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Assessment of selected social data collection techniques for use in urban public recreation planning Mak, Eunice Hoi-Cheung 1978

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ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED SOCIAL DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES FOR USE I N URBAN P U B L I C -RECREATION PLANNING by EUNICE, HOI-CHEUNG, [ M A K B.A. ( H o n s . ) j U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i , 1975  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1978 ©  E u n i c e , H o i - C h e u n g , Mak, 1978  i i ABSTRACT ASSESSMENT OF FOR  USE  SELECTED SOCIAL DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES I N URBAN P U B L I C RECREATION PLANNING  R e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s s e r v i n g l o c a l .governments a r e f a c e d w i t h p r o b l e m s i n s e l e c t i n g d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , and guidance  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  can  find  field  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and  several techniques  conceptual c r i t e r i a . reliability,  The  of use,  extent to which  ent types of  results  i n d i v i d u a l ' s and  e x i s t i n g and  technical  considerations include cost, e t h i c a l and  political  related  and  accuracy  i s s u e s , and  to p u b l i c  data  literature. recreation  community's needs, a s c e r t a i n i n g  the  p o t e n t i a l users are being served, attempting and  a n a l y s i s of p r e f e r e n c e s f o r  i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r most p u r p o s e s  of t e c h n i q u e s  the s t r e n g t h s of another. on t h e p u r p o s e s  and  i n order to balance The  be  i t will  be n e c e s s a r y  to  differ-  of each c r i t e r i o n  I t i s suggested  inexpensive.  In t h i s s t r a t e g y the  a n s w e r e d and  against depends  starting  e a c h s t a g e s h o u l d be u s e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e o p t i o n s f o r t h e n e x t t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t n e e d t o be  use  that i n general  to choose techniques s e q u e n t i a l l y ,  t h a t a r e m o s t f l e x i b l e and  to  t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f one  r e l a t i v e importance  c o n t e x t of the study.  the best s t r a t e g y w i l l  by d e f i n i n g  has  recreation.  a combination  of  i t appears  r e c e i v e at l e a s t passing a t t e n t i o n i n the  p r e d i c t changes i n l e i s u r e b e h a v i o u r ,  those  i s b a s e d on  considerations that are s p e c i f i c a l l y  include identifying  The  The  i n s t a g e s , because each technique  investigated  technical  flexibility  v a l i d i t y — m a t t e r s which Conceptual  using  shortcomings.  Assessment of the techniques  and  useful  informants.  c o n c l u s i o n i s that, f o r ' most u r b a n community p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s  significant  little  A range of techniques have been assessed  the s o c i a l s c i e n c e l i t e r a t u r e ,  a p p r o p r i a t e t o use  difficult  with  results stage,  the probable v a l u e  of  i i i t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by The  first  alternative  s t a g e s h o u l d be u s e  techniques. of secondary  i n f o r m a n t s , b e c a u s e o f t h e l o w c o s t and C a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n and are r e l a t i v e l y  dialectical  i n e x p e n s i v e and  s o u r c e s , documented d a t a  flexibility  scanning  of these  techniques.  s h o u l d be u s e d n e x t , b e c a u s e  f l e x i b l e and  have the c a p a b i l i t y of  out the d a t a r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g the r e s e a r c h purposes i n t o f o c u s . o f t h i s s t a g e s h o u l d d e f i n e d a t a n e e d s and that permits informed  research constraints  judgement about which,  cated techniques are a p p r o p r i a t e or necessary The  i f any,  and  f o r the p l a n n i n g  rounding The  in a  o f t h e more  they  outcome form  sophisti-  purposes.  s t r e n g t h s o f t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e a r e t h a t i t g i v e s a com-  prehensive p i c t u r e of present  recreation activities,  and  identifies character-  istics  o f n o n - u s e r s as w e l l as u s e r s o f l o c a l p u b l i c r e c r e a c t i o n o p p o r t u n i -  ties.  T r a d e - o f f games do w h a t o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s  tic  statements  producing  of preferences.  a c c u r a t e usage d a t a .  i n v e s t i g a t e implementation p l a n has  been d e f i n e d .  t h e f u t u r e , and  their  The  a secondary  function.  and  Delbecq  to  i s a technique  t h a t i s used  problems once a d e s i r a b l e program or D e l p h i technique can e x p l o r e l i k e l y f o r present decisions.  a planning technique  c a n e a s i l y and  scanning.  g e n e r a l s t r a t e g y o m i t s many i m p o r t a n t  scale citizen  of informants  statement  of the d i f f e r e n t  w h i c h p l a n n e r s m u s t know i n o r d e r t o c h o o s e t h e b e s t c o m b i n a t i o n recreation planning task.  changes i n  and  i n e x p e n s i v e l y accommodate  This brief  qualities  Full  specific  i n which data c o l l e c t i o n i s  However, i t n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s use  dialectical  realisof  c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , and D e l p h i , Delbecq  in eliciting  C o n t r o l l e d observations are capable  implications  participation i s basically  cannot,  of  the  techniques, for a  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Abstract  i  Table of Contents List  of Tables  List  of Figures  i i v  v i i and I l l u s t r a t i o n s  viii  Acknowledgement  ix  PART I  1  CHAPTER I :  THE PROBLEM  1  Introduction Planning  1  w i t h i n t h e framework o f urban  Conceptual  and t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  evaluation  recreation  2  f o r the  of d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n techniques i n  recreation research  4  Conceptual  4  Technical The  concept  and  considerations considerations  8  o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n :  past,  future  Techniques  present 11  and m e t h o d o l o g i e s — a  comparison  15  Methodology of t h i s study  19  The  20  scope o f t h e study  Brief  o u t l i n e of the thesis report  PART I I  21 21  A N A L Y S I S OF SELECTED DATA-COLLECTION TECHNIQUES  21  Introduction  21  Summary o f c r i t e r i a  22  The  23  R i l e y P a r k community  V CHAPTER I I :  THE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE TECHNIQUE  28  Introduction  28  The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e  28  Closed-ended  and open-ended q u e s t i o n s  35  Closed-ended  questions  36  Open-ended  questions  Summary  37 38  CHAPTER I I I :  GROUP INTERACTION  40  Introduction  40  Group i n t e r a c t i o n  40  Full scale citizen participation  45  Dialectical  scanning  48  The D e l b e c q  technique  53  Summary CHAPTER I V :  61 SECONDARY DATA  62  Introduction  62  Secondary sources  62  Documented  69  data  I n t e r v i e w s o f " e x p e r t s " and " i n f o r m a n t s  72  Summary  76  CHAPTER V:  F I E L D METHODS  77  Introduction  77  F i e l d methods  77  Participant observation  82  Non-participant observation  84  Summary  86  CHAPTER V I :  GAMING  Introduction  87 87  vi Gaming Trade-off  87 games  93  The d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e  97  Summary  100  PART I I I  1  CHAPTER V I I :  SUMMARY OF FINDINGS  0  1  101  Introduction  101  Summary o f f i n d i n g s  101  Secondary data  101  Observation  103  technique  Group i n t e r a c t i o n  104  Delphi technique  105  Survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e  107  Trade-off  108  games  Summary CHAPTER V I I I :  H I CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Introduction  112 112  Conclusions  H2  Recommendations A strategy proposal f o r s e l e c t i o n of i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g and r e s e a r c h  114 techniques 116  Summary  H7  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX I APPENDIX I I APPENDIX I I I  H9 125 I i  3  3  0  3  vii L I S T OF TABLES  T a b l e 1:  T a b l e 2:  T a b l e 3:  Sources of n o n - i n t e r v i e w s i n the R i l e y Park n e e d s s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n 1977  community  Comparative a n a l y s i s of s e l e c t e d technical criteria  techniques to the  Comparative a n a l y s i s of s e l e c t e d conceptual c r i t e r i a  techniques to the  32  109  110  viii L I S T OF FIGURES AND  ILLUSTRATIONS  Diagram  1:  Map  1:  C i t y of Vancouver  Map  2:  The R i l e y P a r k N I P a r e a  25  Map  3:  Neighborhood  26  Illustration  Illustration  Conceptual diagram of the d e f i n i t i o n of methodology  1:  2:  ...  and t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP a r e a  parks i n the R i l e y Park  17 24  Community S u r v e y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h e E x p a n s i o n o f R i l e y Park  67  R e s u l t s o f Community S u r v e y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h e E x p a n s i o n o f R i l e y P a r k R e c r e a t i o n Complex  68  ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would  like  t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e many p e o p l e who  h a v e a s s i s t e d me i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s I am m o s t g r a t e f u l  thesis.  t o P r o f e s s o r Henry Hightower  i n s p i r a t i o n a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t h e h a s g i v e n me.  f o r the guidance,  H i s e x p e r t i s e and i n s i g h t s  have been v i t a l t o t h e development o f t h e concepts i n t h e t h e s i s . f r o m R i c h a r d D u k e , "no b e t t e r t e a c h e r h a d e v e r come my way." like  To b o r r o w  I would  also  t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r Brahm W i e s m a n a n d P r o f e s s o r J o h n L a r s e n f o r t h e i r  constructive c r i t i c i s m s during the f i n a l stages ofpreparation. L a r r y B e a s l e y and K a r i H u t h a l a o f t h e R i l e y P a r k N.I.P. P l a n n i n g O f f i c e were most h e l p f u l i n p r o v i d i n g t h e b a c k g r o u n d  m a t e r i a l about  Riley  and have a l s o g e n e r o u s l y s h a r e d t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e community. Ostrom and Kim M u l l i n o f t h e Vancouver assisted  Board  Park, Brock  o f P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n have  i n the examination of l e i s u r e opportunities i n R i l e y Park.  Betty  Backman a n d M i c h a e l S z a z z o f t h e N . I . P . c i t i z e n s p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e w e r e very u s e f u l resource persons.  S a r a h M e l l o r h a s b e e n i n v a l u a b l e t o my  a n a l y s i s o f t h e " R i l e y P a r k Community A special in  Survey."  thank y o u goes t o J a n i c e D o y l e  t y p i n g and e d i t i n g  the thesis.  f o r t h e f i n e j o b s h e h a s done  A l t h o u g h t o o numerous t o m e n t i o n  names,  many f r i e n d s a n d c o l l e a g u e s h a v e b e e n a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e o f s t i m u l a t i o n t o me. My l o v e a n d a f f e c t i o n t o my p a r e n t s a n d f a m i l y d o n e f o r me a n d f o r t h e i r c o n c e r n a n d f a i t h  f o r e v e r y t h i n g they have  i n me.  L a s t , b u t n o t l e a s t , my g r a t i t u d e t o my h u s b a n d B e n s o n , f o r h i s p a t i e n c e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and t h e m o r a l s u p p o r t he h a s p r o v i d e d d u r i n g t h e study  period.  1 PART I  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  The  problem In  has  r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h and  p l a n n i n g , the survey  questionnaire  technique  b e e n m o s t w i d e l y u s e d , w h e r e a s o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s o r more  v i a b l e means o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a r e n o t  explored.  However, e x p e r i e n c e  and  g e n e r a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y l i t e r a t u r e h a v e shown t h a t a r e many d i s a d v a n t a g e s  relating  most s u i t a b l e a p p r o a c h t o use g u i d e l i n e s c a n be supply,  and  i n leisure studies.  e s t a b l i s h e d to d i r e c t necessary  i t i s important  conducting  to this) techniques,  and  i t may  In order  This thesis,  n o t be  t h a t new  be  policy  t h a t fundamental bases f o r d i f f e r e n t approaches f o r  f o r use  by  local authorities,  s h o u l d n o t be  be  to  chosen f o r a p a r t i c u l a r  recreation planning  refine  overlooked.  t h e r e f o r e , i n v e s t i g a t e s ways i n w h i c h t h e r i g h t d a t a  t e c h n i q u e may  the  changes i n r e c r e a t i o n  r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h , the main o b j e c t of which w i l l  propose t o o l s  there  collection  purpose.  Introduction The  major s u b j e c t of the f i r s t  on l e i s u r e and  p a r t i s the development of a  on u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g .  c i s m o f c u r r e n t r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , and  statement  r e c r e a t i o n programmes, w h i c h p r o v i d e c r i t e r i a t i o n techniques.  These c r i t e r i a  for  those which are s p e c i f i c a l l y  p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n systems.  i n a review of the l i t e r a t u r e  includes a  criti-  of g o a l s f o r p u b l i c  f o r e v a l u a t i o n of d a t a  collec-  are d i v i d e d i n t o t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  t h o s e a p p l i c a b l e t o r e s e a r c h t o o l s i n any tions,  This context  viewpoint  related  c o n t e x t , and  conceptual  to the context of l o c a l  consideraplanning  I n the second p a r t t h i s background i s used on s e l e c t e d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s ,  h i g h l i g h t s of p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e  i n a l o c a l area.  In the l a s t  part  with  2 c o n c l u s i o n s from t h i s e x p e r i e n c e and t h e l i t e r a t u r e a r e p u l l e d a p r o c e d u r a l guide f o r s e l e c t i o n of data c o l l e c t i o n  together into  techniques f o r l o c a l  recreation planning objectives.  P l a n n i n g w i t h i n t h e framework of urban D u r i n g t h e l a s t decade,  recreation  t h e r e has developed an i n c r e a s i n g awareness  the  need f o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h .  the  American Outdoor  The i m p r e s s i v e v o l u m e o f r e s e a r c h f r o m  R e c r e a t i o n Resources  R e v i e w C o m m i s s i o n s was a n  undoubted  s t i m u l u s t o many i n d i v i d u a l s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o b l e m s r u r a l and u r b a n r e c r e a t i o n . Cracknell  of  Other s t u d i e s , such as those conducted  ( 1 9 6 7 ) , Gans ( 1 9 5 7 ) , H e n d r i c k s  of  by  (1971), Marc e t . a l . (1972),  Mercer  ( 1 9 7 3 ) , a n d many o t h e r s h a v e p r o v i d e d a b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e s u p p l y a n d demand f o r d i f f e r e n t the in  facilities.  However, t h e s e e a r l y s t u d i e s '  use o f e x i s t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s has l i m i t e d the f i e l d  on c a t c h m e n t  results  Most o f these s t u d i e s have c o n c e n t r a t e d  a r e a s , modes o f t r a v e l ,  and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e  Some h a v e p r o b e d  o f management.  a single facility  the capacity of f a c i l i t i e s  W h i l e t h e s e s t u d i e s t h r o w some l i g h t  or f o r type of f a c i l i t y ,  centers, they remain i s o l a t e d parts In  the usefulness of their  on  of r e c r e a t i o n planning.  users themselves. forms  emphasis  under  varying  o n t h e demand f o r  s u c h as swimming p o o l s o r s p o r t s  i n the t o t a l p i c t u r e of l e i s u r e  demand.  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f r e c r e a t i o n demand i s a m a j o r  area of  r e s e a r c h which had o f t e n been n e g l e c t e d , d e s p i t e t h e r a p i d upsurge of i n t e r e s t and i n v o l v e m e n t o f a g r o w i n g body o f r e s e a r c h e s drawn from a v a r i e t y of  disciplines.  S c a r c e l y any s e r i o u s work has been u n d e r t a k e n i n t o  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g r e c r e a t i o n c h o i c e . attitudes, personality  traits,  the socio-  Social  home a n d w o r k e n v i r o n m e n t , a n d p h y s i c a l  health  may d e t e r m i n e a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e c r e a t i o n c h o i c e — o r i n d e e d , o p t i n g o u t o f any r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e o f l e i s u r e  time a t a l l .  The c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p r o b l e m  ./  3 is  increased  when i t i s r e c o g n i z e d  c h a n g i n g and  that  this  i s an  that patterns  of r e c r e a t i o n are  constantly-  a r e a of community l i f e where i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e  predominates. Furthermore, urban l i f e styles that r e f l e c t ties.  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  the  an u r b a n p e r s o n ' s l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s r e f l e c t which comprise urban l i f e . i s an  complexities  diverse backgrounds, d e s i r e s , expectations,  B e y o n d t h e n e e d f o r s u r v i v a l and  recreation"  the  same v a r i e t y a s  Consequently, the n o t i o n  e l u s i v e concept.  c o n s t i t u t e urban r e c r e a t i o n s t i l l  The  b a f f l e researchers  that  of the  opportuni-  and  family,  other  of " p u b l i c  many a c t i v i t i e s  life-  and  demands o f o c c u p a t i o n the  of  elements  urban  commonly area.  Davis  said:  The p l a c e t o s t a r t [ i n p l a n n i n g ] i s t o r e c o g n i z e and f u l l y accept the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the f a c t t h a t the c i t y h o l d s a w i d e s p e c t r u m o f s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , r a c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l backgrounds. The r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m s h o u l d r e f l e c t t h e d i v e r s i t y and be e q u a l l y b r o a d . ( D a v i s , 1967, p. 27) Gold ties,  ( 1 9 7 5 ) e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e n o n - u s e o f many p u b l i c l e i s u r e  e s p e c i a l l y urban parks,  can  r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s which are Or,  simply,  resulted  the  goal  and  value  be  a t t r i b u t e d to the  d i f f e r e n c e s between the  o b j e c t i v e s of the  public  i r r e l e v a n t t o c o m m u n i t y n e e d s and  i n the m i s a l l o c a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e  t h e p u r p o s e s and  c r e a t i o n of  facili-  resources.  desires.  s u p p l i e r and  user  Pollock stated  community r e c r e a t i o n s y s t e m s h o u l d  have that  be:  '(1) t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h o s e s e r v i c e s w h i c h a l l o w i t s c l i e n t e l e t o f u l f i l l t h e i r l e i s u r e d e s i r e s ; (2) t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s d e s i r e d by t h e c o m m u n i t y a r e s u p p l i e d t h r o u g h t h e s e c t o r w h i c h i s m o s t c a p a b l e o f i t s d e l i v e r y , and t h a t t h e s e s e r v i c e s provided through the s u p p l i e r s w i l l i n c r e a s e , to the g r e a t e s t e x t e n t p o s s i b l e , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l uses of l e i s u r e time. ( P o l l o c k , 1970, p. 6) Despite researchers, on  and  i m p o r t a n t s e n t i m e n t s e x p r e s s e d by  recreation planners s t i l l  opportunities  motivations are  the v a l i d  that w i l l  of the  often diverse  satisfy  the  face  and  the dilemma of h a v i n g to  goals, values,  people they are planning  various  expectations,  decide and  f o r , even though these v a r i a b l e s  sometimes c o n t r a d i c t o r y .  The  s u c c e s s o f any  public  4 l e i s u r e p l a n n i n g may d e p e n d o n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f u r b a n styles,  the importance  d e c i s i o n making.  be  provided.  Who i s b e i n g  o f user o r i e n t a t i o n , and t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r c o o p e r a t i v e  However, m e r e l y  p l a n n e r s may s t i l l  life-  be u n a b l e  realizing  t o determine  i s not s u f f i c i e n t .  Recreation  t h e most s u i t a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o  Do we know t h e l a t e n t a n d p o t e n t i a l n e e d s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y ? s e r v e d a n d who i s b e i n g  v a r i a b l e s determine  left  out?  What s o c i a l a n d i n d i v i d u a l  the users' choices of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ?  What a r e  the g u i d e l i n e s f o r f u t u r e a l l o c a t i o n of resources w i t h t h e e f f e c t s of l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s ? be  addressed  i n any r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t r e l a t i n g  p l a n n i n g , and thus  they a f f e c t  of v a r i o u s d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n  Conceptual techniques The two  t o p u b l i c urban r e c r e a t i o n advantages and  disadvantages  techniques.  c a n be measured by i t s a b i l i t y  categories of considerations:  facilities,  c o n c e p t u a l and t e c h n i c a l  v a r i a b l e s d e a l w i t h i s s u e s such  other research  and r e l i a b i l i t y  to satisfy factors.  as needs assessment, s u p p l y o f  c o g n i t i v e p r e f e r e n c e s , and f u t u r e p r o j e c t i o n s .  to costs, accuracy  Conceptual  must  and t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n i n recreation research  Conceptual  refer  the comparative  usefulness of a technique  broad  These and o t h e r s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s  techno-  Technical  concerns  o f d a t a , f l e x i b i l i t y o f u s e , and  problems.  considerations  One o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t  questions  "What a r e t h e n e e d s o f t h e p e o p l e Baumheier e t . a l . (1975) s u g g e s t e d  t o be c o n s i d e r e d  i s undoubtedly:  i n the s p e c i f i c area being  served?".  that:  . . . needs assessment can p r o v i d e a wide range o f i n f o r m a t i o n , a l l o f w h i c h has an impact on p l a n n i n g and r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s and w h i c h c a n p r o v i d e d a t a f o r e v a l u a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l . I t i n c l u d e s i n a d d i t i o n t o problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a  5 review o f t h e reasons f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a problem, such as systems f e a t u r e s which lead t o u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , community i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w , and u n a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l obstacles t o problem s o l u t i o n . (Baumheier e t . a l , 1975, p. 1 0 9 ) Needs a s s e s s m e n t , t h e n , c a n p r o v i d e problem-oriented data.  valuable  I t e n t a i l s more t h a n g a t h e r i n g  is  t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h a t d a t a so t h a t  on  t h e r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n and p l a n n i n g  while as  that the  some o f t h e n e e d s a r e i d e n t i f i e d  the s i z e of population,  the  information  process.  In recreation  life-styles  q u a l i t a t i v e ones, help  planning, such  t o q u a l i t a t i v e concerns  (which i n f l u e n c e  t o which an i n d i v i d u a l i s i n t r o d u c e d ) , experience.  impact  a v a i l a b l e , and  o f a v a i l a b l e r e c r e a t i o n time, income,  perhaps e a r l y childhood  data; i t  from q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  t h e i r m o b i l i t y , the opportunities  range of s e r v i c e d e s i r e d ,  recreation activity  and a n a l y z i n g  i t w i l l h a v e maximum  r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , emphasis must be d i r e c t e d r e l a t e to patterns  o v e r and above  occupation,  the types of motivations  and  These v a r i a b l e s , b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e and  t o determine t h e r e c r e a t i o n needs o f t h e urban  community, and c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e p e r s o n a l  s a t i s f a c t i o n s of the residents  involved.  subjective  While s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a highly  m e a s u r a b l e , i t may b e p o s s i b l e report  by the United  stated  that  (1)  there  States  are three  to define  concept and n o t e a s i l y  and measure l e i s u r e needs.  A 1974  Department o f h o u s i n g and Urban Development categories  of needs:  What a r e t h e n e e d s ? What do we know o f t h e l e i s u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y ? the  services  sufficiently  being s a t i s f i e d ?  Within  a r e m u l t i p l e and d i v e r s e . cultural activities;  health,  for?  How a r e r e c r e a t i o n  the urban context,  recreation  Some o f them c o u l d  and p a r k l a n d s .  exercise,  needs  preferences  be i n t h e f o r m o f  a r t programmes; s p o r t s ; m u s i c and  playgrounds; t o t - l o t s ; education,  provided  Are  Recreation  theatre;  may a l s o  encompass  c r e a t i v e p u r s u i t s , and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n .  6 L e i s u r e n e e d s , t h e r e f o r e , a r e c o m p l e x and h i g h l y Neighborhoods d i f f e r attempts to explore must n o t be (2)  diversified.  i n t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f o r a n y p l a n n e r t h e r e c r e a t i o n needs of a community,  who  t h i s dichotomy  neglected.  Where a r e t h e n e e d s ? Where t h e n e e d s a r e d e p e n d s g r e a t l y on t h e m o b i l i t y , i n t e r e s t s , and financial  f a c t o r s of the population.  The  i d e a l w o u l d be f o r an  optimum b a l a n c e between t h e s e r v i c e s d e s i r e d , and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y involved if  to acquire  not impossible,  these s e r v i c e s . to achieve.  However,  this  i s often  difficult,  The b e s t t h a t c a n b e d o n e , w i t h  p r e s e n t scope of knowledge, i s t o i n d i c a t e the needs a c c o r d i n g sub-groups.  Pre-schoolers,  f o r example, r e q u i r e  c l o s e t o home, p r e f e r a b l y w i t h i n t h e e y e s i g h t t e e n a g e r s , i t may  (3)  the to  facilities  that are  of the mother.  For the  mean a maximum o f t h i r t y m i n u t e s w a l k i n g  or b i c y c l i n g  travelling  time distance.  F o r t h e p o o r and u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d ,  facilities  m u s t be l o c a t e d  close to public t r a n s i t  old  cost  lines,  the  and f o r t h e  and h a n d i c a p p e d , w i t h i n t h e i r a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g .  When a r e t h e n e e d s ? "If  r e c r e a t i o n i s t o be t r u l y  an i n t e g r a l p a r t  i s year round, a f t e r work, a f t e r s c h o o l , Recreation  restrictions,  and a v a i l a b l e a t any p e r i o d  served  (Outdoor  a l s o means  o f t h e day.  recreation planners with  properly?".  The a v a i l a b i l i t y  b y t h e d i s c u s s i o n on " w h a t " , " w h e r e " , citizens'  This  the need  m u s t be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e , f r e e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l  (1975) has c o n f r o n t e d  are not being  and o n t h e w e e k e n d s . "  R e s o u r c e R e v i e w C o m m i s s i o n , U.S.A., 1962)  that the f a c i l i t i e s  Gold  of urban l i f e ,  of opportunity,  and "when", o f t h e n e e d s ,  r e c r e a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as does p e r s o n a l  p u b l i c programs and f a c i l i t i e s  the question,  are i n s t i g a t e d with  wealth.  "Who  a s i s shown  limits  A l t h o u g h most  the p u b l i c i n mind, i t i s  7 likely  t h a t some p e o p l e  t i o n s such  are b e t t e r served  as i n c o m e , h e a l t h , and  one's l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s a r e . f i n a n c i a l resources full  and  who  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any  available.  To  be  q u e s t i o n s such  For  "Who  s o l v i n g these questions  have  limited  are not  "Who  s h o u l d we  properly served?".  be  answer  planning  I t i s only  t h a t t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r w o u l d be  able to  facilities  t o be  g i v e n to whether there are  t h e s u p p l y , o r w h e t h e r some f a c i l i t i e s  their  d e s p i t e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  r e c r e a t i o n s t u d y must s e e k t o  planning for?",  c o n s i d e r a t i o n m u s t a l s o be  what  i n i l lh e a l t h , the chances f o r  a c t i o n s i n t e r m s o f p r o g r a m s , s e r v i c e s , and  Similarly, in  any  restric-  to a large extent  p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n are low,  a r e we  Individual  t h e s e n i o r c i t i z e n s who  h a p p e n t o be  f o r ? " , b u t more i m p o r t a n t l y , "Who  proper  education determine  truly effective,  as:  than others.  by  devise provided.  surpluses  a r e p r o v i d e d more e x c e s s i v e l y t h a n  others. Besides  k n o w i n g t h e n e e d s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n and  t h e c u r r e n t p r o v i s i o n s y s t e m , p l a n n e r s m u s t a l s o be v a l u e s , g o a l s , and  preferences  r e c r e a t i o n p l a n s do n o t  be  over  non-existent.  f r o m now  m u s t be  By  l o o k i n g a t t h e p a s t and  concerned  w i t h , and  t h u s , "What do we  expected  changes  i t i s not  Leisure  unforseeable  that are  But  currently  may  perhaps  i t i s the  know a b o u t f u t u r e  f r o m now?".  prophets  be  future  Gold  also  assume a n u n w a r r a n t e d e m p h a s i s  t o be  or  t h a t were h i g h l y  p r e s e n t , we  u n l i m i t e d g r o w t h , o r i n c r e a s i n g i n c o m e s and  r e c r e a t i o n planners are not  changing  or v a l u e s . "  Activities  f o r the f u t u r e .  a r g u e d t h a t most r e c r e a t i o n p l a n s s t i l l  in  ( 1 9 7 7 ) s t a t e d t h a t "most  a t p r e s e n t , and  l e i s u r e preferences perhaps ten to f i f t e e n years  youth,  Gold  t h e r e w i l l be b e h a v i o r s  a b l e t o come up w i t h some s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t we  aware of t h e  technology  the y e a r s .  considered out-dated  t h a t even f i v e y e a r s almost  legislation,  i s c o n s t a n t l y changing  d e s i r a b l e may  that exists  a c k n o w l e d g e o r accommodate s i g n i f i c a n t  trends i n l e i s u r e l i f e s t y l e s , behavior  of the s o c i e t y .  t h e gap  mobility.  on  Although  o f t h e i r own  time,  they  8 must t r y t o p r o j e c t i n t o t h e f u t u r e by r e a l i z i n g a r e b y no means  static.  P l a n n e r s must be a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , led  t h a t l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n  besides  t h e a c t u a l demand f o r b o t h  t h e p e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r s t h a t have  to the s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with e x i s t i n g  supply.  In other  w o r d s , p l a n n e r s must be a b l e t o e v a l u a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n terms o f t h e users' cognitive preferences: the reasons  "How a r e t h e c h o i c e s b e i n g m a d e ? " , "What a r e  f o r t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f one f a c i l i t y  are the p r i o r i t i e s  among d i f f e r e n t  over  t h e o t h e r ? " , a n d "What  opportunities?".  how c h o i c e s a r e made b y t h e u s e r s a r e m o r e c a p a b l e  P l a n n e r s who  of assessing  understand  potential  l e i s u r e needs and t h e d e f i c i e n c y w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  Technical considerations In  a d d i t i o n to the conceptual variables,  the usefulness of a research  t e c h n i q u e must be e v a l u a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o v a r i o u s t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T h e s e f a c t o r s a r e b y no means s p e c i f i c are a l l s i g n i f i c a n t collection  concerns  techniques  to recreation planning.  In fact,  they  when c o m p a r i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d a t a  f o r any r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e .  However, t h e i r  does depend on t h e c o n t e x t o f m u n i c i p a l l e i s u r e p l a n n i n g .  significance  There a r e f o u r  basic categories of t e c h n i c a l considerations: (1)  Costs: Some o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t  r e c r e a t i o n research are: "Is  considerations i n conducting  any m u n i c i p a l  "How much d o e s i t c o s t t o c a r r y o u t t h e p r o j e c t ? " ,  i t f e a s i b l e t o do i t ? " , a n d "What i s t h e f u n d i n g a v a i l a b l e ? " .  often related the r e s e a r c h .  to the resources A not unusual  and t h e p e r s o n n e l  that a r e r e q u i r e d t o conduct  s i t u a t i o n w o u l d h a v e one p l a n n e r  c a r r y o u t a p r o j e c t w i t h t h e a i d o f one o r two a s s i s t a n t s , resources  i n the range of  t e n thousand d o l l a r s .  Cost i s  assigned to  and f i n a n c i a l  Whatever t h e magnitudes,  9 u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e s m u s t be a b l e t o o b t a i n r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n constraints.  The  amount o f t i m e n e c e s s a r y  t h e c o s t f a c t o r as w e l l . t h e more c o s t l y  i t w i l l be.  Ideally,  i n p r o l o n g i n g the  t h e same t o k e n ,  best a v a i l a b l e .  that The  to  things that occur during a  study  process.  the technique  that costs least  What p l a n n e r s m u s t be a b l e t o do  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y  i s to i d e n t i f y  the  a knowledge o f what v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s  concepts,  t h e p l a n n e r i s more l i k e l y  c a n do.  Equipped  with  the  specific  i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s r e q u i r e d , h a v e a r o u g h e s t i m a t e o f t h e r e s o u r c e s and and  to  study,  i s one  r e s e a r c h , however, i s d i f f i c u l t  There are o f t e n unforeseeable  result By  t h e most u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e  a  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the s h o r t e s t p e r i o d of time.  e x a c t amount o f t i m e n e e d e d f o r a n y  which  a study i s r e l a t e d  O b v i o u s l y , the longer i t takes to conduct  y i e l d s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  predict.  to complete  these  costs,  these  t o come up w i t h t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e  technique r a t h e r than simply a p p l y i n g the cost f a c t o r  i n l i e u of o t h e r  consi-  derations . (2)  Validity,  reliability  and  By d e f i n i t i o n v a l i d i t y concepts  t h a t u n d e r l i e them.  accuracy:  refers  Or more s i m p l y , d o e s t h e i n s t r u m e n t  what i t i s supposed t o measure? o b t a i n i n g c o n s i s t e n t and procedure  i s replicated.  t o t h e c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n m e a s u r e s and  Reliability  i s related  assumes, t h e o r e t i c a l l y  t h e r e i s a t r u e v a l u e o f t h e phenomenon b e i n g m e a s u r e d . importance  of each f a c t o r  i s related  the a n t i c i p a t e d u t i l i z a t i o n definitions Similarly, of  reliability  be  and  are l e s s i n t e r e s t e d  argued  accuracy  collection  at l e a s t , The  that  degree of  to the types of i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d  of the data.  that are inherently d i f f i c u l t i t may  measure  to the prospects f o r  s i m i l a r m e a s u r e m e n t s when t h e d a t a Accuracy  the  "Validity"  ( c o n s t r u c t ) depends  or suspect  i n the l e i s u r e  t h a t f o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h purposes  i n absolute f i g u r e s than i n the comparative  on  area.  the  o f t h e d a t a i s much more f l e x i b l e s i n c e  and  level  planners  advantage  10 o f one s e r v i c e o v e r t h e o t h e r .  The r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s ,  however, v a r i e s between d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s . (3)  Flexibility  of use:  Flexibility  o f use and a d a p t a b i l i t y a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  commonly m e n t i o n e d i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e  research  literature.  urban l e i s u r e s t u d i e s , these f a c t o r s are worth considering. planners having  are required  t o come up w i t h  comprehensive p r e p a r a t i o n ,  extensive  therefore not appropriate. techniques only  Techniques that would  we a r e i m p l y i n g  to bring i n unanticipated  form o f o p t i m i z a t i o n c a n be a c h i e v e d .  appropriate  flexibility  i n a given  and r e s e a r c h e r s  data  that the they not  i f i ti s necessary. techniques  or insights.  I ti s ,  o f a way i n w h i c h some  Taking i n t o consideration a l l other  may s u g g e s t t h a t c e r t a i n t e c h n i q u e s  a r e more  situation.  E t h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l  considerations:  I n e v a l u a t i n g e t h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l comes t o m i n d i s " p r i v a c y . "  impacts,  one o f t h e m a i n i s s u e s  that  P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e r i g h t s and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e  s u b j e c t s must be one o f t h e p r i m a r y c o n c e r n s o f any r e s e a r c h e r . (1975) a r g u e s  require  analysis are  easy t o use and adapt, and t h a t  t h e r e f o r e , an i n d i c a t i o n t o p l a n n e r s  high  often,  i s r e l a t e d t o t h e open-endedness o f t h e  or t h e i r r e l a t i v e a b i l i t y  criteria,  Very  and recommendations  f u n c t i o n alone but are capable of working with others flexibility  I n terms o f  p r e - t e s t i n g , or complicated  By f l e x i b i l i t y ,  chosen a r e r e l a t i v e l y  Beyond t h i s ,  (4)  certain conclusions  a l i m i t e d amount o f t i m e a n d r e s o u r c e s .  that are not  Freeman  that:  the question i s not whether research operations v i o l a t e p r i v a c y , f o r many o f them d o . R a t h e r , t h e i s s u e s a r e w h e t h e r i t i s w o r t h i t , a n d w h e t h e r maximum s a f e g u a r d s h a v e b e e n t a k e n t o p r o t e c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s . ( p . 54) O t h e r s may a r g u e t h a t t h e v e r y data without  process of c o l l e c t i n g  t h e knowledge and p e r m i s s i o n  and s t o r i n g d e s c r i p t i v e  of the p a r t i e s involved  constitutes  11 an  Invasion  difficult  of i n d i v i d u a l privacy.  to resolve.  These i s s u e s a r e o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y and  The r e s e a r c h e r  needs a sense o f s e n s i t i v i t y  s u b j e c t s , a n d a t t h e same t i m e m u s t b e a b l e  to balance the costs against the  p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s s o t h a t a s e n s i b l e d e c i s i o n w i l l b e made. such as u s i n g  secondary data  s i v e than others.  and o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  They s h o u l d ,  i n v a s i o n o f p r i v a c y i s a major Political  t o these  Some  techniques,  are undoubtedly l e s s  t h e r e f o r e , have p r i o r i t y  intru-  over others i f  consideration.  factors often r e s t r i c t  or assist  i n t h e work t h a t planners  do.  Some i s s u e s may b e h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l , s u c h a s t h e c a s e w i t h h o u s i n g a n d income m i x .  A n d no m a t t e r how s o u n d a n u n p o p u l a r c o n c e p t may b e , p o l i t i c i a n s ,  who u s u a l l y h a v e t h e c o n t r o l l i n g p o w e r , m i g h t b a s e t h e i r d e c i s i o n s o n how the v o t e r s  feel.  In evaluating d i f f e r e n t techniques,  select those that w i l l  create  with h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e matters.  the least controversy  i t . i s advisable to  e s p e c i a l l y when  whether i t i s worth t h e p o l i t i c a l  h o w e v e r , i s e n t i r e l y up t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e p l a n n e r s ,  faced  risk,  and i n d i v i d u a l  circumstances.  The  concept o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n : A t t e m p t s b y many s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s  past,  present  and f u t u r e  to give a clear d e f i n i t i o n  meaning o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n have p r o v e n t o be f u t i l e . leisure or recreation?  I n d e e d , one h a s t o r e a l i z e  absolute  question,  define  answer t o t h i s  What i s i s no  j u s t as i t i s e q u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o  t h e concept of beauty o r happiness.  