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Douglas Lake Okanagan : phonology and morphology Pattison, Lois Cornelia 1978

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DOUGLAS LAKE OKANAGAN: PHONOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY by LOIS CORNELIA PATTISON B.Ed. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 197 0  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS POR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f L i n g u i s t i c s  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 1978  I'CT) L o i s Cornelia Pattison, 1978  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Linguistics  Department of  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5  D  a  t  e  April  25 .  1978  ii  ABSTRACT This thesis describes aspects of the grammatical structure of Douglas Lake Okanagan, an Indian language spoken i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada.  I t i s i n three p a r t s : phonology, morphophonemics and morphology.  The f i e l d research on which t h i s study i s based was conducted on the Quilchena Reserve near M e r r i t t , B . C . during the summer of  1977.  There are thirty-seven consonants defined by three manners: stop, spirant and resonant; and s i x points of a r t i c u l a t i o n : l a b i a l , a p i c a l , l a t e r a l , v e l a r , post v e l a r and g l o t t a l .  A contrast of g l o t t a l i z e d and  unglottalized occurs i n the stop and resonant series and a contrast of l a b i a l i z e d and u n l a b i a l i z e d i n the v e l a r and post v e l a r p o s i t i o n s .  In  general, each series shows a f u l l set of oppositions except there i s no p l a i n l a t e r a l stop i n the stop s e r i e s , no l a b i a l spirant i n the spirant series and no l a b i a l i z e d post velars i n the resonant s e r i e s .  The vowels  are _ i , a and u . Morphophonemic changes involve consonants, vowels, s y l l a b l e s and stress.  They include processes of a s s i m i l a t i o n , d i s s i m i l a t i o n , f u s i o n ,  l o s s , epenthesis, metathesis and stress s h i f t . The morphology deals with the structure of words. simple roots or roots extended by a f f i x e s to form stems.  Words can be Stems may be  c l a s s i f i e d as t r a n s i t i v e or i n t r a n s i t i v e on the basis of accompanying affixes.  T r a n s i t i v e s u f f i x e s mark stems which express the action of a  subject on an object.  I n t r a n s i t i v e s u f f i x e s mark stems which express  an a c t i v i t y or state of a subject with no reference to an object.  iii  A f f i x e s also express four aspects: unrealized, continuative, customary and inchoative.  Other prefixes are d i r e c t i o n a l , l o c a t i o n a l , nominal,  possessive and agentive. Reduplicated intensity.  Other s u f f i x e s are instrumental and l e x i c a l .  stems express i t e r a t i o n , p l u r a l i t y , dirninuitivity and Two roots can be linked to form a compound stem.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS. Page Abstract  i i  Acknowledgement  viii  Introduction  1  Chapter 1.  Phonology  2  1.1  Consonants  2  1.2  Manner  2  1.21  Obstruents  2  1.22  Resonants  3  1.3  Position  3  1.31  Labials  . . .  1.32  Apicals  4  1.33  Laterals  5  1.34  Velars  5  1.35  Post Velars  6  1.36  Glottals  . .  3  7  1.4  Consonant Clusters  8  1.5  Vowels  9  1.51  i  9  1.52  a  10  1.53  u  10  1.54  Schwa  10  1.55  Position  10  V  Chapter 1.6 2.  Stress  11  Morphophonemics  12  2.1  Consonant Changes  12  2.11  Assimilation  12  2.12  Loss  12  2.13  Fusion  13  2.2  3.  Page  Vowel Changes  14  2.21  Epenthesis  14  2.22  Dissimilation  14  2.3  Metathesized Roots  14  2.4  Stress Changes  15  Morphology  16  3.1  16  Voice 3.11  3.12  Transitive  16  3.111  Active  17  3.112  Causative  17  3.113  Reflexive  17  Intransitive  17  3.121  Middle  17  3.122  Stative  18  3.123  Motion  18  3.124  State of Mind  18  3.125  Control  19  vi  Chapter  Page 3.13  Grammatical Range of Stems  19  3.2  Imperatives  19  3.3  Personal Reference System  20  3.31  I n t r a n s i t i v e Pronouns  20  3.32  T r a n s i t i v e Pronouns  22  3.4  3.5  Aspect  23  3.41  Unrealized  23  3.42  Continuative  24  3.43  Customary  24  3.44  Inchoative  25  