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An examination of the t-shaped painting from the western Han tomb no. 1 at Ma-Wang-Tui, Ch'ang-Sha, Hunan Kelley, Clarence William 1978

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE T-SHAPED PAINTING FROM THE WESTERN HAN TOMB NO. 1 AT MA-WANG-TUI, CH'ANG-SHA, HUNAN by CLARENCE WILLIAM KELLEY A.B., Bowdoin C o l l e g e , 1975 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS POR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS m THE FACULTY OP GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f P i n e A r t s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978 (c) C l a r e n c e W i l l i a m K e l l e y , 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I agree t h a t the Library shall make it freely available for r e f e r e n c e and study . I further agree that permission for extensive copying o f t h i s t h e s i s for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by his representatives. It is understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Fine A r t s The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date ABSTRACT The e x c a v a t i o n i n 1972 o f Tomb No. 1 a t Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, which may be dat e d t o the second c e n t u r y B.C. o f the Western Han P e r i o d , y i e l d e d a p l e t h o r a o f m a t e r i a l s f o r the study o f e a r l y Chinese c u l t u r e and a r t . Prominent among the t r e a s u r e s r e c o v e r e d was a T-shaped p a i n t i n g on s i l k , t he fo c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e (205 cm. l o n g , b e i n g 92 cm. wide at the top and 47-7 cm. wide a t the bottom) and has s u r v i v e d i t s more th a n two t h o u -sand y e a r b u r i a l i n a. remarkably i n t a c t s t a t e ' o f p r e s e r v a t i o n . At the time o f i t s d i s c o v e r y , the p a i n t i n g was found p l a c e d d i r e c t l y over the shrouded corpse o f the deceased, the Marchioness o f T ' a i . T h i s p o s i t i o n o f primacy among the tomb's f u r n i s h i n g s s u g gests t h a t i t had a s i m i l a r importance f o r the deceased d u r i n g her l i f e t i m e . I n g e n e r a l , two c o n t r a s t i n g a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s , t h a t between symbolism and p i c t o r i a l i s m , can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n the h i s t o r y o f Chinese a r t . W i t h i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , t h e r e a re v a r i a t i o n s o f imagery r e p r e s e n t i n g the e a r l i e r s y m b o l i c a t t i t u d e and a l s o e v i d e n c e o f a nascent p i c t o r i a l i s m . Thus, i n i n c o r p o r a t i n g . b o t h a t t i t u d e s , the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g may denote the s h i f t i n a r t i s t i c emphasis t h a t emerged w i t h the Han Dynasty (202 B.C. - A.D. 2 2 0 ) . - i i -- i i i -I n the course o f our e x a m i n a t i o n , many f a c t o r s beyond the scope o f the t h e s i s had t o be acknowledged.. Concern f o r such, m a t t e r s as the m y t h o l o g i c a l i d e n t i t y o f the f i g u r e s , the s o u r c e s o f the mythology, p r i n c i p l e s o f d e c o r a t i v e p a t t e r n s , and the T-shape of the p a i n t i n g were pursued o n l y i n s o f a r as they a i d e d and complemented, a p r i m a r y f o c u s upon u n d e r s t a n d i n g the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g i n an a r t h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . The I n t r o d u c t i o n d i s c u s s e s the l i t e r a t u r e which has a l r e a d y been p u b l i s h e d r e g a r d i n g the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . W hile s e v e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the p a i n t i n g have been o f f e r e d , and w h i l e i n t h e i r broad o u t l i n e some of t h e s e t h e o r i e s are a c c e p t e d , i t i s t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l s and i n t e r p r e t a t i v e nuances t h a t o b j e c t i o n s have been r a i s e d . Moreover, no s c h o l a r has s a t i s f a c t o r i l y p o s i t i o n e d the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g w i t h i n the s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t o f Chinese a r t h i s t o r y as has been attempted h e r e . Chapter One p r o v i d e s a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p a i n t i n g . I t e s t a b l i s h e s the i d e n t i t i e s o f those f i g u r e s and images t h a t can be a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n . C hapters Two., Three and Four d e a l w i t h the more c o n t e n -t i o u s and,.cont.r.oy,ersiaI i d e n t i t i e s o f the f i g u r e s and t h e i r i c o n o l o g y . These c h a p t e r s examine the v a r i o u s themes p r e s e n t e d - w i t h i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g as p a r t i c u l a r l y , r e l e v a n t t o the T a o i s t u n i v e r s e , the yin and the yang^ the wu Using, shamanism and the r e c a l l i n g of the s o u l . F i n a l l y , Chapter Five, examines the c o n t r a s t s between an - i v -e a r l i e r a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e which was concerned f o r the s y m b o l i c and t h a t o f a l a t e r time which was concerned f o r the p i c t o r i a l . T h i s t r a n s i t i o n from the former t o the l a t t e r i s o f fundamen-t a l i m portance i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the whole h i s t o r y - o f Chinese a r t . I t was found t h a t the T-shaped • p a i n t i n g from Ma-wang-tui r e p r e s e n t s a s e m i n a l acknowledgement of t h i s s h i f t i n a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s . TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I . A DESCRIPTION OF THE MA-WANG-TUI TOMB NO, 1 AND PAINTING 11 I I . THE DUAL NATURE OF THE UNIVERSE: THE YIN AND THE YANG 22 I I I . THE WU ESING3 OR FIVE ELEMENTS, THEORY OF THE TAOIST UNIVERSE 56 IV. THE NAME AND FUNCTION OF THE MA-WANG-TUI PAINTING 63 V. ARTISTIC ATTITUDES AND STYLISTIC QUALITIES IN EARLY CHINESE ART 88 CONCLUSION 13'9 NOTES INTRODUCTION 142 CHAPTER I 150 CHAPTER I I 152 CHAPTER I I I 165 CHAPTER IV 168 CHAPTER V 179 ILLUSTRATION SOURCES , , *. , 192 ILLUSTRATIONS• , t , t , t t . t . . 19^ BIBLIOGRAPHY.. . . , 221 LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS Tomb No. 1 , Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , oa. 185 B.C., Drawing. Banner P a i n t i n g , Tomb No. 1 , Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , oa. 185 B.C., Drawing. Banner P a i n t i n g , 'Tomb No. 9, C h i n - c h ' l l e h - s h a n , L i n y i , Shantung, Western Han P e r i o d , Drawing. Hu, Engraved V e s s e l , Werner J a n n i n g s C o l l e c -t i o n , P e k i n g , W a r r i n g S t a t e s P e r i o d , Drawing, D e t a i l . Hu, Engraved V e s s e l , Werner J a n n i n g s C o l l e c -t i o n , P e k i n g , W a r r i n g S t a t e s P e r i o d , S p l a y e d Drawing. * * * * * * * * * * * Banner P a i n t i n g , Tomb No. 1 , Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , oa. 185 B.C. I n n e r , M i d d l e and Outer C a s k e t s , Tomb No. 1 , Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , oa. 185 B.C. Banner P a i n t i n g , Tomb No, 1 , Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , oa. 1 8 5 -B.C., D e t a i l , - v i i -Banner P a i n t i n g , Tomb No,. 1 , Ma-wang^tui Ch'ar.g-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , ca, 185 B.C.., D e t a i l . Banner P a i n t i n g , Tomb No. 1 , Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , aa. 185 B.C. , D e t a i l . Banner P a i n t i n g , Tomb No. 1 , Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , aa. 185 B.C., D e t a i l . Tomb of the Dancing Figures, T'ung-kou, M a n c h u r i a , C e i l i n g , D e t a i l . F u n e r a r y Urn, Pan-shan, Kansu, N e o l i t h i c , O s t a s i a t i s k a Museet, Stockholm. Ting, Anyang, Honan, Shang Dynasty, F r e e r G a l l e r y o f A r t , Washington. D.C. Yu, P a o - c h i - h s i e n , S h e n s i , E a r l y Chou P e r i o d Museum o f F i n e A r t s , B o s t o n . liuei, M i d d l e Chou, P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n . Hu, L a t e Chou, A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o . P a i n t i n g on S i l k , Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, W a r r i n g S t a t e s P e r i o d , P e k i n g . Painted Basket, L o l a n g , K o r e a , E a s t e r n Han P e r i o d , aa, A.D. 1 0 0 , N a t i o n a l Museum, S e o u l D e t a i l . " K i l l i n g Three W a r r i o r s w i t h Two Peaches," P a i n t e d L i n t e l , . Loyang, Honan, Western Han P e r i o d . - v i i i -" L i f t i n g the Tripod,-' Engraved Funerary-Stone, H s i a o T'ang Shan, Shantung, E a s t e r n Han P e r i o d , oa. A.D. 1 2 9 , Rubbing. " L i f t i n g the T r i p o d , " Engraved F u n e r a r y S t o n e , Wu L i a n g Tz'u, Shantung, E a s t e r n Han P e r i o d , A.D. 147 - 1 6 8 , Rubbing. Scenes o f H u n t i n g and H a r v e s t i n g , Moulded Tomb T i l e , Kuang-han, Szechwan, E a s t e r n Han P e r i o d , Rubbing. "Ching K'o's Attempt t o A s s a s s i n a t e the K i n g of C h ' i n , " Engraved F u n e r a r y Stone, Wu L i a n g Tz'u, Shantung, E a s t e r n Han P e r i o d , A.D. 147 1 6 8 , Rubbing. "Ching K'o's Attempt t o A s s a s s i n a t e the K i n g of C h ' i n , " Engraved F u n e r a r y Stone, I-nan. Shantung, Southern and N o r t h e r n D y n a s t i e s , oa. A.D. 300, Rubbing. Ku K ' a i - c h i h (oa. A.D. 3^4 - 406), The Admonitions of the Instructress to the Court Ladies, P a i n t i n g on. S i l k , Copy, B r i t i s h Museum, London, D e t a i l . "Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove," T i l e , N a n k ing, K i a n g s u , Southern and N o r t h e r n D y n a s t i e s , Rubbing, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges the c o u n s e l , guidance and p a t i e n c e of Dr. James 0. C a s w e l l i n the r e a l i z a t i o n and c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s i-< The a d v i c e o f Dr. M a r v i n S. Cohodas i s a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d . The s e r v i c e s o f M s . M e l v a J . Dwyer of the F i n e A r t s L i b r a r y and Mr. S h u i - y i m Tse. o f the A s i a n S t u d i e s L i b r a r y a r e a l s o r e c o g n i z e d . S p e c i a l t h a n k s go t o Mr. Roberto K. Ong f o r the c a l l i g r a p h y i n t h i s t h e s i s . - i x -INTRODUCTION An e x t r a o r d i n a r y a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r y was made i n 1972 at Ma-wang-tui >% , Ch'ang-sha-^- V)t , Hunan s&B . Recovered from what was l a b e l l e d as the Western Han Tomb No. 1 was a p l e t h o r a o f m a t e r i a l f o r the study o f e a r l y Chinese c u l t u r e and a r t . Prominent among i t s t r e a s u r e s was a T-shaped p a i n t i n g on s i l k t h a t s u r v i v e d i t s more th a n two thousand year b u r i a l i n a r e m a r k a b l y i n t a c t s t a t e o f p r e s e r v a t i o n . (Plate 1) I t i s t o t h i s p a i n t i n g t h a t t h i s t h e s i s w i l l a ddress i t s e l f , e x a mining b o t h the i c o n o g r a p h y and t h e i c o n o l o g y o f t h e images p r e s e n t e d , and the s t y l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s e x h i b i t e d w i t h i n the p a i n t i n g . I n t h i s manner, i t i s hoped t o more a c c u r a t e l y d etermine the p o s i t i o n t h i s T-shaped p a i n t i n g e n j o y s w i t h i n the b r o a d e r spectrum o f Chinese a r t and a r t h i s t o r y . The d i s c u s s i o n o f the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g w i l l p r o c e ed i n t h r e e s t a g e s . F i r s t , i t w i l l commence w i t h a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the images and scenes on the p a i n t i n g . F or t h i s , the p a i n t i n g w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o t w o t s e c t - i o n s ^ i o r . s • an upper and a l o w e r . The upper s e c t i o n w i l l c o n s i s t o f t h o s e images i n what w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as the c r o s s b a r . T h i s i s the h o r i z o n t a l l y d i s p l a c e d s e c t i o n o f the p a i n t i n g t h a t forms the t o p , or c r o s s b a r , o f the "T" shape. The -1-lower s e c t i o n w i l l c o n s i s t o f images beneath the c r o s s b a r on the s h a f t or the v e r t i c a l p o r t i o n o f the shape. Second, f o l l o w i n g t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , t h e themes p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n the p a i n t i n g w i l l be c a r e f u l l y d i s c u s s e d and d e t a i l e d . In g e n e r a l , two s u b s t r u c t u r e s o p e r a t e in tandem t h a t t o g e t h e r p r o v i d e the b a s i c framework f o r a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p a i n t i n g and i t s meanings. On the one hand, the concept o f t h e Chinese u n i v e r s e based upon the Tao and Taoism w i l l f i g u r e l a r g e l y . I n . a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e , an exa-m i n a t i o n o f the c o n s t i t u e n t s c o m p r i s i n g the yin /yang fc§> t h e o r y w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n a l o n g w i t h i t s c o r o l l a r y t h e o r y , the wu hsing A* Ai or f i v e elements t h e o r y o f Tsou Yen ''J (aa. 350 - 270 B.C.). The former i s founded upon a cosmic o r d e r based upon p r i n c i p l e s o f a d u a l i t y i n o p p o s i t i o n — p o s i t i v e vs. n e g a t i v e , heat vs. c o l d n e s s , male vs. f e m a l e — t h a t r e g u l a t e the;, o r d e r o f the u n i v e r s e . The l a t t e r t h e o r y i n c o r p o r a t e s a c y c l i c a l r o t a t i o n o f what the Chinese under-s t a n d t o be the f i v e p r i m a r y elements of the c o s m o s -w a t e r , e a r t h , wood, m e t a l , and f i r e . E q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r a f u l l comprehension o f the t h e m a t i c concerns w i t h i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g i s -the study o f the e f f e c t o f shamans and the p r i m i t i v e s o r c e r y connected w i t h shamanism on e a r l y Chinese thought. Shamanism r e v o l v e s around a w o r l d o f demons and s p e c t r e s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r i s deeply, concerned i n the quest f o r i m m o r t a l i t y . In the l a t t e r , i t i s r e l a t e d t o the T a o i s t p a r a d i s e o f P'eng L a i , an i s l e where those who have t a s t e d the - 3 -e l i x i r o f i m m o r t a l i t y d w e l l . I n the t h i r d s e c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s , an attempt w i l l be made t o p l a c e t h e p a i n t i n g w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t i n the l a r g e r pageant o f Chinese a r t . Based upon t h e c o l l a b o -r a t i o n o f a r t i c l e s r e c o v e r e d from the Ma-wang-tui t r e a s u r e s (e.g. 3 c o i n s , w r i t i n g s t y l e s , s e a l i n g c l a y i m p r e s s i o n s , etc.), a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have da t e d the tomb ca. 185 B.C. T h i s d a t i n g has been s u b s t a n t i a t e d w i t h the e x c a v a t i o n s o f the two s u r r o u n d i n g tombs a t the Ma-wang-tui s i t e , Tomb No. 2 2 and Tomb No. 3 . Thus, 185 B.C. may be t a k e n as a terminus ante quern f o r the s i l k p a i n t i n g under d i s c u s s i o n . The p a i n t i n g e v i d e n c e s two d i s t i n c t i v e t r a d i t i o n s i n Chinese a r t . W h i l e t h e r e are v a r i a t i o n s o f well-known s y m b o l i c images, t h e r e are a l s o i n s t a n c e s o f a n a s c e n t p i c t o r i a l i s m . I n g e n e r a l , the d i s t i n c t i o n s between the two can be u n d e r s t o o d as r e p r e s e n t i n g the change i n a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e i n Chinese a r t d u r i n g the Han ^ Dynasty ( 2 0 6 B.C. -A.D. 2 2 0 ) . Thus the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g may be a s e m i n a l acknowledgement o f t h i s s h i f t i n a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n s s i n c e the 1 9 6 0's have r e v e a l e d t h a t the Ch'ang-sha r e g i o n was a, i f not t h e , c u l t u r a l , c e n t e r o f t h e people o f Ch'u it. Ch'u was one of s e v e r a l f e u d a l kingdoms t h a t formed t h e network o f Chou /*) Dynasty ( 1 0 3 0 - 256 B.C.) f i e f d o m s . A s h o r t h i s t o r i c a l o u t l i n e from the Chou t o the Han p e r i o d may be h e l p f u l . The d ynasty i s commonly d i v i d e d i n t o two p e r i o d s , the Western Chou ( 1 0 3 0 - 771 B.C.) and the E a s t e r n Chou ( 7 7 0 - 256 B.C.) p e r i o d s . - 3 The l a t t e r p e r i o d {i.e., the E a s t e r n Chou p e r i o d ) i s th e n s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t-w.o f u r t h e r p e r i o d s - - t h e S p r i n g and Autumn P e r i o d ( 7 7 0 - 464 B.C.), d e r i v i n g I t s nomenclature from the h i s t o r i c a l c h r o n i c l e s , t h e Ch'un Ch''iu or the Spring and Autumn Annals,^ and the W a r r i n g S t a t e s P e r i o d ( 4 6 3 - 2 2 2 B.C.). T h i s l a s t p e r i o d a c t u a l l y extends beyond the r e i g n o f the Chou d y n a s t y , e n d i n g w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the s u c c e e d i n g C h ' i n ^ Dynasty ( 2 2 1 - 206 B.C.). The W a r r i n g S t a t e s P e r i o d was a time o f d i s u n i t y , d i s c o r d and chaos. The Chou monarchy had l o n g s i n c e v i r t u a l l y l o s t a l l c o n t r o l over the f e u d a l p r i n c e s who, q u i c k t o a s s e r t t h e i r own autonomy and a u t h o r i t y , s t y l e d 5 themselves as k i n g s . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d marked by p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e and i n t e r n e c i n e w a r f a r e , the e n t i r e f a b r i c of:" Chinese s o c i e t y was t h r e a t e n e d w i t h d i s s o l u t i o n . Throughout t h i s p e r i o d , Ch'u had managed t o sec u r e her b o r d e r s and her c u l t u r e f l o u r i s h e d e x t e n s i v e l y . However, the s t a t e o f C h ' i n to:.'the .west t h r e a t e n e d , u n t i l f i n a l l y i n 223 B.C., i t sacked the Ch'u c a p i t o l , S h o u - c h . ' u n . > amalgamatingCC.lr'iu.!.stterritories . C C h i i n t f e h e n " w e n t c o . m t o d e f e a t t h e few r e s i s t i n g Chou p r i n c i p a l i t i e s t o e s t a b l i s h the C h ' i n Dynasty. I t was d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d under C h ' i n S h i h Huang T i jfL^ fo ( 2 5 9 - 210 B.C.), the " F i r s t Emperor o f C h ' i n , " t h a t the g r e a t b u r n i n g o f the books o c c u r r e d . S h i h Huang T i d e s i r e d t o c e r a d i c a t e a l l r e f e r e n c e s t o the e a r l i e r Chinese d y n a s t i e s and, as h i s name i m p l i e s , e n v i s i o n e d a l o n g l i n e o f C h ' i n emperors descendant from him. The C h ' i n r u l e , however, was marked by c r u e l t y and w i t h .Shin Huang T i ' s d e a t h r e b e l l i o n ' b r o k e out. E v e n t u a l l y , L i u Pang ^ ' j p r e v a i l e d over h i s a d v e r s a r i e s t o e s t a b l i s h the Han Dynasty, assuming the t i t l e , K a o - t s u i « 7 ( r . 202 -195 B . C . ) . 6 S i n c e her s u b j u g a t i o n i n 223 B.C. t o C h ' i n , Ch'u had never been a b l e t o r e g a i n her former p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y and e a s i l y became a p a r t o f the new and l o n g e r l a s t i n g Han d y n a s t y . Even w i t h t h e s e p o l i t i c a l o f f s e t s , however,-.the v i g o r o f t h e Ch'u c u l t u r e d i d not s t a g n a t e , s u r v i v i n g t o become a s i g n i f i c a n t element i n Han a r t , as w i l l be seen i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . * * * * * * * * * * * C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e Ma-wang-tui t r e a s u r e s has appeared i n s e v e r a l books. One o f t h e e a r l i e s t was a c o l l e c t i o n o f s h o r t e s s a y s i s s u e d by t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a under the g e n e r a l t i t l e , New Archaeological Finds in China. I n i t , however, o n l y c u r s o r y mention was made of the T-shaped 8 9 p a i n t i n g . M i c h a e l S u l l i v a n , i n h i s The Arts of China and Chinese Art: Recent Discoveries,^ i n c l u d e s f i n e d e t a i l r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f a few scenes on the p a i n t i n g but e n t e r s i n t o no a n a l y s i s o f the work per se. P a s s i n g mention of the p a i n t i n g can a l s o be found i n W i l l i a m Watson's e n l i g h t e n i n 11 book, Style in the Arts of China, but here a g a i n t h e d i s -12 c u s s i o n i s a l l too b r i e f . Three:, major Chinese p u b l i c a t i o n s have a l s o appeared - 6 -t h a t s e t the b a s i c framework i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the i d e a s b e h i n d the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . They are a b r i e f , p r e -l i m i n a r y r e p o r t i s s u e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the tomb's e x c a -13 v a t i o n i n 1 9 7 2 , an handsomely bound two volume a r c h a e o l o -14 g i c a l r e p o r t p u b l i s h e d the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , and an e x c e l l e n t p o r t f o l i o o f c o l o u r r e p r o d u c t i o n s w i t h an accompanying 15 t e x t . These a r e , however, by no means d e f i n i t i v e and o n l y p r o v i d e the i n a u g u r a l s t e p s i n any attempt t o comprehend the p a i n t i n g f u l l y . S e v e r a l a r t i c l e s b o t h i n Chinese and E n g l i s h have a l s o a l r e a d y been p u b l i s h e d d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e 16 p a i n t i n g i t s e l f . W hile i n t h e i r broad o u t l i n e some o f these t h e o r i e s are a c c e p t e d , i t i s t o the p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l s and i n t e r p r e t a t i v e nuances t h a t o b j e c t i o n s w i l l be r a i s e d . Thus t h i s t h e s i s i n t e n d s t o o f f e r i m p o r t a n t r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s e v e r a l o f t h e scenes and images p r e s e n t e d i n t h e Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g - , t o re-examinel:.the p a i n t i n g ' s c o n t e x t u a l and t h e m a t i c s t a t e m e n t s , and t o f i x i t f i r m l y w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s i n an a r t h i s t o r i c a l ! 7 continuum. * * * * * * * * * * * I n a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h the m y t h o l o g i c a l ^ , i d e n t i t y o f the f i g u r e s on t h e Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , t h r e e t e x t s w i l l f i g u r e p r e d o m i n e n t l y . They are the Shan.Hai Ching J - t # § L > t n e Huai Nan Tzu 7§k <$} - f F , and the Ch'u Tz'u I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e , s e v e r a l o t h e r c l a s s i c a l t e x t s d e a l i n g w i t h Taosim and a n c i e n t Chinese r i t u a l w i l l a l s o be c i t e d . They w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . The Shan Hai Ching, orsClassic of Mountains and Seas, i s a g e o g r a p h i c a l t r e a t i s e o f C h i n a as i t supposedly was i n a n c i e n t t i m e s , d e s c r i b i n g mountains, r i v e r s , b e i n g s , etc. A l l e g e d l y a Chou manuscript,. i t more l i k e l y i s a second or . t h i r d c e n t u r y B.C. c o l l e c t i o n . W r i t t e n i n e i g h t e e n c h a p t e r s , the commentaries are by Kuo P'u 5j5 ^  (A.D. 276 - 3 2 4 ) . 1 ^ The Huai Nan Tzu i s an a n t h o l o g y o f T a o i s t p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h o u g h t s composed ca.. 140 B.C. by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s under the a u s p i c e s o f L i u An <£] ">s* , K i n g o f Huai-nan (d. 122 B.C.). C o n t a i n i n g twenty-one c h a p t e r s and commentaries by Kao Yu \f) ( f l . A.D. 205 - 2 1 2 ) , t h i s s l i g h t l y p o s t e r i o r work e x p r e s s e s the b a s i c t e n e t s o f t h e T a o i s t s c h o o l and may be u n d e r s t o o d as a l s o r e f l e c t i n g t h o s e o f an e a r l i e r e r a . The Ch'u Tz'u, or Songs of Ch'u, i s , l i k e the Huai Nan 20 Tzu, an a n t h o l o g y , but o f p o e t r y . W r i t t e n by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s , the poems g e n e r a l l y date ca. 300 B.C. t o the end of the f i r s t c e n t u r y B.C. They are v a l u a b l e f o r t h e l i g h t t h ey shed upon the s u p e r s t i t i o u s b e l i e f s o f the time and the s h a m a n i s t i c t h i n k i n g o f the Ch'u p e o p l e s . The commen-t a r i e s are by Wang Y i 3^ 3 § L (d. A.D. 1 5 8 ) , a u t h o r o f the l a s t one o f the seventeen poems now c o m p r i s i n g t h i s a n t h o l o g y . Complementary t o t h e Ch 'u Tz 'u i s a n o t h e r a n t h o l o g y o f poems, the Shih Ching "f?p Poetry C l a s s i c , a l t h o u g h 21 more commonly known as t h e Book of Odes. I n i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e , t h i s work i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f t h r e e - h u n d r e d - f i v e - 8 -c o u r t and f o l k songs c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e v a r i o u s f e u d a l s t a t e s from'.the Chou p e r i o d . . The poems date from the b e g i n n i n g o f the Chou p e r i o d up u n t i l ca. 600 B.C. A c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n , t h e r e were o r i g i n a l l y more th a n 3000 odes t h a t were th e n c o l l e c t e d and c o m p i l e d by 22 C o n f u c i u s who d i s c a r d e d . t h e p o o r e r ones. They are v a l u a b l e f o r the i n s i g h t s t hey o f f e r o n . e a r l y Chinese customs. M e n t i o n has been made o f the T a o i s t framework of the Huai Nan Tzu' t'o which may a l s o be added the Tao Te Ching JtiSt #S and the I Ching % , b o t h T a o i s t tomes. The Tao Te Ching, or C l a s s i c of the Way and I t s Power, i s a l s o known as Lao-tzu {The Old. Master) a f t e r i t s a t t r i -b u ted a u t h o r , Lao Tan ^ * o f the s i x t h c e n t u r y B.C.^ The work, c o n s i s t i n g o f e i g h t y - o n e c h a p t e r s , i s a c t u a l l y by an anonymous w r i t e r ( o r w r i t e r s ) , ca. 300 B.C. L i k e the Huai Nan Tzu, i t i s a b a s i c T a o i s t m a n u s c r i p t . The I Ching, or C l a s s i c of Changes, but more commonly r e f e r r e d tc.-.as.the Book of Changes, i s a d i v i n a t i o n corpus from the e a r l y Chou p e r i o d . Comprised o f s i x t y - f o u r e n t r i e s w i t h t e n s u p p l e m e n t a l appendices (known, as the " t e n w i n g s " ) , 24 i t i s o f a l a t e r Chou d a t e . E n t r i e s found i n t h i s work are based upon l i n e a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f s i x l i n e s t h a t are e i t h e r broken or.unbroken. The former i n d i c a t e s a yin a s p e c t ; t h e l a t t e r i n d i c a t e s a yang a s p e c t . These are t h e n i n t e r p r e t e d f o r the most p a r t i n terms o f m o r a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l themes. To t h e t h r e e T a o i s t works mentioned ( i . e . , t h e Huai Nan Tzu, the Tao Te Ching, and the I Ching), a f o u r t h T a o i s t - 9 -source may a l s o be c i t e d , the Chuang Tzu (Master Chuang). T h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f T a o i s t w r i t i n g s i n t h i r t y - t h r e e c h a p t e r s i s a l l e g e d l y the work of the f o u r t h c e n t u r y B.C. T a o i s t sage, Chuang Chou Mi l^ J (Ca. 369 - oa. 286 B.C.), 25 but much of i t was w r i t t e n by h i s f o l l o w e r s a f t e r h i s d e a t h . H i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the v a r i o u s persons mentioned i n t h i s t h e s i s has a l s o been o b t a i n e d from c l a s s i c a l Chinese t e x t s o f which two works predominate. These a r e the Shu Ching ^ {Documents C l a s s i c o r , more commonly, Book of H i s t o r i c a l Documents) and the Shih Chi "tE-/ ( H i s t o r i c a l Records). The Shu Ching i s an a n t h o l o g y o f p o l i t i c a l speeches and o t h e r p o l i t i c a l documents o f b o t h f o r g e d , t h i r d c e n t u r y A.D. t e x t s and some genuine t e x t s from 2 6 t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the Chou p e r i o d t o ca. 600 B.C. I t i s , however, by no means an h i s t o r y o f a n c i e n t C h i n a , but s i m p l y a c o m p i l a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l memoirs. The Shih Chi on the o t h e r hand i s such an h i s t o r y — 27 the f i r s t g e n e r a l h i s t o r y o f C h i n a . O r i g i n a l l y begun by Ssu-ma T'an ^ Q> (d. 112 B.C.), the work, c o n s i s t i n g o f o n e - h u n d r e d - t h i r t y - c h a p t e r s , was composed p r i n c i p a l l y by h i s son, Ssu-ma C h ' i e n (ca. 145 - ca. 86 B.C.). I t c o v e r s the p e r i o d from the r e i g n o f the m y t h o l o g i c a l emperor, Huang T i ^ (the " Y e l l o w Emperor," t r a d i t i o n a l r e i g n , 2698 - 2 5 9 9 B.C.) t o the r e i g n o f the Han emperor, Wu T i ^ (140 - 87 B . C . ) . 2 8 B e s i d e s the Ch'u Tz'u a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , t h r e e o t h e r r i t u a l i s t i c t e x t s are c i t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g a n c i e n t Chinese - ceremonies and b e l i e f s . Of t h e s e , by f a r the most i m p o r t a n t and f r e q u e n t l y used I s the Li Chi tfik. or the Books of Rites, an anonymous c o l l e c t i o n i n f o r t y - s i x c h a p t e r s o f c e r e m o n i a l r u l e s from t h e Chou and e a r l y Han 2Q p e r i o d s . The s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h i s i m p o r t a n t c o l l e c t i o n v a r i e s w i d e l y from r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s {e.g., birth:,., d e a t h m a r r i a g e ) i . t o , s o c i a l / p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s ( e.g., government o r g a n i z a t i o n ) . The commentaries are by Cheng Hsilan (A.D. 127 - 2 0 0 ) . S i m i l a r i n some r e g a r d s t o t h e Li Chi i s the Chou Li '^ 1 , or I n s t i t u t e s of Chou.^^ Comprised o f f o r t y - t w o c h a p t e r s w i t h commentaries by Cheng Chung {aa. 5 B.C. A.D. 8 3 ) , i t i s a compendium o f v a r i o u s documents on the s t r u c t u r e and r i t u a l i z a t i o n o f the Chou a r i s t o c r a c y . The t h i r d o f the r i t u a l i s t i c t e x t s i s the I Li ' f f c , or Observances and Ceremonies, but more o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as 31 the Book of Etiquette. An anonymous c o l l e c t i o n i n seventeen c h a p t e r s o f d e t a i l e d r i t u a l s and r u l e s o f e t i q u e t t e t h i s work c o n t a i n s l i t t l e o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l m e r i t , but i t s worth l i e s i n V t h e l i g h t i t c a s t s on a n c i e n t Chinese cere-, m o n i a l p r a c t i c e s . CHAPTER I A DESCRIPTION OP THE MA-WANG-TUI TOMB' NO. 1 AND PAINTING The tomb from which the s i l k p a i n t i n g was r e c o v e r e d was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 k i l o m e t e r s from t h e c i t y o f Ch'ang-sha. E x c l u d i n g t h e mound t h a t covered i t , t he a c t u a l tomb p i t measured 20 meters deep. A s l o p i n g passageway on the n o r t h end p r o v i d e d a g r a d u a l e n t r a n c e i n t o the p i t w h i l e the s i d e w a l l s near the mouth were cut i n t o f o u r t e r r a c e d s t e p s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t o one-and-a-half meters i n h e i g h t - (Figure 1) A f t e r the f o u r t h s t e p , t h e w a l l s f e l l s h a r p l y u n t i l about 3-8 meters from t h e f l o o r a t which p o i n t they were s l i g h t l y r e c e s s e d by 30 c e n t i m e t e r s so as t o house the enormous tomb chamber and s e p u l c h e r . The chamber thus formed measured 7.6 meters from n o r t h t o sou t h and 6.7 meters from e a s t t o west."'" On a l l f o u r s i d e s and over the l i d o f the o u t e r c o f f i n e n c l o u s u r e , a l a y e r o f c h a r c o a l some 30 t o 40 c e n t i m e t e r s i n depth was l a i d . S u r r o u n d i n g t h i s l a y e r and s e a l i n g the r e s t o f the s e p u l c h e r space was a w h i t e , p a s t y c l a y f i l l i n g . The p i t was the n f i l l e d w i t h what the Chinese 2 have termed "sandy ' f i v e - c o l o u r ' mixed e a r t h . " A s i d e from a m i c a b l e s o i l , temperature and h u m i d i t y c o n d i t i o n s , -11--12-a r c h a e o l o g i s t s f e e l t h a t the p r i n c i p l e cause of the w e l l -p r e s e r v e d o b j e c t s r e c o v e r e d from the tomb {e.g., l a c q u e r -wares, t e x t i l e s , wooden s t a t u e s , s i l k , the tomb c o r p s e , etc. was the s e a l i n g q u a l i t y o f the c h a r c o a l and p a s t y c l a y . These h e l p e d t o o c c l u d e m o i s t u r e and a i r seepage, thus r e t a r d i n g d e c o m p o s i t i o n and decay. I n a c o m p l i c a t e d b u r i a l system, the s e p u l c h e r housed t h r e e c a s k e t s , each f i t t e d s n u g l y w i t h i n t h e o t h e r . The tomb corpse was found p l a c e d w i t h i n , the innermost c a s k e t . The t h r e e c a s k e t s were then e n c l o s e d w i t h i n t h r e e o u t e r c o f f i n s t r u c t u r e s w i t h s t o r a g e spaces b u i l t between the m i d d l e and o u t e r c o f f i n s . The t h r e e c o f f i n s were composed of t i m b e r p l a n k s i n d o v e t a i l c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h no p a i n t e d or c a r v e d d e c o r a t i o n s . The t h r e e c a s k e t s , on the o t h e r hand were p a i n t e d w i t h v a r i o u s d e s i g n s . The i n t e r i o r s o f t h e c a s k e t s were c o a t e d w i t h c i n n a b a r l a c q u e r , and.the f o u r e x t e r i o r w a l l s and l i d s o f the o u t e r and m i d d l e c a s k e t s were a l s o l a c q u e r e d w i t h v a r i a t e d d e s i g n s . (Tlate 2) The e x t e r i o r o f t h e o u t e r c a s k e t has a b l a c k l a c q u e r f o u n d a t i o n w i t h s w i r l i n g c l o u d p a t t e r n s p a i n t e d i n w h i t e , r e d and y e l l o w . S c a t t e r e d among t h i s d e s i g n are numerous b e a s t s and f a n t a s t i c c r e a t u r e s engaged i n e a r n e s t a c t i v i t i e s {e.g., h u n t i n g , p l a y i n g m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s , d a n c i n g , etc.). The b o r d e r d e s i g n a l o n g the edges was • 4 done i n a g e o m e t r i c p a t t e r n . The m i d d l e or c e n t r a l c a s k e t has a r e d l a c q u e r f o u n -d a t i o n a l s o w i t h c o l o u r e d d e s i g n s . I t s l i d i s s e t w i t h a - 1 3 -p a i r of f i g h t i n g d ragons, t i g e r s and gro t e s q u e a n i m a l s . ,R. pi (a c i r c u l a r d i s c w i t h a p e r f o r a t e d c e n t e r ) w i t h a t t a c h e d r i b b o n s and i n t e r w e a v i n g dragons i s p a i n t e d on the ) end p a n e l . On the head p a n e l , two u n i c o r n s (?) f l a n k a 5 mountain peak. The l i d and w a l l s o f the i n n e r c a s k e t were cove r e d i n s i l k and s t i t c h e d w i t h f e a t h e r a p p l i q u e . The former has a d e s i g n o f geo m e t r i c p a t t e r n s ; the l a t t e r , w i t h g o l d , b l a c k and o t h e r c o l o u r e d f e a t h e r s , i s s e t t o a d e s i g n o f l o z e n g e s . ^ Draped over the l i d o f t h i s c a s k e t w i t h i t s p a i n t e d .side.down'was-the T-shaped p a i n t i n g . S i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e (205 c e n t i m e t e r s l o n g , b e i n g 92 c e n t i m e t e r s wide at the top and 4 7 - 7 c e n t i m e t e r s wide at the b o t t o m ) , i t s placement d i r e c t l y over the i n n e r c a s k e t s u g g e s t s t h a t i t may have enjoye d a primacy w i t h i n the tomb f u r n i s h i n g s and p o s s i b l y a l s o d u r i n g the occupant's l i f e t i m e . * * * * * * * * * * * The remainder o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t a b a s i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p a i n t i n g ' s images. T h i s w i l l b e g i n w i t h t h o s e images on t h e c r o s s b a r and the n proceed t o those on the s h a f t . (Figure 2) B e g i n n i n g at the upper r i g h t c o r n e r o f the c r o s s b a r s e c t i o n , t h e r e i s the image o f the r e d sun w i t h i t s symbol and p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , the r a v e n w i t h i n . (Plate 3) O p p o s i t e , i n t he upper l e f t c o r n e r , i s the c r e s c e n t moon w i t h i t s symbols and p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s , the hare and the t o a d , the l a t t e r c f which h o l d s a c l o u d bar i n i t s mouth. Between -14-the sun and t h e moon i s a s e a t e d human f i g u r e w i t h a snake's t a i l c o i l e d about i t s e l f . F l a n k i n g t h i s l a s t f i g u r e are f i v e c r a n e s — t w o t o the l e f t and t h r e e t o the r i g h t . Beneath the sun/raven image i s a dragon who t h r e a d s i t s way t h r o u g h t h e fu-sang t r e e w i t h e i g h t l i t t l e suns i n t e r s p e r s e d throughout i t s branches. These branches extend upward t o the sun/raven image and down t o the lower r i g h t c o r n e r of the c r o s s b a r . S i m i l a r l y p o s i t i o n e d beneath the hare/toad/moon image on the l e f t i s an o t h e r dragon i n the same p o s t u r e as t h a t beneath the sun. The f o r m e r , however, i s winged and on i t s i t s a b a r e - l e g g e d woman who touches the moon w i t h her hands d i r e c t l y above her head. I n the lower l e f t c o r n e r i s an o t h e r c l o u d m o t i f , s i m i l a r i n d e s i g n t o t h a t h e l d by the t o a d i n the moon. The two dragons, w i t h l i p s and.fangs b a r r e d and tongues p r o t r u d i n g , r i s e toward the s n a k e - t a i l e d f i g u r e i n the t o p - c e n t e r of the c r o s s b a r . Under the l a t t e r and between the two dragons i s . a . chung '^L , or b e l l , w i t h b l a c k bows d a n g l i n g from i t s lower e x t r e m i t i e s . Above the b e l l h a n d l e a r e . f i v e c i r c u l a r b a l l s crowned by an i n c e n s e b u r n e r (?) w i t h vapors r i s i n g . Two c r a n e s , i n f l i g h t s o f e c s t a s y , i n h a l e t h e s e vapors.. On e i t h e r s i d e , o f the b e l l , horse r i d e r s w i t h b e a s t l y f a c e s a s t r i d e quadruped c r e a t u r e s w i t h l e o p a r d s p o t s p u l l on r o p e s . t h a t are a t t a c h e d t o t h e b e l l / i n c e n s e b u r n e r . At the f o o t o f the c r o s s b a r where the s h a f t i n t e r s e c t s i t and on a v e r t i c a l a x i s w i t h the s n a k e - t a i l e d f i g u r e and - 1 5 -b e l l / i n c e n s e group i s the l a s t o f the f i g u r e s i n t h e c r o s s -b a r . At the base o f two towers shaped l i k e i n v e r t e d " T " ' S ( t h a t a c t u a l l y e x t e n d down i n t o t h e s h a f t p o r t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g . p r o p e r ) , two e l e g a n t l y robed men.wearing b l a c k caps s i t f a c i n g each o t h e r . The base of t h e . t o w e r s do not t o u c h each o t h e r , t h e r e b y l e a v i n g a s m a l l p o r t a l t h a t p r o v i d e s a passageway between the c r o s s b a r and s h a f t p o r -t i o n s o f the p a i n t i n g . Behind the two men, a p a i r o f l e o p a r d s , t h e i r heads r e v e r s e d , remount the t o w e r s . The l e o p a r d on t h e l e f t has an open mouth w h i l e t h a t o f the leopard"-'O-n-'the r i g h t i s c l o s e d . On the s h a f t i n i t s c e n t e r , a pi s e r v e s t o d i v i d e the a r e a i n t o two p a r t s , an upper and a l o w e r , w i t h one scene above the pi and two below. I n a l l , , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e are t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l scenes a l o n g the s h a f t . The scene above the pi w i l l precede the d i s c u s s i o n o f the two lower ones. B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e s e , however, note s h o u l d be made of th e two dragons on the s h a f t t h a t pass t h r o u g h the c e n t e r of the p i . One i s r e d w i t h a gray head, w h i l e the o t h e r i s b l u i s h / g r a y w i t h a l i g h t b e i g e head. I n g e n e r a l , t h e i r s i l h o u e t t e s can be a p p r e c i a t e d as two e l o n g a t e d "S" f i g u r e s , s y m m e t r i c a l l y i n t e r l a c e d . T h e i r t a i l s b e g i n i n the lower c o r n e r s o f the p a i n t i n g w i t h the r e d dragon a s c e n d i n g from the l e f t and the b l u i s h / g r a y from t h e r i g h t . A d i r e c t i o n a l change i n the dragons' as c e n t o c c u r s , however, at the p i , so t h a t t h e r e d dragon, f o r m e r l y on t h e l e f t , now c o n t i n u e s a l o n g the r i g h t edge and v i c e v e r s e f o r the b.-luish/gray -16-dragon. U s i n g the r e d dragon as a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t , as i t approaches the l e v e l o f the pi, i t a r c h e s i t s back ever so s l i g h t l y above the pi b e f o r e p a s s i n g over i t s f a c e and d i p p i n g down t o c r e a t e a sinuoas,, s e r p e n t i n e dance. I t then c o n t i n u e s i t s a s c e n t a l o n g the r i g h t edge of the s h a f t . I n r h y t h m i c u n d u l a t i o n , the b l u i s h / g r a y dragon, a s c e n d i n g from the lower r i g h t , c r o s s e s over the body of the r e d dragon on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f the pi and l o o p s i t s way b e h i n d i t b e f o r e once a g a i n p a s s i n g over the body of the r e d dragon at the p e r f o r a t i o n o f the pi. Here, never a c t u a l l y c r o s s i n g the f a c e o f t h e pi,, i t emerges from the r e a r , d i p p i n g s l i g h t l y t o move i n u n i s o n w i t h the d i p o f t h e -red dragon, and t h e n c o n t i n u e s i t s a s c e n t on t h e l e f t . Where the b o d i e s o f t h e dragons i n t e r s e c t each o t h e r and the pi, they form a l a t e r a l l y d i s p l a c e d f i g u r e e i g h t . I n d e s i g n and p a t t e r n , t h e s e dragons are s i m i l a r t o the two dragons above i n t h e c r o s s b a r , o n l y here they l o o k outwards. As a c o h e s i v e d e s i g n p a i r , t h e s e lower .dragons a l s o v i s u a l l y u n i t e t h e i n d i v i d u a l scenes p l a c e d on the s h a f t a l o n g i t s v e r t i c a l a x i s . I n the scene above the pi, an e l d e r l y woman wears an e l a b o r a t e l y embroidered robe w i t h a s i m i l a r l y .patterned d e s i g n as t h e c l o u d bar m o t i f s found i n t h e c r o s s b a r (e.g., t h a t h e l d i n the mouth of the t o a d w i t h i n the moon, and i n the lower l e f t c o r n e r of the c r o s s b a r ) . (Plate 4) Leaning, on a ^walking - s t i c k , she stands on a w h i t e p l a t f o r m . T h i s f i g u r e i s b e l i e v e d t o be a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the tomb's - 1 7 -occupant, the M a r chioness of T ' a i As mentioned above, the s e a l i n g o f the tomb had been so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t many of the tomb's f u r n i s h i n g s , i n c l u d i n g the c o r p s e , s u r v i v e d i n t a c t , and i t was p o s s i b l e t o exhume the body. An autopsy i n d i c a t e d t h a t the M a r chioness had a deformed back and d i e d from c a r d i a c problems sometime d u r i n g her f i f t i e s . The Chinese c l a i m t h a t a f a c i a l resemblance between t h e corpse g and the p a i n t e d f i g u r e i s r e c o g n i z a b l e . A l o n g w i t h the M a r c h i o n e s s , f i v e o t h e r f i g u r e s a l s o are seen,: on the white, p l a t f o r m . The p l a t f o r m i s a t t a c h e d t o the c h e s t s o f the two s h a f t dragons- by c l o u d - l i k e hooks p r o j e c t i n g from the s i d e ends of the p l a t f o r m . These hooks are a l s o s i m i l a r i n d e s i g n t o the c l o u d images i n t h e c r o s s -bar and on t h e M a r c h i o n e s s ' robe. The f a c e o f the p l a t -form i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h a s e r i e s o f f r e t d e s i g n s . Of the f i v e f i g u r e s j o i n i n g t h e Marchioness, on It.he p l a t f o r m , two men w i t h b l a c k caps k n e e l o b e i s a n t l y i n f r o n t o f h e r . They appear t o o f f e r her a r t i c l e s ( f o o d ?) from t r a y s t h a t they h o l d . Both are f i n e l y r o b e d , the l e f t f i g u r e w e a r i n g a b l u i s h / g r a y robe and the r i g h t f i g u r e w e a r i n g a r e d r obe. Behind the M a r c h i o n e s s , d r e s s e d i n w h i t e , r e d and b e i g e r o b e s , t h r e e female a t t e n d a n t s w i t h a s i m i l a r c o i f f u r e as the M a r c h i o n e s s s t a n d and w a i t . C o n n e c t i n g the p l a t f o r m t o the ipi i s a r e d p a n e l s e t at a s l i g h t a n g l e t o the l e f t and d i v i d e d i n t o s i x t e e n d e c o r a t i v e f i e l d s a l s o w i t h f r e t d e s i g n s . On e i t h e r s i d e , two g u a r d i a n l e o p a r d s s t a n d w i t h r e v e r s e d heads l o o k i n g outward i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n from the two l e o p a r d s surmounting the towers above i n the c r o s s b a r . These images ( i . e . , the g u a r d i a n l e o p a r d s , M a r chioness et al.) form t h e c o r e o f t h e scene above t h e p i median. Another secondary group, however, completes t h i s scene. Above the p l a t f o r m f i g u r e s i s a l a r g e , open space i n which a b a t - l i k e c r e a t u r e h o v e r s . At the apex of the s h a f t between t h i s b a t - l i k e f i g u r e and the two s e a t e d men at the towers o f the c r o s s b a r i s a canopy w i t h a f l e u r - d e - l i s m o t i f , f l a n k e d on b o t h s i d e s by p h o e n i x e s . P a s s i n g now- t o the f i r s t o f the two scenes below the pi3 s e v e r a l s t r a n d s o f v a r i c o l o u r e d r i b b o n s are suspended from i t , t h e ends of w h i c h f l a r e t o the s i d e s . (Plate 1) Perched atop t h e s e r i b b o n s are two w h i t e - f e a t h e r e d b i r d s w i t h human heads, who wear caps o f a type d i f f e r e n t from t h a t n o t e d above. Hanging between the f l a r e d r i b b o n s i s a ah'ing , or sounding s t o n e . ^  R i b b o n : s t r e a m e r s (now b a r e l y v i s i b l e ) dangle from the two i n s i d e c o r n e r s . (Plate 5) The ch'ing and v a r i c o l o u r e d r i b b o n s form a c o v e r i n g f o r a group of seven men, s i m i l a r l y d r e s s e d as the two k n e e l i n g men b e f o r e the M a r c h i o n e s s , and v a r i o u s e a t i n g v e s s e l s on a second w h i t e p l a t f o r m . T h i s second p l a t f o r m i s a l s o d e c o r a t e d , but w i t h a d i f f e r e n t scheme from the p l a t f o r m above w i t h t h e M a r c h i o n e s s and h e r group o f f i g u r e s . . S i x o f the men s i t o p p o s i t e each o t h e r i n two rows o f t h r e e . The s e v e n t h f i g u r e i s b e h i n d the group on the l e f t . I n f r o n t o f t h e s e f i g u r e s are two hu and t h r e e ting - 1 9 -v e s s e l s ; i n the background^, s e v e r a l bowls and d i s h e s are on a s h e l f . Between the two rows :of men i s an o b j e c t deco-r a t e d w i t h e l a b o r a t e s w i r l p a t t e r n s a l s o f a s h i o n e d l i k e t hose on the embroidered robe o f the M a r c h i o n e s s . I n a l a t e r c h a p t e r , i t w i l l be demonstrated t h a t t h i s o b j e c t i s t he c a s k e t o f t h e Marchioness w i t h i t s shroud on a c a t a f a l q u e . At e i t h e r s i d e o f t h i s second p l a t f o r m w i t h the seven men are two t u r t l e s who l i k e w i s e h o l d c l o u d b a r s i n t h e i r mouths. An owl sta n d s on each o f the t u r t l e ' s b a c k s . They are p a r t o f the l a s t scene found on the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g t h a t i n c l u d e s the r e m a i n i n g f i g u r e s beneath t h e second p l a t f o r m . S u p p o r t i n g the p l a t f o r m i s . a r o t u n d c a r y a t i d f i g u r e s t a n d i n g on the backs of two l e v i a t h a n s . (Plate 6) These have l o n g pug.noses and b i f u r c a t e d t a i l s , o f f o f which s t e p two b e a s t s l i k e the two horse r i d e r s on.the c r o s s b a r s e c t i o n , o n l y i n t h i s i n s t a n c e horned and a l s o w i t h t a i l s . They l o o k back at each o t h e r waving. C o m p l e t i n g t h i s scene, a r e d snake w i t h a b l a c k bow r i b b o n t i e d t o i t s neck passes between the l e g s of the c a r y a t i d f i g u r e . W h i l e a v a s t a r r a y o f images and m o t i f s . a r e d e p i c t e d i n t he Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , confusi.o.niis:...:mit.