r e a s i n g t h e s e l f - c o n t r o l i n d e l i n q u e n t s w h i l e d e e m p h a s i z i n g th e f o r c e d d i s c i p l i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , and u t i l i z e d a p o i n t system c o n t i n g e n t on academic p e r f o r m a n c e . R e i n t e g r a t i o n o f de-l i n q u e n t s i n t o s o c i e t y was a n o t h e r f a c e t f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e CASE I I s t a f f who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n p a r o l e n e g o t i a t i o n s and e s t a b l i s h e d s u c h g o a l r e s -ponses as t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f e a r n e d p o i n t s on a p p r o p r i a t e t h i n g s . The a u t h o r s n o t e d improved academic p e r f o r m a n c e and r e d u c e d s h o r t term r e c i d i v i s m , and CASE I I has become a p r o t o t y p e f o r o t h e r p r o j e c t s ( W e l l n e r , 1975). I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t even b e h a v i o u r a l programmes have been u n a b l e so f a r t o p r e v e n t r e c u r r i n g l o n g term r e c i d i v i s m (Dean and R e p p u c c i , 1974). B u r c h a r d (1973) r e v i e w e d s e v e r a l o t h e r s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s , and c o n -c l u d e d t h a t a l t h o u g h b e h a v i o u r a l programmes show p r o m i s i n g p o t e n t i a l , the p r o b l e m o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f l e a r n e d b e h a v i o u r o u t s i d e the i n s t i t u t i o n was s t i l l an a r e a o f c o n c e r n . The A-B-A r e v e r s a l d e s i g n c l e a r l y showed t h a t r e m o v a l of t h e r a p e u t i c c o n t i n g e n c i e s r e s u l t s i n some b e h a v i o u r a l d e t e r i o r a -t i o n . S e c o n d l y , he p o i n t e d o u t t h a t programmes such as CASE I I produce some n e g a t i v e s i d e e f f e c t s , so t h a t t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h was n o t o n l y t h e one t h a t p r o d u c e d the g r e a t e s t b e h a v i o u r a l change, b u t a l s o t h e one w i t h t h e l e a s t n e g a t i v e s i d e e f f e c t s . Wahler e t a l . (1977, n o t e 1 ) , 16 a l s o s u r m i s e d t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t programmes a l o n e c o u l d n o t g u a r a n t e e c o n t i n u e d m aintenance o f t h e r a p e u t i c g a i n s , u n l e s s t h e c h i l d ' s n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . O h l i n (1973) c o n c l u d e d t h a t . . . d e s p i t e t h e s e p r o m i s i n g new t r e n d s , t h e r e i s s t i l l t o o l i t t l e o f e v e r y known s e r v i c e t o d e a l w i t h t h e p r oblems o f d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n and y o u t h . Programs everywhere a r e u n d e r f i n a n c e d and u n d e r s t a f f e d . The j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e s ystem i s s t i l l dominanted by c u s t o d i a l c o n c e r n s . I t g e t s young p e o p l e who have o r d i n a r i l y been s c r e e n e d t h r o u g h many a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e s o f h e l p and i n t h e end commits them t o t r a d i t i o n a l l y l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s o f t e n o n l y m i l d e r v e r s i o n s o f a d u l t p r i s o n s . C l e a r l y t h e t r e n d i n p r o -f e s s i o n a l t h i n k i n g i s away f r o m l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s t o s m a l l group homes and o t h e r forms o f community-based s e r v i c e s . The r e g i m e n t a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s , t h e c o r r o s i v e e f f e c t s of inmate s u b c u l t u r e s and p e e r group e x p e r i e n c e s have l e d most p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e y do more harm t h a n good. Thus, t h e r e has been i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e f o r d i v e r s i o n o f c h i l d r e n from t h i s s y s t e m and a d e s i r e t o c r e a t e s m a l l e r community-based r e s i d e n t i a l programs i n t e g r a t e d w i t h o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l o c a l community. A t the same t i m e , the p roblems o f r a c i a l and e t h n i c group c o n f l i c t t h a t appear i n t h e o u t s i d e community a r e f i n d i n g e x p r e s s i o n w i t h i n l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as w e l l . C o ncern about such p r oblems has u n d o u b t e d l y l e n t s u p p o r t t o p o l i c i e s o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n t o s m a l l e r community-based u n i t s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l consensus t h a t t h e p r e v e n t i o n and t r e a t m e n t o f d e l i n q u e n c y w i l l o n l y become e f f e c t i v e when co m m u n i t i e s a c c e p t t h e o b l i g a t i o n t o d e v e l o p t h e means t o c o n f r o n t and d e a l w i t h p r o b l e m s on i n s t i t u t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e where t h e s e p r oblems a r e c r e a t e d . (pp. 189-190). Community bas e d programmes have been o r g a n i z e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n s (James, 1975; Dean and R e p p u c c i , 1974). They t y p i c a l l y c o n s i s t o f programmes d e s i g n e d f o r s p e c i a l i z e d p r o b a t i o n , n o n r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e n s i v e t h e r a p y and r e s i d e n t i a l programmes i n c l u d i n g group and f o s t e r homes. B e h a v i o u r a l p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e s e programmes have th e a d v a n t a g e s o f i n v o l v i n g t h e f a m i l y , t h e s c h o o l , and o t h e r a g e n c i e s , 17 and o f f e r t h e d e l i n q u e n t more o p t i o n s t h a n t r a d i t i o n a l p r o b a t i o n a r y o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l programmes, w h i l e a l l o w i n g him t o r e t a i n more o f h i s f r e e -dom. A t r i s k , however, i s t h e i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l c o n t i n g e n c i e s t o the same e x t e n t as t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , b u t t h i s i s l i k e l y o f f s e t by t h e a v a i l -a b i l i t y o f more v a r i e d and f l e x i b l e forms of p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t . The p r e s e n c e o f a p e e r group may be b e n e f i c i a l i f group p r e s s u r e t o c o n f o r m i t y can be d i r e c t e d t o p r o s o c i a l g o a l s . The e l i m i n a t i o n o f many a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s found i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , w h i c h Empey and Lubeck (1971) f e l t may be the s i n g l e more u n i f y i n g f a c t o r o f a d e l i n q u e n t inmate s u b c u l t u r e , makes c o n f o r m i t y t o s o c i a l norms more a t t r a c t i v e t o t h e a d o l e s c e n t , who i s no l o n g e r p r e s s u r e d i n t o r e j e c t i n g t h e s e v a l u e s . The n o r m a t i v e emphasis o f community programmes, however, may n o t be s u f f i c i e n t f o r more d i f f i c u l t y o u t h t o f o l l o w , and Empey and Lubeck f e l t t h e p r e s e n c e o f l o c a l d e t e n t i o n f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d p r o v i d e an e f f e c t i v e s a n c t i o n f o r community programmes t o u s e , r a t h e r t h a n e x p u l s i o n from t h e programme and p o s s i b l e i n c a r c e r a -t i o n . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be an a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p s u c h a framework w i t h the c r e a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s d e s i g n e d t o h o l d r e -p e a t e d o f f e n d e r s who do n o t r e s p o n d t o o t h e r r e s o u r c e s ( J u v e n i l e f a c i l i t i e s s l a t e d , 1977). Community programmes may be e v a l u a t e d i n more n a t u r a l terms t h a n i n s t i t u t i o n s , and u s u a l l y r e q u i r e l e s s b u r e a u c r a c y t o a d m i n i s t r a t e a c t i v i t i e s (Ray and K i l b u r n , 1970), p l u s t h e y do n o t have t o c o n t e n d w i t h a r e i n t e g r a t i o n c o n f l i c t s i n c e t h e y need n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t e r r u p t n o r m a l l i f e s c h e d u l u e s , and can p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t e r e s p o n s e c h o i c e s i n th e p r e s e n c e o f s t i m u l i t h a t p r e v i o u s l y e l i c i t e d d e v i a n c y . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e d e l i n q u e n t i s more a p t t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e consequences o f h i s own 18 a c t i o n s by e x p e r i e n c i n g them i n s i t u a t i o n s p r e s e l e c t e d t o e l i c i t c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r s w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g o v e r d e p e n d e n c i e s on t h e c o r r e c t i o n s o f f i c e r s . Warren's (1972) r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h c omparing community w i t h i n -s t i t u t i o n a l programmes d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f a community based a p p r o a c h , w h i c h i n c l u d e s a r e d u c t i o n i n s t a f f t i m e commitments and i n c r e a s e d p o s t - t r e a t m e n t a d j u s t m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , much l e s s f i n a n -c i a l r e s o u r c e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e s e programmes, as s e v e r a l A m e r i c a n s t a t e s have n o t e d i n t h e i r c o n v e r s i o n t o community a p p r o a c h e s ( P h i l l i p s e t a l . , 1975). The K e n t f i e l d ' s R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Program (D a v i d s o n and R o b i n s o n , 1975; James, 1975), an example o f t h i s method, combined an e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h w i t h a b e h a v i o u r a l emphasis on work performance and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n programme a c t i v i t i e s , and r e s u l t e d i n improved work p e r f o r m a n c e , r e d u c e d r e c i d i v i s m , and an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of y o u t h r e t u r n i n g t o p u b l i c s c h o o l . A n o t h e r community programme, Achievement P l a c e ( P h i l l i p s e t a l . , 1975) works w i t h p r e d e l i n q u e n t s and f e a t u r e s e x t e n s i v e community p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n i t s f a m i l y s t y l e r e s i d e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t . P r e l i m i n a r y d a t a from t h e b u i l t - i n e v a l u a t i o n component r e v e a l s s u c c e s s f u l m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r s . However, n o t a l l community programmes r e p o r t t h i s much s u c c e s s . Empey and Lubeck ( 1 9 7 1 ) , w h i l e n o t i n g t h e advan-t a g e s o f t h e i r S i l v e r l a k e community programme, were n o t a b l e t o demon-s t r a t e much outcome d i f f e r e n c e f r o m i n s t i t u t i o n a l programmes. F u r t h e r -more, t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d many o f t h e o b s t a c l e s f a c i n g community t r e a t m e n t s t h a t o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have r e p o r t e d ( L i p s i t z , 1977; Burdman, 1969). These c e n t r e p r i m a r i l y on a p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e f o r more s e c u r e i n s t i t u -t i o n s o v e r l e s s r i g i d k i n d s o f programmes t h a t keep o f f e n d e r s r i g h t i n 19 t h e community. So, w h i l e community r e s i d e n t i a l c e n t r e s a r e d e m o n s t r a t i n g some p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s , t h e r e a r e s t i l l s e v e r a l i s s u e s t h a t must be r e s o l v e d i f t h e y a r e t o s u c c e e d . A more r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n c o n c e r n s an a t t e m p t t o head o f f d e l i n -quency b e f o r e i t becomes a p r o b l e m . P r e v e n t i o n programmes seek t o d e t e r m i n e where d e l i n q u e n c y w i l l o c c u r , but u n f o r t u n a t e l y , as O'Leary and W i l s o n (1975) have s t a t e d , t h e r e i s a l a c k o f p r e d e l i n q u e n c y p r o -grammes t h a t a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r u c t u r e d t o p r e d i c t f u t u r e d e l i n q u e n t a c t s . Many p r e v e n t i o n programmes have d e v e l o p e d f a s t e r t h a n r e s e a r c h on p r e d i c t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y , so v e r y l i t t l e i s a v a i l a b l e y e t on t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e s e methods. There i s a v e r y d i s t i n c t p h i l o s o p h i c a l o v e r l a p i n w o r k i n g w i t h d e l i n q u e n t s f o c u s i n g on p r e v e n t i o n and t r e a t m e n t o r c o n t r o l . A c c o r d i n g t o L i p s i t z ( 1 9 7 7 ) , t h e l a t t e r o f t h e two c a n be v i e w e d as ...an a t t e m p t t o s t o p c r i m i n a l i t y o r d e l i n q u e n c y and a l s o an a t t e m p t t o f o r e s t a l l f u t u r e o f f e n s e s . I f s o c i e t a l a c t i o n i s m o t i v a t e d by an o f f e n s e t h a t has a l r e a d y t a k e n p l a c e , we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h c o n t r o l ; i f t h e o f f e n s e i s o n l y a n t i c i p a t e d , we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h p r e v e n t i o n . (p. 183) A n o t h e r major d i s t i n c t i o n between c o n t r o l and p r e v e n t i o n i s a l e g a l one i n t h a t , by v i r t u e o f c o m m i t t i n g and b e i n g apprehended f o r i l l e g a l a c t i v i t y , t h e a d o l e s c e n t must y i e l d t o a s o c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n on h i s / h e r r i g h t s . The p o t e n t i a l d e l i n q u e n t i s n o t i n s u c h a p o s i t i o n , so c o m p u l s o r y p r e v e n t i o n programmes a r e l e s s f e a s i b l e . T h i s has posed a p r o b l e m f o r p r e v e n t i o n programmes i n m a i n t a i n i n g p a r t i c i p a n t i n v o l v e m e n t . P r e v e n t i v e s t y l e programmes f o c u s on y o u t h who a r e d i s p l a y i n g a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r but who a r e n o t y e t l a b e l l e d as l e g a l l y d e l i n q u e n t , 20 and a r e g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r e d f o r t h e i r l o w e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s and t h e immediacy o f t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n t o n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s ( B u r c h a r d and H a r i g , 1976). L e j i n s (1969) has o u t l i n e d t h r e e forms o f p r e v e n -t i o n : 1. P u n i t i v e programmes u t i l i z e t h e t h r e a t o f punishment b a s e d on c r i m i n a l l a w , e i t h e r t o p r e v e n t a r e p e a t e d o r a f i r s t o f f e n s e . 2. C o r r e c t i v e programmes a t t e m p t t o e l i m i n a t e f a c t o r s t h a t c a u s e , i n f l u e n c e , o r m o t i v a t e d e l i n q u e n c y u s i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . 3. M e c h a n i c a l programmes make t h e a c t u a l c o m m i s s i o n of d e l i n q u e n c y more d i f f i c u l t by such means as i n c r e a s i n g t h e v i s i b i l i t y o f t h e p o l i c e . C o r r e c t i v e programmes a r e e n c o u n t e r i n g a c u r r e n t s u r g e o f p o p u l a r i t y , and a r e o f t h r e e t y p e s : 1. d e v e l o p i n g o r m o d i f y i n g s o c i a l p o l i c y a f f e c t i n g l i f e s t y l e s , c r i m e , and d e l i n q u e n c y ; 2. i d e n t i f y i n g symptoms o f c r i m e and d e l i n q u e n c y and i n s t i t u t i n g p r e v e n t i v e a c t i o n ; and 3. programming i n h i g h r i s k a r e a s . On t h e s u r f a c e , p r e v e n t i o n by i n d u c i n g c o n f o r m i t y t o s o c i a l norms s h o u l d be f a r e a s i e r t h a n r e v e r s i n g c o n f i r m e d d e l i n q u e n t i d e a s , r o l e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s , and s t r e n g t h e n i n g n o n d e l i n q u e n t . r o l e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s ( D a v i d s o n and R o b i n s o n , 1975; Empey and Lubeck, 19701 Cavan, 1962). Empey and Lubeck (1970) see p r e v e n t i o n as aimed p r i m a r i l y a t i m p r o v i n g t h e f a m i l y ' s i n s t i t u t i o n a l t i e s w i t h the community and r e d u c i n g s t r a i n w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y system. S i n c e o n l y p r e l i m i n a r y d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e t h a t 21 i n d i c a t e s t h e p o t e n t i a l s u c c e s s o f p r e v e n t i v e programmes ( f o r example, B u r c h a r d , 1973), t h e y have y e t t o be shown t h a t t h e y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t i v e on a l o n g t e r m b a s i s (Empey and Lubeck, 1970). Empey and Lubeck (1970) d e v e l o p e d a s t r a t e g y o f s e t t i n g up p r e -v e n t i v e programmes t h a t r e f l e c t s an o r g a n i z e d , l o g i c a l method e a s i l y a d a p t a b l e t o a b e h a v i o u r a l a p p r o a c h . The s t r a t e g y c o n s i s t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s t e p s : 1. D e f i n i n g a t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . 2. D e v e l o p i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g members o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . 3. S e t t i n g p r e c i s e o b j e c t i v e s . 4. E s t a b l i s h i n g c o n t r a c t u a l agreements between a l l c o n c e r n e d p a r t i e s i n c l u d i n g t h e programme a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e f i n a n c i a l b a c k e r s , and t h e f r o n t l i n e w o r k e r s by o u t l i n i n g t h e g o a l s , methods, and c o s t s o f e ach p a r t y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 5. D e r i v i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . 