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Psychophysiological correlates of sensation seeking during auditory stimulation Ridgeway, Doreen G. 1978

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PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF SENSATION SEEKING DURING AUDITORY STIMULATION  by DOREEN G. RIDGEWAY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS  in The  Department  We a c c e p t t h i s to  THE  of Psychology  t h e s i s as conforming  the required  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH August,  COLUMBIA  1978  (c) D o r e e n G. Ridgeway, 19%8  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library  shall make it freely available for reference and study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Psychology  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V 6 T 1W5  Date S e p t e m b e r 8, 1978  ABSTRACT B e h a v i o r a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s while  extreme h i g h  s a t i o n Seeking 100  dB.  were  monitored  (n=l6) and low (n=15) s c o r e r s on t h e S e n -  S c a l e were p r e s e n t e d  10 t o n e s  a t 60, 80, and  I n g e n e r a l , no c o m p e l l i n g b e h a v i o r a l o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s were f o u n d .  Initially,  there  were no d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s on t h e b e h a v i o r a l variables.  The low s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g  subjects reported  lower  v e r b a l r a t i n g s o f p l e a s u r e and h i g h e r v e r b a l r a t i n g s o f s t r e s s than  d i d the h i g h  increased for  stimulation.  the h y p o t h e s i s  higher levels is  sensationsseeking Although  s u b j e c t s as a r e s u l t o f  these  results  provide  support  that high sensation seeking i n d i v i d u a l s  o f s t i m u l a t i o n , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of these  n o t t h a t c l e a r - c u t s i n c e t h e r a t i n g s were done o v e r  As a r e s u l t  prefer data  the b l o c k s .  i t i s n o t c l e a r whether the s u b j e c t s a r e r a t i n g  t h e i r response  t o the tones,  the cummulative  effect  of i s o l a t i o n ,  or what. Although  a " b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s " o f s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g has  been proposed, the p r e s e n t notion.  Of t h e number  significant  of p h y s i o l o g i c a l variables,  physiological  vasomotor a c t i v i t y ,  with  s k i n conductance of the novel  this  the only  g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e t o emerge was  with  t h e low s e n s a t i o n s s e e k i n g s u b j e c t s  g e n e r a l l y more r e s p o n s i v e . sensation seeking  e m p i r i c a l d a t a do n o t s u p p o r t  Although  not s i g n i f i c a n t ,  being  the h i g h  s u b j e c t s d i d d i s p l a y the p r e d i c t e d l a r g e r o r i e n t i n g response  stimuli.  on t h e f i r s t  presentation  The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f i n c r e a s e d  skin  c o n d u c t a n c e , h e a r t r a t e a c c e l e r a t i o n , and v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n i n response  to s t i m u l a t i o n suggests  t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l  procedure  had  similar  effects  vasomotor a c t i v i t y the  on "both may  sensation seeking  groups.  clarify  the  Further research  with  physiological basis  of  d i m e n s i o n ; however, a t t h i s  " b i o l o g i c a l "basis o f s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g  remains  point,  unclear.  the  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE  i  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i i i  L I S T OF TABLES  v i  L I S T OF FIGURES  v i i  L I S T OF APPENDICES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION Review  1 .  of the L i t e r a t u r e  Concept Scale  of Sensation  1  Seeking  ......  Development  Behavioral  Studies  2 2  of Sensation  Seeking  5  Personality Correlates  5  B e h a v i o r a l Measures  7  Physiological Studies  8  Psychophysiological Electrodermal  Correlates  Activity  8 8  Cortical Activity  12  Theoretical Basis  14  Biochemical  15  Correlates  MAO C o r r e l a t e s  16  G o n a d a l Hormones  16  Critique  o f ifehe L i t e r a t u r e  CHAPTER TWO - METHOD Subjects  17 20 '20  iv  Table  of Contents  (cont'd)  Stimuli  21  Apparatus  ......  Procedure  •«  21 22  Data A n a l y s i s  2k Skin  Conductance  26 Heart  Rate  26 Vasomotor  Activity  26 CHAPTER THREE - RESULTS  27  Sample D e s c r i p t i o n  27  B e h a v i o r a l Measures  29  State Anxiety  29  Trait  29  Anxiety  E m o t i o n a l S'&atebVariables Physiological Tonic  29  Measures  3k  Levels  35  S k i n Sonductance  35  H e a r t Rate  36  Vasomotor Phasic Skin  Activity  36  Responses  Conductance  H e a r t Rate Vasomotor  37 ......  37 39  Activity  kO  CHAPTER EOUR - DISCUSSION  k2  REFERENCES  k7  V  Table  o f C o n t e n t s (cont'd:).  APPENDICES Appendix  53 1 - Explanatory Letter  Appendix 2 - Subject  Identification  53 54  vi  L I S T OF  TABLES  TABLE 1.  Alpha  Coefficients  TABLE 2.  P r e and P o s t S t a t e A n x i e t y  28 28  vii  L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.  Diagram  of Experimental Procedure  25  F l g U R E 2.  Pleasure Ratings f o r Stimulation  31  FIGURE 3  General D e a c t i v a t i o n Ratings  33  FIGURE 4  S k i n Conductance Response  38  Size  L I S T OF APPENDICES Appendix 1 - E x p l a n a t o r y L e t t e r  53  Appendix 2 - S u b j e c t  54  Identification  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e of and  the thesis  t o e x p r e s s my extreme g r a t i t u d e  c o m m i t t e e , D r . R o b e r t D. H a r e , D r . E v e r e t t  D r . James A. R u s s e l l , of t h e i r advice  thesis  committee who a s s i s t e d  Valerie  encouragement  education.  like  To t h o s e  I e x t e n d my  F r a z e l l e , John  Friedley,  Lind.  t o t h a n k my f a m i l y  who h a s g i v e n  t h r o u g h o u t a l l p h a s e s o f my  I am a l s o  outside the  i n this research  t o Frank Flynn, Janice  I would a l s o and  and energy.  G o l d b e r g , and John  Waters,  who s u p p o r t e d t h i s work and gave  freely  appreciation  t o t h e members  grateful  university  t o T.A. who gave  encouragement w i t h o u t h e s i t a t i o n  support  support and  throughout t h i s e n t i r e  project.  1  INTRODUCTION Zuckerman (1978; has  Zuckerman, Buchsbaum, and  r e c e n t l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d the  of an u n d e r l y i n g " b i o l o g i c a l T h a t i s , some i n d i v i d u a l s more s t i m u l a t i o n t h a n  sensation seeking  need" f o r h i g h  are  said  others.  A wide r a n g e  components, f r o m c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s activity strate  to l e v e l s  important  of chemicals  i n terms  of s t i m u l a t i o n .  innate  "need" f o r  of p h y s i o l o g i c a l  o f e l e c t r o d e r m a l and said  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n h i g h and  low  sensation  indirectly (CNS)  related  and  e x c i t a b l e CNS  t o demon-  to the a c t i v i t y  of  sensation  seekers.  the  have b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d t o  u n d e r l y i n g the  c  cortical  are  c e n t r a l nervous system o f an  trait  i n the b l o o d ,  These v a r i a b l e s a r e  indicative  levels  t o have a n  1977)  Murphy,  be  seeking  dimension. The  c l a i m f o r a b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s of s e n s a t i o n seeking i s  q u i t e wide r a n g i n g , w o u l d be  very  physiological lacking  and  i f i t was  interesting literature  indeed. suggested  i n e m p i r i c a l support.  to provide  The  a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  physiological  supported  by  the  data, i t  However, a r e v i e w that this present  test  s u b s t r a t e of s e n s a t i o n  proposal  of is  r e s e a r c h was  of t h i s  hypothesis  the seriously designed of  a  seeking.  LITERATURE REVIEW A wide r a n g e correlates  <3f p e r s o n a l i t y , b e h a v i o r a l , and  i s said  to support  of s e n s a t i o n seeking. literature  innthese  c o m p e l l i n g as  the n o t i o n of a " b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s "  However, t h e  areas  indicated  i t i s presented.  physiological  f o l l o w i n g review t h a t the  evidence  Therefore, before  of  the  i s not  addressing  as the  2  major i s s u e s o f the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , an research The  findings with  Concept  of a r o u s a l " ( B e r l y n e ,  of the  Seeking  earlier  c o n s t r u c t of the  "optimal  said  to d i f f e r  and  Zoob,  1964).  high  That  1971).  Within this  s e n s a t i o n seeker  optimal l e v e l  theoretical  1969;  i s , individuals  i n t h e i r need f o r change, v a r i e t y ,  of s t i m u l a t i o n i n order t o m a i n t a i n an (Zuckerman,  difference  o f a r o u s a l or s t i m u l a t i o n (Zuckerman,  Zuckerman, K o l i n , P r i c e , are  level  i 9 6 0 ; D u f f y , 1967; S c h o l s b e r g , 195*0 t  s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as an i n d i v i d u a l in preferred level  general  sensation seeking i s i n order.  of Sensation  Stemming f r o m t h e  overview  and  of a r o u s a l  framework,  i s d e s c r i b e d as an i n d i v i d u a l  intensity  the  who  "needs v a r i e d , n o v e l , and complex s e n s a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s t o m a i n t a i n an o p t i m a l l e v e l of a r o u s a l . H i s o p t i m a l a r o u s a l l e v e l i s assumed t o be g r e a t e r t h a n n o n - s e n s a t i o n s s e e k e r s , a l t h o u g h t h i s has n o t y e t b e e n t e s t e d . When s t i m u l i and e x p e r i e n c e s become r e p e t i t i v e , i t i s assumed t h a t t h e s e n s a t i o n s e e k e r w i l l become b o r e d and n o n r e s p o n s i v e more q u i c k l y t h a n most o t h e r p e r s o n s . He i s presumed t o be more s e n s i t i v e t o i n n e r s e n s a t i o n s and l e s s c o n f o r m i n g t o e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s " ( Z u c k e r m a n , Bone, N e a r y , M a n g e l s d o r f f , and B r u s t m a n , 1972, p. 308). Development of the S e n s a t i o n S e e k i n g The  SSS  was  developed  of p r e f e r r e d l e v e l as a p r e d i c t i v e However, s e n s o r y situation focus  than  o f t h e SSS  experiences through  Originally,  of responses  d e p r i v a t i o n proved  originally shifted  (Zuckerman,  (SSS)  i n order to q u a n t i f y t h i s  of a r o u s a l .  instrument  Scale  a much more  conceptualized.  1978).  several revisions.  As  was  intended  to sensory d e p r i v a t i o n .  t o be  to a broader  t h e SSS  construct  complex  Subsequently  range  a result,  of " r e a l t h e SSS  the  world" has  gone  3  In w r i t i n g items explained  t h a t he  extreme o f the  f o r t h e SSS,  thought  trait  o f f r i e n d s who  in their  Specifically,  variety  of s t i m u l a t i n g , e x c i t i n g , The  on a g e n e r a l first  the  first  trait.  unrotated  form  thesized  items  dimensions  sexes.  As  General  Scale  a result,  The  overlapped  were d e s c r i b e d a s  items as  The  (2) reflecting and  the  s e n s e s by  and  Scale based  ( F a r l e y , 1967;  Zuckerman and  m i g h t c o n t a i n more t h a n  three  focused on  the  Further  constructed,  with  S c a l e was  some o f t h e  Link,  1968)  factor.  new  hypo-  factor  o f w h i c h were r e l i a b l e  Form IV was  General  one  these  analyses  across  the  c o n s i s t i n g of  f o u r s c a l e s based  not  a total  subscales.  