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Oral language and life-cycle concepts of grade four English primary language and English second language… Marin, Patricia Margaret 1978

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ORAL LANGUAGE AND L I F E - C Y C L E CONCEPTS OF GRADE E N G L I S H PRIMARY LANGUAGE AND E N G L I S H SECOND LANGUAGE STUDENTS by P A T R I C I A MARGARET MARIN B . S c . H o n . , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS -in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Science Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1978 (c) P a t r i c i a Margaret Marin, 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Educat ion The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date August 15, 1978 A B S T R A C T O R A L L A N G U A G E A N D L I F E - C Y C L E C O N C E P T S O F G R A D E F O U R E N G L I S H P R I M A R Y L A N G U A G E A N D E N G L I S H S E C O N D L A N G U A G E S T U D E N T S T h i s c l i n i c a l study aimed at e x p l o r i n g the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s : 1 ) whether E n g l i s h Primary Language and E n g l i s h Second Language students have s i m i l a r ideas on the L i f e - C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e ; 2) which words and phrases these two groups use to convey key aspects of t h a t L i f e - C y c l e i 3) to what e x t e n t does the type and frequency of words and phrases used, vary with the s t u d e n t 1 a b i l i t y t o communicate o r a l l y i n E n g l i s h . Two Interview C o n d i t i o n s were used, the V e r b a l Con d i t i o n and the V e r b a l M a n i p u l a t i v e C o n d i t i o n . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the ideas of students f e l l i n t o f o u r p a t t e r n s r e g a r d l e s s of whether s u b j e c t s were-E n g l i s h Second Language or E n g l i s h Primary Language. A l i s t of words and phrases used by the s u b j e c t has bee i d e n t i f i e d , a c c o r d i n g to the language background of the sample and t h i s l i s t suggests t h a t the type and f r e -quency of nouns, verbs, a d j e c t i v e s and adverbs v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to the language sub-group (ESL/EPL) and Interview C o n d i t i o n ( V e r b a l / V e r b a l M a n i p u l a t i v e ) . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES .... v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x i CHAPTER ONE NATURE OF THE STUDY 1 The General Problem . 1 Primary I n t e n t o f the Study ... 2 The Need f o r the Study 3 D e f i n i t i o n s 6 Second Language 6 B i l i n g u a l 7 Concept 7 Summary 8 Notes f o r Chapter One 9 CHAPTER TWO THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 11 I n t r o d u c t i o n 11 Understanding and O r a l Communication .... 12 In f l u e n c e o f Language Development on C o g n i t i o n 14 St u d i e s w i t h the Deaf 15 L i n g u i s t i c R e l a t i v i t y 15 R e f e r e n t i a l F u n c t i o n of Language .... 17 V e r b a l M e d i a t i o n o f Thought 20 Vygotsky's P e r s p e c t i v e 21 Inf l u e n c e of C o g n i t i o n on Language .... 23 P i a g e t ' s P e r s p e c t i v e 23 F i r s t Language A c q u i s i t i o n and C o g n i t i o n 25 Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n and C o g n i t i o n 2 7 B i l i n g u a l i s m 28 B i l i n g u a l i s m and C o g n i t i o n 28 The Non-Fluent B i l i n g u a l 30 B i l i n g u a l i s m and Edu c a t i o n 31 Summary 32 - i i i -Page CHAPTER THREE METHODS OF COLLECTING AND TREATING DATA 34 I n t r o d u c t i o n 34 P r e p a r a t i o n f o r Data C o l l e c t i o n 35 P i l o t S t u d i e s 35 Data C o l l e c t i o n 35 School S e l e c t i o n 35 Sample S e l e c t i o n 36 Subjects 37 Interview Schedule •••• 38 Interview Technique • 39 Treatment of Data 4 0 Concept A n a l y s i s 4 2 Sc o r i n g Content of Responses 4 4 S c o r i n g Response Mode 45 O r a l Language A n a l y s i s 45 Segmentation of O r a l Language . . 47 The Communication'Unit 47 The Maze U n i t 48 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Concept-Related Words .... 48 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of M o d i f i e r s .... 49 Naming the L i f e - C y c l e 50 L i m i t a t i o n s of the.Methodology 50 Summary 52 Notes f o r Chapter Three 53 CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS OF LIFE-CYCLE CONCEPTS 55 I n t r o d u c t i o n .... 55 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Conceptual P a t t e r n s ... .... 56 Conceptual P a t t e r n One 59 Conceptual P a t t e r n Two .... 62 Conceptual P a t t e r n Three 6 3 Conceptual P a t t e r n Four 65 L i f e - C y c l e of Tenebrio m o l i t o r 67 I n t e r e s t i n g Aspects of the Mealworm L i f e - C y c l e 68 Reproduction 68 Naming the L i f e C y c e l ... 69 Mode of Reasoning 72 CHPATER FIVE ORAL LANGUAGE CONTENT ANALYSIS 7 3 Measurements of O r a l Language 7 3 Mazes and Words Used i n Communication 74 Length of Communication U n i t s 77 Concept-Related Vocabulary 82 - i v -Page Frequency of Use of Concept-Related Vocabulary 85 Use of M o d i f i e r s 88 CHAPTER SIX CRITICAL REVIEW OF LANGUAGE AND CONCEPT FINDINGS 91 R e l a t i o n s h i p between O r a l Language Usage and Conceptual P a t t e r n s o f . L i f e - C y c l e concepts 91 R e l a t i o n s h i p between Concept-Related Vocabulary and Conceptual P a t t e r n s o f L i f e - C y c l e Concepts 94 S i g n i f i c a n c e of Vocabulary 96 S i g n i f i c a n c e of V e r b a l Reasoning S t r a t e g y .... 98 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f M a t e r i a l s .... 99 CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 102 Con c l u s i o n s .... 102 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research 104 APPENDICES 109 BIBLIOGRAPHY 128 - V -LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 3.1 Flow C h a r t o f P r o c e d u r e s f o r A n a l y s i s o f I n t e r v i e w Data 41 TABLE 4 .1 Summary o f L i f e - C y c l e C o n -c e p t s I d e n t i f i e d 57 TABLE 4.2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s A c c o r d i n g t o C o n c e p t u a l P a t t e r n 5 7 TABLE 4.3 E n g l i s h P r i m a r y Language: Naming the L i f e - C y c l e of T e n e b r i a m o l i t o r 70 TABLE 4.4 E n g l i s h Second Language: Naming the L i f e - C y c l e o f T e n e b r i o m o l i t o r . . . . 71 TABLE 4 .5 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Sample by Mode of Reasoning 72 TABLE 5.1 P r o p o r t i o n o f Mazes i n T o t a l Communication f o r E n g l i s h P r i m a r y Language U s e r s 75 TABLE 5.2 P r o p o r t i o n o f Mazes i n T o t a l Communication f o r E n g l i s h Second Language U s e r s - . . . . 75 TABLE 5 .3(a) Maze Words as Percentage T o t a l Words Used - V e r b a l 76 TABLE 5.3(b) Maze Words as Percentage T o t a l Words - V e r b a l M a n i p u l a t i v e 76 TABLE 5.4 Average Number o f Words per Communication U n i t - E n g l i s h P r i m a r y Language Users 8 0 TABLE 5.5 Average Number o f Words per Communication U n i t - E n g l i s h Second Language U s e r s 80 - v i --Page TABLE 5.6 Concept-Related Words of E n g l i s h Primary Language Users 8 4 TABLE 5.7 Concept-Related Words of E n g l i s h Second Language Users 8 4 TABLE 5.8 Words Commonly used by E n g l i s h Second Language and E n g l i s h Primary Language 86 TABLE 5.9 Words Commonly used by E n g l i s h Second Language .... 87 TABLE 6.1 Comparison of O r a l Language Measures and Conceptual P a t t e r n s f o r a l l Subjects 92 TAMLE 6.2 Comparison of O r a l Language Measures and Conceptual P a t t e r n s f o r E n g l i s h Primary Language Users 9 3 TABLE 6.3 Comparison of O r a l Language Measures and Conceptual P a t t e r n s f o r E n g l i s h Second Language Users 9 3 TABLE 6.4 Comparison of Concept-Related Vocabulary and Conceptual P a t t e r n s f o r a l l S u b j e c t s 95 - v i i -LIST OF FIGURES Page F i g u r e 4.1 D i s t r i b u t i o n of E n g l i s h Primary Language Users by Conceptual P a t t e r n 58 F i g u r e 4.2 D i s t r i b u t i o n of E n g l i s h Second Language Users by Conceptual P a t t e r n 58 F i g u r e 4.3 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E n t i r e Sample by Conceptual P a t t e r n .... ... 59 F i g u r e 6.1 Mean P r o p o r t i o n of Concept-R e l a t e d Words per Communi-c a t i o n U n i t by Conceptual P a t t e r n .... 96 - v i i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o my a d v i s e r )?iofizAAO/i G.H. Cannon e s p e c i a l l y f o r the tremendous i n t e r e s t , encouragement, support and guidance he has o f f e r e d me from the beginning, and t o the members of my committee Vn.. B. Q.CWJLX.&LQ, and Vn.. G. E.K.i.ckhon f o r the a s s i s t a n c e , time and c o o p e r a t i o n they so w i l l i n g l y i n v e s t e d i n my p r o j e c t . I would l i k e to say s p e c i a l words of a p p r e c i a t i o n to the pfi-inci-pati, tzachzn.6 and 6tudznti who p a r t i c i p a t e d so f r e e l y i n t h i s study, t o CoAmen f o r the f a n t a s t i c job of t y p i n g she was abl e t o do i n the s h o r t time a v a i l a b l e , to ZaitbaKa f o r her t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . To my many f r i e n d s such as Jan, Adam, Jo&L, Vtnn-16, Biuce. who gave of t h e i r time and e x p e r t i s e , thank* . Without the c o n t i n u i n g moral support of Vav-id and N<Lkk>L, I c o u l d not have done t h i s . Thank Voa. - i x -F i n a n c i a l support f o r t h i s study was p r o v i d e d through Discretionary Grant No. 225 - Educational Research I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia. - x -1. CHAPTER ONE NATURE OF THE STUDY THE GENERAL PROBLEM The m u c h - d i s c u s s e d problem o f how language and thought are r e l a t e d has g a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n r e c e n t t i m e s . T h i s has been so e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f Jean P i a g e t and Lev V y g o t s k y have been p u b l i c i s e d . D e s p i t e the l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s g e n e -r a t e d as a r e s u l t o f the P i a g e t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e on language and c o g n i t i v e development i n c h i l d r e n , many a s p e c t s o f the p r e c i s e way t h a t language and thought a f f e c t each o t h e r remain i n d i s t i n c t , and need f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y because o f the i n t r i c a t e . n a t u r e o f the problem i t s e l f . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , e d u c a t o r s have shown g r e a t c o n c e r n w i t h the l a n g u a g e - t h o u g h t c o n t r o v e r s y p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t a p p l i e d to the t e a c h i n g o f e lementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . U n d e r s t a n d i n g the mechanism by which a c h i l d makes sense o f h i s w o r l d p r o v i d e s a c h a n n e l through w h i c h the c h i l d may be h e l p e d to a c q u i r e through e x p e r i e n c e those c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s which he l a c k s . To know a t h i n g , p i a g e t (1964) says, i s to a c t on i t . T h i s statement i m p l i e s t h a t thought has an e s s e n t i a l o p e r a t i v e component. However i t f o l l o w s t h a t such p e r s o n a l knowledge and understanding has to be symbolised to be communicated. Therefore the p r e c i s e nature of i n t e r a c t i o n between the o p e r a t i v e f u n c t i o n and the symbolic f u n c t i o n should deserve c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n . T h i s study i n t e n d s to focus i n on the way i n which the mental o p e r a t i o n s of thought are r e l a t e d to the o r a l language of e x p r e s s i o n . In order f o r such an a b s t r u s e q u e s t i o n to have a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n the e d u c a t i o n a l context the i n v e s t i g a t o r needs to e x p l o r e the s e t t i n g , employ the t o o l s a v a i l a b l e t o educators, and c o n f r o n t educationa i s s u e s . 1.1 Primary Intent of the Study The pntmatiy a-im ol thti> btudy -ii to z l t c - i t the. -id2.cn, on ln&e.ct L-L_e.-CycZe.-i>, -in pan.t-ic.ulan. that o_ Tzne.bA.-io mollton. [the. Ue.alwon.rn Ze.e.tle.), he.ld by eleme.nta.ny school ch-itdn.en, In on.de.fi to analyse, the. on.al language, ol tho&e. iitix.de.nti> who e.xpn.ea> the.tn. unde,n.i>tand-ing o{_ thej>e. Ac.-ie.nttI-ic concepts ui>-ing EngZti>h ai> a Vfitmafiy Language., and thoi>e. who ui>e. EngZ-ii>h a& a Second Language.. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t such r e s u l t s would l e a d to c o n j e c t u r e s or i n f e r e n c e s on the degree to which use of o r a l language f a c i l i t a t e s or impedes c o g n i t i v e processes i n the e l e -mentary sc h o o l student. Such f i n d i n g s may be of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o t h o s e i n v o l v e d , i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n o f i m m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n . S p e c i f i c P r o b l e m f o r I n v e s t i g a t i o n More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d : 1) Do s t u d e n t s who employ E n g l i s h as a P r i m a r y Language (EPL) and t h o s e who use E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d Language (ESL) have s i m i l a r n o t i o n s on t h e L i f e C y c l e o f t h e Mealworm B e e t l e . 2) Which words and p h r a s e s do t h e s e two g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s use f o r c o n v e y i n g k e y a s p e c t s o f t h e L i f e C y c l e s u c h as p h y s i c a l i d e n t i t y , s i z e , d u r a t i o n o f e v e n t s . 3) To what e x t e n t does th e t y p e and f r e q u e n c y o f words and p h r a s e s u s e d t o d e l i n e a t e t h e s e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s , v a r y w i t h t h e s t u d e n t ' s n a t i v e a b i l i t y t o communicate o r a l l y i n E n g l i s h 4) To what e x t e n t does t h e t y p e and f r e q u e n c y o f t h e s e c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d words and e x p r e s s i o n s v a r y d e p e n d i n g on t h e c o n t e x t , t h a t i s , w h e t h e r d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s a l l o w e d t o i n t e r a c t w i t h l i v e s p e c i m e n s o r not-^. 5) To what e x t e n t a r e t h e two l a n g u a g e g r o u p s a b l e t o employ m e a n i n g f u l s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e 2 v o c a b u l a r y t o c o n v e y t h e i r i d e a s . The Need f o r t h e S t u d y A b o u t t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p o p u -l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o n s i s t s o f s t u d e n t s who use E n g l i s h as a S e c o n d Language a t t h e i r s c h o o l s . M e e t i n g t h e l i n g u i s t i c needs o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s i s a demanding t a s k f o r e d u c a t o r s . I n many o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s 4. i n B.C. students learning English as a Second Language receive s p e c i a l i s t help on an i n d i v i d u a l or small-group basis. This necessitates their withdrawal from the regular classroom for a considerable part of the day. I t i s commonly assumed that such s p e c i a l i s t attention would best meet the i r requirements as far as language i s concerned. However th i s system has cert a i n drawbacks. Hester and Wight (19 77) contend that taking these students away from the classroom for s p e c i a l i s t assistance e l s e -where causes them to be drawn away from "those English speakers that provide th e i r most powerful models, i . e . their peer-groups". The s i t u a t i o n i s further complicated for them by the obvious expectation of th e i r parents and teachers, that they engage themselves i n learning - not just learning language. This means that the i n t e l l e c t u a l and cognitive growth of these children should also be a prime concern of any programs designed for them. Considerable time and e f f o r t i s devoted by teachers i n elementary school i n helping children acquire s c i e n t i f i c concepts as these provide the necessary v. foundation for understanding more complicated p r i n c i p l e s i n l a t e r l i f e . I t i s expected that the teacher would use the available materials appropriately and present her ideas verbally i n such a manner that students can receive, understand and apply that information. 5. Complex co n c e p t u a l schemes such as " L i f e C y c l e s " are i n t r o d u c e d to students i n B.C. as e a r l y as the second 3 year i n school . By the f i f t h year of elementary school the p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m i m p l i e s t h a t the student should have a l r e a d y developed an i n t u i t i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the c o n t i n u i t y of the growth process, and a r e c o g n i -t i o n t h a t the i d e n t i t y of a l i v i n g organism remains con s t a n t through time d e s p i t e changes i n i t s p h y s i c a l appearance. As i s the case f o r sc i e n c e achievement i n t h i s area, a c q u i s i t i o n of these concepts i s g e n e r a l l y measured by te a c h e r s i n terms of the degree to which the student can m e a n i n g f u l l y reproduce s c i e n t i f i c terminology a f t e r a s s i m i l a t i n g p r e c i s e l y the concept conveyed by the term. S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s (McCabe, 1977; Smith, 1970; Tatham, 1970; W i l l i a m s , 1968) i n d i c a t e t h a t elementary sc h o o l students are able to perform b e t t e r when i n -s t r u c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d using m a t e r i a l s t h a t match t h e i r own o r a l language p a t t e r n s . A study such as t h i s should pro-v i d e g u i d e l i n e s f o r elementary s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s f o r de-v i s i n g more e f f e c t i v e ways of using t h e i r own language of i n s t r u c t i o n t o match the l e v e l of o r a l E n g l i s h usage of t h e i r s tudents. Such i n f o r m a t i o n might p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t as t o the extent t o which o r a l communication i s a handicap or f a c i l i t a t o r of s c i e n t i f i c concept formation. 6 . D e f i n i t i o n s A t t h i s p o i n t i t w i l l be necessary to c l a r i f y some o f the terms t h a t appear and reappear throughout t h i s d i s c u s s i o n : "Second Language": The word "second" as used i n "second language" appears more f r e q u e n t l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e than the term " f o r e i g n " to i n d i c a t e a language t h a t i s "second-l e a r n t " as opposed to one t h a t i s " f i r s t - l e a r n t " . As used i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the f i r s t language i s the "mother-tongue" and u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s the primary medium of communication o f the mature person o r , the language most f r e q u e n t l y used a t home by the young c h i l d . The term "second language" w i l l r e f e r to a n o n - f l u e n t speaker of the language dominant o u t s i d e o f the home (at s c h o o l or a t work) . One can d i s t i n g u i s h then between a "foreign language"and a "second language" on the b a s i s o f the user's motive and a t t i t u d e . A f o r e i g n language may be used to g a i n an understanding of the c u l t u r e of another community. A second language i s more f r e q u e n t l y used to r e l a t e to the needs o f the user h i m s e l f . The l a t t e r i s used simply as another medium f o r e x p r e s s i n g i n d i v i d u a l customs and c u l t u r e i n another m i l i e u . For e f f e c t i v e use of the second language the a t t i t u d e of the user would probably need to be a c t i v e and c r e a t i v e . 7. B i l i n g u a l : T h i s term i s q u i t e complex. To be c l a s s e d as ' b i l i n g u a l ' , a person must normally have some minimal a b i l i t y to use two d i f f e r e n t languages. B l o o m f i e l d (19 35, i n C h r i s t o p h e r s o n , 1973, p. 56) d e f i n e s p e r s o n a l b i l i n g u a l i s m as " n a t i v e - l i k e c o n t r o l o f two languages". The p r e c i s e meaning o f ' n a t i v e - l i k e ' i n t h i s case i s not e v i d e n t . I t s meaning may f l u c t u a t e from "some exposure" to a "maximum degree of p r o f i c i e n c y " . Haugen (19 56) takes the o p p o s i t e view and", c h a r a c t e r i s e s as b i -l i n g u a l , i n d i v i d u a l s p o s s e s s i n g a t l e a s t minimal f a c i l i t y w i t h two d i f f e r e n t languages. Lambert (Lambert, Havelka and Gardner, 1959) has c l a r i f i e d the p i c t u r e somewhat by i n t r o d u c i n g the term "balanced b i l i n g u a l " . T h i s i s i n -tended, to d e s c r i b e i n d i v i d u a l s who appear " f u l l y com-p e t e n t i n both languages". B i l i n g u a l i s m i s b e s t con-s i d e r e d as a continuum r a t h e r than an a l l - o r - n o n e p r o p e r t y . Throughout t h i s study the term ' b i l i n g u a l ' w i l l r e f e r to an i n d i v i d u a l who uses two d i f f e r e n t languages h a b i t u a l l y with a hi g h l e v e l o f f l u e n c y and p r o f i c i e n c y i n both. T h i s i s i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to a second-language user who has h a b i t u a l but n o n - f l u e n t use o f another language. Concept: T h i s r e f e r s to a system of knowledge about events i n the world of the i n d i v i d u a l . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of a 8. concept u s u a l l y changes with time and ex p e r i e n c e . Vygotsky's (196 2) d e f i n i t i o n i s noteworthy and somewhat c o n t r o v e r s i a l : a concept i s a complex genuine a c t of thought t h a t cannot be taught by d r i l l i n g but can be accomplished o n l y when the c h i l d ' s mental development has reached the r e q u i s i t e l e v e l (p.82) . Klausmeier zt al (19 74) use the word "concept" to de-note the mental c o n s t r u c t s of an i n d i v i d u a l . In another sense (Klausmeier dt al , 1976) i t i s used to r e p r e s e n t "ordered i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o p e r t i e s of one or more 4 t h i n g s - o b j e c t s " . The term "concept" when used i n t h i s paper r e f e r s to an org a n i z e d body of knowledge, i n -t u i t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l on a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c , e.g. the concept of time, the concept of s i z e . Summary In t h i s chapter the author has presented the s p e c i f i c i n t e n t of the study and attempted to j u s t i f y i s r e l e v a n c e by p l a c i n g i t i n the "broader p i c t u r e " . Because t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n appears to be more e x p l o r a t o r y than con-c l u s i v e i n nature, i t i s l i k e l y to r a i s e more provoking i s s u e s than those f o r which i t w i l l p r e s c r i b e d e f i n i t i v e s o l u t i o n s . NOTES FOR CHAPTER ONE The term " c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d " r e f e r s t o words used by s u b j e c t s t h a t c l e a r l y s p e c i f y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a s pects of the concept. Words such as "beetle-baby" and " l a r v a " are c o n s i d e r e d c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d . There were two c o n t e x t s used i n t h i s study: 1) V e r b a l C o n d i t i o n - i n which the s u b j e c t had a f a i r l y u n s t r u c t u r e d d i s c u s s i o n with the Experimenter. No specimens, p i c t u r e s or other m a t e r i a l s were a v a i l a b l e f o r the s u b j e c t ' s use. 2) V e r b a l M a n i p u l a t i v e C o n d i t i o n - i n which the s u b j e c t had access to, and f r e e l y manipulated, l i v e specimens while responding o r a l l y to the I n t e r v i e w e r . " S c i e n t i f i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e " words are terms t h a t appear f r e q u e n t l y i n t e x t s or are used by teachers to d e s c r i b e L i f e C y c l e s . Examples of these are such words as " l a r v a " , "pupa", " a d u l t " , " l i f e - c y c l e " . On the other hand words such as "beetle-baby" are not u s u a l l y con-s i d e r e d by teachers as " s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e " . Elementary Science, Teachers C u r r i c u l u m Interim Guide 1977, produced by C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch, M i n i s t r y of Education B r i t i s h Columbia, p.14 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s are d i s p e r s e d throughout the c u r r i c u l u m i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: Year 1 - Animals i n the classroom Year 2 - B r i n e Shrimp, L i f e of Beans and Peas Year 3 - Seeds and S e e d l i n g s Year 4 - Eggs and Tadpoles, s t a r t i n g from Seeds Year 5 - Mosquitoes Subsumed i n a l l these t o p i c s are ideas of L i f e C y c l e s . Refer to programs i n use f o r treatment: STEM Science - Addison-Wesley E x p l o r i n g Science - Laidlaw (Doubleday) Elementary Science Study - M a t e r i a l s Based U n i t s Teaching Primary 'Science. The word "concept" has been e x t e n s i v e l y d e f i n e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e on t h a t s u b j e c t . A c l e a r r e -l e v a n t summary may be read i n Nelson's (19 74) a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d : "Concept, Word and Sentence: I n t e r r e l a t i o n s i n A c q u i s i t i o n arid Development". CHAPTER TWO THEORETICAL BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION: The g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l language p r o d u c t i o n i n response to a co n c e p t u a l task or problem, with which t h i s study i s concerned, belongs g e n e r a l l y speaking t o the realm of language development. I t p e r t a i n s e s p e c i a l l y to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i n -g u i s t i c and n o n - l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r s i n development of language. T h i s q u e s t i o n of the r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e of the one on the other f a l l s w i t h i n the domain of t h a t thorny i s s u e which has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y encountered i n the l i t e r a t u r e as the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and thought. There i s a l a r g e number of well-conducted r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on t h i s t o p i c and so, i t w i l l be necessary t o be q u i t e s e l e c t i v e i n the r e s e a r c h r e -viewed here. The f i r s t p a r t of t h i s chapter w i l l r e -f e r t o the work done i n the g e n e r a l area o f understand-i n g , t h i n k i n g and speaking i n young c h i l d r e n . Then some of the more c l a s s i c a l r e s e a r c h , such as t h a t o f Vygotsky and P i a g e t , w i l l be reviewed, i n a d d i t i o n to some of the more, r e c e n t s t u d i e s on t h e t o p i c . The r e s t o f the chapter w i l l be concerned w i t h a s y n t h e s i s of the l i t e r a t u r e on b i l i n g u a l i s m and c o g n i t i o n t h a t p e r t a i n s to e d u c a t i o n . The s p e c i f i c problem does draw somewhat from t h e o r i e s of language a c q u i s i t i o n and development of the s y n t a c t i c , semantic and pragmatic f e a t u r e s of c h i l d language- However, i t w i l l not be c o n s i d e r e d p r a c t i c a b l e to p r o v i d e here any e x t e n s i v e d i s c o u r s e on the processes t h a t c o n t r i b u t e to language development. Understanding and O r a l Communication The r e l a t i o n s h i p between understanding, t a l k i n g and t h i n k i n g has been b a r e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . More a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n to what language c h i l d r e n produce than the processes u n d e r l y i n g why and how t h i s o c c u r s . However t h i s problem may be e s s e n t i a l l y a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l one since n e i t h e r t h i n k i n g nor understanding are d i r e c t l y o bservable without speech - w i t h which n e i t h e r i s synonymous. Bloom and Lahey (197 8) propose the hypothesis t h a t understanding and speaking r e p r e s e n t mutually dependent but d i f f e r e n t u n d e r l y i n g processes, w i t h a r e s u l t i n g s h i f t i n g i n f l u e n c e between them i n the course of language de-velopment (p.238). There i s some degree of s i m i l a r i t y between the under-standing - speaking dilemma and the p e r c e p t i o n - p r o d u c t i o n p r o b l e m . Some o f the arguments p r e s e n t e d to e x p l a i n the l a t t e r have been (1) f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g r e c o g n i t i o n and r e c a l l (Mandler , 1967) (2) the p a r t i c u l a r knowledge o f a t t r i b u t e s needed f o r r e p r o d u c t i o n and not n e c e s s a r i l y f o r r e c o g n i t i o n (Maccoby & Bee, 19 65), and (3) the need t o conjure . .up m e n t a l l y the a p p r o p r i a t e image as a b a s i s f o r r e p r o d u c t i o n ( P i a g e t & I n h e l d e r , 1971). These arguments may a l s o be u s e f u l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the d e -velopment o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h i n k i n g and t a l k i n g . P i a g e t and I n h e l d e r (19 71) have c l a i m e d t h a t making an u t t e r a n c e i n v o l v e s f o r the c h i l d the m e n t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a " s y m b o l i c i m a g e " . I t i s not c l e a r how t h e s e m e n t a l images r e l a t e to what the c h i l d hears o r s a y s . I t would appear t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y between s p e a k i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l i e s on the manner i n w h i c h the c h i l d i n t e r a c t s w i t h the c o n t e x t of the task p r e s e n t e d . On the o t h e r hand, Bloom & Lahey (1978) sugges t t h a t the m e n t a l image which precedes the u t t e r a n c e i s p r o b a b l y l e s s d i f f i c u l t c o g n i t i v e l y than the p e r c e p t u a l schema needed to r e c e i v e and i n t e r p r e t what i s h e a r d . These l a t t e r r e s e a r c h e r s propose t h a t a t l e a s t t h r e e f a c t o r s a f f e c t the u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p r o d u c t i o n of . l a n g u a g e : There i s f i r s t o f a l l , the c h i l d ' s immediate con s c l o u shess - what the c h i l d t h i n k s about when i n the p r o c e s s o f p e r c e i v i n g an u t t e r a n c e o r p r o d u c i n g an u t t e r a n c e . . . The second component t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s to the meaning of messages - the c h i l d ' s memory or conceptual i n f o r m a t i o n about the world... F i n a l l y the c h i l d needs to know some scheme  f o r l i n g u i s t i c p r o c e s s i n g .... i n order to process l i n g u i s t i c forms to e x t r a c t meaning from messages, and to use l i n g u i s t i c forms to r e p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n messages (p.254). I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to p r e s e n t more about the f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e to understanding and producing messages and how these r e l a t e to both l i n g u i s t i c and c o g n i t i v e development - but such a lengthy d i s c u s s i o n would not be p e r t i n e n t to t h i s study. I n f l u e n c e of Language Development on C o g n i t i o n The t h e o r i e s proposed to e x p l a i n i n t e r a c t i o n between language and c o g n i t i o n g e n e r a l l y f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , those t h a t envisage the c h i l d as a p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t of environmental change and those t h a t a s c r i b e to the c h i l d an a c t i v e r o l e i n the process of shaping c o g n i t i o n through language. J.B. Watson w i t h whom the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c h o o l of b e h a v i o r i s t i c thought o r i g i n a t e d d e c l a r e d t h a t thought was a form of subvocal speech (Smith zt at. 1947) and so he attempted to d e t e c t s l i g h t movements of the l a r y n x w i t h s o p h i s t i c a t e d equipment. However, i t i s not necessary to r e s o r t to such complicated experimental technique to support the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a l l thought c o u l d not be dependent on language. I t i s common knowledge t h a t the deaf are capable of e x t e n s i v e thought p r o c e s s e s . S t u d i e s With The Deaf Youniss and F u r t h (1965) compared deaf and h e a r i n g s u b j e c t s on the b a s i s of t h e i r a b i l i t y t o so l v e conceptual t a s k s i n v o l v i n g t r a n s i t i v i t y . Even when a p e r c e p t u a l com-ponent was added t o these t a s k s , the i n v e s t i g a t o r s found t h a t deaf c h i l d r e n performed the task as w e l l as those c h i l d r e n who c o u l d hear. T h i s evidence may be i n t e r p r e t e d t o suggest t h a t the concept o f t r a n s i t i v i t y i s a c q u i r e d i n -dependently of language. A v a r i e t y of other conceptual tasks has been presented t o deaf s u b j e c t s (Furth, 1964; Kates, Kates, M i c h a e l and Walsh, 1961; P i a g e t and Inhelder, 1959, 1969). A l l these s t u d i e s p r o v i d e s t r o n g support f o r the f a c t t h a t deaf and hea r i n g c h i l d r e n perform j u s t as w e l l on concept formation t a s k s , though t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e developmental l a g e v i d e n t i n the case of the deaf. Th i s developmental d e f i c i t however, i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a s t a b l e one, s i n c e e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s such as t r a i n i n g and academic i n s t r u c t i o n are l i k e l y t o have s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t i n promoting concept formation. L i n g u i s t i c R e l a t i v i t y The i d e a t h a t c u l t u r e and language are c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d i s not new on the academic scene. I t has been i n v e s t i g a t e d under v a r i o u s t i t l e s . Olmsted (1950) r e f e r s t o 16 . l'ethnolinguitics" whereas, Hymes (1964.) discusses '"anthro-pological l i n g u i s t i c s " . Both refer to the same issue. The famous Whorfian thesis of l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i v i t y has aroused considerable controversy because i t departed s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the t r a d i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r i f i c approach. Although i t has been ascribed to Sapir and Whorf i t appears to draw from the philosophy of Neo-Humboldtians of Europe, such as Ernst Cassirer (Diebold, 1965, p.260). The Whorfian viewpoint (Whorf, 1956) i s that the language of a culture sets l i m i t s on the perceptions and con-ceptions of a l i n g u i s t i c community. Therefore, i f the speaker of one language has a l i n g u i s t i c category of objects available i n his language,which no other language community has, these objects are l i k e l y to be viewed d i f f e r e n t l y . This thesis has considerable implications for those who speculate on the eff e c t s of bilingualism and multilingualism on cognition. As indicated by Haugen (19 56) and A l a t i s (19 70), i t seems true for some b i -linguals that a person's perception of the world varies with the language that person speaks. Fearing (1954) thinks that t h i s strong form of the Whorf hypothesis tends to overemphasise the way i n which language shapes thought and neglects the prominent role of thought i n shaping language. Whorf (1956) has also postulated a causal r e l a t i o n -ship between language and cognitive structure. Picture a 17. c h i l d who has t o l e a r n to d i s c r i m i n a t e between the c o l o u r s ''red'1 and green" . The red b l o c k s which he has are used to b u i l d barns, the green b l o c k s to b u i l d houses. The c h i l d i s unable t o p l a c e the b l o c k s c o r r e c t l y u n l e s s v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s i n v o l v e d . In b u i l d i n g barns and houses t h i s c h i l d i s l e a r n i n g t o p e r c e i v e c o l o u r for "green" r e p r e s e n t s a c a t e g o r y . More i m p o r t a n t l y , the c o l o u r words are being used as symbols i n a p a r t i c u l a r frame o f r e f e r e n c e . Therefore language can cause c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r i t d e a l s w i t h experience by c a t e g o r i s i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Roger Brown (19 58) opposes the strong form of the Whorf-Sapir hypothesis t h a t language determines thought. He has suggested a weaker form of t h a t h y p o t h e s i s . T h i s i n t i m a t e s t h a t language does p r o v i d e a c e r t a i n p r e -d i s p o s i t i o n t o modes of t h i n k i n g . V a r i o u s experimental s t u d i e s l e n d support to Brown's c o n t e n t i o n (Brown & Lenne-berg, 1954, 1958; Lantz & S t e f f l r e , 1964) . Brown (1976) h i m s e l f remarks: The f a s c i n a t i n g i r o n y of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t h a t i t began i n a s p i r i t of strong r e l a t i v i s m and l i n g u i s t i c determinism and has come to a p o s i t i o n of c u l t u r a l u n i v e r s a l i s m and l i n g u i s t i c i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . R e f e r e n t i a l F u n c t i o n of Language The problem of ^ r e f e r e n c e " r e f e r r e d to p r e v i o u s l y , t h a t i s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between "word" and " o b j e c t " , 18. and i t s r o l e i n c o g n i t i o n has not come about r e c e n t l y . Otto Marx (1967) has i n d i c a t e d t h a t e a r l y Greek p h i l o s o -phers were j u s t as concerned as present-day r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h the "naming" aspect of language. One of the e a r l i e s t experimental i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the nature of the word-object r e l a t i o n s h i p has been done by Lenneberg (1967). He attempted to i d e n t i f y the "behaviour" of words by using the c o l o u r space which he d e f i n e d as the e n t i r e u n i v e r s e of c o l o u r p o s s i b l e . Thus he was able t o look a t the way i n which c o l o u r words of any p a r t i c u l a r language mapped onto t h i s c o l o u r space. Many other experiments i n v o l v i n g c o l o u r naming and c o g n i t i o n have a l s o been conducted (Lantz & S t e f f l r e , 1964; B e i l i n & Kay, 1969) . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t i d e n t i c a l p e r c e p t i o n s of c o l o u r can be p l a c e d i n d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s depending on the language of the p e r c e i v e r . Languages va r y i n t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n of a s p e c t s of c o l o u r such as hue, b r i g h t n e s s and even spectrum. For e.g. both E n g l i s h and French have words f o r c o l o u r p e r c e i v e d as "brown" (F. brun). But, i n French the words "brown paper" ( g r i s ) and "brown bread' 1 (cassonade) have separate d e s c r i p t i v e l a b e l s from other brown o b j e c t s . T h i s suggests t h a t they are not r e a l l y p e r c e i v e d as being "brown" (Fox, 1973) and so i t would appear t h a t the way a r e f e r e n t i s communicated i n a language community i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the way t h a t 19. community p e r c e i v e s and conceives of t h a t r e f e r e n t . Olson (1970) has an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the f u n c t i o n o f r e f e r e n c e i n language use. He claims t h a t the ch o i c e of words t h a t a speaker makes does not r e s u l t from l i n g u i s t i c and semantic r e s t r i c t i o n s but from the knowledge t h a t the speaker has of those r e f e r e n t s . A s i n g l e word may be symbolised by many r e f e r e n t s (Olson, 1970, p.258). A word i s not o n l y p a r t of a r e f e r e n t . The r e l a t i o n between the word and the o b j e c t has to be more complex than mere l a b e l l i n g . Meaning (reference) mediates between word, s i g n , p e r c e p t , code and the o b j e c t , event or r e f e r e n t . T h i s i s i n accord w i t h the Ogden & Richards' (1923) con-c e p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n between words and r e f e r e n t s . I f words do not merely name t h i n g s , or name r e f e r e n t s , , then " t h e r e ' s more i n f o r m a t i o n i n an ut t e r a n c e than i n the p e r c e p t i o n of an event out of contex t " (Olson, 1970, p.265). The speaker expresses what i s p e r c e p t u a l f o r him. For the l i s t e n e r , t h i s i s r e c e i v e d as i n f o r m a t i o n about the r e f e r e n t and i t s s e t of a l t e r n a t i v e s . For example, a c h i l d h e a r i n g the teacher u t t e r the f o l l o w i n g sentence: "A q u a d r i l a t e r a l i s a f o u r - s i d e d f i g u r e " knows from t h a t sentence what a q u a d r i l a t e r a l i s and what a : q u a d r i l a t e r a l i s not. The knowledge of the word " q u a d r i l a t e r a l " and i t s meaning become c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to i t s " f o u r - s i d e d n e s s " . T h i s has s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r concept t e a c h i n g i n s c i e n c e . 20. Nelson (1973) expands the n o t i o n of r e f e r e n c e f u r t h e r by making a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between words i n the presyntax v o c a b u l a r i e s of c h i l d r e n t h a t do and do not r e f e r t o o b j e c t s . She c a t e g o r i s e s words i n t o " r e -f e r e n t i a l 1 1 words and " e x p r e s s i v e " words. The former are g e n e r a l l y nouns and the l a t t e r a l l other words used. Although t h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g Bloom and Lahey (1978) express d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s f i n d i n g d e f i n i t i v e l y on account of the nature of Nelson's r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . Maybe Nelson's study has value i n so f a r as i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t c h i l d r e n do not use r e f e r e n t i a l words ex-c l u s i v e l y i n o r a l communication. V e r b a l M e d i a t i o n of Thought The importance of language i n shaping thought through a mediating f u n c t i o n has r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n from p s y c h o l o g i s t s who a s c r i b e t o the p a s s i v e s t i m u l u s - r e s -ponse model of behaviour (Kendler, 1963; S p i k e r , 1963). F l o r e s (1966) has d e s c r i b e d a mediator as being r e g u l a r l y d e f i n e d i n terms of g e n e r a t i v e i n t e r m e d i a r y responses to s t i m u l a t i o n s which se t o f f an observable response through a s s o c i a t i v e pathways p.5). Acc o r d i n g t o F l a v e l l (1966, c i t e d i n Oleron, 1977, p.53) who has conducted s t u d i e s on v e r b a l m e d i a t i o n "the use of med i a t i o n appears t o be a s t r a t e g y employed by a s u b j e c t t o s o l v e the problem presented". I f necessary " t h i n k i n g " 21. can be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r ''mediation" . Bryant (1967) has done s i m i l a r experiments w i t h m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n who are normally c o n s i d e r e d handicapped i n . the number of v e r b a l connections they can make spontaneously. He found t h a t , when f o r c e d t o v e r b a l i z e , these s u b j e c t s e x h i b i t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence i n performance on r e c o g n i t i o n experiments from t h a t of normal s u b j e c t s . These r e s u l t s , Cromer (1976) con-tends, may not n e c e s s a r i l y accrue from the mediating p r o p e r t i e s of v e r b a l i z a t i o n . They may r e s u l t s o l e l y on account of the a t t e n t i o n - f o c u s s i n g p r o p e r t y of the v e r b a l l a b e l s used. In any event, t h i s study and o t h e r s l i k e i t may be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t v e r b a l i z a t i o n and language f a c i l i t a t e performance on c e r t a i n t a s k s . Vygotsky's P e r s p e c t i v e Vygotsky's ideas on concepts and language r e f l e c t h i s d i s c o n t e n t w i t h stimulus-response theory as a b a s i s f o r experimental work i n c o g n i t i o n . Vygotsky (1962) examined concept development through the process of m e d i a t i o n and then made the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n " e x p l a i n " the names of o b j e c t s by t h e i r a t t r i b u t e s . Any switch i n names n e c e s s i t a t e s a corresponding exchange i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of the o b j e c t embedded i n the c h i l d ' s mind. Thus "the s t r u c t u r e of speech does not m i r r o r c o n c e p t u a l thought, and grammar precedes l o g i c " . P h i l l i p s (1977)- claims t h a t the stages of develop-ment of concepts used by Vygotsky have been borrowed i n p a r t from P i a g e t and Claparede; and bear a remarkable resemblance t o I n h e l d e r ' s r e c e n t d e s c r i p t i o n of th e s e . A c c o r d i n g t o Vygotsky (1962), the process of concept formation begins f o r the c h i l d when he has to group a number of o b j e c t s i n order t o solve a problem which the a d u l t mind w i l l encounter by forming a new concept. The c h i l d regroups h i s knowledge by a process of t r i a l and e r r o r , "mistaking" h i s s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r r e a l c o n n e c t i o n s . T h i s r e s u l t s i n h i s s y n c r e t i c thought. T h i s s y n c r e t i s m a l l o w s the c h i l d t o c a s t a s i d e l a t e r h i s supposed ignorance, and group t h i n g s a c c o r d i n g to the bonds t h a t a c t u a l l y e x i s t . T h e r e f o r e word meanings c o n s t a n t l y change with the c h i l d ' s development and h i s a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e . A t a time when b e h a v i o r i s t s were p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r experimental framework f o r viewing concept development, Vygotsky's theory p r o v i d e d a v i a b l e and c o n t r o v e r s i a l a l t e r n a t i v e . Concept formation i s a process i n which a l l elementary mental f u n c t i o n s p a r t i c i p a t e i n s p e c i f i c combinations.... The development i s f u r t h e r e d and guided by the use of words as the means of a c t i v e l y c e n t e r i n g a t t e n t i o n , of a b s t r a c t i n g c e r t a i n t r a i t s , s y n t h e s i s i n g them, and symbolising them by a s i g n ( P h i l l i p s , 1977, p.38). 23. Vygotsky's theory has tremendous i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h i s study s i n c e i t p r o v i d e s a f i r m r a t i o n a l e f o r study-ing the development of s c i e n t i f i c concepts and uncover-i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n s t r u c t i o n language and the development of s c i e n t i f i c concepts. I n f l u e n c e of C o g n i t i o n on Language P i a g e t ' s P e r s p e c t i v e ' P i a g e t ' s work i n t h i s area i s well-known. In t h i s s e c t i o n some of the aspects of h i s work which p e r t a i n 3 d i r e c t l y t o t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be o u t l i n e d . In h i s theory of language and thought i n the c h i l d as expressed i n h i s book by the same name, P i a g e t (1924)makes the b a s i c assumption t h a t there i s a d i r e c t l i n k between language and thought which i s not thought t o be independent of language. I t s e q u i v a l e n t i s v e r b a l thought. L a t e r on i n 19 63, P i a g e t expresses h i s p o s i t i o n on language and thought more c l e a r l y . "Language i s . . . . a necessary but not s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s (Piaget, 1964, p.113) In order t o support h i s o p i n i o n t h a t language i s not a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n he a s s e r t s t h a t language i s inadequate f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n of complete o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s ( P i a g e t , 1963, p.58). By a n a l y s i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g of c h i l d r e n he has hypothesised t h a t o p e r a t i o n a l thought develops from a c t i v i t y and thus i n f l u e n c e s language 24. development: "The s t r u c t u r e s (of thought) are r o o t e d i n a c t i o n and i n sensori-motor mechanisms more b a s i c than l i n g u i s t i c f u n c t i o n i n g (p. 112). However, as the thought s t r u c t u r e s become e l a b o r a t e d , e l a b o r a t i o n of language a l s o becomes necessary. Language i s a necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r formal o p e r a t i o n a l thought as these s t r u c t u r e s are not s o l e l y "rooted i n a c t i o n " . For the complicated p r o p o s i t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n s of formal l o g i c , l a n g u a g e i s r e q u i r e d . More r e c e n t work ( F e r r e i r o , 1971; S i n c l a i r de Zwart, 1967) done a t Geneva have prompted P i a g e t to f u r t h e r r e f i n e h i s p e r s p e c t i v e on language and thought. In the p r e f a c e t o F e r r e i r o ' s work he says t h a t v e r b a l output i s dependent upon o p e r a t i o n s : In t h i s case, o p e r a t i o n s would assume an a c t i v e but e x t e r n a l r o l e i n l i n g u i s t i c p r o g r e s s . . . g e n u i n e l y l i n g u i s t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s are o n l y r e f l e c t i o n s of the l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s which produced them ( F e r r e i r o , 1971). Oler.on (1977) i n reviewing P i a g e t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h i s r e s p e c t a f f i r m s t h a t throughout h i s work P i a g e t has p r o v i d e d a number of arguments which d i s c a r d the n e c e s s i t y of language f o r c o g n i t i v e development. His i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n on the n e c e s s i t y of language f o r thought must have been a "straw man". 