Further Stem Modification by A f f i x e s  25  3.51  Prefixes  25  3.511  Directional  25  3.512  Nominalizer  26  3.513  Locative  27  3.514  Possessive  27  3.515  Agentive  28  3.52  Suffixes  28  3.521  Instrumental  28  3.522  Lexical  28  3.6  Survey of A f f i x e s  31  3.7  Reduplicated Stems  34  3.71  34  Complete Reduplication  vii  Chapter  3.8  Page 3.72  P a r t i a l Reduplication  36  3.73  M u l t i p l e Reduplication  36  Compound Stems  Bibliography  37 39  viii  A(^0WLE1X3EMENT  I am grateful to my. principal informant, Julia Paul for her interest in this project and her willingness to share her knowledge of Okanagan with me.  I also thank Julia's mother, Mrs. Harriet Paul,  who provided some important data and was always available to help when responses were in doubt. I thank M. Dale Kinkade for his preliminary instruction and guidance i n studying North American Indian languages which greatly facilitated this work.  1  INTRODUCTION The S a l i s h l i n g u i s i t i c family has three large d i v i s i o n s : the Tsamosan, Central S a l i s h and I n t e r i o r S a l i s h groups.  The  Interior  S a l i s h languages can be further c l a s s i f i e d according t o a North-South division. Okanagan i s p a r t of the Southern I n t e r i o r language group which consists of Columbian, Okanagan, K a l i s p e l and Coeur d'Alene. I t i s bordered on the north by Shuswap, a Northern I n t e r i o r S a l i s h language; on the east by Kutenai and on the south by Sahaptin. I t s southeastern and southwestern neighbors are S a l i s h speaking: K a l i s p e l (southeast) and Thompson and Columbian  (southwest).  Okanagan i s spoken i n south-central B r i t i s h Columbia to the Columbia River i n north-central Washington.  The d i a l e c t described  here i s spoken i n the Douglas Lake area by members of the Quilchena and Douglas Lake Reserves.  These reserves are among f i v e i n the  Nicola V a l l e y where most of the Indians speak Thompson and on these two reserves i n p a r t i c u l a r , many speak both Okanagan and Thompson. My p r i n c i p a l informant has been J u l i a Paul.  Previous to my  contact with her, J u l i a had been recording material i n her language i n order to teach a r e l a t i v e who d i a l e c t of Okanagan.  own  speaks a southern  J u l i a kindly allowed me the use of the tapes  and t h i s material provided the basis f o r e l i c i t a t i o n .  2  1. 1.1  Phonology  Okanagan distinguishes  thirty-seven  consonants, defined by  Glottal  a  V •rH  Post Ve!  Labial  rH  Velar  Lateral  three manners and s i x points o f a r t i c u l a t i o n .  Stops Plain  P  Glottalized  P  t  k  k*  k  k  i  r ?  c  Spirants  q  qw  &  q  q~  X  r  X  l  y  W  i  Y  w  c  s  ?  h  Resonants Plain  m  Glottalized  m  1.2  »  n »  n  r  ?  q  7  There i s a fundamental d i v i s i o n between voiceless obstruents  and voiced resonants.  Obstruents can be divided into stops and spirants.  Both stops and resonants occur i n a p l a i n and g l o t t a l i z e d s e r i e s .  The  g l o t t a l i z a t i o n i s usually a r t i c u l a t e d during the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the consonant. 1.21  In general, the obstruents show a f u l l s e t of oppositions.  The only asymmetry i n the stop series i s the lack of a p l a i n l a t e r a l stop,  contrastive  c, c and A are a f f r i c a t e s . The p l a i n a p i c a l  a f f r i c a t e has a p a l a t a l i z e d allophone [ c ] with which i t i s i n free variation.  F i n a l p l a i n stops are generally released with aspiration.  3  Before vowels, these stops are only l i g h t l y aspirated and following a nonorganic resonant, they are sometimes unreleased.  Glottalized  stops r a r e l y occur word f i n a l . Spirants occur i n a l l positions except l a b i a l .  The a p i c a l  spirant i s i n free v a r i a t i o n with i t s p a l a t a l i z e d allophone [ s j . 1.22  Resonants include the nasals m,n;  w, y_; and the pharyngeal S •  l i q u i d s r , 1; semivowels  They p a r a l l e l the obstruents exactly  back to the simple post velar p o s i t i o n .  There are no l a b i a l i z e d  equivalents to the simple post v e l a r resonants. r a r e l y occur i n i t i a l l y .  