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The Nagasaki Naval Training School in the context of Japanese-Dutch relations in mid nineteenth century Hosoi, Tadatoshi 1978

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THE NAGASAKI NAVAL TRAINING SCHOOL IN THE CONTEXT OF JAPANESE-DUTCH RELATIONS IN MID NINETEENTH CENTURY  by Tadatoshi Hosoi B.A., Yokohama C i t y U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 3  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f H i s t o r y )  We a c c e p t t h e t h e s i s to the required  as conforming standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA September, 1978  Q  T a d a t o s h i H o s o i , 1978  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  Oct. 1st.,  1*77-8  ii  ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis i s to study the o r i g i n of Japan's modern navy, the  history of which began when the r u l i n g Tokugawa Bakufu (Shogunate) opened  a naval training school at Nagasaki i n 1855.  The thesis i s therefore concerned  primarily with this school, the Nagasaki Naval Training School. From the very beginning, the Dutch, as the only Europeans i n Japan i n those days, were involved as promoters of the School. that the Bakufu look to the improvement  The e a r l i e s t Dutch suggestion  of Japan's defenses was made i n 1844 by  a delegate who brought a royal l e t t e r from King William II to the Shogun.  The  Dutch King i n h i s l e t t e r advised the Japanese to open the country to the world. Again i n 1852, prior to the v i s i t of Perry, the Dutch government dispatched an envoy on a steamer, warning of imminent dangers for Japan.  The presence of the  well-armed steamer worked as a demonstration of modern naval power for the Japanese. After Perry's naval mission of 1853, responding to the Bakufu's request, the  Dutch a c t i v e l y made suggestions for the creation of a modern Japanese navy.  They i n i t i a t e d the idea of the School and took the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for naval training.  The f i r s t half of the thesis t r i e s to answer the question why the  Dutch worked hard for the creation of a modern navy for the Japanese i n the mid1850 's by presenting Dutch a c t i v i t i e s injdiplomatic negotiations with the Japanese.  The argument among some interested Japanese over the issue of national  defense i s also discussed, since the Bakufu's decision to b u i l d a modern navy was one of the responses that the Japanese made to the enforced opening of Japan's doors to the world i n 1853. The Nagasaki Naval Training School provided not only Bakufu samurai students but  also l o c a l domain students with opportunities to pursue systematic Western-  s t y l e naval t r a i n i n g .  The students gradually overcame language and other  barriers and learned various modern naval s k i l l s and marine technology and organization. for  Under the guidance of Dutch instructors, the Bakufu b u i l t a factory  the repair of naval ships as a part of the School's supporting f a c i l i t i e s .  iii This was In  the f i r s t modern factory i n Japan u t i l i z i n g machinery from Europe. spite of successful operation, the Nagasaki Naval Training Schol was  o closed i n the spring of 1859.  The decision to terminate the School was made  for p o l i t i c a l reasons, a r i s i n g from the Japanese side as well as from the Dutch side.  While the Dutch feared that the other Western powers would suspect that  they were helping the Japanese accumulate naval power to repulse Westerners,  the  Bakufu became reluctant to give samurai from t r a d i t i o n a l l y anti-Bakufu domains opportunities to learn modern naval technology.  These anxieties coincided i n  the second half of 1858 and f i n a l l y brought the School to an end. Although the School was short-lived, i t had considerable direct and indirect influence on Japanese society.  The School educated many naval o f f i c e r s  and engineers who would l a t e r become not only founders of the Japanese Imperial Navy but also promoters of Japan's shipbuilding and other industries.  A medical  school with the f i r s t Western-style h o s p i t a l , started as a part of the Nagasaki Naval Training School, contributed to the education of many medical doctors. Both Bakufu and l o c a l domain samurai were sent to the School, and through naval training, they got acquainted with each other.  They gradually became aware of  the i n t e g r i t y of Japan as a country among other nations, a notion which tended to supplant their exclusive concern with their origins i n Bakufu or other domains. The thesis concludes that while many young men  from the School became leaders of  the new society after the M e i j i Restoration of 1868, various f a c i l i t i e s b u i l t for  the School provided M e i j i Japan with a valuable i n d u s t r i a l l i n h e r i t a n c e .  iv  TABLE ABLE OF CONTENTS  Preface  Chapter 1  Introduction: M a r i t i m e A f f a i r s i n t h e Tokugawa P e r i o d and t h e Development o f t h e D i s c u s s i o n o f Maritime Defense  p.  Chapter 2  The ..Dutch R o y a l L e t t e r o f 1844  p . 19  Chapter  The O p e n i n g o f J a p a n a n d N e g o t i a t i o n s on N a v a l  3  Matters  p . 37  Chapter 4  The N a g a s a k i N a v a l T r a i n i n g  Chapter 5  Conclusion:  Footnotes  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g For.Chapter 1  List  1  School  p. 5 7  Reasons f o r t h e C l o s u r e and t h e School  p . 102 p . 119  For Chapter 2  p . 122  For Chapter  3  p . 125  For Chapter 4  p . 127  For Chapter 5  p . 133  o f Works C o n s u l t e d  •  p . 136  V  PREFACE  In the l a s t 400 y e a r s , Japan's n a v a l p o l i c y has v a r i e d g r e a t l y  according  to the a t t i t u d e o f the governments  o f the time towards the r e s t o f the w o r l d .  S h o r t l y b e f o r e the Tokugawa p e r i o d  (1603-1867), the Japanese were ocean-going  people.  Both as t r a d e r s and r a i d e r s , they t r a v e l l e d a l l a l o n g the c o a s t s of  S o u t h e a s t e r n A s i a n c o u n t r i e s as w e l l as nearby Korea and C h i n a .  Shipbuilding  technology developed r a p i d l y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , and, i n the e a r l y 17th c e n t u r y , many s h i p s b u i l t counterparts.  i n Japan were s a i d t o have compared  w e l l w i t h t h e i r European  But i n the middle of the 17th c e n t u r y the r u l i n g Tokugawa govern-  ment adopted a p o l i c y o f i s o l a t i o n from the r e s t o f the w o r l d m a i n l y because i t f e a r e d the spread of C h r i s t i a n i t y  i n Japan.  Doors to the o u t e r w o r l d were  almost completely c l o s e d and the b u i l d i n g of ocean-going s h i p s was s t r i c t l y prohibited.  N a t u r a l l y , no s i g n i f i c a n t development i n the f i e l d  affairs " w a s  seen i n t h i s p e r i o d .  changed u n t i l  of n a v a l  The i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y was m a i n t a i n e d un-  the middle of the 19th c e n t u r y .  In the second h a l f of the 19th  c e n t u r y , however, the tendency was d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d .  First  f o r the purpose  of n a t i o n a l defense and then f o r a g g r e s s i v e advances towards n e i g h b o u r i n g i c o u n t r i e s , the Japanese devoted themselves t o the r a p i d development of s e a power. policy  In l e s s than h a l f a c e n t u r y s i n c e the Japanese adopted an o f f e n s i v e towards n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s , Japan's modern navy grew l a r g e  to dominate the e a s t e r n h a l f of the P a c i f i c ocean w i t h v i c t o r i o u s i n the S i n o - and Russo-Japanese Wars and World War I .  enough  experiences  But i t s g l o r i o u s  h i s t o r y ended i n World War I I when almost a l l Japan's n a v a l s h i p s were wiped o f f the s u r f a c e o f the P a c i f i c  Ocean.  In l e s s than one c e n t u r y , Japan's modern navy developed from v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g to i t s c u l m i n a t i o n i n the 1930's and e a r l y 1940's.  Although many  s t u d i e s have been done on Japan's modern navy, almost a l l of them a r e about  vi  the development  a f t e r the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n of 1868.  Very few have  been  p r e s e n t e d , even i n Japanese, c o n c e r n i n g the o r i g i n o f Japan's modern navy i n the middle of the 19th c e n t u r y .  The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to f i l l  t h i s gap i n the n a v a l h i s t o r y o f the l a t e Tokugawa p e r i o d .  p a r t of  T h i s purpose w i l l  be a c h i e v e d by a study o f the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l , as i t was the f i r s t modern n a v a l i n s t i t u t i o n i n Japan.  In other words,  the a c t u a l d e v e l o p -  ment of Japan's modern navy began when the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School was opened  i n 1855.  The S c h o o l was, however, not an i d e a s o l e l y o f the Japanese.  The Dutch a t Nagasaki, as the o n l y Europeans i n Japan a t t h a t time, were d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s scheme.  Due t o the i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y , the s h i p b u i l d i n g  technology of Japan was f a r b e h i n d i t s European c o u n t e r p a r t .  I n the d e v e l o p -  ment of a modern navy, the Japanese had t o o b t a i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a i d from the Dutch.  T h e r e f o r e , t h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between Japan and the N e t h e r l a n d s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the middle of the 19th century.  By way of i n t r o d u c t i o n , the e a r l y Tokugawa maritime defense a f f a i r s  w i l l be b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d , s i n c e knowledge  o f g e n e r a l Tokugawa maritime p o l i c y  may h e l p r e a d e r s understand the development  of n a v a l a f f a i r s i n the 19th  century. T h i s t h e s i s i s w r i t t e n based on i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n Japanese and English.  Because of my l a c k of knowledge  o f the Dutch language, I used Dutch  m a t e r i a l s o n l y when Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e .  T h i s language  problem was, I b e l i e v e , t o a g r e a t e x t e n t overcome by the use of r e l i a b l e Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n s , v e r i f i e d  from r e l a t e d  studies.  As mentioned above, there a r e v e r y few s t u d i e s on the e a r l y development of Japan's modern navy.  Perhaps Bakumatsu n i okeru Waga Kaigun t o Oranda  (Japan's  Navy and H o l l a n d i n the L a t e Tokugawa P e r i o d ) p u b l i s h e d by M i z u t a Nobutoshi i n 1929  i s the o n l y work which t r i e d  t o cover t h i s s u b j e c t i n d e t a i l .  The author  says h i s study u t i l i z e d v a r i o u s Dutch documents found i n a r c h i v e s i n the  vii  Netherlands.  Some o f  Nagasaki between the  the  J a p a n e s e and  however, the book has references Navy) by  at a l l .  information  some w r o n g i n f o r m a t i o n  Training  of  School but  c h r o n o l o g y of  and  misprints,  r e l a t e d w r i t i n g s are  only  at  The  portion  the  of van  instructors  With regard  negotiations  the  S c h o o l saw  between the  Japanese students.  J a p a n e s e and  Bakumatsu G a i k o k u K a n k e i Monjo L a t e Tokugawa P e r i o d ) ,  (Documents C o n c e r n i n g F o r e i g n  thesis could  the  c e r t a i n volumes i n Vancouver.  compensated f o r by and  these are In t h i s  with  of use  listed  t h e s i s Japanese personal  e x c e p t f o r a few  common w o r d s l i k e  Japanese words, macrons have not  published  it'btily  names a r e  names.  is cited  Yet  other  to  his the of written  Dutch  diplomatic  source i s  Relations  to  a  in  l i m i t e d e x t e n t due  This  deficiency  the the of  to  was  of i t s documentation,  b e e n used;  as  the  the  given  i n the  conventional  Japanese words have been  "samurai."  A l l t r a n s l a t i o n s w e r e made by i n English  and  Naval  bibliography.  f a m i l y names p r e c e e d i n g g i v e n  "shogun."  utilize  o f w o r k s w h i c h made p a r t i a l u s e  i n the  shall  N i h o n Komonjo ( H i s t o r i c a l Documents  Japan), although t h i s unavailability  and  D u t c h , the most v a l u a b l e  a s e c t i o n of Dai  we  Kattendyke's diary he  the  old  information  on how  of  Nagasaki  study.  i n J a p a n i s the most u s e f u l s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n at  As  early Meiji politics,  essential for this  no  History  than a d e s c r i p t i v e h i s t o r y .  a l s o i n l a t e Tokugawa and  i s proffered.  i t has  (The  some d o c u m e n t s i n t h i s b o o k i s i n c o r r e c t and  validity  and  I t i s a c o l l e c t i o n of  the most i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e s not  at  Unfortunately,  Besides Mizuta's study, Kaigun Rekishi  one  Kaigun Rekishi  doubtful  and  Katsu Kaishu i s also very important.  K a t s u was  negotiations  Dutch i s very v a l u a b l e .  d o c u m e n t s w i t h h i s comments, r a t h e r see,  concerning diplomatic  :  I n the  case of  f o r example:  form  underlined  anglicized  "shogun" i n s t e a d  of  w r i t e r , e x c e p t where a work  source f o r the  quoted Japanese  material.  viii  In  t h i s t h e s i s , dates aire a l l converted t o G r e g o r i a n c a l e n d a r e q u i v a l e n t s .  But f o r convenience  i n f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , Japanese dates are added i n b r a c k e t s :  f i r s t y e a r - p e r i o d (nengo) and then month•and day. on Gaimu-sho ( e d . ) , K i n d a i In-yo Reki Taisho-hyo  Conversions were made based  (Conversion Tables o f Japanese  and G r e g o r i a n Calendars f o r Modern Times, Gaimu-sho, 1951). Finally Dr. W. Donald  I wish  to express my s p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my s u p e r v i s o r ,  Burton, who have p a t i e n t l y rendered a s s i s t a n c e and advice t o me.  I am a l s o g r a t e f u l to Dr. John Howes of the Department of A s i a n S t u d i e s who gave me many important  suggestions.  I owe my s p e c i a l thanks  t o Mr. Tsuneharu  Gonnami o f the A s i a n S t u d i e s L i b r a r y who h e l p me make f u l l use o f the c o l l e c t i o n of  the l i b r a r y . T.H.  1  CHAPTER -it  I n t r o d u c t i o n : M a r i t i m e A f f a i r s i n the Tokugawa P e r i o d and the Development of the D i s c u s s i o n of M a r i t i m e Defense  The Tokugawa Bakufu"'" governed Japan f o r more than two and a h a l f (1603-1867).  centuries  D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , the Tokugawa Shoguns spent g r e a t energy to  e s t a b l i s h a s o l i d r u l i n g system.  Many r e g u l a t i o n s and o r d e r s were p r o c l a i m e d  i n i t s e a r l y s t a g e , and, as time passed, they g r a d u a l l y came to be understood as soho  ( a n c e s t r a l laws) t h a t nobody was  maritime a f f a i r s ,  too.  a l l o w e d to change.  T h i s was  so i n  The r e g u l a t i o n s and o r d e r s of the e a r l y 1600's were to  remain i n e f f e c t w e l l i n t o the 1800's, c a u s i n g many c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n Bakufu f o r e i g n and defense p o l i c i e s . the development  The i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y adopted by the Bakufu and  of the argument on maritime defense a f f a i r s are the most  important i s s u e s i n the h i s t o r y of maritime a f f a i r s i n the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  In the l a t e 16th and e a r l y 17th c e n t u r i e s , because of p o l i c i e s f o r the promotion of f o r e i g n t r a d e taken by Toyotomi H i d e y o s h i and h i s s u c c e s s o r Tokugawa Ieyasu, the t r a f f i c between Japan and o t h e r A s i a n c o u n t r i e s and Europe i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y , and t h i s tendency a c c e l e r a t e d the development Japan's s h i p b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y .  As European  and Chinese s h i p s o f t e n  Japan, Japanese s h i p w r i g h t s a c t i v e l y l e a r n e d from them.  of  visited  Especially after  1604  (Keicho 9 ) , when Ieyasu commenced the Go-shuin-sen Seido (Red S e a l V e s s e l System), which a u t h o r i z e d c e r t a i n daimyo, merchants  and o t h e r s to engage i n  f o r e i g n t r a d e , more and more s t u r d y ocean-going v e s s e l s were r e q u i r e d , thus encouraging s h i p w r i g h t s to l e a r n more from advanced s i z e of Go-shuin-sen v a r i e d  f o r e i g n technology.  The  from 100 tons to more than 700 or 800 tons;  however, most s h i p s were about 200 to 300 t o n s . t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese-type s h i p s , r a t h e r weakly  They were s t i l l  basically  s t r u c t u r e d ones designed  p r i m a r i l y f o r c o a s t a l r o u t e s , but they a l r e a d y showed many, m o d i f i c a t i o n s and i n n o v a t i o n s l e a r n e d from European and Chinese s h i p s .  2  2  On two  the o t h e r hand, as e a r l y as 1605  s h i p s of European d e s i g n .  (Keicho 10)  s a i d to have been 80 and  built  120  these two-masted  respectively.  The  s u c c e s s f u l l y s a i l e d a c r o s s the P a c i f i c Ocean to Mexico i n 1609. l a t e r i n 1613,  possessed  W i l l i a m Adams, the E n g l i s h p i l o t / e n g i n e e r of a  Dutch v e s s e l t h a t s t r a n d e d i n Kyushu i n 1600, T h e i r tonnage was  Ieyasu a l r e a d y  the l o r d of Sendai han  (domain) sent one  schooners.  larger  3  Four  one  years  of h i s r e t a i n e r s to  4 Mexico and  Spain.  The  s h i p f o r t h i s m i s s i o n was  w i t h a company of 180 men."*  I t was  also a European-style  ship  b u i l t under the d i r e c t i o n of Mukai Tadamasa,  the f i r s t h e r e d i t a r y a d m i r a l of the Funate (water f o r c e ) of the Bakufu, p r o b a b l y i t made use of the e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge o b t a i n e d from  and  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of Adams' s h i p s .  These cases i n d i c a t e t h a t the Tokugawa Bakufu  had been v e r y eager  s h i p b u i l d i n g technology  to develop  i n i t s e a r l y stage,  the Japanese a c t u a l l y a t t a i n e d a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s t a n d a r d of Along w i t h the development of s h i p b u i l d i n g nology was  at f i r s t  T h e i r s t a n d a r d was  n a v i g a t i o n manual appeared While  then l e a r n e d  the knowledge of world geography  soon r a i s e d to a h i g h l e v e l and i n Japanese i n 1618  a very  from  comprehensive  (Genna 4 ) . ^  the Bakufu encouraged f o r e i g n t r a d e , i t p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to the  development of a n a v a l f o r c e . through  For voyages of  Japanese o f t e n h i r e d European p i l o t s and  techniques f o r open-sea n a v i g a t i o n and them.  shipbuilding.  technology, n a v i g a t i o n t e c h -  a l s o g r e a t l y advanced d u r i n g the same p e r i o d .  Go-shuin-sen,  and  Ieyasu's  p o l i c y was  trade but not by m i l i t a r y means.  t o promote f o r e i g n  The m i l i t a r y  relations  t h r e a t from o u t s i d e  Japan c o u l d be more e a s i l y i g n o r e d i n those days than i n the l a t e 18th and  19th  centuries. The o n l y n a v a l achievement was the c r e a t i o n of the Funate ( l i t e r a l l y s h i p hands, i . e . water f o r c e ) . There were f i v e groups of Funate, and each of them was  l e d by an i n d i v i d u a l Funate a d m i r a l w i t h t h i r t y d o s h i n  (perhaps g  e q u i v a l e n t to p e t t y o f f i c e r s ) and system was  about f i f t y  f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d by the t h i r d  to e i g h t y s a i l o r s .  Shogun, I e m i t s u .  T h i s Funate  Although h i s  3  enthusiasm expansion  d i d not l a s t v e r y l o n g , I e m i t s u i n h i s e a r l y y e a r s planned the of the Funate and had h i s men b u i l d  two s p e c i a l w a r s h i p s ,  Maru i n 1630 (Kan'ei 7) and the Ataka Maru i n 1631.  the T e n c h i  Along w i t h a l l the daimyo  i n Edo, Iemitsu even h e l d a review of the f l e e t o f f the town of Shinagawa near '9 Tokyoin'1635. :  Edo, now  However, as the f i r s t e d i c t on the sakoku ( c l o s i n g of the c o u n t r y , i s o l a t i o n ) p o l i c y was i s s u e d i n 1633, the Funate, to be regarded  as a n a v a l f o r c e , g r a d u a l l y l o s t  Tokugawa m i l i t a r y system. difficult  f a r before i t obtained s u f f i c i e n t  i n those days.  power  i t s r a i s o n d ' e t r e i n the  The enforcement of the i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y was not v e r y Westerners were u s u a l l y i n East A s i a f o r the propa-  g a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n i t y and t r a d e without a g g r e s s i v e m i l i t a r y d e s i g n s .  The  s e r i e s of e d i c t s c o n c e r n i n g the l i m i t a t i o n s on f o r e i g n c o n t a c t s were imposed between the y e a r s 1633 and 1639.  I n 1635 the Bakufu forbade  the Japanese to  l e a v e the c o u n t r y , and Japanese r e s i d e n t s i n f o r e i g n lands were a l s o p r o h i b i t e d from coming back to t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r y . p u n i s h a b l e by death."^ Some Portuguese  still  Offenses a g a i n s t the e d i c t s were  The i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y was a c t u a l l y , completed remained i n Nagasaki,  i n this  a p o r t town i n Kyushu, but they as  w e l l were e x p e l l e d from Japan i n 1639 because of suspected  c o l l u s i o n i n the  Shimabara R e b e l l i o n i n which farmers  and samurai  under the banner of Christianity."'""'"  As the Shimabara R e b e l l i o n was l e d by  Japanese C a t h o l i c s , the Bakufu f i e r c e l y oppressed and  r e v o l t e d a g a i n s t the Bakufu  m i s s i o n a r i e s and  devotees,  e v e n t u a l l y i t c u t the t i e s w i t h C a t h o l i c c o u n t r i e s l i k e P o r t u g a l and S p a i n .  Only England  and the Netherlands  allowed to send left  year.  t h e i r people  from Europe and China and Korea from A s i a were  f o r t r a d e w i t h the Japanese.  After English traders  Japan due t o u n s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s , the Dutch and Chinese 12  '  s t a y e d i n Japan  -  i n v e r y s m a l l d e s i g n a t e d areas i n Nagasaki. As one of the means of completing  the i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y ,  the Bakufu p l a c e d  a p r o h i b i t i o n on the b u i l d i n g and p o s s e s s i o n of any s h i p s t h a t were more than  4  500 koku c a p a c i t y  (about 50 tons) i n the 1635 v e r s i o n of the Buke Shohatto  (Laws f o r the M i l i t a r y Houses).  13  At the same time, the Bakufu  r e s t r i c t i o n s on the s t r u c t u r e o f  imposed  s h i p s , banning the use o f k e e l s and more  14 than one mast on a s h i p .  L a t e r , i n 1638  and 1663,  the Bakufu  slightly  r e l a x e d the r e g u l a t i o n s and a l l o w e d s h i p s l a r g e r than 500 koku f o r commercial transportation.  The s t r u c t u r a l r e s t r i c t i o n s were, however, not removed."*"^  A f t e r t h a t Japan's marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was  l i m i t e d t o c o a s t a l r o u t e s served 16  by t r a d i t i o n a l s h i p s such as bezai-bune, or sengoku-bune. weak s t r u c t u r e of the t r a d i t i o n a l s h i p s , Japanese  And  due to the  seamen s u f f e r e d  repeatedly  from shipwrecks, c a u s i n g g r e a t damage t o the n a t i o n a l economy. The Bakufu completed  the i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y , but the.pQlicy.,was n o t i g u a r a n -  teed by the backup of defense f a c i l i t i e s .  The a u t h o r i t y of the Bakufu, the  m o a t - l i k e ocean around the c o u n t r y , and perhaps the kamikaze  ( d i v i n e wind) i n  case of emergency were c o n s i d e r e d to be enough to e n f o r c e the i s o l a t i o n By the o r d e r of the Bakufu, a l l the Europeans left  Japan, and e v e n t u a l l y o n l y a Dutch " f a c t o r y " remained  i n Nagasaki harbour. until  The people seldom saw  the second h a l f of the 18th c e n t u r y .  provided during t h i s period.  was  at Dejima  English (Deshima)  f o r e i g n s h i p s i n Japanese  waters  Almost no c o a s t a l defense  was  The only e x c e p t i o n was  doorway to the o u t e r w o r l d , i t was who  except f o r the Dutch and  policy.  Nagasaki.  As the s o l e  d i r e c t l y governed by the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e ,  r e s p o n s i b l e to the Bakufu f o r e x t e r n a l t r a d e and defense as w e l l as the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h i s p o r t town."*"^  The a c t u a l defense of Nagasaki was  taken  care of by Saga han and Fukuoka han, but few improvements were made a f t e r some inadequate defense f a c i l i t i e s Some changes  were c o n s t r u c t e d i n the middle of the 17th c e n t u r y .  i n defense arrangements  elsewhere were the i n s t a l l a t i o n s of  the  Uraga M a g i s t r a c y a t the mouth of Edo Bay  (Tokyo Bay) i n 1721  the  Ezo M a g i s t r a c y (or Hakodate M a g i s t r a c y ) i n 1802  (Kyowa 2 ) .  (Kyoho 6) and Yet these were  mere a d d i t i o n s of Bakufu p o s t s w i t h o u t any e f f e c t i v e improvement of defense  facilities.  O n l y two s h i p s w h i c h c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d  and h a d t h e p o t e n t i a l t o b e c o n v e r t e d B a k u f u ' s a u t h o r i t y , and t h e s e  to naval  had short  lives  as o c e a n - g o i n g  s h i p s were b u i l t  vessels  under the  a n d no o f f s p r i n g due t o v a g a r i e s  19 in  the p o l i t i c a l  fortunes  concerned i t s e l f  mainly  f i r m ground, only  of t h e i r sponsors.  with  As one c l e a r l y  defense f a c i l i t i e s  t o a v e r y modest e x t e n t .  controlled  the 1630's.  I n 1842  11  The F u n a t e c o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e o f t h e B a k u f u , i t showed  (Tempo 1 3 ) , t h e B a k u f u  n  11  M a r u , t h e f l a g s h i p o f Tokugawa  Iemitsu's  s i z e o f t h e s h i p was s a i d t o be a b o u t 100 t o n s .  of oars  t o t o n n a g e c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o o t h e r  the Bakufu d i r e c t l y expert  directly  60 o r more o a r s 50 40 30 l e s s t h a n 29 o a r s  224 s h i p s i n t o t a l u n d e r t h e B a k u f u ' s d i r e c t  the  on  the f o l l o w i n g v e s s e l s : 9 ships with 16 '" " 25 " " 3 " 171 " "  The T e n c h i  the Bakufu  on l a n d a n d e v e n w h e r e i t was  b a s i s f o r a modern n a v y , b u t b e c a u s e o f t h e n e g l i g e n c e no d e v e l o p m e n t a f t e r  sees,  20  f l e e t , h a d 100 o a r s ,  and  Assuming t h a t t h i s  ratio  s h i p s , a l l t h e above s h i p s  c o n t r o l l e d i n 1842 w e r e much s m a l l e r  e x p l a i n s the v u l n e r a b i l i t y  control  t h a n 100 t o n s .  that A  naval  o f t h e B a k u f u w a t e r f o r c e as f o l l o w s :  S h i p s w i t h a t l e a s t f o r t y - o a r s were r e q u i r e d f o r n a v a l s t r u g g l e s . H o w e v e r , a s t r a d i t i o n a l s h i p s w e r e v e r y p o o r l y c o n s t r u c t e d , o n c e t h e y came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h a W e s t e r n s h i p , t h e n t h e y w o u l d be b r o k e n i n t o p i e c e s . ^ The J a p a n e s e ' w a r s h i p s ' w e r e n o t a t a l l s u i t e d t o m o d e r n n a v a l f i g h t i n g .  F o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h e B a k u f u , i t was n o t d r a w n i n t o s e r i o u s m i l i t a r y frontations with the e s t a b l i s h m e n t the c o m p l e t i o n  f o r e i g n e r s t h r o u g h t h e 1 7 t h and e a r l y 1 8 t h c e n t u r i e s . o f t h e i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y , _the B a k u f u d e v o t e d i t s e l f  of i t s domestic r u l i n g system.  Western c o u n t r i e s were e x p e r i e n c i n g  But d u r i n g  conAfter  solely to  t h e same p e r i o d ,  the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n  and t h e y  were  6  about t o go around  the world w i t h much more a g g r e s s i v e m i l i t a r y d e s i g n s .  i n d u s t r i a l development c o u n t r i e s , b u t under  o f R u s s i a was slower than the r e s t of the Western  the s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p o f c z a r s l i k e P e t e r the Great and  C a t h e r i n e I I t h i s huge E u r a s i a n c o u n t r y a l s o a c t i v e l y advanced territories.  The  I n the New World,  to i t s eastern  E n g l i s h c o l o n i e s were g r a d u a l l y accumulating  t h e i r powers i n t o one u n i t e d c o u n t r y w i t h t h e i r abundant r e s o u r c e s and s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r independence.  The w o r l d was changing, whereas most of the Japanese  had l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y to know of i t s p r o g r e s s .  The the  s o - c a l l e d k a i b o - r o n (argument  c o n c e r n i n g maritime defense) was born i n  second h a l f o f the 18th c e n t u r y when the p e a c e f u l r e i g n of the Tokugawa  Bakufu was d i s t u r b e d by the R u s s i a n approach  from the n o r t h .  climaxes i n the h i s t o r y of the k a i b o - r o n ; the f i r s t  came i n response t o  i n c r e a s e d R u s s i a n a c t i v i t y soon a f t e r the k a i b o - r o n i t s e l f second h i t Japan a f t e r the v i s i t the  of American  There are two  was born, and the  Commodore P e r r y i n 1853.  At f i r s t  k a i b o - r o n was an argument among some concerned people who had been s t u d y i n g  v a r i o u s matters c o n c e r n i n g f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s through Dutch books and t h e i r translations. of  The most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the argument .was-it's..'.advocacy  the c r e a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l defense system.  Under the Tokugawa Bakufu,  each  han was r e s p o n s i b l e o n l y f o r the defense of i t s own domain and sometimes nearby s p e c i a l zones d e s i g n a t e d by the Bakufu. of  Although the l o c a l l o r d s were v a s s a l s  the Tokugawa, as f a r as defense was concerned, they were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  22 defense o f t h e i r own domains. from o v e r s e a s .  There was no u n i f i e d command a g a i n s t  threats  Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the i d e a of n a t i o n a l defense was  q u i t e unique i n those days. s u i t a b l e m i l i t a r y systems  Besides t h i s ,  f o r Japan,  the k a i b o - r o n i n g e n e r a l d e a l t w i t h  the f i n a n c i a l means t o b u i l d an e f f e c t i v e  defense system, and the Bakufu-han r e l a t i o n s h i p i n defense a f f a i r s . i d e a s were seldom  taken i n t o s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the Bakufu.  These Instead, i t  7  had a tendency Still,  to suppress t h i s s o r t of d i s c u s s i o n i n non-Bakufu  circles.  the n e c e s s i t y f o r a n a t i o n a l defense system g r a d u a l l y came to be  stood by the Bakufu,  and, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r P e r r y ' s c h a l l e n g e , n a t i o n a l  became one of the most urgent i s s u e s f o r the Bakufu campaign of the- k a i b o - r o n advocates was  rewarded  to solve.  i n c l u d i n g the c r e a t i o n of a modern navy.  Now  when the Bakufu  we w i l l  defense  The l o n g took many  d r a s t i c measures f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of an e f f e c t i v e n a t i o n a l defense  of  under-  system  l o o k a t the development  the k a i b o - r o n i n d e t a i l w i t h an emphasis on o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g a modern  navy. As e a r l y as the l a t e 16th c e n t u r y , the Russians began to e x p l o r e t h e i r e a s t e r n t e r r i t o r i e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the e a r l y 18th c e n t u r y , they became v e r y a c t i v e under the r u l e of P e t e r the Great.  In h i s r e i g n , the Russians had  a l r e a d y reached the e a s t e r n edge of S i b e r i a and proceeded Kamchatka P e n i n s u l a .  Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , P e t e r the Great planned  e x p l o r a t i o n of the Northern P a c i f i c Ocean and Japan, China and I n d i a from S i b e r i a . d u r i n g the 1730's.  f a r t h e r down to the  the opening of sea r o u t e s to  H i s plans were r e a l i z e d  a f t e r h i s death,  As a p a r t of A d m i r a l V i t u s B e r i n g ' s N o r t h e r n P a c i f i c Ocean  e x p e d i t i o n , C a p t a i n M a r t i n P. Spanberg commanded a voyage to Japan i n His  the  1739.  s h i p s s a i l e d down a l o n g the K u r i l e I s l a n d s and then to the c e n t r a l p a r t of  Japan on the P a c i f i c s i d e .  They s e v e r a l times t r i e d  to t r a d e w i t h  Japanese  23 s h i p s o f f the c o a s t and e v e n t u a l l y v i s i t e d In  17.11, Russians f i r s t  the K u r i l e s , and by 1768  some f i s h i n g  villages.  opened a s e t t l e m e n t on the northernmost  they had reached E t o r o f u I s l a n d which was  about 150 k i l o m e t e r s away from Ezo proper (today Hokkaido). s h i p s came to v i s i t Ezo, was its  Ezo more and more f r e q u e n t l y .  i s l a n d of  located  A f t e r that Russian  Matsumae han, which r u l e d  to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t informed of R u s s i a n a c t i v i t i e s on the b o r d e r s of  domain, but i t r e p o r t e d l i t t l e  because Matsumae han was  on these to the Bakufu  i n Edo.  This  was  a f r a i d of i n v i t i n g i n t e r f e r e n c e by the Bakufu i n  8  domain a f f a i r s . Although Matsumae han t r i e d  to keep the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the R u s s i a n  a c t i v i t i e s from l e a k i n g t o the Bakufu, i t came t o l i g h t affair.  through an unexpected  I n 1771, R u s s i a n p r i s o n e r s i n Kamchatka r e v o l t e d under the l e a d e r s h i p  of M o r i t z A l a d a r von Benyowsky, a Hungarian nobleman, and managed to o b t a i n a 25  small Russian ship.  On t h e i r way  back to Europe, the s h i p was s t r a n d e d  s e v e r a l times on Japanese s h o r e s .  While he s t a y e d a t Amami Oshima I s l a n d , o f f  the s o u t h e r n t i p of Kyushu, von Benyowsky wrote s e v e r a l l e t t e r s Nagasaki.  These l e t t e r s were f i r s t  to the Dutch a t  sent to the hands of the Bakufu from the  i s l a n d e r s , but nobody c o u l d read the l e t t e r s because they were w r i t t e n i n German.  The Dutch a t Nagasaki were r e q u e s t e d t o t r a n s l a t e the l e t t e r s f o r the  Bakufu.  I t was  i n one of these l e t t e r s  t h a t von Benyowsky informed the Japanese  of a f a l s e R u s s i a n p l a n to invade Japan.  He mentioned  t h a t he has "important  i n f o r m a t i o n to d i s c l o s e , " and then he c o n t i n u e s t h a t " t h i s y e a r , i n accordance w i t h a R u s s i a n o r d e r , two g a l l i o t s and a f r i g a t e from Kamchatka s a i l e d  around  Japan and s e t down a l l t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n a p l a n , i n which an a t t a c k on Matsma [Matsumae] and the n e i g h b o u r i n g i s l a n d s l y i n g under 41°38' N. L a t . has been 26  f i x e d f o r next y e a r . "  I t was  c o m p l e t e l y f a l s e i n f o r m a t i o n , but a v e r y urgent  and c o n c r e t e warning to the Japanese.  Yet n o t h i n g was  o t h e r words, i t seems t h a t none of the Bakufu o f f i c i a l s von Benyowsky meant i n h i s l e t t e r s .  The Bakufu was  done by the Bakufu.  In  c o u l d comprehend what  too p o o r l y informed about  the s i t u a t i o n i n the n o r t h e r n t e r r i t o r i e s t o take any a c t i o n based on the warning and i t had v e r y l i t t l e m i l i t a r y p r e p a r a t i o n f o r such a case anyway. P r i o r t o the Benyowsky c a s e , a rumour t h a t u n i d e n t i f i e d f o r e i g n e r s from the n o r t h engaged  i n smuggling w i t h some Japanese i n Ezo had spread among some  i n t e r e s t e d Japanese.  As i t was  i m p o s s i b l e to keep the Dutch and  interpreters  at Nagasaki from c o n f i d i n g the Benyowsky warning to these knowledge-seeking Japanese, the i d e n t i t y of the men  from the n o r t h was  r e v e a l e d and the concern  9  about  t h e n o r t h was s u d d e n l y h e i g h t e n e d .  stage of h i s t o r y  as a r e s u l t  The k a i b o - r o n was b r o u g h t  o f t h e Benyowsky w a r n i n g .  t o the main  Some o f t h e e a r l y a n d  m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h e s e s o n m a r i t i m e d e f e n s e w e r e w r i t t e n b y Kudo H e i s u k e a n d Hayashi Shihei.  /  Kudo H e i s u k e was a d o c t o r f r o m S e n d a i h a n . Fusetsu-ko  (A S t u d y o f Red A i n u  When h e c o m p l e t e d h i s A k a e z o  [ R u s s i a n s ] R e p o r t s ) i n 1783 (Tenmei  B a k u f u a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was i n t h e h a n d s o f Tanuma O k i t s u g u .  3), the  A s Tanuma p r o m o t e d  27 i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade during h i s days, flowed i n t o Japan w i t h  more a n d more i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e W e s t  the increase of trade.  The m a i n s o u r c e was o f c o u r s e  t h e D u t c h N a g a s a k i P o s t , a n d t h e s t u d y o f t h e W e s t was c a l l e d R a n g a k u studies).  The k a i b o - r o n was a l s o c l o s e l y  Kudo v i s i t e d l e a r n e d about  related  t o t h e development  N a g a s a k i t o s t u d y D u t c h m e d i c i n e i n 1780.  (Dutch o f Rangaku.  W h i l e i n N a g a s a k i , he  t h e B e n y o w s k y w a r n i n g a n d n o r t h e r n a f f a i r s t h r o u g h some 28  i n t e r p r e t e r s and t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e Dutch P o s t .  Japanese  Being alarmed  partic-  u l a r l y b y t h e B e n y o w s k y w a r n i n g , h e c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s i n t e r e s t much more i n northern a f f a i r s about  than medicine.  Ezo and R u s s i a n a c t i v i t i e s  He c o l l e c t e d  further detailed  information  t h r o u g h some r e t a i n e r s f r o m M a t s u m a e h a n ,  w h i l e h e a s k e d some R a n g a k u - s h a  ( s c h o l a r s i n D u t c h s t u d i e s ) t o t r a n s l a t e some 29 Dutch books about R u s s i a n a f f a i r s . Based on t h e s e , he c o m p l e t e d t h e Akaezo F u s e t s u - k o . H a v i n g s t u d i e d R u s s i a n a f f a i r s , Kudo i n h i s b o o k c o n s i d e r s t h a t "the R u s s i a n s have h e a r d o f t h e abundance o f p r e c i o u s m e t a l s i n Japan  and w i s h  30 to trade with us."  And he a d v o c a t e s t h e development  o f Ezo and R u s s i a n t r a d e  from t h e v i e w p o i n t o f m a r i t i m e d e f e n s e and t h e enrichment  of Japan.  T h i s book  31 was  d i r e c t l y p r e s e n t e d t o Tanuma O k i t s u g u  adopted by t h e B a k u f u , r e s u l t i n g and  i n t h e d i s p a t c h o f e x p e d i t i o n s t o E z o i n 1785  1 7 8 6 . The i d e a s i n t h e A k a e z o F u s e t s u - k o a c c o r d e d w e l l w i t h Tanuma's  of i n d u s t r i a l and commercial back  i n 1783 and Kudo's o p i n i o n s were  development.  By t h e t i m e t h e e x p e d i t i o n  policy  brought  i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e n o r t h , h o w e v e r , Tanuma h a d d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m t h e m a i n  10  stage of p o l i t i c s .  H i s s u c c e s s o r , M a t s u d a i r a S a d a n o b u , showed l i t t l e  interest  32 in  the i n f o r m a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n the r e p o r t of the  expedition.  L i k e K u d o , H a y a s h i S h i h e i o f t h e same S e n d a i h a n was i n f l u e n c e d by He  t h e B e n y o w s k y w a r n i n g when he v i s i t e d  Review of Three  (Tenmei  in  explained.  t h i s book, e x p l a i n i n g  the development  the geography  first  As  H a y a s h i p a i d most c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n  a countermeasure  of Ezo.  General  of K o r e a , the Ryukyus  t h e R u s s i a n c o l o n i z a t i o n o f t h e e a s t and  a p o s s i b l e i n v a s i o n of Ezo. advocated  H i s s t u d y was  (An'ei 1).  6) a s S a n g o k u T s u r a n Z u s e t s u (An I l l u s t r a t e d  Countries) i n which  ( O k i n a w a ) , a n d E z o was  strongly  N a g a s a k i i n 1772  devoted h i m s e l f t o the study of maritime defense.  p u b l i s h e d i n 1786  also  Ezo  predicting  to Russian invasion,  U n l i k e K u d o , who  to  he  considered the v i s i t s  of  R u s s i a n s as e x p r e s s i o n s o f a w i s h t o t r a d e , H a y a s h i t h o u g h t t h e R u s s i a n s were aggressive invaders.  t i m e d e f e n s e more In  T h e r e f o r e , he was 33  to study the problem of m a r i ^  directly.  t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r o f 1787,  epoch-making K a i k o k u Heidan at  destined  Hayashi p u b l i s h e d the f i r s t  ( M i l i t a r y Talks f o r a Maritime Nation) which  the study of defense a g a i n s t t h r e a t s from overseas.  t h e r e h a d b e e n many ' a r t o f w a r '  books based  J a p a n , b u t none of t h o s e books had external threat.  volume of  Prior  to this  aimed  book  on d o m e s t i c w a r f a r e i n C h i n a  dealt with military  conflicts  the geographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of  and  resulting  At the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of t h i s book, H a y a s h i s t a t e s  importance of c o n s i d e r i n g  the  from  the  Japan.  What i s meant b y a m a r i t i m e n a t i o n ? I t i s a c o u n t r y n o t c o n n e c t e d b y l a n d t o any o t h e r , b u t b o r d e r e d on a l l s i d e s b y t h e s e a . There are d e f e n s e p r e p a r a t i o n s t h a t a r e s u i t e d t o a m a r i t i m e n a t i o n , and t h a t d i f f e r i n k i n d f r o m t h o s e p r e s c r i b e d i n C h i n e s e m i l i t a r y w o r k s , as w e l l as f r o m t h o s e t r a d i t i o n a l l y t a u g h t i n J a p a n b y v a r i o u s s c h o o l s . 3 4  Hayashi f u l l y  understood the d i f f e r e n c e i n m i l i t a r y  d o m e s t i c and e x t e r n a l w a r f a r e f o r an i s l a n d the  s t r a t e g y and  tactics  c o u n t r y l i k e J a p a n , and he  c r e a t i o n o f a modern navy modeled a f t e r a European  one.  between  advocated  W h i l e he was  in  11  Nagasaki, he c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d the s t r u c t u r e and equipment of Dutch s h i p s . r e s u l t of the study appeared  A  i n the form of a p i c t o r i a l e x p l a n a t i o n of a Dutch  35 ship.  S o l i d l y - b u i l t and w e l l - e q u i p p e d warships as w e l l as D u t c h - s t y l e cannons  were h i s g o a l f o r the n a t i o n a l defense. M i l i t a r y p r e p a r a t i o n f o r Japan means a knowledge of the way to r e p e l f o r e i g n i n v a d e r s , a v i t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t p r e s e n t . The way to do t h i s i s by n a v a l w a r f a r e ; the e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n n a v a l w a r f a r e i s cannons. To be w e l l p r e p a r e d i n these two r e s p e c t s i s the t r u e r e q u i s i t e of Japanese defense, u n l i k e the m i l i t a r y p o l i c i e s a p p r o p r i a t e to such c o n t i n e n t a l c o u n t r i e s as China and T a r t a r y . Only when n a v a l warfare has been mastered s h o u l d l a n d w a r f a r e be considered.36  In  Kaikoku Heidan Hayashi d i d not d i r e c t l y oppose the Bakufu order t h a t  p r o h i b i t e d the b u i l d i n g of l a r g e w a r s h i p s , but, c a r e f u l l y , he claimed t h a t no n a v a l w a r f a r e was One It  e x p l a i n i n g Dutch s h i p s v e r y p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t ones l i k e them.  of the most important demands i n h i s book was  the c r e a t i o n of a modern navy.  i s hard to b e l i e v e t h a t Hayashi agreed w i t h the Bakufu p r o s c r i p t i o n .  he h e s i t a t e d  Rather,  to oppose the p r o s c r i p t i o n when he thought the p u b l i c a t i o n of the 37  book i t s e l f might not be a c c e p t a b l e to the a u t h o r i t i e s . Hayashi s t r o n g l y emphasized which was  the importance of defense around Edo  the c e n t r e of Tokugawa Japan.  As mentioned  were l i m i t e d to the Nagasaki a r e a i n those days.  He  b e f o r e , defense  Bay, facilities  writes:  A f r o n t i e r l e s s sea road l e a d s from the Nihon B r i d g e i n Edo to China and H o l l a n d . Why i s i t t h a t t h e r e are defense i n s t a l l a t i o n s only i n Nagasaki? My s u g g e s t i o n here i s to s t a t i o n some daimyo i n the p r o v i n c e s of Awa and Sagami [now Chiba-ken and Kanagawa-ken] to guard s t r i c t l y the e n t r a n c e to the [Edo] Bay.;, jWhen the defense f a c i l i t i e s are b e i n g arranged, the Bay a r e a s h o u l d be g i v e n p r i o r i t y .  By s a y i n g t h i s , Hayashi p r e d i c t e d  the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n v a s i o n d i r e c t l y  3 g  into  Edo  Bay by f o r e i g n s h i p s and s t r o n g l y i n s i s t e d on the i n s t a l l a t i o n of b a t t e r i e s around Edo Bay.  The defense of Edo Bay would be one of the most s e r i o u s  problems when e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s turned out to be u r g e n t , he c l a i m e d .  39  Nobody  12  b e f o r e Hayashi had p o i n t e d out the n e c e s s i t y of the defense of Edo Hayashi completed  Bay.  the e n t i r e 16 volumes of Kaikoku Heidan i n 1791  (Kansei  3 ) , b u t , as he had a n t i c i p a t e d , i t brought a g r e a t d e a l of t r o u b l e to him. Soon a f t e r the l a s t volume was  p u b l i s h e d , he was  books were a l l banned i n the summer of 1792. chief roju  ( c o u n c i l l o r ) , who  writings.  Hayashi was  a r r e s t e d by the Bakufu and h i s  I t was M a t s u d a i r a Sadanobu, the  o r d e r e d the a r r e s t of Hayashi and the ban of h i s  c o n s i d e r e d to have p u b l i s h e d books t h a t d e a l t w i t h  n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , c a u s i n g d i s t u r b a n c e s i n the p u b l i c mind. s a i d i n one of h i s w r i t i n g s t h a t "a man  M a t s u d a i r a once  of v i r t u e must devote h i s mind to worry 40  about the c o u n t r y , but must not express h i s worry." a l l o w i n g an o r d i n a r y man  He  c o u l d not t h i n k of  to speak out h i s o p i n i o n on n a t i o n a l  politics.  Although M a t s u d a i r a sent Hayashi to p r i s o n , i t d i d not mean the former was  a b l e to i g n o r e the n e c e s s i t y of improved  advocated by the l a t t e r .  n a t i o n a l defenses  The defense of Ezo, e s p e c i a l l y , became a s u b j e c t of  argument among Bakufu o f f i c i a l s  as w e l l as i n t e r e s t e d p e o p l e .  R u s s i a n L i e u t e n a n t Adam Laxman on the E k a t e r i n a  1792  (Kansei 4, 9/2)  strongly  The v i s i t  of  to Nemuro i n Ezo on October 41  put f u r t h e r spurs to the argument.  17,  M a t s u d a i r a began  g i v i n g s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the improvement of defense; he i n a u g u r a t e d a cannon range i n the suburbs of Edo, made a p e r s o n a l i n s p e c t i o n t r i p around Bay, a u t h o r i z e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t s around Edo Bay and  Edo so  42 on.  