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Creed and credibility : aesthetic consequences of faith in the fiction of Graham Greene Newman, Gillian 1978

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CREED AND CREDIBILITY: AESTHETIC CONSEQUENCES OF FAITH IN THE FICTION OF GRAHAM GREENE by GILLIAN NEWMAN B.A. (Hons), Rhodes U n i v e r s i t y , 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF- BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1978 @ G i l l i a n Newman, 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date / SfpY&t^&y i i ABSTRACT B e l i e f s a w r i t e r h o l d s dear c l e a r l y i n f l u e n c e t h e s e l e c t i o n and t r e a t m e n t of i d e a s i n h i s f i c t i o n : t h e p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine t h e e f f e c t o f Greene's r e l i g i o u s s e n s i b i l i t y on theme, mode, and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n of h i s n o v e l s . From t h e l a t e 30's t o t h e e a r l y 50's, Greene's n o v e l s d e a l w i t h dilemmas of f a i t h t h a t b e s e t h i s C a t h o l i c c h a r a c t e r s ; I n The Power and  t h e G l o r y (1940) he a c h i e v e s s t a r t l i n g and d r a m a t i c e f f e c t s f r o m t h e r e l i g i o u s paradigms a t t h e c o r e of t h e n o v e l . A f t e r t h e c o n t e n t i o u s s u c c e s s of t h e s o - c a l l e d ' C a t h o l i c ' t r i l o g y , The End of t h e A f f a i r (1951) i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t o w h i c h an o v e r z e a l o u s c o n c e r n w i t h s p e c i f i c i s s u e s of d o c t r i n e can l e a d when r e l i g i o u s p r e m i s e s c o n -f l i c t d i r e c t l y w i t h a r t i s t i c r e q u i r e m e n t s . From t h i s p o i n t on, t h e p e r s p e c t i v e of Greene's n o v e l s i s l e s s and l e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s as he t u r n s t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of a w i d e r m o r a l and s o c i a l k i n d . I n The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n ( 1 9 5 5 ) , Greene e x p l o r e s t h e more e x i s t e n t i a l i s t q u e s t i o n s o f t h e freedom of c h o i c e and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e ; however, h i s l o n g p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h C a t h o l i c i s m s t i l l i n t r u d e s i n ways d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d development of t h e f i c t i o n . W i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of The Comedians (1966) i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t Greene has moved even f u r t h e r away from t h e c r i s e s o f f a i t h t h a t hounded h i s e a r l i e r c h a r a c t e r s as he f o c u s e s on an uncommitted a n t i -h e r o s u r r o u n d e d by an a s s o r t m e n t of i d e o l o g i e s and forms of commitment. The development i n Greene's r e l i g i o u s v i s i o n has made him see and r e s p o n d t o t h e w o r l d of e x p e r i e n c e d i f f e r e n t l y so t h a t t h e themes.:-i i i and t e c h n i q u e s o f h i s f i c t i o n have changed a c c o r d i n g l y . The b r o a d e n i n g of h i s r e l i g i o u s c o n c e r n s has r e s u l t e d i n f i c t i o n t h a t i s l e s s doc-t r i n a i r e , l e s s c o n t r o v e r s i a l , and per h a p s more a c c e s s i b l e . The nega-t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f any form o f f a i t h t h r o u g h an a n t i - h e r o i c c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r has meant some l o s s o f t h e i n t e n s i t y he c o u l d a c h i e v e as a n o v e l i s t o f u r g e n t s p i r i t u a l c o n f l i c t s i n h i s ' C a t h o l i c ' p e r i o d : i t has a l s o meant he c o u l d t r a n s c e n d s p e c i f i c i s s u e s o f d o c t r i n e t h a t c o u l d be so b i n d i n g on h i s l i t e r a r y i m a g i n a t i o n , e n a b l i n g him t o c r e a t e a more d e t a c h e d and w i t t y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s b r o a d e r r e l i g i o u s i d e a s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 C h a p t e r 1: The Power and t h e G l o r y 6 C h a p t e r 2: The End of t h e A f f a i r 27 C h a p t e r 3: The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n 43 C h a p t e r 4: The Comedians 59 C o n c l u s i o n 75 S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y 79 1 INTRODUCTION W i t h t h e d e a t h o f James t h e r e l i g i o u s s ense was l o s t t o t h e E n g l i s h n o v e l , and w i t h t h e r e l i g i o u s sense went t h e sense o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e human a c t . Graham Greene, " F r a n c o i s M a u r i a c " No w r i t e r o r g a n i z e s t h e m a t e r i a l o f h i s f i c t i o n f r o m a p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c p e r s p e c t i v e : b e l i e f s d e f i n e s e l e c t i o n and t r e a t m e n t , and i f we aim t o see a work as a w h o l e , one o f our t a s k s as r e a d e r - c r i t i c s i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e way i n w h i c h a w r i t e r ' s b e l i e f s i n f o r m and a f f e c t t h e raw m a t e r i a l o f h i s a r t . The w r i t e r ' s t a s k , a c c o r d i n g t o Conrad, i s t o " r e n d e r t h e h i g h e s t k i n d o f j u s t i c e t o t h e v i s i b l e u n i v e r s e . . . t o r e v e a l t h e s u b s t a n c e of t r u t h t h r o u g h t h e s e n s e s . " 1 Human s i t u a t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e t h e w r i t e r ' s o n l y means o f p e n e t r a t i n g t o some image o f a t r a n s c e n d e n -t a l r e a l i t y , i f t h i s i s what he sees as t h e u l t i m a t e meaning b e h i n d t h e v i s i b l e u n i v e r s e . By i t s v e r y n a t u r e , a r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n can l e a d a w r i t e r v e r y e a s i l y i n t o t h e r e a l m o f a b s t r a c t d i s c u s s i o n o r d i d a c t i c i s m , i m p o s i n g t i g h t e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l over a work. The raw m a t e r i a l may be m a n i p u l a t e d t o conform t o a v i s i o n t h e w r i t e r h o l d s d e a r . On t h e o t h e r hand, i f t h e w r i t e r uses as h i s r e f e r e n c e p o i n t a b e l i e f t h a t has q u a l i t i e s o f s u r v i v a l because t h e p a t t e r n s o f be-h a v i o u r i t p o s t u l a t e s a r e seen t o r e c u r i n human e x p e r i e n c e , s u c h a 1 J o s e p h Conrad, P r e f a c e , The N i g g e r o f t h e " N a r c i s s u s " (1897; r p t . New Y o r k : C o l l i e r Books, 1962), p. 21. 2 b e l i e f can be t h e means o f a c h i e v i n g u n i v e r s a l i t y . A s p e c i f i c b e l i e f can p r o v i d e a framework f o r t h e f a c t s of e x p e r i e n c e as l o n g as c r e d i b i l i t y i n h e r e s i n t h e e v e n t s t h e m s e l v e s and n o t i n a b e l i e f h e l d o u t s i d e t h e work by t h e a u t h o r . I t i s t h i s q u e s t i o n o f how b e l i e f s make a w r i t e r see and r e s p o n d t o t h e w o r l d of e x p e r i e n c e and how a r t i s t i c a l l y v i a b l e h i s r e l i g i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h a t w i l l be my c o n c e r n i n t h i s s t u d y o f Graham Greene. L i k e Conrad, Greene c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e t a s k s o f a n o v e l i s t " t o t e l l t h e t r u t h as he sees i t . . . c h a r a c t e r s must n o t go w h i t e i n t h e f a c e o r t r e m b l e l i k e l e a v e s , n o t because t h e s e p h r a s e s a r e c l i c h e s , b u t because t h e y a r e u n t r u e . " 2 T h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o r e f l e c t a c c u r a t e l y t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f human b e h a v i o u r i m p l i e s an a r t i s t i c r e s p o n s i b l i t y t o e x p l o r e c a r e f u l l y t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d s u c h p a t t e r n s of b e h a v i o u r . The C a t h o l i c w r i t e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , m i g h t work from t h e c o n c e p t t h a t o r i g i n a l s i n i s t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e c o r r u p t i o n o b s e r v e d i n i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y . Greene's c o n v e r s i o n t o C a t h o -l i c i s m i n 1926 d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t h i s e a r l y w r i t i n g , b u t g r a d u a l l y t h e c o n f i r m a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n v i c t i o n s i n h i s own e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and o b s e r v a t i o n s l e d him t o become i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h dilemmas of f a i t h i n h i s n o v e l s . I t was n o t u n t i l 1938 t h a t Greene began t o make o v e r t use of C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e i n h i s work. He e x p l a i n s how t h i s came a b o u t : More t h a n t e n y e a r s had p a s s e d s i n c e I was r e -c e i v e d i n t o t h e c h u r c h . A t t h a t t i m e , as I have 2 Graham Greene i n a l e t t e r t o E l i z a b e t h Bowen, Why do I w r i t e ? (London: P e r c l v a l M a r s h a l l , 1948), p. 30. 3 w r i t t e n e l s e w h e r e , I had n o t been e m o t i o n a l l y moved, b u t o n l y i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c o n v i n c e d . I was i n t h e h a b i t o f f o r m a l l y p r a c t i s i n g my r e l i g i o n , g o i n g t o Mass e v e r y Sunday and t o C o n f e s s i o n p e r -haps once a month. . . . My p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e and my r e l i g i o n were c o n t a i n e d i n q u i t e s e p a r a t e compartments, and I had no a m b i t i o n t o b r i n g them t o g e t h e r . I t was 'clumsy l i f e a g a i n a t h e r s t u p i d work' w h i c h d i d t h a t ; on one s i d e t h e s o c i a l i s t p e r s e c u t i o n of r e l i g i o n i n M e x i c o and on t h e o t h e r G e n e r a l F r a n c o ' s a t t a c k on R e p u b l i c a n S p a i n i n e x -t r i c a b l y i n v o l v e d r e l i g i o n i n contemporary l i f e . I t h i n k i t was under t h e s e two i n f l u e n c e s and t h e backward and f o r w a r d sway of my .sympathies t h a t I began t o examine more c l o s e l y t h e e f f e c t o f f a i t h on a c t i o n . 3 I n t h a t y e a r , Greene p u b l i s h e d B r i g h t o n Rock, a n o v e l t h a t ex-p l o r e s t h e m y s t e r i e s of God's g r a c e t o t h e u n d e s e r v i n g . T h i s was t o become t h e s u b j e c t of t h r e e subsequent n o v e l s — T h e Power and t h e  G l o r y ( 1 9 4 0 ) , The H e a r t o f t h e M a t t e r ( 1 9 4 8 ) , and The End of t h e  A f f a i r (1951)-—as he a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n i n a r t i s t i c terms E l i o t ' s p a r adox t h a t so f a r as we a r e human, what we do must be e i t h e r e v i l or good; so f a r as we do e v i l o r good, we a r e human; and i t i s b e t t e r , i n a p a r a d o x i c a l way, t o do e v i l t h a n t o do n o t h i n g : a t l e a s t , we e x i s t . I t i s t r u e t o say t h a t t h e g l o r y of man i s h i s c a p a c i t y f o r s a l v a t i o n ; i t i s a l s o t r u e t o say t h a t h i s g l o r y i s h i s c a p a c i t y f o r damnation. I t ..is i n t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h i s theme t h a t Greene f o u n d h i s a r t i s t i c m e t i e r and e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as a n o v e l i s t of some n o t e . The m y s t e r y s t o r i e s w r i t t e n b e f o r e t h i s t i m e seem t o have been c a r t o o n s 3 Graham Greene, I n t r o d u c t i o n , B r i g h t o n Rock (London: Heinemann and B o d l e y Head, 1970), pp. v i i - i x . 4 T.S. E l i o t , " B a u d e l a i r e , " i n S e l e c t e d E s s a y s (New Y o r k : Har-c o u r t , B r a c e and Co., 1950), p. 380. •4 f o r m y s t e r y s t o r i e s o f a t h e o l o g i c a l k i n d . I n h i s n o v e l s of t h e l a t e 30's and 40's, t h e t e n s i o n between two systems of v a l u e s , between o p p o s i n g f o r c e s i n v o l v e s a s u p e r n a t u r a l d i m e n s i o n t h a t e x t e n d s and deepens t h e c o n f l i c t s . A c t i o n s t a k e on a new s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r c h a r a c -t e r s as t h e y p e r c e i v e them a f f e c t i n g t h e i r u l t i m a t e s a l v a t i o n o r damnation. I f we f o l l o w James (a w r i t e r whom Greene g r e a t l y a d m i r e s ) , and " g r a n t t h e a r t i s t h i s s u b j e c t , h i s i d e a , h i s donnee," 5 our t a s k as c r i t i c s i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s u c c e s s w i t h w h i c h Greene r e a l i z e s h i s c o n cept of r e a l i t y as a f f e c t e d by h i s b e l i e f s . B e l i e f s p e r se cannot be e x t r a c t e d from a work and j u d g e d as t r u e o r f a l s e , good o r bad: l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m must c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h t h e a r t i s t i c r e a l i t y and c o h e r e n c e o f t h e w r i t e r ' s b e l i e f s as t h e y e x i s t i n h i s work. The w r i t e r has t o r e c o n c i l e r e l i g i o u s and d i d a c t i c p r e m i s e s w i t h t h e s e n s e - p e r c e p t i b l e and i m a g i n a t i v e demands o f a work of a r t : a l t h o u g h a n o v e l d e r i v e s i t s e x p e r i e n c e and norms of c o n d u c t f r o m t h e r e a l w o r l d , as a work of a r t i t s c r e d i b i l i t y depends on t h e r e l e v a n c e , con-s i s t e n c y , and c o h e r e n c e of t h e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e i t c r e a t e s . T h e r e f o r e , i f t h e w r i t e r has t o mould p h i l o s o p h i c a l and a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o a u n i f i e d w h o l e , t h e c r i t i c s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e i n t e r -dependence of t h e s e a s p e c t s and n o t t r y t o s e p a r a t e them. I n a r -r i v i n g a t a l i t e r a r y judgement, he ought n o t t o use some e x t e r n a l n o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t r e n g t h and weakness of a p a r t i c u l a r 5 Henry James, "The A r t of F i c t i o n , " i n The F u t u r e of t h e N o v e l :  E s s a y s on t h e A r t o f F i c t i o n , ed. Leon E d e l (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books, 1956), p. 17. 5 c r e e d : he s h o u l d a s s e s s t h e s u c c e s s w i t h w h i c h t h e b e l i e f a c c o u n t s a d e q u a t e l y f o r t h e e x p e r i e n c e and s i t u a t i o n o f t h e n o v e l ' s w o r l d , whether o r n o t he f i n d s s u c h b e l i e f s p e r s o n a l l y p a l a t a b l e . W i t h t h i s i n mind, I s h a l l examine t h e e f f e c t o f Greene's r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s on f o u r n o v e l s t h a t r e p r e s e n t t h e s p e c t r u m o f h i s s e r i o u s w r i t i n g — The Power and t h e G l o r y ( 1 9 4 0 ) , The End of t h e A f f a i r ( 1 9 5 1 ) , The  Q u i e t A m e r i c a n ( 1 9 5 5 ) , and The Comedians ( 1 9 6 6 ) — t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a e s t h e t i c consequences o f any development i n t h e r e l i g i o u s p r e m i s e s of h i s f i c t i o n . 6 CHAPTER 1 THE POWER AND THE GLORY The g r e a t e s t s a i n t s and s i n n e r s have been made The p r o s e l y t e s o f one a n o t h e r ' s t r a d e . Samuel B u t l e r , M i s c e l l a n e o u s Thoughts I n B r i g h t o n Rock, Greene d i s c o v e r e d t h e d r a m a t i c p o t e n t i a l t h a t a r e l i g i o u s d i m e n s i o n c o u l d add t o h i s f i c t i o n . He a c h i e v e d a r e v e r -s a l o f a n t i c i p a t e d v a l u e s and s y m p a t h i e s i n t h e n o v e l d e s p i t e t h e repugnant n a t u r e o f h i s v i l l a i n - h e r o , P i n k i e ; s u c h a n o t i o n was t o be c e n t r a l t o t h e drama of The Power and t h e G l o r y . I n B r i g h t o n  Rock, Greene a t t e m p t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e " t h e . . . a p p a l l i n g . . . s t r a n g e -n e s s o f t h e mercy o f God." 1 by c o n f o u n d i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l n o t i o n s o f ' r i g h t and wrong' w i t h t h e d i v i n e d i s t i n c t i o n s between 'good and e v i l ' : i n The Power and t h e G l o r y he a c h i e v e s a h e i g h t e n e d sense o f t h i s same c o n f l i c t by n a r r o w i n g t h e a p p a r e n t d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e two d i f f e r e n t d e s i g n a t i o n s . The mercy o f God i s s t i l l s t r a n g e b u t n o t a p p a l l i n g l y so. B r i g h t o n Rock i s t h e f i r s t o f Greene's n o v e l s t o e x p l o r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a r e l i g i o u s theme w i t h i n t h e conven-t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and d e v i c e s o f a t h r i l l e r ; The Power and t h e G l o r y u t i l i z e s t h r i l l e r d e v i c e s t o d r a m a t i z e a f i c t i o n t h a t i s r o o t e d and grounded i n an a r c h e t y p a l r e l i g i o u s framework o f p u r s u i t , b e t r a y a l , 1 B r i g h t o n Rock (1938; r p t . Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n , 1977), p. 246. A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s t o Greene's n o v e l s w i l l be t a k e n f r o m t h e P e n g u i n e d i t i o n s and w i l l be documented p a r e n t h e t i -c a l l y w i t h i n t h e t e x t . 7 and d e a t h , t h e v e r y impact of t h e n o v e l p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e i n c o n -g r u i t i e s t h a t c o n s t a n t l y appear i n t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e t a l e w i t h i t s model. Such a d i s p a r i t y e s t a b l i s h e s t h e i r o n i c t o n e o f t h e n o v e l ' s s t r u c t u r e and t e x t u r e and i s t h e p a r a d i g m f r o m w h i c h a l l e l s e p r o c e e d s . The s t o r y r e l i e s f o r i t s e f f e c t on t h e s t r u c t u r e f o l l o w i n g c l o s e l y t h e p a t t e r n of e v e n t s i n t h e s t o r y o f C h r i s t ' s P a s s i o n . L i k e C h r i s t , t h e p r i e s t i s hounded by o f f i c i a l d o m and welcomed by t h e common peo-p l e ; b u t , u n l i k e C h r i s t , who o p e n l y and b o l d l y p r e a c h e d and t a u g h t , t h e p r i e s t e x i s t s i n c o n s t a n t f e a r of c a p t u r e , and can o n l y be t r u e t o h i s v o c a t i o n f u r t i v e l y , t h r o u g h an i n n e r c o m p u l s i o n he cannot deny. T h i s u n d e r c o v e r e x i s t e n c e i s f i r s t a p p a r e n t i n t h e p r i e s t ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h Mr. Tench who d i s c o v e r s t h a t t h e l u r i d book he c a r r i e s w i t h him i s a c t u a l l y a b r e v i a r y wrapped i n t h e c o v e r o f a book s u g g e s t i v e l y e n t i t l e d La E t e r n a M a r t i r . H i s sense o f v o c a t i o n , weak and f e a r f u l as i t i s , becomes a p p a r e n t f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e when he m i s s e s an easy o p p o r t u n i t y t o escape t h e s t a t e i n o r d e r t o m i n i s t e r t o a d y i n g woman "as though u n w i l l i n g l y he had been summoned t o an o c c a s i o n he c o u l d n ' t p a s s by" (p. 16). The s t r u c t u r a l p a r a l l e l s t o t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o C h r i s t ' s c r u c i f i x i o n become more a p p a r e n t as t h e l e g a l l y i n n o c e n t p r i e s t i s a l i g n e d w i t h a common c r i m i n a l by t h e a d v o c a t e s o f t h e s t a t u s quo: on t h e w a l l i n t h e l i e u t e n a n t ' s o f f i c e i s a " p i c t u r e o f James C a l v e r , wanted i n t h e U.S. f o r bank r o b b e r y and h o m i c i d e " (p. 2 1 ) ; n e a r b y hangs t h e p i c t u r e o f t h e p r i e s t a t h i s f i r s t commu-n i o n p a r t y , h i s f a c e r i n g e d , h a l o - l i k e , t o s t a n d out f r o m t h e s u r -r o u n d i n g crowd. The c r i m i n a l ' s name, t h e h a n g i n g o f t h e two p o r t r a i t s 8 t o g e t h e r , and t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e L a s t Supper i n t h e p i c t u r e o f t h e p r i e s t r e - i n f o r c e s t r u c t u r a l l y and s e m a n t i c a l l y t h e g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p i n g echoes of t h e C h r i s t i a n s t o r y , w i t h p a r a l l e l s and c o n t r a s t s c o n s t a n t l y j u x t a p o s e d t o r e v e a l i r o n i c a l l y t h e p r i e s t ' s s h o r t c o m i n g s and s t r e n g t h s . When t h e p r i e s t a r r i v e s a t a s m a l l v i l l a g e l o o k i n g f o r r e s t and d r i n k d u r i n g h i s t i m e o f escape and h i d i n g , he i s r e c o g n i z e d and e a g e r l y welcomed because of h i s r o l e as a p r i e s t . He r e a l i z e s he cannot escape h i s v o c a t i o n e a s i l y , and c r i e s out a n g r i l y when he i s p e s t e r e d t o hear c o n f e s s i o n and c e l e b r a t e mass: " I am your s e r v a n t " (p. 4 5 ) . E x h a u s t e d f r o m h i s t r a v e l s and a n g r y a t h a v i n g no r e s t and peace, t h e p r i e s t b r e a k s down and weeps; t h e o l d man s e e s him c r y i n g and announces t o t h e v i l l a g e r s : "He i s a v e r y h o l y f a t h e r . There he i s i n my hut now weeping f o r our s i n s " (p. 4 5 ) , d r a w i n g y e t :an-o t h e r i r o n i c p a r a l l e l o f t h e p r i e s t t o C h r i s t who gazed o v e r J e r u s a l e m and wept f o r h e r s i n s . The e v e n t s p r e c e d i n g t h e c r u c i -f i x i o n a r e f u r t h e r p a r a l l e l e d by t h e sound o f a cock c r o w i n g i n M a r i a ' s v i l l a g e : d u r i n g t h e t e n s i o n of a p o t e n t i a l b e t r a y a l scene, as t h e l i e u t e n a n t p l e a d s w i t h t h e v i l l a g e r s t o r e v e a l t h e whereabouts o f t h e p r i e s t , a c o c k i s h e a r d t o crow t w i c e . The t h i r d c ock-crow i s h e a r d o n l y l a t e r as t h e p r i e s t and t h e m e s t i z o n e a r t h e v i l l a g e o f Carmen where t h e p r i e s t knows t h a t he w i l l be b e t r a y e d t o t h e a u t h o r i t i e s by h i s companion whom he has a l r e a d y l i k e n e d i n h i s own mind t o J u d a s . " A c r o s s t h e d a r k hut (he) saw t h e y e l l o w m a l a r i a l eyes of t h e m e s t i z o w a t c h i n g him. C h r i s t would n o t have f o u n d Judas s l e e p i n g i n t h e g a r d e n : Judas c o u l d w a tch more t h a n one h o u r " (p. 9 2 ) . 9 C h r i s t - l i k e , t h e p r i e s t r i d e s a mule, but he sees no p a r a l l e l between h i m s e l f and t h e model whose s t o r y he i n v o l u n t a r i l y r e - e n a c t s . He can o n l y see l a t e r h i s f a i l i n g s when he o b s e r v e s t h a t h i s r i d e back t o t h e c a p i t a l , p r i o r t o e x e c u t i o n , i s "no t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n " (p. 200). L i k e C h r i s t , he i s g i v e n no f a i r t r i a l , y e t he i s t o l d a f t e r a day i n p r i s o n , , "you've been t r i e d and f ound g u i l t y " (p. 205). A f t e r h i s p a r t i n t h e s e n t e n c i n g , t h e l i e u t e n a n t echoes t h e s e n t i m e n t s o f P i l a t e a t C h r i s t ' s comdemnation when he w a l k s f i r m l y away "as i f he were s a y i n g a t e v e r y s t e p ' I have done what I have d o n e " 1 (p. 220). The man whom he r e c o g n i z e s as Judas b e t r a y s him t o t h e a u t h o r i t i e s , b u t t h e p r i e s t f e e l s no anger o r r e s e n t m e n t towards him as he f e e l s no i n d i g n a t i o n a g a i n s t h i s m u r d e r e r s b e f o r e h i s e x e c u t i o n : he can o n l y m u t t e r f e e b l y "a word t h a t sounded l i k e 'Excuse'" (p. 2 1 6 ) , e c h o i n g o b s c u r e l y t h e f i n a l p l e a f o r f o r g i v e n e s s of h i s m u r d e r e r s t h a t C h r i s t u t t e r e d a t h i s c r u c i f i x i o n . The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p l o t i s b u i l t a r ound such p a r a l l e l s t h a t e s t a b l i s h a d e l i c a t e b a l a n c e of s i m i l a r i t y and d i f f e r e n c e between t h e o r i g i n a l and i t s copy. The s i m i l a r i t i e s c r e a t e s t a r t l i n g and p o w e r f u l echoes; t h e d i f f e r e n c e s make t h e s e echoes c r e d i b l e and g e n e r a t e p a t t e r n s of i r o n y i n s t r u c t u r e , c h a r a c -t e r , and t e x t u r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e meaning o f t h e n o v e l . The P a s s i o n p a r a d i g m s e t s up e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t a r e n o t met o r a r e met i n ways q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e a n t i c i p a t e d , b u t i t i s t h e v e r y p r e s e n c e of t h e p a t t e r n t h a t g i v e s t h e a c t u a l outcomes t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e , e i t h e r i n t h e i r d i v e r g e n c e f r o m i t o r i n t h e i r i d e n t i t y w i t h i t . The s p i r i t u a l g rowth o f t h e p r i e s t i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s c o n c e p t as i t o c c u r s t h r o u g h a s e r i e s of e v e n t s and e x p e r i e n c e s whose a c t u a l and a n t i c i p a t e d 10 outcomes a r e n o t i c e a b l y d i s p a r a t e . O n ly t h r o u g h h i s e x p o s u r e t o and e x p e r i e n c e of human s i n does th e p r i e s t l e a r n t h e f u l l meaning o f d i v i n e l o v e and compassion. W h i l e p r o t e c t e d f r o m t h e r e a l i t i e s o f s u f f e r i n g i n h i s r o l e as an o v e r f e d and a d u l a t e d p r i e s t , he knows o n l y t h e l o n g i n g s of p r i d e and a m b i t i o n : exposed t o t h e raw e x p e r i e n c e of t h e p e a s a n t s and f o r c e d t o f a c e t h e h o r r o r of h i s v e n i a l and m o r t a l s i n s , t h e p r i e s t b e g i n s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e l f l e s s n e s s and commitment r e q u i r e d i n h i s v o c a -t i o n and h i s own u n w o r t h i n e s s t o f u l f i l l s u c h a r o l e . D u r i n g h i s n i g h t i n j a i l , i n t h e m i d s t o f f i l t h and s o r d i d n e s s , t h e p r i e s t ex-p e r i e n c e s h i s f i r s t r e a l s ense o f community and l o v e , r e a l i z i n g how much he s h a r e s w i t h t h e g u i l t y and s i n f u l around him. That was a n o t h e r m y s t e r y : i t sometimes seemed t o him t h a t v e n i a l s i n s — i m p a t i e n c e , an i m p o r t a n t l i e , p r i d e , a n e g l e c t e d o p p o r t u n i t y — c u t you o f f from g r a c e more c o m p l e t e l y t h a n t h e w o r s t s i n s of a l l . Then, i n h i s i n n o c e n c e , he had f e l t no l o v e f o r anyone; now, i n h i s c o r r u p t i o n he had l e a r n t . . . (p. 139) What he l e a r n s i s n o t v e r b a l i z e d ; i t becomes a p p a r e n t t h r o u g h h i s a c t i o n s as t h e n o v e l p r o c e e d s . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e a b o l i t i o n o f C a t h o -l i c i s m i n t h i s M e x i c a n s t a t e has n o t seen t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f : f o r t h e p r i e s t i t has meant t h e end of h i s s e c u l a r a m b i t i o n , t o advance i n t h e h i e r a r c h y of t h e c h u r c h and t h e b e g i n n i n g of h i s r e a l f a i t h i n t h e God he has m i s r e p r e s e n t e d f o r so l o n g . W h i l e i n power, t h e p r i e s t , l i k e t h e c h u r c h he r e p r e s e n t s , i s seduced by power and w e a l t h and s t a t u s : " t h e t r i t e r e l i g i o u s word upon t h e tongue, th e j o k e t o ease t h e way, t h e r e a d y a c c e p t a n c e o f o t h e r p e o p l e ' s homage" (p. 22) i s h i s d a i l y r ound. The s p i r i t u a l s t r e n g t h o f t h e 11 c h u r c h seems t o be i n i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n t o i t s m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g , f u n c t i o n i n g b e s t when i t i s on t h e s i d e o f t h e o p p r e s s e d , n o t t h e p o w e r f u l , and when i t makes demands on i t s p r i e s t s , n o t when i t c o n f e r s b o u n t i e s on them. Thus, i n s t e a d o f s t a m p i n g o u t t h e l a s t v e s t i g e s o f t h e f a i t h f u l i n o u t l a w i n g t h e c h u r c h , t h e s t a t e has encouraged t h e r e a l g r o w t h o f one o f i t s most u n l i k e l y champions by c u r b i n g a l l t h e m e c h a n i c a l and h i e r a r c h i c a l t r a p p i n g s o f t h e c h u r c h . When we f i r s t meet t h e p r i e s t , he i s s t i l l c l i n g i n g t o t h e v e s -t i g e s o f h i s o l d l i f e i n t h e h i e r a r c h y o f t h e C a t h o l i c Church. He c a r r i e s h i s b r e v i a r y d i s g u i s e d as a p o p u l a r n o v e l , . h a s an a l t a r , s t o n e w h i c h he c a r r i e s f o r use i n c e l e b r a t i n g mass, and keeps a s c r a p o f paper t e s t i f y i n g t o h i s p r i e s t l y o r d i n a t i o n . W i t h o u t t h e s e he f e e l s he w i l l be n o t h i n g , and y e t i t i s o n l y as he d i s c a r d s t h e s e t r a p p i n g s one by one t h a t he f i n a l l y comes t o f a c e t h e s t a r k r e a l i t y o f h i s v o c a t i o n , r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e c h u r c h i s much more t h a n h e r symbols and r i t u a l s . Thoughts of e v a d i n g c a p t u r e and e s c a p i n g t o t h e a s y l u m o f a s y m p a t h e t i c s t a t e m o t i v a t e t h e p r i e s t ' s movements t h r o u g h t h e c o u r s e of t h e n o v e l ' s a c t i o n , b e l i e v i n g , as he does, t h a t c r o s s i n g t h e b o r d e r means a r e t u r n t o freedom and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i s e h i s v o c a t i o n i n s a f e t y . I n s t e a d he d i s c o v e r s how easy i t i s t o be e n t i c e d by com-f o r t and c o r r u p t i o n , and r e a l i z e s t h e t e m p o r a l i t y and b r i t t l e n e s s o f such a . l i f e : "The s h i n y magazine l e a v e s c r a c k l e d as t h e y t u r n e d " and "a t u l i p a n t r e e blossomed and f a d e d d a i l y a t t h e g a t e " (p. 161) as he t a k e s r e f u g e a t t h e L e h r ' s . W i t h t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r p r o p r i e t y and o r d e r , t h e L e h r s r e p r e s e n t a n o t h e r v e r s i o n o f t h e good l i f e t h e p r i e s t had known. As a L u t h e r a n , Mr. L e h r i s q u i c k t o c r i t i c i z e t h e 12 h y p o c r i s y of t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , i n d u l g i n g i t s d e s i r e f o r l u x u r y w h i l e t h e p e o p l e s t a r v e , y e t he h i m s e l f i s " c u n n i n g i n t h e d e f e n c e of t h e good l i f e " (p. 161). As t h e p r i e s t i n d u l g e s i n t h e l i t t l e l u x u r i e s o f f e r e d him," he c o u l d f e e l t h e o l d l i f e h a r d e n i n g around him l i k e a h a b i t . . . a s t o n y c a s t " (p. 167) w h i l e "memory was l i k e a hand, p u l l i n g away t h e c a s t , e x p o s i n g him" (p. 168). The t i m e he spends w i t h t h e L e h r s and h i s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c o r r u p t i o n of t h e p e o p l e p r a c t i s i n g t h e i r f a i t h i n r e l a t i v e c o m f o r t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e n e c e s s a r y d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t t h e p r i e s t has t o e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e r e t u r -n i n g t o t h e s t a t e where he i s o u t l a w e d , p r e p a r i n g him f o r h i s f i n a l c a p t u r e w h i c h he can no l o n g e r r e s i s t o r a v o i d . E a r l i e r he had f e l t t h a t "he wasn't r e a d y y e t f o r t h e f i n a l s u r r e n d e r , " d e l u d i n g h i m s e l f w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n p o l i t i c a l freedom and t r y i n g " t o b r i b e God w i t h p r o m i s e s of f i r m n e s s " (p. 8 3 ) . Y e t , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , i t i s o n l y i n h i s f i n a l c a p t u r e t h a t he i s f i n a l l y f r e e , f r e e t o choose d e a t h , however u n w i l l i n g l y , as h i s o n l y v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e , and f r e e . f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t o c o n f r o n t o p e n l y t h e l i e u t e n a n t , r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e of t h e o p p o s i n g r e gime. The r e a l i t y o f t h e p r i e s t ' s l a s t moments as he i s h e l p e d t o t h e e x e c u t i o n w a l l because " h i s l e g s were n o t f u l l y under h i s c o n t r o l " (p. 2 1 6 ) , c o n t r a s t s v i v i d l y w i t h t h e r o m a n t i c and u n r e a l d e a t h of t h e m a r t y r , J u a n , whose p i o u s s t o r y has been woven t h r o u g h t h e a c t i o n of t h e p l o t i n s t a r k c o n t r a s t t o t h e weak-kneed p r o g r e s s of t h e p r i e s t towards d e a t h . W h i l e s t i l l a boy, young J u a n "was n o t e d f o r h i s h u m i l t y and p i e t y " (p. 2 6 ) , and p r a c t i s e s a f a i t h t h a t i s l u d i c r o u s i n i t s p e r f e c t i o n . He i s n e v e r tempted, he n e v e r does wrong, and he 13 chooses t o " c r e e p away w i t h a h o l y p i c t u r e - b o o k " (p. 26) i n s t e a d of p l a y i n g w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n . W h i l e " s a i n t " Juan p i o u s l y l o o k s t o -wards d e a t h i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s of h i s martyrdom and s a i n t h o o d , " c a l m and happy and s m i l i n g a t t h e C h i e f of P o l i c e " (p. 2 1 7 ) , t h e p r i e s t i s c o n s c i o u s o n l y of h i s own s i n and i n a d e q u a c y , f e e l i n g f i n a l l y t h a t " o n l y one t h i n g t h a t c o u n t e d — t o be a s a i n t " was beyond him and t h a t he would have " t o go t o God empty-handed, w i t h n o t h i n g done a t a l l " (p. 2 10). However, t h e p i c t u r e of a c t u a l s a i n t h o o d i m p l i c i t i n t h e p r i e s t ' s d e a t h , w i t h a l l i t s a d m i s s i o n s of t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f f a l l e n human n a t u r e , becomes f a r more p l a u s i b l e by c o n t r a s t , and c e r t a i n l y i m p r e s s e s and a f f e c t s t h e boy, L u i s , more d e e p l y t h a n t h e a r t i f i c a l l y h e r o i c d e a t h of t h e " i d e a l " s a i n t , whose s t o r y , i r o n i c a l l y , had t o be smuggled i l l e g a l l y i n t o t h e s t a t e i n o r d e r t o be r e a d as an example of p i e t y and p u r i t y . The l i t t l e g i r l s t o whom t h e s t o r y i s r e a d f o n d l y i m a g i n e t h a t " t h i s was l i f e " w h i l e t h e mother i m p r e s s e s upon them t h a t t h e w h i s k e y p r i e s t was "a t r a i t o r t o God" (p. 2 6 ) . I t i s "a q u i n t e s s e n t i a l i r o n y t h a t o n l y t h r o u g h h i s s i n does t h e p r i e s t r e a c h a n y t h i n g l i k e t h e s e l f l e s s n e s s and d e v o t i o n he f e e l s t o be r e q u i r e d o f t h e s a i n t . " 2 Only t h r o u g h d e p r i v a t i o n and s u f f e r i n g can t h e p r i e s t grow i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s own u n w o r t h i n e s s and need of g r a c e and t h e r e b y become something of a s a i n t as he f i n a l l y g i v e s up h i s l i f e f o r h i s f a i t h . By means of s t r u c t u r a l c o n t r a s t s and p a r a l -l e l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l — i m p l i c i t l y t h r o u g h t h e tenuous l i k e n i n g 2 Kenneth A l l o t t & M i r i a m F a r r i s , The A r t . o f Graham Greene (London: Hamish H a m i l t o n , 1951), p. 189. 14 o f t h e p r i e s t t o C h r i s t , and e x p l i c i t l y t h r o u g h t h e c o n t r a s t s o f h i s l i f e t o t h a t o f an " i d e a l " s a i n t ' s — - G r e e n e a c h i e v e s a d i m e n s i o n t h a t a b a l d n a r r a t i o n o f a c t i o n c o u l d n e v e r a c c o m p l i s h . The t e n s i o n o f t h e p r i e s t ' s a t t e m p t t o escape t h e l i e u t e n a n t i s h e i g h t e n e d as we r e c o g n i z e i t as an a t t e m p t t o f l e e f r o m God and martyrdom. I t i s t h e i n t e r w e a v i n g o f t h e n a t u r a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l p u r s u i t , echoed a g a i n s t C h r i s t ' s p a s s i o n and t h e i d e a l i z e d Juan's i m i t a t i o n o f i t , t h a t p r o v i d e s t h e par a d o x e s and i r o n i e s o f s t r u c t u r e c e n t r a l t o t h e n o v e l ' s meaning. The c o n s t a n t . j u x t a p o s i n g o f s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n -the movement of t h e p r i e s t w i t h t h e l a s t e p i s o d e s i n C h r i s t ' s l i f e e s t a b l i s h e s t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e n o v e l as one of c o u n t e r p o i n t e d oppo-s i t e s . The a c t i o n o f t h e n o v e l i s s t r u c t u r e d around t h e t h r e e mee-t i n g s o f t h e l i e u t e n a n t and t h e p r i e s t : a t t h e i r f i r s t m e e t i n g i n a v i l l a g e , t h e l i e u t e n a n t n e i t h e r r e c o g n i z e s n o r a r r e s t s t h e p r i e s t ; a t t h e second m e e t i n g i n t h e c a p i t a l , he a r r e s t s t h e p r i e s t b u t does n o t r e c o g n i z e him; a t t h e t h i r d and f i n a l m e e t i n g , t h e l i e u t e n a n t a r r e s t s t h e p r i e s t because he has r e c o g n i z e d him and t h e p u r s u i t i s t h u s o v e r . As t h e a c t i o n depends f o r i t s advancement on t h e s e movements of convergence and s e p a r a t i o n , so t h e c h a r a c t e r s ; and v o -c a t i o n s o f t h e two a r e seen t o be i r o n i c a l l y a l i k e i n t h e i r d i f -f e r e n c e s . T h i s l i n k i s f i r s t f o r g e d i n t h e r e a d e r ' s mind i n c h a p t e r one when t h e p r i e s t sees h i m s e l f " l i k e t h e k i n g o f a West A f r i c a n 3 See R.W.B. L e w i s , The P i c a r e s q u e S a i n t (New York:. J.P. L i p p i n c o t t Co., 1959), pp. 251-52. 15 t r i b e , t h e s l a v e of h i s p e o p l e , who may n o t even l i e 'down i n c a s e t h e w inds s h o u l d f a i l " (p. 1 9 ) . I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h i s we meet t h e l i e u t e n a n t , w a l k i n g i n f r o n t o f h i s men as t h e y r e t u r n t o t h e c a p i -t a l , " w i t h an a i r o f b i t t e r d i s t a s t e . He m i g h t have been c h a i n e d t o them u n w i l l i n g l y " (p. 2 0 ) . The l i n k t o t h e p r i e s t i s f u r t h e r f o r g e d by s e e i n g i n t h e l i e u t e n a n t "something of a p r i e s t i n h i s i n t e n t o b s e r v a n t w a l k " and n o t i c i n g t h a t h i s room i s "as c o m f o r t l e s s as a p r i s o n o r a m o n a s t i c c e l l " (p. 2 4 ) . B o t h men a r e d e s c r i b e d on s e -p a r a t e o c c a s i o n s as l o o k i n g l i k e a " d a r k " o r a " b l a c k q u e s t i o n -mark" (pp. 15 and 3 5 ) , and b o t h e x p e r i e n c e s i m i l a r s e n t i m e n t s of l o n g i n g t h e y f i n d d i f f i c u l t . ; t o e x p r e s s : on e n q u i r i n g i n t o t h e w e l l -b e i n g of h i s i l l e g i t i m a t e d a u g h t e r , t h e p r i e s t ' s " h e a r t b e a t w i t h i t s s e c r e t l o v e " (p. 6 2 ) ; e a r l i e r t h e l i e u t e n a n t had w a l k e d away a f t e r h i s awkward e n c o u n t e r w i t h L u i s " c a r r y i n g h i s s e c r e t of l o v e " (p. 5 6 ) . B o t h see B r i g i t t a as a symbol of t h e i r own hope: t h e l i e u t e n a n t d e s c r i b e s h e r as b e i n g " w o r t h more t h a n t h e Pope i n Rome" (p. 75) as he t r i e s t o p e r s u a d e t h e v i l l a g e r s t o d i v u l g e t h e p r i e s t ' s where-a b o u t s so t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n m i g h t be f r e e d f r o m t h e bondage of C a t h o l i c i s m i n t h e s t a t e ; t h e p r i e s t sees h i s a t t i t u d e t o B r i g i t t a as b e i n g "more i m p o r t a n t t h a n a whole c o n t i n e n t " (p. 82) when he muses o v e r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y f o r t h e s t a t e and t h e r e l i g i o u s c o n c e r n f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The f a c t t h a t each u s e s as a p o i n t of c o m p a r i s o n an a s p e c t of t h e o t h e r ' s p h i l o s o p h y i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e of Greene's i r o n i c method of h i g h l i g h t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two by j u x t a p o s i n g and o f t e n e q u a t i n g t h e i r d i s p a r a t e i d e o l o g i e s and r o l e s . I n f a c t , t h e l i e u t e n a n t o f t e n a p p e ars t o be 16 e v e r y t h i n g t h a t a p r i e s t s h o u l d be. He i s f i r e d w i t h a sense o f m i s s i o n and i s d e t e r m i n e d t o a b o l i s h c o m p l e t e l y t h e t r a p p i n g s o f hypo-c r i s y he a s s o c i a t e s w i t h t h e c h u r c h , remembering t h e "demands made fro m t h e a l t a r s t e p s by men who d i d n ' t know t h e meaning of s a c r i f i c e " (p. 2 2 ) . He t h i n k s o f h i m s e l f as a m y s t i c who has a c e r t a i n t y o f vacancy i n s t e a d o f God, and b e l i e v e s " a g a i n s t t h e e v i d e n c e o f h i s senses i n t h e c o l d empty e t h e r . j s p a c e s " (p. 2 5 ) . He i s w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e a n y t h i n g f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f h i s s o c i e t y , e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e c h i l d r e n : " i t was f o r t h e s e he was f i g h t i n g . He would e l i m i n a t e f r o m t h e i r c h i l d h o o d e v e r y t h i n g w h i c h had made him m i s e r a b l e , a l l t h a t was p o o r , s u p e r s t i t i o u s , and c o r r u p t " (p. 5 8 ) . H i s p i t y and l o v e f o r t h e o p p r e s s e d and poor a r e i r o n i c a l l y a p p a r e n t i n h i s a c t s o f k i n d n e s s towards t h e p r i e s t , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e o p p r e s s o r he h a t e s so vehemently. Unaware of t h e p r i e s t ' s r e a l i d e n t i t y , he g i v e s him f i v e p e sos on h i s r e l e a s e from p r i s o n , a g i f t t h a t a s t o n i s h e s t h e p r i e s t who can o n l y b l u r t o u t , "You're a good man" (p. 140). A f t e r t h e l i e u t e n a n t has c a p t u r e d t h e p r i e s t and d i s c o v e r e d how he had been d e c e i v e d by him on two p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n s , he i s s t i l l moved t o com-p a s s i o n by t h e p r i e s t ' s p l i g h t : t h e n i g h t b e f o r e h i s e x e c u t i o n he goes p e r s o n a l l y t o f e t c h F a t h e r J o s e t o h e a r t h e p r i e s t ' s f i n a l c o n -f e s s i o n , and b r i n g s him a b o t t l e o f bra n d y t o calm h i s n e r v e s , b o t h a c t i o n s b e i n g a g a i n s t t h e law. The p r i e s t i s a l s o seen as a k i n d , c o m p a s s i o n a t e man ( h a v i n g r e c o g n i z e d t h e m e s t i z o as h i s p o t e n t i a l b e t r a y e r , he s t i l l s a c r i f i c e s h i s mule t o t h e man and w a l k s t h e stony, r o a d w i t h b l e e d i n g f e e t ) , b u t Greene i s c a r e f u l t o show how d i f f e r e n t i s h i s m o t i v a t i o n and s o u r c e o f c o n v i c t i o n . Whereas t h e 17 l i e u t e n a n t i s moved by t h e s i g h t of s u f f e r i n g and m o t i v a t e d by t h e d e s i r e t o c r e a t e a f r e e and c o n t e n t e d s o c i e t y on e a r t h , t h e p r i e s t : i s moved by t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e common s i n f u l n e s s o f man and h i s awareness of t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f each i n d i v i d u a l i n God's s i g h t : C h r i s t had d i e d f o r t h i s man t o o : how c o u l d he p r e -t e n d w i t h h i s p r i d e and l u s t and c o w a r d i c e t o be any more w o r t h y of t h a t d e a t h t h a n t h e h a l f - c a s t e ? T h i s man i n t e n d e d t o b e t r a y him f o r money w h i c h he needed, and he b e t r a y e d God f o r what? Not even f o r r e a l l u s t . (p. 99) • T h i s same sense moves him t o r e t u r n i n h i g h f e v e r t o p r o t e c t t h e o l d woman he had l e f t a l o n e on t h e p l a t e a u when he remembers t h e A m e r i c a n gunman a t l a r g e : He was t o r m e n t e d by i d e a s ; i t wasn't o n l y t h e woman: he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e A m e r i c a n as w e l l : t h e two f a c e s — h i s own and t h e gunman's—were h a n g i n g t o -g e t h e r on t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n w a l l , as i f t h e y were b r o t h e r s i n a f a m i l y p o r t r a i t g a l l e r y . You d i d n ' t put t e m p t a t i o n i n a b r o t h e r ' s way. (p. 156) The p r i e s t , i n h i s f a l l f rom power and a u t h o r i t y , can s h a r e and u n d e r -s t a n d t h e s u f f e r i n g from w h i c h he had s e p a r a t e d h i m s e l f i n h i s p o s i -t i o n of p r i v i l e g e i n t h e c h u r c h . The l i e u t e n a n t , i n h i s r i s e t o au-t h o r i t y , i s d e t e r m i n e d t o e r a d i c a t e t h e f e a r and s u f f e r i n g engendered by t h e c h u r c h , b u t can o n l y r e p l a c e i t w i t h a t o t a l i t a r i a n regime t h a t depends f o r i t s c o n t i n u a n c e on a u t o c r a t i c a u t h o r i t y and f e a r . He wants t o a b o l i s h from s o c i e t y e v e r y t r a c e of c o r r u p t i o n t h a t he a s s o c i a t e s w i t h t h e c o r r u p t , e s t a b l i s h e d c h u r c h , but he cannot r e c o g -n i z e t h a t t h e seeds of c o r r u p t i o n e x i s t i n human n a t u r e r e g a r d l e s s of t h e e s t a b l i s h e d power. He b e l i e v e s t h a t c h a n g i n g s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , e d u c a t i n g p e o p l e t o d e v e l o p t h e i r r e a s o n i n g powers, and a b o l i s h i n g s u p e r s t i t i o n w i l l w i p e out a l l m i s e r y and s u f f e r i n g f r o m s o c i e t y . 18 C o r r u p t i o n comes f r o m o u t s i d e of man, he b e l i e v e s , and he l o n g s t o w a l l i n h i s l a n d " w i t h s t e e l u n t i l he had e r a d i c a t e d f r o m i t e v e r y -t h i n g w h i c h reminded him of how i t had once appeared t o a m i s e r a b l e c h i l d " (p. 2 5 ) . The p r i e s t , on t h e o t h e r hand, r e c o g n i z e s t h e l i m i -t a t i o n s of man's n a t u r e , and knows t h a t no amount of s o c i a l r e f o r m ca n c r e a t e a p e r f e c t s o c i e t y . H i s c o n c e r n i s t h a t man s h o u l d r e c o g -n i z e h i s i n n a t e s i n f u l n e s s and t h u s see h i s need of God above a l l e l s e . He has no f a i t h i n t h e h e a l i n g power o f s o c i a l change: t h e same c o r r u p t i o n s w i l l r e m a i n b u t i n new l e a d e r s and i n new f o r m s . W h i l e l i s t e n i n g t o t h e m e s t i z o ' s c o n f e s s i o n , he muses: Man was so l i m i t e d he hadn't even t h e i n g e n u i t y t o i n v e n t a new v i c e : t h e a n i m a l s knew as much. I t was f o r t h i s w o r l d t h a t C h r i s t had d i e d ; t h e more e v i l you saw and h e a r d about you, t h e g r e a t e r g l o r y l a y around t h e d e a t h . I t was t o o e a s y t o d i e f o r what was good o r b e a u t i f u l , f o r home o r c h i l d r e n o r a c i v i l i z a t i o n — i t needed a God t o d i e f o r t h e h a l f - h e a r t e d and t h e c o r r u p t , (p. 97) Because o f t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e p r i e s t c a n n o t f e e l t h e h a t r e d f o r h i s o p p r e s s o r s and b e t r a y e r s t h a t t h e l i e u t e n a n t f e e l s , knowing t h e c o r r u p t i o n t h a t tempts t h e p o w e r f u l : "he b o r e no grudge because he e x p e c t e d n o t h i n g e l s e of a n y t h i n g human" (p. 198). I t i s t h i s u n d e r -s t a n d i n g of h i s own s i n f u l n e s s t h a t g i v e s him t h e h u m i l i t y t h e l i e u -t e n a n t does n o t d i s p l a y . The l i e u t e n a n t ' s d e l u s i o n o f a s o c i e t y purged o f i m p u r i t y i s made d r a m a t i c a l l y and i r o n i c a l l y m a n i f e s t when t h e p r i e s t a t t e m p t s t o buy w ine i n t h e c a p i t a l . D i s g u i s e d i n a shabby d r i l l s u i t , he has no d i f -f i c u l t y i n d i s c o v e r i n g a s o u r c e of i l l i c i t d r i n k t h r o u g h t h e g o v e r n o r ' s c o u s i n , a h i g h - r a n k i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e s t a t e on whose b e h a l f t h e 19 p r i e s t i s a r r e s t e d l a t e r f o r p o s s e s s i o n o f i l l i c i t l i q u o r . The p u r i t y o f t h e p r i e s t ' s i n t e n t i o n and h i s measure o f s e l f - s a c r i f i c e i n o b t a i n i n g t h e w i n e i s p o i g n a n t l y i l l u s t r a t e d t h r o u g h h i s h e l p l e s s w i t n e s s i n g o f t h e G o v e r n o r ' s c o u s i n and t h e j e f e i n d u l g i n g t h e m s e l v e s on t h e wine he has p u r c h a s e d a t s u c h a h i g h p r i c e f o r use i n c e l e b r a t i n g mass. I r o n i c a l l y , t h e t a s t e of t h e wine (whose purpose i s unknown t o him) r e -minds t h e j e f e s e n t i m e n t a l l y of t a k i n g communion w i n e i n t h e c h u r c h as a c h i l d . A f t e r h i s a r r e s t , t h e p r i e s t i s q u e s t i o n e d c a u t i o u s l y by t h e s e r g e a n t about t h e s o u r c e o f t h e s p i r i t s he had p u r c h a s e d , and t r e a t e d a p p r o v i n g l y f o r n o t i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s e l l e r who i s a l r e a d y w e l l -known. The f a l l a c y of t h e l i e u t e n a n t ' s v i s i o n o f a p u r e s t a t e , p u rged of t h e c o r r u p t i v e i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e c h u r c h , i s a p p a r e n t . The f u l l f o r c e of t h e c o r r u p t i o n under a m i l i t a n t l y s e c u l a r au-t h o r i t y p r o v i d e s an e a r l y d r a m a t i c enactment of t h e d i s c u s s i o n t h e l i e u t e n a n t and t h e p r i e s t have, a f t e r t h e f i n a l c a p t u r e , about t h e n a -t u r e and use of power. The p r i e s t p o i n t s out t o t h e l i e u t e n a n t t h a t t h e goodness o f h i s s e c u l a r i d e o l o g y depends on t h e goodness o f i t s r u l i n g a g e n t s ; once c o r r u p t men a r e i n power, " y o u ' l l have a l l t h e o l d s t a r v a t i o n , b e a t i n g , g e t - r i c h - a n y h o w " (p. 195). By c o n t r a s t , he s a y s , God r e m a i n s t h e same as he i s d i v i n e and p e r f e c t , d e s p i t e t h e c o r r u p t i o n o r c o w a r d l i n e s s of h i s m i n i s t e r s . He u s e s h i m s e l f as an example o f s u c h poor r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and y e t , i r o n i c a l l y , i t : i s h i s a c t i o n s , f a r more t h a n t h e s t r o n g , w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d l i e u t e n a n t , r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e s e c u l a r , h u m a n i s t i d e o l o g y , w h i c h have t h e most marked e f f e c t on t h e l a r g e l y s e c u l a r b y s t a n d e r s i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s . From t h e b e g i n n i n g , i t i s t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e s e b y s t a n d e r s t o t h e 20 c e n t r a l a c t i o n t h a t r e - i n f o r c e s o r h i g h l i g h t s t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p r i e s t a nd.the l i e u t e n a n t . I t i s t h e n o t i c e -a b l e e f f e c t t h a t t h e p r i e s t has on t h i s c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t makes c o n v i n c i n g t h e u n c o n s c i o u s power of h i s s t a n d . I n P a r t I , t h e s e b y s t a n d e r s a r e i n t r o d u c e d one by one t h r o u g h t h e f i r s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s t h a t c o v e r 'The P o r t ' , 'The C a p i t a l ' , and 'The R i v e r ' , and a r e l i n k e d by s t r u c t u r a l c o n t i g u i t y i n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r of t h i s s e c t i o n , 'The B y s t a n d e r s ' . These b y s t a n d e r s r e p r e s e n t v a r i o u s forms o f i s o l a t i o n , l o n e l i n e s s , and p a i n , and a r e l i n k e d t o t h e p r i e s t and t h e l i e u t e n a n t i n t h e i r common sense of d e s e r t i o n . Going b a c k t o h i s room a f t e r t h e p r i e s t l e a v e s , Mr. Tench r e f l e c t s t h a t " l o n e l i n e s s f o r c e d him t h e r e , v a c a n c y . But he was as accustomed t o b o t h as t o h i s own f a c e i n t h e g l a s s " (p. 18). The boy, L u i s , s h i f t s r e s t l e s s l y a p a r t f r o m h i s s i s t e r s as he h e a r s h i s mother r e a d t h e s t o r y of S a i n t J u a n , and l a t e r h i s f a t h e r r e f