and  Adventure Seeking  Scale  a d e s i r e t o engage i n r i s k y  Experience  Seeking  d e s i r e t o s e e k new living  includes a c t i v i t i e s etc.  experiences  a General  jumping, mountain c l i m b i n g ,  The  f o r a wide  score The  the on  but  subscales  follows.  Thrill  expressing  parachute  beh-  ( I I ) ( Z u c k e r m a n e t a l . , 196b)  ( r e t a i n e d f r o m Form I I ) and  factors.  (1)  a preference  novel  ( Z u c k e r m a n , 1971)*  four factors,  partially  the  a t t i t u d e s , and  were w r i t t e n t o r e p r e s e n t  yielded  these  and  1978)  factor.  t h a t t h e SSS  Additional  reflected  I t contained  Subsequent s t u d i e s suggested  items  (197^,  seemed t o embody  preferences,  avior.  interests.  Zuckerman  Scale  activities  (ES)  contains  experiences  travel,  contains such  etc.  i n a nonconforming l i f e s u c h as  (TAS)  unusual  items  through style.  the  mind  This  d r e s s , use  of  drugs,  4  (3)  The  D i s i n M b i t i o n Scale  "playboy" philosophy.  The  behavior  s p h e r e by  variety  i n the  social  i n sexual  (4)  The  items d e s c r i b e  for repetition  predictable, dull,  than  females.  t h e BS  A l t h o u g h the four 25$  Scale  previous  f a c t o r s , S t e w a r t and of the  these  variance  f i n d i n g s are  sample s i z e  and  Recently, o f Form IV  d e f i n e d by  was  failure  Unlike  these  of the  the  o  f o r males  E y s e n c k , 1978).  relatively  on  that  factors.  m a l e s and  developed, based  small  factor  (Zuckerman,  items r e p r e s e n t i n g each of the  greatest value  Specifically,  separately.  analyses  F o u r f a c t o r s were o b t a i n e d  i t e m s s h o w i n g the  only  However,  females  E n g l i s h samples  ten  for  Form V  four factors.  a T o t a l Score which i s the  The  sum  and  cross-sex contains General  o f the  four  scales.  T h i s new  form has  shorter version with scale  r o u t i n g work,  Other items i n d i c a t e  unchanging.  to analyze  c r o s s - n a t i o n a l comparisons.  factor  con<tainssitems  of experiences,  a c c o u n t e d f o r by  Form V was  i s r e p l a c e d by  (BS)  M a c G r i f f i t h (1975) s u g g e s t e d  and  Scale  seeking  s t u d i e s have c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d  l i m i t e d because  the  those  disinhibit  i s d e f i n e d more c l e a r l y  i n B o t h A m e r i c a n and  E y s e n c k , and  a need to  or b o r i n g p e o p l e .  a r e s t l e s s r e a c t i o n when t h i n g s a r e subscales,  a hedonistic  d r i n k i n g , p a r t y i n g , and  Boredom S u s c e p t i b i l i t y  other  reflects  partners.  describing a dislike and  (DIS)  s e v e r a l advantages.  little  c o r r e l a t i o n s are  One,  loss i n reliability.  considerably reduced.  i t i s a much Two,  Finally,  the  inter-  more  5  s e l e c t i v e sex d i f f e r e n c e s a r e shown.  F o r example, u n l i k e Form  IV, males a r e n o t h i g h e r t h a n females on a l l t h e s u b s c a l e s . B e h a v i o r a l Studies of Sensation  Seeking  S e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a wide range o f behavior.  Although  p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s and b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s have been s a i d t o demonstrate i m p o r t a n t h i g h s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g (HSS)  d i f f e r e n c e s between  and low s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g (LSS)  i n d i v i d u a l s (Zuckerman, 1974, 1975; Zuckerman, Buchsbaum, and Murphy, 1977). t h e e m p i r i c a l d a t a i s n o t t h a t i m p r e s s i v e . Personality Correlates.  A wide v a r i e t y o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s  has been c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e SSS. With r e g a r d s t o convergent validity,  t h e SSS has c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r e l a t e d s c a l e s .  These i n c l u d e t h e Change Seeker Index (Acker and McReynolds, 1967;  F a r l e y , 1971; L o o f t and B a r a n o w s k i , 1971; Myers, 1972),  the T h r i l l S e e k i n g S c a l e (Myers, 1972), and t h e Need Change s u b s c a l e o f t h e PRF ( P e a r s o n ,  1970).  A d d i t i o n a l v a l i d a t i o n f o r t h e SSS has been p r o v i d e d i n s t u d i e s with other p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s .  The " g e n e r a l  trait  p i c t u r e d e f i n e s s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g as an u n i n h i b i t e d , nonconforming, i m p u l s i v e , dominant type o f e x t r a v e r s i o n " (Zuckerman, 197^ > P103).  F o r example, t h e most c o n s i s t e n t c o r r e l a t e o f t h e SSS  on t h e MMPI was t h e Hypomania S c a l e w M c h i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h energy, a c t i v i t y , and i m p u l s i v i t y . reported with c o l l e g e students  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p has been  (Zuckerman e_t a l . , 1972;  Zuckerman and L i n k , 1968; Zuckerman, S c h u l t z , and Hopking, 1967), and d e l i q u e n t s (Thorne, 1971).  Other MMPI s c a l e s which  6  shown p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h (F) and  the  Psychopathic  communality  of i m p u l s i v e  the  and  nonconformity to s o c i a l  16  B a s e d on  Kish  and  i n c l u d e s an  Personality Factor  scores  on t h e  Questionnaire Psychological  i n d i v i d u a l as  being  arousal  (1967, 1970)  seeking  between these  characteristics  two  definition  Farley,  seeking  traits  ( F a r l e y and  1970).  However, t h i s has  i t i s the  i m p u l s i v i t y aspect  aspect  advent-  extraversion appear to  as w o u l d be  c o r r e l a t i o n s , ranging  c o r r e l a t i o n s ( Z u c k e r m a n and  sociability  of  components i"t does n o t  Zuckerman et, a l . , 1972), w h e r e a s o t h e r near zero  of  aggressiveness.  Some s t u d i e s h a v e f o u n d low  Link,  expected.  from  Farley,  s t u d i e s have 1968;  be  .12  1967; reported  Farley  and  been a t t r i b u t e d to the f i n d i n g o f e x t r a v e r s i o n and  t h a t seems t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h  the  not  SSS  the  (Farley  F a r l e y , 1970). In general,  emerge w i t h with  Adventurous,  California  t h e HSS  e x h i b i t i n g masculine  a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t e of s e n s a t i o n  and  measures  (Weak S u p e r - E g o , Bohemian,  (1971) d e s c r i b e d  Although Eysenck's  that  of  mores,  c o r r e l a t e d with  (Dominance, S u r g e n c y ,  nonconformity  u r o u s n e s s , d a r i n g and  .47  Deviance  ascendent, s e l f - a s s u r e d , nonconforming, u n d e r s o c i a l i z e d ,  flexible,  to  the Response  w h i c h measure l a c k  i s positively  on C a t t e l l ' s  (Gorman, 1970).  poised,  SSS  extraversion  Uncontrolled)  Inventory,  (Pd)  are  ( Z u c k e r m a n e t a l . , 1972).  Similarly,  Radicalism)  Deviate  o f r e s p o n s e and  respectively  t h e SSS  the  the  a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of c o r r e l a t i o n s appear various  definition  i n v e n t o r i e s w h i c h a p p e a r s t o be  of sensation  seeking.  However, t h e  to  consisent empirical  7  data supporting  these r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s not  Behavioral the  a  A number o f s t u d i e s  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the  of the not  Measures.  trait.  A l t h o u g h the  very high,  "need f o r  the  that  SSS  and  o f the  consistent  associations  w i t h the  seeking behaviors.  reported  h a v i n g engaged i n a g r e a t e r  Specifically,  (Zuckerman, N e a r y , and  Zuckerman, T u s h u p , and  i m e n t e d more w i t h Segal,  1975). 3)  drugs using  e t a l . , 1970), and c r u n c h y , and  B r u s t m a n , 1970;  Crumpton, and  more a l c o h o l  sour) foods  activities  unusual experiments  ( K i s h and  and  and  HSS  individual  of sexual  having Grayson,  cigarettes  (Zuckerman  for stimulating  tendency to v o l u n t e e r  for  (Zuckerman e.t a l . , 1967; (Hymbaugh and  Stanton, Garrett,  during  relationship  While  majority  ( S m i t h and  M y e r s , 1966;  has  not  Lambert  demonstrated  H o c k i n g and  have  stimulation  (Zuckerman e t a l . , 1967; of studies  some  some s t u d i e s  i n d i v i d u a l s attempt to i n c r e a s e  deprivation  L e v y , 1972), t h e  1976)  Young, 1971).  r e s u l t s have b e e n f o u n d .  sensory  with  197^;  However, i n more c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s ,  t h a t HSS  (spicy,  Donneworth, 1972).  i n c l u d i n g the  Brown, R u d e r , and  al.?  1971;  SSS  and  act-  exper-  a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the  t o engage i n r i s k y s p o r t s  reported  various  have r e p o r t e d  and  inconsistent  of  Zuckerman e t  F i r m e r , 1976), 2)  (Brill,  SSS  the  variety  having a preference  Other s t u d i e s various  notion  e x p e r i e n c e s have  b e t w e e n the  stimulation  1972;  manifestations  stimulation".  demonstrated c o n s i s t e n t  ivities  investigated  correlations i s  Experiments i n v e s t i g a t i n g g s e l f - r e p o r t e d  1)  has  behavioral  magnitude  f i n d i n g s are  strong.  and  this  Robertson,  8  1969;  K i s h and  B u s s e , 1971).  In f a c t ,  (1)969) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e LSS s t i m u l a t i o n more t h a n  i e n c e s which are both  Robertson  s u b j e c t s worked t o o b t a i n  t h e HSS  I n g e n e r a l , t h e HSS  H o c k i n g and  visual  subjects.  i n d i v i d u a l s a p p e a r t o engage i n  n o v e l and  arousing.  Although  the  experSSS  a p p e a r s t o have a number o f b e h a v i o r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , i t s a b i l i t y to p r e d i c t  stimulation seeking behavior  P h y s i o l o g i c a l B a s i s Of S e n s a t i o n Research primarily Less  on t h e  concerned  is still  questionable.  Seeking  s e n s a t i o n seeking dimension with  has  persomaMtycandfebeha^ioral  been correlates.  i s known a b o u t i t s p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s , d e s p i t e much  s p e c u l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g i t s " b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s " ( i e . , Zuckerman, 1974;  1978;  Zuckerman e t a l . . 1977).  p h y s i o l o g i c a l and general,  biochemical  individualsstudies  i n number and  A wide r a n g e  c o r r e l a t e s has  i n both  merely suggestive  these  the  literature  concerned  of s e n s a t i o n seeking. been the  two  psycho-  been proposed.  areas  are  In  limited  i n nature.  Psychophysiological Correlates. in  of  with  the  There are very  few  studies  psychophysiological correlates  E l e c t r o d e r m a i h and  cortical  activity  have  m e a s u r e s most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t o e x p l o r e p o s s i b l e  relationships.  Cardiac a c t i v i t y ,  i n v e s t i g a t e d , has  although  not p r e v i o u s l y  r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d some a t t e n t i o n .  a r e a s , however, t h e  literature  i s so s p a r s e  In  these  t h a t the f i n d i n g s  remain i n c o n c l u s i v e . Electrodermaih A c t i v i t y .  The  o r i e n t i n g response  h a b i t u a t i o n r a t e s hawe b e e n u s e d t o e x p l o r e  the  (OR)  and  relationship  9  between e l e c t r o d e r m a l a c t i v i t y OR  i s d e s c r i b e d as  by  repetition  Zuckerman, 1976, OR  amplitudes  p.  and  t h e SSS.  Specifically,  "a n o n - s p e c i f i c r e f l e x e v o k e d by  change w h i c h i s p e r c e i v e d by habituated  and  the  o f the  205).  person  and  activity  do  same stimulus'!