UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Psychophysiological correlates of sensation seeking during auditory stimulation Ridgeway, Doreen G. 1978

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1978_A8 R53.pdf [ 2.97MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094416.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094416-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094416-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094416-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094416-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094416-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094416-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094416-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094416.ris

Full Text

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF SENSATION SEEKING DURING AUDITORY STIMULATION by DOREEN G. RIDGEWAY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n The Department of Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1978 (c) Doreen G. Ridgeway, 19%8 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Psychology The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date September 8, 1978 ABSTRACT B e h a v i o r a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses were monitored while extreme h i g h (n=l6) and low (n=15) s c o r e r s on the Sen-s a t i o n Seeking S c a l e were presented 10 tones a t 60, 80, and 100 dB. In g e n e r a l , no comp e l l i n g b e h a v i o r a l or p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups were found. I n i t i a l l y , there were no d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups on the b e h a v i o r a l v a r i a b l e s . The low s e n s a t i o n seeking s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d lower v e r b a l r a t i n g s of ple a s u r e and h i g h e r v e r b a l r a t i n g s of s t r e s s than d i d the h i g h s e n s a t i o n s s e e k i n g s u b j e c t s as a r e s u l t of i n c r e a s e d s t i m u l a t i o n . Although these r e s u l t s provide support f o r the hypothesis t h a t h i g h s e n s a t i o n seeking i n d i v i d u a l s p r e f e r h i g h e r l e v e l s of s t i m u l a t i o n , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these data i s not t h a t c l e a r - c u t s i n c e the r a t i n g s were done over the b l o c k s . As a r e s u l t i t i s not c l e a r whether the s u b j e c t s are r a t i n g t h e i r response to the tones, the cummulative e f f e c t of i s o l a t i o n , or what. Although a " b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s " of s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g has been proposed, the present e m p i r i c a l data do not support t h i s n o t i o n . Of the number of p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s , the only s i g n i f i c a n t p h y s i o l o g i c a l group d i f f e r e n c e to emerge was with vasomotor a c t i v i t y , with the low s e n s a t i o n s s e e k i n g s u b j e c t s b e i n g g e n e r a l l y more r e s p o n s i v e . Although not s i g n i f i c a n t , the high s e n s a t i o n seeking s u b j e c t s d i d d i s p l a y the p r e d i c t e d l a r g e r s k i n conductance o r i e n t i n g response on the f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n of the novel s t i m u l i . The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of i n c r e a s e d s k i n conductance, h e a r t r a t e a c c e l e r a t i o n , and v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n i n response to s t i m u l a t i o n suggests t h a t the experimental procedure had s i m i l a r e f f e c t s on "both groups. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h with vasomotor a c t i v i t y may c l a r i f y the p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s of the s e n s a t i o n seeking dimension; however, a t t h i s p o i n t , the " b i o l o g i c a l "basis of s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g remains u n c l e a r . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE i ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i LIST OF APPENDICES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION 1 . Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 1 Concept of S e n s a t i o n Seeking ...... 2 Sca l e Development 2 B e h a v i o r a l S t u d i e s of S e n s a t i o n Seeking 5 P e r s o n a l i t y C o r r e l a t e s 5 B e h a v i o r a l Measures 7 P h y s i o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s 8 P s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l C o r r e l a t e s 8 E l e c t r o d e r m a l A c t i v i t y 8 C o r t i c a l A c t i v i t y 12 T h e o r e t i c a l B a s i s 14 Bi o c h e m i c a l C o r r e l a t e s 15 MAO C o r r e l a t e s 16 Gonadal Hormones 16 C r i t i q u e of ifehe L i t e r a t u r e 17 CHAPTER TWO - METHOD 20 Sub j e c t s ' 2 0 i v Table of Contents (cont'd) S t i m u l i 21 Apparatus ...... 21 Procedure •« 22 Data A n a l y s i s 2k S k i n Conductance 26 Heart Rate 26 Vasomotor A c t i v i t y 26 CHAPTER THREE - RESULTS 27 Sample D e s c r i p t i o n 27 B e h a v i o r a l Measures 29 S t a t e A n x i e t y 29 T r a i t A n x i e t y 29 Emotional S'&atebVariables 29 P h y s i o l o g i c a l Measures 3k Tonic L e v e l s 35 S k i n Sonductance 35 Heart Rate 36 Vasomotor A c t i v i t y 36 P h a s i c Responses 37 S k i n Conductance ...... 37 Heart Rate 39 Vasomotor A c t i v i t y kO CHAPTER EOUR - DISCUSSION k2 REFERENCES k7 V Table of Contents (cont'd:). APPENDICES 53 Appendix 1 - E x p l a n a t o r y L e t t e r 53 Appendix 2 - Subject I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 54 v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Alpha C o e f f i c i e n t s 28 TABLE 2. Pre and Post S t a t e A n x i e t y 28 v i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. Diagram of Experimental Procedure 25 FlgURE 2. Pleasure Ratings f o r S t i m u l a t i o n 31 FIGURE 3 General D e a c t i v a t i o n Ratings 33 FIGURE 4 S k i n Conductance Response S i z e 38 LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix 1 - E x p l a n a t o r y L e t t e r 53 Appendix 2 - S u b j e c t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 54 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my extreme g r a t i t u d e to the members of the t h e s i s committee, Dr. Robert D. Hare, Dr. E v e r e t t Waters, and Dr. James A. R u s s e l l , who supported t h i s work and gave f r e e l y of t h e i r advice and energy. To those outside the t h e s i s committee who a s s i s t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h I extend my a p p r e c i a t i o n to Frank F l y n n , J a n i c e F r a z e l l e , John F r i e d l e y , V a l e r i e Goldberg, and John L i n d . I would a l s o l i k e to thank my f a m i l y who has g i v e n support and encouragement throughout a l l phases of my u n i v e r s i t y e d ucation. I am a l s o g r a t e f u l to T.A. who gave support and encouragement without h e s i t a t i o n throughout t h i s e n t i r e p r o j e c t . 1 INTRODUCTION Zuckerman (1978; Zuckerman, Buchsbaum, and Murphy, 1977) has r e c e n t l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d the s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g t r a i t i n terms of an u n d e r l y i n g " b i o l o g i c a l need" f o r h i g h l e v e l s of s t i m u l a t i o n . That i s , some i n d i v i d u a l s are s a i d to have an innate "need" f o r more s t i m u l a t i o n than o t h e r s . A wide range of p h y s i o l o g i c a l c components, from c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s of e l e c t r o d e r m a l and c o r t i c a l a c t i v i t y to l e v e l s of chemicals i n the b l o o d , are s a i d to demon-s t r a t e important d i f f e r e n c e s between hi g h and low s e n s a t i o n seekers. These v a r i a b l e s are i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the a c t i v i t y of the c e n t r a l nervous system (CNS) and have been i n t e r p r e t e d to be i n d i c a t i v e of an e x c i t a b l e CNS u n d e r l y i n g the s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g dimension. The c l a i m f o r a b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s of s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g i s q u i t e wide r a n g i n g , and i f i t was supported by the data, i t would be very i n t e r e s t i n g indeed. However, a review of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e suggested t h a t t h i s p r o p o s a l i s s e r i o u s l y l a c k i n g i n e m p i r i c a l support. The present r e s e a r c h was designed to provide a more comprehensive t e s t of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s of a p h y s i o l o g i c a l s u b s t r a t e of s e n s a t i o n seeking. LITERATURE REVIEW A wide range <3f p e r s o n a l i t y , b e h a v i o r a l , and p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s i s s a i d to support the n o t i o n of a " b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s " of s e n s a t i o n seeking. However, the f o l l o w i n g review of the l i t e r a t u r e innthese areas i n d i c a t e d t h a t the evidence i s not as c o m p e l l i n g as i t i s presented. T h e r e f o r e , b e f o r e a d d r e s s i n g the 2 major i s s u e s of the present r e s e a r c h , an overview of the g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s with s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g i s i n order. The Concept of S e n s a t i o n Seeking Stemming from the e a r l i e r c o n s t r u c t of the "optimal l e v e l of a r o u s a l " ( B e r l y n e , i960; Duffy, 1967; S c h o l s b e r g , 195*0 t s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as an i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e i n p r e f e r r e d l e v e l of a r o u s a l or s t i m u l a t i o n (Zuckerman, 1969; Zuckerman, K o l i n , P r i c e , and Zoob, 1964). That i s , i n d i v i d u a l s are s a i d to d i f f e r i n t h e i r need f o r change, v a r i e t y , and i n t e n s i t y of s t i m u l a t i o n i n order to m a i n t a i n an optimal l e v e l of a r o u s a l (Zuckerman, 1971). W i t h i n t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l framework, the h i g h s e n s a t i o n seeker i s d e s c r i b e d as an i n d i v i d u a l who "needs v a r i e d , n o v e l , and complex s e n s a t i o n s and experiences to m a i n t a i n an optimal l e v e l of a r o u s a l . H i s optimal a r o u s a l l e v e l i s assumed to be g r e a t e r than non-sensationsseekers, although t h i s has not y e t been t e s t e d . When s t i m u l i and experiences become r e p e t i t i v e , i t i s assumed t h a t the s e n s a t i o n seeker w i l l become bored and nonresponsive more q u i c k l y than most other persons. He i s presumed to be more s e n s i t i v e to i n n e r s e n s a t i o n s and l e s s conforming to e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s " (Zuckerman, Bone, Neary, Mangelsdorff, and Brustman, 1972, p. 308). Development of the S e n s a t i o n Seeking S c a l e (SSS) The SSS was developed i n order to q u a n t i f y t h i s c o n s t r u c t of p r e f e r r e d l e v e l of a r o u s a l . O r i g i n a l l y , the SSS was intended as a p r e d i c t i v e instrument of responses to sensory d e p r i v a t i o n . However, sensory d e p r i v a t i o n proved to be a much more complex s i t u a t i o n than o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d . Subsequently the focus of the SSS s h i f t e d to a broader range of " r e a l world" experiences (Zuckerman, 1978). As a r e s u l t , the SSS has gone through s e v e r a l r e v i s i o n s . 3 I n w r i t i n g items f o r the SSS, Zuckerman (197^, 1978) e x p l a i n e d t h a t he thought of f r i e n d s who seemed to embody the extreme of the t r a i t i n t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s , a t t i t u d e s , and beh-a v i o r . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the items r e f l e c t e d a p r e ference f o r a wide v a r i e t y of s t i m u l a t i n g , e x c i t i n g , and novel experiences and i n t e r e s t s . The f i r s t form ( I I ) (Zuckerman e t a l . , 196b) focused on a g e n e r a l t r a i t . I t contained a General S c a l e based on the f i r s t u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r . Subsequent s t u d i e s ( F a r l e y , 1967; Zuckerman and L i n k , 1968) suggested t h a t the SSS might c o n t a i n more than one f a c t o r . A d d i t i o n a l items were w r i t t e n to r e p r e s e n t these new hypo-t h e s i z e d dimensions (Zuckerman, 1971)* F u r t h e r f a c t o r a n a l yses y i e l d e d f o u r f a c t o r s , three of which were r e l i a b l e a c r o s s the sexes. As a r e s u l t , Form IV was c o n s t r u c t e d , c o n s i s t i n g of the General S c a l e ( r e t a i n e d from Form II) and f o u r s c a l e s based on these f a c t o r s . The General S c a l e was not a t o t a l score but p a r t i a l l y overlapped with some of the s u b s c a l e s . The s u b s c a l e s were d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s . (1) The T h r i l l and Adventure Seeking S c a l e (TAS) c o n t a i n s items e x p r e s s i n g a d e s i r e to engage i n r i s k y a c t i v i t i e s such as parachute jumping, mountain c l i m b i n g , e t c . (2) The Experience Seeking S c a l e (ES) c o n t a i n s items r e f l e c t i n g the d e s i r e to seek new experiences through the mind and senses by l i v i n g i n a nonconforming l i f e s t y l e . T h i s i n c l u d e s a c t i v i t i e s such as t r a v e l , unusual d r e s s , use of drugs, e t c . 