Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Assessment of selected social data collection techniques for use in urban public recreation planning Mak, Eunice Hoi-Cheung 1978

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1978_A8 M35.pdf [ 7.53MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094409.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094409-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094409-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094409-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094409-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094409-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094409-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094409-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094409.ris

Full Text

ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED SOCIAL DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES FOR USE IN URBAN PUBLIC -RECREATION PLANNING by EUNICE, HOI-CHEUNG, [ M A K B.A. ( H o n s . ) j U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1978 © E u n i c e , Hoi-Cheung, Mak, 1978 i i ABSTRACT ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED SOCIAL DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES  FOR USE IN URBAN PUBLIC RECREATION PLANNING R e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s s e r v i n g l o c a l .governments a r e f a c e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t p roblems i n s e l e c t i n g d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , and can f i n d l i t t l e u s e f u l g u i d a n c e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . A range of t e c h n i q u e s have been a s s e s s e d u s i n g t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e l i t e r a t u r e , f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and i n f o r m a n t s . The c o n c l u s i o n i s th a t , f or' most u r b a n community p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s i t a p p ears a p p r o p r i a t e t o use s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s i n s t a g e s , because each t e c h n i q u e has s i g n i f i c a n t s h o r t c o m i n g s . Assessment of t h e t e c h n i q u e s i n v e s t i g a t e d i s based on t e c h n i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l c r i t e r i a . The t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e c o s t , a c c u r a c y and r e l i a b i l i t y , f l e x i b i l i t y o f u s e , e t h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , and d a t a v a l i d i t y — m a t t e r s w h i c h r e c e i v e a t l e a s t p a s s i n g a t t e n t i o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . C o n c e p t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i n c l u d e i d e n t i f y i n g i n d i v i d u a l ' s and community's needs, a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l u s e r s a r e b e i n g s e r v e d , a t t e m p t i n g t o p r e d i c t changes i n l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r , and a n a l y s i s of p r e f e r e n c e s f o r d i f f e r -e nt t y p e s of r e c r e a t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r most p u r p o s e s i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o use a c o m b i n a t i o n of t e c h n i q u e s i n o r d e r t o b a l a n c e t h e weaknesses of one a g a i n s t t h e s t r e n g t h s o f a n o t h e r . The r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of each c r i t e r i o n depends on t h e p u r p o s e s and c o n t e x t of t h e s t u d y . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n g e n e r a l t h e b e s t s t r a t e g y w i l l be t o choose t e c h n i q u e s s e q u e n t i a l l y , s t a r t i n g w i t h t h o s e t h a t a r e most f l e x i b l e and i n e x p e n s i v e . I n t h i s s t r a t e g y t h e r e s u l t s of each s t a g e s h o u l d be used t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e o p t i o n s f o r t h e n e x t s t a g e , by d e f i n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t need t o be answered and t h e p r o b a b l e v a l u e o f i i i t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . The f i r s t s t a g e s h o u l d be use o f s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s , documented d a t a and i n f o r m a n t s , because of t h e low c o s t and f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s . C a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n and d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g s h o u l d be used n e x t , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e and f l e x i b l e and have t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f r o u n d i n g out t h e d a t a r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g t h e r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s i n t o f o c u s . The outcome of t h i s s t a g e s h o u l d d e f i n e d a t a needs and r e s e a r c h c o n s t r a i n t s i n a form t h a t p e r m i t s i n f o r m e d judgement about w h i c h , i f any, o f t h e more s o p h i s t i -c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e o r n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . The s t r e n g t h s of t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e a r e t h a t i t g i v e s a com-p r e h e n s i v e p i c t u r e o f p r e s e n t r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , and i d e n t i f i e s c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f n o n - u s e r s as w e l l as u s e r s of l o c a l p u b l i c r e c r e a c t i o n o p p o r t u n i -t i e s . T r a d e - o f f games do what o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s c a n n o t , i n e l i c i t i n g r e a l i s -t i c s t a t e m e n t s o f p r e f e r e n c e s . C o n t r o l l e d o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g a c c u r a t e usage d a t a . D e l b e c q i s a t e c h n i q u e t h a t i s used t o i n v e s t i g a t e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n problems once a d e s i r a b l e program or s p e c i f i c p l a n has been d e f i n e d . The D e l p h i t e c h n i q u e c a n e x p l o r e l i k e l y changes i n t h e f u t u r e , and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r e s e n t d e c i s i o n s . F u l l s c a l e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s b a s i c a l l y a p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e i n w h i c h d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i s a s e c o n d a r y f u n c t i o n . However, i t n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s use o f i n f o r m a n t s and c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , and can e a s i l y and i n e x p e n s i v e l y accommodate D e l p h i , D e l b e c q and d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g . T h i s b r i e f s t a t e m e n t of t h e g e n e r a l s t r a t e g y o m i t s many i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t i e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s , w h i c h p l a n n e r s must know i n o r d e r t o choose t h e b e s t c o m b i n a t i o n f o r a r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g t a s k . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s and I l l u s t r a t i o n s v i i i Acknowledgement i x PART I 1 CHAPTER I : THE PROBLEM 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 P l a n n i n g w i t h i n t h e framework o f u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n 2 C o n c e p t u a l and t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s i n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h 4 C o n c e p t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s 4 T e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s 8 The c o n c e p t o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n : p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e 11 Te c h n i q u e s and m e t h o d o l o g i e s — a c o m p a r i s o n 15 Methodology o f t h i s s t u d y 19 The scope o f t h e s t u d y 20 B r i e f o u t l i n e o f t h e t h e s i s r e p o r t 21 PART I I 21 ANALYSIS OF SELECTED DATA-COLLECTION TECHNIQUES 21 I n t r o d u c t i o n 21 Summary o f c r i t e r i a 22 The R i l e y P a r k community 23 V CHAPTER I I : THE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE TECHNIQUE 28 I n t r o d u c t i o n 28 The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e 28 Clo s e d - e n d e d and open-ended q u e s t i o n s 35 Clo s e d - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s 36 Open-ended q u e s t i o n s 37 Summary 38 CHAPTER I I I : GROUP INTERACTION 40 I n t r o d u c t i o n 40 Group i n t e r a c t i o n 40 F u l l s c a l e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n 45 D i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g 48 The D e l b e c q t e c h n i q u e 53 Summary 61 CHAPTER IV: SECONDARY DATA 62 I n t r o d u c t i o n 62 Secondary s o u r c e s 62 Documented d a t a 69 I n t e r v i e w s o f " e x p e r t s " and " i n f o r m a n t s 72 Summary 76 CHAPTER V: FIELD METHODS 77 I n t r o d u c t i o n 77 F i e l d methods 77 P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n 82 N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n 84 Summary 86 CHAPTER V I : GAMING 87 I n t r o d u c t i o n 87 v i Gaming 87 T r a d e - o f f games 93 The d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e 97 Summary 100 PART I I I 1 0 1 CHAPTER V I I : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 101 I n t r o d u c t i o n 101 Summary of f i n d i n g s 101 Secondary d a t a 101 O b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e 103 Group i n t e r a c t i o n 104 D e l p h i t e c h n i q u e 105 Survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e 107 T r a d e - o f f games 108 Summary H I CHAPTER V I I I : CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 112 I n t r o d u c t i o n 112 C o n c l u s i o n s H 2 Recommendations 114 A s t r a t e g y p r o p o s a l f o r s e l e c t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g and r e s e a r c h 116 Summary H 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY H 9 APPENDIX I 125 APPENDIX I I I 3 0 APPENDIX I I I i 3 3 v i i L I ST OF TABLES T a b l e 1: Sources o f n o n - i n t e r v i e w s i n t h e R i l e y P a r k community needs s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n 1977 32 T a b l e 2: C o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f s e l e c t e d t e c h n i q u e s t o t h e t e c h n i c a l c r i t e r i a 109 T a b l e 3: C o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f s e l e c t e d t e c h n i q u e s t o t h e c o n c e p t u a l c r i t e r i a 110 v i i i L I S T OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS Diagram 1: C o n c e p t u a l d i a g r a m o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f methodology ... 17 Map 1: C i t y o f Vancouver and t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP a r e a 24 Map 2: The R i l e y P a r k NIP a r e a 25 Map 3: N e i g h b o r h o o d p a r k s i n t h e R i l e y P a r k 26 I l l u s t r a t i o n 1: Community Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r the E x p a n s i o n o f R i l e y P a r k 67 I l l u s t r a t i o n 2: R e s u l t s o f Community Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h e E x p a n s i o n o f R i l e y P a r k R e c r e a t i o n Complex 68 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e many p e o p l e who have a s s i s t e d me i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I am most g r a t e f u l t o P r o f e s s o r Henry H i g h t o w e r f o r t h e g u i d a n c e , i n s p i r a t i o n and encouragement he has g i v e n me. H i s e x p e r t i s e and i n s i g h t s have been v i t a l t o t h e development o f t h e c o n c e p t s i n t h e t h e s i s . To borrow f r o m R i c h a r d Duke, "no b e t t e r t e a c h e r had e v e r come my way." I wo u l d a l s o l i k e t o thank P r o f e s s o r Brahm Wiesman and P r o f e s s o r J o h n L a r s e n f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s d u r i n g t h e f i n a l s t a g e s o f p r e p a r a t i o n . L a r r y B e a s l e y and K a r i H u t h a l a o f t h e R i l e y P a r k N.I.P. P l a n n i n g O f f i c e were most h e l p f u l i n p r o v i d i n g t h e background m a t e r i a l about R i l e y P a r k , and have a l s o g e n e r o u s l y s h a r e d t h e i r knowledge o f t h e community. B r o c k Ostrom and Kim M u l l i n o f t h e Vancouver Board o f P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n have a s s i s t e d i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n R i l e y P a r k . B e t t y Backman and M i c h a e l S z a z z o f t h e N.I.P. c i t i z e n s p l a n n i n g committee were v e r y u s e f u l r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s . S a r a h M e l l o r has been i n v a l u a b l e t o my a n a l y s i s o f t h e " R i l e y P a r k Community S u r v e y . " A s p e c i a l thank you goes t o J a n i c e D o y l e f o r t h e f i n e j o b she has done i n t y p i n g and e d i t i n g t h e t h e s i s . A l t h o u g h t o o numerous t o m e n t i o n names, many f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s have been a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e o f s t i m u l a t i o n t o me. My l o v e and a f f e c t i o n t o my p a r e n t s and f a m i l y f o r e v e r y t h i n g t h e y have done f o r me and f o r t h e i r c o n c e r n and f a i t h i n me. L a s t , b u t n o t l e a s t , my g r a t i t u d e t o my husband Benson, f o r h i s p a t i e n c e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and t h e m o r a l s u p p o r t he has p r o v i d e d d u r i n g t h e s t u d y p e r i o d . 1 PART I CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The p r o b l e m I n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h and p l a n n i n g , t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e has been most w i d e l y u s e d , whereas o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e approaches o r more v i a b l e means of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a r e n o t e x p l o r e d . However, e x p e r i e n c e and g e n e r a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h methodology l i t e r a t u r e have shown t h a t t h e r e a r e many d i s a d v a n t a g e s r e l a t i n g t o t h i s ) t e c h n i q u e s , and i t may n o t be t h e most s u i t a b l e a p p r o a c h t o use i n l e i s u r e s t u d i e s . I n o r d e r t h a t new p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s can be e s t a b l i s h e d t o d i r e c t n e c e s s a r y changes i n r e c r e a t i o n s u p p l y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t f u n d a m e n t a l bases f o r d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s f o r c o n d u c t i n g r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h , t h e main o b j e c t of w h i c h w i l l be t o r e f i n e and p r o p o s e t o o l s f o r use by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d . T h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e f o r e , i n v e s t i g a t e s ways i n w h i c h t h e r i g h t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e may be chosen f o r a p a r t i c u l a r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e . I n t r o d u c t i o n The m a j o r s u b j e c t o f t h e f i r s t p a r t i s t h e development o f a v i e w p o i n t on l e i s u r e and on u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . T h i s c o n t e x t i n c l u d e s a c r i t i -c i s m of c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , and s t a t e m e n t of g o a l s f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n programmes, w h i c h p r o v i d e c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n of d a t a c o l l e c -t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . These c r i t e r i a a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h o s e a p p l i c a b l e t o r e s e a r c h t o o l s i n any c o n t e x t , and c o n c e p t u a l c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s , t h o s e w h i c h a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e c o n t e x t of l o c a l p l a n n i n g f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m s . I n t h e second p a r t t h i s b a ckground i s used i n a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on s e l e c t e d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , w i t h h i g h l i g h t s of p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n a l o c a l a r e a . I n t h e l a s t p a r t 2 c o n c l u s i o n s from t h i s e x p e r i e n c e and t h e l i t e r a t u r e a r e p u l l e d t o g e t h e r i n t o a p r o c e d u r a l g u i d e f o r s e l e c t i o n of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . P l a n n i n g w i t h i n t h e framework of u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n D u r i n g t h e l a s t decade, t h e r e has d e v e l o p e d an i n c r e a s i n g awareness of th e need f o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h . The i m p r e s s i v e volume of r e s e a r c h from th e A m e r i c a n Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s Review Commissions was an undoubted s t i m u l u s t o many i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h problems of r u r a l and u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n . O t h e r s t u d i e s , s u c h as t h o s e c o n d u c t e d by C r a c k n e l l ( 1 9 6 7 ) , Gans ( 1 9 5 7 ) , H e n d r i c k s ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Marc e t . a l . ( 1 9 7 2 ) , M e r c e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) , and many o t h e r s have p r o v i d e d a b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e s u p p l y and demand f o r d i f f e r e n t f a c i l i t i e s . However, t h e s e e a r l y s t u d i e s ' emphasis on th e use o f e x i s t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s has l i m i t e d t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e i r r e s u l t s i n t h e f i e l d o f r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . Most of t h e s e s t u d i e s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on catchment a r e a s , modes of t r a v e l , and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e u s e r s t h e m s e l v e s . Some have probed t h e c a p a c i t y o f f a c i l i t i e s under v a r y i n g forms o f management. W h i l e t h e s e s t u d i e s throw some l i g h t on t h e demand f o r a s i n g l e f a c i l i t y o r f o r t y p e of f a c i l i t y , s u c h as swimming p o o l s o r s p o r t s c e n t e r s , t h e y r e m a i n i s o l a t e d p a r t s i n t h e t o t a l p i c t u r e of l e i s u r e demand. In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f r e c r e a t i o n demand i s a ma j o r a r e a o f r e s e a r c h w h i c h had o f t e n been n e g l e c t e d , d e s p i t e t h e r a p i d upsurge of i n t e r e s t and i n v o l v e m e n t o f a g r o w i n g body of r e s e a r c h e s drawn from a v a r i e t y of d i s c i p l i n e s . S c a r c e l y any s e r i o u s work has been u n d e r t a k e n i n t o t h e s o c i o -p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g r e c r e a t i o n c h o i c e . S o c i a l a t t i t u d e s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , home and work environment, and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h may d e t e r m i n e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e c r e a t i o n c h o i c e — o r i n d e e d , o p t i n g out of any r e c r e a t i o n a l use of l e i s u r e t i m e a t a l l . The c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p r o b l e m . / 3 i s i n c r e a s e d when i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t p a t t e r n s o f r e c r e a t i o n a r e c o n s t a n t l y -c h a n g i n g and t h a t t h i s i s an a r e a o f community l i f e where i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e p r e d o m i n a t e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , u r b a n l i f e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s of l i f e -s t y l e s t h a t r e f l e c t d i v e r s e b a c k g r o u n d s , d e s i r e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and o p p o r t u n i -t i e s . Beyond t h e need f o r s u r v i v a l and t h e demands of o c c u p a t i o n and f a m i l y , an u r b a n p e r s o n ' s l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s r e f l e c t t h e same v a r i e t y as o t h e r e l ements w h i c h c o m p r i s e u r b a n l i f e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e n o t i o n of " p u b l i c u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n " i s an e l u s i v e c o n c e p t . The many a c t i v i t i e s t h a t commonly c o n s t i t u t e u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n s t i l l b a f f l e r e s e a r c h e r s o f t h e a r e a . D a v i s s a i d : The p l a c e t o s t a r t [ i n p l a n n i n g ] i s t o r e c o g n i z e and f u l l y a c c e p t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c i t y h o l d s a w ide s p e c t r u m o f s o c i a l , economic, r a c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l b a c k g r o u n d s . The r e c r e a t i o n program s h o u l d r e f l e c t t h e d i v e r s i t y and be e q u a l l y b r o a d . ( D a v i s , 1967, p. 27) G o l d (1975) emphasized t h a t t h e non-use o f many p u b l i c l e i s u r e f a c i l i -t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y u r b a n p a r k s , can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e c r e a t i o n of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h a r e i r r e l e v a n t t o community needs and d e s i r e s . Or, s i m p l y , t h e g o a l and v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s u p p l i e r and u s e r have r e s u l t e d i n t h e m i s a l l o c a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e r e s o u r c e s . P o l l o c k s t a t e d t h a t t h e p u r p o s e s and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e community r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m s h o u l d be: '(1) t h e p r o v i s i o n of t h o s e s e r v i c e s w h i c h a l l o w i t s c l i e n t e l e t o f u l f i l l t h e i r l e i s u r e d e s i r e s ; (2) t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s d e s i r e d by t h e community a r e s u p p l i e d t h r o u g h t h e s e c t o r w h i c h i s most c a p a b l e of i t s d e l i v e r y , and t h a t t h e s e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h t h e s u p p l i e r s w i l l i n c r e a s e , t o t h e g r e a t e s t e x t e n t p o s s i b l e , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l uses of l e i s u r e t i m e . ( P o l l o c k , 1970, p. 6) D e s p i t e t h e v a l i d and i m p o r t a n t s e n t i m e n t s e x p r e s s e d by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s , r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s s t i l l f a c e t h e dilemma of h a v i n g t o d e c i d e on o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t w i l l s a t i s f y t h e g o a l s , v a l u e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and m o t i v a t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e t h e y a r e p l a n n i n g f o r , even though t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e o f t e n d i v e r s e and sometimes c o n t r a d i c t o r y . The s u c c e s s of any p u b l i c 4 l e i s u r e p l a n n i n g may depend on r e c o g n i z i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f u r b a n l i f e -s t y l e s , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u s e r o r i e n t a t i o n , and t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r c o o p e r a t i v e d e c i s i o n making. However, m e r e l y r e a l i z i n g i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t . R e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s may s t i l l be u n a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e most s u i t a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o be p r o v i d e d . Do we know t h e l a t e n t and p o t e n t i a l needs of t h e community? Who i s b e i n g s e r v e d and who i s b e i n g l e f t out? What s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s d e t e r m i n e t h e u s e r s ' c h o i c e s o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ? What a r e the g u i d e l i n e s f o r f u t u r e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f t e c h n o -l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s ? These and o t h e r s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s must be a d d r e s s e d i n any r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t r e l a t i n g t o p u b l i c u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , and t h u s t h e y a f f e c t t h e c o m p a r a t i v e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f v a r i o u s d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . C o n c e p t u a l and t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n  t e c h n i q u e s i n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h The u s e f u l n e s s o f a t e c h n i q u e can be measured by i t s a b i l i t y t o s a t i s f y two b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : c o n c e p t u a l and t e c h n i c a l f a c t o r s . C o n c e p t u a l v a r i a b l e s d e a l w i t h i s s u e s s u c h as needs a s s e s s m e n t , s u p p l y o f f a c i l i t i e s , c o g n i t i v e p r e f e r e n c e s , and f u t u r e p r o j e c t i o n s . T e c h n i c a l c o n c e r n s r e f e r t o c o s t s , a c c u r a c y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f d a t a , f l e x i b i l i t y o f u s e , and o t h e r r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s . C o n c e p t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s u n d o u b t e d l y : "What a r e t h e needs o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e s p e c i f i c a r e a b e i n g s e r v e d ? " . Baumheier e t . a l . (1975) s u g g e s t e d t h a t : . . . needs assessment can p r o v i d e a wide range o f i n f o r m a t i o n , a l l o f w h i c h has an impact on p l a n n i n g and r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s and w h i c h can p r o v i d e d a t a f o r e v a l u a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l . I t i n c l u d e s i n a d d i t i o n t o pro b l e m i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a 5 r e v i e w o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p r o b l e m , s u c h as systems f e a t u r e s w h i c h l e a d t o u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , community i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w , and u n a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l o b s t a c l e s t o p r o b l e m s o l u t i o n . (Baumheier e t . a l , 1975, p. 109) Needs assessment, t h e n , can p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r and above p r o b l e m - o r i e n t e d d a t a . I t e n t a i l s more t h a n g a t h e r i n g and a n a l y z i n g d a t a ; i t i s t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h a t d a t a so t h a t i t w i l l have maximum i m p a c t on t h e r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n and p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , w h i l e some of t h e needs a r e i d e n t i f i e d f r o m q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s u c h as t h e s i z e o f p o p u l a t i o n , t h e i r m o b i l i t y , t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e , and t h e r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , emphasis must be d i r e c t e d t o q u a l i t a t i v e c o n c e r n s t h a t r e l a t e t o p a t t e r n s o f a v a i l a b l e r e c r e a t i o n t i m e , income, o c c u p a t i o n , t h e range of s e r v i c e d e s i r e d , l i f e - s t y l e s ( w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y t o w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l i s i n t r o d u c e d ) , m o t i v a t i o n s and perhaps e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e . These v a r i a b l e s , b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e ones, h e l p t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e c r e a t i o n needs o f t h e u r b a n community, and c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s i n v o l v e d . W h i l e s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e c o n c e p t and n o t e a s i l y m e a s u r a b l e , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e and measure l e i s u r e needs. A 1974 r e p o r t by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of h o u s i n g and Urban Development s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f needs: (1) What a r e t h e needs? What do we know of t h e l e i s u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e community? A r e t h e s e r v i c e s s u f f i c i e n t l y p r o v i d e d f o r ? How a r e r e c r e a t i o n needs b e i n g s a t i s f i e d ? W i t h i n t h e urban c o n t e x t , r e c r e a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e s a r e m u l t i p l e and d i v e r s e . Some of them c o u l d be i n t h e form o f c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ; a r t programmes; s p o r t s ; m u s i c and t h e a t r e ; p l a y g r o u n d s ; t o t - l o t s ; and p a r k l a n d s . R e c r e a t i o n may a l s o encompass e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h , e x e r c i s e , c r e a t i v e p u r s u i t s , and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . 6 L e i s u r e needs, t h e r e f o r e , a r e complex and h i g h l y d i v e r s i f i e d . N e ighborhoods d i f f e r i n t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f o r any p l a n n e r who a t t e m p t s t o e x p l o r e t h e r e c r e a t i o n needs of a community, t h i s d i c hotomy must n o t be n e g l e c t e d . (2) Where a r e the needs? Where t h e needs a r e depends g r e a t l y on t h e m o b i l i t y , i n t e r e s t s , and f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . The i d e a l would be f o r an optimum b a l a n c e between t h e s e r v i c e s d e s i r e d , and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t i n v o l v e d t o a c q u i r e t h e s e s e r v i c e s . However, t h i s i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e , t o a c h i e v e . The b e s t t h a t can be done, w i t h t h e p r e s e n t scope of knowledge, i s t o i n d i c a t e t h e needs a c c o r d i n g t o sub-groups. P r e - s c h o o l e r s , f o r example, r e q u i r e f a c i l i t i e s t h a t a r e c l o s e t o home, p r e f e r a b l y w i t h i n t h e e y e s i g h t o f t h e mother. F o r t h e t e e n a g e r s , i t may mean a maximum o f t h i r t y m i n u t e s w a l k i n g o r b i c y c l i n g t r a v e l l i n g t i m e d i s t a n c e . F o r t h e poor and u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d , t h e f a c i l i t i e s must be l o c a t e d c l o s e t o p u b l i c t r a n s i t l i n e s , and f o r t h e o l d and h a n d i c a p p e d , w i t h i n t h e i r apartment b u i l d i n g . (3) When a r e t h e needs? " I f r e c r e a t i o n i s t o be t r u l y an i n t e g r a l p a r t of u r b a n l i f e , t h e need i s y e a r r o u n d , a f t e r work, a f t e r s c h o o l , and on t h e weekends." (Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e Review Commission, U.S.A., 1962) T h i s a l s o means t h a t t h e f a c i l i t i e s must be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e , f r e e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , and a v a i l a b l e a t any p e r i o d o f t h e day. G o l d (1975) has c o n f r o n t e d r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n , "Who a r e n o t b e i n g s e r v e d p r o p e r l y ? " . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y , as i s shown by t h e d i s c u s s i o n on "what", "where", and "when", of t h e needs, l i m i t s c i t i z e n s ' r e c r e a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as does p e r s o n a l w e a l t h . A l t h o u g h most p u b l i c programs and f a c i l i t i e s a r e i n s t i g a t e d w i t h t h e p u b l i c i n mind, i t i s 7 l i k e l y t h a t some p e o p l e a r e b e t t e r s e r v e d t h a n o t h e r s . I n d i v i d u a l r e s t r i c -t i o n s s u c h as income, h e a l t h , and e d u c a t i o n d e t e r m i n e t o a l a r g e e x t e n t what one's l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s a r e . F o r t h e s e n i o r c i t i z e n s who have l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and who happen t o be i n i l l h e a l t h , t h e chances f o r t h e i r f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a r e l o w , d e s p i t e t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . To be t r u l y e f f e c t i v e , any r e c r e a t i o n s t u d y must seek t o answer q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s : "Who a r e we p l a n n i n g f o r ? " , "Who s h o u l d we be p l a n n i n g f o r ? " , b u t more i m p o r t a n t l y , "Who a r e n o t p r o p e r l y s e r v e d ? " . I t i s o n l y by s o l v i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s t h a t t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r would be a b l e t o d e v i s e p r o p e r a c t i o n s i n terms of programs, s e r v i c e s , and f a c i l i t i e s t o be p r o v i d e d . S i m i l a r l y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n must a l s o be g i v e n t o whether t h e r e a r e s u r p l u s e s i n t h e s u p p l y , o r whether some f a c i l i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d more e x c e s s i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s . B e s i d e s knowing t h e needs of t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e gap t h a t e x i s t s i n the c u r r e n t p r o v i s i o n system, p l a n n e r s must a l s o be aware of t h e c h a n g i n g v a l u e s , g o a l s , and p r e f e r e n c e s of t h e s o c i e t y . G o l d (1977) s t a t e d t h a t "most r e c r e a t i o n p l a n s do n o t acknowledge o r accommodate s i g n i f i c a n t changes o r t r e n d s i n l e i s u r e l i f e s t y l e s , l e g i s l a t i o n , t e c h n o l o g y o r v a l u e s . " L e i s u r e b e h a v i o r i s c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g over t h e y e a r s . A c t i v i t i e s t h a t were h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e may be c o n s i d e r e d o u t - d a t e d a t p r e s e n t , and i t i s n o t u n f o r s e e a b l e t h a t even f i v e y e a r s from now t h e r e w i l l be b e h a v i o r s t h a t a r e c u r r e n t l y a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t . By l o o k i n g a t t h e p a s t and p r e s e n t , we may perhaps be a b l e t o come up w i t h some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e . But i t i s t h e f u t u r e t h a t we must be c o n c e r n e d w i t h , and t h u s , "What do we know about f u t u r e l e i s u r e p r e f e r e n c e s perhaps t e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s from now?". G o l d a l s o argued t h a t most r e c r e a t i o n p l a n s s t i l l assume an u n w a r r a n t e d emphasis on y o u t h , u n l i m i t e d g r o w t h , o r i n c r e a s i n g incomes and m o b i l i t y . A l t h o u g h r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s a r e n o t e x p e c t e d t o be p r o p h e t s of t h e i r own t i m e , t h e y 8 must t r y t o p r o j e c t i n t o t h e f u t u r e by r e a l i z i n g t h a t l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n a r e by no means s t a t i c . P l a n n e r s must be a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e , b e s i d e s t h e a c t u a l demand f o r b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , t h e p e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r s t h a t have l e d t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g s u p p l y . I n o t h e r words, p l a n n e r s must be a b l e t o e v a l u a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n terms of t h e u s e r s ' c o g n i t i v e p r e f e r e n c e s : "How a r e t h e c h o i c e s b e i n g made?", "What a r e the r e a s o n s f o r t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f one f a c i l i t y o v e r t h e o t h e r ? " , and "What a r e t h e p r i o r i t i e s among d i f f e r e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s ? " . P l a n n e r s who u n d e r s t a n d how c h o i c e s a r e made by the u s e r s a r e more c a p a b l e o f a s s e s s i n g p o t e n t i a l l e i s u r e needs and t h e d e f i c i e n c y w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o n c e p t u a l v a r i a b l e s , t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f a r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e must be e v a l u a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o v a r i o u s t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . These f a c t o r s a r e by no means s p e c i f i c t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . I n f a c t , t h e y a r e a l l s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e r n s when comparing t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r any r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e . However, t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e does depend on t h e c o n t e x t o f m u n i c i p a l l e i s u r e p l a n n i n g . There a r e f o u r b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s o f t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : (1) C o s t s : Some of t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c o n d u c t i n g any m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h a r e : "How much does i t c o s t t o c a r r y out t h e p r o j e c t ? " , " I s i t f e a s i b l e t o do i t ? " , and "What i s t h e f u n d i n g a v a i l a b l e ? " . C o s t i s o f t e n r e l a t e d t o t h e r e s o u r c e s and t h e p e r s o n n e l t h a t a r e r e q u i r e d t o con d u c t the r e s e a r c h . A n o t u n u s u a l s i t u a t i o n would have one p l a n n e r a s s i g n e d t o c a r r y out a p r o j e c t w i t h the a i d of one o r two a s s i s t a n t s , and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s i n t h e range o f t e n thousand d o l l a r s . Whatever t h e m a g n i t u d e s , 9 u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e s must be a b l e t o o b t a i n r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s . The amount of t i m e n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p l e t e a s t u d y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e c o s t f a c t o r as w e l l . O b v i o u s l y , t h e l o n g e r i t t a k e s t o c o n d u c t a s t u d y , t h e more c o s t l y i t w i l l be. I d e a l l y , t h e most u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e i s one t h a t y i e l d s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e s h o r t e s t p e r i o d o f t i m e . The e x a c t amount o f t i m e needed f o r any r e s e a r c h , however, i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t . There a r e o f t e n u n f o r e s e e a b l e t h i n g s t h a t o c c u r d u r i n g a s t u d y w h i c h r e s u l t i n p r o l o n g i n g t h e p r o c e s s . By t h e same t o k e n , t h e t e c h n i q u e t h a t c o s t s l e a s t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e b e s t a v a i l a b l e . What p l a n n e r s must be a b l e t o do i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s r e q u i r e d , have a rough e s t i m a t e of t h e r e s o u r c e s and c o s t s , and a knowledge o f what v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s can do. E q u i p p e d w i t h t h e s e c o n c e p t s , t h e p l a n n e r i s more l i k e l y t o come up w i t h t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n i q u e r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y a p p l y i n g t h e c o s t f a c t o r i n l i e u o f o t h e r c o n s i -d e r a t i o n s . (2) V a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y and a c c u r a c y : By d e f i n i t i o n v a l i d i t y r e f e r s t o t h e congruence between measures and t h e c o n c e p t s t h a t u n d e r l i e them. Or more s i m p l y , does t h e i n s t r u m e n t measure what i t i s supposed t o measure? R e l i a b i l i t y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o s p e c t s f o r o b t a i n i n g c o n s i s t e n t and s i m i l a r measurements when t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e i s r e p l i c a t e d . A c c u r a c y assumes, t h e o r e t i c a l l y a t l e a s t , t h a t t h e r e i s a t r u e v a l u e of t h e phenomenon b e i n g measured. The degree o f i m p o r t a n c e of each f a c t o r i s r e l a t e d t o t h e t y p e s of i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d and t h e a n t i c i p a t e d u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . " V a l i d i t y " ( c o n s t r u c t ) depends on d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t a r e i n h e r e n t l y d i f f i c u l t o r s u s p e c t i n t h e l e i s u r e a r e a . S i m i l a r l y , i t may be argued t h a t f o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s t h e l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y and a c c u r a c y of t h e d a t a i s much more f l e x i b l e s i n c e p l a n n e r s a r e l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n a b s o l u t e f i g u r e s t h a n i n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e advantage 10 o f one s e r v i c e o v e r t h e o t h e r . The r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , however, v a r i e s between d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s . (3) F l e x i b i l i t y o f use: F l e x i b i l i t y o f use and a d a p t a b i l i t y a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t a r e n o t commonly mentioned i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e . I n terms o f u r b a n l e i s u r e s t u d i e s , t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e w o r t h c o n s i d e r i n g . V e r y o f t e n , p l a n n e r s a r e r e q u i r e d t o come up w i t h c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations h a v i n g a l i m i t e d amount of t i m e and r e s o u r c e s . T e c h n i q u e s t h a t would r e q u i r e c omprehensive p r e p a r a t i o n , e x t e n s i v e p r e - t e s t i n g , o r c o m p l i c a t e d a n a l y s i s a r e t h e r e f o r e n o t a p p r o p r i a t e . By f l e x i b i l i t y , we a r e i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e s chosen a r e r e l a t i v e l y easy t o use and a d a p t , and t h a t t h e y n o t o n l y f u n c t i o n a l o n e b u t a r e c a p a b l e o f w o r k i n g w i t h o t h e r s i f i t i s n e c e s s a r y . Beyond t h i s , f l e x i b i l i t y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e open-endedness o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s o r t h e i r r e l a t i v e a b i l i t y t o b r i n g i n u n a n t i c i p a t e d d a t a o r i n s i g h t s . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , an i n d i c a t i o n t o p l a n n e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s o f a way i n w h i c h some for m o f o p t i m i z a t i o n c a n be a c h i e v e d . T a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l o t h e r c r i t e r i a , h i g h f l e x i b i l i t y may s u g g e s t t h a t c e r t a i n t e c h n i q u e s a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . (4) E t h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : I n e v a l u a t i n g e t h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l i m p a c t s , one of t h e main i s s u e s t h a t comes t o mind i s " p r i v a c y . " P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e r i g h t s and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s u b j e c t s must be one of t h e p r i m a r y c o n c e r n s o f any r e s e a r c h e r . Freeman (1975) a r g u e s t h a t : t h e q u e s t i o n i s n o t whether r e s e a r c h o p e r a t i o n s v i o l a t e p r i v a c y , f o r many o f them do. R a t h e r , t h e i s s u e s a r e whether i t i s w o r t h i t , and whether maximum s a f e g u a r d s have been t a k e n t o p r o t e c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s . (p. 54) O t h e r s may argue t h a t t h e v e r y p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t i n g and s t o r i n g d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a w i t h o u t t h e knowledge and p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d c o n s t i t u t e s 11 an I n v a s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a c y . These i s s u e s a r e o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y and d i f f i c u l t t o r e s o l v e . The r e s e a r c h e r needs a sense o f s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e s e s u b j e c t s , and a t t h e same t i m e must be a b l e t o b a l a n c e t h e c o s t s a g a i n s t t h e p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s so t h a t a s e n s i b l e d e c i s i o n w i l l be made. Some t e c h n i q u e s , s u c h as u s i n g s e c o n d a r y d a t a and o b s e r v a t i o n s , a r e u n d o u b t e d l y l e s s i n t r u -s i v e t h a n o t h e r s . They s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , have p r i o r i t y o v e r o t h e r s i f i n v a s i o n o f p r i v a c y i s a ma j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . P o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s o f t e n r e s t r i c t o r a s s i s t i n t h e work t h a t p l a n n e r s do. Some i s s u e s may be h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l , s u c h as t h e case w i t h h o u s i n g and income mix. And no m a t t e r how sound an u n p o p u l a r c o n c e p t may be, p o l i t i c i a n s , who u s u a l l y have t h e c o n t r o l l i n g power, might base t h e i r d e c i s i o n s on how the v o t e r s f e e l . I n e v a l u a t i n g d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s , i t . i s a d v i s a b l e t o s e l e c t t h o s e t h a t w i l l c r e a t e t h e l e a s t c o n t r o v e r s y e s p e c i a l l y when f a c e d w i t h h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e m a t t e r s . whether i t i s w o r t h t h e p o l i t i c a l r i s k , however, i s e n t i r e l y up t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e p l a n n e r s , and i n d i v i d u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The c o n c e p t o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n : p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e A t t e m p t s by many s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s t o g i v e a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n t o t h e meaning o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n have p r o v e n t o be f u t i l e . What i s l e i s u r e o r r e c r e a t i o n ? I n d eed, one has t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e i s no a b s o l u t e answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , j u s t as i t i s e q u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e t h e c o n c e p t o f b e a u t y o r h a p p i n e s s . L e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n may mean d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . Thus, t o one p e r s o n i t may mean something good, t o a n o t h e r s o m e t h i n g bad, t o one, something a c t i v e , t o a n o t h e r , s o m e t h i n g p a s s i v e , s t i l l t o a n o t h e r , something n o b l e and w o r t h w h i l e , w h i l e t o a n o t h e r s o m e t h i n g t o be frowned upon, nay, im m o r a l . ( N e u l i n g e r , 1974, p. 3) 12 I n t h i s s e c t i o n we s h a l l be d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r o b l e m of t h e c o n c e p t u a l i -z a t i o n o f l e i s u r e . We s h a l l d i s c u s s b r i e f l y t h e changes i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n s of l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n o v e r t h e y e a r s w h i c h a r e predominant v a l u e judgements t h a t had shaped t h e t h ought of c o ntemporary r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h . A l t h o u g h a number of p l a u s i b l e d e f i n i t i o n s may be u s e d , i n c o n c l u s i o n we w i l l s t a t e t h e one t h a t i s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e c o n t e x t of t h i s t h e s i s . A t t i t u d e s towards t h e meaning of l e i s u r e had been shaped by b o t h s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e as w e l l as r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . A r i s t o t l e d e f i n e d l e i s u r e as t h e s t a t e of b e i n g f r e e f r o m t h e n e c e s s i t y of b e i n g o c c u p i e d and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of a c t i v i t y " f o r i t s own sake o r as i t s own end." (de G r a z i a , 1962, p. 1 3 ) . M u s i c and c o n t e m p l a t i o n were c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g t h e o n l y two a c t i v i t i e s w o r t h y of l e i s u r e : m u s i c , because i t c u l t i v a t e s t h e mind, and c o n t e m p l a t i o n , because i t l e a d s t o t r u t h and t r u e h a p p i n e s s . ( N e u l i n g e r , 1977) The m a j o r i t y o f L a t i n a u t h o r s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d l e i s u r e i n terms o f r e s t and r e c r e a t i o n , an i d e a t h a t i s s h a r e d by many of our contem-p o r a r i e s . However, such d e f i n i t i o n l a b e l s l e i s u r e as a t y p e o f n o n a c t i v i t y , t h e r e b y n e g l e c t i n g some of i t s i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t i e s . The emergence of C h r i s t i a n i t y had g r e a t l y a l t e r e d t h e c o n c e p t s of l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n . C o n t e m p l a t i o n became s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e s e a r c h f o r r e l i g i o u s t r u t h and t h e r e b y a p a t h t o h a p p i n e s s ; h a r d work was needed i n o r d e r t o r e a c h t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l of s a l v a t i o n . Work, t h e r e f o r e , f u l f i l l e d needs f o r s e l f - p u r i f i c a t i o n , r e p e n t a n c e o r c h a r i t y , and must be c o n s i d e r e d as s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e r o a d t o s a l v a t i o n . Thomas More's U t o p i a , w r i t t e n i n 1516, i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l must work, b u t none work more t h a n s i x h o u r s a day. S i m i l a r l y , i n t h e W e a l t h of N a t i o n s , Adam Smith p r e s e n t e d t h e c o n c e p t of a work s o c i e t y based on t h e n e c e s s i t y of work and consequent r e s t r i c t i o n of l e i s u r e t o f r e e t i m e . The "work e t h i c " has t a k e n on a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n s h a p i n g t h e t h i n k i n g of w e s t e r n s o c i e t y . 