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Spiritual sacrifice in George Herbert’s The Temple Paschold, Steven Recce 1978

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SPIRITUAL. SACRIFICE IK GEORGE HERBERT'S THE TEMPLE STEVES. RECCE E ASC HOLD B..A..* U_fcers.i.t3_ of. B r i t i s h . Calumbia,. 197.if, A. THESIS SUBMITTED. IK PARTIAL. FULFILLMENT. OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (^Department, of. English); We. accept, t h i s t h e s i s as: conforming; to the required standard. THE UlIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,, 1978! c ) Stefcen. Recce Paschold,. 1978; In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of English.  The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date i i ABSTRACT. This t h e s i s discusses the theme, of. s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e i _ George Herbert's The Temple» l i t terms of poetic: content,, the study mainly assesses the r e l a t i v e importance, f o r Herbert of. three q u a l i t i e s o£ s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e — repentance,, dedication,, and praise — and. exa-mines the significance, o f Gnrist's: S a c r i f i c e and; the r o l e o.f. the heart im s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e . . Although Herbert *s "Dedication."' to h i s work suggests that each, poem, i s a s a c r i -fice,, the study seeks to: show, how,, i n addition to content,, several, poems, i n their- combination, of language and form demonstrate, the s a c r i f i c i a l , act itself:.. Along, with a treat>-ment, of t h i s theme, discussion of the poems reveals the way i n which motifs and images of s a c r i f i c e , recur, i n many poems.-Chapter. One considers the sanctions and s t i p u l a -t i o n s of o f f e r i n g s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s and the nature of the s a c r i f i c e s themselves, through a study of Old and Hew. Testament, s c r i p t u r e . A sampling of homiletic and. exegeti-c a l sources e s p e c i a l l y contemporary to Herbert, points out the prophetic and t y p o l o g i c a l concerns r e l e v a n t to the sub-j e c t . Chapter Two begins the study of Herbert's poetry with, am e x p l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t , several poems,; with, p a r t i -c u l a r attention paid to the way i n which "The S a c r i f i c e " provides a f o c a l point, f o r the poems which, follow... Chap-ter Three surveys a s e l e c t i o n of poems scattered throughout The Temple which s p e c i f i c a l l y use the language and. imagery o f s a c r i f i c e . -i i i T h is study of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e i n the poetry concludes that, divine ministry i n i t i a t e s and provides a s s i s -tance i n the o f f e r i n g of the s a c r i f i c e s , , and that the s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e s a r i s e from a heart; dealt with by the S p i r i t of. God.. S a c r i f i c e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y express the poetas; sense of dedication, and praise,, along with, repentance. Although these q u a l i t i e s receive varying emphases i n the poetry,, as a general premise i t can. he said. that. sin. must be confessed and a sense of fellowship with God restored before expressions of dedication and praise can properly and acceptably be o f f e r e d . Some poems in. t h e i r combination of. language and form demonstrate or suggest the s a c r i f i c i a l act i t s e l f , 3 p a r t i c u l a r l y regarding the "pattern."' in, which s a c r i f i c i a l q u a l i t i e s are considered.. As: a. general conclu-sion s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e expresses a way i n which the Christian, responds to the reception of divine Love and Grace. The o f f e r i n g of, s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s should and does con s t i t u t e a regular a c t i v i t y i n the l i f e of the t y p i c a l b e l i e v e r . ix-TABLE OF CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION........ ...... ... ... . . I CHAPTER ONE S p i r i t u a l . S a c r i f i c e i n B i b l i c a l and- Seventeenth-Century Sources. ........ •.•.»•*-• ........»»•... ............... 6 CHAPTER' TWO S p i r i t u a l S a c r i f i c e and the S a c r i f i c e of Christ..............30 CHAPTER THREE S p i r i t u a l ; S a c r i f i c e and the H e a r t . . 6 8 CONCLU SIONf • — * ^  • fi£ BIBLIQiG™!^.^^ ........93 1 INTRODUCTION George Herbert opens h i s Temple with the prayer,, "Lord, my f i r s t f r u i t s present:, themselves to tiiee, ; / Yet mot, mine neither: f o r from thee they came, / And must return. Accept; of. them and: me".* While Christian, devo-t i o n a l poetry considers, the reception of God's Love and Grace, i t also, deals with the giving: or return of some-thing to God*. Herbert, dedicates both h i s poetry and himself, and uses the language of s a c r i f i c e to i n d i c a t e the idea of: g i v i n g to God.- I t i s t h i s idea,, and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the theme of s a c r i f i c e , which w i l l be examined: i n t h i s study. The thesis, p r i m a r i l y sets out; to discuss poems, mainly from. The Church section of The Temple, which use the language or theme of s a c r i f i c e in. order to convey the importance of C h r i s t i a n b e l i e v e r s ' response to God's Love and ben e f i t s , and of seeking to restore or maintain: ^ sense of communion; with Him., In. addition, to consider-ing, s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e , the t h e s i s also attempts to analyze, poems whose language, and form combine to suggest or demonstrate the s a c r i f i c i a l act. i t s e l f . Generally speaking,, every poem i n The Temple i s a s a c r i f i c e i n s o f a r as i t seeks communion with God.. The poems, discassei. in; this, t h e s i s focus upon one of three s a c r i f i c i a l q u a l i t i e s . . By means, of " s a c r i f i c e s of repentance" Herbert, confesses h i s si n s and shortcomings and seeks, to restore a sense of. the presence of God within h i s l i f e . - When, he f e e l s a restoration; to favour he o f f e r s " s a c r i f i c e s of dedication."* to devote himself and h i s posses-2 sions. and returns some of the love which, he has received from God., Wit&- ^ s a c r i f i c e s of, praise"* he offers; thanksgiv-in g and generally; celebrates the factv of, h i s redemption, and expresses h i s Joy i n having received so many b e n e f i t s from the hand of God.. The t h e s i s examines the nature of. the s a c r i f i c e s , andv.points, out, combinations of, q u a l i t i e s , as they occur, in. i n d i v i d u a l poems. The study also focuses upon the heart; both as s a c r i f i c e and place of s a c r i f i c e . Along with a consideration of the theme of s a c r i f i c e , the study w i l l seek to show something of The Temple's unity by examining the way in>. which, s a c r i f i c i a l motifs, and images recur, in. various poems. A. study of the subject, must begin, with the ques-t i o n asked, by a preacher contemporary with Herbert, "whether there be any s a c r i f i c e s to bee; offered by Christians, under the Gospell or no?."; He answers that Christ's; S a c r i f i c e has once for a l l atoned, f o r man.!]s sins; however, "as yo,u have heard that a l l C h r i s t i a n s are s p i r i t u a l l P r i e s t s , so 2 they have s p i r i t u a l l . s a c r i f i c e s to o f f e r unto. God." S t a r t -i n g from this, premise t h a t s a c r i f i c e s should indeed be offered by; C h r i s t i a n s , Chapter One discusses the nature of these s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s thro ugh a. survey, of Old and New Testa-ment scripture., ami. a sampling of. sermons and; commentaries^ about, the subject. Chapter. Two a p p l i e s conclusions, of the foregoing study to Herbert,'*© poetry,, and examines the poems, i n order from "The Church^ porch", through. "Antiphon (I;)." This method proceeds from, a study of. the key poems "The Altar"- and "The S a c r i f i c e " which s i g n i f i c a n t l y influence 3 a l l the other poems of The. Temple but p a r t i c u l a r l y those which immediately follow. In. "The Altar"' Herbert establishes;, a basis f o r the o f f e r i n g of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s i n terms o f the heart , Js attitude,, and. i n "The Sa c r i f i c e ^ ' h e suggests the necessity;, of s p i r i t u a l l y i d e n t i f y i n g with Christ's. S a c r i f i c e i n order f i r s t to a f f i r m the fact of personal regeneration, so as to be able to o f f e r acceptable sacrifices.. Two sequences of. poems immediately following; "The A l t a r " and "The S a c r i f i c e " ; focus, upon, the S a c r i f i c e of C h r i s t , r e s p e c t i v e l y i n terms of what God has provided f o r man, and in. terms o f man's response to God's Love and Grace. Along with the f i r s t two dozen poems of The Temple. t h i s chapter seeks p r i m a r i l y to show the importance of a, proper understanding of and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with. C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e as a basis for maturing i n the Christian,, faith, and o f f e r i n g s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s , as expressed i n remaining poems of the? work,, excluding "The Church. M i l i t a n t . " Chapter Three surveys some ten poems which i n various ways e x p l i c i t l y use the language and imagery of s a c r i f i c e . . As the discus-sion o;f the poems i n Chapter Two proceeds from "The S a c r i f i c e " * so here the p r i n c i p l e s of "The A l t a r " influence a reading of these s a c r i f i c i a l poems.. The study considers the r o l e of the heart, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t symbolizes the o f f e r i n g of s e l f to God. Chapter Three concerns i t s e l f more with, the s a c r i f i c i a l q u a l i t i e s of dedication and praise than. with. that, o f repentance emphasized in. Chapter Two.. Interest i n the subject of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e k f o r t h i s t h e s i s in1 t i a l l y began withi J o l _ R* Mulder. , ls sugges-3 tiionr t h a t more work, needed to he done i n r e l a t i n g : B i b l i c a l typology to the work of: early seventeenth-century poets. General reading; i a the area o f typology, and l i t e r a r y i t c r i t i c i s m . of. the period led. f i r s t - to studies of Herbert • s use of; s a c r i f i c i a l m o t i f s and; images• and then, to a focus upon, the actual concern, with, the nature, and! types of. s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e * But: no single book or. a r t i c l e directly, i n -fluences the approach:, content,; or' format, o f the present study,, although, reference should be made to two works which have given some d i r e c t i o n to the examination of. s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e i n Herbert 'a poetry.. Salcocfe Mackenzie Rose discusses s a c r i f i c e , im r e l a t i o n to the Eucharist,; a\ f i e l d ; of. investigation, not treated here J*" Rossi contends,; however* t h a t i n Herbert , !s poetry the Eucharistic. symbol, of. s a c r i f i c e no longer e n t i r e l y r e f e r s to an objective,; factual,,, communal a c t i v i t y but begins to be used to denote personal s p i r i t u a l experience*. I n a study of devotional poetry o.f the periods Miriam: Starkman more generally suggests that, symbols f o r the most p a r t teach doctrine and appeal, to orthodox, r e l i g i o u s s e n s i b i l i t y and as such stand, f o r a. donneV or a, common body, of. b e l i e f , although the use o f personal, symbols does, occur* TJtese. studies.^ though not d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n t i a l to t h i s thesis,: suggest further ways. ©•£ treating; s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e : i n Herbert'-s poetry* 5 FOOTNOTES 1 George Herbert, _he Works of, George Herbert, ed... E.E. Hutchinson. CI.94I; rpt.. Oxford:. Clarendon,, I964),. p. 5* A l l subsequent quotations are from t h i s edition., 2 John. Lewis;,, Me Ic h i z e de ehs Anti-type (London: Sicholas Okes for Richard Ihitakers,. 1624), p.- 33. 3 John R. Mulder, The temple of the Mind (Mew, Y,©rk.:. Pegasus, 19.69) * ch... C 4 Rosemond T u v e A Reading of George Herbert (Chicago: Univ.. of Chicago Press, 1952).. V.ictor H a r r i s , "Allegory to Analogy i n the Interpreta-tion, of Scripture®,"* P_», 45 (19661,, 3U-23> Robert K. Reiter, "On. B i b l i c a l Typology and the Interpretation of L i t e r a t u r e , " CE, 30 (1969)5,62-71., Joseph. A. Galdon., "Typology and Saveniteenth-Cltetury, Li-terature,^ M „ 26 0.9.66),, 7296 CColumbia),.. Barbara ML... Eewalski,, ^Typology, and Poetry:. Consideration of Herbert, ^ aughan, and Ma r v e l l , " in: I l l u s t r i o u s Evidence, ed. Earl. Miner (-Berkeley.and^: Eos :Angeles:: Univ.. bif C a l i f o r n i a Press,, 1975), pp. 41-46.; ' • " "Typological Symbolism and" the 'Progress of the Soul'* i n Seventeenth-Century L i t e r a t u r e , " in. L i t e r a r y Uses of Typology from the Late Middle Ages to  the Present., ed. Earl. Miner (Princeton.: Princeton iniv-.. Press, 1977), pp. 79 - H 4 . Sacvan B_rcovitch, ed., Typology and Early Ameri- can L i t e r a t u r e (Amherst: Univ. o f Massachusetts Press, 1972)- .:' -5 John David Walker, "The Ar c h i t e c t o n i c s of _BoaEge Herbert 'sEEe -emple. "ELH, XXIX (1962), 289-305. " .' : " Florence Sandler, "'Solomon, vbique regnet'-: Herbert's Use of; the Images: of the Hew. Ccvenant,,"* P_L,: V I I I (1972), 147-58.. 6 Malcolm Mackenzie Ross, Poetry and Dogma (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Univ. Press,. 1954) -7 Miriam K.. Starkman,. "Noble numbers and the Poetry of Devotion,."" i n Reason and the Imagination, ed. JJ.A., Mazzeo (New Xork: Columbia Uhdv... Press; London:. Routledge & Kegan Paul,. 1962), pp.. 1-27-6, CHAPTER OWE SPIRITUAL .SACRIFICE IN- BIBLICAL AND SEVENTEENTH^CENTURY SOURCES' A; study of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e i n the Bible re-veals a development from the early Old Testament l i t e r a l r i t u a l o f f e r i n g s through, prophetic teaching, on. the insufficien>-cy of- such, s a c r i f i c e s to the Mew Testament: t y p o l o g i c a l reinterpretation. of s a c r i f i c e . . As f a r as Herbert i s con-cerned,, interest, i n the subject, begins with the prophetic; view, that; s a c r i f i c e s of: the heart must, accompany the r i t u a l , o f f e r i n g s because they are more acceptable, to God than the l a t t e r s a c r i f i c e s . . The t y p o l o g i c a l view with i t s concern f o r the nature of. the C h r i s t i a n ' s s a c r i f i c e , ; or " s p i r i t u a l " s a c r i f i c e , provides the main focus, o-f attention f o r an exami-nation, of Herbert n&poetry.. A brief, h i s t o r i c a l survey of s c r i p t u r a l passages and. exegetical sources pr i m a r i l y from the seventeenth-century r e l e v a n t to Herbert's treatment: of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e follows in. this, chapter.. Repentance, dedication, and praise constitute three q u a l i t i e s of s a c r i f i c e found i n The Temple.. In. the r i c h texture, o f the poetry s a c r i f i c e comprises one of many integrated themes running through the work. Herbert and; his; contemporaries, t r e a t s a c r i f i c e in. a. h o l i s t i c manner without: analysing or c l a s s i f y i n g the various types of s a c r i -f i c e . Nevertheless, repentance,, dedication, and praise remain, three main. ways, of "giv i n g " i to Sod or responding, to the Love and Grace, which, the poet; has experienced i n h i s l i f e . The t y p o l o g i c a l concern, with Christ's; S a c r i f i c e as 7 a f o c a l point or sanction, for the o f f e r i n g of the C h r i s t i a n ' s s a c r i f i c e s forms a second consideration in, the study of s c r i p -t u r a l background i n t h i s chapter., Passages which teach the, f u l f i l l m e n t of Old Testament s a c r i f i c e s i n C h r i s t and the subsequent nature of the C h r i s t i a n a s introduce discussions of the poetry in. Chapter Two.. Without f o r c i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s , , i t can,, be said that, aspects of repentance,, dedication,,, and praise are subsumed within each; s a c r i f i c e , whether i t be l i t e r a l , , prophetic,., or t y p o l o g i c a l . Eo. .specific: formula from s c r i p t u r e can be imposed upon. Herbert, but there seems to be a general pat-tern. i»OBceyHingvthe o f f e r i n g of C h r i s t i a n sacrifices,,; a p a t t e r n which;.X;Lrs,t finds; expression, i n the Old Tjestament.. Fellowship with Sod. i s broken or hampered by sin. and must be restored or renewed by repentance.. The dedication of, one"s: self: to>,, Goid1. and, true h e a r t - f e l t expressions of praise, c o n s t i t u t e e f f i c a c i o u s s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s , only when, the o f f e r e r experiences a. sense of. restored fellowship and: com-munion with God.. I n C h r i s t i a n terms,; when, a b e l i e v e r i d e n t i f i e s with Gftrist.'-s S a c r i f i c e and appropriates the p r o p i t i a t o r y benefits, o f that. Sacrifice,, thus affirming, or renewing his, regeneration, he i s then able to o f f e r acceptable dedication, and praise to God. The. concern f o r these three main, charac-t e r i s t i c s of.: s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e , and: t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to> CHri s t ' s S a c r i f i c e constitute, a major, focus for t h i s chapter and the discussion, of Herbert's, poetry i n the chapters; which., follow. The. s a c r i f i c e s of. the Old Testament. L e v i t i c a l law can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three types. The most important 8 i s the expiatory s i n - Q i f . f e r i n g or trespass offering,,, outlined i n Numbers 28 and 29V — i s s a c r i f i c e was o f f e r e d at such appointed times as; the new moon,, the Feasts; C,of Passover, Pentecost, Trumpets, and Tabernacles), and on the Great Day of Atonement (Lev. 16)., Because- of, sdn,. the Covenant between man. and God had been, broken,- and the shed blood of the s i n - o f f e r i n g , provided the means-, for r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s Covenant.. In Christian, terms,, the s i n - o f f e r i n g , together with, the other L e v i i l e a l sacrifices.,, could never provide t o t a l remission of sin. Ccf. Heb. 10:lf,: 11)., The s a c r i f i c e s were e f f e c t u a l t y p o l o g i c a l l y in., that they "looked ahead" to. Christ.., His death, provided the supreme s a c r i f i c e which completed and r a t i f i e d a l l e a r l i e r legal), s a c r i f i c e s * The second type of s a c r i f i c e is. the burnt offering; which, among other things, emphasizes. " ^•dedication.. The. priest; presented these s a c r i f i c e s , on. the Sabbath (JKJunu. 28:.9-10),. and; at, the great, f e s t i v a l s . (Num.. 28:11 - 29::39:).. The whole victim.;., was; offered to God, thus representing.the s a c r i f i c e r ' s giv.-ing. of h i s t o t a l being, body, and soul.. In. i t s dedicatory aspects,, t h i s s a c r i f i c e provided, a kind of type of the Chris-tianas " l i v i n g s a c r i f i c e " proscribed in. Roman® 12:1., Indeed the. burnt, o f f e r i n g emphasized the " l i v i n g " nature of s a c r i -f i c e because,, unlike p r o p i t i a t o r y s a c r i f i c e s , , the death of the victim: ^ as seen as i n c i d e n t a l to the dedication, of the o f f e r e r to God. A. third, type o f s a c r i f i c e , the peace offering, or meat, offering,, was: e u c h a r i s t i c in. nature and purpose.. Presented d a i l y along, with the b.urnt,-of,f.ering.s 9 (Exod.. 29:40-41) ». Gin. s p e c i a l occasions of, the Sabbath and at. the great, f e s t i v a l s (Num.. 28.,, 29) and, most, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , , as f i r s t - f r u i t , offerings, at Passover (Lev., 23:10-14).,, at. Pentecost (Lev. 23:17-20),, and at, harvest time (Sum.. 15: 20-21, Deut. 26:1-11), these s a c r i f i c e s represented the o f f e r e r ' s thanksgiving to God for. His; benefits,, and served to maintain the Covenant conceived as. already established.. The peace offering, (Lev... J>1 was. seen i n terms; of. a symbolic; s a c r i f i c i a l banquet i n which, the people offered to God a meal comprised of His; best g i f t s ; of food. The occasion of: this' actual banquet was almost always a jpyous one. (Deut. 12:7»> 12,, 18). f o r the people were, expressing, a sense of. r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p with Gad.. E x p l i c i t correlations: o f the charac-t e r i s t i c s : of. expiation,, self--dedication., and,, praise, with the three types of s a c r i f i c e cannot be considered held by tEohn Buckeridge, John _ewis, ; Thomas Adams*, and, D a n i e l Eeatley,;. the seventeenth-century h o m i l i s t s quoted or. referred: to. in. t h i s survey. These preachers no doubt, believed that the q u a l i t i e s : were; subsumed w i t h i n each s a c r i f i c e . , _e.t the emphases have, significance, i n t h e i r t y p o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n -ship with the propitiatory. S a c r i f i c e of Christ, and the repentance,, dedication,^ and praise, which, characterize, the, s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s of C h r i s t i a n s * Some o f the Old Testament, prophets consider the l i t e r a l s a c r i f i c e s : of. the early Old Teatament to be. i n s u f -f i c i e n t as f a r as God's requirements: are concerned.. These writers; speak of. a number o f s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e s , which are to> Be. o f f e r e d to God along, with the l i t e r a l s a c r i f i c e s . . 