4 (3) The D i s i n M b i t i o n S c a l e (DIS) r e f l e c t s a h e d o n i s t i c "playboy" p h i l o s o p h y . The items d e s c r i b e a need to d i s i n h i b i t b e h a v i o r i n the s o c i a l sphere by d r i n k i n g , p a r t y i n g , and s e e k i n g v a r i e t y i n s e x u a l p a r t n e r s . ( 4 ) The Boredom S u s c e p t i b i l i t y (BS) con<tainssitems d e s c r i b i n g a d i s l i k e f o r r e p e t i t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e s , r o u t i n g work, and p r e d i c t a b l e , d u l l , or b o r i n g people. Other items i n d i c a t e a r e s t l e s s r e a c t i o n when t h i n g s are unchanging. U n l i k e the o other s u b s c a l e s , the BS S c a l e i s d e f i n e d more c l e a r l y f o r males than females. Although the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d f o u r f a c t o r s , Stewart and M a c G r i f f i t h (1975) suggested t h a t only 25$ of the v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r by these f a c t o r s . However, these f i n d i n g s are l i m i t e d because of the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l sample s i z e and the f a i l u r e to analyze males and females s e p a r a t e l y . R e c e n t l y , Form V was developed, based on f a c t o r a n a l y s e s of Form IV i n Both American and E n g l i s h samples (Zuckerman, Eysenck, and Eysenck, 1978). Four f a c t o r s were obtained and d e f i n e d by those items showing the g r e a t e s t value f o r c r o s s - s e x and c r o s s - n a t i o n a l comparisons. S p e c i f i c a l l y , Form V c o n t a i n s ten items r e p r e s e n t i n g each of the f o u r f a c t o r s . The General S c a l e i s r e p l a c e d by a T o t a l Score which i s the sum of the f o u r f a c t o r s c a l e s . T h i s new form has s e v e r a l advantages. One, i t i s a much s h o r t e r v e r s i o n with l i t t l e l o s s i n r e l i a b i l i t y . Two, the i n t e r -s c a l e c o r r e l a t i o n s are c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced. F i n a l l y , more 5 s e l e c t i v e sex d i f f e r e n c e s are shown. For example, u n l i k e Form IV, males are not higher than females on a l l the subscales. B e h a v i o r a l Studies of Sensation Seeking Sensation seeking has been a s s o c i a t e d with a wide range of behavior. Although p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s and b e h a v i o r a l character-i s t i c s have been s a i d to demonstrate important d i f f e r e n c e s between high sensation seeking (HSS) and low sensation seeking (LSS) i n d i v i d u a l s (Zuckerman, 1974, 1975; Zuckerman, Buchsbaum, and Murphy, 1977). the e m p i r i c a l data i s not that impressive. P e r s o n a l i t y C o r r e l a t e s . A wide v a r i e t y of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s has been c o r r e l a t e d with the SSS. With regards to convergent v a l i d i t y , the SSS has c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with r e l a t e d s c a l e s . These inc l u d e the Change Seeker Index (Acker and McReynolds, 1967; F a r l e y , 1971; L o o f t and Baranowski, 1971; Myers, 1972), the T h r i l l Seeking Scale (Myers, 1972), and the Need Change subscale of the PRF (Pearson, 1970). A d d i t i o n a l v a l i d a t i o n f o r the SSS has been provided i n stu d i e s with other p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . The "general t r a i t p i c t u r e defines sensation seeking as an u n i n h i b i t e d , nonconforming, i m p u l s i v e , dominant type of e x t r a v e r s i o n " (Zuckerman, 197^ > P-103). For example, the most c o n s i s t e n t c o r r e l a t e of the SSS on the MMPI was the Hypomania Scale wMch i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h energy, a c t i v i t y , and i m p u l s i v i t y . This r e l a t i o n s h i p has been reported with c o l l e g e students (Zuckerman e_t a l . , 1972; Zuckerman and L i n k , 1968; Zuckerman, S c h u l t z , and Hopking, 1967), and deliquents (Thorne, 1971). Other MMPI s c a l e s which 6 shown p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with the SSS are the Response Deviance (F) and the Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) which measure l a c k of communality of response and nonconformity to s o c i a l mores, r e s p e c t i v e l y (Zuckerman e t a l . , 1972). S i m i l a r l y , the SSS i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with measures of i m p u l s i v e e x t r a v e r s i o n (Dominance, Surgency, Adventurous, U n c o n t r o l l e d ) and nonconformity (Weak Super-Ego, Bohemian, Radicalism) on C a t t e l l ' s 16 P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Gorman, 1970). Based on scores on the C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l Inventory, K i s h (1971) d e s c r i b e d the HSS i n d i v i d u a l as b e i n g p o i s e d , ascendent, s e l f - a s s u r e d , nonconforming, u n d e r s o c i a l i z e d , f l e x i b l e , and e x h i b i t i n g masculine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of advent-urousness, d a r i n g and a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . Although Eysenck's (1967, 1970) d e f i n i t i o n of e x t r a v e r s i o n i n c l u d e s an a r o u s a l seeking components i"t does not appear to be a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t e of s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g as would be expected. Some s t u d i e s have found low c o r r e l a t i o n s , r a n g i n g from .12 to .47 between these two t r a i t s ( F a r l e y and F a r l e y , 1967; Zuckerman et, a l . , 1972), whereas other s t u d i e s have r e p o r t e d near zero c o r r e l a t i o n s (Zuckerman and L i n k , 1968; F a r l e y and F a r l e y , 1970). However, t h i s has been a t t r i b u t e d to the f i n d i n g t h a t i t i s the i m p u l s i v i t y aspect of e x t r a v e r s i o n and not the s o c i a b i l i t y aspect t h a t seems to c o r r e l a t e w i t h the SSS ( F a r l e y and F a r l e y , 1970). In g e n e r a l , a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of c o r r e l a t i o n s appear to emerge with the v a r i o u s i n v e n t o r i e s which appears to be c o n s i s e n t with the d e f i n i t i o n of s e n s a t i o n seeking. However, the e m p i r i c a l 7 data s u p p o r t i n g these r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s not t h a t s t r o n g . B e h a v i o r a l Measures. A number of s t u d i e s has i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the SSS and b e h a v i o r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the t r a i t . Although the magnitude of the c o r r e l a t i o n s i s not very h i g h , the f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t with the n o t i o n of a "need f o r s t i m u l a t i o n " . Experiments i n v e s t i g a t i n g g s e l f - r e p o r t e d experiences have demonstrated c o n s i s t e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s between the SSS and v a r i o u s s t i m u l a t i o n seeking b e h a v i o r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the HSS i n d i v i d u a l r e p o r t e d 1) h a v i n g engaged i n a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of s e x u a l a c t -i v i t i e s (Zuckerman, Neary, and Brustman, 1970; Zuckerman et a l . ? 1972; Zuckerman, Tushup, and Firmer, 1976), 2) h a v i n g exper-imented more with drugs ( B r i l l , Crumpton, and Grayson, 1971; S e g a l , 1975). 3) u s i n g more a l c o h o l and c i g a r e t t e s (Zuckerman et a l . , 1970), and h a ving a p r e f erence f o r s t i m u l a t i n g ( s p i c y , crunchy, and sour) foods ( K i s h and Donneworth, 1972). Other s t u d i e s have r e p o r t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p of the SSS with v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g the tendency to v o l u n t e e r f o r unusual experiments (Zuckerman e.t a l . , 1967; Stanton, 1976) and to engage i n r i s k y s p o r t s (Hymbaugh and G a r r e t t , 197^; and Brown, Ruder, and Young, 1971). However, i n more c o n t r o l l e d experimental s t u d i e s , some i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s have been found. While some s t u d i e s have r e p o r t e d t h a t HSS i n d i v i d u a l s attempt to i n c r e a s e s t i m u l a t i o n d u r i n g sensory d e p r i v a t i o n (Zuckerman e t a l . , 1967; Lambert and Levy, 1972), the m a j o r i t y of s t u d i e s has not demonstrated t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p (Smith and Myers, 1966; Hocking and Robertson, 8 1969; K i s h and Busse, 1971). In f a c t , Hocking and Robertson (1)969) r e p o r t e d t h a t the LSS s u b j e c t s worked to o b t a i n v i s u a l s t i m u l a t i o n more than the HSS s u b j e c t s . I n g e n e r a l , the HSS i n d i v i d u a l s appear to engage i n exper-i e n c e s which are both n o v e l and a r o u s i n g . Although the SSS appears to have a number of b e h a v i o r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , i t s a b i l i t y to p r e d i c t s t i m u l a t i o n s e e k i n g b e h a v i o r i s s t i l l q u e s t i o n a b l e . P h y s i o l o g i c a l B a s i s Of S e n s a t i o n Seeking Research on the s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g dimension has been p r i m a r i l y concerned with persomaMtycandfebeha^ioral c o r r e l a t e s . Less i s known about i t s p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s , d e s p i t e much s p e c u l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g i t s " b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s " ( i e . , Zuckerman, 1974; 1978; Zuckerman et a l . . 1977). A wide range of psycho-p h y s i o l o g i c a l and b i o c h e m i c a l c o r r e l a t e s has been proposed. In g e n e r a l , i n d i v i d u a l s s t u d i e s i n both these areas are l i m i t e d i n number and merely su g g e s t i v e i n nature. P s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l C o r r e l a t e s . There are very few s t u d i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e concerned with the p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s of s e n s a t i o n seeking. Electrodermaih and c o r t i c a l a c t i v i t y have been the two measures most f r e q u e n t l y used to explore p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . C a r d i a c a c t i v i t y , although not p r e v i o u s l y i n v e s t i g a t e d , has r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d some a t t e n t i o n . I n these a r e a s , however, the l i t e r a t u r e i s so sparse t h a t the f i n d i n g s remain i n c o n c l u s i v e . Electrodermaih A c t i v i t y . The o r i e n t i n g response (OR) and h a b i t u a t i o n r a t e s hawe been used to explore the r e l a t i o n s h i p 9 between e l e c t r o d e r m a l a c t i v i t y and the SSS. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the OR i s d e s c r i b e d as "a n o n - s p e c i f i c r e f l e x evoked by any s t i m u l u s change which i s p e r c e i v e d by the person and i s e x t i n g u i s h e d or h a b i t u a t e d by r e p e t i t i o n of the same stimulus'!} (Neary and Zuckerman, 1976, p. 205). R e l i a b l e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n OR amplitudes and h a b i t u a t i o n r a t e s have been found (Lynn, 1966). S t u d i e s have c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d t h a t HSS and LSS i n d i v i d u a l s do not d i f f e r i n t o n i c l e v e l s of e l e c t r o d e r m a l a c t i v i t y (Zuckerman, 1972; Neary and Zuckerman, 1976; Cox, 1977). However, the r e s u l t s with p h a s i c responses are p o t e n t i a l l y more promising. Some s t u d i e s have shown t h a t HSS s u b j e c t s give l a r g e r ORs than do LSS ones i n response to n o v e l moderate s t i m u l a t i o n . For example, Zuckerman (1972) monitored g a l v a n i c s k i n response (GSR) while extreme s c o r e r s on the SSS were exposed to 10 present-a t i o n s of a simple v i s u a l stimulus (a r e c t a n g l e of l i g h t ) f o l l o w e d by 10 p r e s e n t a t i o n s of a complex v i s u a l stimulus (an a b s t r a c t d e s i g n ) . The HSS s u b j e c t s showed l a r g e r GSRs on the f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n of each st i m u l u s but dropped to the response l e v e l of the LSS s u b j e c t s on subsequent t r i a l s . The groups d i d not d i f f e r i n h a b i t u a t i o n s r a t e s . Neary and Zuckerman (1976) r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s i n t h e i r r e p l i c a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n of t h i s work. The f i r s t study used e x a c t l y the same procedure whereas the second study was extended to i n c l u d e 10 p r e s e n t a t i o n s of an a u d i t o r y s t i m u l u s (1000 Hz tone a t 70 dB) as w e l l as 10 p r e s e n t a t i o n s of a simple 10 v i s u a l stimulus (a r e c t a n g l e of l i g h t ) . In a d d i t i o n , a n o v e l s t i m u l u s (a 200 Hz tone a t 70 dB or a c o l o r e d a b s t r a c t design) was presented on the e l e v e n t h t r i a l f o r each st i m u l u s m o d a l i t y . In both s t u d i e s the HSS s u b j e c t s showed l a r g e r e l e c t r o d e r m a l ORs i n response to the f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n of each s t i m u l u s , but dropped to the response l e v e l