±gate.doby-..a v i s u a l u n i t y a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a superb c o m p o s i t i o n a l d e s i g n . Note s h o u l d be made o f a symmetry t h a t , w h i l e not e n t i r e l y i n t a c t b i l a t e r a l l y (e.g., the t h r e e cranes on the r i g h t o f the human/snake f i g u r e i n the c r o s s b a r s e c t i o n vs. the two cranes on the l e f t o f t h i s f i g u r e ) , s t i l l p r o v i d e s a complementary symmetry a l o n g a v e r t i c a l a x i s . T h i s i s e s t a b l i s h e d , a t t h e t o p o f t h e p a i n t i n g from t h e human/snake f i g u r e , down al o n g g the image o f the Mar c h i o n e s s t o the c a r y a t i d f i g u r e a t the f o o t of the p a i n t i n g s t a n d i n g on the two l e v i a t h a n s . The sun/raven image b a l a n c e s the moon/ h a r e / t o a d i n t h i s symmetry, as do, among o t h e r s , the two men a t the base o f the t o w e r s , the two phoenixes f l a n k i n g the f l e u r - d e - l i s m o t i f , the two w h i t e - f e a t h e r e d b i r d s w i t h human heads perched atop the v a r i c o l o u r e d r i b b o n s , and the waving, horned b e a s t s s t e p p i n g o f f the t a i l s o f the two l e v i a t h a n s . C o m p o s i t i o n a l u n i t y i s a l s o a i d e d by a r e p e t i t i o n o f s i m i l a r shapes t h a t not o n l y r e f l e c t a symmetry, but a l s o i n t e g r a t e the v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l p o r t i o n s o f the p a i n t i n g . The c i r c l e o f the sun i s s u g g e s t e d , f o r instance., i n t he sweep o f the c r e s c e n t moon. Three d i s t i n c t i v e c i r -c u l a r images complementary t o the sun and c r e s c e n t moon can a l s o be noted t h a t form a major p a r t o f the v e r t i c a l a x i s . These are the t a i l o f the human/snake f i g u r e , the •pi i n t he c e n t e r o f the s h a f t , and the entwined l e v i a t h a n s below. Together t h e s e c i r c u l a r forms are p l a c e d a l o n g an o u t l i n e t h a t . f o r m s the "T" o f the p a i n t i n g . S p e c i f i c images are a l s o r e p e a t e d throughout the p a i n t i n g t h a t v i s u a l l y u n i t e the c o m p o s i t i o n a l scheme t o o , I n t e g r a t i n g the h o r i z o n t a l and the v e r t i c a l {i.e., i n t e g r a t i n g the c r o s s -bar w i t h t h e s h a f t ) . The dragons and l e o p a r d s I n t h e c r o s s -bar can be p a i r e d w i t h the dragons and l e o p a r d s on the s h a f t . But t h e r e are s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o s t u r e . A l o n g the s h a f t , the r e p e t i t i o n of t h r e e p l a t f o r m m o t i f s . s h o u l d be n o t e d . These are the l o w e s t w i t h the two rows.of men i n the f u n e r a r y scene s u p p o r t e d by the c a r y - ( a t i d f i g u r e , i n t h e m i d d l e of the s h a f t w i t h the M a r c h i o n e s s and her a t t e n d a n t s , and above t h i s group of f i g u r e s , the two p h oenixes f l a n k i n g the f l e u r - d e - l i s m o t i f can a l s o be seen as s t a n d i n g on a p l a t f o r m - l i k e m o t i f . One f i n a l d e v i c e u n i t i n g the c o m p o s i t i o n s h o u l d be n o t e d . T h i s i s the 2:3 r a t i o scheme r e p e a t e d t h r i c e i n the p a i n t i n g . At the top i n the c r o s s b a r , the f i v e c r anes f l a n k i n g the human/snake f i g u r e make a 2:3 s t a t e m e n t . On the s h a f t i n the M a r c h i o n e s s ' group, the two.men and t h r e e women f i g u r e s r e s t a t e t h i s r a t i o . L a s t l y , the two hu and t h r e e t i n g v e s s e l s on the l o w e s t p l a t f o r m a l s o acknowledge t h i s n u m e r i c a l p a i r i n g s . Thus w h i l e a p l e t h o r a o f images and m o t i f s i n h a b i t the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y i t i s a w e l l i n t e g r a t e d work o f a r t . The r e p e t i t i o n o f images and s i m i l a r m o t i f s t hroughout the p a i n t i n g g i v e s i t a s t r o n g v i s u a l u n i t y t h a t , as w i l l emerge i n t h i s t h e s i s , a l s o p l a y s a d e c i s i v e r o l e i n the t h e m a t i c and c o n c e p t u a l s t a t e -ments o f the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . CHAPTER I I THE DUAL NATURE OF THE UNIVERSE: THE YIN AND THE YANG The Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g can be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n the framework o f s e v e r a l t h e o r i e s , but no s i n g l e one can be t a k e n t o embody e x c l u s i v e l y the i d e a s p r e s e n t e d . I n s t e a d , the p a i n t i n g i s b e s t u n d e r s t o o d as an i n c o r p o r a t i o n on m u l t i p l e . l e v e l s of t h e s e t h e o r i e s , the f i r s t o f which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d h e r e . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine t h e yin/yang t h e o r y and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . w i t h i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . The yin/yang d i s c u s s i o n i s un d e r t a k e n f i r s t so. as t o study a few basic:-. T a o i s t concepts o f the u n i v e r s e p r e v a l e n t i n a n c i e n t China and as m a n i f e s t e d i n the p a i n t i n g . I t w i l l a l s o a f f o r d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l a y the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r subsequent s u g g e s t i o n s t o f o l l o w i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s , b o t h i n terms o f the i d e n t i t y o f the images w i t h i n t h e p a i n t i n g and t h e m a t i c c o n c e p t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y , f o r example, the wu hsing, or f i v e elements t h e o r y . Both i t and the yin/yang t h e o r y are c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h i n the T a o i s t c o n c e p t s . o f the u n i v e r s e . T h i s c h a p t e r and the n e x t , which w i l l examine the wu hsing t h e o r y , are t o be seen as a p a i r . B oth t h e o r i e s a re interdependent., but b o t h a re a l s o s u f f i c i e n t l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e - 2 3 -m e r i t s t o warrant s e p a r a t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The yin/yang t h e o r y i s g i v e n precedance as i t i s from i t t h a t the Chinese concept of the o r d e r i n g o f the u n i v e r s e i s d e r i v e d . A subtheme of i n t e r p r e t i n g .'. the p a i n t i n g as r e p r e s e n t i n g the t h r e e realms of the u n i v e r s e — t h e heavens, the e a r t h , and the s u b t e r r a n e a n — w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d i n ; t h i s c h a p t e r . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d the yin/yang t h e o r y and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , the f i g u r e s and scenes o u t l i n e d i n the p r e c e e d i n g c h a p t e r w i l l be more c o n c r e t e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the a i d o f l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s . T h i s w i l l have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g upon p e r c e i v i n g the elements of the yin and the yang, i t s symbols and m a n i f e s t a t i o n s as found i n t h e p a i n t i n g . Towards t h i s end, the v a r i o u s , and at times c o n f l i c t i n g , o p i n i o n s o f S i n o l o g i s t s who have d e a l t , w i t h t h i s p a i n t i n g w i l l be compared and c o n t r a s t e d so as t o i n d i c a t e the r i c h n e s s and v a r i e t y o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h a t t h i s p a i n t i n g o f f e r s . The yin/yang t h e o r y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Tsou Yen, a s c h o l a r from th e Chou s t a t e o f C h ' i . A c c o r d i n g t o the Shih Chi3 Tsou Yen embarked upon the e l u c i d a t i o n o f "the phenomena of i n c r e a s e and d e c rease of the yin and t h e yang" at a time when he p e r c e i v e d t h a t the r u l e r s o f C h ' i were f a i l i n g t o govern the s t a t e w i t h m e r i t . ^ The system d e s c r i b e d by Tsou Yen w i t h i n the yin and the yang i n c o r -p o r a t e d a t h e s i s o f the mutual i n t e r a c t i o n between man and n a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i r s t r u c t u r e s and o p e r a t i o n s . I n the c o s m o l o g i c a l o r d e r d e f i n e d by the yin and the - 2 4 -yang, the o r d e r i n g o f the macrocosm i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h the i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s e t w o . f o r c e s , s y m b o l i z e d p r i m a r i l y by the moon and t h e sun r e s p e c t i v e l y . These are the u n d e r l y i n g f o r c e s o f n a t u r e t h a t i n g o v e r n i n g the cosmos r e g u l a t e the seasons and m a i n t a i n o r d e r over the v a r i o u s p o i n t s o f the u n i v e r s e . Based upon a d u a l i s t i c system o f o p p o s i t i o n , the yin embodies the concepts and essences o f c o l d n e s s , d a r k n e s s , the n i g h t , m a l e v o l e n c e , and female. A n t i t h e t i c a l t o i t i s the yang—warmth, l i g h t , t he day, b e n e v o l e n c e , the male. T o g e t h e r , however, "One Y i n and one Yang, t h a t i s the Tao," i . e . , t h a t i s the way o f t h e u n i v e r s e . The moon and t h e sun are t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f the yin and the yang, and a l l elements w i t h i n the u n i v e r s e a re gu i d e d and i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r " n e g a t i v e " and " p o s i t i v e " r e c i p r o c i t y : The sun goes and the moon comes; the moon goes and the sun comes; -the sun and moon thus t a k e the p l a c e each of the o t h e r , and t h e i r s h i n i n g i s the r e s u l t . The c o l d goes and the heat comes; the heat goes and the. c o l d comes; - i t i s by t h i s mutual s u c c e s -s i o n o f t h e c o l d and heat t h a t t h e y e a r i s completed. That which goes becomes l e s s and l e s s , and t h a t which comes waxes more and more; - i t i s by the i n f l u e n c e on each o t h e r o f t h i s c o n t r a c t i o n and e x p a n s i o n t h a t the advantages ( o f the d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s ) a re produced.^ * * * * * * * * * * * B e g i n n i n g w i t h the s u n - b i r d image, the e a r l i e s t l i t e r -a r y r e f e r e n c e known comes from the Huai Nan Tzu. A c c o r d i n g t o i t , " w i t h i n the sun i s the t h r e e - l e g g e d crow," symbol of p e r f e c t i o n o f the male, or yang3 p r i n c i p l e . I n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , however, the s u n - b i r d image has o n l y two l e g s , but t h i s i s not i n i t s e l f u n u s u a l . S i m i l a r sun-b i r d images a l s o w i t h o n l y two l e g s have been f o u n d , e.g., 7 on a r e l i e f t i l e from Szechwan, and a Western Han tomb w i t h a p a i n t e d c e i l i n g at Loyang d e p i c t s t h i s image as g l e g l e s s , i.e., f l y i n g . Another s i l k p a i n t i n g from C h i n - c h ' tleh-shan i n Shantung was r e c o v e r e d i n i 9 1 9 7 4 . I t too d e p i c t s t h e s u n - b i r d w i t h o n l y two l e g s , and l i k e the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , i t a l s o d a t es from th e Western Han p e r i o d . (Figure 3) P r i o r t o the d i s c o v e r y o f the Chin-ch'ueh-shan p a i n t i n g , An Chih-min has proposed t h a t the image of the s u n - b i r d w i t h t h r e e l e g s d i d not become a c o d i f i e d one u n t i l the E a s t e r n Han p e r i o d (A.D. 25 10 2 2 0 ) . The Chin-ch'tteh-shan p a i n t i n g c l e a r l y l e n d s more c o n c l u s i v e credence:' t o An Chih-min's t h e o r y and l i k e w i s e i n d i c a t e s two p o s s i b l e reasons f o r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y between the l i t e r a t u r e and the a r t . On the one hand, d u r i n g t h e Western Han p e r i o d , the i c o n o g r a p h y of the sun and the yang had y e t t o be f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , and thus a r t i s t s may have been f r e e t o experiment w i t h v a r i o u s images, here i n the case of the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g based upon the o b s e r -v a t i o n o f n a t u r e . On the o t h e r hand, t h e s e images may a l s o i n d i c a t e examples of • an a r t form'.which underwent a p r o c e s s of e v o l u t i o n , c hanging i n t o a new a r t form and image i n o r d e r t o c o i n c i d e w i t h l a t e r l i t e r a r y d i c t a as e x p r e s s e d , - 2 6 -e.g.3 i n the Huai Nan Tzu3 and i t s passage r e l a t i n g the t h r e e - l e g g e d crow w i t h i n the sun. Beneath the s u n / b i r d image, the fu-sang t r e e w i t h t h e e i g h t s m a l l e r , sun images i l l u s t r a t e s the legends from the Shan Hai Ching. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e l e g e n d s , the t r e e grew i n T'ang Ku (the " V a l l e y o f T'ang") and-was "bathed i n / the l i g h t o f _ / t e n . s u n s . . . n i n e / suns_/ d w e l l i n g beneath / i . e . , among_/ i t s b r a n c h e s , one / sun_/ d w e l l i n g above.""^ By c l i m b i n g the fu-sang t r e e , the suns mounted the s k i e s d u r i n g the day and a l s o descended i n the e v e n i n g a l o n g i t s b r a n c h e s . Thus i n the c o n t i n u a l w o r k i n g s o f the u n i v e r s e , the fu-sang. t r e e i s a s s o c i a t e d . w i t h the c o n t i n u a l changes between n i g h t and day, two r e s p e c t i v e o r d e r s o f the yin and the yang. The emergence of a l l ..the suns, however, upset the c ourse of the u n i v e r s e , c a u s i n g destruction,..and..chaos: on : , t h e e a r t h . The n a t u r e of the mayhem wrought by t h i s event i s e x p r e s s e d i n the Ch'u Tz'u3 "Chao Hun" • "And t e n suns t h a t come out t o g e t h e r m e l t i n g m e t a l , d i s s o l v i n g 12 s t o n e . " I n response t o t h i s dilemma, the Emperor Yao ( 2 3 5 7 - 2 2 5 5 B.C.) employed the s e r v i c e s o f the a r c h e r Hou I t o d i s p e r s e the n i n e f a l s e l u m i n a r i e s . I n s t e a d of the n i n e f a l s e l u m i n a r i e s , the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g has o n l y e i g h t . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l a i n t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e work of a r t and the l i t e r a t u r e , most Chinese s c h o l a r s are o f the o p i n i o n t h a t the n i n t h sun 14 may be h i d d e n by the boughs or l e a v e s o f the fu-sang t r e e . W h i l e t h i s i s not i m p l a u s i b l e , as one o f the sun d i s c s i s p a r t i a l l y o b s c u r e d , i t would be b e t t e r perhaps t o p e r c e i v e t h i s as a n o t h e r e a r l y Chinese a r t i s t i c experiment i n d e a l i n g w i t h i t s legends and myths, j u s t as the two-legged s u n - b i r d found i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g ( i n s t e a d o f the t h r e e -l e g g e d crow o f the Huai Nan Tzu) may a l s o be an e x p e r i m e n t a l image. An i n t e r e s t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e t o the h i d d e n sun s o l u t i o n has been o f f e r e d by Lo K'un H i s c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t the e i g h t s m a l l e r d i s c s a re not sun images, but r a t h e r the s t a r s o f t h e N o r t h e r n D i p p e r o f the U r s a Major 16 c o n s t e l l a t i o n . The c i t i n g of a r e l i e f image o f t h i s v e r y c o n s t e l l a t i o n from the o f f e r i n g s h r i n e s at Wu L i a n g Tz'u (second c e n t u r y A.D.) i n Shantung i s most p r o -v o c a t i v e i n s u p p o r t i n g Lo K'un's t h e s i s . However, the obvio u s a s s o c i a t i o n s between th e s e d i s c s , the fu-sang t r e e and the s u n - b i r d i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g a re d i f f i c u l t t o i g n o r e . Moreover, l i k e t he l a r g e s t sun d i s c , a l l o f the s m a l l e r d i s c s a re c o l o u r e d r e d , a yang element and t h e r e -f o r e b e f i t t i n g o f the sun, p r i n c i p a l symbol o f t h e p o s i t i v e , yang f o r c e . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o l o u r o f the yin i s w h i t e , as f o r i n s t a n c e I n . t h e c r e s c e n t moon o f the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . I f the d i s c s beneath the sun were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the N o r t h e r n D i p p e r , then they s h o u l d have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the moon, the yin element t o which the Ur s a Major 17 c o n s t e l l a t i o n b e l o n g s . F o r t u n a t e l y , the moon and i t s a s s o c i a t e d images are not so d i s c r e p a n t w i t h t h e a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e . The 18 Huai Nan Tzu s t a t e s t h a t " w i t h i n t h e moon i s t h e t o a d , " and l i k e t h e sun, t h e r e are numerous images o f ; t h i s from 19 the Han .period. A c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n , t he hare i s a l s o an i n h a b i t a n t o f the moon, and images are e x t a n t from the Han p e r i o d o f the s e two a n i m a l s d w e l l i n g w i t h i n the 20 moon. Beneath the moon I s a n a r r a t i v e scene i l l u s t r a t i n g the a n c i e n t Chinese s t o r y from the Huai Nan Tzu o f Ch'ang 0 f l e e i n g t o the moon. She had s t o l e n the p i l l o f 21 i m m o r t a l i t y from h er husband, Hou I — t h e same f i g u r e c a l l e d upon by the Emperor Yao t o d i s p e r s e the f a l s e 22 l u m i n a r i e s . A f t e r f l e e i n g from h er husband, Ch'ang 0 " e n t r u s t e d — — 23 her body t o the. moon, / and_/ i t became a t o a d . " The moon, t h e h a r e , and the toa d are yin symbols, and Ch'ang 0 can thus be l i k e n e d unto i t also... As the symbol o f the moon the t o a d i s b e l i e v e d t o swallow i t d u r i n g an e c l i p s e , thus c l a r i f y i n g the passage from the Huai Nan Tzu, "When the moon i l l u m i n a t e s the. e a r t h , i t i s s l o w l y e a t e n by t h e t o a d . " These a s s o c i a t i o n s between the moon, the t o a d , the yin, and t h e e v e n i n g — a time o f yin a s c e n d e n c y — c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s the r h e t o r i c a l n a t u r e o f the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s from the Ch'u Tz'u, "T'ien Wen" ^ foj : What i s the p e c u l i a r v i r t u e o f the moon, the B r i g h t n e s s o f the n i g h t , which causes i t t o grow once more a f t e r i t s death? What does i t advan-tage i t t o keep a f r o g i n i t s b e l l y ? 2 ^ - 2 9 -The " p e c u l i a r v i r t u e " o f the moon i s the yin, r e p r e s e n t e d by the f i g u r e o f Ch'ang 0 who now d w e l l s i n the l u n a r p a l a c e . She, i n her metamorphosis as the f r o g , i s the yin and i t s "advantage." I n t h i s c o n t e x t , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d . t h a t the hare i s emblematic o f l o n g e v i t y . An a s s o c i a t i o n between i t and the s t o r y o f Ch'ang 0 , as the p a r t a k e r o f the p i l l o f i m m o r t a l i t y , i s a sound, c o n c e p t u a l theme. A l t h o u g h not so shown i n t h e Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , the hare i s o f t e n i l l u s -t r a t e d as pounding w i t h mortar and p e s t l e the drugs t h a t compose the m a g i c a l e l i x i r o f l i f e — w i t h which Ch'ang 0 2 6 i s a s s o c i a t e d . Thus, t h e r e a re c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t i e s between the h a r e , the t o a d , the moon, Ch'ang 0 , and the yin p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . The metamorphosis o f Ch'ang 0 i s . d i s t i n c t l y m a n i f e s t e d i n t he Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , a n d . s e v e r a l p o r t i o n s o f the n a r r a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o her' legends are d e p i c t e d s i m u l -t a n e o u s l y . She appears i n her anthropomorphic s t a t e o f b e i n g , f l e e i n g t o t h e moon upon the wings o f a dragon. Above t h i s and w i t h i n the moon, she r e a p p e a r s i n her zoomorphic s t a t e as t h e t o a d . B u t , the a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e s e two s e p a r a t e s t a t e s o f b e i n g i s v i s u a l l y r e i n f o r c e d by Ch'ang 0's g r a s p i n g o f the moon w i t h her s u p p o r t , t h e r e b y g r a p h i c a l l y u n i t i n g the two. The c o n t r a s t i n g images o f the moon, the sun and t h e i r s e c o n d a r i e s {e.g., Ch'ang 0 and the fu-sang t r e e et al.) t y p i f y t he d u a l i s m of the yin and the yang. I n t h e i r - 3 0 -c o n t r a s t s , t h e s e symbols embody the u n d e r l y i n g f o r c e s o f Taoism t h a t govern the u n i v e r s e i n the mutual o p p o s i t i o n of c o n s t a n t change. They are the r e s p e c t i v e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f the yin and the yang p r i n c i p l e s and s e r v e t o e s t a b l i s h the d o c t r i n e s o f t h i s t h e o r y w i t h i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . At the c e n t e r - t o p o f the c r o s s b a r s e c t i o n , the human/ snake f i g u r e has been v a r i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d as e i t h e r Fu H s i 3§l' or Nu Kua-£- , the f ormer's s i s t e r / c o n s o r t . Fu H s i ( 2 9 5 3 - 2 8 2 8 B.C.) i s the f i r s t o f the s o - c a l l e d 27 F i v e Emperors of a n c i e n t C h i n a . He i s a c c r e d i t e d w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the E i g h t Diagrams from which the T 2 8 Ching i s d e r i v e d . Nu Kua, a c c o r d i n g t o one a c c o u n t , 29 succeeded Fu H s i , s e t t i n g the o r d i n a n c e s of m a r r i a g e . I n some i n s t a n c e s of Chinese a r t i s t i c imagery, Fu H s i and Nil Kua. a r e d e p i c t e d as h o l d i n g a l o f t the sun d i s c and 30 the moon c i r c l e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o r , more o f t e n , as h o l d i n g 31 the mason's square and compass, r e s p e c t i v e l y . A c c o r d i n g t o the Ch'u Tz'u, they are human headed; Fu H s i has a dragon's 32 body w h i l e Nu Kua has a snake's. They are u s u a l l y p o r -33 t r a y e d as a p a i r , t h e i r t a i l s m u t u a l l y entwined. ^ Based upon the image a c t u a l l y p r e s e n t e d i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s f i g u r e at the c e n t e r - t o p of the c r o s s b a r s e c t i o n as e i t h e r Fu H s i or Nil Kua i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . W h i l e i t i s s e r p e n t - t a i l e d , t h e r e are no o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t would l e n d support t o t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . I t would be p o s s i b l e t o view t h i s f i g u r e as e i t h e r Fu H s i or Nu Kua, however, i n an e a r l y - 3 1 -e x p e r i m e n t a l stage o f Chinese imagery as w i t h . t h e s u n - b i r d and fu-sang t r e e , but t h i s i s s l i g h t l y m i t i g a t e d by a more c o n c r e t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f e r e d f o r t h i s e n i g m a t i c f i g u r e 3 4 by the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e p o r t . The r e p o r t suggested t h a t t h i s image r e p r e s e n t s the Chu Lung 1$| 1JIL , ^  o r , i n Hawkes' t r a n s l a t i o n from the Ch'u 3 6 Tz'u, the T o rch Dragon. T h i s l a s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i l l be demonstrated t o be a more v i a b l e one given, the image i t s e l f and the t h e m a t i c c o n t e n t such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p e r m i t s w i t h i n t h e parameters of the yin/yang t h e o r y . A c c o r d i n g t o the Shan Eai Ching, t h e Chu Lung was a s p i r i t w i t h a human f a c e and the body of a r e d snake. I t m a i n t a i n e d a c o n s t a n t v i g i l over the u n i v e r s e , r e g u l a t i n g the c o n t i n u a l o r d e r o f the macrocosm: Beyond the ( n o r t h ) w e s t e r n seas t o the n o r t h o f the Red R i v e r i s Mt. Chang Wei t -^1 . There a g e n i e w i t h a human f a c e and the body.of a r e d snake / — d w e l l s _ / . L o o k i n g f o r w a r d , i t ascends. When i t c l o s e s i t s eyes i t i s dark / i.e., the n i g h t _ / ; when i t sees i t i s the b r i g h t n e s s / i.e., the day_/. I t does not e a t , s l e e p or b r e a t h e / i.e., r e s t _ / . The wind and the r a i n are i t s s u b o r d i n a t e s . I t i l l u m i n a t e s the C h i u Y i n 7^ !£K / " " l i t e r a l l y , the "Nine Y i n , " i.e., the D a r k e s t o f the Dark c o n f i n e s o f the u n i v e r s e _ / ; i t i s the s o - c a l l e d Chu Lung. As the i l l u m i n a t o r o f the C h i u Y i n , the Chu Lung - 3 2 -f u l f i l l s t h e r o l e o f t h e yang p r i n c i p l e and i s i t s epitome. T h i s may seem somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y g i v e n the o s t e n s i b l y female c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Chu Lung image i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g w i t h i t s l o n g b r a i d , t h e r e b y s u g g e s t i n g the f e m a l e , or yin element. The problems t h a t t h i s conundrum p r e s e n t s must be d e l a y e d , however, u n t i l a l a t e r c h a p t e r where the concept o f de a t h and the. soul, w i l l be examined. As f o r the Ch i u Y i n , the Da r k e s t o f the Dark r e g i o n s , i t i s a p l a c e (and time ) where the m a l e v o l e n t f o r c e s o f the yin a r e on the a s c e n t . B u t , by the p u r i f y i n g q u a l i t i e s of t h e Chu Lung ( i . e . , t h e yang), i t i s h e l d I n check. Thus the Chu Lung i s u n d e r s t o o d as the g u a r d i a n o f the u n i v e r s e m a i n t a i n i n g the harmony o f the cosmos. As the yin/yang t h e o r y i s founded upon the concept o f a mutual i n t e r a c t i o n o f the p o s i t i v e and the n e g a t i v e , t h e Chu Lung can be f u r t h e r comprehended as emblematic o f t h i s d u a l i s m , r e p r e s e n t i n g the p o s i t i v e as w e l l as the n e g a t i v e t h a t a c t s upon i t and upon which i t i t s e l f r e a c t s . R e p r e s e n t i n g the f o r c e s o f the yin and the yang are the moon and the sun. Together they a re a p a i r s y m b o l i z i n g the fundamental concept o f the workings o f the Chinese u n i v e r s e , the Tao. What i s the Taol I t i s , The Way i s l i k e an empty v e s s e l That y e t may be drawn from Without ever n e e d i n g t o be f i l l e d . I t i s b o t t o m l e s s ; the v e r y p r o g e n i t o r of a l l t h i n g s i n the w o r l d . I n i t a l l sharpness i s b l u n t e d , - 3 3 -A l l t a n g l e s u n t i e d , A l l g l a r e s tempered, A l l dust / i.e., the h a s s e l s , c o n f i n e s and r i g o r s o f everyday l i f e _ / smoothed. I t i s l i k e a deep p o o l t h a t never d r i e s . Was i t too the c h i l d o f something e l s e ? We cannot t e l l . But as a s u b s t a n c e l e s s image i t e x i s t e d b e f o r e the a n c e s t o r / i.e., the Y e l l o w A n c e s t o r who s e p a r a t e d E a r t h from Heaven and thus d e s t r o y e d the P r i m a l U n i t y ^ . ^ g The Tao permeates the u n i v e r s e ; i t l i e s w i t h i n a l l t h i n g s . I t i s u b i q u i t o u s . From i t a l l t h i n g s descend (-•;• . . Tao gave b i r t h t o the One; the One gave b i r t h s u c c e s s i v e l y t o two t h i n g s , t h r e e t h i n g s , up t o t e n thousand / i.e., a l l t h i n g s _ / . These t e n thousand c r e a t u r e s cannot t u r n t h e i r backs t o t h e shade w i t h o u t h a v i n g the sun on:... t h e i r b e l l i e s , and i t i s on t h i s b l e n d i n g o f the b r e a t h s / i.e., the warm b r e a t h o f the suns and the c o l d b r e a t h o f the shade, o r t h e yin and the yang_/ t h a t t h e i r harmony depends. . . . ^ T h i s harmony i s the harmony o f the u n i v e r s e i n the wo r k i n g s of the yin and \i¥x8iyang--i. e., the Tao--th&t can be seen i n the Chu Lung. I t , w i t h the sun and the moon, i s p a r t of a t r i p a r t i t e assemblage t h a t suggests the c o n t i n u a l w orkings o f the T a o i s t u n i v e r s e — i t s f l u x e s , i t s o r d e r , i t s s t r u c t u r e . -34-F l a n k i n g the Chu Lung, f i v e c r a n e s , t h e i r l o n g necks 40 e l e g a n t l y a r c h e d backwards, j o i n i n a chorus o f e c s t a c y . These b i r d s , b e i n g l o n g l i v e d , are c e l e b r a t e d i n Chinese legends and mythology as a. symbol of l o n g e v i t y . Moreover, i t i s a c e l e s t i a l s t e e d used f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and 41 a s c e n s i o n t o the heavens of i m m o r t a l s . Such i s i t s f a v o r w i t h i n the u n i v e r s e t h a t when "the crane / s i n g s _ / i n the Nine Marshes, i t s v o i c e ( i s heard i n : ) c a r r i e s up t o heaven.. . . " Up t o t h i s p o i n t w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s , the o p p o s i t i o n of the yin and the yang has been seen a l o n g a s y m m e t r i c a l r o l e of images p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n the Ma-wamg-tui p a i n t i n g . At l e a s t one Chinese s c h o l a r , Chang A n - c h i h , c o n s t r u c t e d h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s p a i n t i n g a l o n g f o r m a l i s t i c l i n e s , an endeavor based upon a s y m m e t r i c a l f o u n d a t i o n supposedly i n h e r e n t i n t h e p a i n t i n g . T h i s approach by Chang A n - c h i h , however, c o u l d not account f o r the odd number of cranes 43 f l a n k i n g the Chu Lung. R e c t i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s apparent conundrum can n o n e t h e l e s s be e a s i l y r e s o l v e d . I t w i l l be noted t h a t t h e r e are t h r e e cranes t o t h e r i g h t o f the Chu Lung, a l l i e d w i t h the image o f the sun. To the l e f t , a l l i e d w i t h the image of the moon, are two c r a n e s . I n Chinese numerology, odd numbers are symbols of the yang, and c o n v e r s e l y even numbers are yin. A c c o r d i n g t o the I Ching, "the number- 3 was a s s i g n e d t o heaven / and t h i s i s o f the yang_/, 2 t o e a r t h / and t h i s i s o f the - 44 yin_/, and from t h e s e came the ( o t h e r ) numbers." I t i s - 3 5 -from heaven and e a r t h , from the yin and the yang, t h a t a l l 45 t h i n g s . a r e n o u r i s h e d . The cranes t h e r e f o r e a l s o r e p r e s e n t the workings o f the yin and the yang, r e s t a t i n g the d u a l i s m o f t h i s o r d e r . I t i s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e parameters o f t h e yin/yang t h e o r y t h a t w i t h the sun image t h e r e s h o u l d be t h r e e cranes w h i l e w i t h t h e moon o n l y two. J u s t as the Chu Lung embodies b o t h the yin and the yang i n one f i g u r e , so too do t h e s e c r a n e s . By t h e i r 2 : 3 r a t i o , they r e p r e s e n t the yin and the yang. But as a homogenous group, they a l s o c o l l e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t the yang. The number f i v e a l o n e i s o f yang m e r i t and as such sym-46 b o l i z e s b o t h the heavens and the emperor. I n t h i s c o n t e x t , the Chu Lung may be u n d e r s t o o d as an a l l u s i o n t o the L o r d of Heaven, or h i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , w i t h the cranes as h i s d i v i n e a t t e n d a n t s . Beneath t h e sun among the l e a v e s o f the fu-sang t r e e i s a dragon, symbol of the e a s t . I n the s p r i n g , i t mounts the s k i e s t o h e r a l d the v e r n a l season, the season o f r e b i r t h and r e j u v e n a t i o n . As suc h , t h e dragon r e p r e s e n t s the r e p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s o f n a t u r e t h a t awaken a f t e r t h e death of w i n t e r . I t i s a time o f yang ascendancy, and t h i s dragon r e p r e s e n t s t h i s ascendancy. L i k e the c r a n e , the dragon i s a l s o an hea v e n l y s t e e d : W i t h a f a i n t f l u s h I s t a r t t o come out of the e a s t , S h i n i n g down on my t h r e s h o l d , Fu-sang. As I urge my hor s e s s l o w l y f o r w a r d , - 3 6 -I r i d e a dragon c a r and c h a r i o t on the t h u n d e r , W i t h c l o u d - b a n n e r s f l u t t e r i n g upon the w i n d . ^ 7 Legend says t h a t t h e Y e l l o w Emperor, Huang T i , was r e s u r -r e c t e d on the back o f a dragon. The beas t i s a l s o s a i d t o be the c h a r i o t of the sun t h a t "emerges from the V a l l e y o f Yang b a t h i n g a t H s i e n Ch'ih. %L / a s t a r i n the V i r g o c o n s t e l l a t i o n _ / and f l u t t e r s a g a i n s t the Fu-sang t r e e . 48 I t i s the morning b r i g h t n e s s . " The c o u n t e r p a r t t o the sun dragon i s beneath the moon w i t h Ch'ang 0 r i d i n g upon i t s wings. An Chih-min i d e n -t i f i e s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r type o f dragon w i t h wings as the Y i n g Lung from a passage i n the Huai Nan Tzu ( " . . . r i d i n g upon the Thunder C h a r i o t , h a r n e s s e d t o the Y i n g Lung") where, a c c o r d i n g t o the g l o s s , the Y i n g Lung i s a 50 winged dragon. But who i s i t t h a t r i d e s the Y i n g Lung? The Huai Nan Tzu seems t o i m p l y t h a t the dragon may be un d e r s t o o d as r e p r e s e n t i n g the te (the v i r t u e ) o f i t s d r i v e r . A c c o r d i n g t o the t e x t , t h i s i s Nil Kua. In the c r e a t i o n of the u n i v e r s e , the yin and the yang a r e r s a i d t o have been born by the i n c e s t u o u s commingling o f Nil Kua and Fu H s i . Nil Kua, the female element, i s the yin, and her v i r t u e . i s w ater. The moon s y m b o l i z e s the yin, and Ch'ang 0, as the a n t e r i o r b e i n g of the t o a d ( i . e . , the y i n ) , may a l s o be reckoned as a yin element. These f i g u r e s a l l b e l o n g t o the f o r c e s o f the yin, and, as i t i s Nil Kua who - 3 7 -r i d e s upon the Y i n g Lung i n the Huai Nan Tzu3 i t can be deduced t h a t the v i r t u e o f the Y i n g Lung i s a yin element a l s o . I t s placement beneath the moon i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g f u r t h e r endorses t h i s i d e a . With the Y i n g Lung r e p r e s e n t i n g the yin beneath the moon and the dragon beneath the sun r e p r e s e n t i n g the yang, i t i s now c l e a r t h a t t h e s e two dragons are more t h a n j u s t a f o r m a l d e s i g n p a i r . C o n c e p t u a l l y : they a re the yin and the yang, and as such t h e y , l i k e the sun, the moon, the c r a n e s , and t h e Chu Lung, embody the q u i n t e s s e n c e s of the T a o i s t u n i v e r s e — t h e cosmic o r d e r o f the Chinese r e a l i t y . The sun dragon r e p r e s e n t s the time o f u n i v e r s a l r e b i r t h and can be deemed as i n d i c a t i n g the v e r n a l equinox. The Y i n g Lung s i g n i f i e s the yin and may l i k e w i s e be u n d e r s t o o d as p o s s i b l y i n d i c a t i n g the autumnal e q u i n o x , the time o f the a s c e n t o f the f o r c e s o f the yin. Thus t h e r e i s an a l l u s i o n t o the s e a s o n a l , continuum o f t h e u n i v e r s e and, on a n o t h e r l e v e l , t he l i f e and death p r o c e s s e s t h e r e i n . Beneath the Chu Lung and between the . two ...dragons, two more cranes i n h a l e i n c e n s e vapors r i s i n g from above a b e l l . The two f a n t a s t i c c r e a t u r e s who p u l l on the ropes a t t a c h e d t o the b e l l may be m u s i c i a n s whose a c t i o n s cause t h e b e l l t o sound. The purpose o f the b e l l and the imagery o f the i n c e n s e b u r n e r w i l l f i g u r e i n a l a t e r t h e m a t i c c o n t e x t . T u r n i n g now t o the l a s t r e m a i n i n g scene i n the c r o s s -bar s e c t i o n w i t h t h e two se a t e d men and a p a i r o f l e o p a r d s c l i m b i n g the t o w e r s , a s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o i l l u s t r a t e - 3 8 -t h i s scene can be found from the Ch'u Tz'u, "Chao Hun": "0 s o u l come back! Climb not t o the heavens / Por t i g e r s and l e o p a r d s guard the / nine_V g a t e s , w i t h jaws ever ready 51 t o rend up m o r t a l men...." By r e a d i n g t h i s p a i r o f l e o p a r d s as g u a r d i a n s o f one o f t h e s e n i n e c e l e s t i a l g a t e s , the two men can a l s o be seen as g u a r d i a n f i g u r e s . T h i s scene would thus be a r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f a gateway i n t o the c e l e s t i a l domain beyond. The p a r t i c u l a r gateway d e p i c t e d here can be i d e n t i f i e d from the Ch'u Tz'u, "Li Sao" $h as t h e Ch'ang Ho ffl 6^ , or the Gate o f Heaven. As the p o e t / n a r r a t o r o f the "Li Sao" approached the Ch'ang Ho i n h i s c e l e s t i a l s o j o u r n , he "asked Heaven's p o r t e r t o open up f o r me / But he l e a n t a c r o s s 52 Heaven's gate and eyed me c h u r l i s h l y . " Not o n l y does th e commentator of the Ch'u Tz'u, Wang I , i d e n t i f y the Ch'ang Ho as the Gate of Heaven, but the same r e f e r e n c e i s g i v e n i n the Huai Nan Tzu and the Shuo Wen Chieh-tzu ~%$L. ^ • 53 ( S c r i p t Explained and Characters Elucidated). The two - - 54 men s i t t i n g a t the Ch'ang Ho are "Heaven's p o r t e r / s_/," and the two l e o p a r d s w i t h an open.and c l o s e d mouth e x p r e s s 55 "the e t e r n a l sequence of cosmic b r e a t h i n g . " Moreover, the l e o p a r d s ' open and c l o s e d mouths may a l s o be u n d e r s t o o d as an e x p r e s s i o n o f the i d e a o f sound vs. s i l e n c e r e s p e c -t i v e l y , t h e r e b y once a g a i n s y m b o l i z i n g the p e r p e t u a l o p e r a t i o n o f the yin and the yang. W i t h t h i s scene as the Ch'ang Ho, the images w i t h i n the c r o s s b a r s e c t i o n can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a diagram of the heavens from whence i s descendant the i n f l u e n c e s o f the cosmic o r d e r o f the yin and the yang. T h i s s e c t i o n o f the p a i n t i n g i s . f o u n d e d upon the concept o f t h i s d u a l o p p o s i t i o n 56 and a p r e c e p t o f " u n i v e r s a l i s m " by which a l l b e i n g s , s e n t i e n t or n o t , animate or i n a n i m a t e , are i n f l u e n c e d . They are d i r i g i b l e s , . g u i d e d by the mutual r e c i p r o c i t y o f the yin and the yang i n t h e e t e r n a l sequence of l i f e and d e a t h . The c r o s s b a r s e c t i o n i s u n i v e r s a l l y agreed as a r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n o f the heavens and c e l e s t i a l domain w i t h the scenes a l o n g the s h a f t as b e i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the 57 e a r t h and the s u b t e r r a n e a n w o r l d s . B u t , an argument w i l l be put f o r t h i n t h i s t h e s i s t h a t the scene on the s h a f t above the .pi median w i t h the M a r c h i o n e s s i s a l s o w i t h i n the h e a v e n l y domain. Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s scene w i t h the Marchioness was a l l u d e d t o by Sun Tso-yfln, but he 58 d i d not pursue the m a t t e r f u l l y . I n t h i s t h e s i s , we w i l l draw upon l i t e r a r y as w e l l as a r t i s t i c e v i d e n c e s t o support Sun Tso-yun's o r i g i n a l s u g g e s t i o n . Beneath.the Ch'ang Ho, two phoenixes (feng-huang s t a n d on b o t h s i d e s . o f a f l e u r - d e - l i s m o t i f atop a canopy p l a t f o r m . Phoenixes a r e , l i k e the c r a n e , a u s p i c i o u s b i r d s . The term feng-huang i s the combined c h a r a c t e r f o r the m o n o s y l l a b i c c h a r a c t e r s feng, d e n o t i n g the male p h o e n i x , 5 9 and huang, the female. The p r e r o g a t i v e o f the b i r d i s so immense t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o the Shuo. Wen, not only, i s the feng-huang a g e n i e , but the messenger of heaven as w e l l who o n l y a l i g h t s a t p l a c e s o f v i r t u e and t h e r e f o r e d e s e r v i n g o f i t s m e r i t . I t s dominion i s the s o u t h e r n q u a d r a n t , the r e g i o n o f the yang, and i t s y m b o l i z e s the powers o f the sun. Prom i t s n o m e n c l a t u r e , however, i.e., feng and huang, i t i s seen t h a t l i k e t he Chu Lung and the c r a n e s , t h i s image not o n l y s y m b o l i z e s t h e yang, but the d u a l f o r c e s of the yin and the yang t o g e t h e r as one homogenous e n t i t y . None o f the c r i t i c s who have examined the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g has o f f e r e d any e x t e n s i v e commentary o r i n v e s t i -g a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the f l e u r - d e - l i s m o t i f . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f i t here w i l l r e v e a l I t s c e l e s t i a l c o n n e c t i o n and i n so d o i n g b u t t r e s s Sun Tso-yun's s u g g e s t i o n . An image v e r y s i m i l a r t o the Ma-wang-tui f l e u r - d e - l i s m o t i f does appear at the a n c i e n t tombs o f t h e former s t a t e o f K a o - k o u - l i fs) 7^ L^/ ( i . e . , the K a o - k o u - l i a n tombs) i n .the modern d i s t r i c t o f Chi - a n on the p l a n e s o f T ' ung-hua 4 r § L , Manchuria. These tombs date between the t h i r d and f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s A . D . ^ (Plate 7) The i l l u s t r a t i o n i n t h i s t e x t comes from the d o m i c a l c e i l i n g from the Tomb of the Dancing Figures (Buyo-zuka -$f *4K). The p i c t o r i a l scheme o f t h i s tomb and the placement o f the f l e u r - d e - l i s image w i t h i n t h a t scheme are p a r t i c u l a r l y r e w a r d i n g i n i d e n t i f y i n g t he s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the f l e u r - d e - l i s m o t i f w i t h i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . A l o n g the w a l l s o f the Tomb of the Dancing Figures are p a i n t e d genre s c e n e s , e.g., h u n t i n g , d a n c i n g and f e a s t i n g . These are p a i n t e d w i t h i n a t r a b e a t e d , a r c h i t e c t o n i c frame-work. The p o s t s occupy the a r r i s o f the chamber, and l i n t e l s -41-w l t h s u p p o r t i v e b r a c k e t s are p a i n t e d a c r o s s the t o p s . The l a t t e r c l e a r l y f u n c t i o n t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the c e l e s t i a l and the t e r r e s t r i a l domains w i t h the former above and the l a t t e r below. The abundance o f t h i s f l e u r - d e - l i s m o t i f i n the h e a v e n l y zone and t h e complete absence o f i t from below i n the t e r r e s t r i a l zone s p e c i f i c a l l y mark t h i s image as unique t o the heavens. I t can be i n t e r p o l a t e d from t h i s t h a t the f l e u r - d e - l i s m o t i f i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g may l i k e w i s e i n d i c a t e the h e a v e n l y s p h e r e s . Indeed, what would be a more f i t t i n g p l a c e t o f i n d the a u s p i c i o u s p h o enixes t h a n on the canopy o f heaven w i t h t h i s f l o w e r of heaven? H o v e r i n g beneath t h e canopy o f heaven i s , a b a t ^ - l i k e - / c r e a t u r e b e l i e v e d by Sun Tso-yun t o be P e i L i e n ^ , the Wind God.^ 2 A c c o r d i n g to-Wang I (the commentator o f the Ch'u Tz'u), t h i s god i s d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g a h y b r i d b o d y — a deer's t r u n k w i t h a s e r p e n t ' s t a i l and the head o f a b i r d w i t h s t a g ' s h o r n s . I t belongs t o the b i r d - g e n i e s p e c i e s . I n the c e l e s t i a l wanderings of the "Li Sao" p o e t , F e i L i e n was h i s companion: I sent Wang Shu / the c h a r i o t e r o f the moon_/ ahead t o r i d e b e f o r e me; The Wind God went b e h i n d as my o u t r i d e r ; The B i r d o f Heaven gave n o t i c e o f my comings; And the Thunder God t o l d me when a l l was not ready. As a c e l e s t i a l companion, F e i L i e n makes a second appearance i n the Ch'u Tz'u. I n the "liXan Yu" $£_S%£_ , a poem of s p i r i t u a l t r i u m p h i n h a v i n g a c h i e v e d the Tao, t h e poet n a r r a t e s , "We c r o s s e d the e a s t e r n heaven,, w h e e l i n g t o the 65 r i g h t hand / I sent F e i L i e n on ahead t o c l e a r the way." Beyond the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s h o v e r i n g c r e a t u r e as the Wind God, t h e image c o n f r o n t e d i s r e m a r k a b l y b a t -l i k e i n appearance. Without d e t r a c t i n g from i d e n t i f y i n g the f i g u r e as the. Wind God, note s h o u l d be made of the p o s s i b l e rebus i t c o n j u r e s . The Chinese word f o r bat i s fu , but the homophone fu a l s o means h a p p i n e s s and b l e s s i n g s . Thus t h i s s i n g l e image can be r e a d on two l e v e l s . As a c e l e s t i a l companion and the Wind God, i t s p o s t u r e beneath t h e canopy of heaven i s s e c u r e . As a pun, i t i s emblematic o f a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e o f b e i n g , o f a s p e c i f i c a m b i e n c e — i . e . / b l i s s f u l n e s s . I t would i n d e e d seem l o g i c a l t h a t such an a s s o c i a t i o n between t h i s image and h a p p i n e s s can be assumed, p a r t i c u l a r l y g i v e n t h e i c o n o l o g i c a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s o f the f l e u r - d e - l i s , the p h o e n i x e s , and the canopy of heaven as r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f heaven. N o t h i n g would, a f t e r a l l , be more p e a c e f u l f o r the T a o i s t t h a n t o be i n j o y o u s communion w i t h the heavens. T h i s n o t i o n i s b e a u t i f u l l y r e n d e r e d i n the Tao Te Ching: Push f a r enough towards the V o i d , H o l d f a s t enough t o Q u i e t n e s s , And o f the thousand t h i n g s none but can be worked on by you. I have b e h e l d them, w h i t h e r they go back. See, a l l t h i n g s howsoever they f l o u r i s h R e t u r n t o t h e r o o t from which they grew. T h i s r e t u r n t o the r o o t i s c a l l e d Q u i e t n e s s ; Q u i e t n e s s i s c a l l e d s u b m i s s i o n t o F a t e ; What has s u b m i t t e d t o F a t e has become p a r t o f the a l w a y s - s o . To know the always-so i s t o be I l l u m i n e d ; Not t o know i t , means t o go b l i n d l y t o d i s a s t e r . He who knows the always-so has room i n him f o r e v e r y t h i n g ; He who has room i n him f o r e v e r y t h i n g i s w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e . To be w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e i s t o be k i n g l y ; To be k i n g l y i s t o be o f heaven; To be o f heaven I s t o be i n Tao. Tao i s f o r e v e r and he t h a t p o s s e s s e s i t , Though h i s body c e a s e s , i s not d e s t r o y e d . g g T h i s group o f f i g u r e s beneath t h e Ch'ang Ho c l e a r l y e v i d e n c e s t i e s t h a t i d e n t i f y i t as r e p r e s e n t i n g p a r t s o f the heavens. The f l e u r - d e - l i s (here s y m b o l i c o f the f l o w e r o f heaven), the p h o e n i x e s , the canopy of heaven, and F e i L i e n are a l l c e l e s t i a l f i g u r e s . Thus, l i k e the c r o s s b a r images, the s e can c o n c l u s i v e l y be u n d e r s t o o d as a l s o . r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e heavnes. Bene:at:h t h i s ambience of b l i s s s uggested by F e i L i e n and i t s fu rebus stands the Marchioness o f T ' a i . The two l e o p a r d s g u a r d i n g the ramp l e a d i n g t o the p l a t f o r m on which the M a r c h i o n e s s stands are t o be compared w i t h the two l e o p a r d s above i n the c r o s s b a r a t the Ch'ang Ho. Whereas the Ch'ang Ho l e o p a r d s l o o k i n w a r d s , t h o s e a l o n g the ramp l o o k outwards. These l e o p a r d s are a m e t a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e t o the concept o f the d u a l i t y o f the yin and the yang t h a t so impregnates the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . Not -44-o n l y are t h e r e two l e o p a r d s at each s t a t i o n , , but the two p a i r s o f l e o p a r d s are c o n t r a s t e d i n t h e i r gazes which f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h i s d u a l i s m . To t a k e the p o i n t even f u r t h e r , an argument'; c o u l d perhaps be made t h a t by h a v i n g the two p a i r s o f l e o p a r d s gaze i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s , they not o n l y s y m b o l i z e the d u a l i s m o f the yin and the yang, but a l s o a l l u d e t o the f o u r c a r d i n a l p o i n t s o f the u n i v e r s e . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , the l e o p a r d s would s i g n i f y the a l l - e m b r a c i n g powers of the yin and the yang. F i n a l l y , t h i s concept o f d u a l i t y i s once a g a i n r e s t a t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l l e o p a r d s themselves w i t h t h e i r r e v e r s e d heads, c r e a t i n g a dichotomous c o n t r a s t between the head and t h e body. The same d u a l i t y o f p a i r s r e p r e s e n t i n g the f o r c e s o f t h e yin and the yang can be seen i n the dragons. As has a l r e a d y been n o t e d , the two i n the c r o s s b a r s e c t i o n r e p r e -sent t h i s d u a l i s m as do the two on the s h a f t . I n a s i m i l a r manner t o t h e l e o p a r d s , t h e s e two p a i r s w i t h t h e i r r e v e r s e d heads and o p p o s i t e gazes may a l s o be an a l l u s i o n t o t h e p o i n t s o f the u n i v e r s e . From the "Chao Bun," i t i s known t h a t t h e r e are n i n e c e l e s t i a l gateways t o t h e dominions of the heavens t h a t are guarded by l e o p a r d s e n t i n e l s . Given the a s s o c i a t i o n s on t h e Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g between the Ch'ang Ho and such c e l e s t i a l f i g u r e s a s . t h e sun, the moon, etc., i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s i g n the Ch'ang Ho as r e p r e s e n t i n g the n i n t h and f i n a l gateway. To s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s i d e a and t o p o s s i b l y i d e n -t i f y w h ich of the n i n e gateways I s r e p r e s e n t e d by the lower p a i r o f l e o p a r d s g u a r d i n g the ramp p r o g r e s s i n g t o the M a r c hioness and her group, t h e r e must be a d i s c u s s i o n o f the two s h a f t dragons, t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each o t h e r , the pi, and the two dragons i n the c r o s s b a r w i t h the sun and the moon.