G l o t t a l i z e d resonants  The l i q u i d resonant r occurs only as the  second consonant of a root, not i n i t i a l l y or i n an a f f i x . 1.3 1.31  Consonant Positions Labials E  E  m  m  plal  grow  tupl  spider  xlilp  floor  pum  brown  spsaqs  nose  ma'it  maybe  qtimap  late  £ilm  drying  milt  visit  #ums  eyelashes  q^iylm  songs  fish  4  1.32  Apicals t  timi  eight  x^ltip  wild rhubarb  lat  wet  -t^ap  dirty  £i£im  easy  nalVm  sew  xnumt  hurt  q*dn  green  cancan  grasshopper  cplan  eyebrows  citxw  house  sncaqmin  oven  sic  new  calt  cold  scaqw  flowers  x^rap  chilled  yar  smooth  i  cart  tangy sour  s  swit  who  xast  good  pus  cat  t?  n  A  c  6  r  5  1.33 Laterals  A  Jfxap  grow  xSut  rook  lala?  raspberries  k*mln  borrow  plal  thick  liplip  corn  x*?al  in a hurry  sppl'ina?  rabbit  qwlal  sunny  i  I 1.34  7  Velars Velars show an opposition of simple and labialized. k  ktmap  clouds  cilkst  five  xndnk  want  kvacqn  hat  mkwiwt  mountain peak  siwlk*  water  kiwlx  old  nH&nn  knife  £ik  young  k^kwap  dog  £i]<wt  lake  6  X  XV  y  ?  Y  w  w  1.35  xx?ap  cool  skmxist  bear  sniklx  son-in-law  xwuy  90  tixwt  tongue  R^six*  geese  yult  thick  layan  fabric  cuy  dark  piyusm  frown  way  (positive  wi?cxn  finished  cwak  burned  nskiw  brother 's wife  niwlm  wave  x^ojwaw  dry  tree  response) eating  Post Velars Post velars also show the opposition o f simple and l a b i a l i z e d .  Post v e l a r resonants are frequently contiguous with a. occur exclusively i n root morphemes.  They are rare and  In some cases, l i t t l e  f r i c t i o n i s discernable and the a vowel appears lengthened.  pharyngeal The  g l o t t a l i z e d pharyngeal i s very poorly documented i n t h i s data.  7 a  gw  qlax naqs  one  pnimq  liver  qway  blue  smq* aq*  age  qilt  sick  ptqin  mushroom  q"ac  warm  cq^ilp  fir  xact  hard  xaxa?  crow  Isax  dress  x^sap  fast  /  i  a  qw  X  night  w  /  ?ax*nt  q  i  tree  sweep  nax^nax^  wife  <ian  magpie  cpsaflya?  no good  q*a$  drunk  ma^t  broken  Glottals  ?  ?itx  sleep  s?iln  meal time  ?aha?  a cold  ha  (  ?ihi?  over there  interrogative)  8  1.4  The consonants form complex c l u s t e r s .  Many a f f i x e s are  themselves single consonants o r consonant c l u s t e r s so when combined with roots, complex c l u s t e r s are i n e v i t a b l e .  The most common types  of c l u s t e r s found i n roots are: a.  i n i t i a l c l u s t e r s consisting o f an obstruent followed by  another obstruent o r resonant  b.  qlaxy'  night  xlap  morning  x?al  clean  cmay  maybe  f i n a l c l u s t e r s consisting o f a resonant followed by an  obstruent milt  visit  timl  eight  tarq  kick  n?ayp  always  Such consonant c l u s t e r s i n roots produce the root shapes CCVC and CVCC. However, forms such as the following indicate that such root structures may be reductions o f CVCVC roots by vowel l o s s . citx*  house  ccitax^  bathroom  9  xast  good  xaxasat  very  £ast  bad  &£asat  ugly  qyaxy  smell  qiyxhun  I can smell  pretty  something  T h e m o s t c o m m o n l y o c c u r r i n g r o o t s h a p e i s CVC.  1.5  The v o w e l s a r e .i, a a n d u.  Each vowel has a range o f  realizations.  1.51  i i s u s u a l l y [ i ] . S t r e s s e d , i t may b e r e a l i z e d  i n a range from [ i ] t o [e ] o r  [• e ] .  [e ] .  phonetically  Following a post velar i ti scloser t o  U n s t r e s s e d , i t t e n d s t o become l o w e r e d o r l o s t  ^inca]  ?inca  [frncaken] [q elt] 8  me me  ?incakn  sick  qilt  [csqw'alxj [?aesil]  [?as§la.sqt] [nqwalqveltan]  tamarac  cxqwalx ?asil  two  ?aslasqt nqwlqwiltn  Tuesday  language  altogether.  10  1.52  a i s b a s i c a l l y a low, c e n t r a l vowel with frequent v a r i a t i o n  to a more front allophone [ae] or l o s t when unstressed and to a more mid c e n t r a l allophone  when stressed i n a short stem.  [xast] ~  [xast]  [spae lawalx ] [sxalxalt]  1.53  xast  good  spalawlx  hazy  sxlxalt  day  u ranges from a mid to high back rounded vowel.  The lower  allophone [ o ] i s often contiguous t o a post v e l a r but there are cases of free v a r i a t i o n between [u ] and [ o ] . [xanumt] ~  [xanomt]  [q^oct]  q~uct  [ntoxoxqen] 1.54  xnumt  ntuxuxqin  hurt fat' noon  Two types of schwa occur i n Okanagan words.  