of the LSS s u b j e c t s on subsequent t r i a l s . A gain no d i f f e r e n c e s i n h a b i t u a t i o n r a t e s were shown. Cox (1977) d i d not observe t h i s p a t t e r n of e l e c t r o d e r m a l a c t i v i t y . S u b j e c t s , s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r extreme scores on both s e n s a t i o n s s e e k i n g and s o c i a l i z a t i o n , were exposed to two i n t e n s e tones ( H O ) d B ) , which s i g n a l l e d the b e g i n n i n g of a 70 minute i s o l a t i o n p e r i o d , and one moderate tone (78 dB), which s i g n a l l e d the end of the i s o l a t i o n p e r i o d . A l l tones had slow r i s e - d e c a y times. Both e l e c t r o d e r m a l and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r a c t i v i t y were monitored. P r e s e n t a t i o n of the i n t e n s e tones r e s u l t e d i n the LSS sub-j e c t s showing l a r g e r s k i n conductance (SC) responses and g r e a t e r h e a r t r a t e 4HR) a c c e l e r a t i o n ; however, these d i f f e r e n c e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t . S i m i l a r l y , p r e s e n t a t i o n of the moderate tone r e s u l t e d i n a l l groups showing i n c r e a s e d SC and decreased HR. One except-i o n , however, was the LSS/LS0C group which showed i n c r e a s e d HR. Although t h i s study has been c i t e d by Zuckerman et a l . (1977) as evidence t h a t HSS i n d i v i d u a l s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y g ive l a r g e r HR o r i e n t i n g responses, the data suggest t h a t there are no d i f f e r e n c e s i n the ORs and DRs of the HSS and LSS s u b j e c t s . S i m i l a r l y , i n an e a r l i e r study, Lambert and Levy (1972) 11 f a i l e d t o f i n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g and e l e c t r o d e r m a l a c t i v i t y . HSS and LSS groups were p l a c e d i n sensory i s o l a t i o n and v i s u a l s t i m u l a t i o n was made freely , a v a i l - , able ( s u b j e c t s c o u l d press a b u t t o n ) . HSS s u b j e c t s viewed more s l i d e s as a f u n c t i o n of t h e i r time i n i s o l a t i o n than dnid the LSS s u b j e c t s ; however, e l e c t r o d e r m a l a c t i v i t y was not r e l a t e d to s e n s a t i o n seeking. The i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the f i n d i n g s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to a number of me t h o d o l o g i c a l problems i n the e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h . F i r s t , a t no p o i n t didtlthe authors ( i e . , Zuckerman, 1972; Neary and Zuckerman, 1976) s t a t e whether the tones were presented with a f a s t or slow r i s e - d e c a y time. S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have shown t h a t a g r e a t e r i n c i d e n c e of s t a r t l e occurs to tones with a f a s t r i s e - d e c a y time. S p e c i f i c a l l y , s k e l e t a l - m o t o r and resp-i r a t o r y i r r e g u l a r i t i e s have been observed with f a s t r i s e - t i m e tones of 66 dB (Gogan, 1970), 70 dB (Oster, S t e r n , and F i g a r , 1975). and 90 dB (Gogan, 1970; Oster et a l . , 1975; Berg, Jackson, and Graham, 1975)' T h e r e f o r e , i t i s not c l e a r whether these d i f f e r e n c e s between HSS and LSS s u b j e c t s are i n o r i e n t i n g or i n s t a r t l e responses. Second, there were no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the data were checked f o r conformity with the assumption of compound symmetry. I t has been suggested t h a t some p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l data v i o l a t e s t h i s assumption, making the use of " l i b e r a l " s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s i n a p p r o p r i a t e . T h e r e f o r e , r e s u l t s may be r e p o r t e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s when i n fact- they are not. 12 F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed to c l a r i f y the e l e c t r o d e r m a l and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r a c t i v i t y of the s e n s a t i o n seeker i n response to moderate and in t e n s e s t i m u l a t i o n . C o r t i c a l A c t i v i t y . The augmenting-reducing tendency has been the focus of s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o r t i c a l a c t i v i t y and s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g ^ I t i s d e f i n e d by the amplitude of the averaged evoked response (AER) to i n c r e a s i n g i n t e n s i t i e s of s t i m u l a t i o n . That i s , "augmenters" are those who show i n c r e a s i n g AER whereas "reducers" are those who show de c r e a s i n g AER with i n c r e a s i n g i n t e n s i t i e s . Augmenters continue to respond to high i n t e n s i t i e s of s t i m u l a t i o n and l a c k a n a t u r a l p r o t e c t i v e mechanism. With regards to s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g , the f i n d i n g s have been r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t . In a p r e l i m i n a r y study, Buchsbaum (1971) r e p o r t e d t h a t HSS s u b j e c t s tended to be augmenters whereas LSS sub.gec tso tended to be reducers; however, these d i f f e r e n c e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t . S i m i l a r l y , Buchsbaum, Goodwin, Murphy, and Borge (1971) a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t manic p a t i e n t s tended to be augmenters whereas depressed p a t i e n t s tended to be re d u c e r s . S i n c e the Hypomania subscale of the MMPI has been found to c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e with the SSS (Zuckerman e t a l . , 1972; Blackburn, 1969; Thorne, 1971)» mania has been d e s c r i b e d as s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g out of c o n t r o l (Zuckerman, 1974; Zuckerman et a l . , 1977). T h e r e f o r e , i t was suggested t h a t these f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e d a d d i t i o n a l evidence f o r the augmenting tendency <3frthe HSS i n d i v i d u a l (Zuckerman et a l . , 1977)• L a t e r s t u d i e s confirmed these p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s . For 13 example, i n a c l i n i c a l study, Coursey, Buchsbaum, and F r a n k e l (1975) r e p o r t e d t h a t insomniacs scored low on the SSS and a l s o gave lower evoked p o t e n t i a l responses to sound. Zuckerman, Murtaugh, and S i e g e l (197^) c l a r i f i e d these f i n d i n g s by comparing the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the s u b s c a l e s of the SSS with c o r t i c a l augmenting-reducing. They used an eyes open procedure i n s t e a d of Buchsbaum's eyes c l o s e d procedure i n order to maximize the occurrence of r e d u c i n g . In a d d i t i o n , f i v e i n t e n s i t i e s r a t h e r than f o u r were used i n order to give more r e l i a b l e slope measures. They r e p o r t e d t h a t the D i s i n h i b i t i o n subscaleswas the only s c a l e to show a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p with the augment-i n g - r e d u c i n g tendency. Subsequent a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t the h i g h d i s i n h i b i t o r s d i d not d i f f e r from the low d i s i n h i b i t o r s a t low i n t e n s i t i e s ; however, the groups d i d d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t the h i g h e s t i n t e n s i t y , the low d i s i n h i b i t o r s showing r e d u c i n g . Although s t u d i e s have c o n s i s t e n t l y y i e l d e d support f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p between augmenting-reducing and s e n s a t i o n seeking, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these r e s u l t s are somewhat i n c o n c l u s i v e . The reasons are as f o l l o w s . One, augmenting-reducing has been found to show a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p with only one p a r t i c u l a r subscale of the SSS. Since these s u b s c a l e s are not very h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d , perhaps t h i s i s something very d i f f e r e n t from s e n s a t i o n seeking. Two, some of the data provide only i n d i r e c t evidence based on i n f e r e n c e from s c a l e s t o observable behavior. For example, Ik because s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e s with the Hypomania S c a l e i n c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , i t i s assumed t h a t the augmenting-reducing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of manic p a t i e n t s i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s e n s a t i o n seekers. However, the SSS has never been a d m i n i s t e r e d to a sample of manic p a t i e n t s . T h e o r e t i c a l B a s i s . In an attempt to e x p l a i n the e m p i r i c a l data and thus d e s c r i b e the p h y s i o l o g i c a l s u b s t r a t e u n d e r l y i n g the s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g dimension, the h y p o t h e s i s of an e x c i t a b l e CNS has been proposed. T h i s t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n stems from S o v i e t theory which i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s an e q u i l i b r i u m or balance between the e x c i t a t o r y and i n h i b i t o r y processes of the CNS ( N e b y l i t s y n , 1966, 1972). The speed or f a c i l i t y with which the CNS generates the processes <3f e x c i t a t i o n and i n h i b i t i o n determines the balance. With regards to e l e c t r o d e r m a l a c t i v i t y , predominance of e x c i t a t i o n would be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l a r g e OR amplitudes and slow h a b i t u a t i o n r a t e s whereas predominance of i n h i b i t i o n would' be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the r e v e r s e . Based on the f i n d i n g t h a t HSS s u b j e c t s showed l a r g e r ORs than ESS s u b j e c t s i n response to n o v e l s t i m u l i , Neary and Zuckerman (1976) concluded t h a t HSS i n d i v i d u a l s have a high balance of e x c i t a t o r y over i n h i b i t o r y processes i n the CNS. The absence of d i f f e r e n c e s i n h a b i t u a t i o n r a t e s was suggested to i n d i c a t e " t h a t the i n h i b i t o r y c a p a c i t i e s of HSS i n d i v i d u a l s are not d i f f e r e n t from the i n h i b i t o r y cap-a c i t i e s of LSS i n d i v i d u a l s " " ( N e a r y and Zuckerman, 1976, p. 210). However, Zuckerman (1972) suggested t h a t the f a i l u r e t o f i n d 15 d i f f e r e n c e s i n h a b i t u a t i o n r a t e s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o the f a c t t h a t OR amplitudes are more r e l i a b l e than slope measures. In any event, Zuckerman e t a l . ,(i9?/ty) suggested t h a t AER provi d e s a more d i r e c t t e s t of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . I n t e g r a t i n g S o v i e t and Western theory, a feedback mechanism has been p o s t u l a t e d to be the neuronal b;asis of the e q u i l i b r i u m between the e x c i t a t o r y and i n h i b i t o r y p r o c e s s e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s hy p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a r e t i c u l o - c o r t i c o r e t i c u l a r n e g a t i v e feedback loop r e g u l a t e s and maintains the l e v e l of a r o u s a l a t an optimal s e t p o i n t or range. T h i s prevents a c o r t i c a l over-l o a d t o e x c e s s i v e s t i m u l a t i o n . People are s a i d t o d i f f e r as to the l e v e l of r e t i c u l o - c o r t i c a l ( e x c i t a t o r y ) a c t i v a t i o n which w i l l t r i g g e r the c o r t i c o f u g a l ( i n h i b i t o r y ) feedback necessary to dampen and c o n t r o l f u r t h e r r e t i c u l a r a r o u s a l . For example, "reducers"are c h a r a c t e r i z e d as h a v i n g a low t h r e s h o l d f o r i n t i a t i n g the c o r t i f u g a l i n h i b i t o r y p r o c e s s . On the other hand, "augmenters" are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a much h i g h e r t h r e s h o l d p e r m i t t i n g them to accept much h i g h e r l e v e l s of s t i m u l -a t i o n . Based on the e m p i r i c a l data, the HSS s u b j e c t s appear to possess h i g h e r t h r e s h o l d s . In g e n e r a l , both the e m p i r i c a l data on e l e c t r o d e r m a l and c o r t i c a l a c t i v i t y are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the h y p o t h e s i s of an e x c i t a b l e CNS u n d e r l y i n g s e n s a t i o n seeking. B i o c h e m i c a l C o r r e l a t e s . In a l i m i t e d number of s t u d i e s , b i o c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g p l a t e l e t monoamine oxidase (MAO) and gonadal hormones, have been found to show a r e l a t i o n -s h i p with s e n s a t i o n seeking. Although these data are s p e c u l a t i v e , they are c o n s i d e r e d as a d d i t i o n a l evidence f o r a " b i o l o g i c a l 16 "basis" fif sensation seeking. MAO C o r r e l a t e s . MAO i s an enzyme which metabolizes dopamine and norepinephrine at the neu r a l synapses i n the l i m b i c system. A high l e v e l of MAO i m p l i e s a low l e v e l of these neurotransmitters at the synapse. The l e v e l of neurotransmitters determines the e x c i t a b i l i t y of the b r a i n centers. Recently, two s t u d i e s have suggested t h a t s e n s a t i o n seeking i s l i n k e d to MAO a c t i v i t y . FFor example, Murphy, Belmaker, Buchsbaum, M a r t i n , C i a r a n e l l o , and Wyatt (1977) reported t h a t low MAO males scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the SSS; however, no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p emerged f o r females. S i m i l a r l y , Schooler, Zahn, Murphy, and Buchsbaum (1978) reported that low MAO l e v e l s i n both males and females s c o r i n g high on the SSS. I n a d d i t i o n to the General S c a l e , negative c o r r e l a t i o n s were found w i t h a l l the subscales. Although these data are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the data on c o r t i c a l AER, i t should be noted t h a t p l a t e l e t MAO i s not the same as b r a i n MAO. I t i s assumed that high l e v e l s of p l a t e l e t MAO i n d i c a t e s high l e v e l s of b r a i n MAO; however, the evidence i s no t h a t c l e a r - c u t . Therefore, no conclusive statement regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between sensation seeking and MAO a c t i v i t y can be made. Gonadal Hormones. Another biochemical l i n k with s e n s a t i o n seeking has been p o s t u l a t e d with sex hormones. The f i n d i n g s that the SSS has a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p to sexual experience and has l a r g e sex d i f f e r e n c e s suggested ahpossible l i n k to the gonadal 17 hormones. Daitzman (1975) r e p o r t e d t h a t HSS i n d i v i d u a l s have h i g h e r l e v e l s of both androgen and estrogen. In a d d i t i o n , the D i s i n l i i b i t i o n subscale showed the s t r o n g e s t and most c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t with the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t gonadal hormones reduce MAO. Moreover, the evidence f o r b i o c h e m i c a l c o r r e l a t e s of s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g i s h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e . The m a j o r i t y of assumptions are based on evidence from animal s t u d i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , the c o r r e l a t i o n methods can be c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o s p e c i f y c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i -g a t i o n i s needed to c l a r i f y the r o l e of b i o c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n the s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g t r a i t . C r i t i q u e of the L i t e r a t u r e . To summarize, the evidence f o r a " b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s " of the s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g t r a i t i s not very compelling. While some s t u d i e s have demonstrated a r e l a t i o n -s h i p between the SSS and v a r i o u s p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures, the evidence i s not w e l l documented. S t i l l other s t u d i e s have not found any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between HSS and LSS s u b j e c t s . F a i l u r e t o r e p l i c a t e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o a number of problems i n the r e s e a r c h . One, s i n c e the SSS has been r e v i s e d s e v e r a l times, d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s have used d i f f e r e n t forms. For example, some s t u d i e s have used the General S c a l e whereas others have used the s u b s c a l e s . However, the D i s i n h i b i t i o n subscale i s the one score which c o n s i s t -e n t l y shows s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s with the p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures. Perhaps i t i s a unique t r a i t i n i t s e l f and t h i s may account f o r the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . 18 Two, the r e s e a r c h has been l i m i t e d by an almost e x c l u s i v e r e l i a n c e on s i n g l e channel r e c o r d i n g . However, i t has been demonstrated t h a t u s i n g .one p h y s i o l o g i c a l measure may not a c c u r a t e l y r e v e a l i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n response to v a r i o u s s t i m u l a t i o n (Lacey, Bateman, and Van Lehn, 1952). Recording a number of p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures s i m u l t a n e o u s l y may prove' u s e f u l i n demonstrating d i f f e r e n c e s between HSS and LSS i n d i v i d -u a l s . F i n a l l y , p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have f a i l e d t o adequately assess the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n he i s p l a c e d i n with r e s p e c t to absence or presence of s t i m u l a t i o n . For example, Cox (1977) suggested t h a t f o r the s e n s a t i o n seeker "there are many aspects of sensory d e p r i v a t i o n which may have the e f f e c t of r a i s i n g h i s a r o u s a l l e v e l s u f f i c i e n t l y t o make the s i t u a t i o n q u i t e t o l e r a b l e " (p. 57) S i m i l a r l y , Lambert and Levy (1972) emphasized the need f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , by s u b j e c t i v e r e p o r t s , of whether c h a n g e s i i n GSR were a r e f l e c t i o n of d i s c o m f o r t and f e a r or some other phenomenon such as excitement of i n t e r e s t . Although some s t u d i e s have attempted to monitor s u b j e c t i v e r e p o r t s , they f a i l e d to a s sess the v e r b a l cues of emotion adequately. To do so, s t u d i e s need to r e l a t e to the s y s t e m a t i c , conceptual s t r u c t u r e s i n the v e r b a l domain. For example, even though a number of s t u d i e s l(JMfehEabianaandRRussell,l§9'7^)hhave concluded t h a t p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l are two independent dimensions of emotion, t h i s view has not been taken i n the p h y s i o l o g i c a l 19 s t u d i e s of s e n s a t i o n seeking. The r e s u l t of t h i s inadequate assessment i s a confounding of pleasure and a r o u s a l which may account f o r the i n c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g s i n the l i t e r a t u r e . In l i g h t of the problems noted, a comprehensive y e t un-confounded study of the p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s of the s e n s a t i o n seeking dimension i s warranted. Of primary importance i s improved methodology. A second g o a l i s the e l i m i n a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e confounding of s u b j e c t i v e experience by adequately m o n i t o r i n g emotional s t a t e . A t h i r d g o a l i s i n c r e a s e d g e n e r a l i t y which i n c l u d e s the use of a v a r i e t y of p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures and a wide range of s t i m u l i . In the present study, an attempt was made to e l i m i n a t e or s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l some of the p r o c e d u r a l problems which may u n d e r l i e the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i S i s an attempt to l ) r e p l i c a t e , i n p a r t , the Neary and Zuckerman (1976) study of the o r i e n t i n g response i n s e n s a t i o n seekers and 2) extend i t to i n c l u d e a more comprehensive range of p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures and s t i m u l i . 20 METHOD Su b j e c t s The s u b j e c t s (Ss) were 31 male Caucasian undergraduates v o l u n t e e r s from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Ss were s e l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. A week before the experiment proper, packages of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were passed out to students i n f i r s t and second y e a r Psychology c l a s s e s . Each package contained: andexplanatory l e t t e r (Appendix 1), two semantic differenibiailmeasuressofiem:otionallsta . c t e e (Mehrabian and R u s s e l l , 1974), one with i n s t r u c t i o n s t o indicate"i'lhowyyou f e e l r i g h t now" and one with i n s t r u c t i o n s to i n d i c a t e "how you f e e l most of the time", the S e n s a t i o n Seeking S c a l e (Zuckerman, et a l . , 1978) (SSS) , and a form on which those who were w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a fo l l o w - u p study c o u l d i n d i c a t e some way of b e i n g c o n t a c t e d (Appendix 2). From the 391 s e t s of scores obtained, those Ss who d i d not have complete data f o r the SSS ( i e . , a l l 40 items completed) were d e l e t e d . The r e s u l t i n g sample was composed of 337 Ss of whom 155 were males and 182 were females. S i n c e the present r e s e a r c h was only concerned with males, only t h e i r s c o r e s were examined f u r t h e r . On the b a s i s of t h e i r responses t o the SSS, two groups of Ss were s e l e c t e d , r e p r e s e n t i n g the extreme h i g h (x=29.25, n=l6) and low (x=l6.13, n=15) s c o r e r s . W i t h i n the present sample, the HSSjhgroup occupied p o s i t i o n s above the 80.48 (n=155) p e r c e n t i l e rank whereas the LSS group occupied p o s i t i o n s below the 38.74 21 (n=155) p e r c e n t i l e rank. The HSS i n d i v i d u a l s ranged i n age from 18 to 26 y e a r s (x=21 y r s . ) while the LSS i n d i v i d u a l s ranged i n age from 18 to 25 y e a r s (x=19.67 y r s . ) . S t i m u l i The s t i m u l i c o n s i s t e d of 3 b l o c k s of 10, lOOOHHz tones.. Each b l o c k r e p r e s e n t e d an i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l of i n t e n s i t y (60, 80, 100 dB). The d u r a t i o n of each tone was 1 s e c , with a r i s e - d e c a y time of 50 msec. These were d e l i v e r e d b i n a u r a l l y through a s e t of earphones u s i n g a s i n g l e randomized i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l sched-u l e of 30, 35» ^0, or 45 s e c . The a u d i t o r y s t i m u l i were generated by a RCA audio generator, WA4AC. The i n t e n s i t y l e v e l s were c a l -i b r a t e d with a B r u e l and K j a e r Type 2203 sound l e v e l meter ( A S c a l e ) , a Type 1613 octave f i l t e r s e t , and a General Radio Type I56O-P83 earphone c o u p l e r . Apparatus A Beckman Type R Dynograph was used to r e c o r d palmar s k i n (SC), h e a r t r a t e (HR), d i g i t a l vasomotor a c t i v i t y , electromyo-g r a p h i c (EMG) a c t i v i t y , and r e s p i r a t i o n . SC (umhos) was m e a s u r e d d d i r e c t l y by p a s s i n g a constant v o l t -age of 0.5v through two Beckman B i o p o t e n t i a l e l e c t r o d e s p l a c e d on the second phalanx of the f i r s t and t h i r d f i n g e r s of the l e f t ' hand. HR was obtained from two Beckman B i o p o t e n t i a l e l e c t r o d e s p l a c e d i n a standard l e a d I I c o n f i g u r a t i o n (one on each w r i s t ) . A ground 1'ead was p l a c e d on the l e f t a n k l e . The s i g n a l was passed through a cardiotachometer c o u p l e r which expressed the output i n beats per minute (bpm). D i g i t a l vasomotor a c t i v i t y 22 was measured "by p l a c i n g a p h o t o c e l l transducer on the l e f t thumb. The s i g n a l was AC coupled, with a time constant of 0.3 sec. R e s p i r a t i o n r a t e and amplitude were r e c o r d e d "by a chest "bellow p l a c e d around the lower chest. D i r e c t EMG was obtained from two Beckman B i o p o t e n t i a l e l e c t r o d e s p l a c e d above the eyebrow ( L i p p o l d , I967). These l a t t e r two measures were reco r d e d i n order to check f o r a r t i f a c t s i n the other measures. The c o n t a c t medium f o r a l l e 1 eetr6desv.»wasRBeckman e l e c t r o d e paste, with the e x c e p t i o n of SC where a 0.5 percent NaCl e l e c t r o d e paste was used. Redux paste was used to prepare the s k i n areas f o r HR and EMG placements. Ss were asked to wash t h e i r hands i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the SC e l e c t r o d e placements. A l l e l e c t r o d e s were a t t a c h e d to the s k i n with Beckman adhesive c o l l a r s . Procedure The s c h e d u l i n g of the l a b o r a t o r y s e s s i o n s was balanced with r e s p e c t to the time of day (morning, a f t e r n o o n , and evening) and the l a b o r a t o r y procedures were c a r r i e d out without the experimenter's knowledge of group membership. Upon r e p o r t i n g to the l a b o r a t o r y , each S was asked to go to the washroom and wash h i s hands. Ss were informed t h a t the experimental procedure was completely harmless but t h a t they c o u l d terminate t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t any p o i n t . A f t e r s i g n i n g a statement concerning the " b a s i c r i g h t s and p r i v e l e g e s of v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s " , the S t a t e A n x i e t y Inventory ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1968) was then a d m i n i s t e r e d . 