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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Integrative complexity of English literary figures as a function of environmental factors Borrie, Carol A. Porter 1978

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INTEGRATIVE COMPLEXITY OF ENGLISH LITERARY FIGURES AS A FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS by CAROL A . PORTER BORRIE B . A . , Denison U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October , 1978 Cc) C a r o l A . P o r t e r B o r r i e , 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s ' t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Psychology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1WS Date 2 November 1978 ABSTRACT The i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y of v a r i o u s l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s was examined as a f u n c t i o n of c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l s t r e s s o r s o p e r a t i n g ac ross t h e i r own l i f e spans. P rev ious r e s e a r c h concerned w i t h the complex i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g as a response to the changing demands o f the environment has focused on the s t r a t e g i e s employed by i n d i v i d u a l s i n p o l i t i c a l and/or d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c o n t e x t s . The c u r r e n t s tudy was designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to i n v e s t i g a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g complex i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s who are unencumbered by the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h - l e v e l d e c i s i o n making. The l i v e s and p e r s o n a l correspondence of f i v e eminent E n g l i s h n o v e l i s t s of the n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s were a n a l y z e d . I t was hypothes ized that the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s should i n f l u e n c e i n t e g r a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y : s t r e s s f u l l i f e e v e n t s , changes i n h e a l t h , war i n t e n s i t y , and c i v i l u n r e s t . Each i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e was d i v i d e d i n t o c o n s e c u t i v e f i v e - y e a r t ime p e r i o d s , and f o r each p e r i o d p e r s o n a l correspondence was scored f o r i n t e g r a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y . Us ing m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s emerged: i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g complex i t y i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to age ; i l l n e s s and war i n t e n s i t y are both n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to c o m p l e x i t y ; and there i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between c i v i l unrest and c o m p l e x i t y . In i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between complex i t y and both war i n t e n s i t y and c i v i l u n r e s t , i t was suggested tha t the i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w i n the environment i s an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n d e t e r -min ing the ways i n which i n d i v i d u a l s respond to these s i t u a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , a v a r i a b l e c a l l e d t e r m i n a l years was i n i t i a l l y in t roduced i n t o the a n a l y s i s to c o n t r o l f o r p o s s i b l e b i a s e s r e s u l t i n g i i i from the f i v e - y e a r a n a l y t i c a l framework employed. I t was subsequent ly determined that t h i s v a r i a b l e served a f u n c t i o n other than tha t which was o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d . I t emerged as a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of i n t e g r a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p i n d i c a t i n g that complex i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g decreased s h o r t l y p r i o r to d e a t h . ' Th is r e s u l t was e x p l a i n e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to l i f e - s p a n developmental r e s e a r c h tha t has shown marked performance decrements that appear to occur i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the death of those i n d i v i d u a l s s t u d i e d . The c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h has supported the genera l hypothes i s tha t i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g complex i t y i s a f f e c t e d by changing aspects of one 's environment. The f i n d i n g s suggest not on ly that f a c t o r s such as s t r e s s and i n f o r m a t i o n input a f f e c t c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s , but that p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s such as i l l - h e a l t h a l s o appear to be r e l a t e d to i n t e g r a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y . I t was adv ised that the r e s u l t s of t h i s work should be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h a c e r t a i n degree of c a u t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t of the s m a l l sample i n v e s t i g a t e d . Th is r e s e a r c h however p o i n t s to a number of i n t e r e s t i n g d i r e c t i o n s of i n q u i r y t h a t f u t u r e s t u d i e s i n the area of complex i t y might pursue . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES INTRODUCTION A r c h i v a l Analyses METHOD Sample Time U n i t Independent V a r i a b l e s Dependent V a r i a b l e s Wi t h i n - s u b j e c t s Mean Deviat ions^ C o n t r o l V a r i a b l e s RESULTS AND DISCUSSION M u l t i p l e Regress ion Analyses Genera l D i s c u s s i o n REFERENCES APPENDIX A: Coding scheme f o r S t r e s s f u l L i f e Events APPENDIX B: Coding scheme f o r I l l n e s s APPENDIX C: S o c i o p o l i t i c a l events APPENDIX D: General manual f o r s c o r i n g s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s of responses APPENDIX E: Chronology of s o c i e t a l events and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l i f e events of n o v e l i s t s d u r i n g t ime p e r i o d s t u d i e d APPENDIX F: B i b l i o g r a p h y LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 Multiple Regression Analysis of Integrative Complexity TABLE 2 Inte r c o r r e l a t i o n s of Independent Variables TABLE 3 Mult i p l e Regression Analysis of Pro d u c t i v i t y INTRODUCTION The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s a r c h i v a l study was to search f o r p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the changing i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y i n the w r i t i n g s of v a r i o u s l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s and the presence of v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l s t r e s s o r s o p e r a t i n g ac ross t h e i r own l i f e spans. In order to l o c a t e t h i s r e s e a r c h e f f o r t i n the contex t i n which i t was deve loped , an attempt w i l l be made to set out b r i e f l y a recent h i s t o r y of theory and r e s e a r c h i n the area of conceptua l complex i t y as i t was f i r s t a r t i c u l a t e d i n the work of Harvey, Hunt and Schroder (1961)• This i n i t i a l work was f u r t h e r r e f i n e d by Schroder , D r i v e r and S t r e u f e r t (1967) and l a t e r extended i n scope and adapted f o r a r c h i v a l a n a l y s i s by Suedfe ld and h i s c o l l e a g u e s ( e . g . , Suedfe ld & T e t l o c k , 1977) . Rather than a n a l y z i n g these t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s i n d e t a i l , these works w i l l be s e l e c t i v e l y reviewed i n order to h i g h l i g h t those i d e a s and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s which support the r a t i o n a l e f o r the study which f o l l o w s . In a d d i t i o n a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of v a r i o u s a r c h i v a l r e s e a r c h methodologies w i l l be presented i n order to demonstrate the u t i l i t y of t h i s approach as an a l t e r n a t i v e to more t r a d i t i o n a l exper imenta l techn iques . The t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of Harvey et a l . se t them apar t from other r e s e a r c h e r s concerned w i t h t o p i c s r e l a t e d to conceptua l complex i t y i n that i t focused on s t y l i s t i c modes of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g as dimensions of p e r s o n a l i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . Rather than v i e w i n g i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s from the p o i n t of v iew of the content and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of thought p r o c e s s e s — a t t i t u d e s , needs , v a l u e s , and so on—Harvey et a l . recogn ized that the ways i n which people combine and use i n f o r m a t i o n 2 i n t h e i r environment v a r i e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n degree of a b s t r a c t i o n and s t r u c t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y . Both content and s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a b l e s , however, were cons idered to be important i n unders tanding an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s p e c i f i c o r i e n t a t i o n toward h i s environment. Content v a r i a b l e s such as a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s can be used much l i k e a set of r u l e s which determine the ways i n which a person o rgan i zes i n f o r m a t i o n (Schroder et a l . , 1967) . In a r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y examinat ion of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t y l e as a p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e , Harvey et a l . (1961) proposed that a concept be viewed as a system f o r o r d e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n tha t determines i n l a r g e p a r t how a person r e l a t e s to the o b j e c t s i n h i s environment. Concepts , a c c o r d i n g to these a u t h o r s , evo lve through a process of i n c r e a s i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , i n t h i s v i e w , r e f e r s to the number of c a t e g o r i e s or k i n d s of i n f o r m a t i o n a person i s ab le to process i n a g iven s i t u a t i o n , w h i l e i n t e g r a t i o n r e f e r s to the development of complex connect ions among these d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s . Acco rd ing to Harvey et a l . , the most important s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a concept i s i t s degree of concreteness or a b s t r a c t -n e s s . People who are c o n c r e t e l y o rgan ized are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r i g i d e v a l u a t i o n s of events and an i n a b i l i t y to cons ide r s i t u a t i o n s from more than a s i n g l e p e r s p e c t i v e . As conceptua l s t r u c t u r e becomes more a b s t r a c t there i s an i n c r e a s e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s of the same event which when i n t e r r e l a t e d may lead to new conceptua l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n c r e a s i n g l y complex judgment s t r a t e g i e s . In deve lop ing the theory that i n d i v i d u a l s d i f f e r i n the way i n which t h e i r conceptua l systems are o r g a n i z e d , Harvey et a l . (1961) proposed tha t conceptua l s t r u c t u r e progresses i n stages a long the dimension of c o n c r e t e n e s s - a b s t r a c t n e s s . They assumed that "phases occur i n most forms of development i n the process of t r y i n g to adapt 3 or to make sense out of any nove l and r e l e v a n t s i t u a t i o n " (p. 19) . Th is assumption r e s t e d on e a r l i e r developmental models ( e . g . , Werner, 1957, c i t e d i n Harvey et a l . , 1961) which proposed tha t conceptua l development advances through s t a g e s , from the s i m p l e r to more complex, or from the l e s s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d to the more h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d s t a g e . In p ropos ing that conceptua l s t r u c t u r e l i k e w i s e progresses i n s t a g e s , Harvey et a l . contended that the extent to which s t i m u l i are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and i n t e g r a t e d at one stage w i l l determine whether a person proceeds to the next s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l . For i n s t a n c e , an i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n i n g a t a concrete stage i s assumed to r e l y on e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y and c o n t r o l and to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a b s o l u t i s t i c t h i n k i n g . To progress beyond t h i s l e v e l , Harvey e t a l . suggested that a person must l e a r n to d i s c r i m i n a t e between, f o r example, the opposing po les of i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l and to s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e these d i s c r e p a n t e v a l u a t i o n s . L e a r n i n g i s viewed i n terms of the a c q u i s i t i o n of such i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and i n t e g r a t e d concepts . T r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s which promote such development are t h e r e -f o r e assumed to be a major f a c t o r i n the fo rmat ion of more mature conceptua l s t r u c t u r e . I f env i ronmenta l c o n d i t i o n s do not promote the development of a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n a t each s t a g e , growth may become a r r e s t e d . Th is theory proposes tha t i n d i v i d u a l systems of o r g a n i z a t i o n that have become f i x a t e d at a g iven s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l are viewed as t y p i f y i n g some degree of c losedness to f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s i o n and are cons idered to be r e l a t i v e l y i n f l e x i b l e . Harvey et a l . p o s i t e d that once formed i n the course of development, conceptua l s t r u c t u r e s do not change i n any major way i n adu l thood . Th is assumption however has not been sub jec ted to any e m p i r i c a l t e s t s . I t 4 should be noted tha t these t h e o r i s t s s t u d i e d conceptua l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n p a r t i c u l a r domains, f o r example, w i t h r e f e r e n c e to i n t e r p e r s o n a l or r e l i g i o u s s t i m u l i . They proposed that i n d i v i d u a l s cou ld become more complex w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f a m i l i a r i t y i n a g iven domain. Th is a s s e r t i o n was more a p p l i c a b l e to persons whose conceptua l s t r u c t u r e had a l r e a d y a t t a i n e d a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h degree of complex i t y than f o r those persons f o r whom development had become a r r e s t e d a t a more concrete s t a g e . In o ther words, w i t h i n c r e a s i n g e x p e r i e n c e , " s i m p l e " people may advance s l i g h t l y but t h e i r s t r u c t u r e i s e s s e n t i a l l y c l o s e d , whereas "complex" i n d i v i d u a l s are more capable of becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y a b s t r a c t . Whi le these t h e o r i s t s have mainta ined tha t t h e i r pr imary i n t e r e s t was i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s of concepts , t h e i r theory evolved i n t o one that t r e a t e d both s t r u c t u r a l and content v a r i a b l e s as i n t e r r e l a t e d aspects of conceptua l systems. One of the b a s i c p r o p e r t i e s of concepts emphasized was t h e i r d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , o r the tendency to eva lua te o b j e c t s i n the environment e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y . In a d d i t i o n conceptua l development was d e s c r i b e d i n c o n t e n t - o r i e n t e d terms such as dependence on e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y and a concern w i t h i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F u r t h e r , development was assumed to proceed a long a cont inuous dimension of a b s t r a c t n e s s but c e n t r a l to the theory was a d e l i n e a t i o n of d i s c o n t i n u o u s s tages of conceptua l systems where p r o g r e s s i o n r e q u i r e d developmental " l e a p s " from one l e v e l to the n e x t . Schroder et a l . (1967) l a t e r drew on the i n i t i a l t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of Harvey et a l . (1961) w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of more c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the content and s t r u c t u r e of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s -i n g . They focused s p e c i f i c a l l y on the number and in te rconnectedness of r u l e s used by i n d i v i d u a l s to combine and o rgan i ze i n f o r m a t i o n . In 5 t h i s approach conceptua l s t r u c t u r e r e f e r s to i n t e g r a t i v e conceptua l r u l e s ; the number of d i f f e r e n t ways an i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s to combine and r e l a t e a set of i n f o r m a t i o n i tems determines the l e v e l of conceptua l c o m p l e x i t y . In t h e i r r e s e a r c h Schroder et a l . d e f i n e d exper imenta l environments i n terms of degree of complex i t y i n order to study conceptua l and env i ronmenta l f a c t o r s i n i n t e r a c t i o n . As the study to be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s stems more d i r e c t l y from the theory of conceptua l complex i t y as presented by Schroder et a l . the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s based on t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n r a t h e r than that of Harvey e t a l . Two interdependent p r o p e r t i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g s t r u c t u r e s are p o s t u l a t e d i n t h i s conceptua l complex i t y model : the p a r t s or dimensions and the i n t e g r a t i n g r u l e s . A category or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a s t i m u l u s ob jec t recogn ized by an i n d i v i d u a l may be regarded as an independent a t t r i b u t e a long which the s t i m u l u s can be s c a l e d , e . g . , degree of b r i g h t n e s s . The d imens iona l a t t r i b u t e s of a s t i m u l u s may then be weighted and combined a c c o r d i n g to one or many conceptua l r u l e s that g i ve r i s e to d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s of the s t i m u l u s o b j e c t . These p e r s p e c t i v e s may i n tu rn be r e l a t e d or connected i n making e v a l u a t i o n s and judgments. An example from Schroder (1971) may c l a r i f y the above. An i n d i v i d u a l might p e r c e i v e two k i n d s of i n f o r m a t i o n as r e l e v a n t to a s t i m u l u s p e r s o n : c r e a t i v i t y and o r d e r l i n e s s . A long each of these dimensions the s t i m u l u s person i s s c a l e d by the o b s e r v e r . These s c a l e va lues are weighted and combined i n such a way as to generate a p e r s p e c -t i v e about the s t i m u l u s ( e . g . , low c r e a t i v i t y i s more important than h igh o r d e r l i n e s s , e t c . ) . However the observer might a l s o use a d i f f e r e n t combinatory r u l e to generate a p e r s p e c t i v e where a s i t u a t i o n or s t y l e c a l l e d f o r a h e a v i e r emphasis on o r d e r l i n e s s than on c r e a t i v i t y , 6 and so on . " In h i g h e r - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e s w i t h more r u l e s and i n t e r -connect ing l i n k a g e s , the i n d i v i d u a l has more ways to r e l a t e to persons and o b j e c t s and to generate new aspects of r e l a t i n g " (Schroder et a l . , 1967, p. 9 ) . The number of dimensions p e r c e i v e d i n a s t i m u l u s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d to complex i ty of p r o c e s s i n g , as a person u s i n g two dimensions may combine them i n d i f f e r e n t ways and compare outcomes, whereas a person u s i n g three dimensions may have on ly one f i x e d r u l e to generate a p e r s p e c t i v e . In g e n e r a l , however, more complex i n f o r m a t i o n p rocessors d i f f e r e n t i a t e a l a r g e r number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a g i ven s t i m u l u s domain. Schroder et a l . (1967) suggested tha t many g r a d a t i o n s or s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s cou ld be d e s c r i b e d a long the conceptua l complex i t y d imens ion . In s imple or concrete s t r u c t u r e s s t i m u l i a re i n t e r p r e t e d i n a u n i d i m e n s i o n a l manner and the r u l e s of i n t e g r a t i o n a re g e n e r a l l y f i x e d . I n d i v i d u a l s who f u n c t i o n a t t h i s l e v e l are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r i g i d e v a l u a t i o n s of s t i m u l i and r e j e c t i o n of d i ssonant i n f o r m a t i o n i n order to min imize c o n f l i c t . With a f i x e d set of r u l e s , the problems of c h o i c e and e r r o r a r i s e l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . I n d i v i d u a l s tend to engage i n c a t e g o r i c a l b l a c k - w h i t e t h i n k i n g ; c o n f l i c t i s min imized by f i t t i n g s t i m u l i i n t o e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s or e x c l u d i n g them from c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; there i s a