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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Eschatological backgrounds of devotionalism in Buddhist China Nishi Goldstone, Jane 1978

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ESCHATOLOGICAL BACKGROUNDS OF DEVOTIONALISM IN BUDDHIST CHINA by JANE^NISHI GOLDSTONE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF * MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Nov. 1978 (c) Jane H. N i s h i G o l d s t o n e , 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Jane H. N i s h i G o l d s t o n e Department of R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date QQctober 1 1 , 1978. i i ABSTRACT E s c h a t o l o g y and d e v o t i o n a l i s m a r e dominant t h r e a d s i n t h e r i c h f a b r i c o f C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t h i s t o r y . Y e t as i n c o u n t l e s s o t h e r a r e a s o f modern B u d d h i s t s t u d i e s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n has b a r e l y begun. T h i s paper a n a l y s e s t h e dynamic i n t e r p l a y between e s c h a t o l o g y and d e v o t i o n -a l i s m i n r e l i g i o u s h i s t o r y by f o c u s s i n g on N o r t h e r n C h i n a d u r i n g t h e f o u r t h t o t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s A.D. when t h e i n t e n s e l y p o p u l a r w o r s h i p of M a i t r e y a Buddha was o v e r t a k e n by t h e w o r s h i p of Amitabha Buddha. The w i d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s s h i f t i n c l u d e n o t o n l y t h e change from an Abhidharma w o r l d - v i e w t o a Mahayana w o r l d - v i e w but from a s t a t e o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t o r d e s p a i r t o i t s r e s o l u t i o n by s a l v a t i o n t h r o u g h f a i t h . Thus t h e g r e a t e s t and most e n d u r i n g form o f B u d d h i s t d e v o t i o n a l i s m — t h e P u r e Land movement — i s r o o t e d i n an age permeated w i t h t h e e t h o s of t h e e s c h a t o n . T h i s phenomenon i n C h i n a i s s e t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e o v e r a l l development of d e v o t i o n a l i s m and e s c h a t o l o g y from t h e i r o r i g i n s i n I n d i a t o t h e i r c o n t i n u i t y i n p r e s e n t - d a y Japan and South E a s t A s i a . W h i l e s p e c i f i c t e x t u a l , b i o g r a p h i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a i s u t i l i z e d i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e main t h e s i s , t h e v a r i o u s symbols o f B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o l o g y and d e v o t i o n a l i s m a r e p r e s e n t e d as v a r i a t i o n s on t h e u n i v e r s a l themes o f cosmic r e n e w a l and f a i t h w i t h m y t h i c c o u n t e r p a r t s i n a l l r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s . i i i CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER ONE: MAITREYA and AMITABHA 7 I I n t r o d u c t i o n I I M y t h i c V i s i o n a) M a i t r e y a b) Amitabha I I I T e x t s a) M a i t r e y a b) Amitabha CHAPTER TWO: ESCHATOLOGY AND DEVOTIONALISM 39 I I n t r o d u c t i o n I I O r i g i n s a) F u t u r e Buddha b) P a r a d i s e I I I C e n t r a l Concepts a) L a t t e r Days b) D e v o t i o n CHAPTER THREE: MAITREYA AND AMITA IN CHINA 73 I I n t r o d u c t i o n I I Tao-an and H u i - y u a n I I I Lung-men CHAPTER FOUR: LATTER DAYS: MO-FA ( j{- /&) 97 I I n t r o d u c t i o n I I M y t h i c F o u n d a t i o n s I I I Age Between Two Buddhas CHAPTER FIVE: SALVATION: CHIU-CHI ( & ~J^) 123 I I n t r o d u c t i o n I I E s c h a t o l o g y and P u r e Land D o c t r i n e I I I C o n f l i c t i n g P a r a d i s e s CONCLUSION 144 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 151 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I n w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s I have r e c e i v e d encouragement from a l l s i d e s . I w i s h t o e x t e n d my g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. S. I i d a who f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d me t o t h e f o r m a l s t u d y o f Buddhism and t o Dr. K. C l i f f o r d who g u i d e d me i n my h i s t o r i c a l a p p r o a c h . To P r o f . J . R i c h a r d s o n who encouraged t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s t o t a k e p l a c e and who p a t i e n t l y r e a d what was, and sometimes, was not w r i t t e n , I am e x t r e m e l y t h a n k f u l . And f i n a l l y , l o v i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s who were my s u p p o r t and my i n s p i r a t i o n . V C e r t a i n l y , t h e u n i t y o f t h e human s p e c i e s i s a c c e p t e d de f a c t o i n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s . . . . But t h e h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o u s has t h e p r i v i l e g e o f g r a s p i n g t h i s u n i t y a t t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l s — o r t h e deepest — and s u c h an e x p e r i e n c e i s s u s c e p t i b l e o f e n r i c h i n g and c h a n g i n g him. M i r c e a E l i a d e The Quest: H i s t o r y and Meaning i n R e l i g i o n , p.69. v i ABBREVIATIONS AA A c t a A s i a t i c a BEFEO B u l l e t i n de l ' E c o l e F r a n c a i s e d'Extreme O r i e n t BOAS B u l l e t i n o f t h e S c h o o l o f O r i e n t a l and A f r i c a n S t u d i e s D.N. DTgha-nikaya EB E a s t e r n B u d d h i s t E ncyc. B. E n c y c l o p e d i a o f Buddhism ERE E n c y c l o p e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s HJAS H a r v a r d J o u r n a l o f A s i a n S t u d i e s HKSC Hsu Kao-seng chuan HOR H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n s IBK Indogaku Bukkyogaku Kenkyu I I J I n d o - I r a n i a n J o u r n a l JA J o u r n a l A s i a t i q u e JAOS J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n O r i e n t a l S o c i e t y JAS J o u r n a l o f A s i a n S t u d i e s JRAS J o u r n a l o f t h e R o y a l A s i a t i c S o c i e t y KSC Kao-seng chuan MCB Melanges'. C h i n o i s e t Bouddhiques M.N. M a j j h i m a - n i k a y a MN Monumenta N i p p o n i c a SBB S a c r e d Books o f t h e B u d d h i s t s SBE S a c r e d Books o f t h e E a s t SSZ S h i n s h u Shogyo Zenshu T. T a i s h o S h i n s h u D a i z o k y 5 TP T'oungPao. -1-INTRODUCTION Under e v e r y methodology l i e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f h e r m e n e u t i c s . What i s the w r i t e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e documents and t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t l e d him t o a p p r o a c h t h e t e x t s ? What k i n d o f p r e - u n d e r s t a n d i n g about t h e n a t u r e o f l i f e i n i t s p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , a e s t h e t i c and r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t s can he, as an i n d i v i d u a l b r i n g t o b e a r on t h e subject?"*" T h i s t h e s i s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e s c h a t o l o g y and d e v o t i o n a l i s m i n Ch i n e s e Buddhism was i n i t i a t e d by an i n t e r e s t i n e s c h a t o l o g y as a b a s i c component i n r e l i g i o n — t h a t a l l r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s i n c l u d e some r e f e r e n c e t o a " f u t u r e g o l d age", a " r e t u r n " , o r a " p a r a d i s e " a t " t h e 2 end o f t i m e " . T h i s i n t e r e s t was f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e d by t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t s i n c e the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a l l major w o r l d r e l i g i o u s have d e p a r t e d from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e e s c h a t o n . I n C h r i s t i a n i t y , f o r example, post-war W e s t e r n s c h o l a r s have documented t h e p r o g r e s s i v e d e m y t h o l o g i z a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f ; i n c l u d i n g t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f p a r o u s i a . E x c e p t f o r th o s e a c t i v e i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m e s s i a n i s m , C h r i s t i a n i n t e l l e c t u a l s have found i t i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o l o o k t o t h e f u t u r e f o r t h e f u l -f i l m e n t o f pr o p h e c y ; b u t as i n " r e a l i z e d e s c h a t o l o g y " o r i n " e x i s t e n t i a l e s c h a t o l o g y " , l o o k e d e i t h e r t o t h e p a s t o r t o t h e p r e s e n t . Now i n what 3 may be c a l l e d t h e " p o s t - e s c h a t o l o g i c a l age", t h e C h r i s t i a n w o r l d i s p o i s e d between two camps: c o n s i s t i n g of l i b e r a l t h e o l o g i a n s f o r whom t h e r e i s no f u t u r e p o i n t f o r f u l f i l m e n t on one s i d e and f u n d a m e n t a l i s t b e l i e v e r s f o r whom t h e f i n a l r e s u r r e c t i o n i s imminent on t h e o t h e r . T w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y Buddhism i s i n a comparable p o s i t i o n . A d h e r e n t s who f o l l o w h i g h e r m e d i t a t i o n a l o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l p a t h s , r a r e l y v i e w M a i t r e y a as a Buddha who w i l l p r e a c h i n t h e w o r l d as Sakyamuni d i d , but as i n c a r n a t e i n a l i v i n g m a s t e r , as a i n n e r s p i r i t u a l p r i n c i p l e o r as a b o d h i s a t t v a among many o t h e r s . Y e t i n Japan and South E a s t 4 A s i a m i l l i o n s s t i l l w a i t f o r t h e f u t u r e Buddha M a i t r e y a and h i s g o l d e n age. I n C h i n a , B u d d h i s t i n s p i r e d i d e o l o g i e s f o r cosmic r e n e w a l con-s t i t u t e d an i m p o r t a n t t h r e a d i n t h e r e v o l u t i o n s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y — r e v o l u t i o n s w h i c h f i n a l l y e n a b l e d t h e a n c i e n t c u l t u r e t o throw o f f t h e burden o f s e v e r a l hundred y e a r s s t a g n a t i o n . P r e d i c t a b l y , i n t h e f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s , M a i t r e y a ' s U t o p i a and A m i t a ' s P u r e Land were equated w i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e Communist s t a t e . ~* Thus, between t h e f i r s t shock o f e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y European c o l o n i a l i n f l u e n c e s t o t h e l a t e s t i n v a s i o n s o f s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e t w e n t i e t h , B u d d h i s t ? A s i a has s t i r r e d w i t h s p o r a d i c b u r s t s o f m i l l e n n a r i a n a c t i v i t y and r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l . W i t h t h o u g h t s s u c h as t h e s e , I f i r s t approached my s e a r c h f o r e a r l i e r , o r t h o d o x e x p r e s s i o n s o f e s c h a t o l o g y i n C h i n e s e h i s t o r y . I was i m m e d i a t e l y s t r u c k by t h e w i d e s p r e a d i n f l u e n c e o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l i d e a s i n t h e p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e Han, c o n t i n u i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e P e r i o d of D i s u n i o n and i n t o t h e T'ang. The d i s c o v e r y t h a t t h i s growth and e v e n t u a l d e c l i n e o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l b e l i e f c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d o f P u r e Land B u d d h i s m ^ — t h e most p o w e r f u l e x p r e s s i o n o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m i n C h i n e s e and Japanese Buddhism — r a i s e d many q u e s t i o n s . What was t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e w o r s h i p o f M a i t r e y a and t h e w o r s h i p o f A m i t a ; between t h e c e n t e r o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l hope and t h a t of d e v o t i o n a l f e r v o r ? How d i d l a t t e r day - 3 -and d e v o t i o n a l b e l i e f s a f f e c t t h e B u d d h i s t v i e w of h i s t o r y and s a l v a t i o n ? D i d a phenomenon s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f " e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t " i n C h r i s t i a n i t y o c c u r i n Buddhism? What were t h e d i f f e r i n g p o s i t i o n s and e f f e c t s of l a y v e r s u s m o n a s t i c b e l i e f ? What o t h e r symbols and themes were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a t t e r day and P u r e Land movements? And e s s e n t i a l f o r t h i s t h e s i s , was t h e r e - i n s o f a r as we can speak o f c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n h i s t o r y — a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e d e c l i n e i n M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p and t h e r i s e i n A m i t a w o r s h i p ? I n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e t h e s e q u e s t i o n s from t h e v i e w p o i n t of t h e H i s t o r y o f R e l i g i o n s c e r t a i n s t e p s were t a k e n . F i r s t , a w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n was f o r m u l a t e d f o r t h e terms " e s c h a t o l o g y " and " d e v o t i o n a l i s m " . ^ A l t h o u g h a b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l s e a r c h u n c o v e r e d no d e f i n i t i v e t r e a t m e n t of e i t h e r term i t was n o t e d t h a t s c h o l a r s w o r k i n g w i t h i n Western r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s , Z o r o a s t r i a n i s m , J u d a i s m , C h r i s t i a n i t y , and I s l a m , have g i v e n much g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o d e v o t i o n a l i s m and t h e e s c h a t o n t h a n t h o s e w o r k i n g w i t h H i n d u o r B u d d h i s t m a t e r i a l s . Even t h e J a panese w i t h t h e i r m a s s i v e c o r p u s o f B u d d h i s t s c h o l a r s h i p , i n c l u d i n g t h e monumental c o n t r i b u t i o n s of P u r e Land s c h o l a r s , have o n l y r e c e n t l y begun t o use c r i t i c a l methods i n l o o k i n g a t t h e o r i g i n s of Mahayana f o r f e a r t h a t i t would d i s t u r b a l i v i n g f a i t h . F o r C h i n a , a s i d e from M i c h e l S t r i c k m a n n ' s r e c e n t work on e s c h a t o l o g y i n C h i n e s e s o v e r e i g n t y , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t r e s e a r c h now b e i n g c a r r i e d out i s i n t h e a r e a of m e s s i a n i s m and F o l k Buddhism i n l a t e m e d i e v a l and modern 9 C h i n e s e h i s t o r y by s c h o l a r s s u c h as D. Overmyer and M. T o p l e y . The second s t e p was t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s w h i c h shaped Buddhism from i t s b e g i n n i n g s i n I n d i a t o i t s C e n t r a l A s i a n and C h i n e s e forms. E s c h a t o l o g y and d e v o t i o n a l i s m were seen as two i m p o r t a n t -4-movements ev o l v i n g w i t h i n the broader changes that accompanied the emergence of Mahayana and Vajrayana. Furthermore, i n t r y i n g to understand the i n t e r a c t i o n between Buddhism and Chinese c u l t u r e I have been i n f l u e n c e d by the " c u l t u r a l amalgam" model where Chinese Buddhism i s understood not simply as "Indian Buddhism i n China but r a t h e r as a c u l t u r a l amalgam, a synthesis of Indian thought and S i n i c concepts and i d e a l s " . "^ Thus Chinese e s c h a t o l o g i c a l and d e v o t i o n a l ideas are seen as the f r u i t of a s y n t h e s i s which took place where there was a combination of n a t u r a l a f f i n i t y and accommodation between c e r t a i n Indian and Chinese concepts. The t h i r d step was to look c l o s e l y at eschatology and devotionalism as they were expressed between the f a l l of the Han and the e a r l y T'ang. To t h i s end four d i f f e r e n t types of sources were used: 1) Canonical t e x t s associated w i t h Maitreya and Amita as w e l l as commentaries by w e l l known monks; 2) b i o g r a p h i c a l works on prominent monks or sovereigns; 3) secondary h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s as w e l l as some of the d y n a s t i c c h r o n i c l e s i n t r a n s l a t i o n such as the Wei Shu; and 4) a r c h e o l o g i c a l data. In u t i l i z i n g these m a t e r i a l s , I have attempted to apply an " a n a l y t i c " rather than a " s y n t h e t i c " approach. B r i e f l y , an " a n a l y t i c approach" i s one which uses the in f o r m a t i o n gathered about a phenomenon as ground f o r making inferences about i t s e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s whereas a " s y n t h e t i c approach" simply develops causal t h e o r i e s based on p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l factors.''"''" An important inference i s that e s c h a t o l o g i c a l and d e v o t i o n a l notions have an inner l o g i c of t h e i r own and are not n e c e s s a r i l y -5-dependent upon s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . " ' " 2 The r i s e o f a r e l i g i o n of d e v o t i o n can be a t t r i b u t e d s i m p l y t o t h e s u c c e s s i o n of b r i l l i a n t C h i n e s e P u r e Land p a t r i a r c h s who e s t a b l i s h e d s o l i d new d o c t r i n a l bases f o r t h e i r b e l i e f o r t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g i n f l u e n c e o f t h e l a i t y who p r e f e r r e d t h e l a n g u a g e of f a i t h . T h i s t h e s i s , however, a t t e m p t s t o expand t h i s v i e w by e s t a b l i s h i n g t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s . F i r s t , t h a t t h e c r i s i s - r i d d e n age of t h e N o r t h e r n and S o u t h e r n D y n a s t i e s was w i d e l y i n t e r p r e t e d , b o t h h i s t o r i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y , i n terms of B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o l o g y . Second, t h a t e s c h a t o l o g i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n c e n t e r e d i n t h e w o r s h i p o f M a i t r e y a Buddha was s u b s e q u e n t l y overshadowed by d e v o t i o n t o Amitabha Buddha. And f i n a l l y , t h a t t h e f l o w e r i n g of C h i n e s e d e v o t i o n a l i s m l i e s i n t h e r e l i g i o u s r e s p o n s e of Sangha and l a i t y t o t h e q uest f o r s a l v a t i o n i n an age when s a l v a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d u r g e n t b u t n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e t o a t t a i n . -6-F o o t n o t e s t o I n t r o d u c t i o n 1. R u d o l f Bultmann, H i s t o r y and E s c h a t o l o g y ( E d i n b u r g h : U n i v e r s i t y o f E d i n b u r g h P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , C h a p t e r 8. 2. G. v a n d e r Leeuw, R e l i g i o n i n E s s e n c e and M a n i f e s t a t i o n , 2 v o l s . (New Y o r k : H a r p e r T o r c h b o o k s , 1963), 1: 106-127; 2: 384, 583-587. E. Conze, B u d d h i s t Thought i n I n d i a (London: George A l l e n & Unwin, 1962), p.17. 3. Helmuth P l e s s e r e x p r e s s e s a s i m i l a r i d e a : " U t o p i a has become r e a l i t y b u t t h e t o p o i a p p r o p r i a t e t o man have been l o s t . "On t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Time t o Death," i n Man and Time, P a p e r s  from Eranos Yearbooks v o l . 3, ed. J . Campbell ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p.246. 4. See b i b l i o g r a p h y below f o r some of t h e numerous r e c e n t s t u d i e s on m i l l e n n a r i a n i s m i n S. E. A s i a and Japan. 5. Holmes Welch, "The R e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Buddhism," The C h i n a  Q u a r t e r l e y 6. A l t h o u g h o t h e r d e v o t i o n a l f i g u r e s , n o t a b l y A v a l o k i t e s v a r a , a l s o r o s e i n i m p o r t a n c e a t t h i s t i m e , I have l i m i t e d my d i s c u s s i o n of d e v o t i o n a l i s m t o Amitabha not o n l y because t h i s Buddha i s t h e c e n t r e r of P u r e Land d e v o t i o n a l i s m b u t because o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s i e s w h i c h d e v e l o p e d between t h e a d h e r e n t s Amitabha and M a i t r e y a i n C h i n e s e Buddhism. 7. See C h a p t e r I I below. 8. Nakamura H a j i m e , "A C r i t i c a l Survey o f Mahayana and E s o t e r i c Buddhism c h i e f l y based upon Japanese S o u r c e s . . . c o n t i n u e d , " AA7(1964):57 n . l . 9. D. Overmyer, F o l k B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n : D i s s e n t i n g S e c t s i n L a t e  T r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) ; M. T o p l e y , "The G r e a t Way of Former Heaven: A Group of C h i n e s e S e c r e t R e l i g i o u s S e c t s , " BOAS 26 (1963):362-392. 10. A. L i n k quoted i n R. R o b i n s o n , E a r l y Madhyamika i n I n d i a and C h i n a (Madison: C o l l e g e P r i n t i n g and T y p i n g , 1 9 6 8 ) , p.7. 11. H. Kaminsky, "The P r o b l e m of E x p l a n a t i o n , " i n M i l l e n i a l Dreams i n  A c t i o n , ed. S. Thrupp (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1 9 6 2 ) , pp.215-217. 12. T h i s i d e a i s more o b v i o u s i n t h e c a s e of d e v o t i o n a l i s m b u t i n e s c h a t o l o g y , i s c o n t r a r y t o r e l a t i v e d e p r i v a t i o n t h e o r i e s . E l i a d e ' s " P a r a d i s e and U t o p i a : M y t h i c a l Geography and E s c h a t o l o g y , " i n The  Quest, H i s t o r y and Meaning i n R e l i g i o n ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1969), p.111. -7-C h a p t e r I MAITREYA AND AMITABHA I I n t r o d u c t i o n F o r t h e d i v e r s e c u l t u r e s and r a c e s o f A s i a , t h e l i f e s t o r y o f t h e Buddha has f u n c t i o n e d as t h e s a c r e d a r c h e t y p e o f one who p e r c e i v e d t h e b a s i c p r o b l e m o f human e x i s t e n c e , s o l v e d t h a t p r o b l e m , and made i t s s o l u t i o n a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e r e s t o f humanity. T h i s s o l u t i o n i s c a l l e d t h e Dharma. The Buddha's l i f e i s n o t an o r d i n a r y t a l e o f " l o c a l h e r o a c h i e v e s s u c c e s s " . Comprised o f o r d i n a r y p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s , s o c i a l e v e n t s and human l o n g i n g s , i t s t a n d s as a supreme metaphor f o r t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t s u f f e r i n g and t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f T r u t h . The Buddha's b i r t h , c h i l d h o o d , m a r r i a g e , r e n u n c i a t i o n , s e a r c h , e n l i g h t e n m e n t , t e a c h i n g c a r e e r and d e a t h a r e s t a g e s i n d e l i b l y i m p r i n t e d on t h e mind o f e v e r y B u d d h i s t . They r e c o u n t t h e s t e p s o f a h o l y l i f e and p o i n t t h e way t o freedom. Thus t h e Buddha's l i f e s t o r y r e l a t e d " s a c r e d h i s t o r y " . " ' " The e l a b o r a t e v i s i o n s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e myths of M a i t r e y a and Amitabha a r e s t r u c t u r a l l y based on t h e b i o g r a p h y o f t h e Buddha; and as s u c h , p r e s e r v e and t r a n s m i t t h a t " s a c r e d h i s t o r y " . D e s p i t e numerous symbols, themes and d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l s s h a r e d by t h e two myths, c e r t a i n b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e e v i d e n t . M a i t r e y a i s a f u t u r e s a v i o r , p r o p h e s i e d by Sakyamuni, whose coming i s p r e c e d e d by t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a m o r a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y c o r r u p t w o r l d i n t o an e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . Amitabha -8-i s an e t e r n a l s a v i o r , c r e a t o r o f a t r a n s c e n d e n t , s u p e r l a t i v e p a r a d i s e , whose vows e n s u r e t h e s a l v a t i o n o f e v e r y b e i n g now and t h r o u g h o u t a l l t i m e . These myths were not s t a t i c c o n c e p t i o n s . T h e i r e v o l u t i o n was f a s h i o n e d by a number o f f o r c e s b o t h w i t h i n and w i t h o u t Buddhism. B o t h myths d e v e l o p e d i n an a r e a where I n d i a n b h a k t i and P e r s i a n c o s m o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e s were v e r y s t r o n g . The M a i t r e y a and Amitabha c u l t s competed w i t h o t h e r p a r a d i s e c u l t s d e v o t e d t o s'akyamuni, Aksobhya, A v a l o k i t e s v a r a and t h e numerous o t h e r Buddhas and b o d h i s a t t v a s o f t h e Mahayana pantheon. M a i t r e y a and Amitabha were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o complex m e d i t a t i o n a l systems such as t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n s c h o o l s i n Kashmir and l a t e r , t h e T a n t r i c s c h o o l s . Perhaps most i m p o r t a n t , t h e s e m y t h i c v i s i o n s were v i e w e d d i f f e r e n t l y by l a y and m o n a s t i c b e l i e v e r s . The F u t u r e S a v i o r and t h e E t e r n a l S a v i o r found t h e i r s t a u n c h e s t s u p p o r t i n t h e r a n k s o f t h e l a i t y . From t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f B u d d h i s t h i s t o r y , t h e l a i t y has p l a y e d a v i t a l r o l e i n t h e l i f e o f t h e Sangha. Concomitant w i t h t h e e x p a n s i o n o f Buddhism a f t e r Asoka and t h e p r o g r e s s i v e s p l i n t e r i n g o f f o f new H i n a y a n a s c h o o l s , t h e v o i c e and t h e needs o f t h e l a i t y i n c r e a s e d . Thus w h i l e t h e v e r i t y of t h e Four N o b l e T r u t h s and t h e E i g h t - F o l d P a t h c o n s t i t u t e d a s a t i s f y i n g r e l i g i o u s s o l u t i o n f o r t h e c o r e o f t h e Sangha and a few e x c e p t i o n a l laymen, f o r t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e newly c o n v e r t e d , s p i r i t u a l a s p i r a t i o n s were d i r e c t e d towards t h e w o r s h i p o f r e l i c s , s t u p a s , buddhas, and t h e d e s i r e t o be r e b o r n i n heaven. E v e n t u a l l y , i t was t h e c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n between " l a y mind" 2 and "monk mind" w h i c h l e d t o t h e development o f myths c e n t e r e d on -9-figures such as Maitreya and Amitabha, and to the w r i t i n g of new sutras devoted to them. Maitreya i s described i n the P a l i canon as well as i n the Sanskrit l i t e r a t u r e . Amitabha appears only i n the Sanskrit l i t e r a t u r e composed from about the second century B.C. onwards. Consistent with the nature of r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e , the sutras about Amitabha and Maitreya stood as metaphorical statements for s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y ; and as such, were open to increasing numbers of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . From the second-third centuries A.D., d i s t i n c t i n t e r p r e t i v e s h i f t s occurred among the Maitreya and Amitabha c u l t s within the Mahayana f o l d . Maitreya, considered by the Theravadins as the sole bodhisattva other than Sakyamuni, became more and more i d e n t i f i e d as only one of the galaxy of Mahayana buddhas and bodhisattvas. Later, under the pressure of competing paradise c u l t s , the new Maitreya sutras emphasized, not the advent of a future golden age but the advantages of r e b i r t h i n Tusita Heaven where the Future Buddha awaits h i s l a s t r e b i r t h . By comparison, Amitabha in t e r p r e t a t i o n s were more complex, depending even more upon whether the be l i e v e r was a layman or a monk. For the layman, he was primarily a savior fi g u r e and a center of devotion. For the monk, who was increasingly c a l l e d upon to f i n d or to create textual v a l i d i t y f o r lay enthusiasm, Amitabha and his paradise were interpreted on the basis of the Yogacara and Madhyamika p h i l o s o p h i c a l systems. -10-I l a The M y t h i c V i s i o n : M a i t r e y a 'The Hero t h a t s h a l l f o l l o w y o u , The Buddha - o f what s o r t w i l l he be? I want t o h e a r o f him i n f u l l . L e t t h e V i s i o n e d One d e s c r i b e him.' When he had h e a r d t h e E l d e r ' s speech The L o r d spoke t h u s : ' I w i l l t e l l y o u , S a r i p u t t a , L i s t e n t o my speech. 'In t h i s a u s p i c i o u s aeon Three l e a d e r s have t h e r e been; Kakusandha, Konagamana And t h e l e a d e r K a s s a p a t o o . I am now t h e p e r f e c t Buddha; And t h e r e w i l l be M e t t e y a t oo B e f o r e t h i s same a u s p i c i o u s aeon Runs t o t h e end o f i t s y e a r s . The p e r f e c t Buddha, M e t t e y a By name, supreme of men.'3 4 When M a i t r e y a , t h e F u t u r e Buddha a r r i v e s , t h i s w o r l d w i l l be a p l a c e o f p e r f e c t t r a n q u i l l i t y and happiness."' The e a r t h w i l l be as f l a t as a m i r r o r and c l o t h e d i n l u s h , s p a r k l i n g f a u n a . Human b e i n g s , e x c e l l e n t i n v i r t u e , w i l l l i v e t o be 84,000 y e a r s o l d . The s i t e o f M a i t r e y a ' s r e b i r t h , K e t u m a t i , i s a c i t y d a z z l i n g w i t h heaps o f gems and g o l d d u s t and webs of p e a r l s . N a t u r a l wonders abound t h e r e : w a t e r s w i t h t h e e i g h t m i r a c u l o u s q u a l i t i e s , s w e e t - s i n g i n g b i r d s , m e l o d i o u s b e l l s , and m y r i a d c o l o u r e d l o t u s e s d e l i g h t t h e s e n s e s . A m i g h t y d r a g o n - k i n g d w e l l s i n h i s w a t e r y p a l a c e and a r i g h t e o u s w h e e l - t u r n i n g k i n g , p o s s e s s o r o f t h e seven p r e c i o u s o b j e c t s , r e i g n s supreme. On t h e v e r y day of h i s s e t t i n g f o r t h , M a i t r e y a a t t a i n s e n l i g h t e n m e n t under t h e d r a g o n - f l o w e r t r e e . The N o b l e One w i t h t h e t h i r t y - t w o major marks and e i g h t y . minor marks o f t h e Superman i s m a n i f e s t ; a t r a n s c e n d e n t Buddha l i g h t s t reams f o r t h t o a l l r e g i o n s . When M a i t r e y a commences t o p r e a c h t h e Dharma t o t h e t h r e e g r e a t a s s e m b l a g e s , t r o o p s o f d e v o t e e s , 84,000 s t r o n g , each l e d by an i l l u s t r i o u s p e r sonage, a r e i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y c o n v e r t e d . I n k e e p i n g w i t h p r o p h e c y , M a i t r e y a v i s i t s V u l t u r e ' s Peak t o meet Mahakas'yapa who i s t o guard t h e Dharma u n t i l t h e e n l i g h t e n m e n t o f t h e F u t u r e Buddha. He subdues Mara, t h e E v i l One and p r o c l a i m s t h e Dharma anew f o r 60,000 y e a r s . A f t e r h i s d e a t h h i s Dharma w i l l p e r s i s t f o r a n o t h e r 60,000 y e a r s . I n t h i s p o p u l a r v e r s i o n of t h e v i s i o n o f f u t u r e s a l v a t i o n known by C h i n e s e M a i t r e y a d e v o t e e s d u r i n g t h e S i x D y n a s t i e s , t h e b a s i c elements o f F u t u r e Buddha, e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e and c a k r a v a r t i n a r e s m o o t h l y i n t e r w o v e n i n t o one r i c h e p i phany. A l t h o u g h M a i t r e y a ' s p r i m a r y r o l e was t h a t o f aeon-ender, by t h i s t i m e h i s name had a l s o become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p e r p l e x i n g number o f o t h e r r o l e s and themes.^ Thus M a i t r e y a has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f u t u r e c a k r a v a r t i n , a d i s c i p l e o f t h e Buddha, t h e e p i t h e t " A j i t a " , and v a r i o u s h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a g e s . g The word c a k r a v a r t i n i n p r e - B u d d h i s t B r a h m a n i c a l I n d i a a l r e a d y had two d i s t i n c t meanings: 1) a p o w e r f u l k i n g o r c h i e f ; and 2) a k i n g who had conquored t e r r i t o r i e s by p e r f o r m i n g t h e h o r s e s a c r i f i c e and whose c a k r a -w h eel met no o b s t a c l e s as i t f l e w t h r o u g h t h e a i r . L a t e r , i n t h e age of t h e P u r a p a s " ^ , even more s p e c t a c u l a r a t t r i b u t e s s u c h as t h e s e v e n p r e c i o u s t r e a s u r e s become p a r t o f c a k r a v a r t i n symbolism."'"^ The Vayu-purana g i v e s a p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e c a k r a v a r t i n as t h o s e who a r e " b o r n i n each age 12 as t h e e s s e n c e of V i s h n u " ; who have come i n t h e p a s t and w i l l c o n t i n u e -12-t o do so i n t h e f u t u r e . They e n j o y superhuman a t t r i b u t e s and a c h i e v e superhuman deeds. I n Buddhism, t h e t e m p o r a l and s p i r i t u a l f u n c t i o n s o f t h e c a k r a v a r t i n a r e u s u a l l y s e p a r a t e . Anacakka o r t h e "wheel of power" was h e l d i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o t h e dhammacakka o r t h e "wheel of r i g h t e o u s n e s s " . The Buddha c l a i m s t h a t he i s not a k i n g of a p o l i t i c a l domain but 13 r a t h e r "...an i n c o m p a r a b l e k i n g o f dharma". K i n g s f r o m t h e t i m e of Asoka have m o d e l l e d t h e m s e l v e s a f t e r t h e u n i v e r s a l monarch o r have t r i e d t o c o n v i n c e t h e i r s u b j e c t s t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t s u c h an i d e a l . At t i m e s 14 t h e two i d e n t i t i e s of w o r l d - c o n q u o r e r and w o r l d - r e n o u n c e r merged. The C h i n e s e s o v e r i e g n s who were p a r t i c u l a r l y f o n d o f c l a i m i n g c a k r a v a r t i n s t a t u s , and on o c c a s i o n , p r o c l a i m e d t h e m s e l v e s t o be Maitreya."'""' There i s a some i n t e r m i n g l i n g between t h e image of M a i t r e y a as 16 k i n g and M a i t r e y a as d i s c i p l e . Matsumoto Bunzaburo p r o p o s e s t h a t M a i t r e y a was o r i g i n a l l y o n l y a d i s c i p l e of t h e Buddha and l a t e r d e v e l o p e d i n t o an o b j e c t o f b e l i e f . Lamotte"'"^ f o l l o w s t h i s same l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g t h r o u g h h i s c l a s s i f i c i a t i o n o f t e x t s d e a l i n g w i t h A j i t a and M a i t r e y a . 18 The eponym " a j i t a " meaning " i n v i n c i b l e " o r " u n b e a t a b l e " i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h M a i t r e y a . A j i t a , a l o n g w i t h M a i t r e y a , was a d i s c i p l e 19 o f t h e a s c e t i c B a v a r i who a c h i e v e d a r h a t s h i p under Gautama Buddha. A j i t a i s a g a i n a c o - d i s c i p l e w i t h M a i t r e y a , t h i s t i m e t o Sakyamuni, when Mahapraj apatT do n a t e s a g o l d e n t u n i c to' t h e Sangha. s'akyamuni t h e n p r e s e n t s t h e t u n i c t o M a i t r e y a i n honor o f h i s F u t u r e Buddhahood and 20 m e n t i o n s t h a t A j i t a would be t h e c a k r a v a r t i n a t t h a t t i m e . F i n a l l y , _ _ _ 21 A j i t a i s used as t h e p e r s o n a l name (naman) f o r M a i t r e y a i n Mahayana s u t r a s . I n b o t h t h e Mahayana and H i n a y a n a t r a d i t i o n s i t i s n o t u n u s u a l t o -13-a s c r i b e t h e t i t l e o f t h e F u t u r e Buddha t o a h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e . P o s s i b l y t h e b e s t known example o f t h i s i s t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y monk A s a i i g a , t r a d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s i n c l u d i n g t h e work of C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t o r s and p e r e g r i n a t o r s s u c h as Buddhabhadra and F a - h s i e n c r e d i t Asanga w i t h w r i t i n g t h e Yogacarabhumi and o t h e r famous V i j n a n a v a d a works a f t e r v i s i t i n g M a i t r e y a i n T u s i t a ( " b l i s s f u l " o r " s a t i s f i e d " ) Heaven. U n t i l r e c e n t l y , s c h o l a r s h e l d t h e v i e w t h a t t h i s t r a d i t i o n was i n v e n t e d i n o r d e r t o g i v e g r e a t e r c r e d i b i l i t y t o t h e new Mahayana works t h a t were coming out d u r i n g t h e ti m e o f Asanga. However i t i s now g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t M a i t r e y a was a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a g e , Asanga's i n s t r u c t o r , 22 - 23 who was l a t e r c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e F u t u r e Buddha. I n t h e Mahavamsa , t h e famous f i f t h c e n t u r y s y s t e m a t i z e r o f B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e , Buddhaghosa i s a c c l a i m e d as t h e M a i t r e y a Buddha. D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e Mahavamsa's c o m p o s i t i o n i n S r i La n k a , i t was a p p a r e n t l y not uncommon t o bestow t h e t i t l e o f t h e M a i t r e y a Buddha upon famous m a s t e r s . A s i m p l i s t i c model o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e M a i t r e y a v i s i o n w o u l d b e g i n w i t h t h e s e m i n a l i d e a l o f t h e Buddha of t h e F u t u r e i n I n d i a n Buddhism w h i c h was t h e n i n t e r w o v e n w i t h t h e c o l o u r s o f numerous o t h e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . B a s i n g h i s v i e w on t h e A j i t a - M a i t r e y a developments P e r i w r i t e s t h a t what was o r i g i n a l l y d i s t i n c t i n H i n a y a n a _ 2 4 became c o n f u s e d i n t h e Mahayana and t h a t w i t h the r i s e o f Mahayana, th e M a i t r e y a myth e v o l v e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y i n t h e N o r t h and t h e South. A 25 m u l t i t u d e o f i d e n t i t i e s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , t h e M a i t r e y a Buddha rem a i n s un-26 e q u i v o c a l l y t h e F u t u r e S a v i o r f i g u r e , t h e i n a u g u r a t o r o f a g o l d e n age. 27 The s u c c e s s o f h i s c u l t , "as s p e c t a c u l a r as i t has been u n e x p e c t e d " p e r s i s t s t o t h e p r e s e n t i n t h e m o n a s t a r i e s and l a y groups o f S.E. A s i a and Japan. -14-I l b The M y t h i c V i s i o n : Amitabha OM. A d o r a t i o n " t o t h e Three T r e a s u r e s ! OM. A d o r a t i o n t o a l l t h e g l o r i o u s Buddhas and B o d h i s a t t v a s , A r y a s , S r a v a k a s , P r a t y e k a b u d d h a s , p a s t , p r e s e n t , and t o come, who d w e l l i n t h e u n l i m i t e d and e n d l e s s L okadhatus o f t h e t e n q u a r t e r s ! A d o r a t i o n t o Amitabha! A d o r a t i o n t o him whose s o u l i s endowed w i t h i n c o m p r e -h e n s i b l e v i r t u e s ! A d o r a t i o n t o Amitabha, t o t h e G i n a , t o t h e e , 0 I go t o S u k h a v a t i t h r o u g h t h y compassion a l s o ; To S u k h a v a t i , w i t h i t s g r o v e s , r e s p l e n d e n t w i t h g o l d , The d e l i g h t f u l , adorned w i t h t h e sons o f S u g a t a , — I go t o i t , w h i c h i s f u l l o f many j ewels and measures; and t h e r e f u g e o f t h e e , t h e famous and w i s e . 2 8 29 _ -30 The P a r a d i s e o f Amitabha , S u k h a v a t i , i s u n e x c e l l e d among a l l 31 t h e p a r a d i s e s i n b l e s s e d n e s s and s p l e n d o r . G l i t t e r i n g p a l a c e s upon p a l a c e s and b e j e w e l l e d gardens upon gardens a r e f i l l e d w i t h harmony-sweet sounds, e x o t i c f r a g r a n c e s , g o l d e n - s i l v e r t r e e s and m a g i c a l w a t e r s . E v e r y f e a t u r e o f t h i s l a n d i s immeasurable, i n n u m e r a b l e and i n f i n i t e . The l o t u s f l o w e r s a r e n o t o n l y made of gems b u t may be as much as t e n 32 33 y o j a n a s i n c i r c u m f e r e n c e , each one e m i t t i n g 3600 thousand k o t i s o f l i g h t r a y s and from each r a y o f l i g h t may be seen 3600 k o t i s o f Buddhas t e a c h i n g t h e Dharma t o immeasurable, i n n u m e r a b l e b e i n g s i n t h e t e n d i r e c t i o n s . F o r t h o s e who a b i d e t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i s supremely c o m f o r t a b l e : one can b a t h e i n p o o l s where t h e w a t e r s t u r n warm o r c o o l by a mere w i s h ; s u r v e y t h e m i r r o r - f l a t e a r t h w h i c h poses no h i n d e r a n c e s ; o r f l y t h r o u g h t h e a i r w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t ease. E n t r y i n t o S u k h a v a t i i s t r a n q u i l and p u r e ; l o t u s buds embrace t h e t r u e b e l i e v e r and r e l e a s e him when i t i s t i m e t o be b o r n . No women a r e found t h e r e ; women d e s i r i n g r e b i r t h i n t o Amitabha's P u r e Land a r e m a g i c a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o men, t h e b o d h i s a t t v a s A v a l o k i t e s v a r a and Mahasthamaprapta, Amitabha's c h i e f a t t e n d a n t s , a c t as h i s ambassadors t o t h e c o u n t l e s s B u d d h a l a n d s , and upon t h e d e a t h o f a -15-devout b e l i e v e r , g u i d e him t o t h e b l e s s e d l a n d . T h i s m i r a c u l o u s p a r a d i s e i n w h i c h t h e e x c e l l e n c e s of a l l t h e o t h e r Buddha-lands were combined was t h e f r u i t o f t h e b o d h i s a t t v a l a b o u r s of t h e B h i k s u Dharmakara, who a t one t i m e p r a c t i c e d under t h e Buddha L o k e s v a r a r a j a many aeons ago. A t t h a t t i m e Dharmakara made a s e r i e s o f 48 vows, p r e d i c a t i n g h i s own f i n a l n i r v a n a upon t h e s a l v a t i o n o f a l l b e i n g s . A f t e r i n n u m e r a b l e k a l p a s Dharmakara, now A m i t a b h a , r e s i d e s i n t h i s P a r a d i s e o f p a r a d i s e s f u l f i l l i n g h i s vows so t h a t a l l b e i n g s , even t h o s e who may have d i r e c t e d o n l y "one t h o u g h t " towards S u k h a v a t i may be r e b o r n t h e r e . R e b i r t h i n S u k h a v a t i a s s u r e s t h e d e v o t e e t h a t he i s but t h i s one l a s t l i f e t i m e , removed from n i r v a n a . * * * From t h e b e g i n n i n g , Amitabha r e p r e s e n t e d a s a v i o r f i g u r e ; a f o c a l p o i n t o f d e v o t i o n f o r l a i t y . W o r ship of t h e Buddha, Stupa and H o l y R e l i c s were a l r e a d y a p a r t o f H i n a y a n a d e v o t i o n a l i s m when t h e new 34 Mahayana Buddhas and b o d h i s a t t v a s emerged. Aksobhya ( " I m p e r t u r b a b l e " o r "Immovable") i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e e a r l i e s t o f t h e " n o n - h i s t o r i c a l c e l e s t i a l Buddhas". Aksobhya and Amitabha a r e t h e two e a r l i e s t Mahayana Buddhas t h e c u l t o f Amitabha i s thought t o have been e s t a b l i s h e d under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Aksobhya. The new b o d h i s a t t v a s and buddhas a r e thought t o have been c r e a t e d as p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of Sakyamuni's p e r s o n a l i t y . " ^ Thus A v a l o k i t e s v a r a " ^ was a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of h i s c ompassion, M a n j u s ' r i , o f h i s wisdom, B h a i s a j y a g u r u , o f h i s h e a l i n g and so on. A m i t a b h a , a l o n g w i t h t h e o t h e r s a v i o r f i g u r e s p e r formed f o u r major f u n c t i o n s : 1) he promoted t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of v i r t u e s and p r o t e c t e d t h e b e l i e v e r f r o m t h o s e who m ight t r y t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h h i s s p i r i t u a l p r o g r e s s ; 2) he bestowed m a t e r i a l b l e s s i n g s and a v e r t e d d i s a s t e r s ; 3) he s e r v e d as an -16-o b j e c t o f d e v o t i o n ; and 4) he p r o v i d e d a p a r a d i s e o r a s p e c i a l e n v i r o n -37 ment f a v o u r a b l e f o r e n l i g h t e n m e n t . Conze t r a c e s t h e b e g i n n i n g s of t h e c o n c e p t of t h e m y t h i c a l Buddhas 38 t o w i t h i n a c e n t u r y of t h e Buddha's n i r v a n a . These Buddhas were de-s i g n a t e d s p e c i f i c p a r a d i s e s and u p h e l d d o c t r i n a l l y w i t h i n t h e f o l d o f t h e Mahasanghika s c h o o l . One of t h e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of t h e Mahasanghikas was t h e i r sympathy t o t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f . The Amitabha c u l t s a r e thought t o have been a c t i v e i n N.W. I n d i a by second B.C. among t h e U t t a r a p a t h a k a s who a c c e p t e d t h e Mahasanghika. 39 d o c t r i n e s . By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a t h e new buddhology was g a i n i n g w i d e s p r e a d s u p p o r t . And by t h e t i m e of N a g a r j u n a i n t h e second c e n t u r y A.D. W o r s h i p o f t h e Buddhas o f t h e Ten d i r e c t i o n s was an u n d i s p u t e d and w e l l - r e g a r d e d a s p e c t o f Mahayana b e l i e f . T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l d o c t o r s t h e m s e l v e s p e r c e i v e d Amitabha as a s a v i o r f i g u r e i n t h e same way t h a t t h e l a y d e v o t e e s i n t h e c u l t s d i d . W h i l e t h e l a i t y o f f e r e d t h e i r f l o w e r s , i n c e n s e and p r a y e r s t o Amitabha and t h e o t h e r Buddhas and B o d h i s a t t v a s , a n o t h e r p r o c e s s had been t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n t h e Sangha. A l s o from about t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y a f t e r t h e Buddha's d e a t h , a l l t h e known s c h o o l s a r e thought t o have a c c e p t e d t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between two l e v e l s o f language i n B u d d h i s t w r i t i n g s . The f i r s t i s s a m v r t i ( " c o n c e a l i n g " ) w h i c h i s e v e r y d a y p o p u l a r language and t h e s e c o n d , p a r a m a r t h a ( " u l t i m a t e " ) 40 w h i c h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l l a n g u a g e . The l a t t e r t y p e was c o n s i d e r e d t o s t a n d as c l e a r and d e f i n i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s and t h e f o r m e r , t o r e q u i r e r e s t a t e m e n t i n terms c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a n d p o i n t of 41 p a r a m a r t h a s a t y a o r u l t i m a t e t r u t h . Thus w h i l e t h e l a i t y p r a y e d t o be -17-r e b o r n i n t h e m a r v e l - f i l l e d p a r a d i s e of A m i t a b h a , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s of S u k h a v a t i were t o t a l l y a t v a r i a n c e w i t h a l m o s t a l l of t h e r e s t o f t h e Mahayana s u t r a s . S i n c e t h e s e new s u t r a s were e x p o s i t i o n s o f t h e c o n cept o f s u n y a t a , t h e P u r e Land s u t r a s c o u l d o n l y be v a l i d as s a m v r t i s a t y a . F u r t h e r m o r e , d u r i n g t h e e a r l y c e n t u r i e s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a , Mahayana s c h o o l s were d e v e l o p i n g a means o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e new buddhology w h i c h would e v e n t u a l l y be known as t h e t r i - k a y a d o c t r i n e . A 2 T h i s development, on one hand, p r o v i d e d t h e "much needed j u s t i f i c a t i o n " f o r t h e new Mahayana t e x t s , and on t h e o t h e r , a p o w e r f u l d o c t r i n a l t o o l 43 w i t h w h i c h t o r e - i n t e r p r e t p o p u l a r b e l i e f . Those opposed t o t h e l a y o r " o r t h o d o x " P u r e Land b e l i e f s t ended t o g i v e one o f t h e two f o l l o w i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : t o c o n s i d e r Amitabha and h i s P a r a d i s e as riirmana and t h u s , i n f e r i o r ; o r 2) t o r e g a r d Amitabha as b e i n g of sambhOga-kaya and 44 t h e r e f o r e n o t w i t h i n t h e r e a c h of common man. 11.1a T e x t s : M a i t r e y a There a r e ample r e f e r e n c e s t o M a i t r e y a t h r o u g h o u t t h e B u d d h i s t 45 - - -T r i p i t a k a . H i n a y a n a and Mahayana s o u r c e s i n P a l i , S a n s k r i t , C h i n e s e , T i b e t a n and J a panese make s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s t o a B o d h i s a t t v a c a l l e d M a i t r e y a who w i l l be r e b o r n as t h e F u t u r e Buddha. The t e x t s r e v e a l t h a t d e p e n d i n g upon t h e a u t h o r and t h e t i m e o f c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e m e s s i a n i c i d e a l was seen i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Sometimes t h e t e x t s w i l l c o n t a i n no more t h a n a s i m p l e prophecy of M a i t r e y a ' s f u t u r e r e b i r t h . A t o t h e r t i m e s , t h e t e x t d e s c r i b e s a Super-Buddha who w i l l p r o c l a i m t h e Dharma to a w o r l d t r a n s f o r m e d t o an e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . I n t h e l a t e s t v e r s i o n s , t h e b e l i e v e r hopes t o be b o r n i n T u s i t a Heaven where M a i t r e y a a w a i t s h i s -18-l a s t r e b i r t h . 