^ T h i s group o f f i g u r e s can be u n d e r s t o o d as e x p r e s s i n g the i d e a of o p p o s i t i o n i n c o n f l i c t , r e s o l u t i o n and u l t i m a t e harmony. The r e d , yang dragon b e g i n s i t s a s c e n t from t h e bottom l e f t , t h a t s i d e o f the p a i n i t n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e moon and the yin. T h i s i s c o n f l i c t . The yin dragon ascends c o n v e r s e l y from the lower r i g h t s i d e o f t h e p a i n t i n g a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h the sun and the powers of the yang. T h i s i s c o n f l i c t . The change i n d i r e c t i o n a l a s c e n t at the pi, however, a l i g n s t h e s e two dragons w i t h t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g f o r c e s and the p r o p e r yin and yang dragons i n the c r o s s b a r s e c t i o n . The former c o n f l i c t i s r e s o l v e d . Thus, beneath the pi t h e r e i s an element o f c o n f l i c t , whereas at the pi and above, w i t h the change of s i d e s a l o n g the s h a f t by. the d ragons, t h e r e I s an harmony w i t h the yin and the yang f o r c e s as e x p r e s s e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s h a f t dragons w i t h the images on.the c r o s s b a r t h a t r e p r e s e n t the r e s p e c -t i g e f o r c e s o f the yin and the yang. I n the a r t i s t i c language of C h i n a , a commonly under-s t o o d symbol of the heavens i s the pi, an a n c i e n t and 6 8 a u s p i c i o u s o b j e c t t o the C h i n e s e . A c c o r d i n g t o the Chou Li, "Aveo la t a b l e t t e . vonde (Pi) de oouleuv b l e u - c l a i r , il vend hommage au o i e l . " The g l o s s a l s o notes t h i s symbolism: -46-"Le Pi est rond et figure le e i e l . " ^ ^ I n t h i s c o n t e x t , the c o n f l i c t , embodied by the s h a f t dragons i s r e s o l v e d w i t h i n the dominion of t h e heavens as s y m b o l i z e d by the p i . S i n c e the p i i s s y m b o l i c o f the heavens, i t i s deduced t h a t the scenes above i t , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t i n c l u d i n g the M a r c h i o n e s s and her a t t e n d a n t s , t a k e o c c a s i o n w i t h i n the heavens. Those below are t h e r e f o r e d e f i n e d as e i t h e r t e r r e s t r i a l or as b e l o n g i n g t o the s u b t e r r a n e a n . Sun Tso-yttn's p a s s i n g s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the scene w i t h the M a r c h i o n e s s o c c u r s i n the heavens i s now c o n f i r m e d , and the l o w e r p a i r o f l e o p a r d s who guard the M a r c h i o n e s s j u s t above the p i can l i k e w i s e . . b e u n d e r s t o o d as s e n t i n e l s o f the f i r s t gateway r e l a t e d i n t h e "Chao Hun. " The images on the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g from the p i upwards a l l r e p r e s e n t v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the heavens. One p o s s i b l e i n c o n g r u o u s p o i n t may be the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n g o f the canopy of heaven w i t h the f l e u r - d e - l i s beneath the n i n t h gateway, the Ch'ang Ho. There a r e , however, sound t h e m a t i c reasons f o r t h i s t h a t a l s o t a k e s i n t o account the p a r t i c u l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h i s p a i n t i n g — i . e . , the T-shape. I t has been demonstrated t h a t the scenes on the c r o s s -bar p r o v i d e a v i s i o n o f the heavens w i t h the Ch'ang Ho. I f t h e s e are u n d e r s t o o d as r e p r e s e n t i n g the i n n e r sanctum of the c e l e s t i a l p a l a c e , t h e n i n a t h e m a t i c c o n t e x t the c r o s s b a r scenes would d e f i n e a r e g i o n ( o r perhaps even a s t a t e o f b e i n g ) where the T a o i s t adept f i n d s e t e r n a l q u i e t u d e , harmony and b l i s s f u l r e p o s e . An a l l u s i o n t o an -47-ambience of t h i s b e a t i t u d e i s suggested i n the rebus of F e i L i e n as fu. As such, the c r o s s b a r would be a p l a c e o f r e f u g e , a s a n c t u a r y f o r the T a o i s t , and as the r e g i o n o f e t e r n a l b l i s s , passage t h r o u g h the Ch'ang Ho can be l i k e n e d as the c r o s s i n g o f the f i n a l t h r e s h o l d t o t h i s peace. T h i s p r i n c i p l e o f peace i s a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n the p a r t i c u l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the T-shape. H o r i z o n t a l e l e m e n t s , by t h e i r i n t r i n s i c and i n h e r e n t p r o p e r t i e s , are i l l u s t r a t i v e o f elements of peace, or an e n t i t y a t r e s t and r e p o s e . As s u c h , the i d e a conveyed i s one o f c a lmness, v e r y much as t h a t suggested by the images w i t h i n the c r o s s -bar s e c t i o n {i.e., the h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n ) , s y m b o l i c of t h e heavens. I n c o n t r a s t , v e r t i c a l i t y s u g g ests motion and p r i n c i p l e s o f t h r u s t . T h i s can be a s s i g n e d t o the s h a f t of t h e Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . Moreover, as s u g g e s t i v e o f m o t i o n , t h e r e i s an a l l u s i o n t o the t r a n s i e n t and the ephemeral, whereas i n c o n t r a s t , h o r i z o n t a l , s u g g e s t i v e o f r e p o s e , a l l u d e s t o an e t e r n i t y — a n e t e r n i t y o f peace here e n v i s a g e d .. i n t h e c r o s s b a r and the heavens of a T a o i s t p a r a d i s e . For the T a o i s t , communion w i t h the One, w i t h the Tao, i s such a f i n a l t h r e s h o l d t o s p i r i t u a l peace embodied w i t h i n the Ch'ang Ho. T h i s communion Is . the e x p a n s i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l s e l f t o a c h i e v e the e n l i g h t e n e d r a p p o r t w i t h the u n i v e r s a l S e l f , the omnipotent Tao. Thus the passage on the p a i n t i n g from the s h a f t t o the c r o s s b a r s e c t i o n t h r o u g h the Ch'ang Ho may s y m b o l i z e t h i s e x p a n s i o n , and t h e -48-e x p a n s i o n of the s e l f f o r the u n i o n w i t h the One i s g r a p h i -c a l l y s t a t e d i n the g r e a t e r w i d t h , or the e x p a n s i o n i n w i d t h , o f the c r o s s b a r . The passage t h r o u g h the pi and the subsequent change of s i d e s by the dragons i s i m p o r t a n t i n o u t l i n i n g not o n l y the Interdependency of the yin and the yang, but a l s o i n d e l i n e a t i n g the j u n c t i o n between heaven and e a r t h . The r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e s e o p p o s i t e s r e p r e s e n t e d by the dragons can thus be f u r t h e r i n t e r p r e t e d as the p u r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e cosmic o r d e r . By r e s o l v i n g t h e s e c o n f l i c t s , the u n i v e r s e i s s e t on a course o f harmony. Thus the pi can be under-s t o o d not o n l y as s y m b o l i c of the heavens, but a l s o as the p a t h of a d i v i n e f l o w t h a t u n i t e s the cosmic realms of the u n i v e r s e . I t i s t h r o u g h such an opening t h a t an i n t e r -communication between the cosmic realms i s r e a l i z e d . T h i s t ype of imagery {i.e., a passageway of d i v i n e f l o w ) a l s o p o s s e s s e s r e f l e c t i v e p r o p e r t i e s . I n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g and w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the yin and the yang, t h e r e f l e c t i v e p r o p e r t y i s the d i s c o r d o f the u n i v e r s e beneath t h e pi, s y m b o l i z e d by the dragons r i s i n g from t h e i r p o l e m i c b e g i n n i n g s . T h i s d i s c o r d a n c e i s the i n v e r s e r e f l e c t i o n o f the harmony of the u n i v e r s e a c h i e v e d by the change of s i d e s o f the s h a f t dragons at the p i - - i . e . , a c h i e v e d by the passage of the s h a f t dragons a l o n g the p a t h of d i v i n e f l o w . Suspended from the pi a r e v a r i c o l o u r e d r i b b o n s on which two human headed b i r d s w i t h r a i s e d headgear p e r c h . These images are two emanations o f Kou Mang ^ , t u t e l a r y god o f the e a s t . A c c o r d i n g t o the Shan Eai Ching, t h i s d e i t y p o s s e s s e s "the body of a b i r d and a human f a c e , and 70 r i d e s upon two dragons." I t i s a l s o mentioned i n the Ch'u Tz'u, "Yiian Yu" ("I .held. . my r e i n s - and a d j u s t e d .the .whip / 71 And d e c i d e d t h a t I would go t o v i s i t Kou Mang"' ) where the g l o s s notes t h a t t h i s d e i t y wears a w h i t e r o b e — a s the 72 Ma-wang-tui images do. T h i s d e i t y and t h e s e f i g u r e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r chaper at g r e a t e r l e n g t h . Hanging beneath the v a r i c o l o u r e d r i b b o n s w i t h the two 7 3 images o f Kou Mang i s a eh'ing. J I t a l s o w i l l be viewed i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h -the b e l l o f heaven above l a t e r i n another c h a p t e r . However, a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be drawn at t h i s i n s t a n c e t o a s i m i l a r s e t o f images from a n o t h e r Western Han tomb at Ch'ang-sha from S h a - t z u - t ' a n g T ^ • ^  The importance of m u s i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y the b e l l and eh'ing, w i l l be a c e n t r a l c o ncern i n a s s e s s i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e images and how they a f f e c t t h e i c o n o l o g y o f the s e p a i n t i n g s . The c o n g r e g a t i o n scene beneath the eh'ing has been g e n e r a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as a banquet scene of some s o r t and 75 t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the e a r t h . . B u l l i n g , however, i n t e r p r e t s t h i s as a scene o f d i v i n a t i o n t h a t t a k e s p l a c e 7 6 i n a d o w n s t a i r s room. Both v i e w p o i n t s are s u p p o r t e d by 77 the v a r i o u s e a t i n g and k i t c h e n u t e n s i l s p r e s e n t , but the p i v o t a l c l u e t o an a c c u r a t e r e a d i n g o f t h i s scene i s con-t i n g e n t upon the p r o p e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the o b j e c t i n the c e n t e r o f t h i s scene w i t h i t s m u l t i c o l o u r e d d e s i g n . A comparison between the s w i r l p a t t e r n s here and the embroidered d e s i g n s on the M a r c h i o n e s s ' . r o b e above r e v e a l s s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s . Both e x h i b i t the same m o t i f . The c o n t r a s t s between t h e r e d , b l a c k and w h i t e f l o u r i s h e s g i v e t o t h e s e p a t t e r n s an h i g h l y ornamental q u a l i t y t h a t e n l i v e n s the d e c o r a t i v e e f f e c t s of the two. At the Ma-wang-tui s i t e , t h i s d e s i g n can be s p e c i f i -c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e M a r c h i o n e s s . B e s i d e s the two examples found w i t h i n the p a i n t i n g i t s e l f , the same d e s i g n was used 7 8 f o r t he s i l k robes t h a t were wrapped around the c o r p s e . Moreover, the r e a d e r w i l l r e c a l l / t h a t t h i s d e s i g n was f i r s t e n c o u n t e r e d at Ma-wang-tui on the l a r g e s t c a s k e t w i t h the 7Q b l a c k f o u n d a t i o n and w h i t e s w i r l p a t t e r n s . C e r t a i n l y i n l i g h t o f t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , the o b j e c t on the p a i n t i n g between the two rows o f men must be connected w i t h the Marc h i o n e s s p e r s o n a l l y . The o b j e c t can thus be viewed as the c a t a f a l q u e of the tomb's occupant, p o s s i b l y w i t h i t s shroud. The e n t i r e scene i s , t h e r e f o r e , u n d e r s t o o d as one of a f u n e r a l c e r e m o n y — n o t as a banquet or f e a s t as o t h e r -wise s u g g e s t e d . As suc h , i t r e p r e s e n t s an event on e a r t h and i s t h e r e f o r e i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the p a i n t i n g . Two o f the t h r e e u n i v e r s a l realms have so f a r been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g — h e a v e n and e a r t h . The images i n the c r o s s b a r p r o v i d e a diagram o f the heavens, and the scene a l o n g the s h a f t above the pi r e p r e -s e n t s the f i r s t e n t r a n c e i n t o the heavens. Beneath the ch'ing, the f u n e r a l scene r e p r e s e n t s the t e r r e s t r i a l sphere. S u p p o r t i n g the e a r t h , the c a r y a t i d f i g u r e who s t r a d d l e s a snake as he stands on the backs of two l e v i a t h a n s has been i d e n t i f i e d as Y U C h ' i a n g - ^ 3%, the s u p p o r t e r o f the i s l e o f i m m o r t a l s , P'eng L a i . A c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n . Y d Ch'iang u n d e r t a k e s t h i s f e a t w i t h the a i d o f sea t u r t l e s - . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , the two t u r t l e s from the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g have 80 been drawn upon. Other i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h i s c a r y a t i d f i g u r e i n c l u d e Kun , f a t h e r o f Y U & Q (the founder of the H s i a JL D y n a s t y ) , 8 1 and as Chu J u a dwarf who, a c c o r d i n g t o the g l o s s , o f the Huai Nan Tzu, "Chu Shu" ^« c o u l d support an heavy beam t h a t would 8 2 o t h e r w i s e break the back of a man. A f o u r t h p o s s i b i l i t y i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h i s f i g u r e i s P'an Ku -SE . A c c o r d i n g t o Chinese cosmogony, out of the t u r b i d w aters of chaos, P'an Ku c r e a t e d the u n i v e r s e . He was.the o f f s p r i n g o f the yin and the yang who gave form and substance t o the Chaos, f a s h i o n i n g the heavens and the e a r t h , summoning i n t o e x i s t e n c e the sun and the moon. 8 3 T h i s t a s k r e q u i r e d e i g h t e e n thousand y e a r s o f l a b o u r . Upon h i s d e a t h , P'an Ku's body d i s s o l v e d i n t o v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f h i s c r e a t i o n — h i s b r e a t h became the wind and c l o u d s , h i s v o i c e the t h u n d e r , h i s b l o o d the r i v e r s , h i s f l e s h the s o i l , h i s h a i r the t r e e s , h i s t e e t h and bones 84 the g o l d and stones of the e a r t h , and h i s sweat the r a i n . I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the canopy of heaven m o t i f above, An Chih-min has l i k e n e d t h i s s u p p o r t i v e , c a r y a t i d f i g u r e as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the e x p r e s s i o n , "the c o v e r i n g o f - 5 2 -85 Heaven and the c a r r y i n g of E a r t h . " I n the legends o f P' an K u 3 as the p r i m o r d i a l c r e a t o r o f the heavens and the e a r t h , the. c a r y a t i d , f i g u r e may be a s s i g n e d t o P'an Ku who f a s h i o n e d t h e u n i v e r s e , e s t a b l i s h i n g the o r d e r t h a t i s heaven and e a r t h . ^ I n a m e t a p h o r i c a l s t a t e m e n t , however, "the c o v e r i n g o f Heaven and the c a r r y i n g of E a r t h " r e f e r s Q j t o the Tao, and he who adhers t o the t e a c h i n g s of.t.he Tao w i l l be a t peace w i t h h i m s e l f and w i t h the u n i v e r s e . The T a o i s t " l i v e s h a p p i l y w i t h o u t a n x i e t i e s : h i s o u t l o o k i s w i t h o u t f e a r s because, he f e e l s Heaven i s a c o v e r i n g , the E a r t h i s a c h a r i o t , the f o u r seasons h i s s t e e d s , / t h e _ / g g Y i n and / t h e _ / Yang h i s d r i v e r s . " The two l e v i a t h a n s on which Yu Ch'iang (et al.) stands are a l s o d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y w i t h c e r t a i n t y . Shang C h i h - t ' a n ^ i n t e r p r e t s these f i g u r e s t o be Ao ^ f l , "a l a r g e t u r t l e who d w e l l s i n the s e a s , p o s s e s s i n g the s t r e n g t h t o c a r r y the t h r e e mountains / where the im m o r t a l s d w e l l _ / , P'eng, Y i n g Ifvl^, and Fang ." Ao was l a t e r t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a g i a n t f i s h and thus Shang C h i h - t ' a n ' s t h e s i s . The opening l i n e , however, t o the w r i t i n g s o f Chuang-tzu, the f o u r t h c e n t r u y B.C. T a o i s t sage, o f f e r s a n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i s more apropos i n a T a o i s t c o n t e x t : I n the N o r t h e r n Ocean t h e r e . i s a f i s h , the name o f which i s Khwan / i.e., Kun_/.... I t changes i n t o a b i r d . . . ( t h a t when I t ) rous e s I t s e l f and f l i e s , i t s wings a re l i k e c l o u d s a l l round the sky. When the sea I s moved...it p r e p a r e s t o remove t o the Southern Ocean. The - 5 3 -S o u t h e r n Ocean i s the P o o l of H e a v e n . ^ There i s a l i a s o n between t h i s s t o r y and t h a t o f Kun, f a t h e r o f YU. A c c o r d i n g t o the Shu Ching, the Emperor Yao, i n h i s l a m e n t a t i o n s over the chaos.of the u n i v e r s e , . : u . . . e x c l a i m e d , 'Oh! ( C h i e f o f ) the f o u r mountains, d e s t r u c t i v e i n t h e i r o v e r f l o w are the waters o f the i n u n d a t i o n . I n the v a s t e x t e n t they embrace the mountains and o v e r t o p t h e h i l l s , t h r e a t e n i n g the heavens w i t h t h e i r f l o o d s , so t h a t i n f e r i o r people groan and murmur. I s t h e r e a c a p a b l e man, t o whom I can a s s i g n the c o r r e c t i o n ( o f t h i s c a l a -m i t y ) ? ' A l l ( i n the c o u r t ) s a i d , 'Oh! t h e r e i s K'wan / i.e., Kun_/. But a l a s , Kun f a i l e d and was put a s i d e . One l e g e n d s t a t e s 93 t h a t Kun's c o r p s e , a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s , changed i n t o a f i s h . Thus t h i s scene on a second l e v e l may be an a l l u s i o n t o Kun and h i s metamorphosis. The p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t here i s the c o n n e c t i o n between thes e f i g u r e s and w a t e r , the element of yin, and t h e n o r t h . The n o r t h e r n quadrant i s the "Sombre C a p i t a l , " the domain of the w i n t e r season and the yin. The e n t i r e l ower scene t h e r e f o r e . i s a yin emblem. T h i s i s f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the two t u r t l e s w i t h owls on t h e i r backs. A l t h o u g h t h e s e t u r t l e / o w l images are r e j e c t e d by An Chih-min as r e p r e s e n t i n g HsUan. Wu i * ^ , 95 the Dark W a r r i o r , they are d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o Kun i n the Ch'u Tz'u, "T'ien Wen": I f Kun was not f i t t o a l l a y the f l o o d , why was he g i v e n t h i s charge. . A l l s a i d , 'Never f e a r ! Try him out and see i f he can do i t . ' When the b i r d - t u r t l e s l i n k e d t o g e t h e r , how d i d Kun f o l l o w t h e i r s i g n ? ^ Moreover, Hsfian Wu r u l e s over the n o r t h e r n r e g i o n o f the u n i v e r s e . The emergence of t h e s e t u r t l e / o w l f i g u r e s from the watery h a b i t a t s below may t h e r e f o r e s i g n i f y the m i g r a -t i o n o f Chuang-tzu's l e v i a t h a n from the n o r t h e r n q u a r t e r t o the s o u t h . T h i s would a l s o l i n k t h e s e images w i t h the legends o f P'an Ku, who, out o f the waters o f chaos, d e v i s e d o r d e r . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , t h i s r e g i o n at the bottom of the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g r e p r e s e n t s the t h i r d o f the u n i v e r s a l r e a l m s , the s u b t e r r a n e a n . T h i s i s t o be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the c e l e s t i a l p a r a d i s e at the top o f the p a i n t i n g . The 1 leviafchans'a.nd a s s o c i a t e d f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h i s r e a l m are synonyms f o r the powers of t h e yin and i t s a s s o c i a t i o n s of c o l d n e s s , d a r k n e s s , w a t e r , m a l e v o l e n c e , etc. The c r o s s -bar f i g u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Chu Lung, r e p r e s e n t the heavens and the f o r c e s o f the yang. Thus a l o n g a v e r t i c a l axis., t h e r e i s a j u x t a p o s i t i o n between the s u b t e r r a n e a n and the heavens, between the yin and the yang. On a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s , the sun and the moon, and the two c r o s s b a r dragons are c o n t r a s t i n g elements of the yin and the yang. L i k e w i s e , the f i v e c ranes f l a n k i n g the Chu Lung r e p e a t t h i s h o r i z o n t a l r e n d i t i o n o f the d u a l i s m o f the T a o i s t concept of the u n i v e r s e . F i n a l l y , the dragons on the s h a f t , b y . t h e i r p o l e m i c b e g i n n i n g s , i n t e r s e c t i o n at the pi, and e v e n t u a l a l i g n m e n t w i t h the sun and the moon f i g u r e s above draw a t t e n t i o n t o a d i a g o n a l scheme. From lower r i g h t t o upper l e f t , yin c o r r e s p o n d s t o yin. From lower l e f t t o upper r i g h t , yang c o r r e s p o n d s t o yang. I n t h e s e r e g a r d s , the p a i n t i n g i s a l s o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . o f an axis mundi. The images and c o n c e p t s o u t l i n e d above, i n p a r t i c u l a r r e g a r d s t o the yin and the yang, are s y m m e t r i c a l complements;—thus the o r d e r t h a t i s the yin and the yang. I n a l l , t h e r e f o r e , the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g i s a consummate statement a l o n g s e v e r a l l e v e l s of meanings of the yin and the yang, and o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the T a o i s t cosmos. The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l e x p l o r e the c o r o l l a r y t h e o r y of the wu hsing,. or f i v e e l e m e n t s , which i s a l s o concerned w i t h the c o n t i n u a l w o r kings o f the e s t a b l i s h e d u n i v e r s e . CHAPTER I I I THE WU HSING, OR FIVE ELEMENTS, THEORY OF THE TAOIST UNIVERSE The l a s t c h a p t e r demonstrated t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r p r e t the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g as an e x p r e s s i o n o f the cosmic o r d e r o f the yin and the yang. W i t h i n t h e T a o i s t framework, however, the yin/yang t h e o r y o f Tsou Yen has a s u p p o r t i v e c o r o l l a r y , the wu hsing, or f i v e e l e m e n t s , t h e o r y . Both the yin/yang and the wu hsing t h e o r i e s are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r and o p e r a t e w i t h i n the cosmic o r d e r o f the u n i v e r s e in tandem. The c o n s t i t u e n t s of the wu hsing t h e o r y are found i n t h e Shih Ching. They are w a t e r , e a r t h , wood,, m e t a l , and f i r e . " * " L i k e a l l t h i n g s w i t h i n the u n i v e r s e , they are the p r o d u c t s o f the yin and the yang, and as such promote the the u n i v e r s e as the n a t u r a l agents o f the d u a l f o r c e s o f 2 t h e cosmos. Moreover, an imbalance o f the wu hsing i s i n d i c a t i v e o f d i s c o r d w i t h i n t h e yin/yang s t r u c t u r e . T h i s too l e a d s t o chaos. Thus, when the Emperor Yao commanded Kun t o a l l a y "the waters of the i n u n d a t i o n , " a f a c t o r i n Kun's f a i l u r e was h i s n e g l e c t o f the wu hsing: The V i s c o u n t of Ke t h e r e f o r e r e p l i e d , ' I have heard t h a t o f o l d time K'wan - 5 6 -- 5 7 -/_-i.e., Kun_/ dammed up the i n u n d a t i n g w a t e r s , and t h e r e b y threw i n t o d i s o r d e r the arrangement o f the f i v e elements / i . e . , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a l l a y t he w a t e r s , Kun, d e a l i n g wrongly w i t h one o f the e l e -ments, caused the o t h e r s t o go amiss_/. God was t h e r e b y r o u s e d t o anger, and d i d not g i v e him "the g r e a t P l a n w i t h i t s n i n e D i v i s i o n " / " i . e . , t he mandate o f heaven_/ whereby the pr o p e r v i r t u e s o f the v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s / o f the wu hsing_/ were l e f t t o go t o r u i n , K'wan / i.e., Kun_/ was the n kept a p r i s o n e r t i l l h i s d e a t h . . . . ' ^ T h i s passage c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t , as w i t h the yin/yang p r o g e n i t o r s , the mutual accordances o f the wu hsing are tantamount t o u n i v e r s a l harmony. Without such c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s , chaos and d i s c o r d a n c e s a r i s e and man, i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the u n i v e r s e , u p s e t s the b a l a n c e o f the u n i v e r s e . The i n d i v i d u a l elements o f the wu hsing a l s o c o r r e s p o n d t o v a r i o u s o t h e r e n t i t i e s , e.g., the d i r e c t i o n s , seasons and c o l o u r s . The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t l i s t s t h e s e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s : ELEMENTS DIRECTION SEASON COLOUR Water N o r t h W i n t e r B l a c k E a r t h C e n t e r Y e l l o w Wood E a s t , S p r i n g Green M e t a l West Autumn White F i r e South Summer Red Whereas the o r d e r o f the yin and the yang i s d u a l i s t i c , t h a t o f the wu hsing i s c y c l i c a l . I n t h i s manner, the powers o r essences o f the elements are i n a constant' s t a t e o f f l u c t u a t i o n , o f r i s i n g and f a l l i n g , o f subduing t h e i r - 5 8 -p r e d e c e s s o r sc, o n i y -to succurrib".' t o t h e i r beneficiaries-.:'' . T h i s c o n s t a n t r o t a t i o n i s a t t e s t e d i n the Huai Nan Tzu: Wood e x c e l s over e a r t h , e a r t h e x c e l s over w a t e r , water e x c e l s over f i r e , f i r e e x c e l s over m e t a l , m e t a l e x c e l s over wood.^ T h i s T a o i s t . c o n c e p t s i g n i f i e s a b e g i n n i n g and an end, which i n i t s e l f i s a b e g i n n i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o the d o c t r i n e s o f the wu hsing, t h e s e e l e m e n t s , as the n a t u r a l agents o f the u n i v e r s e , move t h r o u g h p e r i o d s o f r i s e and decay. T h i s concept i s a p p l i c a b l e t o every event and o c c u r r e n c e w i t h i n the. u n i v e r s e , and thus changes w i t h i n the s o c i a l / p o l i t i c a l o r d e r o f Ch i n a ( i . e . , w i t h i n human h i s t o r y and e x p e r i e n c e ) were a l s o viewed as s p e c i f i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f the changes w i t h i n the wu hsing o r d e r . I n t h i s manner, C h ' i n Shih-huang (246 - 210 B.C.), b e l i e v i n g t h a t the newly e s t a b l i s h e d C h ' i n Dynasty was r u l e d by t h e element w a t e r , changed t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the y e a r and the c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s t o be made a t c o u r t , b o t h of t h e s e t o b e g i n from the f i r s t day o f the t e n t h month. He honored b l a c k as the c o l o r / s i o _ / f o r c l o t h i n g , and f o r pennons and f l a g s . He made s i x the s t a n d a r d number. C o n t r a c t t a l l i e s and o f f i c i a l h a t s were a l l of s i x i n c h e s , w h i l e the c h a r i o t s were s i x f e e t . S i x f e e t made one pace, and each equipage had s i x h o r s e s . The name o f t h e ( Y e l l o w ) r i v e r was changed t o t h a t o f P o w e r f u l Water (Te S h u i ' f & ^ v ) , because i t was supposed t h a t t h i s marked the b e g i n n i n g o f the power of t he element water. W i t h hardness and - 5 9 -v i o l e n c e y and an extreme s e v e r i t y , e v e r y t h i n g was d e c i d e d by law. For by p u n i s h i n g and o p p r e s s i n g , by h a v i n g n e i t h e r human-hearted-ness nor k i n d l i n e s s , but c o n f o r m i n g o n l y t o a s t r i c t j u s t i c e , t h e r e would come an a c c o r d w i t h the F i v e Powers.g The c o n s t i t u e n t elements of the wu hsing t h e o r y can be a t t r i b u t e d t o various.. p a r t s o f the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . By b e g i n n i n g a t the f o o t of the p a i n t i n g and g r a d u a l l y w o r k i n g upwards u n t i l the Chu Lung f i g u r e i s r e a c h e d , i t w i l l be demonstrated t h a t the c y c l i c a l n a t u r e o f the wu hsing t h e o r y i s f u l f i l l e d a l o n g the l i n e s o u t l i n e d i n the c h a r t a b o v e — i . e . 3 w a t e r , e a r t h , wood, m e t a l , and f i r e . T h i s w i l l a l s o t a k e i n t o account the d i r e c t i o n a l q u a d r a n t s and s e a s o n a l p e r i o d s a s s i g n e d . I n so d o i n g , the v e r t i c a l , a x i a l a l i g n m e n t a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e c e e d i n g c h a p t e r w i l l reemerge as a c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The r e a d e r w i l l r e c a l l t h a t the scene a t the f o o t o f the p a i n t i n g r e p r e s e n t s the s u b t e r r a n e a n r e a l m . I t s a t t r i -b u tes i n c l u d e t h e two l e v i a t h a n s o f Chuang-tzu who d w e l l i n the n o r t h and, as d e n i z e n s o f the watery d e p t h , s i g n i f y the yin. Appended t o t h i s are the b i r d / t u r t l e images r e p r e s e n t i n g HsUan Wu, L o r d of the N o r t h , and the yin quad-r a n t . These are a i d e d by the c a r y a t i d f i g u r e b o t h as Kun who changed i n t o a f i s h and as YU Ch'iang. The l a t t e r , a c c o r d i n g t o the Shan Hai Ching, was a g e n i e o f . t h e n o r t h e r n 7 seas. I t was a l s o from the p r i m o r d i a l waters o f Chaos t h a t P'an Ku f a s h i o n e d the u n i v e r s e , and he i s . t h u s l i k e n e d . - 6 0 -These f i g u r e s a l l share i n common some r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the element w a t e r , the f i r s t o f the p r i m o r d i a l elements w i t h i n the wu hsing s t r u c t u r e , the n o r t h e r n quadrant and the yin. A s c e n d i n g t o the next; l e v e l , t h e r e i s the scene o f the f u n e r a r y c e r e m o n y i M d e n t i f i e d by the b i e r " and i t s shroud. T h i s I s the r e a l m o f man, the t e r r e s t r i a l domain t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s t o the element e a r t h . Perched above t h i s scene on the v a r i c o l o u r e d r i b b o n s are the two emanations o f Kou-.. Mang, L o r d o f the E a s t . As next i n the wu hsing h i e r a r c h y , t h e s e f i g u r e s s h o u l d be emblematic o f the element wood. R e f e r r i n g t o the Shan Hai Ching, "Hai Wai Tung Ching, " t h e g l o s s supports', t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , n o t i n g t h a t Kou Mang i s a geni e o f the g element wood. Thus,- w i t h water r e p r e s e n t e d at the f o o t o f t h e p a i n t i n g by t h e two l e v i a t h a n s e t al., t h e f u n e r a r y ceremony r e p r e s e n t i n g e a r t h , and Kou Mang as wood, the f i r s t t h r e e elements o f the wu hsing s t r u c t u r e a re m a n i f e s t e d i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . I n a d d r e s s i n g the f o u r t h element o f m e t a l , a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be drawn f i r s t l y t o the B e l l o f Heaven i n t h e p a i n t i n g , but s e c o n d l y , and perhaps more i m p o r t a n t l y , t o the g e n e r a l p a u c i t y o f m e t a l o b j e c t s r e c o v e r e d from the Ma-wang-tui tomb. I n a l l , t h e r e were o n l y twenty m e t a l p i e c e s : t h r e e k n i v e s w i t h rounded heads, one bronze m i r r o r , and s i x t e e n o t i n b e l l s . The t i n b e l l s were q u i t e s m a l l , measuring o n l y 4.6 cm. i n l e n g t h and 2.9 cm. a t i t s w i d e s t . They are of a s i m i l a r type as the p a i n t e d b e l l , and thus the l a t t e r may be reckoned as r e p r e s e n t i n g the v i r t u e o f m e t a l . J u d g i n g from the number o f b e l l s r e c o v e r e d from Chinese tombs, t h e b e l l would seem t o have h e l d a p a r t i -c u l a r l y eminent, p o s i t i o n i n a n c i e n t Chinese music. Many of t h e s e b e l l s are now known t o form a s e t , some numbering as many as t w e l v e , a s , e.g., those e x c a v a t e d from the tomb of t h e Marquis o f T s ' a i (a s m a l l p r i n c i p a l i t y near the 12 Huai R i v e r ) , near S h o u - h s i e n , Anhwei i n 1 9 5 5 . These b e l l s a r e o f a s i m i l a r type as t h a t found on the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g and as a l s o found engraved on a hu, f o r m e r l y i n 13 the Werner J a n n i n g s c o l l e c t i o n and now i n P e k i n g . The f i n a l element i s f i r e . To t h i s can be a s s i g n e d the Chu Lung. . As the i l l u m i n a t o r o f the e a r t h and t h o s e r e g i o n s t h a t the sun does not r e a c h , i t i s a f i r e god, or the god o f l i g h t . R eading the p a i n t i n g i n t h i s sequence from f o o t t o head not o n l y f u l f i l l s t he o r d e r o f the wu hsing d o c t r i n e , but does so i n a manner t h a t adhers t o i t s c y c l i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n as d e f i n e d above. Thus as water succombs t o e a r t h , e a r t h t o wood, wood t o m e t a l , m e t a l t o f i r e , and f i r e t o w a t e r , t h i s t h e o r y i s made m a n i f e s t i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . Moreover, i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n , by b e g i n n i n g a t the f o o t o f the p a i n t i n g and r i s i n g t h r o u g h the v a r i o u s s c e n e s , i s in tandem w i t h the r e s o l u t i o n o f the u n i v e r s e as e x e m p l i f i e d by the yin/yang p a i r i n g s a l r e a d y assembled. B e s i d e s f i r e , t he Chu Lung can be f u r t h e r a s s o c i a t e d - 6 2 -w i t h the s o u t h , as r e l a t e d i n the s t o r y of m i g r a t i o n by Chuang-tzu. T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o the summer p e r i o d . T h i s i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the watery abode o f the f i s h e s and the elements o f yin a t the f o o t o f the p a i n t i n g , t h a t c o r r e s p o n d t o w i n t e r . W i t h the e a r t h r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e c e n t e r , wood e a s t , and m e t a l west, r e a d a l o n g a v e r t i c a l a x i s , the wu hsing t h e o r y i s complete. T h i s same a x i a l i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n can a l s o be a p p l i e d toward the se a s o n a l , changes t h a t are by t h e i r n a t u r e c y c l i c a l . Thus, the wu hsing t h e o r y i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , and the cosmic o r d e r o f the u n i v e r s e i n i t s p e r p e t u a l r o t a t i o n between l i f e , d e a t h and r e b i r t h c o n t i n u e s . Towards t h i s end, the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l examine the Chinese b e l i e f s i n r e c a l l i n g the s o u l o f the deceased. T h i s stems from the i d e a of a d u a l i s t i c t h e o r y of humans as p o s s e s s i n g two s o u l s t h a t , due t o a disharmony w i t h i n , causes the s e p a r a t i o n o f the two s o u l s , g i v i n g r i s e t o i l l n e s s and, i f not r e j o i n e d , d e a t h . The ceremony o f r e c a l l i n g the s o u l i s an attempt t o r e u n i t e the two s e p a r a t e d s o u l s and t h e r e f o r e cause- the r e b i r t h o f the deceased. The next c h a p t e r w i l l examine t h i s r e l e v a n t t h e o r y , and d i s c u s s the f u n c t i o n - a n d name of t h i s magni-f i c e n t p a i n t i n g . CHAPTER IV THE NAME AND FUNCTION OF THE MA-WANG-TUI PAINTING When the Tomb No. 1 at Ma-wang-tui was opened, an i n v e n t o r y o f i t s f u r n i s h i n g s was i n c l u d e d on a s e t o f 312 bamboo s l i p s . O r i g i n a l l y bound when p l a c e d i n the tomb, o n l y fragments o f the b i n d i n g s have s u r v i v e d . The s l i p s a re u n i f o r m i n s i z e , measuring 2 7 . 6 cm. l o n g and 0 . 7 cm. wide . From the e n t r i e s on thes e s l i p s , i t was determined t h a t the s i l k p a i n t i n g was the f e i - i a term t h a t •3 e t y m o l o g i s t s have t r a n s l a t e d as " f l y i n g garment." S c h o l a r s now b e l i e v e t h a t the p a i n t i n g was a banner o r w a l l h a n g i n g , and t h i s i d e a i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the p a i n t i n g 4 i t s e l f . B e s i d e s the b l a c k t a s s e l s t h a t were suspended from the f o u r lower c o r n e r s , a l o n g the top o f the p a i n t i n g s i l k c o r d s were a t t a c h e d from e i t h e r end. These were t i e d t o g e t h e r over the c e n t e r of the p a i n t i n g so as t o a l l o w i t t o be hung. The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e p o r t c i t e s s e v e r a l passages from c l a s s i c a l Chinese t e x t s r e g a r d i n g f u n e r a r y 5 banners among w h i c h i t h i s ; painting.:sur.e'ly b e l o ngs . As a f u n e r a r y banner, the p a i n t i n g was used i n a v e r y - 6 3 --64-p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n t o r e c a l l the s o u l o f the deceased M a r c h i o n e s s . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l e x p l o r e t h i s f u n c t i o n , once a g a i n examining new l e v e l s o f meanings o f the images on t h e Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . T h i s w i l l a l s o draw upon p r e v i o u s concepts a l r e a d y o u t l i n e d t o c o r r o b o r a t e the theme o f r e c a l l i n g t h e s o u l . * * * * * * * * * * * I n the Chinese concept o f the human body, each p e r s o n p o s s e s s e s two t y p e s o f s o u l s , the p h y s i c a l o r p'o fcfiL group, and the s p i r i t u a l or hun group. The former i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the female/j/in element; the l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t s the male/yang element.^ As d e r i v a t i o n s o f the yin/yang o r d e r , a harmonious b a l a n c e between the p ' o and the hun groups must be main-t a i n e d . F a i l u r e t o do so r e s u l t s i n s i c k n e s s and i n cases of s e v e r i t y , d e a t h . I n the l a t t e r i n s t a n c e {i.e., d e a t h ) , the c h i e f proponent o f the p'o group, known as the kuei %^ , and the c h i e f proponent o f the hun group, known as the shen s e p a r a t e . ^ I t i s the r e u n i f i c a t i o n o f the kuei w i t h the shen, t h a t i n t u r n r e j o i n s the l a r g e r e n t i t i e s o f the p'o and t h e hun groups, t h a t the Chinese seek I n the r e c a l l i n g o f the s o u l . F a i l i n g t h i s , however, b o t h s p i r i t s (the kuei-and the.shen) must s t i l l be assuaged i n o r d e r t o i n s u r e c o n t i n u a l benevolence t o the f a m i l y s u r v i v o r s and t o guard a l s o a g a i n s t any m a l i c e from the d e n i z e n s o f the beyond. On the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , the two horned c r e a t u r e s s t e p p i n g o f f the t a i l s o f the two l e v i a t h a n s at the f o o t o f the p a i n t i n g may be s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t the kuei g and the shen. The ceremony n e c e s s i t a t e d from the r e c a l l i n g o f the s o i l i s s e t f o r t h i n the Li Chi: At (the ceremony'of) r e c a l l i n g back the s o u l . . . ( t h e o f f i c e r s ) ascended from the e a s t wing t o the m i d d l e o f the r o o f where the f o o t i n g was p e r i l o u s . . F a c i n g the n o r t h , they gave t h r e e l o u d c a l l s f o r the deceased, a f t e r w hich they r o l l e d up the garment ( o f t h e deceased t h a t ) they had employed....^ A l t h o u g h any p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y o f the deceased c o u l d be used i n t h i s ceremony, use o f the deceased's garments was p r e f e r r e d i n o r d e r t o e n t i c e b e t t e r the wandering s o u l t o r e t u r n . Note s h o u l d be made here t h a t the ceremony o f t h i s r e c a l l was' j u s t t h a t — a n e l a b o r a t e r i t u a l ( a l b e i t s e r i o u s l y under-t a k e n ) , performed as i n s u r a n c e a g a i n s t the p o t e n t i a l male-v o l e n c e o f a d i s s a t i s f i e d and/or abandoned soul."'"'"1 I n t h e i r d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s , the C h i n e s e , s u p e r s t i t i o u s i n r e g a r d s t o the powers of the unknown and the su p e r -n a t u r a l , undertook t h i s ceremony t o appease the s p i r i t s . I t was a s e l f s e r v i n g ceremony i n t e n d e d t o i n v o k e a sympa-t h e t i c magic from the s p i r i t s and t h u s , by so d o i n g , i t was hoped t h a t a c o n t i n u e d a s s i s t a n c e from the beyond would . , 11 be r e c e i v e d . The l i t u r g y f o r the summons o f the s o u l can be found i n t he Ch'u Tz'u, "Chao Run" and "Ta Chao." T h i s t a k e s the form o f two v a r i a n t s . On the one hand, the dangers t h a t - 6 6 -would c o n f r o n t the s o u l were e l a b o r a t e d : 0 s o u l , come back! F o r the west h o l d s many p e r i l s : The Moving Sands s t r e t c h on f o r a hundred l e a g u e s . You w i l l be swept i n t o the Thunder's Chasm, and dashed i n p i e c e s , unable t o h e l p y o u r s e l f ; And even s h o u l d you chance t o escape from t h a t , beyond i s the empty d e s e r t , And r e d ants as huge as e l e p h a n t s , and wasps as b i g as gourds. The f i v e g r a i n s do not grow t h e r e ; d r y s t a l k s a r e the o n l y f o o d ; And the e a r t h t h e r e s c o r c h e s men up; t h e r e i s nowhere t o l o o k f o r water. And you w i l l d r i f t t h e r e f o r e v e r , w i t h nowhere t o go i n t h a t v a s t n e s s . 0 s o u l , come back! l e s t you b r i n g on y o u r s e l f p e r d i t i o n . 1 2 On the o t h e r hand, the b e a u t i e s and l u x u r i e s t o be had i n r e t u r n i n g home were consummate: 0 s o u l , come back t o p l e a s u r e t h a t cannot be t o l d ! The f i v e g r a i n s a re heaped up s i x e l l s h i g h , and c o r n o f z i z a n i a s e t o u t ; The c a u l d r o n s seethe t o t h e i r b r i m s ; t h e i r b l e n d e d savours y i e l d f r a g r a n c e ; Plump o r i o l e s , p i g e o n s , and geese, f l a v o u r e d w i t h b r o t h o f j a c k a l ' s meat: 0 s o u l , come back! I n d u l g e your a p p e t i t e ! . ^ The s e r i o u s n e s s o f r e c a l l i n g the s o u l i s a l s o b e a u t i f u l l y r e n d e r e d i n the "Chao Bun." I t opens w i t h a d i a l o g u e - 6 7 -between the L o r d God (ti ^ , i.e., tlien ti ^ ) and one of h i s shamans. The f o r m e r , a n x i o u s over the p o s s i b l e abandonment o f a s o u l , commands Wu Yang 3E , the-' shaman, to summon i t t o heaven: The L o r d God s a i d t o Wu Yang: 'There i s a man on e a r t h below whom I would h e l p : 'His s o u l . h a s l e f t him. Make d i v i n a t i o n f o r him.' Wu Yang r e p l i e d : 'The Master of Dreams... 'The L o r d God's b i d d i n g i s hard t o f o l l o w . ' / _The L o r d God s a i d : _ 7 'You must d i v i n e f o r him. I f e a r t h a t i f you any l o n g e r d e c l i n e , i t w i l l be too l a t e . ' Wu Yang t h e r e f o r e went down and summoned the s o u l , s a y i n g . . . . ^ B u l l i n g t a k e s the l a s t l i n e o f t h i s d i a l o g u e l i t e r a l l y i n her a r t i c l e t o suggest t h a t the scene of mourning and the f u n e r a r y ceremony r e p r e s e n t s a d o w n s t a i r s room where the 15 shaman's d i v i n a t i o n was performed. T h e r e . i s l i t t l e , how-e v e r , i f any e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t t h i s i s a d o w n s t a i r s room. I t i s our o p i n i o n t h a t f i r s t l y , t h i s , as a f u n e r a r y scene, s e t s the environment of the p o e t r y o f the "Chao Hun" and the "Ta Chao" as a l r e a d y noted above, and a l s o i l l u s -t r a t e s the f o l l o w i n g : The chambers of p o l i s h e d s t o n e , w i t h k i n g f i s h e r hangings on j a s p e r hooks; Bedspreads of k i n g f i s h e r seeded w i t h p e a r l s , a l l d a z z l i n g i n b r i g h t n e s s ; - 6 8 -A r r a s of f i n e s i l k c o v e r s the w a l l s ; damask ca n o p i e s s t r e t c h overhead, B r a i d s and r i b b o n s , brocades and s a t i n s , f a s t e n e d w i t h r i n g s o f p r e c i o u s s t o n e . S e c o n d l y , t h i s scene a l s o adheres t o the d i c t a t e s o f the I Li on the l a y i n g out o f the v i a n d s (e.g., "A young p i g i s p r e s e n t e d as t h e f o o d o f f e r i n g , " and "The stones f o r the 17 f i s h and the game f o l l o w t h i s . . . . " ), and l o o k s f o r w a r d t o the s a c r i f i c e t o the s p i r i t s . I n the s a c r i f i c e t o the s p i r i t s , the ch'ing and the chung are i m p o r t a n t . There are c o r r e c t observances r e g a r d i n g the p l a y i n g o f . m u s i c — i t s f u n c t i o n and purpose b e i n g s t r i c t l y 18 l a i d out i n the I Li, and i n the Li Chi an e n t i r e c h a p t e r d e a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h music. Moreover, i n the Sh%h Ching (Book of Odes), i t i s w r i t t e n t h a t music would i n v i t e the b l e s s i n g s o f the heavens: "The b e l l s and drums sound i n harmony / The sounding stones and f l u t e s b l e n d t h e i r n o t e s / 20 Abundant b l e s s i n g i s s e n t down." The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t'he b e l l and the sounding stone was a l s o found p a i n t e d on the Ch'u c o f f i n p i e c e from S h a - t z u -21 t ' a n g , Ch'ang-sha. I n i t , a oh'ing i s suspended from a r i b b o n . Beneath t h i s the b e l l hangs. On the s h o u l d e r s of the oh'ing, one on each s i d e , are two men who k n e e l on the backs of two leopards.' The same i c o n o g r a p h y o f oh'ing and chung as a m u s i c a l g r o u p i n g has been noted on the hu f o r m e r l y i n tne Werner 22 J a n n i n g s c o l l e c t i o n and now i n P e k i n g . On the J a n n i n g s - 6 9 -v e s s e l , f o u r chung and f i v e chHng i n s t r u m e n t s are a r r a n g e d a l o n g a h o r i z o n t a l bar w i t h a n i m a l t e r m i n a l s , r e s t i n g upon b i r d - l i k e (dragon ?) s t a n d s . (Figure 4) T h i s d e t a i l i s from t h e s h o u l d e r o f the hu and i n the scene above i t , human f i g u r e s p a r t i c i p a t e i n a ceremony s u g g e s t i n g the i m p o r t a n t and i n t e g r a l p a r t music, p l a y e d i n Chinese l i f e . Other examples o f t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n between eh'ing and chung i n s t r u m e n t s from bronze v e s s e l s i n c l u d e a tou i n the W a l t e r s 23 Art -. G a l l e r y , B a l t i m o r e , and an hu i n the C u r t i s C o l l e c t i o n / 24 of the Musee Guimet, f o r m e r l y i n the Louvre. I n a l l t h e s e examples, the p l a y i n g o f the eh'ing and the 'chung i s d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a ceremony of some s o r t . From the Ch'u Tz'u, "Ta Chao," the p l a y i n g o f t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s i s l i n k e d t o the r i t e s o f r e c a l l i n g the s o u l . The shaman Wu Yang c a l l s out t o the s o u l t o r e t u r n , des-c r i b i n g the merriment t h a t a w a i t s i t s r e t u r n : Two teams o f e i g h t j o i n i n the dance i n time t o the c h a n t i n g o f v e r s e s ; S t r i k i n g the b e l l s and sounding the s t o n e -c h i n e s / i.e., ch'ing_/, the m u s i c i a n s p l a y the luan; And the f o u r t r e b l e s blow w i t h a l l t h e i r might as they e n t e r the f i n a l m o d u l a t i o n : 0 s o u l , come back! L i s t e n t o the songs and l a y s ! 2 ^ Thus b o t h the eh'ing and the chung were p r i n c i p l e i n s t r u m e n t s 2 6 i n the summoning of the s o u l . Such i s the c l a r i f y i n g a s p e c t o f music t h a t i n . t h e Li Chi i t i s l i k e n e d unto an harmony between heaven and earth:. Music i s (an echo o f ) the harmony between heaven and e a r t h ; ceremonies . . r e f l e c t the ... o r d e r l y d i s t i n c t i o n s ( i n the o p e r a t i o n s o f ) heaven and e a r t h . From t h a t harmony a l l t h i n g s r e c e i v e t h e i r b e i n g ; t o t h e s e o r d e r l y d i s t i n c t i o n s t h ey owe the d i f f e r e n c e s between them. Music has i t s o r i g i n from heaven; ceremonies t a k e t h e i r form from the appearances o f e a r t h . I f the i m i t a t i o n of t h o s e appearances were c a r r i e d t o e x c e s s , c o n f u s i o n ( o f ceremonies) would appear; i f the f r a m i n g o f music were c a r r i e d t o e x c e s s , i t would be too vehement.^ 7 Moreover, l i k e F e i L i e n and the fu r e b u s , oh'ing a l s o p o s s e s s e s a pun. The . c h a r a c t e r oh'ing means good l u c k , h a p p i n e s s , 2 8 and b l e s s i n g s . The oh'ing i n s t r u m e n t i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g t h a t forms a c o v e r i n g f o r the f u n e r a l ceremony scene can thus be u n d e r s t o o d t o i n d i c a t e the peace o f the M a r c h i o n e s s ' l i f e . She r e s t s i n peace, r e c e i v i n g the b l e s s i n g s . o f heaven, and above w i t h i n the heavens, she has e n t e r e d the ambience of fu. W i t h i n the Ma-wang-tui site,...the i m p o r t a n c e o f music i n the l i f e and a f t e r l i f e o f the Marchioness i s a t t e s t e d by the m u s c i a l i n s t r u m e n t s b u r i e d i n her f u n e r a r y t r e a s u r e s — a z i t h e r , r e e d mouth or g a n , a s e t o f p i t c h p i p e s ( t w e l v e 29 i n a l l ) , and a group o f models o f m u s i c i a n s as w e l l . As an a s i d e , the a s s o c i a t i o n s between m u s i c , the..heavens and t h i n g s o f a . p o s i t i v e n a t u r e can be seen at the f i f t h c e n t u r y A.D. B u d d h i s t caves of• Yfin-kang -P9 . 