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An investigation of the issues and implications of floating homes : the greater Vancouver region Pedneault, Michael Maurice Peter 1977

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ISSUES AND IMPLICATIONS OF FLOATING HOMES: THE GREATER VANCOUVER REGION. by MICHAEL MAURICE PETER PEDNEAULT B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In the F a c u l t y o f Graduate Studies School o f Community and Regiona l P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming the to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1977 Michael Maurice Peter Pedneault, 1977. In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Community and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date - i -AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ISSUES AND IMPLICATIONS OF FLOATING HOMES: THE GREATER VANCOUVER REGION. (ABSTRACT) F l o a t i n g homes, as an o p t i o n to t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d based accommodation i s a f i e l d o f study c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e l a t i v e abscence of r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n or s t u d i e s , e i t h e r i n p u b l i s h e d or unpublished format. Because of t h i s , the b a s i c l e v e l o f knowledge p e r t a i n i n g to f l o a t i n g homes i s extremely l i m i t e d . In order to e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l w i t h f l o a t -i n g homes one must have a b a s i c understanding o f the f l o a t i n g home s i t u a t i o n . In l i g h t o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n gap the scope of t h i s t h e s i s has been to i n v e s t i g a t e f l o a t i n g homes i n broad terms thereby p r o v i d i n g a r e f e r e n c e base i n a f i e l d where i n f o r m a t i o n has been d i f f u s e d and piecemeal. W h i l e s s t r i v i n g to remain g e n e r a l i n nature i n the a n a l y s i s of f l o a t i n g homes t h i s t h e s i s does, however, d e a l i n some d e t a i l w i t h the main i s s u e s and i m p l i c a t i o n s surrounding f l o a t i n g homes as evidenced i n l o c a l i t i e s where they are p r e s e n t l y moored. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s t h e s i s a l s o i d e n t i f i e s and suggests b a s i c p l a n n i n g c r i t e r i a and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t should be taken i n t o account when and i f f l o a t i n g homes or f l o a t i n g home moorages are c o n s i d e r e d . There are b a s i c a l l y three main i s s u e s commonly ex-pressed by l o c a l o f f i c i a l s as causing the g r e a t e s t concern over both e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e f l o a t i n g homes l o c a t i n g along t h e i r s h o r e l i n e s . The f i r s t and most o v e r r i d i n g problem r e l a t e s to the e x e r c i s e o f j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n t r o l s over f l o a t i n g homes. U n l i k e c o n t r o l s t h a t can be e x c e r c i s e d i n the upland areas of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the m a j o r i t y of those waters b o r d e r i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s around the Lower Mainland are under the j u r i s d i c t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a number of F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s . These i n c l u d e the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, the F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commissions and the North F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission. The enforcement of m u n i c i p a l by-laws i s tenuous i f not i m p o s s i b l e because of the supremacy of F e d e r a l powers. Secondly, because of the anomolous p o s i t i o n o f f l o a t i n g homes, e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i v e d e v i c e s are inadequate to pro-cure revenue through c o n v e n t i o n a l t a x a t i o n procedures. F l o a t i n g homes, f o r the purposes of t a x a t i o n are not a s s e s s -i b l e . L o c a l governments, no n e t h e l e s s , take the p o s i t i o n that as users of the l o c a l s e r v i c e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s should c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r f a i r share of taxes. A t h i r d concern r e l a t e s to the environmental aspects of f l o a t i n g homes. The major problem i s t h a t f l o a t i n g homes c u r r e n t l y d i s c h a r g e u n t r e a t e d domestic wastes i n t o the surrounding waters. The g e n e r a l study area f o r t h i s t h e s i s was the Lower Mainland o f B r i t i s h Columbia and s p e c i f i c a l l y those areas and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h a t have d e a l t w i t h f l o a t i n g homes. Two methods o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n were employed i n t h i s study. F i r s t , a review of p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to f l o a t i n g homes was undertaken. The second, and most b e n e f i c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n was ob t a i n e d through numerous i n t e r v i e w s w i t h o f f i c i a l s or experts at both l o c a l and s e n i o r government l e v e l s as w e l l as w i t h o f f i c i a l s o f groups promoting the water l i v i n g concepts. General c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from t h i s study i n d i c a t e and suggest a number of o p t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s t h a t can be developed and employed to manage and r e g u l a t e f l o a t i n g homes and the a s s o c i a t e d problems. S t r a t e g i e s range from those t h a t can be i n i t i a t e d a t the l o c a l l e v e l u t i l i z i n g e x i s t i n g powers, to others which r e q u i r e the involvement o f and c o o p e r a t i o n among v a r i o u s government agencies, t o , f i n a l l y , d e v eloping new e n a b l i n g f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . i v -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e at t h i s time to extend my thanks and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the guidance and a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n me by Dr. Henry Hightower and Mr. W i l l i a m Lane throughout the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I would a l s o l i k e to thank the many persons who gave f r e e l y o f t h e i r time to p r o v i d e me w i t h a gre a t d e a l o f v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . F i n a l l y , to my w i f e Helen, a s p e c i a l note o f a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r her c o n t i n u a l encouragement and support p r o v i d e d d u r i n g the many h e c t i c and t r y i n g times spent p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s . - V -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i LIST' OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES i i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 'iv INTRODUCTION PURPOSE 1 SCOPE OF STUDY 2 METHODOLOGY 3 DEFINITIONS 5 CHAPTER ONE. FLOATING HOMES: A PERSPECTIVE 1.1 A BRIEF HISTORY 7 1.2 LOCATION 10 1.3 COSTS OF FLOATING HOMES 10 1.4 DEMAND 16 1.5 ATTITUDES 18 1.6 FLOATING HOME RESIDENTS 24 1.7 FLOATING HOMES AND WATERFRONT PLANNING 27 CHAPTER TWO. JURISDICTIONAL CONTROLS . . 2.1 GOVERNMENT AGENCIES CONTROL RE: LEASING 2 9 2.2 PUBLIC HARBOURS 30 2.3 THE SIX HARBOURS AGREEMENT 1924 31 Page 2.4 THE RAILWAY BELT 33 2.5 THE FRASER RIVER HARBOUR COMMISSION 34 2.6 NORTH FRASER RIVER HARBOUR COMMISSION 34 2.7 NATIONAL HARBOURS BOARD 35 2.8 FEDERAL MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT 36 2.9 PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION 36 2.10 LOCAL GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT 36 2.11 SUB-LEASING 39 2.12 CONTROLS REGULATING CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGNS OF FLOATING HOMES 40 2.13 DIRECT CONTROLS RE: CONSTRUCTION, FLOATATION ETC. 40 2.14 SELF ADMINISTRATION . 43 . 2.15 A NEW FEDERAL PORTS MANAGEMENT SCHEME 44 2.16 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 46 CHAPTER THREE. TAXATION AND ASSESSMENT 3.1 THE TAXATION ISSUE 49 3.2 THE UNITED STATES APPROACH 5 0 3.3 LICENCING 50 3.4 REVENUE VIA LEASE AGREEMENTS AND LAND USE CONTRACTS 52 -3.5 TAXATION LEGISLATION IMPLICATIONS 53 3.6 REGISTRATION 56 3.7 MULTIPLE TAXATION 58 3.8 MUNICIPAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS FLOATING HOME ASSESSMENT 58 3.9 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 60 - v i i -Page CHAPTER FOUR. FLOATING HOMES: ASPECTS OF POLLUTION 4.1 THE POLLUTION PROBLEM 63 4.2 LEGISLATIVE CONTROLS 64 4.3 REGULATION VIA LEASE PROVISION 66 4.4 METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL 67 4.5 COLLECTION AND TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES 68 4.6 INDIVIDUAL METHODS 69 4.7 SHORE TREATMENT ~ 71 4.8 GROUP METHODS 71 4.9 ADDITIONAL CONCERNS 74 4.10 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS „ 75 CHAPTER FIVE. FLOATING HOMES: PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS 5.1 LOCATIONAL CRITERIA 79 5.2 FLOATING HOME MARINAS 81 r 5.3 FLOATING HOME UNITS 84 CONCLUSION 88 BIBLIOGRAPHY 93 - v i i i -APPENDIX # 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Page CITY OF VANCOUVER LICENCE 98 FEE SCHEDULE. CITY OF VANCOUVER LICENCE 99 FEE BY-LAW RESPECTING LIVE-ABOARDS. PROPOSED PRIVATE MEMBERS 100 BILL FLOATING HOMES REGULATION ACT. MARIN,COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Pocket ORDINANCE REGULATING FLOATING HOME MARINAS. CITY OF SEATTLE, SHORELINE 103 MASTER PLAN EXCERPTS PER-TAINING TO FLOATING HOMES. MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, 106 FLOATING HOME STABILITY CALCULATIONS. MARIN COUNTY ELECTRICAL 120 CODE INFORMATION RELATING TO FLOATING HOMES. CITY OF SEATTLE ORDINANCE 127 REGULATING FLOATING HOMES AND FLOATING HOME MOORAGES. MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Pocket ORDINANCE REGULATING FLOATING HOMES. - i x -LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS Map # 1 F l o a t i n g home l o c a t i o n s and numbers i n Lower Mainland area. Map # 2 J u r i s d i c t i o n s o f agencies r e g u l a t i n g waters i n the Lower Mainland a r e a . Diagram 1 S e a t t l e F l o a t and Sewer System. Diagram 2 Proposed d i s p o s a l system f o r Vancouver F l o a t i n g Homes. (1) INTRODUCTION Purpose Over the past few years i n the Greater Vancouver Area there has been a marked i n c r e a s e i n i n d i v i d u a l s and groups who have been l o o k i n g towards the water and f l o a t i n g homes as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t r a d i t i o n a l land based accommodation. While there i s an abundance of i n f o r m a t i o n and l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e r e l a t e d to land based housing there are r e l a t i v e l y few a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to f l o a t i n g homes. I t i s an i n t e n t of t h i s t h e s i s to present an overview of the f l o a t i n g home s i t u a t i o n as experienced i n the Greater Vancouver Area. T h i s t h e s i s w i l l t h e r e f o r e serve as an i n f o r m a t i o n source to both c i t i z e n s and government o f f i c i a l s to f o s t e r a b e t t e r understanding of the f l o a t i n g home s i t u a t i o n . In und e r t a k i n g t h i s study the approach has been to address the major i s s u e s and areas of c o n t e n t i o n that c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s between f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s and l o c a l o f f i c i a l s and to suggest s t r a t e g i e s and programmes whereby they can p o s s i b l y be a l l e v i a t e d . Furthermore, t h i s t h e s i s a l s o documents and suggests c r i t e r i a deemed necessary i n p l a n n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g homes and f l o a t i n g home marinas. - 2 -The major areas of c o n f l i c t f o r l o c a l governments, which c r e a t e a r e l u c t a n c e to permit f l o a t i n g homes, are g e n e r a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as f o l l o w s : 1. The problem of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l as the m a j o r i t y of f l o a t i n g homes dis c h a r g e wastes u n t r e a t e d i n t o the surrounding waters. 2. The d i f f i c u l t y of c o l l e c t i n g revenues f o r s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d to the f l o a t i n g home v i a t r a d i t i o n a l t a x a t i o n and assessment methods. 3. The problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e n f o r c i n g l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s over the water, i n l i g h t o f the tenuous l e g a l powers to do so, caused by the v a r i e t y of o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s and p r o p r i e t o r y i n t e r e s t s . Some of these problems are the enforcement of b u i l d i n g codes, f i r e standards, the p r o v i s i o n of community s e r v i c e s , p a r k i n g , l i g h t i n g , e t c . 4. The l a c k of l o c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a and c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l standards. Scope of Study Rather than d e a l i n g w i t h any one s p e c i f i c aspect of the f l o a t i n g home phenomenon, i t has been the i n t e n t o f t h i s study to i n v e s t i g a t e f l o a t i n g homes and the a s s o c i a t e d i s s u e s , i n more gen e r a l terms. T h i s was done p r i m a r i l y to p r o v i d e a broad base of i n f o r m a t i o n , from which f u r t h e r , more d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s such as socio-economic, l i f e s t y l e , or user needs can be i n i t i a t e d . The study does, however, address and d i s c u s s i n some d e t a i l the major areas of con-t e n t i o n , namely the p o l l u t i o n problem, the problem o f ' t a x a t i o n , j u r i s d i c t i o n a l questions and l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a . - 3 -Due t o t h e p i e c e m e a l n a t u r e and l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e i n e i t h e r a p u b l i s h e d o r u n p u b l i s h e d f o r m a t i t becomes n e c e s s a r y i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e t o g r a s p a c o m p r e h e n s i v e o v e r v i e w and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , w h i c h i f n o t u n d e r t a k e n c o u l d l e a d t o s h o r t c o m i n g s i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . A m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t h e l a c k o f a d e t a i l e d d a t a b a s e t o work fro m , e s p e c i a l l y r e g a r d i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s , l i f e s t y l e c h o i c e , c o s t s o f f l o a t i n g homes and o t h e r d a t a w h i c h i s commonly a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h Canada Census f o r l a n d o r i e n t e d d w e l l i n g s . I t i s f e l t , however, t h a t c t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s , t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s i s r e l i a b l e and g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t s f i g u r e s w h i c h w o u l d have b e e n o b t a i n e d i f a d e t a i l e d s u r v e y o f b o t h u s e r s and t h e community a t l a r g e h a d b e en conducted.. M e t h o d o l o g y T h i s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n and c o m p l e t e d by u s i n g e s s e n t i a l l y two methods o f a n a l y s i s . F i r s t , a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w was c a r r i e d o u t t o a s c e r t a i n e x a c t l y what i n f o r m a t i o n was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e d e a l i n g w i t h f l o a t i n g homes. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h d i d n o t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , p r o d u c e any s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f m a t e r i a l t h a t f o c u s s e d s p e c i f i c a l l y on f l o a t i n g homes. - 4 -The second and most b e n e f i c i a l source of i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained through i n t e r v i e w s conducted w i t h numerous government o f f i c i a l s , both i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , as w e l l as w i t h a number of persons who have been i n v o l v e d i n promoting the concept o f f l o a t i n g home or l i v e - a b o a r d communities. L o c a l governments contacted f o r t h i s study, i n c l u d e d those which have experienced f l o a t i n g homes l o c a t i n g along t h e i r s h o r e l i n e s . These were s p e c i f i c a l l y the North Vancouver D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y , the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s of Richmond and D e l t a and the C i t y of Vancouver. Information was a l s o o b t a i n e d from both S e a t t l e , Washington and Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a i n order to see how these two l o c a t i o n s having l a r g e f l o a t i n g home communities, have r e g u l a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d t h e i r f l o a t i n g home communities. The reason being, to determine the extent of c o n t r o l s i n s t i t u t e d and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n c o r p o r a t i n g s i m i l a r concepts and s t r a t e g i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Greater Vancouver F l o a t i n g Homes Cooperative, f o r m e r l y the Coast F l o a t i n g Homes A s s o c i a t i o n , as w e l l p r o v i d e d a good d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n . With the m a j o r i t y of the waters i n the area b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d and r e g u l a t e d by F e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s and agencies i n c l u d i n g the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, (port o f Vancouver) the M i n i s t r y o f Transport, The F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission and The North F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission, a major p a r t - 5 -o f the i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained from these sources. D e f i n i t i o n s I t i s necessary i n i t i a l l y to c l a r i f y i n terms o f t h i s t h e s i s what i s meant by " f l o a t i n g homes". C u r r e n t l y there are numerous terms used to i d e n t i f y water-borne d w e l l i n g u n i t s , such as l i v e - a b o a r d s , houseboats, f l o a t i n g homes and f l o a t houses, which are q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y used i n t e r -changeably when r e f e r r i n g to the same type of s t r u c t u r e . These d e f i n i t i o n s are designed to a s s i s t the reader, and are not intended f o r use i n l e g a l documents. F l o a t i n g Home/Float House: A s t r u c t u r e or b u i l d i n g used f o r human h a b i t a t i o n as a s i n g l e or m u l t i - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g , c o n s t r u c t e d on a f l o a t a t i o n d e v i c e , which i s not capable o f s e l f p r o p u l s i o n . ( S a i l b o a t s and motor powered water-c r a f t more commonly r e f e r r e d to as " l i v e - a b o a r d s " when used f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes are not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study, however, many of the i s s u e s and recommendations are a p p l i c a b l e ) . L i v e - a b o a r d : A term u s u a l l y a p p l i e d to w a t e r c r a f t , e i t h e r a s a i l b o a t or power boat, capable of independant n a v i g a t i o n which are occupied and used f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes. F l o a t i n g Home Marina: A marina f a c i l i t y t h a t c o n t a i n s one or more moorage spaces f o r f l o a t i n g homes. Houseboat: A v e s s e l which i s capable of and i s p r i m a r i l y used i n n a v i g a t i o n u t i l i z i n g s e l f - p r o p u l s i o n and not p r i m a r i l y used f o r permanent h a b i t a t i o n . V e s s e l : i n c l u d e s any ship or boat or any other d e s c r i p t i o n of v e s s e l , except a seaplane, used or designed to be used i n n a v i g a t i o n . - 6 -CHAPTER ONE  FLOATING HOMES: A PERSPECTIVE G e n e r a l l y , the degree of f a m i l i a r i t y and knowledge most persons have concerning f l o a t i n g homes i s q u i t e l i m i t e d . F l o a t i n g homes i n r e l a t i v e terms o n l y comprise a smal l seg:-. ment of the housing stock, as w e l l , t h e i r l o c a t i o n s are such t h a t they tend to be i s o l a t e d from everyday exposure. Because of these two f a c t o r s , the r e l a t i v e numbers of f l o a t i n g homes and t h e i r everyday impact, they do not r e c e i v e the degree o f a t t e n t i o n and exposure t h a t other develop-ments normally r e c e i v e . Because of t h i s l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n and knowledge about f l o a t i n g homes t h i s chapter w i l l p r o v i d e a background to the f l o a t i n g home s i t u a t i o n . F i r s t , the chapter w i l l d e a l w i t h a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f f l o a t i n g homes and secondly p r o v i d e an i n s i g h t i n t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i s s u e s surrounding the f l o a t i n g home s i t u a t i o n as i t p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s . T opics d i s c u s s e d w i l l i n c l u d e : the l o c a t i o n s o f f l o a t i n g homes, r e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f l o a t i n g homes, demand, a t t i t u d e s towards f l o a t i n g homes and the main f l o a t -i n g home i s s u e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to w a t e r f r o n t p l a n n i n g i n g e n e r a l . - 7 — 1.1 A B r i e f H i s t o r y H i s t o r i c a l l y speaking the concept of persons r e s i d i n g on the water has been p r a c t i c e d f o r c e n t u r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n p l a c e s such as Hong Kong and Malaya. In these areas the water i s an inexpensive a l t e r n a t i v e housing medium to the l e s s a f f l u e n t s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y . In more l o c a l terms, f l o a t i n g houses and communities were used q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y by the l o g g i n g and f i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s along the B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t l i n e .during the n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h century. The advantages f l o a t i n g communities o f f e r e d these i n d u s t r i e s were: they p r o v i d e d reasonable accomodation and were e a s i l y t r a n s p o r t e d from one l o c a t i o n to another i n the event that the p a r t i c u l a r r e s o u r c e of the area had been d e p l e t e d . The m o b i l i t y f a c t o r of the f l o a t i n g camps b e n e f i t t e d these i n d u s t r i e s i n t h a t g r e a t savings could be r e a l i z e d by not having to c o n s t r u c t new towns when a move was made. The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o s t i n -c u r r e d by u s i n g f l o a t i n g communities were those a s s o c i a t e d i n towing the community from one l o c a t i o n to the next. During the l a t t e r h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h century and c o n t i n u i n g i n t o the t w e n t i e t h century, f l o a t i n g homes a l s o served as housing of l a s t r e s o r t f o r many low income persons and f a m i l i e s . F l o a t i n g homes du r i n g t h i s p e r i o d were con-s t r u c t e d from scrap or d i s c a r d e d b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s and p r o v i d e d o n l y b a s i c s h e l t e r from the elements w i t h few, i f any,amenities p r o v i d e d . T h i s aspect of f l o a t i n g homes was - 8 -p a r t i c u l a r l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by persons i n h a b i t i n g f l o a t i n g homes along the s h o r e l i n e s o f major r i v e r s i n the U n i t e d States such as the Ohio and M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r s . Photo-graphs taken i n the 1930's of the w a t e r f r o n t areas around Vancouver show l a r g e numbers of d e r e l i c t s h a n t i e s occupying the s h o r e l i n e s . These u n i t s , i t i s b e l i e v e d f i r s t appeared w i t h the founding of Vancouver and l a r g e numbers remained u n t i l j u s t a f t e r World War I I when they were f i n a l l y r e -moved. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t t h i s n e g a t i v e image of f l o a t i n g homes s t i l l appears to p r e v a i l i n many peoples minds when they v i s u a l i z e f l o a t i n g homes. In Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a , l o c a t e d immediately n o r t h of San F r a n c i s c o , f l o a t i n g homes have been used f o r r e s i -d e n t i a l purposes from the 1850's. I n i t i a l l y these f l o a t i n g homes served as summer r e s i d e n c e s f o r persons l i v i n g i n San F r a n c i s c o . S e a t t l e Washington has a l s o had experience w i t h f l o a t i n g homes, w i t h t h e i r use on Lake Union d a t i n g back to the t u r n o f the century. F l o a t i n g homes, as has a l r e a d y been mentioned are c e r t a i n l y not onl y p a r t i c u l a r to the urban c o a s t l i n e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. Most major c o a s t a l area c i t i e s along the Uni t e d States coast namely, S e a t t l e , P o r t l a n d , and San F r a n c i s c o have experienced the development of f l o a t i n g homes w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y . There i s , however, one major d i f f e r e n c e evidenced between the U n i t e d S t a t e s experience and the B r i t i s h Columbia experience, t h i s b e i n g i n the - 9 -approaches taken ttowards the i n c l u s i o n of f l o a t i n g homes as r e c o g n i z e d a l t e r n a t i v e housing. Both Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a and S e a t t l e Washington have r e c o g n i z e d and r e -sponded to f l o a t i n g home concerns i n t h e i r areas and have undertaken e x t e n s i v e measures to ensure o r d e r l y , planned development. These areas, i n 1968 i n s t i t u t e d and adopted s p e c i f i c ordinances and codes aimed d i r e c t l y at f l o a t i n g i homes. The B r i t i s h Columbia experience on the other hand has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a v i r t u a l abscence o f any comparable measures to e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l w i t h f l o a t i n g homes. U n t i l o n l y r e c e n t l y v a r i o u s l o c a l governments have been s a t i s f i e d to e i t h e r p r o h i b i t f l o a t i n g homes or ign o r e them i r i the hope t h a t they w i l l go away. In 1975 the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond c a r r i e d out a Marina Study which i n c l u d e d a l i v e -aboard s e c t i o n . In February o f 1977 the C i t y of Vancouver i n s t i t u t e d a study on f l o a t i n g homes to i n v e s t i g a t e v a r i o u s aspects o f f l o a t i n g homes. An i n t e n t o f the Vancouver study i s to make recommendations r e g a r d i n g requirements necessary f o r f l o a t i n g homes and to suggest p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s f o r f l o a t i n g homes to e s t a b l i s h . The D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y o f North Vancouver has a l s o become i n v o l v e d w i t h f l o a t i n g homes, having r e c e n t l y g i v e n c o n d i t i o n a l a p p r o v a l f o r a p r i v a t e l y developed f l o a t i n g home v i l l a g e to l o c a t e along i t s s h o r e l i n e s . The m u n i c i p a l i t y has a l s o g i v e n i n d i c a t i o n o f i n c l u d i n g f l o a t i n g homes as a p o s s i b l e use i n the Seymour P l a n n i n g Study. - 10 -1.2 L o c a t i o n F l o a t i n g homes are p r e s e n t l y l o c a t e d a t v a r i o u s moorages throughout the lower mainland r e g i o n . For the most p a r t , f l o a t i n g homes are i n t e r s p e r s e d i n marinas which c a t e r to r e c r e a t i o n a l w a t e r c r a f t as w e l l . The C i t y o f Vancouver, i n i t s r e c e n t l y i n i t i a t e d study o f f l o a t i n g homes, i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f the study the documentation of both the numbers of f l o a t i n g homes and t h e i r l o c a t i o n s . T h i s survey was c a r r i e d out from the water by p a t r o l l i n g the c o a s t a l areas o f the lower mainland r e g i o n . Because of the i n a c c e s s a b l e n a t u r e of the c o a s t l i n e by road, a p e r s o n a l survey r e s u l t e d i n fewer numbers of f l o a t i n g homes and t h e i r l o c a t i o n s b e i n g observed. The Vancouver survey estimates that there are c u r r e n t l y about one hundred f o r t y f l o a t i n g homes throughout the r e g i o n . T h i s f i g u r e does not i n c l u d e approximately e i g h t e e n f l o a t i n g commercial s t r u c t u r e s or the twenty-six u n i t "Aquatic V i l l a g e " development proposed 'for the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f North Vancouver. Map # 1 i n d i c a t e s the numbers of f l o a t i n g homes and the l o c a t i o n s i n the Greater Vancouver a r e a . 1.3 Costs o f F l o a t i n g Homes A s s e s s i n g the average c o s t s o f f l o a t i n g homes i s a d i f f i c u l t task as there are no re c o r d s kept o f s e l l i n g p r i c e s o r c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s o f the u n i t s . F l o a t i n g homes are not s o l d as r e a l p r o p e r t y but r a t h e r as p e r s o n a l F L O A T I N G H O M E L O C A T I O N S A N D N U M B E R S I N T H E L O W E R M A I N L A N D A R E A - 12 -p r o p e r t y f o r which the Real E s t a t e Board or Assessment agencies do not ma i n t a i n r e c o r d s . Secondly the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the u n i t s , i n the m a j o r i t y o f cases, i s c a r r i e d out by the owners themselves. In t h i s s e l f - h e l p s i t u a t i o n , many persons can make deals on v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s or can r e c y c l e components ob t a i n e d elsewhere and i n c o r p o r a t e them i n t o the d w e l l i n g s . Another d i f f i c u l t y experienced i n t r y i n g to estimate c o s t s i s a r e l u c t a n c e encountered a t a number of marinas to d i s c l o s e moorage r a t e s that are being charged to f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s . In any event, some i n f o r m a t i o n was made a v a i l a b l e which, i t i s assumed are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f co s t s and c o n d i t i o n s i n g e n e r a l . There are b a s i c a l l y two methods used by marine o p e r a t o r s to assess moorage charges. Fees can e i t h e r be assessed on a per l i n e a l f o o t b a s i s or a l t e r n a t i v e l y on a per square f o o t b a s i s o f a c t u a l area occupied. The estimated average monthly moorage fee of c i v i c marinas i n the lower mainland area i s c u r r e n t l y about two d o l l a r s and f i f t y cents per f o o t w h i l e the charge l e v i e d on a per square f o o t b a s i s i s twenty - f i v e cents."'" S e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d f o r the fee charged b a s i c a l l y i n c l u d e s moorage and water w i t h p a r k i n g and e l e c t r i c i t y b e i n g a d d i t i o n a l charges. At Harbour F e r r i e s , l o c a t e d a t the n o r t h f o o t of Denman S t r e e t i n Vancouver, the c u r r e n t fee s t r u c t u r e i s one d o l l a r and s e v e n t y - f i v e cents per f o o t , which i n c l u d e s the 1. Inter v i e w Mrs. Sonja Johnson February 11, 1977 - 13 -p r o v i s i o n of water. E l e c t r i c i t y i s charged a t f i v e d o l l a r s per month and p a r k i n g i s e i g h t d o l l a r s per month. Moorage spaces a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r marina are l e a s e d on a y e a r l y b a s i s . F l o a t i n g homes, ( i n c l u d i n g l i v e - a b o a r d s ) i n Coal Harbour, are a l s o s u b j e c t to pay to the marina o p e r a t o r a fee e q u i v e l e n t to the l i c e n s e fee that i s charged to the ope r a t o r by the C i t y o f Vancouver. The p a r t i c u l a r by-law and l i c e n s e fee schedule a p p l i e d to marinas mooring f l o a t i n g homes and l i v e - a b o a r d s i s c o n t a i n e d i n appendices 1 and 2. The purpose of t h i s fee i s to o b t a i n revenues i n l i e u o f taxes which c u r r e n t l y cannot be assessed and c o l l e c t e d under e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . The proposed "Aquatic V i l l a g e " development, planned f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y o f North Vancouver, w i l l be charg i n g one hundred t w e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r s per month f o r moorage i n c l u d i n g p a r k i n g . Added to t h i s , each o f the occupants o f the twenty-six u n i t s proposed w i l l be assessed a three hundred n i n e t y d o l l a r per year "grant i n l i e u o f tax e s " which the marina o p e r a t o r w i l l i n t u r n pay to the m u n i c i p a l i t y . For comparison i n Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a the c u r r e n t moorage r a t e s t r u c t u r e f o r f l o a t i n g homes i s assessed i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: fou r d o l l a r s s i x t y cents per f o o t f o r width, two d o l l a r s f o r t y cents per f o o t f o r l e n g t h , and a f l a t s i x t e e n d o l l a r fee f o r a second f l o o r . 