10. In, a d d i t i o n to. 1. Samuel 15*-22. and. Micah. 6::6-8:,; the group of passages: includes Isaiah 1:10-20,. Jeremiah 7:22-23* E z e k i e l 20:,39-44;>. Hosea 6:4-6, and Amos. 5:21-27, as w e l l as Psalms 40:6-11* 50:13-14,, 51:16^17 •• Although, these pas-sages, present, a var i e t y of views;,, the writers, agree t h a t the s p i r i t i n which the sacrifices:, are offered constitutes; a more, important s a c r i f i c e than, the l i t e r a l r i t u a l s themselves.. They place an. emphasis upon human, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and. proper moral behaviour as a means; of. p l e a s i n g God.. A; number of the prophetic passages,., p a r t i c u l a r l y 1 Samuel 15:;22,, deal with, the "better" s a c r i f i c e o f obedience. The Psalmist: i n 40:6.-10 states that, God does, not, desire the o f f e r i n g of l i t e r a l s a c r i f i c e s : , and. i n his; d e c o r a t i o n , to do. God's w i l l in; preaching, righteousness he. i n f e r s t h i s obedience.. The prophet in: Isaiah 1:10-20 warns that r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s are. not pleasing to God because, o f the s i n and e v i l prac-t i s e d by the people,, and adjures them, to wash, themselves, cease to do e v i l , and perform good deeds of. justice,, judge-ment.,; and mercy. The key. verse of: the passage (il9j),:»> corollary-to I Samuel. 15.: 22,, states, " i f ye be w i l l i n g , and obedient., ye s h a l l eat, the good of the land."- Jeremiah. 7:22-23 sug-gests t h a t obeying God i s a, distinguishing, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of, the, people o f God... Once the I s r a e l i t e s had become Sod's chosen, people i t was. expected t h a t 4hey would obey Him (JDeut., 27-9-10).. The, moral and e t h i c a l s a c r i f i c e s are noted io. Hosea 6i-4r6^ and: KLcah. 6:,6?-8,. The former passage desires "mercy and not s a c r i f i c e " and r i g h t judgement toward others 11 (quorted by J.esus, in. Matthew 9:13,. 12:7)., as well as the s a c r i f i c e , of manifesting a knowledge of God so as not to s i n w i l l f u l l y . Micah asserts,, "what, doth the Lord: require of thee, but to do justly,, and to love mercy,, and to walk humbly with thy God.."' Although humility may appear to have a more devotional, than moral connotation,; i t i s i n any case grounds; for. dealing, r i g h t l y with, others.. The. a c c e p t a b i l i t y of. j u s t i c e and proper judgement, i s seen also, i n such, passages as; Proverbs 21:23 and 24.:12, as well as Jeremiah 21:12 and. 22::3* and, Zechariah ?:9». These, prophetic, scriptures,, i n t h e i r emphaais; upon ministering; to others rather than, minister-in g d i r e c t l y to God:, r e l a t e to the moral precepts; enjoined by Herbert, in. "The Ghurcht-por.ch."3 In. t h i s respect,, s a c r i -f i c e s are twice s p e c i f i c a l l y spoken of i n that. poem.. There, are numerous prophetic passages i n which the writer states, unequivocally that, r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s w i l l not be. accepted, because, of the sin; and e v i l behaviour, of the people.. Two. such, passages are E z e k i e l 20:39 and Amos 5:21-27 where the prophets state that; because, the people are serving other gods (.e.g. Moloch, Chi urn — Amos, 5"26.). as well as Jiehov.ah,. as conditions stand,, God.will. not. even accept the songs; and music which should n a t u r a l l y accompany the peace o f f e r i n g s of thanksgiving.. But when, a right, relation? ship exists, between man and God, the s a c r i f i c e s of thanksgiving are more e f f i c a c i o u s than the r i t u a l o f f e r i n g s (Es. 50:13-14» 69:30-3D» e s p e c i a l l y as God a c t u a l l y has no need of. these offerings; (cf;., Deut*. 10:14,, Ps. 24.:1)..- These passages re-1 2 late to the premise of the need, to repent of sin before dedicating oneself to God, or offering sacrifices of praise to Him. The typological, interpretation of sacrifice consti-tutes, the most, important, view for Herbert,, and an! understanding of the significance, of Christ's Sacrifice not only, informs a reading, of "The Sacrifice**, but. provides a theological, basis for the poet's; responses to that poem, in the poems which, immediately follow.. The latt e r half. of. the book, of Hebrews, particularly chapters 8 and 10,. contains teaching concerning the s a c r i f i c i a l nature of. Christ's death.. The Few Testament: gives a few scattered references to the con-cept. Mark. 1 0 : 4 5 speaks of Christ, coming to "give his l i f e a ransom for many"y, and: c a l l s His death a "propitiation"' (Rom. 3 : 2 5 , I. John 2 : 2 , 4:10).- More specifically He i s conceived, of as the "Lamb, of God"-, the antitype for the lamb slain in Mosaic. Passover observances axt4 the Mosaic. Eeast. of Passover (John 1 : 2 9 , 19 :36; II (Tor.. 5:7; I Pet. 1 : 1 9 ; Rev. 5 r 6 , , 1 2 , 1 3 : 8 ; cf.. Exod.. 1 2 : 3 , 4.6; Num. 9 : 12) , . . And, anticipating the scriptures in: Hebrews.,.. Ephesians 5 : 2 speaks of Christ as an "offering and a sacrifice to God. for a. sweet-smelling savour" (cf. fleb. 7:27). By the shedding of blood, the symbol of l i f e , Christ's Sacrifice satisfied the divine, requirements for expiation and propitiation, and His death, provided a complete and eternal remission for sins of. the past, and future.. As God, Christ.' s. sinlessness invested. His Sacrifice with efficacy, but, as a human, faced with and 13 experiencing the trial®, and temptations of mankind,. He was suited to intercede e f f e c t i v e l y on man's behalf, i n His r o l e of High. Priest.. Christ''s once for a l l s a c r i f i c e rendered the propitiation., e t e r n a l l y s u f f i c i e n t , and made His r o l e as mediator effective.. "By a new. and l i v i n g way,, which, he hath consecrated for us;,, through the v;eil, : that i s to say,; h i s flesh." (Heb. 10:20) He ushered i n the New Covenant of Grace. At the moment of C h r i s t ' s death, on the cross, the new. dispensation of. God's. Grace, was i n s t i t u t e d to. replace the old dispensation of Law.. The gospels (Matt.. 27:51,: Mark 15:38,. Luke 23:45) record the fact that: as a symbol of. t h i s change the v e i l i n the temple was rent, from the top to the bottom.. Henceforth, there would be no need for. a high, p r i e s t on; behalf o f the people to-, minister annually to God in. the Holy of Holies: Christ; Himself would become the b e l i e v e r s ' High. Priest.. During. His, earthly m inistry, He had p u b l i c l y referred, to; His: body as; a: temple which would be destroyed and r a i s e d again in. three days,, and. the dramatic i r o n i e s of. t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n are i n d i c a t e d i n Matthew. 26:61 and John 2:17-21.. The Hebrew, temple also finds, r e c a p i t u l a -t i o n , and. f u l f i l l m e n t , , with the start, of. the Church., i n the bodies of i n d i v i d u a l Christian, believers: who c o l l e c t i v e l y make up the s p i r i t u a l Body of. C h r i s t CI Cbr.. 3:16-17,. 61:19;, II. Cor.. .6:16; Eph.. 2:21-22)., These passages indicate, that, the. new " l i v i n g " temple i s holy because, i t i s the dwelling-place, of the S p i r i t * . As f a r as, s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e s are concerned,, the. Ik Ee.w Testament presents both the t y p o l o g i c a l and the Old Testament, prophetic view of the subject... I Peter 2:5»9 best, expresses, the former of. these views in. i t s sanction <•»£'. the idea that. C h r i s t i a n s are to o f f e r some type of. s p i r i -t u a l s a c r i f i c e to God.. Y.e also, as l i v e l y stones,, are b u i l t up a spirir-tual. house,, an holy priesthood,, to o f f e r up s p i r i t u a l sacrifices,,, acceptable to God; by Jesus Christ..... But ye are a. chosen, generation,, ai royal p r i e s t -hood, an, holy, nation, a. p e c u l i a r people; that ye should shew fort h the pra i s e s (or v i r t u e s — KJV. marg...) of, him who hath called, you out c f darkness: into his marvellous: li g h t . . This, passage metaphorically speaks; o:f. the nature o:f the Church and. the position, of the beli e v e r within i t , and sug-gests: the t y p o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with Old Testament b e l i e v e r s . The idea of. the priesthood o f believers, i s r e i t e r a t e d i n Revelation. 1:6,. 5:10* and 20:6... S p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s are here i d e n t i f i e d with a Ch r i s t i a n ' s way of l i f e which w i l l manifest the f a c t that, believers; belong, to Christ.. Where the Mew Testament speaks; elsewhere o:f. s a c r i f i c e , , the w r i t e r s allude or r e f e r to Old Testament prophetic; s c r i p t u r e s * C h r i s t Himself; quotes; passages; which, speak af. moral responsi-b i l i t y . . Two s c r i p t u r e s often quoted by Bible commentatorE,. including, those of. the early seventeenth-.century,, make: use of the prophetic, view, i n t h e i r treatment, of dedication and. praise... 1 beseech: you therefore,, brethren,, by the mercies of God,; that; ye present your bodies; a l i v i n g s a c r i -fice,, holy,, acceptable, unto God,, which is. your reasonable service (Rom. 12:1). By him therefore l e t us o f f e r the s a c r i f i c e of praise, to God c o n t i n u a l l y , that, is., the f r u i t o;f our l i p s giving, thanks to h i s name (Heh.. 13:15)• 15 The f i r s t s a c r i f i c e concerns; the dedication to se r v i c e of. the c h i l d of Sod.. That the s a c r i f i c e i s " l i v i n g * * suggests; that the " l i f e in. the blood"- p r i n c i p l e of the l i t e r a l s a c r i -f i c e i s operative here, but now. the • • l i f e " 5 i s ; perpetually provided, by the e f f i c a c i o u s blood of Christ,, the antitype of. a l l Iie.v-itie.al. animal s a c r i f i c e s . . The s p i r i t u a l / . s a c r i f i c e i s a "reasonable"- one,., and should constitute the normal, duty of. the b e l i e v e r , a r i s i n g o u l o f a sense of r i g h t re-l a t i o n s h i p with God,, and repeated frequently in. order to maintain the r e l a t i o n ship.. This, s a c r i f i c e , , along, with that, of praise i n the Hebrews passage,, refers; back, to the prophe-t i c appeal to the "better" 1 s a c r i f i c e o f the heart.. The. s a c r i f i c e of praise, i s by no means a s a c r i f i c e o f the Eew. Testament, alone.. Hosea. 14:2 spoke o f the "calves, of. our lips"', thus juxtaposing the idea of l i t e r a l s a c r i f i c e with that, of at-s p i r i . t u a l s a c r i f i c e of p r a i s e . As representative, o f many passages i n the. Psalms,, 50:14. exhorts, the worshipper, to. " o f f e r unto God thanksgiving. W i "The f r u i t of our l i p s " ' o f the. Raw. Testament passage suggests; the prophetic: view/ toward the f i r s t - f r u i t s ; of the L e v i t i c a l peace offering,,, as well as; the " f r u i t f u l " - ' manner of. l i v i n g expected of the people of cjod, and, e s p e c i a l l y expected of. the Mew Testament; b e l i e v e r s . Since, the verse follows the discussion of the ty p o l o g i c a l f u l f i l l m e n t , of C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e in. the preced-in'g chapters, o f Hebrews,, however, the s a c r i f i c e of t h i s verse is; one which can, be. considered p a r t i c u l a r l y important, te the teachings, o f the Mew, Testament.. Even though these 16 verses i n Romans and Hebrews suggest or r e l a t e back to the Qld. Testament idea that a.-spiritual s a c r i f i c e carries, more e f f i c a c y than a l i t e r a l s a c r i f i c e alone, the idea i s reinte r p r e t e d t y p o l o g i c a l l y D e d i c a t i o n : to God and. others and the expression, o f praise are c a r r i e d out in. andl through Christ.. It. i s ; by reference to and acceptance of. C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e t h a t New Testament s a c r i f i c e s , have any meaning.. The basic, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Christ, denotes the s t a r t i n g -point for , . discussing, <• / s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e in. Herbert's; poetry. Having emphasized the t y p o l o g i c a l character of. these,, Hew Testament, passages, i t should be noted that, the verses following Hebrews 13:15 echo. Old Testament prophetic teaching on, the p r a c t i c a l or moral r a m i f i c a t i o n s of s a c r i -f i c e . vVerse 16 exhorts, the b e l i e v e r to perform, good deeds,,, to d i s t r i b u t e to those, in. need,, and to be sociable ( c f • I Tim.. 6:18). Verse 17 speaks of obedience and submission to rulers,, and. this: v i r t u e of obedience i s seen, i n s c r i p -ture to be. a. very important q u a l i t y of. s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e . Prayer f o r others, i s enjoined i n verse 18, and the i d e a i s elaborated i n 1 Timothy 2:Ir-3», which states that supplica--t i o n s , prayers,; intercessions,, and thanksgiving should, be made for a l l , and e s p e c i a l l y for those i n authority.. Ear l y seventeenthr-century. Bible commentators did. not f a i l to i n -clude these ideas, i n t h e i r concepts of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e , and these verses again provide a, good, introduction, to the p r a c t i c a l side of. Herbert displayed i n "The Church-porch." 12 The. Hew Testament, speaks o f another kind of s p i r i -tual, s a c r i f i c e r e l a t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y to the idea of. the p r i e s t -hood of b e l i e v e r s found i n Ii Reter. The Body of C h r i s t or i n d i v i d u a l C h r i s t i a n s themselves constitute a s a c r i f i c e , . Roman's. 15:26> speaks of the redeemed Gentiles as offered up Cor s a c r i f i c e d — KJW marg.);,., being s a n c t i f i e d by the Holy Ghost.. II Corinthian® 2:15 denotes C h r i s t i a n s as. a "sweet, savour"' acceptable to God because they manifest the knowledge of. C h r i s t i n the world ( c f . Eph. 5:2). The second o f these verses provides the a l l u s i o n for Herbert's "The Odo.ur'%; discussed in. Chapter Three.. In. h i s poem Herbert-concerns; himself, with, manifesting. C h r i s t ' s knowledge not. by means of service to others i n the world i n the manner of Hebrews; 13'I6f f . , but through an, intimate, spoken expres.-s i a n of love — "My Master"* — directed s o l e l y to God. Many seventeenth-century sermons and commentaries could be c i t e d to show the importance for theologians of Old and lew. Testament; teaching, concerning, s p i r i t u a l s a c r i -f i c e . Such s i g n i f i c a n t passages as. I; Samuel 15:22, Rsalm. 51:17,. Romans 12': 1* I Reter 2:5,, and Hebrews 13:15 f i n d f r e -quent mention., or exposition i n such sources. A, representative survey of ideas, w i l l e f f e c t i v e l y help, to bridge the disc.us>-sion of s c r i p t u r e with t h a t of Herbert's poetry in. the next chapter*. Augustine, a favourite source for preachers of the early seventeenth-century, in. speaking of. s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e , i n The C i t y of God^ sees r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e s as 18 a sign of what, i s r e a l l y offered to God, whether moral or devotional... He. then emphasizes, the d i s t i n c t i o n between s p i r i t u a l snd l i t e r a l s a c r i f i c e s (Micah 6.r6f£..,.. Hosea 6:6.).. Secondly, he views a true and perfect, s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e as one which, no matter i f . performed i n reference to the s e l f or others, is. always offered for God's, sake alone.. I n commenting, on Romans 12:1,, Augustine states,, how: much more does the, soul, i t s e l f , become a s a c r i -fice, when i t o f f e r s i t s e l f to, God,, so. that; i t , may. be, kindled by the f i r e of love and may lose the 'form'- of worldly desire,, and may be 're-formed' by submission to God as; to the unchangeable ' form1,, thus becoming acceptable to God because of what, i t , has received from h i s beauty, thus anticipating, the ideas contained i n Herbert•s "The Altar" 1,, "Love", and. "The Priesthood." Augustine incorporates the prophetic view with a C h r i s t i a n sense of. complete devo-ti o n to GOd. 5 Closer to, Herbert, Thomas Crammer presented views of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e i n r e a c t i o n to the " p a p i s t i c a l heresy" of considering the Eucharist, s a c r i f i c i a l l y . . He. speaks of. the "gratificator.y" J s a c r i f i c e s of, justice,, laud,, p r a i s e , and thanksgiving, offered,, s i g n i f i c a n t l y - by those, who are already reconciled to C h r i s t , that is:,. C h r i s t i a n b e l i e v e r s , "to t e s t i f y our duties unto Gb.d,; and, to shew ourselves thankful, unto, him.,"'" In reference to Psalm 1,, Psalm: Zf9„ I Peter 2,, and". Hebrews. 13,, these, s a c r i f i c e s ; include, the whole obedience to God;'s laws and commandments, and the o f f e r -ing, o f the s e l f with, a l l of i t s possessions* Cranmer does, however^,, s i g n i f i c a n t l y speak of confession, of sin. as the 19 C h r i s t i a n a s duty.. So long as the law did reign,. God suffered dumb, beasts: to be offered unto him:, but; now that we be s p i r i t u a l , ; we. must, o f f e r s p i r i t u a l oblations ini the place of calves, sheep,, goats,, and dov.es.-We must, k i l l d e v i l i s h , pride,, furious anger,, i n -s a t i a b l e coveto.usness,; f i l t h y lucre,, stinking, lechery,, deadly hatred, and malice,, foxy, wiliness,, wolvish ravening and devouring,,, and a l l other unreasonable l u s t s and desires o f the flesh.. And: as. many as belong to Christ, must, c r u c i f y and k i l l these for Christ , :'s, sake.,., as Christ, c r u c i f i e d himself f o r t h e i r sakes..-* Eor Cranmer, the s a c r i f i c e of praise includes the humble confession, o f the penitent, heart.,, the acknowledgment o f C h r i s t • s benefits,, and thanksgiving, f o r these, b e n e f i t s , the exercise o.f f a i t h and, the reception, of consolation, from Christ,, along with, submission and obedience to God's w i l l , and: commandments.. So the q u a l i t i e s o f repentance,, dedica-tion,; and praise are a l l included within: Cranmer's conception of. s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e . . His point, about id e n t i f y i n g , with and appropriating the b e n e f i t s of Christ'"s atonement, relates, to Herbert• s "The S a c r i f i c e " and the poems which immediate-l y follow*. l i t the. early seventeenths century,, Donne, and. Lancelot Andrewes i n t h e i r sermons made repeated reference to the subject of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e , ; but one of the most d i r e c t homiletic. discussions i s contained, i n Andrewes* funeral 6. sermon, delivered, by John Buckeridge,. a sermon which r e l a t e s to, Herbert'* poetry.. In e s t a b l i s h i n g the divine b a s i s and sanction for s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e , . Buckeridge. remarks* the s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e % or the s a c r i f i c e of the s o u l and spirit.,, that i s i t . which God. ever accept-ed, i n the s a c r i f i c e of. His Son Christ,, even from 20 the f i r s t Adam to the l a s t son of Adam,, the last, man that, s h a l l l i v e at, the last. day,. And G'od hath been and: i s weary; of carnal and external s a c r i -fice,; and neglected yea rejected i t for default; and want, of the inward s a c r i f i c e ; but of t h i s inward: and s p i r i t u a ^ . s a c r i f i c e , God w i l l never be. wearied with it... He points- out the s u p e r i o r i t y of. s p i r i t u a l to l i t e r a l s a c r i -fices,, and t y p o l o g i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e s s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s of, a l l time with, the f a c t and benefits; of C h r i s t ' s Sacrifice... I n his. sermon Buckeridge outlines: three types of offering:, the. s a c r i f i c i u m cordis c o n t r i t i , ; the s a c r i f i c e , of. the con-t r i t e and broken heart,, manifested i n expressions of repentance.,, i n c l u d i n g sighs; and tears; the s a c r i f i c i u m c o r d i s g r a t i , the s a c r i f i c e of the thankful heart, presented as praise, and thanksgiving to God; and the sacrificium. cordis pii»> the s a c r i f i c e o f a pious and merciful heart.,, i n which, the b e l i e v e r obeys the teaching of those s c r i p t u r e s Ce.g,.- He.b... ft--13:16.) which enjoin compassion, and. works, of mercy to others.®' The preacher f i r s t , r e f e r s to confession of sin,, the means by which to restore or renew fellowship with, God.. He. then speaks of expressions: of. praise and service to ethers;,,, and. such, an order i s important* for these s a c r i f i c e s must- pro-ceed from or manifest, the restored fellowship.. JTohn Lewis i s . another preacher whose views, on s a c r i f i c e are applicable to a, study of. Herbert.,. Lewis asks hi s congregation the question, "whether there, be any s a c r i -f i c e s to bee; offered by C h r i s t i a n s under the Go s p e l l or no?" and, responds, in. t y p i c a l P rotestant fashion,, "I: answ.ere,, there are, not any H a s t i che or. p r o p i t i a t o r y s a c r i f i c e s to 21 bee offered for: atonement, with. Sod; for to. that, end C h r i s t hath, offered himselfe once for a l l , , But. as y.ou have heard, that, a l l Glhristians are s p i r i t u a l l Priests,,, so they have s p i r i t u a l l s a c r i f i c e s to o f f e r unto, God..