l e c t s on " t h e e x t e n t of t h e i r abandon-ment" (p. 28). F a t h e r J o s e ' s h u f f l e s h e l p l e s s l y back t o h i s n a g g i n g w i f e as t h e l o c a l c h i l d r e n t a u n t him, t h i n k i n g r u e f u l l y t h a t " t h e r e was no r e s p e c t anywhere l e f t f o r him i n h i s home, i n t h e town, i n t h e whole abandoned s t a r " (p. 30). Mr. and Mrs. F e l l o w s , t o o , e x p e r i e n c e t h i s same sense of abandonment and i s o l a t i o n : "They were companions c u t o f f f r o m a l l t h e i r w o r l d : t h e r e was no meaning anywhere o u t s i d e t h e i r own h e a r t s " (p. 39). The l i n k s a r e f o r g e d between t h e by-s t a n d e r s f i r s t t h r o u g h t h i s s ense of i s o l a t i o n , and i n t h e n e x t s e c -t i o n t h r o u g h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o r r e c o g n i t i o n of p a i n : "Mr. Tench was used t o p a i n : i t was h i s p r o f e s s i o n " (p. 47); C o r a l , " i n h e r woman's p a i n " (p. 54), s t a r e s a t t h e c r o s s e s t h e p r i e s t has c h a l k e d on t h e 21 b a r n f l o o r ; and t h e l i e u t e n a n t , a t t e m p t i n g a g e s t u r e o f a f f e c t i o n towards t h e boy, L u i s , "saw him f l i n c h away w i t h t h e p a i n " (p. 5 8 ) . The p a i n F a t h e r J o s e e x p e r i e n c e s as a renegade p r i e s t c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h t h e s u f f e r i n g t h e w h i s k e y p r i e s t e x p e r i e n c e s i n h i s a t t e m p t s t o be f a i t h f u l t o h i s v o c a t i o n . He and t h e w h i s k e y p r i e s t have moved i n q u i t e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s s i n c e t h e days when t h e c h u r c h was i n power: i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e a m b i t i o u s complacency o f t h e w h i s k e y p r i e s t , F a t h e r J o s e had been "so humble t h a t he was r e a d y t o a c c e p t any amount o f mockery" (p. 94) and had been " f i l l e d w i t h an o v e r -whelming sense o f God" (p. 9 5 ) ; h a v i n g chosen m a r r i a g e i n p r e f e r e n c e t o e x e c u t i o n , F a t h e r J o s e l i v e s a w r e t c h e d and t o r m e n t e d l i f e , t a u n t e d by t h e l o c a l c h i l d r e n , u n a b l e t o t r u s t anyone, and f e e l i n g u t t e r l y abandoned and a l o n e i n t h e "contempt and s a f e t y " (p. 49) he has chosen. He i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s o l u t i o n t h e l i e u t e n a n t sees t o t h e h y p o c r i s y of t h e c h u r c h : " l e a v e t h e l i v i n g w i t n e s s t o t h e weakness of t h e i r f a i t h " (p. 2 5 ) . Y e t Greene p a i n t s him w i t h sympathy as a man who f e e l s him-! s e l f so f a r s t e e p e d i n s i n t h a t t o r e p e n t i s i m p o s s i b l e . He i s t h e f o i l t o t h e w h i s k e y p r i e s t who chooses p e r s e c u t i o n above s a f e t y and i s w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e h i s own l i f e r a t h e r t h a n compromise h i s f a i t h . The two g i r l s , C o r a l and B r i g i t t a , a r e c o n t r a s t e d i n t h e i r n a t u r e s and i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e p r i e s t . C o r a l has "a l o o k o f immense r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " (p. 3 3 ) , and r e a d i l y t a k e s o v e r f r o m h e r f a t h e r i n o r g a n i z i n g a h i d e o u t f o r t h e p r i e s t and c o m m i t t i n g h e r s e l f t o h i s p r o t e c t i o n . H i s own d a u g h t e r , B r i g i t t a , i s a l s o seen as a g i r l t h a t b e l i e s h e r y e a r s , b u t i n s t e a d of b e i n g aged by r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e p r i e s t r e c o g n i z e s i n h e r "a d e v i l r y and m a l i c e beyond h e r age. 22 A young woman s t a r e d out of t h e c h i l d ' s e y e s " (p. 6 3 ) . S e e i n g h e r n e x t t o t h e r u b b i s h heap a t h i s d e p a r t u r e was " l i k e s e e i n g h i s own m o r t a l s i n l o o k back a t him, w i t h o u t c o n t r i t i o n " (p. 6 7 ) ; she i s t h e b e i n g who reminds and c o n v i c t s him of h i s f a l l e n n a t u r e w h i l e a r o u s i n g i n him a l o v e o f h i s own k i n d t h a t he had n o t known b e f o r e . She moves him t o t h e p o i n t o f r i s k i n g h i s own damnation f o r h e r s a l v a t i o n : "0 God, g i v e me any k i n d o f d e a t h — w i t h o u t c o n t r i t i o n , i n a s t a t e o f s i n — o n l y save t h i s c h i l d " (p. 8 2 ) . W h i l e he lam e n t s t h e c o r r u p t i o n a l r e a d y e v i d e n t i n h i s own c h i l d , and r e c o g n i z e s h e r easy a b i l i t y t o b e t r a y him t o t h e a u t h o r i t i e s , he a d m i r e s t h e i n n o c e n t m a t u r i t y o f C o r a l and r e l i e s on h e r sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r o t e c t him. When he r e t u r n s t o t h e banana s t a t i o n and f i n d s i t d e s e r t e d , "he r e a l i z e d how much he had c o u n t e d on t h i s c h i l d " (p. 141); i n h i s f i n a l dream i t i s C o r a l who s e r v e s him wine a t t h e a l t a r and i n t e r p r e t s f o r him t h e coded message he h e a r s as t h e good news he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g . Through t h e i r common e x p e r i e n c e o f i s o l a t i o n and p a i n , t h e by-s t a n d e r s a r e l i n k e d t o t h e c e n t r a l , a r c h e t y p a l s t o r y o f p u r s u i t , b e t r a y a l , and d e a t h . These m o t i f s , t h a t a r e . . l i n k e d s t r u c t u r a l l y and t h e m a t i c a l l y by e c h o i n g o r p a r a l l e l i n g e ach o t h e r , a r e b r o u g h t t o -g e t h e r d r a m a t i c a l l y d u r i n g t h e p r i e s t ' s o v e r n i g h t e x p e r i e n c e i n j a i l , where t h e s t o r y o f h i s own l i f e a p p e a r s i n microcosm: a woman i s j a i l e d because o f t h e r u l e s o f r e l i g i o u s i n t o l e r a n c e , an o l d man be-w a i l s h i s f a t e o f h a v i n g an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d t h a t h a t e s him, and i n t h e s q u a l o u r o f t h e c e l l , a c o u p l e c o p u l a t e s i n d u l g e n t l y . T h i s e p i s o d e forms a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e n o v e l as t h e p r i e s t becomes aware o f t h e n a t u r e of d i v i n e compassion for t h e s i n f u l and g u i l t y . 23 H i s own compassion i s m a n i f e s t i n t h e way he endures cramp i n o r d e r t h a t t h e o l d man may s l e e p q u i e t l y on h i s s h o u l d e r , and h i s e f f e c t on h i s f e l l o w p r i s o n e r s , who do n o t r e v e a l h i s r e a l i d e n t i t y t o t h e s e r -g e ant n e x t m o r n i n g , p r e s a g e s t h e e f f e c t t h a t he has on t h e b y s t a n d e r s i n t h e end. H i s f a i t h i s c o n c r e t e l y condoned: t h e l i e u t e n a n t and h i s d e v o t e e , L u i s , a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by t h e p r i e s t . F o r t h e l i e u t e n a n t , " t h e dynamic l o v e w h i c h used t o move h i s t r i g g e r - f i n g e r f e l t f l a t and dead" (p. 2 2 0 ) , and, w i t h t h e hunt o v e r , "he f e l t w i t h -out a p u r p o s e , as i f l i f e had d r a i n e d out of t h e w o r l d " (p. 207). T h i s f e e l i n g i s an i r o n i c echo o f t h e e x p l a n a t i o n t h e p r i e s t g i v e s t o t h e G o v e r n o r ' s c o u s i n f o r h i s t e a r s as he watches t h e communion w i n e , t h e symbol o f C h r i s t ' s b l o o d , d i s a p p e a r : " I see . . . a l l t h e hope o f t h e w o r l d d r a i n i n g away" (p. 133). H a v i n g h e a r d o f t h e s h o o t i n g o f t h e p r i e s t who had t a k e n s h e l t e r i n t h e i r house f o r t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s , L u i s f e e l s an a t t r a c t i o n t o t h e p r i e s t and a r e p u l s i o n f r o m t h e f o r m e r l y -a d m i r e d l i e u t e n a n t . L u i s r e c o g n i z e s t h e c r u e l t y of k i l l i n g a man who has committed no c i v i l c r i m e o t h e r t h a n b e l i e v i n g i n God and p r a c -t i s i n g h i s v o c a t i o n , and sees t h e l i e u t e n a n t as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a h e a r t l e s s o r d e r . H a v i n g o r i g i n a l l y f o l l o w e d t h e s o l d i e r s w i t h " e x c i t e d and h o p e f u l e y e s " (p. 5 2 ) , L u i s r e a l i z e s , w a t c h i n g t h e l i e u -t e n a n t march by w h i l e t h i n k i n g of dead h e r o e s , t h a t " i t was p e o p l e l i k e t h e man out t h e r e who k i l l e d them. He f e l t d e c e i v e d " (p. 2 2 0 ) , and i n d i c a t e s h i s new-found i n s i g h t s by s p i t t i n g on t h e l i e u t e n a n t ' s r i f l e b u t t . T h i s i n c i d e n t p r e p a r e s L u i s t o t a k e on t h e r o l e of C o r a l when a new f u g i t i v e p r i e s t s e e k s a s y l u m i n t h e i r home t h a t n i g h t . Through Mrs. F e l l o w s we l e a r n t h a t C o r a l had a s ked s t r a n g e q u e s t i o n s and 24 behaved v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y a f t e r her c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p r i e s t , d e s p i t e h e r f a t h e r ' s r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t she s h a r e d "more i n common w i t h t h e l i e u t e n a n t " (p. 3 5 ) . Even Mr. Tench f e e l s an " a p p a l l i n g s e n s e of l o n e l i n e s s " a f t e r w i t n e s s i n g t h e d e a t h of t h e p r i e s t , remembering t h a t " t h e l i t t l e f e l l o w had spoken E n g l i s h and knew about h i s c h i l d r e n . He f e l t d e s e r t e d " (p. 217). P a r a d o x i c a l l y , i t i s t h e p r i e s t ' s humanity t h a t f i n a l l y a c h i e v e s a t r i u m p h f o r t h e s p i r i t u a l . But t h e v e r y s i m i l a r i t i e s i n a t t i t u d e and t h e hope f o r o t h e r s t h a t t h e p r i e s t and l i e u t e n a n t s h a r e a r e what c r e a t e t h e d e l i c a t e b a l a n c e of t e n s i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l , a c h i e v i n g a d i a l e c t i c o f t h e s a c r e d and t h e s e c u l a r i n c o n c r e t e , v i s i b l e form. W i t h t h e p a t t e r n of C h r i s t ' s p e r s e c u t i o n , b e t r a y a l , and d e a t h as t h e p a r a d i g m f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c o n f l i c t s of t h e n o v e l , Greene has e s t a b l i s h e d t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s o f h i s work, and c r e a t e d a b a l a n c e of s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t i n s t r u c t u r e , c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , and s t y l e t h a t g i v e s t h e n o v e l i t s u n i t y and e f f e c t . The p a r a d i g m e s t a b l i s h e s t h e t e n s i o n between e v e n t s as t h e y appear and a c t u a l l y a r e , between c h a r a c t e r s who a r e d i f f e r e n t d e s p i t e t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s , and between e x p e c t a t i o n s and a c t u a l outcomes. The m o d e l . i s n o t used d i d a c t i c a l l y : i t s v i a b i l i t y i n t h e f i c t i o n i s a p p a r e n t i n t h e p r o b a b l e and l o g i c a l sequence of a c t i o n w i t h i n a s e t t i n g t h a t forms and d e f i n e s t h e c h a r a c -t e r s and a t t i t u d e s of t h e p r i e s t and t h e l i e u t e n a n t . The w h i s k e y p r i e s t r e t a i n s t h e r e a d e r ' s sympathy t h r o u g h o u t b e c a u s e , as A l a n Grob c o n c l u d e s , "however g r a v e t h e p r i e s t ' s o f f e n s e s , t h e y a r e t o us sub-s t a n t i a l l y m i t i g a t e d by h a r d s h i p and f i n a l l y a b s o l v e d by t h e h e r o i c 25 f i d e l i t y of h i s l a s t a c t s . " 1 * The p r i e s t ' s v e r y h u m i l i t y , emanating f r o m h i s sense of t o t a l i n a d e q u a c y f o r t h e p a r t he i s c a l l e d t o p l a y , redeems him f o r t h e kingdom t o whose power and g l o r y he has uncon-s c i o u s l y s e r v e d as w i t n e s s . The C a t h o l i c p a r a d i g m of The Power and t h e G l o r y p r o v i d e s t h e terms f o r t h e c o n f l i c t s , p u r s u i t s , b e t r a y a l s , and s a c r i f i c e s c e n t r a l t o i t s n a r r a t i v e , theme, and s t r u c t u r e . The drama o f t h e n o v e l s p r i n g s n o t o n l y f r o m t h e a c t i o n b u t a l s o f r o m t h e p a r a d o x of t h e s i n n e r as s a i n t , t h e w h i s k e y p r i e s t ' s weakness making h i s u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n f o r martyrdom more i m p r e s s i v e t h a n i f he had been a s a i n t l y man. The h e r o i c mode o f t h e n o v e l c o n t r i b u t e s t o i t s p o w e r f u l i m p act d e s p i t e , o r even b e c a u s e o f , t h e u n h e r o i c c h a r a c t e r of t h e p r i e s t . Greene a c h i e v e s t e x t u a l r i c h n e s s and d e p t h f r o m t h e s p e c i f i c C a t h o l i c f o c u s of t h e n o v e l so t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c i s m p r e s e n t e d i s n o t a body of b e l i e f r e q u i r i n g e x p o s i t i o n and demanding c a t e g o r i c a l a s s e n t o r d i s s e n t , b u t a s ystem of c o n c e p t s , a s o u r c e o f s i t u a t i o n s and a r e s e r v o i r of symbols w i t h w h i c h he (Greene) can o r d e r and d r a m a t i z e c e r t a i n i n t u i t i o n s about th e n a t u r e of human e x p e r i e n c e . 5 I n s e e i n g t h e w h i s k e y p r i e s t as s i n n e r - s a i n t and t h e l i e u t e n a n t as a l t r u i s t - e x e c u t i o n e r , Greene d r a m a t i z e s t h e c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n each c h a r a c t e r as w e l l as t h e c o n f l i c t s t h a t a r i s e f r o m t h e i r s i m i l a r y e t ** A l a n Grob, "The Power and t h e G l o r y : Graham Greene's A r g u -ment f r o m D e s i g n , " C r i t i c i s m , 11 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 1. D a v i d Lodge, Graham Greene, C o l u m b i a E s s a y s on Modern W r i t e r s , No. 17 (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), p. 6. 26 d i f f e r e n t i d e o l o g i e s . The f o c u s on t h i s c e n t r a l a n t i t h e s i s w i t h i n an environment of r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n t h a t shapes and d e f i n e s i t g i v e s t h e n o v e l i t s a e s t h e t i c u n i t y and i n t e n s i t y . 27 CHAPTER 2 THE END OF THE AFFAIR The g r e a t e s t s a i n t s have been men w i t h more t h a n a n o r m a l c a p a c i t y f o r e v i l . Graham Greene, " F r e d e r i c k R o l f e : E d w a r d ian I n f e r n o " The p a r a d i g m a t i c q u a l i t i e s o f The Power and t h e G l o r y gave way t o a more r e a l i s t i c a p p r o a c h i n Greene's n e x t n o v e l , The H e a r t o f  th e M a t t e r (1948). T h i s work d e a l s w i t h t h e m o r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t o f a d u l t e r y on t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r , S c o b i e , whose g u i l t as a b e l i e v i n g C a t h o l i c , and whose sense o f p i t y f o r t h e two women he i s h u r t i n g , l e a d him f i n a l l y t o d e s p a i r and s u i c i d e . T h i s n o v e l com-p l e t e d t h e s o - c a l l e d ' t r i l o g y ' o f Greene's C a t h o l i c n o v e l s , b u t , i n f a c t , t h e c y c l e was n o t c o m p l e t e : t h e n o t i o n o f t h e s a n c t i f i e d s i n -n e r i m p l i c i t i n The Power and t h e G l o r y was t o become t h e e x p l i c i t theme o f h i s n e x t n o v e l , The End o f t h e A f f a i r (1951). Whereas t h e e f f e c t o f The Power and t h e G l o r y a r i s e s d i r e c t l y f rom t h e c o u n t e r -p o i n t i n g , p a r a d o x e s , and i r o n i e s t h a t i s s u e from t h e r e l i g i o u s m o t i f a t i t s c e n t r e , t h e problems o f The End of t h e A f f a i r a r i s e d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e i n t r u s i o n o f r e l i g i o u s dogma i n t o t h e i m a g i n a t i v e bounds o f th e r e a l i s t i c n o v e l . When Greene i n t r o d u c e s God as a c h a r a c t e r and s o l v e s human problems by g r a c e , as he does i n The End o f t h e A f f a i r , he moves out o f t h e domain o f t h e n o v e l and i n t o an a r e a b e t t e r h a n d l e d d i s c u r s i v e l y by t h e o l o g i a n s . The problems o f The End o f t h e A f f a i r c an be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f 28 r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s and d i d a c t i c p r e m i s e s t o t h e r e a l i s t i c and s e n s e -p e r c e p t i b l e r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e n o v e l . An a u t h o r i s e s s e n t i a l l y f r e e t o w r i t e of a n y t h i n g he w i s h e s , but once h a v i n g s e t t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s t o work, he must a l l o w c h a r a c t e r s t h e freedom t o t h i n k , d e c i d e , and a c t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own n a t u r e s and n o t a c c o r d i n g t o a p r e c o n c e i v e d p l a n o f h i s own. C h a r a c t e r s cannot be m a n i p u l a t e d by an a u t h o r i n t o p o s i t i o n s o r a c t i o n s t h a t a r e e f f e c t i v e f o r h i s r e l i g i o u s s t a t e m e n t but i m p r o b a b l e a r t i s -t i c a l l y . C h a r a c t e r s i n The End o f t h e A f f a i r a r e a l m o s t programmed t o move i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n because o f t h e r e l i g i o u s p r e m i s e s p r o p e l l i n g t h e n o v e l f o r w a r d : S a r a h ' s c o n v e r s i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s i n p a r t a t t r i b u t e d t o h e r C a t h o l i c b a p t i s m as an i n f a n t . A l t h o u g h s u c h an argument may be d o c t r i n a l l y d e f e n d a b l e , i t c r e a t e s problems of c r e d i b i l i t y f o r a r e a d e r who demands i m a g i n a t i v e l y p r o b a b l e r e a -sons and r e s o l u t i o n s i n a n o v e l . P s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m p l e x i t y cannot be s a c r i f i c e d t o t h e c l a i m s of o r t h o d o x y . P r e d e s t i n a t i o n t a k e s o v e r f r o m c h o i c e , c h a r a c t e r s e x i s t t o embody t h e o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e s , and t h u s emerge as puppets b e i n g awkwardly h a n d l e d t o i l l u s t r a t e a p r e -c o n c e i v e d p a t t e r n o f e v e n t s . G l i c k s b e r g s t a t e s t h e p r o b l e m as f o l l o w s : I f a n o v e l i s t o r e t a i n i t s u n d e r l y i n g d r a m a t i c power, i f i t i s t o g i v e a f a i t h f u l and dynamic p o r t r a i t o f t h e dilemmas of t h e human s i t u a t i o n , i t must f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of human n a t u r e , i t s i r r a t i o n a l i m p u l s e s , t h e e f f o r t o f p e o p l e t o l i v e up t o t h e i r f a i t h , e t c . o t h e r w i s e t h e n o v e l t u r n s i n t o a r e l i g i o u s t r a c t i n w h i c h t h e dogma i s t h e o l o g i c a l l y sound but a r t i s t i c a l l y u s e l e s s . 1 1 C h a r l e s G l i c k s b e r g , Modern L i t e r a t u r e and t h e Death of God (The Hague: M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1966), p. 130. 29 I n The End of t h e A f f a i r , Greene c r e a t e s f o r h i m s e l f t h e d i f -f i c u l t y o f d r a m a t i z i n g S a r a h ' s i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s and s p i r i t u a l s t r u g g l e , and e l i m i n a t e s f a i r l y e a r l y i n t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e n o v e l t h e more e a s i l y d e p i c t a b l e e x t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s w i t h B e n d r i x . A f t e r h e r p a s s i o n a t e m e e t i n g s w i t h h e r l o v e r , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i n f u s e h e r s t r u g g l e s t o l o v e God and t o come t o terms w i t h Him w i t h t h e same immediacy and u r g e n c y o f h e r a c t u a l human c o n t a c t w i t h B e n d r i x . Sarah's k e e p i n g o f a d i a r y i s t h e means Greene chooses t o r e v e a l some-t h i n g o f h e r s t r u g g l e , b u t t h i s method i s m a n i p u l a t e d t o o c o n v e n i e n t l y f o r c r e d i b i l i t y : i t i s n o t a l i t t l e s u r p r i s i n g t h a t S a r a h s h o u l d n o t n o t i c e t h e absence o f so i n t i m a t e and p r e c i o u s a p o s s e s s i o n , and t h a t h e r p e r s o n a l maid, e n t r u s t e d w i t h v a r y i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (see p. 125), s h o u l d h a p p i l y hand o v e r t h e document t o a s t r a n g e r . Greene i n g e n i o u s l y d e v e l o p s t h e i d e a o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c o n -tinuum o f human-divine l o v e , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t Sarah's d e s i r e f o r God i s a n a t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o f h e r d e s i r e f o r h e r l o v e r . Caught up as she i s w i t h p a s s i o n s o f t h e f l e s h , S a r a h f r e q u e n t l y makes m e n t i o n of t h e c a r n a l a s p e c t s o f C h r i s t ' s i m a g e — " c o u l d anybody l o v e him o r h a t e him i f he hadn't g o t a body?" (p. 112). B e n d r i x u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e -i n f o r c e s t h i s n o t i o n o f t h e continuum between t h e two a p p a r e n t l y o p p o s i t e forms of l o v e when he w r i t e s t h a t "her abandonment t o u c h e d t h a t s t r a n g e m a t h e m a t i c a l p o i n t o f e n d l e s s n e s s , a p o i n t w i t h no w i d t h , o c c u p y i n g no s p a c e " (p. 5 1 ) . I r o n i c a l l y . l i e a l s o speaks o f t h e s i m i -l a r i t i e s between human and d i v i n e l o v e from t h e o p p o s i t e extreme, u s i n g t h e example of t h e O l d Testament w r i t e r s , who were " f o n d o f u s i n g t h e words 'a j e a l o u s God', and perhaps i t was t h e i r r o u g h and 30 o b l i q u e way of e x p r e s s i n g b e l i e f i n the..love o f God f o r man" (p. 4 2 ) . A l t h o u g h s u c h n o t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o p r e p a r e t h e r e a d e r f o r Sarah's t r a n s f e r e n c e o f a l l e g i a n c e , B e n d r i x i s u n p r e p a r e d f o r t h e change and so n a t u r a l l y assumes t h a t t h e s c r a p o f paper d i s c a r d e d by Sa r a h i s p a r t o f a l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o h e r new l o v e r : I have no need t o w r i t e t o you o r t a l k t o y o u , you know e v e r y t h i n g b e f o r e I c a n speak, but when one l o v e s , one f e e l s t h e need t o u s e t h e same o l d ways one has al w a y s used. I know I am o n l y b e g i n n i n g t o l o v e , b u t a l r e a d y I want t o abandon e v e r y t h i n g , e v e rybody b u t you: o n l y f e a r and h a b i t p r e v e n t me. Dear. ...... (p. 5 3 ) . Such an a s s u m p t i o n i s a l s o a n a t u r a l consequence o f Sarah's c o n s i s t e n t r e f e r e n c e t o M a u r i c e as 'You'—"She had al w a y s c a l l e d me 'you'" (p. 1 8 ) — a n d i s o b v i o u s l y d e s i g n e d by Greene t o r e - i n f o r c e t h e i d e a t h a t Sarah's c o n v e r s i o n i s n o t u n l i k e an a f f a i r . However, t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f s u c h an i d e a i s undermined by t h e p r e c a r i o u s n a t u r e o f t h e S a r a h -M a u r i c e a f f a i r , w h i c h r u n s s u c h an uneven, unhappy c o u r s e f o r much of i t s d u r a t i o n t h a t i t g i v e s l i t t l e p r o m i s e o f permanence and s a t i s -f a c t i o n i f Sarah's subsequent " a f f a i r " w i t h God i s t o be m e r e l y a n a t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o f her a f f a i r w i t h B e n d r i x . The v e r y word a f f a i r d e n o t e s something t e m p o r a r y , and has c o n n o t a t i o n s o f d o u b t s , m i s -u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , r e s e n t m e n t s , and j e a l o u s i e s . B e n d r i x e x p r e s s e s t h i s m i s g i v i n g when he speaks o f " t h e word a f f a i r w i t h i t s s u g g e s t i o n s o f a b e g i n n i n g and an end" (p. 5 7 ) . H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i d e a o f t h i s c o n tinuum t o make Sarah's commitment c r e d i b l e , t o make h e r s t r u g g l e s d r a m a t i z a b l e i n a h u m a n - l i k e way, Greene i n f a c t m i n i m i z e s t h e f o r c e and e f f e c t o f d i v i n e l o v e , and, by making S a r a h g i v e up M a u r i c e f o r God, i n f a c t i m p l i e s t h a t c a r n a l and d i v i n e l o v e a r e 31 m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e o r even i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e , and n o t a s h a d i n g o f one i n t o t h e o t h e r . Compare t h e s i m i l a r y e t d i f f e r e n t . s i t u a t i o n i n The  Power and t h e G l o r y where t h e p r i e s t ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f c o r r u p t human l o v e l e a d s him t o a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g " o f t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f God's l o v e f o r man and how t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n i s c o n s e q u e n t l y r e f l e c t e d i n h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e human b e i n g s around him. There i s no i m p l i -c a t i o n o f d i s c o n t i n u i t y : l o v e o f God and l o v e o f man a r e i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d . The n o v e l i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r e c o r d o f B e n d r i x ' s r e l u c t a n t move towards f a i t h , but, because h i s growth i s d i r e c t l y dependent on what happens t o S a r a h , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t Sarah's c o n v e r s i o n be c r e d i b l e and h o t a weak l i n k i n t h e c h a i n o f e v e n t s . However, t h e p r o c e s s o f Sarah's s e l f - s u r r e n d e r i s i n a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d f o r . B e n d r i x t e l l s us t h a t she was a b l e t o throw h e r s e l f i n t o h e r a f f a i r w i t h him w i t h a g r e a t sense o f abandonment and "unhaunted by g u i l t . I n h e r v i e w when a t h i n g was done, i t was done: remorse d i e d w i t h t h e a c t " (p. 5 0 ) . Her m o r a l l o g i c i s c o n f u s e d : she f e e l s a s t r o n g o b l i g a t i o n as Henry's w i f e n o t t o d e s e r t him ( a r e we meant t o b e l i e v e t h a t , l i k e h e r b a p t i s m , she has been c o n d i t i o n e d by r e c e p t i o n o f a s a c r a m e n t ? ) , y e t she s u f f e r s no g u i l t o r remorse i n c o m m i t t i n g a d u l t e r y . "The moment o n l y m a t t e r e d " (p. 51) f o r h e r , and she l i v e s n e i t h e r on memory n o r hope. B e n d r i x i s n o t h e r f i r s t l o v e r , and h e r d e s i r e f o r him i s so s t r o n g t h a t "sometimes she would come i n between two queues, and we would make l o v e between t h e g r e e n g r o c e r ' s and t h e b u t c h e r ' s " (p. 3 4 ) . Y e t t h i s i s t h e same women t h a t P a r k i s r e v e r e d , and o f whom th e p r i e s t can s a y , "She was a good woman" (p. 180). There seems t o 32 be a p e c u l i a r d i s c r e p a n c y h e r e between goodness and v i r t u e . The a p p a r e n t l y a r b i t r a r y n a t u r e of t h e g r a c e e x t e n d e d t o S a r a h u n d e r -mines i t s d r a m a t i c power i n t h e n o v e l : i n l i f e one may a c c e p t t h e m y s t e r i o u s ways of God, but i n f i c t i o n t h e y must be e x p l i c a b l e i n m o r a l . . l o g i c o r a t l e a s t i n terms of p s y c h o l o g i c a l need. Greene's c o n v i c t i o n t h a t " t h e g r e a t e s t s a i n t s have been men w i t h more t h a n a n o r m a l c a p a c i t y f o r e v i l " 2 made him c r e a t e a s a i n t of S a r a h w i t h i n -s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n t o j u s t i f y s u c h an a c t i o n i n terms of t h e l o g i c t h e n o v e l s e t s up f o r i t s e l f . Her easy s u r r e n d e r and r e s p o n s e t o human l o v e i s meant t o be seen as a p r e s a g e of h e r s u r r e n d e r t o d i -v i n e l o v e , b u t when B e n d r i x says t o h e r , "you s i m p l y h a v e n ' t caught up y e t on o r d i n a r y human e m o t i o n s " (p. 5 5 ) , he i s summing h e r up more a c c u r a t e l y t h a n Greene p r o b a b l y i n t e n d s . The p r i e s t may b e l i e v e t h a t B e n d r i x has "a v e r y s t r a n g e s e t of v a l u e s " (p. 155), b u t t h e y a r e c e r -t a i n l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i n human terms: i t i s Sa r a h ' s v a l u e s t h a t a r e s t r a n g e . Two t h i n g s a r e p u z z l i n g about Sarah's vow t o God d u r i n g t h e bombing r a i d . F i r s t , she has n e v e r shown any g u i l t f o r h e r way o f l i f e (cf. pp. 50 and 51 quoted e a r l i e r ) , n o r has she e x p r e s s e d a need f o r some s o r t o f s p i r i t u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Why s h o u l d she s u d d e n l y and u n e x p e c t e d l y make such a s a c r i f i c i a l p r o m i s e t o God? That she was b a p t i s e d a C a t h o l i c as a two-year o l d i s p o s s i b l y meant t o e x p l a i n the dormant c o n v i c t i o n r e a d y t o s p r i n g t o l i f e , b u t t h i s i s n o t 2 Graham Greene, " F r e d e r i c k R o l f e : E d w a r d i a n I n f e r n o " i n The  L o s t C h i l d h o o d and Other E s s a y s (London: E y r e & S p o t t i s w o o d e , 1951), p. 93. 