25. F i r s t Language A c q u i s i t i o n and C o g n i t i o n The e a r l y grammars of c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g d i f f e r e n t languages are q u i t e s i m i l a r . Chomsky (1965) has proposed the e x i s t e n c e of deep s t r u c t u r a l language u n i v e r s a l s . M c N e i l l (1966) contends t h a t t h e r e i s a "language a c q u i s i t i o n d e v i c e " f u n c t i o n i n g i n c h i l d language de-velopment. These statements lend c o n s i d e r a b l e support t o the hypothesis t h a t development of language i n the human i s i n n a t e . P i a g e t (Ginsburg and Gpper, 1969) has proposed another dimension along which language might develop, t h a t i s , the development of symbolic f u n c t i o n . On the b a s i s of h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s of c h i l d p l a y and i m i t a t i o n he has suggested the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e stages: 1) A pre-symbolic stage. 2) A symbolic stage: the c h i l d uses symbols which have on l y p e r s o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 3) A f u r t h e r stage i n which s i g n s are used. These symbols are a r b i t r a r y but they may be used by the c h i l d t o denote what they r e a l l y s i g n i f y . Thus language i s envisaged as the development of an e x t e r n a l agent i n the c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p i n g thought t h a t i s able t o serve h i s own needs by c o n v e r t i n g h i s own symbols i n t o s o c i e t a l meanings. T h i s suggests t h a t u n l e s s teachers begin w i t h the c h i l d ' s own s t r u c t u r e the teacher's a d u l t language i s l i k e l y t o cause c o n f u s i o n to the c h i l d l e a d -i n g him t o v e r b a l i s e a concept which he does not r e a l l y understand. Vygotsky's (1962) view of f i r s t language a c q u i s i t i o n c h a l l e n g e s the v a l i d i t y of the l a s t statement f o r he a l l u d e s t h a t words have some g e n e r a l vague meaning f o r c h i l d r e n even before they can speak. Language helps s c u l p t t h e i r thought and so, p r e s e n t i n g concepts i n the a d u l t way should a s s i s t the c h i l d ' s spontaneous concepts to become org a n i z e d i n an a d u l t l o g i c a l f a s h i o n . I t appears t h a t teachers should be c a r e f u l about use of t h e i r own language s t r u c t u r e i n the classroom s i n c e they may be i n a d v e r t e n t l y f o s t e r i n g misconceptions or p o s t -poning concept a c q u i s i t i o n . Meaning and C o g n i t i o n Determination of word meaning or r e f e r e n c e i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t task f o r a young c h i l d . P i a g e t (1959) suggests t h a t language i s o n l y one of the many systems developing i n the young c h i l d . I t i s n e i t h e r a t o o l of thought (Vygotsky, 1962) nor a s c u l p t o r of per-c e p t i o n (Whorf, 1956) . Language development f o l l o w s c o g n i t i v e development. T h i s causes one to r e f l e c t on whether t h e r e would be any s p e c i a l consequences f o r the d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d who attempts to f u n c t i o n i n more than one language. Ben Zeev (1972) agrees t h a t f o r the b i -l i n g u a l c h i l d the conceptual c o n f l i c t which P i a g e t says a c t s as a t r i g g e r t o the process of accommodation i s i n -creased, and so c o g n i t i v e development may be enhanced. For the c h i l d j u s t l e a r n i n g t o f u n c t i o n i n another language, the second language being a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d system of symbols, language development and development of a p p r o p r i a t e new c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s may not be synchronous. T a y l o r (1974) p r e d i c t s t h a t i t would be e a s i e r to l e a r n a second language together w i t h the f i r s t than l a t e r on. T h i s i s because i t i s d i f f i c u l t , she c l a i m s , "to d i f f e r e n t i a t e an a l r e a d y developed c o g n i t i v e network i n t o two r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t ones s i n c e new l a b e l s and s y n t a c t i c processes would have t o be b u i l t i n t o the network where p e r f e c t l y s a t i s f a c t o r y ones a l r e a d y e x i s t " ( T a y l o r , 1974, p.119). Thus young c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g t h e i r f i r s t language w i l l be expected to have l e s s d i f f i c u l t y a c q u i r i n g a second language than those who have a l r e a d y mastered the f i r s t . T a y l o r i s here r e f e r r i n g t o p r e s c h o o l e r s . T h i s theory may have f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s but more r e s e a r c h i s needed to determine whether i t holds t r u e f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n , or whether some concepts are l e a r n e d more e a s i l y than o t h e r s , and the c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h ' t h i s l e a r n i n g may occur. Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n , and C o g n i t i o n Recent s t u d i e s i n the area of f i r s t language a c q u i s i t i o n (Brown,. 1973; Cazden, 1972; S l o b i n , 1971) have prompted a r e t h i n k i n g of t h e o r i e s of second language a c q u i s i t i o n . Hatch and Wagner-Gough (1975) have shown that the second language learner patterns are b a s i c a l l y similar i n natural situations to that of f i r s t language development. Ervin-Tripp (1974) found that children over-generalised i n French as a second language i n much the same way as they did i n t h e i r f i r s t language, English Dulay and Burt (1972; 1974) detected i n t h e i r work with Chinese-speaking and Spanish-speaking children that both groups when exposed to speech of t h e i r English-speaking peers, acquired the same "words" i n the same order. This finding implies universal language processing strategies. Wode (1976) suggested that uniformity of strategy i s l i k e l y i f second language a c q u i s i t i o n pro-ceeds according to s p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s . However he has not s p e c i f i e d the nature of these p r i n c i p l e s or t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n . BILINGUALISM Bilingualism and Cognition Researchers have been investigating the influence of bilingualism on cognition since the beginning of t h i s century. Early studies sought to determine whether or not bilingualism affected performance on standardised tests of general mental a b i l i t y . Lambert (1977) reports that the majority of these older studies indicated that i n -t e l l i g e n c e was adversely affected by the presence of b i l i n g u a l i s m , . B i l i n g u a l students were r e p o r t e d as being slow at s c h o o l and s o c i a l l y i n s e c u r e . Lambert h i m s e l f (p.15) has questioned the r e l i a b i l i t y of such f i n d i n g s on the b a s i s of t h e i r l a c k of adequately r i g o r o u s con-t r o l s . H i s own work, done more r e c e n t l y (Lambert & A n i s f i e l d , 1969) has produced s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t s which suggest t h a t b i l i n g u a l s have a "more d i v e r s i f i e d s t r u c t u r e of i n -t e l l i g e n c e , as measured, and more f l e x i b i l i t y i n thought" (p.16). A number of well-conducted r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s done l a t e r on (Ben: Zeev, 1972; Gowan; Ianco-Worrall, 1972; Torrance; Wu & A l i o t t i , 1970) o f f e r strong support to Lambert's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t b i l i n g u a l i s m enhances f l e x i b i l i t y of thought. I t i s important t o note t h a t i n a l l of the above cases, b i l i n g u a l i s m r e f e r s to what Lambert (1977) c a l l s , the " a d d i t i v e " form of b i l i n g u a l i s m i n which a "second s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t language i s added to one's r e p e r t o r y of s k i l l s " ...such as, French being added t o E n g l i s h f o r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Canadian c h i l d r e n . These r e s u l t s then may not n e c e s s a r i l y apply t o the more " s u b t r a c t i v e " form of b i l i n g u a l i s m i n which an e t h n i c m i n o r i t y group i s s u b t l y prompted to r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r f i r s t language through s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s or n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . 30. The Non-Fluent B i l i n g u a l Segalowitz and Gatbonton (1977) define the non-fluent b i l i n g u a l as the second-language user who possesses s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l with a language for successful basic communication but who nevertheless i s perceived by others and by himself as not possessing n a t i v e l i k e control of the language (p.77). Their work with second-language users has d i r e c t beaming on t h i s study. Following on studies done by others (Gumperz, 1972; Hymes, 1971; Labov, 1970) with monolinguals, Segalowitz and Gatbonton decided to investigate the speech patterns of second-language users with varying lev e l s of prof i c i e n c y . They hoped to determine whether a population of second-language users did "constitute the shared code of a speech community". They hypothesised that the number and v a r i -a b i l i t y of nonnativelike elements and structures i n the speech of non-fluent b i l i n g u a l s would depend on how much s k i l l they possessed with the second language. By looking at "correct" versus "incorrect" pro-nunciation of language sounds, they were able to: "describe some of the speech patterns of a second-language-using population i n a way that includes the speech of a l l members of that group regardless of t h e i r l e v e l of proficiency" (Segalowitz & Gatbonton, 1977, p.82). 31. What i s of consequence f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t they were able t o r e l a t e l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a t i o n t o language development s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . They used f o r t h e i r s t u d i e s a sample of French-Canadian males who spoke E n g l i s h . R e p l i c a t i o n of t h e i r study with b i l i n g u a l p o p u l a t i o n s v a r y i n g i n language and c u l t u r a l background may l e a d t o f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of second-language a c q u i s i t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c o g n i t i o n . B i l i n g u a l i s m and E d u c a t i o n More and more c h i l d r e n i n immigrant p o p u l a t i o n s throughout the world are being educated i n second and even t h i r d languages. Consequently, i t has become necessary f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and educators to c o n t i n u a l l y r e c o n s i d e r p o l i c y on the r o l e of language i n e d u c a t i o n . Furthermore, the common-sense view t h a t language of i n s t r u c t i o n p l a y s a v a l u a b l e r o l e i n e d u c a t i o n , and the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p p e r c e i v e d between v e r b a l f u n c t i o n and measured i n t e l l i g e n c e , suggests t h a t i s s u e s of b i l i n g u a l i s m should be of g r e a t concern t o educators i n elementary s c h o o l s . A r e c e n t assessment of E n g l i s h Language A r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia has i n d i c a t e d t h a t : dramatic s h i f t s i n performance a l s o accompanied changes i n v a r i a b l e s con-cerned with p l a c e of b i r t h (Canadian/non Canadian) and language spoken a t home (Evanechko <it ai, 1976, p. 16 ). Students who performed b e s t on assessment tests were those born i n Canada who spoke E n g l i s h a t home. Those who were E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g but not Canadians by b i r t h were next b e s t . Those students who were not born i n Canada who spoke a language other than E n g l i s h at home, scored " s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than average f o r the P r o v i n c e " . However, the longer such students had l i v e d i n Canada the b e t t e r t h e i r scores appeared t o be. Such r e s u l t s tend to i n d i c a t e t h a t students who speak E n g l i s h as a Second Language need s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n order t o understand and a c q u i r e those s c i e n t i f i c con-c e p t s , p r i n c i p l e s and problems encountered a t s c h o o l i n a n a t i v e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g m i l i e u . The problem of pro-v i d i n g s p e c i a l academic a s s i s t a n c e f o r these c h i l d r e n a t scho o l i s a c r u c i a l one f o r c u r r i c u l u m developers and teache r s e s p e c i a l l y . Summary The s t u d i e s reviewed i n t h i s chapter have been s e l e c t e d t o provide the g e n e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f t h i s study. They should h e l p c l a r i f y t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i t p r o v i d e s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c problem i n i t s edu-c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . In l a y i n g a found a t i o n f o r the intended problem the o p i n i o n s and s t u d i e s of many r e s e a r c h e r s have been presented i n t h i s chapter w i t h emphasis on the lowing p o i n t s of/ i n t e r e s t . 1) The c r u c i a l r o l e p l a y e d i n e a r l y en-vironment i n language development and c o g n i t i v e development. 2) The i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of c o g n i t i v e processes w i t h language p r o c e s s e s . 3) The n e c e s s i t y of v e r b a l i s a t i o n i n concept development. 4) The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the naming process i n o r a l language. 5) The use of the c h i l d ' s words as a v a l i d index of language and concept development. 6) The e f f e c t of b i l i n g u a l i s m on i n t e l l e c t u a l growth. 34 . CHAPTER THREE METHODS OF.COLLECTING AND TREATING DATA INTRODUCTION The i n t e n t of t h i s study i s t o c o l l e c t i d e a s t h a t Grade Four E n g l i s h Language and E n g l i s h Second Language Users have about the L i f e - C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e , and t o analyse the o r a l language each group uses t o express these i d e a s . Any study which i n v o l v e s a comparison of language i n c h i l d r e n , whether c r o s s - c u l t u r a l , l o n g i t u d i n a l or otherwise n e c e s s i t a t e s s e t t i n g up of a s i t u a t i o n i n which the r e s e a r c h e r can o b t a i n observable and measurable records of the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o use o r a l language. T h i s means t h a t the s e t t i n g and technique of i n v e s t i g a t i o n should s i m u l a t e , as f a r as i s p r a c t i c a b l e , the environment w i t h i n which the c h i l d u s u a l l y f u n c t i o n s n a t u r a l l y and comfortably. The c h a p t e r w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . In the f i r s t p a r t there w i l l be a summary of the s t r a t i f i e d sampling techniques used f o r sample s e l e c t i o n along w i t h the c l i n i c a l i n t e r v i e w procedure and p r o t o c o l s . T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by an o u t l i n e o f the intended manner of t r e a t i n g the data c o l l e c t e d , both concept a n a l y s i s and language a n a l y s i s . PREPARATION FOR DATA COLLECTION P i l o t S t u d i e s There were two p i l o t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s done so as to determine how a p p r o p r i a t e the sample p r o t o c o l s were f o r probin g the r e s e a r c h problem. S i x c h i l d r e n o f v a r y i n g language background and academic a b i l i t y were i n f o r m a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d about I n s e c t L i f e C y c l e s . As a r e s u l t the content and procedure f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g was m o d i f i e d a c c o r d i n g l y . Grade Four students were c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the f i n a l sample and another p i l o t study was undertaken. T h i s time the i n t e r v i e w e r spoke t o each of t e n Grade Four students a t Our Lady of P e r p e t u a l Help S c h o o l . These i n t e r v i e w s were audiotaped, t r a n s c r i b e d and a n a l y s e d . As a r e s u l t , the f i n a l form of p r o t o c o l s and m a t e r i a l s was:, assembled f o r the major i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n which gross s t r u c t u r a l components of the c h i l d ' s o r a l language would be analysed, i n the terms of the concepts expressed. DATA COLLECTION. School S e l e c t i o n S t r a t i f i e d sampling was used t o o b t a i n twenty-four students from Grade Four c l a s s e s of three elementary s c h o o l s i n Vancouver. B r i t a n n i a , Moberley and Strathcona 2 Elementary Schools were s e l e c t e d mainly because each had a s i g n i f i c a n t p o p u l a t i o n of E n g l i s h Second Language Users. A l s o , these schools were c l o s e enough to UBC to make t r a n s f e r of m a t e r i a l s and equipment convenient f o r i n t e r v i e w s at each s c h o o l d u r i n g school hours. Sample S e l e c t i o n A f t e r o b t a i n i n g the p e r m i s s i o n of the Vancouver School Board, the i n t e r v i e w e r c o n t a c t e d the Grade Four te a c h e r s of the schools i n v o l v e d and arranged to s e l e c t a sample from each s c h o o l by t e s t i n g . P a r t I of the Hidden F i g u r e s Test (See Appendix- F) , was administered by the i n t e r v i e w e r h e r s e l f to each of 16 2 students i n Grade Four c l a s s e s at the t h r e e s c h o o l s . I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s non-verbal group measure was a p p r o p r i a t e s i n c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of i t should help m a i n t a i n u n i f o r m i t y i n the chosen sample, w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o g n i t i v e development. Although the l i t e r a t u r e does not bear strong evidence of causation,' there i s some i n d i c a t i o n of c o r r e l a t i o n ; i n t h a t performance on p e r c e p t u a l t e s t s of t h i s nature ,is c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o l e v e l and of conceptual development (Witkin , 1975) . The completed t e s t s were coded a c c o r d i n g to s c h o o l , c l a s s , sex and language of the s u b j e c t . T e s t s were scored a l l o w i n g one p o i n t f o r each c o r r e c t item. The t o t a l number of p o s s i b l e c o r r e c t items was s i x t e e n . Subjects o b t a i n i n g l e s s than e i g h t p o i n t s were excluded from the sample. A t a b l e o f random numbers was then used to s e l e c t from t h a t group e i g h t s u b j e c t s , four w i t h E n g l i s h as a Primary Language and four with E n g l i s h as a Second Language, from each o f the three s c h o o l s . T h i s p r o v i d e d a f i n a l sample of twenty-four s u b j e c t s , twelve E n g l i s h Primary Language Users and twelve E n g l i s h Second Language Users. The Subjects The f i n a l group of p a r t i c i p a n t s was drawn from: 1) two a d j a c e n t Grade Four c l a s s e s a t B r i t a n n i a 2) the Open Area and one s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s a t Moberley Elementary, and, 3) two separate classrooms a t S t r a t h c o n a . These boys and g i r l s ranged i n age from nine years, f i v e months o l d to e l e v e n years, e i g h t months of age. The three p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers v a r i e d i n age, sex, years of t e a c h -i n g experience and e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . Rigorous sampling procedures were used to ensure s e l e c t i o n of a sample without any p a r t i c u l a r l y s ystematic b i a s . However the i n t e r v i e w e r thought i t necessary t h a t s u b j e c t s possessed c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common. I t was thought t h a t the l e v e l of E n g l i s h usage of the average Grade Four student i n Vancouver was s u f f i c i e n t to ensure t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d understand and respond to 3 i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s . For t h i s reason, no "new immigrants" were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study. 38. I t was important t h a t the s u b j e c t s be able to t h i n k somewhat " l o g i c a l l y " / t h a t i s , the s u b j e c t should not have 4 t o r e l y completely on concrete o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . A l s o , none of the students should have been taught a t 5 school about the L i f e C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e . In t h i s way i t would be more l i k e l y t h a t the ideas ex-pressed d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w would i n d i c a t e t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t what the students f e l t and thought about the t o p i c than what they had p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d about i t . T h i s i s a k i n t o the " t a b u l a r a s a " , as i t were, which the average elementary teacher encounters i n her s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s . The Interview Schedule Interviews were conducted a t the three r e s p e c t i v e s c h o o l s . i n rooms s e t a s i d e from the g e n e r a l run of the s c h o o l . Each s u b j e c t was i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y on two o c c a s i o n s . The one i n t e r v i e w c a l l e d the V e r b a l C o n d i t i o n c o n s i s t e d of an o r a l d i s c u s s i o n between the i n t e r v i e w e r and s u b j e c t w i t h r e g a r d to twelve que s t i o n s on the L i f e -C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e . The other i n t e r v i e w con-s i s t e d a l s o of an o r a l d i s c u s s i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the same qu e s t i o n s as before but i n t h i s case the s u b j e c t c o u l d ex-amine and manipulate the l i v e specimens present i n order t o respond. The order of i n t e r v i e w s was randomized f o r the groups so as to minimize order e f f e c t s . See Appendix A ). In a d d i t i o n , .to minimise e f f e c t s of/ r e c a l l the two i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s f o r each c h i l d were conducted two weeks a p a r t . Both V e r b a l and V e r b a l M a n i p u l a t i v e i n t e r v i e w s were audio and v i d e o t a p e d . T h i s was done as u n o b t r u s i v e l y as p o s s i b l e by a t e c h n i c i a n , i n the same room as the i n -t e r v i e w e r and the s u b j e c t . I t was f e l t t h a t both v e r b a l and v e r b a l m a n i p u l a t i v e c o n d i t i o n s were necessary as these r e p r e s e n t the two main " e d u c a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s " used by s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s i n elementary s c h o o l . B e s i d e s , the m e r i t of the one s t r a t e g y over the other has been the s u b j e c t of c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y i n the l i t e r a t u r e of s c i e n c e t e a c h -ing ( C r a i g , 1971; Hawkins, 1965) . Interview Technique To analyse c h i l d r e n ' s language without formal s t a n d a r d i s e d t e s t s suggests s e t t i n g up a comfortable i n -formal s i t u a t i o n i n which the c h i l d i s a b l e to produce language spontaneously and t h i s language i s r e c o r d e d . The problem with t h i s approach i s t h a t an extremely l a r g e volume of data i s c o l l e c t e d but the s i t u a t i o n or context f o r language use v a r i e s a l l the time making subsequent a n a l y s i s d i f f i c u l t . Another approach would be t o e l i c i t the language of the c h i l d i n a p a r t i c u l a r context by q u e s t i o n i n g . T h i s has been employed i n t h i s study because i t i s more p r a c t i c a l and r e l e v a n t to the nature of the r e s e a r c h problem. 