*- The preacher a f f i r m s the p o i n t o f I Peter 2. i n h i s t y p o l o g i c a l view that. C h r i s t i a n s are to o f f e r s a c r i f i c e s . . He. goes on to "list, b r i e f l y nine of. these, s a c r i f i c e s . - The f i r s t , four in. order are the broken and contrite, heart CPs.. 51:1?),. without, which, a l l the other s a c r i f i c e s are "abhominable"; the o f f e r -i n g up of believers, through the ministry of the clergy (Rom*. 15:6) ; a l l manner of prayer and s u p p l i c a t i o n CPs.. I%2:2)-; a l l praise and thanksgiving (Heb... 13:15) .. There i s a n order here from s a c r i f i c i a l - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of repentance through dedication to praise.. The other s a c r i f i c e s include alms and r e l i e f : o f the poor (Heb., 13:16.,: Phil.. 4,: 18) along, with, righteousness or j u s t i c e (Es:.. 4:5*. 5X:.19).». the s a c r i -f i c e s of human r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; the " s l a y i n g of our sinnes,, and o f f e r i n g them up dead, unto the Lord, with the signation. 1° of our selves to Gods, s e r v i c e " " ' (Mom* 1 2 : 1 ) h e r e b y i n d i c a -ting, the continual process of repentance and dedication, which i s relevant, to Herbert• s thought; the death, of martyrs. (Phil.. 2:12,. Ps.- 116:15),. and the f i g u r a t i v e ("not a f t e r the manner of. the Papists"**) sacrament, o f the Lord's Supper. The idea of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e was taken up by Thomas Adams, a Puritan whose ideas nonetheless hold r e l e -vance, f o r Herbert. I n one sermon, a f t e r declaring, t h a t the "expiatory" sin-offerings, were abolished i n Christ,, he 22 elaborates upon the "gratu l a t o r y " or peace-offering s a c r i -f i c e s of the New Testament, b e l i e v e r , the subject of h i s sermon:: "C h r i s t i s our A l t a r : but our selves be the S a c r i -f i c e ; the F i r e that k i n d l e s i t , , the Love of God; the Smoake la-titat goes up, the consumption, of our slimes."- Adams, in:. t h i s compressed statement, suggests, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , of confession, and devotion.,, although these, q u a i i t i S * : are integrated within, the s a c r i f i c e and do not constitute d i s -t i n c t types of s a c r i f i c e s . . The main: p o i n t of note here,, however, i s the close i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the e f f i c a c i o u s merit, of Christ's; Sacrifice,,, a concern which Herbert, demon-strates, i n the early part, o f The Temple. Four conditions for the o f f e r i n g o f s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s : are l i s t e d by Adams. F i r s t l y , i n terms of the "frankincense"'of prayer,, invocation,, and praise,, he refers, to J o e l 2:14, i n s t a t i n g the p r i n c i p l e that, man can only return, to God what, he has. already received from Him, a p r i n c i p l e which informs the discussion of s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e i n The Temple... S a c r i -f i c e s are to be dipped i n Jesus'- blood,, or,, are to be offered by faith, i n the finished, work, a f Calvary, ; another reference to. the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with C h r i s t ' s Sacrifice., The Ch r i s t t i a n ' s o f f e r i n g must, be whole and holy,, by which. Adams means that, "the l i f e and soule of a S a c r i f i c e , i s : not the out-ward action,; but, the inward a f f e c t i o n of. the Heart. ... As the Minde i s , so, i s the Man1; as the Man i s , , so i s h i s S a c r i -13 f i c e . " The, b e l i e v e r must, lay on the a l t a r o f his heart f a i t h , repentance,, obedience,, patience,, humility, chastity,. 23 and. charity — works, ini t i a t e d by and brought, to fruition by the Holy S p i r i t ' s ministry within, the heart.; the heart itself, constitutes the best sac r i f i c e . In another sermon Adams echoes Cranmer's imagery of the slaying of sins and.. worldly passions on the altar of the penitent heart.;. Here is. the Altar for sacrifice,, the contrite heart: the beast, to be slain i s not found among our heardes,; but, among our affections; we must sacrifice our lusts: the knife to k i l l them,, which would else k i l l , us,, i s the Sword of the Spirit,,, the Word, of God:, the f i r e to consume them, i s holy zeale,. kindled in our breasts: by the inspiration, of God. The divine f i r e which, creates the desire for a right, delation** ship with. God,, rather than, directly destroying the sin itself,, i s an idea expressed in Herbert's "Hove"'.- Adams speaks of the s a c r i f i c i a l "return." to> God, the identification, with Christ, and the ministry of the Holy Spirit,, a l l considera-tion® of Herbert, i n The Temple.., He* focuses, his attention upon the individual's direct offerings to God rather than emphasizing the moral responsibilities discussed by Buckeridge,, Lewis, and Herbert, in "The Ghurchr-porch'V A f i n a l homiletic. reference may be made here to 1ST the four s p i r i t u a l sacrifices spcfeen of. by Daniel Featley.. " The sacrifice of. the whole man (Horn., 12:1) constitutes the believer's devotion to: God and man;: the sacrifice of the hidden man i s the broken heart offering of Psalm 51:1?... Prayer (Hosea 14:2),, directed to God out of a zealous heart and practical alms-deed's (Heb... 13:1.6),. are further accept-able, spiritual, sacrifices.. Eeatley provides a> balance between. God-directed and people-directed sacrifices,,, and alludes: to: s c r i p t u r e passages which, have been, mentioned several times throughout., t h i s survey*. In the study of t h e o l o g i c a l views concerning s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e i n the B i b l e and i n commentaries up to the early seventeenth—century we can conclude that with-out question, the s a c r i f i c e s which a r i s e out. of the heart, are deemed more acceptable to God' than, outward actions* Yet.,, as; the Old Testament, prophets f i r s t , suggested,; a p r a c t i -c a l d e d i c a t i o n to good; works constitutes, or manifests, a s p i r i t u a l dedication, to; God.. I n Herbert's, time,.,, such a concern marked the writings: of Anglican theologians, p a r t i -c u l a r l y those o f tne "high, church, tradition" 1,., and Thomas Adams and Cranmer stand as: figures: who seem, to focus; t h e i r a ttention more upon the devotional nature of s a c r i f i c e . . The s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t i e s of confession,, dedication,, and p r a i s e are included within the theologies of a l l the writers: re-presented here,,, and even though the q u a l i t y of repentance i s not neglected by any of. them,, the idea; i s de-emphasized by those who emphasize moral, sacrifices..., The following d i s c u s s i o n of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e in. The Church, focuses: upon, these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f repentance,, dedication,; and, praise in. the fact, that, the poems: are p r i -marily addressed to God, although the aspect, of moral responsi-b i l i t y does f i n d expression i n "The Church^porch".. Herbert makes use of Old Testament, prophetic teaching about, s a c r i -fice, as, discussed i n this, chapter, but. his: i m p l i c i t , emphasis 25 is; typological,, for he provides a G h r i s t o c e n t r i c focus to many of his poems which, deal with, s a c r i f i c e . . In, particular,; the f i r s t several poems o.f The Church thematically follow from, or respond to the fact, o f C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e and i t s rami f i c a t i o n s for Herbert.. In the movement, from "The Church-porch"' to The Church Herbtert turns h i s attention, to the typo-l o g i c a l conception, o.f s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e . . Two, poems,;, one by Ben Jonson. and the other by John Donne,; can serve to provide a link, between, t h i s back-ground study and Herbert's poetry.. The two poems i n question, both, make use of. conventional language and imagery of. s a c r i -fice.. Jionson'''s poem mentions or paraphrases f a m i l i a r Old Testament, s c r i p t u r e s and Donne's poem, speaks of priest,; altar,, s a c r i f i c e , ; and f i r e which t r a d i t i o n a l l y comprise, the four components, of s a c r i f i c e . , Ben J o n s o n u n d e r - w o o d i s s u b t i t l e d "Poems of Devotion"' and, "The Sinners S a c r i f i c e " , but. o f the ninety-one poems i n the c o l l e c t i o n only the f i r s t , three have s p e c i -f i c a l l y C h r i s t i a n purposes and content... Jonson. is; not noted for sacred verse,, and of these three poems a modern, e d i t o r remarks,; " l i k e his: other pio;us efforts.,, they are not very lib s u c c e s s f u l * though they are honestly devout." Since Jonson, does not, normally write devotional poetry,, i t , i s i n -teresting. t©i note his a l l u s i o n s to. several, of, the well-known. Old. Testament s c r i p t u r e s concerning s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e . . At. the. s t a r t o f h i s f i r s t poem "To the Holy T r i n i t i e " (,p.. 118), i n his. invocation, he prays, 26 Help©,, helpe to l i f t , 2., My s e l f e up to thee.,, harrow'd,. tome,, and bruis* d Fy sinne, ; and Sat han,, and. my f l e s h mi sua' d„ As: my heart l i e s , i n peeces,, a l l . confus'd,,-0) take, my g i ft... 3.. All-gracious, God,., the Sinners Sacrifice... A broken: heart, thou wert. not wont, despise,. But, 'hove the f a t of ramm.es,, or bulls,, to p r i z e An. o.£fring, meet,, 4.. Ear thy acceptance.. G,„ behold me right.,. And take compassion on my grievous, plight..: What, odour can be, then a heart contrite,, to thee, more sweet,?. ( >4 rl6) The poem, alludes to the prophetic teaching,, as represented by, I Samuel 15:22, that the r i g h t a t t i t u d e of. the heart,, the s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e underlying any l i t e r a l , r i t u a l , , is. more acceptable to God than the performance, of the r i t u a l , itself... Jon son here uses the f a m i l i a r broken heart, s a c r i f i c e o f Psalm: 51:17 as a conventional metaphor,, or perhaps even a c l i c h e f o r an. act, of repentance.. His broken, heart, i s r i g h t f u l l y "confus 1 d"; by the ravages, of s i n , but, even though, a true tone of contrition, prevails: through^ out,, h i s language makes the poem. seem, l i t t l e more than a rec a s t i n g of scripture.. 'Ihe poet identifjaes: the second merar-ber of. the T r i n i t y as the "Sinners S a c r i f i c e " , but he does not elaborate on the r e l a t i o n s h i p o,f h i s s a c r i f i c e of. repen-tance to C h r i s t ' s p r o p i t i a t i o n as does Herbert... furthermore, he c a l l s the broken heart, o f f e r i n g a " g i f t " , . a\ metonomy Oif. "my selfe",. thereby combining h i s confession with, an act, of devotion to God.. These ideas, are not developed,, however, and, the purpose i n quoting the poem, here i s to, show, a. poetic- a l l u s i o n to f a m i l i a r Old Testament, s c r i p t u r e s about s a c r i f i c e . . Herbert's "Repentance" gives a more per-sonal, and elaborate treatment, of the nature of confession 27 through, an. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with C h r i s t ' s Sacrifice... Ini "The Holy Ghost."' se c t i o n of A L i t a n i e . Jfohn Donne also employs s a c r i f i c i a l elements,, but h i s motifs and tone hav.e a much greater a f f i n i t y to Herbert than, to Jonson.. 0 Holy Ghost,, whose temple I Am,., but. of. mudde walls, and condensed dust,. And being s a c r e l i g i o u s l y Halfe, wasted with, youths fi r e s , , of pride and lust,, Must with new stormes be weatherbeat, Double, in. my heart thy flame, Which, l e t , devout, sad tears, intend; and l e t . (Though, t h i s glasse lanthorne,. flesh,, do s u f f e r maime) Eire,, Sacrifice,; Priest,, A l t a r be the same (19-27) Jn Helen:. Gardner c a l l s t h i s poem a. prayer for perseverance because Donne asks that the features and a c t i v i t y of s a c r i -f i c e within the temple of h i s heart might, remain unchanged.. The l a s t l i n e o f the poem l i s t s , the four components; of the s a c r i f i c i a l o f f e r i n g and provides a good point, of reference f o r the examination o.f Herbert's poems which speak of s a c r i -f i c e . One may compare e d i t o r i a l glosses of these four W 20 features. Gardner" and Lewalski and Sabol agree that, the "Eire"' i s the flame of the S p i r i t , , the " P r i e s t " 5 i s the s o u l , and the "Altar'* i s the heart.. And as; Gardner terms the s a c r i f i c e a "troubled spirit'*,, John Broadbent makes. 21 reference to the "broken s p i r i t ' * of P.salm, 51.. These, i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n s can be compared with Adams' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , i n which the s a c r i f i c e i s the self,, the f i r e i s the Love of God, and the a l t a r i s not the humsn. heart., but C h r i s t . Ear Herbert„ the most, s i g n i f i c a n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , here, i s that, o f the heart, and a l t a r as. seen i n h i s poem, "The A l t a r " * hut the r e l a t i o n s h i p of h i s s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s to Christ'is. S a c r i f i c e i s important.. 2'8 FOOTNOTES 1- Augustine,; Concerning the C i t y of God against the Pagans % ed,. David Knowles, trans.- Henry Bettenson CHarmondsworth:, Penguin,; 1972),, pp.. 375-80. 2 Augustine,, p.. 379.•-3 Thomas; Cranmer, The Works of Thomas Cranmer, ed. .John Edmund Cox,; Parker Society Reprint (Cambridge:.. Cambridge Univ... Press, 1844.),,, 1> 346.. 4, Cranmer,, p.. 34.6.. 5 Cranmer, p. 349 »• 6, J.ohn Buckeridge,. "A. Sermon Preached at. the Funeral of. the Right. Honourable and Reverend Father in. God Lancelot,;,,. 1626", in. Lancelot Andrewes, Ninety-Six Sermons (Oxford:, Parker Society,, 18431*. V7, 257-98. 7 Buckeridge,. p. 280.. 8 Buckeridge,. pp. 280-81.. 9 John Lewis,, Melchizedechs Antitype (London:. Nicholas Okes for Richard Whitakers, 1624) » P«- 33* 10 Lewis,, pp.. 34-35* 11 Lewis,; p. 36. 12 Thomas Adams,, The S a c r i f i c e of. Thankefulness. (London: Thomas Pur foot, for Clement Knight., 1616) „ p. 16... 13 Adams, p.. 2 0 . . 14. Thomas Adams, The Temple (London: A.. Mathewes for John Grismand, 1624)», p. 59•- : 15 D a n i e l Featley, "The Seasoning of a l l S p i r i t u a l ! S a c r i f i c e s : or the S a l t e r s Test,."' i n C l a v i s mystica (London:. R.; Y^oung] for Nicolas. Bourne, I 6 3 6 ) . . 16 Ben Jonson, llhe Complete Poetry o f Ben Jonson,, ed.. William B.. Hunter» J r . ( 1 9 6 3 ; r p t . New York: Norton,, I 9 6 8 ) , . p. 113.. Quotation, i s from; t h i s edition.. 17 John. Donne, The. Divine Poems;, ed.. Helen. Gardner (Oxford:,; Clarendon,, 1 9 5 2 ) , , p.. 1 7 . 18 Donne, p.. 82 29 19 Donne* p.. 82.. 20 Major Poets of. the E a r l i e r Seventeenth Century, eds. Barbara K. Eewalski. and" Andrew, J.. Sabol (Indianapolis and New York:. Odyssey,, 1973), p.. 141v 21 Signet Classic; Poets of the 17th Century., Volume One,.,, ed.. John; Broadbent. The Classic: Poetry S e r i e s * gen., ed.. John Hollander (New York: New American, L i b r a r y * 1974)> p. 129-30 CHAPTER TWO ' SPIRITUAL, SACRIFICE AND. THE SACRIFICE OF CHRIST-Mario:; A., Di- Gesare and Rago Mignani im the.fr new. concordance, note only s i x of The Temple poems i n which. Herbert; uses the word "sacrifice.":: "The. Church-porch" : (.twice),.. "The Altar" 1, "The. S a c r i f i c e " ' (.once* in. addition to the title.).* "Mattens.",; "Providence", and "Love unknown".x The. opening poems* beginning with "The Dedication." 5 i t s e l f , and proceeding through "The Churchr-porch", "The A l t a r " , and "The S a c r i f i c e " introduce ideas, and p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t e d to; the theme o.f s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e ; these poems n a t u r a l l y and l o g i c a l l y "prevent:"" and, follow, each, other.. "The S a c r i -f i c e i n turn informs and influences three groups: or sequences, of poems; which immediately follow.. Chapter Three considers, the l a t t e r three poems — "Mattens", "Providence."', "Love unknown"1 — together with, other poems, which, make e x p l i c i t use. of the language and. imagery of s a c r i f i c e . . The. former three poems; occur at. the start, of The. Temple., and. t h i s chap-ter proposes to o f f e r a reading of these poems and several others which follow through, to "Antiphon CD".. P a r t i c u l a r 1 attention to: some re c u r r e n t motifs and. images o f s a c r i f i c e i s one aspect o f the study both, i n t h i s chapter and. the next.. The poetic expression of s a c r i f i c i a l q u a l i t i e s of repentance.,, dedication,, and", praise and the way in. which, the poet's, repentance generally, precedes other forms o f address to. Gad constitutes, another, purpose.. The ways in, which Herbert e s t a b l i s h e s "The. S a c r i f i c e " - as, a point, o f reference, for the Temple poems* p a r t i c u l a r l y those which. 31 immediately, follow^, provides the major focus, in. this, chap-ter.. The poems attempt to, respond to the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the Sac r i f i c e , and so o f f e r s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s to God i n r e t u r n for His Lave, and Grace.. Although. Herbert, obvious-l y writes from, the standpoint, of. a committed Christian,; Ms. " S a c r i f i c e " 1 poem provides; a s p i r i t u a l lodestone by which, to affirm, or renew the f a c t of. hie regeneration at the s t a r t o f The Temple. The. poems treated in, Chapter Three occur w e l l into; the body o f Herbert , ;s work,, and although these, poems make more e x p l i c i t use of the language of. s a c r i f i c e , , they do not express as e x p l i c i t , an. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with, C h r i s t * s S a c r i f i c e as. do the, f i r s t several poems o f The.  Temple. The study begins with; "The Dedication.",, a poem; which, o f f e r s the conventional c l i c h e s common, to dedications of r e l i g i o u s : literature,.. An. examination of. the way i n which "The Church-porch" 1 incorporates the, Old Testament prophetic; view of. s a c r i f i c e , but also looks ahead, to the t y p o l o g i c a l treatment, i n The Church introduces; the. poems, which, follow.. The s a c r i f i c i a l r o l e of. the heart and general p r i n c i p l e s o f s a c r i f i c e found i n "The A l t a r " leads to the emphasis on Christ''s S a c r i f i c e i n the following, poem.. A f t e r "The, S a c r i f i c e " 1 three groups of poems, in. d i f f e r e n t ways attempt to, i d e n t i f y with the Sacri f i c e . . I n the f i r s t , group — "The Thanksgiving,"1, "The K e p r i s a l l " , and "The Agonie" — the poet t r i e s , to; contest or. match. God's Love, by means, o f aet4;v&ty4 which does; not. have any real, s p i r i t u a l , basis,, and 32 then discovers , the f u t i l i t y of such- an. e n t e r p r i s e ^ The. next- two groups each, ef f e e t i v e l y r e - e n a c t the Passion, n a r r a -t i v e presented i n "The S a c r i f i c e " , with, the primary focus f i r s t on. C h r i s t and. then, on the poet,, r e c o r d i n g Herbert ' 'a responses, a t each, stage. . In. the f i r s t sequence from "The Sinner" ' to; " H . . Baptisme^ (II)."' the. poet, shows, some awareness Oil ' the r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f C h r i s t ,tes; S a c r i f i c e , ; b u t h i s responses to i t i n . these poems c o n s t i t u t e a passive acceptance more t h a n a-, d e f i n i t e o f f e r i n g , of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s . . The second sequence from "Mature" through "Antiphon ( I ) " emphasizes: more the p o e t ' s own Passion n a r r a t i v e . . He. responds, more a f f i r m a t i v e l y to C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e by r e f l e c t i n g o n the true nature of. h i s s i n , , o f f e r i n g , repentance for i t , , and, then demonstrating faith. , , p rayer , and. the Holy Communion,, and: ending; h i s sequence with, a hymn, o f praise,. . The. poems examined i n , t h i s f i r s t , chapter together represent, a p a t t e r n t y p i c a l o f the l i f e o f the C h r i s t i a n b e l i e v e r ; the " P a s s i o n " sequence recurs, c o n t i n u a l l y through-out the C h r i s t i a n ' s experience. . In Herbert'^s attempt, to address aod he records or r e - e n a c t s h i s s p i r i t u a l state, at. the time.- These responses are i n fact, t y p o l o g i c a l s p i r i -t u a l s a c r i f i c e s , , based as they are on s a c r i f i c i a l p r i n c i p l e s outl ined, i n "The Al tar" 3 , , together with the f a c t of. C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e . The, c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s a c r i f i c e i n The Temple begins with. "The Dedication?'' (.p.. 5),.