6. S e t t i n g up an e v a l u a t i o n network. The most d i f f i c u l t s t a g e o f t h e p r e v e n t i o n p r o c e s s a p p e a r s t o c o n c e r n t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f a f u t u r e d e l i n q u e n t . L i p s i t z (1977) and Shah (1975) a r e of t h e o p i n i o n t h a t p r e d i c t i o n i s a r i s k y p r o c e s s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e r e does n o t e x i s t any one p r o f i l e o f a d e l i n q u e n t . A l t h o u g h i d e n t i f y i n g a d e l i n q u e n t can be done w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% a c c u r a c y , t h e e r r o r r a t e of f a l s e p o s i t i v e s , p r e d i c t i n g d e l i n q u e n c y t h a t does n o t a c t u a l l y o c c u r , and f a l s e n e g a t i v e s , n o t p r e d i c t i n g d e l i n q u e n c y t h a t does o c c u r , y i e l d s a p o p u l a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t s i z e . I t r e p r e s e n t s 22 o f f e r i n g e x p e n s i v e s e r v i c e s t o a subgroup n o t i n need, and n o t p r o v i d i n g t h e s e s e r v i c e s t o t h o s e who c o u l d b e n e f i t more f r o m them. Y o u t h who c o u l d b e n e f i t most a r e o f t e n e x c l u d e d from p r e v e n t i v e programmes f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s , such as t h e i r i m m a t u r i t y , i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and so on ( R e p o r t o f t h e J o i n t Committee t o E v a l u a t e Programs W i t h i n t h e Department o f Y o u t h , 1972). The change t o a community o r i e n t e d p r e v e n t i v e s t y l e o f d e a l i n g w i t h d e l i n q u e n c y r e q u i r e s t h a t s e v e r a l s o c i a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s o c c u r i n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e t h a t c e n t r e around the s c h o o l , and w h i c h were d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . Van Dyke (1970) l i s t e d some o f t h e s e : 1. t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , 2. e a s i e r a c c e s s t o c o u n s e l l i n g and o t h e r s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s , 3. r e f o c u s s i n g p o l i c e t r a i n i n g and p r o v i d i n g l a w enforcement p e r -s o n e l w i t h improved c a p a b i l i t i e s t o h a n d l e minor problems s u c h as f a m i l y d i s p u t e s a t t h e i r s o u r c e , and 4. p r o v i d i n g a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h more i n v o l v e m e n t i n l o c a l government t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r p r i d e i n and d e c r e a s e t h e i r a l i e n a t i o n f r o m t h e community. Due t o t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e f a m i l y , p e e r g r o u p s , t h e s c h o o l , and o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s t o s u c h major s o c i a l c hanges, i n i t i a l a t t e m p t s a t p r e -v e n t i o n have o f t e n been abandoned i n f a v o u r o f s t r a t e g i e s aimed a t con-t r o l l i n g d e l i n q u e n c y w i t h i n t h e j u s t i c e system. However, one programme t h a t does dem o n s t r a t e a w o r k a b l e f o r m a t i s t h e C a l i f o r n i a Y o u t h A u t h o r i t y ' s James M a r s h a l l Treatment Programme (Amos, 1969). I t i s g e a r e d t o p e o p l e between t h e ages o f f i f t e e n and s e v e n t e e n , emphasizes t o a d o l e s c e n t s t h e achievement o f more p o s i t i v e a c c e p t a n c e o f a u t h o r i t y 23 and l i m i t s , t h e improvement o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , d e a l i n g w i t h c o n f l i c t s o f d e l i n q u e n t v e r s u s c o n v e n t i o n a l s y s t e m s , a c c e p t i n g r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y f o r one's b e h a v i o u r , d e v e l o p i n g good work h a b i t s , i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i f i c a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m a r e a s , and l e a r n i n g how t o h a n d l e s t r e s s a d a p t i v e l y . I n a d d i t i o n t o making s o c i a l s e r v i c e s more a c c e s s i b l e t o y o u t h , i t promotes t h e a d a p t i v e n e s s o f p r o s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r , as w e l l as d e a l i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m s . A n o t h e r programme e m p h a s i z i n g a community based a p p r o a c h t o p r e -v e n t i o n i s P r o j e c t C o n t a c t i n Richmond, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s agency's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s s t r o n g l y community b a s e d , w i t h community f r o n t l i n e r e s o u r c e p e o p l e , p a r e n t s o f c h i l d r e n who have been on t h e programme, and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e community a t l a r g e s i t t i n g on t h e b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s . The agency i s g overned by a s o c i e t y composed o f p e o p l e who e i t h e r r e s i d e o r a r e employed i n t h e community. P u b l i c membership i n t h e s o c i e t y i s e n couraged, and s t r o n g o p e r a t i o n a l t i e s have been d e v e l o p e d between t h e agency, and p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l l e v e l s o f government and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , as w e l l as t h e news media. T h i s f u n c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h i n c r e a s e s t h e community's awareness o f t h e s e r v i c e and a l s o s t i m u l a t e s community i n p u t i n t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e programme. The p r o j e c t works w i t h p r e d e l i n q u e n t s i n t h e t e n t o s i x t e e n y e a r age range f r o m a l l s o c i o e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s r e f e r r e d p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t s and c o u n s e l l o r s , and who have been i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g a t r i s k f o r f u t u r e d e l i n q u e n c y due t o p r o b l e m s w i t h home and/or s c h o o l b e h a v i o u r . P r o j e c t C o n t a c t emphasizes i m p r o v i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l e f f e c t i v e -n e s s and s o c i a l s k i l l s , community r e s o u r c e awareness and i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r , and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f 24 c o o p e r a t i o n and p o s i t i v e c o m m unication between t h e a d o l e s c e n t and h i s home and s c h o o l . U s i n g a n o v e l a p p r o a c h , i t o f f e r s l a y c o u n s e l l i n g t o b o t h p a r e n t s and y o u t h i n c l u d i n g b e h a v i o u r a l a p p r o a c h e s and v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s on i n d i v i d u a l and group b a s e s . P r e l i m i n a r y d a t a i n d i c a t e moderate t o e x t e n s i v e s u c c e s s f o r most c a s e s i n b o t h t h e home and s c h o o l a t m o d i f y i n g s o c i a l a b i l i t y , r e d u c i n g a c t i n g out b e h a v i o u r , i n c r e a s i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and r a i s i n g s e l f - e s t e e m (Ramer and B e s t , 1976). F u r t h e r m o r e , p a r e n t s o f y o u t h on the programme i n f o r m a l l y i n d i c a t e c o n s i d e r a b l e s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f p r o j e c t w o r k e r s i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e y o u t h and t h e i r f a m i l i e s (see A p p e n d i x D), C o n t i n g e n c y C o n t r a c t i n g Community t r e a t m e n t and p r e v e n t i v e programmes have been t u r n i n g t o b e h a v i o u r t h e r a p y w i t h s u c c e s s b e c a u s e , as L i b e r m a n (1970) s t a t e d , i t i n v o l v e s a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e t h a t changes f a m i l y members' s t y l e s o f d e a l i n g and communicating w i t h e a c h o t h e r . T h e i r m o t i v a t i o n and r e s p o n s e t o t r e a t m e n t can be s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by t h e b a l a n c e o f r e -w a r d i n g and a v e r s i v e consequences o f one's b e h a v i o u r t o o t h e r f a m i l y members, and t h u s , b e h a v i o u r t h e r a p y f o c u s e s on c h a n g i n g t h i s b a l a n c e so t h a t rewards a r e g i v e n more o f t e n f o r d e s i r a b l e c o o p e r a t i v e and communicative b e h a v i o u r . One s t r a t e g y t h a t r e f l e c t s t h i s p r i n c i p l e and i s w e l l - s u i t e d f o r c o n t r o l and p r e v e n t i v e s t y l e s o f h a n d l i n g de-l i n q u e n c y i s c o n t i n g e n c y c o n t r a c t i n g . I n N o r t h C a r o l i n a , f o r example, one d e l i n q u e n c y c o n t r o l programme used c o n t r a c t s and found t h a t c o n t r a c t p e r f o r m a n c e was o v e r 60% f o r s e v e n t y - t w o o f s e v e n t y - s i x r e f e r r a l s 25 (James, 1975). Empey and Lubeck (1971) f e l t c o n t r a c t i n g c o u l d produce t h r o u g h self-management, t h e c o h e s i v e n e s s and m o t i v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by community t r e a t m e n t p o p u l a t i o n s more e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n u n i l a t e r a l l y imposed s a n c t i o n s . As an i n t e r v e n t i v e a p p r o a c h , c o n t i n g e n c y o r b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r a c t i n g e m p h a s i z e s : 1. h e l p i n g t h e a d o l e s c e n t i n i t i a t e s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s , 2. e s t a b l i s h i n g c l e a r c u t c r i t e r i a f o r a c h i e v e m e n t , and 3. p r o v i d i n g mechanisms f o r c l a r i f y i n g t h e consequences o f e n g a g i n g i n a c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r , t h u s i n c r e a s i n g t h e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t exchange. P a t t e r s o n e t a l . (1973) f e l t t h e g e n e r a l g o a l s o f a c o n t r a c t a r e t o t e a c h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n t o be c l e a r i n s p e c i f y i n g d e s i r a b l e and u n d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o u r s and consequences of ea c h , and t o t e a c h c h i l d r e n t h a t p a r e n t s c a n r e a c t p r e d i c t a b l y . From a t h e r a p i s t ' s v i e w p o i n t , t h e g o a l o f co n -t r a c t i n g i s t o a c h i e v e a s u c c e s s f u l c o n t r a c t , w h i l e i t s method i s a v e h i c l e f o r r e a c h i n g o t h e r t h e r a p e u t i c g o a l s ( D e R i s i and B u t z , 1975). Weiss e t a l . (1974) f e l t a c o n t r a c t has r e a c h e d i t s g o a l s i f i t has i d e n t i f i e d p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c i n g b e h a v i o u r s , e s t a b l i s h e d some v a l u e o f the n e g a t i v e t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r , and s e t up rewards and p e n a l t i e s so t h e y r e a l i a b l y f o l l o w c o m p l i a n c e and n o n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e c o n t r a c t . A c o n t r a c t p r o v i d e s a w r i t t e n r e c o r d o f agreement and an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e v a l u a t e p r o g r e s s by c o m p a r i s o n a g a i n s t t h e terms o f t h e agreement. I t a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e c l i e n t w i t h a c l e a r c u t s e t o f r u l e s he has h e l p e d t o e s t a b l i s h . By making r o l e s o f each p a r t y c l e a r , chances a r e i n c r e a s e d t h a t e ach w i l l f u l f i l l t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and a t t h e same t i m e , add 26 s t a b i l i t y t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h o s e c o n c e r n e d . As a t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l , r e c o r d s o f p a s t c o n t r a c t s a r e u s e f u l i n d e c i d i n g when t o g i v e up u n s u c c e s s f u l s t r a t e g i e s , and i n s e l e c t i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t may work i n c a s e s s i m i l a r t o p a s t s u c c e s s e s . C o n t r a c t i n g s h i f t s t h e f o c u s o f a t t e n -t i o n from f a u l t f i n d i n g and name c a l l i n g t o more c o n s t r u c t i v e ways o f p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . C o n t i n g e n c y c o n t r a c t s a r e o f two b a s i c f o r m s , i n d i v i d u a l and group. I n d i v i d u a l c o n t r a c t s a r e s i m p l e agreements made by an i n d i v i d u a l t o him-s e l f t o e f f e c t some b e h a v i o u r change i n exchange f o r some form o f r e i n -f o r c e m e n t . A group c o n t r a c t may be made between a c l i e n t and a t h e r a -p i s t , o r between members o f a f a m i l y . Group c o n t r a c t s may be one o f two t y p e s , u n i l a t e r a l , where o n l y t h e o b l i g a t i o n s o f one p a r t y a r e s t i p u l a t e d , o r b i l a t e r a l , where th e m u t u a l o b l i g a t i o n s o f a l l p a r t i e s a r e s p e c i f i e d . B i l a t e r a l c o n t r a c t s a r e e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n w o r k i n g w i t h f a m i l i e s o f d e l i n q u e n t s who have an i n t e r a c t i o n a l p r o b l e m f o c u s i n g on what i s n o t l i k e d o r n o t wanted. B e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r a c t i n g h e l p s t o r e v e r s e t h i s c y c l e by e m p h a s i z i n g m u t u a l p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t can improve f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e p r e s e n t w i t h an eye t o t h e f u t u r e , r a t h e r t h a n g e t t i n g caught up w i t h p a s t e v e n t s , f a u l t f i n d i n g o r a c c u s a t i o n s . E x t e n d e d t h e r a p i s t i n v o l v e m e n t may n o t be r e q u i r e d , a l t h o u g h t h i s w i l l v a r y from c a s e t o c a s e . C o n t i n g e n c y c o n t r a c t i n g can be done e i t h e r v e r b a l l y , o r i n a more f o r m a l w r i t t e n f o r m a t . W r i t t e n c o n t r a c t s , however, p r o v i d e g r e a t e r c l a r i t y and s p e c i f i c i t y ( G e l f a n d and Hartmann, 1975), and encourage g r e a t e r commitment on t h e a d o l e s c e n t ' s p a r t t o i n i t i a t e b e h a v i o u r change, as w e l l as d i s c o u r a g i n g i r r e g u l a r i t y i n p a r e n t a l demands and 27 d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t s . W r i t t e n c o n t r a c t s a l s o p r o v i d e a more e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y i n s h i f t i n g b e h a v i o u r management from e x t e r n a l c o n -t r o l t o self-management, w h i c h can be v i e w e d as an u l t i m a t e g o a l o f c o n t i n g e n c y c o n t r a c t i n g (Homme e t a l . , 1970). S t u a r t and L o t t (1972) f e l t c o n t r a c t i n g may be a good t r a i n i n g s o u r c e i n c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . K i f e r e t a l . ( 1 9 7 4 ) , d e v e l o p e d a programme o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f self-management approaches t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i s s u e s , g e n e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s , and p r o v i d i n g f e e d b a c k , w h i c h t h e y found s u c c e s s f u l . So c o n t r a c t i n g and n e g o t i a t i o n t r a i n i n g appear t o be c o m p a t i b l e s t r a t e g i e s i n c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . K a n f e r e t a l . (1974) have f o u n d t h a t e x p l i c i t w r i t t e n c o n t r a c t s were much more l i k e l y t o be f u l f i l l e d t h a n i m p l i c i t v e r b a l agreements, even i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f d i s c o m f o r t i n g a c t i o n s s u c h as t h e c o l d p r e s s e r t e s t . K l i n g n e r (1974) has a l s o f ound t h a t the use o f e x p l i c i t c o n t r a c t s i m p r o v e s p e r f o r m a n c e i n c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s because o f a c l e a r e r s t a t e m e n t of g o a l s and a g r e a t e r s u b j e c t commitment t o f u l f i l l a c h i e v e d compromises. G e l f a n d and Hartmann (1975) a d v i s e d t h a t when c o n t r a c t i n g , a w r i t t e n s c r i p t be f o l l o w e d w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e s e t t i n g , equipment, and p r o c e d u r e s t o be used t o e n s u r e c o n s i s t e n t i n t r a t h e r a p i s t i n t e r v e n t i o n . The c o n t i n g e n c i e s o f a c o n t r a c t can be drawn up i n two ways (Weiss e t a l . , 1974). The f i r s t way i s on a q u i d p r o quo b a s i s , w h i c h o u t l i n e s an e x p l i c i t l y c o n t r o l l e d c o n t i n g e n c y t h a t t h e t a r g e t e d b e h a v i o u r change o f one p a r t y w i l l be f o l l o w e d by t h e d e s i r e d b e h a v i o u r change of t h e o t h e r . T h i s method i s advantageous because i t f o l l o w s t h e o p e r a n t p a r a d i g m o f r e i n f o r c i n g one r e s p o n s e w i t h t h e e m i s s i o n o f a r e l a t e d t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r . However, th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f 28 o f change i s p u t s q u a r e l y on one p a r t n e r , and i f t h e y f a i l , t h e f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n may r e g r e s s t o t h e i n i t i a l c o n f l i c t f u l atmosphere. Weiss e t a l . a d v i s e d t h a t t h e q u i d p r o quo method no t be .used i m m e d i a t e l y u n l e s s t h e r e i s a f o u n d a t i o n o f p r i o r s u c c e s s f u l exchange. S t u a r t and L o t t (1982) a l s o f ound c o n t r a c t i n g t o be most s u c c e s s f u l i n f a m i l i e s w i t h some h i s t o r y o f s o c i a l f a c i l i t a t i o n now e x p e r i e n c i n g a c o n f l i c t o f immediate u r g e n c y , and who were s e e i n g a t h e r a p i s t s k i l l e d i n n e g o t i a t i n g compromises. The second method o f c o n t i n g e n c y arrangement i s on an i m p l i c i t l e v e l . Each p a r t n e r a g r e e s t o change a b e h a v i o u r s e p a r a t e