40. I t f o l l o w s , though, t h a t other f a c t o r s become c r u c i a l , namely, the type of q u e s t i o n asked, how i t i s asked and the r o l e of the person asking such q u e s t i o n s . The i n t e r v i e w technique used here d e r i v e s e s s e n t i a l l y from P i a g e t ' s ( 1 9 6 9 ) " c l i n i c a l method". However the i n -t e r v i e w i t s e l f tended t o be somewhat more s t r u c t u r e d . The i n t e r v i e w e r requested i n f o r m a t i o n on twelve s p e c i f i c aspects of the L i f e - C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e (See Appendix C ). These ques t i o n s were asked of each student i n the manner and the time p e r m i t t e d by n a t u r a l flow of c o n v e r s a t i o n . I t was e s s e n t i a l t h a t the i n t e r v i e w e r probe each response to get a t the c h i l d ' s reasoning process or to h e l p focus a t t e n t i o n on the task at hand. The i n t e r v i e w e r had t o be c a r e f u l t o pose open-ended qu e s t i o n s using the c h i l d ' s own words. Interviews were conducted a c c o r d i n g t o the "General G u i d e l i n e s f o r I n t e r -views" summarised by Witz and Goodwin (19 70). T h i s meant t h a t i t was necessary t o "encourage v e r b a l output" by asking f o r e x p l a n a t i o n s , to a v o i d asking q u e s t i o n s t h a t p e r m i t t e d yes-or-no answers, and to provoke "the c h i l d ' s own summaries and g e n e r a l statements" ) p . 2 ) . F r e q u e n t l y the i n t e r v i e w e r made s h o r t notes on the responsiveness o f s u b j e c t s d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . TREATMENT' OF DATA The data c o l l e c t e d was t r a n s c r i b e d and analysed i n two s t e p s . F i r s t a concept a n a l y s i s was done. The purpose 41. TABbE' 3.1 F L O W C H A R T O F P R O C E D U R E S F O R A N A L Y S I S O F I N T E R V I E W D A T A T r a n s c r i p t i o n : of tapes. Concept A n a l y s i s : 1. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Conceptual Patterns 2. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Subject by Conceptual Pattern _3. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Response Mode Segmentation of t r a n s c r i p t s Coding of C-Units and M-Units viz-Coding Word Count f o r C-Uni ts and M-Units Coding nouns, verbs , adjec t ives and adverbs i n C-Uni ts per l i s t s of words and m o d i f i e r s Computer Processing using SPSS CROSSTABS I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Key Words and M o d i f i e r s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of words and Modifers L i s t of D e s c r i p t i v e I n f e r e n t i a l M o d i f i e r s L i s t of nouns, verbs , a d j e c t i v e s , adverbs Summary and Interpre ta t ion of Data Sheets produced by above Computer Program of t h i s was to i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c ideas and response mode of the s u b j e c t s . Then'the o r a l language content a n a l y s i s was made t o i n d i c a t e what words each s u b j e c t used to express the n o t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the concept. These two methods of a n a l y s i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y here. Concept A n a l y s i s What matters i n t h i s study i s not the mere i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n of the n o t i o n s h e l d by the s u b j e c t s on the L i f e C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e . What i s even more important i s f i n d i n g a means of uncovering the r a t i o n a l e which the c h i l d r e n themselves o f f e r f o r having such i d e a s . T h i s i n -formation i s necessary i n order to present as complete a p i c t u r e as p o s s i b l e of " t h e i r way o f l o o k i n g a t t h i n g s " . I t i s t h i s s o r t of knowledge which w i l l c o n s t i t u t e an e f f e c t i v e s t a r t i n g - p o i n t f o r classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . There have been a number of techniques proposed i n the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e f o r a n a l y s i n g i n t e r v i e w data to e x t r a c t u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n s of c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n ( E r i c k s o n , 1975). Many of these apply to developmental s t u d i e s of concept formation or a c q u i s i t i o n . P i a g e t ' s method has aroused c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y . Instead of u s i n g an e x p l i c i t s ystematic form of a n a l y s i s , he has attempted i n h i s way, t o g l e a n , i n a s u b j e c t i v e sense the way h i s s u b j e c t s come t o t h i n k about a t o p i c a t v a r i o u s stages of development* In attempting t o r e p l i c a t e some of h i s work other r e s e a r c h e r s have t r i e d t o use more s p e c i f i c and systematic procedures f o r a n a l y s i s (Goldsmid and B e n t l e r , 1968'; Khifong, 1971) . Other r e s e a r c h e r s ( F l a n d e r s , 1970; Smith 'ut al, 1970) have found i t u s e f u l and a p p r o p r i a t e to d e v i s e methods of segmenting a t r a n s c r i p t c o n v e n i e n t l y on the b a s i s of one or more d e f i n a b l e c r i t e r i a . Witz (1970) has proposed a w e l l -e l a b o r a t e d methodology f o r a n a l y s i n g c o n c e p t u a l frameworks. However most of these methods seem to imply, as t h a t of P i a g e t does, t h a t p r o v i d i n g the c h i l d w i t h the language necessary to d e a l w i t h the concept i s s u f f i c i e n t to en-hance i t s development. I t i s not a p p r o p r i a t e t o the problem under i n v e s t i -gation, t o t r e a t t h i s data i n the way of Khifong or Witz. What i s needed i s a means of t e a s i n g out the i n d i v i d u a l i d i o s y n c r a t i c v i ewpoints of each respondent and then s e a r c h -in g f o r p a t t e r n s of s i m i l a r i t y and v a r i a t i o n i n these. T h i s s o r t of "post hoc" a n a l y s i s draws e s s e n t i a l l y from P i a g e t ' s approach, except t h a t , whereas h i s s t u d i e s were mainly developmental and c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l i n nature, t h i s i s not the case here. T h i s sample i s assumed to be b a s i -c a l l y s i m i l a r i n age and o v e r a l l c o g n i t i v e development. In l o o k i n g a t the way c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study viewed the L i f e - C y c l e concept and used o r a l language to express these views, t h i s study i s attempting a l s o t o hypothesise the k i n d s of v e r b a l thought s t r a t e g i e s these c h i l d r e n use. These are s a i d (Tough, 1977) to i n c l u d e the " r e c o g n i t i o n of u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s and cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s " (p.55). I t i s not enough t h e r e f o r e to r e l y ex-c l u s i v e l y on a framework f o r r e f e r e n c e such as P i a g e t ' s which views language as the v e h i c l e of s y m b o l i s a t i o n (Inhelder and P i a g e t , 1964) . I t becomes necessary t o r e s o r t t o a t h e o r e t i c a l viewpoint which a s c r i b e s more meaning and f u n c t i o n to language. For t h i s reason, the i n t e r v i e w data was analysed a c c o r d i n g t o the system which Tough (1977) has used. Scoring.Content of Responses -A subject's response c o u l d be e i t h e r c o r r e c t or i n c o r r e c t . I t was c o r r e c t " i f the ideas embodied i n i t agreed i n p r i n c i p l e w i t h the n o t i o n s p r e v a l e n t i n t e x t s and f r e -q uently expressed by t e a c h e r s on the t o p i c . For example i n response to a q u e s t i o n such as: "Can you t e l l how I get eggs from young b e e t l e s " , a response which i n d i c a t e s t h a t "young" cannot reproduce u n t i l they are "mature" was scored correct.- The f o l l o w i n g response would be scored c o r r e c t . "No [because] t h i s stage i s a baby. A baby can't have eggs. I can get eggs from [the a d u l t ] . I can leave i t [the baby] and wait u n t i l they grow up and they get S c o r i n g Response Mode Perhaps more, important than' s c o r i n g content, was the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the mode of reasoning used by each sub-j e c t i n a r r i v i n g a t a p a r t i c u l a r response. A c c o r d i n g to Tough (1977, pp.134-140) c h i l d r e n ' s responses c o u l d f a l l i n t o any of three d i s t i n c t r e a s o n i n g , modes, namely E x p l a n a t o r y and Relevant, Pre-emptive,, and S y n c r e t i c 6 . An E x p l a n a t o r y and Relevant response i s one t h a t r e c o g n i s e s the problem posed, i d e n t i f i e s a c a u s a l and de-pendent r e l a t i o n s h i p and f u r t h e r p r o v i d e s a l o g i c a l ex-p l a n a t i o n t h a t i s r e l e v a n t to the problem. A Pre-Emptive e x p l a n a t i o n i s the s o r t of response i n which a c h i l d p r o -v i d e s a " n o n - s o l u t i o n " i n response t o a q u e s t i o n , e i t h e r because he has not r e c o g n i s e d the problem posed, or he has used an i n a p p r o p r i a t e r e a s o n i n g mode to e x p l a i n the problem. A S y n c r e t i c response i s the l e a s t " l o g i c a l " i n the a d u l t sense. Such a response i s e v i d e n t l y a judgement based on "dominant a t t r i b u t e s or p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s " . I t i s not exp l a n a t o r y i n na t u r e . O r a l Language A n a l y s i s Since the 1930's p s y c h o l o g i s t s have e x h i b i t e d con-s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n c h i l d r e n ' s language. As a r e s u l t , s e v e r a l r e c o g n i s e d measures are a v a i l a b l e f o r comparison of language i n d i f f e r e n t groups of c h i l d r e n . These have i n c l u d e d a n a l y s i s of vocabulary (O'Rourke, 1974), a s s e s s i n g 46. s y n t a c t i c and s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s of language f o r reme d i a t i o n ( C r y s t a l zt at, 19 76) and determining the mean l e n g t h of u t t e r a n c e s and frequency w i t h which c e r t a i n types o f words are used by c h i l d r e n (Hunt, 1965; Loban, 1967; Templin, 1957). Loban (1967) began a l o n g i t u d i n a l study i n 1957 which t r a c e d the stages and growth of c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l and w r i t t e n language from k i n d e r g a r t e n through grade twelve. T h i s study was a l s o concerned w i t h f i n d i n g language f e a t u r e s worthy of f u r t h e r study and, with d e v e l o p i n g a p p r o p r i a t e methods of semantic and s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s . Loban found t h a t i n the e a r l y elementary years i t was necessary f o r classroom and r e s e a r c h e v a l u a t i o n of o r a l language, t h a t the f o l l o w i n g counts be determined: 1) l e n g t h o f communication u n i t 2) average number of dependent c l a u s e s per communication u n i t '(p.123). His methods of a n a l y s i s and treatment of data have formed the broad framework f o r language a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study, d e s p i t e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the i n t e n t o f both s t u d i e s . U n l i k e Loban's, t h i s study w i l l not examine language usage i n c h i l d r e n over time. What i s of con-sequence here i s the c a t e g o r i s a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f language components used to express c e r t a i n s c i e n t i f i c n o t i o n s . For t h i s purpose some o f Loban's methods are a p p r o p r i a t e . 47. .Segmentation Of O r a l Language . . . ' / F o l l o w i n g the methodology of Loban (19 76) two b a s i c u n i t s df segmentation have been used here, the communication u n i t ( l a t e r c a l l e d the C-unit) and the maze u n i t ( l a t e r " c a l l e d the M - u n i t ) . The Communication U n i t T h i s i s an e f f e c t i v e means of q u a n t i f y i n g o r a l language which allows f o r the c a l c u l a t i o n of the average number of words per communication. Loban says t h a t a communication u n i t may be d e f i n e d s e m a n t i c a l l y or s t r u c t u r a l l y . Watts (1948) d e f i n e s i t as "the n a t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c u n i t - a group of words which cannot be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d without l o s s of t h e i r e s s e n t i a l meaning". Loban contends t h a t t h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t d e f i n i t i o n to apply because i t i s not c l e a r what Watts means by " e s s e n t i a l meaning". Hunt (1965) uses the same type of segmentation but c a l l s i t a " T - u n i t " , which he d e f i n e s s t r u c t u r a l l y as "each independent c l a u s e 7 wi t h i t s m o d i f i e r s " . T r a n s c r i p t s were segmented i n t o C - u n i t s . As w i t h Loban there were three i n s t a n c e s i n which a C - u n i t c o u l d occur: Each independent grammatical p r e d i c a t i o n ^ Each answer to a q u e s t i o n , p r o v i d e d t h a t the answer l a c k s o n l y the r e p e t i t i o n of the q u e s t i o n elements to s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i o n o f i n d e -pendent p r e d i c t i o n . Each word such as "yes" or "no" when g i v e n i n answer to a q u e s t i o n such as "Have you ever been s i c k ? " (p.9). 48 . The Maze U n i t T h i s i s d e f i n e d by Loban as "a s e r i e s of words (or i n i t i a l p a r t s of words), or unattached fragments which do not c o n s t i t u t e a communication u n i t and are not necessary to the communication u n i t " ( p . 1 0 ) . Often i n t r y i n g to express an i d e a a speaker becomes entangled i n h i s own words and fumbles around "meaninglessly" b e f o r e making the a p p r o p r i a t e statement. These "fumbles" are c a l l e d "mazes" and have been scored as such i n t h i s study. A f t e r segment-i n g the t r a n s c r i p t s i n t o maze u n i t s and communication u n i t s , each u n i t was n u m e r i c a l l y coded f o r easy i n t e r p r e t a t i o n l a t e r on. (Refer Appendix E f o r sample). T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a s t r i n g of t r i p l e t s f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e d by the number and type of c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d words each c o n t a i n e d . Then i t was p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e the number of C - u n i t s and M-units of a s u b j e c t , and the mean number of words per C - u n i t and M-unit. These measures would be used to i n d i c a t e the l e v e l o f f l u e n c y and v e r b a l p l a n n i n g of a s u b j e c t . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of. Concept-Related Words A f t e r segmentation the t r a n s c r i p t s were perused to d e t e c t "key" words and phrases used by s u b j e c t s to express some aspect of the concept. Words such as "egg", " l a r v a " , "pupa" are o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d to the L i f e - C y c l e concept. D e s p i t e the frequency with which these words are used by t e a c h e r s , and i n textbooks, students f i n d any number of s u b s t i t u t e words which they use f r e q u e n t l y i n the same con t e x t as those above. Any such words were taken to be c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d words. A n a l y s i s o f the t r a n s c r i p t s i n t h i s manner l e d to p r e p a r a t i o n of a l i s t o f c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d key words e l i c i t e d from the s u b j e c t s d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s . The words l i s t e d were grouped i n t o nouns, verbs, a d j e c t i v e s and adverbs a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r use i n d i a l o g u e . (Refer to Appendix G ) . Once these words were i d e n t i f i e d f o r the group i t was necessary to determine t o what e x t e n t each i n d i v i d u a l , and t h e i r language group made use of c e r t a i n words. F u r t h e r coding o f these words i n the t r a n s c r i p t s a c c o r d i n g to the l i s t allowed computation of frequency of use of i n d i v i d u a l words. T h i s measure c o u l d then be taken as an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e ease of e x p r e s s i o n e x h i b i t e d by each language group. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of M o d i f i e r s In much the same way as c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d key words were i d e n t i f i e d f o r the sample, c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d key phrases were p u l l e d o u t . These m o d i f i e r s have been c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the v a r i o u s sub-concepts they d e s c r i b e , such as i d e n t i t y , s i z e , time, growth. They have been f u r t h e r grouped as D e s c r i p t i v e or I n f e r e n t i a l . For e.g. a phrase such as " c r i n k l e d and cramped" i s c l e a r l y s o l e l y d e s c r i p t i v e i n f u n c t i o n , whereas one such as "strong enough to make eggs" or " d i f f e r e n t from a l l other worms" i n d i c a t e some i n t e r -50. int e r p r e t a t i v e function other than mere description. The latter.have been termed I n f e r e n t i a l . Two impartial judges were asked to c l a s s i f y the modifiers on t h i s basis. The f i n a l l i s t (refer Appendix H ) r e f l e c t s a consensus of opinion. Naming the; Life-Cycle , Questions 1 to 10 were analysed for modifiers and key words as described above. Questions 11 and 12 attempted to unravel the student's own conceptualisation of the L i f e -Cycle of the Mealworm Beetle as a whole. Question 12 i n p a r t i c u l a r which asked the student to: Suppose t h i s were a s t o r y V what name would you give i t ? What would that story t e l l ? was analysed only for the names which students provided for the process. These generally indicate t h e i r o v e r a l l understanding and t h e i r a b i l i t y to generalise about s i g n i -f i c a n t aspects of the l i f e - c y c l e and express their abstrac-tions s u c c i n t l y . This information i s presented i n Chapter Four. LIMITATIONS OF THE METHODOLOGY The large volume of data that usually r e s u l t s from a c l i n i c a l interview seems to suggest that a p a r t i c u l a r method of analysis i s needed. A f l e x i b l e mode i s preferable and i t i s e s s e n t i a l that the analyst approaches the task with a minimum of preconceived notions so that patterns that a c t u a l l y e x i s t can be uncovered. This does not =_ presuppose r e j e c t i o n of a t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n . The c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g has become more acc e p t a b l e as a means of data c o l l e c t i o n s i n c e P i a g e t , and with i t the type of a n a l y s i s i m p l i e d by i t s methodology. P i a g e t ' s approach i n h i s e x t e n s i v e work on c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g has been d i s p u t e d i n " t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r v a r i o u s methodo-l o g i c a l reasons. These claims have been a p p r o p r i a t e l y summarised by Deadman(1976): i ) He i s i n d i f f e r e n t to problems of sampling, r e l i a b i l i t y and s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . i i ) He f a i l s to p r e s e n t adequate normative data on age l e v e l , sex, I.Q. i i i ) He f a i l s to use a uniform experimental pro-cedure f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . iv) He f a i l s to g i v e d e t a i l s of h i s methodology and method of a n a l y s i s . v) He f a i l s to designate unambiguous c r i t e r i a f o r c l a s s i f y i n g responses of a l l h i s s u b j e c t s . v i ) C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s are used i n s t e a d o f l o n g i t u d i n a l thus r e l y i n g on l o g i c a l i n f e r e n c e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g stages o f development. (pp. 18-19). Yet P i a g e t ' s c l i n i c a l method i s m e r i t o r i o u s . I t allows d e s c r i p t i o n of c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are u n i d e n t i f i a b l e i n terms of the t r a d i t i o n a l h y p o t h e t i c o -deductlye paradigm. His approach p r o v i d e s an e f f e c t i v e means of d e s c r i b i n g and c a t e g o r i s i n g thought processes i c h i l d r e n . Summary The methods of data treatment summarised i n t h i s chapter were intended to i d e n t i f y the f o l l o w i n g gross measures: 1) The c o n c e p t u a l c o n t e n t of idea s h e l d by by s u b j e c t s on the p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c . 2) The type of r e a s o n i n g o f f e r e d f o r these ideas 3) The l e n g t h and type of u t t e r a n c e s made to express these ideas i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . 4) The type of words used to designate c e r t a i n aspects of the concept. NOTES FOR CHAPTER THREE These c h i l d r e n ranged i n age from 8 years to 11 years o l d . They l i v e d near t o the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and a l l o f them had a t l e a s t one parent who attended t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n . The author f e e l s indebted to the p r i n c i p a l s , teachers and students of these schools f o r t h e i r time, i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm and c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h regard t o t h i s study. Each teacher p r o v i d e d a l i s t o f students and t h e i r second language. T h i s was d e f i n e d by the Interviewer as the language which those students used most f r e -q u e n t l y at home with t h e i r f a m i l y . During the i n f o r m a l chat at the beginning of each i n t e r v i e w t h i s was v e r i -f i e d by the i n t e r v i e w e r . (See Appendix C ) . C h i l d r e n who spoke E n g l i s h only a t home and a t s c h o o l were c l a s s e d as E n g l i s h Primary Language users (EPL) Those f o r whom E n g l i s h was not the dominant language at home were c l a s s i f i e d as E n g l i s h Second Language users (ESL). "New Immigrants" r e f e r s here to any students who had f i r s t come to Canada from a non-English-speaking country not more than s i x months p r i o r t o i n t e r v i e w i n g . P i a g e t ' s stage theory of c o g n i t i v e development i s w e l l -known. C h i l d r e n beyond the age of 8 years or so are thought to have u s u a l l y completed the concrete o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l of c o g n i t i v e development which i s assumed t o precede the formal o p e r a t i o n a l a d u l t l e v e l of c o g n i t i o n . Concrete o p e r a t i o n a l thought s t r u c t u r e s are thought to be bound by 'content' as opposed t o l o g i c and t h e r e f o r e the former i s more r e s t r i c t e d to m a n i p u l a t i o n of t h i n g s . A good d i s c u s s i o n of P i a g e t ' s stage theory can be found i n h i s book e n t i t l e d "The Growth of L o g i c a l T h i n k i A c r i t i q u e of v a r i o u s aspects o f h i s stage theory may be found i n "Piage t and Knowing" e d i t e d by Geber (1977). I t was f e l t t h a t , i n order to look a t the way language and c o g n i t i v e development i n t e r a c t i n the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , the s u b j e c t s should possess some a b i l i t y to reason l o g i c a l l y . The grade f o u r students s e l e c t e d ranged i n age from nine and a h a l f years o l d to eleven and a h a l f and so they would be, ac c o r d i n g to P i a g e t ' s theory, i n t r a n s i t i o n to the a d u l t l o g i c of the formal o p e r a t i o n a l stage. 