-33 I*ard,, my f i r s t f r u i t s : present, themselv.es to thee; Yet. not. mine neither:, f o r from thee they came,, And: must, return.. Accept, of. them, and me,., And make, us strive,, who s h a l l sing best, thy name.. Turn; t h e i r eyes hither,, who s h a l l fnake a gain:: Theirs,, who, s h a l l hurt: themselves or me„ r e f r a i n * Herbert's use o f the term " f i r s t - f r u i t s * * f o r h i s poems,, and his desire, that they may be "accepted" by God i f . they suc-ceed i n giving.: glory to Him? s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n d i c a t e s the. i d e a of. s a c r i f i c e . . This dedicatory poem uses: c l i c h l s common to the dedications of, v i r t u a l l y a l l r e l i g i o u s books. Yet the poem; introduces one of Herbert• s. major themes,, the i d e a that man cannot give to, God anything that he has not. already received from God.- In. saying that the poems "return"' to God,, the po.et not. only acknowledges and o f f e r s thanks f o r the divine i n s p i r a t i o n to write, b ut gives witness to the ministry of! the S p i r i t i n h i s l i f e . . The c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n drawn between, himself, and his: pae/try and: the suggestion, o f a contest, to judge, "who. s h a l l sing best, thy name"' marks a second point of note. in. the poem.. It, is; mot that, the poem's p r a i s e s do or should d i f f e r markedly from the praise of. his; own. l i f e i n terms o f s i n c e r i t y or quality., Inso-f a r as he i s his: own " p r i e s t to the temple"? of his soul,, he wants; h i s personal and, p o e t i c s a c r i f i c e s of repentance.,,, dedication,, and praise to be acceptable to God. But. the "contest" a n t i c i p a t e s the poet's: attempts, to match C h r i s t ' s Love i n the poems which, fallow "T.he S a c r i f i c e " . . "The, Church- por ch**- (p.,, 6). i s generally considered to be of l e s s c r i t i c a l importance than The Church,., Although i t s moral precepts serve as a necessary agent of external. 3k cleansing* as an exhortation, to deal with the s i n s and: short-comings of: the f l e s h , i t i s The Church, with. i t s . deeper analysis, of mam^s condition, and. the problems of. maintain-i n g communion, with, God* and h i s attempts to deal with, sins: o f the heart* that contains; the best, o f Herbert's poetry,, l i t terms o f the theme and structure of s a c r i f i c e * however,, one cannot, simply dismiss "The Churchy-porch" as a. preface standing "on the other side of the w a l l " from The Church,. The. prophetic, concern f o r moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and an a n t i c i -pation of the t y p o l o g i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with C h r i s t denotes the importance of "The Church-porch''- i n t h i s study of s p i r i -t u a l s a c r i f i c e . The opening stanza expresses the importance, of responding to God's Love and Grace by offering, some form o f s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e . . Thou,, whose sweet, youth, and early hopes inhance Thy, rate and price,, and mark thee for a treasure; Hearken, unto a Verser, who may chance Ryme thee to good* and make a b a i t of pleasure.. A, verse may finde him* who a sermon, f l i e s , , And t u r n delight into a s a c r i f i c e . . This: stanza ha© been c i t e d by c r i t i c s as Herbert's c l e a r statement of. d i d a c t i c purpose not only i n "The. Churchj-porch" but .in The Temple as a whole. The good work of art. should* i n i t s form and. content* contain, and balance sentence and1 solace, teaching and pleasure.. The aesthetic "delight." which, r e s u l t s from; a reading of the poems, should lead, the reader to make a. s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e , , a s a c r i f i c e the nature o f which i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y unqualified.. P a r t i c u l a r l y in. his. 35 treatment of the vices and v i r t u e s of l i f e a kind of " i f the shoe f i t s , , wear it."- tone prevails; throughout.. The s a c r i f i c e to be offered may focus upon, repentance, dedica-tion,, or praise,,, or i t - may include a combination of. these qualities,, but the necessity o f the s a c r i f i c e i t s e l f i s not i n question.. Hear the end. of. the poem,, in. warning about, being c a r e f u l not to., judge the preacher1*© sermons, Herbert, states: "J.est not a t preachers, language,, or expression:. / How. know' st thou, but. thy sinnes made him miscarrie? / Then, turn, thy faults, and. h i s i n t o confession."\C439-41).- The ;i,need-. fox . ;r.epen.tance and the re s t o r a t i o n o f fellowship with God supercedes the r e l a t i v e importance of " d e l i g h t " in. reading poetry or the lack, of i t . in, l i s t e n i n g to sermons. It. has been said. that. "Tha Cnurchr-poreh" catalogues the seven, deadly s i n s , offering: advice on how to deal with, each... The content, may be discussed in, terms of s a c r i f i c e , , and p a r t i c u l a r l y in. terms of the movement, from the prophetic, view, toward! the t y p o l o g i c a l view.. The. poem; progresses, from, the s i n s or "wights."1 (,cf... Heb.. 12:1) which p r i m a r i l y concern the in d i v i d u a l , alone (11.. 7-204)» to those which concern r e l a t i o n s with other people (205-384), through to behaviour i n church, which leads, to, the r e l a t i o n s h i p with God (385-450)• The f i r s t , section takes up the v i c e s of lust., ; drinking,, swearing, lying,, idleness,, concern:, with, wealth;,, along, with, v i r t u e s of honesty,, proper rules; f o r s e l f -c o n t r o l , and, thrift... The section on. r e l a t i o n s with others, offers, exhortation to develop nobility,, honour, and wisdom. 36 (."to stuffe. thy mind with, s o l i d Bravery"* - 208),, to exer-c i s e a, proper use of wit», consider well one'-s place i n the s o c i a l order.,, promote; good friendships and conversation,, seek to he u s e f u l to others as well, as fee w i l l i n g to receive help from, others;, and give alms. Th i s section, s p e c i f i c a l l y discusses human f r i e n d -s h i p . Thy f r i e n d put. i n thy bo some: wear his. eies. S t i l l i n thy heart,, that, he may see what's there.. I f cause require,, thou art. h i s s a c r i f i c e ; Thy drops of blond must pay down, a l l h i s fear: Hut, love i s lost,, the way of friendship's: gone,,, Though, David had h i s Jonathan, Christ h i s John ("271^76)* One's f i r s t , impression i s that t h i s kind of s a c r i f i c e r e l a t e s only to human r e l a t i o n s h i p s and not to God* The stanza,; appearing, as i t , does: h a l f way through.- »>The Church-porch,",, and anticipating; the f i n a l s ection about behaviour i n church,, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y a n t i c i p a t e s "The. Sacrifice",,, which d r a s t i -c a l l y presents the Love o f God f o r man through the s a c r i f i c i a l action, o f the Incarnate C h r i s t , the l a y i n g down of. His l i f e f o r His friends... C h r i s t offers: the supreme example, o,f s a c r i -f i c i n g for others through death,, but the Love. of. C h r i s t fo r the d i s c i p l e John ("the d i s c i p l e whom Jesus loved"') stands also, as a supreme example, of f r i e n d s h i p * I d e n t i f i c a -t i o n with C h r i s t i e ; S a c r i f i c e manifests i t s e l f in. a; true expression o f friendship.. The i n i t i a l concern with, establishing; or J&aintain.-ing, communion with God. by. means of. s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s , r e c u r s i n a stanza on church conduct found, near the end 37 oft "The Churchy-porch",; a stanza, r e l a t e d to that, on, f r i e n d -ship: "In time of service seal up both, thine eies, : / And. send them, to thine heart; that; syping sinne,. / They may weep out the s t a i n s by them; did. rise. (415-17) • These l i n e s exhort the i n d i v i d u a l to avoid observing other members: o.f the congregation, and concern himself, s o l e l y with, h i s own inner, s p i r i t u a l condition.. The images of the eyes within, the heart occurred e a r l i e r r the f r i e n d places, h i s eyes; within the other's heart in. order to determine i t s r e l a t i v e purity., l i t both cases the images intends to focus attention upon the need to detect s i n and take measures to deal with i t , through s a c r i f i c i a l acts, o f repentance and commitment, to God. C h r i s t speaks o f closed and open eyes and the causes of temporary s p i r i -t u a l blindness i n the f i r s t stanza of "The S a c r i f i c e " and the motif, f i n d s expression i n poems of. The .Ctaarfeh. including; "The Pearl",, i n relation; to the "rate and p r i c e " of salvation.. In. addition,, the motif o f tears, along with sighs, and groans, c o n s t i t u t e s a commonplace of e a r l y seventeenths century devotional poetry, and,, according to Donne,, weeping; i s a s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e "meet, for repen-tance".. The poem, here, moves into a. consideration with, s a c r i f i c e s offered d i r e c t l y to God.. A discussion of almsr-giving, one o f the "prophetic" s a c r i f i c e s encouraged by seventeenth-century preachers, introduces the f i n a l section o f "The Church-porch",, and the poet speaks o f what the C h r i s t i a n must give or r e t u r n to God: Restore to Sod h i s due in. t i t h e and. time::, A t i t h e purloin,'d cankers, the whole estate.. Snndai.es. observe:, think when the b e l l s do chime,, •T.is angels musick; therefore come not late.. God then, deals blessings:. If. a king did so,. Who, would not haste, nay give, to see the show?. (385-90) T h i s stanza, enjoins the b e l i e v e r to o f f e r a "sacrifi5ce of. obedience" by performing those duties s t i p u l a t e d by s c r i p -ture.. God's "due"'may be considered as, a kind of r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e , but. the stanza, suggests, a prophetic, p r i n c i p l e which is, t y p o l o g i c a l l y r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n poems of. The, Church,, s t a r t i n g with. "Tne A l t a r " . Doing, what God commands causes a r e s t o r a t i o n of. fellowship between man and God, and having thus; f u l f i l l e d a l l obedience, the C h r i s t i a n can, expect, a. manifestation of t h i s restored relationship:. "God then deals blessings".. "The A l t a r " 5 i s perhaps the best. poem, to i l l u s t r a t e i n both content and form the theme of s a c r i f i c e . . It, has been said that the poem could have been placed anywhere within The Church, without, a f f e c t i n g i t s own meaning or that of The Temple. Y.et, since i t , f i r m l y establishes several principles, of. t y p o l o g i c a l s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e i t s p o s i t i o n as the f i r s t , poem of The Church, i s s i g n i f i c a n t . lo- general s p i r i t u a l experience air p a r t i c u l a r act, of s a c r i f i c e can oc-cur without, the ministry o f the S p i r i t , of God., In. repentance-i t i s God who causes the heart, to break and i t i s He. who ultimately "binds up the brokenhearted" (Luke 4:18).- I f man, i s unable or unwilling, to o f f e r the s a c r i f i c e of p r a i s e , the S p i r i t who i n h a b i t s the temple of h i s heart, w i l l , as 39 "Easter" i n d i c a t e s , "make up o.ur defects with h i s sweet, art."' (.1*. 18; cf,. Rom. 8:26-2?)... This completed poem,, as a l l the others, ef f e c t i v e l y , a t t e s t s to the S p i r i t ' s ; power in. t h i s regard.. Even, though the poet, i s quick to recognize (as. were the h o m i l i s t s and Jonson i n "The Sinners: S a c r i f i c e " ) the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the broken heart s a c r i f i c e of Psalm 51:17, such a s a c r i f i c e i s concomitant, with repentance,, or confession of sin,, and marks, only a renewal of r e l a t i o n -ship with God.. I n order to o f f e r s a c r i f i c e s o f further repentance, dedication, and p r a i s e , the heart, must be mended, the a l t a r must be r e - b u i l t . The f i r s t , l i n e o f the poem, sets, i n motion t h i s a c t i v i t y of restoration,, and. each l i n e can be s a i d to add e f f e c t i v e l y another layer of "stones".. Even though, the poem must, needs be read from the "top"' down-ward, l i t e r a l l y speaking,, the a l t a r would of course have to be created upward from the base... The f i n a l couplet of the poem., comprising i t s "base",, emphasizes the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s a c r i f i c e to the he arts altar,, a r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s the "foundation" 1 t r u t h of t h i s poem,, and a l l the others which follow.. I n consideration o f the "exchange" of G h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e for the poet's heart,, the view. that. Christ.'s death i s the only s a c r i f i c e which w i l l s a n c t i f y the a l t a r needs; t o be qu a l i f i e d . . As a f a i t accompli the s a c r i f i c i a l death, p r o p i t i a t e s f o r man's. sin,, as seen, i n the passages from the book, of Hebrews.. Herbert, i n the penultimate l i n e of. the poem, rea f f i r m s his. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with, and acceptance, o f C h r i s t ' s 40 Sacrifice in. order to establish a basis for offering the sacrifices required of a l l Christians.- The blood of Christ serves to set. apart and. purify the altar in. preparation for the offering, of other spiritual, sacrifices.. Herbert sacrifices to God a restored heart, a sign of renewed cam?-munion, while at the same time, dedicating to God the place from whence the sacrifices of The Temple w i l l be offered., li t terms of s a c r i f i c i a l action the poem proceeds from repen-tance to praise (9,-14) and dedication (15-16) • Hutchinson' s punctuation of line 8. is; important, for in bringing the sentence to a close (as opposed to Lewalski and Sabol who punctuate line 8 with a comma and fi n a l l y end the sentence at line 3 12). , Herbert, initiated a "turning point" pattern, carried, on elsewhere, including, the other pattern poem, "Easter-wings"*- The building; process i s made clear a t the start, but. up to line 8 the poem, emphasizes the brokenness of repentance.. The decisive "wherefore"' indicates, the turning point and re-affirms the movement, of restoration which, f o l -lows repentance.. Images of. the broken heart, and accompanying, tears mayr i * * addition to repentance or contrition, merely indi -cate human sorrow.^. Helen Vendler's suggestion that the poet's; tears do not proceed out of a sense of repentance is,, however, untenable i n the l i g h t of the foregoing ready-ing of the poem.. Y.endler argues that, the poet's tears are those of sorrow because, a contrite, heart, could not conceiv-ably withhold, praise. (13), ,, and,; in: terms of a. particular 41 s p i r i t u a l , incident such, may he so,, but Herbert., seems, to be thinking, beyond, the immediate experience to the course of, the t y p i c a l C h r i s t i a n l i f e . . He therefore introduces another informing, p r i n c i p l e for the poems in. The. Church. Man,, though regenerate and i n proper communion with. Sod, s t i l l possesses hiss nature... There, w i l l be times when the C h r i s t i a n may seem, to withhold, h i s praise, (the a l t a r o f his heart w i l l s t i l l cry out), even when c o n t r i t e before God because his heart, w i l l always be hard, and even, when, broken,, w i l l , con-t a i n i n d i v i d u a l "stones'".- Tears would seem, to prove, a poor long-lasting, cementing, agent,, and. the poem, appearing " s o l i d " 1 by virtue, of i t s ; frame,, stands; i n danger of. being broken again.. Such, is; not a; tragedy but, i s a fact o f the t y p i c a l . C h r i s t i a n l i f e , , and an idea, c o r o l l a r y to that o f man's; human nature i s that, of the recurrence of s p i r i t u a l experience; c y c l e s o f repentance, dedication,, and praise are. a normal and i n e v i t a b l e feature o f the l i f e of. the regenerate*. I n the l i f e t h i s side of heaven.,, even though man f e e l s h i s praise does, a t times reach, upward to Heaven the "frame" of. h i s mortal body confines h i s s o u l even as: the. bounds of. i t s ; own. "frame"* confines the poem., I n p l a c i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r "pattern poem" at the s t a r t of The Church Herbert makes c l e a r that true s p i r i t u a l experience occurs within the human, heart.,, the "place"' of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e (which- i s . s a n c t i f i e d to God,, and indeed belongs, to Him).,, the Holy of;Holies where God meets man., and,, at. times, the arena, o f c o n f l i c t , where huiyfan and divine w i l l s clash and 42 where s i n and divine Love f i g h t f o r v i c t o r y over each, other. S p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e s can. be offered to God only i n reference to the S a c r i f i c e of Christ,, a p r i n c i p l e esta-b l i s h e d by "The Sa c r i f i c e " . - Rosamond Tuye's study poem, finds sources for- the. paradoxes,, ironies,, and l i t u r g i -c a l and iconographical commonplaces i n the Improperia of 5 Good Friday and the medieval. Complaints of C h r i s t . The elements: o f length,, voice,, and. l i t u r g i c a l form, cause a d i s -tancing e f f e c t from the shorter,, l y r i c a l poems which, for. the most part are addressed to God.. Instead of. recording andl demonstrating the harmony and c o n f l i c t s of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between God and the poet,, "The S a c r i f i c e " shows: the Love of God manifested i n the Incarnate C h r i s t , whose method of describing His Passion points: out the great dif f e r e n c e s between; Himself and s i n f u l man.. Herbert aims to present to the reader almost at the outset o f The Temple an i n t e r -p retation of. man:**,sinful condition and' the p r o p i t i a t i o n provided by Christ's, S a c r i f i c e from God's point of view, with no ostensible comment or i n t r o s p e c i i v e analysis: by the poet himself., The Communion. Service includes the element o.f memory of C h r i s t ' s Passion, even. in. a re-enactment of Christ*© S a c r i f i c e . . Herbert would have h i s readers to "show, the Lord's death" (I. Cor.. 11:26) by considering His S a c r i f i c e and t h e i r own s p i r i t u a l condition, in. the l i g h t of i t , and so then, variously reaffirm, regeneration,, confess sins,, renew vows of commitment,;OiP::,of.fer praise and thanks^ giving... In the stanza,, "Then, with a scarlet, robe they, me, aray; /' Which shews my bloiud to be the onely way / And. 43 c o r d i a l l l e f t , to r e p a i r mans decay" (.157-5,9)» the "cordial** as. the atoning blood of the s a c r i f i c i a l Lamb, i n i t i a l l y re- pairs; a manXs s p i r i t u a l , condition through, regeneration. With, i t s Cnristoicentric, basis, for man'-s salv a t i o n and h i s o f f e r i n g of s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e s , "The, S a c r i f i c e " serves as a conti n u a l refer, ent for many poems i n The Church. As immediate responses, to; the pageant, o f Christ,'*s; Eassion "The Thanksgiving'* and "The K e p r i s a l l " seek, itp; ade-quately r e t u r n Gad's Lave by means: of carnal a c t i v i t y , an enterprise which, proves f r u i t l e s s . . The speaker o f "The Thanksgiving" 1 (p., 35) f a i l s to> grasp the significance, o f Christ' !s Sacrifice,; and,, instead of id e n t i f y i n g , with; i t i n such, a^  way as to ask the question of what s a c r i f i c e s he. as a bel i e v e r should offer,, he impetuously, and almost f r a n t i c a l l y attempts to "copy" or "imitate" 1 the. Eassion i t s e l f . . He set s up a contest,, almost a. b a t t l e C'Snrely I. w i l l revenge me on thy love* / And t r i e ; who s h a l l , v i c t o r i o u s ; prove" - 11*17-18) which, is: not resolved at the end of the poem,; even with, the acknowledgment, of C h r i s t as, "G) my deare. Saviour,, Vlac-tori-eL'' (48) because he says,! "Then for. thy passion — I. w i l l da for that. — / Alas,, my Gad,; 1 know not what." (49-50)* That, the ultimate deed — physical death — s t i l l , i n s u f f i c i e n t l y "revenges" G0d':s: Lave. "Tie Seprisall." 4 makes c l e a r * Many a c t i v i t i e s , mentioned i n "The Thanksgiving" can never properly serve as expressions, of love, because, they dOi not originate, from, or indicate, the s p i r i t u a l : s a c r i f f l e e s of the heart, enjoined by the prophets, fllear the end; of the poem i t seems as though a solution may be at hand:: 44 "Kay, I. w i l l reade thy book, and never move / T i l l I have found therein, thy love, / Thy art of love, which I.'ie turn, back, on thee" (45-47) •• I r o n i c a l l y , a proper understanding, and appropriation of God's Love would cause the poet, to "never move"- further i n the directions, he has moved through, the course of. the poenu. The. lesson of enjoying the f r u i t s of C h r i s t ' % Sacrifice,,' of r e s t i n g i n His Love.,, i s not learned at, the end o f the poem.. A. l i m i t e d understanding of the need to submit to and r e s t w i t h i n the Love of God a r i s e s in. "The Reprisal!"' (p.. 36). The opening, l i n e , "I. have consider"d i t , , and finde" i n i t i a t e s , a prevalent tone o f contemplation, not-withstanding the almost whining tone of the t h i r d stanza.. Yet. the poem does not demonstrate a complete change of at-titude.. The poet makes confession of h i s s i n f u l nature i n the f i r s t stanza,, but only to r e l a t e h i s s i n to death, which, since i t i s deserved, cannot be something with which to "avenge" God'is. Love. In the second stanza he pleads for God to "make me innocent, that 1 / Hay give a disentangled state and free'' (5-6),., and here i t would seem, that he has a more s p i r i t u a l conception of sin. as a hindrance to the offering, of acceptable heart s a c r i f i c e s . - But he counters his plea by lamenting that C h r i s t 'Js P assion " w i l l s t i l l my attempts d e f i e " (7l>. not allowing him to win " g r i e f s sad conquests"" ( 11) ; he s t i l l wants to "dO!