mean d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s  that there  to the  L e i s u r e a n d r e c r e a t i o n may  to d i f f e r e n t people.  T h u s , t o o n e p e r s o n i t may mean s o m e t h i n g g o o d , t o a n o t h e r something bad, t o one, something a c t i v e , t o another, something p a s s i v e , s t i l l t o another, something n o b l e and w o r t h w h i l e , while t o a n o t h e r something t o be frowned upon, n a y , immoral. ( N e u l i n g e r , 1 9 7 4 , p. 3)  12 I n t h i s s e c t i o n we z a t i o n of  leisure.  l e i s u r e and that  had  s h a l l be  We  s h a l l discuss  recreation  shaped the  dealing  over the  thought of  that  i s applicable  Attitudes structure  to the  as w e l l as  the  only  1962,  two  p.  13).  1977)  The  t e r m s o f r e s t and poraries.  recreation,  some o f  recreation.  r e l i g i o u s t r u t h and order to reach the  s a k e o r as  Similarly,  i t s own  end."  (de  being  music, because i t c u l t i v a t e s true  that  i s s h a r e d by  the  the  happiness. leisure in  many o f  our  a type of  greatly altered  the  C o n t e m p l a t i o n became s p e c i f i c a l l y  contem-  nonactivity,  concepts  of for  t h e r e b y a p a t h t o h a p p i n e s s ; h a r d w o r k was  needed  in  ultimate  that  goal  of  salvation.  Work, t h e r e f o r e ,  r e p e n t a n c e o r c h a r i t y , and  road to s a l v a t i o n . a l l must work, b u t  m u s t be  Thomas M o r e ' s U t o p i a ,  l e i s u r e to f r e e time.  the The  necessity  o f w o r k and  "work e t h i c " has  of w e s t e r n  fulfilled considered written  in  n o n e w o r k more t h a n s i x h o u r s a  i n t h e W e a l t h o f N a t i o n s , Adam S m i t h p r e s e n t e d t h e  thinking  characterized  search  w o r k s o c i e t y b a s e d on  shaping the  is  the  the  s u b o r d i n a t e to the indicated  the  its intrinsic qualities.  needs f o r s e l f - p u r i f i c a t i o n ,  1516,  l e i s u r e as  of L a t i n authors c o n c e p t u a l i z e d idea  state  a  both s o c i a l  c o n t e m p l a t i o n were c o n s i d e r e d as  e m e r g e n c e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y had  l e i s u r e and  as  an  will  o f b e i n g o c c u p i e d and  However, s u c h d e f i n i t i o n l a b e l s l e i s u r e as  thereby neglecting The  majority  we  Although  b e e n s h a p e d by  A r i s t o t l e defined  leisure:  judgements  research.  c o n t e m p l a t i o n , b e c a u s e i t l e a d s t o t r u t h and  (Neulinger,  d e f i n i t i o n s of  this thesis.  " f o r i t s own  M u s i c and  conceptuali-  predominant v a l u e  l e i s u r e had  necessity  the  changes i n the  used, i n conclusion  religious beliefs.  a c t i v i t i e s worthy of  m i n d , and  be  c o n t e x t of  performance of a c t i v i t y  Grazia,  the  problem of  contemporary r e c r e a t i o n  towards the meaning of  s t a t e of b e i n g f r e e from the by  briefly  the  years which are  number o f p l a u s i b l e d e f i n i t i o n s may one  with  society.  concept of  consequent r e s t r i c t i o n  t a k e n on  day.  a significant role  a  of in  13 In the  l a t e nineteenth  century,  great  s i o n of p u b l i c open space w i t h i n our l a r g e , was  still  t i m e and, Leisure  considered  as,  at worst, a period  Class  stated  that  shown f o r t h e  urban a r e a s , but  at best,  of  c o n c e r n was  r e c r e a t i o n , by  a creative period  idleness.  provi-  V e b l e n i n The  of  and  non-working  Theory of  the  l e i s u r e connotes:  . . . n o n - p r o d u c t i v e consumption of time. Time i s consumed non-productively (1) f r o m a s e n s e o f t h e u n w o r t h i n e s s o f p r o d u c t i v e w o r k , a n d ( 2 ) as an e v i d e n c e o f p e c u n i a r y a b i l i t y t o a f f o r d a l i f e of i d l e n e s s . ( 1 8 9 9 , p. 46) At  the  great  same t i m e , t h e u r b a n p a r k s and  to the  increase  early twentieth various  increase  The  While e a r l i e r pain  scientists  and  many o t h e r s w e r e r e f l e c t i o n s o f an  scholars  had  often  neglected  i n t h i s century are  the  i s often  considered  one's l i v i n g ,  b e e n met.  ( C l a w s o n , 1964;  o t h e r hand, i s the  use  passive  p r i m a r i l y as ent we  recreations. a relief  the  concept of  a r e s i d u a l and  can  basic  to recognize  mentary f a c e t s  of our  1961;  and  social  regarded  be  Recreation,  on  seen i n p r a c t i c e  t h i n k of  active  recreation  s t r a i n or u n p l e a s a n t n e s s of work.  But  have  n o n - a c t i v i t i e s , or conversely,  t h e m s e l v e s be  as  eating,  household duties  I t can  a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n w o r k and lives.  b e s t be  M o l y n e u x , 1970)  l e i s u r e time.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e c r e a t i o n can claim  leisure in  sleeping,  s o c i a l and  M o s t p e o p l e , h o w e v e r , may  from the  economic,  t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e , t h o u g h somewhat  and  to cover a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s and  i n the  importance of r e c r e a t i o n ,  Brightbill, of our  overall  recreation. as  travelling  the  society.  time a v a i l a b l e to a person a f t e r requirements of  earning  the  c h o o s e s and  discussed  the  able  a r b i t r a r i l y , b e t w e e n l e i s u r e and Leisure  one  of  t h a t were i n d i r e c t response  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l w h e r e w i t h a l of  generally  a r a p i d development  " C i t y B e a u t i f u l " movement,  i n t i m e a v a i l a b l e t o spend as  t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and  great  other f a c i l i t i e s  i n l e i s u r e time.  " P l a y g r o u n d " movement and  c e n t u r y saw  misleading.  The For  r e c r e a t i o n as  even the most s k e t c h y a n a l y s i s  apparinstance  comple-  possible  14 shows t h a t t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n Taylor the thought ing  i s , a t b e s t , o n l y a v e r y shaky  (1971) s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e v a l u e judgements t h a t of contemporary r e c r e a t i o n research.  positive effort  activities  or passive  involv-  ones.  T h i r d , i n r e c r e a t i o n , as i n l i f e  t h e i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d always be a i m i n g  o f performance.  t o improve h i s o r h e r  These v a l u e judgements, a c c o r d i n g t o T a y l o r , have  g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d t h e o v e r a l l aims o f r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y .  He s u g g e s t e d  q u a l i t y o r q u a n t i t y s h o u l d n o t always be o f prime i m p o r t a n c e , or i s not important  shaped  i n t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c  p u r s u i t , whether a c t i v e or p a s s i v e .  standard  First,  are superior to the contemplative  Second, t h e r e i s b e l i e f  generally,  assumption.  i n r e c r e a t i o n depends on t h e v i e w p o i n t  that  " f o r what i s  of the observer."  G r a y a l s o commented o n t h i s p o i n t : We m u s t g i v e more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n c o n c e p t a n d i m p r o v e our d e f i n i t i o n o f i t . C u r r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s i g n o r e and g i v e l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f r e c r e a t i o n . They are a l s o a c t i v i t y centered. D e f i n i t i o n s i n terms o f a c t i v i t i e s i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y b e c a u s e a g i v e n a c t i v i t y may p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n f o r one i n d i v i d u a l a n d n o t f o r t h e o t h e r . (1974, p. 3) To  p u t i t somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y ,  devote i n c r e a s i n g thought  Gray i s s u g g e s t i n g  t h a t i ti s time  to the r o l e r e c r e a t i o n services should play i n the  c o m m u n i t y a n d w h a t r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d mean t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . activities  or f a c i l i t i e s  f o r us t o  o r programs t h a t a r e c e n t r a l ;  I t i s not  i t i s what happens t o  people. R e c r e a t i o n i s a n e m o t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n w i t h i n a n i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g t h a t f l o w s from a f e e l i n g o f w e l l b e i n g and s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n ... I t reinforces a positive self-image. R e c r e a t i o n i s a response to a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s , achievement o f p e r s o n a l g o a l s , o r p o s i t i v e feedback from o t h e r s . I t i s independent of a c t i v i t y , l e i s u r e , o r s o c i a l acceptance. ( G r a y , 1974, p. 8) To  c a r r y t h e argument one s t e p f u r t h e r ,  leisure  i s essentially  a state of  p s y c h o l o g i c a l s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t goes b e y o n d t h e component o f t i m e . feeling  good a b o u t o n e s e l f and w h a t e v e r one d o e s .  participation i n life.  It i s  I t i s a l s o a deeper  R e c r e a t i o n , t h e n , no l o n g e r c e n t e r s o n a c t i v i t y .  It  15 can be  considered  satisfaction. are being  as  t h e medium t h a t w o u l d l e a d t o t h e  I t i s a l s o a s e t o f human e x p e r i e n c e s  outcome of  personal  i n which personal  lives  enriched.  Recreation  and  a point  i n time,  being.  A different  leisure  or a p l a c e  a r e no  longer  considered  as  a specific  i n space; i t i s a dimension i n l i f e ,  as w e l l as more v i a b l e d e f i n i t i o n  r e c r e a t i o n i s s t a t e d f o r purposes of  this  event,  a state  for leisure  of  and  thesis:  L e i s u r e i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n w i t h i n a human b e i n g t h a t r e s u l t s f r o m a f e e l i n g o f s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n , and r e c r e a t i o n i s t h e medium c h o s e n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a t t a i n i n g t h e k i n d o f satisfaction. According  to the d e f i n i t i o n  produces d i f f e r s not  only  above, the s a t i s f a c t i o n  i n k i n d but  a l s o degree.  The  that  leisure  satisfaction  is  outcome w h i c h i s a t t a i n a b l e ( t h e i n t e n t ) t h r o u g h r e c r e a t i o n mediums. i s an  idealistic  a context  approach to the  w i t h which to achieve  T e c h n i q u e s and The  s m a l l but  methodologies—a  terms " r e s e a r c h  used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y  concept of  techniques"  and  in literature.  To  f u n c t i o n s or r o l e s are  s t r u c t u r e the  collection  inal  (and  given  of i n f o r m a t i o n .  any  i s acquired  research  some b u d g e t .  Estimates  are  the  distinctions  as u n i m p o r t a n t , as  Therefore,  inter-related  (2)  ideal.  they  both  trend e x t r a p o l a t i o n of  satisfactions  from  r e g a r d e d as b a s i c a l l y or  attitudsimilar trade-off  c o n d u c t e d , however, c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must  i d e n t i f y what the p r o j e c t i s about. problem statement.  provide  toward the  through c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n  c a n be  to f o u r independent but  defined  most r e s e a r c h e r s ,  considered  psychological p r o j e c t i o n ) data  Before  steps  to  "methodologies" have o f t e n been  o r i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t d e s i r e s and  t o ways i n w h i c h d a t a games.  practical  which serves  This  comparison  between t h e i r  behavioral data,  leisure  the  factors:  (1)  I n o t h e r w o r d s , we  There i s a need  need to have a  T h e r e i s a n e e d t o o b t a i n and  o f b u d g e t and  personnel  required,  the  stay  be to  clearly  within  time frame  that  16 i s allowed, the l e v e l of accuracy t i o n d e s i r e d , e t c . , m u s t be  t h a t has  stated.  (3)  t o be The  a n a l y z e ways t o p u r s u e t h e p r o j e c t , i n c l u d i n g c o l l e c t i o n techniques. be  accomplished  inferior  as  t o o t h e r s ; e a c h one  p u r p o s e s and  third  constraints.  one  may  be  t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e one  F o r e x a m p l e , a p l a n n e r who  yield  survey  o f how  or the o c c a s i o n s  t o know w h a t  of a neighborhood  roughly  t h e i r own.  t h e same r e s u l t  I t i s not u n l i k e l y i f they are c a r r i e d  q u e s t i o n n a i r e a p p r o a c h may  many p e o p l e  use  those parks,  i n w h i c h t h e y u s e d them.  activities—whether  the parks  meeting ground f o r n e i g h b o r s , g e t away f r o m t h e c r o w d .  w h i c h we parks  are going  t o use  the l e n g t h of time they  P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , on  o r s i m p l y a s h i d e a w a y s f o r t h o s e who the planner,  thus  to the parks?  t h e demands? Why  taken.  Do we  the  want  to  which  i s the  infor-  o r ways i n  What a r e some o f t h e r e a s o n s  questions w i l l  above f o u r f a c t o r s , pursued  r e s e a r c h e r s commonly r e f e r t o as m e t h o d o l o g y .  a  w a n t t o know w h e t h e r m o r e  of each data c o l l e c t i o n technique, The  stay,  the  r e a l l y matter  are there such d i v e r s e a c t i v i t i e s  T h e s e a n d many o t h e r s i m i l a r  t o be  i t does not  (A) t h e d a t a u t i l i z a t i o n ,  the knowledge.  a r e needed t o s a t i s f y  appropriateness has  To  accur-  a r e used as a p l a c e f o r a t h l e t i c p u r s u i t s ,  t o be a p p l i e d , a n d  a t t r a c t people users?  both  out  give a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  i s b e t t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r ; t h e m a i n q u e s t i o n i s , how  mation going  park  that  o t h e r h a n d , a r e a b l e t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  technique  of  the main d i f f e r e n c e i s i n the q u a l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s  The  ate account  can  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to a s e l e c t e d group of r e s i d e n t s , or  c o n d u c t a s e r i e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s on  attained.  data  f o r some s e t  would l i k e  send out  p r o p e r l y , so  to  approach that i s i n h e r e n t l y s u p e r i o r or  can  will  informa-  many w a y s i n w h i c h t h i s  o f t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n a c t u a l l y makes u s e  techniques  of  s t e p t h e n w o u l d be  percentage either  types  s e l e c t i o n of s p e c i f i c  There a r e , undoubtedly,  t h e r e i s no  achieved,  among  help to determine and  that the  the  the l i n e of a c t i o n t h a t  t o g e t h e r , a r e what  (See D i a g r a m . )  In  essence,  17 Diagram  1:  Conceptual Diagram of the D e f i n i t i o n of Methodology  18 m e t h o d o l o g i e s must be r e g a r d e d as b r o a d t i o n and usage,  categories of concepts i n data  or the structure i n which  collec-  i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be g a t h e r e d ,  whereas t e c h n i q u e s a r e p r o c e d u r e s w i t h w h i c h a s t u d y c a n be c o n d u c t e d .  There-  f o r e , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s may b e r e g a r d e d a s means t o a n e n d , w h i l e methodologies  e n c o m p a s s b o t h means a n d e n d .  This reasoning l e d to the  d e f i n i t i o n s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : Methodology i s a r e s e a r c h process which i n v o l v e s four o p e r a t i o n s that are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d : i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of subject of concern, s e l e c t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h approaches f o r a n a l y s i s , a p p l i c a t i o n o f u s e f u l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , and u t i l i z a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h d a t a w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the s t a t e d problem area. In order t o c a r r y t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s between methodologies one  step further,  l e t us l o o k a t another example.  and t e c h n i q u e s  R e s e a r c h b y way o f e x p e r i -  ments has l o n g been p r a c t i c e d by b o t h p h y s i c a l as w e l l as s o c i a l They c a n be h i g h l y divided  controlled  scientific  explorations i n which subjects are  i n t o c o n t r o l and u n c o n t r o l groups  v a r i a b l e s c a n be t e s t e d .  scientists.  so that the e f f e c t s of c e r t a i n  S o p h i s t i c a t e d equipment i s o f t e n employed i n  e x p e r i m e n t s t h a t r e q u i r e h i g h l e v e l s o f a c c u r a c y and a c u t e s e n s i t i v i t y t o the s l i g h t e s t changes,  such as r e s e a r c h on n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e  nucleus o f a molecule i s h i t by another atomic p a r t i c l e . conduct experiments on s u b j e c t s u s i n g e l e c t r i c  shocks  Psychologists  to determine the l e v e l  of t o l e r a n c e o f t h e people t e s t e d o r t o c o r r e c t c e r t a i n u n d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o r . There  i s a l s o t h e p i l o t p r o j e c t a p p r o a c h b y w h i c h new p r o d u c t s a r e b e i n g  i n t r o d u c e d a t a much s m a l l e r s c a l e o n t h e m a r k e t o r p o p u l a t i o n i n o r d e r t o test  t h e p u b l i c ' s r e a c t i o n t o t h e changes.  T h e s e may b e d i f f e r e n t  experiments, but a l lare experiments nonetheless. the data c o l l e c t i o n techniques used. viewed  types of  They o b v i o u s l y d i f f e r i n  As s u c h , t h e e x p e r i m e n t s must be  as one t y p e o f r e s e a r c h method and n o t a d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e ,  a s a way o f u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n b u t n o t s p e c i f i c means b y w h i c h u s e f u l m a t i o n c a n be g a t h e r e d .  Scientists,  researchers, planners, or  infor-  academics  19 may  d e c i d e on one  individual  type of experiment  interests.  the other according to  However, t h e y a r e o n l y c h o o s i n g between  m e t h o d s and  not  experiments  a r e g o i n g t o be  t e c h n i q u e s u n l e s s i t i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as  Methodology of t h i s The  over  their  different  t o how  those  conducted.  study  o b j e c t i v e of the t h e s i s  c o l l e c t i o n techniques  f o r use  i s t o e v a l u a t e and  explore useful  i n f i e l d - l e v e l planning investigations,  so i t i s o r i e n t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e and lar  context.  Existing  and  a  at the beginning of the  t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r e v a l u a t i o n and  techniques are developed  The  from  the l i t e r a t u r e .  The  conceptual c r i t e r i a are r e l a t e d  of urban p u b l i c l e i s u r e Specific possible,  the s e l e c t e d techniques are f u r t h e r  are  recreation  investigation.  scope  investigated  I n s o f a r as  through  i n r e c r e a t i o n planning i n a s i n g l e neighborhood,  group of t e c h n i q u e s had  experience i s obtained through  Techniques  which  c o u l d be  been used i n R i l e y P a r k by i n t e r v i e w s and  t h i r d group of techniques f o r which and  of  technical criteria  the author are p e r s o n a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d , at a " p r e - t e s t "  another  study.  studies.  Park area of the C i t y of Vancouver. by  and  s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h i n the  techniques are s e l e c t e d f o r f i e l d  ence of t h e i r use  particu-  selection  common t o m o s t s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o planning.  and  s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h methodology l i t e r a t u r e  general r e c r e a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e are reviewed Conceptual  data  so f o r t h e s e i t i s n e c e s s a r y  no  documents.  on  the  Riley  actually  level.  used  Secondly  o t h e r s , and  this  There remained  comparable experience  to r e l y  experi-  a  i s available,  t h e l i t e r a t u r e and  r e p o r t s of  experience i n other contexts. T h r o u g h l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , and participants,  and  i n t e r v i e w of  users  experts the s e l e c t e d techniques are reconsidered w i t h  s  20 respect to the concerns The  on t h e b a s i s o f t y p i c a l r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g  f i n d i n g s are then s y n t h e s i z e d i n the form  s e l e c t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s , and respective  The  suggestions  of p r o c e d u r a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r  f o r p o s s i b l e improvements  Different tion facilities  study  c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s and  t h e s i s are concerned  with public recrea-  s e r v i c e s i n u r b a n i z e d a r e a s , and w i t h i n t h e s c o p e  p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e as compared t o g e n e r a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e  They a r e e s s e n t i a l l y  psychological research. t e c h n i q u e s and  broad  whereas techniques is  regarded  categories of methodologies, science research.  a r e means i n w h i c h  For  to accomplish  the k i n d of  three reasons:  (1)  and  Similarly,  used i n p r a c t i c e ,  be  reviewed  i n the study are  that are f a m i l i a r ,  i n practice  (3)  f o r use  and  significant  and  chosen in  commonly  i n the  a s e l e c t i o n of  to studying urban  the  together  they are e i t h e r  i s o f t e n suggested  These t e c h n i q u e s , t h e r e f o r e , r e f l e c t  approaches that are f a m i l i a r  results  r e c r e a t i o n i s t h e medium c h o s e n f o r  r a n g e o f t e c h n i q u e s ; and or t h e i r use  that  leisure  they are reasonably r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  v a r i o u s groups or c l u s t e r s of techniques they cover a broad  this  satisfaction."  that w i l l  (2)  of  collection,  t h e y a p p e a r t o be u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e s  urban r e c r e a t i o n planning;  or  used  the purposes  it.  and  collection  are  a s " a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n w i t h i n a human b e i n g  empirical techniques  literature.  terms which  a r e c o n s i d e r e d as s t r u c t u r e s o f d a t a  the purpose of a t t a i n i n g  for  methods,  A d i s t i n c t i o n m u s t be made b e t w e e n d a t a  from a f e e l i n g of s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  The  data, f i e l d  techniques:  t e c h n i q u e s m o s t commonly u s e d i n s o c i a l  i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n most s o c i a l study, methodologies  secondary  of  application.  t h e s i s only deals w i t h f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of data c o l l e c t i o n  survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e , group i n t e r a c t i o n , gaming.  of  techniques.  scope of the  The  purposes.  research  leisure  21 b e h a v i o r s a n d do n o t I n c l u d e o t h e r m o r e i n n o v a t i v e o r uncommon  Brief  outline of the thesis  report  There a r e three p a r t s t o t h i s subject of concern  The f i r s t p a r t i d e n t i f i e d t h e  different  c o n c e p t u a l and t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  the e v a l u a t i o n of s e l e c t e d data c o l l e c t i o n  concepts and  thesis.  i n the study, discussed planning w i t h i n the context of  urban r e c r e a t i o n , assessed for  techniques, presented the  o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n , d e s c r i b e d t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  s t a t e d t h e scope o f t h i s The  approaches.  second  part reviews  study. t h e l i t e r a t u r e on s e l e c t e d t e c h n i q u e s , and  i l l u s t r a t e s major f i n d i n g s w i t h examples from p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e R i l e y Park area.  Each group o f t e c h n i q u e s  the survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e approach III),  secondary  techniques The  data  (Chapter  approach,  (Chapter  i n the  i s discussed i n a separate I I ) , group i n t e r a c t i o n  I V ) , f i e l d methods  chapter:  (Chapter  (Chapter V ) , and gaming  (Chapter V I ) .  third  and f i n a l p a r t summarizes t h e f i n d i n g s from  literature  a n a l y s i s and e x p e r i e n c e o f s e l e c t e d t e c h n i q u e s , and p r o p o s e s  a sequential  strategy f o r the s e l e c t i o n of useful s o c i a l data c o l l e c t i o n  techniques i n  urban p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n planning.  PART I I  A N A L Y S I S OF SELECTED DATA-COLLECTION  TECHNIQUES  Introduction The  next  f i v e chapters r e v i e w each c a t e g o r y of technique  They a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  survey  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , group i n t e r a c t i o n ,  d a t a , f i e l d methods, and gaming. on e x a m i n a t i o n  of both  individually.  E v a l u a t i o n of these  techniques  secondary i s based  s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h methodology l i t e r a t u r e as  22 w e l l as r e c r e a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , The  survey  general s o c i a l  shortcomings and  found  technique.  r e s e a r c h e r s t o be  n a i r e and  i t was  has  experience  and  examples.  b e e n u s e d m o s t commonly i n  t o b e u n d e s i r a b l e i n many  situations.  science l i t e r a t u r e a l s o i n d i c a t e s that there are  i n this  data c o l l e c t i o n .  s u p p l e m e n t by  questionnaire technique  r e c r e a t i o n research, but The  and  I t i s important  major  f o r r e c r e a t i o n planners  a w a r e o f o t h e r more s u i t a b l e o r a l t e r n a t i v e means o f  The  following section,  other techniques  i n an a t t e m p t  t h e r e f o r e , examines survey to suggest  question-  ways i n w h i c h t h e y  may  be u s e d i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The  techniques  s e l e c t e d f o r review are chosen because they  u s e f u l f o r u r b a n p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , and chosen are reasonably techniques  cant  Together they  t h a t used i n f i e l d  p r a c t i c e i s o f t e n suggested  Summary o f  similar.  i n the  cover  p r a c t i c e , and  be  approaches  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the v a r i o u s groups or c l u s t e r s  that are f a i r l y  approaches i n c l u d i n g  the s p e c i f i c  appear to  a broad  of  range  t h o s e whose use  of in  literature.  criteria  D i s t i n c t i o n s m u s t be made b e t w e e n two  areas  of concern  t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g — t e c h n i c a l and  conceptual  that are  criteria.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e common t o m o s t s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h a n d accuracy,  reliability,  and  political  considerations.  validity, Conceptual  f l e x i b i l i t y of use, criteria  and  are r e l a t e d  signifi-  Technical  include cost, ethical  and  specifically  to  the r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t which i n c l u d e s needs assessment, s u p p l y  of  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , c o g n i t i v e p r e f e r e n c e among t h e u s e r s , and T h e s e c r i t e r i a w i l l be u s e d i n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e n i q u e s , and  the f i n d i n g s w i l l  strategy f o r choosing Before proceeding  future projections.  a n a l y s i s of s e l e c t e d t e c h -  s e r v e as b a s i s f o r t h e p r o p o s a l o f a s e q u e n t i a l  u s e f u l data c o l l e c t i o n techniques w i t h the review of d i f f e r e n t  i n recreation planning.  techniques,  the R i l e y  Park  23 community i n Vancouver discussed  The  where f i e l d  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were conducted w i l l  be  briefly.  R i l e y P a r k community R i l e y Park, i n essence, i s a r e l a t i v e l y  s t a b l e , y o u t h and  family  o r i e n t e d n e i g h b o r h o o d w i t h a d i v e r s i t y o f e t h n i c g r o u p s and an a v e r a g e per  household lower than that of the C i t y of Vancouver.  1971  A c c o r d i n g to the  census d a t a , o v e r 30% o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s b e l o w  a g e , a n d 3 5 % o f :the r e s i d e n t s h a v e l i v e d  other ethnic o r i g i n s .  twenty years of  there f o r over ten years.  h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s of people of Chinese, E a s t European,  There  German, I t a l i a n ,  A m a j o r i t y o f the work f o r c e i s employed  $9,000 (1971 c e n s u s d a t a ) .  except f o r a few apartment owner o c c u p i e d .  are  and  i n the  m a n u f a c t u r i n g , t r a d e , b u s i n e s s and s e r v i c e s e c t o r s , w i t h an a v e r a g e about  income  I t i s an a r e a of s i n g l e f a m i l y  income of  dwellings  b u i l d i n g s , a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 0 % o f them a r e  Physically,  i t i s bounded by 1 6 t h Avenue i n t h e n o r t h ,  37th  Avenue i n t h e s o u t h , F r a s e r S t r e e t i n t h e e a s t and O n t a r i o S t r e e t i n t h e west. Main  ( S e e Maps 1 a n d  2.)  Major commercial a c t i v i t i e s  are centered along  S t r e e t , F r a s e r S t r e e t , K i n g Edward S t r e e t , and K i n g s w a y ,  which i s not  l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y w i t h i n t h e neighborhood but has easy a c c e s s t o the In  terms of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ,  there are a t o t a l of  n e i g h b o r h o o d p a r k s , one c o m m u n i t y c e n t e r , a n d a s t a d i u m t h a t a r e w i t h i n the boundaries of the area.  s e r v e t h e l e i s u r e n e e d s o f some r e s i d e n t s .  the  of R i l e y Park i s a l s o d i r e c t l y  In  May,  1976,  Furthermore,  a d j a c e n t t o Queen  of the f a v o r i t e spots i n Vancouver.  R i l e y P a r k was  located  close to the  n e i g h b o r h o o d a n d may  E l i z a b e t h P a r k , w h i c h i s one  four  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e r e a r e f o u r o t h e r  p u b l i c p a r k s and a n o t h e r community c e n t e r t h a t a r e r e l a t i v e l y  w e s t e r n boundary  residents.  d e s i g n a t e d as a Neighborhood  A r e a b y t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , a n d a t o t a l o f $1.9  m i l l i o n was  (Map  3.)  Improvement  allocated  t o be  Map 1 i C i t y of Vancouvc-r and The R i l e y Park N.I.P. Area  " ' iOauDOODQOL'r  •••rinnnnnno:  • d U C U C Z J • 1 L—JCZ3CZIL—J£  r nnnn  ?s > J '  c  "WPfiDDODODOO  I r:  ! I  !U  jULik  C3D C L 3  C—: CZ)  POP I  (CZJ  U  m m  Ban  ICDUU  BO 00 00  ]• DDL rrja G£3  _  |MOO |  d m ESI  SSGQQQQO '"' ZZ3CZK  ! • • CD  pnn  'Tn  Si!"  1  ' • = = > !=======! IZFpTI l 5 - - i - J i " ICu:•;|[ I' !CZ~ IHiUlr !  pi  Si - - - i : II  i n  3d  wm  m m \ n  J  innn Map  ii  IC 1  JJLii  i r  1i  1  :  nn i  DIOBD  i a in  StLODBlJ  PlHPQEGuQIMOOOO  •• iD r.T  IDE  -in r  2 i The R i l e v Park N.I.P. A r e a  i i — i n — !  IfiBT  IIiraSOOQODQQfl in  DDDnnmo  -  nr  ho  26  .  Map  3t N e i g h b o u r h o o d P a r k s i n t h e R i l e v P a r k  j  s p e n t on p u b l i c p h y s i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t s . p l a n n i n g o f f i c e was  opened i n M a i n and  community r e s i d e n t s and high p r i o r i t y  Soon a f t e r w a r d s , a  28th w i t h the purpose  the planning s t a f f  to i d e n t i f y major  items i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of funds.  c i t i z e n s ' .committee  was  formed  neighborhood  The  i n December, 1976,  and  of  coordinating  concerns  R i l e y Park  and  NIP  r e g u l a r meetings  are  h e l d every Tuesday n i g h t w i t h the p l a n n i n g s t a f f . It  i s important to r e c o g n i z e the achievements  committee  by t h e i n v o l v e m e n t and d e d i c a t i o n o f about  members, w h i c h a r e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d b y a l l m a j o r as t h e r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g  and w o r k i n g t h e a r e a .  f o r m a t i o n , a c o n c e p t p l a n was  approved  t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , t h e p r o v i n c i a l and interest  of the R i l e y Park f o r t y and  fifty  active  l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s as  well  W i t h i n a s h o r t p e r i o d of i t s  and e n d o r s e d by  the c i t i z e n s '  the f e d e r a l governments.  Of  committee,  special  t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r i s t h a t i n t h e a r e a of community f a c i l i t i e s  s e r v i c e s , $ 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 was  a l l o c a t e d f o r the development  $150,000 f o r c r e a t i n g a y o u t h c e n t e r , and P a r k R e c r e a t i o n Complex.  I n terms  of a neighborhood  $225,000 f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e  of neighborhood  r e c e i v e d $ 7 5 , 0 0 0 ; R i l e y P a r k was w i t h $45,200; f i n a l l y ,  4 4 % o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d f u n d s was  allotted  distributed  class, diversified, p r o v e n t o be  $78,000.  Park  provided In  total,  to the development  improvement o f community s e r v i c e s as w e l l as r e c r e a t i o n The R i l e y P a r k n e i g h b o r h o o d ,  house,  Riley  Hillcrest  g i v e n $ 6 8 , 2 0 0 ; C a r t i e r P a r k was  P r i n c e E d w a r d P a r k was  and  p a r k s , a l l f o u r parks have  b e e n g i v e n a c e r t a i n amount o f f u n d s f o r t h e i r i m p r o v e m e n t .  about  citizens'  and  opportunities.  an a r e a w h i c h i s r e l a t i v e l y  stable,  middle  and a c t i v e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , has  satisfactory  f o r our  purpose.  28 CHAPTER I I THE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE TECHNIQUE Introduction In t h i s chapter the preceding surveys.  This  c r i t e r i a are applied  to  questionnaire  t e c h n i q u e was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n R i l e y P a r k , u s i n g  two  sources,  a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n t h e summer o f 1 9 7 7 , T h e R i l e y P a r k Community Needs S t u d y  ( M e l l o r , 1 9 7 7 ) , a n d t h e a u t h o r ' s own " p r e - t e s t i n g " o f  r e c r e a t i o n i t e m s i n i t on a s m a l l  sample o f r e s i d e n t s .  questionnaires  and i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  pros and cons  o f c l o s e d and open-ended  The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e The q u e s t i o n n a i r e some d e f i n e d technique.  population In reality  The b r o a d s u b j e c t o f  first,  including the s p e c i f i c  formats.  technique  i n t e r v i e w used on a sample o f r e s p o n d e n t s o f i n t e r e s t i s a common a n d f a m i l i a r d a t a there  a r e s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t and s e p a r a b l e  representing collection aspects of  t h i s a p p r o a c h , b u t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e commonly u s e d i n o n e p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n and t h e r e discuss  a r e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e e l e m e n t s i t i s c o n v e n i e n t t o  t h e m o s t common a p p r o a c h a s a t e c h n i q u e ,  noting  a l t e r n a t i v e s and  t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s as these a r i s e . Questionnaires stimuli,  a r e used p r i m a r i l y t o e l i c i t v e r b a l responses t o v e r b a l  though i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e  n o n - v e r b a l s t i m u l i such as  photographs o r s k e t c h e s and t o o b t a i n r e s p o n s e s t h a t a r e i n p a r t such as a l l o c a t i o n s o f time, Questionnaires the  questions  classifications  non-verbal,  o f o b j e c t s , a n d maps o r d i a g r a m s .  a r e m o s t commonly u s e d i n a n i n t e r v i e w f o r m a t , i n w h i c h and t h e answers a r e o r a l ,  though w r i t t e n v e r b a l  both  questions,  w r i t t e n v e r b a l a n s w e r s , o r n o n - v e r b a l s t i m u l i o r r e s p o n s e s may a l s o b e u s e d . In p r a c t i c e a s t a t i s t i c a l l y interviewed  representative  sample o f i n d i v i d u a l s i s g e n e r a l l y  and t h e r e s u l t s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e f i n e d  population  from which  29 the sample i s drawn, though i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e to i n t e r v i e w every a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n , and people but may  be  times,  statistical  useful i n recreation planning  related  interview data  studies.  than i n d i v i d u a l  The  formal  exploratory studies, e l i c i t  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s may  a t t i t u d e c h a n g e , and  f r o m p a r a m e t e r e s t i m a t i o n and According  i n using  d a t a m u s t be  questionnaire  p r o c e d u r e s and  Third, standard  that d i f f e r e n t analysts w i l l t h e same s e t o f  suggestions,  doubt other  research  educate  purposes  First,  confronted placed  of the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of  similar  concerns  purposes.  a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s must be  reach  do  three major methodological  S e c o n d , s p e c i a l c o n c e r n m u s t be  f o r data  though  used to  that a l l respondents are  the question  criteria  a l s o be  and no  questions,  testing.  for scientific  c o l l e c t e d i n s u c h a way  nearly i d e n t i c a l questions. sampling  hypothesis  t o B l a l o c k (1970) t h e r e a r e  the survey  persons  i s g e n e r a l l y i n q u a n t i t a t i v e terms  unforeseen perceptions  f a c t u a l matters or induce  on  results.  specified  c o n c l u s i o n s when c o n f r o n t e d  form of r e s e a r c h  technique,  to which they  However, the v a l i d i t y Not  o n l y may  them.  are not  are  e x p o s e d and  p e o p l e be  p l a n s , and  "leisure",  no  fixed definitions.  o f t e n been questioned  r e l u c t a n t to report openly  so o n ,  t h e y may  be  with  " r e c r e a t i o n " , and  to questionnaire design.  "hobbies"  It is likely  cannot  or  behavior. by  their  u n a b l e t o do  aware o f t h e i r b e l i e f s o r m o t i v a t i o n s  There are a l s o problems r e l a t i n g  as  f o r knowledge of t h e i r  of v e r b a l r e p o r t s has  feelings, motivations, S u b j e c t s who  so  heavy r e l i a n c e i s p l a c e d  on v e r b a l r e p o r t s f r o m t h e s u b j e c t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s t i m u l i  scientists.  with  data.  In this p a r t i c u l a r  experiences  not  a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a -  to predetermined, r e l a t i v e l y s p e c i f i c research  interviews with relatively  apart  i n which the elements are  l o c a t i o n s , o r many t h i n g s o t h e r  t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e  on  sampling  member o f  social beliefs,  so. report Words s u c h  a r e r a t h e r ambiguous c o n c e p t s  t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s may  fail  to  with  understand  30 t h e i r meanings, or m i s i n t e r p r e t  them i n w a y s w h i c h a r e  researchers'  e x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t some p e o p l e do  intentions.  r e l a t e " f r e e time" may  not  to the  o l d man,  the  i n various  connotation.  researcher  ways b e f o r e  i n the beginning  an  free  out  how  individual  t o s w i m on  t h a t he  the  For  i n the be  a r e g u l a r j o b and  can  difficult  use  rational.  an  The  each o c c a s i o n ,  who  he  o r she  went w i t h ,  i n c l u d i n g other  (Marans,  applicability  irrational basis  threat  could  not  implied with  basis  of find local the  or the nature of  activities  they  may  survey questionnaire The  lies  difficulty  decisions  that  may  they  though the d e c i s i o n "ought" to have been  to l e i s u r e behavior,  many b e l i e v e t h a t no  a  1975)  attempt to r a t i o n a l i z e ( l i t e r a l l y )  question  as  so  time"  understand  a survey to  tendency of people to i d e a l i z e t h e i r experiences.  h a v e made on  to  to a s c e r t a i n d i r e c t l y what prompted  t h e m o s t common s o u r c e s o f e r r o r i n t h e  that people w i l l  with  to e x p l a i n " f r e e  p a s t week a p e r s o n went swimming a t t h e  have performed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . of  interview  Besides f a i l i n g  e x a m p l e , we  o r her, e n t i r e r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ,  One  has  others  cannot determine the q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s  i t s dimensionality.  i t w o u l d be  obtained.  