2. Int e r v i e w Mr. Frank Ogden, Premiere Module S t r u c t u r e s , January 12, 1977 - 14 -The average b e r t h i n g c o s t i n Marin County i s approximately 3 one hundred f o r t y d o l l a r s a month p l u s u t i l i t i e s . S e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d i n c l u d e sewer hook-ups, p a r k i n g , water, e l e c t r i c i t y and gas. As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f c o n s t r u c -t i o n c o s t s f o r f l o a t i n g homes i s d i f f i c u l t to estimate, as the m a j o r i t y of the u n i t s are s e l f designed and b u i l t . As a r e s u l t , a v a r i e t y of c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s and techniques are u t i l i z e d i n both the design of the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e and the f l o a t a t i o n d e v i c e s . There are no a c c u r a t e f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e which l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s or s e l l i n g p r i c e s f o r f l o a t i n g homes, however, i r i d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h v a r i o u s persons i n v o l v e d w i t h f l o a t i n g homes some broad estimates can be made. The s i z e s of f l o a t i n g homes can range anywhere from two hundred square f e e t to i n excess o f one thousand square f e e t w i t h s i x to e i g h t hundred square f e e t b e i n g the average. The c o s t s of b u i l d i n g these u n i t s ( i n a s e l f - h e l p s i t u a t i o n ) can range from around $10,000.00 to $25,000.00 and up f o r u n i t s of good q u a l i t y c o n s t r u c t i o n and d e s i g n . The c u r r e n t s e l l i n g p r i c e s again cover a wide range but g e n e r a l l y speaking, good q u a l i t y homes s e l l from $15,000.00 to i n excess of $40,"000.00 f o r l a r g e r more l u x u r i o u s u n i t s . The f l o a t i n g home u n i t s i n the "Aquatic V i l l a g e " development 3. Correspondence Mr. R. Larsens, Marina Inspector, Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a , January 31, 1977 -• 15 -w i l l be s e l l i n g f o r approximately $45,000.00 completely f u r n i s h e d . In Marin County C a l i f o r n i a the p r i c e s o f f l o a t -i n g home covers a wide range. For u n i t s which meet county standards, s e l l i n g p r i c e s s t a r t a t a low of approximately $9,000.00 and progress upwards to a h i g h o f $110,000.00. Because of the unique nature o f f l o a t i n g homes being l o c a t e d on the water and not a f f i x e d to r e a l p r o p e r t y i t i s not p o s s i b l e f o r f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s to secure N a t i o n a l Housing Act, C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing quaranteed home-owner: l o a n s . T h e r e f o r e i t i s necessary f o r these persons to secure p r i v a t e loans from banks or f i n a n c e companies under l e s s f a v o u r a b l e i n t e r e s t r a t e s and terms o f repayment. Mr. Frank Ogden, o f Premiere Module S t r u c t u r e s , v i s i t e d s e v e r a l l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s to a s c e r t a i n what f i n a n c i n g c o u l d be arranged f o r the f l o a t i n g home u n i t s i n the "Aquatic V i l l a g e " development. Terms a t one l o c a t i o n f o r a $25,000.00 l o a n were payments o f 325.00 per month f o r a f i v e year term ammortized over f i f t e e n y e a r s , w h i l e another i n s t i t u t i o n c o u l d arrange a $25,000.00 l o a n f o r a ni n e year p e r i o d w i t h payments of $364.00 per month. Loans f o r f l o a t i n g homes can be ve r y d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n because of t h e i r p r e s e n t l e g a l s t a t u s . Loans i s s u e d f o r f l o a t i n g homes cannot be secured by way o f a mortgage r e g i s t e r e d i n the land r e g i s t r y a g a i n s t the house and the land on which i t s i t s * Loans can p r e s e n t l y be secured i n two f a s h i o n s , one being a c h a t t e l mortgage a g a i n s t the d w e l l i n g i t s e l f - 16 -r e g i s t e r e d w i t h The R e g i s t r a r General o f the C e n t r a l R e g i s t r y or a l t e r n a t i v e l y as some persons have done by r e g i s t e r i n g t h e i r u n i t s as n o n - p r o p e l l e d v e s s e l s w i t h the. F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y o f Transport to secure f i n a n c i n g . F i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are q u i t e r e l u c t a n t i n g r a n t i n g loans f o r f l o a t i n g homes i n a s i t u a t i o n where they can p o s s i b l y be moved on or s o l d without n o t i f i c a t i o n b e i n g g i v e n . 1.4 Demand I t i s q u i t e d i f f i c u l t to- a c c u r a t e l y a s c e r t a i n demand f o r f l o a t i n g homes as an,option to t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d based accomodation. The p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f f l o a t i n g homes i s such t h a t there- i s no assured s e c u r i t y of tenure i n any of the l o c a t i o n s where they are p r e s e n t l y moored. T h i s l a c k o f s e c u r i t y has been f o s t e r e d by a. h i s t o r i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n of n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards f l o a t i n g homes being v o i c e d by v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l and f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s . I t has been these n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s which have d e t e r r e d many p o t e n t i a l f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s from p u r s u i n g t h i s form o f accomo-d a t i o n . The r e a l demand f o r f l o a t i n g homes i s one which i s c r e a t e d , t h a t i s , i f a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s changed to ones which permitted, and e s t a b l i s h e d f l o a t i n g homes the r e s u l t would undoubtedly show a commensurate i n c r e a s e i n persons seeking f l o a t i n g homes as a housing o p t i o n . T h i s aspect o f demand being c r e a t e d has been evidenced through informt. : - 17 -a t i o n o btained through the Greater Vancouver F l o a t i n g Homes Cooperative. During the i n i t i a l phases of the development of the F a l s e Creek Live-Aboard Community, a q u a t i o n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d by the Cooperative and was responded to by one hundred t h i r t y - e i g h t persons, t h a t wished to be con s i d e r e d f o r moorage when i t becomes a v a i l a b l e . The c o n d i t i o n s under which t h i s q u e s t i o n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d i n d i c a t e s the s e r i o u s n e s s o f the respondents. In order to r e c e i v e a q u e s t i o n a i r e a person had to agree to pay $100.00 to j o i n the a s s o c i a t i o n or i n d i c a t e t h a t they would pay the money at a l a t e r date. A purpose o f t h i s q u e s t i o n a i r e was to e s t a b l i s h i n what l o c a t i o n , e i t h e r Richmond or Vancouver ( F a l s e Creek) persons would p r e f e r to e s t a b l i s h a f l o a t i n g home community. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s q u e s t i o n a i r e Mrs. Sonja (Sunny) Johnson, (former s e c r e t a r y o f the Greater Vancouver F l o a t i n g Homes Cooperative and i t s immediate predecessor the Coast F l o a t i n g Homes A s s o c i a t i o n ) i n d i c a t e d t h at d u r i n g the p e r o i d from May 1973 u n t i l June o f 1976 she would r e c e i v e on the average t h i r t y phone c a l l s per month from v a r i o u s persons i n t e r e s t e d i n the concept and f e a s a b i l i t y o f l i v i n g on the water. Evidence o f the p o t e n t i a l demand f o r f l o a t i n g homes i n the Greater Vancouver area can undoubtedly be equated w i t h demand as experienced i n Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a and S e a t t l e , Washington, both of which have r e c o g n i z e d and c o n t r o l l e d - 18 -f l o a t i n g homes f o r nine y e a r s . Correspondance r e c e i v e d from the Department of Community Development i n S e a t t l e i n d i c a t e s that " f l o a t i n g homes are much i n demand and extremely expensive, e i t h e r to r e n t or to buy or b u i l d . S i m i l a r l y Mr. R i c h a r d Larsens, Marina I n s p e c t o r f o r Marin County C a l i f o r n i a , i n d i c a t e d t h a t there i s a l a r g e demand f o r f l o a t i n g homes w i t h s e l l i n g p r i c e s i n d i c a t i v e o f the demand. 1.5 A t t i t u d e s Proponents o f f l o a t i n g homes a l l agree t h a t there i s a d e f i n i t e need f o r more moorages and b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s to accomodate f l o a t i n g homes. The r e l u c t a n c e , on the oth e r hand , o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to approve l o c a t i o n s f o r t h i s form of accomodation i s i n d i c a t i v e o f a t t i t u d e s towards f l o a t i n g homes. M u n i c i p a l governments i n the lower mainland r e g i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia have h i s t o r i c a l l y taken a n e g a t i v e posture towards f l o a t i n g homes f o r a v a r i e t y o f reasons. The f a c t t h a t f l o a t i n g homes are not d i r e c t l y t a x a b l e i s one problem, a l s o , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have c i t e d the problems o f sewage d i s p o s a l as being another major concern. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s as such, a l s o have l i t t l e or no c o n t r o l over the l o c a t i o n of f l o a t i n g homes, b u i l d i n g codes, design c r i t e r i a e t c . F o l l o w i n g from t h i s , inadequacies e x i s t i n terms of back-up 4. Correspondence, Ms. Rosemary Horwood, Senior Planner C i t y o f S e a t t l e , Department o f Community Development August 12, 1976 - 19 -s e r v i c e s such as f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , water, and adequate p a r k i n g being p r o v i d e d . The M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond, i n i t s experience w i t h f l o a t i n g homes d i d not s e r i o u s l y o b j e c t to f l o a t i n g homes when they f i r s t appeared at marinas along the middle arm of the F r a s e r River.- Over time, however, the numbers of f l o a t i n g homes i n c r e a s e d to such an extent to cause an o v e r a l l d e c l i n e i n the l i f e s t y l e . Back-up f a c i l i t i e s such as p a r k i n g , sewage d i s p o s a l e t c . became inadequate to cope w i t h the i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e . Moreover, these f l o a t i n g homes were a l s o l o c a t e d i n the f l i g h t path of the Vancouver A i r p o r t and are su b j e c t e d to n o i s e l e v e l s t h a t are not condusive to r e s i d e n t i a l uses. C i t y o f Vancouver by-laws p r o h i b i t f l o a t i n g homes, however, they do a l l o w f o r l i v e - a b o a r d s to l o c a t e - i n the proposed F a l s e Creek F l o a t i n g Homes Coop e r a t i v e . S i m i l a r l y , the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f D e l t a p r o h i b i t s the use o f l i v e - a b o a r d s as r e s i d e n c e s i n t h e i r zoning by-law, but m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t y over waters along the F r a s e r R i v e r are superceeded by the powers o f the F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission. M u n i c i p a l and other agencies a t t i t u d e s towards f l o a t i n g homes a l s o r e f e r to the s o c i a l base of the i n h a b i t a n t s . Often f l o a t i n g homes have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a n s i e n t s or u n d e s i r e a b l e s or s o c i e t a l f r e e l o a d e r s , a stigma which appears to have remained from e a r l i e r days when f l o a t i n g homes p r o v i d e d accommodation o f . l a s t . r e s o r t . I t can be assumed that m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t the - 20 -opinions of the community at large. In this case, negative opinions expressed by l o c a l rate payers can be attributed to having a s i g n i f i c a n t influence on views expressed by l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s . There have been negative comments voiced by the c i t i z e n r y at large. One example i s of a resident i n Deep Gove who stated i n the Vancouver Sun that she objected to f l o a t i n g homes because of the possible negative effects they would have on property values. Criticisms l i k e t h i s , even though they may be v a l i d , tend to f u e l the f i r e of negativisms working against f l o a t i n g homes i n general. Negative comments voiced by l o c a l governments have expressed concern over the aesthetics of f l o a t i n g homes and the f l o a t i n g home moorages. But as w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n this thesis, these are problems which can be overcome by adopting appropriate design and construction guidelines for both f l o a t i n g home moorages and the units themselves. Related to t h i s , and perhaps the greatest single factor producing negative a t t i t u t e s towards f l o a t i n g homes, are the images that are formed by being exposed to fl o a t i n g home moorages which are delapidated, crowded and not comprehensively planned for such purposes. Federal government agencies contacted expressed d i f f e r i n g opinions towards f l o a t i n g homes locating in t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . In 1973 the National Harbours - 21 -Board "came out p u b l i c l y a g a i n s t houseboats when Ehman Kahn, then the N.H.B. c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r , s t a t e d i n a l e t t e r to Vancouver Alderman S e t t y Pendakur that the board opposes such s t r u c t u r e s s p r i n g i n g up u n c o n t r o l l a b l y along the w a t e r f r o n t . " ^ Since t h i s time the Harbours Board has continued to take a dim view o f f l o a t i n g homes. Other F e d e r a l agencies, such as the M i n i s t r y o f Tra n s p o r t , the North F r a s e r and F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commissions tend to proceed w i t h a c t i o n a g a i n s t f l o a t i n g homes i n response to o b j e c t i o n s v o i c e d by l o c a l governments. The primary f u n c t i o n of these F e d e r a l agencies i s to ensure the smooth o p e r a t i o n of the harbour r e g a r d i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and commerce. I f f l o a t i n g homes do not i n t e r f e r e w i t h these, n a v i g a t i o n and commerce, the agency i s not l i k e l y to take any a c t i o n a g a i n s t them. A number of r e p o r t s i s s u e d by or prepared f o r the C i t y of S e a t t l e take a r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t approach r e g a r d i n g the st a t u s o f the f l o a t i n g homes l o c a t e d on Lake Union. The "Lake Union P r e l i m i n a r y Comprehensive P l a n and A c t i o n Program" c a r r i e d out i n 1971 s t a t e d t h a t : " S h o r e l i n e s i n S e a t t l e , as w e l l as elsewhere are a s c a r c e and valued r e s o u r c e . There are numerous a c t i v i t i e s r a n g i n g from r e c r e a t i o n and p l e a s u r e boat moorage to manufacturing, i n d u s t r i a l and 5. N.H.B. " P o l i c y Change Favours Houseboats", Vancouver Sun, November 3, 1976 - 22 -commercial uses which c o u l d not e x i s t any p l a c e except along the s h o r e l i n e . Nonwater needing uses, such as o f f i c e s and apartments have emerged as st r o n g competitors f o r s h o r e l i n e space--, not because they r e q u i r e d i r e c t access to the water, but because p r o x i m i t y i s an amenity and a t t r a c t i o n to the occupants of those b u i l d i n g s . A major purpose of t h i s p l a n i s to enable water needing i n d u s t r i e s and f l o a t i n g homes to continue to e x i s t and compete f o r space on the s h o r e l i n e s . " 6 The c i t y o f S e a t t l e ' s p l a n n i n g department a l s o i s s u e d a s i m i l a r statement i n 1972. "The uniqueness and sense o f p l a c e that e x i s t on Lake Union are q u a l i t i e s which c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y fcokthe image of S e a t t l e as a whole. There i s a h i g h l e v e l of v a r i e t y and complexity among the a c t i v i t i e s on the l a k e s h o r e . I f removed from the water, many o f these a c t i v i t i e s would not be compatible neighbours. However, the l a k e p r o v i d e s a common o r i e n t a t i o n and r e s o u r c e . The houseboats are a s p e c i a l a d a p t a t i o n of the use of water to a r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t y . To a degree t h i s a l s o i s t r u e of a number of marine r e l a t e d e n t e r p r i s e s . These q u a l i t i e s should be conserved and -enhanced." 7 The p u r e l y r e a c t i o n a r y or n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards f l o a t i n g homes which have p r e v a i l e d i n the lower mainland r e g i o n appear to be changing to a degree. The Richmond Marina Study 1975 i n d i c a t e d a somewhat more p o s i t i v e approach to f l o a t i n g homes i f they can be adequately s e r v i c e d and r e g u l a t e d . The r e p o r t s t a t e s t h a t " i t i s t h e r e f o r e 6. Joyce, Copeland, Vaughn Lake Union P r e l i m i n a r y Comprehen-s i v e P l a n and A c t i o n Program, 1971 7. Development Memorandum , Department of Community Develop-ment, C i t y of S e a t t l e , October. 16, 1972. pp. 7 ] - 23 -recommended that a g e n e r a l p o l i c y be developed f o r t h i s form of housing which would encompass the above c o n s i d e r -g a t i o n s . " These " c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " , r e f e r r e d to q u a l i t y c o n s t r u c t i o n , design, adequate s e r v i c i n g , support f a c i l i t i e s , a menities e t c . The C i t y o f Vancouver has r e c e n t l y i n s t i t u t e d a f l o a t i n g home study which w i l l look a t , among other t h i n g s , p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s f o r f l o a t i n g homes along the Vancouver s h o r e l i n e , which i n d i c a t e s a p o s s i b l e change i n a t t i t u d e towards f l o a t i n g homes. The D i s t r i c t o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y of North Vancouver has a l s o taken a more fa v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n towards f l o a t i n g homes. D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g f l o a t i n g homes i n the Seymour 9 P l a n n i n g Study. V 8. C o r p o r a t i o n of the Township of Richmond, Richmond  Marina Study 1975, P l a n n i n g Department, A p r i l 1975 9. I n t e r v i e w Mr. F. Sigurjonnson, S e n i o r P l a n n e r r - D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y of North Vancouver, January 11, 1977 - 24 -1.6 F l o a t i n g Home Residents Information obtained i n d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h persons i n v o l v e d w i t h f l o a t i n g homes i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s o c i o -economic mix of persons choosing t h i s l i f e s t l e i s q u i t e d i v e r s i f i e d . In Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a , f o r example, Mr. R i c h a r d Larsens, Marina I n s p e c t o r f o r the county i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n h i s o p i n i o n i t would be hard, i f not im p o s s i b l e , to f i n d a more mixed s o c i a l and economic community, "....the community i s comprised of d o c t o r s , lawyers, s t o c k b r o k e r s , t e a c h e r s , w r i t e r s , a r t i s t s , c a r -p e n t e r s , plumbers, l a b o u r e r s , w e l f a r e r e c e p i e n t s , run-aways e t c . w i t h as many p h i l o s o p h i e s as you can name." Mr. Robert Fenton, p r e s i d e n t of the Greater Vancouver F l o a t i n g Homes Cooperative and others i n t e r v i e w e d a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t the socio-economic mix i n the Greater Vancouver area i s s i m i l a r . Data obtained from a q u e s t i o n a i r e d i s t r i b u t e d by the F l o a t i n g Homes Cooperative to persons i n t e r e s t e d l i v i n g on the water i n d i c a t e d t h a t "two person" households showed the g r e a t e s t . i n t r e s t i n l i v i n g on the water. Only seven of the ninety-one responses to t h i s s e c t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n -a i r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would have c h i l d r e n l i v i n g on the water. A number of reasons f o r persons choosing to l i v e on the water have been documented. Gordon Eekman c i t e d two primary m o t i v a t i o n s l e a d i n g people to t h i s l i f e s t y l e . One being f o r "environmental a e s t h e t i c s and a second reason f o r - 25 -the humanizing nature found t h e r e . " " ^ L i v i n g on f l o a t i n g homes seems to bond persons together, probably due to the common i n t e r e s t they share. Other reasons were given, but i n many cases seemingly not the most important are the p r o x i m i t y o f the l o c a t i o n s and the comparative c o s t o f f l o a t i n g homes. As shown e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter f l o a t i n g homes are not inexpen s i v e housing types, i n f a c t the c o s t s are r i s i n g . Evidence from Marin County, .where f l o a t i n g ; / homes are pe r m i t t e d and s t r i c t l y r e g u l a t e d suggests t h a t s i n c e f l o a t i n g homes have'been i n c r e a s i n g . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of new f l o a t i n g home-.harbours, the upgrading of i n d i v i d u a l f l o a t i n g homes (both because of r e g u l a t i o n s and the h i g h e r moorage fees) are g r a d u a l l y f o r c i n g out poor q u a l i t y f l o a t i n g homes and t h e i r r e s i d e n t s . At the same time and f o r reasons mentioned e a r l i e r ( p r o x i m i t y to San F r a n c i s c o , a d e s i r e to l i v e on the water and the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a new way of l i f e ) more and more a f f l u e n t people are becoming a t t r a c t e d to f l o a t i n g homes. To r e s i d e n t s , f l o a t i n g homes a l s o o f f e r the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e i r d w e l l i n g s . U n l i k e standard s u b d i v i s i o n housing, f l o a t i n g homes are the products of the owners own design ideas and are o f t e n c o n s t r u c t e d by the owners themselves. A v i s i t to any f l o a t -i n g home moorage c e r t a i n l y makes t h i s p o i n t c l e a r as i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y one w i l l f i n d any two u n i t s the same. The 10. Eekman, Gordon A Houseboat Community o f Coal Harbour Unpublished paper School of A r c h i t e c t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, November 1973. - 26 -f l o a t i n g home s a t i s f i e s a n e e d o r d e s i r e o f many p e r s o n s t o c r e a t e ones own l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t w h i l e s h a r i n g a common s e t t i n g . The s e l f - h e l p a s p e c t a l l o w s t h e r e s i d e n t t o b u i l d i n f e a t u r e s o r i n c o r p o r a t e d e t a i l s w h i c h add t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e r e s i d e n c e . C o n t e m p o r a r y h o u s i n g i d e a s s u c h as s h e l l - h o u s i n g , c o o p e r a t i v e s and p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o -j e c t s h a v e become aware o f t h e n e e d f o r more u s e r i n p u t i n t o t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t . The r e a s o n b e i n g t h e d e g r e e o f s a t i s -f a c t i o n has b e e n shown.to i n c r e a s e as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e amount o f i n v o l v e m e n t t h e r e s i d e n t has had i n t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . A c c e s s a b i l i t y o r p r o x i m i t y t o u r b a n s e r v i c e s a r e a l s o g i v e n as a r e a s o n f o r w a n t i n g t o o c c u p y a f l o a t i n g home. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r t h o s e l o c a t e d i n a r e a s s u c h as C o a l H a r b o u r . T h e s e r e s i d e n c e s a r e w i t h i n t e n m i n u t e w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e t o t h e c e n t r a l c i t y s h o p p i n g a r e a , y e t b e c a u s e o f t h e i r l o c a t i o n o f f e r a g r e a t d e a l o f i s o l a t i o n and i n a c c e s s a b i l i t y f r o m t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c i t y . Between t h e moorage i t s e l f and t h e downtown a r e a j t h e r e . i s , t r a n s i t i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l a r e a w h i c h a c t s as a b u f f e r b etween t h e c i t y and t h e a c t i v i t i e s on t h e w a t e r . T h i s " m a n i p u l a t e d d i s t a n c e " i n f a c t makes t h e f l o a t i n g home p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y more d i s t a n t t o t h e r e s i d e n t t h a n w o u l d be t h e c a s e i f a p e r s o n l i v e d i n o t h e r h o u s i n g o f t h e same p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e away f r o m t h e downtown a r e a . - 27 -1.7 F l o a t i n g Homes and Waterfront P l a n n i n g Mr. Mark London, i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Urban Water-f r o n t P l a n n i n g " i d e n t i f i e d a number o f i s s u e s t h a t appear r e l a t e d to the r e l u c t a n c e to develop s p e c i f i c f l o a t i n g home p o l i c i e s . F l o a t i n g homes are o b v i o u s l y a w a t e r f r o n t use and as such pose problems c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f those en-countered i n p l a n n i n g f o r the w a t e r f r o n t i n g e n e r a l . These "1. More than the usual'..'.number of agencies must p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g and appr o v a l p r o c e s s . 2. The l a n d water i n t e r f a c e o f t e n leads to e x t r a s t u d i e s and more complex design s o l u t i o n s . 3. Waterfronts are o f t e n the s i t e o f i n n o v a t i v e urban uses which are more d i f f i c u l t to p l a n than standard developments. 4. The w a t e r f r o n t s v i s i b i l i t y leads many people and agencies to formulate p e r s o n a l images f o r the area which they are then r e l u c t a n t to compromise i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 5. The w a t e r f r o n t s u n i q u e l y c r i t i c a l l o c a t i o n leads to an i n c r e a s e d f e a r o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e ^ d'.:0 idee i s ions and r e s u l t s i n slower a p p r o v a l s . " The f o r e g o i n g i s s u e s , r e l a t e d to d i f f i c u l t i e s en-countered i n w a t e r f r o n t p l a n n i n g i n g e n e r a l compound the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f l o a t i n g homes s p e c i f i c a l l y . The three major i s s u e s i d e n t i f i e d as c r e a t i n g the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h f l o a t i n g homes a r e : problems are: - 28 -a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n as t o who c a n e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l f l o a t i n g homes g i v e n t h e complex n a t u r e o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e w a t e r . M u n i c i p a l g o vernments do n o t d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l u s e o v e r t h e w a t e r s b o r d e r i n g t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . A s e c o n d m a j o r p r o b l e m has b e e n t h e q u e s t i o n o f t a x a t i o n as s u c h , f l o a t i n g homes a r e n o t a s s e s s a b l e f o r m u n i c i p a l t a x a t i o n p u r p o s e s . The t h i r d p r o b l e m d e a l s w i t h a s p e c t s o f p o l l u t i o n , i n t h a t f l o a t i n g homes d i r e c t l y d i s c h a r g e d o m e s t i c w a s t e s i n t o s u r r o u n d i n g w a t e r s . T h e s e t h r e e a r e a s o f c o n f l i c t h a v e c o n t i n u a l l y p o s e d p r o b l e m s t o government a g e n c i e s and have g e n e r a l l y f o s t e r e d a r e l u c t a n c e t o s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r f l o a t i n g homes. T h e s e t h r e e s p e c i f i c i s s u e s a r e a d d r e s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s , t h e p u r p o s e b e i n g t o c l a r i f y t h e i s s u e s and t o s u g g e s t p o s s i b l e s t r a t e g i e s t h a t c a n bemused t o overcome them. F i n a l l y t h i s t h e s i s l o o k s a t t h o s e e l e m e n t s deemed n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r w h e n - u n d e r t a k i n g t o d e v e l o p p o l i c i e s o r g u i d e l i n e s r e g u l a t i n g l o c a t i o n , s i t i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e d e s i g n o f f l o a t i n g homes a n d f l o a t i n g home moorages. - 29 -CHAPTER TWO  JURISDICTIONAL CONTROLS In order to s u c c e s s f u l l y adopt r e g u l a t o r y mechanisms r e s p e c t i n g f l o a t i n g homes i t i s necessary to have an under-standing o f the agencies which govern the waters surrounding the lower mainland area. I t i s the purpose of t h i s chapter to document the c u r r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and to suggest methods to c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e f l o a t i n g homes w i t h i n the p r e v a i l i n g system. 2.1 Government Agencies C o n t r o l s The urban c o a s t a l s h o r e l i n e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia are r e g u l a t e d and admi n i s t e r e d by a wide range of government agencies and s t a t u t e s . The major agencies governing the waters are themselves s u b j e c t to seemingly endless l i s t o f s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s i n c l u d e d i n numerous a n c i l l a r y a c t s and by-laws, such as P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t s , F i s h e r i e s A c t s , the Navigable Waters P r o t e c t i o n Act and by-laws adopted by v a r i o u s harbour commissions and harbour/boards. The agencies who are i n v o l v e d w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's c o a s t a l waters and harbours are: The N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, The F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y o f Trans-p o r t , the F r a s e r Harbour Commission, the North F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission and the P r o v i n c i a l Government, which a d m i n i s t e r s water l o t l e a s i n g through the M i n i s t r y o f Lands, - 30 -F o r e s t s and Water Resources. To understand the nature o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s of B r i t i s h Columbia's waterways i t i s necessary to b r i e f l y review the h i s t o r i c a l events l e a d i n g to the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n . 2.2 P u b l i c Harbours S e c t i o n 108 of the B r i t i s h North America Act of 1867 t r a n s f e r e d the p r o p e r t y d e s c r i b e d i n the t h i r d schedule o f the B..N.A. Ac t , 1867 to the Dominion. Item two of t h i s schedule i n d i c a t e s t hat " p u b l i c harbours" were to become the p r o p e r t y of Canada. The q u e s t i o n i s then asked what c o n s t i t u t e s " p u b l i c harbours"? The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ^ i o f what c o n s t i t u t e s a " p u b l i c harbour" has been the s u b j e c t of numerous debates and l i t i g a t i o n . " I t i s now s e t t l e d t h a t harbours that.ipassedtto the Dominion under S e c t i o n 108 were those t h a t f e l l c w i t h i n g the d e s c r i p t i o n of p u b l i c harbours on the day the p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i n c e entered Confederation.""'" I t seems t h a t S e c t i o n 108 d i d not apply to obscure harbours but to t h o s e ^ p u b l i c l y known or r e c o g n i z e d by the p r o v i n c e s upon e n t e r i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n . The important reason f o r p l a c i n g p u b l i c harbours w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Dominion was t h a t , "being charged w i t h e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over such matters as n a v i g a t i o n and s h i p p i n g , seacoast and i n l a n d 1. La F o r e s t , V. G e r a l d N a t u r a l Resources & P u b l i c P r o p erty Under the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press 1969. pp. 56 - 31 -f i s h e r i e s , l i g h t h o u s e s and bouys, i t was no doubt expected t h a t i t would assume the burden o f conservancy o f harbours, 2 and m a i n t a i n i n g n a v i g a t i o n and harbour works." Having v e r y b r i e f l y examined the nature of P u b l i c Harbours i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to determine e x a c t l y what i n t e r e s t was passed to the Dominion. I t i s g e n e r a l l y h e l d t h a t the beds of P u b l i c Harbours, which i n c l u d e a number of designated N a t i o n a l Harbours and Harbours operated by Harbour Commissions are the p r o p e r t y of the Dominion Crown. Owing to t h i s p r o p r i e t o r y r i g h t the F e d e r a l Government e i t h e r through the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t , the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board or the v a r i o u s Harbour Commissions i s r e -s p o n s i b l e f o r the l e a s i n g of a v a s t area of the Greater Vancouver C o a s t l i n e . 2.3 The S i x Harbours Agreement 1924 To s e t t l e the problem i n B r i t i s h Columbia of determin-ing what was p r o v i n c i a l and what was f e d e r a l p r o p e r t y r e s p e c t i n g harbours, culminated i n the S i x Harbours Agree-ment of 1924. Under the terms of the agreement the s i x harbours of V i c t o r i a , Esquimalt, Nanaimo, A l b e r n i , B u rrard I n l e t , and New Westminister became the p u b l i c harbours of B r i t i s h Columbia. The p r o v i n c e a l s o agreed to the p o s s i b i l -i t y of t r a n s f e r r i n g other harbours i n the f u t u r e which were 2. I b i d pp.56 - 32 -" MAP: 2 JURISDICTIONS OF AGENCIES REGULATING WATERS IN THE LOWER MAINLAND AREA NATIONAL HARBOURS BOARD (navigational j u r i s d i c t i o n ) Province owns seabed and administers waterlot l e a s i n g . NORTH FRASER RIVER HARBOUR COMMISSION (lease from Province) FRASER RIVER HARBOUR COMMISSION (Railway Belt lands, owned by the Dominion Crown) FRASER RIVER HARBOUR COMMISSION (lease from province) - 33 -used as harbours p r i o r to the agreement as may be r e q u i r e d by the Dominion. 2.4 The Railway B e l t Even though New Westminster was e s t a b l i s h e d as a P u b l i c Harbour, F e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y extends throughout a l l of the lower p o r t i o n s of the F r a s e r R i v e r west of P i t t Lake and Kanaka Creek. F e d e r a l ownership along the F r a s e r R i v e r was e s t a b l i s h e d i n an agreement w i t h the P r o v i n c e i n 1930. The Dominion agreed to r e t r a n s f e r a l l lands back to the p r o v i n c e which h e r e t o f o r e were Dominion lands c a l l e d the Railway B e l t . (The Railway B e l t Lands were i n i t i a l l y t r a n s -f e r e d by the P r o v i n c e to the Dominion at C o n f e d e r a t i o n as a c o n d i t i o n of the r a i l w a y b e i n g extended to B r i t i s h Columbia.) However, i t was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d i n paragraph two of t h i s agreement t h a t : "the f o r e s h o r e s and beds of harbours a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n the Railway B e l t , as w e l l as the f o r e s h o r e s and beds o f the F r a s e r R i v e r and P i t t R i v e r l y i n g above the e a s t e r n boundaries of New Westminster Harbour and below l i n e s to be a s c e r t a i n e d and d e f i n e d by agreement at the j u n c t i o n of Kanaka Creek w i t h the F r a s e r R i v e r and at a p o i n t of the e x i t of the P i t t R i v e r from P i t t Lake would continue to belong to Canada." 3 3. I b i d pp. 69 - 34 -2.5 The F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission Map # 2 i n d i c a t e s that p o r t i o n of the F r a s e r R i v e r which comes under the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission. T h i s map shows that p o r t i o n which i s owned by the Dominion w h i l e t h a t p o r t i o n of the r i v e r west of the western boudaries of New Westminster Harbour, i n c l u d i n g the r i v e r b e d are l e a s e d to the Commission by the Provinc e of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r a p e r i o d of twenty-one ye a r s . The Harbour Commission o b t a i n e d t h i s l e a s e from the M i n i s t r y of Lands, F o r e s t s and Water Resources and agr to r e t u r n to the p r o v i n c e f i f t y percent of a l l r e n t a l s and r o y a l t i e s c o l l e c t e d from the use o f t h i s p o r t i o n of the r i v e r . W i t h i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the r i v e r the F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission has d i r e c t c o n t r o l r e s p e c t i n g the g r a n t i n g of w a t e r l o t l e a s e s f o r any purpose. Lessees i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f the r i v e r must conform to p r o v i n c i a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l r e g u l a t i o n s . 