genera l i n a b i l i t y to understand a n o t h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . For i n s t a n c e i f an i n d i v i d u a l ho lds an ext remely concre te v iew of a p a r t i c u l a r m i n o r i t y group, a l l members of that group w i l l tend to be lumped i n t o one category ( fo r example, "bad") and c o n t r a s t e d to o t h e r s . D issonant i n f o r m a t i o n about the group w i l l be e i t h e r exc luded from c o n s i d e r a t i o n or d i s t o r t e d to f i t the e x i s t i n g a t t i t u d e . As the a b s t r a c t n e s s of s t r u c t u r e i n c r e a s e s , the system becomes l e s s 7 de te rminate . D e c i s i o n s are made on the b a s i s of more i n f o r m a t i o n , but there i s l e s s c e r t a i n t y i n v o l v e d as more a l t e r n a t i v e s are recogn ized and taken i n t o account . Rather than c a t e g o r i z i n g a s t i m u l u s on one dimension under one set of c o n d i t i o n s , an i n d i v i d u a l might i n t e r p r e t the same s t i m u l u s a t two p l a c e s on the same dimension by u s i n g a l t e r n a t e r u l e s at the same t i m e . For example a person might v iew the purpose of s o c i e t a l r u l e s from the p o i n t of v iew of those governed as w e l l as the governing agents , how these purposes are r e l a t e d and i n f l u e n c e one another i n such a way as to promote e f f e c t i v e change. At the complex end of the continuum the system i s open and f l e x i b l e ; there i s a search f o r n o v e l t y and f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n ; new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the same event may be made; more complex r u l e s are used to i n t e r -r e l a t e the p e r s p e c t i v e s ; and m u l t i p l e p o i n t s of v iew are cons idered s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . As Schroder (1971) n o t e d , " t h i s a b i l i t y to generate m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s by w e i g h t i n g s i m i l a r d imens iona l s c a l e va lues of i n f o r m a t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y rep resents a c r i t i c a l step i n p e r s o n a l i t y development i n any s t i m u l u s domain. In the i n t e r p e r s o n a l domain, i t may be observed as a r e d u c t i o n i n a b s o l u t i s t i c t h i n k i n g . I t rep resents the a b i l i t y to v iew and understand events from another p e r s o n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e and to a r r i v e at a l t e r n a t i v e judgments or o p i n i o n s about people or events . I t rep resents a marked advance i n the complex i t y of t h i n k i n g , i n p r o v i d i n g the foundat ion f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to generate c o n f l i c t and ambigui ty f o r h i m s e l f " (Schroder , 1971, p. 253) . The Paragraph Complet ion t e s t (Schroder et a l . , 1967) i s one of the t e s t s dev ised to measure i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n modes of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , and has been f r e q u e n t l y used and v a l i d a t e d i n a number of s t u d i e s . The s u b j e c t i n t h i s t e s t i s asked to w r i t e two or 8 th ree sentences i n response to each of a s e r i e s of sentence stems ( e . g . , "When I d o n ' t know what to do . . . " ) . These complet ions are scored f o r l e v e l of conceptua l complex i t y on a seven p o i n t s c a l e . Th is i s done by c o n s i d e r i n g the number of a l t e r n a t i v e dimensions apparent i n the complet ion and the ways i n which the dimensions are combined and r e l a t e d to each o t h e r . High complex i t y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more d imens ions , c o n d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n t e g r a t e d c h o i c e s , and p o s i t i v e search f o r i n f o r m a t i o n from s e v e r a l s o u r c e s . A very s imple response to the stem g iven above might be "I l ook f o r my w i f e " o r "I s i t down and t h i n k th ings o v e r . " A more complex complet ion would i n d i c a t e that the s u b j e c t c o n s u l t s d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s , c o n s i d e r s d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n s and combines the best components of each . For i n s t a n c e , "I t r y to f i g u r e out a reasonable course of a c t i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g a l l the a v a i l a b l e ev idence . I o f t e n have doubts a f t e r t h i s , and c o n s u l t o ther people i n order to cons ide r t h e i r o p i n i o n s . The r e s u l t i s h a r d l y a f i n a l s o l u t i o n , but i t u s u a l l y serves as a spr ingboard f o r f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n " (Schroder et a l . , 1967). Higher complex i ty a l s o i m p l i e s that the s i t u a t i o n i s not n e c e s s a r i l y s t r e s s f u l and u n d e s i r a b l e , and that c o n f l i c t may l e a d to exc i tement and new i n f o r m a t i o n . By u t i l i z i n g a number of d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s and measure-ment t e c h n i q u e s , Schroder et a l . have shown that conceptua l l e v e l does vary among i n d i v i d u a l s and i n a d d i t i o n v a r i e s w i t h i n the same i n d i v i d u a l under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , f o r example, under s t r e s s . I t should be noted that both Harvey e t a l . (1961) and Schroder e t a l . (1967) were i n t e r e s t e d i n conceptua l s t r u c t u r e as a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t . An important emphasis of the theory however i s that i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g complex i t y i s an i n t e r a c t i v e consequence of env i ronmenta l and d i s p o s i t i o n a l f a c t o r s . 9 The term " i n t e g r a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y " has been used to d i s t i n g u i s h between the dependent v a r i a b l e of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g (which may change as the s i t u a t i o n changes) and measures of conceptua l complex i t y as a p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (Suedfe ld & T e t l o c k , 1977). In order to i n v e s t i g a t e the l e v e l of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g that persons use i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s , Schroder et a l . (1967) d e f i n e d t h e i r exper imenta l environments i n terms compat ib le w i t h complex i t y theory . S p e c i f i c p r o p e r t i e s of the environment that were b e l i e v e d to be r e l e v a n t to the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n were u t i l i z e d i n a v a r i e t y of exper imenta l s i t u a t i o n s . For example, the complex i ty of an environment i s a c e n t r a l f a c t o r , i n that an o v e r l y s imple environment would f a i l to present s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n to s t i m u l a t e i n t e g r a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . In a d d i t i o n to the sheer number of i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t s i n an envi ronment , the authors suggested tha t the dimensions of u n c e r t a i n t y , s e v e r i t y of the adverse consequences of b e h a v i o u r , and the amount of reward or promise g iven by an environment a l s o a f f e c t c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . These l a t t e r two are a l t e r n a t e l y r e f e r r e d to as " c o s t - r e w a r d " , " i n t e r e s t - t h r e a t " , e t c . By engaging s u b j e c t s i n a t a c t i c a l game t a s k , Schroder and h i s c o l l e a g u e s found tha t i n c r e a s i n g env i ronmenta l complex i t y and load has the e f f e c t of f i r s t i n c r e a s i n g the degree of f l e x i b i l i t y and i n t e g r a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n d e c i s i o n making to an o p t i m a l p o i n t , then caus ing i t to d i m i n i s h as o v e r l o a d o c c u r s . Thus a genera l i n v e r t e d U curve r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between l e v e l of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g and env i ronmental c o m p l e x i t y . In these p a r t i c u l a r experiments the " c o s t - r e w a r d " f a c t o r s were h e l d c o n s t a n t . In another s e r i e s of experiments that used an i n t e r - n a t i o n s i m u l a t i o n game, the h y p o t h e s i s 10 was that i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y i s r e l a t e d i n a c u r v i l i n e a r f a s h i o n to c o s t - r e w a r d d imens ions , whether they a c t a lone or i n combinat ion . I n -c r e a s i n g cost and/or reward from zero to optimum should i n c r e a s e i n t e g r a t i v e a b s t r a c t n e s s , w h i l e i n c r e a s e s beyond o p t i m a l l e v e l s should cause r e g r e s s i o n toward more concrete l e v e l s . With complex i t y and i n t e r e s t l e v e l h i g h i n the i n t e r - n a t i o n s i m u l a -t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g cost (def ined here as a f u n c t i o n of m i l i t a r y t h r e a t ) decreased the l e v e l of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n . Complex i ty of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g was measured i n these experiments by m u l t i -d imens iona l s c a l i n g of the p e r c e p t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n r a t i n g the other n a t i o n s i n the s i m u l a t e d w o r l d . War and t h r e a t "produced decrements i n i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s w i t h respec t to d i m e n s i o n a l i t y w e i g h t i n g and the r e l a t i v e weight of i n t e r n a l l y generated d imens ions" (Schroder et a l . , 1967, p. 8 5 ) . Furthermore, i t was repor ted that " too much (cos t ) can adverse l y a f f e c t conceptua l s t r u c t u r e i n both the i n f o r m a t i o n a l and s o c i a l areas by i n d u c i n g reduced p r o c e s s i n g of e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and r e s i s t a n c e to new i n p u t s . More s u c c i n c t l y , overnoxious c o n d i t i o n s can produce o v e r s i m p l e , h i e r a r c h i c c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e " (p. 8 7 ) . I t should be noted that the changes i n l e v e l of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g were, a c c o r d i n g to these t h e o r i s t s , supposedly no rmal , temporary adapta t ions to s t r e s s . The r e s u l t s c i t e d above were obta ined f o r the most p a r t from experiments tha t i n v o l v e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n s i m u l a t e d s i t u a t i o n s . Both the environment and the modes of response were t h e r e f o r e under s t r i c t exper imenta l c o n t r o l , which of course i s not the case i n r e a l l i f e c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s . Suedfe ld and h i s coworkers have r e c e n t l y en larged the scope of complex i t y theory i n the a n a l y s i s of a r c h i v a l 11 m a t e r i a l . Th is approach i s p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e i n that i t p rov ides the o p p o r t u n i t y to i n v e s t i g a t e the i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s i n n o n - l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n s . In one s tudy , Suedfe ld and Rank (1976) i n v e s t i g a t e d the importance of adapt ing one 's p r o c e s s i n g mode to the demands of the environment. The study was concerned w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that make f o r s u c c e s s f u l r e v o l u t i o n a r y l e a d e r s both be fo re and a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement. Communications of i n d i v i d u a l s prominent i n a number of d i f f e r e n t r e v o l u -t i o n s were scored f o r c o m p l e x i t y . The hypothes i s was that those i n d i v i d u a l s who r e t a i n e d power a f t e r the s t r u g g l e would be a b l e to move from a s imple p r o c e s s i n g mode d u r i n g the r e v o l u t i o n a r y phase to a more complex mode n e c e s s i t a t e d by the d i v e r s e problems of governmental a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t was b e l i e v e d that a s u c c e s s f u l p re takeover r e v o l u t i o n i s t shou ld express h i m s e l f i n r e l a t i v e l y s imp le ways, empha-s i z i n g the u l t i m a t e good of the r e v o l u t i o n versus the e v i l of i t s opponents, see ing problems and s o l u t i o n s i n a b s o l u t i s t i c terms and r e f u s i n g to compromise on any p o i n t . Converse l y , a government i n power needs i n d i v i d u a l s who are f l e x i b l e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r a p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e when v a r i o u s f a c t i o n s have to be r e c o n c i l e d and c o n c i l i a t e d . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s must be based on d i v e r s e c o n -s i d e r a t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s ; i n s h o r t , to be s u c c e s s f u l l e a d e r s of government r e q u i r e s complex i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s . P u b l i s h e d communications of r e v o l u t i o n a r y l e a d e r s taken from m a t e r i a l s produced d u r i n g the s t r u g g l e and from the phase of c o n s o l i -d a t i o n a f t e r takeover were scored f o r c o m p l e x i t y . The b a s i c s c o r i n g system f o r the Paragraph Complet ion t e s t was used . Suedfe ld and Rank (1976) noted tha t a l though the s c o r i n g system was developed f o r the 12 p a r t i c u l a r m a t e r i a l of the t e s t , i t i s e q u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r any other connected v e r b a l m a t e r i a l of s u f f i c i e n t l e n g t h . The r e s u l t s showed a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to remain i n power a f t e r the v i c t o r y and the degree to which the complex i t y of h i s p roduct ions i n c r e a s e d from befo re to a f t e r the takeover . "Th is lends support to the h y p o t h e s i s , which was based on the changing demands of the environment as one progresses from r e b e l to r u l e r , and on the n e c e s s i t y f o r d i f f e r e n t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to meet these changing demands" (p. 173) . As Suedfe ld and Rank were measuring i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g as a response to the envi ronment , r a t h e r than as changes i n " c h r o n i c " modes of p r o c e s s i n g , they i n t e r p r e t e d t h e i r r e s u l t s to r e f l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g complex i t y as a " s t y l e that i n d i v i d u a l s can change when they d e s i r e to do so or when the environment appears to r e q u i r e such change" (p. 171) . In s t u d i e s of r e a l l i f e d e c i s i o n making i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i s e s , Suedfe ld and T e t l o c k (1977) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between communication complex i t y and the way i n which c r i s e s were r e s o l v e d . Th is work was mot i va ted i n par t by the ana lyses of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i s e s by p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s ( e . g . , H o l s t i , 1972) . Viewed from the p e r s p e c t i v e of d e c i s i o n makers under s t r e s s , c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s o f t e n i n v o l v e i n f o r m a t i o n over load combined w i t h an impera t i ve demand f o r c r u c i a l d e c i s i o n s to be made q u i c k l y and c o r r e c t l y , r e s u l t i n g i n a r e d u c t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g complex i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d . A n a l y z i n g documents from n a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n makers i n a number of c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s , H o l s t i found s e v e r a l t rends which he r e l a t e d to the eventua l outcome of the c r i s i s . For example i n a comparat ive a n a l y s i s of documents a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o l i c y makers 13 i n World War I versus those from the 1962 Cuban M i s s i l e c r i s i s , H o l s t i (1964) noted that more f l e x i b l e and complex i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l e a d i n g d e c i s i o n makers i n the 1962 c r i s i s . I t was suggested that the a b i l i t y to cope w i t h s t r e s s might h e l p to d i s t i n g u i s h c r i s e s tha t l ead to v i o l e n t or extreme s o l u t i o n s from those that are r e s o l v e d more moderately (Suedfe ld & T e t l o c k , 1977) . These ana lyses l e d Suedfe ld and T e t l o c k (1977) to. hypo thes i ze that i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i s e s ending i n war are preceded by governmental communications that are i n t e g r a t i v e l y s i m p l e r than messages p reced ing p e a c e f u l r e s o l u t i o n s of c o n f l i c t . Records of speeches, d i p l o m a t i c communications, and o f f i c i a l statements of government p o l i c y from a number of c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s were scored f o r c o m p l e x i t y . The f i n d i n g s supported the g e n e r a l p r e d i c t i o n s ; f o r example, the 1914 c r i s i s was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower l e v e l s of communicative complex i t y than was the 1962 c r i s i s . In a d d i t i o n complex i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g d e c l i n e d between e a r l i e r and l a t e r phases of the 1914 c r i s i s and i n c r e a s e d i n a s i m i l a r comparison i n 1962. Suedfe ld and T e t l o c k (1977) concluded that t h e i r f i n d i n g s supported the g e n e r a l p r e d i c t i o n s concern ing r e d u c t i o n s i n i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g complex i t y as a f u n c t i o n of env i ronmenta l s t r e s s . However they emphasized that the data cou ld not s p e c i f y whether a d e c l i n e i n complex i t y p r i o r to war was due " s o l e l y to s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s — i . e . , that i n 1914, c o n d i t i o n s became l e s s and l e s s f a v o r a b l e f o r complex p r o c e s s i n g , w h i l e t h i s was not the case i n 1962 . . . — o r to p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r -ences i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the s i t u a t i o n (so that i n 1962, but not i n 1914, i n d i v i d u a l s i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r o l e s were people who cou ld m a i n t a i n complex i ty even under adverse c o n d i t i o n s ) " (p. 176) . 