3 ° At t h i s s i t e , - 7 1 -t h e r e are scenes of m u s i c i a n s p l a y i n g v a r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h i n the d i v i n e entourage of the Buddha, a f i g u r e who, l i k e the T a o i s t a d e p t , i s an e n l i g h t e n e d one. From the music scenes on the bronze v e s s e l s , i t would appear t h a t dragons have been used as music s t a n d s , and An Chih-min has drawn some a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y 31 w i t h i n t h e Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . The i d e a o f u s i n g a n i m a l f i g u r e s f o r a music s t a n d i s not u n u s u a l t o t h e Ch'u p e o p l e s . S e v e r a l such p i e c e s w i t h b i r d s and t i g e r s a r e e x t a n t , a l b e i t . , the a c t u a l c o m p o s i t i o n and s t r u c t u r e a r e s t i l l e n i g m a t i c . As f o r dragon s t a n d s , the J a n n i n g s hu i s r e c a l l e d , and a l i t e r a r y s ource i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e . A c c o r d i n g t o the Li Chi, ." They had the music s t a n d o f Hsict, w i t h i t s f a c e - b o a r d and p o s t s , on which dragons were c a r v e d ; t h a t o f Y i n , w i t h the h i g h -t o o t h e d f a c e - b o a r d ; and t h a t o f Kau, w i t h i t s round ornaments of j a d e , and f e a t h e r s (huge from t h e c o r n e r s ) ' ^ V i e w i n g t h e dragons as a music s t a n d would, moreover, more c l o s e l y b i n d the i d e a o f music as a c l e a n s i n g agent s i n c e the p o s i t i v e n a t u r e o f the dragons would b:e" e x c e e d i n g l y , apropos i n t h i s . R e t u r n i n g t o the S h a - t z u - t ' a n g image, a c l o s e examin-t i o n o f the two k n e e l i n g men shows t h a t they wear a f e a t h e r e d a p p a r e l . We have a l r e a d y seen such f e a t h e r e d f i g u r e s from the K a o - k u o - l i a n tombs i n M a nchuria. These f e a t h e r e d f i g -u r es are g e n e r a l l y a l l i e d w i t h d i v i n i t i e s as t h e i r companions - 7 2 -or a t t e n d a n t s , a s , e.g., can be seen i n the. Wu L i a n g s h r i n e s where t h e s e f e a t h e r e d f i g u r e s are a t t e n d a n t s t o H s i Wang Mu, Queen Mother o f the West, from whom Hou I r e c e i v e d the 34 e l i x & r o f i m m o r t a l i t y . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r p r e t f u r t h e r the Ma-wang-tui human-headed/bird f i g u r e s perched on t h e v a r i c o l o u r e d r i b b o n s p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d as Kou . Mang i n t h i s c o n t e x t o f d i v i n e a t t e n d a n t s . Winged persons a re b e l i e v e d t o be i m m o r t a l s , hsien A^* s p i r i t s o f the deceased who have a t t a i n e d e t e r n a l q u i e t u d e . In the c e l e s t i a l wanderings o f the "YUan Yu" p o e t , he n a r r a t e s : " I met the Winged Ones on the H i l l of Cin n a b a r / I t a r r i e d i n the a n c i e n t Land o f I m m o r t a l i t y . " A c c o r d i n g t o the Shan Hai Ching, t h e r e i s a kingdom o f winged men where the peopl e do not e x p i r e . The g l o s s from the Ch'u Tz 'u, "YUan Yu" a l s o notes t h a t the winged men were immor-37 t a l s . The second l i n e from the above c o u p l e t ( i . e . , " I t a r r i e d i n the a n c i e n t Land o f Immortality".) o r e f e r s . to..the I s l e o f the Im m o r t a l s , P'eng L a i . P'eng L a i i s one o f t h r e e i s l a n d s ( the o t h e r s ^ a r e Fang Chang. -7? >C^ and Y i n g Chou ^iw. i n the G u l f o f P o h a i ( s u p p o r t e d by YU Ch'iang) where t h o s e s p i r i t s , who,.according ,to the. myths, .'had t a s t e d the e l i x i r o f l i f e and were thus t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o i m m o r t a l s , d w e l l . I t i s a place- where a l l .the a n i m a l s and v e g e t a t i o n are w h i t e , w i t h p a l a c e s . a n d gates o f g o l d and s i l v e r . Legends speak of 39 i t as b e i n g shaped l i k e a hu, and Shang C h i n - t ' a n has p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e b o d i e s of the two dragons on the s h a f t form the o u t l i n e o f an hu v e s s e l w i t h the canopy o f heaven . . . . 40 above s e r v i n g as i t s c o v e r . Germane t o the legends o f P'eng L a i and the imm o r t a l s i s t he s t o r y o f the attempt o f C h ' i n S h i h Huang T i (the F i r s t Emperor o f Ch'in) t o f i n d t h i s i s l e and t h e r e f o r e 41 o b t a i n h i s i m m o r t a l i t y . I n t h i s he was t r y i n g t o emulate 4? the Y e l l o w Emperor ( r . 2 6 9 8 - 2 5 9 8 B.C.). The l a t t e r s u pposedly succeeded i n t h i s quest and t h e r e a f t e r ascended 43 t o heaven on the back o f a dragon. The s t o r i e s o f P'eng L a i , i m m o r t a l s and t h e a s c e n s i o n o f t h e Y e l l o w Emperor are the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r Shang C h i h - t ' a n ' s t h e s i s t h a t the banner r e p r e s e n t s a s i m i l a r quest f o r i m m o r t a l i t y and the s e a r c h 44 f o r P'eng L a i by the tomb's occupant at Ma-wang-tui. 45 A l t h o u g h B u l l i n g r e j e c t s t h i s , i t i s not out o f k e e p i n g w i t h the summoning o f the s o u l which i n i t s e l f i s , a f t e r a l l , a l s o a quest f o r i m m o r t a l i t y and e t e r n a l b l i s s . The winged men are thus i d e n t i f i a b l e on two l e v e l s . F i r s t as Kou Mang, god o f the e a s t and v i r t u o u s o f t h e element wood, they s y m b o l i z e an a s p e c t o f the c y c l i c a l n a t u r e o f the u n i v e r s e w i t h i n the wu hsing.theory. Second as i m m o r t a l s , they r e p r e s e n t the s e a r c h f o r the f a b l e d i s l e o f P'eng L a i and t h e quest f o r i m m o r t a l i t y . As hsien, however, th e s e f i g u r e s are a l s o t i e d t o a s p e c i f i c i c o n o -g r a p h i c t y p e — d i v i n a t i o n . These.immortals are o f t e n d e p i c t e d p l a y i n g a game on 46 a s m a l l board between them. From an i n s c r i p t i o n on an Han m i r r o r , i t i s now known, t h a t they are p l a y i n g the game -74-liu--po zh; 1 ^ , ^  a game t h a t a l s o forms a p a r t o f t h e f e s -t i v i t i e s . i n the "Chao Hun" a w a i t i n g the s o u l s h o u l d i t r e t u r n : Then w i t h bamboo d i c e and i v o r y p i e c e s , the game of L i u Po i s begun; S i d e s a re t a k e n ; they advance t o g e t h e r ; k e e n l y they t h r e a t e n each o t h e r . P i e c e s are k i n g e d and the s c o r i n g d o u b l e d . Shouts o f " F i v e White!" a r i s e . ^ g The two winged men perched on the r i b b o n s i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g thus embody s e v e r a l nuances o f the Chinese u n i v e r s e . As emanations o f Kou Mang, they c o n s t i -t u t e the element wood from the wu hsing t h e o r y . T i g h t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m u s i c , the f i g u r e s form p a r t o f the r e p e r t o i r e o f a s t a t e o f peace. As i m m o r t a l s , r e f e r e n c e s a re made t o P'eng L a i and d i v i n a t i o n . L a s t l y , atop " K i n g f i s h e r f e a t h e r s , / and _/ p u r p l e c u r t a i n s and b l u e hangings t h a t f u r n i s h — — 49 / t h e _ / h i g h h a l l , " they a re an a l l u s i o n t o the b e n e f i t s of the home. I n a l l , t h e r e f o r e , t h e s e images r e p r e s e n t on m u l t i p l e l e v e l s the Chinese i n t e r e s t s i n d i v i n a t i o n , i m m o r t a l i t y , and above a l l a s p i r i t u a l peace w i t h i n the u n i v e r s e . From the passage o f the Li Chi c i t e d above at the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r f o r the r e c a l l i n g o f the s o u l , we know t h a t the o f f i c e r s o f the ceremony mounted the r o o f -tops from t h e e a s t and summoned the s o u l ' t h r i c e (a yang number). More i m p o r t a n t , however, i s the d i r e c t i o n a d d r e s s e d — t h e n o r t h . Remembering t h a t the n o r t h i s the yin q u a d r a n t , the season of w i n t e r , and the s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f the m i g r a t i o n of the l e v i a t h a n s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i t i s from the n o r t h t h a t the s o u l s are sought. Indeed, i n b o t h the "Chao Hun" and the "Ta Chao," o f the f o u r c a r d i n a l d i r e c t i o n s , the s o u l i s admonished not t o t r a v e l t o the n o r t h l a s t l y , j u s t . b e f o r e the j o y s of r e t u r n i n g home are enumerated. The n o r t h was a r d e n t l y b e l i e v e d t o be the r e a l m o f the dead f o r i t was t h a t r e g i o n o f the u n i v e r s e t o which t h e s o u l s , the kuei and the shen, were f i r s t b a n i s h e d upon t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n : C a l l i n g ( the s o u l ) back i s the way i n which l o v e r e c e i v e s i t s consummation, and has i n i t t he mind which i s e x p r e s s e d by prayer... l.The looking:, f o r i t . t o r e t u r n from the dark r e g i o n i s a way o f s e e k i n g f o r i t among the s p i r i t u a l b e i n g . The t u r n i n g / o f _ / the f a c e t o t h e . n o r t h s p r i n g s from the i d e a of i t s b e i n g i n the dark r e g i o n . To bury on the n o r t h ( o f the c i t y ) , and w i t h the head ( o f the dead) t u r n e d t o the n o r t h , was the common p r a c t i c e o f the t h r e e dynas-t i e s : - because (the dead) go t o the dark r e g i o n . ^ '(By-and-by), when one d i e d , they went upon the housetop, and c a l l e d out h i s name i n a pr o l o n g e d n o t e , s a y i n g , "Come back, So and So." A f t e r t h i s they f i l l e d the mouth ( o f the dead) w i t h uncooked r i c e , and ( s e t f o r t h as o f f e r i n g s t o him) p a c k e t s o f raw f l e s h . Thus they l o o k e d up t o heaven ( w h i t h e r the s p i r i t has gone), and b u r i e d (the body) i n the e a r t h . . The body and a n i m a l s o u l go downwards; and the i n t e l l e g e n t s p i r i t i s on h i g h . Thus ( a l s o ) the dead are p l a c e d w i t h t h e i r heads t o the n o r t h , w h i l e the l i v i n g l o o k toward the s o u t h . In a l l t h e s e m a t t e r s the e a r l i e s t p r a c t i c e i s f o l l o w e d . ' ^ A d h e r i n g t o the Li Chi, the M a r chioness of T ' a i was b u r i e d w i t h her head f a c i n g the n o r t h . As a l r e a d y n o t e d , the. banner;/.painting..wasof.oundidirectiy on top o f t h e innermost c a s k e t c o n t a i n i n g the c o r p s e . The Chu Lung and the h e a v e n l y s e c t i o n were p l a c e d over the f a c i a l a r e a w i t h the s u b t e r r a n e a n p o r t i o n over the f e e t . P l a c i n g t h e banner i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n may seem c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i r e c t i o n a l elements embodied i n the p a i n t i n g . However, w i t h the c o r p s e p l a c e d a c c o r d i n g t o the Li Chi ( i . e . , w i t h the head f a c i n g the n o r t h and the f e e t t o t h e s o u t h ) , t o g e t h e r b o t h i t and the banner f u l f i l l a r e q u i r e m e n t of the T a o i s t u n i v e r s e — a harmony of the p a r t s . Thus, the f e e t o f the c o r p s e , i n a d d r e s s i n g the s o u t h , are c o n t r o l l e d J by the f o o t o f the banner r e p r e s e n t i n g the n o r t h , and vl.ee v e r s a . There i s an i n t i m a t e exchange of d i r e c t i o n a l e l e -ments i n o p e r a t i o n h e r e . T h i s i n essence i s the Chinese macrocosm., r e a l i z e d and as such,re-expresses the harmony a c h i e v e d v i a c o n f l i c t examined i n Chapter I I w i t h the yin and the yang. Having e s t a b l i s h e d the harmony of the u n i v e r s e , the s p i r i t must s t i l l f i n d a means t o ascend t o heaven. There - 7 7 -are two major v e h i c l e s f o r t h i s i n the Ma-wang-tui t o m b — one w i t h i n the p a i n t i n g i t s e l f and the o t h e r on the i n n e r -most c a s k e t . R e g a r d i n g the l a t e r f i r s t , as winged b e i n g , i m m o r t a l s c a n . r i g h t l y be assumed t o ascend on t h e i r own v o l i t i o n ( b e s i d e s the. usage of cranes as a l r e a d y seen) . They are d i s t i n c t i v e , however, f o r b e i n g winged as seen i n the two beings.p.erched on " K i n g f i s h e r f e a t h e r s " i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , and the f e a t h e r e d a p p a r e l worn by the S h a - t z u - t ' a n g b e i n g s . .'. Here'the f e a t h e r e d a p p l i q u e found on the innermost c a s k e t at Ma-wang-tui i s i m p o r t a n t . I t s usage suggest an a l l i a n c e between the i m m o r t a l s and t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y t o ascend, p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h i s t e c h n i q u e was a p p l i e d o n l y once i n the e n t i r e t o m b — o n the c a s k e t h o l d i n g the body o f the Marchioness o f T ' a i . The f e a t h e r e d a p p l i q u e i s i m p o r t a n t not o n l y because o f i t s s i n g u l a r usage i n the tomb, but a l s o f o r i t s a v i a n s u g g e s t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n s h a m a n i s t i c p r a c t i c e s . I n s e e k i n g t o d e p a r t from the p r o f a n e space of the m a t e r i a l r e a l m and t o e n t e r the sae.red space of the s p i r i t u a l , a shaman w i l l wear a.costume of an a n i m a l . T h i s r i t e i s b e l i e v e d t o i n f u s e and t r a n s f e r the powers and m a g i c a l q u a l i t i e s of the p a r t i c u l a r a n i m a l i n t o the shaman's b e i n g . A l t h o u g h u r s i n e and c e r v i n e costumes are a l s o worn, by f a r 53 the most p r e f e r r e d costumes are o r n l t h o m o r p h i c i n n a t u r e . The f e a t h e r e d a p p l i q u e s t i t c h e d i n t o the Innermost c a s k e t h o u s i n g the. deceased f i g u r e o f the Marchioness can, t h e r e f o r e , - 7 8 -be i n t e r p r e t e d as f u l f i l l i n g the. o r n i t h o g r a p h l c r e q u i r e m e n t s of the shaman's costume. Thus the c a s k e t i t s e l f w i t h the f e a t h e r e d a p p l i q u e may be u n d e r s t o o d as being, a v e h i c l e i n the a s c e n t o f the M a r c h i o n e s s ' s o u l t o heaven. Moreover, i t was on t h i s c a s k e t ' s l i d w i t h i t s f e a t h e r e d a p p l i q u e t h a t the banner p a i n t i n g was l a i d . I t i s the f e i - i , or " f l y i n g garment," and thus the banner may a l s o be seen as a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v e h i c l e or c h a r t f o r the f l i g h t o f the deceased's s o u l t o heaven. As f o r the a s c e n s i o n v e h i c l e w i t h i n the p a i n t i n g i t s e l f , d ragons.are known f o r t h e i r a u s p i c i o u s n a t u r e i n Chinese t h o u g h t , and the l e g e n d o f the Y e l l o w Emperor a s c e n d i n g t o heaven w i t h the a i d o f dragons i s r e c a l l e d . I n t h i s , .-'the two dragons on t h e Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g a s c e n d i n g a l o n g e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e s h a f t can thus be l i n k e d t o the s t e e d s o f the a s c e n d i n g s p i r i t on i t s c e l e s t i a l s o j o u r n . Indeed, the p o r t r a i t scene above.the r e s o l v e d dragons r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e passage t h r o u g h the f i r s t gate o f heaven d e p i c t s the s o u l o f the Marchioness on i t s j o u r n e y . B u l l i n g m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h i s scene w i t h the M a r chioness r e p r e s e n t s the e a r t h , but as we have a l r e a d y seen t h i s 55 cannot be so. More a p p r o p r i a t e i n the t r a v e l s o f the s o u l , t h i s scene may r e p r e s e n t a. r e s t i n g stop b e f o r e the f i n a l s t a g e s o f t h e s o u l ' s metempsychosis. I t i s a pause not from e x e r t i o n , but o f a s l i g h t c o m m i s e r a t i o n . Moments o f f o r l o r n a n x i e t y f o r the s o u l as i t ascends towards the heavens are e x p l i c i t i n two i n s t a n c e s from t h e Ch 'u Tz'u: - 7 9 -I t r i e d t o curb my mounting w i l l and s l a c k e n the s w i f t pace; But the s p i r i t s s o a red h i g h up, f a r i n t o the d i s t a n c e . We p l a y e d the Nine Songs and danced the Nine Shao dances: I wanted t o s n a t c h some time f o r p l e a s u r e and amusement. But when I had ascended the s p l e n d o u r of t h e heavens, I suddenly caught a g l i m p s e below o f my o l d home. The groom's h e a r t was heavy and the h o r s e s f o r l o n g i n g Arched t h e i r heads back and r e f u s e d t o go on.^g and, My h e a r t , r e j o i c i n g , d e l i g h t e d i n i t s e l f : I would be merry and seek my own p l e a s u r e . I c r o s s e d the b l u e c l o u d s and was wandering f r e e l y , When suddenly I g l i m p s e d my o l d home below me. My groom was homesick and my own h e a r t downcast; The t r a c e - h o r s e s l o o k e d back and would not go f o r w a r d . I p i c t u r e d my dear ones i n i m a g i n -a t i o n , And, w i t h a heavy s i g h , I brushed the t e a r s a w a y . ^ Above, F e i L i e n , the Wind God and c e l e s t i a l companion, hovers w h i l e the s p i r i t of the Marchioness pauses i n i t s sadness, w a i t i n g , f o r the s p i r i t t o resume i t s t r a v e l s . C o n t i n u i n g on i t s j o u r n e y , as the s p i r i t approaches the n i n t h and f i n a l gateway t o heaven's p a l a c e , i t encounters Heaven's p o r t e r s . An Chih-min r e j e c t s t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . o f t h e s e two f i g u r e s as Heaven's p o r t e r s i n f a v o r o f Ta Ssu-ming the G r e a t e r Master o f F a t e , and 5 8 Shao Ssu-ming • f f ) ^ ^ , the L e s s e r Master o f F a t e . B o t h d e i t i e s are d e s c r i b e d i n the Ch'u Tz'u, "Chiu Ko" as gods of d e s t i n y , the former c o n t r o l l i n g one's l i f e span and the 59 l a t t e r m i s f o r t u n e and h a p p i n e s s . I t would not be out o f k e e p i n g , however,, g i v e n the c o m p l e x i t y o f t h i s p a i n t i n g , t o view th e s e two s e n t i n e l s as b o t h Heaven's p o r t e r s and as t h e gods o f d e s t i n y . Who, a s s u r e d l y , . w o u l d be b e t t e r p o r t e r s 6 0 than Ta Ssu-ming and Shao Ssu-ming? Two o t h e r f i g u r e s . , however, may a l s o be drawn i n t o t h i s c i r c l e o f g u a r d i a n s . These are Shen Shu ( a l s o r e a d as Shen T'u) and YU LU "t^  ( a l s o r e a d as YU L e i ) , the peach-wood gods. They are mentioned i n s e v e r a l Han and post-Han commentaries, and the legends a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them are a t t r i b u t e d o r i g i n a l l y t o the Shan Hai Ching ( i n w h i c h , however, the s t o r y no l o n g e r appears i n e x t a n t v e r s i o n s o f t h i s t e x t ) : I n the m i d s t o f the e a s t e r n sea t h e r e i s Tu-so AL ft (Cros s i n g the New Year) M o u n t a i n , on which t h e r e i s an enormous peach t r e e , w hich t w i s t s and c o i l s i t s way over a d i s t a n c e o f t h r e e thousand li M> . Between i t s b r a n c h e s , on the n o r t h e a s t , t h e r e i s what i s c a l l e d the Gate o f - 8 1 -Demons {kuei men %^ ^ ) , i n andoo.ut of which pass a m y r i a d demons. Above thes e are two d i v i n e b e i n g s , one c a l l e d Shen.Shu, the o t h e r Yu Lu. They watch and c o n t r o l the m y r i a d demons, and those t h a t are e v i l and h a r m f u l they s e i z e w i t h r u s h ropes and f e e d t o t i g e r s . T h i s b e i n g s o , the Y e l l o w S o v e r e i g n (Huang T i ) has p r e p a r e d a r i t u a l f o r t h e i r s e a s o n a l e x p u l s i o n , i n which l a r g e peachwood f i g u r e s a r e s e t up. ( R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f ) Shen Shu and Yu L f l , as w e l l as o f t i g e r s , are p a i n t e d on gates and d o o r s , and r u s h ropes are hung up., so as t o ward o f f ( e v i l demons)• I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h i s peach t r e e , l i k e the fu-sang t r e e , grows i n the e a s t , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s p r i n g and the dragon. The e a s t i s the p l a c e where the b i r t h o f t h e u n i -v e r s ' s r e j u v e n a t i o n o c c u r s ; the s p r i n g i s the season o f t h i s . B oth h e r a l d the a s c e n t o f the supremacy of the yang over the yin, of r e b i r t h over d e a t h . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t i g e r s and peach t r e e imagery as the f o r m e r , l i k e t he l e o p a r d , not o n l y devours m a l e v o l e n t s p i r i t s , but i s , as a l r e a d y seen, one o f the p r i n c i p a l yang o r d e r l i e s . More-o v e r , the f r u i t o f the peach t r e e i s b e l i e v e d t o be the 6 2 sustenance o f i m m o r t a l i t y and a^demo.nlfuge } thus r e i n f o r c i n g the i d e a o f t h e s o u l , i t s e l f s e e k i n g t h i s , e x i s t e n c e , b e i n g summoned. There can be l i t t l e doubt i n the p r o f o u n d b e l i e f i n - 8 2 -the e x o r c i s i n g powers of the peach t r e e and peach t r e e ima-gery. A c c o r d i n g t o the Li Chi, When a r u l e r went t o the mourning r i t e s f o r a m i n i s t e r , he. took w i t h him a s o r c e r e r w i t h a peach-wand,'an o f f i c e r o f p r a y e r w i t h h i s r u s h (-brush), and a l a n c e - b e a r e r , - d i s l i k i n g ( t h e p r e s e n c e of d e a t h ) , and t o make h i s appearance d i f f e r e n t from (what i t was a t ) any a f f a i r o f l i f e . I n the mourning r i t e s i t i s d eath t h a t i s d e a l t w i t h , and the a n c i e n t k i n g s f e l t i t d i f f i c u l t t o speak of t h i s . g ^ The peach t r e e was employed as a t a l i s m a n a g a i n s t the i n -f l i c t i o n s o f s p e c t r e s . Not o n l y t h e n can the two s e a t e d p o r t e r s be l i n k e d w i t h the s t o r y o f t h e peach t r e e gods, but the e f f i c a c i o u s powers o f the peach'tree a r e " r e i n t r o d u c e d " i n the tomb f u r n i s h i n g s . T h i r t y - t h r e e peach-wood images were r e c o v e r e d from the Ma-wang-tui t r e a s u r e s . These were c o n s p i c u o u s l y p l a c e d , l i k e the f e i - i , on the l i d o f t h e 64 innermost c a s k e t , but a t i t s f o o t . T h i s i s the y%n r e g i o n o f the banner p a i n t i n g , and thus t h e s e p i e c e s o f peach-wood, as yang m e r i t s , can be viewed as a . c o n t r a s t i n g f o r c e a g a i n s t the yin. C l e a r l y , the imagery e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s banner p a i n t i n g r e l a t e s t o t h e customs and ceremonies o f Chinese, b u r i a l s : \ a n d d eath. F a i l i n g i n t h e i r a ttempts t o r e j o i n the b e i and the shen, a means must be p r o v i d e d f o r the s a f e a s c e n s i o n o f the hun elements t o heaven. The numerous l e v e l s , o f i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s and i n s i g h t s found i n the. Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g e x h i b i t s a g r a t i f y i n g o p p o r t u n i t y t o examine a n c i e n t Chinese e s c h a t o l o g y . We have seen how the images, p a r t i c u -l a r l y t he dragons, s e r v e as a modus operandi i n the a s c e n -s i o n o f the s o u l and i t s d e s i r e t o a c h i e v e i m m o r t a l i t y . Once p r o c e e d i n g beyond the Ch'ang Ho, the s p i r i t may be under-s t o o d as h a v i n g o b t a i n e d such a g o a l . I n the case of the M a r c h i o n e s s , i t can be assumed t h a t she w i l l succeed. The Ch'ang Ho i s open, and the l e o p a r d s remount t h e i r p o s t s , p e r m i t t i n g her s p i r i t t o e n t e r the i n n e r sanctum o f the 65 T a o i s t p a r a d i s e . Having g a i n e d e n t r a n c e i n t o the i n n e r p a r a d i s e , the s o u l ' s metempsychosis i s n e a r l y complete. Chow has suggested t h a t the female f i g u r e on the Y i n g Lung f l e e i n g t o the moon o n l y a l l u d e s t o the s t o r y o f Ch'ang 0, but i n f a c t r e p r e s e n t s the deceased i n her t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . ^ T h i s i s v e r y p o s s i b l e . However, such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n would t i e the deceased t o the yin f o r c e s , and w i t h o u t the a c t u a l presence o f Hou I beneath the sun, t h i s would c r e a t e an imbalance. A more a p p r o p i a t e k e n n i n g f o r the M a r c h i o n e s s ' s p i r i t i s made man-i f e s t i n the f i g u r e o f the Chu Lung. I t s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the. sun/moon/Chu Lung t r i n i t y demonstrates i t s embodiment of b o t h the yin and the yang f o r c e s , thus s i g n i f y i n g t he harmony o f the u n i v e r s e w i t h i n i t s e l f . I n t h i s v i e w , the Chu Lung would be a b e t t e r a p o t h e o s i s f o r the Mar c h i o n e s s of T ' a i t h a n the image o f Ch'ang 0. The female c h a r a c t e r o f the Chu L u n g . i s a l s o o f i n t e r e s t i n n o t i n g t h a t the tomb occupant, i.e., the Mar c h i o n e s s o f -84-.. T ' a i , i s . female.. As mentioned i n Chapter I I I , the Chu Lung was g i v e n s t e w a r d s h i p over, the banner p a i n t i n g ' s images. There would seem, t h e r e f o r e , t o be an i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n between the Marchioness,.. the image of the Chu Lung, and the female gender. Moreover, as s t a t e d i n Chapter I I , s c h o l a r s have i d e n t i f i e d the Chu Lung f i g u r e as a l s o p o s s i b l y r e p r e -s e n t i n g e i t h e r Fu H s i or Nil Kua. Between th e s e two mytho-l o g i c a l f i g u r e s , the l a t t e r would be more a p p r o p r i a t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t o f the female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and q u a l i t i e s o f t h i s f i g u r e as o u t l i n e d above. What may be p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e , i n t h i s human/snake f i g u r e o f the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g i s a composite m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f s e v e r a l e n t i t i e s . As Nil Kua, the p r i m o r d a l a n c e s t o r o f the f e m a l e / ^ i n elements o f t h e u n i v e r s e , the f i g u r e under d i s c u s s i o n r e p r e s e n t s b o t h the c r e a t o r o f the u n i v e r s e and an a s p e c t of the u n i v e r s e — i . e . , the yin. As the Chu Lung, not o n l y i s the f i g u r e an e x p r e s s i o n o f the element f i r e from the wu hsing d o c t r i n e o f the u n i v e r s e , but l i k e w i s e e x p r e s s e s the e t e r n a l c o n t i n u i t y o f the workings of the u n i v e r s e , as n e c e s s i t a t e d by the yin/yang t h e o r y o f the T a o i s t macrocosm. As the M a r chioness of T ' a i i n her a p o t h e o s i s , the f i g u r e a c c e n t s the c o m p l e t i o n of the s o u l ' s metempsychosis and .. a l s o i n d i c a t e s an a t a v i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . ^ The l a s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s w a r r a n t e d g i v e n the a n c e s t r a l m o t i v a t i o n s o f much o f Chinese w o r s h i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p a c i f y i n g a deceased's s o u l so as not so much t o r e c e i v e i t s b e n e v o l e n c e , - 8 5 -but so as t o ward o f f i t s m a l e v o l e n c e . I n t h i s manner i t i s hoped t o a s s e r t a i n f o r e v e r a p e a c e f u l e x i s t e n c e on-the p a r t o f t h e s u r v i v o r s . Thus, the human/snake f i g u r e , as the, m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f s e v e r a l nuances of Chinese cosmolo-g i c a l t h o u g h t , c o n c e p t s , and b e l i e f s , i s a r e f e r e n c e t o the. Chinese p e r s i s t e n c e of. s e c u r i n g the good w i l l o f the s o u l . I n i d e n t i f y i n g the f i g u r e o f the Chu Lung as t h e . a p o t h e o s i s o f the M a r chioness of T ' a i , the images o f the cranes can be i n c l u d e d as. e v i d e n c e . A symbol of the Chinese 6 8 s o u l i s the b i r d . Capable of l e a v i n g the e a r t h and m i g r a t i n g i n the s k i e s , i t can be l i k e n e d unto the a s c e n t o f the s o u l . I n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , the c e l e s t i a l b i r d s a r e the cranes whose c o n f i g u r a t i o n and 2:3 ratio... r e s t a t e the d u a l i t y of e x i s t e n c e found i n the Chu Lung. T h i s 2:3 r a t i o i s r e p e a t e d t w i c e more i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g - - i n the M a r c h i o n e s s ' a t t e n d a n t s and the two hu, t h r e e ting v e s s e l s i n the f u n e r a l ceremony w i t h the mourners. T h i s r a t i o , i t s i m p o r t a n c e i n Chinese numerology, and w i t h i n the yin/yang t h e o r y o f the T a o i s t u n i v e r s e has a l r e a d y been e x p l o r e d . Some c o n f l i c t would seem t o e x i s t , however, i n t h i s m a t t e r w i t h the a t t e n d a n t f i g u r e s . Two i s yin, and t h r e e i s yang. Male i s yang, and female i s yin. Yet i n the 2:3 r a t i o o f the a t t e n d a n t s , t h e r e are two male f i g u r e s vs. t h r e e female female f i g u r e s . T h i s o s t e n s i b l y i s a c o n t r a -d i c t i o n . o f the yin/yang theory.. However, i t must be - 8 6 -remembered t h a t the tomb occupant i s female., and the f e m i n i n e q u a l i t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the banner images (e.g., the Chu Lung) would p e r m i t t h i s apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n g i v e n the s p e c i f i c s o f the M a r c h i o n e s s ' tomb and her banner p a i n t i n g . R e g a r d i n g the p o s t u r e of the cranes f l a n k i n g the Chu Lung, o r n i t h o l o g i s t s , have observed t h a t t h i s b i r d engages i n a c a l l o f r e c o g n i t i o n and a s s e r t i o n . T h i s i s t h e so-c a l l e d " u n i s o n c a l l . " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s c a l l i s the t h r u s t i n g of t h e head backwards, e x p o s i n g the secondary f e a t h e r s beneath the neck w h i l e w i l d l y , y e t j o y o u s l y , 70 s i n g i n g . P r i n c i p l e moments of t h i s c a l l are the a s s e r t i o n o f t e r r i t o r i a l b o u n d a r i e s and the r e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s l i f e -l o n g mate. I n . t h i s l i g h t , w i t h the Chu Lung r e p r e s e n t i n g the M a r c h i o n e s s , the c r a n e s , as symbols of the s o u l , may be u nderstood.as b e i n g engaged i n an a c t o f r e c o g n i t i o n toward the M a r c h i o n e s s i n her metempsychosis, summoning her s o u l t o i t s f i n a l r e s t i n g p l a c e . T h i s i s the c a l l i n g o f her soul.'. The Chu Lung and i t s cranes t h e r e f o r e can be seen as the s o u l i n two s t a t e s o f being'.. As the c r a n e , symbol of l o n g e v i t y , the group r e p r e s e n t s the s o u l i n t r a n s i t i o n from an e a r t h l y s t a t e t o i t s c e l e s t i a l s t a t e . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , the two c ranes above the b e l l can be examined. I t i s not c l e a r from the a v a i l a b l e r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . whether the .^twor.- . b i r d s above the b e l l / i n c e n s e image are engaged i n some s o r t of - 8 7 -f i r e r i t u a l . The o u t l i n e d r awing of the banner p u b l i s h e d i n t he a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e p o r t , however, does not d e p i c t f l a m e s . (Figure 2) We would l i k e t o suggest t h a t t h e s e two cr a n e s are i n h a l i n g i n c e n s e , i n c e n s e from an i n s t r u m e n t (on top of the b e l l ) s i m i l a r t o a po-shan-lu ^ or h i l l c e n s e r . B e r t h o l d L a u f e r has c o g e n t l y argued t h a t t h e s e h i l l 71 c e n s e r s r e p r e s e n t P'eng L a i . I f t h i s i s a c c e p t e d , t h e n i d e n t i f y i n g the vapours r i s i n g from the Ma-wang-tui b u r n e r as i n c e n s e from a po-shan-lu would u n i t e two d i s t i n c t , but r e l a t e d , c o n c e p t s . As an i n c e n s e b u r n e r r e p r e s e n t i n g P'eng L a i , i t s i g n i f i e s the T a o i s t quest f o r i m m o r t a l i t y a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h t h i s i s l e . As the c r a n e , i t s e l f emblematic o f t h i s i m m o r t a l i t y and symbol o f the s o u l , t h e b r e a t h i n g o f the vapours from P'eng L a i f u s e s the two components o f i m m o r t a l i t y , and t h i s scene would thus a l s o r e p r e s e n t - the f i n a l s t a g e s i n the s o u l ' s metempsychosis. R e g a r d i n g the second s t a t e o f b e i n g w i t h the.Chu Lung, the group above the b u r n e r s y m b o l i z e s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the s o u l i n t o an i m m o r t a l , e n l i g h t e n e d and r e u n i t e d w i t h the Great U n i t y . T h i s i s a p t l y e p i t o m i z e d i n the c o n c l u d i n g c o u p l e t from the Ch'u Tz'u, "YUan Yu": " T r a n s c e n d i n g I n a c t i o n , I came t o P u r i t y / And e n t e r e d t h e neighborhood 7 3 of the Great B e g i n n i n g . " CHAPTER V ARTISTIC ATTITUDES AND STYLISTIC QUALITIES IN EARLY CHINESE ART The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s have examined t h e s y m b o l i c c o n t e n t o f the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g and the i c o n o l o g i c a l importance o f the images I n an attempt t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e numerous l e v e l s o f meanings o f f e r e d . I t i s the i n t e n t o f t h i s c h a p t e r t o examine the a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s and s t y l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s e x h i b i t e d i n the p a i n t i n g i n an attempt t o u n d e r s t a n d , and t h e r e b y d e f i n e , t h e s e i s s u e s i n e a r l y Chinese a r t as p a r t i c u l a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . A l t h o u g h many o f the Ma-wang-tui images are w e l l -known s y m b o l i c a l l y , t h e r e a re a l s o i n s t a n c e s o f a nascent p i c t o r i a l i s m w hich have no p r i m a r y s y m b o l i c c o n t e n t . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l seek t o separate.': -febe-^ comparative d i s t i n c t i o n s and d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e two a r t i s t i c modes. While i t i s hazardous t o p e r c e i v e t h e s e d i s t i n c -t i o n s between the s y m b o l i c and p i c t o r i a l e l e m e n t s , both w i t h i n the. Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g i t s e l f and w i t h i n t h e bro a d e r spectrum o f Chinese a r t h i s t o r y , as b e i n g d e f i n i -t i v e l y d i s t i n c t , the Ma-wang-tui images may, w i t h some degree o f c l a r i t y and persuasion., be a s s i g n e d t o one -88-- 8 9 -a r t i s t i c mode or the o t h e r . I n e x amining the d i f f e r e n c e s i n a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s and c o n c e p t i o n s between the s y m b o l i c and the p i c t o r i a l , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o draw upon o t h e r works of a r t b o t h a n t e r i o r and p o s t e r i o r t o the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g and i t s 'terminus ante quern o f oa. 185 B.C. I n a s t r i c t , l i t e r a l sense t h e r e i s now o n l y one o t h e r e x t a n t p a i n t i n g on s i l k t h a t p r e d a t e s the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . T h i s i s the E a s t e r n Chou fragment p o r t r a y i n g a female f i g u r e i n an a c t o f s u p p l i c a t i o n beneath a phoenix and dragon f i g u r e s . (Plate 13) But t h i s l a c k o f s i l k p a i n t i n g m a t e r i a l s p r i o r t o the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g need not d e t e r us from our i n v e s t i -g a t i o n . I t w i l l be demonstrated t h a t w i t h i n o t h e r a r t i s t i c c a t e g o r i e s (e.g., p o t t e r y , bronze v e s s e l s , r e l i e f s c u l p t u r e ) , evidences" can be brought f o r w a r d t o a i d our e x a m i n a t i o n . I n d i s c u s s i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s between the a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s and concepts o f the s y m b o l i c and the p i c t o r i a l , v a r i o u s terms w i l l be used t h a t need t o be d e f i n e d at the o u t s e t . I n d i s c u s s i n g the s y m b o l i c images a l r e a d y n o t e d i n the above c h a p t e r s , (e.g., the s u n / b i r d image, the pi, dragons, etc.), the term h i e r a t i c can be a p p l i e d . W i l l i a m Watson p e r c e i v e s h i e r a t i c a r t as a s i n g u l a r development o f an a r t i s t i c s t y l e i n C h i n a , l o g i c a l and c o n t i n u o u s from, the b e g i n n i n g o f the bronze age t o the u n i f i c a t i o n under C h ' i n I n 221 B.C. A l t h o u g h v a r i a t i o n s i n m o t i f s c o n s t a n t l y o c c u r i n I t s development, the fundamental a t t i t u d e and - 9 0 -assumptions o f the a r t remained unaltered," 1" A c c o r d i n g t o Watson, h i e r a t i c a r t was produced f o r an a r i s t o c r a t i c r u l i n g c l a s s and r e f l e c t s the s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s t a s t e s , con-v i c t i o n s and p r e o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h i s s o c i e t y . I t i s an a r t form t h a t i s l a r g e l y dependant upon a r e l i g i o u s f o u n d a t i o n , g e n e r a l l y s a c r i f i c i a l i n n a t u r e , and v e r y l i k e l y d e r i v e d from the p r i e s t l y o r i e n t a t e d c l a s s and/or s o c i e t y o f e a r l y C h i n a . I t i s r e l i g i o u s i n i t s a f f i l i a t i o n s , and i t s images are c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d m o t i f s t h a t then come t o s y m b o l i z e and embody e i t h e r a r e l i g i o u s concept or a s p i r i t u a l e n t i t y , e.g., the Tao o r Nil Kua. An accompanying c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r a i t t o an h i e r a t i c a r t form i s i t s h i g h l y ornamental q u a l i t y . T h i s i s espe-c i a l l y t r u e where the m o t i f s are not f i g u r a t i v e but geo-m e t r i c i n d e s i g n . D e r i v e d from the e s s e n t i a l s o f a c i r c l e , square and t r i a n g l e , the a r t i s t i c f e a t u r e s a re v e r y o f t e n r e p e t i t i o u s . The i n d i v i d u a l m o t i f s a re r e p e a t e d t o form one, c o n t i n u o u s design-image. At ti m e s a b a s i c c o r e , s k e l e t a l d e s i g n i s r e p e a t e d w i t h m i n o r , a l t h o u g h o c c a s i o n a l l y major, i n f l e c t i o n s , e v o l u t i o n s and a l t e r a t i o n s t h a t s t i l l do n o t , however, t r a n s f o r m the d e s i g n image so s u b s t a n t i a l l y as t o produce one o f a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s or genre. But as Max Loehr has s t a t e d , the d e c o r a t i v e d e s i g n i n e a r l y Chinese a r t f u n c t i o n s i n the " e d u c a t i o n o f i m a g i n a t i o n , of v i s i o n , and i n the b u i l d i n g up o f / a_/. c o n s c i o u s n e s s " 2 of an a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e . T h i s a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e i s u s u a l l y r o o t e d t o the e s o t e r i c s . o f a r e l i g i o u s n a t u r e , e.g., - 9 1 -s a c r i f i c e . I n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , t h i s a s p e c t has been demonstrated w i t h i n the parameters o f T a o i s t and s h a m a n i s t i c concepts o f the yin and the yang, the wu hsing, the attempt t o r e c a l l the s o u l , the s o u l ' s quest f o r i m m o r t a l i t y , and the legends of P'eng L a i . These share i n common a r e l i g i o u s b a s i s , founded upon the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s o f s y m b o l i c images of a Chinese a r t v o c a b u l a r y . Opposed t o an a t t i t u d e bound w i t h i n the parameters of an h i e r a t i c , ornamental a r t t h a t i s l a r g e l y s y m b o l i c and r e l i g i o u s i s t h a t o f p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The a r t form i s not n e c e s s a r i l y concerned w i t h making a r e l i g i o u s s t a t e m e n t , nor i s i t n e c e s s a r i l y l a r g e l y s y m b o l i c . I n s t e a d , the concerns a r e towards a n a t u r a l i s m t o s u g g e s t , i n Loehr's p h r a s e , a " p l a s t i c f a c s i m i l e " o f an o b j e c t drawn 3 from n a t u r e . P i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r i s e s d u r i n g the Han w i t h a change i n the a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e i n Chinese a r t t h a t then f o c u s e s i t s a t t e n t i o n s and concerns upon r e p r e -s e n t i n g an o b j e c t as i t e x i s t s i n n a t u r e ( i . e . , I n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e ) , f a i r l y d i v o r c e d from s y m b o l i c o v e r t o n e s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e i s a complementary r e d u c t i o n i n s t y l i z a t i o n so as t o r e n d e r the o b j e c t more a c c u r a t e l y — i . e . , more n a t u r a l i s t i c a l l y . D u r i n g the t r a n s i t i o n from one a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e t o a n o t h e r , however, i n s t a n c e s o f t h e i r c o - e x i s t e n c e are t o be found. With the development of the new a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e o f p i c t o r i a l a r t , a newer a r t i s t i c means at e x p r e s s i n g t h i s a t t i t u d e must a l s o d e v e l o p . However, - 9 2 -whenever the. problems of n a t u r a l i s m ( i . e . , the "shape of r e a l phenomena" ) were too advanced i n t h i s development of a new a r t i s t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e s e problems may be s o l v e d , t e m p o r a r i l y at l e a s t , w i t h i n the a r t i s t i c framework of the o l d e r a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e o f s y m b o l i c a r t . Thus w h i l e the a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e i s c h a n g i n g , t h e r e may s t i l l be some l i n g e r i n g c o n t a m i n a t i o n i n the means ( i . e . , the s t y l e or t e c h n i q u e ) of m a n i f e s t i n g , t h i s new c o n c e r n f o r p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n g e n e r a l , p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n tends t o be f i g u r a t i v e and thus n a t u r a l i s m i s an i n t e g r a l c o n c e r n . There i s an attempt t o suggest the l i v i n g s u b s t a n c e of the f i g u r e s via a c o g n i z a n c e of the fundamentals of a c o r p o r e a l r oundness, t o suggest a p l a s t i c i t y o f form a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a f l u i d i t y o f l i n e and the p r o p e r t i e s o f c o l o u r h i g h l i g h t i n g . A comparison between the wings of the Y i n g Lung beneath the moon and the c o l o u r h i g h l i g h t i n g o f heaven's p o r t e r from the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g w i l l a d e q u a t e l y demonstrate the c o l o u r d i f f e r e n c e s between the s y m b o l i c and the p i c t o r i a l . (Plate 3) Whereas the c o l o u r t r a n s i t i o n s i n the d e p i c t i o n o f the p o r t e r s are g r a d u a l , t h o s e on the wings of the Y i n g Lung are a b r u p t , more p r e c i s e and c l e a r c u t . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some amount of c o l o u r b l e e d i n g I n the l a t t e r , t h e r e i s no s u g g e s t i o n of a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l q u a l i t y . The changes between the w h i t e , r e d and gray c o l o u r s are d i s t i n c t i v e and d e c o r a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n e f f i c a c i o u s o f a p l a s t i c form. I n -93-the c o n t r a s t s a c h i e v e d i n the s y m b o l i c and p i c t o r i a l s t y l i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s , the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g gives, f u r t h e r t e s t i -mony t o the l e v e l of the a r t s of China d u r i n g the Western Han p e r i o d . The same p r i n c i p l e o f c o l o u r c o n t r a s t s e x h i -b i t e d i n the Y i n g Lung can be a l s o a p p l i e d t o the F e i L i e n and the canopy of heaven w i t h the two phoenixes and f l e u r -d e - l i s image, a l l o f which are s y m b o l i c i n c h a r a c t e r . The p l a s t i c i t y o f a c o r p o r e a l roundness suggested by l i n e a r d e l i n e a t i o n s can be seen i n the image o f the Chu Lung. (Plate 3) I t i s a tour de force i n the o v e r l a p p i n g and j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f forms t h a t weaves i t s e l f almost i n t o a k n o t . S t r e s s s h o u l d be made, however, t h a t the mere o v e r l a p p i n g or j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f forms does not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s t i t u t e an i n g r e d i e n t o f p i c t o r i a l a r t . A l t h o u g h i n the s t r i c t e s t d e f i n i t i o n s o f space and. d e p t h , one form p l a c e d i n f r o n t o f an o t h e r c r e a t e s a space d i f f e r e n t i a l , many o f the i n s t a n c e s where t h i s o c c u r s i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g (e.g., the Chu Lung), s t i l l adhere t o an o l d e r t r a d i t i o n of f l a t n e s s and t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . The con c e r n i s more d e c o r a t i v e and o r n a m e n t a l , and tends not t o d e a l w i t h u n i f i e d images o c c u p y i n g m u l t i p l e and/or i n f i n i t e p l a n e s . There i s not t h a t t r a n s i t i o n i n the image toward the i n f i n i t e i n the s u b t l e t y o f s u c c e s s i v e p l a n e s . The Chu Lung i s c o n c e i v e d as a f l a t , s i n g u l a r u n i t . No d i s t i n c t i o n ; : i s made, f o r example, between the r e d c o l l a r . o f t h i s f i g u r e ' s under-garment and the snake's t a i l as i t passes b e h i n d the head of t h i s composite f i g u r e . The t r a n s i t i o n from snake's t a i l -9^ t o undergarment i s d i f f i c u l t t o p e r c e i v e as i t l a c k s the s u g g e s t i o n of a p l a s t i c form i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , and the i l l u s i o n o f depth i f t h e r e f o r e l a c k i n g . B u t , encompassed w i t h i n t h i s human/snake f i g u r e i s e v i d e n c e of a p i c t o r i a l g e r m i n a t i o n . The l i n e s o f the human as p e c t of t h i s f i g u r e , a l t h o u g h p a i n t e d e v e n l y , are f r e e - f l o w i n g . T h e i r c u r v i l i n e a r i t y s uggests the body beneath i t s robe. The f a l l o f t h i s robe over the f i g u r e ' s arms and the t u c k i n g o f the ends beneath the l e g s b o t h enhances and e n l i v e n s t h i s image w i t h a sense of a b o d i l y s u b s t a n c e . P a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l are the f o l d s d e l i n e -a t i n g the r i g h t s h o u l d e r and arm where the a t t e n u a t e d "S" forms of t h e l i n e s r e c o g n i z e the i n d i v i d u a l f o l d s o f the d r a p e r y , t h e r e b y a l s o s u g g e s t i n g the arm.hidden beneath. I n the p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n o f the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g and from the photographs a v a i l a b l e t o the West, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine u n e q u i v o c a l l y whether or not a scheme of h i g h l i g h t i n g and s h a d i n g has been a p p l i e d t o the human/snake f i g u r e . D e s p i t e i t s i n t a c t s t a t e o f p r e s e r -v a t i o n , the d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o l o u r on the robe may be due n o n e t h e l e s s t o the ravages of t i m e . But t h i s cannot be s a i d of the two men s i t t i n g at the base of the two t o w e r s . Areas t h a t might c o n c e i v a b l y be p e r c e i v e d as decayed on one of the f i g u r e s are m i r r o r e d i n h i s companion. As the p a i n t i n g was not f o l d e d i n h a l f when p l a c e d i n the tomb but l a i d out f l a t , , the s y m m e t r i c a l l y . d i s p l a c e d "decayed" areas must be - 9 5 -5 i n s t a n c e s of c o l o u r h i g h l i g h t i n g . L i k e the human/snake f i g u r e above, the l i n e s of the robes o f the two men a t the base of the towers a d e q u a t e l y summarize the body h i d d e n , and the sweep o f the ends o f the robe over the f o l d e d knees a i d t h i s f e e l i n g o f c o r p o r e a l i t y . Moreover, the r e d u n d e r l i n i n g b r i g h t e n s the f i g u r e s and c r e a t e s a dichotomous c o n t r a s t w i t h the more somber c o l o u r i n g of the r o b e s ' e x t e r i o r . But even here no s a c r i f i c e i s made t o a p r o s a i s m o f e x e c u t i o n , and the s u b t l e changes between c o l o u r f i e l d s go f a r t o imbue t h e s e f i g u r e s w i t h a sense of b r e a t h . The c o l o u r t r a n s i t i o n s from t h e w h i t e h i g h -l i g h t i n g near the s h o u l d e r s t o the b l u e sweep o f the f i g u r e s ' lower back and p o s t e r i o r s are g r a d u a l l y a c h i e v e d i n the nebulous gray areas between t h e s e two c o l o u r s , s u g g e s t i n g the p l a s t i c i t y and volume o f the human body. I n p i c t o r i a l a r t , a sense o f space i n e v i t a b l y a l s o emerges. An a r t c o n c e i v e d w i t h i n the domain o f n a t u r a l phenomena l o g i c a l l y a d d r e s ses i t s e l f toward a co n c e r n f o r a f i g u r a t i v e r e a l i t y vs. the d e c o r a t i v e f a n t a s y o f an h i e r a t i c a r t . The space of t h i s r e a l i t y i s t h e s e t t i n g of an environment, or the space o f an ambience. U n l i k e t h e d e c o r a t i v e n a t u r e o f an h i e r a t i c a r t t h a t i s g e n e r a l l y f r i e z e - l i k e i n e x e c u t i o n and where the images and m o t i f s e x i s t o n l y on the s u r f a c e p l a n e w i t h no i n t e n t or attempt t o p e n e t r a t e t h i s s u r f a c e toward the i n f i n i t e , t h e r e i s i n the a r t of p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a sense of a f r e e e x i s -t ence o f a s p a t i a l a r e n a , even i f o n l y as a s p a t i a l c e l l . - 9 6 -The d e c o r a t i v e , f a n t a s y o f an h i e r a t i c a r t tends t o i s o l a t e an image and/or m o t i f which compels a s i n g u l a r and p a r t i -c u l a r p o i n t o f view. The image i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h i n an e x i s t e n c e o f a f f i r m e d d e c o r a t i o n and not w i t h i n the s p a t i a l e x i s t e n c e o f a n a t u r a l r e a l i t y . A nother example from the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g o f t h i s f i g u r a t i v e r e a l i t y vs. d e c o r a t i v e f a n t a s y can be seen i n the p o r t r a i t scene o f the Marchioness w i t h h er a t t e n d a n t s , F e i L i e n and the canopy o f heaven f i g u r e s above. (Plate 4) R i c h a r d Edwards has r e c e n t l y argued t h a t t h e s e f i g u r e s c o n s t i t u t e a s y m b o l i c l a n d s c a p e — a l a n d s c a p e " s e e m i n g l y o f v a s t e x t e n s i o n , grasped as encompassing f i x e d d i r e c t i o n s , something s e p a r a t e d from u s , something out t h e r e t h a t can o n l y be r e p r e s e n t e d as symbol."