not  term c a r r i e s a c e r t a i n  t o c o n d u c t an  required  the  time.  many t i m e s d u r i n g  p o o l , but  was  the  t e r m meant, i t must have been p e r c e i v e d  Survey questionnaires behavior or  f o u n d t h a t she  recreation, while  as  When a t t e m p t i n g  kept i n s i s t i n g  t o h a v e any  " f r e e time"  a n s w e r was  what the  s i n c e t h e o l d man afford  c o n c e p t s o f l e i s u r e and  w a n t t o a d m i t t h e y h a v e any  degree of negative an  Field  d i f f e r e n t from  as  respect an  t o "ought" has p a r t i c u l a r  area of personal  choice  of j u s t i f i c a t i o n beyond p e r s o n a l  i n which  preference  or  w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y or even p r o p e r . One dislikes  c a n n o t assume t h a t p e o p l e w i l l e v e n i f t h e y know them.  dishonestly  tell  the  t r u t h about t h e i r wants  I n d i v i d u a l s sometimes answer  or e v a s i v e l y because they f e e l  the  desired  questions  information  is  too  and  his  31 personal.  When i n t e r v i e w e d  activities, and I d o  one  by  t h e a u t h o r a b o u t h i s h o b b y and  respondent simply  answered:  e n g a g e i n some r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ,  b e c a u s e I do n o t w a n t t o e x p l a i n any interviewed  r e a l l y know t h e i r own  unreservedly, simple  "Yes,  they s t i l l  may  not  but  further."  m i n d s and  the  expressions,  same t i m e .  the  in collecting probability formulated  by  information  survey questionnaire respondents.  a l s o c o m m u n i c a t e on  themselves  for  the  technique  H o w e v e r , much o f gestures,  s e v e r a l l e v e l s at  allow for direct  a n a l y s i s of the ongoing processes.  observation,  There are  a b o u t e n v i r o n m e n t s when t h e r e  the respondents.  the s u b j e c t s  a l s o not  very  i s unknown.  For  t o comment on  this activity  a c c e p t e d as  limitations  is a  and  e x a m p l e , i t w o u l d make v e r y  the e f f e c t of h a n g - g l i d i n g  have not  the  faintest  u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on They a r e  strong  good or bad  by  may  p o p u l a t i o n whose l i v e s a r e  t h o s e who  do  sense  i f they are  not  Surveys  c l i e n t n e e d s when  the research  appear d i f f e r e n t to v a r i o u s a f f e c t e d by  such p o l i c i e s  shown t h a t m a i l - o u t  surveys u s u a l l y have a h i g h  little  i d e a about i t .  activities.  Non-response i s a major d i s a d v a n t a g e of the E x p e r i e n c e has  fully  the  inappropriate f o r obtaining behavioral data  i n v o l v e a sequence of f i n i t e  t o make p o l i c y o r d e s i g n  nique.  to express  that  being  t h a t a t t i t u d e s toward a p a r t i c u l a r environment are not  those behaviors is  e t c . , w h i c h may  a t t i t u d i n a l data  familiar with  client  even i f people  n o n - v e r b a l means, f o r e x a m p l e ,  F u r t h e r m o r e , i t does not  m e a s u r e m e n t , and  are  But  j u s t keep i t a t  r e a s o n t h a t t h e y m i s u n d e r s t a n d what i s wanted.  " v e r b a l " c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s by  to ask  let's  are w i l l i n g  f o l l o w f r o m i t s r e l i a n c e on v e r b a l r e p o r t s by  facial  time  I do h a v e c e r t a i n h o b b i e s  f u r n i s h the d e s i r e d  Some o f t h e m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n s o f  our  leisure  refusal rate.  t h a t even a d o o r - t o - d o o r survey i s not  and  The  F u r t h e r m o r e , what or use  the  information  segments of  the  designs.  questionnaire  questionnaire  when  and  survey  telephone  R i l e y Park experience  necessarily better.  tech-  indicated  A common r e s p o n s e  32 g i v e n t o t h e author by t h e respondents i n t e r v i e w was: recreation." in  f o rnot wanting  " I am t o o b u s y , " o r " I do n o t h a v e t i m e t o b e i n v o l v e d i n T a b l e 1 r e p r e s e n t s t h e s o u r c e s and p e r c e n t a g e s  t h e community needs s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d  i n R i l e y Park.  i n c o m p l e t e i n t e r v i e w s , a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n was r e l a t e d language  t o go t h r o u g h w i t h t h e  problems,  of  non-responses  Of a t o t a l o f 4 3 % t o v a c a n t homes a n d  b u t t h e m a j o r i t y was due t o o u t r i g h t r e f u s a l s o r i n a b i l i t y  to reach the subjects.  Table  1  Sources of n o n - i n t e r v i e w s i n t h e R i l e y Park c o m m u n i t y n e e d s s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n 1977  Numbers  Percentages  Percentages accumulated upwards  725  100%  8  1%  43%  Failure to contact i n three v i s i t s  153  21%  42%  I n c o m p l e t e , due t o translation problems i n most cases  8  1%  21%  145  20%  20%  411  57%  Sample  households  less: Vacant  homes  Refusals Completed  interviews  The s u c c e s s o f a n y p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s d e p e n d s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t o n t h e competency o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s . e x p e r i e n c e may l e a d  Extensive t r a i n i n g coupled w i t h  to better quality data.  However,  substantial  there are other  factors  33 t h a t l i e beyond the  scope of  knowledge of s u b j e c t mental elements  m a t t e r , p h y s i c a l and  (time  o f day,  important r o l e i n this able  to i l l u s t r a t e  Chinese d i a l e c t s , lady.  I t happened a f t e r she  apparently  time.  The  w h i c h was  d o o r i t was  interviewer not  the  had  was  other  simply  survey questionnaire  m a t t e r how  w e l l the  There are  She  result.  are  the  two  a l l day  Therefore,  was when at  i n the  schedule.  one  of  the d i a l e c t s considering  author i s sure would s u c h as  are not  have  this occur  to the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  suggestive  easily controllable  interviewer  this  or  researcher  technique.  our  ( F r y , 1 9 3 4 ) , C o u c h and  standardized  t i o n of  the  i n s t r u m e n t s and  Keniston  Interview-  large vocabulary.  to  the  questions  expectations  i n s u c h a manner as  measures r e f l e c t  I t has  given  to  to  alter  (1960) a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t most  i n v e s t i g a t o r s ; moreover, they are  have a f a i r l y  be  evidence that such  a c t u a l l y a f f e c t the b e h a v i o r of i n t e r v i e w e r s results.  very  trained.  about the answers t h a t s h o u l d  There i s only  she that  ers g e n e r a l l y have c e r t a i n b e l i e f s about t h e i r respondents which l e a d certain expectations  was  presence i n E n g l i s h ,  tried  Incidents  Chinese  and  visitor  Without even  the  also certain factors relative  that would g r e a t l y r e s t r i c t  called.  t e c h n i q u e and  interviewers  author  answered the door  attempted to e x p l a i n her  w a l k e d away.  foresee-  interview with a  d i d n o t w a n t any  the respondent.  the  an  i s fluent i n at l e a s t  interviewer  u n a b l e t o o b t a i n any  she  experience of  l a d y who  d i a l e c t , which i n hindsight  been b e n e f i c i a l , o f t e n i n the  The  environ-  them n o t  been conducting i n t e r v i e w s  o b v i o u s t h a t she first  Field  most of  u n a b l e t o o b t a i n an  impatient.  u n d e r s t o o d by  knows b u t  using  and  technique,  A l t h o u g h she  t a k i n g a b a t h when t h e  answered the  no  this point.  conditions,  s o c i a l variables a l l play  interviewers.  t h e a u t h o r was  feeling a b i t tired  she  the  Individual personalities,  psychological  w e a t h e r ) , and  type of r e s e a r c h  o r c o n t r o l l a b l e by  helps  t r a i n i n g or experience.  of  the middle c l a s s o r i e n t a -  often pre-tested  been d i s c o v e r e d  on  persons  who  t h a t many r e s p o n d e n t s ,  34 b u t more p a r t i c u l a r l y l o w e r - i n c o m e  and  l e s s educated  ones, e x p e r i e n c e boredom,  f a t i g u e , o r l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g d u r i n g the. i n t e r v i e w . The ing in  survey questionnaire technique i s also r a t h e r c o s t l y  on t h e s i z e and  R i l e y Park cost s l i g h t l y  space,  $2,500 was  of d o l l a r s .  and  c o s t s , bank charges  The in  $15,000 went t o  and  salary  a consultant fee. a study.  pre-testing, actual data  a n a l y s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n may  Another  Population  collection,  t a k e a f e w m o n t h s t o a few completed  years,  the data i t contains i s  s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e as a w h o l e can p l a y an a c t i v e p a r t  e n r i c h i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s a number o f human r e s p o n s e s  the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s approach. reliability  i f carefully  environmental  i f proper c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s given to  I t permits a h i g h e r degree of  controlled.  Since i t e l i c i t s  direct  accuracy response  f r o m t h e s u b j e c t s , t h e t e c h n i q u e g i v e s good i n d i c a t i o n s o f a c t i v i t i e s are s i g n i f i c a n t  or predominant  leisure pursuits.  Similarly,  survey  t i o n n a i r e i s a u s e f u l technique i n determining the u t i l i z a t i o n p u b l i c l y p r o v i d e d l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s such as l o c a l p a r k s , centers, etc.  With  t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n the planners w i l l  review p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g The for  to supply of r e c r e a t i o n  q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l s o i s an e f f e c t i v e  non-use of c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s  existing users. use  in  outdated.  s e t t i n g s and  and  community needs s u r v e y  to c o s t i s the time r e q u i r e d to conduct  o c c a s i o n a l l y when a r e p o r t i s f i n a l l y  already  to cost  s p e n t on m i s c e l l a n e o u s i t e m s s u c h as r e n t f o r o f f i c e  s a m p l i n g , q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n and t a b u l a t i o n and  The  l e s s t h a n $18,000, o f w h i c h  telephone, p r i n t i n g  factor relating  Depend-  d e p t h o f a s t u d y , i t i s n o t uncommon f o r a p r o j e c t  excess of tens of thousands  p a y m e n t s and  to use.  rate  quesof  recreation  be m o r e p r e p a r e d  to  services.  t o o l f o r e v a l u a t i n g the  by d i r e c t l y a p p r o a c h i n g  I f a l a r g e number o f r e s p o n d e n t s  that  potential  reasons and  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y do  the r e c r e a t i o n complexes because the time i n which  t h e programmes  not  are  35 o f f e r e d i s wrong, f o r example, i t s i g n i f i e s a need t o r e s c h e d u l e activities  to s a t i s f y  This approach  certain  t h e demand.  i s also extremely useful f o r gathering l o c a l  o p i n i o n s on f u t u r e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s a s i t a d d r e s s e s  residents'  to a wider  popula-  t i o n t h a n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s such as group i n t e r a c t i o n o r u s i n g s e c o n d a r y  data.  R e s i d e n t s h a v e f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e i r own  need  and what t h e y w o u l d l i k e and  to see.  environmental constraints.  l e i s u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s , what they  They a r e a l s o good j u d g e s  of t h e i r  physical  In t h i s r e s p e c t , the survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e  technique i s superior to others. In costly  summary, t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e a p p r o a c h to conduct,  being i n f l e x i b l e  and  s u f f e r s f r o m many t e c h n i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s .  to use,  sampling,  t h e dynamics o f an i n t e r v i e w  d i f f e r e n t environmental settings.  leisure activities, facilities,  situation.  i n o b t a i n i n g the d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n a l s o undermine i t s u t i l i t y .  H o w e v e r , i t a l s o p l a y s a n a c t i v e r o l e i n o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human and  and  Besides  there are a l s o problems w i t h regard to  q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n , p r e - t e s t i n g , and Difficulties  i s rather expensive  and  an e f f e c t i v e  I t i s a good i n d i c a t o r o f  t o o l f o r a s s e s s i n g non-use of  responses  prominant  public  a useful technique f o r determining future a l l o c a t i o n  of  resources.  Closed-ended  and  open-ended  W i t h i n the broad  questions  category of survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e techniques t h e r e are  v a r i o u s formats i n which  a q u e s t i o n c o u l d be  p r e s e n t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t manner and nature. ended and  The  two  structured.  they tend to y i e l d  types of q u e s t i o n s most w i d e l y used  open-ended.  E a c h o f them i s  responses  of a d i v e r s e  i n surveys are closed-  36 Closed-ended In  this  questions type of question design the questions a r e presented  t h e same w o r d i n g , survey  a n d i n t h e same o r d e r , t o a l l r e s p o n d e n t s .  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n which the responses  stated alternatives.  with exactly  I t i s a form o f  of the respondents  are limited to  T h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s may b e s i m p l y y e s o r n o , o r t h e y  p r o v i d e f o r i n d i c a t i n g v a r i o u s degrees of a p p r o v a l o r agreement, o r they c o n s i s t of a s e r i e s of r e p l i e s of which the respondents to  t h e i r own p o s i t i o n .  I t i s also considered  to  answer s i n c e he o r she has t h e l i s t  d e r a b l e amounts o f c o m p l e x i t y a s i n g l e topic thereby  may  p i c k t h e one c l o s e s t  t o be e a s i e r f o r t h e respondent  of choices s p e c i f i e d  can be b u i l t  may  f o r them.  i n t o closed-ended  Consi-  questions  about  a l l o w i n g measurement o f more complex a s p e c t s o f  a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s . The  closed-ended  as r e l a t i v e l y  q u e s t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y s i m p l e r t o a d m i n i s t e r as w e l l  easy and i n e x p e n s i v e t o a n a l y z e .  alternative replies helps  Sometimes t h e p r o v i s i o n o f  t h e respondent t o have a b e t t e r understanding  the meaning o f t h e q u e s t i o n .  However, t h e w o r d i n g  o f t h e q u e s t i o n may " f o r c e "  a r e s p o n d e n t t o g i v e an answer t h a t he o r she does n o t f u l l y o t h e r h a n d , many i n d i v i d u a l s may h a v e l i t t l e a b o u t many i s s u e s , a n d t h i s r e v e a l e d by a closed-ended  important  of  o r no c l e a r l y  characteristic  endorse.  On t h e  formulated  opinion  i s not l i k e l y  t o be  question.  Another f u n c t i o n of the closed-ended along which answers a r e sought.  question i s to c l a r i f y  the dimension  I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y useful i n ensuring  that  the answers a r e g i v e n i n a frame o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e purpose of t h e s t u d y and i n a form t h a t i s u s a b l e can produce a f a l s e sense o f s e c u r i t y  to the analysis.  i n many s i t u a t i o n s .  may b e w o r d e d i n t h e same way f o r a l l r e s p o n d e n t s , they w i l l a l l i n t e r p r e t ing  them i n t h e same way.  o r t o o p e r s o n a l a n d may d e l i b e r a t e l y  Unfortunately, i t Although  questions  t h i s does n o t guarantee  that  Some may s e e them a s t h r e a t e n -  falsify  t h e i r answers o r r e f u s e t o  37 cooperate.  O t h e r s may n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e w o r d i n g  questions d i f f e r e n t l y  o r may i n t e r p r e t t h e  f r o m t h e way t h e i n t e r v i e w e r i n t e n d e d .  E v e n when a  r e s p o n d e n t h a s a c l e a r o p i n i o n o n c e r t a i n i s s u e s , a c l o s e d - e n d e d q u e s t i o n may not g i v e an adequate corresponds exactly  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i t because  t o the respondent's p o s i t i o n , o r because  allow f o rqualification.  F u r t h e r m o r e , as t h e r e p l y  v a l u e , i t may l e a d t o s i g n i f i c a n t  t h e y do n o t  i s usually  taken a t face  shortcoming i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  respondent's underlying assumptions to errors  none o f t h e c h o i c e s  a r e not u s u a l l y probed,  thereby  The leading  i n interpretation.  Open-ended q u e s t i o n s The response ability  open-ended q u e s t i o n i s d e s i g n e d t o p e r m i t a f r e e and u n r e s t r a i n e d from t h e respondents r a t h e r t o a l l o w the respondent  a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , o f g i v i n g about  than l i m i t e d  to only fixed  of merely r a i s i n g  Its  t o s t r u c t u r e h i s o r h e r answer as they w i s h , the researcher the opportunity to learn  t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s knowledge o f a s u b j e c t and frame  p r o v e n t o be most s i g n i f i c a n t .  choices.  of r e f e r e n c e has  Furthermore, i t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  characteristic  an i s s u e w i t h o u t p r o v i d i n g o r s u g g e s t i n g any d i r e c t i o n s f o r  the respondent's  r e p l y a l l o w s h i m o r h e r t o answer i n t h e i r  t h e i r own f r a m e s  of reference.  A l t h o u g h t h e element  own t e r m s  and i n  of subjectivity i s  l a r g e r i n . t h e open-ended q u e s t i o n s t h a n i n t h e c l o s e d - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s i s more c a p a b l e o f g e t t i n g a t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l attitudinal  or essential  f a c t o r s which precede o r u n d e r l i e behavior i n which the  researcher i s interested. O p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y a r e u s e d o t h e r p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s , may p r o v i d e a much b e t t e r r e s p o n d e n t s have any i n f o r m a t i o n about f o r m u l a t e d o p i n i o n about  it,  i n conjunction with  i n d i c a t i o n o f whether  t h e i s s u e , whether  they have a  a n d how s t r o n g l y t h e y f e e l a b o u t  it.  clearly  They  also  38 have t h e a b i l i t y may h a v e l i t t l e  to e l i c i t  o r no k n o w l e d g e .  of t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s questions  a wide range of responses i n which t h e researcher  of l i k e l y  Unless the researcher  i s reasonably  certain  answers, i t i s always s a f e r t o u s e open-ended  as they a r e l e s s l i a b l e  to bias  t h e responses by suggesting  some  alternatives but not others. The differ  main d i f f i c u l t y  considerably  detailed  answers.  i n using  i n their ability A t t h e same t i m e ,  some o f t h e o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s contain lengthy and  open-ended q u e s t i o n s  i s that  interviewers  and w i l l i n g n e s s t o e l i c i t  really  i ti s l i k e l y  interviews  t h a t i n many  w i l l n o t b e a n s w e r e d , w h e r e a s a f e w may  essays i r r e l e v a n t t o the concern of the research.  willingness also differ  g r e a t l y among r e s p o n d e n t s , a s s u m i n g t h e r e  w i d e r a n g e o f c a p a c i t y a n d a t t i t u d e s among t h e m , a s t h e r e respondents represent the R i l e y Park area,  Ability  a normal population.  i s a  i s i f the  When c o n d u c t i n g  interviews i n  t h e a u t h o r found t h a t on one o c c a s i o n  even though t h e  r e s p o n d e n t h a d a g r e e d t o t h e i n t e r v i e w , h e was o n l y g i v i n g y e s o r no a n s w e r s to questions  t h a t n e e d e d more e x p l a n a t i o n .  r e s p o n d e n t was s o p l e a s e d  However, i n a n o t h e r c a s e t h e  t o h a v e someone t o t a l k t o t h a t  the interview  w e n t o n f o r two h o u r s . Open-ended q u e s t i o n s  may a l l o w t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o e x p r e s s t h e i r  more f r e e l y a n d i n a way i n w h i c h t h e y a r e m o s t c o m f o r t a b l e . recording  However,  t h e answers i s a l s o a p r o b l e m , and one n o t w e l l s o l v e d by u s i n g  a mechanical recorder  ( e v e n i g n o r i n g t h e new p r o b l e m s t h a t may  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a n a l y s i s o f r e s p o n s e s t o open-ended q u e s t i o n s difficult  opinions  and e x p e n s i v e .  c a l l y analyzed,  I n order  t h a t they can be t a b u l a t e d  t h e r e s p o n s e s must be c a r e f u l l y  create). i s often and s t a t i s t i -  i n t e r p r e t e d and coded.  Summary T h e r e a r e many p r o b l e m s r e l a t i n g  to the questionnaire  approach.  Both  39 closed-ended  and. o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s s u f f e r f r o m  L i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w and f i e l d  serious  experience indicate that this  be t h e most d e s i r a b l e i n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h .  disadvantages. t e c h n i q u e may n o t  I f used a t a l l ,  must be c a u t i o u s about t h e d e s i g n and l i m i t a t i o n s , and be v e r y about the k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s d e s i r e d .  the planners specific  40 CHAPTER I I I GROUP INTERACTION  Introduction F o l l o w i n g a general d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s b a c k g r o u n d on  the c l o s e l y r e l a t e d  category  of techniques  i s some  i s s u e of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g .  R i l e y P a r k p r o v i d e s an example o f c l o s e a d h e r e n c e t o a p o s i t i o n t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v a l u a b l e and  important,  an i n t e n s i v e p r o g r a m o f r a t h e r b r o a d kinds.  I t a p p e a r s t h a t two  dialectical  term,  group i n t e r a c t i o n ,  mean a n y t h i n g  and  involved will  be  s c a l e approach.  one  seems t o be  i s i n f a c t a r a t h e r e l u s i v e concept.  from c i t i z e n b o a r d s t o community o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o A l o t has  b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t i t , and  are i n f a v o r argue t h a t i t i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary  e v e r y o n e s h o u l d be  p a r t of the p l a n n i n g system".  c h a n g e w i l l be  on  K a h n 0-972)) R u n y a n  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y n e i g h b o r h o o d g r o u p s ) know b e s t  p e r c e p t i o n s o f w h a t t h e s o c i a l and  economic consequences of a  t h e i r membership and/or g e o g r a p h i c  yet  Those  to i n v o l v e c i t i z e n s  because " i f the s e r v i c e s are f o r everyone, then,  argues t h a t " l o c a l groups  It  citizen  a b l e to c l e a r l y d e f i n e what i t i s , o r what i t does.  the p l a n n i n g process  own  planners  These techniques  f o l l o w i n g the review of the f u l l  groups to " c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n " .  who  techniques.  delbecq  interaction The  no  s u b s t a n t i a l c o s t s o f many  s c a n n i n g , w e r e i n some p a r t r e - i n v e n t e d b y  discussed individually  may  s c o p e , and  s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of  s t r u c t u r e d forms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  because they were unaware of t h e s e  Group  relatively  citizen  area".  in  perhaps, (1977) their  proposed  As L a u f f e r p u t  it: P e r h a p s t h e p l a n n e r ' s m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c h o i c e s w i l l come i n i n v o l v i n g others i n the decision-making process. Who s h o u l d b e r e p r e s e n t e d ? To w h a t e x t e n t c a n s p e c i f i c c l i e n t g r o u p s and p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p i n g s  41 be r e p r e s e n t e d ? To w h a t e x t e n t do i n d i v i d u a l s o f a s p e c i f i c g r o u p s u c h as o l d e r p e r s o n s r e p r e s e n t c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t o f elderly? ( 1 9 7 5 , p. 58) Critics  of  the  concept, however, have o f t e n used the  in a t o t a l l y different perspective.  To  make u s e  m a k i n g i s more t h a n j u s t a s h e e r w a s t e o f h a v e t o o f f e r t h a t we, also considered controversy  t o be  as  time.  p r o f e s s i o n a l s , do  politically  than i s necessary.  of  C i t i z e n s do  citizens  know?"  w h a t do  normally  t h e r e b e c a u s e t h e y want to r a i s e i s s u e s  them.  Arnstein  little  l i k e eating  good f o r  (1969) s t a t e s spinach:  that "the no  one  i d e a of  i s against  show up  that are  be  involved  be  a l l o c a t e d i n the  actions.  disagreeable  to  i t i n p r i n c i p l e because i t i s  the  types of  community, the  s e r v i c e s and  people already  have.  e v e r y community i n the  i c e r i n k and  a community c e n t r e ,  c o m m u n i t y n e e d f o r them. f o r any  issues  tend to take  s e r v i c e w o u l d be  unless  that the  to a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  T h u s , i t i s s a i d t h a t a few l o w e r m a i n l a n d a r e a was  regardless  to a c c u r a t e l y  a l s o be  a s s e s s how  should things  impulse  to  years  ago  a  on  should  fighting for  o f w h e t h e r t h e r e was  F u r t h e r m o r e , i t can  citizen  opportunities  concern i s whether those are  t h e y a c t u a l l y w a n t o r w h e t h e r i t i s due  practically  the  While i t i s g e n e r a l l y acknowledged that r e s i d e n t s  i n deciding  get what o t h e r  new  public  you."  a different light.  impossible  at  citizen participation is a  In terms of p u b l i c urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g ,  that  they  t o a r o u s e more  m e e t i n g s b e c a u s e t h e y w a n t t o a p p l a u d o r e n d o r s e some g o v e r n m e n t They a r e  but  Group i n t e r a c t i o n i s  i t is likely  not  reasoning  in decision  "After a l l ,  not  d a n g e r o u s as  same b a s i c  the  an  real  argued that i t would  be  u s e f u l or a t t r a c t i v e a  they have a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d  the  same t y p e  of  activity. T h e s e d i l e m m a s may  p e r h a p s be  the h i s t o r i c a l development of i t was  so r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d .  the  resolved concept of  Second, the  by  looking at three  things.  community o r g a n i z a t i o n  c o n c e p t of  and  First why  citizen participation in  42 relation  t o any p u b l i c a c t i v i t y .  T h i r d , t h e n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n s  of c i t i z e n  boards. Hendriks  ( 1 9 6 4 ) s u g g e s t e d two r e a s o n s f o r t h e s w i f t i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d  a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c o n c e p t o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n . appealing. with  Due t o o u r s o c i a l  t e n d e n c i e s we a r e ,  our s o c i a l environment.  The i d e a i s b a s i c a l l y  a s human b e i n g s , i n t e r l i n k e d  And t h e i d e a o f c i t i z e n r y a c t i o n s  t h a t we c a n do s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e c o m m u n i t y i n w h i c h we l i v e .  Secondly, the  development o f Western s o c i e t y i n v o l v e s r a p i d and f a r - r e a c h i n g The  changes t a k i n g p l a c e  groups o u t s i d e  suggests  social  changes.  i n the f a m i l y and, indeed, i n t h e s t r u c t u r e of a l l  t h e f a m i l y , a r e an i l l u s t r a t i o n  of t h i s f a c t .  " I t i s becoming  e v e r more a p p a r e n t t h a t o u r p o s i t i o n i n o u r s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s i n p r o c e s s of change. zations, 1964,  Our i n t e r r e l a t i o n s ,  t h e p a r t we p l a y  themselves have a l t e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y  p. 1 7 )  Our s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t t h e r e f o r e  f o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n work. should  o f t e n b e more a t t u n e d  Arnstein  (1969) d e f i n e d  term f o r c i t i z e n power".  that  i n character." provides  the point  of  c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as simply  trated  excluded from the p o l i t i c a l i n the future.  and i n d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t  and economic  She f u r t h e r  argued  (6) p a r t n e r s h i p ; "ladder"  functions  (2) t h e r a p y ; (7) delegated  (3) i n f o r m i n g ;  Arnstein  further  of eight basic  (4) c o n s u l t a t i o n ;  power; and (8) c i t i z e n c o n t r o l .  as t h e a u t h o r c a l l e d i t ,  [their  s o c i a l reform which enables  t h e concept of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as being  (1) m a n i p u l a t i o n ;  that  "a c a t e g o r i c a l  " i t i s t h e s t r a t e g y by which t h e have-nots j o i n i n determining . . .  contact  t o i n d i v i d u a l needs.  to share i n the b e n e f i t s of the a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y . "  or  (Hendriks,  I t i s a changing s o c i a l environment  t o be d e l i b e r a t e l y i n c l u d e d  own d e s t i n y ]  organi-  I t i s t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power t h a t e n a b l e s t h e  have-not c i t i z e n s , p r e s e n t l y processes,  i n a s s o c i a t i o n s and  them illus-  types:  (5) p l a c a t i o n ; This  typology,  p r e t t y w e l l summarizes one v i e w o f t h e  and o b j e c t i v e s o f i n v o l v i n g c i t i z e n s  i n the decision  process.  43 To u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o t e n t i a l o f g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n a s a t e c h n i q u e i n public and  l e i s u r e p l a n n i n g , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know a b o u t i t s b a c k g r o u n d ,  purpose  methods. The  group i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s , though l o n g i n e x i s t e n c e , i s s t i l l  fraught w i t h t e c h n i c a l problems. o p p o r t u n i t y whereby  I n t h e s i m p l e s t form, i t i s m e r e l y an  c i t i z e n s meet w i t h p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s  grievances or to find  s o l u t i o n s t o a problem.  i n an attempt t o a i r  I n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r what t h e  r e s i d e n t s d e s i r e i n terms o f r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  t h e p l a n n e r s may  a p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g , and i f t h e r e i s enough i n t e r e s t a c i t i z e n c a n b e formed as a n a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e on f u t u r e p r o p o s a l s . level,  hold group  On a h i g h e r  c i t i z e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s and  public officials  i n a team p r o c e s s , i n w h i c h t h e i r v i e w s c a r r y a s much w e i g h t  a s a n y o t h e r member o f t h e b o a r d . however,  R e g a r d l e s s o f the degree of involvement,  t h o s e o r g a n i z i n g t h e s e m e e t i n g s must have a s t a t e d p u r p o s e i n mind,  be a b l e t o d i r e c t  them w i t h some g u i d e l i n e s , a n d s t a t e w h a t i s d e s i r e d o f t h e  citizens. One o f t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m s t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a s e x p e r i e n c e d h a s t o do w i t h a l a c k o f p r o p e r c o o r d i n a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l  during  the  results.  i n t e r a c t i v e process.  M e e t i n g s t e n d t o d r a g on w i t h o u t any m a j o r  A r n s t e i n , i n h e r own w o r d s , h a s g i v e n u s a p r e t t y g o o d d e f i n i t i o n o f w h a t c i t i z e n involvement i s about.  M e y e r s , D o r w a r t , a n d K l i n e h a v e shown  c i t i z e n b o a r d s c a n s e r v e some s i g n i f i c a n t p l a n n e r s , have  purposes.  What we, a s r e c r e a t i o n  t o know i s how t o make t h e b e s t u s e o f t h i s  Dialectical  knowledge.  s c a n n i n g , t h e D e l b e c q t e c h n i q u e , and c i t i z e n  committees a r e b u t three approaches w i t h i n group i n t e r a c t i o n . i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e c o n s i d e r e d as s t r u c t u r e d  planning T h e f i r s t two  techniques through which meetings  c a n b e c o n d u c t e d i n a n o r d e r l y way t o e n s u r e t h a t u s e f u l d a t a w i l l b e generated.  that  44 The  p r a c t i c e o f group i n t e r a c t i o n has  the normative debates r e l a t i n g experienced, process.  i t i s now  Despite  it  may  i s no  can  be  also faces  One  indoor  a reality.  swimming p o o l ?  Full  citizens  t e c h n i c a l problems merits  earlier,  in a  i s c i t e d by  this particular  f o r which  and  data  input.  This  are conducted.  is  expecting  that i t w i l l  that desire i s l i k e l y  e v e n t u a l l y become  to provoke contempt  the  T h e s e and o t h e r  example of  citizens.  d i a l e c t i c a l scanning,  determine. w h i c h may  The  i s h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o who  The  have l i t t l e  and  types of data  More o f t e n than n o t ,  t h e r e f o r e must be  there  relevance  a w a r e o f and  arranged meetings are  p o s s i b l e are  still  techniques  how  to the problems at hand. able  The  be  always  meetings  likely  a l a r g e volume of i n f o r m a t i o n  to have  to  pre-  i s generated professionals  to d i r e c t d i s c u s s i o n s i n the;proper a range of  a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of i n t e n s i t y .  be  controlling  difficult  term "group i n t e r a c t i o n " , t h e r e f o r e , r e p r e s e n t s  participation  to  can  involvement  i s the problem of  p a r t i c i p a t e s and  cost  the R i l e y Park  Such d e d i c a t i o n , however, i s not Finally,  and  dedication  a r e ways i n w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n  m e e t i n g , such as u s i n g  Better organized  better results.  there  Once i t i s known t o t h e p u b l i c t h a t t h e r e  Although there  p o s s i b l e i n e v e r y community.  that  to  e f f e c t i v e i n t e n s i v e g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n o f t e n r e q u i r e s much more of both p l a n n e r s  say  to ask whether e v e r y community w o u l d l i k e  graphically i l l u s t r a t e d using  g a t h e r e d i n j u s t one  cate-  other  t h e c r i t i c s who  r a i s e expectations  through a r a t h e r long process.  committee.  planning  i n d e c i s i o n making.  s c a l e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l s o demands t o t a l  of the people i n v o l v e d f a c t o r s w i l l be  and  they are  F a i l u r e to s a t i s f y  discontent.  i n s p i t e of  s e v e r a l shortcomings i n comparison to  Is i t r i g h t  a p o s s i b i l i t y of g e t t i n g i t ,  NIP  have d i s c u s s e d  evoke unnecessary c o n t r o v e r s y  h a v e an  and  involving citizens  o f t h e more s i g n i f i c a n t  foundation.  the  t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h has  g a t h e r e d by  t h e a d v a n t a g e s we  gory of technique approaches.  t o i t s u s a g e and  recognized  Useful data  come a l o n g way,  focus.  citizen  In i t s simplest  45 form planners other  and c i t i z e n s meet b r i e f l y  end o f t h e s c a l e i s t h e " f u l l  to discuss specific  Each o f these  different  techniques  from others.  scale citizen  T h e i r u s e f u l n e s s , however, w i l l  i n t e n s i v e form o f t h i s  technique.  However, t h i s  type  collection  technique,  developing  a constituency  i s r e q u i r e d i f i t i s t o work w e l l . c o s t l y and time consuming t o  i n support  technique  The serve as  I t i s an a d u l t  education  and o t h e r  o f democracy i n l o c a l f o ruse w i t h d e l p h i ,  by  government. delbecq,  techniques.  p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e R i l e y P a r k N e i g h b o r h o o d Improvement Programme  to i l l u s t r a t e  the very  diverse a c t i v i t i e s  that the planners  t h e c i t i z e n s must engage i n t o o b t a i n r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s .  main f u n c t i o n o f t h e p l a n n i n g  staff  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e d  i s to review,  as w e l l  Even though t h e  recommend, a n d a d m i n i s t e r  funds f o r p h y s i c a l improvements i n t h e  c o m m u n i t y , t h e d e c i s i o n s h a v e t o b e made i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a planning  of the  f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , and i t i s s u p p o r t e d  i m p l i c a t i o n of a theory  scanning,  data  and i t i s a t e c h n i q u e f o r  o f t h e r e s u l t s and i n s u p p o r t  i t o f f e r s a broad range o f " e x p e r t s "  dialectical  prepara-  of c i t i z e n participation i s not just a  i ti s a planning  programme o f some r e a l v a l u e  t h e most  A t r e m e n d o u s amount o f p l a n n i n g ,  government t h a t engages i n t h i s k i n d o f p l a n n i n g .  And  on  situations.  In a d d i t i o n , t h i s approach i s a l s o extremely  some a s a l o g i c a l  depend e n t i r e l y  scope and l e v e l r e p r e s e n t s  e v a l u a t i o n , and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s  conduct.  tech-  participation  Citizen participation at this  tion,  a planning  requires administration that i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the need and r e q u i r e m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l  Full  At the  s c a l e " c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n such as the  N e i g h b o u r h o o d I m p r o v e m e n t Programme w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y nique.  issues.  committee over a p e r i o d o f a t l e a s t  two y e a r s .  Regular  citizens' weekly  m e e t i n g s a r e h e l d t o d i s c u s s i s s u e s p e r t i n e n t t o t h e programme a s w e l l a s  46 others  that are of concern to the c i t i z e n s .  Repeated attempts have t o be  made t o e n s u r e t h a t m a j o r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s do r e f l e c t sities other of  o f most o f t h e c o n c e r n e d r e s i d e n t s .  t h e d e s i r e s and neces-  In the implementation  government a g e n c i e s have t o be b r o u g h t i n t o a s s i s t  t h e p h y s i c a l improvements.  Exercises  stage,  i n the designing  such as " d e s i g n - i n s " a r e s i g n i f i -  cant n o t o n l y because they a r e r e l a t e d t o a c t u a l development o f i d e a s , b u t because they a l s o serve involved.  as i n v a l u a b l e education  functions  to the people  C i t i z e n s can b e t t e r understand the workings of the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n  process.  Planners,  on t h e o t h e r  to the r e s i d e n t s ' wishes. d i v i s i o n of labor, with specific  hand, a r e able  The N I P p l a n n e r  (Johnson, 1977)  the e l i t i s t planning  a c t i n g as t h e experts  He f u r t h e r b e l i e v e s  process which w i l l  pertinent  i n R i l e y Park "sees NIP as a  t h e committee a c t i n g as t h e e x p e r t  community and t h e p l a n n e r s  a whole."  to obtain r e l i a b l e data  about t h e about t h e c i t y  as  that " i t i s d i f f e r e n t from  r e s u l t i n a good n e i g h b o r h o o d and a  s e n s e o f c o m m u n i t y among t h e r e s i d e n t s . " Citizens participation at this level exercise.  i s i n e v i t a b l y a very  costly  F o r t h e R i l e y Park NIP t h e expenses f o r t h e f i r s t year of  operation, which included s a l a r y f o r a s t a f f miscellaneous  e x p e n s e s , was a b o u t  o f t h r e e , overhead and o t h e r  $80,000.  One o f t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s i n t h e g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s i s t o g e t proper representation  f r o m e v e r y segment o f t h e community.  f o u n d t h a t i n some n e i g h b o r h o o d s , c e r t a i n p o p u l a t i o n outspoken were a b l e  g r o u p s t h a t a r e more  t o dominate t h e d e c i s i o n process.  cases i n which c i t i z e n s voted  I t has been  on c e r t a i n i s s u e s w i t h o u t  Also, fully  what they a c t u a l l y meant, o r were pushed i n t o making h a s t y  impossible.  getting  T h e r e a r e some p e o p l e who s i m p l y  involved i n these matters.  were  understanding  decisions.  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e v e r y segment o f t h e s o c i e t y i s d i f f i c u l t not  there  True  to obtain, i f  are not interested i n  So how do t h e p l a n n e r s  encourage  citizens  47 to  participate?  The  R i l e y P a r k NIP  p l a n n e r b e l i e v e s t h a t the key phrase i s  " p o s i t i v e momentum."  C i t i z e n s have to f e e l  have p o s i t i v e impacts  on t h e m s e l v e s  a b l e to see r e s u l t s .  The  people out, get people  and  that whatever they are doing  their  community.  R i l e y Park planner suggests  t h i n k i n g , and  do  They must a l s o  three goals:  t h i n g s to keep people  made a w a r e o f t h e f a c t  broad  t h a t s u b c o n s c i o u s l y he was  terms the a p p l i c a t i o n of d i a l e c t i c a l  the group i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s .  