54. A l s o , as f a r as language i s concerned, grade f o u r students were chosen because a t t h a t age and stage, p a r t i c i p a n t s of the p i l o t s t u d i e s seemed w e l l able t o express t h e i r ideas without hindrance. G e n e r a l l y , many of the b a s i c f e a t u r e s needed f o r good o r a l language e x p r e s s i o n , such as use of pronouns, c l a u s e s , connectors, i n t o n a t i o n have been a c q u i r e d (Loban 1976, pp. 79-85). Only one of the tea c h e r s had b r i e f l y t a l k e d about I n s e c t L i f e - C y c l e s i n c l a s s t h a t year. None of them had r e f e r r e d to or i n s t r u c t e d t h e i r c l a s s e s on the L i f e - C y c l e o f the Mealworm B e e t l e . A f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of these Response Modes, with examples, i s p r o v i d e d i n Tough (1977, 134-140). The reader i s encouraged to r e f e r t o Appendix B, pp. 100-107 of Loban's book, Language Development f o r a complete d e s c r i p t i o n of the uses of C-Units and M-Units i n language a n a l y s i s . CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS OF LIFE-CYCLE CONCEPTS INTRODUCTION T h i s chapter w i l l c o n t a i n a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and summary of the c h i l d r e n ' s views on the growth c y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e , Tenebrio m o l i t o r . Both the content of t h e i r i d e a s and the mode of reasoning w i l l be pre s e n t e d . The f i r s t p a r t of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l c e n t r e on the conceptual p a t t e r n s i m p l i e d i n responses ..of the s u b j e c t s . Although there i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the ideas expressed by any sample, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t common-a l i t y w i l l emerge when the data i s examined c r i t i c a l l y and c a r e f u l l y . The content of responses g i v e n d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s i s l i k e l y to be i n t e r e s t i n g but the r a t i o n a l e o f f e r e d f o r these v i e w p o i n t s , even more so. The e x p l a n a t i o n s are l i k e l y to be suggestive of the c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s and mechanisms of the s u b j e c t s , and so i t seems necessary to mention t h i s type of i n f o r m a t i o n . Looking a t t h e i r con-c e p t u a l p a t t e r n s and a n a l y s i n g t h e i r o ral.language o f e x p r e s s i o n should help c l a r i f y the manner i n which language and thought v a r i a b l e s i n t e r a c t e d f o r s u b j e c t s under the c o n d i t i o n s e v i d e n t i n t h i s study. IDENTIFICATION OF CONCEPTUAL PATTERNS " I n i t i a l l y , a n a l y s i s was done by l o o k i n g c l o s e l y a t the answers p r o v i d e d to q u e s t i o n s posed d u r i n g i n t e r -views. The p a t t e r n s which emerged from.these suggested t h a t s u b j e c t s possessed four d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t i n g view-p o i n t s w i t h r e s p e c t to the L i f e - C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e . I t appeared t h a t they a l l r e a d i l y r e c o g n i s e d t h a t the b e e t l e i t s e l f was the a d u l t form and t h a t t h i s a d u l t b e e t l e was a l i v i n g animal capable of .reproducing, i t s e l f . Almost a l l of the s u b j e c t s a l l u d e d to sex as a c r i t e r i o n to prove whether r e p r o d u c t i o n o c c u r r e d . One s u b j e c t even suggested d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the age and sex of an a d u l t specimen i n t h i s manner: T h i s [adult] i s about f o u r years o l d . You can t e s t them - l i k e t h a t ones f i v e - l i k e you count these t h i n g s [segments]. L i k e a t r e e - there's these t h i n g s l i k e cuts t h a t you can see how/old.,, t h a t i s . Do the same for b e e t l e s I f i t ' s a g i r l i t has a t h i n g i n the back l i k e t h a t A l l the conceptual p a t t e r n s i d e n t i f i e d s u b s c r i b e d to the c y c l i c nature of growth. The sample, as a whole seemed to view the growth process as continuous and r e g e n e r a t i v e . However t h e i r ideas on the events t h a t c o n s t i t u t e such a c y c l e d i f f e r e d . t o a g r e a t e x t e n t . T h e i r ideas i n d i c a t e d t h a t the many c y c l e s they "see" d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from the " r e a l " one. The four main viewpoints w i l l be d e s c r i b e d below as Conceptual P a t t e r n s One to Four. Subjects have been grouped a c c o r d i n g to s i m i l a r i t y of v i e w p o i n t . 57 . TABLE 4.1 SUMMARY OF L I F E - C Y C L E CONCEPTS I D E N T I F I E D Conceptual Patterns Conceptual Content Number of Subjects Proportion of Sampl EPL ESL T o t a l EPL ESL Total Cycle 1 7ft>aby -x l a d u l t * This appears to embody Ideas suggestive of obvious features of the human reproductive system i n which offs p r i n g " s t a r t off as babies" and grow into adults. 2 1 3 16.66% 8.33% 12.5% Cycle 2 ^ e g g — ^ "grown-up^baby'' This i s s i m i l a r to Cycle 1 but the presence of an "egg" i n d i -cates a s l i g h t l y clearer and more sophisticated understand-ing of the v a r i e t y of growth processes i n animals. 4 9 13 33.34% 7.5% 54.16% Cycle 3 egg p "different"form 1 from adult ^ a d u l t y This i s c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t from Cycle 2. The intermediary stage i s viewed as having a form unlike that of the parent 3 1 4 25% 8.33% 16.67% Cycle 4 / ^ > e g g ^ adult l a r v a ^•pupa ^ This i s the true l i f e - c y c l e of insects l i k e Tenebrio molitor that have complete metamorphosis 3 1 4 25% 8.34% 16.67% TOTAL 12 12 24 100% 100% 100% TABLE 4.2 D I S T R I B U T I O N OF S U B J E C T S ACCORDING TO CONCEPTUAL PATTERN Subiect Group Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 EPL 5, 6 2,4,10,12 1,3,9 7,8,11 ESL 9 1,2,3,5, 6,7,8,10, 11 4 12 58-12. 11. 10. 9. 7. 6. 5. k. 3. 2. 1. 2 13 \k Conceptual Pattern -»• FIGURE 4.1 D I S T R I B U T I O N OF E N G L I S H PRIMARY LANGUAGE USERS BY CONCEPTUAL PATTERN ] 2 13 Conceptual Pattern FIGURE 4.2 D I S T R I B U T I O N OF E N G L I S H SECOND LANGUAGE USERS BY CONCEPTUAL PATTERN 59. 2 4 i 22. 20. 1 8._ 1 6J_ 1 4. 1 2. 1 0. 8. G. k. 2. 1. 1 '2 '3 'if. Conceptual Pattern -> FIGURE 4 . 3 DISTRIBUTION OF ENTIRE SAMPLE BY CONCEPTUAL PATTERN . Conceptual. P a t t e r n One The p a t t e r n s themselves appeared t o be h i e r a r c h i c a l i n the a d u l t l o g i c a l sense v a r y i n g from "simple" to "com-pl e x " - from c y c l e s w i t h a g r e a t expressed s i m i l a r i t y t o the human growth c y c l e e v i d e n t l y based p u r e l y on p r e v a l e n t e xperience, to c y c l e s which i m p l i e d broader a b s t r a c t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n to i n c l u d e other forms of animal l i f e . The c y c l e which f o l l o w s i s the s i m p l e s t one encountered. I t r e f l e c t s the p r e v a i l i n g n o t i o n t h a t the Mealworm B e e t l e undergoes a growth c y c l e i d e n t i c a l to what the s u b j e c t c o n s i d e r s the human c y c l e to be. The organism begins l i f e as a "baby" and grows by i n c r e a s i n g i n s i z e to a l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l of the same form and appearance as the parent which can l a t e r reproduce when f u l l - g r o w n . One g i r l w ith E n g l i s h as a F i r s t Language made the p o i n t thus You can r a i s e l i t t l e ones and t h e y ' l l grow and have b a b i e s . You can s t a r t with grown-up ones and t h e y ' l l have babies and the mother d i e s and the c h i l d grows up and has b a b i e s . . . . The baby always looks j u s t l i k e the a d u l t and the a d u l t j u s t l i k e the baby because i t always takes care o f the young ones.... I t ' s j u s t l i k e human beings - l i k e a mother has babies and they grow up and have babies a g a i n . . . . Another E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g boy presented a s i m i l a r argument to the i n t e r v i e w e r . The same i d e a was expressed by a user o f E n g l i s h as a Second Language: The babies should look l i k e i t [adult] but a l i t t l e s m a l l e r . . . . The babies should look the same as they do but a l i t t l e s m a l l e r . . . . I th i n k they come from the stomach of the l a d y -one .... T h i s v i e w p o i n t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g because of the conspicuous absence of an "egg" stage from the growth p r o c e s s . T h i s t h i n k i n g may r e s u l t because, a s i d e from Man, many of the common animals c h i l d r e n see around them and are f a m i l i a r w i t h are domesticated mammals. As a r u l e these g i v e b i r t h t o l i v e young and so, they a r e viewed as pro-ducing "babies" r a t h e r than "eggs". Even though an egg i s a b i o l o g i c a l p r e c u r s o r o f growth of a "baby", i t i s l i k e l y t h a t i t s presence i s not co n s i d e r e d a t a l l by the c h i l d because'it remains w i t h i n the body o f the pa r e n t where i t changes form and grows to a c o n s i d e r a b l e s i z e and complexity b e f o r e e x p u l s i o n as a "baby" . The egg i s viewed, i t seems, not as a necessary s t a r t i n g - p o i n t f o r l i f e but as a d i s c r e t e e n t i t y w i t h i t s own s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In order to account f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f an egg which i s not " l a i d " by the parent, the student i s r e q u i r e d to envisage the egg as a l i v i n g e n t i t y because i t c o n t a i n s l i f e . Such a view of l i f e appears to.be " u n r e a l " f o r these s u b j e c t s . The other f e a t u r e of t h i s Conceptual P a t t e r n t h a t deserves mention i s the s u b j e c t s ' p r e o c c u p a t i o n with s i z e as a c e n t r a l , and perhaps s o l e c r i t e r i o n of change i n growth. The three s u b j e c t s i n t h i s group, when asked to i d e n t i f y the c o n s t i t u e n t organisms i n the growth c y c l e o f the group p l a c e d these i n order s o l e l y on the b a s i s of s i z e : ... the l i t t l e b e e t l e then the o l d e r b e e t l e . . . ... the sm a l l b e e t l e then the medium-sized b e e t l e then the b i g b e e t l e . T h i s k i n d o f statement was p r e v a l e n t even when the a c t u a l l i v e specimens were p r e s e n t i n the V e r b a l M a n i p u l a t i v e I n t e r v i e w C o n d i t i o n . These s u b j e c t s excluded n o n b e e t l e - l i k e o b j e c t s from the B e e t l e L i f e - C y c l e and grouped b e e t l e - l i k e specimens on the b a s i s o f t h e i r s i z e and s i m i l a r i t y i n appearance to the a d u l t . A small l a r v a was p l a c e d w i t h a l a r g e one and t h i s c o n s t i t u t e d a c y c l e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the beetle: because specimens u n l i k e the a d u l t b e e t l e i n appearance were not viewed as having come from a b e e t l e a t a l l . 62. C o n c e p t u a l P a t t e r n Two . The m a j o r i t y of E n g l i s h Second Language Speakers seem t o f a l l i n t h i s g r o u p . I t a l s o c o n t a i n s a l a r g e r number of f i r s t language u s e r s than any o t h e r g r o u p . I t would appear t h i s i s the " p o p u l a r " v i e w p o i n t o f the s a m p l e . T h i s c y c l e i s e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e to c o n -c e p t u a l p a t t e r n one but i t s s t a r t i n g - p o i n t i s d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t . The egg i s r e a d i l y seen as the s t a r t of the p r o c e s s . . I t g i v e s r i s e to a s m a l l e r v e r s i o n o f the a d u l t which i n c r e a s e s i n s i z e u n t i l i t i s "grown-up" and can "have b a b i e s " . One s t u d e n t e x p r e s s e d h e r i d e a s i n t h i s f a s h i o n : [The eggs] l o o k a l l the same. I t h i n k t h e y ' l l w a i t t i l l s p r i n g and t h e y ' l l h a t c h . The egg w i l l crack: and the b a b y - b e e t l e w i l l come o u t . I t w i l l l o o k l i k e the m o t h e r - b e e t l e . . . . I t ' l l look f o r f o o d then t h e y ' l l grow and grow. T h e y ' l l become a b e e t l e l i k e [meaning l i k e an a d u l t ] . A n o t h e r E n g l i s h Second Language u s e r e x p l a i n e d : Eggs w i l l h a t c h and baby b e e t l e s w i l l come o u t . The egg w i l l be b i g g e r than the l i t t l e o n e s . . . . do the baby can grow up and g e t out o f i t . . . The b a b i e s s t a r t growing - M i k e we do - from e a t i n g . . . They s t a r t growing i n t o a b i g b e e t l e . . . and then have b a b i e s a g a i n . The b a b i e s grow up to be a b i g one l i k e the m o t h e r . When t h e y ' r e j u s t b o r n they l o o k v e r y s m a l l . N a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers had s i m i l a r n o t i o n s . The one t h a t i s normal s i z e and i s the mother can have e g g s . . . I suppose the egg would h a t c h s o m e t i m e . . . The eggs would open up and the b e e t l e w i l l come o u t . A newborn b e e t l e w i l l come o u t . . . When t h e y ' r e j u s t b o r n they l o o k l i k e l i t t l e i n -s e c t s . I t h i n k t h e y ' r e s o r t o f l i k e a n t s . . . The The baby b e e t l e grows u n t i l i t i s the s t a n d a r d s i z e . . . then i t ' l l be a mother or f a t h e r . . . then i t ' l l have more b a b i e s . . . T h i s conceptual p a t t e r n , although not " c o r r e c t " does i n d i c a t e some b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n on the p a r t o f the s u b j e c t f o r a complicated growth process from egg to a d u l t . Although i t i s not the form, o f the growth c y c l e t h a t a p p l i e s to Tenebrio M o l i t o r , such a c y c l e i s f a i r l y common among I n -se c t s and i s presented i n t e x t s as Incomplete Metamorphosis. Common i n s e c t s such as grasshoppers, cockroaches grow from the egg to a nymph which i s a sm a l l e r v e r s i o n o f the a d u l t . I t may be argued t h a t such a v i e w p o i n t then c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as somewhat l o g i c a l - but mistaken. I t i s important to note though, t h a t smallness of s i z e as a c r i t e r i o n of youth, and resemblance to the pa r e n t are s t i l l b eing adhered to tena-c i o u s l y . These ideas were p r e v a l e n t even when s u b j e c t s saw and manipulated specimens t h a t d i d " o b v i o u s l y " come from the par e n t but d i d not resemble i t . T h i s tends to suggest t h a t these s u b j e c t s are s t i l l attempting to e x p l a i n the process i n terms of e x t e r n a l s i m i l a r i t i e s - i n terms of what i s most f a m i l i a r w i t h i n t h e i r experience, and are t h e r e f o r e m i s s i n g hidden or i m p l i e d p a t t e r n s . They appear s t i l l q u i t e unable to view ot h e r a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s as r e a l ones, even i n the presence o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o n f l i c t s with t h e i r view-p o i n t . (Verbal Man. C o n d i t i o n ) . Conceptual P a t t e r n Three ... Only 16.67 pe r c e n t of the e n t i r e sample adhered to t h i s l i n e o f thought. These were mostly (75%) n a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers who expressed the n o t i o n t h a t growth was a con-tinuous process dur i n g which the o f f s p r i n g changes from egg to some other form and then to the a d u l t . T h i s other form may have been "worm-like" or otherwise but e s s e n t i a l l y i t was d i f f e r e n t - l o o k i n g from the a d u l t . I t was not i d e n t i -c a l i n appearance to the a d u l t but l a t e r "grew up" to look l i k e the a d u l t i n form and s t r u c t u r e . T h i s was d e s c r i b e d g r a p h i c a l l y by one of the E n g l i s h Primary Language Users: They hatch... and the baby comes out. A f t e r a w hile i t looks d i f f e r e n t from the b i g g e r b e e t l e . I t doesn't have a s h e l l around i t y e t -i t i s n ' t the same shape.... i t ' s s o f t . . . I t ' s d i f f e r e n t because i t doesn't have the same body t e x t u r e . . . . I t grows slowly, g r a d u a l l y - I t h i n k i t gets b i g g e r . I t grows a s h e l l when i t grows up i n t o a b e e t l e . An E n g l i s h Second Language User expressed s i m i l a r n o t i o n s , but m o r e ' s u c c i n c t l y : ... I t w i l l grow up to a worm and grow up to a b e e t l e . . . " T h i s s u b j e c t c l e a r l y was not r e f e r r i n g to a worm i n the true b i o l o g i c a l sense o f the word (Annelid) but a "worm-like c r e a t u r e because he had made the p o i n t e a r l i e r on: ...Can't get b e e t l e s from worms Worms come from worms".... Another s u b j e c t too/expressed a;'similar v i e w p o i n t but h i s f a c i l i t y w ith E n g l i s h enabled him to p r o v i d e f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n : The egg hatches and a l i t t l e worm comes out and i t goes b i g g e r i n t o a b e e t l e . I t ' s not a worm, i t ' s l i k e a worm because worms are l a r g e and round. I've seen a worm befo r e and they are dark and these are l i g h t brown... They're b e e t l e s but they look l i k e worms.. One other n a t i v e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t e x p l a i n s her i d e a s i n t h i s way; They look a l o t d i f f e r e n t from b e e t l e s when they're b a b i e s . . . The body i s c a l l e d a mealworm...1 don't know why I c a l l them mealworms. Mealworms look d i f f e r e n t from b e e t l e s . ' I t ' s [Mealworm] onl y a baby. The others are a d u l t . . . I saw a mealworm once or twice...A mealworm i s not a b e e t l e - i t ' s s m a l l e r . I t would grow i n t o a b e e t l e . . . T h i s would tend to i n d i c a t e t h a t e i t h e r these students r e c o g n i s e t h a t o f f s p r i n g do not have n e c e s s a r i l y the i d e n t i c a l form o f the parent throughout the growth c y c l e , or perhaps they have i d e n t i f i e d an anomaly i m p l i c i t i n the nature of the specimens they have handled and have attempted to s o l v e t h a t by p r o v i d i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n . T h i s happens to be i n a d u l t sense, l o g i c a l but incomplete. However t h i s t r e n d of thought c o n s t i t u t e s a p r o g r e s s i o n from the narrow p a t t e r n of t h i n k i n g of the p r e v i o u s group and i s c l o s e r , but not e n t i r e l y compatible w i t h the " r e a l " view o f the L i f e - C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e . Conceptual P a t t e r n Four Again o n l y 16.67 percent of the e n t i r e sample f e l l w i t h i n t h i s c a t egory. They were able to express r e c o g n i t i o n of a growth c y c l e f o r the Mealworm B e e t l e t h a t bore the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of the known s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e L i f e C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e . I t appeared t h a t , f o r these s u b j e c t s , the egg was the s t a r t i n g p o i n t ? a s w e l l as any other p o i n t or "stage" i n the c y c l e . From t h e egg o f f s p r i n g grew t h r o u g h " s t a g e s " t o a d u l t h o o d . D u r i n g t h e s e s t a g e s o f g r o w t h o f f s p r i n g v a r i e d i n a p p e a r a n c e (shape, s i z e , c o l o u r ) f r o m t h e p a r e n t whose f o r m t h e y e v e n t u a l l y grew t o r e s e m b l e . The t h o u g h t p a t t e r n s a n d p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s t r a t e g i e s o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s h a d t o be more complex b e c a u s e t h e y had t o p r o g r e s s b e y o n d s i m p l e r e c o g n i t i o n o f e x t e r n a l s i m i -l a r i t i e s and e x t r a c t f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l s t h e h i d d e n o r im-p l i c i t s i m i l a r i t i e s and r e l a t e t h e s e l o g i c a l l y . Thus t h e y were a b l e t o come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , f i r s t l y , t h e many t y p e s o f s p e c i m e n s i n t h e one c o n t a i n e r were a l l p r o d u c e d b y b e e t l e s . S e c o n d l y , t h e y a p p e a r e d t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e e v e n t s c o n n e c t e d w i t h p r o d u c t i o n and p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e s e e m i n g l y " d i f f e r e n t " o r g a n i s m s were n o t i s o l a t e d and d i d r e a l l y c o n s t i t u t e a c o n t i n u o u s c h a i n o f e v e n t s o r c y c l e . T h e s e s u b j e c t s c o u l d a p p r e c i a t e t h e w h o l e p a t t e r n o f d e v e l o p m e n t whereas o t h e r s were o n l y a b l e t o d i s -t i n g u i s h d i s c r e t e p a r t s o f t h a t s e q u e n c e . The o n l y E n g l i s h S e c o n d Language s t u d e n t who s u b s c r i b e d t o t h i s l i n e o f t h o u g h t e x p l a i n e d h i s n o t i o n s i n t h i s f a s h i o n ...egg comes f r o m a b e e t l e . . . l o o k s l i k e a s m a l l s i l k w o r m e g g . . . i t c h a n g es t o a b e e t l e . . . I know b e c a u s e i n s e c t s have f o u r s t a g e s . . . A s t a g e t e l l s how i t c h a n g e s . Egg i s f i r s t s t a g e . . . T h e y c hange f r o m s o m e t h i n g l i k e a b a l l . E g g grows... t h e n t h i s [ l a r v a ] ... t h e n t h i s [ p u p a ] . . . t h e n b e e t l e , t h i s one..." A l t h o u g h t h e n o t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d , t h a t t h e r e i s a s e r i e s o f c h a n g e s i n f o r m f r o m egg t o a d u l t , a t t e m p t i n g t o u s e s c i e n t i f i c terms such as " l a r v a " and "pupa" proved con-f u s i n g a t f i r s t f o r t h i s s u b j e c t i n the V e r b a l C o n d i t i o n : They [eggs] t u r n i n t o , I thi n k i t ' s "pupaes" or " l a r v a e s " . I t ' l l change gradually.The form w i l l change. The egg changes i n t o a d i f f e r e n t shape. The b e e t l e t h a t ' s i n s i d e i s working wh i l e i t ' s i n the egg, g e t t i n g b i g g e r and i t changes i t s form. . . It*'s. [ l a r v a ] i s white - the shape of a b e e t l e but i t s l e g s are stuck t o -gether to i t s body.... I t grows.... I t (egg) tur n s i n t o a " l a r v a e " and i n t o a "pupae" and then i n t o a b e e t l e ... S c i e n t i s t s give the name " l a r v a e " . ' . When t h i s s u b j e c t c o u l d examine the specimens he appeared to s o r t out h i s own i d e a s : The egg grows l a r g e r i n t o a " l a r v a e " then i n t o a "pupae" then i n t o a b e e t l e . These are stages o f i t s l i f e - development. F i r s t i t ' s an egg, then a l a r v a e , then a pupae, then a b e e t l e . Then the b e e t l e sheds i t s s k i n . Then i t crawls out b i g g e r . . . T h i s s u b j e c t was not as a r t i c u l a t e but she has a s i m i l a r n o t i o n : The egg comes from the mother - from one l i k e t h i s one [ a d u l t b e e t l e ] . I t changes - they w i l l t u r n i n t o a bab y - b e e t l e . I t changes i n t o one o f these [ l a r v a ] . . . then i t breaks out of t h i s [ l a r v a ] and changes i n t o t h i s baby [pupa].. [ I f you looked a t the egg next week] you might', see t h i s [ l a r v a ] . [In another week] you would see t h i s [pupa]...then t h i s [ b e e t l e ] . . . I t comes from the eggs. LIFE-CYCLE 'OF-TENEBRIO MOLITOR - -The l i f e - c y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e i s common to many i n s e c t s such as b u t t e r f l i e s , bees, moths. I t has a four stage p a t t e r n of egg, l a r v a , pupa, a d u l t . 68 . The larvae are l i g h t brown and c y l i n d r i c a l i n shape. As they grow they moult. Usually the skin s p l i t s down the back near the head and a new sof t larva comes out. Mealworms normally have harder skins than b u t t e r f l i e s and so they moult about ten to twenty times, unlike b u t t e r f l i e s which molt about f i v e times. The eggs usually take about a week before they hatch into mealworms and the l a r v a l stage l a s t s for several months. The pupal stage takes between seven to twenty-one days before becoming a young adult and the adult survives for a few months during which time the female lays hundreds of eggs. Mealworms are fascinating creatures and are easy to keep and grow i n the regular classroom. INTERESTING ASPECTS OF THE .MEALWORM-LIFE.CYCLE  Reproduction Some of the questions asked by the interviewer attempted to tease out such notions that subjects, had on reproduction as; Did they think that young animals could reproduce? At what point i n the l i f e of an organism would they expect i t to reproduce. (Refer Questions 1-4, 9-10, Appendix C ). I t was inte r e s t i n g to f i n d that just about the ent i r e sample was very clear on c e r t a i n basic ideas: The female specimen i s responsible for bearing offspring but a male specimen i s needed, though the function of the male i s not quite c l e a r . . . . t e l l s about...how i t turns i n t o a b e e t l e and how i t mates. That's one t h i n g I don't know they do. When they mate a few weeks l a t e r one s t a r t s l a y i n g eggs and the other, I t h i n k , guards them.... Most of the students i n t e r v i e w e d expressed the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t o f f s p r i n g c o u l d not reproduce u n t i l they were mature. Only females can have b a b i e s . . . . I don't know how to t e l l how o l d . . .A beetle-baby can't have eggs. I t ' s too young....[female b e e t l e s can have eggs] when they're about s i x months and they're grown up. and a g a i n : [The b l a c k a d u l t s are] o l d enough to have young ....because they're o l d e s t . F r e q u e n t l y , though, s i z e was used as a criterion o f age and m a t u r i t y : The babies would be smal l i n s i z e and a d u l t s would be a l i t t l e b i g g e r . . . . I t h i n k t h a t ' s the on l y way you can t e l l . . . A young b e e t l e can't have young because i t ' s not o l d enough...." I n t e r e s t i n g n o t i o n s such as these are l i k e l y to form the frame of r e f e r e n c e with which the c h i l d views the e n t i r e process o f growth i n the Mealworm B e e t l e . Naming the , L i f e C y c l e , The t i t l e s and t h e i r accompanying e x p l a n a t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n Tables 4.3 and 4 . 