}  Reliable individual  (Neary  differ  i n tonic levels  (Zuckerman, 1972;  N e a r y and  However, t h e r e s u l t s w i t h  phasic  of  or  and  differences i n  h a b i t u a t i o n r a t e s have b e e n f o u n d  not  stimulus  i s extinguished  S t u d i e s h a v e c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d t h a t HSS individuals  any  the  (Lynn,  and  1966).  LSS  electrodermal  Zuckerman, 1976;  responses are  Cox,  1977).  potentially  more  promising. Some s t u d i e s have shown t h a t HSS than For  do LSS  while  ations 10  e x t r e m e s c o r e r s on t h e  of a simple  visual  presentations  of a  design).  The  HSS  stimulus  t h e LSS  differ  subjects  (a r e c t a n g l e stimulus  10  present-  of l i g h t )  followed  (an a b s t r a c t  but  dropped t o the  on s u b s e q u e n t t r i a l s .  The  first  response  groups d i d  level not  i n habituationsrates.  N e a r y and  Zuckerman (1976) r e p o r t e d  t h e i r r e p l i c a t i o n and used e x a c t l y the  extension  Hz  similar results  o f t h i s work.  same p r o c e d u r e whereas t h e  e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e 10 (1000  were e x p o s e d t o  showed l a r g e r GSRs on t h e  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f each s t i m u l u s of  SSS  galvanic s k i n response  complex v i s u a l  subjects  ORs  t o n o v e l moderate s t i m u l a t i o n .  example, Zuckerman (1972) m o n i t o r e d  (GSR)  by  ones i n r e s p o n s e  subjects give l a r g e r  t o n e a t 70  dB)  presentations a s w e l l as  10  The  first  second study  o f an a u d i t o r y presentations  in study was  stimulus of a  simple  10  visual  stimulus  stimulus was  ORs  ( a 200  presented  In both  (a r e c t a n g l e Hz  of l i g h t ) .  t o n e a t 70  on t h e  dB  eleventh  s t u d i e s the HSS  trial  first  Cox  no  Subjects,  sensationsseeking tones  the  o f the LSS  observe t h i s  end  and  socialization,  times.  p e r i o d , and  of the  electrodermal  subjects  p a t t e r n of  selected for their  ( H O ) d B ) , which s i g n a l l e d  isolation  modality.  on  but  subsequent  d i f f e r e n c e s i n h a b i t u a t i o n r a t e s were shown.  (1977) d i d n o t  activity.  f o r each s t i m u l u s  design)  p r e s e n t a t i o n of each s t i m u l u s ,  dropped t o the response l e v e l Again  novel  or a c o l o r e d a b s t r a c t  s u b j e c t s showed l a r g e r  i n response to the  trials.  In a d d i t i o n , a  one  extreme s c o r e s  moderate tone  Both electrodermal  and  on  were e x p o s e d t o two  the b e g i n n i n g  isolation period.  electrodermal  (78  o f a 70  dB),  A l l tones  had  intense  minute  which slow  both  signalled  rise-decay  cardiovascular activity  were  monitored. P r e s e n t a t i o n of the  intense  tones  jects  showing l a r g e r s k i n conductance  heart  r a t e 4HR)  significant. in ion,  Similarly,  however, was this  (SC)  r e s p o n s e s and  a c c e l e r a t i o n ; however, t h e s e  has  as  evidence  t h a t HSS  HR  o r i e n t i n g responses,  Similarly,  greater  decreased  HR.  individuals  ORs  i n an  b e e n c i t e d by  the and  data DRs  earlier  not  tone r e s u l t e d One  except-  t h e LSS/LS0C g r o u p w h i c h showed i n c r e a s e d  study  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  and  sub-  d i f f e r e n c e s were  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the moderate  a l l g r o u p s s h o w i n g i n c r e a s e d SC  Although  r e s u l t e d i n t h e LSS  HR.  Zuckerman e t a l . (1977)  characteristically  give l a r g e r  suggest  are  o f t h e HSS study,  that there and LSS  L a m b e r t and  no  subjects. Levy  (1972)  11  failed  to f i n d  electrodermal sensory able  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g activity.  i s o l a t i o n and  HSS  visual  (subjects could press  more s l i d e s a s t h e LSS  and  The  s t i m u l a t i o n was  a button).  a f u n c t i o n of t h e i r  i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the  a t no  N e a r y and  tones  r i s e - d e c a y time.  these  dB 90  s t a t e whether the  and  Specifically,  (Gogan, 1970;  Graham, 1975)'  not  related  dB  earlier  tones  research. 1972;  were  occurs  presented  to tones  with  fast  and  e t a l . , 1975;  LSS  i t i s not  s u b j e c t s are  with resp-  rise-time  ( O s t e r , S t e r n , and  Oster  and  attributable  Figar,  Berg, clear  whether  in orienting  responses.  S e c o n d , t h e r e were no for  conformity  has  been suggested  with  the  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the  assumption  d a t a were  o f compound symmetry.  t h a t some p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l d a t a  a s s u m p t i o n , m a k i n g t h e use  inappropriate.  be  skeletal-motor  Therefore,  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n HSS  significant  was  dnid  S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have  of s t a r t l e  (Gogan, 1970), 70 dB  or i n s t a r t l e  this  viewed  ( i e . , Zuckerman,  i r r e g u l a r i t i e s have been observed  1975). and Jackson,  activity  f i n d i n g s may  or slow r i s e - d e c a y time.  o f 66  subjects  problems i n the  shown t h a t a g r e a t e r i n c i d e n c e  iratory  made f r e e l y , a v a i l - ,  time i n i s o l a t i o n than  p o i n t didtlthe authors  Zuckerman, 1976)  a fast  a fast  HSS  in  seeking.  t o a number o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  with  g r o u p s were p l a c e d  s u b j e c t s ; however, e l e c t r o d e r m a l  to sensation  First,  LSS  and  Therefore,  of " l i b e r a l "  r e s u l t s may  be  d i f f e r e n c e s when i n fact- t h e y  are  not.  It  violates  statistical  r e p o r t e d as  checked  tests  representing  12  Further and  research  cardiovascular  i s needed t o c l a r i f y  activity  t o moderate and i n t e n s e Cortical  cortical  of studies  i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  of stimulation.  AER w i t h  to respond  to high  That i s , "augmenters" a r e those  intensities  subjects  Similarly,  with  to sensation  seeking, the  (1971) r e p o r t e d  t h a t HSS  d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  Buchsbaum, Goodwin, Murphy, a n d B o r g e  t h a t manic p a t i e n t s  (1971) a l s o  t e n d e d t o be a u g m e n t e r s w h e r e a s  t e n d e d t o be r e d u c e r s .  Since  t h e Hypomania  o f t h e MMPI h a s b e e n f o u n d t o c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e  t h e SSS ( Z u c k e r m a n e t a l . , 1972; B l a c k b u r n ,  1971)» m a n i a h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d control  continue  consistent.  s t u d y , Buchsbaum  however, t h e s e  depressed patients subscale  Augmenters  t e n d e d t o be a u g m e n t e r s w h e r e a s LSS sub.gec t s o t e n d e d t o  reducers;  reported  a r e t h o s e who show  o f s t i m u l a t i o n and l a c k a n a t u r a l  With regards  f i n d i n g s have b e e n r e l a t i v e l y In a preliminary  by the  (AER) t o i n c r e a s i n g  increasing intensities.  p r o t e c t i v e mechanism.  it  I t i s defined  show i n c r e a s i n g AER w h e r e a s " r e d u c e r s "  decreasing  be  seeking^  o f t h e averaged evoked response  intensities  seeker i n response  The a u g m e n t i n g - r e d u c i n g t e n d e n c y h a s  a c t i v i t y and s e n s a t i o n  amplitude  who  of the sensation  stimulation.  Activity.  been the focus  the electrodermal  as s e n s a t i o n  1969;  seeking  (Zuckerman, 1974; Zuckerman e t a l . , 1977).  was s u g g e s t e d t h a t  these f i n d i n g s provided  evidence f o r t h e augmenting tendency  Thorne,  out of Therefore,  additional  <3frthe HSS i n d i v i d u a l  ( Z u c k e r m a n e t a l . , 1977)• Later  studies  confirmed  these  preliminary  findings.  For  13  example,  in a clinical  (1975) r e p o r t e d gave  that  lower evoked  s t u d y , C o u r s e y , Buchsbaum, and  i n s o m n i a c s s c o r e d low  p o t e n t i a l responses to  Zuckerman, M u r t a u g h , f i n d i n g s by SSS  comparing  with c o r t i c a l  five  intensities  more r e l i a b l e They only  slope  reported  scale  a t low at  that  disinhibitors  the h i g h e s t Although  They  used an  o f Buchsbaum's e y e s c l o s e d  Subsequent  analysis revealed  d i d not d i f f e r  f r o m t h e low  however, t h e g r o u p s t h e low  did differ  disinhibitors  of these r e s u l t s  The  follows.  one  particular  i s something very d i f f e r e n t  inference  the  that  disinhibitors significantly reducing.  sensation seeking, inconclusive.  f o u n d t o show a s u b s c a l e o f the  these s u b s c a l e s are not very h i g h l y  Two,  give  support f o r a  a r e somewhat  a u g m e n t i n g - r e d u c i n g has been  r e l a t i o n s h i p with only  this  addition,  showing  s t u d i e s have c o n s i s t e n t l y y i e l d e d  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  Since  In  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e augment-  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a u g m e n t i n g - r e d u c i n g and  One,  procedure  the D i s i n h i b i t i o n subscaleswas  intensity,  r e a s o n s a r e as  eyes  t h a n f o u r were u s e d i n o r d e r t o  t o show a s i g n i f i c a n t  intensities;  these  measures.  i n g - r e d u c i n g tendency. the h i g h  also  sound.  the o c c u r r e n c e of r e d u c i n g .  rather  and  o f the s u b s c a l e s o f the  augmenting-reducing.  o r d e r t o maximize  on t h e SSS  (197^) c l a r i f i e d  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  open p r o c e d u r e i n s t e a d in  and S i e g e l  Frankel  correlated,  strong SSS. perhaps  from s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g .  some o f t h e d a t a p r o v i d e o n l y  indirect  from s c a l e s t o o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r .  evidence based  For  example,  on  Ik  because s e n s a t i o n Hypomania S c a l e  seeking  c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e s with  i n college  students,  the  i t i s assumed t h a t  a u g m e n t i n g - r e d u c i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f manic p a t i e n t s characteristic  of s e n s a t i o n  been administered  t o a sample  Theoretical Basis. d a t a and  thus describe  the  sensation  CNS  has  seeking  the  theory  CNS  which the  CNS  d e t e r m i n e s the  1966,  1972).  generates the  slow h a b i t u a t i o n  processes  the  p r o c e s s e s i n the  o f HSS acities  reverse.  N e a r y and  i n d i v i d u a l s have a h i g h  r a t e s was  CNS.  suggested  i s an  excitable stems  equilibrium  or f a c i l i t y  <3f e x c i t a t i o n and  activity, large  Based  t h a n ESS  Zuckerman balance  The  of  with inhibition  not  absence  of  amplitudes  and  of i n h i b i t i o n the  would'  f i n d i n g that  i n response  habituation  inhibitory capacities  d i f f e r e n t from the and  HSS  over i n h i b i t o r y  of d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  HSS  to  (1976) c o n c l u d e d t h a t  of e x c i t a t o r y  individuals""(Neary  However, Zuckerman  on  predominance  OR  subjects  to i n d i c a t e "that  i n d i v i d u a l s are o f LSS  speed  r a t e s whereas predominance  showed l a r g e r ORs  stimuli,  o f an  i n h i b i t o r y processes  The  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  novel  there  empirical  balance.  e x c i t a t i o n w o u l d be  subjects  never  underlying  theoretical formulation  With r e g a r d s to e l e c t r o d e r m a l  be  hypothesis  e x c i t a t o r y and  has  t o e x p l a i n the  which i n d i c a t e s t h a t  (Nebylitsyn,  SSS  physiological substrate  This  i s also  patients.  