14 In r e f e r r i n g to the work of H o l s t i et a l . (1964) , these authors noted that i n 1962 consc ious attempts were apparent l y made to avo id the danger of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n — b y c o n s i d e r i n g a number of a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s , seek ing out a l l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , e s t i m a t i n g the p o s s i b l e outcomes of a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i l e a v o i d i n g any premature d e c i s i o n s . Th is i m p l i e s , as the authors suggested , that i t would be p o s s i b l e to maximize i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y i n c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s . In a more recent s tudy , S u e d f e l d , T e t l o c k and Ramirez (1977) t r a c e d the i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y of speeches made i n the U n i t e d Nat ions on the s u b j e c t of the A r a b - I s r a e l i c o n f r o n t a t i o n . The major hypothes i s b e i n g t e s t e d was s i m i l a r to tha t of the Suedfe ld and T e t l o c k s tudy , i n that i t was p r e d i c t e d that the outbreak of war would be preceded by i n t e g r a t i v e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i n the speeches made by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Un i ted Arab R e p u b l i c and I s r a e l . A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of t h i s r e s e a r c h l i e s i n i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s hypothes is i n a s i t u a t i o n where repeated outbreaks of armed c o n f l i c t occur red between the same se t of opponents over a long p e r i o d of t i m e . In a d d i t i o n to l o o k i n g f o r changes i n i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y i n the speeches of the major opponents, Suedfe ld et a l . (1977) were a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n whether the speeches made by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of these c o u n t r i e s ' "p r imary Great Power p a t r o n s " would e x h i b i t s i m i l a r changes. In o ther words, an attempt was made to assess the c loseness of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I s r a e l and the U . S . , as w e l l as that between the Arabs and the Sov ie t Union by examining the p a t t e r n s of change i n the speeches of the r e s p e c t i v e c o u n t r i e s . A l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d was the hypothes is that changes i n the l e v e l of complex i ty as a c r i s i s approaches would be a f f e c t e d by the extent to 15 which each country was i n v o l v e d i n the c o n f l i c t . As I s r a e l had more at s take i n a major c o n f l i c t than d i d the other c o u n t r i e s b e i n g s t u d i e d , i t was p r e d i c t e d that changes i n complex i t y as a f u n c t i o n of imminent c r i s i s would be more dramat ic f o r I s r a e l , f o l l o w e d ( i n order ) by I s r a e l ' s major Arab n e i g h b o r s , the Un i ted S ta tes and the USSR. War i n the Midd le East was d e f i n e d o p e r a t i o n a l l y as an armed c o n f l i c t i n which the r e g u l a r m i l i t a r y f o r c e s of more than one n a t i o n were i n v o l v e d . Four war years were d e f i n e d u s i n g t h i s c r i t e r i o n ; o ther years d u r i n g the p e r i o d spanning 1947-1976 were randomly sampled so that a t o t a l of twenty t ime p o i n t s was o b t a i n e d . For each year i n the s tudy , the o f f i c i a l E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e v e r s i o n s of speeches made i n the UN General Assembly and S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l d e a l i n g w i t h the M idd le East s i t u a t i o n were sampled. The r e s u l t s of the data a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that complex i t y decreased s i g n i f i c a n t l y d u r i n g the t imes immediate ly p reced ing the outbreak of war . The d e c l i n e i n complex i t y from peacetime to war was g r e a t e s t f o r I s r a e l , f o l l o w e d by the Arab c o u n t r i e s and the US, as p r e d i c t e d . The i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y of speeches made by de legates of the USSR i n c r e a s e d p r i o r to war . In a d d i t i o n the p a t t e r n of changes i n the speeches was more s i m i l a r between I s r a e l and the U.S. than between the Arabs and the Sov ie t Un ion , sugges t ing a more c o n s i s t e n t t i e between the former two c o u n t r i e s than the l a t t e r . In summarizing t h e i r f i n d i n g s the authors s t a t e d tha t "even i n a h o s t i l e c o n f r o n t a t i o n that goes on f o r a long p e r i o d of t i m e , major outbreaks of v i o l e n c e are preceded by u n u s u a l l y low l e v e l s of complex i t y i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l debates . Between such o u t b r e a k s , the p r o t a g o n i s t s — a l though s t i l l h o s t i l e — e v i d e n c e h igher l e v e l s of c o m p l e x i t y . These 16 changes occur w i t h i n the same g e n e r a l t ime pe r iods f o r the two d i r e c t opponents" (p. 4 3 6 - 4 3 7 ) . In d i s c u s s i n g a number of i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s r e s e a r c h concern ing the re levance of i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y to the study of i n t e r n a t i o n a l events , Suedfe ld et a l . (1977) p o i n t e d out a p a r t i c u l a r l y c o m p e l l i n g aspect of t h i s s t u d y . Given tha t the p r e d i c t e d p a t t e r n of changes i n complex i t y was found , the authors suggested that t h i s approach c o u l d be used i n the f u t u r e to p r e d i c t an imminent outbreak of war between the Arabs and I s r a e l i s . Rather than o f f e r i n g such scores as e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r past e v e n t s , which has been a c r i t i c i s m of many approaches to the p s y c h o l o g i c a l study of h i s t o r y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s (Suedfe ld et a l . , 1977) , t h i s study p o i n t s to ways of u s i n g i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y as a p r e d i c t i v e t o o l i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . The r e s e a r c h c i t e d above supports the v a l i d i t y of changes i n i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g complex i t y as a f u n c t i o n of env i ronmenta l p r e s s u r e s . As noted p r e v i o u s l y , Schroder et a l . (1967) s t a t e d that the r e s u l t s of t h e i r r e s e a r c h supposedly r e f l e c t e d r e d u c t i o n s i n i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y as normal , temporary a d a p t a t i o n s to s t r e s s . The work of Suedfe ld and h i s coworkers has shown that i n some s i t u a t i o n s the a d a p t i v e response of i n d i v i d u a l s has been towards i n c r e a s i n g , r a t h e r than d e c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y . However, the response modes of these i n d i v i d u a l s may be seen as r e a c t i o n s to s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s i n combinat ion w i t h the s t r e s s of d e c i s i o n making. The demand f o r c r u c i a l d e c i s i o n s to be made c o r r e c t l y as w e l l as the i m p l i c a t i o n s at tendant on those d e c i s i o n s i n c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s undoubtedly a f f e c t the coping s t r a t e g i e s adopted b y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d . The study to be presented i n t h i s t h e s i s rep resents 17 an ex t en s ion of the r e s e a r c h on i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g complex i t y from a somewhat d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e ; i t s purpose was to examine complex i t y as a response to s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s i n contex ts o ther than those i n v o l v i n g h i g h - l e v e l n a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making. A r c h i v a l Ana lyses The research by Suedfe ld and h i s coworkers , c i t e d above, demon-s t r a t e s the u s e f u l n e s s of Schroder et a l . ' s (1967) theory and techniques as adapted to h i s t o r i c a l , a r c h i v a l r e s e a r c h . In a d d i t i o n to the v a l u e o f the r e s e a r c h i n ex tend ing conceptua l complex i t y t h e o r y , i t i s a l s o t i m e l y from a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n that a r c h i v a l ana lyses have r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d more a t t e n t i o n i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e as a l t e r -n a t i v e s to s t r i c t l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s are by now very f a m i l i a r w i t h the c r i t i c i s m s that have been l e v e l e d at l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . The p o t e n t i a l a r t i f a c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l way i n which hypotheses have been t e s t e d (such as exper imenter b i a s , demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e t c . ) have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e , as have e t h i c a l i s s u e s r e l e v a n t to l a b o r a t o r y s o c i a l exper iments . Suedfe ld and Rank (1976) f e l t that some of these problems had been avoided i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h . With respec t to the u s e f u l n e s s of adapt ing the Paragraph Complet ion t e s t to a r c h i v a l s c o r i n g , they noted that " i t i s a n o n r e a c t i v e measure and avo ids the problems of equipment, f a c i l i t i e s , s u b j e c t r e c r u i t m e n t , e t c . , and t h e i r concomitant a r t i f a c t s . Thus, i t enables the researcher to avo id some of the tempora l , geograph ic , and c u l t u r a l r e s t r i c t i o n s " (p. 177) of l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e s to l a b o r a t o r y exper imentat ion have a l s o been sought 18 f o r reasons other than the a r t i f a c t u a l problems w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l methodolog ies . S e v e r a l authors ( e . g . , E lms, 1975; McGui re , 1973) have argued that the e s t a b l i s h e d t h e o r i e s and exper imenta l methods i n s o c i a l psychology have f a i l e d to tap the c o m p l e x i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the c o g n i t i v e and s o c i a l systems tha t r e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e l d are t r y i n g to d e s c r i b e . In p a r t i c u l a r , McGuire (1973) contended that t h e o r i e s and methods have been "based on a s imple l i n e a r process model , a s e q u e n t i a l c h a i n of cause and e f f e c t " (p. 448) . Th is approach , a c c o r d i n g to McGui re , has been inadequate i n d e s c r i b i n g the ways i n which v a r i a b l e s are o rgan ized i n the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l systems. In p ropos ing that s o c i a l psychology i s s u f f e r i n g from a " c r i s i s of c o n f i d e n c e , " Elms (1975) concurred w i t h McGuire i n n o t i n g tha t " the most i n f l u e n t i a l t h e o r i e s i n modern s o c i a l psychology have been sweeping s i n g l e - f a c t o r o r t w o - f a c t o r p r o p o s i t i o n s , a t tempt ing to account f o r a wide range of v a r i a b l e s w i t h as l i t t l e acknowledgment of human complex i t y as p o s s i b l e " (p. 970) . Yet when sub jec ted to i n t e n s i v e e m p i r i c a l study these t h e o r i e s have not f a r e d w e l l , a f a c t that has c o n t r i b u t e d to the g e n e r a l m a l a i s e f e l t by many i n the f i e l d . A c c o r d i n g to E lms , there has been an e x p e c t a t i o n tha t research should be r e l a t i v e l y easy to conduct , d e s p i t e the o v e r a l l complex i t y of the f i e l d , and these h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s have been c o n t r a d i c t e d by "harsh r e a l i t y . " In p ropos ing a l t e r n a t i v e r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s tha t would enable s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s to d e a l more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h some of the d i f f i c u l -t i e s o u t l i n e d above, both McGuire and Elms have suggested an i n c r e a s e d used of l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s , t i m e - s e r i e s d a t a , and v a r i o u s k i n d s of m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s . In a d d i t i o n they have proposed tha t a r c h i v a l data be used more e x t e n s i v e l y than i t has i n the past i n s o c i a l 19 p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . A l though the p o s i t i o n taken by Gergen (1973) i s more r a d i c a l than o thers concerned w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l b a s i s of s o c i a l psycho logy , he a l s o argued f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n of a broader range of research methods i n the a r e a . Gergen a s s e r t e d that s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l research i s " p r i m a r i l y the sys temat i c study of contemporary h i s t o r y " (p. 319) i n that i t dea ls w i t h phenomena that are " l a r g e l y nonrepeatable and which f l u c t u a t e markedly over t i m e " (p. 310) . He contended tha t l a b o r a t o r y exper imentat ion i s an i n a p p r o p r i a t e method by which to assess the d u r a b i l i t y of these phenomena, i . e . , the ex tent to which they may by sub jec t to h i s t o r i c a l change. Content a n a l y t i c t e c h n i q u e s , i n Gergen's v i e w , should be employed to examine e a r l i e r h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s , j u s t as the v a s t q u a n t i t i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g behav io r p a t t e r n s i n the past should be u t i l i z e d . The a n a l y s i s of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n t e n t - a n a l y t i c t e c h n i q u e s , has been employed f r e q u e n t l y i n such d i s c i p l i n e s as s o c i o l o g y , anthropo logy , communicat ions, and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e . H o l s t i (1968) noted tha t the most d i s c e r n i b l e t rend to date i n c o n t e n t - a n a l y s i s research has been towards wider a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h i n a v a r i e t y of spheres of i n q u i r y such as f o l k l o r i s t i c s , b i o g r a p h y , h i s t o r y , p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , l i n g u i s t i c s , propaganda, c o g n i t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and psychotherapy . A g lance a t r e s e a r c h devoted to p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s s u e s r e v e a l s t h a t content ana lyses and other techniques that i n v o l v e the a n a l y s i s of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l are by no means new to the f i e l d . A d m i t t e d l y , such s t u d i e s are few i n number, but they p r o v i d e examples of the ways i n which a r c h i v a l data can be u t i l i z e d i n address ing ques t ions of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l e v a n c e . Cox (1926) , i n a b i o g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s of 301 g e n i u s e s , 20 used a sample spanning four c e n t u r i e s and s i x t e e n n a t i o n s i n an attempt to determine the e f f e c t s of i n t e l l i g e n c e and p e r s o n a l i t y i n the e a r l y years upon achieved eminence i n the a d u l t y e a r s . Lehman (1953) , i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s c o v e r i n g e n t i r e l i f e spans , attempted to set f o r t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and o u t s t a n d i n g performance. M c C l e l l a n d (1961) measured need f o r achievement by content a n a l y s i s of a number of a r c h i v a l sources i n c l u d i n g f o l k t a l e s and i m a g i n a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e , i n order to r e l a t e achievement and other p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s to economic development. H i s t o r i a n s and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s have become i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s and p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . For example, i n r e s e a r c h p r e v i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o , H o l s t i (1972) a p p l i e d c o n t e n t - a n a l y t i c techniques i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t s of s t r e s s on p o l i c y making i n 1914. He was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n how f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f f i c i a l s p e r c e i v e d and i n t e r p r e t e d the c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n l e a d i n g up to the f i r s t World War. A wide range of sources was used i n g e t h e r i n g d a t a : documents w r i t t e n by p o l i c y makers , h i s t o r i e s , b i o g r a p h i e s , d i a r i e s and memoirs, contem-porary newspapers and j o u r n a l s . The r e s u l t s of the ana lyses were r e f e r r e d to b r i e f l y i n d i s c u s s i n g Suedfe ld and T e t l o c k ' s (1977) r e s e a r c h . As the c r i s i s approached i t s peak, d e c i s i o n makers i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r c e i v e d that they were under t ime p r e s s u r e . The a c t i o n s of o ther p a r t i c i p a n t s appeared to become more h o s t i l e , and there was a d r a s t i c i n c r e a s e i n the p e r c e i v e d need to make r a p i d d e c i s i o n s . A x e l r o d ' s (1976) r e s e a r c h on c o g n i t i v e maps p rov ides another method by which to examine the c o g n i t i v e processes of d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . A c o g n i t i v e map, as d e f i n e d by A x e l r o d , i s a s p e c i f i c way of r e p r e s e n t i n g 21 a p e r s o n ' s a s s e r t i o n s about a p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e , such as a p o l i c y problem. I t attempts to set down the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e i v e d a l t e r n a t i v e s , the consequences caused by a g iven c h o i c e , p o l i c y g o a l s , and so on . T h i s method was dev i sed by A x e l r o d to be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s u i t a b l e documentary m a t e r i a l ( e . g . , ve rbat im t r a n s c r i p t s of p o l i c y groups) i n order to o b t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s ' a s s e r t i o n s i n an u n o b s t r u s i v e manner. He b e l i e v e d that i n order to understand the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , "one must examine the whole s t r u c t u r e of the concepts and l i n k a g e s tha t are used to b r i d g e the gap between cho ice and outcome" ( A x e l r o d , 1976, p. 7 8 ) . In a r e l a t e d a rea of r e s e a r c h , Hermann (1974) examined how the p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s a f f e c t t h e i r p o l i t i c a l behav iou r . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y , Hermann's study i s r e l e v a n t to the present d i s c u s s i o n i n that she attempted to dev i se methods of measuring p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l e a d e r s who were i n a c c e s s i b l e f o r t a k i n g t e s t s or b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d . In a d d i t i o n , her r e s e a r c h r e p r e s e n t s an attempt to measure c o g n i t i v e c o m p l e x i t y , but by means q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from those p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d h e r e . I t should be p o i n t e d out that Hermann used " c o m p l e x i t y " as a p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e , w i thout s t u d y i n g the e f f e c t s of s i t u a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s . Press i n t e r v i e w s of ten heads of s t a t e between 1962 and 1968 were analyzed f o r complex i ty by count ing the appearance of words thought to i n d i c a t e h i g h complex i ty ( e . g . , perhaps) and others low complex i t y ( e . g . , n e v e r ) . Complex i t y , so d e f i n e d , was h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the use of deeds ( e . g . , use or r e g u l a t i o n of n a t i o n a l resources ) as opposed to words (press r e l e a s e s , messages) i n the conduct of f o r e i g n p o l i c y , but on ly f o r heads of s t a t e who had l i t t l e t r a i n i n g i n d i p l o m a t i c a f f a i r s . 22 R e c e n t l y , Simonton has done an e x t e n s i v e amount of a r c h i v a l r e s e a r c h , much of which attempts to address some of the i s s u e s r a i s e d by Elms and McGuire (among o t h e r s ) . In a d d i t i o n to e x p l o r i n g t h e o r e t i c a l ques t ions of i n t e r e s t to psycho logy , t h i s work was intended to demon-s t r a t e the u s e f u l n e s s of a p p l y i n g m u l t i v a r i a t e des igns and nonexper imen-t a l des igns such as t ime s e r i e s to a r c h i v a l d a t a . In one s tudy , Simonton(1975a) hypothes i zed tha t c r e a t i v i t y may be i n f l u e n c e d by a number of v a r i a b l e s tha t operate on d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s of a p e r s o n ' s l i f e . D i v i d i n g the l i v e s of c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o phases ( e . g . , deve lopmenta l , p r o d u c t i v e ) he p r e d i c t e d tha t c r e a t i v i t y d u r i n g a p e r s o n ' s p r o d u c t i v e p e r i o d i s i n f l u e n c e d by c e r t a i n exper iences i n t h e i r developmental phase. In fo rmat ion from c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l a r c h i v a l sources was c o l l e c t e d to form time s e r i e s spanning 127 genera -t i o n s of European h i s t o r y . The r e s u l t s of m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n ana lyses i n d i c a t e d that c r e a t i v e development was a f f e c t e d by r o l e model a v a i l a b i l i t y and p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y . Us ing c r o s s - c u l t u r a l and t r a n s t e m p o r a l d a t a , Simonton (1975b) a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n between age and c r e a t i v e achievement. A sample of 420 l i t e r a r y c r e a t o r s was drawn from h i s t o r i e s , a n t h o l o g i e s , and b i o g r a p h i c a l d i c t i o n a r i e s . The r e s u l t s de r i ved from r e g r e s s i o n ana lyses conf i rmed that (a) poets produce t h e i r g r e a t e s t work at an e a r l i e r age than do w r i t e r s of p r o s e , and (b) eminent l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s tend to make t h e i r most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s a t more advanced ages than those who are l e s s eminent . In e x p l o r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p among v a r i o u s s c i e n t i f i c endeavours and m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t y , Simonton (1976a) gathered European h i s t o r i c a l data from 1500 to 1900 A . D . C r o s s - l a g g e d c o r r e l a t i o n a l ana lyses r e v e a l e d that m e d i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s are n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h war c a s u a l t i e s . 