l y w i t h o u t an e x p l i c i t c o n t i n g e n c y , and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n i t i a t i n g change i s e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d . A s y s t e m o f r e wards and p e n a l t i e s can be u t i l i z e d t o enhance t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s , but t h e s y s t e m does not c o n s i s t of r e i n f o r c e r s t h a t a r e t h e m s e l v e s p r o b l e m b e h a v i o u r s . F o r example, t h e a d o l e s c e n t may a g r e e t o wash supper d i s h e s t h r e e n i g h t s a week; th e p a r e n t s a g r e e t o r e s p e c t t h e i r son's p r i v a c y i n h i s room. I f t h e a d o l e s c e n t f u l f i l l s h i s t a s k , t h e p a r e n t s w i l l e x t e n d t h e weekend c u r f e w one h o u r . I f t h e p a r e n t s f u l f i l l t h e i r t a s k o f r e s p e c t i n g t h e p r i v a c y o f t h e t e e n a g e r , he w i l l t u r n the volume o f h i s s t e r e o down. I n t h i s way, one p a r t o f t h e c o n t r a c t c o u l d s u c c e e d even i f a n o t h e r p a r t f a i l s . However, a f a i l u r e i n one p a r t c o u l d s t i l l l e a d t o f e e l i n g s o f bad f a i t h w h i c h might doom th e r e m a i n d e r o f the c o n t r a c t . P e n a l t i e s s h o u l d o n l y be used i f t h e r e e x i s t s a means o f p r o v i d i n g r e wards f o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f d e s i r e d b e h a v i o u r . A l s o , c o n t i n g e n c i e s s h o u l d n o t be s e t up so t h a t t h e i r f a i l u r e l e a d s t o a w o r s e n i n g o f t h e f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n . S e v e r a l s o u r c e s have o u t l i n e d s p e c i f i c r u l e s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n t r a c t s ( D e R i s i and B u t z , 1975; G e l f a n d and Hartmann, 1975; K a n f e r 29 and G o l d s t e i n , 1975; Weiss e t a l . , 1974; Homme e t a l . , 1970). They i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s : 1. t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r s e l e c t i o n , 2. t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r assessment and m o n i t o r i n g , 3. r e i n f o r c e m e n t s e l e c t i o n and s c h e d u l e s , 4. c h o i c e o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t d i s p e n s e r s , 5. c o n t r a c t i n g r e d i e n t s , 6. c o n t r a c t m o n i t o r i n g , 7. c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n , and 8. c o n t r a c t e x t e n s i o n . T h e r e a r e f i v e c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e a s s u m p t i o n s subsumed under p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r e f f e c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l exchanges ( K a n f e r and G o l d s t e i 1975; S t u a r t , 1971; Homme, 1970) t h a t c o m p r i s e the t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r -p i n n i n g s o f c o n t i n g e n c y c o n t r a c t i n g : 1. P o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t i s a p r i v i l e g e t o be e a r n e d , n o t an un-q u e s t i o n a b l e r i g h t i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l exchanges. 2. S e t t i n g r e a s o n a b l e s t a n d a r d s f o r o b t a i n i n g r e i n f o r c e m e n t i s n o t p u n i s h i n g o r r e s t r i c t i v e . 3. E f f e c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l agreements a r e m u t u a l l y i n c l u s i v e , t h a t i s , r e c e i v i n g r e w a r d s i s a f u n c t i o n o f d i s p e n s i n g them. 4. The v a l u e o f an i n t e r p e r s o n a l exchange i s a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n o f th e r a n g e , r a t e , and magnitude o f the p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t p r e s e n t i n t h i s exchange. 5. R u l e s c r e a t e freedom i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l exchanges, s i n c e p r e -d i c t a b l e r e i n f o r c e m e n t c o n t i n g e n c i e s p e r m i t an o p p o r t u n i t y t o choose among b e h a v i o u r o p t i o n s . 30 C a n t r e l l e t a l . (1969) i n t r o d u c e d a c a u t i o n a r y n o t e t h a t , when u s i n g c o n t r a c t i n g , t h e a d o l e s c e n t must be c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g t h e i d e n t i -f i e d b e h a v i o u r , and i s n o t e x h i b i t i n g any p r o b l e m a t i c b e h a v i o u r f o r w h i c h a d i f f e r e n t form o f i n t e r v e n t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . They n o t e d t h a t t h e s t r o n g e s t m o t i v a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n p a r e n t s who had e x h a u s t e d a l l a l t e r n a -t i v e forms o f p r o b l e m r e m e d i a t i o n . P a r e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n s h o u l d be a s c e r t a i n e d b e f o r e c o n t r a c t i n i t i a t i o n t o a v o i d i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n f u l -f i l l i n g c o n t r a c t u a l o b l i g a t i o n s , and t o p r e v e n t any i n c r e a s e i n d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r i f t h e c o n t r a c t i s abandoned when t h e a d o l e s c e n t i s t e s t i n g i t most s e v e r e l y . Wahler e t a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) , n o t e d t h a t t h e r a p e u t i c g a i n s w i t h c h i l d r e n were l o s t w i t h i n one y e a r o f t h e r a p y when c a s e s were r e f e r r e d by c o u r t and s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s , p r e s u m a b l y due t o low p a r e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n t o change t h e c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r . There a r e t h r e e c o n c e p t u a l models o f b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t r a c t i n g as r e v i e w e d by Weathers and L i b e r m a n (1975b). The f i r s t one, c a l l e d t h e exchange model, i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n v o l v i n g the p r i n c i p l e s o f e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n d e s c r i b e d above. The second, o r t r i a d i c model, i n -v o l v e s a h i e r a r c h y o f r o l e s f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h a f a m i l y . I t may be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as f o l l o w s : CONSULTANT + MEDIATOR + TARGET THERAPIST -> PARENT + ADOLESCENT Tharp and W e t z e l (1969) v i e w e d t h e t h e r a p i s t as a c o n s u l t a n t t o a p e r s o n h a v i n g c o n t r o l o v e r n a t u r a l , p o w e r f u l , and immediate r e i n f o r c e r s i n t h e l i f e o f t h e t a r g e t p e r s o n . T h i s model seems l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o a u n i l a t e r a l a p p r o a c h t o group c o n t r a c t i n g . The t h i r d and f i n a l m o d e l , w h i c h may be l a b e l l e d as n e g o t i a t i o n and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l t r a i n i n g , 31 i n v o l v e s r e p l a c i n g t h e s e d e f i c i e n t s k i l l s i n t r o u b l e d f a m i l i e s . Ne-g o t i a t i n g , b a r g a i n i n g , and empathy a r e m o d e l l e d and r e i n f o r c e d by t h e t h e r a p i s t d u r i n g c o n t r a c t f o r m u l a t i o n . How e f f e c t i v e t h i s a p p r o a c h i s w i l l depend on t h e degree t o w h i c h t h e s e s k i l l s a r e g e n e r a l i z e d a f t e r c o n t r a c t e x p i r a t i o n and t o n o n c o n t r a c t u a l p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . E x p l i c i t s t r u c t u r e d methods o f c o n t r a c t i n g have been d e v e l o p e d . Weathers and L i b e r m a n ' s (1975b) F a m i l y C o n t r a c t i n g E x e r c i s e , b a s e d upon t h e t h i r d c o n c e p t u a l model, m i n i m i z e s t h e t h e r a p i s t s ' r o l e and p l a c e s t h e i n i t i a t i v e f o r change on t h e f a m i l y . Blechman's (1974) F a m i l y C o n t r a c t Game i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l f o r f a m i l i e s w i t h weak p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s k i l l s because i t d e a l s w i t h o n l y one i s s u e p e r s e s s i o n , and a l l f a m i l y members a r e g i v e n e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t i s s u e s f o r d i s -c u s s i o n . The u t i l i t y o f t h e F a m i l y C o n t r a c t i n g E x e r c i s e by i t s e l f has n o t been c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d o v e r a v a r i e t y o f g o a l s (Weathers and L i b e r m a n , 1975a) b u t i t may be e f f e c t i v e i n p r o d u c i n g an i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y f a c i l i t a t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t f o r p r o b l e m r e s o l u t i o n . Blechman (1976) has s u c c e s s f u l l y improved on t a s k p r o b l e m s o l v i n g b e h a v i o u r u s i n g a s i n g l e s u b j e c t r e v e r s a l d e s i g n , and n o t e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s a b i l i t y t o o t h e r f a m i l y members. K a n f e r and Cox (1974) v i e w t h e c o n t i n g e n c y c o n t r a c t as m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e o p e r a t i n g c o n t i n g e n c i e s so t h a t i n c e n t i v e s t o w r i t e them, t h a t i s t h e rewards and punishments t o c o m p l e t e t h e c o n t r a c t , become i n t e r n a l i z e d and t h a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a c t i s a f u l f i l l m e n t o f a s e l f -e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i o n . E s t a b l i s h i n g p o s i t i v e p r e c e d e n t s o f h o n o u r i n g m u t u a l o b l i g a t i o n s i n t h e f a m i l y i n c r e a s e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f f u t u r e c o n t r a c t f u l f i l l m e n t . K a n f e r and Cox o u t l i n e t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t t e n d t o 32 i n f l u e n c e c o n t r a c t f u l f i l l m e n t : 1. c l e a r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s and g o a l s , 2. r e i n f o r c i n g a c t i v i t y r a t h e r t h a n s t a t e m e n t s o f i n t e n t , 3. h a v i n g low p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f p e r f o r m i n g u n p l e a s a n t t a s k s , 4. h a v i n g had e x p e r i e n c e w i t h p r i o r c o n t r a c t s u c c e s s , and 5. e s t a b l i s h i n g a w r i t t e n c o n t r a c t as opposed t o a v e r b a l agreement. One v e r y d i s t i n c t advantage o f c o n t r a c t i n g i s t h e d e e m p h a s i z i n g o f e x t e n d e d t h e r a p i s t c l i e n t c o n t a c t (O'Leary and W i l s o n , 1975). I n one s t u d y , S t u a r t and T r i p o d i (1973) used c o n t r a c t s o f f i f t e e n , f o r t y - f i v e , and n i n e t y days d u r a t i o n , and a c t u a l t o t a l t h e r a p i s t i n v o l v e m e n t was o n l y t e n , s i x t e e n , and t w e n t y - e i g h t h o u r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t s h o r t term t r e a t m e n t tended t o be more e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n c a r c e r a t e d y o u t h t h a n l o n g t e r m , and c o n t r a c t i n g p r o v i d e d an e f f e c -t i v e s h o r t t e r m approach.- C a n t r e l l e t a l . (1969) v i e w e d c o n t r a c t i n g as a b e n e f i c i a l method o f u t i l i z i n g t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s as c o n t i n g e n c y c o n t r o l l e r s and m o n i t o r s where p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n was n o t p o s s i b l e . Blechman's (1974) c o n t r a c t i n g f o r m a t does n o t even r e q u i r e t h e p r e s e n c e of a t h e r a p i s t once t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s on i t s use a r e g i v e n t o t h e f a m i l y and u n d e r s t o o d . C r i t i c s o f c o n t r a c t i n g , as w i t h o t h e r b e h a v i o u r a l methods, p o i n t t o b r i b i n g a p e r s o n t o p e r f o r m some b e h a v i o u r t h e y s h o u l d be n o r m a l l y d o i n g . Weathers and L i b e r m a n (1975b) and Weiss e t a l . (1974) have d e a l t w i t h t h i s i s s u e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. B r i b e r y i n v o l v e s p a y i n g a p e r s o n t o do something i l l e g a l o r immoral w h i l e a reward i s a r e i n f o r c e m e n t f o r d o i n g something s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . A l l b e h a v i o u r i s governed by i t s consequences, and the f a m i l y system i s one where some b e h a v i o u r i s done 33 because o f i t s d e s i r a b l e consequences and o t h e r b e h a v i o u r i s n o t done because o f i t s n e g a t i v e consequences. The p r o b l e m a t i c f a m i l y has l o s t some o r a l l o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n so t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f b e h a v i o u r s t o consequences have become o b s c u r e d . B e h a v i o u r a l methods such as con-t r a c t i n g a t t e m p t t o r e a l i g n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n so t h a t b e h a v i o u r s once a g a i n l e a d t o p r e d i c t a b l e consequences. Working w i t h r e i n f o r c e r s i s a method o f s k i l l t r a i n i n g i n u s i n g f a m i l i a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n a t a b a s i c l e v e l t h a t has been l o s t o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f t h e c o n f l i c t development. The l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u c c e s s o f c o n t i n g e n c y c o n t r a c t i n g i s g e n e r a l l y n o t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t and t h e d a t a do n o t appear c o n c o r d a n t , so as a r e s u l t , t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e a p p r o a c h i s n o t y e t f u l l y r e a l i z e d . A r e v i e w o f some o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e does i n d i c a t e a p o s i t i v e t r e n d f o r t h e method's p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s . C o n t i n g e n c y c o n t r a c t i n g has been used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n m a r i t a l t h e r a p y ( M i l l e r and H e r s e n , i n p r e s s ) and i n m o d i f y i n g d r u g r e l a t e d b e h a v i o u r (Polakow and D o c t o r , 1975). A t w e l v e month f o l l o w - u p i n t h e l a t t e r s t u d y i n d i c a t e d c o n t i n u e d c o n s i s t e n t r e s p o n s e p e r f o r m a n c e s . E y b e r g and Johnson (1974) were a b l e t o produce g r e a t e r p a r e n t a l c o -o p e r a t i o n i n a t t e n d i n g t h e r a p y s e s s i o n s and c o m p l e t i n g t h e r a p e u t i c a s s i g n m e n t s u s i n g t h e r a p e u t i c c o n t r a c t s w i t h t h e p a r e n t s o f a c t i n g out c h i l d r e n t h a n i n a n o - c o n t r a c t group. A l t h o u g h t h e p a r e n t s o f b o t h groups r e p o r t e d d r a m a t i c changes f o l l o w i n g t h e r a p y , e x t e r n a l o b s e r v a -t i o n p r o c e d u r e s d i d n o t r e a l l y a s s e s s d i r e c t l y t h e p r o b l e m b e h a v i o u r i n q u e s t i o n . Weathers and L i b e r m a n (1975a) found t h a t t h e s u p p o r t f o r c o n t r a c t i n g w i t h j u v e n i l e s i s s c a r c e , b u t a t r e n d i s emerging t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h e 34 a p p r o a c h i s a t l e a s t no worse t h a n o t h e r c u r r e n t l y used s t r a t e g i e s , and may q u i t e p o s s i b l e be more e f f i c i e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e y found t h a t , o f v e r b a l a b u s i v e n e s s , poor c o m p l i a n c e i n p e r f o r m i n g home t a s k s , poor r e s p e c t o f c u r f e w s , and low s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e , o n l y v e r b a l a b u s i v e n e s s was s u c c e s s -f u l l y m o d i f i e d u s i n g c o n t r a c t i n g , t h e i r methodology d i d n o t p e r m i t a c o m p l e t e a n a l y s i s o f a l l the c a t e g o r i e s . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e e f f e c -t i v e n e s s o f c o n t r a c t i n g w o u l d be i n c r e a s e d i n f a m i l i e s w i t h some communi-c a t i o n s k i l l t r a i n i n g , and i f t h e r a p y t o o k i n t o a c c o u n t p e e r i n f l u e n c e on t h e a d o l e s c e n t s . W i t h f a m i l i e s o f l e s s d e l i n q u e n t a d o l e s c e n t s , c o n -t r a c t i n g c o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e i f used w i t h o t h e r s t r a t e g i e s . P a t t e r s o n and R e i d (1970) found c o n t r a c t i n g t h e r a p y had a l o w e r r e c i d i v i s m r a t e among d e l i n q u e n t s t h a n e i t h e r c l i e n t - c e n t e r e d o r p s y c h o -d y n a m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d g r oups. They a t t r i b u t e d t h i s s u c c e s s t o an i n c r e a s e d d i a l o g u e and q u a l i t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e j u v e n i l e s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . S t u a r t ' s e t a l . ( 1 9 7 6 ) , d a t a i n d i c a t e s a h i g h e r s u c c e s s r a t e i n a c o n t r a c t t h e r a p y group o v e r a p l a c e b o c o n t r o l group, and a g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e by p a r e n t s f o r a c o n t r a c t i n g a p p r o a c h , b u t t h e y ad-m i t t e d t h a t s u c c e s s may be enhanced f u r t h e r by u s i n g a m u l t i p l e i n t e r -v e n t i o n package. They a l s o acknowledged t h a t t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e i r d a t a r a i s e d some doubt about t h e f i n a l i t y o f t h e i r . . c o n c l u s i o n s . B u r c h a r d and H a r i g (1976) found c o n t r a c t i n g c o u p l e d w i t h a n o t h e r t h e r a p y , i n t h i s case t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , r e s u l t e d i n s h o r t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l p l a c e m e n t s , b e t t e r r a p p o r t between s t a f f and y o u t h , and a g r e a t e r l i k i n g o f the programme by t h e a d o l e s c e n t s t h a n a programme u s i n g c o n t r a c t i n g a l o n e . They s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o n t r a c t i n g w o u l d be more b e n e f i c i a l f o r y o u t h u n a b l e t o d e v e l o p i n s i g h t o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under 35 o t h e r forms o f t h e r a p y . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e i n f o r c i n g t h e n o n o c c u r -r e n c e o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r has t h e advantage o f c o n d i t i o n i n g c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s as opposed t o t h e use o f a v e r s i v e c o n t r o l o f d i s r u p t i v e be-h a v i o u r w h i c h has t h e danger o f n e g a t i v e s i d e e f f e c t s . Weiss e t a l . (1974) s t a t e d t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t s h o u l d be f o r m u l a t e d i n p o s i t i v e terms o f r e w a r d i n g t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r , n o t i n t h e n e g a t i v e terms o f d e c e l e r a t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r , w h i c h t h e y f e l t has been t h e f a i l u r e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s . S c h w i t z g e b e l and K o l b (1964) found t h a t d e l i n q u e n c y was b e s t c o u n t e r c o n d i t i o n e d by r e i n f o r c i n g c o m p e t i n g b e h a v i o u r s , n o t r e i n -f o r c i n g t h e d e c r e a s e o f p r o b l e m b e h a v i o u r . Empey and Lubeck (1971) r e p o r t e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h p r o v i d i n g rewards f o r t h e n o n o c c u r r e n c e .of d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r was n o t l o g i c a l s o c i a l l y , one way o f e n c o u r a g i n g a d o l e s c e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h n o n d e l i n q u e n t groups was t o p r o v i d e rewards f o r t h e d e c e l e r a t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e s a l i e n t r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f d e l i n q u e n t group members f o r a s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . They a d v o c a t e d a two s t a g e s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s : r e w a r d n o n d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r f i r s t , and t h e n , once d e l i n q u e n t y o u t h a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o l e g i t i m a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t i v i t y s u c h as s c h o o l and work, t o re w a r d p o s i t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t . These recommendations were made because t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n tended t o p e r c e i v e punishment more r e a d i l y t h a n r e w a r d s , and e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e f o r more p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t . B u r c h a r d and H a r i g ( 1 9 7 6 ) , i n r e v i e w i n g s e v e r a l o t h e r p r o j e c t s t h a t used c o n t r a c t i n g , c o n c l u d e d t h a t c o n t r a c t i n g was u s e f u l b u t n o t i d e a l when used i n i s o l a t i o n . S t u a r t and L o t t (1972) e v a l u a t e d c o n t r a c t i n g i n t h r e e groups v a r y i n g i n d u r a t i o n , and found t h a t outcome was n o t r e l a t e d t o d u r a t i o n , 36 and o n l y t h r e e o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c o n t r a c t s were a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t o r s o f outcome: i n c l u s i o n o f s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e and p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s tended t o i n c r e a s e s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e , p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d i n a l agreement i n c r e a s e d as c o n t r a c t s were l o n g e r and i n c l u d e d s c h o o l p e r -formance, and s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e i n c r e a s e d i f t h e number o f p r i v i l e g e s and bonuses exceeded t h e number o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and s a n c t i o n s . They a l s o found t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f c e r t a i n t h e r a p i s t s i n f l u e n c e d t h e t y p e o f c o n t r a c t made, so t h i s may be a s o u r c e o f v a r i a n c e t h a t needs t o be c o n t r o l l e d when e v a l u a t i n g c o n t r a c t i n g u s i n g d i f f e r e n t t h e r a p i s t s . D e R i s i (1971) used c o n t r a c t i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a t o k e n economy w i t h j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s and was s u c c e s s f u l i n m o d i f y i n g l i v i n g r o u t i n e s , r u l e c o m p l i a n c e , and s t a f f c o o p e r a t i o n . He a l s o f ound a l o w e r r e c i d i -v i s m r a t e i n t h e c o n t r a c t i n g group o v e r a c o n t r o l group. C a n t r e l l e t a l . (1969) found i n two c a s e s , t h a t s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e and a t t e n d a n c e c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d f o l l o w i n g c o n t r a c t i n g , but t h a t p a r e n t s s h o u l d be r e i n -f o r c e d t o c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e c o n t r a c t s u n t i l a c o n s i s t e n t b e h a v i o u r p a t -t e r n emerged. T h e i r s t u d y used s e l f - r e p o r t s , and t h e y u r g e d t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t i n g t e c h n i q u e be s u b j e c t e d t o a d d i t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t a l a n a l y s i s . S t u a r t ' s r e s e a r c h as c i t e d by Weathers and L i b e r m a n ( 1 9 7 5 a ) , d i d not f i n d c o n t r a c t i n g any more e f f i c i e n t t h a n o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s , but h i s methods were c r i t i c i z e d and c o u l d have p r o d u c e d s u p r i o u s r e s u l t s . Tharp and W e t z e l (1969) a l s o d i d n o t f i n d c o n t r a c t i n g v e r y e f f e c t i v e , b u t t h e i r d a t a were a l s o u n c o n t r o l l e d . Wahler e t a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) , used f o r m a l c o n t r a c t i n g w i t h f a m i l i e s r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r programme by p a r e n t s o r s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s . L i m i t i n g c o n t r a c t s t o o n l y t h o s e b e h a v i o u r s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e f a m i l y , t h e y f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t improvement among 37 low r i s k f a m i l i e s f o r o p p o s i t i o n a l and work d e f i c i e n c y p roblems t h a t were m a i n t a i n e d o v e r a one y e a r f o l l o w - u p . These g a i n s were n o t e v i -denced by a h i g h e r r i s k p o p u l a t i o n . O n l y m i n i m a l s h o r t term g a i n s were found i n t h i s group f o r work d e f i c i e n c i e s , and t h e o n l y v a r i a b l e t o show s i g n i f i c a n t change was t h e improvement o f p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t r e a t m e n t . No g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t o n o n t a r g e t e d b e h a v i o u r p r oblems were o b s e r v e d . Thus, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e t h e r a p y and methodology o f c o n t i n g e n c y c o n t r a c t i n g i s e v o l v i n g t o a r e l a t i v e l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l , b u t un-f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e e v a l u a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e has n o t k e p t pace w i t h t h i s p r o g r e s s . The most f r e q u e n t i n d i c a t i o n t o d a t e i s t h a t c o n t r a c t i n g 1 s u t i l i t y i s g r e a t e s t when supplemented w i t h o t h e r i n t e r v e n t i v e methods, but any a d v a n t a g e s o f i t s use by i t s e l f a r e q u e s t i o n a b l e (Weathers and L i b e r m a n , 1975a). L i t t l e e v i d e n c e e x i s t s , however, on t h e e f f i c a c y o f c o n t r a c t i n g w i t h p r e a d o l e s c e n t s and a d o l e s c e n t s e s p e c i a l l y when th e c o n -t r a c t i n g i s c o u p l e d w i t h o n g o i n g p r e v e n t i v e t r e a t m e n t programmes. I n r e v i e w i n g t h e r e s e a r c h on t h e c a u s e s and t r e a t m e n t o f d e l i n q u e n c y , s e v e r a l e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n s emerge. Can f a m i l y dynamics and t h e i n -f l u e n c e o f s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t s on p r e a d o l e s c e n t s and a d o l e s c e n t s be m o d i f i e d as p r e c u r s o r s t o the o n s e t o f d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r ? I n p a r -t i c u l a r , can t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n o c c u r a t a community l e v e l , p r e f e r a b l y as a p r e v e n t i v e s t r a t e g y , w i t h a minimum o f l i f e d i s r u p t i o n ? Can t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n be e f f i c i e n t l y and s u c c e s s f u l l y p e r f o r m e d u s i n g s p e c i f i c . p r i n c i p l e s o f o p e r a n t p s y c h o l o g y , i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r a c t i n g , and, i f s o , how s h o u l d t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s be b e s t a p p l i e d ? The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t t e m p t e d t o answer some o f t h e s e i s s u e s 38 by a s s e s s i n g t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f two forms o f c o n t i n g e n c y c o n t r a c t i n g t h a t were p a r t o f a s e r v i c e package p r o v i d e d by a community based n o n r e s i d e n t i a l agency. I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t f o r m a l c o n t r a c t s w ould f a c i l i t a t e g r e a t e r s u c c e s s i n a c h i e v i n g t r e a t m e n t g o a l s t h a n i m p l i c i t c o n t r a c t s , and would r e q u i r e l e s s s t a f f t i m e commitment f o r d i r e c t c o u n s e l l i n g . Those c l i e n t s t h a t would p a r t i c i p a t e i n f o r m a l c o n t r a c t i n g were e x p e c t e d t o show more p o s i t i v e change i n communication and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h members o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s as a r e s u l t o f t h e more s t r u c t u r e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n on n e g o t i a t i o n , r e c i p r o c i t y , and c o n s i s t e n c y i n b e h a v i o u r a l management t e c h n i q u e s . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t s u b s e -quent t o t h e s e changes, t h e s e f a m i l i e s would r e f l e c t a g r e a t e r c o n v e r -gence i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t t h a n f a m i l i e s p a r t i c i p a -t i n g i n i m p l i c i t c o n t r a c t i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e y o u t h s o f f a m i l i e s e n g a g i n g i n f o r m a l c o n t r a c t i n g would show more p o s i -t i v e b e h a v i o u r a l changes i n s c h o o l . These h y p o t h e s e s were made w i t h t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t f o r m a l c o n t r a c t s i n s p i r e g r e a t e r commitment on t h e p a r t o f t h e f a m i l y t o i n i t i a t e change, and t o s h o u l d e r more r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l management o f t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . As p r o b -l e m a t i c b e h a v i o u r s were s u c c e s s f u l l y m o d i f i e d and t h e exchange o f r e -i n f o r c e r s became more m u t u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e home env i r o n m e n t would become l e s s c o e r c i v e , and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w o u l d become more harmonious. I m p l i c i t v e r b a l c o n t r a c t s were n o t ex-p e c t e d t o g e n e r a t e t h e same degree o f commitment, hence g e n e r a l i z e d improvement was n o t a n t i c i p a t e d t o o c c u r t o an e q u i v a l e n t degree as i n t h e f o r m a l c o n t r a c t i n g group. W i t h t h e g r e a t e r change i n t h e f o r m a l c o n t r a c t f a m i l i e s , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e y would i n d i c a t e more p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r i n t e r v e n t i o n programme. 39 Method S u b j e c t s . Over t h e c o u r s e o f an e i g h t month p e r i o d , t w e n t y - s e v e n r e f e r r e d f a m i l i e s o f y o u t h s between n i n e and 16 y e a r s o f age were s e l e c t e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n as t h e y were a c c e p t e d by P r o j e c t C o n t a c t o f Richmond, B r i t i s h C o l u mbia. R e f e r r a l p roblems t o t h e l a y agency i n c l u d e b e h a v i o u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s c h o o l s u c h as t r u a n c y , a c t i n g o u t , and p e e r r e l a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , o r f o r b e h a v i o u r a l p r o b l e m s a t home s u c h as d e f y i n g p a r e n t a l l i m i t s , a c t i n g o u t , and n o t f u l f i l l i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , or i n some c a s e s , f o r l e g a l c o m p l a i n t s s u c h as l o i t e r i n g , o r f i r s t o f f e n s e s i n s h o p l i f t i n g , v a n d a l i s m , and so on. P r o j e c t C o n t a c t (see I n t r o d u c t i o n ) i s a community based agency s t a f f e d by p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o f f e r i n g a n o n r e s i d e n t i a l s e r v i c e t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Richmond. R e f e r r a l s come p r i m a r i l y f r o m p u b l i c s c h o o l s , as w e l l as t h e l o c a l h e a l t h department, and u n i f i e d f a m i l y c o u r t , and a r e a c c e p t e d o n l y upon p a r e n t a l c o n s e n t . When a r e f e r r a l i s made, the f a m i l y i s seen by agency s t a f f i n i t i a l l y on an assessment b a s i s . D u r i n g t h i s one month p e r i o d , t h e programme t e c h n i q u e s a r e e x p l a i n e d t o t h e f a m i l y , and t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e r e f e r r a l p r o b l e m a r e o b s e r v e d . When t h i s p e r i o d i s c o m p l e t e , t h e f a m i l y i s u s u a l l y a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e programme f o r a s i x month p e r i o d . I f a c c e p t a n c e i s n o t made, t h e f a m i l y i s r e f e r r e d i m m e d i a t e l y t o a more a p p r o p r i a t e r e s o u r c e . One o f two f e m a l e f a m i l y c o u n s e l l o r s i s a s s i g n e d t o the r e f e r r a l based upon l o c a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e , and one of s i x y o u t h c o u n s e l l o r s o f t h e same sex as t h e y o u t h i s a s s i g n e d as an a v a i l a b l e s l o t i n t h e i r c a s e 40 l o a d opens up. I n most c a s e s , t h e y o u t h w o r k e r s d e v e l o p a c l o s e w o r k i n g r a p p o r t w i t h t h e y o u t h , d i s c u s s i n g v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s a f f e c t i n g t h e y o u t h , a i d i n g i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p e e r bonds, and o r i e n t i n g t h e y o u t h t o com-m u n i t y r e s o u r c e s . B o t h f a m i l y and y o u t h w o r k e r s s e r v e as r o l e models t o t h e f a m i l y f o r such s k i l l s as l i s t e n i n g and co m m u n i c a t i n g , n e g o t i a -t i n g s o l u t i o n s t o p r o b l e m s , s e t t i n g g u i d e l i n e s on b e h a v i o u r , and f o l l o w i n g t h r o u g h on i d e n t i f i e d and a c c e p t e d b e h a v i o u r a l l i m i t s . Accompanying a l l r e f e r r a l s i s a r e g u l a r p r o f i l e i n t a k e f o r m d e s c r i b i n g t h e f a m i l y d e m o g r a p h i c a l l y , o u t l i n i n g t h e r e f e r r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , l i s t i n g f a m i l y s t r e n g t h s and p r o b l e m a t i c a r e a s , and i d e n t i f y i n g any o t h e r r e s o u r c e s c o n c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e f a m i l y . P r o j e c t C o n t a c t had been u s i n g f o r t h e e i g h t e e n months p r i o r t o the c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i n f o r m a l c o n t r a c t i n g methods accompanied by g o a l a t t a i n m e n t m o n i t o r i n g , and a c h i e v i n g c o n s i s t e n t l y p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s w i t h them (Ramer and B e s t , 1976). The f i f t e e n male and seven femal e s u b j e c t s were a s s i g n e d u s i n g a b l o c k i n g method (C a m p b e l l and S t a n l e y , 1963) t o one o f two g r o u p s , a f o r m a l c o n t r a c t group ( F C ) , and an i n f o r m a l c o n t r a c t c o n t r o l group ( I C ) by m a t c h i n g them on age and sex o f t h e y o u t h , t h e p r e s e n c e o f one o r two p a r e n t s i n t h e f a m i l y , and t h e e s t i m a t e d s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s (SES) o f t h e f a m i l y based upon income, e d u c a t i o n , and v o c a t i o n . F o r each matched p a i r , t h e f i r s t s u b j e c t was randomly a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e gr o u p s , and t h e second s u b j e c t was a s s i g n e d t o t h e o t h e r group. The mean ages o f t h e FC and IC groups were 12.9 and 12.7 y e a r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . A breakdown o f t h e r e f e r r a l p r oblems f o r each group i n d i c a t e s e q u i v a l e n c e between t h e two groups (see T a b l e 1 ) . Seven o f t h e e l e v e n p a i r s were e q u i v a l e n t on a l l f o u r o f t h e m a t c h i n g c r i t e r i a , two p a i r s were T a b l e 1 I n c i d e n c e o f R e f e r r a l P r oblems by Group Group Assignment R e f e r r a l P r o b l e m F o r m a l I n f o r m a l B e h a v i o u r problems a t home 15 13 B e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s a t s c h o o l 5 7 Low s e l f - e s t e e m 4 3 P e e r r e l a t i o n s 4 7 Running away 1 1 42 e q u i v a l e n t on t h r e e c r i t e r i a (age, SES, and number o f r e s i d e n t p a r e n t s ) , and two were e q u i v a l e n t on two c r i t e r i a (sex/number o f p a r e n t s , and age/SES). S t a t i s t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two groups r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e groups p r i o r t o t h e commencement o f c o n -t r a c t i n g (see R e s u l t s ) . A n o - t r e a t m e n t c o n t r o l group was n o t used i n t h i s s t u d y because t h e agency i s committed t o a p o l i c y o f immediate i n t e r v e n t i o n , and t h e s t a f f f e l t i t was n o t e t h i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t o d e l a y o r p r e v e n t a f a m i l y ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e programme when immediate i n t e r v e n t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d . M a t e r i a l s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e g u l a r agency i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g methods, two p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e d b e h a v i o u r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d e v e l o p e d t o a s s e s s t h e f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t (see A p p e n d i x C ) . The p a r e n t a l f o r m con-s i s t e d o f t h i r t y - t h r e e i t e m s , o f w h i c h t w e n t y - t h r e e were p r e s e n t e d u s i n g a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e r e s p o n s e f o r m a t . These i t e m s were drawn f r o m a l a r g e r p o o l o f i t e m s p r e v i o u s l y s o r t e d by e l e v e n i m p a r t i a l r a t e r s i n t o s u b j e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s . O nly t h o s e i t e m s r e c e i v i n g 75% o r more i n t e r r a t e r agreement as b e l o n g i n g t o the same c a t e g o r y were r e t a i n e d f o r t h e ques-t i o n n a i r e t o p r e s e r v e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . Four c a t e g o r i e s emerged from t h e s o r t i n g and were i d e n t i f i e d as s u b s c a l e s l a b e l l e d c ommunication and c o o p e r a t i o n i n the home (CC), f r e q u e n c y o f p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m s ( P P ) , s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e y o u t h as p e r c e i v e d by t h e p a r e n t s (SP) , and home r a t i n g s o f f a m i l y atmosphere .