13 I n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , g r e a t c o n c e r n was shown f o r t h e p r o v i -s i o n of p u b l i c open space w i t h i n our u r b a n a r e a s , b u t r e c r e a t i o n , by and l a r g e , was s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d a s , a t b e s t , a c r e a t i v e p e r i o d of n o n - w o r k i n g t i m e and, a t w o r s t , a p e r i o d o f i d l e n e s s . V e b l e n i n The Theory o f t h e  L e i s u r e C l a s s s t a t e d t h a t l e i s u r e c o n n o t e s : . . . n o n - p r o d u c t i v e c o n s u m p t i o n of t i m e . Time i s consumed n o n - p r o d u c t i v e l y (1) from a sense of t h e u n w o r t h i n e s s o f p r o d u c t i v e work, and(2) as an e v i d e n c e o f p e c u n i a r y a b i l i t y t o a f f o r d a l i f e o f i d l e n e s s . (1899, p. 46) A t t h e same t i m e , t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y saw a r a p i d development o f g r e a t u r b a n p a r k s and v a r i o u s o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s t h a t were i n d i r e c t r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n l e i s u r e t i m e . The " C i t y B e a u t i f u l " movement, t h e " P l a y g r o u n d " movement and many o t h e r s were r e f l e c t i o n s of an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n t i m e a v a i l a b l e t o spend as one chooses and i n t h e economic, t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l w h e r e w i t h a l of s o c i e t y . W h i l e e a r l i e r s c h o l a r s had o f t e n d i s c u s s e d t h e c o n c e p t of l e i s u r e i n g r e a t p a i n and g e n e r a l l y n e g l e c t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e c r e a t i o n , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n t h i s c e n t u r y a r e a b l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e , though somewhat a r b i t r a r i l y , between l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n . L e i s u r e i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d as a r e s i d u a l and can b e s t be r e g a r d e d as t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e t o a p e r s o n a f t e r r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s l e e p i n g , e a t i n g , e a r n i n g one's l i v i n g , t r a v e l l i n g and b a s i c s o c i a l and h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s have been met. ( C l a w s o n , 1964; B r i g h t b i l l , 1961; M olyneux, 1970) R e c r e a t i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s t h e use o f our l e i s u r e t i m e . I t can be seen i n p r a c t i c e t o c o v e r a wide range o f a c t i v i t i e s and n o n - a c t i v i t i e s , o r c o n v e r s e l y , a c t i v e and p a s s i v e r e c r e a t i o n s . Most p e o p l e , however, may t h i n k o f r e c r e a t i o n p r i m a r i l y as a r e l i e f f rom t h e s t r a i n o r u n p l e a s a n t n e s s o f work. The a p p a r -ent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e c r e a t i o n can t h e m s e l v e s be m i s l e a d i n g . F o r i n s t a n c e we c l a i m t o r e c o g n i z e a d i s t i n c t i o n between work and r e c r e a t i o n as comple-mentary f a c e t s of our l i v e s . But even t h e most s k e t c h y a n a l y s i s p o s s i b l e 14 shows t h a t t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s , a t b e s t , o n l y a v e r y shaky a s s u m p t i o n . T a y l o r (1971) s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e v a l u e judgements t h a t shaped t h e thought o f contemporary r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h . F i r s t , a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v -i n g p o s i t i v e e f f o r t a r e s u p e r i o r t o t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e o r p a s s i v e ones. Second, t h e r e i s b e l i e f i n t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c p u r s u i t , whether a c t i v e o r p a s s i v e . T h i r d , i n r e c r e a t i o n , as i n l i f e g e n e r a l l y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d a l w a y s be a i m i n g t o improve h i s o r h e r s t a n d a r d o f p e r f o r m a n c e . These v a l u e judgements, a c c o r d i n g t o T a y l o r , have g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d t h e o v e r a l l aims o f r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t q u a l i t y o r q u a n t i t y s h o u l d n o t a l w a y s be o f pri m e i m p o r t a n c e , " f o r what i s o r i s n o t i m p o r t a n t i n r e c r e a t i o n depends on t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e o b s e r v e r . " Gray a l s o commented on t h i s p o i n t : We must g i v e more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n c o n c e p t and improve our d e f i n i t i o n o f i t . C u r r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s i g n o r e and g i v e l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f r e c r e a t i o n . They a r e a l s o a c t i v i t y c e n t e r e d . D e f i n i t i o n s i n terms o f a c t i v i t i e s i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y b ecause a g i v e n a c t i v i t y may p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n f o r one i n d i v i d u a l and n o t f o r t h e o t h e r . (1974, p. 3) To p u t i t somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y , Gray i s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t i s t i m e f o r us t o d e v o t e i n c r e a s i n g t h o u g h t t o the r o l e r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s s h o u l d p l a y i n t h e community and what r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d mean t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s n o t a c t i v i t i e s o r f a c i l i t i e s o r programs t h a t a r e c e n t r a l ; i t i s what happens t o p e o p l e . R e c r e a t i o n i s an e m o t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g t h a t f l o w s from a f e e l i n g o f w e l l b e i n g and s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n . . . I t r e i n f o r c e s a p o s i t i v e s e l f - i m a g e . R e c r e a t i o n i s a r e s p o n s e t o a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s , achievement o f p e r s o n a l g o a l s , o r p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k from o t h e r s . I t i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f a c t i v i t y , l e i s u r e , o r s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e . (Gray, 1974, p. 8) To c a r r y t h e argument one s t e p f u r t h e r , l e i s u r e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s t a t e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t goes beyond t h e component of t i m e . I t i s f e e l i n g good about o n e s e l f and wha t e v e r one does. I t i s a l s o a deeper p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l i f e . R e c r e a t i o n , then, no l o n g e r c e n t e r s on a c t i v i t y . I t 15 can be c o n s i d e r e d as t h e medium t h a t would l e a d t o t h e outcome of p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t i s a l s o a s e t of human e x p e r i e n c e s i n w h i c h p e r s o n a l l i v e s a r e b e i n g e n r i c h e d . R e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e a r e no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d as a s p e c i f i c e v e n t , a p o i n t i n t i m e , o r a p l a c e i n s p a c e ; i t i s a d i m e n s i o n i n l i f e , a s t a t e o f b e i n g . A d i f f e r e n t as w e l l as more v i a b l e d e f i n i t i o n f o r l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n i s s t a t e d f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s : L e i s u r e i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n w i t h i n a human b e i n g t h a t r e s u l t s f rom a f e e l i n g of s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n , and r e c r e a t i o n i s t h e medium chosen f o r t h e p u r p o s e of a t t a i n i n g t h e k i n d of s a t i s f a c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n above, t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t l e i s u r e p r o d u c e s d i f f e r s n o t o n l y i n k i n d b u t a l s o d e g r e e . The s a t i s f a c t i o n i s t h e outcome w h i c h i s a t t a i n a b l e ( t h e i n t e n t ) t h r o u g h r e c r e a t i o n mediums. T h i s i s an i d e a l i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e c o n c e p t o f l e i s u r e w h i c h s e r v e s t o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t w i t h w h i c h t o a c h i e v e s m a l l b u t p r a c t i c a l s t e p s toward t h e i d e a l . T e c h n i q u e s and m e t h o d o l o g i e s — a c o m p a r i s o n The terms " r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s " and " m e t h o d o l o g i e s " have o f t e n been used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n l i t e r a t u r e . To most r e s e a r c h e r s , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h e i r f u n c t i o n s o r r o l e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d as u n i m p o r t a n t , as t h e y b o t h s t r u c t u r e t h e c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t r e n d e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r a l d a t a , o r i n f e r e n c e s about d e s i r e s and s a t i s f a c t i o n s f r o m a t t i t u d -i n a l (and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t i o n ) d a t a a r e r e g a r d e d as b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o ways i n w h i c h d a t a i s a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r t r a d e - o f f games. B e f o r e any r e s e a r c h can be c o n d u c t e d , however, c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must be g i v e n t o f o u r i n d e p e n d e n t but i n t e r - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s : (1) There i s a need t o i d e n t i f y what t h e p r o j e c t i s about. I n o t h e r words, we need t o have a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p r o b l e m s t a t e m e n t . (2) There i s a need t o o b t a i n and s t a y w i t h i n some budget. E s t i m a t e s of budget and p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e d , t h e t i m e frame t h a t 16 i s a l l o w e d , t h e l e v e l o f a c c u r a c y t h a t has t o be a c h i e v e d , t y p e s of i n f o r m a -t i o n d e s i r e d , e t c . , must be s t a t e d . (3) The t h i r d s t e p t h e n w o u l d be t o a n a l y z e ways t o p u r s u e t h e p r o j e c t , i n c l u d i n g s e l e c t i o n o f s p e c i f i c d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . There a r e , u n d o u b t e d l y , many ways i n w h i c h t h i s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d as t h e r e i s no one a p p r o a c h t h a t i s i n h e r e n t l y s u p e r i o r o r i n f e r i o r t o o t h e r s ; each one may be t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e one f o r some s e t o f p u r p o s e s and c o n s t r a i n t s . F o r example, a p l a n n e r who w o u l d l i k e t o know what p e r c e n t a g e of t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n a c t u a l l y makes use of a n e i g h b o r h o o d p a r k can e i t h e r send out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o a s e l e c t e d group of r e s i d e n t s , o r c onduct a s e r i e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e i r own. I t i s n o t u n l i k e l y t h a t b o t h t e c h n i q u e s w i l l y i e l d r o u g h l y t h e same r e s u l t i f t h e y a r e c a r r i e d out p r o p e r l y , so t h e main d i f f e r e n c e i s i n t h e q u a l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s a t t a i n e d . The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e a p p r o a c h may g i v e a s t a t i s t i c a l l y a c c u r -a t e a c c o u n t o f how many p e o p l e use t h o s e p a r k s , t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e y s t a y , or t h e o c c a s i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y used them. P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e a b l e t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e a c t i v i t i e s — w h e t h e r t h e p a r k s a r e used as a p l a c e f o r a t h l e t i c p u r s u i t s , a m e e t i n g ground f o r n e i g h b o r s , o r s i m p l y as hideaways f o r t h o s e who want t o g e t away f r o m t h e crowd. To t h e p l a n n e r , i t does n o t r e a l l y m a t t e r w h i c h t e c h n i q u e i s b e t t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r ; t h e main q u e s t i o n i s , how i s t h e i n f o r -m a t i o n g o i n g t o be a p p l i e d , and t h u s (A) t h e d a t a u t i l i z a t i o n , o r ways i n w h i c h we a r e g o i n g t o use t h e knowledge. Do we want t o know whether more p a r k s a r e needed t o s a t i s f y t h e demands? What a r e some of t h e r e a s o n s t h a t a t t r a c t p e o p l e t o t h e p a r k s ? Why a r e t h e r e s u c h d i v e r s e a c t i v i t i e s among th e u s e r s ? These and many o t h e r s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s w i l l h e l p t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f each d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e , and t h e l i n e o f a c t i o n t h a t has t o be t a k e n . The above f o u r f a c t o r s , p u r s u e d t o g e t h e r , a r e what r e s e a r c h e r s commonly r e f e r t o as methodology. (See Diagram.) I n e s s e n c e , 17 Diagram 1: C o n c e p t u a l Diagram of t h e D e f i n i t i o n o f M e t h o d o l o g y 18 m e t h o d o l o g i e s must be r e g a r d e d as b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s o f c o n c e p t s i n d a t a c o l l e c -t i o n and usage, o r t h e s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n can be g a t h e r e d , whereas t e c h n i q u e s a r e p r o c e d u r e s w i t h w h i c h a s t u d y can be c o n d u c t e d . T h e r e -f o r e , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s may be r e g a r d e d as means t o an end, w h i l e m e t h o d o l o g i e s encompass b o t h means and end. T h i s r e a s o n i n g l e d t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : M e t h o d o l o g y i s a r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s w h i c h i n v o l v e s f o u r o p e r a t i o n s t h a t a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d : i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s u b j e c t o f c o n c e r n , s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h approaches f o r a n a l y s i s , a p p l i c a t i o n o f u s e f u l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , and u t i l i z a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h d a t a w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s t a t e d p r o b l e m a r e a . I n o r d e r t o c a r r y t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s between m e t h o d o l o g i e s and t e c h n i q u e s one s t e p f u r t h e r , l e t us l o o k a t a n o t h e r example. R e s e a r c h by way o f e x p e r i -ments has l o n g been p r a c t i c e d by b o t h p h y s i c a l as w e l l as s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . They can be h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d s c i e n t i f i c e x p l o r a t i o n s i n w h i c h s u b j e c t s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o c o n t r o l and u n c o n t r o l g r o u p s so t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s can be t e s t e d . S o p h i s t i c a t e d equipment i s o f t e n employed i n e x p e r i m e n t s t h a t r e q u i r e h i g h l e v e l s o f a c c u r a c y and a c u t e s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e s l i g h t e s t changes, s u c h as r e s e a r c h on n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e n u c l e u s o f a m o l e c u l e i s h i t by a n o t h e r a t o m i c p a r t i c l e . P s y c h o l o g i s t s c o n d u c t e x p e r i m e n t s on s u b j e c t s u s i n g e l e c t r i c s h o c k s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l e v e l o f t o l e r a n c e o f t h e p e o p l e t e s t e d o r t o c o r r e c t c e r t a i n u n d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o r . There i s a l s o t h e p i l o t p r o j e c t a p p r o a c h by w h i c h new p r o d u c t s a r e b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d a t a much s m a l l e r s c a l e on t h e market o r p o p u l a t i o n i n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e p u b l i c ' s r e a c t i o n t o t h e changes. These may be d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s , b u t a l l a r e e x p e r i m e n t s n o n e t h e l e s s . They o b v i o u s l y d i f f e r i n th e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s used. As s u c h , t h e e x p e r i m e n t s must be viewe d as one t y p e o f r e s e a r c h method and n o t a d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e , as a way of u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n b u t n o t s p e c i f i c means by w h i c h u s e f u l i n f o r -m a t i o n can be g a t h e r e d . S c i e n t i s t s , r e s e a r c h e r s , p l a n n e r s , o r academics 19 may d e c i d e on one t y p e o f e x p e r i m e n t o v e r t h e o t h e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s . However, t h e y a r e o n l y c h o o s i n g between d i f f e r e n t methods and n o t t e c h n i q u e s u n l e s s i t i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as t o how t h o s e e x p e r i m e n t s a r e g o i n g t o be c o n d u c t e d . M e t h o d o l o g y of t h i s s t u d y The o b j e c t i v e of t h e t h e s i s i s t o e v a l u a t e and e x p l o r e u s e f u l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r use i n f i e l d - l e v e l p l a n n i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and so i t i s o r i e n t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e and a p a r t i c u -l a r c o n t e x t . E x i s t i n g s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h methodology l i t e r a t u r e and g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e a r e r e v i e w e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s t u d y . C o n c e p t u a l and t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r e v a l u a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n of t e c h n i q u e s a r e d e v e l o p e d from t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The t e c h n i c a l c r i t e r i a a r e common t o most s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The c o n c e p t u a l c r i t e r i a a r e r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e scope of u r b a n p u b l i c l e i s u r e s t u d i e s . S p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s a r e s e l e c t e d f o r f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e , t h e s e l e c t e d t e c h n i q u e s a r e f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d t h r o u g h e x p e r i -ence o f t h e i r use i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n a s i n g l e n e i g h b o r h o o d , t h e R i l e y P a r k a r e a o f t h e C i t y o f Vancouver. T e c h n i q u e s w h i c h c o u l d be a c t u a l l y u sed by t h e a u t h o r a r e p e r s o n a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d , a t a " p r e - t e s t " l e v e l . S e c o n d l y a n o t h e r group of t e c h n i q u e s had been used i n R i l e y P a r k by o t h e r s , and t h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s and documents. There remained a t h i r d group o f t e c h n i q u e s f o r w h i c h no comparable e x p e r i e n c e i s a v a i l a b l e , and so f o r t h e s e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e l y on t h e l i t e r a t u r e and r e p o r t s of e x p e r i e n c e i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s . Through l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , and i n t e r v i e w o f u s e r s s p a r t i c i p a n t s , and e x p e r t s t h e s e l e c t e d t e c h n i q u e s a r e r e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h 20 r e s p e c t t o t h e c o n c e r n s on t h e b a s i s of t y p i c a l r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . The f i n d i n g s a r e t h e n s y n t h e s i z e d i n t h e f o r m of p r o c e d u r a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r s e l e c t i o n of t e c h n i q u e s , and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p o s s i b l e improvements o f r e s p e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . The scope of t h e s t u d y D i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h p u b l i c r e c r e a -t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s i n u r b a n i z e d a r e a s , and w i t h i n t h e scope of p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e as compared t o g e n e r a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e a p p l i c a t i o n . The t h e s i s o n l y d e a l s w i t h f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s : s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , group i n t e r a c t i o n , s e c o n d a r y d a t a , f i e l d methods, and gaming. They a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t e c h n i q u e s most commonly used i n s o c i a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . A d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s o f m e t h o d o l o g i e s , terms w h i c h a r e u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n most s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y , m e t h o d o l o g i e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d as s t r u c t u r e s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , whereas t e c h n i q u e s a r e means i n w h i c h t o a c c o m p l i s h i t . S i m i l a r l y , l e i s u r e i s r e g a r d e d as "a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n w i t h i n a human b e i n g t h a t r e s u l t s f r o m a f e e l i n g o f s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n , and r e c r e a t i o n i s t h e medium chosen f o r t h e p u r p o s e of a t t a i n i n g t h e k i n d of s a t i s f a c t i o n . " The e m p i r i c a l t e c h n i q u e s t h a t w i l l be r e v i e w e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e c hosen f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : (1) t h e y appear t o be u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e s f o r use i n u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g ; (2) t h e y a r e r e a s o n a b l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e v a r i o u s groups o r c l u s t e r s o f t e c h n i q u e s t h a t a r e f a m i l i a r , and t o g e t h e r t h e y c o v e r a b r o a d range of t e c h n i q u e s ; and (3) t h e y a r e e i t h e r commonly used i n p r a c t i c e , o r t h e i r use i n p r a c t i c e i s o f t e n s u g g e s t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . These t e c h n i q u e s , t h e r e f o r e , r e f l e c t a s e l e c t i o n o f r e s e a r c h a p p roaches t h a t a r e f a m i l i a r and s i g n i f i c a n t t o s t u d y i n g u r b a n l e i s u r e 21 b e h a v i o r s and do n o t I n c l u d e o t h e r more i n n o v a t i v e o r uncommon a p p r o a c h e s . B r i e f o u t l i n e o f t h e t h e s i s r e p o r t There a r e t h r e e p a r t s t o t h i s t h e s i s . The f i r s t p a r t i d e n t i f i e d t h e s u b j e c t o f c o n c e r n i n t h e s t u d y , d i s c u s s e d p l a n n i n g w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n , a s s e s s e d d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t u a l and t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , p r e s e n t e d t h e c o n c e p t s o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n , d e s c r i b e d t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h , and s t a t e d t h e scope o f t h i s s t u d y . The second p a r t r e v i e w s t h e l i t e r a t u r e on s e l e c t e d t e c h n i q u e s , and i l l u s t r a t e s major f i n d i n g s w i t h examples from p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e R i l e y P a r k a r e a . Each group o f t e c h n i q u e s i s d i s c u s s e d i n a s e p a r a t e c h a p t e r : t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e a p p r o a c h ( C h a p t e r I I ) , group i n t e r a c t i o n ( C h a p t e r I I I ) , s e c o n d a r y d a t a ( C h a p t e r I V ) , f i e l d methods ( C h a p t e r V ) , and gaming t e c h n i q u e s ( C h a p t e r V I ) . The t h i r d and f i n a l p a r t summarizes t h e f i n d i n g s from l i t e r a t u r e a n a l y s i s and e x p e r i e n c e o f s e l e c t e d t e c h n i q u e s , and p r o p o s e s a s e q u e n t i a l s t r a t e g y f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f u s e f u l s o c i a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s i n u r b a n p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . PART I I ANALYSIS OF SELECTED DATA-COLLECTION TECHNIQUES  I n t r o d u c t i o n The n e x t f i v e c h a p t e r s r e v i e w each c a t e g o r y of t e c h n i q u e i n d i v i d u a l l y . They a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y , s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , group i n t e r a c t i o n , s e c o n d a r y d a t a , f i e l d methods, and gaming. E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s i s based on e x a m i n a t i o n o f b o t h s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h methodology l i t e r a t u r e as 22 w e l l as r e c r e a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , and supplement by e x p e r i e n c e and examples. The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e has been used most commonly i n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h , b u t i t was found t o be u n d e s i r a b l e i n many s i t u a t i o n s . The g e n e r a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e l i t e r a t u r e a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e m a j o r s h o r t c o m i n g s i n t h i s t e c h n i q u e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s t o be aware of o t h e r more s u i t a b l e o r a l t e r n a t i v e means o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , examines s u r v e y q u e s t i o n -n a i r e and o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s i n an a t t e m p t t o s u g g e s t ways i n w h i c h t h e y may be used i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The t e c h n i q u e s s e l e c t e d f o r r e v i e w a r e chosen because t h e y appear t o be u s e f u l f o r u r b a n p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , and t h e s p e c i f i c a p p roaches chosen a r e r e a s o n a b l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e v a r i o u s groups o r c l u s t e r s of t e c h n i q u e s t h a t a r e f a i r l y s i m i l a r . T o g e t h e r t h e y c o v e r a b r o a d range o f a p p r o a c h e s i n c l u d i n g t h a t used i n f i e l d p r a c t i c e , and t h o s e whose use i n p r a c t i c e i s o f t e n s u g g e s t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Summary o f c r i t e r i a D i s t i n c t i o n s must be made between two a r e a s of c o n c e r n t h a t a r e s i g n i f i -c a n t t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g — t e c h n i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l c r i t e r i a . T e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e common t o most s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h and i n c l u d e c o s t , a c c u r a c y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and v a l i d i t y , f l e x i b i l i t y o f u s e , and e t h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . C o n c e p t u a l c r i t e r i a a r e r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t w h i c h i n c l u d e s needs a s s e s s m e n t , s u p p l y o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s , c o g n i t i v e p r e f e r e n c e among t h e u s e r s , and f u t u r e p r o j e c t i o n s . These c r i t e r i a w i l l be used i n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f s e l e c t e d t e c h -n i q u e s , and t h e f i n d i n g s w i l l s e r v e as b a s i s f o r t h e p r o p o s a l o f a s e q u e n t i a l s t r a t e g y f o r c h o o s i n g u s e f u l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h e r e v i e w of d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s , t h e R i l e y P a r k 23 community i n Vancouver where f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were c o n d u c t e d w i l l be d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y . The R i l e y P a r k community R i l e y P a r k , i n e s s e n c e , i s a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , y o u t h and f a m i l y o r i e n t e d n e i g h b o r h o o d w i t h a d i v e r s i t y o f e t h n i c groups and an a v e r a g e income per h o u s e h o l d l o w e r t h a n t h a t of t h e C i t y o f Vancouver. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1971 census d a t a , o v e r 30% o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s below twenty y e a r s o f age, and 35% o f :the r e s i d e n t s have l i v e d t h e r e f o r o v e r t e n y e a r s . There a r e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s of p e o p l e of C h i n e s e , E a s t European, German, I t a l i a n , and o t h e r e t h n i c o r i g i n s . A m a j o r i t y o f t h e work f o r c e i s employed i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g , t r a d e , b u s i n e s s and s e r v i c e s e c t o r s , w i t h an a v e r a g e income of about $9,000 (1971 census d a t a ) . I t i s an a r e a of s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s e x c e p t f o r a few apartment b u i l d i n g s , and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60% o f them a r e owner o c c u p i e d . P h y s i c a l l y , i t i s bounded by 1 6 t h Avenue i n t h e n o r t h , 3 7 t h Avenue i n t h e s o u t h , F r a s e r S t r e e t i n t h e e a s t and O n t a r i o S t r e e t i n t h e w e s t . (See Maps 1 and 2.) M a j o r c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e c e n t e r e d a l o n g M a i n S t r e e t , F r a s e r S t r e e t , K i n g Edward S t r e e t , and Kingsway, w h i c h i s n o t l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y w i t h i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d b u t has easy a c c e s s t o t h e r e s i d e n t s . I n terms o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , t h e r e a r e a t o t a l o f f o u r n e i g h b o r h o o d p a r k s , one community c e n t e r , and a s t a d i u m t h a t a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e a r e a . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e r e a r e f o u r o t h e r p u b l i c p a r k s and a n o t h e r community c e n t e r t h a t a r e r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e t o t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d and may s e r v e t h e l e i s u r e needs of some r e s i d e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , th e w e s t e r n boundary of R i l e y P a r k i s a l s o d i r e c t l y a d j a c e n t t o Queen E l i z a b e t h P a r k , w h i c h i s one of t h e f a v o r i t e s p o t s i n Vancouver. (Map 3.) I n May, 1976, R i l e y P a r k was d e s i g n a t e d as a N e i g h b o r h o o d Improvement A r e a by t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , and a t o t a l o f $1.9 m i l l i o n was a l l o c a t e d t o be Map 1 i City of Vancouvc-r and The Riley Park N.I.P. Area • d U C U C Z J • 1 L—JCZ3CZIL—J£ " r ' n n n n i O a u D O O D Q O L ' c ! I ?s > J ' ! U jULik I r: r "WPfiDDODODOO C3D C L 3 C—: CZ) I (CZJ U • • • r i n n n n n n o : P O P I C D U U BO 00 00 ]• DDL rrja G£3 d m ESI S S G Q Q Q Q O '"' ZZ3CZK ! • • C D m m Ban _ | M O O | 'T n pnn S i ! " 1 ' • = = > !=======! IZFpTI l 5 - - i - J i J " ICu:•;|[ I' !CZ~ ! IHiUlr II i n 3d Si - - - i : innn p i IC ii 1 i r m m \ n wm DIOBD 1 : n n i i a in S t L O D B l J PlHPQEGuQIMOOOO IDE JJLii 1 i •• iD r.T - in r i i — i n — ! IfiBT IIiraSOOQODQQfl D D D n n m o -in n r Map 2 i The R i l e v Park N.I.P. Area ho 26 . Map 3t Neighbourhood Parks i n the R i l e v Park j s p e n t on p u b l i c p h y s i c a l improvements. Soon a f t e r w a r d s , a n e i g h b o r h o o d p l a n n i n g o f f i c e was opened i n M a i n and 2 8 t h w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f c o o r d i n a t i n g community r e s i d e n t s and t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f t o i d e n t i f y m ajor c o n c e r n s and h i g h p r i o r i t y i t e m s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f u n d s . The R i l e y P a r k NIP c i t i z e n s ' .committee was formed i n December, 1976, and r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s a r e h e l d e v e r y Tuesday n i g h t w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e R i l e y P a r k c i t i z e n s ' committee by t h e i n v o l v e m e n t and d e d i c a t i o n o f about f o r t y and f i f t y a c t i v e members, w h i c h a r e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by a l l m ajor l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l as t h e r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g and w o r k i n g t h e a r e a . W i t h i n a s h o r t p e r i o d of i t s f o r m a t i o n , a c o n c e p t p l a n was approved and e n d o r s e d by t h e c i t i z e n s ' c o mmittee, t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , t h e p r o v i n c i a l and t h e f e d e r a l governments. Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r i s t h a t i n t h e a r e a of community f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , $200,000 was a l l o c a t e d f o r t h e development o f a n e i g h b o r h o o d house, $150,000 f o r c r e a t i n g a y o u t h c e n t e r , and $225,000 f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e R i l e y P a r k R e c r e a t i o n Complex. I n terms o f n e i g h b o r h o o d p a r k s , a l l f o u r p a r k s have been g i v e n a c e r t a i n amount o f f u n d s f o r t h e i r improvement. H i l l c r e s t P a r k r e c e i v e d $75,000; R i l e y P a r k was g i v e n $68,200; C a r t i e r P a r k was p r o v i d e d w i t h $45,200; f i n a l l y , P r i n c e Edward P a r k was a l l o t t e d $78,000. I n t o t a l , about 44% o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d f u n d s was d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e development and improvement o f community s e r v i c e s as w e l l as r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The R i l e y P a r k n e i g h b o r h o o d , an a r e a w h i c h i s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , m i d d l e c l a s s , d i v e r s i f i e d , and a c t i v e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , has p r o v e n t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r our p u r p o s e . 28 CHAPTER I I THE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE TECHNIQUE I n t r o d u c t i o n I n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e p r e c e d i n g c r i t e r i a a r e a p p l i e d t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y s . T h i s t e c h n i q u e was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n R i l e y P a r k , u s i n g two s o u r c e s , a comprehensive s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n t h e summer o f 1977, The R i l e y P a r k  Community Needs Study ( M e l l o r , 1 977), and t h e a u t h o r ' s own " p r e - t e s t i n g " o f r e c r e a t i o n i t e m s i n i t on a s m a l l sample of r e s i d e n t s . The b r o a d s u b j e c t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f i r s t , i n c l u d i n g t h e s p e c i f i c p r o s and cons of c l o s e d and open-ended f o r m a t s . The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t e r v i e w used on a sample of r e s p o n d e n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g some d e f i n e d p o p u l a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t i s a common and f a m i l i a r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e . I n r e a l i t y t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t and s e p a r a b l e a s p e c t s o f t h i s a p p r o a c h , b u t because t h e y a r e commonly used i n one p a r t i c u l a r combina-t i o n and t h e r e a r e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e elements i t i s c o n v e n i e n t t o d i s c u s s t h e most common ap p r o a c h as a t e c h n i q u e , n o t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s as t h e s e a r i s e . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e used p r i m a r i l y t o e l i c i t v e r b a l r e s p o n s e s t o v e r b a l s t i m u l i , though i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e n o n - v e r b a l s t i m u l i s u c h as phot o g r a p h s o r s k e t c h e s and t o o b t a i n r e s p o n s e s t h a t a r e i n p a r t n o n - v e r b a l , s u c h as a l l o c a t i o n s o f t i m e , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f o b j e c t s , and maps o r d i a g r a m s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e most commonly used i n an i n t e r v i e w f o r m a t , i n w h i c h b o t h t h e q u e s t i o n s and t h e answers a r e o r a l , though w r i t t e n v e r b a l q u e s t i o n s , w r i t t e n v e r b a l a nswers, o r n o n - v e r b a l s t i m u l i o r r e s p o n s e s may a l s o be use d . I n p r a c t i c e a s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of i n d i v i d u a l s i s g e n e r a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d and t h e r e s u l t s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e f i n e d p o p u l a t i o n from w h i c h 29 t h e sample i s drawn, though i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r v i e w e v e r y member of a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n , and s t a t i s t i c a l s a m p l i n g i n w h i c h t h e e l e m e n t s a r e n o t p e o p l e but t i m e s , l o c a t i o n s , o r many t h i n g s o t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n s may be u s e f u l i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s . The a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t e r v i e w d a t a i s g e n e r a l l y i n q u a n t i t a t i v e terms r e l a t e d t o p r e d e t e r m i n e d , r e l a t i v e l y s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , though i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e l a t i v e l y f o r m a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s may a l s o be used t o do e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s , e l i c i t u n f o r e s e e n p e r c e p t i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s , e d u c a t e on f a c t u a l m a t t e r s o r i n d u c e a t t i t u d e change, and no doubt o t h e r p u r p o s e s a p a r t from parameter e s t i m a t i o n and h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o B l a l o c k (1970) t h e r e a r e t h r e e major m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n s i n u s i n g t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . F i r s t , d a t a must be c o l l e c t e d i n s u c h a way t h a t a l l r e s p o n d e n t s a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l q u e s t i o n s . Second, s p e c i a l c o n c e r n must be p l a c e d on s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s and t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s . T h i r d , s t a n d a r d c r i t e r i a f o r d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s must be s p e c i f i e d so t h a t d i f f e r e n t a n a l y s t s w i l l r e a c h s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e same s e t o f d a t a . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r form of r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e , heavy r e l i a n c e i s p l a c e d on v e r b a l r e p o r t s from t h e s u b j e c t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s t i m u l i o r e x p e r i e n c e s t o w h i c h t h e y a r e exposed and f o r knowledge o f t h e i r b e h a v i o r . However, t h e v a l i d i t y o f v e r b a l r e p o r t s has o f t e n been q u e s t i o n e d by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . Not o n l y may p e o p l e be r e l u c t a n t t o r e p o r t o p e n l y t h e i r b e l i e f s , f e e l i n g s , m o t i v a t i o n s , p l a n s , and so on, t h e y may be u n a b l e t o do so. S u b j e c t s who a r e n o t aware o f t h e i r b e l i e f s o r m o t i v a t i o n s cannot r e p o r t them. There a r e a l s o p roblems r e l a t i n g t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n . Words such as " l e i s u r e " , " r e c r e a t i o n " , and " h o b b i e s " a r e r a t h e r ambiguous c o n c e p t s w i t h no f i x e d d e f i n i t i o n s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s may f a i l t o u n d e r s t a n d 30 t h e i r meanings, o r m i s i n t e r p r e t them i n ways w h i c h a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h e r s ' i n t e n t i o n s . F i e l d e x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t some p e o p l e do n o t r e l a t e " f r e e t i m e " t o t h e c o n c e p t s o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n , w h i l e o t h e r s may n o t want t o admit t h e y have any " f r e e t i m e " as t h e term c a r r i e s a c e r t a i n d egree o f n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n . When a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n d u c t an i n t e r v i e w w i t h an o l d man, t h e r e s e a r c h e r found t h a t she was r e q u i r e d t o e x p l a i n " f r e e t i m e " i n v a r i o u s ways b e f o r e an answer was o b t a i n e d . B e s i d e s f a i l i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d i n t h e b e g i n n i n g what th e term meant, i t must have been p e r c e i v e d as a t h r e a t s i n c e t h e o l d man k e p t i n s i s t i n g t h a t he has a r e g u l a r j o b and so c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o have any f r e e t i m e . S u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c a n n o t d e t e r m i n e t h e q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f b e h a v i o r o r i t s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . F o r example, we can use a s u r v e y t o f i n d o u t how many t i m e s d u r i n g t h e p a s t week a p e r s o n went swimming a t t h e l o c a l p o o l , but i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n d i r e c t l y what prompted t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o swim on each o c c a s i o n , who he o r she went w i t h , o r t h e n a t u r e o f h i s o r her, e n t i r e r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , i n c l u d i n g o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s t h e y may have p e r f o r m e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . (Marans, 1975) One of t h e most common s o u r c e s of e r r o r i n t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e l i e s i n t h e t e n d e n c y o f p e o p l e t o i d e a l i z e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . The d i f f i c u l t y may be t h a t p e o p l e w i l l a t t e m p t t o r a t i o n a l i z e ( l i t e r a l l y ) d e c i s i o n s t h a t t h e y have made on an i r r a t i o n a l b a s i s though t h e d e c i s i o n "ought" t o have been r a t i o n a l . The q u e s t i o n i m p l i e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o "ought" has p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o l e i s u r e b e h a v i o r , as an a r e a o f p e r s o n a l c h o i c e i n w h i c h many b e l i e v e t h a t no b a s i s of j u s t i f i c a t i o n beyond p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e o r w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y o r even p r o p e r . One cannot assume t h a t p e o p l e w i l l t e l l t h e t r u t h about t h e i r wants and d i s l i k e s even i f t h e y know them. I n d i v i d u a l s sometimes answer q u e s t i o n s d i s h o n e s t l y o r e v a s i v e l y because t h e y f e e l t h e d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s too 31 p e r s o n a l . When i n t e r v i e w e d by t h e a u t h o r about h i s hobby and l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , one r e s p o n d e n t s i m p l y answered: "Yes, I do have c e r t a i n h o b b i e s and I d o engage i n some r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , b u t l e t ' s j u s t keep i t a t t h a t because I do n o t want t o e x p l a i n any f u r t h e r . " But even i f p e o p l e b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d r e a l l y know t h e i r own minds and a r e w i l l i n g t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s u n r e s e r v e d l y , t h e y s t i l l may n o t f u r n i s h t h e d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t t h e y m i s u n d e r s t a n d what i s wanted. Some o f t h e major l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e f o l l o w from i t s r e l i a n c e on v e r b a l r e p o r t s by r e s p o n d e n t s . However, much of our " v e r b a l " c ommunication i s by n o n - v e r b a l means, f o r example, g e s t u r e s , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , e t c . , w h i c h may a l s o communicate on s e v e r a l l e v e l s a t t h e same t i m e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t does n o t a l l o w f o r d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , measurement, and a n a l y s i s of t h e o n g o i n g p r o c e s s e s . There a r e l i m i t a t i o n s i n c o l l e c t i n g a t t i t u d i n a l d a t a about e n v i r o n m e n t s when t h e r e i s a s t r o n g p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a t t i t u d e s toward a p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a r e n o t f u l l y f o r m u l a t e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . F o r example, i t would make v e r y l i t t l e s e nse t o ask t h e s u b j e c t s t o comment on t h e e f f e c t of h a n g - g l i d i n g i f t h e y a r e n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s a c t i v i t y and have n o t t h e f a i n t e s t i d e a about i t . S u r v e y s a r e a l s o n o t v e r y u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on c l i e n t needs when th e c l i e n t i s unknown. They a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o b t a i n i n g b e h a v i o r a l d a t a when t h o s e b e h a v i o r s i n v o l v e a sequence o f f i n i t e a c t i v i t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , what i s a c c e p t e d as good or bad by t h o s e who do t h e r e s e a r c h o r use t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o make p o l i c y o r d e s i g n may appear d i f f e r e n t t o v a r i o u s segments of t h e p o p u l a t i o n whose l i v e s a r e a f f e c t e d by such p o l i c i e s and d e s i g n s . Non-response i s a major d i s a d v a n t a g e of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y t e c h -n i q u e . E x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t m a i l - o u t q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t e l e p h o n e s u r v e y s u s u a l l y have a h i g h r e f u s a l r a t e . The R i l e y P a r k e x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t even a d o o r - t o - d o o r s u r v e y i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e t t e r . A common r e s p o n s e 32 g i v e n t o t h e a u t h o r by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f o r n o t w a n t i n g t o go t h r o u g h w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w was: " I am t o o busy , " o r " I do n o t have t i m e t o be i n v o l v e d i n r e c r e a t i o n . " T a b l e 1 r e p r e s e n t s t h e s o u r c e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f no n - r e s p o n s e s i n t h e community needs s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n R i l e y P a r k . Of a t o t a l o f 43% i n c o m p l e t e i n t e r v i e w s , a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n was r e l a t e d t o v a c a n t homes and language p r o b l e m s , b u t t h e m a j o r i t y was due t o o u t r i g h t r e f u s a l s o r i n a b i l i t y t o r e a c h t h e s u b j e c t s . T a b l e 1 Sou r c e s o f n o n - i n t e r v i e w s i n t h e R i l e y P a r k  community needs s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n 1977 Numbers P e r c e n t a g e s P e r c e n t a g e s a c c u m u l a t e d upwards Sample h o u s e h o l d s 725 100% l e s s : V a c a n t homes 8 1% 43% F a i l u r e t o c o n t a c t i n t h r e e v i s i t s 153 21% 42% I n c o m p l e t e , due t o t r a n s l a t i o n p roblems i n most c a s e s 8 1% 21% R e f u s a l s 145 20% 20% Completed i n t e r v i e w s 411 57% The s u c c e s s o f any p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s depends t o a l a r g e e x t e n t on t h e competency o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s . E x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g c o u p l e d w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e may l e a d t o b e t t e r q u a l i t y d a t a . However, t h e r e a r e o t h e r f a c t o r s 33 t h a t l i e beyond t h e scope o f t r a i n i n g o r e x p e r i e n c e . I n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s , knowledge o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , e n v i r o n -m e n t a l e l e m e n t s ( t i m e o f day, w e a t h e r ) , and s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s a l l p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h i s t y p e of r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e , most of them no t f o r e s e e -a b l e o r c o n t r o l l a b l e by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s . F i e l d e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e a u t h o r h e l p s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . A l t h o u g h she i s f l u e n t i n a t l e a s t two C h i n e s e d i a l e c t s , t h e a u t h o r was u n a b l e t o o b t a i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h a C h i n e s e l a d y . I t happened a f t e r she had been c o n d u c t i n g i n t e r v i e w s a l l day and was f e e l i n g a b i t t i r e d and i m p a t i e n t . The l a d y who answered t h e door was a p p a r e n t l y t a k i n g a b a t h when th e i n t e r v i e w e r c a l l e d . T h e r e f o r e , when she answered t h e door i t was o b v i o u s t h a t she d i d n o t want any v i s i t o r a t t h a t t i m e . The i n t e r v i e w e r f i r s t a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n h e r p r e s e n c e i n E n g l i s h , w h i c h was n o t u n d e r s t o o d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t . She t r i e d one o f t h e d i a l e c t s she knows b u t was u n a b l e t o o b t a i n any r e s u l t . W i t h o u t even c o n s i d e r i n g u s i n g t h e o t h e r d i a l e c t , w h i c h i n h i n d s i g h t t h e a u t h o r i s s u r e w o u l d have been b e n e f i c i a l , she s i m p l y w a l k e d away. I n c i d e n t s s u c h as t h i s o c c u r v e r y o f t e n i n t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e and a r e n o t e a s i l y c o n t r o l l a b l e no m a t t e r how w e l l t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s a r e t r a i n e d . T here a r e a l s o c e r t a i n f a c t o r s r e l a t i v e t o t h e i n t e r v i e w e r o r r e s e a r c h e r t h a t w o u l d g r e a t l y r e s t r i c t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s t e c h n i q u e . I n t e r v i e w -e r s g e n e r a l l y have c e r t a i n b e l i e f s about t h e i r r e s p o n d e n t s w h i c h l e a d t o c e r t a i n e x p e c t a t i o n s about the answers t h a t s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e s c h e d u l e . There i s o n l y s u g g e s t i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t s u c h e x p e c t a t i o n s a c t u a l l y a f f e c t t h e b e h a v i o r o f i n t e r v i e w e r s i n s u c h a manner as t o a l t e r r e s u l t s . ( F r y , 1934), Couch and K e n i s t o n (1960) a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t most o f our s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u m e n t s and measures r e f l e c t t h e m i d d l e c l a s s o r i e n t a -t i o n o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s ; moreover, t h e y a r e o f t e n p r e - t e s t e d on p e r s o n s who have a f a i r l y l a r g e v o c a b u l a r y . I t has been d i s c o v e r e d t h a t many r e s p o n d e n t s , 34 b u t more p a r t i c u l a r l y l o w e r - i n c o m e and l e s s e d u c a t e d ones, e x p e r i e n c e boredom, f a t i g u e , o r l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g d u r i n g the. i n t e r v i e w . The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e i s a l s o r a t h e r c o s t l y t o u s e . Depend-i n g on t h e s i z e and d e p t h of a s t u d y , i t i s n o t uncommon f o r a p r o j e c t t o c o s t i n e x c e s s o f t e n s o f thousands of d o l l a r s . The community needs s u r v e y i n R i l e y P a r k c o s t s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n $18,000, o f w h i c h $15,000 went t o s a l a r y payments and $2,500 was s p e n t on m i s c e l l a n e o u s i t e m s s u c h as r e n t f o r o f f i c e s p a c e , t e l e p h o n e , p r i n t i n g c o s t s , bank c h a r g e s and a c o n s u l t a n t f e e . A n o t h e r f a c t o r r e l a t i n g t o c o s t i s t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o c o n d u c t a s t u d y . P o p u l a t i o n s a m p l i n g , q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n and p r e - t e s t i n g , a c t u a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , t a b u l a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of i n f o r m a t i o n may t a k e a few months t o a few y e a r s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y when a r e p o r t i s f i n a l l y c o m p l e t e d t h e d a t a i t c o n t a i n s i s a l r e a d y o u t d a t e d . The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e as a whole can p l a y an a c t i v e p a r t i n e n r i c h i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t t i n g s and a number o f human r e s p o n s e s i f p r o p e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s a p p r o a c h . I t p e r m i t s a h i g h e r degree o f a c c u r a c y and r e l i a b i l i t y i f c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d . S i n c e i t e l i c i t s d i r e c t r e s p o n s e from t h e s u b j e c t s , t h e t e c h n i q u e g i v e s good i n d i c a t i o n s o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t o r predominant l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s . S i m i l a r l y , s u r v e y ques-t i o n n a i r e i s a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e u t i l i z a t i o n r a t e o f p u b l i c l y p r o v i d e d l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s s u c h as l o c a l p a r k s , r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s , e t c . W i t h t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t h e p l a n n e r s w i l l be more p r e p a r e d t o r e v i e w p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g t o s u p p l y of r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l s o i s an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e r e a s o n s f o r non-use of c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s by d i r e c t l y a p p r o a c h i n g p o t e n t i a l and e x i s t i n g u s e r s . I f a l a r g e number o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y do n o t use t h e r e c r e a t i o n complexes because t h e t i m e i n w h i c h t h e programmes a r e 35 o f f e r e d i s wrong, f o r example, i t s i g n i f i e s a need t o r e s c h e d u l e c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s t o s a t i s f y t h e demand. T h i s a p p r o a c h i s a l s o e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l f o r g a t h e r i n g l o c a l r e s i d e n t s ' o p i n i o n s on f u t u r e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s as i t a d d r e s s e s t o a w i d e r p o p u l a -t i o n t h a n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as group i n t e r a c t i o n o r u s i n g s e c o n d a r y d a t a . R e s i d e n t s have f e e l i n g s about t h e i r own l e i s u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s , what t h e y need and what t h e y would l i k e t o see. They a r e a l s o good j u d g e s of t h e i r p h y s i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s t r a i n t s . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e i s s u p e r i o r t o o t h e r s . I n summary, t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e a p p r o a c h i s r a t h e r e x p e n s i v e and c o s t l y t o c o n d u c t , and s u f f e r s f r o m many t e c h n i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s . B e s i d e s b e i n g i n f l e x i b l e t o u s e , t h e r e a r e a l s o problems w i t h r e g a r d t o s a m p l i n g , q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n , p r e - t e s t i n g , and t h e dynamics o f an i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n . D i f f i c u l t i e s i n o b t a i n i n g t h e d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n a l s o undermine i t s u t i l i t y . However, i t a l s o p l a y s an a c t i v e r o l e i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of human r e s p o n s e s and d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t t i n g s . I t i s a good i n d i c a t o r o f p r o m i n a n t l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r a s s e s s i n g non-use o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , and a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g f u t u r e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . C l o s e d - e n d e d and open-ended q u e s t i o n s W i t h i n t h e b r o a d c a t e g o r y of s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e s t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s f o r m a t s i n w h i c h a q u e s t i o n c o u l d be s t r u c t u r e d . Each o f them i s p r e s e n t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t manner and t h e y t e n d t o y i e l d r e s p o n s e s of a d i v e r s e n a t u r e . The two t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s most w i d e l y used i n s u r v e y s a r e c l o s e d -ended and open-ended. 36 C l o s e d - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s I n t h i s t y p e o f q u e s t i o n d e s i g n t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h e x a c t l y t h e same w o r d i n g , and i n t h e same o r d e r , t o a l l r e s p o n d e n t s . I t i s a form o f s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n w h i c h t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e l i m i t e d t o s t a t e d a l t e r n a t i v e s . These a l t e r n a t i v e s may be s i m p l y yes o r no, o r t h e y may p r o v i d e f o r i n d i c a t i n g v a r i o u s d e grees o f a p p r o v a l o r agreement, o r t h e y may c o n s i s t o f a s e r i e s o f r e p l i e s o f w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t s p i c k t h e one c l o s e s t t o t h e i r own p o s i t i o n . I t i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o be e a s i e r f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o answer s i n c e he o r she has t h e l i s t o f c h o i c e s s p e c i f i e d f o r them. C o n s i -d e r a b l e amounts o f c o m p l e x i t y can be b u i l t i n t o c l o s e d - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s about a s i n g l e t o p i c t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g measurement of more complex a s p e c t s o f a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s . The c l o s e d - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y s i m p l e r t o a d m i n i s t e r as w e l l as r e l a t i v e l y easy and i n e x p e n s i v e t o a n a l y z e . Sometimes t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e r e p l i e s h e l p s t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o have a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e meaning o f t h e q u e s t i o n . However, t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n may " f o r c e " a r e s p o n d e n t t o g i v e an answer t h a t he o r she does n o t f u l l y e n d o r s e . On t h e o t h e r hand, many i n d i v i d u a l s may have l i t t l e o r no c l e a r l y f o r m u l a t e d o p i n i o n about many i s s u e s , and t h i s i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s n o t l i k e l y t o be r e v e a l e d by a c l o s e d - e n d e d q u e s t i o n . A n o t h e r f u n c t i o n o f t h e c l o s e d - e n d e d q u e s t i o n i s t o c l a r i f y t h e d i m e n s i o n a l o n g w h i c h answers a r e so u g h t . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e answers a r e g i v e n i n a frame o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e p u r p o s e of t h e s t u d y and i n a form t h a t i s u s a b l e t o t h e a n a l y s i s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t can produce a f a l s e s ense o f s e c u r i t y i n many s i t u a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h q u e s t i o n s may be worded i n t h e same way f o r a l l r e s p o n d e n t s , t h i s does n o t g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e y w i l l a l l i n t e r p r e t them i n t h e same way. Some may see them as t h r e a t e n -i n g o r t o o p e r s o n a l and may d e l i b e r a t e l y f a l s i f y t h e i r answers o r r e f u s e t o 37 c o o p e r a t e . O t h e r s may n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e w o r d i n g o r may i n t e r p r e t t h e q u e s t i o n s d i f f e r e n t l y from t h e way t h e i n t e r v i e w e r i n t e n d e d . Even when a r e s p o n d e n t has a c l e a r o p i n i o n on c e r t a i n i s s u e s , a c l o s e d - e n d e d q u e s t i o n may n o t g i v e an adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i t because none of t h e c h o i c e s c o r r e s p o n d s e x a c t l y t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s p o s i t i o n , o r because t h e y do n o t a l l o w f o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , as t h e r e p l y i s u s u a l l y t a k e n a t f a c e v a l u e , i t may l e a d t o s i g n i f i c a n t s h o r t c o m i n g i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The r e s p o n d e n t ' s u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s a r e n o t u s u a l l y p r o b e d , t h e r e b y l e a d i n g t o e r r o r s i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Open-ended q u e s t i o n s The open-ended q u e s t i o n i s d e s i g n e d t o p e r m i t a f r e e and u n r e s t r a i n e d r e s p o n s e from t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r a t h e r t h a n l i m i t e d t o o n l y f i x e d c h o i c e s . I t s a b i l i t y t o a l l o w t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o s t r u c t u r e h i s o r h e r answer as t h e y w i s h , and, a t t h e same t i m e , o f g i v i n g t h e r e s e a r c h e r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n about t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s knowledge of a s u b j e c t and frame o f r e f e r e n c e has p r o v e n t o be most s i g n i f i c a n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f m e r e l y r a i s i n g an i s s u e w i t h o u t p r o v i d i n g o r s u g g e s t i n g any d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s r e p l y a l l o w s him o r h e r t o answer i n t h e i r own terms and i n t h e i r own frames o f r e f e r e n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e element o f s u b j e c t i v i t y i s l a r g e r i n . t h e open-ended q u e s t i o n s t h a n i n t h e c l o s e d - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s i s more c a p a b l e o f g e t t i n g a t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l o r e s s e n t i a l a t t i t u d i n a l f a c t o r s w h i c h p r e c e d e o r u n d e r l i e b e h a v i o r i n w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s i n t e r e s t e d . Open-ended q u e s t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y a r e used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s , may p r o v i d e a much b e t t e r i n d i c a t i o n o f whether r e s p o n d e n t s have any i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i s s u e , whether t h e y have a c l e a r l y f o r m u l a t e d o p i n i o n about i t , and how s t r o n g l y t h e y f e e l about i t . They a l s o 38 have t h e a b i l i t y t o e l i c i t a w i d e range o f r e s p o n s e s i n w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r may have l i t t l e o r no knowledge. U n l e s s t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s r e a s o n a b l y c e r t a i n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f l i k e l y answers, i t i s al w a y s s a f e r t o use open-ended q u e s t i o n s as t h e y a r e l e s s l i a b l e t o b i a s t h e r e s p o n s e s by s u g g e s t i n g some a l t e r n a t i v e s b u t n o t o t h e r s . The main d i f f i c u l t y i n u s i n g open-ended q u e s t i o n s i s t h a t i n t e r v i e w e r s d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e i r a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o e l i c i t r e a l l y d e t a i l e d answers. A t t h e same t i m e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t i n many i n t e r v i e w s some o f t h e open-ended q u e s t i o n s w i l l n o t be answered, whereas a few may c o n t a i n l e n g t h y e s s a y s i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e c o n c e r n o f t h e r e s e a r c h . A b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s a l s o d i f f e r g r e a t l y among r e s p o n d e n t s , assuming t h e r e i s a wi d e range o f c a p a c i t y and a t t i t u d e s among them, as t h e r e i s i f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p r e s e n t a n o r m a l p o p u l a t i o n . When c o n d u c t i n g i n t e r v i e w s i n the R i l e y P a r k a r e a , t h e a u t h o r found t h a t on one o c c a s i o n even though t h e r e s p o n d e n t had ag r e e d t o t h e i n t e r v i e w , he was o n l y g i v i n g y e s o r no answers t o q u e s t i o n s t h a t needed more e x p l a n a t i o n . However, i n a n o t h e r c a s e t h e re s p o n d e n t was so p l e a s e d t o have someone t o t a l k t o t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w went on f o r two h o u r s . Open-ended q u e s t i o n s may a l l o w t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o e x p r e s s t h e i r o p i n i o n s more f r e e l y and i n a way i n w h i c h t h e y a r e most c o m f o r t a b l e . However, r e c o r d i n g t h e answers i s a l s o a pr o b l e m , and one n o t w e l l s o l v e d by u s i n g a m e c h a n i c a l r e c o r d e r (even i g n o r i n g t h e new problems t h a t may c r e a t e ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a n a l y s i s o f r e s p o n s e s t o open-ended q u e s t i o n s i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t and e x p e n s i v e . I n o r d e r t h a t t h e y can be t a b u l a t e d and s t a t i s t i -c a l l y a n a l y z e d , t h e r e s p o n s e s must be c a r e f u l l y i n t e r p r e t e d and coded. Summary There a r e many problems r e l a t i n g t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a p p r o a c h . Both 39 c l o s e d - e n d e d and. open-ended q u e s t i o n s s u f f e r from s e r i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e s . L i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w and f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s t e c h n i q u e may n o t be t h e most d e s i r a b l e i n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h . I f used a t a l l , t h e p l a n n e r s must be c a u t i o u s about t h e d e s i g n and l i m i t a t i o n s , and be v e r y s p e c i f i c about t h e k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s d e s i r e d . 40 CHAPTER I I I GROUP INTERACTION I n t r o d u c t i o n F o l l o w i n g a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s c a t e g o r y o f t e c h n i q u e s i s some background on t h e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i s s u e of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g . R i l e y P a r k p r o v i d e s an example o f c l o s e adherence t o a p o s i t i o n t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v a l u a b l e and i m p o r t a n t , r e l a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f an i n t e n s i v e program o f r a t h e r b r o a d s c o p e , and s u b s t a n t i a l c o s t s o f many k i n d s . I t a p p ears t h a t two s t r u c t u r e d forms o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , d e l b e c q and d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g , were i n some p a r t r e - i n v e n t e d by p l a n n e r s i n v o l v e d b ecause t h e y were unaware o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s . These t e c h n i q u e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y f o l l o w i n g t h e r e v i e w o f t h e f u l l s c a l e a p p r o a c h . Group i n t e r a c t i o n The t e r m , group i n t e r a c t i o n , i s i n f a c t a r a t h e r e l u s i v e c o n c e p t . I t may mean a n y t h i n g from c i t i z e n b o a r d s t o community o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o c i t i z e n groups t o " c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n " . A l o t has been w r i t t e n about i t , and y e t no one seems t o be a b l e t o c l e a r l y d e f i n e what i t i s , o r what i t does. Those who a r e i n f a v o r argue t h a t i t i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o i n v o l v e c i t i z e n s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s because " i f t h e s e r v i c e s a r e f o r e v e r y o n e , t h e n , p e r h a p s , e v e ryone s h o u l d be p a r t of t h e p l a n n i n g s y s t e m " . Kahn 0-972)) Runyan (1977) argues t h a t " l o c a l groups ( p a r t i c u l a r l y n e i g h b o r h o o d g r o u p s ) know b e s t t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s o f what t h e s o c i a l and economic consequences o f a p r o p o s e d change w i l l be on t h e i r membership and/or g e o g r a p h i c a r e a " . As L a u f f e r put i t : P e r haps t h e p l a n n e r ' s most s i g n i f i c a n t c h o i c e s w i l l come i n i n v o l v i n g o t h e r s i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Who s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d ? To what e x t e n t can s p e c i f i c c l i e n t groups and p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p i n g s 41 be r e p r e s e n t e d ? To what e x t e n t do i n d i v i d u a l s of a s p e c i f i c group s u c h as o l d e r p e r s o n s r e p r e s e n t c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t o f t h e e l d e r l y ? (1975, p. 58) C r i t i c s o f t h e c o n c e p t , however, have o f t e n used t h e same b a s i c r e a s o n i n g b u t i n a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . To make use o f c i t i z e n s i n d e c i s i o n making i s more t h a n j u s t a s h e e r waste of t i m e . " A f t e r a l l , what do t h e y have t o o f f e r t h a t we, as p r o f e s s i o n a l s , do n o t know?" Group i n t e r a c t i o n i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o be p o l i t i c a l l y dangerous as i t i s l i k e l y t o a r o u s e more c o n t r o v e r s y t h a n i s n e c e s s a r y . C i t i z e n s do n o t n o r m a l l y show up a t p u b l i c m e e t i n g s because t h e y want t o a p p l a u d o r e n d o r s e some government a c t i o n s . They a r e t h e r e b ecause t h e y want t o r a i s e i s s u e s t h a t a r e d i s a g r e e a b l e t o them. A r n s t e i n (1969) s t a t e s t h a t " t h e i d e a of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a l i t t l e l i k e e a t i n g s p i n a c h : no one i s a g a i n s t i t i n p r i n c i p l e b e c a u s e i t i s good f o r y o u . " I n terms of p u b l i c u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , t h e i s s u e s t e n d t o t a k e on a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . W h i l e i t i s g e n e r a l l y acknowledged t h a t r e s i d e n t s s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n d e c i d i n g t h e t y p e s of s e r v i c e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t s h o u l d be a l l o c a t e d i n t h e community, t h e c o n c e r n i s whether t h o s e a r e t h e t h i n g s t h a t t h e y a c t u a l l y want o r whether i t i s due t o a p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p u l s e t o get what o t h e r p e o p l e a l r e a d y have. Thus, i t i s s a i d t h a t a few y e a r s ago p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y community i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d a r e a was f i g h t i n g f o r an i c e r i n k and a community c e n t r e , r e g a r d l e s s o f whether t h e r e was a r e a l community need f o r them. F u r t h e r m o r e , i t can a l s o be a r g u e d t h a t i t would be i m p o s s i b l e f o r any c i t i z e n t o a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s how u s e f u l o r a t t r a c t i v e a new s e r v i c e would be u n l e s s t h e y have a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d t h e same t y p e of a c t i v i t y . These dilemmas may perhaps be r e s o l v e d by l o o k i n g a t t h r e e t h i n g s . F i r s t t h e h i s t o r i c a l development of t h e c o n c e p t of community o r g a n i z a t i o n and why i t was so r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d . Second, t h e c o n c e p t of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n 42 r e l a t i o n t o any p u b l i c a c t i v i t y . T h i r d , t h e n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n s o f c i t i z e n b o a r d s . H e n d r i k s (1964) s u g g e s t e d two r e a s o n s f o r t h e s w i f t i n t r o d u c t i o n and a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c o n c e p t o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n . The i d e a i s b a s i c a l l y a p p e a l i n g . Due t o our s o c i a l t e n d e n c i e s we a r e , as human b e i n g s , i n t e r l i n k e d w i t h our s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . And t h e i d e a o f c i t i z e n r y a c t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t we can do something about t h e community i n w h i c h we l i v e . S e c o n d l y , t h e development o f Western s o c i e t y i n v o l v e s r a p i d and f a r - r e a c h i n g s o c i a l changes. The changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e f a m i l y and, i n d e e d , i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a l l groups o u t s i d e t h e f a m i l y , a r e an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s f a c t . " I t i s becoming e v e r more a p p a r e n t t h a t o u r p o s i t i o n i n o u r s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s i n p r o c e s s of change. Our i n t e r r e l a t i o n s , t h e p a r t we p l a y i n a s s o c i a t i o n s and o r g a n i -z a t i o n s , t h e m s e l v e s have a l t e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c h a r a c t e r . " ( H e n d r i k s , 1964, p. 17) Our s o c i a l e n v ironment t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e s t h e p o i n t o f c o n t a c t f o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n work. I t i s a c h a n g i n g s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t s h o u l d o f t e n be more a t t u n e d t o i n d i v i d u a l needs. A r n s t e i n (1969) d e f i n e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as s i m p l y "a c a t e g o r i c a l t erm f o r c i t i z e n power". I t i s t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power t h a t e n a b l e s t h e have-not c i t i z e n s , p r e s e n t l y e x c l u d e d from t h e p o l i t i c a l and economic p r o c e s s e s , t o be d e l i b e r a t e l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e f u t u r e . She f u r t h e r argued t h a t " i t i s t h e s t r a t e g y by w h i c h t h e h a v e - n o t s j o i n i n d e t e r m i n i n g [ t h e i r own d e s t i n y ] . . . and i n d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l r e f o r m w h i c h e n a b l e s them t o s h a r e i n t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y . " A r n s t e i n f u r t h e r i l l u s -t r a t e d t h e c o n c e p t of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as b e i n g o f e i g h t b a s i c t y p e s : (1) m a n i p u l a t i o n ; (2) t h e r a p y ; (3) i n f o r m i n g ; (4) c o n s u l t a t i o n ; (5) p l a c a t i o n ; (6) p a r t n e r s h i p ; (7) d e l e g a t e d power; and (8) c i t i z e n c o n t r o l . T h i s t y p o l o g y , o r " l a d d e r " as t h e a u t h o r c a l l e d i t , p r e t t y w e l l summarizes one v i e w o f t h e f u n c t i o n s and o b j e c t i v e s o f i n v o l v i n g c i t i z e n s i n t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . 43 To u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o t e n t i a l o f group i n t e r a c t i o n as a t e c h n i q u e i n p u b l i c l e i s u r e p l a n n i n g , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know about i t s b a c k g r o u n d , p u r p o s e and methods. The group i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s , though l o n g i n e x i s t e n c e , i s s t i l l f r a u g h t w i t h t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s . I n t h e s i m p l e s t f o r m , i t i s m e r e l y an o p p o r t u n i t y whereby c i t i z e n s meet w i t h p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s i n an a t t e m p t t o a i r g r i e v a n c e s o r t o f i n d s o l u t i o n s t o a problem. I n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r what t h e r e s i d e n t s d e s i r e i n terms o f r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t h e p l a n n e r s may h o l d a p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g , and i f t h e r e i s enough i n t e r e s t a c i t i z e n group can be formed as an a d v i s o r y committee on f u t u r e p r o p o s a l s . On a h i g h e r l e v e l , c i t i z e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s and p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s i n a team p r o c e s s , i n w h i c h t h e i r v i e w s c a r r y as much w e i g h t as any o t h e r member o f t h e b o a r d . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e degree o f i n v o l v e m e n t , however, t h o s e o r g a n i z i n g t h e s e m e e t i n g s must have a s t a t e d p u r p o s e i n mind, be a b l e t o d i r e c t them w i t h some g u i d e l i n e s , and s t a t e what i s d e s i r e d o f t h e c i t i z e n s . One o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t problems t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has e x p e r i e n c e d has t o do w i t h a l a c k o f p r o p e r c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l d u r i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s . M e e t i n g s t e n d t o d r a g on w i t h o u t any ma j o r r e s u l t s . A r n s t e i n , i n h e r own words, has g i v e n us a p r e t t y good d e f i n i t i o n o f what c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i s a b o u t . M e y e r s , D o r w a r t , and K l i n e have shown t h a t c i t i z e n b o a r d s can s e r v e some s i g n i f i c a n t p u r p o s e s . What we, as r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s , have t o know i s how t o make t h e b e s t use o f t h i s knowledge. D i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g , t h e D e l b e c q t e c h n i q u e , and c i t i z e n p l a n n i n g committees a r e b u t t h r e e a p proaches w i t h i n group i n t e r a c t i o n . The f i r s t two i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e c o n s i d e r e d as s t r u c t u r e d t e c h n i q u e s t h r o u g h w h i c h m e e t i n g s can be c o n d u c t e d i n an o r d e r l y way t o en s u r e t h a t u s e f u l d a t a w i l l be g e n e r a t e d . 44 The p r a c t i c e o f group i n t e r a c t i o n has come a l o n g way, and i n s p i t e of t h e n o r m a t i v e d e b a t e s r e l a t i n g t o i t s usage and t h e t e c h n i c a l problems e x p e r i e n c e d , i t i s now r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h has m e r i t s i n a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . U s e f u l d a t a can be g a t h e r e d by i n v o l v i n g c i t i z e n s i n d e c i s i o n making. D e s p i t e t h e advantages we have d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a t e -g o r y of t e c h n i q u e a l s o f a c e s s e v e r a l s h o r t c o m i n g s i n c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s . One of t h e more s i g n i f i c a n t i s c i t e d by t h e c r i t i c s who say t h a t i t may evoke u n n e c e s s a r y c o n t r o v e r s y and r a i s e e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r w h i c h t h e r e i s no f o u n d a t i o n . I s i t r i g h t t o a s k whether e v e r y community wou l d l i k e t o have an i n d o o r swimming p o o l ? Once i t i s known t o t h e p u b l i c t h a t t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f g e t t i n g i t , t h e y a r e e x p e c t i n g t h a t i t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y become a r e a l i t y . F a i l u r e t o s a t i s f y t h a t d e s i r e i s l i k e l y t o p r o v o k e contempt and d i s c o n t e n t . F u l l s c a l e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l s o demands t o t a l d e d i c a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d t h r o u g h a r a t h e r l o n g p r o c e s s . These and o t h e r c o s t f a c t o r s w i l l be g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d u s i n g t h e example o f t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP c i t i z e n s committee. A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e ways i n w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n can be g a t h e r e d i n j u s t one m e e t i n g , s u c h as u s i n g d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g , t o be e f f e c t i v e i n t e n s i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n o f t e n r e q u i r e s much more i n v o l v e m e n t of b o t h p l a n n e r s and c i t i z e n s . Such d e d i c a t i o n , however, i s n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e i n e v e r y community. F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s t h e p r o b l e m o f c o n t r o l l i n g d a t a i n p u t . T h i s i s h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o who p a r t i c i p a t e s and how m e e t i n g s a r e c o n d u c t e d . B e t t e r o r g a n i z e d and a r r a n g e d m e e t i n g s a r e l i k e l y t o have b e t t e r r e s u l t s . The t y p e s o f d a t a p o s s i b l e a r e s t i l l d i f f i c u l t t o p r e -d e t e r m i n e . More o f t e n t h a n n o t , a l a r g e volume of i n f o r m a t i o n i s g e n e r a t e d w h i c h may have l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e t o t h e problems a t hand. The p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h e r e f o r e must be aware o f and a b l e t o d i r e c t d i s c u s s i o n s i n t h e ; p r o p e r f o c u s . The t e r m "group i n t e r a c t i o n " , t h e r e f o r e , r e p r e s e n t s a r ange of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of i n t e n s i t y . I n i t s s i m p l e s t 45 form p l a n n e r s and c i t i z e n s meet b r i e f l y t o d i s c u s s s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . A t t h e o t h e r end o f t h e s c a l e i s t h e " f u l l s c a l e " c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s u c h as t h e Neighbourhood Improvement Programme w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p l a n n i n g t e c h -n i q u e . Each o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s r e q u i r e s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s . T h e i r u s e f u l n e s s , however, w i l l depend e n t i r e l y on the need and r e q u i r e m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n s . F u l l s c a l e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t h i s scope and l e v e l r e p r e s e n t s t h e most i n t e n s i v e form o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e . A tremendous amount o f p l a n n i n g , p r e p a r a -t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s i s r e q u i r e d i f i t i s t o work w e l l . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s a p p r o a c h i s a l s o e x t r e m e l y c o s t l y and t i m e consuming t o c o n d u c t . However, t h i s t y p e o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s n o t j u s t a d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e , i t i s a p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e and i t i s a t e c h n i q u e f o r d e v e l o p i n g a c o n s t i t u e n c y i n s u p p o r t o f t h e r e s u l t s and i n s u p p o r t o f t h e government t h a t engages i n t h i s k i n d o f p l a n n i n g . I t i s an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programme o f some r e a l v a l u e f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , and i t i s s u p p o r t e d by some as a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n o f a t h e o r y o f democracy i n l o c a l government. And i t o f f e r s a b r o a d range o f " e x p e r t s " f o r use w i t h d e l p h i , d e l b e c q , d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g , and o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s . The p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e R i l e y P a r k N e i g h b o r h o o d Improvement Programme s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e v e r y d i v e r s e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s as w e l l as t h e c i t i z e n s must engage i n t o o b t a i n r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s . Even though t h e main f u n c t i o n o f t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f i s t o r e v i e w , recommend, and a d m i n i s t e r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e d f u n d s f o r p h y s i c a l improvements i n t h e community, t h e d e c i s i o n s have t o be made i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a c i t i z e n s ' p l a n n i n g committee o v e r a p e r i o d o f a t l e a s t two y e a r s . R e g u l a r w e e k l y m e e t i n g s a r e h e l d t o d i s c u s s i s s u e s p e r t i n e n t t o t h e programme as w e l l as 46 o t h e r s t h a t a r e o f c o n c e r n t o t h e c i t i z e n s . Repeated a t t e m p t s have t o be made t o e n s u r e t h a t m a j o r recommendations do r e f l e c t t h e d e s i r e s and n e c e s -s i t i e s o f most of t h e c o n c e r n e d r e s i d e n t s . I n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e , o t h e r government a g e n c i e s have t o be b r o u g h t i n t o a s s i s t i n t h e d e s i g n i n g o f t h e p h y s i c a l improvements. E x e r c i s e s s u c h as " d e s i g n - i n s " a r e s i g n i f i -c a n t n o t o n l y because t h e y a r e r e l a t e d t o a c t u a l development o f i d e a s , b u t because t h e y a l s o s e r v e as i n v a l u a b l e e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s t o t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d . C i t i z e n s can b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e w o r k i n g s o f t h e p u b l i c d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . P l a n n e r s , on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e a b l e t o o b t a i n r e l i a b l e d a t a p e r t i n e n t t o t h e r e s i d e n t s ' w i s h e s . The NIP p l a n n e r i n R i l e y P a r k "sees NIP as a d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r , w i t h t h e committee a c t i n g as t h e e x p e r t about t h e s p e c i f i c community and t h e p l a n n e r s a c t i n g as t h e e x p e r t s about t h e c i t y as a w h o l e . " ( J o h n s o n , 1977) He f u r t h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t " i t i s d i f f e r e n t from t h e e l i t i s t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h w i l l r e s u l t i n a good n e i g h b o r h o o d and a sense o f community among t h e r e s i d e n t s . " C i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t h i s l e v e l i s i n e v i t a b l y a v e r y c o s t l y e x e r c i s e . F o r t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP t h e expenses f o r t h e f i r s t y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n , w h i c h i n c l u d e d s a l a r y f o r a s t a f f o f t h r e e , o v erhead and o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s e x p e n s e s , was about $80,000. One of t h e ma j o r problems i n t h e group i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s i s t o g e t p r o p e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from e v e r y segment of t h e community. I t has been f o u n d t h a t i n some n e i g h b o r h o o d s , c e r t a i n p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p s t h a t a r e more o u t s p o k e n were a b l e t o dominate t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . A l s o , t h e r e were c a s e s i n w h i c h c i t i z e n s v o t e d on c e r t a i n i s s u e s w i t h o u t f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g what t h e y a c t u a l l y meant, o r were pushed i n t o making h a s t y d e c i s i o n s . T rue r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e v e r y segment o f t h e s o c i e t y i s d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n , i f not i m p o s s i b l e . There a r e some p e o p l e who s i m p l y a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n g e t t i n g i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e m a t t e r s . So how do t h e p l a n n e r s encourage c i t i z e n s 47 t o p a r t i c i p a t e ? The R i l e y P a r k NIP p l a n n e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e key p h r a s e i s " p o s i t i v e momentum." C i t i z e n s have t o f e e l t h a t w h a t e v e r t h e y a r e d o i n g w i l l have p o s i t i v e i m p a c t s on t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r community. They must a l s o be a b l e t o see r e s u l t s . The R i l e y P a r k p l a n n e r s u g g e s t s t h r e e g o a l s : g e t p e o p l e o u t , g e t p e o p l e t h i n k i n g , and do t h i n g s t o keep p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d . When c o n d u c t i n g an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e R i l e y P a r k p l a n n e r , t h e a u t h o r was made aware o f t h e f a c t t h a t s u b c o n s c i o u s l y he was d e s c r i b i n g i n v e r y b r o a d terms t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g and d e l b e c q t e c h n i q u e i n t h e group i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s . He emphasized t h e p o i n t s about " w r i t i n g t h e s c r i p t w e l l o r d r a m a t i z e t h e m e e t i n g s t o keep t h e momentum g o i n g . " Even though u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e f o r m a t s of t h e o t h e r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s , he was i n f a c t a p p l y i n g t h e c o n c e p t s t o h i s p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y . T here appears t o be i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a from t h e R i l e y P a r k e x p e r i e n c e t o d e t e r m i n e "when" a r e some o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n needs i n t h e community. The r e a s o n f o r i t i s t h a t f a c i l i t i e s , r a t h e r t h a n programming ( e x c e p t i n M e l l o r ' s 1977 r e p o r t ) , were a t i s s u e i n a l l of t h e R i l e y P a r k work. I t i s v i t a l t h a t t h e s e two a s p e c t s be c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h one a n o t h e r . Group i n t e r a c t i o n a t t h i s l e v e l may work b e s t i n an a r e a t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d i n terms o f f a c i l i t i e s and programmes and t h u s can l o o k t o o t h e r a r e a s w i t h w h i c h t h e y have some f a m i l i a r i t y f o r i d e a s about what wou l d be d e s i r a b l e . A r e c e n t i n c i d e n t i n Vancouver s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . A group o f t e e n a g e r s who l i v e i n t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e c i t y d e c i d e d t h a t they would l i k e t o have a ramp f o r s k a t e - b o a r d i n g . S i n c e none was a v a i l a b l e a t t h a t t i m e , t h e y v e n t u r e d t o b u i l d t h e i r own. By p o o l i n g t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t o g e t h e r and e x a m i n i n g what o t h e r p e o p l e have done b e f o r e , t h e y have succeeded i n b u i l d i n g t h e m s e l v e s a ramp on a c i t y l o t w h i c h has even g a i n e d s u p p o r t f r o m t h e c o u n c i l and nearby r e s i d e n t s . F u l l s c a l e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has many b e n e f i t s — i t humanizes t h e 48 p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , c r e a t e s o r r e c r e a t e s a sense of community, and b e i n g a b l e t o p l a n w i t h and n o t a t t h e p e o p l e . D e s p i t e i t s c o s t l i n e s s and demanding n a t u r e , i t i s s t i l l one of t h e most e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s t o use. D i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g As one a p p r o a c h i n c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n -n i n g i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m o t h e r s by i t s d i r e c t and s i m p l e way o f o p e r a t i o n , as w e l l as i t s a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y c r i t i c a l a r e a s of c o n f l i c t between a p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l and i n t e r e s t s o f l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s . I t i s a l s o a p r o c e s s f o r human i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h has as i t s o b j e c t i v e t h e f o c u s s i n g o f d i s c u s s i o n and r e v i e w upon p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s on w h i c h t h e r e i s c o n f l i c t , so t h a t t h e s e may be s i n g l e d o u t f o r d e b a t e . I n e s s e n c e , t h e t e r m " d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g " may be d e f i n e d a s : An a p p r o a c h t o t h e development o f a d i a l o g u e between community r e s i d e n t s and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t o r s by f o c u s s i n g d i s c u s s i o n on c o n f l i c t i n g i s s u e s and t o e x p l o r e t h e n a t u r e of t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s s u c h t h a t some form of a n a l y s i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i s s u e s may be s e l e c t e d . T h i s t e c h n i q u e f i r s t appeared i n t h e a r t i c l e on " L o c a l Impact E v a l u a -t i o n i n t h e D e s i g n o f L a r g e - S c a l e Urban Systems" by Hudson, Wachs, and S c h o f e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) , i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r s s t a t e d t h a t : One i n c r e a s i n g w e l l s p r i n g o f c o n c e r n f o r :the n e i g h b o r h o o d as a p l a n n i n g u n i t may be t h e a v e r a g e c i t i z e n ' s f e e l i n g t h a t p u b l i c s e r v i c e systems t e n d t o become l e s s r e s p o n s i v e and a c c o u n t a b l e as t h e y grow i n s c a l e . (p. 256) I t i s