attempt  dimension, the  or b a l a n c e b e t w e e n the the  However, t h e  of manic  I n an  been proposed.  from S o v i e t  seekers.  the  i n h i b i t o r y cap-  Zuckerman, 1976,  p.  (1972) s u g g e s t e d t h a t the f a i l u r e t o f i n d  210).  15  differences i n habituation fact  rates  could  t h a t OR a m p l i t u d e s a r e more r e l i a b l e  I n any e v e n t , Zuckerman e t a l . ,(i9?/ty) a more d i r e c t t e s t o f t h i s Integrating Soviet has  be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e  been p o s t u l a t e d  than slope  s u g g e s t e d t h a t AER  i s hypothesized  feedback loop an  optimal  load  and Western theory,  a f e e d b a c k mechanism  t o be t h e n e u r o n a l b;asis o f t h e e q u i l i b r i u m  set point  to the l e v e l will  Specifically,  that a r e t i c u l o - c o r t i c o r e t i c u l a r  regulates  to excessive  and m a i n t a i n s the l e v e l  or range.  stimulation.  This  prevents a c o r t i c a l  ( e x c i t a t o r y ) a c t i v a t i o n which  t o dampen a n d c o n t r o l f u r t h e r r e t i c u l a r "reducers"are  characterized  as h a v i n g a low  for intiating  the  hand, "augmenters" a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d  threshold ation.  permitting  Based  In general, cortical activity excitable  the c o r t i f u g a l i n h i b i t o r y process.  them t o a c c e p t much h i g h e r  on t h e e m p i r i c a l  to possess higher  data,  by a much  On higher  l e v e l s of stimul-  t h e HSS s u b j e c t s  appear  thresholds. both the e m p i r i c a l  d a t a on e l e c t r o d e r m a l  are c o n s i s t e n t with the hypothesis  CNS u n d e r l y i n g  sensation  Biochemical Correlates. biochemical  necessary  arousal.  threshold other  over-  People are s a i d t o d i f f e r as  of r e t i c u l o - c o r t i c a l  example,  negative  of arousal a t  t r i g g e r the c o r t i c o f u g a l ( i n h i b i t o r y ) feedback  For  provides  hypothesis.  between the e x c i t a t o r y and i n h i b i t o r y p r o c e s s e s . it  measures.  and  o f an  seeking.  I n a l i m i t e d number o f s t u d i e s ,  v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g p l a t e l e t monoamine  oxidase  (MAO) a n d g o n a d a l hormones, have b e e n f o u n d t o show a r e l a t i o n ship with  sensation  they are considered  seeking.  Although these  data are s p e c u l a t i v e ,  as a d d i t i o n a l evidence f o r a " b i o l o g i c a l  16  "basis" fif s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g . MAO  Correlates.  and n o r e p i n e p h r i n e  i s an enzyme which m e t a b o l i z e s  dopamine  a t t h e n e u r a l synapses i n the l i m b i c system.  A h i g h l e v e l o f MAO a t the synapse.  MAO  i m p l i e s a low l e v e l o f these  neurotransmitters  The l e v e l o f n e u r o t r a n s m i t t e r s determines the  e x c i t a b i l i t y o f the b r a i n c e n t e r s . R e c e n t l y , two s t u d i e s have suggested  that sensation seeking  i s l i n k e d t o MAO a c t i v i t y . FFor example, Murphy, Belmaker, Buchsbaum, M a r t i n , C i a r a n e l l o , and Wyatt (1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t low MAO males s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the SSS; however, no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p emerged f o r f e m a l e s . S i m i l a r l y , S c h o o l e r , Zahn, Murphy, and Buchsbaum  (1978)  r e p o r t e d t h a t low MAO l e v e l s i n b o t h males and females s c o r i n g h i g h on the SSS.  I n a d d i t i o n t o the G e n e r a l S c a l e , n e g a t i v e  c o r r e l a t i o n s were found w i t h a l l the s u b s c a l e s . Although  these d a t a a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the d a t a on c o r t i c a l  AER, i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t p l a t e l e t MAO b r a i n MAO.  i s n o t the same as  I t i s assumed t h a t h i g h l e v e l s o f p l a t e l e t  i n d i c a t e s h i g h l e v e l s o f b r a i n MAO; no t h a t c l e a r - c u t .  MAO  however, the evidence i s  T h e r e f o r e , no c o n c l u s i v e statement r e g a r d i n g  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g and MAO a c t i v i t y can be made. Gonadal Hormones.  Another biochemical l i n k w i t h s e n s a t i o n  s e e k i n g has been p o s t u l a t e d w i t h sex hormones.  The f i n d i n g s  t h a t the SSS has a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e has l a r g e sex d i f f e r e n c e s suggested  and  a h p o s s i b l e l i n k t o the gonadal  17  hormones.  Daitzman  (1975) r e p o r t e d  t h a t HSS i n d i v i d u a l s have  h i g h e r l e v e l s o f b o t h a n d r o g e n and e s t r o g e n . Disinliibition  subscale  relationship. that  This  showed t h e s t r o n g e s t  finding i s consistent  g o n a d a l hormones r e d u c e Moreover, the evidence  sensation  seeking i s highly  assumptions a r e based  I n a d d i t i o n , the a n d most  consistent  with the hypothesis  MAO. f o rbiochemical speculative.  correlates of  The m a j o r i t y  of  on e v i d e n c e f r o m a n i m a l s t u d i e s .  In  addition,  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n methods c a n be c r i t i c i z e d  f o r their  inability  to specify  investi-  gation in  i s needed t o c l a r i f y  the sensation Critique  for  causal  seeking  relationships. the r o l e  compelling.  ship  b e t w e e n t h e SSS a n d v a r i o u s i s not well  some s t u d i e s  documented.  to r e p l i c a t e research  number o f p r o b l e m s i n t h e One, studies  since  Still  other studies  b e t w e e n HSS a n d LSS  findings  have n o t subjects.  may be a t t r i b u t e d  to a  research.  have u s e d d i f f e r e n t f o r m s .  several  times,  F o r example, some  different  studies  whereas o t h e r s h a v e u s e d t h e  However, t h e D i s i n h i b i t i o n s u b s c a l e ently  i s not  have d e m o n s t r a t e d a r e l a t i o n -  t h e SSS h a s b e e n r e v i s e d  have u s e d t h e G e n e r a l S c a l e  seeking t r a i t  p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures, the  f o u n d any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s Failure  variables  To summarize, t h e e v i d e n c e  of the sensation  very  evidence  While  of biochemical  trait.  of the L i t e r a t u r e .  a "biological basis"  Further  subscales.  i s t h e one s c o r e w h i c h  shows s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l  measures.  Perhaps i t i s a unique t r a i t  may a c c o u n t f o r t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s .  i n i t s e l f and t h i s  consist-  18  Two, reliance  the  research  has  b e e n l i m i t e d by  on s i n g l e c h a n n e l r e c o r d i n g .  demonstrated t h a t u s i n g accurately  reveal  stimulation  an  almost  However, i t has  been  .one p h y s i o l o g i c a l measure may  individual differences  ( L a c e y , Bateman, and  L e h n , 1952).  Van  not  i n response to  a number o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l m e a s u r e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y useful  exclusive  i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n HSS  various  Recording may  and  prove'  LSS  individ-  uals . Finally, the  previous  s t u d i e s have f a i l e d  i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  i n with respect example, Cox "there  are  to absence  many a s p e c t s  s i t u a t i o n quite  Although  conceptual  sufficiently  do  of discomfort  structures  studies i n the  t h o u g h a number o f s t u d i e s concluded that  pleasure  seeker  t o make  of whether  and  fear  changesiin  o r some  other  verbal  cues of  emotion  need t o r e l a t e t o the  verbal  domain.  For  subjective  systematic,  example,  even  l(JMfehEabianaandRRussell,l§9'7^)hhave  and  o f e m o t i o n , t h i s v i e w has  have  of i n t e r e s t .  t o a s s e s s the  so,  For  (1972) e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e e d f o r  some s t u d i e s have a t t e m p t e d t o m o n i t o r  To  placed  57)  reports,  excitement  they f a i l e d  adequately.  Levy  subjective  were a r e f l e c t i o n  phenomenon s u c h as  level  t o l e r a b l e " (p.  S i m i l a r l y , L a m b e r t and by  assess  o f s e n s o r y d e p r i v a t i o n w h i c h may  the  clarification,  is  of s t i m u l a t i o n .  (1977) s u g g e s t e d t h a t f o r t h e s e n s a t i o n  e f f e c t of r a i s i n g h i s a r o u s a l  reports,  s i t u a t i o n he  or presence  the  GSR  to adequately  arousal  not  are  two  independent  been t a k e n i n the  dimensions  physiological  19  studies  of sensation  assessment  seeking.  i s a confounding  account f o r the i n c o n s i s t e n t In l i g h t  is  w h i c h may  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  correlates  seeking dimension i s warranted.  confounding  A second goal  of subjective  monitoring emotional state. which i n c l u d e s and  findings  and a r o u s a l  of the p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l  improved methodology.  possible  of pleasure  inadequate  o f the problems noted, a comprehensive y e t un-  confounded study sensation  The r e s u l t o f t h i s  importance  i s the e l i m i n a t i o n of  e x p e r i e n c e by a d e q u a t e l y  A third  the use o f a v a r i e t y  a wide r a n g e  Of primary  o f the  goal  i s increased  generality  o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures  of s t i m u l i .  I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a n a t t e m p t was made t o e l i m i n a t e systematically may u n d e r l i e iS  c o n t r o l some o f t h e p r o c e d u r a l  the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  i s an attempt  Zuckerman  to  problems  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  l ) r e p l i c a t e , i n part,  or  which  Specifically,  the Neary and  (1976) s t u d y o f t h e o r i e n t i n g r e s p o n s e i n s e n s a t i o n  s e e k e r s and  2) e x t e n d i t t o i n c l u d e  a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  of p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures and s t i m u l i .  range  20  METHOD Subjects The  s u b j e c t s ( S s ) were 31 male C a u c a s i a n  v o l u n t e e r s from were s e l e c t e d experiment to  the U n i v e r s i t y  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner.  proper,  students  i nfirst  Russell, right  f e e l most  A week b e f o r e t h e  and second  year Psychology  andexplanatory  letter  now" a n d one w i t h of the time",  instructions  contacted  (Appendix  not have complete were d e l e t e d .  Scale  "how y o u  (Zuckerman,  who were  could indicate  willing  some way o f  2). obtained, those  S s who d i d  d a t a f o r t h e SSS ( i e . , a l l 40 i t e m s  The r e s u l t i n g  sample was composed  whom 155 were m a l e s a n d 182 were f e m a l e s . r e s e a r c h was o n l y c o n c e r n e d  with males,  Since  completed)  o f 337 S s o f the present  only t h e i r  s c o r e s were  further. the b a s i s of t h e i r  o f S s were s e l e c t e d ,  responses  t o t h e S S S , two g r o u p s  r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e extreme h i g h  n=l6) a n d l o w (x=l6.13, n=15) s c o r e r s . t h e HSSjhgroup o c c u p i e d rank  Each  1), two  to indicate  on w h i c h t h o s e  i n a follow-up study  From t h e 391 s e t s o f s c o r e s  On  (Appendix  the Sensation Seeking  (SSS) , a n d a f o r m  to p a r t i c i p a t e  examined  classes.  1974), one w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s t o i n d i c a t e " i ' l h o w y y o u  e t a l . , 1978)  being  The S s  differenibiailmeasuressofiem:otionallsta.ctee (Mehrabian  semantic  feel  Columbia.  