schwa varies f r e e l y with stressed a i n short stems.  The stressed  Unstressed schwas  are epenthetic and l a r g e l y predictable; therefore, they are omitted i n the phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n . 1.55  The vowels usually occur with p r e - g l o t t a l i z a t i o n when they  are i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n . ?iln ? asil  ?uc  eat two  ('interrogative)  11  A l l of the vowels occur i n an unstressed s y l l a b l e preceding and following stress., although vowels are often l o s t i n those environments. Frequently epenthetic schwa rules w i l l apply when the vowel i s l o s t . stimtima?  grandmother  limlimt  thank you  lkapu  coat  naxynaxy'  wife  nk^upils  lonely  ktilus  flat  surface  A l l of the vowels occur i n absolute f i n a l p o s i t i o n ; however, they commonly have a g l o t t a l i z e d coda. ?inca  me  ?acqa?  go out  talki  very  over there k^u  me  JJusu?  pig  1.6  Each word has a single primary s t r e s s .  weakly stressed.  Other syllables, are  12  2. M o r p h o p h o n e m i c s Morphophonemic changes a f f e c t f u l l words and p a r t i c l e s . words c o n s i s t o f a r o o t  and o p t i o n a l a f f i x e s .  Full  P a r t i c l e s are not  accompanied by a f f i x e s . 2.1  Consonant Changes  2.11  Consonant A s s i m i l a t i o n One c o n s o n a n t i s a s s i m i l a t e d b y a l i k e f o l l o w i n g c o n s o n a n t  i n a d i f f e r e n t morpheme. lumn  lum-mn  snklmutn  ?ala?  nlkipn  transitive  i s l o s t a f t e r n b e f o r e n o r s_.  nl-kip-n-t-n  An n f o l l o w e d nUcips  I open it  by an s i s u s u a l l y  nl-kip-n-t-s  The n o f t h e p r e f i x e s an-  Here is the water  ? i siwlk"  Consonant Loss The s u f f i x - t  and  chair  sn-kl-mut-tn  ? a l a ? i siwiky 2.12  spoon  second person singular  Pin-  lost.  He opens it first  possessive  person singular  may b e o p t i o n a l l y l o s t  b e f o r e s_. Pisxilwi  —  ?insxilwi  ask^ist  your name  ansk^uy  your mother  possessive  my husband  13  The 1 of the p r e f i x k l - possessive s- nominalizer  i s l o s t before  .  kn kslaxt  kn k l - s - l a x - t  J have a  friend  Root f i n a l _? i s l o s t i n the reduplicated element of a reduplicated stem. k^akyaPm  chewing  qiqi?xn  cold  feet  G l o t t a l i z e d resonants i n reduplicated stems lose g l o t t a l i z ation i n the reduplicated element. k^llc uimn  tools  w  smamim  women  stmtim 2.13  clothes  Consonant Fusion The p r e f i x c- customary aspect combines with a following  ? t o form  6. k"u c i l n Transitive  k u w  c-?iln  We 're  eating  - t and a following s_ become c.  plscut  pul-s-t-sut  wikncn  wik-n-t-s-n  suicide I see  you  14  2.2 2.21  Vowel Changes Unstressed morphemes often lose t h e i r vowel.  That vowel  i s usually replaced by an epenthetic schwa. gilt  [<?pelt]  qlsp?us  sict  [qalspa?u& ]  citxw  [ citxy]  ctcitx*  depressed  house  [6atcitx^  citx""tt  discouraged,  houses  [citx^tst]  our house  A schwa may also be inserted between morphemes.  It is  commonly inserted before a resonant or between two i d e n t i c a l obstruents. ?itxx  [?itxax ]  kn s q i c l x pixm 2.22  Go to sleep'.  [ ksn s q e c s l x ] [ pixam ]  I'm  running  hunting  Evidence of vowel d i s s i m i l a t i o n i s seen i n several  reduplicated stems. xixutm  young  lalustn 2.3  girl  eyeglasses  Metathesized Roots Metathesis of root f i n a l -VC to -CV occurs with s u f f i x e s  such as -p non-control  and -m  xal'  light  xlap  morning  middle.  15  2.4  kvint  Take it!  k*nim  take  Stress Changes I t has not yet been possible t o analyze f u l l y the operation  of stress i n t h i s d i a l e c t but the data indicates that roots may o r may not be stressed according to the s u f f i x e s which accompany them.  Prefixes  are never stressed. Some s u f f i x e s appear t o be always stressed.  These s u f f i x e s  then w i l l a t t r a c t stress from the root. Cjacnt  Look!  Qacncut  look at oneself  Other suffixes are sometimes stressed.and  sometimes unstressed.  