4 - c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e the i n d i v i d u a l under-standings each s u b j e c t had of the growth process o f the Mealworm B e e t l e and which apsects they viewed as being most important and r e l e v a n t . There are obvious group.and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n idea s and their manner of e x p r e s s i o n . TABLE 4 .3 7 0 . ENGLISH PRIMARY LANGUAGE: NAMING THE LIFE-CYCLE OF TENEBRIO MOLITOR Subject T i t l e s Explanation 1 The stages of a Beetle that the baby beetle has to hatch out of i t s egg and grow up to be an adul t - how a beetle looks when i t ' s l i t t l e and i t ' s growing 2 A Beet le ' s L i f e because i t t e l l s about b e e t l e s , how they ' re born and so 3 A l l about Beetles how the beetle grows o l d e r from t h i s s ize to that t e l l s that beetles are small and when they grow up they can have babies 4 How a Baby Beetle would grow to be an adult i t ' s showing you how the young beetle and i t ' s l a r g e r and goes into an adult - l i k e how a silkworm grows 5 Discussion on insects not about beetles because I have here beetles and insects 6 A l l about Beetles t e l l s about how they grow, how they have babies and how they eat 7 L i f e Stages L i f e - C y c l e s of Beetles t e l l s the whole l i f e - l i k e a race , the stage - the growth - what stages i t turns i n t o and how i t turns into a beetle 8 The Beet le ' s L i f e - C y c l e because we use those words i n other insec ts and because i t ' s an i n s e c t - how an animal changes from egg to an adul t 9 How Mealworms grow because t h a t ' s what they ' re f i r s t c a l l e d 10 Baby Beetles Changing a Beetle how i t [baby]turns into a beetle - how the lady beetles have babies 11 How a Baby Beetle grows t e l l s how the eggs grow into a f u l l -grown beetle - that bugs change, t e l l s that the eggs can change - s t a r t s from small then goes bigger 12 A Baby Beetle grows Beetle eggs turn into Beetles how a beetle grows up from the young beetle to a normal beetle TABLE 4 .4 E N G L I S H S E C O N D L A N G U A G E : N A M I N G T H E L I F E - C Y C L E O F T E N E B R I O M O L I T O R Subject T i t l e Explanation 1 No response no response 2 How Beetles grow up no response 3 Growing Insects t e l l s how a beetle gets babies 4 Beetles Worms no response 5 Beetles how they hatch and grow and how they change t h e i r colours when t h e y ' r e growing up 6 How the Beetles grow i t means about beetles - how the beetle l i v e and they die and grow again 7 How Beetles grow A l l about Beetles how they grow 8 How Beetles grow happens over and over again from the egg to the f u l l - g r o w n one and in-between 9 How an Insect grows how i t f i r s t . . . then i t small a l l the way to big u n t i l they die 10 Beetles the l i f e of a beetle 11 How Mother Beetles have t h e i r Babies How a Beetle hatches because i t t e l l s how a beetle hatches 12 A B e e t l e ' s l i f e How a Beetle Changes how a beetle changes from stages to a beetle because i t t e l l s a l l the stages they char i n The information contained i n those tables does not necessitate further comment. M O D E O F R E A S O N I N G TABLE! 4 .5 DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY MODE OF REASONING I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Numbers of E n g l i s h Primary Language Group I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Numbers o E n g l i s h Second Language Grou Syncretic 6 8 Pre-Emptive 1,2,3, 4,5,9,10,12 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,9,10,11 Explanatory and Relevant 7,8,11 12 The response mode most consistently used i n response to questions and probes was taken to be the reasoning mode that was prevalent for that subject. Comparison of Tables 4.2 and 4.5 reveal that there i s a strong pos i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the Conceptual Patterns of the Sample and t h e i r Reasoning Mode. The most prevalent mode i s the Pre-Emptive i n which students (75%) off e r semi-logical explanations for the ideas they hold. Only 8.33 percent of the sample s t i l l employ a syncretic mode of reasoning while 16.67 percent have progressed to a somewhat more adult l o g i c a l way of reasoning. CHAPTER FIVE ORAL LANGUAGE CONTENT ANALYSIS Up t o t h i s p o i n t the d i s c u s s i o n has focussed on the statement of the problem, i t ' s context, the method of i n v e s t i -g a t i o n t o be used i n t h i s study. T h i s Chapter w i l l summarise the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s o f o r a l language, p e r t i n e n t t o the L i f e - C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e . The substance of the ideas h e l d by the c h i l d r e n has been a l r e a d y presented s e p a r a t e l y i n Chapter Four. L a t e r on, an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of both the con-cept and the language r e s u l t s w i l l be presented i n Chapter S i x . Measurement of O r a l Language, . . . - : „•. In order t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on the s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s s t a t e d i n Chapter One, i t was necessary t o examine the f o l l o w i n g a t t r i b u t e s f o r E n g l i s h Primary Language Users arid E n g l i s h Second Language Users i n the sample: - p r o p o r t i o n " of communication u n i t s t o maze u n i t s used i n response t o the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s average number of words per communication u n i t average number of c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d nouns, verbs, a d j e c t i v e s , adverbs used i n communication frequency of use of c e r t a i n c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d terms type of m o d i f i e r s used to express v a r i o u s aspects of the concept. 74. These r e s u l t s have been summarised i n the t e x t and t a b l e s t h a t f o l l o w . Mazes and Maze Words Used i n Communication" •;' Loban (1976) c l a i m s t h a t "given as a percentage of t o t a l spoken words, the number of words i n mazes i s a c t u a l l y a simple and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d d e v i ce f o r measuring the s u b j e c t ' s r e -p e t i t i o n s and language t a n g l e s " . A few i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s emerge when Tables 1 and 2 are examined i n the l i g h t of the above statement. I t i s apparent from the data presented i n Tables 5.1 and 5.2 t h a t the average number of maze u n i t s used f o r each sub-group v a r i e s depending on the Interview C o n d i t i o n . On the b a s i s of Loban's statements E n g l i s h Primary Language Users show a b i t l e s s c o n f u s i o n , h e s i t a t i o n and are more pro-f i c i e n t a t communicating when the l i v e specimens are a v a i l a b l e . However a most i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e i s e v i d e n t . E n g l i s h Second Language Users exhibit a higher percentage of mazes in the Verbal Mani-p u l a t i v e C o n d i t i o n than i n the V e r b a l C o n d i t i o n . I t i s 'oppo-s i t e . f o r the E n g l i s h Primary Language Users. E n g l i s h Second Language Users seem to use t h e i r language somewhat more pr e -c i s e l y when they have no specimens to r e f e r t o . When they have to r e l y s o l e l y on v e r b a l communication they e x h i b i t about j u s t as much h e s i t a t i o n , language t a n g l e s as Primary Language Users do, w i t h m a t e r i a l s . Furthermore, l o o k i n g a t the E n g l i s h Second Language Group as a whole, although the number of maze- u n i t s 7 5 . T A B L E 5.1 PROPORTION OF MAZES IN TOTAL COMMUNICATION FOR ENGLISH PRIMARY LANGUAGE USERS Subject Verbal Interview Condit ion Verbal Manipulat ive Interviev No of C-Units No of Mazes % Mazes No of C-Units No of Mazes % Mazes 1 28 8 22.22 29 10 25.64 2 24 12 33.33 13 6 31.57 3 24 6 20.00 40 8 16.66 4 23 4 14.81 23 3 11 .53 5 29 8 21.62 30 6 16.66 6 22 5 18.51 20 6 23.07 7 34 7 17.07 20 9 31 .03 8 14 2 12.50 16 1 5.88 9 16 9 36.00 20 2 9.09 10 21 7 25.00 14 4 22.22 11 28 8 22.22 15 7 31.81 12 24 8 25.00 17 3 15.00 Average 23.92 7 22.36% 21.42 5.42 20.01% T A B L E 5.2 PROPORTION OF MAZES IN TOTAL COMMUNICATION FOR ENGLISH SECOND LANGUAGE USERS Subject Verbal Interview Condi t i o n Verbal Mani p u l a t i v e interview No of C-Units No of Mazes % Mazes No of C-Units No of Mazes % Mazes 1 20 3 13.04 17 4 19.04 2 16 6 27.27 22 1 4.34 3 20 2 9.09 10 3 23.07 4 17 4 19.05 21 6 22.22 5 21 5 19.23 21 8 27.58 6 21 4 16.00 12 3 20.00 7 30 4 11.76 25 4 13.79 8 16 7 30.43 26 6 18.75 9 27 11 28.94 22 15 40.54 10 14 2 12.50 17 7 29.16 11 13 5 27.77 21 4 16.00 12 22 6 21 .42 14 4 22.22 Average 19.75 5 19.70% 19.00 5.42 21 .39% 76. TABLE 5 .3(a) MAZE WORDS AS PERCENTAGE T O T A L WORDS USED . V E R B A L • _.^ v . . : -Subject E n g l i s h Primary Language % Engl ish Second Language % 1 24.33 16.50 2 45.50 29.36 3 37.33 12.50 4 23.20 14.38 5 27.41 30.32 6 32.22 25.30 7 21 .04 21.88 8 15.53 46.42 9 55.59 34.52 10 35.88 20.21 11 19.39 37.50 12 28.59 28.57 Average 30.49% 26.45% TABLE 5.3(b) MAZE WORDS AS PERCENTAGE T O T A L WORDS V E R B A L M A N I P U L A T I V E Subiect Engl ish Primary Language % Engl ish Second Language % 1 29.04 25.62 2 50.73 6.45 3 30.51 19.23 4 11 .11 29.14 5 19.16 22.10 6 34.22 15.73 7 48.15 22.27 8 9.75 25.21 9 13.04 54.31 10 30.30 39.65 11 46.11 23.61 12 9.22 31 .81 Average 27.61% 26.26% 77. v a r i e s w i t h the i n t e r v i e w C o n d i t i o n , the average p r o p o r t i o n o f maze words t o t o t a l words used f o r both V e r b a l and V e r b a l M a n i p u l a t i v e i n t e r v i e w s appears t o be constant (See Table 3a, b ) . T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t both E n g l i s h Second Language and E n g l i s h Primary Language Users are g u i l t y of making more language t a n g l e s (longer mazes)than f a l s e s t a r t s ( s h o r t e r mazes). A l e s s obvious but c r u c i a l p o i n t t h a t emerges from the data i s t h a t , g e n e r a l l y speaking, the p r o p o r t i o n of mazes f o r both language sub-groups i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The mean p r o p o r t i o n of mazes used f o r both i n t e r v i e w s f o r E n g l i s h Primary Language Users was 21.18% while the propor-t i o n of mazes t o t o t a l u t t e r a n c e s i s 20.55% f o r Second Language Users. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the two sub-groups do not v a r y g r e a t l y i n t h e i r o v e r a l l language p r o f i c i e n c y des-p i t e s l i g h t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s depending on whether l i v e specimens are p r e s e n t or not. Length of Communication U n i t s I t i s v a l i d t o assume t h a t the average l e n g t h of a communication u n i t may be determined by the average number of words i n t h a t u n i t (Loban, 1976). T h i s measure i s u s e f u l i n a study such as t h i s because i t c o u l d c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e how f l u e n t l y the s u b j e c t s are able t o use o r a l language t o ex-press t h e i r i d e a s . 78. Fluency i n a d u l t s g e n e r a l l y symbolizes to what extent they are able t o put together t h e i r words and express them-s e l v e s r e a d i l y with an unbroken easy stream of words. C h i l d r e n are not expected t o have p e r f e c t e d the r h e t o r i c a l - ; s k i l l s of a d u l t s , but by Grade Four, t h e i r parents and te a c h e r s expect them to respond w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i s h u s ing the v o c a b u l a r y a t t h e i r command. Thus, i t i s reason-a b l e t o examine t h e i r language f o r evidence of f l u e n c y and p r o f i c i e n c y . In t h i s study, as with Loban's developmental study of language i n c h i l d r e n from K-12, the average number of words per communication u n i t i s used as a b a s i c measure of f l u e n c y . I t may be argued t h a t t h i s measure merely i n d i c a t e s the use of a l a r g e number of words unnecessary f o r e f f i c i e n t communication. But t h i s i s not the case here. The t r a n s c r i p t s were c a r e f u l l y screened f o r r e p e t i t i o n s , t a n g l e s and i r r e l e v a n c e s and these were separated out and counted as maze words. A l s o , because t h i s i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r e d r e s -ponses to p a r t i c u l a r questions,.each s u b j e c t had t o use h i s words t o focus on the s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of the concept a l l u d e d t o i n the q u e s t i o n s or probes. The g e n e r a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n a number of communication u n i t s per s u b j e c t a c r o s s i n t e r v i e w s lends support to the r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h i s measure (See Tables 5.1 and 5.2). The data i t s e l f i s i n t e r e s t i n g . Tables 5.4 and 5.5 i n -d i c a t e t h a t the average number of communication u n i t s used i n 79. both i n t e r v i e w s i s much higher f o r E n g l i s h Primary Language Users than f o r E n g l i s h Second Language Users (190.08 i n the Verbal. C o n d i t i o n f o r E n g l i s h Primary Language versus 125.33 f o r E n g l i s h Second Language. Of the t o t a l number of C-Units used by the e n t i r e sample, 5 3.91% came from n a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers and 46.09% from Second Language Users. Although s i g n i f i c a n t , t h i s i s not a dramatic d i f f e r e n c e , and indicates•' t h a t the l a t t e r are f a i r l y competent i n t h e i r use of o r a l language. T h e r e f o r e the q u a l i t y or degree of e l a b o r a t i o n of the C-Uriit i t s e l f f o r each language group becomes c r u c i a l . The average number of words i n a communication u n i t ranges f o r E n g l i s h Primary Language Users as a group, from 4.93 t o 10.83 r e g a r d l e s s of the i n t e r v i e w c o n d i t i o n w i t h a medium p o i n t of 7.88 words per C-Unit. The same measure f o r E n g l i s h Second Language Users v a r i e s from 4.2 0 t o 10.04 with a median of 7.12 words per communication u n i t . Both groups  have the same mean number of words per communication u n i t  f o r the V e r b a l M a n i p u l a t i v e Interview. T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t -i n t f e a t u r e when compared w i t h the V e r b a l C o n d i t i o n i n which n a t i v e speakers use a s l i g h t l y longer, perhaps more e l a b o -r a t e d u n i t than the Second Language User (7.72 versus 6.35 -See Table 5.4 and 5.5). The i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n each group are even more d e s i r a b l e and m e r i t f u r t h e r d i s -c u s s i o n i n Chapter S i x . TABLE 5.4 80. AVERAGE NUMBER OF WORDS PER COMMUNICATION UNIT -E N G L I S H PRIMARY LANGUAGE USERS - C--"UNIT WORD COUNT Verbal Words-per Manipulat ive Words per Subject Condi t ion C - U n i t .Condi t ion . C - U n i t 1 227 8.11 171 5.90 2 188 7.83 101 7.76 3 146 6.08 246 6.15 4 192 6.61 152 6.60 5 294 10.13 232 7.73 6 162 6.72 148 7.40 7 289 8.50 169 8.45 8 87 7.92 i n 6.94 9 115 7.19 120 6.00 10 109 5.19 69 4.93 11 212 7.57 104 6.93 12 260 10.83 128 7.52 Average 190.08 7.72 145.91 6.86 TABLE 5.5 A V E R A G E NUMBER OF WORDS PER COMMUNICATION UNIT -E N G L I S H SECOND LANGUAGE USERS C--UNIT WORD COUNT Verbal Words per Manipulat ive Words per Subject 2nd Lanquage Condit ion C-Uni t Condit ion C - U n i t 1 Chinese 84 4.20 90 5.30 2 Hindi 89 5.56 116 5.27 3 Chinese 98 4.90 42 4.20 4 Chinese 119 7.00 141 6.71 5 Korean 131 6.24 141 6.71 6 Chinese 186 8.86 75 6.25 7 Punjabi 207 6.90 164 6.56 8 Punjabi 105 6.56 261 10.04 9 Punjabi 220 8.15 201 9.14 10 Chinese 75 5.36 105 6.18 11 Chinese 85 6.54 no 5.24 12 Chinese 105 4.77 75 5.36 Average 125.33 6.25 126.75 6.86 81. . The r e s u l t s obtained here are somewhat lower than those obtained f o r the same measure by Loban (1976, p.27). In h i s study, the average number of words i n a C-Unit f o r Grade Four s u b j e c t s , ranged from 7.55 to 9.28. There was l e s s v a r i a t i o n i n h i s group and his: group mean seems s l i g h t l y h i g h e r . T h i s i s j u s t i f i a b l e i n terms of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n methodology between the two i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Loban's study attempted to assess g e n e r a l o r a l and w r i t t e n language usage by q u e s t i o n i n g the sample on such popular t o p i c s as games, t e l e v i s i o n , f a v o u r i t e magazines and books. T h i s type of s i t u a t i o n lends i t s e l f t o a f r e e r use of o r a l language. As he remarks (1976, p.19) " i t i s very l i k e l y t h a t i n a school s i t u a t i o n and w i t h an a d u l t , some c h i l d r e n s h i f t the register of t h e i r speech, t h e i r usage, t o some degree". He c i t e s t h i s as a l i m i t a t i o n of h i s study. Furthermore he used h i g h , low and random groups of students based on the Kuhlman-Anderson I n t e l l i g e n c e Test (p.4). T h i s c r i t e r i o n i t s e l f would be l i k e l y t o l i m i t v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n h i s sample. There i s another important d i f f e r e n c e between the two s t u d i e s t h a t would l i k e l y r e s u l t i n the s l i g h t d i s c r e p a n c y i n obtained v a l u e s . The i n t e r v i e w schedule used here, a i r though q u i t e f l e x i b l e i n s t r u c t u r e , d i d s t i l l r e q u i r e sub-j e c t s t o respond to a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c of which they pro-bably had l i t t l e formal knowledge and l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e . Such a s i t u a t i o n would be expected to l i m i t the flow of meaningful communication u n i t s and i n c r e a s e t h e flow of f a l s e s t a r t s , r e p e t i t i o n s and language t a n g l e s (mazes). Concept-Related Vocabulary Greater v a r i e t y and depth of vocabulary i s a f r e -q u e n t l y used commonsense measure of language p r o f i c i e n c y . James Brown (1959, p.80) c l a i m s t h a t : " I f our word supply i s inadequate our communi-c a t i o n i s of n e c e s s i t y inadequate t o o . . . . " In g e n e r a l many educators agree t h a t good v o c a b u l a r y development i s necessary f o r s o c i a l and academic ac h i e v e -ment. Two crude measures of vocabulary use are employed i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The f i r s t i s simply a comparison of the number of nouns, verbs, a d j e c t i v e s and adverbs used, t h a t are p e r t i n e n t to e x p r e s s i o n of important aspects of the L i f e - C y c l e concept. The other i s the frequency of use o f s p e c i f i c words. The number of these words i s shown i n Tables 5.6 and 5.7. The p r o p o r t i o n of nouns e t c . , to t o t a l words per C-Unit has not been c o n s i d e r e d as meaningful a measure to t h i s study as the p r o p o r t i o n of these words, s i n c e the l a t t e r may l e a d to erroneous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d a t a . Although Loban d i d use p r o p o r t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y and not  number i n h i s study of verbs, he concurs w i t h the 83. f o l l o w i n g example to i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t of comparison: For i n s t a n c e : Norma was p e t t i n g a s t r a y c a t : 2 verbs i n 6 words = 30% verbs Our neighbour's pet dog must have 4 verbs i n 12 words been f i g h t i n g an angry w i l d skunk': " =30% verbs The number of verbs i n c r e a s e s , but the percentage r e -mains the same (p.14 0). Hence the t o t a l number.of c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d words i s d i s -p l a y e d (Tables 5.6 and 5.7) as a p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l word.: count f o r communication u n i t s . A l s o , the p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d words, which c o n s i s t s of nouns, verbs e t c . i s given f o r both i n t e r v i e w s . A few p o i n t s here deserve mention. The mean number and p r o p o r t i o n of nouns and verbs i s c o n s i d e r a b l y higher f o r the Primary Language Users than f o r the Second Language Group. The r e v e r s e i s t r u e f o r the number and p r o p o r t i o n of ad-j e c t i v e s used. N a t i v e E n g l i s h Speakers use more a d j e c t i v e s than Second Language Users to d i s c u s s the L i f e - C y c l e o f the Mealworm B e e t l e . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n f o r the Second Language Group of t o t a l c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d words which are nouns and verbs (84.45 p e r c e n t ) , than t h a t f o r the Primary Language Group (82.12%). In such a case as t h i s where the average number of words per C-Unit does not i n c r e a s e c o n s i d e r a b l y , but a d i f f e r e n c e does e x i s t i n the number o f a d j e c t i v e s used i t may be assumed t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t of group (EPL) has access t o a more e l a b o r a t e d use of o r a l language. Despite t h i s , i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d an o v e r a l l h i g h e r - p e r c e n t c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d 8 4 . TABLE 5.6 CONCEPT RELATED WORDS OF -ENGLISH PRIMARY LANGUAGE USERS T o t a l . :• Total Word % C-R C-R Words Count f o r Words Subject Nouns Verbs A d j e c t i v e s Adverbs C-Units C-Units 1 51 46 13 3 113 398 28.39 2 30 25 13 3 71 289 24.56 3 47 49 28 1 125 392 31 .88 4 44 34 21 6 105 344 30.52 5 46 49 25 - 120 524 22.81 6 30 41 17 - 88 310 28.39 7 76 41 7 1 125 458 27.29 8 • 23 26 13 - 62 189 32.80 9 35 28 12 - 75 235 31 .91 10 30 25 12 - 67 178 37.64 11 47 38 13 - 98 316 31.01 12 47 25 16 88 388 22.68 Average 42.17' 35.58 15.83 1 .1 94.68 335.25 29.15% Average 44.54% 37.58% 16.72% 1 .16% % C-R Words Used TABLE 5.7 CONCEPT-RELATED WORDS OF ENGLISH SECOND LANGUAGE USERS Total Word % C-R Total Count f o r Words Subject Nouns Verbs Adjec t ives Adverbs C-R Words C-Units Total C - U n i t 1 21 22 17 _ 60 174 34.48 2 28 31 11 - 70 205 34.14 3 22 16 14 1 53 140 37.85 4 41 37 7 - 85 260 32.69 5 47 35 16 - 98 272 36.03 6 40 21 18 - 79 261 30.27 7 62 43 12 - 117 371 31 .54 8 46 37 9 - 92 366 25.14 9 48 49 16 - 113 421 26.84 10 20 19 7 - 46 180 25.55 11 34 22 17 • - 73 195 37.43 12 31 31 3 - 65 180 36.11 Average 36.67 30.25 12.25 .08 79.25 252.10 32.34% Average 46.27% 38.18 % 15.45 0.10% % C-R Words Used 85. words per C-Unit f o r E n g l i s h Second Language (ESL) (32 .34%) than f o r E n g l i s h Primary Language (EPL) (29.16%) s u b j e c t s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t a l a r g e p o r t i o n of these c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d words would i n the case of the E n g l i s h Second Language group c o n s i s t of unelaborated s u b j e c t - p r e d i c a t e sequences. Adverbs are used i n f r e q u e n t l y by both language groups but when they occur t h e i r use i s more p r e v a l e n t f o r E n g l i s h Primary Language Users than f o r E n g l i s h Second Language Users. Frequency of Use,-of , Concept-Related Vocabulary - • The l i s t s of nouns, v e r b s , a d j e c t i v e s and adverbs used by the sample as a whole are i n c l u d e d i n Appendices Of these the words used most f r e q u e n t l y by the e n t i r e sample are. shown'in order of p r e f e r a n c e . Of these, the words which the Second Language group used most p r e v a l e n t l y are shown i n Table 5.9 i n t h e i r order of pre-f e r e n c e . The words wi t h (*) a s t e r i s k s are those Used ex-c l u s i v e l y by Second Language Users. There seems t o be l e s s v a r i e t y i n the type of words used by E n g l i s h Second Language Users than those used by E n g l i s h Primary Language Users. E n g l i s h Second Language Users appear to r e s o r t more f r e -q u e n t l y t o t h e i r own words or word combinations, e . g . ^ g i r l -beetle", "man-one" i n s t e a d of the u s u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e words a v a i l -a b l e , t o • the n a t i v e speaker, "female" 'male ". For E n g l i s h Second Language. Users, such words as "lady", "boy", " g i r l " TABLE 5.8 86 WORDS COMMONLY USED BY E N G L I S H SECOND LANGUAGE AND E N G L I S H PRIMARY LANGUAGE USERS Most p r e v a l e n t L e a s t p r e v a l e n t Nouns Verbs A d j e c t i v e s b e e t l e grow bigg e r egg have babies small baby- look l i k e : l i t t l e one have b i g mother come out of d i f f e r e n t baby-beetle hatch young worm get b l a c k female grow-up s m a l l e r a d u l t come from grown-up i n s e c t d i e brown lady change white f a t h e r t u r n i n t o f u l l - g r o w n s i z e l a y s h