(HR) . The r e m a i n i n g t e n i t e m s on t h e p a r e n t a l form were s e l e c t e d from N o w i c k i ' s i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c a l e ( N o w i c k i and Duke, 1974), and c o n s t i t u t e d t h e i n t e r n a l -43 e x t e r n a l s c a l e ( I E ) . The y o u t h f o r m o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d o f p a r a l l e l v e r s i o n s o f t h e CC and HR s c a l e s o f t h e p a r e n t a l form. The a d d i t i o n o f the SP and PP s c a l e s i n the p a r e n t a l form was i n t e n d e d t o measure the e x t e n t o f the p a r e n t s ' awareness o f pro b l e m s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . These methods o f assessment were found t o be u s e f u l because t h e y s e r v e d t o document any n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s among f a m i l y members t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s have f o u n d t o pose o b s t a c l e s t o f a m i l y t h e r a p y (Wahler e t a l . , 1977), as w e l l as a i d i n g i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p r o -gramme p r o c e s s e s w h i c h have been c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t a l models (Empey and Lubeck, 1971). A p r o g r e s s m o n i t o r i n g f o r m a t u s i n g g o a l a t t a i n m e n t methods (see Appe n d i x C) was adapt e d f r o m t h e agency's methods, and was used by t h e y o u t h w o r k e r s t o document t h e f a m i l y ' s p r o g r e s s towards i d e n t i f i e d t r e a t m e n t g o a l s , t h e i r c u r r e n t l e v e l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , c o o p e r a t i o n , and t e n s i o n i n t h e home. T h i s i n s t r u m e n t was a l s o d e s i g n e d u s i n g a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t r e s p o n s e f o r m a t , and was t o be c o m p l e t e d w e e k l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e w o r k e r s ' c o n t a c t w i t h t h e f a m i l y . Appended t o t h e form was a c l i e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t r e a t m e n t r a t i n g t o be c o m p l e t e d u s i n g a n o t h e r f i v e p o i n t s c a l e . To measure t h e y o u t h s ' p e r f o r m a n c e changes i n s c h o o l , a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e Hahnemann H i g h S c h o o l B e h a v i o u r (HHSB) r a t i n g s c a l e ( S p i v a c k and S w i f t , 1973) was c o m p l e t e d by t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e r e f e r r e d y o u t h . ( S e e A p p e n d i x C ) . The m o d i f i c a t i o n s c o n s i s t e d o f r e q u e s t i n g t h e r e a c h e r s t o r a t e t h e y o u t h s ' changes i n b e h a v i o u r o v e r t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d . F i n a l l y , y o u t h c o u n s e l l o r s k e p t l o g s c o n s i s t i n g o f d e s c r i p t i o n s o f 44 o f each c l i e n t c o n t a c t , l o c a t i o n , and d u r a t i o n . T o t a l t i m e s s p e n t w i t h e a c h y o u t h p l u s t i m e d e v o t e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h t h e p a r e n t s and/or y o u t h were n o t e d f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . P r o c e d u r e s . The c o n t r a c t i n g t e c h n i q u e s and assessment d e v i c e s used i n t h i s s t u d y were p i l o t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t f i v e s u b j e c t f a m i l i e s and t h e n m o d i f i e d as n e c e s s a r y f o r o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e sample. These f a m i l i e s , a l t h o u g h t h e y do n o t appear i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , were n o t d e n i e d any s e r v i c e n o r m a l l y p r o v i d e d by t h e agency. As i s a r e g u l a r p o l i c y o f t h e agency, a l l f a m i l i e s were p r e i n f o r m e d o f t h e p l a n n e d t e c h n i q u e s t h a t would be u s e d , and though t h e y were n o t t o l d o f t h e e x a c t e m p i r i c a l n a t u r e o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o p r e v e n t any r e a c t i v e e f f e c t s , none o b j e c t e d t o the use o f any o f t h e s e methods. Upon a c c e p t a n c e i n t o t h e programme and a f t e r t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f cas e w o r k e r s , t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e r e f e r r a l s were i n t e r v i e w e d p r i v a t e l y by t h e f a m i l y w o r k e r s u s i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and r e s p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d i m m e d i a t e l y . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e y o u t h w o r k e r s i n t e r v i e w e d t h e y o u t h u s i n g t h e y o u t h form o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A l l f a m i l y members were i n -formed t h a t t h e i r answers would n o t be d i v u l g e d t o the r e s t o f t h e f a m i l y , and would be k e p t c o n f i d e n t i a l by t h e s t a f f . I n o r d e r t o measure t h e degree t o w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s ' and y o u t h s ' p e r c e p t i o n s c o i n c i d e d , p r e -t r e a t m e n t d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s were computed by c a l c u l a t i n g a r i t h m e t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e CC s c o r e s f o r t h e p a r e n t s and f o r t h e y o u t h CC HR CD ) and between t h e HR s c o r e s (D ). The agency r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l i n i d e n t i f y i n g i n 45 t h e f a m i l i e s many i s s u e s o f c o n c e r n t h a t would have gone u n n o t i c e d , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y and a v e h i c l e t o d i s c u s s them w i t h t h e f a m i l y . W i t h i n an av e r a g e o f two weeks a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s , t h e f a m i l i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n t r a c t i n g s e s s i o n s . U t i l i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s d e r i v e d from the approaches o f Weathers and L i b e r m a n (1975b) and Blechman ( 1 9 7 4 ) , f o r m a l c o n t r a c t s o f a g r o u p , b i l a t e r a l q u i d p r o quo t y p e were n e g o t i a t e d and w r i t t e n up w i t h t h e FC f a m i l i e s . The f a m i l y / y o u t h w o r k e r team a s s i s t e d t h e f a m i l y members i n i d e n t i f y i n g t a r g e t g o a l s , d e s i r e d r e i n f o r c e r s , bonuses, and s a n c t i o n s . A copy o f t h e d a t e d and s i g n e d c o n t r a c t was l e f t w i t h t h e f a m i l y and t h e y were r e q u e s t e d t o p o s t i t i n a c o n s p i c u o u s p l a c e i n t h e house. The c o u n s e l l o r s f o l l o w e d up w i t h t h e f a m i l y t o a s s u r e t h e y c o m p l i e d w i t h t h i s r e q u e s t , and no e x c e p t i o n s were n o t e d . The FC c o n t r a c t s were d e s i g n e d t o e x p i r e a f t e r one month's d u r a t i o n , and upon any f a m i l y member's r e q u e s t o r on t h e b a s i s o f v e r y poor p r o g r e s s as m o n i t o r e d by agency s t a f f , t h e c o n -t r a c t w o u l d be r e n e g o t i a t e d . T h i s o c c u r r e d i n o n l y one c a s e . Upon e x -p i r a t i o n o f the c o n t r a c t , e ach f a m i l y was i n f o r m e d of t h e i r o p t i o n s t o c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e c o n t r a c t , n e g o t i a t e a new one, o r d i s c o n t i n u e i t s use a l t o g e t h e r . However, o n l y t h e i n i t i a l month was m o n i t o r e d f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . W i t h t h e IC group, i m p l i c i t v e r b a l c o n t r a c t s were d i s c u s s e d i n a manner p a r a l l e l t o f o r m a l c o n t r a c t s , b u t no f o r m a l c o n t r a c t s were drawn up, n o r was t h e r e any p r o v i s i o n made to s w i t c h t o a f o r m a l c o n t r a c t d u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d . T h i s p e r i o d was a l s o o f one month's d u r a t i o n , and upon i t s c o m p l e t i o n , t h e s e f a m i l i e s were a l s o i n f o r m e d o f 46 o p t i o n s open t o them f o r c o n t i n u e d t r e a t m e n t . The i n v e s t i g a t o r p a r -t i c i p a t e d as an i m p a r t i a l n e g o t i a t o r i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l amounts o f c o n t r a c t i n g s e s s i o n d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h agency s t a f f f o r b o t h groups t o a s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e recommended s t r a t e g i e s were used a p p r o p r i a t e l y , as w e l l as p a r t i c i p a t i n g e q u a l l y w i t h b o t h f a m i l y c o u n s e l l o r s t o a s s u r e c o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e methods. R e g u l a r case c o n f e r e n c e s t w i c e w e e k l y were h e l d t o r e v i e w t h e p o t e n t i a l c o n t r a c t f o r each f a m i l y , and changes were made when n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e t h e c o n t r a c t s were n e g o t i a t e d . A l l y o u t h were seen by agency s t a f f a t l e a s t once a week, and r e g a r d l e s s o f the t y p e o f c o n t r a c t i n g u s e d , none were e x c l u d e d from any o f t h e agency's p e e r o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . A t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s o f s i x t o e i g h t d a y s , t h e y o u t h w o r k e r s c o m p l e t e d a p r o g r e s s form f o r e a c h f a m i l y , and f o l l o w i n g t h e f o u r t h r e p o r t c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e end o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d , t h e f a m i l y r a t e d t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o c e d u r e s t o t h a t p o i n t . S u b s e q u e n t l y , a second s e t o f i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d i n t h e same way as t h e p r e t r e a t m e n t s e t , and p o s t - t r e a t m e n t d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s were c a l -c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e a r i t h m e t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e a d u l t CC and y o u t h CC HR CC s c o r e s (D' ) and a d u l t and y o u t h HR s c o r e s (D' ). A d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e c o e f f i c i e n t was o b t a i n e d by computing t h e a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e btween D C C and D' C C ( D D C C ) and D H R and D' H R ( D D H R ) . C o n c o m i t a n t w i t h t h e second s e t o f i n t e r v i e w s , t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e y o u t h were asked t o c o m p l e t e t h e HHSB s c a l e s . F o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s i n h i g h s c h o o l , two t e a c h e r s c o m p l e t e d a f o r m f o r e a c h s t u d e n t , and a mean of the r a t i n g s was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each s c a l e . F o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , o n l y t h e home room t e a c h e r s c o m p l e t e d a form. A l l t h e t e a c h e r s 47 were p r e i r i f o r m e d t h a t t h e y o u t h s i n q u e s t i o n were w i t h P r o j e c t C o n t a c t , b u t no d e t a i l s o f t h e c a s e s , t r e a t m e n t s , o r g o a l s were d i s c u s s e d t o p r e v e n t p r e j u d i c i a l r a t i n g s by t h e t e a c h e r s . 48 R e s u l t s To t e s t the adequacy o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t c h i n g , a H o t e l l i n g ' s m u l t i -v a r i a t e T 2 (Winer, 1971) was c o n d u c t e d on the p r e t r e a t m e n t a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n s o f t h e a d u l t CC, SP, PP, HR, and I E s c a l e s and t h e y o u t h HR and CC s c a l e s c o r e s f o r b o t h g r o u p s . I t f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e c o n f i r m i n g a l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e s due t o m a t c h i n g p r i o r t o t h e o n s e t o f c o n t r a c t i n g . A r e p e a t e d measures m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( F i n n , 1972) was p e r f o r m e d on t h e i n t e r v i e w s c a l e s d a t a (see T a b l e 2 ) . I t r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n c e on t h e w i t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r c o n f i r m i n g h y p o t h e s i z e d p o s i t i v e change o v e r t i m e , but f o r b o t h g r o u p s . The s u b j e c t by t r e a t -ment i n t e r a c t i o n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t no m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e p o r t e d changes e x i s t e d between the FC and IC f a m i l i e s . T a b l e 2 shows th e r e s u l t s o f f o l l o w - u p u n i v a r i a t e r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e on e a c h i n d i v i d u a l s c a l e . Three o f t h e f i v e a d u l t s c a l e s (CC, HR, and PP) changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y o v e r t i m e f o r b o t h groups i n a p o s i -t i v e d i r e c t i o n . A f o u r t h s c a l e ( I E ) had a s i g n i f i c a n t s u b j e c t by t r e a t -ment i n t e r a c t i o n , w i t h t h e IC p a r e n t s r e p o r t i n g a h i g h e r i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l s c o r e on t h e p o s t c o n t r a c t i n g i n t e r v i e w t h a n on t h e p r e -t r e a t m e n t a s s e s s m e n t , and t h e FC p a r e n t s i n d i c a t i n g a s l i g h t d e c r e a s e i n t h e i n t e r n a l l o c u s s c o r e (see T a b l e 3 ) . None o f t h e s c a l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t on t h e between groups t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r s . F o r t h e y o u t h s c a l e s , t h e o n l y s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t change was i n t h e HR s c a l e on the w i t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r . However, t h e y o u t h o f b o t h g r o u p s d i d r e p o r t some improvement on b o t h measures, w i t h t h e IC group i n d i c a t i n g 49 T a b l e 2 Summary T a b l e M u l t i v a r i a t e / U n i v a r i a t e Repeated Measures ANOVA on I n t e r v i e w Data S c a l e Source Mean Square d f F - r a t i o M u l t i v a r i a t e W i t h i n J3s 9/12 * 3.03 Ss X Treatment 9/12 .78 U n i v a r i a t e A d u l t SP Treatment 122.92 1/20 3.47 W i t h i n J3s 14.73 1/20 .98 Ss X Treatment 1.14 1/20 .08 A d u l t CC Treatment 92.10 1/20 .62 . . , 18.24 W i t h i n Ss 266.01 1/20 Ss X Treatment .10 1/20 .01 A d u l t HR Treatment 63.92 1/20 .76 W i t h i n Sj3 301.92 1/20 9.90** Ss X Treatment 27.28 1/20 .89 A d u l t PP Treatment 2.22 1/20 16.44 W i t h i n Sj3 137.50 1/20 Ss X Treatment 10.23 1/20 1.22 A d u l t I E Treatment .10 1/20 .02 W i t h i n J3s 8.28 1/20 3.51* 7.33 Ss X Treatment 17.28 1/20 Y o u t h CC Treatment 20.04 1/20 .21 W i t h i n Ss 30.73 1/20 .58 Ss X Treatment .73 1/20 .01 Y o u t h HR Treatment 23.02 1/20 .22* W i t h i n Ss_ 106.92 1/20 5.91 Ss X Treatment 17.28 1/20 .95 c o n t i n u e d 50 T a b l e 2 c o n t i n u e d S c a l e Source Mean Square d f F - r a t i o Convergence CC Treatment 120.56 1/20 2.03 W i t h i n Ss 39.56 1/20 1.61 Ss X Treatment 9.56 1/20 .39 Convergence HR Treatment 49.50 1/20 .60 W i t h i n Ss .04 1/20 .003 Ss X Treatment 3.68 1/20 .26 E < .05 ** £ < .01 ifk-k £ < .001 51 T a b l e 3 Group Means on I n t e r v i e w D a t a Group FC IC S c a l e P r e P o s t Change P r e P o s t Change A d u l t Y o u t h SP -1.14 -.55 .59 1.00 2.05 1.05 CC . 77 4.18 3.41 2.64 6.18 3.54 HR 2. 77 5.36 2.59 3.36 7.64 4.28 PP -1.13 .64 1.82 -1.55 1.64 3.19 IE 7.50 7.23 -.27 6.68 8. 