When stressed, they draw the stress from the root, mulmn  fish net  sncao/nin  oven  Other suffixes are never stressed; therefore, the root to which they are attached w i l l r e t a i n the stress. ks?itxa?x  He's going to sleep  ksmijo^taPx  It's going to snow  Unstressed roots and s u f f i x e s often lose t h e i r vowel and i n that case, frequently epenthetic schwa r u l e s w i l l  apply.  16  3.  Morphology  The root i s the e s s e n t i a l element o f the morphological system. Roots are usually extended by a f f i x e s t o form stems but they may stand alone as f u l l words. qwac  It's sunny  citx*  It 's a house  Such unextended roots are a l l predicative.  Most stems consist of a s i n g l e root accompanied by a f f i x e s . Reduplicated  stems consist of a reduplicated root with optional a f f i x e s .  Two combined roots with optional a f f i x e s form a compound stem. 3.1 Voice Stems generally f a l l i n t o two categories, t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e , when voice i s considered;  that i s , when the p o s i t i o n  of the subject i n r e l a t i o n t o the a c t i v i t y or state i s considered. Several subcategories may be described within each o f the two major divisions. 3.11  Transitive Roots which appear as t r a n s i t i v e stems are marked by the  transitive suffix - t . an object.  These forms make reference t o a subject and  T r a n s i t i v e stems generally take t h i s form Root  -n  -t  Object  Subject  -s tarqntis  Ee kicked him  k*u papasilxstx  You make me  worried  17 •  3.111  T r a n s i t i v e stems i n -n may be c a l l e d active stems.  They involve an action of a subject upon an object.  kwu ca?ntis 3.112  He hit me  T r a n s i t i v e stems i n -s may be c a l l e d causative stems.  These stems involve an action or state r e s u l t i n g from the a c t i v i t y of another.  kyu caSstix*' 3.113  You make me ashamed  The r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x -sut marks a stem when the action  of the subject i s directed toward i t s e l f . follows - t  transitive. tarqncut  3.12  This s u f f i x always  tarq-n-t-sut  kick  oneself  Intransitive Stems which express an a c t i v i t y or state of a subject but  take no object may remain unmarked or take one of several i n t r a n s i t i v e suffixes. 3.121. The s u f f i x -m indicates that the subject i s engaged i n an a c t i v i t y .  I t may be c a l l e d the middle s u f f i x .  knTax^m  I am sweeping  lkalatm  She is making bread  sncixm  He is frying  something  18  3.122  I n t r a n s i t i v e roots may add the s t a t i v e s u f f i x - t  to indicate an i n t e g r a l o r natural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f that root. <3ik*  burn  citft  burned  ma^'  break  maS't  broken  Many i n t r a n s i t i v e stems occur only i n t h e i r s t a t i v e form. JSraxt  fast  xact  hard  calt  cold  limt  happy  qwuct  fat  slaxt 3.123  friend  The s u f f i x - l x indicates that the subject i s engaged  i n an a c t i v i t y involving motion.  3.124  qiclx  run  lk*^ilx  move away  ca*icalx  bathing  tKiwlx  climbing  The s u f f i x - i l s expresses a state o f mind. nJc*upils nqwaSils  lonely crazy  19  3.125  I n t r a n s i t i v e roots may s u f f i x -p t o express a lack of  control on the part of the subject.  3.13  ^xap  grow  r?xtip  win  csap  finished  kmap  darkening  A root may appear as more than one type of stem. k^akwaPm  chewing.  k^ak^aPntis  He is chewing on it  kniax^m  I am sweeping  ?ax"ntis  3.2  (intransitive) (transitive)  (intransitive)  She is sweeping it  (transitive)  cucawt  clean  (intransitive)  cawsm  wash face  (intransitive)  cawnt  Wash it!  (transitive)  Imperatives T r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e stems may be further  distinguished  by t h e i r imperative form. T r a n s i t i v e stems without personal reference markings indicate the imperative. nllcipnt Ta^nt k*u cunt  Open it! Sweep it! Tell me!  20  Intransitive stems express the imperative by s u f f i x i n g -x. ?itx  sleep  ?itxx  Go to sleep!  ca'icalx  bathing  ca^calxx  Take a bath I  x^uy  go  xwuyx  Go'.  Transitive and i n t r a n s i t i v e negative imperative forms regularly p r e f i x the second person pronoun a f f i x followed by the unrealized aspect marker and nominalizer.  3.3  l u t aksSancut  Don't laugh'.  l u t aksk^nim  Don't take it'.  l u t aksxvuya?x  Don't go'.  