2.6 North F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission U n l i k e the F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission the North F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission a d m i n i s t e r s o n l y a v e r y small p o r t i o n of the r i v e r t h a t i s owned by the Dominion Crown. (See Map # 2) The N.F.R.H.C. and the t e r r i t o r y i t p r e s i d e s over, i s both r i v e r and r i v e r b e d l e a s e d to the commission by the P r o v i n c i a l Government. The p e r o i d of the l e a s e agreement again i s f o r a p e r o i d of twenty-one - 35 -years and was renewed i n 1972. S i m i l a r to the F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission, the North F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g r a n t i n g water l o t l e a s e s and a l s o agrees to pay to the Pr o v i n c e f i f t y percent o f revenues c o l l e c t e d r e s u l t i n g from i t s o p e r a t i o n . 2.7 N a t i o n a l Harbours Board The Government of Canada under p r o v i s i o n s o f the Nation-a l Harbours A c t has desig n a t e d a number o f Canadian harbours i n c l u d i n g Vancouver harbour as N a t i o n a l harbours. N a t i o n a l harbours such as Vancouver are designated because o f the important p o s i t i o n they occupy as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c e n t r e s i n the trade and commerce o f the e n t i r e n a t i o n . Map # 2 i n d i c a t e s t h a t areas o f the Greater Vancouver c o a s t l i n e come under v a r i o u s l e v e l s of j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board. That p o r t i o n e a s t o f the F i r s t Narrows i s f o r l e a s i n g purposes c o n t r o l l e d by the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board. That area i n d i c a t e d on Map # 2 , to the west of the F i r s t Narrows, i s under N a t i o n a l Harbours Board j u r i s d i c t i o n but only as i t r e l a t e d to c o n t r o l l i n g and r e g u l a t i n g n a v i g a t i o n . The seabed here i s the p r o p e r t y of the p r o v i n c e and because of t h i s ownership the Provinc e a d m i n i s t e r s and grants water l o t l e a s e s i n these waters. - 36 -2.8 F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t The F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t although not ad-m i n i s t e r i n g any w a t e r l o t l e a s e s w i t h i n the immediate v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f twenty-two designated p u b l i c harbours i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Examples of such harbours i n c l u d e V i c t o r i a , and Esquimalt. The M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance o f numerous wharves, and p i e r s along the B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t . In a d d i t i o n to these d u t i e s the M i n i s t r y i f a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e veloping and a d m i n i s t e r i n g r e g u l a t i o n s concerning s h i p p i n g , v e s s e l s and n a v i g a t i o n . 2.9 P r o v i n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n G e n e r a l l y speaking the P r o v i n c e , through the auspices of the M i n i s t r y of Lands, F o r e s t s and Water Resources a d m i n i s t e r s and grants l e a s e s f o r a l l remaining waterways and minor harbours. Eg. Oak Bay Marina, Canoe Cove e t c . 2.10 L o c a l Government Involvement A f t e r having completed a b a s i c examination of both F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n t r o l s over water, i t appears at f i r s t glance that l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s have v i r t u a l l y no c o n t r o l over l e a s i n g procedures. T h i s , however, i s not the case. Both the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l agencies do p r o v i d e w i t h i n g the e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t - 37 -l o c a l i n p u t w i l l be sought a f t e r , e i t h e r t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l arrangements o r by l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e s p e c i f i c boards o r commissions. I n t h i s way th e n , t h e s e n i o r governments s h o u l d t h e o r e t i c a l l y be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . A few examples o f how l o c a l a t t i t u d e s and concerns a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : The M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l l e a s e agreements ensures t h a t the l e s s e e w i l l conform t o t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f the l o c a l governments s p e c i f i c a l l y C l a u s e two w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t " t h e l e s s e e w i l l pay or cause t o be p a i d a l l r a t e s , t a x e s and assessments o f whatsoever d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t may a t any time d u r i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f the p r e s e n c e be l a w f u l l y imposed o r become due and p a y a b l e upon o r i n r e s p e c t o f the s a i d l a n d ( i n c l u d e s w a t e r o v e r l a n d c o n t r o l l e d by M.O.T.) o r any p a r t t h e r e o f . " C l a u s e t h r e e goes on t o say t h a t " t h e l e s s e e s h a l l i n a l l r e s p e c t s a b i d e by and comply w i t h a l l l a w f u l r u l e s , r e g u l a t i o n s and by-laws o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and o t h e r g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s i n any manner a f f e c t i n g t h e s a i d l a n d . " ^ Y e t a n o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f a s e n i o r agency's c o n c e r n f o r l o c a l government : i n v o l v e m e n t was r e c e n t l y e x p r e s s e d by Mr. S c o t t McLaren s e c r e t a r y o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission who 4. M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t Lease Agreement between h e r M a j e s t y i n R i g h t o f the M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t and the l e s s e e . - 38 -requested t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s b o r d e r i n g the F r a s e r R i v e r w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n draw up common by-laws r e s p e c t i n g f l o a t i n g homes. T h i s was done i n response to problems the commission was being c o n t i n u a l l y faced w i t h f l o a t i n g homes i n d i s c r i m i m a n t l y l o c a t i n g along the r i v e r . The commission t h e r e f o r e , adopted the p o s i t i o n t h a t m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s should prepare by-laws e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards f l o a t i n g homes l o c a t i n g along t h e i r s h o r e l i n e s . In t h i s r e g a r d the Harbour Commission co u l d , by i n c o r p o r a t -i n g purpose c l a u s e s i n f u t u r e l e a s e agreements or renewals ensure t h a t m u n i c i p a l wishes would be met and f l o a t i n g homes i f p e r m i t t e d would s u b j e c t to l o c a l c o n t r o l s . The North F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission has a l s o worked c l o s e l y w i t h the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond to c o n t r o l f l o a t i n g homes. T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p r e s u l t e d i n n e a r l y a l l of the f l o a t i n g homes l o c a t e d i n Richmond b e i n g t o l d to vacate. The s i t u a t i o n which e x i s t e d i n Richmond was t h a t , i n i t i a l l y , w i t h only a few f l o a t i n g homes there was no s e r i o u s problem, however, the numbers of f l o a t i n g homes r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e d without adequate back-up f a c i l i t i e s b e i n g a v a i l a b l e , such as sewage d i s p o s a l , and p a r k i n g . As w e l l , the m o b i l i t y o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y to procure tax revenue posed a problem. In response to Richmond's concerns, the North F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission ordered a l l houseboats (except f o r one per marina f o r s e c u r i t y purposes) to vacate w i t h i n one year of J u l y 1976. The a u t h o r i t y to request - 39 -t h e i r removal was based on the fact that i n the terms of the lease agreement with rnarina operators, f l o a t i n g homes were not provided f o r . 2.11 Sub-Leasing Generally speaking, agencies c o n t r o l l i n g the i n i t i a l lease such as the Ministry of Transport, Harbour Commissions, and the National Harbours Board do not look favourably on permitting sub-lease agreements to any great extent. How-ever, i n certain situations they are permitted. An inte r e s t i n g example recently occurred involving the National Harbours Board and the D i s t r i c t Municipality of North Vancouver. In this p a r t i c u l a r case the municipality had leasehold t i t l e to a waterlot at the foot of Pemberton street i n North Vancouver. An application was made to the Municipality proposing a f l o a t i n g home community. The municipality, not agreeing with the developers i n i t i a l s i t e , suggested the location be changed to a water l o t area leased by the municipality. . Although a few de t a i l s s t i l l need to be worked out a sub-lease was permitted by the National Harbours Board which i n turn gave the municipality di r e c t control over the development. Terms and conditions that the municipality deemed necessary to permit t h i s use are simply written into the sub-lease agreement. - 40 -2.12 C o n t r o l s r e g u l a t i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n and Design of  F l o a t i n g Homes In B r i t i s h Columbia there are v i r t u a l l y no r e g u l a t i o n s which p e r t a i n s p e c i f i c a l l y to or encompass the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f l o a t i n g homes. In l i g h t o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n each f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t can c o n s t r u c t and l i v e i n a d w e l l i n g u n i t of any d e s c r i p t i o n and not have to comply w i t h any b u i l d i n g codes, e l e c t r i c a l standards, f i r e ^standards,sewage::disposal standards e t c . Our c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the U n i t e d States have responded to the f l o a t i n g home concept i n a d i f f e r e n t f a s h i o n and have gone about adopting comprehensive ordinances to r e g u l a t o r y procedures r e l a t i n g to f l o a t i n g homes. In Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a , the county has taken the i n c e n t i v e o f de v e l o p i n g ordinances and r e q u i r e s a l l f l o a t i n g homes l o c a t i n g to conform to these o r face e v i c t i o n . In Washington S t a t e the C i t y o f S e a t t l e has a l s o developed ordinances p a r t i c u l a r to f l o a t i n g homes which are q u i t e s i m i l a r to those i n f o r c e i n Marin County. Copies o f these ordinances are i n c l u d e d i n appendices 4,8 and 9. 2.13 D i r e c t C o n t r o l s Re: C o n s t r u c t i o n , F l o a t a t i o n , e t c . At the o u t s e t o f t h i s study a primary o b j e c t i v e was to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n to determine which agency had d i r e c t c o n t r o l or r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t y over f l o a t i n g homes. I n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n s took p l a c e w i t h the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y o f LEAF 41 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING. - 42 -Transport who c o n t r o l , r e g u l a t e , and s e t standards f o r v e s s e l s . The M.O.T.. i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t h e i r o p i n i o n such power was v e s t e d w i t h l o c a l harbour andtport a u t h o r i t i e s . The Harbour Commissions do have c o n t r o l but t h i s c o n t r o l extends only i n s o f a r as i t a p p l i e s to a l l o w i n g f l o a t i n g homes to l o c a t e w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . In the o p i n i o n o f the F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission "Houseboats are v e s s e l s and are not s u b j e c t to m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l - or harbour commission c o n t r o l i n any r e s p e c t and f a l l t o t a l l y under M i n i s t r y o f Tra n s p o r t A u t h o r i t y . " F o l l o w i n g from t h i s statement and upon l o o k i n g at the Canada Shipping A c t s m a l l V e s s e l s R e g u l a t i o n P.C. 1969-436 the a c t u a l extent of M i n i s t r y o f Transport a u t h o r i t y over f l o a t i n g homes i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . In t h i s a c t the d e f i n i t i o n o f a " v e s s e l i n c l u d e s any s h i p or boat or any other d e s c r i p t i o n o f v e s s e l except a seaplane, used or designed to be used i n n a v i g a t i o n . " T h i s phrase, used or designed to be used i n n a v i g a t i o n may perhaps not be a p p l i c a b l e to and i n c l u d e f l o a t h o u s e s as d e f i n e d by t h i s s t h e s i s , as they are e s s e n t i a l l y used and designed to be used as housing and are or would be permanently moored i n one l o c a t i o n . The f a c t that they are moveable by means of towing, i t i s f e l t , does not c o n s t i t u t e " n a v i g a t i o n " under the i n t e n t of the A c t . 5. Mr. S c o t t McLaren as c i t e d i n the Vancouver Sun, Thursday November 16, 1976 pp. 17 6. Canada Shipping A c t : Small V e s s e l Regulations P.C. 1969-436 pp. 384 - 43 -2.14 S e l f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Due to the almost complete l a c k o f g u i d e l i n e s and c o n t r o l mechanisms eminating from v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f govern-ment, the response has been f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n such as the Greater Vancouver F l o a t i n g Homes Co-operative to r e s e a r c h and prepare t h e i r own s e t of standards f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n and design. These r e g u l a t i o n s do not onl y l i m i t t h e i r scope to the d w e l l i n g u n i t s themselves, they are a l s o concerned w i t h the l a y o u t and o p e r a t i o n o f f l o a t i n g home moorages as w e l l . The c o - o p e r a t i v e makes these g u i d e l i n e s a v a i l a b l e to a l l c o - o p e r a t i v e members under the c o n d i t i o n s that they must comply to these standards as a c o n d i t i o n o f s e c u r i n g moorage i n a c o - o p e r a t i v e marina venture. Standards adopted f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n are those o f the Canadian Code f o r R e s i d e n t i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n (N.R.C.C. #11562), which i n c l u d e s both plumbing and e l e c t r i c a l codes. The reasons f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g these standards are f i v e -f o l d and are expressed i n a Coast F l o a t i n g Home Document e n t i t l e d " I n t e r i m Standards f o r F l o a t i n g Homes" Oct. 1973: 1. To p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r approval by m u n i c i p a l governments w i l l a i d i n the r e g u l a t i o n s , t a x a t i o n , and c o n t r o l of f l o a t i n g homes. 2. To e s t a b l i s h a b a s i s w i t h i n the C.F.H.A. (Coast F l o a t i n g Homes A s s o c i a t i o n ) which w i l l a l l o w the C.F.H.A. to r e g i s t e r and i s s u e a p p r o v a l f o r e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e f l o a t i n g homes. - 44 -3. To serve as a guide to c o n s t r u c t i o n which w i l l r e s u l t i n f l o a t i n g homes which meet minimum standards of s a f e t y , h e a l t h and appearance. 4. To serve as an assurance to marina opera t o r s that C.F.H.A. approved f l o a t i n g homes do i n f a c t meet minimum ac c e p t a b l e standards. •5. I t i s not the i n t e n t o f these standards to d i c t a t e p a r t i c u l a r types of c o n s t r u c t i o n , to l i m i t design c o n s i d e r a t i o n or to s e t a r b i t r a r y standards on* appearance. However, i t i s the consensus of the C.F.H.A. t h a t the bes t i n t e r e s t s of the a s s o c i a t i o n and the community w i l l be,served by d i s c o u r a g i n g sub-standard f l o a t i n g homes which are not a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g . The problem has been t h a t even though standards have been e s t a b l i s h e d by t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n as a means of s e l f r e g u l a t i o n there has been a r e l u c t a n c e by l o c a l governments to adopt these r e g u l a t i o n s . The d i f f i c u l t y may accountable i n an a t t i t u d e that the o n l y standards which are v a l i d w i l l be ones produced by the governments themselves. 2.15 A New F e d e r a l P o r t s Management Scheme The F e d e r a l Government has been i n v o l v e d the l a s t three years i n a program to e s t a b l i s h a new management system f o r Canadian p o r t s . An i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l committee, c h a i r e d by Mr. G.A. S c o t t was formed i n 1974 "to review e x i s t i n g p o r t management s t r u c t u r e s and develop a new management framework r e s p o n s i v e to c u r r e n t and a n t i c i p a t e d demands on p o r t s w i t h i n an i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - 45 -s y s t e m . T h e recommendations of t h i s committee were to e s t a b l i s h "a new s i n g l e comprehensive p o r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n based l a r g e l y on a n a t i o n a l p o r t s p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n , s u b s t a n t i a l l o c a l autonomy i n the management o f major p o r t s , and r e g i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p o r t p l a n n i n g process."8 Cabinet approved these recommendations and d i r e c t e d a task f o r c e to develop a l l the d e t a i l s o f a new management s t r u c t u r e . The outcome o f t h i s task f o r c e work was the d i r e c t i v e t h a t a Canada Port s Act be d r a f t e d to r e p l a c e the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board and Harbour Commissions Acts and numerous other a c t s which govern both the o p e r a t i o n and management of Canadian p o r t s . T h i s simple system of a p o r t management would i n c o r -porate a l l p o r t s , p u b l i c harbours and government wharves th a t are u t i l i z e d f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n purposes. This s i n g l e system approach i s to enable a Canadian P o r t s Commission to be e s t a b l i s h e d to i n s t i t u t e a c o o r d i n a t e d n a t i o n a l p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g process, a g o a l which has been i d e n t i f i e d as b eing u n a t t a i n a b l e w i t h i n the present framework of p o r t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The impact of t h i s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l process of p o r t management w i l l not l i k e l y change to any great extent the p r e s e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t the l o c a l l e v e l because l o c a l p o r t 7. T r a n s p o r t Canada Canadian P o r t s : A New Management Sept. 1976 pp. 2 8. I b i d , pp. 2 - 46 -commissions w i l l g e n e r a l l y be r e t a i n e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia as they p r e s e n t l y e x i s t . These l o c a l commissions w i l l s t i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the day to day o p e r a t i o n of the p o r t s and t h e r e f o r e the b a s i c j u r i s d i c t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e o f g r a n t i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g l e a s e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i l l not be e f f e c t i v e l y a l t e r e d . 2.16 Recommendations and Conclusions Given the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n of the v a r i e t y o f s e n i o r government agencies which c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e the c o a s t a l and r i v e r i n e areas of B r i t i s h Columbia i t i s b e l i e v e d poss-i b l e t h a t an e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i n g system can be e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s system can c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e f l o a t i n g homes and f l o a t i n g home communities. In any event, the implement-a t i o n o f a workable system can only be e f f e c t i v e l y accomp-l i s h e d under terms of mutual c o o p e r a t i o n between s e n i o r and l o c a l o f f i c i a l s to meet these ends. Those agencies i n v o l v e d w i t h or a f f e c t e d by f l o a t i n g homes should e s t a b l i s h and make t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r goals and o b j e c t i v e s c l e a r l y a s c e r t a i n a b l e to one another. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s which are c u r r e n t l y e x p e r i e n c i n g pressures f o r f l o a t i n g home development or others who may i n f a c t be faced w i t h the s i t u a t i o n i n the f u t u r e , should e s t a b l i s h p o l i c y e i t h e r p e r m i t t i n g or r e f u s i n g f l o a t i n g homes. I t i s d e s i r e a b l e t h a t i n both cases o f e i t h e r acceptance or r e j e c t i o n , p o l i c y should be based on a - 47 -comprehensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the s u i t a b i l i t y o f f l o a t i n g homes l o c a t i n g a l o n g t h e i r s h o r e l i n e s . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s w h i c h do f o r e s e e f l o a t i n g homes as a c o m p a t i b l e use s h o u l d t h e n pursue a c o u r s e o f i d e n t i f y i n g and p o s s i b l y z o n i n g a r e a s deemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r them t o l o c a t e . T h i s f o r e g o i n g p r o c e d u r e has a l r e a d y been c a r r i e d out by t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond w h i c h v i e w s f l o a t i n g homes as v i a b l e o n l y i f adequate c o n t r o l p r o c e d u r e s a r e adopted. The M u n i c i p a l i t y has a l s o i d e n t i f i e d p o t e n t i a l l o c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e f l o a t i n g home developments t o l o c a t e . Commensurate w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o f a p o l i c y t o a l l o w f l o a t i n g homes, l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s need a l s o t o f o r m u l a t e adequate by-laws o r o r d i n a n c e s t h a t r e f l e c t and ensure m u n i c i p a l r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e met. Having adopted o r i n s t i t u t e d t h e s e mechanisms i t becomes r e l a t i v e l y ; e a s y t o ensure t h a t a l l c o n d i t i o n s w i l l be f o l l o w e d . The l e a s i n g a g e n c i e s such as the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, the M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t o r Harbour Commissions need o n l y i n c o r p o r a t e adequate "purpose c l a u s e s " i n t h e i r l e a s e agreements w i t h d e v e l o p e r s o r a g e n c i e s t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t a l l l o c a l by-laws p e r t a i n i n g t o f l o a t i n g homes w i l l be adhered t o . I t appears h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t s e n i o r government a g e n c i e s such as the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t , Harbour Commissions o r Harbours Boards w i l l adopt s t a n d a r d s and g u i d e l i n e s f o r f l o a t i n g homes, s i m p l y because o f t h e mag-n i t u d e and n a t u r e o f the phenomenon. R e g u l a t i o n s and - 48 -standards should be developed at the l o c a l l e v e l where they w i l l be formulated r e s p e c t i n g l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d standards. Standards v a r y from one m u n i c i p a l i t y to another making i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r s e n i o r agencies to develop g u i d e l i n e s which w i l l o n l y be g e n e r a l i n nature and i n s e n s i t i v e to the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . M u n i c i p a l governments upon adoption of such p o l i c i e s or standards should make a v a i l a b l e to the l e a s i n g a u t h o r i t y i n q u e s t i o n copies of such documents. T h i s would thereby enable the l e a s i n g a u t h o r i t y to a s c e r t a i n upon r e c e i p t o f an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a w a t e r l o t use p r o v i d i n g f o r f l o a t i n g homes of where, and under what c o n d i t i o n s the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l a l l o w f l o a t i n g homes. - 49 -CHAPTER THREE  TAXATION AND ASSESSMENT 3.1 The T a x a t i o n I s s u e A major f a c t o r w h i c h has l e d many m u n i c i p a l governments t o e i t h e r i g n o r e o r p r o h i b i t f l o a t i n g homes communities has r e v o l v e d around the i s s u e and the seem i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t a s k of e n s u r i n g revenue c o n t r i b u t i o n by persons l i v i n g i n f l o a t -i n g homes. C u r r e n t l y , under e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to impose d i r e c t t a x a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s on f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s . F l o a t i n g s t r u c t u r e s a r e n o t a s s e s s a b l e under e i t h e r the B r i t i s h Columbia Assessment A c t or the M u n i c i p a l A c t , as a " v e s s e l " does n o t come w i t h i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f an improvement under t h e s e A c t s , a c c o r d i n g t o the d e c i s i o n i n t h e case o f S.A. M a r i n a v s . t h e C i t y o f N o r t h Vancouver. T h i s a s p e c t w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i f f i c u l -t y o f im p o s i n g d i r e c t t a x a t i o n , i s o n l y one o f the maze o f l e g a l i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l , m u n i c i p a l and t a x a t i o n laws. The problem i s n o t t h a t f l o a t i n g home p e o p l e do n o t want t o c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r f a i r s h a re o f m u n i c i p a l r e v e n u e s , r a t h e r , the o p p o s i t e v i e w i s t a k e n . The Coast F l o a t i n g Homes C o o p e r a t i v e a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t have c o n t i n u a l l y e x p r e s s e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o pay t h e i r share o f m u n i c i p a l r e v e n u e s . The s t u m b l i n g b l o c k has been the d i f f i c u l t y i n d e v e l o p i n g and impl e m e n t i n g a u n i f o r m system o f revenue c o l l e c t i o n w h i c h i s b o t h l a w f u l and w i l l e n a b l e m u n i c i p a l - 50 -governments to c a r r y on w i t h the p r o v i s i o n of r e q u i r e d s e r v i c e s and p r o v i d e f o r the o r d e r l y development of the f o r e s h o r e . 3.2 The U n i t e d States Approach In C a l i f o r n i a and Washington s t a t e s , the s i t u a t i o n i s h i g h l y d i f f e r e n t than the system i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In both S a u s a l i t o , C a l i f o r n i a and Lake Union, Washington, f l o a t i n g homes are taxed as p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y and handled i n the same f a s h i o n as r e a l p r o p e r t y . In S e a t t l e , f o r example, the p r o p e r t y ( f l o a t i n g home) i s assessed a t a percentage o f i t s market value and the m i l l r a t e l e v y i s then a c c o r d i n g l y a p p l i e d to determine the amount of taxes owing. Important, i n the U.S. s i t u a t i o n , i n a s s e s s i n g a f l o a t i n g home i s the dete r m i n a t i o n o f the square footage o f l i v i n g space as w e l l as other f a c t o r s such as an e v a l u a t i o n of the o v e r a l l con-d i t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e . 3.3 L i c e n c i n g In m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and c i t i e s c o n s u l t e d i n t h i s study, the response to the s i t u a t i o n o f being unable to d i r e c t l y tax f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s has l e d to a v a r i e t y o f s t r a t -egies being employed to r e c o v e r revenue. The C i t y o f Vancouver f o r example, under i t s L i c e n c e By-Law No. 4450 imposes a l i c e n c e f ee schedule on l i v e - a b o a r d s and f l o a t i n g homes l o c a t e d w i t h i n the boundaries o f the C i t y o f Vancouver. - 51 -The fee s t r u c t u r e appears to r e f l e c t an amount g e n e r a l l y e q u i v a l e n t to what taxes n o r m a l l y would be assessed. A schedule o f these fees i s shown i n appendix # 1 and the procedures to be c a r r i e d out pursuant to t h i s by-law are. contained i n appendix # 2. Common to any of these afore-mentioned d e v i c e s used to c o l l e c t revenue f o r m u n i c i p a l c o f f e r s i s the f a c t t h a t although f l o a t i n g home ^ r e s i d e n t s are i n d i r e c t l y paying taxes to the m u n i c i p a l i t y they r e c e i v e none of the f r i n g e bene-f i t s which u s u a l l y acrue to other r e s i d e n t s . The r e s i d e n t s are not e l l i g i b l e f o r the P r o v i n c i a l Homeowners Grant or the P r o v i n c i a l Home A q u i s i t i o n Grant. The L a n d l o r d and Tenant Act as w e l l does not apply to f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s and moorage r a t e s are l e f t simply to the d i s c r e t i o n o f the marina o p e r a t o r . T h i s l i c e n c i n g procedure c u r r e n t l y a f f e c t s f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s l o c a t e d i n Coal Harbour, and w i l l be u t i l i z e d i n the Greater Vancouver F l o a t i n g Home Cooperative ventures i n F a l s e Creek and the proposed l i v e - a b o a r d s communities at the Heather and Spruce S t r e e t s Marinas. The M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond, as s t a t e d i n the Richmond Marina Study of 1975 has proposed to implement a l i c e n c i n g scheme s i m i l a r to that which i s i n e f f e c t i n the C i t y o f Vancouver. The purpose a g a i n being to c o l l e c t revenues which h e r e t o f o r e c o u l d not be rec o v e r e d by c o n v e n t i o n a l means. - 52 -3.4 Revenue V i a Lease Agreements And Land Use Co n t r a c t s The D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y o f North Vancouver has r e c e n t l y approved a f l o a t i n g home community a t the f o o t o f Pemberton S t r e e t . The s i t u a t i o n e x i s t i n g i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n was th a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y had t i t l e to the w a t e r l o t l e a s e i s s u e d by the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board. Premiere Module S t r u c t u r e s , the proponents o f t h i s "Aquatic V i l l a g e " development have, under c o n d i t i o n s of the Sub-Lease Agreement between themselves and the m u n i c i p a l i t y agreed to pay a "grant i n l i e u of t a x e s " amounting to approximately three hundred and n i n e t y d o l l a r s per unit."*" T h i s f i g u r e i s su b j e c t to tax i n c r e a s e s that commensurate w i t h g e n e r a l m u n i c i p a l tax i n c r e a s e s s p e c i f i e d i n terms of the sub-lease agreement. T h i s amount agreed to i s comparable to taxes which would be p a i d by a l a n d o r i e n t e d d w e l l i n g u n i t occupy-i n g a l o t e q u i v a l e n t to the o u t s i d e area o f the f l o a t i n g home u n i t s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n the case o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r development another o p t i o n was open to the m u n i c i p a l i t y to c o l l e c t revenues. M u n i c i p a l i t y , by v i r t u e of i t s immediate zoning c o n t r o l over upland uses, c o u l d have, by way of the land use c o n t r a c t , entered i n t o agreement w i t h the developers to pay y e a r l y fees as a con-d i t i o n of the upland development. The former o p t i o n was chosen because the m u n i c i p a l i t y saw the sub-lease c l a u s e 1. Interview: Mr. Frank Ogden, Premier Module S t r u c t u r e s January 12, 1977 - 53 -g i v i n g them b e t t e r c o n t r o l and would not mean implementing a by-law and going through a p u b l i c h e a r i n g which i s necessary under a l a n d use c o n t r a c t . 3.5 T a x a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n I m p l i c a t i o n s An attempt has r e c e n t l y been made by a member of the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e to b r i n g f l o a t i n g homes w i t h i n the a u t h o r i t y o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Assessment Commission making them t a x a b l e as improvements. Mr. Steven Rogers, M.L.A. f o r Vancouver South i n t r o d u c e d to the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e a P r i v a t e Members B i l l e n t i t l e d the " F l o a t i n g Homes R e g u l a t i o n A c t . " (No. M201) (see appendix # 3). The i n t e n t of t h i s B i l l would enable m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to e x c e r c i s e d i r e c t t a x a t i o n over f l o a t i n g homes. S e c t i o n two of t h i s proposed B i l l s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s that "....a f l o a t i n g home s i t u a t e d w i t h i n a Marina, whether or not the f l o a t i n g home f a l l s w i t h i n the d e f i n i t i o n of an improvement under the M u n i c i p a l Act, P u b l i c Schools A c t , Ta x a t i o n Act, Vancouver Charter o r any other Act, s h a l l be deemed to be an improvement f o r the purpose o f r e a l p r o p e r t y assessment and t a x a t i o n under those Acts and, except as pr o v i d e d i n S e c t i o n t h r e e , s h a l l be assessed and taxed i n the name of the owner of the marina pursuant to the p r o v i s i o n s of those A c t s . " ^ 2. Interview: Mr. Fred Siqurjonnson, Planner, North Vancouver D i s t r i c t . 