23 In another study (1976b), the r e l a t i o n s h i p between war and s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r y and i n v e n t i o n was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n seven European n a t i o n s . I n c o n s i s t e n c i e s among d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s were found ; f o r example, war appeared to encourage s c i e n c e i n the f o l l o w i n g genera t ion i n England and R u s s i a , but d iscouraged i t i n S p a i n . The study to be presented i n t h i s paper was mot ivated i n p a r t by a recent study of Simonton's (1977) d e a l i n g w i t h c r e a t i v e p r o d u c t i v i t y , age, and s t r e s s . The l i v e s and works of ten c l a s s i c a l composers were ana lyzed i n o rder to i n v e s t i g a t e l o n g i t u d i n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s i n p roduc -t i v i t y . I t was hypothes i zed that p r o d u c t i v i t y i s an i n v e r t e d U f u n c t i o n of age, and i s a f f e c t e d by s o c i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t , s t r e s s f u l l i f e e v e n t s , war i n t e n s i t y and c i v i l u n r e s t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o d u c t i v i t y and s t r e s s f u l l i f e events was proposed based on r e s e a r c h suggest ing a c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n b e -tween emot ional a r o u s a l and performance, which l e d Simonton to p r e d i c t that p r o d u c t i v i t y i s an i n v e r t e d U f u n c t i o n of s t r e s s . He reasoned that under low s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s there would be i n s u f f i c i e n t m o t i v a t i o n behind the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s ; i n c r e a s i n g s t r e s s beyond optimum would a l s o have adverse consequences f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y . With r e s p e c t to war i n t e n s i t y and p r o d u c t i v i t y , Simonton noted that no c o n s i s t e n t r e l a -t i o n s h i p has been found between war and c r e a t i v i t y . He suggested however that no study to date has i n v e s t i g a t e d whether war has an immediate impact on p r o d u c t i v i t y w i t h i n the l i f e h i s t o r y of i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t o r s . I f such a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s i t may have been obscured by b u r s t s of p r o d u c t i v i t y i n peacetime that compensated f o r a d e c l i n e i n output d u r i n g war y e a r s . H i s hypothes is that p r o d u c t i v i t y i s a n e g a t i v e l i n e a r f u n c t i o n of war i n t e n s i t y was based on the b e l i e f that war fa re 24 may d iscourage c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , whether through economic h a r d s h i p , p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s s i o n , or m i l i t a r i s t i c r e g i m e n t a t i o n . C i v i l unrest was a l s o p o s t u l a t e d to be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to p r o d u c t i v i t y , assuming that c i v i l and p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y p robab ly r e s u l t i n e x c e s s i v e economic, p o l i t i c a l and p e r s o n a l s t r a i n s that would not be conducive to the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . Each composer's p r o d u c t i v e l i f e was d i v i d e d i n t o c o n s e c u t i v e f i v e -year age p e r i o d s , the t o t a l number of these t ime p e r i o d s ac ross a l l composers b e i n g used as the s t a t i s t i c a l u n i t s of a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s of the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , r a t h e r than b e i n g an i n v e r t e d U f u n c t i o n of age, p r o d u c t i v i t y d i d tend to r i s e and then f a l l , but the d e c l i n e d i d not tend to reach the l e v e l of the i n i t i a l ascent (desc r ibed by Simonton as a s l i g h t " i n v e r t e d - b a c k w a r d - J " c u r v e ) . Fur thermore, " t o t a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , w h i l e a f f e c t e d by age and p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s i s o therwise f r e e of e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s ( v i z . , s o c i a l r e i n -forcement , b i o g r a p h i c a l s t r e s s , war i n t e n s i t y and i n t e r n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s ) " (Simonton, 1977, p. 791) . The c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h stemmed from a d e s i r e to i n c o r p o r a t e ques t ions r e l e v a n t to i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g complex i t y i n t o a methodology s i m i l a r to that used by Simonton (1977) . As p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , a r c h i v a l ana lyses p rov ide an o p p o r t u n i t y to study the ways i n which i n d i v i d u a l s respond to s t r e s s i n n o n - l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n s . One of the major ques t ions addressed i n the present r e s e a r c h was how i n d i v i d u a l s i n o ther than p o l i t i c a l and/or d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g contex ts respond to env i ronmenta l p r e s s u r e s . I f changes i n complex i t y are a d a p t a t i o n s to the changing demands of the envi ronment , t h i s a s s e r t i o n should be examined i n an 25 i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p e r s o n a l coping s t r a t e g i e s that are unencumbered by the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h - l e v e l d e c i s i o n making. To t h i s end, S imonton's (1977) r e s e a r c h i s of v a l u e to the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n as s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s examined i n h i s study may be viewed as examples of env i ronmental p ressures tha t cou ld i n f l u e n c e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g c o m p l e x i t y . The study to be repor ted here ana lyzed the l i v e s and correspondence of eminent n o v e l i s t s . The r a t i o n a l e u n d e r l y i n g the c h o i c e of n o v e l i s t s stemmed from s e v e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The assumption that t h i s subset of i n d i v i d u a l s tends to be more v e r b a l than some o thers c o n t r i b u t e d to the d e c i s i o n , as the des ign of the study n e c e s s i t a t e d w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l that cou ld be scored f o r c o m p l e x i t y . Fur thermore, i t was b e l i e v e d tha t eminent w r i t e r s would be s e n s i t i v e to s o c i e t a l and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , an important c r i t e r i o n when a t tempt ing to assess responses to the tens ions a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a r g e s c a l e i s s u e s (as opposed to s t r e s s o r s of a more p e r s o n a l n a t u r e ) . Rather than r e v i e w i n g the v a s t amount of l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to s t r e s s i n order to determine what s o r t s of events are p e r c e i v e d as s t r e s s f u l , one may make some assumptions concern ing s e v e r a l types of s i t u a t i o n s that p robab ly induce s t r e s s and concomitant cop ing b e h a v i o u r . Holmes and Rahe (1967) d e f i n e as " s o c i a l s t r e s s o r s " any set of c i rcumstances " the advent of which s i g n i f i e s or r e q u i r e s change i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s ongoing l i f e p a t t e r n " (Rabkin & S t r u e n i n g , 1976, p. 1014). Moos and Tsu (1976) note that "changing one 's p h y s i c a l environment, changing i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , changing j o b s , and so on , a l l i n v o l v e some s t r e s s and thus n e c e s s i t a t e new p a t t e r n s of coping and a d a p t a t i o n " (p. 4 ) . A l though a c r i s i s g e n e r a l l y connotes a 26 more extreme s i t u a t i o n than those mentioned above, the assumptions upon which " c r i s i s theory" r e s t s might be seen to g e n e r a l i z e to many s i t u a t i o n s p e r c e i v e d by an i n d i v i d u a l to be s t r e s s f u l . " C r i s i s theory a s s e r t s that people g e n e r a l l y operate i n c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s , i n e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h t h e i r envi ronment , s o l v i n g problems w i t h min imal de lay by h a b i t u a l mechanisms and r e a c t i o n s . . . A c r i s i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a d i s t u r b a n c e of the e q u i l i b r i u m , an 'upset i n a steady s t a t e ' " (Moos &.Tsu , 1976, p. 13) . Operat ing on the premise that a s t r e s s o r should have some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s mentioned above, two s i t u a t i o n s were hypothes i zed i n the present research to r e q u i r e a d a p t a t i o n p r i m a r i l y on an i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l : l i f e events n e c e s s i t a t i n g ad justment , and changes i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s h e a l t h . On a more g l o b a l l e v e l , i t seemed c l e a r tha t some p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s , whether i n t r a - o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l , would be p e r c e i v e d as s t r e s s o r s by the r e s i d e n t s of the n a t i o n i n c o n f l i c t . Two v a r i a b l e s , War I n t e n s i t y and C i v i l U n r e s t , were in t roduced i n order to examine t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . The two v a r i a b l e s were t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n order to d i s t i n g u i s h the " i n n e r t e n s i o n . . . of one par t of the same s o c i a l system a g a i n s t another" ( S o r o k i n , 1937, p. 407) . f rom phenomena of i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e n s i o n and d i s t u r b a n c e . P ressu re a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such events cou ld come from a number of sources I n c l u d i n g f e a r f o r the l i v e s of those i n v o l v e d or f o r f a m i l y and f r i e n d s becoming i n v o l v e d , economic h a r d s h i p , the pe rce i ved t h r e a t of the s i t u a t i o n to important v a l u e s , and the manner i n which the c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n was b e i n g handled by those i n power. H o l s t i (1972) recogn ized that i n t e r n a t i o n a l events are s a l i e n t not on ly f o r p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s . He found f o r i n s t a n c e that changes i n v a r i o u s f i n a n c i a l i n d i c e s d u r i n g the p e r i o d of c r i s i s i n 1914 were 27 matched by the p a t t e r n of changes i n d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of h o s t i l i t y , used i n h i s r e s e a r c h as a measure of s t r e s s . In o ther words , f i n a n c i a l i n d i c e s r e f l e c t e d the s t a t e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e n s i o n . These r e s u l t s suggest that the p u b l i c ' s response to an u n s t a b l e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n cou ld be i n f l u e n c e d by a number of s o u r c e s , a l l of which r e f l e c t the t e n s i o n produced by the p a r t i c u l a r event . Another r e l a t i o n s h i p to be examined i n an e x t e n s i o n of complex i t y r e s e a r c h was tha t between age and c o m p l e x i t y . A l though i t has been a s s e r t e d (Harvey et a l . , 1961) that an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g remains r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e throughout h i s a d u l t l i f e , t h i s has not been e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t e d i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l framework. Simonton (1977) suggested that the r e s u l t s of h i s r e s e a r c h w i t h composers should be r e p l i c a t e d on samples of c r e a t o r s i n o ther f i e l d s of endeavour. Given the s i m i l a r i t y of the des ign of the r e s e a r c h to by repor ted here and tha t of S imonton ' s , as w e l l as the cho ice of i n d i v i d u a l s s t u d i e d , i t was reasoned that the i n c l u s i o n of a measure of p r o d u c t i v i t y would be a p p r o p r i a t e i n order to exp lo re f u r t h e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among age, p r o d u c t i v i t y , and s t r e s s . Because of the e x p l o r a t o r y nature of t h i s r e s e a r c h , no s p e c i f i c hypotheses were fo rmulated as to the d i r e c t i o n of change i n i n t e g r a t i v e complex i ty as a response to s t r e s s . 28 METHOD Sample F i v e 19th and 20th century E n g l i s h n o v e l i s t s were chosen f o r the c u r r e n t i n q u i r y . S e v e r a l c r i t e r i a were used i n making the s e l e c t i o n . Simonton (1977) noted that there i s a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between eminence and the r e l i a b i l i t y of b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a ; eminence was t h e r e f o r e used as one sampl ing c r i t e r i o n . A number of sources that i n c l u d e d e n c y c l o p e d i a s , b i o g r a p h i c a l d i c t i o n a r i e s , and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i e s , as w e l l as members of the E n g l i s h Department a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, were co nsu l ted i n order to i d e n t i f y , f i r s t , ten n o v e l i s t s cons idered to be the most eminent i n the past century and a h a l f . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l then determined the f i n a l c h o i c e . A l though a l a r g e r sample would have been p r e f e r a b l e , the f i n a l d e c i s i o n on the number of n o v e l i s t s to be ana lyzed was a p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n v iew of the amount of t ime r e q u i r e d to compi le the necessary d a t a . Simonton (1977) a l s o p o i n t e d out tha t the r e l i a b i l i t y of b i o g r a p h i c a l data tends to i n c r e a s e over t i m e ; i t was t h e r e f o r e dec ided to r e s t r i c t the sample i n t ime to more recent n o v e l i s t s . As the present author proposed to focus on e n t i r e l i f e spans o f i n d i v i d u a l s , o n l y those w r i t e r s who are no longer l i v i n g cou ld be i n c l u d e d i n the sample. The r e s t r i c t i o n to E n g l i s h n o v e l i s t s was made i n order to a v o i d any problems i n s c o r i n g complex i t y that might a r i s e from u s i n g t r a n s l a t e d m a t e r i a l (a l though Suedfe ld and Rank (1976) have s t a t e d that d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r i g i n a l language do not seem to i n v a l i d a t e the s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e ) . Those w r i t e r s i n c l u d e d i n the study were Char les D i c k e n s , George E l i o t , George M e r e d i t h , A r n o l d Bennet t , and V i r g i n i a Wool f . 29 Time U n i t Each n o v e l i s t ' s l i f e was d i v i d e d i n t o consecut i ve f i v e - y e a r age p e r i o d s , a procedure adopted from Simonton (1977) . The i n i t i a l p e r i o d of o b s e r v a t i o n f o r any n o v e l i s t was that p e r i o d f o r which p e r s o n a l correspondence was f i r s t a v a i l a b l e . In no case d i d a w r i t e r ' s f i r s t major p u b l i s h e d work ( e . g . , nove l ) predate h i s or her f i r s t l e t t e r s . With one e x c e p t i o n , the n o v e l i s t s ' f i r s t work appeared i n the f i r s t f i v e years of the a n a l y s i s , so t h a t , i n e f f e c t , the l i f e spans be ing analyzed were the p r o d u c t i v e l i v e s of these i n d i v i d u a l s . The l a s t p e r i o d analyzed was the one i n which the i n d i v i d u a l d i e d . Each f i v e -year p e r i o d was used as a separate case i n the a n a l y s i s , so tha t summing across a l l n o v e l i s t s the t o t a l number of cases was 4 3 , w h i l e the t ime p e r i o d covered was from 1835 to 1941. Independent V a r i a b l e s Age The age of each n o v e l i s t at each f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d was d e f i n e d as h i s or her age a t the onset of that p e r i o d . In order to determine whether any c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between age and c o m p l e x i t y , as w e l l as between age and p r o d u c t i v i t y , a v a r i a b l e c a l l e d Age Quadrat i c was i n t r o d u c e d , which was s imply age squared . In order to generate the c u r v i l i n e a r f u n c t i o n , the va lues of the Age v a r i a b l e had to be measured as d i s t a n c e from each w r i t e r ' s mean " p r o d u c t i v e " age be fo re squar ing them. For example, i f a g i ven n o v e l i s t was age 23 i n the f i r s t f i v e - y e a r i n t e r v a l , and 53 i n the l a s t , these v a l u e s when measured as d i s t a n c e from the mean would be - 1 5 and 15, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Thus when squared , the v a l u e s i n the f i r s t and l a s t p e r i o d would be l a r g e , d e c l i n i n g toward zero at the mean, p roduc ing a U-shape. Th is of course would not 30 r e s u l t from s imply squar ing the l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n of age va lues from 23 to 5 3 . The mean-dev iated age va lues were used i n the a n a l y s i s to represent the v a r i a b l e Age. S t r e s s f u l L i f e Events Holmes and h i s c o l l e a g u e s ( e . g . , Holmes & Rahe, 1967) developed the S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g Sca le which c o n s i s t s of d i f f e r e n t l i f e e v e n t s , the occurrence of which u s u a l l y evokes, a c c o r d i n g to these t h e o r i s t s , some adapt i ve or coping behav iour on the p a r t of the i n v o l v e d i n d i v i d u a l . Each event was g iven a weight ( e m p i r i c a l l y determined) a c c o r d i n g to the amount of readjustment i t was judged to r e q u i r e . The sum of these weighted events i n a g i ven t ime p e r i o d c o n s t i t u t e s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e - c h a n g e s c o r e . Simonton (1977) m o d i f i e d t h i s s c a l e i n order to make i t a p p l i c a b l e f o r use w i t h b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a , and proposed that h i s v e r s i o n cou ld be a p p l i e d o b j e c t i v e l y i n a r c h i v a l r e s e a r c h . Th is same s c a l e was t h e r e f o r e u t i l i z e d i n the c u r r e n t study as a measure of s t r e s s f u l l i f e events (see Appendix A ) . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e l i f e changes (wi th weights i n parentheses) a r e : l i t i g a t i o n s and l a w s u i t s (30) , t r o u b l e s w i t h c r e d i t o r s (30) , job change (20) , change i n permanent r e s i d e n c e — c i t y or town (30) , change i n permanent r e s i d e n c e — n a t i o n (40) , beg inn ing and/or end of a r e c i p r o c a t e d love a f f a i r (30 ) , death of a c l o s e f a m i l y member ( 6 3 ) , marr iage (50) , d i v o r c e (73) , and death of spouse (100) . The t o t a l number of l i f e - c h a n g e p o i n t s accumulated d u r i n g each f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d was t a b u l a t e d and then dev ia ted from an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o v e r a l l mean (as was the case w i t h the Age v a r i a b l e ) to y i e l d a measure of s t r e s s f u l l i f e events . These v a l u e s were a l s o squared to determine whether the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e events and the dependent v a r i a b l e of i n t e r e s t was c u r v i l i n e a r . 31 In order to assure that no event a p p r o p r i a t e to t h i s measure was o m i t t e d , and that the data obta ined were as r e l i a b l e as p o s s i b l e , a number of b i o g r a p h i c a l sources f o r each n o v e l i s t were u t i l i z e d , a t l e a s t one of which was c i t e d i n l i t e r a r y re fe rences as a " d e f i n i t i v e " b iography . These sources were a l s o employed f o r the next measure. I l l n e s s Simonton (1977) a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d a s c a l e tha t c o u l d be a p p l i e d to b i o g r a p h i c a l data i n order to assess v a r i o u s changes i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a t e of h e a l t h , e . g . , major i l l n e s s , s e r i o u s i n j u r y , p h y s i c a l p a r a l y s i s (see Appendix B ) . The number of p o i n t s a s c r i b e d to each seemed to r e f l e c t degree of impairment to an i n d i v i d u a l caused by the g iven event . For the most p a r t t h i s s c a l e seemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n the present r e s e a r c h . I t was, however, m o d i f i e d s l i g h t l y i n order to i n c o r p o r a t e some s t a t e s of h e a l t h d i f f i c u l t to score u s i n g Simonton's p rocedure , yet c l e a r l y important to t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The most s a l i e n t example n e c e s s i t a t i n g a r e v i s e d s c o r i n g system were the changes i n mental h e a l t h of V i r g i n i a Wool f . In a d d i t i o n , o ther w r i t e r s i n the sample o f t e n s u f f e r e d from v a r i o u s psychosomatic d i s o r d e r s tha t d i d not r e a d i l y correspond to Simonton's i l l n e s s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . The G l o b a l Assessment Sca le (GAS) by S p i t z e r , G ibbon, and E n d i c o t t (1975) (see Appendix B) was used to d e r i v e scores f o r the types of d i s o r d e r s mentioned above. This s c a l e i s a s i n g l e r a t i n g s c a l e f o r e v a l u a t i n g the o v e r a l l f u n c t i o n i n g of a s u b j e c t on a continuum of p s y c h o l o g i c a l or p s y c h i a t r i c h e a l t h - s i c k n e s s . As Simonton's s c o r i n g system ranged from 1 to 10 p o i n t s , and that of the GAS from 1 to 100 (wi th ten c l e a r l y de f ined anchor p o i n t s ) i t was r e l a t i v e l y easy to modify a score tha t an i n d i v i d u a l might o b t a i n on the GAS i n order to i n c o r p o r a t e i t i n t o Simonton's scheme. 