1) P a l i The f o l l o w i n g two groups o f t e x t s a r e good examples o f t h e k i n d of s u t t a s t h a t a r e o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as c o n t a i n i n g t h e "germs" o f t h e M a i t r e y a myth. The f i r s t group i s found i n t h e D i g h a - n i k a y a and c o n s i s t s o f t h e Mahapadaha S u t t a n t a , t h e Mahasudassana S u t t a n t a t h e Agganna S u t t a n t a ^ a n d t h e C a k k a v a t t i - S i h a n a d a S u t t a n t a . ^ The theme of t h e Mahapadana S u t t a n t a i s t h e b e l i e f i n a s u c c e s s i o n o f Buddhas. I t l i s t s and d e s c r i b e s t h e l i v e s o f t h e s i x p r e v i o u s Buddhas: V i p a s s i , V essabhu, Kakusandha, Konigamana and Kassapa. Sakyamuni i s t h e s e v e n t h . T h i s S u t t a n t a a l s o a l l u d e s t o t h e complementary r o l e s o f Buddha r u l e and k i n g l y r u l e . The Mahasudassana S u t t a n t a d e s c r i b e s a r i g h t e o u s k i n g and h i s s p l e n d i d c i t y . The m a g i c a l d e t a i l s o f t h i s kingdom, w i t h i t s s u c c e s s i o n s o f 84,000 gems, e l e p h a n t s , p a l a c e s , e t c . c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e t h e l a v i s h n e s s o f t h e w o r l d i n t h e d e v e l o p e d M a i t r e y a myth. I n t h e Agganna S u t t a n t a , t h e B u d d h i s t v e r s i o n o f t h e w o r l d ' s c y c l e of d e g e n e r a t i o n and r e c o v e r y i s p r e s e n t e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a f a s c i n a t i n g sequence of e v e n t s c o m b i n i n g b i o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n and m o r a l d e c l i n e . Even though none o f t h e s e t e x t s m e n t i o n M a i t r e y a , t h e y a r e o f t e n c i t e d as g e r m i n a l t o t h e M a i t r e y a myth because t h e y c o n t a i n c e r t a i n m ajor e l e m e n t s : t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f Buddhas, t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of a m a r v e l l o u s w o r l d and t h e c y c l e o f d e g e n e r a t i o n and r e c o v e r y . The P a l i t e x t i n c l u d i n g a l l o f t h e s e elements as w e l l as a p r o p h e t i c s t a t e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g M a i t r e y a i s t h e C a k k a v a t t i - S i h a n a d a S u t t a n t a . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t e x t , t h e w o r l d f a l l s from p e r i o d s o f g o l d e n p r o s p e r i t y t o t h o s e o f / -19-t a r n i s h e d d e c l i n e . A f t e r human b e i n g s have f a l l e n i n t o a w r e t c h e d s t a t e o f m u t u a l h a t r e d and s l a u g h t e r , a change t a k e s p l a c e , e n a b l i n g them t o l i v e i n peace a g a i n . G r a d u a l l y , c o n d i t i o n s improve u n t i l p e o p l e l i v e t o be 80,000 y e a r s o l d and e v i n c e g r e a t v i r t u e s . Towns and v i l l a g e s a r e so c l o s e l y s i t u a t e d that a c o c k can f l y from one t o t h e n e x t . A t t h a t t i m e Sankha, a w h e e l - t u r n i n g K i n g and M e t t e y a , t h e F u t u r e Buddha a r e b o r n . Sakyamuni p r o p h e s i z e s t h a t M e t t e y a " w i l l t e a c h t h e Law o f R i g h t e o u s n e s s i n s p i r i t and i n l e t t e r , l o v e l y i n i t s b e g i n n i n g , l o v e l y i n i t s m i d d l e , l o v e l y i n i t s end, and he w i l l l i v e t h e pure l i f e o f c e l i b a c y i n a l l i t s c o m p l e t e n e s s , j u s t as I do now. But he w i l l have thousands o f months as h i s f o l l o w e r s , where I have o n l y hundreds.""'-'" The second group o f P a l i s u t t a s o f t e n c i t e d as t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e 52 M a i t r e y a myth i s found i n t h e K h u d d a k a - n i k a y a . The t h r e e s u t t a s a r e t h e V a t t h u g a t h a , t h e A j i t a m a n a v a p u c c h a and t h e Tissametteyyamanavapuccha.~* The f i r s t o f t h e s e t h r e e v e r y s h o r t and e a r l y documents i s t h e s t o r y o f t h e a s c e t i c B a v a r i and h i s two d i s c i p l e s , A j i t a and T i s s a m e t t e y a . I n t h e second and t h i r d s u t t a s , Buddha i n s t r u c t s A j i t a and M e t t e y a r e s p e c -t i v e l y on a t t a i n i n g t h e d e s i r e l e s s s t a t e . None of t h e s u t t a s make any r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f u t u r e o r t o a Buddha-to-come. However, i n t h e Theravada t r a d i t i o n , A j i t a has been t r a c e d from h i s r o l e as B a v a r i ' s d i s c i p l e t o t h e A n g u t t a r a Commentary, t h e T h e r a g a t h a Commentary and t h e Apadana where 54 he i s f i n a l l y p r o p h e s i e d as t h e w o r l d - r u l e r . I n t h e Mahayana t r a d i t i o n , A j i t a i s t h e name of one of t h e thousand Buddhas who w i l l a r i s e d u r i n g t h i s a u s p i c i o u s c y c l e ( B h a d r a k a l p a ) and an e p i t h e t f o r M a i t r e y a . T h u s i t would seem r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t A j i t a and M e t t e y a as found i n t h e t h r e e above s u t t a s from t h e K h u d d a k a - n i k a y a r e l a t e t o t h e M a i t r e y a myth o n l y i n so f a r as t h e names a r e t h e same. The Theravada-Mahayana -20-d i v e r g e n c e i n t h e use of t h e name A j i t a ( " i n v i n c i b l e " ) , i s s i m p l y due t o subsequent developments w h i c h t o o k p l a c e w i t h i n each t r a d i t i o n . L a t e r T h e r a v a d a c o m p o s i t i o n s a r e more p r e c i s e i n t h e i r r e f e r e n c e s t o M a i t r e y a as f u t u r e Buddha. The Buddhavamsa ("Lineage of t h e Buddhas") g i v e s t h e l i v e s o f t h e Buddhas b e f o r e Sakyamuni and 5 6 M a i t r e y a . I n Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga. M a i t r e y a i s a f u n d a m e n t a l p a r t o f t h e d o c t r i n e . ~ ^ The most i m p o r t a n t and e l a b o r a t e of t h e s e 58 l a t e r c o m p o s i t i o n s i s t h e Ariagatavamsa ( " H i s t o r y o f t h e F u t u r e One"). A l t h o u g h i t s d a t e i s u n c e r t a i n M a i t r e y a ' s prophecy r o u g h l y s i m i l a r t o t h e M a i t r e y a s u t r a s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o C h i n e s e from f o u r t h c e n t u r y A.D. onward. 2) S a n s k r i t D u r i n g t h e c e n t u r i e s around t h e t u r n o f t h e m i l l e n n i u m when t h e use o f P a l i was b e i n g supplemented by S a n k r i t f o r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f new B u d d h i s t w o r k s , r e f e r e n c e s t o M a i t r e y a i n c r e a s e d . The monumental S a r v a s t i v a d a b i o g r a p h y , L a l i t a v i s t a r a r e l a t e s how Sakyamuni was succeeded by M a i t r e y a even i n T u s i t a H e a v e n . M a h a v a s t u ^ , t h e V i n a y a of t h e M a h a s a i i g h i k a s and perhaps t h e f i r s t f u l l b i o g r a p h y of t h e Buddha i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : " E x a l t e d Buddhas do not pass away u n t i l t h e y have a n o i n t e d an h e i r t o t h e t h r o n e . He w i l l become a Buddha i n t h e w o r l d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r me. As I now p r o c l a i m of M a i t r e y a , he w i l l become th e Buddha n e x t a f t e r me." 6 1 ^ 2 The t r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h e Agamas and S a r v a s t i v a d a works such as t h e 63 A^oka Avadana c o n t i n u t e t o r e i t e r a t e o l d e s c h a t o l o g i c a l themes as w e l l as t o i n t r o d u c e a few new ones. M a i t r e y a i s mentioned i n many o f t h e Mahayana V a i p u l y a s u t r a s a l o n g w i t h h o s t s o f o t h e r buddhas and -21-b o d h i s a t t v a s . By t h i s t i m e r e f e r e n c e t o " A l l Buddhas of t h e p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e . . . . " had become a s t o c k p h r a s e i n Mahayana works. 64 F i n a l l y , t e x t s d e v o t e d s o l e l y t o t h e M a i t r e y a v y a k a r a n a were composed i n T i b e t a n and C e n t r a l A s i a n l a n g u a g e s as w e l l as i n S a n s k r i t . ^ 3) C h i n e s e I n C h i n a , s i x S u t r a s on M a i t r e y a were s i n g l e d out as a s p e c i a l group ( ) c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e b a s i s o f M a i t r e y a b e l x e f . 1) M l - l o - l a i - s h i h c h i n g ( Jjjjj 0$ The S u t r a of M a i t r e y a s Coming t r a n s l a t o r unknown. 2) M i - l o - h s i a - s h e n g c h i n g 'f £ ^ ) The S u t r a o f M a i t r e y a ' s R e b i r t h t r a n s l a t e d by Chu-fa-hu i n 303 A.D.? 3) M i - l o - h s i a - s h e n g - c h e n g - F o c h i n g (ffy f# "f" £ $ The S u t r a o f M a i t r e y a ' s R e b i r t h and A t t a i n m e n t o f Buddhahood t r a n s l a t e d by K u m a r a j i v a i n 402 A.D.? 4) M i - l o - t a - c h e n g - F o c h i n g (jft 'ff* ) The S u t r a o f M a i t r e y a ' s G r e a t A t t a i n m e n t o f Buddhahood t r a n s l a t e d by K u m a r a j i v a i n 402 A.D.? 5) M i - l o - h s i a - s h e n g - c h i n g - F o c h i n g (f$SJ %k "f £ ^ S u t r a o f M a i t r e y a ' s R e b i r t h and A t t a i n m e n t of Buddhahood t r a n s l a t e d by I - c h i n g i n 701 A.D. 6) Kuan M i - l o - p ' u - s a - s h a n g - s h e n g - T u - s h i - t ' i e n c h i n g S u t r a o f M e d i t a t i o n on M a i t r e y a ' s R e b i r t h on H i g h i n t h e  T u s h i t a Heaven t r a n s l a t e d by Chu Ch'u C h i n g Sheng i n 455 A.D.? A l l o f t h e s e M a i t r e y a S u t r a s were t r a n s l a t e d i n N o r t h e r n C h i n a . M i - l o - l a i - s h i h c h i n g i s thought t o be t h e e a r l i e s t b u t s i n c e t h e t r a n s l a t o r i s unknown, Dharmaraksa's t r a n s l a t i o n i s u s u a l l y c i t e d as t h e f i r s t t o be r e n d e r e d i n t o C h i n e s e . T h i s e a r l y f o u r t h c e n t u r y t r a n s l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t -22-because Dharmaraksa's c h o i c e o f t e x t s t o t r a n s l a t e , i n c l u d i n g t h e L o t u s and V i m a l a k i r t i s u t r a s r e f l e c t s t h e r e l i g i o u s needs o f t h e C h i n e s e o f h i s 68 '. t i m e . S u t r a s (1) t o (5) g i v e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same ac c o u n t as o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s C h a p t e r under M a i t r e y a ' s " m y t h i c v i s i o n " . They a r e a l s o v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e Ariagatavamsa, t h e M a i t r e y a - s a m i t i , and o t h e r V y a k a r a n a l i t e r a t u r e w e l l known i n C h i n a . The Kuan S u t r a (6) however, i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e r e s t . I t i s t h o u g h t t o have been composed l a t e r 69 and t h u s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o C h i n e s e l a t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r M a i t r e y a S u t r a s . New f e a t u r e s namely, t h e p r o m i s e o f r e b i r t h i n T u s i t a Heaven and t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f s i n upon c a l l i n g M a i t r e y a ' s name a r e i n t r o d u c e d . The i n c l u s i o n o f t h e term Kuan i s a l i t t l e m i s l e a d i n g because i t does n o t o f f e r any s p e c i a l v i s u a l i z a t i o n t e c h n i q u e even though i t may have been used by dhyana m a s t e r s a l o n g w i t h o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an e a r l i e r c o m p o s i t i o n t h a n a n o t h e r Kuan-t y p e s u t r a p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s t h e s i s , t he Kuan-wu-liang-shou-Fo c h i n g . ^ The f e a t u r e w h i c h most d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e M a i t r e y a Kuan * S u t r a from t h e o t h e r f i v e M a i t r e y a S u t r a s i s t h a t t h e b e l i e v e r h i m s e l f d e s i r e s t o be r e b o r n i n T u s i t a Heaven ( X ) r a t h e r t h a n w a i t i n g f o r M a i t r e y a t o be r e b o r n on e a r t h ( ^ f. ) . S c h o l a r s have put f o r t h s e v e r a l r e a s o n s f o r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s " a s c e n t " ( X ) t y p e o f s u t r a . Some f e e l t h a t t h e a u t h o r o f t h e Kuan-M i - l o - p ' u - s a - s h a n g - s h e n g - T u - s h i - t ' i e n c h i n g was under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Amitabha i d e a s . ^ O t h e r s a s s e r t t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n between v a r i o u s p a r a d i s e c u l t s and s p e c i f i c a l l y b e t t h e M a i t r e y a and Amitabha c u l t s s t i m u l a t e d t h e M a i t r e y a b e l i e v e r s t o make new c l a i m s f o r t h e b e n e f i t s o f r e b i r t h i n T u s i t a 72 _ _ Heaven. The Kuan s c h o o l o f m e d i t a t i o n i n Kashmir where S a r v a s t i v a d i n -23-s c h o o l s were prominent p r o b a b l y a l s o e x e r t e d an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e new form. P e r h a p s t h e most p r o v o k i n g e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i t h t h e k i n d of f u t u r e s a l v a t i o n found i n t h e " d e s c e n t " ( ) t y p e S u t r a s r e s u l t e d i n t h e growth and p o p u l a r i t y of t h e " a s c e n t " t y p e . I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o presume t h a t Theravada and Mahayana S u t r a s on M a i t r e y a drew from t h e same c o r e of M a i t r e y a myth whether as o r a l t r a d i t i o n o r i n t h e e a r l i e s t w r i t t e n forms now e x t a n t i n t h e P a l i Canon. P e r i p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h e M a i t r e y a n i d e a e x i s t e d soon a f t e r t h e Buddha's t i m e ; b e f o r e t h e d i v i s i o n s w h i c h l e d t o t h e H i n a y a n a -74 Mahayana s p l i t . D e t e r m i n i n g e x a c t l y what t h i s c o r e c o n s i s t s o f and d a t i n g t h e sequence of i t s a c c r e t i o n s i s a l m o s t an i m p o s s i b l e t a s k and c e r t a i n l y n o t w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h i s t h e s i s . G e n e r a l l y , t h e P a l i works a r e c o n s i d e r e d " e a r l i e r " and t h e S a n s k r i t , " l a t e r " . However, the f a c t t h a t t h e Theravada Canon i t s e l f c o n t i n u e d t o e v o l v e makes t h i s a somewhat u n r e l i a b l e d i s t i n c t i o n . F o r example, l a t e r P a l i c o m p o s i t i o n s such as t h e Anagatavamsa show a marked s i m i l a r i l y t o t h e Mahayana s u t r a s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o C h i n e s e and works such as t h e MaKa-sudassana S u t t a n t a may have been a f f e c t e d by t h e i n c r e a s e d Mahayana i n f l u e n c e s i n t o Theravada d u r i n g t h e t h i r d t o t h e f i f t h c e n t u r i e s A.D. Thus s c h o l a r s s u c h as Matsumoto Bunzaburo s u b m i t s t h a t t h e M a i t r e y a n i d e a l d e v e l o p e d much l a t e r ; t h r e e t o f o u r c e n t u r i e s a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f t h e Buddha, w i t h i n t h e Mahayana f o l d . / N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e major d i f f e r e n c e s between works such as t h e C a k k a v a t t i - S i h a n a d a S u t t a n t a and t h e Mahayana M a i t r e y a s u t r a s seem t o be m a i n l y d i f f e r e n c e s i n degree and e l a b o r a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , as Pe'ri a l s o m e n t i o n s , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e H i n a y a n a s c h o o l s , w h i c h -24-considered the Mahayana literature heterodox, would adopt in it s 7 6 entirety, a well developed Mahayana idea.' His theory that the Theravada schools managed to maintain the earlier tradition in spite of a l l the developments within and the influences without would support the view that the expectation centered on a Future Buddha was part of pre-Mahayana Buddhism. Il l b Texts: Amitabha More sutras and sastras have been devoted to Amitabha than any other figure in the Mahayana pantheon. There are no direct references to this Buddha in Pali literature but the references in Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan and Japanese are voluminous. The earlier Sanskrit works at times refer to Amitabha as one of the innumerable Buddhas of the Ten Q u a r t e r s and at other times as an outstanding Savior figure, a focal point for the faithful. Without even considering the numerous translations and commentaries in Tibetan and Japanese, the Chinese Tripitaka alone includes at least 254 sutras and sastras on Amitabha.^ 1) Pali Some scholars maintain that the roots for Amitabha myth exist in the Pali Canon. One example is those who claim that the splendor of King Sudassana's palace and environs described in the Mahasudassana Suttanta bears a close resemblance to Amitabha's Pure Land. A similar section in — — — — 7 9 the Mahaparinibbana sutta is also cited as a prototype for Sukhavati. Despite these descriptive similarities, the doctrinal differences are clear. The monarch's domain represents an ideal of earthy extravagance while Amitlbha's Sukhavati is a celestial sphere transcending human -25-p l e a s u r e s . The K i n g ' s h a p p i n e s s i s founded on t h e k a r m i c e f f e c t s o f h i s own p e r s o n a l s t o c k of good deeds whereas t h e b e l i e v e r ' s s a l v a t i o n i s r e a l i z e d n o t o n l y by d i r e c t i n g h i s good deeds towards r e b i r t h i n S u k h a v a t i but a l s o by f u l f i l l i n g m e d i t a t i o n a l and r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s t h a t c a l l upon t h e power Amitabha's vows. A n o t h e r example o f H i n a yana r o o t s i n Amitabha b e l i e f l i e s i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n s o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m found i n P a l i l i t e r a t u r e . D u t t c a l l s t h i s l i t e r a t u r e " t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e i n n e r r e p u r c u s s i o n s o f t h e f a i t h on t h e e m o t i o n a l s i d e of t h e l i v e s o f monks and nuns". He t r a c e s t h e b e g i n n i n g s of d e v o t i o n a l i s m t o t h e p o e t i c a l manuals i n t h e Khuddaka- n i k a y a ; T h e r a - g a t h a ("Verses of t h e E l d e r s " ) , T h e r i - g a t h a ("Verses of t h e E l d e r e s s e s " ) , Apadana ( " S t o r i e s o f t h e S a i n t s " ) , P e t a - v a t t h u ("Tales of g h o s t s " ) , and V i m a n a - y u t t h u ("Tales of H e a v e n l y M a n s i o n s " ) . Spontaneous and l a c k i n g i n a r t i f i c e , t h e s e w r i t i n g s a r e f u l l o f passages e x t o l l i n g the v i r t u e s of w o r s h i p p i n g Buddha, S t u p a , and Dhatu. The J a t a k a and Buddhavamsa p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r Buddha w o r s h i p . Thus, a l t h o u g h Amitabha i s n o t d i r e c t l y m e ntioned i n t h e P a l i Canon, k i n g l y p a r a d i s e s and e a r l y B u d d h i s t d e v o t i o n a l i s m can be r e g a r d e d as i n d i r e c t p r e c u r s o r s o f S u k h a v a t i and d e v o t i o n t o Amitabha. 2) S a n s k r i t S p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s t o Amitabha appeared w i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g s of Mahayana l i t e r a t u r e . B u d d h i s t b i o g r a p h i e s such as t h e L a l i t a v i s t a r a and Mahavamsa make no m e n t i o n of t h i s Buddha. The p r i m a r y P u r e Land t e x t s o r i g i n a l l y composed i n S a n s k r i t w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s e c t i o n on C h i n e s e Amitabha t e x t s , t h e f o l l o w i n g S a n s k r i t c o m p o s i t i o n s on Aksobhya Buddha and t h e Buddhas of t h e Ten Q u a r t e r s were v i t a l t o t h e -26-development o f t h e Amitabha myth. I n t h e Ak§obhya-buddhak§etra-tathagatha-syavyuha s u t r a Aksobhya ( " I m p e r t u r b a b l e " ) t a k e s a vow under a Buddha i n t h e E a s t . H i s m u l t i p l e vows ( p r a n i d h a n a ) were a model f o r Amitabha's vows. Other e a r l y Mahayana works s u c h as t h e As t a s a h a s r i k a - p r a j i f r a p a r a m i t a ' and t h e P r a t y u t p a n n a -• 80 buddha-sammu-khavasthita-samadhi s u t r a m e n t i o n b o t h Aksobhya and Amitabha. A l t h o u g h d e v o t i o n t o Aksobhya i s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y a d v o c a t e d i n t h e s e s u t r a s , r e b i r t h i n A b h i r a t i , h i s p a r a d i s e , was sought by some t h r o u g h t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f m o r a l a c t s and by h e a r i n g h i s name. The Pra t y u t p a n n a - s a m a d h i - s u t r a i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t because i t i s perhaps 81 t h e e a r l i e s t t e x t i n d i c a t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f Amitabha c u l t s and because i t s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o C h i n e s e i n t h e second c e n t u r y A.D. s t i m u l a t e d many c o n v e r s i o n s t o A m i t a w o r s h i p . There a r e numerous Mahayana s u t r a s and s a s t r a s i n w h i c h Amitabha i s found among t h e i n c a l c u l a b l e Buddhas o f t h e S i x D i r e c t i o n s o r t h e Ten D i r e c t i o n s . I n t h e Bud d h a v a t a m s a k a - s u t r a , A m i t a ' s P u r e Land i s r e g a r d e d 82 as t h e most i n f e r i o r o f the P a r a d i s e s c l o s e s t t o t h e mundane w o r l d . V a i p u l y a s u t r a s s u c h as t h e L o t u s s i m p l y i n c l u d e Amitabha i n a g r e a t l i s t o f Buddhas i n t h e West. V i m a l a k i r t i and t h e S m a l l P r a j n a p a r a m i t a r e l a t e i n s t a n c e s where t h e assembled d e v o t e e s a r e e n a b l e d t o see A b h i r a t i t h r o u g h m a g i c a l means. N a g a r j u n a ' s D a s ' a b h u m i - v i b h l s a - s a s t r a ' i s u s u a l l y c i t e d by Pu r e Land a d h e r e n t s as p r o o f o f N a g a r j u n a ' s b e l i e f i n Amitabha. C h a p t e r F i v e ("On t h e Vows") and C h a p t e r N i n e ("On Easy P r a c t i c e " ) e x p l a i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e Pu r e Land and t h e p r a c t i c e s c o n d u s i v e t o r e b i r t h t h e r e . Vasubandhu's s h o r t commentary on t h e S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a S u t r a , A m i t a y u s - s u t r a - U p a d e s a i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as t h e b a s i s o f -27-Vasubandhu's p l a c e as one of t h e p a t r i a r c h s of t h e P u r e Land School.° J I n t h i s t e x t , b o d h i s a t t v a p r a c t i c e c o n s i s t s of c u l t i v a t i o n o f f i v e methods of a n u s m r t i ( m i n d f u l n e s s ) : w o r s h i p , p r a i s e , r e s o l u t i o n ( t o be 84 b o r n i n t h e P u r e L a n d ) , v i s u a l i z a t i o n and t r a n s f e r of m e r i t . T h i s c u r s i v e s a m p l i n g o f Mahayana works i n d i c a t e s t h e tremendous d i v e r s i t y o f m e d i t a t i o n a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n s p i r e d by t h e f i g u r e o f Amitabha. 3) C h i n e s e I n C h i n a , w i t h t h e development o f P u r e Land thought t h r e e major s u t r a s ( ^- ) ^ were a c c e p t e d as t h e c o r e of a u t h o r i t a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e on Amitabha. 1) A - m i - t ' o - c h i n g ( 0 f ) _ S u t r a on A m i t a ( S m a l l e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a ) t r a n s l a t e d by K u m a r a j i v a i n 402-5 A.TD. 2) W u - l i a n g - s h o u c h i n g (' ~ % ) S u t r a on Amitayus or L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - V y u h a s u t r a t r a n s l a t e d by Sanghavarman i n 252 A.D. 3) Kuan-wu-liang-shou ching ( c o n t e m p l a t i o n on t h e Buddha o f I n f i n i t e L i f e S u t r a t r a n s l a t e d by Kalayas'as between 424-453 .AVD. The t r a n s l a t i o n s l i s t e d above a r e t h e ones t h a t e v e n t u a l l y won t h e g r e a t e s t a p p r o v a l i n C h i n a . N o t a b l e v a r i a t i o n s i n d e t a i l e x i s t not o n l y between t h e S a n s k r i t and C h i n e s e v e r s i o n s but between t h e C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . K u m a r a j i v a ' s A - m i - t ' o - c h i n g i s t h e e a r l i e s t o f t h r e e t r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h i s s u t r a i n t o C h i n e s e . I n t h e s u t r a , A m i t a y u s i s p r a i s e d by a l l t h e Buddhas i n t h e Ten Q u a r t e r s . H i s p a r a d i s e i s r e m i n e s c e n t of t h e j e w e l l e d s p l e n d o r of M a i t r e y a ' s f u t u r e w o r l d ; sumptuous and p e a c e f u l , -28-S u k h a v a t l i s o n l y one among t h e i n n u m e r a b l e B u d d h a l a n d s , " e q u a l i n number t o t h e sands o f t h e r i v e r Ganga". A u n i q u e f e a t u r e of t h i s s u t r a i s i t s s t r e s s upon t h e r e c i t a t i o n o r c o n t i n u o u s m e d i t a t i o n of A m i t a y u s ' name. H a v i n g h e a r d t h e name, t h o s e whose minds a r e c o n s t a n t l y o c c u p i e d w i t h i t w i l l see " A m i t a y u s . . . s u r r o u n d e d by an assembly of d i s c i p l e s and f o l l o w e d by a h o s t of B o d h i s a t t v a s . . . a t t h e i r hour o f d e a t h and 86' t h e y w i l l d e p a r t t h i s l i f e w i t h t r a n q u i l minds". The W u - l i a n g - s h o u c h i n g ( L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a ) i s by f a r l o n g e r and were e l a b o r a t e t h a n t h e A-mi-t'o c h i n g . The o n l y s u t r a t o be 87 t r a n s l a t e d i n t o C h i n e s e more t h a n t e n t i m e s , i t s t r a n s l a t i o n s span 900 y e a r s from t h e second t o t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s A.D. G e n e r a l l y , t h e myth i s more c o h e r e n t i n t h e l a t e r v e r s i o n s : t h e l e g e n d s of A m i t a ' s p a s t l i v e s as w e l l as of o t h e r Buddhas such as Aksobhya a r e d e s c r i b e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . One of t h e most i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i s i n t h e number o f Dharmakara's vows. The Lokaksema ( l a t t e r Han ) and C h i h C h i e n (Wu) t r a n s l a t i o n s l i s t o n l y 24 vows w h i l e t h e o t h e r t h r e e by Sanghavarman ( W e i ) , B o d h i r u c i (T'ang) and F a - h s i e n (Sung) l i s t 48 vows. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s u t r a , many aeons ago, Dharmakara b o d h i s a t t v a vowed t o c r e a t e t h e b e s t o f a l l p o s s i b l e Buddhalands and t o save a l l s e n t i e n t b e i n g s . H a v i n g a c h i e v e d h i s g o a l , t h i s same Dharmakara, now Amitabha Buddha a b i d e s i n t h e W e s t e r n P a r a d i s e of S u k h a v a t i . As t h e n a r r a t i v e u n f o l d s , v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e P u r e Land mode o f s a l v a t i o n a r e r e v e a l e d . On one hand, Dharmakara's vows, h i s b o d h i s a t t v a p r a c t i c e and h i s c r e a t i o n o f S u k h a v a t i make up t h e h i s t o r y of h i s commitment t o t h e e n l i g h t e n m e n t o f a l l b e i n g s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e b e l i e v e r ' s m e d i t a t i o n on A m i t a , h i s vow t o be r e b o r n i n S u k h a v a t i and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s -29-own s t o c k o f m e r i t t o t h a t g o a l make up t h e r e q u i s i t e s t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t . I n t h e S a n s k r i t v e r s i o n s o f t h i s s u t r a t h e r e i s no c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between Amitabha's s a v i n g power and the i n d i v i d u a l ' s own e f f o r t s ; between g r a c e and w o rks. However, t h e C h i n e s e v e r s i o n has two 88 e x t r a vows (numbers 18 and 2 1 ) . One o f t h e s e vows (number 18) was t o become known as t h e " K i n g of t h e P r a n i d h a n a s " i n mature P u r e Land 89 d o c t r i n e . I t was t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e s e and o t h e r vows, w h i c h l e d t o new emphases i n Amitabha w o r s h i p n o t c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h e s u t r a s t h e m s e l v e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y t o Amitabha's immense p o p u l a r i t y i n C h i n a . Because i t advocates, a c a r e f u l l y s y s t e m a t i z e d method o f m e d i t a t i o n , t h e Kuan-wu-liang^-shou c h i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e most s o p h i s t i c a t e d of t h e t h r e e P u r e Land s u t r a s . T h i s work b e l o n g s t o t h a t u n i q u e c a t e g o r y o f 9 0 s u t r a s c a l l e d Kuan s u t r a s composed i n Kashmir o r C e n t r a l A s i a by monks 9 1 s p e c i a l i z i n g t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . The t r a d i t i o n i s t h o u g h t t o have o r i g i n a t e d w i t h a f o r m of w o r s h i p t o t h e Buddhas of t h e Ten Q u a r t e r s p r a c t i c e d by c e r t a i n H i n a y a n a and Mahayana s c h o o l s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a t an e a r l i e r s t a g e the b e l i e v e r s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y c o u l d g a i n a c c e s s t o t h e P u r e Lands of t h e Buddhas by c r e a t i n g them m e n t a l l y . The P a n - chou-san-mei-ching (Pratyupanna-buddha-sammu-khavasthita-samadhi- s u t r a ) i s an example of t h i s s t a g e . L a t e r , when i c o n o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t -a t i o n s and t h e p r a c t i c e o f o r a l l y i n v o k i n g t h e Buddhas become u n i v e r s a l , 9 2 t h e Kuan group was composed. The Kuan-wu-liang-shou ching i s t h e most o r g a n i z e d of t h e group and i s t h e r e f o r e t h o u g h t t o be t h e l a t e s t ( c a . I V A.D.). I n c o n t r a s t , t h e K u a n - m i - l o - p u - s a - s h a n g - s h e n g - ^ t u - s h i - t ' i e n c h i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e v e r y e a r l i e s t o f t h e group. -30-The Kuan-wu-liang-6hou c h i n g can be d e s c r i b e d as a m e d i t a t i o n a l g u i d e f o r t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r who d e s i r e s a p e r s o n a l t r a n s c e n d e n t a l v i s i o n o f S u k h a v a t i . The s t a g e s of m e d i t a t i o n a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a n a r r a t i v e i n w h i c h Queen V a i d e h i , i m p r i s o n e d by h e r son A j a t a s a t r u , c a l l s upon the Buddha t o r e v e a l a p l a c e f o r h e r t h a t i s f r e e from s u f f e r i n g . A f t e r c h o o s i n g S u k h a v a t i as t h e p l a n e o f h e r n e x t r e b i r t h she i s g i v e n d i r e c t i o n s f o r a t t a i n g h e r g o a l . She i s t o f o c u s on a s e r i e s of s i x t e e n m e d i t a t i o n a l o b j e c t s c o n s i s t i n g of " E x t e r n a l S p l e n d o r s " s u c h as t h e s e t t i n g s u n , w a t e r , t r e e s , and l a k e s and " I n t e r n a l S p l e n d o r s " such as t h e v a r i o u s buddhas and b o d h i s a t t v a s , i n c l u d i n g A m i t a y u s h i m s e l f . The a c c o u n t i s e v o c a t i v e : " t h e h y p e r b o l e s , t h e p h a n t a s t i c numbers and t h e imagery u s e d , r e f l e c t t h e v i s i o n s o f t h e m e d i t a t o r , who, once b a c k t o h i s s e n s e s , was u n a b l e t o d e s c r i b e h i s t r a n s c e n d e n t a l 93 - _ ' f l i g h t s ' i n a c l e a r and c o n s i s t e n t way". W h i l e t h e s u t r a ' s emphasis on m e d i t a t i o n does not a b r o g a t e goodness, m o r a l and v i t u a l o b s e r v a n c e s and t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e b e l i e v e r i s a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d t h e p r e s e n t i n h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e W e s t e r n P a r a d i s e and t o a c h i e v e t h e s t a t u s of a n o n - r e t u r n e r . A l t h o u g h t h e t h r e e b a s i c A mitabha s u t r a s a r e c l e a r l y t h e work o f t h e Mahayana g e n i u s , t h e s e s u t r a s a r e o f t e n seen as an anomaly w i t h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n . No m e n t i o n i s made o f s u n y a t a o r p r a j n a ; i n s t e a d , an e x t r a v a g a n c e o f imagery seems t o s u p p o r t t h e d e v o t i o n a l emphases of t h e e a r l y A m i t a c u l t s i n I n d i a . The S h o r t e r S u k h a v a t i S u t r a ( A -mi-t'o c h i n g ) and t h e Longer S u k h a v a t i S u t r a ( w u - l i a n g - c h o u c h i n g ) , composed i n t h e l a s t few c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e t h e Common E r a may have been i n f l u e n c e d by P a l i works such as t h e Mahasudassana s u t t a n t a and t h e d e v o t i o n a l manuals i n -31-the Khaddaka-nikaya. The eschatological motif found at the end of the two Sukhavati sutras may have resulted from contact with Maitreya groups or the influence of the general messianic mood of the times. After the second century A.D., with the systemization of Mahayana thought under the great Indian acaryas, Buddhas such as Maitreya, Aksobhya and Amitabha were often referred to as part of the system of the Buddhas of the Six Directions or the Ten Dir e c t i o n s . They also became important f o c a l points f or visualization-mediation as i n the Kuan group of sutras and i n the increasing numbers of t a n t r i c texts. Therefore, apart from t h e i r numerical s i g n i f i c a n c e , the Amitabha texts demonstrate a t r e -mendous d i v e r s i t y of p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s prospectives. What the written sources do not reveal, however, i s the continuity of Amita worship both at the monastic and lay l e v e l s . We can surmise that most of the lay groups devoted to Amita worship i n medieval India and China, l i k e the 2 0 t h century lay groups i n China and Japan, tended to equate Amita's Pure Land with a place to go to upon one's death and h i s vows with promises c a l l i n g f o r t h one's devotion. The fact that such b e l i e f s c o n f l i c t with the fundamental tenets of Mahayana philosophy does not negate the fact that they i n large measure, account for Amitabha's spectacular popularity among the Chinese masses. -32-F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r I 1. I have t a k e n t h e term " s a c r e d h i s t o r y " from M i r c e a E l i a d e ' s work and used i t i n i t s b r o a d e s t s e n s e ; a p p l y i n g i t t o t h e J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n as w e l l as t h e B u d d h i s t and o t h e r t r a d i t i o n s . 2. These terms were c o i n e d by Sukumar D u t t i n B u d d h i s t Monks and  M o n a s t a r i e s of I n d i a (London: George A l l e n and Ohwin, 1 9 6 2 ) , p.183. 3. Edward Conze, t r a n s , and ed., B u d d h i s t T e x t s Through t h e Ages (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1964), pp.46-47. 4. M a i t r e y a : f r o m t h e S a n s k r i t m a i t r i m e a n i n g . " f r i e n d l i n e s s " , " k i n d l i n e s s " , "compassion". ( P a l i : M e t t e y a , C h i n e s e : M i - l o - F o ) . 5. The f o l l o w i n g summary i s based on t h e M a i t r e y a s u t r a , M i - l o - h s i a - sheng-cheng-Fo c h i n g (T.XIV.454) -6. Z o r o a s t r i a n and J u d a i c s o u r c e s a l s o r e f e r t o t h e e s c h a t o n as a t i m e when t h e e a r t h w i l l be l e v e l . 7. Kagawa Takao has drawn a g r a p h c o r r e l a t i n g s i x t e e n d i f f e r e n t M a i t r e y a themes w i t h t w e n t y - f i v e t e x t u a l s o u r c e s i n " M i r o k o s h i s o no t e n k a i , " J o u r n a l o f Bukkyo U n i v e r s i t y 45 (1964): 241. 8. F o r more d e t a i l s s e e : E n c y c l o p e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , 1908-27 ed., s.v. " C a k r a v a r t i n " by H. J a c o b i ; and J a n Gonda, A n c i e n t I n d i a n  K i n g s h i p from t h e R e l i g i o u s P o i n t of View ( L e i d e n : E. J . B r i l l , 1 9 6 6 ), pp.123-128. 9. A i t r a r e y a Brlhmana 8:21-23. 10. T h i s t y p e of c a k r a v a r t i n s ymbolism i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h e B hagavata Purana. 11. H. J a c o b i n i n " C a k a v a r t i n " p.336 n o t e s t h a t i n t h e B r h a t k a t h a P u r a n a , K i n g N a r v a h a v a d a t t a has s e v e n r a t n a s ( " t r e a s u r e s " ) i n c l u d i n g t h e e l e p h a n t , t h e sword, t h e m o o n l i g h t , t h e w i f e , t h e d e s t r o y i n g charm, t h e l a k e , and t h e sandlewood t r e e . K i n g S a s a b i n d u i n t h e B h a g a v a t a  P u r i n a has f o u r t e e n t r e a s u r e s . 12. Ramesh C. Majumdar, The H i s t o r y and C u l t u r e o f t h e I n d i a n P e o p l e , V o l . 3: The C l a s s i c a l Age (Bombay: B h a r a t i y a V i d y a Bhavan, 1 9 5 4 ) , 3:X. 13. C a k k a v a t t i - s i h a n a d a s u t t a (D.N.26); L a k k h a n a - s u t t a n t a (D.N.13); M a h a p a d a n a - s u t t a n t a (D.N.14) e t c . 14. B. G. G o k a l e , " E a r l y B u d d h i s t K i n g s h i p , " JAS 26 (November 1966): 18-22. -33-See C h a p t e r IV below. Matsumoto Bunzaburo, M l r o k o J o d o - r o n [A T r e a t i s e on M a i t r e y a ' s P u r e Land] (Tokyo: Heigo Shuppan Sha and Tosho K a n k o k a i , 1911). E t i e n n e L amotte, H i s t o i r e du Buddhisme i n d i e n ; des o r i g i n e s a  l ' e r e Saka ( L o u v a i n : I n s t i t u t O r i e n t a l i s t e , 1 9 5 8 ) , p.782. Leon H u r v i t z , S c r i p t u r e o f t h e L o t u s Blossom o f t h e F i n e Dharma (New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p.339. The s t o r y o f B a v a r i and A j i t a i s f o u n d i n t h e P a r a y a n a o f t h e S u t t a - n i p a " t a . The s t o r y M a i t r e y a and t h e g o l d e n t u n i c i s found t h e D a k k h i r i a v i b h a n g h a  S u t t a ( M . N . I l l ) e t c . ; see Lamotte, H i s t o i r e , p.779. Mahavastu, S u k h a v a t i y u h a - s u t r a , S a d d h a r m a p u n d a r i k a - s u t r a e t c . ; see Lamotte, H i s t o i r e , pp.782-83. F o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s m a t t e r see H. U i " M a i t r e y a as a H i s t o r i c a l P e r s o n a g e " i n I n d i a n S t u d i e s i n Honor o f C R . Lanman (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1929), pp.95-100; and G. T u c c i , D o c t r i n e s o f M a i t r e y a n a t h a and Asanga ( C a l u t t a : 1930). Mahavamsa 37: 215-47. C i t e d i n Buddhaghosa, P a t h o f P u r i f i c a t i o n , t r a n s . B. N y a n a m o l i C . ( B e r k e l e y and London: Shambala P r e s s , 1 976), p . x x i i . N. P e r i , r e v i e w of M i r o k u j o d o r o n , by Matsumoto Bunzaburo, i n BEFEO 11 ( 1 9 1 1 ) , p.453. Among them i s M a i t r e y a ' s development as a T a n t r i c d e i t y . F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n see F. L e s s i n g , Yung-ho-kung: An I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e  L a m a i s t C a t h e d r a l i n P e k i n g ( S t o c k h o l m : 1942) and A l i c e G e t t y , The Gods of N o r t h e r n Buddhism ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1928). L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , p.775. Max M u l l e r , ed. and t r a n s . , " L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - v v u h a " . B u d d h i s t  Mahayana S u t r a s , SBE, v o l . 49, ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1894; New Y o r k : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 69), p . l . W h i l e t h e a p p e l l a t i o n Amitabha ( " L i m i t l e s s L i g h t " ) and a n o t h e r , Amitayus were used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , t h e L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a shows a p r e f e r e n c e f o r Amitabha. A m i t a y u s i s u s e d i n t h e S m a l l e r  S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a and t h e A m i t a y u r - d h y a n a s u t r a . Samghavarman used A m i t a y u s (Wu-liang-shou) i n h i s C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n and t h i s a p p e l l a t i o n , perhaps because of i t s s p e c i a l a p p e a l f o r t h e C h i n e s e was v e r y p o p u l a r t h r o u g h o u t t h e S i x D y n a s t i e s . L a t e r , A mitabha -34-became t h e s t a n d a r d because o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - vyuha and t h e n i n e t e e n o r so o t h e r names o f t h i s Buddha w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e word " l i g h t " . The C h i n e s e t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n " 0 - m i - t ' o " ( J a . Amida) was used i n r e f e r e n c e t o b o t h W u - l i a n g - s h o u and Wu-liang-kuang by K u m a r a j i v a i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e S m a l l e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a . 30. R. R o b i n s o n t r a n s l a t e s S u k h a v a t i as " h a p p i n e s s - h a v i n g " i n The B u d d h i s t  R e l i g i o n : H i s t o r i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n (Belmont, C a l i f . : D i c k e n s o n P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 7 0 ) , p.67. 31. The f o l l o w i n g summary i s based on Max M u l l e r ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e "Longer S u k h a v a t i S u t r a " . 32. A y o j a n a i s d e f i n e d by Basham as "a measure o f d i s t a n c e v a r y i n g from hh t o 9 m i l e s " . C f . A. F. Basham, The Wonder That Was I n d i a (New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 ) , p.135, 503-4. 33. A k o t i i s t e n m i l l i o n i n number. 34. F o r a c l o s e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f Aksobhya Buddha see E. Lamotte; L'Enseignement  de V i m a l a k i r t i ( L o u v a i n : U n i v e r s i t e de L o u v a i n , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp.360-362 n.9. 35. Har D a y a l , The B o d h i s a t t v a D o c t r i n e i n B u d d h i s t S a n s k r i t L i t e r a t u r e (London: Kegan P a u l , 1 9 3 2 ) , p.36. 36. F o r f u r t h e r s t u d y s e e : M a r i e - T h e r e s e de Mallmann, I n t r o d u c t i o n a 1'etude  d ' A v a l o k i t e c v a r a ( P a r i s : P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1967); and Giuseppe T u c c i , " a Propos A v a l o k i t e s v a r a , " Melanges C h i n o i s e t Bouddhicxues ( B r u x e l l e s : I n s t i t u t B e i g e Des Hautes Etudes C h i n o i s e s ) , pp.173-217. 37. Edward Conze, Buddhism: I t s E s s e n c e and Development ( O x f o r d : Bruno C a s s i r e r , 1951; New Y o r k : H a r p e r T o r c h b o o k s , 1959), pp.152-7. 38. Edward Conze, T h i r t y Y e a r s o f B u d d h i s t S t u d i e s ( C o l u m b i a , S.C.: U n i v e r s i t y o f S. C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p.69. 39. J u l i a n F. P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary on t h e A m i t a y u r - B u d d h a n u s m r t i -S u t r a " (Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 3 ) , p.61. 40. A. K. Warder, I n d i a n Buddhism ( D e l h i : M o t i l a l B a n a r s i d a s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , pp.150-151. 41. L a t e r , some s c h o o l s d i s a g r e e d on w h i c h o f t h e two l e v e l s a t e x t s h o u l d b e l o n g t o . Warder a s s e r t s t h a t t h e new Mahayana s c h o o l s e s p e c i a l l y , "sought t o d i s c r e d i t t h e more a u t h e n t i c p a r t s of t h e T r i p i f c a k a as mere " c o n c e a l i n g * d i s c o u r s e s whose meaning r e q u i r e d t o be drawn o u t ; o n l y t h e i r s p e c i a l t e x t s were s e t out i n d e f i n i t e p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e r m s . . . " Warder, I n d i a n Buddhism, p.152. 42. Conze, T h i r t y Y e a r s , p.71. 43. The e v o l u t i o n of t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f a b o d h i s a t t v a ' s c a r e e r a l s o shows t h e impact o f t h e new buddhology. The e a r l y s e v e n s t a g e (bhumi) scheme was i n c r e a s e d t o t e n i n o r d e r t o accommodate t h e c e l e s t i a l buddhas. -35-44. P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary", p.301. 45. Matsumoto's M i r o k u J o d o r o n ( C h a p t e r V) g i v e s an e x t e n s i v e b i b l i o -graphy of M a i t r e y a s o u r c e s from t h e C h i n e s e T r i p i f c a k a and Lamotte's H i s t o i r e (pp.775-788) l i s t s P a l i and S a n s k r i t s o u r c e s p e r t a i n i n g t o M a i t r e y a . 46. T. W. Rhys D a v i d s , t r a n s . , "A Book o f G e n e s i s , " D i a l o g u e s o f t h e  Buddha, SBB, v o l . 3 (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 1 0 ) , pp.4-41. 47. T. W. Rhys D a v i d s , t r a n s . , "Legend of t h e G r e a t K i n g of G l o r y , " SBE, v o l . 11 ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1900), pp.247-289. 48. T. W. Rhys D a v i d s , t r a n s . , "A Book of G e n e s i s , " D i a l o g u e s o f t h e  Buddha, SBB, v o l . 4 (London: O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1910), pp.77-94. 49. T. W. Rhys D a v i d s , t r a n s . , "The L i o n - r o a r on t h e T u r n i n g o f t h e Wheel," D i a l o g u e s of t h e Buddha, SBB, v o l . 4, pp.59-76. 50. Rhys D a v i d s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s s u t t a n t a i s a f u r t h e r development o f t h e same s t o r y f i r s t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e M a h a p a r i n i b b a n a . The Mahasudassana J a t a k a i s a l s o a f u r t h e r development. 51. Theodore de Bary ed., S o u r c e s of I n d i a n T r a d i t i o n (New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), V o l . 1, p.74. 52. T h i s r e f e r e n c e i s made i n P e r i , "Review", p.440 and L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , pp.775-7. 53. A l l t h r e e s u t t a s a r e found i n t h e Parayanavagga of t h e S u t t a N i p a t a t r a n s l a t e d i n Rhys D a v i d s , SBE, v o l . 10, pp.184-192. 54. F o r more d e t a i l s see: E n c y l o p e d i a of Buddhism, s.v. " A j i t a , " by L akshmi R. Gooneskere. 55. The q u e s t i o n o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f " a j i t a " w i t h M a i t r e y a and subsequent developments i s d i s c u s s e d i n S y l v a i n L e v i ' s " M a i t r e y a l e C o n s o l a t e u r . " Etudes d' O r i e n t a l i s m e P u b l i e e s par l e Musee Guimet "a l a Memoire de  Raymond L i n o s s i e r , v o l . 2. ( P a r i s : L i b r a r i e E r n e s t L e r o u x , 1 9 3 2 ) , pp.359-376. 56. R o b i n s o n , B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , p.126. 57. Buddhaghosa, P a t h of P u r i t y , p.3. 58. H. W i n t e r n i t z s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e Anagatavamsa may b e l o n g t o an e a r l i e r p e r i o d whereas o t h e r s c o n s i d e r i t l a t e and s p u r i o u s ; see h i s A H i s t o r y  of I n d i a n L i t e r a t u r e ( C a l c u t t a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l c u t t a , 1 933), p.220. P o r t i o n s of t h e work have been t r a n s l a t e d by Edward Conze, B u d d h i s t  T e x t s i n T r a n s l a t i o n ( O x f o r d : Bruno C a s s i e r , 1954; H a r p e r T o r c h book, 19 6 4 ) , pp.46-50 and by H.C. Warren, Buddhism i n T r a n s l a t i o n (Cambridge: -36-H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1896; New Y o r k : Antheneum, 1976), pp.481-486. 59. "And so t h e sons of t h e gods r e b o r n i n t h e heaven o f t h e T u s i t a s f e l l a t t h e f e e t o f t h e B o d h i s a t t v a weeping and s a i d , ' I n t r u t h , Wise Man, how w i l l t h e s p h e r e of t h e T u s i t a s r e t a i n i t s b r i l l i a n c e once de-p r i v e d o f you?' And t h e B o d h i s a t t v a s a i d t o t h i s g r e a t and d i v i n e g a t h e r i n g , 'The B o d h i s a t t v a M a i t r e y a w i l l t e a c h you t h e Law.' And t h e B o d h i s a t t v a , h a v i n g removed h i s crown,. p l a c e d i t on t h e head o f M a i t r e y a , s a y i n g , 'You, Wise Man, w i l l be t h e f i r s t a f t e r me t o o b t a i n supreme and p e r f e c t e n l i g h t e n m e n t . " L a l i t a v i s t a r a ( C h a p t e r V ) , quoted i n A. F o u c h e r , The L i f e o f t h e Buddha ( C o n n e c t i c u t : Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p.23. 60. Lamotte d a t e s t h e Mahavastu and t h e L a l i t a v i s t a r a f rom t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e Common E r a . H i s t o i r e , p.724. 61. J . J . J o n e s , t r a n s . , The Mahavastu, 3 v o l s . (London: L u z a c , 1949-1 9 56), 1:52. 62. F o r example: Madhyamagama 13, E k o t t a r a g a m a 44, Dirghagama 1, Samyuktagama 15 e t c . 63. J e a n P r y z u l s k i , The Legend of Emperor Asoka i n I n d i a n and C h i n e s e  T e x t s ( C a l c u t t a : F i r m a K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1967) pp.167-192. 64. The word v y a k a r a n a ("prophecy", " r e c o r d " ) has a number o f d i f f e r e n t meanings. I n t h e Agamas i t c o u l d r e f e r t o t h e r e c o r d of a dead p e r s o n ' s r e b i r t h , t o one's own e n l i g h t e n m e n t o r t o t h e e n l i g h t e n m e n t of a Buddha. R e f e r e n c e s t o t h e l a t t e r meaning, i n v o l v i n g t h e prophecy of a b o d h i s a t t v a ' s f u t u r e buddhahood a r e numerous and became an i m p o r t a n t d e v i c e i n Mahayana s u t r a s . F o r example, i n t h e L o t u s , Sakyamuni f o r e t e l l s t h e Buddhahood of v a r i o u s I r a v a k a s and p r a t y e k a buddhas by c i t i n g t h e i r names, t h e i r B u d d h a - f i e l d s , t h e i r k a l p a s and t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e i r Dharma. F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s • — m a t t e r see E t i e n n e Lamotte t r a n s , L'Enseignement de V i m a l a k i r t i ( P a r i s : P u b l i c a t i o n s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s , 1 9 62), pp.189-192 n.89. 