p a c k a g e s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p a s s e d o u t  package c o n t a i n e d :  and  of B r i t i s h  undergraduates  (x=29.25,  Within the present  sample,  p o s i t i o n s above t h e 80.48 (n=155) p e r c e n t i l e  w h e r e a s t h e LSS g r o u p o c c u p i e d  p o s i t i o n s b e l o w t h e 38.74  21  (n=155) p e r c e n t i l e  rank.  18 t o 26 y e a r s (x=21 age  The HSS  i n d i v i d u a l s ranged  y r s . ) w h i l e t h e LSS  i n age  from  i n d i v i d u a l s ranged i n  f r o m 18 t o 25 y e a r s (x=19.67 y r s . ) .  Stimuli The  stimuli  consisted  o f 3 b l o c k s o f 10,  Each b l o c k r e p r e s e n t e d an i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l 100  dB).  time  The  o f 50 msec.  of earphones ule  duration  o f 30,  by a RCA  o f e a c h t o n e was  These  ^0,  of i n t e n s i t y  1 s e c , with a  were d e l i v e r e d b i n a u r a l l y  u s i n g a s i n g l e randomized  35»  lOOOHHz t o n e s . .  o r 45  sec.  The  a u d i o g e n e r a t o r , WA4AC.  The  a Type 1613  octave f i l t e r  Type I56O-P83 e a r p h o n e  rise-decay  interval  sched-  s t i m u l i were g e n e r a t e d  intensity  i b r a t e d w i t h a B r u e l and K j a e r Type 2203 sound Scale),  80,  through a s e t  intertrial  auditory  (60,  l e v e l s were l e v e l meter  cal( A  s e t , and a G e n e r a l R a d i o  coupler.  Apparatus A Beckman Type R D y n o g r a p h was (SC), h e a r t r a t e graphic SC age  (EMG)  (HR), d i g i t a l v a s o m o t o r  activity,  (umhos) was  o f 0.5v  and  activity,  palmar  on t h e s e c o n d p h a l a n x  electromyo-  respiration.  Beckman B i o p o t e n t i a l  of the f i r s t  and t h i r d  hand.  HR  placed  i n a standard lead I I configuration  electrodes fingers  o b t a i n e d f r o m two Beckman B i o p o t e n t i a l  A g r o u n d 1'ead was  skin  m e a s u r e d d d i r e c t l y by p a s s i n g a c o n s t a n t v o l t -  t h r o u g h two  was  used to r e c o r d  placed  on t h e l e f t  ankle.  (one The  passed through a c a r d i o t a c h o m e t e r c o u p l e r which output i n b e a t s per minute  (bpm).  Digital  placed  of the  left'  electrodes  on e a c h signal  wrist). was  e x p r e s s e d the  vasomotor  activity  22  was  m e a s u r e d "by p l a c i n g a p h o t o c e l l t r a n s d u c e r  The  s i g n a l was  AC  coupled,  R e s p i r a t i o n r a t e and p l a c e d around two  the  amplitude  lower  chest.  Beckman B i o p o t e n t i a l  (Lippold,  I967).  w i t h a time  These l a t t e r  paste, with  was  two  "bellow  obtained  from  eyebrow  m e a s u r e s were r e c o r d e d  i n the  in  other measures.  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f SC where a 0.5  N a C l e l e c t r o d e p a s t e was s k i n areas  f o r HR  used.  and EMG  Redux p a s t e was placements.  t h e i r hands i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e SC All  sec.  were r e c o r d e d "by a c h e s t D i r e c t EMG  thumb.  c o n t a c t medium f o r a l l e 1 eetr6desv.»wasRBeckman  electrode  the  o f 0.3  e l e c t r o d e s p l a c e d above t h e  order t o check f o r a r t i f a c t s The  constant  on t h e l e f t  e l e c t r o d e s were a t t a c h e d  t o the  percent  used  to  prepare  Ss were a s k e d  electrode  t o wash  placements.  s k i n w i t h Beckman  adhesive  collars. Procedure The respect and  s c h e d u l i n g o f t h e l a b o r a t o r y s e s s i o n s was t o the  time  o f day  (morning,  the l a b o r a t o r y procedures  experimenter's  knowledge  experimental could  terminate  a statement  were c a r r i e d  their  the  was  completely  harmless  p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t any  c o n c e r n i n g the  "basic rights  s u b j e c t s " , the S t a t e A n x i e t y  1968)  then  administered.  asked  Ss were i n f o r m e d  volunteer was  evening)  out w i t h o u t  l a b o r a t o r y , e a c h S was  wash h i s h a n d s .  procedure  a f t e r n o o n , and  with  o f g r o u p membership.  Upon r e p o r t i n g t o t h e t o t h e washroom and  balanced  but  point.  and  to  that  that  go the  they  After signing  p r i v e l e g e s of  Inventory (Spielberger,  23  The  S was  shielded,  then  seated  i n a comfortable  sound-dampened, a i r c o n d i t i o n e d ,  r e c o r d i n g e q u i p m e n t was  located outside  video  f a c i n g t h e S,  c a m e r a , a w h i c h was  w h i c h was  placed next  e q u i p m e n t was activity As  individual iarize sets  of semantic  transducers  a two-way of the  latter  nonverbal  and  19^7)» w h i l e  Once t h e  to each  to  a s e t a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which i n c l u d e d  R u s s e l l , 197^)  polygraph  arose.  their  asked  d i f f e r e n t i a l measures of e m o t i o n a l  (Thayer,  for a  i f the need  S was  The  intercom  were a t t a c h e d , The  familfour  state  the A c t i v a t i o n - D e a c t i v a t i o n  the  experimenter checked  was  calibrated  r e c o r d i n g s were o f good q u a l i t y ,  were r e a d  and  room.  room e x c e p t  purpose  f u n c t i o n s were d e s c r i b e d .  recordings.  the  t o communicate w i t h him  e l e c t r o d e s and  ( M e h r a b i a n and  ical  S and  himself with  Checklist  The  dimly-lit  t o c o n t i n u o u s l y m o n i t o r v e r b a l and  of the the  t o t h e S.  chair located i n a  the  and  the  the  physiolog-  following instructions  S:  "To b e g i n I w o u l d l i k e t o o u t l i n e f o r y o u what t h e fbrmat of t h i s s e s s i o n w i l l be. I n i t i a l l y , there wMibabeoa; s h . o r t s p e r i o d - - a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 m i n u t e s a f t e r w h i c h y o u w i l l be a s k e d t o f i l l o u t t h e f i r s t set of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T h e r e w i l l be a n o t h e r s h o r t p e r i o d a f t e r w h i c h y o u w i l l be p r e s e n t e d t h e f i r s t s e r i e s of tones. S h o r t l y a f t e r the tones you w i l l be a s k e d t o f i l l out t h e n e x t s e t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r b r i e f p e r i o d . This f o r m a t w i l l be r e p e a t e d 2 more t i m e s . In t o t a l you w i l l h e a r 3 s e t s o f t o n e s and f i l l out a s e t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a f t e r e a c h s e t . You s h o u l d t r y t o r e l a x and engage i n a minimum o f b o d i l y movement so as n o t t o d i s t u r b t h e e l e c t r o d e p l a c e m e n t s . There i s a two-way i n t e r c o m t h r o u g h w h i c h y o u c a n communic a t e w i t h me a t a n y t i m e i f t h e n e e d a r i s e s . A l l the i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h I g i v e y o u f r o m t h i s p o i n t w i l l be g i v e n through the i n t e r c o m . A r e t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? " A f t e r a n s w e r i n g any  questions,  the  experimenter l e f t  the  room.  24  The S s a t q u i e t l y f o r f i v e minutes and t h e n was asked t o fill at  out the f i r s t s e t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e s c r i b i n g how he f e l t  t h a t moment.  Another f i v e minutes was a l l o w e d t o pass b e f o r e  the f i r s t s e r i e s o f tones t h e n asked t o f i l l  (60 dB) was p r e s e n t e d .  The S was  out the next s e t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e s c r i b i n g  how he f e l t d u r i n g the tones and t h e n t o s i t back and w a i t f o r the next s e r i e s . o f t o n e s . pass. for  A n o t h e r f i v e minutes was a l l o w e d t o  T h i s procedure f a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e l ) was  repeated  t h e next two s e r i e s o f tones a t 80 dB and 100 dB. The  experiment t e r m i n a t e d w i t h each S f i l l i n g out the S t a t e  Anxiety Inventory  ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1968).  Each S was t h e n  given  a package o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o be completed a t home and r e t u r n e d w i t h i n a week.  These i n c l u d e d t h e S o c i a l i z a t i o n S c a l e  1969), the T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y  (Gough,  ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1968), and a  v a r i e t y o f p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s (Waters,  1977).  Upon r e t u r n i n g  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , each S was g i v e n an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e experiment and a b r i e f r e v i e w o f h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l l f e c o r d . Data A n a l y s i s Tonic L e v e l s .  T o n i c l e v e l s o f autonomic a c t i v i t y were  determined f o r t h e l a s t minute o f t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l r e s t p e r i o d s as w e l l as t h e 5 s e c . p e r i o d s p r i o r t o p r e s e n t a t i o n o f each tone.  Mean a c t i v i t y o f each p h y s i o l o g i c a l measure was  obtained. P h a s i c Responses. definednby  P r e - and p o s t - s t i m u l u s p e r i o d s were  the 5 s e c . segment p r i o r t o each tone and t h e 10 s e c .  segment f o l l o w i n g each t o n e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . W i t h i n these the f o l l o w i n g measurements were o b t a i n e d .  periods  25  INITIAL REST (5-10 min) INSTRUCT QUESTIONNAIRE (10. sec) FILL OUT QUESTIONNAIRE (3-6, min) REST (2 min) TONES 1-10 a t 60 (80, 100) dB (6 min) REST (2 min) FINAL REST (5 min)  Tone I n t e r t r i a l I n t e r v a l (40-35-35-^5-^0-35-^540-45) 1 DIAGRAM OF EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE  26  a;), S k i n Conductance.  The SC response was c a l c u l a t e d as t h e  d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e - s t i m u l u s p e r i o d and t h e maximum SC during the p o s t - s t i m u l u s p e r i o d .  Recovery h a l f - t i m e , s c o r e d as  the time i t t o o k f o r t h e r e c o v e r y l i m b o f the e l e c t r o d e r m a l response t o a t t a i n 50 p e r c e n t r e t u r n t o p r e - s t i m u l u s l e v e l , was also  calculated. b) H e a r t R a t e .  HR was s c o r e d on a second-to-second  basis,  so t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n v e r t the r e c o r d from a b e a t - t o beat b a s i s by a v e r a g i n g t h o s e p e r i o d s when more t h a n one beat o c c u r r e d w i t h i n any second. c) D i g i t a l Vasomotor.  Changes i n f i n g e r p u l s e a m p l i t u d e  were used as an i n d i r e c t measure o f v a s o d i l a t i o n and v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n (as suggested by L a d e r , 1967).  A second-to-second b a s i s was  used which i n v o l v e d c a l c u l a t i n g p e a k - t o - t r o u g h a m p l i t u d e f o r each pulse.  I f more t h a n one p u l s e o c c u r r e d w i t h i n any second, an  average was c a l c u l a t e d .  On t h e o t h e r hand, i f any p e r i o d d i d  n o t c o n t a i n a p e a k - t o - t r o u g h i n t e r v a l , an average o f t h e v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f o r seconds a d j a c e n t t o t h a t p e r i o d was c a l c u l a t e d .  2 7  RESULTS v  The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l and t h e  p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures a r e p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e l y . b e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g these d a t a , a comparison  However,  i s made between t h e  d a t a o f t h e p r e s e n t sample and the normative  data reported f o r  t h i s r e v i s e d form o f t h e SSS (Zuckerman e t a l . , 1978).  