3. S e c t i o n two o f proposed F l o a t i n g Homes Regula t i o n s A c t 1977, No. M201 - 54 -At the o u t s e t i t appears t h a t a l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l such as t h a t put forward by Mr. Rogers would i n f a c t s o l v e the e x i s t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t a x i n g f l o a t i n g homes. However, P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n may q u i t e w e l l run i n t o numerous d i f f i c u l t i e s and shortcomings. " I f P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n attempts to r e g u l a t e and/or tax a s u b j e c t matter that can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as one that a l s o f a l l s under the F e d e r a l power, and the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n c o n f l i c t s w i t h the F e d e r a l , then the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n w i l l be d e c l a r e d „4 i n o p e r a t i v e . I t has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d that l o c a l harbour a u t h o r i t i e s have complete c o n t r o l over e v e r y t h i n g t h a t goes on w i t h i n t h e i r boundaries. S e c t i o n 9, o f the Harbour Commissions Act 1964-65 s t a t e s t h a t " s u b j e c t to t h i s A c t , a Commission s h a l l r e g u l a t e and c o n t r o l the use and develop-ment of a l l land, b u i l d i n g s and other p r o p e r t y w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the harbour, and a l l docks, wharfs and equipment e r e c t e d or used i n connect i o n t h e r e w i t h . " The O n t a r i o Supreme Court however, i n the case o f the Hamilton Harbour Commissioners v s . the C o r p o r a t i o n o f the C i t y o f Hamilton e t a l . , made judgement on November 29, 1976, tha t Hamilton Harbour was not a " f e d e r a l e n c l a v e " and was t h e r e f o r e not e n t i r e l y o u t s i d e the scope o f P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l l e g i s l a t i o n . Rather the land use c o n t r o l o f the 4. Routley, K e i t h , Tax L e g i s l a t i o n as a Means of Revenue  P r o d u c t i o n i n Vancouver s Waterfront Developemnt. pp. 2 Unpublished law paper, U.B.C. - 55 -harbour had both F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l a s p e c t s . The C i t y o f Hamilton, the cou r t r u l e d , c o u l d pass a zoning by-law a f f e c t i n g land use w i t h i n the harbour so long as the by-law d i d not attempt to r e g u l a t e or p r o h i b i t l a n d uses f o r the purposes of e i t h e r n a v i g a t i o n or s h i p p i n g . The court f u r t h e r d e c l a r e d that the Harbour Commission d i d not have e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over the harbour. Given the s i t u a t i o n where f l o a t i n g homes are i n an anomolous p o s i t i o n o f e i t h e r being v e s s e l s or housing i t may t h e r e f o r e be p o s s i b l e i f f l o a t i n g homes are c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l l y as housing as opposed to v e s s e l s , that P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n can p o s s i b l y be e f f e c t i v e l y used to c o n t r o l , r e g u l a t e or tax f l o a t i n g homes. The r e g u l a t i o n or c o n t r o l o f f l o a t i n g homes i s r e a l l y an unoccupied f i e l d , t h e r e f o r e , P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n may not be repugnant to F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n o f e i t h e r Harbour Commissions or other P o r t a u t h o r i t i e s . I t should be mentioned t h a t t h i s d e c i s i o n o f the Ontario Supreme Court became a v a i l a b l e to the author o n l y days b e f o r e the f i n a l d r a f t o f t h i s t h e s i s was being pre-pared. The f i n a l s t a t u s of t h i s d e c i s i o n i s not known at t h i s time as to whether or not an appeal procedure has been undertaken by the Hamilton Harbour Commission. This d e c i s i o n has been i n c l u d e d i n the t h e s i s however to i n d i c a t e t h a t l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s may i n f a c t possess more r e g u l a t o r y powers than have been p r e v i o u s l y thought. A number of f l o a t i n g homes i n Vancouver are r e g i s t e r e d - 56 -w i t h the M i n i s t r y of T r a nsport as n o n - p r o p e l l e d v e s s e l s under the Canada Shipping A c t . I t i s c l e a r l y e vident then, that i f a f l o a t i n g home i s r e g i s t e r e d as a v e s s e l and the assessed tonnage tax has been p a i d i t becomes d o u b t f u l whether tax l e g i s l a t i o n i n s t i t u t e d a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l would be e n f o r c e a b l e a g a i n s t these v e s s e l s ; as t h i s a c t i o n c o u l d p o s s i b l y be viewed as i n f r i n g i n g on F e d e r a l j u r i s d i c - . t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to s h i p p i n g and n a v i g a t i o n . 3.6 R e g i s t r a t i o n Paramount to the success of any t a x a t i o n procedure d i r e c t e d toward houseboats i s the implementation o f an adequate r e g i s t r a t i o n system. P r e s e n t l y there i s no c e n t r a l r e g i s t r y system p e r t a i n i n g to f l o a t i n g homes th a t would be n ecessary f o r t a x a t i o n purposes i f they were to become as s e s s a b l e as r e a l p r o p e r t y under the Assessment A c t . T h i s i s due i n p a r t to the r e l a t i v e newness of t h i s form o f housing and to the l i m i t e d numbers o f people l i v i n g on f l o a t i n g homes. Some f l o a t houses, as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , are r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t as non-pro^ p e l l e d v e s s e l s , the primary purpose being f o r the owner to secure bank f i n a n c i n g . Without b e i n g r e g i s t e r e d , l e n d i n g -i n s t i t u t i o n s are extremely r e l u c t a n t to make loans a v a i l a b l e . The reason f o r having a c e n t r a l r e g i s t r a t i o n system f o r f l o a t i n g homes would be to p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e t r a c i n g of ownership i n the event of nonpayment of taxes and to p r o t e c t - 57 -p r o s p e c t i v e b u y e r s a g a i n s t p u r c h a s i n g a u n i t where t a x e s a r e i n a r r e a r s . The proposed F l o a t i n g Home R e g u l a t i o n s A c t , S e c t i o n s i x s p e c i f i e s t h a t m a r i n a o p e r a t o r s w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g a r e g i s t r y system f o r f l o a t i n g homes moored t h e r e i n . The s i t u a t i o n c o u l d o c c u r , however, t h a t a f l o a t -i n g home u n i t may be s o l d p r i o r t o t a x a t i o n and moved t o anot h e r l o c a t i o n . A l s o t h i s system depends upon t h e i n t e g r i t y and d i l l i g e n c e o f a marin a o p e r a t o r t o r e c o r d and m a i n t a i n an a c c u r a t e r e g i s t r y . S e c t i o n n i n e o f the proposed F l o a t i n g Homes R e g u l a t i o n A c t p r o v i d e s t h a t an owner o f a f l o a t i n g home w h i c h i s t a x a b l e under t h i s A c t and w i l l be e l i g i b l e f o r b e n e f i t s under the P r o v i n c i a l Homeowner Grant A c t and the P r o v i n c i a l Home A c q u i s i t i o n A c t . However, under a system where t h e r e i s no c e n t r a l r e g i s t e r i n g i t c o u l d become q u i t e e x p e n s i v e to c o l l e c t t a x e s from f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s i n r e l a t i o n t o t he amounts o f money i n q u e s t i o n . Taxes i n many l o c a t i o n s , i t i s assumed may be l e s s than the amount o f t h e homeowner g r a n t w h i c h o n l y r e q u i r e s a payment o f f i f t y d o l l a r s t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y . I f the f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t does n o t pay t h e f i f t y d o l l a r s t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y l o s e s the amount o f the homeowner g r a n t . I t becomes n e c e s s a r y t h e r e f o r e f o r t h e c o l l e c t o r t o canvass f l o a t i n g homes i n d i v i d u a l l y c o l l e c t i n g the f i f t y d o l l a r s from each home and a s i g n a t u r e on t h e t a x n o t i c e . - 58 -3.7 M u l t i p l e T a x a t i o n The C i t y o f Vancouver c u r r e n t l y imposes r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l i c e n c e fees on marina o p e r a t o r s where f l o a t i n g homes are s i t u a t e d . (see appendix 1) Richmond has a l s o recomm-ended the adoption o f a s i m i l a r s t r a t e g y . In the event a p r o v i n c i a l t a x a t i o n s t r a t e g y i s adopted, i t i s o n l y reason-a b l e t h a t these l i c e n c e fees be reduced or terminated. A c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s p r a c t i c e would simply double t a x a t i o n which would be r e f l e c t e d i n f l o a t i n g home c o s t s . 3.8 M u n i c i p a l A t t i t u d e s Towards F l o a t i n g Home Assessment L o c a l government o f f i c i a l s may a l s o argue t h a t even i f f l o a t i n g homes become a s s e s s a b l e f o r t a x a t i o n purposes they would g e n e r a l l y tend to be aolow assessment p r o p e r t y t h a t would not f u l l y pay an amount i n taxes commensurate w i t h m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n . The assumption i s g e n e r a l l y c o r r e c t t h a t on-auunit.; b a s i s f l o a t i n g homes have market valu e s lower than t r a d i t i o n -a l s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . However, i n the persuance o f t h i s argument i t should a l s o be remembered t h a t f l o a t i n g home communities are u s u a l l y o f such design t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to achieve d e n s i t i e s upwards o f t h i r t y u n i t s per net a c r e , * as opposed to t r a d i t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g sub-d i v i s i o n d e n s i t i e s o f approximately s i x to ten u n i t s per net * Net Acre: 80% of gross acre a l l o w i n g f o r adequate spa c i n g of .units walkways e t c . A l s o assumes u n i t occupies approx. 1000 sq. f t . o f water space. - 59 -a c r e . T h e r e f o r e the aggregate t o t a l of a s s e s s a b l e u n i t s would l i k e l y be as h i g h i f not h i g h e r than c o n v e n t i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n s . F o l l o w i n g along these l i n e s i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t i n the development of a f l o a t i n g community by the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , many of the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d f o r the r e s i d e n t s would be p a i d f o r and maintained by the develop-ment i t s e l f . In a comprehensive development, s e r v i c e s such as i n t e r n a l water and sewer would be maintained by the operator, wharf l i g h t i n g , garbage c o l l e c t i o n , snow removal from p a r k i n g l o t s and walkaways would a l s o be c a r r i e d out by the o p e r a t o r . Some developments may a l s o i n c l u d e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s f o r i t s r e s i d e n t s , f u r t h e r r e d u c i n g demand on p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . L o c a l governments may argue t h a t i n the event f l o a t i n g homes become s u b j e c t to d i r e c t t a x a t i o n , t h e i r presence, a f t e r a number o f years w i l l r e s u l t i n a lower m u n i c i p a l assessment base. This argument i s founded on the b e l i e f t h a t f l o a t i n g homes w i l l d e c l i n e i n va l u e over a p e r o i d o f time. Evidence i n Greater Vancouver i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s not the case. Mrs. Sonja Johnson, former s e c r e t a r y o f the Coast F l o a t i n g Homes A s s o c i a t i o n and Vancouver F l o a t i n g Homes Cooperative, i n d i c a t e d i n a r e c e n t d i s c u s s i o n t h a t good q u a l i t y f l o a t i n g homes have g e n e r a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d i n value over the past few ye a r s . T h i s i n c r e a s e i n v a l u e i s based on simple laws of supply and demand. There are p r e s e n t l y v e r y few moorages p e r m i t t i n g f l o a t i n g homes, wh i l e - 60 -there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t demand f o r these u n i t s where s e c u r i t y of tenure i s a v a i l a b l e . 3.9 Recommendations and Conclusions  T a x a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n The approach taken to develop a p r o v i n c i a l t a x a t i o n scheme p e r t a i n i n g to f l o a t i n g homes i s a p o s i t i v e approach. The proposed P r i v a t e Members B i l l No. M201 may, however, encounter d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g out of the a l l encompassing d e f i n i t i o n used to d e s c r i b e a f l o a t i n g home. S e c t i o n one of t h i s Act d e f i n e s " f l o a t i n g homes" as "a d w e l l i n g u n i t which f l o a t s or v e s s e l which a c t s as a d w e l l i n g u n i t , and which i s used as a temporary or permanent r e s i d e n c e . " The i n c l u s i o n o f the word " v e s s e l " i m p l i e s t h a t a c o n f l i c t o f j u r i s d i c t i o n may a r i s e between P r o v i n c i a l and Federal, a u t h o r i t i e s . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, v e s s e l s can be r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y o f Tra n s p o r t as n o n - p r o p e l l e d v e s s e l s and i f t h i s i s done the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as to whether p r o v i n c i a l t a x a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n can indeed apply to a v e s s e l that has r e g i s t e r e d and p a i d a tonnage tax to the F e d e r a l Government. The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the proposed p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n i t s p r e s e n t format i s the i n c l u s i o n o f both f l o a t i n g homes and l i v e - a b o a r d s ( l i v e - a b o a r d s are g e n e r a l l y recog-n i z e d as s a i l b o a t s and powerboats which people i n h a b i t ) . \ - 61 -The d e f i n i t i o n of a v e s s e l under the Canada Shipping Act, Small V e s s e l R e g u l a t i o n s S e c t i o n 2 (q) s t a t e s that a " v e s s e l i n c l u d e s any ship or boat or any oth e r d e s c r i p t i o n of v e s s e l , except a seaplane, used or designed to be used i n n a v i g a t i o n . " The author i s of the o p i n i o n t h a t t h i s d e f i n i t i o n does not i n c l u d e f l o a t i n g homes because they are not s p e c i f i c a l l y used o r designed to be used i n n a v i g a t i o n . Rather, t h e i r primary f u n c t i o n i s to p r o v i d e housing accomodation. T h e r e f o r e i t appears t h a t tax l e g i s l a t i o n may i n f a c t be a p p l i c a b l e to f l o a t i n g homes. Con t i n u i n g w i t h t h i s i n mind the M i n i s t r y o f Tra n s p o r t may be r e g i s -t e r i n g f l o a t i n g homes as n o n - p r o p e l l e d v e s s e l s , when i n a c t u a l i t y they should not be r e g i s t e r e d , under the i n t e n t and d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n . I f t h i s i s the case, then the p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e would probably be v a l i d f o r purposes of t a x a t i o n o f f l o a t i n g homes. I t would be necessary f o r the M i n i s t r y o f Tra n s p o r t to review i t s r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure and not i n c l u d e f l o a t i n g homes which are not t r u l y v e s s e l s , but homes. L e g i s l a t i o n attempting to encompass both l i v e - a b o a r d s and f l o a t i n g homes appears c o n t e n t i o u s r e g a r d i n g the l i v e -aboard component due to the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n f l i c t o f j u r i s d i c t i o n r e g a r d i n g t a x a t i o n o f r e g i s t e r e d v e s s e l s . I t does i n any event appear q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t a p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e i s implementable that d e a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h f l o a t i n g homes as d e f i n e d i n t h i s paper. - 62 -L i c e n c i n g I f and when d i r e c t t a x a t i o n procedures become a v a i l a b l e v i a p r o v i n c i a l e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i t i s recommended t h a t those areas which are l e v y i n g l i c e n c i n g fees as a method of revenue c o l l e c t i o n reduce or e l i m i n a t e these methods. A c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s p r a c t i c e would simply c o n s t i t u t e double t a x a t i o n . R e g i s t r a t i o n Necessary to the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f t a x a t i o n and assessment l e g i s l a t i o n would be the adoption o f an a p p r o p r i a t e r e g i s t r a t i o n ; s y s t e m . The B i l l p r e s e n t l y b e f o r e the l e g i s l a t u r e p l a c e s the onus on the marina o p e r a t o r to keep an up-to-date r e g i s t r y but f o r reasons d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r t h i s system"would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e . The P r o v i n c i a l Government i n i t s throne speech January 197 7 gave evidence t h a t they w i l l be und e r t a k i n g to e s t a b l i s h a c e n t r a l i z e d mobile home r e g i s t r y . The s i m i l a r i t i e s between mobile homes and f l o a t i n g homes would suggest t h a t f l o a t i n g homes c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h i s r e g i s t r a t i o n system. Having f l o a t i n g homes i n a c e n t r a l r e g i s t r y system would a l s o be o f b e n e f i t as the r e g i s t r y c o u l d p r o v i d e market p r i c e i n f o r -mation which would be v a l u a b l e f o r assessment purposes. I - 63 -CHAPTER FOUR FLOATING HOMES: ASPECTS OF POLLUTION A major c o n c e r n about f l o a t i n g homes i s th e y w i l l p o l l u t e t h e wate r s on w h i c h t h e y a r e l o c a t e d . Such p o l l u t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y sewage u n d o u b t e d l y a f f e c t s l o c a l a t t i t u d e s towards f l o a t i n g home developments. The t h r e e major s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s powers t o r e g u l a t e p o l l u t i o n o r r e q u i r e d a n t i - p o l l u t i o n measures, t h e s o u r c e s o f sewage and a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h them. The c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e r e a r e , a l t h o u g h n o t i n e x p e n s i v e , t e c h n o l o g i e s a v a i l a b l e t h a t can e l i m i n a t e p o l l u t i o n problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f l o a t i n g homes, and t h a t t h e s e c o u l d be r e q u i r e d i n the Lower M a i n l a n d by a v a r i e t y o f l e g a l t e c h n i q u e s . 4.1 The P o l l u t i o n P r o b l e m N e a r l y a l l f l o a t i n g homes p r e s e n t l y l o c a t e d i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d d i s c h a r g e wastes d i r e c t l y i n t o t he w a t e r . M a r i n a s a r e o f t e n l o c a t e d i n a r e a s where t h e n a t u r a l f l o w and t u r b u l e n c e o f t h e wat e r i s r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t , and i n any case t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the marin a i t s e l f tends t o l i m i t f l o w and t r a p f l o a t i n g d e b r i s . Thus sewage would o f t e n c o l l e c t around t h e marin a and d i s s i p a t e v e r y s l o w l y , i n t e r -f e r i n g w i t h t h e n a t u r a l t r e a t m e n t p r o c e s s e s o f d i l u t i o n and b i o l o g i c a l r e d u c t i o n . I f f l o t s a m i s a l l o w e d t o c o l l e c t - 64 -to an extent t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduces s u n l i g h t p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o the benthos i t w i l l a l s o a f f e c t the normal exchange of gasses a t the s u r f a c e . A gas, hydrogen s u l p h i d e which has a v e r y s t r o n g and d i s t a s t e f u l odor i s produced by organisms t h a t grow r a p i d l y i n such c o n d i t i o n s o f low s u n l i g h t and low 1 d i s s o l v e d oxygen l e v e l s . Thus the problem o f domestic waste p o l l u t i o n from f l o a t i n g homes i s more than a matter of the q u a n t i t y and b i o c h e m i c a l q u a l i t i e s o f wastes d i s -charged i n t o the water, as c o n d i t i o n s around the homes are l i k e l y to exascerbate h e a l t h and a e s t h e t i c consequences i n the immediate area of these r e s i d e n c e s . These e f f e c t s would a l s o be hazards to swimming, b o a t i n g or other r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t otherwise might w e l l be c a r r i e d on i n the same g e n e r a l l o c a t i o n as a marina. 4.2 L e g i s l a t i v e C o n t r o l s I t i s not c e r t a i n t h a t l e g i s l a t i n g e n a b l i n g l o c a l governments to r e g u l a t e the d i s c h a r g e o f domestic wastes a p p l i e s to homes f l o a t i n g over water. A b a s i c determinant of the r e l e v a n c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n depends upon which l e v e l o f government, P r o v i n c i a l or F e d e r a l , has j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and p r o p r i e t o r y r i g h t s . 1. Eekman, Gordon A Houseboat Community of Coal Harbour Unpublished a r c h i t e c t u r e paper, November 1973 - 65 -" I f we assume t h a t the l a n d underneath the water where houseboats are s i t u a t e d i s the p r o p e r t y of Canada, then B r i t i s h Columbia has no j u r i s d i c t i o n over t h i s area. Under these set of circumstances n o t h i n g can be done to p r o h i b i t the houseboats from d i s c h a r g i n g human waste because there i s p r e s e n t l y no F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n e x i s t e n c e d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s v ery p o i n t . I f we assume t h a t the l a n d underneath the water where the houseboats are s i t u a t e d i s the p r o p e r t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, then i t might very w e l l be p o s s i b l e t o p r o h i b i t houseboats from d i s c h a r g i n g human wastes. I t we make the l a t t e r assumption, then i t i s submitted that the l e g i s l a t u r e of B r i t i s h Columbia has the a u t h o r i t y to r e g u l a t e the u l t i m a t e d i s p o s a l of waste m a t e r i a l s pursuant to the He a l t h Act of B r i t i s h Columbia." 2 Based on t h i s assumption of the lan d underneath b e i n g p r o v i n c i a l p r o p e r t y "amendments to the Act have been pro-posed by a Committee, of P r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n order to c l e a r l y d e f i n e comprehensive h e a l t h standards f o r marinas. These amendments have y e t to be adopted by the Province, however, they have been adopted by the C i t y of 3 Vancouver by r e s o l u t i o n . " In order to s u c c e s s f u l l y u t i l i z e p r o v i s i o n s w i t h i n the P r o v i n c i a l H e a l t h Act, which a u t h o r i z e s the P r o v i n c e to e s t a b l i s h r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s governing the d i s p o s a l of sewage, i t i s necessary to determine the p r e c i s e ownership of the lan d underneath the water. I f these lands are deemed F e d e r a l then P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n c o n t r o l l i n g waste d i s p o s a l would be i n e f f e c t i v e . 2. Stubbs, J.N. C i t y of Vancouver Law Department "Opinion of a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Vancouver C i t y H e a l t h By-Law and The P r o v i n c i a l H e a l t h Act to sewage d i s p o s a l from f l o a t i n g homes." A p r i l 5, 1975 3. Richmond Marina Study 1975 M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond Pl a n n i n g Department, pp. 3 - 66 -4.3 R e g u l a t i o n V i a Lease P r o v i s i o n Although not s t a t e d w i t h i n terms of the l e a s e agreement between the Pr o v i n c e and the North F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission, i t i s a matter o f commission p o l i c y that a l l sub-le a s e s granted by the commission s h a l l agree to conform to P r o v i n c i a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l r e g u l a t i o n s . The s p e c i f i c a c t r e f e r r e d to i s the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act 1967, which s t a t e s under s e c t i o n 5 t h a t "....no person s h a l l , d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , d i s c h a r g e or cause or permit the di s c h a r g e of sewage or other waste m a t e r i a l on, i n or under any land or i n t o any water without a permit or appro v a l from the D i r e c t o r . " ^ Using the p r o v i s i o n w i t h i n t h i s A c t i t appears p o s s i b l e to c o n t r o l sewage d i s p o s a l i n those water con-t r o l l e d by the P r o v i n c e . T h i s A c t co u l d t h e r e f o r e be used to e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l f l o a t i n g homes waste d i s p o s a l . Other l e a s i n g agencies, c o u l d as a matter of p o l i c y i n s i s t t h a t marina l e a s e s e i t h e r conform to the requirements of the P r o v i n c i a l H e a l t h A c t i n f o r c e or to the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act or both. The q u e s t i o n might a l s o w e l l be asked why the marina operat o r s themselves do not undertake to i n i t i a t e p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l mechanisms. The r e l u c t a n c e r e s u l t s from a g e n e r a l u n c e r t a i n t i e s of lease s being renewed and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t the adjacent upland areas may be rezoned and f u t u r e development o f the surrounding areas may p r e c l u d e the marina 4. R.S.B.C. Chapter 34. The P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act, 1967 S e c t i o n 5 - 67 -i t s e l f . I f the le a s e s are not renewed or a zoning change does occur the marina op e r a t o r f e e l s he may be l e f t to pay f o r the expense of c o n s t r u c t i n g a sewage c o l l e c t i o n system. 4.4 Methods of Sewage D i s p o s a l With the adoption of adequate c o n t r o l mechanisms to i n h i b i t the d i r e c t d i s charge of wastes from f l o a t i n g homes i t f o l l o w s t h a t s u i t a b l e c o l l e c t i o n and d i s p o s a l systems and/or treatment systems must be i n s t i t u t e d . The i n t e n t of t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be to i n d i c a t e systems which are a v a i l a b l e and d i s c u s s the p o s i t i v e and ne g a t i v e aspects of these o p t i o n s . I t i s not, however, the purpose to d i s c u s s these systems o p e r a t i o n s i n great d e t a i l . Reference m a t e r i a l s p e c i f i c to f l o a t i n g home waste d i s p o s a l i s q u i t e l i m i t e d . However, a r e p o r t prepared by the U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e n t i t l e d Houseboat  Wastes: Methods of C o l l e c t i o n and Treatment June 1967, does gi v e a good a n a l y s i s of v a r i o u s systems which c o u l d p o s s i b l y be used to dis p o s e o f f l o a t i n g home wastes. Much of the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s based on t h i s r e p o r t . Wastes eminating from f l o a t i n g homes are v i r t u a l l y the same as those which would be discharged from a l a n d based d w e l l i n g u n i t . T o i l e t wastes are not the o n l y w a t e r - c a r r i e d d i s c h a r g e t h a t causes p u b l i c h e a l t h and a e s t h e t i c concern, as l i q u i d s and suspended s o l i d s from k i t c h e n s i n k s , baths and wash b a s i n s , and laundry f i x t u r e s must a l s o be t r e a t e d - 68 -to a v o i d environmental problems. I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t o i l e t wastes account f o r o n l y approximately 38% o f the volume of sewage dis h c a r g e d from r e s i d e n c e s . ^ A s a t i s f a c t o r y system f o r f l o a t i n g (or land supported) homes must p r o v i d e treatment or c o l l e c t i o n o f wastes from a l l f o u r types o f plumbing f i x t u r e s . Any comprehensive method of w a s t e c c o l l e c t i o n may r e q u i r e that e x i s t i n g f l o a t i n g homes replumb i n p a r t or i n whole the plumbing system. Systems c u r r e n t l y u u t i l i z e d by many f l o a t i n g s t r u c t u r e s are simply v e r t i c a l d r a i n s connected to the source and d i s c h a r g i n g d i r e c t l y i n t o the water. Because of the s t r u c t u r a l r e s t r i c t i o n s and p o t e n t i a l l a r g e c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n replumbing e x i s t i n g u n i t s i t may be necessary to r e l a x c e r t a i n requirements of a plumbing code f o r these u n i t s o n l y . A l t e r n a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n techniques c o u l d p o s s i b l y be d e r i v e d which c o u l d be s c r u t i n i z e d on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . 4.5 C o l l e c t i o n and Treatment A l t e r n a t i v e s I t i s t e c h n i c a l l y f e a s i b l e to p r o v i d e e i t h e r treatment or connections to sewers f o r a s i n g l e f l o a t i n g home on s i t e or as a s i n g l e system s e r v i n g a group of f l o a t i n g homes on an aggregated b a s i s . Sewage c o l l e c t i o n and treatment on a group b a s i s i s almost i n v a r i a b l y l e s s expensive than i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s . In any case e i t h e r c o n n e c t i o n to a shore 5. C l a r k , B.D. Houseboat Wastes: Methods f o r C o l l e c t i o n  and Treatment U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . June 1967. pp. 11 - 69 -system or both primary and secondary treatment of wastes i n a s e l f operated marina treatment f a c i l i t y i s h i g h l y d e s i r e a b l e . "Connections to shore sewers, wherever p o s s i b l e , should be r e q u i r e d to c o n s o l i d a t e waste treatment respon-s i b i l i t i e s and r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l . " The paper w i l l now b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e the major types of treatment and c o l l e c t i o n systems, and s i g n i f i c a n t advantages and dis a d v a n t -ages of each as r e l a t e d to f l o a t i n g homes. 4.6 I n d i v i d u a l Methods 1. M a c e r a t o r - D i s i n f e c t o r T o i l e t s : B a s i c a l l y these u n i t s macerate and d i s i n f e c t s t o i l e t waste p r i o r to d i s c h a r g e ; disadvantages of these u n i t s a re: they do not p r o v i d e secondary treatment needed to be o p e r a t i n g adequately, they tend to have a shor t l i f e span and need r e p a i r i n g f r e q u e n t l y , o n l y t o i l e t wastes are t r e a t e d , and the s o l i d wastes may not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced. 2. I n c i n e r a t o r T o i l e t s : These u n i t s s u b j e c t t o i l e t wastes to gas i n c i n e r a t i o n which produces an i n e r t ash. The e f f i c i e n c y of these u n i t s i s good w i t h 1007o removal of wastes, again though, o n l y t o i l e t wastes are t r e a t e d , secondary treatment i s not pr o v i d e d and the c o s t i s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h when c o n s i d e r i n g • t h e degree of treatment p r o v i d e d . 6. I b i d pp. 47 -70 -3. A e r o b i c Treatment and D i s i n f e c t i o n : B a s i c a l l y wastes are w i t h h e l d i n a tank f o r twenty f o u r hours w i t h a r t i f i c i a l a e r a t i o n , s o l i d s s e t t l e and c h l o r i n a t i o n o f the e f f l u e n t p r i o r to d i s c h a r g e . The process i s b i o l o g i c a l l y simple but i t has to be o p e r a t i n g p r o p e r l y to be s u c c e s s f u l . Major drawbacks of these u n i t s are the l a r g e s i z e , which i n most f l o a t i n g homes would be o v e r s i z e d , the n e c e s s i t y o f proper i n s t a l l a t i o n and maintenance and the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c o s t . In the "Aquatic V i l l a g e " development i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of North Vancouver they have i n c o r p o r a t e d a completely s e l f c o n t ained sewage d i s p o s a l system. B a s i c a l l y , t h i s system i s comprised o f a humus t o i l e t which, through a e r o b i c micro-o r g a n i c decomposition reduces t o i l e t waste to a humus m a t e r i a l which need o n l y be removed about once a year. Wastewaters from outher sources such as b a t h i n g , laundry and the k i t c h e n are passed through a grease and soap i n t e r c e p t o r which f l o a t s o f f the grease and s e t t l e s out the soap. The water i s then t r e a t e d w i t h i o d i n e , p r i o r to di s c h a r g e , r e p o r t e d l y removes the m a j o r i t y o f remaining contaminants. - 71 -4.7 Shore Treatment There are two a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e i f wastes are pumped to shore. The bes t and most ac c e p t a b l e choice i s to connect d i r e c t l y w i t h e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l sewers or i f t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e to u t i l i z e -a s e p t i c tank w i t h absorb-t i o n f i e l d . T h i s l a t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e i s not, however, recommended i n urban areas where most communities have adopted a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the use o f s e p t i c tanks. Diagrams 1 and 2 i l l u s t r a t e the b a s i c design o f f l o a t s and i n t e g r a t e d sewage d i s p o s a l systems u t i l i z e d i n S e a t t l e and proposed by the Coast F l o a t i n g Homes Cooperative f o r p o s s i b l e use i n the Vancouver area. B a s i c a l l y these two concepts employ a system whereby sewage i s c o l l e c t e d at a c e n t r a l l i f t s t a t i o n l o c a t e d i n the marina which i n t u r n pumps t h i s sewage ashore to connect w i t h the shore based sewer system. 