^ But the c r e a t i o n o f space i n t h i s scene w i t h the M a r c h i o n e s s , w h i l e d e c i d e d l y i n f l u -enced by the l a r g e , open a r e a above her i n which F e i L i e n h o v e r s , i s a c h i e v e d more by v a r i o u s p i c t o r i a l elements f o c u s e d w i t h i n the human f i g u r e s t h e m s e l v e s , r a t h e r t h a n by the s y m b o l i c meanings o f the images o r the emptiness o f an u n d e c o r a t e d a r e a . I n a l l s i x o f the human f i g u r e s , t h e i r r o b e s , l i k e t he f i g u r e s i n the. crossbar., are o u t l i n e d i n b l a c k l i n e s . But a degree of c o r p o r e a l i t y i s r e a l i z e d i n t h e s e f i g u r e s , a l b e i t more so i n the female a t t e n d a n t s t h a n i n the male s e r v a n t s . L i k e the human a s p e c t s o f the composite f i g u r e o f the Chu Lung and heavens' p o r t e r s , the i n d i v i d u a l f o l d s o f the robes are m a s t e r f u l l y r e n d e r e d , and t h e i r d e l i n e a t i o n s i n t u r n s u f f i c i e n t l y suggest t h e human body bene a t h . There i s a p l a u s i b l e h i n t of a p l a s t i c i t y , of a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be drawn t o the l i n e a r d e l i n e -a t i o n s o f the robes of the female f i g u r e s t h a t seem t o be wrapped around . t h e i r l e g s . T h i s sense of w r a p p i n g , formed by a t t e n u a t e d "S" l i n e s l a t e r a l l y a r r a n g e d , s l i g h t l y c y l i n -d r i c a l i n e f f e c t , adds t o the i l l u s i o n of a t h r e e - d i m e n -s i o n a l p l a s t i c i t y . The human f i g u r e s are a l s o p l a c e d a c c o r d i n g t o an a s y m m e t r i c a l scheme t h a t i n terms of time b e l i e s an e t e r n i t y and s t r e s s e s the i n c i d e n t a l . Foremost i n t h i s i s the 2 : 3 r a t i o o f the a t t e n d a n t f i g u r e s . ( T h i s n u m e r i c a l asymmetry i s a l s o r e p e a t e d i n the f u n e r a r y scene below, not o n l y w i t h the hu and ting v e s s e l s , but more i m p o r t a n t l y i n the seven mourners w i t h t h e i r 4 : 3 asymmetry.) U n l i k e the. r i g i d l y f r o n t a l F e i L i e n , the M a r chioness and her a t t e n d a n t s are seen i n p r o f i l e . Whereas F e i ' L i e n et al. have a s i n g u l a r v i e w i n g p o i n t and a f f i r m d e c o r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s , the M a r c h i o n e s s et al.3 by b e i n g t u r n e d s i d e w a y s , c r e a t e , a sense of t i m e , a moment—an i n c i d e n t — d r a w n from the con-tinuum of t i m e ' s p r o g r e s s i o n . What i s e v i d e n t i n the F e i L i e n group i s a r i g i d sym-metry t h a t e s t a b l i s h e s an o r d e r and p r e c i s i o n t h a t i s e t e r n a l i n t i m e . These f i g u r e s are s y m b o l i c of an e t e r n i t y t h a t r e f l e c t s an a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s t r i v i n g t o m a i n t a i n i t s e x i s t e n c e by the r i g i d i t y of s y m b o l i c forms, m o t i f s and images. They are h i e r a t i c i n c o n c e p t , d e c o r a t i v e i n d e s i g n , - 9 8 -s y m b o l i c . i n a t t i t u d e . The composite f i g u r e o f the Chu Lung i s a good example of t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s o f asymmetry, symmetry, time and t h r e e -d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . (Plate 3) We_ have noted the c o r p o r e a l roundness e v i d e n t i n the human a s p e c t s o f the Chu Lung as opposed t o the f l a t , d e c o r a t i v e q u a l i t y o f i t s r e p t i l i a n t a i l . Moreover, the human f i g u r e of the Chu Lung i s t u r n e d a t a s l i g h t p r o f i l e vi.e-w:, whereas the t a i l i s seen f r o n t a l l y . Thus t h i s composite image d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between the s y m b o l i c and the p i c t o r i a l a t t i t u d e s i n e a r l y Chinese a r t i n i t s humanoid and r e p t i l i a n a s p e c t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . D i a g o n a l l i n e s a l s o a i d a f i g u r a t i v e r e a l i t y . They ar e one o f the more b a s i c , r u d i m e n t a r y a r t i s t i c d e v i c e s t o suggest a r e c e s s i o n i n t o t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l space on a two-d i m e n s i o n a l s u r f a c e . The d i a g o n a l l i n e o f the i n c l i n e d ramp l e a d i n g t o the M a r c h i o n e s s ' p l a t f o r m thus p e r m i t s a r e a d i n g o f t h i s p l a t f o r m as i n the d i s t a n c e and not merely as above on a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l p l a n e . Another i n s t a n c e o f a d i a g o n a l l i n e from the M a r c h i o n e s s ' group i s i n the female a t t e n d a n t s who a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e a p r i n c i p l e o f o v e r l a p p i n g — a n o t h e r r u d i m e n t a r y element o f r e c e s s i o n . Moreover, t o c r e a t e b e t t e r the i l l u s i o n o f r e c e s s i o n and thus t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l space on a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l s u r -f a c e , the female a t t e n d a n t s d i m i n i s h i n s i z e . The a t t e n d a n t at the l e f t end o f t h i s group i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e r i n s t a t u r e than the m i d d l e f i g u r e , who i n t u r n i s s h o r t e r than the f i g u r e a t the r i g h t s i d e . Moreover,, i n t h e i r o v e r l a p p i n g , - 9 9 -the d i s t a n c e s between the s e f i g u r e s a re not r e g u l a r or e q u a l . T h i s i r r e g u l a r i t y i n s i z e and d i s t a n c e a re an I n t e -g r a l p a r t o f the a s y m m e t r i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h i s group as d i s c u s s e d above. I n comparison, F e i L i e n et al. are r i g i d i n t h e i r symmetry, i s o l a t e d i n t i m e — i n an e t e r n i t y o f symbolism. C a u t i o n s h o u l d , however, a l s o be noted here i n r e g a r d s t o the d i a g o n a l arrangement o f the t h r e e female a t t e n d a n t s . A c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n of these f i g u r e s r e v e a l s t h a t w h i l e t h e r e i s some degree o f a s l o p e a l o n g the t o p o f t h e i r heads, the . p l a t f o r m p r e c l u d e s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s i m i l a r l i n e a l o n g t h e i r l e g s and f e e t . T h i s i s due t o the r i g i d h o r i z o n t a l i t y / o f the p l a t f o r m which f u n c t i o n s as a ground l i n e f o r the s e f i g u r e s and f o r the e n t i r e scene, i n c l u d i n g F e i L i e n and the canopy o f heaven. The l i n e o f female a t t e n d a n t s may the n be seen as an experiment i n the problems of r e c e s s i o n t h a t i n i t s t i m i d i t y i s , n o n e t h e l e s s , o n l y p a r t l y s u c c e s s f u l . C o l o u r l i k e w i s e c r e a t e s t h e i l l u s i o n o f depth. Some c o l o u r s t e n d , by t h e i r i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , t o s t a n d out more than o t h e r s . The female a t t e n d a n t s are c l o t h e d i n b e i g e , r e d and w h i t e robes r e s p e c t i v e l y from l e f t t o r i g h t . White tends t o p r o j e c t t h i s l a s t f i g u r e . f o r w a r d i n t o the v i e w e r ' s space, s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p u s h i n g the c o l o u r r e d i n t o the d i s -t a n c e . T h i s p u s h / p u l l system i s a g a i n r e p e a t e d between the middle and l e f t f i g u r e s . The seven mourners b e s i d e the M a r c h i o n e s s ' c a t a f a l q u e • «100-a l s o e x h i b i t s i m i l a r r e c e s s i o n a l q u a l i t i e s as the t h r e e female a t t e n d a n t s t o the M a r c hioness above, b o t h i n terms o f d i a g o n a l s and c o l o u r . More i m p o r t a n t , however, i s t h e genre c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s scene. I t . i s a f u n e r a r y ceremony t h a t , w h i l e r e l i g i o u s i n f u n c t i o n , .is r e a l i s t i c i n d e p i c -t i o n . The u t e n s i l s are based upon a c t u a l h o u sehold a r t i c l e s . The mourners are not e s o t e r i c symbols of d e a t h , but l i v i n g f u n c t i o n a r i e s . I n the r e m a i n i n g images on'-the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , the v a r i o u s c r e a t u r e s are s y m b o l i c i n t h e i r i n t e n t and de-c o r a t i v e i n t h e i r e f f e c t . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n the g r a c e f u l c u r v e s of the dragons on the s h a f t o f the p a i n t i n g as they s t r e t c h upwards, r e a c h i n g f o r the canopy of heaven. I n t h e i r symmetry and symbolism, t h e s e dragons are l o c k e d i n t o an e t e r n i t y o f time and e x p r e s s an a t t i t u d e of d e c o r a t i o n . We have n o t e d th e elements of a s y m b o l i c and a p i c -t o r i a l a r t . f o r m as m a n i f e s t e d w i t h i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . T h i s p a i n t i n g s t a n d s at the c r o s s r o a d s i n e a r l y Chinese a r t between the t r a n s i t i o n s i n a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s from the s y m b o l i c . t o the p i c t o r i a l . In the remainder of t h i s c h a p t e r , we w i l l seek t o d e f i n e t h i s t r a n s i t i o n i n a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s and c o n c e p t i o n s as r e f l e c t e d i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . A n t e r i o r works of a r t t o be examined w i l l b e g i n w i t h a s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n o f the p a i n t e d . p o t t e r y of p r e - h i s t o r i c , n e o l i t h i c t i m e s . With the advent of the Shang 1?) Dynasty - 1 0 1 -(ca. 1550 - ca. 1 0 3 0 B.C.), China e n t e r e d her bronze age, and bronze v e s s e l s emerge as the predominant' a r t form t h a t then c o n t i n u e d i n t o the s u c c e e d i n g Chou p e r i o d . I n the Han d y n a s t y , we approach the. Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , and s e m i n a l i n s t a n c e s o f a s h i f t i n a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s began t o m a t e r i -a l i z e . T h i s new a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h i t s f o r m u l a t i v e s t a g e s p a r a l l e l t o ongoing remnants of an o l d e r a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n . . In t r a c i n g t h i s - development, we w i l l c o n c l u de our d i s c u s s i o n w i t h works d a t i n g a f t e r the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g and p r i o r t o the T'ang >% Dynasty (A.D. 6 l 8 - 9 0 6 ) , a f t e r which Chinese a r t moved i n t o a n o t h e r phase t h a t i s d i s t i n c t i v e from our concerns here and t h e r e -f o r e beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s . Among the e a r l i e s t a r t i s t i c works from China known t o s c h o l a r s are p a i n t e d p o t t e r y wares from n e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s such a s , among o t h e r s i t e s , Yang Shao, d i s c o v e r e d by 7 J . Gunnar Andersson i n 1 9 2 1 . (Plate 8) L i k e most of the wares from the Yang Shao p o t t e r y c u l t u r e , the d e s i g n i s g e o m e t r i c , but w i t h a l i n e a r v i v a c i t y and i n t e g r i t y t h a t approaches a c l a s s i c a l p e r f e c t i o n . T h i s a s s u r e d n e s s i n the dynamic movements of the b r u s h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Chinese and s u r v i v e s even i n t o our c e n t u r y . I n the Ma-wang-t u i p a i n t i n g , t h i s p r o p e r t y can be seen i n the a t t e n u a t e d "S" l i n e s o f the f i g u r e s ' r o b e s . Much of the Yang Shao p o t t e r y wares are mortuary urns and s e p u l c h r a l v e s s e l s . The d e s i g n s and d e c o r a t i v e p a t t e r n s on these v e s s e l s have been v a r i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d as -102-s y m b o l i c images of l i f e , d e ath and f e r t i l i t y by some g s c h o l a r s — A n d e r s s o n and Hanna Rydh. A l t h o u g h the t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e . g e o m e t r i c and s t y l i z e d p a t t e r n s i s s t i l l e n i g m a t i c , they may,, i f one a c c e p t s Andersson's and Rydh's arguments,, i n d i c a t e an e a r l y i n s t a n c e o f s y m b o l i c a r t i n C h i n a . China and her a r t e n t e r e d i t s f i r s t h i s t o r i c a l e r a under the Shang d y n a s t y . A w r i t i n g system based p r i m a r i l y upon p i c t o g r a p h s d e v e l o p e d , and the d i s c o v e r y and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of o r a c l e bones have e n a b l e d s c h o l a r s t o c o n s t r u c t an i n f o r -9 mative diagram of Shang c i v i l i z a t i o n . W i t h the Shang p e r i o d , t h e r e a l s o emerged i n China a s o p h i s t i c a t e d and h i g h l y developed bronze c u l t u r e c e n t e r e d a l o n g the Y e l l o w R i v e r . The most i m p o r t a n t s i t e s d i s c o v e r e d from the a r e a are Anyang, known i n China as Y i n (which i s t h e n o f t e n used as a s o b r i q u e t i n d i s c u s s i n g the Shang), the Shang c a p i t a l ca. 1300 - ca. 1000 B.C., and Cheng-chou, b e l i e v e d t o be the e a r l i e r Shang c a p i t a l o f Ao. Many of the bronze v e s s e l s are i n s c r i b e d , and t h e s e have proven v a l u a b l e as a u t h e n t i c e p i g r a p h i c r e c o r d s i n c o n f i r m i n g and s u p p l e m e n t i n g a n c i e n t Chinese h i s t o r y . Based upon t h e s e i n s c r i p t i o n s and an a n a l y s i s o f the s t y l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s o f the bronze v e s s e l s , v a r i o u s c h r o n o l o g i c a l formulae have i , . , 10 been d e v i s e d . Two t y p e s o f m o t i f s dominate the a r t i s t i c v o c a b u l a r y of a n c i e n t Chinese bronze v e s s e l s . They are a b s t r a c t , geo-m e t r i c p a t t e r n s , and zoomorphic elements. Loehr sees - 1 0 3 -no s y m b o l i c c o n t e n t t o these m o t i f s , p r e f e r r i n g i n s t e a d t o a p p r e c i a t e the v e s s e l s and. the d e s i g n s f o r t h e i r a r t i s t i c v i r t u e s o n l y . He views the v e s s e l s as " i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y m e a n i n g l e s s , or m e a n i n g f u l o n l y as pure form." The deco-r a t i v e o r n a m e n t a t i o n o f the Shang bronzes are p e r c e i v e d as d e s i g n elements o n l y , o f a "form based on form a l o n e , con-f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o r e a l i t y , o r , a t b e s t , w i t h dubious a l l u s i o n s t o r e a l i t y . " As f o r the zoomorphic forms t h a t c o n s t i t u t e p a r t o f Shang o r n a m e n t a t i o n , t h e s e a g a i n , w h i l e , a c c o r d i n g t o L o e h r , p o s s i b l y r e s e m b l i n g an i d e n t i f i -a b l e a n i m a l , a r e " i n t e r e s t i n g s o l e l y on f o r m a l grounds, as 11 'pure a r t . ' " Other S i n o l o g i s t s — A n d e r s s o n , K a r l g r e n , F l o r e n c e Waterbury, W a t s o n — h a v e , however, seen some i n t e l l i g i b l e 12 s y m b o l i c form i n t h e s e zoomorphs. They have o f f e r e d not o n l y p o s s i b l e i n s p i r a t i o n a l s o u r c e s f o r t h e s e forms o f "pure a r t " drawn from the r e a l i t y of the n a t u r a l w o r l d , but have a l s o produced s e v e r a l arguments f o r the s y m b o l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e new forms. There does seem t o e x i s t a p o s i t i v e nexus between Shang a r t and t h e i r r e l i g i o n , and the bronze v e s s e l s can be a p p r e c i a t e d b o t h f o r t h e i r symbo-l i c c o n t e n t and a r t i s t i c e f f e c t . By f a r the most common and the most p e r s i s t e n t m o t i f on Shang bronzes i s the s o - c a l l e d t'ao-t'ie ting from the F r e e r G a l l e r y i n Washington D.C. s e r v e s as our i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s image. (Plate 9) The F r e e r . G a l l e r y has dated t h i s v e s s e l as M i d d l e Anyang, of the -104-t w e l f t h . c e n t u r y B.C. T h i s monster' mask i s . c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c a l l y b i f u r c a t e d by a f l a n g e , w i t h eyes (the most r e c o g -n i z a b l e element of the t fao~t'ieh), j a w s , h o r n s , body, and l e g s f l a n k i n g the f l a n g e . I n i t s f e r o c i t y , the t'ao-t'ieh seems t o belong, t o e i t h e r o f two a n i m a l c l a s s e s - — t h e b o v i n e 14 or the f e l i n e . The b u l l i s o f t e n employed as a symbol of s t r e n g t h , p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t s horns were b e l i e v e d by a n c i e n t man t o be i t h y p h a l l i c and t h e r e f o r e s y m b o l i c o f the 15 m a l e - - i . e . , the yang. The a p o t r o p a e i c q u a l i t i e s of f e l i n e s have been d i s c u s s e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h peach t r e e i m a g e r y . 1 ^ Thus, w h i l e today the t'ao-t'ieh may seem u n i n t e l l i g i b l e , i t i s not w i t h o u t too much d i f f i c u l t y p o s s i b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e the s y m b o l i c a s p e c t s i t may have enjoye d i n Shang t i m e s whatever i t s a e s t h e t i c m e r i t s . Encompassing the zoomorphic forms of the t'ao-t'ieh on the F r e e r ting are s p i r a l p a t t e r n s known as lei-wen "^ T , or thunder p a t t e r n s . T h i s g e o m e t r i c d e s i g n c o n s i s t s o f a meandering l i n e t h a t i n i t s p r i m i t i v e form i n e a r l y Shang bronzes was a non-continuous p a t t e r n of s e p a r a t e p a i r s o f s p i r a l s . W h i l e the lei-wen d e s i g n i s . i n d e e d e x q u i s i t e l y p l e a s i n g t o the eye, as Y e t t s e x p l a i n e d , " t o an a g r i c u l t u r a l p e o p l e such as the Chinese t h i s emblem p o s s e s s e d a s i g n i -f i c a n c e o f supreme i m p o r t a n c e . R a i n was e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r v e r y e x i s t e n c e , and the symbol f o r thunder t y p i f i e d the 17 down-pour t h a t brought the heaven-sent g i f t o f abundance." An harmonious b a l a n c e between decor and shape r e i g n s w i t h i n the. v e s s e l t h a t I s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c l a s s i c s tage o f -105-Shang a r t . W h i l e the a r r a y o f a n i m a l s t h a t o f t e n appear on Chinese bronzes are too numerous t o d i s c u s s h e r e , one p a r t i -c u l a r image 3 the dragon, r e q u i r e s some d e l i b e r a t i o n . T h i s i m a g i n a r y b e a s t i s , as we know, an a u s p i c i o u s c r e a t u r e i n C h i na and i s f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r a i n , t h u n d e r , the s p r i n g , and, t h e r e f o r e , f e r t i l i t y . Images of the dragon 18 on Chinese bronzes are n o t ' l a c k i n g . For our purposes i n a d d r e s s i n g the s y m b o l i c a s p e c t s of the dragon, however, i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t o f t e n two dragons w i l l be found i n a n t i t h e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s , c o n f r o n t i n g a f l a n g e and t h e r e b y 19 f o r m i n g the e n i g m a t i c t'ao-t'zeh mask. Thus i n one image, the a n c i e n t Chinese may have u n i t e d the c oncepts of f e r t i l i t y , s t r e n g t h and a p o t r o p a i s m . These are r e i n f o r c e d by the s u r r o u n d i n g f i e l d s o f lei-wen, p o s s i b l y d e r i v e d from n e o l i t h i c a r t , a l s o p o s s i b l y s y m b o l i c of f e r t i l i t y . The images of the dragon, t'ao-t'ieh and lei-wen are not images of t h i s w o r l d . One f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n o f t h e s e images i s t h a t they are a b s t r a c t i o n s of a n c i e n t Chinese concepts and p e r c e p t i o n s of the m a c r o c o s m -symbols o f t h e s e c oncepts and p e r c e p t i o n s , p o s s e s s i n g a s y m b o l i c v a l u e beyond the p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s l i m i t e d t o them by Loehr. Thus w h i l e t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g t h e i r meanings, t h e s e images mayte an e x p r e s s i o n o f the d e n i z e n s o f a r e a l m o f f a n t a s y — a f a n t a s y of Shang i m a g i n a t i o n and r e l i g i o u s p r e -o c c u p a t i o n s . I n t h i s , they r e f l e c t an a t t i t u d e o f a r t -106-grounded i n the s y m b o l i c imagery of r e l i g i o u s i d e a l s . W i t h the c o l l a p s e o f the Shang dy n a s t y and i t s r e p l a c e -ment by the Chou, we e n t e r an age o f g r e a t l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c o u t p u t . T h i s became the age o f C o n f u c i u s , L a o - t z u and the Ch'un Ch'iu. I n the a r t i s t i c makeup of the bronze v e s s e l s , many of the ornamental forms and m o t i f s o f the Shang a r t i s t i c development s u r v i v e d i n t o the E a r l y „. . -, 20 Chou p e r i o d . D u r i n g the M i d d l e Chou p e r i o d , however, a change i n the f u n c t i o n o f the m o t i f s and images on bronzes o c c u r r e d . While s y m b o l i c and m y t h o l o g i c a l images c o n t i n u e d t o t h r i v e , t h e r e i s a d e c l i n e i n the s y m b o l i c i m p r i n t and importance of these images'. Symbolism began t o wane, and the d e s i g n s o f images and m o t i f s tended t o become p r i m a r i l y d e c o r a t i v e i n i n t e n t and ornamental i n an a e s t h e t i c sense. What was born was a c o n c e r n f o r pure d e c o r a t i o n f o r an o v e r a l l a r t i s t i c e f f e c t ' ; P a t t e r n and pure d e c o r a t i o n began t o p r e v a i l i n Chinese a r t . At t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h i s change, E a r l y Chou p i e c e s took on a flamboyant exhuberance of i n d i v i d u a l m o t i f s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f l a n g e s , t h a t r e a c h out t o p u n c t u r e the s u r r o u n d i n g space. (Plate 10) T h i s energy s l o w l y s u b s i d e d u n t i l by the M i d d l e Chou p e r i o d , w h i l e the concerns were s t i l l o r n a m e n t a l , t h e r e e x i s t e d an element of r e s t r a i n t i n the m o t i f s and i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s o f the v e s s e l s . (Plate 11) Not o n l y d i d they no l o n g e r s t r i v e t o b u r s t f o r t h away from the v e s s e l s as p r e v i o u s l y e x h i b i t e d , but the m o t i f s -per se - 1 0 7 -were n© l o n g e r drawn from the s y m b o l i c images of the Shang. The forms are n o n - f i g u r a t i v e a b s t r a c t i o n s of pure decor and d e c o r a t i o n s . Whereas on E a r l y Chou p i e c e s (Plate 10) some sy m b o l i c images s t i l l s u r v i v e d (e.g., b i r d s , dragons, etc.), a l b e i t g r e a t l y shorn of t h e i r s y m b o l i c c o n t e n t and meanings, by the M i d d l e Chou p e r i o d , (Plate 11) l i t t l e s y m b o l i c imagery e x i s t s ( w i t h minor i n s t a n c e s ) on the bronze v e s s e l s . Pure d e c o r a t i v e d e s i g n s and o r n a m e n t a l i t y emerged; d u r i n g the M i d d l e Chou p e r i o d . By the L a t e Chou p e r i o d , the emphasis i s upon a f l a t , u n i f i e d s u r f a c e , unbroken by p r o t r u s i o n s and p r o j e c t i o n s , except i n minor i n s t a n c e s o f decor (e.g., an escutcheon).^" 1" An hu i n the A r t I n s t i t u t e of Chicago i s a superb i n s t a n c e of the L a t e Chou p e r i o d s t y l e . (Plate 12) D i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e h o r i z o n t a l r e g i s t e r s by g o l d b a n d i n g , c u r v i n g s c r o l l s i n l a i d w i t h s i l v e r are c o n t r a s t e d a g a i n s t the d a r k , l u x u r i a n t c o l o u r of the b r onze. The s i l v e r s c r o l l s , b road i n o u t l i n e but b o r d e r e d by t h i n s i l v e r l i n e s , roam w i t h a sense of f r e e v o l i t i o n over the s u r f a c e . The deco-r a t i v e scheme weaves i t s way around the hu, never r e p e a t i n g 22 i t s e l f , always v a r i e d i n i t s c o u r s e . The emphasis i s on the ornamental p a t t e r n s a c h i e v e d by the s c r o l l s on a f l a t , u n i f i e d s u r f a c e . I n the works so f a r examined, we have t r a c e d the development of a n c i e n t Chinese a r t from the s y m b o l i c t o the d e c o r a t i v e . Geometric and zoomorphic forms have been noted w i t h i n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h e i r i c o n o g r a p h i c and r e l i g i o u s - 1 0 8 -backgrounds. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a t the i n c e p t i o n o f a r t forms and i d e a s i n C h i n a , the u n d e r l y i n g f o u n d a t i o n was composed o f s y m b o l i c images t h a t t o the i n i t i a t e s t a t e d not o n l y the c r e a t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e , but s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s c oncepts as w e l l . Towards the end of the Chou, the P e r i o d of the W a r r i n g S t a t e s , new i n f l u e n c e s and i d e a s were t o a r i s e and change not o n l y the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f C h i n a , but the a r t i s t i c s t r u c t u r e and a t t i t u d e as w e l l . Symbolic a r t as a p u r e l y ornamental v e h i c l e i s g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by a more p i c t o r i a l form of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t . The l a s t i s an a r t t h a t c e n t e r s upon r e a l i t y , t o the g r a d u a l demise of an orn a m e n t a l a r t mode. With t h i s change i n a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e , the a r t of ornament. began t o s t a g n a t e , as 23 d i d - i t s once f o r m i d a b l e medium, ithe bronze v e s s e l . Bronze v e s s e l s and o r n a m e n t a l a r t - assumed a s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e t o the problems o f p i c t o r i a l i s m t h a t s l o w l y began t o t a k e shape w i t h i n the a r t i s t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s of C h i n a during the. Han p e r i o d . E x a c t l y when and where i n Chinese a r t p i c t o r i a l i s m d i s p l a c e d : the p r i m a r y p o s i t o n o f s y m b o l i c and ornamental a r t cannot be s t a t e d a b s o l u t e l y . But t h a t the t r a n s i t i o n d i d o c c u r d u r i n g the Han w i l l be demonstrated. I n t h i s , the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g w i l l f i g u r e l a r g e l y . At l e a s t one a u t h o r , however, has argued t h a t the change I n a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s from the s y m b o l i c t o ... r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t had i t s nascency i n l a t e E a s t e r n Chou bronze v e s s e l s w i t h engraved scenes a s , f o r example, an -109-24 hu from th e former Werner J a n n i n g s c o l l e c t i o n . (Figure S) The v e s s e l i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r major r e g i s t e r s by h o r i -z o n t a l bands t h a t are d e c o r a t e d w i t h a n g l e d s p i r a l p a t t e r n s . We have a l r e a d y examined the music scene and i t s s y m b o l i c c o n t e n t from:..this\ v e s s e l . (Figure 4) S h a r i n g the same r e g i s t e r are a r c h e r s near a . l a k e s h o o t i n g b i r d s . On the neck of the hu i n the uppermost r e g i s t e r , women p i c k mul-b e r r y l e a v e s w h i l e the men p r a c t i c e t h e i r a r c h e r y s k i l l s . I n the t h i r d r e g i s t e r on the b e l l y o f the v e s s e l , a n a v a l b a t t l e i s waged and a c i t y w a l l i s under s i e g e . The bottom r e g i s t e r a l o n g the f o o t o f the v e s s e l i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h pendant f l o r a l m o t i f s . The scenes have been e t c h e d i n t o the s u r f a c e o f the hu so as not t o d i s r u p t the s u r f a c e q u a l i t i e s o f a f l a t , u n i f i e d p l a n e . On the whole, the scenes are n a r r a t i v e , r e f l e c t i n g perhaps s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l e p i s o d e s (e.g., the s i e g e ) or genre (e.g., h u n t i n g ) . H u n t i n g , however, w h i l e p o s s i b l y pursued as a s p o r t , was s t i l l grounded upon a u n i -25 v e r s a l theme o f s t r u g g l e and s u r v i v a l . Moreover, s t y l -i s t i c a l l y t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o ncern f o r the r e l a t i v e s i z e or s p e c i e s o f the images p o r t r a y e d , and t h i s i s c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c a l l y h i e r a t i c . W h i l e a c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e scenes i n d i c a t e s a complex and w e l l - c o n c e i v e d plan,, i n g e n e r a l appearances, t h e r e i s a busyness about th e scenes t h a t b e l i e s t h i s . More i m p o r t a n t , however, i n d e n y i n g the scenes from t h i s hu the p i v o t a l p o s i t i o n o f a s e m i n a l work of a r t -110-r e f l e c t i n g the t r a n s i t i o n i n a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s i n e a r l y Chinese a r t i s i t s c o n c e r n f o r d e c o r a t i o n . The m o t i f s are c o n c e i v e d as d e c o r a t i v e e lements. A r e c t a n g u l a r f i e l d i s a l a k e — b u t o n l y because of the w a t e r f o w l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . None of the f i g u r e s o v e r l a p as they do i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . S p a c e — t h e space of a p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y — i s not a concern seen i n the J a n n i n g s hu. The f i g u r e s are i s o l a t e d and l i m i t e d by an a t t i t u d e of deco-r a t i v e c h a r a c t e r . The scenes on bronze v e s s e l s may have had p a i n t i n g p r o t o t y p e s , none of which have s u r v i v e d . The o n l y e x t a n t p a i n t i n g from the Chou p e r i o d on s i l k i s t h a t fragment w i t h the shamaness beneath a phoenix and dragon i n her p r a y e r 2 6 o f s u p p l i c a t i o n . (Plate 13) A l t h o u g h t h i s may o n l y be a fragment, enough has s u r v i v e d t o p e r m i t a comment on i t s s t y l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s and the a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e i t e x h i b i t s . The l i n e s are smooth and even, w i t h no v a r i a t i o n s i n w i d t h t h a t animates a b r u s h s t r o k e . The f i g u r e s are s t i f f and t h e p hoenix seems c o n t o r t e d r a t h e r than., f l y i n g . The changes between c o l o u r f i e l d s are a b r u p t , d e f i n e d by the f i g u r e s ' o u t l i n e s . A l l t h r e e images appear f l a t and t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l w i t h l i t t l e attempt t o Induce the i l l u s i o n o f a c o r p o r e a -l i t y . One p o i n t of c o n t r a s t between the Chou s i l k fragment and the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g needs t o be a s c e r t a i n e d , how-e v e r , so as to i n d i c a t e an a s p e c t of Han p i c t o r i a l i s m . I n the M a r c h i o n e s s ' group from the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , the - I l l -f o c a l p o i n t of t h i s scene i s the f i g u r e o f the M a r c h i o n e s s , I t i s t o her t h a t the female a t t e n d a n t s a t t e n d and t h a t the two k n e e l i n g men b e f o r e her . o f f e r t h e i r t r a y s w i t h d e f e r -ence. These secondary f i g u r e s , i n f l a n k i n g t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e , i.e., the M a r c h i o n e s s , f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on h er. Moreover, the p l a t f o r m on which t h e s e f i g u r e s s t a n d f u n c t i o n s as a g r o u n d l i n e — o n e o f the major a s p e c t s o f p i c t o r i a l i s m — t h e r e b y e f f e c t i v e l y c r e a t i n g an environment. None o f t h e s e q u a l i t i e s e x i s t i n the Chou fragment. There i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n c o n c e p t i o n between the human f i g u r e from the Chou s i l k fragment and the human f i g u r e s from the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . The former i s , l i k e the phoenix and dragon i n b o t h works o f a r t , d e c o r a t i v e and p o s s i b l y s y m b o l i c i n f u n c t i o n ; the l a t t e r s t r i k e s new ground i n Chinese a r t h i s t o r y i n d e a l i n g w i t h the r e a l i t y o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t . C o n c e p t u a l l y , the human, f i g u r e s from the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g i n h a b i t a time and p l a c e d e n i e d t o the s y m b o l i c mechanisms o f the shamaness and her c r e a t u r e s o f f a n t a s y from the Chou s i l k fragment. S i m i l a r p o i n t s and c o n t r a s t s of a s y m b o l i c and p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n can a l s o be made between the Chou s i l k fragment and the scene of mourning below the Mar c h i o n e s s and h er a t t e n d a n t f i g u r e s w i t h the c o f f i n and c a t a f a l q u e as i t s f o c a l p o i n t . The l a c k of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the t h r e e f i g u r e s on the Chou s i l k fragment i s r e s o l v e d t o some e x t e n t i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . I n our e x a m i n a t i o n o f the c o n t i n u e d development of t h i s new a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e i n Han p a i n t i n g , -112-we w i l l d e v i a t e s l i g h t l y from a s t r i c t l y c h r o n o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . T h i s w i l l n o t , n o n e t h e l e s s , e f f e c t our t h e m a t i c concerns f o r the development of p i c t o r i a l i s m i n Chinese a r t o f t h i s p e r i o d . Problems of d a t i n g Han p a i n t i n g s are s e v e r e , but t o e s t a b l i s h some b a s i c framework of t i m e , we w i l l f i r s t examine the famous Painted Basket from L o l a n g 27 o f the E a s t e r n Han p e r i o d , d a t e d ca. A.D. 100, (Plate 14) c o n t r a s t i n g i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f e a r l y Chinese p i c t o r i a l i s m w i t h the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g o f ca. 185 B.C. Second, we w i l l t hen examine Han p a i n t i n g s d a t i n g a f t e r the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g but p r i o r t o the Painted Basket from L o l a n g . The Painted Basket i s a s m a l l woven basket made of bamboo w i t h l i d . A l o n g the edges of b o t h the box and the l i d , and on the c o r n e r s are p a i n t e d over n i n e t y f i g u r e s i l l u s t r a t i n g the Han r e p e r t o r y o f the paragons of C o n f u c i a n and f i l i a l p i e t y , d i g n i t a r i e s and w o r t h i e s , famous and 2 8 infamous r u l e r s . The f i g u r e s are p a i n t e d i n l a c q u e r , a medium w h i c h , w h i l e a h i g h l y v o l a t i l e s o l v e n t , has a v e r y h i g h r a t e or e v a p o r a t i o n and d r i e s t o a tough f i l m . A l t h o u g h l a c q u e r i s v e r y f l u i d and m a l l e a b l e to handle ,. i t s h i g h r a t e o f e v a p o r a t i o n r e q u i r e s a sure hand i n e x e c u t i o n and b r u s h -work. With a few e x c e p t i o n s , the names of the f i g u r e s on 29 the Paxnted -Basket are i n s c r i b e d next t o them. T h i s , however, does not l i m i t them t o a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l e r a . While the f i g u r e s are d e r i v e d from Chinese h i s t o r y , w i d e l y d i s t a n t I n time and p l a c e , the f i g u r e s are r e p r e s e n t e d on the Painted Basket as c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . The f a c t s of h i s t o r y - 1 1 3 -are not s t r i c t l y a c c u r a t e i n t h a t the f i g u r e s from the Painted Basket are d e p i c t e d i n a t r a n s - h i s t o r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n , b r e a c h i n g the l i m i t a t i o n s of time and h i s t o r y . There i s an immediacy of a r e a l i t y beyond the p a l e o f h i s t o r y . A l t h o u g h t h e s e f i g u r e s on the Painted Basket are a r r a n g e d a l o n g a s i n g l e , h o r i z o n t a l band, t h e r e i s a l i v e l y a n i m a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s . They g e s t u r e , g l a n c e and gaze at t h e i r n e i g h b o r s t o s t r e s s a p o i n t w i t h i n t h e i r i m a g i n a r y d i a l o g u e s . Moreover, t o i n s u r e a n o n r e p e t i t i v e image or group t h e r e o f , the seated"; f i g u r e s are r e n d e r e d i n v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s . While some are d e p i c t e d f r o n t a l l y , o t h e r s are t u r n e d from one q u a r t e r , t o p r o f i l e , t o t h r e e q u a r t e r s view not o n l y i n the f a c e , but i n body as w e l l . S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i n t h i s p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t y s h o u l d be drawn t o those f i g u r e s who l o o k t o the l e f t and g e s t u r e t o the r i g h t ( o r v i s e v e r s a ) , w h i l e i n t h e i r body p r o f i l e s s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s can be p e r c e i v e d between t o r s o and l e g s . T h i s f e e l i n g o f an a c t u a l space e n l i v e n e d by t h e t w i s t i n g o f the body i s g i v e n an added emphasis i n one case by a s c r e e n p l a c e d on a d i a g o n a l t o the p i c t u r e p l a n e (the 3 0 s p a t i a l p r i n c i p l e s o f which need not be r e s t a t e d h e r e ) . A s e r i e s of c u r t a i n l o o p s above the f i g u r e s c r e a t e s a s t a g e - l i k e d e s i g n , and the communion between the. f i g u r e s g i v e s a s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r a c t u a l p r e s e n c e . T h i s scene of r e a l i s m which i s a c o r n e r s t o n e i n the a r t i s t i c concerns of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t i s t a k e n f u r t h e r i n the d e p i c t i o n o f the f i g u r e s ' r o b e s . U n l i k e the -114-Ma~wang-tui p a i n t i n g , the o u t l i n e s on the Painted Basket f i g u r e s , w h i l e drawn i n b l a c k o u t l i n e , are s l i g h t l y graded, B e s i d e s d e l i c a t e , h a i r - t h i n l i n e s , some are broad and 31 p o w e r f u l i n s t r o k e . Others bulge and t a p e r i n d e l i n e a t i o n . To i n d i c a t e the sweep of a r o b e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the weight of the robe's m a t e r i a l as a s l e e v e hangs from a g e s t u r i n g arm, the c o l o u r f i e l d s are s i m i l a r l y g r a d u a t e d . B e i n g b r o a d e s t i n f i e l d a t the bottom of a sweep--thereby i n d i c a t i n g the mass of the m a t e r i a l as i t hangs l o o s e l y — the. b r u s h s t r o k e s t a p e r t o narrow p o i n t s as they round the elbow and approach the s h o u l d e r , thus d e f i n i n g the arm. L i k e v a r i o u s i n s t a n c e s o f c o l o u r h i g h l i g h t i n g found on the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g {e.g., heaven's p o r t e r s ) , the e f f e c t i s s u g g e s t i v e o f a c o r p o r e a l r e a l i t y , p l a s t i c i t y and v o l u m e - — c o n s t i t u e n t s o f the new a r t i s t i c c o n c e r n f o r p i c -t o r i a l i s m and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t . F a c i a l . f e a t u r e s a l s o add t o the r e a l i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the Painted Basket f i g u r e s . While some h i n t o f s t y l i -z a t i o n can be d i s c e r n e d i n the f i g u r e s (e.g., i n the noses and e y e s ) , d i s t i n c t i o n s o f an i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n can a l s o be seen. Age i s one such example, and the c o n t r a s t s between youth and o l d age are c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d i n the smooth f a c i a l f e a t u r e s of the young Shan T a - c h i a and the aged w r i n k l e s o f o l d Po I iff Even more p o i g n a n t i s Ch'tt H s i a o - t z u f& ^ -f* , d u t i f u l l y f e e d i n g , h i s t o o t h l e s s f a t h e r w i t h the f o o d t h a t he has h i m s e l f chewed t o s o f t e n . T h i s I n t e r e s t i n d e p i c t i n g the human f i g u r e as a l i v i n g , - 1 1 5 -b r e a t h i n g c r e a t u r e i s a r e s u l t o f t h a t s h i f t i n a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s o c c u r r i n g w h i t h i n the Han. A r t i s no l o n g e r p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h symbolism and d e c o r a t i o n as e v i -dent i n Chinese a r t w i t h the n e o l i t h i c p o t t e r y p i e c e s and bronze v e s s e l s o f a n t i q u i t y . Emphasis. l i e s now w i t h i n the domain o f r e a l i t y , s t r i v i n g t o c a p t u r e i n the a r t s the s e n s u a l w o r l d and i t s phenomena, which we f i r s t e n c o u ntered w i t h the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . The phenomena of r e a l i t y must a l s o address i t s e l f t o a concept of t i m e . I n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , d i f f e r e n c e s between an e t e r n a l t i m e l e s s n e s s o f s y m b o l i c a r t and the momentary i n c i d e n c e of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t were examined. The a r t of n a r r a t i o n , which by d e f i n i t i o n moves w i t h i n the sequence of t i m e , i s v e r y conducive t o the d e p i c t i o n o f the i n c i d e n t a l , the momentary—i.e., the r e a l i t y o f t i m e . E v i -dences of t h i s c o ncern can be seen on t h e p a i n t e d l i n t e l o f a Western Han tomb s i t u a t e d n o r t h w e s t of the Old C i t y 34 o f Loyang, e x c a v a t e d i n 1957-The tomb was c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h b r i c k s and c o n s i s t e d of f o u r p a r t s — a n e n t r a n c e , main chamber, two s i d e chambers, 35 and a passage way. The r o o f o f the main chamber was s u p p o r t e d w i t h . a post and l i n t e l s t r u c t u r e i n the c e n t r e w i t h a g a b l e d pediment above. On the f r o n t s i d e o f t h i s l i n t e l s t r u c t u r e was p a i n t e d the scene i l l u s t r a t i n g the s t o r y o f " K i l l i n g t h r e e w a r r i o r s w i t h two peaches." (Plate 15) The s t o r y o f the two p e a c h e s / t h r e e w a r r i o r s i s c o n t a i n e d - 1 1 6 -i n the Yen-tzu Ch:un-oh'iu-^r The Spring and 37 Autumn of Master Yen). A c c o r d i n g t o the n a r r a t i o n . Master Yen employed a r u s e t o f r e e Duke Ching 7^ o f C h ' i from the o v e r b e a r i n g i n f l u e n c e s o f t h r e e w a r r i o r s o f h i s c o u r t — T ' i e n K ' a i - c h i a n g 15 Kung Sun-chieh <£s -7f , and Ku Y e h - t z u ^ . Master Yen p l a c e d two peaches (the a u s p i c i o u s n e s s o f which has a l r e a d y been noted) i n f r o n t o f the w a r r i o r s and o f f e r e d them t o each i f , by p a s t achievements, they were d e s e r v i n g . o f such a g i f t . Kung Sun-chieh i m m e d i a t e l y b o a s t e d o f a c t s o f a p h y s i c a l courage t h a t i n t u r n prompted T ' i e n K ' a i - c h i a n g and Ku Yeh-tzu t o f o l l o w s u i t . Both Kung Sun-chieh and T ' i e n K ' a i - c h i a n g r e l a t e d t h e i r deeds f i r s t and stepped f o r w a r d t o c l a i m t h e i r peaches b e f o r e Ku Y e h - t z u . Ku Y e h - t z u ' s s t o r y , however, was o f a d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e f o r i t d e a l t not w i t h p h y s i c a l courage a l o n e , but w i t h the l a r g e r r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f the u n i v e r s e . Ku Y e h - t z u t o l d how he as a y o u t h , a l t h o u g h not b e i n g a b l e t o swim, n e v e r t h e l e s s plunged i n t o the r i v e r he was c r o s s i n g t o save h i s h o r s e s from a huge t o r t o i s e t h a t was d r a g g i n g them under the w a t e r s . K i l l i n g the t o r t o i s e , he s u r f a c e d w i t h i t s head. The people a l o n g the r i v e r bank, s e e i n g t h e t o r t o i s e ' s head borne by Ku Y e h - t z u , h a i l e d him as Ho Po 1-3 , L o r d o f the R i v e r . T h i s deed i n c l u d e d a metamorphosis of a s u p e r i o r n a t u r e t o the p h y s i c a l courage o f both Kung Sun-chieh and T ' i e n K ' a i - c h i a n g . Ku Y e h - t z u had, i n the eyes of the p e o p l e , - 1 1 7 -a c h i e v e d an a p o t h e o s i s . Kung Sun-chieh and T ' i e n K ' a i - c h i a n g , r e a l i z i n g t h i s , , r e t u r n e d the peaches t h a t they had t a k e n and as an a c t of honor committed s u i c i d e f o r t h i s i n d i s -c r e t i o n . Ku Y e h - t z u , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t he had f o r c e d the death o f h i s two f r i e n d s b y h i s - b o a s t , thereupon l i k e w i s e committed s u i c i d e . W i t h two peaches, the Master Yen k i l l e d t h r e e w a r r i o r s . The scene can be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups. At the r i g h t are the t h r e e w a r r i o r s . One bends over a low t a b l e w i t h the two peaches on i t , e y e i n g them c o v e t o u s l y , about t o p i c k one up. The m i d d l e group c o n s i s t s o f f i v e f i g u r e s . An a t t e n d a n t h o l d i n g a s t a n d a r d watches the drama o f the t h r e e w a r r i o r s w h i l e a m i n i s t e r , k n e e l i n g , a d d r e s s e s a o g s t a n d i n g f i g u r e - - D u k e Ching of C h ' i . Two a t t e n d a n t s w i t h s t a n d a r d s a l s o s t a n d b e h i n d the Duke c o m p l e t i n g t h i s group. On the f a r l e f t a re f i v e more f i g u r e s i n two subgroups. The f i r s t w i t h t h r e e f i g u r e s has an o l d , deformed man who t u r n s t o address the c e n t r a l f i g u r e . . T h i s p e r s o n , v e r y s h o r t i n s t a t u r e , most l i k e l y r e p r e s e n t s the Master Yen. 3 9 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Shih Chi, M a s t e r Yen was v e r y s h o r t . The second subgroup i s a t the extreme l e f t , but the two images are ., b a d l y . • e f f a c e d w i t h o n l y remnants of one of the f i g u r e ' s f a c e and s l e e v e , and the o t h e r ' s gown s t i l l v i s i b l e . I n the p i c t o r i a l scheme of t h i s n a r r a t i o n , a l i v e l y exhuberance of a c t i o n and f i g u r a t i v e communication e x i s t s between the f i g u r e s , l e n d i n g a degree of r e a l i s m t o t h i s - 1 1 8 -work t h a t was o n l y h i n t e d at i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g and