65. T r a n s l a t i o n s of S a n s k r i t works on M a i t r e y a i n c l u d e : E. Conze, B u d d h i s t S c r i p t u r e s (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n C l a s s i c s , 1959) pp. 237 f f . ; S. L e v i , " M a i t r e y a l e c o n s o l a t e u r " E t u d e s d ' O r i e n t a l i s m e  P u b l i e e s par l e Musee guimet a l a Memoire de Raymonde L i n o s s i e r , v o l . 2, ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r e E r n e s t L e r o u x , 1932). pp.355-402; E. Leumann M a i t r e y a - s a m i t i , das Z u k u n f t s i d e a l der B u d d h i s t e n , v o l . I ( L e i p z i g , 1 919); and I s h i g a m i Z. "A J a panese T r a n s l a t i o n of t h e M a i t r e y a -v y a k a r a n a , " A n n u a l of O r i e n t a l and R e l i g i o u s R e s e a r c h (1967):35-48. 66. A l t h o u g h f i f t e e n o t h e r M a i t r e y a s u t r a s were t r a n s l a t e d d u r i n g t h e S i x D y n a s t i e s t h e S i x S u t r a s l i s t e d above a r e a l l found i n T. v o l . 14: 1) 457; 2) 453; 3) 454; 4) 456; 5) 455; and 6) 452. Hayami Tasuku g i v e s a b r i e f summary of t h e i r c o n t e n t s based on Matsumoto Bunzaburo's M i r o k u J o d o r o n i n h i s M i r o k u S h i n k o mo H i t o t s u no Jodo S h i n k o , v o l . 12: -37-N i h o n j i n no Kodo t o S h i s o (Tokyo: H e i r o n s h a , 1 971), pp.15-23. A l s o see Watanabe Shoko, A l t o Helwa no Socho, v o l . 8, G e n d a l j i n no  Bukkyo (Tokyo: Chikumo, 1 9 6 6 ) , p.108 f o r t h e d a t e s used. 67. A l e x a n d e r Soper, L i t e r a r y E v i d e n c e f o r E a r l y B u d d h i s t A r t i n C h i n a (Ascona: A r t i b u s A s i a e , 1 9 59), p.219. 68. Leon H u r v i t z , "Toward a Comprehensive H i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e Buddhism." JAOS 89 (October-December 1960): 763-773. 69. L e v i , " M a i t r e y a l e C o n s o l a t e u r " , pp.369-70. 70. P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary", pp.112-113. 71. P e r i , "Review", p.447. 72. Soper, L i t e r a r y E v i d e n c e , p.215. 73. Hayami, M i r o k u S h i n k o , pp.23-23, 135-145. 74. P e r i , "Review", p.456. 75. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e Mahasuddassana may show an e a r l y i n f l u e n c e o f t h e b o d h i s a t t v a i d e a l on t h e c a k k a v a t t i myth. E. J . Thomas, The  H i s t o r y o f B u d d h i s t Thought. (London: Kegan P a u l , 1 9 3 3 ) , p.171. 76. P e r i , "Review", pp.452-3. 77. An a b b r e v i a t e d l i s t o f t h e s e works may be found i n B u d d h i s t  E n c y c l o p e d i a , s.v. " A m i t a " by Ikemoto J u s h i n . 78. G e n e r a l l y , t h e images of p a r a d i s e i n b o t h t h e M a i t r e y a and t h e A m i t a myths a r e t r a c e d back t o t h i s same P a l i s o u r c e . 79. F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s on t h i s see Nakamura H a j i m e ' s "A C r i t i c a l S urvey of Mahayana and E s o t e r i c Buddhism c h i e f l y b ased upon Japanese S o u r c e s . . . c o n t i n u e d , " AA 7 (1964): 42 n.7. 80. .Dutt, B u d d h i s t Monks and M o n a s t e r i e s , p.288. 81. J . P a s , "The Kuan-wu-liang-shou F o - c h i n g : I t s O r i g i n and L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m , " i n B u d d h i s t Thought and A s i a n C i v i l i z a t i o n , ed. L e s l i e S. Kawamura and K e i t h S c o t t ( E m e r y v i l l e : Dharma P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 7 7 ) , p.199. 82. Nakamura, "A C r i t i c a l S u r v e y , " p.43. 83. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c l a i m t h a t N a g a r j u n a and Vasubandhu a r e t h e e a r l i e s t p a t r i a r c h s o f t h e P u r e Land S c h o o l see: P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary," pp.119-129 and R o b i n s o n , E a r l y  Madhyamika, p.250 n . l l . ; A. Wayman, A n a l y s i s o f t h e , S r a v a k a b h u m i Man- s c r i p t , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n C l a s s i c a l P h i l o l o g y , V o l . 1 7 v ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1961),p.22. -38-84. P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary," p.127. 85. The t h r e e b e s t known C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n s l i s t e d h e r e a r e found i n T. v o l . 12: 1) 366; 2) 360; 3) 365. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n on t h e p r o b l e m o f d a t i n g t h e S a n s k r i t r e c e n s i o n s o f t h e t e x t s see P a s , "Shan-tao's commentary," p.62, 194. 86. Max M u l l e r , " S m a l l e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a " , pp.98-99. 87. Only f i v e o f t h e t w e l v e known t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e e x t a n t . They a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n M. M u l l e r and B. N a n j i o , S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a , A n e c d o t a O x o n i e n s i a , v o l . 1 - p a r t I I , ( O x f o r d : 1883; r e p r i n t ed., Amsterdam: O r i e n t a l P r e s s , 1 972), p p . i i i - x x i v . 88. Max M u l l e r , "The L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a , " pp.79-91. 89. I b i d . , p.73. 90. The s i x e x t a n t s u t r a s i n t h i s group a r e d e s c r i b e d i n P a s , "Shan-t a o ' s Commentary," pp. 109-118. 91. P a s , "The Kuan-wu-liang-shou Fo c h i n g , " p.203. 92. T h i s t w o - s t a g e t h e o r y of development i s d i s c u s s e d by P a s , "Shan-t a o ' s Commentary," pp.102-118. E a r l i e r a t t e m p t s t o t r a c e s t a g e s of development i n c l u d e A. Waley, A C a t a l o g u e of P a i n t i n g s Recovered  from Tun-huang by S i r A u r e l S t e i n (London: B r i t i s h Museum and Government of I n d i a , 1931) p p . x x - x x i and Soper, L i t e r a r y E v i d e n c e s , p.143. 93. P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary," p.308. -39-CHAPTER I I ESCHATOLOGY AND DEVOTIONALISM I . I n t r o d u c t i o n E s c h a t o l o g y i s " t h e d o c t r i n e o f ' l a s t t h i n g s ' o r more a c c u r a t e l y , o f o c c u r r a n c e s w i t h w h i c h our known w o r l d comes t o i t s end"."'' D e v o t i o n a -l i s m i s "...a m y s t i c i s m o f e x a g g e r a t e d e m o t i o n where t h e ' I ' and t h e 2 'Thou' f l o w t o g e t h e r i n a u n i t y o f i n t o x i c a t e d f e e l i n g " . As d i s t i n c t as t h e s e two terms app e a r , t h e f i r s t , d e n o t i n g a cosmology o f f i n a l t i m e and t h e second, a m y s t i c i s m o f e c s t a t i c u n i t y , t h e i r o u t e r r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s i o n s and o f i n n e r i n t e n t i o n a r e v e r y s i m i l a r . I n t h e development o f e s c h a t o l o g y and d e v o t i o n a l i s m , t h i s s i m i l a r i t y has r e s u l t e d i n a g r a d u a l m e r g i n g of symbols, r i t u a l s and even d o c t r i n e s , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y and w i t h i n Buddhism. By e x t e n s i o n , e s c h a t o l o g y i n c l u d e s t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f a f u t u r e s a v i o r and a f u t u r e g o l d e n age. S i m i l a r l y , d e v o t i o n a l i s m i n c l u d e s t h e a d o r a t i o n o f an e t e r n a l s a v i o r and t h e d e s i r e t o a t t a i n b l i s s . I n a l l r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s , t h e f u t u r e s a v i o r s , whether K a l k i n , M a i t r e y a , t h e M e s s i a h , o r th e h i d d e n i m a m , have been a r d e n t l y i n v o k e d i n t h e language o f f a i t h . The c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e l o n g - a w a i t e d kingdom o r t h e g o l d e n age has been i t s i n e f f a b l e , e t e r n a l j o y . Because o f t h e i n t e n s e y e a r n i n g a r o u s e d i n t h e b e l i e v e r , e s c h a t o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s n a t u r a l l y became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e v o t i o n a l modes o f w o r s h i p . I n Buddhism, w a i t i n g f o r M a i t r e y a a l s o meant w o r s h i p p i n g M a i t r e y a . S i n c e t h e w o r s h i p o f a d e i t y , e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e p o p u l a r l e v e l was e x p r e s s e d by c u l t u r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d r i t u a l and m e d i t -a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , o u t w a r d l y , t h e w o r s h i p o f M a i t r e y a o f t e n became i n d i s t i n --40-g u i s h a b l e from t h e w o r s h i p of Amitabha. As w e l l as e x t e r n a l s i m i l a r i t i e s i n r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s i o n , e s c h a t o l o g y and d e v o t i o n a l i s m can b o t h be seen as i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d towards t h e 3 s o l u t i o n o f a u n i v e r s a l problem: Time. A c c o r d i n g t o E l i a d e , t h e ' t e r r o r o f t i m e ' can o n l y be endured by t h e o r d e r i n g of e v e n t s i n t o s u p r a - t e m p o r a l models. These models may be based on t h e v i e w t h a t t i m e i s e i t h e r c y c l i c o r l i n e a r . C y c l i c o r " p r i m o r d i a l t i m e " i s e n d l e s s l y r e v e r s i b l e . L i n e a r o r " e s c h a t o l o g i c a l t i m e " p r e s u p p o s e s a p r o g r e s s i v e u n f o l d i n g o f h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s and a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d end t o h i s t o r y . I m p l i c i t i n t h e a n a l y s i s i s a t h i r d v i e w : t h a t t i m e can be t r a n s c e n d e d t h r o u g h m y s t i c i s m . Of t h e t h r e e ways of d e a l i n g w i t h Time, t h e l a t t e r two c o r r e s p o n d t o e s c h a t o l o g y and d e v o t i o n a l i s m as d e f i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o l o g y , c o n t r a r y t o Brahmanic cosmology, i n c l u d e s t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e and t h e end o f h i s t o r y . B u d d h i s t d e v o t i o n -a l i s m i s a form o f m y s t i c i s m w h i c h u t i l i z e d b o t h s y s t e m a t i c m e d i t a t i o n and spontaneous b h a k t i . I n sum, t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n o u t e r r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s i o n and i n n e r i n t e n t between B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o l o g y and d e v o t i o n a l i s m has f u n d a m e n t a l l y a f f e c t e d t h e i r development. E s c h a t o l o g i c a l and d e v o t i o n a l symbols merged i n such a way t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l y , t h e l u m i n o s i t y of M a i t r e y a was c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e l i m i t l e s s l i g h t o f Amitabha and t h e wonders o f T u g i t a became al m o s t i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h e p e r f e c t i o n s o f t h e w e s t e r n P a r a d i s e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e f e v o r o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l a n t i c i p a t i o n was e x p r e s s e d i n t h e r i t u a l s o f d e v o t i o n and t h e spontaneous d e v o t i o n o f m y s t i c i s m was i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e knowledge t h a t t h e d e g e n e r a t e age had a r r i v e d . The i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e c o n c e p t s o f "end t i m e " and b h a k t i not o n l y w i t h i n - 4 1 -Buddhism, b u t between Buddhism and t h e o t h e r r e l i g i o u s o f I n d i a , I r a n and t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n from t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y B.C. t o t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y A.D. produced a r i c h and complex t r a d i t i o n . I t was from t h i s t r a d i t i o n t h a t t h e B u d d h i s t s o f M e d i e v a l C h i n a drew t h e i r own u n i q u e p i c t u r e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e end of t h e Dharma and i t s t r a n s c e n d e n c e i n F a i t h . I l a . O r i g i n s o f t h e E s c h a t o n : F u t u r e Buddha 1) I n d i a n I n f l u e n c e s " F o r whenever o f t h e r i g h t A l a n g u i s h i n g a p p e a r s , son of B h a r a t a , A r i s i n g up of u n r i g h t , Then I send M y s e l f f o r t h . F o r p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e good, And f o r d e s t r u c t i o n o f e v i l - d o e r s , To make a f i r m f o o t i n g f o r t h e r i g h t , I come i n t o b e i n g i n age a f t e r age."^ The i d e a o f t h e avatar"', an i n c a r n a t i o n o f V i s h n u m a n i f e s t i n g h i m s e l f a t t i m e s o f d e c l i n i n g r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f r e p r e s e n t s a c l e a r p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e coming o f t h e f u t u r e Buddha a t t h e end o f t h e Dharma. Mahayana d o c t r i n e as p r e s e n t e d i n t h e L o t u s c l e a r l y p o i n t s t o a n o t i o n o f t h e r e p e a t e d appearance and d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f the T a t h a g a t h a whose "'emergence i n t h e w o r l d i s a t h i n g d i f f i c u l t t o e n c o u n t e r . ' " But t h r o u g h e x p e d i e n t d e v i c e s t h e e t e r n a l Buddha appears a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s and p l a c e s i n o r d e r t o t e a c h t h e way t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t . 0 good men! The s c r i p t u r a l canon p r e a c h e d by t h e Thus Come One i s a l l f o r t h e purpose o f c o n v e y i n g l i v i n g b e i n g s t o d e l i v e r a n c e . A t t i m e s he speaks o f h i s own body, a t t i m e s o f a n o t h e r ' s body; a t t i m e s he shows h i s own body, a t t i m e s a n o t h e r ' s body, a t t i m e s h i s own a f f a i r s , a t t i m e s a n o t h e r ' s a f f a i r s . E v e r y t h i n g he s a y s i s R e a l i t y , n o t v a n i t y . ... Y e t even now, though i n r e a l i t y I am n o t t o pass i n t o e x t i n c t i o n , y e t I p r o c l a i m t h a t I am about t o a c c e p t e x t i n c t i o n . -42-By r e s o r t t o e x p e d i e n t d e v i c e s t h e Thus Come One t e a c h e s and c o n v e r t s t h e b e i n g s . ^ I t i s r e f e r e n c e s s u c h as t h e s e t h a t l e d s c h o l a r s t o s u r m i s e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f Buddhism d e v e l o p e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y from t h a t o f H i n d u i s m , b e l i e f s s u c h as t h e coming o f a f u t u r e Buddha were i n f a c t t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n s t a n c e s where p o p u l a r B u d d h i s t b e l i e f s had conformed t o contemporary H i n d u b e l i e f s . Too l i t t l e i s known about t h e V a i s n a v a - B u d d h i s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d • b e t w e e n 200 B.C. and 200 A.D. t o w a r r a n t a c o n c l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t on who i n f l u e n c e d whom. T h i s p e r i o d i n I n d i a was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e m a r k a b l e u p s u r g e i n i n d u s t r y w i t h t h e development o f new a r t s and c r a f t s and t h e impact o f f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e s t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d t r a d e ; a l l o f w h i c h b r o u g h t about a f u n d a m e n t a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e o l d Brahmanic o r d e r . Buddhism was g a i n i n g immense p o p u l a r i t y . D e v o t i o n a l and c u l t i c a c t i v i t y c e n t r e d on Buddha and Stu p a w o r s h i p were f l o u r i s h i n g . C o n c u r r e n t l y t h e Brahmanas were r e f u r b i s h i n g t h e i r r e l i g i o n 8 by a p p r o p r i a t i n g f r o m t h e p o p u l a r c u l t s new i d e a s s u c h as ahimsa. D u r i n g t h i s same p e r i o d , a f t e r perhaps m i l l e n n i a o f development, t h e E p i c s and s u b s e q u e n t l y t h e P u r a n a s , were b e i n g f o r m u l a t e d . Most o f t h e Puranas were s e t down towards t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h i s p e r i o d . ( P r o b a b l y between t h e t h i r d and t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s ) . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h i s p e r i o d was a l s o an i n t e n s e l y c r e a t i v e one f o r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f new Mahayana S u t r a s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e about M a i t r e y a and Amitabha. E s c h a t o l o g i c a l themes and r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e v a r i o u s a v a t a r s a r e prominent i n t h e Vigpu P u r a n a , t h e Bhagavata P u r a n a , t h e K a l k i Purnana - - 9 and t h e Mahabharata. Worship o f t h e a v a t a r has been t r a c e d b a c k t o -43-v a r i o u s p o r t i o n s o f l a t e r V e d i c l i t e r a t u r e such as t h e S a t a p a t h a  Brahmana and even t h e Rg V e d a . ^ L a t e r , d u r i n g t h e Gu p t a s , a v a t a r w o r s h i p became a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f Bhagavata d e v o t i o n a l i s m . However, t h e d e v e l o p e d form o f t h e d o c t r i n e as found i n V a i s n a v i t e i n c a r n a t i o n b e l i e f s i s n o t found u n t i l about t h e t i m e o f t h e Mahabharata. Then, i t was as l a t e as t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y when t h e s t a n d a r d l i s t s o f t e n a v a t a r s i n c l u d i n g : F i s h , T o r t o i s e , B o a r , M a n - l i o n , Dwarf, Rama, B h a r g a v a , Rama D a s a r a t h i , Rama H a l a d h a r a , Buddha and K a l k i n appeared."'""'" I n f l u e n c e d by t h e t h e o r y t h a t s u c h r e f e r e n c e s a r e d a t e d w e l l a f t e r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e P a l i canon, s c h o l a r s s u c h as J a i w a l have s t a t e d t h a t c o n t r a r y t o t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h a t t h e B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e o f t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f Buddhas was a r e s u l t o f Hin d u i n f l u e n c e , t h e co n c e p t o f t h e l i n e a g e o f a v a t a r s "... seems... c o n s i d e r a b l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e B u d d h i s t c o n cept o f t h e f o r m e r Buddhas..." and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h a t K a l k i n -the f u t u r e a v a t a r , may have been i n s p i r e d by M a i t r e y a Buddha. The q u e s t i o n o f how t h e Buddha, t h e l e a d e r o f a h e t e r o d o x s c h o o l , was f i n a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e l i s t o f Hi n d u a v a t a r s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g - 13 one. As might be a n t i c i p a t e d , o r t h o d o x w r i t e r s such as K u m a r i l a r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e Buddha as a l e g i t i m a t e i n c a r n a t i o n . S i n c e m e d i e v a l V a i s r i a v -i s m and e a r l y Buddhism d e v e l o p e d i n t h e same environment i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e d e v o t e e s who w o r s h i p p e d a t many d i f f e r e n t a l t a r s , c o n f u s e d t h e - 14 Buddha w i t h Narayana. Thus, " . . . t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Buddha w i t h Narayana was not t h e r e s u l t o f c l e v e r m a c h i n a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e B r l h m a n a s . t o absorb Buddhism" b u t t h e r e s u l t o f p o p u l a r B u d d h i s t d e v o t i o n -, . 15 a l x s m . The e n t i r e q u e s t i o n o f Brahmanic i n f l u e n c e on t h e concept o f t h e -44-M a i t r e y a Buddha i s a t t h e same t i m e o b v i o u s and e l u s i v e . That b o t h t h e a v a t a r and f u t u r e Buddha myths d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e same m i l i e u and m u t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d one a n o t h e r i s i n d i s p u t a b l e . One o f t h e many q u e s t i o n s t h a t s t i l l r e m a i n unanswered, however, i s whether the M a i t r e y a Buddha c o u l d r e p r e s e n t a f r e s h i n s p i r a t i o n of a v a t a r b e l i e f p r e s e n t i n a P r e - B u d d h i s t s t r a t a o f I n d i a n b e l i e f much as t h e advent o f t h e Second Coming i n C h r i s t i a n i t y echoes t h e image o f t h e Old Testament M e s s i a h . 2) F o r e i g n I n f l u e n c e s As Buddhism s p r e a d and f l o u r i s h e d i n t h e N o r t h West f r o n t i e r and t h r o u g h o u t C e n t r a l A s i a en r o u t e t o C h i n a , i t came under s t r o n g i n -f l u e n c e s from n o n - I n d i a n s o u r c e s . Numerous elements i n B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o l o g y and d e v o t i o n a l i s m have been t r a c e d t o M i d d l e E a s t e r n and M e d i t e r r a n s o u r c e s . Har D a y a l s u g g e s t s t h a t " Z o r o a s t r i a n i s m , t h e r e l i g i o n of a n c i e n t P e r s i a , may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r i s e o f t h e b o d h i s a t t v a d o c t r i n e i n I n d i a s i n c e i t s f r a v a s h i s and amesaspentas show s i m i l a r i t i e s and t h e b o d h i s a t t v a s . I n t h e c a s e o f M a i t r e y a , Lamotte s t a t e s t h a t t h e m e s s i a n i c movement i n I n d i a t r a n s f o r m e d two o b s c u r e p u p i l s o f Sakyamuni, M a i t r e y a and A j i t a , i n t o t h e f u t u r e Buddha. The t h e o r y t h a t t h e M a i t r e y a Buddha owes much t o t h e Z o r o a s t r i a n M e s s i a h , S a o s h y a n t , i s s t r e s s e d by numerous o t h e r W estern s c h o l a r s i n c l u d i n g E. J . Thomas, P. P e l l i o t , J . P r y z y l s k i , L. de l a V a l l e e P o u s s i n , A. Foucher and E. A. Abegg and thus c a r r i e s much w e i g h t . The p a r a l l e l s drawn between M a i t r e y a and Saoshyant c o v e r not o n l y t h e g e n e r a l i t y of t h e p r o m i s e of f u l f i l l m e n t b u t d e t a i l s i n t h e imagery used. F o r example, a t t h e t i m e -45-of t h e f i n a l R e s u r r e c t i o n i n Z o r o a s t r i a n prophecy t h e G r e a t e r B u n d a h i s h n r e c o r d s : T h i s t o o i s s a i d , t h a t t h i s e a r t h w i l l become f l a t , w i t h n e i t h e r h i l l s n o r d a l e s . There w i l l be n e i t h e r m o u n t a i n s 1 7 n o r r i d g e s n o r p i t s , n e i t h e r h i g h ground nor low. I n t h e same way a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Ma i t r e y a - v y a k a r a n a t h e c a k r a v a r t i n w i l l t r a v e r s e t h e e a r t h w i t h ease as i t w i l l be smooth, f l a t , and f r e e from a l l o b s t a c l e s . Such e a r l y i n f l u e n c e s i n t h e n o r t h west f r o n t i e r came about t h r o u g h a two hundred y e a r a n n e x a t i o n o f t h e Indus V a l l e y by D a r i u s I i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y B.C. The p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e o f t h e P e r s i a n c u l t u r e i s e v i d e n c e d by examples such as t h e Asokan p i l l a r a t S a r n a t h and t h e P a t a l i p u t r a 18 p a l a c e s o f t h e Mauryan c o u r t . However, Gautama h i m s e l f i s n o t r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g been i n f l u e n c e d by Z o r o a s t r i a n t h o u g h t ; a l t h o u g h S a r v a s t i v a d a 19 and Mahayana thought i s . L a t e r i n f l u e n c e s on Buddhism i n C e n t r a l A s i a were a l s o p r e d o m i n a n t l y P e r s i a n a l t h o u g h t h e r e was a co m p l e t e melange o f 20 r e l i g i o u s v i e w s and p r a c t i c e s . By t h e second and t h i r d c e n t u r i e s , f l o u r i s h i n g t r a d e c o n n e c t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d between I n d i a and t h e M e d i t e r -r a n e a n b r o u g h t S y r i a n C h r i s t i a n s , P e r s i a n Z o r o a s t r i a n s and I n d i a n B u d d h i s t s i n t o t h e same C e n t r a l A s i a n a r e n a . The Z o r o a s t r i a n o f f s h o o t , M i t h r a i s m , i s s een as an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e M a i t r e y a c u l t b ecause o f a s i m i l a r i t y between t h e f u t u r e Buddha's e p i t h e t , " a j i t a " and t h a t f o r M i t h r a , " i n v i c t u s " . M a n i c h a e i s m e x e r t e d some i n f l u e n c e from t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y onwards and e v e n t u a l l y merged t h e f i g u r e s o f M i t h r a s I n v i c t u s , 22 A j i t a M a i t r e y a and J e s u s C h r i s t i n t o "one c o m p o s i t e s a v i o r f i g u r e " . I n s p i t e o f t h e overwhelming w e i g h t o f h i s t o r i c a l and d o c t r i n a l -46-e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t M a i t r e y a as a f i g u r e i n t r i n s i c t o e a r l y Buddhism, R o b i n s o n s t i l l c l a i m s t h a t t h e i d e a o f a f u t u r e S a v i o r " was p r o b a b l y n o t due t o I r a n i a n i n f l u e n c e s " ; a d d i n g somewhat t e a s i n g l y t h a t " P e r s i a i s not t h e o n l y p l a c e where t h e sun s h i n e s " ! A l t h o u g h I have t h u s f a r n o t seen a t h o r o u g h t r e a t m e n t o f M a i t r e y a b e l i e f p r i o r t o n o n - I n d i a n i n f l u e n c e s , t h i s p r o m i s e s t o be an i n t e r e s t i n g a r e a f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . A n e c e s s a r y s t e p i n d i s c o u n t i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f P e r s i a n i n f l u e n c e s i s a s k i n g t h e way i n w h i c h t h e M a i t r e y a myth i s d i s t i n c t f rom t h e o t h e r m e s s i a n i c movements c u r r e n t i n n o r t h west I n d i a and C e n t r a l A s i a ? F o r i n s t a n c e , M a i t r e y a i s u n l i k e t h e Z o r o a s t r i a n o r C h r i s t i a n s a v i o r s i n t h a t t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n of t h e r o l e o f j u d g e o r c o n q u e r o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h him, 23 nor does a p e r i o d o f c a t a s t r o p h i c t e r r o r p r e c e d e h i s coming. M a i t r e y a c u l t s were e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r t h r o u g h o u t A f g h a n i s t a n , K a s h m i r , A f g h a n i s t a n , Gandhara, M a t h u r a , C e n t r a l A s i a and as f a r west as I r a n . M a i t r e y a , t o g e t h e r w i t h Sakyamuni as a b o d h i s a t t v a , i s t h e b o d h i s a t t v a most f r e q u e n t l y found i n t h e G r e c o - B u d d h i s t s c u l p t u r e a t Gandhara. And i n C e n t r a l A s i a numerous p a i n t i n g s , s t a t u e s and t e x t s t r e a t i n g M a i t r e y a 24 themes have been found. That t h e M a i t r e y a f i g u r e was a b l e t o g a i n s u c h immense p o p u l a r i t y i n t h e f a c e o f numerous o t h e r competing s a v i o r f i g u r e s may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f u t u r e Buddha was d i s t i n g u i s h e d much more c l e a r l y i n t h e minds of t h e d e v o t e e s t h a n t h o u g h t t h u s f a r . Above a l l , t h a t 25 M a i t r e y a i s " t h e e a r l i e s t c u l t b o d h i s a t t v a " , d e s c r i b e d i n t h e P a l i t e x t s , and a t t a i n e d as much i f n o t g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f S r i L anka and S o u t h - E a s t A s i a as i n C e n t r a l A s i a and t h e F a r E a s t s t r o n g l y argue a g a i n s t t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f f u t u r e s a v i o r i n Buddhism i s s o l e l y t h e r e s u l t o f f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e s . -47-3) I n t e r n a l Developments When we a s k t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether o r not t h e i d e a o f a f u t u r e Buddha i s i n t r i n s i c t o t h e B u d d h i s t t e a c h i n g s , two l i n e s o f argument emerge: 1) t h a t t h e i d e a was t a u g h t by t h e Buddha h i m s e l f ; and 2) t h a t t h e i d e a s i m p l y a r o s e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e Buddhas of the P a s t . There a r e s t r o n g a d v o c a t e s f o r t h e l a t t e r p o i n t of v i e w . Matsumoto Bunzaburo t r i e s t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t b e l i e f i n a f u t u r e Buddha d i d not e x i s t d u r i n g t h e l i f e t i m e o f t h e Buddha h i m s e l f n or d u r i n g 2 6 th e p e r i o d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g h i s d e a t h . Abegg b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e f u t u r e Buddha came about as a p a r t o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e s u c c e s s i o n of Buddhas. Warder c o n c u r s and adds t h a t t h e b i o g r a p h i e s o f t h e Buddha i n w h i c h h i s p a s t l i v e s were e l a b o r a t e d upon and i n w h i c h M a i t r e y a i s o f t e n m entioned i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o n l y o f p o p u l a r Buddhism and not p a r t 27 of t h e d o c t r i n e p e r s e r v e d and handed down by t h e d i s c i p l e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no d i r e c t t e x t u a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e i d e a t h a t t h e r e were Buddhas b e f o r e Gautama, o t h e r t r a d i t i o n s s u p p o r t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y . J a i n b e l i e f i n t w e n t y - t h r e e p r e d e c e s s o r s t o M a h a v i r a p r e -28 d a t e s t h e B u d d h i s t b e l i e f . And t h e numerous Buddhas named i n t h e l a t e r P a l i t e x t s a r e o f t e n c i t e d as s o u r c e s f o r c o n s i d e r i n g M a i t r e y a t o be t h e 29 l a s t o f a s e r i e s o f Buddhas. P r o b a b l y t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n about t h e numerous Buddhas o f t h e P a s t i s way i n w h i c h t h e numbers o f Buddhas i n c r e a s e d as t i m e went on. Some c o n s i d e r t h e e a r l i e s t s e r i e s t o c o n s i s t o f t h e t h r e e p r e d e c e s s o r s ' 30 t o Sakyamuni; making M a i t r e y a , t h e f i f t h Buddha. O t h e r s see t h e o l d e s t P a l i t r a d i t i o n as s t r e s s i n g a l i n e a g e o f s i x Buddhas, w i t h Sakyamuni as 31 t h e s e v e n t h and M a i t r e y a , t h e e i g h t . A r t i s t i c a l l y , we know t h a t b e l i e f -48-i n t h e p a s t Buddhas was w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e t i m e o f Asoka b e c a u s e _ 32 o f t h e s t u p a s d e d i c a t e d t o them. And by t h e 1 s t c e n t u r y B.C. t o t h e 1 s t c e n t u r y A.D. i c o n o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h e Seven Buddhas 33 as t h e seven t r e e s o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t s y m b o l i z e M a i t r e y a as a champaka 34 f l o w e r among t h e f o l i a g e . Such symbols a r e used on s i t e s s u c h as t h e B a r h u t r a i l i n g s and t h e SarTci Gateway. By t h e Kushan p e r i o d , r e l i e f s i n Gandhara and Mathura show a row o f seven Buddhas u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d 35 by a n o t h e r r e p r e s e n t i n g M a i t r e y a . As t i m e went on t h e t r a d i t i o n g r a d u a l l y added even more Buddhas so t h a t i n t h e Buddhavamsa t h e s t a n d a r d Seven Buddhas from V i p a s s i t o Gautama a r e augmented by e i g h t e e n o t h e r p r e d e c e s s o r s . Some o f t h e _ /_ l a t e r books of t h e P a l i P i t a k a name t w e n t y - s e v e n w i t h Sakyamuni as t h e 36 t w e n t y - f o u r t h and t h r e e f u t u r e Buddhas. R e f e r e n c e s were a l s o made t o 37 t h e f i f t y - t h r e e Buddhas o f t h e P a s t , t o t h e thousand Buddhas of t h e 38 39 b h a d r a k a l p a and t o k o t i s (10 m i l l i o n s ) o f Buddhas. F i n a l l y , t h e numbers became such t h a t t h e Buddhas were c o n s i d e r e d t o be as i n f i n i t e 40 i n number as t h e sands on t h e banks of t h e Ganges. V a r i o u s t h e o r i e s have been o f f e r e d f o r t h e o r i g i n o f t h e s e groups o f Buddhas. Soper s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l number o f t h r e e p r e d e c e s s o r s t o Gautama was l a t e r expanded t o seven under t h e i n f l u e n c e of P e r s i a n o r Mesopotamian i d e a s a f t e r t h e conquest of A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t . W h i l e Har D a y a l t r a c e s t h e Seven Buddhas t o t h e emphasis i n a n c i e n t b e l i e f on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f seven p l a n e t s ( s u n , moon, mer c u r y , Venus, M a r s , J u p i t e r and S a t u r n ) and t h a t t h e s e Seven Buddhas i n f a c t c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e Seven R s i s , 41 from t h e I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n who a l s o r e p r e s e n t c e l e s t i a l b o d i e s . The k o t i s o f Buddhas, a s i d e from b e i n g a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i m a g i n a t i v e g e n i u s -49-of t h e I n d i a n mind, a r e thought t o have been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s t a r -f i l l e d t r o p i c a l s ky where each s t a r was i m a g i n e d t o be a s e p a r a t e w o r l d governed by i t s own Buddha. Thus t h e o r i g i n o f t h e M a i t r e y a Buddha w i t h i n Buddhism i t s e l f w ould seem t o have sprung from a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f t h e b e l i e f t h a t s i n c e t h e r e were Buddhas i n t h e p a s t , t h e r e must a l s o be a Buddha f o r t h e f u t u r e . F o r t h o s e who would submit t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f a f u t u r e Buddha was t a u g h t by t h e h i s t o r i c a l Buddha h i m s e l f , l i t t l e c o n c r e t e t e x t u a l e v i d e n c e c a n be p r e s e n t e d ; g i v e n t h e unknowable n a t u r e o f t h e f i r s t f i v e hundred y e a r s of o r a l t r a d i t i o n and t h e u n c e r t a i n d a t i n g o f t h e e a r l i e s t t e x t s . However, c e r t a i n arguments have been p r e s e n t e d . Soper c o n s i d e r s t h e M a i t r e y a myth u n i q u e and " u n l i k e a l l o t h e r B u d d h i s t p r o j e c t i o n s a c r o s s space and t i m e . . . n o t m e r e l y a d u p l i c a t i o n o r an e q u i v a l e n t o f something 42 e l s e . " He s u p p o r t s t h i s v i e w by p o i n t i n g out t h a t d u r i n g t h e t i m e t h a t Sakyamuni was c o n s i d e r e d t h e s e v e n t h Buddha i n t h e s e r i e s , M a i t r e y a was t h e o n l y f i g u r e p r o j e c t e d f o r t h e f u t u r e . Not o n l y was a symmetry i n t h e s u c c e s s i o n i g n o r e d , s u c h as h a v i n g seven i n t h e p a s t b a l a n c e d by seven more i n t h e f u t u r e , b u t t h e f u t u r e Buddha and h i s f u t u r e g o l d e n age o f f e r e d a c o m p l e t e escape from t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e w o r l d ' 43 d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f Sakyamuni. B e s i d e s t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e f u t u r e Buddha i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e p e t i t i v e p a t t e r n o f t h e p a s t Buddhas a n o t h e r argument c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f f u t u r e Buddha c o n s t i t u t e d a p a r t o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l B u d d h a ' s t e a c h i n g s i s s t a t e d by P e r i who adduces t h a t s i n c e t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e Buddhas of t h e P a s t was known a t l e a s t d u r i n g -50-o r s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e t i m e of Gautama, M a i t r e y a must have been known 44 x from t h a t t i m e a l s o . B o t h P e r i and Nakamura a l s o a g r e e t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n i s v e r y e a r l y and o f f e r a r c h e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e showing t h a t / 45 i t was a l r e a d y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e t i m e o f Asoka. I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s none o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s a r e s a t i s f y i n g ; m a i n l y because t h e e v i d e n c e i s so s c a n t y and u n r e l i a b l e . Thus q u e s t i o n s s u c h as t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s b a s i c c o n c e p t o f t h e f u t u r e Buddha, i f i t was i n d e e d a component of e a r l i e s t B u d d h i s t b e l i e f , was i n f l u e n c e d by M e d i t e r r a n e a n and P e r s i a n M e s s i a n i s m c o m p r i s e some o f t h e i n n u m e r a b l e q u e s t i o n s on e s c h a t o l o g y t h a t s t i l l a w a i t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n b o t h I n d i a n and C e n t r a l A s i a n B u d d h i s t S t u d i e s . l i b . O r i g i n s of D e v o t i o n a l i s m : P a r a d i s e P erhaps t h e s i n g l e most c o m p e l l i n g f e a t u r e of A m i t a d e v o t i o n a l i s m i s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a r a d i s e of S u k h a v a t i . Whereas t h e o r i g i n of t h e f i g u r e of Amitabha h i m s e l f has been c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e most o b s c u r e _ 46 problems t h e h i s t o r y of t h e Mahayana t r a d i t i o n , t h e v i s i o n s of p a r a d i s e i n Brahmanism, Z o r o a s t r i a n and i n H i n a y a n a Buddhism a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t owards t h e development o f A m i t a ' s P u r e Land. When t h e Mahayana a c a r y a s and P u r e Land M a s t e r s b r o u g h t t h e f r u i t o f t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i c a l and m e d i t a t i o n a l endeavors t o t h e c o n c e p t of p a r a d i s e t h e v i s i o n was a g a i n augmented. Thus p a r a d i s e i n mature Mahayana thought became an e x t r e m e l y complex one, embracing t h e extremes o f a s i m p l e p i e t y t h a t l o n g s f o r a "heaven" t o go t o a f t e r d e a t h t o t h e u l t i m a t e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e e n l i g h t e n e d s t a t e . - 5 1 -1) I n d i a n I n f l u e n c e s I t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e B u d d h i s t s s i m p l y adopted Brahmanic cosmology and made i t i t s own. Concepts s u c h as t h e c y c l i c r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e yugas o r t h e ages o f t h e w o r l d ; t h e s a u c e r - l i k e w o r l d w i t h Mount Meru i n t h e c e n t e r ; t h e b l i s s f u l heavens above and s e a r i n g h e l l s below; 47 a l l r e c a l l t h e p r e - B u d d h i s t cosmos. A m i t a ' s p a r a d i s e shows many s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r t i e s t h e p a r a d i s e s o f t h e Brahmanic gods. 48 F o r example, t h e p a r a d i s e o f Varuna i s s i t u a t e d i n t h e West and i s c a l l e d Mukhya ("the c h i e f " ) o r Sukha ("happy"). Brahma's abode i s c a l l e d A p a r a j i t a ("unconquerable") and h i s t h r o n e A m i t a u j a s ( " l i m i t l e s s 49 s p l e n d o r " o r " l i m i t l e s s power") and i t s n a t u r e , P r a n a ( " l i m i t l e s s l i f e " ) . A c c o r d i n g t o H i n a y a n a t e x t s , I n d r a r e s i d e s i n a c e l e s t i a l p a r a d i s e c o n -s i s t i n g o f a s e r i e s o f seven e n c l o s u r e s , one w i t h i n t h e o t h e r . I n d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l , i t i s t h e N o r t h e r n c o n t i n e n t o f U t t a r a k u r u (Abode o f t h e B l e s t ) w h i c h i s most o f t e n c i t e d as r e s e m b l i n g S u k h a v a t i . The e a r t h i s f l a t and c o v e r e d w i t h p r e c i o u s j e w e l s and g o l d e n s o i l ; t h e r e a r e no d a n g e r s , no d i s c o m f o r t ; and t h e w a t e r has t h e e i g h t good q u a l i t i e s . T h i s a r c h e t y p a l model found i n t e x t s as e a r l y as t h e A i t a r e y a - B r a h m a n a and r e i t e r a t e d i n t h e Ramayana and t h e M a h l b h i r a t a " ^ became p a r t o f t h e common l o r e o f b o t h Hindus and B u d d h i s t s . Thus not o n l y do B u d d h i s t 52 t e x t s a l s o d e s c r i b e U t t a r a k u r a but t h e B u d d h i s t s p a r a d i s e s o f A b h i r a t i , T u s i t a , T r a y a s t r i m s a a l l f o l l o w t h e same schema: a c e n t r a l d e i t y , s u r -rounded by o t h e r d e i t i e s , d w e l l i n g i n a p a l a c e w i t h m a g i c a l g a r d e n s , w a t e r s and b i r d s . However upon c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e Hind u and t h e B u d d h i s t p a r a d i s e s emerge. " . . . U t t a r a k u r u i s a p r o j e c t i o n -52-i n t h e space o f t h a t g o l d e n age a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t i m e when man 53 - — en j o y e d h a p p i n e s s b e f o r e g r a d u a l c o r r u p t i o n . " I n c o n t r a s t S u k h a v a t i i s d e s c r i b e d as a p a r a d i s e c r e a t e d t h r o u g h t h e power o f t h e b o d h i s a t t v a Dharmakara's vow. I n a d d i t i o n , w i t h r e b i r t h i n t h e Western P a r a d i s e , t h e b e l i e v e r h i m s e l f i s q u a l i t a t i v e l y changed. The s e n s u a l p l e a s u r e s , an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e Hin d u p a r a d i s e s d i s a p p e a r so t h a t i n A m i t a ' s p a r a d i s e , women a r e r e b o r n as men and a l l e a r t h y d e s i r e s a r e b a n i s h e d . The p h y s i c a l l y b l e m i s h e d a r e b o r n whole and i n l a t e r Mahayana, even t h e i c c h a n t i k a c o u l d be r e b o r n i n t o A m i t a ' s S u k u h a v a t i . Most i m p o r t a n t of a l l , u n l i k e t h e Hin d u heavens, t h e P u r e Land d i d n o t m e r e l y r e p r e s e n t an e n j o y a b l e r e s p i t e from t h e s t r u g g l e o f s p i r i t u a l advancement b u t a p l a c e o r s t a t e of t h e f i n a l r e b i r t h b e f o r e n i r v a n a . T h e r e f o r e S u k h a v a t i can be seen as a v a r i a t i o n on t h e models found i n Brahmanic and Hin d u l i t e r a t u r e b u t w i t h a new s o t e r i o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t i s d i s t i n c t l y B u d d h i s t . 2) F o r e i g n I n f l u e n c e s The f o r e i g n p r o t o t y p e s f o r t h e Wes t e r n P a r a d i s e most o f t e n m entioned 54 a r e Greek and P e r s i a n . The seven w a l l s , a common element i n B u d d h i s t p a r a d i s e s i s found i n H e l l e n i s t i c r e l i g i o n and i s thought t o have been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o I n d i a t h r o u g h I r a n . T u c c i adds t h a t t h e b a s i s f o r the scheme i n I n d i a l a y i n t h e seven p l a n e t s d e s c r i b e d i n H e l l e n i s t i c 56 and I r a n i a n a s t r o l o g i c a l t e x t s . A n o t h e r common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e i r w e s t e r n o r i e n t a t i o n : t h e P e r s i a n " V a r " , t h e Greek " I s l a n d s o f t h e B l e s s e d " and t h e Gardens o f H e s p e r i d a e a l s o l i e i n t h e W e s t . ^ E l i o t p o i n t s out t h a t t h e h i g h e s t o f t h e f o u r p a r a d i s e s i n t h e -53-A v e s t a i s c a l l e d t h e " l a n d o f e n d l e s s l i g h t " and t h a t i n h i s o p i n i o n a l l t h e main f e a t u r e s o f Amitabha's p a r a d i s e a r e P e r s i a n e x c e p t f o r i t s c r e a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e b o d h i s a t t v a ' s vow. He a l s o d e n i e s t h e s i g n i -f i c a n c e o f any s i m i l a r i t i e s between S u k h a v a t i and any of t h e e a r l i e r B u d d h i s t p a r a d i s e s s u c h as A b h i r a t i o r T u s i t a , s t a t i n g t h a t i t "appears s u d d e n l y i n t h e h i s t o r y o f Buddhism as something e x o t i c g r a f t e d a d r o i t l y 58 on t h e p a r e n t t r u n k b u t sometimes o u t g r o w i n g i t . " Pas s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s g r a f t was perhaps not so sudden as p r e -c o n c e i v e d . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a u t h o r ( s ) o f t h e s e s u t r a s may have p u r p o s e l y i n c o r p o r a t e d H i n d u , Greek and P e r s i a n e lements i n t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e P u r e Land S u t r a s i n o r d e r t o make t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l 59 n o t i o n s more p a l a t a b l e t o l a y b e l i e v e r s . The a b i l i t y o f t h e composers o f t h e s e s u t r a s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f Amitabha's P u r e Land t o a l l o f t h e o t h e r P u r e Lands may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d r a m a t i c s u c c e s s o f t h i s c u l t o v e r t h e o t h e r Buddhas o f t h e Ten D i r e c t i o n s . Thus whether by a c c i d e n t o r by d e s i g n , Amitabha's P u r e Land r e p r e s e n t s an e c l e c t i c v i s i o n o f a p a r a d i s e o f p a r a d i s e s . 3) I n t e r n a l Developments I n t h e P a l i Canon, t h e Maha-sudassana s u t t a n t a s t a n d s as a c l e a r p r o t o t y p e f o r t h e imagery found i n t h e Pu r e Land S u t r a s . A l t h o u g h t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f S u k h a v a t i i s by f a r more e l a b o r a t e and o t h e r - w o r l d l y , s e v e r a l e x p r e s s i o n s found i n t h e S m a l l e r - s u k h a v a t i s u t r a a r e i d e n t i c a l 60 t o passages i n t h e Maha-sudassana s u t t a n t a . The l a t e r Apadaria a l s o c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a b u d d h a - k h e t t a w h i c h i s a l s o sometimes i d e n t i f i e d as 61 o f t h e P a r a d i s e o f A m i t a . -54-W i t h t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of Buddhas c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e new Mahasanghika 62 buddhology and emerging Mahayana i d e a l s , t h e concept o f b u d d h a - k g e t r a t o o k on new i m p o r t a n c e . Each Buddha had h i s own B u d d h a - f i e l d " w h i c h 63 he g u i d e s and " r i p e n s " i n s p i r i t u a l i t y . Each k g e t r a was made up o f many w o r l d s and u n i v e r s e s w i t h t h e i r own heavens and h e l l s and v a r i e t i e s o f s e n t i e n t b e i n g s . Aksobhya ( " I m p e r t u r b a b l e " ) Buddha and h i s E a s t e r n 64 z_ P u r e Land, A b h i r a t i i s perhaps t h e o l d e s t o f t h e s e c r e a t i o n s . Sakyamuni and V i m a l a k i r t i e n a b l e t h e assembled b e l i e v e r s t o see t h i s p a r a d i s e i n • ' / 65 t h e A g t a s a h a r i k a - p r a j n a p a r a m i t a and t h e V i m a l a k i r t i - n i r d e s a r e s p e c t i v e l y . R e b i r t h i n t o A b h i r a t i c o u l d be a t t a i n e d by m o r a l a c t s o r by h e a r i n g 66 Aksobhya's name. Amitabha's P u r e Land, produced by n o t one, but t w e n t y - f o u r and l a t e r , by f o r t y - e i g h t vows and by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on a l l t h e e x c e l l e n c e s of c o u n t l e s s Buddha-lands soon g a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y over A b h i r a t i and t h e P u r e Realms of a l l t h e o t h e r Buddhas. K e t u m a t i , t h e c i t y o f M a i t r e y a ' s d e s c e n t as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e d e v e l o p e d M a i t r e y a s u t r a s and t h e Western P a r a d i s e o f Amitabha as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e S u k a h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a s seem t o be v a r i a t i o n s on t h e same theme. I n f a c t , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of p a r a d i s e s i n t h e t e x t s became so " s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t i m e t h a t nobody d a r e d t o a l t e r i t s 67 scheme..." Because of c l e a r p r e c e d e n t f o r S u k h a v a t i found i n t h e b u d d h a - k g e t r a , S u k h a v a t i i s c o n s i d e r e d by some s c h o l a r s t o be a B u d d h i s t . • 6 8 c r e a t i o n . From t h e second c e n t u r y A.D. onwards, w i t h t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of Madhyamika and Y o g a c a r a t h o u g h t , Amitabha's P u r e Land began t o be i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d i n g t o e n t i r e l y new m e t a p h y s i c a l p r e m i s e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was not embraced by t h e l a i t y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o m e n t i o n i t h e r e because i t e v e n t u a l l y p r o v i d e d much of t h e i n s p i r a t i o n - 5 5 -f o r t h e P u r e Land m e d i t a t i o n m a s t e r s and d o g m a t i s t s i n C h i n a . The r e v o l u t i o n a r y development i n t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f B u d d h i s t s a l v a t i o n a l r e a d y b r o u g h t about i n Amitabha b e l i e f by n e u t r a l i z i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f karma, was g i v e n new p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e n d e r i n g s based on t h e Madyamika /_ 69 concept of s u n y a t a and t h e Y o g a c a r a d o c t r i n e of the . T r i k a y a . The P u r e Land of Amitabha as s u n y a t a i s d e s c r i b e d as " n e i t h e r a m y t h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y nor a m e t a p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y ; n o r ... a n e g a t i v e n o t h i n g n e s s " . ^ F o r t h e Y o g a c a r i n s , A m i t a i n h i s P u r e Land i s p e r c e i v e d by t h e b o d h i s a t t v a s i n h i s sambhoga-kaya ("enjoyment-body") w h i l e t o t h o s e i n t h i s w o r l d he a p p e ars i n h i s n i r m a n a - k a y a ( " a p p a r i t i o n - b o d y " ) . E v e n t u a l l y f o r modern C h i n e s e and J a panese B u d d h i s t s , t h e P u r e Land becomes synomymous t h e 71 s t a t e of e n l i g h t e n m e n t . I l i a . C e n t r a l C o n c e p t s : L a t t e r Days "The t i m e s a r e come When f l o o d e d by t h e r i s i n g t i d e o r i g n o r a n c e Buddha's r e l i g i o n seems t o b r e a t h e i t s l a s t . . " 7 2 I n t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y when Vasubandhu. w r o t e t h e above v e r s e he was e x p r e s s i n g what was f o r him and f o r i n n u m e r a b l e B u d d h i s t s b e f o r e and a f t e r him, a s t a t e m e n t of f a c t . B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o l o g y d e s c r i b e s e r a s of t h e measured d e c l i n e and d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f r e l i g i o n . P r e d i c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e Dharma a r e n o t o n l y among t h e most a n c i e n t and o f t - r e p e a t e d themes i n Buddhism, but have e x e r c i s e d a d e c i d e d 73 i n f l u e n c e upon t h e r e l i g i o u s h i s t o r y . T h e i r i n f l u e n c e has been s u c h t h a t Conze s t a t e s : " t h e whole of l a t e r Buddhism p r o c e e d s under t h e shadow 74 o f t h i s s ense of d e c l i n e . " Even a b r i e f l o o k a t t h e B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n I n d i a shows t h a t i t i s c o n c e p t u a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y b o t h u n i v e r s a l -56-and u n i q u e . D e s p i t e t h e enormous s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s "sense of d e c l i n e " i n Buddhism, B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o l o g i c a l n o t i o n s a r e o f t e n seen by modern s c h o l a r s as n o t h i n g more t h a n t h e e m b a r a s s i n g remnants of t h e B u d d h i s t a d o p t i o n o f Brahmanic cosmology; as a n o t h e r v e r s i o n o f t h e K a l i Yuga and t h e K a l k i n a v a t a r . I n a g e n e r a l s e n s e , t h i s i s t r u e . ^ ~ * However, i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t t h e B u d d h i s t w o r l d - v i e w r e p r e s e n t s a d i s t i n c t s h i f t from t h e V e d i c w o r l d - v i e w . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e v e r s i b l e G o l d e n Age o f t h e Vedas, t h e B u d d h i s t coming o f M a i t r e y a o f f e r a " t e r m i n u s beyond w h i c h t h e o r d i n a r y i m a g i n a t i o n . . . h a d no power t o p e n e t r a t e , an 7 6 end of change, a b l i s s f u l s toppage of t i m e . " Karma, w h i c h had s e r v e d as a " s o u r c e o f c o n s o l a t i o n t o t h e p r e - B u d d h i s t i c I n d i a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . " becomes a mechanism t o be t r a n s c e n d e d " . ^ H i s t o r y and q u a s i - h i s t o r y were 78 much more i m p o r t a n t t o Buddhism t h a n t o Brahmanism. Thus t h e B u d d h i s t v i e w of t h e cosmic c y c l e i s an e x i s t e n t i a l and h i s t o r i c a l one whereas 79 t h e Brahmanic v i e w i s a r c h a i c and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l . The e x i s t e n t i a l and h i s t o r i c a l c o s m i c v i e w i n Buddhism g i v e s r i s e t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e Dharma o f t h e c o n t i n e n t w o r l d as opposed t o t h e immutable, e t e r n a l Dhafma. I t i s t h e f o r m e r Dharma, a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g s of Gautama t h a t undergoes d e c l i n e . A p o s s i b l e n u c l e u s f o r t h e i d e a of t h i s d e c l i n e i n Buddhism may be found 80 i n a P a l i a c c o u n t r e l a t i n g t h e o r d i n a t i o n of t h e Sangha's f i r s t nun, P a j a p a t i . Towards t h e end o f t h i s a c c o u n t , t h e Buddha s t a t e s t h a t i f women had n o t been a l l o w e d i n t o t h e O r d e r , t h i s h o l y r e l i g i o n would have endured f o r a thousand y e a r s . But now t h a t t h e y have been a d m i t t e d , 81 t h e p e r i o d o f t h e True Law would o n l y l a s t f o r f i v e hundred y e a r s . W h i l e t h i s s o u r c e i s o f t e n c i t e d as t h e b a s i s of t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e True Law w o u l d p e r i s h a f t e r f i v e hundred y e a r s , t h e f u l l l i f e --57-span of t h e Dharma was not y e t e x h a u s t e d . P a l i s o u r c e s as w e l l as many 82 of t h e t e x t s composed between t h e second c e n t u r y B.C. and t h e f i r s t 83 c e n t u r y A.D. p r o p h e s y t h e d e c l i n e of t h e Law i n t h r e e s t a g e s . Each s t a g e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f Dharma: 1) t h e True Dharma (Saddharma); 2) t h e C o u n t e r f e i t Dharm ( P r a t i r u p a k a dharma), and 3) t h e Degenerate Dharma (Pascimadharma). D u r i n g t h e f i r s t s t a g e , t h e r e l i g i o n b e a r s f r u i t and e n l i g h t e n m e n t i s p o s s i b l e . D u r i n g t h e second s t a g e , t h e r e l i g i o n l a c k s s u b s t a n c e and e n l i g h t e n m e n t i s r a r e . D u r i n g 84 t h e f i n a l s t a g e , t h e r e l i g i o n d ecays and e n l i g h t e n m e n t i s i m p o s s i b l e . Even though t h r e e s t a g e - e s c h a t o l o g y was t h e most p o p u l a r t h e o r y and t h e one w h i c h t h e C h i n e s e l a t e r a d o p t e d , f i v e and t e n s t a g e e s c h a t o l o g i e s 85 a r e found i n o t h e r s o u r c e s . S i n c e i t s a d o p t i o n by Buddhaghosa i n t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y , f i v e s t a g e e s c h a t o l o g y has been p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Theravada t r a d i t i o n . The Anagatavamsa d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o c e s s as t h e " F i v e D i s a p p e a r a n c e s " t h a t a r e t o t a k e p l a c e f o l l o w i n g t h e Buddha's d e a t h : 1) t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f A t t a i n m e n t ( N i r v a n a ) ; 2) t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e of method ( p r e c e p t s ) ; 3) t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e of l e a r n i n g ( t r i p i t a k a ) ; 4) t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f symbols ( r o b e s and b o w l s ) ; and 5) « 8 6 t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e of r e l i c s . A Mahayana s u t r a , Manasamnipata s u t r a a l s o d e s c r i b e s t h e f i v e s t a g e s as t h o s e i n w h i c h t h e monks w i l l e x c e l l i n 1) e n l i g h t e n m e n t , 2) m e d i t a t i o n , 3) e r u d i t i o n , 4) f o u n d i n g m o n a s t a r i e s and 87 5) d i s p u t i n g about t h e Dharma as i t d i s a p p e a r s . D i v e r s e c h r o n o l o g i e s were a f f i x e d t o t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f d e c l i n e ; u s u a l l y u t i l i z i n g m u l t i p l e s of f i v e hundred y e a r s . The d u r a t i o n of t h e t r u e Dharma was u s u a l l y s e t a t f i v e hundred y e a r s or a m i l l e n i u m . I n 88 some Mahayana s u t r a s , t h e words " . . d u r i n g t h e l a s t f i v e hundred y e a r age, -58-when t h e True Dharma i s i n ruins"became a s t e r e o t y p e p h r a s e . P r e d i c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e o n s e t of t h e L a t t e r Days c l i m b from 1,000 y e a r s t o 1,500, 89 2,000, 3,000, 5,000 and 12,000 y e a r s i n t h e f u t u r e . Other s o u r c e s c i t e 90 d a t e s as f a r as 30,000 and 5,670,000,000 y e a r s hence. The g e n e r a l r u l e i s : t h e l a t e r t h e a c c o u n t , t h e l o n g e r t h e l i f e o f t h e Dharma. An e a r l y i n s t a n c e o f how t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e Dharma was p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e n g t h e n e d comes from t h e g r e a t e s t p e r i o d o f m e s s i a n i c e x p e c t a t i o n i n I n d i a . The p e r i o d between t h e a r r i v a l A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t and t h e conquest of K i n g K a n i s h k a ( c a . I l l B.C. - 1 A.D.) was marked by i n c e s s a n t i n v a s i o n s from t h e n o r t h . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e monks i n N o r t h West I n d i a were r e d u c e d t o e i t h e r s t a y i n g and r e b u i l d i n g r u i n e d s t u p a s and m o n a s t e r i e s d u r i n g t h e p e a c e f u l i n t e r v a l s o r r e t r e a t i n g t o c a l m e r r e g i o n s i n t h e S o u t h . The d e c l i n e o f r e l i g i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o an e v e n t r e c o u n t e d /• 91 i n t h e Kosambakavastu o f t h e V i n a y a . I n Kausambi, where t h e l a v i s h l y s u p p o r t e d monks had a l r e a d y s c a n d a l i z e d t h e r e t r e a t i n g monks fr o m t h e N o r t h by t h e i r m o r a l l a x i t y , a h o r r i f y i n g event t a k e s p l a c e . A t an u p o s a t h a day assemblage of a l l t h e monks i n t h e c i t y , S udhara, t h e o n l y a r h a t l e f t i n I n d i a i s k i l l e d by a d i s c i p l e o f t h e T r i p i t a k a M a s t e r . The a r h a t ' s d e a t h i s avenged by t h e d e a t h o f t h e T r i p i t a k a m a s t e r , t h u s d e p r i v i n g b o t h t h o s e who s t r o v e i n t h e p a t h o f d o c t r i n e ( b a h u s r u t a s ) and t h o s e who s t r o v e i n t h e p a t h of t h e p r e c e p t s ( s i l a s ) o f t h e i r l e a d e r s . The e n s u i n g d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e communities i s s a i d t o have l e d t o t h e e x t i n c t i o n of t h e Law. The r e i g n o f K i n g K a n i s h k a and t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e Kushana Dynasty i n t r o d u c e d a new p e r i o d of h i s t o r y and t h u s a f r e s h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o n . S i n c e t h e Dharma had s u r v i v e d t h e t u r m o i l of t h e p r e v i o u s -59-age i t seemed n a t u r a l t o assume t h a t i t would c o n t i n u e f o r a t l e a s t a n o t h e r f i v e hundred y e a r s . New s u t r a s such as t h e M a i t r e y a s u t r a of t h e E k o t t a r a g a m a (one o f t h e s i x C h i n e s e M a i t r e y a s u t r a s ) were composed. The S a r v a s t i v a d i n s emerged as a dominant f o r c e a t t h i s t i m e and t h o s e who were a c t i v e i n t h e p r o p a g a t i o n of Buddhism i n C h i n a were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e development o f m e s s i a n i c i d e a s . A f t e r t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y , I n d i a n Buddhism began i t s s l o w d e c l i n e and by t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y had d i s a p p e a r e d from t h e c o u n t r y o f i t s b i r t h . M e a n w h i l e , Buddhism was b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y p r o p o g a t e d t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s i n s o u t h e a s t A s i a and t h e F a r E a s t . The end was d e l a y e d and new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e e s c h a t o n were n e c e s s a r y . The s t o r y of t h e Buddha's Bowl, i l l u s t r a t i n g subsequent a t t i t u d e s t o t h e end o f t h e Law, l i k e n s t h e Buddha's Dharma t o h i s b e g g i n g b o w l . A f t e r t h e Buddha's bowl was b r o k e n i n t o p i e c e s by t h e e v i l K i n g M i h i r a k u l a , i t f l e w towards t h e N o r t h . T h e r e , t h e p e o p l e r e v e r e n t l y showered i t w i t h o f f e r i n g s and because o f t h e e f f i c a c y of t h e Buddha i t became whole a g a i n . The Buddha's bowl "'...once more became by i t s e l f such as i t had been p r e v i o u s l y , w i t h o u t 92 any d i f f e r e n c e . ' " The bowl t h e n c o n t i n u e d i t s j o u r n e y t o t h e c o u n t r i e s of Gandhara, P e r s i a , C h i n a , C e y l o n , and r e t u r n e d t o Madhyadesa. F i n a l l y , i t ascended t o T u s i t a Heaven and descended t o Sugara's p a l a c e a t t h e bottom of t h e 93 ocean and t h e r e a w a i t s t h e advent of M a i t r e y a . l i b . C e n t r a l C o n c e p t s : D e v o t i o n I t i s a common p r a c t i c e f o r h i s t o r i a n s t o i n t r o d u c e t h e e n d l e s s l y v a r i a g a t e d l a n d s c a p e of t h e B u d d h i s t t e a c h i n g s by d e l i n e a t i n g two b r o a d -60-p a r a l l e l l i n e s o f development: d e v o t i o n a l i s m and s p e c u l a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y . The d e v o t i o n a l a p p r o a c h , dominated by t h e i n t e n s i t y o f human l o n g i n g , i s e p i t o m i z e d by t h e a t t a i n m e n t of s a l v a t i o n though b e l i e f i n a p u r e l i f e , t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f m e r i t t h r o u g h w o r s h i p and i n t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e 94 Buddha's name, h i s vow and h i s P u r e Land. I n c o n t r a s t , t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l a p p r o a c h i s e p i t o m i z e d by t h e a t t a i n m e n t of n i r v a n a t h r o u g h a c e l i b a t e l i f e , t h e m a s t e r y o f v a s t e p i t e s m o l o g i c a l and o n t o l o g i c a l systems and t h e c u l -t i v a t i o n o f i n s i g h t t h r o u g h m e d i t a t i o n . I t i s b o t h assumed and s t a t e d t h a t t h e d e v o t i o n a l a p p r o a c h i s i n f e r i o r t o t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l . D e v o t i o n i s t h e consequence o f t h e layman's i g n o r a n c e whereas p h i l o s o p h y i s t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e monk's wisdom. Upon c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n however, such b r o a d d i s t i n c t i o n s become i n a d e q u a t e and t h e p a r a l l e l l i n e s o f d e v e l o p -ment a r e more c o r r e c t l y drawn as l i n e s o f dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n . That d e v o t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s were f a v o u r e d by t h e l a i t y and t h a t t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n of t h e s e p r a c t i c e s i n t o t h e Sangha r e q u i r e d l e g i t m i z a t i o n cannot be d e n i e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , d e v o t i o n a l elements i n r i t u a l w o r s h i p (puja) of t h e Buddha, _ . 9 5 S t u p a , and Dhatu i s found e a r l y i n t h e l i f e o f t h e Sangha. D o u b t l e s s , even w i t h o u t any p a r t i c u l a r p r e s s u r e from l a y d e v o t e e s , monks soon d i s c o v e r e d t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e d e v o t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r own m e d i t a t i o n a l and s p i r i t u a l e x e r c i s e s . Thus t h e d e v o t i o n a l and t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l were c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d from t h e e a r l y days of Buddhism and t h e r e was p r o b a b l y not as much c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n t h e minds of t h e e a r l y B u d d h i s t s t h e m s e l v e s as we, f r o m a t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y p e r s p e c t i v e may w i s h t o p r o j e c t upon them. The acknowledged s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l a p p r o a c h has a l s o l e d numerous s c h o l a r s t o a s c r i b e t h e p r e s e n c e o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m i n 96 Buddhism t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r I n d i a n r e l i g i o n s ? B h a k t i ,a complex - 6 1 -t e r m c o n n o t i n g a " p a s s i o n a t e , s e l f - o b l i v i o u s d e v o t i o n t o a d e i t y who i n 97 t u r n bestows h i s g r a c e ( p r a s a d a o r anugraha , on t h e d e v o t e e , i s i n -c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e r e a s o n e d calm o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l Buddhism. Thus s c h o l a r s have v a r i o u s l y p o i n t e d t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f pre-Brahmanic 98 99 authochthonous r e l i g i o u s o f I n d r a and Varuna t o t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s o f t h e Upanishads"'"^ and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Bhagavata and K r i s h n a worship."^"*" To say t h a t b h a k t i , an i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l and 102 u n i v e r s a l way of b e i n g r e l i g i o u s comes fr o m an authochthonous s o u r c e i s m e a n i n g l e s s because t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f p r o f o u n d and l o v i n g f e e l i n g s a r e a b a s i c component o f b e i n g human; whether m y s t e r i o u s l y p r i m i t i v e o r n o t . A g a i n , t o o l i t t l e i s known about t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e e a r l y b h a k t i c u l t s t h a t e v o l v e d from t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y B.C. onwards ( i n c l u d i n g t h e P a n c a v a t r a , t h e B h a g a v a t a , t h e P a s u p a t a and l a t e r , t h e v a r i o u s S a i v i t e and V a i s n a v i t e c u l t s ) t o a s s i g n a d e f i n i t e f l o w o f i n f l u e n c e i n any d i r e c t i o n . I n f a c t , e v i d e n c e seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t b h a k t i i n Buddhism and i n t h e Brahmanic-Hindu t r a d i t i o n s a r o s e con-c u r r e n t l y . By 1B.C. - 1A.D. b o t h t r a d i t i o n s were s i m i l a r l y r e j e c t i n g what had become f o r m u l a e f o r s a l v a t i o n , whether t h e y were t h e i n e f f e c t i v e r i t u a l s o f V e d i c s a c r i f i c e s o r t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y r i g i d p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e o l d widom s c h o o l . E l i o t o b s e r v e s t h a t t h i s " c r a v i n g f o r a g e n t l e r 103 and more e m o t i o n a l w o r s h i p " o c c u r r e d i n many c o u n t r i e s a t t h a t t i m e . I n a moment of s p e c u l a t i v e musing p e r m i t t e d o n l y t o t h e p r o v e n s c h o l a s t i c , Conze a s k s : "How can we ac c o u n t f o r t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t Buddhism, j u s t a t t h e t i m e when C h r i s t i a n i t y i t s e l f a r o s e , underwent a r a d i c a l r e f o r m o f i t s b a s i c t e n e t s w h i c h made i t much more s i m i l a r t o C h r i s t i a n i t y t h a n i t had been b e f o r e ? " 1 0 4 F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s u r g e o f -62-d e v o t i o n a l i s m t h a t t o o k p l a c e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Common E r a would be a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s t u d y o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m i n t h e H i s t o r y of R e l i g i o n s . A more r a d i c a l a p p r o a c h , t a k e n by Har D a y a l , i s t h a t t h e B u d d h i s t i n n o v a t i o n s i n b h a k t i i n f l u e n c e d t h e Hin d u b h a k t a s . The e a r l i e s t s o u r c e s f o r b h a k t i i n Buddhism r e v o l v e around terms s r a d d h a ( f a i t h ) and b h a t t i ( d e v o t i o n ) . " * " ^ 6 B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , Sraddha i s d e f i n e d as t h e b r o a d e r c a t e g o r y w i t h b h a k t i as a s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t w i t h i n i t . Saddha"'"^ i s an o l d e r ( V e d i c ) and more d e v e l o p e d t e r m , i m p l y i n g a " f i r m f a i t h and c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e way of t h e Dhamma ( t h e Magga) must l e a d one a s s u r e d l y t o t h e g o a l o f Nibbiria''"''^ I n t h e Maj j ima-nikaya"'"^ saddha was c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as b e i n g o f two k i n d s : a k a r a v a t x saddha o r " r a t i o n a l f a i t h " and a i r i u l i k a saddha o r " b a s e l e s s f a i t h " . P r a c t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , " r a t i o n a l f a i t h " i s a t t a i n e d by p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e s t a g e s o f f i r s t , a c c e p t i n g t h e t e a c h i n g s on a p r o v i s i o n a l l e v e l , t h e n e x e r t i n g t h e e f f o r t t o f o l l o w them, and f i n a l l y , d i r e c t l y e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e t r u t h f o r oneself."'""'"^ Saddha i s l i k e n e d t o a seed, a c h a r i o t o f s a l v a t i o n , t h e b e s t t r e a s u r e o f man and t h a t w h i c h opens t h e gateway o f immortality.''""'""'" I t s c o u n t e r f e i t v e r s i o n , " b a s e l e s s f a i t h " , was c o n s i d e r e d a p i t i f u l s t a t e ; mere unexamined and i r r a t i o n a l a c c e p t a n c e . T h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between t h e two t y p e s o f srad d h a may be t h e o r i g i n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d e n e g r a t i o n o f b h a k t i i n Buddhism. D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e term b h a t t i appears r a r e l y i n t h e B u d d h i s t s c r i p t u r e s and f a i l s t o c a r r y t h e f u l l meaning o f t h e word b h a k t i i n _ _ _ 112 th e Mahayana s e n s e , i t does appear e a r l y i n P a l i works. The e a r l y b h a k t i p o e t r y i n t h e Apadana, t h e T h e r a g a t h a and t h e Th e r T g a t h a c o n s i s t s of j o y o u s passages l a u d i n g ( v a n d a n a ) , p r a y i n g ( s t u t i ) and w o r s h i p p i n g -63-(puja") t h e Buddha. They r e v e a l t h e e m o t i o n a l r a t h e r t h a n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s who have embarked s u c c e s s f u l l y on t h e p a t h and a r e g r a t e f u l t o t h e one w i t h o u t whom t h e p a t h , w o u l d n o t have been t a u g h t . Thus b h a t t i , i s t h e e x p r e s s i o n , o f f a i t h i n one of t h e T h r e e T r e a s u r e s — t h e Buddha. The r i t u a l s o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m began d u r i n g t h e l i f e t i m e o f t h e Buddha: b e a r i n g o f f e r i n g s , l a y b e l i e v e r s e a g e r l y sought him out as a g r a n t e r o f boons and a remover of a f f l i c t i o n s ; monks, a f t e r r e c e i v i n g t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s , c i r c u m a m b u l a t e d h i s p e r s o n b e f o r e t a k i n g t h e i r l e a v e ; and e v e n t u a l l y Ananda, h i s c l o s e s t d i s c i p l e became t h e symbol o f 114 p e r s o n a l d e v o t i o n towards t h e Buddha. The p r o c e s s of t h e d e i f i c a t i o n o f the Buddha began soon a f t e r the Buddha's d e a t h and d e v o t i o n t o him was demonstated s u c c e s s i v e l y by r e v e r e n c e t o h i s r e l i c s , s y m b ols, stupas"'""'" and f i n a l l y by t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y , t o h i s image, t h e o b j e c t s w h i c h a t f i r s t s i m p l y s e r v e d as r e m i n d e r s of h i s l i f e became r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f h i s d i v i n i t y . The b h a k t i movement i n Buddhism w h i c h had been g a t h e r i n g s t r e n g t h s i n c e t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y B.C. t o o k an u n p r e c e d e n t e d l e a p i n t h e p o s t -Asokan p e r i o d . B h a k t i c u l t s o r g a n i z e d around t h e w o r s h i p o f I n d i a n Buddhas and b o d h i s a t t v a s emerged. C o n c u r r e n t l y , t h e s e a r c h f o r new answers t h a t had o c c u p i e d t h e Sangha as e a r l y as t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y was r e s u l t i n g i n s c h i s m s and t h e emergence o f i n f l u e n t i a l new s e c t s ; t h e most i m p o r t a n t f o r d e v o t i o n a l i s m were t h e Mahasartghikas who e x p l o r e d new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s on t h e e t e r n a l and t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s of t h e Buddha and emphasized t h e needs of t h e l a i t y . These f o r c e s , i m p e l l i n g r a p i d and f u n d a m e n t a l changes were g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d by a new u r g e n c y b o r n of e s c h a t o l o g i c a l i d e a s . -64-From t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y B.C. t o t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y A.D. Buddhism was s u b j e c t t o t h e t h o r o u g h g o i n g s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a l and p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l s a f f l i c t i n g n o r t h west I n d i a . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e B u d d h i s t s f e a r e d t h a t t h e t r u e r e l i g i o n was b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d and a b s o r b e d by t h e Brahmans, B h a g a v a t a s , S a i v i t e s and i n n u m e r a b l e o t h e r g r o u p s ; s u f f e r e d from t h e l o s s of r o y a l p a t r o n a g e w i t h t h e f a l l o f t h e Mauryans, and w o r s t of a l l , b rooded o v e r t h e s t a g n a t i o n t h a t was s e t t l i n g i n t o t h e m o n a s t i c o r d e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y i n t e r p r e t e d t h e d i s l o c a t i o n s of t h e age i n e s c h a t o l o g i c a l terms. A r h a t s h i p was no l o n g e r v i a b l e and b o d h i s a t t v a h o o d became t h e g o a l . I n t h e d e g e n e r a t e age t h e d o c t r i n e s of compassion and t r a n s f e r o f m e r i t r e p l a c e d t h e r i g o r s o f s e l f - e f f o r t and k a r m i c r e t r i b u t i o n . Gautama was gone but t h e Buddha was e t e r n a l — and t h e r e were i n f i n i t e numbers of Buddhas, B o d h i s a t t v a s and t h e i r P u r e Lands t o w o r s h i p . By t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y A.D. t h e o r g a n i c f u s i o n between t h e new d o c t r i n e s of t h e b o d h i s a t t v a p a t h and t h e spontaneous e c s t a c y of t h e b h a k t i movement had t a k e n p l a c e , p r o d u c i n g t h e "Buddhism of Devotion"."'""^ -65-F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r I I 1. R u d o l f K. Bultmann, H i s t o r y and E s c h a t o l o g y ( E d i n b u r g h : E d i n b u r g h U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957), p.23. 2. O t t o , R u d o l f , M y s t i c i s m E a s t and West, ( T o r o n t o : The M a c m i l l a n Co., 1932; r e p r i n t ed., 1970), p.231. 3. T h i s i d e a i s d e v e l o p e d i n M i r c e a E l i a d e ' s Myth o f t h e E t e r n a l R e t u r n (New Y o r k : Pantheon Books, 1954). 4. F r a n k l i n E d g e r t o n , The Bhagayad G i t a (New Y o r k : H a r p e r T o r c h b o o k s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p.23. 5. F o r more d e t a i l s on t h i s c o n cept see J . Gonda, A s p e c t s of E a r l y  V i s n u i s m ( U t r e c h t : 1 9 5 4 ) , pp.124-163. 6. Leon H u r v i t z , S c r i p t u r e o f t h e L o t u s Blossom of t h e F i n e Dharma (New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976), p.240. 7. I b i d . , p.239. 8. S u v i r a J a i s w a l , The O r i g i n and Development o f V a i g n a v i s m ( D e l h i : Munshiram M a n o h a r l a l , 1 9 6 7 ) , pp.150-151. 9. F o r t h e v a r i o u s l i s t s o f a v a t a r s w h i c h v a r y i n name and number see: Majumdar, The H i s t o r y and C u l t u r e o f t h e I n d i a n P e o p l e , 3:415-416. 10. J a i s w a l , V a i g n a v i s m , p.121. 11. Majumdar, H i s t o r y and C u l t u r e of t h e I n d i a n P e o p l e , 3:216. 12. J a i s w a l , V a i s n a v i s m , p.119, 130. 13. I b i d . , 132. 14. I b i d . , 131-132. 15. J a i s w a l c i t i e s s e c t i o n s from t h e L a l i t a v i s t a r a where t h e Buddha i s c a l l e d narayana-sthamavan and t h e Bhagavata P u r a n a where he i s d e s c r i b e d as an i n c a r n a t i o n o f Narayana. V a i g n a v i s m , p.131. 16. F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s on t h i s s u b j e c t see Har D a y a l : The B o d h i s a t t v a  D o c t r i n e , p.39. 17. Quoted i n M. E l i a d e , D e a t h , A f t e r l i f e and E s c h a t o l o g y (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1967; r e p r i n t ed. H a r p e r and Row, 1 9 7 4 ) , p.78. C f . p.82 i n t h e same s o u r c e . -66-18. Har D a y a l , The B o d h i s a t t v a D o c t r i n e , p.39. 19. C h a r l e s E l i o t , H i n d u i s m and Buddhism, 3 v o l s . (London: Edward A r n o l d , 1 9 2 1 ) , 3:449. 20. R e s e a r c h on t h i s a r e a has been r e l a t i v e l y s l o w l a r g e l y b ecause t h e m a t e r i a l s a r e s c a t t e r e d o v e r d i v e r s e l a n g u a g e s and c u l t u r e s ( S a n s k r i t , P r a k r i t , G r e e k , C h i n e s e , P e r s i a n e t c . ) . 21. F o r more d e t a i l s on t h i s s u b j e c t see: P r z y l u s k i , The Legend o f  Emperor A s o k a , pp. 175 f f . and L e v i , " M a i t r e y a l e c o n s o l a t e u r , " pp. 360 f f . 22. R o b i n s o n , B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , p.60. 23. Soper, L i t e r a r y E v i d e n c e s , p. 212. 24. I b i d . , p.218. 25. R o b i n s o n , B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , p.58. 26. P e r i , "Review," p.451. 27. Abegg's v i e w s a r e c i t e d by G. J . Thomas i i i The H i s t o r y of B u d d h i s t  Thought (London: Kegan P a u l , 1 9 3 3 ) , p.168 and Warder's i n h i s own I n d i a n Buddhism, p.334. 28. Thomas, H i s t o r y of B u d d h i s t Thought, p.147. 29. B. M. B a r v a , S t u d i e s i n Buddhism ( C a l c u t t a : Saraswat L i b r a r y , 1 9 74), C h a p t e r 8. 30. T h i s l i s t o f f i v e Buddhas i s found i n t h e Ariagatavamsa t r a n s l a t e d i n H. C. Warren, Buddhism i n T r a n s l a t i o n (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1896; r e p r i n t ed., New Y o r k : Atheneum, 1 9 7 6 ) , p.482. 31. Nakamura Ha j i m e , Ways o f T h i n k i r i g o f E a s t e r n P e o p l e s : I n d i a - C h i n a - T i b e t - J a p a n ( H o n o l u l u : East-West C e n t e r P r e s s , 1964), p.609 n.8. 32. Thomas, H i s t o r y o f B u d d h i s t Thought, p.147. 33. K. W. Morgan ed., The P a t h o f t h e Buddha (New Y o r k : The R o n a l d P r e s s Co., 1 9 6 4 ) , p.226. 34. Soper, L i t e r a r y E v i d e n c e s , p.178. 35. I b i d . , p.199. 36. Rhys D a v i d s , H i b b e r t L e c t u r e s on t h e Growth and O r i g i n o f R e l i g i o n : I n d i a n Buddhism (London: W i l l i a m s and N o r g a t e , 1 8 8 1 ) , p.142. -67-37. Soper, L i t e r a r y E v i d e n c e s , p.200-201. 38. The B h a d r a k a l p i k a - s S t r a l i s t s 1,000 Buddhas who w i l l appear i n t h i s "good c y c l e " . 39. These enormous numbers a r e found o n l y i n S a n s k r i t works such as t h e L a l i t a v i s t a r a , L o t u s , Mahavastu e t c . 40. F o r s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s s e e : Har D a y a l , B o d h i s a t t v a D o c t r i n e , p.25. 41. I b i d . , p.24. 42. S oper, L i t e r a r y E v i d e n c e s , p.212. 43. O b s e r v i n g t h e Theravada A t t i t u d e t o M a i t r e y a , E. S a r k i s y a n z w r i t e s : "Not o n l y r e n o v a t i o n b u t a l s o f u l f i l l m e n t of Buddhism was e x p e c t e d o f M e t t e y a : u n i v e r s a l compassion i s t o become t h r o u g h him a c o s m ic r e a l i t y . U n i v e r s a l l o v e ( M e t t a ) i s t o be f u l f i l l e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h M a i t r e y a , as h i s name i n d i c a t e s " . B u d d h i s t Backgrounds  o f t h e Burmese R e v o l u t i o n (The Hague: M. N i j h o f f , 1 9 6 5 ) , p.44. 44. P e r i , "Review," p.451. 45. B o th Nakamura and P e r i use t h e same example: t h e N i g a l i - Sagar E d i c t where As*oka i s s a i d t o have e n l a r g e d t h e s t u p a of Konakamana t w i c e . Nakamura, Ways, p. 609 n.8; P e r i , "Review," p.451. 46. Pas a p p l i e d t h e s e same g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s o f H i n d u , f o r e i g n and i n t e r n a l B u d d h i s t developments and so I w i l l not r e p e a t t h e e x e r c i s e ; i n s t e a d I w i l l e x p l o r e t h e i d e a o f " p a r a d i s e " as an i n s p i r a t i o n t o d e v o t i o n a l i s m . However, a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e o r i e s on t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s of i n f l u e n c e s on A mitabha may be a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e . H i n d u a n t e c e d e n t s a r e g e n e r a l and u n i l l u m i n a t i n g : vague r e f e r e n c e s a r e t o Brahma o r I n d r a as p o s s i b l e p r o t o t y p e s f o r Amitabha. P e r s i a n i n f l u e n c e s , on t h e o t h e r hand a r e c o n v i n c i n g ; p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between Amitabha and a Z o r o a s t r i a n d i e t y whose name, when i n v o k e d i s s a i d t o l e a d t o a p a r a d i s e o f l i g h t . A m i t a y u s , has a c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h e I r a n i a n Z u r v a n A k a n a r a k ( U n l i m i t e d Time) and t h e t r i n i t y o f A m i t a y u s , A v a l o k i t e s V a r a and Mahasthamapraptha has many P e r s i a n p a r a l l e l s . Because o f t h e s t r o n g e v i d e n c e f o r P e r s i a n i n f l u e n c e and because Amitabha i s un-known i n t h e P a l i t e x t s Japanese s c h o l a r s have a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h a n o n - f o r e i g n ^ o r i g i n f o r t h e Buddha by r e g a r d i n g him as t h e n a t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o f Sakyamuni. The t r i k a y a t h e o r y was t h e n a p p l i e d h i s t o r i -c a l l y t o show how Amitabha d e v e l o p e d i n t e r n a l l y w i t h i n t h e Mahayana f o l d . F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s see H o b o g i r i n , 1929, s.v. "Amida" by P. D e m i e v i l l e . 47. F o r more d e t a i l s on t h e s j i b j e c t o f B u d d h i s t cosmology see: L a motte, H i s t o i r e , pp.34-36; L o u i s de l a V a l l e e P o u s s i n , t r a n s . , 1'Abhidharmakosa -68-de Vasubandhu, 6 v o l s . , Melanges C h l n o l s e t Bouddhigues v o l . 16 ( B r u x e l l e s , I n s t i t u t B e i g e Des Hautes Etudes C h i n o i s , 1 9 7 1 ) , 2: 1-217. 48. M. M u l l e r , "Larger S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a " , p . x i i . A c c o r d i n g t o Conze t h e s e p a r a d i s e s made an " e x c e p t i o n a l l y s t r o n g impact on t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e B u d d h i s t s , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a so f a r un-e x p l a i n e d p r o p e n s i t y of t h e a r c h a i c m y t h o l o g i c a l i m a g i n a t i o n w h i c h i n many c u l t u r e s has p l a c e d t h e ' I s l a n d s o f t h e B l e s s e d ' i n t o t h e West." Buddhism: I t s E s s e n c e and Development, p.205. 49. A. K. Coomaraswamy, Elements o f B u d d h i s t Iconography (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1935; 2nd ed., New D e l h i : M. M a n o h a r l a l , 1972) p.86, 49. 50. G. T u c c i , "A Propos A v a l o k i t e s v a r a " , Melanges C h i n o i s e t B o u d d i g u e s , v o l . 9 ( B r u x e l l e s : 1 ' I n s t i t u t e B e i g e s des Hautes Etudes C h i n o i s ) , pp. 207. 51. I b i d . , pp.196-197. 52. The V i m a n a v a t t h u and P e t a v a t t h u o f t h e P a l i Canon and t h e Abhidharmakosa o f Vasubandhu d e s c r i b e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e U n i v e r s e , i t s heavens, h e l l s and c l a s s e s of b e i n g s . 53. Mahavastu I , p.338, quoted i n T u c c i , " A v a l o k i t e s v a r a , " p.198. 54. T u c c i c i t i e s a c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h e H a r i v a q i s a where seven m o u n t a i n s must be c r o s s e d , " a f t e r w h i c h a m a r v e l l o u s l i g h t i s seen w h i c h i s n o t h i n g b u t Krgna h i m s e l f " . " A v a l o k i t e s v a r a " , p.204 n . l . 55. P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary," p.49. 56. T u c c i , " A v a l o k i t e s v a r a , " p.213. 57. Nakamura a l s o m e n t i o n s o t h e r p a r a l l e l s s u c h as t h e E g y p t i a n " F i e l d s o f Reed" and t h e P a r a d i s e of O s i r i s . Ways, p.385. 58. E l i o t , H i n d u i s m and Buddhism, 3:220. 59. P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary," p.47. 60. R. D a v i d s , D i a l o g u e s o f t h e Buddha, 3:198. 61. B a r v a , S t u d i e s , p.270. 62. F o r t h e backgrounds of b u d d h a k s e t r a see E t i e n n e Lamotte: L'Enseigment  de V i m a l a k i r t i ( L o u v a i n : 63. Har D a y a l , B o d h i s a t t v a D o c t r i n e , p.25. 64. Conze, Buddhism: I t s E s s e n c e and Development, p.147. -69-65. Aksobya i s a l s o m e ntioned i n t h e L o t u s , t h e S u v a r n a p r a b h a s a , t h e K a r u n a p u r t d a r l k a , t h e M a h a p a r i n i r v a a a and t h e S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a s b u t underwent t h e g r e a t e s t development i n t h e T a n t r i c systems as one o f t h e f i v e J i n a s . 66. R o b i n s o n , B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , p.66. 67. T u c c i , " A v a l o k i t e s v a r a , " p.208. 68. P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary," p.48. 69. F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e Madhyamika p h i l o s o p h y see R o b i n s o n ' s E a r l y Madhyamika and f o r an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t r i - k a y a see E n c y c l o p e d i a  o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , 1912 ed., s.v. " D o c e t i s m ( B u d d h i s t ) , " by A n e s a k i Masaharu and Nagao Geld j i n : "On t h e Theory of Buddha-Body," E a s t e r n B u d d h i s t 6 (May 1973): 25-53-, H o b o g i r i n , s.v. " B u s s h i n " . 70. To c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e q u o t a t i o n : " N l g a r j u n a d e f i n e s t h e P u r e Land as t h e r e a l m of p u r i t y o r p u r i f i c a t i o n ( v y a v a d a n a ) , meaning t h a t t h e P u r e Land i s p r e c i s e l y Sunyata , r e p r e s e n t e d i n terms o f t h e r e a l m w h i c h s t o r e s i n e x h a u s t i b l e m e r i t s o r p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f o p e r a t i n g , i n s t r u c t i n g and p u r i f y i n g p e o p l e . . . " . Yamaguchi Susumu, "The Concept of t h e P u r e Land i n N a g a r j u n a ' s D o c t r i n e " , E a s t e r n B u d d h i s t (September 1966):46. 71. S u z u k i D a i s e t z , "The S h i n S e c t o f Buddhism," E a s t e r n B u d d h i s t 7 (1939):31. 72. Abhidharmakosa, C h a p t e r 9, quoted i n Conze, T h i r t y Y e a r s , p.79. F o r more d e t a i l s on t h e end o f t h e k a l p a see de l a V a l l e e P o u s s i n , L'Abhidharmakosa, 2:207-9; Lamotte, L'Enseigement de V i m a l a k i r t i , p.296-7 n.37. 73. Lamotte, H i s t o i r e , p.210-11. 74. Conze, Buddhism: I t s E s s e n c e and Development, p.115 75. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s m a t t e r see l i b . , 1 above. 76. Soper, L i t e r a r y E v i d e n c e s , p.212. » 77. E l i a d e , Myth of t h e E t e r n a l R e t u r n , p.117. 78. R o b i n s o n , B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , p.59. 79. E l i a d e , Myth o f t h e E t e r n a l R e t u r n , p.117. 80. C u l l a - V a g g a ( X , l ) , t r a n s l a t e d i n Warren, Buddhism i n T r a n s l a t i o n , pp. 441-447. -70-81. Lamotte a l s o g i v e s o t h e r c a n o n i c a l and p o s t - c a n o n i c a l s o u r c e s where t h i s s t o r y i s r e c o u n t e d i n h i s H i s t o i r e , p.211. 82. These t e x t s a r e l i s t e d i n L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , pp.211-217. 83. Three s t a g e e s c h a t o l o g y i s common i n I r a n i a n and M e d i t e r r a n e a n e s c h a t o l o g i e s . See P r z y l u s k i , Legend o f Emperor A s o k a , pp.184-5; E l i a d e ; Myth of t h e E t e r n a l R e t u r n , pp. 118-130. 84. T h i s s t a g e has been v a r i o u s l y t r a n s l a t e d as " t h e d e c l i n e " , " t h e end", " t h e decay", " t h e l a t t e r d a y s " , and " t h e l a t t e r p e r i o d o f t h e law". 85. Some o f t h e s e s o u r c e s may be found i n Lamotte, H i s t o i r e , p. 212-217. 86. A t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s s e c t i o n a p p e a r s i n Warren, Buddhism i n  T r a n s l a t i o n , pp. 481-486. 87. T. V o l . 13, 363. c i t e d i n K. Nakamura, M i r a c u l o u s S t o r i e s f rom t h e  B u d d h i s t T r a d i t i o n (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p.13. 88. F o r example t h e L o t u s and t h e V a j r a c c h e d i k a s u t r a s . L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , p.215. 89. L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , pp. 211-217. 90. Oda Tokurio, Bukkyo D a i j i t e n , p. 1689a. 91. The f o l l o w i n g a c count i s based on t h e A-Yu-Wang Chuan as r e l a t e d i n P r z y l u s k i , The Legend o f Emperor A^oka, pp. 186-189. 92. S y l v a i n L e v i , "Notes C h i n o i s s u r l ' I n d e " , BEFEO 6:46 f f quoted i n P r z y l u s k i , Legend o f K i n g A s oka, p.180. 93. T h i s s t o r y , t o l d by F a - h s i e n i n h i s t r a v e l a c c o u n t s seems t o have been p r e v a l e n t i n contemporary C e y l o n . 94. Conze, Buddhism: E s s e n c e and Development, pp.157-158. 95. D u t t , B u d d h i s t Monks and M o n a s t e r i e s , p.182. 96. E n c y c l o p e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , 1912, s.v. " B h a k t i Marga," by G. A. G r i e r s o n , p. 539. 97. F o r a b r i e f e t y m o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t of b h a k t i i n I n d i a see J a i s w a l , V a i g n a v i s m , pp.110-112. 98. T. Solomon, " E a r l y V a i s n a v a B h a k t i and i t s A u t o c h t h o n o u s H e r i t a g e , " HOR 10 (August 1970): 32-48. - 7 1 -99. I n t h e Rg Veda I n d r a i s c a l l e d " d e l i v e r and a d v o c a t e ; f r i e n d , b r o t h e r , . . . f a t h e r and mother i n one". E l i o t , H i n d u i s m and Buddhism, 2: 180-82. Compare w i t h The Bhagavad G i t a ( X I . 4 4 ) : t h e r e f o r e , bowing and p r o s t r a t i n g my body, I beg g r a c e o f Thee, t h e L o r d t o be r e v e r e d ; As a f a t h e r t o h i s s o n , as a f r i e n d t o h i s f r i e n d , As a l o v e r t o h i s b e l o e v e d , be p l e a s e d t o show mercy, 0 God! E d g e r t o n , The Bhagavad G i t a , p.59. 101. M. W i n t e r n i t z and E. S e n a r t c i t e d as s o u r c e s f o r t h i s t h e o r y i n D a y a l , B o d h i s a t t v a D o c t r i n e , p.31. 102. J o a c h i m Waeh, The C o m p a r a t i v e Study o f R e l i g i o n , ed. J . K i t a g a w a (New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p.95. 103. E l i o t , H i n d u i s m and Buddhism, 2:180. 104. Conze, T h i r t y Y e a r s , pp. 48-50. 105. D a y a l , The B o d h i s a t t v a D o c t r i n e , p.31. 106. Sraddha i s d e f i n e d a s ^ t h e b r o a d e r c a t e g o r y w i t h b h a k t i as a s p e c i f i c c o n c ept w i t h i n i t by S a n d i l y a s i n t h e B h a k t i s u t r a ( 1 1 , 2 4 ) ; c i t e d by D u t t , B u d d h i s t Monks and M o n a s t e r i e s , p.181. 107. H. Zimmer, P h i l o s o p h i e s of I n d i a , ed. J o s e p h Campbell (New Y o r k , M e r i d i a n Books, 1951), pp.48-51, 542-3. 108. D u t t , B u d d h i s t Monks and M o n a s t e r i e s , p.181. 109. F o r background on saddha see K.N. Upadhyaya: E a r l y Buddhism and t h e  B h a g a v a d - G i t a ( D e l h i : M o t i l a l B a n a r s i d a s s , 1971) , pp". 251-273. 110. I b i d . , p.257. 111. S u t t a - n i p a t a . These images a r e t a k e n from t h e S u t t a - n i p a t a : 1-172; V-6; 1-214; 1-138, r e s p e c t i v e l y quoted i n G. C. Pande, S t u d i e s i n t h e O r i g i n o f Buddhism ( A l l a h a b a d : U n i v e r s i t y of A l l a h a b a d , 1957) p.522 n. 112. Har D a y a l c l a i m s t h a t t h a t t h e term b h a k t i appears f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n I n d i a n r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e i n a P a l i work, T h e r a - g a t h a i n t h e K h u d d a k a - n i k a y a , see Rhys D a v i d s t r a n s . , Psalms o f t h e  B r e t h r e n (London: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s 1913), p . x x i . 113. D u t t , B u d d h i s t Monks and M o n a s t e r i e s , p.288. 114. F o r Ananda's d e v o t i o n t o t h e Buddha see T. W. Rhys D a v i d s t r a n s . , " M a h a - p a r i n i b b a n a S u t t a n t a , " B u d d h i s t S u t t a s , SBE v o l . 11 ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 0 0 ) , p.97. -72-115. F o r more d e t a i l s on t h e development o f s t u p a w o r s h i p see D u t t , B u d d h i s t Monks and M o n a s t e r i e s , pp.182-188. 116. The "Buddhism of F a i t h / D e v o t i o n " i s t h e d e s c r i p t i v e t i t l e used by Conze, Buddhism, pp.144-160 and D. T. S u z u k i , On I n d i a n  Mahayana" Buddhism, ed. E. Conze (New Y o r k : H a r p e r T o r c h b o o k s , 1968), pp.129-146. -73-C h a p t e r I I I M a i t r e y a and A m i t a i n E a r l y T r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a I I n t r o d u c t i o n The t u m u l t u o u s y e a r s between th e t h i r d and s i x t h c e n t u r i e s , d e s i g n a t e d by h i s t o r i a n s as t h e Age o f D i s u n i o n (220-589) were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n c e s s a n t i n v a s i o n and c i v i l s t r i f e , f a m i n e and p e s t i l e n c e . " ' " L i k e t h e p e r i o d o f i n v a s i o n s t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e f a l l o f t h e Mauryan Empire i n I n d i a , t h e Age o f D i s u n i o n was a l s o permeated w i t h e s c h a t o l o g i c a l and d e v o t i o n a l f e r v o r . The end o f t h e Han D y n a s t y had, i n t h e words o f A.F. W r i g h t , " l e f t a s o c i e t y shaken and r i v e n t o i t s f o u n d a t i o n s — a p r o m i s i n g seed-bed f o r t h e i m p l a n t a t i o n 2 o f a l i e n i d e a s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . The same c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a f t e r a l m o s t t h r e e c e n t u r i e s of i m p e r c e p t i b l e p r o g r e s s , e n a b l e d B u d d h i s t m i s s i o n a r i e s t o make deep i n r o a d s i n t o C h i n e s e s o c i e t y , p r o v i d e d t h e ground f o r t h e growth of e s c h a t o l o g i c a l and d e v o t i o n a l movements i n C o n f u s i a n i s m , Taoism and Buddhism. The e a r l y development of t h e s e movements i n C h i n e s e Buddhism can be i l l u s t r a t e d by two examples i n w h i c h M a i t r e y a and A m i t a were r e g a r d e d as o b j e c t s o f p e r s o n a l d e v o t i o n : t h e f i r s t , i n v o l v i n g two i l l u s t r i o u s monks, and t h e s e c o n d , l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e from a l l s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y . Since t h e introduction of Buddhism in t h e f i r s t century Sakyamuni, t h e h i s t o r i c a l Buddha, held a firm p o s i t i o n as t h e c e n t e r o f w o r s h i p . W o r s h i p p i n g o t h e r f i g u r e s i n c l u d i n g M a n j u s ' r i , K s i t i g a r b h a , A v a l o k i t e s v a r a , A m i t a o r M a i t r e y a began as o p t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n any group, s c h o o l or -74-s e c t . By t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y a f l o o d o f s u t r a s , i c o n s and c e r e m o n i a l 3 p r a c t i c e s were b e i n g i m p o r t e d i n t o C h i n a . M i s s i o n a r i e s b e a r i n g l a r g e numbers of Mahayana t e x t s and e x t o l l i n g t h e vows and P u r e Lands o f t h e c e l e s t i a l buddhas and b o d h i s a t t v a s a r r i v e d . S u t r a s d e a l i n g w i t h M a i t r e y a and A m i t a were among t h e f i r s t t o be t r a n s l a t e d and 4 t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s a t t r a c t e d numerous l a y a d h e r e n t s f o r t h e i r d e i t i e s . Tao-an (312-385) and H u i - y u a n (344-416) a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e f i r s t m a j o r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l f i g u r e s t o r i t u a l i z e t h e i r d e v o t i o n t o M a i t r e y a and A m i t a i n s u c h a manner t h a t t h e y a t t a i n e d i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t u s . I n h i s t e m p le r e t r e a t i n H s i a n g - y a n g , Tao-an and h i s d i s c i p l e s f o r m a l l y . e x p r e s s e d t h e i r d e s i r e t o be r e b o r n i n T u s i t a Heaven. T h i r t y y e a r s hence, h i s most b r i l l i a n t d i s c i p l e , H u i - y u a n , t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s f o l l o w e r s a t Lu Shan, vowed t o a t t a i n r e b i r t h i n t h e W estern P a r a d i s e of A m i t a . Thus t h e f i r s t example i s b i o g r a p h i c a l ; d i s c u s s i n g t h e d e v o t i o n a l i s m of two h i g h l y c u l t i v a t e d members of t h e e a r l y C h i n e s e sangha. The second example i s drawn from a r c h e o l o g i c a l s o u r c e s . The m ountains near Loyang house one of t h e w o r l d ' s most s p l e n d i d l e g a c i e s of C h i n e s e a r t . From th e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e Wei D ynasty t o t h e S u i and T'ang,Chinese and F o r e i g n noblemen, monks and laymen, i n a f e v e r o f c r e a t i v i t y and z e a l f a s h i o n e d t h e Lung-men Caves c o n t a i n i n g thousands"* o f B u d d h i s t c a r v i n g s . A s t u d y made by Tsukamoto Z e n r y u c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s how t h e immensely p o p u l a r M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p i n t h e N o r t h e r n Wei (386-531) was g r a d u a l l y s u p p l a n t e d by A m i t a w o r s h i p by t h e T'ang (618-907). These examples n o t o n l y i l l u s t r a t e t h e p o p u l a r i t y of M a i t r e y a and A m i t a as d e v o t i o n a l f i g u r e s but a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e w i d e s p r e a d -75-awareness of t h e d o c t r i n e of t h e Dharma's end. Moreover, b o t h examples i l l u s t r a t e a s h i f t i n p o p u l a r i t y f r o m M a i t r e y a , t h e f u t u r e Buddha t o A m i t a t h e E t e r n a l Buddha. I n a l a r g e r s ense t h i s s h i f t stems from t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e S a r v a s t i v a d a s c h o o l t o t h e Mahayana s c h o o l s between t h e t h i r d and t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s ; from t h e Abhidharma w o r l d -v i e w t o t h e Mahayana w o r l d - v i e w . By t h e l a t e s i x t h and e a r l y s e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s t h e seeds t h a t had been g e r m i n a t i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e P e r i o d of D i s u n i o n were s e n d i n g out new s h o o t s . The emergence o f t h e u n i q u e l y C h i n e s e T'ang s c h o o l s , T i e n - t a i , F a - h s i a n g , Ch'an and P u r e L a n d , marks a new s t a g e i n t h e development of Buddhism. I I Tao-an and H u i - y u a n I n h i s L i v e s o f Eminent Monks^, H u i - C h i a o w r i t e s : F r e q u e n t l y An and h i s d i s c i p l e s Fa-yu / ^ I r ^ and o t h e r s pronounced vows i n f r o n t o f [ t h e image o f ] M a i t r e y a e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r vow ( p r a n i d h a h a ) t o be b o r n i n T u s i t a . 