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Eschatological backgrounds of devotionalism in Buddhist China Nishi Goldstone, Jane 1978

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ESCHATOLOGICAL BACKGROUNDS OF DEVOTIONALISM IN BUDDHIST CHINA by J A N E ^ N I S H I GOLDSTONE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1965  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  of Religious  We a c c e p t t h i s  Studies)  t h e s i s as conforming  to t h e required  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H Nov.  COLUMBIA  1978  (c) J a n e H. N i s h i G o l d s t o n e , 1978  *  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  J a n e H. N i s h i G o l d s t o n e  Department of  Religious  Studies  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V 6 T 1W5  Date  QQctober  1 1 , 1978.  ii ABSTRACT  E s c h a t o l o g y and d e v o t i o n a l i s m a r e dominant t h r e a d s i n t h e f a b r i c of Chinese Buddhist h i s t o r y .  rich  Y e t as i n c o u n t l e s s o t h e r  areas  o f modern B u d d h i s t s t u d i e s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n has b a r e l y begun. T h i s paper  a n a l y s e s t h e d y n a m i c i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n e s c h a t o l o g y and d e v o t i o n -  a l i s m i n r e l i g i o u s h i s t o r y by  f o c u s s i n g on N o r t h e r n C h i n a d u r i n g t h e  f o u r t h t o t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s A.D.  when t h e i n t e n s e l y p o p u l a r  o f M a i t r e y a B u d d h a was  the worship of Amitabha  The w i d e r  o v e r t a k e n by  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s s h i f t  an Abhidharma w o r l d - v i e w  Buddha.  i n c l u d e not o n l y t h e change  devotionalism —  T h u s t h e g r e a t e s t and m o s t e n d u r i n g f o r m o f t h e P u r e L a n d movement —  w i t h the ethos of the  Buddhist  i s r o o t e d i n an a g e  permeated  eschaton.  d e v e l o p m e n t o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m and continuity  specific  textual, biographical, historical  utilized  i n s u p p o r t i n g the main t h e s i s ,  religious  overall  eschatology from t h e i r o r i g i n s  to t h e i r  themes o f c o s m i c  i n p r e s e n t - d a y J a p a n and  South East A s i a .  and  i n India While  archaeological data i s  the v a r i o u s symbols  of  Buddhist  d e v o t i o n a l i s m a r e p r e s e n t e d a s v a r i a t i o n s on t h e r e n e w a l and  traditions.  of  salvation  T h i s phenomenon i n C h i n a i s s e t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e  e s c h a t o l o g y and  from  t o a Mahayana w o r l d - v i e w but from a s t a t e  e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t o r d e s p a i r t o i t s r e s o l u t i o n by through f a i t h .  worship  universal  f a i t h w i t h mythic counterparts i na l l  i i i  CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER ONE: MAITREYA a n d AMITABHA I II III  Introduction M y t h i c V i s i o n a) M a i t r e y a b) A m i t a b h a T e x t s a) M a i t r e y a b) A m i t a b h a  CHAPTER TWO: I II III  7  ESCHATOLOGY AND DEVOTIONALISM  39  Introduction O r i g i n s a) F u t u r e B u d d h a b) P a r a d i s e C e n t r a l C o n c e p t s a) L a t t e r D a y s b) D e v o t i o n  CHAPTER THREE: MAITREYA AND AMITA I N CHINA I II III  73  Introduction Tao-an and H u i - y u a n Lung-men  CHAPTER FOUR: LATTER DAYS: MO-FA ( j{- /&) I II III  Introduction Mythic Foundations A g e B e t w e e n Two B u d d h a s  CHAPTER F I V E : SALVATION: CHIU-CHI ( & I II III  97  Introduction E s c h a t o l o g y and P u r e Land C o n f l i c t i n g Paradises  ~J^)  123  Doctrine  CONCLUSION  144  SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY  151  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  In w r i t i n g t h i s sides.  I w i s h t o e x t e n d my g r a t i t u d e  introduced who  t h e s i s I have r e c e i v e d  encouragement from a l l  t o D r . S. I i d a who  first  me t o t h e f o r m a l s t u d y o f B u d d h i s m a n d t o D r . K.  g u i d e d me i n my h i s t o r i c a l  encouraged t h e l e a r n i n g  approach.  J . R i c h a r d s o n who  p r o c e s s t o t a k e p l a c e a n d who p a t i e n t l y  w h a t w a s , a n d s o m e t i m e s , was n o t w r i t t e n , And f i n a l l y ,  To P r o f .  Clifford  loving appreciation  s u p p o r t a n d my i n s p i r a t i o n .  I am e x t r e m e l y  t o my f a m i l y  read  thankful.  a n d f r i e n d s who w e r e my  V  C e r t a i n l y , t h e u n i t y o f t h e human s p e c i e s i s a c c e p t e d de f a c t o i n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s . . . . But the h i s t o r i a n o f r e l i g i o u s has t h e p r i v i l e g e of grasping t h i s u n i t y at the highest l e v e l s — or the deepest — and s u c h a n e x p e r i e n c e i s s u s c e p t i b l e o f e n r i c h i n g and c h a n g i n g h i m .  Mircea Eliade The Q u e s t : H i s t o r y and M e a n i n g i n R e l i g i o n , p.69.  vi  ABBREVIATIONS  AA  Acta  BEFEO  B u l l e t i n de l ' E c o l e F r a n c a i s e d'Extreme  BOAS  B u l l e t i n of the School  D.N.  DTgha-nikaya  EB  Eastern  E n c y c . B.  Encyclopedia  o f Buddhism  ERE  Encyclopedia  o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s  HJAS  Harvard  HKSC  Hsu Kao-seng  HOR  History of Religions  IBK  Indogaku Bukkyogaku  IIJ  Indo-Iranian  JA  Journal Asiatique  JAOS  J o u r n a l of the American O r i e n t a l Society  JAS  Journal of Asian  JRAS  Journal of the Royal A s i a t i c  KSC  Kao-seng  MCB  Melanges'. C h i n o i s e t B o u d d h i q u e s  M.N.  Asiatica  o f O r i e n t a l and A f r i c a n S t u d i e s  Buddhist  Journal of Asian  Studies  chuan  Kenkyu  Journal  Studies Society  chuan  Majjhima-nikaya  MN  Monumenta  Nipponica  SBB  Sacred  Books o f t h e B u d d h i s t s  SBE  Sacred  Books o f t h e E a s t  SSZ  Shinshu  T.  Taisho  TP  T'oungPao.  Shogyo Shinshu  Zenshu Daizoky5  Orient  -1-  INTRODUCTION  Under every methodology l i e s the w r i t e r ' s i n t e r e s t  i ninterpreting  led him t o approach the texts? nature  of l i f e  i nits political,  r e l i g i o u s aspects This  t h e question of hermeneutics.  What i s  t h e documents and t h e q u e s t i o n s  What k i n d o f p r e - u n d e r s t a n d i n g  that  about t h e  s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , a e s t h e t i c and  c a n h e , a s a n i n d i v i d u a l b r i n g t o b e a r o n t h e subject?"*"  t h e s i s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e s c h a t o l o g y  C h i n e s e B u d d h i s m was i n i t i a t e d b y a n i n t e r e s t component i n r e l i g i o n —  that a l l r e l i g i o u s  and d e v o t i o n a l i s m i n  i n eschatology  traditions  as a b a s i c  i n c l u d e some  reference t o a " f u t u r e gold age", a " r e t u r n " , o r a "paradise" a t " t h e 2 end  of time". This  i n t e r e s t was f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e d b y t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t  the e i g h t e e n t h traditional  century,  a l l major world  r e l i g i o u s have departed  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e eschaton.  In Christianity,  p o s t - w a r W e s t e r n s c h o l a r s have documented t h e p r o g r e s s i v e of C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f ; those  century messianism, C h r i s t i a n  have found i t i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t  looked  either  their  f o r example,  Except f o r  intellectuals  to look to the future f o r the f u l -  f i l m e n t o f prophecy; but as i n " r e a l i z e d eschatology",  from  demythologization  including theanticipation of parousia.  active i nnineteenth  since  t o t h e past  eschatology"  or i n "existential  or to thepresent.  Now i n w h a t  3  may b e c a l l e d  t h e " p o s t - e s c h a t o l o g i c a l age",  the Christian world i s  p o i s e d b e t w e e n two camps: c o n s i s t i n g o f l i b e r a l t h e r e i s no f u t u r e p o i n t f o r f u l f i l m e n t believers  t h e o l o g i a n s f o r whom  on one s i d e and f u n d a m e n t a l i s t  f o r whom t h e f i n a l r e s u r r e c t i o n i s i m m i n e n t o n t h e o t h e r .  Twentieth  century  Buddhism i s i n a comparable p o s i t i o n .  Adherents  who f o l l o w h i g h e r m e d i t a t i o n a l o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l p a t h s , Maitreya but  a s a B u d d h a who w i l l  preach  i n the world  rarely  view  as Sakyamuni d i d ,  as i n c a r n a t e i n a l i v i n g m a s t e r , as a i n n e r s p i r i t u a l  principle  o r a s a b o d h i s a t t v a among many o t h e r s . Y e t i n J a p a n a n d S o u t h  East  4 Asia millions age.  s t i l l wait  I n China,  stituted century  Buddhist  an important —  f o r t h e f u t u r e Buddha M a i t r e y a inspired  thread  i d e o l o g i e s f o r cosmic renewal  revolutions which f i n a l l y  the f i f t i e s  enabled  and s i x t i e s , M a i t r e y a ' s  the ancient culture to stagnation.  shock o f eighteenth  latest  century  Predictably,  U t o p i a and A m i t a ' s P u r e Land were  e q u a t e d w i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e Communist s t a t e . ~* first  con-  i n the revolutions of the nineteenth  throw o f f t h e burden o f s e v e r a l hundred years in  and h i s g o l d e n  European c o l o n i a l  i n v a s i o n s o f s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y  Thus, between t h e  influences to the  i n the twentieth,  Buddhist  ? A s i a has s t i r r e d w i t h s p o r a d i c b u r s t s o f m i l l e n n a r i a n a c t i v i t y and religious  revival.  With thoughts  such as t h e s e ,  e a r l i e r , orthodox expressions was i m m e d i a t e l y ideas  I first  a p p r o a c h e d my s e a r c h f o r  of eschatology  s t r u c k by t h e w i d e s p r e a d  i n Chinese h i s t o r y .  I  influence of e s c h a t o l o g i c a l  i n t h e p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e Han, c o n t i n u i n g  t h r o u g h o u t t h e P e r i o d o f D i s u n i o n a n d i n t o t h e T'ang. that this  The d i s c o v e r y  growth and e v e n t u a l d e c l i n e o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l b e l i e f  w i t h t h e f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d o f P u r e Land B u d d h i s m ^ —  t h e most  e x p r e s s i o n o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m i n C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e Buddhism — many q u e s t i o n s . worship  What was t h e n a t u r e  of Maitreya  and t h e w o r s h i p  coincided powerful raised  o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e of Amita;  between t h e c e n t e r o f  e s c h a t o l o g i c a l hope and t h a t o f d e v o t i o n a l f e r v o r ?  How d i d l a t t e r d a y  -3-  and  devotional beliefs  affect  D i d a phenomenon s i m i l a r C h r i s t i a n i t y occur  the Buddhist  i n Buddhism?  were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a t t e r this  t h e s i s , was  in history — and  the r i s e  What w e r e t h e d i f f e r i n g p o s i t i o n s and belief?  day  and  What o t h e r s y m b o l s and  P u r e Land movements?  t h e r e - i n s o f a r as we  can  i n Amita  formulated  s e a r c h u n c o v e r e d no  that scholars working  or Buddhist m a t e r i a l s .  and  and  is  worship  the definition  treatment  Although  of e i t h e r  term  traditions,  I s l a m , h a v e g i v e n much g r e a t e r  the eschaton  than those working  with  Hindu  Even the Japanese w i t h t h e i r massive corpus  scholarship, including  at the o r i g i n s  of  "devotionalism".^  definitive  the monumental c o n t r i b u t i o n s of  Land s c h o l a r s , have o n l y r e c e n t l y begun t o use  Chinese  relationships  a working  w i t h i n Western r e l i g i o u s  Christianity,  a t t e n t i o n t o d e v o t i o n a l i s m and  For China,  essential  from the viewpoint  f o r the terms " e s c h a t o l o g y "  Z o r o a s t r i a n i s m , Judaism,  Buddhist  And  worship?  to explore these questions  a bibliographical noted  themes  speak of c a u s a l  H i s t o r y of R e l i g i o n s c e r t a i n steps were taken. F i r s t ,  i t was  in  a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d e c l i n e i n M a i t r e y a  In order  was  and s a l v a t i o n ?  to that of " e s c h a t o l o g i c a l disappointment"  e f f e c t s of l a y v e r s u s monastic  for  view of h i s t o r y  Pure  c r i t i c a l methods i n l o o k i n g  of Mahayana f o r f e a r t h a t i t w o u l d d i s t u r b a l i v i n g  a s i d e from M i c h e l Strickmann's  s o v e r e i g n t y , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  i n t h e a r e a o f m e s s i a n i s m and  of  faith.  r e c e n t w o r k on e s c h a t o l o g y  in  r e s e a r c h now  out  being  carried  F o l k Buddhism i n l a t e m e d i e v a l  and  modern  9 Chinese  h i s t o r y by  The  s c h o l a r s such  s e c o n d s t e p was  as D.  O v e r m y e r and  t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  w h i c h shaped Buddhism from i t s b e g i n n i n g s Chinese  forms.  Eschatology  and  M.  Topley.  of the h i s t o r i c a l  forces  i n India to i t s C e n t r a l Asian  d e v o t i o n a l i s m were seen as  two  important  and  -4-  movements e v o l v i n g w i t h i n the b r o a d e r changes t h a t accompanied emergence of Mahayana and V a j r a y a n a .  the  F u r t h e r m o r e , i n t r y i n g to  understand the i n t e r a c t i o n between Buddhism and  Chinese c u l t u r e I  have been i n f l u e n c e d by the " c u l t u r a l amalgam" model where Chinese Buddhism i s u n d e r s t o o d not s i m p l y as " I n d i a n Buddhism i n China but r a t h e r as a c u l t u r a l amalgam, a s y n t h e s i s of I n d i a n thought S i n i c concepts and  i d e a l s " . "^  and  Thus Chinese e s c h a t o l o g i c a l and  d e v o t i o n a l i d e a s a r e seen as the f r u i t of a s y n t h e s i s w h i c h took p l a c e where t h e r e was  a c o m b i n a t i o n of n a t u r a l a f f i n i t y and  between c e r t a i n I n d i a n and Chinese The  t h i r d s t e p was  concepts.  to l o o k c l o s e l y at e s c h a t o l o g y  as t h e y were e x p r e s s e d between the f a l l of the Han To t h i s end 1)  accommodation  and  devotionalism  and t h e e a r l y T'ang.  f o u r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of s o u r c e s were used:  C a n o n i c a l t e x t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h M a i t r e y a and A m i t a as w e l l as commentaries by w e l l known monks;  2)  b i o g r a p h i c a l works on prominent monks or  3)  secondary h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s as w e l l as some of the c h r o n i c l e s i n t r a n s l a t i o n such as the Wei  4)  sovereigns;  Shu;  dynastic  and  a r c h e o l o g i c a l data. I n u t i l i z i n g t h e s e m a t e r i a l s , I have attempted t o a p p l y an " a n a l y t i c "  r a t h e r than a " s y n t h e t i c " approach.  B r i e f l y , an " a n a l y t i c approach" i s  one w h i c h uses the i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d about a phenomenon as ground f o r making i n f e r e n c e s about i t s e x t e r n a l and  i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s whereas  a " s y n t h e t i c approach" s i m p l y d e v e l o p s c a u s a l t h e o r i e s based on p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l factors.''"''" An important  inference i s that e s c h a t o l o g i c a l  and d e v o t i o n a l n o t i o n s have an i n n e r l o g i c of t h e i r own  and  are not n e c e s s a r i l y  -5-  dependent upon s o c i a l The the  of  new  the  of b r i l l i a n t  preferred  that  widely  the  the  language of  devotion  Second, that B u d d h a was  t o A m i t a b h a Buddha.  devotionalism  lies  i n the  q u e s t f o r s a l v a t i o n i n an nearly  of  impossible  And  to the  faith.  and  to a t t a i n .  influence  t h e s i s , however,  additional  points.  Southern Dynasties  spiritually,  i n terms  eschatological expectation  finally,  that  when s a l v a t i o n was  the  flowering  S a n g h a and considered  of  centered  s u b s e q u e n t l y overshadowed  r e l i g i o u s response of age  This  to  established  increasing  t h e N o r t h e r n and  interpreted, both h i s t o r i c a l l y  i n the w o r s h i p of M a i t r e y a  a t t r i b u t e d simply  e s t a b l i s h i n g three  c r i s i s - r i d d e n age  Buddhist eschatology.  be  C h i n e s e P u r e L a n d p a t r i a r c h s who  a t t e m p t s t o e x p a n d t h i s v i e w by  was  can  d o c t r i n a l bases f o r t h e i r b e l i e f or  l a i t y who  First,  2  r i s e of a r e l i g i o n of d e v o t i o n  succession  solid  conditions."'"  of  laity  by Chinese to  urgent  the but  -6-  Footnotes to  Introduction  1.  R u d o l f B u l t m a n n , H i s t o r y and E s c h a t o l o g y ( E d i n b u r g h : U n i v e r s i t y o f E d i n b u r g h P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , C h a p t e r 8.  2.  G. v a n d e r Leeuw, R e l i g i o n i n E s s e n c e and M a n i f e s t a t i o n , 2 v o l s . (New Y o r k : H a r p e r T o r c h b o o k s , 1 9 6 3 ) , 1: 1 0 6 - 1 2 7 ; 2: 3 8 4 , 5 8 3 587. E. C o n z e , B u d d h i s t T h o u g h t i n I n d i a ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n & U n w i n , 1 9 6 2 ) , p.17.  3.  H e l m u t h P l e s s e r e x p r e s s e s a s i m i l a r i d e a : " U t o p i a h a s become r e a l i t y b u t t h e t o p o i a p p r o p r i a t e t o man h a v e b e e n l o s t . "On t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p o f T i m e t o D e a t h , " i n Man and T i m e , P a p e r s f r o m E r a n o s Y e a r b o o k s v o l . 3, e d . J . C a m p b e l l ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p.246.  4.  See b i b l i o g r a p h y b e l o w f o r some o f t h e n u m e r o u s r e c e n t s t u d i e s m i l l e n n a r i a n i s m i n S. E. A s i a and J a p a n .  5.  Holmes W e l c h , Quarterley  6.  Although other devotional figures, notably Avalokitesvara, also r o s e i n i m p o r t a n c e a t t h i s t i m e , I h a v e l i m i t e d my d i s c u s s i o n o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m t o Amitabha not o n l y because t h i s Buddha i s t h e c e n t r e r of Pure Land d e v o t i o n a l i s m but because of the c o n t r o v e r s i e s w h i c h d e v e l o p e d b e t w e e n t h e a d h e r e n t s A m i t a b h a and M a i t r e y a i n C h i n e s e Buddhism.  7.  See C h a p t e r I I b e l o w .  8.  N a k a m u r a H a j i m e , "A C r i t i c a l S u r v e y o f M a h a y a n a a n d E s o t e r i c B u d d h i s m c h i e f l y based upon Japanese S o u r c e s . . . c o n t i n u e d , " AA7(1964):57 n . l .  9.  D. O v e r m y e r , F o l k B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n : D i s s e n t i n g S e c t s i n L a t e T r a d i t i o n a l China (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976); M. T o p l e y , "The G r e a t Way o f F o r m e r H e a v e n : A G r o u p o f C h i n e s e S e c r e t R e l i g i o u s S e c t s , " BOAS 26 ( 1 9 6 3 ) : 3 6 2 - 3 9 2 .  10.  A. L i n k q u o t e d i n R. R o b i n s o n , E a r l y M a d h y a m i k a i n I n d i a and ( M a d i s o n : C o l l e g e P r i n t i n g and T y p i n g , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 7 .  11.  H. K a m i n s k y , "The P r o b l e m o f E x p l a n a t i o n , " i n M i l l e n i a l Dreams i n A c t i o n , e d . S. T h r u p p (The Hague: M o u t o n & Co., 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 2 1 5 - 2 1 7 .  12.  T h i s i d e a i s more o b v i o u s i n t h e c a s e o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m b u t i n eschatology, i s contrary to r e l a t i v e deprivation theories. Eliade's " P a r a d i s e and U t o p i a : M y t h i c a l G e o g r a p h y and E s c h a t o l o g y , " i n The Q u e s t , H i s t o r y and M e a n i n g i n R e l i g i o n ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p.111.  "The  R e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Buddhism,"  The  on  China  China  -7-  Chapter I  MAITREYA AND AMITABHA  I  Introduction For  t h e d i v e r s e c u l t u r e s and r a c e s o f A s i a , t h e l i f e  Buddha h a s f u n c t i o n e d a s t h e s a c r e d  archetype  story of the  o f o n e who p e r c e i v e d t h e  b a s i c p r o b l e m o f human e x i s t e n c e , s o l v e d t h a t p r o b l e m , a n d made i t s s o l u t i o n a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e r e s t o f humanity. the  Dharma. The B u d d h a ' s l i f e  success". and  This solution i s called  i s n o t an o r d i n a r y t a l e o f " l o c a l hero  Comprised o f o r d i n a r y p h y s i c a l surroundings,  human l o n g i n g s , i t s t a n d s  against  suffering  c a r e e r and death Buddhist. freedom.  renunciation, search,  a r e stages  They r e c o u n t  social  events  as a supreme metaphor f o r t h e s t r u g g l e  and t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f T r u t h .  childhood, marriage,  achieves  indelibly  The B u d d h a ' s  enlightenment,  teaching  i m p r i n t e d on t h e mind o f every  the steps of a holy l i f e  Thus t h e B u d d h a ' s l i f e  birth,  story related  a n d p o i n t t h e way t o  "sacred  history"."'"  The e l a b o r a t e v i s i o n s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e m y t h s o f M a i t r e y a a n d Amitabha a r e s t r u c t u r a l l y based on t h e biography such,  preserve  and t r a n s m i t t h a t " s a c r e d  s y m b o l s , themes a n d d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l s basic distinctions by and  are evident.  o f t h e Buddha; and a s  history". shared  Maitreya  Despite  numerous  b y t h e two m y t h s , c e r t a i n  i s a future savior,  prophesied  S a k y a m u n i , whose c o m i n g i s p r e c e d e d b y t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a m o r a l l y physically  corrupt world  i n t o an e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e .  Amitabha  -8-  i s an e t e r n a l s a v i o r , c r e a t o r o f a t r a n s c e n d e n t ,  superlative paradise,  w h o s e vows e n s u r e t h e s a l v a t i o n o f e v e r y b e i n g now  and  throughout a l l  time. These myths were not  static  conceptions.  Their evolution  f a s h i o n e d b y a number o f f o r c e s b o t h w i t h i n and w i t h o u t myths developed  i n a n a r e a w h e r e I n d i a n b h a k t i and  i n f l u e n c e s were v e r y s t r o n g .  The  w i t h other p a r a d i s e c u l t s devoted and  t h e n u m e r o u s o t h e r B u d d h a s and  M a i t r e y a and such as  d i f f e r e n t l y by  l a y and  monastic  F u t u r e S a v i o r and  i n the ranks  h i s t o r y , the l a i t y  laity  Eight-Fold Path  t o s'akyamuni, A k s o b h y a , A v a l o k i t e s v a r a b o d h i s a t t v a s of t h e Mahayana pantheon.  has  these mythic  later,  the T a n t r i c  v i s i o n s were viewed  From t h e b e g i n n i n g s  played a v i t a l  r o l e i n the l i f e  their of  Buddhist  of the  o f B u d d h i s m a f t e r A s o k a and  H i n a y a n a s c h o o l s , t h e v o i c e and  staunchest  Sangha.  the  progressive  the needs of  Thus w h i l e t h e v e r i t y o f t h e F o u r N o b l e T r u t h s  a few  and  s t u p a s , b u d d h a s , and i t was  t h e d e s i r e t o be  newly of  reborn i n heaven.  the c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n between " l a y mind"  2 "monk m i n d "  w h i c h l e d t o the development of myths c e n t e r e d  on  the core  e x c e p t i o n a l laymen, f o r the m a j o r i t y of the  s p i r i t u a l a s p i r a t i o n s were d i r e c t e d towards the worship  Eventually, and  the  c o n s t i t u t e d a s a t i s f y i n g r e l i g i o u s s o l u t i o n f o r the  o f t h e S a n g h a and  relics,  competed  believers.  of the l a i t y .  o f f o f new  increased.  converted,  Persian cosmological  the E t e r n a l S a v i o r found  Concomitant w i t h the expansion splintering  Both  Amitabha were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o complex m e d i t a t i o n a l systems  P e r h a p s most i m p o r t a n t ,  The  Buddhism.  Amitabha c u l t s  t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n s c h o o l s i n K a s h m i r and  schools.  support  M a i t r e y a and  was  -9-  f i g u r e s such as M a i t r e y a and Amitabha, and s u t r a s devoted  to them.  to the w r i t i n g of  M a i t r e y a i s d e s c r i b e d i n the P a l i canon as  w e l l as i n the S a n s k r i t l i t e r a t u r e .  Amitabha appears o n l y i n the  S a n s k r i t l i t e r a t u r e composed from about the second c e n t u r y onwards.  new  B.C.  C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the nature of r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e ,  s u t r a s about Amitabha and M a i t r e y a stood as m e t a p h o r i c a l  the  statements  f o r s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y ; and as such, were open to i n c r e a s i n g numbers of  interpretations. From the s e c o n d - t h i r d c e n t u r i e s A.D.,  distinct  interpretive  s h i f t s o c c u r r e d among the M a i t r e y a and Amitabha c u l t s w i t h i n the Mahayana f o l d .  M a i t r e y a , c o n s i d e r e d by the Theravadins  as the s o l e  b o d h i s a t t v a o t h e r than Sakyamuni, became more and more i d e n t i f i e d as o n l y one of the galaxy of Mahayana buddhas and  bodhisattvas.  L a t e r , under the p r e s s u r e of competing p a r a d i s e c u l t s , the  new  M a i t r e y a s u t r a s emphasized, not the advent of a f u t u r e golden  age  but the advantages of r e b i r t h i n T u s i t a Heaven where the  Future  Buddha awaits h i s l a s t r e b i r t h .  interpretations  By comparison, Amitabha  were more complex, depending even more upon whether the b e l i e v e r was layman or a monk.  For the layman, he was  and a c e n t e r of d e v o t i o n .  a  primarily a savior figure  For the monk, who  was  increasingly  called  upon to f i n d or to c r e a t e t e x t u a l v a l i d i t y f o r l a y enthusiasm, Amitabha and h i s p a r a d i s e were i n t e r p r e t e d on the b a s i s of the Yogacara Madhyamika p h i l o s o p h i c a l  systems.  and  -10-  Ila  The M y t h i c V i s i o n :  Maitreya  'The H e r o t h a t s h a l l f o l l o w y o u , The B u d d h a - o f w h a t s o r t w i l l h e b e ? I want t o h e a r o f h i m i n f u l l . L e t t h e V i s i o n e d One d e s c r i b e h i m . ' When h e h a d h e a r d t h e E l d e r ' s s p e e c h The L o r d s p o k e t h u s : 'I w i l l t e l l you, S a r i p u t t a , L i s t e n t o my s p e e c h . 'In t h i s a u s p i c i o u s aeon Three l e a d e r s have t h e r e been; K a k u s a n d h a , Konagamana And t h e l e a d e r K a s s a p a t o o . I am now t h e p e r f e c t B u d d h a ; And t h e r e w i l l b e M e t t e y a t o o B e f o r e t h i s same a u s p i c i o u s a e o n Runs t o t h e e n d o f i t s y e a r s . The p e r f e c t B u d d h a , M e t t e y a By name, s u p r e m e o f men.'3 4 When M a i t r e y a  , t h e F u t u r e Buddha a r r i v e s ,  p l a c e o f p e r f e c t t r a n q u i l l i t y and happiness."' as a m i r r o r excellent  i nvirtue, w i l l  gold dust  live  t o b e 84,000 y e a r s  The s i t e o f  the senses.  A mighty  p a l a c e and a r i g h t e o u s w h e e l - t u r n i n g  forth, Maitreya attains  waters  sweet-singing b i r d s , melodious  o f t h e s e v e n p r e c i o u s o b j e c t s , r e i g n s supreme. setting  old.  N a t u r a l wonders abound t h e r e :  qualities,  coloured lotuses delight  dwells i n h i s watery  Human b e i n g s ,  i s a c i t y d a z z l i n g w i t h h e a p s o f gems  a n d webs o f p e a r l s .  with the eight miraculous and m y r i a d  The e a r t h w i l l b e a s f l a t  and c l o t h e d i n l u s h , s p a r k l i n g fauna.  Maitreya's r e b i r t h , Ketumati, and  t h i s w o r l d w i l l be a  enlightenment  bells,  dragon-king king,  possessor  On t h e v e r y d a y o f h i s under t h e dragon-flower  tree.  The  N o b l e One  marks of the  w i t h the  Superman i s m a n i f e s t ;  f o r t h to a l l regions. the  three great  l e d by  an  t h i r t y - t w o m a j o r m a r k s and a transcendent  When M a i t r e y a  Buddha l i g h t  . minor streams  commences t o p r e a c h t h e Dharma t o  assemblages, troops  illustrious  eighty  o f d e v o t e e s , 84,000 s t r o n g ,  personage, are  instantaneously  each  converted.  In  keeping  w i t h p r o p h e c y , M a i t r e y a v i s i t s V u l t u r e ' s P e a k t o m e e t Mahakas'yapa  who  t o g u a r d t h e Dharma u n t i l  He  is  s u b d u e s M a r a , t h e E v i l One  years.  proclaims  A f t e r h i s d e a t h h i s Dharma w i l l  In t h i s popular by  and  the enlightenment of the Future  Chinese Maitreya  of Future i n t o one  v e r s i o n of  rich  epiphany.  a e o n - e n d e r , by  Although  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the epithet " A j i t a " ,  and  persist  f o r a n o t h e r 60,000  the S i x Dynasties, and  r o l e s and  the b a s i c  c a k r a v a r t i n are smoothly  Maitreya's  t h i s t i m e h i s name h a d  p e r p l e x i n g number o f o t h e r  t h e Dharma anew f o r 6 0 , 0 0 0 years.  t h e v i s i o n o f f u t u r e s a l v a t i o n known  devotees during  Buddha, e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e  Buddha.  primary  r o l e was  elements interwoven  that  a l s o become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h themes.^  Thus M a i t r e y a  has  a been  f u t u r e c a k r a v a r t i n , a d i s c i p l e of the Buddha, various h i s t o r i c a l  of  the  personages.  g The two  word c a k r a v a r t i n  i n pre-Buddhist  d i s t i n c t m e a n i n g s : 1) a p o w e r f u l  conquored t e r r i t o r i e s by w h e e l met  no  o b s t a c l e s as  performing  Brahmanical India already  k i n g o r c h i e f ; and the horse s a c r i f i c e  i t f l e w through the a i r .  a popular as  conception  and  whose  The  the seven Vayu-purana  had  cakra-  L a t e r , i n t h e age  t h e P u r a p a s " ^ , e v e n m o r e s p e c t a c u l a r a t t r i b u t e s s u c h as t r e a s u r e s become p a r t o f c a k r a v a r t i n symbolism."'"^  2) a k i n g who  had  of  precious gives  o f t h e c a k r a v a r t i n a s t h o s e who a r e " b o r n i n e a c h age 12 the essence of Vishnu"; who h a v e come i n t h e p a s t and w i l l c o n t i n u e  -12-  t o do  so  i n the  future.  T h e y e n j o y s u p e r h u m a n a t t r i b u t e s and  achieve  superhuman deeds. I n B u d d h i s m , t h e t e m p o r a l and are u s u a l l y separate.  spiritual  Anacakka or the  " w h e e l o f p o w e r " was  c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o t h e dhammacakka o r The  Buddha c l a i m s  t h a t he  i s not  f u n c t i o n s of the  the  "wheel of  cakravartin  held  in  righteousness".  a k i n g of a p o l i t i c a l  domain  but  13 rather  "...an i n c o m p a r a b l e k i n g o f dharma".  Kings  from the  time  Asoka have m o d e l l e d themselves a f t e r the u n i v e r s a l monarch or have to convince t h e i r subjects  the  two  identities  Chinese soveriegns s t a t u s , and  that they represent  o f w o r l d - c o n q u o r e r and who  on o c c a s i o n ,  proclaimed  times 14  w o r l d - r e n o u n c e r merged.  The  of c l a i m i n g  t h e m s e l v e s t o be  T h e r e i s a some i n t e r m i n g l i n g b e t w e e n t h e  k i n g and  Maitreya  Maitreya  was  as d i s c i p l e .  ideal.  cakravartin  Maitreya."'""'  image of M a i t r e y a 16  Matsumoto Bunzaburo  proposes  o r i g i n a l l y o n l y a d i s c i p l e o f t h e B u d d h a and  i n t o an o b j e c t o f b e l i e f .  later  Lamotte"'"^ f o l l o w s t h i s same l i n e o f  t h r o u g h h i s c l a s s i f i c i a t i o n o f t e x t s d e a l i n g w i t h A j i t a and  The  Ajita,  o f t h e a s c e t i c B a v a r i who  achieved  Ajita  i s again  a l o n g w i t h M a i t r e y a , was  the  a co-disciple with Maitreya,  t u n i c to Maitreya  that developed reasoning  a  i s often disciple 19  a r h a t s h i p u n d e r Gautama B u d d h a . this  t i m e t o S a k y a m u n i , when  M a h a p r a j a p a t T d o n a t e s a g o l d e n t u n i c to' t h e S a n g h a . presents  as  Maitreya. 18  eponym " a j i t a " m e a n i n g " i n v i n c i b l e " o r " u n b e a t a b l e "  associated with Maitreya.  tried  At  were p a r t i c u l a r l y fond  s u c h an  of  i n honor of h i s Future  s'akyamuni t h e n  B u d d h a h o o d and 20 m e n t i o n s t h a t A j i t a w o u l d be t h e c a k r a v a r t i n a t t h a t t i m e . Finally, _ _ n a s u t r a s . 21 A j i t a i s u s e d a s t h e p e r s o n a l name (naman) f o r M a i t r e y a i n M a h _a y a I n b o t h t h e M a h a y a n a and H i n a y a n a t r a d i t i o n s i t i s n o t u n u s u a l t o  -13-  ascribe the t i t l e  o f t h e F u t u r e Buddha t o a h i s t o r i c a l  t h e b e s t known e x a m p l e o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l sources  Possibly  i s t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y monk A s a i i g a ,  i n c l u d i n g t h e work of Chinese  p e r e g r i n a t o r s such as Buddhabhadra and F a - h s i e n writing  figure.  t h e Y o g a c a r a b h u m i a n d o t h e r famous  t r a n s l a t o r s and  c r e d i t Asanga w i t h  Vijnanavada  works  after  v i s i t i n g M a i t r e y a i n T u s i t a ( " b l i s s f u l " o r " s a t i s f i e d " ) Heaven. recently,  scholars held the view that t h i s  order to give greater c r e d i b i l i t y coming o u t d u r i n g t h e time accepted  famous f i f t h  t o t h e new M a h a y a n a w o r k s t h a t w e r e  of Asanga.  confused  However  century  w i t h t h e F u t u r e Buddha.  systematizer of Buddhist  as t h e M a i t r e y a Buddha.  composition title  t r a d i t i o n was i n v e n t e d i n  i t i s now g e n e r a l l y  t h a t M a i t r e y a was a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a g e , A s a n g a ' s i n s t r u c t o r ,  who was l a t e r  acclaimed  Until  During  22  23 I n t h e Mahavamsa , the  d o c t r i n e , Buddhaghosa i s  t h e p e r i o d o f t h e Mahavamsa's  i n S r i L a n k a , i t was a p p a r e n t l y n o t uncommon t o b e s t o w t h e  o f t h e M a i t r e y a B u d d h a u p o n famous  masters.  A s i m p l i s t i c model o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e M a i t r e y a v i s i o n would begin w i t h the seminal w h i c h was t h e n and  religious  i d e a l o f t h e Buddha o f t h e F u t u r e  i n t e r w o v e n w i t h t h e c o l o u r s o f numerous o t h e r interpretations.  became c o n f u s e d  _ 2 4 i n t h e Mahayana  the M a i t r e y a myth e v o l v e d  the Future  The s u c c e s s  of h i s c u l t ,  to the present  distinct  i n Hinayana  and t h a t w i t h t h e r i s e o f Mahayana,  independently  multitude of i d e n t i t i e s notwithstanding equivocally  philosophical  B a s i n g h i s v i e w on t h e A j i t a - M a i t r e y a  d e v e l o p m e n t s P e r i w r i t e s t h a t w h a t was o r i g i n a l l y  persists  i n I n d i a n Buddhism  Savior figure  26  i n the North 25  and t h e South.  A  , t h e M a i t r e y a Buddha r e m a i n s u n -  , t h e inaugurator o f a golden age.  "as s p e c t a c u l a r as i t has been unexpected" i n the monastaries  27  a n d l a y g r o u p s o f S.E. A s i a a n d J a p a n .  -14-  Ilb  The M y t h i c V i s i o n :  Amitabha  OM. A d o r a t i o n " t o t h e T h r e e T r e a s u r e s ! OM. A d o r a t i o n t o a l l t h e g l o r i o u s Buddhas and B o d h i s a t t v a s , A r y a s , S r a v a k a s , P r a t y e k a b u d d h a s , p a s t , p r e s e n t , and t o come, who d w e l l i n t h e u n l i m i t e d a n d e n d l e s s Lokadhatus of the t e n q u a r t e r s ! A d o r a t i o n to Amitabha! A d o r a t i o n t o h i m w h o s e s o u l i s endowed w i t h i n c o m p r e hensible virtues! A d o r a t i o n to Amitabha, t o the Gina, t o thee, 0 I go t o S u k h a v a t i t h r o u g h t h y c o m p a s s i o n a l s o ; To S u k h a v a t i , w i t h i t s g r o v e s , r e s p l e n d e n t w i t h g o l d , The d e l i g h t f u l , a d o r n e d w i t h t h e s o n s o f S u g a t a , — I go t o i t , w h i c h i s f u l l o f many j e w e l s a n d m e a s u r e s ; and t h e r e f u g e o f t h e e , t h e f a m o u s a n d w i s e . 2 8 The P a r a d i s e o f A m i t a b h a  29  _ -30 , Sukhavati , i s u n e x c e l l e d among a l l 31  the paradises  i n blessedness  and s p l e n d o r .  Glittering  palaces  p a l a c e s and b e j e w e l l e d g a r d e n s upon g a r d e n s a r e f i l l e d w i t h  upon  harmony-  sweet s o u n d s , e x o t i c f r a g r a n c e s , g o l d e n - s i l v e r t r e e s and m a g i c a l Every  feature of t h i s  land i s immeasurable, innumerable  and  waters.  infinite.  The l o t u s f l o w e r s a r e n o t o n l y made o f gems b u t may be a s much a s t e n 32 33 yojanas i n c i r c u m f e r e n c e , e a c h o n e e m i t t i n g 3600 t h o u s a n d k o t i s of light  r a y s a n d f r o m e a c h r a y o f l i g h t may  be s e e n 3600 k o t i s o f Buddhas  t e a c h i n g t h e Dharma t o i m m e a s u r a b l e , i n n u m e r a b l e directions.  F o r t h o s e who  abide  their  one c a n b a t h e i n p o o l s w h e r e t h e w a t e r s survey  the m i r r o r - f l a t  time  i n the ten  e x i s t e n c e i s supremely  comfortable:  t u r n warm o r c o o l b y a m e r e  e a r t h w h i c h p o s e s no h i n d e r a n c e s ;  the a i r w i t h the g r e a t e s t ease. pure;  beings  Entry into Sukhavati  wish;  o r f l y through  i s t r a n q u i l and  l o t u s b u d s e m b r a c e t h e t r u e b e l i e v e r a n d r e l e a s e h i m when i t i s t o be b o r n .  No women a r e f o u n d  t h e r e ; women d e s i r i n g r e b i r t h  Amitabha's Pure Land a r e m a g i c a l l y transformed  i n t o men,  into  the bodhisattvas  A v a l o k i t e s v a r a and Mahasthamaprapta, Amitabha's c h i e f a t t e n d a n t s , a c t as h i s ambassadors t o t h e c o u n t l e s s B u d d h a l a n d s , and upon t h e d e a t h  of a  -15devout b e l i e v e r , g u i d e him  to the b l e s s e d land.  This miraculous  paradise  i n w h i c h the e x c e l l e n c e s of a l l the o t h e r Buddha-lands were combined was  the f r u i t  a t one  of the b o d h i s a t t v a l a b o u r s of the B h i k s u Dharmakara,  who  t i m e p r a c t i c e d u n d e r t h e B u d d h a L o k e s v a r a r a j a many a e o n s a g o .  t h a t t i m e D h a r m a k a r a made a s e r i e s o f 48 v o w s , p r e d i c a t i n g h i s own n i r v a n a upon the s a l v a t i o n o f a l l b e i n g s . D h a r m a k a r a , now fulfilling o n l y "one  Amitabha,  Sukhavati assures  innumerable  r e s i d e s i n t h i s P a r a d i s e of  h i s vows so t h a t a l l b e i n g s , thought"  After  t o w a r d s S u k h a v a t i may t h e d e v o t e e t h a t he  e v e n t h o s e who be  this  one  final  kalpas  paradises may  reborn there.  i s but  At  have d i r e c t e d Rebirth i n  last  lifetime,  removed f r o m n i r v a n a .  *  *  *  From t h e b e g i n n i n g , A m i t a b h a r e p r e s e n t e d point of d e v o t i o n f o r l a i t y .  a savior figure;  W o r s h i p o f t h e B u d d h a , S t u p a and  a  focal  Holy  R e l i c s w e r e a l r e a d y a p a r t o f H i n a y a n a d e v o t i o n a l i s m when t h e  new  34 M a h a y a n a B u d d h a s and  b o d h i s a t t v a s emerged.  o r "Immovable") i s c o n s i d e r e d c e l e s t i a l Buddhas". Buddhas t h e c u l t  the e a r l i e s t  A k s o b h y a and  The  of the  ("Imperturbable"  "non-historical  A m i t a b h a a r e t h e two  of Amitabha i s thought  the i n f l u e n c e of Aksobhya.  Aksobhya  new  earliest  Mahayana  t o have been e s t a b l i s h e d under  b o d h i s a t t v a s and  buddhas a r e  thought  t o have been c r e a t e d as p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of Sakyamuni's p e r s o n a l i t y . " ^ T h u s A v a l o k i t e s v a r a " ^ was  a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of h i s compassion, Manjus'ri,  o f h i s w i s d o m , B h a i s a j y a g u r u , o f h i s h e a l i n g and  so o n .  Amitabha,  w i t h t h e o t h e r s a v i o r f i g u r e s p e r f o r m e d f o u r m a j o r f u n c t i o n s : 1) p r o m o t e d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v i r t u e s and t h o s e who  he  p r o t e c t e d the b e l i e v e r from  might t r y to i n t e r f e r e w i t h h i s s p i r i t u a l progress;  b e s t o w e d m a t e r i a l b l e s s i n g s and  along  averted disasters;  3) he  2)  he  s e r v e d as  an  -16-  o b j e c t o f d e v o t i o n ; and ment f a v o u r a b l e f o r  4) he p r o v i d e d a p a r a d i s e o r a s p e c i a l e n v i r o n -  enlightenment.  37  Conze t r a c e s the b e g i n n i n g s of t h e concept  of t h e m y t h i c a l Buddhas  38 to  w i t h i n a c e n t u r y of t h e Buddha's n i r v a n a .  signated specific  p a r a d i s e s and  the Mahasanghika s c h o o l . M a h a s a n g h i k a s was The by  their  One  B.C.  de-  upheld d o c t r i n a l l y w i t h i n the f o l d of the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of  belief.  t o h a v e b e e n a c t i v e i n N.W.  among t h e U t t a r a p a t h a k a s who  accepted  of  the  sympathy t o t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f p o p u l a r  Amitabha c u l t s are thought  second  These Buddhas were  India  the Mahasanghika.  39 doctrines. was  By  t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a t h e new  gaining widespread  second  c e n t u r y A.D.  support.  And  by  the time of Nagarjuna  W o r s h i p o f t h e Buddhas o f t h e Ten  a n u n d i s p u t e d and w e l l - r e g a r d e d a s p e c t o f M a h a y a n a This i s not  i n c e n s e and  a n o t h e r p r o c e s s had  are thought language  While  century after  to have accepted  offered  their flowers,  t h e o t h e r B u d d h a s and B o d h i s a t t v a s ,  t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n two The  i s everyday  popular language 40  which  i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l language. definitive  themselves  Also  from  t h e B u d d h a ' s d e a t h , a l l t h e known s c h o o l s  which  s t a n d a s c l e a r and  was  that the l a y  been t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n t h e Sangha.  i n Buddhist w r i t i n g s .  restatement  the l a i t y  p r a y e r s t o A m i t a b h a and  about the f i r s t  directions  t o say t h a t the p h i l o s o p h i c a l d o c t o r s  i n the c u l t s d i d .  i n the  belief.  p e r c e i v e d A m i t a b h a a s a s a v i o r f i g u r e i n t h e same way devotees  buddhology  first and  i s samvrti  the second,  The  statements  latter and  levels  of  ("concealing")  paramartha  t y p e was  the former,  ("ultimate")  considered to to r e q u i r e  i n terms c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a n d p o i n t of 41 paramarthasatya or u l t i m a t e t r u t h . T h u s w h i l e t h e l a i t y p r a y e d t o be  -17reborn  i n the m a r v e l - f i l l e d  of Sukhavati were t o t a l l y t h e Mahayana s u t r a s . concept of sunyata, samvrtisatya. era,  p a r a d i s e of Amitabha, the d e s c r i p t i o n s  at v a r i a n c e w i t h almost a l l of the r e s t of  S i n c e t h e s e new  t h e P u r e L a n d s u t r a s c o u l d o n l y be v a l i d  Furthermore, during the  Mahayana s c h o o l s were d e v e l o p i n g  b u d d h o l o g y w h i c h w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y be T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t , on one for  t h e new  s u t r a s were e x p o s i t i o n s of  on  as  e a r l y c e n t u r i e s of the  Christian  a means o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e  new  known a s t h e t r i - k a y a d o c t r i n e .  hand, provided  M a h a y a n a t e x t s , and  the  t h e "much n e e d e d  the other, a powerful  justification" doctrinal  A2  tool  43 with which to r e - i n t e r p r e t popular or "orthodox"  Pure Land b e l i e f s  interpretations: thus,  inferior;  11.1a  Texts:  belief.  Those opposed to the  t e n d e d t o g i v e one  t o c o n s i d e r A m i t a b h a and  to r e g a r d Amitabha as b e i n g 44 t h e r e f o r e n o t w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f common man.  45  T i b e t a n and  H i n a y a n a and  to Maitreya  - Mahayana s o u r c e s  will  be  reborn  as  t h a t depending upon the author  the Future and  in Pali,Sanskrit,  Buddha.  texts reveal  future rebirth.  t h e t e x t d e s c r i b e s a S u p e r - B u d d h a who t o an  The  called  contain  a s i m p l e prophecy of M a i t r e y a ' s  transformed  to a Bodhisattva  Sometimes the t e x t s w i l l  more t h a n  a world  Chinese,  the  seen i n d i f f e r e n t ways.  to  and  Buddhist  the time of composition,  i d e a l was  times,  and  o f sambhOga-kaya  throughout the  J a p a n e s e make s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s  M a i t r e y a who  riirmana  Maitreya  There a r e ample r e f e r e n c e s Tripitaka.  o f t h e two f o l l o w i n g  h i s P a r a d i s e as  o r 2)  lay  will  earthly paradise.  At  p r o c l a i m the  messianic no  other Dharma  In the l a t e s t v e r s i o n s ,  t h e b e l i e v e r h o p e s t o be b o r n i n T u s i t a H e a v e n w h e r e M a i t r e y a  awaits  his  -18-  last  rebirth.  1)  Pali The  of  f o l l o w i n g two  s u t t a s t h a t a r e o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as c o n t a i n i n g t h e "germs" o f  the M a i t r e y a myth. and  groups o f t e x t s a r e good examples o f t h e k i n d  The  first  group i s found  c o n s i s t s o f t h e Mahapadaha S u t t a n t a  t h e Agganna S u t t a n t a ^ a n d  i n the  ,the Mahasudassana S u t t a n t a  the Cakkavatti-Sihanada  theme o f t h e M a h a p a d a n a S u t t a n t a i s t h e b e l i e f Buddhas.  It lists  Vipassi,  V e s s a b h u , K a k u s a n d h a , K o n i g a m a n a and  the seventh. of  and  Digha-nikaya  d e s c r i b e s the l i v e s  Suttanta.^  i n a s u c c e s s i o n of  of the s i x p r e v i o u s Kassapa.  kingly rule.  a r i g h t e o u s k i n g and  The  Buddhas:  Sakyamuni i s  T h i s S u t t a n t a a l s o a l l u d e s to the complementary  B u d d h a r u l e and  The  roles  Mahasudassana S u t t a n t a d e s c r i b e s  his splendid city.  