f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d i n the Painted Basket from L o l a n g . The f i r s t f i g u r e at the extreme r i g h t draws h i s sword w i t h c o n v i c t i o n . The s t o r y i s v i s u a l l y i n t r o d u c e d i n the sweep from h i s u p t u r n e d l e f t f o o t t h a t l e a d s one t o h i s h o r i z o n -t a l l y drawn sword. T h i s h o r i z o n t a l l i n e i s r e p e a t e d i n the broad s t a n c e the f i g u r e t a k e s w i t h h i s s h o u l d e r s , and the n a r r a t i o n moves a l o n g i n the t u r n e d head o f t h i s f i g u r e l o o k i n g a t h i s comrade-in-arms. The d i r e c t i o n a l push a l o n g the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s t o the l e f t i s g i v e n an added impetus by the t h r u s t o f the f i g u r e ' s r i g h t h i p and the s u b t l e p o i n t i n g of h i s r i g h t w r i s t i n h i s comrade's d i r e c t i o n as he grasps the sword. The gaze of t h i s f i r s t f i g u r e i s matched by the second w a r r i o r who m i r r o r s the f i r s t ' s gaze even i n the t i l t of h i s head. He h o l d s h i s sword i n a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n , how-e v e r , t h e r e b y f o r m i n g a n i c e c o n t r a s t t o the h o r i z o n t a l l i n e e s t a b l i s h e d by the f i r s t w a r r i o r . The open space between t h e s e two f i g u r e s i s e l e c t r i c w i t h the f i e r c e and f e r o c i o u s g l a r e s the two-throw at each o t h e r and by the o f f s e t t i n g c o n t r a s t s o f sword axes. The t h i r d w a r r i o r , i n bending over t o p i c k a peach from the low t a b l e , t u r n s away from the second w a r r i o r . But the two are s u b t l y , almost c a s u a l l y , r e l a t e d v i s u a l l y . The nexus i s e s t a b l i s h e d by the p r o x i m i t y of t h e i r arms and the e x t e n d i n g of t h e i r f e e t b e h i n d themselves s a t h a t "they a l s o almo t o u c h . The bent p o s t u r e of the t h i r d w a r r i o r l e a d s the eye -119-down t o the t a b l e w i t h the two peaches a l o n g h i s o u t s t r e t c h e d hand and arm. T h i s downward momentum i s slowed by the i n e r t t a b l e , and the n a r r a t i o n p i c k s up a g a i n w i t h the f i r s t f i g u r e o f the c e n t r a l group and the Duke. The s t a n d a r d and s t a n c e o f the a t t e n d a n t f i g u r e who i n t r o d u c e s the Duke's group are v e r t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n s o f each o t h e r . I n e s s e n c e , t h i s f i g u r e s e r v e s as a f r a m i n g d e v i c e between the f i r s t and the second group of f i g u r e s . But., b y . f a c i n g the w a r r i o r s o f the f i r s t , he u n i t e s the two groups. In the c e n t r a l group of f i g u r e s , the k n e e l i n g m i n i s t e r g e s t u r e s w i t h h i s hands toward the f i r s t scene w h i l e t u r n i n g h i s head t o address Duke Ching of C h ' i . I n so d o i n g , t h i s f i g u r e a l s o t u r n s h i s body t o r s o i n . q u a r t e r p r o f i l e , t h u s c r e a t i n g m u l t i p l e avenues of d i r e c t i o n . As has a l r e a d y been seen, t h i s t u r n i n g o f the hands, body t o r s o and l e g s i n a v a r i e t y o f p o s t u r e s a t t a i n s an h i g h l e v e l o f e x p r e s s i o n i n the Painted Basket. T h i s c e n t r a l scene i s completed by the Duke and the two r e m a i n i n g a t t e n d a n t f i g u r e s . Between t h i s c e n t r a l group and the n e x t , t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e v i s u a l c o n t i n u i t y . The o l d man t u r n s away from the Duke's a t t e n d a n t s and.the l a r g e , open space between them i s d i f f i c u l t t o b r i d g e . However, t h e r e are s u b t l e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the a r t i s t d i d not c o m p l e t e l y abandon the n a r r a t i o n d e s p i t e the open space. T h i s l a s t scene c e n t e r s around the Master Yen who, due 40 to h i s s h o r t s t a t u r e , was o f t e n r i d i c u l e d . B u l l i n g f e e l s -120-t h a t the o l d man w i t h the hunched back i s thus engaged w i t h the Master Yen who responds w i t h b o t h a g e s t u r e and g l a n c e 41 t o the o l d man. T h i s e p i s o d e i s not w i t h i n the anecdotes of the two p e a c h e s / t h r e e w a r r i o r s . n a r r a t i o n , and thus the l a r g e , open space may be u n d e r s t o o d as i n d i c a t i n g t h i s break w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s i d e a i s r e i n f o r c e d by the t u r n i n g of the backs o f the a t t e n d a n t f i g u r e from the Duke's group and the o l d man from the group w i t h the Master Yen, w i t h no o s t e n s i b l e v i s u a l c o n n e c t i o n . The o u t l i n e of the l a s t a t t e n d a n t f i g u r e from the group w i t h Duke Ching has a s l i g h t s e r p e n t i n e q u a l i t y t o i t . S t a r t i n g a t h i s head, the o u t l i n e c o n s t a n t l y weaves i t s way down t h i s f i g u r e , moving away and t h e n toward the o l d man, over the neck, s h o u l d e r , arm, l e g s , and f i n a l l y c o n c l u d i n g a t h i s f e e t . At t h i s p o i n t , t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e push of the robe toward the o l d man t h a t i s matched by a s i m i l a r push from the robe o f the o l d man as he a d d r e s s e s . t h e Master Yen. The o u t l i n e o f the o l d man then r i s e s i n a s i m i l a r s e r p e n t i n e f a s h i o n , but w i t h more v i g o r so as t o move w i t h c o n v i c t i o n i n t o h i s scene. By hand g e s t u r e s and g l a n c e s , the o l d man and the Master Yen communicate. The downward s l o p e o f t h i s com-m u n i c a t i o n i s p i c k e d up from o f f the f l o o r o f the l i n t e l by the t w i s t e d s t i c k o f the next f i g u r e . To h i s r e a r , the l a s t two r e m a i n i n g f i g u r e s s t a n d , too b a d l y damaged t o d i s c e r n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l movements. T h e . f i g u r e s from t h i s l i n t e l move, b r e a t h e and -121-communicate w i t h i n a L l i v i n g s p a c e . T h e r e i s a s t r o n g s e n s e o f t h e r e a l i t y o f t i m e and p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e . A c h i e v e d l a r g e l y t h r o u g h t h e p l a y e r s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o e a c h o t h e r , t h e r e i s some d i f f e r e n c e i n f a c i a l f e a t u r e s t o i m p o r t a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f r e a l i s m . L i k e t h e c l o s e l y c o n t e m p o r a r y Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , however, t h e l i n e s a r e e v e n l y drawn, and t h e c o l o u r f i e l d s s i m p l y f i l l e d . Y e t a l s o l i k e t h e human f i g u r e s f r o m t h e Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , t h e r e i s a good s e n s e o f t h e r e a l i s m o f t h e p a i n t e d human body. I n i t s a c t i o n and n a r r a t i o n , t h e l i n t e l p a i n t i n g i s n o t o n l y d i d a c t i c , b u t i t a l s o i n s t r u c t s t h e v i e w e r by u s i n g a s e r i e s a; s i m i l a r , m u l t i p l e s c e n e s o r images (e.g., t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e M a s t e r Yen t w i c e ) . I t t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t s s e q u e n t i a l t i m e , and t h i s work e v i d e n c e s a l l t h e q u a l i t i e s o f a c o n c e r n f o r t h e p i c t o r i a l as f o u n d i n t h e Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . A c o mplementary work i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e " F e a s t o f Hung-man" on t h e b a c k w a l l o f t h e same tomb a t L o y a n g 42 f o l l o w s t h e same n a r r a t i v e schema. L i k e t h e two p e a c h e s / t h r e e w a r r i o r s n a r r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e a r t i s t i c s t a n d a r d i s h i g h , t h e l i n e s a r e more even t h a n c a l l i g r a p h i c , and t h e c o l o u r f i e l d s a r e a l s o b r o a d and f l a t . N o t e s h o u l d be drawn n o n e t h e l e s s t o t h e s u p e r b f a c i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e f i g u r e s i n t h i s drama, e v i d e n c e o f a c o n c e r n i n t h e f i g u -r a t i v e r e a l i t y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t as o p p o s e d t o t h e s y m b o l i c f a n t a s i e s o f an h i e r a t i c a r t . A t t e n t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be g i v e n t o t h e l a n d s c a p e e l e m e n t s o f m o u n t a i n p e a k s -122-43 i n the background. These are elements drawn from the p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y o f s e n s u a l phenomena, not from the eidb.la of s y m b o l i c phantasm. In the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , the nascent a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t t h a t emerges i n the Han s t y l i s t i c a l l y employed b o t h c o l o u r h i g h l i g h t i n g and l i n e a r d e l i n e a t i o n s t o suggest the c o r p o r e a l i t y and substance o f a p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y . To i l l u s t r a t e t h e f u r t h e r development of the - l i n e and i t s c a l l i g r a p h i c q u a l i t i e s i n the a r t of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , we t u r n t o a s e t o f f i v e ceramic t i l e s now i n the Museum of P i n e A r t s , B o s t o n , a l s o from a l i n t e l and g a b l e d pediment. P a i n t e d i n i n k and c o l o u r on a w h i t e background, t h e s e t i l e s have u s u a l l y been da t e d t o about the f i r s t c e n t u r y A.D. The l i n t e l i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s , each p a i n t e d w i t h e l e g a n t l y robed f i g u r e s , m o s t l y men engaged i n con-v e r s a t i o n , a l t h o u g h women are a l s o d e p i c t e d a d o r n i n g them-s e l v e s w i t h j e w e l s . There are t h r e e s l a b s t o the p e d i m e n t — a c e n t r a l , r e c t a n g u l a r p i e c e w i t h a m o d e l l e d head of a ram, 45 and two f l a n k i n g , t r i a n g u l a r p i e c e s . The l a t t e r p i e c e s are each p a i n t e d w i t h an o f f i c i a l f o l l o w e d by two a t t e n -dants, w i t h a c h a i n e d a n i m a l c r o u c h i n g i n t h e lower end c o r n e r s — a - i t i g e r on the l e f t (symbol o f the west) and a bear on the r i g h t . The Boston t i l e s have l o n g proven 46 e n i g m a t i c i n t h e i r i c o n o g r a p h y , but t h i s need not c o n c e r n us h e r e . As i n the Painted Basket, a l l the f i g u r e s are p l a c e d - 1 2 3 -a l o n g a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s . The b r u s h w o r k . i s both s w i f t and p r o f i c i e n t w i t h no i n d i c a t i o n o f h e s i t a t i o n , and t h e r e are v a r i a n c e s i n t h e b r e a d t h o f the l i n e s . There i s a l i g h t n e s s of t o u c h i n the p a i n t i n g of t h e s e f i g u r e s , and the almost c a s u a l communication between them i s h e i g h t e n e d by the assuredness o f the l i n e s . I n the d e v e l o p i n g p i c t o r i a l i s m o f Chinese a r t , the concerns f o r a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t may a l s o be seen i n Han f u n e r a r y s t o n e s and t i l e s t h a t adorned the w a l l s o f o f f e r i n g s h r i n e s and underground b u r i a l chambers. One o f the b e s t known s h r i n e s i s H s i a o T'ang Shan X^) , " H i l l of the H a l l o f F i l i a l P i e t y , " i n Shantung, d a t e d ca. A.D. 47 129 by an i n s c r i p t i o n on one o f i t s w a l l s . The I n t e r i o r d e s i g n s are done e n t i r e l y i n i n t a g l i o . Our i l l u s t r a t i o n shows the attempt o f S h i h Huang T i t o r e c o v e r one o f the s a c r e d t r i p o d s o f Chou. (Plate 16) A c c o r d i n g t o the n a r -r a t i o n , S h i h Huang T i sought the p o s s e s s i o n o f the v e s s e l as a measure of h i s v i r t u e and m e r i t t o r u l e C h i n a . He b e l i e v e d t h a t the t r i p o d would be a symbol of Chinese a n t i -q u i t y and p o s s e s s i o n o f i t t h e r e f o r e would s y m b o l i z e h i s l e g i t i m a c y , v i s - a - v i s the mandate o f heaven t o r u l e C h ina 48 as emperor. The a t t e m p t , however, f a i l e d . A l t h o u g h the theme o f the n a r r a t i o n i s s y m b o l i c , the s t o r y i s drawn from an h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y . I n the d e s i r e t o r e - c r e a t e the e p i s o d e , the f i g u r e s have been g i v e n a v a r i e t y o f poses as they attempt -124-t o h o i s t the t r i p o d from the r i v e r . There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e sense of a n i m a t i o n i n these f i g u r e s , a l t h o u g h the d e p i c t i o n of the embankment, or p l a t f o r m , i s s c h e m a t i c a l l y r e n d e r e d by a s e r i e s o f s q u a r e s . A l o n g the bottom, a p r o c e s s i o n o f cavalrymen and c h a r i o t s march to. a r e g u l a r cadence, p a r t i -c u l a r l y i n the prance of the h o r s e s . The- same n a r r a t i o n of S h i h Huang Ti''s attempt t o r e c o v e r the Chou t r i p o d can a l s o be found at the o f f e r i n g 49 s h r i n e s o f .Wu i.iahg, A.D. 147 - 1 6 8 , a l s o i n Shantung. (Plate 17) The stone s l a b s a t Wu L i a n g Tz'u have been cut i n an engraved r e l i e f t e c h n i q u e , w i t h v e r t i c a l s t r i a t i o n s m a rking the background. The s u r f a c e s of the f i g u r e s are smooth w i t h in'c-i.aed; d e t a i l s (e.g., c o l l a r s and s l e e v e s ) . The e f f e c t i s v e r y much l i k e a s e r i e s of s i l h o u e t t e s t h a t c o n t r a s t w i t h the r u s t i c a t e d background. A v i s u a l i n t e r -p l a y between the two c o n t r a s t i n g s u r f a c e s o f the f i g u r e s and background e x i s t s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s a sense o f energy and dynamism t o the Wu L i a n g Tz'u scenes. The f i g u r e s are round and f u l l - b o d i e d , w i t h an a m p l i t u d e . o f c u r v e s and mass. In b o t h the Hsiao. T'ang Shan and Wu L i a n g Tshrines,' t h e r e i s a g r e a t m i x t u r e of h i s t o r i c a l , m y t h o l o g i c a l , l e g e n -d a r y , and genre scenes. But i n the r e n d i t i o n o f t h e s e s c e n e s , the f i g u r e s are c o n c e i v e d as r e a l w i t h a c o r p o r e a l s o l i d i t y . A l l the f i g u r e s , r e g a r d l e s s of the s u b j e c t m a t t e r , are c o n c e i v e d and p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g had a r e a l i t y , and a l t h o u g h many of the f i g u r e s are drawn from the m y s t i c a l r e g i o n s of h i s t o r y , they e x i s t i n the mind o f the p e o p l e - 1 2 5 -50 of t h e Han w i t h i n the w o r l d o f s e n s u a l phenomena. From the p r o v i n c e o f Szechwan, about a thousand m i l e s southwest o f Shantung and the s h r i n e s of Wu L i a n g .and H s i a o T'ang Shan, some s t r i k i n g t i l e s have been r e c o v e r e d t h a t a t t e s t t o a b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r concept o f r e a l i t y i n E a s t e r n Han a r t t h r o u g h o u t C h i n a . Genre scenes o f f e a s t i n g , s a l t m i n i n g , m a r k e t i n g , hunting., and h a r v e s t i n g are gen-e r a l l y d e p i c t e d , a l t h o u g h l i k e the stones from H s i a o T'ang Shan and Wu L i a n g Tz'u, some m y t h o l o g i c a l and l e g e n d a r y 51 f i g u r e s a l s o appear. (Plate 18) The t i l e i n our p l a t e i s d i v i d e d i n t o two h o r i z o n t a l r e g i s t e r s . In the lower r e g i s t e r , s i x f i g u r e s h a r v e s t g r a i n w i t h , i n t h e i r g e s t u r e s and swing of t h e i r t o o l s , an a d m i r a b l e sense o f movement and a c t i o n . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t i l e i s the upper r e g i s t e r w i t h two huntsmen k n e e l i n g on the shore o f a pond s h o o t i n g ducks. T h i s scene has p r o t o t y p e s i n the engraved scenes from Chou bronzes l i k e the J a n n i n g s hu. (Figure 5) The Szechwan t i l e , however, e x h i b i t s the new p i c t o r i a l c oncepts o f Chinese a r t i n an h i g h l y developed s t a t e . No l o n g e r , as i n the J a n n i n g s hu, i s the o v e r r i d i n g concern one o f d e c o r a t i o n . I n t h e r a p i d f l i g h t o f the ducks and t a u t s t r a i n o f the huntmen's bows from., the Szechwan t i l e , t h e r e e x i s t s a sense o f i m m e d i a c y — o f danger and d i n n e r . The pond i s not a schematic r e c t a n g l e . I t s s h o r e l i n e u n d u l a t e s i n t o the d i s t a n c e b e h i n d the. huntsmen, g r a d u a l l y r e c e d i n g t h r o u g h a few p l a n e s o f depth. While the f i s h and l i l y pads may seem c o n v e n t i o n a l , -126-t h e r e i s not t h a t p e l l - m e l l sense found i n e a r l i e r d e s i g n s o f Chou v e s s e l s . I n d a t e , concept and s t y l e , t h e Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g i s s i t u a t e d between the o l d e r a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e o f symbolism and o r n a m e n t a t i o n .of the J a n n i n g s hu3 and the new a t t i t u d e o f a s e n s u a l r e a l i t y , f i r m l y r o o t e d i n the a r t i s t i c language of E a s t e r n Han China and h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d i n the Szechwan t i l e . The a r t o f f a n t a s y which c h a r a c t e r i z e s Chinese a r t p r i o r t o the Han d y n a s t y began t o wane as an i n t e r e s t i n man, the human f i g u r e , space, and the w o r l d of s e n s u a l phenomena e n t e r e d i n t o the a r t i s t i c mind of Chinese a r t . C o r p o r e a l r oundness, volume and p l a s t i c i t y became s t y l i s t i c c oncerns t h a t r e f l e c t e d the new i n t e r e s t s : i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a r t . a n d n a t u r a l i s m . But w i t h the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the Han dynasty and the e n s u i n g p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l t u r m o i l , a s l i g h t . change i n the Chinese p e r c e p t i o n o f man e v o l v e s . T h i s change i n the p e r c e p t i o n o f man, however, does, not change t h e b a s i c a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e and concepts of Chinese a r t . Concern s t i l l e x i s t e d f o r the r e a l i t y o f n a t u r e and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t . To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s change i n the p e r c e p t i o n o f man w h i l e the concerns f o r t h i s r e a l i t y o f n a t u r e c o n t i n u e d t o d evelop i n Chinese a r t , we w i l l compare the h i s t o r i c a l e p i s o d e o f the attempted a s s a s i n a t i o n o f the K i n g of C h ' i n by Ching K'o %j from the Wu L i a n g o f f e r i n g s h r i n e s (Plate 19) w i t h the same e p i s o d e i l l u s t r a t e d from the tomb a t I-nan 5fj" if?) , i n Shantung, dated oa. A.D. 3 0 0 . 5 2 (Plate 20) - 1 2 7 -Th e s t o r y of Ching K'o's attempt t o a s s a s i n a t e the 53 K i n g o f C h ' i n i s t a k e n from the Shih Chi. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t e x t , C hing K'o, a n a t i v e of Ch M moved t o Yen $k , which a t the time was engaged i n a war w i t h C h ' i n . A former g e n e r a l o f C h ' i n , Pan YU—ch'i ~K °~ , now i n d i s g r a c e , had f l e d C h ' i n t o Yen. By f o r c e o f Yen's argument, G e n e r a l Pan YU-ch'i agreed t o have h i m s e l f deca-p i t a t e d by Yen i n o r d e r t o be p r e s e n t e d t o C h ' i n as an o f f e r i n g o f appeasement. To c a r r y out t h i s endeavor, C h i n g K'o was a s s i g n e d . But the i n t e n t was not t o appease C h ' i n . I n s t e a d , as r e t r i b u t i o n f o r a p a s t i n s u l t , the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l ' s head was t o be used as a p r e t e x t t o g a i n an audience w i t h the K i n g of C h ' i n and a s s a s i n a t e him. To b e t t e r the chances o f such an a u d i e n c e , Ching K'o was a l s o t o o f f e r a map of Tu-k'ang f^-> (a f e r t i l e r e g i o n i n Yen) t o C h ' i n . I n e f f e c t , t h i s would s y m b o l i z e the a c t u a l s e c e s s i o n o f t h a t r e g i o n t o C h ' i n . With head and map i n hand (the head o f G e n e r a l Fan YU- c h ' i was p l a c e d i n a b o x ) , Ching K'o sought h i s a u d i e n c e . I n t h i s , he was a s s i s t e d by Ch ' i n Wu-yang a young Yen b r a v o . D u r i n g the audience w i t h the K i n g o f C h ' i n , C h ' i n Wu-yang t r e m b l e d w i t h t r e p i d a t i o n . Ching K'o was a b l e , however, t o a l l a y C h ' i n 's s u s p i c i o n s by d i s m i s s i n g h i s companion's b e h a v i o r as the nervousness o f someone f i r s t e x p e r i e n c i n g a r o y a l p r e s e n c e . Ching K'o thereupon p r e s e n t e d C h ' i n w i t h the head o f G e n e r a l Fan.YU-ch'i and the map of Tu-k'ang. Wrapped w i t h i n the map, however, Ching K'o had c o n c e a l e d a - 1 2 8 -p o i s o n e d dagger. S e i z i n g t h e dagger, C h i n g K'o s t r u c k a t the K i n g o f C h ' i n . Taken w i t h a l a r m and f r i g h t , the K i n g o f C h ' i n withdrew i n time so t h a t o n l y h i s s l e e v e was c u t . To defend h i m s e l f , , the K i n g of C h ' i n t r i e d d e s p e r a t e l y t o e x t r a c t h i s sword from i t s s h e a t h , but i n h i s p a n i c and a n x i e t y c o u l d n o t . D e f e n s e l e s s and t e r r i f i e d , the K i n g o f Ch ' i n r a c e d about h i s chamber pursued by Ching K'o.' By law, no pers o n c o u l d e n t e r the K i n g ' s presence or chamber b e a r i n g weapons (and thus Ching K'o's h i d i n g o f h i s dagger i n the map). The p a l a c e g u a r d s , s t a t i o n e d below, c o u l d not come f o r w a r d u n l e s s summoned, f o r which i n the p a n i c and c o n f u s i o n t h e r e was no t i m e . At t h i s moment, an a t t e n d a n t p h y s i c i a n , H s i a Wu-chu s t r u c k Ching K'o on the head w i t h h i s m e d i c i n e bag. The K i n g o f Ch ' i n c o l l e c t e d h i s w i t s i n time t o f i n a l l y e x t r a c t h i s sword and s t r i k e Ching K'o on the t h i g h . M o r t a l l y wounded, Ching K'o threw h i s dagger a t the K i n g o f C h ' i n . H i s aim, however, was o f f , and the dagger s t r u c k a bronze p i l l a r . Disarmed, Ching K'o was k i l l e d by C h ' i n o f f i c e r s . T h i s o c c u r r e d i n 227 B.C. The Wu L i a n g Tz'u a r t i s t has chosen t o i l l u s t r a t e the most d r a m a t i c moment from t h i s n a r r a t i o n . (Plate 19) Ching K'o, a l r e a d y wounded and now r e s t r a i n e d by the phy-s i c i a n H s i a Wu-chu, has thrown h i s dagger a t t h e K i n g of Ch ' i n who, on::, the o t h e r s i d e o f t h e : ' . p i l l a r , r a i s e s a pi above h i s head. H i s se v e r e d s l e e v e can be seen a l s o w i t h the ;.head o f G e n e r a l Fan Y u - c h ' i and the cow e r i n g young - 1 2 9 -bravo from Yen, C h ' i n Wu-yang. At the r i g h t , a guard f i n a l l y e n t e r s . As n o t e d i n our d i s c u s s i o n o f the attempt t o r e c o v e r the Chou t r i p o d , t h e r e i s a sense of r e a l i s m i n the c o n c e p t i o n o f the Wu L i a n g Tz'u s c e n e s , e n l i v e n e d by the drama e n a c t e d by the f i g u r e s as they r a c e about the 54 k i n g ' s chamber. The scene o f Ching K'o's attempt t o a s s a s i n a t e the K i n g of C h ' i n i s i d e n t i f i e d a t I-nan by the dagger p r o t r u d i n g 55 through the p i l l a r between the two a d v e r s a r i e s . (Plate 20) But as B u l l i n g has p o i n t e d o u t , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e the s t o r y of C h ing K'o and the. K i n g o f C h ' i n i s more l i k e l y the v e r s i o n not from the Shih Chi as w i t h the Wu L i a n g Tz'u 56 p i e c e , b u t ' f r o m the Yen Tan-tzu. In t h i s l a t t e r v e r s i o n , Ching K'o, s e i z i n g the K i n g o f C h ' i n , subdues him and p r o -ceeds t o l e c t u r e the K i n g of C h ' i n on h i s ( i . e . , t h e K i n g of C h ' i n ' s ) a l l e g e d misdeeds. As a l a s t w i s h b e f o r e Ching K'o k i l l s him, the K i n g o f C h ' i n i s f o o l i s h l y a l l o w e d t o s i n g and dance a f i n a l song. F r e e i n g h i m s e l f from Ching K'o, the K i n g o f C h ' i n t e a r s o f f h i s s l e e v e , draws h i s sword and jumps over a s c r e e n t o s e p a r a t e h i m s e l f from Ching K'o. R e a l i z i n g t h a t h i s v i c t i m i s about t o escape, Ching K'o throws h i s dagger at the K i n g o f C h ' i n which s l i c e s o f f t h e K i n g o f C h ' i n ' s ear and becomes embedded i n t h e p i l l a r . Disarmed, Ching K'o i s a t the mercy o f the K i n g of C h ' i n who c u t s o f f Ching K'o's hands. While the I-nan scene i s not c o m p l e t e l y i n keeping' w i t h t h i s v e r s i o n from the Yen Tan-tzu ( C h i n g K'o s t i l l - 1 3 0 * . p o s s e s s e s h i s hands and the K i n g of C h ' i n has not drawn h i s s w o rd), the dagger i s s t u c k i n the p i l l a r , and the essence of the s t o r y i s t h e r e b y s u f f i c i e n t l y s u g g e s t e d . The s t o r y o f Ching K'o a t I-nan o p t i m a l l y u t i l i z e s a s m a l l p a n e l space t h a t i s the bottom r e g i s t e r o f a l a r g e r scheme. Whereas i n the Wu L i a n g Tz'u s t o n e , the drama of the e p i s o d e and i t s most d r a m a t i c moment are c l e a r l y d e p i c t e d , i n comparison, w i t h the I-nan p i e c e , the Wu L i a n g Tz'u work l o o k s c l u t t e r e d w i t h a crowd of p e o p l e . A l l the f i g u r e s are p r e s e n t i n the Wu L i a n g Tz'u cutting,".whereas.at I-nan ... ,. o n l y the e s s e n t i a l c l u e {i.e., the dagger embedded i n the p i l l a r ) i s r e q u i r e d t o i d e n t i f y and t o suggest t h i s scene. Ching K'o advances a g g r e s s i v e l y towards the K i n g o f C h ' i n w i t h a l o o k o f . d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h a t speaks of a n t i c i p a t e d success on h i s p a r t • (though, we know t h a t he f a i l e d , r e c e i v i n g h i s comeuppance). The K i n g o f C h ' i n , so overcome w i t h f r i g h t , f r e e z e s i n h i s p a n i c t o s t e p a s i d e , and h i s a s t o n i s h e d e x p r e s s i o n speaks of a man so t o t a l l y s u r p r i s e d and caught o f f guard t h a t he cannot b e l i e v e the immediacy of death nor the p e r f i d y of an ambassador. As at Wu L i a n g Tz'u, the I-nan f i g u r e s e x h i b i t the same b a s i c c o n c e p t u a l concerns o f • r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l - a r t , . b u t s t y l i s t i c a l l y done d i f f e r e n t l y . At Wu L i a n g Tz'u, the s t r i a t i o n s on the background are a good f o i l f o r the r e l a t i v e l y smooth s u r f a c e of the f i g u r e s , and t h e r e i s a p o w e r f u l l y dominant i n t e r p l a y between rough and smooth. The e f f e c t i s a c o n t i n u o u s . p a t t e r n i n d e s i g n between - 1 3 1 -s u r f a c e t e x t u r e s t h a t r e c a l l s the l a t e d e c o r a t i v e d e s i g n s of the E a s t e r n Chou as i n the Chicago hu. (Plate 12) j u s t p r i o r t o t h e Han and the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g and the new a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e o f p i c t o r i a l i s m and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t . The I-nan p i e c e i s engraved, and the f i g u r e s are v e r y a l i v e i n t h e i r a c t i o n and n a r r a t i o n . V i v a c i o u s i n e x ecu-t i o n , the d e s i g n i s not c l u t t e r e d by secondary f i g u r e s as at Wu L i a n g Tz'u. The I-nan p i e c e i s charged w i t h a v i t a l i t y o f energy d e r i v e d not o n l y from a s w i f t usage o f l i n e s , but a l s o from an a s s u r e d - c o n f i d e n c e i n the p o s t u r i n g o f the f i g u r e s . . . The scene i n the upper r e g i s t e r o f N i e h Cheng M\- p u r s u i n g the Han m i n i s t e r H s i e h L e i e x h i b i t s the same v i t a -' s 7 t i l y and f l u i d i t y . These s t y l i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between the Wu L i a n g Tz'u and the I-nan p i e c e s are due more t o a s h i f t i n the C hinese p e r c e p t i o n o f man and the i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n a change i n a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e . There i s e v i d e n c e i n t h e s e works from Wu L i a n g Tz'u and I-nan o f a s h i f t i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s t h a t i s a l s o a r e f l e c t i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l milieu of the p e r i o d s o f the Three Kingdoms (A.D. 2 2 1 - 2 6 5 ) and the S o u t h e r n and N o r t h e r n D y n a s t i e s (A.D. 2 6 5 - 5 8 l ) . Between the c o l l a p s e of the Han and the e v e n t u a l r e u n i -f i c a t i o n o f China under the s h o r t - l i v e d S u i Dynasty (A.D. 5 8 1 - 6 1 8 ) , C h i n a was caught i n a p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l t u r m o i l . Becoming d i v i d e d once a g a i n i n t o s e v e r a l d y n a s t i c kingdoms, t h e r e was a l s o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a f o r e i g n r u l e by the Toba Wei (A.D, 386 - 5 5 4 ) , a T u r k i s h -132-t r i b e , i n n o r t h e r n China.. I t was a ' p e r i o d o f chaos, i n s t a -b i l i t y and m i s e r y t h a t a l s o saw the u n d e r m i n i n g o f the o l d i n t e l l e c t u a l and r e l i g i o u s systems. Buddhism, i n t r o d u c e d i n t o China d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , o f f e r e d a promised d e l i v e r -ance from the s u f f e r i n g s and impermanence of an e a r t h l y l i f e i n t o the b l i s s f u l permanence of the B u d d h i s t p a r a d i s e . The i n d i v i d u a l as s e l f , as h e r o , emerges w i t h i n the Chinese p s y c h o l o g i c a l makeup. A new emphasis i s g i v e n t o the i n d i -59 v i d u a l i n Chinese a r t , r e f l e c t i n g t h i s i d e a l . W h i l e the b a s i c c o n c e p t i o n s o f the new a r t i s t i c r e a l i t y have not been a l t e r e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s and i n t e l l e c t u a l chaos, the I-nan p i e c e now shows a g r e a t e r f o c u s on the r e a l i t y o f human p s y c h o l o g y vs. the s o c i o -h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y o f the Han and the Wu L i a n g Tz'u p i e c e . Thus the drama of h i s t o r y i s conveyed i n the I-nan work w i t h a minimal.amount o f d e t a i l . I n t h i s l i g h t , the g r e a t amount of n a r r a t i v e d e t a i l i n the Wu L i a n g Tz'u p i e c e and the r e d u c t i o n o f the same at I-nan i s not too d i f f i c u l t t o comprehend. The Wu L i a n g Tz'u work,• grounded, r e l i g i o u s l y , upon the mythology and s y m b o l i c i d e a l s of the ancien regime e x i s t e d w i t h i n the parameters o f a u n i f i e d and c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d C h i n a . Free from e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l d a n g e r s , the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l milieu i n which the Wu L i a n g Tz'u scenes were c a r v e d r e f l e c t the s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s i n t e -g r i t y , h e r i t a g e and heterogeneousness o f Han C h i n a . I-nan i s an a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n of the i n t e l l e c t u a l avant-garde o f a new e r a , a p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l e r a o f d i s u n i t y . - 1 3 3 -A d i s c u s s i o n of Buddhism, I t s p r i n c i p l e s and a r t forms i s beyond th e domain of t h i s t h e s i s i n t r a c i n g the p i c t o r i a l 6 0 and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l development of Chinese a r t . However, the p e n e t r a t i o n of Buddhism, i t s a r t and p h i l o s o p h y i n t o C h i n a c o n t i n u e d t o d e v e l o p as an i n t e l l e c t u a l f o r c e , d i s t i n c t from, a l b e i t complementary t o , Taoism. As an i n t e l l e c t u a l f o r c e , Buddhism f l o u r i s h e d s t r o n g l y i n South China where, w i t h the: m i l i t a r y conquest o f N o r t h C h i n a by f o r e i g n r u l e r s , a m a j o r i t y o f t h e . C h i n e s e e l i t e had f l e d . As a p h i l o s o p h i -c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l endeavor, Buddhism, by expanding the s p e c u l a t i v e range of Chinese thought t h a t the o l d e r , t r a d i -t i o n a l s c h o o l s . o f Taoism and C o n f u c i a n i s m c o u l d not a n s w e r , ^ appeale d t o the I n t e l l i g e n t s i a of South C h i n a . I n the n o r t h o f C h i n a , Buddhism as a r e l i g i o u s endeavor p r o v i d e d an a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o the Confucian, o r d e r o f the: n a t i v e C h i n e s e . The f o r e i g n r u l e r s o f N o r t h C h i n a , of t e n . . i l l i t e r a t e and s u p e r s t i t i o u s , were impressed by the s u p e r i o r m a g i c a l powers of Buddhism over the l i n g e r i n g remnants o f Han C o n f u c i a n i s m . To adopt C o n f u c i a n i s m was t o adopt the Chinese way of l i f e and thus the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f o r t e i t u r e o f t h e i r own c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . Buddhism, p o l i t i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e f o r i t s s i m i l a r l y a l i e n o r i g i n s t o China and the seemingly t o t a l r e l i a n c e o f i t s monks—them-s e l v e s a l i e n s t o China.—upon the p o l i t i c a l power and con-t i n u e d f a v o r of the f o r e i g n r u l e r s o f N o r t h C h i n a , was a l s o a t t r a c t i v e r e l i g i o u s l y f o r i t s u n i v e r s a l d o c t r i n e s . S a l -v a t i o n was p o s s i b l e f o r a l l men w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f - 1 3 4 -t i m e , r a c e or c u l t u r e . ^ 2 Thus w h i l e Buddhism.in i n t e l l e c -t u a l c i r c l e s f l o u r i s h e d i n the s o u t h o f C h i n a , i t s a r t f l o u r i s h e d i n the n o r t h a t such s i t e s a s , e.g.-, Yttn-kang and Lung-men 1^ d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f the N o r t h e r n and Southern D y n a s t i e s . T r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s on the o t h e r hand d e r i v e d from C o n f u c i a n and T a o i s t m a t e r i a l c o n t i n u e d t o t h r i v e i n Chinese p a i n t i n g which developed u n h i n d e r e d p r e d o m i n a t e l y In the C h i n e s e - r u l e d c o u r t s o f s o u t h e r n C h i n a . The major a r t i s t whose work comprises an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the a r t i s t i c s t y l e s o f t h i s p e r i o d i s the master, Ku K ' a i - c h i h f^- I n r e g a r d s t o t h i s a r t i s t , two s c r o l l s , b o t h c o p i e s , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d — T h e Admonitions of the Instructress to the Court Ladies i n the B r i t i s h Museum, and The Nymph of the Lo 64 River. The problems of a t t r i b u t i o n and date are not a c o n c e r n of t h i s t h e s i s , but we w i l l a c c e pt c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of the p a i n t i n g s as i n d i c a t i v e o f Ku K ' a i - c h i h and h i s s t y l e as they r e l a t e t o our d i s c u s s i o n of the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g and the c o n t i n u e d development of a p i c t o r i a l a t t i t u d e i n the continuum o f Chinese a r t h i s t o r y . Ku K l a i - c h i h p r e s e n t s many problems f o r the S i n o l o g i s t , not o n l y i n r e g a r d s t o h i s works, but'even i n h i s l i f e d a t e s . These have not been d e f i n i t i v e l y a s c e r t a i n e d , but he i s b e l i e v e d t o have been born ca. A.D. 3 4 4 or 3 4 5 , and d i e d ca. A.D. 4 0 5 or 4 0 6 . What i s known about t h i s a r t i s t i s f o r the most p a r t t a k e n from the Chin Shu "T "^ (The History of the Chin), a d y n a s t i c h i s t o r y o f the C h i n - 1 3 5 -(A.D. 2 6 5 - 420) composed. I n the s e v e n t h c e n t u r y A,D,^ The Admonitions S c r o l l i n the B r i t i s h Museum i l l u s ^ o t r a t e s the t r a c t w r i t t e n by the poet Chang Hua (A.D. 232 - 3 0 0 ) , "Admonitions o f the I n s t r u c t r e s s t o the 66 Court L a d i e s . " I n the London s c r o l l , t h e r e are n i n e scenes r e m a i n i n g out o f an o r i g i n a l t w e l v e ; . ^ The a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n of the forms o f the f i g u r e s , a l t h o u g h a s s u r e d and s t e a d y , are by no means s t a t i c . An e l a s t i c i t y e x i s t s i n t h e i r f l o w , and at tim e s they appear almost w i s t f u l , e s p e c i a l l y i n the f l u t t e r i n g s c a r v e s and t r a i l i n g r o b e s . P o r t i o n s o f the f i g u r e s and scenes a re c o l o u r e d i n r e d , bur t h e s e a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o the l i n e s . I t i s the d e f i n i -t i o n s o f the f i g u r e s and t h e i r forms t h a t a re emphasized i n the s t r e s s on t h e i r p h y s i c a l n a t u r e . As at I-nan, The Admonitions S c r o l l f o c u s e s upon the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y o f the human f i g u r e s . The s i l k on which the p a i n t i n g i s ex e c u t e d i s a p a l e , y e l l o w i s h brown s e r v i n g as an unadorned background f o r the t e x t s and f i g u r a t i v e c o m p o s i t i o n s . T h i s p r e c l u d e s a deep p e n e t r a t i o n o f space as the f i g u r e s o f t e n have an appearance o f b e i n g p a r t o f a f r e i z e , as i n the Bos t o n t i l e s and the l i n t e l from Loyang i l l u s t r a t i n g the s t o r y of " K i l l i n g t h r e e w a r r i o r s w i t h two peaches." But i n both c a s e s , the l a c k o f background.elements I s o f f s e t by the dynamic move-ments o f the f i g u r e s i n t h e i r n a r r a t i o n , and the same p i c -t o r i a l q u a l i t i e s a r e e v i d e n t I n The Admonitions S c r o l l . I n the r h y t h m i c f l o w of the f i g u r e s ' g e s t u r e s and r o b e s , - 1 3 6 -t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u a l movement a c r o s s the s u r f a c e o f the c o m p o s i t i o n . T h i s i s b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d by scene number f i v e , the s o - c a l l e d "Bed Scene." (Plate 21) Chang Hua's t e x t i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s scene r u n s , I f the words which one speaks are good, they w i l l be heeded f o r a thousand m i l e s ; I f one d e f i e s t h i s r u l e o f c onduct, t h e n even one's bedmate w i l l doubt one.gg A femme f a t a l e , her r i g h t arm c a s u a l l y o v e r h a n g i n g the w a l l e d p a r t i t i o n s o f the bed, s t a r e s d e f i a n t l y a t her s u i t o r . He, s i t t i n g on the edge of the bed, h i s s l i p p e r s c a s t a s i d e and l e f t l e g t u c k e d under him, l o o k s a t the l a d y w i t h t h a t ambiguous e x p r e s s i o n o f d e s i r e and r e p r o a c h . The two f i g u r e s address each o t h e r t h r o u g h t h e i r s t a r e s of s i l e n c e , and t h e r e i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e n s i t y encoun-t e r e d e a r l i e r i n the. C hing K'o scene from I-nan. In Ku K ' a i - c h i h ' s The Admonitions S c r o l l , the ease and g r a c e f u l n e s s o f the f i g u r e s and s u p p l e n e s s and v e r v e of the l i n e s g r e a t l y i m p r e s s e s the v i e w e r . C o m p o s i t i o n a i d s t h i s , 69 e s p e c i a l l y i n the s p a t i a l s e t t i n g e s t a b l i s h e d by the bed and the d i r e c t v i s u a l c o n t a c t between the two c h a r a c t e r s . The g e n e s i s f o r t h i s can be t r a c e d t o the Han d y n a s t y , s t a t e d i n a complete form w i t h i n the Loyang l i n t e l and Boston t i l e s , but c o n c e i v e d w i t h the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . I n the Ma-wang-t u i p a i n t i n g w i t h the scene o f the M a r chioness et al., we saw how f o r the f i r s t time Chinese a r t sought t o c a p t u r e the p r o f a n e w o r l d o f p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e . I n t h i s c o n c e r n , v a r i o u s elements of c o r p o r e a l roundness,' movement and a c t i o n , - 1 3 7 -time sequence, and space were a r t i s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as seen f u r t h e r developed i n Ku K ' a i - c h i h ' s work. The second s c r o l l by Ku K ' a i - c h i h f o r our i n t e r e s t s 70 i s The Nymph of the Lo River. U n l i k e The Admonitions S c r o l l , The Nymph of the Lo River i s not d i v i d e d by t e x t u a l p a ssages, a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s an i n t r o d u c t o r y t e x t . The m o t i f s i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s s c r o l l were i n s p i r e d by a poem w r i t t e n by Ts'ao Ch i h % ^ f i . (A.D. 192 - 2 3 2 ) o f the same t i t l e , w r i t t e n i n A.D. 222. ^ 1 The I l l u s t r a t i o n s t o The Nymph of the Lo River are s e t 72 w i t h i n space c e l l s d e f i n e d by landscape elements. In t h e i r r e n d i t i o n s , t h e s e l a n d s c a p e elements are s c i e n t i -f i c a l l y a c c u r a t e and are used as complementary h i g h l i g h t s t o the human f i g u r e s and the n a r r a t i o n o f Ts'ao Chih's poem. The a r t i s t i c c oncern i s gui d e d by a d e s i r e t o d e p i c t the r e a l w o r l d as c l o s e l y and as n a t u r a l i s t i c a l l y as p o s s i b l e . I n t h i s , t he landscape elements a re not drawn from a sym-b o l i c f a n t a s y , but from a p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y as are the human f i g u r e s . It'.-is t h i s s t r e s s on n a t u r a l i s m t h a t had i t s i n c i p i e n c e i n the Han w i t h the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g t h a t e v i d e n c e s the c o n t i n u e d development of the l a t t e r {i.e., a p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y ) i n Chinese a r t and a r t h i s t o r y . I n the s c u l p t u r e d r e l i e f s from the p e r i o d between the Han and the T'ang d y n a s t i e s , the development o f r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n a l a r t . can a l s o be; ..traced.. I n A p r i l of. I 9 6 0 , , a set. of 73 t i l e p a n e l s were d i s c o v e r e d at Nanking. (Plate 22) These measure 2 . 4 cm. l o n g by 0 . 8 cm. h i g h each and -138-74 i l l u s t r a t e t h e "Seven Sages o f the Bamboo Grove" — H s i K'ang 4& ^ (A.D. 22.3 - 2 6 2 ) , Yuan C h i I i (A.D. 210 - 2 6 2 ) , Shan T'ao (A.D. 205 - 2 8 3 ) , Wang Jung 31 nj( (A.D. 235 - 306) ;,..Hsiang H s i u t% ^ ( t h i r d c e n t u r y A.D.), L i u L i n g ( t h i r d c e n t u r y A.D.), and Yuan H s i e n 5ffc (A.D. 234 - 3 0 5 ) , 7 5 — w i t h Jung C h ' i - c h ' i a l e g e n d a r y contemporary o f C o n f u c i u s added. The suggested dates o f t h e s e t i l e s range from the l a t e f o u r t h t o e a r l y f i f t h c e n t u r y A.D. Each of the e i g h t f i g u r e s i s s e a t e d w i t h i n a~ space' c e l l , d e f i n e d by a s e r i e s of t r e s s . Except f o r the t r e e s , t h e r e are no o t h e r l a n d s c a p e elements. L i k e the la n d s c a p e elements i n Ku K ' a i - c h i h ' s The Nymph of the Lo River, those i n t he Nanking t i l e s are s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a c c u r a t e and i d e n -t i f i a b l e , but a l s o as i n The Nymph of the Lo River, o.they a r e secondary i n d e s i g n purposes. While the i n t e n t i s .not t o p r o v i d e an i n t e g r a t i o n or i n t e r - c o m m u n i c a t i o n between the f i g u r e s and the. background, the landscape elements are n o n e t h e l e s s complementary t o the human f i g u r e s . A l s o l i k e The Nymph of the Lo River, the a r t i s t i c concerns i n the Nanking t i l e s a r e f o r a n a t u r a l i s m o f forms and a f i g u r a -t i v e r e a l i t y w i t h o u t the s t y l i z a t i o n o f f a n t a s y . Thus, t h e r e e x i s t s i n the s e t i l e s from Nanking an-'• a r t i s t i c c o n cern f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l art-which, was an h e r i t a g e from t h a t s e m i n a l Han work, the T-shaped, p a i n t i n g from the Western Han Tomb: No''. 1 a t Ma-wang-tui ,..Ch ' ang-sha,"Hunan. CONCLUSION S i n c e i t s d i s c o v e r y i n 1 9 7 2 , the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g has s t i r r e d g r e a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l . i n t e r e s t , Our i n t e r e s t s and concerns i n t h i s t h e s i s have been t w o - f o l d . F i r s t , we sought t o examine the i c o n o g r a p h i c and i c o n o l o g i c a l e l e -ments o f the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g ' s images. These were i n t e r p r e t e d i n the l i g h t o f the c o s m o l o g i c a l and t h u s t h e r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e o f e a r l y Chinese a r t and tho u g h t . Second, p e r c e i v i n g t h a t the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g e v i d e n c e d two d i s t i n c t i v e a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s , the s y m b o l i c and t h e p i c t o r i a l , we have sought t o d e f i n e the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e two a r t i s t i c modes and a t t i t u d e s . I n so d o i n g , we en c o u n t e r e d the t r a n s i t i o n from one t o t h e o t h e r w h i c h i s fundamental t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the whole h i s t o r y o f Chinese a r t and which i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y e x p r e s s e d i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . We t h e r e f o r e sought t o d e f i n e t h i s i m p o r t a n t t r a n s i t i o n t h a t t h i s i m p o r t a n t p a i n t i n g r e p r e s e n t s I n e x amining our f i r s t c o n c e r n , we e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e f i g u r e s from t h e p a i n t i n g , b o t h m y t h o l o -g i c a l (e.g., the Chu Lung, P'an Ku) and r e a l (e.g., the Marchioness of T ' a i ) . We saw how many o f the images a l s o had m u l t i p l e i d e n t i t i e s w hich added i m p r e s s i v e l y t o the r i c h n e s s and v a r i e t y o f the p a i n t i n g . I n t e r p r e t i n g t h e i r - 1 3 9 --140-s y m b o l i c . i n t e n t , i t was found t h a t the p a i n t i n g i s h e a v i l y s teeped i n T a o i s t l o r e and l e g e n d , s t r i k i n g an august statement on the T a o i s t c o n c e p t i o n and p e r c e p t i o n o f the u n i v e r s e . I n t h i s , the t h e o r i e s o f the yin and the yang, and the wu hsing f i g u r e d l a r g e l y . These se t the w o r kings of one d e f i n i t i o n of the Chinese u n i v e r s e ( i . e . , T a o i s t ) , b o t h i n terms of a d u a l i s m of o p p o s i t i o n and a c y c l i c a l r o t a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . B e s i d e s T a o i s t themes, ; t h e r e were a l s o nuances of shamanism and i t s t e n e t s . We saw how the p a i n t i n g was used as a banner, a banner p l o t t i n g the a s c e n s i o n of the M a r c h i o n e s s ' s o u l t o the heavens i n o r d e r t o e n t e r the b l i s s f u l p a r a d i s e of q u i e t u d e . There were concerns i n t h i s f o r the Chinese attempt t o r e c a l l the s o u l and t h e r e f o r e postpone the d e p a r t u r e from the e a r t h l y d e l i g h t s of a t e r r e s t r i a l e x i s t e n c e o f the M a r c h i o n e s s . The s o u l , f a i l i n g t o be r e c a l l e d , b e g i n s i t s quest f o r i m m o r t a l i t y — t h e i m m o r t a l i t y of the p a r a d i s e o f q u i e t u d e t h a t i s t i e d t o the T a o i s t legends of i m m o r t a l i t y and the f a b l e d i s l e o f P'eng L a i . These i c o n o g r a p h i c and i c o n o l o g i c a l e x c u r s i o n s , i n i d e n t i f y i n g the images and themes p r e s e n t e d i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , and i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the m u l t i p l e l e v e l s of i n t e r p r e t i n g the p a i n t i n g and i t s f u n c t i o n , a l s o t o o k i n t o account our second concern of t h i s t h e s i s — t h e s t y l i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between two d i s t i n c t i v e a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e s m a n i f e s t e d w i t h i n the p a i n t i n g . From t h i s base, the spectrum - 1 4 1 -was broadened t o I n c l u d e works of a r t e x t e r i o r t o the Ma-wang-tui s i t e and the. p a i n t i n g ' s terminus ante quern o f oa. 185 B,C, The i n t e n t was t o determine how the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g f i t t e d w i t h i n the. continuum of Chinese a r t h i s t o r y i n the t r a n s i t i o n s from a s y m b o l i c a r t t o a / p i c t o r i a l a r t form. The i n c i p i e n c e of t h i s s h i f t i n the two a r t i s t i c modes was p e r c e i v e d w i t h i n the Han. I n t h i s change, the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g was shown t o be a p i v o t a l e x h i b i t . Thus, i n the development of Chinese a r t , the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g s tands a t the c r o s s r o a d s of t h i s t r a n s i t i o n . T i e d t o an e a r l i e r a t t i t u d e o f symbolism and s y m b o l i c a r t , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s e x h i b i t s a nascent p i c t o r i a l i s m t h a t was t o become the dominant concern i n Chinese a r t . The Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g i s thus a s e m i n a l acknowledgement of the s h i f t i n China Of an a r t i s t i c a t t i t u d e from the s y m b o l i c t o the p i c t o r i a l . NOTES: INTRODUCTION Hunan P r o v i n c i a l Museum and the I n s t i t u t e of A r c h -aeology , Academia S i n i c a 2*3 - ^ * ^ •% :&Tf~~$L* PH* «^ l> , Ch'ang-sha Ma-wang-tui I Hao Han Mu Fa-chUeh Chien-pao & ^ — $t 1% 1§ (A Brief Report on the Excavation of the Han Tomb No. 1 at Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha) ( P e k i n g : Wen Wu, 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 13-15- H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Brief Report. The c l a y s e a l s bear the marks. "Majordomo o f the Household o f the Marquis of T ' a i , " and "Household of the Marquis of T ' a i . " See, Brief Report, p. 14. For a t r a n s l a t i o n o f the Brief Report, see, Fong Chow, "Ma-wang-tui: A T r e a s u r e - T r o v e from the Western Han Dynasty," Artibus Asiae 35 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 5-24. 