In f a c t , M a t s u d a i r a Sadanobu had to accept Hayashi's  opinions.  M a t s u d a i r a s t u d i e d f o r e i g n a f f a i r s s e r i o u s l y and wrote many theses on maritime defense.  of Dutch s t u d i e s to  In a d d i t i o n ,  translate  he o r d e r e d  some of  m i l i t a r y books from  However, M a t s u d a i r a ' s fundamental  the  Japanese  scholars 43  the N e t h e r l a n d s .  i d e a on maritime defense concerned not the  defense of Japan as a whole but the defense of the Tokugawa Bakufu i t s e l f the e x t e r n a l t h r e a t and domestic c o n f u s i o n caused by i t . be u t i l i z e d  Nothing that  to d e s t r o y the Bakufu system should be b u i l t even though  from  could  external  13  powers t h r e a t e n e d t h e c o u n t r y o f J a p a n ,  he t h o u g h t .  I n f l u e n c e d b y H a y a s h i ' s w r i t i n g s a n d a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s a r o u n d J a p a n , many o t h e r s w r o t e books  and m e m o r i a l s  c o n c e r n i n g n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e and w o r l d geo-  graphy, e s p e c i a l l y about R u s s i a .  Some o f t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e c a r e f u l l y  intro-  d u c e d b y D o n a l d K e e n e i n The J a p a n e s e D i s c o v e r y o f E u r o p e , 1 7 2 0 - 1 8 3 0 .  Among  some t h a t a r e n o t m e n t i o n e d our s u b j e c t . about  by Keene, t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l w r i t e r s  44 O h a r a S a k i n g o , a man f r o m S e n d a i , wrote Hokuchi Kigen  t h e N o r t h L a n d ) i n 1797 ( K a n s e i 9 ) . M a i n  equipment.  t h i r t e e n c h a p t e r s o n t h o s e s u b j e c t s , C h a p t e r 5, e n t i t l e d i n V a r i o u s Han,' e x p l a i n e d  urged t h e Japanese  to build  (Warnings  themes o f h i s book were t h e  defense o f t h e n o r t h and t h e improvement o f m i l i t a r y  be B u i l t  important t o  the advantages  Among t h e  ' S o l i d Warships  Should  o f W e s t e r n - s t y l e s h i p s and  c o m m e r c i a l - c u m - m i l i t a r y s h i p s i n t h e W e s t e r n way.  He c o n s i d e r e d i t b e s t f o r l o c a l h a n a n d t h e B a k u f u t o c o n t r o l  these  directly  times.  a n d e n g a g e them i n c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s  he r e a l i z e d  the importance of having a u n i f i e d  emergency.  He w r i t e s t h a t " t h e y  i n ordinary  ships However,  command i n a n o c c a s i o n o f  [new s h i p s ] a r e o r d i n a r y c o m m e r c i a l s h i p s  that  b e l o n g t o i n d i v i d u a l l o c a l h a n , b u t , i n an emergency t h e y s h o u l d b e l o n g t o 45 nobody  [ b u t come u n d e r  a unified  command]."  w e l l r e a d among h i g h - r a n k i n g B a k u f u o f f i c i a l s , problems for  T h i s b o o k seems t o h a v e b e e n calling  o f n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e and n o r t h e r n a f f a i r s .  t h e improvement o f m i l i t a r y  their attention  to the  Nevertheless, h i s proposal  f a c i l i t i e s was y e t r e g a r d e d a s a mere d e s k - t o p  theory. The  P h a e t o n i n c i d e n t i n 1 8 0 8 ( B u n k a 5) was a s e r i o u s s h o c k f o r t h e B a k u f u .  On O c t o b e r 8 ( 8 / 1 9 ) , t h e B r i t i s h suddenly anchored hostages  ship,  i n N a g a s a k i h a r b o u r a n d a b d u c t e d some D u t c h o f f i c i a l s a s  t o ensure t h e prompt s u p p l y o f p r o v i s i o n s .  t h e P h a e t o n was a p a r t o f w a r t i m e which  f r i g a t e Phaeton, d i s g u i s e d as a Dutch  In fact,  t h i s h o s t i l i t y by  o p e r a t i o n s a g a i n s t Napoleon's empire, t o 47 the Dutch belonged i n those days. I t was n o t a n a t t a c k d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t  14  Japan, y e t t h i s i n c i d e n t caused a g r e a t commotion throughout as w e l l as w i t h i n Bakufu  councils.  In the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , even among Bakufu changes i n the Bakufu m i l i t a r y system. -  -  the Shoheiko,  o f f i c i a l s arose v o i c e s demanding  Koga S e i r i , a C o n f u c i a n p r o f e s s o r at  48 the Bakufu  college  , wrote a memorial to Bakufu  t h i s memorial he urged Bakufu men defense f a c i l i t i e s . advocacy  the whole country  executives.  In  to l e a r n n a v a l warfare and h e l p augment  The most important p o i n t i n h i s memorial was  Koga's  of the s u s p e n s i o n of the p r o h i b i t i o n on b u i l d i n g l a r g e warships 49  t h a t an a c t u a l n a v a l f o r c e c o u l d be b u i l t . Hayashi S h i h e i c o u l d not advocate  so  Less than two decades b e f o r e ,  t h i s openly.  Now,  even a Bakufu  came to speak out i n f a v o u r of d r a s t i c changes i n the a n c e s t r a l  official  law.  Although g r a d u a l l y many people began u r g i n g the s u s p e n s i o n of the p r o h i b i t i o n of l a r g e w a r s h i p s , major Bakufu  f i g u r e s t o t a l l y i g n o r e d them.  Yet  people a l l over the c o u n t r y were to e x p e r i e n c e the f o r e i g n presence around more than e v e r .  R u s s i a n C a p t a i n V a s i l i Golownin was  I s l a n d i n Ezo and c a p t u r e d by the Japanese i n 1813  i n an exchange f o r some Japanese  r e p e a t e d l y v i s i t e d Japanese waters.  Edo Bay  i n 1811  castaways  In 1818  stranded at K u n a s h i r i  (Bunka 8 ) .  He was  in Russia.^  (Bunsei 1) and 1821 51  to u n s u c c e s s f u l l y seek t r a d e w i t h the Japanese.  returned  B r i t i s h ships they e n t e r e d  T h e i r behaviour  became more and more h o s t i l e as they were not accepted by the Japanese. 1824  some E n g l i s h s a i l o r s from whalers  ken)  and were c a p t u r e d .  landed on the shore i n M i t o (now  In such an  atmosphere, p i o n e e r s i n the f i e l d  s t u d i e s of  Bakufu  In Ibaraki-  Moreover, some o t h e r E n g l i s h f o r a g e r s s t o l e cows on 52  Takara-jima I s l a n d o f f Satsuma p r o p e r (now Kagoshima-ken).  military  them  of n a t i o n a l defense pursued  new  technology and f o r e i g n a f f a i r s , d e s p i t e n e g a t i v e p r e s s u r e from the  on most of these p r i v a t e  Sato Nobuhiro,  scholars.  Takano C h o e i , and Suzuki Shunzan were some of the o t h e r  famous m i l i t a r y p i o n e e r s i n those days.  Sato, known as an economist whose main  15  p r o p o s a l was  a c e n t r a l i z e d , u n i f i e d n a t i o n based on s t r i c t l y  controlled  i n d u s t r i e s , became known as a m i l i t a r y t h e o r i s t and t e c h n o l o g i s t i n h i s e a r l y days.  Around the y e a r s of the Phaeton i n c i d e n t , he wrote s e v e r a l books on  a r t i l l e r y , Western geography, and maritime defense p o l i c i e s . then s h i f t e d i n t o the f i e l d  Sato's concern  of a g r i c u l t u r a l economics u n t i l he c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s 53  i n t e r e s t once a g a i n i n m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s i n the l a t e 1840's. most important achievement was M i l i t a r y Science).  S u z u k i Shunzan's  the c o m p l e t i o n of Heigaku S h o s h i k i  (Ideas on  Together w i t h Takano C h o e i , a l s o a Dutch s c h o l a r , Suzuki  t r a n s l a t e d s e v e r a l Dutch books i n the f i e l d  of m i l i t a r y s c i e n c e and compiled 54  them i n t o t h i s 45 volume work cn contemporary m i l i t a r y s c i e n c e .  Covering  almost a l l a s p e c t s of c u r r e n t m i l i t a r y s c i e n c e i n c l u d i n g the b u i l d i n g of wars h i p s , t h i s opus was  completed b e f o r e 1839  (Tempo 10), b u t , perhaps because of  the Bansha no Goku (Imprisonment of Western S c h o l a r s ) i n 1839,  i n which  Takano  and h i s a s s o c i a t e Watanabe Kazan were a r r e s t e d by the Bakufu, the work was not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1846  (Koka 3 ) .  5 5  A f t e r Koga S e i r i wrote h i s memorial i n 1809, few u n c o n v e n t i o n a l o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the b u i l d i n g of a modern navy appeared, though some men Takano, and S u z u k i mentioned the importance of modern s h i p s . was,  after a l l ,  l i k e Sato,  This quiescence  due to the s t r o n g l y o p p r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e of the Bakufu a g a i n s t  any p r i v a t e a c t i v i t i e s i n m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s by non-Bakufu p e o p l e . of l a r g e warships was p r o h i b i t e d by the a n c e s t r a l law which was s a n c t i o n that r e g u l a t e d a l l Bakufu a c t i v i t i e s . b u i l d l a r g e sea-worthy s h i p s was  the supreme  B e s i d e s , the c o s t r e q u i r e d to  almost p r o h i b i t i v e t o l o c a l han,' :most•Of which  suffered serious f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . made by f o r e i g n e r s , l i t t l e  The b u i l d i n g  T h e r e f o r e , when few approaches were  room e x i s t e d to a l l o w the growth of o p i n i o n i n  favour of a modern navy. Tokugawa N a r i a k i of M i t o han was  one of the most p o w e r f u l advocates who  argued the n e c e s s i t y of l a r g e warships f o r the defense of Japan.  U n l i k e the  16  a f o r e m e n t i o n e d a d v o c a t e s among t h e power t o p u r s u e the  b u i l d i n g of  M i t o han  i n 1829  military  reforms not  was of  he  who  ( B u n s e i 12)  repeatedly  large warships.  Han),  as  only  e a r l y as  large warship.  a modern navy.  he  eagerly  i n h i s own  demanded t h e According  the  He  samurai c r i t i c s  first  devoted himself  s u s p e n s i o n of  t o M i t o han the  employed s e v e r a l  the  A f t e r he  domain but  h a l f of  of  Shiryo  also  took the to  at  the  B a k u f u , he  the  the  possessed  lordship  r e a l i z a t i o n of  Bakufu l e v e l .  p r o h i b i t i o n of  the  It  building  ( H i s t o r i c a l Documents of  1 8 3 0 ' s , he  planned  R a n g a k u - s h a and  had  of  the  Mito  b u i l d i n g of  them t r a n s l a t e  a  Dutch  5 6 books about s h i p b u i l d i n g . 1834  c o n c e r n i n g the  that  the  1838  (Tempo 9 ) , he  ships  When N a r i a k i w r o t e a m e m o r i a l t o t h e  development of  the  external  the  wrote a memorial c o n c e r n i n g the  his plan men  submitted u n t i l  i n h i s own  domain.  c o m p l e t e d and  and  navigation  the  the  of  next y e a r , but  Shogun i n the  was  Bakufu.  A f t e r the  the  the  Japanese heard the  large  his retainers  summer o f  news o f  the  In  warships, the  ancestral  to study the 59 He  But  also The  the  law.  This  advanced ordered  a r e s u l t , a nine-foot  shipbuilding. 1839.  mention  as w e l l as 58  w r o t e t h i s m e m o r i a l , he As  in  Dutch-styled.^^  Nariaki quickly  a Western-style ship.  handed over to the  to  N a r i a k i here emphasized  a Dutch s h i p .  u s e d by  forget  b u i l d i n g of  s u s p e n s i o n of  to secure s u f f i c i e n t timber f o r f u t u r e  s h e l v e d by  d i d not  t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese ships  S o o n a f t e r he  to b u i l d a m i n i a t u r e model of  construction men  i n order to obtain  not  m o d e l s h i p was  Shogun.  f r e q u e n t s h i p w r e c k of  crisis  m e m o r i a l was  a r e a , he  t o p r o m o t e n o r t h e r n d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d be  p l a n n i n g to send i t d i r e c t l y to the problem of  Ezo  Bakufu  his long  structure,  enjoined  his  m e m o r i a l was  then  i t seems t h i s m e m o r i a l  Opium War,  Tokugawa N a r i a k i  .  became e v e n more e n t h u s i a s t i c f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f l a r g e w a r s h i p s . In 1843 — 60 (Tempo 14) he r e p e a t e d l y r e q u e s t e d t h e s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e a n c e s t r a l l a w . The B a k u f u , t h o u g h i t had b y t h e n r e a l i z e d t h e d a n g e r o f e x t e r n a l t h r e a t , r e j e c t e d N a r i a k i ' s r e q u e s t , s a y i n g t h a t " i t c o u l d be i m m e a s u r a b l y h a r m f u l i f t h e d a i m y o  17  of the western  p r o v i n c e s and o t h e r s c o u l d p l a n and f r e e l y b u i l d e x t r a o r d i n a r y  61 ships"  as a r e s u l t  N a r i a k i was p u n i s h e d  of the suspension of the a n c e s t r a l law. and o r d e r e d  from an a c t i v e r o l e .  and  felt  t o c o n f i n e h i m s e l f t o h i s mansion,  The B a k u f u became s u s p i c i o u s o f h i s m i l i t a r y 62  uneasiness w i t h t h i s ambitious l o r d  The l a s t  important memorial  was w r i t t e n by :Sakuma S h o z a n .  Sanada Y u k i t s u r a , a son o f M a t s u d a i r a Sadanobu.  his  a d v i s o r f o r defense  relations.  of coast defense  affairs  As a r e s p o n s e ,  especially  With  i n 1842,  affairs.  defend  S a n a d a c h o s e Sakuma a s  ( E i g h t Measures f o r C o a s t a l Defense).  He i n s i s t e d  that the Bakufu  a s t r o n g navy.  should stop exporting  a s many W e s t e r n - s t y l e c a n n o n s a s p o s s i b l e . o f some t w e n t y  the Netherlands besides i n v i t i n g m i l i t a r y  the b u i l d i n g  and  S a n a d a was a p p o i n t e d t o b e a  r e g a r d t o a n a v y , he recommended t h e p u r c h a s e  to b u i l d  was  Sakuma s u b m i t t e d a r e p o r t t o h i s l o r d .  t o the Dutch i n order t o found  s h i p s from  of which  modern war-  e n g i n e e r s and s h i p w r i g h t s  He a l s o d e n o u n c e d t h e B a k u f u  a n c e s t r a l law t h a t banned  o f l a r g e w a r s h i p s , s a y i n g t h a t a m o d e r n n a v y was t h e o n l y means t o 63  the country from  the Bakufu  the e x t e r n a l  threat.  under c h i e f r o j u Mizuno Tadakuni  t h e d o w n f a l l o f M i z u n o i n 1843 w i p e d  N o t much i s known a b o u t how  the Bakufu.  out the p o s s i b i l i t y  Consequently,  Sanada  evaluated these proposals, but o f a d o p t i n g them.  a r o j u who h a d s u p p o r t e d M i z u n o ' s v a r i o u s r e f o r m s , S a n a d a a l s o l o s t p o w e r Mizuno l e f t  a  s t r e s s e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f W e s t e r n f i r e a r m s and t h e  c r e a t i o n o f a modern navy. copper  Sakuma was  a n d o r d e r e d h i m t o make a s u r v e y o f f o r e i g n  T h i s was t h e s o - c a l l e d K a i b o H a s s a k u Sakuma h e r e  activities  defense b e f o r e the Dutch  C o n f u c i a n i s t f r o m M a t s u s h i r o h a n (now N a g a n o - k e n ) , t h e l o r d  and took charge  retiring  of Mito.  concerning maritime  g o v e r n m e n t s e n t a m i s s i o n i n 1844  r o j u i n 1841  M o r e o v e r , i n 1844,  S a n a d a r e s i g n e d i n 1844,  thus  As after  bringing  a f i n a l b l o w t o Sakuma's d r a s t i c p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a m o d e r n n a v y . As we h a v e s e e n , b y 1844  many p e o p l e  including  some B a k u f u  men i n v o l v e d  18  themselves i n the k a i b o - r o n d i s c u s s i o n s and advocated changes i n the a n c e s t r a l laws which had been o b s t a c l e s t o changes i n Bakufu p o l i c i e s on f o r e i g n defense a f f a i r s .  However, none of t h e i r p r o p o s a l s were taken i n t o  c o n s i d e r a t i o n by Bakufu e x e c u t i v e s . Opium War  i n China.  s i d e of the r i v e r , the  1  Still  and  serious  By t h i s time they had been informed of the  they merely c o n s i d e r e d i t was  'a f i r e  on the o t h e r  and they were u n w i l l i n g to change the a n c e s t r a l laws.  In  200 y e a r s of p e a c e f u l r e i g n , the Tokugawa Bakufu had become too obtuse to  adjust i t s e l f  t o the changes of the w o r l d .  On the o t h e r hand, some l o c a l han, e s p e c i a l l y i n the southwestern p a r t o f ^ . the  c o u n t r y , gave more s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n to the p r o p o s a l s on c o a s t a l defense  and the c r e a t i o n of a modern navy.  For i n s t a n c e , a t a han  s c h o o l i n Choshu  (today Yamaguchi-ken), the study of Hayashi S h i h e i ' s o n c e - p r o h i b i t e d w r i t i n g 64 Kaikoku Heidan became compulsory.  Some southwestern domains were much more  s e n s i t i v e to the changes of the w o r l d than the Bakufu i n Edo, and i t was these domains t h a t the k a i b o - r o n d i s c u s s i o n on maritime defense Outside s t i m u l u s was  thrived.  n e c e s s a r y to s h i f t Bakufu f o r e i g n and defense  p o l i c i e s , and such s t i m u l u s was  on i t s way  over the h o r i z o n .  in  • '.  19  CHAPTER 2  In  The D u t c h  R o y a l L e t t e r o f 1844  h i s Kaigun Rekishi  (The H i s t o r y  of the Navy), Katsu Kaishu (also  called  R i n t a r o , Y o s h i k u n i , Awa,^Yasuyoshi) wrote:  I n t h e s e v e n t h month o f t h e f i r s t y e a r o f K o k a ( A u g u s t , 1 8 4 4 ) , the Dutch K i n g s e n t h i s w a r s h i p Palembang t o N a g a s a k i . The C a p t a i n , H.H.F. C o o p s , b r o u g h t a r o y a l l e t t e r [ t o t h e B a k u f u ] . The l e t t e r was c o r d i a l a d v i c e , f r o m w h i c h J a p a n o b t a i n e d n o t a l i t t l e b e n e f i t . T h i s v i s i t u r g e d t h e J a p a n e s e t o c o n s i d e r t h e b u i l d i n g o f a navy....-'-  K a t s u i s w e l l known t o d a y n o t o n l y a s one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t  political  f i g u r e s who made t h e s m o o t h t r a n s f e r o f p o w e r f r o m t h e T o k u g a w a B a k u f u t o t h e Meiji  govenment p o s s i b l e  i n t h e c o n f u s i o n o f t h e l a t e Tokugawa and e a r l y  p e r i o d s b u t a l s o as a founder o f Japan's very quickly this,  after  modern n a v y .  f u l l - s c a l e W e s t e r n i z a t i o n began i n t h e 1870's.  the r o l e performed  navy  grew  But p r i o r to  b y K a t s u i n t h e f o u n d i n g o f a m o d e r n n a v y was f a r more  important than the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of others. Meiji politics  The J a p a n e s e  Meiji  i n the late  When K a t s u v i r t u a l l y  retired  from  1880's, he devoted h i m s e l f t o t h e w r i t i n g o f h i s  memoirs and t h e c o m p i l i n g o f i m p o r t a n t documents o f t h e l a t e Tokugawa p e r i o d . The  K a i g u n R e k i s h i i s one o f h i s e n d e a v o u r s  i n those  T h i s i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e , K a t s u K a i s h u , acknowledged Palembang o f t h e N e t h e r l a n d s w i t h a r o y a l l e t t e r to for  t h e Japanese  i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a modern navy.  us t o r e v i e w t h e b a c k g r o u n d  main emphasis w i l l envoy t o Japan  that  the v i s i t  i n 1844 g a v e a g r e a t  ofthe impetus  I t i s therefore necessary  o f t h i s D u t c h m i s s i o n t o Tokugawa J a p a n .  The  b e p l a c e d o n why t h e D u t c h ' g o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e d t o s e n d a n  at that p a r t i c u l a r  the changing p o l i t i c s the Dutch  days.  t i m e , and what k i n d  o f t h e l a t e Tokugawa p e r i o d  o f i m p a c t was c r e a t e d i n  as a r e s u l t  of the v i s i t of  envoy.  F o r more t h a n 200 y e a r s a f t e r  t h e c l o s u r e o f t h e c o u n t r y i n t h e 1630's,  20  Dutch merchants  continued trade with  the Japanese  together w i t h Chinese merchants, monopolized Bakufu i n s t i t u t e d i n Japan  the i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y .  the Japanese  themselves t o poor  Because  artificial  island  i s l a n d and  always watched  Dutch,  trade after  Europeans  the Dutch merchants s u b j e c t e d  the Bakufu a t Dejima (Deshima), the  i n Nagasaki harbour.  the  they e n j o y e d a monopoly i n t h i s  of the h i g h p r o f i t ,  t r e a t m e n t by  The  As t h e D u t c h w e r e t h e o n l y  t h r o u g h most o f t h e Tokugawa p e r i o d ,  profitable business.  at Nagasaki.  They w e r e a c t u a l l y  by B a k u f u o f f i c i a l s .  The  Dutch  however, d e t e r i o r a t e d y e a r a f t e r y e a r , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r  tiny  confined  on  trade with  the  Japan,  the e a r l y 18th c e n t u r y .  The b i g g e s t r e a s o n f o r t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e t r a d e w e r e t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s foreign  t r a d e and m o n e t a r y  policies  s h i p s was  o r d e r e d t o be  g o o d s was  f o r b i d d e n ; moreover,  of the Bakufu.  The  number o f D u t c h  c u t g r a d u a l l y ; t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f some v e r y  trading  profitable  r e p e a t e d r e - c o i n a g e of g o l d c u r r e n c y caused  2 s e r i o u s disadvantage f o r the Dutch merchants reasons t r a c e a b l e t o the Japanese, shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i n money e x c h a n g e .  the Dutch merchants  f o r the poor t u r n o v e r of t r a d e .  N a g a s a k i ] was,  and i s ,  i n fact,  He  judged that  a  (  Besides these  a l s o seem  t o have  S i r Thomas S t a m f o r d  R a f f l e s of B r i t a i n censured the c o r r u p t conduct of the Dutch merchants Nagasaki i n h i s H i s t o r y of Java.  on  "the Dutch  factory  at  [ a t "...  a s i n k o f t h e most d i s g r a c e f u l c o r r u p t i o n  and  3 p e c u l a t i o n which ever e x i s t e d . " trying  As R a f f l e s was  t o t a k e o v e r t h e p o s i t i o n h e l d by  were v e r y h o s t i l e  to the Dutch.  common a t N a g a s a k i .  the honour  of i t s people."  s c o r n the Dutch merchants,  quite  says that "the Dutch East  India  the d i g n i t y  continues that "this  o f t h e c o u n t r y and  f a c t made t h e  c r e a t i n g a s e r i o u s b a r r i e r when t h e J a p a n e s e  Dutch needed a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of each The  s o - c a l l e d Tempo R e f o r m s  been  o f b u s i n e s s was  sacrificing  And he  had  the Dutch a t N a g a s a k i , h i s accounts  Yet the misconduct  A Japanese h i s t o r i a n  Company p u r s u e d o n l y i t s p r o f i t s , 4  an E n g l i s h m a n who  other.  (1841-1843) by Mizuno  Tadakuni, which  Japanese and  21  p r o h i b i t e d the use o f imported l u x u r i e s as w e l l as domestic ones, worsened  the Dutch-Japanese  further  t r a d e , s i n c e imported goods i n those days were  mainly expensive l u x u r y items from China and European c o u n t r i e s .  Under  such  c i r c u m s t a n c e s the Dutch g r a d u a l l y came to c o n s i d e r t h a t f r e e t r a d e , though they might f a c e severe c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the other Western c o u n t r i e s , would be much more p r o f i t a b l e i n the long run than the c u r r e n t monopoly system under the s t r i c t c o n t r o l of the Bakufu. In  the f i e l d  of f o r e i g n a f f a i r s ,  the f i r s t few decades i n the 19th c e n t u r y  ushered i n c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f u s i o n i n r e l a t i o n s w i t h Western c o u n t r i e s . c o n t r a d i c t o r y o r d e r s were i s s u e d one a f t e r another by the Bakufu. (No Second Thought) E x p u l s i o n Order i n 1825 (Bunsei 8) r e f l e c t s foreign policy.  Many  The Mu-ninen  t h i s confused  The order e n j o i n e d a l l the l o c a l han and Bakufu a u t h o r i t i e s to  d e s t r o y any f o r e i g n s h i p s which came c l o s e t o Japanese shores and c a p t u r e or kill  any crews who might l a n d .  7  T h i s order was one o f the countermeasures  a g a i n s t t r o u b l e s caused by the i n c r e a s i n g number o f f o r e i g n s h i p s i n Japanese g waters.  B e f o r e the i s s u e o f t h i s o r d e r , the fundamental Bakufu p o l i c y  towards  f o r e i g n s h i p s approaching the Japanese c o a s t l i n e s was found i n an 1806 (Bunka 3) order which i n s t r u c t e d the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o supply f o r e i g n s h i p s w i t h n e c e s s a r y p r o v i s i o n s , water and f u e l , and t o ask them t o l e a v e Japan by 9 e x p l a i n i n g the Bakufu's i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y .  The d r a s t i c change  i n i t s foreign  p o l i c y i n 1825 was a r e s u l t o f the t r o u b l e s caused by f o r e i g n s h i p s , but i t d i d not to  s i g n i f y t h a t e i t h e r the Bakufu or l o c a l han h e l d s u f f i c i e n t m i l i t a r y power c a r r y out the new o r d e r . When the M o r r i s o n of the U n i t e d S t a t e s came to Japan i n 1837 (Tempo 8) t o  b r i n g back some Japanese castaways as w e l l as t o open trade w i t h Japan, the s h i p was s h e l l e d by t h e Japanese. did to  The M o r r i s o n , because of i t s p e a c e f u l  intent,  n o t c a r r y any e f f e c t i v e weapons a g a i n s t the bombardment, so i t was o b l i g e d l e a v e Japan without a t t a i n i n g i t s purposes.  T h i s case, however, d i d n o t  22  prove t h a t the c o a s t a l defense system of Japan under R a t h e r , the Japanese were f o r t u n a t e because weapons w h i c h w o u l d  allow i t to r e s o r t to  t h e new  o r d e r was  working.  the M o r r i s o n d i d not c a r r y  any  force.  The M o r r i s o n c a s e c r e a t e d s e r i o u s a r g u m e n t s  n o t o n l y among B a k u f u  b u t a l s o among R a n g a k u - s h a s u c h a s W a t a n a b e K a z a n  and T a k a n o C h o e i .  officials  They o p e n l y  or c o v e r t l y denounced the B a k u f u f o r e i g n p o l i c y ,  especially  E x p u l s i o n Order.  that the B r i t i s h might  Japan, c l a i m i n g  For example,  Watanabe i n s i s t e d  t h a t t h e i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y was  M o r r i s o n c a s e d e v e l o p e d i n t o one  studies,  D u t c h and C h i n e s e s h i p s .  The  D u t c h news was  o f f o u r D u t c h E x t r a News R e p o r t s a b o u t  involved  in a  through  sent t o the Bakufu i n the form of I n 1840,  t h e Opium War  1842,  and  1843,  a  total  reached the Bakufu.  They  on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a p p e a r i n g i n S i n g a p o r e E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e n e w s -  p a p e r s , and  they e x p l a i n e d  the d e t a i l s of the war,  to the Nanking T r e a t y .  d e f e a t by  t o be  i n C h i n a f r e q u e n t l y came t o N a g a s a k i  B e t s u d a n F u s e t s u - g a k i ( E x t r a News R e p o r t s ) .  flict  about  empire,  Britain.  News c o n c e r n i n g t h e Opium War  were based  struggles bet-  the n e i g h b o u r i n g Chinese  w h i c h a l s o m a i n t a i n e d a s t r o n g i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y , was against Great  raid  a n t i - h u m a n i t a r i a n . W h i l e the  o f t h e most s e r i o u s p o l i t i c a l  ween t h e f a c t i o n s p r o a n d c o n W e s t e r n  war  the Mu-ninen  the B r i t i s h Navy.  The As  from the cause of the  reports i n particular  the r e p o r t s were based  a n a l y z e d the Chinese on p r o - B r i t i s h  p a p e r s , the d e f e a t s of C h i n e s e t r o o p s were p r o m i n e n t l y mentioned. h a n d , t h e C h i n e s e s e n t more r e p o r t s  N a g a s a k i , was  r a i d e d and o c c u p i e d b y  event contained v i v i d  On  t h a n the Dutch d i d , but they were  a c c u r a t e u n t i l Chapu i n C h e k i a n g P r o v i n c e , t h e base the B r i t i s h .  newsthe other less  of the Chinese ships The  con-  Chinese r e p o r t s of  i m p r e s s i o n s o f w a r f a r e w h i c h p i t t e d modern  to that  Western  12 w e a p o n s a g a i n s t t r a d i t i o n a l and The  obsolete Chinese  ones.  B a k u f u l e a r n e d f r o m t h e r e s u l t o f t h e Opium War  p o l i c y was  dangerous  that the  and c o u l d n o t c o n t i n u e i n t h e f a c e o f modern  isolation Western  23  weapons.  Still,  the Bakufu h e s i t a t e d t o change i t s f o r e i g n p o l i c y f u n d a m e n t a l l y .  The only c l e a r step of r e - o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t the Bakufu took was t o d i s c o n t i n u e the Mu-ninen E x p u l s i o n Order.  I n s t e a d o f t h i s a n a c h r o n i s t i c o r d e r , the Bakufu  r e s u s c i t a t e d the o l d 1806 o r d e r .  13  The 1842 change o f Bakufu p o l i c y was soon r e p o r t e d to the Dutch Nagasaki Post.  In a l e t t e r  14 to the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of the P o s t , the Bakufu  said:  From now on, when f o r e i g n e r s come ashore to o b t a i n p r o v i s i o n s , water and f u e l , they s h a l l n o t be e x p e l l e d by f o r c e ; i n s t e a d , amicable arrangements a r e t o be made so t h a t they w i l l be a b l e t o l e a v e Japan. Thus, the Dutch people can v i s i t Japan w i t h a sense of s e c u r i t y . F o r e i g n e r s s h o u l d be t h a n k f u l f o r such p r o b i t y and f u l l y understand t h i s b e n i g n treatment.15  Reading t h i s l e t t e r ,  the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t c o n s i d e r e d the r e - a d o p t i o n of the 1806  o r d e r a good o p p o r t u n i t y t o improve the a i l i n g Dutch-Japanese t r a d e , and, a t the same time, he understood t h a t he had been asked t o make the o r d e r w i d e l y known to o t h e r Western p e o p l e s .  T h i s was an example of how the o r i g i n a l  rather  vague Japanese c o u l d be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e s u l t of inadequate t r a n s l a t i o n . 16 He immediately wrote a r e p o r t on t h i s matter to the Dutch government. In the N e t h e r l a n d s , J.C. Baud, the M i n i s t e r of the C o l o n i e s , l e d i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c y towards Japan.  A f t e r examining the r e p o r t on the Bakufu's  new p o l i c y , he d e c i d e d n o t to make i t known t o the o t h e r Western c o u n t r i e s . was a f r a i d  He  t h a t the o t h e r s might r e g a r d the Bakufu's a d o p t i o n of the new p o l i c y  as an i n d i c a t i o n of the s u s p e n s i o n o f the i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y .  I f the order were  to be understood by other Westerners t o mean t h a t the Japanese welcomed e i g n e r s , more Western s h i p s would be v i s i t i n g Japan, thus c r e a t i n g f o r both the Dutch and Japanese;  for-  problems  w h i l e the Japanese might f a c e unexpected  c o n f l i c t s w i t h the other Westerners, the Dutch would become i n v o l v e d i n s t r o n g trade c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h other Westerners.  The Dutch, as mentioned e a r l i e r , were  24  g r a d u a l l y changing t h e i r t r a d e p o l i c y w i t h Japan from monopoly t o f r e e  trade.  But the change had to be done s l o w l y under the l e a d e r s h i p of the Dutch thems e l v e s i n o r d e r to keep t h e i r s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n i n Japanese t r a d e .  Baud had  s u f f i c i e n t reasons t o keep the i n f o r m a t i o n from l e a k i n g t o the o t h e r Western countries.  I n s t e a d , he decided to send an envoy t o Japan t o suggest the  spontaneous opening o f the c o u n t r y , e x p l a i n i n g the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n and warning o f p o s s i b l e f u t u r e c o n f l i c t s traditional isolation policy.  i n case Japan remained wedded t o the  A f t e r a l l , i t was a v e r y good chance f o r the  Dutch t o r e - e s t a b l i s h b e t t e r commercial r e l a t i o n s w i t h Japan. While Baud, as the m i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Japanese a f f a i r s ,  elaborated  his  p l a n , a m e d i c a l d o c t o r was a l s o c o n s i d e r i n g the f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the  N e t h e r l a n d s and Japan.  Dr. P h i l i p p Franz von S i e b o l d was one o f the few  people i n Europe who understood the p o s i t i o n of Japan i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l at  politics  that time, and the r o l e he performed i n Netherlands-Japan r e l a t i o n s was  very important.  As i s now well-known, he f i r s t went to Japan i n 1823 (Bunsei  6) as a m e d i c a l d o c t o r f o r the Nagasaki Post and s t a y e d there u n t i l 1829. B e s i d e s h i s m e d i c a l and other s c i e n t i f i c his of  c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the Japanese, a f t e r  r e t u r n from Japan, he came to be known i n Europe as an e x p e r t i n the study Japan and the Japanese.  H i s most important p u b l i c a t i o n , based on r e s e a r c h e s 18  i n Japan, was p u b l i s h e d i n L e i d e n i n 1832 under the t i t l e  of Nippon.  Von S i e b o l d understood t h a t f o r the Japanese the i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y was n o t o n l y commercially u n p r o f i t a b l e but a l s o m i l i t a r i l y dangerous.  He was convinced  t h a t many Japanese hoped f o r the spontaneous opening of the c o u n t r y . his  s t a y i n Japan, he once r e p o r t e d t o the Dutch government  During  t h a t some Japanese  were hoping f o r the a b o l i t i o n of the i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y i n o r d e r f o r them t o have 19 b e t t e r a c c e s s t o the Western w o r l d .  A f t e r he r e t u r n e d t o the N e t h e r l a n d s  from Japan, he made approaches t o the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of government diplomacy i n f a v o u r o f the opening of Japan.  t o promote  H i s c o n v i c t i o n was f u r t h e r  25  strengthened by the r e s u l t of the Opium War. (Willem), whose c o n f i d e n c e von  In October,  S i e b o l d had won,  ascended  1840,  King W i l l i a m  to the throne.  S i e b o l d thus o b t a i n e d an o p p o r t u n i t y to r e a l i z e h i s l o n g - h e l d wish h i m s e l f to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a new  to  Von  devote  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Netherlands  and  Japan. The Dutch government f i n a l l y d e c i d e d to send an envoy w i t h a to Japan to a d v i s e the a b o l i t i o n of the i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y and the c o u n t r y .  In November, 1843,  a r o y a l l e t t e r t o the Shogun. There  Baud o f f i c i a l l y  The  letter  the opening  of  requested von S i e b o l d to d r a f t  20  are many f a c t o r s t h a t motivated  m i s s i o n to Japan.  royal  the Dutch government to send  a  t r a d i t i o n a l c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p , even d e s c r i b a b l e as  21 friendship,  between the two  decision-making.  Y e t , the most important f a c t o r was  Dutch government, l i k e r e a l i z i n g the f u l l  c o u n t r i e s g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d the p r o c e s s of  the o t h e r Western c o u n t r i e s , pursued  opening  the c u r r e n t r e s t r i c t e d  of course economic.  of Japan.  I t understood  the p o s s i b i l i t y  t r a d e w i t h Japan, would be a more r e a l i s t i c way  i n Japanese a f f a i r s by f i n d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t o open Japan. t h a t warships  from France and  of  t h a t f r e e t r a d e , i n s t e a d of  improve the poor t u r n o v e r of i t s b u s i n e s s i n Japan i f i t c o u l d be  when von S i e b o l d heard  The  to  the l e a d e r  Later i n  1846,  the U n i t e d S t a t e s had  v i s i t e d Japan, he s e t f o r t h p r o p o s a l s i n h i s p r i v a t e magazine f o r the p o l i c y that the Dutch government should take towards Japan. the Dutch K i n g sent h i s l e t t e r t o Japan i n 1844, a t t i t u d e h e l d by von S i e b o l d and little  i n those y e a r s .  Although he wrote  s t i l l we  after  can assume t h a t the  the Dutch government on t h i s a f f a i r  changed  He would w r i t e :  Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s [the v i s i t s of the warships of France and the U n i t e d S t a t e s ] , our government should c o n t i n u e to extend f u r t h e r endeavours and k i n d a d v i c e f o r the opening of Japan. Thus, when Japan opens i t s doors to the w o r l d , our country s h a l l n a t u r a l l y r e c e i v e b e n e f i t s from i t as o t h e r c o u n t r i e s s h a l l do.22  26  On A u g u s t letter this to  1 5 , 1844  ( K o k a 1, 7 / 2 ) , t h e f r i g a t e  of K i n g W i l l i a m I I appeared  a r r i v a l , another Dutch  i n Nagasaki harbour.  s h i p had  reported  the B a k u f u N a g a s a k i o f f i c i a l s , so w a r r i o r s  alert  to guard the harbour.  Palembang c a r r y i n g About  the coming from  the  royal  two w e e k s b e f o r e  v i s i t of the Palembang  S a g a h a n w e r e on a  Responsible o f f i c i a l s i n Nagasaki s t i l l  full  remembered  23 the  bitter  felt  case of the Phaeton  d i s g r a c e d by  though  i t was  i n 1808.  the i n c i d e n t had  The  committed  top Bakufu Nagasaki o f f i c i a l  suicide.  However, the Palembang,  a l s o a w a r s h i p , belonged t o the N e t h e r l a n d s w i t h which Japan  p r e s e r v e d a good r e l a t i o n s h i p C a p t a i n H.H.F  who  had  f o r more t h a n two h u n d r e d y e a r s .  . Coops, the o f f i c i a l envoy  o f t h e K i n g , was  welcomed  P i e t e r A l b e r t B i k , the Superintendent of the Dutch Nagasaki P o s t . Masayoshi, the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e , i m m e d i a t e l y d i s p a t c h e d  by  Izawa  a messenger t o  Edo  to  ask i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m the B a k u f u r o j u c o n c e r n i n g t h e Dutch m i s s i o n . I n Edo, - 24 t h e r o j u , i n c l u d i n g Abe M a s a h i r o a n d M i z u n o T a d a k u n i , agreed t o r e c e i v e the royal letter  and s e n t b a c k n e c e s s a r y i n s t r u c t i o n s  Office.  and a h a l f months a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l  One  t o the Nagasaki  a t N a g a s a k i , C a p t a i n Coops,  together w i t h B i k , f i n a l l y presented the r o y a l l e t t e r (8/20).  The  l e t t e r was  soon  f o r w a r d e d t o Edo  Magistrate's  t o I z a w a on O c t o b e r  1  i n t h e h a n d s o f o f f i c i a l s and  an  interpreter. C a p t a i n Coops r e p e a t e d l y a s k e d t h e B a k u f u t o p r e p a r e a r e p l y f r o m t h e Shogun as s o o n as p o s s i b l e , s a y i n g h i s s h i p h a d November ( 1 0 / 2 1 ) , m a i n l y b e c a u s e r e q u e s t , a n d he approved of  of weather  t o l e a v e N a g a s a k i by  conditions.  asked the Bakufu r o j u f o r e a r l y  King William's  letter.  I t promised that  The  t o acknowledge  the Bakufu would  roju the  carefully  receipt examine  25 the  m e s s a g e and  then w r i t e back  t o the Dutch  government.  T h u s , a f t e r more  t h a n t h r e e m o n t h s s t a y , C a p t a i n C o o p s and h i s P a l e m b a n g e n d e d t h e i r m i s s i o n unsatisfactorily  a n d l e f t N a g a s a k i on November 27  of  Izawa u n d e r s t o o d Coop's  instructions.  t h e r e q u e s t and s e n t C a p t a i n Coops a l e t t e r  t h e end  (10/18).  27  The the  r o y a l l e t t e r was d a t e d F e b r u a r y 1 5 , 1 8 4 4 , a n d b o r e t h e s i g n a t u r e s o f  K i n g and J.C. Baud.  It first  r e l a t i o n s and t h e n gave d e t a i l e d flicts  mentioned  C h i n e s e case as an example,  of t h e Nanking Treaty.  the royal l e t t e r  f o r e i g n p o l i c y of Great B r i t a i n ,  War.  Dutch-Japanese con-  i n w h i c h t h e C h i n e s e empire had been e a s i l y d e f e a t e d and r e q u i r e d t o  B a k u f u o f t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s o f t h e Opium War o n J a p a n .  the  of  i n f o r m a t i o n about r e c e n t A n g l o - C h i n e s e  open f i v e p o r t s f o r t r a d e as a r e s u l t the  the early history  And t h e n i t p r e d i c t e d  and W e s t e r n e r s w h i c h m i g h t isolation.  The l e t t e r  t o wars,  warned  Taking the  carefully explained  the nature of  and t h e cause and t h e r e s u l t  the p o s s i b i l i t y lead  The l e t t e r  o f t h e Opium  o f c o n f l i c t between the Japanese  i n case t h e Bakufu chose  t o remain i n  c o n c l u d e d t h e argument by s a y i n g t h a t t h e B a k u f u s h o u l d  a m e l i o r a t e t h e laws a g a i n s t f o r e i g n e r s , u r g i n g t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e c o u n t r y and 26 the  establishment of unrestricted After  receipt of the l e t t e r ,  trade. the Bakufu r o j u h e l d a s e r i e s of d i s c u s s i o n s .  Besides these d i s c u s s i o n s , o p i n i o n s from the d i f f e r e n t c i a l d o m were a l s o sought  on t h i s m a t t e r .  how t h e B a k u f u was a t a l o s s Mizuno  levels  of Bakufu  This quite unusual practice  to deal with the royal l e t t e r .  On t h i s  A c c o r d i n g t o w r i t i n g s by Tokutomi  and Kudo T a k e s h i g e , on r e c e i v i n g  increasing  t h e r o y a l message Mizuno  Japan s h o u l d adopt as a r e s u l t  letter  Iichiro  opined  that  i n t e r c o u r s e b e t w e e n c o u n t r i e s was a t r e n d o f t h e w o r l d s o t h a t i t  w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e f o r Japan a l o n e t o r e m a i n i n i s o l a t i o n .  of  occasion,  The  of the Bakufu's decision-making process concerning t h e r o y a l  have n o t y e t been s t u d i e d w e l l . (Soho)  t e l l s us  T a d a k u n i a g a i n s e r v e d a s t h e c h i e f r o j u , b u t h e no l o n g e r k e p t t h e 27  s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p h e h a d e n j o y e d i n t h e d a y s o f t h e Tempo R e f o r m s . details  offi-  the pre-sakoku p o l i c y w i l l i n g l y  of foreign pressure.  He c o n c l u d e d  r a t h e r than open t h e c o u n t r y  The B a k u f u s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e  the a i l i n g  t h e p e o p l e a n d make a p r o g r e s s i v e l o n g - r a n g e p l a n f o r t h e c o u n t r y .  n a t e l y h i s i n f l u e n c e was t h e n t o o weak t o p e r s u a d e  that  either  morale  Unfortu-  t h e o t h e r r o j u and  28  Bakufu o f f i c i a l s o r the Shogun I e y o s h i , a s t r o n g e x c l u s i o n i s t . up h i s p l a n .  F i n a l l y he gave  T h i s disagreement on f o r e i g n p o l i c y was one of the main reasons _ _ 28  f o r h i s second r e s i g n a t i o n from the post of r o j u . o f f i c i a l s a t t h i s stage seem t o have f a i l e d  Most of the Bakufu  t o r e a l i z e t h e importance o f the  l e t t e r , and they h e s i t a t e d t o take any immediate a c t i o n which, whatever i t might be, would cause a d r a s t i c change i n the Bakufu's f o r e i g n p o l i c y and i t s basic  system. The f i n a l d e c i s i o n about the r o y a l l e t t e r was p r o b a b l y made a f t e r the  r e s i g n a t i o n of Mizuno.  As he was the o n l y i n f l u e n t i a l f i g u r e who advocated an  a f f i r m a t i v e response t o the l e t t e r , h i s r e s i g n a t i o n n a t u r a l l y meant the a d o p t i o n of a c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i c y , namely  the r e j e c t i o n o f the a d v i c e .  On May 14, 1845  (Koka 2, 4/9), Abe Masahiro, who became the c h i e f r o j u a f t e r Mizuno's d e p a r t u r e , handed down the answer t o h i s j u n i o r o f f i c i a l s . forwarded the answer t o B i k on September government  At Nagasaki, Izawa Masayoshi  14 (8/13).  Thus, the Dutch K i n g and  had t o w a i t f o r the Bakufu's answer f o r almost one y e a r .  l e t t e r answered  The Bakufu  the r o y a l l e t t e r by s a y i n g t h a t the Bakufu c o u l d not expand  r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Dutch because of i t s a n c e s t r a l laws. the Dutch were a l l o w e d o n l y t o have trade  The Bakufu argued t h a t  (tsusho) but n o t i n t e r c o u r s e 29  (tsushin)  w i t h Japan, c l a i m i n g these two t o be e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r s . In t h i s way, the c a r e f u l l y prepared Dutch p l a n f a i l e d n a l g o a l , the opening of Japan t o u n r e s t r i c t e d t r a d e . seemed t o have been p r e p a r e d w e l l , the Dutch government  to a t t a i n i t s o r i g i -  Although e v e r y t h i n g r e c e i v e d a courteous  but f l a t n e g a t i v e answer from the Bakufu. Although the Bakufu r o j u a t t h a t time were w e l l aware of p o s s i b l e  conflicts  w i t h f o r e i g n e r s i n Japanese w a t e r s , they were r e l u c t a n t t o take any new c o n c r e t e countermeasures. e v a s i v e l y answered  They i g n o r e d the Dutch a d v i c e about p o s s i b l e encounters and only about t r a d e a f f a i r s .  The Bakufu responded t o the Dutch  by s a y i n g t h a t the e x t e n s i o n of the l i m i t s of t r a d e and i n t e r c o u r s e would be  29  against  the a n c e s t r a l law.  Japanese though  The B a k u f u  l e t t e r was w r i t t e n  to say that the  s i d e h a d no i n t e n t i o n o f n e g o t i a t i n g t h e m a t t e r w i t h  t h e two c o u n t r i e s h a d h a d a p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p  the Dutch,  even  o v e r t h e p a s t two  centuries. A l t h o u g h i t was t h e s o l e c h a n n e l b e t w e e n J a p a n Dutch Nagasaki P o s t d i d n o t r e a l l y i t was u n a b l e  t o do s o b e c a u s e  the g e n e r a l Japanese  and t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , t h e  f u n c t i o n as a d i p l o m a t i c c h a n n e l .  of the unpopularity of the Post  p o p u l a c e a n d among B a k u f u o f f i c i a l s .  t h r o u g h i t s p r e v i o u s two h u n d r e d - y e a r  history,  Probably  both  As R a f f l e s  among mentioned,  t h e P o s t g r a d u a l l y became 30  c o r r u p t and t h e D u t c h Bakufu d i d not f u l l y were r e l u c t a n t  lost trust  their  t h e Dutch  t o f o l l o w the Dutch  d i p l o m a t i c and t r a d e p o l i c i e s . 1846  creditability with  ( K o k a 3) a b o u t  the Dutch  the Japanese.  a t N a g a s a k i , i t was n a t u r a l  that the roju  a d v i c e on s u c h i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s as  Tokugawa N a r i a k i ' s l e t t e r royal letter  f i g u r e s of the time considered  As t h e  clearly  t o Abe M a s a h i r o i n  shows how one o f t h e l e a d i n g  it:  The D u t c h p e o p l e a r e c l e v e r ; we m u s t b e o n a n a l e r t f o r them. The l e t t e r o f t h e K i n g shows t h e s o - c a l l e d " s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d k i n d n e s s " w h i c h we do n o t n e e d . T h e y s a y t h e y do n o t p u r s u e t h e i r own i n t e r e s t , b u t b y r e a d i n g t h e l e t t e r c a r e f u l l y we c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h a t i t i s t h e i r p o l i c y t o seek f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t n o t openly b u t c o v e r t l y . 3 1  The  formalities  t h a t had been e s t a b l i s h e d  a t N a g a s a k i b e t w e e n t h e two c o u n t r i e s  a l s o worked t o p r e v e n t i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s from b e i n g p r o c e s s e d smoothly. c o m p l i c a t e d a n d t r o u b l e s o m e p r o c e d u r e s hampered,trade,, gradually influenced diplomatic negotiations. of both a f f a i r s ,  f o r t h e i r own s a k e .  t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n s o v e r an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e  as t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e c o u n t r y w o u l d  be r e a l i z e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t y  c h a n n e l o f t h e Dutch N a g a s a k i P o s t and t h e B a k u f u Magistrate.  