The  magical details  of  this  k i n g d o m , w i t h i t s s u c c e s s i o n s o f 8 4 , 0 0 0 gems, e l e p h a n t s , p a l a c e s , e t c . c l o s e l y resemble myth. of  the l a v i s h n e s s of the world i n the developed  Maitreya  I n t h e Agganna S u t t a n t a , t h e B u d d h i s t v e r s i o n of t h e w o r l d ' s  degeneration  and  sequence of events  r e c o v e r y i s p r e s e n t e d by combining  biological  a d e s c r i p t i o n of a  e v o l u t i o n and m o r a l  fascinating  decline.  though none o f t h e s e t e x t s m e n t i o n M a i t r e y a , t h e y a r e o f t e n c i t e d g e r m i n a l t o the M a i t r e y a myth because they c o n t a i n c e r t a i n major  The statement to  Pali  text  elements:  i n c l u d i n g a l l of these elements  the world  the  recovery. as w e l l as a p r o p h e t i c  concerning M a i t r e y a i s the Cakkavatti-Sihanada  this text,  Even  as  t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f B u d d h a s , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a m a r v e l l o u s w o r l d and c y c l e o f d e g e n e r a t i o n and  cycle  falls  Suttanta.  According  from p e r i o d s of golden p r o s p e r i t y to those  of  /  -19-  tarnished decline. of  into a wretched  state  m u t u a l h a t r e d a n d s l a u g h t e r , a c h a n g e t a k e s p l a c e , e n a b l i n g them t o  live to  A f t e r human b e i n g s h a v e f a l l e n  i n peace  again.  Gradually, conditions  b e 8 0 , 0 0 0 y e a r s o l d and  are  so c l o s e l y  born.  evince great v i r t u e s .  Towns a n d  s i t u a t e d t h a t a c o c k c a n f l y f r o m one  t h a t time Sankha, are  improve u n t i l people  live  villages  to the next.  At  a w h e e l - t u r n i n g K i n g and M e t t e y a , t h e F u t u r e Buddha  Sakyamuni p r o p h e s i z e s t h a t  Metteya  " w i l l t e a c h t h e Law o f R i g h t e o u s n e s s i n s p i r i t a n d i n l e t t e r , lovely i n i t s beginning, lovely i n i t s middle, lovely i n i t s e n d , a n d he w i l l l i v e t h e p u r e l i f e o f c e l i b a c y i n a l l i t s c o m p l e t e n e s s , j u s t a s I do now. But he w i l l have t h o u s a n d s o f m o n t h s a s h i s f o l l o w e r s , w h e r e I h a v e o n l y hundreds.""'-'" The  second group  of P a l i suttas o f t e n c i t e d  as t h e o r i g i n s o f  the  52 M a i t r e y a myth i s found i n t h e Khuddaka-nikaya.  The  the  V a t t h u g a t h a , t h e A j i t a m a n a v a p u c c h a and t h e  The  first  the  a s c e t i c B a v a r i and h i s two d i s c i p l e s , A j i t a  the  s e c o n d and  tively  o f t h e s e t h r e e v e r y s h o r t and e a r l y documents i s t h e s t o r y  third  on a t t a i n i n g  tradition,  and T i s s a m e t t e y a .  s u t t a s , Buddha i n s t r u c t s A j i t a the d e s i r e l e s s  state.  A j i t a has been t r a c e d  auspicious cycle  i t would the  In  and M e t t e y a r e s p e c -  However, i n t h e  Theravada  from h i s r o l e as B a v a r i ' s d i s c i p l e  he i s f i n a l l y p r o p h e s i e d a s t h e w o r l d - r u l e r . i s t h e name o f one  of  None o f t h e s u t t a s make a n y  A n g u t t a r a C o m m e n t a r y , t h e T h e r a g a t h a Commentary and 54  this  are  Tissametteyyamanavapuccha.~*  r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f u t u r e o r t o a Buddha-to-come.  Ajita  three suttas  t h e Apadana where  I n t h e Mahayana  o f t h e t h o u s a n d B u d d h a s who  to the  w i l l arise  tradition, during  ( B h a d r a k a l p a ) and a n e p i t h e t f o r M a i t r e y a . T h u s  seem r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t A j i t a  and M e t t e y a as f o u n d i n  t h r e e above s u t t a s from t h e Khuddaka-nikaya  m y t h o n l y i n s o f a r a s t h e names a r e t h e same.  r e l a t e to the M a i t r e y a The  Theravada-Mahayana  -20-  divergence due  i n t h e use  o f t h e name A j i t a  ("invincible"),  i s simply  to subsequent developments which took p l a c e w i t h i n each Later Theravada  compositions  tradition.  a r e more p r e c i s e i n t h e i r  r e f e r e n c e s t o M a i t r e y a as f u t u r e Buddha.  The  Buddhavamsa  of t h e Buddhas") g i v e s t h e l i v e s of t h e Buddhas b e f o r e  ("Lineage  Sakyamuni  and  56 Maitreya.  I n Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga. M a i t r e y a i s a  p a r t of the d o c t r i n e . ~ ^  The  most i m p o r t a n t  and  fundamental  e l a b o r a t e of  these  58 l a t e r compositions Although  i t s date  i s t h e Ariagatavamsa i s uncertain Maitreya's  Maitreya sutras translated 2)  ("History of the Future  i n t o Chinese  prophecy roughly  One").  similar  f r o m f o u r t h c e n t u r y A.D.  to  onward.  Sanskrit During  t h e c e n t u r i e s a r o u n d t h e t u r n o f t h e m i l l e n n i u m when  use  o f P a l i was  new  Buddhist  b e i n g supplemented by  L a l i t a v i s t a r a r e l a t e s how  s u c c e e d e d by M a i t r e y a even i n T u s i t a of the Mahasaiighikas  and  i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g  the  S a n k r i t f o r the composition  works, references to Maitreya increased.  Sarvastivada biography,  The  monumental  Sakyamuni  was  Heaven.Mahavastu^,  perhaps the f i r s t  f u l l biography  of  the  of the  Vinaya Buddha  statement:  " E x a l t e d B u d d h a s do n o t p a s s away u n t i l t h e y h a v e a n o i n t e d an h e i r t o t h e t h r o n e . He w i l l become a B u d d h a i n t h e w o r l d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r me. As I now p r o c l a i m o f M a i t r e y a , he w i l l become t h e B u d d h a n e x t a f t e r me." 6 1  The  the  t r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h e Agamas  ^ 2  and  S a r v a s t i v a d a works such  as  the  63 A^oka Avadana  c o n t i n u t e t o r e i t e r a t e o l d e s c h a t o l o g i c a l themes  w e l l a s t o i n t r o d u c e a few  new  ones.  as  M a i t r e y a i s m e n t i o n e d i n many o f  t h e Mahayana V a i p u l y a s u t r a s a l o n g w i t h h o s t s o f o t h e r buddhas  and  -21-  bodhisattvas.  By t h i s  t i m e r e f e r e n c e t o " A l l Buddhas o f t h e p a s t ,  p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e . . . . " h a d become a s t o c k p h r a s e i n M a h a y a n a Finally,  t e x t s devoted  solely  64  t o the M a i t r e y a vyakarana  works.  were  composed i n T i b e t a n a n d C e n t r a l A s i a n l a n g u a g e s a s w e l l a s i n S a n s k r i t . ^  3)  Chinese I n C h i n a , s i x S u t r a s on M a i t r e y a were s i n g l e d o u t as a  group (  special  ) c o n s t i t u t i n g the basis of Maitreya  belxef. 1) M l - l o - l a i - s h i h c h i n g ( Jjjjj 0$ The S u t r a o f M a i t r e y a s Coming t r a n s l a t o r unknown. 2) M i - l o - h s i a - s h e n g c h i n g 'f £ ^ ) The S u t r a o f M a i t r e y a ' s R e b i r t h t r a n s l a t e d b y C h u - f a - h u i n 303 A.D.? 3) M i - l o - h s i a - s h e n g - c h e n g - F o c h i n g (ffy f # "f" £ $ The S u t r a o f M a i t r e y a ' s R e b i r t h a n d A t t a i n m e n t t r a n s l a t e d b y K u m a r a j i v a i n 402 A.D.? 4) M i - l o - t a - c h e n g - F o c h i n g (jft The S u t r a o f M a i t r e y a ' s G r e a t A t t a i n m e n t o f Buddhahood t r a n s l a t e d b y K u m a r a j i v a i n 402  'ff*  o f Buddhahood  )  A.D.?  5) M i - l o - h s i a - s h e n g - c h i n g - F o c h i n g (f$SJ %k "f £ ^ S u t r a o f M a i t r e y a ' s R e b i r t h and A t t a i n m e n t o f B u d d h a h o o d t r a n s l a t e d b y I - c h i n g i n 701 A.D. 6) K u a n M i - l o - p ' u - s a - s h a n g - s h e n g - T u - s h i - t ' i e n  ching  S u t r a o f M e d i t a t i o n on M a i t r e y a ' s R e b i r t h on H i g h T u s h i t a Heaven t r a n s l a t e d b y Chu Ch'u C h i n g S h e n g i n 455 A.D.? All  o f t h e s e M a i t r e y a S u t r a s were t r a n s l a t e d  M i - l o - l a i - s h i h c h i n g i s thought  i n t o Chinese.  China.  t o be t h e e a r l i e s t b u t s i n c e t h e t r a n s l a t o r  i s unknown, D h a r m a r a k s a ' s t r a n s l a t i o n rendered  i n Northern  i n the  i s usually  cited  as t h e f i r s t  t o be  This early fourth century t r a n s l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t  -22-  because Dharmaraksa's c h o i c e o f t e x t s t o t r a n s l a t e , Vimalakirti sutras reflects 68  i n c l u d i n g t h e L o t u s and  t h e r e l i g i o u s needs o f t h e C h i n e s e o f h i s  '.  time.  Sutras  earlier  i nthis  also very  (1) t o (5) g i v e e s s e n t i a l l y Chapter under M a i t r e y a ' s  similar  t o t h e Ariagatavamsa,  "mythic  vision".  They a r e  t h e M a i t r e y a - s a m i t i , and o t h e r  V y a k a r a n a l i t e r a t u r e w e l l known i n C h i n a . i s d i f f e r e n t from t h e r e s t .  t h e same a c c o u n t a s o u t l i n e d  The K u a n S u t r a  (6) however,  I t i s t h o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n composed  later 69  and  thus  t r a n s l a t e d into Chinese l a t e r  than  the other Maitreya  Sutras.  New f e a t u r e s n a m e l y , t h e p r o m i s e o f r e b i r t h  i n T u s i t a Heaven and t h e  c a n c e l l a t i o n o f s i n upon c a l l i n g M a i t r e y a ' s  name a r e i n t r o d u c e d .  The  i n c l u s i o n o f t h e term Kuan i s a l i t t l e m i s l e a d i n g b e c a u s e i t does n o t o f f e r any s p e c i a l v i s u a l i z a t i o n t e c h n i q u e  e v e n t h o u g h i t may h a v e b e e n  used by dhyana masters along w i t h o r a l  instructions.  that  composition  i t i s considered  t o be an e a r l i e r  type s u t r a p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s The  five Maitreya  reborn  i n Tusita  reborn  on e a r t h  Sutras  another  Kuanching.^  Kuan * S u t r a from t h e  i s t h a t t h e b e l i e v e r h i m s e l f d e s i r e s t o be  Heaven ( X ( ^f.  than  the Kuan-wu-liang-shou-Fo  f e a t u r e w h i c h most d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e M a i t r e y a  other  be  thesis,  I t i s interesting  ) r a t h e r than w a i t i n g f o r M a i t r e y a t o  ) .  Scholars have put f o r t h s e v e r a l reasons f o r t h e composition "ascent"  ( X  ) type of s u t r a .  Mi-lo-p'u-sa-shang-sheng-Tu-shi-t'ien Amitabha i d e a s . ^  Some f e e l t h a t t h e a u t h o r  of this  o f t h e Kuan-  c h i n g was u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f  Others a s s e r t t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n between v a r i o u s  c u l t s and s p e c i f i c a l l y b e t t h e M a i t r e y a  and Amitabha c u l t s  paradise  stimulated the  M a i t r e y a b e l i e v e r s t o make new c l a i m s f o r t h e b e n e f i t s o f r e b i r t h i n T u s i t a 72 _ _ Heaven. The Kuan s c h o o l o f m e d i t a t i o n i n K a s h m i r where S a r v a s t i v a d i n  -23-  schools  were prominent p r o b a b l y a l s o exerted  t h e new  form.  faction with type Sutras  an  important influence  P e r h a p s t h e most p r o v o k i n g e x p l a n a t i o n the k i n d of  i s that  f u t u r e s a l v a t i o n found i n the  r e s u l t e d i n the  g r o w t h and  p o p u l a r i t y of  dissatis-  "descent"  the  on  (  )  "ascent"  type. In conclusion, Mahayana S u t r a s w h e t h e r as  on M a i t r e y a  the  drew from the  o r a l t r a d i t i o n or i n the  t h e P a l i Canon. after  i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o presume t h a t Theravada  P e r i postulates  Buddha's t i m e ;  before  same c o r e o f M a i t r e y a  e a r l i e s t w r i t t e n f o r m s now  that the  and myth extant  the M a i t r e y a n i d e a e x i s t e d  d i v i s i o n s which l e d to the  in  soon  Hinayana-  74 Mahayana s p l i t . dating  the  sequence of  c e r t a i n l y not works are the  D e t e r m i n i n g e x a c t l y what t h i s c o r e c o n s i s t s of i t s accretions  w i t h i n the  considered  f a c t that the  l i m i t s of  " e a r l i e r " and  i n t o C h i n e s e and  h a v e b e e n a f f e c t e d by  during  the  third  to the  the  three  to four  t h e Mahayana f o l d . / s u c h as  Generally,  continued  For  increased  the  seem t o b e m a i n l y d i f f e r e n c e s  and  Pali  However,  to evolve  makes  compositions  t o t h e Mahayana  the MaKa-sudassana  Mahayana i n f l u e n c e s  this  sutras  Suttanta i n t o Theravada  Thus s c h o l a r s  such  as  t h e M a i t r e y a n i d e a l d e v e l o p e d much  a f t e r the  Nevertheless  Cakkavatti-Sihanada  task  the  example, l a t e r P a l i  f i f t h c e n t u r i e s A.D.  centuries  impossible  Sanskrit, "later".  w o r k s s u c h as  Matsumoto Bunzaburo submits t h a t later;  the  thesis.  t h e A n a g a t a v a m s a show a m a r k e d s i m i l a r i l y  translated may  this  T h e r a v a d a Canon i t s e l f  a somewhat u n r e l i a b l e d i s t i n c t i o n . s u c h as  i s a l m o s t an  and  death of  the Buddha, w i t h i n  the major d i f f e r e n c e s between works  Suttanta  and  i n d e g r e e and  P e ' r i a l s o m e n t i o n s , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t  the Mahayana M a i t r e y a elaboration.  sutras  Furthermore,  the Hinayana schools,  which  as  -24-  considered the Mahayana l i t e r a t u r e heterodox, would adopt i n i t s 7 6  entirety, a well developed Mahayana idea.'  His theory that the  Theravada schools managed to maintain the e a r l i e r t r a d i t i o n i n spite of a l l the developments within and the influences without would support the view that the expectation centered on a Future Buddha was part of pre-Mahayana Buddhism. I l l b Texts: Amitabha More sutras and sastras have been devoted to Amitabha than any other figure i n the Mahayana pantheon.  There are no direct references  to this Buddha i n P a l i l i t e r a t u r e but the references i n Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan and Japanese are voluminous.  The e a r l i e r Sanskrit  works at times refer to Amitabha as one of the innumerable Buddhas of the Ten Q u a r t e r s and at other times as an outstanding Savior figure, a focal point for the f a i t h f u l .  Without even considering the numerous  translations and commentaries i n Tibetan and Japanese, the Chinese Tripitaka alone includes at least 254 sutras and sastras on Amitabha.^ 1)  Pali Some scholars maintain that the roots for Amitabha myth exist i n the  P a l i Canon.  One example i s those who claim that the splendor of King  Sudassana's  palace and environs described i n the Mahasudassana Suttanta  bears a close resemblance to Amitabha's Pure Land.  A similar section i n  — — — — 79 the Mahaparinibbana sutta i s also cited as a prototype for Sukhavati.  Despite these descriptive s i m i l a r i t i e s , the d o c t r i n a l differences are clear.  The monarch's domain represents an ideal of earthy  extravagance  while Amitlbha's Sukhavati i s a c e l e s t i a l sphere transcending human  -25-  pleasures. h i s own  The  King's  happiness  i s f o u n d e d on t h e k a r m i c  effects  of  p e r s o n a l s t o c k of good deeds whereas t h e b e l i e v e r ' s s a l v a t i o n  i s r e a l i z e d not Sukhavati but  o n l y by  a l s o by  d i r e c t i n g h i s good d e e d s t o w a r d s r e b i r t h  f u l f i l l i n g m e d i t a t i o n a l and  ritual  in  practices that  c a l l upon t h e power A m i t a b h a ' s vows. Another example of Hinayana r o o t s i n Amitabha b e l i e f e x p r e s s i o n s of d e v o t i o n a l i s m found l i t e r a t u r e "the response the emotional beginnings  in Pali literature.  lies  Dutt  calls  of the inner repurcussions of the f a i t h  s i d e of the l i v e s  o f monks and  nuns".  He  traces  of d e v o t i o n a l i s m to the p o e t i c a l manuals i n the  nikaya; Thera-gatha  i n the  ("Verses of the E l d e r s " ) , T h e r i - g a t h a  on the  Khuddaka("Verses  the E l d e r e s s e s " ) , Apadana ( " S t o r i e s of the S a i n t s " ) , P e t a - v a t t h u o f g h o s t s " ) , and and  lacking  Vimana-yutthu  in artifice,  Amitabha i s not and  2)  Buddha, Stupa,  and  of passages  D h a t u . The  t h e b a s i s f o r Buddha w o r s h i p .  d e v o t i o n a l i s m can be  regarded  as  ("Tales  extolling  Jataka  Thus,  and  although  indirect  paradises precursors  devotion to Amitabha.  Sanskrit S p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s to Amitabha appeared w i t h the beginnings  Mahayana l i t e r a t u r e . and  of  Spontaneous  d i r e c t l y m e n t i o n e d i n t h e P a l i Canon, k i n g l y  early Buddhist  o f S u k h a v a t i and  of Heavenly Mansions").  these w r i t i n g s are f u l l  the v i r t u e s of w o r s h i p p i n g Buddhavamsa p r o v i d e d  ("Tales  this  Buddhist  b i o g r a p h i e s such  Mahavamsa make no m e n t i o n o f t h i s B u d d h a .  texts originally on C h i n e s e  composed i n S a n s k r i t w i l l b e  Amitabha t e x t s ,  A k s o b h y a B u d d h a and  as The  the  Lalitavistara  primary  Pure Land  described i n the s e c t i o n  the f o l l o w i n g S a n s k r i t compositions  t h e B u d d h a s o f t h e Ten  of  Quarters were v i t a l  on to  the  -26-  development  o f t h e Amitabha  myth.  I n t h e Ak§obhya-buddhak§etra-tathagatha-syavyuha  sutra  ( " I m p e r t u r b a b l e " ) t a k e s a vow u n d e r a B u d d h a i n t h e E a s t . vows ( p r a n i d h a n a ) w e r e a m o d e l f o r A m i t a b h a ' s  vows.  Aksobhya His multiple  Other e a r l y  Mahayana  w o r k s s u c h a s t h e As t a s a h a s r i k a - p r a j i f r a p a r a m i t a ' a n d t h e P r a t y u t p a n n a • 80 buddha-sammu-khavasthita-samadhi Amitabha.  sutra  A l t h o u g h d e v o t i o n t o Aksobhya  in these sutras, r e b i r t h  m e n t i o n b o t h Aksobhya and i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y  advocated  i n A b h i r a t i , h i s p a r a d i s e , was s o u g h t b y some  t h r o u g h t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f m o r a l a c t s a n d b y h e a r i n g h i s name. Pratyutpanna-samadhi-sutra i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t because  The  i t i s perhaps  81 the e a r l i e s t t e x t i n d i c a t i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f Amitabha c u l t s and b e c a u s e i t s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o C h i n e s e i n t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y A.D. s t i m u l a t e d many c o n v e r s i o n s t o A m i t a w o r s h i p . T h e r e a r e numerous Mahayana s u t r a s and s a s t r a s i n w h i c h A m i t a b h a i s f o u n d among t h e i n c a l c u l a b l e B u d d h a s o f t h e S i x D i r e c t i o n s o r t h e T e n Directions.  I n the Buddhavatamsaka-sutra,  A m i t a ' s P u r e Land  i s regarded 82  a s t h e most i n f e r i o r  of the Paradises closest  t o t h e mundane w o r l d .  V a i p u l y a s u t r a s such as t h e Lotus simply i n c l u d e Amitabha list  o f Buddhas i n t h e West.  relate  i n a great  V i m a l a k i r t i and t h e S m a l l P r a j n a p a r a m i t a  i n s t a n c e s where t h e assembled devotees a r e enabled t o see A b h i r a t i  t h r o u g h m a g i c a l means. c i t e d by P u r e Land Chapter F i v e  Nagarjuna's Das'abhumi-vibhlsa-sastra '  adherents as proof o f Nagarjuna's b e l i e f  ("On t h e Vows") a n d C h a p t e r N i n e  ("On E a s y  i s usually  i n Amitabha.  Practice")  e x p l a i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e P u r e Land and t h e p r a c t i c e s c o n d u s i v e t o r e b i r t h there.  Vasubandhu's s h o r t commentary on t h e S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a S u t r a ,  Amitayus-sutra-Upadesa  i s traditionally referred  t o as t h e b a s i s o f  -27-  V a s u b a n d h u ' s p l a c e a s one  of the p a t r i a r c h s of the Pure Land  School.°  In t h i s t e x t , b o d h i s a t t v a p r a c t i c e c o n s i s t s of c u l t i v a t i o n of methods of a n u s m r t i  J  five  (mindfulness): worship, praise, resolution  ( t o be  84 b o r n i n t h e P u r e L a n d ) , v i s u a l i z a t i o n and  transfer  c u r s i v e s a m p l i n g o f Mahayana works i n d i c a t e s o f m e d i t a t i o n a l and f i g u r e of 3)  philosophical  of m e r i t .  the tremendous  interpretations  This diversity  i n s p i r e d by  the  Amitabha.  Chinese I n C h i n a , w i t h the development of Pure Land thought  sutras  (  ^-  l i t e r a t u r e on 1)  2)  3)  The  ) ^  A-mi-t'o-ching ( 0 f ) _ S u t r a on A m i t a ( S m a l l e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a t r a n s l a t e d b y K u m a r a j i v a i n 402-5 A.TD.  authoritative  sutra)  W u - l i a n g - s h o u c h i n g (' ~% ) S u t r a on A m i t a y u s or L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - V y u h a t r a n s l a t e d b y S a n g h a v a r m a n i n 252 A.D.  sutra  Kuan-wu-liang-shou ching ( c o n t e m p l a t i o n on t h e B u d d h a o f I n f i n i t e L i f e S u t r a t r a n s l a t e d b y K a l a y a s ' a s b e t w e e n 4 2 4 - 4 5 3 .AVD.  translations listed  o n l y b e t w e e n t h e S a n s k r i t and translations  above a r e t h e ones t h a t e v e n t u a l l y Notable v a r i a t i o n s  in detail  Chinese v e r s i o n s but between the  won  exist  not  Chinese  themselves.  Kumarajiva's A-mi-t'o-ching s u t r a i n t o Chinese.  t h e Buddhas i n t h e Ten jewelled  were a c c e p t e d as the c o r e of  major  Amitabha.  the greatest approval i n China.  of t h i s  three  i s the e a r l i e s t  of three  In the s u t r a , Amitayus  Quarters.  translations  i s p r a i s e d by a l l  His paradise i s reminescent  of  the  s p l e n d o r o f M a i t r e y a ' s f u t u r e w o r l d ; s u m p t u o u s and p e a c e f u l ,  -28-  Sukhavatl  i s o n l y one  among t h e  innumerable Buddhalands, "equal  number t o t h e s a n d s o f t h e r i v e r G a n g a " . is  with and  A unique f e a t u r e of t h i s  i t s s t r e s s upon the r e c i t a t i o n o r c o n t i n u o u s  name.  Having heard i t will  see  f o l l o w e d by  m e d i t a t i o n of  " A m i t a y u s . . . s u r r o u n d e d by of B o d h i s a t t v a s  an a s s e m b l y o f  sutra  Amitayus'  t h e name, t h o s e w h o s e m i n d s a r e c o n s t a n t l y  a host  in  occupied  disciples  ...at t h e i r hour of death  and  86' they w i l l The  depart  this  l i f e w i t h t r a n q u i l minds".  Wu-liang-shou ching  (Larger Sukhavati-vyuha  l o n g e r and  were e l a b o r a t e than  translated  i n t o C h i n e s e more t h a n  years  the A-mi-t'o c h i n g .  ten times,  detail.  One  Dharmakara's vows. translations  list  The only  Lokaksema  According  to t h i s  sentient beings.  (latter  Fa-hsien  one  on A m i t a ,  ) and  Chih Chien  t h r e e by  (Sung) l i s t  48  (Wu)  Sanghavarman  vows.  to save a l l  h i s g o a l , t h i s same D h a r m a k a r a ,  i n the Western P a r a d i s e of S u k h a v a t i .  As  now the  o f t h e P u r e L a n d mode o f s a l v a t i o n  hand, Dharmakara's vows, h i s b o d h i s a t t v a p r a c t i c e  of a l l beings.  h i s vow  i n greater  o f a l l p o s s i b l e B u d d h a l a n d s and  h i s c r e a t i o n o f S u k h a v a t i make up  enlightenment  lives  bodhisattva  narrative unfolds, various aspects On  of Amita's past  Dharmakara  Having achieved  A m i t a b h a Buddha a b i d e s  are revealed.  Han  s u t r a , many a e o n s a g o ,  vowed t o c r e a t e t h e b e s t  900  d i f f e r e n c e s i s i n t h e number o f  24 v o w s w h i l e t h e o t h e r  ( W e i ) , B o d h i r u c i ( T ' a n g ) and  span  be  G e n e r a l l y , the myth  B u d d h a s s u c h as A k s o b h y a a r e d e s c r i b e d  of the most i m p o r t a n t  far  only s u t r a to 87  i t s translations  i n the l a t e r v e r s i o n s : the legends  as w e l l as o f o t h e r  and  The  f r o m t h e s e c o n d t o t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s A.D.  i s more c o h e r e n t  s u t r a ) i s by  t o be  reborn  On  the h i s t o r y  of h i s commitment t o  the  the o t h e r hand, the b e l i e v e r ' s m e d i t a t i o n  i n Sukhavati  and  the a p p l i c a t i o n of h i s  -29-  own  s t o c k o f m e r i t t o t h a t g o a l make up  In the S a n s k r i t v e r s i o n s of t h i s  s u t r a t h e r e i s no  b e t w e e n A m i t a b h a ' s s a v i n g p o w e r and between grace  and w o r k s .  the r e q u i s i t e s  to  clear  t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s own  However, t h e C h i n e s e  version  enlightenment. distinction efforts; has  two  88 e x t r a vows  ( n u m b e r s 18  t o become known as  and  21).  One  o f t h e s e v o w s (number 18)  the "King of the Pranidhanas"  was  i n mature Pure Land  89  doctrine.  I t was  l e d t o new  t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e s e and  emphases i n A m i t a b h a w o r s h i p  sutras themselves  and  consequently  not  o t h e r vows, w h i c h  clearly articulated  i n the  t o A m i t a b h a ' s immense p o p u l a r i t y i n  China. Because i t advocates, a c a r e f u l l y t h e Kuan-wu-liang^-shou c h i n g  i s considered  the t h r e e P u r e Land s u t r a s . s u t r a s c a l l e d Kuan s u t r a s  s y s t e m a t i z e d method o f m e d i t a t i o n , the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d of  T h i s work belongs  90  to that unique category  of  c o m p o s e d i n K a s h m i r o r C e n t r a l A s i a b y monks 91  specializing  the v i s u a l i z a t i o n  techniques.  t o have o r i g i n a t e d w i t h a form of worship Quarters  p r a c t i c e d by  c e r t a i n H i n a y a n a and  p o s s i b l e t h a t a t an e a r l i e r gain access The  stage  tradition  is  thought  t o t h e Buddhas of t h e Mahayana s c h o o l s .  the b e l i e v e r s thought  t o t h e P u r e Lands of t h e Buddhas by  Pan-chou-san-mei-ching  Ten  It is  t h a t they  could  c r e a t i n g them m e n t a l l y .  (Pratyupanna-buddha-sammu-khavasthita-samadhi-  s u t r a ) i s an example o f t h i s s t a g e . a t i o n s and  The  the p r a c t i c e of o r a l l y  L a t e r , when i c o n o g r a p h i c  represent-  i n v o k i n g t h e B u d d h a s become u n i v e r s a l ,  92  t h e K u a n g r o u p was  composed.  o r g a n i z e d o f t h e g r o u p and A.D.). is  The  K u a n - w u - l i a n g - s h o u ching i s t h e m o s t  i s t h e r e f o r e thought  t o be  the l a t e s t  In c o n t r a s t , the Kuan-mi-lo-pu-sa-shang-sheng-^tu-shi-t'ien  considered  one  of the very  earliest  of the  group.  (ca.IV ching  -30-  The  Kuan-wu-liang-6hou c h i n g c a n  g u i d e f o r t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r who of S u k h a v a t i .  The  stages  i n w h i c h Queen V a i d e h i ,  Sukhavati  directions  as  the  s e t t i n g sun,  s u c h as  f o r her  goal.  The  n u m b e r s and  her that  She  w a t e r , t r e e s , and  i n a c l e a r and  on m e d i t a t i o n and  the  does not  c u l t i v a t i o n of  in his perception a  vision  into a narrative  son A j a t a s a t r u , c a l l s  upon  i s f r e e from s u f f e r i n g . A f t e r  next r e b i r t h i s to focus  l a k e s and  she  is  given  on a s e r i e s o f  "Internal  unable to d e s c r i b e h i s  the  sutra's  vitual  to transcend  and  who,  _  a b r o g a t e g o o d n e s s , m o r a l and  of the Western P a r a d i s e  phantastic  transcendental  While the  the b e l i e v e r i s a b l e  Splendors"  the m e d i t a t o r ,  -  c o n s i s t e n t way".  such  i n c l u d i n g Amitayus  the v i s i o n s of  93 'flights'  transcendental  "the hyperboles,  imagery used, r e f l e c t  o n c e b a c k t o h i s s e n s e s , was  meditational  incorporated  bodhisattvas,  account i s evocative:  the  are  a  c o n s i s t i n g of " E x t e r n a l Splendors"  t h e v a r i o u s b u d d h a s and  himself.  by  the plane of her  f o r a t t a i n g her  as  desires a personal  imprisoned  sixteen meditational objects as  described  of m e d i t a t i o n  the Buddha t o r e v e a l a p l a c e choosing  be  observances  the  to achieve  emphasis  the  present status  of  non-returner. Although the  three b a s i c Amitabha sutras are  the Mahayana g e n i u s , the  tradition.  No  extravagance of  last  m e n t i o n i s made o f  i n India.  the Longer Sukhavati few  centuries before  w o r k s s u c h as  the work  of  t h e s e s u t r a s a r e o f t e n s e e n as a n a n o m a l y w i t h i n sunyata or prajna;  i m a g e r y seems t o s u p p o r t t h e d e v o t i o n a l  early Amita c u l t s and  clearly  The  Sutra  Shorter  Sukhavati  Sutra  instead,  emphases o f  the  (A-mi-t'o  ching)  ( w u - l i a n g - c h o u c h i n g ) , composed i n  t h e Common E r a may  t h e M a h a s u d a s s a n a s u t t a n t a and  an  the  h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d by  Pali  the d e v o t i o n a l manuals i n  -31-  the Khaddaka-nikaya. two  The e s c h a t o l o g i c a l m o t i f found a t the end of the  S u k h a v a t i s u t r a s may  groups or the i n f l u e n c e  have r e s u l t e d from c o n t a c t w i t h M a i t r e y a of the g e n e r a l m e s s i a n i c mood of the times.  A f t e r the second c e n t u r y A.D.,  w i t h the s y s t e m i z a t i o n of Mahayana thought  under the g r e a t I n d i a n a c a r y a s , Buddhas such as M a i t r e y a , Aksobhya and Amitabha were o f t e n r e f e r r e d  to as p a r t of the system of the Buddhas of  the S i x D i r e c t i o n s or the Ten D i r e c t i o n s . focal  They a l s o became important  p o i n t s f o r v i s u a l i z a t i o n - m e d i a t i o n as i n the Kuan group of s u t r a s  and i n the i n c r e a s i n g numbers of t a n t r i c t e x t s . t h e i r n u m e r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , the Amitabha  Therefore, apart  from  t e x t s demonstrate a t r e -  mendous d i v e r s i t y of p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s p r o s p e c t i v e s .  What  the w r i t t e n sources do not r e v e a l , however, i s the c o n t i n u i t y of Amita worship both at the monastic and l a y l e v e l s .  We  can surmise t h a t most  of the l a y groups devoted to Amita worship i n m e d i e v a l I n d i a and China, l i k e the 2 0 t h c e n t u r y l a y groups i n China and Japan, tended to equate Amita's Pure Land w i t h a p l a c e to go to upon one's death and h i s vows w i t h promises c a l l i n g  f o r t h one's d e v o t i o n .  The f a c t t h a t such b e l i e f s  c o n f l i c t w i t h the fundamental t e n e t s of Mahayana p h i l o s o p h y does not negate the f a c t t h a t they i n l a r g e measure, account f o r Amitabha's s p e c t a c u l a r p o p u l a r i t y among the Chinese masses.  -32-  Footnotes to Chapter  I  1.  I have t a k e n the term " s a c r e d h i s t o r y " from M i r c e a E l i a d e ' s w o r k and u s e d i t i n i t s b r o a d e s t s e n s e ; a p p l y i n g i t t o t h e J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n as w e l l as t h e B u d d h i s t and o t h e r t r a d i t i o n s .  2.  T h e s e t e r m s w e r e c o i n e d by Sukumar D u t t i n B u d d h i s t Monks and M o n a s t a r i e s o f I n d i a ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n and O h w i n , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 1 8 3 .  3.  E d w a r d C o n z e , t r a n s , and e d . , B u d d h i s t T e x t s T h r o u g h t h e (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 4 6 - 4 7 .  4.  M a i t r e y a : from the S a n s k r i t m a i t r i m e a n i n g . " f r i e n d l i n e s s " , " k i n d l i n e s s " , "compassion". ( P a l i : Metteya, Chinese: M i - l o - F o ) .  5.  The f o l l o w i n g summary i s b a s e d on sheng-cheng-Fo c h i n g (T.XIV.454)  6.  Z o r o a s t r i a n and J u d a i c s o u r c e s when t h e e a r t h w i l l b e l e v e l .  7.  Kagawa T a k a o h a s d r a w n a g r a p h c o r r e l a t i n g s i x t e e n d i f f e r e n t M a i t r e y a themes w i t h t w e n t y - f i v e t e x t u a l s o u r c e s i n " M i r o k o s h i s o no t e n k a i , " J o u r n a l o f B u k k y o U n i v e r s i t y 45 ( 1 9 6 4 ) : 241.  8.  F o r m o r e d e t a i l s s e e : E n c y c l o p e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , 1908-27 e d . , s . v . " C a k r a v a r t i n " by H. J a c o b i ; and J a n G o n d a , A n c i e n t I n d i a n K i n g s h i p f r o m t h e R e l i g i o u s P o i n t o f V i e w ( L e i d e n : E. J . B r i l l , 1966), pp.123-128.  9.  A i t r a r e y a B r l h m a n a 8:21-23.  10.  T h i s type of c a k r a v a r t i n symbolism i s Bhagavata Purana.  11.  H. J a c o b i n i n " C a k a v a r t i n " p.336 n o t e s t h a t i n t h e B r h a t k a t h a P u r a n a , K i n g N a r v a h a v a d a t t a has s e v e n r a t n a s ( " t r e a s u r e s " ) i n c l u d i n g t h e e l e p h a n t , the sword, the m o o n l i g h t , the w i f e , the d e s t r o y i n g charm, t h e l a k e , and t h e s a n d l e w o o d t r e e . K i n g S a s a b i n d u i n t h e B h a g a v a t a P u r i n a has f o u r t e e n t r e a s u r e s .  12.  Ramesh C. M a j u m d a r , The H i s t o r y and C u l t u r e o f t h e I n d i a n P e o p l e , V o l . 3: The C l a s s i c a l Age (Bombay: B h a r a t i y a V i d y a B h a v a n , 1 9 5 4 ) ,  the M a i t r e y a  sutra, Mi-lo-hsia-  a l s o r e f e r to the  e s c h a t o n as a  particularly  13.  C a k k a v a t t i - s i h a n a d a s u t t a (D.N.26); L a k k h a n a - s u t t a n t a M a h a p a d a n a - s u t t a n t a (D.N.14) e t c .  14.  B.  G.  Gokale, " E a r l y Buddhist  K i n g s h i p , " JAS  26  Ages  evident  in  time  the  3:X.  (D.N.13);  (November 1 9 6 6 ) :  18-22.  -33-  See C h a p t e r I V  below.  M a t s u m o t o B u n z a b u r o , M l r o k o J o d o - r o n [A T r e a t i s e o n M a i t r e y a ' s P u r e L a n d ] ( T o k y o : H e i g o S h u p p a n Sha and T o s h o K a n k o k a i , 1 9 1 1 ) . E t i e n n e L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e du B u d d h i s m e i n d i e n ; d e s o r i g i n e s l ' e r e Saka ( L o u v a i n : I n s t i t u t O r i e n t a l i s t e , 1 9 5 8 ) , p.782.  a  L e o n H u r v i t z , S c r i p t u r e o f t h e L o t u s B l o s s o m o f t h e F i n e Dharma (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 3 3 9 . The s t o r y o f B a v a r i and A j i t a Sutta-nipa"ta.  i s found i n the Parayana of the  The s t o r y M a i t r e y a a n d t h e g o l d e n t u n i c i s f o u n d t h e D a k k h i r i a v i b h a n g h a S u t t a ( M . N . I l l ) e t c . ; see L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , p.779. Mahavastu, S u k h a v a t i y u h a - s u t r a , Saddharmapundarika-sutra e t c . ; see Lamotte, H i s t o i r e , pp.782-83. F o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s m a t t e r s e e H. U i " M a i t r e y a a s a H i s t o r i c a l P e r s o n a g e " i n I n d i a n S t u d i e s i n Honor o f C R . Lanman ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 9 ) , p p . 9 5 - 1 0 0 ; a n d G. T u c c i , D o c t r i n e s o f M a i t r e y a n a t h a and A s a n g a ( C a l u t t a : 1 9 3 0 ) . Mahavamsa 3 7 : 2 1 5 - 4 7 . C i t e d i n Buddhaghosa, P a t h o f P u r i f i c a t i o n , t r a n s . B. N y a n a m o l i C . ( B e r k e l e y and L o n d o n : S h a m b a l a P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p.xxii. N. P e r i , r e v i e w o f M i r o k u j o d o r o n , b y M a t s u m o t o B u n z a b u r o , 11 ( 1 9 1 1 ) , p . 4 5 3 .  i n BEFEO  Among them i s M a i t r e y a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a s a T a n t r i c d e i t y . For further i n f o r m a t i o n s e e F. L e s s i n g , Y u n g - h o - k u n g : A n I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e L a m a i s t C a t h e d r a l i n P e k i n g ( S t o c k h o l m : 1942) and A l i c e G e t t y , The Gods o f N o r t h e r n B u d d h i s m 1928). Lamotte, H i s t o i r e ,  (Oxford: Clarendon Press,  p.775.  Max M u l l e r , e d . a n d t r a n s . , " L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - v v u h a " . B u d d h i s t M a h a y a n a S u t r a s , SBE, v o l . 4 9 , ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 8 9 4 ; New Y o r k : D o v e r P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . l . W h i l e t h e a p p e l l a t i o n A m i t a b h a ( " L i m i t l e s s L i g h t " ) and a n o t h e r , Amitayus were used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , the L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a shows a p r e f e r e n c e f o r A m i t a b h a . Amitayus i s used i n the Smaller S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a and t h e A m i t a y u r - d h y a n a s u t r a . Samghavarman u s e d A m i t a y u s ( W u - l i a n g - s h o u ) i n h i s C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n and t h i s a p p e l l a t i o n , perhaps because of i t s s p e c i a l appeal f o r the Chinese was v e r y p o p u l a r t h r o u g h o u t t h e S i x D y n a s t i e s . L a t e r , Amitabha  -34-  became t h e s t a n d a r d b e c a u s e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i v y u h a a n d t h e n i n e t e e n o r s o o t h e r names o f t h i s B u d d h a w h i c h i n c l u d e d the word " l i g h t " . The C h i n e s e t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n " 0 - m i - t ' o " ( J a . A m i d a ) was u s e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o b o t h W u - l i a n g - s h o u and W u - l i a n g - k u a n g b y Kumarajiva i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of the Smaller Sukhavati-vyuha sutra. 30.  R. R o b i n s o n t r a n s l a t e s S u k h a v a t i a s " h a p p i n e s s - h a v i n g " i n The B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n : H i s t o r i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n (Belmont, C a l i f . : Dickenson P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 7 0 ) , p.67.  31.  The f o l l o w i n g summary i s b a s e d o n Max "Longer S u k h a v a t i S u t r a " .  32.  A y o j a n a i s d e f i n e d by Basham a s " a m e a s u r e o f d i s t a n c e v a r y i n g f r o m hh t o 9 m i l e s " . C f . A. F. Basham, The Wonder T h a t Was I n d i a (New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 ) , p.135, 503-4.  33.  A koti i s ten m i l l i o n  34.  F o r a c l o s e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f A k s o b h y a B u d d h a s e e E. L a m o t t e ; L ' E n s e i g n e m e n t de V i m a l a k i r t i ( L o u v a i n : U n i v e r s i t e d e L o u v a i n , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 3 6 0 - 3 6 2 n.9.  35.  H a r D a y a l , The B o d h i s a t t v a D o c t r i n e i n B u d d h i s t S a n s k r i t (London: Kegan P a u l , 1 9 3 2 ) , p.36.  36.  F o r f u r t h e r s t u d y s e e : M a r i e - T h e r e s e de M a l l m a n n , I n t r o d u c t i o n a 1 ' e t u d e d ' A v a l o k i t e c v a r a ( P a r i s : P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1 9 6 7 ) ; and G i u s e p p e T u c c i , " a P r o p o s A v a l o k i t e s v a r a , " M e l a n g e s C h i n o i s e t Bouddhicxues ( B r u x e l l e s : I n s t i t u t B e i g e Des H a u t e s E t u d e s C h i n o i s e s ) , p p . 1 7 3 - 2 1 7 .  37.  E d w a r d C o n z e , B u d d h i s m : I t s E s s e n c e and D e v e l o p m e n t ( O x f o r d : B r u n o 1 9 5 1 ; New Y o r k : H a r p e r T o r c h b o o k s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p p . 1 5 2 - 7 .  38.  Edward Conze, T h i r t y Y e a r s o f B u d d h i s t S t u d i e s U n i v e r s i t y o f S. C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p.69.  39.  J u l i a n F. P a s , " S h a n - t a o ' s Commentary on t h e A m i t a y u r - B u d d h a n u s m r t i S u t r a " (Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , M c M a s t e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 6 1 .  40.  A. K. W a r d e r , pp.150-151.  41.  L a t e r , some s c h o o l s d i s a g r e e d on w h i c h o f t h e two l e v e l s a t e x t s h o u l d b e l o n g t o . W a r d e r a s s e r t s t h a t t h e new M a h a y a n a s c h o o l s e s p e c i a l l y , " s o u g h t t o d i s c r e d i t t h e more a u t h e n t i c p a r t s o f t h e T r i p i f c a k a as mere " c o n c e a l i n g * d i s c o u r s e s whose meaning r e q u i r e d t o be drawn o u t ; o n l y t h e i r s p e c i a l t e x t s were s e t out i n d e f i n i t e p h i l o s o p h i c a l terms..." Warder, I n d i a n Buddhism, p.152.  42.  Conze, T h i r t y Y e a r s , p.71.  43.  The e v o l u t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f a b o d h i s a t t v a ' s c a r e e r a l s o shows t h e i m p a c t o f t h e new b u d d h o l o g y . The e a r l y s e v e n s t a g e ( b h u m i ) scheme was i n c r e a s e d t o t e n i n o r d e r t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h e c e l e s t i a l b u d d h a s .  M u l l e r ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of the  i n number.  I n d i a n Buddhism  (Columbia,  Literature  Cassirer,  S.C.:  (Delhi: M o t i l a l Banarsidass, 1970),  -35-  44.  Pas, "Shan-tao's  Commentary", p.301.  45.  M a t s u m o t o ' s M i r o k u J o d o r o n ( C h a p t e r V) g i v e s a n extensive b i b l i o g r a p h y o f M a i t r e y a s o u r c e s f r o m t h e C h i n e s e T r i p i f c a k a and L a m o t t e ' s H i s t o i r e ( p p . 7 7 5 - 7 8 8 ) l i s t s P a l i and S a n s k r i t s o u r c e s p e r t a i n i n g t o Maitreya.  46.  T. W. R h y s D a v i d s , t r a n s . , "A B o o k o f G e n e s i s , " D i a l o g u e s o f B u d d h a , SBB, v o l . 3 ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 1 0 ) ,  47.  T. W. R h y s D a v i d s , t r a n s . , " L e g e n d o f t h e G r e a t K i n g o f G l o r y , " v o l . 11 ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 0 0 ) , p p . 2 4 7 - 2 8 9 .  48.  T. W. R h y s D a v i d s , t r a n s . , "A B o o k o f G e n e s i s , " D i a l o g u e s o f t h e B u d d h a , SBB, v o l . 4 ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 1 0 ) , p p . 7 7 - 9 4 .  49.  T. W. R h y s D a v i d s , t r a n s . , "The L i o n - r o a r o n t h e T u r n i n g o f W h e e l , " D i a l o g u e s o f t h e B u d d h a , SBB, v o l . 4, p p . 5 9 - 7 6 .  50.  Rhys D a v i d s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s s u t t a n t a i s a f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e same s t o r y f i r s t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e M a h a p a r i n i b b a n a . The Mahasudassana J a t a k a i s a l s o a f u r t h e r development.  51.  T h e o d o r e de B a r y e d . , S o u r c e s o f I n d i a n T r a d i t i o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , V o l . 1, p.74.  52.  T h i s r e f e r e n c e i s made i n P e r i , pp.775-7.  53.  A l l t h r e e s u t t a s are found i n the Parayanavagga of the S u t t a N i p a t a t r a n s l a t e d i n R h y s D a v i d s , SBE, v o l . 1 0 , p p . 1 8 4 - 1 9 2 .  54.  F o r more d e t a i l s s e e : E n c y l o p e d i a o f Buddhism, s.v. L a k s h m i R. Gooneskere.  55.  The q u e s t i o n o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f " a j i t a " w i t h M a i t r e y a and subsequent developments i s d i s c u s s e d i n S y l v a i n L e v i ' s " M a i t r e y a l e C o n s o l a t e u r . " E t u d e s d' O r i e n t a l i s m e P u b l i e e s p a r l e M u s e e G u i m e t "a l a M e m o i r e de Raymond L i n o s s i e r , v o l . 2. ( P a r i s : L i b r a r i e E r n e s t L e r o u x , 1 9 3 2 ) ,  (New  York:  " R e v i e w " , p.440 and L a m o t t e ,  "Ajita,"  the pp.4-41. SBE,  the  Columbia  Histoire,  by  pp.359-376. 56.  Robinson,  Buddhist R e l i g i o n ,  p.126.  57.  Buddhaghosa, P a t h of P u r i t y ,  58.  H. W i n t e r n i t z s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e A n a g a t a v a m s a may b e l o n g t o a n e a r l i e r p e r i o d w h e r e a s o t h e r s c o n s i d e r i t l a t e and s p u r i o u s ; s e e h i s A H i s t o r y of I n d i a n L i t e r a t u r e ( C a l c u t t a : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l c u t t a , 1 9 3 3 ) , p.220. P o r t i o n s o f t h e w o r k h a v e b e e n t r a n s l a t e d by E d w a r d C o n z e , B u d d h i s t T e x t s i n T r a n s l a t i o n ( O x f o r d : B r u n o C a s s i e r , 1954; H a r p e r T o r c h b o o k , 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 4 6 - 5 0 and b y H.C. W a r r e n , B u d d h i s m i n T r a n s l a t i o n (Cambridge:  p.3.  -36-  Harvard  U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1896;  New  Y o r k : Antheneum, 1976),  pp.481-486.  59.  "And so t h e s o n s o f t h e g o d s r e b o r n i n t h e h e a v e n o f t h e T u s i t a s f e l l a t t h e f e e t o f t h e B o d h i s a t t v a w e e p i n g and s a i d , ' I n t r u t h , W i s e Man, how w i l l t h e s p h e r e o f t h e T u s i t a s r e t a i n i t s b r i l l i a n c e o n c e d e p r i v e d of you?' And t h e B o d h i s a t t v a s a i d t o t h i s g r e a t and d i v i n e g a t h e r i n g , 'The B o d h i s a t t v a M a i t r e y a w i l l t e a c h y o u t h e Law.' And t h e B o d h i s a t t v a , h a v i n g r e m o v e d h i s c r o w n , . p l a c e d i t on t h e h e a d o f M a i t r e y a , s a y i n g , 'You, W i s e Man, w i l l be t h e f i r s t a f t e r me t o o b t a i n s u p r e m e and p e r f e c t e n l i g h t e n m e n t . " L a l i t a v i s t a r a ( C h a p t e r V ) , q u o t e d i n A. F o u c h e r , The L i f e o f t h e B u d d h a ( C o n n e c t i c u t : W e s l e y a n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p.23.  60.  L a m o t t e d a t e s t h e M a h a v a s t u and t h e L a l i t a v i s t a r a f r o m t h e o f t h e Common E r a . H i s t o i r e , p.724.  6 1 . J . J . J o n e s , t r a n s . , The 1 9 5 6 ) , 1:52.  Mahavastu, 3 v o l s .  beginning  (London: L u z a c ,  E k o t t a r a g a m a 44,  Dirghagama  1949-  62.  F o r e x a m p l e : Madhyamagama 1 3 , Samyuktagama 15 e t c .  1,  63.  J e a n P r y z u l s k i , The L e g e n d o f E m p e r o r A s o k a i n I n d i a n a n d C h i n e s e T e x t s ( C a l c u t t a : F i r m a K.L. M u k h o p a d h y a y , 1967) p p . 1 6 7 - 1 9 2 .  64.  The w o r d v y a k a r a n a ( " p r o p h e c y " , " r e c o r d " ) h a s a number o f d i f f e r e n t meanings. I n t h e Agamas i t c o u l d r e f e r t o t h e r e c o r d o f a d e a d p e r s o n ' s r e b i r t h , t o o n e ' s own e n l i g h t e n m e n t o r t o t h e enlightenment of a Buddha. References to the l a t t e r meaning, i n v o l v i n g the prophecy o f a b o d h i s a t t v a ' s f u t u r e b u d d h a h o o d a r e n u m e r o u s and became a n i m p o r t a n t d e v i c e i n Mahayana s u t r a s . For example, i n the L o t u s , S a k y a m u n i f o r e t e l l s t h e B u d d h a h o o d o f v a r i o u s I r a v a k a s and p r a t y e k a b u d d h a s b y c i t i n g t h e i r names, t h e i r B u d d h a - f i e l d s , t h e i r k a l p a s and t h e d u r a• t i o n o f t h e i r Dharma. F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o —n t h i s m a t t e r s e e E t i e n n e L a m o t t e t r a n s , L ' E n s e i g n e m e n t de V i m a l a k i r t i ( P a r i s : P u b l i c a t i o n s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 1 8 9 - 1 9 2 n.89.  