*'* rather than "be"'.. The f i n a l , stanza states: 45 Yet by confession, w i l l 1. come Into, thy conquest: though I. can do nought Against, thee,, in. thee I I w i l l overcome, The man,, who, once against thee fought. (13-16):.. At. the end of the poem,, although the speaker has resigned himself, to the fact, t h a t he w i l l never be. able to "win," his, battle, to match the sorrows of C h r i s t ' s Passion,, he does not submit h i s w i l l , to God.. But. by coming "into: thy conquest" he i s expressing, more than, a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r not, accepting defeat. The essence of the Christian, l i f e l i e s i n an. i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n with C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e , and,, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , wi$h an appropriation of. the s p i r i t u a l l i f e and b e n e f i t s provided by the C r u c i f i e d Lord.. The speaker recognizes the necessity of. C h r i s t " s power as administered by the S p i r i t f o r any s p i r i t u a l work to be accomplished. His main a s s e r t i o n that he w i l l win the " b a t t l e " against: the "yar-r i o r " of "The Tnanksgiving M i, however, i n d i c a t e s a sense of pride and,, more so,, a. failuj? 3 to understand the nature of h i s place " i n Christ"., l b sense of. r e s o l u t i o n with God and His p r i n c i p l e s comes f o r t h i n t h i s poem, even though i t ends; an* a note of dedication.. Only as man learns: to submit, obey, and meet i n Sbd can the b a t t l e be won.. Even so,, as many subsequent, poems demonstrate,, the C h r i s t i a n l i f e involves clashes; between, s e l f - w i l l and the divine w i l l * and man. can never r e a l l y "overcome" himself i n t h i s l i f e * . In. contrast- to the in t r o s p e c t i v e analysis o f the previous two poems,, a more complete i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e and a better sense of re s o l u t i o n with Gtod's w i l l occurs i n "The Agonie" (p. 37).. The con-46 fident tone, h o m i l e t i c style,, and thirdr-person point of, view, ( u n t i l the very end), lend, much to the objective nature of the poem,., as. does the reference iack. to "The S a c r i f i c e " i n the accounts? of, O l i v e t and Calvary itself".. In. moving; away, from, an immediate consideration., of s e l f to, a concern with Gnrist; Herbert i s i n fact: repeating; the method, of: "The. S a c r i f i c e " , , and: t h i s focus causes: him to accept: more r e a d i l y the fact o f h i s regeneration without t r y i n g to "do."! things,., to o f f e r s a c r i f i c e s of. the f l e s h i n order to. prove hi s love f o r God., While; s t i l l keeping h i s focus on C h r i s t , the poet's, own: d e f i n i t i o n s o f S i n and. Love, gloss the n a r r a t i v e of "The S a c r i f i c e " , , thereby indicating, a. personal a p p l i c a -tion, ©if these concepts*. After introducing the s u b j e c t by speaking; of conditions of the world which, cannot be s a i d to involve concepts of s i n and love (cf.. "The P e a r l " ' s "1 know the wayes of. liearning. Honour......Pleasure"'),, the f i r s t , stanza: ends,, leavin g the impression that the degrada-tion, and worthlessness o f man w i l l be opposed, to the p u r i t y of God.. The second, stanza reverses; the expectation by show,-ing; the effects, of the world's, s i n upon, the si n l e s s ; C h r i s t . In. the time of prayer on the. Mount o f O l i v e s , C h r i s t l i t e r a l -l y takes t h i s sin; upon Himself,, and- the r e s u l t i n g s p i r i t u a l pain,, associated with the wine-press,, seems; more d i s t r e s -s i n g and: more, agonizing than the c r u c i f i x i o n i t s e l f , , which, i s presented i n terms, of divine. Love.. When, the poet "measures" s i n as: demonstrated on O l i v e t , he. discovers i t s , "pain" 1, 47 a, pais, which,, by extension, from. C h r i s t to man,, "huntCs) hi s c r u e l ! food through ev'xy •vein"- (12),., This second stan-za, provides; the poem;1 s nexus;:: a; true understanding, of: his. condition, and. the. p r o p i t i a t i o n of C h r i s t , ss S a c r i f i c e , causes, an unstated* but nevertheless very r e a l acceptance, or re-affirmation, of, t h a t p r o p i t i a t i o n . . Seen i n the l i g h t , of the O l i v e t scene.,, the events o f Calvary manifest the s a c r i -f i c i a l p r i n c i p l e . . The "agpny"^ of the t i t l e , which, i s s p e c i f i c a l l y spojkeh. of i n the account, o f Olivet. (Luke 22:44.) refers- to the power at sin. which, i n prayer,, caused C h r i s t to perspire " a s . i t were, great drops of blood" 1* thus symbolically pre-f i g u r i n g the actual blood of the cross.. The "agony" thus; centres, on the former scene* as; i t does s i m i l a r l y i n the l i f e ©f. the Christian.. After dealing; with the sin. or a l t e r -n a t e l y r e a f f i r m i n g the fact of regeneration.,, the blood of s a c r i f i c e e f f e c t i v e l y transmutes into the wine of communion; acceptance leads; to celebration and i t s e l f , c o n s titutes the true "thanksgiving" sought for i n the previous, two poems.. A turning, to God f o r i n i t i a l , regeneration, provides: the focus, for "The Sinner" (p.. 38), the f i r s t , poem o f the "Passion." sequence. In response to what he has "seen, and f e l t " by consideration of Christ f es; S a c r i f i c e , he opens, "Lord,, how 1 am a l l . ague,, when I seek. / What I. have treasur'd. i n my meraoriet" (.1-2) — a memory affe c t e d by the dramatic; and l i t u r g i c a l format of "The S a c r i f i c e " . . The speaker makes, referenc.e to Sunday worship which "by r i g h t i s due to thee"- (4) * thereby echoing the i n s t r u c t i o n of "The Church-porch".. 48. But such a s a c r i f i c e is . by i t s e l f an. outward r i t u a l , , and of no worth to the sinner who admits that h i s heart c o n t a i n s very l i t t l e i n the way of n a t u r a l goodness or h o l i n e s s * The plea, for divine help occurs, in. the f i n a l three, lines.:: "Yet, Lord restore thine image,, heare my c a l l : . / And1, though my hard heart scarce to thee can. grone,. / Remember that thou didst write in. stone" (12-14) • These li n e s ; s i g n i f i c a n t -l y focus on restoration,, and the soul which, because of. s i n has been, heretofore estranged i s now "brought, nigh by the blood. o;f C h r i s t "> The commonplace of the heart, upon, or within which. Sod writes, the laws of. the New Covenant; finds, more complete expression i n the following poem, "Good; F r i -day" (21ff.). The point here, as i n "The Altar",, i s that, GOd can, make an impression ( i n both senses) on the heart,, and indeed must do so to bring about a sinner's regeneration. But God has w r i t t e n i n the stone o;f his, heart,,, and though 'icarcely" able to doi so,, the heart can and does o f f e r i t s groans meet, for repentance. The e f f i c a c y of groans i s made c l e a r i n "Sion" (p., 106:): " A l l Solomons sea of brasse, and world of stone / I s not so deare to thee as one good grone" (17-18).. The importance of i d e n t i f y i n g with C h r i s t • s S a c r i -f i c e and appropriating the Grace necessary to c o n t i n u a l l y apply the s a c r i f i c i a l b e n e f i t s i n d i c a t e s in. "Good F r i d a y " (p.. 38) a. movement from a rather flippant, response to the Eassion to a. more mature, consideration.. The. f i r s t f i v e stanzas, take up; the attempt, of. "The Thanksgiving"' to make 49 every effort, to pay back or to s u f f e r equally with C h r i s t the sorrows of the cross.. The exact, matching of g r i e f for grief, i s i n d i c a t e d at the stairt of the poem with a. re-wording of "The Thanksgiving"*s opening question:. 0> ay chief, good,. How. s h a l l I measure out thy bloud? How s h a l l I count what thee b e f e l l , . And each, g r i e f t e l l ? . (1-4) Suggested "counters" with which to match C h r i s t ' s sorrows, are the numbers of enemies,, stars,, leaves, and f r u i t , , as w e l l as the hours i n a l i f e t i m e and the s i n s ofthe speaker. With the regularizatiom of l i n e lengths and metric s t r u c -ture i n the l a s t three stanzas,, the poet presents the idea, not of how to match C h r i s t ' s g r i e f s , but of how to deal with his; own sins.. The ev e r - e f f i c a c i o u s S a c r i f i c e of. C h r i s t i s . to "come to lodge" (27) within the speaker's heart, so that„ i n a v a r i a t i o n on the eyes-witfcnr-the-heart motif, the p e r s o n i f i e d s i n "spies so many foes" ( 2 5 ) and leaves the heart, to be replaced by the Grace of God. Notwithstand-i n g t h i s more "mature" C h r i s t i a n p o s i t i o n the poem ends, l i k e "The R e p r i s a l l " , , with a rather naive assumption. Sin. w i l l indeed "return" to the heart; i t has i n fact never l e f t (through a l l h i s l i f e there w i l l i n "one box... . l i e both ink and sinne" ( 2 4 ) « . Even though the Covenant of Grace,, as written i n the heart,, cannot be e n t i r e l y blotted out by s i n , i t w i l l succeed i n covering Grace or d i s a n n u l l i n g i t s e f f o r t s within, the heart.. After the f u t i l e s t r i v i n g to return, to God the. 50 Love presented i n 'The S a c r i f i c e " , , a sense of f i n a l i t y and re s o l u t i o n and the a f f i r m a t i o n of regeneration does occur i n "Redemption" (p. 40)- The "land" which the " r i c h Lord" has bought, "to take possession" (.8) i s the human heart which "Good F r i d a y " sought- for God to "keep possession with thy grace" (30).. Though written as a personal testimony of h i s search f o r God's; redemptive Grace,, the poem addresses the reader, who i s made to learn, mot through some d i d a c t i c s t a t e -ments but through the poet's experience that he has,, as i n e a r l i e r poems,, sought i n the wrong places.. He f i n a l l y does " f i n d " the c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t the very moment before His. death. He says s i g n i f i c a n t l y , "there I him espied." (13) • The S a c r i f i c e which s i n had gazed upon i n the preceding poem,, when "looked upon." and received by the poet., brings; about, h i s immediate redemption! "Your s u i t i s granted" (15)* The awareness of God's Love o f f s e t s the conscious-ness of man's; s i n f u l nature i n "Sepulchre" (p. 40).- The poem seemingly regresses from the r e s t f u l ending of "Redemp-t i o n " . I n addressing C h r i s t as a spokesman or priest, on behalf, of the people, Herbert does not. overtly concern him-s e l f with h i s personal r e l a t i o n s h i p to C h r i s t , nor does he speak o f repentance,nqr ask that divine Grace should confront, s i n within his; heart,, as i n "Good Eriday". The emphasis here as i n the pxe.ee.ding. poems;,,, however, i s on. God's actions: toward., the undeserving sinner,; and although, the s i t u a t i o n in. "Sepulchre"' is. that of a division, between man and God,* s t i l l d i v i n e Love, can and does enter the human 51 heart. There i s , i n the fourth, stanza,; a marked, contrast between the sinners'' Hearts which, "have took up stones to brain thee n < CCE3.X and the heart, of. "The A l t a r " * whose stones, o f f e r a s a c r i f i c e of p r a i s e i n response to a renewed sense of the fact, of redemption, and, regeneration* Also,, the stones of the sepulcher which, "in. quiet entertain thee* / And order" 5 (.15-16), paradoxically i n d i c a t e that the reb u i l t , , well-framed heart should be the d e l i g h t f u l dwelling-place of C h r i s t . Despite the manifestation of sin,, the awareness of God's: Love brings man. through the "sepulcher" 1 experiences, of l i f e . The poet's sense o f regeneration, and. his. i d e n t i f i c a -tion, with C h r i s t ' s v i c t o r y over death and s i n results^ i n "Easter" (p.. 41) l i t an. exhortation to his; heart and l u t e to o f f e r a musical s a c r i f i c e o f praise.. E l s e heart; thy Lord. is. risen.. Sing h i s praise Without delayes* Who takes; thee, by the hand* that thou likewise With, him mayst; r i s e : That* as h i s death, calcined thee to dust* His: l i f e may make, thee gold, and much more,, &ust.. (1-6). Since man's: j u s t i f i c a t i o n has raisej him s p i r i t u a l l y to " s i t , i m heavenly places?'*, so.; h i s song, should follow s u i t and. " r i s e " as; the smoke from; the a l t a r s a c r i f i c e s . . I n a s t r i k -i n g conceit: in, the second stanza*, the c e n t r a l stanza o f the prologue to the song i t s e l f , ; the poet returns to the s a c r i -f i c i a l theme, and i d e n t i f i e s h i s l u t e with the cross and Christ's; body*. The crosse taught a l l wood, to resound h i s name* Who bore, the same*. His Wretched sinews taught: a l l s t r i n g s , what key I s best to' celebrate t h i s most high day (9-12)., 52 The. s a c r i f i c i a l song, as, w e l l as the means f o r i t s o f f e r -ing, i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e s to the fact, and benefits: o.f Christ's. S a c r i f i c e . . There i s in. the t h i r d stanza, an echo; o f the " s t r i v i n g " - between the poet, and h i s s a c r i f i c e s i n d i c a t e d i n "The Dedication"., But in. order to "twist a song / Plea-sant, and: long" : (,13rI4) * the heart, and l u t e must "consort" in. harmony other than- musical alone.. Bather than, trying: to exceed each, other, the sincere and thankful heart,, which provides the words, afthe song,, must temper and be tempered by the l u t e , whose music must in. t u r n be informed by thv subject, of C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e and the redemption provided by i t . . Most of a l l , the ministry of. the S p i r i t , , the divine dimension,, must operate to; wake, the song a t r u l y acceptable s a c r i f i c e . , At, t h i s point,, as a means of introducing the song i t s e l f , : Herbert turns from speaking to h i s heart and l u t e to addressing; God,, asking that the S p i r i t w i l l "make, up our defects with h i s sweet a r t " Cl8).. "The Dedication." speaks of s t r i v i n g , , and t h i s e f f o r t i s perhaps commendable i n terms of zeal but i s f u t i l e without the third; dimension of: the Spirit... T h i s ministry causes; the stones of man's: n a t u r a l l y hard, heart to o f f e r a s a c r i f i c e of praise,, as seen i n "The Altar".. The humble submission to and acceptance of divine a i d suggests; the possible a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the following song* one of. the r e l a t i v e l y few; expressions o f pure praise to God found in. The. Temple* The theme of praise i n "Easter-wings" (p.. 43), the second pattern poem of Herbert t !s work,, more e x p l i c i t l y 53 r e l a t e s to C h r i s t ' a S a c r i f i c e . . The pattern, of the poem's two; stanzas; of: course i n d i c a t e s how, man"s: own ways and: s i n cause s p i r i t u a l decay,, poverty;,, and thinness. As i n the manner of. "The Altar"*, the f i r s t , pafft,. i n fact, the f i r s t , half,, o f each stanza discusses, the c o n d i t i o n of man. without, God.. After t h i s f i r s t , sentence, a "turning point." occurs,, and: the l i n e s begin to lengthen, i n correlation, with the theme, o f man"s; s p i r i t u a l growth,, and; in. r e l a t i o n to Christ''a i n i t i a l and continuing regenerative power* But differences; between the stanzas exist... The. poet begins by speaking o f man's general condition rather than his; own, and while,, a f t e r the turning p o i n t he prays,, "with thee / 0. l e t me r i s e " ' (6-7),, he asks only to; "sing, t h i s day thy v i c t o r i e s " (9), the subject, of. the preceding poem.. He. writes the second stanza e n t i r e l y about himself,, and h i s acknowledgment i n the f i r s t sentence of h i s own s i n and the divine law of punishment f o r that, s i n has more poignance and maturity than the general statement i n the f i r s t stanza.. More p e r t i -nent i s the second h a l f o f the stanza i n which he asks, "With thee / Let me combine / And f e e l t h i s day thy v i c t o r i e " C.16-18).. He. must continually i d e n t i f y and s p i r i t u a l l y involve himself with C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e . The, S p i r i t should "make up our defects" and so allow the poet to s i n g accept-ably, but he should also f e e l within him the S p i r i t ' s re-generating power so t h a t h i s l i f e as well as h i s song of praise should ascend heavenward,. A.vibrant r e l a t i o n s h i p with C h r i s t , whether spoken o f here i n terms of how the 54. poet w i l l "imp my wing on thine" 1 (19), or w i l l take hold of C h r i s t i e hand ("Easter"),, or w i l l "by confession.. .come / Into thy conquest." ("The E e p r i s a l l " ) has- importance i n o f f e r -i n g s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e s and. i n l i v i n g a l i f e generally w e l l - p l e a s i n g to God., And yet, i n terms of t h i s l a t t e r poem, Herbert does wot t r y to exceed C h r i s t v i c t o r i e s . As i n the case o f "The Altar",., the "confining" 7 form of "Easter-wings" ; suggests the denial of a heavenly union in. t h i s l i f e * Also,, even though "the f a l l " (10) and " a f f l i c -tion." (.20) of s i n serve to drive man to God,, s i n i s not ". henceforth o b l i t e r a t e d or denied,, a fact, which i s apparent throughout, the poems of The Temple. In the two "H. Baptisme" poems which end the f i r s t sequence of "Eassion" poems Herbert f i r s t a ffirms the fact of regeneration, and then responds by expressing h i s dedica-t i o n to God. As the two sacraments of the Anglican Church, Baptism and Holy Communion serve as l i t u r g i c a l l o c i f o r the worshipper"s r e a f f i r m a t i o n of f a i t h , dedication to God's s e r v i c e , and praise and thanksgiving... I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , that "The H., Communion",, along with "Antiphon (I)",, ends the second sequence of Passion, poems, for par t i c i p a t i o n , i n the sacrament, allows for memory or re-enactment o f C h r i s t , : s S a c r i f i c e . . Baptism marks the entry of the i n d i v i d u a l into the C h r i s t i a n community with the understanding that h i s regeneration w i l l be affirmed f i r s t by Confirmation, and then re-affirmed, p a r t l y by means of Hoia Communion, through-out h i s l i f e . . 55 In the sestet of "H. Baptisme ( I ) " (p. 43)* Her-bert r e l a t e s h i s infant, baptism to the redemption provided by C h r i s t on the cross.- He d i r e c t l y addresses the baptismal waters themselves i n the remainder of. the sonnet.. The poet begins by speaking generally: "0: blessed streams! e i t h e r ye do; prevent / And stop our sinnes from growing t h i c k and wide* / Or else give tears to drown them* as they grow" C.7—1)• Herein l i e s the essence of the poemj baptism marks i n i t i a l regeneration* but memory <a,£it. can. prompt •r s a c r i f i c i a l repentance f o r the sins of d a i l y l i f e . - The emphasis r e s t s on the former f u n c t i o n * however, and although i t switches to the f i r s t - p e r s o n singular point; of view,, the poem i s meant to serve as a s p i r i t u a l touchstone.. In, s t a t i n g , "In. you Redemption measures a l l my time" (.10), Herbert r e c a l l s the poem "Redemption." which spoke of C h r i s t ' s taking possession of man's heart and accepting, man as he i s . . In that poem Christ says to the seeker, "Your suit, i s granted"* and t h i s s u i t w i l l not be broken., He rests: " i n C h r i s t " and C h r i s t resides w i t h i n h i s heart.. Even though, s i n may and w i l l disturb; the nature of man.*®, communion with God., the "Book of Life!! 5 records h i s name* and he affirms the fact of h i s regeneration.. "H.. Baptisme £11)" (ip.. 44) responds to the r e a l i z a t i o n of the preceding poem* as "The Thanks giving" 1 and "The Reprisall'* attempted to respond to. Christ"® Sacri f i c e . . But the nature and tone o f response d i f f e r s markedly.. The f a i t h which has been renewed by a. memory of baptism, causes the poet to dedicate himself in. 56 humble submissionr; "0 l e t me s t i l l . / Write thee great God, and me a childer. / Let me be soft; and supple to thy w i l l " 1 (6-8).. The s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e of commitment marks a sense of communion-, with God; and an, appropriation of His Love,, evident; to a l i m i t e d extent at the close of "The Reprisal!",, "The Agonie", "Redemption!*,, and "Sepulchre". The poems surveyed i n the preceding few pages p r i m a r i l y emphasize. God's i n i t i a t i v e to bring man. into a place o f harmony with Himself.