e l l grow i n t o shape change i n t o male be l i k e go mother-bee t l e get eggs mealworm crack animal get o l d e r g i r l become l a r v a pupa beetie-baby beetie-mother boy c a t e r p i l l a r man-one 1 TABLE 5.9 WORDS. COMMONLY USED BY ENGLISH SECOND LANGUAGE USERS Nouns Verbs A d j e c t i v e s Most p r e v a l e n t egg baby b e e t l e one mother baby-beetle * l a d y worm *beetle-baby *beetie-mother *boy grow look l i k e have babies come out of have hatch come from grow up get l a y s m a l l l i t t l e b i g g e r b i g d i f f e r e n t b l a c k L e a s t p r e v a l e n t * g i r l - b e e t l e *man-one 88 . are p o p u l a r l y used i n order to d i f f e r e n t i a t e among b e e t l e s . Use of M o d i f i e r s I t seems t h a t when a c h i l d i s unable t o c a t e g o r i s e an event r e a d i l y i n terms of h i s own experience, he i s f o r c e d to r e f e r to events which he c o n s i d e r s analogous to t h a t p a r t i c u l a r event. The a n a l o g i e s he uses t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e c l u e s t o the way he i n t u i t i v e l y r e f e r s to such an event. J u s t as i t was^necessary to i d e n t i f y the c r u c i a l concept-r e l a t e d words f r e q u e n t l y used by the sample as a whole, so too, i t i s important t o l i s t (as shown i n Appendix ) the phrases used by the s u b j e c t s to express important and i n t e r e s t i n g aspects of the concept. These m o d i f i e r s , which are f o r the most p a r t phrases^ have been c a t e g o r i s e d f i r s t l y on the b a s i s of the aspect of the concept they have been used to c l a r i f y , such as, i d e n t i t y , s i z e , d u r a t i o n of events, change i n time (growth). The second c r i t e r i o n f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the type of phrase i t s e l f , i . e . whether the m o d i f i e r i s p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e or otherwise ( i n f e r e n t i a l ) . A d e s c r i p t i v e phrase i s d e f i n e d here as one which c l a r i f i e s c e r t a i n q u a l i t a t i v e f e a t u r e s of the conceptual aspect t o which i t r e f e r s . These phrases are not n e c e s s a r i l y comparative i n t h a t they o n l y s p e c i f y the s e t of c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s i n c l u s i v e or e x c l u s i v e of the p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e being d i s c u s s e d . A l l other phrases have been c l a s s i f i e d as 89. i n f e r e n t i a l . To be c l a s s e d as such a phrase has to be "more than d e s c r i p t i v e " . I t must p e r t a i n t o a f e a t u r e t h a t i s i m p l i e d r a t h e r than e x p l i c i t . Hence i t a l s o d i v u l g e s t o some extent the speaker's u n d e r l y i n g n o t i o n s about the conceptual aspect to which t h a t phrase a l l u d e s . For^ i n s t a n c e , such phrases such as: a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s j u s t l i k e the a d u l t young and small have been c l a s s i f i e d as d e s c r i p t i v e . Other m o d i f i e r s l i k e , f o r e.g. l i k e chickens hatch out of an egg too small to have babies from the egg to the f u l l - g r o w n one and in-between have been taken to be i n f e r e n t i a l . G e n e r a l l y speaking a l l s u b j e c t s tended t o use more d e s c r i p t i v e than i n f e r e n t i a l phrases. T h i s was expected s i n c e the t o p i c chosen was not one t h a t was e s p e c i a l l y f a m i l a r t o the sample. The number of phrases used to e x p l a i n the i d e n t i t y of the b e e t l e and i t s o f f s p r i n g was by f a r g r e a t e r than those used t o e l a b o r a t e on the s i z e or growth of those organisms. The g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of phrases l i s t e d f o r the sample came from n a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers (56.94% f o r EPL" v s . 43.06% f o r E n g l i s h Second Language Users, ESL). Of these, approximately (15.85%) 16 percent were I n f e r e n t i a l . The r e s t were d e s c r i p t i v e . As 90. a.group, the E n g l i s h Second Language Users employed l e s s m o d i f i e r s than E n g l i s h Primary Language Users. In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , the phrases used by the former (ESL) were a l s o f o r the most p a r t d e s c r i p t i v e . Only 14.51 percent were I n f e r e n t i a l . The most i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e of t h i s p o r t i o n o f the data i s the a c t u a l nature of words and phrases used by these c h i l d r e n (Appendices G, H). However a s y n t a c t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h e i r content i s beyond the scope of the prese n t study. 91. CHAPTER SIX CRITICAL REVIEW OF LANGUAGE AND CONCEPT FINDINGS An attempt w i l l be made here t o s y n t h e s i s e the f i n d -i n g s presented s e p a r a t e l y i n Chapter Four and F i v e . In mapping the f e a t u r e s of o r a l language usage onto the con-c e p t u a l content o f the s u b j e c t ' s i d e a s , i t i s hoped t h a t some i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s may be brought to l i g h t . RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORAL LANGUAGE USAGE AND  CONCEPTUAL PATTERNS OF LIFE-CYCLE CONCEPTS The Tables and F i g u r e s t h a t f o l l o w serve t o i l l u s t r a t e any trends e v i d e n t i n the way students use t h e i r o r a l language and the nature of the ideas they express on the L i f e - C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e . In Table 6.1 i s summarised the mean number of communication u n i t s , mazes, and words per communi-c a t i o n u n i t a c c o r d i n g to the group of s u b j e c t s adhering to the same Conceptual P a t t e r n o f L i f e - C y c l e Concepts. I t appears t h a t there i s no w e l l - d e f i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number o f communication u n i t s o r mazes which a s u b j e c t uses and the conceptual content o f h i s i d e a s . N e i t h e r v e r b o s i t y nor exactness of e x p r e s s i o n appears c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of any p a r t i c u l a r Conceptual P a t t e r n . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t l y true for. the E n g l i s h Primary Language Group as w e l l as the E n g l i s h Second Language Users (Refer to Tables 6.2, 6.3). I t i s common-sense e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t amount of communication would not be s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t . I t would be more l i k e l y t h a t the type of words and r e a s o n i n g used i n communication would be p e r t i n e n t . TABLE 6 .1 COMPARISON OF ORAL LANGUAGE MEASURES AND CONCEPTUAL PATTERNS FOR A L L S U B J E C T S O r a l Language Measure Conceptual P a t t e r n One: Conceptual P a t t e r n Two Conceptual P a t t e r n Three Conceptual P a t t e r n Four Mean number of C-Units 25.87 19.13 22 .58 19 . 58 Mean number of mazes 9.88 5 .10 6 .0.8 5.33 Mean number of words per C-Unit 8 .20 6 .65 ; 6 .75 6 .35 The mean number o f words per communication u n i t has been used i n t h i s study as some i n d i c a t i o n of f l u e n c y of TABLE 6 . 2 COMPARISON OF ORAL LANGUAGE MEASURES AND  CONCEPTUAL PATTERNS FOR E N G L I S H PRIMARY LANGUAGE USERS Oral" 1 language measure Concep-tual Pattern Concep-tual Pattern' Concep-t u a l Pattern Concep-tual Pattern One Two Three Four Number of C-Units 25.25 19.87 26.16 21 .16 Number of mazes 6.75 5.88 7.16 5.66 Number of words per C - U n i t 8.00 7.1.6 6.57 7.77 Proport ion of concept - re la ted words per C - U n i t 25.60% 25.92% 30.73% 30.36% % Nouns % Verbs %Adjectives 36.54% 43.27% 20.19% 46.89% 33.85% 19.26% 42.09% 41.14% 16.77% 51.41% 36.97% 11.62% TABLE 6.3 COMPARISON OF ORAL LANGUAGE MEASURES AND  CONCEPTUAL PATTERNS FOR E N G L I S H  SECOND LANGUAGE USERS Oral language Conceptual Conceptual Conceptual Conceptual measure Pattern One Pattern Two Pattern Three Pattern Four Number of C-Units 24.50 18.38 19.00 18.00 Number of mazes 13,00 4.32 5.00 5.00 Number of words per 8.39 6.15 6.92 4.93 C-Uni t Proportion of concept - re la ted 26.84% 32.49% 32.69% 36.11% words per C - U n i t % Nouns 42.48% 46.58% 42.31% 47.69% % Verbs 43.36% 35.80% 30.77% 47.69% % A d j e c t i v e s 14.16% 17.62% 26.92% 4.62% e x p r e s s i o n . From the data presented here the f l u e n c y of s u b j e c t s t h a t adhere to Conceptual P a t t e r n One seems s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than t h a t of other s u b j e c t s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s group i n e x p l a i n i n g the L i f e - C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e i n terms o f the human growth c y c l e a p p a r e n t l y stumbled on a t o p i c f a m i l i a r to them. T h i s would l e a d to an i n c r e a s e i n easy p r o d u c t i o n of o r a l language i n the form of i l l u s t r a t i o n s and a n a l o g i e s to j u s t i f y t h e i r p o s i t i o n . For the other subjects? attempting to use i n t u i t i o n l e s s , and more l o g i c a l l y deductive s o l u t i o n s about c o n f l i c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n they have detected, would tend to reduce', fluency i n communication. I t i s notable too t h a t s u b j e c t s i n the f i r s t group, Conceptual P a t t e r n One have a l a r g e r mean number of mazes. These s u b j e c t s tended to be more r e p e t i t i o u s . However, the number of language t a n g l e s f o r a l l other groups of s u b j e c t s does not vary g r e a t l y . T h i s v a r i a t i o n probably i n d i c a t e s a more r e f l e c t i v e type of e x p r e s s i o n as sometimes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g techniques. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONCEPT-RELATED VOCABULARY AND  CONCEPTUAL PATTERNS OF LIFE-CYCLE CONCEPTS The data i n d i c a t e s a steady i n c r e a s e i n the pro-p o r t i o n of c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d words a c r o s s Conceptual P a t t e r n s , w i t h a g e n e r a l tendency to an i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n of nouns. Because t h i s l i f e - c y c l e has f o u r stages, and i t i s necessary to name the organisms which r e p r e s e n t each stage, i t seems reasonable to assume t h a t a s u b j e c t d e s c r i b i n g a process with four stages, the true c y c l e , would need to use more nouns, t h a t i s to e x p l a i n h i s view, than a s u b j e c t who proposes a s i m p l e r c y c l e w i t h l e s s or no such stages. T h e r e f o r e , i t appears t h a t the p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p observed between o v e r a l l number of words used to r e l a t e s p e c i f i c aspects of the concept and the p a t t e r n s of b e l i e f i d e n t i f i e d , i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . Furthermore the f a c t t h a t students who used E n g l i s h as a Second Language tended to use c o n s i s t e n t l y a higher pro-p o r t i o n of c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d words than n a t i v e E n g l i s h -speakers i n d i c a t e s t hat t h e i r p r e c i s e use of c e r t a i n words appears to compensate f o r any supposed d e f i c i t i n o r a l language. TABLE 6.4 COMPARISON OF C O N C E P T - R E L A T E D VOCABULARY AND CONCEPTUAL PATTERNS FOR A L L S U B J E C T S O r a l Language Measure Conceptual P a t t e r n One Conceptual P a t t e r n Two Conceptual P a t t e r n Three Conceptual P a t t e r n F< Mean Propor-t i o n of Con-c e p t - r e l a t e d words per C-Unit % 26.22 29.20 31.71 33.23 P r o p o r t i o n of Nouns (%) 39.63 46 .74 42.19 46 .95 P r o p o r t i o n of Verbs (%) 43.31 34.81 37 .67 44 .79 P r o p o r t i o n of A d j e c t i v e s (%) 17 .06 18.45 20.13 8.26 96. ooooo - - A l l subjects: X EPL (English':Primary Language) o ESL (Enelish Second Language) 1 2 3. h Conceptual P a t t e r n s FIGURE 6.1 MEAN PROPORTION OF CONCEPT-RELATED WORDS PER COMMUNICATION UNIT BY CONCEPTUAL PATTERN S i g n i f i c a n c e of Vocabulary At t h i s p o i n t i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o d i s c u s s the words used t o desi g n a t e the many stages i n the L i f e - C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e . Instead of using the c l a s s i c nouns t h a t appear f r e q u e n t l y i n textbooks, words such as " l a r v a " , "mealworm", "pupa", s u b j e c t s tended to s u b s t i t u t e t h e i r own words. S u b j e c t s w i t h Conceptual P a t t e r n s one and two f r e -q u e n t l y used such terms as "beetle-baby","baby-beetle", "small b e e t l e s " , "babies", "baby-ones" to denote the o f f -s p r i n g of the b e e t l e . In Conceptual P a t t e r n s t h r e e and four where s u b j e c t s attempted to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between m u l t i p l e forms of o f f s p r i n g , other words such as "nymph", "worms", " c a t e r p i l l a r s " , "silkworms" were used to d e s c r i b e the l a r v a e and pupae- One E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g student used the terms " l a r v a " and "pupa", e x p l a i n i n g t h a t they were " s c i e n t i f i c words". One g i r l used the term "mealworm" but her des-c r i p t i o n o f a "mealworm" made i t c l e a r t h a t she was un-c e t a i n of i t s c o r r e c t use and meaning. The m a j o r i t y of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t s (Conceptual P a t t e r n s one and two) r e p e a t e d l y used the term "baby-beetle", whereas E n g l i s h Second Language speakers used "baby-beetle" as w e l l as "beetle-baby". These terms as w e l l as other word combinations such as "beetie-mother", "baby-one" were f r e q u e n t l y used by E n g l i s h Second Language Users i n p r e -ference to the standard s c i e n t i f i c terminology such as "egg", "mealworm" e t c . T h i s a b i l i t y to compose t h e i r own words a p p a r e n t l y d i d not hind e r t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n of ideas and a p p r o p r i a t e use of o r a l language. A l l of the word com-b i n a t i o n s such as those mentioned above which were used t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e or name organisms were c l a s s i f i e d as nouns. Because of the s t r u c t u r e of these word-combinations i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o p o s t u l a t e and account f o r the l e s s f r e q u e n t occurrence of a d j e c t i v e s i n the language o f E n g l i s h Second Language s u b j e c t s . Consequently the c l a i m cannot be made here with c e r t a i n t y t h a t such s u b j e c t s employed a l e s s e l a b o r a t e d code of o r a l language but r a t h e r , t h a t they had a u n i q u e l y a p p r o p r i a t e way of u s i n g t h e i r words t o d e p i c t r e l e v a n t f e a t u r e s o f the L i f e - C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e . Throughout both s e t s of i n t e r v i e w s o n l y two s u b j e c t s made mention of the " l i f e - C y c l e " of the b e e t l e . Both of these were E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g and. one s u b s c r i b e d t o Con-c e p t u a l P a t t e r n f o u r . The word "stage" was used by f o u r s u b j e c t s to denote d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s of growth. G e n e r a l l y speaking s u b j e c t s r e f e r r e d to"the way the b e e t l e changed" or "how i t grew" and what i t "became" or "turned i n t o " a t v a r i o u s times. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t although so few of the sample used standard s c i e n t i f i c terminology, they a l l , seemed t o have an ac c e p t a b l e understanding o f the continuous and r e g e n e r a t i v e aspects of the growth c y c l e i n s p i t e of the p a r t i c u l a r c y c l e proposed. SIGNIFICANCE OF VERBAL REASONING STRATEGY B e r e i t e r zt at (1977, p.3) c l a i m t h a t by l i n k i n g c e r t a i n ideas "an i n t u i t i v e reasoner i s d i s p o s e d to make c e r t a i n v a l i d and c e r t a i n i n v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s " . F u r t h e r -more these r e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r p r e t P i a g e t (1967) to mean th a t " c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s are evoked by v e r b a l s t a t e -ments". I f i t i s assumed t h a t i n t u i t i v e reasoners are i n s e n s i t i v e to l o g i c a l l y connected and l o g i c a l l y un-connected a s s e r t i o n s , then the two s u b j e c t s who f e l l i n t o the S y n c r e t i c Response Mode category are j u s t i f i a b l y i n t u i t i v e r easoners. A c c o r d i n g to B e r e i t e r . tt a£(1977) , i n l o o k i n g a t v e r b a l r e a s o n i n g by grade and response type, grade f o u r students had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f l o g i -c a l l y c o r r e c t responses than grade two, but s l i g h t l y l e s s )than Grades s i x and e i g h t . Grade two students tended to be i n t u i t i v e reasoners whereas o l d e r c h i l d r e n tended to reason d e d u c t i v e l y . Deductive reasoners f o l l o w a systematic way of making a judgement based on l o g i c a l l y c o n c l u s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . Seemingly, t h i s a b i l i t y de-v e l o p s i n middle or l a t e c h i l d h o o d . The f o r e g o i n g statements w i l l support the l a g i n v e r b a l r e a s o n i n g observed i n t h i s sample. S y n c r e t i c s u b j e c t s are i n t u i t i v e r e a s o n e r s . Those t h a t are c l a s s e d i n the E x p l a n a t o r y and Relevant Mode are deductive r e a s o n e r s . The Pre-Emptive Mode c o n s i s t s of s u b j e c t s i n the process of d e v e l o p i n g a d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g s t r a t e g y . T h i s appears to be c o n s i s t e n t with the n o t i o n s expressed by P h i l l i p s (1977) i n d i s c u s s i n g Vyhotsky's c o n t r i b u t i o n : The development of a s c i e n t i f i c concept begins w i t h a v e r b a l statement. (p.38) The c h i l d t h e r e f o r e moves from e a r l i e r i n t u i t i v e stages of reasoning to a stage where c e r t a i n a t t r i b u t e s and aspects of events can be a b s t r a c t e d and g e n e r a l i s e d by him, and these g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e l y a p p l i e d to other circumstances. SIGNIFICANCE OF MATERIALS I t i s c l e a r from r e s u l t s i n Chapter F i v e (Refer Tables 3a, 3b, 4.5 ) t h a t each i n t e r v i e w c o n d i t i o n 1D0. f u n c t i o n e d i n a d i f f e r e n t manner f o r each of the two sample sub-groups. Since d i f f e r e n c e i n Interview Condi-t i o n was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o presence of m a t e r i a l s , any change i n performance between the V e r b a l and the V e r b a l M a n i p u l a t i v e would r e s u l t from the presence or absence o f m a t e r i a l s . Whereas there was a c l e a r decrease i n the flow o f words f o r E n g l i s h Primary Language Group ( i n the V e r b a l M a n i p u l a t i v e C o n d i t i o n ) , there was a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n number o f words f o r E n g l i s h Second Language group over t h a t of the V e r b a l C o n d i t i o n . T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e . A t f i r s t glance i t appears t h a t the presence of m a t e r i a l s - l i v e specimens a c t s t o s t i m u l a t e and f a c i -l i t a t e o r a l language flow f o r Second Language Users. May-be t h i s i s so because by Viewing and h a n d l i n g specimens they can more r e a d i l y " f i n d " o r compose the a p p r o p r i a t e words. H i l y a r d (1977) supports the c l a i m t h a t a t f i r s t c h i l d r e n " l e a r n to draw i n f e r e n c e s from i n f o r m a t i o n which assumes or maps onto t h e i r p r i o r knowledge" and a l s o l e a r n " t o draw the necessary i m p l i c a t i o n s from i n f o r m a t i o n which c o n t r a d i c t s t h e i r p r i o r world knowledge". W i l l i a m s and Adams (1976,,p. 145) i n t h e i r study, found t h a t " i f b i l i n g u a l students are t o be taught i n t h e i r nondominant language.... the d i s c o v e r y method should be c o n s i d e r e d a v i a b l e t e a c h i n g method", d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the v e r b a l 101. t e a c h i n g method i s e f f e c t i v e f o r both b i l i n g u a l and u n i l i n g u a l s u b j e c t s . As to the q u e s t i o n of decreased word-count f o r E n g l i s h Primary Language Users i n the V e r b a l M a n i p u l a t i v e Interview, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s r e s u l t e d from a s i g n i -f i c a n t l y higher average number of mazes i n the V e r b a l C o n d i t i o n . I t appears then t h a t without the m a t e r i a l s t h i s group gets i n v o l v e d i n more language t a n g l e s i n order t o e x p l a i n t h e i r p o i n t of view. The m a t e r i a l s t h e r e -f o r e f u n c t i o n to make t h e i r use of o r a l language more, e f f i c i e n t , r e l e v a n t and p r e c i s e . T h i s dramatic d i f f e r e n c e i n maze count i s not e v i d e n t f o r E n g l i s h Second Language Users probably because when u s i n g t h e i r nondominant language they t h i n k c a r e f u l l y before speaking, t h a t i s } t h e y ; make c o n t i n u a l e f f o r t s a t p r e c i s i o n . T h i s hypothesis r e c e i v e s support from the g e n e r a l l y slower r a t e of speech observed i n E n g l i s h Second Language Users - sometimes v i s i b l y m u t t e r i n g to themselves before speaking a l o u d to the I n t e r v i e w e r . Whether the presence of m a t e r i a l s f u n c t i o n s a l t e r n a t i v e l y to p r o v i d e the needed " p r i o r world knowledge", or to f a c i l i t a t e use of a p p r o p r i a t e c o n c e p t - r e l a t e d words f o r o r a l e x p r e s s i o n cannot be determined here. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o note t h a t t h e i r use,, i n t h i s case, l i v e specimens, was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to some s i g n i f i c a n t change i n performance f o r each language sub-group. 102. CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS In Chapter One the ge n e r a l and s p e c i f i c problems f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n were o u t l i n e d . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by a j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f the t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n a p p l i c a b l e to the problem - the i n t e r a c t i o n o f o r a l language and b i o -l o g i c a l concepts. The study i t s e l f e v o l v e d from the responses of sub-j e c t s t o r e s e a r c h and probe q u e s t i o n s on the L i f e - C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e , Tenebrio m o l i t o r . These i n t e r -views were examined, and gen e r a l p a t t e r n s or conceptual: schemes of i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d and grouped together on the b a s i s o f t h e i r s i m i l a r c o n c e p t u a l c o n t e n t . T h i s allowed f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of o r a l language content and v e r b a l reasoning mode f o r the responses of two sub-groups o f the sample. Some aspects of the r e s u l t s presented r e s p e c t i v e l y i n Chapters Four and F i v e have been c r i t i c a l l y reviewed i n Chapter S i x . C o n c l u s i o n s Although t h i s study was not intended t o pro v i d e de-f i n i t e s o l u t i o n s to any p a r t i c u l a r problem, or to t e s t a 103. p a r t i c u l a r e x p l i c i t l y - s t a t e d h y p o t h e s i s f the f i n d i n g s t h a t have r e s u l t e d from t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n may be of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t to elementary school t e a c h e r s . Based on the r e s u l t s o b tained here a number of c o n c l u s i o n s may be o f f e r e d i n response to the i s s u e s s t a t e d i n Chapter One ( p . l ) . F i r s t l y , students who employ E n g l i s h as a Primary Language (EPL) and those who use E n g l i s h as a Second Language (ESL) have s i m i l a r n o t i o n s on the L i f e - C y c l e of the Mealworm B e e t l e . No one group was found to have ideas t h a t were e x c l u s i v e l y t h e i r own, though the t r e n d i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l a r g e r number of ESL students than EPL students a s c r i b e d to c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s of i d e a s . Secondly, a l i s t has been p r o v i d e d i n Appendices G and H of words and phrases used by the e n t i r e sample to d e s c r i b e c e r t a i n u n d e r l y i n g components of the L i f e - C y c l e concept, such as s i z e , p h y s i c a l i d e n t i f y , d u r a t i o n of events. There i s a l s o i n d i c a t i o n as to,. which of the l i s t e d words and phrases were more f r e q u e n t l y used by ESL s u b j e c t s than EPL s u b j e c t s . T h i r d l y , a p e r u s a l of the above l i s t g i v e s c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n as t o the " u n s c i e n t i f i c " nature of most of the vocabulary used by both sub-groups to express t h e i r view-p o i n t s . F o u r t h l y , the a p p r o p r i a t e Tables and F i g u r e s i n Chapters Four and F i v e suggest t h a t the type and frequency 104 . of nouns, verbs, a d j e c t i v e s , and the type of m o d i f i e r s d i d d i f f e r f o r each language sub-group and, t h a t d i f f e r -ences i n these measures were a l s o r e l a t e d to the i n t e r v i e w c o n d i t i o n , V e r b a l or V e r b a l - M a n i p u l a t i v e . I t appeared t h a t the presence of m a t e r i a l s f u n c t i o n e d d i f f e r e n t l y f o r each group of s u b j e c t s i n the sample. i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research: T h i s study, being e x p l o r a t o r y . i n nature r e v e a l e d a number of i n t e r e s t i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s on o r a l language of e x p r e s s i o n and s c i e n t i f i c concept attainment i n u n i -l i n g u a l s and b i l i n g u a l s . Many of the suggested s t u d i e s w i l l have tremendous.educational s i g n i f i c a n c e . The t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study p o i n t to some i s s u e s t h a t need t o be researched f u r t h e r : 1) To what extent does the s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e of the dominant language of a n o n - f l u e n t b i l i n g u a l student p r e s e n t a/.hindrance or p r e d i s p o s i t i o n f o r h i s attainment of p a r t i c u l a r s c i e n t i f i c con-cepts . 