65.  T r a n s l a t i o n s o f S a n s k r i t w o r k s on M a i t r e y a i n c l u d e : E. C o n z e , B u d d h i s t S c r i p t u r e s ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n C l a s s i c s , 1959) pp. 237 f f . ; S. L e v i , " M a i t r e y a l e c o n s o l a t e u r " E t u d e s d ' O r i e n t a l i s m e P u b l i e e s p a r l e M u s e e g u i m e t a l a M e m o i r e de Raymonde L i n o s s i e r , v o l . 2, ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r e E r n e s t L e r o u x , 1 9 3 2 ) . p p . 3 5 5 - 4 0 2 ; E. Leumann M a i t r e y a - s a m i t i , das Z u k u n f t s i d e a l der B u d d h i s t e n , v o l . I ( L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 9 ) ; and I s h i g a m i Z. "A J a p a n e s e T r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e M a i t r e y a v y a k a r a n a , " A n n u a l o f O r i e n t a l and R e l i g i o u s R e s e a r c h ( 1 9 6 7 ) : 3 5 - 4 8 .  66.  A l t h o u g h f i f t e e n o t h e r M a i t r e y a s u t r a s were t r a n s l a t e d d u r i n g the S i x D y n a s t i e s t h e S i x S u t r a s l i s t e d a b o v e a r e a l l f o u n d i n T. v o l . 14: 1) 457; 2) 4 5 3 ; 3) 454; 4) 456; 5) 4 5 5 ; and 6) 452. Hayami Tasuku g i v e s a b r i e f summary o f t h e i r c o n t e n t s b a s e d on M a t s u m o t o B u n z a b u r o ' s M i r o k u J o d o r o n i n h i s M i r o k u S h i n k o mo H i t o t s u no J o d o S h i n k o , v o l . 12:  -37-  N i h o n j i n no Kodo t o S h i s o ( T o k y o : H e i r o n s h a , 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 1 5 - 2 3 . A l s o s e e W a t a n a b e S h o k o , A l t o H e l w a no S o c h o , v o l . 8, G e n d a l j i n no B u k k y o ( T o k y o : C h i k u m o , 1 9 6 6 ) , p.108 f o r t h e d a t e s u s e d . 67.  Alexander Soper, L i t e r a r y Evidence f o r E a r l y Buddhist A r t i n China (Ascona: A r t i b u s A s i a e , 1 9 5 9 ) , p.219.  68.  L e o n H u r v i t z , "Toward a C o m p r e h e n s i v e H i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e B u d d h i s m . " JAOS 89 ( O c t o b e r - D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 0 ) : 7 6 3 - 7 7 3 .  69.  Levi,  70.  P a s , " S h a n - t a o ' s Commentary",  71.  Peri,  72.  Soper, L i t e r a r y  73.  Hayami, M i r o k u S h i n k o , pp.23-23,  74.  P e r i , " R e v i e w " , p.456.  75.  M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e M a h a s u d d a s s a n a may show a n e a r l y i n f l u e n c e o f t h e b o d h i s a t t v a i d e a l on t h e c a k k a v a t t i m y t h . E. J . Thomas, The H i s t o r y of Buddhist Thought. (London: Kegan P a u l , 1933), p.171.  76.  Peri,  77.  An a b b r e v i a t e d l i s t o f t h e s e w o r k s may b e f o u n d i n B u d d h i s t E n c y c l o p e d i a , s.v. "Amita" by Ikemoto J u s h i n .  78.  G e n e r a l l y , t h e images o f p a r a d i s e i n b o t h t h e M a i t r e y a and t h e A m i t a m y t h s a r e t r a c e d b a c k t o t h i s same P a l i s o u r c e .  79.  F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s o n t h i s s e e Nakamura H a j i m e ' s "A C r i t i c a l S u r v e y o f M a h a y a n a and E s o t e r i c B u d d h i s m c h i e f l y b a s e d u p o n J a p a n e s e S o u r c e s . . . c o n t i n u e d , " AA 7 ( 1 9 6 4 ) : 42 n.7.  80.  "Maitreya l e Consolateur",  pp.369-70.  pp.112-113.  " R e v i e w " , p.447. Evidence,  p.215. 135-145.  "Review", pp.452-3.  . D u t t , B u d d h i s t Monks and M o n a s t e r i e s ,  p.288.  81.  J . P a s , "The K u a n - w u - l i a n g - s h o u F o - c h i n g : I t s O r i g i n a n d L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m , " i n B u d d h i s t T h o u g h t and A s i a n C i v i l i z a t i o n , e d . L e s l i e S. Kawamura a n d K e i t h S c o t t ( E m e r y v i l l e : Dharma P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 7 7 ) , p.199.  82.  Nakamura,  83.  "A C r i t i c a l  S u r v e y , " p.43.  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c l a i m t h a t N a g a r j u n a and Vasubandhu a r e t h e e a r l i e s t p a t r i a r c h s o f t h e P u r e Land S c h o o l s e e : P a s , " S h a n - t a o ' s Commentary," p p . 1 1 9 - 1 2 9 and R o b i n s o n , E a r l y M a d h y a m i k a , p.250 n . l l . ; A. Wayman, A n a l y s i s o f t h e , S r a v a k a b h u m i Mans c r i p t , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n C l a s s i c a l P h i l o l o g y , V o l . 17v( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1961),p.22.  -38-  84.  Pas,  " S h a n - t a o ' s Commentary," p . 1 2 7 .  85.  The t h r e e b e s t known C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n s l i s t e d h e r e a r e f o u n d i n T. v o l . 12: 1) 3 6 6 ; 2) 360; 3) 365. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n on t h e problem of d a t i n g the S a n s k r i t r e c e n s i o n s of t h e t e x t s see Pas, " S h a n - t a o ' s c o m m e n t a r y , " p.62, 194.  86.  Max  87.  O n l y f i v e o f t h e t w e l v e known t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e e x t a n t . They a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n M. M u l l e r and B. N a n j i o , Sukhavati-vyuha, A n e c d o t a O x o n i e n s i a , v o l . 1 - p a r t I I , ( O x f o r d : 1883; r e p r i n t ed., Amsterdam: O r i e n t a l P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . i i i - x x i v .  88.  Max  89.  Ibid.,  90.  The s i x e x t a n t s u t r a s i n t h i s g r o u p a r e d e s c r i b e d i n P a s , t a o ' s C o m m e n t a r y , " pp. 1 0 9 - 1 1 8 .  91.  Pas,  92.  T h i s t w o - s t a g e t h e o r y o f d e v e l o p m e n t i s d i s c u s s e d by P a s , "Shant a o ' s Commentary," pp.102-118. E a r l i e r attempts to t r a c e stages o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n c l u d e A. W a l e y , A C a t a l o g u e o f P a i n t i n g s R e c o v e r e d f r o m T u n - h u a n g by S i r A u r e l S t e i n ( L o n d o n : B r i t i s h Museum and G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a , 1931) p p . x x - x x i and S o p e r , L i t e r a r y E v i d e n c e s , p.143.  93.  Pas,  M u l l e r , "Smaller Sukhavati-vyuha  M u l l e r , "The  Larger  sutra",  Sukhavati-vyuha,"  pp.98-99.  pp.79-91.  p.73.  "The  K u a n - w u - l i a n g - s h o u Fo  "Shan-  c h i n g , " p.203.  " S h a n - t a o ' s Commentary," p . 3 0 8 .  -39-  CHAPTER I I  ESCHATOLOGY AND  I.  DEVOTIONALISM  Introduction Eschatology  i s "the doctrine of 'last  of occurrances w i t h which  o u r known w o r l d  l i s m i s "...a mysticism of exaggerated  t h i n g s ' o r more a c c u r a t e l y , comes t o i t s end"."''  Devotiona-  e m o t i o n where t h e ' I ' and t h e 2  'Thou' f l o w t o g e t h e r i n a u n i t y o f i n t o x i c a t e d a s t h e s e two t e r m s a p p e a r , time and t h e second,  the f i r s t ,  feeling".  As  d e n o t i n g a cosmology o f f i n a l  a mysticism of ecstatic unity,  e x p r e s s i o n s and o f i n n e r i n t e n t i o n a r e v e r y s i m i l a r .  their outer  and w i t h i n By and  rituals  religious  I n t h e development  o f e s c h a t o l o g y and d e v o t i o n a l i s m , t h i s s i m i l a r i t y has r e s u l t e d g r a d u a l merging of symbols,  distinct  in a  and even d o c t r i n e s , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y  Buddhism.  extension, eschatology includes the a n t i c i p a t i o n of a future savior  a future golden  age.  Similarly,  devotionalism includes the adoration  o f an e t e r n a l s a v i o r and t h e d e s i r e t o a t t a i n b l i s s . traditions,  In a l l religious  the f u t u r e s a v i o r s , whether K a l k i n , M a i t r e y a , the Messiah, o r  the h i d d e n i m a m , have been a r d e n t l y invoked  i n the language of f a i t h .  The  kingdom o r t h e golden  chief c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the long-awaited  has been i t s i n e f f a b l e , e t e r n a l j o y . aroused  age  Because o f the i n t e n s e y e a r n i n g  i n t h e b e l i e v e r , e s c h a t o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s n a t u r a l l y became a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h d e v o t i o n a l modes o f w o r s h i p . meant w o r s h i p p i n g M a i t r e y a .  I n Buddhism, w a i t i n g f o r M a i t r e y a a l s o  Since the worship  of a d e i t y , e s p e c i a l l y at  t h e p o p u l a r l e v e l was e x p r e s s e d b y c u l t u r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d a t i o n a l practices, outwardly,  the worship  ritual  and m e d i t -  o f M a i t r e y a o f t e n became  indistin-  -40-  guishable  from the worship  of  Amitabha.  As w e l l a s e x t e r n a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and  d e v o t i o n a l i s m can b o t h be  in religious  s e e n as  internally  expression,  eschatology  o r i e n t e d towards  the  3 s o l u t i o n o f a u n i v e r s a l p r o b l e m : Time.  According  ' t e r r o r of time'  the o r d e r i n g of events  supra-temporal is  models.  either cyclic  reversible.  c a n o n l y be  through two  be b a s e d on  C y c l i c or " p r i m o r d i a l time"  events  and  mysticism.  Of  and  eschatology,  theories concerning  the nature  time  progressive  to  history.  c a n be  transcended  t h e t h r e e ways of d e a l i n g w i t h Time, t h e  to eschatology  Buddhist  into  i s endlessly  a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d end  i n the a n a l y s i s i s a t h i r d view: that time  the  the view t h a t  L i n e a r or " e s c h a t o l o g i c a l time" presupposes a  correspond  thesis.  T h e s e m o d e l s may  or l i n e a r .  u n f o l d i n g of h i s t o r i c a l Implicit  e n d u r e d by  to E l i a d e ,  d e v o t i o n a l i s m as d e f i n e d  latter  in this  c o n t r a r y to Brahmanic cosmology, i n c l u d e s and  t h e end  a l i s m i s a form of m y s t i c i s m which u t i l i z e d  of h i s t o r y . both  Buddhist  devotion-  systematic meditation  and  spontaneous b h a k t i . I n sum,  the s i m i l a r i t y  i n t e n t between Buddhist affected  eschatology  t h e i r development.  i n s u c h a way  i n outer r e l i g i o u s and  e x p r e s s i o n and  d e v o t i o n a l i s m has  E s c h a t o l o g i c a l and  fundamentally  d e v o t i o n a l symbols merged  t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l y , t h e l u m i n o s i t y o f M a i t r e y a was  w i t h the l i m i t l e s s  l i g h t o f A m i t a b h a and  the r i t u a l s  t h e f e v o r o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l a n t i c i p a t i o n was of d e v o t i o n  i n t e n s i f i e d by  and  Paradise.  expressed  the spontaneous d e v o t i o n of m y s t i c i s m  t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e d e g e n e r a t e age  i n t e r a c t i o n between the concepts  o f "end  confused  t h e w o n d e r s o f T u g i t a became  almost i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the p e r f e c t i o n s of the western Similarly,  inner  t i m e " and  had  arrived.  b h a k t i not  in was The  only w i t h i n  -41-  Buddhism, b u t between Buddhism and t h e o t h e r r e l i g i o u s o f I n d i a , and  t h e Mediterranean from t h e t h i r d  A.D. p r o d u c e d  c e n t u r y B.C. t o t h e f i f t h  a r i c h and complex t r a d i t i o n .  I t was f r o m t h i s  Iran  century tradition  t h a t t h e B u d d h i s t s o f M e d i e v a l C h i n a d r e w t h e i r own u n i q u e p i c t u r e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e end o f t h e Dharma a n d i t s t r a n s c e n d e n c e  Ila.  1)  i n Faith.  O r i g i n s o f t h e E s c h a t o n : F u t u r e Buddha  Indian Influences "For whenever o f t h e r i g h t A l a n g u i s h i n g appears, son of Bharata, A r i s i n g up o f u n r i g h t , Then I send M y s e l f f o r t h . For p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e good, And f o r d e s t r u c t i o n o f e v i l - d o e r s , To make a f i r m f o o t i n g f o r t h e r i g h t , I come i n t o b e i n g i n a g e a f t e r a g e . " ^  The  i d e a o f t h e avatar"', an i n c a r n a t i o n o f V i s h n u m a n i f e s t i n g h i m s e l f  at times of d e c l i n i n g r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f  represents a clear  parallel  w i t h t h e c o m i n g o f t h e f u t u r e B u d d h a a t t h e e n d o f t h e Dharma.  Mahayana  d o c t r i n e as presented i n t h e Lotus c l e a r l y p o i n t s t o a n o t i o n o f the repeated appearance  and d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e T a t h a g a t h a whose "'emergence  in the world i s a thing d i f f i c u l t d e v i c e s t h e e t e r n a l Buddha appears  t o encounter.'"  But through  expedient  a t d i f f e r e n t times and p l a c e s i n o r d e r  t o t e a c h t h e way t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t .  0 g o o d men! The s c r i p t u r a l c a n o n p r e a c h e d b y t h e T h u s Come One i s a l l f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o n v e y i n g l i v i n g beings to deliverance. A t t i m e s he s p e a k s o f h i s own b o d y , a t t i m e s o f a n o t h e r ' s b o d y ; a t t i m e s h e shows h i s own b o d y , a t t i m e s a n o t h e r ' s b o d y , a t t i m e s h i s own a f f a i r s , a t t i m e s a n o t h e r ' s a f f a i r s . E v e r y t h i n g h e s a y s i s R e a l i t y , n o t v a n i t y . ... Y e t e v e n now, t h o u g h i n r e a l i t y I am n o t t o p a s s i n t o e x t i n c t i o n , y e t I p r o c l a i m t h a t I am a b o u t t o accept e x t i n c t i o n .  -42By r e s o r t t o e x p e d i e n t d e v i c e s t h e T h u s Come One t e a c h e s a n d c o n v e r t s t h e b e i n g s . ^  It  i s r e f e r e n c e s such as these t h a t l e d s c h o l a r s t o surmise t h a t a l t h o u g h  the m e t a p h y s i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f Buddhism developed i n d e p e n d e n t l y from that of Hinduism, b e l i e f s  such as t h e coming  o f a f u t u r e Buddha were  i n f a c t t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n s t a n c e s where p o p u l a r B u d d h i s t b e l i e f s had conformed Too  t o contemporary  little  Hindu  i s known a b o u t  beliefs.  the Vaisnava - Buddhist  relationships  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d • b e t w e e n 200 B.C. a n d 200 A.D. t o w a r r a n t a c o n c l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t o n who i n f l u e n c e d whom. c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a remarkable upsurge  This period  i n i n d u s t r y w i t h t h e development  o f new a r t s a n d c r a f t s a n d t h e i m p a c t o f f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e s increased  t r a d e ; a l l o f which brought about a fundamental  of t h e o l d Brahmanic  order.  B u d d h i s m was g a i n i n g  D e v o t i o n a l and c u l t i c a c t i v i t y flourishing.  i n I n d i a was  immense  through restructuring  popularity.  c e n t r e d on Buddha and S t u p a w o r s h i p were  C o n c u r r e n t l y t h e Brahmanas were r e f u r b i s h i n g t h e i r  religion  8 b y a p p r o p r i a t i n g f r o m t h e p o p u l a r c u l t s new i d e a s s u c h a s a h i m s a . D u r i n g t h i s same p e r i o d , a f t e r p e r h a p s m i l l e n n i a o f d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e E p i c s and s u b s e q u e n t l y t h e P u r a n a s , were b e i n g f o r m u l a t e d . P u r a n a s w e r e s e t down t o w a r d s between t h e t h i r d  Most o f t h e  the l a t t e r part of this period.  and t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s ) .  I t i ssignificant  (Probably that  this  p e r i o d was a l s o a n i n t e n s e l y c r e a t i v e o n e f o r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f new Mahayana S u t r a s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e about M a i t r e y a and A m i t a b h a . E s c h a t o l o g i c a l themes and r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e v a r i o u s a v a t a r s a r e prominent and  i n the  Vigpu Purana, t h e Bhagavata Purana, t h e K a l k i  9 t h e Mahabharata.  Worship  Purnana  o f t h e a v a t a r has been t r a c e d back t o  -43-  various portions of l a t e r Vedic  l i t e r a t u r e such as t h e Satapatha  B r a h m a n a a n d e v e n t h e Rg V e d a . ^  Later, during  the Guptas,  avatar  w o r s h i p became a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f B h a g a v a t a d e v o t i o n a l i s m .  However,  the developed form o f t h e d o c t r i n e as found i n V a i s n a v i t e i n c a r n a t i o n beliefs  i s n o t found u n t i l about t h e time o f t h e Mahabharata.  i t was a s l a t e a s t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y avatars  when t h e s t a n d a r d  i n c l u d i n g : F i s h , T o r t o i s e , Boar, Man-lion,  lists  Then, of ten  D w a r f , Rama, B h a r g a v a ,  Rama D a s a r a t h i , Rama H a l a d h a r a , B u d d h a a n d K a l k i n appeared."'""'" I n f l u e n c e d by t h e theory the composition  a r e dated  that that the Buddhist  o f B u d d h a s was a r e s u l t  lineage of avatars  doctrine of the  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e Buddhist  and more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  t h e f u t u r e a v a t a r , may h a v e b e e n i n s p i r e d b y M a i t r e y a  was  question  finally  that K a l k i n -  Buddha.  o f how t h e B u d d h a , t h e l e a d e r o f a h e t e r o d o x  incorporated  into the l i s t  of Hindu avatars  school,  i s an i n t e r e s t i n g -  one.  after  of Hindu i n f l u e n c e , the concept of t h e  "... seems... c o n s i d e r a b l y  concept o f t h e former Buddhas..."  The  well  o f t h e P a l i canon, s c h o l a r s such as J a i w a l have s t a t e d  that contrary t o the theory succession  that such references  13  As m i g h t be a n t i c i p a t e d , o r t h o d o x w r i t e r s s u c h as K u m a r i l a  to recognize ism and  t h e Buddha as a l e g i t i m a t e i n c a r n a t i o n .  e a r l y Buddhism developed  Since medieval Vaisriav-  i n t h e same e n v i r o n m e n t i t i s p o s s i b l e  t h a t t h e d e v o t e e s who w o r s h i p p e d a t many d i f f e r e n t a l t a r s , Buddha w i t h N a r a y a n a .  refused  confused  the  14 Thus, "...the  N a r a y a n a was n o t t h e r e s u l t  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Buddha w i t h  of clever machination  on t h e p a r t o f t h e  Brlhmanas.to absorb Buddhism" b u t t h e r e s u l t o f p o p u l a r Buddhist devotion, . 15 alxsm. The e n t i r e q u e s t i o n o f B r a h m a n i c i n f l u e n c e o n t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e  -44-  Maitreya avatar  Buddha i s a t t h e  and  mutually  that s t i l l  Maitreya present of  elusive.  That b o t h  f u t u r e B u d d h a m y t h s d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e same m i l i e u  i n f l u e n c e d one  questions  same t i m e o b v i o u s and  another i s i n d i s p u t a b l e .  One  i n a Pre-Buddhist  the  a f r e s h i n s p i r a t i o n of a v a t a r  s t r a t a o f I n d i a n b e l i e f much as  t h e Second Coming i n C h r i s t i a n i t y  echoes the  and  o f t h e many  remain unanswered, however, i s whether  Buddha c o u l d r e p r e s e n t  the  belief  the  image o f t h e  advent Old  Testament Messiah.  2)  Foreign As  Influences  Buddhism spread  and  f l o u r i s h e d i n the North  t h r o u g h o u t C e n t r a l A s i a en r o u t e fluences  from non-Indian sources.  eschatology and  to China,  and  Mediterran  Buddhist  d e v o t i o n a l i s m have been t r a c e d to M i d d l e  Eastern  sources.  Har  Dayal suggests that "Zoroastrianism, have c o n t r i b u t e d to the r i s e of  d o c t r i n e i n I n d i a s i n c e i t s f r a v a s h i s and  show s i m i l a r i t i e s  and  the b o d h i s a t t v a s .  Lamotte s t a t e s t h a t the m e s s i a n i c  theory  that the M a i t r e y a  In the case of  and  Ajita,  the  the  amesaspentas Maitreya,  movement i n I n d i a t r a n s f o r m e d  obscure p u p i l s of Sakyamuni, M a i t r e y a The  and  i t came u n d e r s t r o n g i n -  Numerous e l e m e n t s i n  r e l i g i o n o f a n c i e n t P e r s i a , may bodhisattva  West f r o n t i e r  i n t o the  two  f u t u r e Buddha.  B u d d h a owes much t o t h e Z o r o a s t r i a n M e s s i a h ,  S a o s h y a n t , i s s t r e s s e d by n u m e r o u s o t h e r W e s t e r n s c h o l a r s i n c l u d i n g E. Thomas, P. E. A.  Pelliot,  A b e g g and  Maitreya  and  J . P r y z y l s k i , L.  l a Vallee Poussin,  t h u s c a r r i e s much w e i g h t .  Saoshyant cover  f u l f i l l m e n t but  de  details  not  i n the  The  A.  Foucher  p a r a l l e l s drawn between  o n l y the g e n e r a l i t y of the p r o m i s e  imagery used.  For  example, at the  of  time  J. and  -45of  the f i n a l Resurrection  i n Zoroastrian  prophecy t h e Greater  Bundahishn  records: T h i s t o o i s s a i d , t h a t t h i s e a r t h w i l l become f l a t , w i t h neither h i l l s nor dales. There w i l l be n e i t h e r mountains 17 nor r i d g e s n o r p i t s , n e i t h e r h i g h ground nor low. I n t h e same way a c c o r d i n g will  traverse  t o t h e Ma i t r e y a - v y a k a r a n a t h e c a k r a v a r t i n  the earth with  ease as i t w i l l  be smooth, f l a t ,  and f r e e  from a l l o b s t a c l e s . Such e a r l y i n f l u e n c e s  i n t h e n o r t h west f r o n t i e r  came a b o u t  a two h u n d r e d y e a r a n n e x a t i o n o f t h e I n d u s V a l l e y b y D a r i u s century by  B.C.  The p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e o f t h e P e r s i a n  examples such as t h e Asokan p i l l a r  through  I i n the sixth  c u l t u r e i s evidenced  a t Sarnath and t h e P a t a l i p u t r a  18 palaces  o f t h e Mauryan c o u r t .  H o w e v e r , Gautama h i m s e l f  as h a v i n g b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y Z o r o a s t r i a n  i s not regarded  thought; although  Sarvastivada  19 and  Mahayana thought i s .  Later  were a l s o predominantly P e r s i a n  i n f l u e n c e s on Buddhism i n C e n t r a l  Asia  a l t h o u g h t h e r e was a c o m p l e t e m e l a n g e o f  20 r e l i g i o u s v i e w s and p r a c t i c e s . flourishing  trade  By t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d  c o n n e c t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d between I n d i a and t h e M e d i t e r -  ranean brought Syrian C h r i s t i a n s , P e r s i a n i n t o t h e same C e n t r a l A s i a n is  centuries,  arena.  Zoroastrians  and I n d i a n  The Z o r o a s t r i a n o f f s h o o t ,  seen as an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e M a i t r e y a  Mithraism,  c u l t because of a  s i m i l a r i t y between t h e f u t u r e Buddha's e p i t h e t , " a j i t a " Manichaeism exerted  Buddhists  and t h a t f o r  Mithra,  "invictus".  some i n f l u e n c e f r o m t h e t h i r d  century  onwards and e v e n t u a l l y merged t h e f i g u r e s o f M i t h r a s  Invictus,  22 A j i t a Maitreya  a n d J e s u s C h r i s t i n t o "one c o m p o s i t e s a v i o r f i g u r e " .  In s p i t e of the overwhelming weight of h i s t o r i c a l  and d o c t r i n a l  -46-  evidence against still  claims  Maitreya  that the  as a f i g u r e i n t r i n s i c  to e a r l y Buddhism, Robinson  i d e a o f a f u t u r e S a v i o r " was  p r o b a b l y not  due  I r a n i a n i n f l u e n c e s " ; a d d i n g somewhat t e a s i n g l y t h a t " P e r s i a i s n o t only  p l a c e where the  sun  shines"!  thorough treatment of M a i t r e y a t h i s p r o m i s e s t o be  an  step  the  way  i n discounting  Maitreya i s no  belief  p r i o r to non-Indian  importance of P e r s i a n myth i s d i s t i n c t  i n n o r t h w e s t I n d i a and  i s u n l i k e the Z o r o a s t r i a n  i n d i c a t i o n of  the  influences  or C h r i s t i a n s a v i o r s  seen  A  a  necessary  i s asking  from the other Central Asia?  the  influences,  i n t e r e s t i n g area f o r future research.  i n which the M a i t r e y a  movements c u r r e n t  A l t h o u g h I have thus f a r not  to  the  messianic For  instance,  i n that  r o l e of judge or conqueror associated  there  with  him,  23 nor  does a p e r i o d  of c a t a s t r o p h i c  t e r r o r precede h i s coming.  c u l t s were extremely p o p u l a r throughout A f g h a n i s t a n , G a n d h a r a , M a t h u r a , C e n t r a l A s i a and together  with  frequently  Sakyamuni as  found i n the  as  f a r w e s t as  a bodhisattva,  i n C e n t r a l A s i a numerous p a i n t i n g s , s t a t u e s 24  may  i n d i c a t e t h a t the  i n the minds of  Maitreya  i s "the  t e x t s , and  f u t u r e B u d d h a was  Iran.  theory  greater  And  able  s t r o n g l y argue against  the  the  Buddhism i s s o l e l y the  r e s u l t of f o r e i g n  Maitreya  to gain  competing s a v i o r  Above a l l ,  , described  i n the  such  figures  clearly that  Pali  importance i n the t r a d i t i o n s  i n C e n t r a l A s i a and  that  most  d i s t i n g u i s h e d much m o r e  cult bodhisattva"  S o u t h - E a s t A s i a as  Maitreya,  texts treating  the devotees than thought thus f a r . 25 earliest  Afghanistan,  at Gandhara.  f i g u r e was  f a c e o f numerous o t h e r  a t t a i n e d a s much i f n o t  o f S r i L a n k a and  and  That the M a i t r e y a  immense p o p u l a r i t y i n t h e  Kashmir,  i s the bodhisattva  Greco-Buddhist sculpture  themes h a v e been f o u n d .  Maitreya  the  Far  East  concept of f u t u r e s a v i o r  influences.  in  -47-  3)  I n t e r n a l Developments When we a s k t h e q u e s t i o n  Buddha i s i n t r i n s i c emerge:  o f whether o r not t h e idea o f a f u t u r e  t o the Buddhist teachings,  two l i n e s o f a r g u m e n t  1) t h a t t h e i d e a was t a u g h t b y t h e B u d d h a h i m s e l f ;  that the idea simply Buddhas o f t h e P a s t . of view.  arose i n conjunction with There a r e strong  Matsumoto Bunzaburo t r i e s  Buddha d i d n o t e x i s t d u r i n g  a n d 2)  the doctrine ofthe  advocates f o r the l a t t e r  t o e s t a b l i s h that b e l i e f  point  i n a future  t h e l i f e t i m e o f t h e Buddha h i m s e l f  nor during  26 the p e r i o d  immediately f o l l o w i n g h i s death.  Abegg b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e  f u t u r e B u d d h a came a b o u t a s a p a r t o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e s u c c e s s i o n of Buddhas.  Warder c o n c u r s and adds t h a t t h e b i o g r a p h i e s  i n which h i s past  l i v e s were e l a b o r a t e d  upon and i n w h i c h M a i t r e y a i s  o f t e n mentioned i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e only of popular  of t h e d o c t r i n e perserved Although there  Buddhism and n o t p a r t 27  a n d h a n d e d down b y t h e d i s c i p l e s .  i s no d i r e c t  t h a t t h e r e were Buddhas b e f o r e possibility.  o f t h e Buddha  t e x t u a l evidence to support the idea  Gautama, o t h e r  traditions  support the  Jain belief  i n twenty-three predecessors to Mahavira pre28 dates the Buddhist b e l i e f . And t h e n u m e r o u s B u d d h a s named i n t h e l a t e r P a l i t e x t s a r e o f t e n c i t e d as sources f o r c o n s i d e r i n g M a i t r e y a t o be t h e 29 l a s t o f a s e r i e s o f Buddhas. Probably of t h e Past on.  t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g  the  a b o u t t h e numerous  i s way i n w h i c h t h e n u m b e r s o f B u d d h a s i n c r e a s e d  Some c o n s i d e r  the earliest  ' to Sakyamuni; making M a i t r e y a , Pali  observation  30  the eight.  31  predecessors  Others see the oldest  t r a d i t i o n as s t r e s s i n g a l i n e a g e o f s i x Buddhas, w i t h s e v e n t h and M a i t r e y a ,  as t i m e went  s e r i e s t o consist of the three t h e f i f t h Buddha.  Buddhas  Sakyamuni as  A r t i s t i c a l l y , we know t h a t  belief  -48-  i n t h e p a s t B u d d h a s was _ of the stupas  w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d by  d e d i c a t e d t o them.  1 s t c e n t u r y A.D.  32  f l o w e r among t h e f o l i a g e . r a i l i n g s and  i n G a n d h a r a and  by  another As  by  t h e 1 s t c e n t u r y B.C.  to  the  i c o n o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h e Seven Buddhas  as t h e s e v e n t r e e s o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t 34  Barhut  And  the time of Asoka because  33  s y m b o l i z e M a i t r e y a as a c h a m p a k a  Such symbols a r e used on  t h e SarTci G a t e w a y .  By  sites  such  the Kushan p e r i o d ,  as  the  reliefs  M a t h u r a show a row o f s e v e n B u d d h a s u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d 35  representing Maitreya.  t i m e w e n t on  t h e t r a d i t i o n g r a d u a l l y added even more Buddhas  t h a t i n t h e Buddhavamsa t h e s t a n d a r d  Seven Buddhas f r o m V i p a s s i  so  to  Gautama a r e a u g m e n t e d b y e i g h t e e n o t h e r p r e d e c e s s o r s . Some o f t h e _ /_ l a t e r b o o k s o f t h e P a l i P i t a k a name t w e n t y - s e v e n w i t h S a k y a m u n i a s t h e 36 t w e n t y - f o u r t h and t h r e e f u t u r e B u d d h a s . R e f e r e n c e s w e r e a l s o made t o 37 t h e f i f t y - t h r e e Buddhas o f t h e P a s t , t o t h e t h o u s a n d Buddhas of t h e 38 39 bhadra kalpa a n d t o k o t i s (10 m i l l i o n s ) o f B u d d h a s . F i n a l l y , the n u m b e r s became s u c h  t h a t the Buddhas were c o n s i d e r e d  t o be a s  infinite  40 i n number a s t h e s a n d s on t h e b a n k s o f t h e  Ganges.  V a r i o u s t h e o r i e s have been o f f e r e d f o r the o r i g i n of these of Buddhas. Soper s u g g e s t s t o G a u t a m a was  later  predecessors  expanded t o seven under the i n f l u e n c e of P e r s i a n or  Mesopotamian ideas a f t e r Dayal  t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l number o f t h r e e  the conquest of Alexander  the Great.  While  t r a c e s t h e Seven Buddhas t o t h e emphasis i n a n c i e n t b e l i e f  e x i s t e n c e of seven p l a n e t s Saturn)  and  groups  that these  Har  on  the  ( s u n , moon, m e r c u r y , V e n u s , M a r s , J u p i t e r  Seven Buddhas i n f a c t c o r r e s p o n d  f r o m t h e I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n who  also represent  k o t i s of Buddhas, a s i d e from b e i n g a t t r i b u t e d  t o the Seven 41  c e l e s t i a l bodies. to the i m a g i n a t i v e  and Rsis,  The genius  -49-  of  t h e I n d i a n m i n d , a r e thought t o have been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s t a r -  filled  tropical  s k y w h e r e e a c h s t a r was  g o v e r n e d b y i t s own  imagined t o be a s e p a r a t e  world  Buddha.  Thus t h e o r i g i n o f t h e M a i t r e y a  Buddha w i t h i n Buddhism  w o u l d seem t o h a v e s p r u n g f r o m a l o g i c a l s i n c e t h e r e were Buddhas i n t h e p a s t ,  extension  itself  of the b e l i e f  that  t h e r e m u s t a l s o be a B u d d h a f o r t h e  future. For  t h o s e who w o u l d s u b m i t t h a t t h e n o t i o n  was t a u g h t b y t h e h i s t o r i c a l  Buddha h i m s e l f ,  e v i d e n c e c a n be p r e s e n t e d ; g i v e n  little  concrete  dating  However, c e r t a i n arguments have been p r e s e n t e d .  the M a i t r e y a  Buddha textual  the unknowable n a t u r e of the f i r s t  h u n d r e d y e a r s o f o r a l t r a d i t i o n and t h e u n c e r t a i n texts.  of a future  myth u n i q u e and " u n l i k e a l l o t h e r  five  of the e a r l i e s t Soper  considers  Buddhist projections  s p a c e and t i m e . . . n o t m e r e l y a d u p l i c a t i o n o r an e q u i v a l e n t  across  of something  42 else." that  He s u p p o r t s t h i s v i e w b y p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t d u r i n g  S a k y a m u n i was c o n s i d e r e d  was t h e o n l y in  figure projected  the succession  ignored,  the time  t h e s e v e n t h Buddha i n t h e s e r i e s , f o r the future.  Maitreya  N o t o n l y was a s y m m e t r y  s u c h as h a v i n g seven i n t h e p a s t b a l a n c e d by  s e v e n more i n t h e f u t u r e , b u t t h e f u t u r e B u d d h a a n d h i s f u t u r e age o f f e r e d a c o m p l e t e e s c a p e f r o m t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n ' 43 d u r i n g t h e time of Sakyamuni.  golden  of the world  B e s i d e s t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e f u t u r e Buddha i n c o n t r a s t  to the  r e p e t i t i v e p a t t e r n o f t h e p a s t Buddhas a n o t h e r argument c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the  theory  that  t h e c o n c e p t o f f u t u r e Buddha c o n s t i t u t e d a p a r t  h i s t o r i c a l B u d d h a ' s t e a c h i n g s i s s t a t e d b y P e r i who the  adduces t h a t  d o c t r i n e o f t h e B u d d h a s o f t h e P a s t was known a t l e a s t  of the since  during  -50-  or s h o r t l y a f t e r  t h e t i m e o f G a u t a m a , M a i t r e y a m u s t h a v e b e e n known  from that time a l s o . tradition  i s very  44  x  B o t h P e r i and  e a r l y and  Nakamura a l s o a g r e e t h a t  o f f e r a r c h e o l o g i c a l evidence  already well  e s t a b l i s h e d by  a n a l y s i s none o f t h e s e evidence  the time of Asoka.  t h e o r i e s are s a t i s f y i n g ; mainly  i s s o s c a n t y and  unreliable.  extent to which t h i s b a s i c concept indeed  a component o f e a r l i e s t  Mediterranean  and  and  lib.  In the because  Thus q u e s t i o n s s u c h  Buddhist  that s t i l l  Central Asian Buddhist  that  as  final the  the  o f t h e f u t u r e B u d d h a , i f i t was  P e r s i a n Messianism  q u e s t i o n s on e s c h a t o l o g y  showing  45  / i t was  the  b e l i e f , was  comprise await  i n f l u e n c e d by  some o f t h e  innumerable  future research i n both  Indian  Studies.  O r i g i n s of D e v o t i o n a l i s m :  Paradise  P e r h a p s t h e s i n g l e most c o m p e l l i n g f e a t u r e of A m i t a d e v o t i o n a l i s m is  the d e s c r i p t i o n of the p a r a d i s e of S u k h a v a t i .  the f i g u r e of A m i t a b h a h i m s e l f has  been considered  of t h e Mahayana t r a d i t i o n  i n B r a h m a n i s m , Z o r o a s t r i a n and  and  P u r e Land M a s t e r s  brought the f r u i t  and m e d i t a t i o n a l e n d e a v o r s t o t h e c o n c e p t a g a i n augmented. extremely longs  , the v i s i o n s of  of t h e i r  state.  paradise  philosophical  of p a r a d i s e the v i s i o n  to a f t e r death  was  became  embracing the extremes of a simple p i e t y  f o r a " h e a v e n " t o go  obscure  When t h e M a h a y a n a  Thus p a r a d i s e i n m a t u r e M a h a y a n a t h o u g h t  complex one,  the e n l i g h t e n e d  of the most  i n Hinayana Buddhism a l l c o n t r i b u t e d  towards the development of Amita's Pure Land. acaryas  one  of  46  _ problems the h i s t o r y  Whereas t h e o r i g i n  an  that  to the u l t i m a t e experience  of  -51-  1)  Indian It  Influences  i s g e n e r a l l y accepted  that the Buddhists  c o s m o l o g y a n d made i t i t s own.  simply adopted  Brahmanic  Concepts such as the c y c l i c r e v o l u t i o n  of t h e yugas o r t h e ages o f t h e w o r l d ;  t h e s a u c e r - l i k e w o r l d w i t h Mount  Meru i n t h e c e n t e r ; t h e b l i s s f u l heavens above and s e a r i n g h e l l s all  recall  striking  the pre-Buddhist  similarties  cosmos.  the paradises  47  Amita's paradise  below;  shows many  o f t h e Brahmanic gods. 48  For is  example, t h e p a r a d i s e o f Varuna  i s s i t u a t e d i n t h e West a n d  c a l l e d Mukhya ("the c h i e f " ) o r Sukha ("happy").  Brahma's abode i s  c a l l e d A p a r a j i t a ("unconquerable") and h i s throne A m i t a u j a s  ("limitless 49  splendor"  or " l i m i t l e s s  According  t o Hinayana t e x t s , Indra r e s i d e s i n a c e l e s t i a l paradise  sisting  power") and i t s n a t u r e , P r a n a  ("limitless  con-  o f a s e r i e s o f s e v e n e n c l o s u r e s , one w i t h i n t h e o t h e r .  In d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l ,  i ti s the Northern  continent of Uttarakuru  (Abode o f t h e B l e s t ) w h i c h i s m o s t o f t e n c i t e d a s r e s e m b l i n g The  life").  earth i s f l a t  and c o v e r e d  Sukhavati.  w i t h p r e c i o u s j e w e l s and g o l d e n  soil;  a r e no d a n g e r s , no d i s c o m f o r t ; and t h e w a t e r h a s t h e e i g h t good  there  qualities.  T h i s a r c h e t y p a l model found i n t e x t s as e a r l y as t h e Aitareya-Brahmana and  reiterated  i n t h e Ramayana a n d t h e M a h l b h i r a t a " ^ became p a r t o f t h e  common l o r e o f b o t h  Hindus and B u d d h i s t s . 52  texts also describe Uttarakura Tusita, Trayastrimsa  but the Buddhists  paradises  Buddhist  of Abhirati,  a l l f o l l o w t h e same s c h e m a : a c e n t r a l d e i t y ,  rounded by o t h e r d e i t i e s , and  T h u s n o t o n l y do  dwelling i n a palace with magical  sur-  gardens, waters  birds. However u p o n c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n  H i n d u and t h e B u d d h i s t  paradises  important  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  emerge. " . . . U t t a r a k u r u  i sa projection  -52-  i n t h e space o f t h a t g o l d e n age a t t h e b e g i n n i n g enjoyed happiness before is described  as a paradise  D h a r m a k a r a ' s vow.  important  corruption."  created  i squalitatively  — Sukhavati  In contrast  i n t h e Western  changed.  part of t h e Hindu paradises  p a r a d i s e , women a r e r e b o r n  53  t h r o u g h t h e power o f t h e b o d h i s a t t v a  In addition, with rebirth  the b e l i e v e r h i m s e l f an  gradual  o f t i m e when man  The s e n s u a l  disappear  a s men a n d a l l e a r t h y  Paradise, pleasures,  so that i n Amita's  desires a r e banished.  The  p h y s i c a l l y b l e m i s h e d a r e b o r n w h o l e and i n l a t e r Mahayana, even  the  i c c h a n t i k a could be reborn  of a l l ,  i n t o Amita's Sukuhavati.  Most  important  u n l i k e t h e Hindu heavens, t h e P u r e Land d i d n o t m e r e l y  an e n j o y a b l e  r e s p i t e from t h e s t r u g g l e o f s p i r i t u a l  place or state of the f i n a l  r e b i r t h before nirvana.  represent  advancement b u t a Therefore  Sukhavati  can be seen as a v a r i a t i o n on t h e models found i n Brahmanic and H i n d u l i t e r a t u r e b u t w i t h a new s o t e r i o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t i s d i s t i n c t l y Buddhist.  2)  Foreign The  Influences  foreign prototypes  f o r t h e W e s t e r n P a r a d i s e most o f t e n m e n t i o n e d 54  are Greek and P e r s i a n . paradises  T h e s e v e n w a l l s , a common e l e m e n t i n B u d d h i s t  i s found i n H e l l e n i s t i c  introduced  into  r e l i g i o n and i s thought t o have been  India through Iran.  T u c c i adds t h a t t h e b a s i s f o r  t h e scheme i n I n d i a l a y i n t h e s e v e n p l a n e t s d e s c r i b e d 56 and  Iranian astrological  texts.  i n Hellenistic  A n o t h e r common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s  t h e i r western o r i e n t a t i o n : t h e P e r s i a n "Var", t h e Greek " I s l a n d s of t h e Blessed"  and t h e Gardens o f H e s p e r i d a e a l s o l i e i n t h e W e s t . ^  Eliot  points out that the highest  of the four paradises  i n the  -53-  Avesta  i s called  the "land of endless  light"  and t h a t i n h i s o p i n i o n  all  the main f e a t u r e s of Amitabha's p a r a d i s e a r e P e r s i a n except f o r  its  c r e a t i o n through  t h e b o d h i s a t t v a ' s vow.  He a l s o d e n i e s  the s i g n i -  f i c a n c e o f any s i m i l a r i t i e s between S u k h a v a t i and any o f t h e e a r l i e r Buddhist  p a r a d i s e s such  as A b h i r a t i o r T u s i t a , s t a t i n g  that i t "appears  suddenly  i n t h e h i s t o r y o f Buddhism as something e x o t i c g r a f t e d a d r o i t l y 58  on t h e p a r e n t Pas  suggests  conceived. purposely  t r u n k b u t sometimes outgrowing  t h a t t h i s g r a f t was p e r h a p s n o t s o s u d d e n a s p r e -  He s u g g e s t s  that the author(s) of these  s u t r a s may  have  i n c o r p o r a t e d H i n d u , G r e e k and P e r s i a n e l e m e n t s i n t o t h e  composition  o f t h e Pure Land S u t r a s i n o r d e r 59  n o t i o n s more p a l a t a b l e t o l a y b e l i e v e r s . of these  it."  t o make t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l  The a b i l i t y  o f t h e composers  s u t r a s t o demonstrate t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f Amitabha's P u r e Land  t o a l l o f t h e o t h e r P u r e L a n d s may h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d r a m a t i c success  of t h i s c u l t over  t h e o t h e r Buddhas o f t h e Ten D i r e c t i o n s .  Thus w h e t h e r b y a c c i d e n t o r by d e s i g n , A m i t a b h a ' s P u r e Land r e p r e s e n t s an e c l e c t i c v i s i o n o f a p a r a d i s e o f p a r a d i s e s . 3)  Internal  Developments  I n t h e P a l i Canon, t h e Maha-sudassana s u t t a n t a s t a n d s prototype  f o r the imagery found  description of Sukhavati s e v e r a l e x p r e s s i o n s found  i n t h e Pure Land S u t r a s .  as a c l e a r  Although the  i s by f a r more e l a b o r a t e and o t h e r - w o r l d l y , i n the Smaller-sukhavati sutra are i d e n t i c a l  to passages i n t h e Maha-sudassana s u t t a n t a .  60  The l a t e r A p a d a r i a  also  c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a b u d d h a - k h e t t a w h i c h i s a l s o sometimes i d e n t i f i e d as of the Paradise of Amita.  61  -54-  With  t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of Buddhas c h a r a c t e r i z i n g  b u d d h o l o g y and t o o k on new  emerging Mahayana i d e a l s ,  importance.  E a c h Buddha had  the concept h i s own  t h e new  of  Mahasanghika  buddha-kgetra  Buddha-field  62  "which  63 he  guides  and  many w o r l d s  "ripens" i n spirituality.  and  E a c h k g e t r a was  u n i v e r s e s w i t h t h e i r own  of s e n t i e n t b e i n g s .  Aksobhya  h e a v e n s and  ("Imperturbable")  made up  h e l l s and  of  varieties  h i s Eastern 64 z_ Pure Land, A b h i r a t i i s perhaps the o l d e s t of these c r e a t i o n s . Sakyamuni and V i m a l a k i r t i e n a b l e t h e a s s e m b l e d b e l i e v e r s t o s e e t h i s p a r a d i s e i n • the Agtasaharika-prajnaparamita R e b i r t h i n t o A b h i r a t i c o u l d be  and  B u d d h a and  ' / the V i m a l a k i r t i - n i r d e s a  a t t a i n e d by m o r a l a c t s o r by  respectively. hearing  66 A k s o b h y a ' s name. twenty-four all  and  A m i t a b h a ' s P u r e L a n d , p r o d u c e d by n o t later,  by  f o r t y - e i g h t vows and  by  the P u r e Realms of a l l the o t h e r  Ketumati,  the c i t y  of M a i t r e y a ' s descent  developed  M a i t r e y a s u t r a s and  described  i n the Sukahavati-vyuha  same theme.  In fact,  but  concentrating  the e x c e l l e n c e s of c o u n t l e s s Buddha-lands soon gained  A b h i r a t i and  one,  on  p o p u l a r i t y over  Buddhas. as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e  the Western P a r a d i s e of Amitabha  as  s u t r a s seem t o be v a r i a t i o n s on  the  t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f p a r a d i s e s i n t h e t e x t s became  so " s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t h e c o u r s e  of time  t h a t nobody d a r e d  to a l t e r i t s  67 scheme..." Because of c l e a r precedent f o r Sukhavati found i n the b u d d h a - k g e t r a , S u k h a v a t i i s c o n s i d e r e d b y some s c h o l a r s t o be a B u d d h i s t . • 6 8 creation. F r o m t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y A.D. M a d h y a m i k a and  Yogacara thought,  onwards, w i t h the f o r m u l a t i o n of Amitabha's P u r e Land began t o  i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d i n g t o e n t i r e l y new t h i s new  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was  not  metaphysical  embraced by  premises.  the l a i t y ,  i t is  t o m e n t i o n i t h e r e b e c a u s e i t e v e n t u a l l y p r o v i d e d much o f t h e  be Although  important inspiration  65  -55-  f o r the P u r e Land m e d i t a t i o n masters  and  dogmatists  i n China.  r e v o l u t i o n a r y development i n the c o n c e p t i o n of Buddhist a l r e a d y brought o f k a r m a , was  about i n Amitabha b e l i e f  g i v e n new  /_ of sunyata  concept  and  the Yogacara  by n e u t r a l i z i n g  For the Yogacarins, Amita  d o c t r i n e of the .Trikaya.  nor  ...  a negative  appears i n h i s nirmana-kaya  Ilia.  effects  69  The  nothingness".^  i n h i s P u r e Land i s p e r c e i v e d by  i n h i s sambhoga-kaya ("enjoyment-body") w h i l e t o t h o s e  s t a t e of  the  i s d e s c r i b e d as " n e i t h e r a m y t h o l o g i c a l  r e a l i t y nor a m e t a p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y ;  and  salvation  p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e n d e r i n g s b a s e d on t h e M a d y a m i k a  P u r e Land o f A m i t a b h a as s u n y a t a  Chinese  The  ("apparition-body").  the b o d h i s a t t v a s  i n this world  E v e n t u a l l y f o r modern  J a p a n e s e B u d d h i s t s , t h e P u r e L a n d b e c o m e s synomymous  enlightenment.  he  the  71  C e n t r a l Concepts:  Latter  Days  "The t i m e s a r e come When f l o o d e d b y t h e r i s i n g t i d e o r i g n o r a n c e B u d d h a ' s r e l i g i o n seems t o b r e a t h e i t s l a s t . . " 7 2  I n t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y when Vasubandhu. w r o t e t h e a b o v e v e r s e was  e x p r e s s i n g w h a t was  and  a f t e r him,  f o r him  a statement  f o r innumerable  of f a c t .  o f t h e m e a s u r e d d e c l i n e and concerning the disappearance a n c i e n t and  and  Buddhist  disappearance  Buddhists  before  eschatology describes  of r e l i g i o n .  