formalities  The same p e o p l e w e r e i n c h a r g e  and t h e y m a i n t a i n e d t h e f o r m a l i t i e s  case of the r o y a l l e t t e r proved  and t h o s e  Many  office  The such  through the  of the Nagasaki  30  The  B a k u f u i n Edo,  policy  after  Western  t h e Opium War,  Dutch  firearms.  The  a t Nagasaki were, perhaps,  w a r s h i p P a l e m b a n g was  took l i t t l e  interest  the harbour n a t u r a l l y  impact of the v i s i t  to stay  i n the equipage  He  thought  study a Western-style warship. to board  that  i t was  So he  asked  the s h i p , claiming  capital,  officials The  ways.  i n Nagasaki harbour f o r three i n Edo.  While  the  of the Dutch m i s s i o n , the s h i p i n  a t t r a c t e d many c o n c e r n e d  and h i s men.  Magistrate  of the  of the Palembang.  i m b u e d t o o much w i t h J a p a n e s e  obliged  advanced  Dutch m i s s i o n r e s p e c t e d  chose Nagasaki i n s t e a d  Japanese.  o t h e r than l o c a l Bakufu o f f i c i a l s , were the l o r d (Kanso)  isolation  c h a l l e n g e d b y an  m o n t h s w h i l e t h e B a k u f u T^ent t h r o u g h l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n s Bakufu  of the  t h o u s a n d k i l o m e t e r s away f r o m N a g a s a k i , B a k u f u  d i d not e x p e r i e n c e the d i r e c t  The  the danger  not y e t been d i r e c t l y  r o u t e o f n e g o t i a t i o n and  M o r e t h a n one  i n Edo  had  p o w e r w i t h m o d e r n w a r s h i p s and  the t r a d i t i o n a l Edo.  although i t already r e a l i z e d  The  most  concerned,  o f S a g a h a n , N a b e s h i m a Naomasa  a golden o p p o r t u n i t y f o r him f o r p e r m i s s i o n of the  t h a t he h a d  t o see  to  Nagasaki  t h e i n s i d e and  the  32 equipment of the w a r s h i p f o r the sake of h i s duty t o guard N a g a s a k i . Masayoshi  first  hesitated  to g r a n t p e r m i s s i o n to Nabeshima, m a i n l y  Izawa  because  33 N a b e s h i m a was authorized As  a tozama daimyo  the v i s i t  the l o r d  ,  but f i n a l l y  he y i e l d e d  t o Nabeshima  and  to the Palembang.  o f Saga h a n , N a b e s h i m a Naomasa, i n h i s t h i r t y  a c c o m p l i s h e d many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new  reforms i n h i s han.  agriculture  system  to s t a b i l i z e  The  years of  reforms included  the income of the  the encouragement o f d o m e s t i c i n d u s t r i e s s u c h as p o r c e l a i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o a l m i n i n g ; and  the import of Western  cannon f o u n d i n g and  shipbuilding.  technology l i k e  Saga han  v a r i o u s m e a s u r e s and p r o v i d e d t h e d o m a i n w i t h w e r e t o come.  As N a b e s h i m a ' s d o m a i n was  one  rule, the  han; and  reverberatory furnaces,  f i n a n c e s were r e s t o r e d by funds f o r m i l i t a r y  reforms  these that  of those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r guarding  31  Nagasaki harbour, he was  always concerned about c o a s t a l d e f e n s e .  Dutch s t u d i e s and t r e a t e d s c h o l a r s f a v o u r a b l y i n h i s own  He  encouraged  domain.  Nabeshima was warmly welcomed on board the Palembang on October 31, (Koka 1, 9/20).  1844  He was much impressed by the n a v i g a t i o n a l c o n t r o l mechanism of 35  the s h i p and i t s m i l i t a r y equipment,  the f i r e a r m s .  T h i s b r i g h t l o r d of Saga  must have had some i d e a of p o w e r f u l Western cannons, but l i k e any other Japanese a t t h a t time he c o u l d have had no c o n c r e t e i d e a about W e s t e r n - s t y l e warships.  The p i c t u r e s Hayashi S h i h e i had once d i s t r i b u t e d 36  but i t was  a mere commercial f r e i g h t e r .  The v i s i t  showed a Dutch  ship,  to the Palembang c r e a t e d  a great i n t e r e s t i n W e s t e r n - s t y l e warships i n Nabeshima's mind.  In w r i t i n g a  memorial on maritime defense t o Abe Masahiro i n 1846, Nabeshima r e c a l l e d h i s visit  to the Palembang and p o i n t e d out t h a t "the m i s s i o n ' s s h i p was  heavily  equipped w i t h many cannons, and the t o t a l appearance of the s h i p was 37 of a c a s t l e on the ocean."  This v i v i d l y  t e l l s us how  like  amazed he was  that  at the  advanced warship from Europe. As a response to the v i s i t  of Bakufu o f f i c i a l s  and Nabeshima Naomasa, B i k  made a s u g g e s t i o n t o the Bakufu through the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e ' s O f f i c e about the c r e a t i o n of Coops and was  Japan's own n a v a l f o r c e .  This idea originated with Captain  then forwarded by B i k t o the Bakufu.  to have been n e g l e c t e d by Bakufu o f f i c i a l s . m i s s i o n was  r e j e c t e d , the s u g g e s t i o n was  c o n t r a s t to the Bakufu o f f i c i a l s  But the s u g g e s t i o n seems  When the main purpose of the  doomed to a s i m i l a r f a t e .  Yet, i n  i n Edo, the people at Nagasaki began  to l e a r n  more about W e s t e r n - s t y l e s h i p s . From Qur p o i n t of view, the the Dutch m i s s i o n to Japan was royal letter.  most s i g n i f i c a n t point- i n the d i s p a t c h of  the f a c t t h a t a warship was  used to b r i n g the  The content of the l e t t e r was no doubt important to Japan.  S t i l l , .the s i t u a t i o n e x p l a i n e d i n the l e t t e r was not a t a l l new leaders.  They had known about the Opium War  to the Bakufu  and had f e a r e d p o s s i b l e t h r e a t s to  32  Japan.  However, the presence of the warship might cause d i s t u r b a n c e s among the  Japanese.  The Bakufu had t o e x p l a i n even to commoners what the Dutch were  e x p e c t i n g i n Japan, a k i n d of e x p l a n a t i o n i t was not accustomed Although the Bakufu d i d not change i t s b a s i c p o l i c y , i t was v a r i o u s s m a l l changes  to make.  o b l i g e d to a c c e p t  i n maritime defense p o l i c i e s as more and more Japanese  came to encounter f o r e i g n s h i p s a l o n g the c o a s t l i n e s . With the i n c r e a s i n g t h r e a t around Japan, the Japanese r e a l i z e d importance of d e f e n s e .  the  Many s c h o l a r s had been a d v o c a t i n g the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of  defense, and the Bakufu and l o c a l han c o u l d no l o n g e r i g n o r e the need.  Many  e x p e d i t i o n s to the n o r t h and surveys a l o n g the important c o a s t l i n e s were made by both the Bakufu and l o c a l han. been a u t h o r i z e d and c o n s t r u c t e d .  In some s t r a t e g i c p l a c e s , b a t t e r i e s had At t h i s s t a g e , however, the foremost need  was  seen to be the c o n s t r u c t i o n of b a t t e r i e s a l o n g more of the important c o a s t l i n e s . A t y p i c a l example i s found i n the m i l i t a r y reforms planned by Mizuno as p a r t of h i s Tempo Reforms.  The main emphasis  i n h i s m i l i t a r y reforms was  the a d o p t i o n o f Western a r t i l l e r y f o r the f o r t i f i c a t i o n of Edo Bay. of the r e f o r m s , i n 1843 Mizuno Haneda who  was  c r e a t e d a new  Tadakuni  position called  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the defense of Edo Bay.  38  As a p a r t  the M a g i s t r a t e of  Moreover,  Mizuno  t r i e d t o o b t a i n supreme and s o l e command over the Edo Bay and Osaka areas f o r  39 the Bakufu by means of the J o c h i - r e i . t h i s order by the Bakufu were f i r s t  Two  of the most important purposes of  to s t r e n g t h e n the Bakufu's economic  base  by o b t a i n i n g h i g h - y i e l d i n g l a n d around Edo and Osaka and second to a c q u i r e s t r o n g m i l i t a r y command over the same a r e a .  Mizuno's m i l i t a r y reforms were  v e r y p r o g r e s s i v e and ambitious f o r h i s time, but he has l e f t no i n d i c a t i o n he r e a l i z e d  the importance of a n a v a l f o r c e f o r defense a g a i n s t e x t e r n a l  What he planned was  to defend  Edo and Osaka,  that  threats.  the c o r e of the Tokugawa Bakufu,  not the e n t i r e c o u n t r y of Japan. A f t e r Mizuno's  r e s i g n a t i o n , the Bakufu was  shaken s e v e r a l times by  visits  33  of Western s h i p s . Manhattan  On March  24, 1845  (Koka 2, 2/17), the American whaler  appeared i n Edo Bay to r e t u r n Japanese castaways as w e l l as to o b t a i n  provisions.  A f t e r about one month's s t a y a t Uraga, a p o r t town at the gateway to  Edo Bay, the s h i p l e f t  s a f e l y on A p r i l 21 (3/15).  the whole Bakufu was put i n t o c o n f u s i o n .  D u r i n g i t s s t a y , however,  The order of the Bakufu i n 1843  about  the acceptance of Japanese castaways s a i d t h a t a l l castaways were t o be r e c e i v e d o n l y at Nagasaki, not anywhere e l s e . the Bakufu o f f i c i a l s were a g a i n s t making Manhattan.  40  Because of t h i s o r d e r , most of  any e x c e p t i o n s i n the case of the  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Abe Masahiro gave way  to the Americans, a c c e p t e d the 41  e i g h t e e n castaways and p r o v i d e d the s h i p w i t h water, food and f u e l . c o n c e s s i o n to the American s h i p was t h a t he had about the Opium War Manhattan  i n c i d e n t was  a p p a r e n t l y due to i n f o r m a t i o n and  one.  the Bakufu showed a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e  maritime defense by c r e a t i n g the Kaigan Bogyo Jimu T o r i a t s u k a i K a k a r i f o r C o a s t a l D e f e n s e ) , or K a i b o - g a k a r i f o r s h o r t . d i r e c t l y p r e s i d e d over t h i s committee was  a group of o f f i c i a l s  c o n c r e t e measures was  f o r a while.  of the U.S.  towards (Committee  Abe h i m s e l f and another r o j u But a t f i r s t  that only discussed future p o l i c i e s .  No  the  committee  further  were developed by the Bakufu a f t e r the Manhattan v i s i t , though i t  a simple f o r e r u n n e r of b i g g e r events i n v o l v i n g the Americans.  visit  knowledge  and other i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , but the  a v e r y minor  A f t e r the Manhattan,  Abe's  B e f o r e the  I n d i a n F l e e t i n 1846, Bakufu o f f i c i a l s d i d not f u l l y appre-  c i a t e the r e a l i t y of Western m i l i t a r y power, but they now had to r e a l i z e  that  Japan f a c e d a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t and much more advanced m i l i t a r y system than they had h i t h e r t o imagined. On J u l y 20, 1846  (Koka 3, i n t e r c a l a r y 5/20), the Columbus and Vincennes  under American Commodore James B i d d l e were met by the Japanese when the two s h i p s were a p p r o a c h i n g the Uraga a r e a , the e n t r a n c e to Edo Bay. of the v i s i t  of the American s h i p s was  The purpose  to e s t a b l i s h d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s  and  34  b e g i n trade.with'Japanv^As,--Commodore B i d d l e understood t h a t h i s m i s s i o n was to f o r c e the Japanese to open the country but would trade w i t h  the U n i t e d  not  to determine whether the Japanese  S t a t e s , the a t t i t u d e  of the f l e e t was  not  42 aggressive. i n Edo  Bay  However, the impact of the appearance of the two upon  According ther i n t o Edo s h e l l e d and  Bakufu o f f i c i a l s was  tremendous.  to an o r d e r of the Bakufu i n 1844, Bay  huge warships  i f f o r e i g n ships entered  far-  than the Uraga a r e a a g a i n s t Bakufu o r d e r s , they were to be  destroyed.  And  once f o r e i g n s h i p s anchored i n a harbour, a l l  weapons on board were to be handed over to Bakufu o f f i c i a l s u n t i l  their  43 departure. to order  I t was  of course  the American f l e e t  t i e s of Edo  Bay  impossible  f o r v i r t u a l l y unarmed Bakufu  to f o l l o w these  were t o t a l l y  regulations.  i n s u f f i c i e n t and  The  defense  inadequate to e n f o r c e  officials facili-  the  44 instructions.  The  o n l y way  the Bakufu c o u l d d e a l w i t h  the American s h i p s  to persuade them to l e a v e Japan by e x p l a i n i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese  was  isolation  policy. The  visit  of the U.S.  fleet  taught  b a t t e r i e s along the c o a s t l i n e s of Edo During  the v i s i t ,  about 600  U.S.  such s h i p s were i n c a p a b l e of engaging i n  i s s u e s t h a t Abe  The  defense of Edo  area i n 1843.  Bay  became one  but  daimyo and of the  other  biggest  the Bakufu sent a s p e c i a l i n s p e c t i o n group to  area to i n v e s t i g a t e defense c o n d i t i o n s . one  further disturbance,  would t r y to d e a l w i t h d u r i n g h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  In the autumn of 1846,  extensive  any  an immeasurable i n f l u e n c e on Bakufu o f f i c i a l s ,  members of the r u l i n g c l a s s .  Bay  c o u l d not d e a l w i t h American s h i p s .  f l e e t l e f t Japan p e a c e f u l l y without  the warships had  Edo  Bay  s m a l l Japanese s h i p s were t e m p o r a r i l y d i s g u i s e d as  m i l i t a r y s h i p s f o r the Bakufu, but -,45 actual battle. The  the Bakufu t h a t the ground f o r c e s arid  T h i s i n s p e c t i o n was  of t h i s k i n d s i n c e Mizuno Tadakuni had According  to r e p o r t s prepared  by  sent h i s men  the  the most  to the same  some o f f i c i a l s of the Uraga  35  Magistrate's  O f f i c e who  were o b v i o u s l y But  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the i n s p e c t i o n t o u r , these  aware of the n e c e s s i t y f o r m i l i t a r y s h i p s  officials  to guard the  they a l s o knew that the c o n s t r u c t i o n of W e s t e r n - s t y l e s h i p s was  difficult  f o r Japanese s h i p w r i g h t s .  So  Bay.  extremely  they recommended t h a t the Bakufu b u i l d  46 Japanese-style  m i l i t a r y ships  P r i o r to the d i s p a t c h  instead.  of the  i n s p e c t i o n group, Abe  to work f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of m i l i t a r y s h i p s . N a r i a k i , who  had  w r i t t e n to Abe  about warships  indicated his intention  In a l e t t e r he  to Tokugawa  wrote:  You have been sending memorials on warships to which I am q u i t e agreeable. Of course, Japanese cargo s h i p s are v u l n e r a b l e not o n l y to a t t a c k by Western s h i p s but a l s o to bad weather. In the f u t u r e , i f Western s h i p s stayed o f f the coast of the Uraga area and cut o f f the s h i p p i n g r o u t e s , t h i s p l a c e [Edo] would be pressed f o r p r o v i s i o n s v e r y soon. 47  And  Abe  concluded t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of warships was  issues.  In f a c t , the l e t t e r  t e l l s us  t h a t Abe  s i t y of warships f o r the defense of Edo  Bay  the i n s p e c t i o n group.  the end  I t seems t h a t by  now  before  f l e e t of Commodore James B i d d l e on  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of warships was reason f o r t h i s was  he  r e c e i v e d any  of 1846  The  impact of the  i n s h i p b u i l d i n g as M i t o and  s h i p s by  themselves, but  The  Ameri-  Nevertheless, fundamental  of b a s i c p r a c t i c a l  Such l o c a l domains which had  research  from  Bakufu o f f i c i a l s a t a l l  not p o s s i b l e at t h i s stage. standard  neces-  report  the Bakufu i s c l e a r l y seen.  t e c h n o l o g i c a l , a low  i n the Bakufu o f f i c i a l d o m .  of the most urgent  f u l l y understood the  l e v e l s were w e l l aware of the importance of w a r s h i p s . can  one  studies  been c o n t i n u i n g  basic  Satsuma were w i l l i n g to b u i l d l a r g e war-  the Bakufu r e f u s e d  to g i v e them any  formal  permission  48 until  1853. When Abe  time, he was conflict.  realized forced  t h a t he  c o u l d not  improve the defense system i n a  to s a t i s f y f o r e i g n demands i n order  To persuade Western s h i p s  to l e a v e Japan, he  to a v o i d  short  military  i s s u e d orders  to  supply  36  them w i t h necessary  provisions.  The  Bakufu i n the l a t e 1840's became not  l e s s a c t i v e i n defense p o l i c y but a l s o imbued w i t h number of Western s h i p s that e n t e r e d g i v i n g those who executives.  a r e a c t i o n a r y mood.  Japanese waters a l s o t e m p o r a r i l y  only  The decreased,  advocated the e x p u l s i o n of f o r e i g n e r s i n f l u e n c e among Bakufu  In 1849  (Kaei 2) the Bakufu even suggested suspending the  1842 49  order which r e l a x e d r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g Furthermore, i n 1850, around Edo  Bay  and  the M a g i s t r a t e  facilities  of Finance  Bay."^  As  there had  been no  there i n the l a t e 1840's, we  advice  the way  from the N e t h e r l a n d s ,  to the Japanese.  Japan f r e q u e n t l y , and  that  can assume h i s r e p o r t r e f l e c t e d  the Dutch King had  changing.  Bay,  sent  considerate  f o r e i g n s h i p s were v i s i t i n g  Yet,  the  s u r p r i s i n g l y enough, the a t t i t u d e  towards defense and  Rather, Bakufu e x e c u t i v e s  the  days.  Bakufu e x e c u t i v e s were f o r c e d to r e a l i z e t h a t  on the p a r t of Bakufu e x e c u t i v e s  foreign policies  remained  as a whole grew more c o n s e r v a t i v e  than  b e f o r e a f t e r they knew, more about the r e s t of the w o r l d .  While the Bakufu  floundered  and h i s men  i n conservatism,  r e v e l a t i o n of a new him  world.  Nabeshima Naomasa of Saga han The  warship Palembang i n Nagasaki harbour  a l e s s o n which o t h e r s were to a p p r e c i a t e only s l o w l y .  Palembang i n Edo the necessary  Bay  to wake i t up,  provocation.  the  s p e c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of defense  Even p e n e t r a t i n g Edo  i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n was  unchanged.  facilities  s u f f i c i e n t even when f o r e i g n s h i p s came  r e a c t i o n a r y mood i n the Bakufu i n those All  reviewed the defense  sent a r e p o r t to the Bakufu i n which he concluded  c u r r e n t defense f a c i l i t i e s would be deep i n t o Edo  the treatment of f o r e i g n s h i p s .  and  The  saw  a  taught  Bakufu needed a  the Americans were soon to  provide  37  CHAPTER 3  The  The O p e n i n g o f J a p a n a n d N e g o t i a t i o n s  rumour t h a t t h e U n i t e d  negotiate  S t a t e s was a g a i n  the opening of d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s  government.  The D u t c h i m m e d i a t e l y  on N a v a l  sending  Matters  a fleet  t o Japan to  s t r o n g l y s t i m u l a t e d t h e Dutch  began w o r k i n g so as t o m a i n t a i n  their  s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n i n Japan, y e t t h e i r  efforts  o t h e r h a n d , Commodore P e r r y  h i s d u t y much more e f f e c t i v e l y  fulfilled  Dutch Nagasaki Superintendent  had ever  done.  were t o be u n s u c c e s s f u l .  The U n i t e d  l e a d e r among t h e w e s t e r n c o u n t r i e s w h i c h h a d b e e n t r y i n g relations  w i t h Japan.  While the Dutch looked  Bakufu, faced with fully  realized  the m i l i t a r y  to e s t a b l i s h diplomatic  f o r a way t o r e c o v e r  The h i g h - r a n k i n g  t h r e a t by P e r r y ' s  the Dutch i n m i l i t a r y  placed  N a t u r a l l y the Bakufu had t o r e l y  to  of the  s h i p s i n Edo B a y , technology  on t h e f a v o u r s o f  a f f a i r s , because t h e Dutch were t h e o n l y p e o p l e  from  government o f t h e Shogun c o u l d e x p e c t any a s s i s t a n c e .  The  d i d not miss t h i s  opportunity.  In this  by Donker C u r t i u s , a  chapter,  capable  the emphasis w i l l  i n relation  t o a t r e a t y b e t w e e n them c o n c e r n i n g  e a r l y as 1850, t h e rumour t h a t t h e U n i t e d  Japan t o n e g o t i a t e  of the P o s t ,  cautioned  I n the f o l l o w i n g year,  naval  reached Japan  F. R o s e , t h e  the gold rush  through  Superintendent  t h e Bakufu about a p o s s i b l e American v i s i t  the development o f t h e American w e s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y  training.  S t a t e s p l a n n e d t o send a f l e e t  the opening of d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s  t h e D u t c h N a g a s a k i Post."'"  by e x p l a i n i n g i n California  2 and  be  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d i p l o m a t i c n e g o t i a t i o n s b e t w e e n J a p a n and t h e  Netherlands  As  i t s defense  officials  four black  D u t c h a t N a g a s a k i who w e r e a t t h a t t i m e r e p r e s e n t e d diplomat,  their  t h e importance o f o b t a i n i n g advanced Western m i l i t a r y  to enable i t t o s u r v i v e .  whom t h e a i l i n g  before.  than any  S t a t e s became t h e  s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n i n J a p a n , t h e B a k u f u was o b l i g e d t o c o n s i d e r a f f a i r s more s e r i o u s l y t h a n e v e r  On t h e  the completion  of a r a i l r o a d  a t t h e Panama I s t h m u s .  But the i n f o r m a t i o n  38  from N a g a s a k i , as u s u a l , had l i t t l e Early  i n f l u e n c e on B a k u f u f o r e i g n  i n 1852 ( K a e i 5 ) , t h e U n i t e d  S t a t e s government  policy.  officially  decided to •  d i s p a t c h a s p e c i a l m i s s i o n t o Japan.  The A m e r i c a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h e  Netherlands told  about t h e U n i t e d  the  t h e Dutch government  S t a t e s p l a n and r e q u e s t e d  Dutch t o g i v e the American m i s s i o n every p o s s i b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n Japan 3  through the Dutch o f f i c i a l s  a t the Nagasaki Post.  As t h e r u m o u r a b o u t t h e d i s p a t c h o f t h e U.S. f l e e t w i d e l y i n Europe b e f o r e t h e o f f i c i a l ment, C h a r l e s F e r d i n a n d Pahud, government,  t o Japan had spread  announcement o f t h e U n i t e d  States govern-  the M i n i s t e r of the C o l o n i e s of t h e Dutch  f o l l o w i n g h i s p r e d e c e s s o r Baud,  r e a c h e d t h e c o n c l u s i o n 'that t h e  4 Dutch government  should a d v i s e Japan's Bakufu t o a b o l i s h i t s i s o l a t i o n  D r . P h i l i p p v o n S i e b o l d was a l s o i m p r e s s e d b y t h e same r u m o u r , his  activities  between  to realize  t h e Dutch government  n e g o t i a t i o n s between  and as a p a r t o f  t h e o p e n i n g o f J a p a n , he p r e p a r e d a d r a f t o f a  t h e N e t h e r l a n d s a n d Japan."*  advice that  policy.  He s u b m i t t e d i t t o P a h u d  should a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e  Japan and t h e U n i t e d  States.  by so d o i n g t h e D u t c h w o u l d be a b l e t o keep  their  treaty  i n A p r i l with the i n t h e coming  Von S i e b o l d c o n s i d e r e d superior position  that  i n Japan,  and e v e n t u a l l y w o u l d b e t h a n k e d b y t h e o t h e r W e s t e r n c o u n t r i e s when J a p a n p e a c e f u l l y opened  i t s d o o r s t o them.  s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e Dutch government  I n order t o achieve h i s g o a l , von S i e b o l d send a n o t h e r r o y a l l e t t e r  to the Bakufu,  a s k i n g t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n s be e n t e r e d i n t o f o r a p r o p o s e d t r e a t y w i t h Despite  the a c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s by von S i e b o l d ,  o t h e r s a t c o u r t , t h e Dutch government in  Japan-U.S.  the to  negotiations.  Dutch government Japan and t e l l  this  7  was r e l u c t a n t  s u p p o r t e d by Pahud  a n d some  t o become d i r e c t l y  involved  As a r e s p o n s e t o t h e r e q u e s t by t h e U n i t e d  s i m p l y answered  States,  t h e Americans t h a t i t would send a m i s s i o n  the Bakufu t o r e l a x i t s r e s t r i c t i v e  somewhat c a s u a l a t t i t u d e d i s p l a y e d  began w o r k i n g a c t i v e l y  the Dutch.  isolation policy.  f o r American b e n e f i t , however,  towards t h e improvement  Despite the Dutch  of Netherlands-Japanese r e l a t i o n s .  39  The  government soon adopted von S i e b o l d ' s  i t with in  d r a f t o f a t r e a t y w i t h Japan and sent  s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s t o the Governor-general of the Dutch East  Indies  Batavia. The  Governor-general at Batavia  thereupon appointed  a judge of the Higher Court of the Dutch East intendent with  of the Nagasaki Post  I n d i e s , t o b e t h e new S u p e r -  and i n v e s t e d h i m w i t h  t h e B a k u f u on t h e m a t t e r o f t r e a t i e s .  J.H. Donker C u r t i u s ,  Usually  full  powers t o n e g o t i a t e  the Superintendents  of the  N a g a s a k i P o s t w e r e c h o s e n f r o m among s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s who h a d b e e n w o r k i n g there  f o rseveral years,  so t h e appointment o f a h i g h - r a n k i n g  C u r t i u s was q u i t e e x c e p t i o n a l .  Bakufu according the proposed  like  I t e v i d e n t l y showed t h e z e a l o f t h e D u t c h  ment t o i m p r o v e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e two c o u n t r i e s p r i o r American mission.  official  to the v i s i t  The G o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l p r e p a r e d a n o f f i c i a l t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f Pahud and e n t r u s t e d  letter  govern-  of the  to the  i tto Curtius  with  treaty.  On J u l y 2 1 , 1 8 5 2 ( K a e i 5, 6 / 5 ) , D o n k e r C u r t i u s a r r i v e d a t N a g a s a k i on t h e steamer Soembing. and  First  of a l l , Curtius discussed  with h i s predecessor  some J a p a n e s e i n t e r p r e t e r s p r o c e d u r e s f o r p r e s e n t i n g  to the Bakufu.  Recalling the controversy  as C u r t i u s e x p l a i n e d  r e c e i v i n g an o r d e r  letter  o v e r r e c e i p t o f t h e 1844 r o y a l  the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e , Maki Y o s h i n o r i , r e f u s e d But,  the o f f i c i a l  to receive  the l e t t e r  that "the Governor-general of the Dutch East  of the King  of the Netherlands,  Nagasaki Magistrate,~because the a f f a i r  Rose  wrote t h i s  that i s dealt with  letter  i n this  letter,  at f i r s t . Indies,  to the  letter i s 9  so  important  to your country  the Bakufu should  t h a t we c a n n o t k e e p s i l e n t  see the l e t t e r .  consent from Edo.  He t h e r e f o r e  also submitted  felt prior  asked f o r i n s t r u c t i o n s from the Bakufu r o j u .  a n E x t r a News R e p o r t a s u s u a l .  Bakufu of the v i s i t  Maki  Y e t he h e s i t a t e d t o r e c e i v e i t w i t h o u t  W h i l e C u r t i u s began n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h M a g i s t r a t e he  about i t , "  o f an A m e r i c a n f l e e t  Maki about t h e o f f i c i a l This  report  t o Japan i n the near  letter,  a g a i n warned t h e future."^  40  In  E d o , M a k i ' s m e s s a g e f r o m N a g a s a k i was  C o a s t a l Defense  through the c h i e f  r o j u , Abe  soon s e n t t o the Committee f o r  Masahiro.  The members o f t h e Com-  m i t t e e a d v i s e d t h a t the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e should r e c e i v e the o f f i c i a l ( k a k i t s u k e ) " of the Governor-general. w o u l d be c r i t i c a l and  that the o f f i c i a l  t h e r e f o r e t h e B a k u f u s h o u l d s e e t h e " w r i t i n g " as w e l l .  i t was  " w r i t i n g " was  not a l e t t e r ,  prohibited  tsushin  a n c e s t r a l l a w was read the l e t t e r  "writing"  o f J a p a n j u d g i n g f r o m t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e E x t r a News R e p o r t ,  say t h a t the o f f i c i a l if  They s u p p o s e d  "writing  similar  kept unspoiled, while  from B a t a v i a .  t h e y w e n t on  t o a news r e p o r t and n o t a  i t s r e c e i p t d i d not i n f r i n g e  (correspondence) with  And  that  Thus t h e s a c r e d  t h e B a k u f u i n a c t u a l i t y was  A f t e r he r e c e i v e d  letter;  the a n c e s t r a l law  t h e Netherlands."'""'"  to  the i n s t r u c t i o n s  able to  f r o m Edo,  Maki  a c c e p t e d t h e " w r i t i n g " f r o m B a t a v i a on S e p t e m b e r 11 ( 7 / 2 8 ) . The its  f u n d a m e n t a l i d e a s i n t h e l e t t e r were t h a t :  foreign policy  t h e B a k u f u s h o u l d change  so t h a t p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e coming  b e a v o i d e d ; t h e B a k u f u s h o u l d make a c o m m e r c i a l t r e a t y w i t h prior  to the a r r i v a l  offensive;  o f t h e U.S.  fleet,  U.S.  fleet  the Netherlands  a s p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e U.S.  diplomatic  the Bakufu should appoint i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to n e g o t i a t e  affairs with Curtius; from s e l f - i n t e r e s t  would  treaty  t h e B a k u f u s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h i s a d v i c e d i d n o t come  on t h e p a r t o f t h e D u t c h  government b u t from s i n c e r e  good 12  w i l l w h i c h a r o s e f r o m t h e 200 y e a r l o n g f r i e n d s h i p b e t w e e n t h e two The  proposed  t r e a t y was  n o t i n t e n d e d t o be a l o n g - t e r m o n e .  p u r p o s e o f t h e D u t c h g o v e r n m e n t was coming  U.S.  fleet.  pared respecting p r o p o s a l was,  The  The  main  t o take p r e c a u t i o n a r y measures a g a i n s t  a t t a c h e d e x p l a n a t i o n c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p r o p o s a l was  t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese  the Dutch  countries.  l a w s and c u s t o m s .  I n o t h e r words,  s a i d , a p o s s i b l e example of a t r e a t y w i t h  the pre-  the  Western  13 countries. that  The  r e s p e c t f o r Japanese  the Dutch f u l l y  aim of the Dutch  honoured  l a w s and customs  the f o r e i g n p o l i c y  might  seem t o  indicate  of the Bakufu, but the  seems t o h a v e b e e n t o p r e v e n t any  other Western  real  countries  from  41  being  granted  more p r i v i l e g e s  as a r e s u l t  of t r e a t i e s  t h a n the D u t c h had  enjoyed  14 traditionally  i n Japan.  Receiving with The  t h e p r o p o s e d t r e a t y , M a k i , who  t h e D u t c h on  t h i s matter,  t r a n s l a t i o n was  D e f e n s e as u s u a l .  submitted The  reported  to the r o j u t h a t they  Soon M a k i was  to  the Committee f o r  of the m a t t e r from the p r o p o s a l ,  to the  power t o  t r a n s l a t i o n of the p r o p o s a l  f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of  f o r t h e r e t u r n o f M a k i t o Edo.  r o t a t i o n and  the  members s i m p l y r e p l i e d  understand the d e t a i l s wait  sent  d i d not have f u l l  so  deal Edo.  Coastal  could  t h a t they  hardly  should  b r o u g h t b a c k t o Edo  on  roju:  The D u t c h S u p e r i n t e n d e n t i s a g r e e d y man. He knows t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i l l n o t be a l l o w e d t o o p e n t r a d e w i t h J a p a n b e c a u s e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s h a d no c o m m e r c i a l r e l a t i o n s b e f o r e . Theref o r e , he p l a n s t o t a k e more g o o d s f r o m J a p a n i n t o t h e N e t h e r l a n d e r s ' h a n d s and s e l l them t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , s c h e m i n g t o b a r t h e v i s i t s of the Americans to Japan.15  M a k i ' s a n s w e r shows how foreign affairs  poorly a high-ranking  understood  the  t h e d a y s when t h e B a k u f u h a d o p i n i o n was official  not  f r o m Abe  international situation.  little  t o the  O c t o b e r 26,  o f Commodore P e r r y  1853  they  of the U n i t e d  O f f i c e as  a p p o i n t m e n t , w h i c h was  of P e r r y  the Bakufu's f o r e i g n p o l i c y , H o w e v e r , w h a t was  decided  to disregard both  were Maki's the  of a t r e a t y .  9/24), s e v e r a l months a f t e r  the  S t a t e s , C u r t i u s would r e c e i v e a  one  of the  d i r e c t e f f e c t s of the  gave C u r t i u s hope f o r t h e  letter  the U n i t e d  S t a t e s , not  the  of  with  visit  future  done i n m e e t i n g s w i t h C u r t i u s was  c o n s u l t over Japan's t r e a t y a f f a i r s w i t h lands.  However, those  the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r t r e a t y a f f a i r s  The  the n e g o t i a t i o n s .  of  t h a t t h e B a k u f u h a d a p p o i n t e d an o f f i c i a l  the Dutch. on  i n charge  i n the Dutch at Nagasaki.  the p r o p o s a l  ( K a e i 6,  Masahiro which n o t i f i e d him  the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e ' s  confidence  r o j u , so  " w r i t i n g " f r o m B a t a v i a and  L a t e r , on arrival  strange  Bakufu o f f i c i a l  of  to  Nether-  42  A f t e r the v i s i t  of Commodore P e r r y  i n 1853, the Bakufu was o b l i g e d  t o take  many measures to develop a new n a t i o n a l defense system.  On J u l y 27 (6/22), a  j u n i o r c o u n c i l l o r (wakadoshiyori) was ordered t o i n s p e c t  the c o a s t l i n e s of  s t r a t e g i c a l l y important a r e a s .  On August 6 (7/2),  the Bakufu sought the  opinions  of Bakufu o f f i c i a l s and l o c a l daimyo i n c l u d i n g tozama about the v i s i t  of P e r r y  and p o s s i b l e countermeasures.  The d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d e l e v e n gun  b a t t e r i e s i n Edo Bay was made on August 25 (7/21).  The f i r s t  d r a s t i c change  i n m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s which a f f e c t e d the e n t i r e c o u n t r y came on September 16 (8/14) when the Bakufu f o r the f i r s t  time s i n c e the 17th c e n t u r y allowed daimyo  t o - b r i n g guns i n t o t h e i r r e s i d e n c e s i n Edo. of f i f t y  A further innovation  was an order  cannons by the Bakufu t o Nabeshima Naomasa of Saga han.  And f i n a l l y  on October 17 (9/15) , the Bakufu suspended the c o n t r o v e r s i a l a n c e s t r a l law which had  prohibited  the b u i l d i n g of l a r g e warships f o r more than 200 y e a r s .  Tokugawa N a r i a k i of M i t o han and Shimazu N a r i a k i r a of Satsuma han performed important r o l e s i n r e a l i z i n g in  the f i r s t  1838. Edo.  the suspension of the a n c e s t r a l law.  As mentioned  c h a p t e r , N a r i a k i had been ready t o b u i l d a W e s t e r n - s t y l e s h i p  since  Soon a f t e r the Bakufu d e c i s i o n , he began t o b u i l d one a t a s h i p y a r d i n On the other hand, Shimazu N a r i a k i r a had a l r e a d y  construction  s e c r e t l y begun the  of W e s t e r n - s t y l e s h i p s p r i o r t o the s u s p e n s i o n of the law.  needed s o l i d l y - b u i l t warships f o r the defense of h i s s o u t h e r n Satsuma s h i p b u i l d i n g w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  territory.  l a t e r i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  Bakufu a l s o began i t s own s h i p b u i l d i n g program w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n Ho'o Maru a t Uraga, but f o r some time i t was t o r e l y on a s s i s t a n c e and M i t o han as w e l l as the Dutch f o r most of i t s new ships."'"  He  The  o f the  from Satsuma  7  Meanwhile, on October 15 (9/13), Mizuno T a d a n o r i , the new Nagasaki Magi s t r a t e , v i s i t e d Curtius  a t Dejima.  the a d o p t i o n o f a Western n a v a l  He met C u r t i u s  to discuss  system f o r the Bakufu.  the matter of  Mizuno mentioned  that  43  due  to the c r i t i c a l  international situation  t i o n a l f o r e i g n p o l i c y and wanted  the Bakufu would a l t e r  t o a d o p t a more a d v a n c e d n a v a l s y s t e m f r o m  Europe; f o r t h i s purpose, the Bakufu would l i k e Netherlands.  the t r a d i -  I n a d d i t i o n , Mizuno  t o o r d e r some s h i p s f r o m t h e  s o u g h t C u r t i u s ' p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n on t h i s  18 matter. On t h e same d a y , C u r t i u s r e p l i e d  t o Mizuno  i nwriting.  Curtius judged  t h a t t h i s B a k u f u r e q u e s t c o u l d be an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e D u t c h t o r e c o v e r a s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n i n J a p a n b o t h i n d i p l o m a c y and i n t r a d e . between  t h e N e t h e r l a n d s a n d J a p a n was e x t r e m e l y p o o r a t t h a t t i m e .  The t r a d e The  i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y m a i n t a i n e d by t h e Bakufu had n o t been b r o k e n by t h e f r i e n d l y Dutch b u t by t h e m i l i t a r y of Dutch supremacy  threat of the United States.  i n the f i e l d  This resulted  of diplomacy c o n c e r n i n g Japan.  i n a loss  The c h a n c e t o  i m p r o v e t h e i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n o f t h e D u t c h u n e x p e c t e d l y came t o C u r t i u s  from  the Bakufu.  What  He e x p l a i n e d n e c e s s a r y p r o c e d u r e s t o b u i l d  C u r t i u s e m p h a s i z e d most i n h i s l e t t e r naval training  f o r young  a.modern n a v y .  t o M i z u n o was t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e x t e n s i v e  Japanese people under Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s .  t h a t many s t u d e n t s w o u l d h a v e n o t o n l y  He w r o t e  to learn various subjects related to  naval a f f a i r s but also topractice theactual operation of ships.  Curtius  added  t h a t i t w o u l d r e q u i r e many m o n t h s a n d p e r h a p s e v e n y e a r s f o r J a p a n t o c r e a t e a modern navy.  about s h i p s ,  After explaining  t h e c o n t e n t s o f n a v a l t r a i n i n g , he went on 19  the procedures of p u r c h a s e , monetary  s e t t l e m e n t s and so on.  D u r i n g t h e month o f O c t o b e r , M i z u n o and C u r t i u s r e p e a t e d l y letters  and d i s c u s s e d n a v a l a f f a i r s .  method o f monetary  Two o f t h e m o s t d i s c u s s e d  i s s u e s were t h e  s e t t l e m e n t f o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f s h i p s and t h e t r e a t m e n t o f  Dutch n a v a l i n s t r u c t o r s i n Japan.  The B a k u f u w a n t e d  by e x p o r t i n g c o m m o d i t i e s t o t h e D u t c h whereas payment i n g o l d , s i l v e r improve t h e i r  exchanged  and copper.  t o pay t h e c o s t o f s h i p s  the Dutch expected t o r e c e i v e  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e D u t c h e n d e a v o u r e d t o  treatment i n Japan i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h  the s t a r t  of naval  44  t r a i n i n g by Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s . claiming  The  Bakufu r e f u s e d  that i t accorded w i t h an a n c e s t r a l law  g r a d u a l l y made mutual c o n c e s s i o n s and The  treatment,  of the Bakufu, y e t both p a r t i e s  reached a c e r t a i n measure of agreement.  Japanese u r g e n t l y needed a modern n a v a l  recover  to change t h e i r  t h e i r f i r m p o s i t i o n i n diplomacy and  f o r c e , and trade  the Dutch wanted to  i n Japan.  According  agreement, the Bakufu ordered about a dozen s h i p s , t h e i r equipment, cannons and would pay  t e c h n o l o g i c a l books.  Also  the  various  the agreement s t a t e d t h a t the  the c o s t of those items w i t h v a r i o u s  to  Bakufu  commodities, i n s t e a d of  gold,  20 s i l v e r or copper. arrangement. d i d not prices.  Although the agreement was  Rather i t was  made, i t was  a  formal  a statement of the Bakufu's e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  for i t  show, f o r example, e i t h e r the number of s h i p s or t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l Still  the Bakufu s i d e b e l i e v e d  t h a t s e v e r a l s h i p s would be  Japan the f o l l o w i n g year as mentioned i n the agreement. ment to B a t a v i a ments.  not  to o b t a i n consent from the Dutch East  He wrote to the G o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l a t B a t a v i a  coming to  C u r t i u s sent  I n d i e s ' and  the  agree-  home govern-  that the Dutch had  to  be  c a r e f u l to f o s t e r the enthusiasm of the Japanese i n the c r e a t i o n of a modern navy by  sending them some s h i p s , i n c l u d i n g s t e a m e r s . ^ 22  On The  J u l y 29,  1854  (Ansei 1,  , the Sara L y d i a a r r i v e d at Nagasaki.  s h i p brought C u r t i u s s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s from B a t a v i a  Bakufu's n a v a l p l a n s . instructions. any  7/5)  First  one  of a l l ,  he had  to e x p l a i n why  was  He  the Crimean War  claimed  become more e x c l u s i o n i s t by p r o v i d i n g knew that h i s answer would be included  two  to  the Dutch c o u l d not  and  the  Japanese  warships.  t o t a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y to the Bakufu.  some c o n c i l i a t o r y sentences to the e f f e c t t h a t ,  the  the Dutch f e a r  them to be h e l p i n g  them w i t h f i r e a r m s  the  bring  b a s i c reasons f o r  i n Europe; another was  t h a t other Western c o u n t r i e s might c o n s i d e r  he  the  C u r t i u s soon wrote a l e t t e r to Mizuno a c c o r d i n g  s h i p s f o r the Bakufu at t h i s time.  difficulties:  concerning  Curtius  Therefore,  45  The Dutch K i n g i s f u l l y aware of the i n t e n t i o n of the Japanese [to b u i l d a modern n a v y ] . T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r to a s s i s t i n the improvement of the Japanese n a v a l system f o r the e t e r n a l s e c u r i t y of your country, the K i n g ordered arrangements to be made f o r a commercial steamer to be s e n t . However, by the time t h i s s h i p [the Sara L y d i a ] l e f t [ B a t a v i a ] f o r Japan, the above-mentioned s h i p c o u l d not be o b t a i n e d . We expect i t w i l l be a v a i l a b l e soon, and then i t w i l l be forwarded to Nagasaki v i a Batavia.23  T h i s arrangement by the Dutch seems to have made Bakufu o f f i c i a l s v e r y unhappy, as the Japanese were e x p e c t i n g to see s e v e r a l warships as the l e t t e r e x p l a i n e d , the arrangement was under the  a r r i v e f o r .them.  perhaps the b e s t p o s s i b l e one  circumstances.  In the same l e t t e r , C u r t i u s noted  t h a t the Dutch government had  the steamer Soembing to Japan f o r some s p e c i a l purpose. was  Yet,  v e r y much concerned  The Dutch government  w i t h the p r o g r e s s of d i p l o m a t i c n e g o t i a t i o n s between  Japan and Western c o u n t r i e s such as the U n i t e d S t a t e s , R u s s i a and Commodore P e r r y had  appeared i n Uraga on J u l y 8, 1853  ( K a e i 6,  Admiral P u t i a t i n of R u s s i a had v i s i t e d Nagasaki on August 22 same y e a r .  Nevertheless,  those n e g o t i a t i o n s .  the Dutch had not been informed  C u r t i u s mentioned to Mizuno t h a t one  f o r the d i s p a t c h of the Soembing t h i s time was affairs.  He  dispatched  e x p l a i n e d i t i n the f o l l o w i n g  Great  6/3),  Britain.  and  Rear  (7/18) of the  of the c o n t e n t s of the main  of  reasons  to o b t a i n i n t e l l i g e n c e on  those  way:  What our government wants to know now i s the Japanese response towards the r e q u e s t s by the Americans and R u s s i a n s . The reason why we ask f o r t h i s i s t h a t the Dutch government expects Japan to promise to g i v e the same treatment to us i n case o t h e r c o u n t r i e s are to be g i v e n more f a v o u r a b l e treatment than we enjoy t o d a y . ^ 2  T h i s was  an e x p l i c i t  statement  of the demand f o r "most-favoured n a t i o n " t r e a t -  ment which was  t y p i c a l of the i m p o r t u n i t i e s of advanced Western n a t i o n s i n A s i a  at t h i s time.  The Dutchwere i m p a t i e n t a t h a v i n g  R u s s i a and  f a l l e n behind  the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  o t h e r c o u n t r i e s i n n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of d i p l o m a t i c  46  r e l a t i o n s w i t h Japan.  To c a t c h up w i t h the o t h e r s , the Dutch would not  h e s i t a t e to take advantage of the i n t e r e s t of the Japanese i n n a v a l  affairs.  C u r t i u s t h e r e f o r e o f f e r e d the Japanese a p l a n to c a r r y out temporary n a v a l t r a i n i n g w h i l e the Soembing was  i n Japan.  A c c o r d i n g to M i z u t a N o b u t o s h i , t h i s  o f f e r was made s o l e l y by C u r t i u s w i t h o u t any consent e i t h e r from the K i n g or the G o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l i n B a t a v i a . informed of C u r t i u s ' p l a n .  Of course the c a p t a i n of the s h i p was not  C u r t i u s needed  something r e a l l y s p e c i a l to keep  a l i v e the enthusiasm of the Japanese f o r the c r e a t i o n of a modern navy.  25  The steamer Soembing under C a p t a i n Gerhardes F a b i u s anchored i n Nagasaki 26 harbour on August 21 (7/28).  Mizuno sent an i n t e r p r e t e r to Dejima t o c o n f i r m  the Dutch i n t e n t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g n a v a l t r a i n i n g .  C u r t i u s soon answered  Mizuno  on August 24  ( i n t e r c a l a r y 7/1) , t e l l i n g him t h a t the Dutch were w e l l p r e p a r e d 27 to work f o r the sake of Japan. R e c e i v i n g t h i s f a v o u r a b l e answer from the Dutch, Mizuno sent an e x p l a n a t i o n of the p r o g r e s s of the n e g o t i a t i o n s to the — — 28 r o j u , a s k i n g f o r a p p r o v a l of the p l a n f o r temporary n a v a l t r a i n i n g . t h i s , n a v a l a f f a i r s a t Nagasaki began cal.  to develop q u i c k l y .  On August 27  7/4), C u r t i u s sent Mizuno, i n response t o h i s r e q u e s t , the f i r s t  on the c r e a t i o n of Japan's modern navy by C a p t a i n F a b i u s .  After (inter-  memorial  Katsu K a i s h u wrote  i n h i s Kaigun R e k i s h i about the memorials p r e p a r e d by C a p t a i n F a b i u s a t t h i s time as f o l l o w s :  The o r i g i n of Japan's [modern] navy, of c o u r s e , r e f l e c t s the l e a d e r s ' deep concern w i t h the t e n d e n c i e s of the time and the f u t u r e . Yet the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the Dutch cannot be f o r g o t t e n : the k i n d a d v i c e of the Dutch K i n g who c o n s i d e r e d the l o n g f r i e n d s h i p between the two c o u n t r i e s ; the d i s p a t c h to Japan of J.H. Donker C u r t i u s who e x p l a i n e d the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n to the Bakufu i n 1852; and f i n a l l y the p r e s e n t a t i o n of p r e c i s e and d e t a i l e d memorials about a modern navy by C a p t a i n G. F a b i u s of the Gedeh [ s i c ] i n 1854. They a l l promoted d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n the Bakufu and e v e n t u a l l y l e d to the Bakufu's r e s o l u t i o n t o b u i l d a modern n a v y . ^ 9  47  The  first  Fabius memorial began w i t h examples of some of the Western  c o u n t r i e s such as R u s s i a and developed  very q u i c k l y .  the U n i t e d S t a t e s whose n a v i e s had  r e c e n t l y been  Fabius s a i d t h a t "the s e a g i r t country Japan, w i t h i t s 30  s t r o n g and brave p e o p l e , " s h o u l d never i g n o r e the examples of these c o u n t r i e s . He  r e c o g n i z e d the p o t e n t i a l of n a v a l power i n Japan and d e s c r i b e d the k i n d of  s h i p s Japan should o b t a i n . For the p r e p a r a t i o n of a n a v a l f o r c e , the purchase as w e l l as b u i l d i n g of s a i l i n g v e s s e l s would be f r u i t l e s s . The s h i p s must be steamers. Among them, paddle steamers are no l o n g e r s a t i s f a c t o r y ; o n l y steamers w i t h screw p r o p e l l e r s are s u i t a b l e . 