4.8 Group Methods I f i t i s impossible to connect to and di s c h a r g e i n t o a shore based sewer, as an i n t e r i m measure f l o a t i n g home communities c o u l d p r o v i d e t h e i r own treatment f a c i l i t y . These u n i t s could be e i t h e r land based or f l o a t i n g a e r a t i o n or s e t t l i n g u n i t s t r e a t i n g the e f f l u e n t w i t h c h l o r i n e p r i o r to dis c h a r g e . The r e p o r t by U.S. F e d e r a l Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n views t h i s method onl y as an i n t e r i m measure u n t i l such time connection can be made to onshore s e r v i c e . - .72 -DIAGRAM 1 SEATTLE FLOAT AND SEWER SYSTEM Source: Coast F l o a t i n g Homes Association. Information Doc-ument. - 73 -DIAGRAM 2 PROPOSED DISPOSAL SYSTEM FOR  VANCOUVER FLOATING HOMES E l e c t r i c a l Telephone. Water. E l e c t r i c i t y and "Telephone Shore connection to sewer^ Sewer C o l l e c t i n g tank and pumping system, either i n a f l o a t or a barge Note: System to be b u i l t to the s p e c i f -i c a t i o n s of Seattles Houseboat sewage sys-tem. F l e x i b l e hose and coupling d i r e c t to f l o a t i n g home. Source: Coast F l o a t i n g Homes Assoc i a t i o n . Information Doc-ument. - 74 -4.9 A d d i t i o n a l C o n c e r n s A n o t h e r a r e a o f c o n c e r n t h o u g h n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e d i r e c t d i s p o s a l o f sewage i n t o t h e w a t e r i s t h a t o f t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e u n i t s t h e m s e l v e s have on b e n t h i c o r g a n i s m s . The i s s u e i s t h a t f l o a t i n g homes when massed t o g e t h e r e f f e c t i v e l y e l i m i n a t e s u n l i g h t p e n e t r a t i o n t o t h e w a t e r s below, h a v i n g a d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t on b e n t h i c o r g a n i s m s . The s o l u t i o n t o t h i s dilemma w o u l d be t o e n s u r e a d e q u a t e s p a c i n g o f u n i t s t o a l l o w l i g h t t o d i f f u s e down t h r o u g h t h e w a t e r t o t h e b o t t o m . D r i f t m a t e r i a l s a l s o t e n d t o c o l l e c t i n c o n f i n e d p l a c i d w a t e r a r e a s . However, i f a d e q u a t e s p a c i n g o f u n i t s i s p r o v i d e d f o r and f l o a t s a r e a r r a n g e d i n a manner n o n - c o n d u s i v e t o m a t e r i a l s c o l l e c t i o n t h i s p r o b l e m c o u l d be m i n i m i z e d . A n o t h e r a p p r o a c h t o a l l e v i a t e d r i f t m a t e r i a l s c o l l e c t i n g w o u l d be t o h a v e t h e c o n n e c t i n g walkways and ramps r a i s e d above t h e w a t e r s s u p p o r t e d by p i l i n g s . T h i s w o u l d a l l o w f o r m a t e r i a l s t o more r e a d i l y p a s s t h r o u g h . The l e a c h i n g o u t o f n o x i o u s m a t e r i a l s s u c h as l e a d u s e d i n n o n - c o r r o s i v e p r o t e c t i o n p a i n t s a l s o p o s e s a p o t e n t i a l harm t o m a r i n e l i f e . However, w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o f f l o a t -a t i o n d e v i c e s c o n s t r u c t e d o f f i b r e g l a s s o r f e r r o - c e m e n t t h i s p r o b l e m i s m i n i m i z e d as t h e s e m a t e r i a l s u n l i k e wood do n o t n e e d t o be t r e a t e d w i t h n o n - c o r r o s i v e p a i n t s . T h e s e t y p e s o f f l o a t a t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s were e n d o r s e d b y t h e C o a s t F l o a t i n g Homes A s s o c i a t i o n and s u b s e q u e n t l y t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r F l o a t i n g Homes C o o p e r a t i v e . - 75 -4.10 Recommendations and Conclusions With the d i f f i c u l t i e s l o c a l governments are currently-e x p e r i e n c i n g i n c o n t r o l l i n g sewage d i s c h a r g e from f l o a t i n g homes there are a number of s t r a t e g i e s which c o u l d be implemented to a m e l i o r a t e the s i t u a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g the l e a d of the C i t y of Vancouver, other' l o c a l governments c o u l d e s t a b l i s h standards governing the waste d i s p o s a l from w a t e r c r a f t moored at marinas w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . T h i s would give, l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s d i r e c t c o n t r o l over the s i t u a t i o n to ensure a l l l o c a l requirements are met. The d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s approach i s that i f those waters over which standards are imposed and the land underneath the waters i s the p r o p e r t y of the F e d e r a l Crown there may be a c o n f l i c t o f j u r i s d i c t i o n n e g a t i n g some or a l l of those standards e s t a b l i s h e d . However, i n waters owned by the p r o v i n c e i t appears p o s s i b l e that proper sewage d i s p o s a l can be enforced through the H e a l t h A c t . A second procedure which c o u l d be adopted to c o n t r o l the d i s p o s a l of u n t r e a t e d sewage from f l o a t i n g homes would be to i n c l u d e a p p r o p r i a t e "purposes c l a u s e s " i n the l e a s e > agreements administered by the water l o t l e a s i n g agencies. P r o v i s i o n s i n these l e a s e s e i t h e r newly i s s u e d or renewed, would p r o v i d e t h a t marinas where f l o a t i n g homes are moored s h a l l p r o v i d e f o r the d i s p o s a l of sewage as r e q u i r e d by that p a r t i c u l a r m u n i c i p a l i t y . In order to e f f e c t u a t e such a system i t would be necessary to ensure the c o o p e r a t i o n o f - 76 -the l o c a l government concerned and the leasing agency. Municipal governments also have the option to ensure new marinas or f l o a t i n g home developments i n s t a l l required sewage disposal f a c i l i t i e s v i a the Land Use Contract. By vir t u e of their upland control, municipalities can negotiate that as a condition of the upland use that servicing be i n s t a l l e d according to municipal s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , to service the water portions of the development. It i s recommended that f l o a t i n g homes c o l l e c t and d i s -charge sewage into a municipal sewage system on shore. Adopting this p o l i c y would ensure that sewage treatment r e s p o n s i b i l i t y arid regulatory control would be consolidated within the municipality. Although other systems either in d i v i d u a l or group methods may be appropriate there s t i l l remains the p o s s i b i l i t y these systems may not be operating e f f e c t i v e l y . It i s recommended that f l o a t a t i o n devices such as reinforced f i b r e g l a s s or ferro-cement, which do notnneed non-corrosive paints be used. The use of these materials would reduce the effects of noxious chemicals leaching out and detrimentally a f f e c t i n g aquatic l i f e . CHAPTER FIVE FLOATING HOMES: PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS Many of the problems predominating the f l o a t i n g home s i t u a t i o n are e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d by the l a c k o f , or inapprop-r i a t e r e g u l a t i o n s governing t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n or l o c a t i o n . I f f l o a t i n g homes are to become a v i a b l e housing form i t i s necessary that a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s be giv e n to c r i t e r i a promoting q u a l i t y c o n s t r u c t i o n .and design i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h i s r e s i d e n t i a l form i n t o the community as a whole. The i n t e n t of t h i s chapter i s not to s p e c i f y r i g i d requirements or standards f o r f l o a t i n g homes, but r a t h e r to suggest g u i d e l i n e s and p l a n n i n g con-s i d e r a t i o n s , that need to be co n s i d e r e d i f and when governing agencies set out to prepare t h e i r own by-laws or r e g u l a t o r y d e v i c e s . A c e n t r a l i s s u e r e g a r d i n g f l o a t i n g homes i s t h e i r use of the water as a p r i v a t e use as opposed to a view h e l d by many that w a t e r f r o n t s should be used f o r p u b l i c purposes. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e does not seem to be any e f f e c t i v e means to a l l e v i a t e t h i s i s s u e . In s e v e r a l c i t i e s t h i s i s s u e has been remedied to a c e r t a i n degree by adopting a p r i o r i t y system of w a t e r f r o n t uses. F i r s t p r i o r i t y uses would i n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s such as sp o r t f a c i l i t i e s , swimming, f i s h i n g , and b o a t i n g . Second order uses may i n c l u d e r e s t a u r a n t s , o f f i c e s , h o t e l s , parks e t . which r e l y on but are not t o t a l l y dependant - 78 -on the water f o r the a c t i v i t y to be s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r i e d on. The C i t y o f S e a t t l e ' s S h o r e l i n e Master P l a n s t a t e s t h a t " F l o a t i n g homes and f l o a t i n g home moorages are water dependant uses and as such are p r e f e r r e d uses to occupy the s u r f a c e o f the water." L o c a l governments should c a r r y out s i m i l a r procedures to i d e n t i f y p r i o r i t y uses f o r the wa t e r f r o n t (those which have a r e l a t i o n to the water) and i n doing so i n v e s t i g a t e and assess p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g f l o a t i n g homes. A major o b j e c t i v e o f many wa t e r f r o n t p l a n n i n g programmes i s to ensure t h a t the area should be a c t i v e l y used and o f f e r a v a r i e t y of uses and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . F l o a t i n g homes are not e n v i s i o n e d as t a k i n g over and c o n t r o l l i n g v a s t expanses of s h o r e l i n e but r a t h e r l o c a t i n g i n a c o n s o l i d a t e d f a s h i o n . As such, t h e i r presence i n a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n s c o u l d add another element to the d i v e r s i t y of the w a t e r f r o n t . At the same time they would be p r o v i d i n g animation to the area on a twenty-four hour b a s i s . A w a t e r f r o n t community s e n s i t i v e l y designed c o u l d a l s o serve to g i v e a p a r t i c u l a r w a t e r f r o n t area a d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r . Character, f o r most w a t e r f r o n t s t r a d i t i o n a l l y means t o u r i s t oriented-commercial d i s t r i c t s . With f l o a t i n g homes l o c a t i n g w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to urban areas i t can be argued that the s o c i a l c o s t s i n -c u r r e d by t h e i r development would not be as great should these same persons choose to l i v e i n suburban f r i n g e areas. For example c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to urban - 79 -f a c i l i t i e s i s reduced, as well, the costs of providing services would be less as the bulk of services such as schools, shops, roads etc. are already i n place. In of f e r i n g this limited number of people the opportunity to l i v e on the water also precludes the poten t i a l development or u t i l i z a t i o n of land 'simply for the purpose of housing.' 5.1 Locational C r i t e r i a An important determinant of possible f l o a t i n g home locations i s the nature of the water i t s e l f . This means that f l o a t i n g homes should be located i n areas where there i s minimal wave action which might possibly disrupt the units. This would preclude areas where the waters are unsheltered from the wind or from large waves eminating from the movement of ships or boats. It i s also necessary that there i s s u f f i c i e n t depth of water below the units to ensure they do not rest on the bottom i n t i d a l waters when the tide ebbs. P a r t i c u l a r l y important i n the location of f l o a t i n g homes marinas, as well as marinas i n general, i s the aspect of potent i a l c o n f l i c t with upland uses. Upland residents t r a d i t i o n a l l y lobby against any development which i t i s f e l t w i l l detrimentally impact their views. In this regard, any comprehensive f l o a t i n g home community should either be located i n a fashion so as not to pre-empt views or be designed i n a manner which w i l l reduce this c o n f l i c t . As - 80 -mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f North Vancouver i s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n c l u d i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r a f l o a t i n g home community i n the Seymour P l a n n i n g Study. T h i s i s an example of the optimum c o n d i t i o n , where a f l o a t i n g home community i s c o o r d i n a t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h planned upland developments. Other c o n f l i c t i n g uses i n c l u d e those w i t h commercial or i n d u s t r i a l uses, which by t h e i r nature are not u s u a l l y compatible w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l environments. L o c a l governments should a l s o ensure t h a t l o c a t i o n s be adequately p r o v i d e d w i t h m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s such as water and sewer connections e t c . and t h a t these l o c a t i o n s a l s o be acc e s s a b l e to f a c i l i t i e s such as s c h o o l s , s t o r e s , parks and p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . C o n s i d e r a t i o n should a l s o be giv e n as to p o s s i b l e im-pacts such developments may have on t r a f f i c a h d c c i r c u l a t i o n i n and around the areas where they are l o c a t e d . An important aspect i n v o l v e d i n the s e l e c t i o n o f any l o c a t i o n f o r a f l o a t i n g home community would be the n e c e s s i t y of an a p p r a i s a l b e i ng undertaken to i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e n e g a t i v e environmental impacts on water q u a l i t y , b e n t h i c organisms or s h o r e l i n e d e g r e d a t i o n . F l o a t i n g home l o c a t i o n s cannot o n l y be determined i n terms o f the concerns and a s p i r a t i o n s o f l o c a l government, but w i l l a l s o have to be eval u a t e d i n terms of p r i o r i t i e s and concerns o f agencies r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the management of the p a r t i c u l a r water body. - 81 -5.2 F l o a t i n g home Marinas Evidence from areas such as Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a and S e a t t l e , Washington suggests t h a t f l o a t i n g homes should be l o c a t e d i n moorages which c a t e r s p e c i f i c a l l y to f l o a t i n g homes. Both S e a t t l e and Marin County have zoned s p e c i f i c s i t e s f o r f l o a t i n g home moorages. T h i s reduces p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t s between boaters and f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s , over matters such as n o i s e d i s t u r b a n c e s and the d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t -i e s c a r r i e d on by these two groups. A second o p t i o n would be to i n c l u d e f l o a t i n g homes i n a marina, however, a d i s t i n c t s e p a r a t i o n or b u f f e r zone should be p r o v i d e d to minimize p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s . The p r i n c i p l e s o f economies o f s c a l e suggest that moorages c a t e r i n g o n l y to f l o a t i n g homes would be the bes t approach f o r economic purposes. The p r o v i s i o n of a s e r v i c e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n c l u d i n g sewage d i s p o s a l would not be inexpensive, t h e r e f o r e i t would be b e n e f i c i a l to have as many u n i t s connected to such systems as p o s s i b l e to reduce c o s t s . In a: mixed marina, c a t e r i n g to boats as w e l l , the boats would be u t i l i z i n g space but not paying f o r or needing the requirements i n s t i t u t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r f l o a t i n g homes. F l o a t i n g home marinas, because o f t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l n ature, need s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s beyond thoserinormally p r o v i d e d i n r e c r e a t i o n a l boat moorages. Many communities have adopted p o l i c i e s to m a i n t a i n s t r e e t ends remain unencumbered by c o n s t r u c t i o n . In l i g h t o f these p o l i c i e s , f l o a t i n g home marinas or any marina f o r - 82 -th a t matter should be designed or l o c a t e d to m a i n t a i n these s t r e e t - e n d views. Because of the a t t i t u d i n a l c o n f l i c t which e x i s t s between p u b l i c versus p r i v a t e u s e r s h i p of the water, p r o v i s i o n should be made to f a c i l i t a t e p u b l i c access f o r e i t h e r a c t i v e or viewing pusposes, i n f l o a t i n g home community developments. T h i s c o u l d i n c l u d e the d e d i c a t i o n o f a d j o i n i n g upland area f o r p u b l i c access to pr o v i d e v i s u a l or p h y s i c a l access to the water. T r a d i t i o n a l l y the upland areas adjacent to marinas are used f o r p a r k i n g purposes. In most cases these are simply wide open areas w i t h no s c r e e n i n g of these p a r k i n g l o t s . I t i s suggested then t h a t these p a r k i n g areas, i f p o s s i b l e be underground or landscaped and b u f f e r e d to reduce v i s u a l impact. F l o a t i n g home marinas should i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o t h e i r d esign a s e r v i c i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e which w i l l adequately p r o v i d e f o r e l e c t r i c i t y , water and the d i s p o s a l o f garbage and sewage. Sewage should be c o l l e c t e d and pumped to e x i s t i n g onshore sewer l i n e s . There are a number of other f e a t u r e s which might a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n a f l o a t i n g home moorage such as the p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , laundromats, and i n t e r n a l l a n d s c a p i n g . In Marin County, newer moorages under c o n s t r u c t i o n have p l a n t e d shrubs and tr e e s i n wooden r e c e p t a c l e s along the walkways. D e t a i l s such as t h i s add to the a e s t h e t i c appeal o f the e n t i r e environment. - 83 -Important not only i n upland r e s i d e n t i a l developments but i n f l o a t i n g home marinas as w e l l i s thei.-provision o f adequate open space. The t o t a l coverage o f both f l o a t i n g homes and walkways should be such that i t allows adequate spacing o f u n i t s f o r f i r e p r o t e c t i o n purposes and w i l l a l s o a l l o w s u n l i g h t p e n e t r a t i o n to the u n i t s and the water s u r f a c e . Open space should a l s o be p r o v i d e d f o r , as as to enhance views from the u n i t s to the surrounding waters and secondly the open space would tend to reduce the c l u t t e r e d v i s u a l appearance from upland areas. Rather than d e l v i n g i n t o a gre a t d e s c r i p t i o n of v a r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which should be taken i n t o account to ensure a w e l l s e r v i c e d f l o a t i n g home marina, appendices 4 and 5 are p r o v i d e d f o r t h i s purpose. These r e g u l a t i o n s developed i n S e a t t l e , Washington, and Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a appear to r e p r e s e n t the s t a t e o f the a r t of the v a r i o u s aspects of f l o a t i n g home marinas which should be r e g u l a t e d and con-t r o l l e d . These ordinances were seteout to ensure f l o a t i n g home marinas would be developed to standards t h a t w i l l promote the s a f e t y and q u a l i t y of l i f e s t y l e f o r the f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s . Moreover they s t r i v e to ensure developments which w i l l i n t e g r a t e and be compatible w i t h the community at l a r g e . - 84 -5.3 Floating Home Units Respecting both the health and safety of f l o a t i n g home residents, i t becomes necessary to adopt guidelines and standards regulating the construction of these units. Currently there are no building codes being enforced against f l o a t i n g homes. The Greater Vancouver Floating Home Cooperative has nonetheless recommended for the past few years that persons undertaking to b u i l d f l o a t i n g home units adopt Central Mortgage and Housing's "Canadian Code for Residential Construction". Elements of this code are recommended to be followed are those that r e l a t e to framing, wiring, plumbing, l i g h t i n g , f i r e p l a c e construction and flues, heating, cooking equipment and sanitation f a c i l i t i e s . Perhaps the most important component of a f l o a t i n g home unit i s i t s f l o a t i n g foundation. Because of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of superstructures that exist, the p a r t i c u l a r f l o a t a t i o n system must be designed i n d i v i d u a l l y to suit the p a r t i c u l a r superstructure. This has to be done to ensure the s t a b i l i t y of the unit under a variety of loading and climatic conditions. The materials used for f l o a t a t i o n purposes and the configuration of the floa t s are widely varied. Materials that have been used for f l o a t a t i o n includ logs, synthetic p l a s t i c materials including exposed p l a s t i c foam, fibreglass reinforced polyester r e s i n s h e l l s . Other devices used are fibreglass coated plywood pontoons, prefabricated s t e e l and aluminium f l o a t s , (coated with anti-corrosive chemical - 85 -s o l u t i o n ) and ferro-cement f l o a t s . Logs are not recommended f o r f l o a t a t i o n because of t h e i r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to becoming waterlogged and/or becoming i n f e s t e d by t o r r e d o worms i n a s a l t - w a t e r environment. Exposed p l a s t i c foam as w e l l i s not recommended because of i t s tendency to be e a s i l y damaged upon impact. F i b r e g l a s s or f i b r e g l a s s coated plywood pontoons have been used q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y i n f l o a t i n g homes. These types o f f l o a t s o f f e r advantages because of c o s t , s t r e n g t h , l o n g e t i v i t y , low maintenance and t h e i r a d a p t i b i l i t y to c o n s t r u c t i o n of the u n i t . These f l o a t s are, however-, s t i l l s u s c e p t i b l e to puncture and can be damaged by impact. S t e e l and aluminum f l o a t s although much more r e s i s t a n t to puncture or impact damage are s u s c e p t i b l e to c o r r o s i v e a c t i o n . P a i n t s or chemical c o a t i n g s a p p l i e d to these m a t e r i a l to reduce c o r r o s i o n can, however, l e a c h out i n t o the surrounding waters. Ferro-cement f l o a t s are an o p t i o n which i s recommended f o r use. The m a t e r i a l s are very r e s i s t a n t to puncture or impact damage, they have a l o n g - l i f e w i t h low maintenance and are not r e a d i l y decomposed by chemical or g a l v a n i c a c t i o n . These types of f l o a t s are u s u a l l y o n l y commercially a v a i l a b l e and are t h e r e f o r e more c o s t l y than the other m a t e r i a l s p r e v i o u s l y mentioned; The Greater Vancouver F l o a t i n g Homes Cooperative h i g h l y recommends the use of e i t h e r ferro-cement or f i b r e g l a s s coated pontoons f o r f l o a t a t i o n purposes and does not r e c o g n i z e - 86 -or endorse p l a s t i c foam or l o g f l o a t a t i o n . Of b a s i c importance to the o v e r a l l d e s i g n and performance and s a f e t y of a f l o a t i n g home u n i t i s i t s s t a b i l i t y under v a r y i n g p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . Both the f l o a t a t i o n d e v i c e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e must be designed so as to ensure the u n i t w i l l remain s t a b l e under d i f f e r i n g i n t e r n a l l o a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s or from e x t e r n a l f o r c e s such as wave and wind a c t i o n . The de t e r m i n a t i o n of whether or not a u n i t w i l l m a i n t a i n adequate f r e e b o a r d or have minimal l i s t can o n l y be determined by c a l c u l a t i n g the s t a b i l i t y f a c t o r s f o r every d i f f e r e n t u n i t . Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a has developed procedures f o r c a l c u l a t i n g the minimum f l o a t a t i o n and s t a b i l i t y requirements. These c a l c u l a t i o n s are p r o v i d e d i n appendix 6. S i m i l a r l y because of the a q u a t i c nature o f the f l o a t i n g home environment Marin County has developed an e l e c t r i c a l code s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r f l o a t i n g homes. A copy o f t h i s code i s contained i n appendix 7. As d i s c u s s e d at the o u t s e t of t h i s chapter the purpose has been to d i s c u s s v a r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t should be taken i n t o account i f c o n s i d e r i n g d eveloping f l o a t i n g home r e g u l a t i o n s . For purposes of b r e v i t y appendices 8 and 9 are p r o v i d e d to i n d i c a t e those standards and codes which have been developed i n other areas r e l a t i n g to f l o a t i n g homes and f l o a t i n g home marinas. I t i s not intended they be f o l l o w e d 1. I n t e r i m Standards f o r F l o a t i n g Homes Coast F l o a t i n g Home A s s o c i a t i o n , document 0043, October 1973 pp. 1 & 2 - 87 -o r a d o p t e d v e r b a t u m , b u t r a t h e r u s e d as g u i d e l i n e s t o s u g g e s t s t a n d a r d s w h i c h h ave b e e n s e e n as b e i n g e s s e n t i a l t o m a i n t a i n minimum s t a n d a r d s f o r s a f e t y , h e a l t h and r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . - 88 -CONCLUSION The primary purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s has been to p r o v i d e an overview o f the f l o a t i n g home phenomenon and d i s c u s s the major i s s u e s and i m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r development. F l o a t i n g homes, i n the context o f t h i s t h e s i s are not seen as b e i n g a panacea to housing problems, nor as p r o v i d i n g housing f o r r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e numbers of persons. F l o a t i n g homes do appear, nonetheless to p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e l i f e -s t y l e and mode o f accomodation f o r a number of people. In l i g h t of t h i s f a c t o r , and i n terms of the o f t e n s t a t e d housing goal o f p r o v i d i n g f o r a d i v e r s i t y o f l i f e s t y l e c h o i c e s and housing o p t i o n s , f l o a t i n g homes should be viewed as another o p t i o n to s a t i s f y t h i s g o a l . There are, however, a number of problems i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s which both the c i t i z e n r y , government o f f i c i a l s , and f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s themselves have determined as being o b s t a c l e s towards the i n t e g r a t i o n and a c c e p t a b i l i t y of f l o a t i n g homes as a l e g i t i m a t e and v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e housing form. T h i s t h e s i s has addressed the three most common concerns expressed i n r e l a t i o n to f l o a t i n g homes; these being j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n t r o l s , d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t a x a t i o n and assessment and p o l l u t i o n . For each o f these i s s u e s recommendations or s t r a t e g i e s have been proposed t h a t are d i r e c t e d towards a l l e v i a t i n g the p a r t i c u l a r - 89 -c o n c e r n . T h e s e p o s s i b l e r e m e d i e s h a ve r a n g e d f r o m c o n t r o l s i m p l e m e n t e d a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l t o ones i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n t e r -g o v e r n m e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t and c o o p e r a t i o n . The f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s h as d e a l t w i t h t h o s e e l e m e n t s o f p l a n n i n g t h a t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o r e g u l a t o r y mechanisms e s t a b l i s h e d f o r f l o a t i n g homes and f l o a t i n g home m a r i n a s . W i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g framework and s t a t u s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e w a t e r s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a i t i s n o n e t h e l e s s p o s s i b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e f l o a t i n g homes. Due t o t h e N a t i o n a l and l o c a l i n t e r e s t s i n v o l v e d i n b o t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and management o f t h e w a t e r i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d a r e a i t i s f e l t t h a t management mechanisms s h o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e and f a c i l i t a t e t h e s e v a r y i n g i n t e r e s t s . The c o m p r e h e n s i v e s y s t e m p r o p o s e d h e r e , however, c a n o n l y be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n a s i t u a t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i o n among s e n i o r and l o c a l government a g e n c i e s and o f f i c i a l s . As w e l l , t h e c o n c e r n s o f f l o a t i n g home r e s i d e n t s n e e d a l s o be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . W i t h F e d e r a l government a g e n c i e s a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f w a t e r l o t l e a s e s f o r m a r i n e r e l a t e d u s e s , t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e " p u r p o s e s c l a u s e s " w i t h i n new o r renewed l e a s e a g r e e m e n t s c a n e n s u r e t h a t l o c a l b y - l a w s o r r e s o l u t i o n s r e s p e c t i n g f l o a t i n g homes a r e c a r r i e d o u t . The p r o c e d u r e w o u l d be f o r l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i n c l u s i o n o f f l o a t i n g homes as a w a t e r f r o n t u s e , t o draw - 90 -up s u i t a b l e by-laws or r e g u l a t i o n s and make these a v a i l a b l e to the p e r t i n e n t l e a s i n g agency. The l e a s i n g agency, would then need o n l y i n c o r p o r a t e adequate purposes c l a u s e s w i t h i n ; the l e a s e agreements w i t h developers or agencies to ensure t h a t l o c a l a s p i r a t i o n s concerning f l o a t i n g homes w i l l be met. The problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t a x a t i o n and assessment s i m i l a r l y can be overcome through the i n c l u s i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e c l a u s e s i n l e a s e agreements. Such c l a u s e s would make i t necessary f o r a "grant i n l i e u " o f taxes to be p a i d to the m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r f l o a t i n g homes moored a t the marina. P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , making f l o a t i n g homes a s s e s s a b l e under e x i s t i n g assessment l e g i s l a t i o n i s perhaps the most fav o u r a b l e system to o b t a i n t a x a t i o n revenue. I t w i l l p robably be necessary to e s t a b l i s h t h a t f l o a t i n g homes p r i m a r i l y serve as housing r a t h e r than " v e s s e l s " , i n order to a v o i d p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t w i t h F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n . The concerns expressed over the p o l l u t i o n eminating from f l o a t i n g homes co u l d a l s o be overcome through the "puposes c l a u s e " approach or through c o n t r o l s e x c e r c i s e d by l o c a l governments over the upland area. In any event, i t i s recommended t h a t moorages c a t e r i n g to f l o a t i n g homes pr o v i d e f o r the e f f e c t i v e d i s p o s a l of domestic wastes from f l o a t i n g homes. A sewage system which connects w i t h the shore based system i s the p r e f e r r e d mode of d i s p o s a l as i t ensures t h a t the r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l , treatment and m o n i t o r i n g - 91 -r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w o u l d be c o n s o l i d a t e d w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . A l t h o u g h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l , on s i t e , g r o u p d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , t h e r e s t i l l r e m a i n s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s e s y s t e m s may n o t be o p e r a t i n g e f f e c t i v e l y . F l o a t i n g homes, as has b e e n m e n t i o n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , c u r r e n t l y do n o t have t o comply w i t h any t y p e o f b u i l d i n g c o d e s o r s t a n d a r d s . To e n s u r e b o t h t h e s a f e t y and w e l l -b e i n g o f t h e s e r e s i d e n t s , a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s s h o u l d be a d o p t e d n o t o n l y f o r t h e u n i t s t h e m s e l v e s , b u t f o r m a r i n a s c a t e r i n g t o a r e s i d e n t i a l component. T h i s t h e s i s , i n i t s a p p r o a c h t o t h e f l o a t i n g home t o p i c h as a t t e m p t e d t o r e m a i n n e u t r a l i n i t s p o s i t i o n r e s p e c t i n g e i t h e r t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o r r e j e c t i o n o f f l o a t i n g homes. S i m i l a r l y t h e a u t h o r h a s n o t a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y o r s u g g e s t l o c a t i o n s i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d f o r p o t e n t i a l f l o a t i n g home moorages. I t i s t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e a u t h o r t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f r e j e c t i o n o f f l o a t i n g homes and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e s i t e s h as t o be e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f t h e p r i o r i t i e s , a s p i r a t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s p r e -v a i l i n g i n e a c h community. M o r e o v e r t h e f u t u r e o f f l o a t i n g homes has t o be e v a l u a t e d n o t o n l y i n terms o f l o c a l o r m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s , t h e y n e e d a l s o t o be e v a l u a t e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s e n i o r government a g e n c i e s and c o r p o r a t i o n s who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e n a t i o n a l l y f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d management o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g w a t e r s . - 92 -What t h i s t h e s i s h as s e t o u t t o do i s t o p r o v i d e as an i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e t o t h e f l o a t i n g home s i t u a t i o n so t h a t when p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s a r e made, t h e y w i l l be made on an i n f o r m e d b a s i s r a t h e r t h a n i n an u n i n f o r m e d , e m o t i o n a l , o r Ad Hoc f a s h i o n . -. 93 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Bland, J.O.P., Houseboat Days i n China. E. A r n o l d L i m i t e d , London, 1909. C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , S i t e P l a n n i n g Handbook. 1976. Chernoff, R.M., Vancouver: A Seaside C i t y . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, School o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , Unpublished M.A. T h e s i s , 1973. C i t y o f S e a t t l e , Ordinance No. 96821. An ordinance r e g u l a t i n g f l o a t i n g home moorages and f l o a t i n g homes w i t h i n the C i t y l i m i t s . D a i l y J o u r n a l o f Commerce, S e a t t l e , June 29, 1968 » C i t y of S e a t t l e , Development Memorandum. Department of Community Development, C i t y of S e a t t l e , October 16, 1972. C i t y of S e a t t l e , S h o r e l i n e Master P l a n . Department of Community Development, C i t y o f S e a t t l e , pp. 52-55, March 1976. C i t y o f Vancouver, I n t e r i m Standards Governing Marinas and  Waste D i s p o s a l from W a t e r c r a f t . C i t y of Vancouver, (n.d.) C i t y o f Vancouver C i t y of Vancouver, L i c e n c e By-law no. 4910. January 4, 1975, O f f i c i a l Development P l a n f o r F a l s e Creek. Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, J u l y , 1974. C l a r k , B.D., Houseboat Wastes: Methods f o r C o l l e c t i o n and Treatment. U n i t e d S t a t e s Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , C o r v a l l i s , Oregon, June 1967. _ 94 -Coast F l o a t i n g Information Document. Vancouver, 1972, Homes A s s o c i a t i o n , I n t e r i m Standards f o r F l o a t i n g Homes. Document 43. Vancouver, October, 1973, C o r p o r a t i o n of D e l t a , Report on F l o a t i n g Homes. D e l t a P l a n n i n g Department. January 5, 1977. C o r p o r a t i o n of the Township of Richmond, County of Marin, C a l i f o r n i a , Richmond Marina Study 1975. Richmond P l a n n i n g Department, 1975 Ordinance No. 1693. R e g u l a t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g marinas that accomodate v e s s e l s used f o r human h a b i t a t i o n , The Board o f s u p e r v i s o r s o f the County o f Marin, S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a . A p r i l 2, 1969. County of Marin, C a l i f o r n i a , Ordinance No. 1675. R e g u l a t i n g the C o n s t r u c t i o n and Maintenance o f F l o a t i n g Homes. The Board of s u p e r v i s o r s o f the County o f Marin, S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a . December 24, 1968. Eekman, Gordon, A Houseboat Community of Coal Harbour. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, School of A r c h i t e c t u r e . Unpublished paper Nov. 1973, Garvey, A l b e r t , Houseboats of Sausalit.o. A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, March 1967. Government o f Canada, Harbour Commissions A c t . R.S.C. 1964-65 C. 32, S. 1 Government of Canada, F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission By-laws. P.C. 1970-1758 S.O.R./70-440, Oct. 6, 1970, Government of Canada, Navigable Waters P r o t e c t i o n A c t . R.S.C. 1970, Chapter N-19 Government of Government Harbours and P i e r s A c t . R.S.C. Canada, 1970, Chapter G-9 - 95 -Government of Canada, Canada Shipping A c t : Small V e s s e l  KegulatiorisT P.C. 1969-436, S.O.R./69-97 March 4, 1969. Greater Vancouver F l o a t i n g Home Cooperative, V e s s e l Standards. January 13, 1975. Joyce, Copeland Lake Union P r e l i m i n a r y Comprehensive P l a n and Vaugn, and A c t i o n Programme. S e a t t l e , 1975 Kwan, Herb, Water H a b i t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. School of A r c h i t e c t u r e . Unpublished A r c h i t e c t u r e T h e s i s , A p r i l , 1976, La F o r e s t , V. Gerald, N a t u r a l Resources and P u b l i c P r o p e r t y under  the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto p r e s s , 1969. London, Mark, Urban Water f r o n t P l a n n i n g i n Forum, Canadian I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , May 1976 pp. 3-7. Mooney, Chad, A F l o a t i n g Community. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. School of A r c h i t e c t u r e . Unpublished A r c h i t e c t u r e T h e s i s , 1973. Pearson, Norman, F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Development Study, May, 1972. P r o v i n c e of The P r o v i n c i a l H e a l t h A c t . R.S.B.C. B r i t i s h Columbia, 1960 C. 170. P r o v i n c e of The P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t . R.S.B.C. B r i t i s h Columbia, Chapter 34, 1967. Rick, W.B., P l a n n i n g and Developing Waterfront Property. Urban Land I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l b u l l e t i n no. 49. Washington, 1967. Rogers, Ian MacFee, The Law of Canadian M u n i c i p a l C o r p o r a t i o n s . Volumes 1 and 2. The C a r s w e l l Co., Toronto, 1959. - 96 -Rood, Marsha V., The Urban Marina: Managing and Developing Marina, Del Ray, 1974. Routley, K e i t h , Tax L e g i s l a t i o n as a Means of R e g u l a t i o n and Revenue P r o d u c t i o n i n Vancouver's  Waterfront Development"! F a c u l t y of Law, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, unpublished paper, 1974. Ruskin, Olga, Home on the Ocean Wave. i n Western L i v i n g . Vancouver, B.C., October 1976. pp. 43-56 Stokes, J.H., Ship Sewage Treatment and H o l d i n g Systems. i n S a f e t y a t Sea I n t e r n a t i o n a l , May 1974. pp. 14-27 Stubbs, J.N., O p i n i o n o f A p p l i c a b i l i t y o f Vancouver C i t y H e a l t h by-law and the P r o v i n c i a l H e a l t h  Act to sewage d i s p o s a l from F l o a t i n g Homes. C i t y of Vancouver Law Department, A p r i l 1975. Transport Canadian P o r t s : A New Management. P u b l i c Canada, A f f a i r s Branch, T r a n s p o r t Canada, Ottawa September, 1976. Turner, R., A r c h i t e c t u r e 504 Report on F l o a t i n g Homes. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, School of A r c h i t e c t u r e . Unpublished paper, A p r i l 1975. Vancouver Sun, The Joys of L i q u i d Real E s t a t e . Weekend Magazine, Volume 23, No. 41 October 1973. Vancouver Sun, " A u t h o r i t i e s t u r n to r e g u l a t i o n to C o n t r o l houseboats." November 16, 1967. p.p. 17 - 97V*-INTERVIEWS: Mr. Charles Brooks, Regional Harbours and Wharves A d m i n i s t r a t o r . M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t . Mr. S c o t t McLaren, Chairman, F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission. Mr. Ken McKewan, Chairman, North F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission. Dr. J . O l i v e r , Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g . Mr. Frank Ogden, Premiere Module S t r u c t u r e s . Mrs. Sonja Johnson, Former s e c r e t a r y o f Coast F l o a t i n g Homes A s s o c i a t i o n and The Greater Vancouver F l o a t i n g Homes Coop e r a t i v e . Mr. John Winters, Richmond F l o a t i n g Home Group. Mr. Frank Siqurjonnson, Planner, D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y o f North Vancouver. Mr. Robert Fenton, P r e s i d e n t o f Greater Vancouver F l o a t i n g Homes Coop e r a t i v e . Mr. D. H i c k l e y , Senior Planner - C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department. Mr. Ross Kembar, A r c h i t e c t , Birmingham, Woods A r c h i t e c t s . Mr. A l e x Jamieson, Planner, C o r p o r a t i o n o f the Township of Richmond. Mr. D. Bowden, F a l s e Creek Development Group. _ 98 -APENDIX 1 CITY OF VANCOUVER SCHEDULE A RE: LICENCE FEES CHARGED TO MARINA OPERATORS (REVISED JAN. 1977) Marina Operator $30.00 Per Annum, p l u s $199.00 For each occupied l i v e -aboard boat from 0-21 f e e t i n l e n g t h , p l u s $232.00 For each occupied l i v e -aboard more than 21 f e e t but not more than 31 f e e t i n l e n g t h , p l u s $282.00 For each occupied l i v e -aboard boat more than 31 f e e t but not more than 40 f e e t i n l e n g t h , p l u s $348.00 For each occupied l i v e -aboard boat which i s more than 40 f e e t i n l e n g t h . Source: C i t y o f Vancouver L i c e n c e By-Law No. 4450, S e c t i o n 17AA. - 99 -APPENDIX 2 Marina Operators 17AA. (a) The i n i t i a l fee payable i n each year f o r a marina o p e r a t o r ' s l i c e n c e s h a l l be c a l c u l a t e d i n accordance w i t h Schedule "A" hereto, and s h a l l be based on the number of occupied l i v e - a b o a r d boats at the marina d u r i n g the preceeding year. (b) The i n i t i a l fee s h a l l be p a i d b e f o r e January 31st o f the l i c e n c e year. (c) The f i n a l fee payable i n each year f o r a marina o p e r a t o r ' s l i c e n c e s h a l l be based upon the a c t u a l number of occupied l i v e - a b o a r d boats at the marina d u r i n g the c u r r e n t l i c e n c e year; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, t h a t the sum p a i d as the i n i t i a l f e e pursuant to c l a u s e (a) her e o f s h a l l be a c r e d i t on account o f the f i n a l f e e ; and PROVIDED FURTHER, th a t i f the i n i t i a l f e e p a i d pursuant to c l a u s e (a) hereof exceeds the f i n a l f e e , then the amount o f the d i f f e r e n c e s h a l l be refunded by the C i t y to the marina o p e r a t o r . (d) The f i n a l fee s h a l l be p a i d b e f o r e December 31st of the l i c e n c e year. (e) In each l i c e n c e year every marina o p e r a t o r s h a l l keep a r e c o r d of each l i v e - a b o a r d boat at h i s marina, which r e c o r d s h a l l s p e c i f y : ( i ) l e n g t h of each such boat; ( i i ) the name o f i t s owner, ( i i i ) i t s name, i f named; ( i v ) the number of days i t i s occupied as a p l a c e o f abode. (f) Every marina o p e r a t o r s h a l l make a v a i l a b l e to the .Chief L i c e n c e Inspector a t a l l reasonable time the records d e s c r i b e d i n c a l u s e (e) her e o f . (By-Law 4785, J u l y 30, 1974) Source: C i t y o f Vancouver L i c e n c e By-Law No. 4450, S e c t i o n 17AA. - 100 -APPENDIX 3 B I L L FLOATING HOMES REGULATION ACT HER MAJESTY, by and w i t h the advic e and consent o f L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly o f the Pr o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, enacts as f o l l o w s : 1. In t h i s A c t " f l o a t i n g home" means a d w e l l i n g u n i t which f l o a t s or a v e s s e l which a c t s as a d w e l l i n g u n i t , and which i s used as a temporary or permanent r e s i d e n c e ; "marina" means land and f o r e s h o r e l e a s e w i t h i n the c o a s t a l waters or i n l a n d waters o f Canada, occupied by any person, o r g a n i z a t i o n , yacht c l u b , a s s o c i a t i o n , s o c i e t y or company, f o r the purpose o f p r o v i d i n g water l o t s f o r the accomodations o f two or more f l o a t i n g homes and f o r imposing a charge or r e n t a l f o r the use o f such water l o t s ; "water l o t " means an area w i t h i n a marina's water s u r f a c e area f o r which an owner or tenant pays a charge or r e n t a l so t h a t the owner or tenant may moor, or anchor a f l o a t i n g home; "owner" i n c l u d e s a person i n p o s s e s s i o n of a f l o a t i n g home under a c o n t r a c t by which he may become the owner upon f u l l compliance w i t h the terms o f the c o n t r a c t ; " r e g u l a t i o n s " means r e g u l a t i o n s made by the L i e u t e n a n t -Governor i n C o u c i l under t h i s A c t . 2. Subject to s e c t i o n 3 and 4, a f l o a t i n g home s i t u a t e d w i t h i n a marina, whether or not the f l o a t i n g home f a l l s w i t h i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f an improvement under the M u n i c i p a l A c t , P u b l i c Schools A c t, T a x a t i o n Act, Vancouver Charter, or any other Act, s h a l l be deemed to be an improvement f o r the purpose o f r e a l p r o p e r t y assessment and t a x a t i o n under those Acts and, except as pr o v i d e d i n s e c t i o n 3, s h a l l be assessed and taxed i n the name of the owner of the marina pursuant to the p r o v i s i o n s o f those A c t s . 3. (1) Notwithstanding s e c t i o n 2, where the owner of a f l o a t i n g home s i t u a t e d w i t h i n a marina i s not the owner of the marina, the f l o a t i n g home t a x a b l e as an improvement under s e c t i o n 2 s h a l l be assessed and taxed pursuant to s e c t i o n 2 - .101- -APPENDIX 3 Cont'd... i n the name of the owner of the f l o a t i n g home, and, for this purpose, the owner of the f l o a t i n g home s h a l l be deemed to be an owner of an improvement within the meaning of the Municipal Act, Public Schools Act, Taxation Act, or the Vancouver Charter, as the case may be, and s h a l l be l i a b l e for the taxes imposed thereunder. (2) Where a f l o a t i n g home i s assessed and taxed i n the name of the owner of the f l o a t i n g home under subsection (1), that f l o a t i n g home s h a l l not be assessed and taxed as an improvement i n the name of the owner of the. marina under section 2. 4. This Act does not apply to (a) Floating homes owned by the Crown or by a municipality and occupied by or on behalf of the Crown or the municpality, (b) f l o a t i n g homes which are held i n storage or which form part of the inventory of a manu-facturer or dealer, (c) f l o a t i n g homes, licensed and equipped to navigate coastal and inland waterways, that are occupied by a bona fide t o u r i s t and are situated within a marina for a peroid of less than s i x t y days, or (d) f l o a t i n g homes that are exempted by regulations. 5. The taxes assessed i n respect of a f l o a t i n g home under section 3 are recoverable i n any manner i n which taxes are recoverable under the Municipal Act, Public Schools Act, Taxation Act, or the Vancouver Charter, but (a) the land and foreshore lease comprising the marina i s not subject to tax sale or f o r f e i t u r e , and (b) the arrears of taxes or delinquent taxes do not constitute a l i e n on the land or foreshore leases by reason of taxes assessed under section 3. 5. (1) The owner or operator of a marina s h a l l , upon demand, furnish to the assessor having j u r i s d i c t i o n , or his agent authorized i n writing, forthwith aft e r a f l o a t i n g home i s moved into, or out of, his marina. (2) In addition, to the information furnished under subsection (1), the owner or operator of a marina s h a l l n o t i f y the assessor, i n writing, forthwith after a f l o a t i n g home i s moved into, or out of, his marina, - 102 -APPENDIX 3 Cont'd... (3) The as s e s s o r , or h i s agent a u t h o r i z e d i n w r i t i n g , may, at a l l reasonable times, enter a marina or f l o a t i n g home f o r the purpose of a s s e s s i n g the f l o a t i n g home and i n s p e c t i n g any records kept by the owner or operator o f the marina. 7. For the purpose of c a r r y i n g out the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s Act a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r i n t e n t , the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l may make such r e g u l a t i o n s and orders as' are; a n c i l l a r y t h e r e t o and not i n c o n s i s t e n t therewith; and every r e g u l a t i o n s h a l l be deed to be p a r t o f t h i s A c t and has the f o r c e o f law; and, without r e s t r i c t i n g the g e n e r a l i t y o f the f o r e g o i n g , the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l may make r e g u l a t i o n s and orders (a) r e s p e c t i n g the assessment and t a x a t i o n of f l o a t i n g homes under t h i s A c t , i n c l u d i n g assessment and t a x a t i o n f o r f l o a t i n g homes f o r p a r t of a year, and amendment o f the tax r o l l s a c c o r d i n g l y , (b) d e f i n i n g , f o r the purpose of the r e g u l a t i o n s , any word not d e f i n e d i n t h i s Act, (c) exempting a f l o a t i n g home, or any c l a s s t h e r e o f , from the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s Act or the r e g u l a t i o n s , and (d) g e n e r a l l y r e s p e c t i n g any other matter necessary to c a r r y out the purpose of t h i s A c t . 8. Except where i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s Act, the M u n i c i p a l Act, P u b l i c Schools A c t, T a x a t i o n Act, and the Vancouver Charter, as the case may be, apply, w i t h the necessary changes and so f a r as are a p p l i c a b l e , to the assessment and t a x a t i o n o f f l o a t i n g homes under t h i s A c t . 9. The owner of a f l o a t i n g home th a t i s a c c e s s a b l e and ta x a b l e under t h i s Act s h a l l be deemed to be an owner of a p a r c e l o f land w i t h i n . t h e meaning o f, and f o r the purpose of, the P r o v i n c i a l Howe-owner Grant Act, and the P r o v i n c i a l Home A c q u i s i t i o n A c t . - 103 -APPENDIX 5, S e c t i o n 21A.73 F l o a t i n g Homes, (a) General 1. F l o a t i n g homes and f l o a t i n g home moorages are water dependent uses and as such are p r e f e r r e d uses to occupy the s u r f a c e of the water. Such uses s h a l l comply w i t h the F l o a t i n g Homes Ordinance (No. 96821) and the requirements of t h i s A r t i c l e . 2. F l o a t i n g homes and f l o a t i n g home moorages are a p e r m i t t e d use o n l y the US/LU and UR e n v i r o n -ments as p r o v i d e d i n Table 3, and o n l y on Lake Union and Portage Bay. 3. F l o a t i n g homes s h a l l not exceed 21 f e e t at the h i g h e s t p o i n t measured from the s u r f a c e o f the water. 4. F l o a t i n g homes s h a l l not cover i n excess of 1200 square f e e t of water area, i n c l u s i v e o f f l o a t , decks, and r o o f overhang. 5. F l o a t i n g homes s h a l l not be l o c a t e d or r e l o c a t e d i n such a manner as to b l o c k the view c o r r i d o r from the end' of the dock or walkway. In the l o c a t i o n and the d e s i g n of a new or remodeled f l o a t i n g homes, views of the water f o r moorage tenants and the p u b l i c s h a l l be opened up and enhanced. - 104 -6. F l o a t i n g homes s h a l l not be l o c a t e d between the combined pierhead/harbor l i n e and the S e a t t l e C o n s t r u c t i o n L i m i t L i n e i n Lake Union. X-b) Replacement and Remodeling The replacement, remodeling or new c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a f l o a t i n g home a t an e x i s t i n g moorage not meeting the l o t coverage, open water, s i t e area, y a r d , c o r l o c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A r t i c l e s h a l l be p e r m i t t e d i f i t r e s u l t s i n no i n c r e a s e i n the t o t a l f l o a t area as o f the e f f e c t i v e date o f the adoption o f t h i s A r t i c l e , and the h e i g h t o f the f l o a t i n g home does not exceed 16 f e e t . (c) New F l o a t i n g Homes and F l o a t i n g Home Moorages 1. Minimum s i t e area o f r an i n d i v i d u a l f l o a t i n g home s h a l l be 2000 square f e e t . 2. T o t a l water coverage o f a l l f l o a t i n g homes and a l l moorage walkways ( f i x e d or f l o a t i n g ) s h a l l not exceed 45% of the submerged p o r t i o n o f the moorage l o t area. 3. Yards. a. The minimum d i s t a n c e between adjacent f l o a t i n g home f l o a t s or w a l l s s h a l l be ten (10) f e e t o f open water. b. The minimum d i s t a n c e between f l o a t i n g homes on opposite>sides of a moorage walkway s h a l l be ten (10) f e e t , w a l l to w a l l . - 105 -c. The minimum d i s t a n c e between any f l o a t i n g home f l o a t or w a l l and any f l o a t i n g home moorage l o t l i n e s h a l l be f i v e (5) f e e t except when adjacent ot a p u b l i c s t r e e t r i g h t of way, a waterway or the fairway. A moorage walkway ( f i x e d or f l o a t i n g ) may abut upon the l o t l i n e . d. Each f l o a t i n g home s h a l l have d i r e c t access to a moorage walkway o f not l e s s than f i v e (5) f e e t of unobstructed width l e a d i n g to a s t r e e t . e. Each f l o a t i n g home i n a f l o a t i n g home moorage s h a l l abut upon open water a t l e a s t twenty (20) f e e t wide and open c o n t i n u o u s l y to n a v i g a b l e waters. 4. P u b l i c Access Usable open space s h a l l be p r o v i d e d on the upland p o r t i o n o f the s i t e f o r r e g u l a t e d p u b l i c access and s h a l l be l o c a t e d so as to p r o v i d e s u b s t a n t i a l v i s u a l acces to the water. - 106 -APPENDIX 6 ..' FLOATING HOME STABILITY CALCULATIONS Marin County Code Chapter 1 9 - 1 3 specifies miniraun floatation and s t a b i l i t y requirements that must be met before, permits can be issued for the con-struction of a floating -home. This phaaplet .'has been prepared to pro-vide a simplified step-by-step method of providing calculations for stan-dard type hulls. If unconventional designs are to be used appropriate calculations will..have.to be prepared by an engineer or naval architect. A, Materials and unit weight to be used for computing dead (D.L.) and l i v e loads (L.L,) 1 . The following weights have bean.provided to assist you i n figuring • dead loads-.•• All.weights given-for wood, -are based on Douglas f i r . -and have-been broken- doxm-to pounds per linear or square foot. , . - If'other materials are to be used the following.unit Heights must be used. 1 . Douglas f i r 2. Redwood. 3 . Pine U. Cedar $. Concrete. 6. Steel . 32- lb. .. 27 , ! 30 ..30 150 U90 .per cubic.foot it I! --!! 2.. Live loads are based -on the following:' a. F i r s t f l o o r (deck) 20 l b . per square f t . . -b. Second deck atti c or loft.1 0 l b . per sq. f t . 3 - Exterior stud walls - Studs 1 . 6 " on center (o.c.) '12.8 l b . par linear ft.. + exterior wall covering, (shingle or 3 / 3 plywood)' 9 - 6 l b . per linear f t . + interior covering. ,'4. Interior stud walls - Studs 16" on center (o.c.) 12.8 l b . per linear f t . + wall covering. 5". Roof ( f i r ) Sheathing - 2 . 5 lb. sq.ft. Roofing .Wood shingles - 3 l b , sq.ft. Corrigated iron - 2 lb... sq. .ft... • Tar and gravel - 6 l b . so. f t . Composition - 1 lb, sq. f t . Skylights - 5 To. sq. f t . - 107 -6. Beams -2-•7. 8. U x 6 = U.2 l b . per li n e a r f t ; U x 8 = 5.7. " 1! M h x io= 6.75 11. " II ti h x 12= 8,2 " " II II 6 x 6 = 6.3 11 11 II I! 6 x 8 = 8.6 »• It It 6 x 10= 10.9 " ,f II II 6 x 12= 13 .18" 11 II tl 6 x lU= 15.1+7" '"" II ri Decking = 5 l b . per sq. f t . Sheathing 1 x 3 = ..39 per l i n e a r f t . l x l j = .5U7 » ti ti 1 x 6 / ' .86 " ti it 1 x 8 = " 1.13 " it it 1 x 10 = " i.k5 " it ii Floor J o i s t s , R a i l i n g s , Rafters,Ceiling: J o i s t s , Etc. 2 x h 2 x 6 2 x 8 2 x 10" 2 x 12 1.2 l b . 1.9 " 2.5 " 2 .9 " 2.5 " per l i n e a r f t . 10. Plywood ( f i r ) I A . 5 A 6 3/3 7/16' 1 /2 . .8 l b . per sq. f t 1.0 " " ,r " 1.1 " " " i . 3 " ' " " " 3.5' " " " -" " 9/16 = 1.63 l b . per sq. f t 5/3 = 1 . 8 " " « " 11/16 = 2;0 • " " ,! " 3/U = 2.23' " 11 '" ». 11. Sheetrock 1/2 = . 5/3 = 2 l b . per sq. f t . 2 .6 l b . per sq. f t . 12. Permanent Fixtures (Weights ..include a l l plumbing .and vents.).. Shower enclosure - l 5 0 l b . Bathtub •• 350 l b . Water closet 105 lb.' Wash basin.' • • 50 l b . -'.•••108 -Kitchen cabinets Kitchen sink Cook top Kitchen range and oven Kitchen oven only Furnace (gas) Hot 'water tank -3-275 105 36 210 10U 225 130 l b . weight of water at 8 . 3 5 per gal. The step-by-step method of calc u l a t i n g f l o a t i n g home s t a b i l i t y out-l i n e d below w i l l provide a l l calculations required f o r a construction permit. When making application submit your calculations i n the same order we have l i s t e d them, s t a r t i n g with B - l below. Loadings Item Dead Live Load • Load (D.L.) (L.L.) Distance from bottom of f l o a t a t i o n to cen-t r o i d * of each item (L) a. Floatation' 1. Sides, ends, bottom bulkheads etc.. • W f a D. B a l l a s t , i f any Other W fb 1st Floor and/or deck (taken from- top of f l o a t a t i o n to c e i l i n g ) J o i s t s , beams, f l o o r i n g , blocking and f a c i a W l a 2. - Exterior walls-and I n t e r i o r walls 3. Guard r a i l i n g , etc. U. Permanent f i x t u r e s Bathrooms Kitchen Heating Hot water tank Holding tank 5. B a l l a s t , i f any 2nd.Floor and/or deck 6, Same as 1st f l o o r • •- (1 through 5) W l b W Lc W Id W le W i f Wig' W l h W I i W • 2a: through W 2e W LL2' L f a L fb L l a L l b L l c L Id L l e L I f L l g L l h L l i L 2a through L.2g - 109 --k-7. Ceilings from below i f any-W 2h L 2h d. -3rd Floor and/or deck 8. Same as 2nd f l o o r '. W 3a . L 3 a ( l through 7) through through W 3h ¥ LL3 L 3h e. Rdof 1. J o i s t , r a f t e r s , beams and roofing W ra L r a 2. Facia, other W rb . L rb Totals D.L. L.L -K- Centroid !*•-)- As used herein i s the point i n height at which the h u l l , roof, furnace, rooms, c e i l i n g , u n i t s etc. would balance i f separated from the structure. Example #1 Example #2 - J o i s t \ ^ i -Jf — T ) 77 ~3T LJSrfil -:HC- For s i m p l i f i c a t i o n you may determine and use i n your calculations one centroid f o r the bathroom f i x t u r e s ( t o i l e t , washbasin, shower, or tub) i f close together i n one room; one centroid f o r the kitchen equipment (cooking f a c i l i t i e s , cabinets, sink, etc.) In a l l other cases as grouped i n paragraph0-j Loadings. - 110 -- 5 -B a l l a s t - A l l of the c a l c u l a t i o n s are based on the assumption the f l o a t i n g home has. been designed to f l o a t without a l i s t . I f b a l l a s t i s planned to cor r e c t f o r an uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of weight, i t must be shown on your plans and included i n your c a l c u l a t i o n s . 2. Line Load (PL) a. 1 s t F l o o r (Average width) (5 l b ) = (x)lb. x width f t . i f (x) i s greats than 100 l b . , use ( x ) / f t . i f (x) i s l e s s than 100 l b . use 100 Ib.ift. b. 2nd F l o o r (Average width) ( 2 . 5 l b ) = (y) x width f t . I f (y) i s greater than 100 l b . use ( y ) / f t . I f (y) i s l e s s than 100 l b . use 5 0 / f t . c. T o t a l l i n e loads PL 1 = (100 l b . or (x)) (average length of 1 s t deck) PL 2 =" (50 l b . or (y)) (average length of 2nd f l o o r deck) 3. Center of g r a v i t y (CG): Take mass moments about datum l i n e , such as bottom of f l o a t a t i o n . Refer to Section B l f o r computed deadloads, l i v e loads, and distances from datum to c e n t r o i d of each respective D.L. or L.L. C.G.. = W f a (L f a ) + W f b (L fb) + ¥ l a (L l a ) e t c . ¥ f a + ¥ fb + WLL 1 + W i a + e t c . ^' Venter of bouyancy (C.B.): Taken from same datum as i n Section B-3 f o r C.G. GB d r a f t 2 where d r a f t may be found from the f o l l o w i n g equation. Fr D.L. + L.L. L x ¥ x h = x L x W then GB h 2 - I l l --o~ Moment of i n e r t i a of f l o a t a t i o n area The f l o a t a t i o n area Ja i s the area enconpassed by the water l i n e around the f l o a t a t i o n ( f u l l y loaded f l o a t i n g home) Examples: Com iguration of - -i Floatation Area 1 uongitudinal axis * 0.' r o t a t i o n % - f - IT- t> d J .j q oj3. o o o tl Y + /I K change according to number of f l o a t s 6. Metacentric height a. (m) = Ms Iv - L where V/s = 6)4 i. • l y = (from B~>) W = DL + LL (from 3-l) L = CC- --GB (from 3-3 ^ U) - W- -Freeboard (Sec. 19.18.320 (b)) a. With D.L. only .... .referring to Section k compute draft with D.L. only using Fv. = .D.L. ~W' Then F.B. = (distance from bottom,of floatation to top of deck or hull) - draft. • b. With D.L. + L.L use same draft calculated i n Section h Then F.B. =. (distance from bottom of floatation to 1st floor deck) - draft Mote: F.B. should allow for no inundation of the top of .floatation or to any point which would l e t water into the h u l l . S t a b i l i t y with off center load (Sec. 19.18.320 c) a. Compute line load as i n Sec. 2. ' PL 1 PL 2 b . Using dead load and line load only, recompute the center of gravity (see Sec. 3) C . G . c. Using dead load and line load only, recompute the center cf buoyancy (see Sec. h) C . B . d. Compute a new metacentric height, based on dead load and line load only using a, b and c above (and referring to Sec. 6 ) M & , e. Compute Mr = ¥D (B) Sin h° DL*line DL +line PL 1 + PL 2 + etc. Where: B = bouyant force = D.L. + Line Loads Sine k° = 0.07 This i s the resisting moment based on dead load -f- .line load and due to a i|° l i s t . f. Compute the overturning moment due to the applied l i n e loads. For example, take a simple houseboat. (See Fig. 1) - 113 --8-F i g . #1 L-V-/PL, 1 net cUck sz decK k CL MC = P L 1 ( a / 2 ) + P L 2 ( b / 2 ) D . L . + l i n e g . C o m p u t e l f r . f x m l ( D L + l i n e ) M o t o o r g r e a t e r t h a n +1.0, t h e n c r a f t i s s t a b l e . h . A n g l e o f l i s t : S o l v e f o r 6 u s i n g : S i n G = X' ( M o ) u s e x , M o , M G , B f r o m p a r t e , f , & g a b o v e . T I f l i s t a n g l e c a u s e s t h e o r i g i n a l f r e e b o a r d ( w i t h l i s t a n g l e t o b e r e d u c e d b y m o r e t h a n 2 / 3 , t h e n m o r e f r e e b o a r d i s n e e d e d . - 114 -_9_ S t a b i l i t y with wind load a. Yxt " m (B) S i n h° where MO = metacentric height (use same values computed i n B - 6 ) B = bouyant force r e s i s t i n g dead load and l i v e l oad = D.L. + L, (as computed i n B-l) S i n h° = 0.00? b. M o = P x A x H Where: A = the area exposed to the wind as shown i n the example. The roof area i s f i g u r e d by using the height of the roof above the c e i l i n g j o i s t s times the length of the roof. P = 8 • l b . per sq. f t . i H = the distance from the water l i n e to the center of each t o t a l area -f- by the number of • centers used. Example #1 \\ \ \ V \ \ x X \ w w w w w K w ^ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ •Nv- \V\V\ \ V \ V > \ -i •.. T Ma 4-Compute ^ = + 1.0 F l o a t i n g home i s stable i f value i f ^° greater than * 1.0 - 115 -- 1 0 -SUMMARY SHEET Ordinance: Sec. 19.18.330 "Calculations" 1. 1 9 . 1 8 . 3 3 0 (a) I4Q = + 1 . 0 f e e t , as c a l c u l a t e d according to B-G 2. 1 9 . 1 8 . 3 3 0 (b) L i s t angle and freeboard: C a l c u l a t i o n s as per B-7 and B-8 (h) Angle of l i s t should also be c a l c u l a t e d as r e s u l t of wind load. 3 . 1 9 . 1 8 . 3 3 0 (c) Mr > pr = + 1 . 0 , as c a l c u l a t e d according to B-8 k. 1 9 . 1 8 . 3 3 0 (C2) Mr •> j^r = + 1 . 0 , as c a l c u l a t e d according to B-9 5". C a l c u l a t i o n s should also show that under a l l conditions of o f f -center loading or wind loading, that safe freeboard w i l l e x i s t such that water does not enter h u l l or f l o a t a t i o n . -11-- 116 -L f a = 2' L f b = 1< L i a = u.u L l b = 7.7 L 1c = 6' L 1 d = = 7.5' L l e = 7.5' L I f = 3' L l g = 7» L l h = 2.5* L 2h = 12.3' L r a = 13-5 EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS The f o l l o w i n g c a l c i n a t i o n s a r e f o r a f l o a t i n g home h a v i n g a h u l l 30 ! x 20' x U' s u p e r s t r u c t u r e 30' x 20' x 8' h a v i n g a 3' h i p r o o f , The w e i g h t s u n d e r B-1 a r e a p p r o x i m a t e . B-1 L o a d i n g W f a = 8910 l b . W f b = 500 l b . W l a = 307)4 W l b = h9hh W l o = 216 ¥ I d = 305 ¥ l e = 590 ¥ I f = 225 ¥ l g = 380 1 ¥ l h = 350 ¥ 2h = 3290 ¥ r a = 77UU WLL = 12000 l b . • ( a t 20 l b . s q . f t . ) T o t a l . T o t a l D.L. = 30528 L L = 12000 l b . B-2 L i n e L o a d PL 1 - 100 x 30 = 3000 l b . B-3 C e n t e r o f G r a v i t y (C.G.) CG = 8910 x 2 + 500 x 1 + 307U x l t . l t + 12000 x I4.U + U9UU x 7.7 + 216 x 6 + 305 x 7.5 + 590 x 7.5 + 225 x 8 + 380 x 7 + 350 x 2.5 + 3290 x 12.3 + 30523 +~ T2~000 77UU x 1 3 . 5 = 281069 = 6.6 ' 1*2528 B-U C e n t e r o f Bouyancy (C3) C B = Vrzit = l . l = .5 = 6" F v = PL + L L = = 66h.5 6 1 1 • ~ ~ - 117 h = dra f t h = F v Area bottom of Hull 66U.5 ToOO = 1.1 B-5 Moment of Inertia Jy = b d Z = 12 30 .x 20-12 2)40000 = 20000 12 B-6 Metacentric Height (MG) KG = Ws Iy - L = 6h x 20000 - (6.6 - .5) = 3j 8 Q°po - 6.1 = 30.1 - 6.1 = 2U 142528 — B-7 Freeboard (F.B.) Draft using Dead L 0ad (D.L.) only Fv = 30528 -= h71 x - Fv h = _x_ = U77 = .8 = 9.6" . LXW 5oo~. FB Dead load only = 3.2' FB Dead load and live load - 2.9' B-8 Stability with Off Center Load a. PL 1 = 3000 lb. Substituting Line Loads for Live Loads b. CG = 2U1U67 =7.2 3 3 W Fv = 30528 + 3000 = 33528 = 523.8 h = 523.8 = .9 = 10'' 600 c. C.B. = 10 = 5" r ~ 118 -d. m = Ws ly - L = 1280000 - (7.2 - 5) W" " 3 3 5 2 ^ " = 38.18 - 2.2 = 36_ e. Compute Mr = MG (B) Sin ii° Fir = 36 x 33528 x .07 = 8uU90-5 f ' M o = PL 1 ( a } M Q = 3 0 0 Q x 1 Q _ 1 $ 0 Q Q 2 g. Overturning Moment Greater than 1 . Therefore the - = 5^63 x - 5.63 Mr = 8Uith90.5 = t 6 3 _+ . Mo 1 i5oob— • • ' • craft is stable h. Sin e ~ x (Mo) = 5.6 x 15000 -WD (B) "36 x 335^8 8U000 1207OO8 = .07 Freeboard reduced by less than 2/3 therefore stable. B-9 Stability with wind load a. Mr = W, (B) sine h° • Mr = 2k x 1*2528 x .07 = 7lWi7 b. M o = P x A x H H = D 1 + D 2 + D 3 - 119 --lh--H a l 2 - k + 6 - 9 + 2 - 9 = 2 2 - 2 = 7.U 3 3 -* The roof area is figured by using the height of the peak above the ceiling ..joists.x the length. A =• 681 s q . f t . P = 8 lb. per sq. -ft. Mo = 8 x U23 x 7.U = 250)41.6 1 JMr Mo = 7lUh7 23oEi'.6 = 2J3 2.8 is greater than 1 therefore stable. - 120 - APPENDIX 7 1 M A R I N C O U N T Y E L E C T R I C A L C O D E I N F O R M A T I O N R E L A T I N G T O F L O A T I N G H O M ! ( O R D . 1 8 7 5 &l N . B . C . ) /1E8 R A I N T I G H T ENCLOSURE S E R V I C E E N T R A N C E BOX m S T A P L E C A B L E A T E A C H J O I S T -L>^&w: OR RUN THROUGH BORED H O L E S . C A B L E CAN B.S RUN OVERHEAD W R O U C H BORED H O L E S OR FOLLOW A STRONG B A C K AS I N D I C A T E D Ll : N [ B R E A K E R ii i i i r . N'ARINA CORD TO R E C E P T A C L E AND METER OM DOCK S E E MOTES P A G E 6. - 122 -SCHISMATIC FOR A 50 At 'PERE SERVICE ENTRANCE AND DISTRIBUTION PANEL "(TEE NOTE NO. 3, PAGE 6") SO AMP SERVICE ENTRANCE BOX #1 SO AMP MARINA CORD STRAIN RELIEF DEVICE -6/3 WITH GROUND CIR. #2 (20 AMP) 60 AMP DISTRIBUTION PANEL 7) CIR. #4 (IS AMP) W CIR. *6 (30 AM?) W CIR. #8 \J " """ (20 AMP) CIR. HO w CIR. #1 (20 AM?) CIR. #3 (IS AMP) ""^CIR. SS (20 AMP) w CIR. #7 (20 AMP) w CIR. #9 E M GROUND •NEUTRAL FIGJRE »4 LINS DIAGRAM 3HCWTNG fiRAl-icji QLPQjiTS> U E I M S AND WIRE SIZE FOR FIGURE »2 .AND #3 CIR. #1 SMALL APPLIANCE 2 #12 MIN. (ty dp PLUGS ONLY - MUST PASS THRU KITCHEN MAY EXTEND N INTO DINING AREA CIR. n SMALL APPLIANCE, 2 ?12 MIN. <4> CIR. #3 GENERAL LIGHTING. 2. -34 MIN. <j> "(ft C?D < ^ (jjp (jjp CIR. #4 GENERAL LIGHTING, 2*14 MIN.-CIR. #5 SE'/AGE EJECTION PUMP 5 BILGE PUMP, 2 <!U MAX. ONE CIRCUIT _H PER S00 SQ. FT. EJECTION PUMP BILGE PUMP TOTAL 1 H.P. N CIR. «6 DRYER. 