e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms o f p l a n n i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l oppor-t u n i t i e s i n w h i c h major f a c i l i t i e s , s u c h as a r e g i o n a l p a r k o r community c e n t r e , a r e o f t e n c r e a t e d by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e . I m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t d e a l w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e i m p a c t s on l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a -t i v e s t o t h e p r o p o s e d p l a n , and c o n f l i c t i n g c o n c e r n s a r e n o t g e n e r a l l y 49 c o n s i d e r e d , t h e r e b y r e s u l t i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e r e i s an o v e r s u p p l y o f one t y p e o f o p p o r t u n i t y and a l a c k o f a n o t h e r . D i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g does n o t and cannot r e s o l v e a l l t h e i s s u e s t h a t may a r i s e from a p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l , b u t i t s u s e f u l n e s s l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t c i t i z e n s ' and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' r e a c t i o n s t o a t e n t a t i v e p l a n , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e n e g a t i v e ones, can be c a t e g o r i z e d and d e f i n e d . The a p p r o a c h c o m p r i s e s two e x p l i c i t phases o f i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e two p a r t i e s . The f i r s t s t a g e has t h e t a s k o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h e c r i t i c a l p o i n t s of d i s a g r e e m e n t and c o n f l i c t between t h e p r o p o s e d development and t h e l o c a l c ommunities o f i n t e r e s t . M a j o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p l a n a r e l i s t e d , and a d i s c u s s i o n i s h e l d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , o r whether i t i s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l element o f t h e p l a n . Arguments a r e t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o two gr o u p s . The f i r s t group b e i n g t h o s e arguments t h a t a r e u n a s s a i l a b l e o r n o n c o n t r o v e r s i a l . They a r e s i m p l y s t a t e d , r e c o r d e d , and l e f t a l o n e . A t t e n t i o n i s now f o c u s s e d on t h e second group, and t h o s e arguments t h a t a r e c o n t e s t e d a r e s t a t e d i n t h e form o f co u n t e r - a r g u m e n t s and subsequent r e b u t t a l s . A major d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i s t e c h n i q u e and o t h e r s i s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s do n o t a t t e m p t t o r e s o l v e p o i n t s o f c o n f l i c t . Agreement i s r a t h e r sought on whether c o n f l i c t e x i s t s , and whether t h e c o u n t e r - a r g u m e n t s a r e p r o p e r l y a l i g n e d w i t h t h e i r o p p o s i t e s . F o r each o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g i s s u e s , an a t t e m p t i s made t o d e v e l o p a d i a l e c t i c a l " t r e e " (as compared t o a d e c i s i o n t r e e ) w i t h major p o i n t s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t b r o k e n down i n t o v a r i o u s components. As t h e d i s c u s s i o n e v o l v e s , f u r t h e r e x p l i c a t i o n i s sought t h r o u g h f u r t h e r development o f b r a n c h e s and t w i g s o f t h e t r e e . (Hudson, Wachs, and S c h o f e r , 1974) The main f o c a l p o i n t i n t h e f i r s t s t a g e o f t h i s a p p r o a c h e l i c i t s arguments a g a i n s t t h e p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p l a n and g e n e r a t e s some form o f de b a t e on them. D u r i n g t h i s s t a g e , l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n i s 50 made between t h e t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t and t h e l a y p e r s o n . When no f u r t h e r d i s c u s -s i o n on t h o s e p o i n t s i s p o s s i b l e , t h e m e e t i n g may t h e n move t o t h e second s t a g e . T h i s s t a g e has t h e o b j e c t i v e o f r e s o l v i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h were d e t e r m i n e d d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s s t a g e . I t b e g i n s by l o o k i n g a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w h i c h have been i d e n t i f i e d and s e l e c t i n g a f o r m o f a n a l y s i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e a l i n g w i t h each t y p e o f i s s u e . I t has been f o u n d t h a t t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t t h r e e t y p e s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t s w h i c h may emerge d u r i n g t h e e x e r c i s e . The most common form o f m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s i s r e l a t e d t o f a c t u a l m a t t e r s about p a r t i c u l a r d e s i g n f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r o p o s a l . F e a r a r i s e s o f t e n due t o an i g n o r a n c e o f what one i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h , and i n many i n s t a n c e s s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n from a n e i g h b o r h o o d i s u s u a l l y a r e s u l t o f t h e r e s i d e n t s ' p r e c o n -c e p t i o n o f what a c e r t a i n p l a n i s l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e them w i t h o u t knowing e x a c t l y what i t i s about . F o r example, c e r t a i n f e a r s about a highway p r o p o s a l m i g h t be i m m e d i a t e l y d i s p e l l e d by a s s u r a n c e s t h a t f i n a l p l a n s w o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e a d d i t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r a e s t h e t i c l a n d s c a p i n g , adequate compen-s a t i o n o f l o s s , immediate h o u s i n g f o r t h o s e r e l o c a t e d , o r o t h e r c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e d i a l e c t i c a l t r e e . E x e r c i s e s u c h as t h i s may n o t be a b l e t o r e s o l v e a l l t h e doubts t h a t p e r s i s t i n t h e r e s i d e n t s ' m inds, b u t i t does h e l p t o i d e n t i f y c o n f l i c t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r n a t u r e , and f a c t u a l m i s u n d e r -s t a n d i n g s a r e g e n e r a l l y t h o s e t h a t can be d i r e c t l y r e s o l v e d . A second t y p e o f d i s a g r e e m e n t i s r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n a s s u m p t i o n s about c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n c e r n i n g t h e assessment o f t h e p r o p o s a l s . I n an open forum, doubts about a n t i c i p a t e d i m p a c t s o f p r o p o s a l s can r a r e l y be r e s o l v e d , b u t c r i t i c a l d i s a g r e e m e n t s can be d e f i n e d f o r subsequent a n a l y s i s . F o r example, c i t y o f f i c i a l s have e x p e r i e n c e d s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n from many n e i g h b o r h o o d s when t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o i n t r o d u c e l ow and moderate h o u s i n g developments i n t o an a r e a , w i t h t h e opponents c l a i m i n g t h a t 51 t h e s e " p o o r " p e o p l e may l e a d t o h i g h e r c r i m e r a t e s and l o w e r p r o p e r t y v a l u e , a l l o f w h i c h a r e f e a r s t h a t have y e t t o be p r o v e n . I n t h e c a s e of r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , i t m i g h t be e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o g e t a p p r o v a l f o r e x p e n d i t u r e s on l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y p r o p o s a l s t h a t a r e r e l a t i v e l y new o r i n n o v a t i v e , s u c h as a p a r k c r e a t e d s o l e l y f o r s k a t e - b o a r d i n g . Some o f t h e i s s u e s m i ght be r e s o l v e d f a i r l y q u i c k l y , as f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f major highway b y - p a s s e s on t h e commerce of s m a l l towns w h i c h a r e b e t t e r known tod a y t h a n t e n y e a r s ago. However, o t h e r q u e s t i o n s would r e q u i r e more t e n t a t i v e answers f o r t h e i r l i k e l y e f f e c t s a r e n o t y e t known, t h e r e b y n e c e s s i t a t i n g a l o n g e r term m o n i t o r i n g p r o c e d u r e and p r o v i s i o n s f o r s t r u c t u r e d r e s e a r c h . I n t h e s h o r t r u n , i t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t D e l p h i t e c h n i q u e s can be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e , i n o r d e r t h a t e x p e r t judgement, i n t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f outcomes a l o n g s p e c i f i c l i n e s o f i n q u i r y where h a r d i n f o r -m a t i o n i s l a c k i n g , may be employed. D i s a g r e e m e n t s as a r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e s a r e p r o b a b l y t h e most d i f f i c u l t t o r e s o l v e . I n a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y , i t i s more t h a n l i k e l y t h a t c o n f l i c t s r e l a t i v e t o t h e assessment o f program i m p a c t s may be i r r e c o n -c i l a b l e . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n t h e c a s e of l e i s u r e p l a n n i n g , where p r e f e r e n c e s and d e s i r e s , l i k e s and d i s l i k e s , a r e h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e . The r o l e of t h e p l a n n e r s i s n o t t o s a t i s f y e v e r y c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e , as any s u c h e f f o r t w o u l d be f u t i l e . The v i r t u e of t h e d i a l e c t i c a l method i s t h a t i t c l a s s i f i e s s u c h d i s a g r e e m e n t s f o r what t h e y a r e . T h i s p r e v e n t s a p u b l i c forum from w a s t i n g t i m e i n a p p e a l t o l o g i c a l arguments when i n f a c t l o g i c i s n o t a t s t a k e , and a l s o s e r v e s t o p r e v e n t u n i t a r y d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t from a p p e a r i n g t o embrace a l l o t h e r v a l u e p o s i t i o n s . There a r e s e v e r a l e lements i n w h i c h d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g s u r p a s s e s o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n i t s s i m p l e s t form, d i a l e c t -i c a l s c a n n i n g r e q u i r e s o n l y a b l a c k b o a r d and someone t o r e c o r d t h e r e a s o n s 52 why a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n o r c o n t r o v e r s i a l f e a t u r e o f a p l a n s h o u l d o r s h o u l d n o t be a d o p t e d . T h i s ease of use e n a b l e s community p l a n n e r s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s , government o f f i c i a l s , o r anyone i n v o l v e d i n a major p l a n t o s o l i c i t r e s p o n s e s from a l a r g e number of c i t i z e n s i n o r d e r t h a t some k i n d of u n d e r s t a n d i n g may be a c h i e v e d between t h e i n s t i g a t o r s and t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , t h i s i n i t i a l " b l a c k b o a r d " f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m can h e l p make p u b l i c p o l i c y f a r more a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e t h a n can a m u l t i - v o l u m e p l a n n i n g document. C o n c i s e l y f o r m u l a t e d , t h e d i a l o g u e can be t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h news media, u n i v e r s i t y s t u d y g r o u p s , ad hoc c i t i z e n s c o m m i t t e e s , o r v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f more permanent s t a n d i n g — t h e l i s t i s i d e a l l y l i m i t l e s s . The t e c h n i q u e o f d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g a l s o a t t e m p t s t o f o c u s on t h e a c t i o n consequences of d e c i s i o n s by r e c o g n i z i n g t h e f o r c e s ( p o l i t i c a l , economic, m o r a l ) w h i c h a r r a y t h e m s e l v e s on d i f f e r e n t s i d e s o f a q u e s t i o n , and a t t e m p t s t o seek h i s t o r i c a l a n a l o g i e s w h i c h r e v e a l t h e c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t -t i n g one outcome t o p r e v a i l o v e r t h e o t h e r . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e p r o p o s a l s t h a t a r e b e i n g p u t f o r w a r d s h o u l d c o n t a i n enough leeway t o accommodate changes i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e problems t o be e n c o u n t e r e d , and as s u c h , t h e t e c h n i q u e i s u s e f u l i n d i r e c t i n g c i t i z e n s ' r e s p o n s e s , and t o i d e n t i f y , i f u n a b l e t o r e s o l v e , avenues t h a t may l e a d t o c o n f l i c t . On a more t e c h n i c a l s i d e , t h e d i a l e c t i c a l a p p r o a c h i s a b l e t o s u g g e s t ways by w h i c h i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s may be s e l e c t e d and i d e n t i f y i n g c o n f l i c t s t h a t a r e s o l v a b l e and t h o s e t h a t a r e n o t . The i s s u e s a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n c i s e l y p r e s e n t e d ; c o n f l i c t s a r e made e x p l i c i t ; s t r a t e g i e s f o r r e s o l v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d where t h e y e x i s t ; and major m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o v a l u e judgements, a r e acknowledged, r a t h e r t h a n o b s c u r e d b e h i n d t h e o v e r a l l c a t e g o r y o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . On t h e o t h e r hand, d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g a l s o f a c e s v a r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s t h a t p e r t a i n more g e n e r a l l y t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n 53 p l a n n i n g . ( G o d s c h a l k , 1972) T h i s a p p r o a c h a l s o e x p e r i e n c e s many o f t h e same l i m i t a t i o n s as any p u b l i c forum: i t may d e a l more e x p l i c i t l y w i t h t h e non-r a t i o n a l ( f o r example, m o r a l , a e s t h e t i c , c u l t u r a l ) d i m e n s i o n s o f p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , b u t t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f c r u c i a l i s s u e s — t h e a b i l i t y t o a c t on k n o w l e d g e — c a n n o t be b u i l t i n t o any i n s t r u m e n t o f r a t i o n a l d e b a t e , and d i a l -e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g i s no d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r p l a n n i n g approaches i n t h i s r e s p e c t . The use of d e c i s i o n t r e e s i s a w e l l - k n o w n p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e ( R a i f f a , 1 9 6 8 ) , b u t C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r has p r o b a b l y t a k e n t h e i d e a f a r t h e s t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e m p h a s i z i n g p r o b l e m f o r m u l a t i o n i n h i s Notes on t h e S y n t h e s i s o f Form (1966) . A d i a l e c t i c a l t r e e , t o c a r r y i t one s t e p f u r t h e r , a t t e m p t s t o b r e a k down major p o i n t s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t i n t o components. W h i l e i t i s i n d e e d a good v i s u a l a i d t o d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s f o r e s e e a b l e t h a t t h e r e may be problems i n w h i c h p a r t i c i p a n t s f a i l t o l o g i c a l l y i d e n t i f y c o n f l i c t s and t h e i r c o u n t e r - a r g u m e n t s , o r t h a t t h e problems may be so.icomplex t h a t no " t r e e " i s e v e r , a b l e t o p r e s e n t them. F i n a l l y , w hether each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s v i e w s d e s e r v e e q u a l w e i g h t , o r whether a b l a c k b o a r d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n can f a i r l y convey them, r e m a i n unanswered q u e s t i o n s . The D e l b e c q t e c h n i q u e T h i s t e c h n i q u e , as p r o p o s e d by Andre D e l b e c q and Andrew Van De Ven ( 1 9 7 1 ) , s e t s f o r t h a group p r o c e s s a p p r o a c h u s e f u l f o r p r a c t i c i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and p l a n n e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r program development. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , m e e t i n g f o r m a t s a r e s u g g e s t e d f o r i n v o l v i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c a l r e f e r e n c e groups i n s u c c e s s i v e phases o f program development: (1) c l i e n t s (consumers o r u s e r s ) .to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r o b l e m e x p l o r a t i o n ; (2) e x t e r n a l r e s o u r c e p e o p l e and s t r u c t u r a l s p e c i a l i s t s , i n knowledge e x p l o r a t i o n ; (3) key a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and r e s o u r c e c o n t r o l l e r s , i n p r i o r i t y development and l o c a l a u t h o r i t y ; (4) o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a f f , i n program p r o p o s a l b u i l d i n g ; and i t s c o n s t i t u e n c i e s , 54 i n f i n a l a p p r o v a l and e v a l u a t i o n d e s i g n s . U n l i k e o t h e r a p p roaches t o sys t e m p l a n n i n g , t h e D e l b e c q t e c h n i q u e , o r t h e Program P l a n n i n g M odel (PPM) as i t i s l a b e l l e d by t h e a u t h o r s , s u g g e s t s a p l a n n i n g sequence w h i c h seeks t o p r o v i d e an o r d e r l y p r o c e s s o f s t r u c t u r i n g t h e d e c i s i o n making a t d i f f e r e n t phases o f p l a n n i n g . I t b o t h h i g h l i g h t s c r i t i c a l i s s u e s and p r o v i d e s a g u i d e l i n e f o r d e v e l o p i n g i n n o v a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g i e s where c l i e n t s o r consumers, s p e c i a l -i s t s , r e s o u r c e c o n t r o l l e r s , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s must be i n t e r f a c e d . I t f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s group p r o c e s s e s and agenda f o r m a t s w h i c h g u i d e each phase o f program e v o l u t i o n . I n summary, t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s t e c h i n q u e a r e t o i d e n t i f y s t r a t e g i c problems and t o d e v e l o p a p p r o p r i a t e and i n n o v a t i v e programs t o s o l v e them. The problems e n c o u n t e r e d by p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l s i n t h e i r e f f o r t t o d e v e l o p an a p p r o p r i a t e program t h a t w o u l d s a t i s f y t h e d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t groups a r e numerous, i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e . The d i f f i c u l t y l i e s n o t i n t h e absence o f knowledge, as most p a r t i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y s p e c i f i c i n t h e i r d e s i r e s and p r i o r i t i e s . C o n f l i c t s a r i s e when d i f f e r e n t p a r t i e s a r e c o n s u l t e d on an ad hoc b a s i s , where i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m one s i d e i s n o t made c l e a r t o t h e o t h e r . I n o t h e r words, even though p l a n n e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s may a t t e m p t t o e l i c i t r e s p o n s e s from v a r i o u s r e l a t e d g r o u p s — p o t e n t i a l u s e r s , r e s o u r c e c o n t r o l l e r s , l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and t h e l i k e — l a c k o f p r o p e r c o o r d i n a t i o n between t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t e n r e s u l t s i n f a i l u r e t o o b t a i n a p r o p e r s o l u t i o n , and t h e i n i t i a l p u r p o s e s o f t h e e x e r c i s e a r e t o t a l l y d e f e a t e d . F o r example, a m u n i c i p a l i t y may d e s i r e t o i n s t i g a t e a new r e c r e a t i o n program t o c a t e r t o t h e needs of s i n g l e p a r e n t s w i t h young c h i l d r e n . P l a n n e r s w i l l p r o b a b l y b e g i n by r e s e a r c h i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t a r e c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . They may t h e n a t t e m p t t o c o n t a c t i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s about t h e p r o p o s a l and ask f o r t h e i r r e s p o n s e . I t i s n o t i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e c i t i z e n s a r e a b l e t o come w i t h some s o l i d p r o p o s a l s about d i f f e r e n t programs t h a t t h e y a r e i n 55 f a v o r o f , s u c h as h o l d i n g swimming and s k a t i n g c l a s s e s f o r b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n i n t h e community c e n t r e s . P l a n n e r s a r e t h e n a b l e t o draw up some s o r t o f p r o p o s a l b a s e d on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y have a c q u i r e d . However, when th e y r e p o r t back t o t h e c i t y c o u n c i l , many t e c h n i c a l problems may o c c u r : a l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t f u n d i n g may e x i s t , e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s may be t o o crowded t o accommodate e x t r a u s e r s , o r t h e p r o p o s a l may be i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p r e s e n t g u i d e l i n e s . Whatever o b j e c t i o n s t h e r e may be, t h e u n f o r t u n a t e consequence i s n e v e r b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e o r i g i n a l c a u s e . As s u c h , t h e Program P l a n n i n g M o del p r o p o s e s a method i n w h i c h i n t e r n a l exchange a c r o s s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t s and e x t r a o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n t e r f a c e s can be sequenced i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e t h e i n e v i t a b l e c o n f l i c t s i n t h e f i n a l s t a g e s , and o f f e r s an e x p l i c i t p r o c e s s f o r s t r u c t u r i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n each phase o f p l a n n i n g . There a r e b a s i c a l l y f i v e phases i n t h i s model, t h e f i r s t b e i n g t h e p r o b l e m e x p l o r a t i o n s t a g e w h i c h i n c l u d e s c l i e n t o r consumer groups and p e r i p h e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The c l i e n t s a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r f o r a m e e t i n g w i t h t h e government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ( p l a n n e r s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s , e t c . ) t o u n d e r s t a n d and e x p l o r e p r o b l e m s , n o t t o f i n d s o l u t i o n s . D e l b e c q and Van De Ven argue t h a t most problems a r e based on e i t h e r e m o t i o n a l o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n s (1971, p. 470) Emotions c e n t e r around f e e l i n g s s u c h as a n x i e t y , f e a r , embarassment, and t h e l i k e . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t e n d e a l w i t h a u t h o r i t y , s t r u c t u r e , c o s t s , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e , q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s and so on. Phase I a t t e m p t s t o a n a l y z e t h e scope and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e problems t h a t t h e c l i e n t groups may e n c o u n t e r so t h a t f u t u r e a c t i o n s can a d d r e s s them p r o p e r l y . The amount o f t i m e t a k e n f o r t h e m e e t i n g i s o f t e n no l o n g e r t h a n an e v e n i n g . The whole p r o c e s s c a n be summarized as f o l l o w s : (1) P a r t i c i p a n t s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o groups o f s i x t o n i n e a c c o r d i n g t o common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as age. They a r e each asked t o w r i t e p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s on one s i d e o f t h e c a r d and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f 56 a 5 x 7 c a r d . About t h i r t y m i n u t e s i s a l l o w e d . (2) The r e s p o n s e s a r e t h e n r e c o r d e d on a s h e e t o f paper f o r each group and d i s p l a y e d on t h e w a l l . (3) A f t e r a s h o r t b r e a k , t h e members o f each group a r e asked t o j o i n t l y r e v i e w t h e i t e m s l i s t e d . They may d i s c u s s them f u r t h e r , c l a r i f y some p o i n t s , add new i t e m s , e t c . , b u t cannot condense t h e i t e m s . (4) A f t e r t h a t , each member i s t h e n g i v e n a 3 x 5 c a r d and asked t o v o t e (by number) f o r t h e f i v e i t e m s he o r she c o n s i d e r s most c r u c i a l on t h e p e r s o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i s t . The v o t e s a r e t h e n r e c o r d e d . (5) The groups a r e now j o i n e d t o g e t h e r and t h e v o t e o f each group i s r e p o r t e d t o t h e e n t i r e a u d i e n c e . About t e n m i n u t e s a r e a l l o w e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n . (6) A few members a r e t h e n s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Phase I I . One of t h e c r i t i c a l i s s u e s i n program development i s t h e i n t e r f a c i n g o f c l i e n t o r consumer w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l . The p r o c e s s s p e c i f i e d i n Phase I has two s p e c i a l b e n e f i t s f o r t h e t o t a l program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n r e l a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s and n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The f i r s t b e n e f i t r e l a t e s t o t h e v a l u e o f f o c u s s i n g a t t e n t i o n on c l i e n t needs as t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f program development. I t i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e new emphasis on i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e c l i e n t s o f a s o c i a l agency as a b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g programs. The second b e n e f i t o f Phase I r e l a t e s t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n dynamics o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s and c l i e n t s . G e t t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o r e a c t t o c i t i z e n s t a t e m e n t s may be a t r i c k y b u s i n e s s . The c l i e n t s may be too m i l i t a n t , o r sometimes may t a k e a r a t h e r p a s s i v e and s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n . T h i s n o m i n a l group t e c h n i q u e f o c u s s e s t h e a t t e n t i o n o f c l i e n t and consumer groups on r e a l p r o b l e m s , thus h e l p i n g t o a v o i d emphasis on p s y c h o l o g i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l s t a t e m e n t by f o r m a l l e a d e r s . S i m i l a r l y , r h e t o r i c a l l e a d e r s a r e n o t a b l e t o dominate p r o b l e m -c e n t e r e d d i s c u s s i o n by c l i e n t s i n n o m i n a l group s i t u a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e n o m i n a l group p r o c e s s n o t o n l y f a c i l i t a t e s i n c r e a s e d b a l a n c e i n p a r t i c i -p a t i o n , i t a l s o p r o v i d e s b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a i n t h e sense o f yoted-upon p r i o r i t i e s and q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a i n terms o f a r i c h , d e s c r i p t i v e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p r o b l e m . F i n a l l y , s i n c e Phase I p r o c e s s e s a r e e a s i l y a c t i v a t e d , i t c a n be h e l d i n a s i n g l e e v e n i n g f o r a l a r g e number of p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i c h i s an e f f e c t i v e mechanism f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e f o c u s o f t h e program p l a n n e r s on r e a l c l i e n t o r consumer p r o b l e m s . Phase I I b e g i n s w i t h t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e x t e r n a l s p e c i a l i s t s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e x p e r t s whose d i s c i p l i n e and f u n c t i o n a l s k i l l s r e l a t e t o t h e p r i o r i t y i t e m s w h i c h e v o l v e d i n Phase I . I n l e i s u r e p l a n n i n g , t h e y can be s p e c i a l c o n s u l t a n t s , academics i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n f i e l d , o r o f f i c i a l s a t t h e p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n department. The f o r m a t may be somewhat s i m i l a r t o Phase I : (1) The p r o b l e m i t e m s d e v e l o p e d i n Phase I a r e d i v i d e d i n t o major and minor c a t e g o r i e s , and a l a r g e v i s u a l d i s p l a y o f t h e s e p r o b l e m c a t e g o r i e s t o g e t h e r w i t h an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i o r i t y v o t e i s p r e s e n t e d t o th e r e s o u r c e p a n e l . (2) The o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ( p l a n n e r ) g i v e s a b r i e f summary o f t h e purpose o f t h e m e e t i n g , and d i s c u s s e s t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e Phase I m e e t i n g and t h o r o u g h l y r e v i e w s t h e d i s p l a y of p r o b l e m i t e m s . (3) S i n c e t h e purpose o f t h e Phase I I m e e t i n g i s t o i d e n t i f y a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n components and r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e p r i o r i t y i t e m s w h i c h emerged i n th e Phase I m e e t i n g , t h e e x p e r t s a r e t h e n r e q u e s t e d t o p e r f o r m two t h i n g s : f i r s t , d e v e l o p a l i s t o f s o l u t i o n components and r e s o u r c e s , p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e f a m i l i a r , w h i c h c a n be adapted t o o r w h i c h a l r e a d y d i r e c t l y r e l a t e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t f o r m t o t h e p r o b l e m d i m e n s i o n s ; and s e c o n d , t o recommend new t y p e s of s o l u t i o n components and r e s o u r c e s w h i c h c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d as p a r t i a l o r c o m p l e t e s o l u t i o n s t o the p r o b l e m s . (4) They a r e t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l g r o u p s , and i n d i v i d u a l s a r e a s k e d t o l i s t on e i t h e r s i d e o f a 5 x 7 c a r d " S o l u t i o n Components and E x i s t i n g R e s o u r c e s w h i c h can be u s e d , " and " S o l u t i o n Components and New R e s o u r c e s w h i c h can and s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d " a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i o r i t y i t e m s 58 from Phase I m e e t i n g . (5) A s h e e t o f paper d i v i d e d i n t h e m i d d l e i s used t o r e c o r d t h e r e s p o n s e s , and f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p r o p o s a l s : i s c a r r i e d out t o d e t e r m i n e t h e most r e a s o n a b l e and adequate c o m b i n a t i o n s o l u t i o n components and r e s o u r c e s f o r each p r o c e d u r e . (6) The groups a r e t h e n r e j o i n e d and t h e r e s p o n s e s a r e r e c o r d e d and numbered and t h e e x p e r t s a r e r e q u e s t e d t o v o t e on t h o s e components and r e s o u r c e s w h i c h t h e y f e e l a r e a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a m i n i m a l l y adequate program t o s o l v e t h e p r i o r i t y problems r a i s e d i n Phase I . (7) R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e e x p e r t s a r e t h e n asked t o v o t e on t h o s e who w i l l be r e p r e s e n t e d i n Phase I I I . The use o f e x t e r n a l knowledge s p e c i a l i s t s ( e x p e r t s ) i s an a t t e m p t t o maximize t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of p r o b l e m s e t s , makes use of t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o n c e p t u a l i d e a s , and i n t e g r a t e s t h e knowledge o f p u r e s c i e n t i f i c o r academic p e r s o n n e l and a p p l i e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t s . A t t h e end o f Phase I I , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f an a p p r o p r i a t e s o l u t i o n program agreed upon by a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f s p e c i a l i s t s adds g r e a t l y t o t h e ease o f c r o s s i n g t h e boundary t o r e s o u r c e c o n t r o l l e r s ( c i t y c o u n c i l s , p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s , e t c . ) . I t a l s o tends t o l e n d an a u r a o f l e g i t i m a c y t o t h e program. Phase I I I c a l l s f o r a m e e t i n g i n w h i c h key r e s o u r c e c o n t r o l l e r s and key a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p a r t i c i p a t e , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m Phases I and I I , t o r e v i e w t h e p r i m a r y and c r i t i c a l s o l u t i o n e l e m e n t s o f t h e m e r g i n g program. K l e i n (1967) d e s c r i b e s r e s i s t a n c e t o programs as o f t e n b e i n g a f u n c t i o n o f t h e way change i s i n t r o d u c e d . He n o t e s t h a t most p l a n n e r s r u n i n t o t r o u b l e when t h e a g e n t s o f change have done a l l t h e i r p l a n n i n g b e f o r e i n t r o d u c i n g t h e i r i d e a s t o t h o s e who w i l l be a f f e c t e d and who c o n t r o l r e s o u r c e s . When t h i s happens, the i n n o v a t o r s have u s u a l l y d e v e l o p e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e i r p l a n s and a r e o f t e n more committed t o d e f e n d i n g them t h a n t o a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d o b j e c t i o n s t o them. They a r e n o t p r e p a r e d 59 t o r e p e a t w i t h newcomers t h e l o n g p r o c e s s of p l a n n i n g w h i c h f i n a l l y l e d them t o t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s . ( K l e i n , 1967, p. 29) The e s s e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f Phase I I I i s t h a t i t s e e k s t o o b t a i n r e s p o n s e s f r o m p o t e n t i a l c r i t i c s o f t h e program who a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o w i t h h o l d r e s o u r c e s o r t o n e g a t e a p p r o p r i a t e i n v o l v e m e n t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e program, w h i l e program p r o p o n e n t s a r e s t i l l f l e x i b l e . The p r o c e d u r e s a r e as f o l l o w : (1) The o u t p u t s f r o m t h e p r i o r two phases a r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t h e c o n t r o l l e r s . The f o r m a t i s b a s i c a l l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d : t h e same l i s t o f c r i t i c a l p roblems and p r i o r i t i e s i t e m s , from Phase I , and t h e o u t p u t from Phase I I — t h e o u t l i n e of a p p r o a c h upon s o l u t i o n components and r e s o u r c e s — a r e shown. (2) Phase I I I , t h e n , i s a r e v i e w o f t h e t y p e s o r r e s e r v a t i o n s o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t h a t r e s o u r c e c o n t r o l l e r s and key a d m i n i s t r a t o r s may have, and t h e a d j u s t m e n t r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r f o r t h e program p r o p o s a l t o be f u l l y e n d o r s e d and s u p p o r t e d . (3) The p r e s e n c e o f c l i e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s i s l i k e l y t o s p u r b a r g a i n i n g and n e g o t i a t i o n i n Phase I I I , so t h a t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e f i n a l program p r o p o s a l t h e e s s e n t i a l c o n c e r n s o f each o f t h e s e r e f e r e n c e groups can be i n c l u d e d . (4) I n p u t s o f t h e s e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and c o n t r o l l e r s a r e l i k e l y t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e f i n a l program as new p r o b l e m d i m e n s i o n s , and as s u c h , i n d u c e f u t u r e endorsement and s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r o p o s a l . A f t e r p r e v i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i v e p a r t i e s i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e s t a g e s , Phase IV i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e t e c h n i c a l program development. I n Phase I V , w o r k i n g from t h e i n p u t of t h e e a r l i e r p h a s e s , t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s d e v e l o p a f i n a l i z e d , s p e c i f i c program p r o p o s a l . The e s s e n t i a l m a t t e r h e r e i s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s e s p e c i a l i s t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e program r e m a i n s e n s i t i v e t o c r i t i c a l e l e m e n t s d e v e l o p e d i n p r i o r phases. Phase V b r i n g s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from each o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t groups i n v o l v e d i n Phases I , I I and I I I t o g e t h e r f o r a f i n a l t i m e . I t i s a p p a r e n t 60 t h a t a c e r t a i n amount o f t i m e may have e l a p s e d between t h e f i r s t and f i n a l s t a g e s ; some c r i t i c a l c o n c e r n may have been o v e r l o o k e d i n t h e t e c h n i c a l development o f t h e program. I n e s s e n c e , Phase V i s s t r u c t u r e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e development i n a manner w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o s o l i c i t comments f r o m t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s on t h e i r h o n e s t h e s i t a t i o n s about t h e p r o p o s a l i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e manner. The m e e t i n g b e g i n s w i t h a r e p o r t from t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s of t h e programs t o be.implemented i n t h e n ear f u t u r e , b u t f o c u s s e s on s p e c i f i c f u t u r e . Each c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e of t h e d e t a i l e d p l a n o f a c t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e i n p u t from p r i o r p h a s e s ; t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e m e e t i n g must show a c l e a r l i n k a g e between t h e f i n a l p r o p o s a l and t h e p r o b l e m p r i o r i t i e s , s o l u t i o n and r e s o u r c e e l ements and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n c e r n s r a i s e d i n e a r l i e r p h ases. S i n c e i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t any o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g of a program w i l l t o t a l l y s a t i s f y e v e r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , a p o r t i o n o f t h e Phase V p r o c e s s , t h e r e f o r e , f o c u s s e s on r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n t r o l and e v a l u a t i o n measures w h i c h w i l l t e s t whether o r n o t t h e f i n a l program p r o p o s a l i n c o r p o r a t e s e a r l i e r c r i t i c a l d i m e n s i o n s . There a r e two r e medies i f i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e f i n a l program d e v i a t e s f r o m e a r l i e r e x p e c t a t i o n s . F i r s t , change i n some d e t a i l o f t h e f i n a l i z e d program p r o p o s a l , o r s e c o n d , f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e whether a m i n o r i t y o b j e c -t i o n p r o v e s t o be a v a l i d weakness i n t h e program. I n summary, Phase V i s a m e e t i n g d e s i g n e d t o q u e s t i o n whether ;the s p e c i a l i s t s ' t e c h n i c a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e o u t p u t s o f Phases I , I I , and I I I as s e t f o r t h i n t h e f i n a l program p r o p o s a l i s an adequate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n s . The D e l b e c q t e c h n i q u e , one o f many t y p e s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a p p r o a c h e s , o f f e r s a d i s t i n c t , s t e p by s t e p a n a l y s i s t o t h e p r o b l e m of program p l a n n i n g . I t n o t o n l y manages t o draw t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i n g groups i n s e a r c h o f a s o l u t i o n , i t a l s o h i g h l i g h t s c r i t i c a l i s s u e s and p r o v i d e s a g u i d e l i n e f o r d e v e l o p i n g i n n o v a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . B e s i d e s b e i n g an i n s i g h t f u l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of program p l a n n i n g , t h e f i n a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e 61 p r o c e s s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c u r r e n t t r e n d toward c r e a t i v i t y , o r g a n i z a t i o n change, and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . As s u c h , i t i s a t e c h n i q u e w h i c h d e s e r v e s g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n i n t h e o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Summary There a r e s e v e r a l approaches t o c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . D i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g r e p r e s e n t s t h e s i m p l e s t and most d i r e c t f orm o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e . The D e l b e c q t e c h n i q u e i s more c o m p l i c a t e d , and u s e f u l i n programme p l a n n i n g . The f u l l s c a l e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l y t h e most e x p e n s i v e and time consuming t e c h n i q u e . However, i t i s a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h what o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s f a i l t o do. Even though unaware o f t h e s e d i s t i n c t i o n s , l o c a l p l a n n e r s a r e i n f a c t u s i n g a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f a l l o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s . 62 CHAPTER IV SECONDARY DATA I n t r o d u c t i o n There a r e b a s i c a l l y two major s o u r c e s o f s e c o n d a r y d a t a . F i r s t , t h e r e e x i s t s i n p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y p u b l i c agency, l i b r a r y , p r i v a t e o r s e m i - p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a tremendous amount o f i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e a d y t o be u t i l i z e d by any r e s e a r c h e r . Second, t h e r e i s p r e s e n t , i n e v e r y segment o f our community, a l a r g e number o f r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s who w i l l g l a d l y s h a r e t h e i r e x p e r t i s e , knowledge, and i n s i g h t w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . What i s v i t a l i s t o l e a r n t o l o o k f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , and be a b l e t o h a n d l e i t i n t h e p r o p e r manner. L i t e r a t u r e s o u r c e s and R i l e y P a r k e x p e r i e n c e w i l l s e r v e as back-ground t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Secondary s o u r c e s The t e c h n i q u e o f s e c o n d a r y d a t a i s , beyond a doubt, one of t h e most f l e x i b l e and e c o n o m i c a l ways o f a c q u i r i n g u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . A l t h o u g h i t may be l e s s c h a l l e n g i n g and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g t o l o c a t e and a n a l y z e s e c o n d a r y d a t a t h a n t o d e s i g n o t h e r t y p e s o f r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h e s , t h e most s e n s i b l e and l o g i c a l p u r s u i t i s t h a t new f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s s h o u l d o n l y be u n d e r t a k e n a f t e r t h e s e a r c h f o r s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s has been e x h a u s t e d o r when the a v a i l a b l e d a t a i s t o o i m p r e c i s e t o y i e l d t h e n e c e s s a r y e s t i m a t e s . W h i l e i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e f o r any one i n d i v i d u a l t o be f u l l y c o n v e r s a n t w i t h t h e range of p u b l i c a t i o n s and s o u r c e s of s e c o n d a r y m a t e r i a l s — t h a t i s , d a t a w h i c h have a l r e a d y been c o l l e c t e d and p r o c e s s e d — r e s e a r c h e r s must a t l e a s t be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e common s o u r c e s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of i n f o r m a t i o n on r e c r e a t i o n b e h a v i o r can be found i n v a r i o u s s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s w i t h o u t t h e r e s e a r c h e r s h a v i n g t o c o n d u c t 63 t h e a c t u a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . These d a t a c o n s i s t o f documents t h a t were n o t c o l l e c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s , b u t were used by them. A n y t h i n g w r i t t e n o r on t a p e o r r e c o r d o r on f i l m can c o n s t i t u t e a s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e . A l t h o u g h some o f t h e s e d a t a may have been a c c u m u l a t e d p r i m a r i l y f o r p u r p o s e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and h i s t o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o t h e r t h a n f o r use i n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h , f o r t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s a r e a , a l o t o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n can be g a t h e r e d from them. To n e g l e c t t h e i r e x i s t e n c e o f t e n i n v o l v e s e i t h e r a d i s r e g a r d o f r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n o r , i f t h e r e s e a r c h e r s l a b o r i o u s l y c o l l e c t d a t a t h a t a l r e a d y e x i s t , a waste of e f f o r t . V e r y e a r l y i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t o become t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e work o f o t h e r s on t h e same s u b j e c t . Such p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y i s n e c e s s a r y n o t m e r e l y t o a v o i d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s p e n d i n g t i m e and money c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e , b u t a l s o because i t i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o c a r r y i n g f o r w a r d i n t e l l i g e n t l y new l i n e s o f i n q u i r y . F r y (1934) s t a t e d t h a t "To add t o knowledge, you must a l r e a d y p o s s e s s a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e k n o w l e d g e . i n y o u r f i e l d . " T r a d i t i o n a l l y , i t has o f t e n been assumed t h a t c o n s u l t i n g a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s i s s o l e l y a m a t t e r o f l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h , b u t e x p e r i e n c e shows t h a t i n v a l u a b l e r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s , s u c h as t h e r e c o r d s o f c o u n t l e s s a g e n c i e s , a r e n o t l i s t e d i n any l i b r a r y . Many r e s e a r c h e r s have l e a r n e d t o use as s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s g o v e r n m e n t a l r e c o r d s , s u c h as census r e p o r t s , v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s , s u r v e y s o f m a n u f a c t u r e r s , and o t h e r s p e c i a l s u r v e y s t h a t have been t a k e n . T h i s t y p e o f s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f t e n r e f e r s t o t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . Census d a t a f o r example c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about age, s e x , f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s , o c c u p a t i o n , r e s i d e n c e , e t c . Many v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s have r e c o r d s n o t o n l y o f t h e i r own membership b u t o f groups o f p e o p l e whom t h e y s e r v e . I n a d d i t i o n , a v i r t u a l l y i n e x h a u s t i b l e s u p p l y o f i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s i n t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e many a g e n c i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e v a r i o u s s e c t o r s o f t h e h e a l t h , 64 e d u c a t i o n and w e l f a r e f i e l d . The u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s e s t a t i s t i c a l r e c o r d s i n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h i s v a r i a b l e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m . The census d a t a can p r o v i d e i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s o c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e community b e i n g s t u d i e d : i t s p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e , i t s income l e v e l , i t s age d i s t r i b u t i o n , e t c . , a l l have i m p a c t s on t h e demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . Membership i n f o r m a t i o n on v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s may p r o v i d e u s e f u l d a t a on l e i s u r e needs, s u p p l y o f s e r v i c e s , and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n one c a s e , a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d y was f o u n d t o y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t d a t a on t h e number o f r e c r e a t i o n t r i p s made by t h e r e s i d e n t s . C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h v a r i o u s p e o p l e who a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e t o p i c b e i n g s t u d i e d i s f r e q u e n t l y o f f a r more w o r t h t h a n weeks o f r e s e a r c h u s i n g o t h e r means. I n t h i s c o n t e x t we group t o g e t h e r , u s i n g t h e term " e x p e r t s " , anyone who may be a s p e c i a l s o u r c e of d a t a judgements. F o r example, i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e a m o d e r a t e l y a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f how many r e s i d e n t s i n a development a c t u a l l y make use o f a swimming p o o l , t h e managers o r even t h e s e c u r i t y p e r s o n n e l a r e u s e f u l r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s w i t h o u t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n d u c t i n g a r e s i d e n t s u r v e y w h i c h i s o f t e n more c o s t l y and_time consuming. Most p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s have r e c o r d s w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e demand f o r p u b l i c l e i s u r e f a c i l i t i e s , and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y a b l e t o i n d i c a t e t h e d i r e c t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e s e r v i c e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d . C i t i z e n groups i n a community a r e i n v a l u a b l e " e x p e r t s " on t h e d e s i r e s f o r d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e s and how changes s h o u l d be implemented. I f used p r o p e r l y , t h e s e e x i s t i n g human r e s o u r c e s m ight p r o v i d e a w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n n o t a v a i l a b l e by o t h e r r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s a t a much l o w e r c o s t and g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of h e r s t u d y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r d i s c o v e r e d t h r e e s t u d i e s i n t h e R i l e y P a r k a r e a t h a t have d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g and a l l were co m p l e t e d i n t h e p a s t y e a r o r s o . F i r s t , d u r i n g t h e summer of 1977, 65 a major s u r v e y was co n d u c t e d under a Canada Works g r a n t w h i c h c o v e r e d many a s p e c t s o f community n e e d s — r e c r e a t i o n , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , s h o p p i n g , e d u c a t i o n , p o l i c i n g , e t c . Second, t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t h e R i l e y P a r k R e c r e a t i o n Complex worked on an i n t e r n a l s u r v e y d u r i n g t h e f a l l o f 1977 of about f o u r hundred u s e r s o f t h e c e n t e r t o d e t e r m i n e a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d . T h i r d , t h e a r c h i t e c t s t h a t were commissioned t o d e s i g n t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r a l s o s e n t o u t a s e p a r a t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o e v e r y h o u s e h o l d of t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP a r e a so as t o d e c i d e on t h e p r i o r i t i e s among d i f f e r e n t l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The c o o r d i n a t o r a t t h e R i l e y P a r k r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r has p r o v e n t o be v e r y k n o w l e d g e a b l e and s e n s i t i v e about t h e r e c r e a t i o n needs of t h e r e s i d e n t s . " I b e l i e v e t h a t r i g h t now we do have s u f f i c i e n t s p a c e s f o r s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s . . . What we r e a l l y need i s some k i n d o f s o c i a l i z i n g a r e a s , o r s p a ces where p e o p l e can s i t and t a l k . We a l s o r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l p r o -grammes f o r t h e t e e n a g e r s , and some k i n d o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s l o u n g e a r e a s . " T h i s k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n seems t o a g r e e w i t h t h e a u t h o r ' s p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n . When compared t o o t h e r t y p e s o f r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s , u s i n g s e c o n d a r y d a t a i s by f a r t h e most economic way o f a c q u i r i n g m a s s i v e amounts o f p e r t i n e n t d a t a . I t does n o t demand e x t e n s i v e p r e p a r a t i o n o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and can n o r m a l l y be c o n d u c t e d by a s i n g l e r e s e a r c h e r i n a c o u p l e o f weeks' t i m e . I t i s a l s o h i g h l y n o n - r e a c t i v e and t h e r e f o r e i s l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e :to t h e b i a s i n g e f f e c t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . The c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f ti m e a l l o w s t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t o s t u d y t h e s t r u c t u r a l and i n s t i -t u t i o n a l changes l o n g i t u d i n a l l y r a t h e r t h a n c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l l y . E x p e r t i n f o r m a n t s a r e u s u a l l y c a p a b l e o f r e l a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t knowledge and e x p e r t i s e on t h e r e s e a r c h t o p i c s i f t h e y a r e w e l l . c h o s e n and have d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r . F i n a l l y , s e c o n d a r y d a t a can be used i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y any o t h e r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e , as w e l l as b e i n g h i g h l y a d a p t a b l e . 