13 1.50 CC -.50 .50 1.00 -1.64 -.27 1.37 HR .32 1.64 1.32 .45 3.55 3.10 CC 4.91 5.59 .68 5.36 7.36 2.00 HR 4.27 4.63 .36 7.09 6.63 -.46 52 a s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r change. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e c o n v e r g e n t s c o r e s , but a t r e n d was p r e s e n t showing t h a t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e HR s c a l e s i n t h e IC group, t h e r e was s l i g h t l y more i n -c o n g r u i t y f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t between t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p a r e n t s and o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h i s was l i k e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e t e n d e n c y o f the p a r e n t s t o r e p o r t more change t h a n t h e y o u t h f o l l o w i n g t h e r a p y . On t h e p r o g r e s s r e p o r t measures c o m p l e t e d by t h e agency s t a f f , u n i v a r i a t e r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h groups p r o g r e s s s i g n i f i c a n t l y towards t h e i r f i r s t two t r e a t m e n t g o a l s , a p proached s i g n i f i c a n c e (p_ < .06) on t h e t h i r d g o a l , and improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y on t h e f a m i l y communication measure (see T a b l e 4 ) . They a l s o t e n d e d t o improve on t h e t e n s i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n s c a l e s . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between group f a c t o r s o r s u b j e c t by t r e a t m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . T a b l e 5 shows t h a t t h e FC group te n d e d t o im-p r o v e more q u i c k l y , but by t h e end o f t h e f o u r t h week o f c o n t r a c t i n g , t h e IC f a m i l i e s had caught up and were a c t u a l l y s l i g h t l y ahead o f t h e FC group i n t h e i r r a t e s o f p r o g r e s s . M u l t i v a r i a t e r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on t h e HHSB s c a l e s as c o m p l e t e d by t h e t e a c h e r s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e on t h e w i t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r , i n d i c a t i n g p o s i t i v e change i n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e y o u t h i n s c h o o l o v e r t h e t i m e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t r e a t m e n t (see T a b l e 6 ) . The l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t s u b j e c t by t r e a t m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n showed t h a t once a g a i n , t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n t i a l i m p r o v e -ments between t h e two groups. F o l l o w up u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e c o n f i r m e d t h a t on n i n e o f t h e t h i r t e e n s c a l e s , b o t h groups changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t change was p r e s e n t on 53 T a b l e 4 Summary T a b l e Repeated Measures ANOVAS on P r o g r e s s R e p o r t Data S c a l e Source Mean Square d f f - r a t i o G o a l 1 . Treatment W i t h i n Ss Ss X Treatment .41 3.89 .92 1/20 3/60 3/60 •32*^ 7.41 1. 76 G o a l 2 Treatment W i t h i n Ss Ss X Treatment . 18 1.42 .64 1/20 • 3/60 3/60 • 7 1 * 3.59 1.60 G o a l 3 Treatment W i t h i n JSs Ss X Treatment .80 1.61 .99 1/12 3/36 3/36 . 77 2.65 1.63 Communicat i o n Treatment W i t h i n SJB Ss X Treatment .01 2.41 .13 1/20 3/60 3/60 • 0 1 * * 5.42 .30 T e n s i o n Treatment W i t h i n Ss^ Ss X Treatment 1.38 1.41 .50 1/20 3/60 3/60 .88 2.13 .75 C o o p e r a t i o n Treatment W i t h i n Ss Ss X Treatment .73 1.12 .33 1/20 3/60 3/60 .95 1.66 .49 p < .05 p < .01 *** p < .001 T a b l e 5 Group Means on P r o g r e s s R e p o r t Data S c a l e .Week..l FC IC Week .2 FC IC Week 3 FC IC Week 4 FC IC Goal 1 .45 0 .91 .55 Go a l 2 .36 .45 .32 .82 Go a l 3 .40 0 .20 .73 Communication .27 .18 . 73 .73 T e n s i o n .27 .18 .36 .73 C o o p e r a t i o n .55 .18 .82 .55 1. 18 1.00 1.00 .91 .36 1.00 1.00 .73 1.00 .73 .45 .73 .91 .73 .40 .91 .55 .73 1.36 1.27 1.22 1.09 1.09 .91 55 T a b l e 6a Summary T a b l e M u l t i v a r i a t e / U n i v a r i a t e Repeated Measures ANOVAS on HHSB S c a l e s S c a l e Source Mean Square df f - r a t i o M u l t i v a r i a t e W i t h i n Ss 7/12 A 3.58 Ss X Treatment 7/12 2.52 U n i v a r i a t e 3. V e r b a l . Treatment 21.22 1/18 1-40*** I n t e r a c t i o n W i t h i n j>s 26.45 1/18 9.50 Ss X Treatment .93 1/18 .34 4. Teache r Treatment 1.61 1/18 Rapport W i t h i n Ss 23.11 1/18 1 2 " 6 3 * A Ss X Treatment 15.20 1/18 8.31 8. Poo r Work H a b i t s Treatment W i t h i n Ss 88.67 61.25 1/18 1/18 1-42** A A 11.35 Ss X Treatment 2.13 1/18 .40 9. Lack Treatment .04 1/18 I n t e l l e c t u a l W i t h i n j>s 52.81 1/18 13.96 Independence Ss X Treatment 13.34 1/18 3.53 10. Dogmatic Treatment 55.67 1/18 • 7 6 A I n f l e x i b l e W i t h i n j>s 6.05 1/18 4.18* Ss X Treatment 8.40 1/18 5.81 11. V e r b a l Treatment 25.23 1/18 • 7 8 A A N e g a t i v i s m W i t h i n j>s_ 9.11 1/18 7.01 Ss X Treatment 1. 73 1/18 1.33 12. D i s t u r b a n c e Treatment 263.64 1/18 1.93* R e s t l e s s W i t h i n JSs 25.31 1/18 6.08 Ss X Treatment 3.03 1/18 .73 * p < .05 A A £ < .01 A A A p < .006 56 T a b l e 6b Summary T a b l e M u l t i v a r i a t e / U n i v a r i a t e Repeated Measures ANOVAS on HHSB S c a l e s S c a l e Source Mean Square df. f - r a t i o M u l t i v a r i a t e W i t h i n Ss 6/13 * 3.12 Ss X Treatment 6/13 .89 U n i v a r i a t e 1. R e a s o n i n g Treatment 111.09 1/18 W i t h i n jSs 24.20 1/18 13.65 Ss X Treatment .40 1/18 .22 2. O r i g i n a l i t y Treatment 15.73 1/18 .69 W i t h i n Ss 5.51 1/18 2.05 Ss X Treatment 2.80 1/18 1.04 5. A n x i o u s Treatment 30.31 1/18 1.52 P r o d u c e r W i t h i n Ss_ 2.45 1/18 2.58 Ss X Treatment .93 1/18 .98 6. G e n e r a l Treatment 1.21 1/18 .02 A n x i e t y W i t h i n Sj3 2.45 1/18 1.66 Ss X Treatment 3.48 1/18 2.36 7. Q u i e t Treatment 194.14 1/18 1.54 Withdrawn W i t h i n Ss 20.00 1/18 2.06 Ss X Treatment 36.82 1/18 3.79 13. E x p r e s s e d Treatment 2.83 1/18 I n a b i l i t y W i t h i n Ss_ 36.45 1/18 13.36 Ss X Treatment .93 1/18 .34 p_ < .05 *** 2 < .006 57 a l l s c a l e s t h a t r e f l e c t e d i n t e r a c t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r ( s c a l e s 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 1 2 ) , and on two o f t h e f i v e i n d e p e n d e n t b e h a v i o u r s c a l e s ( 1 , 2, 3, 6, 7, and 13). S i g n i f i c a n t s u b j e c t by t r e a t m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s were p r e s e n t i n s c a l e s f o u r and t e n and on t h e s e measures, t h e IC s u b j e c t s tended t o improve more t h a n t h e FC group (see T a b l e 7 ) . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f ound between t h e two groups on the c l i e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t r e a t m e n t and t h e s t a f f t i m e commitment measures as a s s e s s e d by _ t - t e s t s o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between means. 58 T a b l e 7 Group Means on HHSB S c a l e s S c a l e FC IC 3. V e r b a l I n t e r a c t i o n 1.39 .95 4. Teacher Rapport . 11 1.86 8. Poo r Work H a b i t s * -2.11 -1.45 9. L a c k I n t e l l e c t u a l Independence * -.72 -2.36 10. Dogmatic I n f l e x i b l e * . 17 -1.14 11. V e r b a l N e g a t i v i s m * -1.00 -.41 12. D i s t u r b a n c e R e s t l e s s * -1.56 -.73 1. R e a s o n i n g .94 1.23 2. O r i g i n a l i t y .11 .86 5. A n x i o u s P r o d u c e r * .11 .54 6. G e n e r a l A n x i e t y * .11 -. 73 7. Q u i e t Withdrawn !.* .50 -2.23 13. E x p r e s s e d I n a b i l i t y * -1.11 -1.54 denotes a s c a l e where a n e g a t i v e number i n d i c a t e s p o s i t i v e change. 59 D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n d i d n o t c o n f i r m t h e h y p o t h e s e s t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t package c o n t a i n i n g f o r m a l c o n t r a c t i n g w o u l d l e a d t o g r e a t e r o b s e r v e d p r o g r e s s t o t r e a t m e n t g o a l s , more improved communica-t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e home, and g r e a t e r b e h a v i o u r a l change a t s c h o o l t h a n t h e package c o n t a i n i n g i m p l i c i t c o n t r a c t i n g . Nor d i d t h e y s u p p o r t t h e f i n d i n g s o f J a y a r a t n e , S t u a r t , and T r i p o d i (1974) t h a t l e s s s t a f f t i m e commitments w o u l d be r e q u i r e d when u s i n g f o r m a l c o n t r a c t i n g . However, i t must be n o t e d t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t i n g t h e r a p i e s d i d a c h i e v e s u c c e s s f o r most c l i e n t s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g s o f a l l t h r e e m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s , s e v e n t e e n o f t w e n t y - s e v e n u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s , and a p o s i t i v e a l b e i t n o t s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d i n a f u r t h e r f i v e u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s w h i c h con-s i s t e n t l y p o i n t e d t o p o s i t i v e change f o r b o t h g r o u p s . F u r t h e r m o r e , o f t h e t e n u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s n o t a t t a i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o u r were c o n d u c t e d on s c h o o l b e h a v i o u r s t h a t were no t t a r g e t e d f o r change. A f i f t h d e a l t w i t h t h e p a r e n t s ' e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n s c h o o l , and o v e r a s i x week p e r i o d , i t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t t h e p a r e n t s would no t have y e t become aware o f any changes. These f i n d i n g s were i n con-s i s t e n t agreement w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s e v a l u a t i v e r e s u l t s done i n t h e agency (Ramer and B e s t , 1976). One t r e n d w h i c h d i d emerge i n s u p p o r t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d s u p e r i o r i t y o f f o r m a l c o n t r a c t s was t h e more r a p i d i n i t i a l p r o g r e s s made by t h e y o u t h o f t h e FC group towards t h e i r t h e r a -p e u t i c g o a l s . T h i s t r e n d p o i n t s t o t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l emphasis o f f o r m a l c o n t r a c t i n g on a more s t r u c t u r e d management o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l 60 c o n t i n g e n c i e s , and i m p l i e d t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e i s u s e f u l when a q u i c k change i n r e c i p r o c i t y i s d e s i r e d p r i o r t o s h i f t i n g t h e emphasis o f f a m i l y t h e r a p y t o o t h e r i s s u e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e use o f s e v e r a l d i f -f e r e n t assessment i n s t r u m e n t s l e d t o c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s t h a t , d e s p i t e any i n h e r e n t b i a s i n e a c h , c l e a r l y p o i n t t o t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e t r e a t m e n t packages o f f e r e d t o t h e f a m i l i e s . The need f o r t h e s t a f f t o f o c u s on o t h e r i s s u e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t a r g e t e d f o r c o n t r a c t i n g p l u s t h e programme commitment t o a l i m i t e d t r e a t m e n t d u r a t i o n may o b s c u r e many o f t h e f i n d i n g s t h a t o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have f o u n d u s i n g c o n t r a c t i n g . C a m p b e l l and S t a n l e y (1963) have d i s c u s s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of r e g r e s s i o n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e s i g n s o f t h e t y p e used h e r e . W h i l e such a p o s s i b i l i t y cannot be f u l l y d i s c o u n t e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , s u b j e c t a s s i g n m e n t t o groups was n o t made on t h e b a s i s of a d i chotomy i n p r e t e s t measures w h i c h c o u l d t e n d t o i n c r e a s e a r e g r e s s i o n e f f e c t . I n a d d i t i o n , o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( J a y a r a n t n e , S t u a r t , and T r i p o d i , 1974; B e r g i n , 1971) have n o t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s s c o r i n g more e x t r e m e l y on p r e t e s t measures i n b e h a v i o u r a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t e n d t o show t h e l e a s t amount of change, t h u s m i n i m i z i n g a r e g r e s s i o n e f f e c t . S i n c e most o f t h e w i t h i n s u b j e c t t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s were h i g h l y s i g n i f i - ^ c a n t , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t the o b s e r v e d changes were s o l e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a r e g r e s s i o n e f f e c t . C a m p b e l l and S t a n l e y have a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t e s t i n g and t r e a t m e n t poses a t h r e a t t o t h e e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s o f t h e t y p e used h e r e , s i n c e some p r e -t e s t measures may s e n s i t i z e s u b j e c t s t o t h e f o r m o f i n t e r v e n t i o n used. However, i n b e h a v i o u r t h e r a p y , i t has been w e l l documented ( f o r example, K a n f e r and G o l d s t e i n , 1975) t h a t assessment p r o c e d u r e s s u c h as s e l f -61 m o n i t o r i n g o f t e n have a r e a c t i v e t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t on c l i e n t s , and i f s o , t h i s can be t a k e n t o mean an enhancement of any i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t uses t h e s e methods. The assessment i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o w h i c h t h e f a m i l i e s were exposed were d e s i g n e d t o p i n p o i n t s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m a r e a s , f o r example, communication , and i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t f a m i l i e s w i t h d e f i c i e n t o r u n o r g a n i z e d communication s k i l l s w ould e f f e c t i v e l y a l t e r them t o t h e degree n o t e d w i t h o u t some fo r m o f i n t e r -v e n t i o n p r o c e d u r e . S i n c e a c o n t r a c t i n g package makes use o f s u c h methods o f outcome e v a l u a t i o n , any s e n s i t i z a t i o n caused by t h e a s s e s s -ment t o o l s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as an enhancement o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t s , b u t not l i k e l y o f s i g n i f i c a n t t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e i n t h e m s e l v e s . Thus, such a t h r e a t t o t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s s t u d y does n o t appear t o have had a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t . The absence o f a n o - t r e a t m e n t c o n t r o l group u n f o r t u n a t e l y d i d n o t p e r m i t a c o n c l u s i v e answer t o the i s s u e o f whether t h e c l i e n t s would have r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r changes w i t h o u t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n programme. How-e v e r , i t has been s t a t e d ( J a y a r a t n e , S t u a r t , and T r i p o d i , 1974; B e r g i n , 1971) t h a t a n o - t r e a t m e n t c o n t r o l group i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h i n a n o n i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s i n c e t h e s e p e o p l e o f t e n seek some fo r m o f i n t e r v e n t i o n e l s e w h e r e , and n o t n e c e s s a r i l y u n l i k e t h e t h e r a p y r e c e i v e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group, and t h u s , any change i n t h e c o n t r o l group c o u l d h a r d l y be d e s c r i b e d as spontaneous. B e r g i n ' s (1972) r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h on spontaneous r e c o v e r y c o n c l u d e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f u n t r e a t e d s u b j e c t s show some improvement, a r a t e f a r l o w e r t h a n the t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s o f e i t h e r group i n t h i s s t u d y . P r i o r e v a l u a -t i v e r e s e a r c h on c o n t r a c t i n g c i t e d e a r l i e r has g e n e r a l l y f o u n d i t t o be 62 s u p e r i o r t h a n c o n t r o l o r p l a c e b o g r o u p s , and when c o n t r a c t i n g has been used c o n j o i n t l y w i t h o t h e r t r e a t m e n t r e g i m e s , i t has r e s u l t e d i n h i g h e r r a t e s o f improvement t h a n c o n t r a c t i n g a l o n e . What has emerged somewhat u n e x p e c t e d l y f r o m t h i s s t u d y i s t h e f i n d i n g t h a t i t does n o t seem t o m a t t e r w h i c h f o r m o f b e h a v i o u r a l c o n -t r a c t i n g i s added t o a community t r e a t m e n t package. B o t h a p p a r e n t l y can produce a d e s i r a b l e t h e r a p e u t i c outcome. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t w i t h i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g , a f o r m a l c o n t r a c t may be s u p e r i o r t o an i m p l i c i t one because t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s may be more e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d and e n f o r c e d by s t a f f . I n a community n o n r e s i d e n t i a l a p p r o a c h , s t a f f can o n l y n e g o t i a t e c o n t i n g e n c i e s , and must t h e n r e l y on f a m i l y members t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h . The c o n s i s t e n c y of t h e f a m i l y ' s b e h a v i o u r i n many c a s e s may be i n s u f f i c i e n t t o g u a r a n t e e t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l s u c c e s s o f one method o v e r a n o t h e r . Heavy emphasis on n e g o t i a t i o n s k i l l and b e h a v i o u r c o n s i s t e n c y t r a i n i n g may augment th e s u c c e s s o f c o n t r a c t t i n g , but a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e the e f f i c a c y o f t h i s . C o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h t h e agency s t a f f f o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n have h i g h l i g h t e d s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s o f a c o n t r a c t p l u s t r e a t m e n t package. The a d d i t i o n o f n e g o t i a t i o n s e s s i o n s and m o n i t o r i n g d e v i c e s s u c h as g o a l a t t a i n m e n t s c a l i n g n e c e s s a r y t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f c o n t r a c t s have p r o v i d e d a more o r d e r l y and p r a c t i c a l method of r e c o r d k e e p i n g t h a n a n e c d o t a l a c c o u n t s a l o n e , and p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t and non-c o n f r o n t i n g v e h i c l e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g and e x p l o r i n g many i s s u e s o f c o n c e r n t o t h e f a m i l y t h a t a r e sometimes o v e r l o o k e d o r under-emphasized d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e r a p y because t h e y a r e too s e n s i t i v e , o r because t h e 63 p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a r e used do n o t f e r r e t t h e s e i s s u e s o u t . The a v a i l -a b i l i t y o f a d d i t i o n a l and s t y l i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t methods o f t h e r a p y expand t h e range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s open t o s t a f f i n t a i l o r i n g programmes t o i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t s ' needs and a l s o p e r m i t an e x t e n s i o n and smooth t r a n s i t i o n o f t h e programme from one i s s u e t o the n e x t , commencing w i t h an e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e s o l u t i o n , and t h e n moving t o i n c r e a s i n g l y h a r d e r g o a l s . The g e n e r a t i o n o f improved r e c i p r o c i t y among f a m i l y members f o l l o w i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e d c o n t r a c t s f a c i l i t a t e s t h i s t r a n s i t i o n and l e a v e s t h e f a m i l y w i t h a mechanism o f self-management w h i c h can be used l o n g a f t e r t h e r a p y i s c o n c l u d e d . A d d i t i o n a l f o l l o w - u p r e s e a r c h i s needed t o c o n f i r m t h i s and t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e a r e any l o n g e r t e r m d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e outcomes o f t h e two groups s t u d i e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . Wahler e t a l . (1977, Note 1) have d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e outcomes o f b e h a v i o u r t h e r a p y a r e m a i n t a i n e d f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f t i m e i n l o w e r r i s k f a m i l i e s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n cannot be d e a l t w i t h h e r e s i n c e t h e two groups were no t d i c h o t o m i z e d on t h i s v a r i a b l e . O n l y f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h can answer t h i s i s s u e , as w e l l as i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f age d i f f e r e n c e s , m o t i v a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and p r i o r n e g o t i a t i o n a b i l i t y . However, the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y do s u g g e s t t h a t c o n t r a c t i n g can be used e f f e c t i v e l y i n tandem w i t h o t h e r methods, and w i t h p r e a d o l e s c e n t and a d o l e s c e n t c l i e n t s a t a community l e v e l and on a s h o r t term b a s i s . 64 R e f e r e n c e Notes Wahler, R.G., L e s k e , G., and R o g e r s , E.S. The i n s u l a r f a m i l y : a d e v i a n c e s u p p o r t system f o r o p p o s i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n . Paper p r e s e n t e d t o B a n f f I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f B e h a v i o r M o d i f i c a t i o n . B a n f f , A l b e r t a , March, 1977. P a t t e r s o n , G.R. and R e i d , J.B. A p p l i c a t i o n o f c o e r c i o n t h e o r y and s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t o f a m i l i e s . Paper p r e s e n t e d t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n a n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n . 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B e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a p p l i e d t o community b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s . C r i m i n o l o g y , 1970, 8 / 2 ) , 173-184. S c h w i t z g e b e l , R. and K o l b , D.A. I n d u c i n g b e h a v i o r change i n a d o l e s c e n t d e l i n q u e n t s . B e h a v i o r R e s e a r c h and Therapy, 1964, 1_, 297-304. Shah, S.A. J u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y : a n a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I n J . L . Khanna ( e d . ) , New t r e a t m e n t a p proaches t o j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . S p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1975. S p e a r s , J . J u v e n i l e s a f e g u a r d s u r g e d . The P r o v i n c e , June 25, 1977. V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 74 S p i v a c k , G. and S w i f t , M. The c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r o f c h i l d r e n : a c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f t e a c h e r a d m i n i s t e r e d r a t i n g s c a l e s . J o u r n a l o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 1973, 7_(.l), 55-89. S t e w a r t , D.J. and R e s n i c k , J.H. V e r b a l c o n d i t i o n i n g and dependency b e h a v i o r i n d e l i n q u e n t s . J o u r n a l o f Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y , 1970, 7 6 ( 3 ) , 375-377. S t u a r t , R.B. Assessment and change o f t h e communication p a t t e r n s o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s and t h e i r p a r e n t s . I n R.D. R u b i n , H. F e s t e r h e i m , A.A. L a z a r u s , and C.M. F r a n k s ( e d s . ) , Advances i n B e h a v i o r Therapy, 3, 183-196. S t u a r t , R.B. B e h a v i o r a l c o n t r a c t i n g w i t h i n f a m i l i e s o f d e l i n q u e n t s . J o u r n a l o f B e h a v i o r Therapy and E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h i a t r y , 1971, 2 U ) , 1-11. S t u a r t , R.B., J a y a r a t n e , S., and T r i p o d i , T. Changing a d o l e s c e n t b e h a v i o r t h r o u g h reprogramming t h e b e h a v i o r o f p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s : t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l e v a l u a t i o n . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f B e h a v i o u r a l  S c i e n c e , 1976, 8 ( 2 ) , 132-144. S t u a r t , R.B. and L o t t , L.A. B e h a v i o r a l c o n t r a c t i n g w i t h d e l i n q u e n t s : a c a u t i o n a r y n o t e . J o u r n a l o f B e h a v i o r Therapy and E x p e r i m e n t a l  P s y c h i a t r y , 1972, 2(3), 161-169. S t u a r t , R.B. and T r i p o d i , T. E x p e r i m e n t a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h r e e t i m e -c o n s t r a i n e d b e h a v i o r a l t r e a t m e n t s f o r p r e d e l i n q u e n t s and d e l i n -q u e n t s . I n R.D. R u b i n , J.P. B r a d y , and J.D. Henderson ( e d s . ) , Advances i n b e h a v i o r t h e r a p y , Volume 4. New Y o r k : Acedemic P r e s s , 1972. S w i f t , M., S p i v a c k , G., and Back, L. P a t t e r n s o f d i s t u r b e d c l a s s r o o m 75 b e h a v i o r o f n o n d e l i n q u e n t and d e l i n q u e n t a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n Crime and D e l i n q u e n c y , 1973, _10(1), 59-72. Tharp, R.G. and W e t z e l , R.J. B e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n i n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s , 1969. Tough j u v e n i l e s f a c e rough r i d e . The P r o v i n c e . June 22, 1977. V a ncouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Van Dyke, H.T. J u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . B o s t o n : G i n n , 1970. Vedder, C.B. and S o m e r v i l l e , D.B. The d e l i n q u e n t g i r l . p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1970. Warren, M.Q. C o r r e c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t i n community s e t t i n g s : A r e p o r t o f c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h . R o c k v i l l e , Md. : N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f M e n t a l H e a l t h , 1972. Wasik, B.H. J a nus House f o r d e l i n q u e n t s : an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s . I n J . L . Khanna ( e d . ) , New t r e a t m e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . S p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1975. Weathers, L. and L i b e r m a n , R.P. C o n t i n g e n c y c o n t r a c t i n g w i t h f a m i l i e s o f d e l i n q u e n t a d o l e s c e n t s . B e h a v i o r Therapy, 1975, £, 356-366. Weathers, L. and L i b e r m a n , R.P. The f a m i l y c o n t r a c t i n g e x e r c i s e . J o u r n a l o f B e h a v i o r Therapy and E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h i a t r y , 1975, 6.(3), 208-214. W e i s s , R.L., B i r c h l e r , G.R., and V i n c e n t , J.P. C o n t r a c t u a l models f o r n e g o t i a t i o n t r a i n i n g i n m a r i t a l dyads. J o u r n a l o f M a r r i a g e and  t h e F a m i l y , 1974, 36, 321-330. W e l l n e r , A.M. P r o j e c t ACE ( A p p l i e d C o n t i n g e n c y E n v i r o n m e n t ) : M a r y l a n d T r a i n i n g S c h o o l f o r Boys. I n J . L . Khanna ( e d . ) , New Treatment  approaches t o j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . S p r i n g f i e l d : C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1975. W i l s o n , H. J u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y , p a r e n t a l c r i m i n a l i t y , and s o c i a l h a n d i c a p . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f C r i m i n o l o g y , 1975, J J 5_ (3 ) , 241-250. Winer, B . J . S t a t i s t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . New Y o r k M c G r a w - H i l l , 1971. W i r t , R.D. and B r i g g s , P.F. A d e f i n i t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y . I n R.S. Cavan ( e d . ) , R e a d i n g s i n j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . P h i l a d e l p h i a : J.B. L i p p i n c o t t , 1969. W o l f g a n g , M.E., F i g l i o , R.M., and S e l l i n , T. D e l i n q u e n c y i n a b i r t h c o h o r t . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1972. Zax, M. and S p e c t e r , G.A. An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o community p s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1974. 77 APPENDIX A Young O f f e n d e r s A c t I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e gr o w i n g f i n d i n g s o f t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e f e d e r a l J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t o f 1908, c u r r e n t t r e a t m e n t s o f j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s , and t h e r i g h t s o f t h e p u b l i c , t he C a n a d i a n government drew up a r e p o r t i n 1975 e n t i t l e d Young P e r s o n s i n C o n f l i c t w i t h t h e Law. T h i s document was t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f two y e a r s o f r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f t h e S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l , and t h e Departments o f J u s t i c e and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e . T h i s r e p o r t has formed t h e b a s i s o f p r o -posed l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e Young O f f e n d e r s A c t , w h i c h w i l l r e p l a c e t h e 1908 A c t , and w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d t o p a r l i a m e n t t h i s y e a r o r n e x t y e a r . The new l e g i s l a t i o n i s d e s i g n e d t o f u l f i l l t h e f o l l o w i n g a i m s : 1. t o r e c o g n i z e n o v e l and s u c c e s s f u l t r e a t m e n t s o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s ; 2. t o c o n s i d e r o n l y s p e c i f i c c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e s a j u v e n i l e i s a r r e s t e d f o r , n o t s t a t u s o f f e n c e s ; 3. t o g u a r a n t e e m i n o r s t h o s e r i g h t s w i t h i n t h e j u s t i c e s ystem c u r r e n t l y e n j o y e d by a d u l t s , e.g., b a i l , r i g h t t o c o u n s e l and a p p e a l , maximum s e n t e n c e s , e t c . ; 4. p l a c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f o f f e n c e s on j u v e n i l e s ; 5. g u a r a n t e e t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f the j u v e n i l e and s o c i e t y t h r o u g h f o r m a l l e g a l p r o c e e d i n g s ; 6. d e t e r f u t u r e f i r s t and r e p e a t o f f e n c e s . The new a c t would s e t t h e age range o f c r i m i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t 12-18 y e a r s , i n s t e a d o f t h e c u r r e n t 7-16 y e a r p e r i o d . I n d i v i d u a l p r o -v i n c e s would have j u r i s d i c t i o n a t s e t t i n g a maximum age o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 78 a t 16-17 i n s t e a d o f t h e c u r r e n t 17-18 l e v e l . C o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s would be u t i l i z e d o n l y as a l a s t r e s o r t when o t h e r p r o c e d u r e s have f a i l e d . P r o -v i n c e s would be encouraged t o s c r e e n a l l o f f e n d e r s i n o r d e r t o d i v e r t as many as p o s s i b l e from t h e j u s t i c e system. D e c i s i o n s w o u l d be made based upon s e v e r i t y o f o f f e n c e , p r i o r r e c o r d o f o f f e n c e s , p a s t s u c c e s s e s o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o c i a l / l e g a l methods and e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y o u t h would c o o p e r a t e w i t h a d i v e r s i o n programme. The new a c t s e t s l i m i t s on t h e s e n t e n c i n g o f y o u t h : payment o f maximum f i n e o f $1,000.00, p r o b a t i o n / d e t e n t i o n f o r a p e r i o d no l o n g e r t h a n 3 y e a r s , w i t h r e g u l a r r e v i e w s , and i n f a c i l i t i e s s e p a r a t e from a d u l t s , community s e r v i c e , and co m p e n s a t i o n l i m i t s o f $1,000.00. A y o u t h c o u l d n o t be t r a n f e r r e d t o a d u l t c o u r t w i t h o u t the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s a p p r o v a l n o r woul d a . c o n v i c t i o n be r e c o r d e d i n t h e a d u l t c r i m i n a l r e c o r d system. I n s u p p o r t o f t h e l e g i s l a -t i o n , t h e f e d e r a l government w i l l e x t e n d i t s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t o c o v e r d i v e r s i o n programmes, p r e - d i s p o s i t i o n a s s e s s m e n t s , and p o s t - d i s p o s i t i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n . 79 APPENDIX B NIMH R e s e a r c h on D e l i n q u e n c y A l t h o u g h p u b l i c f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t i n t h e U.S. f o r a l l h e a l t h and w e l f a r e programmes i n c l u d i n g d e l i n q u e n c y i n c r e a s e d by o v e r 300% i n 1975, o n l y 2.8% o f a l l a d o l e s c e n t a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s were i n t h e d e l i n q u e n c y a r e a s . W h i l e t h e r e was a 100% i n c r e a s e o v e r 1974, o n l y 0.1% o f a l l b a s i c r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y on a d o l e s c e n c e d e a l t w i t h d e l i n q u e n c y ( L i p s i t z , 1977). I n 1974, o n l y 4.3% o f f u n d i n g on a d o l e s c e n t p r o j e c t s was g i v e n t o d e l i n q u e n c y r e s e a r c h , and 9.3% t o r e s e a r c h on f a m i l y i n -f l u e n c e on t h e a d o l e s c e n t . Of NIMH a d o l e s c e n t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s i n 1975, t h e r e were 5 p r o j e c t s s t u d y i n g causes and c o r r e l a t e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y , and no p r o j e c t s c o n c e n t r a t e d on e a r l y a d o l e s c e n t s i n the 12-15 age group. T h e r e were 7 p r o j e c t s s t u d y i n g i n n o v a t i v e p r e v e n t i o n and t r e a t -ment programmes f o r d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r , and 4 c o n c e n t r a t i n g on e a r l y a d o l e s c e n c e . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e number o f NIMH p r o j e c t s on a d o l e s c e n t s t h a t d e a l t w i t h c a u s e s , t r e a t m e n t , and p r e v e n t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y . Y e a r o f P r o j e c t T e r m i n a t i o n T o t a l No.. P r o j e c t s D e l i n q u e n c y P r o j e c t s % o f T o t a l P r o j e c t s on D e l i n q u e n c y 1975 20 7 35% 1974 12 5 42% 1973 24 4 17% 1972 18 3 17% 1971 14 4 29% 1970 27 9 33% S o u r c e : L i p s i t z 80 W h i l e f u n d i n g f o r d e l i n q u e n c y r e s e a r c h a p p e a r s t o be i n c r e a s i n g , t h i s i n c r e a s e has been q u i t e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e a p p a r e n t demand f o r more e f f i c i e n t programmes and r e s e a r c h on d e a l i n g w i t h d e l i n q u e n t s . 