eras  Predictions  o f t h e Dharma a r e n o t o n l y among t h e m o s t  o f t - r e p e a t e d themes i n Buddhism, but h a v e e x e r c i s e d a  i n f l u e n c e upon the r e l i g i o u s h i s t o r y . t h a t Conze s t a t e s :  he  73  "the whole of l a t e r  T h e i r i n f l u e n c e has been Buddhism proceeds  under the  decided such shadow  74 of t h i s sense of d e c l i n e . " tradition  Even a b r i e f  l o o k at the Buddhist  i n I n d i a shows t h a t i t i s c o n c e p t u a l l y and  eschatological  h i s t o r i c a l l y both  universal  -56and  unique. D e s p i t e t h e enormous s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s  "sense  of d e c l i n e "  B u d d h i s m , B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o l o g i c a l n o t i o n s a r e o f t e n s e e n by s c h o l a r s as n o t h i n g more t h a n t h e e m b a r a s s i n g a d o p t i o n of Brahmanic cosmology; and it  the K a l k i n a v a t a r .  Age  from the V e d i c world-view.  i s true.^~*  In contrast  t h e o r d i n a r y i m a g i n a t i o n . . . h a d no  Yuga  However,  distinct  to the r e v e r s i b l e  o f t h e Vedas, t h e B u d d h i s t coming o f M a i t r e y a o f f e r a  beyond which  Buddhist  as a n o t h e r v e r s i o n o f t h e K a l i  i s also true that the Buddhist world-view represents a  shift  modern  remnants of the  In a g e n e r a l sense, t h i s  in  Golden  "terminus  power t o p e n e t r a t e , a n  76 end  of change, a b l i s s f u l  stoppage  of time."  Karma, w h i c h had  served  as a " s o u r c e o f c o n s o l a t i o n t o t h e p r e - B u d d h i s t i c I n d i a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . " becomes a m e c h a n i s m t o b e t r a n s c e n d e d " . ^  H i s t o r y and q u a s i - h i s t o r y w e r e 78 much m o r e i m p o r t a n t t o B u d d h i s m t h a n t o B r a h m a n i s m . Thus t h e B u d d h i s t v i e w o f t h e c o s m i c c y c l e i s a n e x i s t e n t i a l and h i s t o r i c a l one w h e r e a s 79 the Brahmanic view The to  i s a r c h a i c and  existential  anthropological.  and h i s t o r i c a l c o s m i c v i e w  i n Buddhism g i v e s  rise  t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e Dharma o f t h e c o n t i n e n t w o r l d a s o p p o s e d  the immutable,  e t e r n a l Dhafma.  to  I t i s t h e f o r m e r Dharma, a s s o c i a t e d  s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g s o f Gautama t h a t u n d e r g o e s d e c l i n e . p o s s i b l e nucleus f o r the i d e a of t h i s  decline  i n B u d d h i s m may  be  A  found  80 in  a P a l i account  relating  t h e o r d i n a t i o n of t h e Sangha's f i r s t  P a j a p a t i . T o w a r d s t h e end o f t h i s  a c c o u n t , t h e Buddha s t a t e s t h a t i f  women h a d n o t b e e n a l l o w e d i n t o t h e O r d e r , t h i s h o l y r e l i g i o n have endured  f o r a thousand  t h e p e r i o d o f t h e T r u e Law While t h i s t h a t t h e T r u e Law  years.  would  B u t now  only last  source i s often c i t e d would  nun,  perish after  would  t h a t they have been a d m i t t e d , 81 f o r f i v e hundred  as the b a s i s of the  f i v e hundred  years. conviction  years, the f u l l  life-  -57-  s p a n o f t h e Dharma was  not y e t exhausted.  Pali  s o u r c e s a s w e l l a s many  82 of  the t e x t s  c e n t u r y A.D. s t a g e was  composed b e t w e e n t h e second  prophesy  c e n t u r y B.C.  t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e Law  and  the 83  first  i n three stages.  Each  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f Dharma: 1) t h e  True  Dharma ( S a d d h a r m a ) ; 2) t h e C o u n t e r f e i t Dharm ( P r a t i r u p a k a d h a r m a ) , 3) t h e D e g e n e r a t e Dharma ( P a s c i m a d h a r m a ) . r e l i g i o n bears  fruit  stage, the r e l i g i o n  the f i n a l  and  enlightenment  and  E v e n t h o u g h t h r e e s t a g e - e s c h a t o l o g y was one w h i c h  the Chinese  a r e found  i n other sources.  fifth  century, five  later  adopted, 85  as t h e " F i v e D i s a p p e a r a n c e s " Buddha's d e a t h :  enlightenment  enlightenment  the  second  i s rare.  During 84  i s impossible.  t h e m o s t p o p u l a r t h e o r y and  f i v e and  the  ten stage eschatologies  S i n c e i t s a d o p t i o n by Buddhaghosa i n t h e  s t a g e e s c h a t o l o g y has b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y  w i t h the Theravada t r a d i t i o n .  stage,  i s p o s s i b l e . During the  l a c k s s u b s t a n c e and  stage, the r e l i g i o n decays  During the f i r s t  and  The  associated  Anagatavamsa d e s c r i b e s the  that are to take place following  1) t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e  of Attainment  process the  ( N i r v a n a ) ; 2)  the  d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f m e t h o d ( p r e c e p t s ) ; 3) t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f l e a r n i n g ( t r i p i t a k a ) ; 4) t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f s y m b o l s ( r o b e s and b o w l s ) ; and 5) « 8 6 the disappearance  of r e l i c s .  A Mahayana s u t r a , Manasamnipata s u t r a  describes the  f i v e s t a g e s as t h o s e i n w h i c h  t h e monks w i l l  excell  enlightenment,  2) m e d i t a t i o n , 3) e r u d i t i o n , 4) f o u n d i n g m o n a s t a r i e s 87  also  i n 1) and  5) d i s p u t i n g a b o u t t h e Dharma a s i t d i s a p p e a r s . D i v e r s e c h r o n o l o g i e s were a f f i x e d usually u t i l i z i n g  to the v a r i o u s stages of  m u l t i p l e s of f i v e hundred y e a r s .  The  decline;  d u r a t i o n of  the  t r u e Dharma was  u s u a l l y s e t at f i v e hundred years or a m i l l e n i u m . In 88 some M a h a y a n a s u t r a s , the words " . . d u r i n g the l a s t f i v e hundred year  age,  -58-  when t h e T r u e Dharma i s i n r u i n s " b e c a m e  a stereotype phrase.  c o n c e r n i n g t h e o n s e t o f t h e L a t t e r D a y s c l i m b f r o m 1,000 2 , 0 0 0 , 3 , 0 0 0 , 5,000 and  12,000 y e a r s i n t h e f u t u r e .  89  Predictions  y e a r s t o 1,500,  Other  sources  The  general  cite  90 d a t e s a s f a r a s 3 0 , 0 0 0 and r u l e i s : the l a t e r early  5,670,000,000 y e a r s h e n c e .  the account, the longer the l i f e  i n s t a n c e o f how  o f t h e Dharma.  t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e Dharma was  An  progressively  l e n g t h e n e d comes f r o m t h e g r e a t e s t p e r i o d o f m e s s i a n i c e x p e c t a t i o n i n India. The  p e r i o d between the a r r i v a l Alexander  of K i n g Kanishka  (ca. I l l  from the n o r t h .  Consequently,  to e i t h e r  s t a y i n g and  B.C.  - 1 A.D.)  was  t h e G r e a t and  m a r k e d by  to calmer r e g i o n s i n the  d e c l i n e of r e l i g i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y a t t r i b u t e d /• 91 i n the Kosambakavastu of the Vinaya. I n Kausambi, where the l a v i s h l y  takes place.  t h e monks i n t h e c i t y ,  s u p p o r t e d monks had  Sudhara,  A t an u p o s a t h a  the death of the T r i p i t a k a master, i n the path of d o c t r i n e  communities The  i s said  South. recounted  already  t h e i r moral  laxity,  assemblage of a l l i n India i s k i l l e d  a r h a t ' s d e a t h i s avenged  t h u s d e p r i v i n g b o t h t h o s e who  leaders.  The  t h o s e who  ensuing d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of  the s t a b i l i t y  p e r i o d o f h i s t o r y and  B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o n . S i n c e t h e Dharma h a d  strove the  the  Law.  of the Kushana  Dynasty  thus a f r e s h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of survived  by  s t r o v e i n the path of  t o have l e d t o the e x t i n c t i o n of the  r e i g n o f K i n g K a n i s h k a and  i n t r o d u c e d a new  The  ( b a h u s r u t a s ) and  ( s i l a s ) of t h e i r  day  the only arhat l e f t  by a d i s c i p l e o f t h e T r i p i t a k a M a s t e r .  precepts  t o an e v e n t  t h e r e t r e a t i n g monks f r o m t h e N o r t h b y event  reduced  r e b u i l d i n g r u i n e d s t u p a s and m o n a s t e r i e s d u r i n g  The  a horrifying  conquest  incessant invasions  t h e monks i n N o r t h West I n d i a w e r e  the p e a c e f u l i n t e r v a l s or r e t r e a t i n g  scandalized  the  the  the t u r m o i l of the p r e v i o u s  -59-  age  i t seemed n a t u r a l t o assume t h a t i t w o u l d c o n t i n u e f o r a t  another  f i v e hundred y e a r s .  of the  Ekottaragama  composed. and  The  t h o s e who  particularly the f i f t h  New  time  were a c t i v e i n the p r o p a g a t i o n of Buddhism i n China  were  interested  i n the development of m e s s i a n i c  ideas.  c e n t u r y , I n d i a n B u d d h i s m b e g a n i t s s l o w d e c l i n e and  countries  disappeared  from  being s u c c e s s f u l l y propogated  i n s o u t h e a s t A s i a and  Buddha's B o w l , i l l u s t r a t i n g  the Far East.  The  subsequent a t t i t u d e s  l i k e n s t h e B u d d h a ' s Dharma t o h i s b e g g i n g broken  i n t o p i e c e s by  There,  by  the  end was  bowl.  The  to  delayed  s t o r y of  t o t h e end After  other and the  of the  Law,  t h e Buddha's b o w l  the e v i l King M i h i r a k u l a , i t f l e w towards  the people  r e v e r e n t l y s h o w e r e d i t w i t h o f f e r i n g s and  o f t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e B u d d h a i t became w h o l e a g a i n . " ' . . . o n c e more became b y  After  the country of i t s b i r t h .  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the eschaton were n e c e s s a r y .  North.  sutra  S a r v a s t i v a d i n s emerged as a dominant f o r c e a t t h i s  M e a n w h i l e , B u d d h i s m was  was  as t h e M a i t r e y a  (one o f t h e s i x C h i n e s e M a i t r e y a s u t r a s ) w e r e  t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y had  new  s u t r a s such  least  itself  s u c h as  i t had  The  the because  Buddha's b o w l  been p r e v i o u s l y , w i t h o u t  92 any  difference.'" The  bowl then continued  P e r s i a , C h i n a , C e y l o n , and  i t s journey  to the c o u n t r i e s of  r e t u r n e d to Madhyadesa.  Finally,  Gandhara, i t ascended  t o T u s i t a H e a v e n and  descended to Sugara's p a l a c e at the bottom of 93 t h e r e awaits the advent of M a i t r e y a .  o c e a n and  lib.  C e n t r a l Concepts: It  Devotion  i s a common p r a c t i c e f o r h i s t o r i a n s  variagated  landscape  the  of the Buddhist  to introduce the e n d l e s s l y  t e a c h i n g s by d e l i n e a t i n g  two  broad  -60-  parallel The  lines  of development:  d e v o t i o n a l approach,  e p i t o m i z e d by  d e v o t i o n a l i s m and  dominated  by  speculative philosophy.  t h e i n t e n s i t y o f human l o n g i n g , i s  the a t t a i n m e n t of s a l v a t i o n though b e l i e f  t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f m e r i t t h r o u g h w o r s h i p and  i n a pure  i n the e f f i c a c y  of  life, the  94 B u d d h a ' s name, h i s vow approach  and h i s P u r e L a n d .  i s e p i t o m i z e d by  the mastery  through m e d i t a t i o n .  that the d e v o t i o n a l approach is  philosophical  the attainment of n i r v a n a through a c e l i b a t e  o f v a s t e p i t e s m o l o g i c a l and  t i v a t i o n of i n s i g h t  In c o n t r a s t , the  is inferior  o n t o l o g i c a l systems  and  the  I t i s b o t h a s s u m e d and  stated  to the p h i l o s o p h i c a l .  Devotion  Upon c l o s e r  b r o a d d i s t i n c t i o n s become i n a d e q u a t e and  examination  the p a r a l l e l  however, lines  of  d e v o t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s were f a v o u r e d by these p r a c t i c e s  i n t o t h e Sangha r e q u i r e d  N e v e r t h e l e s s , d e v o t i o n a l elements _ S t u p a , and D h a t u i s f o u n d even w i t h o u t any  the l a i t y  early  particular  and  own  m e d i t a t i o n a l and  of  t h e r e was  spiritual  The  denied.  Doubtless,  exercises.  interrelated  i n the course  of  Thus t h e d e v o t i o n a l from the e a r l y days of  p r o b a b l y n o t a s much c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n t h e m i n d s  the e a r l y Buddhists themselves  p e r s p e c t i v e may  be  p r e s s u r e f r o m l a y d e v o t e e s , monks s o o n  the p h i l o s o p h i c a l were c l o s e l y  B u d d h i s m and  infiltration  (puja) of t h e Buddha, . 9 5  of t h e Sangha.  discovered the e f f i c a c y of the d e v o t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e their  That  l e g i t m i z a t i o n cannot  i n r i t u a l worship  i n the l i f e  that the  such  develop-  ment a r e m o r e c o r r e c t l y d r a w n a s l i n e s o f d y n a m i c i n t e r a c t i o n .  and  cul-  the consequence of the layman's i g n o r a n c e whereas p h i l o s o p h y i s the  p r o d u c t o f t h e monk's w i s d o m .  of  life,  a s we,  from a t w e n t i e t h century  w i s h t o p r o j e c t u p o n them.  acknowledged  s u p e r i o r i t y of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l approach  has  a l s o l e d numerous s c h o l a r s t o a s c r i b e t h e p r e s e n c e o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m i n 96 Buddhism t o the i n f l u e n c e of o t h e r I n d i a n r e l i g i o n s ? B h a k t i ,a complex  -61-  term  c o n n o t i n g a " p a s s i o n a t e , s e l f - o b l i v i o u s d e v o t i o n t o a d e i t y who i n 97  t u r n bestows h i s grace  (prasada or anugraha  compatible w i t h t h e reasoned  , on t h e devotee,  is i n -  calm o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l Buddhism.  Thus  s c h o l a r s have v a r i o u s l y p o i n t e d t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f pre-Brahmanic 98 99 authochthonous r e l i g i o u s o f I n d r a and V a r u n a to the metaphysical s p e c u l a t i o n s o f t h e Upanishads"'"^ K r i s h n a worship."^"*"  and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f B h a g a v a t a and  To s a y t h a t b h a k t i , a n i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l a n d 102  u n i v e r s a l way o f b e i n g r e l i g i o u s i s meaningless  comes f r o m a n a u t h o c h t h o n o u s  because the e x p r e s s i o n of profound  and l o v i n g  source  feelings  a r e a b a s i c c o m p o n e n t o f b e i n g human; w h e t h e r m y s t e r i o u s l y p r i m i t i v e o r not.  Again,  too l i t t l e  early bhakti cults  i s known a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e  t h a t evolved from  (including the Pancavatra,  t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y B.C.  the Bhagavata, the Pasupata  and l a t e r , t h e  v a r i o u s S a i v i t e and V a i s n a v i t e c u l t s ) t o a s s i g n a d e f i n i t e i n f l u e n c e i n any d i r e c t i o n .  In fact,  evidence  onwards  flow of  seems t o i n d i c a t e  b h a k t i i n B u d d h i s m and i n t h e B r a h m a n i c - H i n d u t r a d i t i o n s a r o s e currently.  By  1B.C. - 1A.D. b o t h  w h a t h a d become f o r m u l a e rituals  Eliot  and m o r e e m o t i o n a l w o r s h i p "  or the increasingly r i g i d  rejecting  observes  p r e s c r i p t i o n s of  that this "craving f o r a gentler 103  o c c u r r e d i n many c o u n t r i e s a t t h a t  I n a moment o f s p e c u l a t i v e m u s i n g p e r m i t t e d o n l y t o t h e p r o v e n Conze  con-  f o r s a l v a t i o n , whether they were t h e i n e f f e c t i v e  of Vedic s a c r i f i c e s  t h e o l d widom s c h o o l .  t r a d i t i o n s were s i m i l a r l y  that  time. scholastic,  asks: "How c a n we a c c o u n t f o r t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t B u d d h i s m , j u s t a t t h e t i m e when C h r i s t i a n i t y i t s e l f a r o s e , underwent a r a d i c a l r e f o r m of i t s b a s i c t e n e t s which made i t much m o r e s i m i l a r t o C h r i s t i a n i t y t h a n i t h a d been before?"104  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  implications  of the surge of  -62-  devotionalism  that  took place  a t thebeginning  o f t h e Common E r a w o u l d  be  a valuable  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e study o f devotionalism  of  Religions.  i n the History  A more r a d i c a l a p p r o a c h , t a k e n b y H a r D a y a l , i s t h a t innovations  i nbhakti  sources f o r b h a k t i and  influenced  t h e Hindu bhaktas.  i n Buddhism r e v o l v e  b h a t t i (devotion)."*"^  6  Broadly  (Vedic)  conviction that to t h e goal defined  the  o f two k i n d s :  and  faith".  directly  Practically  speaking, " r a t i o n a l  through the stages of f i r s t ,  accepting  then e x e r t i n g t h e e f f o r t  experiencing  t h a t w h i c h o p e n s t h e g a t e w a y o f immortality.''""'""'" f a i t h " , was c o n s i d e r e d  i r r a t i o n a l acceptance.  This  to follow  t h e t r u t h f o r oneself."'""'"^  l i k e n e d t o a seed, a c h a r i o t o f s a l v a t i o n , t h ebest t r e a s u r e  version, "baseless and  a " f i r m f a i t h and  a k a r a v a t x saddha o r " r a t i o n a l f a i t h " a n d  on a p r o v i s i o n a l l e v e l ,  them, and f i n a l l y , is  Saddha"'"^  I n t h e Maj j i m a - n i k a y a " ' " ^ s a d d h a w a s c l e a r l y  i s a t t a i n e d by passing  teachings  concept w i t h i n i t .  as t h e  t h e way o f t h e Dhamma ( t h e M a g g a ) m u s t l e a d o n e a s s u r e d l y  airiulika saddha o r " b a s e l e s s faith"  (faith)  s p e a k i n g , Sraddha i s d e f i n e d  and more d e v e l o p e d t e r m , i m p l y i n g  o f Nibbiria''"''^  as being  The e a r l i e s t  around terms sraddha  broader category with bhakti as a s p e c i f i c i s an older  the Buddhist  a pitiful  Saddha  o f man  Its counterfeit s t a t e ; mere unexamined  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between t h e two t y p e s o f  s r a d d h a may b e t h e o r i g i n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d e n e g r a t i o n o f b h a k t i i n Buddhism. Despite  the fact that  s c r i p t u r e s and f a i l s  t h e term b h a t t i appears r a r e l y i n t h e Buddhist  t o c a r r y t h e f u l l meaning o f t h e word b h a k t i i n  _ _ _ 112 the Mahayana s e n s e , i t does appear e a r l y i n P a l i works. bhakti poetry  The e a r l y  i n t h e Apadana, t h e Theragatha and t h e TherTgatha  of joyous passages l a u d i n g  (vandana), praying  consists  ( s t u t i ) and w o r s h i p p i n g  -63-  (puja") t h e B u d d h a . intellectual on  the path  life and  They r e v e a l t h e e m o t i o n a l of these  i n d i v i d u a l s who  are g r a t e f u l  t o t h e one  have been taught.  Thus b h a t t i ,  Three Treasures  the  The  —  rituals  Buddha: b e a r i n g  have embarked s u c c e s s f u l l y  without  whom t h e p a t h , w o u l d  i s the expression,of  faith  i n one  not  of  the  Buddha.  o f f e r i n g s , l a y b e l i e v e r s e a g e r l y sought him  the  out  as  a  a remover of a f f l i c t i o n s ; monks, a f t e r r e c e i v i n g  i n s t r u c t i o n s , circumambulated h i s person before  l e a v e ; and  the  of d e v o t i o n a l i s m began d u r i n g the l i f e t i m e of  g r a n t e r o f b o o n s and their  r a t h e r than  taking  their  e v e n t u a l l y A n a n d a , h i s c l o s e s t d i s c i p l e became t h e s y m b o l o f 114  p e r s o n a l d e v o t i o n t o w a r d s the Buddha. of the Buddha began soon a f t e r was  d e m o n s t a t e d s u c c e s s i v e l y by  and  f i n a l l y by  simply  served  the f i r s t  The  process  the Buddha's d e a t h reverence  century,  and  of the  deification  devotion  to h i s r e l i c s ,  to  him  symbols,  stupas"'""'"  t o h i s image, the o b j e c t s w h i c h a t  as r e m i n d e r s of h i s l i f e  first  became r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f h i s  divinity. The  b h a k t i movement i n B u d d h i s m w h i c h h a d  since the f i f t h  century  Asokan p e r i o d .  Bhakti cults organized  B u d d h a s and  bodhisattvas  a n s w e r s t h a t had resulting  B.C.  occupied  i n s c h i s m s and  most i m p o r t a n t  been g a t h e r i n g  t o o k an u n p r e c e d e n t e d l e a p i n t h e  emerged.  around the worship  Concurrently,  the search  t h e Sangha as e a r l y as t h e t h i r d  t h e e t e r n a l and  and  emphasized the needs of the l a i t y .  and  f u n d a m e n t a l changes were g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d by  of e s c h a t o l o g i c a l i d e a s .  Indian for  sects;  who  the h i s t o r i c a l aspects  post-  new  century  t h e e m e r g e n c e o f i n f l u e n t i a l new  f o r d e v o t i o n a l i s m were the Mahasartghikas  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s on  of  strength  was  the  explored  of the  Buddha  These f o r c e s , i m p e l l i n g r a p i d a new  urgency  new  born  -64-  From t h e t h i r d was  c e n t u r y B.C.  subject to the thoroughgoing s o c i a l ,  upheavals a f f l i c t i n g feared that the  to the f i r s t  n o r t h west I n d i a .  t h e t r u e r e l i g i o n was  Brahmans, B h a g a v a t a s ,  suffered  e c o n o m i c a l and Specifically,  S a i v i t e s and  d i s l o c a t i o n s o f t h e age  r i g o r s of s e l f - e f f o r t the  B u d d h a was  eternal —  B o d h i s a t t v a s and A.D.  and  and  t h e i r Pure Lands t o w o r s h i p .  the spontaneous  of  the was  A r h a t s h i p was In the  G a u t a m a was  t h e r e were i n f i n i t e  t h e o r g a n i c f u s i o n b e t w e e n t h e new  p a t h and  groups;  the no  degenerate  t r a n s f e r of merit r e p l a c e d the  karmic r e t r i b u t i o n . and  by  Furthermore, they i n t e r p r e t e d  i n e s c h a t o l o g i c a l terms.  the d o c t r i n e s of compassion  absorbed  over the stagnation that  l o n g e r v i a b l e and b o d h i s a t t v a h o o d became t h e g o a l . age  political  innumerable other  from the l o s s of r o y a l patronage w i t h the f a l l  i n t o the monastic order.  Buddhism  the Buddhists  b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d and  M a u r y a n s , and w o r s t o f a l l , b r o o d e d settling  c e n t u r y A.D.  gone b u t  numbers o f Buddhas,  By t h e f i r s t  century  d o c t r i n e s of the b o d h i s a t t v a  e c s t a c y o f t h e b h a k t i movement h a d  p l a c e , p r o d u c i n g t h e " B u d d h i s m o f Devotion"."'""^  taken  -65-  Footnotes to Chapter  II  1.  R u d o l f K. B u l t m a n n , H i s t o r y and E s c h a t o l o g y U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p.23.  2.  O t t o , R u d o l f , M y s t i c i s m E a s t a n d W e s t , ( T o r o n t o : The Co., 1 9 3 2 ; r e p r i n t e d . , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 2 3 1 .  3.  T h i s i d e a i s developed i n M i r c e a E l i a d e ' s Myth of the E t e r n a l (New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n B o o k s , 1 9 5 4 ) .  4.  F r a n k l i n E d g e r t o n , The 1 9 6 4 ) , p.23.  5.  F o r m o r e d e t a i l s on t h i s c o n c e p t s e e J . G o n d a , A s p e c t s o f V i s n u i s m ( U t r e c h t : 1 9 5 4 ) , pp.124-163.  6.  L e o n H u r v i t z , S c r i p t u r e o f t h e L o t u s B l o s s o m o f t h e F i n e Dharma (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 2 4 0 .  7.  Ibid.,  8.  S u v i r a J a i s w a l , The O r i g i n and D e v e l o p m e n t o f V a i g n a v i s m Munshiram M a n o h a r l a l , 1967), pp.150-151.  9.  F o r t h e v a r i o u s l i s t s o f a v a t a r s w h i c h v a r y i n name a n d number s e e : M a j u m d a r , The H i s t o r y and C u l t u r e o f t h e I n d i a n P e o p l e , 3 : 4 1 5 - 4 1 6 .  10.  J a i s w a l , Vaignavism,  11.  M a j u m d a r , H i s t o r y and  12.  J a i s w a l , V a i s n a v i s m , p.119,  13.  Ibid.,  132.  14.  Ibid.,  131-132.  15.  J a i s w a l c i t i e s s e c t i o n s f r o m t h e L a l i t a v i s t a r a where t h e Buddha i s c a l l e d n a r a y a n a - s t h a m a v a n a n d t h e B h a g a v a t a P u r a n a w h e r e he i s d e s c r i b e d as an i n c a r n a t i o n o f N a r a y a n a . V a i g n a v i s m , p.131.  16.  F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s o n t h i s s u b j e c t s e e H a r D a y a l : The B o d h i s a t t v a D o c t r i n e , p.39.  17.  Q u o t e d i n M. E l i a d e , D e a t h , A f t e r l i f e a n d E s c h a t o l o g y (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d Row, 1 9 6 7 ; r e p r i n t e d . H a r p e r and Row, 1 9 7 4 ) , p.78. C f . p.82 i n t h e same s o u r c e .  Bhagayad G i t a  (New  (Edinburgh:Edinburgh  Macmillan  York: Harper  Return  Torchbooks,  Early  p.239. (Delhi:  p.121. C u l t u r e o f t h e I n d i a n P e o p l e , 3:216. 130.  -66-  18.  H a r D a y a l , The  Bodhisattva Doctrine,  p.39.  19.  Charles E l i o t , Hinduism A r n o l d , 1 9 2 1 ) , 3:449.  20.  R e s e a r c h on t h i s a r e a has been r e l a t i v e l y s l o w l a r g e l y t h e m a t e r i a l s a r e s c a t t e r e d o v e r d i v e r s e l a n g u a g e s and ( S a n s k r i t , P r a k r i t , Greek, Chinese, P e r s i a n e t c . ) .  21.  F o r m o r e d e t a i l s on t h i s s u b j e c t s e e : P r z y l u s k i , The L e g e n d o f E m p e r o r A s o k a , pp. 175 f f . and L e v i , " M a i t r e y a l e c o n s o l a t e u r , " pp. 360 f f .  22.  Robinson, Buddhist R e l i g i o n ,  23.  S o p e r , L i t e r a r y E v i d e n c e s , p.  24.  Ibid.,  25.  Robinson, Buddhist R e l i g i o n ,  26.  Peri,  27.  A b e g g ' s v i e w s a r e c i t e d b y G. J . Thomas i i i The H i s t o r y o f B u d d h i s t T h o u g h t ( L o n d o n : K e g a n P a u l , 1 9 3 3 ) , p.168 and W a r d e r ' s i n h i s own I n d i a n Buddhism, p.334.  28.  Thomas, H i s t o r y  29.  B. M. B a r v a , S t u d i e s i n B u d d h i s m C h a p t e r 8.  30.  T h i s l i s t o f f i v e Buddhas i s found i n t h e Ariagatavamsa t r a n s l a t e d i n H. C. W a r r e n , B u d d h i s m i n T r a n s l a t i o n (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 8 9 6 ; r e p r i n t e d . , New Y o r k : A t h e n e u m , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 4 8 2 .  31.  N a k a m u r a H a j i m e , Ways o f T h i n k i r i g o f E a s t e r n P e o p l e s : I n d i a - C h i n a T i b e t - J a p a n ( H o n o l u l u : E a s t - W e s t C e n t e r P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p.609 n.8.  32.  Thomas, H i s t o r y o f B u d d h i s t T h o u g h t , p . 1 4 7 .  33.  K. W. M o r g a n e d . , The Co., 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 2 2 6 .  34.  Soper, L i t e r a r y E v i d e n c e s , p.178.  35.  Ibid.,  36.  R h y s D a v i d s , H i b b e r t L e c t u r e s on t h e G r o w t h and O r i g i n o f R e l i g i o n : I n d i a n B u d d h i s m (London: W i l l i a m s and N o r g a t e , 1 8 8 1 ) , p.142.  and B u d d h i s m , 3 v o l s .  (London:  Edward  because cultures  p.60. 212.  p.218.  "Review,"  p.58.  p.451.  o f B u d d h i s t Thought, p.147. (Calcutta:  Saraswat  P a t h o f t h e B u d d h a (New  Library,  Y o r k : The  Ronald  1974),  Press  p.199.  -67-  37.  Soper, L i t e r a r y Evidences,  38.  The B h a d r a k a l p i k a - s S t r a l i s t s t h i s "good c y c l e " .  39.  T h e s e enormous n u m b e r s a r e f o u n d o n l y i n S a n s k r i t w o r k s s u c h the L a l i t a v i s t a r a , Lotus, Mahavastu e t c .  40.  For  41.  Ibid.,  42.  Soper, L i t e r a r y Evidences,  43.  O b s e r v i n g t h e T h e r a v a d a A t t i t u d e t o M a i t r e y a , E. S a r k i s y a n z w r i t e s : "Not o n l y r e n o v a t i o n b u t a l s o f u l f i l l m e n t o f B u d d h i s m was expected o f M e t t e y a : u n i v e r s a l c o m p a s s i o n i s t o become t h r o u g h h i m a c o s m i c reality. U n i v e r s a l l o v e ( M e t t a ) i s t o be f u l f i l l e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h M a i t r e y a , as h i s name i n d i c a t e s " . Buddhist Backgrounds o f t h e B u r m e s e R e v o l u t i o n (The H a g u e : M. N i j h o f f , 1 9 6 5 ) , p.44.  44.  Peri,  45.  B o t h N a k a m u r a and P e r i u s e t h e same e x a m p l e : t h e N i g a l i - S a g a r E d i c t w h e r e As*oka i s s a i d t o h a v e e n l a r g e d t h e s t u p a o f K o n a k a m a n a t w i c e . N a k a m u r a , Ways, p. 609 n.8; P e r i , " R e v i e w , " p . 4 5 1 .  46.  P a s a p p l i e d t h e s e same g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s o f H i n d u , f o r e i g n and i n t e r n a l B u d d h i s t d e v e l o p m e n t s and s o I w i l l n o t r e p e a t t h e e x e r c i s e ; i n s t e a d I w i l l e x p l o r e t h e i d e a o f " p a r a d i s e " as an i n s p i r a t i o n to devotionalism. However, a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e o r i e s on t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f i n f l u e n c e s on A m i t a b h a may be appropriate here. Hindu a n t e c e d e n t s a r e g e n e r a l and u n i l l u m i n a t i n g : v a g u e r e f e r e n c e s a r e t o Brahma o r I n d r a a s p o s s i b l e p r o t o t y p e s f o r Amitabha. P e r s i a n i n f l u e n c e s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d a r e c o n v i n c i n g ; p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n A m i t a b h a and a Z o r o a s t r i a n d i e t y w h o s e name, when i n v o k e d i s s a i d t o l e a d t o a p a r a d i s e o f light. A m i t a y u s , has a c o u n t e r p a r t i n the I r a n i a n Z u r v a n A k a n a r a k ( U n l i m i t e d T i m e ) and t h e t r i n i t y o f A m i t a y u s , A v a l o k i t e s V a r a and M a h a s t h a m a p r a p t h a h a s many P e r s i a n p a r a l l e l s . Because of the s t r o n g e v i d e n c e f o r P e r s i a n i n f l u e n c e and b e c a u s e A m i t a b h a i s u n known i n t h e P a l i t e x t s J a p a n e s e s c h o l a r s h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h a n o n - f o r e i g n ^ o r i g i n f o r t h e B u d d h a by r e g a r d i n g h i m a s t h e n a t u r a l e x t e n s i o n of Sakyamuni. The t r i k a y a t h e o r y was t h e n a p p l i e d h i s t o r i c a l l y t o show how A m i t a b h a d e v e l o p e d i n t e r n a l l y w i t h i n t h e M a h a y a n a fold. F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s s e e H o b o g i r i n , 1 9 2 9 , s . v . " A m i d a " b y P. Demieville.  47.  F o r m o r e d e t a i l s on t h e s j i b j e c t o f B u d d h i s t c o s m o l o g y s e e : L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , p p . 3 4 - 3 6 ; L o u i s de l a V a l l e e P o u s s i n , t r a n s . , 1 ' A b h i d h a r m a k o s a  specific references  p.200-201. 1,000  see: Har  B u d d h a s who  will  appear i n  Dayal, Bodhisattva Doctrine,  as  p.25.  p.24. p.212.  "Review," p.451.  -68-  de V a s u b a n d h u , 6 v o l s . , M e l a n g e s C h l n o l s e t B o u d d h i g u e s v o l . 16 ( B r u x e l l e s , I n s t i t u t B e i g e Des H a u t e s E t u d e s C h i n o i s , 1 9 7 1 ) , 2: 1-217. 48. M. M u l l e r , " L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a " , p . x i i . A c c o r d i n g t o Conze t h e s e p a r a d i s e s made a n " e x c e p t i o n a l l y s t r o n g i m p a c t o n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e B u d d h i s t s , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a so f a r unexplained p r o p e n s i t y of the a r c h a i c m y t h o l o g i c a l i m a g i n a t i o n w h i c h i n many c u l t u r e s h a s p l a c e d t h e ' I s l a n d s o f t h e B l e s s e d ' i n t o t h e W e s t . " B u d d h i s m : I t s E s s e n c e and D e v e l o p m e n t , p . 2 0 5 . 49. A. K. Coomaraswamy, E l e m e n t s o f B u d d h i s t I c o n o g r a p h y ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 5 ; 2nd e d . , New D e l h i : M. M a n o h a r l a l , 1972) p . 8 6 , 49. 50. G. T u c c i , "A P r o p o s A v a l o k i t e s v a r a " , M e l a n g e s C h i n o i s e t B o u d d i g u e s , v o l . 9 ( B r u x e l l e s : 1 ' I n s t i t u t e B e i g e s des Hautes Etudes C h i n o i s ) , pp. 207. 51. I b i d . ,  pp.196-197.  52. The V i m a n a v a t t h u and P e t a v a t t h u o f t h e P a l i C a n o n a n d t h e A b h i d h a r m a k o s a of Vasubandhu d e s c r i b e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e U n i v e r s e , i t s heavens, h e l l s and c l a s s e s o f b e i n g s . 53. M a h a v a s t u  I , p.338, quoted i n T u c c i , " A v a l o k i t e s v a r a , "  p.198.  54. T u c c i c i t i e s a c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h e H a r i v a q i s a w h e r e s e v e n m o u n t a i n s must be c r o s s e d , " a f t e r w h i c h a m a r v e l l o u s l i g h t i s s e e n w h i c h i s nothing but Krgna h i m s e l f " . " A v a l o k i t e s v a r a " , p.204 n . l . 55. P a s , " S h a n - t a o ' s C o m m e n t a r y , " 56. T u c c i ,  "Avalokitesvara,"  p.49.  p.213.  57. N a k a m u r a a l s o m e n t i o n s o t h e r p a r a l l e l s s u c h as t h e E g y p t i a n o f R e e d " and t h e P a r a d i s e o f O s i r i s . Ways, p . 3 8 5 . 58. E l i o t , H i n d u i s m a n d B u d d h i s m ,  3:220.  59. P a s , " S h a n - t a o ' s C o m m e n t a r y , "  p.47.  "Fields  60. R. D a v i d s , D i a l o g u e s o f t h e B u d d h a , 3:198. 61. B a r v a , S t u d i e s ,  p.270.  62. F o r t h e b a c k g r o u n d s o f b u d d h a k s e t r a s e e E t i e n n e L a m o t t e : de V i m a l a k i r t i ( L o u v a i n : 63. H a r D a y a l , B o d h i s a t t v a D o c t r i n e , 64. C o n z e , B u d d h i s m :  p.25.  I t s E s s e n c e and Development,  p.147.  L'Enseigment  -69-  65. A k s o b y a i s a l s o m e n t i o n e d i n t h e L o t u s , t h e S u v a r n a p r a b h a s a , t h e K a r u n a p u r t d a r l k a , t h e M a h a p a r i n i r v a a a and t h e S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a s but underwent t h e g r e a t e s t development i n the T a n t r i c s y s t e m s a s one o f t h e f i v e J i n a s . 66. R o b i n s o n , B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , 67. T u c c i , " A v a l o k i t e s v a r a , "  p.66.  p.208.  68. P a s , " S h a n - t a o ' s C o m m e n t a r y , "  p.48.  69. F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e M a d h y a m i k a p h i l o s o p h y s e e R o b i n s o n ' s E a r l y M a d h y a m i k a and f o r a n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t r i - k a y a s e e E n c y c l o p e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , 1912 e d . , s . v . " D o c e t i s m ( B u d d h i s t ) , " b y A n e s a k i M a s a h a r u a n d Nagao Geld j i n : "On t h e T h e o r y o f B u d d h a - B o d y , " E a s t e r n B u d d h i s t 6 (May 1 9 7 3 ) : 25-53-, H o b o g i r i n , s . v . " B u s s h i n " . 70. To c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e q u o t a t i o n : " N l g a r j u n a d e f i n e s t h e P u r e L a n d as t h e r e a l m of p u r i t y or p u r i f i c a t i o n (vyavadana), meaning t h a t t h e P u r e Land i s p r e c i s e l y Sunyata, r e p r e s e n t e d i n terms o f t h e realm which stores i n e x h a u s t i b l e m e r i t s or p o s s i b i l i t i e s of o p e r a t i n g , i n s t r u c t i n g and p u r i f y i n g p e o p l e . . . " . Y a m a g u c h i Susumu, "The C o n c e p t o f t h e P u r e L a n d i n N a g a r j u n a ' s D o c t r i n e " , E a s t e r n B u d d h i s t (September 1966):46. 71. S u z u k i D a i s e t z , (1939):31.  "The  S h i n Sect o f Buddhism,"  Eastern Buddhist 7  72. A b h i d h a r m a k o s a , C h a p t e r 9, q u o t e d i n C o n z e , T h i r t y Y e a r s , p . 7 9 . For m o r e d e t a i l s o n t h e end o f t h e k a l p a s e e de l a V a l l e e P o u s s i n , L ' A b h i d h a r m a k o s a , 2 : 2 0 7 - 9 ; L a m o t t e , L ' E n s e i g e m e n t de V i m a l a k i r t i , p.296-7 n . 3 7 . 73. L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , 74. C o n z e , B u d d h i s m :  p.210-11.  I t s E s s e n c e and D e v e l o p m e n t ,  75. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s m a t t e r s e e l i b . , 76. S o p e r , L i t e r a r y E v i d e n c e s , p . 2 1 2 . 77. E l i a d e , M y t h o f t h e E t e r n a l R e t u r n , 78. R o b i n s o n , B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n ,  translated  1 above. »  p.117.  p.59.  79. E l i a d e , M y t h o f t h e E t e r n a l R e t u r n , 80. C u l l a - V a g g a ( X , l ) , pp. 4 4 1 - 4 4 7 .  p.115  p.117.  i n Warren, Buddhism  i n Translation,  -70-  8 1 . L a m o t t e a l s o g i v e s o t h e r c a n o n i c a l and p o s t - c a n o n i c a l s o u r c e s where t h i s s t o r y i s r e c o u n t e d i n h i s H i s t o i r e , p.211. 82. These t e x t s a r e l i s t e d  i n Lamotte, H i s t o i r e ,  pp.211-217.  8 3 . T h r e e s t a g e e s c h a t o l o g y i s common i n I r a n i a n and M e d i t e r r a n e a n eschatologies. See P r z y l u s k i , Legend o f Emperor A s o k a , pp.184-5; E l i a d e ; M y t h o f t h e E t e r n a l R e t u r n , pp. 1 1 8 - 1 3 0 . 84. T h i s s t a g e h a s been v a r i o u s l y t r a n s l a t e d as " t h e d e c l i n e " , " t h e e n d " , " t h e d e c a y " , " t h e l a t t e r d a y s " , and " t h e l a t t e r p e r i o d o f the law". 8 5 . Some o f t h e s e s o u r c e s may  b e f o u n d i n L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , p.  212-217.  86. A t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s s e c t i o n a p p e a r s i n W a r r e n , Buddhism i n T r a n s l a t i o n , pp. 4 8 1 - 4 8 6 . 87. T. V o l . 1 3 , 3 6 3 . c i t e d i n K. N a k a m u r a , M i r a c u l o u s S t o r i e s f r o m t h e B u d d h i s t T r a d i t i o n (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p.13. 88. F o r e x a m p l e t h e L o t u s and t h e V a j r a c c h e d i k a s u t r a s . H i s t o i r e , p.215. 89. L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , pp.  Lamotte,  211-217.  90. Oda T o k u r i o , B u k k y o D a i j i t e n ,  p. 1 6 8 9 a .  9 1 . The f o l l o w i n g a c c o u n t i s b a s e d o n t h e A-Yu-Wang C h u a n a s r e l a t e d i n P r z y l u s k i , The L e g e n d o f E m p e r o r A ^ o k a , p p . 1 8 6 - 1 8 9 . 92. S y l v a i n L e v i , " N o t e s C h i n o i s s u r l ' I n d e " , BEFEO 6:46 P r z y l u s k i , Legend o f K i n g A s o k a , p.180.  f f quoted i n  93. T h i s s t o r y , t o l d b y F a - h s i e n i n h i s t r a v e l a c c o u n t s seems t o h a v e been p r e v a l e n t i n contemporary Ceylon. 94. C o n z e , B u d d h i s m : E s s e n c e a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , p p . 1 5 7 - 1 5 8 . 95. D u t t , B u d d h i s t Monks and M o n a s t e r i e s ,  p.182.  96. E n c y c l o p e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , 1 9 1 2 , s . v . " B h a k t i M a r g a , " b y G. A. G r i e r s o n , p. 539. 97. F o r a b r i e f e t y m o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t o f b h a k t i i n I n d i a see J a i s w a l , V a i g n a v i s m , pp.110-112. 98. T. S o l o m o n , " E a r l y V a i s n a v a B h a k t i and i t s A u t o c h t h o n o u s H e r i t a g e , " HOR 10 ( A u g u s t 1 9 7 0 ) : 3 2 - 4 8 .  -71-  99.  I n t h e Rg V e d a I n d r a i s c a l l e d " d e l i v e r and a d v o c a t e ; f r i e n d , b r o t h e r , . . . f a t h e r and m o t h e r i n o n e " . E l i o t , H i n d u i s m and B u d d h i s m , 2: 180-82. Compare w i t h The B h a g a v a d G i t a ( X I . 4 4 ) : t h e r e f o r e , b o w i n g and p r o s t r a t i n g my b o d y , I beg g r a c e o f Thee, t h e L o r d t o be r e v e r e d ; As a f a t h e r t o h i s s o n , a s a f r i e n d t o h i s f r i e n d , As a l o v e r t o h i s b e l o e v e d , b e p l e a s e d t o show m e r c y , 0 God! E d g e r t o n , The B h a g a v a d G i t a , p.59.  1 0 1 . M. W i n t e r n i t z and E. S e n a r t c i t e d a s s o u r c e s f o r t h i s D a y a l , B o d h i s a t t v a D o c t r i n e , p.31.  theory i n  102.  J o a c h i m Waeh, The C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f R e l i g i o n , e d . J . (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p.95.  103.  Eliot,  104.  C o n z e , T h i r t y Y e a r s , pp.  105.  D a y a l , The  106.  Sraddha i s d e f i n e d a s ^ t h e broader c a t e g o r y w i t h b h a k t i as a concept w i t h i n i t by S a n d i l y a s i n t h e B h a k t i s u t r a (11,24); b y D u t t , B u d d h i s t Monks and M o n a s t e r i e s , p . 1 8 1 .  107.  H. Z i m m e r , P h i l o s o p h i e s o f I n d i a , e d . J o s e p h M e r i d i a n Books, 1951), pp.48-51, 542-3.  108.  D u t t , B u d d h i s t Monks and M o n a s t e r i e s , p . 1 8 1 .  109.  F o r b a c k g r o u n d on s a d d h a s e e K.N. U p a d h y a y a : E a r l y B u d d h i s m and B h a g a v a d - G i t a ( D e l h i : M o t i l a l B a n a r s i d a s s , 1971) , pp". 2 5 1 - 2 7 3 .  110.  Ibid.,  111.  Sutta-nipata. These images a r e t a k e n from t h e S u t t a - n i p a t a : 1-172; V-6; 1-214; 1-138, r e s p e c t i v e l y q u o t e d i n G. C. P a n d e , S t u d i e s i n t h e O r i g i n of Buddhism ( A l l a h a b a d : U n i v e r s i t y of A l l a h a b a d , 1957) p.522 n.  112.  Har D a y a l c l a i m s t h a t t h a t t h e term b h a k t i appears f o r t h e f i r s t time i n I n d i a n r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e i n a P a l i work, Thera-gatha i n t h e K h u d d a k a - n i k a y a , see Rhys D a v i d s t r a n s . , Psalms o f t h e B r e t h r e n (London: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s 1913), p . x x i .  113.  D u t t , B u d d h i s t Monks and M o n a s t e r i e s , p . 2 8 8 .  114.  F o r A n a n d a ' s d e v o t i o n t o t h e B u d d h a s e e T. W. R h y s D a v i d s " M a h a - p a r i n i b b a n a S u t t a n t a , " B u d d h i s t S u t t a s , SBE v o l . 11 C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 0 0 ) , p.97.  Hinduism  and  Kitagawa  B u d d h i s m , 2:180. 48-50.  B o d h i s a t t v a D o c t r i n e , p.31.  Campbell  (New  specific cited  York,  the  p.257.  trans., (Oxford:  -72-  115.  F o r more d e t a i l s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s t u p a w o r s h i p s e e D u t t , B u d d h i s t Monks and M o n a s t e r i e s , pp.182-188.  116.  The " B u d d h i s m o f F a i t h / D e v o t i o n " i s t h e d e s c r i p t i v e t i t l e u s e d by C o n z e , B u d d h i s m , p p . 1 4 4 - 1 6 0 and D. T. S u z u k i , On I n d i a n Mahayana" B u d d h i s m , e d . E. C o n z e (New Y o r k : H a r p e r T o r c h b o o k s , 1968), pp.129-146.  -73-  Chapter I I I  Maitreya  I  and  Amita i n E a r l y T r a d i t i o n a l China  Introduction The  tumultuous y e a r s between the  d e s i g n a t e d by  h i s t o r i a n s as  characterized  by  pestilence."'"  Like  incessant the  t h e Age  the Mauryan Empire i n I n d i a , with  e s c h a t o l o g i c a l and  Dynasty had,  of  t h e Age  i n t h e w o r d s o f A.F.  r i v e n to i t s foundations —  civil  invasions  devotional  and  sixth  of D i s u n i o n  i n v a s i o n and  period  third  (220-589) were  strife,  that  The  Wright, " l e f t  famine  followed  o f D i s u n i o n was  fervor.  centuries,  end  the  also of  and fall  permeated  the  Han  a s o c i e t y shaken  a p r o m i s i n g seed-bed f o r the  of  and  implantation  2 of a l i e n  ideas  and  institutions.  almost three  centuries  missionaries  t o make d e e p i n r o a d s  ground f o r the  of  growth of  C o n f u s i a n i s m , T a o i s m and  imperceptible  the  first,  and  same c o n d i t i o n s  Buddhism.  The be  devotional  i l l u s t r a t e d by objects  two  these  examples i n  of personal  the  the  movements i n  e a r l y development of  i l l u s t r i o u s m o n k s , and  of people from a l l s t r a t a of  Buddhist  i n t o Chinese s o c i e t y , provided  A m i t a were r e g a r d e d as  i n v o l v i n g two  which a f t e r  progress, enabled  e s c h a t o l o g i c a l and  movements i n C h i n e s e B u d d h i s m c a n which Maitreya  The  devotion:  second, l a r g e  numbers  society.  Since t h e introduction o f Buddhism i n t h e f i r s t century Sakyamuni, the  h i s t o r i c a l Buddha, held a firm p o s i t i o n a s  Worshipping o t h e r f i g u r e s i n c l u d i n g Manjus'ri, Amita or M a i t r e y a  began as  the  center  of  Ksitigarbha,  o p t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n any  worship. Avalokitesvara,  group, school  or  -74-  sect.  By  the  f o u r t h century a f l o o d of  sutras,  icons  and  ceremonial  3 p r a c t i c e s were b e i n g imported  into China.  l a r g e n u m b e r s o f M a h a y a n a t e x t s and of  the  c e l e s t i a l b u d d h a s and  with Maitreya  and  Missionaries  bearing  e x t o l l i n g t h e v o w s and  bodhisattvas  A m i t a w e r e among t h e  arrived.  first  t o be  Pure Lands  Sutras  dealing  translated  and 4  the m i s s i o n a r i e s  a t t r a c t e d numerous l a y a d h e r e n t s f o r t h e i r d e i t i e s .  an  Hui-yuan  ( 3 1 2 - 3 8 5 ) and  ecclesiastical  (344-416) a r e  f i g u r e s to r i t u a l i z e  A m i t a i n s u c h a manner t h a t  considered  t h e i r devotion  they a t t a i n e d  t e m p l e r e t r e a t i n H s i a n g - y a n g , T a o - a n and expressed  their desire  t o be  h e n c e , h i s most b r i l l i a n t followers of Amita.  a t Lu  first  major  to Maitreya  of  first  two  and  independent s t a t u s .  In  r e b o r n i n T u s i t a Heaven.  Thirty  d i s c i p l e , Hui-yuan, together w i t h  years  his Paradise  example i s b i o g r a p h i c a l ; d i s c u s s i n g  highly  his  his disciples formally .  S h a n , vowed t o a t t a i n r e b i r t h i n t h e W e s t e r n  Thus t h e  devotionalism  the  Tao-  c u l t i v a t e d members o f  the  early  the  Chinese  sangha. The  second example i s drawn from a r c h e o l o g i c a l  m o u n t a i n s n e a r L o y a n g h o u s e one of Chinese a r t .  From t h e  T ' a n g , C h i n e s e and creativity  and  Foreign  how  the  was  gradually  the w o r l d ' s most s p l e n d i d  part  the  s u p p l a n t e d by  devotional  t h e Wei  Sui  laymen, i n a f e v e r  and  of  thousands"*  w o r s h i p i n t h e N o r t h e r n Wei  illustrate  f i g u r e s but  legacies  Tsukamoto Z e n r y u c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s  A m i t a w o r s h i p by  only  The  Dynasty to the  Lung-men C a v e s c o n t a i n i n g  immensely p o p u l a r M a i t r e y a  A m i t a as  of  n o b l e m e n , monks and  A s t u d y made by  These examples not and  latter  zeal fashioned  of Buddhist c a r v i n g s .  