33 s u f f i c i e n t cause o r e x p l a n a t i o n p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . B e n d r i x r e p e a t e d l y a f f i r m s Sarah's h a b i t of l i v i n g f o r t h e moment o n l y ; t h e r e f o r e , why s h o u l d S a r a h make a vow i n a moment of c r i s i s and remember i t and s t r u g g l e t o m a i n t a i n i t once t h e c r i s i s i s o v e r ? She makes t h e vow on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t B e n d r i x i s dead, and when he w a l k s i n t o t h e room h u r t b u t a l i v e , she a c c e p t s • h i s ' r e t u r n ' as a m i r a c l e . W i t h no p r e v i o u s h i s t o r y o f s p i r i t u a l l o n g i n g o r c u r i o s i t y (as f a r a s we a r e t o l d ) , i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t S a r a h so b l i n d l y a c c e p t s t h e s i t u a t i o n as a ' m i r a c l e ' i n s t e a d of . r e a l i z i n g t h a t i t was a m i s c o n c e p t i o n of a moment p e r f e c t l y e x p l i c a b l e i n r a t i o n a l terms a f t e r w a r d s : B e n d r i x had m e r e l y been knocked u n c o n s c i o u s . She h e r s e l f r e c o g n i z e s l a t e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t h e r p e r c e p t i o n was due t o " h y s t e r i a " (p. 9 4 ) . S a r a h p e r s e v e r e s w i t h h e r commitment t o God d e s p i t e t h e c o n t r o -v e r s i a l e v i d e n c e of an a p p a r e n t ' m i r a c l e ' , and d e s p i t e h e r s t r o n g l y s e n s u a l n a t u r e . Her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h God o f f e r s h e r no a p p a r e n t p l e a s u r e o r a b i d i n g p e a c e — ' " p a i n b e l o n g s t o You as h a p p i n e s s n e v e r does" (p. 1 2 2 ) — and t h e s u f f e r i n g e x p r e s s e d i n h e r d i a r y c e r t a i n l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t she was h a p p i e r s i n n i n g t h a n i n a s t a t e of g r a c e . Because of t h i s l a c k of any s t r o n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n c e n t i v e , S arah's p e r s i s t e n c e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l a i n e d . T h e r e seems l i t t l e r a t i o n a l o r e m o t i o n a l b a s i s f o r c o n t i n u i n g h e r commitment, and t h i s i n a b i l i t y t o r e s i s t i t o r make a r e a s o n a b l e c h o i c e about i t i s r e - i n f o r c e d by t h e imagery of i n f e c t i o n used t o d e s c r i b e S arah's s t a t e . She t e l l s B e n d r i x i n a l e t t e r t h a t she "has c aught b e l i e f l i k e a d i s e a s e " (p. 1 4 7 ) ; Mrs. B e r t r a m t e l l s him t h a t she had a l w a y s hoped Sarah's b a p t i s m "would ' t a k e ' . L i k e v a c c i n a t i o n " (p. 1 6 4 ) , 34 w h i l e Henry l i k e n s i t t o "an i n f e c t i o n " (p. 187). The one p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r e s e n t i n g a v i a b l e r a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e t o f a i t h t o f o r c e S a r a h i n t o e x a m i n i n g h e r own r e a s o n s f o r b e l i e f i s n o t g i v e n a f a i r h e a r i n g . Smythe, t h e r a t i o n a l i s t p r e a c h e r , i s n e v e r a l l o w e d t o p u t f o r w a r d a cogent c a s e f o r a t h e i s m , thus u n d e r m i n i n g t h e d r a m a t i c power Sarah's l e a p of f a i t h c o u l d have i f she had o p t e d f o r i t d e s p i t e r i g o r o u s r a t i o n a l i s t argument. The p r i e s t who a p p ears a f t e r S a r a h ' s d e a t h seems i n d i f f e r e n t o r opposed t o argument and e x p l a n a t i o n : " F a t h e r Crompton produced a f o r m u l a . He l a i d i t down l i k e a bank n o t e . 'We r e c o g n i z e t h e b a p t i s m of d e s i r e ' " (p. 153), so t h a t l a t e r B e n d r i x can s a y , " I b e l i e v e I was annoyed c h i e f l y by h i s complacency, t h e sense t h a t n o t h i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l c o u l d e v e r t r o u b l e him" (p. 180). Perhaps Greene wanted t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e b e l i e f t h a t r e a s o n i s u l t i m a t e l y i r r e l e v a n t t o f a i t h , a f a c t p o s s i b l y t r u e t o f a i t h i n l i f e , b u t i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f f a i t h i n f i c t i o n . I n f i c t i o n i t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o be g i v e n a f a i t a c c o m p l i ; i t i s t h e p r o c e s s o f r e a c h i n g t h a t end t h a t g i v e s a n o v e l i t s e s s e n t i a l c o n f l i c t and c r e d i b i l i t y . W i t h o u t a r a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r f a i t h i n f i c t i o n , c o n v i c t i o n can appear t o be de-l u s i o n . S a r a h ' s s a n c t i t y f i n a l l y r e s t s on s t a t e m e n t r a t h e r t h a n d e m o n s t r a t i o n and r e l i e s f o r i t s c r e d i b i l i t y on an e x t r a - f i c t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e . I t seems t h a t t h e b a s i c ere-.: d i b i l i t y o f t h e n o v e l s u f f e r s as a r e s u l t of d e t a c h i n g S a r a h f r o m her e s t a b l i s h e d l o g i c as a p e r s o n a l i t y and m a n i p u l a t i n g h e r t o s e r v e a f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t i o n s b u t o u t s i d e h e r a u t h e n t i c i t y as a c h a r a c t e r . There has been i n s u f f i c i e n t p o r t r a y a l of Sarah's ' s a i n t l y ' l i f e t o p r e p a r e f o r h e r m i r a c u l o u s powers, and t o c o n v i n c e 35 us i m a g i n a t i v e l y r a t h e r t h a n d o c t r i n a l l y o f t h e c o n c e p t of a ' s a n c -t i f i e d s i n n e r ' . M o r t on Dauwen Z a b e l s t a t e s t h e p r o b l e m of s u c h f i c t i o n s u c c i n c t l y : Grace i s a l w a y s h e l d i n r e s e r v e as a p r i n c i p l e o f s a l v a t i o n , a p r i n c i p l e w h i c h soon becomes t o o a r -b i t r a r y and c o n v e n i e n t t o f i n d j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n conduct o r p u r p o s e . I t descends l i k e a C h r i s t i a -n i z e d deus ex machina t o redeem i t s v e s s e l s when t h e y have d r i v e n t h e m s e l v e s i n t o t h e impasse o r s a c r i l e g e t h a t w o u l d , on m o r a l grounds a l o n e , be s u f f i c i e n t t o damn them . . . g r a c e i s c a l l e d upon t o do t h e work t h a t n o r m a l l y would be a s s i g n e d t o m o r a l l o g i c and n e m e s i s . 3 Or, as t h e r e v i e w e r f o r t h e Times L i t e r a r y Supplement a t t h e t i m e of t h e n o v e l ' s p u b l i c a t i o n p u t i t p e r h a p s more w r y l y : The common-sense p o i n t of v i e w i s s u r e l y t h a t whatever t h e i n w a r d marks of s a n c t i t y , t h e o v e r -r u l i n g outward one i s t h a t i n some way t h e c a n d i -d a t e ' s l i f e s h o u l d be more t h a n o r d i n a r i l y e d i f y i n g . I s a m a r r i e d woman who g i v e s up her l o v e r f o r t h e l o v e of God a s a i n t ? As I b s e n ' s Nora s a y s i n a l m o s t th e o p p o s i t e c o n t e x t : "Thousands of women have done s o . " 4 C l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m of t h e c r e d i b i l i t y i n f i c t i o n a l terms of Sarah's s a n c t i f i c a t i o n i s t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e s o - c a l l e d ' m i r a c l e s ' i n t h e n o v e l . As Sarah's b e a t i f i c a t i o n depends more on a c c e p t a n c e of C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e t h a n on t h e l i m i t s d e f i n e d i n t h e w o r l d of t h e n o v e l , so t h e m i r a c l e s depend f o r t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e on an e x t r a - f i c t i o n a l r e a l i t y . Even i f t h e y a r e p e r f e c t l y p o s s i b l e i n terms of Greene's f a i t h , t h e m i r a c l e s f a i l t o be an o r g a n i c p a r t of 3 M o r t o n Dauwen Z a b e l , "The B e s t and t h e Worst", i n Graham  Greene: A C o l l e c t i o n of C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , ed. Samuel Hynes ( E n g l e -wood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1973), p. 44. ** " P a i n f u l S a n c t i t y , " Times L i t e r a r y Supplement, 7 September 1951, p. 563. 36 t h e n o v e l , and s t r i k e t h e f i n a l blow t o t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e a c t i o n and a g e n t s of t h e p l o t . We a r e n o t p r e p a r e d f o r them e i t h e r by an adequate p o r t r a y a l of Sarah's s a i n t l y l i f e t o j u s t i f y t h e i r o c c u r -r e n c e , o r by t h e c r e a t i o n o f a c o n t e x t t h a t s u g g e s t s , by an a ccumula-t i o n of e x p l i c a b l e c o - i n c i d e n c e s , t h a t t h e e v e n t s c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as m i r a c l e s : t h e f i n a l m i r a c l e s of h e a l i n g l e a v e no room f o r i n t e r -p r e t i n g them as a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n m i r a c u l o u s i n t e r v e n t i o n by a dead s a i n t . As t h e m i r a c l e s depend on Sarah's s a n c t i t y f o r t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e , and o u r c o n v i c t i o n of S arah's s a n c t i t y r e s t s f i n a l l y on t h e a c c e p t a n c e of t h e s e m i r a c l e s , we a r e caught i n a c i r c u l a r a r g u -ment t h a t c o l l a p s e s on i t s own p r e m i s e s . The m i r a c l e s i n t h e n o v e l a r e of two k i n d s : t h o s e t h a t a r e a p p a r e n t l y caused by God's i n t e r v e n t i o n i n e v e n t s b e f o r e Sarah's d e a t h , and t h o s e t h a t o c c u r as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of S arah's s a i n t l i n e s s a f t e r h e r d e a t h . The f o r m e r a r e b e t t e r h a n d l e d because of t h e open-ended-n e s s of t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I n t h e c a s e of B e n d r i x ' s ' m i r a c u l o u s ' r e v i v a l a f t e r t h e bombing, t h e r e a s o n f o r h i s escape f r o m d e a t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e way i t i s p e r c e i v e d by S a r a h and t h e change t h i s p e r c e p t i o n has on h e r subsequent behaviour;, whether i t i s v i e w e d by t h e r e a d e r as a m i r a c l e i s n o t a v i t a l a s p e c t of t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e p l o t . More i m p o r t a n t i s t h e s c e p t i c i s m t h e r e a d e r e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a woman l i k e S a r a h s h o u l d s u d d e n l y b e l i e v e i n m i r a c l e s . Be-c a u se S a r a h h e r s e l f v i e w e d i t as m i r a c u l o u s , . t h i s e v e n t c o u l d be used by God t o f u l f i l l h i s d i v i n e p u r p o s e f o r h e r l i f e . I f t h i s i s what Greene i n t e n d e d , t h e s e r i e s of subsequent e v e n t s , e x p l i c a b l e as c o -i n c i d e n c e s w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e n o v e l , can a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d 37 i n t h e l i g h t of one a n o t h e r as i n d i c a t i v e of d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n . Through Sarah's d i a r y we l e a r n t h a t , a f t e r t h e bombing r a i d , she had c h a l l e n g e d God by p h o n i n g B e n d r i x , v o w i n g , " I f he answers, I ' l l go b ack tomorrow" (p. 100). A young g i r l answers and t e l l s S a r a h she i s b o r r o w i n g B e n d r i x ' s f l a t w h i l e he i s away f o r a few weeks. God's answer t o Sarah's c h a l l e n g e o r a p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t a b l e c o - i n c i d e n c e ? When B e n d r i x t a k e s S a r a h out t o l u n c h two y e a r s a f t e r she has l e f t him, a f i t of c o u g h i n g p r e v e n t s them k i s s i n g a t an o p p o r t u n e moment (p. 3 3 ) . The cough has been mentioned p r e v i o u s l y and i s t h e r e f o r e a p o s s i b l e and l i k e l y o c c u r r e n c e , b u t i s i t t h e one t h i n g v i t a l l y n e c e s -s a r y a t t h i s s t a g e t o p r e v e n t Sarah from t a s t i n g t h e p l e a s u r e s of s e n -s u a l c o n t a c t w i t h B e n d r i x a g a i n ? A f t e r t h i s o c c a s i o n , S a r a h r e c o r d s i n her d i a r y t h a t she had f o l l o w e d M a u r i c e one day t o t h e P o n t e f r a c t Arms and once a g a i n c h a l l e n g e d God: " I f he t u r n s around and sees me, I t o l d God, I ' l l go i n , but he d i d n ' t t u r n a r o u n d " (p. 116). She t h e n r e t u r n s home, d e c i d i n g n o t t o w o r r y about God any more and d e c l a r i n g : "I'm g o i n g t o make him ( B e n d r i x ) happy, t h a t ' s my second vow, God, and s t o p me i f you c a n , s t o p me i f you c a n " (p. 116). She w r i t e s a l e t t e r t o Henry t e l l i n g him t h a t she i s . l e a v i n g him f o r M a u r i c e , p a cks a s u i t c a s e , and i s about t o l e a v e when Henry unexpec-t e d l y r e t u r n s e a r l y a f t e r an e m o t i o n a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h B e n d r i x about S a r a h . H i s p l e a t o S a r a h n o t t o l e a v e him e l i c i t s f r o m h e r t h e r e s p o n s e " I won't l e a v e you. I p r o m i s e " (p. 1 1 9 ) , and so once a g a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s and c o - i n c i d e n c e s p r e v e n t h e r r e t u r n i n g t o M a u r i c e . Taken t o g e t h e r , t h e s e e v e n t s can be i n t e r p r e t e d as m i n o r m i r a c l e s , t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f God i n t h e e v e n t s of l i f e , even though 38 Greene seems t o b e . r e l y i n g t o o h e a v i l y on a s u p e r s t i t i o u s s t y l e o f f a i t h . The same e x p l a n a t i o n s can be g i v e n for t h e appearance of Mrs. B e r t r a m a t S arah's f u n e r a l , a t t h e moment when B e n d r i x , h a t i n g h i m s e l f f o r h a v i n g become e n t a n g l e d w i t h a r e v i e w e r ' s g i r l f r i e n d , i m p l o r e s " S a r a h , "Get me o u t of i t " (p. 159). However, i t i s t h e f i n a l two m i r a c l e s of h e a l i n g t h a t l e a v e one i n doubt about t h e p o s s i b i l i t y . o f t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e n o v e l . P a r k i s ' s boy i s h e a l e d o v e r n i g h t of a c u t e a p p e n d i c i t i s , and t h e d o c t o r i s t o l d t h a t " i t was Mrs. M i l e s who came and t o o k away t h e p a i n — t o u c h i n g him on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e stomach . . . " (p. 178). Smythe phones B e n d r i x t o t e l l him t h a t nobody had t r e a t e d t h e mark on h i s f a c e ; " I t c l e a r e d up, s u d d e n l y , i n a n i g h t . . . . I t was a . . ." (p. 188). He i s n o t g i v e n a chance by B e n d r i x t o l a b e l i t a m i r a c l e , but B e n d r i x remembers " h i s c l e n c h e d r i g h t hand" (p. 189) c o n t a i n i n g .a l o c k of S a rah's h a i r , and knows w e l l enough why Smythe t h i n k s t h e h e a l i n g i s a m i r a c l e . B o t h t h e s e h e a l i n g m i r a c l e s o c c u r w i t h o u t any leeway f o r a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s , and depend e n t i r e l y on a c c e p t i n g t h e d u b i o u s p r e m i s e of Sarah's s a n c t i t y . Z a b e l sums up t h e e f f e c t of t h e s e m i r a c l e s on t h e n o v e l as f o l l o w s : . . . t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e m i r a c l e . . . r i s k s t h e d i s s o l u t i o n of t h e e n t i r e c o n f l i c t i n an a r -b i t r a r y c o n c l u s i o n . The s y m b o l i c e f f e c t t h a t m i g h t make s u c h an e v e n t c o n v i n c i n g i s weakened by t h e r e a l i s t i c b a s i s on w h i c h t h e drama i s b u i l t ; i t ends . . . i n an u n p r e p a r e d s h i f t f r o m r e a l i s m t o d i d a c t i c i s m , a n . a r b i t r a r y change of m o r a l (and c o n s e q u e n t l y of d r a m a t i c ) p r e m i s e s w h i c h has t h e 39 e f f e c t o f d e t a c h i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s f r o m t h e i r e s -t a b l i s h e d l o g i c as p e r s o n a l i t i e s and f o r c i n g them t o s e r v e a f u n c t i o n o u t s i d e t h e m s e l v e s . 5 Greene,.himself was o b v i o u s l y n o t happy w i t h t h e m i r a c l e s i n The End of t h e A f f a i r , and made some changes t o t h e 1974 e d i t i o n of t h e n o v e l . He e x p l a i n s t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s move i n t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n : The i n c i d e n t of t h e s t r a w b e r r y mark s h o u l d have no p l a c e i n t h e book; e v e r y s o - c a l l e d m i r a c l e , l i k e t h e c u r i n g of P a r k i s ' s boy, ought to have had a com-p l e t e l y n a t u r a l e x p l a n a t i o n . The c o - i n c i d e n c e s s h o u l d have c o n t i n u e d o ver t h e y e a r s , b a t t e r i n g t h e mind of B e n d r i x , f o r c i n g on him a r e l u c t a n t doubt of h i s own a t h e i s m . So i t i s t h a t i n t h i s e d i t i o n I have t r i e d t o r e t u r n n e a r e r t o my o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n . Smythe's s t r a w b e r r y mark has g i v e n p l a c e t o a d i s e a s e of t h e s k i n w h i c h m i g h t have had a n e r v o u s o r i g i n and be s u s c e p t i b l e t o f a i t h h e a l i n g . 6 T h i s change does n o t s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m of Sarah's s a n c t i t y as a r e a s o n b e h i n d t h e c u r e , b u t does i n d i c a t e t h e n o v e l i s t ' s p e r c e p t i o n of t h e p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e of t h e m i r a c l e s and t h e i r d u b i o u s e f f e c t on B e n d r i x . The c h a r a c t e r of B e n d r i x i s , i n f a c t , one of t h e s t r o n g p o i n t s of t h e n o v e l . He i s c o n v i n c i n g l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y . p o r t r a y e d t h r o u g h h i s f i r s t p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n , and h i s s c e p t i c i s m as n a r r a t o r p r o v i d e s t h e d r a m a t i c t e n s i o n n e c e s s a r y i n a s t o r y of g r o w t h towards s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f . As a n o v e l i s t he c o n s t a n t l y s t r e s s e s h i s d e s i r e f o r t h e t r u t h , and i t i s t o t h i s i n f l u e n c e t h a t S a r a h a t t r i b u t e s h e r own t u r n i n g t o t h e " t r u t h " i n t h e l e t t e r she w r i t e s b e f o r e h e r d e a t h : 5 Z a b e l , p. 46: 6 The End of t h e A f f a i r {London: Heinemann and B o d l e y Head, 1974) i p. i x . 40 You t o o k away a l l my l i e s and s e l f - d e c e p t i o n s l i k e t h e y c l e a r a r o a d o f r u b b l e f o r somebody t o come a l o n g i t , somebody o f i m p o r t a n c e , and now he's come, but you c l e a r e d t h e way y o u r s e l f . When you w r i t e you t r y t o be e x a c t and you t a u g h t me t o want t h e t r u t h , and you t o l d me when I wasn't t e l l i n g t h e t r u t h . (p. 147) An i r o n i c commentary t h a t t h e s c e p t i c s h o u l d be an agent o f b e l i e f . ' I t i s h i s o c c u p a t i o n as a n o v e l i s t t h a t makes B e n d r i x doubt h i s own p e r c e p t i o n s of l i f e t o o : I f I were w r i t i n g a n o v e l I would end i t h e r e : a n o v e l , I used t o t h i n k , has t o end somewhere, b u t I'm b e g i n n i n g t o b e l i e v e my r e a l i s m has been a t . . f a u l t a l l t h e s e y e a r s , f o r n o t h i n g i n l i f e now e v e r seems t o end . . . so what an o p t i m i s t I would be i f I thought t h a t t h i s s t o r y ended h e r e , (p. 147). A t t h e end of t h e n o v e l , h i s own b e l i e f i s p r e p a r e d f o r by h i s p e r c e p -t i o n of God's ways as b e i n g a k i n t o t h e methods of a n o v e l i s t : I can i m a g i n e a God f e e l i n g i n j u s t t h a t way about some of us. The s a i n t s , one would suppose, i n a sense c r e a t e t h e m s e l v e s . They come a l i v e . They a r e c a p a b l e of t h e s u r p r i s i n g a c t o r word. They s t a n d o u t s i d e t h e p l o t , u n c o n d i t i o n e d by i t . But we have t o be pushed around. We have t h e o b s t i n a c y : of n o n - e x i s t e n c e . We a r e i n e x t r i c a b l y bound t o t h e p l o t , and w e a r i l y God f o r c e s u s , h e r e and t h e r e , a c c o r d i n g t o h i s i n t e n t i o n , c h a r a c t e r s w i t h o u t p o e t r y , w i t h o u t f r e e w i l l , whose o n l y i m p o r t a n c e i s t h a t somewhere, a t some t i m e , we h e l p t o f u r n i s h t h e scene i n w h i c h a l i v i n g c h a r a c t e r moves and s p e a k s , p r o v i d i n g perhaps t h e s a i n t s w i t h t h e op-p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e i r f r e e w i l l . (pp. 185-186). The c o m p a r i s o n i s an u n f o r t u n a t e one f o r t h e r e a d e r , however: i n t h i s c a s e i t i s t h e s a i n t who n e v e r comes a l i v e and who i s pushed around by God. God i s t h e a r c h - n o v e l i s t o n l y i n t h e sense t h a t h i s i n f l u e n c e on B e n d r i x a l t e r s r a d i c a l l y t h e s t o r y B e n d r i x o r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d t o w r i t e , moved by h i s anger and h a t e . Hate i s f r e q u e n t l y seen by B e n d r i x as b e i n g much n e a r e r t o l o v e t h a n t o i n d i f f e r e n c e 41 ("Hatred seems t o o p e r a t e t h e same g l a n d s as l o v e : i t even p r o d u c e s t h e same a c t i o n s " (p. 2 7 ) ) , and h i s own s c e p t i c i s m and h a t e a r e t h e ma j o r f a c t o r s i n h i s f i n a l h i n t o f c a p i t u l a t i o n t o b e l i e f a t t h e e n d — " 0 God . . . I'm t o o t i r e d and o l d t o l e a r n t o l o v e , l e a v e me a l o n e f o r e v e r " (p. 1 9 1 ) — t h u s p r o v i d i n g t h e r e a d e r w i t h t h e n e c e s -s a r y b a l a n c e t o Sarah's u n p r e p a r e d and r a p i d c o n v e r s i o n . The s t y l e o f B e n d r i x ' s a c c o u n t of e v e n t s ( t h e f r e q u e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , apos-t r o p h e s , r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s , and c y n i c a l comments) r e f l e c t s c l e a r l y t h e " s p i r i t u a l t u r m o i l o f t h e w r i t e r , who s h o u l d be o b j e c t i v e , b e t r a y i n g h i m s e l f i n t o s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s e s ^ " 7 but t h e v e r y n a t u r e of Sarah's vow p r e v e n t s t h e r a n g e of s u g g e s t i o n and i n s i g h t t h a t B e n d r i x ' s c o u n t e r p e r s p e c t i v e s c o u l d have c r e a t e d i n h e r , as t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r i e s t ' s s t r u g g l e s a r e h i g h l i g h t e d and i n f l u e n c e d by t h e l i e u t e n a n t ' s c o n t r a r y v i e w s i n The Power and t h e G l o r y . Greene has t a k e n t o an extreme i n t h i s n o v e l a theme b a s i c t o The Power and t h e G l o r y : t h e g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y f o r l o v e and compas-s i o n t h a t i s p a r a d o x i c a l l y t h e a t t r i b u t e o f t h e s i n n e r . The uncon-v i n c i n g n a t u r e o f t h e s i n n e r - s a i n t , S a r a h , and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n u s u r p s and c o n t r a d i c t s t h e r o l e o f n a t u r a l e x p l a -n a t i o n i s t h e s t u m b l i n g b l o c k t o t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e n o v e l . R e l i g i o u s o r t h o d o x y , a f t e r a l l i s n o t synonymous w i t h a r t i s t i c m e r i t . And i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e t h e r e seems an i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n between i t s r e l i g i o u s emphasis and what we must r e g a r d as i t s l i t e r a r y f a i l i n g s . . . There i s no a p r i o r i r e a s o n why s u c c e s s f u l n o v e l s s h o u l d n o t be w r i t t e n A.A. de M t i s , Graham Greene (New Y o r k : Twayne, 1964), p. 106. 