3 #10 f ) N CIR. #7 WASHER, 2 #12 CIR. »8 FURNACE, 2 #12 - 123 -FIGURE B LOAD CALCULATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION BASLTJ'UN SCTAMP1RL" UUL'K biUL h'OTO The load calculations and d i s t r i b u t i o n of load f o r each leg i n the d i s t r i -bution panel depicted i n figures #2, #3, and =\x are shown below. For fxir-ther information on calculations and method of computing the loads see Karin County Ordinance 16?S-The f l o a t i n g hems i s 20' x IjO1 and has tvo portable appliance c i r c u i t s , a 700 watt waahsr, 4700 watt dryer, 700 watt furnace, 500 watt ejection puinp and a $00 watt bilge pump. Lighting and small appliance lead Lighting - 20 x ItO x 3 equals 2lt00 watts Small appliance - 1500 x 2 equals 3000 watts Total %uOO watts F i r s t 3000 watts at 100^ 3000 watts Remainder (5U00 - 3000 = 2itOO at 35£) 8U0 watts Total 384O watts 38UO * 230 =16.7 amperes per leg 700 watt (washer) -:- 115 = 6 amperes lt700 watt (dryer) * 230 = 20.h amperes per l e g 700 watt (furnace) •> 115 = 6 amperes 1000 watt (ejection and bilge pumps) * 115 = 9 amperes Amperes cer Leg A B Lighting and Appliances 16.7 16.7 V'ashsr 6 Dryer 20. U ''20.lt Furnace 6 Ejection and Bilge Pumps 9 Total ' H9.1" HoTT The current required to s a t i s f y the demand i s under 50 amperes per leg. Therefor, one (1) 50 ampere supply cord, 50 ampere service entrance equip-ment, and a 60 ampere d i s t r i b u t i o n panel can 03 used as sp e c i f i e d i n Narit County Ordinance 1675. I f the demand i s greater than 50 amperes oer leg, additional equipment w i l l be required. (See Note #3, page 6 and Figure £6 - 124 -FIGURE »6 SCHISMATIC FOR SERVICE ENTRANCE SOX #2 AMD DISTRIBUTION PANEL n (FOR A DEMAND GREATER THAN PROVIDED AT A SINGLE DOCK SIDE RECEPTABLE) SERVICE EMTRANCE BOX n ! J l U T STRAIN LUJ ^ C R E L I E F ^ g r DEVICE J # l MARINA CORDS RATED FOR LOAD CIR. #2 -2 rz-o AMP) CIR. #2 -4 CIR. #2 -6 EM [N] DISTRIBUTION PANEL #1 SAME AS FIGURE 33 " V / CIR. #2-1 (40 AM?) CIR. #2-3 CIR. »2-5 DISTRIBUTION PA^EL n CIR. #2-1 ELECTRIC RANGE, 3 #8 WITH GROUND O N CIR. 32-2 iJVTER HEATER, 2 ;>'1Q © N WITH GROUND - 125 -NOTES FOR FIGURE =1 Note #1 - Each floating home power supply cord shall be approved and have four (4) conductors, one of which shall be identified by a contin-uous green color with a yellow stripe. The attachment plug, con-nectors and mating receptacles shall be 3 pole 4 wire grounded types covered by American Standard C-73 attachment plug and re-ceptacles. Note #2 - The power supply cord shall be permanently attached to the d i s t r i -bution panel and a suitable strain relief device (clamp or equiva-lent) installed just forward of the panel to prevent strain on the terminals. Note #3 - The floating home main circuit breaker shall be (2) pole, rated for not less than 50 amperes, the maximum calculated load, or the rating of the circuit breaker located on the dock, whichever is greater. If the demand is greater than the power provided at the dock side receptacle, two (2) service systems and cords will be required as depicted in figure £5. If a service panel is used having a disconnect switch and fuses, the fuses shall be rated for the load (not less than 60 amperes) and employ a single two (2) pole holder with appropriate main fuses" (not les than 50 ampere). The main circuit breaker on fuses shall.be marked "MAIN". Note #4 - The distribution panel must be illuminated, readily accessible and have at least a 30-inch clear working space at the front. NOTES FOR FIGURE =5 Note #1 - When two (2) power supply cords are installed, a disconnecting means shall be provided for each cord but may be combined ir. single equipment without electrical interconnection other than for grounding purposes. Branch circuit equipment may be combined with the dis-connecting means as a single assembly, and designated as a dis-tribution panel. Plug fuses and fuse holders shall be tamper-resistant Type "S" enclosed in dead front panels. - JLZO -MARIN COUNTY INFORMATION RELATING TO ELECTRICAL WIRING METHODS,' FLOATING HOMES WIRING METHOD Concealed in Finished Walls, and in Attics * Exposed. Dry Locations Exposed to the Weather ! Concealed Knob arid Tube Yes No No Non-metallic Sheathed Cable Yes Yes-M.H./N.M.C No Yes in damp locations Yes use N.H.C. No Metal Clad or Armored Cable Yes Yes No A.S.E. Cable Yes Yes Yes U.S.'E. Cable Yes Yes No U. F. Cable Yes Yes No . Rigid Conduit Yes Yes Yes Electrical Metallic Tubing Yes Yes Yes * A l l cable belor 7'6" must be protected from physical damage I 1 1 • BRANCH CIRCUITS Min. Wire Size (Copper) Maximum over-currant pro-tection General illumination, one circuit for each 3>C0 square feet of living area for lighting and receptacles. Gage Airrceres #11; or #12 1 5 20 Not less than two circuits for plug receptacles in kitchen, dining room, family room, breakfast room, pantry, each circuit is limited to 6 outlets. One 1 5 amp. ¥.?. receptacle located on the ex-terior may be connected to one of the above circuits*-12 20 Laundry separate circuit (one receptacle) 12 20 Self contained rar.j:e 3 - #6 + Gd 50 Individual counter mounted cooking units 3 -- #12 + Gd 20 Counter mounted cocking top not over 6 KW 3 - #10,+ Gd 30 '•'ounted oven single unit 3 - # 1 0 + Gd 30 ' Clothes dryer L.6C0-5500 watts 3 - # 1 0 + Gd Clothes dryer over 5 5 0 0 watts 3 - #8 + Od ho Dishwasher separate circuit 2 - #12 + Gd 20 Disposal and furnace 2 - #12. + Gd 20 - 127 -APPENDIX 8 OIMMNAMK NO. 9US*J1 AN* OBDl NANCE relating lo and regulating flouting home moor-M U C H and floating homes usvd i'or habitation on certain wa-ters within the City limits, de-fining offenses and prescribing penalties, und repealing Ordi-nances 73578 and S2223. UK IT ORDAIN'liD 11V THK CITY OK SEATTLE AS KOLI-OWS: SECTION 1.010 DEFINITIONS. Certain words and terms used in this ordinance unless clearly inconsistent with their context, Khali menu as follows: FLOATING HOME. A building constructed on a Vluat used In whole cr in part for human habi-tation as a single-faintly dwell-ing, which is moored, anchored or otherwise secured in waters within the city limits. FLOATING HOME SITE. A part of a fh-atin^  home moorage, lo-cated over water, and designed lo accommodate one (3) floating* home. FLOATING HOME MOORAGE. A waterfront facility for the moorage of one (1) or more float-ing homes, and the land and wa-ter prem ses on which such fa-cility is located. GARBAGE. All discarded pu-treseible waste matter. Including small dead animals weighing not over 15 pounds, but not includ-ing sewage or human or animal excrement. SEWAGE. All water-carried waste discharged from the sani-tary facilities of buildings oc-cupied or used by people. SECTION 1.C2U MOORAGE LO-CATION. Every floating home moorage shall be located on pri-vately owned or privately con-trolled premises. No floating home shall be located in any wa-terway or fairway, or in the public waters of any. street cr street end. • SECTION 1.030 ZONING RE-QUIREMENTS. All floating homes and floating home moor-ages shall be subject to the lim-itations of the Comprehensive Zon;ng Ordinance of The City of Seattle (Ordinance 86300 as amended). SECTION 1.040 LAND ACCESS. Every floating home moorage shall have not less than twenty <2o> feet of land frontage abut-ting a public street sufficiently improved for automobile travel. SECTION 1.050 MOORAGE WALKWAYS. Every floating home moorage shall have firm and substantial walkways with a net width of not less than four (4) feet and extending from land to every floating home site ln nur-h moorage. SECTION LOGO MOORAGE LIGHTING. Every floating home moorage, and the walkways to every floating home site, shall bo Illuminated by lights designed, constructed and maintained to firovlde a minimum average 11-umlnatlon on said walkwnys of five (G) foot-candles of light In-tensity. The lowest foot-candle value at any point on said walk-ways shall not be less than one-half ( v.) the average value. SECTION 1.070 FIRE PROTEC-TION. Every floating home moorage shnll be provided with suitable fire extinguishing equip-ment as may bo required by the Fire Chief In accordance with the Fire Code {Ordinance 87870 as amended) and Build I no* Code (Ordinance 8550O as amended). SECTION 1.0R0 WATER SER-VICE CONNECTIONS. Every floating home moorage shall have a lawfully installed water service connection; and shall provide water Bcrvlco piping, securely fastened end stabilized above water, from such water service runnection to nn outlet connec-tion at each floating home site nt such floating home moorage The water piping in every float-ing' home hi a floating home moorage shall bo connected to j the water service nutlet serving ! such floating, home and such connection shall be securely fastened a n d stabilised above high water line. Water service connections and water service piping- i-hall be constructed. In-stalled and maintained in accor-dance with Ordinance G 5 S 7 7 as a mended. SECTION 1.090 PUBLIC SEW-ER CONNECTION. Every float-ing home moorage any part of which is within three hundred f.100> feet of a public sewer and every floating home moorage on Shllshole Bay, Salmon Bay, Lake Washington Ship Canal. Lake Union. Portage Hay, Union Bay and that portion of Lake Wash-ington lying within t h o City limits of Seattle shall have a lawfully installed connection to such sewer. SECTION 1.100 LOCAL SIDE SEWER SYSTEM. Every float-ing home moorage within the li ml ts specified in Section 1 .ODD shall provide a local side sewer system for the collection of sew-age from every floating home tn such moorage. Such loca l side sewer system shall be connected to the public sewer, shall have an Inlet connection at each float-ing home s'te, and shall be con-structed, installed and main-tained in accordance with this and all other applicable ordi-nances regulating the construc-tion, alteration, repair and con-nection of side sewers. SECTION 1.110 CONNECTION TO LOCAL SIDE SEWER SYS-TEM. Every floa ting home In a floating home moorage wh ich is requ'red under Section 1.090 hereof to have a lawfully In-stalled connection to a public sewer sha l l be connected to the local Bide sewer system and no owner or operator of such a floating home moorage shall per-mit to he moored at such moor-age under his control any float-ing home which is not lawfully connected to the local side sewer system. It sha l l be unlawful for any person to use, occupy or let any floating home for human habitation within the limits specified In Section 1.090 unless the same is lawfully connected to the sewer system. A reconnection permit shall be required for any filiating home which is relocated from its orig-inal s ite of connection to a local side sewer system and such re-connection shall be subject to the approval of the City Engi-neer as to compliance with this ordinance. SECTION 1.120 SEWER IN-STALLATION FEES. The fee for the Installation of any side sewer serving a floating home moorage shall be the fee pro-vided by law for the connection, to the public sewer, of tilde sewers Bervlng* mobile home parks. SECTION 1.130 PLUMBING SYSTEMS. All plumbing and plumbing systems In every float-ing home shall meet the require-' meats of the Plumbing Code (Ordinance 92190 as amended) except as otherwise approved be the Director, of Public Health In accordance with said Plumbing Code. SECTION 1.140 GARBAGE DIS-POSAL. Every floating home moorage shnll be provided with adequate garbage storage and collection facilities wh Ich shall be located ln an accessible place on the moorage site, and no gar-bage or refuse therefrom shall be thrown or dumped Into the wa-ters. SECTION 1.150 ELECTRICAL SERVICE AND Willi NO. Elec-trical service to floating homes and flouting home moorages Bhall be provided as approved by the lighting utility. Electrical wiring and equipment in every floating home shall conform t«. requirements of the Eleeiriea! Code (Ordinance 93229 as amended) as set forth for resi-dential occupancies and no float-ing home shall be permitted to connect or reconnect to the utility's distribution system unless approved for such connec-tion by the Superintendent of Buildings in accordance with said Electrical Code. SECTION 1.160 NEW CON-STRUCTION. All new construc-tion of floating homes or major alterations thereto and all float-ing homes moved into City waters, excluding the structural members used for flotation, shall conform to the requirements tor dwellings as set forth in' the Building Code (Ordinance S550/U as amended) and all other appli-cable codes ami ordinances regu-lating tile design, construction, use and occupancy of such build-ings and the required installn-i lions therein. SECTION 1.170 HOUSING STANDARDS FOR EXISTING FLOATING HOMES. Every float-ing home shall comply with the mini mum housing sta iula rds as set forth in the Housing Code (Ordinance S9U01 as amended) except as otherwise approved by the Superintendent of Buildings in accordance with said Housing Code. SECTION 1,180 APPROVAL OF MOORAGE SITE PLAN RE-QUIRED. Every floating home moorage shall continuously con-form to a moorage site plan which has been approved by the Superintendent of Buildings. Such approval shall be obtained as follows: Three (3) copies of the site plan, drawn to scale and completely dimensioned, and set-ting forth the address and legal description of the property on which the moorage Is located, and the name and address of the owner or operator of the moor-age, shall be filed with the. Superintendent of Buildings. The moorage site plan shall show: 1. The dimensions of the floating home moorage site. 2. The location of abutting public waterways. 3. The location and dimen-sions of private waterways and land access to the moorage. 4. The location and identi-fication of Individual floating home sites. 5. The location and dimen-sions of offstreet parking spaces. C. The location and dimen-sions of wa Ik ways and any accessory structures or facili-ties. 7. The water service f-ystern. S. The local side sewer sys-tem. 9. The electrlcnl service and lighting system. Such site plan shall be exam-ined by the Superintendent of Buildings, the Fire Chief, the Di-rector of Public Health, the Superintendent of Water, and by the City Engl neer, lo each of whom the Superintendent of Buildings shall refer such plan. Upon approval of a floating home moorage site plan by the Fire Chief, the Director of Public Hea) lh, the Superintendent of Water, and the City Engineer as to compliance with laws and ordinances under their respective Jurisdictions, and upon being himself satisfied that the plai conforms to the requirements of this ordinance and othn.r appli-cable ordinances and Is other-wise lawful, the. Superintendent of Buildings shall approve such plan. One (1) copy of the ap-proved site plan shall be retained In the office of the Superin-tendent of Buildings, one (1) copy In the office of the Direc-tor of Public Health, and one (1) copy, which shall he maintained on the premises of the floating home moorage, shall be returned to the owner or operator. SECTION 1.100 MO.ORAGE REGISTER OF O W NERSIII PS. Every owner or operator of a floating home moorage shall maintain a current register of every floating home moored on the premises under his control, such register to record the name and address of the legal owner of each floating home and the registration number assigned to It by the King County Assessor. A copy of said register shall be made available upon request to any City Department head re-ferred to in this ordinance' or to his representative. SECTION 1.200 ENFORCE-MENT. Except as otherwise specifically provided herein, '.he Superintendent of Buildings shall en force this ordinance and may adopt rules and regulations con-sistent therewith. Upon presenta-tion of proper credentials the Superintendent of Buildings - or other authorized officer of the City may with the consent of the occupant or with the consent of the owner of unoccupied premises or pursuant to a lawfully issued warrant enter any building or premises at any reasonable time to perform any duty Imposed on him bv this ordinance. SECTION 1.210 PENALTY-. Anyone v'olafng or falling to comply with any of the provi-sions of this ordinance shall, upon conviction thereof, he punished by a fine in a sum not exceeding Three Hundred Dol-lars ($300.00). or by Imprison-ment in the City Jail for a term not exceeding ninety (90) days, or by both such fine and im-prisonment, and each day that anyone shall continue so to violate or fall to comply shall be considered a separate offense SECTION 1.220 SEVERAB!LT-TY. Should any section, subsec-tion, paragraph, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance he de-clared unconstitutional or invalid for any reason, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of "this ordinance. SECTION 1.230 REPEAL. Ordi-nance 7357S entitled: "An Ordi-nance prohibiting sewerless houseboats on Lake Washington with certain exceptions of. a temporary nature: defin'ng offenses: and prescribing penal-ties," and Ordinance 82223 en-titled: "An Ordinance relating to and regulating the use of 'house-boats' for habitation on the waters within the city limits and prescribing penalties for failure to comply," are hereby repealed. SECTION 1.240 This ordinance shall take effect and be in force thirty days from and after i's passage and approval, if approved by the Mayor: otherwise It pha'll take effect at the time it shall become a law under the provi-sions of the city charter. Passed by the Cltv Counc'l the 24th day of June, 1!'6S, and signed by mo in open session In authen-tication of its passage this 24th day of June, 1968. M. B MITCHELL, President pro tem, of the City Council. Approved by me this 26th day of June, 1968. J. D. BRAMAN, Mayor. Filed by me this 2Cth day of June, 19C8. Attest: C. Q. ERLANDSON. City Comptroller and Cltv Clerk. (Seal) By W. A, PETilNE, Deputy Clerk. Publication ordered by C. G. ERLANDSON, Comptroller a n d City Clerk. Date of official publication In the Dailv Journal of Commerce, I Seattle. June ,29, 1968. (C-895) (Reprinted from Dally Journal of Commerce by The Floating Homes Assn., Inc., 2329 Falrvlew Seattle 98102.) A P P E N D I X 4 128 ORDINANCE N O . 169"! AN OK DIN A NCK <>F THE r.O.AKU O K SUPERVISORS O K THK COUNTY O K MAK1N ADD-ING CHAPTER 11.21 T O T11K MAKI.V COUNTY CODE I ' K O -vii)!.\<; F O R ntr-: REGU-LATION AND CONTROL O F M A K I N A S T II A T A C-'COM5IODATE VESSELS USED FOR HUMAN HABITATION T>IE BOARD OP SUPER-VISORS OF THE COUNTY OP MARIN DO HEREBY ORDAIN .AS FOLLOWS: SECTION I. Chapter 11.21 la hereby added to the Marin County Code to read as follows: CHAPTER 11.21 REGULATION AND CONTROL CF F L O A T I N G H O M E MARINAS 11.21.010. Purpose 11.21.020. Definitions 11.21.130. Aonlicationa li.21.W0. Sewerage 11.21.050. Mooring Z1.21.CS3. Access Jl.2i.070. Parkinr 11.21.080. Piumbin^ 31.21.090. Electrical Distribution 11.21.100. Fire Protection 11.21.110. Solid Waste Disposal 11.21.120. Permit Required 11.21.130. Permits 15.21.010. Purpose. This title Is enacted to provide for tho health, safety and welfare of Marina residents and 'the general c ommunity, by establishing the minimum stan-dards required to insure the personal safety and well-being of occupants and visitors to Coating homes. I1.2i.<>2u. Definitions. ti. A "floating; home marina" therein ca*!'d marina) shall mean n facility that contains oiii Pr More b;rt'ung spaces lor iliitU.i .'lOjues. D. 'Vessel" means a water craft of any type or size, in-cluding but not limited to. barges, ferry boats, a r k s , yachts, houseboats, f l o a t i n g nornes und rafts. The term "vessel" when used herein shall include floating homes. c. "'Moor" shall mean the fix-ing of a vessel in one location, temporarily or permanently, by mooring, anchoring, grounding or ?,ny other means. d. A "floating home" ia any boat, craft, or l i v i n g ac-commodation or structure sup-p.irterl by a means of floatation, deigned to be used without a peiminent foundation, which is «..-, ii i-r intended for human faabitatioc. e. "Harbor master" is the person designed by the Marina Oivasr to control the operation cf the Marina. i. A "transient vessel" shall mean any vessel moored in the County of Marin which is oc-cupied for less than four con-secutive days or ten days in any calendar month. A "transient vassal" shall also include any vessel for which a nermit is secured from the Harbor Master by the occupant stasia? that :to sewerage will be discharged from that vessel during its ccsnc-Mscy. 13.21.030. Applications. The previsions of this ch&ocer shall api'y to all marinas wholly or pahtsUy located within the unin-cornorated area of Marin Coun-ty. Each Marina owner shall designate a Harbor Master. Marinas shall be establish-d only whr>re allowed by applic-able zoning. Marinas which KC-commodate only t r a n s i e n t \ .w.e'.s or that portion of a rnnrina containing only transient vessels are exempt from the provisions of this ordinance. li.il.0-10. S*weraes. (I) SEWER CONNECTION i'very vessel moored at a ?.'o-Ai'U-.a shall be lawfully con-nected to an approved und ac-•taptud local sewer. (1) SEWERAGE LATERAL Si'oTKM Kvery Marina shall provide a sewerage lateral for the col-lection of sewaffe from every vcsr-el accommodated at the Marina. The sewerage laterals shall be connected to a shoreside facility, .shall have an inlet con-nection at each vessel's side, and shall be constructed, in-stalled, and maintained in an approved iiianuer. Connections at floating home berths shall be equipped With a p p r o v e d backiicw prevention devices, and provide for the entrance of effluent from floating homes Without reflux or back pressure. (3) CONNECTION TO S E W E R A G E LA TER A L SYSTEM It shall be unlawful for any person to use, occupy or let any vessel for human habitation unless the same is lawfully connected to a sewerage system as provided above, lhe Harbor Master shail not aliow oc-cupancy of any floating home without sewerage h a n d l i n g facilities, as required in Chapter 13.18 of this aide within a Marina under his control. 11.21.050. Mooring. The Harbor Master shall assure the ade-quacy o: facilities for mooring v.sscls at a Marina. The pro-visions for moorage shall com-Piy with Section 11.20.032 of this Code. Vesssis shall be moored to provide a clear waterway pro-jection between adjacent boats or floating hom;s of b'O" on ail sides. Clearance of fCTTF shall hi maintained when either floating home is in excess of one story. The above clearances do r.ot apply between the vessel and the walkway or slip. Berthing areas shall be dredged to +1.5 feet mean _ lower ...low water datum "and "to such a depth that all floating nomcs are floating at a tidal stage of -r5.0 mean, lower low water datum. 11.21.000. Access. AU slips or walkways providing access for . mora than two berthing spaces shall have a clear width of four feet. Mate walkways from slips to the shore shall be 3'i feet • clear width. Any walkway or slip that extends over 100" feet may be considered a main v/aikway. All public gangways (serving more than one residence) shall be designed to eliminate slopes greater than 2'/a horizontal* to 1 vertical at any tidal staee. Ail public gangways shall be rjrovided with guardrails on each side and have a clear width of four feet. All non-floating walkways or piers shall be equipped with 1 guardrails. All gangways and walkways sha'.i comply with the following requirements: (1) Gangway design live load shall not be less than 30 pounds per square foot. (2) Guardrails must withstand a 20 pound lateral load per linear foot of rail. (3) Floating walkways — Floats shall have sufficient buoyancy to support a 20-pound-per-squa're-foot uniform l i v e load, plus the dead ioad of the structure, without allowance for structural members in the floatation calculation. (4) Framing shall be at least 2 inches nominal thickness if con-structed of wood. Ii the entire structure is of plywood, it shall be nt '.east % inch thickness, marine grade, except tor the portions above water which may oe exterior grades. (5) AU floats or walkways shall have an identification num-ber at berthing spaces. Iden-tification numbers' shall have standard 4 inch high numbers and be kept legible at all limes. (a> -PILING. Piling f o r floating equipment shall ha ade-quate co resist lateral forces produced by any combination of wind, current, wave, ana im-pact. (t>) Ail walkways shall be lighted to picvids an average Il-lumination of 0.1 foot candle at thft deck level, but In no case, iess than 0.05 foot candle.". 11.21.070. Parkin*. ParkLng shall be provided a. all Marinas^ as follows: 1. Parking spaces shall be pro-vided in conformance w i t h Chapter 22.71.020 (a) of the Marin County Code. 2. The parsing area shall be paved with 2 inches of asphalt concrete over approved base, or approved equal. 3. Parkin* areas shall be il-luminated. Lighting shall pro-vide average illumination of 0.05 foot candles on the pavement, but In r.o case shall be less than 0.01 foot candies. 4. Stalls shall be clearly mark-ed. 11.21.050. Plumbing. The plumoing of water, sewage, and gas for docks serving floating homes shall comply with the provisions of Chapter le.u-t c£ tfiis code, except as follows: (a) WATER DISTRIBUTION Each space for a floating home shall be supplied with a water cutlet which, by means of approved connecting hoses, pro-vides sufficient pressure and contains an approved backflow prevention device. (b) FUEL GAS PIPING If floating home berths are pro- . vided with gas outlets, they shall be equipped with valve and approved disconnect couplings. All gas piping installed on dock, piers, or other areas exposed to corrosion shall be protected by approved wrap-ping, or be galvanized and painted. 1 1 . 2 1 . 0 3 0 . E l e c t rical Distribution. The provisions ot" this section cover the electrical conductors and equipment in-stalled v/ithin, on, or above walkways or slips s e r v i n g floating homes. The conductors that connect dockside cower sources with the last utility con-nection, and all wiring running on docks and/or shore from the distribution center to the point of supply shall conform to Chapter 19.04 of this Code ex-cem as follows: (a) WIRING SYSTEM. A wirrns svstern nominally rated 115/230 volts, 3 wire AC, with grounded neutral and with a continuous means of grounding shall be used. A receptacle shall be furnished at each location in-tended for use by a floating . home. (b) Xt'JBEK OF SUPPLY CORDS FOR ONE DWELLING UNIT. No more than two 50 ampere supply cords shall supply one floating home. Where the calculated load exceeds 100 amoeres the supply may be furnished by four permanently installed conductors in an ap-proved wiring method, one con-ductor being identified by a con-tinuous green color or a con-tinuous green color with a yellow stripe. (c) SUPPLY FROM ONE F L O A TI N G HOME TO ANOTHER. No service shall be supplied from one floating borne to another. (d) I N S U L A T I O N OS* SERVICE CONDUCTORS. Service conductors shall be covered with insulation which will normally withstand expos-ure to the atmosphere and which will prevent any detrimental leakage of current to adjacent conductors, object, or the ground. All conductors shall be insulated. (e) SIZE OF SERVICE CON-DUCTORS. Service conductors shall have . a d e q u a t e current-carrying capacity to conduct the current for the loads supplied safoiy without a temperature rise detrimental to the Insulating-covering of the conductors, and adequate mechanical strength. Service conductors siiaii net 1 2 9 be smaller than No. 6. <f> CLEARANCE OK AERIAL CONDUCTORS. No energized aerial conductor chilli pas3 over a dock or slip, unless supported on permanently fixed po les . Minimum, elevation lor con-ductors shall be elevation +15.0 fact moan sea level datum. Clearance of ten feet shall be maintained between gangways or piers and conductors at all tidal stapes. Aerial conductors shall only be used for primary service. (g) PROTECTED AGAINST •DAMAGE. When conductors are carried down B pole, the mechanical protection shall be Installed to lhe point required to insure against physical damage but not leoS than elevation +13.0 feet mean sea level datum. (h) S E R V I C E CON. KSCTXONS. No r.erial service drops shall be made to floating homes with a demand of less than 110 amperes. Cords which supply floating homes shall be connected at dockside to a permanently sup-ported receptacle enclosed In an approved manner, mounted in a manner which will insure a minimum of 18 Inches clearance above extreme high tide. If meters are used, thf-y shall be firmly attached at the recepta-cle locations and protected from physical damage. Strain relief grips shall be used cn all cords to relieve strain from wiring terminals. (1) WIRING TO SERVICE CONNECTION POINT'S. Service by conduit system iihall be as follows: Corrosion resistant rigid con-duit shall extend from the aerial or utility supply point to the edge of the fixed portion of the pier, shore, etc. Sufficient liquid tight flexible metal conduit shall be run to the floating docks or alip3 to allow for extreme tidal changes v/lth no strain on the connections. Liquid tight metal conduit shall be installed to ft void continual immersion in •water. Where attached to the Heating dock, the flexible con-duit shall be fixed to corrosive resistant rigid metal conduit and extended to the various outlets. Plastic conduit may ba used where protected and a ground-ing conductor is incorporated, (j) WET LOCATIONS. All supports, bolts, straps, BcreW3, etc., shall be of cor-rosive resistant materials, or protected against corrosion by approved corrosion-resistant materials. 11.21.100. F i r e Protection. "Unless a local fire agency his established more strin-ent stan-dards, a Marina shall have a water system capable of pro-viding two fire streams of 60 gallons per minute to any location within the Marina. Fire hydrants shall be equipped with a hose and nozzle adequate to accomplish the above. Hydrant risers shall be l'-i inches in diameter and equipped with gate valves. Systems shall Ss design-ed to provide a minimum pressure of 30 psi at hydrant risers, under flow. Systems shall h-e approved by the ic-cal fire authority and locai water district. 11.2 1.110. Solid Waste Disposal. A system for the col-lection and removal of solid wastes approved by the Marin County Department of Public Ht-?.lth shall be provided at each ?/Iarlna. It shall be the responsibility of the Harbor Master to Insure compliance and. ep-eration of the system. 11.21.120. rcrmlt Required. It shall be unlawful lor any person to operate a Marina or let berth*; for moorage of non-transient vessels without first securing a valid permit a3 hereinafter provided. 11.21.130. Permits. (a) FORM-FEE. A l l ap-plications for Marina permits ' shall be ln writing on a form supplied by the Marin County Departmcni of Public Works and shall be accompanied by a lee In the amount of $50. plus $2. I>er berthing facility (b) CONTENTS ' O F AP-PLICATIONS. All applications shall, as nearly as is possible, contain the fo l lowing In-formation: (1) The s-.ze and location and boundaries of the Marina for which the permit is sought; iu> The number of vessels to be accommodated therein; (3) All provision that has been made for disposal of sewage by connection to an approved shoreside sewage d i sposa l system; <4) Ail provision that has been made tor connection of shore-sid.-; utilities. (5) Certification that all ap-plicable zoning provisions will be observed: (6) Plans for a l l im-provements; (7) Such other Information as the Director of Public Works may deem necessary to ef-f ctuate the provisions of this chapter. to ISSUANCE. If. the- Direc-tor of Public Works, after in-vestigation, determines, that suitable provision has been made for the disposal of sewage and connection of shoreside utilities, and that operation of the J.iarina for which the permit is requested will not create a hazard to the health, welfare or safety of the occupants of vessels moored thereat or the community in general, he shall issue the permit. All permits may be made subject to such conditions as the Director of Public Works deems appropriate to insure. compliance .with the provisions of this chaDter. (d) POSTING. Permits shall be permanently posted, displayed, and maintained at a . conspiciuous location in the Marina. (e) TERM-RENEWAL. All permits Issued hereunder shall be effective for a period of one year, provided, however, that any material change sha l l revoke the permit. Permits may be renewed by resubmission of an appropriate application and payment of a fee in the amount of S15. (f) INSPECT IONS — REVOCATION. If the Director of Public Works determines that a permittee Is acting In con-travention of any of the pro-visions hereof, he shall notify the permittee, in writing, of the suscific provisions involved and the requirements for correction. If the permittee fails to effect compliance within the time speci/ied In the notice, the Director of Public Works may revoke the nermit. , (g) APPEAL. In the event that anv applicant or nerrnlttee is for "any reason dissatisfied with the actions of the. Director of Public Works by reason of failure to grant a permit, revocation of a permit, or im-position of any condit ions relating to the permit, the ap-plicant" or permittee shall have the ri^ ht to appeal to the Board of Supervisors, ln writinc, within ten days after notification of the action* Upon receipt of an ap-peal, the 'Board of Supervisors shall call a hearing within fif-teen days from receipt of the appeal and give the applicant notice thereof by registered or certified mail addressed to the appellant at the address shown on the application or permit. At the conclusion of the hearing, the Board of Supervisors shall render a decision, which decision shall be final. SECTION H. EX I ST ING MARINAS. All Marinas p resent l y operating shall apply for a permit within one month of the effective date of this ordinance, provided, however, that the ap-plicants who file within the re-quisite period shall be entitled to a period of one year from the date of application to comply with all of the provisions of this ordinance. The Director of Public Works shall have the authority to grant extensions for compliance period on certain ex-isting Marina improvements, that in their present form do not comply with the provisions of this ordinance, but are not con- . sidered to oe immediate hazards. Said permit to be ap- . proved subject to Use Permit and plan aDnroval pursuant to Chapter 22.50.045 of the Maria County Code. SECTION lit. SEVERABILI-TY. If any section, subsection, paragraph, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is.lor any reason held to be invalid or unconstitutional, such validity or • unconstitutionality shall not af-fect the validity o r con-stitutionality of the remaining Eortions of this ordinance, it eing hereby expressly declared that this ordinance and each section, subsection, paragraph, sentence, clause and phrase thereof would i.ai e been, adopted, irrespective of the fact that any one or more other sec-t ion. subsection, paragraph, sentence, clause or phrase ba declared Inva l id or un-constitutional. SECTION XV. This ordinance is hereby declared to be an urgency measure and it shall be in full force and effect im- , mediately upon its adoption. Within fifteen days after adop-tion this ordinance shall be published in the Independent-Journal a newspaper cf general circulation printed and published in the County of Marin. The con-ditions constituting such urgen-cy are as follows: Maintenance and/or operation of Marinas contrary to the provisions of this ordinance are a menace to the public health, safety, and general welfare, inasmuch as occupants of vessels moored at unregulated Marinas may ba subjected to serious injury and illness. The immediate operation of this ordinance Is therefore necessary to protect the public health, peace, safety and general welfare. The foregoing Ordinance wa3 passed and adopted at a regular meeting of the Board o I Supervisors of the County of Marin. State of California, held on Tuesday, the 25th day of March, 1369, by the following vote: AYES: Supervisors William A. Gnoss, L. H. Eaar. Peter B. Ar-rlgonl. Michael Wommn, John F. Mclnnis. NOES: Stioervisors None ABSENT: Supervisors None JOHN F. McINNIS Chairman of the Board of Supervisors (SEAL) ATTEST: Isf GEO N. GNOSS. Clerk No. 353 April 2, 1369 APPENDIX 9 130 OKDINANX'S NO. 1675 AN ORDINANCE OF THE BOARD OF SUPERVISORS OF THE COUNTY OF MARIN ADDING CHAPTER 13.18 TO AND AMENDING CHAPTER 11.20 OF, THE MARIN COUN-TY CODE PROVIDING FOR REGULATION- OF THE CON-STRUCTION AND MAINTE-NANCE OF FLOATING HOMES THE BOARD OF SUPER-VISORS OF THE COUNTY OF M.ARHSi DOES HEREBY OR-DAIN AS FOLLOWS: SECTION I. Chapter 19.18 is hereby added to the Marin County Code to read as follosvs: CHAPTER 19.X8 REGULATION OF THE CON-STRUCTION AND MAINTE-NANCE OF FLO AUNG HOMES 19.18.010. Purpose 19.18.020. Definitions 10.18.030. Applications 19.13.0-10. Code Requirements— General 19.1S.C42. Alternate Construc-tion 19.1S.045. Space Requirements 19.18.050. Height 19.1S.CS0. Material .19.18.070. Construction 1S.18.080. Ramps or Horizontal Exit Ways 19.18.090. Plumbing—General 19.18.109. Building Drain 19.18.110. Plastic Pipe 19.18.120. Inboard Sewerage Device 19.18.130. Piping—Drainage and Vents 19.18.140. Stack 19.18.150. Water Distribution 19.18.160. Fuel—Gas Piping 19.18.170. . Wiring System 19.1.8.130. Power Supply 19.18.190. Supply Cord 19.18.200. Second Supply Cord 19.18.210. Permanent Wiring IS.1S.220. Disconnecting Means 19.18.230. Branch Circuit Protective Equipment 19.1S.240. Branch Circuits 19.1S.250. Portable Appliances 19.18.260. General Appliances 19.1S.270. Receptacle Outlets 19.1S.X80. Fixtures and Appliances 19.18.290. Wiring Methods and Materials 19.1"."CD. Grounding 19.18.310. Calculations 19.18.230. Overall Stability 19.18.330. Calculations by E.ngineer 19.13.340. Com.partmentation and Floatation 19.18.350. Fire Prevention 19.18.360. Life Saving Equipment 19.1S.370. Occupancy Permits 19.IS.380. Restrictions 19.18.010. Purpose. This ordi-nance ' is intended to protect • the health, safety and welfare of floating home occupants by establishing the minimum struc-tural, safety, health and sani-tation standards for floating homas. 13.18.020. Definitions. (a) A "floating home" is any coat, craft, living accommoda-tion or structure supported by a means of floatation, designed to be used without a permanent foundation, which is used or in-tended for human habitation. (b) "Superstructure" is that portion of a floating home above the lowest deck or the level of floatation. (c) "Story" is the portion of a floating home between the up-per surface of any deck and the upper surface cf the deck or ceiling next above. i0.18.0ii0. Applications. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to any floating home moored within Marin County. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to exempt floating home occupants from complying with Chapter 11.20 of the Marin County Code. l'J.13.040. Code Requirements —General. Except as provided herein, every floating home shall compiy with the provisions of Chapter 19.04 of this Code. A dwelling unit which meets the V.'iiTiijY'i.tiiVi i ^ I ^ U A * u i l i C - H * > l u i . c*» efficiency unit set forth under Chapter 13 of the 11-67 U.B.C. may be; constructed, providing all stability design is performed in accordance with this ordi-nance. As an alternate to the ceiling heights specified in Chap-ter 13 of the. 1&6V U.B.C., mini-mum ceiling heights may be sir. feet six inches (6'-6") provided that no portion of said ceiling be less than six feet six inches (5'-5"> and further provided that floor areas comply and net cu-bic volumes are equal to the previously mentioned Chapter 13. 19.18.042. Altercate Construc-tion. Alternate materials and methods of construction may be allowed as provided in Chapter 19.04 of this Code. The Building Official may approve any such alternate provided that he finds that the proposed design is sat-isfactory and complies with the provisions of Chapter 23, and that the material, method, or work offered is, for th? purpose, intended, at least the equiva-lent of that prescribed in this Code in quality, strength, effec-tiveness, fire resistance, dura-bility, and safety. 19.18.045. Space Requirements. Floating homes presently in existence or at a stage of con-struction past framing shall bs required to comply with the fol-lowing space requirements: (a) Habitable,rooms or spaces shall have, an average ceiling height of six feet three inches • (6'-3"). No portion of any room with the ceiling height of less than five feet (5-) shall be in-cluded in computing the mini-mum areas specified in sub-paragraph b. (b) A minimum of two hun-dred and twenty square feet (220 sq. ft.) of habitable floor area shall be provided for occu-pancy loading in excess of two persons, one hundred square feet (100 sq. ft.) shall be added for each additional occupant. 19.18.050. Height. The budding height of a floating home shall not exceed two-and-one-half stories. 19.18.060. Material. All mate-rial, such as decking, siding and subflooring, which is sub-jected to moisture or water splash shall be of a type not adversely affected by moisture, or shall be. treated. 