3 1  T h i s was  a v e r y r a d i c a l s u g g e s t i o n i n 1854.  screw p r o p e l l e r e d one but a paddle wheeler. t e l l s us t h a t he was officer.  Even F a b i u s ' own  T h i s s i n g l e s u g g e s t i o n by  not a Fabius  s i n c e r e l y p r e s e n t i n g h i s memorials as a p r o f e s s i o n a l navy  U n l i k e a diplomat  or a p o l i t i c i a n who  might recommend an  system to f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , F a b i u s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y t o l d thought  s h i p was  b e s t , but h i s own  obsolete  the Japanese what he  government would not a c t a c c o r d i n g to the  officer's  prescription. Fabius  then recommended t h a t the Japanese adopt wooden s h i p s r a t h e r  i r o n - c l a d ones. such as  "The  reason  a b u i l d i n g s l i p and  facilities,  than  f o r t h i s recommendation i s t h a t i n Japan  facilities  dry dock are not y e t a v a i l a b l e .  these  the c l e a n i n g of the bottom of s h i p s and  Without  the s c a l i n g of r u s t c o u l d  32 p r e s e n t a l o t of d i f f i c u l t i e s . "  He went on to mention the n e c e s s i t y of dock-  yards and e x p l a i n e d t h a t Nagasaki was good t i d e s and  a s u i t a b l e p l a c e f o r them because of the  geographical surroundings.  n a v a l f a c i l i t i e s a t Nagasaki.  He  a l s o presented  Taking many examples from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , Fabius  argued t h a t the Japanese ought to employ many Dutch engineers the Nagasaki n a v a l f a c i l i t i e s . t r a i n i n g schools.  He  a p l a n f o r complete  And  then he urged  l i s t e d necessary  to h e l p c o n s t r u c t  the Bakufu to e s t a b l i s h  naval  s u b j e c t s t h a t s t u d e n t s would have to  48  l e a r n and o u t l i n e d the importance of n a v a l e d u c a t i o n .  He warned e s p e c i a l l y  of  a p o s s i b l e n a v a l d i s a s t e r i f n a v a l t r a i n i n g were i g n o r e d or done u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Furthermore, Fabius added h i s o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g  study abroad  f o r the  Japanese; he s a i d t h a t young Japanese should go to Europe as t h a t was to  the  l e a r n not o n l y n a v a l a f f a i r s but a l s o customs i n European c o u n t r i e s .  concluded  the f i r s t  memorial by s a y i n g t h a t he would l i k e  way He  to teach the Japanese  whatever they wanted to l e a r n d u r i n g h i s s t a y i n Nagasaki because the Dutch had enjoyed  good r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h i s prosperous  country of Japan f o r more than •  33 250  years. Mizuno T a d a n o r i , a f t e r r e a d i n g the f i r s t  Captain Fabius. (intercal.  memorial, sent many q u e s t i o n s  to  As a r e s u l t , Fabius sent the second memorial on September 4  7/12).  I t began by r e p l y i n g to some of Mizuno's q u e s t i o n s about  proposed n a v a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l .  Fabius mentioned the important  the  subjects that  should be l e a r n e d a t the s c h o o l , the n e c e s s i t y of good i n s t r u c t o r s , and  to  Mizuno's q u e s t i o n about the wages f o r i n s t r u c t o r s , he i n r e t u r n q u e s t i o n e d what k i n d of treatment  the Bakufu would g i v e to the i n s t r u c t o r s .  s e r i o u s l y concerned seems Fabius was  w i t h t h e i r f u t u r e s t a t u s a t Nagasaki and  about the n e c e s s i t y of a dockyard  i n Japan.  A f t e r he answered Mizuno's  was  And i t  inconvenience  questions  and about the a r t i l l e r y problem, Fabius  h i s o p i n i o n on language t r a i n i n g .  t r o u b l e s , waste and understand  Dutch s i d e  i n s p i r e d by C u r t i u s to argue t h i s i s s u e whenever p o s s i b l e to  remind the Japanese of i t s importance.  expressed  The  He  c a u t i o n e d Mizuno about p o s s i b l e  at naval t r a i n i n g i f students  c o u l d not  Dutch.  I f the M a g i s t r a t e ' s O f f i c e agrees to my e x p l a n a t i o n s [about the importance of language t r a i n i n g ] , f i r s t of a l l the Bakufu s h o u l d open a Dutch language s c h o o l a t Nagasaki. I t i s important t h a t young c a n d i d a t e s f o r n a v a l t r a i n i n g be sent to the s c h o o l f i r s t to l e a r n the language.34  49  The  second memorial ended w i t h encouragement f o r the Japanese to f o l l o w  the examples of the Netherlands  and  Great  Britain.  Look at a world map! The Netherlands i s a s m a l l c o u n t r y ; however, i t has n a v a l power w i t h many e x p e r i e n c e d men. Therefore, i t p r e s e r v e s the independence of the c o u n t r y , and i n a d d i t i o n , i t h o l d s v a s t lands overseas. The e x i s t e n c e of the Japanese I s l a n d s at the e a s t e r n p a r t of A s i a i s l i k e t h a t of the B r i t i s h I s l e s a t the west of Europe. Consequently, l i k e today's B r i t a i n , Japan, when i t develops a n a v a l and a c o a s t a l defense system, i s assured of becoming r i c h and s t r o n g through t r a d e w i t h the world.35  Mizuno e a g e r l y proceeded w i t h h i s duty by a s k i n g f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s naval t r a i n i n g .  On September 5 ( i n t e r c a l .  7/13), he wrote to Fabius f i r s t  ask about a p o s s i b l e wage range f o r i n s t r u c t o r s and bility  on to  i n q u i r i n g about the p o s s i -  of o b t a i n i n g q u i c k p r a c t i c a l n a v a l t r a i n i n g i n s t e a d of s t a r t i n g from  the  36 very beginning  to l e a r n b a s i c s u b j e c t s such as p h y s i c s and  astronomy.  As  the  Bakufu d e s p e r a t e l y needed a n a v a l f o r c e at t h a t moment, Mizuno's i d e a r e p r e sented  those of the e n t i r e Bakufu which, as they thought, r e q u i r e d  seamen but not s c h o o l  capable  students.  Fabius wrote a l e t t e r to answer Mizuno's q u e s t i o n s C u r t i u s to Mizuno on September 9 ( i n t e r c a l .  7/17).  and  i t was  T h i s was  memorial on the c r e a t i o n of Japan's modern navy by F a b i u s .  forwarded  the t h i r d and  by  last  Showing the average  wage l e v e l s , of the Dutch n a v a l o f f i c e r s i n the East I n d i a n r e g i o n , F a b i u s wrote t h a t the Bakufu had capable  to be prepared  i n s t r u c t o r s a l l the way  to pay  from Europe to Japan.  emphasized the importance of the study He  r e a f f i r m e d t h a t "the  teaching  a good amount of wages to a t t r a c t And  Fabius  again  of Dutch p r i o r to any n a v a l  [of n a v a l s u b j e c t s ] to those who 37  training. c o u l d not  l e a r n Dutch would be a waste of time and money." The  Bakufu wanted to t r a i n some seamen q u i c k l y and  the Bakufu expected  easily.  t h a t the Dutch would teach some rudimentary  n a v a l o p e r a t i o n s to some of i t s men.  In other words, knowledge of  I t seems the Bakufu d i d not  ignore  the  50  difficulties  o f m a s t e r i n g modern n a v a l t e c h n o l o g y , b u t , r a t h e r , c o u l d n o t under-  stand t h a t the advanced n a v a l t e c h n o l o g y of the West had been b u i l t on an unders t a n d i n g of the fundamentals of many s u b j e c t s .  As a r e s u l t Bakufu e x e c u t i v e s  considered short-term naval t r a i n i n g p o s s i b l e .  Fabius f e l t  some examples  :  obliged to give  of n a v a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s and m e r c a n t i l e marine s c h o o l s i n the  N e t h e r l a n d s to e x p l a i n t o Mizuno how a modern n a v a l t r a i n i n g program was hard 38 to master i n a s h o r t time. As the c o n c l u s i o n of the t h i r d memorial, F a b i u s chose the s u b j e c t of t r e a t ment f o r Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s i n Japan.  He claimed t h a t when some European  c o u n t r i e s r e c r u i t e d f o r e i g n e r s f o r c e r t a i n k i n d s of i n s t r u c t i o n , those governments t r e a t e d the i n s t r u c t o r s v e r y p o l i t e l y and arranged t o e l i m i n a t e a l l the i n c o n v e n i e n c e s f o r them.  T h i s argument,  of c o u r s e , was added t o p r e v e n t a  p o s s i b l e problem w i t h the Japanese when Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s began Japan.  teaching i n  At the same time, i t i n d i c a t e d t h a t one of the most important p o i n t s i n  n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a t r e a t y would be the same i s s u e . In  our examination of t h e memorials, we have n o t i c e d a fundamental  d i f f e r e n c e between the Dutch and Japanese p l a n s f o r n a v a l t r a i n i n g .  While the  Bakufu b a s i c a l l y aimed a t o b t a i n i n g temporary t r a i n i n g i n n a v a l t e c h n o l o g y , the Dutch, who knew the d i f f i c u l t i e s to  i n m a s t e r i n g the t e c h n o l o g y , p a t i e n t l y  persuade the Japanese of the n e c e s s i t y f o r comprehensive  p r e s e n t i n g many a c t u a l examples.  tried  t r a i n i n g by  Consequently, when Mizuno sent h i s o p i n i o n s  on the c r e a t i o n o f a modern navy to the r o j u i n Edo, he had become the f i r s t man t o be aware of the n e c e s s i t y of comprehensive r a t h e r than temporary t r a i n i n g . While the Dutch and the Bakufu c o n t i n u e d f u r t h e r n e g o t i a t i o n s on f o r m a l t r a i n i n g , the purchase of w a r s h i p s , and t r e a t y problems, temporary n a v a l t r a i n i n g was g i v e n to about 200 people from the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e ' s Saga han, Fukuoka han and o t h e r s d u r i n g the summer of 1854.  Office,  J u d g i n g from  v a r i o u s documents i n t h e s e days, i t was m a i n l y a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of the o p e r a t i o n  51  of  t h e s h i p by t h e D u t c h On O c t o b e r 23  crew.  (9/2), M i z u n o  notified  C u r t i u s of the d e c i s i o n of the Bakufu  concerning the treatment of Dutch n a t i o n a l s  i n Japan.  He  declared that  D u t c h w o u l d e n j o y t h e same p r i v i l e g e s w h i c h w e r e g r a n t e d t o A m e r i c a n s r e s u l t o f t h e T r e a t y o f P e a c e and A m i t y b e t w e e n J a p a n and  the  as  a  the United States.  R e f l e c t i n g on t h e s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e D u t c h i n J a p a n , t h e B a k u f u p r e s e n t e d  40 a l e t t e r p r o m i s i n g them f r i e n d l y  treatment.  There were s t i l l  some d i s c r e -  p a n c i e s b e t w e e n t h e a c t u a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e D u t c h a t N a g a s a k i and promised i n the Japan-U.S. t r e a t y even a f t e r s i d e r e d the c o n t e n t s of the l e t t e r  t h i s l e t t e r , but the Dutch  satisfactory for a while.  c e r n i n g t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e D u t c h i n J a p a n was of  In  f o r the  28  i m p o r t a n t , s i n c e i t was  conone  Japanese.  the f i r s t h a l f  o f 1854,  t h e B a k u f u was  the c r e a t i o n of a modern navy.  Tokugawa N a r i a k i , for  The n o t i c e  con-  t h e k e y i s s u e s t h a t h a d b e e n an o b s t a c l e t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f n a v a l  training  for  the treatment  naval affairs. (7/4)  would  the r e t i r e d  The  lord  s e r i o u s l y making a concrete p l a n  leading figure  o f M i t o h a n , who  l e a r n from the Bakufu samurai.  a Bakufu  advisor July  samurai  c a r r i e d o u t , s a m u r a i from l o c a l han  d o m a i n s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o j o i n . Nariaki's  and t h e n l o c a l h a n  on  Y e t , he c o n t i n u e d , i f t h e r e w e r e many  s h i p s on w h i c h n a v a l t r a i n i n g c o u l d be  t h i s l e t t e r was  was  C o n c e r n i n g n a v a l t r a i n i n g , he s u g g e s t e d i n a l e t t e r  that Bakufu samurai should o b t a i n i t f i r s t  a s h i s own  now  i n t h e p l a n n i n g was  such  The m o s t i m p o r t a n t s u g g e s t i o n i n  i n s i s t e n c e t h a t t h e o p e r a t i o n of modern s h i p s s h o u l d  n o t be k e p t s e c r e t among a s m a l l number o f p e o p l e . d e f e n s e w o u l d be v e r y d i f f i c u l t  He  said  that r e a l  coastal  i f t h e B a k u f u and e a c h l o c a l h a n k e p t t h e know-  41 how  of the o p e r a t i o n of ships t o themselves. A c c o r d i n g t o M i t o Han  Shiryo  ( H i s t o r i c a l Documents o f M i t o Han),  the  Bakufu  c o m p l e t e d a b a s i c p l a n f o r n a v a l t r a i n i n g i n mid-1854, b u t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e p l a n i s n o t known.  P r o b a b l y i t was  still  v e r y v a g u e a s t h e B a k u f u i n Edo  had  52  not  y e t heard any s u g g e s t i o n s from the Dutch.  When t h i s Bakufu p l a n was f o r -  warded t o Nagasaki, the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e had a l r e a d y informed the Bakufu of the  i n f o r m a t i o n brought by the Sara L y d i a .  its  o r i g i n a l p l a n and convened  T h e r e f o r e , the Bakufu then  t o draw up a new p l a n based on the i n f o r m a t i o n  from the Dutch and t h e Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e . there were two groups i n the Bakufu.  A g a i n a c c o r d i n g t o M i t o Han S h i r y o ,  One, comprised o f i n s p e c t o r s  supported the p l a n by the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e , Mizuno T a d a n o r i . the  suspended  (metsuke),  He i n s i s t e d on  b e g i n n i n g of t h e purchase and c o n s t r u c t i o n of warships as w e l l as n a v a l  t r a i n i n g even though they would be c o s t l y .  The o t h e r group, which c o n s i s t e d o f  o f f i c i a l s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s , were r e l u c t a n t t o bear the burden of  c r e a t i n g a modern navy.  t r a i n i n g and w a r s h i p s . Nariaki.  They even i n s i s t e d on the c a n c e l l a t i o n of n a v a l  The n e g a t i v e p o l i c y was, however, o v e r t u r n e d by Tokugawa  He wrote a l e t t e r based on the aforementioned arguments t o Bakufu  e x e c u t i v e s on October 13 (8/22) i n which he f i e r c e l y c r i t i c i z e d  the n e g a t i v e  42 policy.  N a r i a k i s a i d t h a t some s p e c i a l measures, namely c r e a t i o n o f a s t r o n g  n a v a l f o r c e , were needed w i t h o u t the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of expense,  j u s t as "medicine 43  was  prepared r e g a r d l e s s o f expenses when the master  of a f a m i l y be v e r y  ill."  A f t e r the l e t t e r by N a r i a k i , the Bakufu was brought under h i s sway t o the p o s i t i v e view f a v o u r i n g the b u i l d i n g of two warships every e i g h t e e n months t o a t o t a l of e i g h t , and t h e s t a r t of n a v a l t r a i n i n g under Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s .  On  October 24 (9/3), the Bakufu f o r m a l l y ordered the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e t o ask 44 the  Dutch f o r warships and n a v a l t r a i n i n g .  on November 10 (9/20). but  the Dutch seem  his  departure.  discussion  C a p t a i n F a b i u s had l e f t Nagasaki on October 26 (9/5),  t o have been i n f o r m a l l y a p p r i s e d o f the Bakufu order b e f o r e  When C a p t a i n F a b i u s l e f t Governor-general a t B a t a v i a . advantage  Curtius learned of t h i s  Nagasaki, he took a l e t t e r from C u r t i u s t o the T h i s l e t t e r o u t l i n e d C u r t i u s ' , p l a n t o take  of t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e - e s t a b l i s h the supreme p o s i t i o n of the Dutch  53  i n Japan.  I t would be almost i m p o s s i b l e to f i n i s h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the s h i p s t h a t the Japanese o r d e r e d from us by the time they expect. T h e r e f o r e , what do you t h i n k of a p l a n to p r e s e n t a commercial steamer t o the Shogun i n 1855 as a g i f t from our King? I f a warship i s a v a i l a b l e , I t h i n k , i t would be even more a t t r a c t i v e f o r them than a commercial steamer. Once the Japanese own a steamer and l e a r n how to o p e r a t e i t , s u r e l y they w i l l order more s h i p s from us. Then the c o s t of the g i f t s h i p w i l l be e a s i l y recovered.45  C u r t i u s saw t h a t h i s most important task i n Japan, to s e c u r e a s u p e r i o r d i p l o m a t i c p o s i t i o n f o r the N e t h e r l a n d s , would be a t t a i n e d by t a k i n g  .  advantage  of n a v a l t r a i n i n g , which would a l s o b e n e f i t the Dutch by expanding t h e i r  trade.  He knew t h a t the c r e a t i o n of a n a v a l f o r c e and the b u i l d i n g of s u p p o r t i n g f a c i l i t i e s would b r i n g tremendous  b u s i n e s s to the N e t h e r l a n d s .  This diplomat  of f o r e s i g h t p r e c i s e l y p r e d i c t e d t h a t the Japanese would buy more and more s h i p s i n the near f u t u r e , and i t was  important f o r the Dutch t o e s t a b l i s h  their  s t a t u s as a r e l i a b l e s h i p s u p p l i e r f o r Japan. The p r o p o s a l of C u r t i u s was B a t a v i a and i t was government.  soon agreed to by the G o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l of  sent to the N e t h e r l a n d s to o b t a i n the a p p r o v a l of the home  The Dutch government  endorsed the p l a n and d e c i d e d t o p r e s e n t the  Soembing to the Shogun as w e l l as f o r m a l l y g i v i n g i t s consent to send some Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s t o Japan f o r n a v a l t r a i n i n g .  I t a l s o approved the p l a n to b u i l d  two steamers f o r the Japanese a t t h i s time.  On J u l y 20, 1855  46  ( A n s e i 2, 6/7), the steamers Gedeh and, once more, the  Soembing under C a p t a i n F a b i u s a r r i v e d at Nagasaki. wrote a l e t t e r to Arao Narimasa, who M a g i s t r a t e i n the p r e v i o u s y e a r .  Four days l a t e r ,  had succeeded t o the p o s t of  In t h i s l e t t e r , C u r t i u s n o t i f i e d  Curtius Nagasaki  the Bakufu  t h a t h i s s t a t u s a t Nagasaki had been changed t o t h a t of "Netherlands Commis-•"• s i o n e r i n Japan." I n the same l e t t e r , he r e p o r t e d t h a t the Dutch K i n g would  p r e s e n t the steamer Soembing t o the Shogun. Although the Bakufu was supposedly eager t o o b t a i n steamers, about three-months were to pass u n t i l  the Dutch heard of the Bakufu's acceptance of the s h i p .  On  August 29 (7/17), Arao asked C u r t i u s i f the Dutch were p r e p a r e d t o spare some of the men under C a p t a i n F a b i u s f o r the n a v a l t r a i n i n g of the Japanese i n case the Bakufu a c c e p t e d the Soembing.  Arao was anxious t o know about the r e a l  i n t e n t i o n of the Dutch i n p r e s e n t i n g a steamer and about t h e i r d i p l o m a t i c p l a n s on t h i s . v i s i t .  C u r t i u s r e p l i e d t h a t he was g i v e n power t o order some of the  Dutch seamen t o s t a y i n Japan f o r n a v a l t r a i n i n g . Commissioner  i n Japan" t o l d  However, the "Netherlands  the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e t h a t the Bakufu had t o  agree t o conclude a t r e a t y between the two c o u n t r i e s p r i o r t o the s t a r t of naval t r a i n i n g .  Here, the Dutch r e v e a l e d t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s t o secure a t r e a t y  from the Bakufu i n exchange  f o r naval t r a i n i n g .  concept of the proposed t r e a t y .  Then Arao asked about the main  C u r t i u s simply answered  t h a t he would  explain  48 it  i n w r i t i n g when the Soembing was r e c e i v e d by the Bakufu. On September  5 (7/24), the r e p o r t t h a t the Bakufu had d e c i d e d t o a c c e p t  the Soembing a r r i v e d a t Nagasaki, and t h i s was conveyed t o C u r t i u s .  At t h i s  time Arao suggested t h a t C u r t i u s should p r e s e n t the p r o p o s a l of the t r e a t y as soon as p o s s i b l e .  Three days l a t e r , on September  proposal with a l e t t e r  to Arao.  8, C u r t i u s turned over the  I n the accompanying  l e t t e r , "Curtius repeatedly  emphasized t h a t the'Dutch were w e l l p r e p a r e d t o b e g i n . n a v a l , t r a i n i n g f or' the  .  Japanese: a t any time, but the t r e a t y - b e t w e e n the two c o u n t r i e s had t o be conc l u d e d b e f o r e the s t a r t o f t r a i n i n g .  He urged the Japanese t o c o n s i d e r the  p r o p o s a l as soon as p o s s i b l e , and Arao i n r e t u r n promised t o send i t t o Edo 49 immediately. The f o r m a l ceremony of the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Soembing was c a r r i e d out on October 5 (8/25).  The s h i p had been b u i l t  i n the N e t h e r l a n d s i n 1850 and i t s  measurements were 58 meters i n l e n g t h and 10 meters i n w i d t h .  I t was equipped  55  w i t h a 150 horsepower  steam engine, and i r o n i c a l l y , had paddle wheels  of the h i g h l y recommended screw p r o p e l l e r . an armed commercial s h i p r a t h e r ship.  With s i x cannons  than a w a r s h i p . ^  instead  on board i t was  The Soembing was not an o l d  However, e s p e c i a l l y i n those y e a r s , t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s i n s h i p b u i l d i n g  were advancing r a p i d l y . by every n a v a l a u t h o r i t y .  The m e r i t of the screw p r o p e l l e r was Although i t was  already  verified  c o n t r a d i c t o r y to send a paddle  wheeler to Japan a f t e r the Dutch themselves recommended screw p r o p e l l e r e d the Dutch must have been happy to f i n d such a good way outdated  ships,  to d i s p o s e of t h e i r  steamer.  D e s p i t e the e x p l a n a t i o n by the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e t h a t the Bakufu working on the t r e a t y p r o p o s a l , no c o n c r e t e p r o g r e s s was  was  seen a l l through the  autumn.  On November 3 (9/24) , C u r t i u s met Arao to ask about the p o s s i b i l i t y of  settling  the a f f a i r by drawing up a temporary  t r e a t y on a l l the proposed  issues.  As Arao was w o r r y i n g about the d e l a y of n a v a l t r a i n i n g , and had the power to n e g o t i a t e on a temporary .  .'  t r e a t y , he immediately agreed to C u r t i u s ' i d e a .  ^  51  n e g o t i a t i o n s between the two soon  began.  The most important i s s u e i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s was to walk unhampered o u t s i d e Dejima i n Nagasaki. mentioned  The  the freedom of the Dutch  As C u r t i u s and F a b i u s r e p e a t e d l y  i n the l e t t e r s they sent to the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e s , they had  most anxious about o b t a i n i n g freedom of movement i n Nagasaki. d i s c u s s e d the matter i n t e n s i v e l y .  been  Both p a r t i e s  They reached a c o n c l u s i o n i n a s h o r t time.  In f a c t , as the Japanese had a l r e a d y concluded s i m i l a r t r e a t i e s w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s and o t h e r s , the n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h the Dutch must have been  relatively  easy.  most p r o b a b l y  The d e l a y i n a g r e e i n g on the Japan-Netherlands t r e a t y was  caused by the c o m p l i c a t e d b u r e a u c r a t i c system of the Bakufu i t s e l f . ceremony of the temporary temporary 30, 1856  t r e a t y was  t r e a t y was  h e l d on November 11 (10/2).  reviewed and f o r m a l l y approved by the Bakufu.  The  Later  signing this  On January  ( A n s e i 2, 12/23), the f o r m a l t r e a t y , which almost d u p l i c a t e d the  56  temporary t r e a t y , was  s i g n e d at Nagasaki.  The t r e a t y r e c o g n i z e d the e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s of the N e t h e r l a n d s over Dejima and the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Dutch c o n s u l over h i s people i n Japan.  I t also  r e l a x e d the r e g u l a t i o n s about movements of the Dutch o u t s i d e Dejima.  The  c o m p l i c a t e d r e g u l a t i o n s about the e n t r y and d e p a r t u r e of Dutch s h i p s at Nagasaki harbour were a l s o eased c o n s i d e r a b l y . for  Although the t r e a t y was  an unequal one  the Japanese on the model of the American t r e a t y , the two c o u n t r i e s  finally  52 e s t a b l i s h e d formal diplomatic  relations.  Three days p r i o r to the s i g n i n g ceremony of the f o r m a l t r e a t y , the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e o f f i c i a l l y p r o c l a i m e d t h a t the Dutch would no l o n g e r have any guard 53 ( a c t u a l l y s u r v e i l l a n c e ) w h i l e they were o u t s i d e Dejima. The Dutch were v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s n e g o t i a t i o n .  They were triumphant  not  o n l y i n c o n c l u d i n g the t r e a t y w i t h Japan but a l s o i n b e i n g commissioned f o r  the  n a v a l t r a i n i n g of the Japanese.  of  The Dutch a l s o became the s o l e  supplier  the n e c e s s i t i e s f o r the t r a i n i n g and b u i l d i n g of a navy, and t h i s was b i g  business.  Of c o u r s e , t h e i r v o i c e i n Japan's i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s  was  strengthened by the f a c t t h a t they were working as a k i n d of m i l i t a r y The Dutch f i n a l l y  advisor.  concluded the t r e a t y w i t h Japan, and they s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  a c h i e v e d something t h a t the other Western c o u n t r i e s had hoped f o r but c o u l d not realize.  57  CHAPTER 4  The Nagasaki  The Bakufu build.:  Naval T r a i n i n g  School  a c t e d q u i c k l y t o e s t a b l i s h a n a v a l t r a i n i n g program and  a .modern  navy.  S i n c e the b i r t h of the k a i b o - r o n i n the l a t e 18th  c e n t u r y , about h a l f a c e n t u r y had passed without any n a v a l development i n Japan. The c o n s e r v a t i s m among by m i l i t a r y  threats.  Bakufu  officials  Y e t , once the Japanese determined  a f t e r the s t r o n g American demonstration rapidly.  We w i l l  c o u l d n o t be r e a l l y shaken except  of power, they began b u i l d i n g i t v e r y  cover i n t h i s chapter the o p e r a t i o n o f the Nagasaki  Denshu-jo (Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l ) , e s p e c i a l l y students.  t o b u i l d a modern navy  Furthermore,  Kaigun  the a c t i v i t i e s of i t s  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the main n a r r a t i v e , the programs  and p o l i c i e s of c e r t a i n l o c a l han such as Satsuma, Saga and M i t o w i t h r e g a r d to n a v a l a f f a i r s w i l l be examined t o h e l p a n a l y z e the c o n t e x t i n which the Bakufu's program took p l a c e .  As n e g o t i a t i o n over t r e a t y a f f a i r s between Japan and the Netherlands  pro-  g r e s s e d , both p a r t i e s began t o make f i n a l arrangements t o s t a r t the a c t u a l training.  Although  the Dutch d i d not r e v e a l i t t o the Japanese,  the n e c e s s a r y p r e p a r a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the s e l e c t i o n of p o s s i b l e b e f o r e they l e f t B a t a v i a .  hard on n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h Bakufu Nagasaki  While  f u r t h e r memorials t o the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e . as the contents of t r a i n i n g  C u r t i u s was  o f f i c i a l s , F a b i u s worked  s t e a d i l y to make the coming n a v a l t r a i n i n g s u c c e s s f u l by w r i t i n g  matters  instructors,  C a p t a i n F a b i u s of the Gedeh was f u l l y a u t h o r i z e d  to work on n a v a l t r a i n i n g w i t h Commissioner Donker C u r t i u s . working  they made a l l  They concerned  several  such  and r e g u l a t i o n s on board."'"  important  As w e l l , he  i n v i t e d non-Bakufu men t o h i s s h i p s and l e t them w i t n e s s n a v a l e x e r c i s e s b e f o r e the s t a r t o f f o r m a l n a v a l t r a i n i n g . As we r e c a l l ,  the Bakufu  i n the p r e v i o u s year i n s i s t e d on h a v i n g o n l y  58  rudimentary He  t r a i n i n g f o r i t s men.  r e p e a t e d l y e x p l a i n e d the complexity  writing  expected  Fabius.  d i f f i c u l t i e s of n a v a l o p e r a t i o n by The  Japanese seem  of the need f o r a more e x t e n s i v e program and had  to comprehensive t r a i n i n g . had  and  r e j e c t e d by C a p t a i n  three s p e c i a l memorials to the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e .  to have been convinced  who  T h i s p l a n was  However, Fabius a g a i n had  agreed  to persuade the Japanese,  to have only f o u r or f i v e g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t o r s , to accept  a  2 full-scale On  t r a i n i n g program w i t h many more a b l e  September 7, 1855  ( A n s e i 2,  Dutch t h a t i t g l a d l y accepted  7/26), two  One  days a f t e r  the Soembing as a g i f t  Fabius wrote a memorandum to C u r t i u s . plan.  instructors.  T h i s was  by one he o u t l i n e d the contents  the Bakufu t o l d  from the Dutch K i n g ,  F a b i u s ' response to the Japanese  of l e s s o n s and e x p l a i n e d the neces-  s i t y of i n v i t i n g h i g h l y p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d i n s t r u c t o r s i n the d i f f e r e n t study.  He  the  d i d not f o r g e t to s t r e s s t h a t he had  fields  of  brought an e x c e l l e n t commander  3 f o r the t r a i n i n g .  Nagai Iwanojo (Naomune), the metsuke ( i n s p e c t o r ) , who  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c t u a l n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the Dutch over n a v a l t r a i n i n g finally final  gave i n to F a b i u s ' p l a n and  affairs,  recommended i t to the Bakufu i n Edo  for  approval.^ The n e g o t i a t i o n of a temporary t r e a t y came to a c o n c l u s i o n , and  p a r t i e s o f f i c i a l l y s i g n e d i t on November 11  (10/2).  ment of i n s t r u c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r pay, was t h i s , Fabius to be  was  f o r m a l l y appointed  The  treatAfter  the c a p t a i n of the Soembing, G.C.C. P e l s R i j k e n ,  the t r a i n i n g .  between the Japanese and  problem of the  two  a l s o s o l v e d on November 9.  the commander and head i n s t r u c t o r of the t r a i n i n g  d i r e c t i o n s concerning  the  team, and  gave him  some  Some of the main p o i n t s i n the agreement  Dutch appeared i n these d i r e c t i o n s to P e l s R i j k e n .  As of October 5, 1855, G.C.C. P e l s R i j k e n i s appointed as commander of the detachment. The m i s s i o n of the detachment i s to i n s t r u c t the Japanese i n the o p e r a t i o n of the steamer Soembing. A l l the members of the detachment w i l l be t e m p o r a r i l y as a t t a c h e s to the Netherlands Commissioner i n Japan.  regarded  59  The detachment c o n s t i t u t e s a p a r t of the Royal Dutch Navy, n o t a p a r t of the Japanese m i l i t a r y f o r c e s . 5  Fabius and  then p e r s o n a l l y chose i n s t r u c t o r s , mainly from the crew of the Soembing,  assigned  them t o c e r t a i n f i e l d s of n a v a l  training.  h i s s e l e c t i o n , e a r n e s t l y examining the c h a r a c t e r was s u i t a b l e f o r t e a c h i n g .  He was v e r y  of each candidate  For i n s t r u c t i o n i n engineering,  appointed  of the man u n s u i t a b l e  two midshipmen.-., f o r t h i s duty.  f o r teaching.  t o see i f he  f o r i n s t a n c e , he  found no adequate l i e u t e n a n t , and had t o r e j e c t a s u b - l i e u t e n a n t judged the c h a r a c t e r  careful i n  because he  Consequently,  Fabius  Another o f h i s d i r e c t i v e s e x p l a i n e d  the treatment t h a t the i n s t r u c t o r s were t o r e c e i v e a t Nagasaki.  Besides f r e e accommodation a t Dejima, t h e members of the d e t a c h ment w i l l be g i v e n s p e c i a l allowances by the Japanese government i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r normal payments by the Royal Dutch Navy. The schedule of the allowances per month from the Japanese government i s as f o l l o w s : G.C.C. P e l s R i j k e n , Commander A.A. 'sGraeuwen, Deputy Commander S u b - l i e u t e n a n t C. Eeg C.H. Parker de Yonge, Paymaster E n g i n e e r Midshipmen Chief Petty O f f i c e r s Petty O f f i c e r s Stokers Sailors * i n s i l v e r monme (3.75 g r a m s )  The  450 g u i l d e r s 250 225 225 125 100 75 75 65  7  payment from the Bakufu was s e t a t a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r  t o r s r e c e i v e d from the Dutch Navy.  l i t e r s ) was v a l u e d  a t about 84 s i l v e r monme.  R i j k e n r e c e i v e d the e q u i v a l e n t v a l u e about 400 koku a y e a r . or 58 koku a n n u a l l y .  l e v e l than the i n s t r u c -  T h i s meant t h a t i n Japan they r e c e i v e d  as much pay as they r e c e i v e d on t h e i r u s u a l d u t i e s . (180  (2,812.50)* (1,562.50) (1,406.25) (1,406.25) ( 781.25) ( 625.00) ( 468.75) ( 468.75) ( 406.25)  twice  I n 1855, one koku of r i c e So the h i g h e s t p a i d  Pels  of about 33.48 koku of r i c e a month o r  Even the lowest p a i d s a i l o r s made about 4.8 koku monthly Compared to t h e r i c e s t i p e n d t h a t a Tokugawa samurai  60  r e c e i v e d from the Bakufu or h i s l o r d , these were s u b s t a n t i a l sums.  A samurai's  s t i p e n d had  On  to be shared by h i m s e l f , h i s f a m i l y and h i s r e t a i n e r s .  other hand, what the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s r e c e i v e d was Therefore, 1,000  of course net payment.  the payment made to P e l s R i j k e n c o u l d have been equal to at  koku r e g u l a r r i c e s t i p e n d .  And  the  a Bakufu samurai w i t h 1,000  least  koku c o u l d  be  9 a candidate  f o r a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p o s i t i o n such as Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e .  Bakufu c o n s i d e r e d t h a t " i t was  not a very good i d e a to l e t spread  f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s t h a t would a f f e c t the honour of the k o k u t a i i n order to save a l i t t l e money h e r e . " " ^  a rumour to  (national polity)  Subsequently the Japanese p a i d v e r y  h i g h wages f o r v a r i o u s kinds of i n s t r u c t o r s from the N e t h e r l a n d s . really  the only way  days.  A f t e r the Tokugawa p e r i o d , the s u c c e e d i n g  the same p o l i c y .  The  This  was  the Japanese c o u l d a t t r a c t many good i n s t r u c t o r s i n those M e i j i government a l s o f o l l o w e d  I t seems t h a t the p o l i c y p a i d o f f w e l l i n the l o n g  run.  A t o t a l of twenty-two i n s t r u c t o r s , more than h a l f of whom were to be i n charge of t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c a l techniques s a i l sewing, were ready  such as c a r p e n t r y , s t o k i n g , s a i l i n g  to s t a r t n a v a l t r a i n i n g whenever the Japanese were  A f t e r the Bakufu confirmed  (7/29),  Iwanojo, one As  the c h i e f r o j u , Abe  Bakufu men.  Masahiro, appointed  of the most knowledgeable and  students,  ready.  the i n t e n t i o n of the Dutch, i t began making  f o r m a l arrangements to b e g i n a n a v a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l at N a g a s a k i . " ^ ber 10  and  the Bakufu f i r s t  They were candidates  experienced  On  Septem-  as s c h o o l d i r e c t o r Nagai men  i n naval  affairs.  d i r e c t l y s e l e c t e d t h r e e prominent young to be c a p t a i n s of a f u t u r e Bakufu  fleet:  Nagamochi K y o j i r o , a kachi-metsuke ( s u b - i n s p e c t o r ) at the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e ' s O f f i c e , Y a t a b o r i K e i z o , a student  at the Shoheiko c o l l e g e , and K a t s u  Rintaro  ( K a i s h u ) , a young Dutch s c h o l a r i n the Bakufu O f f i c e f o r F o r e i g n A f f a i r s Osetsu-gakari).  Among these t h r e e , Katsu was  to perform  -role i n the coming s c h o o l i n g at Nagasaki, so i t i s proper  the most  (Ikoku  outstanding  f o r us to d i s c u s s  how  61  he had  paved the way  Katsu,  f o r h i s f u t u r e success  l a t e r regarded  as one  i n the Bakufu system.  of the founders  of Japan's I m p e r i a l Navy,  born i n t o a poor hatamoto ( d i r e c t v a s s a l of the Tokugawa) f a m i l y i n 1830 1).  H i s f a t h e r c o l l e c t e d o n l y 41 koku of r i c e s t i p e n d and  c i a l position in his lifetime. life  of Confucian  own  never h e l d any  Katsu.  offi-  R i n t a r o h i m s e l f l e d a t y p i c a l poor hatamoto  f i v e years.  s t u d i e s ) i n 1845,  By 1850  and he worked v e r y hard  (Kaei 3) he had  the o c c a s i o n of Commodore P e r r y ' s v i s i t  opinions concerning  r o j u Abe,  i n 1853,  a chance came to young  b r e a k i n g w i t h common p r a c t i c e ,  the f u t u r e Bakufu f o r e i g n and  r a n k i n g Bakufu o f f i c i a l s  and  l o c a l daimyo.  of the e l i t e , many low-ranking  at i t  science.  A f t e r r e c e i v i n g a l e t t e r sent by the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i t e d  from P e r r y , the agonized  He  s t u d i e d enough to open h i s  p r i v a t e s c h o o l f o r the Dutch language and Western m i l i t a r y On  (Tempo  s t u d i e s , swordsmanship, and most i m p o r t a n t l y , s i d e j o b s .  began to study Rangaku (Dutch f o r the next  was  States  sought  domestic p o l i c i e s from h i g h -  At t h i s time, b e s i d e s  these members  Bakufu o f f i c i a l s , Bakufu samurai without  o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s , r o n i n ( m a s t e r l e s s samurai) and  even commoners  any  submitted  13 t h e i r o p i n i o n s to the Bakufu e x e c u t i v e s . r i a l s , Katsu's was  one  ' And  among a g r e a t number Of memo-  of the b e s t .  The b a s i c p r o p o s a l s  t h a t K a t s u made i n h i s memorial were a l l l a t e r  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and m i l i t a r y reforms i n i t i a t e d by Abe.  realized  For example,  of the most s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o s a l s were the c r e a t i o j i of a modern navy and reform of the m i l i t a r y school.  system, i n c l u d i n g the opening of a m i l i t a r y  Katsu's p l a n was  conviction.  v e r y c o n c r e t e and p r a c t i c a l and  H i s o p i n i o n s were w e l l supported  Western g e n e r a l and m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s .  was  the  training  demonstrated  great  by h i s e x t e n s i v e knowledge of  It i s d i f f i c u l t  e x e c u t i v e s adopted Katsu's i d e a s as they were.  two  But  to say whether the Bakufu  i t i s c e r t a i n that 14  a b l e to f o r s e e what the Bakufu would soon need. E a r l y i n the s p r i n g of 1855, K a t s u was appointed  Katsu  to a Bakufu p o s i t i o n at  62  the O f f i c e of F o r e i g n A f f a i r s . H i s f i r s t  achievement t h e r e was  to d r a f t a b a s i c  p l a n to e s t a b l i s h a Bakufu r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e f o r Western s t u d i e s (YOgaku-sho). A f t e r t h i s , he  spent a few months i n s p e c t i n g the important  the P a c i f i c Ocean.  Then i n September he was  c o a s t a l areas  along  chosen f o r n a v a l t r a i n i n g a t  Nagasaki. For the s e l e c t i o n of other s t u d e n t s , the Bakufu turned  to the Uraga Magis-  t r a t e ' s O f f i c e , Egawa Tarozaemon ( H i d e t a t s u ) of I z u (today Shizuoka-ken), the Funate.  The Uraga O f f i c e was  p r o b a b l y requested  d i r e c t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the f i r s t 1853 his in was  and men,  1854.^  The Bakufu was  to h e l p because i t had  l a r g e Bakufu s h i p , the Ho'o  Maru, i n  v e r y a s t u t e i n a s k i n g Egawa to send some of  s i n c e t h i s Governor of Izu commanded some of the most e x p e r i e n c e d  a r t i l l e r y , metal work, and under h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n .  shipbuilding.  The  in  men  Nirayama r e v e r b e r a t o r y f u r n a c e  Furthermore, Egawa and h i s men  had  just  a s s i s t i n g i n the b u i l d i n g of the schooner Heda, the R u s s i a n - d e s i g n e d for  and  finished ship b u i l t  Admiral P u t i a t i n a f t e r h i s s h i p Diana had been b a d l y damaged by a tsunami the p r e v i o u s year and e v e n t u a l l y sank o f f the I z u P e n i n s u l a .  the Bakufu to h e l p the Russians country.  build  t h e i r own  Putiatin  s h i p to r e t u r n to t h e i r home  With the Bakufu's f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and many s h i p w r i g h t s  by Egawa, the Russians  asked  directed  completed the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the f i r s t modern Western-  s t y l e s h i p i n Japan, l e a v i n g i n v a l u a b l e s h i p b u i l d i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h  the  16 Japanese.  E v e n t u a l l y , a t o t a l of n i n e , e x c l u d i n g non-samurai such as s h i p -  w r i g h t s , were sent to Nagasaki from Egawa's j u r i s d i c t i o n . other hand, sent o n l y two The  doshin  ( p e t t y o f f i c e r s ) and  t r a d i t i o n a l Bakufu "water f o r c e " had  not f i n d many adequate men According  to Katsu's  to pursue modern n a v a l  Funate, on  ten s a i l o r s to  d e t e r i o r a t e d so b a d l y  the  Nagasaki.  that i t could  training.  Kaigun R e k i s h i , a t l e a s t 48 Bakufu samurai were  e n r o l l e d i n the f i r s t - t e r m n a v a l t r a i n i n g program. men  The  The p o s i t i o n s of these  b e f o r e j o i n i n g the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l :  48  63  19 9 3 1 1 1 14  Artillerists* From the Uraga M a g i s t r a t e ' s O f f i c e Bakufu Astronomers A Shoheiko C o l l e g e Student From the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e ' s O f f i c e From the F o r e i g n A f f a i r s O f f i c e Unknown  (39.6%) (18.8%) ( 6.3%) ( 2.1%) ( 2.1%) ( 2.1%) (29.2%)  * F i v e men were from Egawa of I z u , and the o t h e r s were from two d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s of t h e Bakufu a r t i l l e r y masters. 17  ( T o t a l percentage i s more than 100 because of rounding.) Judging from t h e i r o r i g i n s , v e r y few s t u d e n t s c o u l d have known the Dutch guage.  Most of the a r t i l l e r i s t s  knew o n l y t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i l l e r y  s t u d i e d n e i t h e r Western a f f a i r s nor languages.  The Egawa men,  lan-  and had  l i k e the Bakufu  astronomers and Nagamochi K y o j i r o from the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e ' s O f f i c e , must have had a c e r t a i n knowledge of the language.  But g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e i r  l e v e l of competence seems t o have been v e r y low. a c e r t a i n e x t e n t but c o u l d not speak the language. b a s i c knowledge of s c i e n c e , the language would  Katsu c o u l d read and w r i t e t o A s i d e from the l a c k of a  l a t e r t u r n out to be the most  s e r i o u s b a r r i e r i n n a v a l t r a i n i n g d i r e c t e d by non-Japanese-speaking  Dutch  instructors.  As the f i r s t modern m i l i t a r y s c h o o l , the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School accommodated at l e a s t 86 Bakufu samurai s t u d e n t s d u r i n g i t s o p e r a t i o n .  On the  other hand, i t a l s o admitted 129 s t u d e n t s known to have come from l o c a l  han  d u r i n g the same p e r i o d . of  s t u d e n t s (96.1%) out  the 129 were from the han of tozama ( n o n - h e r e d i t a r y v a s s a l s of the Tokugawa)  daimyo, Ise  To our s u r p r i s e , 124 non-Bakufu  those of the provinces' to the west w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Tsu han i n  P r o v i n c e (today Mie-ken).  The remaining f i v e s t u d e n t s (3.9%) were from the  f u d a i (daimyo i n h e r e d i t a r y v a s s a l a g e t o the Tokugawa b e f o r e 1600) han o f Fukuyama and Kakegawa.  18  64  As i s w e l l known, one of the s e r i o u s concerns of the Tokugawa Bakufu i n i t s 250-year r e i g n was  the a c t i v i t i e s of the tozama daimyo,  southwestern p r o v i n c e s of the Kyushu,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the  Chugoku and Shikoku r e g i o n s .  o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d to be a p o s s i b l e menace to the Tokugawa regime. of  the Bakufu was  t y p i c a l l y shown i n a l e t t e r  Tadakuni i n 1843  They were The  attitude  to Tokugawa N a r i a k i from  Mizuno  a f t e r the former had r e q u e s t e d the s u s p e n s i o n of the p r o h i b i -  t i o n against b u i l d i n g large warships.  Mizuno  r e j e c t e d t h i s r e q u e s t because  he  c o n s i d e r e d that i t would be v e r y h a r m f u l to the Bakufu i f the tozama daimyo 19 could f r e e l y b u i l d large warships. of  a t t i t u d e of the Bakufu towards  reason f o r t h i s was  i n c i d e n t s without m i l i t a r y and 1852,  the v i s i t  ances of Western s h i p s . militarily  the tozama daimyo?  The Bakufu was  still  i n the  of Dutch m i s s i o n s i n  of Commodore James B i d d l e i n 1846,  and o t h e r appear-  However, i t r e v e a l e d i t s t o t a l inadequacy when P e r r y  t h r e a t e n e d the Bakufu i n demanding the opening o f the c o u n t r y .  first  for  countermeasures not only from Bakufu men  For  time i n i t s h i s t o r y , the Bakufu openly sought o p i n i o n s and p r o p o s a l s  i n c l u d i n g tozama.  but a l s o from l o c a l  Without s e c u r i n g c o o p e r a t i o n from l o c a l han,  p o w e r f u l southwestern daimyo such as Shimazu  (Hizen han), and M o r i (Choshu han), who  Bakufu had l i t t l e  daimyo, especially  (Satsuma h a n ) , Nabeshima (Saga h a n ) , had been a c c u m u l a t i n g r e l a t i v e l y  h i g h s t a n d a r d s of m i l i t a r y knowledge and equipment  i n t h e i r own  domains,  independent power to d e a l w i t h a g g r e s s i v e Westerners.  more Bakufu e x e c u t i v e s knew about Western A s i a , the more they r e a l i z e d to  the b i g g e s t  a b l e t o manage minor  t h r e a t s , such as the v i s i t s  the  Kuroda  Undoubtedly  the d r a s t i c change i n Japan's i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s  l a t e 1840's and e a r l y 1850's.  1844  Then what were the reasons f o r the change  The  a f f a i r s and the Western presence i n  t h a t the Bakufu d i d not have the n e c e s s a r y power  d e a l w i t h the changing i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n .  In f a c t , the southwestern  daimyo had been much more s e r i o u s l y concerned w i t h e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s Bakufu i t s e l f .  the  than the  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the main from the g e o g r a p h i c a l f a c t t h a t they  65  were more d i r e c t l y exposed t o the- f o r e i g n approach than anybody e l s e i n Japan. In a d d i t i o n , these han had l o r d s who i n i t i a t e d many p r o g r e s s i v e measures i n defense  and f o r e i g n a f f a i r s based on s u c c e s s f u l economic reforms.  20  Abe  21 Masahiro,  understanding  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n f a i r l y w e l l  choice other than to f o s t e r c o o p e r a t i o n between the southwestern  , had l i t t l e  tozama daimyo and  the Bakufu.  Among the tozama han mentioned, Satsuma and Saga were p a r t i c u l a r l y tant.  impor-  L a t e r , i n the M e i j i p e r i o d , men from these two han would form the most  i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t i o n s i n the I m p e r i a l Navy.  