2) To what ext e n t does the o r a l language of non-n a t i v e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g students c o n s t i t u t e a common code or to what extent does t h e i r o r a l E n g l i s h Language usage depend on the nature of t h e i r dominant language. 105. For example i t was e v i d e n t from data i n Table 5.5 t h a t on the average the Punjabi-speaking group had a high e r word count than Chinese-speaking s t u d e n t s . T h i s type o f problem i s an i n t e r e s t i n g one to e x p l o r e . 3) To what ext e n t does the s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e of the dominant d i a l e c t of a b i d i a l e c t i c a l student p r e s e n t an hindrance or p r e d i s p o s i t i o n f o r h i s attainment of p a r t i c u l a r s c i e n t i f i c con-cepts? 4) To what ext e n t and when should s c i e n c e i n -s t r u c t i o n be conducted i n the student's dominant language or d i a l e c t i n order t o maximise a s s i m i -l a t i o n of c e r t a i n s c i e n t i f i c concepts? 5) To what e x t e n t do s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the de-velopment of s c i e n t i f i c concepts over time i n middle c h i l d h o o d p a r a l l e l language development and v e r b a l r e a s o n i n g s t r a t e g i e s ? 6) What te a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s best s u i t a group of students depending on t h e i r language, d i a l e c t or c u l t u r a l background? 7) How should teachers adequately assess achievement i n s c i e n c e f o r students w i t h a second language or second d i a l e c t ? . To what e x t e n t should assessment r e l y on o v e r a l l language p r o f i c i e n c y and f l u e n c y ? 106 . 8) Should the c u r r i c u l u m of the second language student be r e o r g a n i s e d around h i s experience and i n t e r e s t s t o f a c i l i t a t e s c i e n t i f i c concept l e a r n i n g ? What i s the nature of the way i n which m a t e r i a l s f u n c t i o n f o r the second language user? Many of the qu e s t i o n s s t a t e d above p e r t a i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p of language and thought but s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the i n t e r a c t i o n between language of communication and language of e x p r e s s i o n , and attainment of s c i e n t i f i c concepts. There i s a p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o b i o l o g i c a l concept development i n the middle grades. Many r e s e a r c h e r s have succeeded i n c l a r i f y i n g t o some exte n t how language and thought processes a c t and i n -t e r a c t i n the young c h i l d , but the e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i -cance of much of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the o l d e r c h i l d (10-14 years) has been to a l a r g e extent i g n o r e d . I t i s even more important f o r educators t o determine s p e c i f i c a l l y what s t r a t e g i e s are best f o r the conceptual development of which members of t h e i r school p o p u l a t i o n . Recently, there has been a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n the language and c o g n i t i v e processes of b i l i n g u a l s . T h i s renewed i n t e r e s t r a i s e s a number of p a r a l l e l q u e s t i o n s f o r the c h i l d who speaks a d i a l e c t a t home - the c h i l d 107 . who belongs to a, d i f f e r e n t speech community. T h i s pro-blem has been, r e c e i v i n g i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n r e c e n t l y by B r i t i s h Educators ( Hester and Wight, 1977). Science has a l s o reached i t s p i n a c l e of importance i n t h i s h i g h l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l 2 0th c e n t u r y . Many of the b i l i n g u a l or b i d i a l e c t i c a l students a t schools throughout Canada have been r e a r e d i n c u l t u r e s i n which the nature of the indigenous t r a d i t i o n a l thought and i t s i d e o l o g y i s i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h the nature of Western s c i e n t i -f i c thought p r e v a l e n t i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t such students have t o s t r u g g l e to accommodate to t h i s 'new' way of t h i n k i n g i n order to achieve academic success. Consequently the need f o r r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s such as those mentioned above has become even more p r e s s i n g f o r s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n and the s o l u t i o n of i t s modern-day problems. Because of the nature of t h i s study, i t has i m p l i -c a t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h i n g the problems a s s o c i a t e d with use of E n g l i s h as a medium of s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n f o r E n g l i s h Second Language students i n Canada. Many of these c h i l d -ren have migrated here from developing c o u n t r i e s where the language o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s a l s o a language or d i a l e c t other than the one they use f r e q u e n t l y a t home. T h i s dilemma t h e r e f o r e has t o be c o n f r o n t e d by developed as w e l l as developing n a t i o n s . I t i s not enough to seek s o l u t i o n s i n developed c o u n t r i e s and impose these on 108. d e v e l o p i n g systems of the T h i r d World. Rather, i t i s of utmost importance t h a t the q u e s t i o n i t s e l f be e x p l o r e d f u l l y and i n d i v i d u a l s o l u t i o n s sought at it's source. 109. APPENDIX A INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Subject Language Group Interview 1 - Week 1 1 Interview 2 - Week 3 C o n d i t i o n C o n d i t i o n 1 ESL V VM 2 EPL V VM 3 EPL V VM 4 EPL VM V 5 ESL VM V 6 ESL V VM 7 ESL V VM 8 ESL VM V 9 EPL V VM 10 EPL V VM 11 EPL VM V 12 EPL VM V 13 ESL V VM 14 ESL V VM 15 ESL VM V 16 ESL VM V 17 EPL VM V 18 EPL V VM 19 EPL V VM 20 EPL VM VM 21 ESL VM V 22 EPL V VM 23 ESL V VM 24 ESL VM V Legend EPL - E n g l i s h Primary Language User ESL - E n g l i s h Second Language User V - V e r b a l VM - V e r b a l M a n i p u l a t i v e 110. APPENDIX B L I S T OF M A T E R I A L S FOR V E R B A L M A N I P U L A T I V E INTERVIEWS 4 G l a s s p e t r i d i s h e s 1 Large c l e a r p l a s t i c c o n t a i n e r f o r c u l t u r e 1 A c t i v e l y growing c u l t u r e of Mealworm B e e t l e s 1 Small g l a s s b o t t l e 1 Large c l e a r p l a s t i c t r a y s p a t u l a , tweezers, l a b e l s , masking tape, grease-proof p e n c i l P o r t a b l e v i d e o and audio tape equipment 111. APPENDIX C PROTOCOL LIFE-CYCLE OF TENEBRIO  MOLITOR Name: School V e r b a l Date: ESL EPL V e r b a l M a n i p u l a t i v e 1. Can b e e t l e s have young? 2. Can a l l b e e t l e s have young? 3 . Can you t e l l what I need to s t a r t growing b e e t l e s ? 4 . Can you t e l l whether a b e e t l e i s o l d enough to have young? 5. Can you t e l l what the young of b e e t l e s look l i k e ? 6. Can you t e l l what happens (to the egg?) 7. Can you t e l l what happens (to the la r v a ? ) 8. Can you t e l l what happens to the (young beetle) as i t grows? 9. Can you t e l l how I can get b e e t l e s from (beetle-eggs?) 10. Can you t e l l how I can get eggs from (young b e e t l e s ? ) 11. Can these (egg, l a r v a , pupa, adult) be put i n order to show how a b e e t l e grows? 12. Suppose t h i s were a s t o r y what name would you g i v e t h i s s t o r y ? What does t h i s s t o r y t e l l ? Comments: 1 1 2 . APPENDIX D GENERAL G U I D E L I N E S FOR INTERVIEWS 1. General Time Plan of Interviews We assume t h a t the g e n e r a l time p a t t e r n of the i n t e r -view i s l i k e t h i s : —. — , , — . 1 ^ n o i s e c h i l d ' s i n i t i a l n o i s e p l u s new conception c o n c e p t i o n i s new aspects i s dominant dominant f o r of the f o r some some time s i t u a t i o n time 1. F i r s t , we want to determine the c h i l d ' s i n i t i a l c o n c e p t i o n . a) L e t the c h i l d i n t r o d u c e h i s own terminology to d e s c r i b e the balance, i t s behaviour, and h i s a c t i o n s on i t . In p a r t i c u l a r , be s e n s i t i v e t o : i) Whether the c h i l d speaks of the two arms or s i d e s or whether he speaks of the whole beam. i i ) Whether the c h i l d speaks of the motion of the balance ("making i t go up or down") or of the s t a t e o f the balance ( " i t w i l l be up here," or " i t w i l l be l e v e l " . ) i i i ) Whether the c h i l d speaks of p u t t i n g on, hanging, hooking on or adding more weights. b) Continue to use s u b s t a n t i a l l y the c h i l d ' s terminology, not your own. c) Try to frame your q u e s t i o n s around the c h i l d ' s a c t i o n s on the apparatus and your a c t i o n s on the apparatus. But: b'. You may use some u n f a m i l i a r terminology and, 113. c'. You should p r e s e n t the c h i l d with tasks t h a t he does not r e a c t to p r o p e r l y (gives unusual response, i s i n s e c u r e , or wrong), a few times d u r i n g t h i s i n i t i a l p e r i o d . 2. Mix the types of q u e s t i o n s to a v o i d b u i l d i n g too much " s e t " and thereby a l l o w i n g c o n t r o l of the i n t e r v i e w to be r e l i n q u i s h e d t o unwanted i n f l u e n c e s . Avoid "runs" of very s i m i l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . (Be sure the q u e s t i o n s are unambiguous). Mix e s p e c i a l l y these types of q u e s t i o n s : a) Achieve e q u i l i b r i u m vs. " W i l l i t balance?" b) D i f f i c u l t v s . easy; c) Where c h i l d observes the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the c o n f i g u r a t i o n (puts on or watches you put on washers) vs. where c h i l d doesn't observe the steps i n c o n s t r u c t i o n but has to judge s t r i c t l y from the appearance of the c o n f i g u r a t i o n s ; d) Where a t t e n t i o n i s focused on p o s i t i o n s near the c e n t r e vs. where a t t e n t i o n i s focused near the ends of the balance. 3.. I f the c h i l d ' s i n i t i a l c o n c e p t i o n has been e x p l o r e d thoroughly, Introduce new elements (new aspects and problem s i t u a t i o n s ) , a t a high r a t e . n o i s e i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n t new conception aspects new conception to c h i l d 4. A f t e r l e a r n i n g has taken p l a c e and a new c o n c e p t i o n seems to have been reached, e x p l o r e i t as i n 1.3. General remarks on how to i n t e r a c t w i t h the c h i l d . 1. Maximize the number of usable e x p r e s s i v e a c t s . a) Encourage v e r b a l output. i ) Ask e x p l a n a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y at c r i t i c a l p o i n t s . i i ) A v o i d q u e s t i o n s t h a t permit yes or no answers. Say, f o r example: 114. Show me. Show me with your hand. I f you were the balance Show me with your hands the way you j u s t s t a r t e d t o . 2. Make sure the r e l a t i o n s h i p between your q u e s t i o n s and a c t i o n s and those of the c h i l d are c l e a r . a) Give the c h i l d time to r e a c t a f t e r a q u e s t i o n (maximum of f i v e seconds); a v o i d immediate r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n . b) I f you a r e n ' t sure the c h i l d i s doing something i n response to your q u e s t i o n , ask. For example: Is t h a t what I asked you to t e l l me (to do)? 3. Be h i g h l y a p p r e c i a t i v e when the c h i l d takes an i n i t i a t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y one r e l a t e d to the s i t u -a t i o n a t hand, or more g e n e r a l l y , any p e r t i n e n t a s p e c t of the apparatus. Follow through on h i s i d e a s . 4. Be e s p e c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e t o l e v e l s of g e n e r a l i t y and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s you might have i n forming your q u e s t i o n s and what might be i m p l i e d by them. a) Use the most g e n e r a l phrases with the fewest s u p p o s i t i o n s which you t h i n k expresses the t a s k . Only i f the c h i l d has t r o u b l e c o n n e c t i n g , become more s p e c i f i c . For example: What w i l l happen?...vs. How w i l l i t go? vs. Which way w i l l i t go? Show me. vs. Show me w i t h your hands. Where do you put i t ? vs. On what s i d e (hook) do you put i t ? But c a u t i o n : b) Pay s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to what i m p l i c a t i o n s your q u e s t i o n s might have i n l i g h t of your p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . Given the balance i n e q u i l i b r i u m , say one washer on each end: What w i l l happen i f you put i t (a washer) somewhere e l s e ? vs. What i f you moved i t i n here? 115. I l l M i s c e l l a n e o u s 1. Focus your a t t e n t i o n on the c h i l d at a l l times. A v o i d g e t t i n g too i n v o l v e d i n the c h i l d ' s r e a c t i o n s to your q u e s t i o n , i . e . , m a i n t a i n a l i t t l e b i t of r e s e r v e . A l s o a v o i d s i t u a t i o n s t h a t would focus the c h i l d ' s a t t e n t i o n on you, thereby d i s t u r b i n g the task c o n t e x t . 2. Be sure q u e s t i o n s are a b s o l u t e l y c l e a r . C l e a r up any u n c l e a r statements of the c h i l d . I f necessary, ask him to repeat h i m s e l f again. 3. When there i s reasonable doubt t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r response i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e s t of the c h i l d ' s r e p e r t o i r e , he should be g i v e n a second o p p o r t u n i t y to see i f the response i s repeated. Klaus G. Witz and David R. Goodwin J u l y 20, 1970. 1 1 6 . APPENDIX E EXCERPT OF TRANSCRIPT: SEGMENTATION OF FLOW OF ORAL LANGUAGE "... I t h i n k so./ The b i g ones can have b a b i e s . / Only females can have b a b i e s . / Males don't have babies cause i t ' s j u s t l i k e men don't have ba b i e s / . . . (Find a t h i n g to put them i n and feed them - the b e e t l e s - b l a c k ones) You can r a i s e the l i t t l e ones/ and t h e y ' l l grow and have b a b i e s . / You can s t a r t w i t h grown-up ones and t h e y ' l l have b a b i e s / and the mother d i e s . / . . . They must be b l a c k / (They don't have to be grown-up)/ The c h i l d grows up and has b a b i e s . / (Probably the b i g ones - because the b i g one w i l l probably be grown-up and the l i t t l e ones w i l l be b a b i e s ) . / / i n d i c a t e s a communication-unit ( ) i n d i c a t e s a maze-unit To f a c i l i t a t e simple d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s u s i n g an (SPSS) computer program package, i t became e s s e n t i a l to code t r a n s c r i p t s i n a manner t h a t c o u l d be read by the computer to produce the necessary summary s t a t i s t i c s . Each C-Unit/ M-Unit was coded by a t r i p l e t . T h i s began w i t h a '2_'in 117. the case of a C-Unit and a 1 1 ' i n the case of a maze. For e.g. a C-Unit with 11 words would be coded '211'. A M-Unit w i t h 20 words would be encoded '120'. A C-Unit such as t h i s : "/The egg comes from the mother/" would be coded: 206 316 409 333 C-Unit: c o n t a i n i n g w i t h 6 words i n a l l a noun a verb l i s t e d as l i s t e d #16 as #9 and another noun l i s t e d as #33 Name.; APPENDIX F 1 1 8 . HIDDEN F I G U R E S TEST - Cf-1 T h i s I G n t e s t of your a b i l i t y to t e l l w h i c h one of five simple c h a p e s c a n be found i n a more complex pattern. At the top of each ?n,-;e i n t h i s t e s t are five simple shapes lettered A, B, C, D, a n d E. TSer.eo.th e a c h row of s h a p e s i s a page of patterns. E a c h pattern h a s r. rov; o f l e t t e r s b e n e a t h i t . The correct answer i s shown by a ci r c l e a r o u n d t h e l e t t e r of the shape of the shape which you are to find in t h e p a t t e r n . When you have found the shape of the pattern, use the p e n c i l s u p p l i e d to outline i t as shown in the examples below. NOTE: There is only one of these figures in each pattern, and this figure will always be right side up and exactly the same size as one of the five lettered figures. Now try these 2 examples. <£) B C D E A B C <£> E The figures below show how the figures are included in the problems Figure A is in the first problem and figure D in the second. ® B C D E A B C You will have 10 minutes for each of the two parts of this test. Each part has 2 pages. When you have finished Part 1, STOP. Please do not go on to Part 2 until you are asked to do so. DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO. Fart 1 (10 minutes) A B C D E 3. A B B O D E A CD C D E B C D ® (X) B C D E A ® GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 121. APPENDIX G (A) LIST OF CONCEPT-RELATED WORDS 3. NOUNS 1. a d u l t 29. male 2. animal 30. *man-one 3. baby 31. *man-beetle 4. baby-beetle 32. mealworm 5. *baby-egg 33 . mother 6 . *baby-worm 34 . mother-beetle 7. b e e t l e 35. * m o t h e r - c a t e r p i l l a r 8. *beetle-baby 36 . nymph 9. *beetie-mother 37. one 10. *boy 38. pupa 11. bug 39. queen 12. c a t e r p i l l a r 40. queen-beetle 13. cocoon 41. shape 14 . c y c l e 42. s h e l l 15. *daddy-beetie 43. silk-worm 16 . egg 44 . s i z e 17. f a t h e r 45. stage 18. * f a t h e r - b e e t l e 46 . wings 19. female 47. *woman-beetle 20. form 48 . worm 21. i n s e c t 49. a d u l t - b e e t l e 22 . g i r l 23. * g i r l - b e e t l e 24 . lady (*) i n d i c a t e s words used e x c l u s i v e l y 25. l a d y - b e e t l e by E n g l i s h Second Language 26. l a r v a S u b j e c t s . 27. l i f e 28 . l i f e - c y c l e 122. A P P E N D I X G ( B ) 4. : VERBS 1. *be ( i n s t e a d of "become") 29. *go out 2. be l i k e 30. grow 3. become 31. grow i n t o 4. break 32. *grow l i k e 5. break out 33. grow up 6. break open 34 . happen over and over 7. *break up 35. have 8. come 36. have babies 9. come from 37. hatch 10. come out (of) 38. *hatch from 11. change 39. *hatch°into 12 . change from 40. keep going on 13. change i n t o 41. l a y 14. change l i k e 42. look l i k e 15 . *change to be 43. make 16 . crack 44. produce 17. crack open 45. push 18. d i e 46. t u r n i n t o 19. get 47. u n c u r l 20. *get cracked 48. s t a r t 21. get eggs 49. s t a r t o f f 22. *get o l d 50. s t a r t w i t h 23. get o l d e r 51. s t a r t t o have 24 . get out 52. stay a l i v e 25. *give 26 . *give 27. g i v e eggs * i n d i c a t e s etc... 28. go APPENDIX G (c) ADJECTIVES 1. a l i v e 29. skinny 2. b i g 30. smal l 3. b i g g e r 31. * s m a l l e r 4. b l a c k 32. * s h o r t e r 5. blackish-brown 33. s o f t 6 . *broader 34 . squished 7. brown 35. white 8. c r i n k l e d 36 . young 9. *curved 37. younger 10. darker 11. *dead 12. d i f f e r e n t 13. *"eensyrweensy' 14. f u l l - g r o w n 15. *f u n n y - l o o k i n g 16. grown-up 17. hard 18. * l a r g e 19. * l a r g e r 20. l i g h t 21. l i t t l e 22. long 23. *medium-size 24. m i d d l e - s i z e d 25. newborn 26. o l d e r 27. o l d e s t 28. round ADVERBS 1. Al r e a d y 2. e v e n t u a l l y 3. f i n a l l y 4. g r a d u a l l y 5. probably 6. slowly APPENDIX H ( A ) L I S T OF C O N C E P T - R E L A T E D M O D I F I E R S 1. IDENTITY Dl. a l i t t l e bump on the egg 12. a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from the beetles D3. a l l l i v i n g things D4. a l l the same D5. a l l i n a bunch 16. almost the same as the mother's 17. as strong as the mother D8. *babies l i k e i t D9. crinkled and cramped D10. * d i f f e r e n t from the mother 111. d i f f e r e n t from a l l other worms D12. d i f f e r e n t kinds of insects 113. exactly the same as D14.*from the bottom where the legs are 115.*grown-up l i k e the black beetle D16. justibabies : D17. just born D18. just l i k e the adult D19. just l i k e the baby D2 0.*kih.d of round D21.*kind of yellow D22.*like an ant D2 3.*like a boy or g i r l D24.*like a boy D25. l i k e a c a t e r p i l l a r D26. l i k e a f l y D27.*like a lady D28. l i k e a l i t t l e insect D29. l i k e a worm but hairy with l o t s of legs D30. l i k e babies D31..1ike b u t t e r f l i e s inside a cocoon D32. l i k e chicken eggs D33. l i k e human beings D34. l i k e sand D35. l i k e the mother or father D36. l i k e the mother-beetle D37. l i k e worms D38. more l i k e a beetle D39. moving a l i t t l e * indicates etc.. D =descriptive I =Inferential D40. not the same form D41. newborn b e e t l e D42.*only mother D4 3.*only grown-ups D44. only the babies D45. one k i n d of 14 6. same body s t r u c t u r e 14 7. same body t e x t u r e 148.*same t h i n g as the mother D4 9. something l i k e a b a l l D50. something l i k e the parents D51. the l i f e of a b e e t l e D52.*the same l i f e as D53.*very brown-like D54. very few of them D55. yellow s k i n w i t h s t r i p e s APPENDIX H ( B ) 2. SIZE 11. a b i t sm a l l e r than the a d u l t D2 . a c e r t a i n s i z e D3 . about an i n c h D4 . about one centimetre D5. as b i g as t h a t one D6 . as b i g as the mother 17. b i g enough D8. * b i g l i k e the mother D9. big g e r and b i g g e r DIO. b i g g e r than the l i t t l e b e e t l e 111. because of i t s s i z e 112. because they're younger they're s m a l l e r D13. b i g g e r and bigg e r 114. * j u s t s m a l l e r than the b i g ones D15. l i t t l e s m a l l e r D16. normal s i z e D17. o n l y s m a l l e r D18. r e a l l y s m a l l D19. r i g h t s i z e 12 0. same as the a d u l t except a ." l i t t l e s m a l l e r 121. *same as the b i g one but sm a l l e r D22 . same s i z e as the mother D23. * s o r t of l i k e ants 124 . *st r o n g enough to make eggs 125. the s i z e they're supposed to be 126. *too s m a l l t o have babies D27. young and sm a l l '. * D 1 = i n d i c a t e s e t c = d e s c r i p t i v e = I n f e r e n t i a l 126 . APPENDIX H(c) 3. TIME 1. D about one week 2. D about two or three months 3. D a f t e r a few days 4. D a f t e r a while 5 . D day a f t e r day 6 . D f i r s t ... then 7. D f o r a couple of months 8. D f o r a l i t t l e w h i l e 9. D f o r a long time 10. D i n another few days 11. D one day 12. D q u i t e a while 127 . APPENDIX H(D) 4, GROWTH D l . a p a r t o f t h i s growing up D2. b a b i e s growing i n s i d e her stomach D3. * b i g by e a t i n g D4. b i g g e r l i k e the mother or f a t h e r D5. *by e a t i n g and s t r e t c h i n g D6 . *by f o o d 17. * c h a n g i n g by growing b i g g e r D8. eggs i n s i d e them 19. from egg t o a d u l t D10. * f r o m l i g h t t o dark 111. from mealworms t o b e e t l e s D12. * f r o m s m a l l then goes b i g g e r 113. * f romvthe egg t o the f u l l -grown one and i n - b e t w e e n D14 * f r o m the stomach o f the l a d y - o n e D15. *growing from e a t i n g 116. *growing h a l f - w a y D17. i n s i d e o f t h i s D18. i n s i d e the egg D19. i n t o l i t t l e b e e t l e s D2 0. i n t o a f u l l - g r o w n b e e t l e T 2 1 . l i k e c h i c k e n s h a t c h out o f an egg 122. * l i k e how a s i l k w o r m grows D2 3. l i k e we grow D24. not grown y e t 125. * s m a l l a l l the way to b i g u n t i l they d i e 126. too young i n d i c a t e s e t c . . . d e s c r i p t i v e i n f e r e n t i a l * D = I = 128 . 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