2 For a l a t e r d a t i n g of the Tomb No. 1 at Ma-wang-tui, see, Mary H. Fong, "The Technique o f ' C h i a r o s c u r o ' i n Chinese P a i n t i n g from Han thr o u g h T'ang," Artibus Asiae 38 ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 9 1 - 9 2 . 3 E x a c t dates f o r the Chou Dynasty a r e not u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d by S i n o l o g i s t s , t he date 1 0 3 0 B.C. b e i n g a r e v i s e d one from the e r s t w h i l e 1122 B.C. f o r m e r l y i n use. The e a r l i e s t e x a c t date known from Chinese h i s t o r y i s 841 B.C. C a l c u l a t i o n s w o r k i n g backwards i n time by Chinese s c h o l a r s r e g a r d i n g p r o -b a b l e r e i g n l e n g t h s p l a c e the date of the f o u n d i n g o f the Shang Dynasty between 1766 B.C. and 1 5 2 3 B.C., and t h a t of the Chou conquest between 1122 B.C. and 1 0 1 8 B.C. See, Laurence Sickman and A l e x a n d e r Soper, The Art and Archi-tecture of China, T h i r d E d i t i o n (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 1 0 - 1 1 . -142--143-4 The Ch'un Ch'iu i s a y e a r - b y - y e a r c h r o n i c l e o f the s t a t e of Lu ^ , c o v e r i n g the p e r i o d from 722 B,C, t o 48l B.C. G r e a t e r h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , however, can be o b t a i n e d from the Tso Chuan ify (The Tso Tradition) which i s i n p a r t a commentary on the Ch'un Ch'iu. I t c o n t a i n s e n t r i e s f o r the y e a r s 722 B.C. t o 464 B.C., i n c l u s i v e . See, James Legge ( t r . ) , The Chinese C l a s s i c s ; With a Translation, C r i t i c a l and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copious Indexes, 5 v o l s . ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1893-1895.; Hong Kong;.Hong Kong U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I960, r e p r i n t ) , V o l . 5 : The Ch'un Ts'ew with the Tso Chuen. See a l s o , S e r a p h i n Couvreur ( t r . ) , Tch'ouen Ts'iou et Tso Tchouan, la Chronique de la Principante de Lou, 3 v o l s . (Ho K i e n Pou: I m p r i m e r l e d e l a M i s s i o n C a t h o l i q u e , 1914). See, J . I . Crump ( t r . ) , Chan-Kuo Ts'e ( O s f o r d : C l a r e n -don P r e s s , 1970). The Chan-Kuo Ts'e i s an anonymous c o l l e c -t i o n from the t h i r d c e n t u r y B.C. and i s comprised of h i s -t o r i c a l a n e c d o t e s , f a b l e s and t a l e s o f famous peopl e from the W a r r i n g S t a t e s P e r i o d . I t s t e x t , i n t h i r t y - t h r e e c h a p t e r s , i s a r r a n g e d by I n d i v i d u a l s t a t e s and then c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . Commentaries are by Kao Yu % * f ( f l . ca. A.D. 215 - 212). See a l s o , J . I . Crump, Intrigues,• Studies of the Chan-Kuo Ts'e (Ann Arbor-:.- U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1964). ^See, Homer H. Dubs ( t r . ) , History of the Former Han Dynasty, 3 v o l s . ( B a l t i m o r e : Waverly P r e s s , 1938, 1944, 1 9 5 5 ) . T h i s i s a t r a n s l a t i o n o f the Han Shu ^ (History of the Han) by Pan Ku , but a l s o known a s , Ch'ien Han Shu - t t m ^& (History of the Former Han). I n one-hundred-twenty c h a p t e r s and w i t h commentaries by Yen S h i h - k u JH_ "IT (A.D. 581 - 645), i t co v e r s the p e r i o d , 209 B.C. -A.D. 2 3 . New Archaeological Finds in China; Discoveries During the Cultural Revolution, Second E d i t i o n ( R e v i s e d ) ( P e k i n g : -144-F o r e i g n Languages P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp, 42 - 5 2 , o I b i d . , p. 48. ^ M i c h a e l S u l l i v a n , The Arts of China ( B e r k e l e y : U n i -v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 4 9 , 8 1 - 8 2 . T h i s i s a new and r e v i s e d e d i t i o n of the a u t h o r ' s e a r l i e r , A Short History of Chinese Art ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y . o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) . " ^ M i c h a e l S u l l i v a n , Chinese Art: Reoent Discoveries (London: Thames and Hudson, 1 9 7 3 ) . I n bo t h t h i s work and The Arts of China, S u l l i v a n ' s major p o i n t r e g a r d i n g the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g i s t h a t .as a w a l l hanging, i t p r e -dates the B u d d h i s t hanging s c r o l l s found at Tun-huang and i s , t h e r e f o r e , e v i d e n c e t h a t the hanging s c r o l l i s i n d i -genous t o Ch i n a and not o f f o r e i g n i m p o r t . "'""'"William Watson, Style in the Arts of China (Har-monsworth: Penguin Books, 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 63 and Figure 46 o f the same. See a l s o , "Rare A r c h a e o l o g i c a l F i n d — 2 , 1 0 0 - Y e a r Old Han Dynasty Tomb E x c a v a t e d , " China P i c t o r i a l 292 (October'1 9 7 2 ) : 1 8 - 2 5 . Edmond Capon and W i l l i a m M a c Q u i t t y , Princes of Jade (London: C a r d i n a l , 1 9 7 3 ) , PP- 1 6 2 - 1 6 7 , 1 7 5 , 1 9 2 . John Hay, Ancient China, A Bodley Head A r c h a e o l o g y (London: The Bodley Head, 1 9 7 3 ) , PP • 9 3 - 1 0 1 . R i c h a r d Casper Rudolph, "Two R e c e n t l y D i s c o v e r e d Han Tombs," Archaeology 26 ( A p r i l 1 9 7 3 ) : 1 0 6 - 1 1 5 . A l i c e J . H a l l , "A Lady from China's P a s t ; A Noblewoman's L a s t Day, 2 , 1 0 0 Years Ago, Seems t o Dawn A g a i n w i t h the D i s c o v e r y o f Her R i c h l y F u r n i s h e d Tomb," National Geographic Magazine 145 (May 1 9 7 4 ) : 6 6 0 - 6 8 1 ' . W i l l i a m Watson, Ancient China; The Discoveries of Post-Liberation Archaeology w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by Magnus Magnusson (Greenwich: New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 5 5 f f . -145-Edmund Capon, Art and Archaeology in China (.South Melbourne M a c M i l l i a n Co. of A u s t r a l i a , 1 9 7 7 ), p. 98 and Plate 15 of the same. 1 3 S e e Note #1 above. 14 Hunan P r o v i n c i a l Museum and the I n s t i t u t e of A r c h -a e o l o g y , Academia S i n i c a , Ch'ang-sha Ma-wang-tui I Hao Han Mu -IL ^ " t^, ^1 ^ (The Han Tomb No. .1 at Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha), 2 v o l s . Text i n Chinese w i t h E n g l i s h A b s t r a c t ( P e k i n g : Wen Wu, 1 9 7 3 ) . H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as CSMWT. ^Hsi Han Po Hua *^ % (A Western Han S i l k Painting), No p a g i n a t i o n ( P e k i n g : Wen Wu, 1 9 7 2 ) . 1 Shang C h i h - t ' a n "l-f "An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Fei-i from the Han Tomb No. 1 at Ma-wang-tui," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 196 (September 1 9 7 2 ) : 4 3 - 4 7 - Wu T s o - j e n /<-^ , "Some Thoughts a f t e r E x a m i n i n g the Western Han S i l k P a i n t i n g from Ma-wang-tui," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 196 (September 1 9 7 2):41-42. An C h i h - m i n * & - 4 * L , "A T e n t a t i v e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Newly D i s c o v e r e d Western Han S i l k P a i n t i n g from Ch'ang-sha," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , K'ao Ku 124 ( J a n u a r y / F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 3 ) : ^ 3 - 5 3 - Fong Chow, "The T r e a -sure o f Ma-wang-tui," Art News 73 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 4 ) : 2 2 - 2 7 -Wen P i e n , "The World's O l d e s t P a i n t i n g on S i l k ; V i s i o n s of the Underworld i n a 2 , 0 0 0 Year Old Chinese Tomb," UNESCO Courier 27 ( A p r i l 1 9 7 4 ) : 18 - 2 3. A . G u t k i n d ; B u l l i n g , "The Guide o f the S o u l s P i c t u r e i n the Western Han Tomb i n Ma-wang-tui near Ch'ang-sha," Oriental Art 20 (Summer 1 9 7 4 ) 1 5 8 - 1 7 3 . An attempt t o p l a c e the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g i n the the c o n t e x t o f Chinese a r t i s t i c p i c t o r i a l i s m was o f f e r e d by -146-Mary E. Forig ,in h e r a r t i c l e , "The Technique o f ' C h i a r o s c u r o ' i n Chinese P a i n t i n g , " pp, 9 1 - 9 3 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Fong's c h o i c e of terms.— ' c h i a r o s c u r o ' - - i s . f u n d a m e n t a l l y Western i n concept and a n t i t h e t i c a l t o the Chinese a r t i s t i c mind. Her e f f o r t s t o impose t h i s , scheme upon the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g and o t h e r works o f a r t t h a t she c i t e s i s r a t h e r s t r a i n e d . The Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g i s a l s o s u b j e c t i v e l y i m p l i e d as b e i n g a s e m i n a l work i n Chinese p a i n t i n g r e g a r d i n g , t h i s d e v e l o p -ment of ' c h i a r o s c u r o , ' but Fong r u d e l y i g n o r e s an e a r l i e r s i l k p a i n t i n g a l s o r e c o v e r e d from the Ch'ang-sha r e g i o n and now i n P e k i n g . See, O s v a l d S i r e n , Chinese Painting; Leading Masters and P r i n c i p l e s , 7 v o l s . (London: Lund, Humphries and Company, 1 9 5 6 - 1 9 5 8 ) , 3 : 1 . A l l r e f e r e n c e s t o V o l . 3 o f t h i s s e t are t o p l a t e s . -i o , Shan Hai Ching (Pai Tzu Ch'Uan Shu "W # e d i -t i o n ) , 80 v o l s . (Shanghai: Sao-yeh Shan-fang, 1 9 1 9 ) , V o l . 64. A t r a n s l a t i o n o f the f i r s t f i v e c h a p t e r s has appeared i n F r e n c h . See, Leon de Rosny ( t r . ) , Chan-hai-king; Antique Geographic Chinoise ( P a r i s : n.p., 1 8 9 1 ) . "1 Q ^ _ Huai Nan Tzu (Erh Shih Wu Tzu Hui Han •=--+• !fc dSj e d i t i o n ) , 16 v o l s . (Shanghai: Hung-wen Shu - c h l i , 1 8 9 3 ) , V o l . 1 6 , Continuous p a g i n a t i o n . V a r i o u s c h a p t e r s o f t h i s work have been p u b l i s h e d i n E n g l i s h . See, Evan Morgan( (tr',<), Tao: The Great Luminant; Essays from Huai Nan Tzu with Introductory A r t i c l e s , Notes, Analysis (London: Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b n e r , 1 9 3 5 ) . 2 0 See, D a v i d Hawkes ( t r . ) , Ch'u Tz'u: Songs of the South; An Ancient Chinese Anthology ( B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) . See a l s o , Ch'u Tz'u Pu-chu (Suppli-mentary Annotations to, the the Ch'u Tz'u) (n.p.: Chung-hua Shu-chu, 1 9 6 3 ) . H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Ch'u Tz'u, See, Legge, The Chinese C l a s s i c s , V o l . 4: The She -147-King or the Book of Poetry, Cf., A r t h u r Waley ( t r , ) , The -Book of Songs(London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1 9 3 7 ) . Bernhard K a r l g r e n ( t r , ) , The Book of Odes (Stockholm: Museum of F a r E a s t e r n A n t i q u i t i e s , 1 9 5 0 ) . , Bernhard K a r l -gren ( t r . ) , " S h i K i n g R e s e a r c h e s , " B u l l e t i n of the Museum of Far Eastern A n t i q u i t i e s ' ^ (.1932.) : 1 1 7 - 1 8 5. The B u l l e t i n of the Museum of Far Eastern A n t i q u i t i e s i s h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as BMFEA. See a l s o , M a r c e l G r a n e t , F&tes et chansons Anciennes de la Chine, Second E d i t i o n ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e E r n e s t L e r o u x , 1 9 2 9 ) 22 Legge, The Shi King or the Book of Poetry, " P r o -legomena . " 2 3 See, A r t h u r Waley ( t r . ) , The Way and I t s Power; A Study of the Tao Te Ching and I t s Place in Chinese Thought (London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1 9 3 4 ) . See a l s o , James Legge ( t r . ) , The Texts of Taoism': The Tao Te Ching, The Writings of Chuang-tzu, The Thai-shang; Tractate of Actions and Their Retributions, I n t r o d u c t i o n by D.T. S u z u k i (New York: The J u l i a n P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) . T h i s l a s t work i s a p h o t o -o f f s e t from t h e o r i g i n a l 1 8 9 1 e d i t i o n p u b l i s h e d as V o l . XXXIX and V o l . XL o f Sacred Books of the East (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 8 9 1 ) . 24 See, James Legge ( t r . ) , The I Ching, Second E d i t i o n (New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 6 3 ) . T h i s i s an u n a l t e r e d r e p u b l i c a t i o n o f the Second E d i t i o n o f the work f i r s t pub-l i s h e d as V o l . XVI o f Sacred Books of the East i n 1 8 9 9 , w i t h the s p e c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n as The Texts of Confucianism, P a r t 2 . See a l s o , Z.D. Sung, The Symbols of Ii King; or The Symbols of the Chinese Logic of Changes (Shanghai: n.p . , 1 9 3 4 , New York: Paragon Books, 1 9 6 9 , r e p r i n t ) . H e l l m u t W i l h e l m , Change; Eight _ Lectures on the I Ching, T r a n s l a t e d from the German by Cary F. Bayner, B o l l i n g e n S e r i e s #62 (New York: Pantheon Books, i 9 6 0 ) . -148-25 See, Legge, The Texts of Taoism, pp.. 1 7 3 - 6 7 2 , A l s o , B u r t o n Watson . ( . t r . ) , Chuang Tzu (New York; n.p,, 1 9 6 8 ) . 2 6 Legge, The Chinese Classics, V o l . 3 ; The Shoo King, or the Book of Historical.Documents, Cf,, Bernhard K a r l -gren ( t r . ) , "The Book of Documents," BMFEA 22 ( 1 9 5 0 ) : l - 8 l . Bernhard K a r l g r e n ( t r . ) , " G l o s s e s on the Book of Documents," P a r t 1 , BMFEA 2 0 ( 1 9 4 8 ) : 3 9 - 3 1 5 - B ernhard K a r l g r e n ( t r . ) , " G l o s s e s on the Book of Documents," P a r t 2 , BMFEA 2 1 ( 1 9 4 9 ) : 6 3 - 2 0 6 . 27 Ssu-ma C h ' i e n , Shih Chi, 10 v o l s . , Second E d i t i o n , C ontinuous p a g i n a t i o n ( P e k i n g : Chuang-hua Shu-chu, 1 9 6 2 ) . P a r t i a l t r a n s l a t i o n s of the Shih Chi can be o b t a i n e d . See, B u r t o n Watson ( t r . ) , Records of the Grand Historian of China;:, 2 v o l s . (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I 9 6 I ) . Edouard Chavannes ( t r . ) , Les Memoires Historiques de Se-ma Ts'ien, 6 v o l s . ( P a r i s : E r n e s t L e r p u x , 1 8 9 5 - 1 9 0 5 , I 9 6 9 ) . Frank A. Kierman, Ssu-ma Ch'ien's Historiographical Attitude as Reflected in Four Late Warring States Biographies (Wiesbaden: Otto H a r r a s s o w i t z , 1 9 6 2 ) . 2 8 A p r i n c i p a l , secondary source o f h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s and d a t a , i s , H e r b e r t A. G i l e s , A Chinese Biographical Dictionary ( T a i p e i : L i t e r a -t u r e House, 1 8 9 0 , ' . r e p r i n t ) . 2 9 See, James Legge ( t r . ) , Li Chi: Book of Rites; An Encyclopedia of Ancient Ceremonial Usages, Religious Creeds, and Social I n s t i t u t i o n s , I n t r o d u c t i o n and Study Guide by Ch'u C h a i and Winberg C h a i , 2 v o l s . (New York: U n i v e r s i t y Books, 1 9 6 7 ) . With the e x c e p t i o n o f new m a t e r i a l added by the e d i t o r s , t h i s t e x t i s t a k e n from the 1 8 8 5 , Oxford U n i -v e r s i t y P r e s s p u b l i c a t i o n where i t appeared as V o l . XXVII and V o l . X X V I I I o f Sacred Books of the East.with the spe-c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n as P a r t s I I I and IV of The Texts of -149-Confuoianism. See a l s o , S e r a p h i n Couvreur ( t r , ) , Li Kij Ou Memoires sur les Bienseanoes et les Ceremonies, 2 v o l s , i n 4 p a r t s ( P a r i s : Cathasia., 1 9 2 8 ) . Cf., Bernhard K a r l g r e n ( t r . ) , " G l o s s e s on the L i K i , " BMFEA 43 C1971) : 14*66. 30 See, Edouard B i o t ( t r . ) , Le Toheou^li ou Rites des Tcheou, 3 v o l s . ( P a r i s : I m p r i m e r i e N a t i o n a l e , 1 8 5 1 ; T a i p e i : Ch'eng Wen P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 9 , r e p r i n t ) - . See a l s o , Bernhard K a r l g r e n , "The E a r l y H i s t o r y o f the Chou L i And Tso Chuan T e x t s , " BMFEA 3 ( 1 9 3 1 ) : l - 6 0 . Sven Broman, " S t u d i e s on the Chou L i , " BMFEA 33 ( 1 9 6 l ) : l - 9 0 . J See, John S t e e l e ( t r . ) , The I-Li or Book of Eti-quette and Ceremonial, 2 v o l s . , Pifeo:b:siifrain O r i e n t a l S e r i e s , V o l . V I I I (London: Erobs.thain, 1917). Cf., S e r a p h i n Couvreur ( t r . ) , I Li, le Ceremonial ( P a r i s : C a t h a s i a , 1951 ? ) . NOTES: CHAPTER I 1CSMWT, 1 : 3 - 5 . 2 I b i d . , 1:4. JSun Tso-yun "An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Lacquered C o f f i n P a i n t i n g s from t h e Han Tomb No. 1 a t Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , K'ao Ku 127 ( J u l y / A u g u s t 1 9 7 3 ):247 - 2 5 4 . CSMWT, 2 : 2 7 - 3 1 , 3 8 - 5 7 - R e f e r e n c e s t o the second volume of t h i s work are t o p l a t e s . 5 I b i d . , 2 : 3 3 - 3 6 . 6 I b i d . , 2 : 3 7 , 6 1 . See a l s o , Brief Report, Plates 4.3, 5.1. 7 'Brief Report, pp. 14 - 1 5 . CSMWT, 1 : 3 1 - 3 2 . There seems to be some c o n f l i c t as t o the p r o p e r t i t l e o f the Marchioness and her husband's mark. Both Chow and B u l l i n g have t r a n s -l i t e r a t e d as T a i . See, Chow, "Ma-wang-tui: A T r e a s u r e -Trove," p. 1 5 8 . B u l l i n g , "The Guide o f the S o u l s P i c t u r e , " p. 158.... Fong, :on the o t h e r hand, t r a n s l i t e r a t e s the c h a r a c -t e r as Ta. See, Fong, "The Technique o f ' C h i a r o s c u r o ' i n Chinese P a i n t i n g , " p. 9 2 , Note #3- A c c o r d i n g t o the Dai Kanwa Jiten 5^ ^ « H?*- ^  , however, has the same p r o -n o u n c i a t i o n as the homophone , T ' a i . See, T e t s u j i Morohashi " » t 'f&tL-K. , Dai Kanwa J i t e n , 13 v o l s , (Tokyo: T a i s u h a u Shoten, 1 9 5 5 - 1 9 6 0 ) , 1 0 : # 3 8 , 1 8 6 . H e r b e r t A. G i l e s , - 1 5 0 -- 1 5 1 -Chinese-English Dictionary, 2 v o l s , i n one. Second E d i t i o n , R e v i s e d and E n l a r g e d (.Shanghai: n.p., 1 9 1 2 ; New York: Paragon Book, 1 9 6 4 , r e p r i n t ) , # 1 0 , 5 9 6 . g Brief Re-port, p. 6 . CSMWT, 1:42. For a d i s c u s s i o n o f the T ' a i h o u s e h o l d , see, Ma Yung , "The Marquis o f T ' a i and t h e Prime M i n i s t e r o f the S t a t e o f Ch'ang-sha," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 196 (September 1 9 7 2 ) : 1 4 - 2 1 . Q Chow, "Ma-wang-tui: A T r e a s u r e - T r o v e , " p. 1 1 . B u l l i n g , "The Guide o f the S o u l s P i c t u r e , " p. 1 6 6 . An Chih-min, p. 4 7 . See a l s o , Hupei P r o v i n c i a l Museum ^ ^ ^f&'&P, "Problems R e g a r d i n g the C o l o u r f u l l y P a i n t e d Ch'ing Stones from the Ch'u Kingdom D i s c o v e r e d a t C h i a n g - l i n g , H u p e i , " (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , K'ao Ku 120 (May/June 1 9 7 2 ) : 4 l - 4 8 . "^The hu i s a type of vase or pot t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c a l l y t a l l and g r a c e f u l i n o u t l i n e . I t s b a s i c f e a t u r e s are a rounded b e l l y , s l o p i n g s h o u l d e r s w i t h a t a l l neck, and a narrow mouth t h a t i s s l i g h t l y f l a r e d . The ting i s a t r i p o d or c a l d r o n mounted on t h r e e s o l i d l e g s . See, Note # 1 1 , CHAPTER I I I , below. A l s o , W i l l i a m W i l l e t t s , Foundations of Chinese Art from Neolithic Pottery to Modern Architecture (London: Thames and Hudson, 1 9 6 5 ) , PP• 8 0 - 9 4 . Hugo Munster-b e r g , The Arts of China ( R u t l a n d : C h a r l e s E. T u t t l e , 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 4 1 - 4 4 . NOTES: CHAPTER I I "•"Fung Y u - l a n , A History of Chinese Philosophy, 2 v o l s . , T r a n s l a t e d by Derk Bodde w i t h I n t r o d u c t i o n , N o t e s, B i b l i -ography and Index ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 2 ) , V o l . 1: The Period of the Philosophers (From the Beginnings to c i r c a 100 B.C.), p. 1 6 0 . See, Ssu-ma C h ' i e n , V o l . 7 , chiXan 7 ^ 7 4 , pp. 2 3 4 3 - 2 3 5 0 . A l s o , E r n e s t R i c h a r d Hughes (ed. and t r . ) , Chinese Philosophy in Classical Times, R e v i s e d E d i t i o n (London: J.M. Dent and Sons, 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 212-214. G i l e s , A Chinese Biographical Dictionary, # 2 0 3 0 . 2 Joseph Needham, Science and C i v i l i z a t i o n in China (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 - ), V o l . 2 : History of S c i e n t i f i c Thought, p. 2 7 4 . I Ching, c i t e d , Needham, 2 : 2 7 4 . 4 For a d i s c u s s i o n o f Taoism, see, Max K a l t e n m a r k , Lao Tzu and Taoism, T r a n s l a t e d by Roger Greaves ( S t a n d a r d : S t a n d a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) . Jan Jacob M a r i a de G r o o t , Religion in China: Universalism; A Key to the Study of Taoism and Confucianism (New York: Putnam, 1 9 1 2 ) . J a n Jacob M a r i a de G r o o t , The Religious System of China, 6 v o l s . ( L e i d e n : E . J . B r i l l , 1 8 9 2 - 1 9 1 0 ) . Legge, The Texts of Taoism. Waley, The Way and Its Power. Needham, V o l . 2 . Legge, I Ching, p. 3 8 9 • Huai Nan Tzu, chUan 7 , "Ching Shen Hsiln" n * f # 1 , p. 1 9 a . - 1 5 2 -- 1 5 3 -7 Kate F i n s t e r b u s c h , Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen, 2 v o l s , (Wiesbaden; Otto H a r r a s s o w i t z , 1 9 6 6 - 1 9 7 1 ) , V o l . 2 : 2 7 / 1 0 1 . R e f e r e n c e s t o V o l . 2 o f t h i s work are t o p l a t e / f i g u r e , 8 The A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team, Bureau of C u l t u r e , Honan P r o v i n c e - T ^ *L 1c %? *L W ffc- } "Report on the E x c a v a t i o n o f a Western Han Tomb w i t h W a l l P a i n t i n g s a t Loyang," (Text i n Chinese w i t h E n g l i s h A b s t r a c t ) , K'ao Ku HsUeh-pao 34 ( 1 9 6 - 0 : 1 2 5 , Plates 2.3., 3.2. H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as " W a l l P a i n t i n g s a t Loyang." 9 L i u C h i a - c h i & and L i u P i n g - s e n *^ , "Some Thoughts a f t e r Copying the Western Han S i l k P a i n t i n g from Chin-ch'ueh-shan," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 258 (November 1 9 7 2 ) : 2 8 , 3 1 , Figure 1 and Frontispiece. 1 (^An Chih-min, p. 46. 11 Shan Hai Ching, ohiXan 9, "Hai Wai Tung Ching" , p. l b . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the fu-sang t r e e , see, M i c h a e l S u l l i v a n , The Birth of Landscape Painting in China ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 1 7 2 - 1 7 3 , 1 7 5 - 1 7 7 . 1 2Hawkes, p. 104. Ch'u Tz'u, chiXan 9, "Chao Bun," p. 2 b , g l o s s . 13 G i l e s , A Chinese Biographical Dictionary, # 6 6 7 . E.T.C. Werner, A Dictionary of Chinese Mythology (New York: The J u l i a n P r e s s , I 9 6 I ) , p. 1 5 9 - For m o r e . d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p -t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the legends o f Hou I , see, T i n g Y i n g "J* J§|-- , Chung-kuo Shang Ku Shen-hua Ku-shih "-f3 l§ -t-. <^  1?% £ X ^ (Ancient Fairy Tale Stories of China) (Hong Kong: Shanghai Book Co., I 9 6 0 ) , pp. 9 5 - 1 0 9 . Yuan K'o"^ 3-5*, Chung-kuo Ku-tai Shen-hua §"8? (Ancient Fairytales of China) (Shanghai; Chung^hua Shu-chu, i 9 6 0 ) , pp. 1 7 3 - 1 8 5 . E.T.C. Werner, Myths and Legends of China (London: George G. H a r r a p , 1 9 2 2 ) , pp. l 8 0 - l 8 3 , < 14 Sun Tso-yun. "An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Banner P a i n t i n g Unearthed from the Han Tomb No. 1 a t Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , K'ao Ku 124 ( J a n u a r y / F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 3 ) : 5 4 . Brief Report, p. 6,. An Chih-min, p. 46. 15 Lo K'un, "A D i s c u s s i o n o f the S i l k P a i n t i n g from the Han Tomb a t Ma-wang-tui," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 19 6 (September 1 9 7 2 ) : 4 8 - 4 9 . 16 F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on the N o r t h e r n D i p p e r imagery i n e a r l y Chinese a r t , see, H s i a N a i , "The C o n s t e l l a -t i o n o f a Western Han Tomb a t Loyang," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , K'ao Ku 102 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 5 ) : 8 0 - 9 0 . See a l s o , " W a l l P a i n t i n g s at Loyang,: pp. 112-114. T'ang Lan et a l . , "Symposium on the Han Tomb No. 1 a t Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 196 (September 1 9 7 2 ) : 5 8 . . 18 Huai Nan Tzu, chiXan 7 , "Ching Shen Hsttn," p. 1 9 a . "^Wang J u - l i n 2=. 'tUT $L , "An A n c i e n t Han Tomb Stone R e l i e f a t the- Western Gate o f Nanyang, Honan," '(Text i n C h i n e s e ) , K'ao Ku 96 (August 1 9 6 4 ):424, Figure 2. H i r o s h i I k e u c h i »*3 ^  and S u e j i Umehara "f^r ^ w i t h an E n g l i s h Resume by J i r o Harada $p © } T'ung-kou l^- , 2 v o l s . (Tokyo: Nichiman Bunka K y o k a i , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 4 0 ) , V o l . 2 : Kao-kou-lian Tombs with Wall Paintings in the Chi-an D i s t r i c t , T'ung-hua Province, Manchoukuo,.Plate 14. See a l s o , " W a l l P a i n t i n g s at Loyang," Plate S/Figure 7, B e t t e r r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f t h i s image can be found i n , H s i a N a i , p. 8 2 , Figure 1. A l s o , F i n s t e r b u s c h , 2 : 1 6 0 / 6 0 3 , 2 4 9 / 2 . - 1 5 5 -L i u C h i a - c h i and L i u P i n g - s e n , p. 2 9 , Figure 1 and F r o n t i s -piece . ? o F i n s t e r b u s c h , 2 ; l60/6o8 , 1 8 7 / 7 3 2 , 2 3 0 / 9 9 4 . I n the l a s t two i n s t a n c e s , the hare can be seen pounding w i t h m ortar and p e s t l e . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s i c o n o g r a p h y , see p. 29 o f t h i s c h a p t e r . 2 1"/~Hou_7 I asked H s i Wang Mu 5* 3- /~Queen ' Mother o f the West_/ f o r the E l i x i r o f L i f e . Heng / ~ i . e . , Ch'ang_/ 0 s t o l e i t and f l e d t o the moon." Huai Nan Tzu, chttan 6, "Lan Ming Hsttn" *''J , p. 1 9 a . Heng 0 i s the e r s t w h i l e name o f Ch'ang 0 . Her name was changed when Heng became the p r e r o g a t i v e o f the Emperor Mu Tsung F^*. (A.D.. 795 - 8 2 4 ) o f the T'ang M Dynasty (A.D. 6 l 8 -9 6 0 ) and the Emperor Chen Tsung - f t r o f the Sung * ^ Dynasty (A.D. 9 6 0 - 1 2 7 9 ) . See, Werner, Myths and Legends, p. 1 8 2 . 22 I t i s not c l e a r why an image of. Hou I does not:, appear i n the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g . Two s u g g e s t i o n s , how-e v e r , can be o f f e r e d towards t h i s conundrum. L i k e the so-c a l l e d " t h r e e - l e g g e d crow," the image of Hou I may not have e n t e r e d the Chinese a r t i s t i c language u n t i l the E a s t e r n Han p e r i o d where i t does appear i n the Wu L i a n g Tzu s h r i n e s . See, Edouard Chavannes, La sculpture sur p i e r r e en Chine au temps des deux dynasties Han ( P a r i s : E r n e s t L e r o u x , 1 8 9 3 ) , Plates 5, 10, 20. Otto F i s c h e r , Die Chineseische Malerei der Han-Dynastie ( B e r l i n : P a u l N e f f , 1 9 3 D , Plate 12. Or, perhaps the s u g g e s t i o n o f Hou I's presence via an a s s o c i a -t i o n w i t h the fu-sang t r e e and Ch'ang 0 s t o r i e s was s u f f i -c i e n t f o r the Chinese a u d i e n c e , whether p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c , ca. 185 B.C. 2 3 C i t e d , An Chih-min, p. 46.-Huai Nan Tzu, chttan 17, "Shuo Lin Hsttn" - 1 5 6 -p. 5 0 a . See, G i l e s , A Chinese Biographical Dictionary, # 1 4 0 . Yuan K'o, pp. l 8 6 f f . T i n g Y i n g , pp. l l O f f . 2 5Hawkes, p. 4 7 . 2 6 See Note #20 above of t h i s c h a p t e r . 2^Chang A n - c h i h , "The A r t i s t i c Achievements of the Western Han S i l k P a i n t i n g , " (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 2 0 8 (September 1 9 7 3 ) : 6 8 . Shang C h i h - t ' a n , p. 4 5 . Sun Tso-yun, "An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Banner P a i n t i n g , " p. 5 5 . L i u P i n g - s h e n , "Some I n t u i t i v e Thoughts a f t e r Copying the Western Han S i l k P a i n t i n g from Ma-wang-tui," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 208 (September 1 9 7 3 ) : 7 1 -2 8 G i l e s , A Chinese Biographical Dictionary, # 5 8 5 . 2 9 I b i d . , # 1 5 7 8 . 3°See, F i n s t e r b u s c h , 2 : 2 7 / 1 0 1-104, 2 8 / 1 0 6 , 3 2 / 1 2 7 , 3 8 / 1 5 0 , 42 / 1 7 2 . I k e u c h i and Umehara, 2 : Plate 83.. B a s i l Gray, Buddhist Cave Paintings at Tun-huang ( C h i c a g o : U n i -v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , Plate 24. The Museum of the Autonomous Region of Wei-wu-erh, H s i n - c h i a n g ~%Ff §^ ^ % 2l3 1^' #t> , "A B r i e f Report on the E x c a v a t i o n o f the Tombs from the N o r t h e r n Region of A - s s u - t ' a - n a , T ' u - l u -f a n , H s i n - c h i a n g , " (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 113 (June i 9 6 0 ) : 2 , Figure 4. The Museum of the Autonomous Region of Wei-wu-e r h , H s i n - c h i a n g , "A B r i e f Report on the C l e a r i n g o f a Group of Tombs at A - s s u - t ' a - n a and Ha-la-ho-cho I n the County o f T ' u - l u - f a n , " (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 188 ( J a n -uary 1 9 7 2 ) : 2 3 , Figures 34-35. R i c h a r d Rudolph i n c o l l a b o r a -t i o n w i t h Wen Yu, Ban Tomb Art of West China; A Collection of F i r s t and Second Century Reliefs ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 ) , Figures 58-59, 99. - 1 5 7 -31 See, Chayannes, La sculpture sur p i e r r e . Plates 3, 24, 33, The Research S o c i e t y o f C e n t r a l A s i a n C u l t u r e , Monumenta Serindica (Kyoto: Hozokan, 1 9 5 8 - •) , V o l . 5 : The Ancient Buddhist Arts in Central Asia and Tun-huang; Introduction and Monographical Remarks on the Wallpaintings, Sculptures, Manuscripts and Pictures from Central Asia and Tun-huang, North-west China, Text i n Japanese w i t h E n g l i s h I n t r o d u c t i o n , A b s t r a c t s and Anecdotes (Ky o t o : Hozokan, 1 9 6 2 ) , Plates 23-24. 32 Ch'u Tz'u, chilan 3 , "T'ien Wen," pp. 1 5 a - 1 5 h , g l o s s . ^Huai Nan Tzu, chttan 4 , "Chui Hsing Hsttn" %t , p. 1 3 a . See Note #31 above of t h i s c h a p t e r . 34 We w i l l . r e t u r n t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h i s f i g u r e as NU Kua i n CHAPTER IV. ^CSMWT, l : 4 l f f . "Where i s K'un-lun w i t h i t s Hanging Garden? How many m i l e s h i g h are i t s n i n e f o l d w a l l s ? Who goes.through the gates i n i t s f o u r s i d e s ? When the n o r t h e a s t one opens, what wind i s i t t h a t passes through? What l a n d does the sun not r e a c h t o ? How does the T o rch Dragon l i g h t i t ? " Hawkes, p. 4 7 . 37 Shan Hai Ching,• chttan 11, "Ta Huang Pei Ching" p. 2b. The Chu Lung i s a l s o known by the s o b r i q u e t , Chu Y i n *^ ^ . See,.Shan Hai Ching, chttan 8 , "Hai Wai Pei Ching" 3& * N tfH 3 p. l a „ Waley, The Way and I t s Power, p. 146. Cf., Legge, The Texts of Taoism, pp. 9 7 - 9 8 . On the Y e l l o w Emperor, see, - 1 5 8 -Waley, The Way and Its Power, pp. 5 7 ? 1 0 3-104, 1 3 4 . 39 Waley, The Way and Its Power, p, 1 9 5 , Cf,, Legge, The Texts of Taoism, pp. 1 3 3 - 1 3 4 . T h i s harmony i s the harmony o f the u n i v e r s e i n •••the w orkings o f the yin and the. yang^*-i,e., the Tao. 40 Chow c i t e s a passage from the Huai Nan Tzu ("Chu Lung r e s i d e s n o r t h o f Yen Men J\% f) /"Gate of the W i l d Geese_7") t o draw a c o n n e c t i o n between these b i r d s and the human/snake f i g u r e and thus t o s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n the c r o s s b a r s e c t i o n i s i n d e e d the Chu Lung. Chow, "Ma-wang-tui: A T r e a s u r e - T r o v e , " p. 1 2 . 41 • See, I k e u c h i and Umehara, 2 : Plate 81. 42 Bernhard K a r l g r e n , "The Book o f Odes," BMFEA 16 ( 1 9 4 4 ) : 2 3 1 . Cf., Legge, She King, p. 2 9 7 . Waley, Book of Songs, p. 3 1 4 . 43 Chang A n - c h i h , p. 6 3 . 44 Legge, I Ching, p. 422. 45 J I b i d . , p. 2 3 5 . 46 M o r o h a s h i , 1 : #257-47 Hawkes, p. 4 l . Huai Nan Tzu, ohilan 3, "T'ien Wen Hsiln" p. 9 b . 49 ^An Chih-min, p. 4 7 . 50 Huai Nan Tzu, ohiian 6 , "Lan Ming Hsiln," p. l 8 b . -159-Hawkes, p. 105.. 5 2 I b i d . , p. 2 9 . 53 JJCh'u Tz'u, chilan 1 , "Li Sao," p. 2 3 a , g l o s s . The Shou Wen Chieh-tzu i s the e a r l i e s t Chinese d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i n g some 9 0 0 0 Chinese c h a r a c t e r s as i t e x i s t e d t h e n . I t forms the b a s i s o f a l l e t y m o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f the Chinese language. The c o m p i l a t i o n o f i t s 30 ohilan was com-p l e t e d oa. A.D. 100 by Hsu Shen "¥f- t$- (d. A.D. 1 2 0 ? ) . See, G i l e s , A Chinese Biographical Dictionary, #787-54 An Chih-min r e j e c t s t h i s i d e a i n f a v o r o f Ta Ssu Ming 7 ^ ir) /v^- (The G r e a t e r Master o f F a t e ) and Shao Ssu Ming •y (The L e s s e r Master o f F a t e ) of the Ch'u Tz'u, Man 2 , "Chiu Ko" Jl*. ^ , pp. 14 - 1 8 . An Chih-min, pp. 4 5 -46. See, Hawkes, pp. 39-41. Cf., A r t h u r Waley ( t r . ) , The Nine Songs; A Study of Shamanism in Ancient China (London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 3 7 - 4 3 - See a l s o , Eduard E r k e s , "The God of Death i n A n c i e n t C h i n a , " T'oung Pao 35 ( 1 9 3 9 ) = 1 8 5 - 2 1 0 . A. B u l l i n g , The Meaning of China's Most Ancient Art; An Interpretation of Pottery Patterns from Kansu (Ma Ch'ang and Pan-shan) and Their Development in the Shang, Chou and Han Periods ( L e i d e n : E . J . B r i l l , 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 1 3 7 - 1 3 9 . - ^ B u l l i n g , "The Guide o f the S o u l s P i c t u r e , " p. 1 6 5 . 56 de G r o o t , The Religious System of China., 6 : 9 2 9 -5 7 T ' a n g Lan et al., pp. 5 7 , 5 9 - 6 1 . An Chih-min, pp. 4 7 -48. Chang A n - c h i h , p. 6 9 . Hsi Han Po Hua. Brief Report, pp.-. 6-7. CSMWT, 1 : 3 9 - 4 3 - B u l l i n g , "The Guide.of the Souls. P i c t u r e , " p. 1 6 5 . Ma Yung, "A D i s c u s s i o n o f the Name and F u n c t i o n of the S i l k P a i n t i n g Unearthed from the Han Tomb No. 1 at Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , K'ao Ku 125 - l 6 Q -( M a r c h / A p r i l 1 9 7 3 ) ; 12.3., 58 Sun Tso-yun, "An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Banner P a i n t i n g , " pp. 5 7 - 5 8 . 59 See, G i l e s , A Chinese^English Dictionary, # 3 5 6 0 , # 5 1 0 8 . C i t e d , M o r o h a s h i , 1 2 : #46 , 6 7 1 . ^ I k e u c h i and Umehara, 1 : 1 ; 2 : Plates 3-34, F o r a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e caves.and the p a i n t e d images w i t h i n , see, S u y e j i Umehara,. "The Newly D i s c o v e r e d Tombs w i t h W a l l P a i n t i n g s o f the K a o - k o u - l i a n Dynasty," Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America 6 ( 1 9 5 2 )': 5 - 1 7 . 6 2 Sun Tso-yun, "An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Banner P a i n t i n g , " p. 5 6 . ^Ch'u Tz'u, chttan 1 , "Li Sao," p. 2 2 a , g l o s s . 6 4Hawkes, p. 2 8 . Ch'u Tz'u, chttan 1, "Li Sao," p. 2 2 . 6R ^Hawkes, p. 8 5 - Ch'u Tz'u, chttan 5 , "Ittan YU," p. 7 b . ^ W a l e y , The Way and Its Power, p. 1 6 2 . Cf., Legge, The Texts of Taoism, pp. 1 0 7 - 1 0 8 . f> 7 Shared r e l a t i o n s h i p s between dragon f i g u r e s and pi f i g u r e s are not uncommon i n Chinese a r t . At Ma-wang-tui, b e s i d e s t h e p i / d r a g o n Image on the p a i n t i n g , a s i m i l a r image was found p a i n t e d on the m i d d l e c a s k e t . See, CSMWT, 2 : 3 6 . I n the N e l s o n - A t k i n s Museum, a j a d e p i a r t i f a c t s u r v i v e s w i t h a p a i r o f s e n s u o u s l y d a n c i n g dragons on i t s e x t e r i o r r i m . See, Ross E. Taggart et al., Handbook of the Collections of the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art - 1 6 1 -and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, Kansas City, F i f t h E d i t i o n (Kansas C i t y ; U n i v e r s i t y T r u s t e e s , W,R. N e l s o n T r u s t , 1 9 7 3 ) , V o l . 2 : Art of the Orient, p. 2 3 , H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Nelson^Atkins Museum, ^ B e r t h o l d L a u f e r , Jade; A Study in Chinese Archaeology and Religion (New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 1 1 2 -1 5 3 . T h i s work i s an u n a b r i d g e d r e p u b l i c a t i o n o f the work o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Chicago I n 1912 as P u b l i c a t i o n 1 5 4 , A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S e r i e s , . V o l . X.of the F i e l d Museum of Natural History. For c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g the p i as s y m b o l i c o f the heavens, see, W i l l e t t s , pp. 5 5 - 5 7 -^ B i o t , 1 : 4 3 4 . See a l s o , 'Bernhard K a r l g r e n , " F e c u n d i t y Symbols i n A n c i e n t C h i n a , " BMFEA 2 ( 1 9 3 0 ):24. Eduard E r k e s , "Some Remards on K a r l g r e n ' s ' F e c u n d i t y Symbols i n A n c i e n t C h i n a , ' " BMFEA 3 ( 1 9 3 1 ) : 6 7 . 70 Shan Hai Ching, chilan 9 , '.'Hai Wai Tung Ching," p. l b . 7 1Hawkes, p. 84. ^2Ch'u Tz'u, chilan 5 , "YUan YU," p. 7 b , g l o s s . 7 3 S e e Note #9, CHAPTER I . See a l s o , Committee f o r the E x h i b i t i o n o f C u l t u r a l R e l i c s tu Wen Hua Ta Ko Ming Ch'i Chien Ch'u T'u Wen Wu id it* 7 * L ^ ijtft P 4 l & (Cultural Relics Unearthed During the Period of the Great Cultural Revolution) w i t h an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f the I n t r o d u c t i o n and Contents ( P e k i n g : Wen Wu Ch'u Pan She, 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 7 4 . H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Cultural R e l i c s . 74 The Hunan P r o v i n c i a l Museum, "A B r i e f Report on the E x c a v a t i o n o f a Western Han Tomb at S h a - t z u - t ' a n g , Ch'ang-sha," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 148 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 3 ) : 1 3-24. - 1 6 2 -75 T'ang Lan et al. 3 pp. 5 9 ? 6 l . L i u P i n g - s e n , p, 7 1 . Shang C h i h - t ' a n , p. 44... Sun Tso-yun, "An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Banner P a i n t i n g , " p, 6 0 , Hsi, Han Po Hua. Ku T ' i e h - f u b e l i e v e s t h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n scene t o be the house-h o l d k i t c h e n . See, T'ang Lan et al.3 p. 57-^ B u l l i n g , "The Guide of the S o u l s P i c t u r e , " pp. 1 6 4 -1 6 5 - For B u l l i n g , the scene w i t h the Marchioness t a k e s p l a c e on e a r t h I n the T ' a i piano nobile. We have seen, however, t h a t t h i s i s i n a c c u r a t e . 77 A t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be drawn t o the 2 : 3 r a t i o between the hu and ting v e s s e l s from t h i s scene. P h y l l i s Ackerman has suggested t h a t the hu i s a yin v e s s e l w h i l e the ting i s a yang v e s s e l . I f t h i s i s a c c e p t e d , then the v e s s e l s a l s o r e s t a t e the yin/yang r a t i o as e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the f i v e cranes f l a n k i n g the Chu Lung. See, P h y l l i s Ackerman, Ritual Bronzes of Ancient China (New York: Dryden P r e s s , 1 9 4 5 ) , pp. 9 7 - 1 0 4 . l8CSMWT3 2 : 6 2 , 6 5 - 6 6 , 1 2 6 - 1 2 7 -79 See.p. 12. A l s o , CSMWT3 2:24-31-8°Shang C h i h - t ' a n , p. 4 4 , q u o t i n g L i e h Tzu ?•] See,.Leon Wieger, Les Peres du Systeme Taofste ( P a r i s : C a t h a s i a , 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 1 3 2 - 1 3 3 -- 1 6 3 -81 Ma Yung, "A D i s c u s s i o n o f the Name and F u n c t i o n o f the S i l k P a i n t i n g , " pp, 1 2 3-124, For the legends o f Kun, see, Legge, Shoo King, pp. 2 4 - 2 5 , 3 2 3 -8 2 Huai Nan Tzu, ohiXan 9 , ''Chu Shu," p. 2 5 b , g l o s s . T'ang Lan et at., p, 5 7 - Cf,, An Chih-min, p. 4 9 . Q o Werner, Myths and Legends, pp. 7 6 - 9 2 , 1 2 8 - 1 3 0 . 8 \ o r o h a s h i , 8 : # 2 3 0 6 . 6 2 . 8^ Jkn Chih-min, p. 4 7 . 8^The e a r l i e s t l i t e r a r y s ource f o r the legends o f P'an Ku dates from the f o u r t h c e n t r u y A.D. T h i s , however, does not p r e c l u d e the p o s s i b l e e x i s t e n c e o f an o r a l t r a -d i t i o n a n t e r i o r t o the l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s r e g a r d i n g P'an Ku now e x t a n t . I n t h i s manner, the Ma-wang-tui f i g u r e , seen s u p p o r t i n g the t e r r e s t r i a l r e a l m may Indeed be an e a r l y e x p r e s s i o n o f the legends o f P'an Ku and the c r e a t i o n o f the Chinese u n i v e r s e . ^Huai Nan Tzu, ohiXan 1 , "lilan Tao Hsiln" 7k, % , p. 2 a 88 Morgan, p. 5-8 9 S h a n g C h i h - t ' a n , p. 44 9 0 C i t e d , I b i d . 91 Legge, The Texts of Taoism, p. 212 92 Legge, Shoo King, pp. 24-25 B u l l i n g , "The Guide of the S o u l s P i c t u r e , " p. l 6 l . - 1 6 4 -^Legge, Shoo King, p. 21, ^5An Chih-min, p, 49. 96Hawkes, p. 48. NOTES: CHAPTER I I I "^Legge,.Shoo King, p. 3 2 5 . 2 de G r o o t j The Religious System of China, 3 : 9 5 5 -3 Legge, Shoo King, p. 3 2 3 -4 Needham, 2 : 2 3 8 - 2 5 0 . Por f u r t h e r c o m p i l a t i o n s o f t h i s t h e o r y , see, Derk Bodde, F e s t i v a l s in C l a s s i c a l .zChina'zsNew Year and Other Annual Observances During the Han Dynasty, 206 B.C. - A.D. 220 ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p- 3 8 . Huai Nan Tzu, chttan 4 , "Chui Hsing Hstin," p. 1 2 b . T h i s t h e o r y was. l a t e r expounded upon by Pan. Ku ^fe. j§ } a second c e n t u r y A.D. Han h i s t o r i a n and c o m p i l e r o f the Books of the Former Han Dynasty: "Wood produces f i r e , f i r e produces e a r t h ( i . e . , a s h e s ) , e a r t h produces m e t a l , m e t a l produces w a t e r , water produces wood {i.e., v e g e t a t i o n ) . I f f i r e h e a t s m e t a l , the l a t t e r produces water ( t h a t i s t o say i t l i q u i -f i e s ) : hence water d e s t r o y i n g f i r e o p e r a t e s i n i m i -c a l l y upon the v e r y element which engenders i t . F i r e produces e a r t h and e a r t h i m p a i r s w a t e r ; nobody can f r u s t r a t e such phenomena, f o r , the power who causes the f i v e elements t o i m p a i r each o t h e r i s the n a t u r a l . p r o p e n s i t i e s of Heaven and E a r t h , A l a r g e r q u a n t i t y p r e v a i l s over a s m a l l e r q u a n t i t y ; hence water v a n q u i s h e s f i r e , U n s u b s t a n t i a l i t y p r e -v a i l s over s u b s t a n t i a l i t y ; so f i r e conquers m e t a l . Hardness p r e v a i l s over s o f t n e s s ; hence m e t a l conquers - 1 6 5 -- 1 6 6 -wood. D e n s i t y has the upper hand over i n c o h e r e n c e ; t h e r e f o r e wood, over powers e a r t h . And s o l i d i t y o v e r r u l e s i n s o l i d i t y ; 'ergo' e a r t h v a n q u i s h e s water." C i t e d , de G r o o t , The Religious System of China, 3 : 9 5 7 - 9 5 8 . ^ C i t e d , Fung Y u - l a n , 1 : 1 6 3 . 7 Shan Hai Ching, ohUan 1 7 , "Ta Huang Pei Ching," p. l b . g Shan Hai Ching, ehttan 9, "Hai Wai Tung Ching," p. l b , g l o s s . 9CSMWT, 1 : 1 2 8 and Figures 111-112, 113.1-113.3; 2 : 1 6 8 . 1 7 8 , 1 6 9 . 1 8 2 , 2 2 0 . 2 5 6 . 1 0 I b i d . , 1 : 1 2 8 . 11 The hu, ting and o t h e r e a t i n g v e s s e l s found i n the mourning scene b e l o w . c o u l d be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the element m e t a l . Numerous examples of such u t e n s i l s o f c a s t m e t a l have been r e c o v e r e d from Chinese tomb s i t e s . See, S e i i c h i Mizuno <-?X* ^ % ~' > Bronzes and Jades of Ancient China, Text i n Japanese w i t h an E n g l i s h A b s t r a c t and L i s t o f P l a t e s by J.O. G a u n t l e t t (Tokyo: The Nihon K e i z a i , 1 9 5 9 ) , Plates 12, 138-145. However, the Ma-wang-tui a r t i f a c t s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e s e c a t a g o r i e s were e i t h e r earthenware or l a c q u e r w a r e , and not m e t a l . See, CSMWT, 1 : 1 2 2 - 1 2 7 ; 2:141 . 1 5 4 , 1 4 5 . 1 5 7 , 147.158, 2 0 5 . 2 3 5 , 2 0 7 . 2 3 6 , 2 1 3 . 2 3 9 - 2 1 3.240, 2 1 6.245 - 2 1 7.248. 12 See, Jan F o n t e i n and Tung Wu, Unearthing China's Past, E x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e ( B o s t o n : Museum o f F i n e A r t s , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 5 1 - 5 4 , #14. A l s o , The Research I n s t i t u t e f o r E t h n o m u s i c o l o g y , C e n t r a l Music Academy of P e k i n g , - f * ^ ^ ^ " f ~ - * *Tf ^ , " P r e l i m i n a r y I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o W a r r i n g S t a t e s M u s i c a l I n s t r u m e n t s from - 1 6 7 -the S t a t e o f Ch'u E x c a v a t e d a t H s i n - y a n g , " (.Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu T'san K'ao Tzu Liao 89 (January 1 9 5 8 ) ; 1 5 - 2 3 . Anhwei P r o v i n c e C u l t u r a l Committee and the Anhwei P r o v i n c i a l Museum ^ ^6 * ^ £ ^ * ^SP% H% *S , Shou-hsien Ts' ai-hou-mu Ch'u-t'u I^wu (Ancient Relics Excavated from the Tomb of the Marquis of Ts'ai at Shou-hsien) ( P e k i n g : S c i e n c e P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) . For a b r i e f o u t l i n e on the arguments r e g a r d i n g the d a t i n g o f the tomb of the Marquis of T s ' a i and i t s b e l l s , see, A l e x a n d e r Soper, "The Tomb of the Marquis of T s ' a i , " Oriental Art 10 (Autumn 1 9 6 4 ) : 1 5 3 - 1 5 7 • On the a r t i c l e s from the Marquis of T s ' a i ' s tomb, see a l s o , George Weber, The Ornaments of Late Chou Bronzes; A Method of Analysis (New B r u n s w i c k : R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , PP• 441-4 9 0 . 13 See, E l e a n o r von E r d b e r g Consten, "A Hu w i t h P i c -t o r i a l D e c o r a t i o n ; Werner J a n n i n g s C o l l e c t i o n , P a l a c e Museum, P e k i n g , " Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America 6 ( 1 9 5 2 ) : Figure 3. See a l s o , G. Weber, pp. 2 1 0 -2 2 7 , 2 3 2 - 2 6 7 , 2 8 7 - 3 1 7 , 4 4 2 - 4 4 9 , 4 9 4 - 4 9 5 . 14 A c c o r d i n g t o the wu hsing t h e o r y , f i r e d e s t r o y s m e t a l which i n t u r n d e s t r o y s wood. T h i s has l e a d some s c h o l a r s t o p o s i t t h a t the Marchioness d i e d i n the summer— the season o f the element o f f i r e and the s o u t h e r n quadrant. Chow, "Ma-wang-tui: A T r e a s u r e - T r o v e , " p. 1 2 . T h i s would a l l o w a double measure of s a f e t y f o r the tomb occupant and i t s c o n t e n t s as the absence o f m e t a l , or the r e l a t i v e l a c k t h e r e o f , would ensure the s u r v i v a l of the p e r i s h a b l e a r t i -c l e s m o s t l y o f wood and wood-based. To guard a g a i n s t any m e t a l l i c p r o p e r t i e s , the Chu Lung, as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f f i r e and t h e r e f o r e the d i s s o l v e r o f m e t a l , was g i v e n s t e w a r d s h i p of the p a i n t i n g and tomb. NOTES: CHAPTER IV Brief Report, p. 9- CSMWT, 1 : 1 3 0 - 1 5 5 -2CSMWT, 1:149 (#244); 2:286.244. Shang C h i h - t ' a n , p. 4 3 . T'ang Lan et al., pp. 5 9 - 6 0 . ^T'ang Lan et al., p. 5 6 . Chow, "Ma-wang-tui: A T r e a -sure'-Trove," p. 8 . B u l l i n g , "The Guide o f the S o u l s P i c -t u r e , " p. l 6 l . CSMWT3 1 : 4 3 - 4 5 - For a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f funerary-b a n n e r s , s ee, de Gr o o t , The Religious System of China, 1 : 1 7 3 - 1 7 9 - The Chih-ch'tteh-shan p a i n t i n g d i s c o v e r e d i n 1976 (see Note # 9 , CHAPTER I I ) i s a l s o a f u n e r a r y banner and would seem t o have been a s t a n d a r d p o s s e s s i o n among the Ch'u p e o p l e . See, The E x c a v a t i o n Team o f the Han Tomb Chin-ch'Ueh-shan, L i n y ! ^ f ^ ^ L *!•> i% "^-^t *A $JL , "A B r i e f Report on the E x c a v a t i o n of the Han Tomb No. 9 at Chin-ch'ueh-shan, L i n - y i , Shantung," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen wu 258 (November 1 9 7 2 ) : 2 6 . ^Waley, The Way and Its Power, pp. 2 8 , 1 5 3 - 1 5 4 . K a l t e n m a r k , p. 63.-^ B u l l i n g , "The Guide o f the S o u l s P i c t u r e , " p. l 6 l . T e x t u a l e v i d e n c e can be gle a n e d from the Li Chi: " I have heard the names Kwei / i.e., kuei_/ and Shan / i.e., shen_J, but I do not know what they mean." The Master / i.e., C o n f u c i u s _ / s a i d , 'The ( i n t e l l e c t u a l ) s p i r i t i s on the shan n a t u r e , and - 1 6 8 --169-shows t h a t i n f u l l e s t measure; the a n i m a l s o u l i s o f the kwei n a t u r e , and shows t h a t i n f u l l e s t measure. I t i s the u n i o n o f kwei and shan t h a t forms the h i g h e s t e x h i b i t i o n of d o c t r i n e . " ' A l l the l i v i n g must d i e , and d y i n g , r e t u r n t o the ground; t h i s i s what i s c a l l e d k w e i . . . . ' " Legge, Li Chi, 2 : 2 2 0 . g B u l l i n g h i n t s a t t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n but h e s i t a t e s t o commit h e r s e l f . However, from the Shan Hai Ching, c e r -t a i n s p i r i t s are d e p i c t e d as h a v i n g " a n i m a l b o d i e s , human f a c e s and a n t l e r s . " Shan Hai Ching, chiian 4 , "Tung Shan Ching" «-» , p. 2 b . See, A l f r e d Salmony, Antler and Tongue; An Essay on Ancient Chinese Symbolism and I t s Implication (Ascona: A r t i b u s A s i a e , 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 14. 