of  sources.  the  the  T'ang  (618-907).  p o p u l a r i t y of  a l s o demonstrate the  (386-531)  Maitreya  widespread  -75-  awareness  o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e Dharma's e n d .  illustrate a shift  i n popularity  A m i t a t h e E t e r n a l Buddha.  Moreover,  both  examples  f r o m M a i t r e y a , t h e f u t u r e Buddha t o  I n a l a r g e r sense t h i s  shift  stems  from  t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e S a r v a s t i v a d a s c h o o l t o t h e Mahayana s c h o o l s between the t h i r d  and  the f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s ;  from the Abhidharma  world-  v i e w t o t h e Mahayana w o r l d - v i e w . By t h e l a t e s i x t h and  e a r l y s e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s the seeds t h a t  had  been g e r m i n a t i n g throughout the P e r i o d of D i s u n i o n were sending out new  shoots.  The  e m e r g e n c e o f t h e u n i q u e l y C h i n e s e T'ang  T i e n - t a i , F a - h s i a n g , C h ' a n a n d P u r e L a n d , m a r k s a new development  II  schools,  stage i n the  of Buddhism.  T a o - a n and  Hui-yuan  I n h i s L i v e s o f Eminent  Monks^, H u i - C h i a o  writes:  F r e q u e n t l y An and h i s d i s c i p l e s Fa-yu / ^ I r ^ and o t h e r s pronounced vows i n f r o n t o f [ t h e image o f ] M a i t r e y a e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r vow ( p r a n i d h a h a ) t o be b o r n i n T u s i t a . 1  F r o m R u i - y u a n ' s b i o g r a p h y i n t h e same s o u r c e : "'The m a s t e r o f t h e D o c t r i n e S h i h H u i - y u a n , ( u r g e d b y ) t h e d e p t h o f h i s n o b l e e m o t i o n s and t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f h i s pure f e e l i n g s , has i n v i t e d ( u s ) , l i k e m i n d e d gentlemen, ( d e s i r o u s o f ) a p p e a s i n g t h e m i n d and i n s p i r e d by a n o b l e f a i t h , t o t h e member o f 123 men, t o a s s e m b l e b e f o r e t h e s t a t u e o f A m i t a b h a a t t h e V i h a r a o f t h e P r a j n a t e r r a c e on t h e n o r t h e r n s l o p e o f t h e L u - s h a n , and he has l e d us r e v e r e n t l y t o p e r f o r m t h e s a c r i f i c e o f i n c e n s e and f l o w e r s and t o make a vow i n o r d e r t o s t i m u l a t e a l l t h o s e who t a k e p a r t i n t h i s m e e t i n g . ' " g According to the sources  Tao-an g a t h e r e d e i g h t d i s c i p l e s  f o r t h e ceremony  and H u i - y u a n , one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y t h r e e . I t i s thought t h a t Tao-an's vow i n v o l v e d a f o r m o f m e d i t a t i o n on M a i t r e y a . And i t i s c l e a r l y r e c o r d e d  -76-  t h a t w h i l e the vow by i n c e n s e and  made by Hui-yiian and h i s f o l l o w e r s was  accompanied  f l o w e r s , t h e i r p r a c t i c e of anusmrti enabled  the b e l i e v e r s  9 to  see the Buddha " f a c e t o f a c e " .  Over the c e n t u r i e s b o t h events,^,  i n marking the i n c e p t i o n of M a i t r e y a and Amita d e v o t i o n a l i s m i n China have a c q u i r e d a symbolic ty  status.  Because they o c c u r r e d w i t h i n about  y e a r s of one another, one performed  by h i s b e s t known d i s c i p l e ,  by a Dharma master and the other  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Ziircher would  comment on the "unmistakable"'6onnection"  between them."'"^  Before  a n a l y z i n g the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s which t h e s e ceremonies have had their  thir-  f o r Tao-an and Hui-yuan, l e t us f i r s t  may  t u r n to t h e i r l i v e s  and  accomplishments. There i s a f a s c i n a t i n g c o u n t e r p o i n t i n t h e l i v e s of t h e s e two  monks.  great  Tao-an"'""'", (312-385) i n d o m i t a b l e adventurer both i n h i s outer  inner l i f e ,  and  c o n t i n u e d to teach d u r i n g the wars of the P e r i o d of D i s u n i o n ,  moving whenever i n v a d i n g swords t h r e a t e n e d the l i v e s of h i s s t u d e n t s . H i s r e l a t i v e l y t r a n q u i l f i f t e e n y e a r s i n the southern r e t r e a t of  Hsiang-  yang were f o l l o w e d by an appointment as the head of the T r a n s l a t i o n Bureau in  Chang-an where he spent the l a s t s i x y e a r s of h i s l i f e .  l e a v e of h i s master b e f o r e the i n v a d i n g armies  After taking  of F u - P e i i n 378,  Hui-yuan  12 (344-416)  built  a mountain monastery c a l l e d T u n g - l i n ssu on Lu Shan where  he remained f o r the r e s t of h i s l i f e .  There, h i s fame spread, h i s  munity grew, and he commanded the r e s p e c t of K i n g s .  13  From the time of h i s d i s c i p l e s h i p under Fo-t'u-teng Chang-an, Tao-an p a i n s t a k i n g l y s t u d i e d and and dhyana, and He  com-  to h i s y e a r s i n  s y n t h e s i z e d the systems of Yoga  the p h i l o s o p h i e s of P r a j n a p a r a m i t a ,  S a r v a s t i v a d a , and  i s j u s t l y famed f o r the p r o f u n d i t y of l e a r n i n g which enabled him  the Agamas.  to p e r c e i v e  t h a t the methods of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s Buddhist in  failed  to adequately  convey  message; thus b r i n g i n g about a fundamental change of  the Buddhist  direction  s c h o l a r s h i p of h i s time. Hui-yuan, the master of  subtle intricacies  o f h s u a n hsu'eh, n o t  Buddhism t o i t s apex but  e x p l o r e d new  the  the  only brought the a r t s of  Gentry  ways o f m e e t i n g t h e needs o f  the  laity. B e c a u s e b o t h T a o - a n and fall and  i n the l a t t e r  Hui-yuan's d e v o t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  p a r t of t h e i r  lives —  f o r Hui-yuan, h i s l a t e f i f t i e s  aspect  of t h e i r p r a c t i c e as  biographies  spiritual  f i f t e e n years  powers.  Even at the  eagerly s t r i v i n g  t o m a s t e r t h e new  not  some a r e t e m p t e d t o d i s m i s s  end  the r e l i g i o u s  them e a r l i e r ;  this their  i n many w a y s , a t t h e h e i g h t o f  their  Tao-an's M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p  of t h e i r  and  sixties  However,  lives,  Buddhist  T a o - a n , t r e m e n d o u s l y moved b y  encountering  years.  of h i s l i f e w h i l e Hui yiian's, continued  fourteen years.  Chinese:  f o r Tao-an, i n h i s l a t e  the p i e t y of advancing  show t h a t t h e y w e r e t h e n  i n t e l l e c t u a l and last  —  seem t o  they  f o r the  the last  are recorded  texts being  the contents  spans  as  translated into  o f t h e Agamas l a m e n t e d  Hui-yuan, always at the f o r e f r o n t of  c o n t r o v e r s i e s of h i s generation keenly  questioned  Kumarajiva  14 on  the s u b j e c t of Madhyamika The  s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n the t w o " e v e n t s d e s c r i b e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  t h i s s e c t i o n c a n be  e x p l a i n e d not  s h i p b e t w e e n T a o - a n and philisophical and  philosophy.  the use  interests.  Hui-yuan but In both  of icons accounts  p r a c t i c e of dhyana. from h i s f i r s t  o n l y by  the profound  a l s o by  cases,  relation-  the o v e r l a p p i n g of  t h e e m p h a s i s on  f o r the importance they  Tao-an's l i f e - l o n g  personal  interest  of  their  visualization  p l a c e d on  the  i n d h y a n a c a n be  e x p o s u r e t o t h e e a r l y d h y a n a t e x t s t r a n s l a t e d by  traced  An-shih-kao  -78-  to his intense study of Prajnaparamita l i t e r a t u r e at Hsiang-yang.  Hui-  ;j^uari-straining includes h i s contact with the famous dhyana master Buddhabhadra"^ and from his own studies of Prajnaparamita texts which comprised  an important part of his Lu Shan a c t i v i t i e s .  Very l i t t l e i s known about Tao-an's method of dhyana i n r e l a t i o n to Maitreya"^ except that i t probably included some method of v i s u a l i zation.  Evidence does, however, exist showing that Fu Chien sent him  several icons including one of Maitreya and that Tao-an used them very 18  e f f e c t i v e l y i n his meetings and lectures.  Another clue i n the way  Maitreyan devotionalism and Prajna studies were brought together i n Tao-an i s i n his love for the Fang^-kuang ching (Pancavimsatisahaskika^prajnaparamita) which he delivered twice yearly u n t i l h i s death. In t h i s sutra Maitreya bodhisattva an expert i n the Prajnaparamita i s assured of his future Buddhahood by Sakyamuni. Much more i s known about dhyana as i t was practiced at Lu Shan. The practice seems to have u t i l i z e d icons and the v i s u a l i z a t i o n of Amita as set down i n the Pan-chou-san-mei-hai ching where a state of Samadhi was perscribed i n which a l l the Buddhas of the Ten Quarters stand before the believer.  Hui-yuan lauded the practice of anusmrti or "remembrance"  of Amita because i t gave excellent results and was One description of this "easy" way  easy to embark upon.  instructs the aspirant to f i r s t  maintain a pure mind, devoid of any material considerations, for three months and then to spend a day and a night or a whole week i n solitude, concentrating solely on Amita.  The Buddha would then appear and preach  the Dharma before the believer.  This description may be compared with  the practice of one of Tao-an's d i s c i p l e s T'an-chieh, who,  continuing  -79-  h i s devotional p r a c t i c e s a f t e r h i s Master's death, repeated  c e a s e l e s s l y t h e name o f M a i t r e y a and  f i v e hundred times One both  a  day.  abstract  to have  bowed b e f o r e h i s  image  21  finds a certain literalness  T a o - a n and  i s said  Hui-yuan.  of b e l i e f  i n the p r a c t i c e of  Hui-yuan's tendency to c o n c r e t i z e  the  i s w e l l known f r o m h i s s t r e s s on v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  t h e B u d d h a and  his difficulty  i n understanding  d h a r m a k a y a and  sambhogakaya as put  the concepts  f o r t h by K u m a r a j i v a  on  of  of  the  basis  22 of the T a - c h i h - t u - l u n . relating  experiences  attempting  This l i t e r a l n e s s  w h i c h t h e monks o r t h e i r  to approach M a i t r e y a  F o r T a o - a n , M a i t r e y a was  first  a b o u t t h e w o r t h o f h i s w o r k , he o f Tao  who  had  P i n d o l a , an a r h a t  white  assigned  their  accounts  in  meditations.  of a l l the Patron of Exegetes 23  i s said  h a i r and  seen i n  f o l l o w e r s had  or Amita through  s e t down i n t h e S a r v a s t i v a d a t r a d i t i o n .  man  c a n be b e s t  O n c e , when b e s e t  as  by  doubts  t o h a v e dreamt o f "'an  Indian  long eyebrows'"  24  later  t o p r o t e c t t h e Dharma u n t i l  identified  the coming  as  of  25 Maitreya. work but  P i n d o l a not promised him  only assured  assistance i n spreading  His d i s c i p l e  Seng-jui records  difficulties  i n the exegesis  dans ses de  Tao-an of the e x c e l l e n c e of h i s the Buddhist  t h a t whenever h i s t e a c h e r of Buddhist  texts:  doctrine.  encountered  " I I s'interrompait  et,  l o n g u e s c r i s e s de  chercher  p h y s i c a l and  d e c o u r a g e m e n t , i l n ' a v a i t qu'une i d e e , c ' e s t \ 26 l a s o l u t i o n a u p r e s de M a i t r e y a " . In h i s fear that h i s temporal  d i s t a n c e f r o m S a k y a m u n i was  p r e v e n t i n g him  t r u l y g r a s p i n g the D o c t r i n e , Tao-an t u r n e d  to t r a d i t i o n ,  probably  invoked  i n K a s h m i r , i n w h i c h M a i t r e y a was  as  from  originating  the d i v i n e i n s p i r e r  -80-  of Buddhist  Scholars.  27  Thus f o r Tao-an, M a i t r e y a r e p r e s e n t e d  i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l and s p i r a t i o n and his  r e l a t i v e l y a c c e s s i b l e source  The  of d i v i n e i n -  T u s i t a , a p l a c e i n t h e h e a v e n s w h e r e he m i g h t  s t u d i e s under the t u t e l a g e of h i s beloved specialized  i n t e n t behind  an  continue  Patron.  Tao-an's M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p  contrasts  s h a r p l y w i t h t h a t o f H u i - y u a n , whose m a i n p u r p o s e , w h e t h e r f o r h i s l a y b e l i e v e r s o r f o r h i m s e l f , was soteriological goal. towards t h i s arhat but  even more c l o s e l y  Especially for his lay believers,  s p i r i t u a l g o a l was  t h e r i c h and  not  t h e a u s t e r e and  a l l - i n c l u s i v e one  Rather  the  path  l o n e l y way  of the b o d h i s a t t v a .  w h i c h t h e c o m m u n i t y made, f o r i n s t a n c e , was sense of the world.  integrated with his  not  pranidhana  of  the  The  vow  i n the  usual  t h a n m a r k i n g a commitment t o a t t a i n a  s t a g e o f s p i r i t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t , t h i s g o a l seems t o s e a l a n b e t w e e n t h e members o f t h e g r o u p t o a s s i s t one  another  certain  agreement  until a l l ,  from 28  t h e most t a l e n t e d t o the l e a s t , The  e a s e w i t h w h i c h one  t h e awesome p r o s p e c t  have g a i n e d  access  to Amita's paradise.  i s a b l e t o embark u p o n t h e p r a c t i c e o f  o f m e e t i n g A m i t a " f a c e t o f a c e " and  c i p a t i o n of e n j o y i n g the s p l e n d o r s  of h i s p a r a d i s i c a l  buddhanusmrti,  the happy  Sukhavati  anti-  provided  concretized to  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the j o y of s p i r i t u a l advancement. A c c o r d i n g 29 - an e a r l y v e r s i o n of the Sukhavati-vyuha the e a r n e s t devotee w i l l have  a v i s i o n of Amita b e f o r e h i s death, The  presaging h i s r e b i r t h  into  Sukhavati.  f o l l o w i n g example, v a r i a t i o n s upon w h i c h have p e r s i s t e d t o t h e  day, w i l l  i l l u s t r a t e how  A m i t a ' s s a l v a t i o n a t d e a t h was  present  p e r c e i v e d by  Hui-  y u a n 's f o l l o w e r s . When h i s d i s c i p l e i n s t r u c t e d him  Seng-chi  was  afflicted  t o m e d i a t e on A m i t a and  by  a dire  S u k h a v a t i and  illness,  requested  Hui-yuan  the  other  -81-  monks t o r e c i t e t h e S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a .  During  Seng-chi  the void...beheld  "saw  A m i t a b h a , who  h i m s e l f proceed through took him  and  he w e n t t h r o u g h  had  a w a k e n e d and  s t o o d up,  the  and  "The  h i s eyes  side  f o l l o w i n g n i g h t he  right  ' I must go',  s i d e , h i s l i f e - b r e a t h and .  i  j  extinguished.  vigil,  Buddha  suddenly  After  he  found h i s body sought h i s  sandals  ( l o o k i n g i n t o ) the v o i d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n , as i f  e x p r e s s i o n on h i s f a c e .  (of h i s bed):  the  (whole) u n i v e r s e i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s .  h e w e r e s e e i n g s o m e t h i n g . A moment l a t e r he joyful  of the  p l a c e d him...on the palm of h i s hand...  t o l d h i s d r e a m t o h i s c o m p a n i o n s , he  f r e e from d i s e a s e . and  up  the course  T h e n he and,  l a y down a g a i n , w i t h  said  t o t h o s e who  when he h a d  turned  h i s w o r d s become  stood  over  on  a at  the  his  simultaneously  „30  In t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t i n g s , H u i - y i i a n d e s c r i b e s dhyana i n i t s complementary r e l a t i o n s h i p "'dwelling  (motionless)  to prajna  l i k e a corpse  ( and  ) and  samadhi (  0^  ) as  s i t t i n g down i n f o r g e t f u l n e s s , 3'  and  darkening  ( ^  ) one's f e e l i n g s i n the H i g h e s t  Summit ( o f T r u t h ) ' " . "  I n Z u r c h e r ' s w o r d s , samadhi t h u s becomes " — a means t e m p o r a r i l y t o e x p e r i e n c e the f i n a l e m a n c i p a t i o n , the s t a g e i n w h i c h 'the s p i r i t i s not burdened by  life'...".  In attempting  t o r e s o l v e w h a t may  c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n H u i - y l i a n ' s d e v o t i o n a l i s m and states that f o r Hui-yiian the Highest and  Amita are but  two  his writings, Liebenthal  Summit (  Q i  o r  s i d e s o f t h e same c o i n ; t h e l a t t e r  the r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s i o n of the former.  seem a  u  e  t  Center^  representing  Hui-yiian's r e l i g i o u s  devotion  t o A m i t a i s s e e n as a p r a c t i c e s u i t a b l e f o r t h e u n l e t t e r e d l a i t y  and  33 p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t i n g s , f o r the monastics maintains  or the educated.  t h a t t h e dhyana method i n t r o d u c e d by  B u d d h a b h a d r a was  Ziircher only  his  -82-  for  the monk and never f o r the l a y m a n .  p e r c e i v e the b e g i n n i n g s  JH  Thus i n Hui-yuan we may  o f a dichotomy i n t h e means t o s a l v a t i o n  t h a t was l a t e r e l a b o r a t e d upon by the Pure Land p a t r i a r c h s . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , Tao-an and Hui-yuan,  Buddho-Taoists,  master and d i s c i p l e , a r e l e s s s i m i l a r than one would i n i t i a l l y Both men, s e e k i n g t h e enlightenment  expect.  d e s c r i b e d i n the Buddhist  texts,  p r a c t i c e d a form o f dhyana i n c l u d i n g the worship of Buddhas other than Sakyamuni d u r i n g a time when Chinese  Buddhist worship was  f i r m l y c e n t e r e d on the h i s t o r i c a l Buddha. Tao-an appealed for  guidance  still  to Maitreya  i n h i s e x e g e t i c a l s t u d i e s and Hui-yuan meditated  on a  form o f Amita as the r e l i g i o u s c o u n t e r p a r t o f h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l conc e p t i o n s . C u r i o u s l y , Tao-an's own w r i t i n g s say n o t h i n g o f h i s d e v o t i o n to  M a i t r e y a ; r e c o r d s of t h i s aspect o f h i s l i f e  by h i s b i o g r a p h e r s  or h i s d i s c i p l e s .  a l l being  preserved  Hui-yuan, i n c o n t r a s t , wrote  e x t e n s i v e l y on the worship o f Amita and a t the end of h i s l i f e , s t r u g g l i n g t o understand t h e o r y of t h e Two B o d i e s .  was  h i s m e d i t a t i o n i n the context of Madhyamika I t seems l i k e l y t h a t Tao-an, convinced o f  the e f f i c a c y o f t h e M a i t r e y a t r a d i t i o n , saw no p h i l o s o p h i c a l problems 35 to  comment upon i n h i s d e v o t i o n a l p r a c t i c e .  a l i s m , b e a r i n g a l l t h e s i g n s of s t r i v i n g  But Hui-yuan's d e v o t i o n -  to develop  a new system which  would i n c o r p o r a t e the new I n d i a n wisdom w i t h the o l d Chinese  conceptions,  as w e l l as accomodating t h e r e l i g i o u s needs o f h i s l a i t y , r e q u i r e d t h e c l a r i f y i n g f u n c t i o n of w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n . In sum: the s h i f t from M a i t r e y a to Amita worship cannot be e x p l a i n e d 37 by merely s p e c u l a t i n g on a supposed t r a n s f e r e n c e o f d e v o t i o n d e i t y t o another  i n a s i n g l e f i g u r e , Hui-yuan —  but can be  from one understood  -83-  by t h e change o f d i r e c t i o n w i t h i n t h e Sangha i t s e l f a Mahayana p e r s p e c t i v e .  from a Hinayana  to  H o w e v e r , T a o - a n ' s M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p and H u i -  y u a n ' s A m i t a w o r s h i p c a n b e s e e n a s a d u m b r a t i n g r e l i g i o u s movements t o come.  The v a l u e o f s i n g l i n g  o u t and  examining the premises behind the  two c e r e m o n i e s n o t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s e c t i o n l i e s s y m b o l i c i n f l u e n c e t h e y e x e r t e d on t h e s u b s e q u e n t h i s t o r y Buddhism.  Tao-an's ceremony s t a n d s as t h e f i r s t  o f M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p by a c e l e b r a t e d c l e r i c  formal  i n the of Chinese  ritualization  and H u i - y u a n ' s  ceremony  38  as  39 "an i m p o r t a n t l a n d m a r k " i n e a r l y C h i n e s e Buddhism. Tao-an's M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p c o n t r i b u t e d Maitreya cults  The  i n f l u e n c e of  to the s p e c t a c u l a r growth of the  i n t h e N o r t h e r n Wei P e r i o d —  a period  i n which  the  e s c h a t o l o g i c a l e l e m e n t s i n t h e M a i t r e y a c u l t w e r e t o p r e v a i l among t h e masses.  Where T a o - a n h i m s e l f may  age between h i s coming.  have d e e p l y lamented l i v i n g  two B u d d h a s , t h e common p e o p l e o f t e n e a g e r l y Predictably,  t h e Sangha's awareness  i n the  anticipated  of the l a t t e r  days  r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t : H u i - y i i a n , a d d r e s s e d i n a n e p i s t l e by K u m a r a j l r a a s t h e E a s t e r n B o d h i s a t t v a who the l a s t  was  prophesied to protect the Doctrine "'at 40 ( p e r i o d o f t h e Dharma)'" , e n t e r t a i n e d no i l l u s i o u s a b o u t w h a t 41  he v i e w e d a s t h e d e g e n e r a t e s t a t e o f t h e C h u r c h . s o c i e t y d i s p e r s e d w i t h h i s own  Hui-yiian's Amita  d e a t h but c o n t i n u e d t o s e r v e as  i n s p i r a t i o n f o r communities of r e c l u s e s ,  t h e Pure Land  an  Lotus Societies 42  o f t h e Sung and t h e W h i t e L o t u s S o c i e t y o f t h e S o u t h e r n S u n g . the p r e s e n t Pure Land and  schools scattered  throughout the Far East •  t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d h a v e l o o k e d t o H u i - y i i a n as t h e i r  founder.^  To  original  -84-  III  Lung-men In  and  Asia,  t h e cave  i s t h e e a r t h ' s s a c r e d womb.  c a i t y a h a l l s , Hindu  forms i n a l i t u r g y  temples  and a l t a r s ,  o f s t o n e , were c h i s e l l e d  A j a n t a , E l l o r a and A m a r a v a t i .  Buddhist v i h a r a s  embellished with sculpted out of the h i l l s  A s u c c e s s i o n o f cave  of Karle,  s h r i n e s marked  t h e p r o g r e s s o f Buddhism a c r o s s t h e mountains and d e s e r t s o f A f g h a n i s t a n and C e n t r a l A s i a .  Many T u r k i c t r i b e s ,  including  t h e T'o-  pa o f N o r t h e r n Wei a r e thought  t o have had n a t i v e cave m y t h o l o g i e s and  44 cults. in  of Buddhist m i s s i o n a r i e s , the Chinese  t h e N o r t h had carved o u t l o e s s caves  dedicated  cut  Even b e f o r e t h e a r r i v a l  to nature d e i t i e s ;  f o rs h e l t e r and f o r s h r i n e s  and i n Szechwan, t h e y had e x c a v a t e d 45  b u r i a l s h a f t s and chambers f o r t h e i r a n c e s t o r s .  rock-  With the i n t r o -  d u c t i o n o f Buddhism, t h e C h i n a e n t e r e d i t s most c r e a t i v e p e r i o d o f s t o n e 46 scupture,unmatched of  i n Chinese h i s t o r y .  Today, t h e mountain g r o t t o e s  T u n - h u a n g , Y u r i - k a n g a n d Lung-men, v a s t r e p o s i t o r i e s o f a r t i s t i c a n d  h i s t o r i c documents spanning over h a l f a m i l l e n n i u m , s i l e n t l y  testify to  an age o f f a i t h . The  stone i c o n s housed i n t h e Chinese  images t h a t were t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h  caves were i n s p i r e d by other  t h e minds and hands o f B u d d h i s t  m i s s i o n a r i e s a n d a r t i s a n s a s t h e y made t h e i r way n o r t h w a r d s . centuries a f t e r h i sdeath, •the S t u p a  t h e B u d d h a was r e p r e s e n t e d b y v a r i o u s  t h e Dharma w h e e l ,  footprints.  By t h e f i r s t  the bodhi tree,  c e n t u r y A.D. a n i c o n o f t h e B u d d h a ' s f o r m i n -  i c o n s , once c o n c e i v e d , p r o l i f e r a t e d .  b o d h i s a t t v a s were f a s h i o n e d i n Buddhist and  across Central Asia.  symbols:  t h e r o y a l u m b r e l l a , and h i s  s p i r e d p a r t l y b y G r e e k a n d Roman a r t , a p p e a r e d The  For five  Other  i n Gandhara and Mathura. s t o n e Buddhas and  c e n t e r s as f a r west as I r a n  A t Tun-huang, t h e e a s t e r n t e r m i n u s  of the  -85T a r i m b a s i n r o u t e , t h e images were worked by I n d i a n and C e n t r a l A s i a n 47 artisans.  A t Yun-kang  , t h e Gandharan s t y l e and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e  c o l o s s a l Buddhas o f Bamiyan p e r s i s t e d .  And a t Lung-men, t h e G a n d h a r a n  a n d U d h y a n a s t y l e s c o n t i n u e d t o g e t h e r w i t h new i n f l u e n c e s f r o m S o u t h 48' 49 China and t h e s u b t l e p r o p o r t i o n s and l i n e s o f Han a r t i s t r y . Thus, t h e a r t o f Lung-men p r e s e n t s a " m a g n i f i c i a n t p a n o r a m a o f two and  fifty  y e a r s o f e v o l u t i o n from I n d i a n Buddhism t o an  and c o n s u m a t e l y  hundred  independent  C h i n e s e Buddhism.  B e f o r e t u r n i n g t o t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n and p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h e shift  i n popularity  f r o m M a i t r e y a t o A m i t a i n t h e Lung-men c a v e s , l e t  us b r i e f l y  d i s c u s s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Lung-men C a v e s a s  evidence.  I n E a r l y Madhyamika, R o b i n s o n p o i n t s out the l i m i t a t i o n s  relying  s o l e l y on l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l s  historical of  i n t h e s t u d y of Buddhism:  I t c a n n o t be assumed t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f language corresponds t o the s t r u c t u r e of t h o u g h t , o r t h a t a l l t h o u g h t s c a n be r e p r o d u c e d by s y m b o l s , o r t h a t l a n g u a g e i s t h e o n l y k i n d o f symbol system. For example, t h e Chinese B u d d h i s t o f a b o u t A.D. 400 g a v e s y m b o l i c e x p r e s s i o n t o h i s r e l i g i o n n o t o n l y i n h i s w r i t i n g s , b u t i n t h e c h a n t and g e s t u r e of h i s l i t e r g y , i n s c u l p t u r e and p a i n t i n g , i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and i n t h e s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n a r y codes w h i c h m o n a s t a r i e s and l a i t y o b s e r v e d . These c o n d i t i o n s l i m i t t h e scope o f t h e i n q u i r y t o what c a n be i n f e r r e d f r o m literary materials.*1  Moreover, w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s , t h e work o f an educated e l i t e  within  t h e S a n g h a w e r e n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e mass o f t h e b e l i e v e r s .  Even  t h e S a n g h a i t s e l f was made up m a i n l y o f c o n v e r t s f r o m t h e p e a s a n t  classes,  O n l y a b o u t 5-10,000 p e o p l e i n b o t h n o r t h and s o u t h C h i n a w e r e c o n v e r s a n t w i t h t h e famous d o c t r i n a l d i s p u t e s t h a t d o m i n a t e and  fifth  c e n t u r y Chinese Buddhism.  52  our p i c t u r e of  fourth  -86-  In  contrast,  i n d i v i d u a l s and r u l e r s and hardened  t h e Lung-men C a v e s seem t o h a v e b e e n e x c a v a t e d  groups  commoners.  drawn from a l l s t r a t a of s o c i e t y : F o r example, Ch'en c i t e s  T'o-pa g e n e r a l who  b r i g h t and b e a u t i f u l tears flowing  "gazed  freely".  monastics,  the case of a  a l l through the n i g h t at  t r a c e s o f f o r m e r E m p e r o r s and  by  battle-  the  great sages, h i s  53  Although v a r i o u s types of o f f i c i a l had b e e n f u n c t i o n i n g f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t  and u n o f f i c i a l B u d d h i s t  groups  days o f N o r t h e r n Buddhism, by 54  the f i f t h  and  the guidance s o c i a l and  s i x t h c e n t u r i e s a network o f monks and  of popular s o c i e t i e s  nuns were f l o u r i s h i n g .  A wide v a r i e t y  of  r e l i g i o u s aims l e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e s e groups.  g r o u p s w e r e o r g a n i z e d f o r c o p y i n g and r e c i t a t i o n o f s u t r a s , to  under  Smaller  contributing  t h e s u p p o r t o f m o n a s t e r i e s and h o l d i n g v e g e t a r i a n f e a s t s . And  groups  of a hundred  cave b u i l d i n g The  and  t o a t h o u s a n d members u n d e r t o o k  image m a k i n g  C h i n e s e d e v o t e e was  some o f t h e a m b i t i o u s  projects.  drawn t o t h e s e i c o n s f o r t h e y a p p e a l e d  his  aesthetic sensibility,  new  r e l i g i o n and,  for  a concrete center of worship.  perhaps  dramatically  illustrated  the v e r i t i e s  most i m p o r t a n t of a l l , s a t i s f i e d  statues, the primary motives  larger  of h i s  his longing  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s on  f o r e r e c t i n g new  to  images i n c l u d e d  the  both  s p i r i t u a l g o a l s s u c h as t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t o r r e b i r t h i n S u k h a v a t i o r T u s i t a ; a s w e l l a s more mundane c o n c e r n s  including  d e s i r e f o r m a t e r i a l boons, h e a l t h , or m i l i t a r y v i c t o r i e s . of  Lung-men d o e s n o t m e r e l y  produced  s e r v e as a supplement  Thus t h e a r t  to the l i t e r a r y  by a h i g h l y e d u c a t e d m i n o r i t y b u t documents t h e l i v i n g  the Chinese  masses.  the  evidence  faith  of  Lung-men"^ o r activity  " D r a g o n g a t e " was  from the l a t t e r  the s i t e  of  p a r t o f t h e N o r t h e r n Wei  Tsukamoto Zenryu's s t u d y " ^  shows t h a t t h e  two  f o r m e r , u n d e r t h e T'o-pa d y n a s t y and Tse-tien.  and  A m i t a and  devotees.  On  The  four main d e i t i e s  mid-T'ang.  between 640-710;  latter  of c e l e s t i a l  Avalokitesvara; other  Bhaishajyaguru,  to the  beings,  ceilings  56  of the  under the r e i g n  D u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s t h e w a l l s and  caves were covered w i t h hosts lohan  the  artistic  most a c t i v e p e r i o d s  c a r v i n g i n c l u d e d t h e y e a r s b e t w e e n 5 1 0 - 5 4 0 and  E m p r e s s Wu  intense  of of  the  guardian  figures,  were Sakyamuni,  Maitreya,  central deities  included Ksitigarbha,  Mahasthamaprapta.  the b a s i s of h i s c o m p i l a t i o n  of  T s u k a m o t o c o n c l u d e d t h a t S a k y a m u n i and  the dated s t a t u e s M a i t r e y a were the  a t Lung-men, two  most 58  popular and  images w o r s h i p p e d d u r i n g  Avalokitesvara statues  d e c r e a s e o f S a k y a m u n i and place during  the  two  Similarly  i n T u s i t a or  Maitreya  dynasties.  i n the  of the N o r t h e r n  markedly w i t h a  images.  Internal shifts  D u r i n g the N o r t h e r n Wei,  statues  g r e w i n number and  I n sum:  (Amita) i n the while  the  leading deities;  took  Sakyamuni's prayers  for increased.  from an  t h e N o r t h e r n Wei  initial to  T'ang.  s i n g l e m o s t d o m i n a n t t e n d e n c y was  i n Amita w o r s h i p ^ ,  the second to the  also  descent to earth  (Amitayus) d u r i n g 59  Wei.  corresponding  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f A m i t a w o r s h i p shows a s h i f t  A-mi-t'o-fo  and  part  time of M a i t r e y a ' s  p o p u l a r i t y of Wu-liang-shou-fo  increase  latter  increased  popularity declined; Maitreya rebirth  the  three  distinct  stages  can be  f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s when Sakyamuni and the mid-seventh to the  A v a l o k i t e s v a r a " w e r e d o m i n a n t and  the  steady  distinguished:  Maitreya  were  the  e a r l y e i g h t c e n t u r i e s when A m i t a  a period  o f about 100  years  between  -88-  t h e s e two s t a g e s when r e l a t i v e l y  few images of  any k i n d w e r e  being  carved. It  i s not  difficult  t o u n d e r s t a n d why M a i t r e y a s h o u l d  have  61  enjoyed  such p o p u l a r i t y  d u r i n g t h e Northern) W e i .  w r i t t e n by C h i n e s e monks o f t e n r e f e r These Buddhas a r e thought contemporary in highest history, of  : history.  t h e W e i Shu c l e a r l y  Sakyamuni's  sacred  texts  to t h e Seven Buddhas of  the  Past.  t o have b e e n r e v e r e d more i n C h i n a t h a n  I n d i a because they  esteem  Buddhist  r e p r e s e n t e d what The a u t h o r  of  in  educated Chinese  the d y n a s t y ' s  saw M a i t r e y a ' s r e b i r t h  as a  held  official continuation  lineage.  B e f o r e Sakyamuni t h e r e were S i x Buddhas, Sakyamuni s u c c e e d i n g t h e S i x Buddhas, a c h i e v e d h i s e n l i g h t e n m e n t and d w e l l s i n t h e p r e s e n t age, the Noble E r a . It i s w r i t t e n that i n time t h e r e w i l l be a c e r t a i n M i - l o - f o , w h o , s u c c e e d i n g d i r e c t l y t o S a k y a m u n i w i l l come down t o t h i s w o r l d . 6 2  The N o r t h e r n W e i C h i n e s e , m o r e o v e r b e l i e v e d t h a t bhadrakalpa "the Noble E r a " ;  the second of  they were l i v i n g  in  t h r e e w o r l d ages d u r i n g  the  which  63  a t h o u s a n d Buddhas would a p p e a r .  A t a t i m e when p a s t and f u t u r e  were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h d e t a i l e d accounts of  their  birthplaces  and  Buddhas  families,  t h e r e b i r t h o f M a i t r e y a , t h e n e x t Buddha, must have been v i e w e d as a familiar  and a n i m m i n e n t e v e n t .  In  fact  i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t  would a p p e a r d u r i n g t h e N o r t h e r n Wei and t h a t  t h i s dynasty  Maitreya  w o u l d t h e n be  64  instrumental in bringing  about  the golden age.  Accordingly,  Northern Wei emperors, seeking to c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r  power,  some  claimed to  be  t h e c a k r a v a r t i n k i n g who w o u l d a c c o m p a n y M a i t r e y a . Neither  is  such p o p u l a r i t y  it  difficult  during  t o u n d e r s t a n d why A m i t a s h o u l d h a v e  the T'ang.  During  the f i r s t  half  of  this  gained dynasty  -89-  Buddhism i n China directed  reached  flourishing  the z e n i t h of  i t s prosperity: i t s institutions  t r e a s u r i e s , h o s t e l s , water m i l l s ,  n u m e r o u s f e s t i v a l s became a p a r t o f t h e  o i l presses; i t s  imperial calendar  and  were  h e l d a t t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e s a c r e d p l a c e s s u c h as W u - t ' a i S h a n — p r e s t i g e was taken  undeniably  as a m a t t e r  established.  all,  simpler Hinayana concepts  and  c a p t i v a t e d t h e monks and  e a r l y Pure Land t e a c h e r s  paradises  Amita!'. brief by  s u c h as  resurgence  the messianic  Maitreya On and  of i n t e r e s t  and  his disciples,  images i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e d r a m a t i c  z e a l , reached  r i s e and  i n t h e T'ang c a n  fall  i n s p i r e d by M a i t r e y a relationship —  as  combining  out  to  'Homage t o  t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s and  increase i n those  and  P e r i claims  a shift  Nevertheless,  the  66  com-  of  new Amita. Wei  different  determined  devotionalism  as h a v i n g  i n p o p u l a r i t y f r o m one  t h a t an abundance o f e v i d e n c e ,  caves to the temples of Nara  two  ideas that  by A m i t a h a v e b e e n s i n g l e d out  indicating  about  i n the Northern  s i m p l y be v i e w e d a s  evolving religious  a l l the d e i t i e s .  the  r e s u l t e d i n o n l y a few  hand, the ascendency of M a i t r e y a worship  phenomena; e a c h i n f l u e n c e d by  other.  Tao-cho,  of  i n M a i t r e y a d u r i n g t h e T'ang b r o u g h t  c l a i m s o f E m p r e s s Wu^~*  of Amita worship  popular  the Mahayana  Most i m p o r t a n t  S h a n - t a o and  the  A m i t a ' s p o p u l a r i t y among t h e s t a t u e m a k e r s t h a t  o f H s i i a n - t s a n g and  one  by  commoner a l i k e , m a k i n g u n i v e r s a l t h e c r y :  S u c h was  mentaries  taught  the populace.  an a t t r a c t i v e d o c t r i n e w i t h t r u e m i s s i o n a r y E m p e r o r and  were  o f c o u r s e w h i l e t h e s p e c u l a t i v e p h i l o s o p h i e s and  c e l e s t i a l Buddhas, b o d h i s a t t v a s teachers  The  its  from the  / , " a t t e s t a n t l a p o p u l a r i t e du  to  a  special  the  Chinese culte  de  67 Maitreya  q u i ne  stronger  t e r m s , W a l e y w r i t e s t h a t : " s u r v i v i n g s c u l p t u r e and  of the f i f t h  d i s p a r u t que  century  devant c e l u i d'Amitabha".  show t h a t M a i t r e y a o c c u p i e d  then  In  even epigraphy  the p l a c e that  was  -90-  t o be  usurped i n the  s e v e n t h and  eighth  c e n t u r i e s by  Amitabha".  M a t s u m o t o , i n w r i t i n g a b o u t r e b e l t h e m e s o b s e r v e s : "As popular devotion o n w a r d s by  Maitreya  0-mi-t'o-fo  was  gradually  an  object  e c l i p s e d from the  of  e a r l y T'ang  ( A m i t a b h a ) , t h o u g h t h e M a i t r e y a n theme l i n g e r e d 69  i n the  i d e o l o g i e s of  The of  causes u s u a l l y given  inferences:  gradually ficial  the White Lotus S o c i e t y  1)  that  perceived  for this shift  for various  by  A thesis,  third  and  o f A m i t a among t h e  s e t of  identifies  from M a i t r e y a  inferences,  the  l e d , by was  t o A m i t a was  era  l a t e s i x t h and  summarize : the  formation of  the  was  a s c e n d e n c y was  not  an  linked with  of favour. the  theory  en-  shift  the p r e v a i l i n g  widespread  f o u r t h and  this  the  fifth  awareness  centuries  to a c r i s i s ,  which  o f Lung-men d o c u m e n t t h e m o s t  One  of one  the  Buddhism of  the  s i g n a l events of  of  event but  this  the major d e v o t i o n a l  that other  deities also  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , A m i t a ' s r i s e  shift  vital  I n d i a was  a t Lung-men c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t  isolated  This  syste-  presented i n  events: that  The  d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a r i t y of M a i t r e y a ;  focus of d e v o t i o n .  more bene-  t h e P u r e L a n d movement.  emergence of A m i t a as statues  out  the  D u r i n g t h i s age,  The  i n and  the  of D i s u n i o n .  stone icons  T'ang.  was  masses.  e a r l y seventh centuries  Buddhism of C h i n a .  the  sets  t h e s e r e a s o n s , once  s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by  by  i n C h i n e s e Buddhism.  formed i n t o the  a r o u n d two  the Pure Land m a s t e r s , f u r t h e r  l a t t e r days, e s t a b l i s h e d during the  that  comprising  the P e r i o d  subsequently resolved To  2)  the animating f o r c e behind the  e s c h a t o l o g i c a l mood o f of  revolve  reasons, worshipping Amita  m a t i z e d i n t o a c o h e r e n t d o c t r i n e by status  s i m i l a r movements".  t h e p o p u l a r C h i n e s e m i n d as b e i n g  than worshipping Maitreya;  hanced the  and  i n popularity, like  the  other  transfigures  Amita's passed  i n popularity  a previously  trans-  was  prominent  decisions  -91-  t h a t t h e M e d i e v a l C h i n e s e made when c h o s i n g a n o b j e c t o f w o r s h i p  was  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r r e s p o n s e  in  particular, permeating  to the p r e v a i l i n g  the notion of the l a t t e r  age.  S i x Dynasties s o c i e t y reached  during the stage i n which r e l a t i v e l y i n t h e Lung-men C a v e s men b y T s u k a m o t o  (540-640).  The e s c h a t o l o g i c a l mood  critical  The d o c u m e n t a t i o n  supports the idea of a s h i f t  the r o l e of e s c h a t o l o g i c a l thought s h i f t , we t u r n t o t h e l a s t  proportions precisely  f e w new i m a g e s w e r e b e i n g  between t h e N o r t h e r n W e i and t h e T'ang.  this  Buddhist ideas —  drawn from  carved Lung-  from M a i t r e y a t o Amita  For a further  examination f o r  as one o f t h e dominant f a c t o r s  two c h a p t e r s o f t h i s  thesis.  behind  -92-  Footnotes  t o Chapter I I I  1.  F o r two b r i l l i a n t e s s a y s o n t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e f a l l o f t h e Han s e e E. B a l a z s , C h i n e s e C i v i l i z a t i o n a n d B u r e a u c r a c y (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), pp.187-254.  2.  A. F. W r i g h t , B u d d h i s m i n C h i n e s e H i s t o r y U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959), p.20.  3.  Tsukamoto Z e n r y u , Chugoku Bukkyo Tsii S h i [ G e n e r a l H i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e Buddhism] (Tokyo: S u z u k i Research F o u n d a t i o n , 1968), pp. 2 3 9 - 3 0 8 .  4.  F o r example, a l t h o u g h i n b o t h c a s e s , e a r l i e r t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e r e c o r d e d , i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t by t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y Dharmaraksa had t r a n s l a t e d s u t r a s on b o t h M a i t r e y a and A m i t a . F o r more d e t a i l s s e e E. Z u r c h e r , The B u d d h i s t C o n q u e s t o f C h i n a : T h e S p r e a d a n d A d a p t a t i o n of Buddhism i n E a r l y M e d i e v a l C h i n a , 2 v o l s . ( L e i d e n : B r i l l , 1 9 5 9 ) 2:194 n . 7 5 .  5.  Among t h e a t t e m p t s made t o c o u n t t h e number o f s t a t u e s a t L u n g men, K. Ch'en c i t i e s a L o y a n g m a g i s t r a t e who e s t i m a t e d 9 7 , 3 0 6 i n 1915-16 and l a t e r e s t i m a t e o f 142,289. Buddhism i n C h i n a : A H i s t o r i c a l Survey ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p.171.  6.  T. 5 0 . 3 5 1 c - 3 5 4 a . t r a n s l a t e d b y A. L i n k , " B i o g r a p h y TP 46 ( 1 9 5 8 ) : l - 4 8 .  7.  I b i d . , p.36; and f o r more d e t a i l s s e e Z u r c h e r , p.194 n . 7 6 .  8.  T h i s i s a s e c t i o n f r o m t h e vow c o m p o s e d b y H u i - y i i a n ' s l a y d i s c i p l e L i u Ch'eng c h i h and i s i n c l u d e d i n H u i c h i a o ' s b i o g r a p h y o f H u i yuan. T r a n s l a t e d i n Z u r c h e r , C o n q u e s t , p.244.  9.  Ibid.,  p.220.  10.  Ibid.,  p.194.  11.  F o r f u r t h e r s o u r c e s on Tao-an: Tsukamoto, Chugoko B u k k y o , pp. 475-661; Z u r c h e r , Conquest, pp.180-204.  12.  F o r more d e t a i l s on e a r l i e s t Amidism and H u i - y u a n Chugoko Bukkyo", p p . 6 3 0 f f .  13.  Z u r c h e r , Conquest, pp.204-239.  14.  F o r a summary o f t h e l e t t e r s t h a t w e r e e x c h a n g e d b e t w e e n and K u m a r a j i v a s e e Z u r c h e r , C o n q u e s t , p p . 2 2 7 - 2 2 9 .  (Stanford: Stanford  of Taoari",  Conquest,  see Tsukamoto,  Hui-yuan  -93-  15.  Link,  "Tao-an,"  16.  Z u r c h e r , C o n q u e s t , pp.  17.  P. D e m i e v i l l e , L a Y o g a c a r a b h u m i d e Sangharak§a, BEFEO 64 ( 1 9 4 7 50):377.  18.  Link,  19.  M o k s a l a ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e P r a . j n a p a r a m i t a i n 25,000 c i t e d i n Ch'en, Buddhism, p.99.  20.  Z u r c h e r , C o n q u e s t , pp.  21.  Ibid.,  22.  C h i n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n o f N a g a r g u n a ' s Commentary o n t h e P r a j ' n a p a r a m i t a i n 25,000 l i n e s . The f i r s t t h i r t y c h a p t e r s a r e t r a n s l a t e d b y "E. L a m o t t e ; L e T r a i f e de l a G r a n d e V e r t u de S a g e s s e de N a g l r j u n a , 3 v o l s . ( L o u v a i n : U n i v e r s i t e de L o u v a i n , 1 9 4 9 ) .  23.  Z u r c h e r , C o n q u e s t , p.392 n.74. p . 2 1 8 ; and c o m p a r e w i t h I t o G i k e n who c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e b a s i s f o r Tao-an's b e l i e f l i e s i n o r a l t r a d i t i o n s . S h i n a Bukkyo S e i s h i (Tokyo: 1 9 2 3 ) , pp.192-193.  24.  L i n k , "Tao-an," p.35.  25.  F o r m o r e d i s c u s s i o n o n t h i s m a t t e r s e e S. L e v i a n d E. C h e v a n n e s , "Les S e i z e A r h a t p r o t e c t e u r s de l a L o i , " J A ( 1 1 t h S e r i e s ) , V o l . 8 (1916). P r z y l u s k i , Legends.  26.  D e m i e v i l l e , Y o g a c a r a b h u m i , p.377.  27.  F o r m o r e e x a m p l e s s e e D e m i e v i l l e , Y o g a c a r a b h u m i , pp.  28.  Z u r c h e r , C o n q u e s t , p.220.  29.  Z u r c h e r p r o p o s e s t h a t t h i s may h a v e b e e n C h i n C h ' e n ' s v e r s i o n o f the t h i r d century. Conquest, p.221.  30.  F r o m H u i - C h i a o ' s b i o g r a p h y o f H u i - y u a n (KSC V I 362.12.17 f f ) t r a n s l a t e d i n Z u r c h e r , C o n q u e s t , p.222.  31.  Z u r c h e r , C o n q u e s t , p.223 and  32.  W. L i e b e n t h a l ' s t r a n s l a t i o n i n " S h i h H u i - Y i i a n ' s B u d d h i s m a s S e t F o r t h i n h i s W r i t i n g s , " J A C S , v o l . 69 (December 1 9 4 9 ) : 2 4 3 - 2 5 9 .  33.  Ibid.,  "Tao-an,"  p.l. 223-24.  p.100. lines  219-229.  p.220.  p.259.  339-436.  n.224.  -94-  34.  Z u r c h e r , Conquest,  p.223.  35.  I n a d d i t i o n , T a o - a n ' s d e v o t i o n was t e c h n i q u e s and e x p e r i e n c e s c l e a r l y  36.  O t h e r C h i n e s e known t o h a v e b e e n A m i t a d e v o t e e s b e f o r e H u i - y u a n i n c l u d e : Ch'ueh K u n g - t s e ( d . 2 6 5 - 2 7 5 ) ; h i s d i s c i p l e , W e i s h i h - t u , and C h i h - t u n . See C h ' e n , B u d d h i s m i n C h i n a , p p . 3 4 2 - 3 4 3 ; Z i l r c h e r , C o n q u e s t , p.128.  37.  I t i s n o t d e f i n i t e l y known w h e t h e r H u i - y u a n was among t h e e i g h t d i s c i p l e s r e c o r d e d as t a k i n g p a r t i n Tao-an's ceremony f o r M a i t r e y a .  38.  Zurcher, Conquest,  39.  Ibid.,  40.  H i u - y u a n ' s b i o g r a p h y i n KSC  41.  Ibid.,  42.  F o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e W h i t e L o t u s S o c i e t i e s s e e D. F o l k B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , pp. 7 3 - 1 0 8 .  43.  Pas p r o p o s e s t h a t H u i - y u a n ' s p o s i t i o n as t h e f o u n d e r o f t h e P u r e Land t r a d i t i o n i s a l a t e r development i n i t i a t e d by P u r e Land b e l i e v e r s who w i s h e d t o " i n c r e a s e t h e p r e s t i g e " o f t h e i r b e l i e f s . " S h a n - t a o ' s Commentary," pp. 1 3 5 , 136 n . l .  44.  A l t h o u g h E b e r h a r d s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e - Y u n - k a n g and Lung-men C a v e s w e r e a d a p t e d f r o m t h e T'o-pa c a v e c u l t s ; i t i s m o r e l i k e l y t h a t the N. W e i C a v e s w e r e p r i m a r i l y o f B u d d h i s t i n s p i r a t i o n , c f . W. E b e r h a r d , C o n q u e r o r s and R u l e r s ( L e i d e n : E. J . B r i l l , 1 9 5 2 ; r e v . ed. 1 9 6 5 ) , p.147.  45.  M. S u l l i v a n , C a v e T e m p l e s o f M a i c h i s h a n , . (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1969), p . l .  46.  Mizuno  47.  