Mean t  t o t a l ! s c o r e s f o r males and females i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y were 20.75  (n=155)  to a T-score  and 18.94 ( n = l 8 2 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  These  correspond  o f 5 0 f o r males and 51 f o r females i n the' normative  data. L o o k i n g a t s e x d i f f e r e n c e s , t - t e s t s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e males s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than females on t h e t o t a l s c o r e (p^.01) as w e l l as on t h e DIS and t h e BS s u b s c a l e s ( p ^ . 0 1 ) , w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e on t h e TAS s u b s c a l e a p p r o a c h i n g (p<£.10).  significance  These a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e normative  d a t a where b o t h  the American and t h e E n g l i s h males s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e females on t h e t o t a O i l s c o r e , t h e TAS, and t h e DIS s u b s c a l e s (Zuckerman e t a l . , 1978).  I n a d d i t i o n , the E n g l i s h  ifiales s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n the E n g l i s h f e m a l e s on the BS s u b s c a l e . The a l p h a r e l i a b i t i e s f o r Form V o f t h e SSS o b t a i n e d i n the p r e s e n t sample a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table 1,. These r e l i a b i l i t i e s are s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r than those r e p o r t e d by Zuckerman e t a l . , (1978).  A s i d e from t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , t h e p r e s e n t d a t a seem  comparable t o those o b t a i n e d w i t h t h i s measure i n p r e v i o u s research.  TABLE 1 C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Form V (SSS)  Alpha Males Total TAS ES DIS BS  Score  (n=155)  Females (n=l85)  .80 • 72 • 57 .70 .51  .68 .67 .53 • 54 .44  TABLE 2 Pre and P o s t S t a t e AnxietyMeans and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ( i n b r a c k e t s )  HSS  HSS  LSS  Pre  37.31 (6.76)  40.07 (8.46)  Post  32.50 (6.30)  35-93 (9.03)  Note: S t a t e A n x i e t y measures were a d m i n i s t e r e d p r i o r t o and f o l l o w i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s .  29  Behavioral In J  with  Measures  order t o determine  respect to t h e i r  ation  of the v a r i o u s s t i m u l i , The  post-experimental  in  2.  effect 2  In  of the  t o and  standard  increasing intensities of variance  significant  to  expectation, a significant  o f the  tones,  T h i s would suggest  less  over  procedure  the  as  a  2,(;group) performed.  However, c o n t r a r y  f o r time  a reduction i n state  period.  presented  cummulative  a n x i e t y was  main e f f e c t  experimental concern  a n x i e t y are  g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d .  P<.01) i n d i c a t e d  administered.  d e v i a t i o n s f o r the  to the  on s t a t e  groups  subjective interpret-  measures of s t a t e  No  two  a number o f t e s t s was  order t o assess response  (time) a n a l y s i s  1,29,  state  means and  p r e - and Table  c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the  emotional  State Anxiety.  x  the  (P=8.12,  a n x i e t y over  t h a t the  t h e y became  df=  the  groups  showed  experiencedwwi>th  it. Trait  Anxiety.  s u b j e c t s were 3 6 . 1 3 A 2  (group)  that  the  x 2  State.  LSS In  differ  of the  (sd=7.32),  on t r a i t  Semantic the  r e p o r t s of these  s u b j e c t s d i d not order  39-36  anxiety) analysis  to determine  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  three hypothesized dominance.  indicated  100  of  t h a t the  state  tones,  of  computed  i n emotional  dB  emotional  dimensions  T-tests,  indicated  initially  8 0 , and  su  respectively.  measures  changes i n e m o t i o n a l 60,  LSS  anxiety.  dimensions,  differ  and  of variance  differential  p l e a s u r e , a r o u s a l , and  onnbaseline and  (trait  were s c o r e d t o y i e l d  emotion  a n x i e t y f o r t h e HSS  (§'d=8.09) and  groups d i d not  Emotional state  Mean t r a i t  HSS  state. as  a  result  separate  30  2"b(group) x 4  (time)  for  a r o u s a l , and  pleasure,  results will  be  The  i n response  Figure 84,  2.  A  measures a n a l y s e s  mean p l e a s u r e  t o the  three  significant  degrees  (or  with  simply  f o r each  of tones  main e f f e c t  of p l e a s u r e  time).  A  are  f o r time  pleasure  trials  tones;  however, t h e y  than  3,  found  the  d i d t h e HSS  subjects.  Arousal.  significant  84,  p<i.05)  aroused  as  A  feelings  x  group  the  tones No  became more significant  o f dominance were  facrbors  C h e c k l i s t was  ^deactivation, baseline t h e LSS  scored  of a c t i v a t i o n and  high  100  f o r time  reported 60  dB  unpleasant  (F=3.39,  df=  groups r e p o r t e d b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g intense.  d i f f e r e n c e s between groups i n  Thayer's A c t i v a t i o n - D e a c t i v a t i o n to y i e l d  activation.  d i d not  to the  much more  the  four  deactivation, general  r a t i n g s of these subjects  and  dB  interaction  found.  Activation-Deactivation. Adjective  i n response  of  intensity  subjects  and  main e f f e c t  i n d i c a t e d that both  Dominance. feelings  80  group  plotted in  i n c r e a s i n g sound  significant  ratings i n i t i a l l y  each  (F=13.87, df=3,  groups r e p o r t e d with  The  dimension..  (F=2.90, df=3, 84, p < . 0 5 ) r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e LSS higher  variance  r a t i n g s g i v e n by  series  p<.001) i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h  decreasing  of  dominance were p e r f o r m e d .  diseusse.ddseparately  Pleasure. and  repeated  activation,  T - t e s t s were computed  f a c t o r s and differ  hypothesizedd general, on  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e HSS  initially  i n their  feelings  and of  activation. In  order  to determine  c h a n g e s i n a c t i v a t i o n as  a result  of  31  F i g u r e 2 - Mean p l e a s u r e f o r t h e i n i t i a l r e s t and  r a t i n g s g i v e n by Groups HSS stimulation periods.  and  LSS  )  32 the  presentation  (group) x 4 for  of the  (time)  60 , 80  repeated  and  100  dB  tones,  measures a n a l y s e s  e a c h f a c t o r were p e r f o r m e d .  The  separate  of  2  variance  results will  be  discussed  s e p a r a t e l y f o r each f a c t o r . Deactivation. Group HSS ilation only  No  significant  reported being  periods  more " d e a c t i v a t e d "  t h a n d i d g r o u p LSS,  although  however,  throughout the this  stim-  difference  a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e (p<. 10j_. General  A c t i v a t i o n . No  s i g n i f i c a n t t r e s u l t s were  General  Deactivation.  Mean r a t i n g s g i v e n by  initially  and  i n response  in  3.  A  81,  r e s u l t s were f o u n d ;  Figure  to the  significant  three  the  main e f f e c t  f o r time  t o n e s became more i n t e n s e .  i n t e r a c t i o n a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e (p<. 10) LSS  individuals reported  ing  tone i n t e n s i t y .  only reported  On  To  groups d i d not  of the  feelings  emotion v a r i a b l e s .  of pleasure  and  stimulation,  there  pleasure  a r o u s a l as  ically,  and  significant  the LSS  was  suggesting  low  arousal.  a general  subjects  the  Initially,  x  group that  d i s t u r b i n g t h a n d i d t h e HSS  increased  subjects.  100  dB  tones.  found.  i n i t i a l l y i n anxiety both groups  i n f e e l i n g s of  tones i n c r e a s e d  This  the  increas-  reported  However, as a r e s u l t  increase  found the  df=3,  individuals  d i f f e r e n c e s were differ  plotted  increased feelings  f e e l i n g s of s t r e s s t o the No  o r any  (F=?.48,  A trials  o t h e r hand, t h e HSS  High A c t i v a t i o n . summarize, t h e  group  i n c r e a s i n g f e e l i n g s of s t r e s s to the  increased  each  s e r i e s of tones are  p<.001) i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h g r o u p s r e p o r t e d  o f s t r e s s as  found.  i n intensity.  of  disSpecif-  s t i m u l a t i o n more i s consistent  with  33  T| (rest)  T2 (60dB)  T3 (80dB)  T4 dOOdB)  T I M E  F i g u r e 3 - Mean g e n e r a l d e a c t i v a t i o n r a t i n g s g i v e n by Groups HSS and LSS f o r t h e i n i t i a l r e s t and s t i m u l a t i o n p e r i o d s .  3k  the  e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e HSS i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d have a more  response  to stimulation.  Physiological It  positive  Measures  s h o u l d be n o t e d  t h a t i n the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s e s  involving  p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures, a c o n s e r v a t i v e t e s t  o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was  used.  I n order f o r the u n i -  The r e a s o n  variate repeated exact  for this  i s as follows.  measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  statistical  F test,  the m a t r i c e s  among v a r i a b l e s must s a t i s f y  the  t o provide an  o f v a r i a n c e s and  assumption  o f compound  covariances symmetry  ( W i n e r , 1971)•  I n e q u a l i t y o f these matrices  results  tabled  value being  toa c r i t i c a l  critical  appropriate f o r an a b r i t r a r y 1971)«  t o o low  relative  variance-covariance matrix  t e s t , w h i c h assumes t h a t t h e F r a t i o h a s  degrees o f freedom, p r o v i d e s a n approximate  (Winer,  i n t r o d u c e s c o r r e l a t i o n among t h e Consequently, lated.  For  example, L i n d  v a r i a b l e s on which the  found  females  Specifically,  moved away f r o m e t h e  Preliminary  i n response  vaso-  t o 80,  departures:,  where m e a s u r e s o f change  f r o m s e c o n d t o s e c o n d , the  l a r g e v a l u e s a l o n g the  a s one  design  F i s based.  t h a t h e a r t r a t e and  c o n s i s t e n t l y showed s t r o n g  f r o m compound symmetry. were r e c o r d e d  (1978)  f o r bolfr m a l e s and  120 dB t o n e s  relatively  measures  t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f compound symmetry i s o f t e n v i o -  motor responses and  1 and n - 1  test.  I n p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , the r e p e a t e d  value  value  T h e r e f o r e , when compound symmetry i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , t h e  conservative  100,  i n the t a  covariance  matrix  d i a g o n a l which decreased  had in  diagonal.  i n s p e c t i o n o f the  present  data f o r heart r a t e ,  35  v a s o m o t o r , and  s k i n conductance responses  did  n o t meet t h e a s s u m p t i o n  and  Geiser  (1959) e t a  covariance matrix for  s e l e c t e d data.  o f compound symmetry.  (which  departs  m e a s u r e s the  done i n t h i s  type  the use Tonic  f o r the v i o l a t i o n  Greenhouse  to which  test,  as  a  computed  .2113  to  .3850  i s frequently  justified.since  o f compound symmetry.  of a conservative t e s t  they  they  do  Therefore,  seems more a p p r o p r i a t e .  Levels  final  (SC).  Mean t o n i c SC  r e s t i n g p e r i o d s were 11.80  for  t h e HSS  s u b j e c t s and  for  t h e LSS  subjects.  response  t o the  (time)  repeated  x 2  of a e M b e r a l  o f r e s e a r c h , c a n n o t be  S k i n Conductance  in  The  C o r r e c t i o n v a l u e s r a n g i n g from  M o r e o v e r , t h e use  account  extent  that  f r o m compound symmetry) was  were f o u n d .  not  suggested  T o n i c SC  10.00  and and  In order  cummulative  f o r the  13.48  11.18  yumhos/cm2, r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  changes i n t o n i c  of s t i m u l a t i o n , a 2  m e a s u r e s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  and  yumhos/cm2, r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  to assess effect  initial  i n c r e a s e over  the  SC (group)  performed.  