42 about t h e l i f e o f g r a c e , about s a i n t s and s i n n e r s . But t h e i r s u c c e s s w i l l depend on t h e i r power o f communicating t h e i r drama i n human terms; i n a r t t h e r e i s no o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e . 8 The .concept u n d e r l y i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e i s d a r i n g and c o m p e l l i n g . B e n d r i x ' s s c e p t i c i s m p r o v i d e s t h e n e c e s s a r y doubt about t h e a l l e g e d l y m i r a c u l o u s o c c u r r e n c e s r e c o r d e d , and h i s i m p l a c a b i l i t y e s t a b l i s h e s what t h e r e i s of t h e c e n t r a l t e n s i o n of t h e n o v e l as h i s c y n i c i s m and d i s b e l i e f a r e c h a l l e n g e d . However, t h e a u t h o r i a l m a n i p u l a t i o n of Sarah's c h a r a c t e r d i m i n i s h e s t h e l i t e r a r y w o r t h of t h e n o v e l . C a t h o l i c i s m has p r o v i d e d Greene w i t h h i s theme i n The End of t h e A f f a i r , b u t i s has a l s o c o n d i t i o n e d h i s i m a g i n a t i o n t o f o l l o w c l o s e l y t h e e x t r a - f i c t i o n a l terms of i t s d o c t r i n e t o t h e d e t r i m e n t of t h e work of a r t . I a n Gregor and B r i a n N i c h o l a s , The M o r a l and t h e S t o r y (London: F a b e r , 1962), p. 203. 43 CHAPTER 3 THE QUIET AMERICAN The blood-dimmed t i d e i s l o o s e d , and everywhere The ceremony o f i n n o c e n c e i s drowned; The b e s t l a c k a l l c o n v i c t i o n , w h i l e t h e w o r s t A r e f u l l o f p a s s i o n a t e i n t e n s i t y . Y e a t s , "The Second Coming" W i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n i n 1955, i t seemed t h a t Greene had abandoned t h e r e l i g i o u s c o n c e r n s t h a t had become so e x p l i c i t l y C a t h o l i c i n The End o f t h e A f f a i r . Set i n I n d o - C h i n a , t h e new n o v e l d e a l s w i t h p o l i t i c a l . a n d i d e o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t s and i s f r e -q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as Greene's " p o l i t i c a l " n o v e l . C r i t i c a l o p i n i o n on t h e n a t u r e and meaning o f t h e n o v e l d i f f e r s q u i t e w i d e l y . D a v i d Lodge c o n t e n d s t h a t "The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n i s f a r f r o m b e i n g a p u r e l y s e c u l a r n o v e l . . . t h e c o n f l i c t i s d r a m a t i z e d and a n a l y s e d i n terms t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Greene's e a r l i e r t h e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ; and t h e a g n o s t i c n a r r a t o r , F o w l e r , i s l e f t i n t h e end, l i k e B e n d r i x , t r o u b l e d and d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h any p u r e l y human e x p l a n a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e . " 1 T h i s o p i n i o n i s echoed i n a number o f o t h e r c r i t i c s ' a s s essments of t h e n o v e l : M i r i a m A l l o t t s t a t e s t h a t " i n s p i t e of i t s n o n - C a t h o l i c c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r s , i t g i v e s a f r e s h f o c u s t o themes w h i c h Greene e x p l o r e s i n h i s ' C a t h o l i c ' n o v e l s 2 . . . where t h e a u t h o r 1 Lodge, pp. 35-36. 2 M i r i a m A l l o t t , "The M o r a l S i t u a t i o n i n The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n , " i n Graham Greene: Some C r i t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s , ed. R o b e r t 0. Evans ( L e x i n g t o n , K e n t u c k y : U n i v e r s i t y o f K e n t u c k y P r e s s , 1963), p. 188. 44 i s o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e a l l i e d p r oblems o f p a i n and o f how f a r man i s j u s t i f i e d i n r i s k i n g damnation f o r t h e sake o f r e l i e v i n g t h e s u f f e r i n g o f h i s f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s . " R.W.B. L e w i s r e f u t e s t h e c l a i m made on t h e d u s t - j a c k e t o f t h e A m e r i c a n e d i t i o n o f t h e n o v e l t h a t Greene "has e n t e r e d a new v e i n where r e l i g i o n p l a y s l i t t l e o r no par t , ' ! a s s e r t i n g t h a t " t h e absence o f r e l i g i o u s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t h e h o v e r i n g pos-s i b i l i t y o f a c q u i r i n g i t p l a y a v i t a l p a r t . " 1 * However, t h e r e a r e as many Greene c r i t i c s who see t h e n o v e l as e s s e n t i a l l y m o r a l o r e t h i c a l r a t h e r t h a n s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s . P r y c e - J o n e s sees F o w l e r as "Greene's f i r s t s e r i o u s a t t e m p t f o r twenty y e a r s t o draw a man who i s i n a m o r a l p r e d i c a m e n t w i t h o u t r e l i g i o u s r e s o u r c e s " 5 and A.A. de V i t i s n o t e s t h e . i n f l u e n c e o f S a r t r i a n e x i s t e n t i a l i s m on Greene's c o n c e p t i o n o f F o w l e r ' s e t h i c a l d i l e m m a . 6 T h i s p o i n t i s d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e r by R o b e r t Evans who a l s o sees t h e r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f t h e n o v e l i n e x i s t e n t i a l i s t t e r m s : " t h e s t o r y i s n o t r e l i g i o u s , f o r F o w l e r i s no n e a r e r t o God a t t h e end t h a t he was a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , " 7 and "Fo w l e r i s n o t i n c a p a b l e o f f e e l i n g p a i n , though he e x p e r i e n c e s no-t h i n g r e m o t e l y r e s e m b l i n g C h r i s t i a n remorse . . . The s u f f e r i n g i s 3 . . A l l o t t , p. 198. "* L e w i s , p. 270. 5 D a v i d P r y c e - J o n e s , Graham Greene, W r i t e r s and C r i t i c s S e r i e s , 2nd ed. ( E d i n b u r g h : O l i v e r and Boyd, 1973), p. 93. 6 de V i t i s , p. 116. 7 R o b e r t 0. Evans, " E x i s t e n t i a l i s m i n The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n , " i n Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s , 3 (1 9 5 7 ) , 242. 45 e x i s t e n t i a l i s t ; t h e r e i s no remorse and he would n o t undo what he has done." 8 A c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e growth o f F o w l e r ' s m o r a l awareness and e t h i c a l a n g u i s h d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e n o v e l i s c e r -t a i n l y " n o n - r e l i g i o u s " i n c o m p a r i s o n t o i t s more d o c t r i n a i r e p r e -d e c e s s o r s , w h i l e b e i n g s t i l l e s s e n t i a l l y " r e l i g i o u s " i n t h e b r o a d e r terms t h a t Greene presumably meant i n c a l l i n g t h e n o v e l "a k i n d o f m o r a l i t y about r e l i g i o n . " 9 The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n has more i n common w i t h i t s immediate p r e -d e c e s s o r , The End o f t h e A f f a i r , t h a n may a t f i r s t be a p p a r e n t , and thu s i n v i t e s c o m p a r i s o n w i t h i t . B o t h n o v e l s d e a l w i t h t h e theme of a d u l t e r y and b e t r a y a l , and t r a c e t h e s p i r i t u a l g r o w t h , however m i n i -m a l , o f a man i n v o l v e d i n a complex t r i a n g l e . F o w l e r and B e n d r i x , as r e s p e c t i v e n a r r a t o r s , b o t h c l a i m a sense o f o b j e c t i v i t y and de-tachment as p a r t o f t h e i r a p p r o a c h t o l i f e , s p r i n g i n g f r o m t h e i r i n -v olvement i n w r i t i n g o r r e p o r t i n g . The l i n e between detachment and c y n i c i s m i s a f i n e one f o r b o t h men; l i k e w i s e , l o v e and h a t e seem t o be f u s e d and i n s e p a r a b l e i n many of t h e i r o u t b u r s t s o f emotion o r i n n e r r e v e r i e s . F o w l e r b e t r a y s P y l e y e t s a y s , "Am I t h e o n l y one who r e a l l y c a r e d f o r P y l e ? " (p. 2 2 ) , and B e n d r i x s e t s out t o t e l l h i s s t o r y as "a r e c o r d o f h a t e f a r more t h a n o f l o v e " (p. 7 ) , y e t ends up p l e a d i n g w i t h God, "You've robbed me o f enough, I'm t o o t i r e d and o l d t o l e a r n t o l o v e , l e a v e me a l o n e f o r e v e r " (p. 192). B o t h 8 Evans, pp. 244-45. 9 Harvey B r e i t , " F i c t i o n , " A r e p o r t on an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Graham Greene, New Y o r k Times Book Review, 20 J a n u a r y 1957, p. 8. 46 p r a y t o a God th e y do n o t b e l i e v e i n w h i l e l o n g i n g f o r a s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e i r e m p t i n e s s and u n c e r t a i n t y . The n a r r a t i v e t e c h -n i q u e o f t h e two n o v e l s i s t h e same: b o t h a r e s t o r i e s t o l d on r e -f l e c t i o n , a r i s i n g f rom a need t o see pu r p o s e and p a t t e r n i n e v e n t s , and b o t h a r e seen t h r o u g h t h e eyes o f a n a r r a t o r s u b j e c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . Dreams, r e v e r i e s , f l a s h b a c k s , and l e t t e r s a r e used i n b o t h n o v e l s t o f i l l i n gaps o f t h e n a r r a t i v e , t o r e v e a l m o t i v a t i o n , and t o throw l i g h t on r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s t r u g g l e s . A bomb e x p l o s i o n p r o v i d e s t h e d r a m a t i c t u r n i n g p o i n t i n b o t h n a r r a t i v e s . However, d e s p i t e t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e something o f a continuum i n t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f Greene's w r i t i n g , i t i s t h e use of e x p l i c i t C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e as a c o n t r o l l i n g f o r c e on t h e n a r r a t i v e t h a t s e t s The End of t h e A f f a i r a p a r t f r o m The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n where t h e s p e c i f i c a l l y s p i r i t u a l i s s u e s w h i c h a r e p e r i p h e r a l f o r most of t h e n o v e l a r e manoeuvered i n t o c e n t r a l f o c u s a t t h e end w i t h o u t s u f f i c i e n t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s u c h a change. In.. The End o f t h e A f f a i r , Greene d e a l s w i t h t h e p r e d i c a m e n t s o f human b e i n g s w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c a l l y C a t h o l i c framework. I n The Q u i e t  A m e r i c a n he uses a p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n o r d e r t o p o r t r a y t h e m o r a l and e t h i c a l dilemma o f h i s c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r . F o w l e r ' s g r o w th i s n o t dependent on one woman's i n c r e d i b l e c o n v e r s i o n and t h e m i r a c l e s subse-quent t o i t , b u t r a t h e r d e v e l o p s l o g i c a l l y t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f e v e n t s and e n c o u n t e r s , and w i t h i n a framework o f war t h a t c r e a t e s a h e i g h t e n e d awareness o f l i f e , commitment, and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n s t e a d o f b a t t l i n g f o r h i s l o v e r a g a i n s t an unknown r i v a l who t u r n s out t o be God, F o w l e r i s f o r c e d t o t a k e s i d e s i n a war where a f r i e n d t u r n s out 47 t o be r i v a l i n l o v e and a d v o c a t e of a h e a r t l e s s p o l i t i c a l extreme i n war. He l e a r n s t h a t m o t i v a t i o n f o r a c t i o n i s n e v e r p u r e , and t h a t human b e i n g s a r e o n l y c a p a b l e of a c t i o n w h i c h i s e v i l t o a l e s s e r o r g r e a t e r e x t e n t . T h i s s l o w r e v e l a t i o n of t h e n a t u r e of human m o t i v a -t i o n and a c t i o n l e a v e s F o w l e r a t t h e end l o n g i n g f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f "someone t o whom I c o u l d say I was s o r r y " (p. 189). We a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h no d o c t r i n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s n o v e l ; we a r e , however, asked t o b e l i e v e t h a t F o w l e r has come t o r e c o g n i z e h i s need f o r God when, on t h e b a s i s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r development t h r o u g h t h e n o v e l , he i s a man f a r removed f r o m a s p e c i f i c r e l i g i o u s commitment. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e v e n t s r e c o u n t e d i n t h e n o v e l , F o w l e r c o n s t a n t l y a f f i r m s h i s b e l i e f i n h i s own n o n - i n v o l v e m e n t , u s i n g h i s p r o f e s s i o n as a j o u r n a l i s t t o j u s t i f y and c o n f i r m h i s a p p a r e n t o b j e c -t i v i t y . I n an a t t e m p t t o d i s s u a d e h i s employer f r o m r e c a l l i n g him t o E n g l a n d f o r p r o m o t i o n , he w r i t e s , " I wasn't s u i t a b l e , I t o l d him, f o r a f o r e i g n e d i t o r — I was a r e p o r t e r , I had no r e a l o p i n i o n s about a n y t h i n g " (p. 72). He r e p e a t s t h i s s t a n c e t o P y l e — " I ' m a r e p o r t e r . I'm n o t engage . . . I don't t a k e s i d e s " (p. 9 6 ) — and t r i e s t o c l a r i f y h i s i n n o c e n c e i n P y l e ' s murder f i n a l l y by t e l l i n g V i g o t , "I'm n o t i n v o l v e d . Not i n v o l v e d " (p. 2 8 ) . However, such c l a i m s t o detachment a r e undermined and r e v e a l e d as d e l u s i o n by h i s f r e q u e n t e x p r e s s i o n s o f r e a c t i o n t o t h e war when he i s t h r u s t i n t o a c o n f r o n -t a t i o n w i t h t h e s u f f e r i n g i t c a u s e s . On s e e i n g a dead mother and c h i l d i n a n a r r o w d i t c h n e a r t h e b a t t l e - f r o n t of P h a t Diem, F o w l e r t h i n k s t o h i m s e l f , " I h a t e war" (p. 5 3 ) ; on a bombing r a i d w i t h T r o u i n he r e c a l l s t h i s r e a c t i o n v i v i d l y as he watches a sampan blown 48 a p a r t (p. 150), p a i n f u l l y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e u n n e c e s s a r y k i l l i n g o f i n n o c e n t p e o p l e i n t h e cause of war. Even t h e i n n o c e n t P y l e has t o r e m i n d F o w l e r o f h i s c l a i m t o n o n - i n v o l v e m e n t , r e s p o n d i n g t o h i s me n t i o n o f "our s i d e " w i t h " I t h o u g h t you d i d n ' t have a s i d e " (p. 100). F o w l e r ' s a p p a r e n t detachment and c y n i c i s m a r e r e v e a l e d e a r l y i n t h e n o v e l t o be h i s way of c o p i n g w i t h h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y and sense o f t h e impermanence of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . He t e l l s us From c h i l d h o o d I had n e v e r b e l i e v e d i n permanence, and y e t I had l o n g e d f o r i t . . . I e n v i e d t h o s e who c o u l d b e l i e v e i n a God and I d i s t r u s t e d them. I f e l t t h e y were k e e p i n g t h e i r c o u r a g e up w i t h a f a b l e o f t h e c h a n g e l e s s and t h e permanent. Death was f a r more c e r t a i n t h a n God, and w i t h d e a t h t h e r e would be no l o n g e r t h e d a i l y p o s s i b i l i t y o f l o v e d y i n g . (p. 44) The t h o u g h t of human i n a b i l i t y ;to f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d a n o t h e r human b e i n g l a t e r makes him s a y : Perh a p s t h a t ' s why men have i n v e n t e d G o d — a b e i n g c a p a b l e of u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Perhaps i f I wanted t o be u n d e r s t o o d or t o u n d e r s t a n d I would bamboozle m y s e l f i n t o b e l i e f . (p. 60,).. F o w l e r makes c l e a r h i s o p i n i o n t h a t God i s an i n v e n t i o n o f human b e i n g s i n t h e i r e f f o r t t o a l l e v i a t e a sense o f t h e impermanence of l i f e and t o compensate f o r t h e i m p e r f e c t l o v e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r f e l -low human b e i n g s . Y e t he cannot h e l p b u t l o n g f o r t h e c o m f o r t o f t h e a b s o l u t e and t h e permanent t h a t p e o p l e d e r i v e from t h e i r f a i t h . H i s C a t h o l i c w i f e , H e l e n , makes h e r d e c i s i o n n o t t o g r a n t him a d i v o r c e on t h e grounds o f f a i t h and n o t on r e a s o n o r emo t i o n . She t e l l s him i n a l e t t e r : . . . Thomas, you r t r u t h i s alw a y s so temporary. What's t h e good of a r g u i n g w i t h y o u , or t r y i n g t o make you see re a s o n ? I t ' s e a s i e r t o a c t as my 49 f a i t h t e l l s me t o a c t — a s you t h i n k u n r e a s o n a b l y — and s i m p l y t o w r i t e : I don't b e l i e v e i n d i v o r c e : my r e l i g i o n f o r b i d s i t , and so t h e answer, Thomas i s n o — n o . (p. 119) D e s p i t e h i s c r i t i c i s m o f h i s w i f e ' s r e l i g i o n and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t s u c h a "cage", he c o n f e s s e s : "sometimes I e n v i e d h e r " (pp. 87-8).. H i s own peace he can o n l y f i n d t e m p o r a r i l y i n t h e escape o f f e r e d by opium, and i n Phuong, " t h e p r o m i s e of r e s t " (p. 12). F o w l e r c o u l d p o s s i b l y have c o n t i n u e d i n d e f i n i t e l y i n t h i s r a t h e r vacuous s t a t e o f noncommitment had i t n o t been f o r t h e a r r i v a l o f P y l e i n S a i g o n . P y l e i s e v e r y t h i n g F o w l e r i s n o t — y o u t h f u l , i d e a l i s t i c , i n n o c e n t , and committed. I n i t i a l l y h i s i n n o c e n c e a r o u s e s i n F o w l e r an i n s t i n c t of p r o t e c t i o n towards t h e man: I t n e v e r o c c u r r e d t o me t h a t t h e r e was g r e a t e r need t o p r o t e c t m y s e l f . Innocence a l w a y s c a l l s m u t e l y f o r p r o t e c t i o n when we would be so much w i s e r t o guard o u r s e l v e s a g a i n s t i t : i n n o c e n c e i s l i k e a dumb l e p e r who has l o s t h i s b e l l , wan-d e r i n g t h e w o r l d , meaning no harm. (p. 37) F o w l e r cannot h e l p f e e l i n g a s t r a n g e a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e man as he w i t -n e s s e s h i s n a i v e t e and sense o f p r o p r i e t y i n t h e raw en v i r o n m e n t o f w a r - t o r n V i e t n a m , b u t as t h e y a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h t h e v a g a r i e s o f l o v e and war, F o w l e r l e a r n s more and more about t h e r e a l n a t u r e o f P y l e ' s " i n n o c e n c e " and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s commitment. He r e p e a t e d l y t e l l s P y l e , "'I'm a r e p o r t e r . I'm n o t engage'" (p. 96), but s l o w l y l e a r n s t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y and i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s u c h a s t a n c e . P y l e ' s u n i n f o r m e d commitment t o h i s cause makes F o w l e r r e -a l i z e t h e s e r i o u s dangers i n v o l v e d i n i d e a l i s m d e v o i d o f e x p e r i e n c e , an " i n n o c e n t " i d e a l i s m a r i s i n g f rom m o r a l a r r o g a n c e and a l a c k o f 50 i m a g i n a t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . P y l e ' s i d e a l i s m i s governed by t h e Y o r k H a r d i n g - i n s p i r e d a b s t r a c t i o n s o f "Democracy and Honor" (p. 90) w h i c h b l i n d him t o t h e c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y o f t h e human s u f f e r i n g i n v o l v e d i n s i n g l e - m i n d e d p u r s u i t o f i d e a l s ; t h e v e r y s u f -f e r i n g i s s a n c t i o n e d by t h e c o n c e p t s .that i n s p i r e i t . When P y l e r i s k s h i s l i f e a t t e m p t i n g t o f i n d F o w l e r a t Phat Diem, F o w l e r r e c o g -n i z e s t h a t "he was so i n c a p a b l e o f c o n c e i v i n g t h e p a i n he might cause o t h e r s " (p. 6 2 ) ; i t i s t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t becomes t h e s t i m u l u s t o F o w l e r ' s c o n s c i e n c e t o become i n v o l v e d . " I t h o u g h t , 'What's t h e good? H e ' l l a l w a y s be i n n o c e n t , you c a n ' t blame t h e i n n o c e n t , t h e y a r e a l w a y s g u i l t l e s s . A l l you can do i s c o n t r o l them o r e l i m i n a t e them'" (p. 163). Through h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f P y l e , F o w l e r r e a l i z e s t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s t h a t e x i s t between m o t i v a t i o n and a c t i o n , between a h u m a n i t a r i a n i d e a l i s m and t h e b r u t a l a c t i o n s i t s a n c t i o n s . He r e a l i z e s t h e i n a d e q u a c y of good i n t e n t i o n s t o redeem human s u f f e r i n g ; , ends cannot j u s t i f y any means as i n n o c e n c e i s no excuse f o r c o n d o n i n g wrong a c t i o n . F o w l e r ' s complacency i s f i r s t t h r e a t e n e d when t h e p o s s i b i l i t y a r i s e s o f Phuong l e a v i n g him f o r P y l e . A f t e r P y l e has s o l e m n l y p r o -posed t o Phuong t h r o u g h t h e medium o f F o w l e r ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s , b o t h men a r e a s t o n i s h e d when Phuong d e c i d e s t h e i s s u e f o r them w i t h a s i m p l e 'no'. I n f l u e n c e d by h e r s i s t e r ' s d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l s t a t u s , she l a t e r chooses t o t r a n s f e r h e r d e v o t i o n t o P y l e , b u t h e r r e t u r n t o F o w l e r a f t e r P y l e ' s murder i l l u s t r a t e s how one c h o i c e can u l t i m a t e l y be d e f e a t e d by a c h o i c e e x e r c i s e d by a n o t h e r . I n Phuong's s i t u a t i o n , F o w l e r r e c o g n i z e s how a l l human b e i n g s a r e i m p l i c a t e d i n a common l o t , 51 and how a d e c i s i o n i n one ..area r e v e r b e r a t e s i n a n o t h e r so t h a t i n d i -v i d u a l and s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e a r e i n s e p a r a b l y f u s e d . W i t h h i s p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y t h r e a t e n e d , F o w l e r ' s s o c i a l c o n s c i e n c e i s s t i r r e d i n t o a c t i o n when P y l e ' s b l i n d c o n v i c t i o n s l e a d t o t h e d e a t h s of i n n o c e n t p e o p l e who a r e i n v o l v e d i n p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e i r own v o l i t i o n . W i t -n e s s i n g t h e s u f f e r i n g and d e a t h o f p e o p l e who a r e g i v e n no c h o i c e i n t h e m a t t e r , F o w l e r r e a l i z e s t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f P y l e ' s " i n n o c e n t " i n t e r -f e r e n c e s t r e n g t h e n e d by o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t h i s own p o l i c y o f non-i n v o l v e m e n t a l l o w s : h i s own d e l u s i o n o f o b j e c t i v e n o n - i n v o l v e m e n t i s i n f a c t as dangerous as P y l e ' s i n n o c e n c e . He i s moved t o q u e s t i o n human r e a l i t y n o t by t h e d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n o f God, b u t by t h e more p i u s i b l e d e v i c e o f human i n f l u e n c e . There a r e no g l i b o r easy s o l u -t i o n s : F o w l e r f e e l s a s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o remove P y l e when he w i t n e s s e s t h e h o r r o r he i s c a p a b l e of c a u s i n g , y e t t h i s f e e l i n g i s c o m p l i c a t e d by h i s s t r a n g e a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e man and h i s d e s i r e t o r e t r i e v e h i s own c o m f o r t w i t h Phuong. These c o n f l i c t s a r e n o t m e r e l y s t a t e d ; t h e y a r e d e v e l o p e d d r a m a t i c a l l y t h r o u g h n a r r a t i o n t h a t makes us see and f e e l what F o w l e r e x p e r i e n c e s : " t h e l e g l e s s t o r s o a t t h e edge of t h e g a r d e n , " and t h e woman "on t h e ground w i t h what was l e f t o f h e r baby" (p. 162) r o u s e F o w l e r t o q u e s t i o n h i s a t t i t u d e of non-i n v o l v e m e n t , n o t any a b s t r a c t p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r t h e o l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g . I t i s p i t y t h a t f i n a l l y makes i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r him t o r e m a i n u n i n -v o l v e d . T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n e c e s s i t y t o become engage i s f o r c e d upon F o w l e r n o t o n l y t h r o u g h t h e p r e s e n c e of P y l e , but a l s o t h r o u g h e n c o u n t e r s w i t h v a r i o u s p e o p l e d u r i n g t h e t i m e r e c o u n t e d i n t h e n o v e l . 