S i x t e e n Satsuma and f o r t y - e i g h t  S a g a ' s a m u r a i a t o t a l of 64 s t u d e n t s , went to Nagasaki d u r i n g the o p e r a t i o n of 22 the S c h o o l .  T h e r e f o r e , we s h o u l d glance a t the n a v a l a f f a i r s of Satsuma and  Saga han b r i e f l y i n order to see how the a c t i v i t i e s of the Bakufu and these two  domains were r e l a t e d  t o each o t h e r .  Satsuma, as the southernmost p r o v i n c e i n Japan, kept ship with neighbouring  Okinawa and China".  a special  relation-  Okinawa was a k i n d of colony of  Satsuma, and brought a g r e a t amount of t r a d e t o Satsuma p r o p e r , m a i n l y  i n the  23 form of sugar.  Okinawa was a l s o v e r y important  with China and other c o u n t r i e s .  T h i s important  f o r Satsuma as a t r a d i n g post  i s l a n d c o l o n y , however, extended  f a r i n t o the southern  sea where i n the e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y an i n c r e a s i n g number  of Westerners passed,  o f t e n t h r e a t e n i n g the s e c u r i t y of  the s e a r o u t e s .  the Okinawa a r e a and  In the l a t e 1840's, Satsuma s e r i o u s l y began working on the  development of i t s own n a v a l f o r c e t o secure  the s e a r o u t e s i n the south.  This  p o l i c y was s t r o n g l y l e d by Shimazu N a r i a k i r a , one o f the most p r o g r e s s i v e and e n l i g h t e n e d l o r d s i n the matter of defense  preparations.  Satsuma's endeavour i n n a v a l development was f i r s t of a steamer.  seen i n the b u i l d i n g  In 1848 (Kaei 1 ) , M i t s u k u r i Genpo, a Rangaku-sha, was r e q u e s t e d  by Shimazu t o t r a n s l a t e a Dutch book on steam engines f o r s h i p s ;  The t r a n s l a t i o n  66  was  completed i n the f o l l o w i n g year and  Satsuma e n g i n e e r s  s t a r t e d the b u i l d i n g  24 of  the f i r s t  steamer i n Japan.  s h i p I r o h a Maru was  The b u i l d i n g of the W e s t e r n - s t y l e  a l s o begun i n the autumn of 1851  (Kaei 5 ) .  As t h i s  w e l l b e f o r e the Bakufu p e r m i t t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of W e s t e r n - s t y l e Satsuma c a r e f u l l y designed  and  d i s g u i s e d the I r o h a Maru as a  was  ships,  Japanese-style  s h i p on the o u t s i d e w i t h a completely Western s t r u c t u r e i n s i d e . 1852  sailing  Next year i n  (Kaei 5, 12/27), Shimazu sought p e r m i s s i o n from the Bakufu to b u i l d  warship  called  the Shohei Maru.  argued t h a t l a r g e warships southern  a  In i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , the southernmost p r o v i n c e  were a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y  sea r o u t e s and Okinawa.  f o r the defense  The Bakufu understood  s i t u a t i o n i n the south, but i t d i d not o f f i c i a l l y  of  the  Satsuma's s p e c i a l  g i v e i t s a p p r o v a l to Satsuma  because of the a n c e s t r a l law which p r o h i b i t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n or p o s s e s s i o n of  warships  l a r g e r than 500 koku.  it  acknowledged the a p p l i c a t i o n .  I n s t e a d , the Bakufu simply I t was  t o l d Satsuma t h a t  a t a c i t a p p r o v a l of the p l a n by  the  25 Bakufu.  T h i s ease i n d i c a t e s to us t h a t the Bakufu adopted the p o l i c y  u t i l i z i n g Satsuma to secure  the defense  i n the south r a t h e r than c a u s i n g a  c o n f l i c t w i t h i t as w e l l as j e o p a r d i z i n g the Satsuma r u l e of Okinawa. 5, 1853  (Kaei 6,  5/29), s l i g h t l y b e f o r e P e r r y ' s v i s i t ,  s t r u c t i n g the Shohei Maru, the f i r s t  of  Satsuma began  t r u l y Western-style  warship  On  July  con--  i n Japan.  In the autumn of the same y e a r , the Bakufu a t l a s t suspended the a n c e s t r a l law against b u i l d i n g l a r g e warships. ambitious The  and planned  to b u i l d  A f t e r t h i s , Shimazu N a r i a k i r a became more  f i f t e e n l a r g e warships  i n c l u d i n g three steamers.  Bakufu not o n l y approved t h i s scheme but a l s o asked 26  s h i p s f o r the Bakufu. f o u r of i t s planned  In the summer of 1854  s h i p s on Sakura-jima  the Bakufu a t the same time.  Two  Satsuma to spare a  ( A n s e i 1 ) , Satsuma began b u i l d i n g  I s l a n d , two  f o r Satsuma and  two  of them were about 36 meters l o n g and s t r u c t u r e of these s h i p s was  for the  o t h e r two were about 44 meters l o n g .  The  Western.  o b t a i n e d a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h standard  T h i s shows t h a t Satsuma had  few  totally of  67  s h i p b u i l d i n g technology and a l r e a d y employed many men ledge and e x p e r i e n c e .  I t i s n a t u r a l f o r us to assume t h a t Satsuma surpassed  the Bakufu i n s h i p b u i l d i n g i f we and 1855. and  the Shohei Maru was  launched  f o u r s h i p s , the I r o h a Maru was  i n the s p r i n g of  and i n f o r m a t i o n .  finished  s h i p s by  every o p p o r t u n i t y to o b t a i n more advanced  For example, i n 1851,  1854  1854.  Satsuma l e a d e r s endeavoured t o b u i l d W e s t e r n - s t y l e  s e l v e s , they f u l l y u t i l i z e d  Manjiro  take note of the s c a l e of o p e r a t i o n s i n  P r i o r to the aforementioned  While  w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e know-  Satsuma o f f i c i a l s  (John), a castaway to the U n i t e d S t a t e s who  had  themtechnology  i n v i t e d Nakahama  come back to Okinawa, 27  to And  instruct  them i n the b u i l d i n g of W e s t e r n - s t y l e  i n 1854,  s e v e r a l Satsuma men  and Bakufu men  s h i p s and  were sent to Nagasaki  other  matters.  a l o n g w i t h Saga, Fukuoka  to l e a r n about steam engines, s h i p b u i l d i n g , and  ship operations  from the crew of the Soembing. The  Shohei Maru was  T h i s s h i p was 26 days. In  finally  completed  then s u c c e s s f u l l y t r i e d  On September 23  on January  duly presented  ( A n s e i 1, 12/12).  in April,  the Ho'o  Maru.  Maru was  g i v e n t r i a l s on a r i v e r i n Edo  t o the Bakufu.  s h i p f o r the Shogun t o g e t h e r w i t h  to b u i l d a steamer was on October  r e a l i z e d when the Unko  3 (8/23).  These two  s e c u t i v e achievements by Satsuma were reviewed by h i g h - r a n k i n g Bakufu and must have s t r o n g l y impressed technology. Masayoshi,  taking  d e c i d e d to accept the Dutch Soembing, so the  Shohei Maru became the t h i r d W e s t e r n - s t y l e Satsuma's e f f o r t  1855  out on a voyage to Edo  (8/13), the s h i p was  the same month, the Bakufu had  29,  con-  officials  them w i t h the advanced Satsuma s h i p b u i l d i n g  To the eyes of Bakufu o f f i c i a l s another r o j u , Satsuma han,  such as Abe  Masahiro  though a tozama, appeared  and  Hotta  to be one  of the  most r e l i a b l e han w i t h which the Bakufu d e a l t i n a s i t u a t i o n of immeasurable difficulties  i n defense-affairs.  On the other hand, of c o u r s e , some Bakufu  people must have f e a r e d t h a t Satsuma han would e v e n t u a l l y o b t a i n an s t r o n g p o s i t i o n i n Japan.  extremely  68  S i m i l a r l y , Saga han had been exposed to Western i n f l u e n c e , as i t was of  the two major han  t h a t were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the defense  the e a r l y 1840's, however, Saga han Warriors  d i d not r e a l l y  from Saga han were not a b l e to put up any  Phaeton invaded Nagasaki harbour  in  1825.  of Nagasaki.  take t h i s task defense  one Until  seriously.  a t a l l when the  T h i s tendency was  Nabeshima Naomasa a f t e r he succeeded to the l o r d s h i p i n 1830  reversed  by  (Tempo 1 ) .  In  a d d i t i o n to t r a d i t i o n a l endeavours i n m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s such as the t r a i n i n g w a r r i o r s and his  the a c q u i s i t i o n of f i r e a r m s , Nabeshima improved-various  domain's defense  facilities.  H i s concern was  of  aspects  of  a l r e a d y d i r e c t e d t o the  c r e a t i o n of a modern navy when the Dutch Palembang v i s i t e d Nagasaki and 1 28 Nabeshima h i m s e l f had  an o p p o r t u n i t y to see the s h i p and  i t s equipment.  Many Of h i s Saga f o l l o w e r s w i t h a knowledge of Western s t u d i e s who s h i p l a t e r formed the core around which Saga han industries.  G e o g r a p h i c a l l y - f a v o u r e d Saga men  o p e r a t i o n of Western s h i p s , a r t i l l e r y ,  i t s military  other f e a t u r e s as  T h e i r e x p e r i e n c e was  they  v e r y l i m i t e d , yet  o t h e r s had been i n s p i r e d to take advantage of the o p p o r t u n i t y b e f o r e .  d u r i n g the summer of 1855,  the  r e p e a t e d l y s t u d i e d the b a s i c  e n g i n e e r i n g and  watched Dutch s h i p s i n Nagasaki harbour. few  developed  visited  b e f o r e the Bakufu o f f i c i a l l y  Even  opened the Nagasaki  Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l , Saga men were a l r e a d y l e a r n i n g n a v a l a f f a i r s from Dutch o f f i c e r s and s a i l o r s . In other words, the Saga men had a l r e a d y been i n i t i a t e d 29 i n t o n a v a l t r a i n i n g a t Nagasaki w e l l b e f o r e the School  started.  F o l l o w i n g Saga's c o n t i n g e n t to the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l , Fukuoka han  of the P r o v i n c e of Chikuzen  (today Fukuoka-ken) i n Kyushu sent  s t u d e n t s , the second b i g g e s t number among the l o c a l han c o n t r i b u t i o n of Fukuoka han  s t u d e n t s was  students.  not v e r y noteworthy.  twenty-eight But  T h e i r number  seems simply to have r e f l e c t e d Fukuoka's r o l e as the other major han of  the defense Only  of  the  i n charge  Nagasaki.  f i v e students from non-tozama han  s t u d i e d a t Nagasaki.  Four of them  69  were from Fukuyama han, of which  the c h i e f r o j u of the time, Abe Masahiro, was  the  lord.  While he c a r r i e d out m i l i t a r y reforms a t the Bakufu l e v e l , he d i d  not  i g n o r e the defense of h i s own domain and encouraged h i s men t o take n a v a l  t r a i n i n g a t Nagasaki. As we have seen, most of the southwestern han which had been a l e r t e d by the  f o r e i g n presence around Japan sent t h e i r men t o Nagasaki.  However, t h e r e  was one han which had been v e r y a c t i v e i n m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s but d i d n o t send any students t o the S c h o o l .  I t was Tokugawa N a r i a k i ' s M i t o han.  Opinions and s u g g e s t i o n s made by N a r i a k i were v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s c o n c e r n i n g the i n i t i a t i o n o f n a v a l defense p r e p a r a t i o n s , including  n a v a l t r a i n i n g a t Nagasaki.  N a r i a k i was p a r t i c u l a r l y eager t o  o b t a i n n a v a l t r a i n i n g under Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s .  He f i r s t  suggested i t i n 1853, 30  soon a f t e r the v i s i t  of P e r r y , when he wrote a memorial  t o the Bakufu.  Since  then he had been i n v o l v e d i n v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the n a v a l t r a i n i n g a f f a i r s o f the  Bakufu.  When he heard of the temporary n a v a l t r a i n i n g a t Nagasaki i n 1854, 31  he d i s p a t c h e d t h r e e samurai and some s a i l o r s from h i s domain.  When the  Russian crew of the Diana s t a y e d a t Shimoda i n I z u , N a r i a k i asked p e r m i s s i o n from the Bakufu t o send some of h i s men t o r e c e i v e n a v a l t r a i n i n g t h e r e , but the  tsunami that d e s t r o y e d the R u s s i a n s h i p f r u s t r a t e d the scheme.  Later,  however, when the Heda was b e i n g b u i l t , N a r i a k i sent some o f h i s men t o I z u t o " h e l p " i n ( a c t u a l l y , t o observe) the c o n s t r u c t i o n .  While he was busy w i t h the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i s own s h i p , the A s a h i Maru, i n Edo i n the summer of 1854, he expressed h i s wish t o the Bakufu t o send some M i t o s a i l o r s  t r a i n i n g were to be c a r r i e d out a t Nagasaki under Dutch  t o Nagasaki i f n a v a l 32  instructors.  D e s p i t e these f a c t s , M i t o han d i d n o t send any s t u d e n t s t o the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School d u r i n g i t s e n t i r e p e r i o d . s a i l o r s , c a r p e n t e r s and o t h e r non-samurai  I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t some  people v i s i t e d  the S c h o o l , b u t no 33 samurai names from M i t o han c o u l d be found among p e r s o n n e l l i s t s . Therefore,  70  it  i s perhaps  c o r r e c t to say t h a t N a r i a k i wanted to send some of h i s men  Nagasaki, but something that M i t o han was  prevented him.  fully utilizing  to  The most p l a u s i b l e reason i s  those of i t s men  f a m i l i a r with  shipbuilding  technology f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the A s a h i Maru, N a r i a k i ' s longtime dream. The  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the s h i p s t a r t e d i n January,  1854,  and ended i n June,  1856.  34 The  s h i p underwent i t s sea t r i a l  M i t o men  may  having any  have had  i n June, 1857.  to spend t h e i r f u l l  time to go to  A l l through these y e a r s ,  time w i t h the A s a h i Maru, without  Nagasaki.  The Bakufu, moreover, opened the Kobu-sho ( M i l i t a r y Academy) i n Edo i n April,  1856,  and,  as a p a r t of the M i l i t a r y Academy, the Gunkan  (Naval T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e ) was  opened i n the s p r i n g of 1857.  i n s t r u c t o r s and a s s i s t a n t s were graduates The  i n s t i t u t e used the Soembing  M i t o men  of the Nagasaki  Kyoju-sho  Almost  a l l the  Naval T r a i n i n g  School.  (then the Kanko Maru) f o r r e g u l a r t r a i n i n g .  no l o n g e r had much reason t o go a l l the way  to Nagasaki  for naval  training.  A f t e r the Bakufu  s e l e c t e d a l l i t s own  s t u d e n t s , e a r l y i n October,  f i n a l d i r e c t i o n s to them b e f o r e t h e i r d e p a r t u r e f o r Nagasaki. ordered the chosen men  First,  to work v e r y hard so t h a t they would form an  i t gave the  integral  p a r t of a Bakufu navy as soon as p o s s i b l e , and then r e p e a t e d l y exhorted to  behave as men  of i n t e g r i t y .  The Bakufu  s t u d e n t s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h v a r i o u s men a chosen e l i t e who  c o u l d be expected  Bakufu m i l i t a r y system samurai  later.  them  gave d i r e c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the  of l o c a l han.  The Bakufu  students were  t o o b t a i n i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n s i n the  T h e r e f o r e , some people from l o c a l han,  and merchants, might t r e a t  Bakufu  both  them f a v o u r a b l y i n v a r i o u s ways or o f f e r  them b r i b e s so t h a t they would b e n e f i t some day.  T h i s was  f e a r e d most as a p o s s i b l e r e s u l t of the s c h o o l i n g . although i t allowed the s t u d e n t s from l o c a l han  what .the "Bakufu  F u r t h e r , the  Bakufu,  t o take the same course at  71  Nagasaki,  d i s l i k e d the i d e a of h a v i n g i t s own  men  i n v o l v e d too c l o s e l y i n  35 r e l a t i o n s with l o c a l  han.  So i n s t r u c t e d , the Bakufu  s t u d e n t s l e f t Edo  f o r Nagasaki.  them went by l a n d , and the o t h e r h a l f s a i l e d from Edo October  13  (9/3).  More than 110 men  were on board  About h a l f of  on the Shohei Maru on '  i n c l u d i n g the s t u d e n t s , t h e i r  s e r v a n t s , and s a i l o r s from Uraga and Shiwaku-jima,Van i s l a n d on the I n l a n d where the people had been seamen f o r c e n t u r i e s . 36 Satsuma men  and  these s a i l o r s .  Due  t a i n e d s e r i o u s damage and almost seasickness.  t o storms  The  s h i p was  Sea  operated by  a l o n g the r o u t e , the s h i p s u s -  a l l the crew was  s a i d to have s u f f e r e d  from  D e s p i t e the h a r d s h i p s on t h i s voyage, Katsu i n h i s Kaigun R e k i s h i  simply r e c o r d e d t h a t "the s h i p s a i l e d v e r y s l o w l y f o r days, and f i n a l l y 37  arrived  at Nagasaki harbour  the  Bakufu  on November 29  (10/20)."  N e v e r t h e l e s s , K a t s u and  students were p r o b a b l y v e r y r e l i e v e d to s e t t l e i n t o the more s t a b l e  accommodation of the N i s h i O f f i c i a l Residence  of the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e ' s  O f f i c e a f t e r p e r c e i v i n g the might of the sea. The N i s h i O f f i c i a l Residence was used as the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l . I t was an e x t r a r e s i d e n c e f o r the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e ; i n s p e c t o r s d i s p a t c h e d [from Edo] to t h i s p l a c e used to l i v e t h e r e . In those days, Mr. Nagai was .using i t as h i s dwelling. The N i s h i O f f i c i a l Residence was p a r t l y c o n v e r t e d i n t o the School and no s p e c i a l b u i l d i n g [ f o r n a v a l t r a i n i n g ] was b u i l t . A f t e r l a n d i n g a t Nagasaki, I myself [Katsu] a l s o l i v e d i n t h i s residence.38  L i k e Katsu, most of the Bakufu O f f i c i a l Residence.  s t u d e n t s were g i v e n accommodation i n the N i s h i  Four days a f t e r the l a n d i n g from the Shohei Maru, on  December 3 (10/24), Nagai  gave s p e c i a l d i r e c t i o n s to the t h r e e l e a d i n g s t u d e n t s ,  Y a t a b o r i , Nagamochi and K a t s u , s a y i n g t h a t they should devote n a v a l t r a i n i n g and work v e r y h a r d .  to  He a l s o emphasized the need f o r c o o p e r a t i o n  among the students and r e q u i r e d each Bakufu Bakufu,  themselves  student to w r i t e a pledge to the  s t a t i n g t h a t he would do h i s b e s t a t the S c h o o l .  39  72  A w r i t t e n p l e d g e was However, the purpose quite different Kuranosuke,  a l s o r e q u i r e d from each s t u d e n t from l o c a l  of a s k i n g w r i t t e n p l e d g e s from the l o c a l han  from that f o r the Bakufu s t u d e n t s .  The  one o f t h e l e a d i n g s t u d e n t s f r o m S a g a h a n ,  han.  students  was  d i a r y o f Nakamuda i n c l u d e s the contents of  40 the  w r i t t e n p l e d g e he  sent to the Bakufu.  e x p e c t e d of the l o c a l han one  of the Bakufu's  Dutch  instructors.  students.  I t t e l l s us what the B a k u f u  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s d i a r y , we  t o s e g r e g a t e the l o c a l han  The n o n - B a k u f u  s t u d e n t s were o r d e r e d n o t t o t a l k t o  t h a t t h e y s h o u l d l e a v e i m m e d i a t e l y when t h e y f i n i s h e d s u b j e c t s w i t h Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s . l o c a l han  s t u d e n t s and D u t c h  I n o t h e r w o r d s , no  i n s t r u c t o r s was  b i d d e n f o r them t o a c t a s g o - b e t w e e n s w i t h acquaintances.  The  Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g  t a l k i n g about  allowed.  I t was  certain  chat between strictly  S c h o o l s t u d e n t s were a l l t r e a t e d e q u a l l y . g r o u p s was  i t s s u p e r i o r i t y over l o c a l  made s o t h a t  the  forand  f o r m a l o p e n i n g day  in h i s Kaigun Rekishi  o r s i x days a f t e r  ( e n t r a n c e ceremony) o r S c h o o l i s n o t known. simply wrote  t h e l a n d i n g , Mr. N a g a i 41  t o t h e D u t c h D e j i m a P o s t and h a d an e n t r a n c e c e r e m o n y . "  p r o b a b l y t h e f o u r t h o r f i f t h o f December a r r i v e d a t N a g a s a k i on November 29  could  han.  of the Nagasaki N a v a l T r a i n i n g  that " f i v e  the  Rather, a  the Bakufu  K a t s u a l s o d o e s n o t remember e x a c t l y when t h e S c h o o l s t a r t e d ; he  was  told  the Dutch f o r t h e i r r e l a t i v e s  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the exact date of the nyumon-shiki  everybody  the  Dutch  i n d e f e n s e a f f a i r s , y e t t h i s d i d n o t mean t h a t  c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two  the  students from  They w e r e a l s o  friendly  that  B a k u f u e x e c u t i v e s were w e l l aware o f t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r  c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h l o c a l han  demonstrate  can see  i n t e n t i o n s was  i n s t r u c t o r s except i n the presence of Bakufu o f f i c i a l s .  i  (10/25  (10/20).  The  This  took  was  o r 2 6 ) , as t h e S h o h e i Maru site  of the N i s h i  Residence  at a wharf next to Dejima. As i t was  the f i r s t s c h o o l of i t s k i n d ,  i n s u r e s u c c e s s by a l l o c a t i n g  the Bakufu took g r e a t care to  q u i t e a few o f f i c i a l s  f o r i t s management.  While  73  at the b e g i n n i n g  the School,accommodated about one hundred s t u d e n t s ,  employed a t o t a l of f o u r t y - o n e Nagai, the School  administrative o f f i c i a l s  in full  i t also  s e r v i c e besides  d i r e c t o r , twenty-two Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s and f o u r t e e n  inter-  42 preters.  D e t a i l s of the s c h o o l i n g under P e l s R i j k e n a r e not c l e a r today,  s i n c e he and the o t h e r Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s l e f t v e r y few w r i t t e n r e c o r d s .  We  must, t h e r e f o r e , r e l y h e a v i l y on Katsu's Kaigun R e k i s h i and Mizuno Nobutoshi's Bakumatsu n i Okeru Waga Kaiguh t o Ofanda (Japan's Navy and H o l l a n d  i n the Late  43 Tokugawa P e r i o d )  t o review the f i r s t - t e r m n a v a l  Almost e v e r y t h i n g was new to the students  training.  a t the S c h o o l .  h e l d on a weekly b a s i s and t h e r e was a t i m e t a b l e . take a l l the b a s i c s u b j e c t s b e f o r e he was allowed subject. all  so f o r 19th century  Japanese s t u d e n t s .  From one t o f o u r i n the a f t e r n o o n , outdoors.  to c o n c e n t r a t e  :  on h i s own  Usually  instruction started at  noon, m a i n l y i n the classroom.  the students  were taught  i n various  drills  There were a c t u a l p r a c t i c e s on t h e Soembing,limited a t f i r s t , and  then more f r e q u e n t .  Only Sundays were f r e e from s c h o o l l e s s o n s .  to h i s f r i e n d i n Edo:  K a t s u wrote  "We have n a v a l t r a i n i n g day a f t e r day. We a r e v e r y busy 44  c o u l d take only one day o f f even a t New The  Everybody was r e q u i r e d t o  These f e a t u r e s are too common to be noteworthy today, but were not a t  e i g h t o ' c l o c k i n the morning and l a s t e d t i l l  and  The c l a s s e s were  s u b j e c t s taught  Year's."  d u r i n g the f i r s t - t e r m n a v a l t r a i n i n g under P e l s  were n a v i g a t i o n , s h i p o p e r a t i o n , s h i p b u i l d i n g , a r t i l l e r y , s u r v e y i n g , mathematics and steam e n g i n e e r i n g .  ship's  Rijken  fittings,  As t h e head i n s t r u c t o r ,  Pels  R i j k e n was i n charge of t e a c h i n g n a v i g a t i o n , s h i p o p e r a t i o n and s h i p b u i l d i n g . The  course  i n s h i p b u i l d i n g was a s s i s t e d by 'sGraeuwen, who a l s o t'aught  Eeg  concentrated  mathematics. cially  on s u r v e y i n g  and s h i p ' s f i t t i n g s .  Doornickx and E v e r a a r s  steam engines.  Besides  De Yonge i n s t r u c t e d i n  were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n g i n e e r i n g ,  the t h e o r e t i c a l t e a c h i n g by these  o f f i c e r s , s a i l o r s and s t o k e r s taught  and s u p e r v i s e d  artillery.  actual  espe-  officers, 45 drills.  petty  74  Soon a f t e r the School s t a r t e d , every Bakufu student was certain field  of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g b e s i d e s b a s i c s t u d i e s .  had not expected  The Dutch  the students to be a s s i g n e d to a s p e c i f i c f i e l d  the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of t r a i n i n g , but left  assigned  f o r Nagasaki.  The  t h i s had been planned  to a  instructors  of study  b e f o r e the  students  Bakufu c o n s i d e r e d t h a t many of the students a t Nagasaki  would have to become i n s t r u c t o r s f o r m i l i t a r y s c h o o l s i n the f u t u r e . to K a t s u ,  from  the Bakufu s t u d e n t s were a s s i g n e d to ten d i f f e r e n t  C a p t a i n Candidates General O f f i c e r s Shipbuilding Steam E n g i n e e r i n g S a i l Operation Artillery Astronomy, Geography and S a i l Sewing, Rope T y i n g Accountant Drumming  Surveying  3 4 5 5 5 17 . 4 1 1 3  According  fields:  (6.3%) ( 8.3%) (10.4%) (10.4%) (10.4%) (35.4%) ( 8.3%) ( 2.1%) ( 2.1%) ( 6.3%)  These were a l l samurai students and were to become e i t h e r o f f i c e r s or p e t t y o f f i c e r s . S a i l o r s were ^ r e c r u i t e d among o r d i n a r y seamen who were not samurai.  The  a l l o t m e n t of d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of t r a i n i n g r e f l e c t s the urgent needs of  Bakufu a t the time. lery.  About a t h i r d of the students were a s s i g n e d to study  Without doubt they would be v e r y important  highly-trained a r t i l l e r i s t s  on Bakufu w a r s h i p s ,  but  Bay.  In t h i s sense,  the Nagasaki  Naval T r a i n i n g School performed the r o l e of a m i l i t a r y academy, the f i r s t i n t r o d u c e the Japanese s y s t e m a t i c a l l y to Western m i l i t a r y s c i e n c e .  other s i g n i f i c a n t f i e l d s ,  s t u d e n t s were evenly d i s t r i b u t e d .  the o p e r a t i o n of modern W e s t e r n - s t y l e steam e n g i n e e r i n g , s a i l equally  artil-  were a l s o s e r i o u s l y needed a t t h a t v e r y moment at  v a r i o u s shore b a t t e r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y along Edo  to  the  warships,  school  For  In order to master  the s t u d i e s of s h i p b u i l d i n g ,  o p e r a t i o n , astronomy, geography and  s u r v e y i n g were a l l  important.  A t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese custom sent three men  to l e a r n Western drumming.  75  Those who were chosen to study drumming c o n s i d e r e d t h a t they were h i g h l y honoured because i n , Japan drumming was t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s p e c i a l l y task f o r h i g h - r a n k i n g o f f i c e r s .  classified  As a r e s u l t , the Dutch p e t t y o f f i c e r who  taught 47  drumming was s a i d to have been h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d by the s t u d e n t s E v e r y t h i n g was new and d i f f i c u l t  throughout.  at the School i n Nagasaki.  I t was  w i t h agony f o r the students who had t o f a c e s e r i o u s problems one a f t e r Among them, the most s e r i o u s problem i n c l a s s was language. the students a t f i r s t  filled  another.  V i r t u a l l y none o f  understood what the i n s t r u c t o r s were t e a c h i n g i n Dutch.  In the p r e v i o u s y e a r , 1854, when C a p t a i n Fabius was asked h i s o p i n i o n about the c r e a t i o n o f a modern navy and a n a v a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l f o r Japan, he r e p e a t e d l y urged  the Bakufu to open a Dutch language s c h o o l f i r s t  n a v a l t r a i n i n g c o u l d o b t a i n a knowledge o f Dutch.  Yet the Bakufu d i d n o t adopt  h i s s u g g e s t i o n , s a y i n g t h a t time was v e r y l i m i t e d . was q u i t e apparent had  so t h a t c a n d i d a t e s f o r  When the School s t a r t e d , i t  t h a t the Bakufu had made a grave mistake.  to be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Japanese by i n t e r p r e t e r s .  q u i t e o f t e n the i n t e r p r e t e r s c o u l d n o t understand terminology used i n l e c t u r e s .  A l l the l e c t u r e s  And, to make matters worse,  the n a v a l and s c i e n t i f i c  The o n l y way t h a t an i n s t r u c t o r c o u l d teach was  to e x p l a i n the meaning o f v a r i o u s terms t o h i s i n t e r p r e t e r b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g a l e c t u r e to the s t u d e n t s .  Katsu r e m i n i s c e s about the language problem as  follows: As the language c o u l d n o t be understood by the s t u d e n t s , s e v e r a l i n t e r p r e t e r s t r a n s l a t e d the l e c t u r e s . T h e r e f o r e , both i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s f e l t l i k e 'having an i t c h t h a t one c o u l d n o t s c r a t c h . ' The i n s t r u c t o r s s t r u g g l e d i n t e a c h i n g , and the s t u d e n t s had to make great e f f o r t s i n l e a r n i n g . Even Y a t a b o r i , Tsukamoto and Nagamochi, who had s t u d i e d c l a s s i c a l Chinese at the Shoheiko [ c o l l e g e ] and were famous f o r acuteness, were t o t a l l y p e r p l e x e d s t u d y i n g [ i n Dutch]. No wonder those who were l e s s t a l e n t e d s u f f e r e d from s e r i o u s problems a t the School.48  The s t u d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y the Bakufu ones, were n o t chosen on the b a s i s o f mathematical  and s c i e n t i f i c  t a l e n t s needed f o r n a v a l t r a i n i n g .  Basic require-  76  merits t h a t the Bakufu imposed were e i t h e r achievements i n C o n f u c i a n s t u d i e s , e x p e r i e n c e i n s h i p b u i l d i n g and a r t i l l e r y , The  o r a knowledge o f the Dutch  49  language.  Bakufu s t a n d a r d f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f i t s students f o r the School was i n s u f - .  f i c i e n t l y h i g h and o f t e n i r r e l e v a n t .  Most o f the students had l i t t l e  about Western mathematics and s c i e n c e .  idea  Some s t u d e n t s who were Bakufu a s t r o n o -  mers seem t o have been q u i t e t a l e n t e d i n Japanese mathematics, b u t even they had  to s t r u g g l e i n i t s Western c o u n t e r p a r t f o r s t u d i e s l i k e n a v i g a t i o n ..and  surveying.  Katsu was a l s o one o f those who s u f f e r e d i n the study o f Western  mathematics:  I am s t u d y i n g n a v i g a t i o n now; t h i s s u b j e c t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o understand w i t h o u t a knowledge o f mathematics. As you know, however, I am not a t a l l t a l e n t e d i n i t , so I have r e a l l y a tough time these days. S t i l l , h a v i n g s t u d i e d a l o t , I f e e l I am l e a r n i n g i t gradually....50  The Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s o f t e n found o t h e r k i n d s o f s e r i o u s problems i n t e a c h i n g b e s i d e s problems caused by the l a c k o f knowledge i n language and science.  One was the s t r o n g c l a s s consciousness  every formal student was a samurai,  o f the s t u d e n t s ;  although  each o f them c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d  c e r t a i n group a c c o r d i n g t o h i s f a m i l y s t a n d i n g i n the Bakufu system. student  into a When a  f e l t h i s f a m i l y s t a n d i n g was too h i g h t o expect him t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n  a c e r t a i n task a t the S c h o o l , he simply d i d n o t a t t e n d t h a t p a r t o f the t r a i n i n g . And  some m i l i t a r y s k i l l s were t r a d i t i o n a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as too important f o r  low-ranking  samurai  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n .  was o n l y f o r h i g h - r a n k i n g samurai  F o r i n s t a n c e , the s k i l l  i n Japan.  of a r t i l l e r y  So, v o l l e y f i r i n g by a l l the  students was impossible.^"'" A k i n d o f c o n f l i c t between Bakufu and l o c a l han students was another blem.  Although  pro-  the School accepted n o t o n l y Bakufu b u t a l s o l o c a l hah,samurai,  i t was a Bakufu s c h o o l i n t e n d e d mainly students were g i v e n t o t a l l y  f o r Bakufu samurai.  d i f f e r e n t treatment  The two groups o f  a t the School.  The case o f the  77  w r i t t e n pledge was one example.  Treatment i n the c l a s s r o o m was  another.  U s u a l l y two J a p a n e s e - s t y l e rooms were combined i n t o one by removing doors between them f o r o r d i n a r y l e c t u r e s .  In the f i r s t room were a Dutch  i n s t r u c t o r , h i s i n t e r p r e t e r and Bakufu s t u d e n t s . in  this room.  sliding  Whether there was enough space  left  The b l a c k b o a r d was o f course i n the f i r s t room o r n o t ,  the l o c a l han students had t o a u d i t the l e c t u r e i n the second  room.  I t was  much e a s i e r , t h e r e f o r e , f o r the Bakufu s t u d e n t s t o approach the i n s t r u c t o r t o ask v a r i o u s q u e s t i o n s , whereas the l o c a l han students were v e r y r e s t r i c t e d i n doing s o . N e v e r t h e l e s s , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , l o c a l han s t u d e n t s were s u p e r i o r t o most of  the Bakufu students i n v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s .  T h i s was so because l o c a l han  students were c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d by han which were much keener i n defense affairs  than the Bakufu i t s e l f .  Among the l o c a l han, Saga was o u t s t a n d i n g ;  the students from Saga han had s t u d i e d s c i e n c e and o t h e r r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s b e f o r e the School s t a r t e d .  Furthermore,  many o f them had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the  p r e l i m i n a r y n a v a l t r a i n i n g i n the summer o f 1854 and 1855. deeply impressed  Katsu h i m s e l f was  by the Saga han s t u d e n t s and wrote:  As the l o r d o f Saga han was v e r y knowledgeable and f a r s e e i n g , Dutch s t u d i e s i n h i s han were v e r y p o p u l a r i n those days. There had a l r e a d y been a r e v e r b e r a t o r y furnace i n Saga. I t was b u i l t based on Dutch books. Even the Bakufu asked Saga han t o found s e v e r a l cannons. T h e r e f o r e , there were many w e l l - e d u c a t e d men. As the l e a d e r , Sano Eijuemon arranged a l l a f f a i r s such as the s e l e c t i o n of students and s h i p s f o r Saga han. The students from Saga han were the q u i c k e s t t o l e a r n i n n a v a l t r a i n i n g among those who were from l o c a l han.52  Some of the 'students from Saga han were s a i d t o have shown t h e i r t a l e n t s i n the f i e l d o f medicine  and c h e m i s t r y , so the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s p r o v i d e d them w i t h  53 a s p e c i a l s e r i e s of l e c t u r e s on such s u b j e c t s as the p r o d u c t i o n o f gunpowder. At the end o f 1856 (Ansei 3 ) , a f t e r one y e a r o f s c h o o l i n g , Nabeshima Naomasa even sought  u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r p e r m i s s i o n from the Bakufu t o have s e p a r a t e  78  n a v a l t r a i n i n g f o r Saga han i t was  inefficient  s t u d e n t s under some Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s .  He  felt  and i n c o n v e n i e n t f o r h i s advanced s t u d e n t s to study w i t h  that the  54 Bakufu  and o t h e r l o c a l han  I t was  students.  very d i f f i c u l t  f o r the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s  t r a i n i n g under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s . f r i c t i o n between the Bakufu  and  There was  l o c a l han  no way  to c a r r y out p r o p e r n a v a l f o r them t o prevent  s t u d e n t s , but they t r i e d  to e l i m i n a t e  e r r o r s and inconvenience caused by the t r a n s l a t i o n of t h e i r l e c t u r e s .  For  example, they prepared m i n i a t u r e s h i p models and sketches f o r t e a c h i n g , and i d e a worked very w e l l .  Yet t e a c h i n g w i t h mere models and sketches was  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the d i f f i c u l t one  quite  and c o m p l i c a t e d study of n a v a l a f f a i r s .  of the means to improve the q u a l i t y o f t e a c h i n g , the s t u d e n t s and  As  instruc-  t o r s found t h a t the b u i l d i n g of a s m a l l s h i p at Nagasaki would be h e l p f u l . they asked  School d i r e c t o r Nagai to o b t a i n an e x t r a fund from the Bakufu  build a cutter. February, 1856,  Nagai agreed  to t h i s p r o p o s a l and wrote a l e t t e r to Abe  r e q u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n and a fund of 2,000 ryo.  the  Nagai  So  to in added  i n h i s l e t t e r t h a t the b u i l d i n g of a c u t t e r would be q u i t e b e n e f i c i a l not o n l y to the o r d i n a r y students but a l s o to the s h i p w r i g h t s and b l a c k s m i t h s who come a l l the way  from Edo  In March, the Bakufu  to  Nagasaki.  approved  the p l a n .  The  admitted the m e r i t of b u i l d i n g an a c t u a l s h i p and s a i d t h a t the Bakufu  d i r e c t i v e from the t r a i n i n g on i t .  Bakufu  It also  d i d not want to see n a v a l t r a i n i n g b a f f l e d at the s t a r t  s a v i n g a mere 2,000 ryo when both the i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s were v e r y 56 to pursue Bakufu  had  successful training.  A c u t t e r was  l a t e r completed  by  eager  by the hands of  s t u d e n t s , s h i p w r i g h t s and b l a c k s m i t h s , w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of Dutch  instructors.  D e t a i l s c o n c e r n i n g the c u t t e r w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . ^  For the sake of t r a i n i n g , another important the School.  f a c i l i t y was  prepared at  The s t u d e n t s and non-samurai s a i l o r s needed i n t e n s i v e o p e r a t i o n a l  t r a i n i n g on a c t u a l masts and y a r d s , but i t was  dangerous f o r them to do so on  79  the Soembing a t f i r s t .  So a s e t of model masts and yards  for a frigate  was  58 b u i l t i n the School y a r d f o r p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g w i t h s a i l s Although of  and  ropes.  most of the s a i l o r s were r e c r u i t e d among the v e r y e x p e r i e n c e d  Shiwaku-jima I s l a n d on the I n l a n d Sea i n the P r o v i n c e of Sanuki  (now  k e n ) , they s t i l l needed a g r e a t d e a l of t r a i n i n g to work e f f i c i e n t l y Western-style of  ships.  people Kagawa-  on  As mentioned i n a p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , a f t e r the p r o h i b i t i o n  the b u i l d i n g of l a r g e warships  and  the i m p o s i t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l  restrictions  on s h i p s i n the 17th c e n t u r y , a l l the Japanese s h i p s were equipped w i t h o n l y one mast and a l a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r s a i l . at  a l o s s when they f i r s t  came aboard  N a t u r a l l y Japanese s a i l o r s were a modern W e s t e r n - s t y l e  ship with  totally tall  masts and many s a i l s . As the n a v a l t r a i n i n g was  w e l l on i t s way,  Bakufu sent a t o t a l of twelve new l a t e r would perform very important The  l e a d e r of t h i s group was  Izawa Masayoshi.  He was  s t u d e n t s t o Nagasaki  two  i n c l u d i n g a few  Izawa Kingo,  a son of former  d i s p a t c h e d as another  from Bakufu o f f i c e s i n Edo,  and  Nagasaki  captain candidate.  the  who  r o l e s i n Japan's n a v a l and p o l i t i c a l  t h i s son of a h i g h - r a n k i n g Bakufu o f f i c i a l , Izu,  i n the l a t e summer of 1856  affairs.  Magistrate Apart  from  f o u r students came from Egawa of  f o u r from v a r i o u s l o c a l  magistrate's  59 offices.  They were the f o r m a l members of t h i s  (Takeaki, Buyo), who troops of the new to  Nagasaki  group.  would l a t e r l e a d the Bakufu f l e e t  M e i j i government u n t i l the v e r y end  at t h i s  time.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , he was  an attendant t o Izawa Kingo, a p p l i e d f o r the Nagasaki  a classmate  Enomoto and  Kamajiro  f i g h t a g a i n s t the  of the r e s i s t a n c e , came  not a f o r m a l s t u d e n t .  at the Shoheiko.  Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l , but he  is  He  was  Enomoto h i m s e l f a l s o s a i d t o have been  turned down because of h i s poor achievement at the Bakufu c o l l e g e f o r C o n f u c i a n studies.  Though r e j e c t e d , Enomoto d i d not g i v e up t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to study  n a v a l a f f a i r s under Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s .  He i n q u i r e d through  various  connections  80  and f i n a l l y  o b t a i n e d a permit to go w i t h Izawa.  I t was  an arrangement made by  60 Izawa's f a t h e r Masayoshi. Hamagoro, at t h i s time.  Egawa of Izu d i s p a t c h e d an. important man, He would emerge as one  of the most prominent  Hida ship  e n g i n e e r s i n the l a t e Tokugawa and e a r l y M e i j i p e r i o d s . ^ Katsu f a i l e d t o r e c o r d when these s t u d e n t s a r r i v e d at Nagasaki. who  had been i n Edo  f o r study, l e f t  to take n a v a l t r a i n i n g on J u l y 14  regarded as second-term was  (6/13), he must have a r r i v e d at Nagasaki 62  the same time.  made f o r them a t the S c h o o l .  can imagine  understood  We  can assume t h a t the o t h e r students These s t u d e n t s were u s u a l l y  from t h i s  The newly a r r i v e d students j u s t j o i n e d  a l r e a d y been under way  f a c t how  the  f o r more than t e n months.  i n a d e q u a t e l y the Bakufu  the Western s c h o o l i n g system at Nagasaki.  the School may  some-  s t u d e n t s , although a p p a r e n t l y no s p e c i a l arrangement  others at l e c t u r e s which had We  Hida,  the c i t y soon a f t e r he r e c e i v e d the o r d e r  time i n l a t e August or e a r l y September. a l s o j o i n e d the School around  As  or the Japanese  The Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s at  have shown t h e i r d i s p l e a s u r e at t h i s k i n d of i r r e g u l a r i t y  per-  p e t r a t e d by the Bakufu, but i t i s not on r e c o r d . • As time passed, many academic problems arose one with the language frustration.  problem, they caused  a f t e r another.  Together  the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s much c o n f u s i o n and  But some of the s t u d e n t s g r a d u a l l y overcame the d i f f i c u l t i e s  showed some p r o g r e s s .  P e l s R i j k e n v i v i d l y r e c o r d e d the s i t u a t i o n i n h i s r e p o r t  to the Dutch government.  He noted that the most s e r i o u s academic problem  Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s p e r c e i v e d was of the s t u d e n t s .  and  the l a c k of b a s i c s c i e n t i f i c knowledge of most  As the i n s t r u c t o r who  s e r i o u s l y r e g r e t e d t h a t he  the  "had no way  was  i n charge  of n a v i g a t i o n , P e l s R i j k e n  to teach the rudiments  of geometry  and  63 s h i p o p e r a t i o n s as the s t u d e n t s t o t a l l y l a c k e d a b a s i c knowledge."  He  had  been t o l d t h a t most of the s t u d e n t s had a c e r t a i n knowledge of s c i e n c e b e f o r e the School s t a r t e d .  He  found, however, t h a t t h e i r knowledge was  very  fragmentary  81 and not a t a l l s y s t e m a t i c . who  P e l s R i j k e n admitted  were q u i t e knowledgeable, s t i l l he was  t h a t t h e r e were some s t u d e n t s  sure t h a t a l l the students  seriously  needed a s y s t e m a t i c knowledge of b a s i c s c i e n c e and other r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s . f o r the f i r s t  time i n Japan's h i s t o r y , s y s t e m a t i c Western s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n  from the very fundamentals was Training  So,  o f f e r e d t o s t u d e n t s a t the Nagasaki  Naval  School.^  D e s p i t e many b a r r i e r s i n study, students the language and  then came to understand  g r a d u a l l y became accustomed to  various subjects.  many students were a b l e to c a l c u l a t e f i g u r e s such as square q u i c k l y and  correctly.  " A f t e r one r o o t and  They were a b l e to s o l v e very d i f f i c u l t  year,  cube r o o t  questions i n  65 mathematics, t o o . " with  P e l s R i j k e n thus r e p o r t e d the improvement of the  students  satisfaction. Besides  many times.  the l e c t u r e s i n the classroom, But  t r a i n i n g c r u i s e s were a l s o t r i e d  i t seems t h a t the Bakufu h e s i t a t e d to give p e r m i s s i o n f o r the  i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e was  to s e t out on l o n g - d i s t a n c e c r u i s e s . not f u l l y assured of the p r o g r e s s  r e l u c t a n t to take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n case  Probably  the  of the s t u d e n t s and was  the School l o s t  a Bakufu s h i p i n  training.  T r a i n i n g c r u i s e s were, t h e r e f o r e , l i m i t e d to the seas not  Nagasaki.  P e l s R i j k e n e x p l a i n s the s i t u a t i o n as f o l l o w s :  f a r from  In 1855, only f o u r t e e n t r a i n i n g c r u i s e s c o u l d be made; the l o n g e s t one l a s t e d o n l y three days. The commander of the d e t a c h ment [ P e l s R i j k e n h i m s e l f ] , under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , c a l l e d t h i s to the a t t e n t i o n of Japan's n a v a l m a g i s t r a t e [perhaps Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e or the School d i r e c t o r ] i n a r e p o r t on n a v a l t r a i n i n g submitted to him. However, t r a i n i n g c r u i s e s beyond Nomo P e n i n s u l a and the Goto I s l a n d s were not permitted.^6  In p r a c t i c a l f i e l d s such  as e n g i n e e r i n g and s h i p b u i l d i n g , the  showed g r e a t improvement i n one  year.  students  P e l s R i j k e n p r a i s e d them as f o l l o w s :  A l l the students showed i m p r e s s i v e improvement i n knowledge of steam e n g i n e e r i n g . G e n e r a l l y , they showed great enthusiasm i n the study of steam engines and had the a b i l i t y to master i t . In  82  s h i p b u i l d i n g , when the s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d the s t r u c t u r e o f s h i p s and the names o f v a r i o u s p a r t s , they s t u d i e d f u r t h e r and t r i e d to b u i l d a s h i p by themselves.67  The  b u i l d i n g o f the c u t t e r was, i n f a c t , one o f the most r e c o g n i z a b l e  the f i r s t - t e r m n a v a l approval  As mentioned b e f o r e ,  the School  obtained  and a fund t o b u i l d a c u t t e r from the Bakufu i n the s p r i n g of 1856.  Very l i t t l e in  training.  f r u i t s of  i s known about t h i s  cutter.  The c o n s t r u c t i o n i t s e l f began perhaps  the l a t e s p r i n g o r summer of the same y e a r .  I t was s u c c e s s f u l l y launched on  November 18 (10/21) i n the presence of most of the important members from the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e ' s  O f f i c e and the School.  About a h a l f y e a r a f t e r t h i s ,  sometime i n the summer o f 1857 (Ansei 4 ) , i t was f i n a l l y the  f i r s t - t e r m Bakufu s t u d e n t s had l e f t  completed.  As most o f  f o r Edo i n the s p r i n g of 1857, i t was  brought to completion mainly by s e v e r a l remaining Bakufu s t u d e n t s i n c l u d i n g 68 Katsu and the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s . The and  Saga han s t u d e n t s were s t i m u l a t e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s  they a l s o b u i l t  a s i m i l a r one i n 1858.  