He  describing  s c a n n i n g and  There appears to  determine  i n f a c t a p p l y i n g the concepts t o be  delbecq  vital  insufficient  a s p e c t s be  to h i s planning  data from the R i l e y Park  A recent incident  A g r o u p o f t e e n a g e r s who  and  p r o g r a m m e s and  t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t o g e t h e r and they have succeeded  The  (except i n It is another.  thus can l o o k to  f o r i d e a s about what would  i n Vancouver serves to i l l u s t r a t e live  i n the e a s t e r n p a r t of the  t o h a v e a ramp f o r s k a t e - b o a r d i n g .  a v a i l a b l e at that time, they ventured  to b u i l d  t h e i r own.  this  city S i n c e none  By p o o l i n g  e x a m i n i n g what o t h e r p e o p l e have done b e f o r e ,  i n building  themselves  e v e n g a i n e d s u p p o r t f r o m t h e c o u n c i l and Full  experience  work b e s t i n an a r e a t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y  t h e y h a v e some f a m i l i a r i t y  d e c i d e d t h a t they would l i k e was  activity.  c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h one  i n terms of f a c i l i t i e s  other areas w i t h which  point.  the  Even  r e p o r t ) , were a t i s s u e i n a l l of the R i l e y P a r k work.  G r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n a t t h i s l e v e l may  be d e s i r a b l e .  technique i n  "when" a r e some o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n n e e d s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y .  t h a t t h e s e two  disadvantaged  i n very  participatory  r e a s o n f o r i t i s t h a t f a c i l i t i e s , r a t h e r than programming M e l l o r ' s 1977  author  t o k e e p t h e momentum g o i n g . "  though u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the formats of the o t h e r c i t i z e n t e c h n i q u e s , he was  get  emphasized the p o i n t s about " w r i t i n g  s c r i p t w e l l or dramatize the meetings  be  interested.  When c o n d u c t i n g a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e R i l e y P a r k p l a n n e r , t h e was  will  a ramp on a c i t y  nearby  l o t which  has  humanizes  the  residents.  s c a l e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a s many b e n e f i t s — i t  48 planning  process,  creates  t o p l a n w i t h and nature,  i t is still  Dialectical As ning  not  one  or recreates  at the people. one  planning  Despite  being  i t s c o s t l i n e s s and  of t h e most e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g  able  demanding  techniques  to  use.  scanning approach i n c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n techniques,  i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from others  as w e l l as  a s e n s e o f c o m m u n i t y , and  its ability  proposal  and  by  i t s d i r e c t and  to i d e n t i f y c r i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s of l o c a l  for  human i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h h a s  and  review  may  be  s i n g l e d out  may  be  defined  upon p a r t i c u l a r  as  s i m p l e way  of  communities.  I t i s also a  i t s o b j e c t i v e the f o c u s s i n g of  In essence, the  is conflict,  so  scan-  operation,  areas of c o n f l i c t between  i s s u e s on w h i c h t h e r e  f o r debate.  dialectical  a  process  discussion that  term " d i a l e c t i c a l  these  scanning"  as:  An a p p r o a c h t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n c o m m u n i t y r e s i d e n t s and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t o r s by f o c u s s i n g d i s c u s s i o n on c o n f l i c t i n g i s s u e s and t o e x p l o r e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s s u c h t h a t some f o r m o f a n a l y s i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i s s u e s may be s e l e c t e d . This  technique  first  a p p e a r e d i n t h e a r t i c l e on  t i o n i n the Design of L a r g e - S c a l e Schofer  (1974),  U r b a n Systems" by  i n which the authors s t a t e d  " L o c a l Impact Hudson, Wachs,  Evaluaand  that:  One i n c r e a s i n g w e l l s p r i n g o f c o n c e r n f o r :the n e i g h b o r h o o d a s a p l a n n i n g u n i t may b e t h e a v e r a g e c i t i z e n ' s f e e l i n g t h a t p u b l i c s e r v i c e s y s t e m s t e n d t o become l e s s r e s p o n s i v e and accountable as t h e y grow i n s c a l e . (p. 256) It  is especially significant  tunities  i n which major f a c i l i t i e s ,  centre, are population  often created  by  f o r which they are  that deal with tives  i n terms of p l a n n i n g  f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l oppor-  s u c h as a r e g i o n a l p a r k o r  the a u t h o r i t i e s without intended  t h e p o s s i b l e i m p a c t s on  t o t h e p r o p o s e d p l a n , and  to serve.  consulting  Important  community the  considerations  local residents, possible alterna-  conflicting  concerns are not  generally  49 considered,  thereby  r e s u l t i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s i n which there  o f one t y p e o f o p p o r t u n i t y  and a l a c k o f another.  not  and cannot r e s o l v e a l l t h e i s s u e s  but  i t s usefulness  lies  The two  oversupply  D i a l e c t i c a l scanning  t h a t may a r i s e f r o m a p l a n n i n g  i n the fact that c i t i z e n s '  reactions to a tentative plan, i n particular categorized  i s an  does  proposal,  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s '  the negative  ones, c a n be  and d e f i n e d .  a p p r o a c h c o m p r i s e s two e x p l i c i t p h a s e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e  parties.  The f i r s t  stage has the task o f i d e n t i f y i n g  the c r i t i c a l  points  of d i s a g r e e m e n t and c o n f l i c t between t h e proposed development and t h e l o c a l communities of i n t e r e s t . a discussion i s held  M a j o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p l a n a r e l i s t e d , and  t o determine whether each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s acceptable  to a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , o r whether i t i s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l element of the p l a n . A r g u m e n t s a r e t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s .  The f i r s t  arguments t h a t a r e u n a s s a i l a b l e o r n o n c o n t r o v e r s i a l . stated, recorded,  and l e f t  alone.  counter-arguments and subsequent r e b u t t a l s . technique  and o t h e r s  points of c o n f l i c t .  A major d i s t i n c t i o n  Agreement i s r a t h e r sought on w h e t h e r c o n f l i c t  For  each o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g  their  exists, opposites.  i s s u e s , a n a t t e m p t i s made t o d e v e l o p a  " t r e e " ( a s compared t o a d e c i s i o n t r e e ) w i t h m a j o r p o i n t s o f  d i s a g r e e m e n t b r o k e n down i n t o v a r i o u s  components.  As t h e d i s c u s s i o n  f u r t h e r e x p l i c a t i o n i s sought through f u r t h e r development o f  b r a n c h e s and t w i g s The  between  i s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s do n o t a t t e m p t t o r e s o l v e  whether the counter-arguments a r e p r o p e r l y a l i g n e d w i t h  evolves,  on t h e second  a r e s t a t e d i n the form o f  and  dialectical  those  They a r e s i m p l y  A t t e n t i o n i s now f o c u s s e d  group, and t h o s e arguments t h a t a r e c o n t e s t e d  this  group b e i n g  of the tree.  main f o c a l p o i n t  arguments a g a i n s t  (Hudson, Wachs, and S c h o f e r ,  i n the f i r s t  the principal  some f o r m o f d e b a t e o n them.  stage o f t h i s approach  1974) elicits  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p l a n and g e n e r a t e s  During t h i s stage,  little  distinction i s  50 made b e t w e e n t h e t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t a n d t h e l a y p e r s o n . s i o n on t h o s e p o i n t s i s p o s s i b l e , stage.  When no f u r t h e r  t h e m e e t i n g may t h e n move t o t h e s e c o n d  T h i s stage has the o b j e c t i v e of r e s o l v i n g  determined during the previous stage.  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h were  I t b e g i n s by l o o k i n g a t t h e n a t u r e o f  the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s which have been i d e n t i f i e d  and s e l e c t i n g a form o f  a n a l y s i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e a l i n g w i t h each type o f i s s u e . that there are at least the  discus-  I t has been  found  t h r e e t y p e s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t s w h i c h may emerge  during  exercise. The m o s t common f o r m o f m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s i s r e l a t e d  about p a r t i c u l a r  design features of the proposal.  to f a c t u a l matters  F e a r a r i s e s o f t e n due t o an  i g n o r a n c e o f w h a t o n e i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h , a n d i n many i n s t a n c e s o p p o s i t i o n from a neighborhood  i s usually a result of the residents'  c e p t i o n o f what a c e r t a i n p l a n i s l i k e l y e x a c t l y what i t i s about.  strong  F o r example,  t o i n f l u e n c e them w i t h o u t c e r t a i n f e a r s about a  precon-  knowing  highway  p r o p o s a l might be immediately d i s p e l l e d by assurances t h a t f i n a l p l a n s would i n c o r p o r a t e a d d i t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r a e s t h e t i c l a n d s c a p i n g , adequate sation of loss,  immediate  housing f o r those r e l o c a t e d , o r other concerns  expressed i n the d i a l e c t i c a l  tree.  E x e r c i s e s u c h a s t h i s may n o t b e a b l e  to r e s o l v e a l l the doubts that p e r s i s t help to i d e n t i f y  i n t h e r e s i d e n t s ' minds,  about  type of disagreement  i s related  cause-and-effect relationships  proposals.  analysis.  F o r example,  misunder-  resolved.  to differences  i n assumptions  c o n c e r n i n g t h e assessment  I n an open forum, doubts about a n t i c i p a t e d  can r a r e l y be r e s o l v e d , b u t c r i t i c a l subsequent  b u t i t does  c o n f l i c t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r n a t u r e , and f a c t u a l  s t a n d i n g s a r e g e n e r a l l y those t h a t can be d i r e c t l y A second  compen-  of the  impacts of proposals  disagreements can be d e f i n e d f o r  city  o f f i c i a l s have e x p e r i e n c e d s t r o n g  o p p o s i t i o n f r o m many n e i g h b o r h o o d s when t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o i n t r o d u c e l o w a n d moderate h o u s i n g developments  i n t o an a r e a , w i t h t h e opponents  claiming  that  51 these "poor" all  p e o p l e may  l e a d to higher crime  o f w h i c h a r e f e a r s t h a t have y e t t o be  p l a n n i n g , i t m i g h t be  equally d i f f i c u l t  proven.  i s s u e s m i g h t be b y - p a s s e s on  created solely  resolved f a i r l y  property  In the case  of r e c r e a t i o n  t h a t a r e r e l a t i v e l y new  for skate-boarding.  Some o f  s h o r t r u n , i t has  and  conjunction with this particular  that Delphi techniques stage,  i n order  the p r e d i c t i o n of outcomes a l o n g s p e c i f i c be  necessitating a  provisions for structured research.  been suggested  m a t i o n i s l a c k i n g , may  to r e s o l v e .  that c o n f l i c t s  relative  In  t h a t expert judgement, i n  l i n e s of i n q u i r y where hard  i s not  e f f o r t w o u l d be  futile.  classifies  disagreements  such  forum from w a s t i n g  time  i s n o t a t s t a k e , and interest  In a p l u r a l i s t i c  society,  t r u e i n the case  desires, likes  r o l e of the p l a n n e r s  ical  techniques scanning  infor-  The  and  dislikes,  to s a t i s f y  every  the  i t i s more t h a n may  be  likely  irrecon-  of l e i s u r e p l a n n i n g , where are h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e .  The  c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e , a s any  such  v i r t u e of t h e d i a l e c t i c a l method i s t h a t i t f o r what they a r e .  i n appeal  also serves  from appearing  This prevents  a public  t o l o g i c a l a r g u m e n t s when i n f a c t to prevent  unitary definitions  t o embrace a l l o t h e r v a l u e  There are s e v e r a l elements i n which d i a l e c t i c a l other  the  can be u s e d i n  to the assessment of program impacts  This i s especially and  answers  employed.  most d i f f i c u l t  public  than  longer  D i s a g r e e m e n t s as a r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e s a r e p r o b a b l y  preferences  the  q u i c k l y , as f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f m a j o r h i g h w a y  e f f e c t s a r e n o t y e t known, t h e r e b y  term m o n i t o r i n g procedure  on  or  H o w e v e r , o t h e r q u e s t i o n s w o u l d r e q u i r e more t e n t a t i v e  their likely  cilable.  value,  t h e commerce o f s m a l l t o w n s w h i c h a r e b e t t e r known t o d a y  t e n y e a r s ago. for  as a p a r k  lower  to get a p p r o v a l f o r expenditures  leisure opportunities, especially proposals i n n o v a t i v e , such  r a t e s and  of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  requires only a blackboard  and  of  logic the  positions.  scanning  surpasses  In i t s s i m p l e s t form, someone t o r e c o r d t h e  dialectreasons  52 why be  a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n or c o n t r o v e r s i a l f e a t u r e of a p l a n should adopted.  This  ease of use  government o f f i c i a l s ,  or anyone i n v o l v e d  f r o m a l a r g e number o f be  a c h i e v e d between the  initial far  "blackboard"  e n a b l e s community p l a n n e r s ,  citizens  i n a major plan  i n order  i n s t i g a t o r s and  formulation  of  the  Concisely  formulated,  the  the  The  p r o b l e m can  dialogue  and  analogies  outcome t o p r e v a i l o v e r the  that are being  put  forward should  changes i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of  other.  w a y s b y w h i c h i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s may  are  be  behind the On  the  voluntary  limitless.  r e s p o n s e s , and  to  The  forces  the  (political, question,  conditions  permit-  proposals  accommodate  e n c o u n t e r e d , and  as  such,  the  to i d e n t i f y , i f  conflict. approach i s able  s e l e c t e d and  a r e made e x p l i c i t ;  to value  is ideally  enough leeway t o  dialectical  i d e n t i f i e d w h e r e t h e y e x i s t ; and  those r e l a t i n g  in  lead  those that are not.  presented; c o n f l i c t s  through  T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the  t h e p r o b l e m s t o be  a more t e c h n i c a l s i d e , t h e  s o l v a b l e and  planning  committees, or  which r e v e a l the  contain  u n a b l e t o r e s o l v e , a v e n u e s t h a t may  are  transmitted  d i f f e r e n t s i d e s of a  technique i s u s e f u l i n d i r e c t i n g c i t i z e n s '  On  be  list  make p u b l i c p o l i c y  a multi-volume  citizens  recognizing  t h e m s e l v e s on  attempts to seek h i s t o r i c a l  t i n g one  can  may  this  s c a n n i n g a l s o a t t e m p t s t o f o c u s on  a c t i o n c o n s e q u e n c e s o f d e c i s i o n s by economic, moral) which a r r a y  responses  Similarly,  help  than can  o f more permanent s t a n d i n g — t h e  technique of d i a l e c t i c a l  workers,  to s o l i c i t  respondents.  news m e d i a , u n i v e r s i t y s t u d y g r o u p s , ad h o c organizations  social  not  t h a t some k i n d o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g  more a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e  document.  or should  issues  to  suggest  identifying conflicts  are  generally  that  concisely  strategies for resolving  differences  major misunderstandings, e s p e c i a l l y  judgements, are  acknowledged, r a t h e r  than  obscured  o v e r a l l category of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t .  the other  hand, d i a l e c t i c a l  p a r t i c u l a r issues  scanning also faces  t h a t p e r t a i n more g e n e r a l l y  various  limitations,  to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  53 planning.  ( G o d s c h a l k , 1972)  l i m i t a t i o n s a s any p u b l i c rational  T h i s a p p r o a c h a l s o e x p e r i e n c e s many o f t h e same  forum:  i t may  ( f o r example, m o r a l , a e s t h e t i c ,  d e a l more e x p l i c i t l y w i t h c u l t u r a l ) dimensions of  decision-making, but the r e s o l u t i o n of c r u c i a l knowledge—cannot ectical respect. (Raiffa, in  be b u i l t  i n t o any  s c a n n i n g i s no d i f f e r e n t  the  non-  public  issues—the ability  t o a c t on  i n s t r u m e n t o f r a t i o n a l d e b a t e , and  from other p l a n n i n g approaches  dial-  i n this  The u s e o f d e c i s i o n t r e e s i s a w e l l - k n o w n p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e 1968), b u t C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r has p r o b a b l y t a k e n the i d e a  farthest  the d i r e c t i o n of a planning process emphasizing problem f o r m u l a t i o n i n  h i s N o t e s on t h e S y n t h e s i s o f F o r m  (1966).  A dialectical  tree,  to carry i t  one s t e p f u r t h e r , a t t e m p t s t o b r e a k down m a j o r p o i n t s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t components.  W h i l e i t i s i n d e e d a good v i s u a l a i d t o d i s c u s s i o n ,  f o r e s e e a b l e t h a t t h e r e may identify  c o n f l i c t s and  into  i tis  be problems i n w h i c h p a r t i c i p a n t s f a i l  to  logically  t h e i r c o u n t e r - a r g u m e n t s , o r t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s may  s o . i c o m p l e x t h a t no " t r e e " i s e v e r , a b l e t o p r e s e n t them.  Finally,  each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s views deserve e q u a l w e i g h t , or whether  a blackboard  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n can f a i r l y  convey  them, r e m a i n unanswered  be  whether  questions.  The D e l b e c q t e c h n i q u e T h i s t e c h n i q u e , a s p r o p o s e d b y A n d r e D e l b e c q a n d A n d r e w V a n De V e n s e t s f o r t h a group p r o c e s s approach u s e f u l f o r p r a c t i c i n g p l a n n e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r program  development.  formats are suggested f o r i n v o l v i n g i n s u c c e s s i v e phases of program  development:  u s e r s ) .to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r o b l e m e x p l o r a t i o n ; and s t r u c t u r a l s p e c i a l i s t s , and r e s o u r c e c o n t r o l l e r s , organizational staff,  i n knowledge  in priority  i n program  administrators  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  the f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c a l (1) c l i e n t s  (1971), and  meeting  reference (consumers  groups or  (2) e x t e r n a l r e s o u r c e p e o p l e  exploration;  development  and  proposal building;  (3) key  administrators  local authority;  (4)  and i t s c o n s t i t u e n c i e s ,  54 in  final  approval  planning,  and e v a l u a t i o n d e s i g n s .  the Delbecq technique,  l a b e l l e d by t h e authors, an  Unlike other  approaches to system  o r t h e Program P l a n n i n g  suggests a planning  Model  (PPM) a s i t i s  sequence which seeks t o p r o v i d e  o r d e r l y process of s t r u c t u r i n g t h e d e c i s i o n making a t d i f f e r e n t phases o f  planning.  I t b o t h h i g h l i g h t s c r i t i c a l i s s u e s and p r o v i d e s  developing  i n n o v a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g i e s where c l i e n t s  ists,  resource  a guideline f o r  o r consumers,  c o n t r o l l e r s , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s must be i n t e r f a c e d .  It  f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s group p r o c e s s e s and agenda f o r m a t s w h i c h g u i d e each of program e v o l u t i o n .  I n summary, t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s  identify  s t r a t e g i c problems and t o d e v e l o p a p p r o p r i a t e  to s o l v e  them.  The an  problems encountered by p l a n n i n g  appropriate  program t h a t would s a t i s f y  numerous, i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e .  officials  hoc  The d i f f i c u l t y  obtained  controllers,  to develop  i n t h e i r d e s i r e s and on an ad  a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s may  related groups—potential  l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and t h e l i k e — l a c k  s o l u t i o n , and t h e i n i t i a l  users,  of proper  attempt resource  coordination  to obtain a proper  purposes of the e x e r c i s e a r e t o t a l l y  defeated.  e x a m p l e , a m u n i c i p a l i t y may d e s i r e t o i n s t i g a t e a new r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m  to c a t e r t o t h e needs o f s i n g l e p a r e n t s probably  begin  by r e s e a r c h i n g  f o r t h e i r response.  t o come w i t h  some s o l i d  w i t h young c h i l d r e n .  Planners  will  opportunities that are currently a v a i l a b l e .  T h e y may t h e n a t t e m p t t o c o n t a c t ask  effort  l i e s n o t i n the absence of  between these p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t e n r e s u l t s i n f a i l u r e  For  i n their  programs  f r o m o n e s i d e i s n o t made c l e a r t o t h e  I n other words, even though planners  to e l i c i t responses from v a r i o u s  are to  and i n n o v a t i v e  C o n f l i c t s a r i s e when d i f f e r e n t p a r t i e s a r e c o n s u l t e d  b a s i s , where i n f o r m a t i o n  other.  techinque  phase  the d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t groups a r e  knowledge, as most p a r t i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y s p e c i f i c priorities.  special-  i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s about t h e p r o p o s a l and  I t i s not inconceivable proposals  that the c i t i z e n s  about d i f f e r e n t programs t h a t  are able  they a r e i n  55 f a v o r o f , s u c h as h o l d i n g swimming and c h i l d r e n i n t h e community c e n t r e s . s o r t o f p r o p o s a l b a s e d on they  Planners  are  f u n d i n g may  exist,  existing  f a c i l i t i e s may  W h a t e v e r o b j e c t i o n s t h e r e may  i s never b e n e f i c i a l  to the o r i g i n a l  be,  cause.  As  be  inevitable conflicts for structuring  i n the f i n a l  can be  and  occur: too  o f f e r s an  organizational units to minimize  explicit  f i v e phases i n t h i s model, the f i r s t  peripheral participants.  The  c l i e n t s are brought together  planning. the  and  Van  t h a t m o s t p r o b l e m s a r e b a s e d on 470)  solutions.  either emotional  Phase I attempts  problems that the c l i e n t a d d r e s s them p r o p e r l y . longer than (1)  Ven  argue  an e v e n i n g .  to analyze  g r o u p s may The The  of r e s o u r c e ,  t h e s c o p e and  e n c o u n t e r so  amount o f t i m e whole process  taken c a n be  with  q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  that future actions  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as age. s i d e o f t h e c a r d and  the  can  f o r the meeting i s o f t e n  no  summarized as f o l l o w s :  P a r t i c i p a n t s are d i v i d e d i n t o groups of s i x to n i n e according  on one  understand  or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l dimensions  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l dimensions o f t e n deal  authority, structure, costs, availability so on.  De  to  with  E m o t i o n s c e n t e r a r o u n d f e e l i n g s s u c h as a n x i e t y , f e a r ,  e m b a r a s s m e n t , and t h e l i k e .  and  D e l b e c q and  and  f o r a meeting etc.)  to f i n d  the  process  being  the government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ( p l a n n e r s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s , explore problems, not  present  Planning  p r o b l e m e x p l o r a t i o n s t a g e w h i c h i n c l u d e s c l i e n t o r consumer groups  ( 1 9 7 1 , p.  crowded  the c h a r a c t e r of p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n each phase of  There are b a s i c a l l y  a  consequence  the Program  sequenced i n order  stages,  be  the unfortunate  M o d e l p r o p o s e s a method i n w h i c h i n t e r n a l exchange a c r o s s and e x t r a o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n t e r f a c e s  some  i n c o n t r a s t to the  such,  and  H o w e v e r , when  c o u n c i l , many t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s may  t o a c c o m m o d a t e e x t r a u s e r s , o r t h e p r o p o s a l may guidelines.  parents  t h e n a b l e t o d r a w up  the i n f o r m a t i o n they have a c q u i r e d .  r e p o r t back to the c i t y  l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t  s k a t i n g classes f o r both  t o common  They a r e e a c h a s k e d t o w r i t e p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , on  the other  side  of  56 a 5 x 7 card. recorded  About t h i r t y minutes i s a l l o w e d .  on a sheet  listed.  The r e s p o n s e s  a r e then  o f paper f o r each group and d i s p l a y e d on t h e w a l l .  A f t e r a short break, the items  (2)  t h e members o f e a c h g r o u p a r e a s k e d  T h e y may d i s c u s s them f u r t h e r ,  new i t e m s , e t c . , b u t c a n n o t c o n d e n s e t h e i t e m s .  clarify (4)  review  some p o i n t s , a d d  After  t h a t , e a c h member  is  then g i v e n a 3 x 5 c a r d and asked  he  o r s h e c o n s i d e r s most c r u c i a l on t h e p e r s o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i s t .  votes  a r e then recorded.  (5)  to vote  to j o i n t l y  (3)  (by number) f o r t h e f i v e  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  About t e n minutes a r e  A f e w members a r e t h e n s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t  i n Phase I I .  One o f t h e c r i t i c a l client  (6)  The  The g r o u p s a r e now j o i n e d t o g e t h e r a n d t h e  vote o f each group i s r e p o r t e d t o t h e e n t i r e audience. allowed f o r discussion.  items  i s s u e s i n program development i s t h e i n t e r f a c i n g o f  o r consumer w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l .  The p r o c e s s  specified i n  P h a s e I h a s two s p e c i a l b e n e f i t s f o r t h e t o t a l p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n r e l a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s and n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  The f i r s t  benefit relates to  t h e v a l u e o f f o c u s s i n g a t t e n t i o n on c l i e n t needs as t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f program development.  I t i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e new e m p h a s i s o n i n v o l v e m e n t  the c l i e n t s o f a s o c i a l agency as a b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g programs. b e n e f i t o f Phase I r e l a t e s clients.  T h e c l i e n t s may b e t o o m i l i t a n t ,  r a t h e r p a s s i v e and s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n . focusses  The s e c o n d  t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n dynamics o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s and  G e t t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o r e a c t t o c i t i z e n statements  tricky business.  the a t t e n t i o n of c l i e n t  may b e a  o r s o m e t i m e s may t a k e a  This nominal  group  technique  and consumer groups on r e a l p r o b l e m s ,  h e l p i n g t o a v o i d emphasis on p s y c h o l o g i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l statement leaders. centered  of  thus  by f o r m a l  S i m i l a r l y , r h e t o r i c a l l e a d e r s a r e not a b l e t o dominate problemd i s c u s s i o n by c l i e n t s  the nominal  group p r o c e s s  i n nominal  group s i t u a t i o n s .  not only f a c i l i t a t e s  pation, i ta l s o provides both  Furthermore,  increased balance  i n partici-  q u a n t i t a t i v e data i n the sense of yoted-upon  priorities of  and q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a i n terms o f a r i c h ,  the problem.  Finally,  s i n c e Phase  descriptive  discussion  I processes are e a s i l y activated, i t  c a n b e h e l d i n a s i n g l e e v e n i n g f o r a l a r g e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i c h i s an e f f e c t i v e m e c h a n i s m f o r i n c r e a s i n g real client Phase  o r consumer  the f o c u s of the program  problems.  I I begins w i t h the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of e x t e r n a l s p e c i a l i s t s  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e x p e r t s whose d i s c i p l i n e and priority  items which e v o l v e d i n Phase  s p e c i a l c o n s u l t a n t s , academics  I.  t h e p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t .  to  Phase  I:  and m i n o r  categories the  (3)  The  I n l e i s u r e p l a n n i n g , they can  The  f o r m a t may  problem items developed i n Phase  the Phase  (2)  The  similar  I are divided  organization representative  I m e e t i n g and  into  problem  (planner) gives character  thoroughly reviews the d i s p l a y of problem items.  S i n c e the purpose of the Phase  first,  officials  b e somewhat  summary o f t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e m e e t i n g , a n d d i s c u s s e s t h e  Phase  or  I I meeting i s to i d e n t i f y  alternative  i t e m s w h i c h emerged i n  I m e e t i n g , t h e e x p e r t s a r e t h e n r e q u e s t e d t o p e r f o r m two  develop a l i s t  things:  o f s o l u t i o n components and r e s o u r c e s , p r e s e n t l y  a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h which they are f a m i l i a r , which can adapted problem  be  t o g e t h e r w i t h an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i o r i t y v o t e i s p r e s e n t e d t o  s o l u t i o n components and r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e p r i o r i t y the  and  r e l a t e to the  c a t e g o r i e s , and a l a r g e v i s u a l d i s p l a y o f t h e s e  resource panel.  a brief of  (1)  functional s k i l l s  involved i n the r e c r e a t i o n f i e l d ,  at  major  p l a n n e r s on  to or which already d i r e c t l y d i m e n s i o n s ; and  be  r e l a t e i n t h e i r present form to the  s e c o n d , t o recommend new  types of s o l u t i o n  components  and r e s o u r c e s w h i c h c o u l d b e d e v e l o p e d a s p a r t i a l o r c o m p l e t e s o l u t i o n s the  problems.  (4)  are  asked to l i s t  They a r e t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l g r o u p s , a n d on e i t h e r  to  individuals  s i d e o f a 5 x 7 c a r d " S o l u t i o n Components  E x i s t i n g R e s o u r c e s w h i c h c a n be u s e d , " and " S o l u t i o n Components and  and  New  R e s o u r c e s w h i c h c a n and s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d " a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i o r i t y  items  58 from Phase I meeting. record to and  (5)  the responses,  determine  and  A sheet  of paper d i v i d e d  t h e most r e a s o n a b l e  a r e r e c o r d e d and  t h o s e c o m p o n e n t s and  and  adequate combination  (6)  n u m b e r e d and  resources which  The  solution  the experts are requested  i n Phase I .  v o t e on t h o s e who The  use  (7) will  maximize the p r o b a b i l i t y  scientific t h e end  upon by  to  s e t s , makes u s e  i n t e g r a t e s the knowledge of  of  pure  applied organizational specialists.  a cross s e c t i o n of s p e c i a l i s t s  the ease of c r o s s i n g the boundary to resource c o n t r o l l e r s etc.).  At  I t a l s o tends  adds  (city  greatly councils,  t o l e n d an a u r a o f l e g i t i m a c y t o  program. f o r a meeting  administrators participate,  Klein  (1967)  f u n c t i o n o f t h e way  When t h i s  their  key  r e s o u r c e c o n t r o l l e r s and  and  critical  s o l u t i o n elements  key  change i s i n t r o d u c e d .  He  notes  t h a t most p l a n n e r s  o f change have done a l l t h e i r p l a n n i n g  i d e a s t o t h o s e who  will  be  a f f e c t e d a n d who  I  of the merging  d e s c r i b e s r e s i s t a n c e t o programs as o f t e n b e i n g  t o t r o u b l e when t h e a g e n t s  introducing  i n which  t o g e t h e r w i t h the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from Phases  I I , to review the primary  program.  in  to  o f P h a s e I I , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f an a p p r o p r i a t e  Phase I I I c a l l s  and  on  problems  ( e x p e r t s ) i s an a t t e m p t  of r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of problem  o r a c a d e m i c p e r s o n n e l and  p l a n n i n g committees, the  to vote  r e p r e s e n t e d i n Phase I I I .  c o n c e p t u a l i d e a s , and  s o l u t i o n program agreed to  the  they f e e l are a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l i n  of e x t e r n a l knowledge s p e c i a l i s t s  the d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  components  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the e x p e r t s are then asked be  to  out  g r o u p s a r e t h e n r e j o i n e d and  c o n s t r u c t i n g a m i n i m a l l y adequate program to s o l v e the p r i o r i t y raised  i s used  f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the p r o p o s a l s : i s c a r r i e d  resources f o r each procedure.  responses  i n the middle  control  a run  before resources.  happens,  the i n n o v a t o r s have u s u a l l y developed a c o n s i d e r a b l e investment i n t h e i r p l a n s and a r e o f t e n m o r e c o m m i t t e d t o d e f e n d i n g them t h a n t o a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d o b j e c t i o n s t o them. T h e y a r e n o t p r e p a r e d  59 to r e p e a t w i t h newcomers t h e l o n g p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g w h i c h l e d them t o t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s . ( K l e i n , 1 9 6 7 , p. 29) The  e s s e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n of Phase I I I i s t h a t i t seeks  responses  from p o t e n t i a l c r i t i c s  w i t h h o l d resources or to negate  o f t h e p r o g r a m who  finally  to o b t a i n  are i n a p o s i t i o n  appropriate involvement  of  administrative  units  i n the implementation of the program, w h i l e program proponents  still  flexible.  prior  two  The  procedures  format i s b a s i c a l l y  approach  III,  a r e as f o l l o w :  (1)  The  straightforward:  i t e m s , from Phase I , and  u p o n s o l u t i o n c o m p o n e n t s and  t h e same l i s t  the  of c r i t i c a l  r e s o u r c e s — a r e shown.  problems  (2)  r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r f o r t h e program p r o p o s a l t o be f u l l y The  presence  of c l i e n t  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and  s p u r b a r g a i n i n g and n e g o t i a t i o n i n P h a s e I I I ,  can be  included.  t o be  (4)  endorsed  and  likely  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the f i n a l  and  a s s u c h , i n d u c e f u t u r e e n d o r s e m e n t and  supported.  is likely  of each of these r e f e r e n c e  p r o g r a m a s new  problem  controllers dimensions,  support f o r the proposal.  A f t e r previous i n t e r a c t i o n s of the r e l a t i v e p a r t i e s  i n the f i r s t  three  s t a g e s , Phase IV i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e t e c h n i c a l program development. Phase IV, w o r k i n g  from the i n p u t of the e a r l i e r phases,  develop a f i n a l i z e d , to  ensure  s p e c i f i c program p r o p o s a l .  that these s p e c i a l i s t s  the program remain  sensitive  The  technical  specialists  e s s e n t i a l matter here i s  elements  developed  i n prior  Phase V b r i n g s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from each of the c o n s t i t u e n t i n v o l v e d i n P h a s e s I , I I and  In  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r developing the d e t a i l s  to c r i t i c a l  to  so t h a t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e n t o f  I n p u t s o f t h e s e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and  are  that  adjustment  resource persons  the f i n a l program p r o p o s a l the e s s e n t i a l concerns groups  the  outline Phase  then, i s a review of the types or r e s e r v a t i o n s or q u a l i f i c a t i o n s h a v e , and  the  controllers.  the output from Phase I I — t h e  r e s o u r c e c o n t r o l l e r s and k e y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s may  (3)  are  outputs from  p h a s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and  and p r i o r i t i e s of  The  to  I I I together f o r a f i n a l  time.  of  phases.  groups  I t i s apparent  60 t h a t a c e r t a i n amount o f stages;  t i m e may  have elapsed  some c r i t i c a l c o n c e r n may  development of  the program.  between the  have been overlooked  f i r s t and  i n the  final  technical  In essence, Phase V i s s t r u c t u r e d  to deal  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n a m a n n e r w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o s o l i c i t comments f r o m p a r t i c i p a n t s on manner.  The  t h e i r honest h e s i t a t i o n s about the p r o p o s a l  meeting begins with  a report  the  Each c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e  input  from p r i o r phases; the  l i n k a g e between the resource it  final  e l e m e n t s and  i s doubtful  not  representative the  final  There are earlier  two  proposal,  incorporates  that the  final  w h e t h e r ;the  I I I as  one  step  by  step  insightful  Since  satisfy focusses  t e s t whether  program d e v i a t e s the  or  finalized  from program objec-  I n summary, P h a s e V i s a technical translation final  program  discussions. citizen participation  different relating  of a s o l u t i o n , i t a l s o h i g h l i g h t s c r i t i c a l i s s u e s innovative  and  phases.  a n a l y s i s to the problem of  o n l y manages t o d r a w t o g e t h e r  guideline for developing  clear  solution  therefore,  set f o r t h i n the  o f many t y p e s o f  to  c r i t i c a l dimensions.  specialists'  adequate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e a r l i e r  I t not  specific  to determine whether a m i n o r i t y  a v a l i d weakness i n the program.  Delbecq technique,  planning.  earlier  c h a n g e i n some d e t a i l o f  approaches, o f f e r s a d i s t i n c t ,  search  the problem p r i o r i t i e s ,  the Phase V process,  remedies i f i t i s f e l t First,  the  of a c t i o n i s r e l a t e d  e v a l u a t i o n measures w h i c h w i l l  t h e o u t p u t s o f P h a s e s I , I I , and  The  and  or second, f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n  i s an  on  of  o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e m e e t i n g m u s t show a  a p o r t i o n of  meeting designed to question  proposal  constructive  o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g of a program w i l l t o t a l l y  program p r o p o s a l  t i o n p r o v e s t o be  of  the d e t a i l e d p l a n  proposal  c o n t r o l and  expectations.  focusses  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e concerns r a i s e d i n e a r l i e r  t h a t any  every r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , on  of  the  from t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s  programs to be.implemented i n the near f u t u r e , but future.  in a  with  solution strategies.  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of program p l a n n i n g ,  the  and  program  groups i n  provides  a  Besides being  final  character  of  an the  61 process  i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c u r r e n t t r e n d toward  change, and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . a t t e n t i o n i n the o v e r a l l  As s u c h ,  planning  creativity, organization  i t i s a technique which deserves  greater  process.  Summary There a r e s e v e r a l approaches t o c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . scanning Delbecq The f u l l  r e p r e s e n t s t h e s i m p l e s t and most d i r e c t technique  time consuming technique. fail  form of t h i s  i s more c o m p l i c a t e d , a n d u s e f u l i n programme  scale citizen participation  techniques  Dialectical  t o do.  planners are i n fact  i s inevitably  technique. planning.  t h e most e x p e n s i v e  However, i t i s a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h what  Even though unaware o f t h e s e d i s t i n c t i o n s ,  using a modified v e r s i o n of a l l of these  and  other local  techniques.  The  62 CHAPTER I V SECONDARY DATA  Introduction There are b a s i c a l l y exists  in practically  institutions, u t i l i z e d by  two m a j o r s o u r c e s o f s e c o n d a r y  every p u b l i c agency, l i b r a r y ,  a t r e m e n d o u s amount o f i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e a d y  any  researcher.  