81 APPENDIX C Measurement I n s t r u m e n t s P a r e n t a l I n t e r v i e w i n g S c a l e s Do you l o o k f o r w a r d t o coming home a f t e r work o r a f t e r g o i n g o u t ? t t ! t « don't l o o k sometimes c a n ' t w a i t f o r w a r d t o don't l o o k t o g e t home coming home f o r w a r d t o coming home Do you grab any o p p o r t u n i t y t o g e t o u t o f t h e house? i t ! ! : t_ don't l o o k t a k e some e v e r y chance f o r e x c u s e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s I g e t t o go out R i g h t now, y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r i s . worse t h a n about b e t t e r t h a n e v e r t h e same e v e r A r e you o f t e n blamed f o r t h i n g s t h a t j u s t a r e n d t y o u r f a u l t ? Yes No How w e l l do you f e e l you communicate w i t h y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r ? j f ! ! L v e r y w e l l n o t t o o bad f a i r n o t t o o good v e r y p o o r l y How o f t e n i s t h e r e a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g between y ou and you r c h i l d ? J ! t I t f r e q u e n t l y f a i r l y n o t v e r y t h e odd r a r e l y o f t e n o f t e n t i m e How c o n s i s t e n t l y i s y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r v e r y f a i r l y v e r y i n c o n s i s t e n t c o n s i s t e n t c o n s i s t e n t 82 Do you f e e l t h a t most of t h e t i m e , p a r e n t s l i s t e n t o what t h e i r c h i l d r e n have t o say? Yes No Do you b e l i e v e t h a t p a r e n t s s h o u l d a l l o w c h i l d r e n t o make most o f t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s ? Yes No 10. How o f t e n does y o u r c h i l d most of t h e t i m e q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y about h a l f t h e t i m e o c c a s i o n a l l y v e r y r a r e l y 11. How o f t e n does yo u r c h i l d t a l k about i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s d u r i n g meal tim e ? a t v e r y few meals a t o n l y a few meals a t some meals a t s e v e r a l meals p e r week a t most meals 12. Do you f e e l t h a t when you do something wrong, t h e r e ' s v e r y l i t t l e y o u can do t o make i t r i g h t ? Yes No 13. How does y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r f e e l about t a l k i n g t o you about t h e i r p roblems? my c h i l d seems t o want t o t a l k about most o f t h e i r p roblems my c h i l d seems t o want t o t a l k about many o f t h e i r p r o blems my c h i l d seems t o want t o t a l k about some o f t h e i r problems my c h i l d my c h i l d seems t o want n e v e r seems t o t a l k about t o want t o o n l y a few o f t a l k about t h e i r problems . t h e i r p r o blems 14. A r e you a b l e t o work a t home w i t h o u t d i s t r a c t i o n ? e.g. phone, do b u s i n e s s m a t t e r s , e t c . use t h e my home i t t o o n o i s y my home i s n o i s y much o f t h e t i m e my home i s n o i s y some o f the t i m e my home i s q u i e t some o f t h e t i m e my home i s v e r y q u i e t 15. Do you f e e l t h a t one of t h e b e s t ways t o h a n d l e most problems i s j u s t n o t t o t h i n k about them? Yes No 16. How much t e n s i o n i s t h e r e i n y o u r home? v e r y t e n s e most o f t h e t i m e more t e n s e t h a n r e l a x e d much o f t h e t i m e about e q u a l l e v e l s o f t e n s i o n and r e l a x a t i o n more r e l a x e d t h a n t e n s e much o f t h e t i m e v e r y r e l a x e d 83 17. How o f t e n does y o u r c h i l d do a s s i g n e d homework now? I ! i ! L much more a b i t more about t h e a b i t l e s s much l e s s t h a n b e f o r e t h a n b e f o r e same as b e f o r e t h a n b e f o r e t h a n b e f o r e 18. Have you f e l t t h a t when p e o p l e were an g r y w i t h you i t was u s u a l l y f o r no . r e a s o n a t a l l ? Yes No 19. I f you c o u l d change y o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h y o u r f a m i l y , what wou l d you do? J t t I !_ l e a v e t h i n g s change change change change as t h e y a r e o n l y a some t h i n g s many t h i n g s a l m o s t c o u p l e o f e v e r y t h i n g t h i n g s 20 I n y o u r o p i n i o n , does y o u r c h i l d l i k e s c h o o l ? I t h i n k I t h i n k t h e y d i s l i k e t h e y i t s t r o n g l y d i s l i k e i t somewhat . I t h i n k t h e i r f e e l i n g s a r e n e u t r a l I t h i n k t h e y l i k e i t somewhat I t h i n k t h e y l i k e i t v e r y much 21. Do you t h i n k t h a t p e o p l e can get t h e i r own way i f t h e y j u s t keep t r y i n g ? Yes No 22. How o f t e n i s t h e r e an argument i n y o u r home? c o n s t a n t l y o f t e n some of t h e t i m e o c c a s i o n a l l y r a r e l y 23. How m i l d a r e t t h e arguments t i n y o u r f a m i l y ? i t i v e r y somewhat sometimes s e v e r e v e r y m i l d m i l d s e v e r e s e v e r e 24. Do you f e e l t h a t when good t h i n g s happen, t h e y happen because o f h a r d work? Yes No 25. How w e l l do you t h i n k you l i s t e n t o y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r ? p o o r l y f a i r l y p o o r l y f a i r f a i r l y w e l l v e r y w e l l 26. A r e you t h e k i n d o f p e r s o n who b e l i e v e s t h a t p l a n n i n g ahead makes t h i n g s t u r n out b e t t e r ? Yes No 84 27. Do you t h i n k you s h o u l d pay a t t e n t i o n t o y o u r c h i l d any more t h a n you a r e now? s h o u l d pay s h o u l d pay I'm p a y i n g a l o t more some more as much a t t e n t i o n a t t e n t i o n a t t e n t i o n as I can 28. Would y o u r c h i l d c o n t i n u e t o go t o s c h o o l i f g i v e n a c h o i c e ? i_. . , I ! ! L don't d e f i n i t e l y t h i n k t h e y d e f i n i t e l y know t h i n k t h e y w o u l d p r o b a b l y t h i n k t h e y w o u l d q u i t c o n t i n u e w o u l d . c o n t i n u e 29. Does y o u r f a m i l y l i v e up t o yo u r e x p e c t a t i o n s ? l i v e up t o few l i v e up t o l i v e up t o of my e x p e c t a t i o n s some o f my most o f my e x p e c t a t i o n s e x p e c t a t i o n s 30. How w e l l i s y o u r c h i l d d o i n g i n s c h o o l ? I I ! ! L e x c e l l e n t a v e r a g e poor 31. Most o f t h e t i m e , do you f e e l t h a t y ou have l i t t l e t o say about what y o u r f a m i l y d e c i d e s t o do? Yes No 32. Do you and y o u r c h i l d c o n f i d e i n each o t h e r ? J L . ! ! L we c a n ' t e x p r e s s we can e x p r e s s we can e x p r e s s most o f our some o f our most o f o u r f e e l i n g s t o each f e e l i n g t o each f e e l i n g s t o o t h e r o t h e r each o t h e r 33. How w e l l do you t h i n k y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r l i s t e n s t o what you have t o say? I : I ! ! L. v e r y w e l l q u i t e w e l l f a i r q u i t e p o o r l y v e r y p o o r l y ADOLESCENT INTERVIEWING SCALES 1. Do you look forward to coming home after school or after going out? f- 1 1 1 1 don't look sometimes can't wait forward to don't look to get home coming home forward to coming home 2. Do you grab any opportunity to get out of the house? I 1-don't look take some every chance for excuses opportunities I get to go out 3. How well do you f e e l you communicate with your parent(s)? I 1 1 1 — very well not too bad f a i r not too good very poorly 4. How often i s there a misunderstanding between you and your parent(s)? I 1 1 J 1 frequently f a i r l y often not very the odd time rarely often 5« How often do you talk about important matters with your parent(s) during meal time? at very few at only a at some at several at most meals few meals meals meals per week meals 6. How do you f e e l about talking with your parent(s) about your problems? I can't talk to my parents about most of my problems I can talk I can talk to my parents to my parents about a few of my prob-lems about some of my problems I can talk to my parents about many of my problems I can talk to my parents about most of my problems 7. Are you able to work at home without distratction? e.g. homework, talk on the phone, etc. my home i s my home my home my home my home too noisy i s noisy i s noisy i s quiet i s very quiet much of the time some of the some of the time time 8 . Is there a l o t of tension at home? 86 very tense most of the time more tense about equal than relaxed levels of much of the tension and time relaxation more relaxed than tense much of the time very relaxed 9. I f you could change your relationships with your family, what would you do? leave things change only change change' many as they are a couple of some things things things 10. How often i s there an argument i n you home? change almost everything 1 1 1 1 constantly of ;en some of occasionally rarely the time 11. How bad are the arguments i n your family? *hlt very mild somew a  mild sometimes severe severe very severe 12. How well do you think you l i s t e n to your parent(s)? poorly f a i r l y poorly f a i r f a i r l y well very well 13* Do you think you shauld pay more attention to your parent(s) than you are now? should pay a lot more attention should more pay some attention I'm paying as much attention as I can 14. Does your family l i v e up to your hopes? l i v e up to hardly any of my hopes l i v e 'up to some of my hopes l i v e up to most of my hopes 1$. Do you and your parents confide i n each other? we can't express most of our feelings to each other we can express some of our feelings to each other we can express most of our feelings to each other 87 / 16. How well do your think your parent(s) l i s t e n to what you have to say? 88 Weekly P r o g r e s s Form A d o l e s c e n t ' s name: F a m i l y w o r k e r : Date: Y o u t h w o r k e r : Week number: P r i n c i p l e i d e n t i f i e d p r o b l e m s : r a t i n g s : 1. 2. 3. Rate each o f t h e above problems as t h e y a r e t h i s week u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g s c a l e : -2 -1 0 +1 +2 ;<! crop's c o n s i d e r a b l y somewhat no some c o n s i d e r a b l e worse worse change improvement improvement Rate t h e f o l l o w i n g as t h e y have been i n the home t h i s week u s i n g t h e above s c a l e : P a r e n t - c h i l d c o m munication: P a r e n t - c h i l d c o o p e r a t i o n : P e r c e i v e d t e n s i o n l e v e l : T e r m i n a t i o n d a t e : C l i e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h programme: -2 -1 0 v e r y somewhat no d i s s a t i s f i e d d i s s a t i s f i e d o p i n i o n s +1 +2 somewhat v e r y s a t i s f i e d s a t i s f i e d HHSB RATING SCALE 89 STUDENT: NAME SEX M F AGE GRADE SCHOOL TEACHER: NAME DATE: RATING GUIDE 1. Base rating on student's recent and current behavior. Consider only the behavior of the student over the past six weeks. 2. Compare the student with normal youngsters his age. The standard for comparison should be the average youngster in the normal classroom situation. 3. Base rating on your own experience with the student. Consider only your own impressions. As much as possible, ignore what others have said about the student and their impressions. 4. Consider each question independently. Make no effort to describe a consistent behavioral picture or personality. It is known that youngsters may manifest seemingly contradictory behavior. 5. Avoid interpretations of "unconscious" motives and feelings. As much as possible, base ratings on coutward behavior you actually observe; do not try to interpret what might be going on in the student's mind. 6. Use extreme ratings whenever warranted. Avoid tending to rate near the middle of the scales. Make use of the f u l l range offered by the scales. 7. Rate each item quickly. If you are unable to reach a decision, go on to the next itiem and come back later to those you skipped. 8. Rate every question. Attempt to rate each item. If you are unable to rate a particular item due to lack of information, cir c l e the item number. 9. In the f i r s t c i r c l e , rate the item as you recall the student behaving approximately six weeks ago; in the second c i r c l e , rate the item as the student i s behaving now. 90 For items 1-22, use the rating scale below. Write your rating (number) of the student six weeks ago in the l e f t space, and the rating of the student now in the right space. VERY FREQUENTLY OFTEN OCCASIONALLY RARELY NEVER 5 4 3 2 1 COMPARED WITH THE AVERAGE STUDENT IN THE NORMAL CLASSROOM SITUATION\ HOW OFTEN DOES THE STUDENT . . . 1. T e l l the teacher he i s not capable of doing the work expected (i.e. underestimates his ability?) 2. Bring up other points of view in class so that they may be explored or discussed? 3. Ask questions in order to get more information about a subject? 4. Complain that the work is too hard? 5. Raise his hand to answer a question, or volunteer information? 6. Act physically restless in class or unable to s i t s t i l l ? 7. Seem c r i t i c a l (in a negative way) of the peers' opinions, questions or work in class? 8. Bring things to class that related to a current topic?' 9. Come in late to class? 10. Do more work than he is assigned (i.e. carries assignments beyond the minimal requirement)? JI. Express the feeling that too much work has been assigned? 12. Annoy or interfere with the work of his peers in class? 13. Speak disrespectfully to the teacher in class? 14. Participate actively in classroom discussions? 15. Have his work poorly organized (e.g. class notes, written assignments, etc.)? 91 16. C r i t i c i z e , b e l i t t l e or make derogatory remarks concerning the importance of the subject matter of the course? 17. Come to class having lost, forgotten or misplaced his books, pencil or other necessary class material? 18. Seem overly concerned that he has the correct directions (e.g. w i l l check an assignment with a teacher after class, w i l l ask that a direction be repeated or c l a r i f i e d , etc.)? 19. F a i l to turn in assignments on time? 20. Engage the teacher in conversation just before or after class (e.g. about subject matter of courses, or mutual interests)? 21. Come up with original or unique thoughts i n class which are unusual, but relevant? 22. Have to be reprimanded or controlled by the teacher because of his behavior in class? For items 23 - 42, use the rating scale below: EXTREMELY DISTINCTLY QUITE A BIT MODERATELY A LITTLE VERY SLIGHTLY 7 6 5 4 3 2 NOT AT ALL 1 COMPATED WITH THE AVERAGE STUDENT IN THE NORMAL CLASSROOM SITUATION• TO WHAT DEGREE IS THE STUDENT . . . 23. Liked by you as a person? . 24. Outwardly nervous about taking tests? k 25. Effective in applying a new principle he has learned to a new or unfamiliar problem? .. 26. Likely to quit or give up when someone is d i f f i c u l t or demands more than usual/effort on his part? 27. Reliant upon the teacher for directions and to be told how to do things or proceed in class? 28. Responsive or friendly in•his relationship with the teacher in class (vs. being cool, detached, or distant)? 92 29. ^30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. . 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. . 42. For items 43 - 45, A compulsive talker (i.e. can't refrain from talking to classmates)? Quick to grasp a new concept that you present in class? Prone to want the teacher to do a l l the work for him, or make things easy for him? Swayed by the opinions of his peers in his class? Very quiet, uncommunicative (e.g. responds to questions with monosyllables or a gesture)? Effective in making inferences and working out answers for himself, when given the facts? Oblivious to what is going on in class -- is not "with i t " — seems to be in his own "private," closed world? Inconspicuous in class (i.e. you could easily forget he is there)? Prone to feel he must master a l l of the details before he is satisfied he knows i t ? Dogmatic or opinionated in the way he thinks? Prone to want quick, "black" or "white" answers to questions? Openly nervous;during class (e.g. is physically tense, voice quivers, or fearful of teachers or classmates, etc.)? Not receptive to others' opinions (e.g. doesn't " l i s t e n , " interrupts others, etc.)? Able to s i f t out the essential from the unessential in what he reads or hears in a lecture? use the rating scale below: EXTREMELY DISTINCTLY QUITE A BIT MODERATELY 7 6 5 4 A LITTLE 3 VERY SLIGHTLY 2 NOT AT ALL 1 93 COMPARED WITH THE AVERAGE STUDENT IN THE NORMAL CLASSROOM SITUATION, TO WHAT DEGREE DOES THE STUDENT . . . 43. Fluster, block, or become i l l at ease when expressing himself verbally? 44. Lack social interaction with peers in class? 45. Prepare homework or project assignments in an interesting and original fashion? 94 TELEPHONE INTERVIEW FOLLOW-UP NAME AGE WORKER TYPE OF THERAPY_ DATES OF INVOLVEMENT For items 1 - 2 use following scale: CGNSIDERABLE SLIGHT DETERIORATION NO CHANGE SLIGHT IMPROVE- CONSIDERABLE DETERIORATION SINCE INVOLVEMENT SINCE MENT SINCE IMPROVEMENT SINCE INVOLVE- INVOLVEMENT INVOLVEMENT SINCE MENT INVOLVEMENT -2 -1 0 1 2 1. In your opinion, how have the major areas of concern which prompted involvement with Project.Contact been resolved? 1. 2. 3. 2. Have there been any other changes in personality or behaviour since this time? How are they now? 1. 2. 3. 3. Which of the changes were due to the involvement of Project Contact? How do you feel about Project Contact's involvement? VERY SATISFIED DISAPPOINTED SOMEWHAT NO FEELINGS PLEASED VERY SATISFIED -2 -1 0 1 2 1. 2. 3. 4. , Do you feel you have changed during this period? What things are you doing differently in your relationship with your son/daughter? MUCH LESS SOMEWHAT LESS NO CHANGE SOMEWHAT MORE MUCH MORE -2 - 1 0 1 2 5. What did you like best/least about Project Contact? Would you like to see any changes in the way the project is operated? 95 APPENDIX D I n f o r m a l F o l l o w - U p of P r e v i o u s C l i e n t s P a r e n t s o f t e n former p a r t i c i p a n t s o f P r o j e c t C o n t a c t were c o n t a c t e d by t e l e p h o n e f o l l o w i n g t e r m i n a t i o n o f t r e a t m e n t t h r e e t o n i n e months p r e v i o u s l y (X = 7 months). The mean age o f t h e f i v e male and f i v e f e m a l e y o u t h was 12.7 y e a r s . H a l f had r e c e i v e d some i n f o r m a l c o n t r a c t i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e g u l a r agency programming. Frequency o f r e f e r r a l problems were as f o l l o w s : C o n t r a c t No C o n t r a c t F a m i l y I n t e r a c t i o n 6 7 Pe e r Problems 4 3 S c h o o l P r o b l e m s 2 2 S e l f - E s t e e m 1 0 T o t a l 13 12 Mean c l i e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n was a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u i v a l e n t i n b o t h g r o u p s , 1.8 and 2.0 f o r t h e c o n t r a c t and n o - c o n t r a c t groups r e s p e c t i v e l y . R e p o r t e d changes by t h e p a r e n t s a r e l i s t e d below: (see n e x t page) 96 C o n t r a c t N o - C o n t r a c t Mean R e p o r t e d Change F a m i l y I n t e r a c t i o n 1 1.4 T a r g e t P e e r Problems 2 1.3 S c h o o l Problems 2 2 S e l f - E s t e e m 2 N/A Not T a r g e t I n c r e a s e d M a t u r i t y 1.67 (N=3) 1.67 (N= ;3) Other S c h o o l B e h a v i o u r 2 (N=l) N/A (N= :0) I n c r e a s e d C o n f i d e n c e N/A .(N=0) 2 (N= = D Frequency o f Change A t t r i b u t i o n t o I n t e r v e n t i o n 100% 2 2 50-100% 1 1 0-50% 2 2 S e l f - R e p o r t e d B e h a v i o u r Change i n P a r e n t s Communicat i o n 3 0 P a r e n t i n g 3 3 None 0 2 

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