2 3 The S was then seated i n a comfortable c h a i r l o c a t e d i n a s h i e l d e d , sound-dampened, a i r c o n d i t i o n e d , d i m l y - l i t room. The r e c o r d i n g equipment was l o c a t e d o u t s i d e the room except f o r a video camera,awhich was f a c i n g the S, and a two-way intercom which was p l a c e d next to the S. The purpose of the l a t t e r equipment was to c o n t i n u o u s l y monitor v e r b a l and nonverbal a c t i v i t y of the S and to communicate with him i f the need arose. As the e l e c t r o d e s and t r a n s d u c e r s were at t a c h e d , t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n s were d e s c r i b e d . The S was asked to f a m i l -i a r i z e h i m s e l f with a s e t a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which i n c l u d e d f o u r s e t s of semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l measures of emotional s t a t e (Mehrabian and R u s s e l l , 197^) and the A c t i v a t i o n - D e a c t i v a t i o n C h e c k l i s t (Thayer, 19^7)» while the experimenter checked the r e c o r d i n g s . Once the polygraph was c a l i b r a t e d and the p h y s i o l o g -i c a l r e c o r d i n g s were of good q u a l i t y , the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were read to each S: "To b e g i n I would l i k e t o o u t l i n e f o r you what the fbrmat of t h i s s e s s i o n w i l l be. I n i t i a l l y , there wMibabeoa; sh.ortsperiod--approximately 5 m i n u t e s -a f t e r which you w i l l be asked to f i l l out the f i r s t s e t of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . There w i l l be another s h o r t p e r i o d a f t e r which you w i l l be presented the f i r s t s e r i e s of tones. S h o r t l y a f t e r the tones you w i l l be asked to f i l l out the next s e t of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by another b r i e f p e r i o d . T h i s format w i l l be repeated 2 more times. In t o t a l you w i l l hear 3 s e t s of tones and f i l l out a s e t of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a f t e r each s e t . You should t r y to r e l a x and engage i n a minimum of b o d i l y movement so as not to d i s t u r b the e l e c t r o d e placements. There i s a two-way intercom through which you can communi-cate with me a t anytime i f the need a r i s e s . A l l the i n s t r u c t i o n s which I give you from t h i s p o i n t w i l l be g i v e n through the intercom. Are there any q u e s t i o n s ? " A f t e r answering any q u e s t i o n s , the experimenter l e f t the room. 24 The S sat q u i e t l y f o r f i v e minutes and then was asked to f i l l out the f i r s t set of questionnaires d e s c r i b i n g how he f e l t at t hat moment. Another f i v e minutes was allowed to pass before the f i r s t s e r i e s of tones (60 dB) was presented. The S was then asked to f i l l out the next set of questionnaires d e s c r i b i n g how he f e l t during the tones and then to s i t back and wait f o r the next s e r i e s . o f tones. Another f i v e minutes was allowed to pass. This procedure f a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure l ) was repeated f o r the next two s e r i e s of tones at 80 dB and 100 dB. The experiment terminated w i t h each S f i l l i n g out the State A n x i e t y Inventory ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1968). Each S was then given a package of qu e s t i o n n a i r e s to be completed a t home and returned w i t h i n a week. These i n c l u d e d the S o c i a l i z a t i o n Scale (Gough, 1969), the T r a i t Anxiety Inventory ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1968), and a v a r i e t y of p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s (Waters, 1977). Upon r e t u r n i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , each S was given an ex p l a n a t i o n of the experiment and a b r i e f review of h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l l f e c o r d . Data A n a l y s i s Tonic L e v e l s . Tonic l e v e l s of autonomic a c t i v i t y were determined f o r the l a s t minute of the i n i t i a l and f i n a l r e s t periods as w e l l as the 5 sec. periods p r i o r to p r e s e n t a t i o n of each tone. Mean a c t i v i t y of each p h y s i o l o g i c a l measure was obtained. Phasic Responses. Pre- and post-stimulus periods were definednby the 5 sec. segment p r i o r to each tone and the 10 sec. segment f o l l o w i n g each tone, r e s p e c t i v e l y . W i t h i n these periods the f o l l o w i n g measurements were obtained. 25 INITIAL REST (5-10 min) INSTRUCT QUESTIONNAIRE (10. sec) FILL OUT QUESTIONNAIRE (3-6, min) REST (2 min) TONES 1-10 at 60 (80, 100) dB (6 min) REST (2 min) FINAL REST (5 min) Tone I n t e r t r i a l Interval (40-35-35-^5-^0-35-^5-40-45) 1 DIAGRAM OF EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 2 6 a;), S k i n Conductance. The SC response was c a l c u l a t e d as the d i f f e r e n c e between the pre-stimulus pe r i o d and the maximum SC during the post-stimulus p e r i o d . Recovery h a l f - t i m e , scored as the time i t took f o r the recovery limb of the electrodermal response to a t t a i n 50 percent r e t u r n to pre-stimulus l e v e l , was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d . b) Heart Rate. HR was scored on a second-to-second b a s i s , so t h a t i t was necessary to convert the re c o r d from a beat-to-beat b a s i s by averaging those periods when more than one beat occurred w i t h i n any second. c) D i g i t a l Vasomotor. Changes i n f i n g e r pulse amplitude were used as an i n d i r e c t measure of v a s o d i l a t i o n and v a s o c o n s t r i c t -i o n (as suggested by Lader, 1967). A second-to-second b a s i s was used which i n v o l v e d c a l c u l a t i n g peak-to-trough amplitude f o r each pulse. I f more than one pulse occurred w i t h i n any second, an average was c a l c u l a t e d . On the other hand, i f any p e r i o d d i d not c o n t a i n a peak-to-trough i n t e r v a l , an average of the values obtained f o r seconds adjacent to th a t p e r i o d was c a l c u l a t e d . 2 7 RESULTS v The r e s u l t s of the analyses of the b e h a v i o r a l and the p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures are presented s e p a r a t e l y . However, before p r e s e n t i n g these data, a comparison i s made between the data of the present sample and the normative data reported f o r t h i s r e v i s e d form of the SSS (Zuckerman et a l . , 1978). Mean t t o t a l ! s c o r e s f o r males and females i n the present study were 2 0 . 7 5 ( n = 1 5 5 ) and 18.94 (n=l82), r e s p e c t i v e l y . These correspond to a T-score of 5 0 f o r males and 51 f o r females i n the' normative data. Looking at sex d i f f e r e n c e s , t - t e s t s r e v ealed that the males scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i gher than females on the t o t a l score (p^.01) as w e l l as on the DIS and the BS subscales (p^.01), w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e on the TAS subscale approaching s i g n i f i c a n c e (p<£.10). These are c o n s i s t e n t with the normative data where both the American and the E n g l i s h males scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the females on the totaOilscore, the TAS, and the DIS subscales (Zuckerman et a l . , 1978). I n a d d i t i o n , the E n g l i s h ifiales scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the E n g l i s h females on the BS subscale. The alpha r e l i a b i t i e s f o r Form V of the SSS obtained i n the present sample are presented i n Table 1,. These r e l i a b i l i t i e s are s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower than those reported by Zuckerman et a l . , (1978). Aside from t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , the present data seem comparable to those obtained w i t h t h i s measure i n previous research. T o t a l Score TAS ES DIS BS TABLE 1 Alpha C o e f f i c i e n t s Males (n=155) .80 • 72 • 57 .70 .51 f o r Form V (SSS) Females (n=l85) .68 .67 .53 • 54 .44 TABLE 2 Pre and Post State Anxiety-Means and Standard Deviations ( i n brackets) HSS HSS LSS Pre 37.31 40.07 (6.76) (8.46) Post 32.50 35-93 (6.30) (9.03) Note: State Anxiety measures were administered p r i o r to and f o l l o w i n g the experimental manipulations. 29 B e h a v i o r a l Measures In order t o determine the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the two groups J with r e s p e c t to t h e i r emotional s t a t e t o and s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t -a t i o n of the v a r i o u s s t i m u l i , a number of t e s t s was a d m i n i s t e r e d . S t a t e A n x i e t y . The means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r the pre- and p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l measures of s t a t e a n x i e t y are presented i n Table 2. In order t o assess response to the cummulative e f f e c t of the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e n s i t i e s of the tones, a 2,(;group) x 2 (time) a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on s t a t e a n x i e t y was performed. No s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s were found. However, c o n t r a r y to e x p e c t a t i o n , a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r time (P=8.12, df= 1,29, P<.01) i n d i c a t e d a r e d u c t i o n i n s t a t e a n x i e t y over the experimental p e r i o d . T h i s would suggest t h a t the groups showed l e s s concern over the procedure as they became experiencedwwi>th i t . T r a i t A n x i e t y . Mean t r a i t a n x i e t y f o r the HSS and LSS su s u b j e c t s were 36.13 (§'d=8.09) and 39-36 (sd=7.32), r e s p e c t i v e l y . A 2 (group) x 2 ( t r a i t a n x i e t y ) a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t the groups d i d not d i f f e r on t r a i t a n x i e t y . Emotional S t a t e . Semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l measures of emotional s t a t e were scored to y i e l d the three h y p o t h e s i z e d dimensions of emotion p l e a s u r e , a r o u s a l , and dominance. T - t e s t s , computed onnbaseline r e p o r t s of these dimensions, i n d i c a t e d t h a t the HSS and LSS s u b j e c t s d i d not d i f f e r i n i t i a l l y i n emotional s t a t e . In order to determine changes i n emotional s t a t e as a r e s u l t of the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the 60, 80, and 100 dB tones, separate 30 2"b(group) x 4 (time) r e p e a t e d measures analyses of v a r i a n c e f o r p l e a s u r e , a r o u s a l , and dominance were performed. The r e s u l t s w i l l be diseusse.ddseparately f o r each dimension.. P l e a s u r e . The mean pl e a s u r e r a t i n g s g i v e n by each group and i n response to the three s e r i e s of tones are p l o t t e d i n F i g u r e 2. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r time (F=13.87, df=3, 84, p<.001) i n d i c a t e d t h a t both groups r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g s of d e c r e a s i n g degrees of p l e a s u r e with i n c r e a s i n g sound i n t e n s i t y (or simply with t i m e ) . A s i g n i f i c a n t t r i a l s x group i n t e r a c t i o n (F=2.90, df=3, 84, p< . 0 5 ) r e v e a l e d t h a t the LSS s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d h i g h e r p l e a s u r e r a t i n g s i n i t i a l l y and i n response to the 60 dB tones; however, they found the 80 and 100 dB much more unpleasant than d i d the HSS s u b j e c t s . A r o u s a l . A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r time (F=3.39, df= 3, 84, p<i.05) i n d i c a t e d t h a t both groups r e p o r t e d b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g aroused as the tones became more i n t e n s e . Dominance. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups i n f e e l i n g s of dominance were found. A c t i v a t i o n - D e a c t i v a t i o n . Thayer's A c t i v a t i o n - D e a c t i v a t i o n A d j e c t i v e C h e c k l i s t was scored to y i e l d the f o u r hypothesizedd facrbors of a c t i v a t i o n d e a c t i v a t i o n , g e n e r a l a c t i v a t i o n , g e n e r a l , ^ d e a c t i v a t i o n , and h i g h a c t i v a t i o n . T - t e s t s were computed on b a s e l i n e r a t i n g s of these f a c t o r s and i n d i c a t e d t h a t the HSS and the LSS s u b j e c t s d i d not d i f f e r i n i t i a l l y i n t h e i r f e e l i n g s of a c t i v a t i o n . In order to determine changes i n a c t i v a t i o n as a r e s u l t of 31 F i g u r e 2 - Mean plea s u r e r a t i n g s g i v e n by Groups HSS and LSS f o r the i n i t i a l r e s t and s t i m u l a t i o n p e r i o d s . ) 32 the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the 60 , 80 and 100 dB tones, separate 2 (group) x 4 (time) repeated measures analyses of v a r i a n c e f o r each f a c t o r were performed. The r e s u l t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r each f a c t o r . D e a c t i v a t i o n . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were found; however, Group HSS r e p o r t e d b e i n g more " d e a c t i v a t e d " throughout the s t i m -i l a t i o n p e r i o d s than d i d group LSS, although t h i s d i f f e r e n c e only approached s i g n i f i c a n c e (p<. 10j_. General A c t i v a t i o n . No s i g n i f i c a n t t r e s u l t s were found. General D e a c t i v a t i o n . Mean r a t i n g s g i v e n by each group i n i t i a l l y and i n response to the three s e r i e s of tones are p l o t t e d i n F i g u r e 3. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r time (F=?.48, df=3, 81, p<.001) i n d i c a t e d t h a t both groups r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e d f e e l i n g s of s t r e s s as the tones became more i n t e n s e . A t r i a l s x group i n t e r a c t i o n approached s i g n i f i c a n c e (p<. 10) s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the LSS i n d i v i d u a l s r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s i n g f e e l i n g s of s t r e s s to i n c r e a s -i n g tone i n t e n s i t y . On the other hand, the HSS i n d i v i d u a l s only r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e d f e e l i n g s of s t r e s s to the 100 dB tones. High A c t i v a t i o n . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found. To summarize, the groups d i d not d i f f e r i n i t i a l l y i n a n x i e t y or any of the emotion v a r i a b l e s . I n i t i a l l y , both groups r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g s of pleasure and low a r o u s a l . However, as a r e s u l t of s t i m u l a t i o n , there was a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n f e e l i n g s of d i s -p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l as the tones i n c r e a s e d i n i n t e n s i t y . S p e c i f -i c a l l y , the LSS s u b j e c t s found the i n c r e a s e d s t i m u l a t i o n more d i s t u r b i n g than d i d the HSS s u b j e c t s . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with 33 T| (rest) T2 (60dB) T3 (80dB) T4 dOOdB) T I M E F i g u r e 3 - Mean ge n e r a l d e a c t i v a t i o n r a t i n g s g i v e n by Groups HSS and LSS f o r the i n i t i a l r e s t and s t i m u l a t i o n p e r i o d s . 3k the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the HSS i n d i v i d u a l would have a more p o s i t i v e response to s t i m u l a t i o n . P h y s i o l o g i c a l Measures I t should be noted t h a t i n the f o l l o w i n g analyses i n v o l v i n g p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures, a c o n s e r v a t i v e t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e was used. The reason f o r t h i s i s as f o l l o w s . In order f o r the u n i -v a r i a t e repeated measures a n a l y s i s of va r i a n c e to provide an exact s t a t i s t i c a l F t e s t , the m a t r i c e s of v a r i a n c e s and c o v a r i a n c e s among v a r i a b l e s must s a t i s f y the assumption of compound symmetry (Winer, 1971)• I n e q u a l i t y of these m a t r i c e s r e s u l t s i n the t a t a b l e d c r i t i c a l value b e i n g too low r e l a t i v e to a c r i t i c a l value a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an a b r i t r a r y v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e m a t r i x (Winer, 1 9 7 1 ) « T h e r e f o r e , when compound symmetry i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , the co n s e r v a t i v e t e s t , which assumes t h a t the F r a t i o has 1 and n-1 degrees of freedom, p r o v i d e s an approximate t e s t . In p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , the repeated measures d e s i g n i n t r o d u c e s c o r r e l a t i o n among the v a r i a b l e s on which the F i s based. Consequently, the assumption of compound symmetry i s o f t e n v i o -l a t e d . For example, L i n d (1978) found that h e a r t r a t e and vaso-motor responses f o r bolfr males and females i n response to 80, 100, and 120 dB tones c o n s i s t e n t l y showed s t r o n g departures:, from compound symmetry. S p e c i f i c a l l y , where measures of change were recorded from second to second, the covariance m a t r i x had r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e values a l o n g the d i a g o n a l which decreased i n value as one moved away fromethe d i a g o n a l . P r e l i m i n a r y i n s p e c t i o n of the present data f o r h e a r t r a t e , 35 vasomotor, and s k i n conductance responses suggested t h a t they d i d not meet the assumption of compound symmetry. The Greenhouse and G e i s e r (1959) e t a (which measures the extent to which a co v a r i a n c e m a t r i x departs from compound symmetry) was computed f o r s e l e c t e d data. C o r r e c t i o n v a l u e s r a n g i n g from .2113 to .3850 were found. Moreover, the use of a e M b e r a l t e s t , as i s f r e q u e n t l y done i n t h i s type of r e s e a r c h , cannot be j u s t i f i e d . s i n c e they do not account f o r the v i o l a t i o n of compound symmetry. T h e r e f o r e , the use of a c o n s e r v a t i v e t e s t seems more a p p r o p r i a t e . T o n i c L e v e l s S k i n Conductance (SC). Mean t o n i c SC f o r the i n i t i a l and f i n a l r e s t i n g p e r i o d s were 11.80 and 13.48 yumhos/cm2, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the HSS s u b j e c t s and 10.00 and 11.18 yumhos/cm2, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the LSS s u b j e c t s . In order to assess changes i n t o n i c SC i n response to the cummulative e f f e c t of s t i m u l a t i o n , a 2 (group) x 2 (time) repeated measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was performed. T o n i c SC showed a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e over the experimental p e r i o d . S i m i l a r l y , examination of t o n i c SC p r i o r t o s t i m u l a t i o n i n v o l v e d a 2 (group) x 3 (blocks) x 10 ( t r i a l s ) repeated measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . A s i g n i f i c a n t t r i a l s e f f e c t i n d i c a t e d a g e n e r a l decrease i n t o n i c SC over the 10 t r i a l s w i t h i n each b l o c k (F=30,83, d f = l , 29, p<.001) su g g e s t i n g h a b i t u a t i o n . A b l o c k s x t r i a l s x groups i n t e r a c t i o n approached s i g n i f i c a n c e with the HSS s u b j e c t s showing g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r t o n i c SC l e v e l s which decreased over t r i a l s but i n c r e a s e d over b l o c k s . 36 Heart Rate (HR). Mean t o n i c HR f o r the i n i t i a l and f i n a l r e s t i n g periods were 74 . 13 and 72.44 bpm, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the HSS subjects and 84 .27 and 85.13 bpm, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the LSS sub j e c t s . In order to determine the change i n t o n i c HR i n response to the cummulative e f f e c t of s t i m u l a t i o n , a 2 (group) x 2 (time) repeated measures a n a l y s i s of variance was performed. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r group (F= 6 . 2 5 , d f = l , 29, P^.05) revealed that the HSS subjects d i s p l a y e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower t o n i c HR than d i d the LSS su b j e c t s . d u r i n g both the i n i t i a l and f i n a l r e s t i n g periods. A 2 (group) x 3 (blocks) x 10 ( t r i a l s ) repeated measures a n a l y s i s of variance revealed that t h i s group d i f f e r e n c e was c o n s i s t e n t l y shown p r i o r to each s t i m u l a t i o n throughout the experiment (F=5.79» d f = l , 2 9 , p^ . 0 5 ) . Vasomotor A c t i v i t y . Mean pulse amplitude f o r the i n i t i a l and f i n a l r e s t i n g periods were 9«97 and 4.73 mm, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the HSS subjects and 8.71 and 3-81 mm, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the LSS s u b j e c t s . A 2 (group) x 2 (tiriief) a n a l y s i s of vairance i n d i c a t e d t h a t the group mean d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Both groups showed a decrease i n t o n i c pulse amplitude (vaso-c o n s t r i c t i o n ) over the experimental pe r i o d (F=47»31» d f = l , 29, pC.001). A 2 (group) x 3 (blocks) x 10 ( t r i a l s ) repeated meas-ures a n a l y s i s of variance revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t block e f f e c t ( F = 2 2 . i l , df=2, 58, p<.001) i n d i c a t i n g i n c r e a s i n g v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n w i t h i n c r e a s i n g tone i n t e n s i t y . The LSS subjects c o n s i s t e n t l y showed more c o n s t r i c t i o n ; however, t h i s was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Mean standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r t o n i c pulse amplitude f o r 37 these same p e r i o d s were 2.18 and 1.15mm, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the HSS s u b j e c t s and 2.13 and 1.37 mm, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the LSS s u b j e c t s . A 2 (group) x 2 (time) a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e gave a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t time e f f e c t (F=20.46, d f = l , 29, p^.01), i n d -i c a t i n g t h a t the v a r i a b i l i t y of pulse amplitude decreased over • the experimental p e r i o d . S i m i l a r l y , a 2 (group) x 3 ( b l o c k s ) x 10 ( t r i a l s ) repeated measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t b l o c k e f f e c t (F=6.85, d f = l , 29, p<.01) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the v a r i a b i l i t y of pulse amplitude decreased with i n c r e a s i n g tone i n t e n s i t y . To summarize, the only d i f f e r e n c e between the HSS and LSS s u b j e c t s to emerge frometheetonic measures was with HR. In g e n e r a l , the changes i n t o n i c measures a c r o s s the b l o c k s i n d i c a t e t h a t the s t i m u l i were e f f e c t i v e . Furthermore, the groups appear t o have been a f f e c t e d s i m i l a r l y by the procedure on t o n i c measures. Autonomic Measures S k i n Conductance Response S i z e . SC responses were computed by s u b t r a c t i n g the p r e s t i m u l u s SC from the maximum SC observed d u r i n g the f i r s t 10 sec. f o l l o w i n g s t i m u l u s onset. The mean SC responses g i v e n by each group t o the three l e v e l s of tone intes i n t e n s i t y over t r i a l s are p l o t t e d i n F i g u r e 4. A 2 (group) x 3 (blocks) x 10 ( t r i a l s ) repeated measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on the s i z e of the SC response i n d i c a t e d t h a t both groups gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r SC responses the more i n t e n s e the tones (F=4.70, d f = l , 29, p^.05). A s i g n i f i c a n t g e n e r a l decrement i n response magnitude over the 10 t r i a l s w i t h i n each b l o c k F i g u r e 4 - Mean change i n SC response s i z e d i s p l a y e d by Groups HSS and LSS as a r e s u l t of s t i m u l a t i o n ( t o convert to umhos/cm2, m u l t i p l y values by 2 . 5 ) • 39 (F=30.68, d f = l , 29. p<f.001) was r e v e a l e d . Although i t appears, as seen i n F i g u r e 4, t h a t the HSS s u b j e c t s i n i t i a l l y gave a l a r g e r SC response on t r i a l 1 of each b l o c k , t h i s group d i f f e r -ence was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Recovery H a l f - t i m e . T h i s measure was used to assess d i f f -erences i n r e c o v e r y r a t e s to the tones. A 2 (group) x 3 (blocks) x 10 ( t r i a l s ) repeated measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e gave no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . The groups d i d not d i f f e r i n t h e i r r e c o v e r y r a t e s a c r o s s t r i a l s f o r the i n c r e a s i n g tone i n t e n s i t i e s . Although l a r g e r r e c o v e r y r a t e s were found with the more i n t e n s e tones, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Heart Rate. HR responses were determined by e x p r e s s i n g the mean HR d u r i n g each of the 10 1-sec. p e r i o d s f o l l o w i n g stimulus onset as a d e v i a t i o n from the mean d u r i n g the 5-sec. p e r i o d p r i o r t o stimulus onset. A 2 (group) x 3 ( b l o c k s ) x 10 ( t r i a l s ) x 10 (seconds) r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on HR gave no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . A d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s e s , p e r f -ormed on more s p e c f i c s e c t i o n s of the data, i n c l u d e d s 2 (group) x 3 (blocks) x 10 (seconds repeated measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on HR f o r t r i a l 1 and a separate 2 (group) x 10 (^trials) x 10 (seconds) repeated measures/ a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r each b l o c k . No s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p t d i f f e r e n c e s were found. However, v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of the HR p l o t s r e v e a l e d some i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n s . In response to the 60 dB tones, the LSS s u b j e c t s i n i t i a l l y showed a c c e l e r a t i o n f o r the f i r s t f o u r seconds f o l l o w e d by d e c e l e r a t i o n whereas the HSS s u b j e c t s showed only 40 d e c e l e r a t i o n on t r i a l 1. The groups gave s i m i l a r HR responses on subsequent t r i a l s with the e x c e p t i o n of t r i a l 10 where t h i s d i f f e r e n c e r e o c c u r r e d . In c o n t r a s t , t t h e groups showed s i m i l a r s e c - t o - s e c HR responses t o the 80 and 100 dB tones. Vasomotor Responses. Vasomotor responses were determined by computing the mean pulse amplitude (PA) d u r i n g each of the 10 1-sec. p e r i o d s f o l l o w i n g s t i m u l u s onset as a percentage change from the mean PA d u r i n g the 5 _ s e c . p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g s t i m u l u s onset. A 2 (group) x 3 ( b l o c k s ) x 10 ( t r i a l s ) x 10 (seconds) repeated measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on PA change r e v e a l e d t h a t the LSS s u b j e c t s were g e n e r a l l y more re s p o n s i v e than the HSS, showing more v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n o v e r a l l (F=4.57, d f = l , 29, p<.05)« A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r b l o c k s (F*7.78, d f = l , 29, p<.01) i n d i c a t e d t h a t these v a s o c o n s t r i c t i v e responses became l a r g e r as the i n t e n s i t y of the tones i n c r e a s e d . A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r seconds (F=68.69, df= 1, 29, p^.OOl) i n d i c a t e d t h a t v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n i n c r e a s e d over the seconds w i t h the response s t a r t i n g to r e c o v e r around t r i a l 8. A s i g n i f i c a n t b l o c k s x seconds i n t e r a c t i o n (F=5.74, d f = l , 29, p4.00l) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i n c r e a s e i n seconds i n c r e a s e d with i n c r e a s i n g i n t e n s i t y . To summarize, the only s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e to emerge was with vasomotor a c t i v i t y with the LSS s u b j e c t s b e i n g g e n e r a l l y more r e s p o n s i v e . Although not s i g n i f i c a n t , the HSS s u b j e c t s d i d d i s p l a y the p r e d i c t e d l a r g e r s k i n conductance OR. S i m i l a r l y , they showed more HR d e c e l e r a t i o n and l e s s vasomotor c o n s t r i c t i o n . However, these trends began to disappear a t the more i n t e n s e t l e v e l s of s t i m u l a t i o n . With r e s p e c t to the treatment e f f e c t , both groups showed i n c r e a s i n g SC responses, HR a c c e l e r a t i o n and v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n with i n c r e a s i n g s t i m u l a t i o n . The t r e n d f o r these to s t a r t t o r e c o v e r over the t r i a l s suggests h a b i t u a t i o n by both groups. 