1 From R u i - y u a n ' s b i o g r a p h y i n t h e same s o u r c e : "'The m a s t e r of t h e D o c t r i n e S h i h H u i - y u a n , (urged by) t h e d e p t h o f h i s n o b l e emotions and t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f h i s p u r e f e e l i n g s , has i n v i t e d ( u s ) , l i k e m i n d e d gentlemen, ( d e s i r o u s o f ) a p p e a s i n g t h e mind and i n s p i r e d by a n o b l e f a i t h , t o t h e member o f 123 men, t o assemble b e f o r e t h e s t a t u e o f Amitabha a t t h e V i h a r a o f t h e P r a j n a t e r r a c e on t h e n o r t h e r n s l o p e o f t h e L u - s h a n , and he has l e d us r e v e r e n t l y t o p e r f o r m t h e s a c r i f i c e o f i n c e n s e and f l o w e r s and t o make a vow i n o r d e r t o s t i m u l a t e a l l t h o s e who t a k e p a r t i n t h i s m e e t i n g . ' " g A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s o u r c e s Tao-an g a t h e r e d e i g h t d i s c i p l e s f o r t h e ceremony and H u i - y u a n , one hundred and twenty t h r e e . I t i s thought t h a t Tao-an's vow i n v o l v e d a form o f m e d i t a t i o n on M a i t r e y a . And i t i s c l e a r l y r e c o r d e d -76-that while the vow made by Hui-yiian and h i s followers was accompanied by incense and flowers, t h e i r p r a c t i c e of anusmrti enabled the b e l i e v e r s 9 to see the Buddha "face to face". Over the centuries both events,^, i n marking the inception of Maitreya and Amita devotionalism i n China have acquired a symbolic status. Because they occurred within about t h i r -ty years of one another, one performed by a Dharma master and the other by h i s best known d i s c i p l e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that Ziircher would comment on the "unmistakable"'6onnection" between them."'"^  Before analyzing the p h i l o s o p h i c a l implications which these ceremonies may have had for Tao-an and Hui-yuan, l e t us f i r s t turn to t h e i r l i v e s and t h e i r accomplishments. There i s a f a s c i n a t i n g counterpoint i n the l i v e s of these two great monks. Tao-an"'""'", (312-385) indomitable adventurer both i n his outer and inner l i f e , continued to teach during the wars of the Period of Disunion, moving whenever invading swords threatened the l i v e s of h i s students. His r e l a t i v e l y t r a n q u i l f i f t e e n years i n the southern ret r e a t of Hsiang-yang were followed by an appointment as the head of the Tran s l a t i o n Bureau in Chang-an where he spent the l a s t s i x years of h i s l i f e . A f t e r taking leave of h i s master before the invading armies of Fu-Pei i n 378, Hui-yuan 12 (344-416) b u i l t a mountain monastery c a l l e d Tung-lin ssu on Lu Shan where he remained for the rest of h i s l i f e . There, h i s fame spread, h i s com-13 munity grew, and he commanded the respect of Kings. From the time of h i s d i s c i p l e s h i p under Fo-t'u-teng to h i s years i n Chang-an, Tao-an painstakingly studied and synthesized the systems of Yoga and dhyana, and the philosophies of Prajnaparamita, Sarvastivada, and the Agamas. He i s j u s t l y famed for the profundity of learning which enabled him to perceive t h a t t h e methods of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s f a i l e d t o a d e q u a t e l y convey t h e B u d d h i s t message; t h u s b r i n g i n g about a f u n d a m e n t a l change of d i r e c t i o n i n t h e B u d d h i s t s c h o l a r s h i p of h i s t i m e . H u i - y u a n , t h e m a s ter of t h e s u b t l e i n t r i c a c i e s o f hsuan hsu'eh, n o t o n l y b r o u g h t t h e a r t s o f G e n t r y Buddhism t o i t s apex but e x p l o r e d new ways o f m e e t i n g t h e needs o f t h e l a i t y . Because b o t h Tao-an and Hui-yuan's d e v o t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s seem t o f a l l i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t of t h e i r l i v e s — f o r Tao-an, i n h i s l a t e s i x t i e s and f o r H u i - y u a n , h i s l a t e f i f t i e s — some a r e tempted t o d i s m i s s t h i s a s p e c t of t h e i r p r a c t i c e as t h e p i e t y o f a d v a n c i n g y e a r s . However, t h e i r b i o g r a p h i e s show t h a t t h e y were t h e n i n many ways, a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l and s p i r i t u a l powers. Tao-an's M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p spans t h e l a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s of h i s l i f e w h i l e H u i y i i a n ' s , c o n t i n u e d f o r t h e l a s t f o u r t e e n y e a r s . Even a t t h e end of t h e i r l i v e s , t h e y a r e r e c o r d e d as e a g e r l y s t r i v i n g t o m a s t e r t h e new B u d d h i s t t e x t s b e i n g t r a n s l a t e d i n t o C h i n e s e : Tao-an, t r e m e n d o u s l y moved by t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e Agamas l a m e n t e d not e n c o u n t e r i n g them e a r l i e r ; and H u i - y u a n , always a t t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h e r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o v e r s i e s o f h i s g e n e r a t i o n k e e n l y q u e s t i o n e d K u m a r a j i v a 14 on t h e s u b j e c t o f Madhyamika p h i l o s o p h y . The s i m i l a r i t y between the two"events d e s c r i b e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h i s s e c t i o n can be e x p l a i n e d not o n l y by t h e p r o f o u n d p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p between Tao-an and H u i - y u a n b u t a l s o by t h e o v e r l a p p i n g o f t h e i r p h i l i s o p h i c a l i n t e r e s t s . I n b o t h c a s e s , t h e emphasis on v i s u a l i z a t i o n and t h e use o f i c o n s a c c o u n t s f o r t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h e y p l a c e d on t h e p r a c t i c e o f dhyana. Tao-an's l i f e - l o n g i n t e r e s t i n dhyana can be t r a c e d from h i s f i r s t e x p o s u r e t o t h e e a r l y dhyana t e x t s t r a n s l a t e d by A n - s h i h - k a o -78-to his intense study of Prajnaparamita literature at Hsiang-yang. Hui-;j^uari-straining includes his contact with the famous dhyana master Buddhabhadra"^ and from his own studies of Prajnaparamita texts which comprised an important part of his Lu Shan ac t i v i t i e s . Very l i t t l e is known about Tao-an's method of dhyana in relation to Maitreya"^ except that i t probably included some method of v i s u a l i -zation. Evidence does, however, exist showing that Fu Chien sent him several icons including one of Maitreya and that Tao-an used them very 18 effectively in his meetings and lectures. Another clue in the way Maitreyan devotionalism and Prajna studies were brought together in Tao-an is in his love for the Fang^-kuang ching (Pancavimsatisahaskika^-prajnaparamita) which he delivered twice yearly u n t i l his death. In this sutra Maitreya bodhisattva an expert in the Prajnaparamita is assured of his future Buddhahood by Sakyamuni. Much more is known about dhyana as i t was practiced at Lu Shan. The practice seems to have utilized icons and the visualization of Amita as set down in the Pan-chou-san-mei-hai ching where a state of Samadhi was perscribed in which a l l the Buddhas of the Ten Quarters stand before the believer. Hui-yuan lauded the practice of anusmrti or "remembrance" of Amita because i t gave excellent results and was easy to embark upon. One description of this "easy" way instructs the aspirant to f i r s t maintain a pure mind, devoid of any material considerations, for three months and then to spend a day and a night or a whole week in solitude, concentrating solely on Amita. The Buddha would then appear and preach the Dharma before the believer. This description may be compared with the practice of one of Tao-an's disciples T'an-chieh, who, continuing -79-h i s d e v o t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s a f t e r h i s M a s t e r ' s d e a t h , i s s a i d t o have r e p e a t e d c e a s e l e s s l y t h e name o f M a i t r e y a and bowed b e f o r e h i s image 21 f i v e hundred t i m e s a day. One f i n d s a c e r t a i n l i t e r a l n e s s of b e l i e f i n t h e p r a c t i c e of b o t h Tao-an and H u i - y u a n . Hui-yuan's tendency t o c o n c r e t i z e t h e a b s t r a c t i s w e l l known from h i s s t r e s s on v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h e Buddha and h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o n c e p t s o f dharmakaya and sambhogakaya as put f o r t h by K u m a r a j i v a on t h e b a s i s 22 of the T a - c h i h - t u - l u n . T h i s l i t e r a l n e s s can be b e s t seen i n a c c o u n t s r e l a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h t h e monks o r t h e i r f o l l o w e r s had i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a p proach M a i t r e y a o r A m i t a t h r o u g h t h e i r m e d i t a t i o n s . F o r Tao-an, M a i t r e y a was f i r s t o f a l l t h e P a t r o n o f E x e g e t e s as 23 s e t down i n t h e S a r v a s t i v a d a t r a d i t i o n . Once, when b e s e t by d o u b t s about t h e w o r t h of h i s work, he i s s a i d t o have dreamt of "'an I n d i a n 24 man of Tao who had w h i t e h a i r and l o n g eyebrows'" l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d as P i n d o l a , an a r h a t a s s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t t h e Dharma u n t i l t h e coming of 25 M a i t r e y a . P i n d o l a not o n l y a s s u r e d Tao-an o f t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f h i s work but p r o m i s e d him a s s i s t a n c e i n s p r e a d i n g the B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e . H i s d i s c i p l e S e n g - j u i r e c o r d s t h a t whenever h i s t e a c h e r e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e e x e g e s i s of B u d d h i s t t e x t s : " I I s ' i n t e r r o m p a i t e t , dans ses l o n g u e s c r i s e s de decouragement, i l n ' a v a i t qu'une i d e e , c ' e s t \ 26 de c h e r c h e r l a s o l u t i o n aupres de M a i t r e y a " . I n h i s f e a r t h a t h i s p h y s i c a l and t e m p o r a l d i s t a n c e from Sakyamuni was p r e v e n t i n g him from t r u l y g r a s p i n g t h e D o c t r i n e , Tao-an t u r n e d t o t r a d i t i o n , o r i g i n a t i n g p r o b a b l y i n K a s h m i r , i n w h i c h M a i t r e y a was i n v o k e d as t h e d i v i n e i n s p i r e r -80-27 of B u d d h i s t S c h o l a r s . Thus f o r Tao-an, M a i t r e y a r e p r e s e n t e d an i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l and r e l a t i v e l y a c c e s s i b l e s o u r c e o f d i v i n e i n -s p i r a t i o n and T u s i t a , a p l a c e i n t h e heavens where he m ight c o n t i n u e h i s s t u d i e s under t h e t u t e l a g e o f h i s b e l o v e d P a t r o n . The s p e c i a l i z e d i n t e n t b e h i n d Tao-an's M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h t h a t o f H u i - y u a n , whose main p u r p o s e , whether f o r h i s l a y b e l i e v e r s o r f o r h i m s e l f , was even more c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h h i s s o t e r i o l o g i c a l g o a l . E s p e c i a l l y f o r h i s l a y b e l i e v e r s , t h e p a t h towards t h i s s p i r i t u a l g o a l was not t h e a u s t e r e and l o n e l y way of t h e a r h a t but t h e r i c h and a l l - i n c l u s i v e one of t h e b o d h i s a t t v a . The vow w h i c h t h e community made, f o r i n s t a n c e , was not p r a n i d h a n a i n t h e u s u a l sense o f t h e w o r l d . R a t h e r t h a n m a r k i n g a commitment t o a t t a i n a c e r t a i n s t a g e o f s p i r i t u a l development, t h i s g o a l seems t o s e a l an agreement between t h e members o f t h e group t o a s s i s t one a n o t h e r u n t i l a l l , f rom 28 t h e most t a l e n t e d t o t h e l e a s t , have g a i n e d a c c e s s t o A m i t a ' s p a r a d i s e . The ease w i t h w h i c h one i s a b l e t o embark upon t h e p r a c t i c e o f b u d d h a n u s m r t i , t h e awesome p r o s p e c t of m e e t i n g A m i t a " f a c e t o f a c e " and t h e happy a n t i -c i p a t i o n of e n j o y i n g t h e s p l e n d o r s of h i s p a r a d i s i c a l S u k h a v a t i p r o v i d e d c o n c r e t i z e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e j o y o f s p i r i t u a l advancement. A c c o r d i n g 29 - -t o an e a r l y v e r s i o n of t h e S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a t h e e a r n e s t d e v o t e e w i l l have a v i s i o n of A m i t a b e f o r e h i s d e a t h , p r e s a g i n g h i s r e b i r t h i n t o S u k h a v a t i . The f o l l o w i n g example, v a r i a t i o n s upon w h i c h have p e r s i s t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t day, w i l l i l l u s t r a t e how A m i t a ' s s a l v a t i o n a t d e a t h was p e r c e i v e d by H u i -yuan 's f o l l o w e r s . When h i s d i s c i p l e S e n g - c h i was a f f l i c t e d by a d i r e i l l n e s s , H u i - y u an i n s t r u c t e d him t o m e d i a t e on A m i t a and S u k h a v a t i and r e q u e s t e d t h e o t h e r -81-monks t o r e c i t e t h e S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h e v i g i l , S e n g - c h i "saw h i m s e l f p r o c e e d t h r o u g h t h e v o i d . . . b e h e l d t h e Buddha Amitabha, who t o o k him up and p l a c e d him...on t h e palm of h i s hand... and he went t h r o u g h t h e (whole) u n i v e r s e i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . A f t e r he had awakened and t o l d h i s dream t o h i s companions, he found h i s body f r e e from d i s e a s e . "The f o l l o w i n g n i g h t he s u d d e n l y sought h i s s a n d a l s and s t o o d up, h i s eyes ( l o o k i n g i n t o ) t h e v o i d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n , as i f he were s e e i n g s o m e t h i n g . A moment l a t e r he l a y down a g a i n , w i t h a j o y f u l e x p r e s s i o n on h i s f a c e . Then he s a i d t o t h o s e who s t o o d a t t h e s i d e ( o f h i s b e d ) : ' I must go', and, when he had t u r n e d o v e r on h i s r i g h t s i d e , h i s l i f e - b r e a t h and h i s words become s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . i j „30 e x t i n g u i s h e d . I n t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t i n g s , H u i - y i i a n d e s c r i b e s dhyana i n i t s complementary r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p r a j n a ( ) and samadhi ( 0 ^ ) as " ' d w e l l i n g ( m o t i o n l e s s ) l i k e a c o r p s e and s i t t i n g down i n f o r g e t f u l n e s s , 3' and d a r k e n i n g ( ^ ) one's f e e l i n g s i n t h e H i g h e s t Summit ( o f T r u t h ) ' " . " I n Z u r c h e r ' s words, samadhi t h u s becomes " — a means t e m p o r a r i l y t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e f i n a l e m a n c i p a t i o n , t h e s t a g e i n w h i c h 'the s p i r i t i s not burdened by l i f e ' . . . " . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o r e s o l v e what may seem a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between H u i - y l i a n ' s d e v o t i o n a l i s m and h i s w r i t i n g s , L i e b e n t h a l s t a t e s t h a t f o r H u i - y i i a n t h e H i g h e s t Summit ( o r Q u i e t C e n t e r ^ and A m i t a a r e b u t two s i d e s of t h e same c o i n ; t h e l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e f o r m e r . H u i - y i i a n ' s r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n t o A m i t a i s seen as a p r a c t i c e s u i t a b l e f o r t h e u n l e t t e r e d l a i t y and h i s 33 p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t i n g s , f o r t h e m o n a s t i c s or the e d u c a t e d . Z i i r c h e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e dhyana method i n t r o d u c e d by Buddhabhadra was o n l y -82-for the monk and never f o r the layman. J H Thus i n Hui-yuan we may perceive the beginnings of a dichotomy i n the means to sa l v a t i o n that was l a t e r elaborated upon by the Pure Land patriarchs. In the f i n a l a n alysis, Tao-an and Hui-yuan, Buddho-Taoists, master and d i s c i p l e , are less s i m i l a r than one would i n i t i a l l y expect. Both men, seeking the enlightenment described i n the Buddhist texts, practiced a form of dhyana including the worship of Buddhas other than Sakyamuni during a time when Chinese Buddhist worship was s t i l l f i r m l y centered on the h i s t o r i c a l Buddha. Tao-an appealed to Maitreya for guidance i n his exegetical studies and Hui-yuan meditated on a form of Amita as the r e l i g i o u s counterpart of h i s phi l o s o p h i c a l con-ceptions. Curiously, Tao-an's own writings say nothing of h i s devotion to Maitreya; records of t h i s aspect of his l i f e a l l being preserved by his biographers or h i s d i s c i p l e s . Hui-yuan, i n contrast, wrote extensively on the worship of Amita and at the end of h i s l i f e , was struggling to understand his meditation i n the context of Madhyamika theory of the Two Bodies. I t seems l i k e l y that Tao-an, convinced of the e f f i c a c y of the Maitreya t r a d i t i o n , saw no ph i l o s o p h i c a l problems 35 to comment upon i n his devotional p r a c t i c e . But Hui-yuan's devotion-alism, bearing a l l the signs of s t r i v i n g to develop a new system which would incorporate the new Indian wisdom with the old Chinese conceptions, as w e l l as accomodating the r e l i g i o u s needs of h i s l a i t y , required the c l a r i f y i n g function of written expression. In sum: the s h i f t from Maitreya to Amita worship cannot be explained 37 by merely speculating on a supposed transference of devotion from one deity to another i n a si n g l e f i g u r e , Hui-yuan — but can be understood -83-by t h e change o f d i r e c t i o n w i t h i n t h e Sangha i t s e l f from a H i n a y a n a t o a Mahayana p e r s p e c t i v e . However, Tao-an's M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p and H u i -yuan' s A m i t a w o r s h i p can be seen as a d u m b r a t i n g r e l i g i o u s movements t o come. The v a l u e o f s i n g l i n g out and e x a m i n i n g t h e p r e m i s e s b e h i n d t h e two ceremonies n o t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s e c t i o n l i e s i n t h e s y m b o l i c i n f l u e n c e t h e y e x e r t e d on t h e subsequent h i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e 38 Buddhism. Tao-an's ceremony s t a n d s as t h e f i r s t f o r m a l r i t u a l i z a t i o n o f M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p by a c e l e b r a t e d c l e r i c and Hui-yuan's ceremony as 39 "an i m p o r t a n t landmark" i n e a r l y C h i n e s e Buddhism. The i n f l u e n c e of Tao-an's M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s p e c t a c u l a r growth o f t h e M a i t r e y a c u l t s i n t h e N o r t h e r n Wei P e r i o d — a p e r i o d i n w h i c h t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l elements i n t h e M a i t r e y a c u l t were t o p r e v a i l among t h e masses. Where Tao-an h i m s e l f may have d e e p l y lamented l i v i n g i n t h e age between two Buddhas, t h e common p e o p l e o f t e n e a g e r l y a n t i c i p a t e d h i s coming. P r e d i c t a b l y , t h e Sangha's awareness o f t h e l a t t e r days remained c o n s t a n t : H u i - y i i a n , a d d r e s s e d i n an e p i s t l e by K u m a r a j l r a as t h e E a s t e r n B o d h i s a t t v a who was p r o p h e s i e d t o p r o t e c t t h e D o c t r i n e " ' a t 40 t h e l a s t ( p e r i o d o f t h e Dharma)'" , e n t e r t a i n e d no i l l u s i o u s about what 41 he v i e w e d as t h e d e g e n e r a t e s t a t e o f t h e Church. H u i - y i i a n ' s A m i t a s o c i e t y d i s p e r s e d w i t h h i s own d e a t h but c o n t i n u e d t o s e r v e as an i n s p i r a t i o n f o r communities of r e c l u s e s , t h e P u r e Land L o t u s S o c i e t i e s - 42 of t h e Sung and t h e W h i t e L o t u s S o c i e t y o f t h e S o u t h e r n Sung. To t h e p r e s e n t P u r e Land s c h o o l s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e F a r E a s t • and t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d have l o o k e d t o H u i - y i i a n as t h e i r o r i g i n a l f o u n d e r . ^ -84-I I I Lung-men I n A s i a , t h e cave i s t h e e a r t h ' s s a c r e d womb. B u d d h i s t v i h a r a s and c a i t y a h a l l s , H i n d u temples and a l t a r s , e m b e l l i s h e d w i t h s c u l p t e d forms i n a l i t u r g y o f s t o n e , were c h i s e l l e d out o f t h e h i l l s o f K a r l e , A j a n t a , E l l o r a and A m a r a v a t i . A s u c c e s s i o n o f cave s h r i n e s marked t h e p r o g r e s s o f Buddhism a c r o s s t h e mountains and d e s e r t s o f A f g h a n i s t a n and C e n t r a l A s i a . Many T u r k i c t r i b e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e T'o-pa o f N o r t h e r n Wei a r e thought t o have had n a t i v e cave m y t h o l o g i e s and 44 c u l t s . Even b e f o r e t h e a r r i v a l o f B u d d h i s t m i s s i o n a r i e s , t h e C h i n e s e i n t h e N o r t h had c a r v e d o u t l o e s s caves f o r s h e l t e r and f o r s h r i n e s d e d i c a t e d t o n a t u r e d e i t i e s ; and i n Szechwan, t h e y had e x c a v a t e d r o c k -45 c u t b u r i a l s h a f t s and chambers f o r t h e i r a n c e s t o r s . W i t h t h e i n t r o -d u c t i o n o f Buddhism, t h e C h i n a e n t e r e d i t s most c r e a t i v e p e r i o d o f s t o n e 46 scupture,unmatched i n C h i n e s e h i s t o r y . Today, t h e m o u n t a i n g r o t t o e s of Tun-huang, Yuri-kang and Lung-men, v a s t r e p o s i t o r i e s o f a r t i s t i c and h i s t o r i c documents s p a n n i n g o v e r h a l f a m i l l e n n i u m , s i l e n t l y t e s t i f y t o an age o f f a i t h . The s t o n e i c o n s housed i n t h e C h i n e s e c a v e s were i n s p i r e d by o t h e r images t h a t were t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h t h e minds and hands o f B u d d h i s t m i s s i o n a r i e s and a r t i s a n s as t h e y made t h e i r way n o r t h w a r d s . F o r f i v e c e n t u r i e s a f t e r h i s d e a t h , t h e Buddha was r e p r e s e n t e d by v a r i o u s symbols: •the Stupa t h e Dharma w h e e l , t h e b o d h i t r e e , t he r o y a l u m b r e l l a , and h i s f o o t p r i n t s . By t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y A.D. an i c o n o f t h e Buddha's form i n -s p i r e d p a r t l y by Greek and Roman a r t , appeared i n Gandhara and Math u r a . The i c o n s , once c o n c e i v e d , p r o l i f e r a t e d . O ther s t o n e Buddhas and b o d h i s a t t v a s were f a s h i o n e d i n B u d d h i s t c e n t e r s as f a r west as I r a n and a c r o s s C e n t r a l A s i a . A t Tun-huang, t h e e a s t e r n t e r m i n u s o f t h e -85-T a r i m b a s i n r o u t e , t h e images were worked by I n d i a n and C e n t r a l A s i a n 47 a r t i s a n s . A t Yun-kang , t h e Gandharan s t y l e and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c o l o s s a l Buddhas o f Bamiyan p e r s i s t e d . And a t Lung-men, t h e Gandharan and Udhyana s t y l e s c o n t i n u e d t o g e t h e r w i t h new i n f l u e n c e s from South 48' 49 C h i n a and t h e s u b t l e p r o p o r t i o n s and l i n e s o f Han a r t i s t r y . Thus, t h e a r t o f Lung-men p r e s e n t s a " m a g n i f i c i a n t panorama o f two hundred and f i f t y y e a r s o f e v o l u t i o n from I n d i a n Buddhism t o an i n d e p e n d e n t and consumately C h i n e s e Buddhism. B e f o r e t u r n i n g t o t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n and p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h e s h i f t i n p o p u l a r i t y from M a i t r e y a t o A m i t a i n t h e Lung-men c a v e s , l e t us b r i e f l y d i s c u s s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Lung-men Caves as h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e . I n E a r l y Madhyamika, R o b i n s o n p o i n t s out the l i m i t a t i o n s o f r e l y i n g s o l e l y on l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l s i n t h e s t u d y of Buddhism: I t cannot be assumed t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f lan g u a g e c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h o u g h t , o r t h a t a l l t h o u g h t s c a n be r e p r o d u c e d by s y m b o l s , o r t h a t l a n g u a g e i s t h e o n l y k i n d o f symbol system. F o r example, t h e C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t o f about A.D. 400 gave s y m b o l i c e x p r e s s i o n t o h i s r e l i g i o n n ot o n l y i n h i s w r i t i n g s , but i n t h e chant and g e s t u r e of h i s l i t e r g y , i n s c u l p t u r e and p a i n t i n g , i n a r c h i -t e c t u r e and i n t h e s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n a r y codes w h i c h m o n a s t a r i e s and l a i t y o b s e r v e d . These c o n d i t i o n s l i m i t t h e scope o f t h e i n q u i r y t o what c a n be i n f e r r e d f r o m l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l s . * 1 M o r e o v er, w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s , t h e work o f an educated e l i t e w i t h i n t h e Sangha were not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e mass o f t h e b e l i e v e r s . Even t h e Sangha i t s e l f was made up m a i n l y o f c o n v e r t s from t h e p e a s a n t c l a s s e s , Only about 5-10,000 p e o p l e i n b o t h n o r t h and s o u t h C h i n a were c o n v e r s a n t w i t h t h e famous d o c t r i n a l d i s p u t e s t h a t dominate our p i c t u r e o f f o u r t h 52 and f i f t h c e n t u r y C h i n e s e Buddhism. -86-I n c o n t r a s t , t h e Lung-men Caves seem t o have been e x c a v a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s and groups drawn from a l l s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y : m o n a s t i c s , r u l e r s and commoners. F o r example, Ch'en c i t e s t h e c a s e o f a b a t t l e -hardened T'o-pa g e n e r a l who "gazed a l l t h r o u g h t h e n i g h t a t t h e b r i g h t and b e a u t i f u l t r a c e s of former Emperors and g r e a t s a g e s , h i s 53 t e a r s f l o w i n g f r e e l y " . A l t h o u g h v a r i o u s t y p e s o f o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l B u d d h i s t groups had been f u n c t i o n i n g from the e a r l i e s t days of N o r t h e r n Buddhism, by 54 t h e f i f t h and s i x t h c e n t u r i e s a network o f p o p u l a r s o c i e t i e s under t h e g u i d a n c e o f monks and nuns were f l o u r i s h i n g . A w i d e v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s aims l e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e g r o u p s . S m a l l e r groups were o r g a n i z e d f o r c o p y i n g and r e c i t a t i o n o f s u t r a s , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s u p p o r t o f m o n a s t e r i e s and h o l d i n g v e g e t a r i a n f e a s t s . And l a r g e r groups of a hundred t o a thousand members u n d e r t o o k some of t h e a m b i t i o u s cave b u i l d i n g and image making p r o j e c t s . The C h i n e s e d e v o t e e was drawn t o t h e s e i c o n s f o r t h e y a p p e a l e d t o h i s a e s t h e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y , d r a m a t i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d t h e v e r i t i e s o f h i s new r e l i g i o n and, perhaps most i m p o r t a n t of a l l , s a t i s f i e d h i s l o n g i n g f o r a c o n c r e t e c e n t e r o f w o r s h i p . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s on t h e s t a t u e s , t h e p r i m a r y m o t i v e s f o r e r e c t i n g new images i n c l u d e d b o t h s p i r i t u a l g o a l s such as t h e a t t a i n m e n t of e n l i g h t e n m e n t o r r e b i r t h i n S u k h a v a t i o r T u s i t a ; as w e l l as more mundane c o n c e r n s i n c l u d i n g t h e d e s i r e f o r m a t e r i a l boons, h e a l t h , o r m i l i t a r y v i c t o r i e s . Thus t h e a r t of Lung-men does not m e r e l y s e r v e as a supplement t o t h e l i t e r a r y e v i d e n c e produced by a h i g h l y e d u c a t e d m i n o r i t y b u t documents t h e l i v i n g f a i t h o f t h e C h i n e s e masses. Lung-men"^ o r "Dragon g a t e " was t h e s i t e of i n t e n s e a r t i s t i c 56 a c t i v i t y f rom t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e N o r t h e r n Wei t o t h e mid-T'ang. Tsukamoto Zenryu's s t u d y " ^ shows t h a t t h e two most a c t i v e p e r i o d s of c a r v i n g i n c l u d e d t h e y e a r s between 510-540 and between 640-710; t h e f o r m e r , under t h e T'o-pa d y n a s t y and t h e l a t t e r under t h e r e i g n of Empress Wu T s e - t i e n . D u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s t h e w a l l s and c e i l i n g s o f t h e c aves were c o v e r e d w i t h h o s t s o f c e l e s t i a l b e i n g s , g u a r d i a n f i g u r e s , l o h a n and d e v o t e e s . The f o u r main d e i t i e s were Sakyamuni, M a i t r e y a , A m i t a and A v a l o k i t e s v a r a ; o t h e r c e n t r a l d e i t i e s i n c l u d e d K s i t i g a r b h a , B h a i s h a j y a g u r u , Mahasthamaprapta. On t h e b a s i s o f h i s c o m p i l a t i o n of t h e d a t e d s t a t u e s a t Lung-men, Tsukamoto c o n c l u d e d t h a t Sakyamuni and M a i t r e y a were t h e two most 58 p o p u l a r images w o r s h i p p e d d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t of t h e N o r t h e r n Wei. and A v a l o k i t e s v a r a s t a t u e s i n c r e a s e d m a r k e d l y w i t h a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e c r e a s e o f Sakyamuni and M a i t r e y a images. I n t e r n a l s h i f t s a l s o t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e two d y n a s t i e s . D u r i n g t h e N o r t h e r n Wei, Sakyamuni's p o p u l a r i t y d e c l i n e d ; M a i t r e y a s t a t u e s grew i n number and p r a y e r s f o r r e b i r t h i n T u s i t a o r i n the t i m e of M a i t r e y a ' s d e s c e n t t o e a r t h i n c r e a s e d . S i m i l a r l y t h e development o f A m i t a w o r s h i p shows a s h i f t from an i n i t i a l p o p u l a r i t y o f W u - l i a n g - s h o u - f o ( A m i t a y u s ) d u r i n g t h e N o r t h e r n Wei t o 59 A - m i - t ' o - f o (Amita) i n t h e T'ang. I n sum: w h i l e t h e s i n g l e most dominant tendency was t h e s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n A m i t a w o r s h i p ^ , t h r e e d i s t i n c t s t a g e s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d : t h e second t o t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s when Sakyamuni and M a i t r e y a were t h e l e a d i n g d e i t i e s ; t h e m i d - s e v e n t h t o t h e e a r l y e i g h t c e n t u r i e s when A m i t a and A v a l o k i t e s v a r a " were dominant and a p e r i o d of about 100 y e a r s between - 8 8 -t h e s e two s t a g e s when r e l a t i v e l y few images o f any kind were b e i n g c a r v e d . I t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d why M a i t r e y a s h o u l d h a v e 61 e n j o y e d s u c h p o p u l a r i t y d u r i n g t h e Northern) W e i . B u d d h i s t t e x t s w r i t t e n by C h i n e s e monks o f t e n r e f e r t o t h e Seven Buddhas o f t h e P a s t . T h e s e Buddhas a r e t h o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n r e v e r e d more i n C h i n a t h a n i n c o n t e m p o r a r y I n d i a b e c a u s e t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d what e d u c a t e d C h i n e s e h e l d i n h i g h e s t e s t e e m : h i s t o r y . The a u t h o r o f t h e d y n a s t y ' s o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y , t h e W e i Shu c l e a r l y saw M a i t r e y a ' s r e b i r t h a s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f Sakyamuni 's s a c r e d l i n e a g e . B e f o r e S a k y a m u n i t h e r e w e r e S i x B u d d h a s , S a k y a m u n i s u c c e e d i n g t h e S i x B u d d h a s , a c h i e v e d h i s e n l i g h t e n m e n t and d w e l l s i n t h e p r e s e n t a g e , t h e N o b l e E r a . I t i s w r i t t e n t h a t i n t i m e t h e r e w i l l be a c e r t a i n M i - l o - f o , who , s u c c e e d i n g d i r e c t l y t o S a k y a m u n i w i l l come down t o t h i s w o r l d . 6 2 The N o r t h e r n We i C h i n e s e , m o r e o v e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y w e r e l i v i n g i n t h e b h a d r a k a l p a " t h e N o b l e E r a " ; t h e s e c o n d o f t h r e e w o r l d ages d u r i n g w h i c h 63 a t h o u s a n d Buddhas w o u l d a p p e a r . A t a t i m e when p a s t and f u t u r e Buddhas w e r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s o f t h e i r b i r t h p l a c e s and f a m i l i e s , t h e r e b i r t h o f M a i t r e y a , t h e n e x t B u d d h a , must have b e e n v i e w e d a s a f a m i l i a r and a n i m m i n e n t e v e n t . I n f a c t i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t M a i t r e y a w o u l d a p p e a r d u r i n g t h e N o r t h e r n Wei and t h a t t h i s d y n a s t y w o u l d t h e n be 64 i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h e g o l d e n a g e . A c c o r d i n g l y , some N o r t h e r n W e i e m p e r o r s , s e e k i n g t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r p o w e r , c l a i m e d t o be t h e c a k r a v a r t i n k i n g who w o u l d accompany M a i t r e y a . N e i t h e r i s i t d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d why A m i t a s h o u l d h a v e g a i n e d s u c h p o p u l a r i t y d u r i n g t h e T ' a n g . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s d y n a s t y -89-Buddhism i n C h i n a r e a c h e d t h e z e n i t h o f i t s p r o s p e r i t y : i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s d i r e c t e d f l o u r i s h i n g t r e a s u r i e s , h o s t e l s , w a t e r m i l l s , o i l p r e s s e s ; i t s numerous f e s t i v a l s became a p a r t o f t h e i m p e r i a l c a l e n d a r and were h e l d a t t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e s a c r e d p l a c e s s u c h as W u - t ' a i Shan — i t s p r e s t i g e was u n d e n i a b l y e s t a b l i s h e d . The s i m p l e r H i n a y a n a c o n c e p t s were t a k e n as a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e w h i l e t h e s p e c u l a t i v e p h i l o s o p h i e s and t h e c e l e s t i a l Buddhas, b o d h i s a t t v a s and p a r a d i s e s t a u g h t by t h e Mahayana t e a c h e r s c a p t i v a t e d t h e monks and t h e p o p u l a c e . Most i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , e a r l y P u r e Land t e a c h e r s such as Shan-tao and Tao-cho, c o m b i n i n g an a t t r a c t i v e d o c t r i n e w i t h t r u e m i s s i o n a r y z e a l , r e a c h e d out t o Emperor and commoner a l i k e , making u n i v e r s a l t h e c r y : 'Homage t o A m i t a ! ' . Such was A m i t a ' s p o p u l a r i t y among t h e s t a t u e makers t h a t t h e b r i e f r e s u r g e n c e o f i n t e r e s t i n M a i t r e y a d u r i n g t h e T'ang b r o u g h t about by t h e m e s s i a n i c c l a i m s o f Empress Wu^ ~* and t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s and com-m e n t a r i e s of H s i i a n - t s a n g and h i s d i s c i p l e s , r e s u l t e d i n o n l y a few new M a i t r e y a images i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n t h o s e of A m i t a . On one hand, t h e ascendency of M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p i n t h e N o r t h e r n Wei and o f A m i t a w o r s h i p i n t h e T'ang can s i m p l y be v i e w e d as two d i f f e r e n t phenomena; each i n f l u e n c e d by e v o l v i n g r e l i g i o u s i d e a s t h a t d e t e r m i n e d p o p u l a r r i s e and f a l l a l l t h e d e i t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e d e v o t i o n a l i s m i n s p i r e d by M a i t r e y a and by A m i t a have been s i n g l e d out as h a v i n g a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p — as i n d i c a t i n g a s h i f t i n p o p u l a r i t y f r o m one t o t h e o t h e r . P e r i c l a i m s t h a t an abundance of e v i d e n c e , from t h e C h i n e s e 66 / caves t o t h e temples of Nara , " a t t e s t a n t l a p o p u l a r i t e du c u l t e de 67 M a i t r e y a q u i ne d i s p a r u t que devant c e l u i d'Amitabha". I n even s t r o n g e r t e r m s , Waley w r i t e s t h a t : " s u r v i v i n g s c u l p t u r e and e p i g r a p h y of t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y show t h a t M a i t r e y a o c c u p i e d t h e n t h e p l a c e t h a t was -90-t o be u s u r p e d i n t h e s e v e n t h and e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s by Amitabha". Matsumoto, i n w r i t i n g about r e b e l themes o b s e r v e s : "As an o b j e c t o f p o p u l a r d e v o t i o n M a i t r e y a was g r a d u a l l y e c l i p s e d from t h e e a r l y T'ang onwards by 0 - m i - t ' o - f o ( A m i t a b h a ) , though t h e M a i t r e y a n theme l i n g e r e d 69 i n t h e i d e o l o g i e s o f t h e White L o t u s S o c i e t y and s i m i l a r movements". The c a u s e s u s u a l l y g i v e n f o r t h i s s h i f t r e v o l v e around two s e t s o f i n f e r e n c e s : 1) t h a t f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , w o r s h i p p i n g A m i t a was g r a d u a l l y p e r c e i v e d by t h e p o p u l a r C h i n e s e mind as b e i n g more bene-f i c i a l t h a n w o r s h i p p i n g M a i t r e y a ; and 2) t h a t t h e s e r e a s o n s , once s y s t e -m a t i z e d i n t o a c o h e r e n t d o c t r i n e by t h e P u r e Land m a s t e r s , f u r t h e r en-hanced t h e s t a t u s o f A m i t a among th e masses. A t h i r d s e t of i n f e r e n c e s , c o m p r i s i n g t h e t h e o r y p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , i d e n t i f i e s t h e a n i m a t i n g f o r c e b e h i n d t h e e v e n t s : t h a t t h e s h i f t from M a i t r e y a t o A m i t a was s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p r e v a i l i n g e s c h a t o l o g i c a l mood of t h e P e r i o d of D i s u n i o n . The w i d e s p r e a d awareness o f t h e l a t t e r d a y s , e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e f o u r t h and f i f t h c e n t u r i e s l e d , by t h e l a t e s i x t h and e a r l y s e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s t o a c r i s i s , w h i c h was s u b s e q u e n t l y r e s o l v e d by t h e P u r e Land movement. To summarize : t h e s t o n e i c o n s o f Lung-men document t h e most v i t a l e r a i n C h i n e s e Buddhism. D u r i n g t h i s age, t h e Buddhism o f I n d i a was t r a n s -formed i n t o t h e Buddhism of C h i n a . One of t h e s i g n a l e v e n t s o f t h i s t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n was t h e emergence of A m i t a as one of t h e major d e v o t i o n a l f i g u r e s o f t h e T'ang. The s t a t u e s a t Lung-men c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t A m i t a ' s ascendency was not an i s o l a t e d event b u t t h a t o t h e r d e i t i e s a l s o p a s s e d i n and out o f f a v o u r . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , A m i t a ' s r i s e i n p o p u l a r i t y was l i n k e d w i t h t h e d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a r i t y o f M a i t r e y a ; a p r e v i o u s l y p r o m inent f o c u s of d e v o t i o n . T h i s s h i f t i n p o p u l a r i t y , l i k e t h e o t h e r d e c i s i o n s -91-t h a t t h e M e d i e v a l C h i n e s e made when c h o s i n g an o b j e c t o f w o r s h i p was i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g B u d d h i s t i d e a s — i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e n o t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r age. The e s c h a t o l o g i c a l mood p e r m e a t i n g S i x D y n a s t i e s s o c i e t y r e a c h e d c r i t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n s p r e c i s e l y d u r i n g t h e s t a g e i n w h i c h r e l a t i v e l y few new images were b e i n g c a r v e d i n t h e Lung-men Caves (540-640). The d o c u m e n t a t i o n drawn from Lung-men by Tsukamoto s u p p o r t s t h e i d e a o f a s h i f t f rom M a i t r e y a t o A m i t a between t h e N o r t h e r n Wei and t h e T'ang. F o r a f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n f o r t h e r o l e o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l t h ought as one of t h e dominant f a c t o r s b e h i n d t h i s s h i f t , we t u r n t o t h e l a s t two c h a p t e r s o f t h i s t h e s i s . -92-F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r I I I 1. F o r two b r i l l i a n t e s s a y s on t h e consequences o f t h e f a l l o f t h e Han see E. B a l a z s , C h i n e s e C i v i l i z a t i o n and B u r e a u c r a c y (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , pp.187-254. 2. A. F. W r i g h t , Buddhism i n C h i n e s e H i s t o r y ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p.20. 3. Tsukamoto Z e n r y u , Chugoku Bukkyo T s i i S h i [ G e n e r a l H i s t o r y o f  C h i n e s e Buddhism] (Tokyo: S u z u k i R e s e a r c h F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 239-308. 4. F o r example, a l t h o u g h i n b o t h c a s e s , e a r l i e r t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e r e c o r d e d , i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t by t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y Dharmaraksa had t r a n s l a t e d s u t r a s on b o t h M a i t r e y a and A m i t a . F o r more d e t a i l s see E. Z u r c h e r , The B u d d h i s t Conquest o f C h i n a : The Spread and A d a p t a t i o n of Buddhism i n E a r l y M e d i e v a l C h i n a , 2 v o l s . ( L e i d e n : B r i l l , 1959) 2:194 n.75. 5. Among t h e a t t e m p t s made t o count t h e number o f s t a t u e s a t Lung-men, K. Ch'en c i t i e s a Loyang m a g i s t r a t e who e s t i m a t e d 97,306 i n 1915-16 and l a t e r e s t i m a t e o f 142,289. Buddhism i n C h i n a : A  H i s t o r i c a l Survey ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p.171. 6. T. 50. 351c-354a. t r a n s l a t e d by A. L i n k , " B i o g r a p h y o f Taoari", TP 46 ( 1 9 5 8 ) : l - 4 8 . 7. I b i d . , p.36; and f o r more d e t a i l s see Z u r c h e r , Conquest, p.194 n.76. 8. T h i s i s a s e c t i o n from t h e vow composed by H u i - y i i a n ' s l a y d i s c i p l e L i u Ch'eng c h i h and i s i n c l u d e d i n H u i c h i a o ' s b i o g r a p h y o f H u i -yuan. T r a n s l a t e d i n Z u r c h e r , Conquest, p.244. 9. I b i d . , p.220. 10. I b i d . , p.194. 11. F o r f u r t h e r s o u r c e s on Tao-an: Tsukamoto, Chugoko Bukkyo, pp. 475-661; Z u r c h e r , Conquest, pp.180-204. 12. F o r more d e t a i l s on e a r l i e s t Amidism and Hu i - y u a n see Tsukamoto, Chugoko Bukkyo", p p . 6 3 0 f f . 13. Z u r c h e r , Conquest, pp.204-239. 14. F o r a summary o f t h e l e t t e r s t h a t were exchanged between H u i - y u a n and K u m a r a j i v a see Z u r c h e r , Conquest, pp. 227-229. -93-15. L i n k , "Tao-an," p . l . 16. Z u r c h e r , Conquest, pp. 223-24. 17. P. D e m i e v i l l e , L a Yogacarabhumi de Sangharak§a, BEFEO 64 (1947-50):377. 18. L i n k , "Tao-an," p.100. 19. M o k s a l a ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e Pr a . j n a p a r a m i t a i n 25,000 l i n e s c i t e d i n Ch'en, Buddhism, p.99. 20. Z u r c h e r , Conquest, pp. 219-229. 21. I b i d . , p.220. 22. C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n o f Nagarguna's Commentary on t h e Pr a j ' n a p a r a m i t a i n 25,000 l i n e s . The f i r s t t h i r t y c h a p t e r s a r e t r a n s l a t e d by "E. Lamo t t e ; Le T r a i f e de l a Grande V e r t u de Sagesse de N a g l r j u n a , 3 v o l s . ( L o u v a i n : U n i v e r s i t e de L o u v a i n , 1949). 23. Z u r c h e r , Conquest, p.392 n.74. p.218; and compare w i t h I t o G i k e n who c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e b a s i s f o r Tao-an's b e l i e f l i e s i n o r a l t r a d i t i o n s . S h i n a Bukkyo S e i s h i (Tokyo: 1 9 2 3 ) , pp.192-193. 24. L i n k , "Tao-an," p.35. 25. F o r more d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s m a t t e r see S. L e v i and E. Chevannes, "Les S e i z e A r h a t p r o t e c t e u r s de l a L o i , " J A ( 1 1 t h S e r i e s ) , V o l . 8 (1916). P r z y l u s k i , Legends. 26. D e m i e v i l l e , Yogacarabhumi, p.377. 27. F o r more examples see D e m i e v i l l e , Yogacarabhumi, pp. 339-436. 28. Z u r c h e r , Conquest, p.220. 29. Z u r c h e r p r o p o s e s t h a t t h i s may have been C h i n Ch'en's v e r s i o n o f t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y . Conquest, p.221. 30. From H u i - C h i a o ' s b i o g r a p h y of H u i - y u a n (KSC V I 362.12.17 f f ) t r a n s l a t e d i n Z u r c h e r , Conquest, p.222. 31. Z u r c h e r , Conquest, p.223 and n.224. 32. W. L i e b e n t h a l ' s t r a n s l a t i o n i n " S h i h H u i - Y i i a n ' s Buddhism as Set F o r t h i n h i s W r i t i n g s , " JACS, v o l . 69 (December 1949): 243-259. 33. I b i d . , p.259. -94-34. Z u r c h e r , Conquest, p.223. 35. I n a d d i t i o n , Tao-an's d e v o t i o n was p r o b a b l y i n s p i r e d by m e d i t a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s and e x p e r i e n c e s c l e a r l y s u i t e d t o h i s m o n a s t i c l i f e . 36. Other C h i n e s e known t o have been A m i t a d e v o t e e s b e f o r e H u i - y u a n i n c l u d e : Ch'ueh Kung-tse (d.265-275); h i s d i s c i p l e , Wei s h i h - t u , and C h i h - t u n . See Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , pp.342-343; Z i l r c h e r , C o nquest, p.128. 37. I t i s n o t d e f i n i t e l y known whether H u i - y u a n was among t h e e i g h t d i s c i p l e s r e c o r d e d as t a k i n g p a r t i n Tao-an's ceremony f o r M a i t r e y a . 38. Z u r c h e r , Conquest, p.194. 39. I b i d . , p.219. 40. Hiu-yuan's b i o g r a p h y i n KSC quoted i n Z u r c h e r , Conquest, p. 247. 41. I b i d . , p.250. 42. F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e W h i t e L o t u s S o c i e t i e s see D. Overmyer, F o l k B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , pp. 73-108. 43. Pas p r o p o s e s t h a t Hui-yuan's p o s i t i o n as t h e f o u n d e r of t h e P u r e Land t r a d i t i o n i s a l a t e r development i n i t i a t e d by P u r e Land b e l i e v e r s who w i s h e d t o " i n c r e a s e t h e p r e s t i g e " of t h e i r b e l i e f s . "Shan-tao's Commentary," pp. 135, 136 n . l . 