52 When he v i s i t s P h a t Diem, he meets a p r i e s t i n t h e b e l l tower o f t h e C a t h e d r a l r e a d i n g h i s b r e v i a r y away f r o m t h e n o i s y crowd of r e f u g e e s below. When t h e p r i e s t t e l l s him "we a r e n e u t r a l h e r e . T h i s i s God's t e r r i t o r y " (p. 4 9 ) , F o w l e r assumes h i s words i m p l y a s t a n c e o f non-i n v o l v e m e n t , b u t when he d i s c o v e r s t h e p r i e s t i s t h e o n l y a v a i l a b l e s u r g e o n and n o t i c e s t h a t " h i s s o u t a n e was s p e c k l e d w i t h b l o o d " (p. 4 9 ) , he r e a l i z e s t h a t n o n - p a r t i s a n s h i p d o es.not mean detachment f r o m t h e human c o n d i t i o n . T h i s same p r i e s t ' s words t o him on t h i s o c c a s i o n when t h e y t a l k about c o n f e s s i o n , " I e x p e c t you a r e a good man. I don't suppose you've e v e r had much t o r e g r e t " (p. 5 0 ) , a r e an i r o n i c a n t i -c i p a t i o n o f t h e emotions F o w l e r e x p e r i e n c e s once he has become engage. A f t e r Phuong's d e s e r t i o n o f him, F o w l e r t r i e s t o escape h i s m i s e r y by g o i n g n o r t h , but he cannot escape t h e i d e a s o f i n v o l v e m e n t t h a t p l a g u e him. T r o u i n t e l l s him, "One day something w i l l happen. You w i l l t a k e a s i d e " (p. 151), and "We a l l g e t i n v o l v e d i n a moment o f emotion and t h e n we cannot get o u t " (p. 152). F o w l e r i s reminded o f t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n l a t e r when he v i s i t s Heng t o d i s c u s s P y l e ' s r e m o v a l , and Heng t e l l s him, "Sooner o r l a t e r one has t o t a k e s i d e s . I f one i s t o r e m a i n human" (p. 174). But F o w l e r i s t e r r i f i e d o f c o m m i t t i n g h i m s e l f t o a s i d e , and d u r i n g P y l e ' s l a s t h o u r s o f l i f e , he r e c a l l s t h a t he hoped chance o r " t h a t Somebody i n whom I d i d n ' t b e l i e v e " (p. 180) would r e l i e v e him of t h e burden of d e c i s i o n , j u s t as chance had always been t h e c o n v e n i e n t c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r i n w i n n i n g o r l o s i n g a game of c a r d s . He f e e l s j u s t i f i e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e A m e r i c a n ' s murder when P y l e l i g h t l y s ays t h a t t h e c a s u a l t i e s i n t h a t m orning's bomb, e x p l o s i o n " d i e d i n t h e r i g h t c a u s e " (p. 179). When P y l e u p s e t s 53 h i s g l a s s and i t smashes on t h e f l o o r , F o w l e r i s reminded o f " t h e b o t t l e s i n t h e P a v i l i o n b a r d r i p p i n g t h e i r c o n t e n t s " (p. 180); P y l e ' s m e n t i o n of h a v i n g "warned" Phuong he m ight be out w i t h F o w l e r t h a t e v e n i n g p r o v i d e s y e t a f u r t h e r g r i m r e m i n d e r t o F o w l e r of t h e morning's e v e n t s and t h e two A m e r i c a n g i r l s who escaped massacre be-c a u se t h e y had been warned. Y e t s t i l l he d a l l i e s : "There was no harm i n g i v i n g him t h a t one chance" (p. 180), he t h i n k s as he a s s u r e s P y l e t h a t i t does n o t m a t t e r i f he g e t s caught a t t h e L e g a t i o n and i s t o o l a t e f o r t h e i r d i n n e r a p p ointment. H i s f i n a l s e n s e of f a i l u r e and g u i l t a f t e r P y l e ' s d e a t h i s n o t so much i n h a v i n g caused t h e d e a t h as i n d e l u d i n g h i m s e l f t h a t chance b e a r s t h e u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t ; he t r i e s t o evade t h e e x i s t e n t i a l i s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a c c e p t i n g t h e consequences of e x e r c i s i n g h i s f r e e c h o i c e , and he must s u f f e r a c -c o r d i n g l y . F o w l e r has been f a c e d w i t h t h e pangs of g u i l t many t i m e s b e f o r e , d e s p i t e h i s c l a i m t o n o n - i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e human c o n d i t i o n : "What d i s t a n t a n c e s t o r s had g i v e n me t h i s s t u p i d c o n s c i e n c e ? " (p. 130) he a s k s , f e e l i n g g u i l t y w h i l e t h i n k i n g of h i s d e c e i t t o P y l e i n h i s l e t t e r and h i s u n j u s t v t r e a t m e n t of t h e man o v e r Phuong. T h i s same c o n s c i e n c e prompts him t o make h i s r e s c u e r s i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e g u a r d who had c r i e d out i n p a i n f r o m t h e r u i n e d tower: " I was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t v o i c e c r y i n g i n t h e d a r k " (p. 113), he r e f l e c t s , and knows t h a t h i s own sense of peace i s c o n t i n g e n t upon t h e peace of t h e two men u n w i t t i n g l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e ambush he and P y l e had c aused. F o w l e r ' s d e s i r e t o evade t h e knowledge of h i s p a r t i n P y l e ' s end i s a p p a r e n t i n h i s r e a c t i o n t o G r a n g e r ' s r e q u e s t t o s t e p o u t s i d e 54 w i t h him a t t h e V i e u x M o u l i n : I was i n no mood t o f i g h t w i t h him but a t t h a t moment I would n o t have minded i f he had b e a t e n me u n c o n s c i o u s . We have so few ways i n w h i c h .to a s -suage t h e sense o f g u i l t . (p. 184) When he i s f i r s t c a l l e d t o V i g o t ' s o f f i c e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h P y l e ' s murder, he a n t i c i p a t e s V i g o t ' s main q u e s t i o n w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e , "Not g u i l t y " , a d d i n g " I t o l d m y s e l f i t was t r u e " (p. 1 8 ) , and l a t e r i n t h e i n t e r v i e w : " I t o l d m y s e l f a g a i n I was i n n o c e n t " (p. 2 0 ) . A f t e r h i s t h i r d and f i n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h V i g o t , t h e F r e n c h o f f i c e r l e a v e s w i t h t h e words, " I don't suppose I ' l l t r o u b l e you a g a i n " (p. 1 7 0 ) , b u t , " a t t h e door he t u r n e d as though he were u n w i l l i n g t o abandon h o p e — h i s hope o r mine" (pp. 170-71). The C a t h o l i c V i g o t hopes t h a t F o w l e r w i l l c o n f e s s h i s p a r t i n t h e c r i m e , n o t o n l y t o s o l v e t h e c a s e , b u t a l s o t o r e l i e v e him of h i s burden o f g u i l t . Such an a c t i o n w o u l d be an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e d e l i b e r a t e i n t e n t t o s h i f t m o r a l r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t S a r t r e sees i n h e r e n t i n t h e C a t h o l i c r i t e o f c o n f e s -s i o n , and would deny F o w l e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a c c e p t what he has done, whatever t h e a t t e n d a n t a n g u i s h . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s s t o r y , F o w l e r had d e r i d e d p e o p l e who " i n v e n t e d G o d — a b e i n g c a p a b l e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g " (p. 6 0 ) , e x p r e s s i n g envy of such a means t o escape human f a l l i b i l i t y and f r a i l t y , y e t d i s t r u s t i n g t h e i r " f a b l e o f t h e c h a n g e l e s s and t h e permanent" (p. 4 4 ) . He i s caught i n a dilemma of l o n g i n g f o r t h e b e n e f i t s a f f o r d e d by a f o r m a l f a i t h w h i l e knowing t h a t he cannot b e l i e v e i n and a c c e p t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f God. H i s freedom f r o m any b e l i e f t h a t would d i r e c t , h i s m o r a l c h o i c e s i m p r i s o n s him i n t h e dilemma of doubt and u n c e r t a i n t y 55 t h a t i s t h e s o u r c e o f h i s e x i s t e n t i a l a n g u i s h as h i s s t o r y p r o g r e s s e s . However, towards t h e end of t h e s t o r y , Greene i n t r o d u c e s a new d i r e c -t i o n i n F o w l e r ' s t h o u g h t s t h a t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e p a r e d f o r by p r e c e d i n g e v e n t s and influences.:, F o w l e r b e g i n s t o m a n i f e s t a c a p i -t u l a t i o n t o f a i t h . T h i s i s f i r s t a p p a r e n t d u r i n g P y l e ' s l a s t v i s i t t o him when, i n h i s i n a b i l i t y t o commit h i m s e l f t o b r i n g i n g about P y l e ' s d e a t h , he s a y s : I handed back t h e d e c i s i o n t o t h a t Somebody i n whom I d i d n ' t b e l i e v e : You can i n t e r v e n e i f you want t o . . . You cannot e x i s t u n l e s s you have t h e power t o a l t e r t h e f u t u r e . (p. 180) A f t e r he i s q u e s t i o n e d by V i g o t and r e t u r n s t o h i s f l a t and Phuong, he f i n d s a t e l e g r a m from h i s w i f e , who c o n f e s s e s she has been " a c t i n g i r r a t i o n a l l y " (p. 188), and has t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t o b e g i n t h e d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s she had p r e v i o u s l y r e f u s e d t o c o n s i d e r on grounds o f f a i t h and r e a s o n . Her f a i t h i s t h u s seen t o be c o n t r a r y t o t h e h u m a n i t a r i a n c o n c e r n she f e e l s f o r h e r e s t r a n g e d husband, and s h o u l d t h u s be co n -f i r m a t i o n t o F o w l e r o f t h e i r r a t i o n a l i t y and i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f f a i t h i n h u m a n i t a r i a n t e r m s : "a Roman C a t h o l i c b e l i e v e s i n q u i t e a d i f -f e r e n t God when he's s c a r e d o r happy o r hungry" (p. 94) he had e a r l i e r t o l d P y l e . I n s t e a d , he can o n l y l o n g s e n t i m e n t a l l y f o r t h e a m e l i o r a t i o n o f th e . r i t e s o f f a i t h : "how I w i s h e d t h e r e e x i s t e d someone t o whom I c o u l d say t h a t I was s o r r y " (p. 189). He does n o t a c t u a l l y e x p r e s s remorse f o r what he has done; he m e r e l y d e s i r e s t h e r e l i e f f rom h i s g u i l t t h a t he sees i n h e r e n t i n t h e a c t of c o n f e s s i o n . H a v i n g been f o r c e d o u t o f h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e t o a s t a t e o f b e i n g engage, F o w l e r ' s l a s t words a r e an e v a s i o n i n h u m a n i t a r i a n terms o f 56 t h e e t h i c a l a n g u i s h he must f a c e and l i v e w i t h as a committed man. The i s s u e s c o n f r o n t e d i n t h e n o v e l a r e c r e a t e d by t h e p o l i t i c a l s e t t i n g , b u t go beyond t h e p o l i t i c s t o i n c l u d e t h e w i d e r and more permanent m o r a l problems of awareness, c h o i c e , and a c t i o n . F o w l e r i s a p r i m e example of t h e t r a g e d y of t h e e x i s t e n t i a l i s t h e r o : when c o m p e l l e d t o e x e r c i s e h i s f r e e w i l l and a c t , he i s as t r o u b l e d l i v i n g w i t h t h e consequences of h i s a c t i o n as he had been l i v i n g w i t h t h e d e n i a l of h i s freedom t o choose and a c t . But Greene undermines t h e s u f f e r i n g F o w l e r must e x p e r i e n c e i n s u c h a dilemma by i n t r o d u c i n g r e l i g i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t a r e n e i t h e r n a t u r a l consequences of who o r what has gone b e f o r e n o r a l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e m o r a l d e v e l o p -ment of F o w l e r . I t seems t h a t Greene c o u l d n o t e n t i r e l y f o r e g o a C a t h o l i c f l a v o u r i n g . He has t h r e e C a t h o l i c c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l — V i g o t , t h e p r i e s t a t P h a t Diem, and F o w l e r ' s w i f e — w h o s e C a t h o l i c i s m i s n o t i n t e g r a l t o s h a p i n g F o w l e r ' s m o r a l awareness, y e t we a r e asked t o i m a g i n e t h a t F o w l e r ' s e x i s t e n t i a l a n g u i s h has become some-t h i n g of a C a t h o l i c q u e s t as he e x p r e s s e s t h e need f o r c o n f e s s i o n and f o r g i v e n e s s a t t h e end. Such a c o n c l u s i o n undermines t h e s u f -f e r i n g and torment F o w l e r e x p e r i e n c e s as he becomes engage d e s p i t e h i s d e s i r e f o r an easy and uncommitted l i f e . A p a r t from t h i s u n p r e p a r e d s h i f t o f f o c u s i n t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h e n o v e l , t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e f o r t h e c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n t h a t Greene has a s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s f o c u s i n t h e n o v e l . F o w l e r ' s l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of r e l i g i o u s f a i t h a c c e n t u a t e s t h e a n g u i s h he e x p e r i e n c e s as he t r i e s t o make d e c i s i o n s on t h e a u t h o r i t y of h i s own i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e t o s i t u a t i o n s . H i s freedom f r o m any b e l i e f o r 57 commitment t h a t might d i r e c t h i s m o r a l c h o i c e s i m p r i s o n s him i n t h e dilemma of c o n s t a n t doubt and u n c e r t a i n t y t h a t i s a t t h e h e a r t o f t h e n o v e l . T h i s v i e w c o n c u r s w i t h P r y c e - J o n e s ' s assessment o f F o w l e r as a man i n a m o r a l p r e d i c a m e n t w i t h o u t r e l i g i o u s r e s o u r c e s . The e f f e c t o f t h e n o v e l r e l i e s on t h e c o n v i n c i n g p o r t r a i t o f a man caught i n s u c h a c r i s i s ; however, Greene's s y m p a t h e t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of F o w l e r ' s l o n g i n g f o r c o n f e s s i o n and f o r g i v e n e s s a t t h e end seems t o be an at t e m p t t o p r o v i d e an u n w a r r a n t e d t h e o l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n t o F o w l e r ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n . F o w l e r ' s d e s i r e t o e s c a p e t h e bu r d e n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s a c t i o n i s a p r e c a r i o u s b a s i s f o r s e e k i n g f a i t h , and undermines t h e development, o f F o w l e r ' s awareness t h a t he must a c c e p t and b e a r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s t h a t commitment e n t a i l s " i f one i s t o r e m a i n human" (p. 174). The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n shows e v i d e n c e o f Greene's m a t u r i n g c r a f t s -manship i n w r i t i n g : t h e n o v e l . i s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h a c a r e f u l l y s t r u c -t u r e d f l a s h b a c k t e c h n i q u e t h a t c r e a t e s e f f e c t i v e j u x t a p o s i t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t and t h e p a s t , and e x h i b i t s a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d use o f imagery t h a n i s a p p a r e n t i n t h e more s e l f - c o n s c i o u s i m agery of h i s e a r l i e r n o v e l s . 1 0 I t a l s o shows e v i d e n c e of b r o a d r e l i g i o u s c o n c e r n s r a t h e r t h a n s p e c i f i c C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e ; however, i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i t s c r e d i b i l i t y s u f f e r s from t h e i n t r u s i o n o f Greene's C a t h o l i c 1 o Compare "He c o u l d f e e l h i s p r a y e r s w e i g h him down l i k e un-d i g e s t e d f o o d " (p. 151), and "He dran k t h e b r a n d y down l i k e d a m n a tion" (p. 169) i n The Power and t h e G l o r y w i t h "Now h i s i l l n e s s came l i k e a mercy, r e p r i e v i n g me f r o m t h e t r e a d m i l l o f p r i v a t e a n x i e t y " (p. 122), and "Another cup was r i n s e d on t h e f l o o r and p u t l i k e a l i v e c o a l i n t o my h a n d s — t h e o r d e a l by t e a " (p. 126) i n The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n . l e a n i n g s i n t h e f i n a l e of t h e n o v e l . 59 CHAPTER 4 THE COMEDIANS I f o n l y we had been b o r n c l o w n s , n o t h i n g bad would happen t o us e x c e p t a few b r u i s e s and a smear of whit e w a s h . Graham Greene, Our Man i n Havana The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n d e a l s e s s e n t i a l l y w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f s o c i a l commitment t h r u s t upon i n d i v i d u a l s i n a c r i t i c a l war s i t u a t i o n . I n t h i s n o v e l , r e m a i n i n g d e t a c h e d means b e a r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s u f f e r i n g o f t h e i n n o c e n t , w h i l e becoming i n v o l v e d means c a r r y i n g a sense o f g u i l t f o r t h e d e a t h o f one man who causes s u f f e r i n g . C i r -cumstances f o r c e F o w l e r t o q u e s t i o n t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f i n n o c e n c e and e x p e r i e n c e : i n Greene's n e x t n o v e l , A Burnt-Out Case ( 1 9 6 1 ) , t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e , Q u e r r y , t r i e s t o escape t h e w o r l d a t l a r g e and i n v o l v e h i m s e l f anonymously a t a l e p r o s e r i e i n t h e Congo i n an a t t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r f o r h i m s e l f t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h i n n o c e n c e and hope a r e l o s t t o be r e p l a c e d by c y n i c i s m and d e s p a i r . I n h i s d e d i c a t i o n , Greene s t a t e s t h a t t h e n o v e l i s "an a t t e m p t t o g i v e d r a m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n t o v a r i o u s t y p e s o f b e l i e f , h a l f - b e l i e f , and n o n - b e l i e f " : a f t e r c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h a l l t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s , Q u e r r y i s l a s t h e a r d s a y i n g , " T h i s i s a b s u r d o r e l s e . . ." (p. 205). The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e may be, a f t e r a l l one's q u e s t s and q u e s t i o n s , m e r e l y a b s u r d i s c e n t r a l t o t h e theme of Greene's n e x t n o v e l , The Comedians, in. w h i c h he l i k e w i s e s t u d i e s t h e spectrum- o f b e l i e f and commitment. 60 The Comedians, l i k e The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n , " i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p o l i -t i c a l n o v e l " 1 a c c o r d i n g t o Greene. The r e t u r n t o a s e t t i n g of p o l i -t i c a l p e r s e c u t i o n and t e r r o r r e c a l l s The Power and t h e G l o r y , b u t , whereas i n t h e e a r l i e r n o v e l t h e s e t t i n g p r o v i d e s t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e p r i e s t ' s d i s c o v e r y of h i s v o c a t i o n under God, i n The Comedians, t h e h o r r o r o f H a i t i i s t h e b a c k d r o p f o r t h e b l a c k comedy t h a t i s e n a c t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e v a r i o u s forms of p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l commit-ment. P o l i t i c a l commitment i n The Power and t h e G l o r y i s seen as d r a m a t i c a l l y opposed t o r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n , and much of t h e t e n s i o n of t h e n o v e l i s g e n e r a t e d by t h e c o n f l i c t between t h e s e a n t i t h e t i c a l f o r c e s as seen i n t h e p e r s o n s of t h e l i e u t e n a n t and t h e p r i e s t . I n The Comedians, t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r , Brown, w h i l e n o t u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h o s e whom t h e r e g i m e p e r s e c u t e s , i s uncommitted t o e i t h e r a p o l i -t i c a l o r r e l i g i o u s i d e o l o g y , and e x i s t s i n a l i m b o o b s e r v i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s a t t e m p t s t o l i v e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r d i f f e r e n t commitments o r dreams. Greene's c o n c e r n i s a p p a r e n t l y t o examine t h e v i a b i l i t y o f t h e s e c r e e d s w i t h i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s imposed by a c r u e l d i c t a t o r -s h i p : as none q u i t e s u c c e e d s o r s u r v i v e s i n H a i t i , i s he t h e r e f o r e t r y i n g t o say t h a t human b e i n g s a r e p o w e r l e s s i n t h e f a c e of i r r a -t i o n a l i t y and e v i l , o r t h a t some o t h e r f o r c e i s t h e o n l y s o l u t i o n t o i t ? C r i t i c a l o p i n i o n on t h i s i s s u e i s d i v i d e d . M i c h a e l R o u t h 1 "Graham Greene: On t h e S c r e e n , " an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Greene by Gene D. P h i l l i p s , i n Graham Greene: A C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , ed. Samuel Hynes (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1973), p. 173. 61 a r g u e s t h a t " i n The Comedians i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s , i n f a c t , no power c a p a b l e of redeeming t h e d e s t r u c t i v e i m p u l s e s a t work b o t h w i t h i n man and w i t h i n s o c i e t y . " 2 C h a r l e s M u l l e r , on t h e o t h e r hand, sees t h e n o v e l as a s u b t l e t r i u m p h f o r Greene's r e l i g i o u s themes: Fo r Greene t h e t r a g i c v i s i o n of The Comedians, t h e r e f o r e , becomes an i m p o r t a n t i l l u s t r a t i o n t h a t l i f e w i t h o u t God must r e m a i n e m p t y — m u s t , i n f a c t , r e m a i n a b s u r d . . . H e p o r t r a y s a w o r l d r u i n e d and r e n d e r e d a b s u r d by O r i g i n a l S i n , a w o r l d i n w h i c h man c a n do n o t h i n g t o save h i m s e l f w i t h o u t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n of G race . . . The absence of any u l t i m a t e f o r m of s a l v a t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t t o i l l u s -t r a t e t h e d i r e h o p e l e s s n e s s of t h e w o r l d . . . and i n t h i s v e r y p a r a d o x i c a l way G race, o r t h e goodness of God i s a g a i n v i n d i c a t e d and a f f i r m e d by G r e e n e . 3 Such a c o n c l u s i o n presumes t h a t t h e v a r i o u s forms of s o c i a l and p o l i -t i c a l commitment i n t h e n o v e l ( o r l a c k o f e i t h e r ) have been c h a l l e n g e d by a s p e c i f i c and p o s i t i v e r e l i g i o u s d i m e n s i o n . W h i l e " t h e absence of any u l t i m a t e f o r m of s a l v a t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e d i r e h o p e l e s s n e s s o f t h e w o r l d " i t t a k e s something o f a l e a p of f a i t h t o pressume t h a t " G r a c e , o r t h e goodness of God" i s t h e answer Greene p o s t u l a t e s t o s u c h h o p e l e s s n e s s w i t h o u t e v i d e n c e o f s u c h an answer i n t h e n o v e l i t s e l f . R e c o u r s e t o t h e whole canon o f Greene's work f o r an answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n s posed by The Comedians can o n l y be v a l i d i f s u b s t a n t i a t e d by arguments d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e n o v e l . As I have a t t e m p t e d t o show, Greene has moved s t e a d i l y away f r o m C a t h o l i c c o n c e r n s ( f i r s t a p p a r e n t i n B r i g h t o n Rock and c u l m i n a t i n g i n The End 2 M i c h a e l R outh, "Greene's P a r o d y o f F a r c e and Comedy i n The  Comedians," Renascence, 26 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 150. 3 C h a r l e s M u l l e r , "Graham Greene and t h e A b s u r d , " U n i s a E n g l i s h  S t u d i e s , 1 0 , No. 2 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 44. 62 o f t h e A f f a i r ) t o a b r o a d e r r e l i g i o u s v i e w o f t h e u n i v e r s e , and t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n The Comedians t o s u g g e s t a r e v e r s a l o f t h i s t r e n d . M u l l e r ' s argument cannot t h e r e f o r e be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by r e f e r e n c e t o a c o n s i s t e n t r e l i g i o u s c o n c e r n i n Greene's work because t h i s has changed q u i t e r a d i c a l l y , n o r can i t be c o r r o b o r a t e d by e v i d e n c e f r o m t h e t e x t , as C a t h o l i c i s m ( o r any form o f f a i t h i n God, f o r t h a t m a t t e r ) i s n o t d e v e l o p e d by Greene as a f o r c e s t r o n g enough t o counter., t h e o t h e r c o n v i c t i o n s o r i n d i f f e r e n c e a p p a r e n t i n t h e n o v e l . Brown, i n f a c t , a t t r i b u t e s h i s p r e v a i l i n g i n d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e J e s u i t e d u c a t i o n he r e c e i v e d as a boy i n Monte C a r l o . He t e l l s u s : When I was a boy I had f a i t h i n t h e C h r i s t i a n God. L i f e under h i s shadow was a v e r y s e r i o u s a f f a i r . I saw Him i n c a r n a t e d i n e v e r y t r a g e d y . . . . Now t h a t I approached t h e end o f l i f e i t was o n l y my sense o f humour t h a t e n a b l e d me sometimes t o be-l i e v e i n Him. L i f e was a comedy, n o t t h e t r a g e d y f o r w h i c h I had been p r e p a r e d . . . (p. 31) Ha v i n g e x p e r i e n c e d t h e i r r a t i o n a l i t y and a b s u r d i t y o f l i f e , Brown can no l o n g e r b e l i e v e i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b e n i g n , o m n i s c i e n t God r e s -p o n s i b l e f o r i t s c r e a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n . I n h i s l i g h t e r moments he can o n l y b e l i e v e i n God as t h e a r c h - j o k e r who d i r e c t s t h e comedy o f l i f e . He can p e r c e i v e no meaning o r r e a s o n b e h i n d e x i s t e n c e ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e o n l y s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f b e i n g b o r n i n t o s u c h a w o r l d i s t o p r e t e n d t h e r e i s purpose and a c t a c c o r d i n g l y . He d a t e s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l i f e as a comedy i n w h i c h we a l l p l a y a p a r t t o a s c h o o l p r o d u c t i o n o f Romeo and J u l i e t i n w h i c h he p l a y e d F r i a r Lawrence. Up u n t i l t h i s t i m e , Brown r e l a t e s , he b e l i e v e d h i m s e l f t o be d e s t i n e d f o r t h e v o c a t i o n o f p r i e s t h o o d , b u t " t h e i n t e r m i n a b l e r e h e a r s a l s , t h e c o n t i n u a l p r e s e n c e o f t h e l o v e r s and t h e s e n s u a l i t y 63 of t h e i r p a s s i o n . . . l e d me t o my b r e a k o u t " (p. 6 0 ) . He b l u f f e d h i s way i n t o a l o c a l c a s i n o one a f t e r n o o n , and a t t r i b u t e s h i s a b i l i t y t o p a s s as an a d u l t t o t h e d r a m a t i c d i r e c t o r o f t h e p l a y who had " t a u g h t me a d e q u a t e l y enough t h e s e c r e t s of make-up" (p. 60) w h i c h "on a w i n t e r ' s a f t e r n o o n , i n t h e l i g h t of t h e lamps, had p a s s e d f o r g e n u i n e l i n e s " (p. 6 1 ) . As t h e m i s t r e s s he a c q u i r e s d u r i n g t h i s escapade w i p e s o f f h i s l i n e s and w r i n k l e s ; i n t h e bathroom "where l a y h e r l o t i o n s , h e r eyebrow p e n c i l s , h e r p o t s of pomade" (p. 6 1 ) , Brown r e c o g n i z e s t h e s i t u a t i o n f o r t h e comedy t h a t i t i s . a n d s a y s , "We m i g h t have been two a c t o r s s h a r i n g a d r e s s i n g - r o o m " (p. 6 1 ) . He i s f o r c e d t o l e a v e t h e c o l l e g e a f t e r he i s d i s c o v e r e d d r o p p i n g a r o u l e t t e t o k e n i n t o t h e c o l -l e c t i o n bag a t mass and h i s escapade i s made known. I n s t e a d of showing d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , Brown says t h e f a t h e r s seemed t o f e e l "a g r u d g i n g r e s -p e c t " (p. 62) f o r h i s e x p l o i t of p l a y i n g a p a r t w i t h o u t b e i n g unmasked. Many y e a r s l a t e r he t e l l s M a r t h a t h a t , because he and L u i s were b r o u g h t up by t h e J e s u i t s , "we know t h e k i n d o f p a r t we p l a y now" (p. 163). He d i s t r u s t s and r e s e n t s what he had been l e d t o b e l i e v e by t h e f a t h e r s : reminded of t h e i r s t o r y about t h e d e v i l d i s p l a y i n g a l l t h e kingdoms of t h e w o r l d t o J e s u s when Jones o f f e r s him an op-p o r t u n i t y t o become a p o s s i b l e m i l l i o n a i r e , he wonders "whether t h e d e v i l r e a l l y had them t o o f f e r o r whether i t was a l l a g i g a n t i c b l u f f " (p. 197); a f t e r w i t n e s s i n