Personal Reference System T r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e stems take d i s t i n c t i v e personal  reference markers.  These markers distinguish  f i r s t , second and t h i r d  person and singular and p l u r a l number. 3.31 Intransitive Pronouns The i n t r a n s i t i v e pronouns are dependent elements which may be described i n two sets.  The subject pronouns include three  p r o c l i t i c p a r t i c l e s and one s u f f i x . two prefixes and four s u f f i x e s .  The possessive pronouns include  21  Subject Pronouns  kn  first  person  singular  kw  second person  kwu  first  person  plural  -lx  third person  plural  kn xvuy  I go  kwu xvuy  We go  ha kw ?aha?  Do you have a cold?  ha ?aha?lx  Bo they have a cold?  singular  The t h i r d person p l u r a l s u f f i x - l x serves i n both the t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e paradigms. r e f e r s to the subject.  In i n t r a n s i t i v e stems i t  In t r a n s i t i v e stems, t h i s s u f f i x indicates  the p l u r a l form of the t h i r d person subject and object.  Possessive Pronouns  ?in-  first  person  an-  second person  -s  third person  singular  -tt  first  plural  -mp  second person  -six  third person  person  singular singular  plural plural  22  In an unusual derivation with the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x -sut, these possessive words are formed with the possessive pronoun a f f i x e s : isutn  It's mine  ansutn  It's yours  sutns  It's  sutntt  It's ours  sutnmp  It 's yours  sutnslx  It's  his/hers  (plural)  theirs  3.32 T r a n s i t i v e Pronouns The following t r a n s i t i v e pronouns indicate the subject i n an active t r a n s i t i v e stem when the object i s t h i r d person singular. Third person singular object i s unmarked. Stressed  Unstressed  -in  -n  f i r s t person  -ix*  -xw  second person  -is  -s  third person  singular  -im  -m  f i r s t person  plural  -islx  -six  third  plural  wtntin  I put it there  nlkipn  I open it  person  singular singular  23  You put it there  maSntx*  You broke it  ?axwntis  She is sweeping it  nlJcips  Be opens it  xpntim  We are eating  kwtlqintm  We uncover it  nltfipslx  They open it  kyekwaTntislx  They are chewing on it  it up  When the object i s other than third person singular, these affixes and a proclitic particle are used. kwu  first  kwu cunt  Tell me /us!  -s  second person  cuncn  3.4 3.41  cu-n-t-s-n  person  I tell you  -lx  third person  cuntlx  Tell them!  plural  The Aspectual System Unrealized Stems may be marked by the prefix k- which expresses an  intentional future action or state.  It i s usually translated as  24  I am going to ... o r I am getting precedes s- nominalizer  ....  I t always accompanies and  and often occurs with the continuative  s u f f i x -a?x.  kn ksqilta?x  I'm getting  ksqita?x  It's going to vain  kn ksacqa?  I want to go to the bathroom  3.42  sick  Continuative Continuative aspect i s marked by the s u f f i x -a?x when an  action o r state i s considered i n progress. kn scputa?x  I am  sncixa?x  Be is frying  kn kscaScalxa?x  I am going to take a bath  3.43  celebrating something  Customary Customary aspect i s marked on a stem by the p r e f i x c- to  indicate a usual o r expected action o r state. ascJcwuT  Bow is your job?  n?ayp cmqwaqw  It's always  ascitx  Bow was your sleep?  snowing  25  3.44  Inchoative The i n f i x  before the root vowel denotes a development to  a state. qwuct qwpuc  fat He got  gilt  sick  q?ilt  He got  fat  sick  A developmental s u f f i x -wilx expresses the notion of becoming.  3.5  xast  good  xastwilx  getting  calt  coId  caltwilx  get  better  cold  Further Stem Modification by A f f i x e s Word formation involves other systems of grammatical a f f i x e s  and a s p e c i a l group of l e x i c a l a f f i x e s .  They are presented here  according to a f f i x a l type. 3.51 3.511  Prefixes D i r e c t i o n a l prefixes include 1- movement back, c- movement  toward speaker and k l - down, under. co-occur.  Two  d i r e c t i o n a l prefixes  may  26  xwuy  9o  Ixyvuy  return  cx^uy  come  lexwuy  come back  mutx  Sit!  klmutx  Sit down!  kikmusa?  kl-km-us-a?  cheeks  (under-surface-eyes-animate) 3.512  The p r e f i x s- forms nominal mgwaqw smqwaqw  ?iln  It's  snowing  age  (how many  s?iln  eat mealtime  pul  smoking  ?  