- The poet of the f i r s t "Pas-sion"'- sequence possibly receives or wishes to receive God's Love and Grace, but., does not f o r the most part o f f e r what could be c a l l e d d e f i n i t e sacrifices., of repentance or praise (except perhaps i n "Easter" for the l a t t e r case), p a r t i c u l a r -l y as these s a c r i f i c e s a r i s e out of the c o n f l i c t , and ultimate r e s o l u t i o n between h i s w i l l and. the divine w i l l . . The poet's condition and M s e f f o r t s to achieve, and maintain a sense of communion with God constitute the primary focus of. the second sequence of poems which, respond t& the dramatic account of C h r i s t ' s Passion i n "The S a c r i f i c e " . "Mature" Cp. 45) recognizes the need, for God to intervene i n a l i f e of s p i r i t u a l and moral decay,, but. once again f a i l s to make a s a c r i f i c i a l act of repentance.. Her-bert prays that his "rugged" heart might be "tamed" and "smoothed",, and repeats the image of the stony heart i n which resides both the Word and the S p i r i t , but, also the "dust" of sin. and worldliness, as seen e a r l i e r i n "The Sinner",, "Good Eriday",. and "Sepulchre"., "Taming"1 and. 57 "smoothing'* seem, to he measures i n s u f f i c i e n t to deal with, the "venome" of sin,, and the poet*'s suggestion, that God should instead create, a new heart i s no more than an. a f t e r -thought,. A© i n e a r l i e r poems:, no definite, act, of repentances oiccursj -, there i s no sense of the broken heart which, must precede the restored or re-created heart of "The Altar" 5.. But the poem speaks about, human', nature which by d e f i n i t i o n , stands; a t variance with, the divine nature,, and; i t remains f o r the following; poem to speak s p e c i f i c a l l y of sin,. A more, mature acceptance of the nature o f sin. i n i t s e f f e c t upon.the sinner marks the theme of "Sinne ( I ) " (p.. 45) •- This poem i n v i t e s comparison, with. "The Sinner"',, a p a r a l l e l , poem, i n the f i r s t sequence.. I n terms of content. "The Sinner" bears more s i m i l a r i t y to "Fature" because even though the poet invoices God toe "restore thine Image" to. a heart/soul containing, "quarries, of p i l ' d v a n i t i e s " (5) he i r o n i c a l l y places emphasis upon the "shreds of holinesse" (6), ; and he appeals to God i n an, almost perfunctory fashion.. "Sinne CI)", although addressed to God,, flakes no appeal.. Parents, teachers, and ministers, teach the moral precepts; o f "The Church-porch", ,,. but, the e f f i c a c y o f such i n s t r u c -t i o n s h a t t e r s with the f i n a l couplet, "Yet a l l these fences and t h e i r whole aray / One cumning bosome-sinne blows quite away" (13-14).. The " d e f i n i t i o n 1 * of s i n found i n "The Agonie"* and more so,, the dramatic, presentation,. through irony and paradox i n C h r i s t ' s account of "The S a c r i f i c e " leads to a mature depiction, o f sin, a t the end o f the poem.. 58 The new l e v e l of s p i r i t u a l understanding suggest-ed by "Mature" and "Sinne C D " leads further to the acceptance ^ of. l i f e ' s problems and a s a c r i f i c i a l r e t u r n of love to God i n " A f f l i c t i o n (I)".. The C h r i s t i a n does not enjoy a l i f e of continuous b l i s s , but the s u f f e r i n g of sickness,, d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , , and unhappiness, ostensibly brought about, by God Himself,, paradoxically causes him to express love for God. Friends, wit, personal usefulness, to p i c s about which "The Church-porch" had offered i n s t r u c t i o n , are taken away: "Thus thinne and l e a n without a fence or f r i e n d , / I. was blown through with ev'ry storm and winde" (35-36). The "fences" do not withstand ei t h e r s i n (as i n "Sinne (I)") or unfortunate circumstances of l i f e , and the poet's f r u s t r a -t i o n l i e s i n h i s consciousness of e x i s t i n g i n a limbo, between a l i f e of enjoying God's blessings and a l i f e of going h i s own way: "Thus doth thy power crosse-bias me, not making / Thine own g i f t good, yet me from my ways taking" 1 (53-54)• The pun on "crosse" has importance here as elsewhere; C h r i s t ' s a l t a r / c r o s s of s a c r i f i c e provides the good g i f t of redemp-t i o n . Despite sicknesses, calamities,, and the i n e x p l i c a b l e removal of "fences",, regeneration i s assumed.. In l i g h t of the poem's content, the submission voiced i n the l a s t stanza seems to issue f o r t h from the r e b e l l i o n of "Nature"., Herbert; ends " A f f l i c t i o n (I.)" with the lines,, "Ah my deare God I though I. am clean forgot, / Let me not love thee,, i f I love thee not" (65-66).. He addresses God';BO*. asmaster but as a loved one, and not only, has the g i f t of redemption been made good, the poet i s not "clean forgot"' because he cannot, by s c r i p t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n , give or return to 59 God what he has mot already received.. Under the circumstances, man's submission to God's w i l l and acceptance of His ways w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be incomplete or not e n t i r e l y s i n c e r e . In " A f f l i c t i o n ( I ) " (p.. 46) God'*s eternal and accepting Love, however,, i n s p i r e s from the heart of the redeemed both a spontaneous flow of love and,, i n s p i t e of f e e l i n g s o f misunderstanding and! being misunderstood,, a w i l l i n g s a c r i -f i c e of devotion.. Unlike "Repentance", the poem does not r e l a t e " a f f l i c t i o n " 1 to sin,, but confesses an. i n e v i t a b l e and recur-rent, s p i r i t u a l dilemma of the C h r i s t i a n l i f e , , as the auto-biographical confent of the poem contends.. I f i n The Temple " A f f l i c t i o n ( I ) " f i r s t t r e a t s "honestly" the problems of l i f e which a f f e c t man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to God, "Repentance" (p. 48) f i r s t confronts: the problem of man's s i n and o f f e r s a d e f i n i t e s a c r i f i c e of repentance. I n a manner very un-l i k e that, of "The Sinner" and "Sinne ( I ) " the poem opens with the h e a v i l y - s t r e s s e d , "Lord, I. confesse my sinne i s great; / Great i s my sinne" (1-2). The f i r s t three stanzas speak of man's mortality and sorrow which r e s u l t from sin,, and the poet ends the t h i r d stanza, the mid-point of the poem,, by r e i t e r a t i n g his opening statement, "I do confesse. / My foolishnesse" ( 1 6 - 1 7 ) , and pleading, "My GOd„ accept of my confession" (18)., This clear-cut s a c r i f i c e of re-pentance may be s a i d to be "accepted" because a kind of turning point occurs i n the poem.. Even though he continues to discuss s i n ' s f r u i t s of sorrow and. b i t t e r n e s s i n the f i f t h stanza he looks to God to restore him to the stature of His Image spoken of in preceding poems. The confident tone of the f i n a l stanza befits the aftermath of confession: But thou wilt, sinne and grief destroy; That so the broken bones may joy, And tune together in a well-set song, F u l l of his praises,: Who dead men raises. Fractures well cur t ;d make us more strong (.31-36).. Occurring as it . does within the same chapter as the scrip-ture concerning the sacrifice of a broken heart, the B i b l i c a l analogue to this stanza has significance: "Make me to hear joy and gladness: that the bones which thou hast broken may rejoice" (Ps. 51:8)- God may allow the s p i r i t u a l tor literajj.) bones,, as well as the heart,, to be broken by the effects of sin, or He. may bring about such, a breaking at. the time of, contrition for sin, but the sp i r i t u a l principle f i r s t set forth in "The Altar" 1 i s here re-emphasized* Fractures and broken hearts are mended by the power of God (although man has a part in the latter case as "The Altar" indicates),; and sacrifices of praise and song can be proper-ly offered only when man"® relationship with God has been restored. The poem, moves from a sense of s i n and sorrow,, through repentance,; to an anticipation of j,by and praise to God, which, i n the very expression of expectancy i n the final, stanza, i s to some extent already present.. The f i n a l four poems, of this sequence,, "Faith",; "Prayer (X)"„ "The H. Communion*', and "Antiphon ( I ) " pro-ceed" from the confession, and restoration of "Repentance". The latt e r poem spoke of man's, sinful nature,, the resu l t of Adamc*'"s, f a l l . . "Eaith." ! (p.. 49) marvels; at God's Grace i n giving, to the sinner saving faith,, and more p a r t i c u l a r -l y g i v i n g to the C h r i s t i a n a g i f t of f a i t h which can be exercised to bring, help, and comfort in. times of " a f f l i c -tion.".-. " F a i t h " stands as the f i r s t poem; of the sequence to d e f i n i t e l y consider the theme o f Christ's; S a c r i f i c e and the restored b e l i e v e r ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with. it... The f i r s t . four poems analyzed s e l f and s i n , and now,, a f t e r the process i 0;f repentance and r e s t o r a t i o n f a i t h , manifests i t s ; presence. Herbert uses the image of poor v i s i o n to; show how God en-dows, man with f a i t h i n order to. i l l u m i n a t e t r u t h s about. Christ'*s work. of. atonement which can apply both for purposes of i n i t i a l regeneration and s p i r i t u a l growth, o f the believer.. When, creatures had no r e a l l l i g h t Inherent i n them, thou didst make the sunne Impute a lustre,, and allow them bright; And i n t h i s shew,, what C h r i s t hath., done.. That, which before was darkned clean. With bushie groves, p r i c k i n g the lookers e i e , Vanisht away,, when E a i t h did. change the scene:. And. then appear*d a, glorious skie (33-40). By faith, the be l i e v e r understands something of C h r i s t " s Incarnation and S a c r i f i c e — " F a i t h p u t s me there with, him,, who sweetly took / Our f l e s h and f r a i l t i e , , death and danger" (23-24) — but, most importantly, i d e n t i f i e s with., t h i s S a c r i f i c e and sees himself "ra i s e d with Christ",, s p i r i t u a l l y seated i n heavenly places: "And where sinne placeth me in. Adams f a l l , / F a i t h s e t s me higher i n h i s g l o r i e " (19-20),;., The poet's perception of f a i t h , gives him, a t h e o l o g i c a l b a s i s to. h i s understanding of, the r e c o n c i l i a -62 tioni provided by C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e and a sanction for o f f e r -i n g s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s of praise and dedication denoted in. the following poem.. As the poet exercises f a i t h , because of. the fact; of. fellowship with Sod, so h i s sense of. t h i s fellowship sanctions h i s prayers and they i n turn express the fellow-ship which he experiences., I n "Prayer C D " (p.. 51)., o f a l l the metaphors used to describe prayer* those most worthy of consideration i n the context o f t h i s study occur a t the beginning and end of the poem; "Prayer the Churches banquet..../ Sods, bareath. in, man returning to h i s b i r t h / ....something understood" (1-2* Ik)• Mention o f the "Churches banquet" a n t i c i p a t e s the following poem, "The H., Communion.", and. the celeVration or e u c h a r i s t i c aspect of communion should be considered along with the banquet which t r a d i t i o n a l l y accom-panied the Old Testament peace-offering s a c r i f i c e s . Prayer, to be considered as a. banquet* must be o f f e r e d to Sod from a restored altar/hear^ the plea of. "The Sinner" for Sod to "restore thine linage" must have been answered to allow f o r a. r e t u r n through prayer of the divine nature given, to him.. The metaphors of the poem, serve to describe rathgr than, to; define prayer,, in. l i k e manner as the poet, shows the na-ture of sin, and love i n "The Agonie"* and more s u c c e s s f u l l y shows sin's; nature and e f f e c t i n "Sinne ( I ) " . Prayer w i l l i n g -l y s a c r i f i c e s and spontaneously returns Sod* s Love and as suggested by the sense o f communion and harmony at, the end of " A f f l i c t i o n ; ( I ) " * prayer need* t o i n v o l v e no s p e ^ i * ! 63 explanation; or pleading; the be l i e v e r i s accepted by God, hence h i s prayer i s understood. Like the "H. Baptisme" poems, "The H. Communion" (p. 52) affirms the fact of regeneration and then o f f e r s a s a c r i f i c e of p r a i s e . The poet f i r s t makes a d i s t i n c t i o n , between the r o l e o f moral behaviours and the much more e f f i -cacious r o l e of Grace within, the soul of the b e l i e v e r . I n l i g h t of the f a c t that the Eucharist represents the epi -tome of worship experience within the Anglican Church, the poem, provides a t y p o l o g i c a l response to the somewhat ambiva-l e n t a t t i t u d e toward the prophetic view of moral i n s t r u c t i o n begun i n "The Churoh-porch" and continued in. "Nature" and "Sinne CI.)".. Receptionofethe sacramental elements helps to sanction or authorize the worth of human r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , , but true s p i r i t u a l a c t i v i t y takes place within the soul or a l t a r / h e a r t , the "arena of c o n f l i c t " where the power of God s t r i v e s against hu^an se l f c - w i l l and sin.. In speaking of the sacramental elements the poet says, * l e t can these not get over to my soul,. Leaping the wall that p a r t s Our souls and fleshy hearts; But as th' outworks, they may c o n t r o l l My r e b e l - f l e s h , and carrying thy name,, A f f r i g h t both sinne and shame (13-18).. The " r e b e l - f l e s h " which the sacramental elements controls r e c a l l s the troublesome " r e b e l l i o n " of "Nature" and the " a f f r i g h t e d shame" 5relates back to the shame of "Sinne ( I ) " which as an outer manifestation, of the human condition i s "fenced" by moral and s c r i p t u r a l dictates.. But i t i s 64 only the S p i r i t of Sod who can "leap the w a l l " from "The Churchsporch" of f l e s h to The Church of the heart.. Onely thy grace,, which with these elements comes,; Knoweth the ready way, And hath the p r i v i e key, Op 1ning the souls most s u b t i l e rooms (19-22). The r i t u a l o f the Eucharist r i -> l i k e the Old Testament s a c r i -f i c i a l r i t u a l s , provides e f f i c a c y to the b e l i e v e r , according to the prophetic view, only i n s o f a r as true s p i r i t u a l a c t i -v i t y within the heart accompanies the r i t u a l . . The structure of the poem demonstrates the pattern of o f f e r i n g s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s to God. In the f i r s t h a l f o f the poem Herbert considers the manner i n which the Grace o f <5od overcomes "sinnes force and a r t " (.11) • As i n "Easter", as well as; i n "The A l t a r " and "Easter-wings" a turning point occurs midway through the poem and the s t r u c t u r e , metre, and tone of the f i r s t four stanzas i s changed. The ecstasy of the f i r s t of these stanzas, Give me my captive soul,, or take My bo die also thither.-Another l i f t l i k e t h i s w i l l make Them both to be together (.25-28),, has caused, some c r i t i c s to regard Herbert as a mystic, or at l e a s t as one who writes about, mystical states. For the purposes of this, study the turning point c o r r e l a t e s simultaneously with the "immolation"- o f the e u c h a r i s t i c r i t u a l , God's f i e r y acceptance of the penitent's s a c r i f i c i a l o f f e r i n g , and a sudden perception of the Holy S p i r i t ' s ministry within the b e l i e v e r ' s heart; the eternal has manifested i t -s e l f i n the temporal. The f i n a l stanzas; mark the poet's attempt, to respond, not t h i s time to the wonder of C h r i s t ' s 65 Passion,, nor to h i s own sense of s i n and unworthiness, but to a not too frequent experience of intensely f e l t communion with Gbd.-In the structure of the poem Herbert has caused tfhe f i r s t and l a s t stanzas- to "turn i n " toward the centre,; suggesting the ultimate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with C h r i s t ' s S a c r i -f i c e found i n the Communion experience.. The poet begins by declaring that the Grace of the E u c h a r i s t i c sacrament is: not "conveyed" by means of " r i c h f u r n i t u r e * or f i n e aray, / Ho>r i n a wedge of gold" (1-2).,,, and he i s not here only i n d i c a -t i n g the s u p e r i o r i t y o f the simple Anglican r i t e to the more, elaborate trappings of the C a t h o l i c s e r v i c e , as Lewal-s k i and Sab.pl. have suggested.^ The images r e c a l l the second stanza, of " A f f l i c t i o n (.!)" i n which the poet had been, drawn to God through a naive appreciation of God's " f u r n i t u r e so f i n e " (7) and His "glorious houshold-stuffe" (9), s u p e r f i c i a l and temporary blessings which d i d not and could not c o n s t i -tute the essence of salvation.. "Thou,, who for me wast: s o l d " (3) i n d i c a t e s the s t a r t of the Passion narrative, and the poem. ends. with, the as s e r t i o n , "Thou hast restor'd us to t h i s ease / By t h i s thy heav'nly bloud" (37-38).- The Blood o f the S a c r i f i c i a l Lamib:,. when s p i r i t u a l l y appropriated by the C h r i s t i a n , restores a sense of harmony with God ted the broken, heart i s mended to be a f i t a l t a r for the o f f e r i n g of acceptable s a c r i f i c e s of praise,. such as. those contained i n "Antiphon (X)".. Following the B i b l i c a l precedent of c l o s i n g the 66V Communion Service with, the singing of. a hymn (Matt. 26:30, Mark: 14:26),, "Antlphon ( 1 ) " (p.. 53) o f f e r s to God the praises o?f. the redeemed. Herbert here a n t i c i p a t e s "Providence" and the p r i e s t l y o f f e r i n g of praise on behalf, of others, but i n the second "^er.se"' he r e c a l l s a p r i n c i p l e f i r s t pre-sented i n "Easter"* The. church; with psalms must shout, If© doore can; keep them. out:. But. above a l l , , the heart Must bear the longest part (.9.-12) •• Praise i s to proceed out of a restored,: sincere heart, made so by the i n d w e l l i n g presence and* ministry of the Holy S p i r i t who must,: i n addition,, "bear a part, / And make up our defect® with his sweet art"' ("Easter", 17-18).. Although a c e r t a i n tone of confidence and. joy pervades. t h i s "Passion" sequence from "Repentance" on, the experience of " A f f l i c t i o n ( I ) " and. e a r l i e r poems informs a reading o f The Temple as a whole.. One must seek, to "comibine / And f e e l t h i s day Christ's: v i c t o r i e " ("Easter-wings", 17-18) both i n the o f f e r i n g of praise and i n dealing, w i t h immediate problems.. But "bearing the longest, p a r t " means. that, the heart; must accept, the v i c i s s i t u d e s of l i f e , and through a true a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f the p r o p i t i a t o r y benefits o f C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e and a relkance upon the ministry of. the S p i r i t , be prepared to /continually o f f e r s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s , of repentance^ dedication,, and praise,, in. order to acquire some measure o f C h r i s t i a n maturity.. 67 FOOTNOTES; I, Mario A.. Di G.esare and Bagp Mignani,. A; Ccfficordance to, the Complete Writings, o.f. George Herhert: (Ithaca and London: C o r n e l l Univ.. Press* 1977) s p.. 696* 2 Lewalski and Sahol,, p.. 180... 3; Lewalski and Sahal.,.. p* 205* 4; Helen Vendler, The, Poetry of. George Herbert (Cambridge„ Mass.. and. London:: Harvard Univ.. Press,. 1975),. p.. 62* 5' Tuve* p.. 24.