F o r t h e most e x t e n s i v e documentation o f t h e Yun-kang Caves s e e : M i z u n o S. and N a g a h i r o T. , YQn, :-kang, The B u d d h i s t C a v e T e m p l e s of t h e 5 t h C e n t u r y A.D. i n N o r t h C h i n a , 32 v o l s . ( K y o t o : K y o t o U n i v e r s i t y , 1951-6).  48.  W. W a t s o n , " S t y l e s i n M a h a y a n a I c o n o g r a p h y i n C h i n a " i n M a h a y a n i s t A r t A f t e r A.D. 9 0 0 , C o l l o q u i e s on A r t and A r c h a e o l o g y i n A s i a #2 ( L o n d o n : S c h o o l o f O r i e n t a l and A f r i c a n S t u d i e s , L o n d o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 2 - 3 ; S o p e r , E v i d e n c e s , p.90  p r o b a b l y i n s p i r e d by m e d i t a t i o n a l suited to h i s monastic l i f e .  p.194.  p.219. q u o t e d i n Z u r c h e r , C o n q u e s t , p.  247.  p.250.  S.,  Chinese Stone S c u l p t u r e  Overmyer,  (Tokyo: Maruyama, 1 9 5 0 ) .  1  -95-  49.  The images from t h e s e caves g a i n even g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e s t u d y o f C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t a r t when o n e c o n s i d e r s t h e l a r g e n u m b e r s o f s t a t u e s t h a t w e r e m e l t e d down d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i c Buddhist persecutions. Although there i s w r i t t e n evidence o f B u d d h a f i g u r e s d a t i n g b a c k t o t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y A.D., t h e e a r l i e s t known C h i n e s e i c o n i s d a t e d 338 A.D. ( i l l u s t r a t e d i n W r i g h t , B u d d h i s m , i l l u s t . No. 1 ) .  50.  M i z u n o S. a n d N a g a h i r o , T., Ryumon S e k k u t s u n o K e n k y u [ A S t u d y o f t h e Lung-men C a v e s ] ( T o k y o : Zauho P r e s s , 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 1 7 .  51.  Robinson,  52.  I b i d . , p.98.  53.  T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s drawn from Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , pp. 173-176.  54.  I b i d . , pp. 290-295.  55.  Lung-men i s s i t u a t e d a b o u t t w e l v e km. s o u t h o f L o y a n g . The caves a r e dug o u t o f a range o f h i l l s , s e p a r a t e d i n t o e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n groups by t h e I . R i v e r . The Western H i l l s w i t h t w e n t y - t h r e e caves a r e m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e E a s t e r n . M i z u n o a n d N a g a h i r o Ryumon, p. 3.  56.  E x c a v a t i o n b e g a n i n 494 a n d c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e 7 5 0 ' s . A f t e r t h i s time, i n s p i t e o f a few a d d i t i o n s t h e caves g e n e r a l l y f e l l i n t o neglect.  57.  T h i s d a t a has been d i s c u s s e d and o r g a n i z e d i n t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l t a b l e s b y T s u k a m o t o i n M i z u n o a n d N a g a h i r o , Ryumon, p p . 1 4 2 - 4 4 9 ; a n d r e p r i n t e d i n Tsukamoto, Chugoku B u k k y 5, pp.355-609.  58.  S o p e r n o t e s t h a t a t T u n - h u a n g a t y p i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t would c o n s i s t o f M a i t r e y a , w i t h c r o s s e d a n k l e s , s e a t e d a t o n e end o f a n e n t r a n c e f a c i n g Sakyamuni, i n l o t u s p o s i t i o n . A t Y i i n - k a n g M a i t r e y a and Sakyamuni h a v e b e e n found a s c e n t r a l d e i t i e s f o r adjacent caves  E a r l y Madhyamika, p.15.  (caves 1+2; caves 7+8).  Evidence , p . 2 1 9 n . 7 9 .  59.  Mizuno and N a g a h i r o ,  Ryumon, p p . 2 3 4 - 2 3 6 .  60.  I n Ch'en's w o r d s : " D u r i n g t h e N o r h t e r n W e i , A m i t a b h a was o n l y one f i f t h a s p o p u l a r a s Sakyamuni, one q u a r t e r a s p o p u l a r a s M a i t r e y a ; b u t u n d e r t h e T'ang A m i t a b h a o u t n u m b e r e d S a k y a m u n i t w e l v e t i m e s a n d Maitreya ten times". Buddhism i n C h i n a , p.172.  61.  F o r a h i s t o r i c a l account o f N o r t h e r n W e i Buddhism s e e Tsukamoto Zenryu, S h i n a B u k k y o s h i Kenkyu: Hokugi h e n ( K y o t o : Kobundo, 1942).  -96-  62.  M i z u n o and N a g a h i r o , Yun-kang, The B u d d h i s t Cave Temples o f 5 t h c e n t u r y A.D. i n N o r t h C h i n a , 32 v o l s ( K y o t o : J i n b u n k a g a k u K e n k y u s h o , K y o t o U n i v e r s i t y , 1952-56), v o l . 16: Wei Shou, T r e a t i s e on Buddhism and T a o i s m , a n E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e O r i g i n a l C h i n e s e T e x t o f W e i Shu C X I V a n d t h e J a p a n e s e A n n o t a t i o n o f T s u k a m o t o Z e n r y u b y L. H u r v i t z , p.39.  63.  The B h a d r a k a l p a s u t r a was t r a n s l a t e d b y Dharmaraks,a i n c a . 300 OR 2 9 1 . T h e same i d e a i s a l s o f o u n d i n N a g a r j u n a ' s T a - c h i - t u - l u n . H u r v i t z , Wei Shu, p.40.  64.  Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , p.178.  65.  The u s u a l r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h i s f a m o u s f i g u r e i s C. P. F i t z g e r a l d , The E m p r e s s Wu, ( M e l b o u r n e : F. W. C h e s h i r e , 1 9 5 6 ) ; A. F. W r i g h t and D. T w i t c h e t t , e d . , P e r s p e c t i v e s o n t h e T'ang (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973), pp.297-305.  66.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e same s h i f t o c c u r r e d i n J a p a n when p h a s e o f M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p was f o l l o w e d b y a s u b s e q u e n t p h a s e o f A m i d a worship i n the eighth century.  67.  Peri,  68.  A. W a l e y , A- C a t a l o g u e o f P a i n t i n g s R e c o v e r e d  69.  M a t s u m o t o Y u j i , "Some Themes i n C h i n e s e R e b e l I d e o l o g i e s , " T h e C o n f u c i a n P e r s u a s i o n , e d . A. F. W r i g h t ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 241-267.  "Review,"  p.446. from Tun-huang  xxxviii.  -97-  Chapter IV  Latter Says I.  : „ o - f a ( * ^ )  Introduction When B u d d h i s t m i s s i o n a r i e s a r r i v e d  t h e most advanced  civilizations  i n C h i n a , t h e y f o u n d one o f  i n the ancient world.  Buddhist  e s c h a t o l o g i c a l concepts were thus i n t r o d u c e d i n t o a c u l t u r e had  which  l o n g b e e n d e v e l o p i n g i t s own d i s t i n c t v i e w s o n t i m e a n d h i s t o r y . " * "  F o r t h e Han C o n f u c i a n s , h e a v e n , e a r t h a n d man w e r e l i n k e d  together  by a d i v i n e l y a p p o i n t e d r u l e r and i n t e r a c t e d w i t h i n a p r e c i s e and o r d e r l y system.  Time, a m e t i c u l o u s l y measured continuum  of minutes,  2 days, life  s e a s o n s , y e a r s and p l a n e t a r y c y c l e s  , was c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h t h e  s p a n s , g e n e r a t i o n s a n d d y n a s t i c c y c l e s o f man.  were t r a d i t i o n a l l y  astronomers  Court  historians  who a n a l y z e d human e v e n t s i n t e r m s o f  c e l e s t i a l c y c l e s and d i v i n e p o r t e n t s .  D e s p i t e t h e c o n t i n u i n g emphasis  on d i v i n a t i o n and s p i r i t w o r s h i p b y h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , t h e g r e a t Han  historian,  S s u Ma C h ' i e n was a b l e t o t a k e a r e m a r k a b l y  pragmatic  s t a n c e : h i s t o r y was a p r o d u c t o f man's own w i l l  and t h e g o l d e n age  would  Man, b y h i s own  come a b o u t  and w i s d o m , w o u l d The  through h i s moral  usher  excellence. 3  i n the millennium.  d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e Han a n d t h e d e c l i n e o f C o n f u c i a n i s m  in a revival of older philosophies, including 4 m e s s i a n i c movements.  effort  resulted  the dramatic r i s e of Taoist  The i d e a l s o f h e a v e n l y r u l e r s , p a r a d i s e s , a n d t h e  Great Peace a n i m a t i n g p o p u l a r T a o i s t u p r i s i n g s can be t r a c e d Confucian p o l i t i c o - r e l i g i o u s  t r a d i t i o n " " ' common t o b o t h  to a "pre-  Confucianism  -98-  and of  Taoism.  Taoist messianism  t h e r e f o r e s u b s t a n t i a t e s the e x i s t a n c e  Chinese conceptions of l i n e a r  advent  o f a p e r f e c t r u l e r and  time  and  indigenous b e l i e f s  i n the  a Utopian world.^  A l t h o u g h i t i s not w i t h i n the scope  of t h i s  thesis to discuss  the r i c h m i l l e n a r i a n t r a d i t i o n i n China, T a o i s t or Buddhist, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t many o f t h e e a r l y were born around H o p e i , one  founders of R e l i g i o u s  Taoism  the r e g i o n of p r e s e n t K i a n g s u , Southern Shantung  of the f i r s t  areas of Buddhist.growth.  fourth centuries i n particular, c a u s a l i t y , h e a v e n s and h e l l s ,  From t h e t h i r d  B u d d h i s t c o n c e p t s on  and  t h e end  and and  transmigration,  of a k a l p a profoundly i n -  g fluenced rebel thinking heard  as w e l l as t h e r e l i g i o s i t y  t h e p o p u l a r sermons o f t h e e a r l y  cosmology and  of the masses  i t i n e r a n t monks.  eschatology i n j e c t e d f r e s h ideas into the  Chinese concepts of time; i n c l u d i n g and d e s t r u c t i o n j o f  w e r e t o h a v e a l o n g and  fruitful  Thus B u d d h i s t traditional  the n o t i o n s of cosmic  t h e b e g i n n i n g s and  who  ends o f w o r l d ages.  creation These i d e a s  i n f l u e n c e on t h e s u b s e q u e n t  development  9  of  Neo-Confucian  and N e o - T a o i s t p h i l o s o p h y .  From t h e f o u r t h t o t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s , B u d d h i s t e s c h a t o l o g y a t t a i n e d a degree  of prominence perhaps  nineteenth century. Disunion  (220-589),  Historically, the S u i Dynasty  y e a r s o f t h e T'ang D y n a s t y particular, and  unequalled i n China u n t i l  the  these centuries cover the Period ( 5 8 1 - 6 1 8 ) and  (618-907).  the f i r s t  one  hundred  F o r t h e N o r t h e r n Sangha i n  p e r i o d s of p e r s e c u t i o n a l t e r n a t e d w i t h p e r i o d s of  t h e B u d d h i s t community e x p e r i e n c e d u n p r e c e d e n t e d  t i m e , t h e N o r t h e r n Wei masses r e g a r d e d  of  growth.  prosperity; During  this  t h e M a i t r e y a B u d d h a as a c e n t e r o f  d e v o t i o n ; a s o u r c e o f hope i n a c r i s i s - r i d d e n age.  In contrast,  and rebels"'""'" p e r c e i v e d t h e M a i t r e y a m y t h a s a b a s i s on w h i c h  to  rulers"*"^ build  -99-  religion-political  ideologies.  Buddhist e s c h a t o l o g i c a l thought the advent belief  i s made up o f two d i s t i n c t  o f M a i t r e y a a n d t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e Dharma.  p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g t h e f o u r t h and f i f t h  elements:  Eschatological  c e n t u r i e s was c h a r a c t e r i z e d  b y a r d e n t d e v o t i o n a n d e x p e c t a t i o n : t h e f o c u s was o n M a i t r e y a . as t i m e p a s s e d ,  the q u a l i t y of eschatological b e l i e f  changed.  However, Increasing  e m p h a s i s was p l a c e d o n t h e L a t t e r D a y s , known i n C h i n a a s m o - f a ( t h e Latter  end o f t h e L a w ) .  before the f a l l  The s e n s e o f u n e a s e t h a t h a d b e e n g r o w i n g  even  12 o f t h e Northern Wei and had been i n c r e a s i n g w i t h t h e  q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n o f t h e s t a t e s o f E a s t e r n and W e s t e r n W e i , N o r t h e r n Ch'i,  N o r t h e r n Chou a n d t h e C h ' e n , was h e i g h t e n e d b y t h e m a j o r p e r s e c u t i o n 13  of  Buddhism  in  t h e Sangha were y e t a g a i n l o d g e d .  Yang C h i e n ,  i n 574-77; d u r i n g w h i c h  ( E m p e r o r Wen) s e i z i n g  centuries, belief  The f o u n d e r o f t h e S u i D y n a s t y ,  t h e mood o f t h e h o u r , made u s e o f  s u t r a s such as t h e Suvarnaprabhasa, 14 t h e c a k r a v a r t i n o f t h e new a g e .  recurrent allegations of corruption  a n d s t r o v e t o make g o o d h i s c l a i m a s  By t h e l a t e s i x t h a n d e a r l y  i n t h e Buddhist eschaton had reached  a  seventh  crisis.  L i v i n g d u r i n g t h e e n d o f t h e Dharma, i n s t e a d o f b r i n g i n g t h e believer  c l o s e r t o t h e f u t u r e B u d d h a , meant l i v i n g  b o t h Sakyamuni and M a i t r e y a .  Because of t h e i r  i n remoteness  from  s e p a r a t i o n i n time  from  t h e E n l i g h t e n e d Ones, t h e C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f d e p r i v e d of  access t o the o r i g i n a l  t r u t h o f t h e Dharma; t h o s e b o r n  w e r e condemned t o i g n o r a n c e , p a i n a n d d a r k n e s s . seemed t o r e a c h a n i m p a s s e . and  The q u e s t  i n t h i s age f o r salvation  T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e myths o f M a i t r e y a  t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f mo-fo t h a t b r o u g h t  t h e development o f Chinese  Buddhism t o a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e l a t e s i x t h and e a r l y s e v e n t h  centuries.  -100-  II.  Mythic  Foundations  In 439, when the l a s t k i n g o f t h e Northern L i a n g Dynasty to t h e Wei, escaped  a p r i n c e o f t h e i m p e r i a l household,  An-yang  surrendered )^»  to t h e South and spent t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e as a i t i n e r e n t  preacher, p r o p a g a t i n g t h e c u l t s o f M a i t r e y a and Avalokitesvara."'" The monk T ' a n - c h i a i , i l l name of M a i t r e y a .  and d y i n g , c a l l e d w i t h o u t  6  c e a s i n g on t h e  When t h i s d i s c i p l e o f Tao-an was asked why he d i d not  pray t o be born i n S u k h a v a t i , he responded: '"The abbot and I and some o t h e r s , e i g h t of us i n a l l , prayed t o g e t h e r to be r e b o r n i n T u s i t a , t h e abbot and Tao-yuan and the r e s t have a l r e a d y been reborn [there]. I have not been a b l e to d e p a r t , and that i s why I pray as I do." "'When he f i n i s h e d speaking, a r a d i a n c e shone upon h i s body and h i s l o o k became j o y f u l ; and then suddenly he passed away, b e i n g i n h i s s e v e n t i e t h y e a r . " ! 7  A d i s c i p l e and f e l l o w - p i l g r i m of F a - h s i e n , Chih-yen  s t u d i e d dhyana  under Buddhasena and Buddhabhadra f o r t h r e e years and a f t e r r e t u r n i n g to China w i t h t h e l a t t e r , t r a n s l a t e d t e x t s i n Ch'ien-kang.  In his old  age, h i s d e s i r e to r e s o l v e doubts t h a t had continued t o torment him about the v a l i d i t y o f h i s o r d i n a t i o n took Chih-yen I n d i a n a r h a t whose a d v i c e Chih-yen  back t o I n d i a .  sought was unable  When t h e  to come t o a d e c i s i o n ,  the arhat entered samadhi and c o n s u l t e d M a i t r e y a i n T u s i t a Heaven. H i s h e a r t eased by M a i t r e y a ' s message t h a t t h e o r d i n a t i o n was i n o r d e r , C h i h -  18 yen r e t u r n e d to Kashmir and d i e d t h e r e a t t h e age of s e v e n t y - n i n e . H u i - l a n was i n s t r u c t e d Dharmadatta i n Kashmir.  i n t h e p r i n c i p l e s of dhyana by a monk c a l l e d  Dharmadatta had gone t o T u s i t a Heaven i n samadhi  to r e c e i v e h i s B o d h i s a t t v a o r d i n a t i o n from M a i t r e y a .  Hui-lan, after  r e c e i v i n g t h i s same method o f o r d i n a t i o n , taught i n Khotan, t h e p r e s e n t  -101Szechwan and i n C h i e n - k a n g During cavern  (between  424-435).  ± y  h i s t r a v e l s i n I n d i a , Hsuan-tsang v i s i t e d  where t h e famous f i f t h  be w a i t i n g f o r M a i t r e y a  the mountain  c e n t u r y monk B h a v a v i v e k a was s a i d t o  i n a palace  of Asuras.  that Bhavaviveka appealed to A v a l o k i t e s v a r a  The p i l g r i m w r i t e s  saying:  " ' I n t h e a b s e n c e o f M a i t r e y a a s a B u d d h a , who i s t h e r e t h a t c a n s a t i s f y my d o u b t s ? ' " "'Long have I p r a y e d and w o r s h i p p e d w i t h a v i e w t o o b t a i n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o see M a i t r e y a . . . L e t us t h e r e f o r e e n t e r here and t o g e t h e r await t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f t h i s Buddha.'"20  T o w a r d s t h e e n d o f h i s w e l l known t r a v e l account^" " i n a s e c t i o n 1  e x t o l l i n g h i s teachers  I-ching writes of h i smeditation  on M a i t r e y a :  "Deep a s t h e d e p t h o f a l a k e b e my p u r e a n d c a l m meditation. L e t me l o o k f o r t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g u n d e r t h e T r e e o f t h e D r a g o n F l o w e r , when I h e a r t h e deep r i p p l i n g v o i c e o f t h e Buddha M a i t r e y a . P a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e f o u r modes o f b i r t h , I w o u l d d e s i r e t o p e r f e c t my m i n d , a n d t h u s f u l f i l l t h e t h r e e l o n g k a l p a s ( a g e s ) r e q u i r e d f o r Buddhahood."23  Looked t o as t h e f u t u r e Buddha by t h e d e v o t e e s o f b o t h v e h i c l e s , Maitreya "a  d e v e l o p e d a w h o l e new s e t o f M a h a y a n a r o l e s :  comforter  r e c e i v i n g the confession of s i n s " ;  "a god o f l i g h t " ;  "a g u i d e f o r s o u l s  after  2A death";  and t h e supreme i n s p i r e r  of Buddhist  masters.  What i s p e r h a p s  s u r p r i s i n g t o m o d e r n M a h a y a n a s c h o l a r s , i s n o t s o much t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y of Maitreya b e l i e f but the i n t e n s i t y —  especially  and  logical  among t h e f o r e m o s t e x p o n e n t s o f t h e s o - c a l l e d u n t h e i s t i c  schools.  In order that  o f d e v o t i o n w h i c h t h i s Buddha i n s p i r e d  t o g e t an i d e a o f t h e k i n d o f myths, images  i n s p i r e d t h e mind and h e a r t  of the Medieval  and s t o r i e s  Chinese c l e r i c or  -102-  layman, I have gleaned  examples from the  t r a v e l accounts  C h i n a ' s most famous p i l g r i m s t o I n d i a : F a - h s i e n 25  399-412) tsang's  and  Hsuan-tsang  (travelled  ( t r a v e l l e d between 629-645).  n a r r a t i v e contains at l e a s t nine  o f two  separate  of  between  26  Hsuan-  references  to  27 M a i t r e y a whereas Fa-hsien's presents  includes only three.  a g e n e r a t i o n o f monks w h o s e p i l g r i m a g e was  the d e s i r e to c a r r y r e l i c s devotion, s t i l l  centered  future Maitreya.  and  on  and  and  S a k y a m u n i , i n c l u d e d by  the f i f t h  century noted  and  Two  u n c h a s t e monks. Fa-hsien  By  recorded  by  accounts  o f M a i t r e y a by  and  i n r u i n s and  other Maitreya.  system, Hsiiani n Maitreya had  H s u a n - t s a n g and other  met 28  world."  by  early traditional  with  Hsuan-tsang with  gloomy  In the  Northwest monasteries stories  c o m p a r i n g them w i t h  C h i n e s e monks and  in  t r a v e l l e r s made was  later  "he  past i t s  i n the North  examining the kinds of i n c i d e n t s or  d e l i n e a t e broad p a t t e r n s i n the mythic  and  s t r o n g but  i n the South, wealthy  to  first  still  hundred years  i n many p a r t s o f t h e B u d d h i s t  f o u n d many m o n a s t e r i e s  The  the  S a k y a m u n i and  that Hinayana predominated  f o u n d a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e c l i n e i n B u d d h i s m , and  he  His  A v a l o k i t e s v a r a worship  I n d i a n B u d d h i s m was  of Mahayana a c t i v i t y .  forebodings  by  ascendency.  height; Fa-hsien pockets  than  seem t o h a v e r e k i n d l e d i n t e r e s t  T u s i t a H e a v e n a t a t i m e when A m i t a and  By  extension,  s p e c i a l p l a c e i n the Fa-hsiang  his disciples  already gained  motivated  By H s U a n - t s a n g ' s t i m e h o w e v e r , n u m e r o u s  Because of M a i t r e y a ' s  re-  a c o m p l e t e .Vlnaya b a c k t o C h i n a .  Mahayana d e i t i e s were becoming more p o p u l a r  tsang  Fa-hsien  laymen, i t i s p o s s i b l e  foundations  of M a i t r e y a  worship  China.  most o b v i o u s  type of r e f e r e n c e to M a i t r e y a  while v i s i t i n g  t h e famous p i l g r i m a g e s p o t s  that  the  associated  -103-  w i t h Sakyamuni's l i f e . is  described  The p l a c e w h e r e M a i t r e y a  i n Fa-hsien's  received h i s vyakarana  account as a s i t e near Deer P a r k  29  and by  Hsuan-tsang as a spot marked by an Asoka s t u p a between T a k s h a s i l a and 30 the  Indus  ; p r e s u m a b l y t h e same p l a c e . H s u a n - t s a n g ' s a c c o u n t m e n t i o n s 31  both the place  where M a h a p r a j a p a t i  presented  t h e g o l d e n garment t o  Sakyamuni and V u l t u r e Peak, t h e t h r e e - p e a k e d m o u n t a i n where Mahakasyapa, 32 entrusted with.the At  same g o l d g a r m e n t , a w a i t s  t h e coming o f M a i t r e y a .  the b o d h i t r e e where Sakyamuni a c h i e v e d  enlightenment,  Hsiian-  t s a n g d e s c r i b e s s e e i n g M a i t r e y a d i s g u i s e d a s a brahman i n a n e a r b y 33 v i h a r a , p a i n t i n g a p e r f e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e Buddha. Hsuan-chao, 34 I - c h i n g and Chi-hung a l s o r e c o r d e d  seeing Maitreya  at the bodhi t r e e Hsuan-tsang, observing  the a r t i s t .  Again  the icon of Avalokitesvara,  s u n k b r e a s t - d e e p i n t o t h e g r o u n d ; remembered t h e p r o p h e c y t h a t a s t h e s t a t u e d i s a p p e a r e d , s o w o u l d t h e B u d d h a ' s Law. The his  second type  o f r e f e r e n c e made t o M a i t r e y a  t r a d i t i o n which the p i l g r i m s encountered during  well-known example i s t h e T ' o - l i M a i t r e y a T'o-li  statue.  (Darel) V a l l e y , north of the Indian border,  includes traces of their  travels.  I n order  to reach the  t h e p i l g r i m s had t o  c r o s s h a z a r d o u s g o r g e s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e S i n - t ' u R i v e r ; up  A  climbing  a n d down t h e m o u n t a i n s i d e s w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f p e g s , c h a i n s o r  ropes.  S e v e r a l p i l g r i m s i n c l u d i n g Fa-sheng, Hsuang-tsang and 35  reported  seeing  t h e c o l o s s a l sandal-wood M a i t r e y a .  According  Fa-hsien to  Fa-hsien: "The monks t h e r e a l l s t u d y t h e H i n a y a n a . I n olden t i m e s t h e r e was i n t h a t l a n d a n A r h a t who u s e d h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l powers t o t r a n s p o r t a s k i l l e d craftsman up t o t h e T u s i t a H e a v e n s o t h a t h e m i g h t o b s e r v e t h e B o d h i s a t t v a M a i t r e y a , how t a l l h e was a n d w h a t c o m p l e x i o n a n d f o r m He h a d ; s o t h a t o n r e t u r n i n g t o E a r t h h e c o u l d c a r v e wood i n t o a n i m a g e . From s t a r t  -104-  t o f i n i s h t h r e e a s c e n t s w e r e made, u n t i l t h e i m a g e was c o m p l e t e d . I t i s eighty feet t a l l , the f o o t b e i n g e i g h t f e e t l o n g . On f a s t d a y s i t a l w a y s emits a l i g h t . The m o n a r c h s o f v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s v i e w i t h each other i n making o f f e r i n g s t o i t . . . " 3 6  Hstfan-tsang  adds t h a t  the statue  "possesses the secret  power o f  37 miracle" "the  and b o t h he and F a - h s i e n r e c a l l an o l d t r a d i t i o n t h a t  time of t h e execution  from  o f h i s i m a g e , t h e s t r e a m s o f t h e Law 38  (religious  t e a c h i n g ) began t o f l o w  Instances of m e d i t a t i o n  eastward."  where a b e l i e v e r i s t r a n s p o r t e d i n search  t o T u s i t a by t h e powers  o f k n o w l e d g e o r i n s p i r a t i o n make up a n o f t e n 39  r e p e a t e d theme w i t h many d i f f e r e n t v a r i a t i o n s .  P r o b a b l y t h e most  i m p o r t a n t o f these myths i n t h e t r a v e l c h r o n i c l e s i s Hsuan-tsang's t o t h e g r o v e o f Amra t r e e s ascended t o M a i t r e y a ' s  i n A y o d h y a w h e r e A s a n g a was s a i d t o h a v e  palace  i n T u s i t a and r e c e i v e d  such as t h e M a i t r e y a n a t h a - y o g a c a r a - s a s t r a , _  visit  .  _  Yogacara works  the Mahayanasutralamkara-tika  40  and t h e M a d y a n t a v i b a n g a - k a r i k a . • . _• I n t h e same p a s s a g e , H s u a n - t s a n g d e s c r i b e s how V a s u b a n d h u , A s a n g a a n d a f e w o t h e r s m u t u a l l y a g r e e d t h a t 41 the  first  t o d i e and r e a c h T u s i t a would  inform  the others.  After a  monk h a d d i e d b u t s e n t no m e s s a g e , A s a n g a h a d a v i s i o n o f a r i s h i - d e v a who r e p o r t e d  going to T u s i t a .  the beauty o f M a i t r e y a  He t o l d A s a r i g a  t h a t "no w o r d s c a n d e s c r i b e "  and t h e wonders o f T u s i t a .  He f u r t h e r  t h a t B u d d h a s i m h a , t h e monk who h a d d i e d b u t n o t r e p o r t e d  confirmed  to h i s friends,  42 was  i n T u s i t a , " immersed i n p l e a s u r e 1  and m e r r i m e n t ' " .  Although Hsuan-tsang's s t o r y o f Asanga r e c e i v i n g t h e s u t r a s Maitreya  i s u n i q u e b e c a u s e i t became p a r t  Fa-hsiang p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n ,  from  of the mythic structure of the  i t c a n be compared t o o t h e r  i n w h i c h k n o w l e d g e was s o u g h t f r o m M a i t r e y a .  stories  Buddhabhadra, t h e dhyana  -105-  e x p e r t who is  said  arrived  i n Chang-an a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  to have appeared suddenly  before a fellow d i s c i p l e ,  r e t u r n e d f r o m T u s i t a H e a v e n w h e r e he had Maitreya".  43  The  of the f i f t h  g o n e t o "pay  century, having  homage t o 44  d e s c r i p t i o n s of Tao-an's M a i t r e y a d e v o t i o n  w e l l as  t h e s t o r i e s o f C h i h - y e n and H u i - l a n c i t e d a t t h e  of t h i s  s e c t i o n a r e o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f t h e same theme; t h a t o f  the  as  beginning Maitreya  inspirer. S i t t i n g amidst  3,000 p r i e s t s i n a S r i l a n k a M a h a v i h a r a ,  Fa-hsien  45 listened  t o t h e s t o r y o f t h e Buddha's alms b o w l .  d e s i r e t o copy t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the s p r e a d , eventual renewal was  told:  o f t h e Law  " ' t h i s has  no  Upon e x p r e s s i n g  t h e d e c l i n e and  under M a i t r e y a , the Chinese  original scripture;  m o u t h (what I h a v e l e a r n e d ) ' F a - h s i e n 47 the bowl i n a monastery i n Purusha.  the  peregrinator  I o n l y r e p e a t by word i s even s a i d  Although  the  of  to have seen  the myth i s well-known  H s u a n g - t s a n g makes no m e n t i o n o f i t . The  third  accounts  type of r e f e r e n c e to M a i t r e y a recorded  i s the personal experience.  R i v e r from K a s h m i r , Hsvian-tsang  o f f e r him tried him  to dissuade  and  pray  as a s a c r i f i c e  to M a i t r e y a , the Chinese  be  In  h i s i m a g i n a t i o n he  In  by b r i g a n d s who  Ganges wanted  to  As H s l l a n - t s a n g u n s u c c e s s f u l l y prepared  a mandala f o r  p i l g r i m concentrated  i n T u s i t a so t h a t he  h e a v e n s u n t i l he  could r e c e i v e the  c l i m b e d Mount Sumeru, p a s s e d saw  M a i t r e y a , surrounded  L a m o t t e ' s w o r d s : " . . . h i s h e a r t was  b a n d i t s , a l l was  travel  killing  t h e i r s w o r d s . A f t e r a s k i n g f o r a moment i n w h i c h  to  third  to Durga.  the  h i s j o u r n e y down t h e  was c a p t u r e d _ 48  them, t h e b r i g a n d s  brandished  reborn  On  by  forgotten...".  At  on M a i t r e y a and  vowed  Yogacarabhumi-sastra. the f i r s t ,  second  by h i s a s s e m b l y o f  f u l l of j o y ; the mandala,  this  to  i n s t a n t , a v i o l e n t storm  and  devas.  the arose,  -106-  terrifying  t h e b r i g a n d s and s a v i n g H s l i a n - t s a n g .  h i s death, M a i t r e y a remained  From t h i s  time t o  f o rHsiian-tsang a s p e c i a l object of  veneration. On h i s d e a t h - b e d ,  the Yogacara master  c o n s t a n t l y t o be b o r n i n T u s i t a  Heaven.  i s said  t o have  prayed  49  " I n t h e second month o f t h e f i r s t y e a r o f L i n - t e (664 A D ) , H s i i a n - t s a n g , t h e M a s t e r o f t h e Law a s k e d t h e monks t o r e c i t e t h e name o f M a i t r e y a B u d d h a . He h i m s e l f r e c l i n e d o n h i s r i g h t e l b o w a n d d i e d . That n i g h t f o u r w h i t e r a i n b o w s came up i n t h e s k y a n d touched t h e t o p o f t h e pagoda o f t h e Tz'u-en monastery."50  Buddhist w r i t i n g s a r e r e p l e t e w i t h death-bed t s a n g ' s and t h e p a s s a g e this section. to r e b i r t h  accounts  such as Hsiian-  from T ' a n - c h i a i ' s biography a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of  S u c h a c c o u n t s , b y no means l i m i t e d  i n T u s i t a heaven, a r e reminescent  t o those to aspired  of the biographies of  A m i t a d e v o t e e s who s o u g h t  — t o go t o S u k h a v a t i a f t e r  many c a s e s b o t h M a i t r e y a  and A m i t a o r o t h e r d e i t i e s were c a l l e d  t h e i r death.  51  In  upon.  When C h i h - i was p r e p a r i n g t o d i e h e d i v i d e d h i s p o s s e s s i o n s i n t w o : one  p a r t f o r an o f f e r i n g t o M a i t r e y a ; and t h e o t h e r f o r " t h e u s u a l  r e l i g i o u s purposes".  He c h a n t e d  " t h e names o f A m i t a , p r a j n a a n d 52  A v a l o k i t e s v a r a , and t h e n c a l m l y s a t a w a i t i n g h i s e n d . " A final  example o f M a i t r e y a w o r s h i p  o t h e r f i g u r e s c a n be f o u n d Chu-i. and  i n the l i f e  I n 8 4 0 , Po c o m m i s s i o n e d  the Western P a r a d i s e .  With  i n conjunction w i t h that of  o f t h e f a m o u s T'ang p o e t , P o -  an a r t i s t  t o render a p a i n t i n g of Amita  t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g he  e x p r e s s e d t h e d e s i r e t h a t a l l t h e m e r i t s from t h i s deed be t r a n s f e r r e d to a l l s e n t i e n t b e i n g s , that they might That  same y e a r , h e c o m m i s s i o n e d  attain rebirth  another p a i n t i n g ;  i n Sukhavati.  o f T u s i t a Heaven, w i t h  -107-  the wish  that a l l sentiment  beings  be r e b o r n  t h e r e and accompany  Maitreya  53 when h e d e s c e n d s t o e a r t h . still  sustaining h i sl i f e  During  the f i n a l  long i n t e r e s t  Pure Land thought.  to  b e r e u n i t e d w i t h f r i e n d s who h a d d i e d b e f o r e h i m .  worship  i n Amita's Sukhavati, 54  c o n c l u s i o n , we may make two g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s i n e a r l y t r a d i t i o n a l China.  periods of great  i n Loyang,  i n Ch'an, Po t u r n e d i n c r e a s i n g l y  to  In  Through r e b i r t h  phase o f h i s l i f e  First,  the Future  he hoped  about  Maitreya  Buddha, even i n  p o p u l a r i t y , was w o r s h i p p e d c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h  other  d e i t i e s ; w h e t h e r i n c o n j u n c t i o n and Sakyamuni o r A v a l o k i t e s v a r a as i n the case of Fa-hsien  and An-yang o r i n c o n c e r t w i t h o t h e r s  i n the  Mahayana p a n t h e o n , a s i n t h e d e v o t i o n a l i s m o f C h i h - i , P o - C h l i - i , and p r o b a b l y , m o s t o f t h e T'ang S a n g h a a n d L a i t y .  Secondly,  f o r many  i n c l u d i n g T a o - a n a n d H s u a n - t s a n g , M a i t r e y a was a n i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l and  s p e c i a l o b j e c t o f veneration"'"'; a tendency  valent during the Northern neither Fa-hsien chronicles.  Wei Dynasty.  e x c e p t i o n a l l y pre-  I t i s interesting  to note  that  n o r H s l i a n - t s a n g made a n y m e n t i o n o f A m i t a i n t h e i r  As t i m e went o n , M a i t r e y a ' s  identity  travel  as t h e Buddha o f t h e  F u t u r e became l e s s a n d l e s s d i s t i n c t w i t h t h e I m p o r t a n t e x c e p t i o n o f popular  and  a n d u n d e r g r o u n d r e b e l g r o u p s who a s s o c i a t e d h i m w i t h r e v o l u t i o n 56  a new s o c i a l o r d e r .  S e c t a r i a n g r o u p s b a s e d on M a i t r e y a n  w e r e m o s t a c t i v e f r o m a b o u t 600-1800."*^  From t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y  M a i t r e y a was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n e c c e n t r i c C h ' a n monk c a l l e d whose l i k e n e s s was p l a c e d a t t h e e n t r a n c e until  t h i s century  the market-places  images o f M a i t r e y a  laughing form s t i l l  o f Hong K o n g a s a s y m b o l o f g o o d f o r t u n e . t h e S u i , and t h e e a r y  onward,  P'u-tai  of temples throughout  and whose e a r t h y , r o t u n d ,  Period of Disunion,  eschatology  China graces  During the  T'ang, however, t h e myths and  and T u s i t a Heaven s o l a c e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r  -108-  with visions of b l i s s f u l  e x i s t e n c e a f t e r d e a t h and t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r  a r e n e w e d Dharma i n t h e f u t u r e .  III.  The A g e B e t w e e n Two B u d d h a s The  i n s c r i p t i o n e t c h e d on a s t o n e Buddha i n T i n g H s i n g h s i e n  dated 549, t e l l s  us t h a t  i t was made b y l a y f r a t e r n i t y members who  lamented b e i n g b o r n a f t e r t h e time o f Sakyamuni and p r i o r d i s t a n t advent  to the f a r  o f M a i t r e y a - i n t h e a g e " b e t w e e n two s a g e s "  0>^£ ^  T h e n i n C h i n e s e f a s h i o n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n r e a d s : " t o my t h i n k i n g , born i n t h i s world f u l l  o f d e f i l e m e n t , because  I was p o o r  f^)  I was  i n good  59 fortune".  The i n c o h e r e n t s t a t e o f t h e B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e and t h e  arduousness  of i t s practice;  t h e p e r s e c u t i o n s o f t h e Sangha and t h e  s i g n s o f c o r r u p t i o n i n i t s r a n k s ; and t h e o n g o i n g s o c i a l  crises of  the age c o n v i n c e d B u d d h i s t s , l a y and m o n a s t i c , t h a t t h e y were in  the "buddhaless"  (  growing s i n c e t h e f i f t h  ^  ) age.  The w i d e s p r e a d  living  sense o f d e s p a i r ,  century reached.critical proportions i n the  sixth. Many s i x c e n t u r y B u d d h i s t s w e r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e l a s t t h e Dharma w o u l d  b e g i n e i t h e r 1,000 o r 1,500 y e a r s a f t e r  t h e i r founder; t h i s  phase o f  the death of  " p e r t u r b e d t h e mind o f Buddhist China, almost a s 60  much a s E u r o p e was a g i t a t e d b y t h e a r r i v a l stock phrase " i n the l a s t  o f t h e y e a r 1,000".  500 y e a r s " i n M a h a y a n a w r i t i n g s was  i n v a r i o u s ways by C h i n e s e w r i t e r s  The echoed  who d a t e d e v e n t s a s 61 '"such and such a d a t e a f t e r t h e o n s e t o f t h e L a s t Phase'" o r Pao-chang who w r o t e h i s b i o g r a p h y o f C h i n e s e N u n s i n o r d e r " t o p r o v i d e e x a m p l e s o f great v i r t u e  i n a d e g e n e r a t e age".  l i k e Hu-ssu,  6 2  Some e v e n h o p e d t h a t M a i t r e y a w o u l d  -109-  appear i n t h e i r monk, k i l l e d cry:  own t i m e .  I n 515, t h e f o l l o w e r s o f F a - c h i n g ,  l o c a l o f f i c i a l s , burnt  '"A new B u d d h a h a s a p p e a r e d !  Thus, i n t h e s i x t h  c e n t u r y we f i n d  Get r i d o f t h e o l d d e v i l s ! " . t h e development o f u n i q u e l y  (j£  or hsiang-fa  finally  Dharma m o - f a  ^  ( ^L/^v).  Chinese  a n d t h e e m e r g e n c e o f two and H s i n - h s i n g .  r e l i g i o n was t o end w i t h t h e p e r i o d o f t h e  t r u e Dharma o r c h e n g - f a a n  63  1  major proponents of the l a t t e r - d a y d o c t r i n e , Hui-ssu the Buddhist  Buddhist  s u t r a s and r a z e d t e m p l e s w i t h t h e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of e s c h a t o l o g i c a l chronology  Initially,  a  ) , a n d t h e n w i t h t h e C o u n t e r f e i t Dharma c a l c u l a t i o n s w e r e made f o r t h e D e g e n e r a t e  From an e a r l y d a t e  the Chinese  B u d d h i s t s had  a d o p t e d t h e t h r e e - s t a g e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l m o d e l w e l l known t o t h e m f r o m 64 v a r i o u s Mahayana works. conflicting thought  The  The s c r i p t u r e s  c h r o n o l o g i e s b u t by t h e s i x t h  supported  numerous o f t e n -  century, four schools of  had emerged:  1.  T r u e Dharma 500 y e a r s a n d C o u n t e r f e i t Dharma 500 y e a r s ;  2.  T r u e Dharma 500 y e a r s  3.  T r u e Dharma 1,000 y e a r s a n d C o u n t e r f e i t Dharma 500 y e a r s ;  4.  T r u e Dharma 1,000 y e a r s  a n d C o u n t e r f e i t Dharma 1,000 y e a r s ;  a n d C o u n t e r f e i t Dharma 1,000  second and t h e f o u r t h s c h o o l s , b o t h  years  years.^  f o l l o w e d by a n a d d i t i o n a l 10,000  o f D e g e n e r a t e Dharma w e r e t h e m o s t p o p u l a r  i n China.  Influential  monks i n c l u d i n g H u i - y u a n , H u i - s s u , Taor-cho, H s u a n - t s a n g a n d K ' u a i - c h i 66 adopted t h e second and  scheme  ; Chi-tsang  (549-623),  Hui-kuan  (613-681),  L i a n g - p ' i (717-777) f o l l o w e d t h e l e s s p r e v a l e n t f o u r t h scheme. The  a b o v e schemes seem r e l a t i v e l y  the w i d e l y divergent dates period  o f t h e Dharma.  calculated  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d when c o m p a r e d w i t h f o r the a c t u a l onset  These c a l c u l a t i o n s , o f t e n d e v i s e d  of the f i n a l  to support  -110-  p r e c o n c e l v e d b i a s e s ^ , were based birth  or nirvana.  either  on t h e d a t e o f  iakyamuni's  Some w e r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t h e i r  estimates: Fa-hsien placed the  B u d d h a ' s n i r v a n a b e t w e e n 7 7 0 - 7 2 0 B.C.  t h e a u t h o r o f t h e L i - t a i - s a n - p a o - c h i a t 609 B.C.;  and Wei Shou  68  ;  fixed  69 t h e Buddha's b i r t h  a t 687 B.C.  O t h e r s , however t o o k a more  radical  s t a n c e . I n o r d e r t o c o m b a t T a o i s t p r o p a g a n d a t h a t t h e B u d d h a was i n f a c t , n o n e o t h e r t h a n L a o - t s e who, a f t e r h i s d i s a p p e a r a n c e Western Regions  had taught  forged texts establishing  the barbarians i n I n d i a ^ ,  short l i f e  some B u d d h i s t s 71  t h e d a t e o f t h e B u d d h a a t 1025  S i m i l a r l y , Confucian anti-Buddhist t r a c t s blaming  i n the  B.C.  Buddhism f o r t h e  o f t h e d y n a s t i e s w e r e c o u n t e r e d b y more f o r g e d t e x t s ;  notably  the Chou-shu-i-chi which  s e t t h e B u d d h a ' s n i r v a n a b a c k t o 949 B.C. - t o 72 t h e v e n e r a b l e Chou d y n a s t y . T h i s l a s t d a t e o f 949 B.C. f o u n d w i d e c u r r e n c y a n d l e d many s i x t h c e n t u r y B u d d h i s t s t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e l a t t e r 73 a g e w o u l d b e g i n i n t h e y e a r 550 A.D. The f i r s t w r i t t e n d o c u m e n t d e f i n i t i v e l y  stating  that the l a s t  phase  74 had  a l r e a d y begun i s c r e d i t e d  to Hui-ssu  (515-574).  In h i s Li-shih-yuan-  wen composed i n 5 5 9 , H u i - s s u g i v e s t h e d a y , m o n t h a n d y e a r f o r t h e B u d d h a ' s conception, b i r t h ,  going f o r t h ,  d a t e s f r o m a now l o s t would l a s t  and n i r v a n a .  D e r i v i n g these  J a t a k a ^ , H u i - s s u came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t  f r o m 1066-567 B.C.,  434 t o 1 0 , 4 3 3 A.D.  enlightenment  h s i a n g - f a f r o m 5 6 6 - 4 3 3 A.D.  ( t h e B u d d h a ' s b i r t h d a y was 76  fixed  cheng-fa  and mo-fa,  from  as t h e 5 t h day o f  t h e 2nd m o n t h o f 1067 B . C . ! ) .  Thus f o r H u i - s s u , t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e  l a s t phase would have s t a r t e d  i n 4 3 4 , one h u n d r e d a n d t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s  b e f o r e he i s thought In of  t o have w r i t t e n t h e  t h e same t e x t , h e p r a y s  an e l i x i r  Li-shih-yuan-wen.  that alchemical practices w i l l  ( J ^ " ) t o p r e s e r v e h i s body u n t i l  a v a i l him  the M a i t r e y a descends  -111-  to earth.  Hui-ssu's biography relates  t h a t a f t e r m e d i t a t i n g and  f a s t i n g h e d r e a m t t h a t h e met M a i t r e y a a n d h i s r e t i n u e o n a h u g e blossom  and i n h i s h e a r t  lotus  thought:  " . . . ' I , i n the F i n a l [period of degeneration of] CAKYA's Law, h a v e r e c e i v e d t h e L o t u s Of t h e Law. Now I h a v e met M e r c i f u l [ M a i t r e y a ] , t h e R e v e r e d One.' F e e l i n g a c u t e l y a f f e c t e d , he wept s a d l y , t h e n s u d d e n l y awoke. T h e r e a f t e r he s t r o v e even more, and t h e wondrous omens m u l t i p l i e d . " 7 7  I n a n o t h e r d r e a m , a l s o r e c o r d e d i n h i s b i o g r a p h y , H u i - s s u saw M a i t r e y a and A m i t a p r e a c h i n g a n d l e a d i n g o t h e r s t o t h e Law.  He t h e n h a d t h e i r  78 i m a g e s made a n d w o r s h i p p e d practices, while s t i l l  them b o t h .  Thus, Hui-ssu's d e v o t i o n a l  strongly oriented  a l s o included Amita worship.  t o t h e Buddha o f t h e f u t u r e ,  T h i s d e v o t i o n a l i s m , h o w e v e r , must b e  w i t h i n the context of h i s other r e l i g i o u s A c c o r d i n g t o h i s famous d i s c i p l e , throughout  activities.  C h i h - i , H u i - s s u was ' " f a m o u s  t h e South as a s c h o l a r , a devout  religionist,  o f m e d i t a t i o n and an e n l i g h t e n e d m y s t i c ' " . ^ and  L o t u s s u t r a s and emphasized t h e i m p o r t a n c e  u n i v e r s a l s a l v a t i o n i n t h e degenerate adherence t o a s t r i c t monastic ment a n d u l t i m a t e l y ,  seen  age.  a practitioner  He t a u g h t t h e P r a j n a p a r a m i t a of s t r i v i n g  earnestly f o r  T h e means o f s a l v a t i o n l a y i n  code, d i l i g e n t m e d i t a t i o n , sudden e n l i g h t e n -  the r e a l i z a t i o n of the s p i r i t  of the Lotus.  W h i l e t h e L o t u s i n s p i r e d H u i - s s u , b o t h as an o b j e c t o f d e v o t i o n and as a b a s i s f o r h i s method o f sudden e n l i g h t e n m e n t , most i m p o r t a n t f o r o u r purpose,  i s the influence which 80  ssu's time Lotus c u l t s  i t had on h i s l a t t e r day b e l i e f s .  By H u i -  w e r e n o t uncommon; m i r a c u l o u s p o w e r s r e s i d e n t i n  the s c r i p t u r e were thought  to greatly  who h e a r d , r e c i t e d , c o p i e d o r t a u g h t become e v i d e n t " i n t h i s L a t t e r  increase the stock of merit of those it.  The m i r a c l e o f t h e s u t r a was t o  e v i l Age"; t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e f o r t h e  -112-  m a n i f e s t a t i o n of i t s saving  powers.  '0 W o r l d - H o n o r e d One! I n the l a s t f i v e hundred y e a r s , i n t h e m i d s t o f a muddied e v i l age, i f t h e r e i s a n y o n e who r e c e i v e s and k e e p s t h i s s c r i p t u r a l C a n o n , I w i l l g u a r d and p r o t e c t h i m , k e e p h i m f r o m d e c l i n e and c a r e , e n a b l e h i m t o g a i n t r a n q u i l l i t y , and p r e v e n t t h o s e who s e e k t o g e t t h e b e t t e r o f h i m f r o m d o i n g s o , Be i t Mara, or a son of Mara, or a daughter of Mara, o r . . . . . " 8 1  W h i l e the awareness  of the l a t t e r days  L o t u s , t h e m o - f a theme p r e d o m i n a t e s  i s present throughout  the  i n s e c t i o n s s u c h as " C o m f o r t a b l e  82 Conduct" the  where the assemblage  Dharma d u r i n g t h e e n d .  receives  i n s t r u c t i o n s on how  In the f i n a l  section t i t l e d  to preach  "Encouragements  83 of  the B o d h i s a t t v a U n i v e r s a l l y Worthy"  extolled  in a final  ,  t h e s u t r a and  i t s devotee  are  s u r g e o f p r o m i s e s a n d p r a i s e by t h e b o d h i s a t t v a  Samanthabhadra: And f o r t h e one who " . . . r e c e i v e s and k e e p s i t , r e a d s a n d r e c i t e s i t , and i n t e r p r e t s t h e i m p o r t o f i t s m e a n i n g ! To t h a t man a t l i f e ' s end s h a l l be e x t e n d e d t h e h a n d s o f a thousand Buddhas, c a u s i n g him not t o f e a r , nor t o f a l l into e v i l destinies. He s h a l l s t r a i g h t w a y a s c e n d t o t h e top o f t h e T u s i t a Heaven, t o t h e p l a c e o f t h e b o d h i s a t t v a M a i t r e y a . The b o d h i s a t t v a M a i t r e y a h a s t h i r t y - t w o m a r k s , i s s u r r o u n d e d by a g r e a t m u l t i t u d e o f b o d h i s a t t v a s and has a r e t i n u e of a hundred thousand myriads of m i l l i o n s of goddesses, born w i t h i n h i s retinue."84  Passages  like  him  i n his efforts  the  latter-day  (476-542)  these c l e a r l y  i n s p i r e d H u i - s s u ' s d r e a m s and s p u r r e d  t o g a i n enlightenment f o r the sake of a l l b e i n g s i n  crisis  of s i x t h century China.  H i s contemporary,  whose a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be c o v e r e d i n t h e l a s t  T'an-luan  c h a p t e r was  con-  c u r r e n t l y f o r m u l a t i n g a n o t h e r r e s p o n s e t o t h e m o - f a d o c t r i n e , a mode of  s a l v a t i o n c e n t e r e d on A m i t a B u d d h a .  And  Hui-ssu's l a t e r  contemporary,  -113-  Hsin-hsing  (540-594)  established In  85  , c a r r y i n g the d o c t r i n e to i t s l o g i c a l  t h e o n l y s e c t a r i a n movement b a s e d  588,  on t h e l a t t e r  a y e a r b e f o r e he w e n t f r o m Honan t o t h e new  u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f a p o w e r f u l m i n i s t e r o f t h e new h s i n g had  only attracted  four converts.  stages or San-chieh-chiao  86  which  Yet  extreme, days.  Sui  capital,  dynasty,  the Sect of the  he s u b s e q u e n t l y f o u n d e d  HsinThree  became  of  t h e w e a l t h i e s t and b e s t known movements o f t h e e a r l y T'ang.  by  t h e s t a t e of t h e Sangha, c h a s t e n e d  by  one Saddened  the experience of the  Northern  87 Chou p e r s e c u t i o n to  and  convinced  t h a t he h a d  His  m e s s a g e was  this:  t o c o m p r e h e n d o r e v e n r e c o g n i z e t h e way  buddha o r t h e b o d h i s a t t v a w h i c h  may  be no m o r e t h a n a p i g o r a g o a t .  