spul'  stems.  snowfalls)  smoke  Many r o o t s o c c u r c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h s -  slagy  meat  sq?im  milk  stful  bees  slaqw  hawk  scwin  sa Imon  snina?  owl  nominalizer.  27  3.513  The l o c a t i v e p r e f i x n- indicates that a l o c a t i o n i s  specified. gilt  sick  nqilqn  His head aches  cix  fry  ncixmn  kettle  When s- nominalizer  and n- locative  a stem, a nominative instrumental  are both prefixed to  function i s expressed.  An  instrumental  s u f f i x usually co-occurs with t h i s p r e f i x combination.  3.514  snca^icalxtn  bathtub  snklmutn  chair  sncaqmin  oven  snkiwlxtn  ladder,  stairs  The possessive i s marked by the p r e f i x k l - . kn klpus  I have a cat  klxalas x l i l p  Your floor  sklqayncut  is  s-kl-qay-n-t-sut  clean -picture  (nominalizer-possessive-root-active-transitivereflexive)  28  3.515  The p r e f i x sx- expresses an agent.  I t always co-occurs  with the s u f f i x -m middle.  3.52 3.521 stems.  sxk^u]jn  worker  sxmamaym  teacher  sxtrqam  dancer  Suffixes The suffixes -min and - t n form nominative instrumental  These s u f f i x e s may co-occur.  3.522  mulmn  fish net  niwmn  fan  klalmin  fence  Icarmiri  scissors  klltmintn  fishing  tkikstn  cane  nxalsaxytn  window  rod  A s p e c i a l group of s u f f i x e s add l e x i c a l information t o  the root. -a?  animate  sama?  white man  skkaka? kilawna?  birds male grizzly  bear  29  -qin  head  kwacqn  hat  qapqirrtn  hair  wl'qintn  cover,lid  -cin  mouth  splimcn  mouth  wicin  finished  raSrna^cin  You talk too much  -ikst  manual  cawkstm  wash hands  stumkst  thumb  Ipikst  glove  -xan  feet  sulxn  frozen  snsisuxn  socks  qaxan  shoe  -us  eyes  sqwtus  face  piyusm  frown  lalustn  eyeglasses  eating  feet  30  -ank  stomach  nqilnk  stomach ache  n^uSank  terribly  -ikn  back  snfonikn  back  -ul  individual  titimul  lazy person  nqwnqwmul  thief  cacaxtal  shy person  -itdxw  man  sqltmix^  man  ilmfx^m  chief  -ulawx  space, an area  tmxtilawx  world  xx?ulawx  a cool place  cilawx  shade  -ilp  base  swiplp  sheets  stkWlp  mattress  sxaliip  floor  3  frightened  bottom  31  -asqt  day  sraasqt  Thursday  tqmkstasqt  Saturday  scakasqt  3.6  calendar  Survey of A f f i x e s There i s i n s u f f i c i e n t contrastive material to assure  an  accurate d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e l a t i v e order of a f f i x e s but the a v a i l a b l e data suggests the following order from the c l o s e s t to the root to the farthest from the root.  Prefixes 1.  c-  directional  2.  1-  directional  3.  kl-  directional  4.  sx-  5.  kl-  possessx-ve  6.  c-  customary  7.  n-  locative  8.  s-  nominalizer  9.  k-  10.  agentive  unrealized  possessive pronouns  aspect  aspect  32  Infix  -7-  -inchoative  Suffixes 1.  lexical  2.  "P  non-control  3.  -m  middle  4.  -t  stative  5.  -lx  motion  6.  -n  active  -s  causative  7.  -t  transitive  8.  t r a n s i t i v e pronouns  9.  -sut  reflexive  10.  -x  imperative  11.  -wilx  developmental  12.  -ils  state  13.  -min  instrumental  14.  -tn  instrumental  15.  -a?x  continuative  16.  possessive pronouns  of mind  aspect  33  Examples of stem types where both prefixes and suffixes occur or where more than one p r e f i x or s u f f i x occurs w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d here.  1.  2.  ascaqw  your  flowers  a-s-caqw  possessive  snqaymin  writing  pronoun-nominalizer-root equipment  s-n-qay-min  nominalizer-locative-root-instrumental  3. ?inqa?xan  my shoes  ?in-qa?-xan 4.  cfevulm  possessive always working  c-kWi-m 5.  sncixm  customary  anqapqxntn  askwist  your hair possessive  possessive  scilkstasqt  nsama?cn  nominalizer-root-lexical-lexical  speak  n-sam-a?-cn 10.  pronoun-nominalizer-root-stative  Friday  s-cil-kst-asqt 9.  pronoun-root-lexical-instrwnental  your name  a-s-k^is-t 8.  something  nominalizer-locative-root-middle  an-qap-qin-tn 7.  aspect-root-middle  He is frying  s-n-cix-m 6.  pronoun-root-lexical  kslx^uyaPx k-s-J-xwuy-afx  English locative-root-lexical-lexical  He's going to return home unrealized continuative  aspect-nominalizer-directional-rootaspect  34  3.7  Reduplicated Stems Complete and p a r t i a l reduplication processes occur t o  form complex stems. 