*-6; Lewalski and SaboL, p.. 231* 68 CHAPTER THREE • SPIRITUAL.. S A C R I F I C E ffl.D THE HEART I n . i t s s t u d y o f n i n e poems w h i c h , e x p l i c i t l y ; u s e t h e l a n g u a g e o f s a c r i f i c e * t h i s c h a p t e r c o n t i n u e s t o em-p h a s i z e t h e s a c r i f i c i a l , q u a l i t i e s o.f r e p e n t a n c e * d e d i c a t i o n * a n d p r a i s e . - C o n c e r n , f o r t h e r o l e . of. t h e h e a r t i n , s a c r i f i c e * a mark o f a more m a t u r e C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e * r e p l a c e s t h e f o c u s upon, t h e S a c r i f i c e o.f C h r i s t ; i n . t h e f i r s t s e v e r a l poems, o f The T e m p l e . A f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g t y p o l o g i c a l p r i n c i -p l e s f o r t h e o f f e r i n g o f s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s i n "The A l t a r " H e r b e r t p l a c e s "The S a c r i f i c e " as . a f o c a l p o i n t f o r a f f i r m -i n g s a l v a t i o n and, s a c r i f i c i n g , t o G o d * a n d shows: how t h e f o l l o w i n g poems r e s p o n d tot d i f f e r e n t ways t o t h e f a c t , o f C h r i s t »ss S a c r i f i c e . . T h e s e poems p r o g r e s s from, an " i m m a t u r e " d e s i r e t o m a t c h C h r i s t ' s . P a s s i o n , t h r o u g h a l i m i t e d u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f s i n . a n d human n a t u r e , , t o g e t h e r w i t h a r a t h e r p a s s i v e a c c e p t a n c e o>f. S o d ' s L o v e a n d G r a c e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h , t h e S a c r i f i c e * t o d e f i n i t e s a c r i f i c i a l a c t s of. r e p e n t a n c e w h i c h r e s u l t i n a sense, o f r e s t o r e d f e l l o w s h i p w i t h . God.. The e m p h a s i s p l a c e d upon, b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s and r e p e n t a n c e g i v e s way t o a g r e a t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f d e d i c a t i o n a n d p r a i s e i n t h e poems of. t h i s c h a p t e r . . The s a c r i f i c i a l r e -s p o n s e s t o God i n t h e s e poem© g e n e r a l l y proceed 1 , f r o m a c o n s c i o u s s e n s e o f communion w i t h H i m . . The s t u d y t r e a t s t h e poems a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r o r d e r i n The T e m p l e , a n d , , s c a t t e r e d a s t h e y a r e t h r o u g h -o u t t h e w o r k , , i d e a s do n o t p r o g r e s s f r o m one poem t o a n o t h e r a s i n . t h e s e q u e n c e s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Two.. M o s t o f t h e s e poems do c o n s i d e r t h e r o l e o f t h e h e a r t i n s p i r i t u a l s a c r i -69 f i c e * "Love" uses conventional language to speak of the poetic o f f e r i n g s a r i s i n g from the a l t a r of the heart.. "Mattens" desires to give the heart to God as a morning s a c r i f i c e , , while "Sion" reconsider^ the need to repent of sin.. "Providence" offers; praise for the bounties of God's; creation.. Following from "Mattens" 1 "Love unknown" and "An O f f e r i n g " discuss the trial© which a heart must undergo before i t w i l l be accepted by God.. "The Priesthood" and "Aaron" concern themselves with dedicatory aspects of: the m i n i s t r y . The study ends with an examination i n "The Odour" o;f the expression of lov.e offered to God from a heart which enjoys; a sense of close communion with Him* "Love" (p.. 3k) considers the need f o r divine Love to i n i t i a t e the o f f e r i n g of. poetic: s a c r i f i c e s . The f i r s t , of the poem's two sonnets laments that men write poems cele b r a t i n g mortal love instead of p r a i s i n g the God of c r e a t i o n and s a l v a t i o n . The fact, that: "onely a skarf or glove / Doth warm our hands,, and make them write of lo v e " ( I , 13-14) i n d i c a t e s the natural coldness of man's; lov.e f o r God.. T h i s condition contrasts with that o f the second sonnet i n which the poet, prays for "Immortal Love" to mani-fest i t s e l f i n h i s l i f e through the agency of "Immortal Heat". Herbert's poem r e l a t e s to that o f Donne's "The Holy Ghost" i n i t s opening request f o r the "greater flame" (1) of divine Love to g a i n supremacy over and tame the l e s -ser flames o f human, pride and lust.. The divine f i r e does not d i r e c t l y purge these l u s t s , but rather i g n i t e s s p i r i t u a l 70 desires; which consume sin.. Where i n "Good Eriday" Grace takes possession o.f the heart a f t e r sin. has been chased out,, so Love w i l l here do likewise:. And k i n d l e i n our hearts such true desires, As may consume our lusts,, and make thee way.. Then, s h a l l our hearts pant thee; then / s h a l l our brain A l l her invention on. thine A l t a r l a y , And there i n hymnes send back thy f i r e again ( I I , 4-8).. These l i n e s show, the order of s a c r i f i c e , , an order which Herbert repeats at the end of the poem from the p l u r a l point of. view. Sin must be dealt with,, so that then, a f t e r a r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p has ^een restored,, true devotion and acts of dedication along with hymns of p r a i s e can be offered on or proceed from the a l t a r of the heart.. Only,7 the f i r e of. the Holy S p i r i t can bring about a r e s t o r a t i o n and cause s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e to have any s i n c e r i t y and efficacy.. When Love has i t s way,, "our eies s h a l l see thee, which be-fore saw dust" (II:*, 9 ) , j u s t as Eaith, ( i n the poem, of that, t i t l e ) i l l u m i n a t e s the work of C h r i s t . The poet reverses the observation at the s t a r t of "The S a c r i f i c e " , "Oh a l l  ye» who passe, by, whose eyes and minde / To worldly things are sharp, but to me b l i n d e " (1-2)., "Love" 1 r e i t e r a t e s the pattern, of s a c r i f i c e and the condition of man both i n and out of harmony with God, and now a p p l i e s these themes to the problem, of w r i t i n g a poem,, a problem which i s d i r e c t l y considered for the f i r s t time i n The Temple."^ The s a c r i f i c e of the heart i t s e l f c o n s titutes the main, consideration of "Hattens" (p.. 62).. The poem, begins,. 71 I. cannot, ope mine e i e s , But thou art ready there to catch. My morning-soul and' s a c r i f i c e : Then- we must needs for that day make a; match. ('1.-4;) / The s a c r i f i c e o f the s p i r i t offered to God by the poet-p r i e s t i s p a r t l y a. morning r i t u a l , as i n d i c a t e d by the poem.ns; t i t l e * but the dual idea, that such a s a c r i f i c e a r i s e s from, the a l t a r of the heart, and that the heart, i t s e l f c o n s t i t u t e s the best, s a c r i f i c e is . strongly implied i n the c e n t r a l two stanzas, on which the poem turns,, where the poet considers the nature of the heart.. He: cannot discern why God should be i n t e r e s t e d in. changing and possessing h i s heart — "My God* what i s a. heart, / That thou shouldst i t so eye,, and wooe* / Powring upon, i t a l l thy a r t " (.9-11) — but h i s eye® are open. (in. both senses),. and he knows that as a. Chris-tian, he cannot do l e s s than give to God h i s heart which, i s "Indeed mans whole estate" (.13).. In. an elaboration, on the idea presented in. "Love",, he expresses h i s desire to know divine Love and receive s p i r i t u a l i n s i g h t so that he w i l l not be g u i l t y of worshipping creation, more. than, the Creator* as expressed in. "The S a c r i f i c e " . . Furthermore, a true under-standing of Love w i l l not provoke a. desire to go, about t r y i n g to "revenge" or v i e with t h i s Love, as in. "The Thanks-giving" 7.. The a c t i v i t y o f the Holy S p i r i t within the heart lead® i n the t h i r d stanza, to the affirmation that man must give himself tort a l l y to God's service.- Finally,, at. the end of the poem, Herbert declares that, a f t e r he has. experienced something of the l i g h t , and Love of communion,., then,, he says,. 7,2 "Then by a sunne-beam. I; w i l l climbe to thee"' C20); he w i l l , o f f e r his. s a c r i f i c e o f praise... "S±pa;Mi (p.. 106) takes up an e a r l i e r ; theme of the need to o f f e r h e a r t - f e l t confessions of sin:. Herbert here best, expresses the antipathy between s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e and l i t e r a l r i t u a l s , a n d "Sion" : stands, as; one of h i s most ty p o l o g i c a l poems,, r e l a t i n g as i t does to the t i t l e o.f the work.. Solomon's Temple*, the place of worship and s a c r i f i c e i n the Old Testament* finds, i t s ; r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i n the tem-ple of the human heart;, where God dwells by h i s S p i r i t , (I C.br.. 3' 16), communing with man. and i n i t i a t i n g h i s o f f e r -ings; of repentance,: dedication.,, and praise.- I n Old Testament, days, i t did not i .matter that, i n the temple "most things: were of purest gold" (3), just as i t l i t t l e matters whether or not the heart i s composed of "silver,, or gold, or precious stone" ("Mattens",, 6) *, for s i n p o l l u t e s the "frame"; (Icf... "The A l t a r " ) of both, temple and man.. "Sion", as poem; concerned almost t o t a l l y with repentance and confession* shows more c l e a r l y than did "The Thanksgiving"" and "The R e p r i s a l l " the "arena of c o n f l i c t " - i n which the w i l l s of man. and God " b a t t l e " f o r victory.. There thou art str u g g l i n g with a peevish heart, Which sometimes crosseth thee* thou sometimes i t : ; The f i g h t i s hard on either part.. Great God doth fight,, he doth submit.. A l l Solomons sea o f brasse and world of stone Is not so deare to thee as one good grone (13-18)* Though the fight, may be hard, God's motive i s Love, and his. v i c t o r y i s hearing the "one. good grone"- of, a sinner, which proves to be an efficacious; and acceptable s a c r i f i c e of. 73 repentance .. The state of. c o n t r i t i o n transforms i t s e l f to an attit u d e of praise, at the end of the poem— The "world, of sfcne"' suggests, the stones of "The, Altar"' which, exempli-fy i n g man.' s. n a t u r a l l y hard heart, cry out. to God,. I n saying, "And t r u l y brasse and stones are heavie things,.. / Tbrnbes. f o r the dead* not temples f i t for thee" (19-20), Herbert does not contradict, h i s belief, i n the Holy S p i r i t ' s , habita-t i o n within the heart, but Christ, has risen, from the dead,, stony environment, of "Sepulchre" and as High. P r i e s t i s seated i n Heaven, making intercession, for the s a i n t s . Therefore,, s a c r i f i c e s should be l i t e r a l l y sent heavenward.,. "Sion", a f t e r a l l , can i n d i c a t e the Hew, Jerusalem, as well as the Old.. This poem, even though i t concerns, i t s e l f with sin. and God's; e f f o r t s to bring man into, harmony with Himself,, transforms i t s e l f from a s a c r i f i c e of repentance to a s a c r i -f i c e of praise at, the end, and the language c l e a r l y echoes; that of "Easter-wings" i . But grones are quick,, and f u l l of wings,. And; a l l t h e i r motions upward be; And ever as they mount,, l i k e l a r k s they sing; The note i s sad,, yet musick. for a King (.21.-24) * As C h r i s t i s a king greater than Solomon, so true worship of. the heart, i s better than, r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e . . More s i g n i f i -c a ntly, however,, godly sorrow; over s i n can. through the S p i r i t ' s ministry and a renewed sense of r e s t o r a t i o n lead to.' an a t t i t u d e of praise.. Like "The Church-porch" and "The S a c r i f i c e " , "Providence" (p.. 116) shows by i t s length and thematic and 7-4 tonal differences a d i s s i m i l a r i t y with most of the l y r i c s i n The Temple. T h i s poem o f f e r s a s a c r i f i c e of praise f o r God's bounty i n creation and the blessingso.f.4aily l i f e . . The poet prays for " l i g h t " to discern, the "work"' from the "workman"1 and appreciate both so as to praise. God aright,.. He. emphasizes the importance of knowledge and understanding a t the beginning and end of the poem: "Of a l l the creatures both i n sea and, land / Onely to Man thou hast made known thy wayes" (5-6); But who hath praise enough? nay, who hath any?. lone can expresse thy works, but he that knows them:. And none can: know thy works* which are so many, And so complete, but onely he t h a t owes them. (141-44). I n t h i s l a t t e r passage Herbert reasons that only man can o f f e r praise because, only he holds; the right, to own the things of creation and thus to know God's p r o v i d e n t i a l ways, and so praise Him i n t e l l i g e n t l y for them.. Herschel Baker says, i n speaking of the early seventeenth-century, that "since i t implied His sovereignty and demonstrated His watchful care, the providence of God seemed to the orthodox the surest sign, of His intimate connection with 2 His creation".. It, could he. argued, that.,, such a poem as "Providence" might, be written, by a theist,. and c r i t i c s have commented on i t i n connection, with Vaughan' s Siupposed her-meticism. Herbert, however, as one of the "orthodox"- spoken o f by Baker seems i a i a i s wide-ranging catalogue of subjects and attention, to d e t a i l to bring to t h i s poem, something of- the s i n c e r i t y and i n t e n s i t y ©ififthe man who. possesses a personal, r e l a t i o n s h i p with God,, and, at times,, expresses 75 a sense o f close communion with Him., Herbert s p e c i f i c a l l y presents man, as the high, priest, who o f f e r s s a c r i f i c e s o f praise on behalf of other creatures (13-16),. and; oither people, who do not or w i l l not o f f e r t h e i r own p r a i s e s (.21.-26X.. The: poet, f i r s t : expresses, the idea i n " F a i t h " that the nature of God's; impartation of. Grace and: man;'s. exercise of. f a i t h make a l l men equal before God, and he here a p p l i e s this: idea to praise: "Thou art. i n small things, great.,, not small i n amy: / Thy even praise can neither rise,,, nor f a l l " (41-42). This poem suggests fo the reader of The. Temple that: even, though the redeemed must duly praise the Son. for the fact, of personal regeneration, one should follow the poet's example and not forget to o f f e r praise to the Father and; S p i r i t (25) for the world , :s tangible p r o v i d e n t i a l bene-f i t s . . "Love unknown." (p., 129) discusses the problems o,C o f f e r i n g to God an acceptable hearts s a c r i f i c e , and the need, f o r the Holy S p i r i t to minister, accordingly.. Also; somewhat longer than, the average Temple l y r i c , t h i s poem narrates a s p i r i t u a l experience to some other person, who answers-.in. a form unique in. the work.. The "other person" may be the poet or God,, but. the reader can f i t the r o l e as well since by t h i s point, in, The Temple (over half-way through) he knows the method by which the poet, seeks a f t e r God and,, through dramatic: irony, he can d i s c e r n ostensible errors i n t h i s method. "Providence" had spoken of knowing God's ways,, and at the start, of h i s a c t u a l hymn Qupraise the poet-7,6 priest,.; speaking; both on behalf of. himself and others, says,; "we a l l . acknowledge both thy power and love / To be exact, transcendent,;, and divine"' (29-30).. The t i t l e "Love unknown" stands, i n a n t i t h e s i s to "Love"1 and to the emphasis on know-ledge of the foregoing poems.. The, main speaker o f the poem: does not r e a l i z e u n t i l t o l d at, the end that h i s three t r i a l s manifested God's; Lave to make him a more mature C h r i s t i a n and. to create a more harmonious: r e l a t i o n s h i p with Him*. As an "hottest"' record and re-enactment, of, recurrent experience i n the C h r i s t i a n l i f e the poem r e l a t e s to " A f f l i c t i o n (I)".. Herbert emphasizes God*'s work i n changing, the heart; from time to time the Holy S p i r i t needs to be allowed to perform actions 0;f. cleansing from, the e f f e c t s of sin. and worldly pleasure,, softening the hardness„ and; quickening the l e t h a r -g i c state o f the heart.. The speaker undergoes several t r i a l s , , and learns the necessity of allowing, the Holy S p i r i t , to have His. way.. The experience begins when,, almost as a, ritual,,, he offers, to God h i s s a c r i f i c e of. f r u i t s , , probably good works, together with h i s heart.. The f r u i t s , may be acceptable, but he cannot dedicate himself to God,; as s i g n i f i e d by the o f f e r i n g of. h i s heart,, while the l a t t e r i s fouled by sin.. The speaker i d e n t i f i e s with and pleads the s p i r i t u a l b e n e f i t s of. Ghrist'-s S a c r i f i c e , ; as i n several of the early poems of The Temple;; "....seiz'd on my heart alone,, / And. threw, i t i n a font.,., wherein d i d f a l l / A stream of blond, which. issn' :d from the side / Of a. great rock*..." (12-15) • Apparently the 27 speaker t r u l y repents, at, this. time:. "1. did and do commit / Jfa*y a fault, more then, my lease w i l l bear; I Yet s t i l l a s kt pardon* and was not deni' d" (1.9-21)* and he remembers h i s tears.. In the second episode* the cauldron; of "AFFLICTION," re c a l l s , the t r i a l s , of. the e a r l i e r " A f f l i c t i o n " - poem, and Donne's "The Holy Ghost"* but, instead of accepting these t r i a l s as. h i s l o t and seeking to love God even. when, the presence of His Love i s i n doubt* he makes the mistake of attempting to o f f e r a s a c r i f i c e of p r o p i t i a t i o n to cause God to manifest more p o s i t i v e l y His Love* and t a prevent the experience of a f f l i c t i o n . . So. I went. To fe t c h a s a c r i f i c e out of my f o l d * Thinking with, t h a t * which. I did thus present* To warm his love* which I did fear grew cold (29-32)* But such an. o f f e r i n g can be no more than a mere r i t u a l with-out having an element o f true devotion.. At t h i s time God must take strong measures to soften, h i s heart,, where at other times the same e f f e c t had been achieved more success-f u l l y by means of the reception, of Grace i n the Eucharist. But i n f a i l i n g to recognize h i s a f f l i c t i o n as a manifesta-tion, of God's Love the speaker makes another mistake i n seeking p h y s i c a l rest, to regain h i s strength rather than allowing God to continue the ministry exemplified i n "The Altar"*; Indeed,, the speaker, when a f f l i c t e d by "thorny" thoughts, acknowledges that, he had rejected God from perform-i n g the ultimate work of breaking h i s heart.. The o f f e r i n g of prayer had often been of no a v a i l for "Though my l i p s went,; my heart d i d stay behinde" (59); again he did not 78 o f f e r a true s a c r i f i c e . Whether or not such a breaking actio n must transpire at t h i s time i s open to question.. But the Holy S p i r i t ' s ministry of renewing,, softening, and quickening, which " A l l did, but s t r i v e to mend., what you  had marr'd" (67) was e s s e n t i a l f o r b u i l d i n g a better and stronger sense of r e l a t i o n s h i p with God,, and, i n l i g h t , o f t h i s study,, f p r b o r r e c t i n g seme, of. the speaker's mistaken-notions and careless h a bits i n offering, s a c r i f i c e . - Gp;d holds the key to and resides within the poet's heart (.cf.. "Good: Friday",, "Sepulchre") as he well understands,, and there does, e x i s t a r e l a t i o n s h i p between, them, but the sense of communion^ can be improved,, indeed needs to be improved throughout l i f e . . In. accepting, that premise,, the C h r i s t i a n should do no l e s s than o f f e r to God continual s a c r i f i c e s of praise "Each day., each houre,, each moment o f the week."' (69) in. response to the Love which i s no longer "unknown".. Like "Love unknown" "An O f f e r i n g " (p.. 147) con-cerns i t s e l f with, various conditions under which the " g i f t . " or dedicatory s a c r i f i c e w i l l be accepted by God. The fore^-going; poem i n d i c a t e s three conditions which prevent God's acceptance of such a gift.. A dirty,, hard, or l e t h a r g i c heart must be changed by the power o f the S p i r i t * The poet; of "An O f f e r i n g " seems to have learned something of the lessons of "Love unknown",, and so,, by means of a. point, o f view, which can a l t e r n a t e l y i n d i c a t e the poet addressing himself or others or the voice of God, Herbert f i r s t exhorts,, "COme,. bring thy g i f t " (1)., but then, goes on to question 7 9 the mature of, the g i f t . . The f i r s t and! fourth stanzas enlarge on the s i n f u l foulness dealt with i n 'the f i r s t t r i a l of the previous poem.: "What hast thou there?; a heart? but. i s i t pure? / Search well and see; for hearts have many holes" (5-4)• T h i s poem more e x p l i c i t l y r e f e r s the f i l t h y heart; to the o f f e r i n g o f C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e , , as d i d several of the early Temple poems:: There i s a baisome, or indeed a bloud, Dropping from heav'n, which doth both cleanse and. close A l l s o r t s of wounds; of such strange force i t . i s . Seek out t h i s All-heal,, and seek no repose,. U n t i l l thou finde and use i t to thy good (19-23).-The, s a c r i f i c i a l blood; not only cleans but, heals the ..broken-hearted Ccf.. Luke 4:18), andi one must not make the mistake of t r y i n g to r e g a i n s p i r i t u a l strength through p h y s i c a l rest.. "Am Offer i n g"^ i n f a c t does consider the heart's lethargy and. i n the second stanza suggests that, "while others sleep and slumber" (.12) the "good" and " s i n g l e " heart can manifest i t s condition i n p r a c t i c a l areas: o f s o c i a l concern. The third, "unacceptable" state of "Love unknown",, that, oXthe heart's hardness,: i s i n the t h i r d stanza of- t h i s poem replaced, o** rather elaborated upon, by a fourth condi-tion,;, the heart's d i v i s i o n by many worldly i n t e r e s t s * as represented in. the words " l u s t s " and "passions", terms appearing i n many Temple poems from "The Church-porch" on.. An. a f f i n i t y e x i s t s between the ideas of the broken. -mended, heart and. the divided - whole heart,, and to. be " s i n g l e -minded." (cr "single-hearted");,^ oar to: praise: Sod. with. a,. 80 "whoUe heart'" as the Psalmist, repeatedly exhorts^holds favour with Sod., The individual "stones" of. the broken., heart C"The Altar") can stand for the many interests of s i n and the flesh,, and there must be a restoration to whole-ness and undivided devotion, to God. and His cause before the dedicatory gift. of. self w i l l be accepted.. The. poet-states, of the heart,., "And single things grow f r u i t f u l ! by deserts" (10).