g a Voodoo ceremony, Brown c a u s t i c a l l y comments, " I t o l d m y s e l f t h a t I hadn't l e f t t h e J e s u i t s t o be t h e v i c t i m o f an A f r i c a n god" (p. 181), i m p l y i n g t h a t he had managed t o escape b e i n g a v i c t i m of t h e J e s u i t s ' b e l i e f . He c a n n o t , however, f u l l y escape t h e C a t h o l i c n o t i o n s t h a t a r e 64 a s c r i b e d t o him by o t h e r s because of h i s background o r h i s a t t i t u d e s . I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i t h C o ncasseur a t t h e b r o t h e l about c a p i t a l i s m and communism, Concasseur s a y s t o Brown, "You speak l i k e a C a t h o l i c , " t o w h i c h he r e p l i e s , "Yes. P e r h a p s . A C a t h o l i c who has l o s t h i s f a i t h " (p. 147). M a r t h a , presuming Brown's J e s u i t e d u c a t i o n makes him a C a t h o l i c , t e l l s him, " I envy you and L u i s . You b e l i e v e i n s o m e t h i n g . You have e x p l a n a t i o n s , " and draws f r o m Brown t h e r e s p o n s e : "Have I ? Do you t h i n k I s t i l l b e l i e v e ? " (p. 162). On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n he t e l l s M a r t h a t h a t he e n v i e s Dr. M a g i o t ' s b e l i e f i n communism, a d d i n g , " I l e f t a l l s u c h a b s o l u t e s b e h i n d me i n t h e C h a p e l of t h e V i s i t a t i o n " (p. 2 25). A l t h o u g h u n a b l e t o b e l i e v e a r d e n t l y i n any c r e e d because of h i s r a t i o n a l i n s i g h t s and o b s e r v a t i o n s , Brown can r e c o g n i z e t h e power o f f a i t h t o l i f t one out of complacency and a c q u i e s c e n c e . M a r t h a r e f l e c t s t h a t perhaps Brown i s a p r e t r e manque, a l a b e l Brown r e c a l l s when r e a d i n g Dr. M a g i o t ' s l e t t e r , r e c e i v e d a f t e r h i s d e a t h , i n w h i c h he a t t r i b u t e s t o Brown a f a i t h beyond o f f i c a l C a t h o l i c i s m . Brown muses, "How s t r a n g e l y one must appear t o o t h e r p e o p l e . I had l e f t i n v o l v e m e n t b e h i n d me, I was c e r t a i n , i n t h e C o l l e g e o f t h e V i s i t a t i o n " (p. 286). Those p e o p l e who know of h i s C a t h o l i c back-ground seem t o e x p e c t some form o f b e l i e f from him: o n l y J o n e s , i n h i s i g n o r a n c e of Brown, can s h r e w d l y comment fr o m h i s own o b s e r v a t i o n s of t h e man, "Of c o u r s e I'm n o t a r e l i g i o u s man . . . You n e i t h e r I would s a y " (p. 4 0 ) . Jones i s f o r c e d i n t o a c t i o n a t t h e end n o t be-cause he b e l i e v e s a r d e n t l y i n t h e e f f i c a c y o f s u c h a c t i o n , b u t because he wants t o p r o v e t h e t r u t h o f h i s d e c e p t i o n . As Dr. M a g i o t b e l i e v e s r e l i g i o n t o be "an e x c e l l e n t means of 65 t h e r a p y f o r many s t a t e s of mind" (p. 176), and t h e r e f o r e v i e w s Voo-dooism as " t h e r i g h t t h e r a p y f o r H a i t i a n s " (p. 1 7 6 ) , Brown sees a r e l i g i o u s c r e e d o r p o l i t i c a l f a i t h as a " t e m p t a t i o n " (p. 279) t o some k i n d o f f a l s e s e c u r i t y . I t i s a t e m p t a t i o n he has t u r n e d down, and he has d e c i d e d i n s t e a d t o embrace " t h e whole w o r l d o f e v i l and o f good" (p. 2 7 9 ) , a p h i l o s o p h y he d e l u d e s h i m s e l f i n t o b e l i e v i n g i n an a t t e m p t t o ease " t h e n e v e r q u i e t c o n s c i e n c e w h i c h had been i n j e c t e d i n t o me w i t h o u t my c o n s e n t . . . by t h e f a t h e r s o f t h e V i s i t a t i o n " (p. 2 7 9 ) . He i s aware of t h e h o l l o w i n h i m s e l f caused by h i s background and l a c k o f f a i t h i n any one cause o r b e i n g — " N o p r i e s t had come t o r e p r e -s e n t a f a t h e r t o me, and no r e g i o n o f t h e e a r t h had t a k e n t h e p l a c e of home" (p. 2 2 3 ) — y e t he r e v e a l s no sense o f a n g u i s h o v e r h i s i n -d i f f e r e n c e , and c o n f e s s e s h i m s e l f a t t h e end "not m e r e l y i n c a p a b l e o f l o v e — m a n y a r e i n c a p a b l e o f t h a t , b u t even o f g u i l t " (p. 286). Such a s t a t e m e n t i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by Brown .'s a c t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l : he i s m o t i v a t e d t o r e t u r n t o H a i t i a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e v e n t s r e l a t e d because he found he m i s s e d t h e danger o f t h e p l a c e and was drawn by a m b i t i o n and by :the hope of f i n a n c i a l g a i n , n o t because he f e l t bound t o t h e p e o p l e i n any way; he says he d i s c o v e r e d he l o v e d M a r t h a w h i l e i n New Y o r k , b u t t h e i r s o r d i d a f f a i r a p p e a r s t o be m e r e l y a l o v e l e s s h a b i t and f i z z l e s o ut once t h e y b o t h leave H a i t i and i t s d a n g e r s ; he i s m o t i v a t e d t o a s s i s t J o n e s i n a p o l i t i c a l manoeuvre n o t because o f any p o l i t i c a l commitment b u t because he i s j e a l o u s o f t h e a f f e c t i o n M a r t h a o b v i o u s l y f e e l s f o r J o n e s ; and he e v i n c e s no sense of g u i l t f o r k n o w i n g l y l e a d i n g Jones i n t o danger and t h u s t o h i s d e a t h . The p r i e s t ' s b r i e f sermon a t t h e f u n e r a l ceremony f o r Jones and t h e 66 H a i t i a n p a t r i o t s has l i t t l e a p p a r e n t e f f e c t on Brown d e s p i t e i t s s t r i k i n g l y u n o r t h o d o x and p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e : " V i o l e n c e can be t h e e x p r e s s i o n of l o v e , i n d i f f e r e n c e n e v e r . One i s an i m p e r f e c t i o n o f c h a r i t y , t h e o t h e r t h e p e r f e c t i o n of egoism" (p. 283). Brown can o n l y r e c a l l a t t h i s p o i n t t h e r i t u a l s o f C a t h o l i c i s m , t h e c o n f e s s i o n s and p r o m i s e s o f amendment, w h i c h he r e j e c t e d once he had l e f t t h e J e s u i t c o l l e g e . He r e j e c t e d C a t h o l i c i s m n o t o n l y because he f e l t he had been d e c e i v e d i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t l i f e was a t r a g e d y i n s t e a d of t h e comedy he d i s c o v e r e d i t t o be, b u t a l s o because C a t h o l i c i s m s t o o d f o r r e a s o n and was t h u s u s e l e s s i n an a b s u r d u n i v e r s e " d r i v e n by an a u t h o r i t a t i v e p r a c t i c a l j o k e r " (p. 3 1 ) . T h i s p o i n t i s b r o u g h t home t o Brown i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i t h young P h i l i p o t : 'You a r e g o i n g back t o Voodoo, P h i l i p o t . ' 'And why n o t ? Perhaps t h e gods from Dahomey a r e what we need now.' 'You a r e a C a t h o l i c . You b e l i e v e i n r e a s o n . ' 'The V o o d o o i s t s a r e C a t h o l i c t o o , and we don't l i v e i n a w o r l d o f r e a s o n . ' ( p . 172) The f o r c e of P h i l i p o t ' s f i n a l s t a t e m e n t becomes r e a l t o Brown a few days l a t e r when he w i t n e s s e s a Voodoo ceremony and s e e s t h e f r e n z i e d power th e young p a t r i o t s d e r i v e f r o m t h e p r i m i t i v e r i t u a l s t h a t e x t e n d beyond t h e bounds of r e a s o n . The ceremony i t s e l f i s s t a r t l i n g l y and p o w e r f u l l y evoked by Brown, who r e c o g n i z e s t h a t Voodooism f i t s t h e i r r a t i o n a l w o r l d r e p r e s e n t e d by H a i t i more a p p r o p r i a t e l y t h a n C a t h o l i c i s m and i t s a l i g n m e n t w i t h r e a s o n and o r d e r . F a r f r o m b e i n g a v i a b l e f o r c e t o r e c k o n w i t h i n t h e n o v e l , C a t h o l i c i s m i s p r o j e c t e d as a f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o Brown's sense of d e l u s i o n and c y n i c i s m , and t o h i s p e r c e p t i o n of l i f e as an i r r a t i o n a l and a b s u r d comedy. 67 Thus he b u i l d s h i s l i f e around a t a n g i b l e o b j e c t of hope: t h e h o t e l " r e p r e s e n t e d s t a b i l i t y more p r o f o u n d l y t h a n t h e God whom t h e f a t h e r s of t h e V i s i t a t i o n had hoped I w o u l d s e r v e " (p. 251-2). F a i t h i n any i d e a l seems bound t o f a i l i n s u c h a u n i v e r s e . The Smiths t r a v e l t o H a i t i w i t h a m i s s i o n t o c o n v e r t p e o p l e t o v e g e t a r i -anism, a p h i l o s o p h y , says Mrs. S m i t h t h a t " t o u c h e s l i f e a t many p o i n t s . I f we e l i m i n a t e d a c i d i t y f r o m t h e human body we would e l i m i n a t e p a s -s i o n " (p. 2 1 ) . They a r e undaunted by w a r n i n g s of p e r s e c u t i o n i n H a i t i , and p r o c e e d s i n g l e - m i n d e d l y w i t h t h e i r p l a n s t o p e r s u a d e t h e government t o e s t a b l i s h a v e g e t a r i a n c e n t r e . F i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e h o r r o r s of D u v a l i e r ' s r e g i m e c a n n o t d i s s u a d e them from t h e i r i d e a l . Brown l i s t e n s t o Mr. S m i t h d i s c u s s i n g h i s p l a n s w i t h t h e S e c r e t a r y f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e " i n a s t o n i s h m e n t . The dream was i n t a c t . R e a l i t y c o u l d n o t t o u c h him. Even t h e scene i n t h e P o s t O f f i c e had..not s u l l i e d h i s v i s i o n . The H a i t i a n s f r e e d f r o m a c i d i t y , p o v e r t y and p a s s i o n w o u l d soon be b e n t h a p p i l y o v e r t h e i r n u t c u t l e t s " (p. 156). H a v i n g o b s e r v e d c y n i c a l l y t h a t Mrs. Smith's " p a s s i o n s had n o t been p e r c e p t i b l y weakened by t h e r e m o v a l o f a c i d i t y " (p. 3 6 ) , Brown a s k s , "Wasn't i t p o s s i b l y a f l a w i n c h a r a c t e r t o b e l i e v e so p a s s i o n a t e l y i n t h e i n t e -g r i t y o f a l l t h e w o r l d ? " (p. 160). But t h e Smiths h o l d f i r m l y t o t h e i r i d e a l w h i c h becomes f o r them a r e l i g i o n : f i n d i n g a v e g e t a r i a n handbook i n t h e i r h o t e l bedroom a d d r e s s e d t o an "Unknown Reader" f r o m an "Unknown F r i e n d , " Brown comments, "The c a p i t a l i n i t i a l s gave t h e same i m p r e s s i o n as a Gideon B i b l e " (p. 253). Such i d e a l i s m i n an i r r a t i o n a l u n i v e r s e i s r e d u c e d t o comedy, d e s p i t e t h e " s t r a n g e d i g n i t y " t h a t Brown f e e l s t o u c h e s t h e i r " a b s u r d i t y " (p. 1 9 ) , and t h e Smiths 68 a r e f o r c e d t o l e a v e t h e c o u n t r y , t h e i r m i s s i o n a d j u d g e d a f a i l u r e . Dr. M a g i o t , who seems a t f i r s t t o be a c l e a r - s i g h t e d , w i s e man h o l d i n g t o t h e t e n e t s o f Communism, i s seen by Brown t o be something of an i d e a l i s t i n h i s e f f o r t s t o a c c e p t o r t o merge c o n t r a d i c t o r y b e l i e f s . He f a i l s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e maxim " R e l i g i o n i s t h e opium o f t h e masses" as one of Marx's i n d i c t m e n t s a g a i n s t b e l i e f i n God, and, a l i g n i n g C a t h o l i c i s m and Communism i n t h e i r common c o n c e r n f o r h u m a n i t y , he wonders whether e v e r y f a i t h i s n o t " t h e same f a i t h under a n o t h e r mask" (p. 286). He b e l i e v e s i n Communism and t h e " t r u t h o f c e r t a i n economic l a w s " (p. 23 5 ) , y e t " i n h i s V i c t o r i a n s i t t i n g - r o o m w i t h a d e c a n t e r o f p o r t , " e a t i n g "an e x c e l l e n t s t e a k and creamed p o t a t o e s w i t h a t o u c h o f g a r l i c and as good a c l a r e t as c o u l d be e x p e c t e d so f a r away from Bordeaux," and s e r v e d by a maid i n a b l a c k d r e s s and w h i t e cap s t r i k e s Brown as "an odd s e t t i n g f o r a M a r x i s t " (p. 2 4 7 ) . F e e l i n g , a f t e r d i n n e r , t h a t t h e y s h o u l d r e t i r e t o j o i n " o t h e r members of t h e Browning s o c i e t y f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Sonnets ). f r o m t h e  P o r t u g e s e , " Brown r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e dead Hamit, r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e a l i t y o f l i f e i n H a i t i , " l a y i n h i s d r a i n a v e r y l o n g way fr o m h e r e " (p. 248). Brown's mother i m p r e s s e d Dr. M a g i o t as "a g r e a t woman" and a h e r o i n e (p. 7 6 ) , as she "had c o n v i n c e d t h e f a t h e r s o f t h e V i s i -t a t i o n o f her m o r a l r e c t i t u d e , even a g a i n s t t h e d u b i o u s background o f Monte C a r l o " (p. 7 6 ) . Dr. M a g i o t i s a l s o t a k e n i n by J o n e s ' s b r a v a d o , b e l i e v i n g him t o have had t h e war e x p e r i e n c e s he b o a s t s of (p. 235-6). He p r e d i c t s i n c o r r e c t l y t h a t M a r c e l w i l l s u r v i v e a f t e r Brown's mother has d i e d , and Brown i s f o r c e d t o c o n c l u d e about Dr. M a g i o t : "he p r o v e d t o be a f a l s e p r o p h e t " (p. 7 9 ) . L i k e t h e S m i t h s , h i s 69 i p h i l o s o p h y i s n o t a v i a b l e one i n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w o r l d o f H a i t i , and i r o n i c a l l y he l o s e s h i s l i f e f o r i t d e s p i t e b e i n g s t r o n g l y opposed t o martyrdom. The p a t r i o t s , w i t h whom he a l i g n s h i m s e l f a t t h e end, do n o t f a r e much b e t t e r f o r t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n s , t h e s u r v i v o r s b e i n g housed i n an o l d l u n a t i c a sylum. No f a i t h o r f o r c e f o r good has p r o v i d e d any r e a l c h a l l e n g e o r o f f e r e d a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o Brown's v i e w o f t h e w o r l d as i r r a t i o n a l and a b s u r d . What he f a i l s t o s e e, however, i s t h a t absence of f a i t h r e s u l t s i n a c q u i e s c e n c e o r s e l f i s h o p t i n g o u t f r o m r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A t l e a s t f a i t h o f one s o r t o r a n o t h e r u r g e s one i n t o a c t i o n , a n d Greene makes t h i s c l e a r t h r o u g h t h e a d m i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s o f c o n c e r n and w i l l i n g n e s s t o be v u l n e r a b l e e x h i b i t e d by men such as M a g i o t . H a v i n g r e j e c t e d any n o t i o n s of an o r d e r e d u n i v e r s e c r e a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d by a r a t i o n a l God, Brown se e s l i f e r e f l e c t i n g h i s v i s i o n o f i t as an a b s u r d comedy. The e n t e r t a i n m e n t h e l d on b o a r d t h e Medea t h e n i g h t b e f o r e a r r i v a l i n H a i t i s y m b o l i z e s l i f e a t i t s comic w o r s t w i t h Fernandez b r e a k i n g s u d d e n l y i n t o t e a r s b e f o r e h i s a c t , t h e s h i p ' s o r c h e s t r a c r e a t i n g a cacophony of m u s i c w i t h t h e i r p o t s and pans, and t h e e v e n i n g p r e s i d e d o v e r i n f e r t i l i t y - r i t e f a s h i o n by blown-up condoms i n p l a c e of b a l l o o n s . On t h e s t a i r s i n t h e H o t e l T r i a n o n a p i c t u r e of a c a r n i v a l p r o c e s s i o n c o n f i r m s t h e g r o t e s q u e comedy o f l i f e f o r Brown: Of a m o r n i n g , when t h e s u n l i g h t shone t h r o u g h t h e f i r s t - f l o o r windows, t h e h a r s h c o l o u r s gave an i m p r e s s i o n o f g a i e t y , t h e drummers and t h e t r u m p e t e r s seemed about t o p l a y a l i v e l y a i r . Only when you came c l o s e r you saw how u g l y t h e masks were and how t h e masquers s u r r o u n d e d a c a d a v e r i n g r a v e -c l o t h e s . . . (p. 252) 70 Brown c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r s t o h i s own a d r o i t n e s s a t p l a y i n g a p a r t e v e r s i n c e h i s c h a r a d e when a s t u d e n t i n Monte C a r l o , and he see s t h o s e around him as f e l l o w s p e c t a t o r s and a c t o r s i n l i f e ' s comedy. When he v i s i t s t h e c h a r g e , he l a b e l s him as " t h e p e r f e c t s p e c t a t o r — t h e s p e c t a t o r o f whom e v e r y a c t o r must sometimes dream," w a t c h i n g Brown p l a y " t h e p a r t o f an E n g l i s h m a n c o n c e r n e d o v e r t h e f a t e o f a f e l l o w -countryman" (p. 103). When t h e Tontons Macoute v i s i t him a t t h e T r i a n o n t o i n t e r r o g a t e him, Brown r e a l i z e s h i s " a b s u r d p o s i t i o n s i t -t i n g t h e r e on t h e f l o o r as though a t an i n f o r m a l p a r t y . Everyone was w a i t i n g f o r me t o do my t u r n " (p. 185). Of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M a r t h a he s a y s : "we b e l o n g e d t o t h e w o r l d o f comedy and n o t o f t r a g e d y " (p. 16 1 ) , and r e f e r s t o t h e i r f r a c t i o u s m e e t i n g s as "a c u r t a i n - r a i s e r f o r t h e f i n a l q u a r r e l o f a l l " (p. 225). I n h i s own mother he r e c o g n i z e s "an a c c o m p l i s h e d comedian" (p. 7 6 ) , who goes by t h e u n l i k e l y name of Comtesse de L a s c o t - V i l l i e r s and who knows t h a t "as l o n g as we p r e t e n d we e s c a p e " (p. 253). She a s k s h e r l o v e r , M a r c e l , t o j o i n h e r i n a c t i n g and p r e t e n d i n g " t h a t I would d i e f o r you and t h a t you would d i e f o r me" (p. 253). When M a r c e l a c t u a l l y does d i e f o r h e r , Brown comments, "perhaps he was no comedian a f t e r a l l . D eath i s a p r o o f o f s i n c e r i t y " (p. 253). He wonders t h e same about J o n e s , t h e o n l y r e a l comedian o f them a l l w i t h h i s a b i l i t y t o make p e o p l e l a u g h . He becomes a h e r o when Brown c a l l s h i s b l u f f and he i s f o r c e d i n t o a p o s i t i o n o f command t h a t l e a d s t o h i s d e a t h . Brown wonders, " f o r what b e l i e f d i d J ones d i e ? " (p. 28 7 ) ; he dreams J o n e s answers h i s q u e s t i o n w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e , " I t ' s i n my p a r t , o l d man, i t ' s i n my p a r t " (p. 2 8 7 ) , c o n f i r m i n g h i s sense t h a t we a r e a l l 71 a c t o r s p l a y i n g a r b i t r a r y p a r t s i n the same confused comedy "where everyone laughs t i l l the t e a r s come" (p. 287). The c e n t r a l question of whether Brown's n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i s a c t u a l l y Greene's po i n t of view i s one that needs to be answered before deciding the purpose and point of the novel. In one of t h e i r f r e -quent arguments, Martha f i e r c e l y accuses Brown of being a Berkleyan. My God, what a Berkleyan. You've turned poor Jones i n t o a seducer and me i n t o a wanton m i s t r e s s . You can't even b e l i e v e i n your mother's medal, can you? You've w r i t t e n her a d i f f e r e n t p a r t . My dear, t r y to b e l i e v e we e x i s t when you aren't there. We're independent of you. None of us i s l i k e you fancy we are. Perhaps i t wouldn't matter much i f your thoughts were not so dark, always so dark. (p. 229) Such a t i r a d e from Martha seems r a t h e r out of keeping w i t h the com-p l i a n t , d o t i n g mother and m i s t r e s s seen so f a r ; more important, how-ever, i s whether what she says i s true. Brown c e r t a i n l y does have a dark view of the world where people confuse a c t i n g w i t h a c t i o n , but the other characters seem to confirm :this view i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s . P h i l i p o t answers Brown's question whether he and Jones are both comedians w i t h , "They can say that of most of us" (p. 133), and L u i s adds, We mustn't complain too much of being comedians— i t ' s an honourable p r o f e s s i o n . I f only we could be good ones the world might gain at l e a s t a sense of s t y l e . We have f a i l e d — t h a t ' s a l l . We are bad comedians, we aren't bad men. Martha f i e r c e l y denies such a view and b u r s t s i n t o t e a r s , y e t , alone w i t h Brown immediately afterwards, she says, 'Perhaps we won't have to be comedians any more.' 'You s a i d you were no comedian.' 72 ' I e x a g g e r a t e d , d i d n ' t I ? But a l l t h a t t a l k i r r i t a t e d me. I t made e v e r y one of us seem cheap and u s e l e s s and s e l f - p i t y i n g . P e r h a p s we a r e , b u t we needn't r e v e l i n i t . ' (p. 135) From t h e b e g i n n i n g Jones a d m i t s c h e e r f u l l y t o b e i n g a " t a r t " and h a v i n g " t o p l a y a t o f f " (p. 25) a t t i m e s when i t s u i t s him, even though " i t ' s t h e h a r d e s t p a r t of a l l f o r me" (p. 2 6 ) . He a d m i t s t o t h i s r o l e - p l a y i n g b u t o n l y t e l l s Brown t h e t r u t h b e h i n d h i s o t h e r " p a r t s " when he senses t h e a p p r o a c h o f d e a t h on t h e r o a d t o Aux Cayes. P h i l i p o t d e n i e s t h a t Papa Doc i s a comedian, s a y i n g , "Oh no, he i s r e a l . H o r r o r i s a l w a y s r e a l " (p. 1 3 4 ) , y e t Papa Doc's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t h e Tontons Macoute, f i t i n t o t h e g r o t e s q u e comedy of H a i t i , d r e s s e d up i n s t r a n g e h a t s and d a r k g l a s s e s t o p l a y t h e i r v i l l a i n o u s r o l e . The d i r e c t i o n t h e p l o t t a k e s a t t h e end o f t h e n o v e l a l s o c o r r o b o r a t e s t h e b l a c k comedy v i e w p o i n t : comedy t r a d i t i o n a l l y c e l e b r a t e s r e c o n c i -l i a t i o n and s o c i a l c o n t i n u i t y , but a t t h e end o f The Comedians, J o n e s and M a g i o t a r e dead, Brown and M a r t h a ' s l o v e a f f a i r has f i z z l e d o u t , t h e r e i s a f u n e r a l i n s t e a d o f a wedding, and Brown i s l e f t t o s e r v e t h e dead. There i s a p p a r e n t l y l i t t l e hope i n s u c h a f i n a l e . Brown seems t o r e p r e s e n t Greene's p o i n t of v i e w about t h e n a t u r e of t h e u n i v e r s e and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s , but he a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h e a c q u i e s c e n c e o f s e l f i s h o p t i n g out o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t r e s u l t s from t h e absence of f a i t h , however i r r a t i o n a l . The Comedians communicates a sense of Greene's p r o g r e s s from f i c t i o n b ased on a " t r a g i c " c o n f l i c t between human and d i v i n e v a l u e s , t o f i c t i o n c o n c e i v e d i n terms of comedy and i r o n y i n w h i c h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e l i g i o u s f a i t h has a l l but r e t r e a t e d out o f s i g h t i n t h e a n a r c h i c c o n f u s i o n of human be-h a v i o u r . ** h Lodge, p. 44. 73 I t a l s o c o n v e y s , however, t h a t t h o s e who have f a i t h , w hether i n Communism, Voodooism, o r v e g e t a r i a n i s m have a t l e a s t t h e courage and s t r e n g t h and u r g e t o a c t i n s p i t e o f , o r even because o f , t h e " a n a r -c h i c c o n f u s i o n o f human b e h a v i o u r . " The p r i e s t ' s sermon and M a r g i o t ' s l e t t e r t o Brown a t t h e end p r o v i d e t h e f i n a l p o s i t i v e , i f u n o r t h o d o x , word. Through t h e s e n t i -ments e x p r e s s e d by t h e two men, Greene a d v o c a t e s a humanist m y s t i q u e t h a t embraces b o t h Communism and C a t h o l i c i s m . He has r e v i s e d h i s r e l i g i o u s v i s i o n o f l i f e a p p a r e n t i n t h e e a r l i e r C a t h o l i c n o v e l s , and uses t h e i d e a o f r e l i g i o n i n a b r o a d , n o n - d o c t r i n a l , n o n - s e c t a r i a n sense i n The Comedians. Brown's weakness and f a i l u r e r e s u l t f r o m h i s l a c k o f any b e l i e f ; a l t h o u g h commitment l e a d s t o d e f e a t o r d e a t h , Greene i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t any c o n v i c t i o n h o n e s t l y h e l d i s p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e t e r r o r , boredom, and c y n i c i s m i n a u n i v e r s e p e r c e i v e d as a b s u r d and m e a n i n g l e s s . Brown a c c e p t s d e f e a t and i s r e a d y t o p l a y i t s game w i t h o u t e x p e r i e n c i n g any i l l u m i n a t i n g o r t r a n s f o r m i n g moments. U n l i k e t h e p r i e s t i n The Power and t h e G l o r y , he cann o t even g i g g l e a t a b s u r d i t y as he can see n o t h i n g beyond i t : he i s t h e h o l l o w man, t r a p p e d i n h i s own awareness and r a t i o n a l i t y w i t h n o t h i n g t o s u s t a i n him. The C a t h o l i c i s m , Communism, Voodooism, and v e g e t a r i a n i s m p r e -s e n t e d i n The Comedians a r e a l l seen t o be f l a w e d , y e t t h e c h o i c e o f any one i s p r e f e r a b l e t o no f a i t h a t a l l . Greene shows t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f a i t h as a m a i n s p r i n g o f a c t i o n , as a means of s u b o r d i n a t i n g t h e s e l f and i n s p i r i n g commitment t o o t h e r s . Even though t h e Smith's v e g e t a r i a n i s m i s l a u g h a b l e , M a g i o t ' s communism i n c o n s i s t e n t , and t h e p a t r i o t s ' Voodooism i r r a t i o n a l , a l l t h r e e a r e p r e f e r a b l e t o t h e 74 h o l l o w n e s s and t h e s e l f i s h n e s s t h a t Brown's i n d i f f e r e n c e g e n e r a t e s . Brown may n o t s t i r o ur s y m p a t h i e s o r r e m a i n i n our memories as t h e w h i s k e y p r i e s t does because o f t h e u n h e r o i c mode of h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n , and t h e w r y l y comic t o n e of t h e w r i t i n g , but i n him Greene has s u c -c e s s f u l l y c r e a t e d a n e g a t i v e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e need f o r f a i t h . A l t h o u g h The Comedians has none o f t h e para d o x e s and a n o m a l i e s t h a t c r e a t e s u c h s t a r t l i n g e f f e c t s i n Greene's e a r l i e r r e l i g i o u s n o v e l s , t h e theme i s c l e v e r l y and c o n v i n c i n g l y d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n a framework o f g r i m comedy. Greene's t a l e n t f o r v i v i d e v o c a t i o n o f l a n d s c a p e , atmosphere, and p e o p l e i s i n d i s p u t a b l e . The n o v e l i s acknowledged as one of h i s f i n e s t , m a i n l y because o f i t s t e c h n i c a l m a t u r i t y : a t t h e t i m e of i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , The Times L i t e r a r y S u p p l e - ment r e v i e w e r n o t e d " t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e c r a f t m a n s h i p , t h e s w i f t d i a l o g u e , t h e t o u c h o f d r o l l e r y , t h e p l a y o f g r e a t w i t and f u n n i n e s s " 5 , q u a l i t i e s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h e " d i s t i n c t l y memorable and i m i t a b l e s t y l e — h o t , sweaty, s e n s u o u s " 6 — o f h i s more f e r v e n t and l e s s w i t t y e a r l i e r n o v e l s . The p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h one f a i t h t h a t p r o v i d e d Greene w i t h h i s themes, s t r u c t u r e s , and symbols has e v o l v e d i n t o a more c a t h o l i c a t t i t u d e : h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t forms o f commitment and f a i t h i s more e q u i v o c a l and d e t a c h e d t h a n h i s r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n o f C a t h o l i c i s m i n t h e e a r l i e r n o v e l s , and r e s u l t s i n a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t t o n e and mode of w r i t i n g . 