19.18.070. Construction. Floor-ing, wall.and floatation shallbe designed . and constructed by use of diaphragm walls in such a manner that the superstruc-ture acts as an independent unit and .is not adversely af-fected by point reactions under the floatation. 19.18.030. Ramps or Horizontal Exit Ways. Ramps shall be not less than 36 inches in width, exclusive of required handrails which shall not reduce the width more than Zy2 inches. Ramps or horizontal exits, other than mooring docks, shall be provided with two. handrails or guard railings; loadings shall be designed- to withstand a 20-pound lateral line load along the top rail. Railings shall be not less than 36 inches in height above. the ramp floor,, and in open-type railings intermediate members shall not be spaced more than 9 inches apart. Private rairvas or horizontal exits shall be capable of carry-ing a live load in accordance; with the following schedule:. Live Load Length of Ramp Between Supports 50psf 0 to 5 feet 40 psf 5 feet, to 10 feet 30 psf Over 10 fee.t • Ramp design shall also in-clude dead load. Minimum, framing members shall be 2"rA" ii constructed of wood. All ramps and horizontal exits shall have exit illumination with minimum intensity of one foot candie at floor level of entry or 1/10 foot candle on walkway or ramp. Alternate materials and methods of construction may be allowed as provided in Chapter 1P.04 of this Code. 10.18.090. Plumbing — General. The nlumbing of all floating homes and dockside facilities shall comuly with Chapter 10.04 of this Cods except as herein-after provided. 19.1X.100, Tluildlt!:? Drain The "oiulding drain" shall be deem-ed that part of the lo-.vest piping of a drainage system which re-ceives the discharge from all soil, waste and ci.her drainage pines inside the -.vails cf the unit and conveys It to a sewer-age device which conforms to Section l9.lK.ia) or this Chapter. 1U.1S1I0. Plastic Pipe. Plastic pipe for use i.n piping of potable water supply shall be PVC type 2 high impact, schedule 40 or higher. PVC shall bear the WI'OA label and/or the N.S.P. approval. FVC shall not bs threaded in the field. Cleaning and cementing of jomis shall be as directed by the manufacturer. Plastic pipe for use in drain waste and vent piping shall be ABS-DWV with the same wall thickness as that of A.S.A. Schedule 40 (IPS) Standard Steel Pipe, and shall bear the following information: (1) Com-pany name or registered trade-mark of the manufacturer: (2) Nominal pipe size ABS-DWV (d) Vit.P.O.A. seal of approval, fit-tings shall bear the same in-formation. 19.18.120. Inboard Sewerage Device. A sewage receiving tank and ejector device must be in-stalled aboard every floating home. Said device shall consist of a tank with a liquid capacity not less thati 30 gallons, nor more than 40 gallons, and shall be equipped with a two-inch out-let and a.Vi H.P. pump. Said de-. vice must connect to the local sewerage lateral system. 19.18.130. Piping — Drainage and Vents. ASS-DWV may be used for drainage systems and vent niping. 19.18.140, Stack. Each floating home shall have a minimum of .one three-inch stack. . 19.1S.153. Water Distribution. Water shall not be piped to sup-ply floating homes through flex-ible hose unless the hose is a Irigh-pressure type termmatbtg in approved connectors and is preceded by an approved back-flow prevention device. No hose shall be immersed in. water or l an exposed on docks, piers, ate. Length of hose shall not be ex-cessive. Plastic pipe for use ia piping of potable water simply shall be PVC type 2 high impact, sched-ule 40 or higher. PVC shall bear the WPOA label and/or the N.S.F-. approval. PVC shall not be threaded in the field. Clean-ing and cementing of joints shall be as directed by the manu-facturer. • 19.18.160. Fuel — Gt«s Piping. All gas piping installed in float-ing homes which is exposed to corrosion shall bs wrapped and installed in p. manner apnroved by County; or galvanised and painted. Dockside gas connections to floating homes shall be made with approved1 high pressure hose and terminate in apnroved positive disconnect couplings. Gas hoses shall not be immersed in water or run exposed on docks, piers, or floating homes. Length of hose shall not be ex-cessive. 19.18.170. Wiring System. A wiring system nominally rated 1)5/230 volts, 3 wire AC, with grounded neutral shall be in all floating homes. 19.18.180. Power Supply. Serv-ice equipment shall be located adjacent to tlie floating home and may not be mounted in or on the floating home. The power supply to the float-ing homo shall be comprised of feeder circuits consisting of not more than two floating home supply cords, each rated 50 amperes minimum. Larger cords or permanentlv installed circuits may be used."if desired. 19.13.1S0. Supply Cord. Each floating home supply cord shall be approved and have four con-ductors, one of which shall be identified by a continuous green color with a yellow stripe. The attachment plug, cormectors and . mating receptacles shall be 3 pole, 4. wire grounding types cov-. ered by American Standard'C 13 attachment plug and recep-tacles. The power supply ccrd shall be permanently attached to the distribution panel. A suit-able clamp or equivalent shall - be provided at the cistribntioa' panel to afford strain relief for strain at the terminals. The length of the power supply cord shall not be excessive." 19.18.200. Second Supply Cord. Where die calculated load of the floating home is in excess of 50 amperes, or where a separately metered appliance is installed in the fearing home, a second 50 amoere floating home sUDr.lv cord shall be installed. Where two cord supply systems are in-stalled, they shall not be inter-connected on either the line side or the load side except that the grounding circuits and ground-ing means shall be electrically interconnected 19.18.210. Permanent Wiring. Where the calculated load ex-ceeds 100 amperes or permanent feeder is used, the supply shall be effected by means of four permanently installed conduc-tors in an approved wiring method, one conductor being identified by a continuous green color or a continuous green col-or with a yellow stripe. 19.18.220. Disconnecting Means. Disconnecting means shall be provided in each floating homo by approved service entrance equipment, consisting of circuit breakers, or a switch and fuses, and their accessories installed in a readily accessible location _ near the point the supply cord or conductors enter the floating home. This equipment shall con-tain a solderless type of ground-ing connector or bar with suf-ficient terminals for all ground-ing conductors. The neutral bar termination of the grounded cir-cuit conductors, shall be insu-lated; The disconnecting equip-ment shall have a rating suit-able for the connected load. Where two power supply cords are i n s t a l l e d disconnecting means shall be provided for each cord but may be combined in single equipment without elec-trical interconnections other than for grounding purposes. Branch circuit- equipment may be com-bined with the disconnecting means as a single assembly, and designed as a distribution panel. Plug fuses r.hd fuse holders shall be tamper-resistant. Type "S", enclosed' in dead front panels. A distribution panel main, cir-cuit-breaker shall be rated 50 amperes and employ a 2 pole circuit-breaker rated 50 amperes for a 50 ampere supply cord. A distribution panel employing a disconnect switch and fuses shall be rated 60 amperes and shall employ a single 2 pole 60 ampere fuse holder with 50 am-pere- main fuses. The outside of the distribution panel shall be plainly marked with the fuse size. The main circuit-breakers or fuses shall be. plainly mark-ed "main." 19.18.230. Branch Circuit Pro-tective Equipment. Branch cir-cuit distribution equipment shall be installed in each floating. home and shall include over-current protection for each branch circuit, whether circuit-breakers or fuses. If circuit-breakers are pro-vided for branch circuit pro-tection, 230 volt circuits shall be protected by 2 pole common (or companion trip), or handle-tied paired, circuit-breakers. The branch-circuit overcur-rent devices shail be rated: (a) Not more than the circuit conductors; and (b) Not more than 150 per cent of the rating of a single appliance rated 10 amperes or more; but (c) Not more than the fuse size marked on the air condi-tioner or other motor operated appliance. 19.18.240. Branch Circuits. The number of branch circuits required shall be dstermined in accordance with the following: Based on 3 watts per square foct, times outside dimensions of the enclosed area of the float-ing home, excluding decks and porches, divided by 115 volts, to determine number of 15 or 20 ampere lighting area circuits, e.g., 3 x Length x Width p l u s 115 x 15~(or 20) Number cf 15 (or 20) ampere circuits.. 19.18.230. Portable Appliances. A minimum of two 20 ampers branch circuits shall be requir-ed for receptacle outlsts in ihs kitchen area, which may also supply other receptacle outlets in the- dining, and deck area. These circuits shall supply only portable appliances. A washing machine shall be on a separate 20 ampere circuit. 19.18.261). General Appliances. (Including furnace, water heat-er, ran-^ e,. and central or room air conditioner, etc.). One or more circuits of adequate rat-ing shall be required in accord-ance with the following: (a) For fixed apnliances on a circuit, without lighting outlets, the sum of rated amperes shall not exceed the branch circuit rating for other than motor leads or 80 per csnt of tha branch circuit rating for air conditioning. (b) The rating of a single-portable appliance on a circuit with no other outlets shall not exceed 80 per oent of the cir-cuit rating. (c) The rating of range branch circuit shall be based on the range demand as spscified for ranges in Section 19.18.310(b)5. 19.18.270. Receptacle Outlets. All receptacle outlets shall be the grounding type and must be installed in accordance with Chapter 19.04 of this Code. Re-ceptacles shall be p a r a l l e l blade, 15 ampere, 125 volt, either single or duplex, and shall contain an individual grotuiding type outlet for each cord-conneoted fixed appliance installed. Except in the bath and hall areas, receptacle outlets shall be installed at wall spaces two feet wide or more, so that no point along the i'loor line is more than six feet, measured horizontally, from an outlet in that space, except as explained in the following. Receptacle ouclets are not required for wall spaces occupied by kitchen or wardrobe cabinets. In addition, a receptacle out-let shall be installed: (a) Over counter type tops In the kitchen (at least one on each side of the sink if counter tops are. on each side); (o> Adjacent to the refriger-ator and free-standing gas range space. (c) At counter top spaces for built-in vanities. (d) At counter top spaces un-der wall-mounted cabinets. Re-ceptacle outlets shall not be in-stalled within or adjacent to a shower or bathtub space. 19.18.280. Fixtures and Appli-ances. (a) Water heaters, refrigera-tors, air conditioning equipment, ranges, electric heaters, wash-ers, dryers and other . similar, appliances shall be an approved type, connected in an approved manner, and securely fastened in position. (See Section 19.18.-300 for provisions on grounding.) (b) Specifically a p p r o v e d pendant type fixtures or pendant cords may be installed in float-ing homes. (c) If a lighting fixture is pro-vided over a bathtub or. in a shower stall, it shall be an ap-proved enclosed and gasketed type.. . . (d) Switches shall not be lo-cated Inside the tub or shower space. 19.18.290. Wiring Methods and Materials. Exoept as provided in this section wiring methods and materials reaulred by Chap-ter 19.04 shall be used in float-ing homes. (a) Nonmetallic outlet boxes are acceptable only in conjunc-tion with nonmetallic sheathed cable. (b) Nonmetallic cable located below 7 feet six inches above the floor, if exposed, shall be pro-tected from physical damage by covering boards, guard straps, or conduit. (c) Metal clad and nonme-tallic cables may be passed through the centers of the wide side of 2 x 4 studs. However, they shall be protected where they pass through 2 x 2 studs or at other studs or frames where the cable or armor would be less than l'/z inches from the Inside or out-ide. surface. Steel plates on each side of the cable, or a tube with not less than No. IB manufacturer's standard Kauge wall thickness, are required to protect the cable. These plates or tubes shall be securely fastened iu place. (d) It' metallic faceplates are used, they shall be effectively grounded. (e) If a range, clothes dryer, or similar aopllance is connect-ed bv armored cable or flexible conduit, a length of free cable conduit -hou^d be ^rovl'^^d to permit movement cf the appli-ance. The cable or ilexible con-duit should be adequately se-cured to the wall. Clearance space behind a range may pro-' vide the required protection if a j. range is connected by type SS i cable. When used, type SE cable ii shall have an identified and in-•f. sulated neutral plus an equip-ment grounding conductor. Non-'; metallic cable (type NM) shall s: not be used to connect a range. . r. (f) Rigid metal conduit shall li bs provided with a locknut in-f< side and outside the box. A con-duit bushing shall be used on the 1% inside. Inside ends of the con-•j duit shall be reamed, s- (g) Switches shall be rated as '£ follows: f. 1. Lighting circuit switches D shall have a 10 ampere, 125 volt | rating, or higher if required for s the connected load. 2. Motor or other load switch-es shall have ampere or horse-power ratings or both, adequate for loads controlled. (An "AC general use" snap switch may control a motor 2 horsepower or less if full load current Js not over 80 per cent of the switch ampere rating) (h) At least 4 inches of free . conductor, shall be left at each outlet box unless conductors are intended to loop without joints. (i) WIRING EXPOSED TO WEATHER. 1. If outdoor wiring is ex-posed to moisture or physical damage, it shall be protected by rigid metal conduit or liquid-tight flexible metal conduit. Electrical metallic tubing may be used when closely, routed against frames and equipment enclosures. 2. Conductors shall be Type •NMC, RW. TW, or equivalent. 19.18.300. Grounding. Ground-ing of electrical and non-elec- -trical metal parts in a floating home shall be affected through connection to a grtrwdirig bus •• in the floating home distribution panel. The grounding bus shall be grounded through the green, conductor in the supply cord, or the feeder wiring to the service ' ground in the service entrance equipment.. (a) INSULATED NEUTRAL 1. .The grounded circuit con-. ductor (neutral) shall be insulat-ed from the grounding conduc-tors, equipment enclosures, and o t h e r grounded parts. The grounded (neutial) circuit termi-nals in distribution panels, ranges, clothes dryers, counter mounted cooking units, and wall mounted ovens are to be in-sulated from the equipment en-closure. Bonding screws, straps, or buses in distribution panels and/or appliances are to be re-moved and discarded. 2. Ranges and clothes dry-ers shall be connected with 4 conductor cord and 3 pole 4 wire grounded type plugs, or by armored cable or conductors en-closed in flexible steel conduit (b) EQUIPMENT GROUND^ ' ING MEANS 1. The green grounding wire in the supply cord or permanent feeder wiring shall be connected to the grounding bus in the dis-tribution panel or disconnecting means. 2. The chassis, if metal, shall be grounded. The grounding con-ductor may be solid or stranded, insulated or bare, and shall be armored grounding conductor or an armored grounding conductor or routed in conduit if No 8 AWO. The cnr.ductor if No' 6 AWG or larger, may be run with-out metal covering. The ground-ing conductors shall be connect-ed between distributing panel grounding terminal and a term-inal on the chassis. Grounding terminals shall be of the solder-less type and approved as pres-sure terminal connectors recog-nized for the wire size employ-ed. 3. In the electrical system, all exposed metal parts, enclo-sures, frames, lamp fixtures, canopies, etc., shall be effective-ly bonded to the. grounding ter-minals or enclosures of the dis-tribution panel. 4. Cord connected appliances, such as washing machines, clothes dryers, .refrigerators, and the electrical system of gas ranges, etc., shall be grounded by means of an approved cord with grounding conductor and grounding type plug. Based on higher current cal-culated for either leg, use one £0 ampere supply cord. 19.18,320. Overall Stability. The floating home shall be stable with both dead load and live ! load included. i (a) METACENTRIC HEIGHT The metacentric height (MG) shall be equal to -f- 1.0 foot or more according to the following equation: . MG - Ws ly C URltENT'c Aft R Y I N G " M E T A L T A R T S All major exposed metal parts that may become energized, in-cluding the water, gas, and waste plumbing, the roof and outer metallic covering, the chassis and metallic circulating air ducts, shall be effectively bonded to the grounding termi-nal or enclosure of the distribu-tion panel or to the metal chas-sis. Bonding of the chassis to the distribution panel grounding terminal shall be affected in ac-cordance with Section 19.18.300 (b)2. 19.1S.310. Calculations. The supply cord and distribution panel load for each power sup-ply assembly in a floating home shall be computed on the. basis of a 3 wire, 115/230 volt supply with 115 volt loads balanced be-tween the two legs of the 3 wire system, as follows: (a) LIGHTING AND SMALL APPLIANCE LOAD LIGHTING WATTS: Length times width of floating home (outside dimensions) times 3 watts per square foot; e.g., Length x width x 3=Lightlng watts. SMALL APPLIANCE WATTS: Number of circuits times 1,500 watts for each 29 ampere appli-ance receptacle circuits; e.g., Number of circuits x 1500= Small appliance watts. Total: Lighting watts plus small appliance. — total watts. First 3,000 total watts at 100 per cent plus remainder at 35 per cent = watts to be divided by 230 volts to obtain current (amperes) per leg. (b) Total load for determin-ing power, supply, is the summa-tion of: .1. Lighting and small appli-ance load as calculated'in Sec-tion 19.18.310(a). 2. Namenlate amperes for motors and heater loads — ex-haust fans, air co-> .•"tioners*, electric, gas or oil heating. *Omit smaller of these two, except blower motor if used as air conditioner evaporator mo-tor. 3. 25 per cent of current of •larger motor in (2) 4. Total of nameplate ampere for: disposal, dishwasher, wat-er heater, clothes dryer, wall mounted oven, cooking units. If the number of these units ex-ceeds three, use 75 per cent of total. 5. Amperes for free standing range (as distinguished from separate ovens and cooking units) shall be determined by dividing values below by 230 volts. Nameplate Rating .. . - Use 10.000 w x or less 80 per cent of rating 10.001 — 12,500 w 8,000 w 12,501 — 13,500 8,400 ' 13,501 — 14,500 8,800 14,501 — 15,500 9.200 15,501 — 16,500 9,600 16.501 — 17,500 10,000 6. If outlets or circuits are provided for other than assembled appliances, pumps, etc., the anticipated loads must be included; e.g., Example: ' A floating heme is 35 x 20 and has two portable appliance circuits, a 1,000 watt, 230 volt heater; a 200 watt, 115 volt exhaust fan; 200 watt, 115 volt dishwasher and 7,000 watt electric range.. Lighting and small appliance load Lighting 35 x 20 x 3 equals - 2,100 watts - ' • Small appliance 1,500 x 2 equals 3,000 watts wherv. " Ws = unit weight of sea water W = total weight of float-ing home tacluding dead load and live load. (L.L. = 20 pounds per square foot of first floor area, and 10 pounds per square foot of second floor, habitable attic or loft) Iy = Moment of inertia of the area encompassed by the waterline arotmd the hull or floatation (fully load-ed boat) as taken about the longitudinal axis of the houseboat. L = The distance between the oenter of the grav-ity and the center of buoyancy of the fully loaded boat. (b) FREEBOARD The freeboard, as measured from the waterline to the top of the first floor or deck of the completed houseboat, including dead load but not live load, shall be at least 1.3 feet (with list angle=0.0°) (c) STABILITY WJTE OFF-CENTER LOADING; Oft WIND LOADING The floating home, when sub-jected to either of f-c enter loading or wind loading shall not exceed the limitations on hull, immersion and angle of list set forth as follows: (1) The maximum angle of list shall hot exceed 4.0° (2) The freeboard shall-be -measured from the waterline to the top of the first floor or deck at side of the vessel at a point where said freeboard has its • • least dimension. The allowable immersion shall not be more than two-thirds (%) of this freeboard. 1st 3,000 watts at 100% Remainder (5,100-3,000=2,100) at 35% 3,735 -H 230 16 amperes per leg 1,000 watt (heater) -j- 230 200 watt (fan) 4- 115 — 400 watt (dishwasher) H- 115 — : 7,000 watt (range) x .8 -j- 230— Lighting and appliances Heater (230 volt) Fan (115 volt) Dishwasher (115 volt) Range Total 5,100 3.0C0 735 3,735 4.4 amp 1.7 amp 3.5 amp 24.0 amp Amperes per Leg A B 16 16 4 4 2 '—' — 4 24 24 I I ! 15' *• ft 1 The off-cent«r loading shall ba ; considered as applicable to the f completed houseboat, including j dead load, and shall consist of a ! line load of 100 lbs., or 5 lbs. per \ foot of width, whichever is j greater, per lineal foot '(1st 5 floor) and 50 lbs., or 2.5 lbs. per j foot of width, whichever is i> greater, per lineal foot (2nd ? floor, habitable attic, or loft). $ The uniform line load is to be applied halfway between the £ center of gravity and the outside | edge of deck, to one side of the j floating home at a tune. The > dividing line Is the longitudinal I axis of the vessel, and the | overturning moment resulting > from the eff-center loading shall J be taken about the computed i center of gravity. Stability, with the off-center loading applied, shall be tested on both sides of the longitudinal axis. Wind loading shall be applied to the completed houseboat, in-cluding dead load, and live load, but not off-center loading. The moment due to the wind loading shall be computed as: Mw=P x A x H Where: Mw=Wind heeling moment, in foot pounds. P = Wind pressure factor/ in pounds per square foot in accordance with the following: 8.0 (for partially protect-ed waters) A = Area, in square feet, of the projected lateral surface of the vessel ' above the load water-line. This surface in-cludes the hull super-structure and areas > bounded by railings i and/or structural can- \ opies. 5 H = Height, in feet, to the ' center of Area (A) ? above the first floor \ deck. 19.18.330. Calculations by En- i gineer . Calculations by a qualified-engineer showing that the stability of the floating home conforms to the above ' mimimum requirements will be acceptable. Said calculations shall be subject to the following provisions: (a) With reference to Section 19.lS.32C(a 46 43 'MdP _ +1.0 f t . o r T.are (b> With reference to Section \1 19.13.320(02 calculations shall | show that as a result of the list ) angle caused by the off-center loading, the original freeboard (with list angle=0.0°) shall not be diminished by more than 67%. (c) With reference to Section 19.18.320(c) calculations shall show that: Mr= + l . O or more apo! ied M O W i t h . a"! 1st = 4°f Where: | MO = overturning moment t resulting from the off-center loading, said moment to be taken about a longitudinal line passing through the computed center of gravity of the floating home. Mr = Resisting moment due to buoyancy, said moment to be taken about a longitudinal j line passing through the C K V I - J outed center of gravity. " and: . _ ,'. Xii, " with a i i st = 4° Where: Mw = wind heeling j moment I Mr—resisting moment due '• to buoyancy (same as Mr above) j 19.1S.340. Compartmentation and Floatation. (a) BTJLXHEAD3. Watertight pontoons, floats, or any other device used to keep the floating „ home afloat shall be fitted with 5 • transverse and/or longitudinal • Si-watertight bulkheads which pro- f? vide compartmentation suf- ?-ficient to keep the fully loaded '•• vessel afloat with positive stability, with any one main .'-compartment flooded. \ For pontoon type- floatation, \ the maximum allowable \ distance between bulkheads is % 8 feet -0- inches. No single com- f. partment shall comprise more ' *i—.... rtufrr ~* *r-c total a~,— i 1 ab'", 1 floatation volume. \ 132 1 3 3 (b) HULL TYPE FLOATA-TION. Tha hull shall be fitted with at least one longitudinal bulkhead and two transverse bulkheads. N o compartment shall comprise more than 20'* of total a v a i l a b l e floatation volume. Hull type floatation with less than two t r a n s v e r s e bulkheads may be utilized upon demonstration that the structure will remain afloat with one com-partment flooded. I f con-struction materials are utilized which make the possibility of rupture of the hull extremely remote, the County may waive this requirement. (C) FLOATATION DEVICES. The external surfaces of all floatation devices shall be water-tight and thoroughly protected from c o r r o s i o n from salt water, solvents and weather. Floatation devices shall be con-structed so that access to each compartment is r e a d i l y available from the first floor level of the completed floating home. Floatation devices shall be structurally sound and securely fastened to the main houseboat structure, as ap-proved by the officials. (d) BiLGE PUMP. Where" permanent type floatation, such as styrofoam or plastic foam is not provided, a portable bilge pump shall be maintained in proper working order. Bilge pump size and installation shall be approved by the County. (e) HOLDING TANK. Floata-tion and decking shall provide access to and protection for the holding tank and sewage pump. 19.18.350. Fire Prevention. Each floating home shall maintain, onboard, at least one 10 lb. (or equivalent) all purpose drv chemical fire extinguisher for each separate level or floor of habitable living snace. 19.18.360. Life Saving Equip-ment. (a) Suitable accessible storage shall be provided on deck for the i storage of life preservers, ring j life buoys or other coast guard ; apnroved life saving devices. % 19.18.370. Occupancy Permits, g All owners of floatinz homes f! moored in Marin Cotmty on the p effective date of this ordinance t shall apoly for an. occupancy ~, permit within thirty (30) days of ji *utiCw, pursuant to Chapter 11.20 of this.Code. An owner of a J; floating home mooring in County waters after the effective date j of this ordinance, will apply I within three (3) days. Following 1. the Inspection cf a. floating home ;: for an occupancy permit, the L owner will, be advised of any.;, deficiencies that must be cor- j rected and of applicable building | permits that may be required. \ 19.18.380. Restrictions. It shall be illegal to inhabit, occupy, > moor, lease, rent, or sell any ( floating. home which does not : comply with the provisions of • this 'Chapter. SECTION II. Section 11.20.010 . of the Marin County . Code is hereby amended to read as follows: 11.20.010. Definitions. For the purposes of this chapter, the following phrases, words and their derivations shall have the meaning given herein. When not inconsistent with the context, words in the present tense in-clude the future, words in the plural number include the singular number, and words in the singular number include the plural number. The word "shali" is always mandatory s . and not merely directory-. -j-~'Vcss-€-r\'me a :•':="' a n y water- 5 cry.ii oi anv tyae or size, includ- j '-«: but no: Si'm'ted" to barges, ferry boats, ar'.rs. yachts, house-boats, floating homes a n d rafts. "Moor" means'the f ix ins of a vessel in one location, tempo-;v.ri'v or permanently..by moor-}r.t\ ' ar.chorir.z, grounding or ar.v other means. [ Tra::?iei:i vessel" means any | vv.-:--:l temporarily moored in i the- County oi Mar::- which is oc. | cat-.i'jd faf a period of lejs than : fvi ' ir consecutive day? or ten | di-.-? in any calendar month. 1 "Waterway" means any wa- j ier, w i t e r w a y. :a:-:e, river, 1 car.a!; lagoon, bay. inlet. ' 'h irih'.ltarv. ^ r ? r r r i of the Situated within or bounding; - County of Marin. •Director" means the duly 'horized and acting director •!-,-  Public Vc:'!:> O .-partir er.t lhe Cour.lV of Mar:::. •Person" includes any •;<;••• :•. firm, association, corpo: s--.p'.oyees of any 31 the forcgo-nc snail be accompanied oy a ;e in the amount of S i x f c i / ollars/jVfr-c--/ ^ E. CONTENTS OF APPI.ICA-"Garbage" inclu'-es anv'cr all of the following: Garbuc-;*. swii:, refuse, cans, bottles, papers.' vegetable matter, ca: ca as- r/f dead animals, off a!, trash, rub-bish arid radioactive v.ru.*" r-'a-t3:"'-<! "Sewage" means anv and -M waste substance, liquid o r solid associated with human habita-tion, cr wliich contains or mav be contaminated with humai: or animal excreta o r excrement, offal, o r any feculent matter SECTION If. 12.MO.0:10 of the M.fuin County Code i~ hereby amended to read p.s follows: 11.20.0:10. Prohibiten acts and activities. It sha'.i be unlawful for any rjerson to co anv of the following: (a) Discharge untreated sew-age into a waterway.' (b) Dump or threw sarbaste into a waterway; ic> Occupy, or cause, or per-mi: another person to occupy 'any moored vessel as living quarters, other than a transient vessel, without i:rst .securing a valid occuiKvr.cy permit as here-inafter provided. (d) Rent or lease berthing space to any vessel other than a transient vessel, for whinh -as cccupaucy permit has not been secured; fe) Cause or allow a vessel located on or moored to "his property to be occupied in con-travention of this .chapter for a period in excess of thirty days after receipt of a written notice from the . Director, specifying the vessel involved and the l'oca". ' tion thereof; (f) Furnish -or supply electri-cal service, natural gas or fresh water,, or p r 0 v i rt e a sewer co:mect:or., to any. vessel, other than transient vessels, for which an occupancy permit has not beer, secured. SECTION H I . Section 11.20.030 of the Marin County Code is hereby amended to read as lows: 11.20.030. Permits. A. FORM-FEE. All applica-tions for occupancy p e r m i t s shall be in writing on a form supplied by the Marin County Department of Public Works, a d h l bvfe ' ' doi ... . TIONS. All applications shall, as nearly as is possible, contain the following information: ll) The size, type and location of the vessel for which the per-mit is souarht; (?) The number of people to be accommodated, on board; (2 1 All provision that has been made for disposal of sewage by connection to an approved she-reside sewage disposal sys-(4) Al! provision that has been mace for connection of shore-sice utilities; (5) Such ether information as the Director may -deem neces-sary to effectuate the provisions of this chapter. C. ISSUANCE. If the Director, after investigation, determines that suitable provision has been marie for the disposal of sewage and connection cf shoreside util-ities, ar.ci that occupancy of the vessel for which the permit is re-our-sted will not create a haz-ard to the health, welfare or safety of the occupants thereof or the community in general, he shall issue the permit. All per-mits mav be made subject to sue:-, 'conditions as the Director de ;-m s appronria'.e to insure '-Oi:ipitar;ce witn trie tirovastcn.s of this chanter. . D. POSTING. -Permits shall be nermanently posted and maintained upon the vessel in a conspicuous- location. Trie registration number of the occupancy pet-nit shall be affixed to the vessel in letters and numbers four inches in !-..-i«ht and cleariv visible in the vi'c'nitv of the ntatn entrance.. E. TERM-RE 1 ill V.'AJj. A. 11. permits issued her., U P . V K: - :;ht,;. be elective for a r va 'i •'i o::c year, provided. j.O".»evfX. that any material change :n ti.-; 0.0:1-ttcr. o r arty char!::.: ir. ownership or location of ::.s vessel shall be .renewed by resubmission cf an appropriate ar-tjheatiori and pavntent of a'fee tn the amount of ./.r dollar^ .^ »A>«?y 'NSPECTJCN3 - I '^VOO.--.. TION.* The* Oi rector shall ka-,-.-avtiw-rity to bc-arc _ s:;d.-'c-r _ reasonable cause to believe that the vessel is occupied in V the right to revo.-te anv csrmu cranted hereunder in the" event that he ascertains that the per-mittee, or any occupancy.of the vessel, is acting in contraven-tion 01 any o: tlie provisions hereof. G. APPE.\L. In the event that any applicant cr permittee Ls for any reason dissatisfied with' the actions of the Director by reason of failure to grant a per-mit, revocation of a permit, cr imoosition of any conditions re-lating to the permit, the appli-cant or permittee shall have the right to appeal to the board of supervisors, in writing, within ten cays after notification oi the action of the Director. Upon re-ceipt of an appeal the board of supervisors sha'.i call a hearing within fifteen days from receipt of the appeal and give the appli-cant notice thereof by regis-tered or c e r t i f i e d mail ad-dressed to the appellant at the -address shown or. the applica-tion or permit. At the conclusion of the heaving, the board of su-pervisors shall render- a deci-sion, which decision shall be fi-nal. SECTION 4. Section 11.20.031 of the Marin County Code is herebv renealed. SECTION V. Section 11.20.032 is hereby added to the Marin County Code to read as follows: 11.20.032. All vessels shall be securely and safely moored. Mooring lines shall be of suf-ficient size and quality to secure the houseboat against all an-ticipated conditions. Houseboats shall be moored to at least two senaiate cleats or pilings. "SECTION VI. Compliance Periods. All floating homes presently moored in Marin County shall conform with.. the provisions of this ordinance as follows: (a) Conditions determined to be immediately hazardous by the building officia.1 shall be cor-rected within the time allocated by the building official. Elec-trical systems and mechanical systems that do not conform to the adopted code and constitute a substantial hazard shall be corrected - within the time allocated by the building official. (b) Compliance concerning sewerage shall be completed no later than one year of the ef-fective date. (c) Any floating home in ex-istence on the effective date of this ordinance may be used or occupied so long as it is main-tained in a sanitary condition, is structurally sound and protects the inhabitants from the elements and further that it complies with Section 19.18.045 within five years of the effective date of this ordinance. Any floating home that comes into the County after the ef-fective date ot the ordinance shall comply at their time of en-try. Floating homes under con-struction shall comply in all respects excepting space re-quirements as described in Sec-tion 19.18.045, but shall comply at the expiration of the previously-mentioned five year period. SECTION Vn. Tills Ordinance is hereby declared to be an urgency measure and shall be in full force and e f f e c t im-mediately upon its adoption. Within 15 days after adoption this ordinance shall be published in the Independent-Journal, a . neWsnaper of general circulation printed . and published in the County of Marin. Conditions con-stituting such urgency are as follows: Maintenance and/or habitation of vessels contrary to the provisions of this ordinance are "a menace to the public health, safety, and general welfare inasmuch as occupants and/or visitors to said vessels may be subjected to serious In-juries or illness as a con-sequence of building and sanitary deficiencies contained herein. The immediate operation of this ordinance is necessary to protect the public health, peace, safety and general welfare. The foregoing Ordinance was passed and adopted at a regular meeting of the Board o f Supervisors of the County of Marin, State of California, held on Tuesday, the 10 th day of n^rpmhor !9R3 the foilowinf^  vote. AYES: Supervisors William A. C.noss. Peter H. Behr. John F. Mclnnis, Ernest N. Ket-tenhofen NOES: Supervisor Thomas f. Ptorer ABSENT: Supervisors None ERNEST N. XETTENHOFEN Chairman of the Board of Sunervisors ATTEST: GEO. H. GNCS3. Clerk. ' >••! l.-v'.t ^ - c :1-:3 ' 

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