- In "Love unknown,"- the speaker had casual-ly and: almost as a. matter of course, sought offer to God a. dish containing both, fruits and his heart.. The. sacri-fice of the heart,, had i t s condition been acceptable,, would have, superceded and received more favour with God, since i t . represents the " l i v i n g sacrifice"- of the "whole" self.,, i n both senses of the word.. As, i n "Easter" and "The K . , Communion.", a turning point occurs about midway through the poem and the form and. content change, from sp i r i t u a l instruction to a hymn.. After appealing, to the efficacy of Christ's Sacrifice in order to make right or to affirm a relationship; with Gbd,t the poet introduces the song;.. Again* as with, the earlier poems,, restoration, must, precede dedication and praise: "Then, bring, thy gift,, and let, thy hymne be this"' (Zh) • The f i r s t stanza of. the song, i n asking God to accept the heart sacrifice,, expresses praise for newr-found joy. and. acknowledges God's worthiness,, and in, the second stanza the poet definitely dedicates himself to God.. The, poem ends as. devotion again turns, into an expression^f /praise 81 ami celebration.:. Yet thy favour May give savour To; t h i s poore oblation;. And i t r a i s e To be thy praise And be my s a l v a t i o n C37-42).. The "salvation'* spoken of here doe* not, imply that the hear.tr-s a c r i f i c e is; propitiatory,,, for t h i s " g i f t " ' of dedication cannot be accepted u n t i l other conditions, have been met,: u n t i l repentance for s i n has previously been of f e r e d and accepted.. Even so, as discussed ear l i e r , , the C h r i s t i a n does; not need to nor i s he able to o f f e r further s a c r i f i c e s oaf, p r o p i t i a t i o n . . In t h i s poem h i s "eyes have been opened* to see h i s duty o;f g i v i n g to God true, and. proper, s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e s i n order, to con t i n u a l l y mature i n the C h r i s t i a n faith.. Mention o f the h e a r t - s a c r i f i c e ' s , "savour" n a t u r a l -l y leads to an examination o f "The Odour",, but two other poems which appear e a r l i e r i n The Temple should be noted here., "The. Priesthood" (p.. 160) and "Aaron"' (p.. 174) ©stensi.-bly deal with Herbert's l i t e r a l vocation as a p r i e s t of the Anglican Church,, but they can be viewed as re l a t i n g , to Christians: in. general by reference to the idea o f the "royal priesthood o f a l l believers"... Meither, poem; e x p l i c i t l y mentions s a c r i f i c e , , and the poet emphasizes that r o l e of the p r i e s t which ministers the things of God to others, rather than, offering, or min i s t e r i n g to God.. "The P r i e s t -hood" i n fact seeks to honour the r o l e o f p r i e s t i n t h i s respect*. The s p i r i t u a l dedicatory s a c r i f i c e of obedience,. or i t s : passive form; submission;,, comprises* however* ax major theme, of. "The Priesthood",; and the poem, ends with, the speak-er l y i n g prostrate at the f e e t of his. Lord.. Though, one n a t u r a l l y envies the power and authority of. the priesthood* and, some form o f f l a t t e r y jasq^not be n e c e s s a r i l y wrong, the l a s t stanza, i n d i c a t e s that, true respect, for the ministry w i l l r e s u l t only through, submission to Sod* and every, Chris-t i a n *s ministry w i l l be sanctioned and ordained, o f God. Herbert's awe of the p r i e s t ' s duties o f preaching, ( f i r s t stanza) * and more so, of ministering, the Eucharist. ( f i f t h stanza) i s apparent* but he counters h i s resulting, f e e l i n g s of unworthiness by considering, f i r s t that, he can be purged of impurity and fashioned for God's purposes through the f i e r y ministry of the Holy S p i r i t , e a r l i e r discussed i n other contexts.. Secondly, the poet here applies, to divine service the idea of " l e v e l l i n g " i n F a i t h and Grace (."Faith") and praise ( "Providence") .. Bu^ since those great ones* be they ne'-re so> great*. Come from' the. earth, from whence those vessels come; So t h a t at once both feeder* dish, and meat Have one beginning and one f i n a l 1 summer I do not greatly wonder at the s i g h t * I f earth i n earth delight (19-24)• Such a. view would no doubt have met with approval from Luther,, with h i s doctrine of the r o y a l priesthood of a l l believers.-"Aaron." takes up the general ideas of d e d i c a t i o n and m i n i s t r y * but more so than any of the poems discussed i m t h i s chapter makes a d e f i n i t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with C h r i s t ' s 83 Sa c r i f i c e , , and distinguishes the i d e a l q u a l i t i e s of the p r i e s t from the actual s p i r i t u a l condition o f most Christians.. In. the t h i r d and fourth stanzas, the centre o f the poem,, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with C h r i s t i s emphasized: C h r i s t i s my onely head,, My, alone onely heart and breast,, My onely musick, s t r i k i n g me ev'n dead, That to the old man I may r e s t , And be i n him new drest (16-20).. I n h i s compressed l i n e s he affirms the trut h s that C h r i s t i a n s comprise the BodyoCChrist, that i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r s are tempJkes of the Holy Spirit,., and that., i n contrast to the s i t u a t i o n o f "The Thanksgiving" and "The R e p r i s a l l " , . such an appropriation produces rest.. Most importantly, although the Christian*s: human nature i s not o b l i t e r a t e d , he takes on the divine nature o f C h r i s t , and so becomes worthy to minister to others and o f f e r s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s to God.. These themes lead to the h e a r t - f e l t expression of devotion, and love o f the following poem,, "The Odour.. 2. Cor.. 2.. 15." (p- 174), the l a s t poem of The Temple to s p e c i f i c a l l y use the language of s a c r i f i c e . - The s c r i p t u r e passage, r e f e r r e d to in. the opening chapter o f t h i s study, s t a t e s , "For we are unto God a sweet savour of C h r i s t , i n them that are saved, and i n them.that p e r i s h , " and verse I * ! i d e n t i f i e s the savour with the "knowledge" of. C h r i s t i n the world.. B e l i e v e r s , i n exemplifying the truth, and character of. C h r i s t , themselves c o l l e c t i v e l y and i n d i v i d u a l -l y constitute a s a c r i f i c e acceptable to God.. The words y. master",,, a r i s i n g from: an altar-heart, i n right, r e l a t i o n -8if ship with. God, combine q u a l i t i e s of dedication and love%, and the poet e f f e c t i v e l y demonstrates the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of t h i s s a c r i f i c e * In. the third, stanza,, by presenting the words "my servant" Herbert "causes" God to reply to h i s "My Master".- He suggests the blessed e f f e c t s of that reply i n the fourth, stanza.. In comparison with the glory of God, a sense of unworthiness marks the human, condition and should not be considered as synonymous, with s i n } for i t . w i l l not be appreciably a f f e c t e d by acts of repentance; rather, the r i g h t a t t i t u d e of the heart determines the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the s a c r i f i c e . . F.or when My Master, which alone i s sweet And ev'n i n my unworthinesse p l e a s i n g , S h a l l c a l l , and meet, My servant.,, as thee not dis p l e a s i n g , That c a l l i s but. the breathing of the sweet (21-25) • The " c a l l i n g and meeting" i n d i c a t e s the best form, of communion with God that man can enjoy on t h i s earth. God has been pleased to manifest; Himself i n a s p e c i a l way, not only to send f i r e to consume the s a c r i f i c e , , but to "sweeten" and "Warmr* man's heart through the Holy S p i r i t , , and so: cause a r e t u r n by means of further s a c r i f i c e s of dedication, and praise.. The poem ends,. "And so t h i s new communion and sweet / Should, a l l ray l i f e , employ and b.usie me" (29-30). Aa" emotionally intense communion cannot be and i s not a continual experience of the C h r i s t i a n l i f e , , and there w i l l be occasions;,, as the poet laments,, "when myjaevotions could not pierce / Thy s i l e n t eares ("Deniall",, 1-2), but such, an experience prompts a mature desire for the maintenance of close fellowship with. God.. 85 EOOTROTES 1 Reference should be made to the two. sonnets from: Wal.toHi,:s: L i v e s (p.. 206). in. which the seventeen!-year olid1 Herbert; introduces the problems developed in; "Love"*. The poet conventionally uses the images o.f s a c r i f i c i a l dedication/praise, and f i r e in. both, o f these sonnet er "Why are not Sonnets made o f thee?: and. Layas / Upon; thine Altar, burnt?" (,I* 5-6), Why should I Womens eyes for. Chrystal take? Such, poor invention burns, i n their, low mind Whose f i r e i s w i l d * and doth not. upward go To. p r a i s e * and on thee* Lord,, some Ink bestow (II* 8-11),. 2. Herschel. Baker, The:. Wars o f Truth:. Studies i n the Decay o.f C h r i s t i a n Humanism; i n the E a r l i e r Seventeenth. Century (Cambridge,, Mass..: Harvard Univ.*. Press*. 1952) * p.. 13* ' 3 " B i b l i c a l idiom d i f f e r s from modern, idiom i n considering; the heart as the seat, o f intelligence... ..and d e c i s i o n " * John L.. McKenzie*. Dictionary of. the Bible (Hew. York: Macmillan;; London:. C o l l i e r Macmillan* 1965) * P- 343«-4. Herbert* unlike other of h i s contemporaries* uses the word " o b l a t i o n " only once.. More than one d i s t i n c t i o n . can be drawn between " o b l a t i o n " and " s a c r i f i c e " , but Lancelot. Andrewes; frequently i d e n t i f i e s the former with joy and l i f e . . Cf. The Preces Privatae of Lancelot. Andrewes,, trans. and. ed.. E.,E.. Brightman (London:. Methuen* 1903).'* pp.. 4.,, 289* 66:. coicLisioisr T h i s t h e s i s discussed, the theme of s p i r i t u a l -s a c r i f i c e as aa. e x p l i c i t , or i m p l i c i t expression:, of Herbert • s concern, to: respond to God's Grace and Love* and. to give Him: something in. return,. S a c r i f i c i a l , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o;f repentance* dedication, and, praise and- the importance and, place o f these, q u a l i t i e s i n various, poems,, as well as the role of. the heart, i n the o f f e r i n g o f s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s , provided emphases f o r an examination of the poetry/* A. close reading demonstrated how in; some poems language and form, combined to show f o r t h the s a c r i f i c i a l act i t s e l f * Chapter- One presented a B i b l i c a l , background and basis for the study of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e i n Herbert•s poetry,. A study of Old and: Few Testament s c r i p t u r e revealed the proper at t i t u d e of the heart, to be the b a s i c prerequi-s i t e for the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of anything: offered to God* The Old Testament: law proscribe^ regulations regarding the offering; of sacrifices,;, but certain, prophetic passages c l e a r -l y emphasize' - heart-felt, devotion to God as manifested through moral a c t i v i t y which, must accompany or: be subsumed w i t h i n the s a c r i f i c i a l r i t u a l , i t s e l f * The Hew Testament r e f e r s back to those Old Testament: passages but r e i n t e r p r e t s them i n the l i g h t , o f the t y p o l o g i c a l S a c r i f i c e , o f Christ.* A. sampling of homiletic and exegetical sources taken p a r t i c u l a r -l y from the early seventeenth-century show the writers'• generalL concern f o r prophetic and t y p o l o g i c a l considerations; of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e * 8? Chapter© Two; and Three discussed poems from The  Church section, of The Temple», with, some attention, to "The ChurchVporch" in. i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the prophetic; view, and a n t i c i p a t i o n of the t y p o l o g i c a l view incorporated in. following poems.. Chapter Two emphasized the way i n which. "The A l t a r " and "The S a c r i f i c e " provide bases or points, o f focus for the poems of The Temple as a whole and, p a r t i c u -l a r l y those poems which immediately follow* Herbert i n "The A l t a r " discusses and by means of formal pattern, demoni-s t r a t e s the p r i n c i p l e of allowing the Holy S p i r i t to break and: then, " r e - b u i l d " h i s heart through the process o f repen-tance and restoration,, a process which t y p i c a l l y occurs throughout the b e l i e v e r ' s l i f e . - I n "The S a c r i f i c e " the poet es t a b l i s h e s the f a c t of C h r i s t , J s S a c r i f i c e as a focus f o r a f f i r m a t i o n o f regeneration: and as a sanction f o r the o f f e r i n g of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s . . Chapter Two discussed the poems which follow "The A l t a r " and "The S a c r i f i c e " i n order through, to "A n t i -phon ( I ) " , with an aim to showing how "The S a c r i f i c e " provides a thematic f o c a l point f o r these poems. "The Thanksgiving", "The E e p r i s a l l " , and "The Agonie" seek carnal means to re-quite the Love expressed through C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e , but discover the f u t i l i t y o f such means.. The poems which follow,, however* more maturely respond to the s p i r i t u a l r a m i f i c a -t i o n s o f the Sa c r i f i c e . . A sequence of poems from "The Sinner" through to "H.. Baptisme ( I I ) " e f f e c t i v e l y re-enacts Christ'-s Pas-88 s i o n and focuses more upon, the divine g i f t s of Love and Grace than upon the poet's responses to them.. The sequence concerns i t s e l f mainly with repentance, but in. "The Sinner",: "Good Eriday", "Redemption", "Sepulchre", "H. Baptisme ( I ) " and other poems Herbert does not. a c t i v e l y voice h i s s a c r i f i c e of repentance,, but passively accepts the b e n e f i t s of the Sacrifice.- Herbert'*s hymn i n "Easter",, however, marks one of the r e l a t i v e l y infrequent expressions of pure praise in. The Temple. A second sequence from "Mature" through to "Antiphon ( I ) " e f f e c t i v e l y repeats the "Passion" sequence i n terms of the poet, and he now provides, a more p o s i t i v e response to the ra m i f i c a t i o n s of C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e i n his l i f e . . The poems record and re-enact a. movement from expressions o f disharmony with God to a hymn of praise c e l e b r a t i n g the r e s t o r a t i o n of fellowship. A more mature understanding and acceptance of man's s i n and shortcomings and the t r i a l s of l i f e conveyed i n "Nature", "Sinne ( I ) " , and " A f f l i c t i o n ( I ) " leads to a d e f i n i t e act of repentance i n the poem of that t i t l e , and " F a i t h " , "Prayer (!)",„ "The H. Communion", and "Antiphon ( I ) " comprise various expres-sions of dedication and praise p r i s i n g from, a heart now restored to favour with God. This sequence not only demon-strate s a p a r t i c u l a r l y s p i r i t u a l response tp C h r i s t ' s S a c r i -f i c e but i n a l a r g e r sense exemplifies a pattern which Herbert f e e l s should and does recur throughout a C h r i s t i a n ' s li f e t i m e . . Although the f i r s t several poems of The Church 89 respond in-one wax or another to> the f a c t of C h r i s t ' s S a c r i -f i c e , only "The A l t a r " makes, e x p l i c i t use of the language of. the Ch r i s t i a n ' s s a c r i f i c e s . . The poems examined i n Chap-t e r Three of t h i s study do e x p l i c i t l y use the language and imagery of s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e , , but. they do not e x p l i c i t -l y i d e n t i f y with C h r i s t ' s S a c r i f i c e . . Occurring as they do well i n t o the body of/The Temple, they assume and i m p l i c i t -l y incorporate within themselves such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The poems i n t h i s s e r i e s speak, more of the heart in. i t s r e l a t i o n to s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e , ; and thus r e l a t e back to "The A l t a r " . These poems emphasize the r o l e of the heart as actual s a c r i f i c e , although they also; imply the r o l e of a l t a r , the place of s a c r i f i c e . . "Love" begins by speak-i n g of the devotion and praise which a r i s e from a heart aflame with the f i r e of the Holy S p i r i t , but "Mat.tens" wishes to present to God a s a c r i f i c e o f the heart i t s e l f . . "Sion" relates, to the main; theme of e a r l i e r poems i n i t s consideration, o f the e f f e c t u a l s a c r i f i c e of true repentance* "Providence" moves away from the primary issue by o f f e r i n g a hymn of praise f o r the material bounties o f creation and l i f e * but "Love unknown." and "The Offering" 1 r e t u r n to, the idea of presenting to God1, a heart made acceptable through, the ministry of the Holy S p i r i t . . While "The Priesthood" and "Aaron" ostensibly deal with Herbert's; c l e r i c a l , ministry,., the former poem considers the s a c r i f i c i a l , act. of submission and dedication, of s e l f to God'-s service,, but "Aaron." r e l a t e s back to, the poems considered in. Chapter Tw.o; i n i t s . close 90 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Christ.- Fi n a l l y , , "The Odour" presents am i d e a l but mot unrealizable situation; i n which the poet enjoys a sense of. close communion with Sod.. I n these poems Herbert does not emphasize repentance for sin,, but offers, expressions of. dedication and praise, out. o f a restored heart a, heart having a r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Sod.. Insofar as the heart symbolizes the total, person,., the proper and sincere o f f e r i n g o f the heafct i t s e l f perhaps constitutes the "best type" of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e which can. be of f e r e d by the poet.. This, t h e s i s showed how. i n some poems language and form go together to demonstrate or suggest the s a c r i f i -c i a l act, i t s e l f . . Such, poems generally begin with, the poet 1 s sense of broken or- hindered fellowship with Sod, and then,, a f t e r a "turning p o i n t " occurs in. the poem, a new sense of, communion manifests i t s e l f * Stated i n s a c r i f i c i a l terms* an expression of repentance restores the relationship,. and the poetic mode changes from sorrow and confession, to jp-y* devotion* l o v e * and thanksgiving... The two "pattern poems", "The A l t a r " and "Easter-wings 8*, both concern, theffir-selv.es with. sin. at the beginning* but midway through, (midway through, each of the two stanzas o f "Easter-wings") the poet changes h i s focus to that of praise.. I n three poems* Herbert i n d i c a t e s the "turning p o i n t " by changing the stanza s t r u c t u r e * thereby "turning" the l a s t h a l f o f the poems into, hymns of praise.. "Easter" 5 has a sense of. communion, with, the Risen. Lord before breaking i n t o song, and "The 91 H. Communion." af f i r m s the poet's; right, r e l a t i o n s h i p with God and then, o f f e r s h i s praise a r i g h t * In "An O f f e r i n g " the poet; s i m i l a r l y considers, the need to i d e n t i f y with C h r i s t ' s s a c r i f i c i a l blood,, and then,, midway through the poem* he begins to si n g a hymn of dedication which ends; on a note o f p r a i s e * Other poems: whose stanza structure® do u o t c n a n g e show - variant patterns of movement from one q u a l i t y or aspect o f s p i r i t u a l , s a c r i f i c e to another,., or ielse show a p a r t i c u l a r focus upon one such q u a l i t y . "Repentance" o f f e r s a confession for s i n and then, honestly expresses the sense of sorrow, and unworthiness which the poet, s t i l l f e e l s * but he looks ahead to the near future when God w i l l honour the restored communion by r e p l a c i n g h i s sorrow with joy; the poem ends on a note of p r a i s e * Twice i n the second sonnet of "Love" the poet, r e f e r s to repentance,, dedication, and praise,, and speaks, of these q u a l i t i e s in, that order.. The f i n a l stanza of "Sion'' transforms; confession, i n t o a song o f praise.. God's "acceptance" o:f the poet's devotion in. "The Odour" i s marked, by a r e t u r n of H i s Love which i n -spir e s more and "sweeter" o f f e r i n g s of devotion as suggested at. the end o f the poem.. Herbert does end some poems by emphasizing a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e not hi t h e r t o discussed or alluded to i n the poem.. " A f f l i c t i o n (,!)",, a£ter considering at. length the t r i a l of l i f e * closes with an expression- oif l o v e * In "Love unknown." the concern with that, a f f l i c t i o n which i s Involved i n the dedication of the heart results, i n praise for God's Love.. "The P r i e s t -92 hood" considers the r o l e of the ministry but ends with a s a c r i f i c e of dedication*. SomeOff;the general p r i n c i p l e s a r i s i n g from t h i s study of Herbert's poetry may be summarized. The b e l i e v e r o f f e r s s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s to Sod as an expression of. thanks-g i v i n g f o r h i s regeneration rather than, as a p r o p i t i a t i o n for sin,, which, has been provided for him by the S a c r i f i c e of Christ.. He i d e n t i f i e s with t h i s S a c r i f i c e i n order to, a f f i r m h i s s a l v a t i o n and obtain sanction f o r the o f f e r i n g of s p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s * When he becomes aware of the pre-sence of s i n or a broken r e l a t i o n s h i p with Sod he must repent i n order to experience a sense of renewed fellowship before dedicating himself or o f f e r i n g true expressions of p r a i s e * " S p i r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e " denotes one way of describ-i n g the attempts of, the C h r i s t i a n to respond to the ministry of divine Srace i n h i s l i f e and to r e t u r n to Sod something of the Bove he has received from Him. BIBLIOGRAPHY. A. PRIMARY: Adams,, Thomas,. The S a c r i f i c e of Thankefulness. London:. Thomas Purfbot for element. Knight, I6l6.. The Temple.. London:: A.. Mathewes f o r John Grismand,! 1624.. Andrewes* Lancelot.. EBinety-Six Sermons. Oxford: Parker Society,; 1843 Sermons.. Ed.. G..M.. Story.. Oxford:. 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