The Saga han c u t t e r was about 24 69  meters l o n g and 6.3 meters wide and the tonnage was about 50 tons. p r o b a b l y the Bakufu c u t t e r measured very name of the Bakufu c u t t e r i s r e c o r d e d . Satsuma Han Navy) simply  close to this  Saga han c u t t e r .  Sappan K a i g u n - s h i  c a l l s i t the N a g a s a k i - s t y l e  Most  cutter.  them w i t h i n v a l u a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s  b u i l d and f i t out a W e s t e r n - s t y l e s h i p under the s t r i c t Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s .  No  (The H i s t o r y o f the The home-built  c u t t e r was n o t ready f o r t r a i n i n g c r u i s e s by the f i r s t - t e r m s t u d e n t s , construction provided  cutter  to design,  yet i t s  prepare,  s u p e r v i s i o n o f the  T h i s c u t t e r was t o be f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e d  for training  a f t e r 185 7. Neither  Japanese n o r Dutch accounts of those days t e l l  w e l l the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s taught a t Nagasaki.  much about how  One of the r a r e accounts was  given by School d i r e c t o r Nagai i n the autumn of 1856, about a y e a r a f t e r the  83  School s t a r t e d .  He e x p r e s s e d h i s o p i n i o n i n a s h o r t memorial to the Bakufu  c o n c e r n i n g the m i l i t a r y e d u c a t i o n o f Bakufu samurai.  Though he was the d i r e c -  t o r o f the Bakufu n a v a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l , he recommended t h a t the Edo e x e c u t i v e s send samurai abroad i n order t o have them study n a v a l a f f a i r s f o r the expansion and upgrading o f h i s s c h o o l .  r a t h e r than a s k i n g  Why d i d Nagai do so?  According  to h i s memorial, the b i g g e s t concern was the c o s t of o p e r a t i o n o f the School. As the School d i r e c t o r , he was n o t y e t c o n v i n c e d o f the s u c c e s s o f t r a i n i n g when he wrote the memorial.  H i s worry over the expense was f u r t h e r  when he thought o f the q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n .  amplified  F o r Nagai, the q u a l i t y o f the  i n s t r u c t o r s seemed t o be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; he thought t h a t n o t a l l o f the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s were r e a l l y  capable o f t e a c h i n g and p r o v i d i n g the s t u d e n t s w i t h  reasonable e d u c a t i o n . ^  It i s difficult  assumption was c o r r e c t .  In f a c t the School had great d i f f i c u l t i e s  one of i t s k i n d i n Japan. f o r the d i f f i c u l t i e s . i n naval a f f a i r s ,  f o r us to know t o what e x t e n t Nagai's as the f i r s t  Both the Japanese and Dutch s i d e s were r e s p o n s i b l e  While many Japanese s t u d e n t s r e v e a l e d t h e i r  incompetence  the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s a l s o showed t h a t they were n o t always  capable o f t e a c h i n g w e l l .  Although C a p t a i n F a b i u s c a r e f u l l y chose them, they  were by no means p e r f e c t .  No i n s t r u c t o r s understood the Japanese language.  Many o f them may have been a r r o g a n t towards the Japanese who d i d n o t understand e i t h e r the Dutch language or b a s i c s c i e n c e and other s u b j e c t s .  Many i n s t r u c t o r s  may have behaved p o o r l y a t Nagasaki, m i s s i n g t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r y a t the other end of the w o r l d .  However, the r e s u l t o f the f i r s t - t e r m n a v a l t r a i n i n g  P e l s R i j k e n s h o u l d be judged by what prowess  under  the Japanese s t u d e n t s showed l a t e r 7 ^  On January 31, 1857 (Ansei 4, 1/6), Nagai Iwanojo met Donker C u r t i u s and G.C.C. P e l s R i j k e n and d i s c u s s e d a f f a i r s  .of.', the  School and i t s f u t u r e p l a n s .  At t h i s meeting, Nagai t o l d the Dutch t h a t the Bakufu would soon c a l l back a l l the Bakufu s t u d e n t s t o Edo.  He s a i d t h a t a l l the f i r s t - t e r m Bakufu s t u d e n t s  84  would be o p e r a t i n g the Kanko Maru (Soembing) "~ Edo.  P e l s R i j k e n was amazed a t t h i s p l a n .  by themselves  on the  return to  He acknowledged the achievements o f  the s t u d e n t s , s t i l l he h e s i t a t e d t o say t h a t they were f u l l y o p e r a t i n g the -Kanko Maru a l l the way t o Edo.  He asked  capable o f  Nagai t o make arrange-  ments w i t h the Bakufu i n Edo to postpone the s t u d e n t s ' departure i n o r d e r t o , a l l o w them t o study f u r t h e r . Pels Rijken.  The Bakufu d i d n o t accept the s u g g e s t i o n by  I n s t e a d , i t confirmed  i t s order t o the s t u d e n t s , commanding them  to r e t u r n t o Edo i n A p r i l . The  Bakufu had been o p e r a t i n g the M i l i t a r y Academy  s p r i n g o f 1856 a t T s u k i j i i n Edo.  (Kobu-sho) s i n c e the  The main s u b j e c t s taught a t the academy were  t r a d i t i o n a l m a r t i a l a r t s such as swordsmanship and a r c h e r y and r e l a t i v e l y modern 73 artillery.  The Bakufu o r i g i n a l l y planned  t o have a n a v a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l as  a p a r t o f the academy, b u t i t s opening was delayed as no Japanese c o u l d be found.  As the Bakufu e x e c u t i v e s heard  t r a i n i n g a t Nagasaki,  they became convinced  instructors  of the p r o g r e s s o f n a v a l  t h a t i t was time  t o open a n a v a l  t r a i n i n g s c h o o l as a p a r t o f the M i l i t a r y Academy. On March 26 (3/1), b e f o r e l e a v i n g Nagasaki, by  School d i r e c t o r Nagai v i s i t e d  the Dutch Nagasaki  t h e i r r e s p e c t s t o the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s . f o r the f i r s t - t e r m s t u d e n t s .  a l l the Bakufu s t u d e n t s l e d Post on Dejima t o pay  I t was a s o r t o f  g r a d u a t i o n ceremony  Three days l a t e r , on March 29 (3/4), the Kanko  Maru, under a c t i n g Admiral Nagai and C a p t a i n Y a t a b o r i K e i z o , w i t h most o f the 74 Bakufu students on board, The  s e t out f o r Edo.  Bakufu students s a f e l y operated the s h i p and a r r i v e d a t Kanagawa (now  Yokohama) on A p r i l 20 (3/26).  Although  ships b u i l t  i n Japan on o b s o l e t e  Western models had made such voyages b e f o r e , t h i s was the f i r s t modern Western s h i p by a p u r e l y Japanese crew.  operation of a  The Bakufu was s a t i s f i e d  with  the f a c t t h a t the Japanese students s u c c e s s f u l l y operated the s h i p w i t h o u t the h e l p o f Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s .  I t immediately  d i s p a t c h e d a s p e c i a l messenger to  85  Nagasaki  to i n f o r m the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s of the s a f e a r r i v a l of the s h i p .  a d d i t i o n , a great number of g i f t s ation.  Perhaps t h i s s u c c e s s f u l voyage was  the Bakufu s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r one may  f o l l o w e d the messenger as tokens  In  of a p p r e c i -  the most s i g n i f i c a n t achievement of  and a h a l f y e a r s of n a v a l t r a i n i n g .  And  this  have convinced Nagai of h i s s c h o o l ' s s u c c e s s . While most of the f i r s t - t e r m Bakufu s t u d e n t s l e f t  Nagasaki  f o r Edo  and  worked as i n s t r u c t o r s and a s s i s t a n t s at the newly opened Gunkan Kyoju-sho (Naval T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e ) ^ , Katsu R i n t a r o and s e v e r a l o t h e r students at  Nagasaki.  When the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s heard  r e t u r n to Edo,  t h a t a l l the students were to  they requested Nagai to choose at l e a s t one  work to f a c i l i t a t e  future naval t r a i n i n g .  As  At the same time, i t a l s o began choosing the next to Nagasaki.  had  group of  s i m i l a r t o the ones he  e x p e r i e n c e d i n case a l l the e x p e r i e n c e d students l e f t  Katsu d i s c u s s e d t h i s matter  and  the l a t t e r , who  the  instructors.  group of Bakufu s t u d e n t s  Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , P e l s R i j k e n was  p o s s i b l e problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s  would  the Bakufu had made a  agreement w i t h the Dutch government c o n c e r n i n g a new  send  student who  the two-year c o n t r a c t w i t h  i n s t r u c t o r s under P e l s R i j k e n came c l o s e r to the end, new  remained  was  worrying  to  about  and h i s i n s t r u c t o r s Nagasaki.  Nagai  and  about t o l e a v e Nagasaki  l a n d , decided to s t a y at the School t o work as a l i a i s o n man  between the  by  new  j . 76 students and i n s t r u c t o r s . Although  most of the Bakufu students l e f t  t r a i n i n g c o n t i n u e d f o r the remaining School.  Now  the Nagasaki  the Kanko Maru.  Naval  s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p , and  a training ship.  nor  lectures  The N a g a s a k i - s t y l e  In June, Kimura Y o s h i t a k e , who  Nagasaki  and  took o f f i c e as School d i r e c t o r .  and  cutter  would l a t e r become  the l e a d e r of the voyage of the Kanriri Maru t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1860, to  naval  d u l l at the  T r a i n i n g School had n e i t h e r a d i r e c t o r  sense w i t h o u t  had not y e t been completed.  the l e c t u r e s and  s t u d e n t s , but they found l i f e  D i s c i p l i n e lapsed without  t r a i n i n g made l i t t l e  Nagasaki,  Under Kimura, the  School  came  86  was g r a d u a l l y b r o u g h t b a c k t o l i f e . s t u d e n t s , who h a d b e e n p l a y i n g districts  In  the  t r u a n t by going t o the r e d - l i g h t  the e a r l y  summer o f 185 7 ( A n s e i 4, 6/3, 4 a n d 5 ) ,  c o n s e c u t i v e l y at Nagasaki from Batavia.  at Nagasaki.  three regular  t h e Anna D i g n a , and t h e C a t h a r i n e  s h i p s brought v a r i o u s machines  facility  and o t h e r  i n Nagasaki.^  trading ships, the Jan Daniel, arrived  I n p a r t i c u l a r , h e c l a m p e d down on t h e  Theresia,,  Besides ordinary  and o t h e r equipment  Dutch  trade  items,  f o r a planned naval  They a l s o b r o u g h t news t h a t a s t e a m e r t h e B a k u f u o r d e r e d 78  f r o m t h e N e t h e r l a n d s was c o m i n g The D u t c h m e r c h a n t s the  Japanese t h i s year.  two o f t h e t h r e e s h i p s  t o Japan w i t h i n a few months.  on t h e s e s h i p s e n j o y e d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s w i t h A p a r t from the items t h a t had been  to the Japanese.  The C a t h a r i n e T h e r e s i a was p u r c h a s e d  by t h e B a k u f u and t h e J a n D a n i e l b y Saga h a n . relatively  ordered, they sold  A l t h o u g h b o t h o f them were  s m a l l s a i l i n g v e s s e l s , the Japanese bought  them b e c a u s e  t h e y were 79  said  t o b e v e r y u s e f u l n o t o n l y f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n b u t a l s o f o r t r a i n i n g seamen. The  steamer, l o n g awaited by the Bakufu, f i n a l l y  h a r b o u r on S e p t e m b e r one  22 ( 8 / 5 ) .  T h i s s h i p , named t h e J a p a n b y t h e D u t c h , was  o f t h e s h i p s t h e B a k u f u h a d o r d e r e d i n 1854 i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f P e r r y ' s  visit.  The o r i g i n a l p l a n s c a l l e d  national situation  f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n a t B a t a v i a due t o t h e i n t e r -  i n Europe, b u t t h e Dutch government  and h a d a D u t c h s h i p b u i l d e r i n R o t t e r d a m b u i l d of  1857, the f i r s t  screw p r o p e l l e r .  s h i p was f i n i s h e d . The s i z e  later  these ships.  changed i t s p o l i c y In the early  I t was a t h r e e - m a s t e d s t e a m e r w i t h  The  a  I t was t h e J a p a n t h a t w o u l d l a t e r b e u s e d  a t r a n s - P a c i f i c v o y a g e b y a J a p a n e s e c r e w i n 1860 (Man'en 1) w i t h  name o f t h e K a n r i n  spring  a n d t o n n a g e o f t h e s h i p w e r e r e c o r d e d t o b e 55 m e t e r s 80  l o n g , 8 m e t e r s w i d e a n d 625 t o n s . for  showed up i n N a g a s a k i  t h e new  Maru.  J a p a n was b r o u g h t b y a new g r o u p o f D u t c h i n s t r u c t o r s  f o r the Nagasaki  87  Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l . at  It l e f t  the Netherlands on March 26  Nagasaki about h a l f a y e a r l a t e r on September 22.  Kattendyke, the s h i p was The new  t e s t e d on i t s way  to Japan and proved to be  i n s t r u c t o r s of the second detachment  Most s i g n i f i c a n t was  The  instructors, fifteen  the a d d i t i o n of  i n s t r u c t o r s i n the f i e l d s of p r a c t i c a l mechanical e n g i n e e r i n g . seamen, i t brought s e v e r a l s k i l l e d  81 excellent.  were s p e c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d by the  by W.J.C. R i d d e r Huyssen van Kattendyke, numbered t h i r t y - s e v e n ,  more than i n the f i r s t detachment.  arrived  A c c o r d i n g to C a p t a i n van  Dutch government i n response t o the r e q u e s t by the Bakufu. led  (3/1) and  Besides ordinary  a r t i s a n s such as l a t h e o p e r a t o r s , a metal 82  c a s t e r , b l a c k s m i t h , p r i n t e r and o t h e r s . a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s detachment;  would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o n s t r u c -  at Nagasaki.  The Nagasaki S e i t e t s u - s h o would become an important f a c i l i t y Bakufu navy. Mill," tells  f o r the  Although the Japanese name of t h i s works means "Nagasaki  i n f a c t i t was  were  Pompe van M e e r d e r v o o r t , the m e d i c a l d o c t o r ,  and H. Hardes, the e n g i n e e r o f f i c e r who t i o n of a n a v a l f a c i l i t y  Two h i g h l y p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d men  a l a r g e - s c a l e machine shop f o r n a v a l r e p a i r s .  Iron  K a t s u ••  i n d e t a i l i n h i s Kaigun R e k i s h i about t h i s f i r s t W e s t e r n - s t y l e n a v a l  83 f a c i l i t y i n Japan. Based on a d v i c e by the f i r s t group o f Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s , the Bakufu o r d e r e d a s e t of machines and o t h e r n e c e s s a r y equipment to b u i l d a repair f a c i l i t y  i n December, 1855.  84  appears i n Katsu's Kaigun R e k i s h i , we  A c c o r d i n g t o an o u t l i n e p l a n  that  can t e l l t h a t the Bakufu had a q u i t e  ambitious p l a n to b u i l d a l a r g e - s c a l e n a v a l f a c i l i t y  at Nagasaki.  85  The d u t i e s of G.C.C. P e l s R i j k e n and h i s i n s t r u c t o r s a t the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School were d u l y taken over by the second detachment Bakufu rewarded for  the i n s t r u c t o r s of the f i r s t detachment  who  i n October.  had s e r v e d i n Japan  more than two y e a r s w i t h generous amounts of s p e c i a l bonuses.  t y p i c a l g i f t s such as Japanese  The  Besides  swords and c l o t h e s , a l l the i n s t r u c t o r s  including  88  sailors  received special  The h e a d  instructor,  allowances equivalent  P e l s R i j k e n , was  to at least  two y e a r s ' s a l a r y .  g i v e n a bonus e q u a l t o f i v e  times h i s  86 annual s a l a r y . of  the Dutch  T h i s shows n o t o n l y how  i n s t r u c t o r s a t t h e S c h o o l b u t a l s o how  r e p u t a t i o n among W e s t e r n e r s Japan.  the Bakufu e v a l u a t e d the  contribution  a n x i o u s i t was  f o r a good  r e g a r d i n g the treatment of f o r e i g n i n s t r u c t o r s i n  B a k u f u e x e c u t i v e s must h a v e b a s e d t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e D u t c h  on w h a t t h e y saw training  at the Naval T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e  at Nagasaki.  The  first  on November 2 ( 9 / 1 6 ) .  The  B a k u f u and l o c a l han  w e r e a l l on b o a r d t h e J a p a n  and  Nagasaki h a r b o u r t o see i t o f f .  Huyssen detachment  detachment  at T s u k i j i ,  left  a l lfruits  of the  N a g a s a k i on t h e A n n a D i g n a s t u d e n t s a n d new  tugged the s a i l i n g 87  v a n K a t t e n d y k e , A l y e a r s o l d when he  t o J a p a n , was  services  an e x c e l l e n t seaman who  ship  instructors  to the o u t s i d e  t o o k command o f t h e  of  second  had e x p e r i e n c e i n about  half  88 a d o z e n w a r s h i p s on t h e A t l a n t i c  and  I n d i a n Oceans.  Like h i s predecessor  P e l s R i j k e n , v a n K a t t e n d y k e a l s o r e c e i v e d a m o n t h l y wage e q u i v a l e n t g u i l d e r s , w h i l e o t h e r members r e c e i v e d w a g e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r j o b based  on t h e p a y  well paid the  compared t o o r d i n a r y  relatively  month.  schedule f o r the f i r s t sailors.  s c a l e was  The  paid  t h e e n g i n e e r o f f i c e r , H.  totalled  447 kanme  (1,676.25  The  H a r d e s , who  be i n c h a r g e o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e m a c h i n e s h o p . e q u i v a l e n t o f 600 g u i l d e r s .  a r t i s a n s were v e r y  t h e m e a r n e d 180  225 g u i l d e r s .  received  guilders  a  e x c e p t i o n t o the was  His monthly  A c c o r d i n g t o K a t s u , t h e payment f o r t h e k i l o g r a m s or about  450  descriptions  E x c e p t f o r t h e p r i n t e r who  s m a l l amount o f 75 g u i l d e r s , a l l - o f  D r . Pompe v a n M e e r d e r v o o r t was  e s t a b l i s h e d pay  detachment.  to  assigned to p a y was  the  instructors 8< 3,700 p o u n d s ) o f s i l v e r a n n u a l l y .  89  During the months of October  and November, new  s t u d e n t s g r a d u a l l y a r r i v e d at Nagasaki.  Bakufu and l o c a l  han  The number of the students was  t h i s time, and o n l y a t o t a l of t w e n t y - s i x new  Bakufu s t u d e n t s came to  less Nagasaki.  T h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n the Bakufu b e f o r e j o i n i n g the School were as f o l l o w s :  Men f iroTn ths Bciirb3.1*13.11 B o o k s Research I n s t i t u t e * Men from an Edo O f f i c e of the Hakodate M a g i s t r a t e ' s O f f i c e Men from the Uraga M a g i s t r a t e ' s Office Bakufu Astronomers Bakufu M e d i c a l Doctor Others**  6  (23.1%)  4  (15.4%)  3 2 1 10  (11.5%) ( 7.7%) ( 3.8%) (38.5%)  *Bansho Shirabe-sho **These i n c l u d e d some people w i t h o u t positions.90  While  there were n i n e t e e n s t u d e n t s  artillery  any permanent Bakufu  (39.6%) whose o r i g i n a l major o c c u p a t i o n  among the f i r s t - t e r m s t u d e n t s , there was  none i n t h i s group.  Instead,  a t o t a l of ten s t u d e n t s had been s t u d y i n g f o r e i g n books at o f f i c e s l i k e B a r b a r i a n Books Research  I n s t i t u t e and the Hakodate M a g i s t r a t e ' s Edo  was  the  office.  They had been working w i t h Western books c o v e r i n g v a r i o u s f i e l d s of study. Matsumoto Ryojun, a Bakufu m e d i c a l d o c t o r , came t o Nagasaki formal Bakufu s t u d e n t s .  But h i s main concern at Nagasaki was  but m e d i c a l study under Dr. van Meerdervoort. School was  as one  about to change i t s e l f  The  Nagasaki  of the  not n a v a l  training  Naval T r a i n i n g '  i n t o something more than a m i l i t a r y  school  w i t h the a d d i t i o n of m e d i c a l courses and the machine shop. Four s t u d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g Katsu, remained at Nagasaki term Bakufu s t u d e n t s . one who  had  a t o t a l of forty^-one l o c a l han  students.  first-  A l l the students from the second-term group, except f o r  d i e d i n the p r e v i o u s year due  When van Kattendyke  from among the  t o i l l n e s s , c o n t i n u e d a t the  School.  s t a r t e d the s c h o o l program sometime i n November, t h e r e f o r e , Bakufu s t u d e n t s was Saga Han  Kaigun-shi  studying.  Very  little  i s known about  (The H i s t o r y of the Saga Han  Navy)  90  t e l l s us that twenty-one of i t s students p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the n a v a l , under van  j i 91 Kattendyke.  training  F u r t h e r d e t a i l e d r e s e a r c h i s n e c e s s a r y to l e a r n  students from o t h e r l o c a l han, Commander van Kattendyke  although t h e i r r o l e was  relatively  about  minor.  and h i s i n s t r u c t o r s o f f e r e d courses v e r y fully  similar  to the ones g i v e n by P e l s R i j k e n .  But, as had been planned, he  utilized  v a r i o u s i n s t r u c t o r s he had brought  t o make h i s courses more d i v e r s i f i e d  than  b e f o r e , i n c l u d i n g more d e t a i l e d courses f o r b a s i c s c i e n c e and more a p p l i e d technology.  Dr. van Meerdervoort  mainly  taught medicine  taught a b a s i c m e d i c a l course and demonstrated bandaging  as p a r t of n a v a l t r a i n i n g .  The  a l s o taught by t h i s a c t i v e young d o c t o r .  at Dejima,  practical  but he  techniques such  also  as  courses of p h y s i c s and chemistry were A l l the a r t i s a n s were busy i n the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the machine shop at Akunoura i n Nagasaki harbour, b u t , whenever time p e r m i t t e d , they a l s o taught the s t u d e n t s t h e i r own One  of the Japanese i n t e r p r e t e r s was  and l e a r n e d Dutch p r i n t i n g methods.  s a i d to be always w i t h the Dutch p r i n t e r  92  Under the d i r e c t i o n of van Kattendyke, t r a i n i n g c r u i s e s than b e f o r e .  - ;  Being convinced by the success o f the  then allowed the School to use  varying duration.  ~.' •'*  '.  the students e x p e r i e n c e d more  s t u d e n t s , the Bakufu e x e c u t i v e s f i r s t purchased and  t r a d e at the S c h o o l .  first-term  a s a i l i n g v e s s e l f o r the  School  the Bakufu s h i p s f o r t r a i n i n g voyages of  D u r i n g the autumn and w i n t e r of 1857,  the i n s t r u c t o r s  students made f r e q u e n t s h o r t - d i s t a n c e c r u i s e s on these s h i p s .  The  and  Bakufu's  a c q u i s i t i o n of the C a t h a r i n e T h e r e s i a (re-named the Hosho Maru), a s a i l i n g v e s s e l , was  found t o be v e r y e f f i c a c i o u s , as the s h i p was  the Japanese s t u d e n t s i n the o p e r a t i o n of s a i l s . more d i f f i c u l t  than steamers  useful for training  S a i l i n g v e s s e l s were much  to o p e r a t e , thus p r o v i d i n g n o v i c e Japanese s t u d e n t s  w i t h more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p r a c t i c e ^ the g e n e r a l o p e r a t i o n of s h i p s .  Even  today, t h i s i s regarded as t r u e and t r a i n i n g on s a i l i n g v e s s e l s i s v e r y common  91  p r a c t i c e a l l over the w o r l d . Full-scale  training  c r u i s e s b e g a n i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1858  t h e w i n t e r s t o r m s e a s o n was  over.  the n o r t h w e s t e r n p a r t of Kyushu, t h e s e c r u i s e s i n 1858,  ( A n s e i 5)  after  Numerous t r i p s w e r e c a r r i e d o u t m a i n l y a r o u n d the major  southwestern i s l a n d  t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  one was  of Japan.  Among  a c i r c u m n a v i g a t i o n of Kyushu  93 in April. north.  Early i n A p r i l ,  the Japan s a i l e d  On b o a r d t h e s h i p w e r e more t h a n 120  n i n e t e e n Dutch performed  instructors.  the r o l e  out of N a g a s a k i h a r b o u r t o the Japanese  K a t s u R i n t a r o was  of v i c e - c a p t a i n .  t h e c a p t a i n and  Enomoto K a m a j i r o h a d  i m p o r t a n t member o f t h e s h i p as an e n g i n e e r o f f i c e r . students from l o c a l han; The H.  Dutch  instructors  one  each  included  Izawa  and two  from  t h e commander v a n K a t t e n d y k e , e n g i n e e r  t r a d i n g f a c t o r y once e x i s t e d  The  Japan  first  visited  i n the 17th c e n t u r y .  And  Van  Kattendyke wrote  to c i r c u m n a v i g a t e Kyushu I s l a n d  when t h e J a p a n was  and v i s i t 94  at Shimonoseki.  o t h e r J a p a n e s e h i t upon t h e p l a n t r u t h was,  Kagoshima,  to v i s i t  The D u t c h  had w r i t t e n  l o r d s about Western  officer  Japan's  c a p i t a l o f Satsuma h a n ,  as i f K a t s u  i n s t r u c t o r s were n o t t o l d o f t h e p l a n a t . a l l .  affairs, especially military  to Kagoshima so t h a t the m i l i t a r i l y 95  enlightened lord  observe a Western-style warship.  Two  t h a t the Japanese  The  Nagasaki  o f t h e most technology.  t o S c h o o l d i r e c t o r K i m u r a Y o s h i t a k e a s k i n g t h a t t h e J a p a n be  t h e s h i p when t h e y a r r i v e d  and  Kagoshima w h i l e at Shimonoseki.  N a r i a k i r a o f S a t s u m a h a n w a s , a s m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , one  knowledgeable  Satsuma.  "Katsu proposed a plan  T h i s s t a t e m e n t sounds  1  four  then i t proceeded  h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e p l a n h a d b e e n c a r e f u l l y made b e f o r e t h e  departure of the ship. Shimazu  i n h i s diary that  an  H i r a d o where  t o S h i m o n o s e k i , an i m p o r t a n t p o r t t o w n on t h e w e s t e r n t i p o f H o n s h u , largest island.  and  Kingo  a l r e a d y become  There were o n l y  f r o m S a g a and F u k u o k a  H a r d e s and D r . Pompe v a n M e e r d e r v o o r t .  a Dutch  s t u d e n t s and s a i l o r s  S a t s u m a men  i n K a g o s h i m a Bay.  d e c e i v e d the Dutch  o f Satsuma c o u l d  sent  personally  on t h e J a p a n w e r e t o  I t i s probably not correct  instructors.  He  pilot to say  Rather, i t i s appropriate  92  f o r us t o assume t h a t the Japanese t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s and  regarded the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s p u r e l y as  instructors.  On A p r i l 9 (3/15), the Japan a r r i v e d at Yamagawa, a p o r t town about k i l o m e t e r s south of Kagoshima at the mouth of Kagoshima Bay. who  had been at nearby hot s p r i n g s , v i s i t e d  55  Shimazu N a r i a k i r a ,  the s h i p on the f o l l o w i n g day.  At  Yamagawa the l o r d f o r m a l l y gave an i n v i t a t i o n to the crew to s a i l up the bay to Kagoshima.  E a r l y i n the e v e n i n g o f A p r i l 10  Kagoshima harbour where the crew was  (3/16), the s h i p anchored i n  g r e e t e d by Satsuma han samurai and  hundreds  96 of c u r i o u s townspeople who  had never seen Europeans b e f o r e .  For the next few days, the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s and Japanese s o n a l l y guided to v a r i o u s p l a c e s i n Kagoshima by Shimazu.  crew were p e r -  His i n t e n t i o n  to o b t a i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s t r a t e g i c a d v i c e about h i s i n d u s t r i a l and cannon b a t t e r i e s from the Dutch e x p e r t s . tant m i l i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s ,  and. 97  comments and s u g g e s t i o n s .  was  facilities  He openly showed them many impor-  the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s e a r n e s t l y made v a l u a b l e  A l l the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s seem to have been v e r y  impressed by the numerous i n d u s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s  at Kagoshima.  A c c o r d i n g to  van Kattendyke's d i a r y , they were e s p e c i a l l y impressed by the Shusei-kan f a c t o r y , where Satsuma men on.,  worked w i t h v a r i o u s m e t a l s , g l a s s , machines and so  Thomas C. Smith d e s c r i b e s i n h i s ' b o o k , P o l i t i c a l Change and  Development i n Japan, how  busy the f a c t o r y was  i n the l a t e  Industrial 98  1850's.  Van Kattendyke a l s o observed a t i n y s h i p r i g h t next to the Japan a n harbour.  I t was  the Unko Maru, the f i r s t  steamer b u i l t by the Japanese.  found the steam engine of the s h i p c o u l d y i e l d  the He  only 10 to 20 per cent of i t s  t h e o r e t i c a l maximum power due t o s e v e r a l mechanical d e f e c t s and poor workmanship.  However, he was  r e a l l y amazed at s e e i n g the t i n y steamer at Kagoshima:  I was v e r y much people who had b u i l t blueprint. They had before. It requires  s u r p r i s e d at the e x t r a o r d i n a r y t a l e n t of the t h i s s o r t of engine based on a very b r i e f never a c t u a l l y seen a s i n g l e steam engine a l o t of e f f o r t even f o r us Dutch t o f u l l y  understand the function of a steam engine!  99  Later the Dutch instructors advised Satsuma men to send the steamer to Nagasaki so that the former engine.  would be able to repair and improve the function of the  Indeed, the steam engine was repaired i n the summer of the same year  at Nagasaki and used u n t i l the end of the Tokugawa period. Satsuma han samurai were very eager to seek opinions about their batteries and their cannons around Kagoshima harbour.  The Dutch instructors were taken  to many construction s i t e s of new b a t t e r i e s .  They were also shown various  cannons that Satsuma han was founding, including those made of both bronze and iron.  Van Kattendyke recorded that the bronze cannons were very well made,  while the iron cannons were not yet s k i l l f u l l y done."'"^"'" On A p r i l 12 (3/18) , the Japan l e f t Kagoshima and stayed for a day at Yamagawa before i t s a i l e d o f f to Nagasaki.  Shimazu i n v i t e d the ship there again  because he r e a l l y wanted to see i t once more.  This time the lord held a party  on board the Japan and invited the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s , Katsu and Izawa.  There  should be no need to mention that Shimazu enjoyed seeing various parts of the ship's equipment as well as the party i t s e l f at which he even listened to v i o l i n •, ,  102  music played by van Kattendyke. Van Kattendyke says that he was impressed by two of the people whom he met at Kagoshima:  the lord Shimazu Nariakira and a man named Matsuki Koan.  Shimazu was described by van Kattendyke as one of the most powerful lords i n Japan who was promoting s o c i a l reforms and the development of i n d u s t r i a l technology.  Van Kattendyke thought Shimazu very affable, though he looked much 10 3 older than h i s actual age. Matsuki Koan, l a t e r known as Terashima Munenori, 104 became one of the most important diplomats i n the early M e i j i period.  He  was a teacher of the Dutch language and often translated Dutch writings into Japanese.  Van Kattendyke wrote that "this man did not speak Dutch but wrote i t  94  faultlessly." o f t e n Dutch  He was  i n s t r u c t o r s were not a b l e to s a t i s f y  Dr. van Meerdervoort his  diary.  a l s o amazed t h a t Matsuki's  It t e l l s  c u r i o s i t y was  he saw  that  him.  a l s o noted h i s i m p r e s s i o n o f the v i s i t  us how  so broad  to Satsuma i n  Shimazu:  What we f e l t v e r y s t r a n g e [when meeting the l o r d Shimazu] was the extremely f r u g a l c l o t h e s of the l o r d and h i s s e r v a n t s . The l o r d hated extravagance. He l o o k e d v e r y f r i e n d l y , b u t , a t the same time, he seemed to be s t i f f . I thought he was o l d e r than 55 y e a r s of age, b u t , i n a c t u a l i t y , I overcounted by about ten years. Perhaps he was the most important man i n Japan i n those days.106  After observing various f a c i l i t i e s young Dutch  and meeting many people a t Kagoshima, the  d o c t o r concluded t h a t " t h i s domain w i l l  be the most prosperous  and  s t r o n g e s t one i n Japan i f i t i s a l l o w e d to have i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h Europeans *  <-1  "  1  0  7  more f r e q u e n t l y . The o f f i c e r s and Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s promised Shimazu that they would be Kagoshima a g a i n i n the near f u t u r e and l e f t Japan a r r i v e d s a f e l y at Nagasaki The v i s i t  Yamagawa on A p r i l 13  on the f o l l o w i n g  visiting  (3/19).  The  day.  of the Japan to Kagoshima c r e a t e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r K a t s u  R i n t a r o to meet s e v e r a l important f i g u r e s i n one of the most i n f l u e n t i a l  han.  I t i s not i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o say t h a t a f t e r t h i s time Katsu began to r e a l i z e a new  r o l e f o r h i m s e l f as a man  Bakufu i n Edo.  to work between l o c a l han  S e v e r a l l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by  the Japan show us how  l o r d s and the Tokugawa  Shimazu N a r i a k i r a a f t e r the v i s i t  f r a n k l y Shimazu and K a t s u d i s c u s s e d v a r i o u s a f f a i r s  as m i l i t a r y development, domestic p o l i t i c s  and the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  example, i n a l e t t e r t o M a t s u d a i r a Shungaku ( K e i e i , Yoshinaga)  han  (today F u k u i - k e n ) , Shimazu mentioned Nagasaki.  such  situation.  For  at  of  of E c h i z e n  the development of the n a v a l t r a i n i n g  He s a i d t h a t K a t s u c o n f e s s e d to him t h a t the Japanese  students  were then capable of o p e r a t i n g the Japan, a steamer, q u i t e w e l l but were not — — 108 r e a l l y p r o f i c i e n t i n the o p e r a t i o n of the Hosho Maru, a s a i l i n g v e s s e l .  95  (In f a c t , the Japanese  s t u d e n t s had never t r i e d a l o n g - d i s t a n c e c r u i s e on a  modern W e s t e r n - s t y l e s a i l i n g v e s s e l b e f o r e by themselves. l o n g - d i s t a n c e c r u i s e was  The o n l y p r e v i o u s  that of the Kanko Maru , the steamer,  t o Edo the year  b e f o r e . ) A l e t t e r to one of Shimazu's s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t Katsu p e r s o n a l l y 109 made arrangements  w i t h Shimazu t o d i s c u s s many m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s .  important l e t t e r was  w r i t t e n on May  Besides n a v a l t r a i n i n g a f f a i r s , the proposed commercial  24  The most  (4/12) by Shimazu to K a t s u i n Nagasaki.  Shimazu c a n d i d l y e x p r e s s e d h i s o p i n i o n  treaties."*""^  about  Judging from t h i s l e t t e r , Katsu and  Shimazu seem to have become q u i t e i n t i m a t e w i t h each o t h e r through the meeting at Kagoshima. officials Bakufu  I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r us to assume t h a t Shimazu and o t h e r Satsuma  a f t e r that time expected Katsu to achieve prominence  i n the f u t u r e  system.  In February, 1858, b e f o r e the c i r c u m n a v i g a t i o n of Kyushu, the Bakufu had ordered School d i r e c t o r Kimura to send the Hosho Maru w i t h a Japanese  crew to  Edo as soon as p o s s i b l e .  Kimura chose Katsu as the c a p t a i n o f the s h i p  prepared f o r the voyage.  T h i s scheme was,  o p p o s i t i o n by van Kattendyke who would s t i l l be too d i f f i c u l t  however, postponed because  of the  claimed t h a t the o p e r a t i o n of the Hosho Maru  f o r a Japanese  the School a g a i n h e a r d from Edo  and  crew at t h a t time.  t h a t the Hosho Maru was  On June 15 ( 5 / 5 ) ,  needed i n the  r e g i o n so t h a t the s h i p must be brought t o Edo immediately.  capital  Nobody opposed  the  Bakufu d e c i s i o n t h i s time and Kimura o r d e r e d Izawa Kingo t o d i r e c t the o p e r a t i o n of the s h i p .  Katsu was  very unhappy about Kimura's d e c i s i o n as he was  r e p l a c e d as c a p t a i n of the Hosho Maru. d e c i s i o n and s t a y at Nagasaki.  being  But he had no c h o i c e but to obey the  K a t s u was  s o r r y f o r the d e c i s i o n , not o n l y  because he missed an o p p o r t u n i t y to operate the Hosho Maru but a l s o because l o s t . a - c h a n c e t o r e t u r n to Edo.  he  He had become much more i n t e r e s t e d i n p o l i t i c a l  a f f a i r s i n Edo and Kyoto than n a v a l t r a i n i n g i n those days.  96  Although van Kattendyke d i d not oppose the voyage of the Hosho Maru under Izawa, he was ship.  still  d o u b t f u l about the a b i l i t y of a Japanese  The two s h i p s l e f t Nagasaki on June 21  to  the  So he proposed a p l a n to use the Japan to tug the Hosho Maru to the  south o f Kyushu where Edo-bound s h i p s c o u l d c a t c h the r i g h t  how  crew to s a i l  managed to reach Yamagawa.  wind.  (5/11) i n stormy weather  and some-  While the Hosho Maru was w a i t i n g f o r the storm  calm down, the Japan a g a i n v i s i t e d Kagoshima.  t h i s time by Kimura Y o s h i t a k e .  The crew o f the s h i p was l e d  At Kagoshima harbour, the Bakufu crew and  Dutch  i n s t r u c t o r s were warmly g r e e t e d by Shimazu on the Mannen Maru, one o f the f o u r 112 s h i p s Satsuma had b u i l t i n 1854.  Shimazu expected t o hear comments from the  Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s about the S a t s u m a - b u i l t s h i p .  Two  months b e f o r e , the s h i p  had been under r e p a i r and c o u l d not be examined by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s from Europe. Van Kattendyke wrote what he t o l d  Shimazu about the Mannen Maru i n h i s d i a r y :  I saw a three-masted s h i p w i t h a tonnage o f about 1,000 i n the harbour. I t was a s h i p b u i l t a t Satsuma f o u r y e a r s ago. Because the b l u e p r i n t they used was from a very o l d book on s h i p b u i l d i n g , the s h i p looked v e r y i n a d e q u a t e . The appearance and the c o n s t r u c t i o n were, i f I may be a l l o w e d a l i t t l e e x a g e r a t i o n , l i k e a s h i p of the o l d East I n d i a Company..... The s h i p was named the Mannen M a r u . H 3  T h i s must have been a sad comment to Shimazu who b u i l d i n g of W e s t e r n - s t y l e s h i p s i n h i s own cease  to-: b u i l d  ships  and  The Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s were a g a i n the  defense f a c i l i t i e s  them a c l a s s i f i e d map  had been b r a v e l y promoting the  domain.  Soon Satsuma han  b e g i n b u y i n g them from Western  would countries.  asked to give t h e i r o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g  of Kagoshima. To t h e i r s u r p r i s e , which d e t a i l e d defense f a c i l i t i e s  Shimazu even showed of the harbour.  On  t h e i r t o u r , they were a g a i n a s t o n i s h e d when they found some of the s u g g e s t i o n s they had made i n A p r i l had ; ^already' the  "materialized.  The Dutch had never seen  Japanese c a r r y i n g out any p l a n s or s u g g e s t i o n s so q u i c k l y . The Japan weighed  anchor on June 27  (5/17) and proceeded to Yamagawa where  it  found the Hosho Maru had a l r e a d y l e f t  Japan l e f t Yamagawa i n a heavy  f o r Edo.  A f t e r one day's s t a y , the  storm and a r r i v e d at Nagasaki.  Both the  Japanese  and Dutch a t Nagasaki w o r r i e d about C a p t a i n Izawa and o t h e r members on the Hosho Maru u n t i l  they f i n a l l y h e a r d from Edo of t h e i r s a f e a r r i v a l .  s a i l e d through stormy weather bility was  The  ship  f o r s i x days t o reach Edo and proved the capa-  of the crew i n the o p e r a t i o n o f a s a i l i n g v e s s e l . ^ " *  The Hosho Maru  h e n c e f o r t h kept at the Naval T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e at T s u k i j i and used f o r  n a v a l t r a i n i n g and p a t r o l l i n g Edo Bay. as i n s t r u c t o r s and t e a c h i n g  Most o f the o f f i c ers worked a t the i n s t i t u t e  assistants.  From about t h a t time on, the t r a f f i c between Edo, Osaka and  Nagasaki  i n c r e a s e d and o f t e n the Kariko Maru and the Japan were used to make up a s h o r t a g e of o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n means.  The Japan went t o Edo  J u l y , soon a f t e r i t r e t u r n e d from Kagoshima. Nagasaki and Edo d u r i n g 1858.  f o r the f i r s t  time i n  I t t r a v e l l e d a few times between  The Bakufu needed  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y between Kyoto/Osaka  a q u i c k and t r u s t w o r t h y means and Edo,  as the n e g o t i a t i o n s  'between the Bakufu and the I m p e r i a l Court became i n t e n s e i n r e l a t i o n to the commercial  t r e a t y b a r g a i n i n g w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n the s p r i n g and summer.  The Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g because  the Japan was  School s u f f e r e d from the l a c k o f t r a i n i n g  ships  o f t e n p r e s s e d i n t o s e r v i c e f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n between  Edo and the Kyoto/Osaka  area.  The second s h i p from the N e t h e r l a n d s f o r the Bakufu a r r i v e d a t Nagasaki October 9 (9/3).  The new  s h i p Edo was  l a t e r renamed the Choyo Maru and  mainly f o r n a v a l t r a i n i n g a t Nagasaki. ships.  A f t e r a month, on November 10  steamer  from the N e t h e r l a n d s .  l e r e d s h i p , was  was  (10/5), Saga han f i n a l l y  sister  obtained a  s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r but v e r y s i m i l a r to the Japan and the  l a t e r renamed the Derifyu Maru.  used  s h i p were  The Nagasaki, a three-hundred ton screw  — I t was  The Japan and t h i s new  on  propelEdo.  116 The Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School  b e s t s e r v e d by t r a i n i n g s h i p s a t the end o f 1858 w i t h such s h i p s  available  98  as the Kanriri Maru " ( J a p a n ) (Jan  D a n i e l ) , and  November was  two  1 1 /  , the Choyo Maru, the Denryu Maru, the Hiun Maru  Nagasaki-style cutters.  A trip  t o Fukuoka han  i n late  perhaps the f i n a l and most i m p r e s s i v e t r a i n i n g c r u i s e the Dutch  i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s made d u r i n g the e n t i r e p e r i o d of the School. the newest and most advanced steamers,  the Karirin Maru and  Two  of  the Choyo Maru,  v i s i t e d Hakata, c a p i t a l of the domain, at the request of l o r d Kuroda N a r i h i r o . The  crew and  the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s on the two  and oh t h e i r way trained a b i l i t y  back t o Nagasaki,  l e c t u r e s and  second h a l f of 1858,  118  t r a i n i n g c r u i s e s went on c o n t i n u o u s l y i n the  the a t t e n t i o n of the s t u d e n t s was  t r a i n i n g to p o l i t i c a l  the s t a y a t Hakata,  the Japanese crew demonstrated t h e i r w e l l -  t o operate the s h i p s .  Although both  s h i p s enjoyed  a f f a i r s i n Edo and Kyoto.  t r e a t y w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s was  concluded  s h i f t e d from n a v a l  In t h i s y e a r , the  on J u l y 29  (6/19) and  commercial then i t was  f o l l o w e d by s i m i l a r t r e a t i e s w i t h the N e t h e r l a n d s , R u s s i a , Great B r i t a i n France.  and  On the o t h e r hand, more and more a n t i - f o r e i g n f e e l i n g spread a l l over  Japan, backed by the I m p e r i a l Court i n Kyoto, c a u s i n g a s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t between the pro-and  anti-treaty  T h i s s i t u a t i o n was  factions. f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by the problem of s u c c e s s i o n ; the  t h i r t e e n t h Shogun Iesada was In  f a c t , the matter  u r g e n t , and  K i i Province  two  (now  and expected  of the s u c c e s s i o n may  contemporary p o l i t i c a l was  ailing  confusion.  The  to d i e soon without  an h e i r .  have been the b i g g e r reason f o r the  s e l e c t i o n o f the s u c c e s s o r t o  c a n d i d a t e s were c o n s i d e r e d .  One  was  Iesada  Tokugawa Y o s h i t o m i  Wakayama-ken), n e a r e s t to the Shogun by descent but  only t h i r t e e n years o l d .  The  Tokugawa N a r i a k i of M i t o han.  o t h e r was He was  H i t o t s u b a s h i K e i k i , seventh  adopted  as a p r o m i s i n g young f i g u r e .  The  still  son of  i n t o the H i t o t s u b a s h i house  was  regarded  who  had been a d v o c a t i n g v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and m i l i t a r y reforms  of  and  s u p p o r t e r s of K e i k i were people to cope w i t h  99  changing i n t e r n a t i o n a l and domestic  situations.  They were s o - c a l l e d r e f o r m i n g  l o r d s , i n c l u d i n g R e i k i ' s own  f a t h e r , and a number of Bakufu  cially  rank.  among those of middle  officials,  espe-:.\."  On the o t h e r hand, Y o s h i t o m i ' s c l a i m was 119  s t r o n g l y based  on descent.  daimyo found t h e i r own  Most of the Bakufu  senior o f f i c i a l s  power i n the p r i n c i p l e of h e r e d i t y and  R e i k i might b r i n g a d r a s t i c change i n t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s .  and  fudai  considered that  They needed a f i g u r e -  head r a t h e r than an a b l e , a c t i v e shogun i n o r d e r t o c a r r y out t h e i r own ative p o l i c i e s .  A f t e r I i Naosuke, the l o r d o f Hikone han  l a t e r the l e a d e r of the R i i f a c t i o n , was of  . tairo  officials,  Shiga-ken) and  a p p o i n t e d by the Shogun to the p o s i t i o n  (grand c o u n c i l l o r ) , the most p o w e r f u l p o s i t i o n among the  Bakufu  on June 4 (4/23), p r o - H i t o t s u b a s h i l o r d s and o f f i c i a l s were i g n o r e d  and g r a d u a l l y ousted from important Bakufu p o s i t i o n s . the s o - c a l l e d A n s e i no Taigoku d i r e c t i o n of I i i n October resentment  (now  conserv-  Under these  circumstances,  (the Purge o f the A n s e i P e r i o d ) began under the  and sent many a n t i - I i men  to p r i s o n .  Political  towards I i Naosuke spread among the students at the Nagasaki  T r a i n i n g School and n a v a l t r a i n i n g seems, t o have become a minor i s s u e to  Naval compared  politics. Ratsu h i m s e l f d e c i d e d to l e a v e Nagasaki  changes and new  developments i n t r e a t y a f f a i r s .  much more i n t e r e s t e d i n v i s i t i n g politics.  f o r Edo  Europe and  as he heard of p o l i t i c a l  At t h i s time, however, he  was  the U n i t e d S t a t e s than i n domestic  And he c o n s i d e r e d t h a t he would be a b l e t o c r e a t e an o p p o r t u n i t y to  do so by p r o p o s i n g a p l a n to send a Japanese d i p l o m a t i c m i s s i o n abroad  on a  Japanese s h i p . The ChOyb Maru commanded by G a p t a i n Katsu l e f t Nagasaki 1859  (Ansei 6, 1/5).  The s h i p proceeded  managed to reach Edo Bay Edo  on February 17  f o r n e a r l y t h r e e and a h a l f y e a r s .  knowledge of Dutch s t u d i e s .  through a 120 (1/15). He was  on February  severe w i n t e r storm  7, and  Katsu had been away from no l o n g e r a mere samurai w i t h a  He had e x p e r i e n c e d e x t e n s i v e n a v a l  training,  100  l e a r n e d many Western s u b j e c t s , o b t a i n e d the most r e c e n t news of Western count r i e s , and, most i m p o r t a n t l y , got a c q u a i n t e d w i t h v a r i o u s l o r d s and i n the southwestern  their  men  p r o v i n c e s which were about to emerge on to the stage i n the  main stream of Japan's modern h i s t o r y . Upon h i s r e t u r n , Katsu was  appointed t o be  Naval T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e at T s u k i j i . man,  and he was  K a t s u was  Edo  certainly a pro-Hitotsubashi  favoured by Bakufu m i d d l e - r a n k i n g  Tadanori and Nagai Naomune (Iwanojo), who But  the head i n s t r u c t o r at the  Katsu d i d not h o l d an important f o r the l a s t  o f f i c i a l s such as Mizuno  were b e i n g purged by  I i Naosuke.  Bakufu p o s i t i o n and had been away from  three y e a r s d u r i n g which the p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t between the  K i i and H i t o t s u b a s h i f a c t i o n s had become most f i e r c e . p r o - H i t o t s u b a s h i i n c l i n a t i o n s , he at the I n s t i t u t e and was  Therefore, despite h i s  c o u l d o b t a i n the p o s i t i o n of head  instructor  chosen to be the c a p t a i n of the K a n r i n Maru on i t s  voyage t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r of  1860.  The Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s were informed by the Nagasaki M a g i s t r a t e ' s O f f i c e March 10, 1859  (Ansei 6,  2/6),  t h a t the Bakufu i n Edo had  t i n u e the o p e r a t i o n of the Nagasaki i n h i s d i a r y t h a t the n o t i c e was  decided to d i s c o n -  Naval T r a i n i n g School.  unexpected  on  by a l l the Dutch  Van Kattendyke instructors:  T h i s s t r a n g e n o t i c e t h a t nobody a n t i c i p a t e d gave us a v e r y unpleasant f e e l i n g . Because many of us suspected t h a t the Japanese government d e c i d e d t o d i s c h a r g e us as soon as p o s s i b l e s i n c e i t was not s a t i s f i e d w i t h our t r a i n i n g . However, I myself do not t h i n k t h a t way. Rather, as some s t u d e n t s e x p l a i n e d , the government must have reached the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t no f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e and e d u c a t i o n by Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s i s n e c e s s a r y because the Japanese s t u d e n t s were s u c c e s s f u l i n the o p e r a t i o n of steamers and proved t h a t they c o u l d make voyages s a f e l y . I t i s the c h a r a c t e r of the Japanese people to t r y to do e v e r y t h i n g a l l by themselves. The students who were angry at the government [ d e c i s i o n ] accused the newly appointed t a i r o of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c l o s u r e of the School. The t a i r o belongs to a c o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . ^ 2 1  wrote  101  In  A p r i l , most of the Bakufu and l o c a l han s t u d e n t s o t h e r than those from  Saga han l e f t Nagasaki. of  the School was  And  on the 18th of the same month, r e g u l a r  terminated.  operation  A f t e r t h a t , the i n s t r u c t o r s c o n t i n u e d o n l y a  few courses f o r Saga han samurai, and they spent most of t h e i r time on the r e p a i r of the Kanko Maru. its at  engine needed  The s h i p had been used f o r more than e i g h t y e a r s and  a complete o v e r h a u l .  Some s t u d e n t s from Saga han were always  the s i t e of the o v e r h a u l s i n c e they were o r d e r e d by t h e i r l o r d to l e a r n  every d e t a i l o f the Kanko Maru.  S p e c i a l arrangements  had been made between the  Bakufu and Nabeshima Naomasa c o n c e r n i n g the use of the Kanko Maru a f t e r the School was his  closed.  As the f i r s t  steamer he had seen, Nabeshima never gave up  dream of p o s s e s s i n g the KankO-Maru'and f i n a l l y  o b t a i n e d p e r m i s s i o n t o borrow  122 it  f o r the use of h i s domain.  The t r i a l  o f the r e f u r b i s h e d Kanko Maru was  completed i n October and the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s f i n i s h e d t h e i r duty i n Japan. A f t e r more than two y e a r s ' s t a y i n Japan, van Kattendyke and o t h e r l e a d i n g members o f the second detachment  t o Japan made t h e i r f a r e w e l l s to the  Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l , the town o f Nagasaki, Japan and i t s p e o p l e . The K a n r i n Maru, which was and f i r e d a seven-gun I t was  s a l u t e t o the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s outward bound f o r B a t a v i a .  November 4, 1859  appointment, ended  at Nagasaki then, f l e w the Dutch n a t i o n a l emblem  (Ansei 6, 10/10).  Thus, i n amity y e t w i t h some d i s -  the a c t i v i t i e s of the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l .  i  102  CHAPTER 5  Conclusion: Reasons f o r the C l o s u r e and the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School  In the midst  of Japan's i n t e r n a t i o n a l and  1850's, the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School was three y e a r s .  But i n s t r u c t i o n c o n t i n u e d  the S i g n i f i c a n c e of  domestic c o n f u s i o n i n the f o r m a l l y operated  and ended i n 1859,  The  samurai students  t r a i n e d a t o t a l of about 200  of non-samurai students  Although  from l o c a l domains were allowed  and  to a t t e n d .  The  utilized  (Dutch  l i t t l e methodical  T r a i n i n g School was gawa Bakufu.  one  Tokugawa  l e f t after i t s closure i n  in  teachers  timetables.  The many  s t u d i e d a l l by  chapter w i t h  The  them-  Nagasaki Naval  the  the  legacy  1859.  Those reasons  from the Japanese s i d e and  Toku-  the o p e r a t i o n of  f o r i t s t e r m i n a t i o n and  i n d i f f e r e n t books have p r e s e n t e d  c l o s u r e of the School.  one  of the l a s t l a r g e - s c a l e endeavours of the a i l i n g  we w i l l examine the reasons  S e v e r a l authors  the f i r s t  a s s i s t a n c e from t h e i r masters.  We have d e a l t i n the p r e v i o u s  School, and now  from  s t u d i e s ) i n the e a r l y 1800's  t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese methods, i n which students  selves with  It differed  School was  c u s t o m a r i l y d e v i s e t e a c h i n g p l a n s , c u r r i c u l a and  p r i v a t e s c h o o l s f o r Western s t u d i e s  an unknown number  the Bakufu e s t a b l i s h e d i t , many samurai  Japan to employ a s y s t e m a t i c Western method i n t e a c h i n g . d i d not  a l s o i n the summer.  from v a r i o u s p a r t s of the country.  t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l s i n Japan.  f o r about  almost f o u r y e a r s because i n f o r m a l  s c h o o l i n g s t a r t e d i n the summer of 1855 School  late  can be  v a r i o u s reasons  c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o two  f o r the  groups,  one  the o t h e r from the Dutch s i d e .  Fumikura H e i j i r o , the author  of Bakumatsu Gunkan K a n r i n Maru (The  Kanrin  Maru, Warship i n the Late Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , c o n s i d e r s t h a t the School was as a r e s u l t of the i n s t a l l a t i o n of I i Naosuke as t a i r o . strong conservative p o l i t i c i a n , decided  to end  He  says  closed  t h a t I i , the  the o p e r a t i o n of the School  at  103  Nagasaki because the Hikone l o r d d i s l i k e d a n y t h i n g Western."*" Ii's  He quoted  one o f  s h o r t poems (waka):  Why s h o u l d we l e a r n f o r e i g n ways 2 When we have i n h e r i t e d our t r a d i t i o n a l way o f the samurai.  Fumikura thus accuses Nagasaki  I i of a c o n s e r v a t i v e m i l i t a r y p o l i c y i n c l o s i n g the  Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l .  D e s p i t e Fumikura's assumption, Ii's  c o n s e r v a t i s m brought  however, i t i s n o t r i g h t t o conclude  that  the School to an end, s i n c e he maintained the Naval  T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e a t T s u k i j i , which o f f e r e d n a v a l t r a i n i n g courses based on the system  of the Dutch navy.  domain without  Although he was the l o r d o f Hikone han, an i n l a n d  d i r e c t access to the ocean, h i s knowledge o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l  a f f a i r s and t e c h n o l o g i c a l development i n Western c o u n t r i e s was f a r s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f many o t h e r l o r d s .  T h i s i s proven by h i s memorial .submitted t o the 3  Bakufu i n r e l a t i o n t o the v i s i t  o f P e r r y i n 1853.  I f h i s conservatism could  abide c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the Naval T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e a t T s u k i j i , i t was h a r d l y s t r o n g enough t o be the main reason f o r the c l o s u r e o f the Nagasaki In  Nihon no Gunkoku-shugi  School.  (Japanese M i l i t a r i s m ) , Inoue K i y o s h i a l s o  says  t h a t I i was a v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e , even r e a c t i o n a r y f i g u r e who suspended many 4 reforms i n i t i a t e d by h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s such as Abe Masahiro  and H o t t a  Masayoshi.  But he a t t r i b u t e s the c e s s a t i o n of the t r a i n i n g program o f the School r a t h e r t o r e c o g n i t i o n of the a n t i - B a k u f u f e e l i n g among tozama han samurai western p r o v i n c e s than t o I i ' s c o n s e r v a t i s m . ^ mood among the samurai  from the h i s t o r i c a l l y  D e t e c t i n g the r i s i n g  the Bakufu  anti-Bakufu  anti-Tokugawa domains i n Chugoku,  Shikoku and Kyushu, Inoue c o n s i d e r s t h a t I i Naosuke f e l t for  i n the s o u t h -  i t would be h a r m f u l  t o l e t them continue s t u d y i n g modern n a v a l a f f a i r s .  This p o l i t -  i c a l a s t u t e n e s s of I i i s a much more p e r s u a s i v e reason than h i s c o n s e r v a t i s m . One p i e c e of evidence  f o r t h i s i s the f a c t t h a t the Naval T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e a t  104  T s u k i j i was open only t o Bakufu and f u d a i han samurai, not t o tozama han samurai at  all. Inoue p o i n t s out another reason f o r the c l o s u r e o f the S c h o o l .  He says  t h a t the Bakufu was q u i t e c o n t e n t w i t h the success a c h i e v e d by the Japanese students a t Nagasaki.  The steamer Kanko Maru was brought t o Edo by a Japanese  crew i n 185 7, and another Japanese 1858.  crew s u c c e s s f u l l y s a i l e d the Hosho Maru i n  So i t i s not amiss f o r us t o t h i n k t h a t the Bakufu was s a t i s f i e d w i t h  the t r a i n i n g a t Nagasaki.  Furthermore, i t i s n a t u r a l t o assume t h a t  Bakufu  e x e c u t i v e s came t o e n t e r t a i n the i d e a o f c a r r y i n g out a l l n a v a l t r a i n i n g the d i r e c t i o n of Japanese a l o n e . ^ activities  under  In a d d i t i o n , we must not o v e r l o o k the  of the Naval T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e a t T s u k i j i .  The Bakufu opened the Naval T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e as a p a r t o f the M i l i t a r y Academy (Kobu-sho) on May 4 (4/11).  Almost a l l the i n s t r u c t o r s and a s s i s t a n t s g  at the i n s t i t u t e were graduates of the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l .  The  a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n o f the i n s t i t u t e began on September 7 (7/19), and the contents o f the t r a i n i n g were n a t u r a l l y very s i m i l a r t o those of the e a r l i e r c o u n t e r p a r t a t Nagasaki.  When i t s t a r t e d o p e r a t i o n s , the Kanko Maru was the  only t r a i n i n g s h i p . But by the time K a t s u R i n t a r o was a p p o i n t e d head i n s t r u c t o r i n 1859, the i n s t i t u t e  directly  c o n t r o l l e d the K a n r i n Maru, the  Choyo Maru, the Hosho Maru, and the Banryu Maru.^ T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e we're expanding r a p i d l y .  A c t i v i t i e s a t the Naval  A f t e r t r a i n i n g at the i n s t i t u t e ,  the graduates s e r v e d on v a r i o u s Bakufu m i s s i o n s such as p a t r o l l i n g important coast l i n e s , e s p e c i a l l y Edo Bay.  At the same time, they were o f t e n u t i l i z e d t o  take s h i p s t r a n s p o r t i n g men and cargo between Edo and the Kyoto/Osaka although t h i s was n o t what they had been t r a i n e d f o r .  area,  The s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by  graduates o f the i n s t i t u t e a t T s u k i j i c o u l d have persuaded Bakufu e x e c u t i v e s t h a t the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School under Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s was no l o n g e r necessary.  105  F o l l o w i n g van Kattendyke,  some authors such as Ikeda K i y o s h i and K u r i h a r a  R y u i c h i say t h a t the f i n a n c i a l predicament reasons that brought c i a l burden.  about  of the Bakufu was  the c l o s u r e of the S c h o o l .  As mentioned  for  of the main  School was  a finan-  i n a p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , the annual wages f o r the  i n s t r u c t o r s of the f i r s t detachment t o t a l l e d 19 7.25 s i l v e r and the f i g u r e was  The  one  kanme (739.69 k i l o g r a m s ) of  more than doubled to 447 kanme (1,676.25 k i l o g r a m s )  the i n s t r u c t o r s of the second detachment.  Besides the wages to Dutch  i n s t r u c t o r s , the management c o s t of the School rose year a f t e r year as the i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s advanced p r i c e p a i d f o r the purchase  in training.  The most expensive p a r t was  of s h i p s from the N e t h e r l a n d s .  and the Choyo Maru, f o r i n s t a n c e , c o s t the Bakufu (720 kanme or 2,700 k i l o g r a m s of silver)"^each.. prepare a r e p a i r f a c i l i t y of  the r e p a i r f a c i l i t y  costly."'""'"  The K a n r i n Maru  100,000 s i l v e r  dollars  Moreover, the Bakufu had to  f o r the maintenance of the s h i p s .  and the purchase  the  The  construction  of i t s equipment were of course v e r y  A l l i n a l l , the wages f o r the Dutch  i n s t r u c t o r s were l e s s  signifi-  cant compared t o the o t h e r c o s t s f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f the School and i t s f l e e t . When the f i r s t detachment completed rewarded  the Dutch  to f i v e  times t h e i r annual s a l a r i e s .  being u t i l i z e d  s a v i n g the Bakufu  c o n t i n u e d at T s u k i j i , and the r e p a i r f a c i l i t y f o r r e p a i r of s h i p s and machine m a n u f a c t u r i n g .  at Akunoura The o n l y  a t t a i n e d by a b o l i s h i n g n a v a l t r a i n i n g at Nagasaki was  wages needed f o r the Dutch  the  instructors.  A c c o r d i n g to van Kattendyke's the o p e r a t i o n of the School was  He knew how  The Bakufu c o u l d  Even a f t e r the c l o s u r e of the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l , n a v a l  t r a i n i n g i t s e l f was  in  Bakufu  F o r two y e a r s ' s e r v i c e ,  R i j k e n r e c e i v e d a bonus e q u a l to f i v e y e a r s ' s a l a r y !  afford i t .  was  Nagasaki, the  i n s t r u c t o r s f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s by g i v i n g s p e c i a l bonuses  which e q u a l l e d two Pels  i t s m i s s i o n and l e f t  d i a r y , he understood one  t h a t the c o s t  of the main reasons f o r the  much money the Bakufu had spent f o r the t r a i n i n g .  involved  closure.  Yet i t was  a'^ rS  106 c o s t o f a modern navy, not cannot be  t h a t of a s c h o o l a l o n e .  The  c o s t o f the  School  s a i d to have been the d e t e r m i n i n g reason f o r i t s c l o s u r e .  i n v o l v i n g Nabeshima Naomasa and  An  episode  I i Naosuke i s quoted i n Fumikura's book.  author says t h a t I i t o l d Nabeshima t h a t the Bakufu would c l o s e the  The  Nagasaki  12 Naval T r a i n i n g School due t h a t I i ' s concern was He was  to i t s h i g h  the c o s t of the  cost.  S t i l l we  should  not  School j u s t because of t h i s  conclude statement.  r e l u c t a n t to spend enormous amounts of money f o r an e n t e r p r i s e which  he b e l i e v e d to be h a r m f u l to the Bakufu because of the p o t e n t i a l f o r p o l i t i c a l conspiracy  among i t s  students.  Whereas some people p l a c e  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the  Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School on s i d e was  responsible.  According  c l o s u r e of  the Bakufu, o t h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t the Dutch to M i z u t a Nobutoshi and  Numata J i r o ,  Dutch s i d e suggested to the Bakufu t h a t some changes i n the n a v a l Nagasaki were n e c e s s a r y i n r e l a t i o n to the n e g o t i a t i o n s commercial t r e a t y . t r a v e l l e d to Edo purpose.  The  and  There he  stayed  same time, he  there between A p r i l and  repeatedly  about the  i n 1858  the  t r a i n i n g at  concerning  a  Netherlands Commissioner i n Japan, Donker C u r t i u s ,  his interpreter/factotum information  the  met  J u l y of the y e a r f o r t h i s  the American c o n s u l , Townsend H a r r i s ,  Henry Heusken, a Dutch-born American, and  obtained  contents of the U.S.-Japanese commercial t r e a t y .  seems to have l e a r n e d  the  treaty proposals  and  At  of the B r i t i s h  the  and  13 Russian d e l e g a t e s ,  too.  D u r i n g the n e g o t i a t i o n s , C u r t i u s was  obliged to reconsider  t r a i n i n g under Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s at Nagasaki. the Dutch s t i l l  naval  the e a r l y 1850's when  enjoyed s u p e r i o r i t y i n r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Japanese over  other Western c o u n t r i e s , i t was t h e i r own  Unlike  the  now  very  p o l i c i e s without c o n s i d e r i n g  such as the U n i t e d  difficult  f o r the Dutch to i n s i s t  the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p o w e r f u l  S t a t e s , Great B r i t a i n and  the  Russia.  on  countries  I t i s very p r o b a b l e  that  107  C u r t i u s , i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i t h h i s American c o u n t e r p a r t , was to change  put under p r e s s u r e  the system of n a v a l t r a i n i n g from governmental to p r i v a t e  The U.S.-Japanese  commercial t r e a t y s a i d i n i t s a r t i c l e  Japanese government]  10 t h a t  " i t [the  s h a l l have the r i g h t t o engage i n the U n i t e d  s c i e n t i f i c , n a v a l and m i l i t a r y men,  sponsorship.  States  a r t i s a n s of a l l k i n d s , and mariners to  14 enter i n t o i t s s e r v i c e . "  A c c o r d i n g to I s h i i T a k a s h i , t h i s a r t i c l e was  unusual one i n t h i s k i n d of t r e a t y . similar article.  No other commercial t r e a t i e s  i n 1858 have a  Indeed, i t was not a t a l l n e c e s s a r y to have an a r t i c l e  t h i s , s i n c e the content of the a r t i c l e was  t h i n k s t h a t H a r r i s knew the  unnecessary but put i t i n the t r e a t y to impress the 16  of the Americans upon the Japanese.  Perhaps, b e s i d e s I s h i i ' s  Harris purposely i n s e r t e d t h i s a r t i c l e  'friendliness'  assumption,  to r e s t r a i n the o t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  Dutch, from preempting any p r i v i l e g e s i n Japan by p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l In other words,  the m i l i t a r i l y more p o w e r f u l Americans wanted  a c t i v i t i e s of the Dutch i n Japan. visit  of P e r r y , t o o . " ^  T h i s tendency was  the detachment  the  services.  to check the  seen even d u r i n g the  The Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s at Nagasaki were not merely  Dutch c i t i z e n s but a l s o members of the Royal Dutch Navy. i n s t r u c t o r s was  like  a p a r t of d i p l o m a t i c c o u r t e s y which  d i d not r e q u i r e any p r o v i s i o n i n a t r e a t y . I s h i i a r t i c l e was  a very  The d i s p a t c h of the  d i r e c t l y o r g a n i z e d by the Dutch government. i n Japan of course ensured the Dutch a great  e s p e c i a l l y i n d e a l s i n v o l v i n g m i l i t a r y equipment  The presence  of  advantage,  such as warships and  As the n a v a l t r a i n i n g went on, i n f a c t , Dutch b u s i n e s s with Japan  cannons.  flourished  and showed more promise than e v e r . F u r t h e r p r e s s u r e came upon C u r t i u s from a d i f f e r e n t q u a r t e r .  As the  n e g o t i a t i o n s over t r e a t i e s w i t h Western c o u n t r i e s advanced, the a n t i - f o r e i g n f e e l i n g among p r o - I m p e r i a l Court groups o f Japanese became more and more f i e r c e . Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , C u r t i u s f e a r e d t h a t the other Western powers would suspect the Netherlands of h e l p i n g the Japanese arm themselves to r e p u l s e the  108  f u r t h e r advance of Western powers.  T h i s f e a r among the Dutch had e x i s t e d  they began working f o r the improvement the 1840's.  since  o f d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h Japan i n  C u r t i u s was w o r r y i n g about p o s s i b l e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g among the  other Western c o u n t r i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o the D u t c h - o r g a n i z e d n a v a l t r a i n i n g a t Nagasaki.  I f the Dutch government  c o n t i n u e d h e l p i n g the Japanese d i r e c t l y i n  n a v a l t r a i n i n g , C u r t i u s f e a r e d , i t c o u l d be dangerous f o r both the Netherlands and Japan.  However, the complete s u s p e n s i o n o f a s s i s t a n c e i n Japan's n a v a l  development would not be b e n e f i c i a l f o r the two c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y  f o r the 18  Dutch when they were e n j o y i n g good s a l e s o f w a r s h i p s , machinery and f i r e a r m s . In such a dilemma, Dutch government  C u r t i u s proposed an a l t e r n a t i v e i d e a t o the Bakufu; the  would d i s c o n t i n u e the d i s p a t c h of any m i l i t a r y  but i t would a l l o w the Japanese t o h i r e Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s  instructors,  f r e e l y among those  19 who v o l u n t e e r e d .  The Bakufu was p e r p l e x e d by the p r o p o s a l o f C u r t i u s , b u t  i t was o b l i g e d t o accept i t .  When C u r t i u s mentioned h i s p r o p o s a l , i n the e a r l y  summer of 1858, the Bakufu a p p a r e n t l y had no p l a n t o d i s c o n t i n u e n a v a l at Nagasaki  f o r soon a f t e r i t asked C u r t i u s t o s e c u r e some Dutch n a v a l 20  t o r s who would be a b l e t o s t a y i n Japan as p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s . happy t o accept the request by the Bakufu.  training instruc-  C u r t i u s was  I f the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g  School c o u l d be continued even w i t h p r i v a t e Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s , a s p e c i a l t i e between the two c o u n t r i e s c o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d . Ikeda K i y o s h i ' s Nihon no Kaigun (Japan's Navy) and K u r i h a r a R y u i c h i ' s Bakumatsu Nihon no Gunsei (The M i l i t a r y tell  System o f Late Tokugawa Japan) both  us t h a t the u n i l a t e r a l w i t h d r a w a l of the detachment  from Japan as w e l l  as the Bakufu's f i n a n c i a l problems brought an end t o the Nagasaki Naval 21 T r a i n i n g School.  But as has been mentioned, what the Dutch s i d e expected t o !  do was to change detachment  the s t a t u s of the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s from that o f an o f f i c i a l  t o t h a t of a group o f p r i v a t e , c i t i z e n s .  many Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s as p o s s i b l e a t Nagasaki.  C u r t i u s wanted  to keep as  L a t e r , from Nagasaki, he made  109 arrangements w i t h the G o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l a t B a t a v i a c o n c e r n i n g i n s t r u c t o r s . B a t a v i a r e p l i e d to C u r t i u s t h a t those who would v o l u n t e e r t o s t a y i n Japan c o u l d do s o , and C u r t i u s was ready t o make new arrangements w i t h the Bakufu  22 f o r those who v o l u n t e e r e d .  I n s t e a d , C u r t i u s was informed on March 10, 1859,  of the Bakufu's d e c i s i o n to a b o l i s h the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l . Judging from the i n f o r m a t i o n we have examined, p o l i c y over n a v a l t r a i n i n g a t Nagasaki changed 1858.  i t seems t h a t the Bakufu  g r e a t l y i n the second h a l f of  A c t u a l l y , the p r o p o s a l by C u r t i u s and the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f I i Naosuke as  t a i r o c o i n c i d e d i n the e a r l y summer o f 1858. training affairs, by I i Naosuke.  When C u r t i u s d i s c u s s e d n a v a l  fundamental Bakufu p o l i c i e s were n o t y e t s t r o n g l y  influenced  With some c o n t i n u i t y o f purpose, the Bakufu r e q u e s t e d C u r t i u s  to make sure t o keep some v o l u n t e e r i n s t r u c t o r s f o r f u r t h e r n a v a l  training.  However, w i t h i n a few months a f t e r I i became t a i r o , h i s p o l i t i c a l  i d e a s came to  be r e f l e c t e d i n a l l a s p e c t s of Bakufu p o l i c i e s . tion.  Naval T r a i n i n g was no excep-  D u r i n g the summer and autumn, I i Naosuke must have informed h i m s e l f of  the c o n d i t i o n s and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the Naval T r a i n i n g School a t Nagasaki. Undoubtedly, he must have c o n s i d e r e d a l l the m e r i t s and demerits o f h a v i n g the School a t Nagasaki.  And as a r e s u l t , he took the p r o p o s a l by C u r t i u s as a good  o p p o r t u n i t y to t e r m i n a t e the f o u r - y e a r - o l d Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School which he c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l but p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m f u l f o r the Bakufu because i t was open  even to a n t i - B a k u f u samurai. Thus, i n the e a r l y summer o f 1858, C u r t i u s made h i s p r o p o s a l to the Bakufu  t h a t the Dutch government send p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s r a t h e r than government men f o r the n a v a l t r a i n i n g a t Nagasaki due t o the changing i n t e r n a t i o n a l The Bakufu a t t h a t time was s t i l l  situation.  l e d by the s o - c a l l e d r e f o r m i s t s such as  H o t t a Masayoshi, Mizuno T a d a n o r i and Nagai Naomune.  They wanted t o c o n t i n u e  the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School under Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s .  The Bakufu  there-  110  f o r e asked C u r t i u s t o spare some v o l u n t e e r i n s t r u c t o r s f o r the School. around  Just  t h i s time, however, the Shogun e l e v a t e d I i Naosuke, the l e a d i n g f i g u r e  of the K i f a c t i o n , to the most p o w e r f u l p o s i t i o n i n  Bakufu  officialdom.  T h i s meant the purge of most o f the r e f o r m i s t s from the Bakufu  as they were  mostly members o f the H i t o t s u b a s h i f a c t i o n . all  the p r o j e c t s and p o l i c i e s o f the Bakufu  Nagasaki.  G r a d u a l l y I i ' s i n f l u e n c e spread t o i n c l u d i n g naval t r a i n i n g at  A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the t r a i n i n g , he made h i s  d e c i s i o n to c l o s e the School. had a l r e a d y brought demonstrated  He found t h a t the n a v a l t r a i n i n g a t Nagasaki  s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s f o r the Bakufu.  And t h i s success was  i n the a c t i v i t i e s a t the Naval T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e a t T s u k i j i .  On the o t h e r hand, I i judged  t h a t the S c h o o l , which was open t o samurai  a l l over the c o u n t r y , might be h a r m f u l to the Bakufu was p r o v i d i n g samurai  from  i n the f u t u r e , because i t  from t r a d i t i o n a l l y a n t i - B a k u f u han w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o  l e a r n advanced Western m i l i t a r y to p r e s e r v e the Nagasaki  technology.  Naval T r a i n i n g  There was l i t t l e  reason f o r I i  School.  D e s p i t e i t s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f o p e r a t i o n , the Nagasaki T r a i n i n g School c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o the r a p i d l y changing  Naval  i n d u s t r i a l and  s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f Japan i n the l a t e Tokugawa and e a r l y M e i j i p e r i o d s .  The  c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f the S c h o o l , d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t , were roughly d i v i d e d i n t o two major f i e l d s : impact  the academic, i n d u s t r i a l and m i l i t a r y f i e l d ,  on s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  affairs  and the School's  through i t s s t u d e n t s .  As a s c h o o l f o r modern n a v a l t r a i n i n g , o f course, the most important of the Nagasaki modern navy.  role  Naval T r a i n i n g School was to t r a i n n a v a l e x p e r t s f o r Japan's  As we have seen, the achievements  were l a t e r demonstrated  i n v a r i o u s ways.  o f the students a t the School  The s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f the  Naval T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e a t T s u k i j i was one such example. were i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r g a n i z e d and taught by graduates  Most o f i t s courses  o f the Nagasaki  Naval  Ill  T r a i n i n g School.  Moreover, the Bakufu l a t e r allowed Katsu R i n t a r o to o r g a n i z e  another n a v a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l .  In 1863  (Bunkyu 3), Katsu, who was  the Gunkan  Bugyo (Naval M a g i s t r a t e ) at t h a t time, opened t h i s s c h o o l a t Kobe and inaugurated i n s t r u c t i o n there. v e r y s h o r t , i t extended  Although  the l i f e  of the s c h o o l a t Kobe  the e x p e r i e n c e of the Nagasaki  Naval T r a i n i n g  i n Japan r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r  was  School;  the Kobe s c h o o l was  open to a l l samurai  origin.  Sakamoto Ryoma, who  worked h a r d to b r i n g about the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n , was  one  23 of  those who  s t u d i e d at the Kobe s c h o o l .  c l o s e d i n 1864  due  While  the Kobe s c h o o l was  ordered  to i t s p o l i t i c a l l y v o l a t i l e n a t u r e , the Naval T r a i n i n g  Insti-  t u t e a t T s u k i j i c o n t i n u e d to o f f e r more modern and advanced n a v a l t r a i n i n g w i t h newer s h i p s . A f t e r the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n i n 1868,  the new  government reopened the  Naval T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e on the same s i t e at T s u k i j i . the Kaigun Heigaku-ryo, which was 1945.  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1876  One  Sumiyoshi  the p r e d e c e s s o r of the Kaigun  of the graduates  In 1870, Heigakko  i t was  (Naval Academy),  and e x i s t e d u n t i l the end of World War  of the Nagasaki  ( J u n g i ) of Satsuma, who  II i n  Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l , Kawamura  would draw up s h i p b u i l d i n g p l a n s l o o k i n g  towards the S i n o - and Russo-Japanese Wars, headed the Naval T r a i n i n g for  a w h i l e u n t i l he was succeeded 24  graduate  of the S c h o o l .  renamed  by Nakamuda Kuranosuke of Saga,  Institute  another  Nakamuda p r e s i d e d over the academy a f t e r 1871  f i v e y e a r s and g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e d to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of i t s t r a i n i n g T h i s Naval Academy would r e a r many n a v a l o f f i c e r s who  for systems.  l a t e r became the core of  the I m p e r i a l Japanese Navy. Through n a v a l t r a i n i n g , the School p r o v i d e d a p l a c e where the Japanese r e c e i v e d f o r the f i r s t modern s c i e n c e .  time i n t h e i r h i s t o r y s y s t e m a t i c e d u c a t i o n based  on  Quite n o v e l i n comparison w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l knowledge of  the Japanese, the e d u c a t i o n g i v e n a t the School was, contemporary sense, advanced and m e t h o d i c a l .  The  though i m p e r f e c t i n a  Japanese had  usually  112  o b t a i n e d v e r y fragmentary e d u c a t i o n i n the way  of p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g  through  most o f the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  The s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n g i v e n by the f i r s t  i n s t r u c t o r s a t the School was  really  One  European  epoch-making.  o f the b e s t examples o f a n a v a l e n g i n e e r educated at the School i s  Hida Hamagoro of I z u .  He was  one of the few s t u d e n t s p r a i s e d as a p r o m i s i n g 25  n a v a l e n g i n e e r by van Kattendyke.  A f t e r g r a d u a t i n g from the S c h o o l , he  served a t the Naval T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e at T s u k i j i as an i n s t r u c t o r i n e n g i n e e r ing  i n 1859  and then was  chosen  the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1860.  f o r the crew of the K a n r i n Maru d i s p a t c h e d to  His most s i g n i f i c a n t achievement  was  the b u i l d i n g  of  a steam engine f o r the Chiyoda-gata, the f i r s t steamer warship b u i l t by the 26 — Japanese. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the s h i p i t s e l f was d i r e c t e d by Ono Tomogoro 27 and Haruyama Benzo, both  graduates of the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l .  A f t e r the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n , H i d a worked at the Yokosuka s h i p y a r d and  eventually  took over the e n t i r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the s h i p y a r d from French e n g i n e e r s . assumed the h i g h e s t e n g i n e e r i n g p o s i t i o n i n the I m p e r i a l Japanese early Meiji  He  Navy i n the  period.  As a p a r t of the School c u r r i c u l u m , the second detachment p r o v i d e d some Japanese to  s t u d e n t s w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y to study s y s t e m a t i c Western medicine.  the i n s t r u c t i o n by Dr. van Meerdervoort  of t h i s detachment, some m e d i c a l  d o c t o r s such as von S i e b o l d taught Western medicine i n Japan.  While  S i e b o l d spent h i s time i n the p r a c t i c e of medicine and r e s e a r c h on a f f a i r s , van Meerdervoort  von  Japanese  devoted h i m s e l f not o n l y to m e d i c a l treatment but  a l s o to f u l l - s c a l e m e d i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r the Japanese his  Prior -  s e r v i c e at Nagasaki u n t i l 1862,  students.  He c o n t i n u e d  even a f t e r most of the members of the  second detachment under van Kattendyke s t a y , he opened the Nagasaki Yojo-sho  had l e f t  Japan i n 1859.  (Nagasaki H o s p i t a l ) .  During h i s  His medical  s c h o o l and h o s p i t a l were taken over by o t h e r Dutch d o c t o r s and became the most 28 advanced m e d i c a l complex i n Japan at the time. I t was the p r e d e c e s s o r of the  113  present-day medical s c h o o l  o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f Nagasaki.  Godai Tomoatsu o f Satsuma a l s o s t u d i e d School. the  a t the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g  He i s an example of a man who a p p l i e d s c i e n t i f i c knowledge l e a r n e d a t  School to b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e s i n the M e i j i p e r i o d .  Besides the s h i p b u i l d i n g  b u s i n e s s which was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o h i s School s t u d i e s , he c a r r i e d on b u s i n e s s on a l a r g e s c a l e , i n c l u d i n g mining, metal r e f i n i n g , s p i n n i n g  and the  29 production  of indigo.  purposes, Sano Tsunetami  While Godai u t i l i z e d h i s School t r a i n i n g f o r b u s i n e s s (Jomin) o f Saga went i n t o p h i l a n t h r o p i c work as the  founder o f the Japanese Red Cross S o c i e t y .  In the e a r l y M e i j i p e r i o d , he  worked f o r the b u i l d i n g o f the -Japanese I m p e r i a l  Navy on the b a s i s o f h i s  e x p e r i e n c e a t the S c h o o l , b u t l a t e r h i s i n t e r e s t s h i f t e d t o f o s t e r i n g the s p i r i t  30 of i n t e r n a t i o n a l benevolence e x e m p l i f i e d  by the Red Cross S o c i e t y .  perhaps as a r e s u l t o f h i s background a t Nagasaki, where he l e a r n e d Western a f f a i r s as w e l l as n a v a l  subjects,  I t was general  t h a t he n o u r i s h e d an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  spirit. The  Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School s u c c e s s f u l l y educated many students who  would be able  to work not o n l y  about t o be b o r n .  i n Tokugawa s o c i e t y but a l s o i n a new s o c i e t y  In f a c t t h e i r t a l e n t was f u l l y u t i l i z e d because the s o c i e t y  was transformed i n t o a c e n t r a l i z e d and r e l a t i v e l y democratic one from the decentralized  f e u d a l one o f the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  that these people c o n t r i b u t e d The  I t may be t r u e  to say a l s o  much t o change the o l d s o c i e t y .  Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g l e f t  an i n v a l u a b l e  modern i n d u s t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s h i p b u i l d i n g .  legacy  i n the f i e l d o f  The opening of the Nagasaki  Naval T r a i n i n g School was the advent of Japan's modern navy, and i n e v i t a b l y the navy needed r e p a i r f a c i l i t i e s therefore, The  f o r i t s ships.  Soon a f t e r the School s t a r t e d ,  the Japanese ordered equipment n e c e s s a r y t o b u i l d a r e p a i r f a c t o r y .  second detachment under van Kattendyke brought t h i s s e t o f machinery, as  w e l l as an e n g i n e e r o f f i c e r and s e v e r a l a r t i s a n s .  The s i t e  f o r the f a c t o r y  114  was  chosen i n Nagasaki harbour w i t h a view to f u r t h e r e x p a n s i o n .  easy task f o r the Dutch l a b o u r e r s who  had  to b u i l d  little  f i r s t modern f a c t o r y  a naval f a c i l i t y with  Bakufu b u i l t facilities  a full-scale  larger naval f a c i l i t i e s  a t Yokohama a n d Y o k o s u k a ,  had e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y  the  c o m p l e t e d i n 1861.  under  in controlling  Then t h e  the Bakufu, f o r i t b u i l t  b o t h n e a r Edo.  The  Bakufu  the w e s t e r n p a r t of the c o u n t r y where  c o u l d e x e r c i s e more d i r e c t  c o n t r o l over t e r r i t o r i e s  o t h e r than those around  places.  situation,  built  of t h i s  i n the l a t e  n e a r Edo  where  c o n t r o l than i n Nagasaki.  Edo,  Osaka,  These h i s t o r i c a l N a g a s a k i n a v a l f a c i l i t i e s  Mitsubishi.  No  l o n g e r d e s t i n e d t o be  s h i p y a r d grew r a p i d l y .  Like  a minor r e p a i r  and f o r e i g n  them t o the  facility,  shipyard, i t later  one  o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t s h i p y a r d s i n J a p a n b e f o r e W o r l d War  one  o f t h e two  largest b a t t l e s h i p s ever b u i l t  v e r y s i t e w h e r e v a n K a t t e n d y k e and h i s men l i k e Yokosuka, today's  i s one  of the prominent  facilities  were, however, r e v i v e d  government s o l d  the Yokosuka  losing  and a few o t h e r  1860's t h e N a g a s a k i  o n l y a f e w s m a l l s t e a m e r s a n d r e p a i r e d some J a p a n e s e  a p r i v a t e company i n 1884 when t h e M e i j i  This  steam  T h i s i s e v i d e n c e d t h a t a f t e r a l l t h e T o k u g a w a B a k u f u i n t h e s e d a y s was  Because  and  But t h e s e modern  l o c a t e d , so i t d e c i d e d t o b u i l d n a v a l f a c i l i t i e s  central authority  an  artisans  including  s h i p y a r d n e a r t h e f a c t o r y i n 1864. utilized  not  to accomplish.  i n Japan, w i t h s o p h i s t i c a t e d machines  a t N a g a s a k i were n o t f u l l y  N a g a s a k i was  the Japanese  i d e a about what t h e y were t r y i n g  e n g i n e s , l a t h e s , a s t e a m hammer a n d o t h e r s , was  I t was  ships. under  rising  the Nagasaki  developed II.  i n t h e w o r l d , was  The  into Musashi,  l a u n c h e d on  r e p a i r e d the Kanko Maru.  the  Nagasaki,  c e n t r e s of the s h i p b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y i n  Japan.  W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a modern n a v y , Yomigaeru  E t o J u n s a y s i n h i s Umi  (The Ocean R e s u r g e n t ) :  A modern navy must be a modern i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h know-how r e l a t e d t o s h i p b u i l d i n g a n d e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s as  wa  115  i t s core. T h e r e f o r e , the c r e a t i o n of a modern navy i m p l i e s t h a t a s o c i e t y chooses to adopt a modern i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o i t s system; i n a d d i t i o n , i t a l s o s i g n i f i e s t h a t the s o c i e t y i s i n v o l v i n g i t s e l f i n a n experiment, whether or not i t can bear the burden of i t s choice.31  Eto means t h a t the has  advanced i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s  a complicated be met  c r e a t i o n of a modern navy i s p o s s i b l e only when a s o c i e t y  and  l a r g e - s c a l e venture.  a c e n t r a l i z e d one  none of these c o n d i t i o n s , but  regime i n 1867.  over the  defense needs of the  badly  shaken by  military fields leadership ment.  eagerly  T h i s was  a f t e r the opening of the was  a l s o suggests t h a t the s o c i e t y must  continued  i t s expansion u n t i l  regarded as a new  The  f o r e i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n and  development w i t h a new  trade.  contacts  While i n almost a l l  t r a i n i n g system and  i t took  advanced e q u i p -  g e n e r a l l y • • • ••  scheme which would d i s t u r b nobody except f o r the no Although i t was  financially ailing,  t h i r d of the e n t i r e l a n d h o l d i n g s  s h i p y a r d , however, the Bakufu had  to o b t a i n  For  the  various naval  'bear the burden of i t s choice.'  facilities,  from French  l i k e t h a t of Yokosuka  Tokugawa s o c i e t y c o u l d  Although Tokugawa s o c i e t y c o u l d not  a modern navy, the Bakufu s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t r o d u c e d  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Yokosuka  f i n a n c i a l assistance  of the Bakufu.  longer  of Japan under i t s a u t h o r i t y ,  f i n a n c i a l requirements f o r a l a r g e s h i p y a r d  exceeded the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s  the  tremendous r e s i s t a n c e  the b u i l d i n g of a modern navy was  l e a s t at the e a r l y stages of the p l a n .  The  of  t r a d i t i o n a l Bakufu-han system  c o u l d a f f o r d the enormous expenses f o r warships and  sources.  the very end  country as a r e s u l t of c l o s e r Western  s i g n i f i c a n t Funate water f o r c e .  at  to  the Bakufu's response to the upsurge of debate  country i n 1853.  from Bakufu t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s ,  Tokugawa s o c i e t y  the Bakufu d e t e r m i n e d l y launched a p l a n  reforms df l a n d f o r c e s , which c o u l d i n c u r  Bakufu, w i t h one  The  the Bakufu t r a i l e d the southwestern p r o v i n c e s ,  i n naval  Unlike  He  c a p i t a l to support such  w i t h s o c i a l m o b i l i t y among c l a s s e s .  b u i l d a modern navy and its  with s u f f i c i e n t  i t to Japan.  not  sustain  A p a r t of  the  116  'modern i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ' c o u l d be purchased from Western c o u l d n o t be f r u i t f u l l y  countries but  adopted i n t o Tokugawa s o c i e t y . " "A t r u l y modern navy  system would be a c h i e v e d i n the M e i j i p e r i o d when economic  and p o l i t i c a l  m o d e r n i z a t i o n were b e i n g a t t a i n e d under the guidance of the c e n t r a l i z e d ment.  govern-  Yet the l e g a c y of the Bakufu navy was i n h e r i t e d almost i n i t s e n t i r e t y  by the M e i j i government.  The s t a n d a r d of n a v a l t r a i n i n g , w a r s h i p s , and n a v a l  f a c i l i t i e s brought to Japan by the Bakufu was h i g h enough t h a t i t c o u l d be duly taken over w i t h g r e a t b e n e f i t by the new government.  The s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  impact o f the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School i n  the l a t e Tokugawa p e r i o d was a l s o i m p o r t a n t .  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y obvious when  we c o n s i d e r t h a t the School was open t o samurai from a l l  over the country and  p r o v i d e d them w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s to become r e a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n a modern sense.  In the Tokugawa system, where almost a l l the important p o s i t i o n s were  h e l d by people o f h i g h rank by b i r t h , modern e d u c a t i o n was e s p e c i a l l y n e c e s s a r y f o r those born i n * l o w - r a n k i n g f a m i l i e s t o enable them t o seek some avenue to success.  There was a tendency i n the 1850's under Abe Masahiro f o r t a l e n t e d  people t o be p i c k e d up f o r important Bakufu p o s i t i o n s . han as w e l l .  I t was so i n some l o c a l  But i t c o u l d n o t become permanent because the f u l l - s c a l e a d o p t i o n  of t h i s system meant the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s system i n Tokugawa Japan.  In a modern navy, n e i t h e r s e n i o r i t y n o r f a m i l y s t a t u s serve  o f f i c e r s w e l l u n l e s s they possess a true a b i l i t y p l i c a t e d d u t i e s on s h i p s .  t o c a r r y out v a r i o u s com-  K a t s u R i n t a r o and Enomoto Kamajiro were two of those  who b e n e f i t e d from the s o - c a l l e d "merit system ( j i t s u r y o k u - s h u g i ) " i n those days. Both of them were sons o f v e r y poor hatamoto f a m i l i e s w i t h r i c e s t i p e n d s o f l e s s than 100 koku, y e t K a t s u a t t a i n e d a p o s i t i o n e q u i v a l e n t  t o prime m i n i s t e r  and Enomoto h e l d the p o s i t i o n of v i c e - a d m i r a l o f the Bakufu f l e e t i n the days when the r i g i d Tokugawa system was about t o c o l l a p s e .  Although the m e r i t  117  system  c o u l d not be u n i v e r s a l l y implemented i n the Bakufu,  T r a i n i n g School made some people r e a l i z e Furthermore,  t h a t i t s day must come soon to  Naval Japan.  the School p r o v i d e d students from d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the  country w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s to get to know each o t h e r . p e r i o d , a l l samurai, except the Bakufu  the Nagasaki  for ronin  A l l through  the Tokugawa  ( m a s t e r l e s s samurai), belonged e i t h e r to  or to a l o c a l domain, and t h e i r m o b i l i t y was  extremely  limited.  In  other words, the samurai had v i r t u a l l y no p l a c e t o communicate f r e e l y w i t h each other o u t s i d e t h e i r own  domains.  T h i s f a c t had  l o n g prevented  Japanese from a c q u i r i n g the concept of a u n i t e d c o u n t r y . the students at the School merely samurai  at f i r s t .  c o n s i d e r e d themselves  N a t u r a l l y , most of as Bakufu  or l o c a l  However, the School g r a d u a l l y must have brought  n a t i o n a l u n i t y to a l l the students r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r A d m i t t i n g the importance  the  a sense of  origin.  of h a v i n g a s i n g l e emblem t o symbolize  e n t i r e c o u n t r y , the Bakufu had  adopted  han  the r i s i n g sun f l a g  the  (Hinomaru) as Japan's  32 n a t i o n a l f l a g i n 1854. l o c a l han s h i p s t i l l coming to Nagasaki  When the School s t a r t e d , however, every Bakufu  flew i t s own  banner, j u s t as every s i n g l e Western s h i p  showed the n a t i o n a l emblem of i t s c o u n t r y .  As l o n g as  students were p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e i r o r i g i n s e i t h e r i n the Bakufu i t was  and  the  or l o c a l  h a r d l y p o s s i b l e f o r them to r e a l i z e the meaning of n a t i o n a l u n i t y .  