42 DISCUSSION Of prime i n t e r e s t i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the present r e s u l t s i s the extent to which the b e h a v i o r a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the HSS and LSS s u b j e c t s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the HSS i n d i v i d u a l s needs n o v e l and v a r i e d s t i m u l a t i o n i n order to m a i n t a i n h i s opt-ima-1 l e v e l of a r o u s a l . Although the HSS i n d i v i d u a l i s h i g h l y aroused by n o v e l s t i m u l i , he stops responding when s t i m u l i are repeated. T h e r e f o r e , r e p e t i t i o n of s t i m u l i b r i n g s him down to a l e v e l markedly below h i s response to novel s t i m u l i . I n a d d i t i o n , he appears to l a c k a n a t u r a l i n h i b i t i o n of response t o i n t e n s e s t i m u l i . Based on t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n , i t was hyp o t h e s i z e d t h a t the HSS s u b j e c t s would 1) p r e f e r h i g h e r l e v e l s of s t i m u l -a t i o n , 2) be more arousable on the f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n of a n o v e l s t i m u l u s , and 3) shi£t to a DR a t a h i g h e r l e v e l of s t i m u l a t i o n than would the LSS s u b j e c t s . Although the groups showed some d i f f e r e n c e s on the s e l f - r e p o r t measures, t h e i r p h y s i o l o g i c a l data d i d not e n t i r e l y c o n f i r m these hypotheses. Both groups showed some pre-experimental s t a t e a n x i e t y and both showed a r e d u c t i o n i n s t a t e a n x i e t y a f t e r the procedures were f i n i s h e d . T h i s i s p o s s i b l y due to the f a c t t h a t the s u b j e c t s showed l e s s concern over the procedure as they became more exp-e r i e n c e d wi/th i t . There were no group d i f f e r e n c e s on t h i s meas-ure. These f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t with p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h (Zuckerman et a l . , 1972; Neary and Zuckerman, 1976; Bone, Mont-gomery, Sindstrom, Fowling, and C a l e f , 1972) which showed no 4 3 s u b s t a n t i a l s t a t e and t r a i t a n x i e t y d i f f e r e n c e s between HSS and LSS s u b j e c t s . T h i s confirms t h a t there were no d i f f e r e n c e s i n a n x i e t y which c o u l d have obscured or confounded the r e s u l t s of the study. For example, Neary and Zuckerman ( 1 9 7 6 ) demonstrated t h a t low anxious s u b j e c t s gave g r e a t e r i n i t i a l ORs than d i d h i g h anxious s u b j e c t s . S i m i l a r l y , other s t u d i e s have r e p o r t e d a r e l -a t i o n s h i p between a n x i e t y and responsiveness (Lader and Wing, 1 9 6 6 ; R o e s s l e r , 1 9 7 3 ) . The r e s u l t s of the b e h a v i o r a l may provide some support f o r the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t HSS i n d i v i d u a l s p r e f e r h i g h e r l e v e l s of s s t i m u l a t i o n . Although there were no dinifaaihndifferences between tfteeHSS and LSS s u b j e c t s i n emotional s t a t e , group d i f f e r e n c e s d i d emerge as a r e s u l t of s t i m u l a t i o n . I n g e n e r a l , d e c r e a s i n g degrees of p l e a s u r e and i n c r e a s i n g degrees of a r o u s a l were r e p o r t e d with i n c r e a s i n g i n t e n s i t y l e v e l s of the tones. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the LSS s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d lower v e r b a l r a t i n g s o f . p l e a s u r e and h i g h e r v e r b a l r a t i n g s of s t r e s s than d i d the HSS s u b j e c t s as a r e s u l t of s t i m u l a t i o n . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the HSS i n d i v i d u a l would have a more p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n to s t i m u l a t i o n . However, some c a u t i o n should be taken i n i n t e r p r e t i n g these data. Since the r a t i n g s s w e r e done over eaehbbl>oek, i t i s not c l e a r whether the s u b j e c t s were r a t i n g t h e i r response to the tones, the cummulative e f f e c t of b e i n g i n i s o l a t i o n or what. Moreover, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these v a l u a b l e r a t i n g s i s confounded by the mode and t i m i n g of t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 44 With r e s p e c t to the p h y s i o l o g i c a l data, the groups d i d not d i f f e r i n t o n i c l e v e l s of e l e c t r o d e r m a l and vasomotor a c t i v i t y ; however, the HSS s u b j e c t s showed c o n s i s t e n t l y lower t o n i c HR throughout the experimental p e r i o d . V i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of the v i d e o - r e c o r d i n g s as w e l l as the experimenter's s u b j e c t i v e i m p r e s s i o n of the s u b j e c t s suggest t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e may be r e l a t e d to a more a t h l e t i c b u i l d and b e t t e r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g i n the HSS s u b j e c t s . In a d d i t i o n , the HSS s u b j e c t s o f t e n i n d i c a t e d t h e i r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p o r t s d u r i n g the p r e l i m -i n a r y i n t e r v i e w . The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of i n c r e a s e d SC, HR a c c e l e r a t i o n , and v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n i n response to i n c r e a s e d s t i m u l a t i o n suggests t h a t the experimental procedure had s i m i l a r e f f e c t s on both groups. Relevant to the d i s c u s s i o n of the pha s i c responses i s Lacey's model (1967; Lacey and Lacey, 1974) which proposes t h a t HR d e c e l e r a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n c o r t i c a l a r o u s a l and r e a d i n e s s f o r sensory i n t a k e , whereas HR a c c e l e r a t i o n i s a a s s o c i a t e d with decreased c o r t i c a l a r o u s a l and a r e a d i n e s s f o r sensory r e j e c t i o n . That i s , thefformer i s i n d i c a t i v e of an OR and i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y to the envir:onmentv,'where.astitheliatter i s i n d i c a t i v e of a DR and decreased s e n s i t i v i t y to the e n v i r o n -ment (Graham and C l i f t o n , 1966). The only group d i f f e r n c e to emerge as a r e s u l t of s t i m u l a t i o n was i n vasomotor a c t i v i t y , w i t h the LSS s u b j e c t s showing more v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n with i n c r e a s e d s t i m u l a t i o n . These d i f f e r e n c e s i n vasomotor a c t i v i t y provide f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the l e v e l s 45 of sympathetic a r o u s a l and emotional s t a t e s experienced by the s u b j e c t s . The v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n d i s p l a y e d by the LSS s u b j e c t s might i n d i c a t e t h a t they found the h i g h e r l e v e l s of s t i m u l a t i o n more d i s t u r b i n g and thus showed a r e a d i n e s s to r e j e c t the s t i m u l a t i o n . Furthermore, t h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the HSS s u b j e c t s would be more ready f o r sensory i n t a k e . However, as mentioned above, group d i f f e r e n c e s were not r e p l i c a t e d i n the SC or HR data. In g e n e r a l , the groups showed s i m i l a r responses to the ' s t i m u l a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , there were no group d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s t i m u l a t i o n l i e v e l a t which the response s h i f t e d from a OR to a DR. To conclude, the experimental manipulations appear to have had s i m i l a r e f f e c t s on both groups. The s u g g e s t i o n ( i e . , Neary and Zuckerman, 1976; Zuckerman e t a l . , 1977) t h a t the HSS i n d i v i d u a l s would show l a r g e r ORs to the f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n of a n o v e l s t i m u l u s was not supported by the data. S i m i l a r l y , group d i f f e r e n c e s d i d not occur a t h i g h e r l e v e l s of s t i m u l a t i o n . That i s , there was no d i f f e r e n c e between the groups i n t h e i r s h i f t from a OR to a DR. Although i t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t the data were g e n e r a l l y i n the expected d i r e c t i o n . Although the procedures used i n the present experiment produced reasonably good r e s u l t s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some mod-i f i c a t i o n i n the procedure would i n c r e a s e the chances of o b s e r v i n g more c l e a r - c u t ORs and DRs. For example, s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o| the s t i m u l i may be done p r i o r to or a f t e r the experiment proper. T h i s would reduce the chances of HR i n c r e a s e s b e i n g r e l a t e d to c o g n i t i v e e l a b o r a t i o n or whatever processes are a s s o c i a t e d with h a v i n g to r a t e s t i m u l i and prepare to make a motor response (Lacey, 1967). Moreover, the f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the tone of the p r e c e d i n g l i t e r a t u r e review. The e m p i r i c a l data has not c o n s i s t -e n t l y supported the h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between b e h a v i o r , p h y s i o l o g y and s e n s a t i o n seeking. In g e n e r a l , the " b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s " of s e n s a t i o n seeking s t i l l remains u n c l e a r . There i s a d e f i n i t e need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g not only r e p l i c a t i o n , but a d d i t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r o l e of the v a r i o u s p h y s i o -l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n the s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g dimension. I t appears t h a t c a r d i o v a s c u l a r a c t i v i t y may prove to be u s e f u l i n d e f i n i n g the p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s of s e n s a t i o n seeking. 47 REFERENCES Acker, M., & McReynolds, P. The need f o r n o v e l t y . A comparison of 6 instruments. The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Record, 196?, 1£» 1?7-182. Berg, W., Jackson, J . , & Graham, F. Tone i n t e n s i t y and r i s e -decay time e f f e c t s on c a r d i a c responses d u r i n g s l e e p . Psychphysiology, 1975, 12, 254-261. Be r l y n e , D. C o n f l i c t , a r o u s a l and c u r i o s i t y . NewrY.orkilMcGraw-H i l l , 19W. Blackburn, R. S e n s a t i o n seeking, i m p u l s i v i t y , and psychopathic p e r s o n a l i t y . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1969, 21, 571-3W. Bone, R., Montgomery, D., Sundstrom, P., Fowling, L., & C a l e f , P. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of s e n s a t i o n s s e e k i n g and a n x i e t y : IPAT, s s t a t e and t r a i t , TAS and MAS. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports, 1972, 20, 874. B r i l l , N., Crumpton, E., & Grayson, H. P e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i n marihuana use. A r c h i v e s of General P s y c h i a t r y , 1971, 24, I63-I65. Buchsbaum, M. Neural events and psych ophysicaihglawl S c i e n c e , 1971, 1972, 502. Buchsbaum, M., Goodwin, F., Murphy, D., & Borge, G. AER i n a f f e c t i v e d i s o r d e r s . American J o u r n a l of P s y c h i a t r y , 1971, 128, 19-25. Coursey, R., Buchsbaum, M., & F r a n k e l , B. P e r s o n a l i t y measures and evoked responses i n c h r o n i c s c h i z o p h r e n i c s . J o u r n a l  of Abnormal Psychology. 1975, 84, 239-249. Cox, D. P s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s of s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g and  s o c i a l i z a t i o n d u r i n g reduced s t i m u l a t i o n . Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977. Daitzman, R. P e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s of androgens and estrogens. ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r i s i t y of Delaware, 1975). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1977, 37, Duffy, E. A c t i v a t i o n . In N. G r e e n f i e l d & R. Sternbach ( E d s . ) , Handbook of Psvchophysiology. New York: H o l t , Rinehard, & Winston, 1972. Eysenck, H. The S t r u c t u r e of Human P e r s o n a l i t y . London: Methuen, 1970. 48 Eysenck, H. The B i o l o g i c a l B a s i s of P e r s o n a l i t y . S p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1967. F a r l e y , F. S o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y and d i m e n s i o n a l i t y i n the sensa-t i o n s e e k i n g s c a l e . A c t a P s y c h o l o g i c a , 1967. 26. 