44. A l t h o u g h E b e r h a r d s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e - Yun-kang and Lung-men Caves were adap t e d from t h e T'o-pa cave c u l t s ; i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t the N. Wei Caves were p r i m a r i l y o f B u d d h i s t i n s p i r a t i o n , c f . W. E b e r h a r d , Conquerors and R u l e r s ( L e i d e n : E. J . B r i l l , 1952; r e v . ed. 1 9 6 5 ) , p.147. 45. M. S u l l i v a n , Cave Temples o f M a i c h i s h a n , . 1 ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . l . 46. Mizuno S., C h i n e s e Stone S c u l p t u r e (Tokyo: Maruyama, 1950). 47. F o r t h e most e x t e n s i v e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e Yun-kang Caves s e e : Mizuno S. and N a g a h i r o T. , YQn, :-kang, The B u d d h i s t Cave Temples  of t h e 5 t h C e n t u r y A.D. i n N o r t h C h i n a , 32 v o l s . ( K y o t o : K y o t o U n i v e r s i t y , 1951-6). 48. W. Watson, " S t y l e s i n Mahayana I c o n o g r a p h y i n C h i n a " i n M a h a y a n i s t A r t A f t e r A.D. 900, C o l l o q u i e s on A r t and A r c h a e o l o g y i n A s i a #2 (London: S c h o o l o f O r i e n t a l and A f r i c a n S t u d i e s , London U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 1), pp.2-3; Soper, E v i d e n c e s , p.90 -95-49. The images f r o m t h e s e caves g a i n even g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e st u d y o f C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t a r t when one c o n s i d e r s t h e l a r g e numbers o f s t a t u e s t h a t were m e l t e d down d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i c B u d d h i s t p e r s e c u t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s w r i t t e n e v i d e n c e o f Buddha f i g u r e s d a t i n g back t o t h e second c e n t u r y A.D., t h e e a r l i e s t known C h i n e s e i c o n i s d a t e d 338 A.D. ( i l l u s t r a t e d i n W r i g h t , Buddhism, i l l u s t . No. 1 ) . 50. Mizuno S. and N a g a h i r o , T., Ryumon S e k k u t s u no Kenkyu [A Study o f th e Lung-men Caves] (Tokyo: Zauho P r e s s , 1 9 4 1 ) , p.17. 51. R o b i n s o n , E a r l y Madhyamika, p.15. 52. I b i d . , p.98. 53. T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s drawn from Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , pp. 173-176. 54. I b i d . , pp. 290-295. 55. Lung-men i s s i t u a t e d about t w e l v e km. s o u t h o f Loyang. The caves a r e dug out of a range o f h i l l s , s e p a r a t e d i n t o e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n groups by t h e I . R i v e r . The Western H i l l s w i t h t w e n t y - t h r e e caves a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e E a s t e r n . Mizuno and N a g a h i r o Ryumon, p. 3. 56. E x c a v a t i o n began i n 494 and c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e 750's. A f t e r t h i s t i m e , i n s p i t e o f a few a d d i t i o n s t h e caves g e n e r a l l y f e l l i n t o n e g l e c t . 57. T h i s d a t a has been d i s c u s s e d and o r g a n i z e d i n t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l t a b l e s by Tsukamoto i n Mizuno and N a g a h i r o , Ryumon, pp.142-449; and r e -p r i n t e d i n Tsukamoto, Chugoku Bukky5, pp.355-609. 58. Soper n o t e s t h a t a t Tun-huang a t y p i c a l arrangement would c o n s i s t of M a i t r e y a , w i t h c r o s s e d a n k l e s , s e a t e d a t one end o f an e n t r a n c e f a c i n g Sakyamuni, i n l o t u s p o s i t i o n . A t Yiin-kang M a i t r e y a and Sakyamuni have been found as central d e i t i e s f o r adjacent caves (caves 1+2; caves 7+8). Evidence , p.219 n.79. 59. Mizuno and N a g a h i r o , Ryumon, pp.234-236. 60. I n Ch'en's words: " D u r i n g t h e N o r h t e r n Wei, Amitabha was o n l y one f i f t h as p o p u l a r a s Sakyamuni, one q u a r t e r a s p o p u l a r a s M a i t r e y a ; but under t h e T'ang Amitabha outnumbered Sakyamuni t w e l v e t i m e s and M a i t r e y a t e n t i m e s " . Buddhism i n C h i n a , p.172. 61. F o r a h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t o f N o r t h e r n Wei Buddhism see Tsukamoto Z e n r y u , S h i n a B u k k y o s h i Kenkyu: H o k u g i hen ( K y o t o : Kobundo, 1942). -96-62. Mizuno and N a g a h i r o , Yun-kang, The B u d d h i s t Cave Temples o f 5 t h  c e n t u r y A.D. i n N o r t h C h i n a , 32 v o l s ( K y o t o : J i n b u n k a g a k u Kenkyusho, K y o t o U n i v e r s i t y , 1952-56), v o l . 16: Wei Shou, T r e a t i s e on Buddhism  and Taoism, an E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e O r i g i n a l C h i n e s e Text o f  Wei Shu CXIV and t h e Japanese A n n o t a t i o n o f Tsukamoto Zenryu by L. H u r v i t z , p.39. 63. The B h a d r a k a l p a s u t r a was t r a n s l a t e d by Dharmaraks,a i n c a . 300 OR 291. The same i d e a i s a l s o found i n N a g a r j u n a ' s T a - c h i - t u - l u n . H u r v i t z , Wei Shu, p.40. 64. Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , p.178. 65. The u s u a l r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h i s famous f i g u r e i s C. P. F i t z g e r a l d , The Empress Wu, (Melbourne: F. W. C h e s h i r e , 1956); A. F. W r i g h t and D. T w i t c h e t t , ed., P e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e T'ang (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973), pp.297-305. 66. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e same s h i f t o c c u r r e d i n Japan when phase o f M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p was f o l l o w e d by a subsequent phase of Amida w o r s h i p i n t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y . 67. P e r i , "Review," p.446. 68. A. Waley, A- C a t a l o g u e o f P a i n t i n g s R e c o v e r e d from Tun-huang x x x v i i i . 69. Matsumoto Y u j i , "Some Themes i n C h i n e s e R e b e l I d e o l o g i e s , " The  C o n f u c i a n P e r s u a s i o n , ed. A. F. W r i g h t ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 241-267. -97-C h a p t e r IV Latter Says : „ o - f a ( * ^ ) I . I n t r o d u c t i o n When B u d d h i s t m i s s i o n a r i e s a r r i v e d i n C h i n a , t h e y found one o f t h e most advanced c i v i l i z a t i o n s i n t h e a n c i e n t w o r l d . B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t s were thus i n t r o d u c e d i n t o a c u l t u r e w h i c h had l o n g been d e v e l o p i n g i t s own d i s t i n c t v i e w s on ti m e and history."*" F o r t h e Han C o n f u c i a n s , heaven, e a r t h and man were l i n k e d t o g e t h e r by a d i v i n e l y a p p o i n t e d r u l e r and i n t e r a c t e d w i t h i n a p r e c i s e and o r d e r l y system. Time, a m e t i c u l o u s l y measured continuum o f m i n u t e s , 2 d a y s , s e a s o n s , y e a r s and p l a n e t a r y c y c l e s , was c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h t h e l i f e s p a n s , g e n e r a t i o n s and d y n a s t i c c y c l e s o f man. C o u r t h i s t o r i a n s were t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s t r o n o m e r s who a n a l y z e d human e v e n t s i n terms o f c e l e s t i a l c y c l e s and d i v i n e p o r t e n t s . D e s p i t e t h e c o n t i n u i n g emphasis on d i v i n a t i o n and s p i r i t w o r s h i p by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , t h e g r e a t Han h i s t o r i a n , Ssu Ma C h ' i e n was a b l e t o t a k e a r e m a r k a b l y p r a g m a t i c s t a n c e : h i s t o r y was a p r o d u c t o f man's own w i l l and t h e g o l d e n age would come about t h r o u g h h i s m o r a l e x c e l l e n c e . Man, by h i s own e f f o r t 3 and wisdom, would u s h e r i n t h e m i l l e n n i u m . The d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e Han and t h e d e c l i n e o f C o n f u c i a n i s m r e s u l t e d i n a r e v i v a l o f o l d e r p h i l o s o p h i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e d r a m a t i c r i s e o f T a o i s t 4 m e s s i a n i c movements. The i d e a l s o f h e a v e n l y r u l e r s , p a r a d i s e s , and t h e G r e a t Peace a n i m a t i n g p o p u l a r T a o i s t u p r i s i n g s can be t r a c e d t o a " p r e -C o n f u c i a n p o l i t i c o - r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n " " ' common t o b o t h C o n f u c i a n i s m -98-and Taoism. T a o i s t m e s s i a n i s m t h e r e f o r e s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h e e x i s t a n c e of C h i n e s e c o n c e p t i o n s of l i n e a r t i m e and i n d i g e n o u s b e l i e f s i n t h e advent o f a p e r f e c t r u l e r and a U t o p i a n w o r l d . ^ A l t h o u g h i t i s not w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h i s t h e s i s t o d i s c u s s t h e r i c h m i l l e n a r i a n t r a d i t i o n i n C h i n a , T a o i s t o r B u d d h i s t , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t many of t h e e a r l y f o u n d e r s o f R e l i g i o u s Taoism were b o r n around t h e r e g i o n of p r e s e n t K i a n g s u , S o u t h e r n Shantung and H o p e i , one of t h e f i r s t a r e a s of B u d d h i s t . g r o w t h . From t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r , B u d d h i s t c o n c e p t s on t r a n s m i g r a t i o n , c a u s a l i t y , heavens and h e l l s , and t h e end o f a k a l p a p r o f o u n d l y i n -g f l u e n c e d r e b e l t h i n k i n g as w e l l as the r e l i g i o s i t y o f t h e masses who h e a r d t h e p o p u l a r sermons of t h e e a r l y i t i n e r a n t monks. Thus B u d d h i s t cosmology and e s c h a t o l o g y i n j e c t e d f r e s h i d e a s i n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e c o n c e p t s of t i m e ; i n c l u d i n g t h e n o t i o n s of cosmic c r e a t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n j o f t h e b e g i n n i n g s and ends o f w o r l d ages. These i d e a s were t o have a l o n g and f r u i t f u l i n f l u e n c e on t h e subsequent development 9 of N e o - C o n f u c i a n and N e o - T a o i s t p h i l o s o p h y . From t h e f o u r t h t o t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s , B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o l o g y a t t a i n e d a degree o f prominence perhaps u n e q u a l l e d i n C h i n a u n t i l t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e s e c e n t u r i e s c o v e r t h e P e r i o d o f D i s u n i o n (220-589), t h e S u i Dynasty (581-618) and t h e f i r s t one hundred y e a r s of t h e T'ang Dynasty (618-907). F o r t h e N o r t h e r n Sangha i n p a r t i c u l a r , p e r i o d s of p e r s e c u t i o n a l t e r n a t e d w i t h p e r i o d s of p r o s p e r i t y ; and t h e B u d d h i s t community e x p e r i e n c e d u n p r e c e d e n t e d growth. D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , t h e N o r t h e r n Wei masses r e g a r d e d t h e M a i t r e y a Buddha as a c e n t e r of d e v o t i o n ; a s o u r c e of hope i n a c r i s i s - r i d d e n age. I n c o n t r a s t , rulers"*"^ and rebels"'""'" p e r c e i v e d t h e M a i t r e y a myth as a b a s i s on w h i c h t o b u i l d -99-r e l i g i o n - p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s . B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o l o g i c a l thought i s made up o f two d i s t i n c t e l e m e n t s : t h e advent o f M a i t r e y a and t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e Dharma. E s c h a t o l o g i c a l b e l i e f p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g t h e f o u r t h and f i f t h c e n t u r i e s was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r d e n t d e v o t i o n and e x p e c t a t i o n : t h e f o c u s was on M a i t r e y a . However, as t i m e p a s s e d , t h e q u a l i t y o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l b e l i e f changed. I n c r e a s i n g emphasis was p l a c e d on t h e L a t t e r Days, known i n C h i n a as mo-fa ( t h e L a t t e r end of t h e Law). The sense o f unease t h a t had been g r o w i n g even 12 b e f o r e t h e f a l l o f t h e N o r t h e r n Wei and had been i n c r e a s i n g w i t h t h e q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n o f t h e s t a t e s o f E a s t e r n and Western Wei, N o r t h e r n C h ' i , N o r t h e r n Chou and t h e Ch'en, was h e i g h t e n e d by t h e major p e r s e c u t i o n 13 of Buddhism i n 574-77; d u r i n g w h i c h r e c u r r e n t a l l e g a t i o n s o f c o r r u p t i o n i n t h e Sangha were y e t a g a i n l o d g e d . The f o u n d e r o f t h e S u i D y n a s t y , Yang C h i e n , (Emperor Wen) s e i z i n g t h e mood o f t h e h o u r , made use of s u t r a s s u c h as t h e S u v a r n a p r a b h a s a , and s t r o v e t o make good h i s c l a i m as 14 t h e c a k r a v a r t i n o f t h e new age. By t h e l a t e s i x t h and e a r l y s e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s , b e l i e f i n t h e B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o n had r e a c h e d a c r i s i s . L i v i n g d u r i n g t h e end o f t h e Dharma, i n s t e a d o f b r i n g i n g t h e b e l i e v e r c l o s e r t o t h e f u t u r e Buddha, meant l i v i n g i n remoteness from b o t h Sakyamuni and M a i t r e y a . Because o f t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n i n t i m e from t h e E n l i g h t e n e d Ones, t h e C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f d e p r i v e d o f a c c e s s t o t h e o r i g i n a l t r u t h o f t h e Dharma; t h o s e b o r n i n t h i s age were condemned t o i g n o r a n c e , p a i n and d a r k n e s s . The qu e s t f o r s a l v a t i o n seemed t o r e a c h an impasse. T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e myths o f M a i t r e y a and t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f mo-fo t h a t b r o u g h t t h e development o f C h i n e s e Buddhism t o a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e l a t e s i x t h and e a r l y s e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s . -100-I I . Mythic Foundations In 439, when the l a s t king of the Northern Liang Dynasty surrendered to the Wei, a prince of the imperial household, An-yang )^» escaped to the South and spent the re s t of his l i f e as a i t i n e r e n t preacher, propagating the cu l t s of Maitreya and Avalokitesvara."'" 6 The monk T'an-chiai, i l l and dying, c a l l e d without ceasing on the name of Maitreya. When t h i s d i s c i p l e of Tao-an was asked why he did not pray to be born i n Sukhavati, he responded: '"The abbot and I and some others, eight of us i n a l l , prayed together to be reborn i n Tu s i t a , the abbot and Tao-yuan and the rest have already been reborn [there]. I have not been able to depart, and that i s why I pray as I do." "'When he fi n i s h e d speaking, a radiance shone upon his body and h i s look became j o y f u l ; and then suddenly he passed away, being i n his seventieth year."! 7 A d i s c i p l e and fel l o w - p i l g r i m of Fa-hsien, Chih-yen studied dhyana under Buddhasena and Buddhabhadra for three years and a f t e r returning to China with the l a t t e r , translated texts i n Ch'ien-kang. In h i s old age, his desire to resolve doubts that had continued to torment him about the v a l i d i t y of his ordination took Chih-yen back to India. When the Indian arhat whose advice Chih-yen sought was unable to come to a decisio n , the arhat entered samadhi and consulted Maitreya i n Tu s i t a Heaven. His heart eased by Maitreya's message that the ordination was i n order, Chih-18 yen returned to Kashmir and died there at the age of seventy-nine. Hui-lan was instructed i n the p r i n c i p l e s of dhyana by a monk c a l l e d Dharmadatta i n Kashmir. Dharmadatta had gone to Tusi t a Heaven i n samadhi to receive his Bodhisattva ordination from Maitreya. Hui-lan, a f t e r receiving t h i s same method of ordination, taught i n Khotan, the present -101-Szechwan and i n Chien-kang (between 4 2 4 - 4 3 5 ) . ± y D u r i n g h i s t r a v e l s i n I n d i a , Hsuan-tsang v i s i t e d t h e m o u n t a i n c a v e r n where t h e famous f i f t h c e n t u r y monk B h a v a v i v e k a was s a i d t o be w a i t i n g f o r M a i t r e y a i n a p a l a c e o f A s u r a s . The p i l g r i m w r i t e s t h a t B h a v a v i v e k a a p p e a l e d t o A v a l o k i t e s v a r a s a y i n g : " ' I n t h e absence of M a i t r e y a as a Buddha, who i s t h e r e t h a t can s a t i s f y my d o u b t s ? ' " "'Long have I p r a y e d and w o r s h i p p e d w i t h a v i e w t o o b t a i n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o see M a i t r e y a . . . L e t us t h e r e f o r e e n t e r h e r e and t o g e t h e r a w a i t t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f t h i s Buddha.'"20 Towards t h e end of h i s w e l l known t r a v e l account^" 1" i n a s e c t i o n e x t o l l i n g h i s t e a c h e r s I - c h i n g w r i t e s o f h i s m e d i t a t i o n on M a i t r e y a : "Deep as t h e d e p t h o f a l a k e be my p u r e and c a l m m e d i t a t i o n . L e t me l o o k f o r t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g under t h e T r e e o f t h e Dragon F l o w e r , when I h e a r t h e deep r i p p l i n g v o i c e o f t h e Buddha M a i t r e y a . P a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e f o u r modes o f b i r t h , I would d e s i r e t o p e r f e c t my mind, and t h u s f u l f i l l t h e t h r e e l o n g k a l p a s (ages) r e q u i r e d f o r Buddhahood."23 Looked t o as t h e f u t u r e Buddha by t h e d e v o t e e s o f b o t h v e h i c l e s , M a i t r e y a d e v e l o p e d a whole new s e t o f Mahayana r o l e s : "a god o f l i g h t " ; "a c o m f o r t e r r e c e i v i n g t h e c o n f e s s i o n o f s i n s " ; "a g u i d e f o r s o u l s a f t e r 2 A d e a t h " ; and t h e supreme i n s p i r e r o f B u d d h i s t m a s t e r s . What i s perhaps s u r p r i s i n g t o modern Mahayana s c h o l a r s , i s not so much t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f M a i t r e y a b e l i e f b u t t h e i n t e n s i t y o f d e v o t i o n w h i c h t h i s Buddha i n s p i r e d — e s p e c i a l l y among t h e f o r e m o s t exponents o f t h e s o - c a l l e d u n t h e i s t i c and l o g i c a l s c h o o l s . I n o r d e r t o g e t an i d e a o f t h e k i n d o f myths, images and s t o r i e s t h a t i n s p i r e d t h e mind and h e a r t o f t h e M e d i e v a l C h i n e s e c l e r i c o r -102-layman, I have g l e a n e d examples f r o m t h e t r a v e l a c c o u n t s o f two o f C h i n a ' s most famous p i l g r i m s t o I n d i a : F a - h s i e n ( t r a v e l l e d between 25 26 399-412) and Hsuan-tsang ( t r a v e l l e d between 629-645). Hsuan-t s a n g ' s n a r r a t i v e c o n t a i n s a t l e a s t n i n e s e p a r a t e r e f e r e n c e s t o 27 M a i t r e y a whereas F a - h s i e n ' s i n c l u d e s o n l y t h r e e . F a - h s i e n r e -p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a t i o n o f monks whose p i l g r i m a g e was m o t i v a t e d by t h e d e s i r e t o c a r r y r e l i c s and a c o m p lete .Vlnaya back t o C h i n a . H i s d e v o t i o n , s t i l l c e n t e r e d on Sakyamuni, i n c l u d e d by e x t e n s i o n , t h e f u t u r e M a i t r e y a . By HsUan-tsang's t i m e however, numerous o t h e r Mahayana d e i t i e s were becoming more p o p u l a r t h a n Sakyamuni and M a i t r e y a . Because of M a i t r e y a ' s s p e c i a l p l a c e i n t h e F a - h s i a n g s y s t e m , H s i i a n -t s a n g and h i s d i s c i p l e s seem t o have r e k i n d l e d i n t e r e s t i n M a i t r e y a and T u s i t a Heaven a t a t i m e when A m i t a and A v a l o k i t e s v a r a w o r s h i p had a l r e a d y g a i n e d ascendency. By t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y I n d i a n Buddhism was s t i l l s t r o n g b u t p a s t i t s h e i g h t ; F a - h s i e n n o t e d t h a t H i n a y a n a predominated i n t h e N o r t h w i t h p o c k e t s of Mahayana a c t i v i t y . Two hundred y e a r s l a t e r H suan-tsang found a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e c l i n e i n Buddhism, and "he met w i t h gloomy 28 f o r e b o d i n g s i n many p a r t s of t h e B u d d h i s t w o r l d . " I n t h e N o r t h w e s t he found many m o n a s t e r i e s i n r u i n s and i n t h e S o u t h , w e a l t h y m o n a s t e r i e s and u n c h a s t e monks. By e x a m i n i n g t h e k i n d s o f i n c i d e n t s o r s t o r i e s r e c o r d e d by F a - h s i e n and H suan-tsang and by comparing them w i t h a c c o u n t s o f M a i t r e y a by o t h e r C h i n e s e monks and laymen, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e l i n e a t e b r o a d p a t t e r n s i n t h e m y t h i c f o u n d a t i o n s of M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p i n e a r l y t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a . The f i r s t and most o b v i o u s t y p e of r e f e r e n c e t o M a i t r e y a t h a t t h e t r a v e l l e r s made was w h i l e v i s i t i n g t h e famous p i l g r i m a g e s p o t s a s s o c i a t e d -103-w i t h Sakyamuni's l i f e . The p l a c e where M a i t r e y a r e c e i v e d h i s v y a k a r a n a 29 i s d e s c r i b e d i n F a - h s i e n ' s a c c o u n t as a s i t e n e a r Deer P a r k and by Hsuan-tsang as a s p o t marked by an Asoka s t u p a between T a k s h a s i l a and 30 t h e Indus ; presumably t h e same p l a c e . Hsuan-tsang's a c c o u n t m e n t i o n s 31 -b o t h t h e p l a c e where M a h a p r a j a p a t i p r e s e n t e d t h e g o l d e n garment t o Sakyamuni and V u l t u r e Peak, t h e t h r e e - p e a k e d m o u n t a i n where Mahakasyapa, 32 e n t r u s t e d w i t h . t h e same g o l d garment, a w a i t s t h e coming o f M a i t r e y a . At t h e b o d h i t r e e where Sakyamuni a c h i e v e d e n l i g h t e n m e n t , H s i i a n -t s a n g d e s c r i b e s s e e i n g M a i t r e y a d i s g u i s e d as a brahman i n a ne a r b y - 33 v i h a r a , p a i n t i n g a p e r f e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e Buddha. Hsuan-chao, 34 I - c h i n g and Chi-hung a l s o r e c o r d e d s e e i n g M a i t r e y a t h e a r t i s t . A g a i n a t t h e b o d h i t r e e H s u a n - t s a n g , o b s e r v i n g t h e i c o n o f A v a l o k i t e s v a r a , sunk b r e a s t - d e e p i n t o t h e ground; remembered t h e prophecy t h a t as t h e s t a t u e d i s a p p e a r e d , so would t h e Buddha's Law. The second t y p e o f r e f e r e n c e made t o M a i t r e y a i n c l u d e s t r a c e s o f h i s t r a d i t i o n w h i c h t h e p i l g r i m s e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g t h e i r t r a v e l s . A w e l l - k n o w n example i s the T ' o - l i M a i t r e y a s t a t u e . I n o r d e r t o r e a c h t h e T ' o - l i ( D a r e l ) V a l l e y , n o r t h o f t h e I n d i a n b o r d e r , t h e p i l g r i m s had t o c r o s s h a z a r d o u s gorges on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e S i n - t ' u R i v e r ; c l i m b i n g up and down t h e m o u n t a i n s i d e s w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f pegs, c h a i n s o r r o p e s . S e v e r a l p i l g r i m s i n c l u d i n g Fa-sheng, Hsuang-tsang and F a - h s i e n 35 r e p o r t e d s e e i n g t h e c o l o s s a l sandal-wood M a i t r e y a . A c c o r d i n g t o F a - h s i e n : "The monks t h e r e a l l s t u d y t h e H i n a y a n a . I n o l d e n t i m e s t h e r e was i n t h a t l a n d an A r h a t who used h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l powers t o t r a n s p o r t a s k i l l e d c r a f t s m a n up t o t h e T u s i t a Heaven so t h a t he might o b s e r v e t h e B o d h i s a t t v a M a i t r e y a , how t a l l he was and what c o m p l e x i o n and form He had; so t h a t on r e t u r n i n g t o E a r t h he c o u l d c a r v e wood i n t o an image. From s t a r t -104-t o f i n i s h t h r e e a s c e n t s were made, u n t i l t h e image was c o m p l e t e d . I t i s e i g h t y f e e t t a l l , t h e f o o t b e i n g e i g h t f e e t l o n g . On f a s t days i t a l w a y s e m i t s a l i g h t . The monarchs o f v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s v i e w i t h each o t h e r i n making o f f e r i n g s t o i t . . . " 3 6 Hstfan-tsang adds t h a t t h e s t a t u e " p o s s e s s e s t h e s e c r e t power of 37 m i r a c l e " and b o t h he and F a - h s i e n r e c a l l an o l d t r a d i t i o n t h a t f r o m " t h e t i m e o f t h e e x e c u t i o n of h i s image, t h e streams o f t h e Law 38 ( r e l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g ) began t o f l o w e a s t w a r d . " I n s t a n c e s where a b e l i e v e r i s t r a n s p o r t e d t o T u s i t a by t h e powers of m e d i t a t i o n i n s e a r c h o f knowledge o r i n s p i r a t i o n make up an o f t e n 39 r e p e a t e d theme w i t h many d i f f e r e n t v a r i a t i o n s . P r o b a b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e myths i n t h e t r a v e l c h r o n i c l e s i s Hsuan-tsang's v i s i t t o t h e g r o v e o f Amra t r e e s i n Ayodhya where Asanga was s a i d t o have ascended t o M a i t r e y a ' s p a l a c e i n T u s i t a and r e c e i v e d Y o g a c a r a works such as t h e M a i t r e y a n a t h a - y o g a c a r a - s a s t r a , t h e M a h a y a n a s u t r a l a m k a r a - t i k a _ . _ 4 0 and t h e M a d y a n t a v i b a n g a - k a r i k a . • . _• I n t h e same p a s s a g e , Hsuan-tsang d e s c r i b e s how Vasubandhu, Asanga and a few o t h e r s m u t u a l l y a g r e e d t h a t 41 t h e f i r s t t o d i e and r e a c h T u s i t a would i n f o r m t h e o t h e r s . A f t e r a monk had d i e d b u t s e n t no message, Asanga had a v i s i o n o f a r i s h i - d e v a who r e p o r t e d g o i n g t o T u s i t a . He t o l d Asariga t h a t "no words can d e s c r i b e " t h e b e a u t y o f M a i t r e y a and t h e wonders o f T u s i t a . He f u r t h e r c o n f i r m e d t h a t Buddhasimha, t h e monk who had d i e d b u t not r e p o r t e d t o h i s f r i e n d s , 42 was i n T u s i t a , " 1 immersed i n p l e a s u r e and m e r r i m e n t ' " . A l t h o u g h Hsuan-tsang's s t o r y o f Asanga r e c e i v i n g t h e s u t r a s from M a i t r e y a i s u n i q u e because i t became p a r t o f t h e m y t h i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e F a - h s i a n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n , i t can be compared t o o t h e r s t o r i e s i n w h i c h knowledge was sought from M a i t r e y a . Buddhabhadra, t h e dhyana -105-e x p e r t who a r r i v e d i n Chang-an a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y , i s s a i d t o have appeared s u d d e n l y b e f o r e a f e l l o w d i s c i p l e , h a v i n g r e t u r n e d from T u s i t a Heaven where he had gone t o "pay homage t o 43 44 M a i t r e y a " . The d e s c r i p t i o n s of Tao-an's M a i t r e y a d e v o t i o n as w e l l as t h e s t o r i e s of C h i h - y e n and H u i - l a n c i t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h i s s e c t i o n a r e o t h e r examples of t h e same theme; t h a t of M a i t r e y a t h e i n s p i r e r . S i t t i n g a m i d s t 3,000 p r i e s t s i n a S r i l a n k a M a h a v i h a r a , F a - h s i e n 45 l i s t e n e d t o t h e s t o r y o f t h e Buddha's alms b o w l . Upon e x p r e s s i n g t h e d e s i r e t o copy t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s p r e a d , t h e d e c l i n e and t h e e v e n t u a l r e n e w a l o f t h e Law under M a i t r e y a , t h e C h i n e s e p e r e g r i n a t o r was t o l d : " ' t h i s has no o r i g i n a l s c r i p t u r e ; I o n l y r e p e a t by word of mouth (what I have l e a r n e d ) ' F a - h s i e n i s even s a i d t o have seen 47 t h e bowl i n a monastery i n P u r u s h a . A l t h o u g h t h e myth i s w e l l - k n o w n Hsuang-tsang makes no m e n t i o n of i t . The t h i r d t y p e o f r e f e r e n c e t o M a i t r e y a r e c o r d e d by t h e t r a v e l a c c o u n t s i s t h e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . On h i s j o u r n e y down t h e Ganges R i v e r from K a s h m i r , Hsvian-tsang was c a p t u r e d by b r i g a n d s who wanted t o _ 48 o f f e r him as a s a c r i f i c e t o Durga. As H s l l a n - t s a n g u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t r i e d t o d i s s u a d e them, t h e b r i g a n d s p r e p a r e d a mandala f o r k i l l i n g him and b r a n d i s h e d t h e i r swords. A f t e r a s k i n g f o r a moment i n w h i c h t o p r a y t o M a i t r e y a , t h e C h i n e s e p i l g r i m c o n c e n t r a t e d on M a i t r e y a and vowed t o be r e b o r n i n T u s i t a so t h a t he c o u l d r e c e i v e t h e Y o g a c a r a b h u m i - s a s t r a . I n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n he c l i m b e d Mount Sumeru, passed t h e f i r s t , second and t h i r d heavens u n t i l he saw M a i t r e y a , s u r r o u n d e d by h i s assembly of devas. I n Lamotte's words: " . . . h i s h e a r t was f u l l o f j o y ; t h e mandala, t h e b a n d i t s , a l l was f o r g o t t e n . . . " . At t h i s i n s t a n t , a v i o l e n t s t o r m a r o s e , -106-t e r r i f y i n g t h e b r i g a n d s and s a v i n g H s l i a n - t s a n g . From t h i s t i m e t o h i s d e a t h , M a i t r e y a remained f o r H s i i a n - t s a n g a s p e c i a l o b j e c t o f v e n e r a t i o n . On h i s de a t h - b e d , t h e Y o g a c a r a master i s s a i d t o have p r a y e d 49 c o n s t a n t l y t o be b o r n i n T u s i t a Heaven. " I n t h e second month of t h e f i r s t y e a r of L i n - t e (664 AD), H s i i a n - t s a n g , t h e M a s t e r o f t h e Law asked t h e monks t o r e c i t e t h e name of M a i t r e y a Buddha. He h i m s e l f r e c l i n e d on h i s r i g h t elbow and d i e d . That n i g h t f o u r w h i t e r a i n b o w s came up i n t h e s k y and touched t h e t o p of t h e pagoda of t h e Tz'u-en monastery."50 B u d d h i s t w r i t i n g s a r e r e p l e t e w i t h death-bed a c c o u n t s s u c h as H s i i a n -t s a n g ' s and t h e passage from T ' a n - c h i a i ' s b i o g r a p h y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h i s s e c t i o n . Such a c c o u n t s , by no means l i m i t e d t o t h o s e t o a s p i r e d t o r e b i r t h i n T u s i t a heaven, a r e r e m i n e s c e n t o f t h e b i o g r a p h i e s o f - — 51 A m i t a d e v o t e e s who sought t o go t o S u k h a v a t i a f t e r t h e i r d e a t h . I n many ca s e s b o t h M a i t r e y a and A m i t a o r o t h e r d e i t i e s were c a l l e d upon. When C h i h - i was p r e p a r i n g t o d i e he d i v i d e d h i s p o s s e s s i o n s i n two: one p a r t f o r an o f f e r i n g t o M a i t r e y a ; and t h e o t h e r f o r " t h e u s u a l r e l i g i o u s p u r p o s e s " . He c h a n t e d " t h e names o f A m i t a , p r a j n a and 5 2 A v a l o k i t e s v a r a , and t h e n c a l m l y s a t a w a i t i n g h i s end." A f i n a l example of M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h a t o f o t h e r f i g u r e s can be found i n t h e l i f e o f t h e famous T'ang p o e t , Po-C h u - i . I n 840, Po commissioned an a r t i s t t o r e n d e r a p a i n t i n g o f A m i t a and t h e We s t e r n P a r a d i s e . W i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g he e x p r e s s e d t h e d e s i r e t h a t a l l t h e m e r i t s from t h i s deed be t r a n s f e r r e d t o a l l s e n t i e n t b e i n g s , t h a t t h e y might a t t a i n r e b i r t h i n S u k h a v a t i . That same y e a r , he commissioned a n o t h e r p a i n t i n g ; o f T u s i t a Heaven, w i t h -107-t h e w i s h t h a t a l l s e n t i m e n t b e i n g s be r e b o r n t h e r e and accompany M a i t r e y a 53 when he descends t o e a r t h . D u r i n g the f i n a l phase of h i s l i f e i n Loyang, s t i l l s u s t a i n i n g h i s l i f e l o n g i n t e r e s t i n Ch'an, Po t u r n e d i n c r e a s i n g l y t o P u r e Land t h o u g h t . Through r e b i r t h i n A m i t a ' s S u k h a v a t i , he hoped 54 t o be r e u n i t e d w i t h f r i e n d s who had d i e d b e f o r e him. In c o n c l u s i o n , we may make two g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s about M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p i n e a r l y t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a . F i r s t , t h e F u t u r e Buddha, even i n p e r i o d s o f g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y , was w o r s h i p p e d c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h o t h e r d e i t i e s ; whether i n c o n j u n c t i o n and Sakyamuni o r A v a l o k i t e s v a r a as i n t h e c a s e o f F a - h s i e n and An-yang o r i n c o n c e r t w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e Mahayana pantheon, as i n t h e d e v o t i o n a l i s m o f C h i h - i , P o - C h l i - i , and p r o b a b l y , most o f t h e T'ang Sangha and L a i t y . S e c o n d l y , f o r many i n c l u d i n g Tao-an and Hs u a n - t s a n g , M a i t r e y a was an i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l and s p e c i a l o b j e c t o f veneration"'"'; a tendency e x c e p t i o n a l l y p r e -v a l e n t d u r i n g t h e N o r t h e r n Wei D y n a s t y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t n e i t h e r F a - h s i e n n o r H s l i a n - t s a n g made any m e n t i o n o f A m i t a i n t h e i r t r a v e l c h r o n i c l e s . As t i m e went on, M a i t r e y a ' s i d e n t i t y as t h e Buddha o f t h e F u t u r e became l e s s and l e s s d i s t i n c t w i t h t h e I m p o r t a n t e x c e p t i o n o f p o p u l a r and underground r e b e l groups who a s s o c i a t e d him w i t h r e v o l u t i o n 56 and a new s o c i a l o r d e r . S e c t a r i a n groups based on M a i t r e y a n e s c h a t o l o g y were most a c t i v e from about 600-1800."*^ From t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y onward, M a i t r e y a was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an e c c e n t r i c Ch'an monk c a l l e d P ' u - t a i whose l i k e n e s s was p l a c e d a t t h e e n t r a n c e o f t e m p l e s t h r o u g h o u t C h i n a u n t i l t h i s c e n t u r y and whose e a r t h y , r o t u n d , l a u g h i n g form s t i l l g r a c e s t h e m a r k e t - p l a c e s o f Hong Kong as a symbol o f good f o r t u n e . D u r i n g t h e P e r i o d o f D i s u n i o n , t h e S u i , and the e a r y T'ang, however, t h e myths and images o f M a i t r e y a and T u s i t a Heaven s o l a c e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r -108-w i t h v i s i o n s o f b l i s s f u l e x i s t e n c e a f t e r d e a t h and t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r a renewed Dharma i n t h e f u t u r e . I I I . The Age Between Two Buddhas The i n s c r i p t i o n e t c h e d on a s t o n e Buddha i n T i n g H s i n g h s i e n d a t e d 549, t e l l s us t h a t i t was made by l a y f r a t e r n i t y members who lamented b e i n g b o r n a f t e r t h e t i m e o f Sakyamuni and p r i o r t o t h e f a r d i s t a n t advent o f M a i t r e y a - i n t h e age "between two s a g e s " 0>^£ ^  f^) Then i n C h i n e s e f a s h i o n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n r e a d s : " t o my t h i n k i n g , I was bo r n i n t h i s w o r l d f u l l o f d e f i l e m e n t , because I was poor i n good 59 f o r t u n e " . The i n c o h e r e n t s t a t e o f t h e B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e and t h e ard u o u s n e s s o f i t s p r a c t i c e ; t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s o f t h e Sangha and t h e s i g n s o f c o r r u p t i o n i n i t s r a n k s ; and t h e o n g o i n g s o c i a l c r i s e s o f the age c o n v i n c e d B u d d h i s t s , l a y and m o n a s t i c , t h a t t h e y were l i v i n g i n t h e " b u d d h a l e s s " ( ^ ) age. The w i d e s p r e a d sense o f d e s p a i r , g r o w i n g s i n c e t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y r e a c h e d . c r i t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n s i n t h e s i x t h . Many s i x c e n t u r y B u d d h i s t s were c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e l a s t phase o f the Dharma would b e g i n e i t h e r 1,000 o r 1,500 y e a r s a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f t h e i r f o u n d e r ; t h i s " p e r t u r b e d t h e mind o f B u d d h i s t C h i n a , a l m o s t as 60 much as Europe was a g i t a t e d by t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e y e a r 1,000". The s t o c k p h r a s e " i n t h e l a s t 500 y e a r s " i n Mahayana w r i t i n g s was echoed i n v a r i o u s ways by C h i n e s e w r i t e r s l i k e Hu-ssu, who d a t e d e v e n t s as 61 ' " s u c h and such a d a t e a f t e r t h e o n s e t o f t h e L a s t Phase'" o r Pao-chang who w r o t e h i s b i o g r a p h y o f C h i n e s e Nuns i n o r d e r " t o p r o v i d e examples o f 6 2 g r e a t v i r t u e i n a d e g e n e r a t e age". Some even hoped t h a t M a i t r e y a w o u l d -109-appear i n t h e i r own t i m e . I n 515, t h e f o l l o w e r s o f F a - c h i n g , a B u d d h i s t monk, k i l l e d l o c a l o f f i c i a l s , b u r n t s u t r a s and r a z e d temples w i t h t h e 63 c r y : '"A new Buddha has appeared! Get r i d o f t h e o l d d e v i l s ! 1 " . Thus, i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y we f i n d t h e development o f u n i q u e l y C h i n e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l c h r o n o l o g y and t h e emergence of two major p r o p o n e n t s of t h e l a t t e r - d a y d o c t r i n e , H u i - s s u and H s i n - h s i n g . I n i t i a l l y , t h e B u d d h i s t r e l i g i o n was t o end w i t h t h e p e r i o d o f t h e t r u e Dharma o r c h e n g - f a (j£ ) , and t h e n w i t h t h e C o u n t e r f e i t Dharma o r h s i a n g - f a a n ^ f i n a l l y c a l c u l a t i o n s were made f o r t h e Degenerate Dharma mo-fa ( ^ L/^v). From an e a r l y d a t e t h e C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t s had adopted t h e t h r e e - s t a g e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l model w e l l known t o them from 64 v a r i o u s Mahayana works. The s c r i p t u r e s s u p p o r t e d numerous o f t e n -c o n f l i c t i n g c h r o n o l o g i e s b u t by t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y , f o u r s c h o o l s o f thought had emerged: 1. True Dharma 500 y e a r s and C o u n t e r f e i t Dharma 500 y e a r s ; 2. True Dharma 500 y e a r s and C o u n t e r f e i t Dharma 1,000 y e a r s ; 3. True Dharma 1,000 y e a r s and C o u n t e r f e i t Dharma 500 y e a r s ; 4. True Dharma 1,000 y e a r s and C o u n t e r f e i t Dharma 1,000 y e a r s . ^ The second and t h e f o u r t h s c h o o l s , b o t h f o l l o w e d by an a d d i t i o n a l 10,000 y e a r s o f Degenerate Dharma were t h e most p o p u l a r i n C h i n a . I n f l u e n t i a l monks i n c l u d i n g H u i - y u a n , H u i - s s u , Taor-cho, Hsuan-tsang and K ' u a i - c h i 66 adopted t h e second scheme ; C h i - t s a n g (549-623), H u i - k uan (613-681), and L i a n g - p ' i (717-777) f o l l o w e d t h e l e s s p r e v a l e n t f o u r t h scheme. The above schemes seem r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d when compared w i t h t h e w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t d a t e s c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e a c t u a l o n s e t o f t h e f i n a l p e r i o d o f t h e Dharma. These c a l c u l a t i o n s , o f t e n d e v i s e d t o s u p p o r t -110-p r e c o n c e l v e d b i a s e s ^ , were based e i t h e r on t h e d a t e o f i a k y a m u n i ' s b i r t h o r n i r v a n a . Some were c o m p a r a t i v e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t h e i r 68 e s t i m a t e s : F a - h s i e n p l a c e d t h e Buddha's n i r v a n a between 770-720 B.C. ; t h e a u t h o r o f t h e L i - t a i - s a n - p a o - c h i a t 609 B.C.; and Wei Shou f i x e d 69 t h e Buddha's b i r t h a t 687 B.C. O t h e r s , however t o o k a more r a d i c a l s t a n c e . I n o r d e r t o combat T a o i s t propaganda t h a t t h e Buddha was i n f a c t , none o t h e r t h a n L a o - t s e who, a f t e r h i s d i s a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e We s t e r n R e g i o n s had t a u g h t t h e b a r b a r i a n s i n I n d i a ^ , some B u d d h i s t s 71 f o r g e d t e x t s e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e d a t e of t h e Buddha a t 1025 B.C. S i m i l a r l y , C o n f u c i a n a n t i - B u d d h i s t t r a c t s b l a m i n g Buddhism f o r t h e s h o r t l i f e o f t h e d y n a s t i e s were c o u n t e r e d by more f o r g e d t e x t s ; n o t a b l y t h e C h o u - s h u - i - c h i w h i c h s e t t h e Buddha's n i r v a n a b a c k t o 949 B.C. - t o 72 t h e v e n e r a b l e Chou d y n a s t y . T h i s l a s t d a t e o f 949 B.C. found wide c u r r e n c y and l e d many s i x t h c e n t u r y B u d d h i s t s t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e l a t t e r 73 age would b e g i n i n t h e y e a r 550 A.D. The f i r s t w r i t t e n document d e f i n i t i v e l y s t a t i n g t h a t t h e l a s t phase 74 had a l r e a d y begun i s c r e d i t e d t o H u i - s s u (515-574). I n h i s L i - s h i h - y u a n -wen composed i n 559, H u i - s s u g i v e s t h e day, month and y e a r f o r t h e Buddha's c o n c e p t i o n , b i r t h , g o i n g f o r t h , e n l i g h t e n m e n t and n i r v a n a . D e r i v i n g t h e s e d a t e s from a now l o s t J a t a k a ^ , H u i - s s u came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t c h e n g - f a w o u l d l a s t from 1066-567 B.C., h s i a n g - f a from 566-433 A.D. and mo-fa, from 434 t o 10,433 A.D. ( t h e Buddha's b i r t h d a y was f i x e d as t h e 5 t h day of 7 6 t h e 2nd month o f 1067 B.C.!). Thus f o r H u i - s s u , t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e l a s t phase would have s t a r t e d i n 434, one hundred and t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e he i s thought t o have w r i t t e n t h e L i - s h i h - y u a n - w e n . I n t h e same t e x t , he p r a y s t h a t a l c h e m i c a l p r a c t i c e s w i l l a v a i l him of an e l i x i r ( J ^ " ) t o p r e s e r v e h i s body u n t i l t h e M a i t r e y a descends -111-t o e a r t h . H u i - s s u ' s b i o g r a p h y r e l a t e s t h a t a f t e r m e d i t a t i n g and f a s t i n g he dreamt t h a t he met M a i t r e y a and h i s r e t i n u e on a huge l o t u s b l o s s o m and i n h i s h e a r t t h o u g h t : " . . . ' I , i n t h e F i n a l [ p e r i o d o f d e g e n e r a t i o n o f ] CAKYA's Law, have r e c e i v e d t h e L o t u s Of t h e Law. Now I have met M e r c i f u l [ M a i t r e y a ] , t h e Revered One.' F e e l i n g a c u t e l y a f f e c t e d , he wept s a d l y , t h e n s u d d e n l y awoke. T h e r e a f t e r he s t r o v e even more, and t h e wondrous omens m u l t i p l i e d . " 7 7 I n a n o t h e r dream, a l s o r e c o r d e d i n h i s b i o g r a p h y , H u i - s s u saw M a i t r e y a and A m i t a p r e a c h i n g and l e a d i n g o t h e r s t o t h e Law. He t h e n had t h e i r 78 images made and w o r s h i p p e d them b o t h . Thus, H u i - s s u ' s d e v o t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , w h i l e s t i l l s t r o n g l y o r i e n t e d t o t h e Buddha of t h e f u t u r e , a l s o i n c l u d e d A m i t a w o r s h i p . T h i s d e v o t i o n a l i s m , however, must be seen w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h i s o t h e r r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o h i s famous d i s c i p l e , C h i h - i , H u i - s s u was '"famous t h r o u g h o u t t h e South as a s c h o l a r , a devout r e l i g i o n i s t , a p r a c t i t i o n e r o f m e d i t a t i o n and an e n l i g h t e n e d m y s t i c ' " . ^ He t a u g h t t h e P r a j n a p a r a m i t a and L o t u s s u t r a s and emphasized t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t r i v i n g e a r n e s t l y f o r u n i v e r s a l s a l v a t i o n i n t h e d e g e n e r a t e age. The means o f s a l v a t i o n l a y i n adherence t o a s t r i c t m o n a s t i c code, d i l i g e n t m e d i t a t i o n , sudden e n l i g h t e n -ment and u l t i m a t e l y , t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s p i r i t of t h e L o t u s . W h i l e t h e L o t u s i n s p i r e d H u i - s s u , b o t h as an o b j e c t o f d e v o t i o n and as a b a s i s f o r h i s method o f sudden e n l i g h t e n m e n t , most i m p o r t a n t f o r our p u r p o s e , i s t h e i n f l u e n c e w h i c h i t had on h i s l a t t e r day b e l i e f s . By H u i -80 s s u ' s t i m e L o t u s c u l t s were not uncommon; m i r a c u l o u s powers r e s i d e n t i n t h e s c r i p t u r e were thought t o g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e t h e s t o c k o f m e r i t o f t h o s e who h e a r d , r e c i t e d , c o p i e d o r t a u g h t i t . The m i r a c l e o f t h e s u t r a was t o become e v i d e n t " i n t h i s L a t t e r e v i l Age"; t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e f o r t h e -112-m a n i f e s t a t i o n of i t s s a v i n g powers. '0 World-Honored One! I n t h e l a s t f i v e hundred y e a r s , i n t h e m i d s t o f a muddied e v i l age, i f t h e r e i s anyone who r e c e i v e s and keeps t h i s s c r i p t u r a l Canon, I w i l l guard and p r o t e c t him, keep him from d e c l i n e and c a r e , e n a b l e him t o g a i n t r a n q u i l l i t y , and p r e v e n t t h o s e who seek t o get t h e b e t t e r of him from d o i n g s o , Be i t Mara, o r a son of Mara, o r a d a u g h t e r of Mara, o r . . . . . " 8 1 W h i l e t h e awareness of t h e l a t t e r days i s p r e s e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e L o t u s , t h e mo-fa theme p r e d o m i n a t e s i n s e c t i o n s s u c h as " C o m f o r t a b l e 8 2 Conduct" where t h e assemblage r e c e i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n s on how t o p r e a c h th e Dharma d u r i n g t h e end. I n t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n t i t l e d "Encouragements 83 of t h e B o d h i s a t t v a U n i v e r s a l l y Worthy" , t h e s u t r a and i t s d e v o t e e a r e e x t o l l e d i n a f i n a l s u r g e o f p r o m i s e s and p r a i s e by t h e b o d h i s a t t v a Samanthabhadra: And f o r t h e one who " . . . r e c e i v e s and keeps i t , r e a d s and r e c i t e s i t , and i n t e r p r e t s t h e i m p o r t of i t s meaning! To t h a t man a t l i f e ' s end s h a l l be extended t h e hands o f a thousand Buddhas, c a u s i n g him n o t t o f e a r , nor t o f a l l i n t o e v i l d e s t i n i e s . He s h a l l s t r a i g h t w a y ascend t o t h e top o f t h e T u s i t a Heaven, t o t h e p l a c e of t h e b o d h i s a t t v a M a i t r e y a . The b o d h i s a t t v a M a i t r e y a has t h i r t y - t w o marks, i s s u r r o u n d e d by a g r e a t m u l t i t u d e of b o d h i s a t t v a s and has a r e t i n u e o f a hundred thousand m y r i a d s of m i l l i o n s o f g o d d e s s e s , b o r n w i t h i n h i s r e t i n u e . " 8 4 P a s s a g e s l i k e t h e s e c l e a r l y i n s p i r e d H u i - s s u ' s dreams and s p u r r e d him i n h i s e f f o r t s t o g a i n e n l i g h t e n m e n t f o r t h e sake of a l l b e i n g s i n th e l a t t e r - d a y c r i s i s o f s i x t h c e n t u r y C h i n a . H i s c o n t e m p o r a r y , T'an-luan (476-542) whose a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be c o v e r e d i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r was con-c u r r e n t l y f o r m u l a t i n g a n o t h e r r e s p o n s e t o t h e mo-fa d o c t r i n e , a mode of s a l v a t i o n c e n t e r e d on A m i t a Buddha. And H u i - s s u ' s l a t e r c o n t e m p o r a r y , -113-85 H s i n - h s i n g (540-594) , c a r r y i n g t h e d o c t r i n e t o i t s l o g i c a l extreme, e s t a b l i s h e d t h e o n l y s e c t a r i a n movement b a s e d on t h e l a t t e r d a y s . I n 588, a y e a r b e f o r e he went from Honan t o t h e new S u i c a p i t a l , under t h e a u s p i c e s o f a p o w e r f u l m i n i s t e r o f t h e new d y n a s t y , H s i n -h s i n g had o n l y a t t r a c t e d f o u r c o n v e r t s . Y e t t h e S e c t of the Three 86 s t a g e s o r S a n - c h i e h - c h i a o w h i c h he s u b s e q u e n t l y founded became one of t h e w e a l t h i e s t and b e s t known movements of t h e e a r l y T'ang. Saddened by t h e s t a t e of t h e Sangha, c h a s t e n e d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e N o r t h e r n 87 Chou p e r s e c u t i o n and c o n v i n c e d t h a t he had found t h e o n l y v i a b l e way t o s a l v a t i o n i n t h e l a s t d a y s , H s i n - h s i n g t h e f i r e y p r e a c h e r , s p r e a d h i s message among t h e common p e o p l e . H i s message was t h i s : humanity i s e n g u l f e d i n u t t e r d a r k n e s s and h o p e l e s s n e s s ; u n a b l e t o comprehend o r even r e c o g n i z e t h e way t o n i r v a n a . The buddha o r t h e b o d h i s a t t v a w h i c h t h e f a i t h f u l b e l i e v e r s e e k s t o w o r s h i p may be no more t h a n a p i g o r a g o a t . The Buddha i s l o s t t o us d u r i n g t h i s f o r s a k e n age. The o n l y way t o g a i n a c c e s s t o him i s by w o r s h i p p i n g i n -d i s c r i m i n a t e l y , e v e r y form of l i f e and by eschewing a l l t r a d i t i o n a l forms o f m e d i t a t i o n and t h e c l o i s t e r e d l i f e . Thus, r e g a r d l e s s of whether t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d a human b e i n g o r a dog, H s i n - h s i n g ' s d i s c i p l e s bowed down i n r e v e r e n c e b e f o r e them. M o n a s t e r i e s , s c h o l a r l y p u r s u i t s and i c o n s were abandoned and t h e y l i v e d i n s p e c i f i e d temple c o u r t - y a r d s or o ut-houses and s p e n t t h e i r days i n t h e s t r e e t s and market p l a c e s . Two B u d d h i s t v i r t u e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y emphasized i n San C h i e h p r a c t i c e ; a u s t e r i t y and a l t r u i s m . The f i r s t l e d t o t h e d a i l y o b s e r v a n c e of a u s t e r i t i e s l o n g c o n s i d e r e d o n l y a means o f penance: e a t i n g o n l y alms once a day; w e a r i n g r a g s g a t h e r e d from garbage heaps and i n g e n e r a l , a d h e r i n g a b s o l u t e l y t o t h e m o n a s t i c d i s c i p l i n e . The second l e d t o an -114-emphasis on a l m s g i v i n g as t h e most e f f i c a c i o u s way of a t t a i n i n g m e r i t . The I n e x h a u s t i b l e T r e a s u r y e s t a b l i s h e d between 618-627 a t t h e San t h e f a i t h f u l v i e d w i t h one a n o t h e r i n making mounted t o a degree t h a t 90 even t h e monks who d i r e c t e d t h e T r e a s u r y c o u l d not guess i t s w o r t h . U n t i l i t s d i s s o l u t i o n i n 713, i t s income was t h e o r e t i c a l l y used f o r t h r e e p u r p o s e s ; r e p a i r i n g t e m ple m o n a s t e r i e s , a l l e v i a t i n g t h e s u f f e r i n g o f t h e poor and s i c k , and a r r a n g i n g f o r B u d d h i s t c e r e m o n i e s . The I n e x h a u s t i b l e T r e a s u r y was o n l y one o f t h e developments w h i c h t o o k p l a c e a f t e r H s i n - h s i n g ' s d e a t h . I n t e r n a l l y , w r i t i n g s from t h e T'ang s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s e c t , i n f l u e n c e d by t h e S u t r a o f t h e Ten Wheels adopted t h e b o d h i s a t t v a K g t i g a r b h a as i t s c e n t r a l d e i t y ; and t h a t i t s monks were s u s p e c t e d o f f a b r i c a t i n g t h e p r o p h e c i e s i n t h e G r e a t C l o u d 91 s u t r a c i r c u l a t e d by Empress Wu. A c c o r d i n g t o Y a b u k i and Waley, b o t h of t h e s e developments p o i n t t o c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e S e c t o f t h e Three s t a g e s and M a n i c h e i s m . E x t e r n a l l y , t h e S e c t ' s w r i t i n g s were l i s t e d as h e r e t i c a l i n 664 and a f t e r p r e c a r i o u s l y s u r v i v i n g a s e r i e s o f i m p e r i a l p r o s c r i p t i o n s d u r i n g t h e l a t e s e v e n t h and e a r l y e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s , d i s -92 appeared i n t h e a n t i - B u d d h i s t p e r s e c u t i o n o f 845. D e s p i t e t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s , i t was H s i n - h s i n g ' s o r i g i n a l t h e o r i e s t h a t l e d t o t h e s e c t ' s e a r l y demise. The San c h i e h d i s c i p l e s argued t h a t governments and k i n g s , not b e i n g exempt from t h e g e n e r a l b l i n d n e s s of t h e age, were n o t w o r t h y o f the homage and o b e d i e n c e o f t h e t r u e B u d d h i s t ; t h u s a r o u s e d t h e s u s p i c i o n and a n t a g o n i s m o f t h e s t a t e . M o r e o v e r , by c l a i m i n g t h e s o l e means f o r s a l v a t i o n , t h e San C h i e h f o l l o w e r s found C h i e h h e a d q u a r t e r s i n Chang-an (Hua-tu s s u ) became one o f t h e w e a l t h i e s t o f such i n s t i t u t i o n s i n C h i n a . 