e x p e r t i s e , k n o w l e d g e , and  to the d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s  The flexible may  be  technique of secondary and  What i s v i t a l  able to handle  i t i n the  R i l e y Park experience w i l l  s e r v e as  their i s to  proper back-  chapter.  undertaken  d a t a i s , beyond a doubt,  one  of t h e most  intellectually  stimulating  Although i t  t o l o c a t e and  data than to design other types of r e s e a r c h approaches,  s e n s i b l e and  l o g i c a l p u r s u i t i s t h a t new  after  the search f o r secondary  field  i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e f o r any o f p u b l i c a t i o n s and  one  investigations  the necessary  individual  t o be  sources of secondary  w h i c h have a l r e a d y b e e n c o l l e c t e d and  fully  analyze  t h e most  should only  s o u r c e s has been e x h a u s t e d  the a v a i l a b l e data i s too i m p r e c i s e to y i e l d  be  be  g l a d l y share  e c o n o m i c a l ways o f a c q u i r i n g u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n .  l e s s c h a l l e n g i n g and  the range  to  sources  secondary  While  will  i n s i g h t w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r s .  L i t e r a t u r e s o u r c e s and  Secondary  there  Second, t h e r e i s p r e s e n t , i n e v e r y segment o f  l e a r n t o l o o k f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , and be  ground  First,  p r i v a t e or semi-private  o u r c o m m u n i t y , a l a r g e number o f r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s who  manner.  data.  be  o r when  estimates. conversant  with  m a t e r i a l s — t h a t i s , data  p r o c e s s e d — r e s e a r c h e r s must a t  least  f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e common s o u r c e s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n on r e c r e a t i o n b e h a v i o r c a n  found  i n v a r i o u s secondary  sources without the researchers having  to  be conduct  63 the a c t u a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s themselves.  These data  c o n s i s t o f documents  w e r e n o t c o l l e c t e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r s , b u t w e r e u s e d b y them. w r i t t e n o r on t a p e o r r e c o r d o r on f i l m Although  some o f t h e s e  be  f o r those  gathered  interested i n t h i s area,  f r o m them.  that already  source.  d a t a may h a v e b e e n a c c u m u l a t e d p r i m a r i l y f o r p u r p o s e s  To n e g l e c t  than f o r use i n r e c r e a t i o n  a l o t of u s e f u l information can  their existence often involves either a  disregard of relevant information o r , i f the researchers data  Anything  can c o n s t i t u t e a secondary  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and h i s t o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o t h e r research,  that  exist,  laboriously collect  a waste of e f f o r t .  Very e a r l y i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t i s important  f o r the researchers to  become t h o r o u g h l y  f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e work o f others  o n t h e same s u b j e c t .  p r e l i m i n a r y study  i s necessary  the p o s s i b i l i t y  t i m e a n d money c o l l e c t i n g  not merely to avoid  information that i s already  because i t i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o c a r r y i n g forward inquiry.  i n t e l l i g e n t l y new l i n e s o f  F r y ( 1 9 3 4 ) s t a t e d t h a t "To a d d t o k n o w l e d g e , y o u m u s t  o f t e n been assumed t h a t c o n s u l t i n g a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s research, but experience  such as t h e records Many r e s e a r c h e r s  have l e a r n e d  such as census r e p o r t s , v i t a l s p e c i a l surveys  are not l i s t e d  t h a t have been taken.  surveys  This  type  materials,  i n any l i b r a r y . governmental  of manufacturers, of s t a t i s t i c a l  often r e f e r s to the socioeconomic a t t r i b u t e s of the population.  etc.  Many v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e r e c o r d s  own m e m b e r s h i p b u t o f g r o u p s o f p e o p l e whom t h e y virtually  i n e x h a u s t i b l e supply  many a g e n c i e s  serve.  and o t h e r  Census  data  occupation,  not only of their  In addition, a  of information exists i n the records  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e v a r i o u s  records,  information  f o r example c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about age, s e x , f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s , residence,  i t has  i s s o l e l y a matter of  t o u s e as secondary sources statistics,  already  Traditionally,  shows t h a t i n v a l u a b l e r e s e a r c h  of countless agencies,  of spending  i n existence, but also  possess a l a r g e part of the knowledge.in your f i e l d . "  library  Such  of the  sectors of the health,  64 e d u c a t i o n and w e l f a r e The  field.  u s e f u l n e s s of these s t a t i s t i c a l  v a r i a b l e , d e p e n d i n g on  the s p e c i f i c problem.  i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on studied:  The  census data can  i t s income l e v e l ,  l e i s u r e n e e d s , s u p p l y o f s e r v i c e s , and c a s e , a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d y was  number o f r e c r e a t i o n t r i p s made b y  found  the  i s f r e q u e n t l y o f f a r more w o r t h  means.  I n t h i s c o n t e x t we  who  be  to y i e l d  In the  being  t h a n weeks o f r e s e a r c h u s i n g  a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f how  without  other  " e x p e r t s " , anyone  For example, i n order  many r e s i d e n t s i n a  to  development  security  the i n v e s t i g a t o r s conducting  i s o f t e n more c o s t l y a n d _ t i m e consuming.  r e c r e a t i o n agencies have r e c o r d s w i t h regards and  on  d a t a on  to the t o p i c  o f a swimming p o o l , t h e managers o r even t h e  r e s i d e n t survey which  facilities,  significant  group t o g e t h e r , u s i n g the term  personnel are u s e f u l resource persons  Membership  provide useful data  are related  a s p e c i a l source of d a t a judgements.  a c t u a l l y make u s e  distribution,  residents.  studied  acquire a moderately  being  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h v a r i o u s p e o p l e who  may  i t s age  on t h e demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s .  i n f o r m a t i o n on v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s may  one  provide  t h e s o c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e community  i t s population structure,  e t c . , a l l have impacts  records i n recreation research i s  Most park  t o t h e demand f o r p u b l i c  a and  leisure  the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n these o r g a n i z a t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y able  to i n d i c a t e the d i r e c t i o n s  i n which  t h e s e r v i c e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d .  Citizen  g r o u p s i n a c o m m u n i t y a r e i n v a l u a b l e " e x p e r t s " on t h e d e s i r e s f o r d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e s and  how  c h a n g e s s h o u l d be  implemented.  I f used p r o p e r l y , these  e x i s t i n g human r e s o u r c e s m i g h t p r o v i d e a w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n n o t by  o t h e r r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s a t a much l o w e r During  the course of her  c o s t and  efficiency.  study, the r e s e a r c h e r d i s c o v e r e d three s t u d i e s  i n the R i l e y Park area t h a t have d i r e c t r e l a t i o n a l l were completed  greater  available  i n the past year or so.  to r e c r e a t i o n planning  First,  d u r i n g t h e summer o f  and 1977,  65 a m a j o r s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d  u n d e r a Canada Works g r a n t w h i c h  covered  a s p e c t s o f community n e e d s — r e c r e a t i o n , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , s h o p p i n g , policing,  etc.  Second, t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t h e R i l e y Park  Complex w o r k e d on a n i n t e r n a l s u r v e y d u r i n g t h e f a l l hundred users o f t h e center t o determine Third,  the architects  o f 1977 o f a b o u t f o u r  additional f a c i l i t i e s required.  t h a t were commissioned t o d e s i g n t h e expansion  t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP a r e a so as t o d e c i d e on t h e p r i o r i t i e s  leisure opportunities. has of  proven  the residents.  spaces  of the  household  among  different  The c o o r d i n a t o r a t t h e R i l e y P a r k r e c r e a t i o n  center  t o be v e r y knowledgeable and s e n s i t i v e about t h e r e c r e a t i o n  sports a c t i v i t i e s or  education,  Recreation  r e c r e a t i o n center a l s o sent out a separate q u e s t i o n n a i r e to every of  many  " I b e l i e v e t h a t r i g h t now we do h a v e s u f f i c i e n t  needs  spaces f o r  . . . What we r e a l l y n e e d i s some k i n d o f s o c i a l i z i n g  where people  c a n s i t and t a l k .  grammes f o r t h e t e e n a g e r s ,  We a l s o r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l  a n d some k i n d o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s  T h i s k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n seems t o a g r e e w i t h t h e a u t h o r ' s  lounge  areas,  pro-  areas."  personal observation.  When c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r t y p e s o f r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s , u s i n g s e c o n d a r y  data  i s b y f a r t h e m o s t e c o n o m i c way o f a c q u i r i n g m a s s i v e a m o u n t s o f p e r t i n e n t data.  I t d o e s n o t demand e x t e n s i v e p r e p a r a t i o n o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a n d c a n  n o r m a l l y be conducted  by a s i n g l e r e s e a r c h e r i n a couple o f weeks' time.  It  i s a l s o h i g h l y n o n - r e a c t i v e a n d t h e r e f o r e i s l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e :to t h e b i a s i n g effects of the researchers.  The c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f s e c o n d a r y  long p e r i o d o f time a l l o w s the r e s e a r c h e r s t o study  sources  capable  Expert  o f r e l a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t knowledge and e x p e r t i s e  on t h e r e s e a r c h t o p i c s i f t h e y a r e w e l l . c h o s e n a n d h a v e d i r e c t r e l a t i o n subject matter. practically adaptable.  Finally,  a  t h e s t r u c t u r a l and i n s t i -  t u t i o n a l changes l o n g i t u d i n a l l y r a t h e r than c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l l y . informants are usually  over  secondary  d a t a can be used i n c o m b i n a t i o n  any o t h e r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e , as w e l l a s b e i n g  to the  with  highly  66 The  problems of r e l i a b i l i t y  nesses i n t h i s  technique.  and  Although  t h e s u b j e c t s , someone d i d c o l l e c t Secondly,  t h e p r e v i o u s w o r k may  questionnaire designed  by  validity  the secondary  t h e d a t a a n d may  be  ill-conceived.  the l i s t  restraints  r e s e a r c h e r d i d not  o f c h o i c e s was  presented  Take the example of  i n their allocation.  (Illustrations 1  i n such  sensitize  h a v e i n f l u e n c e d them.  the a r c h i t e c t s commissioned to d e s i g n  ments of the R i l e y P a r k R e c r e a t i o n Complex all,  a r e o f t e n c i t e d as m a j o r weak-  a way  as  the  improve-  and 2 ) .  First  items  true.  I t gave the respondents  can be v o t e d  S e c o n d , s i n c e t h e r e was o n and  to what degree.  s c a l e a r o u n d , f o r example by  the i m p r e s s i o n  the order  altered considerably.  Statistically was  s m a l l number o f p e o p l e  less  who  l i m i t a t i o n as  T h i r d , by  changing  than  felt  speaking,  ten percent  i t c o u l d be  The  e s t i m a t e d by editing  a study  creeps  a n d we  or record keepers Even w i t h o u t the r i s k of t h e i r  "not  needed",  would  be  of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n a  on  their  might  favorites,  to the s e l e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n  This i n turn i s related  r e s e a r c h e r s can n e v e r be  sure  of  t h a t they have  a  Sometimes  I n some c a s e s  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e .  are t r u t h f u l to the p r e s e n t a t i o n of  Not  the  adequately  selective  a l l researchers  data.  the danger of s y s t e m a t i c b i a s t h a t c o u l d t h r e a t e n s e l e c t i v e s u r v i v a l remains.  and  to the problem  do n o t know i f t h e m i s s i n g p a r t s c a n b e  of the r e s t of the s e r i e s .  i n through  weighting  argued t h a t s i n c e  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body of d a t a from w h i c h t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s . record i s incomplete,  many  from what appeared.  There are a l s o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t i n g s e l e c t i v e s u r v i v a l of the records.  that  courts,  s t r o n g l y enough f o r c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s  to a ranking r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t  representative sampling.  the  i n w h i c h the items were ranked  g r o u p t o g e t h e r and. c o n s i s t e n t l y p l a c e t h e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y leading  t o how  g i v i n g zero t o the column e n t i t l e d  r a t h e r t h a n minus one,  the r a t e of response  no  of  i f there are a b s o l u t e l y  a n " e x h i b i t i o n p l a c e f o r c r a f t s " w o u l d c o s t t h e same a s r a c q u e t b a l l which i s not  the  Records are  destroyed  validity,  Illustration 1 67 Community S u r v e y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  f o r the Expansion o f R i l e y  Park  R e c r e a t i o n Complex  RILEY P A R K COMPLEX E X P A N D S ! , rt  YOUR RILEY PARK COMMUNITY CENTRE WILL SHORTLY BE RENOVATED AND ENLARGED TO OFFER MORE AND BETTER PROGRAMS. YOU ARE ASKED TO KELP TO DESIGN THE RENOVATIONS AND ADDITIONS BY LETTING US KNOT? EO'.y YOU WOULD RATE THE ITEMS PROPOSED 3EL07?. SIMPLY CHECK ( v ) ONE OF THE COLUMNS OPPOSITE EACH ITEM TO S H O ' . T YOUR OPINION. . R I L E Y PARK CITIZENS' N. I . P. PLANNING COMMITTEE QUESTIONNAIRE ^-SADD ITEMS OF YOUR OV/N SUGGESTION HERE  I  S>  |  ->  1  CENTRAL AREA FOR S I T T I N G , TALKING, MEETING PEOPLE MEETING ROOMS FOR ASSOCIATIONS, CLU3S, INSTRUCTIONAL A  COMFORTABLE PLACE TO HAVE COFFEE AND TO EAT  A  COMFORTABLE PLACE FOR A QUIET DRINK (ADULTS)  'Pi rrf  EXHIBITION SPACE FOR ARTS AND CRAFTS A  STAGS ADDED TO THE EXISTING GYMNASIUM  A  SEPARATE SMALL THEATRE FOR CONCERTS AND PLAYS  SEPARATE SENIORS' SITTING ROOM  U  ....  id  RAQUET BALL COURTS 1  1  &  MORE SPACE FOR SENIORS' A C T I V I T I E S A  -ft)  1  \®  GAMES ROOM FOR PING PONG, P I N BALL, BILLIARDS E T C . ,—9  HEALTH CLU3: EXERCISE ROOM, SAUNA AND WHIRLPOOL  BA3Y SITTING ROOM  |F=4 Lj?  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PcoL  71 £3  7-0 TAZ-  \ C  Z^TOS^'4  133  17  31  11 33  /oo  HI  GS 5S~ S4-7o •77  77  S4-  60  &  7  4^11  SO  34S  113  £ 4  14-  33X  111  7?-  /3471  7-4IS  1-?II  Sir  13  0S7-  to /a  4-7X3  J74 /3o ioe>  74-. £6  74-  T L  /2VZ. &€>  6S  63  TO  77H  53  £4-  7  IS6  S7 SI  &4-  \.  47 SO  71  ' ©wco&wd&x: <tjoP  .-7L y  61 357.  3€>  70 I  of Riley  -t-3  4-0 (fi)  f o r the Expansion  R e c r e a t i o n Complex  17  .  68  2  \  si  1  37 SS ST.  I  77  \  /47 117  47  ///77  71 13  \ e>i  /// 4-1  3~0^  1 i  314*  3 3 £  717 4-37  H /  e  If -VL  313 71 4S1 4<y^,  69 periodically, particularly  i n the p o l i t i c a l  area.  Researchers  when u s i n g t h e  m a t e r i a l may h a v e no way o f k n o w i n g w h a t r e c o r d s a r e m i s s i n g o r e v e n w h e t h e r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n may h a v e b e e n  rifled.  Secondary data i s extremely  limited  t o be used as a d e v i c e f o r making  f u t u r e p r o j e c t i o n s as most e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l tends present  occurrences  i n determining In to low  and n o t f u t u r e developments.  the preferences  v a r i o u s t e c h n i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l  comparisons over is particularly  easy t o handle,  time.  d a t a h a s many l i m i t a t i o n s  criteria,  relating  i t i s compensated f o r b e i n g  n o n - r e a c t i v e , and a l l o w s  As a t e c h n i q u e  significant  I t i s also not very useful  of the users.  c o n c l u s i o n , even though secondary  cost, flexible,  t o d e a l w i t h t h e p a s t and  longitudinal  t o be used i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , i t  as an i n i t i a l  step towards r e d e f i n i n g the problem  area.  Documented It  data  i s often d e s i r a b l e or necessary  m a t i o n on t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c  f o r the researcher to c o l l e c t  b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e community b e i n g  t h i s k i n d o f data can be gathered  through  infor-  studied.  a large-scale questionnaire  While survey,  t h e c e n s u s d a t a i s a much m o r e e f f i c i e n t way o f a c q u i r i n g t h e same t y p e o f knowledge.  Recreation behavior,  physical capabilities composition,  for  of the residents, their  and o c c u p a t i o n .  l e i s u r e preferences  by t h e  f i n a n c i a l resources, family  T h u s , s e n i o r c i t i z e n s may h a v e v e r y  different  f r o m p a r e n t s w i t h y o u n g c h i l d r e n , a n d i n t h e same  those w i t h a s t a b l e source  likely  to a l a r g e extent, i s determined  token  o f income t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a r e  t o b e d i v e r g e d f r o m t h o s e who a r e l e s s w e l l o f f .  Even though i t i s  p o s s i b l e t h a t n o t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s a r e a v a i l a b l e in  t h e c e n s u s r e p o r t s , t o make u s e o f w h a t i s a v a i l a b l e  e f f o r t s w i l l n o t be wasted.  i s to ensure that  70 Vital have l i t t l e  statistics  a n d s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t d a t a may a p p e a r a t f i r s t  relationship  to recreation services.  Yet, p r o j e c t i o n s of future  l e i s u r e demands d e p e n d i n p a r t o n f o r e s e e a b l e c h a n g e s i n t h e a g e of  a community o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e .  being born  distribution  F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e number o f  children  o r moved i n t o t h e c o m m u n i t y h a s i n c r e a s e d i n t h e p a s t , a s i n many  suburban a r e a s where young c o u p l e s tively  glance to  tend to conglomerate,  s a f e t o assume t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a s h i f t  i t would be  rela-  i n demands f o r l e i s u r e  s e r v i c e s i f t h e community had b e e n a n a d u l t o r i e n t e d one p r e v i o u s l y . Many p r i v a t e a n d v o l u n t a r y s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e r e c o r d s o f own m e m b e r s h i p a s w e l l a s o f g r o u p s o f p e o p l e whom t h e y s e r v e . centers  u s u a l l y h a v e a c c u r a t e r e c o r d s a b o u t t h e i r members:  from, what t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s  do t h e y e n g a g e i n m o s t , how  the programs b e i n g i n s t i g a t e d , e t c .  Recreation  where a r e they do t h e y r e s p o n d  I n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be  from v a r i o u s community l e i s u r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as g a r d e n i n g l e a g u e s , s o c c e r teams, and b a s k e t b a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s . cater primarily hood  little  agencies neighbor-  activities.  i n f o r m a t i o n v e r y s e l d o m u s e d o r known. a c e r t a i n purpose, they were never  published at a l l .  often worthwhile  t h a t may  have been conducted  for cases  on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y  Some p u b l i c a g e n c i e s  f o r being  too p a r t i c u l a r i z e d  of  have r e c o r d s o f  I n many c a s e s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a w e a l t h o f  While  of  For the b e n e f i t of the i n v e s t i g a t o r s , i t  to the study.  n o t be i n p r i n t  the general p u b l i c .  workers  S t u d i e s may  to check w i t h r e s p e c t i v e agencies  t h e i r own p u b l i c a t i o n s . mation  contain s i g n i f i c a n t bodies  a n d r e s u l t s a r e s o m e t i m e s made p u b l i c w h i l e i n some  certain material relative  to  Most of these  to  gathered  clubs,  t o l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and p r o v i d e a s o u r c e o f d a t a o n  O f t e n p u b l i c and s e m i - p u b l i c a g e n c i e s  is  their  t o be o f  inforinterest  these were of utmost v a l u e t o the r e s e a r c h  during the period of study, e s p e c i a l l y i f the figures a v a i l a b l e f o r  s m a l l groups o r a r e a s c a n be supplemented by a c t u a l f i e l d  investigations,  71 summaries of the r e s u l t s o f t e n omit a m u l t i t u d e published. obtained At  Useful information  on  r e c r e a t i o n expenditure  from s t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g to the  t h e same t i m e ,  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on  to e f f e c t i v e l y  the m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n s  be  certain considerations employ the use  familiar with  of  can  spending h a b i t s of  have been found t o c o n t a i n d e t a i l s r e l e v a n t There are  of s u b - t o t a l s t h a t are  to the study  sometimes  the  neighborhood  leisure  of which the researchers  the e x i s t i n g  t h e b e t t e r known s o u r c e s o f  must be  a t w o r k on  investigations data  relevant  the study  o f s t a t u s and  (Warner e t . a l . , 1941-1947), d i s c o v e r e d to h i s problem—cemetery records.  transferred This  t h e i r dead r e l a t i v e s from a lower-status  had  The  p r o p e r use  records  use  By  also requires  definition,  w i s h to use  them.  these s t a t i s t i c s  social  A research  A v a i l a b l e d a t a may  be  questions  used at other  h e l p f u l i n s e l e c t i n g cases w i t h  i n t e n s i v e study,  the  higher  standing.  ingenuity w i l l  uncover  exist. the  i n v e s t i g a t o r s to have  r e l a t e d to the r e s e a r c h  problem  the purpose f o r which a v a i l a b l e  problem can,  and  the  guiding  consists i n keeping oneself  to the form i n which r e s e a r c h  quently  and  of  become  have been c o l l e c t e d i s d i f f e r e n t from the purpose f o r w h i c h  i n t o a wide v a r i e t y of q u e s t i o n s ,  of  i t had  are  as  the  a r u l e , be  trans-  principle for  the  flexible with  respect  asked.  points  of  t h e i r f a m i l y members  of higher  t h a n a r e o f t e n assumed t o  e t . a l . , 1959).  researchers lated  Apparently  searching  a c a p a c i t y t o a s k many d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s (Selltiz,  Srole,  r i s e n to a s o c i a l status  c e m e t e r y t o one  of a v a i l a b l e data  Leo  they  an u n u s u a l s o u r c e  to have the remains of  example demonstrates t h a t s y s t e m a t i c  many more a v a i l a b l e d a t a  that  p r e s t i g e i n the Yankee C i t y s e r i e s  p r a c t i c e i n Y a n k e e C i t y f o r r e s i d e n t s who than that of  aware  They must  and  d i s p l a y some i n g e n u i t y i n d i s c o v e r i n g l e s s w e l l known m a t e r i a l . while  activities.  s t a t i s t i c a l records. the d e s i r e d data  be  residents.  in a of  never  i n a study.  They a r e  specified characteristics for  o r a random sample f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g i n a s t u d y .  For  fre-  72 instance,  t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s of v a r i o u s community r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s  be u s e d as a b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i n g  four centers  which d i f f e r  W i t h i n each of the neighborhoods which these c e n t e r s r e s i d e n t s c o u l d be variations  a l s o be u s e d  specifically  of times  the respondents reported  These are but  a few  u s e d p r o p e r l y and  they  illustrative  sources  i n some way  a r e r e l a t e d as r e s o u r c e  are considered are not  then,  number  neighborhood  charges r e c e i v e d . r e c o r d s , when  of d a t a , y e t o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d  by  of people  persons to the s u b j e c t being  d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s i t u a t i o n s  supply  are  t h o s e who  actually  experts are  the b e h a v i o r s t h o s e who  would o f f e r  example, i n order  to study  studied.  may  be  a t y p e o f e x p e r t s who  and  a few  s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s who  t o be  experiences  o f o t h e r members a s a n  of graduate students,  a c t as d a t a  supply sources  the  or  "insider". from  t h e i r knowledge from w i t h i n .  can  or  explored.  conduct t h e i r observations  the behaviors  who  t a k e p a r t i n :the  i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r own  o u t s i d e , whereas informants  considered  The  " e x p e r t s " i f they are a s p e c i a l . s o u r c e of data  t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s on  Very broadly  the admission  the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on r e c r e a t i o n , i s t h e u s e  the o t h e r hand, " i n f o r m a n t s "  offer  information  "informants"  conducting  and  of  examples i n which s t a t i s t i c a l  researchers  may  to  i m a g i n a t i v e l y , are able to c o n t r i b u t e i n r e c r e a t i o n research.  o f the most i m p o r t a n t  s o c i a l context  a c t u a l l y make u s e  e a s i l y be v e r i f i e d by  I n t e r v i e w s o f " e x p e r t s " and  judgement but  to supplement or to check  f o r :the p u r p o s e s o f a g i v e n i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  i c e r i n k i n a month can  On  s e r v e , a sample of  in participation.  gathered  People  i n their popularity.  i n t e r v i e w e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the f a c t o r s that l e a d  A v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s may  One  can  the  For  professors  the needed i n f o r m a t i o n , w o u l d be  classified  as  informants. Many s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s h a v e made u s e  of the knowledge of informants  to  73 supplement t h e i r r e s e a r c h . p e o p l e who insight  have d i r e c t  into  researchers.  Whyte's S t r e e t C o r n e r  involvement  i n a s o c i a l group can p r o v i d e  t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l p r o c e s s w h i c h may This i s especially  Society indicates that  be  completely  alien  decide  w i t h W h y t e , may  be  to conduct a study  may  the a r e a , or even c o u n s e l o r s  easily  on j u v e n i l e g a n g s , a s  work w i t h the y o u n g s t e r s , i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  a r e o f t e n more o b j e c t i v e , l e s s b i a s e d , and scope than  t h a t of the  experts or informants  i s the s i m p l i c i t y of t h i s  that exist  to  wish  technique.  e x p l o r e the f a c t o r s Traditionally,  the impacts  o f them.  Due  As  The  these  unlikely  provided, except  reliable  a s w e l l as  to  the frequency  with actual behaviors. negative  and  demand.  feelings  However, r e s e a r c h has  they  expressed It i s highly  f o r the s e r v i c e s  i n e x t r e m e c a s e s w h e r e p r o b l e m s o f management o r  have a f f e c t e d t h e i r a t t r a c t i v e n e s s .  be  privately  conduct a r e s i d e n t survey  express  the  l e i s u r e supply,  major p i t f a l l w i t h t h i s approach i s that  t h a t the r e s i d e n t s w i l l  to  i n condominium p r o j e c t s , the  to t h e i r  facilities  f e e l i n g s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o r r e s p o n d  compared  T h i s p o i n t may  growth of  t h e y h a v e on e x i s t i n g  t h e r e s e a r c h e r s may  of  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , or  to the r a p i d  that are r e l a t e d  a c q u i r e t h e i r o p i n i o n s on make u s e  i n the survey  indoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  to study  patrol  broader  the knowledge  i n the o b s e r v a t i o n a l techniques.  i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h a s i m p l e example.  c i t y may  those  informants.  the b i a s i n g e f f e c t found  operated  case  opinions  i n some w a y s i n v o l v e a  o t h e r r e s e a r c h methods, t h i s approach i s a b l e to a c q u i r e r a t h e r  uncertainties  The  i n the  Their  or  identi-  t h e p o l i c e who  centers.  of the most s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t s i n employing  data without  the  a b l e to supplement t h e i r p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h  o f t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s who  owned and  to  E x p e r t s , however, a r e u s e f u l i n a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e .  r e s e a r c h e r s who  One  significant  t r u e o f t h e s t u d i e s on d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r s  f o r e i g n c u l t u r e s i n w h i c h s o c i a l norms o r r o l e m o d e l s a r e n o t fiable.  these  design  shown t h a t i n many  74 cases, only t e n percent participants. there another having  o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d  What a r e t h e r e a s o n s  behind  as r e g u l a r  their under-utilization?  more e c o n o m i c way o f g e t t i n g t h e same t y p e o f d a t a  t o conduct an e x t e n s i v e r e s i d e n t  without  survey?  A much m o r e r e l i a b l e a s w e l l a s e f f e c t i v e way o f h a n d l i n g t h i s is  t o employ t h e knowledge o f t h e r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s  the case w i t h indoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , of expert  the r e s i d e n t s .  of people  that are available.  In  there a r e three main c a t e g o r i e s  and t h e o r g a n i z e r s o f programs f o r  These p e o p l e w o u l d n o t o n l y have a p r e t t y good i d e a i n  t o the percentage  available,  study  i n f o r m e r s — t h e managers f o r t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s , t h e s e c u r i t y  p e r s o n n e l who s u p e r v i s e t h e f a c i l i t i e s ,  regards  Is  o f r e s i d e n t s who a c t u a l l y make u s e o f t h e s e r v i c e s  they a r e probably  a b l e t o answer q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g  u s i n g them, t h e f r e q u e n c y  of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  to the types  the f a c i l i t i e s  t h a t a r e b e i n g used most o f t e n , t h e problems t h a t they have e n c o u n t e r e d , s p e c i a l concerns  t h a t have been expressed  if  these q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be researched  be  f a r more e x p e n s i v e As  t o them b y t h e r e s i d e n t s .  by a survey  Even  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t would  and time consuming than t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  a cross checking  and  approach.  device, the researchers would normally  conduct  independent o b s e r v a t i o n s t o ensure t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by t h e experts i s r e l i a b l e . likely  During  the course  of investigation,  t o g e t i n t o u c h w i t h some o f t h e r e s i d e n t s i n t h e c o m p l e x e s .  though t h e term  "informants" normally  refers  t o a much d e e p e r  between t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s and t h e respondents for  the researcher i s  some p u r p o s e s i t i s s u f f i c i e n t  relationship  t h a n mere c a s u a l c o n t a c t s ,  t o a c q u i r e an o v e r a l l  r e s i d e n t s who a c t u a l l y u s e t h e f a c i l i t i e s .  Even  impression of  T h i s and t h e knowledge  from i n t e r v i e w i n g t h e experts would serve as data base f o r t h i s  gained  particular  project. Another advantage i n employing  the e x p e r t i s e of resource persons i s  their ability address ior  to r e l a y important  the questions  themselves.  of v e r y young c h i l d r e n ,  well  a general i d e a about t h e i r i t w o u l d be  In conducting  t h e i r own  likes  they  seldom have d i r e c t  informants, are capable direct  involvement,  The issues is and  two  them.  E x p e r t s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  or sub-conscious  purposely  exaggerate  i n f o r m a n t s may  i t may  bias effects  n o t be  information that  easy to p i n p o i n t  i n their reports.  t h e y may  Or,  the  Managers  s u b - c o n s c i o u s l y g i v e t h e i r own quite  be p r o b l e m s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e  the  inter-  different. researchers this  informants with a clear  i d e a of  what they d e s i r e from those p e o p l e — s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n , o p i n i o n s , e x e r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n a r y judgement about t h e i r response;  comparative  image  to avoid these c o m p l i c a t i o n s , i t i s a d v i s a b l e that  t h e r e s e a r c h e r s a p p r o a c h t h e e x p e r t s and  the l i k e ;  may  to c r e a t e the  i n f o r m e r s which have d i m i n i s h e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of In order  supple-  i n s t e a d of g i v i n g  p r e t a t i o n of what t h i n g s s h o u l d be, w h i c h a r e p r o b a b l y  technique.  the  taken at face value,  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of the users  d e t a i l s as r e q u e s t e d ,  their  The  have t o be  that they are running a s u c c e s s f u l development.  and  their  they h o l d , or the f u n c t i o n s  s o m e t i m e s be p o s s i b l e t o s p o t m a j o r e r r o r s b y  conscious  S o m e t i m e s t h e r e may  to  i n u s i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e c e n t e r . on  m e n t i n g them w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s  proper  neighbor-  system.  t h e e x p e r t s and i t may  equipment.  to i n q u i r e of  t h a t are beyond the c o n t r o l of the r e s e a r c h e r s .  although  they would have  o f h a n d l i n g q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e due  major p i t f a l l s  o f f e r e d by  respond  demand f o r v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s  c o n t r o l over  e i t h e r by  they perform w i t h i n the  them t o  for different  directly  the p l a y behav-  although  f o o l i s h f o r the i n v e s t i g a t o r s  hood r e s i d e n t s a b o u t t h e s u p p l y and as  activities,  or d i s l i k e s  cannot  s t u d i e s on  the researchers cannot expect  t o p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s on  Similarly,  i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h o s e who  d e v i c e s whenever p o s s i b l e .  and  and use  76 I n t e r v i e w i n g e x p e r t s and i n f o r m a n t s they a r e l i a b l e  to affect  i s not completely  the opinions o f those  involved.  n o n - r e a c t i v e as The r e c r e a t i o n  p l a n n e r s may e v e n t u a l l y c h a n g e t h e i r p o s i t i o n o n c e r t a i n i s s u e s a f t e r a r e i n t e r v i e w e d , a n d t h e i n f o r m a n t s may a l t e r  the i n t e r a c t i o n a l process w i t h i n  t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t a s a r e s u l t o f t h e new i n s i g h t cipating but  i n the research.  they have gained  These e f f e c t s a r e o f t e n d i f f i c u l t  t o n e g l e c t them may l e a d t o u n r e l i a b l e  they  by p a r t i -  to evaluate,  results.  Summary A l o t o f u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d by u s i n g secondary The a u t h o r ' s  experience  sources.  i n R i l e y P a r k i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t some k i n d s  o f d a t a a n d " e x p e r t s " who a r e a b l e t o s u p p l y p e r t i n e n t b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e to any s t u d y .  R e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e h a s shown t h a t b y s i m p l y  documented d a t a r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s esting findings.  using  s h o u l d b e a b l e t o a r r i v e a t some  inter-  T h i s t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n must be i n v e s t i g a t e d a t t h e o u t s e t  of any r e c r e a t i o n s t u d y .  77 CHAPTER V F I E L D METHODS  Introduction Most s o c i a l entiate field observation in  other  s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h methodology l i t e r a t u r e attempts to  methods as  techniques.  contexts,  experience  has  o b s e r v a t i o n may  comprising  b o t h p a r t i c i p a n t and  W h i l e t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n may  i t i s not  be  sufficient  to provide v a l i d  data  and  useful  Field  non-participant  for future policy  review.  methods the v a r i o u s approaches  i n f o r m a t i o n and  will  field investigation.  methods Field  research  natural situations. interactions.  This  to. r e p o r t w h a t t h e y behavior and  important  shown t h a t f o r m o s t p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , c a s u a l  examined u s i n g b o t h l i t e r a t u r e  Field  non-participant  a p p l i c a b l e to r e c r e a t i o n research.  F o l l o w i n g a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of f i e l d be  be  differ-  i s d e f i n e d as  i n c l u d i n g a l l forms of s o c i a l study  I t i s d o n e i n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s by n a t u r a l f o r m s form of research do,  as  i s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o a s k i n g  i n questionnaire surveys.  i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s , the data  analyzed.  in  As M y r d a l  By  of  people  observing  human  c a n b e more a c c u r a t e l y  gathered  said:  The m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s f a c i n g t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t a r e t h e r e f o r e , w h a t i s o b j e c t i v i t y , a n d how c a n t h e s t u d e n t a t t a i n o b j e c t i v i t y i n t r y i n g t o f i n d o u t t h e f a c t s and the c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f a c t s ? ( 1 9 6 9 , p. 23) Many o t h e r ity  i n s o c i a l research.  B e r g e r and and  s o c i o l o g i s t s have been concerned w i t h (Deutscher,  Luckmann, 1967.)  ordinarily  conflicting,  v a l u a t i o n s p h e r e i n an  1973;  the importance of o b j e c t i v -  G l a s s e r and  Strauss,  They have a r g u e d t h a t v a l u a t i o n s a r e that i n d i v i d u a l s focus  opportunist  f a s h i o n and  1967; complex  their attention i n  the  t h a t t h e i r s e l e c t i o n and  78 presentation of valuations i s probably from what i t i s i n r e a l l i f e . discrepancy  F o r example, t h e r e  some  they  main advantage of f i e l d  seldom  research  T h e s e do n o t  agree. i s its ability  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' b e l i e f s ,  to objectively  concerns,  values  i s s u e s w h i c h t h e y may n o t b e a b l e t o r e s p o n d t o d i r e c t l y . it  situation  i s undoubtedly  o p i n i o n o n t h e same q u e s t i o n .  n e c e s s a r i l y a g r e e and i n f a c t  gather  i n a testing  between a p e r s o n ' s " p r i v a t e " , o r " p e r s o n a l " , o p i n i o n and h i s  "public", or " p o l i t i c a l " ,  The  different  c a n be used i n e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s o f s o c i e t i e s ,  or s m a l l groups where r e l a t i v e l y  little  i s known.  and o t h e r  I n another  context,  large-scale organizations, T h i s method i s p a r t i c u l a r -  l y u s e f u l f o r e x p l o r i n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l makeup o f g r o u p s and  individuals,  and f o r forming  t e s t e d under another technique. is  often l e f t  t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s t h a t may b e f o r m a l l y ( L a b o v i t z and Hagedorn, 1971)  intentionally unstructured  i n i t s research  design,  maximize d i s c o v e r y and d e s c r i p t i o n a t t h e expense o f s y s t e m a t i c testing.  That i s , by r e f u s i n g preconceived  do n o t e m p l o y a p r i o r i  d a t a , b u t r a t h e r seek t o d i s c o v e r and r e v i s e these studied.  a l s o be used t o t e s t hypotheses i f r e l i a b i l i t y observations  yield  similar  Employing systematic  study  so as t o theory  hypotheses p a r t i c i p a n t  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of concepts,  the o r g a n i z a t i o n or p o p u l a t i o n being  A field  observers  measures, samples and as they  l e a r n more about  However, f i e l d  research  ( i n the sense that  r e s u l t s ) c a n be i n t r o d u c e d  into  similar  the technique.  