66 The problems o f r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y a r e o f t e n c i t e d as m a j o r weak-n e s s e s i n t h i s t e c h n i q u e . A l t h o u g h t h e s e c o n d a r y r e s e a r c h e r d i d n o t s e n s i t i z e t h e s u b j e c t s , someone d i d c o l l e c t t h e d a t a and may have i n f l u e n c e d them. S e c o n d l y , t h e p r e v i o u s work may be i l l - c o n c e i v e d . Take t h e example o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d by t h e a r c h i t e c t s commissioned t o d e s i g n t h e i m p r o v e -ments o f t h e R i l e y P a r k R e c r e a t i o n Complex ( I l l u s t r a t i o n s 1 and 2 ) . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e l i s t o f c h o i c e s was p r e s e n t e d i n s u c h a way as i f t h e r e a r e a b s o l u t e l y r e s t r a i n t s i n t h e i r a l l o c a t i o n . I t gave t h e r e s p o n d e n t s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t an " e x h i b i t i o n p l a c e f o r c r a f t s " w o u l d c o s t t h e same as r a c q u e t b a l l c o u r t s , w h i c h i s n o t t r u e . Second, s i n c e t h e r e was no l i m i t a t i o n as t o how many it e m s can be v o t e d on and t o what de g r e e . T h i r d , by c h a n g i n g t h e w e i g h t i n g s c a l e a r o u n d , f o r example by g i v i n g z e r o t o t h e column e n t i t l e d " n o t needed", r a t h e r t h a n minus one, t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e i t e m s were r a n k e d w o u l d be a l t e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , i t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t s i n c e t h e r a t e o f r e s p o n s e was l e s s t h a n t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n a s m a l l number o f p e o p l e who f e l t s t r o n g l y enough f o r c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s m i g h t group t o g e t h e r and. c o n s i s t e n t l y p l a c e t h e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y on t h e i r f a v o r i t e s , l e a d i n g t o a r a n k i n g r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m what appeared. There a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s e l e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n and s e l e c t i v e s u r v i v a l o f t h e r e c o r d s . T h i s i n t u r n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l i n g . The r e s e a r c h e r s can n e v e r be s u r e t h a t t h e y have a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body of d a t a from w h i c h t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s . Sometimes t h e r e c o r d i s i n c o m p l e t e , and we do n o t know i f t h e m i s s i n g p a r t s can be a d e q u a t e l y e s t i m a t e d by a s t u d y o f t h e r e s t o f t h e s e r i e s . I n some c a s e s s e l e c t i v e e d i t i n g c r e e p s i n t h r o u g h an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e . Not a l l r e s e a r c h e r s o r r e c o r d k e e p e r s a r e t r u t h f u l t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d a t a . Even w i t h o u t t h e danger o f s y s t e m a t i c b i a s t h a t c o u l d t h r e a t e n v a l i d i t y , t h e r i s k o f t h e i r s e l e c t i v e s u r v i v a l r e m a i n s . Records a r e d e s t r o y e d 67 I l l u s t r a t i o n 1 Community Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h e E x p a n s i o n o f R i l e y P a r k R e c r e a t i o n Complex R I L E Y P A R K C O M P L E X E X P A N D S ! rt, YOUR RILEY PARK COMMUNITY CENTRE WILL SHORTLY BE RENOVATED AND ENLARGED TO OFFER MORE AND BETTER PROGRAMS. YOU ARE ASKED TO KELP TO DESIGN THE RENOVATIONS AND ADDITIONS BY LETTING US KNOT? EO'.y YOU WOULD RATE THE ITEMS PROPOSED 3EL07?. SIMPLY CHECK ( v ) ONE OF THE COLUMNS OPPOSITE EACH ITEM TO SHO'.T YOUR OPINION. . RILEY PARK CITIZENS' N. I . P. PLANNING COMMITTEE QUESTIONNAIRE ^-SADD ITEMS OF YOUR OV/N SUGGESTION HERE I S> | -> 1 CENTRAL AREA FOR SITTING, TALKING, MEETING PEOPLE MEETING ROOMS FOR ASSOCIATIONS, CLU3S, INSTRUCTIONAL A COMFORTABLE PLACE TO HAVE COFFEE AND TO EAT 'Pi A COMFORTABLE PLACE FOR A QUIET DRINK (ADULTS) r r f EXHIBITION SPACE FOR ARTS AND CRAFTS A STAGS ADDED TO THE EXISTING GYMNASIUM A SEPARATE SMALL THEATRE FOR CONCERTS AND PLAYS -ft) |£ MORE SPACE FOR SENIORS' ACTIVITIES & 1 A SEPARATE SENIORS' SITTING ROOM .... U i d \u RAQUET BALL COURTS P 1 1 1  SQUASH COURTS \® GAMES ROOM FOR PING PONG, PIN BALL, BILLIARDS ETC. ,—9 |F=4 9 HEALTH CLU3: EXERCISE ROOM, SAUNA AND WHIRLPOOL Lj? le ' !o |!fS EXPANSION OF GYMNASIUM TO CREATE MORS COURTS ' Pi rt |! BA3Y SITTING ROOM in I lh ,•- • SEPARATE TEENAGE LOUNGE FOR SITTING, GAMES ETC. i . j 0 DANCE INSTRUCTION ROOM FOR BALLET, CREATIVE DANCE ETC. SMALL LIBRARY 1- 1 -A COMFORTABLE PLACE FOR VIEWING RINK AND POOL, 1 i -ROOF TOP GARDEN _ 1 1 i I l l u s t r a t i o n 2 68 R e s u l t s o f Community Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r the E x p a n s i o n o f R i l e y P a r k R e c r e a t i o n Complex ... . (fi) -g-rA^tZ-© <MALL TJ!aA^= ® RAQUSr'BAIL @ <56>UA€tJ I (3) <$nT/M& J&t. @y/ZW t£ PcoL ' ©wco&wd&x: <tjoP -t-3 -t-z + > o .-7L y 70 57 rip 47 17. 4-zo S& 76 17.0 33 7 4-ie 77 7A- 134- ss- \ . 7 17 3€> 74- 74- 77- 61 4-0 47 IS6 H 357. 4-1 SO 133 17 31 & 33 11 /oo HI &q 33 /2VZ. 7 4^11 SI GS &€> SO T L 34S 5S~ 113 £ 4 14- 3 3 X 37- S4- 111 7?- 1-?-I S -7o /34- 7-4- II Sir /44- •77 7 1 I S 13 0S7-70 \ s i to 4-7X3 71 6S 1 37 /a 3 ~ 0 ^ £3 S7 SS 71 3 3 £ 53 SI J74 \ e>i 13 717 63 77 /3o ST. I H 4-37 S4- 60 77 \  / e 313 71 ioe> /// 71 &4- 74-. /47 4-1 1 If 4S1 £4- £6 117 47 i -VL 4<y^, 7-0 TAZ- Z^TOS^'4 TO / / / 7 7 3 1 4 * \ C 69 p e r i o d i c a l l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e a . R e s e a r c h e r s when u s i n g t h e m a t e r i a l may have no way o f knowing what r e c o r d s a r e m i s s i n g o r even whether t h e i n f o r m a t i o n may have been r i f l e d . Secondary d a t a i s e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d t o be used as a d e v i c e f o r making f u t u r e p r o j e c t i o n s as most e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l tends t o d e a l w i t h t h e p a s t and p r e s e n t o c c u r r e n c e s and n o t f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t s . I t i s a l s o n o t v e r y u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e u s e r s . I n c o n c l u s i o n , even though s e c o n d a r y d a t a has many l i m i t a t i o n s r e l a t i n g to v a r i o u s t e c h n i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l c r i t e r i a , i t i s compensated f o r b e i n g low c o s t , f l e x i b l e , easy t o h a n d l e , n o n - r e a c t i v e , and a l l o w s l o n g i t u d i n a l c o m p a r i s o n s o v e r t i m e . As a t e c h n i q u e t o be used i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t as an i n i t i a l s t e p towards r e d e f i n i n g t h e p r o b l e m a r e a . Documented d a t a I t i s o f t e n d e s i r a b l e o r n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o c o l l e c t i n f o r -m a t i o n on t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e community b e i n g s t u d i e d . W h i l e t h i s k i n d o f d a t a can be g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h a l a r g e - s c a l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y , the census d a t a i s a much more e f f i c i e n t way o f a c q u i r i n g t h e same t y p e o f knowledge. R e c r e a t i o n b e h a v i o r , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s , t h e i r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n , and o c c u p a t i o n . Thus, s e n i o r c i t i z e n s may have v e r y d i f f e r e n t l e i s u r e p r e f e r e n c e s from p a r e n t s w i t h young c h i l d r e n , and i n t h e same t o k e n f o r t h o s e w i t h a s t a b l e s o u r c e o f income t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a r e l i k e l y t o be d i v e r g e d from t h o s e who a r e l e s s w e l l o f f . Even though i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t n o t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e census r e p o r t s , t o make use of what i s a v a i l a b l e i s t o e n s u r e t h a t e f f o r t s w i l l n o t be w a s t e d . 70 V i t a l s t a t i s t i c s and s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t d a t a may appear a t f i r s t g l a n c e t o have l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . Y e t , p r o j e c t i o n s o f f u t u r e l e i s u r e demands depend i n p a r t on f o r e s e e a b l e changes i n t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n of a community o v e r a p e r i o d of t i m e . F o r example, i f t h e number of c h i l d r e n b e i n g b o r n o r moved i n t o t h e community has i n c r e a s e d i n t h e p a s t , as i n many suburban a r e a s where young c o u p l e s t e n d t o c o n g l o m e r a t e , i t would be r e l a -t i v e l y s a f e t o assume t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a s h i f t i n demands f o r l e i s u r e s e r v i c e s i f t h e community had been an a d u l t o r i e n t e d one p r e v i o u s l y . Many p r i v a t e and v o l u n t a r y s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s have r e c o r d s o f t h e i r own membership as w e l l as o f groups o f p e o p l e whom t h e y s e r v e . R e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s u s u a l l y have a c c u r a t e r e c o r d s about t h e i r members: where a r e t h e y from, what t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s do t h e y engage i n most, how do t h e y r e s p o n d t o t h e programs b e i n g i n s t i g a t e d , e t c . I n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n can be g a t h e r e d from v a r i o u s community l e i s u r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s u c h as g a r d e n i n g c l u b s , l i t t l e l e a g u e s , s o c c e r teams, and b a s k e t b a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s . Most of t h e s e a g e n c i e s c a t e r p r i m a r i l y t o l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and p r o v i d e a s o u r c e o f d a t a on n e i g h b o r -hood a c t i v i t i e s . O f t e n p u b l i c and s e m i - p u b l i c a g e n c i e s c o n t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t b o d i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n v e r y seldom used o r known. S t u d i e s may have been c o n d u c t e d f o r a c e r t a i n p u r p o s e , and r e s u l t s a r e sometimes made p u b l i c w h i l e i n some c a s e s t h e y were n e v e r p u b l i s h e d a t a l l . F o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s , i t i s o f t e n w o r t h w h i l e t o check w i t h r e s p e c t i v e a g e n c i e s on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l r e l a t i v e t o t h e s t u d y . Some p u b l i c a g e n c i e s have r e c o r d s o f t h e i r own p u b l i c a t i o n s . I n many c a s e s , however, t h e r e i s a w e a l t h o f i n f o r -m a t i o n t h a t may n o t be i n p r i n t f o r b e i n g too p a r t i c u l a r i z e d t o be o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . W h i l e t h e s e were of utmost v a l u e t o t h e r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f s t u d y , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e f o r s m a l l groups o r a r e a s can be supplemented by a c t u a l f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , 71 summaries of t h e r e s u l t s o f t e n omit a m u l t i t u d e of s u b - t o t a l s t h a t a r e n e v e r p u b l i s h e d . U s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on r e c r e a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e can sometimes be o b t a i n e d from s t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s p e n d i n g h a b i t s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s . A t t h e same t i m e , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on t h e m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n s i n a n e i g h b o r h o o d have been found t o c o n t a i n d e t a i l s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t u d y o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . T here a r e c e r t a i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r s must be aware t o e f f e c t i v e l y employ t h e use o f t h e e x i s t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l r e c o r d s . They must be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e b e t t e r known s o u r c e s o f t h e d e s i r e d d a t a and t h a t t h e y d i s p l a y some i n g e n u i t y i n d i s c o v e r i n g l e s s w e l l known m a t e r i a l . Leo S r o l e , w h i l e a t work on t h e s t u d y o f s t a t u s and p r e s t i g e i n t h e Yankee C i t y s e r i e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s (Warner e t . a l . , 1941-1947), d i s c o v e r e d an u n u s u a l s o u r c e of d a t a r e l e v a n t t o h i s p r o b l e m — c e m e t e r y r e c o r d s . A p p a r e n t l y i t had become th e p r a c t i c e i n Yankee C i t y f o r r e s i d e n t s who had r i s e n t o a s o c i a l s t a t u s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e i r dead r e l a t i v e s t o have t h e r e m a i n s o f t h e i r f a m i l y members t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m a l o w e r - s t a t u s cemetery t o one o f h i g h e r s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . T h i s example d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t s y s t e m a t i c s e a r c h i n g and i n g e n u i t y w i l l u n c o v e r many more a v a i l a b l e d a t a t h a n a r e o f t e n assumed t o e x i s t . The p r o p e r use o f a v a i l a b l e d a t a a l s o r e q u i r e s t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o have a c a p a c i t y t o a s k many d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m ( S e l l t i z , e t . a l . , 1959). By d e f i n i t i o n , t h e p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h a v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s have been c o l l e c t e d i s d i f f e r e n t from t h e p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r s w i s h t o use them. A r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m c a n , as a r u l e , be t r a n s -l a t e d i n t o a wide v a r i e t y o f q u e s t i o n s , and t h e g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r t h e use o f t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s c o n s i s t s i n k e e p i n g o n e s e l f f l e x i b l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f o r m i n w h i c h r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e a s k e d . A v a i l a b l e d a t a may be used a t o t h e r p o i n t s i n a s t u d y . They a r e f r e -q u e n t l y h e l p f u l i n s e l e c t i n g c a s e s w i t h s p e c i f i e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r i n t e n s i v e s t u d y , o r a random sample f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g i n a s t u d y . F o r 72 i n s t a n c e , t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s of v a r i o u s community r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s can be used as a b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i n g f o u r c e n t e r s w h i c h d i f f e r i n t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y . W i t h i n each o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d s w h i c h t h e s e c e n t e r s s e r v e , a sample o f r e s i d e n t s c o u l d be i n t e r v i e w e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e f a c t o r s t h a t l e a d t o v a r i a t i o n s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s may a l s o be used t o supplement o r t o check i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r :the p u r p o s e s of a g i v e n i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The number of t i m e s t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h e y a c t u a l l y make use o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d i c e r i n k i n a month can e a s i l y be v e r i f i e d by t h e a d m i s s i o n c h a r g e s r e c e i v e d . These a r e b u t a few i l l u s t r a t i v e examples i n w h i c h s t a t i s t i c a l r e c o r d s , when used p r o p e r l y and i m a g i n a t i v e l y , a r e a b l e t o c o n t r i b u t e i n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h . I n t e r v i e w s of " e x p e r t s " and " i n f o r m a n t s " One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s of d a t a , y e t o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d by r e s e a r c h e r s c o n d u c t i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on r e c r e a t i o n , i s t h e use o f p e o p l e who i n some way a r e r e l a t e d as r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s t o t h e s u b j e c t b e i n g s t u d i e d . P e o p l e a r e c o n s i d e r e d " e x p e r t s " i f t h e y a r e a s p e c i a l . s o u r c e o f d a t a o r judgement b u t a r e n o t d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s i t u a t i o n s t o be e x p l o r e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, " i n f o r m a n t s " a r e t h o s e who a c t u a l l y t a k e p a r t i n :the s o c i a l c o n t e x t and s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s o r may o f f e r t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e b e h a v i o r s of o t h e r members as an " i n s i d e r " . V e r y b r o a d l y t h e n , e x p e r t s a r e t h o s e who c o n d u c t t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s from t h e o u t s i d e , whereas i n f o r m a n t s would o f f e r t h e i r knowledge f r o m w i t h i n . F o r example, i n o r d e r t o s t u d y t h e b e h a v i o r s o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , t h e p r o f e s s o r s may be c o n s i d e r e d a t y p e o f e x p e r t s who can s u p p l y the needed i n f o r m a t i o n , and a few s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s who a c t as d a t a s o u r c e s w o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as i n f o r m a n t s . Many s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have made use of t h e knowledge o f i n f o r m a n t s t o 73 supplement t h e i r r e s e a r c h . Whyte's S t r e e t C o r n e r S o c i e t y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e who have d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t i n a s o c i a l group can p r o v i d e s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l p r o c e s s w h i c h may be c o m p l e t e l y a l i e n t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f t h e s t u d i e s on d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r s o r f o r e i g n c u l t u r e s i n w h i c h s o c i a l norms o r r o l e models a r e n o t e a s i l y i d e n t i -f i a b l e . E x p e r t s , however, a r e u s e f u l i n a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e . The r e s e a r c h e r s who d e c i d e t o c o n d u c t a s t u d y on j u v e n i l e gangs, as i n t h e c a s e w i t h Whyte, may be a b l e t o supplement t h e i r p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h t h o s e of t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s who may work w i t h t h e y o u n g s t e r s , t h e p o l i c e who p a t r o l t h e a r e a , o r even c o u n s e l o r s i n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c e n t e r s . T h e i r o p i n i o n s a r e o f t e n more o b j e c t i v e , l e s s b i a s e d , and i n some ways i n v o l v e a b r o a d e r scope t h a n t h a t of t h e i n f o r m a n t s . One o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t s i n e m p l o y i n g t h e knowledge o f e x p e r t s o r i n f o r m a n t s i s t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e . As compared t o o t h e r r e s e a r c h methods, t h i s a p p r o a c h i s a b l e t o a c q u i r e r a t h e r r e l i a b l e d a t a w i t h o u t t h e b i a s i n g e f f e c t f o u n d i n t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , o r t h e u n c e r t a i n t i e s t h a t e x i s t i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s p o i n t may be i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h a s i m p l e example. Due t o t h e r a p i d growth o f p r i v a t e l y owned and o p e r a t e d i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n condominium p r o j e c t s , t h e c i t y may w i s h t o s t u d y t h e i m p a c t s t h e y have on e x i s t i n g l e i s u r e s u p p l y , and to e x p l o r e t h e f a c t o r s t h a t a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r demand. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s may c o n d u c t a r e s i d e n t s u r v e y t o a c q u i r e t h e i r o p i n i o n s on t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s as w e l l as t h e f r e q u e n c y t h e y make use of them. The major p i t f a l l w i t h t h i s a p p r o a c h i s t h a t e x p r e s s e d f e e l i n g s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o r r e s p o n d w i t h a c t u a l b e h a v i o r s . I t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s w i l l e x p r e s s n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s f o r t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d , e x c e p t i n extreme c a s e s where problems o f management or d e s i g n have a f f e c t e d t h e i r a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . However, r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t i n many 74 c a s e s , o n l y t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d as r e g u l a r p a r t i c i p a n t s . What a r e t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e i r u n d e r - u t i l i z a t i o n ? I s t h e r e a n o t h e r more economic way of g e t t i n g t h e same t y p e o f d a t a w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o conduct an e x t e n s i v e r e s i d e n t s u r v e y ? A much more r e l i a b l e as w e l l as e f f e c t i v e way o f h a n d l i n g t h i s s t u d y i s t o employ t h e knowledge of t h e r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e . I n the c a s e w i t h i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , t h e r e a r e t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s of e x p e r t i n f o r m e r s — t h e managers f o r t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s , t h e s e c u r i t y p e r s o n n e l who s u p e r v i s e t h e f a c i l i t i e s , and t h e o r g a n i z e r s o f programs f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s . These p e o p l e would n o t o n l y have a p r e t t y good i d e a i n r e g a r d s t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s i d e n t s who a c t u a l l y make use of t h e s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e , t h e y a r e p r o b a b l y a b l e t o answer q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e t y p e s o f p e o p l e u s i n g them, t h e f r e q u e n c y of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e f a c i l i t i e s t h a t a r e b e i n g used most o f t e n , t h e problems t h a t t h e y have e n c o u n t e r e d , and s p e c i a l c o n c e r n s t h a t have been e x p r e s s e d t o them by t h e r e s i d e n t s . Even i f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be r e s e a r c h e d by a s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t w o u l d be f a r more e x p e n s i v e and time consuming t h a n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a p p r o a c h . As a c r o s s c h e c k i n g d e v i c e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s w o u l d n o r m a l l y c o n d u c t i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s t o e n s u r e t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by t h e e x p e r t s i s r e l i a b l e . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s l i k e l y t o g e t i n t o u c h w i t h some of t h e r e s i d e n t s i n t h e complexes. Even though t h e term " i n f o r m a n t s " n o r m a l l y r e f e r s t o a much deeper r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s and t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t h a n mere c a s u a l c o n t a c t s , f o r some pu r p o s e s i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o a c q u i r e an o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f r e s i d e n t s who a c t u a l l y use t h e f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s and t h e knowledge g a i n e d from i n t e r v i e w i n g t h e e x p e r t s w o u l d s e r v e as d a t a base f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t . A n o t h e r advantage i n e m p l o y i n g t h e e x p e r t i s e o f r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s i s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e l a y i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n from t h o s e who cannot d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s t h e q u e s t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . I n c o n d u c t i n g s t u d i e s on t h e p l a y behav-i o r o f v e r y young c h i l d r e n , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s cannot e x p e c t them t o r e s p o n d w e l l t o p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s on t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s , a l t h o u g h t h e y would have a g e n e r a l i d e a about t h e i r l i k e s o r d i s l i k e s f o r d i f f e r e n t equipment. S i m i l a r l y , i t w o u l d be f o o l i s h f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o i n q u i r e of n e i g h b o r -hood r e s i d e n t s about t h e s u p p l y and demand f o r v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s as t h e y seldom have d i r e c t c o n t r o l o v e r them. E x p e r t s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y i n f o r m a n t s , a r e c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e due t o t h e i r d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t , e i t h e r by t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h e y h o l d , o r t h e f u n c t i o n s t h e y p e r f o r m w i t h i n t h e system. The two major p i t f a l l s i n u s i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e c e n t e r . on t h e i s s u e s t h a t a r e beyond t h e c o n t r o l of t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . The i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s o f f e r e d by t h e e x p e r t s and i n f o r m a n t s may have t o be t a k e n a t f a c e v a l u e , and a l t h o u g h i t may sometimes be p o s s i b l e t o s p o t major e r r o r s by s u p p l e -m e n t i n g them w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s i t may n o t be easy t o p i n p o i n t t h e c o n s c i o u s o r s u b - c o n s c i o u s b i a s e f f e c t s i n t h e i r r e p o r t s . Managers may p u r p o s e l y e x a g g e r a t e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of t h e u s e r s t o c r e a t e t h e image t h a t t h e y a r e r u n n i n g a s u c c e s s f u l development. Or, i n s t e a d of g i v i n g t h e p r o p e r d e t a i l s as r e q u e s t e d , t h e y may s u b - c o n s c i o u s l y g i v e t h e i r own i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f what t h i n g s s h o u l d be, w h i c h a r e p r o b a b l y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . Sometimes t h e r e may be problems o f communication between t h e r e s e a r c h e r s and t h e i r i n f o r m e r s w h i c h have d i m i n i s h e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e . I n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e s e c o m p l i c a t i o n s , i t i s a d v i s a b l e t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r s a p p r o a c h t h e e x p e r t s and i n f o r m a n t s w i t h a c l e a r i d e a of what t h e y d e s i r e f r o m t h o s e p e o p l e — s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n , o p i n i o n s , and t h e l i k e ; e x e r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n a r y judgement about t h e i r r e s p o n s e ; and use c o m p a r a t i v e d e v i c e s whenever p o s s i b l e . 76 I n t e r v i e w i n g e x p e r t s and i n f o r m a n t s i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y n o n - r e a c t i v e as t h e y a r e l i a b l e t o a f f e c t t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d . The r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s may e v e n t u a l l y change t h e i r p o s i t i o n on c e r t a i n i s s u e s a f t e r t h e y a r e i n t e r v i e w e d , and t h e i n f o r m a n t s may a l t e r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l p r o c e s s w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t as a r e s u l t o f t h e new i n s i g h t t h e y have g a i n e d by p a r t i -c i p a t i n g i n t h e r e s e a r c h . These e f f e c t s a r e o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e , b u t t o n e g l e c t them may l e a d t o u n r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s . Summary A l o t of u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d by u s i n g s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s . The a u t h o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n R i l e y P a r k i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t some k i n d s o f d a t a and " e x p e r t s " who a r e a b l e t o s u p p l y p e r t i n e n t b a c k g r o u n d knowledge t o any s t u d y . Review o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e has shown t h a t by s i m p l y u s i n g documented d a t a r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s s h o u l d be a b l e t o a r r i v e a t some i n t e r -e s t i n g f i n d i n g s . T h i s t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n must be i n v e s t i g a t e d a t t h e o u t s e t o f any r e c r e a t i o n s t u d y . 77 CHAPTER V FIELD METHODS I n t r o d u c t i o n Most s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h methodology l i t e r a t u r e a t t e m p t s t o d i f f e r -e n t i a t e f i e l d methods as c o m p r i s i n g b o t h p a r t i c i p a n t and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . W h i l e t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n may be i m p o r t a n t and u s e f u l i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s , i t i s n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h . F i e l d e x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t f o r most p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , c a s u a l n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n may be s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e v a l i d d a t a f o r f u t u r e p o l i c y r e v i e w . F o l l o w i n g a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of f i e l d methods t h e v a r i o u s approaches w i l l be examined u s i n g b o t h l i t e r a t u r e i n f o r m a t i o n and f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F i e l d methods F i e l d r e s e a r c h i s d e f i n e d as i n c l u d i n g a l l forms o f s o c i a l s t u d y i n n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s done i n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s by n a t u r a l forms of i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h i s f o r m o f r e s e a r c h i s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o a s k i n g p e o p l e to. r e p o r t what th e y do, as i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y s . By o b s e r v i n g human b e h a v i o r i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s , t h e d a t a can be more a c c u r a t e l y g a t h e r e d and a n a l y z e d . As M y r d a l s a i d : The most f u n d a m e n t a l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems f a c i n g t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t a r e t h e r e f o r e , what i s o b j e c t i v i t y , and how can t h e s t u d e n t a t t a i n o b j e c t i v i t y i n t r y i n g t o f i n d o u t t h e f a c t s and t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f a c t s ? (1969, p. 23) Many o t h e r s o c i o l o g i s t s have been c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f o b j e c t i v -i t y i n s o c i a l r e s e a r c h . ( D e u t s c h e r , 1973; G l a s s e r and S t r a u s s , 1967; B e r g e r and Luckmann, 1967.) They have ar g u e d t h a t v a l u a t i o n s a r e complex and o r d i n a r i l y c o n f l i c t i n g , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n i n t h e v a l u a t i o n s p h e r e i n an o p p o r t u n i s t f a s h i o n and t h a t t h e i r s e l e c t i o n and 78 p r e s e n t a t i o n o f v a l u a t i o n s i s p r o b a b l y d i f f e r e n t i n a t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n f r o m what i t i s i n r e a l l i f e . F o r example, t h e r e i s u n d o u b t e d l y some d i s c r e p a n c y between a p e r s o n ' s " p r i v a t e " , o r " p e r s o n a l " , o p i n i o n and h i s " p u b l i c " , o r " p o l i t i c a l " , o p i n i o n on t h e same q u e s t i o n . These do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a g r e e and i n f a c t t h e y seldom a g r e e . The main advantage of f i e l d r e s e a r c h i s i t s a b i l i t y t o o b j e c t i v e l y g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' b e l i e f s , c o n c e r n s , v a l u e s and o t h e r i s s u e s w h i c h t h e y may n o t be a b l e t o r e s p o n d t o d i r e c t l y . I n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t , i t can be used i n e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s o f s o c i e t i e s , l a r g e - s c a l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , o r s m a l l groups where r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i s known. T h i s method i s p a r t i c u l a r -l y u s e f u l f o r e x p l o r i n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l makeup o f groups and i n d i v i d u a l s , and f o r f o r m i n g t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s t h a t may be f o r m a l l y t e s t e d under a n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e . ( L a b o v i t z and Hagedorn, 1971) A f i e l d s t u d y i s o f t e n l e f t i n t e n t i o n a l l y u n s t r u c t u r e d i n i t s r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , so as t o maximize d i s c o v e r y and d e s c r i p t i o n a t t h e expense o f s y s t e m a t i c t h e o r y t e s t i n g . That i s , by r e f u s i n g p r e c o n c e i v e d h y p o t h e s e s p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r s do n o t employ a p r i o r i s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s , measures, samples and d a t a , b u t r a t h e r seek t o d i s c o v e r and r e v i s e t h e s e as th e y l e a r n more about t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r p o p u l a t i o n b e i n g s t u d i e d . However, f i e l d r e s e a r c h may a l s o be used t o t e s t h y p o t h e s e s i f r e l i a b i l i t y ( i n t h e sense t h a t s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s y i e l d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s ) can be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e t e c h n i q u e . E m p l o y i n g s y s t e m a t i c r a t h e r t h a n random o b s e r v a t i o n s , w i t h f o r m a l r u l e s s t a t i n g how and what i s t o be o b s e r v e d and r e c o r d e d , may l e a d t o r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s . F r y (1934) i n d i c a t e d t h a t : d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t way o f g a t h e r i n g d a t a on any s u b j e c t , b u t i t i s o f s p e c i a l v a l u e i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s because many human s i t u a t i o n s cannot be s t u d i e d under a r t i f i c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e method o f f i e l d s t u d i e s u s i n g v a r i o u s forms o f 79 o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s has been emphasized by many b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n t i s t s . A c c o r d i n g t o them, t h e r e i s no use i n a s k i n g p e o p l e what t h e y a r e d o i n g as t h e i r answer w i l l be i n a c c u r a t e b o t h because t h e y cannot c o r r e c t l y a n a l y z e t h e i r own m o t i v e s and a l s o because when a n s w e r i n g a q u e s t i o n t h e y w i l l make t h e r e p l y i n terms o f t h e q u e s t i o n and n o t i n terms o f t h e a c t i v i t y t h e y a r e r e a l l y d o i n g . The r e s e a r c h e r s i n a f i e l d s t u d y n o t o n l y p a r t i c i p a t e t o some e x t e n t i n t h e i r own s t u d y , b u t a l s o g a t h e r d a t a about t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e sample o r u n i v e r s e . There i s a w i d e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e d e g r e e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e o b s e r v e r o r r e s e a r c h e r . Minimum p a r t i c i p a t i o n may l e a d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o t a k e a d i s t a n t o b s e r v e r r o l e , g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d " n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t " , t r y i n g n o t t o g e t c l o s e , enough t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o i n f l u e n c e them i n any way. A t t h e o t h e r extreme, t h e r e s e a r c h e r may t a k e one of t h e group r o l e s as a v a n t a g e p o i n t f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , as a " p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r " . However, whether m i n i -m a l l y o r e x t e n s i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e t t i n g , t h e r e i s a l w a y s a danger o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e group by h i s o r h e r p r e s e n c e , o r o f b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by t h e group and l o s i n g detachment and o b j e c t i v i t y . F o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s a d i s t i n c t i o n can be made between two l e v e l s o f o b s e r v a t i o n — t h e more s t r u c t u r e d and f o r m a l i z e d a p p r o a c h , and t h e s i m p l e o r more c a s u a l a p p r o a c h . As a r u l e , h i g h l y r i g i d and c o n t r o l l e d o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s can be r a t h e r t i m e consuming and c o s t l y t o c o n d u c t . A l t h o u g h t h e y may produce b e t t e r r e s u l t s t h a n l e s s f o r m a l i z e d o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e y a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y more r e l e v a n t t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . C a s u a l non-p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , i n f a c t , can y i e l d d a t a t h a t a r e j u s t as v a l i d , s i g n i f i c a n t , and u s e f u l as t h o s e o b t a i n e d by t h e s t r u c t u r e d a p p r o a c h . F o r example, o b s e r v a t i o n s can be c o n d u c t e d by u s i n g t r a c k s t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e l e f t b e h i n d . Webb and C a m p b e l l (1972) s u g g e s t e d t h a t by l o o k i n g a t t h e garbage cans i n t h e p a r k s one can have a p r e t t y good i d e a about t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e p a r k s a r e b e i n g used. 80 U n l i k e s t r u c t u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n , c a s u a l n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n can be c o n d u c t e d o v e r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e w i t h no f i x e d s c h e d u l e s . The p o i n t t o remember i s t h a t t h e r e a r e some elements t h a t a r e r a t h e r s i m p l e and o b v i o u s , s u c h as t h e non-use o f n e i g h b o r h o o d p a r k s . J u s t a b r i e f r e v i e w s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t t o r e v e a l t h e s e a s p e c t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e emphasis i s n o t on s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h e r e s u l t i n g d a t a . R a t h e r , t h e whole e x e r c i s e i s t o o b t a i n a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g of t h e a r e a i n s u p p o r t o f f u t u r e p o l i c y r e v i e w . Based on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e a u t h o r i n R i l e y P a r k , t h e r e i s much s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be had even though t h e d a t a were o b t a i n e d i n no more tha n t h i r t y h o u r s of o b s e r v a t i o n t i m e . I n terms o f l o c a l p a r k s , t h e o b s e r v e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t they a r e g r o s s l y u n d e r - u t i l i z e d . Even on t h e week-ends and i n t h e b e s t w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , v e r y few p e o p l e were a c t u a l l y u s i n g t h e p a r k s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one p a r k w h i c h was used q u i t e r e g u l a r l y by l i t t l e l e a g u e s o c c e r teams. When w a l k i n g around t h e p a r k a r e a s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r a l s o d i s c o v e r e d a p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r non-use. Due t o poor d r a i n -age, t h e ground got p r e t t y wet and s l i p p e r y e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r a few days o f r a i n , w h i c h made i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o even w a l k on, n o t t o m e n t i o n t r y i n g t o do a n y t h i n g more e n e r g e t i c on t h e s u r f a c e . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e seemed t o be a f a i r number o f y o u n g s t e r s who were i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a y i n g ground hockey on t h e s i d e s t r e e t s and i n t h e back l a n e s . Many y o u n g s t e r s , even though t h e y may l i v e r i g h t a c r o s s from t h e p a r k s , p r e f e r t o p l a y a l o n g t h e r o a d s t h a n u s i n g t h e g r a s s y a r e a s . T h i s i s a f a c t o r w h i c h m e r i t s f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n any p o l i c y r e v i e w . T h e . p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e a t t h e community c e n t e r seemed t o be p r e t t y h i g h , w i t h a f a i r number o f y o u n g s t e r s , a d u l t s and s e n i o r c i t i z e n s u s i n g t h e p u b l i c p o o l and i c e r i n k . However, t h e r e was an o b v i o u s l a c k o f t e e n a g e r s who were r e g u l a r u s e r s o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s , t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t a f a i r number of r e s i d e n t s i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d a r e i n t h i s age group. R e s i d e n t s a l s o 81 appeared t o be i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n s p e c i f i c programs a t t h e community c e n t e r : There seemed t o be a l a c k o f s o c i a l a r e a s f o r p e o p l e t o hang a r o u n d , t o s o c i a l i z e , o r j u s t be away from t h e i r d a i l y r o u t i n e . Whatever s o c i a l s p aces t h e r e a r e do n o t seem t o be a t t r a c t i v e enough t o encourage g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t . There a r e a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s i n u s i n g s i m p l e o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e . Because o f i t s l a c k of r i g i d g u i d e l i n e s , t h e a p p r o a c h can be a p p l i e d t o a l m o s t any c i r c u m s t a n c e whenever t h e need a r i s e s . The r e s e a r c h e r s a r e n o t t i e d down by a f i x e d s c h e d u l e and a r e t h e r e f o r e f r e e r t o combine t h i s t e c h n i q u e w i t h o t h e r e x p l o r a t i v e a t t e m p t s . Sometimes, i t may even b r i n g o u t c r i t i c a l i s s u e s t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s were n o t p r e v i o u s l y aware o f . S i n c e t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s t a k e p l a c e i n a " n a t u r a l " s e t t i n g , t h e o b s e r v e r s s h o u l d be a b l e t o n o t i c e e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s and h i d d e n i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n a c t u a l b e h a v i o r s . The u n i q u e c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s t e c h n i q u e t o t h e s t u d y o f human b e h a v i o r i s i n t h e q u a l i t a t i v e assessment o f a c t i v i t y t h a t a r e n o t a f f o r d e d by o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s . On t h e scene o b s e r v a t i o n c a p t u r e s a w i d e range o f nuances t h a t go w i t h an a c t i v i t y and p e r m i t s t h e o b s e r v e r t o i d e n t i f y s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s between s e e m i n g l y s i m i l a r a c t s and t o a s c r i b e deeper meanings t o o t h e r w i s e s u r f a c e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f each o b s e r v e d a c t . F o r example, p e o p l e may make use o f t h e p u b l i c p o o l s f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s . Some c o n s i d e r them p u r e l y as s e t t i n g s f o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . O t h e r s p r o b a b l y want t o use them as s o c i a l i z i n g mediums, e i t h e r t o be w i t h f r i e n d s and f a m i l i e s o r t o make new a c q u a i n t a n c e s . O b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s u a l l y more c a p a b l e o f r e v e a l i n g t h e s e q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s t h a n o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e t e c h n i q u e i s a l s o u s e f u l as a p r e l i m i n a r y r e v i e w of t h e e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The l a c k of r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from random o b s e r v a t i o n i s a major c o n c e r n . R e g a r d l e s s of t h e s e a s o n a l and c l i m a t i c changes, i t i s n o t l i k e l y t h a t two s e p a r a t e o b s e r v e r s w i l l o b s e r v e and r e c o r d t h e same e v e n t s i n t h e 82 same way. T h i s p r o b l e m may be r e s o l v e d by e s t a b l i s h i n g f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s b u t a r e beyond t h e scope o f c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n . Most o b s e r v e r s must w a i t p a s s i v e l y f o r o c c u r r e n c e s . I n f a c t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e most i n t e r e s t e d may n o t o c c u r i n t h e t i m e span d u r i n g w h i c h t h e y a r e o b s e r v i n g . F o r t h e same r e a s o n , i t w ould be r a t h e r unwise t o use a s t r u c t u r e d and f o r m a l i z e d o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e t o d i s c o v e r f a c t s t h a t a r e v e r y s i m p l e o r o b v i o u s , o r a s c e r t a i n a b l e by any o t h e r t e c h n i q u e f o r t h a t m a t t e r . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e seems t o be a s e n s i b l e and d i r e c t way o f a c h i e v i n g u s e f u l d a t a w h i c h a r e n o t a t t a i n a b l e by o t h e r s . Because of i t s g r e a t f l e x i b i l i t y , t h e t e c h n i q u e can be a p p l i e d i n a l m o s t any p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n e n v i r o n m e n t . I n p a r t i c u l a r , s i n c e o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e c a r r i e d o u t i n p u b l i c p l a c e s w h i c h a r e a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y o n e , t h e t e c h n i q u e i s e s p e c i a l l y f e a s i b l e i n l e i s u r e r e s e a r c h . F i e l d methods a r e c o n s i d e r e d by many r e s e a r c h e r s as one of t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t a pproaches t o s o c i a l s c i e n c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . They a r e b a s i c a l l y n o n - r e a c t i v e as t h e r e s e a r c h i s done i n t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s . F i e l d methods a r e a l s o a b l e t o o b s e r v e h i d d e n meanings b e h i n d t h e s u p e r f i c i a l b e h a v i o r . I n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h , c a s u a l n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s f o u n d t o be p a r t i c u a l a r l y b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e f o c u s s i n g o f s u b j e c t a r e a s . P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n S c h w artz and S c hwartz (1969) d e f i n e d p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n as b e i n g : . . . a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h t h e o b s e r v e r ' s p r e s e n c e i n a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The o b s e r v e r i s i n a f a c e - t o - f a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e o b s e r v e d , and, by p a r t i c i p a t i n g w i t h them i n t h e i r n a t u r a l l i f e s e t t i n g , he (she) g a t h e r s d a t a . Thus, t h e o b s e r v e r i s p a r t o f t h e c o n t e x t b e i n g o b s e r v e d , and:he (she) b o t h m o d i f i e s and i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s c o n t e x t . I n p r a c t i c e , t h e t e c h n i q u e o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e s a r a t h e r w i d e range o f a c t i v i t i e s v a r y i n g from a c t u a l l y becoming a bona f i d e 83 member o f t h e group b e i n g s t u d i e d t o o b s e r v i n g and i n t e r v i e w i n g i t s members r a t h e r i n f o r m a l l y as an o u t s i d e r . I t i s n o t a s i n g l e method b u t r a t h e r a u n i q u e s t y l e o f r e s e a r c h w h i c h makes use o f a number o f t e c h n i q u e s , s u c h as o b s e r v a t i o n , i n f o r m a n t i n t e r v i e w i n g , document a n a l y s i s , r e s p o n d e n t i n t e r v i e w -i n g , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h s e l f - a n a l y s i s . ( B l a l o c k , 1970; M c C a l l and Simmons, 1969) The b a s i c p r e r e q u i s i t e o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s must g a i n t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e p e r s o n s b e i n g s t u d i e d , so t h a t t h e i r p r e s e n c e does n o t d i s r u p t o r i n any way i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e n a t u r a l c o u r s e o f e v e n t s , and t h a t t h e y w i l l be a b l e t o a c q u i r e h o n e s t answers f r o m t h e i r s u b j e c t s and n o t have i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t i e s b e i n g h i d d e n from them. The p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e i s a l s o a r e l a t i v e l y e x p e n s i v e p r o c e d u r e i n t h a t i t may demand months o r y e a r s o f a c t i v e f i e l d i n v o l v e m e n t f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r . S urvey q u e s t i o n n a i r e , o r l a b o r a t o r y work, on t h e o t h e r hand, t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s l i t t l e o r no f i e l d work by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r h i m s e l f . The p r a c t i c a l problems met by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s ' h a v i n g t o l i v e s u b s t a n t i a l l y among, (though n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t o r e s i d e w i t h ) t h e v e r y s u b j e c t s o f s t u d y r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e t h o u g h t and human r e l a t i o n s work i f months o f e f f o r t a r e n o t t o be d i s t o r t e d , j e o p a r d i z e d , o r i n v a l i d a t e d . The main i n t e n t i o n of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r i s t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e . l i f e : b f t h e o b s e r v e d so t h a t t h e y can b e t t e r o b s e r v e and u n d e r s t a n d i t . And, w h i l e p a r t i c i p a t i n g and i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h t h e o b s e r v e d , t h e y l o o k upon t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h them as d a t a and a l s o as c l u e s f o r u n c o v e r i n g f u r t h e r d a t a . F u r t h e r m o r e , a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n a p p ears t o be more c o n d u c i v e t o s e l f - o b s e r v a t i o n . By e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s u b j e c t s on t h e m s e l v e s t h e r e s e a r c h e r may be a b l e t o p e r c e i v e more c l e a r l y t h e e f f e c t s on t h o s e w i t h whom t h e y o r d i n a r i l y a r e i n i n t e r a c t i o n . One o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t uses o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s f o r 8 4 s t u d y i n g v a r i o u s forms of d e v i a n t o r l o w e r - c l a s s b e h a v i o r , where problems o f e s t a b l i s h i n g good r a p p o r t a r e e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t . ( A n d e r s o n , 1 9 2 3 ; Whyte, 1 9 4 3 ; L i e b o w , 1 9 6 7 ) I t i s o f t e n p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t a f t e r an i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f s u s p i c i o n and c u r i o s i t y , t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t becomes t r u s t e d and even u s e f u l as a c o n f i d a n t and a d v i s e r . As w e l l , t h e t e c h n i q u e o f p a r t i c i -p a nt o b s e r v a t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g i n i t i a l i n s i g h t s and hunches t h a t can l e a d t o more c a r e f u l f o r m u l a t i o n s of t h e p r o b l e m s , and e x p l i c i t h y p o t h e s e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , many s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s p r e f e r t o t h i n k o f p a r t i -c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n as b e i n g v e r y u s e f u l a t a c e r t a i n s t a g e i n t h e r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g an a p proach t h a t y i e l d s a f i n i s h e d p i e c e of r e s e a r c h . N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i n v o l v e s l i t t l e o r no d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e p e o p l e , a c t s o r s o c i a l p r o d u c t s b e i n g o b s e r v e d i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s e t t i n g . I d e a l l y , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s " i n v i s i b l e " i n a s o c i a l s ense t o t h o s e b e i n g o b s e r v e d . They c o n c e i v e t h e i r s o l e f u n c t i o n t o be p u r e o b s e r v a t i o n and a t t e m p t t o c a r r y i t on i n t h e same way as an o b s e r v e r b e h i n d a one-way s c r e e n . The r e s e a r c h e r assumes t h a t t h e l e s s e r amount of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s t h e l e s s l i k e l y t h e y w i l l a f f e c t t h e s i t u a t i o n and t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e e v e n t s as t h e y d e v e l o p . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t by d e t a c h i n g t h e r e s e a r c h e r from what i s t r a n s p i r i n g and o f m i n i m i z i n g t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e s t h a t m i g h t be o c c a s i o n e d by a f f e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , because t h e s u b j e c t i s n o t aware o f b e i n g t e s t e d , t h e r e i s l i t t l e o r no c o n c o m i t a n t r o l e - p l a y i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , and t h e measurement t h e r e f o r e does n o t work as an a gent o f change. (Webb e t . a l . , 1 9 7 3 ) The a b i l i t y t o o b s e r v e t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r a c t u a l b e h a v i o r a l l o w s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s , e i t h e r f o r f o l l o w - u p o b s e r v a t i o n , o r f o r s t u d y w i t h o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s s u c h as 85 s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e . One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e non-p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t i t i s a p r o c e d u r e w h i c h a l l o w s o p p o r t u n i s t i c s a m p l i n g o f i m p o r t a n t phenomena. However, because i t i s o f t e n o p p o r t u n i s t i c , t h e r e i s t h e i n e v i t a b l e r i s k t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n under o b s e r v a t i o n i s an a t y p i c a l group and i t i s t h e r e f o r e n o t p o s s i b l e t o produce g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . A n o t h e r form o f n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h e use of hidden, hardware and o t h e r m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e s . Because human o b s e r v e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y s e l e c t i v e and i m p r e c i s e i n t h e r e c o r d i n g o f e v e n t s , m e c h a n i c a l r e c o r d i n g d e v i c e s s u c h as t a p e r e c o r d e r and camera a r e used i n c e r t a i n t y p e s of s o c i a l r e s e a r c h . I n d i v i d u a l s make o b s e r v a t i o n a l e r r o r s , r e c o r d i n g e r r o r s , t a b u l a t i n g e r r o r s , and f u r t h e r m o r e t h e y may be u n s u r e of how t o c l a s s i f y an e v e n t . O b s e r v e r s a r e a l s o s e l e c t i v e l y b i a s e d i n what and how t h e y o b s e r v e so t h a t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s may be m i s s e d e n t i r e l y . F i n a l l y , u n a i d e d by m e a s u r i n g t o o l s , p e r s o n s can g i v e o n l y r a t h e r g r o s s i n f o r m a t i o n , s u c h as a s u b j e c t i s t a l l o r heavy. These arguments s t r o n g l y argue f o r m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e s e i t h e r t o a i d t h e human o b s e r v e r o r t o do t h e o b s e r v i n g f o r him. The most commonly used m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e s i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a r e a u d i o and v i s u a l tape r e c o r d i n g s , moving p i c t u r e and s t i l l cameras, t h e i n t e r a c t i o n c h r o n o g r a p h ( w h i c h measures d i r e c t i o n and f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r -a c t i o n ) , and B a l e s ' i n t e r a c t i o n machine. (Webb e t . a l . , 1973; L a b o v i t z and Hagedorn, 1970) The major advantage of u s i n g hardware i n a r e s e a r c h i s t h e permanence o f t h e c o m p l e t e r e c o r d . The d a t a p r o v i d e d by t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s can be a n a l y z e d l o n g a f t e r t h e e v e n t s have o c c u r r e d . P i c t u r e s and t a p e r e c o r d i n g s t e n d t o g i v e a more complete d e s c r i p t i o n of e v e n t s t h a n do t h e o b s e r v e r ' s n o t e s . The same c o n t e n t can a l s o be used f o r t e s t i n g o f new h y p o t h e s e s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a t t h e t i m e t h e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d . A n o t h e r form of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n would be t h e use o f p h y s i c a l t r a c e s ( e r o s i o n and a c c r e t i o n measures) t h a t can l e a d t o i m p o r t a n t b i t s o f 86 i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , o r t h e y can be used a l o n e as measures o f s o c i a l phenomena. P h y s i c a l t r a c e s a r e r a r e l y r e a c t i v e measures ( t h a t i s , measures t h a t s e n s i t i z e s u b j e c t s t o c e r t a i n e v e n t s and o p i n i o n s ) , w h i c h i s one o f t h e major f a u l t s o f most o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . P h y s i c a l - t r a c e e v i d e n c e can be c l a s s i f i e d e i t h e r as e r o s i o n o r a c c r e t i o n . E r o s i o n t r a c e s wear a w a y — t h a t i s , s e l e c t i v e l y wear on some m a t e r i a l — w h i l e a c c r e t i o n t r a c e s b u i l d u p — t h a t i s , d e p o s i t m a t e r i a l s o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . Examples o f e r o s i o n t r a c e s a r e t h e w e a r i n g away o f t i l e s a t an e x h i b i t , wear on l i b r a r y b o o k s , t h e Carbon 14 d a t i n g method, and t h e r a t e a t w h i c h c h i l d r e n wear o u t shoes as a measure o f a c t i v i t y . To i l l u s t r a t e an a c c r e t i o n measure, t h e amount o f t r a s h removed from a p a r k may p r o v i d e an i n d e x o f u t i l i z a t i o n . The main d i f f i c u l t i e s o f u s i n g p h y s i c a l t r a c e s a r e t h a t t h e y u s u a l l y measure o n l y s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s o f t h e phenomenon, and sometimes t h e y a r e d i f f i c u l t t o s t a n d a r d i z e and i n t e r p r e t . Summary D e s p i t e t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s between d i f f e r e n t forms of f i e l d m e t h o d s — p a r t i c i p a n t and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n — a n d between d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f t h i s a p p r o a c h — s t r u c t u r e d and c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n — f o r most r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , c a s u a l n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s most s u i t a b l e as an i n i t i a l s t e p towards d e f i n i n g p r o b l e m a r e a s and as a g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e t o c h o o s i n g more a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s . W h i l e o t h e r f o r m a t s may be more u s e f u l i n terms o f t h e d e p t h and t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y p r o v i d e , c a s u a l n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s most s u i t a b l e t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g e s p e c i a l l y i n s i t u a t i o n s where t h e answers a r e o b v i o u s . A n o t h e r advantage i n t h e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n c o n t e x t i s t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e c o n d u c t e d i n a p u b l i c s e t t i n g and t h e r e s e a r c h e r s w i l l be a b l e t o c o n d u c t t h e i r s t u d y more f r e e l y and w i t h l e s s i m p a c t on t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e s u b j e c t s . 87 CHAPTER V I GAMING I n t r o d u c t i o n Gaming t e c h n i q u e s a r e r a t h e r new i n t h e r e s e a r c h f i e l d and most o f them have n o t y e t been used i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . C h a p i n ' s (1965) " L e i s u r e Time A c t i v i t i e s Game" was t h e f i r s t t o be used f o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . D e l p h i , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s s t a r t i n g t o be c o n s i d e r e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n i q u e . F i e l d e x p e r i e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t i n some p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s gaming s h o u l d have been used as an a l t e r n a t i v e . Gaming As t h e term i s used h e r e , "gaming" r e f e r s t o s i m u l a t i o n s o f r e a l c h o i c e p r o c e s s e s i n w h i c h r e a l p e o p l e p l a y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r o l e s . The c o n c e p t o f gaming as a r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e was h a r d l y r e c o g n i z e d u n t i l about a decade ago. The . l i t e r a t u r e . o f t h a t p e r i o d r e f e r s t o i t as " o p e r a t i o n a l - g a m i n g " , an a d j u n c t t o t h e newly d e v e l o p e d f i e l d o f o p e r a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . P r e s e n t l y , however, gaming has been r e c o g n i z e d as an a p p r o p r i a t e , i f n o t s u p e r i o r , t o o l i n c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h on problems r e l a t i n g t o p u b l i c p o l i c y and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s (Duke, 1 9 7 5 ) ; complex s o c i a l systems ( G r e e n b l a t , 1 9 7 5 ) ; u r b a n p l a n n i n g ( M e i e r and Duke, 1975) ; and v a r i o u s economic problems ( F e l d t , 1975). The e lements i n t h e gaming t e c h n i q u e a r e p a t t e r n e d f r o m r e a l l i f e — t h e r o l e s , g o a l s , a c t i v i t i e s , c o n s t r a i n t s , and consequences and t h e l i n k a g e s among them t o s i m u l a t e t h o s e e lements o f t h e r e a l - w o r l d s y s t e m s . One of t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f gaming i s i t s h o l i s t i c s i m u l a t i o n o f a complex r e a l i t y , s o mething w h i c h can n e v e r be comprehended by t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l components. I t a l s o d i f f e r s f rom o t h e r forms o f communication i n t h a t i t i m p l i e s a l e s s r i g i d t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i d e a s and emphasizes a h e u r i s t i c 88 u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The gaming t e c h n i q u e , when p r o p e r l y c o n c e i v e d and employed, i s a p o w e r f u l t o o l b o t h f o r c o n v e y i n g d i v e r s e i n f o r m a -t i o n and f o r e x p l a i n i n g o r e x p l o r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d n o t o t h e r w i s e be managed. Gaming can be a p r e d i c t i v e d e v i c e . The answer t o a "what i f " q u e s t i o n i s a p r e d i c t i o n , and sometimes a p r e d i c t i o n t h a t c a n be checked a g a i n s t a c t u a l b e h a v i o r . The development of a game o r model o f t e n i n v o l v e s a s e r i e s o f s c e n a r i o s d e p i c t i n g p o s s i b l e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n . The p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e t h e n r e q u i r e d t o assume c e r t a i n r o l e s and t o a c t o u t s i t u a t i o n s whereby f u t u r e a l t e r n a t i v e s can be e x p l o r e d . Duke uses t h e term " f u t u r e ' s l a n g u a g e s " t o d e p i c t d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f gaming t e c h n i q u e s , f o r he argues t h a t t h e y have an a b i l i t y t o p r e s e n t a f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n : . . . t h i s means t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f any t i m e frame o t h e r t h a n t h e p r e s e n t ( i n c l u d i n g t h e p a s t , f u t u r e , o r any a l t e r n a t i v e t o a p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n ) . T h e i r p u r p o s e i s t o e x p l o r e a l t e r n a t i v e s , t o d e v e l o p a s o p h i s t i c a t e d m e n t a l r e s p o n s e t o "what i f " q u e s t i o n s , and t o p e r m i t t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a n a l o g y f o r e x p l o r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s where no p r i o r b a s i s f o r a n a l o g y e x i s t s . (1975, p. 132) Most games have a s e t t i n g o t h e r t h a n a r e a l and c u r r e n t t i m e frame. G e n e r a l l y , t h e y e x p l o r e some immediate f u t u r e , a l t h o u g h some may d e a l w i t h p a s t c i r c u m s t a n c e s o r a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e p r e s e n t r e a l i t y . They a r e a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s by t h r e e i n h e r e n t q u a l i t i e s . F i r s t , common t o a l l games i s a development o f th o u g h t o r i n q u i r y . T h i s may t a k e s e v e r a l f o r m s , t h e most common of w h i c h i s rounds i n w h i c h p l a y e r s s e q u e n t i a l l y make t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . These a r e a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y c y c l i c a l , and each c y c l e p e r m i t s i t e r a t i v e q u e s t i o n s t h a t must be r e s o l v e d i n t h e t o t a l c o n t e x t o f t h e game. T h i s p r o c e s s i s f r e q u e n t l y m o d i f i e d by t h e i n c l u s i o n o f e v e n t s t h a t a r e e i t h e r pre-programmed, t r i g g e r e d by c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t d e v e l o p , o r random e v e n t s w h i c h f o c u s t h e p l a y e r s ' a t t e n t i o n on some new p r o b l e m o r a s p e c t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n a t hand. Second, t h e y a r e a b l e t o p r o v i d e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a p p r o a c h t h e t o p i c from any p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h i s r e l e v a n t 89 t o t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t . A c e n t r a l i s s u e i n t h e d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a game, t h e n i s p r o p e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n . T h i r d , gaming t e c h n i q u e s have t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s p l a y , make e x p l i c i t , o r p e r m i t t h e r e c o r d i n g o f l i n k a g e s between m a j o r segments o f a m u l t i p l e s y s tem; t h e y a l s o c r e a t e an awareness o f t h e a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s and t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e problems b e i n g e x p l o r e d . Most e x i s t i n g games a l s o appear t o have been c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f an "environment f o r l e a r n i n g " as an u n d e r l y i n g r a t i o n a l e . I n f a c t , some r e s e a r c h e r s argue t h a t t h e y s h o u l d s e r v e t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n - l e a r n i n g needs i n our contemporary s o c i e t i e s , b e c a u s e t h e r e i s a need f o r d e v e l o p i n g modes of l e a r n i n g l a r g e q u a n t i t i t e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h e n e c e s s i t y o f l e a r n i n g t o comprehend some c o m p l i c a t e d domains r a t h e r t h a n d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about them. T h i s c o n c e p t can be s t a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y : t h e l e a r n e r i s more r e c e p t i v e t o i n f o r m a t i o n i f i t i s r e s p o n s i v e t o a f e l t need and i f i t i s p r e s e n t e d i n a c o n t e x t u n d e r s t o o d o r p e r c e i v e d by t h e l e a r n e r . C h a p i n (1965) was among t h e f i r s t t o adapt a gaming t e c h n i q u e t o s t u d y o f l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s among u r b a n r e s i d e n t s . I t was i n t e n d e d as a t e c h n i q u e f o r g e t t i n g r e s p o n d e n t s t o s t a t e t h e i r l e s i r e p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l y r e a l i s t i c s t r u c t u r e o f c o n s t r a i n t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The s u b j e c t s were asked t o s e l e c t " f r e e - t i m e " a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o a few s i m p l e r u l e s , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , w o r k i n g h o u r s , and o t h e r c o n s t r a i n t s s u c h as l o c a t i o n o f r e s i d e n c e . A f t e r t h e s u b j e c t s f i n i s h e d making t h e i r t i m e a l l o c a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f i n i t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s t h e n i n t r o d u c e d a change i n t h e c o n t i n g e n c i e s : "Now l e t ' s assume t h a t you w i l l have more f r e e t i m e each week; p l e a s e show how you would a l l o c a t e t h e s e e i g h t a d d i t i o n a l h o u r s . " The term " t r a d e - o f f game" a p p l i e s t o t h i s f orm o f r e s e a r c h , where t h e re s p o n d e n t seeks some o p t i m a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y c h o i c e s i n t h e 90 a l l o c a t i o n o f f r e e t i m e , s u b j e c t t o a s e t o f c o n s t r a i n t s . The r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h i s game was t h a t i f t h e key c o n s t r a i n t s have been i d e n t i f i e d and i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e game, i t w o u l d o f f e r a means o f e l i c i t i n g r e a s o n e d i n d i c a t i o n s o f l e i s u r e p r e f e r e n c e s . The d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e i s a means f o r t h e s y s t e m a t i c s o l i c i t a t i o n and c o l l a t i o n o f i n f o r m e d judgements on a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c . ( S c h n e i d e r , 1974) D e l p h i can be o r has been used i n a r e c r e a t i o n c o n t e x t . There a r e a t l e a s t two v a r i a n t s o f d e l p h i , t h e b u s i n e s s o f parameter e s t i m a t i o n , f o r w h i c h i t was o r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d a t Rand, and t h e b u s i n e s s o f c h o i c e s , o r t h e " p o l i c y d e l p h i " w h i c h was S c h n e i d e r ' s i n t e r e s t . The b a s i c p r o c e d u r e s work w i t h a s e t o f c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d s e q u e n t i a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h summarized i n f o r m a t i o n and o p i n i o n f e e d b a c k d e r i v e d f r o m e a r l i e r r e s p o n s e s . I n many t y p e s o f d e l p h i games t h e c y c l e s a r e s u c c e s s i v e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s o r r e f i n e m e n t s w h i c h have no t i m e s i g n i f i c a n c e o r c o u n t e r p a r t s o u t s i d e o f t h e game i t s e l f . The p r o c e s s i s r e p e a t e d u n t i l some k i n d o f agreement has been r e a c h e d among t h e p l a y e r s . T h i s t y p e o f t e c h n i q u e i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n c a s e s where d e c i s i o n s have t o be made among v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f p a r t i c i -p a n t s each w i t h t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s i n mind. Take t h e example i n w h i c h t h e c i t y has t o d e c i d e on t h e c r e a t i o n o f a n e i g h b o r h o o d p a r k . The p a r k s b o a r d , whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i d e a l a r e t o a l l o w f o r as much open space as p o s s i b l e , i s l i k e l y t o be i n f a v o r o f such a move. The c i t y c o u n c i l , on t h e o t h e r hand, may f e e l t h a t t h e l a n d a v a i l a b l e i s more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d e v e l o p i n g l ow income h o u s i n g . The n e i g h b o r h o o d p l a n n e r s , however, may e l e c t t o t h i n k t h a t i n s t e a d o f a p a r k a community c e n t r e may be more a p p r o p r i -a t e . The r e s i d e n t s may d e c i d e t h a t t h e y p r e f e r t o have a p u b l i c l i b r a r y i n s t e a d . P u b l i c d e c i s i o n making i s e x t r e m e l y complex as t h e members i n v o l v e d seldom a g r e e on any p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e . The d e l p h i gaming t e c h n i q u e w i l l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o a consensus among d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s , b u t i t 91 does h e l p t o e x p l o r e and expose u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s o r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t may l e a d t o c o n f l i c t i n g judgements. The use o f gaming i n r e s e a r c h a l s o has v a r i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g s . The main c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s problems of r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , s a m p l i n g , o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g o f c o n c e p t s , and l a c k o f c o n t r o l f o r r e l e v a n t sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e a n a l y s i s . Many o f t h e s t u d i e s s u f f e r from poor r e s e a r c h d e s i g n : t e s t s w h i c h p r e c l u d e measurement of change; l a c k o f c o n t r o l groups even where t h e i n t e n -t i o n i s t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s about t h e v a l u e o f gaming compared t o o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s ; f a i l u r e t o c o n s i d e r Hawthorne e f f e c t s ; and poor c r i t e r i a f o r a c c e p t i n g o r r e j e c t i n g h y p o t h e s e s . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m i n many s t u d i e s r e l a t e s t o poor o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g o f c o n c e p t s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e d i v e r s i t y o f i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n any r e s e a r c h on r e c r e a t i o n b e h a v i o r s , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a w e l l d e f i n e d scope o f c o n c e r n must n o t be n e g l e c t e d . I f we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e l e i s u r e p r e f e r e n c e between c e r t a i n t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e i s a need t o s t a t e c l e a r l y t h e b e h a v i o r s t h a t s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d , t h e t h i n g s t h a t we a r e l o o k i n g f o r i n o u r s t u d y , and t h e d e f i n i t i o n s of s u c h i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s as a c t i v i t i e s , r e c r e a t i o n , and b e h a v i o r . I n a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t o t a k e t h e s e f a c t o r s i n t o c o n s i d e r a -t i o n i s l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n d a t a t h a t a r e o f l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . There a r e a number o f game v a r i a b l e s t h a t may be i m p o r t a n t i n e x p l a i n -i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l outcomes, i n c l u d i n g l e n g t h o f p l a y , s i z e of g r o u p , and amount and q u a l i t y o f pre-game p r e p a r a t i o n . A s p e c i a l i n s t a n c e i s t h e c o n d i t i o n s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o r how t h e s i m u l a t i o n i s employed. I n some i n s t a n c e s , r e s e a r c h has been done where gaming was used i n c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h l e c t u r e s o r d i s c u s s i o n s . T e s t i n g f o r t h e consequences o f use under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e t h a t a r e d e s i g n e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s o l i c i t i n g o p i n i o n s on d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s . I n a d d i t i o n , c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f t h e game a d m i n i s t r a t o r have been found t o be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e outcomes o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , y e t d i s c u s s i o n o f such f a c t o r s as a d m i n i s t r a t o r competence, p r e p a r a t i o n , and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e p r o b l e m i s o f t e n l a c k i n g . A f i n a l s e t o f game v a r i a b l e s i n f r e q u e n t l y c o n t r o l l e d i s t h e r o l e s p l a y e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . Those p l a y i n g d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t e n have d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s ; t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n u s i n g d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e when t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o p l a y o u t r o l e s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r n o r m a l a c t i v i t i e s , b u t t h i s has n o t g e n e r a l l y been examined. A l a r g e p r o b l e m a r i s e s b e c a u s e , d e s p i t e g r e a t v a r i a t i o n s i n games, c o n c l u s i o n s from s t u d i e s w i t h one game a r e g e n e r a l i z e d t o games i n g e n e r a l . I n f a c t , even t h e b e s t - d e s i g n e d s t u d y c o u l d n o t p r o v i d e a f u l l t e s t o f any o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s o u t l i n e d above; i t c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y y i e l d o n l y g e n e r a l i -z a t i o n s about t h e p a r t i c u l a r game i n v e s t i g a t e d o r p o s s i b l y t h a t t y p e o f game. F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s t h e p r o b l e m of d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p r o p e r end of a gaming e x p e r i e n c e . I n a t r a d e - o f f gaming s i m u l a t i o n , t h e game ends when t h e p a r t i c i p a n t has a l l o t t e d , t o h i s o r h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , t h e o p t i m a l b a l a n c e of t h e c h o i c e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e . I n t h e d e l p h i gaming s i t u a t i o n , however, t h e number o f rounds i n w h i c h th e e x e r c i s e must go t h r o u g h a r e n o t p r e - d e t e r m i n e d . I n some i n s t a n c e s i t may be p o s s i b l e t o a r r i v e a t t h e d e c i s i o n s a f t e r a few c y c l e s ; o t h e r s may demand more. R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e a c t u a l number o f rounds r e q u i r e d t o s a t i s f y t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t h e r e i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t h a t i s o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d . Even though t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s v o t e i n complete i s o l a t i o n f r o m o t h e r members, as t h e y move from one s t a g e t o a n o t h e r , and as th e y r e v i e w t h e r e s u l t s o f each subsequent r o u n d , t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , and b e l i e f s a r e l i k e l y t o change. There i s o f t e n no m o n i t o r i n g t o d e t e c t t h e s e a l t e r a t i o n s , and a t t h e same time s u p p o r t a c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e d a t a b e s t r e p r e s e n t t h e m a j o r i t y o f o p i n i o n s a f t e r ' t h e " n t h " round. T h i s , o f c o u r s e , r e l a t e s t o g r e a t e r 93 problems o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r e f f e c t s , b u t d i f f e r e n t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r competence i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e outcomes of t h e use o f gaming t e c h n i q u e s . Gaming t e c h n i q u e s a r e u n d o u b t e d l y some o f t h e more i n n o v a t i v e a p proaches i n t h e r e s e a r c h f i e l d . S i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y young as a d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e , t h e r e i s enough leeway f o r them t o be m o d i f i e d , changed, and improved. T h e i r major advantage l i e s i n t h e a b i l i t y t o r e f l e c t r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s , o r as a means o f c o l l a t i n g judgement on c e r t a i n i s s u e s . T r a d e - o f f games The i s s u e o f t r a d e - o f f s i n p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a t a l l g o v e r n m e n t a l l e v e l s i s o f s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o b o t h p l a n n e r s and o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n s . I t i s f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d d u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n s on i d e n t i f y i n g community g o a l s , e v a l u a t i n g d i f f e r e n t p o l i c i e s and programs, and f o r m u l a t i n g p l a n s f o r f u t u r e l i n e s o f a c t i o n . I n l i g h t o f t h e many c o n s t r a i n t s i n w h i c h e v e r y s o c i e t y must f a c e i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t compromises must be made between v a r i o u s g o a l s w i t h o u t d i r e c t h a r m f u l e f f e c t s on o t h e r s . R o b i n s o n e t . a l . (1975) a l s o i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e major c r i t i c i s m s t h a t a r e d i r e c t e d t o t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t a n d a r d s : (1) t h e y a r e u s u a l l y b a s e d upon t h e needs, w a n t s , and judgements of t h e p l a n n e r , d e s i g n e r , s u p p l i e r , l e n d e r , and p r o d u c e r groups w i t h no r e g a r d f o r t h e e x p e r i e n c e and e v a l u a t i o n of u s e r g r o u p s ; t y p i c a l l y t h e u s e r s a r e n o t c o n s u l t e d d i r e c t l y i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e s e s t a n d a r d s ; (2) t h e s e s t a n d a r d s u s u a l l y f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e s and p r e f e r e n c e s between d i f f e r e n t u s e r groups (Gans, 1957; F r i e d and G l e i c h e r , 1961); and (3) t h e s t a n d a r d s have t y p i c a l l y i g n o r e d t h e c o n c e p t o f s u b s t i t u t a b i l i t y o r t r a d e - o f f s i n t h e i r f o r m u l a t i o n (Blackman, 1968; Webber, 1969; Solow and Ham, 1967; Wheaton, 94 1965). These a r e e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n t h e c a s e o f p l a n n i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I t has been t h e u s u a l p r a c t i c e f o r r e c r e a t i o n o f f i c i a l s t o f o l l o w the s t r i c t and o f t e n i n a p p r o p r i a t e r u l e of a s s i g n i n g a c e r t a i n amount o f open spaces f o r "n" number o f p e o p l e , o r t o a l l o c a t e " x " number o f swimming p o o l s f o r a community o f a p r e d e t e r m i n e d s i z e . The r i g i d i t y o f t h e s e s t a n d -a r d s has o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n an o v e r s u p p l y o f f a c i l i t i e s t h a t a r e u n d e r u t i l i z e d , and a l a c k of a p p r o p r i a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t a r e i n h i g h demand. G r a n t e d t h a t p r e f e r e n c e f o r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s i s a h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s u b j e c t , and i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s t o meet e v e r y c i t i z e n ' s d e s i r e s , t r a d e - o f f gaming t e c h n i q u e a t t e m p t s t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e , as w e l l as a c q u i r e d a t a on, t h e t r a d e - o f f p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e u s e r s . One a s p e c t of i t h o l d s t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f a c t u a l b e h a v i o r ; t h e o t h e r h o l d s t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s as e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f a t t i t u d e s or o p i n i o n s . The b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h e " p r e f e r e n c e i s e x p r e s s e d as b e h a v i o r " approach i s t h a t c h o i c e s u s e r s a c t u a l l y make i n t h e r e a l w o r l d a r e t h e b e s t i n d i c a t o r of p r e f e r e n c e s and t r a d e - o f f s ; t h u s what we need i s i n f o r m a t i o n about what p e o p l e do r a t h e r t h a n what t h e y say t h e y w i l l do, w h i c h i s o f t e n q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t t h i n g . A t t h e same t i m e , i n e v a l u a t i n g p u b l i c demand f o r v a r i o u s f a c i l i t i e s , i t may be i m p o r t a n t t o draw o p i n i o n s f r o m t h e p u b l i c . T r a d e - o f f games combine t h e s e two a s p e c t s i n a t e c h n i q u e t h a t can be e a s i l y comprehended by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . I n a r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n , i t i s acknowledged t h a t what p e o p l e want i s i n p a r t governed by what t h e y t h i n k t h e y can g e t and what s a c r i f i c e s t h e y must make t o g e t i t . I n t h e game d e s i g n e d by C h a p i n and H i g h t o w e r (1965) w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f c h o i c e s i n l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , t h e d e s i g n e r s f o c u s on t h e e f f e c t o f t i m e as a v a r i a b l e a f f e c t i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n between v a r i o u s s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . A n o t h e r s t u d y c o n d u c t e d r e c e n t l y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by t h e F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s Department emphasizes t h e v a l u e o f salmon i n t h e F r a s e r 95 R i v e r as compared t o o t h e r p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s s u c h as p o l i c e and f i r e p r o t e c t -i o n , e d u c a t i o n , garbage c o l l e c t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e s . The d e s i g n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e games may v a r y f r o m one t o a n o t h e r . The W i l s o n Game uses p l a y money i n o r d e r t o measure t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of v a r i o u s u t i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s as w e l l as n e i g h b o r h o o d d e n s i t y and d i s t a n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . O t h e r s s u c h as t h e one used by C h a p i n and H i g h t o w e r employ g r e e n stamps t o c r e a t e t h e image of m e r c h a n d i z i n g t a c t i c s . When a p p l i e d t o a r e s e a r c h s i t u a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o r e c r e a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e s , i t w i l l be much more d e s i r a b l e t o have t h e r e s p o n d e n t s e x p r e s s t h e i r d e s i r e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s by h a v i n g them e x p r e s s i n a c t u a l d o l l a r terms how much a r e th e y w i l l i n g t o spend on each one of them, i f g i v e n a l i m i t e d s u p p l y o f money. The use of money as a means o f e v a l u a t i o n has s e v e r a l b e n e f i t s . F i r s t , t h i s i s an i t e m i n w h i c h a l l r e s p o n d e n t s a r e l i k e l y t o be f a m i l i a r and c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h . Second, i t r e f l e c t s a r e a l l i f e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n w h i c h r e s o u r c e s a r e l i m i t e d . T h i r d , t h e r e s u l t s a r e a b l e t o q u a n t i f y and thus a l l o w f o r c o m p a r a t i v e measurements. F i n a l l y , t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s who a r e used t o h a n d l e b u d g e t a r y i s s u e s a r e l i k e l y t o be more r e c e p t i v e t o r e p o r t s t h a t a c t u a l l y d e a l i n monetary terms. However, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e medium used t o s o l i c i t t h e t r a d e - o f f p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t b e n e f i t s o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e t h a t a r e w o r t h n o t i n g . The t r a d e - o f f game ap p r o a c h a t t e m p t s t o s i m u l a t e b e h a v i o r i n t h e f a c e of c o n s t r a i n t s . On t h e one hand, s i n c e t r a d e - o f f s i n v o l v e c o n s t r a i n e d c h o i c e — t h e r e s p o n d e n t must g i v e up something t o g e t s o m e t h i n g e l s e — t h e y t e n d t o a p p r o x i m a t e b e h a v i o r . On t h e o t h e r hand, s i n c e t r a d e - o f f p r e f e r e n c e s can be e l i c i t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e t r a d e - o f f c h o i c e s need n o t be c o n f i n e d t o t h e p r e s e n t - d a y w o r l d o r c u r r e n t e v e n t s ; t h e y can a d d r e s s u n f u l f i l l e d p r e f e r e n c e s o r e x p l o r e 96 t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' v i e w s towards f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . As w e l l , t h e t r a d e - o f f game i s a means of p e r m i t t i n g r e s p o n d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e more f u l l y i n t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r l i v e s and sense o f w e l l - b e i n g . T h e i r r e a c t i o n t o t h e s u f f i c i e n c y of l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i -t i e s i n a n e i g h b o r h o o d i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d by t h e s t a n d a r d f o r m u l a o f how much f o r how many p e o p l e . The d e c i s i o n i s o f t e n r e l a t e d t o v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s t r a i n t s , and t h e r e s u l t r e p r e s e n t s what t h e y f e e l w o u l d be most s u i t a b l e f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n . I n a way, t h e n , t h e m e r i t o f t r a d e - o f f game ap p r o a c h i s t h a t i t c a r r i e s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s t e p f a r t h e r a l o n g i n t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s . I t n o t o n l y p e r m i t s t h e d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c s t o e x p r e s s p r e f e r e n c e s , b u t t r a d e - o f f p r e f e r e n c e s as w e l l — t r a d e - o f f s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n s . I t a l l o w s t h e c i t i z e n s t o e n t e r more f u l l y i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s and, as a consequence, p r o v i d e s t h e p l a n n e r s w i t h more complete knowledge as t o t h e i r d e s i r e s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The t r a d e - o f f game a l s o s e r v e s as some s o r t o f a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . I t i s n o t u n l i k e l y t o f i n d t h a t most p e o p l e w o u l d r e f l e c t a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r a c t u a l b e h a v i o r and v a l u e s y s t e m when f a c e d w i t h s p e c i f i c t r a d e - o f f r e s t r a i n t s . The t a s k o f h a v i n g t o c o n s i d e r a s e r i e s o f t r a d e - o f f s between v a r i o u s d e s i r a b l e g o a l s p r o v i d e s a u n i q u e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i -ence t h a t i s n o t l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n e v e r y o n e ' s mind. F u r t h e r m o r e , i t a l s o f o r c e s t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o " f i n e t u n e " t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s on d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s , s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s n o t l i k e l y t o happen i n o t h e r r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s . The t r a d e - o f f gaming t e c h n i q u e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y c o s t l y and t i m e consuming. The t i m e i n v o l v e d f o r each i n t e r v i e w may d o u b l e t h a t of a r e g u l a r q u e s t i o n -n a i r e and t h e r e f o r e l e a d s t o h i g h e r c o s t s f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s ' t i m e and r e s p o n d e n t s ' p a t i e n c e . A l s o , t h e r e s u l t i n g d a t a a r e o f t e n t o o d i v e r s e and c o m p l i c a t e d t o be h a n d l e d i n a s i m p l e manner, t h e r e b y a d d i n g t o t h e c o s t 97 i n v o l v e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . F i n a l l y , t h e t e c h n i q u e i s r a t h e r r e s t r i c t e d i n i t s g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . Even though many s t u d i e s a r e p r o b l e m s p e c i f i c and t h u s a r e n o t a i m i n g a t s o l i c i t i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n s , r e s e a r c h e r s may be a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t some a c t i v i t i e s a r e more d e s i r a b l e f o r c e r t a i n k i n d s o f p e o p l e t h a n o t h e r s . But a t t e m p t s a r e seldom made t o e x p l a i n t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h may be o f g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o d e c i s i o n makers t h a n t h e d a t a t h e m s e l v e s . The d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e There a r e t h r e e s t e p s i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e . F i r s t , we need t o i d e n t i f y t h e problems t o be s o l v e d , and t h e main f o c u s e s o f t h e s t u d y . Second, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d o u t t h e k i n d o f p e o p l e who have u s e f u l e x p e r t i s e ; t h e e x p e r t i s e can be s i m i l a r o r d i f f e r e n t . The p a r t i c i p a n t s , o r c o l l e c t i v e l y t h e p a n e l members, a r e n o t randomly chosen. They a r e s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r knowledge r e l e v a n t t o t h e r e s e a r c h t o p i c . The p a n e l r e p r e s e n t s t h e p e o p l e who p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d e l p h i p r o c e s s . The number may v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n e c e s s i t y , b u t t h e y a r e r e c r u i t e d b e c a u s e t h e r e s e a r c h e r s f e e l t h a t t h e y have so m e t h i n g t o o f f e r . I f t h e members have d i r e c t i n t e r e s t s i n t h e outcome o f t h i s e x e r c i s e , t h e y a r e more l i k e l y t o be more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . I n s h o r t , a good p a n e l i s one w i t h p e o p l e who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t and who c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r e s e a r c h . T h i r d , d e s i g n and o u t l i n i n g o f t h e d e l p h i must seek t o b r i n g out op-t i o n s . These o p t i o n s can be s e v e r a l s c e n a r i o s , p r o s and cons between them, r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r e n t r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , and p r o j e c t i o n s o f p o s s i b l e p r o b l e m s . F o r example, i f t h e f o c u s i s on t e c h n o l o g i c a l f o r e c a s t s , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s t o c o n s i d e r . What a r e t h e major changes t h a t w i l l o c c u r ? How soon w i l l t h e y happen? How d e s i r a b l e a r e they? What a r e t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s t o o t h e r v a r i a b l e s ? 