experimental  period. Similarly, involved a 2 analysis  examination  (group) x 3  of v a r i a n c e .  general decrease  trials  ( b l o c k s ) x 10  A significant  i n t o n i c SC  (F=30,83, d f = l , 29,  o f t o n i c SC  p r i o r to s t i m u l a t i o n (trials)  trials  over the  10  effect  trials  indicated a  but  i n c r e a s e d over  blocks.  block  A blocks  x groups i n t e r a c t i o n approached s i g n i f i c a n c e with  trials  measures  w i t h i n each  p<.001) s u g g e s t i n g h a b i t u a t i o n .  s u b j e c t s s h o w i n g g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r t o n i c SC over  repeated  l e v e l s which  the  x HSS  decreased  36  H e a r t Rate (HR). Mean t o n i c HR f o r the i n i t i a l and f i n a l r e s t i n g p e r i o d s were 7 4 . 1 3 and 72.44 bpm, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the HSS s u b j e c t s subjects.  and 8 4 . 2 7 and 85.13 bpm, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the LSS  I n o r d e r t o determine t h e change i n t o n i c HR i n  response t o t h e cummulative e f f e c t o f s t i m u l a t i o n , a 2 (group) x 2 (time) r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was performed. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r group ( F = 6 . 2 5 , d f = l , 29, P ^ . 0 5 ) r e v e a l e d t h a t the HSS s u b j e c t s  displayed  significantly  t o n i c HR t h a n d i d the LSS s u b j e c t s . d u r i n g f i n a l r e s t i n g periods.  lower  b o t h the i n i t i a l and  A 2 (group) x 3 ( b l o c k s )  x 10 ( t r i a l s )  r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d t h a t t h i s group d i f f e r e n c e was c o n s i s t e n t l y shown p r i o r t o each  stimulation  t h r o u g h o u t the experiment (F=5.79» d f = l , 2 9 , p ^ . 0 5 ) . Vasomotor A c t i v i t y .  Mean p u l s e a m p l i t u d e f o r the i n i t i a l  and  f i n a l r e s t i n g p e r i o d s were 9«97 and 4.73 mm,  for  t h e HSS s u b j e c t s  the LSS s u b j e c t s .  respectively,  and 8.71 and 3-81 mm, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r  A 2 (group) x 2 (tiriief) a n a l y s i s  of vairance  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the group mean d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . Both groups showed a decrease i n t o n i c p u l s e a m p l i t u d e c o n s t r i c t i o n ) over t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d pC.001).  A 2 (group) x 3 ( b l o c k s )  ures a n a l y s i s (F=22.il,  (vaso-  (F=47»31» d f = l , 29,  x 10 ( t r i a l s ) r e p e a t e d meas-  of variance revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t block e f f e c t  df=2, 58, p<.001) i n d i c a t i n g i n c r e a s i n g  with increasing  tone i n t e n s i t y .  The LSS s u b j e c t s  vasoconstriction consistently  showed more c o n s t r i c t i o n ; however, t h i s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . Mean s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s  f o r t o n i c pulse amplitude f o r  37  t h e s e same p e r i o d s were 2.18 HSS  s u b j e c t s and  subjects. highly  A 2  2.13  (trials)  mm,  time e f f e c t  the v a r i a b i l i t y  the e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . 10  1.37  1.15mm, r e s p e c t i v e l y , respectively,  (group) x 2 (time) a n a l y s i s  significant  i c a t i n g that  and  and  a 2  that  the v a r i a b i l i t y  tone  intensity.  p^.01),  (group) x 3 ( b l o c k s ) x  of variance r e v e a l e d a  (F=6.85, d f = l ,  of pulse amplitude  29,  p<.01) i n d i c a t i n g  decreased with  s u b j e c t s t o emerge f r o m e t h e e t o n i c m e a s u r e s was  that  increasing  and  w i t h HR.  t o have been a f f e c t e d  Furthermore,  LSS  In  the changes i n t o n i c measures a c r o s s the b l o c k s  t h e s t i m u l i were e f f e c t i v e .  ind-  decreased over •  To summarize, t h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e HSS  general,  LSS  o f v a r i a n c e gave a  of pulse amplitude  r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s  significant block effect  f o r the  (F=20.46, d f = l , 29,  Similarly,  f o r the  indicate  the groups  s i m i l a r l y by t h e p r o c e d u r e  on t o n i c  appear measures.  Autonomic Measures S k i n Conductance by  s u b t r a c t i n g t h e p r e s t i m u l u s SC  d u r i n g the f i r s t  10  r e s p o n s e s g i v e n by intensity 3  Response S i z e .  on t h e s i z e  tones  each group  f r o m t h e maximum SC  t o the t h r e e l e v e l s  are p l o t t e d  (trials)  i n F i g u r e 4.  computed  observed  The mean SC of tone  intes  A 2 (group)  r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s  o f t h e SC r e s p o n s e  gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y  r e s p o n s e s were  sec. f o l l o w i n g stimulus onset.  over t r i a l s  ( b l o c k s ) x 10  SC  i n d i c a t e d that both  x  of variance groups  l a r g e r SC r e s p o n s e s t h e more i n t e n s e t h e  (F=4.70, d f = l ,  i n response magnitude  29,  p^.05).  A significant  o v e r t h e 10 t r i a l s  g e n e r a l decrement  w i t h i n each b l o c k  F i g u r e 4 - Mean change i n SC r e s p o n s e s i z e d i s p l a y e d by Groups HSS and LSS as a r e s u l t o f s t i m u l a t i o n ( t o c o n v e r t t o umhos/cm2, m u l t i p l y v a l u e s by 2 . 5 ) •  39  (F=30.68, d f = l , 29. as  p<f.001) was  s e e n i n F i g u r e 4,  l a r g e r SC ence was  response not  t h a t the HSS  on t r i a l  x  10  i n recovery  (trials)  significant  tones,  Heart  stimulus  on HR  trials  f o r the  Rate.  HR  onset  gave no  significant  for t r i a l  significant  r a t e s were f o u n d not  a  differ-  (group) x 3  differ  1 and  10  gave  no recovery  intensities.  with  t h e more  intense  expressing  1-sec. p e r i o d s f o l l o w i n g  onset.  A 2 (group) x 3  results.  2  data,  included s 2  measures a n a l y s i s o f ( g r o u p ) x 10  10  variance  Additional analyses,  s e c t i o n s of the  a separate  5-sec.  (blocks) x  measures a n a l y s i s o f  g r o u p t d i f f e r e n c e s were  subjects i n i t i a l l y  (blocks)  i n their  perf(group) variance  (^trials) x  measures/ a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  interesting patterns.  diff-  significant.  (seconds repeated  However, v i s u a l  f o l l o w e d by  A 2  i n c r e a s i n g tone  (seconds) repeated  (seconds) repeated No  group  as a d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e mean d u r i n g the  ( b l o c k s ) x 10  on HR  gave  used to assess  r e s p o n s e s were d e t e r m i n e d by  to stimulus  x 10  tones.  groups d i d not  d u r i n g each of the  ormed on more s p e c f i c x 3  this  measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e The  period prior (trials)  repeated  d i f f e r e n c e was  t h e mean HR  1 of each b l o c k ,  r a t e s t o the  l a r g e r recovery  this  i t appears,  subjects i n i t i a l l y  T h i s measure was  results.  rates across Although  Although  significant.  Recovery H a l f - t i m e . erences  revealed.  f o r each  10 block.  found.  i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e HR I n response t o the  p l o t s r e v e a l e d some 60  dB  showed a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r t h e  d e c e l e r a t i o n w h e r e a s t h e HSS  tones, first  the  four  s u b j e c t s showed  LSS seconds  only  40  deceleration on  on  trial  subsequent t r i a l s  1.  The  g r o u p s gave s i m i l a r HR  with  the  exception  difference reoccurred. sec-to-sec  HR  In contrast,tthe  responses t o the  Vasomotor Responses. by  computing the  10  1-sec. p e r i o d s  from the onset.  mean PA A 2  80  and  the  amplitude  x  HSS,  s h o w i n g more v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n  29,  were g e n e r a l l y  the  i n t e n s i t y of the  to recover  increase To  was  i n seconds i n c r e a s e d only  display  the  Although not  predicted  t h e y showed more HR However, t h e s e  (seconds) revealed  o v e r a l l (F=4.57, d f = l ,  29,  8.  1,  A 29,  with  (F*7.78,  29,  A  df=l,  p^.OOl) i n d i c a t e d  seconds w i t h the blocks  p4.00l) i n d i c a t e d  response x that  increasing intensity. group d i f f e r e n c e to subjects  significant,  being  t h e HSS  l a r g e r s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e OR.  began t o  significant  significant  t h e LSS  d e c e l e r a t i o n and  trends  10  the  significant  w i t h vasomotor a c t i v i t y w i t h  more r e s p o n s i v e .  change  than  o v e r the  around t r i a l  summarize, t h e  the  stimulus  change  tones i n c r e a s e d .  s e c o n d s i n t e r a c t i o n (F=5.74, d f = l , the  preceding  on PA  of  t h e s e v a s o c o n s t r i c t i v e r e s p o n s e s became  vasoconstriction increased  starting  each  more r e s p o n s i v e  m a i n e f f e c t f o r s e c o n d s (F=68.69, df= that  determined  a percentage  s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r b l o c k s  p<.01) i n d i c a t e d t h a t  l a r g e r as  during  (trials) x  of variance  the  A  10  this  tones.  onset as  _  that  p<.05)«  dB  (PA)  5 sec. period  (blocks)  r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s subjects  where  g r o u p s showed s i m i l a r  100  f o l l o w i n g stimulus during  10  V a s o m o t o r r e s p o n s e s were  mean p u l s e  (group) x 3  LSS  of t r i a l  responses  emerge  generally  subjects  did  Similarly,  l e s s vasomotor c o n s t r i c t i o n .  disappear at  the  more i n t e n s e  t  levels  of  stimulation.  With r e s p e c t i n c r e a s i n g SC with  r e s p o n s e s , HR  increasing  recover  to the treatment  stimulation.  over the t r i a l s  effect,  both  a c c e l e r a t i o n and The  trend  groups  showed  vasoconstriction  f o r these to s t a r t  suggests h a b i t u a t i o n  by b o t h  to  groups.  42  DISCUSSION Of p r i m e i n t e r e s t results  i s the extent  variables t h e HSS  i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  t o which the b e h a v i o r a l and  demonstrate  significant  and LSS s u b j e c t s .  n e e d s n o v e l and v a r i e d ima-1 l e v e l aroused  individual  Theoretically,  Although  by n o v e l s t i m u l i ,  d i f f e r e n c e s between  t h e HSS  individuals  t h e HSS  individual  i s highly  he s t o p s r e s p o n d i n g when s t i m u l i a r e  Therefore, r e p e t i t i o n  o f s t i m u l i b r i n g s h i m down t o  a l e v e l markedly below h i s response he a p p e a r s  physiological  s t i m u l a t i o n i n order to maintain h i s opt-  of arousal.  repeated.  of the present  to novel s t i m u l i .  to lack a natural i n h i b i t i o n  of response  In addition,  to intense  stimuli. Based that  on t h i s  t h e HSS 2)  ation,  stimulus,  theoretical 1)  s u b j e c t s would  be more a r o u s a b l e and  3)  data d i d not e n t i r e l y  Although  both  showed a r e d u c t i o n i n s t a t e  were f i n i s h e d . showed l e s s  This i s possibly  concern  e r i e n c e d wi/th i t . ure.  over  state  anxiety after  due t o t h e f a c t  the procedure  previous  N e a r y and Zuckerman, 1976;  Fowling,  the  a n d C a l e f , 1972)  procedures  t h a t the s u b j e c t s  T h e r e were no g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s  ( Z u c k e r m a n e t a l . , 1972;  anxiety  a s t h e y became  These f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  gomery, S i n d s t r o m ,  physiological  hypotheses.  