32 War I n t e n s i t y To assess the e f f e c t of a c o u n t r y ' s involvement i n war on i t s r e s i d e n t s , number of war c a s u a l t i e s was used as an index of war i n t e n s i t y , assuming that t h i s i n d i c a t o r might r e f l e c t a number of war a s s o c i a t e d s t r e s s o r s . The way i n which t h i s measure was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y from s i m i l a r attempts ( e . g . , Simonton, 1976a; S o r o k i n , 1937; Wr igh t , 1965). A comprehensive l i s t i n g of a l l war fa re i n which England was i n v o l v e d was compiled u s i n g The Encyc loped ia of M i l i t a r y H i s t o r y by Dupuy and Dupuy (1970) . S e v e r a l h i s t o r i c a l and m i l i t a r y r e f e r e n c e s were then c o n s u l t e d to a s c e r t a i n c a s u a l t y f i g u r e s of Eng land 's f o r c e s ( i n t h i s c a s e , number k i l l e d r a t h e r than k i l l e d and wounded). As these f i g u r e s were i n some cases i n c o n s i s t e n t , an attempt was made to a r r i v e at a bes t es t imate based on the most r e l i a b l e sources a v a i l a b l e . As England was i n v o l v e d i n a great d e a l of war fa re i n the t ime p e r i o d of i n t e r e s t , rang ing from very s m a l l i m p e r i a l i s t i c c o n f l i c t s to wor ld wars , a c r i t e r i o n f o r i n c l u s i o n that seemed reasonable f o r the present a n a l y s i s was adopted. Only those c o n f l i c t s r e s u l t i n g i n at l e a s t 1000 c a s u a l t i e s per year were i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y , a c r i t e r i o n deemed reasonable and used by S inger and Smal l i n The Wages of War  1816-1965: A S t a t i s t i c a l Handbook (1972). Fur thermore , i n v iew of the emphasis of the cu r ren t r e s e a r c h on the s t r e s s f u l components of war invo lvement , c i v i l i a n deaths were weighted tw ice as h e a v i l y as m i l i t a r y deaths . Thus, f o r each f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d of a s u b j e c t ' s l i f e , war i n t e n s i t y was coded by the f o l l o w i n g scheme: one p o i n t f o r every 1000 m i l i t a r y deaths i n that p e r i o d , and two p o i n t s f o r every 1000 c i v i l i a n deaths . Those wars i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s are d e t a i l e d i n Appendix C. 33 C i v i l Unrest The "Appendix to P a r t Three" of S o r o k i n ' s S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l  Dynamics (1937) l i s t s such events as r e v o l u t i o n s , r e v o l t s , coups d ' e t a t , and the l i k e f o r a number of c o u n t r i e s over a span of s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s . Each event i s weighted (by a geometr ic average) a c c o r d i n g to s o c i a l a r e a , d u r a t i o n , the s o c i a l masses i n v o l v e d , and amount of v i o l e n c e . As po in ted out e a r l i e r , S o r o k i n makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between these events and c r i s e s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l magnitude. For the p resent i n v e s t i g a t i o n , S o r o k i n ' s l i s t i n g of Eng land 's d i s t u r b a n c e s was checked a g a i n s t those events o u t l i n e d i n L a n g e r ' s Encyc loped ia of World H i s t o r y (1972) to i n s u r e that n o t h i n g r e l e v a n t was o m i t t e d . The weighted va lues ass igned to these events by S o r o k i n were then t a b u l a t e d i n t o the cor responding f i v e - y e a r i n t e r v a l f o r each n o v e l i s t (See Appendix C ) . Dependent V a r i a b l e s I n t e g r a t i v e Complex i ty A l l a v a i l a b l e p e r s o n a l correspondence f o r each n o v e l i s t was c o l l e c t e d and samples chosen to be scored f o r i n t e g r a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y . The m a t e r i a l to be ana lyzed was randomly s e l e c t e d from the c o r r e s p o n -dence c o v e r i n g a g i ven f i v e - y e a r i n t e r v a l . Ten to twenty s c o r a b l e paragraphs were s e l e c t e d from each time p e r i o d of each i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e span. (In s c o r i n g a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l f o r c o m p l e x i t y , Suedfe ld and h i s coworkers have g e n e r a l l y used the paragraph as the b a s i c u n i t . ) O c c a s i o n a l l y a s e l e c t e d paragraph was u n s c o r a b l e , p r i m a r i l y because i t was p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e , i n which case i t was r e p l a c e d by the next paragraph i n the correspondence. Th is i s s tandard procedure w i t h the Paragraph Complet ion t e s t , s i n c e s t r a i g h t d e s c r i p t i o n — e . g . , "We a r r i v e d i n P a r i s on Thursday"—does not r e f l e c t on the i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y of the source . As Suedfe ld and T e t l o c k (1977) n o t e d , however, 34 " w e l l under 10% of connected d i s c o u r s e , whether i n speech or i n w r i t i n g , f i t s i n t o the unscorab le ca tegory" (p.- 178) . In the c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t o t a l of 529 paragraphs were scored f o r c o m p l e x i t y . The s c o r i n g system used was adapted from the Paragraph Complet ion t e s t as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , w i t h p o i n t s rang ing from 1 (low complex i t y ) to 7. The average score f o r each t ime p e r i o d was then used as the measure of c o m p l e x i t y . The genera l manual dev ised by Schroder et a l . (1967) f o r s c o r i n g s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s of responses i s presented i n Appendix D. Each paragraph was independent ly scored by the i n v e s t i g a t o r who had been t r a i n e d i n an i n t e n s i v e workship and had obta ined a r e l i a b i l i t y of .94 w i t h the t r a i n e r . In a d d i t i o n , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of paragraphs (one paragraph per f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d , which gave a t o t a l of 43) was scored by another t r a i n e d s c o r e r to assess the r e l i a b i l i t y i n the present s tudy . P r o d u c t i v i t y As the attempt to r e p l i c a t e Simonton's (1977) f i n d i n g s w i t h respec t to p r o d u c t i v i t y , age, and s t r e s s was cons idered to be of secondary importance to t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the p r o d u c t i v i t y measure was done l e s s thoroughly than a major examinat ion of t h i s v a r i a b l e would w a r r a n t . However i t was thought that at l e a s t a gross i n d i c a t i o n of the n o v e l i s t s ' c r e a t i v e endeavours would be wor thwhi le as an e x p l o r a t o r y measure. A number of l i t e r a r y and b i o g r a p h i c a l sources were c o n s u l t e d i n order to o b t a i n the t o t a l number of p u b l i s h e d works f o r each a u t h o r . Bes ides n o v e l s , these works i n c l u d e d c o l l e c t e d poems, l e c t u r e s , magazine s e r i a l s , and so o n , so that i n genera l a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of each n o v e l i s t ' s p r o d u c t i v e endeavours was r e p r e s e n t e d . The works were weighted e q u a l l y , w i t h one p o i n t ass igned to each . 35 W i t h i n - s u b j e c t s mean d e v i a t i o n s F o l l o w i n g the procedure used by Simonton, both p r o d u c t i v i t y and complex i t y scores f o r each n o v e l i s t were measured as d e v i a t i o n s from the i n d i v i d u a l ' s mean score on these v a r i a b l e s . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was that the hypotheses be ing t e s t e d were concerned w i t h f l u c t u a t i o n s i n complex i t y and p r o d u c t i v i t y w i t h i n each n o v e l i s t and not w i t h v a r i a t i o n s ac ross a l l n o v e l i s t s . The e f f e c t of t h i s mean-d e v i a t i n g i s to p reserve the w i t h i n - s u b j e c t s v a r i a n c e i n the dependent measures w h i l e concomi tant l y making the between -sub jec ts v a r i a n c e z e r o . C o n t r o l V a r i a b l e s Three c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s d e f i n e d by Simonton (1977) to a v o i d p o s s i b l e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a r t i f a c t s were thought to be r e l e v a n t to the cu r ren t r e s e a r c h and t h e r e f o r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the a n a l y s e s . The f i r s t was used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p r o d u c t i v i t y measure but was omit ted i n the a n a l y s i s of c o m p l e x i t y . P r e p r o d u c t i v e excess years I t was o f t e n the case that a n o v e l i s t ' s f i r s t p r o d u c t i o n d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h the f i r s t year of the i n i t i a l f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d . Because of a p o s s i b l e b i a s r e s u l t i n g from the l a c k of f i t between the onset of the a n a l y s i s and that of a c t u a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , a dummy v a r i a b l e was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as f o l l o w s : (a) f o r the i n i t i a l f i v e -year p e r i o d , the dummy equaled - 1 p o i n t f o r each year p r i o r to the onset of the f i r s t p u b l i s h e d work and (b) f o r a l l succeeding p e r i o d s , the dummy equaled z e r o . Simonton c a l l e d t h i s v a r i a b l e p r e p r o d u c t i v e  excess . Because of the f i v e - y e a r t ime p e r i o d framework imposed on the d a t a , t h i s v a r i a b l e was designed to c o n t r o l f o r the f a c t tha t a g i ven 36 period of time included i n the analysis did not correspond to any actual data points f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y . For instance, although Bennett's analysis began i n 1900, h i s f i r s t published work did not appear u n t i l 1902. The control v a r i a b l e should purportedly r e f l e c t whether p r o d u c t i v i t y i n the i n i t i a l period(s) of analysis was spuriously deflated due to the a n a l y t i c a l framework of the study. (In Bennett's case, a value of -2 was assigned to the f i r s t time period.) As the correspondence used i n the analysis of complexity determined the data of the i n i t i a l time period, there was no lack of f i t and therefore no need to include t h i s c o n t r o l when analyzing the complexity data. Terminal Years S i m i l a r l y , some of the in d i v i d u a l s i n the sample died before the l a s t time period had been completed. As Simonton noted, p r o d u c t i v i t y generally ceases a f t e r death; a dummy va r i a b l e c a l l e d "posthumous excess" by Simonton, but ref e r r e d to here as Terminal Years, was defined as follows: (a) for the terminal five-year period the dummy equaled -1 point f o r each year l e f t a f t e r the death year and (b) 0 points f o r a l l periods p r i o r to the l a s t . With t h i s v a r i a b l e Simonton reasoned that i t should be possible to ascertain whether an i n d i v i d u a l who died before the completion of the l a s t age period produced fewer works than might be expected on the basis of the previous periods. For example, i n the current study, E l i o t died i n the f i r s t year of the l a s t period of her ana l y s i s . A value of -4 was thus assigned to t h i s time period. I f a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between Terminal Years and Pr o d u c t i v i t y were to emerge, t h i s would suggest, according to Simonton, that p r o d u c t i v i t y i n the f i n a l period was not nec e s s a r i l y 37 i n d i c a t i v e of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o v e r a l l performance. In o ther words, u s i n g E l i o t as an example, the f a c t t h a t she produced no work i n the l a s t p e r i o d of her l i f e may have been due to her d e a t h , r a t h e r than to a genera l d e c l i n e i n her p r o d u c t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s . For one of the two p r o d u c t i v i t y measures d e f i n e d and used by Simonton (1977) , t h i s dummy v a r i a b l e was s i g n i f i c a n t i n the a n a l y s i s , which l e d him to conclude that " o n l y i n the case of the l a s t years of l i f e can the superimposed a n a l y t i c a l framework look a r t i f i c i a l " (p. 802) . In the a n a l y s i s of n o v e l i s t s ' correspondence, i t was f r e q u e n t l y the case that on ly a few l e t t e r s were a v a i l a b l e toward the end of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f he or she d i e d s h o r t l y a f t e r the b e g i n n i n g of the l a s t p e r i o d of a n a l y s i s . The i n c l u s i o n of t h i s " t e r m i n a l " c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e t h e r e f o r e seemed a p p r o p r i a t e , as the amount of m a t e r i a l to be scored from which a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample cou ld be drawn seemed l e s s than o p t i m a l . Date Simonton suggested that " t i m e " should be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n ana lyses of t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l data to c o n t r o l f o r spur ious r e l a t i o n s h i p s tha t may emerge due to t imewise t rends i n the v a r i a b l e s under s t u d y . For example, because of the extended time p e r i o d b e i n g a n a l y z e d , changes i n i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to d i f f e r e n c e s i n h i s t o r i c a l era or to s t y l i s t i c changes i n the n o v e l i s t s ' correspondence over t i m e . A c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e c a l l e d Date was d e f i n e d f o r each f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d as the date that the f i v e year i n t e r v a l began. 38 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n s were performed on the two dependent v a r i a b l e s , Complexi ty and P r o d u c t i v i t y . I t i s worth n o t i n g f o r purposes of d i s -cuss ion that the terminology t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , e . g . , " p r e d i c t o r " and " c r i t e r i o n " v a r i a b l e s , does not seem p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e to t h i s research as the study was in tended to be t h e o r e t i c a l r a t h e r than p r e d i c t i v e . A l though K e r l i n g e r and Pedhazur (1973) have p o i n t e d out that p r e d i c t i o n i s r e a l l y a s p e c i a l case of e x p l a n a t i o n , i t i s not c l e a r that the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n can p r o p e r l y be termed e x p l a n a t o r y . The focus of the data a n a l y s i s was e s s e n t i a l l y one of i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e x i s t e n c e and nature of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s . In t h i s context the t r a d i t i o n a l concepts of independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s seem s i m i l a r l y i n a p p l i c a b l e as the study i n v o l v e d no m a n i p u l a t i o n s of c o n d i t i o n s . However i n order to keep the d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s as unambiguous as p o s s i b l e , w h i l e a p p r e c i a t i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e t e r m i n o l o g y , the author w i l l r e f e r to the v a r i a b l e s i n the study as independent and dependent, as o u t l i n e d i n the p rev ious c h a p t e r . Before r e g r e s s i o n ana lyses were performed, the i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y of the s c o r i n g procedure f o r i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y was computed u s i n g an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e des ign w i t h repeated measures. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .97 between the two s c o r e r s , which j u s t i f i e d any subsequent ana lyses i n v o l v i n g the complex i t y d a t a . M u l t i p l e Regress ion Ana lyses  I n t e g r a t i v e Complexity The dependent measure of I n t e g r a t i v e Complexi ty was regressed on 39 the seven independent variables and the two c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s , Date and Terminal Years. The regression equation was of borderline s i g n i f i c a n c e (F = 2.098, p_ = .0585) with a multiple R of .60, the equation thus accounting for 36% of the variance i n complexity (see Table 1). Several s i g n i f i c a n t factors emerged, supporting the hypothesis that changes i n i n t e g r a t i v e complexity do occur as a response to s t r e s s f u l events i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e . A s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between Age and Complexity (B_ = .46, F_ = 4.5, p_ < .05). This would suggest that the p o s i t i o n taken by Harvey et a l . (1961) with respect to the s t a b i l i z a t i o n of conceptual structure i n adulthood may not be e n t i r e l y v a l i d . As t h e i r assumption had never been em p i r i c a l l y tested, the current r e s u l t s provide evidence that s t r u c t u r a l complexity continues to develop with increasing age. An a l t e r n a t i v e explanation to t h i s could be entertained, because of the sample of i n d i v i d u a l s examined i n t h i s research. Harvey et a l . proposed that abstract conceptual structure i s associated with c r e a t i v i t y . C l e a r l y , the n o v e l i s t s sampled were creative i n d i v i d u a l s and may therefore have attained a higher degree of s t r u c t u r a l complexity i n early adulthood than t h e i r l e s s creative counterparts. As previously noted, Harvey and h i s colleagues suggested that conceptually complex i n d i v i d u a l s are more open to further progression than are those persons characterized by concrete conceptual structure. The r e l a t i o n s h i p found between Age and Complexity may thus be a function of the sample selected, and may not generalize beyond crea t i v e , and perhaps exceptional, i n d i v i d u a l s . As a personal stressor, degree of i l l n e s s was negatively r e l a t e d to Complexity (g_ = -.495, F = 5.6, p_ < .05). I t would appear that the TABLE 1 M u l t i p l e Regress ion A n a l y s i s of I n t e g r a t i v e Complex i ty Independent V a r i a b l e Lyi r_ 2 y i E i g h t h - o r d e r p a r t i a l r_ Date Age Age 2 L i f e Events L i f e E v e n t s 2 I l l n e s s War I n t e n s i t y C i v i l Unrest Termina l Years .05 .12 - . 1 2 - . 0 5 - . 0 5 - . 0 6 - . 2 0 .15 .28 .0025 .0144 .0144 .0025 .0025 .0036 .0400 .0225 .0784 .12 .35 .20 - . 1 9 - . 1 5 - . 3 8 - . 3 4 .31 .49 .12 .46 ** .21 - . 1 9 - . 1 4 - . 5 0 ** - . 3 4 *•* .32 * .59 * * * R = . 6 0 ; R 2 = . 3 6 ; F = 2 . 0 9 8 ; p_ = .0585 * p_ < .07 ** p_ < .05 ***•£ < .005 Note : the above p_ v a l u e s represent the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l f o r t e s t i n g the n u l l hypothes is tha t the Beta c o e f f i c i e n t i s z e r o . 41 adjustment r e q u i r e d of i n d i v i d u a l s i n cop ing w i t h adverse changes i n t h e i r s t a t e of h e a l t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by lower l e v e l s of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g than would be the case when they were i n good h e a l t h . L i f e events n e c e s s i t a t i n g a d a p t a t i o n , however, d i d not seem to a f f e c t the complex i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s sample, a r e s u l t which i s open to a number of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The f i r s t , and perhaps most obvious to c r i t i c s of l i f e events r e s e a r c h , i s that the c h e c k l i s t s used to assess l i f e change scores have not been sub jec ted to r i g o r o u s examinat ions of t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . The ev idence that does p e r t a i n suggests weaknesses i n the c h e c k l i s t s i n both these r e s p e c t s (Rabkin & S t r u e n i n g , 1976) . Of p a r t i c u l a r concern to the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n are the c r i t i c i s m s that have been l e v e l e d a t the content v a l i d i t y and s c o r i n g procedures of l i f e events r e s e a r c h , e s p e c i a l l y as the s c a l e u t i l i z e d i n the cu r ren t study was a m o d i f i c a t i o n of a p rev ious one. A l though a number of methods have been used to determine a p p r o p r i a t e weights f o r d i f f e r e n t events , i t i s u n c l e a r whether these weights can e f f e c -t i v e l y take i n t o account the s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a l i f e event to a g i ven respondent . Th is problem becomes even more s a l i e n t when l i f e change scores are ass igned on the b a s i s of b i o g r a p h i c a l source m a t e r i a l . The S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g Sca le (Holmes & Rahe, 1967) and other s i m i l a r c h e c k l i s t s were in tended to represent " f a i r l y common s i t u a t i o n s a r i s i n g from f a m i l y , p e r s o n a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l , and f i n a n c i a l events that r e q u i r e or s i g n i f y change i n ongoing adjustment" (Rabkin & S t r u e n i n g , 1976, p. 1014). The problem posed i n a p p l y i n g these weighted events to h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n the phrase " f a i r l y common 42 s i t u a t i o n s . " For i n s t a n c e , d i v o r c e was undoubtedly l e s s common a century ago than i t i s today. The weights ass igned to each i tem i n these check -l i s t s were based on j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s of the r e l a t i v e degree of necessary readjustment thought to be r e q u i r e d of a g iven event . One may s a f e l y assume that i n the case of d i v o r c e , f o r example, p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l p ressures n e c e s s a r i l y d i c t a t e to a l a r g e ex tent the ease w i t h which an i n d i v i d u a l might cope w i t h the s i t u a t i o n . In b r i e f , the s t r e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r l i f e events probably changes over t i m e . To assume that one can v a l i d l y apply a l i f e events measure dev ised f o r contemporary usage to h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l may be a tenuous assumpt ion . The b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s of the data used i n t h i s study i n d i c a t e d that the L i f e Events v a r i a b l e was n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to Age (r = - . 