f o r s a k e n age.  The  discriminately,  o n l y way  they encountered  and  the c l o i s t e r e d  b e f o r e them.  i c o n s w e r e a b a n d o n e d and spent  Buddha i s l o s t  life.  austerities  once a day;  this  a l l traditional  Thus, r e g a r d l e s s of whether  Hsin-hsing's d i s c i p l e s  in specified  bowed  temple  and  court-yards  t h e i r d a y s i n t h e s t r e e t s and m a r k e t p l a c e s .  Buddhist v i r t u e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y a u s t e r i t y and  worship  t o us d u r i n g  Monasteries, scholarly pursuits  they l i v e d  to  i s by w o r s h i p p i n g i n -  and by e s c h e w i n g  a human b e i n g o r a d o g ,  down i n r e v e r e n c e  out-houses  The  and  to nirvana.  the f a i t h f u l b e l i e v e r seeks  t o g a i n a c c e s s t o him  every form of l i f e  f o r m s o f m e d i t a t i o n and  practice;  preacher, spread h i s  humanity i s engulfed i n u t t e r darkness  The  Two  way  among t h e common p e o p l e .  hopelessness; unable  of  the only v i a b l e  s a l v a t i o n i n the l a s t days, H s i n - h s i n g the f i r e y  message  or  found  altruism.  The  first  e m p h a s i z e d i n San l e d to the d a i l y  Chieh observance  l o n g c o n s i d e r e d o n l y a means o f p e n a n c e : e a t i n g o n l y a l m s  wearing  rags gathered  f r o m g a r b a g e h e a p s and  adhering a b s o l u t e l y to the monastic  discipline.  The  i n general,  second  l e d to  an  -114-  e m p h a s i s o n a l m s g i v i n g a s t h e m o s t e f f i c a c i o u s way o f a t t a i n i n g m e r i t . The  I n e x h a u s t i b l e T r e a s u r y e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n 618-627 a t t h e S a n  Chieh headquarters the w e a l t h i e s t  i n Chang-an (Hua-tu s s u  of such i n s t i t u t i o n s  t h e f a i t h f u l v i e d w i t h one a n o t h e r  i n China.  ) became o n e o f 89  The  donations  which  i n making mounted t o a degree  that 90  e v e n t h e monks who d i r e c t e d Until  i t s dissolution  three purposes;  i n 7 1 3 , i t s i n c o m e was t h e o r e t i c a l l y u s e d f o r  r e p a i r i n g temple  s u f f e r i n g o f t h e poor The  t h e T r e a s u r y c o u l d not guess i t s worth.  monasteries, a l l e v i a t i n g the  and s i c k , and a r r a n g i n g f o r B u d d h i s t  I n e x h a u s t i b l e T r e a s u r y was o n l y o n e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s  took p l a c e a f t e r Hsin-hsing's death. T'ang s u g g e s t adopted  ceremonies.  I n t e r n a l l y , w r i t i n g s from t h e  t h a t t h e s e c t , i n f l u e n c e d by t h e S u t r a o f t h e Ten Wheels  t h e b o d h i s a t t v a K g t i g a r b h a as i t s c e n t r a l d e i t y ;  monks w e r e s u s p e c t e d o f f a b r i c a t i n g 91 s u t r a c i r c u l a t e d b y E m p r e s s Wu. of these developments s t a g e s and M a n i c h e i s m . heretical  which  and t h a t i t s  the prophecies i n the Great  Cloud  A c c o r d i n g t o Y a b u k i and Waley, b o t h  p o i n t t o c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e Sect of t h e Three Externally,  t h e Sect's w r i t i n g s were l i s t e d  i n 664 a n d a f t e r p r e c a r i o u s l y  as  surviving a series of imperial  p r o s c r i p t i o n s d u r i n g t h e l a t e s e v e n t h and e a r l y e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s , d i s 92 appeared  i n t h e a n t i - B u d d h i s t p e r s e c u t i o n o f 845.  D e s p i t e these developments,  i t was H s i n - h s i n g ' s o r i g i n a l  t h a t l e d t o t h e s e c t ' s e a r l y demise.  The S a n c h i e h d i s c i p l e s  theories argued  t h a t g o v e r n m e n t s a n d k i n g s , n o t b e i n g exempt f r o m t h e g e n e r a l b l i n d n e s s of t h e age, were n o t worthy Buddhist; thus aroused by c l a i m i n g  o f t h e homage a n d o b e d i e n c e  t h e s u s p i c i o n and a n t a g o n i s m  t h e s o l e means f o r s a l v a t i o n ,  of the true  of the state.  t h e San C h i e h f o l l o w e r s  Moreover, found  -115-  themselves i n c o n f l i c t w i t h other Buddhist  schools —  in particular,  93 w i t h the Pure Land adherents. even without  F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t  the o f f i c i a l p r o s c r i p t i o n s , the a u s t e r i t y and  dark  r e s i g n a t i o n r e q u i r e d by H s i n - h s i n g to s u r v i v e the l a t t e r days c o u l d h o l d but p a s s i n g i n t e r e s t  f o r the l i f e - a f f i r m i n g Chinese;  i n the f a c e of the l e n i e n c y and Amita's Western P a r a d i s e . In h i s overview  of Chinese  observes  t h a t a dynamic new  Northern  and  Southern  especially  optimism o f f e r e d by the p r e a c h e r s  Buddhist  of  h i s t o r y , Tsukamoto Zenrytt  f o r c e e n t e r e d Buddhism a t the end of  Dynasties, giving r i s e  of the t h r e e s t a g e s , Ch'an and Pure Land; and  i n the North  to the Sect  that t h i s provided  groundwork f o r the T'ang s c h o o l s , even f o r the Southern  the  schools  the such  94 as T i e n - t ' a i .  The  sense of urgency and  e s c h a t o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s of the p e r i o d was of t h i s new  force.  anguish o r i g i n a t i n g i n the without  doubt an i n t e g r a l p a r t  -116-  Footnotes to Chapter  IV  1.  F o r b a c k g r o u n d on t h e s e v i e w s s e e : ERE, s . v . "cosmogony and c o s m o l o g y ( C h i n e s e ) ; ERE, s . v . "cosmogony and c o s m o l o g y ( B u d d h i s t ) ; ERE, s . v . " Ages o f t h e W o r l d ( B u d d h i s t ) ; Derk Bodde, F e s t i v a l s i n C l a s s i c a l C h i n a : New Y e a r and O t h e r O b s e r v a n c e s d u r i n g t h e Han D y n a s t y 206 B.C. - A.D. ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) ; J o s e p h Needham, " P h i l o s o p h y o f O r g a n i s m , " S c i e n c e and C i v i l i z a t i o n i n C h i n a , 10 v o l s , p r o j e c t e d C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 2 ) , v o l . 2; J . Needham, T i m e and E a s t e r n Man, The H e n r y M y e r s L e c t u r e 1964 (London: R o y a l A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e o f G r e a t B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d , 1 9 5 4 )  2.  N. S i v i n , " C h i n e s e C o n c e p t s o f T i m e , " E a r l h a m R e v i e w 1 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p.89. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e M a n d a t e o f H e a v e n f r o m t h e Shu c h i n g , t h e r i s e and f a l l o f d y n a s t i e s depends upon t h e m o r a l w o r t h of t h e s o v e r e i g n , c f . Yang L i e n - s h e n g "Toward a S t u d y o f D y n a s t i c C o n f i g u r a t i o n s i n C h i n e s e H i s t o r y , " HJAS 17 ( 1 9 5 4 ) : 3 2 9 - 3 4 5 .  3.  B u r t o n Watson, E a r l y Chinese L i t e r a t u r e P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p.49.  4.  A n n a K. S e i d e l , "The Image o f t h e P e r f e c t R u l e r i n E a r l y T a o i s t M e s s i a n i s m : L a o - T z u and L i H u n g , " HOR 9 (November 1 9 6 9 - F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 0 ) : 216.  5.  S e i d e l , " P e r f e c t R u l e s , " p.246. F o r f u r t h e r s o u r c e s on a n c i e n t C h i n e s e k i n g s h i p s e e : D.H. S m i t h , " D i v i n e K i n g s h i p i n A n c i e n t C h i n a , " Numen 4 ( 1 9 5 7 ) : 1 7 1 - 2 0 3 ; W. E. S o o t h i l l , The H a l l o f L i g h t : A S t u d y o f E a r l y Chinese K i n g s h i p (London:1951).  6.  Needham, T i m e a n d E a s t e r n Man,  7.  F o r C h i n e s e U t o p i a n t h o u g h t f r o m Chou t o m o d e r n t i m e s s e e W o l f g a n g B a u e r , C h i n a und d i e H o f f n u n g a u f G l i i c k (Mttnchen: 1 9 7 1 ) , c i t e d b y O v e r m y e r , F o l k B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , p.241 n.47.  8.  Muramatsu, "Chinese R e b e l I d e o l o g i e s , "  9.  F u n g Y u - l a n w r i t e s t h a t " t h e i d e a t h a t t h e w o r l d w i l l some day b e d e s t r o y e d , t h e r e a f t e r t o b e r e p l a c e d b y a new w o r l d , i s q u i t e a l i e n t o t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e t h o u g h t " . He a d d s t h a t i n t i m e t h e B u d d h i s t t h e o r y o f t h e f o u r k a l p a s h a d a " m a r k e d i n f l u e n c e on a l l N e o - C o n f u c i a n t h e o r i e s of cosmic e v o l u t i o n . . . " . H i s t o r y of Chinese P h i l o s p h y , 2 v o l s . ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ; new e d i t i o n 1 9 5 2 - 3 ) , 2:474. Siven also holds t h i s view i n h i s "Chinese Conceptions of Time". R e s e a r c h on t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e C o n f u c i a n t h e o r y o f t h e Three Ages f r o m t h e second t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s c o u l d be done b y s t u d y i n g s c h o l a r s f r o m t h e New T e x t S c h o o l a s w e l l a s o t h e r s i n c l u d i n g : Tung Chung Shu (206 B.C. - 24 A.D.) Ho H s i u n ( 1 2 9 - 1 8 2 A . D . ) ; S h a o - Y u n g ( 1 0 1 1 - 7 7 ) ; Chu H s i ( 1 1 3 0 - 1 2 0 0 ) ; and Kung Y u - w e i (1858-1927). W. L a i i n t r o d u c e s a r e l a t i v e l y unknown a r e a i n h i s r e v i e w o f K ' u n g t z u W e i - w a n g - e r h - w a n g - l u n [ L e P a r a d o x a l d e s t i n p o l i t i q u e de C o n f u c i u s ] b y Lo M e n g - T s e i n HOR 17 ( A u g u s t 1 9 7 7 ) : 8 9 - 9 9 .  (New  York: Columbia  University  p.29.  pp.245-6.  -117-  10.  B u d d h i s t c a k r a v a r t i n emperors d u r i n g the P e r i o d of D i s u n i o n i n c l u d e E m p e r o r Wen-chang o f N. W e i , E m p e r o r Wu o f L i a n g and E m p e r o r Wen of S u i .  11.  The f i r s t B u d d h i s t " b a n d i t s " a r e a r e c o r d e d t o h a v e a p p e a r e d i n 4 0 2 . F o r e x c e l l e n t b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e r e b e l movements s e e O v e r m y e r , F o l k B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , pp. 8 0 - 8 5 , 1 3 0 - 1 6 1 . F o r l a t e r movements s e e S u z u k i C H O s e i , " S o d a i B u k k y o K e s s h a no K e n k y u " [ B u d d h i s t r e l i g i o u s s o c i e t i e s o f t h e Sung d y n a s t y ] S h i g a k u z a s s h i , 52 ( 1 9 4 1 ) ; S. C h u s e i , "To So j i d a i no M i r o k u k y o - h i " [ M a i t r e y a b a n d i t s o f t h e T'ang and Sung] S h i e n 3 ( 1 9 3 1 ) : 68-  12.  N a t u r a l as w e l l a s p o l i t i c a l c a u s e s c o m b i n e d t o make t h i s a c h a o t i c age; i n N o r t h e r n C h i n a f a m i n e s o c c u r r e d i n 466-470, 473, 473. Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , p.155.  13.  T h r e e m a j o r a n t i - B u d d h i s t p e r s e c u t i o n s t o o k p l a c e i n 4 4 6 - 4 5 4 (N. W e i ) ; 574-77 (N. C h o u ) ; and 845 ( T ' a n g ) . K. C h ' e n , "On Some F a c t o r s R e s p o n s i b l e f o r the A n t i - B u d d h i s t P e r s e c u t i o n under the P e i - c h ' a o , " HJAS 17 ( 1 9 5 4 ) : 2 6 1 - 2 7 3 .  '14.  J . N o b e l , S u v a r n a p r a b h a s a s o t t a ( L e i d e n : B r i l l , 1958). • Samadhiraja " K i n g o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n " o r C a n d r a p r a d i p a "Lamp o f t h e Moon" was a l s o u s e d b y t h e C h i n e s e ; ' / W a r d e r , I n d i a n B u d d h i s m , p . 3 9 5 . Compare Y a n g C h i e n w i t h L i y u a n who saw h i m s e l f a s t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f L o r d L i . A. F. W r i g h t , "The F o r m a t i o n o f S u i I d e o l o g y 5 8 1 - 6 0 4 , " i n C h i n e s e T h o u g h t i n I n s t i t u t i o n s , e d . J . K. F a i r b a n k ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1957), pp.71-104.  15.  T h i s i s t h e same p r i n c e who i s t h o u g h t t o h a v e . b r o u g h t t h e M a i t r e y a s u t r a K u a n - M i - l o - p ' u - s a - s h a n g - s h e n g - t u - s h i - t ' i e n , from T u r f a n to China. Cf. Chapter I , i i i below.  16.  Dharmakfema's b i o g r a p h y p.134.  17.  KSCT. 50. 3 5 6 b , t r a n s l a t e d i n S o p e r , E v i d e n c e , p . 2 1 9 . A n o t h e r o f T a o - a n ' s d i s c i p l e s who p r a y e d t o M a i t r e y a a t h i s d e a t h i s T a o - f u . KSC T . 5 0 . 3 5 5 b , c i t e d i n S o p e r , E v i d e n c e : , p.219 n.81.  18.  D e m i e v i l l e , Yogacarabhumi,  19.  Ibid.,  20.  S. B e a l , t r a n s . , S i - Y u - K i - B u d d h i s t R e c o r d s o f t h e W e s t e r n W o r l d . T r a n s l a t e d f r o m t h e C h i n e s e o f H i u e n T s i a n g (A.D. 6 2 9 ) , 2 v o l s . ( L o n d o n : K e g a n , P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b e r and Co., 1 9 0 6 ) , 1 1 : 2 2 3 - 6 .  21.  Takakusu, J . , t r a n s . , A Record of t h e B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n as P r a c t i c e d i n I n d i a and t h e M a l a y A r c h i p e l a g o (A.D. 6 7 1 - 6 9 5 ) ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1896).  i n KSC  T.  50.  337a c i t e d  i n Soper,  Evidence  1  p.378.  pp.378-79.  ,  -118-  22.  I-Ching  23.  Ibid.,  24.  Lamotte, H i s t o i r e ,  25.  F a - h s i e n ' s b i o g r a p h y KSC T.50.337b-338b h a s b e e n t r a n s l a t e d i n R o b e r t S h i h , B i o g r a p h i e s d e s M o i n e s E m i n e n t (Kao S e n g T c h o u a n ) de K o u e i - K i a o B i b l i o t e q u e d u Museum v o L 54 ( L o u v a i n : I n s t i t u t O r i e n t a l i s t e , 1 9 6 8 ) , pp.108-115. A number o f t r a n s l a t i o n s h a v e b e e n made o f h i s f a m o u s t r a v e l c h r o n i c l e i n c l u d i n g : B e a l , S i - Y u - K i (known a s H s u a n - t s a n g ' s c h r o n i c l e s b u t i n c l u d e s F a - h s i e n ' s F o - K u o - K i ) ; S. G i l e s , t r a n s . , The T r a v e l s o f F a - h s i e n ( 3 9 9 - 4 1 4 A.D.) o r R e c o r d of t h e B u d d h i s t i c K i n g d o m s ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e and K e g a n P a u l , 1 9 2 3 ) ; and J . Legge, t r a n s . , A Record o f B u d d h i s t i c Kingdoms, Being an A c c o u n t b y t h e C h i n e s e Monk F a - h i e n o f h i s T r a v e l s i n I n d i a a n d C e y l o n (A.D. 3 9 9 - 4 1 4 ) I n S e a r c h o f t h e B u d d h i s t B o o k s o f D i s c i p l i n e (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1886).  26.  H s u a n - t s a n g ' s t r a v e l a c c o u n t h a s b e e n t r a n s l a t e d b y S. B e a l , S i - Y u - K i ; and T. W a t t e r s , On Y u a n Chwang's T r a v e l s i n I n d i a (A.D. 6 2 9 - 6 4 5 ) ( D e l h i : M u n s h i Ram M a n o h a r L a i , 1961). A l a t e r , p o p u l a r v e r s i o n b y Wu C h ' e n g en h a s b e e n t r a n s l a t e d b y A. W a l e y , Monkey (New Y o r k : J o h n D a y , 1 9 4 3 ; r e p r i n t ed., Grove P r e s s , 1958). A modern v e r s i o n o f h i s l i f e has b e e n w r i t t e n b y A. G r o v s s e t , I n t h e F o o t s t e p s o f t h e B u d d h a ( L o n d o n : 1932).  27.  The f e w n e s s o f F a - h s i e n ' s r e f e r e n c e s t o M a i t r e y a a r e i n f a c t , a l i t t l e s u r p r i s i n g i n l i g h t of t h e tremendous p o p u l a r i t y of t h i s f i g u r e i n C e n t r a l A s i a and C e y l o n d u r i n g t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y . See L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , p.787.  28.  Conze, T h i r t y Y e a r s ,  29.  Beal, Si-Yu-Ki,  30.  Ibid.,  1:137.  31.  Ibid.,  2:22.  32.  Ibid.,  2:142-44.  33.  Ibid.,  2:120-21.  34.  W a t t e r s , Y u a n Chwang's T r a v e l s ,  35.  Soper d e s c r i b e s t h i s i c o n i n d e t a i l pp. 2 6 8 - 7 0 .  36.  Beal, Si-Yu-Ki, I b i d . , 1:134.  p.213. p.787.  p.80.  l:lxvii.  l:ixx.  p.118. i n h i s Appendix to Evidences,  -119-  37.  Hsuan-tsang wrote of another sandal-wood M a i t r e y a s t a t u e i n K o n k a k a p u r a , S. I n d i a , w h i c h g a v e o f f l i g h t o n f a s t d a y s . B e a l , S i - Y u - K i , 2:254. For a discussion of magical q u a l i t i e s associated w i t h Buddha s t a t u e s s e e S o p e r , E v i d e n c e s p . 6 8 f f .  38.  Beal,  39.  These a c c o u n t s a r e compared t o a n o t h e r s t o r y t o l d by F a - h s i e n i n w h i c h Sakyamuni ascends t o t h e T r a y a s t r i m s a heaven t o p r e a c h t h e Law f o r h i s m o t h e r ' s s a k e . Legge, F a - h s i e n ' s T r a v e l s i n I n d i a and C e y l o n , p p . 4 7 - 5 1 . F o r a n a c c o u n t o f a n a r t i s t who was s e n t t o T r a y a s t r i m s a h e a v e n t o s e e t h e B u d d h a i n o r d e r t o make a w o o d e n s t a t u e o f h i m s e e D e m i e v i l l e , Y o g a c a r a b h u m i, p.379.  40.  Beal,  41.  C f . Tao-an and Hui-yiian's vows. C h a p t e r I I I , i i i  42.  Beal,  43.  S h i h , K a o Seng T c h o u a n , p . 9 1 ; D e m i e V i l l e ,  44.  C f . Chapter I I I , i i above.  45.  Cf. Chapter I I I , i i i  46.  Beal, Si-Yu-Ki,  47.  W a t t e r s , Yuan Chuang's T r a v e l s ,  48.  The f o l l o w i n g n a r r a t i v e i s b a s e d o n C h ' e n , B u d d h i s m , p. 2 3 6 ; D e m i e v i l l e , Y o g a c a r a b h u m i , pp. 388-89.  49.  Beal, Si-Yu-Ki,  50.  J a n Y u n - h u a , t r a n s , A C h r o n i c l e o f B u d d h i s m i n C h i n a 5 8 1 - 9 6 0 A.D. ( S a n t i n i k e t a n : V i s v a - B h a r a t i , 1966), p.39.  51.  The f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e f r o m t h e L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i v y u h a s u t r a p r o b a b l y had much i n f l u e n c e o n t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s u c h d e a t h - b e d a c c o u n t s . "0 B h a g a v a t , i f t h o s e b e i n g who h a v e d i r e c t e d t h e i r t h o u g h t towards t h e h i g h e s t p e r f e c t knowledge i n o t h e r w o r l d s , and who, a f t e r h a v i n g h e a r d my name, w h e n I h a v e o b t a i n e d t h e B o d h i ( K n o w l e d g e ) ; . , h a v e m e d i t a t e d o n me w i t h s e r e n e t h o u g h t s ; i f a t t h e moment o f t h e i r d e a t h , a f t e r h a v i n g a p p r o a c h e d t h e m , surrounded by an assembly o f B h i k s h u s , I should n o t stand b e f o r e them, w o r s h i p p e d by them, t h a t i s , s o t h a t t h e i r t h o u g h t s s h o u l d n o t b e t r o u b l e d , t h e n may I n o t o b t a i n t h e h i g h e s t p e r f e c t k n o w l e d g e . Max M i i l l e r , " L a r g e r Sukhavativyuha s u t r a , " p.15.  Si-Yu-Ki,  Si-Yu-Ki,  Si-Yu-Ki,  1:134, x x x .  1:226. above.  1:227-228. Y o g a c a r a b h u m i , p. 3 7 8 .  above.  1:lxxvii-lxxix. p.202.  1:134.  -120-  52. L. H u r v i t z , C h i h - i ( 5 3 8 - 5 9 7 : A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e L i f e and o f a C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t Monk, MCB v o l . 12 ( B r u x e l l e s : I n s t i t u t des Hautes E t u d e s C h i n o i s e s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p.171. 53. K. C h ' e n , The C h i n e s e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f B u d d h i s m P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973), pp.224-225. 54. I b i d . ,  Ideas Beige  (Princeton:  p.234.  55. The i n s c r i p t i o n s a t Lung-men g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t t h e v i e w t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s d e v o t e d t o M a i t r e y a w e r e a c t i v e d u r i n g t h e N. Wei d y n a s t y . C f . C h a p t e r I I I , i i i above. 56. F o r r e f e r e n c e s t o B u d d h i s t i d e a s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d r e b e l c u l t s b e t w e e n t h e t h i r d and t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s s e e M u r a m a t s u , " C h i n e s e R e b e l I d e o l o g i e s , " p . 2 4 5 ; T s u k a m o t o , Z., S h i n a b u k k y o - s h i K e n k y u . Hokugih e n (A S t u d y o f C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t H i s t o r y . The N o r t h e r n W e i ) ( K y o t o : K o b u n d o , 1 9 4 2 , pp. 2 4 3 - 9 0 . 57. O v e r m y e r , F o l k B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n ,  p.207.  58. Todo R y o s h u n h a s d o c u m e n t e d s e v e n i n s c r i p t i o n s f r o m t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y i n w h i c h t h i s s e n t i m e n t i s e x p r e s s e d . "The C r i t i c a l Views, or Sense of U n e a s i n e s s , i n Chinese Buddhism — E s p e c i a l l y i n t h e F i r s t H a l f o f t h e 6 t h C e n t u r y A.D.," I B K 10 (March 1962): 782-777. 59.  " ili'lfc of  <J  &  H  " T o d o , "The  C r i t i c a l View or  Sense  U n e a s i n e s s , " p.780.  60. W a l e y , A ' C a t a l o g u e 6 1 . I b i d . , p.  of P a i n t i n g s Recovered  f r o m T u n - h u a n g , p.  xxxviii.  xxxviii.  62. K. C i s s e l , "The P i - c h ' i u - n i c h u a n , B i o g r a p h i e s o f Famous C h i n e s e Nuns f r o m 317-516 C E . " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1 9 7 2 ) . 63. M u r a m a t s u , " C h i n e s e R e b e l I d e o l o g i e s , "  p.246.  v y 64. F o r t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e s s e e L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e , 65. A s l i s t e d  p.211.  i n Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , p.298.  66. L a m o t t e , H i s t o i r e ,  p.217.  67. Y a b u k i K e i k i , S a n g a i k y o no k e n k y u [A S t u d y o f t h e T h r e e S t a g e s (Tokyo: Iwanami S h o t e n , 1 9 2 7 ) , p.225; H u r v i t z , C h i h - i , p.86. 68.  Soper, E v i d e n c e s , p.269.  Sect]  -121-  69. M i z u n o and N a g a h i r o , Y i i n ^ k a n g , v o l . 16: W e i p.40.  Shou by L.  70. F o r m o r e d e t a i l s on t h e Hua-hu t h e o r y s e e Z u r c h e r , pp. 2 9 0 - 3 2 0 .  Hurvitz,  Conquest,  7 1 . The P i e n - c h e n g l u n g i v e s t h e d a t a o f 1025 B.C.. J . W a r e , W e i - s h u and S u i - s h u on T a o i s m " , TP ( 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 1 1 6 .  "The  72. K. C h ' e n , " A n t i - B u d d h i s t P r o p o g a n d a D u r i n g t h e N a n - c h ' a o , " HJAS 15 ( 1 9 5 2 ) : 1 8 8 - 9 n.94. 73.  Ch'en, Buddhism i n C h i n a , p.298. I n comparison, the b e g i n n i n g of the d e g e n e r a t e age i n J a p a n a c c o r d i n g t o D o j i , a u t h o r o f t h e N i h o n S h o k i , was s e t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f B u d d h i s t h i s t o r y (552 A . D . ) .  74. HKSC T.50. pp.86-99.  562b-564a.  75. H u r v i t z , C h i h - i , p.87 76.  I b i d . , p.87  Chih-i,  n.2.  n.2  77. HKSC T . 5 0 . 5 6 2 b .  Translated i n Hurvitz, Chih-i,  78. HKSC T . 5 0 . 5 6 2 C - 5 6 4 a . 79. H u r v i t z , C h i h - i , 80.  For f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s see H u r v i t z ,  T r a n s l a t e d i n Soper,  p.87.  Evidences,  p.83.  p.108.  The e v e n t u a l d e c l i n e o f t h e L o t u s c u l t s i n C h i n a and J a p a n , i n t h e f a c e o f t h e g r o w i n g a t t r a c t i o n o f A m i t a and A v a l o k i t e s v a r a h a v e a l s o b e e n a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t r e c i t i n g o r c o p y i n g r e q u i r e d some d e g r e e o f e d u c a t i o n . L a t e r i n J a p a n , N i c h i r e n b a s e d h i s L a t t e r Day movement on t h e L o t u s ; a s do t h e f o l l o w e r s o f t h e p r e s e n t day S o k a Gakkai.  81. H u r v i t z ,  S c r i p t u r e of the Lotus Blossom,  pp.333ff.  82.  Ibid.,  pp.208ff.  83.  I b i d . , pp.  84.  I b i d . , p.335. Throughout the L o t u s , M a i t r e y a , i s p l a c e d i n the r o l e o f a somewhat c o n f u s e d b o d h i s a t t v a i n t h e a s s e m b l a g e , s e e k i n g t o b r e a k out o f h i s l i m i t e d H i n a y a n a u n d e r s t a n d i n g by q u e s t i o n i n g t h e Buddha on t h e b o d i s a t t v a p a t h . His vyakarana, u n l i k e e a r l i e r Agama v e r s i o n s i s overshadowed by an a v a l a n c h e of o t h e r p r o p h e c i e s o f Buddhahood. See C h a p t e r s 6, 9, 13 i n H u r v i t z , S c r i p t u r e o f t h e L o t u s Blossom.  332ff.  -122-  8 5 . The m o s t c o m p l e t e s o u r c e o n H s i n - h s i n g i s Y a b u k i , S a n g a i k y o no kenkyu. T h i s s o u r c e a l s o c o n t a i n s a s e p c i a l s e c t i o n o n S u i and T'ang e s c h a t o l o g y , pp. 1 9 9 - 2 1 3 . 86. The " T h r e e S t a g e s " r e f e r s t o t h e t h r e e p e r i o d s o f t h e T r u e , C o u n t e r f e i t a n d t h e D e g e n e r a t e Dharma, e a c h l a s t i n g f i v e hundred y e a r s . 87. A l t h o u g h J a p a n e s e s c h o l a r s h a v e t e n d e d t o a t t r i b u t e t h e r i s e of t h e mo-fa d o c t r i n e t o t h e B u d d h i s t S u p p r e s s i o n o f 574, Y a b u k i m a i n t a i n s t h a t i t i s m o r e l i k e l y t h a t t h e e v e n t d i d no more t h a n t o b r i n g i n t o s h a r p f o c u s an a l r e a d y w e l l - k n o w n b u t d i f f u s e view. H u r v i t z , C h i h - i , p.92. 88.  I t i s s t i l l u n c e r t a i n w h i c h o f t h e S a n - c h i e h documents were a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n by H s i n - h s i n g and w h i c h were w r i t t e n by h i s f o l l o w e r s . One d o c u m e n t ( S t e i n 2137 - T u n - h u a n g ) i s t h o u g h t t o b e a n e x t r a c t b y h i s own h a n d . W a l e y , " r e v i e w o f S a n g a i k y o , " p . 1 6 6 .  89. C h ' e n , The C h i n e s e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , p . 1 6 2 . 90. C h ' e n , B u d d h i s m i n C h i n a , p . 2 9 9 . 9 1 . W i t h t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f two T u n - h u a n g m a n u s c r i p t s ( S t e i n 2658 a n d 6 5 0 2 ) A. F o r t e c o n c l u d e s t h a t a new document h a s now b e e n d i s c o v e r e d w h i c h d i s p l a c e s t h e Mahamegha s u t r a ( T a - y u n c h i n g ) w h i c h was f o r m e r l y t h o u g h t t o b e f o r g e d t o s u p p o r t E m p r e s s Wu's c l a i m t o be c a k r a v a r t i n a n d M a i t r e y a i n o n e , s e e h i s P o l i t i c a l P r o p o g a n d a and I d e o l o g y i n C h i n a a t t h e End o f t h e S e v e n t h C e n t u r y ; I n q u i r y i n t o t h e N a t u r e , A u t h o r s and F u n c t i o n o f t h e Tunhuang document S.6502 f o l l o w e d b y a n A n n o t a t e d T r a n s l a t i o n . (Napoli: Instituto U n i v e r s i t a r i o O r i e n t a l , 1976). I am g r a t e f u l t o D r . S. I i d a f o r this reference. 92. T r a c e s o f t h e s e c t ' s a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r t h i s d a t e h a v e b e e n f o u n d i n K o r e a a n d J a p a n and r e f e r e n c e s t o i t w e r e made a s l a t e a s t h e e i g h t e e n t h century i n Japan. Waley, " r e v i e w o f S a n g a i k y o , " pp.165-66. 93. I b i d . ,  p.168.  94. T s u k a m o t o Z., "Ryumon S e k k u t s u n i A r a w a r e t a r u H o k u g i B u k k y o , " [N. W e i B u d d h i s m a s r e v e a l e d i n t h e Lungmen C a v e s ] , i n Ryumon, Mizuno and N a g a h i r o , pp.231-234.  -123-  Chapter  Salvation  I.  V  : chiu-chi  ~/^)  Introduction By t h e h e i g h t o f t h e T ' a n g , t h e g o l d e n age  the  e s c h a t o l o g i c a l c r i s i s had p a s s e d .  Buddhist devoteees  culture,  Salvation, f o r multitudes of  c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by a c q u i r i n g deep f a i t h  s a v i n g p o w e r o f A m i t a ' s name a n d h i s v o w s . a t t a i n i n g e n l i g h t e n m e n t t h r o u g h h i s own believer  of Chinese  strove for rebirth  a candidate f o r nirvcfaa.  No  i n the  longer capable of  efforts,  the  faithful  i n A m i t a ' s P u r e Land  and  t h e r e , became  To a s s i s t h i s p r a c t i c e and m e d i t a t i o n , t h e  b e l i e v e r c o u l d even c a t c h a g l i m p s e o f p a r a d i s e by g a z i n g on intricate the  p a i n t i n g s and d i a g r a m s  Buddha.  Artists,  depicting  the c e l e s t i a l  such as t h o s e a t Tun-huang,painted  the  abodes o f vast  cosmic  landscapes"'" f i l l e d w i t h a c o m p l e x o f T'ang m o n a s t a r i e s a n d p a l a c e s . In the  t h e s e p a i n t i n g s b o d h i s a t t v a s and o t h e r c e l e s t i a l  beings f l y through  a i r ; a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g b e t w e e n e a r t h and p a r a d i s e .  Amidst  l o t u s ponds and b e j e w e l l e d t r e e s , t h e f a i t h f u l s i n g p r a i s e s t o t h e Buddha w h i l e a n g e l i c m u s i c i a n s p l a y t h e m u s i c c e n t e r i s A m i t a , enthroned upon a l o t u s I n d i g e n e o u s C h i n e s e t h o u g h t was  Utopias;  In the  blossom.  d e e p l y i n f l u e n c e d by  B u d d h i s t n o t i o n s o f p a r a d i s e and a f t e r l i f e . previously entertained  o f t h e Dharma.  While Chinese  popular had  c o n c e p t i o n s o f T a o i s t f a i r y l a n d s and  Confucian  s u c h i d e a l l a n d s were more o f t e n c o n c e i v e d o f as a  perfected  2 earthly order rather d e n t a l Buddha-lands  t h a n as a supra-mundane abode. and h e a v e n s p r o v i d e d n o t o n l y r i c h  Thus, the t r a n s e n imagery but a  new  -124-  emphasis on o t h e r t o draw upon.  wordly dimensions f o r the e a r l i e r  Similarly,  even a c u r s o r y  Chinese t r a d i t i o n s  look at pre-Buddhist  concepts  3 of a f t e r l i f e Buddhism.  revels the indebtedness of l a t e r  The C o n f u c i a n s s u p p o r t e d  When a p e r s o n d i e d , element  i t was b e l i e v e d  t h e v i e w t h a t d e a t h was p e r m a n e n t . that part  ( p ' o ) s a n k down t o t h e Y e l l o w  the other  part, the lighter  element  Chinese theories to  Springs  of him, the heavier b e l o w t h e e a r t h and  (hun) hovered around t h e f a m i l y 4  tablets,  there b e n e f i t i n g from t h e a n c e s t r a l o f f e r i n g s .  early Taoist  p r a c t i c e s p e r p e t u a t e d t h e hope t h a t , g i v e n  t h e human b o d y c o u l d  b y - p a s s d e a t h and l i v e  c o n c e p t o f karma had d e v e l o p e d e l a b o r a t e other  modes o f e x i s t e n c e The  strands  The B u d d h i s t  theories of r e b i r t h into  and even judgement a f t e r d e a t h .  found i n Amita d e v o t i o n a l i s m  were r e a d i l y adopted by t h e  The e v o l u t i o n o f t h e P u r e L a n d movement as d i v e r s e  to the simple Daisetz  ideal conditions,  n u m e r o u s e l e m e n t s m a k i n g up t h e p r o s p e c t o f a b l i s s f u l r e b i r t h  i n paradise Chinese.  forever.  In contrast,  i n China,  incorporating  as t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l systems o f N a g a r j u n a and Vasubandhu  p i e t y of early devotional  l a y groups, i s described  by  as m a r k i n g "an epoch i n t h e h i s t o r y o f Mahayana Buddhism".  adds t h a t  i t s "emergence i l l u s t r a t e s  so-called p r i m i t i v e teaching  eschatological fervor during expression  of intense  o f t h e Buddha."^  developed from an i n c h o a t e  a highly sophisticated but f l e x i b l e doctrine  in  Under t h e impetus o f  s i x t h and s e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s  devotion  Suzuki  t h e p e r s i s t a n t and i r r e p r e s s i b l e  assertion of c e r t a i n aspects of r e l i g i o u s consciousness...neglected the  Suzuki  China,  this  tradition to  that offered both the  p h i l o s o p h i c a l s u b t l e t i e s o f Mahayana t h o u g h t ^ and t h e p r a c t i c a l of a r e l i g i o n f o r u n l e t t e r e d masses. Thus i t s a p p e a l c u t a c r o s s  techniques different  -125-  Buddhist  s c h o o l s and  s o c i a l groups.  But  i n the beginning,  the  Pure  g L a n d movement was In  order  movement was  an  e s c h a t o l o g i c a l movement.  t o d e m o n s t r a t e how  fundamentally  the e v o l u t i o n of the P u r e Land  s h a p e d as a s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m  of  9  s a l v a t i o n i n the " l a t t e r  evil  age"  , this  chapter w i l l  examine  developments from the f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d of t h i s complex The  first  three Chinese p a t r i a r c h s : T'an-luan  ( 4 7 6 - 5 4 2 ) , T a o - c h ' o ( 5 6 2 - 6 4 5 ) and purpose of t h i s  thesis,  Shan-tao  (613-681)"!;  i t i s not necessary  t h e i n f l u e n c e o f l a t t e r day  v i e w s on  s a l v a t i o n ; which i n t u r n , provided Chinese Buddhist  devotionalism?"''"  of t h e most c o m p e l l i n g paradise.  aspects  II.  For  the  r a i s e d but  t h e i r v i e w o f man  to  identify  and  his  the d o c t r i n a l f o u n d a t i o n The  the  for  second s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h  of Pure Land b e l i e f — t h e  one  visions  of  Here a g a i n , r a t h e r than d e l i n e a t i n g the nurmerous p h i l o s o p h i c a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f p a r a d i s e , my  to  0  t o e l a b o r a t e on  s u b t l e p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s which they  who  tradition.  s e c t i o n i s devoted t o the e a r l y f o r m u l a t i o n of Pure Land  d o c t r i n e under i t s f i r s t  evidence  two  aim w i l l  be  o f c o m p e t i t i o n d u r i n g t h e S u i and  a s p i r e d t o be  reborn  to provide  some o f  e a r l y T'ang b e t w e e n  i n T u s i t a H e a v e n and  t h o s e who  the those  desired to  go  Sukhavati. Eschatology The  d i r e c t and Smaller  and  P u r e Land  Doctrine  b a s i c s c r i p t u r e s t h a t i n s p i r e d P u r e L a n d t h o u g h t make indirect references  Sukhavati-vyuha  to the l a t t e r  age  o f t h e Dharma.  s u t r a d e s c r i b e s Sakyamuni h i m s e l f  as:  both The  -126-  "...Having obtained the transcendent true k n o w l e d g e i n t h i s w o r l d S a h a , he t a u g h t t h e Law w h i c h a l l t h e w o r l d i s r e l u c t a n t to accept d u r i n g t h i s c o r r u p t i o n of the present K a l p a , d u r i n g t h i s c o r r u p t i o n of mankind, d u r i n g t h i s c o r r u p t i o n of b e l i e f , during t h i s corruption of l i f e , during t h i s c o r r u p t i o n of passions."12  In  the l a t t e r p o r t i o n of the Larger Sukhavatx-vyuha  entrusts the s c r i p t u r e to the bodhisattva A j i t a him t o g u a r d and  sutra,  t h e Buddha  ( M a i t r e y a ) and  urges  t o t e a c h i t so t h a t " . . . t h e l a w s o f t h e B u d d h a may  perish or disappear.  ,13  not  — The m o s t s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e , f o u n d i n K u m a r a j i v a ' s  1  t r a n s l a t i o n , s t a t e s t h a t a f t e r 1,000 except f o r the Wu-liang-shou  ching  y e a r s a l lthe s u t r a s would d i s a p p e a r (LSVS)  I n t h e f u t u r e , when my t e a c h i n g s p e r i s h , I w i l l out o f p i t y and c o m p a s s i o n r e t a i n t h i s s u t r a f o r one h u n d r e d y e a r s . ^ M ±  The  t h i r d P u r e Land  t e x t , the Kuan-wu-liang-shou. c h i n g  s u t r a ) i n t r o d u c e s a n i m p o r t a n t new w h i c h was  interpreted  (Amitayur-dhyana  element: the p r a c t i c e of  buddhanusmrti,  i n d i f f e r e n t ways by s u c c e e d i n g P u r e Land m a s t e r s .  From t h e t i m e t h a t t h e l a t t e r  s u t r a was  P a s o b s e r v e s t h a t two d i s t i n c t the  d e v o t i o n a l w h i c h was  the  two  translated  i n the f i f t h  century,  streams of P u r e Land development  emerged;  based p r i m a r l y on t h e e a r l i e r  S u k h a v a t i s u t r a s and  the  m e d i t a t i o n a l w h i c h was  translation b a s e d on  of  the  dhyana s u t r a . In  t h e w o r k o f t h e t h r e e b e s t known C h i n e s e P u r e L a n d m a s t e r s , 16  T a n - l u a n , T a o - c h ' o and  Shan-tao  , t h e s e two s t r e a m s o f  devotionalism  a n d m e d i t a t i o n became more a n d m o r e i n t e g r a t e d . By S h a n - t a o ' s v a r i o u s c o n t r a d i c t o r y Pure Land b e l i e f s the  name o f A m i t a on o n e ' s d e a t h - b e d  time, the  from s i m p l y c a l l i n g once upon  t o f o l l o w i n g a r i g o r o u s program  of  -127-  m e d i t a t i o n , s t u d y and m o r a l i t y w e r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y g r a d e d f r o m e a s y t o p r o g r e s s i v e l y more d i f f i c u l t the  practice,  means o f s a l v a t i o n .  the b e t t e r the degree of r e b i r t h  And w h i l e t h e m o r e c a p a b l e may  The more s t r e n u o u s  i n Amita's  s t r i v e to f u l f i l l  t h e more  paradise. difficult  methods, the l e s s  t a l e n t e d c o u l d , w i t h c o n f i d e n c e and a r d o r ,  refuge i n simpler  means.^  On h i s way  take  b a c k n o r t h f r o m S o u t h e r n C h i n a w h e r e he h a d b e e n s e e k i n g 18  the  Taoist e l i x i t  of i m m o r t a l i t y , T'au-luan  b e l i e f s by B o d h i r u e i  was  converted to Pure  A l t h o u g h o n l y t w e l v e y e a r s remained between  t i m e o f h i s c o n v e r s i o n and h i s d e a t h , T ' a n - l u a n became t h e f i r s t l i n e o f g r e a t C h i n e s e P u r e L a n d m a s t e r s : he was strenuous e f f o r t s  t o r e a c h t h e common man  and  the f i r s t  t o make  And  he  a l s o the f i r s t  t o b a s e t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h e P u r e L a n d movement on 19 d o c t r i n e o f t h e end o f t h e Dharma. T ' a n - l u a n saw N S g a r j u n a a n d V a s u b a n d h u a s t h e l a s t  the  i n the  to teach the p r a c t i c e  n i e n - f o o r c o n t e m p l a t i n g and c h a n t i n g t h e name o f A m i t a .  Land  of  was the  bodhisattvas  20 of  t h e c o u n t e r f e i t age.  H i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e i r w o r k may  have exposed him t o t h e f o l l o w i n g passage, i n w h i c h N a g a r j u n a his  purpose i n composing  well states  the Middle T r e a t i s e :  A f t e r t h e Buddha's d e c e a s e , d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r f i v e hundred y e a r s i n t h e ( p e r i o d o f t h e ) C o u n t e r f e i t Dharma, men's f a c i l i t i e s w e r e e v e n d u l l e r and t h e y w e r e d e e p l y a t t a c h e d t o a l l dharmas.^-'-  Man,  d u r i n g t h e B u d d h a - l e s s a g e , pla'gued b y t h e f i v e d e f i l e m e n t s ,  incapacitated  t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t he was  sunyata.  means h a d  New  t o be  was  unable to grasp the r e a l i t y  of  sought. 22  In his  h i s b e s t known w o r k W a n g - s h e n g - l u n c h u  t h e o r y on s e l f - p o w e r ( ^  ^  , T'an-luan develops  ) and o t h e r power  (  ^fej  ).  By  -128-  g i v l n g the analogy when he  o f a weakman who  i s able to t r a v e r s e the  a t t a c h e s h i m s e l f to a c a k r a v a r t i n , T'an-luan emphasized  n e c e s s i t y f o r the i n c a p a c i t a t e d b e l i e v e r , unable on h i s own, he and  world  to c l i n g  t o t h e power o f A m i t a .  t o make any  (  J!i  ). Here T'an-luan equates  p r a c t i c e : w i t h t h e b o d h i s a t t v a p a t h and  progress  A l s o i n t h e Wang-sheng-wu  e l a b o r a t e s on N a g a r j u n a ' s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n " d i f f i c u l t "easy p r a c t i c e "  the  self-power  and  chu  practice" "difficult  the "easy  practice"  23 w i t h t h e P u r e L a n d p a t h and  o t h e r power.  Nagarjuna's t r e a t i s e  also  states: I f g o o d men and women h e a r t h a t B u d d h a ' s name and o b t a i n d e e p f a i t h , t h e n t h e y do n o t r e g r e s s f r o m ( t h e s t a t e o f ) a n u t t a r a s a m y a k s a m b o d h i ^4  T ' a n - l u a n saw  this  statement  a g a i n s t t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f h i s own  p r e t a t i o n s o f A m i t a ' s vows as f o u n d particular,  the e i g h t e e n t h  inter-  i n the Wu-liang-shOu c h i n g ; i n  vow.  When I h a v e o b t a i n e d B u d d h a h o o d , i f t h o s e b e i n g s who a r e i n t h e t e n q u a r t e r s s h o u l d b e l i e v e i n me w i t h s e r e n e t h o u g h t s , and s h o u l d w i s h t o b e b o r n i n my c o u n t r y , and s h o u l d h a v e s a y t e n t i m e s t h o u g h t o f me ( o r r e p e a t e d my n a m e ) , - i f t h e y s h o u l d n o t be b o r n t h e r e , may I n o t o b t a i n t h e p e r f e c t k n o w l e d g e ; b a r r i n g o n l y t h o s e b e i n g s who h a v e c o m m i t t e d t h e f i v e d e a d l y s i n s , and who h a v e s p o k e n e v i l o f t h e g o o d Law.  T'an-luan taught r e g r e s s i o n by  relying  t h e most l o w l y c o u l d a c h i e v e  the s t a t e of  on t h e o t h e r power o f A m i t a and  non-  by m e d i t a t i n g  on  25 him  o r i n v o k i n g e v e n t e n t i m e s o n h i s name.  d o c t r i n a l foundations Pure Land a c t i v i t y .  f o r t h e movement b u t Ch'en r e m i n d s us  He  thus not  r e l e a s e d a surge  t h a t i n 520  t h e r e was  only l a i d of  the  popular  only  one  -129-  A m i t a f i g u r e i n Lung-men b u t t h a t b e t w e e n  5 3 0 - 5 4 0 t h o u g h T'an  i n f l u e n c e , t h e number h a d i n c r e a s e d t o s i x . The  luan's  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  T'an-  l u a n ' s e s c h a t o l o g i c a l concerns were not t h a t they were u n i q u e , they were i n f a c t  totally  i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e t e n o r o f h i s age b u t  these concerns g r e a t l y  influenced  the development  that  of h i s d o c t r i n a l  v i e w s : w i t h t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e Dharma, t h e o n l y v i a b l e p a t h t o s a l v a t i o n was  t h e P u r e Land  path.  I n 6 0 9 , a f t e r r e a d i n g a monument l a u d i n g T ' a n - l u a n ' s d e v o t e d 26 efforts  ""'n t e a c h i n g t h e P u r e L a n d P a t h , T a o - c h ' o  e x p o n e n t o f t h e movement.  B e s i d e s e x p a n d i n g on T ' a n - l u a n ' s  o f s a l v a t i o n b a s e d on o t h e r - p o w e r and ch'o c o n t r i b u t e d of i t s claims. Gate"  riieri-fo  for all  themes  of humanity,  t o t h e p a t h on even g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e A l l the other Buddhist teachings c o n s t i t u t e d  (  as opposed  t h o s e who  became a d e v o u t  t o t h e " P u r e L a n d G a t e " C/%  exclusivity  the "Holy f ^  ).  a t t a i n that state.  I n t h e l a t t e r age, o n l y by e n t e r i n g  " P u r e L a n d G a t e " c o u l d one b e a s s u r e d o f  Hsin-hsing's  of mo-fa b e l i e f s .  c o n t e m p o r a r y , who  An-lo-chi  (  suitability  JS^  the  was  i n this section i t i s t h e most v i g o r o u s  I n h i s one e x t a n t b u t e x c e e d i n g l y i n f l u e n t i a l  -Jh xfaA &  could  salvation.  Of t h e t h r e e P u r e L a n d m a s t e r s d e s c r i b e d Tao-ch'o,  While  f o l l o w e d the "Holy Path" could g a i n the rank of non-regression  o n l y a f t e r 10,000 k a l p a s o f c o n t i n u o u s p r a c t i c e , A m i t a ' s b e l i e v e r s 27 swiftly  Tao-  exponent work,  28 )  h e r e i t e r a t e s t h e theme o f t h e a b s o l u t e  o f t h e P u r e L a n d P a t h i n t h e l a t t e r d a y s a n d how  least capable could a t t a i n r e b i r t h  i n the Western Paradise.  o n t h e p a s s a g e f r o m t h e W u - l i a n g - s h o u c h i n g he, w r i t e s :  even the Commenting  -130-  I f I am t o r e v e a l t h e ; l e n g t h o f t i m e o f t h e s u t r a s remaining i n the w o r l d , the l i f e t i m e teachings of S a k g a m u n i B u d d h a h a v e g o n e t h r o u g h t h e Age o f R i g h t Dharma f o r f i v e h u n d r e d y e a r s and t h e Age o f S e m b l a n c e Dharma f o r t h e n e x t one t h o u s a n d y e a r s and e n t e r e d t h e Age o f D e c a d e n t Dharma w h i c h w i l l l a s t f o r t e n thousand y e a r s . I n the l a s t age, the s e n t i e n t b e i n g s (who p r a c t i c e t h e Way) w i l l d e c r e a s e i n number u n t i l t h e r e i s n o n e , and a l l t h e s u t r a s ( o f t h e P a t h o f Sages) w i l l p e r i s h . T a t h a g a t a , out of compassion for a f f l i c t e d beings, especially retains this Larger Sutra for a hundred y e a r s . 9  In  t h e A n - l o - c h l , Tao-ch'o a l s o quotes  from  the Mahasannipata  sutra:  D u r i n g the f i n a l or decadent p e r i o d of Buddhism m i l l i o n s o f s e n t i e n t b e i n g s may s t a r t t o c u l t i v a t e t h e way o f r e l i g i o n , b u t n o n e o f them w i l l r e a l i z e it. Now i n t h i s w o r l d o f f i v e e v i l s t h e p a t h l e a d i n g t o t h e P u r e L a n d i s t h e o n l y way.^0  In  his writing  and  t e a c h i n g T a o - c h ' o made i t c l e a r  t h e Dharma, b u t man's p o t e n t i a l were but  "common b e i n g s "  sustained  e f f o r t and  ( jfy  t o o , had ) who  declined in this last  w e r e "no  d i s c i p l i n e necessary  that not  longer capable  to reach  only  age. of  enlightenment  Men  the by  31 t h e i r own  efforts".  W i t h Tao-ch'o, mo-fa b e l i e f s were f o r m a l l y  e s t a b l i s h e d as a f u n d a m e n t a l With  p a r t of P u r e Land d o c t r i n e .  t h e s t r o n g e m p h a s i s on t h e l a t t e r day  d o c t r i n e , i t i s not  s u r p r i s i n g t h a t P u r e Land p r a c t i c e , as a d v o c a t e d than under Tan-luan, popularization. Amita,  Of  b y T a o - c h ' o much more  s h o u l d h a v e moved i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f e v e n g r e a t e r the time P u r e Land p r a c t i c e s :  i n v o k i n g t h e name o f  c h a n t i n g s u t r a s , m e d i t a t i n g on t h e B u d d h a , w o r s h i p p i n g  Amita 32  i m a g e s and was of  s i n g i n g p r a i s e s to Amita;  g i v e n the h i g h e s t s t a t u s .  the f i r s t ,  Without  o r k'ou-cherig  necessarily  invaliding  nien-fo the  value  m e d i t a t i o n a l o r c o n t e m p l a t i v e n i e n - f o , t h e m a s t e r s t r e s s e d t h a t i f one  -131-  were t o s i m p l y all  the e v i l ,  c a l l u p o n A m i t a ' s name w i t h w h o l e - h e a r t e d s i n and h a r d s h i p  would be overcome. reciting  I t i s said  concentration,  s t a n d i n g between t h e devotee and p a r a d i s e t h a t he e x e m p l i f i e d t h i s p r a c t i c e by  t h e name o f t h e B u d d h a 70,000 a d a y a n d t h a t o t h e r s , s u c h a s  h i s d i s c i p l e T a o - s h e n g , who i s r e p u t e d m i l l i o n times Feats  t o have r e p e a t e d  i n seven days, a v i d l y f o l l o w e d  o f stamina such as these  t h e name o n e  suit.  continued  during  t h e time o f Tao-  33 cho's most i l l u s t r i o u s d i s c i p l e ,  Shan-tao.  Writings  from t h e time  o f S h a n - t a o r e l a t e how h i s f o l l o w e r s i n C h ' a n g - a n c o p i e d Sutra copies  thousands o f times  o r how S h a n - t a o h i m s e l f made o v e r  of t h e A-mi-to ching.  