98 I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h i t s a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y c o n f l i c t i n g a s s u m p t i o n s among the p l a y e r s , t h e d e l p h i a p p roach i s e f f e c t i v e i n c o r r e l a t i n g judgements on a t o p i c w h i c h spans a wide range o f d i s c i p l i n e s . Thus, i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e what a r e t h e p r o p e r l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a community, t h e r e s e a r c h e r s may need t o know t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n o f f i c i a l s i n t h e p a r k s b o a r d , t h e p l a n n e r s t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d , t h e c i t i z e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , members o f the t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s a s s o c i a t i o n , t h o s e t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e m i - p u b l i c a g e n c i e s s u c h as t h e Y.W.C.A., and even r e s i d e n t s i n v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s . I t i s n o t i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e have p r e f e r e n c e s t h a t a r e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h one a n o t h e r , o r even g o a l s t h a t i n a c t u a l i t y may n o t be a t t a i n a b l e . Duke and G r e e n b l a t (1975) argue t h a t o n l y r e s e a r c h t h a t engages i n s i m u l a t i n g any complex phenomena may succeed i n s h a r i n g a p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y . I f t h e i n d i v i d u a l member w i l l produce i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e p t i o n s o f what t h e r e a l i t y s h o u l d be, i t would f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r a t t e m p t s a t d e v e l o p i n g a s i m u l a t i o n w h i c h , i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , must be a m e l d i n g o f t h e i r i n d i v i -d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s . T h i s , i n a s e n s e , i s what d e l p h i gaming i s a l l about. I t does n o t o n l y seek out i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h may g e n e r a t e a consensus o f judgement on t h e p a r t of t h e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s , b u t on t h e o t h e r hand i t i s l i k e l y t o b r i n g out i s s u e s t h a t may have been o v e r l o o k e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s o r c o n c e r n s i n w h i c h r e s p e c t i v e members.may n o t be aware o f . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e i s i t s c a p a b i l i t y o f d e t e r m i n i n g o r d e v e l o p i n g a range o f p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s . As soon as t h e p l a y e r s a r e aware o f some o f t h e r e a s o n s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n s among them, i t may be p o s s i b l e f o r them t o i d e n t i f y v a r i o u s a c t i o n s i n l i g h t o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s . R e f e r r i n g t o t h e same example mentioned above, t h e knowledge t h a t d i f f e r e n t groups p r e f e r d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s i s n o t enough. Some may t h i n k t h a t i c e r i n k s a r e more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n swimming p o o l s . O t h e r s may c o n s i d e r community c e n t r e s more u s e f u l t h a n p u b l i c p a r k s . 99 C h i l d r e n want more p l a y g r o u n d s and a d u l t s d e s i r e more g o l f c o u r s e s . I n any s o c i e t y , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t n o t e v e r y c i t i z e n w i l l be a b l e t o g e t what he o r she w a n t s ; t h e r e f o r e j o i n t d e c i s i o n s must be made w i t h r e g a r d s t o what i s t h e b e s t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n , and what a r e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t can be e x p l o r e d . U n l i k e o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s , d e l p h i gaming i s one i n w h i c h a c t i o n s and p o l i c i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s and . t h e i r judgements s e r v e t o f u r t h e r m o d i f y t h o s e p o l i c i e s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f f e e d b a c k i n t h e d e l p h i a p p r o a c h cannot be u n d e r r a t e d . I t n o t o n l y s e r v e s t o e d u c a t e t h e r e s p o n d e n t groups about t h e d i v e r s e and i n t e r - r e l a t e d a s p e c t s o f t h e chosen t o p i c , i t i s a m a g n i f i c a t i o n o f some a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n (Coleman, 1 9 7 5 ) , i n w h i c h p l a y e r s a r e made aware of t h e f e e l i n g s and o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , and as s u c h i s more l i k e l y t o add t o t h e v i a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h . Webster e t . a l . (1974) employed t h i s t e c h n i q u e i n t h e i r s t u d y o f t h e c o n t r o l o f growth i n t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t . The members i n v o l v e d a r e asked t o assume c e r t a i n r o l e s ; some p l a y t h e p a r t s o f t h e c i t i z e n s w h i l e o t h e r s assume t h e p o s i t i o n s o f p u b l i c f i g u r e s . The r e s u l t shows t h a t some k i n d o f consensus among d i v e r s e groups i s o f t e n u n o b t a i n a b l e , and t e n d t o s i m u l a t e p u b l i c d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s . They a l s o emphasized t h e f a c t t h a t d e l p h i i s most a p p r o p r i a t e when t h e r e s p o n d e n t groups d e s i r e d has v e r y l i m i t e d t i m e due t o o t h e r commitments. T h e r e f o r e , t h i s t e c h n i q u e can be used t o s o l i c i t r e s p o n s e s on a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e when members a r e a v a i l a b l e , o r i n some c a s e s , i t may be c o n d u c t e d o v e r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e i f t h e r e s u l t s o f each round a r e t o be a n a l y z e d and r e t u r n e d t o t h e p l a y e r s . As w e l l , i t would be d e s i r a b l e t o use t h i s t e c h n i q u e w i t h members o f groups who do n o t have a h i s t o r y o f communicating on a p r o f e s s i o n a l b a s i s , o r when d i s a g r e e m e n t s a r e known t o e x i s t among them. The major s h o r t c o m i n g s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e d e l p h i gaming t e c h n i q u e l i e n o t 100 i n t h e c o n c e p t b u t w i t h t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d . I n most c a s e s t h i s t e c h n i q u e demands t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h r e e p a r t i c i p a t i n g g r o u p s : t h e u s e r o r c l i e n t g r o u p , t h e e x p e r t s chosen t o r e s p o n d t o t h e i s s u e s (who may a l s o be p a r t o f t h e u s e r g r o u p ) , and t h e " a d m i n i s t r a t o r s " o r t h e d e s i g n and m o n i t o r i n g team. The f u n c t i o n o f t h e m o n i t o r i n g body i s t o d e s i g n t h e i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n -n a i r e , summarize t h e r e t u r n s , and r e d e s i g n t h e f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f t h i s e x e r c i s e depends g r e a t l y on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e m o n i t o r i n g team, t h a t t h e y a r e a b l e t o r e s p o n d e f f i c i e n t l y t o t h e pr o b l e m s t h a t a r e r a i s e d , t h a t t h e y p r o p e r l y summarize t h e r e s u l t s f o r f u r t h e r e v a l u a -t i o n s , and t h a t t h e y a r e r a t h e r f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e t o p i c b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d . When t h e t e c h n i q u e i s used on a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e , v e r y o f t e n t h e a d m i n i s -t r a t o r s have t o depend on t h e a i d o f a computer w h i c h can p r o v i d e i n s t a n t f e e d b a c k . Due t o t h e r e s t r i c t i o n i n t i m e , i t i s v i t a l t h a t t h e p l a y e r s r e s p o n d t o t h e q u e s t i o n s p r o p e r l y and t h a t m o n i t o r s have t h e . a b i l i t y t o i n t e l l i g e n t l y p r o v i d e summaries as w e l l . I n more c o m p l i c a t e d s i t u a t i o n s , o r when computers a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , t h e r e s e a r c h may have t o be co n d u c t e d o v e r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e w h i c h may be c o s t l y and t i m e consuming. Summary Both t r a d e - o f f games and t h e d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e can make s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h i n s p i t e o f t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s . W i t h t h e b e n e f i t o f h i n d s i g h t , i t may be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e used by t h e a r c h i t e c t s f o r comparing t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f v a r i o u s i t e m s t o be added i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s h o u l d have been supplemented by a t r a d e - o f f game so t h a t more a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n may be g a t h e r e d . S i m i l a r l y , i f d e l p h i had been used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e NIP P l a n n i n g Committee i n R i l e y P a r k , t h e r e s u l t w ould be a b e t t e r i n d i c a t i o n o f whether t h e p r i o r i t y i t e m s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e community as a whole. These examples do s e r v e as i l l u s t r a t i o n s about t h e usage o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t . 101 PART I I I CHAPTER V I I SUMMARY OF FINDINGS I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r summarizes t h e f i n d i n g s from P a r t I I . L i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w and f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e have p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r t h e a n a l y s i s . The f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s e l e c t e d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h -n i q u e s and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a p r o c e d u r a l methodology to be d e v e l o p e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . Summary of f i n d i n g s B e n e f i t s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f r e s p e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a r e g i v e n below. Secondary d a t a : When compared t o o t h e r r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s u s i n g s e c o n d a r y d a t a i s by f a r t h e most economic way of a c q u i r i n g m a s s i v e amounts o f p e r t i n e n t d a t a . A w e a l t h o f d a t a o r knowledge l i e s w i t h i n easy r e a c h b u t i s seldom employed. The i n f o r m a t i o n may be found i n government, s e m i - p u b l i c , o r p r i v a t e i n s t i t u -t i o n s . Most o f them a r e a v a i l a b l e t o r e s e a r c h e r s i f t h e y know where t o l o o k . One main advantage o f u s i n g s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s i s n o n - r e a c t i v i t y . I n any r e s e a r c h , t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s ' b i a s e s c a n a l t e r t h e d a t a outcome. I n some c a s e s j u s t t h e p r e s e n c e o f r e s e a r c h e r s i s s u f f i c i e n t t o a f f e c t t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t b e i n g s t u d i e d . The t e c h n i q u e o f u s i n g s e c o n d a r y d a t a a v o i d s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n p i t f a l l s o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s b u t a t t h e mercy o f t h o s e who d i d c o l l e c t t h e d a t a . C o m p a r a b i l i t y o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f ti m e a l l o w s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o s t u d y s t r u c t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes l o n g i t u d i n a l l y r a t h e r t h a n c r o s s -s e c t i o n a l l y , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h i s s h a r e d by v e r y few a p p r o a c h e s . The f l e x i b i l i t y o f a t e c h n i q u e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y , ease 102 o f u s e , and a b i l i t y t o a p p l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s . I n terms of t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , s e c o n d a r y d a t a i s c l e a r l y s u p e r i o r t o o t h e r s . D e s p i t e t h e many b e n e f i t s o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l l i m i t a -t i o n s . Many s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s a r e so d a t e d t h a t a p i c t u r e o f t h e p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e amount of i n f o r -m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i s l i m i t e d t o what t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s a b l e t o f i n d o r t h e scope o f work t h a t has been done p r e v i o u s l y . S i n c e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was n o t put t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r s ' p r o b l e m i n mind, i t may n o t be p o s s i b l e t o f i n d e x a c t l y what i s needed. A d i s t i n c t i o n must be drawn between u s i n g e x p e r t i n f o r m a n t s and docu-mented d a t a . Whie t h e r e s e a r c h e r s do n o t have any c o n t r o l o v e r documented d a t a , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o choose t h e r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s who a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . The problems o f r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y a r e o f t e n c i t e d as m a j o r weak-n e s s e s i n u s i n g s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s e a r c h e r s d i d n o t s e n s i -t i z e t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e r e c o r d s , someone d i d c o l l e c t t h e d a t a , and t h e s e p e r s o n s may have s e n s i t i z e d r e s p o n d e n t s . The r e s e a r c h e r s must r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y a r e u s i n g someone e l s e ' s s e l e c t i v e f i l t e r f o r . t h e i r own. The o p e r a t i n g q u e s t i o n s ' o f s e l e c t i v e d e s p o s i t i o n and s e l e c t i v e s u r v i v a l o f t h e r e c o r d s can add s i g n i f i c a n t r e s t r i c t i o n s t o t h e c o n t e n t . N a r o l l (1962) commented on t h e p r o b l e m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l i n g . F o r example, t h e a r c h e o l o g i s t w i t h h i s thousand y e a r o l d p o t t e r y s h a r d s , o r t h e h i s t o r i a n w i t h a s e t of two hundred y e a r o l d memoirs, r e a l l y do n o t have a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body o f d a t a f r o m w h i c h t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s . There a r e a l s o problems w i t h s e l e c t i v e e d i t i n g t h r o u g h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e . C h r i s t o p h e r Columbus, f o r example, k e p t two l o g s , one f o r h i m s e l f and one f o r t h e crew. Even w i t h o u t t h e danger of s y s t e m a t i c b i a s t h a t c o u l d t h r e a t e n v a l i d i t y , t h e r i s k o f t h e i r s e l e c t i v e s u r v i v a l r e m a i n s . 103 O b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e : The u n i q u e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n t o t h e s t u d y o f human b e h a v i o r i s i n t h e q u a l i t a t i v e assessment o f a c t i v i t y w h i c h t h i s f i e l d a p p r o a c h a f f o r d s . The t e c h n i q u e i s u s e f u l as a p r e l i m i n a r y r e v i e w o f t h e e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e e x i s t i n g f a c i l i -t i e s . Whether f a c i l i t i e s a r e b e i n g u s e d , i n what ways, and a t what t i m e s c a n be d e t e r m i n e d by one p e r s o n i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t t i m e . T h i s d a t a may n o t be v e r y r e l i a b l e t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h e e f f e c t o f s e a s o n a l and c l i m a t i c changes. Y e t , even w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d i n t h i s manner may be s u f f i c i e n t l y v a l i d f o r d e t e r -m i n i n g f u t u r e p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s . I f t h e answers t o a r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m a r e r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e , t h e y s h o u l d be p i c k e d up by a s i m p l e a p p r o a c h . S i n c e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n has t o be co n d u c t e d i n t h e p u b l i c p l a c e s w h i c h a r e a c c e s s i b l e t o most p e o p l e , o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e much more f e a s i b l e t o use tha n i n some o t h e r p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t s . The o b s e r v a t i o n s t a k e p l a c e i n a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g . The s u b j e c t s a r e n o t s u b j e c t e d t o problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r more r e a c t i v e a p p r o a c h e s . I f h a n d l e d c o r r e c t l y , t h e o b s e r v e r s s h o u l d r e m a i n " i n v i s i b l e " i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s o r " h i d d e n " among the p a r t i c i p a n t s o r s p e c t a t o r s . A c a s u a l , and u n f o r m a l i z e d o b s e r v a t i o n p r o c e s s i s v e r y f l e x i b l e t o use. I t does n o t r e q u i r e h i g h l a b o u r i n v o l v e m e n t o r c o s t . What i t f a i l s t o do as a d a t a c o l l e c t i o n d e v i c e i s more t h a n made up by i t s s i m p l i c i t y and e f f e c t -i v e n e s s i n o b t a i n i n g v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . The l a c k o f r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from random o b s e r v a t i o n i s a major s h o r t c o m i n g o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s . I t i s n o t l i k e l y t h a t two s e p a r a t e o b s e r v e r s w i l l o b s e r v e and r e c o r d t h e same e v e n t s i n t h e same way. However, o b s e r v a -t i o n s may become a t l e a s t somewhat s y s t e m a t i c by e s t a b l i s h i n g f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a r e f o l l o w e d i n t h e f i e l d . 104 S i m i l a r l y , b e c a u s e of t h e n o n - s t a n d a r d way t h e d a t a a r e c o l l e c t e d , t h e y a r e n o t g e n e r a l l y u s e f u l f o r s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t . T h i s means t h a t q u a n t i t a -t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s u s u a l l y cannot be e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s f a c t o r i s o n l y r e l a t e d t o l e s s f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o produce s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y z a b l e r e s u l t s by e m p l o y i n g more f o r m a l i z e d and s t r u c t u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . G e n e r a l l y o b s e r v e r s must w a i t p a s s i v e l y f o r o c c u r r e n c e s . I n f a c t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d may n o t o c c u r i n t h e t i m e span d u r i n g w h i c h t h e y a r e o b s e r v i n g . As a r e s u l t , boredom and l o s s of i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t may a f f e c t t h e d a t a outcome. The g e n e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a p p l y when t h e y a r e u n d e r t a k e n f o r s o c i a l p o l i c y r e s e a r c h . Much o f what t h e o b s e r v e r does i s n o t c o d i f i e d ; t h u s , t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f team r e s e a r c h , i n w h i c h s e v e r a l s e t t i n g s a r e v i e w e d by d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e , a r e s e v e r e . Group i n t e r a c t i o n : Group i n t e r a c t i o n i s n o t j u s t a d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e ; i t i s a p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e , i t i s a t e c h n i q u e f o r d e v e l o p i n g a c o n s t i t u e n c y i n s u p p o r t o f t h e r e s u l t s and i n s u p p o r t o f t h e government t h a t engages i n t h i s k i n d o f p l a n n i n g , an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programme o f some r e a l v a l u e f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , and i t i s s u p p o r t e d by some as a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n o f a t h e o r y o f democracy i n l o c a l government. Group i n t e r a c t i o n may work b e s t i n an a r e a t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y d i s a d v a n t -aged i n terms o f f a c i l i t i e s and programmes, and t h u s can l o o k t o o t h e r a r e a s w i t h w h i c h t h e y have some f a m i l i a r i t y f o r i d e a s about what wou l d be d e s i r a b l e . As d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s , group i n t e r a c t i o n i d e n t i f i e s what i s needed i n t h e s y s t e m , and s e t s o u t t o s u g g e s t what c o u l d be done t o improve e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Because i t i n v i t e s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e o v e r a l l d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s , 105 r e l e v a n t and s i g n i f i c a n t i d e a s may be d e v e l o p e d i n terms of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s , p r i o r i t i e s , and l e i s u r e needs of t h e community. Even a t a l e s s f o r m a l i z e d l e v e l t h a n NIP, group i n t e r a c t i o n n o t o n l y can g e n e r a t e u s e f u l i d e a s about n e i g h b o r h o o d improvements, i t can a l s o s e r v e as a forum f o r c i t i z e n s ' c o n c e r n s , and t h r o u g h them t h e p l a n n e r s may be a b l e t o know who i s n o t b e i n g s e r v e d p r o p e r l y by t h e e x i s t i n g s u p p l y o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I d e a l l y , t h o s e who f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e b e i n g l e f t o ut s h o u l d be p r e s e n t t o e x p r e s s t h e i r c o n c e r n s . However, i t i s n o t alw a y s s o . Those who a r e o l d , h a n d i c a p p e d , and d i s a d v a n t a g e d do n o t u s u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Thus one o f t h e ma j o r problems i n group i n t e r a c t i o n i s t o g e t p r o p e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from e v e r y segment o f t h e community. I t has been found t h a t i n some n e i g h b o r h o o d s c e r t a i n more ou t s p o k e n p o p u l a t i o n groups were a b l e t o dominante t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . There have a l s o been c a s e s i n w h i c h c i t i z e n s v o t e on i s s u e s w i t h o u t f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g what t h e y a c t u a l l y mean, o r a r e p r e s s u r e d i n t o making h a s t y d e c i s i o n s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p l a n n e r s and m o d e r a t o r s i s t o make s u r e t h a t t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s do n o t o c c u r . Group i n t e r a c t i o n can be r a t h e r c o n t r o v e r s i a l a t t i m e s . The p r o c e s s may r a i s e u n w a r r a n t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s i f n o t h a n d l e d p r o p e r l y . A h i g h l e v e l and e x t e n s i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s i s a l s o r a t h e r c o s t l y , and cannot be t r e a t e d l i g h t l y . However, some more s t r u c t u r e d a p p r o a c h e s , d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g and t h e d e l b e c q t e c h n i q u e , do n o t r e q u i r e as much r e s o u r c e s . D e l p h i t e c h n i q u e : The d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s s t r u c t u r e d u t i l i z a t i o n o f judgement and i n t u i t i o n i n f o r m u l a t i n g p r o b l e m outcomes, i t s l a c k o f i n s i s -t e n c e on c o n s e n s u s , and i t s t o l e r a n c e f o r a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s . S i m i l a r l y , i t i s a b l e t o e x p l o r e and expose u n d e r l y i n g judgement on v a r i o u s t o p i c s . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e approach i s an e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e i n c o r r e l a t i n g 106 judgements on a t o p i c w h i c h i s complex and d i v e r s i f i e d . P erhaps even more i m p o r t a n t , d e l p h i tends t o e l i m i n a t e d i s c u s s i o n o f p o i n t s where agreement i s q u i c k l y f o r t h c o m i n g , and c o n c e n t r a t e on e l u c i d a t i o n o f extreme p o s i t i o n s i n an i t e r a t i v e s e r i e s o f p r o b i n g s t a t e m e n t s and r e s p o n s e s . The t e c h n i q u e o f t e n r e f l e c t s t h e r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h p u b l i c d e c i s i o n s a r e made. By i n v o l v i n g p e o p l e f r o m d i f f e r e n t b a ckgrounds and d i s c i p l i n e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p a range of a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s t h a t a r e r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e p e o p l e who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . I t i s e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e i n terms of g a i n i n g u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . I n many i n s t a n c e s , i t a l s o s e r v e s as a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e p l a y e r s , an e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h may n o t have been a c h i e v e d o t h e r w i s e . D e l p h i i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r i t s r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y c a p a b i l i t y f o r p r o j e c t i n g f u t u r e t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes. I t can a l s o d e a l w i t h p o l i c y o p t i o n s and i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Because t h i s i n v o l v e s b o t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l f o r e c a s t s and n o r m a t i v e p o s i t i o n s , t h e r e can be no r e a l e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e t o depend on f o r v a l i d a t i o n . I t can d e a l w i t h problems r e l a t e d t o t h e s e i s s u e s more r e a s o n a b l y t h a n o t h e r p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . The competence o f t h e m o n i t o r i n g team o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s has a g r e a t impact on t h e s u c c e s s o f t h i s method. B a d l y d e s i g n e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d games a r e l i k e l y t o l e a d t o u s e l e s s r e s u l t s . A t h r e e o r f o u r round d e l p h i w i t h more t h a n twenty i t e m s becomes so wearisome t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n and th o u g h t f a l l , o f f r a p i d l y . P a r t i c i p a n t s may l o s e i n t e r e s t d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s , and t o f i n d a r e p l a c e m e n t f o r p a n e l members i s n o t al w a y s p o s s i b l e . However, I f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t and have d i r e c t i n t e r e s t s i n t h e outcome, t h e y w i l l l i k e l y be more eager t o p a r t i c i p a t e . As w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s , t h e r e a r e r e s e a r c h problems such as b i a s i n g 107 e f f e c t s , d i f f i c u l t y i n p h r a s i n g and r e p h r a s i n g o f r e s p o n s e s , i n c o m p l e t e a nswers, and t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' i n a b i l i t y t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e u n i v e r s e o f pr o b l e m s . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e has c o n s i d e r a b l e f l e x i b i l i t y , and f e e d b a c k t e n d s t o p i c k up m i s h a n d l e d i s s u e s i n p r e c e d i n g r o u n d s , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g e r r o r s . Survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e : I n g e n e r a l , s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s can p l a y an a c t i v e p a r t i n e n r i c h i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t t i n g s and a number of human r e s p o n s e s i f p r o p e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e f o r m u l a -t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s and t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ' s e f f e c t on t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . I t p r o v i d e s a h i g h e r degree o f a c c u r a c y and r e l i a b i l i t y t h a n o t h e r e m p i r i c a l t e c h n i q u e s i f c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d . V e r b a l r e s p o n s e s a r e good i n d i c a t i o n s o f l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e t e c h n i q u e c o u l d be used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n -i t i e s s u c h as l o c a l p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s . T h i s t e c h n i q u e i s an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e r e a s o n s f o r non-use o f c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s by d i r e c t l y a p p r o a c h i n g p o t e n t i a l and e x i s t i n g u s e r s . I t i s a l s o u s e f u l f o r g a t h e r i n g l o c a l r e s i d e n t s ' o p i n i o n s on f u t u r e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s from a w i d e r p o p u l a t i o n t h a n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s . Assuming t h a t t h e i s s u e s a r e s p e c i f i c and c l o s e t o home, most r e s i d e n t s a r e u s u a l l y good j u d g e s o f t h e i r own r e q u i r e m e n t s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s t r a i n t s i f t h e t e c h n i q u e i s used w e l l . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r form o f r e s e a r c h , heavy r e l i a n c e i s p l a c e d on v e r b a l r e p o r t s f r o m t h e s u b j e c t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s t i m u l i o r e x p e r i e n c e s t o w h i c h t h e y a r e exposed and f o r knowledge o f t h e i r b e h a v i o r . The v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e v e r b a l r e p o r t s , however, has o f t e n been q u e s t i o n e d by r e s e a r c h e r s . P e o p l e may be r e l u c t a n t t o r e p o r t o p e n l y t h e i r b e l i e f s , f e e l i n g s , m o t i v a t i o n s , p l a n s , and so on; o r t h e y may be u n a b l e t o do so. Surve y s cannot d e t e r m i n e t h e q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f b e h a v i o r o r i t s d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . 108 P e o p l e t e n d t o r a t i o n a l i z e d e c i s i o n s t h a t t h e y have made on an i r r a t i o n a l b a s i s , and one cannot e x p e c t t h a t p e o p l e know e x a c t l y what t h e y d e s i r e . But even assuming t h a t p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d r e a l l y know t h e i r own minds and a r e w i l l i n g t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s u n r e s e r v e d l y , t h e y may s t i l l n o t f u r n i s h t h e d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t t h e y m i s u n d e r s t a n d what i s wanted. Respondents may be r e l u c t a n t t o d i s c u s s an i s s u e e i t h e r b ecause t h e y p e r c e i v e i t as a t h r e a t t o t h e i r p r i v a c y , o r t h a t t h e y s i m p l y have no i d e a about t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , one cannot assume t h a t p e o p l e w i l l t e l l t h e t r u t h about t h e i r wants and d i s l i k e s even i f t h e y know them. Surve y s do n o t a l l o w f o r d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , measurement, and a n a l y s i s o f t h e o n g o i n g p r o c e s s e s . T h i s t e c h n i q u e i s a l s o n o t v e r y u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on c l i e n t needs when t h e c l i e n t i s unknown. The problems r e l a t e d t o p o p u l a t i o n s a m p l i n g must n o t be u n d e r r a t e d . F i n a l l y , t h e h i g h c o s t o f s u r v e y s r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s , as w e l l as t h e t e c h n i c a l c o m p l e x i t i e s , a r e major d i s a d v a n t a g e s i n t h e i r usage. T r a d e - o f f games: The t r a d e - o f f gaming approach a t t e m p t s t o s i m u l a t e b e h a v i o r i n t h e f a c e o f c o n s t r a i n t s . S i n c e t r a d e - o f f s i n v o l v e c o n s t r a i n e d c h o i c e — t h e r e s p o n d e n t must g i v e up s o m e t h i n g t o g e t s o m e t h i n g e l s e — g a m e s t e n d t o a p p r o x i m a t e n o r m a l b e h a v i o r . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e t r a d e - o f f p r e f e r e n c e s can be e l i c i t e d i n con-j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s such as s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , t h e t r a d e - o f f c h o i c e s need n o t be c o n f i n e d t o t h e p r e s e n t day w o r l d o r c u r r e n t e v e n t s ; t h e y can a d d r e s s u n f u l f i l l e d p r e f e r e n c e s o r e x p l o r e t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' v i e w o f f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . T a b l e s 2 and 3 on t h e f o l l o w i n g pages p r e s e n t b r o a d , d e s c r i p t i v e summaries of t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s i n terms o f b o t h t e c h n i c a l ( t a b l e 2) and c o n c e p t u a l ( t a b l e 3) c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The TECHNICAL ^ " v . CONSIDERATIONS TECHNIQUES COST ACCURACY & RELIABILITY F L E X I B I L I T Y OF USE OTHER TECHNICAL PROBLEMS SECONDARY DATA DOCUMENTED DATA LOW POOR VERY FLEXIBLE FEW EXPERT INFORMANTS MODERATE GOOD QUITE FLEXIBLE FEW OBSERVATION TECHNIQUES FORMAL HIGH GOOD FLEXIBLE MANY CASUAL LOW FAIR VERY FLEXIBLE VERY FEW GROUP INTERACTION EXTENSIVE VERY HIGH VERY GOOD QUITE FLEXIBLE MODERATE DIALECTICAL SCANNING LOW FAIR VERY FLEXIBLE VERY FEW DELBECQ TECHNIQUE MODERATE GOOD INFLEXIBLE MODERATE DELPHI TECHNIQUE MODERATE VERY GOOD QUITE INFLEXIBLE FEW SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE HIGH VERY GOOD VERY INFLEXIBLE MANY TRADE-OFF GAMES HIGH GOOD VERY INFLEXIBLE FEW CONCEPTUAL "^"•^CONSIDERATIONS TECHNIQUES — NEDS ASESMENT SUPLY OF OPORTUNITIES COGNITIVE PREFERENCES FUTURE PROJECTIONS SODARYDATA DOCUMENTED DATA POR FAIR POR:. POR EXPERT INFORMANTS FAIR GOD FAIR GOD OBSERVATION TECHNIQUES FORMAL GOD GOD FAIR POR CASUAL POR FAIR FAIR POR GROUP INTERACTION EXTENSIVE EXCELENT EXCELENT GOD GOD DIALCTCAL SCANING FAIR POR FAIR POR DELBECQ TECHNIQUE GOD FAIR FAIR FAIR DELPHI TECHNIQUE EXCELENT GOD GOD EXCELENT SURVEY QUESTIONAIRE GOD GOD GOD POR TRADE-OF GAMES GOD FAIR EXCELENT GOD I l l c o m p a risons a r e i n t e n d e d o n l y as rough i n d i c a t i o n s as i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o assume q u i t e g e n e r a l o r t y p i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e t e c h -n i q u e s . As s u c h , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s e t a b l e s s h o u l d o n l y s e r v e as a p r e l i m i n a r y g u i d e l i n e t o r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f u s e f u l a p p r o a c h e s t o a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m i n a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f c o s t and o t h e r c o n s t r a i n t s . Summary The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t no one t e c h n i q u e i s b e t t e r t h a n o t h e r s as t h e y a l l s u f f e r s e r i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e s . F o r problems t h a t a r e n o t w e l l d e f i n e d , t h e p l a n n e r s o r r e s e a r c h e r s s h o u l d a t t h e o u t s e t use t h e most i n e x p e n s i v e t e c h -n i q u e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n many ca s e s i t appears t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f two o r t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d be used t o g a t h e r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n needed. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r a s e q u e n t i a l s t r a t e g y b a s e d on t h e s e f i n d i n g s w i l l be p r o -posed f o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . 112 CHAPTER V I I I CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS I n t r o d u c t i o n P r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s have shown t h a t each t e c h n i q u e has i t s own m e r i t s and l i m i t a t i o n s . W h i l e some of them may have an advantage o v e r o t h e r s i n terms o f t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , they may n o t f u n c t i o n as w e l l w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t y p e s of d a t a needed. S i m i l a r l y , some t e c h n i q u e s a r e more c a p a b l e o f m e e t i n g c e r t a i n r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s t h a n o t h e r s . T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s from t h e f i n d i n g s and recommends a s e q u e n t i a l s t r a t e g y f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n of u s e f u l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . C o n c l u s i o n s The use o f a v a i l a b l e d a t a has t h e advantage o f e m p l o y i n g a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a r o u t i n e l y c o l l e c t e d i n e v e r y community. A m a s s i v e amount o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f t e n h i d d e n i n f i l e s o f government, s e m i - p u b l i c , and p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s . The t r i c k i s t o d i s c o v e r them. W h i l e i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e f o r any one i n d i v i d u a l t o be f u l l y c o n v e r s a n t w i t h t h e range of p u b l i c a t i o n and s o u r c e s o f s e c o n d a r y d a t a , r e s e a r c h e r s must be a t l e a s t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e common s o u r c e s . I n t e l l i g e n t , e a r l y use o f e x p e r t s as i n f o r m a n t s may i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h v a l u a b l e d a t a . I n t h e same way as an a c a d e m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d r e s e a r c h e r needs c o l l e a g u e s and a c c e s s t o r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s w h i c h may n e v e r be p u b l i s h e d , o r may be p u b l i s h e d y e a r s a f t e r t h e s t u d y has been c o m p l e t e d , p o l i c y r e s e a r c h e r s need r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e p e r s o n s and a g e n c i e s t h a t c o l l e c t and p r o c e s s d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a . I n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h , t h e emphasis s h o u l d be on t h e development o f a 113 l e s s f o r m a l i z e d and c a s u a l form of o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e . I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e d a t a from t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s be a b s o l u t e l y r e l i a b l e o r v a l i d . How-e v e r , t h e y must be a b l e t o p r e s e n t a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n about t h e . l e v e l o f e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e f a c i l i t i e s a r e b e i n g u t i l i z e d , and t h e s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a f f e c t l e i s u r e c h o i c e s . I f t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n s a r e extreme enough, s u c h as i n t h e c a s e o f a h i g h degree o f non-use o f l o c a l p a r k s , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o d e t e c t by u s i n g s i m p l e o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . Even i f t h e c o n d i t i o n s a r e l e s s extreme, c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n can and does r e v e a l v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s o c i a l - i n t e r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . The:'involvement o f c i t i z e n s i n l o c a l p l a n n i n g has many m e r i t s . The p l a n n e r s a r e l i k e l y t o o b t a i n more u s e f u l i d e a s f o r t h e work t h e y do, and c i t i z e n s a r e a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . However, t h i s t e c h n i q u e a l s o r u n s t h e i n h e r e n t r i s k o f r e s u l t i n g i n f i n d i n g s t h a t a r e o v e r -r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the.'views of t h e b e s t o r g a n i z e d and most v o c a l groups i n t h e community. I t i s n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t o r e a c h o u t t o a w i d e v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l , e t h n i c , and income groups. There i s no h a r d and f a s t r u l e as t o how t h i s o b j e c t i v e may be o b t a i n e d . I n f a c t , i t i s n o t u n f o r e s e e a b l e t h a t r e p e a t e d , . e f f o r t s t o r e a c h a s p e c i f i c group may f a i l t o show any r e s u l t s . The p l a n n e r s , however, must be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e s o u r c e s of t h e community, and be i n n o v a t i v e , p e r s i s t e n t , open-minded, i m a g i n a t i v e , and s e n s i t i v e i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o r e c r u i t c i t i z e n s i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T r a d e - o f f gaming and d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e s a r e b o t h f a i r l y new as e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e i s s t i l l p l e n t y of room f o r f u r t h e r improvement. T r a d e - o f f games a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l for...determining commun-i t y l e i s u r e needs and consumer p r e f e r e n c e s f o r v a r i o u s f a c i l i t i e s . D e l p h i , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s v a l u a b l e i n making f u t u r e p r o j e c t i o n s . To be t r u l y 114 e f f e c t i v e , however, t h e y must b o t h be r e l a t e d t o a s p e c i f i c s e t o f c o n c e r n s , and be r e a l i s t i c about t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s . S i n c e t h e i r assessment i s based on r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l s must be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h r e a l con-s t r a i n t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . W h i l e t h e number of c h o i c e s i n r e c r e a t i o n a r e d i v e r s e i n sc o p e , t h e b e h a v i o r s can be grouped a c c o r d i n g t o t h e k i n d o f s a t i s f a c t i o n t h e y p r o d u c e . F o r example, i f s a i l i n g and b i c y c l i n g r e s u l t i n much t h e same s a t i s f a c t i o n as g o i n g h i k i n g o r s k i i n g , t h e y s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d as one t y p e o f a c t i v i t y i n t r a d e - o f f games. By t h e same t o k e n , t h e d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e w o u l d f u n c t i o n w e l l i f an e x i s t i n g p a n e l i s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t , and where r e s e a r c h e r s f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e t e c h n i q u e a r e a v a i l a b l e as r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s . R e s e a r c h e r s a r e o f t e n tempted t o use t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e approaches as t h e means o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n as t h e y a r e t h e most w i d e l y a c c e p t e d , and t h e r e s u l t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l f i g u r e s (even though t h e y may n o t be a b s o l u t e l y v a l i d o r r e l i a b l e ) a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p r e s s i v e . I f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s t o be . used p r o p e r l y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r must be v e r y s p e c i f i c about t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f th e s t u d y . O t h e r t h a n c o n d u c t i n g a s u r v e y j u s t f o r t h e sake o f d o i n g i t , t h e y must be a b l e t o d e l i n e a t e c l e a r l y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e y a r e s e e k i n g . As much as p o s s i b l e , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s t u d y . S i n c e i t i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l as a t o o l f o r p r o j e c t i n g i n t o t h e f u t u r e , i t s h o u l d o n l y be employed t o e x p l o r e t h e a c t u a l b e h a v i o r o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . Q u e s t i o n s t h a t d e a l w i t h s p e c u l a -t i o n s and t o p i c s u n f a m i l i a r t o t h e s u b j e c t s must be a v o i d e d . Recommendat i o n s D i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s have d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s f r o m o t h e r s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e a r e two p o i n t s t h a t must be k e p t i n mind when d i s c u s s i n g a s t r a t e g y f o r s e l e c t i n g u s e f u l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r use i n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h . 