89-96.. F a r l e y , F. Measures of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t i m u l a t i o n seeking and tendency toward v a r i e t y . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g  and C l i n i c a l Psychology. 1971, 1Z> 394-396. F a r l e y , F. & F a r l e y , S. E x t r o v e r s i o n and s t i m u l u s s e e k i n g mot-i v a t i o n . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l a P s y c h o l o g y , 1967, H , 215-216. F a r l e y , F & F a r l e y , S. Impulsiveness, s o c i a b i l i t y and the preference f o r v a r i e d experience. P e r c e p t u a l and Motor  S k i l l s , 1970, 11, 47-50. Gogan, P. The s t a r t l e and o r i e n t i n g r e a c t i o n s i n man. A study of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and h a b i t u a t i o n . B r a i n Research, 1970, 18, 117-135. Gough, H. Manual f o r the C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l Inventory. P a l o A l t o : C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , I969. Graham, F. & C l i f t o n , R. Heart r a t e change as a component of the o r i e n t i n g response. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1966, 65, 305-320. Hocking, J . & Robertson, M. S e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g as a p r e d i c t o r of need f o r s t i m u l a t i o n d u r i n g sensory r e s t r i c t i o n . J o u r n a l , of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology, I969, H , 367-369. Hymbaugh, K & G a r r e t t , J . S e n s a t i o n seeking among s k y d i v e r s . P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s , 1974, 18, 118. K i s h , G. CPI c o r r e l a t e s of s t i m u l u s s e e k i n g i n male a l c o h o l i c s . J o u r n a l of C l i n i c a l Psychology. 1'971, 2£, 251-253. K i s h , G. & Busse, W. MMPI c o r r e l a t e s of s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g i n male a l c o h o l i c s : a t e s t of Quay's hy p o t h e s i s a p p l i e d to a l c o h o l i s m . J o u r n a l of C l i n i c a l Psychology, I969, 25, 60-62. K i s h , G. & Donnenwor/ifeh, G. I n t e r e s t s and s t i m u l u s seeking. J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l i n g Psychology, 1969, 16, 551-556. Lacey, J . Somatic response p a t t e r n i n g and s t r e s s : Some r e v i s i o n s of a c t i v a t i o n theory. In M.KApJpibe#e$ R. Trumball (Eds.}, New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1967. 49 Lacey, B., & Lacey, J . S t u d i e s of h e a r t r a t e and other b o d i l y processes i n sensimotor b e h a v i o r . In P. O b r i s t , J . Brener, & L. D i c a r a ( E d s . ) , C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Psychophysiology-Chicago: A l d i n e , 1974, 5 3 8 - 5 6 4 . : Lader, M. Pneumatic plethysmography. In P. Venables, & I . M a r t i n ( E d s . ) , A manual of p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l methods. New York: Wiley, 1967, 159-183. Lader, M., & Wing, L. P h y s i o l o g i c a l measures, s e d a t i v e s d r u g s ,  and morbid a n x i e t y . Maudsley monograph No. 14. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. Lambert, W., & Levy, L. S e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g and s h o r t term sensory i s o l a t i o n . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 1972, 24, 46-52. L i n d , J . Repeated measures a n a l y s i s of h e a r t r a t e and vasomotor responses. Unpublished r e p o r t , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l -umbia, 1978. L o o f t , W., & Baranowski, M. An a n a l y s i s of f i v e measures of s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g and pre f e r e n c e f o r complexity. J o u r n a l  of General Psychology. 1971, 8£, 307-313. Lynn, R. A t t e n t i o n , a r o u s a l and the o r i e n t a t i o n r e a c t i o n . New York: Pergamon P r e s s , 1966. Mehrabian, A., & R u s s e l l , J . An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT P r e s s , 1974. Murphy, D., Belmaker, R., Buchsbaum, M., M a r t i n , N., C i a r n e l l o , R., & Wyatt, R. B i g e n i c amine r e l a t e d enzymes and person-a l i t y v a r i a t i o n s i n normals. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Medicine, 1977, 1, 149-157. Myers, T. Psychobi.ological f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with monotony' t o l e r a n c e . Report No. 197-015, J u l y 1972, American I n s t i t u t e s f o r Research, I n s t i t u t e f o r Research i n Psycho-b i o l o g y . Neary, R., & Zuckerman, M. S e n s a t i o n seeking, t r a i t and s t a t e a n x i e t y , and the e l e c t r o d e r m a l o r i e n t i n g response. Psycho- p h y s i o l o g y . 1976, 1*2, 205-211. N e b y l i t s y n , V. Some qu e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the theory of the p r o p e r t i e s of the nervous system. In V. N e b y l i t s y n (Chm), P h y s i o l o g i c a l bases §£ i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . • XVIII  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of Psychology, Symposium,9, Moscow, 1966, 23-32. N e b y l i t s y n , V. Fundamental p r o p e r t i e s of the human nervous  system. New York: Plenum P r e s s , 1972, 131-142. 50 Oster, P., S t e r n , J . , & F i g a r , S. C e p h a l i c and d i g i t a l vasomotor o r i e n t i n g responses: the e f f e c t of stim u l u s i n t e n s i t y and r i s e - t i m e . Psychophysiology, 1975, 12, 642-648. Pearson, P. R e l a t i o n s h i p s between g l o b a l and s p e c i f i e d measures of n o v e l t y seeking. J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l  Psychology, 1970, ^ 4, 199-204. R o e s s l e r , R. P e r s o n a l i t y , psychophysiology and performance. Psychophysiology. 1973, !9_, 315-327-S c h l o s b e r g , H. Three dimensions of emotion. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 1954, 61, 81-88. S c h o o l e r , C., Zahn, T., Murphy, D., & Buchsbaum, M. P s y c h o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s of monoamine oxidase a c t i v i t y i n normals. J o u r n a l of Nervous and Mental D i s e a s e s , 1978, §66, 177-186. S e g a l , B. P e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to drug and a l c o h o l use. In D. L e t t i e r i (Ed.), P r e d i c t i n g a d o l e s c e n t drug abuse: A  review of i s s u e s , methods and c o r r e l a t e s . Washington, D.C: Dept. of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Welfare P u b l i c a t i o n No. (ADM) 77-299, 1976. S p i e l b e r g e r , C., Gorsuch, R., & Lushene, R. Manual f o r the s t a t e . t r a i t a n x i e t y i n v e n t o r y . Palo A l t o : C o n s u l t i n g Psychology P r e s s , 1970. Smith, S., & Myers, T. S t i m u l a t i o n seeking d u r i n g sensory dep-r r i s v a t i o n . P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s . 1966, 2^, 1151--1163. Stanton, H. Hypnosis and encounter group v o l u n t e e r s : a v a l i d a t i o n study of the s e n s a t i o n seeking s c a l e . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g  and C l i n i c a l Psychology. 1976,444, 692. Stewart, D., & M a c G r i f f i t h , G. F a c t o r a n a l y s i s of Zuckerman's s e n s a t i o n seeking s c a l e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports, 1975, 37, 849-850. Thayer, R. Measurement of a c t i v a t i o n through s e l f - r e p o r t . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports, 1967, 20, 663-678. Thorne, G. The s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g s c a l e with d e v i a n t p o p u a l t i o n s . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1971, 37, 106-110. Winer, B. S t a t i s t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n experimental d e s i g n . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971. Zuckerman, M. T h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s : I. I n J . Zubek (Ed.), Sensory d e p r i v a t i o n : f i f t e e n years of r e s e a r c h . New York: Appleton-Century=Crofts, I969, 407. 51 Zuckerman, M. Dimensions of s e n s a t i o n seeking. J o u r n a l of  C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1971, 26, 45-52. Zuckerman, M. S e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g and h a b i t u a t i o n of the e l e c t r o -dermal o r i e n t i n g response. Psychophysiology. 1972, £,1»,267-268 ( A b s t r a c t ) . Zuckerman, M. The s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g motive. I n B. Maher (Ed.), Progress i n experimental p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h , v o l . 7. New York: Academic P r e s s , 1974. Zuckerman, M. Manual and r e s e a r c h r e p o r t f o r t h e s s e n a a t i o n s e e k i n g s c a l e , March, 1975' Department of Psychology, U n i v e r s i t y of Delaware, Newark, Delaware. Zuckerman, M. P r e l i m i n a r y manual wit h s c o r i n g keys and norms f o r form V of the s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g s c a l e . U n i v e r s i t y of Delaware, 1977. Zuckerman, M. The search f o r h i g h s e n s a t i o n . Psychology Today, February, 1978, 38. Zuckerman, M., Bone, R., Neary, R., Mangelsdorff, D., & Brustman, B. What i s the s e n s a t i o n seeker? P e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t and experience c o r r e l a t e s of the s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g s c a l e s . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1972, 39, 308-321. Zuckerman, M. , Buchsbaum, M. , & Murphy, D. The b i o i h g g i c a l b a s i s of s e n s a t i o n seeking. Paper presented a t meeting of the S o c i e t y f o r Psychophysioibogical Research, P h i l a d e p h i s , Pa., October, 1977. Zuckerman, M., Eysenck, S., & Eysenck, H. S e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g i n England and America: c r o s s - c u l t u r a l , age, and sex comp-a r i s o n s . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1978, 46, 139-149. Zuckerman, M., K o l i n , E., P r i c e , L., & Zoob, I. Development of a s e n s a t i o n seeking s c a l e . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g Psychology, 1964, 28, 477-482. Zuckerman, M. & L i n k , K. C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y f o r the s e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g s c a l e . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psycho-logy l o g y , 1968, 12, 420-426. Zuckerman, M., Murtaugh, T., & S i e g e l , J . S e n s a t i o n s s e e k i n g and c o r t i c a l augmenting-reducing. Psychphysiology, 1974, 11, 535-542. Zuckerman, M., Neary, R., & Brustman, B. S e n s a t i o n s s e e k i n g 5 2 s c a l e c o r r e l a t e s i n experience (smoking, drugs, a l c o h o l , " h a l l u c i a n t i o n s " and sex) and p r e f e r e n c e f o r complexity ( d e s i g n s ) . Proceedings 78th Annual Convention, American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1970. Zuckerman, M. , S c h u l t z , D. , '& Hopking, T. S e n s a t i o n s e e k i n g and v o l u n t e e r i n g f.Sr sensory d e p r i v a t i o n and hypnosis experiments. J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g Psychology, 1967, 31 , 358-363. Zuckerman, M., Tushup, R., & F i n n e r , S. Sexual a t t i t u d e s and experiences A t t i t u d e s and p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s and changes produced hy a course i n s e x u a l i t y . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g  and C l i n i c a l Psychology. 1976, 44, 7-19. 53 Appendix 1 - E x p l a n a t o r y L e t t e r PLEASE READ THIS BEFORE YOU BEGIN QUESTIONNAIRES You are b e i n g asked to f i l l out three q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as a p a r t of some r e s e a r c h to be conducted here a t U.B.C. A l l quest-i o n n a i r e s are r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , however, please read the i n s t r u c t i o n s b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g each one. B r i e f l y , the nature of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s concerned with the psychophysio-l o g i c a l examination of v a r i o u s l e v e l s of a r o u s a l . Out of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which are completed, a c e r t a i n number w i l l be randomly s e l e c t e d and asked i f they wish to v o l u n t e e r f o r the study. By f i l l i n g out the q u e s t i o n n a r i e s you are i n no way o b l i g a t e d to take p a r t i f your name i s s e l e c t e d . I n order to i d e n t i f y y o u r s e l f i t w i l l only be necessary to give your f i r s t name and phone number on the l a s t page so t h a t you may be contacted. With regards to these q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be r e t u r n e d feedback d e s c r i b i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l bases and your i n d i v i d u a l scores on them. Therefore be sure to put some form of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n on the l a s t page. Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g me with t h i s data i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Doreen Ridgeway Appendix 2 - S u b j e c t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n We need to study more thoroughly some persons who have completed t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I f you would be w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a follow-up study, please check below and i n d i c a t e some way we can c o n t a c t you. m Are you w i l l i n g to be contacted? Yes No I f so, please give your name and some way we can con t a c t you. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094416/manifest

Comment

Related Items