r a t h e r t h a n random o b s e r v a t i o n s , w i t h f o r m a l  s t a t i n g how a n d w h a t i s t o b e o b s e r v e d a n d r e c o r d e d ,  may  rules  may l e a d t o r e l i a b l e  results. Fry  (1934) i n d i c a t e d t h a t :  d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n i s a n i m p o r t a n t way o f g a t h e r i n g d a t a o n a n y s u b j e c t , b u t i t i s of s p e c i a l value i n t h e s o c i a l sciences because many human s i t u a t i o n s c a n n o t b e s t u d i e d u n d e r a r t i f i c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The  i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e method o f f i e l d  studies using various  forms o f  79 observation techniques According  b e e n e m p h a s i z e d b y many b e h a v i o r a l  t o them, t h e r e i s no  t h e i r answer w i l l be t h e i r own  has  motives  use  i n a s k i n g p e o p l e what they a r e d o i n g  i n a c c u r a t e both because they cannot c o r r e c t l y  and  a l s o b e c a u s e when a n s w e r i n g  t h e r e p l y i n terms o f t h e q u e s t i o n and r e a l l y doing.  The  study, but  sample or u n i v e r s e . of the observer to not  not  researchers i n a f i e l d  e x t e n t i n t h e i r own  a q u e s t i o n they w i l l  study not  take a d i s t a n t observer  they  data about the i n d i v i d u a l s  M i n i m u m p a r t i c i p a t i o n may  role,  generally called  make are  o n l y p a r t i c i p a t e t o some  There i s a wide v a r i a t i o n i n the degree of  or researcher.  as  analyze  i n terms of the a c t i v i t y  a l s o gather  i n the  participation  l e a d the  researcher  "non-participant", trying  t o g e t c l o s e , e n o u g h t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o i n f l u e n c e them i n any way.  t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r may  t a k e one  mally or e x t e n s i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the s e t t i n g , researcher influencing t h e g r o u p and  t h e r e i s always a danger of  l e v e l s o f o b s e r v a t i o n — t h e more s t r u c t u r e d and s i m p l e o r more c a s u a l a p p r o a c h .  Although  t h e y may  can be  As  or of being i n f l u e n c e d  c a n b e made b e t w e e n  two  f o r m a l i z e d a p p r o a c h , and  the  a rule, highly rigid  r a t h e r time  produce b e t t e r r e s u l t s  c o n s u m i n g and  and  controlled  costly  p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , i n f a c t , can y i e l d u s e f u l as  t h o s e o b t a i n e d by  e x a m p l e , o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n be behind.  Webb and  cans i n the parks the parks  Campbell one  are being  conducted  to  Casual  d a t a t h a t a r e j u s t as  non-  valid,  the s t r u c t u r e d approach.  For  by u s i n g t r a c k s t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e  (1972) s u g g e s t e d  t h a t by  l o o k i n g at the  can have a p r e t t y good i d e a about t h e e x t e n t  used.  conduct.  than l e s s f o r m a l i z e d o b s e r v a t i o n ,  t h e y a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y more r e l e v a n t t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g .  s i g n i f i c a n t , and  the  objectivity.  For r e c r e a t i o n planning purposes a d i s t i n c t i o n  observation techniques  However, w h e t h e r m i n i -  t h e g r o u p by h i s o r h e r p r e s e n c e ,  l o s i n g d e t a c h m e n t and  At  of t h e group r o l e s as a v a n t a g e  p o i n t f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , as a " p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r " .  by  scientists.  left  garbage to which  80 U n l i k e s t r u c t u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n , c a s u a l n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n can conducted  o v e r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e w i t h no  remember i s t h a t t h e r e a r e some e l e m e n t s such  as  the non-use of neighborhood  sufficient statistical  The  point to  t h a t a r e r a t h e r s i m p l e and  obvious,  parks.  to r e v e a l these aspects.  fixed  schedules.  Just a brief  Furthermore,  a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t i n g d a t a .  review should  the emphasis i s not  Rather,  B a s e d on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e a u t h o r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c a n be h a d  no more t h a n t h i r t y h o u r s  i n R i l e y Park,  concluded  e n d s and  i n t h e b e s t w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , v e r y few  and  slippery  made i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t  f o r non-use.  t o even w a l k on, not  the s u r f a c e .  fair  were i n t e r e s t e d  number o f y o u n g s t e r s  s i d e s t r e e t s and  i n the back l a n e s .  l i v e r i g h t across from the grassy areas. policy  who  Secondly,  using  Due  the to poor  drain-  days  of  to mention t r y i n g  t h e r e seemed t o b e  even though they  to a  the parks, p r e f e r to p l a y along the roads  than  the  may using  merits further consideration i n  any  review.  T h e . p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e a t t h e c o m m u n i t y c e n t e r seemed t o b e p r e t t y with a fair p o o l and  number o f y o u n g s t e r s ,  ice rink.  a d u l t s and  H o w e v e r , t h e r e was  s e n i o r c i t i z e n s u s i n g the  an o b v i o u s  l a c k o f t e e n a g e r s who  r e g u l a r users of the f a c i l i t i e s , t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n that a f a i r of  by  i n p l a y i n g g r o u n d h o c k e y on  Many y o u n g s t e r s ,  This i s a f a c t o r which  t h e week-  e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r a few  do a n y t h i n g more e n e r g e t i c on  the  used q u i t e r e g u l a r l y  When w a l k i n g a r o u n d t h e p a r k a r e a s ,  the ground got p r e t t y wet  r a i n , which  E v e n on  people were a c t u a l l y  p a r k w h i c h was  researcher a l s o discovered a p o s s i b l e reason age,  t h e r e i s much  t h a t they are g r o s s l y u n d e r - u t i l i z e d .  l e a g u e s o c c e r teams.  review.  I n terms of l o c a l p a r k s ,  observer  little  on  even though the data were o b t a i n e d i n  of o b s e r v a t i o n time.  t h e p a r k s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one  be  the whole e x e r c i s e i s to  o b t a i n a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g of the area i n support of f u t u r e p o l i c y  significant  be  r e s i d e n t s i n the neighborhood  a r e i n t h i s age  group.  Residents  also  high, public were number  81 appeared  t o be  i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n s p e c i f i c programs a t t h e community c e n t e r :  T h e r e seemed t o be a l a c k o f s o c i a l a r e a s f o r p e o p l e s o c i a l i z e , o r j u s t b e away f r o m  to hang around,  their daily routine.  to  Whatever s o c i a l  spaces  t h e r e a r e do n o t seem t o b e a t t r a c t i v e e n o u g h t o e n c o u r a g e g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t . There are a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s Because of i t s l a c k of r i g i d any  i n using simple observation technique.  guidelines,  the approach  c i r c u m s t a n c e whenever the need a r i s e s .  by a f i x e d  s c h e d u l e and  The  are therefore freer  other explorative attempts.  c a n be a p p l i e d  r e s e a r c h e r s are not  t o combine t h i s  S o m e t i m e s , i t may  to  almost  tied  down  technique w i t h  even b r i n g out c r i t i c a l  issues  t h a t the i n v e s t i g a t o r s were not p r e v i o u s l y aware o f . Since the o b s e r v a t i o n s take p l a c e i n a " n a t u r a l " s e t t i n g , s h o u l d be a b l e t o n o t i c e e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s and h i d d e n actual behaviors.  The  unique  c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s  On  the scene  o f n u a n c e s t h a t go w i t h a n a c t i v i t y s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s between seemingly  and  that are  o b s e r v a t i o n captures a wide  permits the observer to  s i m i l a r a c t s and  f a m i l i e s o r t o make new  acquaintances.  more c a p a b l e o f r e v e a l i n g Furthermore,  concern. t h a t two  act.  For  Others  and  Observation techniques are than other  l a c k of r e l i a b i l i t y  involvement resulting  i n the e x i s t i n g  usually approaches. the  facilities.  from random o b s e r v a t i o n i s a m a j o r  R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s e a s o n a l and separate observers w i l l  Some  probably  the technique i s a l s o u s e f u l as a p r e l i m i n a r y review of  e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and The  identify  t o be w i t h f r i e n d s  these q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s  range  to a s c r i b e deeper  for physical activities.  them a s s o c i a l i z i n g m e d i u m s , e i t h e r  of  not  make u s e o f t h e p u b l i c p o o l s f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s .  c o n s i d e r them p u r e l y as s e t t i n g s want t o use  within  technique to the study  meanings to o t h e r w i s e s u r f a c e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f each observed e x a m p l e , p e o p l e may  observers  interactions  human b e h a v i o r i s i n t h e q u a l i t a t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f a c t i v i t y a f f o r d e d by o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s .  the  observe  c l i m a t i c changes, i t i s not and  r e c o r d t h e same e v e n t s  likely i n the  82 same way.  T h i s p r o b l e m may  be  r e s o l v e d by  are beyond the scope of c a s u a l Most observers  e s t a b l i s h i n g formal procedures  but  observation.  must w a i t  p a s s i v e l y for occurrences.  In fact,  i t is  p o s s i b l e t h a t p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e m o s t i n t e r e s t e d may  not  occur  reason,  i n the  i t w o u l d be technique by  any  time span d u r i n g which they are o b s e r v i n g . r a t h e r unwise to use  a s t r u c t u r e d and  to d i s c o v e r f a c t s that are very  other  technique  for that  d i r e c t way  flexibility,  p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n environment. out  formalized or obvious,  technique  feasible in leisure  F i e l d methods a r e  are also able  as  the  technique  can be  particualarly beneficial  Participant  b y many r e s e a r c h e r s  others.  a p p l i e d i n almost are  technique  as one  science investigations.  of  any  carried  is  the s u p e r f i c i a l  casual non-participant observation to the f o c u s s i n g of s u b j e c t  the most  They a r e  i s done i n t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s .  to observe h i d d e n meanings behind  In r e c r e a t i o n research,  a sensible  research.  considered  the research  ascertainable  In p a r t i c u l a r , since observations  s i g n i f i c a n t approaches to s o c i a l non-reactive  or  a t t a i n a b l e by  i n p u b l i c p l a c e s which are a v a i l a b l e to everyone, the  especially  observation  seems t o b e  of a c h i e v i n g u s e f u l data which are not  Because of i t s g r e a t  t h e same  matter.  In c o n c l u s i o n , the casual o b s e r v a t i o n and  simple  For  basically  Field  methods  behavior.  i s found to  be  areas.  observation  S c h w a r t z and  Schwartz (1969) d e f i n e d p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n  as  being:  ... a process i n which the observer's presence i n a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i s maintained f o r the purpose of s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The o b s e r v e r i s i n a f a c e - t o - f a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e o b s e r v e d , a n d , b y p a r t i c i p a t i n g w i t h them i n t h e i r n a t u r a l l i f e s e t t i n g , h e (she) gathers data. Thus, the observer i s p a r t of the c o n t e x t b e i n g o b s e r v e d , a n d : h e ( s h e ) b o t h m o d i f i e s and i s i n f l u e n c e d b y t h i s c o n t e x t . In p r a c t i c e , the technique  of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n a c t u a l l y  involves  a r a t h e r wide range of a c t i v i t i e s v a r y i n g from a c t u a l l y becoming a bona  fide  83 member o f t h e g r o u p b e i n g  studied to observing  r a t h e r i n f o r m a l l y as an o u t s i d e r .  a n d i n t e r v i e w i n g i t s members  I t i s n o t a s i n g l e method b u t r a t h e r a  u n i q u e s t y l e o f r e s e a r c h w h i c h makes u s e o f a number observation, ing,  informant  s u c h as  i n t e r v i e w i n g , document a n a l y s i s , r e s p o n d e n t i n t e r v i e w -  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h s e l f - a n a l y s i s .  Simmons,  of techniques,  ( B l a l o c k , 1970; M c C a l l  and  1969)  The b a s i c p r e r e q u i s i t e o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i n v e s t i g a t o r s must g a i n t h e c o n f i d e n c e  of the persons being  i s that the s t u d i e d , so t h a t  t h e i r p r e s e n c e d o e s n o t d i s r u p t o r i n a n y way i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e n a t u r a l course their  of events,  and t h a t they w i l l be a b l e  s u b j e c t s and n o t have i m p o r t a n t  The p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n p r o c e d u r e i n t h a t i t may for  the researcher.  hand, t y p i c a l l y  technique  to a c q u i r e honest answers from  a c t i v i t i e s being  i s also a relatively  demand m o n t h s o r y e a r s  among, ( t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t o r e s i d e w i t h )  of a c t i v e f i e l d  having  to l i v e  the very  of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t observer  i s to experience the.life:bf  can b e t t e r o b s e r v e and u n d e r s t a n d i t .  as d a t a  the observed, they  participant observation  may b e a b l e  substantially  subjects of  study effort  The m a i n i n t e n t i o n t h e o b s e r v e d so t h a t  And, w h i l e p a r t i c i p a t i n g  l o o k upon t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  and a l s o as c l u e s f o r u n c o v e r i n g  By e x p e r i e n c i n g  involvement  t h o u g h t a n d human r e l a t i o n s w o r k i f m o n t h s o f  a r e n o t t o be d i s t o r t e d , j e o p a r d i z e d , o r i n v a l i d a t e d .  identifying with  expensive  o r no f i e l d w o r k b y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r h i m s e l f .  The p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s met b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r s '  they  them.  S u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , o r l a b o r a t o r y w o r k , on t h e o t h e r  requires l i t t l e  require considerable  hidden from  f u r t h e r data.  and them  Furthermore, a c t i v e  a p p e a r s t o b e more c o n d u c i v e t o s e l f - o b s e r v a t i o n .  t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s u b j e c t s on t h e m s e l v e s t h e  t o p e r c e i v e more c l e a r l y  researcher  t h e e f f e c t s o n t h o s e w i t h whom  they  ordinarily are i n interaction. One o f t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t u s e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s f o r  84  studying various establishing 1943;  forms of d e v i a n t  good r a p p o r t  Liebow, 1 9 6 7 )  are e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t .  c u r i o s i t y , the s o c i a l  even u s e f u l as a c o n f i d a n t and  t h a t can  i s extremely  Non-participant  the people,  an  t h e p r o b l e m s , and  u s e f u l at a c e r t a i n stage  involves l i t t l e  acts or s o c i a l products  being  the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s " i n v i s i b l e " They c o n c e i v e  The  researcher  be  the opportunity  by  detaching  o r no  hunches  explicit  i n the  parti-  research  p i e c e of  research.  as an  observer  they w i l l  they develop.  t h a t m i g h t be  evaluations.  Furthermore, because the s u b j e c t i s not  allows  The  I t i s considered  that  of m i n i m i z i n g  affective reactions  ability  the r e s e a r c h e r  observation,  or f o r study  the  tested,  presence  to observe the s u b j e c t s individual  with other  the  and  aware of b e i n g  to i d e n t i f y  the  will  t h e measurement t h e r e f o r e does n o t w o r k as an  (Webb e t . a l . , 1 9 7 3 )  for follow-up  a one-way  concomitant r o l e - p l a y i n g associated w i t h  o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , and  t h e i r actual behavior  by  and  the greater  f r o m what i s t r a n s p i r i n g and occasioned  being  interaction with  a f f e c t t h e s i t u a t i o n and  t o o b s e r v e e v e n t s as  o r no  behind  with  setting.  pure observation  a s s u m e s t h a t t h e l e s s e r amount o f  the researcher  there i s l i t t l e  direct interaction  i n a s o c i a l sense to those  interferences  either  partici-  observed i n t h e i r n a t u r a l  t h e i r s o l e f u n c t i o n t o be  i n t h e same way  subjects the l e s s l i k e l y  of change.  of  i n s i g h t s and  approach that y i e l d s a f i n i s h e d  observation  a t t e m p t t o c a r r y i t on screen.  the technique  and  observation  Non-participant  observed.  of  initial  becomes t r u s t e d  useful i n providing i n i t i a l  as b e i n g v e r y  rather than being  Ideally,  scientist  As w e l l ,  of  (Anderson, 1 9 2 3 ; Whyte,  C o n s e q u e n t l y , many s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s p r e f e r t o t h i n k o f  cipant observation process  adviser.  l e a d t o more c a r e f u l f o r m u l a t i o n s  hypotheses.  where problems  I t i s o f t e n p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t a f t e r an  p e r i o d o f s u s p i c i o n and  pant o b s e r v a t i o n  or l o w e r - c l a s s behavior,  agent in  actors,  instruments  such  as  85 survey  questionnaire.  One  participant observation sampling there  of important  of the most i m p o r t a n t  phenomena.  However, b e c a u s e i t i s o f t e n o p p o r t u n i s t i c ,  t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n under o b s e r v a t i o n  i t i s t h e r e f o r e not  and  other mechanical devices.  and  imprecise  and  i s the use  B e c a u s e human o b s e r v e r s  i n the r e c o r d i n g of events,  tape recorder  is  an  p o s s i b l e to produce g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s .  Another form of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n  as  non-  i s that i t i s a procedure which allows o p p o r t u n i s t i c  i s the i n e v i t a b l e r i s k  a t y p i c a l g r o u p and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  of hidden, hardware  are g e n e r a l l y  selective  mechanical recording devices  camera a r e used i n c e r t a i n types  of s o c i a l  such  research.  I n d i v i d u a l s make o b s e r v a t i o n a l e r r o r s , r e c o r d i n g e r r o r s , t a b u l a t i n g e r r o r s , and  furthermore  t h e y may  be  are a l s o s e l e c t i v e l y biased f a c t o r s may can  u n s u r e o f how i n w h a t and  be m i s s e d e n t i r e l y .  give only rather gross  to c l a s s i f y  how  Finally,  they  The audio  o r t o do  visual  a c t i o n ) , and  Bales'  H a g e d o r n , 1970)  the observing  analyzed tend  observer's  notes.  hypotheses not  e i t h e r to a i d  heavy. the  i n the s o c i a l sciences still  cameras,  frequency  (Webb e t . a l . , 1973;  The  data  provided  the events have o c c u r r e d .  by  of  are the  inter-  Labovitz  these  same c o n t e n t  considered  at the  can  a l s o be  used f o r t e s t i n g of  time the data were  ( e r o s i o n and  a c c r e t i o n measures) t h a t can  is  the  tape  t o g i v e a more c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f e v e n t s t h a n do The  and  instruments  P i c t u r e s and  the new  collected.  A n o t h e r f o r m o f n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n w o u l d be traces  or  major advantage of u s i n g hardware i n a r e s e a r c h  long a f t e r  recordings  persons  him.  ( w h i c h m e a s u r e s d i r e c t i o n and  permanence of the complete r e c o r d . can be  for  i n t e r a c t i o n machine.  The  important  i n f o r m a t i o n , s u c h as a s u b j e c t i s t a l l  t a p e r e c o r d i n g s , m o v i n g p i c t u r e and  i n t e r a c t i o n chronograph  Observers  u n a i d e d by m e a s u r i n g t o o l s ,  m o s t commonly u s e d m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e s  and  event.  o b s e r v e so t h a t  These arguments s t r o n g l y argue f o r m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e s human o b s e r v e r  an  the use  l e a d to important  of p h y s i c a l bits  of  86 i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be or they  can be  used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h other  used alone  a s m e a s u r e s o f s o c i a l phenomena.  are r a r e l y r e a c t i v e measures c e r t a i n e v e n t s and  be  classified  e r o s i o n or a c c r e t i o n .  is,  s e l e c t i v e l y wear on  is,  deposit m a t e r i a l s over a p e r i o d of time.  activity.  To  a t an  provide  other  Erosion  t r a c e s wear  away—that up—that  Examples of e r o s i o n t r a c e s  e x h i b i t , wear on  can  are  l i b r a r y books, the Carbon shoes as  a measure  14 of  an a c c r e t i o n m e a s u r e , t h e amount o f t r a s h r e m o v e d an  using p h y s i c a l traces are t h e phenomenon, a n d  to  P h y s i c a l - t r a c e evidence  the r a t e a t w h i c h c h i l d r e n wear out  illustrate  f r o m a p a r k may  o f most  some m a t e r i a l — w h i l e a c c r e t i o n t r a c e s b u i l d  t h e w e a r i n g away o f t i l e s d a t i n g m e t h o d , and  Physical traces  of the major f a u l t s  i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .  e i t h e r as  techniques,  ( t h a t i s , measures t h a t s e n s i t i z e s u b j e c t s  o p i n i o n s ) , w h i c h i s one  observational techniques  observation  index  of u t i l i z a t i o n .  t h a t they  The  main d i f f i c u l t i e s  of  u s u a l l y measure o n l y s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s  sometimes they a r e d i f f i c u l t  t o s t a n d a r d i z e and  of  interpret.  Summary Despite  the d i s t i n c t i o n s between d i f f e r e n t  p a r t i c i p a n t and  non-participant observation—and  this approach—structured  and  t o w a r d s d e f i n i n g p r o b l e m a r e a s and  more a p p r o p r i a t e  techniques.  o f t h e d e p t h and  types  observation  of i n f o r m a t i o n they  i m p a c t on  w i l l be  able  the behavior  f o r m a t s may provide,  g u i d e l i n e to  are  initial  choosing  be more u s e f u l i n terms casual  non-participant  especially in situations  c o n d u c t e d i n a p u b l i c s e t t i n g and  subjects.  of  planning  Another advantage i n the p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n  to conduct t h e i r  of the  levels  i s m o s t s u i t a b l e a s an  i s most s u i t a b l e t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g  i s that observations  researchers  between d i f f e r e n t  as a g e n e r a l  While other  where the answers are obvious. context  methods—  c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n — f o r most r e c r e a t i o n  objectives, casual non-participant observation step  forms of f i e l d  s t u d y more f r e e l y and  the  with  less  87 CHAPTER V I GAMING  Introduction Gaming t e c h n i q u e s  a r e r a t h e r new i n t h e r e s e a r c h f i e l d a n d m o s t o f them  have n o t y e t been used i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . A c t i v i t i e s Game" was t h e f i r s t  Field  experience  (1965) " L e i s u r e Time  t o be used f o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h  D e l p h i , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s s t a r t i n g technique.  Chapin's  suggests  purposes.  t o be c o n s i d e r e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e t h a t i n some p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s  gaming  s h o u l d have been used as an a l t e r n a t i v e .  Gaming As  t h e term  processes  i s used here,  i n which r e a l people  "gaming" r e f e r s  to simulations of real  play decision-making  roles.  g a m i n g a s a r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e was h a r d l y r e c o g n i z e d u n t i l The . l i t e r a t u r e . o f to  that period refers  t h e newly developed  The c o n c e p t  of  about a decade ago.  t o i t as " o p e r a t i o n a l - g a m i n g " ,  f i e l d of operational research.  choice  an a d j u n c t  P r e s e n t l y , however,  gaming h a s been r e c o g n i z e d as an a p p r o p r i a t e , i f n o t s u p e r i o r , t o o l i n conducting processes planning The  r e s e a r c h on problems r e l a t i n g  (Duke, 1 9 7 5 ) ; complex s o c i a l systems  elements i n t h e gaming t e c h n i q u e  them t o s i m u l a t e t h o s e significant  decision-making  (Greenblat, 1975);  ( M e i e r and Duke, 1975); and v a r i o u s economic p r o b l e m s  roles, goals, a c t i v i t i e s ,  reality,  t o p u b l i c p o l i c y and  urban  (Feldt,  a r e patterned from r e a l  life—the  c o n s t r a i n t s , a n d c o n s e q u e n c e s a n d t h e l i n k a g e s among  elements of the r e a l - w o r l d systems.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f gaming i s i t s h o l i s t i c  One o f t h e m o s t  s i m u l a t i o n of a complex  something w h i c h c a n n e v e r be comprehended by t h e e x a m i n a t i o n  i n d i v i d u a l components.  1975).  I t also differs  that i timplies a less r i g i d  of the  from o t h e r forms o f communication i n  t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i d e a s and emphasizes a h e u r i s t i c  88 understanding conceived  of the s o c i a l conditions.  and employed, i s a p o w e r f u l  T h e g a m i n g t e c h n i q u e , when p r o p e r l y  tool both  f o r conveying  t i o n and f o r e x p l a i n i n g o r e x p l o r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s i t u a t i o n s  diverse  informa-  that could not  o t h e r w i s e b e managed. Gaming c a n b e a p r e d i c t i v e d e v i c e .  T h e a n s w e r t o a "what i f " q u e s t i o n  i s a p r e d i c t i o n , and sometimes a p r e d i c t i o n t h a t c a n be checked actual behavior.  T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a game o r m o d e l o f t e n i n v o l v e s a s e r i e s  of scenarios d e p i c t i n g p o s s i b l e courses required  of action.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e t h e n  t o assume c e r t a i n r o l e s a n d t o a c t o u t s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e b y f u t u r e  a l t e r n a t i v e s c a n be e x p l o r e d . depict different ability  against  types  to present  Duke u s e s t h e t e r m  o f gaming t e c h n i q u e s ,  " f u t u r e ' s languages"  to  f o r he argues t h a t they have an  a future orientation:  . . . t h i s means t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a n y t i m e f r a m e o t h e r t h a n the p r e s e n t ( i n c l u d i n g t h e p a s t , f u t u r e , o r any a l t e r n a t i v e t o a present s i t u a t i o n ) . Their purpose i s t o explore a l t e r n a t i v e s , t o d e v e l o p a s o p h i s t i c a t e d m e n t a l r e s p o n s e t o "what i f " q u e s t i o n s , a n d to permit the f o r m u l a t i o n of analogy f o r e x p l o r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s w h e r e no p r i o r b a s i s f o r a n a l o g y e x i s t s . ( 1 9 7 5 , p. 1 3 2 ) M o s t games h a v e a s e t t i n g o t h e r t h a n a r e a l a n d c u r r e n t t i m e Generally,  they  e x p l o r e some i m m e d i a t e f u t u r e , a l t h o u g h  past circumstances accomplish  or alternatives  to the present  t h i s by three i n h e r e n t q u a l i t i e s .  a development o f thought  or inquiry.  some may d e a l w i t h  reality.  First,  frame.  They a r e a b l e t o  common t o a l l games i s  T h i s may t a k e s e v e r a l f o r m s ,  t h e most  common o f w h i c h i s r o u n d s i n w h i c h p l a y e r s s e q u e n t i a l l y make t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . These a r e almost questions process  invariably cyclical,  and each c y c l e p e r m i t s  iterative  t h a t m u s t b e r e s o l v e d i n t h e t o t a l c o n t e x t o f t h e game.  i s f r e q u e n t l y m o d i f i e d by t h e i n c l u s i o n of events  pre-programmed, t r i g g e r e d by c i r c u m s t a n c e s which focus  that develop,  that are either o r random  t h e p l a y e r s ' a t t e n t i o n o n some new p r o b l e m o r a s p e c t  s i t u a t i o n a t hand.  This  events  of the  Second, they a r e a b l e t o p r o v i d e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  the o p p o r t u n i t y t o approach the t o p i c  with  from any p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h i s r e l e v a n t  89 to  that p a r t i c i p a n t .  A central issue  game, t h e n i s p r o p e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s have t h e a b i l i t y of  linkages  i n t h e d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n  of the level of abstraction.  t o d i s p l a y , make e x p l i c i t ,  of a  Third,  gaming  or permit the recording  between m a j o r segments o f a m u l t i p l e system; they a l s o c r e a t e  awareness o f t h e a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s  an  and t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p r o b l e m s b e i n g  explored. M o s t e x i s t i n g games a l s o a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d of an "environment f o r l e a r n i n g " as an u n d e r l y i n g researchers our  argue that  with  rationale.  the concept  I n f a c t , some  they s h o u l d s e r v e t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n - l e a r n i n g needs i n  contemporary s o c i e t i e s , because there  i s a n e e d f o r d e v e l o p i n g modes o f  learning large quantitites of information,  and t h e n e c e s s i t y  c o m p r e h e n d some c o m p l i c a t e d d o m a i n s r a t h e r  than d e t a i l e d information  them.  This  concept can be s t a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y :  to i n f o r m a t i o n  about  i s more  receptive  i f i t i s r e s p o n s i v e t o a f e l t need and i f i t i s p r e s e n t e d i n  a context understood or perceived Chapin  the learner  of learning to  by the learner.  ( 1 9 6 5 ) was among t h e f i r s t  of l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s  t o adapt a gaming t e c h n i q u e t o s t u d y  among u r b a n r e s i d e n t s .  I t was i n t e n d e d a s a  technique f o r g e t t i n g respondents to s t a t e t h e i r l e s i r e preferences  within  a reasonably r e a l i s t i c  The  subjects  s t r u c t u r e o f c o n s t r a i n t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  were asked t o s e l e c t " f r e e - t i m e "  simple r u l e s , considering and  other constraints  activities  interviewers  such as l o c a t i o n o f residence.  then introduced  would a l l o c a t e these e i g h t term " t r a d e - o f f  hours,  After the subjects  of i n i t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s ,  a change i n t h e c o n t i n g e n c i e s :  assume t h a t y o u w i l l h a v e m o r e f r e e  The  t o a few  t h e i r socio-economic conditions, working  f i n i s h e d making t h e i r t i m e a l l o c a t i o n on t h e b a s i s the  according  "Now  let's  t i m e e a c h week; p l e a s e show how y o u  a d d i t i o n a l hours."  game" a p p l i e s  r e s p o n d e n t s e e k s some o p t i m a l  to this  form o f research,  combination of a c t i v i t y  choices  where t h e  i nthe  90 a l l o c a t i o n of f r e e time,  subject  to a set of constraints.  The r a t i o n a l e  b e h i n d t h i s game was t h a t i f t h e k e y c o n s t r a i n t s h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d a n d introduced  i n t o t h e game, i t w o u l d o f f e r a means o f e l i c i t i n g  indications of l e i s u r e The  reasoned  preferences.  d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e i s a means f o r t h e s y s t e m a t i c  s o l i c i t a t i o n and  c o l l a t i o n o f i n f o r m e d judgements on a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c .  (Schneider,  Delphi  There a r e a t l e a s t  two  can be o r has been used i n a r e c r e a t i o n c o n t e x t .  v a r i a n t s of d e l p h i , the business of parameter e s t i m a t i o n ,  was o r i g i n a l l y  for which i t  d e v e l o p e d a t Rand, and t h e b u s i n e s s o f c h o i c e s ,  d e l p h i " w h i c h was S c h n e i d e r ' s i n t e r e s t .  1974)  or the "policy  The b a s i c p r o c e d u r e s w o r k w i t h  a  set of c a r e f u l l y designed sequential questionnaires  interspersed  with  summarized i n f o r m a t i o n  from e a r l i e r  responses.  and o p i n i o n  feedback derived  I n many t y p e s o f d e l p h i games t h e c y c l e s a r e s u c c e s s i v e  approximations or  r e f i n e m e n t s w h i c h have no t i m e s i g n i f i c a n c e o r c o u n t e r p a r t s game i t s e l f .  The p r o c e s s i s r e p e a t e d u n t i l  r e a c h e d among t h e p l a y e r s .  This  type of technique i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n  t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s i n m i n d .  categories  whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i d e a l a r e t o a l l o w i s likely  the  h a n d , may f e e l  other  developing  t o be i n f a v o r  of p a r t i c i -  Take t h e example i n w h i c h t h e  c i t y has t o d e c i d e on t h e c r e a t i o n o f a n e i g h b o r h o o d p a r k .  possible,  The p a r k s  o f s u c h a move.  The c i t y  c o u n c i l , on  t h a t t h e l a n d a v a i l a b l e i s more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  l o w income h o u s i n g .  The n e i g h b o r h o o d p l a n n e r s ,  h o w e v e r , may  t o t h i n k t h a t i n s t e a d o f a p a r k a community c e n t r e  ate.  T h e r e s i d e n t s may d e c i d e t h a t t h e y p r e f e r t o h a v e a p u b l i c  involved will  board,  f o r a s much o p e n s p a c e a s  elect  instead.  of the  some k i n d o f a g r e e m e n t h a s b e e n  c a s e s w h e r e d e c i s i o n s h a v e t o b e made among v a r i o u s pants each w i t h  outside  may b e m o r e  appropri-  library  P u b l i c d e c i s i o n m a k i n g i s e x t r e m e l y c o m p l e x a s t h e members seldom a g r e e on any p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e .  The d e l p h i g a m i n g  technique  n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o a c o n s e n s u s among d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s , b u t i t  91 does h e l p  to explore  lead to c o n f l i c t i n g The  use  category  and  expose u n d e r l y i n g  of gaming i n r e s e a r c h  and  analysis. preclude  a l s o has  various  design,  shortcomings.  The  l a c k of c o n t r o l f o r r e l e v a n t sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n  t i o n i s t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s  accepting  about the v a l u e  to consider  main  design:  the  tests which  measurement of change; l a c k of c o n t r o l groups even where t h e  failure  may  sampling, o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g of  Many o f t h e s t u d i e s s u f f e r f r o m p o o r r e s e a r c h  techniques;  that  judgements.  i n c l u d e s problems of r e s e a r c h  concepts,  assumptions or i n f o r m a t i o n  of gaming compared t o  Hawthorne e f f e c t s ;  and  inten-  other  poor c r i t e r i a  for  or r e j e c t i n g hypotheses.  A n o t h e r p r o b l e m i n many s t u d i e s r e l a t e s t o p o o r o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g o f concepts.  Considering  recreation behaviors, not  be n e g l e c t e d .  certain  the  I f we  importance of a w e l l d e f i n e d  be  i n c l u d e d , the  there things  t h a t we  There are  to r e s u l t i n data  to take  between  the  behaviors  l o o k i n g f o r i n our  c o n c e p t s as  I n a b i l i t y of the researchers  tion i s likely  are  activities,  study,  recreation,  these f a c t o r s i n t o  t h a t are of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e .  a number o f game v a r i a b l e s t h a t may  q u a l i t y o f pre-game p r e p a r a t i o n .  c o n d i t i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o r how instances, research with  has  be  important  the  A special instance  i n explain-  Testing  is  s i m u l a t i o n i s employed.  b e e n d o n e w h e r e g a m i n g was  l e c t u r e s or d i s c u s s i o n s .  f o r the  and the  I n some  used i n c o r r e l a t i o n  consequences of use  under  these c o n d i t i o n s i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from those that are designed f o r purpose of s o l i c i t i n g istics  of  opinions  on  and  considera-  i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l outcomes, i n c l u d i n g l e n g t h of p l a y , s i z e of group, amount and  on  scope of c o n c e r n must  i s a need t o s t a t e c l e a r l y  the d e f i n i t i o n s of such important  behavior.  research  are i n t e r e s t e d i n the l e i s u r e preference  types of a c t i v i t i e s ,  that should and  t h e d i v e r s i t y o f i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n any  different issues.  In a d d i t i o n ,  t h e game a d m i n i s t r a t o r h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o b e  of  the  character-  considerable  i m p o r t a n c e i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e outcomes o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , y e t d i s c u s s i o n o f such f a c t o r s as a d m i n i s t r a t o r  competence, p r e p a r a t i o n ,  the problem i s o f t e n l a c k i n g .  A final  controlled  by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s .  i s the r o l e s played  different  with  s e t o f game v a r i a b l e s i n f r e q u e n t l y  p a r t s o f t e n have d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s ; d e l p h i technique  and f a m i l i a r i t y  this  i s e s p e c i a l l y true i n using  when t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d  from t h e i r normal a c t i v i t i e s ,  Those p l a y i n g d i f f e r e n t  to play out r o l e s  b u t t h i s has n o t g e n e r a l l y  quite  been  examined. A l a r g e p r o b l e m a r i s e s b e c a u s e , d e s p i t e g r e a t v a r i a t i o n s i n games, conclusions In f a c t , of  from s t u d i e s w i t h  o n e game a r e g e n e r a l i z e d  even t h e best-designed  study  could not provide  t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s o u t l i n e d above; i t c o u l d  z a t i o n s about the p a r t i c u l a r Finally,  there  gaming e x p e r i e n c e .  reasonably  a full yield  t e s t o f any only g e n e r a l i -  game i n v e s t i g a t e d o r p o s s i b l y t h a t t y p e o f game.  i s t h e p r o b l e m o f d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p r o p e r end o f a I n a t r a d e - o f f g a m i n g s i m u l a t i o n , t h e game e n d s when  the p a r t i c i p a n t has a l l o t t e d , of t h e c h o i c e s  t o games i n g e n e r a l .  to h i s or her s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  the optimal  balance  that are a v a i l a b l e .  I n t h e d e l p h i g a m i n g s i t u a t i o n , h o w e v e r , t h e number o f r o u n d s i n w h i c h t h e e x e r c i s e m u s t go t h r o u g h a r e n o t p r e - d e t e r m i n e d .  I n some i n s t a n c e s i t  may b e p o s s i b l e t o a r r i v e a t t h e d e c i s i o n s a f t e r a f e w c y c l e s ; o t h e r s demand m o r e .  R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e a c t u a l number o f r o u n d s r e q u i r e d  the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , there  i s an important  factor that i s often  to s a t i s f y overlooked.  Even though t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s v o t e i n complete i s o l a t i o n from o t h e r as  t h e y move f r o m o n e s t a g e t o a n o t h e r , a n d a s t h e y r e v i e w  T h e r e i s o f t e n no m o n i t o r i n g  same t i m e s u p p o r t a c o n c l u s i o n opinions  after'  to detect  are l i k e l y to  these a l t e r a t i o n s , and a t t h e  that the data best  the "nth" round.  members,  the r e s u l t s of  each subsequent r o u n d , t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , and b e l i e f s change.  may  This, of course,  represent  the majority of  relates to greater  93 problems o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r e f f e c t s , b u t d i f f e r e n t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r competence is  an important  factor  i n accounting  f o r t h e outcomes o f t h e u s e o f gaming  techniques. Gaming t e c h n i q u e s in  the research f i e l d .  a r e undoubtedly  Simply because they a r e s t i l l  data c o l l e c t i o n technique, changed, and improved. real life  some o f t h e m o r e i n n o v a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s r e l a t i v e l y young as a  t h e r e i s enough l e e w a y f o r them t o be m o d i f i e d ,  T h e i r major advantage l i e s  i n the a b i l i t y  to reflect  s i t u a t i o n s a n d d e c i s i o n s , o r a s a means o f c o l l a t i n g j u d g e m e n t o n  certain issues.  Trade-off The  games issue of trade-offs i n p u b l i c decision-making  levels i s of special significance is  to both  planners  a t a l l governmental  and o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n s .  