of Amita, rays o f l i g h t  the Lotus  I t was s a i d  100,000  t h a t when h e c h a n t e d t h e name  and buddha f i g u r e s would s t r e a m f o r t h f r o m h i s  lips. v  Despite  such accounts,  of Pure Land p h i l o s o p h y .  S h a n - t a o i s famed a s t h e s u p r e m e  systematizer  L i k e T ' a n - l u a n and Tao-ch'o, he l e c t u r e d e x -  t e n s i v e l y o n t h e K u a n - w u - l i a n g - s h o u c h i n g b u t made e v e n g r e a t e r t o b r i n g about a harmonious b l e n d i n g and  Yogacara philosophy.  tao, u l t i m a t e l y stood  According  as a powerful  Without doubt h i s b r i l l i a n t  efforts  o f P u r e L a n d t h o u g h t w i t h Ma*dhyamika t o Pas,  Pure Land b e l i e f s  f o r Shan-  u p a y a t o l e a d men t o a h i g h e r  goal.  e x p o s i t i o n s were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g  about t h e widespread acceptance o f t h e d o c t r i n e .  Nevertheless, the  c r e a t i v i t y w i t h w h i c h h e mapp°d t h e p a s s a g e f r o m mundane e x i s t e n c e t o Paradise,  together w i t h h i s i n t e n s e l y emotional  o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n f i n a l l y the c o n t i n u i n g appeal  left  o f Pure Land  the greatest  d e s c r i p t i o n of the misery impact —  especially f o r  beliefs.  I n h i s m a i n w o r k K u a n - c h i n g c h u (Commentary o n t h e K u a n - w u - 1 i a n g shou c h i n g )  Shan-tao e l a b o r a t e s upon t h e f i v e  practices required for  rebirth  -132-  in  the Pure Land.  the f i r s t , is  The  primary  the i n v o c a t i o n a l n i e n - f o ,  w h i l e the other f o u r were designated  also i n this  c o m m e n t a r y t h a t he g r a p h i c a l l y  n e s s o f human e x i s t e n c e b y who  p r a c t i c e was  auxiliary practices. illustrates  the parable of the White Path.  perilous-  The b e l i e v e r  a s p i r e s t o p a r a d i s e m u s t t r e a d a t h i n w h i t e p a t h f l a n k e d on  side  by  a river  r i v e r of water,  of f i r e ,  v o i c e s c a l l him  s y m b o l i z i n g h i s a n g e r and  symbolizing h i s greed.  fearsome because flames  shore  and  from behind,  A m i t a who  The  and w a v e s s p i l l tempting  o n l y s t r e n g t h i s f r o m S a k y a m u n i who encourages him  journey  over  him  and man  h i m s e l f was  s t a n c e s how cling  much s t r o n g e r was  to Amita's  With broad  for  the monastics  beliefs  types  found  o f t h o s e who  Sweet His  onward f r o m t h e w o r l d l y  f r o m P a r a d i s e on t h e " o t h e r  full  frought with  of s i n .  shore". terror;  In such  circum-  the i n c e n t i v e t o a c q u i r e a deep f a i t h  clearly  differentiated  of p r a c t i c e : m e d i t a t i o n a l n i e n - f o combined w i t h and  c o n t i n u i t y on h i s d o c t r i n a l w o r k and  aroused  Latter  the  His  apologetic  e x p o s i t i o n s o f P u r e L a n d b e l i e f s b r o u g h t t h e movement t o i t s a p e x i n T a o - c h o and  Shan-tao's l i f e t i m e s , another  day  passion  h e l d to the e x c l u s i v e c l a i m s of the Pure Land P a t h . his brillant  into  discipline  s i m p l e v o c a l n i e n - f o f o r t h e common man.  r e j e c t i o n o f a l l o t h e r f o r m s o f B u d d h i s m and  During  and  vow.  S h a n - t a o , t h e P u r e L a n d P a t h was  two  a  i s made e v e n m o r e  t o g i v e up h i s q u e s t .  urges him  u t t e r l y w o r t h l e s s and  one  o n t h e o t h e r by  onto the path.  Thus f o r S h a n - t a o , e v e n t h e p a t h t o s a l v a t i o n was  to  the  It  China.  Buddhist  3-5 leader, Hsin-hsing O p p o s i t i o n and and  t h o s e who  claimed  t h a t h i s was  c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h o s e who proclaimed  t h e o n l y way  advocated  to  salvation.  the Pure Land  the path of the Sect of the Three Stages  teachings "gave  -133-  rise  t o intense Buddhist a c t i v i t i e s  i n N. C h i n a " .  36  Eventually,  assertions  b y H s i n - h s i n g ' s f o l l o w e r s t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t , n o t b e i n g exempt f r o m t h e d e p r a v i t y of t h e age, d i d not deserve t h e obedience of i t s people, l e d to  the suppression of the Sect.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e P u r e L a n d a d -  h e r e n t s , h a v i n g won t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e i r c o - r e l i g i o n i s t s a s w e l l a s o f the  p o p u l a c e , f o r g e d ahead.  Sect of t h e Three  T h u s w h i l e t h e P u r e L a n d movement a n d t h e  Stages b o t h o r i g i n a t e d under  t h e i n f l u e n c e o f mo-fa 37  beliefs,  they developed  e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t d o c t r i n e s and p r a c t i c e s .  I r o n i c a l l y , by t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y , Pure Land i n d e p e n d e n t movement h a d b e g u n t o d e c l i n e i n C h i n a . Land m a s t e r s  as an  Subsequent  i n c l u d i n g Tz'u-min and Fa-chao t o seek t o harmonize  b e l i e f s with other Buddhist teachings. onwards, P u r e Land  Pure Pure  Land  F r o m t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e T'ang  d o c t r i n e and p r a c t i c e s were d i f f u s e d  throughout the  o t h e r s c h o o l s o f C h i n e s e Buddhism.  III.  Conflicting Paradises Throughout  r e l i g i o u s h i s t o r y , man h a s y e a r n e d  i n d e s c r i b a b l e , the unspeakable of the  h e a v e n l y c i t i e s and i r e n i c seeker caught  when A n - s h i h - k a o t h a t of Aksobhya,  " o t h e r " , communicated by l u m i n o u s landscapes.  a glimpse of r e a l i t y . translated  the f i r s t  in  From t h e second  c e n t u r y A.D.  sutra describing a Buddhist paradise,  t h i s concept has e x e r c i s e d a major  i n f l u e n c e on t h e  The r i v a l r y  previously  between t h e v a r i o u s I n d i a n and C e n t r a l A s i a n c u l t s c o n t i n u e d  China i n Chinese fashion.  t h a t he  visions  And t h r o u g h t h e s e v i s i o n s ,  r e l i g i o u s a s p i r a t i o n s of Chinese Buddhists. mentioned  f o r paradise; the  Like the f i f t h  c e n t u r y C h i n e s e monk who  wrote  -134-  "...made o n e s t o n e i m a g e o f M a i t r e y a p r a y i n g t h a t t h o s e of the preceeding generation, h i s parents w i t h t h e i r household and t h e monks who w e r e h i s m a s t e r s , may b e r e b o r n i n t h e l a n d o f B u d d h a A m i t a y u s i n t h e West ( o r ? ) w h e r e t h e T h r e e M e e t i n g s w i l l b e h e l d ( b y M a i t r e y a ) t o p r e a c h t h e Dharma u n d e r t h e D r a g o n - f l o w e r t r e e ; o r i f t h e y a r e r e b o r n h e r e b e l o w among men, may ( t h e i r l o t s ) f a l l among t h e n o b i l i t y ; a n d i n some p l a c e w h e r e t h e y a r e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w i t h some g r e a t Bodhisattva."38  Many w i s h e d t o c o v e r  a l l possible options.  toward s y n c r e t i s m , c o n f l i c t i n g  Yet, despite this  tendency  l o y a l t i e s were i n e v i t a b l e and t h e most  i n t e n s e r i v a l r y was b e t w e e n t h e d e v o t e e s o f M a i t r e y a  and t h o s e  of Amita.  39 This p r e c u l i a r l y  Chinese controversy  took place during the f o u r t h t o the  e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s when some o f t h e g r e a t e s t C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t the r e s p e c t i v e m e r i t s access  of being reborn  debated  i n T u s i t a Heaven as opposed t o g a i n i n g  to Sukhavati.  The  monastics  a t t h e core o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y were e i t h e r 40  t h e P u r e L a n d movement o r o f t h e F a - h s i a n g Chia-ts'ai, Chi-tsang,  school.  Shan-tao and H u i - k a n s t o o d  l i k e Hsuan-tsang and h i s d i s c i p l e , K ' u a i - c h i . already, i n c o n f l i c t w i t h other exclusivist over  masters  leaders of  Monks s u c h a s T a o - c h ' o , i n opposition to others  F o r t h e Pure Land  adherents,  s c h o o l s because o f t h e i r u n o r t h o d o x and  claims to salvation, asserting the superiority of  T u s i t a meant s i m p l y a n s w e r i n g a n o t h e r  o b j e c t i o n s r a i s e d by other B u d d h i s t s . ^  i n a long l i s t  Sukhavati  of "doubts"  or  F o r Hsilang-tsang and K ' u a i - c h i ,  M a i t r e y a was n o t o n l y a s p e c i a l o b j e c t o f p e r s o n a l d e v o t i o n b u t p a r t o f 42 the f o u n d a t i o n myth o f t h e Fa-hsiang  school.  Both groups agreed  T u s i t a H e a v e n was a h e a v e n i n t h e k a m a d h a t u , a c c e p t e d and  that  b o t h by H i n a y a n a  M a h a y a n a m a s t e r s a n d t h a t S u k h a v a t i was a B u d d h a - l a n d ( b u d d h a k g e t r a ) - 43 beyond t h e t h r e e w o r l d s , a t t e s t e d t o o n l y b y Mahayana m a s t e r s . Yet these Chinese masters, a c c o r d i n g t o D e m i e v i l l e , . . . " t e n d a c i o u s l y chose 44 T u s i t a Heaven i n comparing M a i t r e y a s P u r e Land t o t h a t o f A m i t a y u s " .  -135-  These comparisons were  made up o f a maze o f d i f f e r i n g  on c e r t a i n m u t u a l l y a g r e e d In  u p o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e two p a r a d i s e s .  the Ch'ing-t'u-Shih-i-lun,  supporters  saw i n t h e i r  r e l e a s e through  interpretations  two b a s i c p o i n t s w h i c h P u r e L a n d  f a v o u r were: t h e a b s o l u t e c e r t a i n t y  A m i t a ' s vow a n d t h e p u r i t y o f S u k h a v a t i .  of upaya and t h e potency  of obtaining  The o p e r a t i o n  o f m e d i t a t i n g on Amita guaranteed  rebirth i n  S u k h a v a t i w h e r e a s T u s i t a c o u l d b e a t t a i n e d o n l y b y t h o s e who k e e p t h e s  ten precepts  i n t o t r u e - s a m a d h i " ( j£  and e n t e r "deeply  "45  £ *.  Amita's  p a r a d i s e , u n d e f i l e d b y t h e women, t h e f o l l o w e r s o f t h e two y a n a s a n d t h e sensuous p l e a s u r e s found non-regressor. not  i nTusita, swiftly  Furthermore,  took one t o t h e s t a g e o f t h e  we a r e r e m i n d e d t h a t j u s t  a s t h o s e who d i d  a t t a i n a r h a t s h i p d u r i n g t h e l i f e o f Sakyamuni Buddha were a s numerous  as t h e " s a n d o f t h e g a n g a " , s o w o u l d t h e i g n o r a n t s t i l l advent of M a i t r e y a .  In contrast, with rebirth  abound w i t h t h e  i n Sukhavati, " a l l  obtain  t h e i n s i g h t o f n o n - a r i s i n g , a n d t h e r e h a s n e v e r b e e n a n d who h a s f a l l e n therefrom of b i r t h  into the three worlds 46 and d e a t h . "  a n d who a g a i n became b o u n d b y t h e k a r m a  H s u a n - t s a n g " r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s e c l a i m s b y a r g u i n g t h a t S u k h a v a t i was in  fact,  i n a c c e s s i b l e t o common p e o p l e  a n d t h a t s a l v a t i o n t h e r e was b y  no means i m m e d i a t e n o r s u r e ; u n l e s s o n e s a c r i f i c e d 47 the t e x t s f o r the l i t e r a l . for  rebirth  its  l i k e n e s . s t o o u r own w o r l d .  be  secured  common man.  t h e t r u e meaning o f  He a v e r r e d t h a t i n I n d i a , B u d d h i s t s  strove  i n T u s i t a Heaven where t h e p r a c t i c e s were e a s i e r because o f Besides, r e b i r t h  i n Sukhavati  could  only  b y B o d h i s a t t v a s o f t h e t e n t h b h u m i a n d c o u l d n o t b e won b y t h e Hsiian-tsang claimed  when o n e c o n f o r m s t o t h e " l e t e r "  that such misunderstandings and n o t t h e " s p i r i t "  came a b o u t  of the scripture.  -136-  For  example, commenting on a p a s s a g e by Vasubandhu, Hstlan-tsang  that the r e c i t a t i o n of Prabhutaratha t h a t b o d h i was a s s u r e d  claimed  recommended t h e r e d i d n o t mean  b y m e r e l y r e p e a t i n g t h e B u d d h a ' s name b u t t h a t  t h i s p r a c t i c e wa« o n l y o n e c a u s e o f p r o g r e s s .  J u s t a s o n e c a n n o t amass  a t h o u s a n d p i e c e s o f g o l d f r o m one p i e c e o f g o l d i n one day —  one  cannot i n s t a n t l y a t t a i n s a l v a t i o n i n Amita's p a r a d i s e by s i m p l y t o be r e b o r n  vowing  there  P e r h a p s t h e most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d  issue i n the controversy  of the  48 p a r a d i s e s was t h e two c o u r t y a r d s d e s c r i b e s how t h r e e y e a r s tell  i n T u s i t a Heaven.  f o l l o w i n g h i s death  Asanga about c o n d i t i o n s i n T u s i t a Heaven.  have r e p o r t e d  that the devotees stayed  where t h e y a r e submerged  i n the b l i s s  either  The H s i - y u - k i  Vasubandhu r e t u r n e d t o Vasubandhu i s s a i d t o i n the outer  fulfilling  courtyard  their desires or i n  the i n n e r c o u r t y a r d where, welcomed by M a i t r e y a , they  progressed  i n the  Dharma. Tao-cho, Hsuan-tsang's contemporary s t r e s s e d t h e f a c t Maitreya  taught  although  t h e way o f a v a i v a r t i k a t o h i s a s s e m b l a g e i n t h e i n n e r  c o u r t , many i n t h e o u t e r c o u r t r e m a i n e d e n c u m b e r e d b y While r e b i r t h  that  attachments.  i n A m i t a ' s P u r e L a n d meant i n s t a n t l y b e c o m i n g a n a v a i v a r t i n ,  r e b i r t h i n T u s i t a was i n c o n t r a s t , r i s k y .  I n h i s A n - l o - c h i , Tao-ch'o  emphatically stated that since only Tusita's inner court offered i t was b y f a r m o r e b e n e f i c i a l t o s t r i v e f o r r e b i r t h The  it  i n Sukhavati.  proponents o f T u s i t a Heaven, on t h e o t h e r hand, argued  Maitreya's  a b o d e was n o t m e r e l y a p l e a s u r e r e a l m b u t c o n t a i n e d  a p l a c e where t r u e r e l i g i o u s knowledge c o u l d be a t t a i n e d .  t h e i d e a o f t h e two c o u r t y a r d s  salvation,  that within  Even though  i s not r e a d i l y borne out i n Maitreya  sutras,  -137-  ways were f o u n d t o v a l i d a t e example,  it.  The K u a r f c - M i - l o - s h a n g - s h e n g - c h i n g , f o r  l a v i s h l y d e s c r i b e s T u s i t a as a wonderland w i t h  innumerable  p a l a c e s a n d a f o r t y - n i n e - s t o r y " H a l l o f t h e Good Law" w h e r e M a i t r e y a preaches. K/uai-chih, the  The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Maitreya's Pure  interest  a  Land.  and K ' u a i - c h i ' s e f f o r t s made s i g n i f i c a n t  t r a n s l a t i o n of Yogacara works  impact;  their  i n the s i x t h century spurred a resurgence  i n M a i t r e y a w h i c h c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e s e v e n t h and  A c c o r d i n g t o D e m i e v i l l e , t h i s phenomenon a f f e c t e d to  with  C h i n e s e m a s t e r s t h u s endowed T u s i t a H e a v e n w i t h a l l  Hsuan-tsang  of  t h i s " H a l l o f t h e Good Law"  i n n e r c o u r t , w h i c h i n e s s e n c e e v e n t u a l l y became a n a l o g o u s w i t h  P u r e Land. the  identified  the extent that " i l f a l l u t  eighth.  t h e P u r e L a n d movement  t o u s l e s e f f o r t s de l ' e c o l e d e  Chan-tao  49 p o u r r e m e t t r e e n v o g u e l a T e r r e P u r e de 1 ' Q u e s t . "  Works s u c h as  Chia-  t s ' a i ' s C h ' i n g - t u - l u n and H u a i - k a n ' s C h ' i n g - t u C h ' u n - i - l u n ^ d e m o n s t r a t e the  g r e a t l e n g t h s t h a t t h e P u r e Land a d h e r e n t s went t o i n o r d e r t o p r o v e  their  case. In  the  a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f S u k h a v a t i , many o f  p o i n t s r a i s e d seem f a r r e m o v e d f r o m t h e i d e a l i s t  Fa-hsiang school. 1) t h a t l i f e  For  philosophy of the  example:  i n Tusita lasts  f o r o n l y 4,000 y e a r s w h e r e a s  life  in  S u k h a v a t i g o e s on f o r 100 t h o u s a n d s o f m y r i a d s o f k o t i s o f n a y i i t a of 2)  the asamkhya-kalpa;  t h a t p a s s i o n s a r e b o t h l a t e n t and m a n i f e s t i n T u s i t a b u t a r e f o u n d only i n latent  3)  or  form i n S u k h a v a t i ;  or  t h a t T u s i t a i s exposed t o cosmic c a l a m i t i e s s u c h as f i r e a t t h e end o f t h e k a l p a w h e r e a s  Sukhavati i s protected from a l l  water, f i r e , wind, e t c . ; or  damage f r o m  -138-  4)  t h a t when one  i s reborn  i n T u s i t a no  one  comes t o g r e e t  b e l i e v e r whereas a whole assembly of s a i n t s g r e e t s the going  to  the devotee  — 52 Sukhavati.  Such a r g u m e n t s , i n f a c t , b e t r a y , v i e w a o f p a r a d i s e as an o b j e c t i v e reality, it  a " p l a c e " w h e r e t h e d e v o t e e may  i s obvious  acceptance  why  such  a literal  among t h e l a i t y ,  53  gain admittance.  paradise should  i t i s surprising  find  And  where  widespread  that c l e r i c s  such  as  .  T'an-luan  aK  uai-chi  should have used such  concrete  expressions  of  the Pure Land i n t h e i r p o l e m i c a l works. Nakamura H a j i m e has  commented on t h e C h i n e s e  tendency to c o n c r e t i z e  54 the a b s t r a c t  ; e v e n T a o i s t and  located.  t r a n s l a t i o n s of dhyana s u t r a s i n the f i f t h  The  Confucian  p a r a d i s e s were g e o g r a p h i c a l l y century  teaching  v i s u a l i z a t i o n of Buddha-lands w i t h w e l l - d e f i n e d p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s doubt a i s o r e i n f o r c e d the tendency toward paradise.  understanding  T'an-luan h i m s e l f i s c r e d i t e d w i t h i n i t i a t i n g  c a p t u r i n g the v i s i o n s By  a literal  the e a r l y seventh  i n s p i r e d by  c e n t u r y when t h e f i r s t  h u a n g a p p e a r e d , t h e y no m e d i t a t i o n but  the Kuan-wi-liang-shou  longer served  awed l a r g e n u m b e r s o f monks and  as a c t u a l d e p i c t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d  the p r a c t i c e  l a i t y who  views have found  Tun-  as an a i d t o perceived  them  t o come.  Shan-tao's Pure Land o n t o l o g y  Hsuan-tsang's e x e g e t i c a l methods t o o k t h e Chinese beyond p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s .  of  ching paintings.  C o n c u r r e n t l y , more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s p a r a d i s e were b e i n g developed.  of  paradise paintings i n  a l i m i t e d audience  no  Both  the l i t e r a l  c o n t i n u i t y to the present  w i t h t h e name o f A m i t a on h i s l i p e s and  day.  of  and  n o t i o n of p a r a d i s e f a r  and  the  philosophical  When a s i m p l e l a y m a n d i e s  a v i s i o n of p a r a d i s e b e f o r e  him,  -139-  he  f o l l o w s i n the path  b e f o r e him.  And  of innumerable seekers  when a s c h o l a r s u c h a s S u z u k i D a i s e t z w r i t e s  "the Pure Land i s the r e f l e c t i o n reflection out  of the Pure Land"^^  of t h i s world he  expresses  of Pure Land thought i n i t s m a t u r i t y .  paradise  o f S u k h a v a t i who  an  and  this world  interpretation  went that i s the born  Co-existent with this  i s s e e n as a s p i r i t u a l r e a l m w h e r e i n t h e e n l i g h t e n e d  world,  Buddhist  dwells. In  e i t h e r case, Maitreya's  T u s i t a H e a v e n no p a r a d i s e won  c o m i n g i s no  longer a goal —  i n the  here-and-now.  l o n g e r a n t i c i p a t e d and  the eschaton  has  been transcended  by  -140-  Footnotes t o Chapter V  Sometimes i n c o r r e c t l y r e f e r r e d t o as P u r e Land m a n d a l a s , t h e s e l a n d s c a p e s a r e known a s J o d o h e n s o ( J a . ) o r " t r a n s f o r m e d c o n figurations". F o r l o c a t i o n and t y p e s o f henso p a i n t i n g s a t Tun-huang s e e J . O k a z a k i , P u r e Land P a i n t i n g ( S a n F r a n c i s c o : Kodanska I n t . L t d . and S h i b u n d o , 1 9 7 7 ) , pp.29-30. Overmyer,  Folk Buddhist Religion,  p.145.  T h i s s u b j e c t s t i l l a w a i t s a d e q u a t e r e s e a r c h , s e e H. W e l c h , "The B e l l a g i o C o n f e r e n c e o n T a o i s t S t u d i e s , " HOR 9 (November 1969 - F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 1 3 5 . D. H. S m i t h , " C h i n e s e C o n c e p t s o f t h e S o u l , " Numen 5 ( 1 9 5 8 ) : 1 6 5 - 1 7 9 ; W. L i e b e n t h a l , "The I m m o r t a l i t y o f t h e S o u l i n C h i n a , " MN 8 ( 1 9 5 2 ) : 3 2 7 - 3 9 7 . The i d e a o f j u d g e m e n t a f t e r d e a t h p r o c e e d i n g f r o m o n e ' s own k a r m a e s p e c i a l l y c a u g h t t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e . S e e A l e x Wayman, " S t u d i e s i n Yama a n d M a r a , " TU 1 ( 1 9 5 9 ) : 4 4 - 7 3 . Some s c h o l a r s c o n s i d e r t h e u s e o f t h e name P u r e L a n d Movement more a c c u r a t e t h a n P u r e Land S c h o o l i n C h i n a b e c a u s e b y t h e Sung, P u r e Land p r a c t i c e s w e r e a d o p t e d b y t h e o t h e r s c h o o l s , i n c l u d i n g Ch'an and T ' i e n - t a i . P a s , " S h a n - t a o ' s Commentary," p.60. P u r e L a n d S c h o o l may b e b e t t e r a p p r o p r i a t e i n J a p a n w h e r e t h e movement r e a c h e d i t s m a t u r i t y u n d e r Honen and S h i n r a n . S u z u k i , I n d i a n Mahayana Buddhism,  p.131.  Overmyer, F o l k B u d d h i s t R e l i g i o n , p.152; Tsukamoto B u k k y o , " i n Ryumon, p . 2 3 3 .  Z. " H o k u g i  For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s m a t t e r see Y a b u k i , Sangaikyo, pp.199-213. B o d h i r u c i a n d H u i - y u a n ' s names s o m e t i m e s h e a d s t h i s l i s t . below.  C f . n.16  F o r o n e o f t h e f o r m s o f i n d i g e n o u s C h i n e s e b h a k t i s e e E.M. C h ' e n , "Tao a s t h e G r e a t M o t h e r a n d . t h e I n f l u e n c e o f M o t h e r l y L o v e i n t h e S h a p i n g o f C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y , " HOR 14 ( A u g u s t 1 9 7 4 ) : 5 1 - 6 3 . Muller, "Smaller Sukhavati-vyuha sutra,"  p.102.  M u l l e r , " L a r g e r S u k h a v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a , " p . 6 9 . T h e r e a r e many d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e S a n s k r i t and t h e v a r i o u s C h i n e s e v e r s i o n s o f t h i s s u t r a ; one o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e g r o w t h o f P u r e L a n d d e v o t i o n a l i s m b e i n g t h e i n c l u s i o n o f two e x t r a vows i n t h e Chinese. S e e M u l l e r , " L a r g e r S u k h l v a t i - v y u h a s u t r a , " pp 1 2 - 2 2 ,  -141-  W u - l i a n g - s h o u c h i n g q u o t e d i n S h i n r a n ' s Kyo Gyo S h i n Sho, e d . Genpo H o s h i n o , R y u k o k u T r a n s l a t i o n S e r i e s v o l . 5 ( K y o t o : Ryukoku T r a n s l a t i o n C e n t e r , 1 9 6 6 ) , p.201. F o r t h e same s e c t i o n f r o m K u m a r a j i v a ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s e e E n c y c . B., s . v . " A m i t a , " p . 4 6 9 . 15.  P a s , " S h a n - t a o ' s Commentary," p.597. A l t h o u g h l a t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e A m i t a y u r - d h y a n a s u t r a b y T a o - c h o and S h a n - t a o a l s o s t r e s s e d the d e v o t i o n a l element, passages from the Sukhava11-sutras such a s t h e e i g h t e e n t h vow c o n t i n u e d t o b e i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s f o r t h e development of t h e P u r e Land d e v o t i o n a l i s m .  16.  For the four recognized l i n e s of transmission i n Chinese Pure Land see J . Takakusu, E s s e n t i a l s of B u d d h i s t P h i l o s o p h y ( H o n o l u l u : U n i v e r s i t y of H a w a i i , 1 9 5 6 ) , pp.167-168.  17.  The t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e M a h a p a r i n i r v a n a s u t r a i n t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y emphasized t h a t even the i c c h a n t i k a c o u l d a t t a i n enlightenment reinforced this idea. F o r i t s e f f e c t d u r i n g t h e N. W e i s e e H u r v i t z , W e i S h u , p.60 n.4 and f o r a n a c c o u n t o f i t s c o n t r o v e r s y s e e W. L i e b e n t h a l , "The W o r l d C o n c e p t i o n o f T a o - s h e n g , " MN 12 (1956;1957): 65-103; 241-268.  18.  F o r h i s b i o g r a p h y i n HKSC and o t h e r s o u r c e s s e e P a s , C o m m e n t a r y , " p.140 n . l .  19.  Hurvitz, Chih-i,  20.  A. B l o o m , S h i n r a n ' s G o s p e l o f P u r e G r a c e A r i z o n a P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p.8.  21.  R o b i n s o n , E a r l y Madhyamika,  22.  T.40. 8 2 7 - 3 6 ; a s h o r t s e c t i o n t r a n s l a t e d b y L. H u r v i t z i n The B u d d h i s t T r a d i t i o n , e d . T. de B a r y (New Y o r k : M o d e r n L i b r a r y , 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 2 0 0 - 2 0 1 .  23.  A. A n d r e w s , "Nembutsu i n t h e C h i n e s e P u r e L a n d T r a d i t i o n , " EB S e r i e s ) 3 (October 1970):40.  24.  SSZ V o l . 1:255  25.  M u l l e r , "Larger Sukhavati-vyuha sutra," p. 7 3 . o f n i e n - f o see Andrews, " C h i n e s e Nembutsu".  26.  F o r h i s b i o g r a p h i c a l and o t h e r s o u r c e s s e e P a s , Commentary," p.142 n.2.  "Shan-tao's  p.85. (Tucson: U n i v e r s i t y  of  p.66.  quoted i n Bloom,  Shinran's Gospel,  (New  p.43.  For  development  "Shan-tao's  -142-  27.  I n a g a k i H i s a o , "On t h e C o n c e p t o f ' A v i n i v a r t a n i y a i n P u r e L a n d B u d d h i s m , " I B K 10 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 6 2 ) : 348.  28.  T . 4 7 . 4 - 1 1 ; E n c y c . B.,  29.  A n - l o - c h i q u o t e d by S h i n r a n i n h i s Kyo Gyo S h i n S h o , p. 2 0 1 . The e d i t o r a d d s t h a t f o r S h i n r a n , "one h u n d r e d y e a r s " i m p l i e d "eternally".  30.  E n c y c l . B.,  31.  Andrews, " C h i n e s e Nembutsu,"  32.  Ch'en, Buddhism  33.  For b i o g r a p h i c a l r e f e r e n c e s see Pas, "Shan-tao's  34.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e P u r e Land S u t r a s , he a l s o encouraged t h e c h a n t i n g o f t h e L o t u s , V a j r a c c h e d i k a , N i r v a n a and P r a j n a s u t r a s . C h ' e n , Bud d h i s m i n C h i n a , p . 3 4 7 .  35.  Cf. Chapter IV, i i i  36.  Ch'en, Buddhism  37.  Tsukamoto, "Hokugi Bukkyo," p.233.  38.  S o p e r , E v i d e n c e s , p.136.  39.  D e m i e v i l l e , Yogacarabhumi,  40.  F o r m o r e d e t a i l e d r e f e r e n c e s t o i n d i v i d u a l C h i n e s e monks a n d t h e i r v i e w s s e e : D e m i e v i l l e , Y o g a c a r a b h u m i , p. 391 n . 3 ; M a t s u m o t o , M i r o k u J o d o r o n , C h a p t e r 9.  41.  Numerous P u r e L a n d c o m m e n t a r i e s d e m o n s t r a t e t h i s a i m . Pas mentions a work, N i e n - f o c h i by Shan-tao, i n w h i c h t h e v a l i d i t y of Pure Land b e l i e f s argued a g a i n s t s i x o t h e r s c h o o l s : t h e Three S t a g e s , t h e M a i t r e y a , t h e Ch'an, t h e D i s c o u r s e , t h e V i n a y a and the P l r a m i t a . P a s , " S h a n - t a o ' s Commentary," p.236.  42.  D e m i e v i l l e , Yogacarabhumi,  43.  D e m i e v i l l e w r i t e s t h a t T u s i t a H e a v e n may h a v e s e r v e d a s a m o d e l f o r t h e P u r e L a n d s o r t h a t T u s i t a i t s e l f "was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e f a i t h f u l as an i m i t a t i o n of t h e P u r e Lands". Y o g a c a r a b h u m i , p . 3 9 4 , 394 n.7.  44.  Ibid.,  s.v.  "An-lo-chi"  s . v . " A n - l o - c h i , " pp.  by  692-3.  p.41.  i n C h i n a , p.346. Commentary".  above.  i n C h i n a , p.345.  p.392-394.  i n Ryunion, M i z u n o  p. 394  and N a g a h i r o ,  n.7.  p.389.  -143-  45.  The two p o i n t s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e a r e b a s e d on t h e s e v e n t h d o u b t of the S h i h - i l u n , a work t r a d i t i o n a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o C h i h - i and c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t P u r e L a n d t h o u g h t a t a p o i n t w h e r e i t had c l e a r l y d e p a r t e d f r o m n o r m a t i v e C h i n e s e Mahayana b u t had not yet e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e x c l u s i v i s t stance. L. P r u d e n , t r a n s . , "The C h i n g - t ' u S h i h - i - l u n , " EB (New S e r i e s ) 6 (May 1 9 7 3 ) : 1 4 5 148.  46.  Ibid.,  47.  T h i s p a r a g r a p h i s summarized from t h e w r i t i n g s of Hsiian-tsang quoted by D e m i e v i l l e , Y o g a c a r a b h u m i , pp.389-391.  48.  The f o l l o w i n g a r g u m e n t o n t h e two c o u r t y a r d s i s m a i n l y b a s e d D e m i e v i l l e , Y o g a c a r a b h u m i , p.393 n . l .  49.  Ibid.,  50.  T.47.  51.  I n J a p a n , where t h e d e b a t e c o n t i n u e d l o n g a f t e r i t had d i e d out i n C h i n a , S h i n r a n w r o t e t h a t d e v o u t P u r e L a n d b e l i e v e r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f n i e n - f o a r e e q u a l i n s t a t i o n t o M a i t r e y a . D. S u z u k i , t r a n s . , The K y o g y o s h i n s h o , e d . E a s t e r n B u d d h i s t S o c i e t y ( K y o t o : S h i n s h u O t a n i h a , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp.138-9.  52.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to K u ' a i - c h i , Hsi-fang-Yao-ch'ueh ( T . 4 7 . 1 9 6 4 ) , D e m i e v i l l e Y o g a c a r a b h u m i , p p . 3 8 9 - 9 0 n.4. Although p o i n t s 1, 5, 7 and 9 w e r e s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e t h e m o s t c o n c r e t e o f t h e a r g u m e n t s , t h e y s h o u l d a l s o be examined i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e m o r e a b s t r a c t p o i n t s w h i c h make up t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l substance of the passage.  53.  Bloom,  54.  N a k a m u r a H.,  55.  S u z u k i , I n d i a n Mahayana Buddhism,  p.147.  on  p.392. 1963  and T.47.1960 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Shinran's gospel,  p.78.  Ways, p . 2 5 3 . p.146.  -144-  CONCLUSION  For over  2500 y e a r s  Gautama B u d d h a h a s r e p r e s e n t e d  c e n t e r o f k n o w l e d g e a n d a u t h o r i t y t o whom a l l B u d d h i s t s The  Buddha's e n l i g h t e n m e n t  i s regarded  the sacred have  turned.  a r e v e l a t i o n of Truth by an  a l l - k n o w i n g b e i n g a n d h i s w o r d s a s t h e y w e r e s e t down i n t h e B u d d h i s t Canon, a s t h e f i n a l  authority i na l l disputes.  b e l i e v e r , however, t h e c e n t r a l i t y and  o f t h e Buddha's p o s i t i o n a s t e a c h e r  s a v i o r d i d n o t r e m a i n a n e x c l u s i v e one.  t h e Buddha's d e a t h , from t h e founder  I n t h e mind o f t h e  In thecenturies following  t h eb e l i e v e r s f e l t an i n c r e a s i n g sense o f d i s t a n c e  of their religion.  The Buddha, upon e n t e r i n g t h a t  i n e f f a b l e s t a t e c a l l e d n i r v a n a was b e y o n d r e a c h . in  t h e t e a c h i n g s was a c o n c e p t  called  The d i s a p p e a r a n c e  s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  ills  o f decay u n t i l  c o u l d o n l y be remedied by t h e appearance  With  The g r o w t h i n t h e  of Maitreya as the f o c a l point of messianic  brought forward  another  finally, i t  o f t h e D o c t r i n e and t h e a t t e n d a n t  o f t h e M a i t r e y a Buddha, t h e Buddha o f t h e F u t u r e . importance  embedded  t h e E n d o f t h e Dharma; e v e n t h e  B u d d h a Word w o u l d u n d e r g o s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s would disappear.  Furthermore,  expectation  s a c r e d c e n t e r t o whom t h e b e l i e v e r s m i g h t t u r n .  t h e r i s e o f t h e Mahayana s c h o o l s , o t h e r buddhas and b o d h i s a t t v a s  a l s o became f o c a l p o i n t s o f w o r s h i p . rejected  Although  t h e Hinayana  schools  t h e i d e a o f t h e c e l e s t i a l buddhas, b e l i e v e r s i n t h e Mahayana  s c h o o l s w e r e now a b l e t o t u r n n o t o n l y t o G a u t a m a a n d M a i t r e y a b u t a l s o to  a growing  number o f s a l v a t i o n a l f i g u r e s  of t h eWestern P a r a d i s e .  i n c l u d i n g A m i t a b h a , t h e Buddha  -145-  D u r i n g t h e f i f t h and reached  a p e a k and  sixth centuries  then declined  P a r a d i s e s t e a d i l y g a i n e d new might  C o n c o m i t a n t l y , A m i t a and h i s W e s t e r n  adherents.  F o r t h o s e who  prayed  that  they  j o i n M a i t r e y a i n T u s i t a H e a v e n o r t o b e r e b o r n when M a i t r e y a  appeared  on e a r t h , t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r h o p e s i n a n a g e  c r i s e s brought appear  l e s s and  i n their  E i t h e r way of  i n China, Maitreya's popularity  own  less solace.  F o r t h o s e who  of c o n t i n u i n g  expected M a i t r e y a to  time, a sense of e s c h a t o l o g i c a l disappointment  t h e M a i t r e y a n p r o m i s e was  s a l v a t i o n were sought.  losing  i t s a t t r a c t i o n and  new  ensued. means  F o r i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f C h i n e s e B u d d h i s t s ,  d e v o t i o n t o A m i t a B u d d h a p r o v i d e d t h e s o l e means o f s a l v a t i o n i n t h e Degenerate formed  Age.  By  t h e end o f t h i s p e r i o d  i n t o the Pure Land s c h o o l ,  movement i n B u d d h i s m . appointment impetus  The  e s c h a t o l o g i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s and  subsequent  and h o p e l e s s n e s s d u r i n g t h e P e r i o d o f D i s u n i o n l e n t  t o r i s e o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m i n t h e S u i and  A  a d d i t i o n to the broad  early  *  and  example: the symbols  t h e r i c h n e s s and  medieval messianism;  eschatological ideas. let  and  kingship;  develop-  themes emerged. F o r complexity  t h e d y n a m i c i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n d e v o t i o n a l and  I n o r d e r t o show t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f s u c h  us compare t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h r e e s u c h themes i n Buddhism  Christianity:  vital  sweep o f h i s t o r i c a l a n d d o c t r i n a l  o f p a r a d i s e and  themes,  and  1) t h e phenomenon o f " e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t " ;  the r o l e of the l a i t y  dis-  T'ang,  ments summarized above, numerous o t h e r symbols  of  trans-  t h e g r e a t e s t and m o s t e n d u r i n g d e v o t i o n a l  *  In  t h e c u l t o f A m i t a was  i n t h e r i s e o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m ; and  r e l a t i o n s h i p between e s c h a t o l o g y and  history.  3) t h e  2)  intimate  -146-  The  theme o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t h a s b e e n w e l l  i n modern C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . a shift  Among t h e e a r l y  occurred i n the p e r c e p t i o n of the eschaton.  t h a t he was  living  Christians,  understood  i n the time between the r e s u r r e c t i o n of Jesus  h i s r e t u r n a t t h e t i m e o f t h e end.  On  t h a t he was  living  and  of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e a r t h l y  t h e end  Paul  documented  t h e o t h e r hand, John  understood  i n the p e r i o d between the c r u c i f i x i o n of h i s S a v i o u r life.  When C h r i s t d i d n o t  as e x p e c t e d , a p e r i o d o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t r e s u l t e d . inheriting  and  Augustine,  from P a u l , the C h r i s t i a n t e l e o l o g i c a l view of h i s t o r y ,  h i s a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t t h e o l d e r p r e - C h r i s t i a n v i e w o f time.'*" a p o c a l y p t i c e x p e c t a t i o n w h i c h had s u p e r s t i t i o n i n 431 A.D., t o be r e v i v e d  belief  intermittently  embued C h r i s t i a n i t y was  return  developed  When t h e  condemned  i n t h e p h y s i c a l r e t u r n went  as  underground  i n m i l l e n n a r i a n m o v e m e n t s , and m o r e  recently,  i n f u n d a m e n t a l i s t dogma. In a sense, similar  shift.  the Buddhist p e r c e p t i o n of the eschaton underwent  a  To T a o - a n , t h e p r e s e n t r e p r e s e n t e d t h e t i m e b e t w e e n  N i r v a n a o f Gautama B u d d h a and  the appearance  of t h e M a i t r e y a Buddha.  h i s d i s c i p l e H u i - y i i a n , t h i s same t i m e r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n h i s t o r i c a l B u d d h a and Amitabha  t h e d e a t h o f a n i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r who  Buddha i n h i s W e s t e r n P a r a d i s e .  many h o p e d t h a t M a i t r e y a w o u l d  descend  degenerate  age,  t o C h i n a i n t h e i r own  longer p e r i o d s of time which were s t i l l intensified  To the join  During the p e r i o d of D i s u n i o n  F o r t h o s e B u d d h i s t s , t h e f a i l u r e o f M a i t r e y a t o a p p e a r , and the i n c r e a s i n g l y  could  the  lifetimes.  for others,  left  of  the  t h e g e n e r a l s e n s e o f h o p e l e s s n e s s and d e s p a i r .  Thus t h a t v a r i a n t s on " e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t " o c c u r r e d i n b o t h Christianity  and  B u d d h i s m when t h e f u t u r e s a v i o r d i d n o t m a n i f e s t h i m s e l f  -147-  is  evident.  H o w e v e r , one  i n Buddhism, not progressively that  important d i s t i n c t i o n between the  o n l y was  the w a i t i n g p e r i o d  lengthened but  the world  was  a c r i s i s was  i n a B u d d h a - l e s s age.  hopelessness that contributed s a l v a t i o n o f f e r e d by the  before  created I t was  the  by  two  the  assumption  t h i s atmosphere of • t  Yet  i n both  the b e l i e f  f o r m s and  on  the  f i n d s c o n t i n u i t y on  other,  i n nourishing  messianism throughout medieval In both t r a d i t i o n s , activities  popular  times.  among t h e  i s o f t e n s i n g l e d out  as  "...before  1850  could  F a i t h , the  messianic  f u l f i l m e n t of  t h e means by w h i c h t h e m a s s e s  a s p i r e to r e l i g i o u s freedom. religion  that characterized  laity.  humanity can  no  same  hand; i n i t s orthodox  the m y t h o l o g i e s of  the devotionalism  i s most e v i d e n t  devotionalism  one  s o l u t i o n to  traditions,  a f t e r m a t h of " e s c h a t o l o g i c a l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t " f o l l o w s the  pattern:  that  advent  to the ready acceptance o f t h e  the P u r e Land m a s t e r s .  is  Conze goes as  establish  itself  of  f a r to s t a t e  that  firmly i n society  2 without r e - s t a t i n g i t s doctrine  i n terms of F a i t h . . . " . A  distinction  p e r h a p s m o r e c l e a r l y made i n B u d d h i s m t h a n i n C h r i s t i a n i t y i s a c a r d i n a l but scholars faith"  are  c a r e f u l to point  o f common c u r r e n c y  t e r i z e the an  introductory  laymen.  Later  saviours  and  associated  step,  out  and  acceptance of the  introductory  step  i t was  i n the  the  path to enlightenment.  d i f f e r e n c e s between the  t h e k n o w l e d g e and Three Treasures. one  of  the  first  confidence  with belief  Mary, a m u l t i t u d e  j u s t as i n the  e f f i c a c y of prayer the  Buddhist  "blind  which  charac-  p r i n c i p l e s taught to  i n medieval Catholicism  of saints,and  faith  However, b e c a u s e i t i s  i n M a h a y a n a t e r m s f a i t h became a s s o c i a t e d  paradises  i s that  the  with belief  faith  in  became  d i r e c t e d to the V i r g i n  promise of heaven.  Buddhist  and  -148-  C h r i s t i a n l a i t y a l i k e t r a n s l a t e d t h e i r f a i t h i n t o a c t s of d e v o t i o n f o c u s s e d on p i l g r i m a g e s , r e l i c s and s a c r i f i c i a l o f f e r i n g s . forms of worship understood  These  appealed to the layman and more o f t e n than n o t , he  l i t t l e more.  For the c o n v e r t e d masses i n M e d i e v a l China  and Europe, d e v o t i o n a l i s m o f f e r e d the most s a t i s f y i n g means to s a l v a t i o n . It  i s the t h e o l o g i a n s and  the h i s t o r i a n s r a t h e r than laymen  who  3 have d i s c u s s e d the dichotomy between h i s t o r y and e s c h a t o l o g y . Western i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s a t t i t u d e towards God,  cosmos, time, and  human c o n d i t i o n were p r o f o u n d l y c o n d i t i o n e d by the changing of  The the  discipline  h i s t o r i o g r a p h y and the heavenly and temporal v i s i o n s of e s c h a t o l o g y .  The c l a s s i c a l  eschaton of Judaism and E a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y was  by the r e a l i z e d  neutralized  e s c h a t o l o g y of Augustine and subsequently underwent  p r o g r e s s i v e s e c u l a r i z a t i o n through i d e a l i s m , m a t e r i a l i s m and  the b e l i e f  4 in  progress. The h i s t o r y of Buddhism, and  i n p a r t i c u l a r , Chinese Buddhism,  r e v e a l s o t h e r types of i n f l u e n c e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  C o n t r a r y to the  u s u a l l y accepted c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of " l i n e a r time" and " c y c l i c time" i n which Chinese n o t i o n s of c y c l i c time would f a l l " p r i m i t i v e man"  who  i n t o the c a t e g o r y of  l a c k s h i s t o r i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , Chinese concepts of  time h i s t o r y were a l r e a d y h i g h l y developed by the b e g i n n i n g of the Christian era.  Furthermore, w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Buddhist n o t i o n ' s  c o n c e r n i n g the end of the Dharma, the Chinese monastic's p e r c e p t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l events gained another dimension.  P r e s e n t wrongs would  c o n t i n u e u n t i l the i n e l u c t a b l e h i s t o r i c a l process had run i t s course; the r e l i g i o n i t s e l f was  programmed to d e c l i n e . Hand i n hand w i t h the  Mandate of Heaven,the Buddhist eschaton determined who  the success of the r u l e r  would a r i s e at the a p p r o p r i a t e moment i n the cosmic p r o c e s s as the  -149c a k r a v a r t i n of the e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . Even modern B u d d h i s t h i s t o r i a n s , n o t a b l y Conze, f i n d i n g  the  t r a d i t i o n a l Buddhist d i v i s o n of h i s t o r y i n t o t h r e e stages of d e c l i n e o f t h e Dharma i r r e s i s t a b l e ,  continue to analyze the  development of Buddhist p h i l o s o p h y i n analogous Eggermont p o i n t s out marked a c r i t i c a l new of  t h a t t h e end  of the f i r s t  p e r i o d s of  the historical  time.  f i v e hundred year p e r i o d  p o i n t i n the h i s t o r y of Buddhism; the b e g i n n i n g of  e r a i n i t i a t e d by  t h e r i s e o f t h e S a r v a s t i v a d a and  the  s c r i p t u r e s at the T h i r d Buddhist C o u n c i l i n Kashmir.^  t h e phenomenon o f t h e r i s e o f e s c h a t o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n  a  composition Conze  took  into consideration  g when p r o p o s i n g a d a t e f o r t h e V a j r a c c h e d i k a s u t r a .  And  i n a more  p e r s o n a l v e i n , he a p p l i e s t h e t h r e e s t a g e t h e o r y t o t h e d e c l i n e r e l i g i o n i n b o t h E a s t and W e s t : f o r C o n z e , t h e l a s t h a s b e e n a p e r i o d o f s p i r i t u a l p a u c i t y and low  ebb". We,  f i v e hundred  i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , when  of  w e l l s u s p e c t t h a t we  b e i n g r e l i g i o u s a r e b e i n g b o r n , may  K.  analogous  to f i r s t  J a s p e r s ' ^ model, these times would q u a l i f y  p a r a d i g m s f a d e and  a q u a l i t a t i v e l y new  is  essential  of  r e l i g i o n t o examine the t r a d i t i o n a l  understand  i n t h i s age  the emotive  t h e n we w i l l  traditional  c o u n t l e s s new  civilization  paradigm  emerges.  o f d e m y t h o l o g i z a t i o n , m a t e r i a l i s m and eschatological visions  f o r c e s behind m i l l e n i a of e x p e c t a t i o n .  v a r i a t i o n s o n d e v o t i o n and  the  in  China.  as a x i a l p e r i o d s : when Thus, i t the and  eschaton.  death to  Perhaps  b e t t e r comprehend t h e c u r r e n t a r r a y of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  w i t h t h e i r new  ways  are l i v i n g  century I n d i a or s i x t h - s e v e n t h century  p i v o t a l p o i n t s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e l i g i o n and old  "a  9  c r u m b l i n g and  In  years  the nineteenth century,  r e l i g i o u s modes and v a l u e s a r e s w i f t l y  a n age  of  propheta  -150-  Footnotes to Conclusion 1.  Bultmann,  H i s t o r y and E s c h a t o l o g y , p.48.  2.  Conze, T h i r t y Y e a r s , p.138.  3.  Wach, The C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f R e l i g i o n s , p . 8 8 . F o r a c o n c i s e d i s c u s s i o n and c o m p a r a t i v e t a b l e on w e l l - k n o w n W e s t e r n p h i l o s o phies o f h i s t o r y arranged under t h e c a t e g o r i e s of " C y c l i c a l P r o g r e s s i o n " a n d " L i n e a r P r o g r e s s i o n " s e e J . B a r z u n a n d H. F. G r a f f , The M o d e r n R e s e a r c h e r (N.Y.: H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d W o r l d , 1957), pp.154-175.  4.  N. B e r d y a e v , T h e B e g i n n i n g and t h e End (New Y o r k , H a r p e r b o o k s , 1957) , p.198.  5.  T h i s concept has been developed by E l i a d e i n h i s Myth o f t h e Eternal Return. B e f o r e E l i a d e , V a n d e r Leeuw d e s c r i b e d i t a s " . . . a g r e a t c l e a v a g e i n t h e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f man".  6.  Conze r e l a t e s t h e growth i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m a g i c a l p r a c t i c e s i n B u d d h i s m t o a d e c l i n e i n s p i r i t u a l i t y d a t i n g f r o m 500 A.D. " B u t a s s p i r i t u a l i t y d a t i n g f r o m 500 A.D. " B u t a s s p i r i t u a l p o t e n c y o f t h e Dharma w a n e d , a n d a s h i s t o r y was f e l t t o become more and more a d v e r s e , g r e a t e r e f f o r t s were h e l d t o be r e q u i r e d . " T h i r t y Y e a r s , pp.82-83.  7.  P. E g g e r m o n t , "The O r i g i n o f t h e S a k a - e r a "  8.  Conze. F u r t h e r B u d d h i s t S t u d i e s , p.171.  9.  Conze, B u d d h i s t Thought i n I n d i a ,  10.  K. 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