B o t h g r o u p s showed some p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l and  of stimulation  t h e g r o u p s showed some  measures, t h e i r  confirm these  of stimul-  presentation of a novel  shi£t t o a DR a t a h i g h e r l e v e l  on t h e s e l f - r e p o r t  hypothesized  prefer higher levels  on t h e f i r s t  t h a n w o u l d t h e LSS s u b j e c t s . differences  f o r m u l a t i o n , i t was  more  on t h i s  expmeas-  research Bone, Mont-  w h i c h showed no  43  s u b s t a n t i a l s t a t e and LSS  subjects.  anxiety the  which  study.  that  This  low  trait  confirms  c o u l d have  For  obscured  anxious subjects  results  the h y p o t h e s i s stimulation.  decreasing  HSS  and  the  LSS  subjects  and  higher  t h a t t h e HSS  t h e i r response  in isolation  Moreover, the is  c o n f o u n d e d by  of s  In  of the  general, of  arousal  tones.  lower v e r b a l r a t i n g s  This  the  i s consistent  i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d h a v e a more However, some c a u t i o n  data.  done o v e r eaehbbl>oek, i t i s n o t  of b e i n g  levels  of s t i m u l a t i o n .  taken i n i n t e r p r e t i n g these  were r a t i n g  for  s t a t e , group  v e r b a l r a t i n g s of s t r e s s than d i d  a result  expectation  levels  i n c r e a s i n g degrees  subjects reported  p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n to s t i m u l a t i o n . be  rel-  Wing,  some s u p p o r t  of s t i m u l a t i o n .  increasing intensity  t h e LSS  and  provide  i n emotional  a result  degrees of pleasure  s u b j e c t s as  with  and  a  high  t h e r e were no d i n i f a a i h n d i f f e r e n c e s  d i d emerge a s  Specifically,  than d i d  (Lader  individuals prefer higher  Although  were r e p o r t e d w i t h  of.pleasure  responsiveness  of  demonstrated  s t u d i e s have r e p o r t e d  o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l may  t h a t HSS  b e t w e e n tfteeHSS differences  other  i n i t i a l ORs  results  1973).  Roessler,  The  and  (1976)  Zuckerman  and  differences i n  or c o n f o u n d e d t h e  gave g r e a t e r  Similarly,  a t i o n s h i p between a n x i e t y  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n HSS  t h a t t h e r e were no  example, N e a r y and  anxious subjects.  1966;  anxiety  Since  the  ratingsswere  c l e a r whether the  t o the  tones,  the  should  subjects  cummulative  effect  o r what.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these  t h e mode and  timing  valuable  of t h e i r  ratings  administration.  44  With r e s p e c t differ  i n tonic l e v e l s of electrodermal  however, t h e HSS throughout  impression related  subjects  as w e l l  general  vasoconstriction  model  readiness  associated  pattern  t h i s d i f f e r e n c e may be  t h e HSS  of increased  i n response  physical  i s associated f o r sensory  with  increased  subjects  often  during  stimulation  of the phasic  the p r e l i m -  suggests  1974)  which proposes  with an i n c r e a s e intake,  decreased c o r t i c a l  t o the  (Graham a n d C l i f t o n , The  only  that  i n cortical  HR arousal  w h e r e a s HR a c c e l e r a t i o n i s a arousal  That i s , thefformer  sensitivity  groups.  responses i s Lacey's  and a r e a d i n e s s f o r  i s i n d i c a t i v e o f a n OR  envir:onmentv,'where.astitheliatter  i n d i c a t i v e o f a DR a n d d e c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y  ment  conditioning  SC, HR a c c e l e r a t i o n , a n d  to increased  to the d i s c u s s i o n  sensory r e j e c t i o n .  is  subjective  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n sports  (1967; L a c e y a n d L a c e y ,  deceleration  and  of the  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e h a d s i m i l a r e f f e c t s on b o t h Relevant  and  HR  interview. The  that  suggest that  In addition,  their active  activity;  Visual inspection  t o a more a t h l e t i c b u i l d a n d b e t t e r  indicated inary  and vasomotor  as the e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s  of the subjects  t h e HSS s u b j e c t s .  the groups d i d not  showed c o n s i s t e n t l y l o w e r t o n i c  the experimental p e r i o d .  video-recordings  in  t o the p h y s i o l o g i c a l data,  t o the  environ-  1966).  g r o u p d i f f e r n c e t o emerge a s a r e s u l t o f s t i m u l a t i o n  was i n v a s o m o t o r a c t i v i t y ,  with  vasoconstriction with increased i n vasomotor a c t i v i t y  provide  t h e LSS s u b j e c t s stimulation.  further  s h o w i n g more  These  differences  i n s i g h t i n t o the l e v e l s  45  of  sympathetic  the  a r o u s a l and  subjects.  The  the  the  they  stimulation.  intake.  In  the  levels  showed a r e a d i n e s s  this  Similarly,  to  i s consistent with more r e a d y  for  differences  data.  t h e r e were no  to  the  group d i f f e r e n c e s  a t which the response  shifted  from  in a  OR  DR. To  had  o r HR  by  LSS  g r o u p s showed s i m i l a r r e s p o n s e s  stimulationlievel a  the h i g h e r  s u b j e c t s w o u l d be  i n t h e SC  g e n e r a l , the  'stimulation.  thus  the  However, a s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , g r o u p  were n o t r e p l i c a t e d  conclude,  similar  N e a r y and  the  effects  experimental  on b o t h  Zuckerman, 1976;  a n o v e l s t i m u l u s was group d i f f e r e n c e s That  from  a OR  no  The  ORs  supported  by  produced  the  Although  ification  o| the  good r e s u l t s ,  i n the procedure  more c l e a r - c u t  ORs  s t i m u l i may  used  and be  DRs.  HSS  p r e s e n t a t i o n of  data.  occur a t higher l e v e l s  procedures  reasonably  first  t h a t the  Similarly, of  stimulation.  d i f f e r e n c e between the groups i n  t o a DR.  the  suggestion ( i e . ,  to the  i t s h o u l d be  d a t a were g e n e r a l l y i n t h e e x p e c t e d Although  a p p e a r t o have  Zuckerman e t a l . , 1977)  d i d not  i s , t h e r e was  shift  not  manipulations  groups.  i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d show l a r g e r  the  found  Furthermore,  e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e HSS  sensory  to  that  s t i m u l a t i o n more d i s t u r b i n g and  reject  states experienced  v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n d i s p l a y e d by  s u b j e c t s might i n d i c a t e of  emotional  their  p o i n t e d out  that  direction.  i n the p r e s e n t  experiment  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some mod-  would i n c r e a s e the  chances  of  observing  F o r example, s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n  done p r i o r  to or a f t e r  the  experiment  proper.  T h i s would reduce  related  motor r e s p o n s e  having (Lacey,  Moreover, the preceding  physiology  that the  review.  The  prepare  being are  t o make a  In general,  still  the  not c o n s i s t behavior,  "biological  remains u n c l e a r .  There i s a  i n v o l v i n g not  o f the  may  of  the  role  o f the  sensation seeking  cardiovascular activity  tone  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  v a r i a b l e s i n the  the  e m p i r i c a l d a t a has  sensation seeking.  physiological basis  and  consistent with  the h y p o t h e s i z e d  additional investigation  logical  increases  1967).  of s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g  definite but  and  to r a t e s t i m u l i  f i n d i n g s are  literature  supported  basis"  c h a n c e s o f HR  t o c o g n i t i v e e l a b o r a t i o n or whatever p r o c e s s e s  associated with  ently  the  prove  of s e n s a t i o n  only  various  dimension.  t o be  seeking.  replication, physioI t appears  useful i n defining  47  REFERENCES A c k e r , M., & M c R e y n o l d s , P. of 6 instruments. The 182.  The n e e d f o r n o v e l t y . 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The b i o i h g g i c a l b a s i s of s e n s a t i o n seeking. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t meeting of the Society f o r Psychophysioibogical Research, P h i l a d e p h i s , Pa., O c t o b e r , 1977. Zuckerman, M., E y s e n c k , S., & E y s e n c k , H. Sensation seeking i n E n g l a n d and A m e r i c a : c r o s s - c u l t u r a l , age, and s e x comparisons. J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y ,  1978,  46, 139-149.  Zuckerman, M., K o l i n , E . , P r i c e , L . , & Zoob, I . Development of a sensation seeking s c a l e . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g Psychology,  1964,  28, 477-482.  Zuckerman, M. & L i n k , K. C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y f o r the s e n s a t i o n seeking scale. J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o -  l o g y l o g y , 1968,  12,  420-426.  Zuckerman, M., M u r t a u g h , T., & S i e g e l , J . Sensationsseeking and c o r t i c a l a u g m e n t i n g - r e d u c i n g . Psychphysiology, 1974,  11, 535-542.  Zuckerman, M.,  N e a r y , R.,  & B r u s t m a n , B.  Sensationsseeking  52  s c a l e c o r r e l a t e s i n e x p e r i e n c e (smoking, drugs, a l c o h o l , " h a l l u c i a n t i o n s " and s e x ) and p r e f e r e n c e f o r c o m p l e x i t y (designs). P r o c e e d i n g s 78th A n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n , A m e r i c a n Psychological Association, 1970. Zuckerman, M. , S c h u l t z , D. , '& H o p k i n g , T. Sensation seeking and v o l u n t e e r i n g f.Sr s e n s o r y d e p r i v a t i o n and h y p n o s i s experiments. J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1967, 31 ,  358-363.  Zuckerman, M., T u s h u p , R., & F i n n e r , S. S e x u a l a t t i t u d e s and experiences A t t i t u d e s a n d p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s and c h a n g e s p r o d u c e d hy a c o u r s e i n s e x u a l i t y . Journal of Consulting and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1976, 44, 7-19.  53  Appendix  1 - Explanatory  PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU  You part  are b e i n g  o f some r e s e a r c h  i o n n a i r e s are please the  asked  read  nature  logical  to f i l l  t o be  relatively  the  s h o r t and  s e l e c t e d and By  obligated  filling to take  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , however, beginning  i s concerned with  each  one.  the  psychophysio-  of a r o u s a l .  Out  asked i f they wish to v o l u n t e e r  out  the  q u e s t i o n n a r i e s you  are  p a r t i f y o u r name i s s e l e c t e d .  phone number on  o n l y be the  a  A l l quest-  Briefly,  of  the  c o m p l e t e d , a c e r t a i n number w i l l  identify yourself i t will name and  three  of various l e v e l s  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which are  study.  out  c o n d u c t e d h e r e a t U.B.C.  research  examination  randomly  BEGIN QUESTIONNAIRES  instructions before  of t h i s  Letter  necessary  last  page so  for  i n no In  be  way  order  to give your  t h a t you  the  may  to  first  be  contacted. With r e g a r d s will  be  returned  your i n d i v i d u a l form  to these  feedback d e s c r i b i n g the scores  of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n  greatly  questionnaires, a l lparticipants  on  them.  on t h e  t h e o r e t i c a l bases  Therefore  last  be  sure  t o put  page.  i n p r o v i d i n g me  with  this  appreciated. D o r e e n Ridgeway  data  is  and some  Appendix 2 - S u b j e c t  We n e e d t o s t u d y completed  this  participate indicate  m  Identification  more t h o r o u g h l y  questionnaire.  i n a follow-up  some p e r s o n s  who have  I f y o u w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o  study,  please  check below and  some way we c a n c o n t a c t y o u .  A r e y o u w i l l i n g t o be c o n t a c t e d ?  Yes No  If  so, please  contact you.  g i v e y o u r name a n d some way we c a n  

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