3.71  Complete Reduplication Complete reduplication can function t o express q u a l i t i e s ,  i n t e n s i t y , i t e r a t i o n and p l u r a l .  In some cases the function of the  reduplication i s not apparent. a.  C^C., -  ^  caxt  hot  caxcaxt  very hot  limt  happy  limlimt b.  C  C ^ citx* ctcitx  thank you C / ^ house  vV  lk"\il l^l^ulmn  houses  work tools  sama?  white man  smsama''  white  people  35  A number o f stems belong formally t o t h i s r e d u p l i c a t i o n type but contrasting non-reduplicated q^ngwant  poor  maSmaCit  tiresome  liplip  corn  xwatxv'at  ducks  nax nax  wife  w  w  klkilx  C  1 1 " V  arms  C  1 1 V  sqit  ram  qaqat  a  C  1 1 V  forms are lacking.  C  rainshower  1 1 V  scuxan  foot  scucuxn  feet  36  3.72  Partial  a.  Reduplication  Diminutive forms occur with the reduplication o f C  of the root.  b.  Wcyuma?  tittle  k^k^ap  dog  sJo^k^imalt  baby  ttwit  boy  sccmila?  children  ccitax  bathroom  w  P l u r a l can be indicated by the reduplication o f  of the root. xmal  fly  xxmal  3.73  Multiple  flies  Reduplication  A stem may be modified by more than one reduplicative process. £xap  grow  SaxSxap  old -person  ^raxax&cap  old people  skkaka?  birds  1  37  3.8  Compound Stems Compound stems c o n s i s t of two roots and optional a f f i x e s . glsppus  discouraged,  q i l - sp?us  sick - heart  sncaxtlkalat  fried  s-n- caxt - l k a l a t  hot - bread  lptmtritkw  rippling  lpimt - -tlikwt  ripples  depressed  bread  of the water - lake  Some suppletive stems f o r p l u r a l imperative form compounds with the root  x"uy  go.  pulxwuy  Go to bed!  twistx^uy  Get up!  kyvilx^uy  Sit down!  (plural) (plural) (plural)  The following numeral compounds combine ?upnkst the d i g i t s one to nine. 1.  naqs  6.  -^aqrnkst  2.  ?asil  7.  sisplk'  3.  kalis  8.  timl  4.  mus  9.  xxnut • •  5.  cilkst  ten with  38  The numbers eleven to nineteen consist of ?upnkst the  ten as  f i r s t element followed by the d i g i t s with the connecting morpheme ±. 11.  ?upnkst 1 naqs  12.  ?upnkst 1 ?as£l  13.  ?upnkst 1 k a l i s  14.  ?upnkst 1 mus  15.  ?upnkst 1 c i l k s t  16.  ?upnkst 1 -caqmkst  17.  ?upnkst 1 sispUc  18.  ?upnkst 1 tirnl  19.  ?upnkst 1 xxnut  In multiples of ten, ?upnkst 20.  ? a s i l ?upnkst  30.  k a l ?upnkst  40.  mus ± ?upnkst  50.  c i l k 1 ?upnkst  60.  £qm 1 ?upnkst  70.  sispllc 1 Tupnkst  80.  tirnl ?upnkst  90.  xxnut 1 ?upnkst  One hundred i s x c c i k s t .  ten i s preceded by the d i g i t s .  39  BIBLIOGPAPHY Bouchard, Randy. 1973. How t o Write the Okanagan Language. Columbia Indian Language Project.  British  Bouchard, Randy and Larry P i e r r e . 1975. C l a s s i f i e d Word L i s t f o r B.C. Indian Languages Okanagan Version. B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Language Project. Carlson, Barry F. 1972. A Grammar o f Spokan: A S a l i s h Language of Eastern Washington. University of Hawaii Working Papers i n L i n g u i s t i c s 4:4. Gibson, James A. 1973. Shuswap Grammatical Structure. Hawaii Working Papers i n L i n g u i s t i c s 5:5.  University of  Kinkade, M. Dale. 1967. Uvular-Pharyngeal Resonants i n I n t e r i o r S a l i s h . UAL 33:228-34. . 1975. The L e x i c a l Domain of Anatomy i n Columbian S a l i s h . Peter de Ridder Press Publications on S a l i s h Languages 1. . 1976. I n t e r i o r Salishan P a r t i c l e s . Working Papers f o r the XI International Conference on Salishan Languages. Mattina, Anthony. 1973. C o l v i l l e Grammatical Structure. of Hawaii Working Papers i n L i n g u i s t i c s 5:4. Reichard, Gladys A. 1938. Languages 3:517-707.  Coeur d'Alene.  University  Handbook of American Indian  Thompson, Laurence C. 1973. The Northwest. L i n g u i s t i c s i n North America Volume 1. Thomas A. Sebeok ed. The Hague. Thompson, Laurence C. and M. Terry Thompson. 1975. Vogt, Hans. 1940. Akademi.  The K a l i s p e l Language.  Thompson, ms.  Oslo: Det Norske Videnskaps-  Watkins, Donald. 1970. A Description of the Phonemes and P o s i t i o n Classes i n the Morphology of Head of the Lake Okanagan (Salish). University of Alberta d i s s e r t a t i o n . . 1974.  A Boas O r i g i n a l .  IJAL 40:29-43.  

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