9 L e g g e , Li Chi, 2 : 1 7 4 . "^de G r o o t , The Religious System of China, 1 : 1 1 - 1 2 . "'""'"So e n t r e n c h e d was t h i s ceremony t h a t passages from b o t h the Li Chi and the I Li can be c i t e d t o t e s t i f y on t h i s p o i n t . I n the Li Chi, t h e r e i s the f o l l o w i n g : "When (a f a t h e r ) has j u s t d i e d , (the son) s h o u l d appear q u i t e overcome, and as i f he were at h i s w i t s ' end; when the corpse has been put i n t o the c o f f i n , he s h o u l d c a s t q u i c k and s o r r o w f u l g l a n c e s around, as i f he were s e e k i n g f o r something and c o u l d not f i n d i t ; when the i n t e r m e n t has t a k e n p l a c e , he s h o u l d l o o k alarmed and r e s t l e s s , as i f he were l o o k i n g f o r someone who does not a r r i v e ; at the end o f the f i r s t y e a r ' s mourning, he s h o u l d l o o k sad and d i s a p p o i n t e d ; and at the end of the second y e a r ' s , he s h o u l d have a vague and u n r e l i a n t l o o k . " Legge, Li Chi, 1 : 2 9 . See a l s o , 1 : 1 6 9 from the same. From the - 1 7 0 -J Li, .there i s the f o l l o w i n g : "When an o r d i n a r y o f f i c e r i s t a k e n s e r i o u s l y i l l , t h ey move him i n t o the p r i n c i p a l s l e e p i n g apartment, where he l i e s , w i t h h i s head t o the e a s t , at the f o o t o f the n o r t h w a l l . . . . "And when the s i c k n e s s becomes ve r y s e r i o u s , the s i c k chamber and the whole house are swept. "Then the p a t i e n t ' s s o i l e d c l o t h e s are removed and c l e a n ones put on him.... "When death has a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d , the M a s t e r of Ceremonies h o w l s , w h i l e h i s b r e t h r e n w a i l . . . . " S t e e l e , I Li, 2 : 9 ^ - 9 5 . 12 Hawkes, pp. 104 - 1 0 5 . Cf., Waley's t r a n s l a t i o n o f the "Chao Bun." A r t h u r Waley,.. Translations from-the Chinese. (New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1 9 4 1 ) , pp. 9 - 1 6 . 1 3Hawkes, pp. 1 1 0 - 1 1 1 . I b i d . . 1 5 B u l l i n g , "The Guide of the S o u l s P i c t u r e , " p. 1 6 3 . T h i s i s a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on B u l l i n g ' s p a r t o f shamanism. The descent of the shaman r e f e r r e d t o i n the v a r i o u s l i t e r a -t u r e does not d e a l w i t h the e a r t h l y sphere. I t i s , i n s t e a d , a s p i r i t u a l descent of the shaman, at the time d e e p l y w i t h i n the t r a n c e o f s e m i c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i n t o the n e t h e r -w o r l d , s e e k i n g the s p i r i t s and s p e c t r e s t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d h i s j o u r n e y i n t o t h e . n e t h e r w o r l d . The shaman passes from one cosmic r e g i o n t o a n o t h e r , and the r e f e r e n c e , "Wu Yang t h e r e f o r e went down and summoned the s o u l , " i n d i c a t e s the shaman t r a n s c e n d i n g the p r o f a n e space of m a t e r i a l i s m t o the s a c r e d space of the s p i r i t s . See, M i r c e a E l i a d e , Shamanism; Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, T r a n s l a t e d from the F r e n c h by W i l l a r t R. T r a s k , B o l l i n g e n S e r i e s LXXVI (New York: B o l l i n g e n F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. l 4 5 f f , 2 5 9 f f . T h i s work - 1 7 1 -i s a r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d e d i t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l l y pub-l i s h e d F r e n c h e d i t i o n , Le Chamanisme et les techniques archalques de llextase ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e P a y o t , 1 9 5 1 ) -"^Hawkes, p. 1 9 6 . . 1 7 S t e e l e , 2 ; 1 0 6 . Cf..,: Hawkes , pp. 1 0 7 , 1 1 1 , 1 ft S t e e l e , 1 : 7 2 , 7 5 , 8 5 , 1 2 2 , 1 5 1 . i g Legge, Li Chi, 2 : 9 2 - 1 3 1 . For a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r from t h e Li Chi, see, W a l t e r Kaufman, Musical References in the Chinese C l a s s i c s , D e t r i o t Monographs i n M u s i c o l o g y , Number F i v e ( D e t r o i t : I n f o r m a t i o n C o o r d i n a t o r s , 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 3 1 - 5 6 . 2 0 Legge, She King, p. 5 7 9 - Cf., Waley, The Book of Songs, p. 2 3 0 . . S e e , B a b e t t e M. B e c k e r , "Music i n the L i f e of A n c i e n t C h i n a : From 1400 B.C. t o 3 0 0 B.C." (Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1 9 5 7 ) . 2 1 S e e Note # 7 4 , CHAPTER I I . 2 2 S e e Note # 1 3 , CHAPTER I I I . 2 3 C h a r l e s Weber, Chinese P i c t o r i a l Bronze Vessels of the Late Chou Period (Ascona: A r t i b u s A s i a e , 1 9 6 8 ) , Figures 52, 66d. 24 I b i d . , Figures 67b, 67e. See, N i c o l e Vander-N i c o l a s , "Note s u r un Vase C h i n o i s de Musee du Lou v r e , " Revue des Arts Asiatiques 1 2 (December 1 9 3 8 ) : 1 3 3 - 1 4 1 . Hawkes, pp. 1 1 1 - 1 1 2 . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , the luan would be a m u s i c a l coda. Use o f the b e l l i n t h i s summons was l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o B u d d h i s t r i t e s . See, de G r o o t , The -172-Religious System of-China, 1:73-' 2 6 The p i a l s o p o s s e s s e d m u s i c a l q u a l i t i e s and s i g n i -f i c a n c e . See, F.A. K u t t n e r , "The M u s i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f A r c h a i c Chinese Jades o f the P i D i s k Type," Artibus Asiae 16 (.1953) :25-50. 2 7 L e g g e , Li Chi, 2:100-101. See, Kaufman, pp. 101-105, 107-111. 2 8 W. P e r c e v a l Y e t t s , Symbolism in Chinese Art (Leyden: E . J . B r i l l , 1912), pp. 26-27. See, G i l e s , A Chinese-English Dictionary, #2211. 2^Brief Report, pp. 11-12. CSMWT, 1:102-110; 2:203-207 S e i i c h i Mizuno and T o s h i r o N a g a h i r o , YUn-Kang; The Buddhist Cave Temples of the F i f t h Century A.D. in North China, D e t a i l e d Report o f the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey C a r r i e d Out by the M i s s i o n o f the Tchobunka Kunkyusho, 1938-1945, Text i n Japanese w i t h Eng-l i s h Summaries, 16 v o l s , i n 32 p a r t s (Kyoto: Toho Bunka Kenkyujo, 1951-1956), 11.2:91, 93-95. 3 1 A n Chih-min, pp. 47 -48. 32 F o n t e i n and Tung Wu, pp. 66-69. 3 3 L e g g e , Li Chi, 2:37. 34 - S e e , Chavannes, La sculpture sur p i e r r e , Plate 12a. A. B u l l i n g , "Three P o p u l a r M o t i v e s i n the A r t o f the E a s t e r n Han P e r i o d ; The L i f t i n g o f the T r i p o d , T h e ' C r o s s i n g - o f a B r i d g e , D i v i n i t i e s , " Archives of Asian Art 20 ( I 9 6 6 - I 9 6 7 ) : 43-49. - 1 7 3 -Hawkes, p. 8 3 , -36 C i t e d , Ch'u Tz'u, ohiXan 5, "YiXan Yu," p. 5a, g l o s s 3 7 I b i d . . 3 8 S e e , Ssu-ma C h ' i e n , V o l . 1, ohiXan 6, "Ch'in Shih Huang Pen Ch i" % , p. 247; V o l . 4, ohiXan 28, "Feng Shan Shu" , pp. 1 3 6 9 - 1 3 8 5 . 3 9 S h a n g C h i h - t ' a n , p. 44. 4 0 T K . , I b i d . . 4l See Note #34 above. 42 See, G i l e s , A Chinese Biographical Dictionary, #871. 4^ JShang C h i h - t ' a n , p. 46. 44 I b i d . . 4s ^ B u l l i n g , "The Guide o f the S o u l s P i c t u r e , " p. l 6 l . In the Chin-ch'ueh-shan banner p a i n t i n g , the ic o n o g r a p h y of the moon and the sun w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a s s o c i a t e s of the t o a d and the hare ( w i t h i n the moon) and the s u n - b i r d ( w i t h i n the sun) has been n o t e d . L i k e the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g , the Chin-ch'ueh-shan p a i n t i n g i s b e l i e v e d t o r e p r e s e n t a l s o the t h r e e realms o f the u n i v e r s e — t h e s u b t e r r a n e a n , the t e r r e s t r i a l and the hea v e n l y spheres w i t h the moon and the sun r e p r e s e n t i n g the l a s t r e a l m . The t e r r e s t r i a l r e a l m i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e r e g i s t e r s w i t h v a r i o u s groups o f f i g u r e s engaged i n s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s , e.g.., music (the importance of w hich we have examined) and dance. The uppermost r e g i s t e r of t he t e r r e s t r i a l r e a l m d e p i c t s the tomb occupant r e c e i v i n g - 1 7 4 -f o u r of her a t t e n d a n t s beneath a r o o f e d s t r u c t u r e most l i k e l y i n d i c a t i n g her p r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d . .See, L i u C h i a - c h i and L i u Peng-sen, p. 2 9 . R i s i n g b e h i n d t h i s s t r u c t u r e a re t h r e e mountain peaks t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o the a u t h o r s of the r e p o r t , r e p r e s e n t the t h r e e f a b l e d i s l e s o f P'eng L a i , Fang Chang, and Y i n g Chou. See, L i u C h i a - c h i and L i u Peng-sen, p. 2 9 . As suc h , t h i s p a i n t i n g i s an o t h e r i n s t a n c e of the T a o i s t quest f o r i m m o r t a l i t y . 46 See, Rudolph, Han Tomb Art of West China, Figures 56-57. F i n s t e r b u s c h , 2:40 / 1 6 2 , 1 3 3 / 1 0 0 1 . 47 Yang L i e n - s h e n g , "A Note on the S o - c a l l e d TLV M i r r o r s and the Game Liu-po," Harvard Journal of A s i a t i c Studies 9 ( 1 9 4 5 - 1 9 4 7 ) : 2 0 2 - 2 0 6 . 48 Hawkes, p. 1 0 8 . i | 9 l b i d . , p. 1 0 6 . 5°Legge, Li Chi, 1 : 1 6 7 . 5 1 l b i d . , 1 : 1 7 0 . 5 2 l b i d . , 1 : 3 6 8 - 3 6 9 . I n the Ch'u Tz'u, ohUan 1 6 , "Chiu T'an"-Ju : 'Man Yu'}$i*£L~ » see, " I ascended K'un-lun and t u r n e d my f a c e northwards / And mustered a l l the Immortals t o come and v i s i t me." Hawkes, p. 1 6 7 . 5 3 E l i a d e , p. 1 5 6 . 54 Another p o s s i b i l i t y c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h f e a t h e r s and b i r d imagery e x i s t s i n the theme o f the a s c e n s i o n o f the s o u l and shamanism. The "T" shape o f the Ma-wang-tui p a i n t i n g may be viewed as s u g g e s t i v e of an anthropomorphic form. With- the v a r i o u s images on i t s f r o n t , t h i s may a l s o be - 1 7 5 -s u g g e s t i v e o f an a c t u a l costume worn by the shaman, As the p a i n t i n g was p l a c e d d i r e c t l y over the innermost c a s k e t atop the f e a t h e r e d a p p l i q u e , t h i s i d e a has m e r i t s . 5 5 B u l l i n g , "The Guide o f the So u l s P i c t u r e , " p. 165. 56 Hawkes, p. 3 4 . 5 7 I b i d . , p. 8 5 . 58 An Chih-min, p. 41. 5 9 B u l l i n g , "The Guide of the S o u l s P i c t u r e , " p. 1 6 6 . See, Hawkes, pp. 3 9-41. See a l s o Note # 5 4 , CHAPTER I I . ^ T ' a n g Lan sees t h e s e f i g u r e s as gentlemen s i t t i n g i n t he p a r l o u r o f the T ' a i household w i t h the Marchioness welcoming v i s i t o r s below t o a banquet t h a t has not y e t s t a r t e d . See, T'ang Lan et al., p. 59 . ". Yu .Wei-ch ',ao " j ^ - "J^L b e l i e v e s them t o be o f f i c e r s o f the r e c a l l i n g ceremony who mount the r o o f t o p s . See, T'ang Lan et al. , p. 6 0 . 61 C i t e d , Bodde, F e s t i v a l s in. Classic China, p. 1 2 8 . Cf., Chow, "Ma-wang-tui: A T r e a s u r e - T r o v e , " p. 8 . de G r o o t , The Religious System of China,. 6 : 9 5 4 . ^2CSMWT, 1 : 1 0 1 . Legge, Li Chi, 1 : 1 7 2 . See, Henry Dore, Researches into Chinese Superstitions, T r a n s l a t e d from the F r e n c h w i t h N o t e s , H i s t o r i c a l and E x p l a n a t o r y by M. K e n n e l l y (Shanghai: T'usewei, 1 9 1 4 - ) , 1 : 1 3 3 - I n the "Peach Blossom S p r i n g " poem o f T'ao Ch ' i e n H§) ' H * - (A.D. 365 - 4 2 7 ) , t h e r e i s an a l l u s i o n t o a p a r a d i s e f r e e from the. t r a v a i l s and burdens of an e a r t h l y l i f e . See, James Robert Hightower ( t r . ) , The Poetry of T'ao Ch'ien ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , - 1 7 6 -pp.. 2 5 4 - 2 5 8 . See a l s o , G i l e s , A Chinese Biographical Dictionary, #1892. . ^CSMWT, 1 : 3 6 / 3 6 ( # 4 5 3 ) , 1 0 0 / 9 3 . 3 ; 2 : 4 4 / 5 8 , 1 7 6 / 2 0 0 . 6R ^ B u l l i n g , "The Guide o f the S o u l s P i c t u r e , " p. 1 6 5 . 6 6 Chow, "Ma-wang-tui: A T r e a s u r e - T r o v e , " p. 1 3 . 6 7 From what was l a b e l l e d Tomb No. 3 at Ma-wang-tui, a s i m i l a r banner t o t h a t found i n Tomb No. 1 was a l s o r e c o v -e r e d . I t u n f o r t u n a t e l y has not s u r v i v e d the ravages of time and environment as w e l l as the banner p a i n t i n g from Tomb No. 1. S e v e r a l p o i n t s of comparison, however, can be made between the two banners from Ma-wang-tui. Both are "T" shaped w i t h t a s s e l s — t h e - banner from 'Tomb No. 3 h a v i n g two a d d i t i o n a l t a s s e l s t i e d t o i t s upper two c o r n e r s . Most of the images • on the banner from Tomb No. 1 a l s o appear on the banner from Tomb No. 3 —e.g., the s u n - b i r d , c r e s c e n t moon w i t h hare and t o a d , chung, eh'ing, f l e u r - d e - l i s , dragons, Yu C h i a n g , etc. Two i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , how-e v e r , need t o be n o t e d . F i r s t , a.Chu L u n g - l i k e f i g u r e appears on the p a i n t i n g from Tomb No. 3 t h a t seems t o be male i n gender. ( I t i s d i f f i c u l t , due t o the i m p r e c i s e s t a t e o f p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the p a i n t i n g , t o conclude d e f i n i -t i v e l y t h a t t h e image i s male.) Second, a s i m i l a r group of f i g u r e s on a p l a t f o r m c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the Marchioness and her a t t e n d a n t s I s a l s o found on the banner from Tomb No. 3 . In t h i s , t he main c h a r a c t e r i s d e c i d e d l y male and the tomb, occupant was a l s o m a l e — t h e son o f the Marquis o f T ' a i . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t i n n o t i n g t h a t w i t h Tomb No. 1 , i t s p a i n t i n g and the M a r c h i o n e s s , female t r a i t s dominate. With the Tomb No. 3 banner p a i n t i n g , however, male t r a i t s dominate. The Chu Lung on the banner from Tomb No. 3 l a c k s the l o n g b r a i d o f f e m i n i n i t y found on the banner from Tomb No. 1. See, Hunan P r o v i n c i a l Museum and the I n s t i t u t e o f - 1 7 7 -A r c h a e o l o g y , Academia S i n i c a , "A B r i e f Report on the E x c a -v a t i o n of the Han Tombs No. 2 and No, 3 a t Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 218 ( J u l y 1 9 7 4 ) ; 3 9 -48. C h i n Wei-no ^ ^ V£ , "A D i s c u s s i o n of the S i l k P a i n t i n g from the Han Tomb No. 3 at Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 222 (November 1 9 7 4):40 - 4 4 . I n s t i t u t e o f A r c h a e o l o g y , Academia S i n i c a and the Hunan P r o v i n c i a l Museum, " S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e E x c a v a t i o n o f t h e Han Tombs No. 2 and No. 3 at Ma-wang-tui," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , K'ao Ku 136 ( J a n u a r y / F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 5 ) : 4 7 - 5 7 , 6 1 . ^ 8 C a r l Hentze, Chinese Tomb Figures; A Study in the B e l i e f s and F o l k l o r e of Ancient China (London: Eduard G o l d s t o n , 1 9 2 8 ) , pp. 45-46. 6 9 S e e pp. 3 4 - 3 5 . 7 0 Lawrence Walkinshaw, Cranes of the World (New York: W i n c h e s t e r P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 3 7 , 1 7 6 - 1 7 7 . 71 B e r t h o l d L a u f e r , Chinese Pottery of the Han Dynasty ( R u t l a n d : C h a r l e s E. T u t t l e , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 1 8 7 - 1 9 5 - See a l s o , A.G. Wenley, "The Q u e s t i o n o f the Po-Shan-Hsiang-Lu," Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America 3 ( 1 9 4 8 -1 9 4 9 ) : 5 - 1 2 . See a l s o , Cultural R e l i c s , pp. 4 - 5 -72 The metempsychosis of the M a r c h i o n e s s i s a l s o a statement o f her r e b i r t h w i t h i n the T a o s i t p a r a d i s e and the r e b a l a n c i n g of the harmony of the u n i v e r s e . W ith d e a t h and t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f the kuei and the shen (i,e._, the yin and the yang s p i r i t s ) , an imbalance a r i s e s t h a t can o n l y be r e s o l v e d w i t h the r e b i r t h o f the deceased w i t h i n the T a o i s t p a r a d i s e . We have seen how t h i s i s s u c c e s s f u l i n the complex f i g u r e o f t h e Chu Lung who here a l s o s y m b o l i z e s t h i s r e b i r t h and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e b a l a n c i n g of the harmony of the u n i -v e r s e . T h i s b a l a n c e i s r e s t a t e d I n the images o f the sun - 1 7 8 -and the moon t h a t i n f l a n k i n g the Chu Lung a l s o b a l a n c e the Chu Lung. They are the yin and the yang, m u t u a l l y a c t i n g upon the o t h e r i n t h e i r r e c i p r o c i t y . R e b i r t h i s a l s o a r e c u r r i n g theme throughout the banner p a i n t i n g from Ma-wang-tui. We noted t h a t on the s h a f t the dragons ascend from c o n f l i c t , pass t h r o u g h a r e s o l u t i o n at the pi and c o n t i n u e t h e i r a s c e n s i o n i n harmony w i t h the yin and the yang. f o r c e s o f the c r o s s b a r images. T h i s harmony i s a n o t h e r statement o f the r e b i r t h o f the u n i -v e r s e . I n a s i m i l a r manner, we have d i s c u s s e d the image o f the dragon as s y m b o l i c o f the East and o f the s p r i n g . T h i s i s the season o f r e j u v e n a t i o n , and the East i s the d i r e c t i o n from which the u n i v e r s e i s r e b o r n . The obverse o f t h i s i s death. I n t h i s , a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be drawn t o ano t h e r i n t e r -p r e t a t i v e a s p e c t p o s s i b l e w i t h the l e o p a r d s and t h e i r f e l i n e a s s o c i a t i n s . While we have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the l e o p a r d i s a demonifuge and o f yang. m e r i t , i t . i s . a member of the f e l i n e f a m i l y . The dragon, on the o t h e r hand, i s a member o f the s e r p e n t f a m i l y . I n Chinese c o s m o l o g i c a l ima-g e r y , the dragon r e p r e s e n t s the East and the t i g e r {i.e., the. f e l i n e ) r e p r e s e n t s the West. E a s t i s r e b i r t h and West i s d e a t h . By a s s o c i a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r p r e t f u r t h e r the l e o p a r d as a s u r r o g a t e i n t h i s m a t t e r f o r the t i g e r , and, t h e r e f o r e , as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the West. I n t h i s c o n t e x t o f the theme o f r e b i r t h , note s h o u l d be made o f the d o m i n a t i n g s i z e s o f the dragons over the l e o p a r d s . T h i s may be un d e r s t o o d as s i g n i f y i n g t h a t r e b i r t h w i t h i n the T a o i s t p a r a d i s e w i l l t r i u m p h over d e a t h . T h e . e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s i s then b e s t s t a t e d i n the f i g u r e o f the Chu Lung and the f l a n k i n g yin and y.ang elements o f the moon and the sun i n t h e i r mutual i n f l u e n c e s , b a l a n c i n g the u n i v e r s e and s e t t i n g i t i n harmony. Hawkes, p. 8 1 . NOTES: CHAPTER V """W. Watson, Style in the Arts of China, p. 2 5 . 2 Max L o e h r , "The F a t e of the Ornament, i n Chinese A r t , " Archives of Asian Art 21 (1967-1-968 ) : 8 - 9 . 3 I b i d . , p. 9 . 4 I b i d . . 5 F o n g , pp. 9 2 - 9 3 - See Note #17 , INTRODUCTION. ^ R i c h a r d Edwards, "The A r t i s t and the Landscape: Changing Views o f Nature i n Chinese P a i n t i n g , " i n , James C.Y. Watt (guest e d . ) , The Translation of Art; Essays on Chinese Painting and Poetry, Renditions, No. 6 , S p e c i a l A r t I s s u e (Hong Kong: The Chinese U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong, 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 3 2 - 3 4 . 7 See, J . Gunnar Andersson, " P r e l i m i n a r y Report on A r c h a e o l o g i c a l R esearch i n Kansu," Memoirs of the Geolo-gical Survey of China, S e r i e s A, Number 5 (June 1 9 2 9 ) : 1 - 5 6 . J . Gunnar Andersson, "Researches i n the P r e h i s t o r y o f the C h i n e s e , " BMFEA '15 ( 1 9 4 3 ) : 7 - 3 0 4 . J . Gunnar Andersson, Children of the Yellow Earth (London: Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b n e r , 1 9 3 4 ) , pp. 3 1 3 - 3 3 7 -Andersson, " P r e l i n i m a r y R e p o r t . " Hanna Rydh, "On Symbolism i n Mortuary Ceramics," BMFEA 1 ( 1 9 2 9 ) : 7 1-142. 9 For a comprehensive study of p r e h i s t o r i c C h i na and - 1 7 9 -- 1 8 0 -the o r i g i n s o f Chinese c i v i l i z a t i o n , see, Chang Kwang-chih, The Archaeology .of Ancient China, R e v i s e d and E n l a r g e d E d i t i o n (.New' Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , See a l s o , W i l l i a m Watson, China Before the Ban Dynasty, V o l , 23 o f the s e r i e s , Ancient Peoples and Places (London: Thames and Hudson, 1 9 6 1 ) . Cheng Te-k'un,. Archaeology in China (Cambridge: W. H e f f e r and Sons, 1 9 5 9 ) , V o l . 1 : P r e h i s t o r i c China. H. G l e s s n e r C r e e l , The Birth of China; A Study of the For-mative Period of Chinese C i v i l i z a t i o n (New York: F r e d e r i c k Ungar, 1 9 3 7 ) . N. Palmgren, Kansu Mortuary Urns of the Pan-shan and Ma-ch'ang Groups ( P e k i n g : G e o l o g i c a l Survey of C h i n a , 1 9 3 4 ) . T.J. Arne, Painted Stone Age Pottery from the Province of Honan ( P e k i n g : G e o l o g i c a l Survey of C h i n a , 1 9 2 5 ) . 1 0 S e e , Bernhard K a r l g r e n , " Y i n and Chou i n Chinese B r o n z e s , " BMFEA 8 ( 1 9 3 6 ) : 9 - 1 5 6 . Bernhard K a r l g r e n , "New S t u d i e s on Chinese B r o n z e s , " BMFEA 9 ( 1 9 3 7 ) : 1 - 1 1 8 . Bernhard K a r l g r e n , "The D a t i n g o f Chinese B r o n z e s , " Journal of the Royal A s i a t i c Society ( 1 9 3 7 ) : 3 3 - 3 9 • Bernhard K a r l g r e n , "Notes on the Grammer of E a r l y Bronze Decor," BMFEA 2 3 . ( 1 9 5 D • '1-37- Ludwig Bachhofer.,- "The E v o l u t i o n of Shang and E a r l y Chou B r o n z e s , " Art B u l l e t i n 26 (June 1 9 4 4 ) : 1 0 7 -1 1 6 . V i r g i n a C. Kane, "The C h r o n o l o g i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the E n s c r i b e d A n c e s t o r D e d i c a t i o n i n the P e r i o d i z a t i o n o f Shang Dynasty Bronze V e s s e l s , " Artibus Asiae 35 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 3 3 5 - 3 7 0 . See a l s o , Max L o e h r , Ritual Vessels of Bronze Age China, E x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e (New York: A s i a House G a l -l e r y , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 1 3 . Max L o e h r , "The Bronze S t y l e s of the Anyang P e r i o d ( 1 3 0 0 - 1 0 2 8 B.C.)," Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America 1 ( 1 9 5 3):42 - 5 3• Max L o e h r , " B e i t r a g e z u r C h r o n o l o g i e der a l t e r e n C h i n e s i s c h e n Bronzen," Ostasia-tische Z e i t s c h r i f t . 12 ( J a n u a r y / A p r i l 1 9 3 6 ) ; 3 - 4 l , A l e x a n d e r Soper, " E a r l y , M i d d l e , and L a t e Shang: A Note," Artibus Asiae 28 ( .1966) : 5 - 3 8. For a d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g K a r l g r e n ' s -181-system o f d a t i n g the bronze v e s s e l s , see, H e r r l e e G l e s s n e r C r e e l , "Notes on P r o f e s s o r K a r l g r e n ' s System f o r D a t i n g Chinese B r o n z e s , " Journal of the Royal A s i a t i c Society of Great B r i t a i n and Ireland 36 ( 1 9 3 6 ) : 4 6 3 - 4 7 4 . C a t h e r i n e G r a s s e l , "New Researches on Chinese B r o n z e s , " Art B u l l e t i n 25 (March 1 9 4 3 ) : 65-7-8. For K a r l g r e n ' s r e b u t t a l t o G r a s s e l ' s a r t i c l e , s ee, Bernhard K a r l g r e n , "Once A g a i n the A and B S y t l e s i n Y i n Ornamentation," BMFEA 18 ( 1 9 4 6 ) : 3 6 7 - 3 8 2 . 1"'"Loehr, Ritual Vessels of Bronze Age China, pp. 13-14 12 W. Watson, Ancient Chinese Bronzes, pp. 4 l f f . 13 F o r an image of the t'ao-t'ieh t h a t i s not s p l i t a l o n g a f l a n g e , see, John A l e x a n d e r Pope et al., The Freer Gallery- Bronzes, S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n , F r e e r G a l l e r y of A r t , O r i e n t a l S t u d i e s , No. 7 , S m i t h s o n i a n P u b l i c a t i o n 4706, 2 v o l s . (Washington: S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n , 1 9 6 7 - 1 9 6 9 ) , V o l . 1: Catalogue, Plate 13. 14 W. Watson, Ancient Chinese Bronzes, pp. 4 2 f f . 15 Ackerman, pp. 83 -84. On the f e s t i v a l o f the b u l l i n C h i n a , see, M a r c e l G r a n e t , Danses et Legendes de la Chine Ancienne, 2 v o l s . ( P a r i s : P r e s s e s s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1 9 5 9 ) , 1 : 3 3 0 . 16 On the f e l i n e , see, Ackerman, pp. 8 5 - 8 7 . 17 Y e t t s , p. 3 . As t o the f o r m a t i o n o f the meander as d e r i v e d from a n c i e n t Chinese s c r i p t , s ee, C.A.S. W i l l i a m s , Encyclopedia of Chinese Symbolism and Art Motives; An Alpha-betical Compendium of Legends and Beliefs as Reflected in the Manners and Customs of the Chinese throughout History, I n t r o d u c t i o n by K a g i m i t s u W. Kato (New York: J u l i a n P r e s s , - 1 8 2 -I 9 6 0 ) , p. 1 1 9 . 18 See, Pope et al., V o l , 1; Catalogue, Plates 2-3, 5-6, 14, 16, 22, 29, 31, 36, L o e h r , Ritual Vessels of Bronze Age China, Plates 9, 27, 29-31, 33-39. 19 See, Pope et al., V o l . 1 : Catalogue, Plate 42, L o e h r , Ritual Vessels of Bronze Age China, Plate 36, W. Watson does not see any c r e d i t I n the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t , . i n o r i g i n at l e a s t , the t'ao-t'ieh i s based upon l i n e a r . a b s t r a c t i o n s of two c o n f r o n t i n g dragons. W. Watson, Ancient Chinese Bronzes, p. 4 3 . 20 K a r l g r e n d i v i d e s the Chou dynasty i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l a r t i s t i c c a t a g o r i e s o f E a r l y ( 1 0 5 0 - 900 B.C.), M i d d l e ( 9 0 0 - 650 B.C.), and L a t e Chou ( 6 5 0 - 2 0 0 B.C.). T h i s has been r e p l a c e d , by a more s h a r p l y d e f i n e d and comprehensive sequence by B a c h h o f e r and W. Watson based upon s t y l i s t i c and t y p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f t h e v e s s e l s . See, Ludwig B a c h h o f e r , A Short History of Chinese Art (New York: Pan-theon Books, 1 9 4 6 ) , pp. 2 , 6 - 4 9 . W. Watson, Ancient Chinese Bronzes, pp. 4 5 - 6 7 . F o r our p u r p o s e s , however, K a r l g r e n 1 s system .is s u f f i c i e n t . See a l s o , L o e h r , Ritual Vessels of Bronze Age China, pp. 1 5 - 1 6 . 21 See, L o e h r , Ritual Vessels of Bronze Age China, Plate 73. 22 Cf., the p'ien-hu i n . the F r e e r G a l l e r y o f a s i m i l a r d a t e , but whose d e s i g n i s based upon a s y m m e t r i c a l concept of axes and s t r a i g h t , l i n e s . See, Pope et al., V o l . 1 : Catalogue, Plate 95. For a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l study o f Chou ornaments, see, G. Weber, The Ornaments of Late Chou Bronzes. 23 L o e h r , Ritual Vessels of Bronze Age China, p, 1 2 . - 1 8 3 -M u n s t e r b e r g j The Arts of China, p, 66.. 25 For a study o f v a r i o u s Chou v e s s e l s t h a t are e t c h e d , see, C. Weber, Chinese P i c t o r i a l Bronze Vessels of the Late Chou Period. T h i s work was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n f o u r p a r t s i n Artibus Asiae: V o l . 28 ( 1 9 6 5 - 1 9 6 6 ) : 1 0 7 - 1 5 4 , 2 7 1 -3 1 1 ; V o l . 29 (.1967) : H 5 - 1 9 2 ; V o l . 30 ( . 1 9 6 8): 145 - 2 3 6 . 2 6 S e e Note # 1 3 , INTRODUCTION. 27 See, K. Hamada, The Tomb of the Painted Basket of Lo-lang, Text and t i t l e i n Japanese w i t h E n g l i s h Summaries ( S e o u l : S o c i e t y o f the Study o f Korean A n t i q u i t i e s , 1 9 3 4 ) . See a l s o , Capon, Plate 62. 2 8 See, Sickman and Soper, Plate 109 (A). 29 See, Kosaku Hamada, "On the P a i n t i n g of the Han P e r i o d ; Newly D i s c o v e r e d M a t e r i a l s i n Korea and i n South M a n c h u r i a , " Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunka 8 ( 1 9 3 6 ) : 3 6 - 3 7 • See, M i c h a e l S u l l i v a n , "Notes on E a r l y Chinese Screen P a i n t i n g , " Artibus Asiae 27 ( 1 9 6 5 ) : Figure 2. 3 1 F o n g , p. 9 4 . 32 See, Sickman and Soper, p. 34 and Plate 24. 3 3 See, A l e x a n d e r C. Soper, " L i f e M o t i o n and the Sense of Space i n E a r l y Chinese R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l A r t , " Art Bulle-t i n 30 ( 1 9 4 8 ) : Figure 8. S i r e n , Chinese Painting: Leading Masters and P r i n c i p l e s , V o l . 3 : Plate 8. See Note # 8 , CHAPTER I I . -184-35 " W a l l P a i n t i n g s o f .Loyang," pp, 1 0 7 - 1 1 1 and Figures A. B u l l i n g , " H i s t o r i c a l P l a y s i n the A r t o f the Han P e r i o d , " Archives of Asian Art 21 ( 1 9 6 7 - 1 9 6 8 ) : 2 0 - 2 5 . Kuo Mo-jo "An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the W a l l P a i n t i n g s o f . a Western Han Tomb a t Loyang," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , w i t h E n g l i s h A b s t r a c t s , K'ao Ku HsUeh-pao 34 (#2 1 9 6 4 ) : l - 7 . B u l l i n g ' s c o n c l u s i o n s are s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e d by Soper. See, A. Soper, " A l l the World's a Stage: A Note," Artibus Asiae 30 (1968):249-259. For B u l l i n g ' s r e b u t t a l t o Soper's c r i t i c i s m s , s ee, A.G. B u l l i n g , " A l l the World's a Stage: A Note; A R e b u t t a l , " Artibus Asiae 31 (1969):204-209• 37 See, Kuo Mo-jo, pp. 1 - 2 . See a l s o , Joan L e b o l d Cohen and Jerome A l a n Cohen, China Today; And Her Ancient Treasures (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1 9 7 3 ) , Plate 73. q o Kuo Mo-jo, p. 2 . B u l l i n g f e e l s t h a t t h i s k n e e l i n g f i g u r e i s the n a r r a t o r o f a stage p l a y . B u l l i n g , " H i s t o r -i c a l P l a y s , " p. 24. 3 9 S e e , Kuo Mo-jo, p. 2 . ^°Bulling, " H i s t o r i c a l P l a y s , " p. 24. 41 . ^ I b i d . . 42 " W a l l i n g P a i n t i n g s at Loyang," Plate 2. 43 For a d e s c r i p t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s scene, see, B u l l i n g , " H i s t o r i c a l P l a y s , " pp. 2 6 - 2 8 . 44 / F o n t e i n and Tung Wu, pp. 9 6 - 1 0 0 . See., S i r e n , Chinese Painting; Leading Masters and P r i n c i p l e s , V o l . 3 : Plates 6-7. O s v a l d S i r e n , A History of Early Chinese Painting, 2 v o l s - 1 8 5 -(London: M e d i c i S o c i e t y , 1 9 3 3 ) , . Vol',. 1: From the. Han to the Beginning of the Sung Period, Plates 4^7e F i s c h e r , Die Chinesische Malerei du Han-Dynasties, Plates 65-73, 45 From an o l d photograph f o r m e r l y i n the p o s s e s s i o n o f the a n t i q u e d e a l e r L i u Teng-feng of Loyang, Honan, i t i s known t h a t the c e n t r a l , r e c t a n g u l a r p i e c e w i t h the m o d e l l e d ram's head was p a i n t e d w i t h a f e r o c i o u s scene o f a n i m a l s i n combat. The p a i n t i n g , however, has not s u r v i v e d f a v o r a b l y and i s now b a r e l y : d i s c e r n a b l e . See, S i r e n , Chinese Painting:. Leading Masters and P r i n c i p l e s , V o l . 1 : 2 3-24. F o n t e i n and Tung Wu, pp. 9 7 - 9 8 . F i s c h e r , Die Chinesische Malerei du Han-Dynasties, Plates 72-73. 46 See, F o n t e i n and Tung Wu, pp. 9 8 - 9 9 . For a good d e s c r i p t i o n o f the scenes from'the t i l e s , see, B a c h h o f e r , A Short History of Chinese Art, p. 8 9 . For more examples of p a i n t i n g s not d i s c u s s e d : i n t h i s t h e s i s , see, Han T'ang Pi Hua (Murals from the Han and the T'ang Dynasties) w i t h E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s i n s e r t e d ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Language P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) . 47 '"On the 2kth day o f the 4*fe month of the Hth y e a r •• (A .D. 1 2 9 ) of the. epoch Yung-chien,-iChao Shan Chun of T'o Y i n , i n the p r o v i n c e o f P ' i n g Yuan, came t o v i s i t t h i s h a l l , he p r o s t r a t e d h i m s e l f i n t o k e n of g r a t i t u d e f o r i t s s a c r e d i l l u m i n a t i n g i n f l u e n -ces . " C i t e d , Stephen W. B u s h e l l , Chinese Art, 2 v o l s . (London: P u b l i s h e d under the A u t h o r i t y o f the Board of E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 2 4 ) , p. 2 6 . For a d i s c u s s i o n of the theme of r a i s i n g the t r i p o d , see, B u l l i n g , "Three P o p u l a r M o t i v e s i n the A r t o f the E a s t e r n Han P e r i o d , " pp. 2 6 - 3 4 . - 1 8 6 -4g See, Wilma Pairbank.,. Adventures in Retrival; Ran Murals and Shang Bronze Molds (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 ) . Chavannes,' La sculpture sur pierre, pp. 1 - 7 1 . 50 I n h i s a r t i c l e on H a n . s c u l p t u r e d s t o n e , F.S. Drake c h a r a c t e r i z e d the scenes from Wu L i a n g Tz'u as f o l l o w s : "The s p i r i t w o r l d and human l i f e are b o t h r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e , and h i s t o r y as a m i r r o r f o r conduct; and a l l as p a r t s o f a s i n g l e whole i n the t y p i c a l Chinese way. R e l i g i o u s a r t i n the narrower sense i t i s n o t ; t h e r e i s here no s p e c i a l c u l t or w o r s h i p ; nor i s t h e r e a n y t h i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o the tomb--no j o u r n e y o f the dead, no w e i g h i n g o f good and e v i l i n the b a l a n c e , no v i c t o r y over the g r a v e , nor mourning o f f r i e n d s . Indeed t h e s e s u b j e c t s might have been s c u l p t u r e d on a p a l a c e w a l l as w e l l as on a tomb. But i n a broad sense a r e l i g i o u s s p i r i t runs t h r o u g h i t , f o r i t r e p r e s e n t s a c o n t i n -u i t y between'the s p i r i t w o r l d and the w o r l d o f sense, the human l i f e i t p i c t u r e s i s surrounded w i t h s p i r i t - f o r c e s , and one passes e a s i l y from one t o the o t h e r . " F.S. Drake, " S c u l p t u r e d Stones of the Han Dynasty," Monu-menta Serica 8 ( 1 9 ^ 3 ) : 2 8 4 . 51 See, Rudolph, Ran Tomb Art of West China, Figures 76, 77-100. F i n s t e r b u s c h , 2 : 3/10, 1 - 6 2 / 1 - 2 6 0 . 5 2 S e e , ; Ts'eng .Chao-yu ^ Bfc et al., I-nan Ku Hua Rsiung Shih-mu Fa-chUeh Pao-kao Jff (f) Tfc* $. 1 ^ %~ ? t t , "^oT (Report on the Excavation of the Ancient Stone Images at I-nan) (Shanghai: Wen Wu, 1 9 5 6 ) , Plate 60/Figure 49. H s i o Y e n - s h i h , "Inan and R e l a t e d Tombs," Artibus Asiae ' 2 2 -( 1 9 5 9 ) : 2 7 7 - 3 1 2 . F i n s t e r b u s c h , 2 : 9 3 / 3 2 4 . T a s h i o Nagahiro ( e d . ) , The Representational Art of the Ran Period, Report o f the - 1 8 7 -Research I n s t i t u t e f o r H u m a n i s t i c S t u d i e s , Kyoto U n i v e r -s i t y , Text i n Japanese w i t h E n g l i s h and German A b s t r a c t s (Tokyo: Chuo-koron B i j i t s u Shuppan, 1 9 6 5 ) , pp, 142-148. 5 3Ssu-ma C h ' i e n , V o l . 8 , chilan 8 6 , "Tu '-.-a • K'o Lieh-chuan pp. 2 5 1 5 - 2 5 3 8 . For an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a -t i o n of the s t o r y , see, Derk Bodde, Statesman, P a t r i o t and Gereral in Ancient China; Three S h i h C h i Biographies of the Ch'in Dynasty (225 - 206 B.C.) (Ne.w Haven: American O r i e n -t a l S o c i e t y , 1 9 4 0 ) , pp. 2 3 - 5 2 . Crump, Chan-Kuo Tz'e, pp. 553-5 6 l . B u r t o n Watson, Ssu-ma Ch'ien; Grand Historian of China (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 1 9 1 . C y r i l B i r c h ( e d . ) , Anthology of Chinese L i t e r a t u r e , 2 v o l s . (New York: Grove P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , V o l . 1: From Early Times to the Fourteenth Century, pp. 1 0 6 - 1 1 8 . H i g h t o w e r , pp. 224-229 . 5 i | S e e , Soper, " L i f e M o t i o n , " pp. 1 7 4 - 1 7 6 . N a g a h i r o , The Representational Art of the Han Period, p. 8 9 -55 Ts'eng Chao-yu et al., p. 2 5 . 56 B u l l i n g , " H i s t o r i c a l P l a y s , " p. 3 1 . See, H e r b e r t von F r a n k e , "Die G e s c h i c h t e der P r i n z e n .Tan von Yen," Zeit-s o h r i f t der Deutschen Morgenl&dischen Gesellschaft 107 ( 1 9 5 7 ) : 4 l 2 - 4 5 8 . 5 7 T s ' e n g Chao-yu et al., 6 0 / 4 9 . F i n s t e r b u s c h , 2 : 9 3 / 3 2 4 . B u l l i n g , " H i s t o r i c a l P l a y s , " p. 3 2 . B u l l i n g b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s scene above t o be the sword dance between H s i a n g Chuang ifl M and H s i a n g Po ^ , two c h a r a c t e r s from the "Feast o f Hung-men." B u l l i n g , " H i s t o r i c a l P l a y s , " p. 3 2 . The scenes .from the i n t e r i o r o f the I-nan tomb are done i n the same s t y l e o f the Ching K'o p a n e l t h r o u g h o u t . The e n t r a n c e s c e n e s , however, t o the tomb are c a r v e d i n s h a l l o w r e l i e f , s i m i l a r t o Wu L i a n g Tz'u. T h i s i s the o n l y i n s t a n c e . - 1 8 8 -at I-nan where t h i s , s t y l e appears. See, Ts'eng Chao-yu et al., 2 4 / 1 , 2 5 / 2 , 2 5 / 3 , 2 7 / 4 . F i n s t e r b u s c h , 2. ; 7 5 / 2 8 l - 2 8 3 , F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e l i n t e l scene a t t h e e n t r a n c e t o I-nan, see, B u l l i n g , "Three P o p u l a r M o t i v e s i n the A r t o f the E a s t e r n Han P e r i o d , " pp. 3 4 - 4 3 . 58 A l t h o u g h Buddhism f l o u r i s h e d , and spread r a p i d l y due t o the i n s e c u r i t y o f t h e t i m e s and i t s o f f e r i n g s o f peace, i t by no means e l i m i n a t e d C o n f u c i a n i s m and Taoism. The Chinese c o n t i n u e d t o w o r s h i p t h e i r a n c e s t o r s and the f o r c e s o f n a t u r e . Indeed, i n A.D. 4 4 4 , a v i o l e n t p e r s e c u t i o n o f the B u d d h i s t c h u r c h and i t s f o l l o w e r s began i n the n o r t h . Buddhism s u r v i v e d , however, the pogrom and responded w i t h one o f the g r e a t e s t a r t i s t i c monuments i n C h i n a , the cave temples a t Yun-kang. 59 Fung Y u - l a n , History of Chinese Philosophy, V o l . 2 : The Period of C l a s s i c a l Learning (From the Second Century B.C. to the Twentieth Century A.D.), pp. 2 3 7 f f . 6 0 For a d i s c u s s i o n o f Buddhism and Chinese a r t , see, among o t h e r s , Hugo M u n s t e r b e r g , Chinese Buddhist Bronzes ( R u t l a n d : C h a r l e s E. T u t t l e , 1 9 6 7 ) . F r a n c o i s F o u r c a d e , La peinture murale de Touenhouang ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n e C e r c l e d ' a r t , 1 9 6 2 ) . Saburo Matsubara ^ 3 - ? Chinese Buddhist Sculpture; A Study Based on Bronze and Stone Statues Other Than Works from Cave Temples, Text i n Japanese (Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1 9 6 1 ) . S e i i c h i Mizuno, Bronze and Stone Sculpture of China; From the Yin to the T'ang Dynasty, Text i n Japanese w i t h E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n by Y u i c h i K a j i y a m a and B u r t o n Watson (Tokyo: The Nihon K e i z a i , i 9 6 0 ) . A l e x a n d e r C. Soper, L i t e r a r y Evidence for Early Buddhist Art in China (Ascona: A r t i b u s A s i a e , 1 9 5 9 ) . A r t h u r F. W r i g h t , Buddhism in Chinese History ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) . S e i i c h i Mizuno, Chinese Stone Sculpture (Tokyo: Mayuyama, 1 9 5 0 ) . Otto F i s c h e r , Chinesische P l a s t i k (Munchen: - 1 8 9 -R. P i p e r , 1 9 4 8 ) , Curt von G l a s s e r , Ostasiqtische. P l a s t i k ( B e r l i n : C a s s l r e r , 1 9 2 5 ) . . P a u l P e l l i o t , Les Grottes de Touen--houang , peintures et sculptures bouddhiques des epoques des Wei, des T'ang et des Sung, 6 v o l s . ( P a r i s : P. Geuthner, 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 4 ) . W r i g h t , pp. 4 4 - 5 4 . ^ 2 l b i d . , pp. 55-64. S i r e n , Chinese Painting: Leading Masters and P r i n c i -ples, 3 : 1 1 - 1 5 - See a l s o , M i c h a e l S u l l i v a n , "A F u r t h e r Note on the Date of. the Admonitions S c r o l l , " Burlington Maga-zine 96 ( 1 9 5 4 ) : 3 0 7 - 3 0 9 - John C. F e r g u s o n , "Ku K ' a i - c h i h ' s S c r o l l i n the B r i t i s h Museum," Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal A s i a t i c Society 49 ( 1 9 1 8 ) : 1 0 1 - 1 1 0 . Laurence B i n y o n , "A Chinese P a i n t i n g of the F o u r t h C e n t u r y , " Burlington Magazine 4 (January 1 9 0 4 ) : 3 9 - 5 1 -64 > S i r e n , Chinese Painting: Leading Masters and P r i n c i -ples, 3 : 9 - 1 0 . There are o t h e r v e r s i o n s o f t h i s s c r o l l which w i l l not c o n c e r n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . 65 F o r a t r a n s l a t i o n and o r i g i n a l Chinese t e x t of the r e l e v a n t passages from the Chin Shu, see, Chen S h i h - h s i a n g ( t r . ) , Biography of Ku K'ai-chih, E a s t A s i a S t u d i e s , I n s t i -t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Chinese Dynasty H i s t o r i e s T r a n s l a t i o n No. 2 ( B e r k e l e y : U n i -v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ). W i l l i a m R.B. Acker (ed. and t r . ) , Some T'ang and Pre-T'ang Texts on Chinese Paint-ing, 2 v o l s , i n 3 p a r t s , S i n i c a L e i d e n s i a , V o l s . 8 , 12 ( L e i -den: E . J . B r i l l , 1 9 5 4 - 1 9 7 4 ) , V o l . 2 : 4 3 - 8 2 . See a l s o , A r t h u r Waley, An Introduction to the Study of Chinese Painting (New York: Grove P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. 4 5 - 5 0 , S i r e n , A History of Early Chinese Painting, 1 : 1 5 - 1 6 . Edouard Chavannes, " B i o g r a p h i e de 'Kou K ' a i - t c h e , ' " T'oung Pao 5 , S e r i e s I I - 1 9 0 -( . 1 9 0 4 ) : 3 2 5 - 3 3 1. S i r e n , Chinese Painting; Leading Masters • and P r i n c i p l e s , 1 : 2 6 - 2 8 . ^ S e e , H s i o Y e n - s h i h , ''Poetry I l l u s t r a t i o n and the Works o f Ku K ' a i - c h i h , " i n , James C.Y, Watt (guest e d . ) , The Translation of Art; Essays, on Chinese Painting and Poetry, Renditions, No. 6 , S p e c i a l A r t I s s u e (Hong Kong: The Chinese U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong, 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 6 - 2 9 -Anna S t r a u g h a i r , Chang Hua: A Statesman-Poet of the Western Chin Dynasty, The A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , Occa-s i o n a l Paper 15 ( C a n b e r r a : A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 3 ) . G i l e s , A Chinese Biographical Dictionary, # 6 5 . ^ 7See", H s i o Y e n - s h i h , " P o e t r y I l l u s t r a t i o n , " pp. 1 0 -1 6 , Waley, An Introduction to the Study of Early Chinese Painting, pp. 5 0 - 5 8 . 6 8 C i t e d , H s i o Y e n - s h i h , " P o e t r y I l l u s t r a t i o n , " p. 1 1 . 69 On the problems of p e r s p e c t i v e i n Chinese p a i n t i n g and i n The Admonitions S c r o l l , see, W i l f r i d H. W e l l s , Per-spective in Early Chinese Painting (London: Edward G o l d -s t o n e , 1 9 3 5 ) . 70 / See Note #62 above. O s v a l d S i r e n , Chinese Paintings in American C o l l e c t i o n s , 5 p a r t s , Annales du Musee Gulmet, B i b l i o t h e q u e d ' A r t , N o u v e l l e S e r i e I I ( P a r i s : G. von Oest, 1 9 2 8 ) , P a r t 1 : Plates 1-2. 11 G i l e s , A Chinese Biographical Dictionary, # 1 9 9 4 . For a t r a n s l a t i o n of the poem, see, H s i o Y e n - s h i h , " P o e t r y I l l u s t r a t i o n , " pp. 1 7 - 2 5 . Waley, Introduction to the Study of Chinese Painting, pp. 6 0 - 6 l , On the problems of l a n dscape p a i n t i n g i n Chinese a r t and i t s development i n Chinese a r t h i s t o r y , see, M i c h a e l - 1 9 1 -S u l l i v a n , The Birth of Landscape Painting in China, A l e x a n d e r C.. Soper, " E a r l y Chinese Landscape P a i n t i n g , " Art B u l l e t i n 23 ( 1 9 4 1 ) : 1 4 1 - 1 6 4 . 73 Nanking Museum and t h e Committee f o r the P r e s e r v a -t i o n o f C u l t u r a l O b j e c t s o f the C i t y o f Nanking v£) T-K 1^ "<ft> ffe. fo^lfr f f - T t - ^ - *f|'-%w t "A Southern Dynasty Tomb w i t h Engraved B r i c k s at H s i - s h a n - c h ' i a o , Nanking," (Text i n C h i n e s e ) , Wen Wu 120 (August/September 1 9 6 0 ) : 3 7 -42. 74 See, A l e x a n d e r C. Soper, "A New Chinese Tomb D i s c o v -e r y : The E a r l i e s t R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a Famous L i t e r a r y Theme," Artibus Asiae 24 ( 1 9 6 1 ) : 7 9 - 8 6 . E l l e n J . L a i n g , "Neo-Taoism and the 'Seven Sages o f the Bamboo Grove' i n Chinese P a i n t -i n g , " Artibus Asiae 36 ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 5 - 5 4 . T o s h i r o N a g a h i r o , "On the M u r a l E n g r a v i n g s o f 'The Seven Sages i n a Bamboo Grove' and Jung C h ' i - c h ' i , D a t i n g between the C h i n and the Sung Dynasty o f C h i n a , " (Text i n J a p a n e s e ) , w i t h E n g l i s h A b s t r a c t Kokka 857 (August 1 9 6 3 ) = 1 5 - 2 1 . 75 See, G i l e s , A Chinese Biographical Dictionary, #293 (as C h i K'ang), # 2 5 4 4 , # 1 6 7 5 , # 2 1 8 8 , # 6 9 3 , # 1 3 2 8 , # 2 5 4 8 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . I b i . , # 9 3 0 . ILLUSTRATION SOURCES Figure 1 CSMWT, 1 : 3 , Figure 3. Figure 2...., , . CSMWT, 1:40, Figure 38. Figure 3 The E x c a v a t i o n Team o f the Han Tomb Chin-ch'ueh-shan, L i n y i , Frontispiece. Figure 4 C. Weber, Figure 68e. Figure 5 Chugoku B i j i t s u 3 | ^  J$f~ (The Arts of China) (Tokyo.: Kodansha, 1 9 6 3 ) , P a r t 1 : 1 9 0 . T h i s work i s V o l . 8 o f the s e r i e s , Sekai Bijutsu Taikei - t * r 3f f*f 7 ^ ^ * * * * * * * * * * * Plate 1 CSMWT, 2 : 7 1 . Plate 2 CSMWT, 2 : 7 6 . Plate 3 '. .CSMWT, 2 : 7 2 . Plate 4 CSMWT, 2 : 7 . 6 . Plate 5 Hsi Han Po Hua. Plate 6 Hsi Han Po Hua. Plate 7 I k e u c h i and Umehara, V o l . 2 : Plate 28. Plate 8 W i l l e t t s , p.. 24, Plate 2. Plate 9 Pope et al., pp. I 6 O - I 6 3 , Plate 28. - 1 9 2 -- 1 9 3 -Plate 10. .Loehr, Ritual Vessels of Bronze Age China; pp. 9 8 - 1 0 0 , Plate 41, Plate 11,,,...,.,,,,.,.... L o e h r , Ritual Vessels of Bronze Age China, pp. 1 3 6 - 1 3 7 , Plate 60. Plate 12 L o e h r , Ritual Vessels of Bronze Age China, pp. 1 6 0 - 1 6 1 , Plate 72. Plate IS •. S i r e n , Chines:e Painting: Leading Masters and P r i n c i p l e s , 3 : 1 -Plate 14 S i r e n , Chinese Painting: Leading Masters and P r i n c i p l e s , 3 : 8 . Plate 15 " W a l l P a i n t i n g s a t Loyang," Colour Plate 1. Plate 16 Chavannes, La sculpture sur p i e r r e , Plate 40. Plate 17 Chavannes, La sculpture sur p i e r r e , Plate 23. Plate 18 Rudolph, Han Tomb Art of West China, Figure 76. Plate 19 Chavannes, La sculpture sur p i e r r e , Plate 24. Plate 20 Ts'eng Chao-yu et al., 6 0 / 4 9 -Plate 21 S i r e n , History of Early Chinese Painting, V o l . 1 : Plate 10. Plate 22 Chugoku B i j i t s u , P a r t 1 : 1 2 3 , Plate 37. - 1 9 4 -Figure 1: Tomb No. 1 , Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , oa. 185 B.C., Drawing. -195-Figure S.- Banner P a i n t i n g , Tomb No. 1, Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , ca. 185 B.C., Drawing. - 1 9 6 -Figure 3: Banner P a i n t i n g , Tomb No. 9 , Chin-ch'ueh-shan, L I n y i , Shantung, Western Han P e r i o d , Drawing. - 1 9 7 -Figuve 4 : Hu, Engraved V e s s e l , Werner J a n n i n g s C o l l e c -t i o n , P e k i n g , W a r r i n g S t a t e s P e r i o d , Drawing, D e t a i l . Figure 5 : Hu, Engraved V e s s e l , Werner J a n n i n g s C o l l e c -t i o n , P e k i n g , W a r r i n g S t a t e s P e r i o d , S p l a y e d Drawing. - 1 9 9 -Plate 1: Banner P a i n t i n g , Tomb No. 1 , Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , aa. 185 B.C. -200-I n n e r , M i d d l e and Outer C a s k e t s , Tomb No. 1, Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , ca. 185 B.C. -2Q1-Plate S.- Banner P a i n t i n g , Tomb No. 1, Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , ca. 185 B.C., D e t a i l . -202-Plate 4: Banner P a i n t i n g , Tomb No. 1, Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , ca. 185 B.C., D e t a i l . - 2 0 3 -Plate 5: Banner P a i n t i n g , Tomb No. 1 , Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , aa. 185 B.C., D e t a i l . -204-Vlate 6: Banner P a i n t i n g , Tomb No. 1 , Ma-wang-tui, Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, Western Han P e r i o d , oa. 185 B.C., D e t a i l . -205-Flate 7: Tomb of the Dancing Figures 3 T'ung-kou, Ma n c h u r i a , C e i l i n g , D e t a i l . - 2 0 6 -Plate 8; Funerary Urn, Pan-shan, Kansu, N e o l i t h i c , O s t a s i a t i s k a Museet, Stockholm, -207-Plate 9: Ting, Anyang, Honan, Shang Dynasty, F r e e r G a l l e r y of A r t , Washington, D.C. - 2 0 8 -Plate 10: Yu, P a o - c h i - h s i e n , S h e n s i , E a r l y Chou P e r i o d , Museum of F i n e A r t s , B o s t o n . -209-Plate 11; Kuei, M i d d l e Chou, P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n -210-Vlate 12: Hu, L a t e Chou, A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a -211-Plate 13: P a i n t i n g on S i l k , Ch'ang-sha, Hunan, W a r r i n g S t a t e s P e r i o d , P e k i n g . -212-Plate 14: Painted Basket, L o l a n g , K o r e a , E a s t e r n Han P e r i o d , ca. A.D. 100, N a t i o n a l Museum, S e o u l , D e t a i l . - 2 1 3 -15: " K i l l i n g Three W a r r i o r s w i t h Two Peaches," P a i n t e d L i n t e l , Loyang, Honan, Western Han P e r i o d . -214-Plate 16: " L i f t i n g the T r i p o d , " Engraved Funerary Stone, H s i a o T'ang Shan, Shantung, E a s t e r n Han P e r i o d , oa. A.D. 1 2 9 , Rubbing. - 2 1 5 -Plate 17: " L i f t i n g the T r i p o d , " Engraved F u n e r a r y Stone, Wu L i a n g Tz'u, Shantung, E a s t e r n Han P e r i o d , A.D. 147 - 168, Rubbing. - 2 1 6 -Scenes of H u n t i n g and H a r v e s t i n g , Moulded Tomb T i l e , Kuang-han, Szechwan, E a s t e r n Han P e r i o d , Rubbing. -217-Vlate 19: "Ching K'o's Attempt t o A s s a s s i n a t e the K i n g of C h ' i n , " Engraved F u n e r a r y Stone, Wu L i a n g Tz'u, Shantung, E a s t e r n Han P e r i o d , A.D. 147 -1 6 8 , Rubbing. - 2 1 8 -• "Ching K'o's Attempt t o A s s a s s i n a t e the K i n g o f C h ' i n , " Engraved F u n e r a r y Stone, I-nan, Shantung, Southern and N o r t h e r n D y n a s t i e s , ca. A.D. 300, Rubbing. -219-Plate 21: Ku K ' a i - c h i h (ca. 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