115 F i r s t , a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s can b a l a n c e s t r e n g t h s o f one a g a i n s t weaknesses o f o t h e r s . U s i n g s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s may be d e s i r a b l e i n many i n s t a n c e s because of low c o s t , f l e x i b i l i t y , and l e s s e r e t h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l i m p a c t s . However, t h e y a r e a l s o r a t h e r l i m i t e d as a means o f a s s e s s i n g l e i s u r e needs, e v a l u a t i n g t h e s u p p l y o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s , o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e u s e r s ' c o g n i t i v e p r e f e r e n c e s . The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s c a p a b l e o f a d d r e s s i n g t h e s e i s s u e s b u t i s a l s o r a t h e r c o s t l y , i n f l e x i b l e , and has much g r e a t e r e t h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . C a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g have s i m i l a r good q u a l i t i e s i n terms o f t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e y seem t o complement each o t h e r w e l l i n d e t e r m i n i n g r e c r e a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s and d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e c u r r e n t l e i s u r e s e r v i c e s . The t r a d e - o f f gaming t e c h n i q u e may be r a t h e r e x p e n s i v e and i n f l e x i b l e t o use. However, i t i s t h e o n l y t e c h n i q u e t h a t can measure, w i t h a h i g h degree o f a c c u r a c y , t h e c o g n i t i v e p r e f e r e n c e s o f d i f f e r e n t u s e r s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e may n o t be a b l e t o r e f l e c t why r e c r e a t i o n c h o i c e s a r e made, o r what a r e t h e m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s f o r c h o o s i n g them, b u t i t n o n e t h e l e s s p r o d u c e s v e r y r e l i a b l e b e h a v i o r a l d a t a i f co n d u c t e d p r o p e r l y . I t i s a l s o a d a p t a b l e t o many s i t u a t i o n s . Second, t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f each c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d by the p u r p o s e s o f t h e p l a n n i n g s t u d y . S i n c e t h e c h o i c e o f t e c h n i q u e s f o r s t u d y i n g u r b a n p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i s l i m i t e d by t h e a v a i l a b l e s k i l l , manpower, t i m e , f u n d s , and by t h e scope and n a t u r e o f t h e d a t a r e q u i r e m e n t s , i t i s v i t a l f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e d n t r i n s i c q u a l i t i e s o f each t e c h n i q u e . I n terms o f c o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , e x t e n s i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n t e c h n i q u e i s p r o b a b l y t h e most e x p e n s i v e one, f o l l o w e d by s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , whereas documented d a t a , c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , o r d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g a r e a l l r a t h e r i n e x p e n s i v e t o u s e . E x t e n s i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e , and s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e a l l a b l e t o produce a c c u r a t e and r e l i a b l e 116 i n f o r m a t i o n . S u rvey q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t r a d e - o f f games a r e b o t h v e r y i n f l e x -i b l e , b u t s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s and c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n a r e h i g h l y a d a p t a b l e . F o r use i n needs assessment, b o t h e x t e n s i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n and t h e d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e can y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , and b o t h documented d a t a and c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n a r e po o r . D i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g i s c e r t a i n l y n o t v e r y u s e f u l f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e s u p p l y o f l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , b u t e x t e n s i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n may meet t h i s o b j e c t i v e w e l l . T r a d e - o f f games a r e e x c e l l e n t f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s u b j e c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n c h o i c e s , o r why u s e r s p r e f e r one f a c i l i t y o v e r t h e o t h e r , a r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t cannot be met by u s i n g documented d a t a . F i n a l l y , t h e d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e i s u n i q u e l y a d a p t e d t o f u t u r e p r o j e c t i o n , whereas s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s , c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g , and s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e a l l v e r y l i m i t e d f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e . The d e s i r a b i l i t y o f one t e c h n i q u e o v e r t h e o t h e r , t h e r e f o r e , i s e n t i r e l y up t o i n d i v i d u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and t h e judgement of t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . H a v i n g s a i d t h a t , however, t h e knowledge we have g a i n e d from t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a p o s s i b l e f o r m a t t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s m i g h t f o l l o w as an o v e r a l l s t r a t e g y t o r e c r e a t i o n s t u d i e s . I t i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o be e x c l u s i v e o f o t h e r more i n n o v a t i v e o r i m a g i n a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s . R a t h e r , i t s h o u l d o n l y be a p p l i e d as a g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e t o s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s . A s t r a t e g y p r o p o s a l f o r s e l e c t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g  and r e s e a r c h I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n g e n e r a l t h e b e s t s t r a t e g y w i l l be t o choose t e c h n i q u e s s e q u e n t i a l l y , s t a r t i n g w i t h t h o s e t h a t a r e most f l e x i b l e and i n e x p e n s i v e . I n t h i s s t r a t e g y t h e r e s u l t s o f each s t a g e s h o u l d be used t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e o p t i o n s f o r t h e n e x t s t a g e , by d e f i n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t need t o be answered and t h e p r o b a b l e v a l u e o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . The f i r s t s t a g e s h o u l d be use o f s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s , documented d a t a 117 and i n f o r m a n t s , because of t h e low c o s t and f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s . C a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n and d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g s h o u l d be used n e x t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e and f l e x i b l e and have t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f r o u n d i n g out the d a t a r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g t h e r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s i n t o f o c u s . The outcome of t h i s s t a g e s h o u l d d e f i n e d a t a needs and r e s e a r c h c o n s t r a i n t s i n a f o r m t h a t p e r m i t s i n f o r m e d judgement about w h i c h , i f any, o f t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e o r n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . The s t r e n g t h s o f t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e a r e t h a t i t g i v e s a comprehensive p i c t u r e o f p r e s e n t r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and: i d e n t i f i e s c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s o f n o n - u s e r s as w e l l as u s e r s o f l o c a l p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i -t i e s . T r a d e - o f f games do what o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s c a n n o t , i n e l i c i t i n g r e a l i s t i c s t a t e m e n t s of p r e f e r e n c e s . C o n t r o l l e d o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e c a p a b l e of p r o d u c i n g a c c u r a t e usage d a t a . D e l b e c q i s a t e c h n i q u e t h a t i s used -to i n v e s t i g a t e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n problems once a d e s i r a b l e program o r s p e c i f i c p l a n has been d e f i n e d . The d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e can e x p l o r e l i k e l y changes i n t h e f u t u r e , and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r e s e n t d e c i s i o n s . F u l l s c a l e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s b a s i c a l l y a p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e i n w h i c h d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i s a s e c o n d a r y f u n c t i o n . However, i t n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s use of i n f o r m a n t s and c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , and can e a s i l y and i n e x p e n s i v e l y accommodate d e l p h i , d e l b e c q and d i a l e c t i c a l s c a n n i n g . Summary W i t h t h e b e n e f i t of t h e knowledge and i n s i g h t s g a i n e d from g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e recommended p r o c e d u r e , t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r w i l l be more c a p a b l e o f s e l e c t i n g a t e c h n i q u e , o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s , t h a t a r e most s u i t a b l e t o a p a r t i c u l a r need. P l a n n e r s w i l l be more c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r a p p r o a c h and have a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e on what they w o u l d l i k e t o l e a r n from t h e s t u d y . But more i m p o r t a n t , t h e y a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o f a c e t h e dilemma o f h a v i n g a b u n d l e 118 of u s e l e s s , i r r e l e v a n t , and i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n a f t e r t h e p r o j e c t s a r e c o m p l e t e d . 119 BIBLIOGRAPHY A n d e r s o n , N e l s . The Hobo. C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . 1923. B a c k s t r o m , C h a r l e s H., and H u r s h , G e r a l d D. S u r v e y R e s e a r c h . N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1963. B a l e s , R o b e r t F. I n t e r a c t i o n P r o c e s s A n a l y s i s . R e a d i n g , Mass.: A d d i s o n -Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Company, I n c . 1950. B e r g e r , P e t e r L., and Luckman, Thomas. The S o c i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n of R e a l i t y : A T r e a t i s e i n t h e S o c i o l o g y o f Knowledge. Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday and Company. 1967. B l a l o c k , Hubert M. J r . An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . 1970. B o l a n , R i c h a r d S. "Mapping The P l a n n i n g Theory T e r r a i n , " P l a n n i n g I n A m e r i c a : L e a r n i n g From Imbalance. G o d s c h a l k , D a v i d R. ( e d . ) . Washing-t o n , D.C: A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s . 1974, pp. 13-33. B r i g h t , James R. A B r i e f I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T e c h n o l o g y F o r e c a s t i n g : C o n c e p t s  and E x e r c i s e s . A u s t i n , Texas: The Pemaguid P r e s s . 1972. B r i g h t b i l l , C h a r l e s K. The C h a l l e n g e of L e i s u r e . Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e -H a l l , I n c . 1960. Buechner, R o b e r t D. N a t i o n a l P a r k , R e c r e a t i o n and Open Space S t a n d a r d s . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C: N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n and P a r k A s s o c i a t i o n . 1971. B u t l e r , George D. " S t a n d a r d s f o r M u n i c i p a l R e c r e a t i o n A r e a s , " R e c r e a t i o n . J u l y , 1948, B u r t o n , Thomas L. ( e d . ) . R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h and P l a n n i n g . O x f o r d : A l d e n and Mowbray. 1970. B u r t o n , Thomas L e o n a r d . E x p e r i m e n t s i n R e c r e a t i o n R e s e a r c h . London: A l d e n and Mowbray. 1971. C a n d i l l , W i l l i a m A. The P s y c h i a t r i c H o s p i t a l as a S m a l l S o c i e t y . Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1958. C h a p i n , F. S t u a r t . Human A c t i v i t y P a t t e r n s i n The C i t y - T h i n g s P e o p l e Do  i n Time and i n Space. New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y and Sons. 1974. C i c c h e t t i , C h a r l e s J o s e p h . "A Review of t h e E m p i r i c a l A n a l y s e s That Have Been Based Upon t h e N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n S u r v e y , " J o u r n a l of L e i s u r e  R e s e a r c h . 4:2, 1972, 90-107. C l a r k e , Edwin L. The A r t of S t r a i g h t T h i n k i n g . New Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n -C e n t u r y Company. 1929, Ch. V, pp. 125-127. 120 Clawson, M a r i o n . "How Much L e i s u r e , Now, And I n The F u t u r e ? , " L e i s u r e i n A m e r i c a : B l e s s i n g o r C u r s e ? . C h a r l e s w o r t h , . James C. ( e d . ) . P h i l a d e l -p h i a : A m e r i c a n Academy of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e . 1964. C r a c k n e l l , B. " A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e C o u n t r y s i d e as a F a c t o r i n P l a n n i n g f o r L e i s u r e , " R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s . 1:2, 1967, pp. 147-161. D'Amore, L . J . " S a i n t John 1986 - A n t i c i p a t o r y Democracy i n A c t i o n , " The  B u s i n e s s Q u a r t e r l y . The U n i v e r s i t y of W estern O n t a r i o S c h o o l of B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 1977. D a l l e y , Norman C , Komke, D a n i e l C , L e w i s , R a l p h , and Snyder, D a v i d . S t u d i e s i n t h e Q u a l i t y of L i f e : D e l p h i and D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g . L e x i n g t o n Books, D.C. Heath and Co. 1972. D a v i s , Hugh C. "A Comprehensive R e c r e a t i o n P l a n f o r t h e C i t y , " u n p u b l i s h e d paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g of t h e A m e r i c a n N a t u r e Study S o c i e t y . New Y o r k . December 28, 1967. De G r a z i a , S e b a s t i a n . Of Time, Work and L e i s u r e . New Y o r k : The T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y Fund. 1962. D e l b e c q , Andre L. and Van De Ven, Andrew H. "A Group P r o c e s s M o d e l f o r P r o b l e m I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Program P l a n n i n g , " J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d  B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e . V o l . 7, J a n . / F e b . , 1971, pp. 466-492. D e u t s c h e r , I r w i n . What We Say/What We Do: S e n t i m e n t s and A c t s . G l e n v i e w , 111.: S c o t t s , Foresman and Co. 1973. Doby, John T. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n -C e n t u r y - C r o f t s . 1967. D o u g l a s , J a c k D. I n v e s t i g a t i v e S o c i a l R e s e a r c h : I n d i v i d u a l and Team F i e l d  R e s e a r c h . B e v e r l e y H i l l s , C a l i f . : Sage L i b r a r y of S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . V o l . 29, 1976. Duke, R i c h a r d D. Gaming - S i m u l a t i o n i n Urban R e s e a r c h . E a s t L a n s i n g I n s t i t u t e f o r Community Development and S e r v i c e s , C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e , M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . 1964. Duke, R i c h a r d D. Gaming: The F u t u r e ' s Language. B e v e r l e y H i l l s , C a l i f . : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s ; New Y o r k : H a l s t e d P r e s s . 1974. Duke, R i c h a r d D. and G r e e n b l a t , Cathy S. G a m i n g - S i m u l a t i o n - r a t i o n a l e  d e s i g n , and a p p l i c a t i o n s : a t e x t w i t h p a r a l l e l r e a d i n g s f o r s o c i a l  s c i e n t i s t s , e d u c a t o r s , and community w o r k e r s . B e v e r l e y H i l l s , C a l i f . : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s ; New Y o r k : H a l s t e d P r e s s . 1975. F e s t i n g e r , Leon. R e s e a r c h Methods i n t h e B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e s . New Y o r k : The Dryden P r e s s . 1953. Freeman, Howard E. and Sherwood, C l a r e n c e C. S o c i a l R e s e a r c h and S o c i a l  P o l i c y . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l . 1970. F r i e d m a n n , J o h n , and Hudson, B a r c l a y . "Knowledge and A c t i o n : A G u i d e To P l a n n i n g T h e ory," J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s . J a n . , 121 1974, pp. 2-16. F r y , L u t h e r C. The T e c h n i q u e s o f S o c i a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s . 1934. Gans, H e r b e r t . R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g f o r L e i s u r e B e h a v i o u r : A G o a l O r i e n t e d  A p p r o a c h , u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a . 1957. G l a s e r , Barney G., and S t r a u s s , Anselm L. The D i s c o v e r y o f Grounded Theory  S t r a t e g i e s f o r Q u a l i t a t i v e R e s e a r c h . C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co. 1967. G o d s c h a l k , D a v i d R., and M i l l s , W i l l i a m E. "A C o l l a b o r a t i v e A p p r o a c h t o P l a n n i n g Through Urban A c t i v i t i e s , " J o u r n a l of The A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f  P l a n n e r s . March, 1966, pp. 86-95. G o l d , Seymour M. " E n v i r o n m e n t a l P l a n n i n g and Development," C a l i f o r n i a P a r k s  and R e c r e a t i o n . December 1974/January 1975, pp. 21-22. G o l d , Seymour M. " M u n i c i p a l P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n — R e t h i n k i n g t h e F u t u r e , " R e c r e a t i o n Canada. No. 35, A p r i l , 1977, pp. 11-15. G o l d , Seymour M. "Neighbourhood P a r k s — T h e Nonuse Phenomenon," E v a l u a t i o n  Q u a r t e r l y . B e v e r l y H i l l s , C a l i f . : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . 1:2, May, 1977. Gordon, J o a n . D e s i g n F o r One Use o f Survey R e s e a r c h i n The E v a l u a t i o n o f The  M o d e l - C i t i e s Program on The R e s i d e n t s o f M o d e l - C i t y N e ighbourhoods. U.S. Department of H o u s i n g and Urban Development. December, 1968. Gray, D a v i d E., and G r e b e r , Seymour. " F u t u r e P e r s p e c t i v e s , " P a r k s and  R e c r e a t i o n , J u l y , 1974. Gray, D a v i d E. "To Keep Out The N i g h t , " a d d r e s s t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e , Kelowna, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A p r i l , 1975. H e n d r i k s , G. Community O r g a n i z a t i o n : A C o l l e c t i o n o f R e a d i n g s on S o c i a l  P l a n n i n g and Community O r g a n i z a t i o n . The N e t h e r l a n d s : M i n i s t r y f o r S o c i a l Work. 1964. H e n d r i c k s , J . " L e i s u r e P a r t i c i p a t i o n as I n f l u e n c e d by Urban R e s i d e n c e P a t t e r n s , " S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . 55:4, 1971, pp. 414-428. H i g h t o w e r , Henry C. "A R o l e f o r A c t i v i t y A n a l y s i s i n Programming P u b l i c E x p e n d i t u r e s , " A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , P l a n n i n g R e s e a r c h . 1966, pp. 24-30. H i l l m a n , A r t h u r . N eighborhood C e n t r e s Today: A c t i o n Programs f o r a R a p i d l y Changing W o r l d . New Yor k : N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S e t t l e m e n t s and N e i g h b o r h o o d C e n t e r s . 1960. H o r t o n , G e r a l d T. ( e d . ) . R e a d i n g s on Human S e r v i c e s P l a n n i n g — A S e l e c t i o n  of W r i t i n g on t h e S u b j e c t o f Human S e r v i c e s P l a n n i n g . V i r g i n i a : Human S e r v i c e s I n s t i t u t e f o r C h i l d r e n and F a m i l i e s , I n c . 1975. Hubbard, A l f r e d W. R e s e a r c h Methods i n H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and 122 R e c r e a t i o n ( 3 r d ed.)« Washington: A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and R e c r e a t i o n . 1973. Hudson, B a r c l a y M., Wachs, M a r t i n , and S c h o f e r , J o s e p h L. " L o c a l Impact E v a l u a t i o n i n t h e D e s i g n of L a r g e - S c a l e Urban Systems," J o u r n a l o f  the A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s . 40:4, 1974, pp. 255-265. Jahoda, M a r i e , D e u t s c h , M o r t o n , and Cook, S t u a r t W. R e s e a r c h Methods i n  S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s : W i t h E s p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o P r e j u d i c e ; P a r t I I :  S e l e c t e d T e c h n i q u e s . New Y o r k : The Dryden P r e s s . 1951. J o h n s o n , John M. D o i n g F i e l d R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s . 1975. K i l p a t r i c k , F.P., and C a n t r i l , H a d l e y . S e l f - A n c h o r i n g S c a l i n g : A Measure  of I n d i v i d u a l s ' Unique R e a l i t y W o r l d s . Washington: The B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n . R e p r i n t #47, 1960. K l e i n , D.C. "Some Not e s on t h e Dynamics of R e s i s t a n c e t o Change: The D e f e n d e r R o l e , " Concepts f o r S o c i a l Change. G. Watson ( e d . ) . W ashington, D.C: C o o p e r a t i v e P r o j e c t f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Development, N a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g L a b o r a t o r i e s , NEA. 1967. L a b o v i t z , S a n f o r d , and Hopedorn, R o b e r t . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l . 1971. L i e b o w , E l l i o t . T a l l y ' s C o r n e r . B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and Co. 1967. Lindeman, Edward C. S o c i a l D i s c o v e r y . New Y o r k : New R e p u b l i c , I n c . 1924. Marc, Ray, e t . a l . " A n a l y z i n g Demand F o r L e i s u r e F a c i l i t i e s , " B u i l t  E n v i r o n m e n t . 1:8, November 1972, pp. 519-522. M c C a l l , George J . , and Simmons, J.L . ( e d s . ) . I s s u e s i n P a r t i c i p a n t O b s e r v a - t i o n : A T e x t and Reader. R e a d i n g , Mass.: A d d i s o n - W e s l e y . 1969. McCormick, Thomas C , and F r a n c i s , Roy G. Methods of R e s e a r c h i n t h e  B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e s . New Y o r k : H a r p e r B r o t h e r s . 1958. M c D a n i e l , C l y d e 0. J r . R e s e a r c h Methodology: Some I s s u e s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e  R e s e a r c h . Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g . 1974. M e l l o r , S a r ah. R i l e y P a r k Community Su r v e y , s p o n s o r e d by t h e Canada Works P r o j e c t . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. O c t o b e r , 1977. M e r c e r , D a v i d . "The Concept of R e c r e a t i o n Need," J o u r n a l of L e i s u r e  R e s e a r c h . 5:1, W i n t e r 1973, pp. 37-50. Mey e r s , W i l l i a m , Dormart, R o b e r t , and K l i n e , D a v i d . " S o c i a l E c o l o g y and C i t i z e n B oards: A P r o b l e m F o r P l a n n e r s , " J o u r n a l of t h e A m e r i c a n  I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s . 43:2, A p r i l 1977, pp. 169-177. M i c h e l s o n , W i l l i a m ( e d . ) . B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h Methods i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l  D e s i g n . S t r o u d s b u r g , Penn.: Dowden, H u t c h i n s o n and Ross. 1975. M y r d a l , Gunnar. O b j e c t i v i t y i n S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : Pantheon Books. 1969. 123 N e u l i n g e r , John. The P s y c h o l o g y of L e i s u r e : R e s e a r c h Approaches To The  Study of L e i s u r e . S p r i n g f i e l d , 111.: C h a r l e s C. Thomas. 1974. P o l l o c k , L e s l i e S. "A S t r a t e g y f o r P r o v i d i n g Urban R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s , " a paper d e l i v e r e d a t t h e 1970 A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s C o n f e r -ence i n M i n n e a p o l i s / S t . P a u l . O c t o b e r , 1970. R i l e y , M.W. S o c i o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h : I . a c a s e a p p r o a c h . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d . 1963. R o b i n s , Lee N. D e v i a n t C h i l d r e n Grown Up. B a l t i m o r e : W i l l i a m s and W i l k i n s Co. 1966. Rokkan, S t e i n , V e r b a , S i d n e y , V i e t , J e a n , and A l i n a s y , E l i n a . C o m p a r a t i v e  Survey A n a l y s i s : Surveys of R e s e a r c h i n t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . B e l g i u m : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l S c i e n c e C o u n c i l . V o l . X I I , 1966. R o s e n t h a l , R o b e r t . "The S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y of t h e B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t s : On S e l f - F u l f i l l i n g P r o p h e c i e s i n B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h and E v e r y Day L i f e , " The Q u a n t i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s of S o c i a l P r o b l e m s . Edward B. T u f t e ( e d . ) . R e a d i n g , Mass.: A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g Co. 1970. Runyan, Dean. " T o o l s f o r Community-Managed Impact Assessment," J o u r n a l of  the A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s . 43:2, A p r i l 1977, pp. 125-135. S a t t e r t h w a i t e , Ann. "Some Thoughts on P l a n n i n g t h e R e c r e a t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t , " Elements of Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g . B.L. D r i v e r ( e d . ) . Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s . 1970. S c h w a r t z , M o r r i s S., and S c h w a r t z , C h a r l o t t e Green. "Problems i n P a r t i c i -p a nt O b s e r v a t i o n , " The N a t u r e of P a r t i c i p a n t O b s e r v a t i o n . George J . M c C a l l and J . L . Simmons ( e d s . ) . R e a d i n g , Mass.: A d d i s o n - W e s l e y . 1969. S e l l t i z , C l a i r e , Wrightsman, Lawrence S., and Cook, S t u a r t W. R e s e a r c h Methods i n S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n . T h i r d E d i t i o n , 1976. S h u b i k , M a r t i n ( e d . ) . Game Theory and R e l a t e d Approaches t o S o c i a l B e h a v i o u r . London: John W i l e y and Sons. 1964. Survey R e s e a r c h . R e p o r t of t h e C o n s u l t a t i v e Group On Survey R e s e a r c h . Ottawa: The Canada C o u n c i l . 1976. T a y l o r , Graham C. "Work and L e i s u r e i n t h e Age of A u t o m a t i o n , " H u m a n i t i e s ,  J o u r n a l of the I n s t i t u t e o f Man. V o l . 3, 1967, pp. 57-65. Thomas, D o r o t h y S., e t . a l . O b s e r v a t i o n a l S t u d i e s o f S o c i a l B e h a v i o u r . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1933. T r e c k e r , H a r l e i g h B. C i t i z e n Boards a t Work: New C h a l l e n g e s t o E f f e c t i v e  A c t i o n . New Y o r k : A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s . 1970. T u f t e , Edward R. ( e d . ) . The Q u a n t i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s of S o c i a l P r o b l e m s . P h i l l i p p i n e s : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y . 1970. Urban Reader. Vancouver: S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. 5:2, 1977. 124 Urban R e c r e a t i o n : A R e p o r t P r e p a r e d f o r t h e N a t i o n w i d e Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n P l a n by t h e I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l Work Group on Urban R e c r e a t i o n . U.S. Dept. of H o u s i n g and Urban Development. 1974. V e b l e n , T h o r s t e i n . The Theory of t h e L e i s u r e C l a s s . New Yor k : The New Am e r i c a n L i b r a r y . 1953 ( c o p y r i g h t 1899). V e n t z e l , E.S. L e c t u r e s on Game Theory. D e l h i , I n d i a : H i n d u s t a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n . 1961. Webb, Eugene J . , C a m p b e l l , D o n a l d T., S c h w a r t z , R i c h a r d D., and S e c h r e s t , L e e . U n o b t r u s i v e Measures: N o n r e a c t i v e R e s e a r c h i n t h e S o c i a l  S c i e n c e s . C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y . 1973. Whyte, W i l l i a m F. S t r e e t C o r n e r S o c i e t y . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . 1943. Wuebben, P a u l L., S t r a i t s , B r u c e C , and Schulman, Gary I . The E x p e r i m e n t As a S o c i a l O c c a s i o n . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f . : The G l e n d e s s a r y P r e s s . 1974. Z e l d i t c h , M o r r i s . "Some M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Problems of F i e l d S t u d i e s , " The N a t u r e o f P a r t i c i p a n t O b s e r v a t i o n . George C. M c C a l l and J . L . Simmons ( e d s . ) . R e a d i n g , Mass.: A d d i s o n - W e s l e y . 1969. APPENDIX I —"—~~~~ , . -1-RILEY PARK SOCIAL NEEDS QUESTIONNAIRE I'D LIKE TO START OUT BY ASKING YOU SOME VERY GENERAL QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS COMMUNITY. INITIAL QUESTIONS; 1) What do you like about living in this neighborhood? ' 2) What don't you like about living in this neighborhood? 3) How long have you lived at this address? _____ 4) Where was the last place you lived before you moved here? RECREATION; NOW I'D LIKE TO ASK YOU SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR RECREATION AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES. 1) What do you do in your free time?  2) Where do you and your friends get together? EACH OTHER'S HOMES OTHER ; • •• • •  3) Do you know your neighbors? YES NO SOME a) (If no) Would you like to know them? YES NO DON'T KNOW DON'T CARE b) (If no) Is there any special reason why not? YES NO .,' (GO TO #4) c) (If yes) How well do you know them? OTHER VISIT THEM JUST TO SAY HELLO d) Would you like to know them better? YES NO DON'T KNOW DON'T CAES 4) Do you have any particular hobbies? YES NO DON'T KNOW a) (If yes) What are they? b) Would you like to get together with other people who have the same hobbies? YES NO DON'T KNOW 5) Do you think the local schoolyards should be open for general community use? YES NO DON'T KNOW a) (If yes) For what activities? 6) Do you think the local school buildings should be open for community use after school hours? YES NO DON'T KNOW a) (If yes) For what activities? 7) Do you go to a park? YES NO : USED TO KIDS DO a) (If yes) Which ones? -3- 127 — b) Any others? '  (If only Stanley Park or Queen Elizabeth or any other outside this area go to #8) c) Why do you use this park? d) Are there any improvements you would like to see made to (name the park): Park | ; . " Improvements Park : • •  Improvements — > •——-— (GC TC #9) 8) Why don't you use a park in this area? 9) Do you use the Riley Park Community Centre? YES NO USED TO KIDS DO a) (If no) Why don't you? (GO TO # 10) b) (If yes) How often do you use i t ? c) What programs or a c t i v i t i e s do you participate in there? 10) Do you use the Percy Norman Pool there? YES NO USED TO KIDS DO a) (If yes) How often? b) Are there any special programs you participate in there? 128 -4- • YES NO c) (If no) Why don't you? 11) Do you use the Ice Rink at the Community Centre? YES NO USED TO KIDS DO a) (If yes) About how often? b) Are there any special programs you participate in there? YES NO c) ( i f no) Why don't you? 12) What additional programs or ac t i v i t i e s would you like to see added to the Riley Park Community Centre? DON'T KNOW a) Would you participate in them? YES NO • • :'; DON'T KNOW 13) Do you use the Mt. Pleasant Community Centre? YES NO USED TO KIDS DO a) (If yes) What programs or ac t i v i t i e s do you participate in there?_ b) (If no) Why don't you? 14) Are there any other recreational a c t i v i t i e s you participate in? 15) Is there any recreational activity you would like to do now but cannot? YES NO DON'T KNOW a) (If yes) What a c t i v i t i e s and why can't you? 16) What recreational and leisure a c t i v i t i e s would you like to see added to this community as a whole? 17) Are there any other comments you would like to make about recreation? SHOPPING: NOW I'D LIKE TO ASK YOU A FEW QUESTIONS ABOUT SHOPPING. 1) About how many times within the last week did you shop on Main St, between 16th a n d 3 7 t h ? 0 . 1-2 3-5 6+ a) (If 0) Why didn't you shop there? b) (If 1 or more times) What services or stores did you use there? (GO TO #2) SUPERMARKET CORNER GROCERY STORE BUTCHERS DELICATESSEN DRUGSTORE HARDWARE AUTOMOTIVE APPLIANCES HOUSEWARES CLOTHING BANK LAUNDRY RESTAURANT APPENDIX I I This i s a questionnaire to find out what the idents of Riley Park see as the needs of, the area. results w i l l help the N.I.P. Committee spend 9 M i l l i o n to improve the Riley Park community, ase help us by answering the questions below. 130 \ I The Riley Park Citizens' Planning Committee has come up with the following l i s t of suggestions for improving the Riley Park area. Please read the l i s t below and put the number of the one suggestion you want MOST-here- I I . Put the number of the one suggestion you want LEAST-here- j j . I | Because of money and other limitations only about 12 suggestions can be done. Check Q the 6 you DO NOT WANT. • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • 5. • 6. • 7. • 8. • 9. • 10. • 11. • 12. • 13. • 14. • 15. • 16. • 17. • 18. More recreational space for senior citizens.. More space for community, cu l t u r a l and family oriented a c t i v i t i e s . Improvements to school buildings and grounds. Lower cost c h i l d care. . .,;<.. More parking around shopping area, parks, etc. Reduce t r a f f i c on Main Street and other streets. D Improvements to shopping area on Main Street. More programs to deal with s o c i a l problems (e.g. job training and placement, etc.) Improvement i n programs and space for youth. Reduce vandalism and crime committed by youth. of the area and find ways of solving them. Improve Riley Park's image i n the City, (e.g. community events, etc.) A l i b r a r y . Improved access to emergency services. If you have any other suggestions please write them here: II HOUSING From the l i s t below check four blocks of your home: | "f''up to 3 items that you would li:;e to see within 131 f~i Older housing restored r*| New single family housing ~l Some small multiple-family housing l~ l Legalization of secondary suites n Clean up of back yards, lanes & general street l i t t e r f l In the larger neighbourhood - improve housing i n the L i t t l e Mountain Housing Project s I am a renter /homeowner (Check. one) . I l l ' PARKS AND RECREATION Which park do you l i v e closest to? (Check J__r"one) : __\ H i l l c r e s t Park __ Riley Park n Prince Edward Park Cartier Park f~l Don't know How often do you personally use this park? (Check ~ f * one): n Daily _) Less than once a week [_] At least once a week f~1 Never How often doyour children use i t ? (Check "one) : __\ No Children __] Daily £_jLess than once a week __| At least once a week j " ! Never ^ Check Q"up to 3 items that would make this park more usable to you & your family: f~l Benches n Trees l~l Playground D Field sports f a c i l i t i e s ( i . e . baseball diamond) P"l Tennis court/horseshoe pitch • Other l~i Picnic tables r*1 Restrooms Change rooms O Dryer grounds (i . e . better drainage) L_ Better l i g h t i n g L"_ Less garbage Would you l i k e a park closer to your home? _____ Yes _____ No Q f o r children __J for teens L_ for families __] for seniors Do you think the Riley Park Community Centre building needs physical improvements? Yes , No Don11 know IV COMMERCIAL How many times did you shop on Main Street l a s t week? (Circle one): 0 1-2 3-5 6 or more Check {_Y" the suggestions below which i n your opinion would MOST make Main Street a nicer place to shop: l~l More variety of stores O Trees planted & sidewalks improved O Less truck t r a f f i c C_ Stores painted & awnings put up (HI More customer parking {__ More courteous service 0 Other (_] A cleaner street V SCHOOLS Check P^* which school i s closest to you: 132 {"I Livingstone _ ] General Brock 0 General Wolfe Brock Annex Y— Check L_T*the suggestions below you would MOST l i k e to see: C SCHOOL y 0 Schools open for community use a a (night classes, craft workshops, l i b r a r y , etc.) I"! Improvement to grounds [~| Improvement to i n t e r i o r U Other ' VI GENERAL " What do you l i k e most about the Riley Park community What do you l i k e least abcut the Riley Park community Have you heard of the Neighbourhood Improvement Program (N.I.P.) i n the Riley Park Area before? Yes _____ No VII INFORMATION ABOUT INDIVIDUAL FILLING OUT QUESTIONNAIRE I"! Female [_] Male How many years have you li v e d i n the Riley Park community? Ages of members of family: Head of Household Spouse ( i f any) Children ( i f any) , ,_ Other People ( i f any) , Family Income (Check I ^  one): • Under $7,000 • $13,000 - $16,000 • $7,000 - $10,000 • $16,000 - $20,000 • $10,000 - $13,000 • $20,000 - $25,000 D Over $25,000 Country of Birth ; \ The ideas that the Citizens' Planning Committee have put together w i l l come through the mail i n about two weeks, and w i l l be discussed at two Public Meetings: JUNB 8th - 7:30 P.M. - SIR CHARLES TUPPER HIGH SCHOOL JUNE 9th - 7:30 P.M. - GENERAL BROCK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL WE HOPE TO SEE YOU THERE.1 ! /^^J^k»K ^0° ^ ft ^ Schedule Number A RESEARCH STUDY OF LEISURE TIME ACTIV IT IES OF URBAN RESIDENTS ( T h i r d M o d i f i c a t i o n ) A P r o j e c t of the Center f o r Urban and Regional S t u d i e s U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a a t Chapel H i l l INSTRUCTIONS In t h i s game we are borrowing the trade stamp idea -- the green stamps that merchants g i v e you when you are buying something. However, we w i l l use black stamps. You w i l l p aste i n your supply o f stamps i n the boxes shown a c c o r d i n g t o the way you would l i k e to spend your spare time. Assume t h a t d u r i n g the next 7-day week, a f t e r s u b t r a c t i n g out the time taken up i n s l e e p , work, meals, grocery shopping, d o c t o r s ' v i s i t s and s i m i l a r n e c e s s i t i e s , you have a t o t a l of _ _ _ _ _ _ hours ( t o be f i l l e d i n i>y I n t e r v i e w e r ) to use as you Bee f i t f o r any of the a c t i v i t i e s you wish to choose on the other s i d e of t h i s s h e e t . Your stamp supply corresponds t o days Sa t . Sun. of the week d i s t r i b u t e d , say, as f o l l o w s ) M i l l I I I I I morning M T W Th F I I I I I I I I I | a f t e r n o o n r~n~T~T r r m r r m m m r r r n m m m m .vmn, There a r e a few r u l e s we ask you t o observe. You have to spend the f u l l amount of time shown f o r any c h o i c e shown. Some cho i c e s c a l l f o r four hours ( f o u r stamps) , some three-, some two, some s i n g l e hours. We ask you to spend the f u l l amount I n d i c a t e d f o r each c h o i c e you make. Thus, i t Is agaln9t the r u l e s to put down one stamp In a place jwhere a f o u r - h o u r , three-hour, o r a two-hour s t r i p Is c a l l e d f o r . X M Q — W 5j The a s t e r i s k or s t a r (*) by some cho i c e s i n d i c a t e s that these a r c things which you may want to do r e g u l a r l y , but not every week. In these cases, you may average the time you would spend on them, as long as you do not d i v i d e whole hours. For example, going to church i s a two hour c h o i c e , but I f you would only go to church every second or t h i r d week, you may put a s i n g l e hour on t h i s c h o i c e . You w i l l n o t i c e t h a t the sheet has e i g h t panels formed by the f o l d s to the game sheet, each c o n t a i n i n g one or two major groups of a c t i v i t y . You may f i n d I t h e l p f u l to look these over before you s t a r t making choLces. You 6hould make your c h o i c e s c o n s i d e r i n g the p r e s e n t age l e v e l s o f f a m i l y members and your present Income circumstances. Lay y o u r staxtps on the boxes I n ' a p p r o p r i a t e numbers, and a f t e r you are s a t i s f i e d w i t h your c h o i c e s , pastBthem I n . • SCREASINC VOUR INCOME 1, Bringing work home or working overtime on the Job 2 , A second Job ( m o o n l i g h t i n g ) (Use as many s t r i p s o f f o u r hours as you w i s h , b u t you must f i l l an e n t i r e s t r i p w i t h stamps) (Choose as many s i n g l e hourB as you wish) (Choose by f o u r - h o u r s t r i p s ) V (Choose as many s i n g l e hours as you wish) 3, Other a c t i v i t i e s t o i n c r e a s e income such as • t a k i n g c a r e o f r e n t a l p r o p e r t y • w a t c h i n g s t o c k market p r i c e s • e a r n i n g Income from some hobby • m i l i t a r y r e s e r v e , n a t i o n a l g u a r d , e t c . 4. J o b - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s ( a t t e n d i n g u n i o n or p r o f e s s i o n a l m e e t i n g s , Job t r a i n i n g , n i g h t c o u r s e s t o l e a r n new o c c u p a t i o n , e t c . . (Choose by two-hour s t r i p s ) IMFROVINC YOURSELF BY FURTHER EDUCATION BR ADDING TO YOUR DEVELOPMENT IN OTHER WAYS 1. Night classes not connected With Jab . I l l I (Throe hours set aside per evening J I I I Includes study and- time getting to / and from c l a s s . Choose one or two . A evenings per week) v L I , L (Choose by two-hour scrips) * 2 . Attending evening or midweek church serv i c e s , meetings, c i r c l e s , choir practice or other church-sponsored a c t i v i t i e s ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ *3. Browsing In l i b r a r y , attending le c t u r e , going to a museum, ar t g a l l e r y , symphony, e t c . (Choose by three-hour s t r i p s ) *4. Taking part In l i t t l e theater, symphony orchestra, operetta, in t e r p r e t a t i v e dance, etc. (Use f u l l two hours) *5. Attending regular Sunday church services (Choose by two- i iour s t r i p s ) 6. Acting, pa i n t i n g , w r i t i n g , composing, playing an In-strument, singing, e t c . (Choose as many single hours aa you wish) 7. Taking a correspondence course or following your own program of study (Choose by three-hour s t r t r i ) 8. (specify other) THINGS WITH FAMILY (Chosfe as oany slr.r,lc t.o»rs »» you Wi$h) 1. A c t i v i t i e s around home with children or grandchildren (playing games, helping with home-work, teaching or helping with sewing, woodworking, etc.) 2 . (Choose by three-hour s t r i p s ) T r i p with children or grandchildren to l i b r a r y , movies, zoo, f a i r , c i r c u s , e t c . *3. Family outing ( p i c n i c , etc.) (Choose by four-hour s t r i p s ) (Choose by two-hour s t r i p s ) *4. Taking a family drive i n the car (Choose as many single hours as you wish) 5. Telephoning or w r i t i n g l e t t e r s to RELATIVES (Choose by two-hour s t r i p s ) 6. V i s i t i n g with RELATIVES (specify other) SOCIAL ACTIVITIES (Choose as eia.-iy s i n g l e hours as you wish) t . T e l e p h o n i n g o r w r i t i n g l e t t e r s t o FRIENDS 2 . V i s i t i n g In the neighborhood *3. S o c i a l I t l n g i n your house o r f r i e n d ' s house. ( G e t t i n g t o g e t h e r f o r c o f f e e , g o i n g to a t e a , c o c k t a i l p a r t y , e t c . ) *4. E v e n i n g a t f r i e n d s ' house ( d i n n e r and v i s i t i n g , p o s s i b l y p l a y i n g c a r d s ) , OR e n t e r t a i n i n g f r i e n d s a t your house f o r e v e n i n g * 5 . C c t t i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h boys ( p o k e r , b u l l s e s s i o n , e t c . ) OR g e t t i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h g i r l i ( b r i d g e , hen p a r t y , e t c . ) ' *6. Square d a n c i n g or o t h e r com-munity dance, p i c n i c , supper and s i m i l a r s o c i a l s (Choose as many s i n g l e hours as you wish) 7. Spendlr.8 an a f t e r n o o n o r e v e n i n g a t the c l u b 8. '  ( s p e c i f y o t h e r ) (Choose by two-hour s t r i p s ) (Choose by f o u r - h o u r s t r i p s ) 1 IICMATIOS AND RELAXATION A. I n d l v l d u a 1 A c t i v i t y (Chocsc as ratty s i n g l e hours as ysu wish) 1. R e l a x i n g , nap- I j i i i p i n g , l o o k i n g through paper , o r magazine 2 . Watching TV o r l i s t e n i n g t o r a d i o 3. Reading book, p l a y i n g m u s i c a l I n s t r u m e n t , s i n g -i n g , l i s t e n i n g t o r e c o r d s ( f o r r e l a x a t i o n ) 4. Hobbies such as g a r d e n i n g , s e w i n g , c r a f t s , woodworking, b i r d w a t c h i n g B. I n d i v i d u a l or Shared A c t i v i t y 5. W a l k i n g , s t r o l l i n g o r window shopping ( j u s t l o o k i n g ) (Choose by three-hour s t r i p s ) *6. Movies *7» G o i n g t o a p l a y , band c o n c e r t , e t c . m I-I *8. Evening out ( d i n n e r , dance, d r o p p i n g i n a t n i g h t s p o t s ) . 9. D r i v i n g a r o u n d , s t o p p i n g a t d r l v e - l n , d r o p p i n g i n f o r a b e e r , e t c . (Choose as many s i n g l e hours as you wish) 10. ( s p e c i f y o t h e r ) ' RECREATION AND RELAXATION (CONT.) C. A c t i v e R e c r e a t i o n & S p o r t s 1. Scrub b a l l , p l a y i n g c a t c h , s h o o t i n g b a s k e t s , p a s s i n g U k i c k i n g f o o t b a l l , h o r s e -shoes * 2 . I n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s such as h a n d b a l l , squash, b o w l i n g 3. Workout i n gym, t r a c k , Judo, w r e s t l i n g , b o x i n g (Choose as many s i n g l e hours as you wish) (Choose by two-hrur s t r i p s ) (Choose as many s i n g l e hours as you wish) (Choose by three-hour s t r i p s S e a s o n a l s p o r t s - - s t a m p s can r e f e r t o s e v e r a l s p o r t s a c c o r d i n g to season. Check s p o r t s you are ch o o s i n g • C o i f l ~ I B o a t i n g , l n c l . G o l f _ w a t e r s k U n g [~"| T e n n i s S k a t i n g • S w i p i n g X f - l n g P l a y i n g on a team ( s o f t b a l l , bowling,! o t h e r ) *6. Going t o b a s e b a l l , f o u t h j l l , b a s k e t -b a l l game, hockey game, e t c . *7. "Going to f i g h t s , r a c e s , t e n n i s matches, g o l f tournaments 8. ' ( s p e c i f y o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n o r s p o r t s ) CLUB AND ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITIES (Choose by two-hour s t r i p s ) *1. C l u b s f o r hob b l e s &. s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s (garden c l u b , a l u m n i c l u b s , c r a f t s , e t c . ) * 2 . V e t e r a n s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e i r a u x i l i a r i e s , D.A.R., and o t h e r p a t r i o t i c groups) *3. Groups i n t e r e s t e d i n advance-ment of human o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e (peace, economic o p p o r t u n i t y , human r i g h t s , e t c . ) *U. A t t e n d i n g meetings o f c i v i c c l u b ( R o t a r y , A l t r u s a , e t c . ) or f r a t e r n a l group o r i t s a u x i l i a r y (Mason, E a s t e r n S t a r , E l k s , P.O.E., e t c . ) S. ( s p e c i f y o t h e r ) 137 / SERVICE AND CIVIC AFFAIRS ACTIVITIES (Choose by two-hour s t r i p s ) * 1 . H e l p i n g out on o c c a s i o n a l worthy p r o j e c t s ( f u n d - r a i s i n g , such as U n i t e d Fund, L i t t l e League, f i x i n g up t o y s , e t c . ) I I 2. Regular v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e (Scouts 1 and s i m i l a r young people's a c t i v i t i e s ; I h o s p i t a l a u x i l i a r y ; r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g I f o r c h i l d r e n of d e p r i v e d f a m i l i e s , e t c , ) _ (Choose by three-hour s t r i p s ) *3. C i v i c i n t e r e s t a c t i v i t i e s (League o f Women V o t e r s , Good Government, Neighborhood Improvement A s s o c i a t i o n , Taxpayers League, e t c . ) I l l *4. P o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s (campaigning, p r e c i n c t work, v o l u n t e e r time a t p a r t y h e a d q u a r t e r s , e t c . ) 5. Running f c r o f f i c e and s e r v i n g term i n e l e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s (not . as f u l l - time j ob) *6. S e r v i n g on a p p o i n t i v e c i t y , county, or s t a t e boards, commissions, . a d v i s o r y committees (not as a f u l l - t i m e j o b) 7. ( s p e c i f y o t h e r ) OTHER ACTIVITIES NOT ELSEWHERE COVERED ( s p e c i f y type) ( s p e c i f y type) 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094409/manifest

Comment

Related Items