5 "P.Iain Mr. Brown," Times L i t e r a r y Supplement, 27 J a n u a r y 1966, p. 57. 6 D.A.N. J o n e s , "The A g n o s t i c Spy," The L i s t e n e r , 16 March 1968, p. 336. 75 CONCLUSION A n o v e l i s i n i t s b r o a d e s t d e f i n i t i o n a p e r s o n a l , a d i r e c t i m p r e s s i o n o f l i f e : t h a t , t o b e g i n w i t h , c o n s t i t u t e s i t s v a l u e , w h i c h i s g r e a t e r o r l e s s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n t e n s i t y of t h e i m p r e s s i o n . Henry James, "The A r t o f F i c t i o n " I n h i s n o v e l s o f t h e l a t e 30's and 40's, Greene d i s c o v e r e d t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of C a t h o l i c themes and c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s f i c t i o n . He used t h e p a r a d o x e s i m p l i c i t i n t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h and t h e c o n f l i c t s between human and d i v i n e v a l u e s i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e t h e c e n t r a l t e n -s i o n s of t h e s e n o v e l s . The Power and t h e G l o r y demonstrates t h e s t a r t l i n g and p o w e r f u l e f f e c t s Greene c o u l d a c h i e v e when C a t h o l i c i s s u e s were c e n t r a l t o t h e development of h i s f i c t i o n . A f t e r t h e c o n t e n t i o u s s u c c e s s of t h e C a t h o l i c t r i l o g y , The End of t h e A f f a i r i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t o w h i c h an o v e r - z e a l o u s c o n c e r n w i t h s p e c i f i c i s s u e s of d o c t r i n e c a n l e a d when r e l i g i o u s p r e m i s e s c o n f l i c t d i r e c t l y w i t h a r t i s t i c r e q u i r e m e n t s . P l o t and c h a r a c t e r a r e mani-p u l a t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e n o t i o n o f t h e s a n c t i f i e d s i n n e r , and t h e n o v e l s u f f e r s a c c o r d i n g l y . By 1955, Greene seems t o have abandoned t h e dilemmas o f f a i t h h i s C a t h o l i c c h a r a c t e r s e x p e r i e n c e , and t u r n e d i n s t e a d t o c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s o f a w i d e r m o r a l and s o c i a l k i n d . Through h i s n a r r a t o r i n The  Q u i e t A m e r i c a n , Greene e x p l o r e s t h e more e x i s t e n t i a l i s t q u e s t i o n s of t h e freedom o f c h o i c e and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e : F o w l e r d e s i r e s a t r o u b l e - f r e e , c o m f o r t a b l e l i f e as a d e t a c h e d r e p o r t e r 76 b u t f i n d s h i m s e l f d e e p l y d i s t u r b e d by q u e s t i o n s o f c o n s c i e n c e and commitment g e n e r a t e d by p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t . Greene's b r o a d e r r e l i -g i o u s c o n c e r n s t h a t embrace m o r a l and e t h i c a l dilemmas beyond s p e c i f i c i s s u e s of d o c t r i n e a r e a p p a r e n t as w e l l as h i s c a r e f u l c r a f t i n g o f s t r u c t u r e and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d use o f i m agery i n t h e f a b r i c o f t h e t e x t . However, h i s l o n g p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h C a t h o l i c i s m s t i l l i n t r u d e s i n ways d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d development o f t h e f i c t i o n : h a v i n g been f o r c e d out o f h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e t o a s t a t e of b e i n g engage, F o w l e r ' s s t r o n g u r g e towards c o n f e s s i o n and f o r g i v e n e s s a t t h e end i s an e v a s i o n i n h u m a n i t a r i a n terms of t h e a n g u i s h Greene must a l l o w h i s main c h a r a c t e r t o c o n f r o n t and d e a l w i t h as a committed man. W i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of The Comedians i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t Greene has moved even f u r t h e r away f r o m t h e c r i s e s o f f a i t h t h a t b e s e t h i s e a r l i e r c h a r a c t e r s : Brown b e g i n s and ends an uncommitted man i n an a b s u r d u n i v e r s e t h a t d e f i e s e x p l a n a t i o n . U n a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d t h e G o d l e s s r e a l i t y he p e r c e i v e s around him, Brown t a k e s h i s p l a c e s a r -d o n c i a l l y as an a c t o r i n l i f e ' s g r o t e s q u e comedy, d e t e r m i n e d n o t t o s e e , l e t a l o n e s o l v e , any o n t o l o g i c a l enigmas. He i s p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h h i s own p e r s o n a l g o a l s and d r i v e n by s e l f - i n t e r e s t w i t h no f a i t h i n e i t h e r man o r God. Through t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of v a r i o u s i d e o l o g i e s e x h i b i t e d by p e o p l e Brown knows and meets, Greene shows t h e impor-t a n c e o f f a i t h as a m a i n s p r i n g o f a c t i o n , as a means of s u b o r d i n a t i n g t h e s e l f and i n s p i r i n g commitment t o o t h e r s , d e s p i t e t h e a p p a r e n t a b s u r d i t y and m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s of l i f e . Greene's development as a w r i t e r of r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s i n a l e s s 77 s e c t a r i a n sense r e s u l t s i n a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t k i n d of n o v e l : he has a d i f f e r e n t h e r o , a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h t o e v e n t s , a d i f f e r e n t t o n e , and a d i f f e r e n t mode.. The b r o a d e n i n g o f h i s r e l i g i o u s c o n c e r n s has made h i s f i c t i o n l e s s d o c t r i n a i r e , l e s s c o n t r o v e r s i a l , and perhaps more a c c e s s i b l e . H i s s t y l e and t e c h n i q u e a r e mature and s o p h i s t i -c a t e d i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e l e s s a s s u r e d c r a f t of h i s C a t h o l i c p e r i o d 1 ; however, t h e n e g a t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e n e c e s s i t y o f any f o r m o f f a i t h t h r o u g h an a n t i - h e r o i c c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r has r e s u l t e d i n f i c t i o n t h a t i s l e s s moving t h a n h i s e a r l i e r r e l i g i o u s n o v e l s a t t h e i r b e s t . The d i s i l l u s i o n e d , c y n i c a l Brown f a i l s t o c a p t u r e t h e i m a g i n a t i o n or t o s t i r us i n t h e way t h a t t h e w h i s k e y p r i e s t does i n The Power and  t h e G l o r y . Greene's c o n c e r n w i t h s p e c i f i c C a t h o l i c i s s u e s a t t h e t i m e of w r i t i n g t h e l a t t e r n o v e l p r o v i d e d him w i t h a s o u r c e o f paradigms t h a t emerge c r e d i b l y f r o m a s e t t i n g of r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n . Such p a t t e r n s and symbols e n a b l e d Greene t o d e v e l o p t h e t a l e of a w h i s k e y p r i e s t ' s p r o g r e s s , b e t r a y a l , and d e a t h i n a h e r o i c mode t h a t u s e s t h e p r i e s t ' s v e r y t i m i d i t y and knowledge of h i s s i n f u l n e s s as t h e b a s i s of h i s s t r e n g t h . H i s f o c u s on an a n t i - h e r o i n The Comedians; d i m i n i s h e s t h e d r a m a t i c f o r c e he c o u l d a c h i e v e i n The Power and t h e  G l o r y . I n h i s C a t h o l i c p e r i o d , when Greene d e a l t p o s i t i v e l y w i t h themes of h e r o i s m and martyrdom amongst v e r y o r d i n a r y p e o p l e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t e d of a c h i e v i n g s t a r t l i n g and d r a m a t i c e f f e c t s , 1 Compare Greene's d e s c r i p t i o n o f C o r a l on p. 33 o f The Power  and t h e G l o r y w i t h h i s more t e r s e and e v o c a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f A n g e l on p. 89 of The Comedians. 78 even though h i s C a t h o l i c themes c o u l d a l s o l e a d t o p o o r c h a r a c t e r i -z a t i o n and development when d o c t r i n e dominated t h e dynamics o f t h e l i t e r a r y i m a g i n a t i o n and undermined i t s a e s t h e t i c c r e d i b i l i t y . B r o a d e n i n g h i s r e l i g i o u s scope has e n a b l e d Greene t o t r a n s c e n d t h e s p e c i f i c i s s u e s o f d o c t r i n e t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e impetus- f o r h i s e a r l y n o v e l s . W i t h a w i d e r v i s i o n o f human a f f a i r s t h a t embraces a v a r i e t y of b e l i e f s and i d e o l o g i e s , Greene's s e l e c t i o n and t r e a t m e n t of i d e a s i n h i s n o v e l s has changed a c c o r d i n g l y . The f a t a l a ntinomy between human and d i v i n e c l a i m s i s no l o n g e r t h e c o n s i s t e n t theme of h i s n o v e l s , n o r a r e c h a r a c t e r s hounded by dilemmas o f f a i t h t h a t l e a d them t o d r a m a t i c o r t r a g i c d e a t h s . The c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r s o f Greene's more r e c e n t n o v e l s a r e n o t i c e a b l y u n h e l p e d o r unhampered by t h e p r e -sence of God: t h e u r g e n t p o r t r a y a l of t h e c e r t a i n t i e s and a g o n i e s p r o c e e d i n g from t h e C a t h o l i c f a i t h has been r e p l a c e d by a more de-t a c h e d and w i t t y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e need f o r commitment o f any k i n d i f one i s t o t r a n s c e n d t h e s e l f and f i n d p u r p o s e i n l i f e . 79 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY P r i m a r y Sources Greene, Graham. B r i g h t o n Rock. 1938; r p t . Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n , 1977. . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o B r i g h t o n Rock. C o l l e c t e d E d i t i o n ( 1971-). London: Heinemann and B o d l e y Head, 1975. . A Bu r n t - O u t Case. 1961; r p t . Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n , 1971. . The Comedians. 1966; r p t . Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : Pen-g u i n , 1977. . The End of t h e A f f a i r . 1951; r p t . Harmondsworth, M i d d l e -s e x : P e n g u i n , 1975. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o The End of t h e A f f a i r . C o l l e c t e d . E d i t i o n ( 1 9 7 1 — ) . London: Heinemann and B o d l e y Head, 1975. The H e a r t of t h e M a t t e r . 1948; r p t . Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n , 1976. . The L o s t C h i l d h o o d and Other E s s a y s . London: E y r e and S p o t t i s w o o d e , 1951. . The Power and t h e G l o r y . 1940; rpt.. Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n , 1976. . The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n . 1955; r p t . Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n , 1975. 80 Secondary S o u r c e s A l l e n , W a l t e r . "Awareness of E v i l : Graham Greene." N a t i o n , 182 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , 344-46. "The N o v e l s of Graham Greene." P e n g u i n New W r i t i n g , 18 (1 9 4 3 ) , 148-60. . R e a d i n g a N o v e l . London: P h o e n i x House, 1949, pp. 34-39. A l l o t t , Kenneth, and M i r i a m F a r r i s . The A r t of Graham Greene. London, 1951; r p t . New Y o r k : R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1963. B a r n e s , R o b e r t J . "Two Modes of F i c t i o n : Hemingway and Greene." Renascence, 14 (1962), 193-98. B a r r a t t , H a r o l d . " A d u l t e r y and B e t r a y a l i n Graham Greene." D a l h o u s i e Review, 45 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 324-32. B e d f o r d , S y b i l l e . " T r a g i c Comedians." Review of The Comedians. New Y o r k Review of Books, 3 March 1966, pp. 25-27. Boardman, Gwenn R. Graham Greene: The A e s t h e t i c s o f E x p l o r a t i o n . G a i n e s v i l l e , F l o r i d a : U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a P r e s s , 1971. Bogan, L o u i s e . "Good beyond E v i l . " New R e p u b l i c , 75 ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 29-30. B r a y b r o o k e , N e v i l l e . "Graham G r e e n e — T h e Double Man: An A p p r o a c h t o H i s N o v e l , The End o f t h e A f f a i r . " Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , 77 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 29-39. B r e i t , Harvey. " F i c t i o n . " A r e p o r t on an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Graham Greene. New Y o r k Times Book Review, 20 J a n u a r y 1957, p. 8. B r o c k , D. Heyward, and James M. Welsh. "Graham Greene and t h e S t r u c t u r e o f S a l v a t i o n . " Renascence, 27 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 31-39. B u r g e s s , Anthony. "The P o l i t i c s o f Graham Greene." New Y o r k Times 81 Book Review, 10 September 1967, p. 2. C a r g a s , H a r r y J..,ed. Graham Greene. S t . L o u i s , M i s s . : B. H e r d e r Co., n.d. (1969?). C l a n c y , L . J . "Graham Greene's B a t t l e f i e l d . " M elbourne C r i t i c a l Review.^, 10 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 99-108. Clurman, R o b e r t . "The Q u i e t E n g l i s h m a n . " New Y o r k Times Book Review, 26 August 1956, p. 8. Conrad, J o s e p h . The N i g g e r of t h e " N a r c i s s u s " . London, 1897; r p t . New Y o r k : C o l l i e r Books, 1962. D a v i s , R o b e r t Murray. "From S t a n d a r d t o C l a s s i c : Graham Greene i n T r a n s i t . " S t u d i e s i n t h e N o v e l , 5 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 530-46. De V i t i s , A.A. "The E n t e r t a i n i n g Mr. Greene." Renascence, 14 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 8-24. . Graham Greene. New Y o r k : Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1964. "Greene's The Comedians: H o l l o w e r Men." Renascence, 18 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 129-36, 146. Downing, F r a n c e s . "The A r t of F i c t i o n . " Commonweal, 55, 28 December 1951, 297-98. D u f f y , J o s e p h M., J n r . "The L o s t World of Graham Greene." Thought, 33 ( 1 9 5 8 ) , 229-47. E l i o t , T.S. " B a u d e l a i r e . " I n S e l e c t e d E s s a y s . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Co., 1950. E l i s t r a t o v a , Anna. "Graham Greene and H i s New N o v e l . " S o v i e t L i t e r a - t u r e , 8 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , 149-55. Evans, R o b e r t 0. " E x i s t e n t i a l i s m .in. The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n . " Modern  F i c t i o n S t u d i e s , 3 ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 241-48. 82 , ed. Graham Greene; Some C r i t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . L e x i n g -t o n , K e n t u c k y : U n i v e r s i t y of Ke n t u c k y P r e s s , 1963. F i e l d i n g , G a b r i e l . "Graham Greene: The R e l i g i o u s E n g l i s h m a n . " L i s t e n e r , 72, 24 September 1964, 465-66. Freedman, Ralp f r . " N o v e l o f C o n t e n t i o n : The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n . " Western  Review, 21 (1 9 5 6 ) , 76-81. F y t t o n , F r a n c e s . "Graham Greene: C a t h o l i c i s m and C o n t r o v e r s y . " C a t h o l i c W o r l d , 180 (1 9 5 4 ) , 172-75. Gar d n e r , H e l e n L o u i s e . The B u s i n e s s o f C r i t i c i s m . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1959. " F r a n c o i s M a u r i a c : A Woman of t h e P h a r i s e e s . " P e n g u i n New W r i t i n g , 31 (1 9 4 7 ) , 93-104. G l i c k s b e r g , C h a r l e s I . "Graham Greene: C a t h o l i c i s m i n F i c t i o n . " C r i t i c i s m , 1 (1 9 5 9 ) , 339-53. . Modern L i t e r a t u r e and t h e Death o f God. The Hague: M a r t i n u s N i j o f f , 1966. Gre g o r , I a n and B r i a n N i c h o l a s . The M o r a l and t h e S t o r y . London: F a b e r , 1962. Grob, A l a n . "The Power and t h e G l o r y : Graham Greene's Argument f r o m D e s i g n . " C r i t i c i s m , 11 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 1-30. Haber, H e r b e r t R. "The Two Worlds o f Graham Greene." Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s , 3 ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 256-68. Harmer, R u t h Mulvey. "Greene W o r l d o f M e x i c o : The B i r t h o f a N o v e l i s t . " Renascence, 15 (1963), 171-82, 194. H o u l e , S i s t e r S., B.V.M. "The S u b j e c t i v e T h e o l o g i c a l V i s i o n o f Graham Greene." Renascence, 23 (1 9 7 0 ) , 3-13. 83 Hughes, R.E. "The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n : The Case Reopened." Renascence, 12 ( 1 9 5 9 ) , 41-42, 49. Hynes, Samuel., ed. Graham Greene: A C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l E s s a y s . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1973. James, Henry. "The A r t o f F i c t i o n . " I n The F u t u r e o f t h e N o v e l : E s s a y s on t h e A r t of F i c t i o n . Ed. Leon E d e l . New Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books, 1956. J a r r e t t - K e r r , M a r t i n . S t u d i e s i n L i t e r a t u r e and B e l i e f . London: R o c k l i f f , 1954. J o n e s , D.A.N. "The A g n o s t i c Spy." Review o f The Human F a c t o r . L i s t e n e r , 16 March 1978, p. 336. Kermode, F r a n k . "Mr. Greene's Eggs and C r o s s e s . " E n c o u n t e r , 16 (1 9 6 1 ) , 69-75. K i n g , James. " I n t h e L o s t Boyhood o f J u d a s : Grahan Greene's E a r l y N o v e l s o f H e l l . " D a l h o u s i e Review, 49 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 229-36. K o r t , Wesley. "The O b s e s s i o n o f Graham Greene." Thought, 45 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 20-44. K u n k e l , F r a n c i s L. The L a b y r i n t h i n e Ways of Graham Greene. 1959; r e v i s e d and expanded e d i t i o n . Mamaroneck, New Y o r k : P.P. A p p e l , 1973. L e e s , F.N. "Graham Greene: A Comment." S c r u t i n y , 19 ( 1 9 5 2 ) , 31-42. L e w i s , R.W.B. "The F i c t i o n o f Graham Greene: Between t h e H o r r o r and t h e G l o r y . " Kenyon Review, 19 (1 9 5 7 ) , 56-73. . The P i c a r e s q u e S a i n t : R e p r e s e n t a t i v e F i g u r e s i n Contem- p o r a r y F i c t i o n . New Y o r k : L i p p i n c o t t , 1959. 84 L i e b l i n g , A . J . "A T a l k a t i v e S o m e t h i n g - o r - O t h e r . " Review o f The Q u i e t A m e r i c a n . New Y o r k e r , 7 A p r i l 1956, p. 148. Lodge, D a v i d . Graham Greene. C o l u m b i a E s s a y s on Modern W r i t e r s , 17. New Y o r k : Comumbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. "Graham Greene's Comedians: B e h i n d t h e Mask." Common- w e a l , 83, 25 F e b r u a r y 1966, 604-6. McDonald, James L. "Graham Greene: A R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . " A r i z o n a Q u a r t e r l y , 27 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 197-210. McCormick, J o h n 0. "The Rough and L u r i d V i s i o n : . Henry James, Graham Greene, and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Theme." J a h r b u c h f u r A m e r i k a -s t u d i e n , 9 ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 158-67. M a r i a n , S i s t e r , I.H.M. "Graham Greene's P e o p l e : B e i n g and Becoming." Renascence, 18 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 16-22. M a r k o v i c , V i d a E. "Graham Greene i n S e a r c h of God." Texas S t u d i e s i n L i t e r a t u r e and Language, 5 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 271-82. Mesnet, M a r i e - B e a t r i c e . Graham Greene and t h e H e a r t o f t h e M a t t e r . 1954; r p t . W e s t p o r t , Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s , 1972. M u l l e r , C h a r l e s . "Graham Greene and t h e A b s u r d . " U n i s a E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , 10,No. 2 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 34-44. "Graham Greene and t h e J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f God's Ways." U n i s a E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , 10, No. 1 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 23-35. "Graham Greene's New N o v e l . " U n i s a E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , 12, No. 1 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 67-69. N o t t , K a t h l e e n . The Emperor's C l o t h e s : An A t t a c k on t h e Dogmatic Orthodoxy of T.S. E l i o t , Graham Greene, C S . L e w i s , and O t h e r s . London: Heinemann, 1953. 85 " P a i n f u l S a n c t i t y . " Review of The End o f t h e A f f a i r . Times L i t e r a r y Supplement, 7 September 1951, p. 561. P a t t e n , K a r l . "The S t r u c t u r e o f The Power and t h e G l o r y . " Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s , 3 ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 225-234. " P l a i n Mr. Brown." Review of The Comedians. Times L i t e r a r y S u p p l e ^ merit, 27 J a n u a r y 1966, p. 57. P o o l e , Roger. "Those Sad Arguments: Two N o v e l s of Graham Greene." R e n a i s s a n c e and Modern S t u d i e s , 13 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 148-60. P r y c e - J o n e s , D a i v d . Graham Greene. W r i t e r s and C r i t i c s S e r i e s . 2nd ed..;..Edinburgh: O l i v e r and Boyd, 1973. P r i t c h e t t , V.S. "Brown's H o t e l , H a i t i . " Review of The Comedians. New Statesman, 28 J a n u a r y 1966, p. 129. Rahv, P h i l i p . "Wicked A m e r i c a n I n n o c e n c e . " Commentary, 21 (1956), 488-90. R a p h a e l , F r e d e r i c . " D i s h i n g t h e D i r t . " Sunday Times M a g a z i n e , 15 May 1977, p. 78. R o b e r t s , D a v i d E. E x i s t e n t i a l i s m and R e l i g i o u s B e l i e f . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. R o l o , C h a r l e s . "Graham Greene: The Man and t h e Message." A t l a n t i c  M o n t h l y , 107 (1961),60-65. R o s e n t h a l , Raymond. "Over t h e B o r d e r t o H a i t i . " Review of The  Comedians. New L e a d e r , 14 F e b r u a r y 1966, pp. 19-20. Routh, M i c h a e l . "Greene's P a r o d y of F a r c e and Comedy.in The Comedians." Renascence, 26 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 139-51. R u l a n d , Vernon S.J. H o r i z o n s of C r i t i c i s m : An Assessment of R e l i g i o u s - L i t e r a r y O p t i o n s . C h i c a g o : A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1975. 86 S a b i n e , F r a n c i s c o J . "Graham Greene's Heroes: R e g e n e r a t i o n t h r o u g h E x p e r i e n c e . " M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969. S a r t r e , J e a n r r P a u l . E x i s t e n t i a l i s m . T r a n s . B e r n a r d Frechtman. New Y o r k : P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1947. S c o t t , Nathan A., J r . The Broken C e n t e r : S t u d i e s i n t h e T h e o l o g i c a l H o r i z o n of Modern L i t e r a t u r e . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. . " C a t h o l i c N o v e l i s t ' s Dilemma." C h r i s t i a n C e n t u r y , 3 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , 901-02. . N e g a t i v e C a p a b i l i t y : S t u d i e s i n t h e New L i t e r a t u r e and t h e R e l i g i o u s S i t u a t i o n . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. S e w e l l , E l i z a b e t h . "Graham Greene: A D i s c u s s i o n of H i s Work." D u b l i n Review, 228 ( 1 9 5 4 ) , 12-21. S m i t h , A.J.M. "Graham Greene's T h e o l o g i c a l T h r i l l e r s . " Queen'JS Q u a r t e r l y , 68 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 15-33. S p i e r , U r s u l a . "Melodrama i n The End of t h e A f f a i r . " Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s , 3 ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 235-40. S t e r n l i c h t , S a n f o r d . " P r o l o g u e t o t h e sad comedies: Graham Greene's e a r l y n o v e l s . " Midwest Q u a r t e r l y , 12 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 427-34. "The Sad Comedies: Graham Greene's L a t e r N o v e l s . " F l o r i d a Q u a r t e r l y , 1, No. 4 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 65-77. S t r a t f o r d , P h i l i p . F a i t h and F i c t i o n : C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s i n Greene and M a u r i a c . N o t r e D a m e , I n d i a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame P r e s s , 1964. Tennyson, G.B.,and Edward E. E r i c s o n , J r . R e l i g i o n and Modern L i t e r a - t u r e : E s s a y s i n Theory and C r i t i c i s m . Grand R a p i d s , M i c h i g a n : 87 Eerdmans, 1975. T u r n e l l , M a r t i n . Graham Greene: A C r i t i c a l E s s a y . Grand R a p i d s , M i c h i g a n : Eerdmans, 1967. "Graham Greene: The Man W i t h i n . " Ramparts, 4 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 54-64. Wassmer, Thomas A. " F a i t h and Reason i n Graham Greene." S t u d i e s , 48 ( 1 9 5 9 ) , 163-67. . "The S i n n e r s o f Graham Greene." D a l h o u s i e Review, 39 ( 1 9 5 9 ) , 326-32. Waugh, E v e l y n . " H e a r t ' s Own Reasons." Commonweal, 17 August 1951, pp. 458-59. Why Do I W r i t e ? An exchange o f v i e w s between E l i z a b e t h Bowen, Graham Greene, and V.S. P r i t c h e t t . London: P e r c i v a l M a r s h a l l , 1948. W i c h e r t , R o b e r t A. "The Q u a l i t y o f Graham Greene's Mercy." C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , 25 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 99-103. W i l s h e r e , A.D. " C o n f l i c t and C o n c i l i a t i o n i n Graham Greene." I n E s s a y s and S t u d i e s , N o . 19. Ed. R.M. W i l s o n . New Y o r k : H u m a n i t i e s P r e s s , 1966, pp. 122-137. Woodcock, George. The W r i t e r and P o l i t i c s . London: P o r c u p i n e P r e s s , 1948. Wyndham, F r a n c i s . Graham Greene. London: Green and Co., 1968. 

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