4 6 , p_ < . 0 1 , see Table 2 ) . Th is i m p l i e s t h a t l i f e changes, as c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d , occur f o r the most p a r t d u r i n g the e a r l i e r years of the l i f e span , a f i n d i n g that i s compat ib le w i t h some of the r e s e a r c h d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h l i f e events and i l l n e s s o n s e t . Rabkin and S t r u e n i n g (1976) c i t e d r e s u l t s common to s e v e r a l s t u d i e s i n d i c a t i n g that "young a d u l t s aged 20 to 30 repor ted tw ice as many l i f e changes as those over 6 0 , and throughout the age range a s i g n i f i c a n t i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p p r e v a i l s " (p. 1016) . They went on to note that i t i s u n c l e a r whether these r e s u l t s are due to the c h a r a c t e r of the s c a l e o r to g r e a t e r degrees of s t r e s s i n e a r l y a d u l t h o o d . In v iew o f the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e v a l u a t i n g the " s i g n i f i c a n c e " of the l i f e events ( i . e . , whether or not they are p e r c e i v e d as s t r e s s f u l ) , i t may w e l l be the case that these s c a l e s measure "changes" more so than they do s t r e s s . Another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that i s not w h o l l y independent of the problems 43 o u t l i n e d above i s based on the r o l e of m e d i a t i n g f a c t o r s tha t i n f l u e n c e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s response to l i f e changes. Rabkin and S t r u e n i n g emphasize that a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n e v a l u a t i n g the impact of s t r e s s f u l events i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of them. These authors suggest that p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s such as i n t e l l i g e n c e , v e r b a l s k i l l s , and m o r a l e , as w e l l as demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as age, educat ion and occupat ion may c o n t r i b u t e to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e v a l u a t i o n of s t r e s s f u l c o n d i t i o n s and t h e i r response to them. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s assumed that persons w i t h more s k i l l s , a s s e t s and resources tend to f a r e b e t t e r and cope more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h events that would be p e r c e i v e d as more s t r e s s f u l by o t h e r s . I t seems reasonable to suggest that the c u r r e n t sample of n o v e l i s t s had many of the " a s s e t s " mentioned above, e n a b l i n g them to cope more a d a p t i v e l y w i t h changes i n t h e i r l i f e . And fu r the rmore , as p r e v i o u s l y p o i n t e d o u t , thay may not have p e r c e i v e d these changes as s t r e s s f u l . . Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does not seem to h o l d f o r the e f f e c t s of War I n t e n s i t y and C i v i l U n r e s t . A s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between I n t e g r a t i v e Complex i ty and War I n t e n s i t y (J3 = - . 3 4 , _F = 4 . 4 , p_ < .05) w h i l e a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between the dependent v a r i a b l e and C i v i l Unrest (_6_ = . 3 2 , F_ = 3 . 5 , p_< . 0 7 ) . A l though the l a t t e r d i d not q u i t e reach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , i t seemed c l o s e enough to warrant d i s c u s s i o n . As s t a t e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , i t was b e l i e v e d tha t eminent n o v e l i s t s would probably be s e n s i t i v e to s o c i e t a l and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s . The work of w r i t e r s o f t e n i n v o l v e s s o c i a l and/or p o l i t i c a l commentaries on the h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d i n which they l i v e , which n e c e s s i t a t e s an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n ongoing e x t e r n a l e v e n t s . I t t h e r e f o r e seems 44 reasonable that s o c i o p o l i t i c a l s t r e s s o r s would be a s a l i e n t aspect of the environment f o r those n o v e l i s t s s t u d i e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e g r a t i v e Complex i ty and War I n t e n s i t y i m p l i e s tha t i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l s of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g complex i t y on the p a r t of the r e s i d e n t l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s i n the country i n v o l v e d . Th is may be due to p r e v i o u s l y suggested f a c t o r s such as f e a r f o r those i n v o l v e d or f o r one ' s own l i f e , a t h r e a t to one ' s v a l u e s , and economic h a r d s h i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of major wars ( e . g . , the World Wars) i n which England was i n v o l v e d . The p o l a r i z i n g e f f e c t of propaganda ( r e s u l t i n g , f o r example, from the promotion of b l i n d f a i t h i n one ' s count ry and p a t r i o t i c f e r v o r ) o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t c o u l d be expressed i n low l e v e l s of c o m p l e x i t y , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e j e c t i o n of d i ssonant i n f o r m a t i o n , c a t e g o r i c a l t h i n k i n g , and so o n . S i m i l a r l y , i n f o r m a t i o n emanating from government sources and through the press r e f l e c t i n g how a c o n f l i c t was b e i n g handled would a f f e c t the way i n which r e s i d e n t s of the count ry reac ted to the s i t u a -t i o n . On the one hand, i f i n d i v i d u a l s b e l i e v e d , f o r example, tha t a l t e r n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s of the s i t u a t i o n w e r e n ' t b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d , t h i s cou ld p o t e n t i a l l y he ighten t h e i r own s t r e s s r e a c t i o n to the c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n . Such an e x p l a n a t i o n seems e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t to i m p e r i a l -i s t i c c o n f l i c t s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l magnitude that were r e l a t i v e l y removed from c l o s e p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . In these i n s t a n c e s , i t may have been the case that the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d by the E n g l i s h p u b l i c gave the impress ion of cont inuous war fare and d i s p u t e s , w h i l e there was on ly minimal awareness of the d e t a i l s of n e g o t i a t i o n s and compromises t a k i n g p l a c e . 45 One cou ld a l s o e n t e r t a i n the p o s s i b i l i t y that low l e v e l s of i n f o r -mation p r o c e s s i n g on the p a r t of d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s (as r e f l e c t e d f o r example i n t h e i r speeches) were s imply t r a n s f e r r e d to the p u b l i c so that t h e i r response i n e f f e c t m i r r o r e d that of the government. Th is seems u n l i k e l y w i t h a sample of eminent l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s , as one might expect that t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to a s i t u a t i o n would be mediated by t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s of d e c i s i o n s made, the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these p o l i c i e s , and so on . In h y p o t h e s i z i n g that the i n f o r m a t i o n f low i n the environment i s r e l a t e d to changes i n c o m p l e x i t y , some p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s can be o f f e r e d as to why c i v i l unrest i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to complex i t y w h i l e the oppos i te ho lds f o r war i n t e n s i t y . In d i s c u s s i n g t h i s w i t h regard to the c u r r e n t d a t a , one should take i n t o account the f a c t that over 80% of the events c i t e d by S o r o k i n (1937, see Appendix C) that were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h i s study as measures of c i v i l unrest i n v o l v e d r e b e l l i o n s and r i o t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s t a t u s of I r e l a n d i n the Commonwealth. In e f f e c t , the u p r i s i n g s i n I r e l a n d were s i m i l a r to o ther i m p e r i a l i s t i c c o n f l i c t s i n v o l v i n g Eng land ; the I r i s h were f i g h t i n g f o r freedom from E n g l i s h r u l e . In c o n t r a s t to those i m p e r i a l i s t i c wars waged f a r from home, the E n g l i s h were probably much more aware of the r e a l i t y of events i n d i s p u t e s over the I r i s h q u e s t i o n . They a l s o would have had more access to both s i d e s of the i s s u e i n c i v i l d i s t u r b a n c e s , r e s u l t i n g i n more open-ended f l e x i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . For example, i t i s l i k e l y that both i n Par l iament and among the p u b l i c , suppor ters of the I r i s h cause were on hand to i n s u r e that a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the i s s u e s a t s take were made a v a i l a b l e . S ince I r i s h home r u l e has been a r e c u r r i n g 46 theme i n the h i s t o r y of Great B r i t a i n , dating back several centuries, t h i s implies the presence of ongoing debates, prolonged consideration of possible solutions, i n short, an atmosphere that could f o s t e r r e l a t i v e l y high degrees of information processing complexity. In a study of the causal r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l e c t u a l and p o l i t i c a l movements, Simonton (1976c) found that the frequent occurrence of popular re v o l t s and r e b e l l i o n s seemed to f o s t e r the emergence of " i d e o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t . " At least i n the case of young people, such events caused them to take sides on major p h i l o s o p h i c a l questions (e.g., the i n d i v i d u a l versus society, fate versus free w i l l ) . Perhaps a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n from th i s research can be made to the present study. The events c o n s t i t u t i n g the v a r i a b l e of C i v i l Unrest no doubt i n s p i r e d controversy over p h i l o -sophical issues, which may w e l l r e l a t e to high l e v e l conceptual structures, characterized by r e l a t i v i s m and abstractness. I t could be argued that the same s i t u a t i o n might p r e v a i l i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t , but other r e s u l t s suggest that war (versus c i v i l disturbance) may i n h i b i t the development of c e r t a i n b e l i e f s such as individualism and empiricism (Simonton, 1976c). This was a t t r i b u t e d to wartime propaganda i n i t s attempt to r e i n f o r c e s e l f - s a c r i f i c e and submission to the general w i l l , thus concurring with one of the explanations offered above for the negative r e l a t i o n s h i p found between war and complexity. An i n i t i a l l y puzzling r e s u l t which emerged from the regression analysis was the p o s i t i v e and highly s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between Complexity and the Terminal Years control v a r i a b l e ( = .59, F_ = 10.2, p_ < .005). Almost 45% of the variance i n Complexity accounted for by the regression equation can be a t t r i b u t e d to t h i s v a r i a b l e . As noted e a r l i e r , Simonton (1977) included t h i s v a r i a b l e i n h i s study of p r o d u c t i v i t y 47 as a c o r r e c t i o n f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y that a b s o l u t e l e v e l of p r o d u c t i v i t y per f i v e year age p e r i o d . m i g h t be s p u r i o u s l y d e f l a t e d d u r i n g the t e r m i n a l f i v e year p e r i o d of each composer's l i f e . Th is c o n t r o l was i n i t i a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s of Complex i ty as a r o u t i n e e x t e n s i o n of Simonton's methodology. On a c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n of the r a t i o n a l e f o r i t s i n c l u s i o n , i t became c l e a r that t h i s v a r i a b l e d i d not serve the same purpose as a c o n t r o l f o r Complex i ty as i t had f o r P r o d u c t i v i t y . Complex i ty was computed as an average of the separate complex i t y scores from the correspondence a v a i l a b l e i n a g i ven f i v e year p e r i o d . The f a c t of any a u t h o r ' s death i n the l a s t of these pe r iods reduced the p o t e n t i a l sample s i z e of s c o r a b l e m a t e r i a l and perhaps a l s o the r e l i a b i l i t y of any average s c o r e . But i t should not have s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i s t o r t e d t h i s measure as was the case w i t h P r o d u c t i v i t y . In b r i e f t h e n , t h i s c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e was not what i t was in tended to be . But whatever misadventure may have l e d to i t s i n c l u s i o n , i t s p r e d i c t i v e power r e q u i r e s some post hoc e f f o r t to account f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e i n Complex i ty which i t c o n t r o l s . The nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p suggests that the l e v e l of i n t e g r a -t i v e complex i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the sample decreased s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the l a s t f i v e year p e r i o d of t h e i r l i v e s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s s e r e n d i p i t o u s f i n d i n g a t f i r s t seemed c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e , i n v iew of the f a c t that a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between Complex i ty and Age. Th is l e d to the c o n c l u s i o n that w h i l e t h i s c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e was a statement about the p r o x i m i t y of d e a t h , which i t s e l f seems i n t u i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to age, i t c a r r i e d a meaning i n t h i s r e s e a r c h d i f f e r e n t from one e x p l a i n e d by age a l o n e . Moreover , the nature of t h i s change i n complex i t y cannot be a t t r i b u t e d to a d e c l i n e i n h e a l t h , as the r e l a t i o n -sh ip appears even a f t e r c o n t r o l l i n g f o r I l l n e s s . 48 The work of Riegel and Riegel (1972) on life-span developmental changes may provide a possible explanation of this phenomenon. They contended that the results of many developmental studies showing a slow decline in functioning during the adult years may be invalid. The results of their research indicated that declines in performance with age can be attributed to a sudden drop in performance occurring within five years prior to the death of subjects. According to these authors, previously observed changes might be due to the behaviour of those persons who do not survive the next few years following test adminis-trations, and whose number increases with age. Without elaborating the details of this research, a few of the findings and conclusions reached by Riegel and Riegel that seem relevant to the present investigation w i l l be noted. They proposed that "there exist lower limits in performance or behaviour attained by subjects shortly before their death" (Riegel and Riegel, 1972, p. 310). Subjects were measured on a number of variables including intelligence, verbal a b i l i t i e s , r i g i d i t y and dogmatism. The occurrence of "lethal limits" in performance were particularly well documented for the attitude scales. Shortly before their death, individuals scored consistently higher on measures of r i g i d i t y than did those subjects who were tested at the same time but lived longer. To c l a r i f y this, i f tests were given to two persons aged 60, one of whom subsequently died at the age of 62 and the other at 70, the score of the former person was higher (more rigid) than that of the latter. These and other results (for example that an increase in dogmatism distinguished "nonsurvivors" from "survivors") have particular appeal when one attempts to generalize the findings to complexity research, as i t has been empirically demon-strated that a relationship exists between complexity and dogmatism 49 (Schroder et a l . , 1967). The phenomenon of a "developmental drop" p r i o r to death i s c o m p e l l i n g , inasmuch as the p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g a new and i n t e r e s t i n g dimension i n t o research on c o m p l e x i t y . I t would be i n a d v i s a b l e to p l a c e too much emphasis on t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n e x p l a i n i n g the r o l e of the Terminal c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e i n the present r e s e a r c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t of the s i z e of the sample. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a c l o s e r examinat ion of the data seemed d e s i r a b l e i n order to s u b s t a n t i a t e any p r o p o s a l tha t subsequent research i n complex i ty might b e n e f i t from an e x p l o r a t i o n of t h i s phenomenon. To t h i s end, a number of post hoc m a n i p u l a t i o n s of the data were undertaken i n an attempt to c l a r i f y f e a t u r e s of the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e t h a t would have l e n t themselves to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h i n the paradigm presented by R i e g e l and R i e g e l . At f i r s t g l a n c e , the way i n which Terminal Years was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d s i g n a l l e d an i n d i v i d u a l ' s death by v i r t u e of the f a c t that f o r some s u b j e c t s the l a s t f i v e year p e r i o d had a numer i ca l v a l u e d i f f e r e n t from a l l p reced ing p e r i o d s . For the f i n a l p e r i o d of each n o v e l i s t ' s l i f e , the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e e q u a l l e d -1 p o i n t f o r each year l e f t a f t e r the death year and 0 p o i n t s f o r a l l pe r iods p r i o r to the l a s t . S ince some authors d i e d i n the l a s t year of the f i n a l p e r i o d , these v a l u e s ranged from 0 to -4. I f i n f a c t the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e was measuring p r o x i m i t y to death i t was reasoned that perhaps a s imple d i c h o t o m i z a t i o n of the v a r i a b l e (zeros i n a l l pe r iods p r i o r to the l a s t and 1 p o i n t i n the f i n a l p e r i o d ) would s u f f i c e to underscore approaching d e a t h . However when entered i n t o the r e g r e s s i o n equat ion i n t h i s manner, w i t h a l l o ther v a r i a b l e s l e f t unchanged, the r e g r e s s i o n equat ion d i d not reach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Another approach i n v o l v e s a c l o s e r examinat ion of the complex i t y 50 scores f o r each n o v e l i s t , comparing the score f o r the l a s t p e r i o d w i t h the mean of a l l p rev ious s c o r e s . In three of the f i v e compar isons , complex i ty dropped i n the l a s t p e r i o d . When analyzed by u s i n g a c o r r e -l a t e d t - t e s t the computat ion d i d not reach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , a t t r i b u t a b l e i n p a r t to the s i z e of the sample and the a s s o c i a t e d low power of the t e s t . The complex i t y data f o r each n o v e l i s t were then examined i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the n u m e r i c a l v a l u e of the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e ass igned to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i n a l t ime p e r io d s . . The age at which each i n d i v i d u a l d ied was a l s o taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , as t h i s was a c e n t r a l f a c t o r i n the r e s e a r c h of R i e g e l and R i e g e l (1972) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the "developmental drop" p r i o r to death was found more c o n s i s t e n t l y i n s u b j e c t s below the age of 65 than i n those s u b j e c t s o l d e r than 65 . In o ther words , "age d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of s u r v i v a l i n d i c a t e tha t a t the e a r l i e r ages death s t r i k e s s u b j e c t s who are p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from the s u r v i v o r s . . . . At the h igher age l e v e l s death s t r i k e s more randomly and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between s u r v i v o r s and nonsurv i vo rs are l e s s marked" ( R i e g e l & R i e g e l , 1972, p. 3 0 8 - 3 0 9 ) . Acco rd ing to these a u t h o r s , t h e i r r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the performance of o l d e r s u b j e c t s d i d not appear to have changed d u r i n g the major p o r t i o n of t h e i r a d u l t l i v e s . Thus, a l though some of the o l d e r i n d i v i d u a l s may have s u f f e r e d d e c l i n e s i n performance p r i o r to d e a t h , t h i s was not a c o n s i s t e n t phenomenon. Return ing to the f i v e n o v e l i s t s , the two f o r whom t e r m i n a l complex i ty scores i n c r e a s e d r a t h e r than decreased were V i r g i n i a Woolf and George M e r e d i t h . Without t r y i n g to extend any e x p l a n a t i o n beyond the bounds of r e a s o n , one cou ld take the p o s i t i o n tha t Woolf was unique r e l a t i v e 51 to the r e s t of the sample i n tha t she took her own l i f e . Mered i th can a l s o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the o t h e r s i n that he l i v e d to the age of 8 1 , compared to the o l d e s t of the remain ing four who d i e d a t the age of 64. The absence of a d e c l i n e i n M e r e d i t h ' s complex i t y scores i s thus c o n s i s -ten t w i t h the f i n d i n g s of R i e g e l and R i e g e l . In examining the change scores f o r each n o v e l i s t (the d i f f e r e n c e between the l a s t f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d score and the mean of a l l p rev ious complex i t y r a t i n g s ) , the mag-n i t u d e of change was r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r o x i m i t y to death as measured by the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e . In o ther words, i n d i v i d u a l s who d i e d i n the f i r s t or second year of the f i n a l t ime p e r i o d ana lyzed were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g rea te r changes i n complex i t y than those who had longer to l i v e . Woolf was the one n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n to t h i s p a t t e r n . I t must be emphasized aga in that an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of the c u r r e n t study based on the theory proposed by R i e g e l and R i e g e l must be made w i t h c a u t i o n . The s m a l l sample s i z e poses a problem w i t h respec t to the s p e c i f i c v a l u e s ass igned to the Termina l Years v a r i a b l e . From the s tandpo in t of the s t a t i s t i c s i n v o l v e d i n the a n a l y s i s , i t should be emphasized that on ly th ree of the 43 data p o i n t s f o r Termina l Years were va lues o ther than z e r o . The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s tha t i f these th ree p o i n t s corresponded to changes i n complex i t y of a s i z e a b l e magnitude, a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n would emerge between t h i s c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e and Complex i t y . Th is f a c t a lone c a s t s some doubt on the r e l i a b i l i t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p found between Complexi ty and Terminal Y e a r s . A l a r g e r sample would no doubt p rov ide a d d i t i o n a l ev idence as to whether or not the s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p tha t emerged from t h i s r e s e a r c h i s i n f a c t a v a l i d one. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s c l e a r from the data a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s study tha t 52 the changes i n complexity associated with proximity to death emerged as an important and powerful r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h i s research. Because of the c o r r e l a t i o n a l nature of the analysis one cannot presume the d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of cause and e f f e c t . Whether a decline i n the complexity of cognitive functioning decreases the p r o b a b i l i t y of s u r v i v a l or whether, conversely, the "shadow of death" has an adverse e f f e c t on cognitive processes remains unclear. Touching b r i e f l y on the contributions of the remaining independent v a r i a b l e s , neither quadratic term associated with Age or L i f e Events was s i g n i f i c a n t . One can conclude then that there i s no apparent c u r v i l i n e a r trend i n complexity that r e l a t e s to either of these v a r i a b l e s . Furthermore, the e f f e c t of the control v a r i a b l e Date was not s i g n i f i c a n t , implying that changes i n information processing complexity could not be a t t r i b u t e d to d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l eras or s t y l i s t i c changes i n the n o v e l i s t s ' correspondence over time. P a r t i a l Correlations. As one can see from Table 1, the b i v a r i a t e (or zero-order) co r r e l a t i o n s of the independent variables with Complexity are quite small, with the possible exception of the Terminal Years v a r i a b l e , which although more highly correlated with the dependent v a r i a b l e , did not quite reach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The discrep-ancies between several of these c o r r e l a t i o n s and the r e l a t i v e importance attained i n the regression equation by the associated independent variables requires some explanation. The p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n of each v a r i a b l e i n the regression analysis with the dependent v a r i a b l e , a l l other variables being held constant, was computed as shown i n Table 1. Since these eighth-order p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s d i f f e r ( i n some cases quite dramatically) from 53 the z e r o - o r d e r r_'s, an e f f o r t was made to i d e n t i f y those v a r i a b l e s , the c o n t r o l of which s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d to an i n c r e a s e d c o r r e l a t i o n between Complexi ty and the independent v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t . For example, the z e r o - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n between Age and Complex i ty i s .12 whereas the e i g h t h - o r d e r p a r t i a l r_ i s .35 (p_ < . 0 3 ) . . When the Terminal Years v a r i a b l e i s p a r t i a l l e d o u t , the f i r s t - o r d e r p a r t i a l r_ i s .24 (p_ < . 1 0 ) ; and when the e f f e c t s of both the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e and I l l n e s s are removed, the second-order p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n i s .38 (p_ < . 0 1 ) . In t h i s example i t i s c l e a r that the i n c r e a s e d c o r r e l a t i o n from zero to e i g h t h - o r d e r p a r t i a l i s not u n i d i r e c t i o n a l ; h o l d i n g the e f f e c t s of the other independent v a r i a b l e s constant has the e f f e c t of both i n c r e a s i n g and dec reas ing the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , but not s u b s t a n t i a l l y . I t would appear t h a t the v a r i a n c e i n complex i t y "caused" by both I l l n e s s and Terminal Years c o n s i d e r a b l y suppressed the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Complexi ty and Age. Th is i s not a l t o g e t h e r s u r p r i s i n g when one examines the i n t e r -c o r r e l a t i o n s among the independent v a r i a b l e s (see Table 2 ) . As might be expected , Age i s h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h I l l n e s s (r_ = . 5 2 , p_ < .01) and n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e , Terminal Years (r = - . 3 6 , p_ < . 0 5 ) . Thus, f o r example, a p o r t i o n of the v a r i a n c e i n complex i t y that cou ld be accounted f o r by Age was shared w i t h I l l n e s s ; w i t h the e f f e c t s of I l l n e s s removed, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Complex i ty and Age a lone became c l e a r e r . A l though I l l n e s s and the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d , when both Age and Terminal Years are p a r t i a l e d out of the c o r r e l a t i o n between I l l n e s s and Complexi ty (r_ = - . 0 6 ) , the second-order p a r t i a l i s - . 3 2 (p_ < . 0 3 ) , compared w i t h the e i g h t h - o r d e r r_ of - . 3 8 54 (p_ < .03) . S i m i l a r l y , the r_ between Complexity and the c o n t r o l jumped from .28 to .49 (p_ < .005), zero- and eighth-order p a r t i a l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . When p a r t i a l e d on Age and I l l n e s s , the c o r r e l a t i o n was .44 (p_ < .005). The nature of the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between these three independent var i ab le s thus had the e f fect of suppressing what emerged as s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these var i ab le s and i n t e g r a t i v e complexity. A s i m i l a r phenomenon seems to be operat ing with War In tens i ty and C i v i l Unrest as r e l a t ed to the dependent v a r i a b l e . The b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n between these two independent var i ab le s i s .47 (p_ < .01) . This r e l a t i o n s h i p no doubt contr ibuted to the d i screpancies found between t h e i r respect ive b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s with Complexity and the higher-order p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s . The b i v a r i a t e r_ between War In tens i ty and Complexity (r = -.20) increased as an e ighth-order p a r t i a l to - .34 (p_ < .03) , much of that due to the c o n t r o l of C i v i l Unrest ( f i r s t -order p a r t i a l r_ = - . 3 1 , p_ < .03) . When War In tens i ty was c o n t r o l l e d , the c o r r e l a t i o n between C i v i l Unrest and the dependent v a r i a b l e was .28 (p_ < .05) , compared to a zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n of .15 and much c l o s e r to the e ighth-order .31 (p_ < .05) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Complexity and the va r i ab le s discussed above can be c l a r i f i e d when one sorts out and contro l s the e f fec t s of other i n t e r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . I t must be s tressed however that the r e l a t i v e l y weak b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s communicate the fact that the var i ab le s that emerged i n t h i s research as important " p r e d i c t o r s " of changes i n information process ing complexity are not v a l i d p red ic to r s i f used a lone. (See Table 1 for the values of r^ which i n d i c a t e the c o n t r i b u t i o n of each independent v a r i a b l e as a p r e d i c t o r i f used by i t s e l f . ) 55 P r o d u c t i v i t y The P r o d u c t i v i t y measure was regressed on the seven independent v a r i a b l e s and three c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s (Table 3 ) . The r e g r e s s i o n equat ion was not s i g n i f i c a n t (F = 1 . 5 8 , p_ > .1) which prec luded any f u r t h e r examinat ion of the c o n t r i b u t i o n made by the independent v a r i a b l e s . One cou ld conclude from t h i s that these data do not support S imonton's (1977) f i n d i n g s . However, c a u t i o n should be taken i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the present r e s u l t s i n t h i s manner. As noted i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , the way i n which p r o d u c t i v i t y was measured was not conducive to an i n - d e p t h study of t h i s v a r i a b l e . In comparison to the thoroughness w i t h which Simonton documented the p r o d u c t i v i t y of composers (see Simonton, 1977) , the c u r r e n t research examined the work produced by n o v e l i s t s i n what might be d e s c r i b e d as a s u p e r f i c i a l manner. As the focus of t h i s research e f f o r t was on i n t e g r a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y , l e s s e f f o r t was expended i n d e t a i l i n g i n a c o d i f i a b l e format every p roduc -t i v e p u r s u i t o f the n o v e l i s t s s t u d i e d . As Simonton reasoned , the "comparat ive s ing le -mindedness of composers immensely s i m p l i f i e s the l o n g i t u d i n a l assessment of p r o d u c t i v i t y , s i n c e i t i s not necessary to worry about the composer's hav ing l a i d a s i d e music i n order to devote f u l l t ime to an ambi t ious e f f o r t i n an u n r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e " (1977, p. 795) . Th is s ing le -mindedness was not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the n o v e l i s t s examined h e r e , and consequent ly the task of adequate ly a s s e s s i n g t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y seemed beyond the scope, p r a c t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , of the present i n q u i r y . The reasons f o r a t tempt ing to do so i n a very g e n e r a l way were o u t l i n e d i n the p rev ious c h a p t e r . In a d d i t i o n to the way i n which p r o d u c t i v i t y was measured, two of the independent v a r i a b l e s used i n the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h , War I n t e n s i t y and I l l n e s s , a l though t h e o r e t i c a l l y the same as those i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o TABLE 2 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of Independent V a r i a b l e s Date Age .44** Age 2 - . 0 1 0 . L i f e Events - . 2 1 - . 4 6 * * .02 L i f e E v e n t s 2 - . 1 7 .13 .26 .07 I l l n e s s .28 .52** .29 - . 3 4 * .10 War I n t e n s i t y .23 - . 0 5 - v l 8 .06 - . 1 3 .02 C i v i l Unrest .11 - . 0 5 - . 2 9 .18 .10 - . 0 4 .47** Te rmina l Years - . 2 5 - . 3 6 * - . 2 0 .29 - . 0 4 .12 .05 .14 * £ <-.05 * * £ < .01 TABLE 3 M u l t i p l e Regress ion A n a l y s i s of P r o d u c t i v i t y Independent V a r i a b l e : 2 y i E i g h t h - o r d e r p a r t i a l _r Date Age Age 2 L i f e Events L i f e E v e n t s 2 I l l n e s s War I n t e n s i t y C i v i l Unres t P r e - e x c e s s Years Termina l Years .005 .01 - . 1 8 .12 .04 .01 - . 0 8 - . 0 6 .36 .23 .000025 .0001 .0324 .0144 .0016 .0001 .0064 .0036 .1296 .0529 .30 - . 2 6 - . 1 9 .11 .10 .15 - . 1 5 - . 2 2 .48 .16 .34 - . 4 1 - . 2 1 .11 .09 .19 - . 1 5 - . 2 3 .59 .17 R = . 5 7 ; R 2 = . 3 3 ; F = 1 . 5 8 ; p_ > .10 58 Simonton's r e s e a r c h , were o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d i n a manner somewhat d i f f e r e n t from that employed by Simonton. Any comparison of the r e s u l t s of the two s t u d i e s should t h e r e f o r e take these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o account . Genera l D i s c u s s i o n The g u i d i n g purpose of t h i s research was to exp lo re the r e l a t i o n -sh ip between the i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s and v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l s t r e s s o r s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e i r envi ronment . Not on ly has t h i s work supported the genera l hypothes is that i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g complex i t y i s a f f e c t e d by changing aspects of one ' s environment, i t h a s , i n a d d i t i o n , p rov ided f u r t h e r evidence that i n some s i t u a t i o n s the adapt i ve response of i n d i v i d u a l s i s towards i n c r e a s i n g r a t h e r than d e c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y . In examining i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n contex ts d i f f e r e n t from those p r e v i o u s l y i n v e s t i g a t e d , the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h has shown that the extent to which the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the environment demands a response i s on ly one of s e v e r a l f a c t o r s tha t i n f l u e n c e i n t e g r a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t appears t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s response to s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s i s mediated by f a c t o r s other than the e x p l i c i t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e c i s i o n -making. Th is c o n c l u s i o n warrants a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n , w i t h r e s p e c t to the s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s of the c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t was hypothes ized that a number of f a c t o r s might i n f l u e n c e the response of i n d i v i d u a l s to uns tab le s o c i o p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . In comparing the e f f e c t s of war i n t e n s i t y versus c i v i l u n r e s t , i t was suggested tha t the i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w i n the environment was an i n f l u -e n t i a l f a c t o r i n de te rmin ing the way i n which i n d i v i d u a l s responded to these s i t u a t i o n s . C i v i l unrest appeared to evoke a more f l e x i b l e , i n t e g r a t i v e ou t look on the p a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s sample than d i d war i n t e n s i t y . The h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d from which these data were drawn, however, i n some ways b i a s e d the nature of the C i v i l Unrest v a r i a b l e , i n that most of the events analyzed were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i s t u r b a n c e s i n I r e l a n d . As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , t h i s v a r i a b l e was i n many r e s p e c t s s i m i l a r to War I n t e n s i t y , the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e b e i n g that the c o n f l i c t s i n I r e l a n d were " c l o s e r to home" than other i m p e r i a l i s t i c wars waged by Eng land. Th is i s not to say that the d i f f e r e n t i a l response to these two v a r i a b l e s i s i n v a l i d ; r a t h e r i t suggests that f u t u r e r e s e a r c h should be d i r e c t e d toward more c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between i n t e r n a t i o n a l wars and c i v i l events tha t are more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of i n t e r n a l tens ions ( e . g . , r e a c t i o n s to unpopular l e g i s l a t i o n , s t r i k e s , e t c . ) . F u r t h e r , the ( p o s s i b l e ) d i f f e r e n t i a l impact of i m p e r i a l i s t i c wars versus what Wright (1965) d e s c r i b e s as " b a l a n c e - o f - p o w e r " wars ( e . g . , the World Wars) warrants i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Another aspect of the c u r r e n t study that has important and i n t e r e s t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r complex i t y research i s the f i n d i n g that s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s o ther than those r e l a t e d to the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the environment a f f e c t c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . Th is has been demonstrated s p e c i f i c a l l y by the e f f e c t of i l l n e s s on i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , as w e l l as f a c t o r s yet to be e x p l a i n e d that appear to be o p e r a t i n g i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the t ime of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e a t h . The focus of past research has been d i r e c t e d toward the ways i n which f a c t o r s such as s t r e s s and i n f o r m a t i o n input a f f e c t c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . The f a c t tha t p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s such as i l l - h e a l t h are r e l a t e d to r e l a t i v e l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and i n f l e x i b l e p r o c e s s i n g 60 of i n f o r m a t i o n c l e a r l y warrants c l o s e r examinat ion i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . The most reasonable e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s phenomenon i s that h a b i t u a l p a t t e r n s of cop ing are i n t e r r u p t e d by reduced energy l e v e l s , a n x i e t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s p e c i f i c a i l m e n t , and so on . An extended i n q u i r y i n t o t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p might be d i r e c t e d toward d i s t i n g u i s h i n g how s p e c i f i c types of i l l n e s s r e l a t e to c o m p l e x i t y , e . g . , p h y s i c a l versus p s y c h o l o g i c a l impai rments . F u r t h e r research should exp lo re the "developmental drop" phenomenon i n order to v e r i f y t h i s f i n d i n g and a d d i t i o n a l l y should exp lo re the connect ion between complex i t y and other v a r i a b l e s that e x h i b i t d e v e l o p -mental t rends over the l i f e spans of i n d i v i d u a l s . I t shou ld be emphasized once more that the r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h shou ld be extended and v a l i d a t e d w i t h a l a r g e r sample of i n d i v i d u a l s . Moreover an attempt should be made to examine persons who are more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the genera l p o p u l a t i o n than were the n o v e l i s t s i n t h i s s tudy . In ex tend ing the work of Suedfe ld and h i s coworkers , t h i s study has a l s o shown that the i n t e g r a t i v e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n hypothes i s ho lds t rue f o r p r i v a t e as w e l l as p u b l i c communications (see Suedfe ld et a l . , 1977) . In a d d i t i o n , i t has p rov ided ev idence that conceptua l s t r u c t u r e may, i n f a c t , become i n c r e a s i n g l y complex over an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a d u l t l i f e . As p r e v i o u s l y p o i n t e d o u t , the theory of conceptua l complex i t y as p o s i t e d by Harvey e t a l . (1961) assumed a s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g complex i ty i n the a d u l t y e a r s . The cu r ren t f i n d i n g s p o i n t to the need f o r more l o n g i t u d i n a l ana lyses of p e r s o n o l b g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s such as conceptua l s t r u c t u r e . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y , the r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d here o f f e r s another i l l u s t r a t i o n of the ways i n which a r c h i v a l da ta can be u t i l i z e d i n s t u d y i n g i s s u e s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l e v a n c e . I t should a l s o be noted that the p r e c a u t i o n s mentioned w i t h r e s p e c t 61 to s t a t i s t i c a l i s s u e s must not be taken l i g h t l y . The f a c t that the v a r i a b l e s which emerged as s i g n i f i c a n t determinants of i n t e g r a t i v e complex i t y are not v a l i d p r e d i c t o r s i f used a lone i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t e n encountered i n nonexper imenta l r e s e a r c h . I t i s o f t e n the case that the independent v a r i a b l e s are s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o r r e l a t e d , and the task of u n t a n g l i n g the e f f e c t s of these v a r i a b l e s i s a d i f f i c u l t one ( K e r l i n g e r & Pedhazur , 1973) . 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Appendix A Coding Scheme f o r S t r e s s f u l L i f e Events 66 Sources of l i f e change s t r e s s (weights i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) : I. L e g a l d i f f i c u l t i e s : A . L i t i g a t i o n s and l a w s u i t s (30) B. Detent ion i n j a i l or e x i l e to avo id a r r e s t (63) I I . Economic problems: A . Major loan (20) B. T roubles w i t h c r e d i t o r s (30) C. Advers i ve change i n f i n a n c i a l s t a t e (or bus iness readjustment) (38) I I I . E d u c a t i o n a l changes: A . Change i n schoo ls (20) B. Beg inn ing or c e a s i n g fo rmal s c h o o l i n g (26) IV. V o c a t i o n a l changes or problems: A . Job change (20) B. Trouble w i t h boss or s u p e r i o r s (23) C. Change i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a t work (29) D. Begin or end work (not f i r e d or r e t i r e d ) (36) E. Ret i rement (45) F. Be ing f i r e d from work (47) V. M o b i l i t y A . Change i n permanent r e s i d e n c e — c i t y or town (per move) (30) B. Change i n permanent r e s i d e n c e — n a t i o n (per move) (40) V I . I n t e r p e r s o n a l problems: A . D u e l s , f i g h t s , and other p h y s i c a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n s (10) B. Argument w i t h f r i e n d (10) C. D i sappo in ted or u n r e c i p r o c a t e d love (15) D. Beg inn ing and/or end of a r e c i p r o c a t e d love a f f a i r (30) E. Death of c l o s e f r i e n d (37) V I I . Fami ly prob lems: A. Gain of a new f a m i l y member ( i n c l u d i n g adopt ion) (39) B. Change i n h e a l t h or behav io r of f a m i l y member (44) C. Death of c l o s e f a m i l y member (not i n f a n t s under 3) (63) V I I I . M a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s : A . M a r i t a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n (45) B. Marr iage (50) C. M a r i t a l s e p a r a t i o n (65) D. D ivorce (73) E. Death of spouse (un less separated) (100) 67 Appendix B Coding Scheme f o r I l l n e s s 68 Coding Scheme f o r I l l n e s s Simonton (1977) Major i l l n e s s (1 p o i n t each , 1 e x t r a per year ) S p e c i a l t reatment or cure (1 p o i n t ) Ser ious i n j u r y (2 p o i n t s ) Operat ion (2 p o i n t s ) P h y s i c a l impairment or handicap (3 p o i n t s per year) Heart a t t a c k or s t r o k e (4 p o i n t s ) Ser ious impairment of v i s i o n or h e a r i n g (5 p o i n t s per year) P h y s i c a l p a r a l y s i s (5 p o i n t s per year ) T o t a l b l i n d n e s s or deafness (10 p o i n t s per year) S e l e c t e d examples of s t a t e s of h e a l t h i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o Simonton's (1977) c a t e g o r i z a t i o n w i t h a s s o c i a t e d weights (modi f ied from G l o b a l Assessment S c a l e — s e e next page) : A n x i e t y a t t a c k s ; ' h e a l t h r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l care (4 p o i n t s ) S u i c i d e attempt (5 p o i n t s ) Nervous breakdown r e q u i r i n g constant s u p e r v i s i o n due to v i o l e n t behaviour (10 p o i n t s ) 69 G l o b a l Assessment Sca le (GAS) S p i t z e r , Gibbon and E n d i c o t t (1975) 91-100 No symptoms, s u p e r i o r f u n c t i o n i n g i n a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s , l i f e ' s problems never seem to get out of hand, i s sought out by o thers because of h i s warmth and i n t e g r i t y . 81-90 T rans ien t symptoms may o c c u r , but good f u n c t i o n i n g i n a l l a r e a s , i n t e r e s t e d and i n v o l v e d i n a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s , s o c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e , g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h l i f e , "everyday" w o r r i e s that on ly o c c a s i o n a l l y get out of hand. 71-80 Min ima l symptoms may be present but no more than s l i g h t i m p a i r -ment i n f u n c t i o n i n g , v a r y i n g degrees of "everyday" w o r r i e s and problems tha t sometimes get out of hand. 61-70 Some m i l d symptoms ( e . g . , d e p r e s s i v e mood and m i l d insomnia) OR some d i f f i c u l t y i n s e v e r a l areas of f u n c t i o n i n g , but g e n e r a l l y f u n c t i o n i n g p r e t t y w e l l , has some meaningfu l i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and most u n t r a i n e d people would not cons ide r him " s i c k . " 51-60 Moderate symptoms OR g e n e r a l l y f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h some d i f f i c u l t y ( e . g . , few f r i e n d s and f l a t a f f e c t , depressed mood and p a t h o l o g i -c a l s e l f - d o u b t , euphor ic mood and p ressure of speech, moderately severe a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . 41-50 Any s e r i o u s symptomatology or impairment i n f u n c t i o n i n g tha t most c l i n i c i a n s would t h i n k o b v i o u s l y r e q u i r e s t reatment or a t t e n t i o n ( e . g . , s u i c i d a l p reoccupat ion or g e s t u r e , severe o b s e s s i o n a l r i t u a l s , f requent a n x i e t y a t t a c k s , s e r i o u s a n t i -s o c i a l b e h a v i o r , compuls ive d r i n k i n g . ) 31-40 Major impairment i n s e v e r a l a r e a s , such as work, f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s , judgment, t h i n k i n g or mood ( e . g . , depressed woman avo ids f r i e n d s , n e g l e c t s f a m i l y , unable to do housework) , OR some impairment i n r e a l i t y t e s t i n g or communication ( e . g . , speech i s a t t imes obscure , i l l o g i c a l or i r r e l e v a n t ) , OR s i n g l e s e r i o u s s u i c i d e a t tempt . 21-30 Unable to f u n c t i o n i n almost a l l areas ( e . g . , s tays i n bed a l l day) OR behav io r i s c o n s i d e r a b l y i n f l u e n c e d by e i t h e r d e l u s i o n s or h a l l u c i n a t i o n s OR s e r i o u s impairment i n communication ( e . g . , sometimes incoherent or unresponsive) or judgment ( e . g . , a c t s g r o s s l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y ) . 11-20 Needs some s u p e r v i s i o n to prevent h u r t i n g s e l f or o t h e r s , or to m a i n t a i n min imal p e r s o n a l hygiene ( e . g . , repeated s u i c i d e a t t e m p t s , f r e q u e n t l y v i o l e n t , manic exc i tement , smears f e c e s ) , OR gross impairment i n communication ( e . g . , l a r g e l y incoherent or mute) . 70 G l o b a l Assessment Sca le (cont inued) 1-10 Needs constant s u p e r v i s i o n f o r s e v e r a l days to prevent h u r t i n g s e l f or o t h e r s , or makes no attempt to m a i n t a i n min imal p e r s o n a l hygiene ( e . g . , r e q u i r e s i n t e n s i v e care u n i t w i t h s p e c i a l o b s e r v a t i o n by s t a f f ) . 71 Appendix C S o c i o p o l i t i c a l Events (War I n t e n s i t y and C i v i l Unrest ) War I n t e n s i t y Date War . B r i t i s h Losses 1842 F i r s t Afghan War 20,000 1845-49 F i r s t and Second S i k h Wars 3,800 1853-54 Crimean War 24,000 1857-59 Sepoy Mutiny 2,500 1879 Zu lu War 2,000 1880 Second Afghan War 3,000 1882-84 Mahdist War 20,000 1900-02 Boer War 22,000 1914 World War I 22,000 1915-18 World War I 900,000 1940-41 World War I I 12,000 ( m i l i t a r y ) 20,000 ( c i v i l i a n ) C i v i l Unrest ( S o r o k i n , 1937) Date Event Weight 1839 C h a r t i s t a g i t a t i o n 9.66 1848 Young I r e l a n d R e b e l l i o n 4.69 1867 U p r i s i n g at D u b l i n and 6 .70 Ker ry 1886 D is tu rbances i n I r e l a n d 9 .08 1916 I r i s h R e b e l l i o n 12.79 1919-21 A n g l o - I r i s h War 16.52 Appendix D Genera l Manual f o r S c o r i n g S t r u c t u r a l P r o p e r t i e s of Responses 75 P r i n c e t o n Manual G u i d e l i n e s Schroder , D r i v e r and S t r e u f e r t (1967) Score 1: Response cou ld be generated by s i n g l e f i x e d r u l e ; no a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d ; s u b t l e c o n d i t i o n a l changes would produce no changes i n the response . Responses which f i t the event i n t o a category ( i n c l u s i o n v s . e x c l u s i o n ) w i t h a h i g h degree of c e r t a i n t y , which unambiguously reduce c o n f l i c t and a v o i d the use of g r a d a t i o n s (shades of gray and cont inua) are t y p i c a l l y generated by s imple s t r u c t u r e . a . V iewing c o n f l i c t , u n c e r t a i n t y or ambigui ty as unpleasant or as a f l a w or weakness i n people or f u n c t i o n i n g . b. Seeking f a s t and unambiguous c l o s u r e or r e s o l u t i o n , and r e a c t i n g i n such a way as to engage i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t processes which reduce i n c o n g r u i t y or d i ssonance . c . O f f e r i n g a s p e c i f i c guide or r u l e f o r reduc ing c o n f l i c t . d . S t a t i n g that e f f e c t s are compar tmenta l i zed , are a l l one way or a l l another way. e. Imply ing that an a b s o l u t e s o l u t i o n can be found. f . P r e s e n t i n g on ly one s i d e of a problem i g n o r i n g d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h other v i e w s . Score 2 : When the response s i g n i f i e s a q u a l i f i c a t i o n of an a b s o l u t e r u l e but i s not c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Score 3 : C l e a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e r u l e s t r u c t u r e s f o r p e r c e i v i n g the event . The response must i n d i c a t e the s imultaneous g e n e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t e and d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s of the same i n f o r m a t i o n . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s a c o n d i t i o n a l r u l e f o r s p e c i f y i n g when each i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s used . a . L i s t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between v i e w , w i thout c o n s i d e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . b. S p e c i f i c a t i o n of at l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the event i n the stem. c . Presence of " e i t h e r - o r " type responses e x p r e s s i n g a p o s s i b l e • c o n d i t i o n a l r u l e about two ways of c a t e g o r i z i n g . d . P r o b a b i l i t y statements about the occur rence of d i f f e r e n t views or outcomes. 76 e . React ions a g a i n s t a b s o l u t i s m i n genera l ( i m p l y i n g more than one v iew i s not n e c e s s a r i l y b e i n g " a n t i " a p a r t i c u l a r v iew which cou ld i n d i c a t e a low l e v e l f i x e d r u l e s t r u c t u r e ) . f . The avoidance of dependency on e x t e r n a l i m p o s i t i o n , i . e . , c l e a r l y i m p l y i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e s . Score 4 : When c o n f i d e n t that the response i m p l i e s a l t e r n a t e i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s and a l s o i m p l i e s that both can i n t e r a c t , but the i n t e r a c t i o n i s expressed as q u a l i f i c a t i o n r a t h e r than as the emergence of comparison r u l e s . Score 5 : Response must g i ve ev idence not on ly of a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s but of the use of comparison r u l e s f o r c o n s i d e r i n g the j o i n t as opposed to the c o n d i t i o n a l outcome of these d i f f e r e n t p e r -c e p t i o n s . At t h i s l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s can be h e l d i n focus s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and viewed as hav ing i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s . . . expresses the j o i n t o p e r a t i o n d i r e c t l y and the other processes must be i n f e r r e d . a . The i n t e g r a t i o n of two c o n f l i c t i n g or d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s so as to p reserve and not "ward o f f " the c o n f l i c t . b. The genera t ion of v a r i o u s meanings of a l t e r n a t e p e r c e p t i o n s , e . g . , v a r i o u s meanings of the p e r c e p t i o n of c o n f l i c t i n g v iews about a p e r s o n . c . Ev idence that the complet ion i m p l i e s the a b i l i t y to take another p e r s o n ' s i n t e n t i o n s (or p e r c e p t i o n s ) i n t o account and to r e l a t e d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . d . I m p l i c a t i o n that one 's behav io r i s e f f e c t e d by the way another behaves as i n a g i v e - a n d - t a k e s t r a t e g y game. e . A v iew of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s anchored i n mutual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (as opposed to f i x e d b e l i e f s or r u l e s ) i n which each person can " p l a c e h i m s e l f i n the other p e r s o n ' s shoes" ( r e l a t e a l t e r n a t e schema). Score 6 : I n d i c a t i o n of the s imultaneous o p e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s and some evidence of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s between them. Score 7: Not on ly s t a t e s or i m p l i e s tha t a l t e r n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s occured and were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y h e l d i n focus and compared but a l s o i n d i c a t e s that the outcomes of v a r i o u s comparisons can be cons idered i n p r o -duc ing c a u s a l statements about the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s between "ways of v i e w i n g the w o r l d . " a . C o n f l i c t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s which were viewed as l e a d i n g to new o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n . 77 b. The u t i l i z a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s through e x p l o r a t o r y a c t i o n i n order to o b t a i n new i n f o r m a t i o n . c . Generat ion of f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s between a l t e r n a t i v e s . d . C o n s i d e r a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the s i d e s of a problem or q u e s t i o n and the development of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a l t e r n a t e 'reasons as to why these d i f f e r -ences and s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t . The p r o d u c t i o n of more "connectedness" between a l t e r n a t i v e s by t h e o r i z i n g as to why these reasons e x i s t . 78 Appendix E Chronology of S o c i e t a l Events and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e L i f e Events of N o v e l i s t s Dur ing Time P e r i o d Stud ied P e r i o d S o c i e t a l Events Dickens E l i o t M e r e d i t h 1835-39 C h a r t i s t a g i t a t i o n - mar r ied - e d i t o r of j o u r n a l - death of s i s t e r - i n -law - 3 c h i l d r e n born - break w i t h p u b l i s h e r 1840-44 F i r s t Afghan War - i n debt - o p e r a t i o n - 2 c h i l d r e n born 1845-49 F i r s t & Second S i k h Wars Young I r e l a n d R e b e l l i o n - 3 c h i l d r e n born - death of s i s t e r - death of f a t h e r 1850-54 Crimean War - s t a r t e d new j o u r n a l - death of f a t h e r - 2 c h i l d r e n born - new job - unrequ i ted love - s t a r t e d l i v i n g w i t h G. Lewes - break w i t h c l o s e f r i e n d - son born - i n debt 1855-59 Sepoy Mut iny - separated from w i f e - began p u b l i c readings - broke w i t h p u b l i s h e r - death of s i s t e r - f a m i l y broke o f f r e l a t i o n s - i n debt - d i s c o r d w i t h w i f e - separated from w i f e - w i f e eloped 1860-64 - 3 f a m i l y members d i e d - i l l h e a l t h - moved, l o c a l l y - debts - new employment - remarr ied 1865-69 U p r i s i n g at D u b l i n and Ker ry - hear t t r o u b l e - p a r a l y s i s a t t a c k - death of c l o s e f r i e n d (death - 1870) - Lewes i n bad h e a l t h - " s t e p s o n " d i e s - c h i l d born - war correspondent P e r i o d S o c i e t a l Events E l i o t Mered i th Bennett Woolf 1870-74 - Kidney a t t a c k - c h i l d born - break w/ good f r i e n d 1875-79 Z u l u War - " s t e p s o n " d ies - Lewes d i e s - death of f a t h e r - i l l h e a l t h 1880-84 Second Afghan War Mahdist War - marr iage (death - 1880) - son very i l l - grave h e a l t h - p a r a p l e g i a beg inn ing - impai red h e a r i n g - w i f e - cancer o p e r a t i o n 1885-89 D is tu rbances i n I r e l a n d - death of w i f e - i n c a p a c i t a t e d by h e a l t h - son i n h o s p i t a l 1900-04 Boer War - death of f r i e n d - dangerously i l l - death of f a t h e r - moved to P a r i s - l i v e r a t t a c k - death of f a t h e r - attempted s u i c i d e - moved, l o c a l l y 1905-09 - death of f r i e n d (death - 1909) - un rec ip roca ted love - marr iage - new job - death of b ro ther 1910-14 World War I - s e r i o u s i l l n e s s - moved to England - death of mother - i n n u r s i n g home - mar r ied - attempted s u i c i d e P e r i o d S o c i e t a l Events Bennett Woolf 1915-19 World War I I r i s h R e b e l l i o n - d i s c o r d w i t h w i f e - t e r m i n a t i o n of war - t ime work - i n n u r s i n g home - moved, l o c a l l y - new bus iness r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 1920-24 A n g l o - I r i s h War - separated from w i f e - death of c l o s e f r i e n d - adverse f i n a n c i a l s t a t e - i l l - s e v e r a l mos. i n bed - death of c l o s e f r i e n d 1925-29 - c h i l d born - s e r i o u s i l l n e s s - s e r i o u s c o l l a p s e - nervous breakdown ( " in m i n i a t u r e " ) :1930-34 - f i n a n c i a l l o s s - i l l h e a l t h (death - 1931) - severe depress ion - death of 3 c l o s e f r i e n d s 1935-39 - o n verge of madness - husband i l l - nephew k i l l e d : 1940-41 World War I I - p h y s i c a l l y i l l - depressed (death by drowning - 1941) Appendix F B i b l i o g r a p h y B i b l i o g r a p h y Barnes , H. 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New Y o r k : Char les S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1902. Grun, B. The t i m e t a b l e s of h i s t o r y : A h o r i z o n t a l l i n k a g e of people  and e v e n t s . New York : Simon & S c h u s t e r , 1975. H a i g h t , G .S . George E l i o t : A b iog raphy . Ox fo rd : Clarendon P r e s s , 1968. H a i g h t , G. S . ( E d . ) . The George E l i o t l e t t e r s . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954. H a l s e y , W. D. ( E d . ) . C o l l i e r ' s e n c y c l o p e d i a . C r o w e l l - C o l l i e r E d u c a t i o n a l C o r p . , 1972. Hepburn, J . ( E d . ) . L e t t e r s of A r n o l d Bennet t . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. House, M. & S t o r e y , G. ( E d s . ) . The l e t t e r s of Char les D i c k e n s . Ox fo rd : The Clarendon P r e s s , 1965. Johnson, E. Char les D i c k e n s : H is tragedy and t r iumph. Bos ton : L i t t l e , Brown & C o . , 1952. Kroeber , A . C o n f i g u r a t i o n s of c u l t u r a l growth. B e r k e l e y : U. of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1944. 84 Law, M. D. & D i x o n , M. V. ( E d s . ) . Chamber's e n c y c l o p e d i a . New York : Pergamon P r e s s , 1966. Lehmann, J . V i r g i n i a Woolf and her w o r l d . London: Thames and Hudson, 1975. N e i l s o n , W. A . ( E d . ) . Webster 's b i o g r a p h i c a l d i c t i o n a r y . S p r i n g f i e l d , M a s s . : G. & C. Merr iam & C o . , 1970. N i c o l s o n , N. ( E d . ) . The l e t t e r s of V i r g i n i a Woolf . London: The Hogarth P r e s s , 1975. Pound, R. A r n o l d Bennet t : A b iog raphy . London: W i l l i a m Heineman, L t d . , 1952. P r e e c e , W. E. ( E d . ) . Encyc loped ia B r i t a n n i c a . Ch icago : W i l l i a m Benton, 1973. P r i e s t l y , J . B. George M e r e d i t h . London: M a c M i l l a n & C o . , L t d . , 1927. Stevenson, L. The o r d e a l of George M e r e d i t h : A b iog raphy . New York : Char les S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1953. Swinner ton , F. ( E d . ) . A r n o l d Bennet t : The j o u r n a l s . London: Cox and Wyman, L t d . , 1971. Thorne, J . 0 . ( E d . ) . Chamber's b i o g r a p h i c a l d i c t i o n a r y . New Y o r k : S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 1969. V u l l i a m y , C. E. Cr imea: The campaign of 1854-56. London: A lden P r e s s , 1939. W i l l i a m s , N. Chronology of the modern w o r l d : 1763 to p r e s e n t . New York : McKay, 1968. Woolf , L. ( E d . ) . A w r i t e r ' s d i a r y . London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1953. 

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