f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d d u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n s on i d e n t i f y i n g  evaluating different policies lines of action.  In light  community g o a l s ,  and programs, and f o r m u l a t i n g p l a n s  m u s t b e made b e t w e e n v a r i o u s g o a l s w i t h o u t  d i r e c t harmful  R o b i n s o n e t . a l . (1975) a l s o i d e n t i f i e s to t r a d i t i o n a l planning standards:  t h a t compromises  effects  of user groups;  (1)  the users are not consulted d i r e c t l y  formulation of these standards;  (2)  these standards  supplier,  and e v a l u a t i o n i nthe  usually f a i l  r e c o g n i z e d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e s and p r e f e r e n c e s between d i f f e r e n t groups  (Gans, 1957; F r i e d and G l e i c h e r , 1961); and  t y p i c a l l y ignored the concept formulation  that are  they a r e u s u a l l y based  groups w i t h no r e g a r d f o r t h e e x p e r i e n c e  typically  on o t h e r s .  three major c r i t i c i s m s  upon t h e n e e d s , w a n t s , and judgements o f t h e p l a n n e r , d e s i g n e r , l e n d e r , and producer  f o r future  o f t h e many c o n s t r a i n t s i n w h i c h e v e r y s o c i e t y  must f a c e i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , i t i s i n e v i t a b l e  directed  It  (3)  to user  the standards  have  of substitutability or trade-offs i n their  ( B l a c k m a n , 1 9 6 8 ; W e b b e r , 1 9 6 9 ; S o l o w a n d Ham, 1 9 6 7 ; W h e a t o n ,  94 1965).  These are e s p e c i a l l y  opportunities.  I t has  f o l l o w the s t r i c t of open spaces  and  t r u e i n the case of p l a n n i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n  been the u s u a l p r a c t i c e f o r r e c r e a t i o n o f f i c i a l s o f t e n i n a p p r o p r i a t e r u l e of a s s i g n i n g a c e r t a i n  f o r " n " number o f p e o p l e ,  p o o l s f o r a community o f a p r e d e t e r m i n e d a r d s has and  often resulted  amount  o r t o a l l o c a t e " x " number o f  swimming  size.  stand-  The  rigidity  i n an o v e r s u p p l y o f f a c i l i t i e s  of these  that are  underutilized,  a l a c k o f a p p r o p r i a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t a r e i n h i g h demand. Granted  that preference for leisure a c t i v i t i e s  s u b j e c t , and planners  i t w o u l d be  t o meet e v e r y  difficult,  i f not  citizen's desires,  the u s e r s .  One  aspect  of a c t u a l behavior;  expressed  the t r a d e - o f f preferences  i n terms  The  b a s i c assumption  i s t h a t c h o i c e s u s e r s a c t u a l l y make i n t h e  i s often quite a different  life  the p u b l i c .  t h a t can be  situation,  thus  what  say  they  do r a t h e r t h a n w h a t t h e y thing.  At  t h e same t i m e , i n  i t may  comprehended by  be  important  two  by C h a p i n  and  Hightower  e f f e c t o f t i m e as a v a r i a b l e a f f e c t i n g Another  study conducted  real  governed  t h e y m u s t make t o g e t i t .  (1965) w h i c h  the i s s u e of choices i n l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s ,  in a  In a  i t i s acknowledged t h a t what p e o p l e want i s i n p a r t  I n t h e game d e s i g n e d  t o draw  aspects  the general p u b l i c .  b y w h a t t h e y t h i n k t h e y c a n g e t and w h a t s a c r i f i c e s  activities.  trade-offs;  T r a d e - o f f games c o m b i n e t h e s e  easily  of  u n d e r l y i n g the "preference i s  e v a l u a t i n g p u b l i c demand f o r v a r i o u s f a c i l i t i e s ,  technique  of  the o t h e r h o l d s t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s as e x p r e s s e d  need i s i n f o r m a t i o n about what p e o p l e  o p i n i o n s from  attempts  i n terms  as b e h a v i o r " approach  do, w h i c h  recreation  t r a d e - o f f gaming t e c h n i q u e  r e a l w o r l d a r e t h e b e s t i n d i c a t o r o f p r e f e r e n c e s and  will  individualized  that preferences are expressed  a t t i t u d e s or o p i n i o n s .  of i t h o l d s  i s a highly  impossible f o r the  t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e , as w e l l as a c q u i r e d a t a on,  we  to  attempts  to  address  t h e d e s i g n e r s f o c u s on  the s e l e c t i o n between v a r i o u s  social  r e c e n t l y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by  F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s Department emphasizes the v a l u e of salmon i n the  the  the  Fraser  95 R i v e r as compared t o o t h e r p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s i o n , e d u c a t i o n , garbage c o l l e c t i o n , The The  W i l s o n Game u s e s p l a y money i n o r d e r  relationships.  games may v a r y f r o m o n e t o a n o t h e r . t o measure t h e r e l a t i v e  such  a research situation relating  t e r m s how much a r e t h e y w i l l i n g  several benefits. to be f a m i l i a r decision-making  express  them e x p r e s s  t o s p e n d o n e a c h one o f t h e m , i f g i v e n a  this  i s an i t e m i n w h i c h a l l respondents  and c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h .  Second, i t r e f l e c t s a r e a l  i n which resources  are limited.  a r e a b l e t o q u a n t i f y and thus a l l o w f o r c o m p a r a t i v e the decision-makers  i n actual dollar  T h e u s e o f money a s a means o f e v a l u a t i o n h a s  First,  process  When a p p l i e d t o  their desires with respect to  o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s by h a v i n g  o f money.  tactics.  employ  t o r e c r e a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e s , i t w i l l b e much m o r e  d e s i r a b l e t o have t h e respondents  supply  importance  as t h e one u s e d b y C h a p i n and H i g h t o w e r  g r e e n stamps t o c r e a t e t h e image o f m e r c h a n d i z i n g  limited  services.  and s e r v i c e s as w e l l as n e i g h b o r h o o d d e n s i t y and d i s t a n c e  Others  various a c t i v i t i e s  as p o l i c e and f i r e p r o t e c t -  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c u l t u r a l  d e s i g n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e  of v a r i o u s u t i l i t i e s  such  who a r e u s e d t o h a n d l e  are l i k e l y life  Third, the results  measurements.  budgetary  Finally,  issues are l i k e l y to  be more r e c e p t i v e t o r e p o r t s t h a t a c t u a l l y d e a l i n m o n e t a r y t e r m s . r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e medium u s e d t o s o l i c i t  the trade-off preferences  respondents,  benefits of this  there are s e v e r a l important  However, of the  technique  that  are worth noting. The  t r a d e - o f f game a p p r o a c h a t t e m p t s  of c o n s t r a i n t s . choice—the tend  t o approximate behavior.  questionnaire,  i n the face  On t h e o n e h a n d , s i n c e t r a d e - o f f s i n v o l v e c o n s t r a i n e d  r e s p o n d e n t m u s t g i v e up s o m e t h i n g t o g e t s o m e t h i n g  can be e l i c i t e d  world  to simulate behavior  else—they  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , s i n c e t r a d e - o f f p r e f e r e n c e s  i n conjunction w i t h other research techniques  such  as survey  t h e t r a d e - o f f c h o i c e s need n o t be c o n f i n e d t o t h e present-day  or current events;  they can address  unfulfilled  preferences  or explore  96 the respondents' As w e l l ,  views towards f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  t h e t r a d e - o f f game i s a means o f p e r m i t t i n g r e s p o n d e n t s  p a r t i c i p a t e more f u l l y sense of w e l l - b e i n g . ties  many p e o p l e .  environmental  that affect  their lives  T h e i r r e a c t i o n to the s u f f i c i e n c y of l e i s u r e  i n a neighborhood i s not  f o r how and  i n the d e c i s i o n processes  The  r e s t r i c t e d by  the standard  decision i s often related  c o n s t r a i n t s , and  formula  to v a r i o u s  I n a way,  o f how  p u b l i c s to express  p r e f e r e n c e s , but  I t not only permits  then,  trade-off preferences  the  feel  d e c i s i o n process  and,  c o m p l e t e knowledge as The  I t allows the c i t i z e n s  of  step  different  as w e l l — t r a d e - o f f s  t o e n t e r more f u l l y  their  into  the  as a c o n s e q u e n c e , p r o v i d e s t h e p l a n n e r s w i t h more t o t h e i r d e s i r e s and  circumstances.  t r a d e - o f f game a l s o s e r v e s as some s o r t o f a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e  the respondents.  I t i s not u n l i k e l y  to f i n d  a difference i n their actual behavior specific  would  the m e r i t  w i t h respect to t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l preferences w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s of individual situations.  much  individual  t r a d e - o f f game a p p r o a c h i s t h a t i t c a r r i e s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a f a r t h e r along i n the design process.  and  opportuni-  the r e s u l t r e p r e s e n t s what they  be m o s t s u i t a b l e f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n .  to  trade-off restraints.  The  and  t h a t most p e o p l e w o u l d  v a l u e s y s t e m when f a c e d  task of having  for  reflect  with  to consider a s e r i e s  of  t r a d e - o f f s between v a r i o u s d e s i r a b l e g o a l s p r o v i d e s a unique l e a r n i n g e x p e r i ence t h a t i s n o t  likely  forces the respondents something that i s not The The  time  n a i r e and  to occur  i n everyone's mind.  to " f i n e tune" likely  Furthermore,  t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s on d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s ,  to happen i n o t h e r r e s e a r c h  t r a d e - o f f gaming t e c h n i q u e s  i t also  are r e l a t i v e l y  i n v o l v e d f o r e a c h i n t e r v i e w may  double  techniques.  c o s t l y and  time  t h a t of a r e g u l a r q u e s t i o n -  t h e r e f o r e leads to h i g h e r c o s t s f o r the i n t e r v i e w e r s ' time  respondents' complicated  patience.  consuming.  and  A l s o , the r e s u l t i n g data are o f t e n too d i v e r s e  t o be h a n d l e d  i n a s i m p l e manner, t h e r e b y  adding  to the  and  cost  97 involved  i n the analysis.  Finally,  the technique i s rather r e s t r i c t e d  i n i t s generalizability.  E v e n t h o u g h many s t u d i e s a r e p r o b l e m s p e c i f i c a n d t h u s a r e n o t a i m i n g a t soliciting  public opinions,  activities  a r e more d e s i r a b l e f o r c e r t a i n k i n d s  attempts a r e seldom greater  The  may b e a b l e  the study.  steps  i n the preparation  themselves.  of the delphi  t h e problems t o be s o l v e d ,  technique.  and t h e main  participants, or c o l l e c t i v e l y  panel represents  t h e p a n e l members, a r e n o t r a n d o m l y  feel  to the research  d i r e c t i n t e r e s t s i n t h e outcome o f t h i s e x e r c i s e , more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d .  The number  I f t h e members  a n d who c a n c o n t r i b u t e  have  t h e y a r e more l i k e l y  I n s h o r t , a good p a n e l i s one w i t h  interested i n the subject  t o be  p e o p l e who a r e  to the research.  and o u t l i n i n g o f t h e d e l p h i must seek t o b r i n g o u t op-  These o p t i o n s  c a n be s e v e r a l s c e n a r i o s ,  p r o s a n d c o n s b e t w e e n them,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r e n t r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , and p r o j e c t i o n s  of possible  F o r example, i f t h e f o c u s i s on t e c h n o l o g i c a l f o r e c a s t s , t h e r e a r e  several questions  to consider.  How s o o n w i l l t h e y h a p p e n ? ships  The  t o the n e c e s s i t y , but they a r e r e c r u i t e d because the  t h a t they have something t o o f f e r .  Third, design  chosen.  topic.  t h e p e o p l e who p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d e l p h i p r o c e s s .  according  who  c a n b e s i m i l a r o r d i f f e r e n t . The  They a r e s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r knowledge r e l e v a n t  problems.  focuses  Second, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d o u t t h e k i n d o f p e o p l e  have u s e f u l e x p e r t i s e ; t h e e x p e r t i s e  researchers  But  technique  F i r s t , we n e e d t o i d e n t i f y  may v a r y  some  of people than others.  s i g n i f i c a n c e t o d e c i s i o n makers than t h e d a t a  delphi  tions.  to conclude that  made t o e x p l a i n t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h may b e o f  There a r e three  of  researchers  to other  variables?  What a r e t h e m a j o r c h a n g e s t h a t w i l l  How d e s i r a b l e a r e t h e y ?  occur?  What a r e t h e r e l a t i o n -  98 In conjunction the p l a y e r s ,  with  its ability  to identify  t h e d e l p h i approach i s e f f e c t i v e i n c o r r e l a t i n g judgements on a  t o p i c w h i c h spans a wide range o f d i s c i p l i n e s . what a r e t h e p r o p e r l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s may n e e d t o know t h e o p i n i o n s  teachers  Thus, i n order  the c i t i z e n representatives,  a g e n c i e s s u c h a s t h e Y.W.C.A., a n d e v e n r e s i d e n t s inconceivable  that  one  a n o t h e r , o r even g o a l s  i n various  these people have p r e f e r e n c e s  Duke a n d G r e e n b l a t  that  members o f  should  i n the semi-public projects.  (1975) a r g u e t h a t o n l y  research  perceptions.  a perception  of  produce i n d i v i d u a l conceptions o f  be, i t would f a c i l i t a t e  does n o t o n l y on  This,  t h e i r attempts a t  developing indivi-  i n a s e n s e , i s what d e l p h i gaming i s a l l about.  seek out i n f o r m a t i o n  It  w h i c h may g e n e r a t e a c o n s e n s u s o f j u d g e m e n t  t h e p a r t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s , b u t on t h e o t h e r  b r i n g out issues  with  t h a t engages i n  a s i m u l a t i o n w h i c h , i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , must be a m e l d i n g o f t h e i r dual  It i s  i n a c t u a l i t y may n o t b e a t t a i n a b l e .  I f t h e i n d i v i d u a l member w i l l  what t h e r e a l i t y  board,  that are i n c o n f l i c t  s i m u l a t i n g a n y c o m p l e x phenomena may s u c c e e d i n s h a r i n g reality.  researchers  i n the parks  and p a r e n t s a s s o c i a t i o n , t h o s e t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d  not  to determine  f o r a community, t h e  of the recreation o f f i c i a l s  the planners that a r e i n v o l v e d , the  c o n f l i c t i n g a s s u m p t i o n s among  t h a t may h a v e b e e n o v e r l o o k e d  hand i t i s l i k e l y t o  by t h e researchers  or concerns  i n w h i c h r e s p e c t i v e members.may n o t b e a w a r e o f . Another important aspect of the d e l p h i technique i s i t s c a p a b i l i t y of determining as  or developing  the players  in opinions actions  a range of p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s .  a r e a w a r e o f some o f t h e r e a s o n s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e  among them, i t may b e p o s s i b l e f o r them t o i d e n t i f y  i n light  of the constraints.  Referring  to difference various  t o t h e same e x a m p l e m e n t i o n e d  above, t h e knowledge t h a t d i f f e r e n t groups p r e f e r d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s enough. pools.  Some may t h i n k t h a t i c e r i n k s a r e m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t O t h e r s may c o n s i d e r  community c e n t r e s  As soon  i s not  t h a n swimming  more u s e f u l t h a n p u b l i c  parks.  99 C h i l d r e n want more p l a y g r o u n d s and a d u l t s d e s i r e more g o l f c o u r s e s . society,  i t i s apparent t h a t n o t every c i t i z e n w i l l be a b l e  s h e w a n t s ; t h e r e f o r e j o i n t d e c i s i o n s m u s t b e made w i t h best  are presented those  r e g a r d s t o what i s t h e  techniques,  explored.  d e l p h i gaming i s one i n w h i c h a c t i o n s and p o l i c i e s  t o t h e respondents and . t h e i r judgements serve  to f u r t h e r modify  policies. The  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f feedback i n t h e d e l p h i approach cannot be  It not only serves inter-related aspects  aspects  of s o c i a l  o f t h e c h o s e n t o p i c , i t i s a m a g n i f i c a t i o n o f some  i n t e r a c t i o n (Coleman, 1975), i n w h i c h p l a y e r s  to add t o t h e v i a b i l i t y  of other  likely  of the research. technique  c o n t r o l o f growth i n t h e urban environment. t o assume c e r t a i n r o l e s ; some p l a y  i n t h e i r study  The members i n v o l v e d a r e a s k e d  and tend  to simulate  They a l s o e m p h a s i z e d t h e f a c t t h a t d e l p h i i s  when t h e r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p s d e s i r e d h a s v e r y  commitments.  others  The r e s u l t shows t h a t some k i n d o f  c o n s e n s u s among d i v e r s e g r o u p s i s o f t e n u n o b t a i n a b l e , p u b l i c d e c i s i o n processes.  of the  the parts of the c i t i z e n s while  assume t h e p o s i t i o n s o f p u b l i c f i g u r e s .  to other  a r e made a w a r e  p a r t i c i p a n t s , and a s s u c h i s more  Webster e t . a l . (1974) employed t h i s  most a p p r o p r i a t e  underrated.  t o educate t h e respondent groups about t h e d i v e r s e and  of t h e f e e l i n g s and o p i n i o n s  due  t o g e t what he o r  c o u r s e o f a c t i o n , and what a r e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t c a n be  Unlike other  I n any  Therefore,  this  technique  limited  time  can be used t o s o l i c i t  r e s p o n s e s o n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e when members a r e a v a i l a b l e , o r i n some cases,  i t may b e c o n d u c t e d o v e r a l o n g e r  each round a r e t o be analyzed be  period of time i f t h e r e s u l t s of  and r e t u r n e d  d e s i r a b l e to use t h i s technique  to the players.  As w e l l ,  i t would  w i t h members o f g r o u p s who do n o t h a v e a  h i s t o r y o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g o n a p r o f e s s i o n a l b a s i s , o r when d i s a g r e e m e n t s a r e known t o e x i s t among them. The  m a j o r s h o r t c o m i n g s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e d e l p h i gaming t e c h n i q u e  l i enot  100 i n the concept  b u t w i t h t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d .  this  demands t h e p r e s e n c e  technique  o f three p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups:  or c l i e n t group, the experts chosen t o respond part of the user group),  I n most  the user  t o t h e i s s u e s (who may a l s o b e  a n d t h e " a d m i n i s t r a t o r s " o r t h e d e s i g n and m o n i t o r i n g  team.  The f u n c t i o n o f t h e m o n i t o r i n g b o d y i s t o d e s i g n  naire,  summarize t h e r e t u r n s , and r e d e s i g n t h e f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  success  cases  the i n i t i a l  questionThe  o r f a i l u r e o f t h i s e x e r c i s e depends g r e a t l y on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  the monitoring  team, t h a t t h e y a r e a b l e t o r e s p o n d  that are raised,  efficiently  t h a t they p r o p e r l y summarize t h e r e s u l t s  t o the problems  f o r further evalua-  t i o n s , and t h a t they a r e r a t h e r f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e t o p i c b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d . When t h e t e c h n i q u e  i s used on a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e , v e r y o f t e n t h e a d m i n i s -  t r a t o r s have t o depend on t h e a i d o f a computer w h i c h c a n p r o v i d e feedback. respond  Due t o t h e r e s t r i c t i o n  i n time, i t i s v i t a l  t o t h e q u e s t i o n s p r o p e r l y and t h a t m o n i t o r s  i n t e l l i g e n t l y p r o v i d e summaries as w e l l . when c o m p u t e r s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e ,  instant  that the players  have t h e . a b i l i t y t o  I n more c o m p l i c a t e d  situations, or  t h e r e s e a r c h may h a v e t o b e c o n d u c t e d  a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e w h i c h may b e c o s t l y a n d t i m e  over  consuming.  Summary Both  t r a d e - o f f games a n d t h e d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e  contributions  to recreation research i n spite of their  b e n e f i t o f h i n d s i g h t , i t may b e s u g g e s t e d architects  c a n make  f o r comparing the importance  significant  limitations.  With the  t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e used by t h e  of v a r i o u s items  t o be added i n t h e  r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s h o u l d h a v e b e e n s u p p l e m e n t e d b y a t r a d e - o f f game s o t h a t more a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n may b e g a t h e r e d .  Similarly,  i f d e l p h i had been  used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e NIP P l a n n i n g Committee i n R i l e y Park, would be a b e t t e r i n d i c a t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e p r i o r i t y  the result  items were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of t h e community a s a w h o l e .  T h e s e e x a m p l e s do s e r v e a s i l l u s t r a t i o n s  the usage o f these  i n the recreation planning  techniques  context.  about  101 PART I I I  CHAPTER V I I SUMMARY OF FINDINGS  Introduction T h i s c h a p t e r summarizes t h e f i n d i n g s from P a r t I I . and  field  Literature  experience have p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r t h e a n a l y s i s .  review  The f i n d i n g s  provide guidelines f o r the evaluation of the selected data c o l l e c t i o n niques next  and s u g g e s t i o n s  f o r a p r o c e d u r a l methodology to b e d e v e l o p e d  tech-  i nthe  chapter.  Summary o f f i n d i n g s B e n e f i t s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f r e s p e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s Secondary  a r e g i v e n below.  data:  When c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s u s i n g s e c o n d a r y far  t h e m o s t e c o n o m i c way o f a c q u i r i n g m a s s i v e a m o u n t s o f p e r t i n e n t d a t a .  w e a l t h o f d a t a o r knowledge l i e s w i t h i n easy The  i n f o r m a t i o n may b e f o u n d  tions.  outcome.  sources  i s non-reactivity.  I n some c a s e s  just  the presence  In  the data  of researchers i s s u f f i c i e n t to  the s o c i a l environment being s t u d i e d .  The of  institu-  M o s t o f them a r e a v a i l a b l e t o r e s e a r c h e r s i f t h e y know w h e r e t o l o o k .  research, the e f f e c t s of the investigators' biases can a l t e r  affect  A  reach b u t i s seldom employed.  i n government, s e m i - p u b l i c , o r p r i v a t e  One m a i n a d v a n t a g e o f u s i n g s e c o n d a r y any  d a t a i s by  technique of u s i n g secondary  data avoids the i n t e r a c t i o n  pitfalls  o t h e r r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s b u t a t t h e m e r c y o f t h o s e who d i d c o l l e c t t h e  data.  C o m p a r a b i l i t y over a long p e r i o d o f time a l l o w s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o  s t u d y s t r u c t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes l o n g i t u d i n a l l y sectionally, The  a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which  f l e x i b i l i t y of a technique  i s shared by v e r y few  r a t h e r than c r o s s approaches.  i s r e p r e s e n t e d by i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y ,  ease  102 of use,  and  of these  ability  t h e many b e n e f i t s o f t h i s  Many s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s  circumstances  is difficult  scope of work t h a t has  a r e so dated  In  there are several  limita-  present  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e amount o f i s able to f i n d  Since  terms  others.  t h a t a p i c t u r e of the  been done p r e v i o u s l y .  infor-  or  the  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was  r e s e a r c h e r s ' p r o b l e m i n m i n d , i t may  not  not be  e x a c t l y what i s needed.  A d i s t i n c t i o n m u s t be mented d a t a .  technique,  techniques.  superior to  to what the r e s e a r c h e r  together w i t h the present  possible to find  is clearly  to determine.  mation a v a i l a b l e i s l i m i t e d  put  i n conjunction with other  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , secondary data  Despite tions.  to apply  drawn between u s i n g e x p e r t  Whie t h e r e s e a r c h e r s  do n o t h a v e any  d a t a , i t i s p o s s i b l e to choose the r e s o u r c e  informants  c o n t r o l over  p e r s o n s who  and  docu-  documented  are r e l e v a n t to  their  interests. The  p r o b l e m s o f r e l i a b i l i t y and  nesses i n using secondary sources. tize  Although  the researchers  t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e r e c o r d s , someone d i d c o l l e c t  p e r s o n s may they  v a l i d i t y a r e o f t e n c i t e d a s m a j o r weak-  have s e n s i t i z e d respondents.  a r e u s i n g someone e l s e ' s s e l e c t i v e The  The  commented o n  can  add  significant  filter  for.their  restrictions  hundred year  o l d memoirs, r e a l l y  body of d a t a  f r o m w h i c h t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s .  one  C h r i s t o p h e r Columbus, f o r example, kept  f o r the crew.  threaten v a l i d i t y ,  Even w i t h o u t  that  selective  For  survival  Naroll  example,  (1962)  the  or the h i s t o r i a n  with  do n o t h a v e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  There are a l s o problems w i t h s e l e c t i v e e d i t i n g practice.  these  own.  to the content.  o l d pottery shards,  a s e t o f two  sensi-  r e s e a r c h e r s must r e a l i z e  the problem of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sampling.  a r c h e o l o g i s t w i t h h i s thousand year  and  t h e d a t a , and  o p e r a t i n g q u e s t i o n s ' o f s e l e c t i v e d e s p o s i t i o n and  of the records  d i d not  through a d m i n i s t r a t i v e two  l o g s , one  for himself  the danger of s y s t e m a t i c b i a s t h a t  the r i s k of t h e i r s e l e c t i v e s u r v i v a l  remains.  could  103 Observation The to  technique:  unique c o n t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t  the study  which t h i s  o f human b e h a v i o r  field  and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n  i s i n the q u a l i t a t i v e assessment of a c t i v i t y  approach a f f o r d s .  The t e c h n i q u e  i s u s e f u l as a p r e l i m i n a r y  r e v i e w o f t h e e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n v o l v e m e n t ties. be  Whether f a c i l i t i e s  determined  changes.  i n a relatively  short time.  T h i s d a t a may n o t b e  t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h e e f f e c t o f s e a s o n a l and c l i m a t i c  Y e t , even w i t h o u t  the benefit of t i g h t l y  controlled  observations,  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d i n t h i s m a n n e r may b e s u f f i c i e n t l y v a l i d mining  future policy directions.  relatively  s i m p l e , they  s h o u l d b e p i c k e d up b y a s i m p l e  a r e a c c e s s i b l e t o most p e o p l e ,  a r e much m o r e  The o b s e r v a t i o n s  feasible  take place i n  The s u b j e c t s a r e n o t s u b j e c t e d t o p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  o t h e r more r e a c t i v e a p p r o a c h e s . remain " i n v i s i b l e "  approach.  i n the p u b l i c places which  observation techniques  u s e t h a n i n some o t h e r p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t s .  a natural setting.  f o r deter-  I f t h e answers t o a r e s e a r c h problem a r e  S i n c e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n has t o be conducted  to  facili-  a r e b e i n g used, i n what ways, and a t what times c a n  by one p e r s o n  very r e l i a b l e  i n the existing  I f handled  i n the surroundings  correctly,  or "hidden"  the observers  should  among t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o r  spectators. A c a s u a l , and u n f o r m a l i z e d o b s e r v a t i o n p r o c e s s It  does n o t r e q u i r e h i g h l a b o u r i n v o l v e m e n t  i s very  or cost.  flexible  What i t f a i l s  a d a t a c o l l e c t i o n d e v i c e i s m o r e t h a n made up b y i t s s i m p l i c i t y  to use. t o do a s  and e f f e c t -  iveness i n obtaining valuable information. The  lack of r e l i a b i l i t y  shortcoming will  observe  of these  resulting  techniques.  from random o b s e r v a t i o n i s a m a j o r  I t i s not l i k e l y  a n d r e c o r d t h e same e v e n t s  t h a t two s e p a r a t e  i n t h e same way.  However, o b s e r v a -  t i o n s may become a t l e a s t somewhat s y s t e m a t i c b y e s t a b l i s h i n g that are followed i n the f i e l d .  observers  formal  procedures  104 S i m i l a r l y , because of the non-standard are not  generally useful for statistical  t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s u s u a l l y c a n n o t be to  less  formal observations.  a n a l y z a b l e r e s u l t s by  way  the data are c o l l e c t e d ,  treatment.  established.  T h i s means t h a t q u a n t i t a This factor  I t i s p o s s i b l e to produce  employing  they  more f o r m a l i z e d and  i s only  related  statistically  structured observation  techniques. G e n e r a l l y o b s e r v e r s must w a i t p a s s i v e l y f o r o c c u r r e n c e s . i s p o s s i b l e that p a r t i c u l a r events in  the time  The  i n w h i c h t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d may  span d u r i n g which they a r e o b s e r v i n g .  l o s s of i n t e r e s t  i n t h e s u b j e c t may  affect  general l i m i t a t i o n s of f i e l d  undertaken  thus, the d i f f i c u l t i e s  a r e viewed by d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e , Group  As  the data  planning technique, o f t h e r e s u l t s and  a r e s u l t , boredom  Much o f what t h e o b s e r v e r  are  does i s not  severe.  i t i s a technique  by  technique;  i t is a  f o r developing a constituency i n  support  of the government t h a t engages i n t h i s k i n d  some a s a l o g i c a l  of  participants,  i m p l i c a t i o n of a theory of  democracy  government.  G r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n may  work b e s t  aged i n terms o f f a c i l i t i e s and  differentiated  from other  i s needed i n t h e s y s t e m , and  i n an a r e a t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y  programmes, and  w i t h w h i c h t h e y h a v e some f a m i l i a r i t y As  are  o f team r e s e a r c h , i n w h i c h s e v e r a l s e t t i n g s  i s not j u s t a data c o l l e c t i o n  i n support  i t i s supported local  and  outcome.  p l a n n i n g , a n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programme o f some r e a l v a l u e f o r t h e  in  occur  interaction:  Group i n t e r a c t i o n  and  not  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a p p l y when t h e y  for social policy research.  codified;  In f a c t , i t  thus can l o o k t o o t h e r  areas  f o r i d e a s a b o u t what w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e .  t e c h n i q u e s , group i n t e r a c t i o n s e t s out  disadvant-  to suggest  identifies  what c o u l d be done t o  what improve  existing conditions. Because i t i n v i t e s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the o v e r a l l d e c i s i o n process,  105 r e l e v a n t and s i g n i f i c a n t priorities, level  and l e i s u r e needs o f t h e community.  Even a t a l e s s f o r m a l i z e d  through  useful ideas  about  improvements, i t c a n a l s o s e r v e as a forum f o r c i t i z e n s ' them t h e p l a n n e r s may b e a b l e t o know who i s n o t b e i n g  p r o p e r l y by t h e e x i s t i n g they a r e being l e f t it  i n terms o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s ,  than NIP, group i n t e r a c t i o n n o t o n l y can generate  neighborhood and  i d e a s may b e d e v e l o p e d  i s n o t always  supply of o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  out s h o u l d be p r e s e n t  so.  to express  T h o s e who a r e o l d , h a n d i c a p p e d ,  u s u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . problems i n group i n t e r a c t i o n i s t o g e t proper segment o f t h e community. more o u t s p o k e n  Ideally,  I t has been found  concerns,  served  t h o s e who f e e l  t h e i r concerns.  However,  and disadvantaged  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from  every  t h a t i n some n e i g h b o r h o o d s  certain  process.  c i t i z e n s v o t e on i s s u e s w i t h o u t  fully  u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h a t t h e y a c t u a l l y mean, o r a r e p r e s s u r e d i n t o m a k i n g  hasty  decisions.  i n which  do n o t  Thus one o f t h e m a j o r  p o p u l a t i o n groups were a b l e t o dominante t h e d e c i s i o n  There have a l s o been cases  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  o f t h e p l a n n e r s a n d m o d e r a t o r s i s t o make  sure  t h a t t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s do n o t o c c u r . Group i n t e r a c t i o n may r a i s e u n w a r r a n t e d  can be r a t h e r c o n t r o v e r s i a l a t t i m e s . expectations i f not handled  approaches,  be t r e a t e d l i g h t l y .  dialectical  scanning  The p r o c e s s  properly.  A h i g h l e v e l and e x t e n s i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s c o s t l y , and cannot  i s also rather  H o w e v e r , some m o r e s t r u c t u r e d  and t h e d e l b e c q  t e c h n i q u e , do n o t r e q u i r e  as much r e s o u r c e s . Delphi The  technique:  d e l p h i technique  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s s t r u c t u r e d u t i l i z a t i o n o f  judgement and i n t u i t i o n i n f o r m u l a t i n g problem t e n c e on consensus,  outcomes, i t s l a c k o f i n s i s -  and i t s t o l e r a n c e f o r a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s .  it  i s a b l e t o e x p l o r e and expose u n d e r l y i n g judgement on v a r i o u s  At  t h e same t i m e , t h e a p p r o a c h  i s an e f f e c t i v e  that  technique  Similarly, topics.  i n correlating  106 judgements on a t o p i c w h i c h i s complex and d i v e r s i f i e d . P e r h a p s e v e n more i m p o r t a n t ,  d e l p h i tends  to eliminate discussion of  p o i n t s where agreement i s q u i c k l y f o r t h c o m i n g , o f extreme p o s i t i o n s i n an i t e r a t i v e The  technique  often reflects  d e c i s i o n s a r e made. disciplines,  and c o n c e n t r a t e  series of probing  the r e a l  By i n v o l v i n g p e o p l e  i t i s p o s s i b l e to develop  life  on e l u c i d a t i o n  statements  situations  and  responses.  i n which p u b l i c  f r o m d i f f e r e n t b a c k g r o u n d s and  a range of a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s t h a t  a r e r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e p e o p l e who h a v e p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n the  study. It  i s extremely  v a l u a b l e i n terms o f g a i n i n g u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n  a short period of time. experience  I n many i n s t a n c e s , i t a l s o s e r v e s a s a l e a r n i n g  f o r t h e p l a y e r s , a n e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h may n o t h a v e b e e n  achieved  otherwise. Delphi i s significant  fori t s relatively  p r o j e c t i n g f u t u r e t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes. and  inter-relationships.  and n o r m a t i v e  positions,  on f o r v a l i d a t i o n . reasonably  Because t h i s  I t can a l s o d e a l w i t h p o l i c y  involves both  I t can d e a l w i t h problems r e l a t e d  than other p l a n n i n g techniques.  designed  of this  results.  t w e n t y i t e m s becomes s o  fall, off rapidly.  However, I f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s interests  method.  to lead to useless  l o s e i n t e r e s t d u r i n g the p r o c e s s , and t o f i n d a replacement  the r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t and have d i r e c t  t o depend  t o t h e s e i s s u e s more  on t h e s u c c e s s  A t h r e e o r f o u r r o u n d d e l p h i w i t h more t h a n  i s not always p o s s i b l e .  evidence  The c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e m o n i t o r i n g  a n d a d m i n i s t e r e d games a r e l i k e l y  wearisome t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n and thought  options  technological forecasts  t h e r e c a n b e no r e a l e x p e r i m e n t a l  team o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h a s a g r e a t i m p a c t Badly  satisfactory capability for  Participants f o r panel  are closely  may  members  related to  i n t h e outcome, they  will  l i k e l y b e more e a g e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e . As w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s ,  t h e r e a r e r e s e a r c h problems such  as b i a s i n g  107 effects, difficulty  i n phrasing  and r e p h r a s i n g  answers, and t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' i n a b i l i t y problems. and  to conceptualize  Fortunately, the d e l p h i technique  incomplete  the universe of  has c o n s i d e r a b l e  f e e d b a c k t e n d s t o p i c k up m i s h a n d l e d i s s u e s i n p r e c e d i n g  reducing  flexibility, rounds,  questionnaire:  In general, survey understanding  questionnaires  can p l a y an a c t i v e p a r t i n e n r i c h i n g  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s  environmental  a number o f human r e s p o n s e s i f p r o p e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n  s e t t i n g s and  to the formula-  tion of questions  and t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ' s e f f e c t on t h e r e s p o n d e n t s .  provides  degree of accuracy  a higher  techniques  and r e l i a b i l i t y  than other  i fcarefully controlled.  the technique  by  This  technique  opportun-  i s an  t o o l f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e reasons f o r non-use o f c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s  directly  gathering  Similarly,  c o u l d be used t o determine t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f l e i s u r e  such as l o c a l p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s .  effective  It  empirical  V e r b a l r e s p o n s e s a r e good i n d i c a t i o n s o f l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s .  ities  thereby  errors.  Survey  our  of responses,  a p p r o a c h i n g p o t e n t i a l and e x i s t i n g u s e r s .  l o c a l residents' opinions  a wider population  than other  I t i s also useful f o r  on f u t u r e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s  techniques.  from  Assuming that t h e i s s u e s a r e  s p e c i f i c a n d c l o s e t o home, m o s t r e s i d e n t s a r e u s u a l l y g o o d j u d g e s o f t h e i r own r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l In this p a r t i c u l a r  c o n s t r a i n t s i fthe technique  i s used  form o f r e s e a r c h , heavy r e l i a n c e i s p l a c e d  well.  on v e r b a l  r e p o r t s from t h e s u b j e c t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s t i m u l i o r experiences which they these  a r e exposed and f o r knowledge o f t h e i r b e h a v i o r .  v e r b a l r e p o r t s , however, has o f t e n been q u e s t i o n e d  P e o p l e may b e r e l u c t a n t t o r e p o r t o p e n l y  their beliefs,  p l a n s , a n d s o o n ; o r t h e y may b e u n a b l e t o do s o . the q u a l i t a t i v e aspects  of behavior  to  The v a l i d i t y o f  by r e s e a r c h e r s . feelings,  Surveys cannot  or i t s dimensionality.  motivations, determine  108 People b a s i s , and  t e n d t o r a t i o n a l i z e d e c i s i o n s t h a t t h e y h a v e made on a n one  cannot  expect  irrational  t h a t p e o p l e know e x a c t l y w h a t t h e y d e s i r e .  e v e n a s s u m i n g t h a t p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d r e a l l y know t h e i r own willing  to express  themselves  u n r e s e r v e d l y , t h e y may  desired  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the simple reason  still  m i n d s and  But  are  not f u r n i s h  t h a t they misunderstand  the  what i s  wanted. R e s p o n d e n t s may  be  reluctant  t o d i s c u s s an i s s u e e i t h e r b e c a u s e  they  p e r c e i v e i t a s a t h r e a t t o t h e i r p r i v a c y , o r t h a t t h e y s i m p l y h a v e no  idea  about the s u b j e c t m a t t e r .  will  tell  Furthermore,  t h e t r u t h a b o u t t h e i r w a n t s and Surveys  one  cannot  dislikes  assume t h a t p e o p l e  e v e n i f t h e y know them.  do n o t a l l o w f o r d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , m e a s u r e m e n t , and  of the ongoing  processes.  