89 The d o n a t i o n s w h i c h - 1 1 5 -themselves i n c o n f l i c t with other Buddhist schools — i n p a r t i c u l a r , 93 with the Pure Land adherents. F i n a l l y , there i s l i t t l e doubt that even without the o f f i c i a l p r o s c r i p t i o n s , the a u s t e r i t y and dark resignation required by Hsin-hsing to survive the l a t t e r days could hold but passing i n t e r e s t for the l i f e - a f f i r m i n g Chinese; e s p e c i a l l y i n the face of the leniency and optimism offered by the preachers of Amita's Western Paradise. In h i s overview of Chinese Buddhist h i s t o r y , Tsukamoto Zenrytt observes that a dynamic new force entered Buddhism at the end of the Northern and Southern Dynasties, giving r i s e i n the North to the Sect of the three stages, Ch'an and Pure Land; and that t h i s provided the groundwork for the T'ang schools, even for the Southern schools such 94 as T i e n - t ' a i . The sense of urgency and anguish o r i g i n a t i n g i n the eschatological b e l i e f s of the period was without doubt an i n t e g r a l part of t h i s new force. -116-F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r IV 1. F o r background on t h e s e v i e w s see: ERE, s.v. "cosmogony and cosmology ( C h i n e s e ) ; ERE, s.v. "cosmogony and cosmology ( B u d d h i s t ) ; ERE, s.v." Ages o f t h e W o r l d ( B u d d h i s t ) ; Derk Bodde, F e s t i v a l s i n C l a s s i c a l C h i n a : New Y e a r and Other Observances d u r i n g t h e Han D y n a s t y 206 B.C. - A.D. ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975); J o s e p h Needham, " P h i l o -sophy o f Organism," S c i e n c e and C i v i l i z a t i o n i n C h i n a , 10 v o l s , p r o j e c t e d Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 952), v o l . 2; J . Needham, Time and E a s t e r n Man, The Henry Myers L e c t u r e 1964 (London: R o y a l A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e o f G r e a t B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d , 1954- ) 2. N. S i v i n , " C h i n e s e Concepts of Time," E a r l h a m Review 1 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p.89. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Mandate o f Heaven from t h e Shu c h i n g , t h e r i s e and f a l l o f d y n a s t i e s depends upon t h e m o r a l w o r t h of t h e s o v e r e i g n , c f . Yang L i e n - s h e n g "Toward a Study of D y n a s t i c C o n f i g u r a t i o n s i n C h i n e s e H i s t o r y , " HJAS 17 (19 5 4 ) : 329-345. 3. B u r t o n Watson, E a r l y C h i n e s e L i t e r a t u r e (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p.49. 4. Anna K. S e i d e l , "The Image o f t h e P e r f e c t R u l e r i n E a r l y T a o i s t M e s s i a n i s m : Lao-Tzu and L i Hung," HOR 9 (November 1969-February 1970): 216. 5. S e i d e l , " P e r f e c t R u l e s , " p.246. F o r f u r t h e r s o u r c e s on a n c i e n t C h i n e s e k i n g s h i p s e e : D.H. S m i t h , " D i v i n e K i n g s h i p i n A n c i e n t C h i n a , " Numen 4 (1957) : 171-203; W. E. S o o t h i l l , The H a l l o f L i g h t : A Study of E a r l y  C h i n e s e K i n g s h i p (London:1951). 6. Needham, Time and E a s t e r n Man, p.29. 7. F o r C h i n e s e U t o p i a n thought from Chou t o modern t i m e s see Wolfgang Bauer, C h i n a und d i e H o f f n u n g auf G l i i c k (Mttnchen: 1 9 7 1 ) , c i t e d by Overmyer, F o l k B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , p.241 n.47. 8. Muramatsu, " C h i n e s e R e b e l I d e o l o g i e s , " pp.245-6. 9. Fung Y u - l a n w r i t e s t h a t " t h e i d e a t h a t t h e w o r l d w i l l some day be d e s t r o y e d , t h e r e a f t e r t o be r e p l a c e d by a new w o r l d , i s q u i t e a l i e n t o t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e t h o u g h t " . He adds t h a t i n t i m e t h e B u d d h i s t t h e o r y of t h e f o u r k a l p a s had a "marked i n f l u e n c e on a l l N e o - C o n f u c i a n t h e o r i e s of cosmic e v o l u t i o n . . . " . H i s t o r y of C h i n e s e P h i l o s p h y , 2 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937; new e d i t i o n 1952-3), 2:474. S i v e n a l s o h o l d s t h i s v i e w i n h i s " C h i n e s e C o n c e p t i o n s of Time". R e s e a r c h on t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h e C o n f u c i a n t h e o r y o f t h e Three Ages from t h e second t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s c o u l d be done by s t u d y i n g s c h o l a r s f r o m t h e New T e x t S c h o o l as w e l l as o t h e r s i n c l u d i n g : Tung Chung Shu (206 B.C. - 24 A.D.) Ho H s i u n (129-182 A.D.); Shao-Yung (1011-77); Chu H s i (1130-1200); and Kung Yu-wei (1858-1927). W. L a i i n t r o d u c e s a r e l a t i v e l y unknown a r e a i n h i s r e v i e w of K'ung- t z u Wei-wang-erh-wang-lun [Le P a r a d o x a l d e s t i n p o l i t i q u e de C o n f u c i u s ] by Lo Meng-Tse i n HOR 17 (August 1977):89-99. -117-10. B u d d h i s t c a k r a v a r t i n emperors d u r i n g t h e P e r i o d of D i s u n i o n i n c l u d e Emperor Wen-chang of N. Wei, Emperor Wu of L i a n g and Emperor Wen o f S u i . 11. The f i r s t B u d d h i s t " b a n d i t s " a r e a r e c o r d e d t o have appeared i n 402. F o r e x c e l l e n t background t o t h e r e b e l movements see Overmyer, F o l k  B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , pp. 80-85, 130-161. F o r l a t e r movements see S u z u k i CHOsei, " S o d a i Bukkyo K e s s h a no Kenkyu" [ B u d d h i s t r e l i g i o u s s o c i e t i e s o f t h e Sung d y n a s t y ] S h i g a k u z a s s h i , 52 ( 1 9 4 1 ) ; S. C h u s e i , "To So j i d a i no M i r o k u k y o - h i " [ M a i t r e y a b a n d i t s o f t h e T'ang and Sung] S h i e n 3 ( 1 9 3 1 ) : 68-12. N a t u r a l as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l causes combined t o make t h i s a c h a o t i c age; i n N o r t h e r n C h i n a f a m i n e s o c c u r r e d i n 466-470, 473, 473. Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , p.155. 13. Three major a n t i - B u d d h i s t p e r s e c u t i o n s t o o k p l a c e i n 446-454 (N. W e i ) ; 574-77 (N. Chou); and 845 (T'ang). K. Ch'en, "On Some F a c t o r s R e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e A n t i - B u d d h i s t P e r s e c u t i o n under t h e P e i - c h ' a o , " HJAS 17 ( 1 9 5 4 ) : 261-273. '14. J . N o b e l , S u v a r n a p r a b h a s a s o t t a ( L e i d e n : B r i l l , 1958). • S a m a d h i r a j a " K i n g o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n " o r C a n d r a p r a d i p a "Lamp of t h e Moon" was a l s o used by t h e C h i n e s e ; ' / Warder, I n d i a n Buddhism, p.395. Compare Yang C h i e n w i t h L i yuan who saw h i m s e l f as t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f L o r d L i . A. F. W r i g h t , "The F o r m a t i o n o f S u i I d e o l o g y 581-604," i n C h i n e s e Thought i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , ed. J . K. F a i r b a n k ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1957), pp.71-104. 15. T h i s i s t h e same p r i n c e who i s thought t o h a v e . b r o u g h t t h e M a i t r e y a s u t r a K u a n - M i - l o - p ' u - s a - s h a n g - s h e n g - t u - s h i - t ' i e n , from T u r f a n t o C h i n a . C f . C h a p t e r I , i i i b elow. 16. Dharmakfema's b i o g r a p h y i n KSC T. 50. 337a c i t e d i n Soper, E v i d e n c e , p.134. 17. KSCT. 50. 356b, t r a n s l a t e d i n Soper, E v i d e n c e 1 , p.219. A n o t h e r of Tao-an's d i s c i p l e s who p r a y e d t o M a i t r e y a a t h i s d e a t h i s T a o - f u . KSC T.50.355b, c i t e d i n Soper, Evidence: , p.219 n.81. 18. D e m i e v i l l e , Yogacarabhumi, p.378. 19. I b i d . , pp.378-79. 20. S. B e a l , t r a n s . , S i - Y u - K i - B u d d h i s t Records o f t h e Western W o r l d . T r a n s l a t e d from t h e C h i n e s e of H i u e n T s i a n g (A.D. 6 2 9 ) , 2 v o l s . (London: Kegan, P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b e r and Co., 1906), 11:223-6. 21. Takakusu, J . , t r a n s . , A Record of t h e B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n as P r a c t i c e d  i n I n d i a and t h e Malay A r c h i p e l a g o (A.D. 6 7 1 - 6 9 5 ) ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1896). -118-22. I - C h i n g 23. I b i d . , p.213. 24. L a m o tte, H i s t o i r e , p.787. 25. F a - h s i e n ' s b i o g r a p h y KSC T.50.337b-338b has been t r a n s l a t e d i n R o b e r t S h i h , B i o g r a p h i e s des Moines Eminent (Kao Seng Tchouan)  de K o u e i - K i a o B i b l i o t e q u e du Museum v o L 54 ( L o u v a i n : I n s t i t u t O r i e n t a l i s t e , 1 9 68), pp.108-115. A number of t r a n s l a t i o n s have been made of h i s famous t r a v e l c h r o n i c l e i n c l u d i n g : B e a l , S i - Y u - K i (known as Hsuan-tsang's c h r o n i c l e s b u t i n c l u d e s F a - h s i e n ' s Fo-Kuo-Ki) ; S. G i l e s , t r a n s . , The T r a v e l s o f F a - h s i e n (399-414 A.D.) o r R e c o r d of t h e B u d d h i s t i c Kingdoms (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1923); and J . Legge, t r a n s . , A R e c o r d o f B u d d h i s t i c Kingdoms, B e i n g an  Account by t h e C h i n e s e Monk F a - h i e n o f h i s T r a v e l s i n I n d i a and  C e y l o n (A.D. 399-414) I n S e a r c h o f t h e B u d d h i s t Books of D i s c i p l i n e ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1886). 26. Hsuan-tsang's t r a v e l a c c o u n t has been t r a n s l a t e d by S. B e a l , S i - Y u - K i ; and T. W a t t e r s , On Yuan Chwang's T r a v e l s i n I n d i a (A.D. 6 2 9 - 6 4 5 ) ( D e l h i : M u n s h i Ram Manohar L a i , 1961). A l a t e r , p o p u l a r v e r s i o n by Wu Ch'eng-en has been t r a n s l a t e d by A. Waley, Monkey (New Y o r k : John Day, 1943; r e p r i n t ed., Grove P r e s s , 1958). A modern v e r s i o n o f h i s l i f e has been w r i t t e n by A. G r o v s s e t , I n t h e F o o t s t e p s of t h e Buddha (London: 1932). 27. The fewness of Fa-hsien's r e f e r e n c e s t o M a i t r e y a a r e i n f a c t , a l i t t l e s u r p r i s i n g i n l i g h t o f t h e tremendous p o p u l a r i t y o f t h i s f i g u r e i n C e n t r a l A s i a and C e y l o n d u r i n g t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y . See L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , p.787. 28. Conze, T h i r t y Y e a r s , p.80. 29. B e a l , S i - Y u - K i , l : l x v i i . 30. I b i d . , 1:137. 31. I b i d . , 2:22. 32. I b i d . , 2:142-44. 33. I b i d . , 2:120-21. 34. W a t t e r s , Yuan Chwang's T r a v e l s , p.118. 35. Soper d e s c r i b e s t h i s i c o n i n d e t a i l i n h i s Appendix t o E v i d e n c e s , pp. 268-70. 36. B e a l , S i - Y u - K i , l : i x x . I b i d . , 1:134. -119-37. Hsuan-tsang w r o t e o f a n o t h e r sandal-wood M a i t r e y a s t a t u e i n Konkakapura, S. I n d i a , w h i c h gave o f f l i g h t on f a s t d a y s . B e a l , S i - Y u - K i , 2:254. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f m a g i c a l q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Buddha s t a t u e s see Soper, E v i d e n c e s p . 6 8 f f . 38. B e a l , S i - Y u - K i , 1:134, x x x . 39. These a c c o u n t s a r e compared t o a n o t h e r s t o r y t o l d by F a - h s i e n i n w h i c h Sakyamuni ascends t o t h e T r a y a s t r i m s a heaven t o p r e a c h t h e Law f o r h i s mother's sake. Legge, F a - h s i e n ' s T r a v e l s i n I n d i a and C e y l o n , pp.47-51. F o r an a c c o u n t o f an a r t i s t who was s e n t t o T r a y a s t r i m s a heaven t o see t h e Buddha i n o r d e r t o make a wooden s t a t u e o f him see D e m i e v i l l e , Yogacarabhumi, p.379. 40. B e a l , S i - Y u - K i , 1:226. 41. C f . Tao-an and Hui-yiian's vows. C h a p t e r I I I , i i i above. 42. B e a l , S i - Y u - K i , 1:227-228. 43. S h i h , Kao Seng Tchouan, p.91; D e m i e V i l l e , Yogacarabhumi, p. 378. 44. C f . C h a p t e r I I I , i i above. 45. Cf. Chap t e r I I I , i i i above. 46. B e a l , S i - Y u - K i , 1 : l x x v i i - l x x i x . 47. W a t t e r s , Yuan Chuang's T r a v e l s , p.202. 48. The f o l l o w i n g n a r r a t i v e i s based on Ch'en, Buddhism, p. 236; D e m i e v i l l e , Yogacarabhumi, pp. 388-89. 49. B e a l , S i - Y u - K i , 1:134. 50. J a n Yun-hua, t r a n s , A C h r o n i c l e o f Buddhism i n C h i n a 581-960 A.D. ( S a n t i n i k e t a n : V i s v a - B h a r a t i , 1 9 6 6 ) , p.39. 51. The f o l l o w i n g passage from t h e L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i v y u h a s u t r a p r o b a b l y had much i n f l u e n c e on t h e f r e q u e n c y o f such death-bed a c c o u n t s . "0 Bhagavat, i f t h o s e b e i n g who have d i r e c t e d t h e i r t h o ught towards t h e h i g h e s t p e r f e c t knowledge i n o t h e r w o r l d s , and who, a f t e r h a v i n g h e a r d my name, when I have o b t a i n e d t h e B o d h i (Knowledge);., have m e d i t a t e d on me w i t h s e r e n e t h o u g h t s ; i f a t t h e moment o f t h e i r d e a t h , a f t e r h a v i n g approached them, s u r r o u n d e d by an assembly o f B h i k s h u s , I s h o u l d n o t s t a n d b e f o r e them, w o r s h i p p e d by them, t h a t i s , so t h a t t h e i r t h o u g h t s s h o u l d n o t be t r o u b l e d , t h e n may I not o b t a i n t h e h i g h e s t p e r f e c t knowledge. Max M i i l l e r , " L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - vyuha s u t r a , " p.15. -120-52. L. H u r v i t z , C h i h - i (538-597: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e L i f e and Ideas  of a C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t Monk, MCB v o l . 12 ( B r u x e l l e s : I n s t i t u t B e i g e des Hautes Etudes C h i n o i s e s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p.171. 53. K. Ch'en, The C h i n e s e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f Buddhism ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 973), pp.224-225. 54. I b i d . , p.234. 55. The i n s c r i p t i o n s a t Lung-men g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t t h e v i e w t h a t i n -d i v i d u a l s and groups d e v o t e d t o M a i t r e y a were a c t i v e d u r i n g t h e N. Wei d y n a s t y . C f . C h a p t e r I I I , i i i above. 56. F o r r e f e r e n c e s t o B u d d h i s t i d e a s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d r e b e l c u l t s between th e t h i r d and t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s see Muramatsu, " C h i n e s e R e b e l I d e o l o g i e s , " p.245; Tsukamoto, Z., S h i n a b u k k y o - s h i Kenkyu. H o k u g i -hen (A Study of C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t H i s t o r y . The N o r t h e r n W e i ) ( K y o t o : Kobundo, 1942, pp. 243-90. 57. Overmyer, F o l k B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , p.207. 58. Todo Ryoshun has documented seven i n s c r i p t i o n s f r o m t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y i n w h i c h t h i s s e n t i m e n t i s e x p r e s s e d . "The C r i t i c a l V i e w s , or Sense o f U n e a s i n e s s , i n C h i n e s e Buddhism — E s p e c i a l l y i n t h e F i r s t H a l f o f t h e 6 t h C e n t u r y A.D.," IBK 10 (March 1962): 782-777. 59. " ili'lfc <J & H " Todo, "The C r i t i c a l V i e w o r Sense of U n e a s i n e s s , " p.780. 60. W a l e y , A ' C a t a l o g u e of P a i n t i n g s Recovered from Tun-huang, p. x x x v i i i . 61. I b i d . , p. x x x v i i i . 62. K. C i s s e l , "The P i - c h ' i u - n i chuan, B i o g r a p h i e s of Famous C h i n e s e Nuns from 317-516 C E . " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1972). 63. Muramatsu, " C h i n e s e R e b e l I d e o l o g i e s , " p.246. vy 64. F o r t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e s see L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , p.211. 65. As l i s t e d i n Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , p.298. 66. Lamotte, H i s t o i r e , p.217. 67. Y a b u k i K e i k i , S a n g a i k y o no kenkyu [A Study o f t h e Three Stages S e c t ] (Tokyo: Iwanami Sh o t e n , 1927), p.225; H u r v i t z , C h i h - i , p.86. 68. Soper, E v i d e n c e s , p.269. -121-69. Mizuno and N a g a h i r o , Y i i n ^ k a n g , v o l . 16: Wei Shou by L. H u r v i t z , p.40. 70. F o r more d e t a i l s on t h e Hua-hu t h e o r y see Z u r c h e r , Conquest, pp. 290-320. 71. The P i e n - c h e n g l u n g i v e s t h e d a t a o f 1025 B.C.. J . Ware, "The Wei-shu and S u i - s h u on Taoism", TP ( 1 9 3 3 ) , p.116. 72. K. Ch'en, " A n t i - B u d d h i s t Propoganda D u r i n g t h e Nan-ch'ao," HJAS 15 (1952):188-9 n.94. 73. Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , p.298. I n c o m p a r i s o n , t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e d e g e n e r a t e age i n Japan a c c o r d i n g t o D o j i , a u t h o r o f t h e N i h o n S h o k i , was s e t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f B u d d h i s t h i s t o r y (552 A.D.). 74. HKSC T.50. 562b-564a. F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s see H u r v i t z , C h i h - i , pp.86-99. 75. H u r v i t z , C h i h - i , p.87 n.2. 76. I b i d . , p.87 n.2 77. HKSC T.50.562b. T r a n s l a t e d i n H u r v i t z , C h i h - i , p.87. 78. HKSC T.50.562C-564a. T r a n s l a t e d i n Soper, E v i d e n c e s , p.83. 79. H u r v i t z , C h i h - i , p.108. 80. The e v e n t u a l d e c l i n e of t h e L o t u s c u l t s i n C h i n a and J a p a n , i n t h e f a c e of t h e g r o w i n g a t t r a c t i o n o f A m i t a and A v a l o k i t e s v a r a have a l s o been a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t r e c i t i n g o r c o p y i n g r e q u i r e d some degree o f e d u c a t i o n . L a t e r i n J a p a n , N i c h i r e n based h i s L a t t e r Day movement on t h e L o t u s ; as do t h e f o l l o w e r s of t h e p r e s e n t day Soka G a k k a i . 81. H u r v i t z , S c r i p t u r e of t h e L o t u s Blossom, p p . 3 3 3 f f . 82. I b i d . , p p . 2 0 8 f f . 83. I b i d . , pp. 3 3 2 f f . 84. I b i d . , p.335. Throughout t h e L o t u s , M a i t r e y a , i s p l a c e d i n t h e r o l e o f a somewhat c o n f u s e d b o d h i s a t t v a i n t h e assemblage, s e e k i n g t o b r e a k out of h i s l i m i t e d H i n a y a n a u n d e r s t a n d i n g by q u e s t i o n i n g t h e Buddha on t h e b o d i s a t t v a p a t h . H i s v y a k a r a n a , u n l i k e e a r l i e r Agama v e r s i o n s i s overshadowed by an a v a l a n c h e of o t h e r p r o p h e c i e s of Buddhahood. See C h a p t e r s 6, 9, 13 i n H u r v i t z , S c r i p t u r e of t h e L o t u s Blossom. -122-85. The most complete s o u r c e on H s i n - h s i n g i s Y a b u k i , S a n g a i k y o no  kenkyu. T h i s s o u r c e a l s o c o n t a i n s a s e p c i a l s e c t i o n on S u i and T'ang e s c h a t o l o g y , pp. 199-213. 86. The "Three S t a g e s " r e f e r s t o t h e t h r e e p e r i o d s of t h e T r u e , C o u n t e r f e i t and t h e Degenerate Dharma, each l a s t i n g f i v e hundred y e a r s . 87. A l t h o u g h Japanese s c h o l a r s have tended t o a t t r i b u t e t h e r i s e o f t h e mo-fa d o c t r i n e t o t h e B u d d h i s t S u p p r e s s i o n of 574, Y a b u k i m a i n t a i n s t h a t i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t t h e event d i d no more t h a n t o b r i n g i n t o s h a r p f o c u s an a l r e a d y w e l l - k n o w n b u t d i f f u s e v i e w . H u r v i t z , C h i h - i , p.92. 88. I t i s s t i l l u n c e r t a i n w h i c h of t h e S a n - c h i e h documents were a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n by H s i n - h s i n g and w h i c h were w r i t t e n by h i s f o l l o w e r s . One document ( S t e i n 2137 - Tun-huang) i s thought t o be an e x t r a c t by h i s own hand. Waley, " r e v i e w of S a n g a i k y o , " p.166. 89. Ch'en, The C h i n e s e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , p.162. 90. Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , p.299. 91. W i t h t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f two Tun-huang m a n u s c r i p t s ( S t e i n 2658 and 6502) A. F o r t e c o n c l u d e s t h a t a new document has now been d i s -c o v e r e d w h i c h d i s p l a c e s t h e Mahamegha s u t r a (Ta-yun c h i n g ) w h i c h was f o r m e r l y t h o u g h t t o be f o r g e d t o s u p p o r t Empress Wu's c l a i m t o be c a k r a v a r t i n and M a i t r e y a i n one, see h i s P o l i t i c a l Propoganda  and I d e o l o g y i n C h i n a a t t h e End o f t h e S e v e n t h C e n t u r y ; I n q u i r y  i n t o t h e N a t u r e , A u t h o r s and F u n c t i o n of t h e Tunhuang document  S.6502 f o l l o w e d by an A n n o t a t e d T r a n s l a t i o n . ( N a p o l i : I n s t i t u t o U n i v e r s i t a r i o O r i e n t a l , 1976). I am g r a t e f u l t o Dr. S. I i d a f o r t h i s r e f e r e n c e . 92. T r a c e s o f t h e s e c t ' s a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r t h i s d a t e have been found i n K o r e a and Japan and r e f e r e n c e s t o i t were made as l a t e as t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n Japan. Waley, " r e v i e w of S a n g a i k y o , " pp.165-66. 93. I b i d . , p.168. 94. Tsukamoto Z., "Ryumon S e k k u t s u n i A r a w a r e t a r u H o k u g i Bukkyo," [N. Wei Buddhism as r e v e a l e d i n t h e Lungmen C a v e s ] , i n Ryumon, Mizuno and N a g a h i r o , pp.231-234. -123-C h a p t e r V S a l v a t i o n : c h i u - c h i ~/^) I . I n t r o d u c t i o n By t h e h e i g h t o f t h e T'ang, t h e g o l d e n age o f C h i n e s e c u l t u r e , t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l c r i s i s had p a s s e d . S a l v a t i o n , f o r m u l t i t u d e s o f B u d d h i s t d e v o t e e e s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by a c q u i r i n g deep f a i t h i n t h e s a v i n g power o f A m i t a ' s name and h i s vows. No l o n g e r c a p a b l e o f a t t a i n i n g e n l i g h t e n m e n t t h r o u g h h i s own e f f o r t s , t h e f a i t h f u l b e l i e v e r s t r o v e f o r r e b i r t h i n A m i t a ' s P u r e Land and t h e r e , became a c a n d i d a t e f o r n i r v c f a a . To a s s i s t h i s p r a c t i c e and m e d i t a t i o n , t h e b e l i e v e r c o u l d even c a t c h a g l i m p s e o f p a r a d i s e by g a z i n g on t h e i n t r i c a t e p a i n t i n g s and diagrams d e p i c t i n g t h e c e l e s t i a l abodes o f t h e Buddha. A r t i s t s , s u c h as t h o s e a t Tun-huang,painted v a s t cosmic landscapes"'" f i l l e d w i t h a complex o f T'ang m o n a s t a r i e s and p a l a c e s . I n t h e s e p a i n t i n g s b o d h i s a t t v a s and o t h e r c e l e s t i a l b e i n g s f l y t h r o u g h t h e a i r ; a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g between e a r t h and p a r a d i s e . A m i d s t l o t u s ponds and b e j e w e l l e d t r e e s , t h e f a i t h f u l s i n g p r a i s e s t o t h e Buddha w h i l e a n g e l i c m u s i c i a n s p l a y t h e music o f t h e Dharma. I n t h e c e n t e r i s A m i t a , e n t h r o n e d upon a l o t u s b l o s s o m . I n d i g e n e o u s C h i n e s e t h o u g h t was d e e p l y i n f l u e n c e d by p o p u l a r B u d d h i s t n o t i o n s of p a r a d i s e and a f t e r l i f e . W h i l e C h i n e s e had p r e v i o u s l y e n t e r t a i n e d c o n c e p t i o n s o f T a o i s t f a i r y l a n d s and C o n f u c i a n U t o p i a s ; s u c h i d e a l l a n d s were more o f t e n c o n c e i v e d o f as a p e r f e c t e d 2 e a r t h l y o r d e r r a t h e r t h a n as a supra-mundane abode. Thus, t h e t r a n s e n -d e n t a l Buddha-lands and heavens p r o v i d e d n o t o n l y r i c h imagery but a new -124-emphasis on o t h e r w o r d l y d i m e n s i o n s f o r t h e e a r l i e r C h i n e s e t r a d i t i o n s t o draw upon. S i m i l a r l y , even a c u r s o r y l o o k a t p r e - B u d d h i s t c o n c e p t s 3 o f a f t e r l i f e r e v e l s t h e i n d e b t e d n e s s o f l a t e r C h i n e s e t h e o r i e s t o Buddhism. The C o n f u c i a n s s u p p o r t e d t h e v i e w t h a t d e a t h was permanent. When a p e r s o n d i e d , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t p a r t o f him, t h e h e a v i e r element (p'o) sank down t o t h e Y e l l o w S p r i n g s below t h e e a r t h and t h e o t h e r p a r t , t h e l i g h t e r element (hun) h o v e r e d around t h e f a m i l y 4 t a b l e t s , t h e r e b e n e f i t i n g from t h e a n c e s t r a l o f f e r i n g s . I n c o n t r a s t , e a r l y T a o i s t p r a c t i c e s p e r p e t u a t e d t h e hope t h a t , g i v e n i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s , t h e human body c o u l d by-pass d e a t h and l i v e f o r e v e r . The B u d d h i s t c o ncept o f karma had d e v e l o p e d e l a b o r a t e t h e o r i e s o f r e b i r t h i n t o o t h e r modes o f e x i s t e n c e and even judgement a f t e r d e a t h . The numerous elements making up t h e p r o s p e c t o f a b l i s s f u l r e b i r t h i n p a r a d i s e found i n A m i t a d e v o t i o n a l i s m were r e a d i l y adopted by t h e C h i n e s e . The e v o l u t i o n o f t h e P u r e Land movement i n C h i n a , i n c o r p o r a t i n g s t r a n d s as d i v e r s e as t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l systems o f N a g a r j u n a and Vasubandhu t o t h e s i m p l e p i e t y o f e a r l y d e v o t i o n a l l a y g r o u p s , i s d e s c r i b e d by S u z u k i D a i s e t z as m a r k i n g "an epoch i n t h e h i s t o r y o f Mahayana Buddhism". S u z u k i adds t h a t i t s "emergence i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p e r s i s t a n t and i r r e p r e s s i b l e a s s e r t i o n o f c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f r e l i g i o u s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . n e g l e c t e d i n t h e s o - c a l l e d p r i m i t i v e t e a c h i n g o f t h e Buddha."^ Under t h e impetus o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l f e r v o r d u r i n g s i x t h and s e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s C h i n a , t h i s e x p r e s s i o n o f i n t e n s e d e v o t i o n d e v e l o p e d from an i n c h o a t e t r a d i t i o n t o a h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d b u t f l e x i b l e d o c t r i n e t h a t o f f e r e d b o t h t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s u b t l e t i e s o f Mahayana t h o u g h t ^ and t h e p r a c t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s of a r e l i g i o n f o r u n l e t t e r e d masses. Thus i t s a p p e a l c u t a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t -125-B u d d h i s t s c h o o l s and s o c i a l g r oups. But i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e P u r e g Land movement was an e s c h a t o l o g i c a l movement. I n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e how t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h e P u r e Land movement was f u n d a m e n t a l l y shaped as a s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f 9 s a l v a t i o n i n t h e " l a t t e r e v i l age" , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine two developments from t h e f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d o f t h i s complex t r a d i t i o n . The f i r s t s e c t i o n i s d e v o t e d t o t h e e a r l y f o r m u l a t i o n o f P u r e Land d o c t r i n e under i t s f i r s t t h r e e C h i n e s e p a t r i a r c h s : T ' a n - l u a n (476-542), Tao-ch'o (562-645) and Shan-tao (613-681)"!; 0 F o r t h e purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s , i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o e l a b o r a t e on t h e s u b t l e p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s w h i c h t h e y r a i s e d but t o i d e n t i f y t h e i n f l u e n c e of l a t t e r day v i e w s on t h e i r v i e w of man and h i s s a l v a t i o n ; w h i c h i n t u r n , p r o v i d e d t h e d o c t r i n a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t devotionalism?"''" The second s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h one of t h e most c o m p e l l i n g a s p e c t s of P u r e Land b e l i e f — t h e v i s i o n s of p a r a d i s e . Here a g a i n , r a t h e r t h a n d e l i n e a t i n g t h e nurmerous p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f p a r a d i s e , my aim w i l l be t o p r o v i d e some of t h e e v i d e n c e o f c o m p e t i t i o n d u r i n g t h e S u i and e a r l y T'ang between t h o s e who a s p i r e d t o be r e b o r n i n T u s i t a Heaven and t h o s e who d e s i r e d t o go t o S u k h a v a t i . I I . E s c h a t o l o g y and P u r e Land D o c t r i n e The b a s i c s c r i p t u r e s t h a t i n s p i r e d P u r e Land thought make b o t h d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e l a t t e r age o f t h e Dharma. The S m a l l e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a d e s c r i b e s Sakyamuni h i m s e l f a s : -126-" . . . H a v i n g o b t a i n e d t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t t r u e knowledge i n t h i s w o r l d Saha, he t a u g h t t h e Law w h i c h a l l t h e w o r l d i s r e l u c t a n t t o a c c e p t d u r i n g t h i s c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t K a l p a , d u r i n g t h i s c o r r u p t i o n of mankind, d u r i n g t h i s c o r r u p t i o n of b e l i e f , d u r i n g t h i s c o r r u p t i o n o f l i f e , d u r i n g t h i s c o r r u p t i o n o f p a s s i o n s . " 1 2 I n t h e l a t t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e L a r g e r Sukhavatx-vyuha s u t r a , t h e Buddha e n t r u s t s t h e s c r i p t u r e t o t h e b o d h i s a t t v a A j i t a ( M a i t r e y a ) and u r g e s him t o guard and t o t e a c h i t so t h a t " . . . t h e laws o f t h e Buddha may n o t ,13 — -p e r i s h o r d i s a p p e a r . 1 The most s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e , f ound i n K u m a r a j i v a ' s t r a n s l a t i o n , s t a t e s t h a t a f t e r 1,000 y e a r s a l l t h e s u t r a s would d i s a p p e a r e x c e p t f o r t h e W u - l i a n g - s h o u c h i n g (LSVS) I n t h e f u t u r e , when my t e a c h i n g s p e r i s h , I w i l l out o f p i t y and compassion r e t a i n t h i s s u t r a f o r one hundred y e a r s . M ± ^ The t h i r d P u r e Land t e x t , t h e Kuan-wu-liang-shou. c h i n g ( A m i t a y u r - d h y a n a  s u t r a ) i n t r o d u c e s an i m p o r t a n t new element: t h e p r a c t i c e o f b u d d h a n u s m r t i , w h i c h was i n t e r p r e t e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways by s u c c e e d i n g P u r e Land m a s t e r s . From t h e t i m e t h a t t h e l a t t e r s u t r a was t r a n s l a t e d i n t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y , Pas o b s e r v e s t h a t two d i s t i n c t s treams of P u r e Land development emerged; the d e v o t i o n a l w h i c h was based p r i m a r l y on t h e e a r l i e r t r a n s l a t i o n of the two S u k h a v a t i s u t r a s and the m e d i t a t i o n a l w h i c h was based on t h e dhyana s u t r a . I n t h e work o f t h e t h r e e b e s t known C h i n e s e P u r e Land m a s t e r s , 16 T a n - l u a n , Tao-ch'o and Shan-tao , t h e s e two streams o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m and m e d i t a t i o n became more and more i n t e g r a t e d . By Shan-tao's t i m e , t h e v a r i o u s c o n t r a d i c t o r y P u r e Land b e l i e f s f rom s i m p l y c a l l i n g once upon th e name o f A m i t a on one's death-bed t o f o l l o w i n g a r i g o r o u s program o f -127-m e d i t a t i o n , s t u d y and m o r a l i t y were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y graded from easy t o p r o g r e s s i v e l y more d i f f i c u l t means of s a l v a t i o n . The more s t r e n u o u s th e p r a c t i c e , t h e b e t t e r t h e degree o f r e b i r t h i n A m i t a ' s p a r a d i s e . And w h i l e t h e more c a p a b l e may s t r i v e t o f u l f i l l t h e more d i f f i c u l t methods, t h e l e s s t a l e n t e d c o u l d , w i t h c o n f i d e n c e and a r d o r , t a k e r e f u g e i n s i m p l e r m e a n s . ^ On h i s way back n o r t h f r o m S o u t h e r n C h i n a where he had been s e e k i n g 18 the T a o i s t e l i x i t o f i m m o r t a l i t y , T ' a u - l u a n was c o n v e r t e d t o P u r e Land b e l i e f s by B o d h i r u e i A l t h o u g h o n l y t w e l v e y e a r s remained between t h e t i m e of h i s c o n v e r s i o n and h i s d e a t h , T ' a n - l u a n became t h e f i r s t i n t h e l i n e o f g r e a t C h i n e s e P u r e Land m a s t e r s : he was t h e f i r s t t o make s t r e n u o u s e f f o r t s t o r e a c h t h e common man and t o t e a c h t h e p r a c t i c e o f n i e n - f o o r c o n t e m p l a t i n g and c h a n t i n g t h e name o f A m i t a . And he was a l s o t h e f i r s t t o base t h e t e a c h i n g s of t h e P u r e Land movement on t h e 19 d o c t r i n e of t h e end of t h e Dharma. T'an - l u a n saw N S g a r j u n a and Vasubandhu as t h e l a s t b o d h i s a t t v a s 20 of t h e c o u n t e r f e i t age. H i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e i r work may w e l l have exposed him t o t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e , i n w h i c h N a g a r j u n a s t a t e s h i s p urpose i n composing t h e M i d d l e T r e a t i s e : A f t e r the Buddha's d e c e a s e , d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r f i v e hundred y e a r s i n t h e ( p e r i o d of t h e ) C o u n t e r f e i t Dharma, men's f a c i l i t i e s were even d u l l e r and t h e y were d e e p l y a t t a c h e d t o a l l dharmas.^-'-Man, d u r i n g t h e B u d d h a - l e s s age, pla'gued by t h e f i v e d e f i l e m e n t s , was i n c a p a c i t a t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t he was u n a b l e t o g r a s p t h e r e a l i t y o f s u n y a t a . New means had t o be sought. 22 I n h i s b e s t known work Wang-sheng-lun chu , T ' a n - l u a n d e v e l o p s h i s t h e o r y on s e l f - p o w e r ( ^ ^ ) and o t h e r power ( ^fej ) . By -128-g i v l n g t h e a n a l o g y o f a weakman who i s a b l e t o t r a v e r s e t h e w o r l d when he a t t a c h e s h i m s e l f t o a c a k r a v a r t i n , T'an-luan emphasized t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e i n c a p a c i t a t e d b e l i e v e r , u n a b l e t o make any p r o g r e s s on h i s own, t o c l i n g t o t h e power of A m i t a . A l s o i n t h e Wang-sheng-wu chu he e l a b o r a t e s on N a g a r j u n a ' s d i s t i n c t i o n between " d i f f i c u l t p r a c t i c e " and "easy p r a c t i c e " ( J!i ) . Here T'an-luan equates " d i f f i c u l t p r a c t i c e : w i t h t h e b o d h i s a t t v a p a t h and s e l f - p o w e r and t h e "easy p r a c t i c e " 23 w i t h t h e P u r e Land p a t h and o t h e r power. N a g a r j u n a ' s t r e a t i s e a l s o s t a t e s : I f good men and women he a r t h a t Buddha's name and o b t a i n deep f a i t h , t h e n t h e y do not r e g r e s s from ( t h e s t a t e o f ) a n u t t a r a samyaksambodhi ^4 T 'an-luan saw t h i s s t a t e m e n t a g a i n s t t h e background o f h i s own i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s of A m i t a ' s vows as found i n t h e Wu-liang-shOu c h i n g ; i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e e i g h t e e n t h vow. When I have o b t a i n e d Buddhahood, i f t h o s e b e i n g s who a r e i n t h e t e n q u a r t e r s s h o u l d b e l i e v e i n me w i t h s e r e n e t h o u g h t s , and s h o u l d w i s h t o be b o r n i n my c o u n t r y , and s h o u l d have say t e n t i m e s t h o u g h t of me ( o r r e p e a t e d my name), - i f t h e y s h o u l d n o t be b o r n t h e r e , may I n o t o b t a i n t h e p e r f e c t knowledge; b a r r i n g o n l y t h o s e b e i n g s who have committed t h e f i v e d e a d l y s i n s , and who have spoken e v i l o f t h e good Law. T 'an-luan t a u g h t t h e most l o w l y c o u l d a c h i e v e t h e s t a t e of non-r e g r e s s i o n by r e l y i n g on t h e o t h e r power of A m i t a and by m e d i t a t i n g on 25 him o r i n v o k i n g even t e n t i m e s on h i s name. He t h u s not o n l y l a i d t h e d o c t r i n a l f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h e movement but r e l e a s e d a s u r g e o f p o p u l a r P u r e Land a c t i v i t y . Ch'en reminds us t h a t i n 520 t h e r e was o n l y one -129-A m i t a f i g u r e i n Lung-men but t h a t between 530-540 though T'an l u a n ' s i n f l u e n c e , t h e number had i n c r e a s e d t o s i x . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f T'an-l u a n ' s e s c h a t o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n s were n o t t h a t t h e y were u n i q u e , t h e y were i n f a c t t o t a l l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e t e n o r of h i s age b u t t h a t t h e s e c o n c e r n s g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e development o f h i s d o c t r i n a l v i e w s : w i t h t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e Dharma, t h e o n l y v i a b l e p a t h t o s a l v a t i o n was t h e P u r e Land p a t h . I n 609, a f t e r r e a d i n g a monument l a u d i n g T'an-luan's d e v o t e d 26 e f f o r t s ""'n t e a c h i n g t h e P u r e Land P a t h , Tao-ch'o became a devout exponent of t h e movement. B e s i d e s e x p a n d i n g on T'an-luan's themes o f s a l v a t i o n based on other-power and riieri-fo f o r a l l o f h u m a n i t y , Tao-ch'o c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e p a t h on even g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e e x c l u s i v i t y o f i t s c l a i m s . A l l t h e o t h e r B u d d h i s t t e a c h i n g s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e " H o l y G a t e " ( as opposed t o t h e "Pure Land G a t e " C/% f ^ ) . W h i l e t h o s e who f o l l o w e d t h e " H o l y P a t h " c o u l d g a i n t h e r a n k of n o n - r e g r e s s i o n o n l y a f t e r 10,000 k a l p a s o f c o n t i n u o u s p r a c t i c e , A m i t a ' s b e l i e v e r s c o u l d 27 s w i f t l y a t t a i n t h a t s t a t e . I n t h e l a t t e r age, o n l y by e n t e r i n g t h e "Pure Land G a t e " c o u l d one be a s s u r e d o f s a l v a t i o n . Of t h e t h r e e P u r e Land m a s t e r s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i t i s Tao-ch'o, H s i n - h s i n g ' s c o n temporary, who was t h e most v i g o r o u s exponent o f mo-fa b e l i e f s . I n h i s one e x t a n t b u t e x c e e d i n g l y i n f l u e n t i a l work, -Jh xfaA & 28 A n - l o - c h i ( JS^ ) he r e i t e r a t e s t h e theme o f t h e a b s o l u t e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e P u r e Land P a t h i n t h e l a t t e r days and how even t h e l e a s t c a p a b l e c o u l d a t t a i n r e b i r t h i n t h e W e s t e r n P a r a d i s e . Commenting on t h e passage from t h e W u - l i a n g - s h o u c h i n g he, w r i t e s : -130-I f I am t o r e v e a l t h e ; l e n g t h of t i m e o f t h e s u t r a s r e m a i n i n g i n t h e w o r l d , t h e l i f e t i m e t e a c h i n g s o f Sakgamuni Buddha have gone t h r o u g h t h e Age o f R i g h t Dharma f o r f i v e hundred y e a r s and t h e Age o f Semblance Dharma f o r t h e n e x t one t h o u s a n d y e a r s and e n t e r e d t h e Age o f Decadent Dharma w h i c h w i l l l a s t f o r t e n thousand y e a r s . I n t h e l a s t age, t h e s e n t i e n t b e i n g s (who p r a c t i c e t h e Way) w i l l d e c r e a s e i n number u n t i l t h e r e i s none, and a l l t h e s u t r a s ( o f t h e P a t h o f Sages) w i l l p e r i s h . T a t h a g a t a , out o f compassion f o r a f f l i c t e d b e i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y r e t a i n s t h i s L a r g e r S u t r a f o r a hundred y e a r s . 9 I n t h e A n - l o - c h l , Tao-ch'o a l s o q u o t e s from t h e M a h a s a n n i p a t a s u t r a : D u r i n g t h e f i n a l o r decadent p e r i o d o f Buddhism m i l l i o n s of s e n t i e n t b e i n g s may s t a r t t o c u l t i v a t e t h e way o f r e l i g i o n , b u t none of them w i l l r e a l i z e i t . Now i n t h i s w o r l d o f f i v e e v i l s t h e p a t h l e a d i n g t o t h e P u r e Land i s t h e o n l y way.^0 I n h i s w r i t i n g and t e a c h i n g Tao-ch'o made i t c l e a r t h a t n o t o n l y t h e Dharma, but man's p o t e n t i a l t o o , had d e c l i n e d i n t h i s l a s t age. Men were but "common b e i n g s " ( jfy ) who were "no l o n g e r c a p a b l e o f t h e s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t and d i s c i p l i n e n e c e s s a r y t o r e a c h e n l i g h t e n m e n t by 31 t h e i r own e f f o r t s " . W i t h Tao-ch'o, mo-fa b e l i e f s were f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d as a f u n d a m e n t a l p a r t o f P u r e Land d o c t r i n e . W i t h t h e s t r o n g emphasis on t h e l a t t e r day d o c t r i n e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t P u r e Land p r a c t i c e , as a d v o c a t e d by Tao-ch'o much more t h a n under T a n - l u a n , s h o u l d have moved i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f even g r e a t e r p o p u l a r i z a t i o n . Of t h e t i m e P u r e Land p r a c t i c e s : i n v o k i n g t h e name o f A m i t a , c h a n t i n g s u t r a s , m e d i t a t i n g on t h e Buddha, w o r s h i p p i n g A m i t a 32 images and s i n g i n g p r a i s e s t o A m i t a ; t h e f i r s t , o r k'ou-cherig n i e n - f o was g i v e n t h e h i g h e s t s t a t u s . W i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y i n v a l i d i n g t h e v a l u e of m e d i t a t i o n a l o r c o n t e m p l a t i v e n i e n - f o , t h e m a s t e r s t r e s s e d t h a t i f one -131-were t o s i m p l y c a l l upon A m i t a ' s name w i t h w h o l e - h e a r t e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n , a l l t h e e v i l , s i n and h a r d s h i p s t a n d i n g between t h e d e v o t e e and p a r a d i s e would be overcome. I t i s s a i d t h a t he e x e m p l i f i e d t h i s p r a c t i c e by r e c i t i n g t h e name of t h e Buddha 70,000 a day and t h a t o t h e r s , s u c h as h i s d i s c i p l e Tao-sheng, who i s r e p u t e d t o have r e p e a t e d t h e name one m i l l i o n t i m e s i n seven d a y s , a v i d l y f o l l o w e d s u i t . F e a t s o f s t a m i n a s u c h as t h e s e c o n t i n u e d d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f Tao-33 cho's most i l l u s t r i o u s d i s c i p l e , Shan-tao. W r i t i n g s from t h e t i m e of Shan-tao r e l a t e how h i s f o l l o w e r s i n Ch'ang-an c o p i e d t h e L o t u s  S u t r a thousands o f t i m e s o r how Shan-tao h i m s e l f made o v e r 100,000 c o p i e s o f t h e A-mi-to c h i n g . I t was s a i d t h a t when he c h a n t e d t h e name of A m i t a , r a y s o f l i g h t and buddha f i g u r e s would s t r e a m f o r t h f r o m h i s l i p s . v D e s p i t e s u c h a c c o u n t s , Shan-tao i s famed as t h e supreme s y s t e m a t i z e r o f P u r e Land p h i l o s o p h y . L i k e T ' a n - l u a n and Tao-ch'o, he l e c t u r e d ex-t e n s i v e l y on t h e Kuan-wu-liang-shou c h i n g b u t made even g r e a t e r e f f o r t s t o b r i n g about a harmonious b l e n d i n g o f P u r e Land t h o u g h t w i t h Ma*dhyamika and Y o g a c a r a p h i l o s o p h y . A c c o r d i n g t o P a s , P u r e Land b e l i e f s f o r Shan-t a o , u l t i m a t e l y s t o o d as a p o w e r f u l upaya t o l e a d men t o a h i g h e r g o a l . W i t h o u t doubt h i s b r i l l i a n t e x p o s i t i o n s were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g about t h e w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e d o c t r i n e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e c r e a t i v i t y w i t h w h i c h he mapp°d t h e passage from mundane e x i s t e n c e t o P a r a d i s e , t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s i n t e n s e l y e m o t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m i s e r y of t h e human c o n d i t i o n f i n a l l y l e f t t h e g r e a t e s t impact — e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e c o n t i n u i n g a p p e a l o f P u r e Land b e l i e f s . I n h i s main work K u a n - c h i n g chu (Commentary on t h e Kuan-wu-1iang- shou c h i n g ) Shan-tao e l a b o r a t e s upon t h e f i v e p r a c t i c e s r e q u i r e d f o r r e b i r t h -132-i n t h e P u r e Land. The p r i m a r y p r a c t i c e was t h e i n v o c a t i o n a l n i e n - f o , t h e f i r s t , w h i l e t h e o t h e r f o u r were d e s i g n a t e d a u x i l i a r y p r a c t i c e s . I t i s a l s o i n t h i s commentary t h a t he g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p e r i l o u s -n e ss of human e x i s t e n c e by t h e p a r a b l e o f t h e W h i t e P a t h . The b e l i e v e r who a s p i r e s t o p a r a d i s e must t r e a d a t h i n w h i t e p a t h f l a n k e d on one s i d e by a r i v e r o f f i r e , s y m b o l i z i n g h i s anger and on t h e o t h e r by a r i v e r o f w a t e r , s y m b o l i z i n g h i s g r e e d . The j o u r n e y i s made even more fearsome because f l a m e s and waves s p i l l o v e r o n t o t h e p a t h . Sweet v o i c e s c a l l him from b e h i n d , t e m p t i n g him t o g i v e up h i s q u e s t . H i s o n l y s t r e n g t h i s from Sakyamuni who u r g e s him onward from t h e w o r l d l y s h o r e and A m i t a who encourages him from P a r a d i s e on t h e " o t h e r s h o r e " . Thus f o r Shan-tao, even t h e p a t h t o s a l v a t i o n was f r o u g h t w i t h t e r r o r ; and man h i m s e l f was u t t e r l y w o r t h l e s s and f u l l o f s i n . I n s u c h c i r c u m -s t a n c e s how much s t r o n g e r was t h e i n c e n t i v e t o a c q u i r e a deep f a i t h and t o c l i n g t o A m i t a ' s vow. W i t h Shan-tao, t h e P u r e Land P a t h was c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o two b r o a d t y p e s of p r a c t i c e : m e d i t a t i o n a l n i e n - f o combined w i t h d i s c i p l i n e f o r t h e m o n a s t i c s and s i m p l e v o c a l n i e n - f o f o r t h e common man. L a t t e r day b e l i e f s found c o n t i n u i t y on h i s d o c t r i n a l work and a r o u s e d t h e p a s s i o n o f t h o s e who h e l d t o t h e e x c l u s i v e c l a i m s of t h e P u r e Land P a t h . H i s r e j e c t i o n o f a l l o t h e r forms of Buddhism and h i s b r i l l a n t a p o l o g e t i c e x p o s i t i o n s o f P u r e Land b e l i e f s b r o u g h t t h e movement t o i t s apex i n C h i n a . D u r i n g Tao-cho and Shan-tao's l i f e t i m e s , a n o t h e r B u d d h i s t 3-5 l e a d e r , H s i n - h s i n g c l a i m e d t h a t h i s was t h e o n l y way t o s a l v a t i o n . O p p o s i t i o n and c o n f l i c t between t h o s e who a d v o c a t e d t h e P u r e Land t e a c h i n g s and t h o s e who p r o c l a i m e d t h e p a t h o f t h e S e c t o f t h e Three S t a g e s "gave -133-3 6 r i s e t o i n t e n s e B u d d h i s t a c t i v i t i e s i n N. C h i n a " . E v e n t u a l l y , a s s e r t i o n s by H s i n - h s i n g ' s f o l l o w e r s t h a t t h e government, n o t b e i n g exempt from t h e d e p r a v i t y o f t h e age, d i d n o t d e s e r v e t h e o b e d i e n c e o f i t s p e o p l e , l e d t o t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e S e c t . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e P u r e Land ad-h e r e n t s , h a v i n g won t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e i r c o - r e l i g i o n i s t s as w e l l as o f th e p o p u l a c e , f o r g e d ahead. Thus w h i l e t h e Pu r e Land movement and t h e S e c t o f t h e Three Stages b o t h o r i g i n a t e d under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f mo-fa 37 b e l i e f s , t h e y d e v e l o p e d e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t d o c t r i n e s and p r a c t i c e s . I r o n i c a l l y , by t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y , P u r e Land as an independent movement had begun t o d e c l i n e i n C h i n a . Subsequent P u r e Land m a s t e r s i n c l u d i n g Tz'u-min and Fa-chao t o seek t o ha r m o n i z e P u r e Land b e l i e f s w i t h o t h e r B u d d h i s t t e a c h i n g s . From t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e T'ang onwards, P u r e Land d o c t r i n e and p r a c t i c e s were d i f f u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e o t h e r s c h o o l s o f C h i n e s e Buddhism. I I I . C o n f l i c t i n g P a r a d i s e s Throughout r e l i g i o u s h i s t o r y , man has y e a r n e d f o r p a r a d i s e ; t h e i n d e s c r i b a b l e , t h e u n s p e a k a b l e " o t h e r " , communicated by l u m i n o u s v i s i o n s o f h e a v e n l y c i t i e s and i r e n i c l a n d s c a p e s . And t h r o u g h t h e s e v i s i o n s , t h e s e e k e r caught a g l i m p s e o f r e a l i t y . From t h e second c e n t u r y A.D. when A n - s h i h - k a o t r a n s l a t e d t h e f i r s t s u t r a d e s c r i b i n g a B u d d h i s t p a r a d i s e , t h a t o f Aksobhya, t h i s c o n c e p t has e x e r c i s e d a major i n f l u e n c e on t h e r e l i g i o u s a s p i r a t i o n s o f C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t s . The r i v a l r y p r e v i o u s l y mentioned between t h e v a r i o u s I n d i a n and C e n t r a l A s i a n c u l t s c o n t i n u e d i n C h i n a i n C h i n e s e f a s h i o n . L i k e t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y C h i n e s e monk who w r o t e t h a t he -134-"...made one s t o n e image o f M a i t r e y a p r a y i n g t h a t t h o s e o f t h e p r e c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n , h i s p a r e n t s w i t h t h e i r h o u s e h o l d and t h e monks who were h i s m a s t e r s , may be r e b o r n i n t h e l a n d of Buddha A m i t a y u s i n t h e West ( o r ? ) where t h e Three M e e t i n g s w i l l be h e l d (by M a i t r e y a ) t o p r e a c h t h e Dharma under t h e D r a g o n - f l o w e r t r e e ; o r i f t h e y a r e r e b o r n h e r e below among men, may ( t h e i r l o t s ) f a l l among t h e n o b i l i t y ; and i n some p l a c e where th e y a r e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w i t h some g r e a t B o d h i s a t t v a . " 3 8 Many w i s h e d t o c o v e r a l l p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s . Y e t , d e s p i t e t h i s tendency toward s y n c r e t i s m , c o n f l i c t i n g l o y a l t i e s were i n e v i t a b l e and t h e most i n t e n s e r i v a l r y was between t h e d e v o t e e s o f M a i t r e y a and t h o s e o f A m i t a . 39 T h i s p r e c u l i a r l y C h i n e s e c o n t r o v e r s y t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e f o u r t h t o t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s when some of t h e g r e a t e s t C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t m a s t e r s d e b a t e d t h e r e s p e c t i v e m e r i t s o f b e i n g r e b o r n i n T u s i t a Heaven as opposed t o g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o S u k h a v a t i . The m o n a s t i c s a t t h e c o r e o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y were e i t h e r l e a d e r s o f 40 t h e P u r e Land movement o r o f t h e F a - h s i a n g s c h o o l . Monks such as Tao-ch'o, C h i a - t s ' a i , C h i - t s a n g , Shan-tao and H u i - k a n s t o o d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o o t h e r s l i k e H suan-tsang and h i s d i s c i p l e , K ' u a i - c h i . F o r t h e P u r e Land a d h e r e n t s , a l r e a d y , i n c o n f l i c t w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l s because o f t h e i r u n o r t h o d o x and e x c l u s i v i s t c l a i m s t o s a l v a t i o n , a s s e r t i n g t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f S u k h a v a t i o v e r T u s i t a meant s i m p l y a n s w e r i n g a n o t h e r i n a l o n g l i s t o f " d o u b t s " o r o b j e c t i o n s r a i s e d by o t h e r B u d d h i s t s . ^ F o r H s i l a n g - t s a n g and K ' u a i - c h i , M a i t r e y a was n o t o n l y a s p e c i a l o b j e c t o f p e r s o n a l d e v o t i o n b u t p a r t o f 42 t h e f o u n d a t i o n myth o f the F a - h s i a n g s c h o o l . B o t h groups a g r e e d t h a t T u s i t a Heaven was a heaven i n t h e kamadhatu, a c c e p t e d b o t h by H i n a y a n a and Mahayana m a s t e r s and t h a t S u k h a v a t i was a Buddha-land (buddhakgetra ) - - 43 beyond t h e t h r e e w o r l d s , a t t e s t e d t o o n l y by Mahayana m a s t e r s . Y e t t h e s e C h i n e s e m a s t e r s , a c c o r d i n g t o D e m i e v i l l e , . . . " t e n d a c i o u s l y chose - 44 T u s i t a Heaven i n comparing M a i t r e y a s P u r e Land t o t h a t o f A m i t a y u s " . -135-These comparisons were made up of a maze of d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s on c e r t a i n m u t u a l l y agreed upon c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e two p a r a d i s e s . I n t h e C h ' i n g - t ' u - S h i h - i - l u n , two b a s i c p o i n t s w h i c h P u r e Land s u p p o r t e r s saw i n t h e i r f a v o u r were: t h e a b s o l u t e c e r t a i n t y o f o b t a i n i n g r e l e a s e t h r o u g h A m i t a ' s vow and t h e p u r i t y o f S u k h a v a t i . The o p e r a t i o n o f upaya and t h e p o t e n c y o f m e d i t a t i n g on A m i t a g u a r a n t e e d r e b i r t h i n S u k h a v a t i whereas T u s i t a c o u l d be a t t a i n e d o n l y by t h o s e who keep t h e s "45 t e n p r e c e p t s and e n t e r " d e e p l y i n t o t r u e - s a m a d h i " ( j£ £ *. A m i t a ' s p a r a d i s e , u n d e f i l e d by t h e women, t h e f o l l o w e r s o f t h e two yanas and t h e sensuous p l e a s u r e s found i n T u s i t a , s w i f t l y t o o k one t o t h e s t a g e o f t h e n o n - r e g r e s s o r . F u r t h e r m o r e , we a r e reminded t h a t j u s t as t h o s e who d i d not a t t a i n a r h a t s h i p d u r i n g t h e l i f e o f Sakyamuni Buddha were as numerous as t h e "sand o f t h e ganga", so would t h e i g n o r a n t s t i l l abound w i t h t h e advent o f M a i t r e y a . I n c o n t r a s t , w i t h r e b i r t h i n S u k h a v a t i , " a l l o b t a i n t h e i n s i g h t o f n o n - a r i s i n g , and t h e r e has ne v e r been and who has f a l l e n t h e r e f r o m i n t o t h e t h r e e w o r l d s and who a g a i n became bound by t h e karma 46 o f b i r t h and d e a t h . " Hsuan-tsang" responded t o t h e s e c l a i m s by a r g u i n g t h a t S u k h a v a t i was i n f a c t , i n a c c e s s i b l e t o common p e o p l e and t h a t s a l v a t i o n t h e r e was by no means immediate n o r s u r e ; u n l e s s one s a c r i f i c e d t h e t r u e meaning o f 47 t h e t e x t s f o r t h e l i t e r a l . He a v e r r e d t h a t i n I n d i a , B u d d h i s t s s t r o v e f o r r e b i r t h i n T u s i t a Heaven where t h e p r a c t i c e s were e a s i e r because o f i t s l i k e n e s . s t o our own w o r l d . B e s i d e s , r e b i r t h i n S u k h a v a t i c o u l d o n l y be s e c u r e d by B o d h i s a t t v a s o f t h e t e n t h bhumi and c o u l d not be won by t h e common man. H s i i a n - t s a n g c l a i m e d t h a t s u c h m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s came about when one conforms t o t h e " l e t e r " and n o t t h e " s p i r i t " o f t h e s c r i p t u r e . -136-F o r example, commenting on a passage by Vasubandhu, H s t l a n - t s a n g c l a i m e d t h a t t h e r e c i t a t i o n o f P r a b h u t a r a t h a recommended t h e r e d i d n o t mean t h a t b o d h i was a s s u r e d by m e r e l y r e p e a t i n g t h e Buddha's name b u t t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e wa« o n l y one cause o f p r o g r e s s . J u s t as one cannot amass a thousand p i e c e s o f g o l d from one p i e c e o f g o l d i n one day — one cannot i n s t a n t l y a t t a i n s a l v a t i o n i n A m i t a ' s p a r a d i s e by s i m p l y v owing t o be r e b o r n t h e r e P erhaps t h e most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d i s s u e i n t h e c o n t r o v e r s y o f t h e 48 p a r a d i s e s was t h e two c o u r t y a r d s i n T u s i t a Heaven. The H s i - y u - k i d e s c r i b e s how t h r e e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g h i s d e a t h Vasubandhu r e t u r n e d t o t e l l Asanga about c o n d i t i o n s i n T u s i t a Heaven. Vasubandhu i s s a i d t o have r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e d e v o t e e s s t a y e d e i t h e r i n t h e o u t e r c o u r t y a r d where t h e y a r e submerged i n t h e b l i s s f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r d e s i r e s o r i n the i n n e r c o u r t y a r d where, welcomed by M a i t r e y a , t h e y p r o g r e s s e d i n t h e Dharma. Tao-cho, Hsuan-tsang's contemporary s t r e s s e d t h e f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h M a i t r e y a t a u g h t t h e way o f a v a i v a r t i k a t o h i s assemblage i n t h e i n n e r c o u r t , many i n t h e o u t e r c o u r t remained encumbered by a t t a c h m e n t s . W h i l e r e b i r t h i n A m i t a ' s P u r e Land meant i n s t a n t l y becoming an a v a i v a r t i n , r e b i r t h i n T u s i t a was i n c o n t r a s t , r i s k y . I n h i s A n - l o - c h i , Tao-ch'o e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t s i n c e o n l y T u s i t a ' s i n n e r c o u r t o f f e r e d s a l v a t i o n , i t was by f a r more b e n e f i c i a l t o s t r i v e f o r r e b i r t h i n S u k h a v a t i . The p r o p o n e n t s o f T u s i t a Heaven, on t h e o t h e r hand, argued t h a t M a i t r e y a ' s abode was not m e r e l y a p l e a s u r e r e a l m b u t c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n i t a p l a c e where t r u e r e l i g i o u s knowledge c o u l d be a t t a i n e d . Even though t h e i d e a o f t h e two c o u r t y a r d s i s not r e a d i l y b o r n e out i n M a i t r e y a s u t r a s , -137-ways were found t o v a l i d a t e i t . The Kuarfc-Mi-lo-shang-sheng-ching, f o r example, l a v i s h l y d e s c r i b e s T u s i t a as a w o n d e r l a n d w i t h i n n u m e r a b l e p a l a c e s and a f o r t y - n i n e - s t o r y " H a l l o f t h e Good Law" where M a i t r e y a p r e a c h e s . K / u a i - c h i h , i d e n t i f i e d t h i s " H a l l o f t h e Good Law" w i t h th e i n n e r c o u r t , w h i c h i n e s s e n c e e v e n t u a l l y became a n a l o g o u s w i t h a P u r e Land. The C h i n e s e m a s t e r s t h u s endowed T u s i t a Heaven w i t h a l l th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f M a i t r e y a ' s P u r e Land. Hsuan-tsang and K ' u a i - c h i ' s e f f o r t s made s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t ; t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n o f Y o g a c a r a works i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y s p u r r e d a r e s u r g e n c e o f i n t e r e s t i n M a i t r e y a w h i c h c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e s e v e n t h and e i g h t h . A c c o r d i n g t o D e m i e v i l l e , t h i s phenomenon a f f e c t e d t h e P u r e Land movement t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t " i l f a l l u t t o u s l e s e f f o r t s de l ' e c o l e d e Chan-tao 49 pour r e m e t t r e en vogue l a T e r r e P u r e de 1'Quest." Works such as C h i a -t s ' a i ' s C h ' i n g - t u - l u n and H u a i - k a n ' s C h ' i n g - t u C h ' u n - i - l u n ^ d e m o n s t r a t e th e g r e a t l e n g t h s t h a t t h e P u r e Land a d h e r e n t s went t o i n o r d e r t o p r o v e t h e i r c a s e . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f S u k h a v a t i , many o f th e p o i n t s r a i s e d seem f a r removed from t h e i d e a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e F a - h s i a n g s c h o o l . F o r example: 1) t h a t l i f e i n T u s i t a l a s t s f o r o n l y 4,000 y e a r s whereas l i f e i n S u k h a v a t i goes on f o r 100 thousands of m y r i a d s o f k o t i s o f n a y i i t a o f t h e asamkhya-kalpa; o r 2) t h a t p a s s i o n s a r e b o t h l a t e n t and m a n i f e s t i n T u s i t a b u t a r e found o n l y i n l a t e n t form i n S u k h a v a t i ; o r 3) t h a t T u s i t a i s exposed t o c o s m i c c a l a m i t i e s s u c h as f i r e a t t h e end o f t h e k a l p a whereas S u k h a v a t i i s p r o t e c t e d f r o m a l l damage fr o m w a t e r , f i r e , w i n d , e t c . ; o r -138-4) t h a t when one i s r e b o r n i n T u s i t a no one comes t o g r e e t t h e b e l i e v e r whereas a w h ole assembly of s a i n t s g r e e t s t h e d e v o t e e — 52 g o i n g t o S u k h a v a t i . Such arguments, i n f a c t , b e t r a y , v i e w a o f p a r a d i s e as an o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y , a " p l a c e " where t h e d e v o t e e may g a i n a d m i t t a n c e . And where i t i s o b v i o u s why such a l i t e r a l p a r a d i s e s h o u l d f i n d w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e among t h e l a i t y , i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t c l e r i c s s u c h as 53 . T ' a n - l u a n a K u a i - c h i s h o u l d have used such c o n c r e t e e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e P u r e Land i n t h e i r p o l e m i c a l w o rks. Nakamura Hajime has commented on t h e C h i n e s e tendency t o c o n c r e t i z e 54 t h e a b s t r a c t ; even T a o i s t and C o n f u c i a n p a r a d i s e s were g e o g r a p h i c a l l y l o c a t e d . The t r a n s l a t i o n s o f dhyana s u t r a s i n t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y t e a c h i n g v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f Buddha-lands w i t h w e l l - d e f i n e d p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s no doubt a i s o r e i n f o r c e d t h e tendency toward a l i t e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r a d i s e . T ' a n - l u a n h i m s e l f i s c r e d i t e d w i t h i n i t i a t i n g t h e p r a c t i c e o f c a p t u r i n g t h e v i s i o n s i n s p i r e d by t h e K u a n - w i - l i a n g - s h o u c h i n g p a i n t i n g s . By t h e e a r l y s e v e n t h c e n t u r y when t h e f i r s t p a r a d i s e p a i n t i n g s i n Tun-huang a p p e a r e d , t h e y no l o n g e r s e r v e d a l i m i t e d a u d i e n c e as an a i d t o m e d i t a t i o n b u t awed l a r g e numbers o f monks and l a i t y who p e r c e i v e d them as a c t u a l d e p i c t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d t o come. C o n c u r r e n t l y , more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f p a r a d i s e were b e i n g d e v e l o p e d . Shan-tao's P u r e Land o n t o l o g y and Hsuan-tsang's e x e g e t i c a l methods t o o k t h e C h i n e s e n o t i o n of p a r a d i s e f a r beyond p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s . B o t h t h e l i t e r a l and t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i e w s have found c o n t i n u i t y t o t h e p r e s e n t day. When a s i m p l e layman d i e s w i t h t h e name o f A m i t a on h i s l i p e s and a v i s i o n of p a r a d i s e b e f o r e him, -139-he f o l l o w s i n t h e p a t h o f i n n u m e r a b l e s e e k e r s of S u k h a v a t i who went b e f o r e him. And when a s c h o l a r such as S u z u k i D a i s e t z w r i t e s t h a t " t h e P u r e Land i s t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f t h i s w o r l d and t h i s w o r l d i s t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e P u r e Land"^^ he e x p r e s s e s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b o r n out o f P u r e Land thought i n i t s m a t u r i t y . C o - e x i s t e n t w i t h t h i s w o r l d , p a r a d i s e i s seen as a s p i r i t u a l r e a l m w h e r e i n t h e e n l i g h t e n e d B u d d h i s t d w e l l s . I n e i t h e r c a s e , M a i t r e y a ' s coming i s no l o n g e r a n t i c i p a t e d and T u s i t a Heaven no l o n g e r a g o a l — t h e e s c h a t o n has been t r a n s c e n d e d by p a r a d i s e won i n t h e here-and-now. -140-F o o t n o t e s t o C h a p t e r V Sometimes i n c o r r e c t l y r e f e r r e d t o as Pur e Land mandalas, t h e s e l a n d s c a p e s a r e known as Jodo henso ( J a . ) o r " t r a n s f o r m e d c o n -f i g u r a t i o n s " . F o r l o c a t i o n and t y p e s o f henso p a i n t i n g s a t Tun-huang see J . O k a z a k i , P u r e Land P a i n t i n g (San F r a n c i s c o : Kodanska I n t . L t d . and Shibundo, 1977), pp.29-30. Overmyer, F o l k B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , p.145. T h i s s u b j e c t s t i l l a w a i t s adequate r e s e a r c h , s ee H. Wel c h , "The B e l l a g i o C o n f e r e n c e on T a o i s t S t u d i e s , " HOR 9 (November 1969 - F e b r u a r y 1970), p.135. D. H. S m i t h , " C h i n e s e Concepts o f t h e S o u l , " Numen 5 ( 1 9 5 8 ) : 165-179; W. L i e b e n t h a l , "The I m m o r t a l i t y o f t h e S o u l i n C h i n a , " MN 8 (1952): 327-397. The i d e a o f judgement a f t e r d e a t h p r o c e e d i n g from one's own karma e s p e c i a l l y caught t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e . See A l e x Wayman, " S t u d i e s i n Yama and Mara," TU 1 (1 9 5 9 ) : 44-73. Some s c h o l a r s c o n s i d e r t h e use o f t h e name P u r e Land Movement more a c c u r a t e t h a n P u r e Land S c h o o l i n C h i n a b e c a u s e by t h e Sung, P u r e Land p r a c t i c e s were adopted by t h e o t h e r s c h o o l s , i n c l u d i n g Ch'an and T ' i e n - t a i . P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary," p.60. P u r e Land S c h o o l may be b e t t e r a p p r o p r i a t e i n Japan where t h e movement r e a c h e d i t s m a t u r i t y under Honen and S h i n r a n . S u z u k i , I n d i a n Mahayana Buddhism, p.131. Overmyer, F o l k B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , p.152; Tsukamoto Z. "Hokugi Bukkyo," i n Ryumon, p.233. F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s m a t t e r see Y a b u k i , S a n g a i k y o , pp.199-213. B o d h i r u c i and Hui-yuan's names sometimes heads t h i s l i s t . C f . n.16 below. F o r one of t h e forms o f i n d i g e n o u s C h i n e s e b h a k t i see E.M. Ch'en, "Tao as t h e G r e a t Mother and.the I n f l u e n c e o f M o t h e r l y Love i n t h e Shaping o f C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y , " HOR 14 (August 1974):51-63. M u l l e r , " S m a l l e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a , " p.102. M u l l e r , " L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a , " p.69. There a r e many d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e S a n s k r i t and t h e v a r i o u s C h i n e s e v e r s i o n s o f t h i s s u t r a ; one o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e growth o f P u r e Land d e v o t i o n a l i s m b e i n g t h e i n c l u s i o n o f two e x t r a vows i n t h e C h i n e s e . See M u l l e r , " L a r g e r S u k h l v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a , " pp 12-22, -141-Wu-liang-shou c h i n g quoted i n S h i n r a n ' s Kyo Gyo S h i n Sho, ed. Genpo H o s h i n o , Ryukoku T r a n s l a t i o n S e r i e s v o l . 5 ( K y o t o : Ryukoku T r a n s l a t i o n C e n t e r , 1966), p.201. F o r t h e same s e c t i o n f r o m K u m a r a j i v a ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s e e E n c y c . B., s.v. " A m i t a , " p.469. 15. P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary," p.597. A l t h o u g h l a t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e A m i t a y u r - d h y a n a s u t r a by Tao-cho and Shan-tao a l s o s t r e s s e d t h e d e v o t i o n a l e l ement, passages from t h e S u k h a v a 1 1 - s u t r a s such as t h e e i g h t e e n t h vow c o n t i n u e d t o be i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s f o r t h e development of t h e P u r e Land d e v o t i o n a l i s m . 16. F o r t h e f o u r r e c o g n i z e d l i n e s o f t r a n s m i s s i o n i n C h i n e s e P u r e Land see J . Takakusu, E s s e n t i a l s o f B u d d h i s t P h i l o s o p h y ( H o n o l u l u : U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i , 1956), pp.167-168. 17. The t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e M a h a p a r i n i r v a n a s u t r a i n t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y emphasized t h a t even t h e i c c h a n t i k a c o u l d a t t a i n e n l i g h t e n m e n t r e i n f o r c e d t h i s i d e a . F o r i t s e f f e c t d u r i n g t h e N. Wei see H u r v i t z , Wei Shu, p.60 n.4 and f o r an account of i t s c o n t r o v e r s y see W. L i e b e n t h a l , "The World C o n c e p t i o n of Tao-sheng," MN 12 (1956;1957): 65-103; 241-268. 18. F o r h i s b i o g r a p h y i n HKSC and o t h e r s o u r c e s see P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary," p.140 n . l . 19. H u r v i t z , C h i h - i , p.85. 20. A. Bloom, S h i n r a n ' s G o s p e l o f P u r e G r a c e (Tucson: U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a P r e s s , 1965), p.8. 21. R o b i n s o n , E a r l y Madhyamika, p.66. 22. T.40. 827-36; a s h o r t s e c t i o n t r a n s l a t e d by L. H u r v i t z i n The B u d d h i s t  T r a d i t i o n , ed. T. de B a r y (New Y o r k : Modern L i b r a r y , 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 200-201. 23. A. Andrews, "Nembutsu i n t h e C h i n e s e P u r e Land T r a d i t i o n , " EB (New S e r i e s ) 3 ( O c t o b e r 1970):40. 24. SSZ V o l . 1:255 quoted i n Bloom, S h i n r a n ' s G o s p e l , p.43. 25. M u l l e r , " L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a , " p. 73. F o r development o f n i e n - f o see Andrews, " C h i n e s e Nembutsu". 26. F o r h i s b i o g r a p h i c a l and o t h e r s o u r c e s see P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary," p.142 n.2. -142-27. I n a g a k i H i s a o , "On t h e Concept of ' A v i n i v a r t a n i y a i n P u r e Land Buddhism," IBK 10 ( J a n u a r y 1962): 348. 28. T.47.4-11; Encyc. B., s.v. " A n - l o - c h i " by 29. A n - l o - c h i quoted by S h i n r a n i n h i s Kyo Gyo S h i n Sho, p. 201. The e d i t o r adds t h a t f o r S h i n r a n , "one hundred y e a r s " i m p l i e d " e t e r n a l l y " . 30. E n c y c l . B., s.v. " A n - l o - c h i , " pp. 692-3. 31. Andrews, " C h i n e s e Nembutsu," p.41. 32. Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , p.346. 33. F o r b i o g r a p h i c a l r e f e r e n c e s see P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary". 34. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e P u r e Land S u t r a s , he a l s o encouraged t h e c h a n t i n g of t h e L o t u s , V a j r a c c h e d i k a , N i r v a n a and P r a j n a s u t r a s . Ch'en, Bud dhism i n C h i n a , p.347. 35. C f . C h a p t e r I V , i i i above. 36. Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , p.345. 37. Tsukamoto, "Hokugi Bukkyo," i n Ryunion, Mizuno and N a g a h i r o , p.233. 38. Soper, E v i d e n c e s , p.136. 39. D e m i e v i l l e , Yogacarabhumi, p. 394 n.7. 40. F o r more d e t a i l e d r e f e r e n c e s t o i n d i v i d u a l C h i n e s e monks and t h e i r v i e w s see: D e m i e v i l l e , Yogacarabhumi, p. 391 n.3; Matsumoto, M i r o k u J o d o r o n , C h a p t e r 9. 41. Numerous P u r e Land commentaries d e m o n s t r a t e t h i s aim. Pas m e n t i o n s a work, N i e n - f o c h i by Shan-tao, i n w h i c h t h e v a l i d i t y o f P u r e Land b e l i e f s argued a g a i n s t s i x o t h e r s c h o o l s : t h e Three S t a g e s , t h e M a i t r e y a , t h e Ch'an, t h e D i s c o u r s e , t h e V i n a y a and t h e P l r a m i t a . P a s , "Shan-tao's Commentary," p.236. 42. D e m i e v i l l e , Yogacarabhumi, p.389. 43. D e m i e v i l l e w r i t e s t h a t T u s i t a Heaven may have s e r v e d as a model f o r t h e P u r e Lands o r t h a t T u s i t a i t s e l f "was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e f a i t h f u l as an i m i t a t i o n o f t h e P u r e Lands". Yogacarabhumi, p.394, 394 n.7. 44. I b i d . , p.392-394. -143-45. The two p o i n t s m entioned above a r e based on t h e s e v e n t h doubt of t h e S h i h - i l u n , a work t r a d i t i o n a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o C h i h - i and c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t P u r e Land t h o u g h t a t a p o i n t where i t had c l e a r l y d e p a r t e d from n o r m a t i v e C h i n e s e Mahayana but had n o t y e t e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e x c l u s i v i s t s t a n c e . L. P r u d e n , t r a n s . , "The C h i n g - t ' u S h i h - i - l u n , " EB (New S e r i e s ) 6 (May 1 9 73): 145-148. 46. I b i d . , p.147. 47. T h i s p a r a g r a p h i s summarized from t h e w r i t i n g s of H s i i a n - t s a n g quoted by D e m i e v i l l e , Yogacarabhumi, pp.389-391. 48. The f o l l o w i n g argument on t h e two c o u r t y a r d s i s m a i n l y based on D e m i e v i l l e , Yogacarabhumi, p.393 n . l . 49. I b i d . , p.392. 50. T.47. 1963 and T.47.1960 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 51. I n J a p a n , where t h e d e b a t e c o n t i n u e d l o n g a f t e r i t had d i e d out i n C h i n a , S h i n r a n w r o t e t h a t devout P u r e Land b e l i e v e r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f n i e n - f o a r e e q u a l i n s t a t i o n t o M a i t r e y a . D. S u z u k i , t r a n s . , The K y o g y o s h i n s h o , ed. E a s t e r n B u d d h i s t S o c i e t y ( K y o t o : S h i n s h u O t a n i h a , 1973), pp.138-9. 52. T r a d i t i o n a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o K u ' a i - c h i , H s i - f a n g - Y a o - c h ' u e h (T.47.1964), D e m i e v i l l e Yogacarabhumi, pp.389-90 n.4. A l t h o u g h p o i n t s 1, 5, 7 and 9 were s e l e c t e d because t h e y were t h e most c o n c r e t e of the arguments, t h e y s h o u l d a l s o be examined i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e more a b s t r a c t p o i n t s w h i c h make up t h e p h i l o s o -p h i c a l s u b s t a n c e of t h e passage. 53. Bloom, S h i n r a n ' s g o s p e l , p.78. 54. Nakamura H., Ways, p.253. 55. S u z u k i , I n d i a n Mahayana Buddhism, p.146. -144-CONCLUSION F o r o v e r 2500 y e a r s Gautama Buddha has r e p r e s e n t e d t h e s a c r e d c e n t e r o f knowledge and a u t h o r i t y t o whom a l l B u d d h i s t s have t u r n e d . The Buddha's e n l i g h t e n m e n t i s r e g a r d e d a r e v e l a t i o n o f T r u t h by an a l l - k n o w i n g b e i n g and h i s words as th e y were s e t down i n t h e B u d d h i s t Canon, as t h e f i n a l a u t h o r i t y i n a l l d i s p u t e s . I n t h e mind o f t h e b e l i e v e r , however, t h e c e n t r a l i t y o f t h e Buddha's p o s i t i o n as t e a c h e r and s a v i o r d i d n ot r e m a i n an e x c l u s i v e one. I n t h e c e n t u r i e s f o l l o w i n g t h e Buddha's d e a t h , t h e b e l i e v e r s f e l t an i n c r e a s i n g sense o f d i s t a n c e from t h e f o u n d e r o f t h e i r r e l i g i o n . The Buddha, upon e n t e r i n g t h a t i n e f f a b l e s t a t e c a l l e d n i r v a n a was beyond r e a c h . F u r t h e r m o r e , embedded i n t h e t e a c h i n g s was a con c e p t c a l l e d t h e End of t h e Dharma; even t h e Buddha Word would undergo s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s o f decay u n t i l f i n a l l y , i t would d i s a p p e a r . The d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e D o c t r i n e and t h e a t t e n d a n t s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i l l s c o u l d o n l y be remedied by t h e appearance o f t h e M a i t r e y a Buddha, t h e Buddha o f t h e F u t u r e . The growth i n t h e im p o r t a n c e o f M a i t r e y a as t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f m e s s i a n i c e x p e c t a t i o n b r o u g h t f o r w a r d a n o t h e r s a c r e d c e n t e r t o whom t h e b e l i e v e r s m ight t u r n . W i t h t h e r i s e o f t h e Mahayana s c h o o l s , o t h e r buddhas and b o d h i s a t t v a s a l s o became f o c a l p o i n t s o f w o r s h i p . A l t h o u g h t h e Hi n a y a n a s c h o o l s r e j e c t e d t h e i d e a o f t h e c e l e s t i a l buddhas, b e l i e v e r s i n t h e Mahayana s c h o o l s were now a b l e t o t u r n n o t o n l y t o Gautama and M a i t r e y a b u t a l s o t o a gro w i n g number o f s a l v a t i o n a l f i g u r e s i n c l u d i n g A m i t a b h a , t h e Buddha o f t h e Western P a r a d i s e . -145-D u r i n g t h e f i f t h and s i x t h c e n t u r i e s i n C h i n a , M a i t r e y a ' s p o p u l a r i t y r e a c h e d a peak and t h e n d e c l i n e d C o n c o m i t a n t l y , A m i t a and h i s W e s t e r n P a r a d i s e s t e a d i l y g a i n e d new a d h e r e n t s . F o r t h o s e who p r a y e d t h a t t h e y might j o i n M a i t r e y a i n T u s i t a Heaven o r t o be r e b o r n when M a i t r e y a appeared on e a r t h , t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r hopes i n an age o f c o n t i n u i n g c r i s e s b r o u g h t l e s s and l e s s s o l a c e . F o r t h o s e who e x p e c t e d M a i t r e y a t o appear i n t h e i r own t i m e , a sense o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t ensued. E i t h e r way t h e M a i t r e y a n p r o m i s e was l o s i n g i t s a t t r a c t i o n and new means of s a l v a t i o n were sought. F o r i n c r e a s i n g numbers of C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t s , d e v o t i o n t o A m i t a Buddha p r o v i d e d t h e s o l e means of s a l v a t i o n i n t h e Degenerate Age. By t h e end of t h i s p e r i o d t h e c u l t o f A m i t a was t r a n s -formed i n t o t h e P u r e Land s c h o o l , t h e g r e a t e s t and most e n d u r i n g d e v o t i o n a l movement i n Buddhism. The e s c h a t o l o g i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s and subsequent d i s -a ppointment and h o p e l e s s n e s s d u r i n g t h e P e r i o d o f D i s u n i o n l e n t v i t a l impetus t o r i s e o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m i n t h e S u i and e a r l y T'ang, * A * I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e b r o a d sweep o f h i s t o r i c a l and d o c t r i n a l d e v e l o p -ments summarized above, numerous o t h e r symbols and themes emerged. F o r example: t h e symbols of p a r a d i s e and k i n g s h i p ; t h e r i c h n e s s and c o m p l e x i t y of m e d i e v a l m e s s i a n i s m ; and t h e dynamic i n t e r p l a y between d e v o t i o n a l and e s c h a t o l o g i c a l i d e a s . I n o r d e r t o show t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f s u c h themes, l e t us compare t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h r e e such themes i n Buddhism and C h r i s t i a n i t y : 1) t h e phenomenon o f " e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t " ; 2) t h e r o l e o f t h e l a i t y i n t h e r i s e o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m ; and 3) t h e i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e s c h a t o l o g y and h i s t o r y . -146-The theme o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t has been w e l l documented i n modern C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . Among t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s , a s h i f t o c c u r r e d i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e e s c h a t o n . P a u l u n d e r s t o o d t h a t he was l i v i n g i n t h e t i m e between t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n o f J e s u s and h i s r e t u r n a t t h e t i m e o f t h e end. On t h e o t h e r hand, J o h n u n d e r s t o o d t h a t he was l i v i n g i n t h e p e r i o d between t h e c r u c i f i x i o n o f h i s S a v i o u r and t h e end o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s e a r t h l y l i f e . When C h r i s t d i d not r e t u r n as e x p e c t e d , a p e r i o d o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t r e s u l t e d . A u g u s t i n e , i n h e r i t i n g from P a u l , t h e C h r i s t i a n t e l e o l o g i c a l v i e w of h i s t o r y , d e v e l o p e d h i s argument a g a i n s t t h e o l d e r p r e - C h r i s t i a n v i e w o f time.'*" When t h e a p o c a l y p t i c e x p e c t a t i o n w h i c h had embued C h r i s t i a n i t y was condemned as s u p e r s t i t i o n i n 431 A.D., b e l i e f i n t h e p h y s i c a l r e t u r n went underground t o be r e v i v e d i n t e r m i t t e n t l y i n m i l l e n n a r i a n movements, and more r e c e n t l y , i n f u n d a m e n t a l i s t dogma. I n a s e n s e , t h e B u d d h i s t p e r c e p t i o n of t h e e s c h a t o n underwent a s i m i l a r s h i f t . To Tao-an, t h e p r e s e n t r e p r e s e n t e d t h e t i m e between t h e N i r v a n a o f Gautama Buddha and t h e appearance of t h e M a i t r e y a Buddha. To h i s d i s c i p l e H u i - y i i a n , t h i s same t i m e r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p e r i o d between t h e h i s t o r i c a l Buddha and t h e d e a t h o f an i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r who c o u l d j o i n A mitabha Buddha i n h i s Western P a r a d i s e . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of D i s u n i o n many hoped t h a t M a i t r e y a would descend t o C h i n a i n t h e i r own l i f e t i m e s . F o r t h o s e B u d d h i s t s , t h e f a i l u r e o f M a i t r e y a t o appear, and f o r o t h e r s , t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y l o n g e r p e r i o d s of t i m e w h i c h were s t i l l l e f t o f t h e d e g e n e r a t e age, i n t e n s i f i e d t h e g e n e r a l sense o f h o p e l e s s n e s s and d e s p a i r . Thus t h a t v a r i a n t s on " e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t " o c c u r r e d i n b o t h C h r i s t i a n i t y and Buddhism when t h e f u t u r e s a v i o r d i d not m a n i f e s t h i m s e l f -147-i s e v i d e n t . However, one i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e two i s t h a t i n Buddhism, n o t o n l y was t h e w a i t i n g p e r i o d b e f o r e t h e advent p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e n g t h e n e d but a c r i s i s was c r e a t e d by t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e w o r l d was i n a B u d d h a - l e s s age. I t was t h i s atmosphere o f • h o p e l e s s n e s s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e a d y a c c e p t a n c e o f t t h e s o l u t i o n t o s a l v a t i o n o f f e r e d by t h e P u r e Land m a s t e r s . Y e t i n b o t h t r a d i t i o n s , the a f t e r m a t h of " e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t " f o l l o w s t h e same p a t t e r n : t h e b e l i e f f i n d s c o n t i n u i t y on one hand; i n i t s o r t h o d o x forms and on t h e o t h e r , i n n o u r i s h i n g t h e m y t h o l o g i e s of p o p u l a r m e s s i a n i s m t h r o u g h o u t m e d i e v a l t i m e s . I n b o t h t r a d i t i o n s , t h e d e v o t i o n a l i s m t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d m e s s i a n i c a c t i v i t i e s i s most e v i d e n t among t h e l a i t y . F a i t h , t h e f u l f i l m e n t of d e v o t i o n a l i s m i s o f t e n s i n g l e d out as t h e means by w h i c h t h e masses of humanity can a s p i r e t o r e l i g i o u s freedom. Conze goes as f a r t o s t a t e t h a t " . . . b e f o r e 1850 no r e l i g i o n c o u l d e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f f i r m l y i n s o c i e t y 2 w i t h o u t r e - s t a t i n g i t s d o c t r i n e i n terms of F a i t h . . . " . A d i s t i n c t i o n p e r h a p s more c l e a r l y made i n Buddhism t h a n i n C h r i s t i a n i t y i s t h a t f a i t h i s a c a r d i n a l b u t i n t r o d u c t o r y s t e p i n t h e p a t h t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t . B u d d h i s t s c h o l a r s a r e c a r e f u l t o p o i n t out t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e " b l i n d f a i t h " o f common c u r r e n c y and t h e knowledge and c o n f i d e n c e w h i c h c h a r a c -t e r i z e t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e Three T r e a s u r e s . However, because i t i s an i n t r o d u c t o r y s t e p , i t was one o f t h e f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s t a u g h t t o t h e laymen. L a t e r i n Mahayana terms f a i t h became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e l i e f i n s a v i o u r s and p a r a d i s e s j u s t as i n m e d i e v a l C a t h o l i c i s m f a i t h became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e l i e f i n t h e e f f i c a c y o f p r a y e r d i r e c t e d t o t h e V i r g i n Mary, a m u l t i t u d e o f s a i n t s , a n d t h e p r o m i s e o f heaven. B u d d h i s t and -148-C h r i s t i a n l a i t y a l i k e translated t h e i r f a i t h into acts of devotion focussed on pilgrimages, r e l i c s and s a c r i f i c i a l o f f e r i n g s . These forms of worship appealed to the layman and more often than not, he understood l i t t l e more. For the converted masses i n Medieval China and Europe, devotionalism offered the most s a t i s f y i n g means to sa l v a t i o n . It i s the theologians and the h i s t o r i a n s rather than laymen who 3 have discussed the dichotomy between h i s t o r y and eschatology. The Western i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s a t t i t u d e towards God, cosmos, time, and the human condition were profoundly conditioned by the changing d i s c i p l i n e of historiography and the heavenly and temporal v i s i o n s of eschatology. The c l a s s i c a l eschaton of Judaism and Early C h r i s t i a n i t y was neutralized by the r e a l i z e d eschatology of Augustine and subsequently underwent progressive s e c u l a r i z a t i o n through idealism, materialism and the b e l i e f 4 i n progress. The h i s t o r y of Buddhism, and i n p a r t i c u l a r , Chinese Buddhism, reveals other types of influences and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Contrary to the usually accepted categorization of " l i n e a r time" and " c y c l i c time" i n which Chinese notions of c y c l i c time would f a l l into the category of "p r i m i t i v e man" who lacks h i s t o r i c a l consciousness, Chinese concepts of time h i s t o r y were already highly developed by the beginning of the C h r i s t i a n era. Furthermore, with the introduction of Buddhist notion's concerning the end of the Dharma, the Chinese monastic's perception of h i s t o r i c a l events gained another dimension. Present wrongs would continue u n t i l the ineluctable h i s t o r i c a l process had run i t s course; the r e l i g i o n i t s e l f was programmed to decline. Hand i n hand with the Mandate of Heaven,the Buddhist eschaton determined the success of the r u l e r who would a r i s e at the appropriate moment i n the cosmic process as the -149-c a k r a v a r t i n o f t h e e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . Even modern B u d d h i s t h i s t o r i a n s , n o t a b l y Conze, f i n d i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l B u d d h i s t d i v i s o n of h i s t o r y i n t o t h r e e s t a g e s of t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e Dharma i r r e s i s t a b l e , c o n t i n u e t o a n a l y z e t h e h i s t o r i c a l development of B u d d h i s t p h i l o s o p h y i n a n a l o g o u s p e r i o d s of t i m e . Eggermont p o i n t s out t h a t t h e end of t h e f i r s t f i v e hundred y e a r p e r i o d marked a c r i t i c a l p o i n t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f Buddhism; t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new e r a i n i t i a t e d by t h e r i s e o f t h e S a r v a s t i v a d a and t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of s c r i p t u r e s a t t h e T h i r d B u d d h i s t C o u n c i l i n K a s h m i r . ^ Conze t o o k t h e phenomenon of t h e r i s e o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n g when p r o p o s i n g a d a t e f o r t h e V a j r a c c h e d i k a s u t r a . And i n a more p e r s o n a l v e i n , he a p p l i e s t h e t h r e e s t a g e t h e o r y t o t h e d e c l i n e of r e l i g i o n i n b o t h E a s t and West: f o r Conze, t h e l a s t f i v e hundred y e a r s has been a p e r i o d o f s p i r i t u a l p a u c i t y and t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , "a low e b b " . 9 We, i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , when t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s modes and v a l u e s a r e s w i f t l y c r u m b l i n g and c o u n t l e s s new ways of b e i n g r e l i g i o u s a r e b e i n g b o r n , may w e l l s u s p e c t t h a t we a r e l i v i n g i n an age a n a l o g o u s t o f i r s t c e n t u r y I n d i a o r s i x t h - s e v e n t h c e n t u r y C h i n a . I n K. J a s p e r s ' ^ model, t h e s e t i m e s would q u a l i f y as a x i a l p e r i o d s : p i v o t a l p o i n t s i n t h e development of r e l i g i o n and c i v i l i z a t i o n when o l d paradigms f a d e and a q u a l i t a t i v e l y new paradigm emerges. Thus, i t i s e s s e n t i a l i n t h i s age o f d e m y t h o l o g i z a t i o n , m a t e r i a l i s m and t h e d e a t h of r e l i g i o n t o examine t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e s c h a t o l o g i c a l v i s i o n s and t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e m o t i v e f o r c e s b e h i n d m i l l e n i a o f e x p e c t a t i o n . P e r h a p s t h e n we w i l l b e t t e r comprehend t h e c u r r e n t a r r a y of i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o p h e t a w i t h t h e i r new v a r i a t i o n s on d e v o t i o n and t h e e s c h a t o n . -150-F o o t n o t e s t o C o n c l u s i o n 1. Bultmann, H i s t o r y and E s c h a t o l o g y , p.48. 2. Conze, T h i r t y Y e a r s , p.138. 3. Wach, The C o m p a r a t i v e Study o f R e l i g i o n s , p.88. F o r a c o n c i s e d i s c u s s i o n and c o m p a r a t i v e t a b l e on w e l l - k n o w n Western p h i l o s o -p h i e s o f h i s t o r y a r r a n g e d under t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f " C y c l i c a l P r o g r e s s i o n " and " L i n e a r P r o g r e s s i o n " see J . B a r z u n and H. F. G r a f f , The Modern R e s e a r c h e r (N.Y.: H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d , 1 9 5 7 ) , pp.154-175. 4. N. B e r d y a e v , The B e g i n n i n g and t h e End (New Y o r k , H a r p e r T o r c h -books, 1957) , p.198. 5. T h i s concept has been d e v e l o p e d by E l i a d e i n h i s Myth o f t h e  E t e r n a l R e t u r n . B e f o r e E l i a d e , Van d e r Leeuw d e s c r i b e d i t as "...a g r e a t c l e a v a g e i n t h e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f man". 6. Conze r e l a t e s t h e growth i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m a g i c a l p r a c t i c e s i n Buddhism t o a d e c l i n e i n s p i r i t u a l i t y d a t i n g from 500 A.D. "But as s p i r i t u a l i t y d a t i n g from 500 A.D. "But as s p i r i t u a l p o t e n c y o f t h e Dharma waned, and as h i s t o r y was f e l t t o become more and more a d v e r s e , g r e a t e r e f f o r t s were h e l d t o be r e q u i r e d . " T h i r t y Y e a r s , pp.82-83. 7. P. Eggermont, "The O r i g i n o f t h e S a k a - e r a " I I J 2 (1958):225-228. 8. Conze. F u r t h e r B u d d h i s t S t u d i e s , p.171. 9. Conze, B u d d h i s t Thought i n I n d i a , pp.8-9. 10. K. J a s p e r s , The O r i g i n and t h e GOal of H i s t o r y , (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1 953), C h a p t e r s 1,4. K a r l J a s p e r s a p p l i e d t h e term " a x i a l p e r i o d " s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y B.C. w h i c h saw t h e r i s e o f Buddhism arid C o n f u c i a n i s m i n A s i a and o f H e l l e n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y i n t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n . A l t h o u g h t h i s a s p e c t o f J a s p e r s ' work has a t t r a c t e d l i t t l e i n t e r e s t f o r some y e a r s , a p p l y i n g i t t o t h e f i r s t and s e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s A.D. ( t o t h e t i m e o f t h e r i s e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y and I s l a m , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) s t r i k e s me as f e r t i l e f i e l d f o r r e s e a r c h . -151-SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY A. PRIMARY SOURCES: TEXTS Conze, Edward, t r a n s . B u d d h i s t T e x t s Through t h e Ages, New Y o r k : Harper and Row, 1964. . B u d d h i s t S c r i p t u r e s . Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n C l a s s i c s , 1959. De l a V a l l e e P o u s s i n , L., t r a n s L'Abhidharmakosa de Vasubandhu 6 v o l s . MCB v o l . 16. B r u x e l l e s : I n s t i t u t B e i g e Des Hautes Etudes C h i n o i s , 1971. , "Les neuf k a l p a s qu'a f r a n c h i s Sakyamuni pour d e v a n c e r M a i t r e y a . " TP 1 (1928_: 17-24.* D e m i e v i l l e , P., t r a n s . "La Yogacarabhumi de S a n g h a r a k s a " BEFEO 64 (1947-50): 376-395. E d g e r t o n , F., t r a n s . The Bhagavad G i t a . New Y o r k : Harper T o r c h b o o k s , 1964. Genpo H o s h i n o , ed. and t r a n s . Kyo Gyo S h i n Sho ( '16- by S h i n r a n . Ryukoku T r a n s l a t i o n S e r i e s v o l . 5, K y o t o : Ryukoku T r a n s l a t i o n C e n t e r , 1966. I s h i k a m i Zenno, t r a n s . "Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e M a i t r e y a - v y a k a r a n a " i n t h e A n n u a l o f O r i e n t a l and R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s pp. 35-48. Tokyo: S u z u k i R e s e a r c h F o u n d a t i o n , 1967. 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