This technique i s a l s o not very u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n on c l i e n t n e e d s when t h e c l i e n t t o p o p u l a t i o n s a m p l i n g must n o t be Finally,  i s unknown.  of c o n s t r a i n t s .  behavior.  related  in their  well  usage.  games:  t r a d e - o f f gaming approach  m u s t g i v e up  problems  t o o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s , as  as t h e t e c h n i c a l c o m p l e x i t i e s , a r e m a j o r d i s a d v a n t a g e s  The  The  underrated.  the h i g h cost of surveys r e l a t i v e  Trade-off  analysis  Since trade-offs  something  Furthermore,  attempts  to s i m u l a t e b e h a v i o r i n the  involve constrained c h o i c e — t h e  to get something  respondent  e l s e — g a m e s tend to approximate  s i n c e t r a d e - o f f p r e f e r e n c e s can be  elicited  face  normal  i n con-  j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , t h e trade-off  c h o i c e s n e e d n o t be  c o n f i n e d t o t h e p r e s e n t day w o r l d o r c u r r e n t  e v e n t s ; they can address u n f u l f i l l e d  preferences or explore the  respondents'  view of f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Tables  2 and  3 on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s p r e s e n t b r o a d ,  of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the d i f f e r e n t data c o l l e c t i o n both  technical  ( t a b l e 2) a n d  conceptual  descriptive  summaries  t e c h n i q u e s i n terms  ( t a b l e 3) c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  The  of  ^"v.  TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS  COST  DOCUMENTED DATA  LOW  ACCURACY & RELIABILITY  FLEXIBILITY OF USE  OTHER TECHNICAL PROBLEMS  POOR  VERY F L E X I B L E  FEW  QUITE F L E X I B L E  FEW  TECHNIQUES  SECONDARY  EXPERT INFORMANTS  MODERATE  GOOD  OBSERVATION  FORMAL  HIGH  GOOD  FLEXIBLE  TECHNIQUES  CASUAL  LOW  FAIR  VERY F L E X I B L E  VERY FEW  VERY HIGH  VERY GOOD  QUITE F L E X I B L E  MODERATE  LOW  FAIR  VERY F L E X I B L E  VERY FEW  DATA  GROUP  INTERACTION  EXTENSIVE  DIALECTICAL SCANNING  DELBECQ TECHNIQUE  MODERATE  GOOD  MODERATE  VERY GOOD  SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE  HIGH  VERY GOOD  TRADE-OFF GAMES  HIGH  D E L P H I TECHNIQUE  GOOD  INFLEXIBLE  QUITE I N F L E X I B L E  MANY  MODERATE  FEW  VERY  INFLEXIBLE  MANY  VERY  INFLEXIBLE  FEW  ^""•^CONSCIEDPETRUATLIONS ASENSEMDESNT OPSOURPTLUYNITIEOSF PRECFOEGRNEINTCIVSE PRFOUJTEUCRTEIONS TSECHONIDQAUREYS DOCUDAM—TEANTED POR FAIR POR:. POR DATA IENFXOPEMRATNTS F A I R G O D F A I R G O D OBSERVATION FORMAL GOD GOD FAIR POR TECHNIQUES CASUAL POR FAIR FAIR POR GROUP DEIXATLENCSTIVCEAL EXCELENT EXCELENT GOD GOD INTERACTION SCANG FAIR POR FAIR POR DTELCBHENCIQUE GOD FAIR FAIR FAIR DELPHI TECHNIQUE EXCEGLOEDNT GGOODD GGOODD EXPCOELRENT SURVEY QUESTIONAIRE GOD FAIR EXCELENT GOD TRADE-OF GAMES  Ill comparisons a r e intended  o n l y as rough i n d i c a t i o n s as i t i s necessary  assume q u i t e g e n e r a l o r t y p i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e u t i l i z a t i o n niques.  As such,  the information contained  i n these  to  of these  tech-  tables should only  serve  as a p r e l i m i n a r y g u i d e l i n e t o r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f u s e f u l approaches to  a p a r t i c u l a r problem i n a p a r t i c u l a r  s e t o f c o s t and o t h e r  constraints.  Summary The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e all  t h a t no o n e t e c h n i q u e  suffer serious disadvantages.  planners nique  i s b e t t e r than others as they  F o r problems t h a t a r e n o t w e l l d e f i n e d , t h e  o r r e s e a r c h e r s s h o u l d a t t h e o u t s e t u s e t h e most i n e x p e n s i v e  forinvestigation.  or three techniques following chapter  I n many c a s e s  i tappears that a combination  s h o u l d be used t o g a t h e r  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n needed.  techo f two In the  a s e q u e n t i a l s t r a t e g y based on these f i n d i n g s w i l l be p r o -  posed f o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g  purposes.  112 CHAPTER V I I I CONCLUSIONS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  Introduction P r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s h a v e shown t h a t e a c h t e c h n i q u e and  limitations.  While  some o f them may  of d a t a needed.  Similarly,  not  merits  others  f u n c t i o n as w e l l w i t h  some t e c h n i q u e s  meeting c e r t a i n r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s than o t h e r s . c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m t h e f i n d i n g s and  i t s own  have an a d v a n t a g e o v e r  t e r m s o f t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e y may to the types  has  regard  a r e more c a p a b l e  This chapter presents  recommends a s e q u e n t i a l s t r a t e g y f o r  s e l e c t i o n of u s e f u l data c o l l e c t i o n techniques  in  of  the the  i n recreation planning.  Conclusions The  use  o f a v a i l a b l e d a t a has  of q u a n t i t a t i v e data r o u t i n e l y  the advantage of employing  collected  of u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f t e n hidden private institutions.  The  f o r any  t o be  and  one  sources  individual  of secondary  trick  i n every  in files  community.  conversant  A m a s s i v e amount  of government, s e m i - p u b l i c ,  i s t o d i s c o v e r them.  fully  a large variety  While  i t i s not p o s s i b l e  w i t h the range of  d a t a , r e s e a r c h e r s m u s t be  at least  and  publication  familiar with  the  common s o u r c e s . Intelligent, and  e a r l y use  o f e x p e r t s as  organizations with valuable data.  I n t h e same way  oriented  r e s e a r c h e r needs c o l l e a g u e s and  n e v e r be  p u b l i s h e d , o r may  completed,  be  i n f o r m a n t s may  access  identify  as a n  academically  to research reports which  published years a f t e r  t h e s t u d y has  p o l i c y r e s e a r c h e r s need r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e persons  t h a t c o l l e c t and  process  descriptive  individuals  may  been and  agencies  data.  I n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h , t h e e m p h a s i s s h o u l d be  on  the development of  a  113 less  f o r m a l i z e d and  c a s u a l form of o b s e r v a t i o n technique.  t h a t t h e d a t a f r o m t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s be ever,  t h e y must be  able to present  I t i s not  necessary  a b s o l u t e l y r e l i a b l e or v a l i d .  a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n about t h e . l e v e l  e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the extent to which the f a c i l i t i e s being u t i l i z e d , affect  and  the s o c i a l ,  leisure choices.  as i n t h e c a s e  How-  p h y s i c a l , and  environmental  of  are  conditions that  I f the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n s a r e extreme enough,  of a h i g h degree of non-use of l o c a l p a r k s , i t should  p o s s i b l e t o d e t e c t by u s i n g s i m p l e o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . c o n d i t i o n s a r e l e s s e x t r e m e , c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n c a n and  such  be  Even i f the  does r e v e a l v i t a l  i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the s o c i a l - i n t e r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s  in leisure  activities. The:'involvement of c i t i z e n s planners  are l i k e l y  i n l o c a l p l a n n i n g has  many m e r i t s .  t o o b t a i n more u s e f u l i d e a s f o r t h e w o r k t h e y d o ,  c i t i z e n s are able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n process. technique  a l s o runs  the i n h e r e n t r i s k of r e s u l t i n g  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the.'views t h e community. of s o c i a l , how  The  e t h n i c , and  be  p l a n n e r s , however, must be  gaming and  research approaches. improvement.  on  l e i s u r e n e e d s and  and  variety  f a s t r u l e as  fail  t o show any  to  that  results.  f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  to r e c r u i t  d e l p h i techniques  Consequently,  Trade-off  to a wide  i t i s not unforeseeable  g r o u p may  over-  resources  i n n o v a t i v e , p e r s i s t e n t , open-minded, i m a g i n a t i v e ,  s e n s i t i v e i n t h e i r attempts Trade-off  ity  In fact,  ,.efforts to reach a s p e c i f i c  o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , and be and  T h e r e i s no h a r d  obtained.  this  most v o c a l groups i n  t h e r e f o r e , to reach out  income groups.  However,  and  i n findings that are  o f t h e b e s t o r g a n i z e d and  I t i s necessary,  t h i s o b j e c t i v e may  repeated  The  citizens  into  are both  there i s s t i l l  the planning  fairly  new  process.  as e m p i r i c a l  p l e n t y o f room f o r f u r t h e r  games a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r . . . d e t e r m i n i n g commun-  consumer p r e f e r e n c e s  for various f a c i l i t i e s .  the other hand, i s v a l u a b l e i n making f u t u r e p r o j e c t i o n s .  To be  Delphi, truly  114 e f f e c t i v e , however, t h e y must b o t h be r e l a t e d and b e r e a l i s t i c on r e a l  life  about t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s .  situations,  satisfaction  Since t h e i r assessment i s based  t h e i n d i v i d u a l s must be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h r e a l  s t r a i n t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . d i v e r s e i n scope,  to a s p e c i f i c s e t of concerns,  con-  W h i l e t h e number o f c h o i c e s i n r e c r e a t i o n a r e  t h e b e h a v i o r s c a n be grouped a c c o r d i n g t o t h e k i n d o f  they produce.  F o r example, i f s a i l i n g  much t h e same s a t i s f a c t i o n a s g o i n g h i k i n g as one t y p e o f a c t i v i t y  i n t r a d e - o f f games.  and b i c y c l i n g r e s u l t i n  or skiing,  they s h o u l d be  presented  By t h e same t o k e n , t h e d e l p h i  t e c h n i q u e w o u l d f u n c t i o n w e l l i f an e x i s t i n g p a n e l i s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t , and where r e s e a r c h e r s f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e t e c h n i q u e a r e a v a i l a b l e as r e s o u r c e persons. Researchers  a r e o f t e n tempted t o use t h e survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e  approaches  a s t h e means o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a s t h e y a r e t h e m o s t w i d e l y a c c e p t e d , a n d t h e resulting statistical  figures  ( e v e n t h o u g h t h e y may n o t b e a b s o l u t e l y  or r e l i a b l e ) a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p r e s s i v e . used  I f this  p r o p e r l y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r must be v e r y s p e c i f i c  the study.  Other  than conducting a survey j u s t  they must be a b l e t o d e l i n e a t e c l e a r l y A s much a s p o s s i b l e , matter  pertaining  tool for projecting  t e c h n i q u e i s t o be .  about t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f  f o r t h e sake of doing  it,  the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t they a r e seeking.  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d  to the study.  valid  to the subject  S i n c e i t i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l as a  i n t o t h e f u t u r e , i t s h o u l d o n l y be employed t o e x p l o r e  the a c t u a l behavior of the respondents.  Questions  t i o n s and t o p i c s u n f a m i l i a r t o t h e s u b j e c t s must be  that deal with speculaavoided.  Recommendat i o n s Different  techniques have d i f f e r e n t  qualities  from o t h e r s .  Therefore,  t h e r e a r e two p o i n t s t h a t m u s t b e k e p t i n m i n d when d i s c u s s i n g a s t r a t e g y for s e l e c t i n g useful data c o l l e c t i o n  techniques f o r use i n r e c r e a t i o n research.  115 First,  a combination  of techniques  weaknesses o f o t h e r s .  Using  can balance  s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s may b e d e s i r a b l e i n many  instances because of low c o s t , f l e x i b i l i t y , impacts.  s t r e n g t h s o f one a g a i n s t  and l e s s e r e t h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l  H o w e v e r , t h e y a r e a l s o r a t h e r l i m i t e d a s a means o f a s s e s s i n g  l e i s u r e needs, e v a l u a t i n g t h e supply of o p p o r t u n i t i e s , o r determining the users' cognitive preferences. other hand, i s capable inflexible, and  scanning  considerations.  i n determining  inflexible  questionnaire technique,  implications.  have s i m i l a r good q u a l i t i e s  Casual  i n terms o f t e c h n i c a l  and d e f i c i e n c i e s  However, i t i s t h e o n l y t e c h n i q u e the cognitive preferences  other  i n the current  T h e t r a d e - o f f g a m i n g t e c h n i q u e may b e r a t h e r  w i t h a h i g h degree of accuracy,  costly,  observations  seem t o c o m p l e m e n t e a c h  r e c r e a t i o n requirements  to use.  on t h e  these issues but i s a l s o r a t h e r  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e y  leisure services. and  of addressing  a n d h a s much g r e a t e r e t h i c a l  dialectical  well  The s u r v e y  expensive  t h a t can measure, of different  users.  On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e may n o t b e a b l e t o r e f l e c t why r e c r e a t i o n c h o i c e s a r e made, o r w h a t a r e t h e m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s f o r choosing  them, b u t i t n o n e t h e l e s s  conducted p r o p e r l y .  produces very r e l i a b l e b e h a v i o r a l data i f  I t i s also adaptable  Second, t h e r e l a t i v e  t o many  situations.  importance o f each c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s determined by  the purposes o f t h e p l a n n i n g study.  Since the choice of techniques f o r  studying urban p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i s l i m i t e d by the a v a i l a b l e s k i l l , time, funds, vital  and by t h e s c o p e and n a t u r e  of the data requirements,  f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e d n t r i n s i c  each technique. technique  t h e most e x p e n s i v e  one, f o l l o w e d by survey  whereas documented d a t a , c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , o r d i a l e c t i c a l rather inexpensive and  survey  to use.  questionnaires  E x t e n s i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n ,  i t i s  qualities of  I n terms o f c o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , e x t e n s i v e group  i s probably  manpower,  interaction questionnaires,  scanning  the delphi  are a l l technique,  a r e a l l a b l e t o produce a c c u r a t e and r e l i a b l e  116 information.  S u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d t r a d e - o f f games a r e b o t h v e r y  i b l e , but secondary use  sources  and c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n a r e h i g h l y a d a p t a b l e .  i n needs assessment, both  technique  can y i e l d  assessing the supply  results,  Dialectical  and b o t h  scanning  documented d a t a and c a s u a l  i s certainly not very u s e f u l f o r  of l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , b u t e x t e n s i v e group  may m e e t t h i s o b j e c t i v e w e l l .  Trade-off  t h a t c a n n o t b e met b y u s i n g d o c u m e n t e d d a t a .  d e l p h i technique sources,  are a l l very l i m i t e d  and  over  scanning,  f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r purpose.  the other,  F i n a l l y , the  and s u r v e y  secondary  questionnaire  The d e s i r a b i l i t y  t h e o t h e r , t h e r e f o r e , i s e n t i r e l y up t o i n d i v i d u a l  o f one circumstances  t h e judgement o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . Having  indicates  said  t h a t , h o w e v e r , t h e k n o w l e d g e we h a v e g a i n e d  t h a t there i s a p o s s i b l e format  overall strategy to recreation studies.  from t h i s  study  t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s might f o l l o w as an I t i s not intended  o f o t h e r more i n n o v a t i v e o r i m a g i n a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s . be  over  i s u n i q u e l y adapted t o f u t u r e p r o j e c t i o n , whereas  casual observations, d i a l e c t i c a l  technique  interaction  games a r e e x c e l l e n t f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  s u b j e c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n c h o i c e s , o r why u s e r s p r e f e r o n e f a c i l i t y a requirement  For  e x t e n s i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n and t h e d e l p h i  significant  o b s e r v a t i o n a r e poor.  inflex-  Rather,  t o be e x c l u s i v e i tshould  only  a p p l i e d as a g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e t o s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s .  A strategy proposal f o r s e l e c t i o n of techniques and r e s e a r c h It  i s suggested  techniques  sequentially,  inexpensive. investigate  that i n general the best  In this  s t a r t i n g w i t h those  i n recreation planning  strategy w i l l  be t o choose  t h a t a r e most f l e x i b l e and  s t r a t e g y t h e r e s u l t s o f each stage s h o u l d be used t o  the options f o r the next  s t a g e , by d e f i n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s  that  need t o be answered and t h e p r o b a b l e v a l u e o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by alternative The  techniques.  first  stage  s h o u l d be u s e o f secondary  s o u r c e s , documented  data  117 and  i n f o r m a n t s , because of the low  C a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n and are r e l a t i v e l y out  dialectical  i n e x p e n s i v e and  c o s t and  flexibility  f l e x i b l e and h a v e t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f  s t a g e s h o u l d d e f i n e d a t a n e e d s and  permits informed  judgement about w h i c h ,  techniques are a p p r o p r i a t e or necessary The  s t r e n g t h s of the survey  into  ties.  i f any,  o f t h e more  f o r the planning  rounding The  outcome  i n a form  that  sophisticated  purposes.  and: i d e n t i f i e s  charac-  o f n o n - u s e r s as w e l l as u s e r s o f l o c a l p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i -  statements  of p r e f e r e n c e s .  a c c u r a t e usage d a t a . implementation  their  they  questionnaire technique are that i t gives a  T r a d e - o f f games do w h a t o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s  defined.  focus.  research constraints  comprehensive p i c t u r e of present r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s teristics  techniques.  s c a n n i n g s h o u l d be u s e d n e x t b e c a u s e  the d a t a r e q u i r e d to b r i n g the r e s e a r c h purposes  of t h i s  of these  The  function.  C o n t r o l l e d observations are capable  Delbecq  i s a technique  t h a t i s u s e d -to  d e l p h i t e c h n i q u e can e x p l o r e l i k e l y f o r present d e c i s i o n s .  a planning technique i n which  However, i t n e c e s s a r i l y  o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , and d e l b e c q and  in eliciting of  realistic  producing  investigate  problems once a d e s i r a b l e program o r s p e c i f i c p l a n has  implications  is basically  cannot,  dialectical  Full  c a n e a s i l y and  changes i n the f u t u r e ,  scale citizen  and  participation  data c o l l e c t i o n i s a  i n v o l v e s use  been  secondary  o f i n f o r m a n t s and  casual  i n e x p e n s i v e l y accommodate  delphi,  scanning.  Summary With  t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e k n o w l e d g e and  t h e recommended p r o c e d u r e ,  from going  through  t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r w i l l be m o r e c a p a b l e  s e l e c t i n g a technique, or a combination to a p a r t i c u l a r need.  i n s i g h t s gained  of t e c h n i q u e s , t h a t a r e most  of  suitable  P l a n n e r s w i l l b e more c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r a p p r o a c h  h a v e a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e on w h a t t h e y w o u l d l i k e more i m p o r t a n t , t h e y a r e l e s s l i k e l y  to l e a r n from  and  the study.  to f a c e the dilemma of h a v i n g a  bundle  But  118 of u s e l e s s , i r r e l e v a n t , are  completed.  and  insignificant information  after  the  projects  119 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Anderson,  Nels.  The  Hobo.  Chicago:  U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press.  B a c k s t r o m , C h a r l e s H., a n d H u r s h , G e r a l d D. University Press. 1963.  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R e a d i n g , Mass.: Addison-Wesley. 1969.  APPENDIX I  —"—~~~~  ,.  -1-  RILEY PARK SOCIAL NEEDS QUESTIONNAIRE I'D LIKE TO START OUT BY ASKING YOU SOME VERY GENERAL QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS COMMUNITY.  INITIAL QUESTIONS; 1) What do you l i k e about l i v i n g i n t h i s neighborhood?  2) What don't you l i k e about l i v i n g i n t h i s  '  neighborhood?  3) How long have you lived at t h i s address?  _____  4) Where was the last place you l i v e d before you moved here?  RECREATION; NOW I'D LIKE TO ASK YOU SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR RECREATION AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES. 1) What do you do i n your free time?  2) Where do you and your friends get together? OTHER  EACH OTHER'S HOMES  ;  • •• • •  3) Do you know your neighbors?  a) ( I f no) Would you l i k e to know them?  YES  YES  b) ( I f no) Is there any s p e c i a l reason why not?  NO  NO  SOME  DON'T KNOW  DON'T CARE  YES  NO .,' (GO TO #4)  c) (If yes) How well do you know them?  VISIT THEM  JUST TO SAY HELLO  OTHER d) Would you l i k e to know them better?  4) Do you have any p a r t i c u l a r hobbies?  YES  NO  YES  DON'T KNOW  NO  DON'T  CAES  DON'T KNOW  a) ( I f yes) What are they?  b) Would you l i k e to get together with other people who have the same hobbies? YES  5) Do you think the l o c a l schoolyards YES  NO  DON'T KNOW  should be open f o r general community use? NO  DON'T KNOW  a) ( I f yes) For what a c t i v i t i e s ?  6) Do you think the l o c a l school buildings school hours? YES NO  should be open f o r community use a f t e r DON'T KNOW  a) ( I f yes) For what a c t i v i t i e s ?  7) Do you go to a park?  a) ( I f yes) Which ones?  YES  NO  :  USED TO  KIDS DO  -3—  b) Any others?  '  (If only Stanley Park or Queen E l i z a b e t h or any other outside t h i s area go to #8) c) Why do you use t h i s park?  d) Are there any improvements you would l i k e to see made to (name the park): Park  |  ;  .  "  Improvements  Park  : Improvements  • —  ••  > •——-— (GC TC  #9)  8) Why don't you use a park i n t h i s area?  9) Do you use the Riley Park Community Centre?  a)  YES  NO  USED TO  KIDS DO  (If no) Why don't you?  (GO TO # 10) b)  (If yes) How often do you use i t ?  c) What programs or a c t i v i t i e s do you p a r t i c i p a t e i n there?  10) Do you use the Percy Norman Pool there?  a) (If yes) How often?  YES  NO  USED TO  KIDS DO  127  128 -4- • b) Are there any special programs you p a r t i c i p a t e i n there?  YES  NO  c) ( I f no) Why don't you?  11) Do you use the Ice Rink at the Community Centre?  YES  NO  USED TO  KIDS DO  YES  NO  a) ( I f yes) About how often?  b) Are there any s p e c i a l programs you p a r t i c i p a t e i n there?  c) ( i f no) Why don't you?  12) What a d d i t i o n a l programs or a c t i v i t i e s would you l i k e to see added to the R i l e y Park Community Centre? DON'T KNOW  a) Would you p a r t i c i p a t e i n them?  13) Do you use the Mt. Pleasant Community Centre?  YES  YES  NO  NO  • • :'; DON'T KNOW  USED TO  a) ( I f yes) What programs or a c t i v i t i e s do you p a r t i c i p a t e i n there?_  b) ( I f no) Why don't you?  KIDS DO  14) Are there any other recreational a c t i v i t i e s you p a r t i c i p a t e in?  15) Is there any recreational a c t i v i t y you would l i k e to do now YES  NO  but cannot?  DON'T KNOW  a) ( I f yes) What a c t i v i t i e s and why can't you?  16) What recreational and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s would you l i k e to see added to t h i s community as a whole?  17) Are there any other comments you would l i k e to make about recreation?  SHOPPING: NOW I'D LIKE TO ASK YOU A FEW QUESTIONS ABOUT SHOPPING. 1) About how many times within the l a s t week d i d you shop on Main S t , between 16th a  n  d  3  7  t  h  ?  0  3-5  . 1-2  6+  a) ( I f 0) Why didn't you shop there? (GO TO #2) b) ( I f 1 or more times) What services or stores d i d you use there?  SUPERMARKET HARDWARE  CORNER GROCERY STORE AUTOMOTIVE  BUTCHERS  APPLIANCES  HOUSEWARES  RESTAURANT  DELICATESSEN CLOTHING  DRUGSTORE BANK  LAUNDRY  APPENDIX I I This i s a questionnaire to f i n d out what the idents of R i l e y Park see as the needs of, the area. r e s u l t s w i l l help the N.I.P. Committee spend 9 M i l l i o n to improve the R i l e y Park community, ase help us by answering the questions below.  \  I  The R i l e y Park C i t i z e n s ' Planning Committee has come up with the f o l l o w i n g l i s t of suggestions f o r improving the R i l e y Park area. Please read the l i s t below and put the number of the one suggestion you want MOST-here- I I . Put the number of the one suggestion you want LEAST-here- j j . I | Because of money and other l i m i t a t i o n s only about 12 suggestions can be done. Check Q the 6 you DO NOT WANT.  • • • • • • • • • • • D  • • • • • • •  1. 2.  More r e c r e a t i o n a l space f o r s e n i o r citizens..  3.  More space f o r community, c u l t u r a l and family oriented a c t i v i t i e s .  4.  Improvements to school b u i l d i n g s and grounds.  5.  Lower cost c h i l d care. .  .,;<..  6. 7. 8. 9.  More parking around shopping area, parks, e t c . Reduce t r a f f i c on Main S t r e e t and other s t r e e t s .  10.  Improvements to shopping  area on Main S t r e e t .  11.  More programs to deal with s o c i a l problems (e.g. job t r a i n i n g and placement, etc.)  12.  Improvement i n programs and space f o r youth.  13.  Reduce vandalism and crime committed by youth.  14. 15. of  the area and f i n d ways of s o l v i n g them.  16.  Improve R i l e y Park's image i n the C i t y , (e.g. community events, etc.)  17.  A library.  18.  Improved access to emergency s e r v i c e s .  I f you have any other suggestions please w r i t e them here:  130  II  HOUSING | "f''up to 3 items that you would li:;e to see w i t h i n  From the l i s t below check four blocks o f your home:  f~i  Older housing restored  r*|  New s i n g l e family housing  ~l  Some small m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y housing  l~l  L e g a l i z a t i o n o f secondary s u i t e s  n  Clean up o f back yards, lanes & general street l i t t e r  f l  In the l a r g e r neighbourhood - improve housing i n the L i t t l e Mountain Housing P r o j e c t  Ill'  (Check.  /homeowner  I am a r e n t e r  s  131  one) .  PARKS AND RECREATION Which park do you l i v e c l o s e s t to? (Check __\ H i l l c r e s t Park n  J__r"one) :  __ R i l e y Park  Prince Edward Park  C a r t i e r Park f~l Don't know  How o f t e n do you p e r s o n a l l y use t h i s park? n  Daily  (Check  ~ f * one):  _ ) Less than once a week  [_] At l e a s t once a week  f~1 Never  How often doyour c h i l d r e n use i t ? (Check  "one) :  __\ No Children  __] D a i l y  £_jLess than once a week  __| At l e a s t once a week  j " ! Never  ^ Check  Q"up  to 3 items that would make t h i s park more usable to you & your f~l Benches  l~i  n  r*1  Trees  family:  P i c n i c tables Restrooms Change rooms  l~l  Playground  D  F i e l d sports f a c i l i t i e s ( i . e . b a s e b a l l diamond)  O  Dryer grounds ( i . e . b e t t e r drainage)  P"l Tennis court/horseshoe p i t c h  L_  Better  •  L"_  Less garbage  Other  lighting  Would you l i k e a park c l o s e r to your home? _____ Yes _____ No Qfor  children  __J f o r teens  L_ f o r f a m i l i e s  __] f o r seniors  Do you think the R i l e y Park Community Centre b u i l d i n g needs p h y s i c a l improvements? Yes  IV  , No  Don 1 1  know  COMMERCIAL How many times d i d you shop on Main S t r e e t l a s t week? ( C i r c l e one): 0  1-2  3-5  6 o r more  Check {_Y" the suggestions below which i n your o p i n i o n would MOST make Main S t r e e t a n i c e r place to shop: l~l More v a r i e t y o f stores  O  O  Less truck t r a f f i c  C_ Stores  (HI  More customer parking  {__ More courteous s e r v i c e  0  Other  (_] A cleaner s t r e e t  Trees planted  & sidewalks  improved  painted & awnings put up  V  SCHOOLS Check  which school i s c l o s e s t to you:  {"I  Livingstone  0  General Wolfe  L_T*the  Check  VI  P^*  132  _ ] General Brock  Y—  Brock Annex  C SCHOOL  suggestions below you would MOST l i k e to see:  0  Schools open f o r community use (night c l a s s e s , c r a f t workshops, l i b r a r y , etc.)  I"! [~|  Improvement Improvement  U  Other '  a a  to grounds to i n t e r i o r  GENERAL  "  What do you l i k e most about the R i l e y Park community  What do you l i k e l e a s t abcut the R i l e y Park community  Have you heard of the Neighbourhood Improvement Area before? Yes _____ No  VII  Program (N.I.P.) i n the R i l e y Park  INFORMATION ABOUT INDIVIDUAL FILLING OUT QUESTIONNAIRE I"! Female  [_] Male  How many years have you l i v e d i n the R i l e y Park community? Ages of members of f a m i l y : Head of Household Spouse ( i f any) C h i l d r e n ( i f any)  ,  Other People ( i f any) Family Income (Check  I ^  ,_ ,  one):  •  Under $7,000  •  $13,000 - $16,000  •  $7,000 - $10,000  •  $16,000 - $20,000  •  $10,000 - $13,000  Country of B i r t h  ;  •  $20,000 - $25,000  D  Over $25,000  \  The ideas that the C i t i z e n s ' Planning Committee have put together w i l l come through the m a i l i n about two weeks, and w i l l be discussed at two P u b l i c Meetings: JUNB 8th - 7:30 P.M. JUNE 9th - 7:30 P.M.  - SIR CHARLES TUPPER HIGH SCHOOL - GENERAL BROCK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  WE HOPE TO SEE YOU THERE. ! 1  /^^J^k»K  ^0°  ^  ft  ^  y  Schedule  Number  • SCREASINC VOUR INCOME (Choose a s many s i n g l e h o u r B as y o u  A R E S E A R C H STUDY OF LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES OF U R B A N RESIDENTS  1,  wish)  B r i n g i n g work home or working overtime on the Job  (Third Modification)  A P r o j e c t o f the C e n t e r f o r U r b a n and R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s U n i v e r s i t y of N o r t h C a r o l i n a a t Chapel H i l l  (Choose by f o u r - h o u r  2, INSTRUCTIONS  of  t o days  Sat.  M  T  W  Th  r~n~T~T r r m  rrm  mm  F  I I  I  rrrn m m  I  V  I  I I I  I  I  morning  I I  I  |  afternoon  I  mm  (Choose as many s i n g l e h o u r s a s y o u 3,  .vmn,  X  W  5j  The a s t e r i s k o r s t a r (*) by some c h o i c e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t these a r c t h i n g s w h i c h you may want t o do r e g u l a r l y , but n o t e v e r y week. I n these c a s e s , you may average the time you would spend on them, as l o n g as y o u do not d i v i d e whole h o u r s . For example, g o i n g to c h u r c h i s a two hour c h o i c e , b u t I f you would o n l y go to c h u r c h e v e r y second o r t h i r d week, you may put a s i n g l e hour on t h i s c h o i c e . You w i l l n o t i c e t h a t the s h e e t has e i g h t p a n e l s formed by the f o l d s t o the game s h e e t , e a c h c o n t a i n i n g one o r two major groups of a c t i v i t y . You may f i n d I t h e l p f u l t o l o o k t h e s e o v e r b e f o r e y o u s t a r t making c h o L c e s . You 6hould make y o u r c h o i c e s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r e s e n t age l e v e l s o f f a m i l y members and y o u r p r e s e n t Income c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Lay y o u r staxtps on t h e boxes I n ' a p p r o p r i a t e numbers, and a f t e r you a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h your c h o i c e s , pastBthem I n .  Other a c t i v i t i e s such as • • • •  T h e r e a r e a few r u l e s we a s k y o u t o o b s e r v e . You have t o spend the f u l l amount o f time shown f o r any c h o i c e shown. Some c h o i c e s c a l l f o r f o u r hours ( f o u r stamps) , some three-, some two, some s i n g l e h o u r s . We ask you t o spend the f u l l amount I n d i c a t e d f o r each c h o i c e you make. T h u s , i t I s agaln9t the r u l e s to put down one stamp In a p l a c e jwhere a f o u r - h o u r , t h r e e - h o u r , o r a two-hour s t r i p I s c a l l e d f o r .  M Q —  (moonlighting)  Sun.  M i l l  the week d i s t r i b u t e d , s a y , as f o l l o w s )  Job  (Use a s many s t r i p s o f f o u r h o u r s as y o u w i s h , b u t y o u m u s t f i l l a n e n t i r e s t r i p w i t h stamps)  I n t h i s game we a r e b o r r o w i n g the t r a d e stamp i d e a -- the g r e e n stamps t h a t m e r c h a n t s g i v e you when you a r e b u y i n g s o m e t h i n g . However, we w i l l use b l a c k stamps. You w i l l p a s t e i n y o u r s u p p l y o f stamps i n t h e boxes shown a c c o r d i n g t o the way you would l i k e t o spend y o u r spare t i m e . Assume t h a t d u r i n g the next 7-day week, a f t e r s u b t r a c t i n g o u t the time taken up i n s l e e p , w o r k , m e a l s , g r o c e r y s h o p p i n g , d o c t o r s ' v i s i t s and s i m i l a r n e c e s s i t i e s , you have a t o t a l of _ _ _ _ _ _ hours ( t o be f i l l e d i n i>y I n t e r v i e w e r ) t o use a s y o u Bee f i t f o r any o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s you w i s h t o choose on the o t h e r s i d e o f this sheet. Y o u r stamp s u p p l y c o r r e s p o n d s  A second  strips)  t o i n c r e a s e income  t a k i n g care of r e n t a l property watching s t o c k market p r i c e s e a r n i n g Income f r o m some hobby m i l i t a r y reserve, n a t i o n a l guard, e t c .  ( C h o o s e by 4.  Job-related a c t i v i t i e s (attending u n i o n or p r o f e s s i o n a l m e e t i n g s , Job t r a i n i n g , n i g h t courses to learn new o c c u p a t i o n , e t c . .  two-hour  strips)  wish)  THINGS WITH FAMILY IMFROVINC YOURSELF BY FURTHER EDUCATION BR ADDING TO YOUR DEVELOPMENT IN OTHER WAYS  1.  (Choose by three-hour s t r t r i )  Night c l a s s e s not connected With Jab .  I  (Throe hours set aside per evening Includes study and- time g e t t i n g to and from c l a s s . Choose one or two . evenings per week)  J I / A  l  vL  l  I  I  I  (Chosfe as oany slr.r,lc t.o»rs »» you Wi$h)  A c t i v i t i e s around home with c h i l d r e n or grandchildren  1.  ( p l a y i n g games, helping w i t h homework, teaching or helping w i t h sewing, woodworking, e t c . )  I , L  (Choose by three-hour s t r i p s )  (Choose by two-hour s c r i p s ) *2.  A t t e n d i n g evening or midweek church s e r v i c e s , meetings, c i r c l e s , c h o i r p r a c t i c e o r other church-sponsored a c t i v i t i e s  *3.  T r i p w i t h c h i l d r e n or grandchildren to l i b r a r y , movies, zoo, f a i r , c i r c u s , e t c .  2.  ^^^^^ ^^^^^  ^^^^^  Browsing In l i b r a r y , a t t e n d i n g l e c t u r e , going to a museum, a r t g a l l e r y , symphony, e t c .  *3.  Family outing ( p i c n i c , etc.)  (Choose by four-hour s t r i p s )  (Choose by three-hour s t r i p s ) *4.  Taking part In l i t t l e t h e a t e r , symphony o r c h e s t r a , o p e r e t t a , i n t e r p r e t a t i v e dance, e t c .  (Choose by two-hour s t r i p s )  (Use f u l l two hours)  *5.  (Choose as many s i n g l e hours as you wish)  strips)  5.  Telephoning or w r i t i n g l e t t e r s to RELATIVES  Acting, painting, writing, composing, p l a y i n g an I n strument, s i n g i n g , e t c .  (Choose by two-hour s t r i p s )  (Choose as many s i n g l e hours aa you wish) 7.  Taking a family d r i v e i n the c a r  A t t e n d i n g r e g u l a r Sunday church s e r v i c e s (Choose by two-iiour  6.  *4.  6. V i s i t i n g w i t h RELATIVES  Taking a correspondence course or f o l l o w i n g your own program o f study  ( s p e c i f y other)  8.  ( s p e c i f y other)  SOCIAL  ACTIVITIES (Choose as eia.-iy s i n g l e h o u r s a s you w i s h )  t.  I I C M A T I O S AND RELAXATION A.  Telephoning or writing letters t o FRIENDS  1.  Relaxing, napping, looking through paper o r magazine  2.  W a t c h i n g TV or l i s t e n i n g to radio  3.  Reading book, playing musical Instrument, singing, listening to r e c o r d s ( f o r relaxation)  4.  Hobbies such as g a r d e n i n g , sewing, c r a f t s , woodworking, b i r d watching  , 2.  I  j  i  i  i  V i s i t i n g In the neighborhood  (Choose b y two-hour *3.  ( C h o c s c as ratty s i n g l e h o u r s a s y s u w i s h )  Indlvldua 1 A c t i v i t y  strips)  S o c i a l I t l n g i n y o u r house o r f r i e n d ' s house. ( G e t t i n g together f o r coffee, going to a t e a , c o c k t a i l p a r t y , e t c . ) (Choose by f o u r - h o u r s t r i p s )  *4.  E v e n i n g a t f r i e n d s ' house ( d i n n e r and v i s i t i n g , p o s s i b l y playing cards) , OR e n t e r t a i n i n g f r i e n d s a t y o u r house f o r e v e n i n g  *5.  C c t t i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h boys (poker, b u l l session, e t c . ) OR g e t t i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h g i r l i ( b r i d g e , hen p a r t y , e t c . ) '  *6.  S q u a r e d a n c i n g o r o t h e r community dance, p i c n i c , supper and s i m i l a r s o c i a l s  1  B.  I n d i v i d u a l or Shared 5.  Activity  Walking, s t r o l l i n g or window s h o p p i n g ( j u s t looking)  (Choose a s many s i n g l e h o u r s as y o u w i s h )  (Choose by three-hour s t r i p s ) 7.  8.  Spendlr.8 a n a f t e r n o o n o r evening a t the c l u b  ' (specify other)  *6.  Movies  *7»  Going to a p l a y , band concert, e t c .  m  I-I  *8.  Evening out ( d i n n e r , dance, dropping i n a t night spots) .  *6.  (Choose a s many s i n g l e h o u r s a s y o u w i s h ) 9.  10.  D r i v i n g around, stopping a t d r l v e - l n , dropping i n f o r a beer,e t c .  (specify  *7.  8.  other)'  Going t o b a s e b a l l , f o u t h j l l , basketb a l l game, h o c k e y game, e t c .  "Going t o f i g h t s , races, tennis matches, g o l f tournaments  ' (specify other recreation or sports)  RECREATION AND RELAXATION (CONT.) C.  Active Recreation & Sports  1.  (Choose a s many s i n g l e h o u r s a s y o u w i s h )  Scrub b a l l , p l a y i n g catch, shooting baskets, passing U k i c k i n g f o o t b a l l , horseshoes (Choose by t w o - h r u r  *2.  (Choose b y two-hour *1.  C l u b s f o r h o b b l e s &. s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s (garden c l u b , alumni c l u b s , c r a f t s , e t c . )  *2.  Veterans o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e i r a u x i l i a r i e s , D.A.R., a n d o t h e r p a t r i o t i c groups)  *3.  Groups i n t e r e s t e d i n advancement o f human o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e (peace, economic o p p o r t u n i t y , human r i g h t s , e t c . )  *U.  A t t e n d i n g meetings o f c i v i c c l u b (Rotary, A l t r u s a , etc.) or f r a t e r n a l group o r i t s a u x i l i a r y (Mason, E a s t e r n S t a r , E l k s , P.O.E., etc.)  strips)  I n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s s u c h as h a n d b a l l , squash, bowling  (Choose  3.  CLUB AND ORGANIZATIONAL A C T I V I T I E S  as many s i n g l e h o u r s a s y o u w i s h )  W o r k o u t i n gym, t r a c k , Judo, w r e s t l i n g , boxing (Choose by t h r e e - h o u r s t r i p s Seasonal sports--stamps can r e f e r t o s e v e r a l s p o r t s a c c o r d i n g to season. Check s p o r t s y o u a r e c h o o s i n g  •  Coif  l~I  Golf  _  [~"|  Tennis  •  Swiping  P l a y i n g o n a team ( s o f t b a l l , bowling,! other)  Boating, w  a  t  e  r  s  k  lncl. U  n  g  Skating  X f - l n g  S. (specify other)  strips)  137  /  SERVICE AND C I V I C AFFAIRS A C T I V I T I E S (Choose *1.  2.  H e l p i n g o u t on o c c a s i o n a l w o r t h y p r o j e c t s ( f u n d - r a i s i n g , s u c h as U n i t e d Fund, L i t t l e League, f i x i n g up t o y s , e t c . )  by two-hour  I  I  Regular v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e (Scouts 1 and s i m i l a r young p e o p l e ' s a c t i v i t i e s ; I hospital a u x i l i a r y ; remedial reading I for c h i l d r e n of deprived f a m i l i e s , e t c , ) _ (Choose  *3.  *4.  5.  *6.  strips)  C i v i c i n t e r e s t a c t i v i t i e s (League o f Women V o t e r s , Good G o v e r n m e n t , N e i g h b o r h o o d Improvement A s s o c i a t i o n , Taxpayers League, e t c . )  P o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s (campaigning, p r e c i n c t work, v o l u n t e e r time a t party headquarters, etc.)  Running f c r o f f i c e and s e r v i n g term i n e l e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s ( n o t . a s f u l l - time j o b )  S e r v i n g on a p p o i n t i v e c i t y , c o u n t y , or s t a t e b o a r d s , commissions, . a d v i s o r y committees (not as a full-time job)  7. (specify  other)  OTHER A C T I V I T I E S NOT ELSEWHERE COVERED  (specify  type)  (specify  type)  by t h r e e - h o u r s t r i p s )  I  l  l  

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