as r i s i n g sun f l a g s began to be g r a d u a l l y o b l i g e d to admit  han, Yet,  flown on t h e i r t r a i n i n g s h i p s , they were  the e x i s t e n c e of a Japan above the Bakufu  and  local  han. A man  l i k e Katsu developed  from b e i n g a Bakufu man  through h i s e x p e r i e n c e at the Nagasaki c a p t a i n c a n d i d a t e s of a Bakufu  Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l .  As one  of the  between the students and the Dutch  Through these e x p e r i e n c e s he s t r e n g t h e n e d h i s sense  Japanese r a t h e r than a man  of Japan  f l e e t , he h e l d an important p o s i t i o n at the  School and o f t e n worked as a l i a i s o n man instructors.  to a man  of the Bakufu.  He was  of b e i n g  t r u s t e d by a l l the s t u d e n t s  118  of  the S c h o o l , and the Dutch  i n s t r u c t o r s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d him as the r e p r e s e n t -  33 a t i v e o f the s t u d e n t s .  The r o l e performed by Katsu i n m e d i a t i n g between the  Bakufu and a n t i - B a k u f u f o r c e s d u r i n g the l a s t i n the minds o f Japanese  people.  days o f the Tokugawa i s imbedded  A c t u a l l y , K a t s u was then one o f the v e r y few  people who c o u l d work w i t h the two f o r c e s .  He knew many i n f l u e n t i a l  the southwestern p r o v i n c e s through n a v a l t r a i n i n g .  people i n  Before Nagasaki, K a t s u was  merely one of the low-ranking Bakufu o f f i c i a l s who e x c e l l e d i n Western Politically  s p e a k i n g , h i s i n f l u e n c e was n i l i n the Bakufu.  s t e a d i l y accumulated  p o l i t i c a l power f i r s t  then i n n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . Japan  Visits  But he s l o w l y but  i n the f i e l d o f n a v a l a f f a i r s and  t o Kagoshima, c a p i t a l o f Satsuma han, on the  ( K a n r i n Maru) g r e a t l y changed h i s o u t l o o k .  fleet,  affairs.  As a l e a d e r o f the Bakufu  K a t s u was a b l e t o get a c q u a i n t e d w i t h Shimazu N a r i a k i r a , one of the  most i n f l u e n t i a l  l o r d s i n those days.  K a t s u must have l e a r n e d v a r i o u s  important aspects of p o l i t i c a l ' a f f a i r s , both domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l , the b r i l l i a n t Shimazu.  from  A f t e r study and s e r v i c e a t the n a v a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s ,  K a t s u e n t e r e d the w o r l d of p o l i t i c s .  He f u l l y u t i l i z e d h i s power base i n the  navy and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h people i n domains i n the southwestern p r o v i n c e s . 'We can see i n Katsu's e x p e r i e n c e the elements i n the l a s t  of a surge towards modern Japan  days o f the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  A f t e r a l l , the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Nagasasaki Naval T r a i n i n g School l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t the School educated some modern men f o r new Japan.  Because o f  the nature o f the S c h o o l , i t s i n f l u e n c e would s u r v i v e even a f t e r the sponsor, the Bakufu i t s e l f , d i e d out and was succeeded by the M e i j i government.  I t was  a s c h o o l i n a modern sense, so we can r e c o g n i z e t h a t i t d i d what i t s h o u l d have done f o r the f u t u r e of a r a p i d l y changing  country.  119  FOOTNOTES CHAPTER 1 1.  "Shogunate: t h e t e r m u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e de f a c t o c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t o f J a p a n u n d e r a Shogun. The Shogun's o f f i c i a l s ( c o l l e c t i v e l y t h e B a k u f u ) c a r r i e d o u t t h e a c t u a l d u t i e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e I m p e r i a l C o u r t retained only a nominal authority." W.G. B e a s l e y , S e l e c t D o c u m e n t s o n J a p a n e s e F o r e i g n P o l i c y 1853-1868,. O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 , p. 3 2 1 .  2.  Iwao S e i i c h i , S a k o k u ( N a t i o n a l _ I s o l a t i o n ) , N i h o n no R e k i s h i J a p a n ) s e r i e s , v o l . 1 4 , Chuo K o r o n - s h a , 1 9 6 6 , p p . 1 9 5 - 2 0 8 .  3.  Sugimoto Isao ( e d . ) , K a g a k u - s h i ( H i s t o r y o f S c i e n c e ) , T a i k e i N i h o n - s h i S o s h o (An O u t l i n e H i s t o r y o f J a p a n ) s e r i e s , v o l . 1 9 , Yamakawa S h u p p a n - s h a , 1 9 6 7 , p. 132.  4.  The l o r d was  5.  Iwao, o p . c i t . , pp.  6.  I b i d . , pp.  7.  I t was G e n n a K o k a i - k i ( N a v i g a t i o n M a n u a l o f G e n n a ) c o m p i l e d b y I k e d a K o u n , a navigator of Nagasaki. Sugimoto ( e d . ) , o p . c i t . , pp. 132-133.  8.  Kasama Y o s h i h i k o , Edo B a k u f u Y a k u s h o k u S h u s e i (A C o m p i l a t i o n o f P o s t s i n t h e Tokugawa B a k u f u ) , Y u z a n k a k u , 1974, pp. 339-341.  9.  K a i g u n Y u s h u - k a i ( e d . ) , K i n s e i T e i k o k u K a i g u n S h i y o (A H i s t o r y o f t h e I m p e r i a l N a v y i n M o d e r n T i m e s ) , K a i g u n Y u s h u - k a i , 1 9 3 8 , p p . 7-8.  D a t e Masamune a n d t h e r e t a i n e r was  (A H i s t o r y  of  Hasekura Tsunenaga.  187-188.  208-209.  Sansom, The W e s t e r n W o r l d and J a p a n , New  Y o r k , 1 9 5 0 , p.  Official  10.  G.B.  177.  11.  N a k a m u r a T a d a s h i , " S h i m a b a r a no Ran t o S a k o k u _ ( T h e S h i m a b a r a R e b e l l i o n and N a t i o n a l I s o l a t i o n P o l i c y ) , " i n I w a n a m i K o z a N i h o n R e k i s h i ( I w a n a m i H i s t o r y o f J a p a n ) s e r i e s , v o l . 9, I w a n a m i S h o t e n , 1 9 7 5 , p p . 2 2 8 - 2 6 2 .  12.  The K o r e a n s d i d n o t s t a y i n J a p a n b u t i n f o r m a l l y c o n t i n u e d t r a d e w i t h t h e l o r d o f T s u s h i m a h a n , So, r e g u l a r l y . See, Asao N a o h i r o , Sakoku ( N a t i o n a l I s o l a t i o n ) , N i h o n no R e k i s h i (The G r e a t H i s t o r y o f J a p a n ) s e r i e s , v o l . 1 7 , S h o g a k k a n , 1 9 7 5 , pp. 242-257.  13.  Shimonaka Yasaburo ( e d . ) , S e k a i R e k i s h i J i t e n t o r y ) , H e i b o n - s h a , 1 9 5 5 , v o l . 2 2 , p. 3 2 1 .  14.  K a i g u n Y u s h u - k a i ( e d . ) , o p . c i t . , p.  15.  Kawai H i k o m i t s u , N i h o n - j i n H y o r y u - k i S h i s o - s h a , 1 9 6 7 , p. 264.  16.  I b i d . , pp. 289-293. For the s t r u c t u r a l problems of t r a d i t i o n a l s h i p s , see pp. 293-294.  17.  Kasama, o p . c i t . , pp. 272-275.  (Encyclopedia of World  His-  8. (Records of Japanese Castaways), Sekai  There were  Japanese  two N a g a s a k i M a g i s t r a t e s ;  one  120  at Nagasaki and the o t h e r at Edo (now Tokyo). p l a c e s i n one-year a l t e r n a t i n g s h i f t s .  They s e r v e d at the  two  18.  I b i d . , pp. 278-279, 281.  19.  I s h i i K e n j i , "Suetsugu H e i z o no Kara-bune (The C h i n e s e - s t y l e Ship of Suetsugu H e i z o ) , " i n Nihon R e k i s h i Gakkai ( e d . ) , Nihon R e k i s h i (Japanese H i s t o r y ) , Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, No. 180, 1963, pp. 30-33, and "Sakoku J i d a i no Koyo-sen Kenzo (The C o n s t r u c t i o n of_Ocean-going Ships d u r i n g the P e r i o d of N a t i o n a l I s o l a t i o n ) , " i n Miyamoto J o i c h i (ed.), Nihon no Kaiyo-min (Oceanic People of Japan), M i r a i - s h a , 19 74, pp. 194-197.  20.  Ogasawara C h o s e i , Nihon T e i k o k u K a i j o Kenryoku-shi Kogi ( L e c t u r e s on the Naval Power of the Japanese Empire), quoted i n D i t o T o s h i o , Bakumatsu H e i s e i K a i k a k u - s h i (A H i s t o r y of M i l i t a r y Reforms i n the L a t e Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , Hakuyo-sha, 1939, pp. 51-53.  21.  Loc.cit.  22.  With r e g a r d to the a l l o c a t i o n of defense d u t i e s _ d u r i n g the Tokugawa p e r i o d , see K i t a j i m a Masamoto, Edo Bakufu no Kenryoku Kozo (The Power S t r u c t u r e of the Tokugawa Bakufu), Iwanami Shoten, 1964, and F u j i n o Tamotsu, Bakuhan T a i s e i - s h i no Kenkyu (A Study of the H i s t o r y of the Bakufu-Han System), Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, 1961.  23.  Sugimoto ( e d . ) , o p . c i t . , p. 296, and George Alexander Lensen, The R u s s i a n Push Toward Japan, P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1959, pp. 50-60.  24.  Sugimoto  25.  L o c . c i t . , and Donald Keene, The Japanese D i s c o v e r y of Europe, 1720-1830, S t a n f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1969, pp. 31-35.  26.  Keene, i b i d . , p.  27.  O i s h i Shinzaburo, Bakuhan-sei no Tenkan (Changes i n the Bakufu-Han System), Nihon no R e k i s h i (The Great H i s t o r y of Japan) s e r i e s , v o l . 20, p. 355. Almost a l l through the Tokugawa p e r i o d , the i n t e r n a t i o n a l b a l a n c e of payments was u n f a v o u r a b l e to Japan. Only d u r i n g Tanuma's days d i d i t change i n f a v o u r of Japan. The main commodities of t r a d e were the s o - c a l l e d tawara-mono (straw-bag p r o d u c t s ) , namely d r i e d seafood from Nambu (now Iwate-ken), Tsugaru (Aomori) and Matsumae i n straw-bags. Ibid.  28.  Keene, o p . c i t . , p.  29.  Such s c h o l a r s as O t s u k i Gentaku and Katsuragawa Sugimoto ( e d . ) , o p . c i t . , p. 298.  30.  Keene, o p . c i t . , p. 38, and Kudo Heisuke, Akaezo Fusetsu-ko (A_Study of Red A i n u [ R u s s i a n s ] R e p o r t s ) i n Otomo_Kisaku (ed.), Hokumon Sosho (Books about the North) s e r i e s , v o l . 1, Hokko Shobo, 1943, p. 217.  31.  A c c o r d i n g to O i s h i Shinzaburo, the book was w r i t t e n at the r e q u e s t of one of Tanuma's men. See o p . c i t . , p. 358.  ( e d . ) , o p . c i t . , p. 29 7.  34.  37. Hoshu h e l p e d Kudo Heisuke.  121  32.  The  r e p o r t was  33.  Sugimoto (ed.),  34.  Keene, o p . c i t . , p.  35.  Yamamoto Yutaka (ed.), Hayashi S h i h e i Zenshu (Complete Works of Hayashi S h i h e i ) , S e i k a t s u - s h a , 1943, v o l . 1, pp. 397-408.  36.  Keene, o p . c i t . , pp.  37.  I b i d . , p.  38.  I b i d . , p. 42. However, the t r a n s l a t i o n a f t e r "My suggestion.." the w r i t e r , from Hayashi S h i h e i Zenshu, v o l . 1, p. 126.  39.  I b i d . , pp.  40.  M a t s u d a i r a Sadanobu, B a s h i n - r o k u (Records of A d v i c e ) , quoted i n Inoue K i y o s h i , Nihon no Gunkoku-shugi (Japanese M i l i t a r i s m ) , r e v i s e d e d i t i o n , Gendai Hyordn-sha, .1975, v o l . 1, p. 20.  41.  Keene, o p . c i t . , pp.  42.  Inoue, o p . c i t . , p.  43.  For i n s t a n c e , Oranda Chikujo-sho ( T r e a t i s e on the Dutch A r t of F o r t i f i c a t i o n ) was t r a n s l a t e d by Maeno Ryotaku i n 1790, and E n s e i Gunki-ko (On Weapons of the Far West) was t r a n s l a t e d and e d i t e d by I s h i i Shosuke i n 1799. These t r a n s l a t i o n s were two of the e a r l i e s t examples i n t h i s field. See i b i d . , p. 21.  44.  Otomo K i s a k u , Hokumon Sosho, v o l . 3, p.  45.  Ohara Sakingo, Hokuchi Kigen pp. 407-408.  46.  Otomo, o p . c i t . , pp.  47.  W.G. B e a s l e y , Great B r i t a i n and 1951, p. 8.  48.  The c o l l e g e was s t a r t e d as a p r i v a t e s c h o o l f o r the study of C o n f u c i a n t h e o r i e s by Hayashi Razan who d i r e c t e d the e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s of the e a r l y Tokugawa Bakufu. In 1790, when M a t s u d a i r a Sadanobu was the c h i e f r o j u , i t was r e - e s t a b l i s h e d as a Bakufu c o l l e g e . I t was p a r t l y open to non-Bakufu samurai, too. B e s i d e s , s p e c i a l courses were a v a i l a b l e not only f o r samurai but a l s o f o r commoners. Main s u b j e c t s taught at the c o l l e g e were Chinese c l a s s i c s . Nihon R e k i s h i D a i - j i t e n ( E n c y c l o p e d i a of Japanese H i s t o r y ) , Kawade Shobo, 1968, v o l . 5, p. 590.  49.  Inoue, o p . c i t . , p.  50.  For  the  c a l l e d Ezo  Shui(Ezo M i s c e l l a n y ) .  o p . c i t . , pp.  See  ibid.,  p.  359.  298-300.  39.  39-40.  43. i s by  126-127.  story  53-54. 20.  15.  (Warning about the  North Land) i n  ibid.,  41-44. the  Opening of Japan, 1834-1858, London,  22.  of C a p t a i n Gblownin, see h i s N a r r a t i v e  of My  Captivity  in  122  Japan, London, 1818 and R e c o l l e c t i o n s of Japan, London, 1819. With r e g a r d to the Japanese castaways r e t u r n e d from_Russia at t h i s time, see Kamei Takay o s h i , Dajkokuya,. Kodayu, Yoshikawa Kobun-kan., 1964. 51.  Tabohashi K i y o s h i , K i n d a i Nihon Gaikoku K a n k e i - s h i (A H i s t o r y o f Japanese F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s i n the Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d e d i t i o n , Toko Shoin, 1943, pp. 281-284.  52.  I b i d . , pp. 377-392, and Inoue, o p . c i t . , p. 22.  53.  Inoue, i b i d . ,  54.  Loc.cit.  55.  For one o f _ t h e b e s t p i e c e s of r e s e a r c h about the Bansha no Goku, see Sato Shosuke, Yogaku-shi Kenkyu J o s e t s u ( I n t r o d u c t i o n to Research i n the H i s t o r y of Western S t u d i e s ) , Iwanami Shoten, 1964.  56.  Tokugawa Koshaku-ke ( e d . ) , M i t o Han S h i r y o ( H i s t o r i c a l Documents of M i t o Han), Tokugawa-ke, 1915, v o l . 4, pp. 393-396, v o l . 5, p. 228.  57.  I b i d . , v o l . 5, pp. 225-226.  58.  I b i d . , v o l . 5, pp. 227-228.  59.  I b i d . , v o l . 5, pp. 231-232.  60.  I b i d . , v o l . 4, pp. 172-182.  61.  I b i d . , v o l . 4, pp. 182-183. Concerning correspondence between Tokugawa N a r i a k i and the Bakufu, see Conrad Totman, " P o l i t i c a l R e c o n c i l i a t i o n i n the Tokugawa Bakufu: Abe Masahiro and Tokugawa N a r i a k i , 1844-1852," i n A l b e r t M. C r a i g e_t a l . ( e d s . ) , P e r s o n a l i t i e s i n Japanese H i s t o r y , Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1970.  62.  Inoue, o p . c i t . , p. 27.  63.  O h i r a Kimata, Sakuma Shozan (Sakuma Shozan), Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, 1959, pp. 62-68, and Miyamoto Chu, Sakuma Shozan, Iwanami Shoten, 19 32, pp. 96101. For an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of the E i g h t Measures, see Sansom, The Western World and Japan, pp. 25 3-254.  64.  Inoue, o p . c i t . , p. 31.  p. 23.  The model s h i p was  c a l l e d the H i t a c h i Maru.  CHAPTER 2 1.  K a t s u K a i s h u , Kaigun R e k i s h i , vol._12 of K a t s u K a i s h u Zenshu (Complete Works of K a t s u K a i s h u ) , K e i s o Shobo, 1971, p. 15. K a t s u K a i s h u Zenshu i s h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as KKZ.  2.  T.S. R a f f l e s , H i s t o r y of J a v a , London, xxxii-xxxv.  1830, pp. xx-xxv,  xxviii-xxix,  123  3.  I b i d . , p. x x v i i .  4.  Tabohashi, K i n d a i Nihon Gaikoku K a r i k e i - s h i , p. 261.  5.  Loc.cit.  6.  S h o j i M i t s u o , "Bakumatsu N i c h i - R a n Gaiko no I c h i K o s a t s u (A C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the. D i p l o m a t i c H i s t o r y o f t h e R e l a t i o n Between Japan and H o l l a n d i n the L a s t Days of the Shogunate)," i n Nihon G a i k o - s h i Kenkyu, Bakumatsu I s h i n J i d a i ( S t u d i e s on the D i p l o m a t i c H i s t o r y of J a p a n L a t e Tokugawa and E a r l y M e i j i P e r i o d s ) , Yuhikaku, 1960, pp. 59-60.  7.  Sansom, The Western World and Japan, p. 246.  8.  See page 14 o f t h i s  9.  Tabohashi, o p . c i t . , p. 379.  thesis.  10.  I b i d . , pp. 319-320.  11.  Suzuki S e i s e t s u ( e d . ) , Kazan K a z a n - k a i , 1940, pp. 8-9.  12.  Sato,. Yogaku-shi Kenkyu J o s e t s u , pp. 303, 319-320. With r e g a r d t o the f u s e t s u - g a k i i n g e n e r a l , see I t a g a k i Takeo, "Oranda F u s e t s u - g a k i no Kenkyu (A Study of the Dutch News R e p o r t s ) , " i n N i c h i - R a n Bunka Kosho-shi no Kenkyu ( S t u d i e s on C u l t u r a l Exchanges between Japan and the N e t h e r l a n d s ) , Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, 1959, pp. 178-200.  13.  Tabohashi, op . c i t . , p. 388.  14.  The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t a t t h i s time was Edward G r a n d i s o n .  15.  S h o j i , o p . c i t . , p. 59.  16.  I b i d . , pp. 59-60.  17.  I b i d . , p. 60.  18.  The e n t i r e name of the book i s Nippon. A r c h i v z u r B e s c h r e i n b u r g s u d l i c h e n K u r i l e n , S a c h a l i n , Korea und den L i u k i u - I n s e l e n . An E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i s Manners and Customs of the Japanese i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century, Harper, New York, 1841. See Itazawa Takeo S h i b o r u t o ( S i e b o l d ) , Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, 1960, pp. 15 7-175 f o r the c o n t e n t s of the book i n Japanese.  19.  Itazawa, i b i d . , pp. 181-182.  20.  S h o j i , o p . c i t . , p. 61.  21.  D u r i n g the N a p o l e o n i c Wars, the Dutch n a t i o n a l emblem flew only a t Nagasaki. A f t e r the wars, Hendrik D o e f f , the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f the Dutch Nagasaki P o s t , was s p e c i a l l y d e c o r a t e d by K i n g W i l l i a m I f o r h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y s e r v i c e a t Nagasaki d u r i n g the h a r d s h i p . Because o f t h i s , the Dutch had a s p e c i a l f e e l i n g towards Japan and the Japanese.  Zenshu  (Complete Works o f Watanabe Kazan),  124 22.  S h o j i , o p . c i t . , p. 61.  23.  Tabohashi, o p . c i t . , pp. 275-281.  24.  He was r e - a p p o i n t e d to the p o s i t i o n on August 4, 1844 (Koka 1, 6/21). Perhaps the Bakufu needed Mizuno f o r the s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n of the Dutch Royal l e t t e r a f f a i r . See K i t a j i m a Masamoto, Mizuno Tadakuni (Mizuno T a d a k u n i ) , Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, 1969, pp. 492-497.  25.  Tabohashi, i b i d . , pp. 350-351.  26.  D.C. Green, "Correspondence Between W i l l i a m I I of H o l l a n d and the Shogun of Japan, A.D. 1844," i n T r a n s a c t i o n s of the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y of Japan, f i r s t s e r i e s , V o l . XXXIV (1907), pp. 99-132.  27.  For a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n to the Tempo Reforms, see Sansom, o p . c i t . , pp. 242-243. In Japanese, see K i t a j i m a , o p . c i t .  28.  Tokutomi I i c h i r o , Y o s h i d a Shoin (Yoshida Shoin) , Minyu-sha, 1908, pp. 281-283, and Kudo T a k e s h i g e , Mizuno Chikuzen (Mizuno T a d a k u n i ) , 1897, pp. 128-130.  29.  Green, o p . c i t . , pp. 128-130.  30.  Tabohashi, o p . c i t . , pp. 334-342. In a d d i t i o n , an i n c i d e n t i n 1828 (Bunsei 11) t h a t i n v o l v e d the P o s t and von S i e b o l d made the i m p r e s s i o n of the Dutch among Bakufu o f f i c i a l s even worse. See Itazawa, S h i b o r u t o , pp. 97-149.  31.  Tokutomi I i c h i r o , K i n s e i Nihon Kokumin-shi Japan), J i j i T s u s h i n - s h a , v o l . 29, p. 74.  32.  Nakano R e i s h i r o ( e d . ) , Nabeshima Naomasa Ko Den (The Biography of L o r d Nabeshima Naomasa), Koshaku Nabeshima-ke Hensan-jo, 1920, v o l . 3, p. 173.  33.  "Those f e u d a l l o r d s of daimyo s t a t u s whose a n c e s t o r s had not s u b m i t t e d to Tokugawa r u l e u n t i l a f t e r Ieyasu's v i c t o r y at S e k i g a h a r a [ i n 1600]. They were always r e g a r d e d by t h e Tokugawa as p o s s i b l e r i v a l s and were permanently excluded from a l l Bakufu o f f i c e s . Sometimes r e f e r r e d to i n E n g l i s h as the 'outside f e u d a t o r i e s ' . " B e a s l e y , S e l e c t Documents on Japanese F o r e i g n P o l i c y , p. 329.  34.  Saga-ken-shi Hensan-kai ( e d . ) , Saga-ken-shi (A H i s t o r y o f Saga-ken), ken, 1972, v o l . 3, pp. 328-337, 338-344.  35.  Nakano ( e d . ) , o p . c i t . , pp. 174-178.  36.  See page 11 o f t h i s  37.  Hideshima N a r i t a d a ( e d . ) , Saga Han K a i g u n - s h i (The H i s t o r y of the Saga Han Navy), C h i s h i n - k a i , 1917, pp. 27-28.  38.  Sato, o p . c i t . , p. 312. U n t i l r e c e n t l y , Haneda, as Japan's main i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r p o r t , was the main p o r t of e n t r y f o r f o r e i g n e r s i n the l a s t few decades.  39.  I b i d . , pp. 332-333.  (A N a t i o n a l H i s t o r y of Modern  Saga-  thesis.  125  40.  Tabohashi, o p . c i t . , pp. 325-328, and T a n j i . Kerizo, "Koka-ki n i Okeru Edowan Bobi Mondai to.Ikoku-sen T o r i a t s u k a i - r e i (The Problem of the Defense of Edo Bay and Bakufu R e g u l a t i o n s Concerning F o r e i g n Ships i n the Koka P e r i o d ) , " i n Shigaku Ronshu, T a i g a i Kankei to S e i j i Bunka, #3, S e i j i Bunka (Papers on H i s t o r y S t u d i e s : I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s and Domestic P o l i t i c s and C u l t u r e , #3, P o l i t i c s and C u l t u r e ) , Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, 1974, p. 225.  41.  Tabohashi, o p . c i t . , pp. 327-328, and T a n j i , o p . c i t . , pp. 224-227.  42.  Tabohashi, o p . c i t . , pp. 409-416.  43.  T a n j i , o p . c i t . , pp. 228-229.  44.  For example, w h i l e the Columbus alone, had 83 cannons ( l o a d i n g 37.5 k i l o - ^ grams or h e a v i e r s h e l l s ) , a l l o f the Japanese cannons around Edo Bay t o t a l l e d only 70 ( l o a d i n g 0.375 k i l o g r a m s or h e a v i e r s h e l l s ) and n e a r l y a l l of them were o l d - f a s h i o n e d . I b i d . , pp. 229-230.  45.  I b i d . , pp. 230-232.  46.  I b i d . , pp. 234-239.  47.  Watanabe S h u j i r o , Abe Masahiro J i s e k i (A Biography of Abe M a s a h i r o ) , p r i v a t e e d i t i o n , 1910, v o l . 2, pp. 649-652.  48.  See pages 65-67, 69-70 of t h i s  49.  Sato, o p . c i t . , pp. 353-354.  50.  thesis.  . I b i d . , p. 354.  CHAPTER 3 1.  Tabohashi, K i n d a i Nihon Gaikoku K a n k e i - s h i , pp. 450--45 3.  2.  Loc.cit.  3.  I b i d . , pp. 450-451.  4.  I b i d . , p. 451.  5.  Shoji,  6.  Tabohashi, o p . c i t . , p. 451.  7.  Loc.cit.  8.  I b i d . , pp. 451-452.  9.  I b i d . , p. 453;  10.  "Bakumatsu Nichi-Ran Gaiko no I c h i K o s a t s u , " p. 61.  I b i d . , pp. 453-454.  126  11.  I b i d . , p.  454.  12.  Loc.cit.  13.  Shoji,  14.  I b i d . , pp.  15.  Tabohashi, o p . c i t . ,  16.  I b i d . , pp. 542-544, S h o j i , pp. 213-214.  17.  Watanabe  18.  M i z u t a N o b u t o s h i , B a k u m a t s u n i O k e r u Waga K a i g u n t o O r a n d a ( J a p a n ' s Navy and H o l l a n d i n t h e L a t e Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , K a i g u n Y u s h u - k a i , 1 9 2 9 , p p . 8-9.  19.  I b i d . , pp.  9-15.  20.  I b i d . , pp.  41-47.  21.  I b i d . , p. 48.  22.  The d a t e h e r e i s b a s e d on K a t s u ' s K a i g u n R e k i s h i a n d K a t a g i r i K a z u o , Sakoku J i d a i T a i g a i O s e t s u K a n k e i S h i r y o ( H i s t o r i c a l Documents C o n c e r n i n g _ t h e R e c e p t i o n o f F o r e i g n e r s D u r i n g t h e Y e a r s o f N a t i o n a l I s o l a t i o n ) , Kondo S h u p p a n - s h a , 19 72, p. 2 0 5 , a l t h o u g h M i z u t a N o b u t o s h i m e r e l y s a y s i t was t h e 2 1 s t day o f t h e 7 t h m o n t h .  23.  K a t s u , KKZ, v o l . 1 2 , p. 7 1 , a n d M i z u t a , o p . c i t . , p. 6 2 .  24.  M i z u t a , i b i d . , pp.  25.  I b i d . , pp.  26.  I b i d . , p. 67.  27.  Tokutomi, following  28.  I b i d . , pp.  29.  K a t s u , KKZ, v o l . 1 2 , p. 6 9 .  30.  Tokutomi,  31.  I b i d . , pp.  32.  I b i d . , p.  33.  I b i d . , pp.  340-341.  34.  I b i d . , p.  349.  op.cit.,  pp.  61-62.  62-63.  Shujiro,  p.  469. op.cit.,  Abe M a s a h i r o  p. 6 3 , and I t a z a w a , S h i b o r u t o ,  J i s e k i , v o l . 1, p.  368.  64-65.  66-67.  K i n s e i N i h o n K o k u m i n - s h i , v o l . 33, pp. 319-320. T h i s and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s t a k e n f r o m documents q u o t e d i n Tokutomi's work. 320-333.  op.cit., 332-333. 334.  p. 80.  127  35.  I b i d . , pp. 350-351.  36.  I b i d . , pp. 353-354.  37.  I b i d . , pp. 359-361.  38.  I b i d . , pp. 360-361.  39.  I b i d . , pp. 365-368.  40.  I b i d . , pp. 371-372.  41.  Tokugawa Koshaku-ke  42.  I b i d . , P- 460.  43.  I b i d . , P- 468.  44.  I b i d . , pp. 469-471.  45.  M i z u t a , opi . c i t . ,  46.  I b i d . , P- 95.  47.  Tokutomi, o p . c i t . ,  48.  S h o j i , op. c i t . , p.  49.  I b i d . , PP. 64-65.  50.  Fumikura H e i j i r o , B i n the L a t e Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , Meicho Kanko-kai, 1969, p. 753. The Soembing l a t e r became the Kanko Maru. See f o o t n o t e 72 o f Chapter 4.  51.  S h o j i , o p . c i t . , p. 65.  52.  Loc.cit.  53.  Tokutomi, o p . c i t . , v o l . 33, p. 421.  p.  CHAPTER 4 1.  M i z u t a , Bakumatsu n i Okeru Waga Kaigun to Oranda, pp. 102-106.  2.  Katsu, KKZ, v o l . 12, pp. 84-87, 94-112.  3.  I b i d . , p. 86.  4.  I b i d . , pp. 88-91.  5.  M i z u t a , o p . c i t . , pp. 109-110. The sentence "The m i s s i o n of the detachment i s to i n s t r u c t the Japanese i n the o p e r a t i o n of the steamer Soembing"'• i n t h i s q u o t a t i o n , i s n o t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h F a b i u s ' recommendations. F a b i u s planned to i n s t r u c t the Japanese i n a l l a s p e c t s of modern n a v a l t r a i n i n g ,  128  but the above-mentioned sentence suggests that the Dutch i n s t r u c t o r s were to teach o n l y the o p e r a t i o n of the Soembing. Most p r o b a b l y , t h i s a t t e n u a t i o n o c c u r r e d when the o r i g i n a l Dutch sentence was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the Japanese on which the w r i t e r ' s E n g l i s h sentence r e l i e d . 6.  I b i d . , p.  110.  7.  I b i d . , pp.  8.  Suzuki N a o j i , Edo J i d a i n i Okeru Kome T o r i h i k i no Kenkyu (A Study of Rice Market i n the Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d e d i t i o n , Kashiwa Shobo, 1965, p. 174.  9.  Kasama, Edo  Bakufu Yakushoku S h u s e i , p.  10.  Katsu,  v o l . 12, p.  11.  Some people i n the Bakufu i n s i s t e d on h a v i n g a n a v a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l near Edo. They thought the Bakufu c o u l d c o n t r o l the s c h o o l e a s i l y i f i t was l o c a t e d at a p l a c e l i k e Uraga. But most of the Bakufu e x e c u t i v e s at t h a t time were not fond of the i d e a of a s c h o o l which employed Westerners near Edo. F u r t h e r , a man l i k e Arao Narimasa s t r o n g l y i n s i s t e d t h a t the s c h o o l be at Nagasaki. He f e a r e d d i r e c t i n t e r f e r e n c e from top Bakufu e x e c u t i v e s i n n a v a l t r a i n i n g i n case the s c h o o l was s e t up near Edo. _. _ T s u c h i y a S h i g e a k i , K i n d a i Nihon Zosen Kotohajime, Hida Hamagoro no Shogai (Hie B i r t h of S h i p b u i l d i n g i n Modern Japan, the L i f e of Hida Hamagoro), Shin J i n b u t s u O r a i - s h a , 19 75, p. 83.  12.  For the l i f e Katsu Kaishu  13.  General o p i n i o n s by v a r i o u s l o r d s are found i n B e a s l e y , S e l e c t Documents on Japanese F o r e i g n P o l i c y 1853-1868,pp. 112-119, and Hugh Borton, Japan's Modern Century, second e d i t i o n , New York, 1970, pp. 34-38. A s u g g e s t i o n made by an Edo merchant i s i n t r o d u c e d by K o n i s h i S h i r o , Kaikoku t o J o i (The Opening of the Country and E x c l u s i o n i s m ) , Nihon no R e k i s h i (A H i s t o r y of Japan) s e r i e s , v o l . 19, Chuo Koron-sha, 1966, pp. 48-49.  14.  I s h i i , o p . c i t . , pp. 5-6. v o l . 14, pp. 413-420.  15.  For the h i s t o r y of the s h i p , see Fumikura, Bakumatsu Gunkan K a n r i n Maru, p. 786.  16.  Katsu,  17.  I b i d . , pp.  115,  18.  I b i d . , pp.  122-126.  19.  See pages 16-17  20.  Westerners, e s p e c i a l l y Russians f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t e d Ezo, but Matsumae han had n e i t h e r s t r o n g han l e a d e r s h i p nor the r e l i a b l e economic b a s i s f o r d r a s t i c m i l i t a r y reforms.  111-112, and  KKZ,  KKZ,  Katsu,  KKZ,  v o l . 12,  pp.  117-119.  44.  89.  of Katsu K a i s h u , the w r i t e r mainly r e f e r r e d to I s h i i (Katsu Kaishu),Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, 1974.  v o l . 12, pp.  the  For the f u l l  t e x t of the memorial, see  Takashi,  KKZ,  36-53.  127-128, 134-138.  of t h i s  thesis.  129  21.  While some i n t e r e s t e d people depended on the t r a n s l a t i o n of Dutch books, most people i n c l u d i n g Bakufu b u r e a u c r a t s were s a i d to have o b t a i n e d c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n through Chinese books. One of the most important Chinese books of t h i s k i n d i n those days was Haiguo T u z h i (or Hai-kuo T'u-chih) compiled by Wei Yuan i n 1847. F o r more d e t a i l s , see Ayuzawa S h i n t a r o and Okubo T o s h i a k i , Sakoku J i d a i N i h o n - j i n no K a i g a i C h i s h i k i (Japanese Knowledge of F o r e i g n C o u n t r i e s d u r i n g the Years of N a t i o n a l I s o l a t i o n ) , Kangen-sha, 1953, pp. 130-153.  22.  Katsu, KKZ, v o l . 12, pp. 122-126.  23.  M i y a g i E i s h o , Okinawa no R e k i s h i K y o k a i , 1968, pp. 86-98.  24.  Koshaku Shimazu-ke Hensan-jo - ( e d . ) , Sappan K a i g u n - s h i (The H i s t o r y of the Satsuma Han Navy), Shimazu Koshaku-ke, 1929, pp. 603-621. See page 609 f o r the main e n g i n e e r s of the steamer.  25.  I b i d . , pp. 679-681.  26.  I b i d . , pp. 749-753.  27.  Nakahama T o i c h i r o , Nakahama M a n j i r o Den Fuzanbo, 1936, pp. 151-155.  28.  See pages 30-31 of t h i s  29.  K u r i h a r a R y u i c h i , Bakumatsu Nihon no Gunsei ( M i l i t a r y Systems of L a t e Tokugawa Japan), Shin J i n b u t s u O r a i - s h a , 1972, pp. 114-115.  30.  Tokugawa Koshaku-ke ( e d . ) ,  31.  I b i d . , pp.. 125, 464-466. However, by the time they a r r i v e d a t Nagasaki, the Dutch s h i p had a l r e a d y l e f t . T h e r e f o r e , the o n l y t h i n g they c o u l d do was to c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n about the s h i p and i t s o p e r a t i o n at the Dutch Nagasaki P o s t .  32.  I b i d . , pp. 125-126, 459, 471-472.  33.  K a t s u , KKZ, v o l . 12, pp. 122-126.  34.  Tokugawa Koshaku-ke ( e d . ) , o p . c i t . , pp. 126-127.  35.  (A H i s t o r y of Okinawa), Nihon Hoso Shuppan  (A Biography of Nakahama M a n j i r o ) ,  thesis.  M i t o Han S h i r y o , v o l .  1, p. 54.  K a t s u , KKZ, v o l . 12, pp. 114-115, and Tokutomi, K i n s e i Nihon Kokumin-shi, vol.  33, pp. 424-428.  36.  K a t s u , KKZ, v o l . 12, p. 117.  37.  Loc.cit". , and : Tokutomi, op.•cit., v o l .  38.  Katsu,  39.  I b i d . , pp. 128-129.  40.  Hideshima N a r i t a d a  33, p. 431.  op.cit.  (ed.), Saga Han K a i g u n - s h i , pp. 98-99.  130  41.  Katsu, KKZ, v o l . 12, p. 117.  42.  I b i d . , pp. 117-122.  43.  The author o f the 1929 book was a . c a r e e r diplomat who s e r v e d i n the Netherlands and o t h e r European c o u n t r i e s . The book i s s a i d to have been w r i t t e n based on v a r i o u s Dutch documents, but no source i s i n d i c a t e d i n i t .  44.  Katsu, KKZ, v o l . 14, p. 347.  45.  Katsu, KKZ, v o l . 12, pp. 119-120.  46.  I b i d . , pp. 134-138.  47.  M i z u t a , o p . c i t . , pp. 124-125.  48.  Katsu, KKZ, v o l . 12, p. 126.  49.  Tokutomi,  50.  Katsu, KKZ, v o l . 14, p. 347.  51.  M i z u t a , o p . c i t . , p. 117.  52.  K a t s u , KKZ, v o l . 12, p. 126.  53.  Numata J i r o , Bakumatsu Yogaku-shi (A H i s t o r y o f western L a t e Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , Toko Shoin, 1952, p. 95.  54.  Loc.cit.  55.  Katsu, KKZ, v o l . 12, pp. 138-139.  56.  I b i d . , pp. 139-140.  57.  See page 82 of t h i s  58.  M i z u t a Nobutoshi ( t r . ) , Nagasaki Kaigun Denshu--jo no H i b i ('Days a t the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l ) , Heibon-sha, 1964, p. 11. T h i s i s a Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n of Huyssen van Kattendyke, U i t t r e k s e l u i t h e t dagboek van W.J.C. R i d d e r H.v. Kattendyke gedurende z i j n v e r b l i j f i n Japan i n 1857, 1858 en 1859, The Hague, 1860.  59.  K a t s u , KKZ, v o l . 12, pp. 127-128.  60.  For the l i f e of Enomoto T a k e a k i , see Iguro Y a t a r o , Enomoto T a k e a k i , Shin J i n b u t s u O r a i - s h a , 1975.  61.  F o r the l i f e  62.  I b i d . , pp. 82-83.  63.  Numata, o p . c i t . , p. 90.  64.  Loc.cit.  o p . c i t . , v o l . 33, pp. 424-425.  S t u d i e s i n the  thesis.  of Hida Hamagoro, see T s u c h i y a , o p . c i t .  131  65.  I b i d . , p. 93. Some i n t e r e s t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s of Bakufugastronomer Ono Tomogoro i n Lectures are i n t r o d u c e d i n N u m a j i r i G e r i ' i c h i r o ( e d . ) , M i t o no Yogaku (Western S t u d i e s i n M i t o ) , Kashiwa Shobo, 1977, pp. 260-262.  66.  Numata, o p . c i t . , p. 92.  67.  I b i d . , p. 94.  68.  The i n f o r m a t i o n about the Bakufu c u t t e r i s o b t a i n e d from Saga Han K a i g u n - s h i , Kaigun R e k i s h i , Sappan K a i g u n - s h i , and Bakumatsu n i Okeru Waga Kaigun t o Oranda, as none o f them s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n s the c u t t e r b u i l d i n g i n i t s entirety.  69.  Fumikura, o p . c i t . , p. 790.  70.  K a t s u , KKZ, v o l . 12, pp. 140-411.  71.  See. the f o l l o w i n g .  72.  The Soembing was renamed the Kanko Maru i n May, 1856. The name "Kanko" comes from the I - c h i n g , a Chinese c l a s s i c . Fumikura, o p . c i t . , p. 31.  73.  K a t s u , Rikugun R e k i s h i (The H i s t o r y o f the- Army) i n KKZ, v o l . 16, pp. 445-454.  74.  Katsu, KKZ, v o l . 12, pp. 152-153.  75.  I b i d . , pp. 153-162.  76.  I b i d . , p. 153.  77.  Fumikura, o p . c i t . , pp. 44, 48-51.  78.  K a t a g i r i , Sakoku J i d a i T a i g a i  79.  A c c o r d i n g t o K a t a g i r i , the C a t h a r i n e T h e r e s i a was 170 tons and the Jan D a n i e l , 338 tons. I b i d . , pp. 221-222.  80.  K a t a g i r i Kazuo, " K a n r i n M a r u — J a p a n — n i kansuru Shin Shiryo(New M a t e r i a l Concerning the K a n r i n M a r u — J a p a n ) , " i n Geppo (Monthly News), no. 2, o f KKZ, v o l . 12, pp. 1-10.  81.  Mizuta  82.  K a t s u , KKZ, v o l . 12, pp. 162-165.  83,  I b i d . , pp.  172-222.  84.  I b i d . , pp.  177-179.  85.  I b i d . , pp.  195-200.  86.  I b i d . , pp.  167-168.  87.  The commanders of the Dutch detachments  ,  . -. 7  Osetsu S h i r y o , pp. 221-223.  ( t r . ) , op. c i t . , p. 7.  132  o f f i c e r s . P e l s Rijkerr rose to v i c e - a d m i r a l and served as a n a v a l m i n i s t e r of the Dutch government. Van Kattendyke r e t i r e d from the Navy as a commander and went i n t o p o l i t i c s . ; . He a l s o s e r v e d as a n a v a l m i n i s t e r and f o r a w h i l e h e l d the p o r t f o l i o f o r F o r e i g n A f f a i r s c o n c u r r e n t l y . M i z u t a ( t r . ) , o p . c i t . , pp. 230-231, 88.  Takahashi K u n i t a r o , Gun j i ( M i l i t a r y A f f a i r s ) , O y a t o i G a i k o k u - j i n ( F o r e i g n e r s i n Government S e r v i c e s ) s e r i e s , v o l . 9, Kashima Kenkyu-jo Shuppan-kai, 1968, p. 45.  89.  Katsu, KKZ,  90.  I b i d . , pp.  91.  Hideshima ( e d . ) , Saga Han  92.  Nihon R e k i s h i D a i - j i t e n , v o l . 9,.pp. 266-267.  93.  With r e g a r d to the dates of t h i s c i r c u m n a v i g a t i o n , I used the ones i n Sappan K a i g u n - s h i which I understand to be most r e l i a b l e .  94.  Mizuta  95.  Fumikura, o p . c i t . , p.  96.  D e t a i l s here  97.  Mizuta  98.  T.C. Smith, P o l i t i c a l Change and I n d u s t r i a l Development i n Japan: Government E n t e r p r i s e , 1868-1880, S t a n f o r d Univ. P r e s s . 1955, p. 5. It i s mentioned i n t h i s book t h a t "twelve hundred workers were b e i n g employed, a t the Shusei-kan i n 1858."  99.  Mizuta  100.  v o l . 12, p.  165.  168-172.  (tr.),  (tr.),  (tr.),  o p . c i t . , p.  K a i g u n - s h i , pp.  145-146.  90.  68.  are based on M i z u t a o p . c i t . , pp.  o p . c i t . , p.  (tr.),  o p . c i t . , and  Sappan K a i g u n - s h i .  96-98.  96.  Koshaku Shimazu-ke Hensan-jo ( e d . ) , Sappan K a i g u n - s h i , pp. 617-619. A c c o r d i n g to the same book, the steam engine of the s h i p was p r e s e r v e d at the Kaigun Heigakko at T s u k i j i , Kaigun Kikan Gakko (Naval Academy of . E n g i n e e r i n g ) at Yokosuka, and then at Kaigun Heigakko at E t a j i m a , Hiroshima, u n t i l 1891 or 1892 when i t was scrapped t h e r e .  101.  Mizuta  (tr.),  102.  I b i d . , pp.  99-100.  103.  I b i d . , pp.  92-93.  104.  Nihon R e k i s h i D a i - j i t e n , v o l . 7, p.  105.  Mizuta  106.  Numata J i r o and Arase Susumu ( t r s . ) , Pompe Nihon T a i z a i Kenbun-ki (Pompe's Records i n Japan), Yusho-do Shoten, 1968, p. 258. T h i s i s a Japanese  (tr.),  o p . c i t . , p.  o p . c i t . , p.  97.  93.  93.  \  133  t r a n s l a t i o n o f J h r . Johannes L i j d i u s C a t h a r i n u s Pompe van M e e r d e r v o o r t , V i j f J a r e n i n Japan (185 7-1863): B i j dragen. t o t de k e n n i s van h e t Japansche k e i z e r r i j k en z i j n e b e v o l k i n g , 2 v o l s . , L e i d e n , '1867-1868. 107.  Numata and Arase ( t r s . ) ,  o p . c i t . , p. 261.  108.  Koshaku Shimazu-ke Hensan-jo  109.  I b i d . , pp. 1021-1024.  110.  I b i d . , pp. 1024-1026.  111.  Mizuta ( t r . ) ,  112.  See page 66 of t h i s  113.  I b i d . , p. 110.  114.  I b i d . , pp. 111-112.  115.  I b i d . , pp. 118-119.  116.  Hideshima N a r i t a d a p. 81.  117.  K a t a g i r i , Geppo, p. 10.  118.  Mizuta ( t r . ) ,  119.  Daimyo whose a n c e s t o r s had s u p p o r t e d Tokugawa Ieyasu b e f o r e 1600.  120.  K a t s u , KKZ, v o l . 12, p. 175.  121.  Mizuta ( t r . ) ,  122.  Fumikura, o p . c i t . , p. 82.  ( e d . ) , o p . c i t . , pp. 1019-1020.  o p . c i t . , p. 109. thesis.  (ed.) Saga Han K a i g u n - s h i , p. 163, and Fumikura,  op.cit.,  o p . c i t . , pp. 134-141.  o p . c i t . , p. 162.  CHAPTER 5 1.  Fumikura, Bakumatsu Gunkan K a n r i n Maru, p. 84.  2.  Loc.cit. The waka i n Japanese i s "Imasara n i T o t s u k u n i b u r i Koko n i T s u t a u r u Mononofu no M i c h i . "  3.  Tabohashi, K i n d a i Nihon Gaikoku K a n k e i - s h i , p. 524, and Okudaira S h o j i , Hinawa-ju k a r a Kuro-fune made (From the Matchlock to therBlack S h i p s ) , Iwanami Shoten, 1970, pp. 114-117.  4.  Inoue, Nihon no Gunkoku-shugi, p. 39.  5.  Loc.cit.  6.  I b i d . , p. 89.  o Narawame ya,  134  7.  I b i d . , p. 39.  8.  K a t s u , KKZ, v o l . 12, pp. 153-154. The only e x c e p t i o n h e r e was Nakahama M a n j i r o , the American-educated castaway.  9.  The Banryu Maru was p r e s e n t e d t o the Bakufu i n 1858 by Queen V i c t o r i a . I t s o r i g i n a l name was the Emperor. Fumikura, o p . c i t . , pp. 755-758. The Kanko Maru was then on l o a n to Saga han a f t e r 1860.  10.  One s i l v e r (or Mexican) d o l l a r weighed a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7.2 monme. Hora Tomio, Bakumatsu I s h i n - k i no G a i a t s u t o T e i k o ( F o r e i g n P r e s s u r e and Japan's R e s i s t ance i n the L a t e Tokugawa and E a r l y M e i j i P e r i o d s ) , Azekura Shobo, 1977, p. 149.  11.  There i s no document about t h e ' f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f the e a r l y Tokugawa Bakufu navy today. One o f the few monographs i n t h i s f i e l d i s Oyama S h i k i t a r o , Bakumatsu Z a i s e i K i n y u S h i r o n ( H i s t o r i c a l Essays on the Late Bakufu F i n a n c e ) , Mineruba Shobo, 1969.  12.  Fumikura, o p . c i t . , p. 82.  13.  I s h i i T a k a s h i , Nihon K a i k o k u - s h i , (A H i s t o r y o f the Opening o f Japan), Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, 1972, pp. 356-361.  14.  B e a s l e y , S e l e c t Documents on Japanese F o r e i g n P o l i c y 1853-1868, p. 188.  15.  Ishii,  16.  Loc.cit.  17.  Although the U n i t e d S t a t e s government seems, t o have intended to ask f o r h e l p from the Dutch Nagasaki Post i n n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h the Japanese, Commodore P e r r y t o t a l l y i g n o r e d the P o s t .  18.  M i z u t a , Bakumatsu n i Okeru Waga Kaigun t o Oranda, pp. 154-155.  19 .  Loc.cit.  20.  I b i d . , pp. 155-156.  21.  Ikeda K i y o s h i , Nihon no Kaigun (Japan's Navy), S h i s e i - d o , 1963, v o l . 1, pp. 19-20, and K u r i h a r a R y u i c h i , Bakumatsu Nihon no G u n s e i , p. 131.  22.  M i z u t a , o p . c i t . , p. 156.  23.  F o r the l i f e of Sakamoto Ryoma, see Marius Jansen, Sakamoto Ryoma and the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1961.  24.  F o r the l i f e of Nakamuda Kuranosuke, as w e l l as Kawamura Sumiyoshi, see Tamura E i t a r o , M e i j i Kaigun S o s h i - s h a , Kawamura Sumiyoshi, Nakamuda Kuranosuke D e n ( B i o g r a p h i e s o f Kawamura Sumiyoshi and Nakamuda Kuranosuke, Founders of the M e i j i Navy), Nihon G u n j i Tosho, 1944.  25.  M i z u t a ( t r . ) , Nagasaki Kaigun Denshu-jo no H i b i ,  o p . c i t . , pp. 352-353.  p. 85.  135  26.  Fumikura, o p . c i t . , pp.  766-777.  27.  N u m a j i r i (ed.), M i t o no Yogaku, pp. 265-268.  28.  About the m e d i c a l s c h o o l , see I s h i b a s h i C h o e i , e t a l . , Igaku ( M e d i c i n e ) , i n O y a t o i G a i k o k u - j i n ( F o r e i g n e r s i n Government S e r v i c e ) s e r i e s , v o l . 9, Kashima Kenkyu-jo Shuppan-kai, 1969, pp. 54-63.  29.  About the l i f e o f Godai Tomoatsu, see Godai Ryusaku, Godai Tomoatsu Den (A Biography of Godai Tomoatsu), p r i v a t e e d i t i o n , 1933.  30.  About the l i f e of Sano Tsunetami, see Honma Gakukan, Sano Tsunetami (A Biography of Sano Tsunetami), J i d a i - s h a , 1943.  31.  Eto Jun, Umi wa Yomigaeru 1973, v o l . 1, p. 236.  32.  Watanabe S h u j i r o , Abe Masahiro J i s e k i , v o l . 1, p.  33.  M i z u t a ( t r . ) , o p . c i t . , p.  Den  (The Ocean R e s u r g e n t ) , Bungei Shunju Shin-sha,  84.  377.  136  LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED  E n g l i s h Books  A l c o c k , S i r R u t h e r f o r d , The C a p i t a l of the Tycoon: A N a r r a t i v e of a Three Years' Residence i n Japan, 2 v o l s . , London, 1863. Beasley, W.G.,  Great B r i t a i n and the Opening o f Japan, 1834-1858, London,  ,  The M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n , S t a n f o r d ,  ,  S e l e c t Documents on Japanese F o r e i g n P o l i c y 1853-1868, London,  1972.  Consenza, M.E. ( e d . ) , The Complete J o u r n a l o f Townsend H a r r i s , F i r s t Consul G e n e r a l and M i n i s t e r to Japan, New York, 1930. C r a i g , A l b e r t M. B e r k e l e y , 1970. Dore, R.P.,  and Donald H. S h i v e l y  American  History,  1964.  Dennett, T y l e r , Americans i n E a s t e r n A s i a , A C r i t i c a l Study of U n i t e d P o l i c y i n the F a r East i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century, New York, 1941. Consenza  1955.  ( e d s . ) , P e r s o n a l i t y i n Japanese  E d u c a t i o n i n Tokugawa Japan, B e r k e l e y ,  H a r r i s , Townsend. See M.E.  1951.  States  (ed.)  Hawks, F.L. ( e d . ) , N a r r a t i v e o f the E x p e d i t i o n o f an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, Performed i n the Years 1852, 1853, and 1854, under the Command of Commodore M.C. P e r r y , 3 v o l s . , New York, 1856. Jansen, M a r i u s , Sakamoto Ryoma and the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n , P r i n c e t o n , Keene, Donald, The Japanese D i s c o v e r y of Europe, 1720-1830, r e v i s e d S t a n f o r d , 1969. Norman, E.H.,  Japan's Emergence as a Modern S t a t e , New  R a f f l e s , Thomas Stamford, H i s t o r y of J a v a , London, Sansom, G.B.,  The Western World and Japan, New  York,  1961. edition,  1940.  1830.  York,  1950.  S i e b o l d , P h i l i p p Franz von, Manners and Customs of the Japanese i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century, New York, 1841. T h i s i s an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of h i s Nippon i n German. Smith, Thomas C , P o l i t i c a l Change and I n d u s t r i a l Development ment E n t e r p r i s e , 1868-1880, S t a n f o r d , 1955.  English  i n Japan:  Govern-  Article  Green, D.C., "Correspondence Between W i l l i a m I I of H o l l a n d and the Shogun of Japan, A.D. 1844," i n T r a n s a c t i o n s of the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y of Japan, 1 s t s e r i e s , XXXIV (1907), pp. 99-132.  137  Japanese Books  Asao Naohiro, Sakoku ( N a t i o n a l I s o l a t i o n ) , i n Nihon No R e k i s h i t o r y o f Japan) s e r i e s , Shogakkan, 1975.  (The Great H i s -  Ayuzawa S h i n t a r o e_t a l . , Sakoku J i d a i Nihon-j i n no K a i g a i C h i s h i k i (Japanese Knowledge of F o r e i g n C o u n t r i e s D u r i n g the Years of N a t i o n a l I s o l a t i o n ) , Kangensha, 1955. Eto  Jun, Umi wa Yomigaeru  (The Ocean R e s u r g e n t ) , Bungei Shunju Shin-sha, 1976.  Fujino Tamotsu, Baku-Han T a i s e i - s h i no Kenkyu (A Study of the Tokugawa BakufuHan System), Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, 1961. Fumikura H e i j i r o , Bakumatsu Gunkan K a n r i n Maru (The K a n r i n Maru, Warship i n the Late Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , Meicho Kanko-kai, 1969. Gaimu-sho (ed.), K i n d a i In-Yo R e k i Taisho-hyo (Conversion T a b l e s of Japanese and G r e g o r i a n C a l e n d a r s f o r Modern Times), Gaimu-sho, 1951. Hideshima_ N a r i t a d a Navy), C h i s h i n - k a i ,  ( e d . ) , Saga Han K a i g u n - s h i (The H i s t o r y of the Saga 1917.  Han  Hora Tomio, Bakumatsu I s h i n - k i no G a i a t s u t o T e i k o ( F o r e i g n P r e s s u r e and Japanese R e s i s t a n c e i n the L a t e Tokugawa and E a r l y M e i j i P e r i o d s ) , Azekura Shobo, 1977. Iguro  Y a t a r o , Enomoto T a k e a k i (Enomoto T a k e a k i ) , Shin J i n b u t s u O r a i - s h a ,  Ikeda. K i y o s h i , Nihon no Kaigun (Japan's Navy), 2 v o l s . , S h i s e i - d o , Inoue, K i y o s h i , Nihon no Gunkoku-shugi Hyoron-sha, 1975.  (Japanese M i l i t a r i s m ) ,  1975.  1963.  3 vols.,  Gendai  Ishibashi Choei. e_t a l . , Igaku ( M e d i c i n e ) , i n O y a t o i G a i k o k u - j i n ( F o r e i g n e r s i n Government S e r v i c e ) s e r i e s , v o l . 9, Kashima Kenkyu-jo Shuppan-kai, 1969. I s h i i . T a k a s h i , Bakumatsu B o e k i - s h i no Kenkyu (A Study o f the H i s t o r y o f Trade i n the Late Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, 1942. ,, Katsu K a i s h u (Katsu K a i s h u ) , Yoshikawa Kobun-kan,  1974.  , Nihon K a i k o k u - s h i (A H i s t o r y of the Opening of J a p a n ) , Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, 1972. Itazawa Takeo, N i c h i - R a n Bunka Kosho-shi no Kenkyu ( S t u d i e s on C u l t u r a l changes Between Japan and the N e t h e r l a n d s ) , Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, 1959. , S h i b o r u t o ( S i e b o l d ) , Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, Izu Kimio e t al". , Nihon G u n j i H a t t a t s u - s h i ment of Japan), Mikasa Shobo, 1938.  Ex-  1960.  (A H i s t o r y of the M i l i t a r y  Develop-  138  Kaigun Yushu-kai ( e d . ) , K i n s e i Teikoku Kaigun Shiyo (A H i s t o r y of the Navy i n Modern Times), Kaigun Y u s h u - k a i , 1938. Kamei 1964. Kamo  T a k a y o s h i , Daikoku-ya Kodayu (Daikoku-ya Kodayu), Yoshikawa  G i i c h i , Enomoto Takeaki (Enomoto T a k e a k i ) , Chuo Koron-sha,  Kaneko , H a r u j i , Bakumatsu no Nihon Shobo, 1968. r  Imperial  Kobun-kan,  1960.  (Japan i n the Late Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , Hayakawa  Kasama, Y o s h i h i k o , Edo Bakufu Yakushoku Shusei (A C o m p i l a t i o n o f O f f i c i a l Posts i n the Tokugawa Bakufu), r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d e d i t i o n , Yuzankaku Shuppan, 1974. K a t a g i r i , Kazuo ( e d . ) , Sakoku J i d a i T a i g a i Osetsu Kankei S h i r y o ( H i s t o r i c a l Documents Concerning the R e c e p t i o n of F o r e i g n e r s D u r i n g the Years of N a t i o n a l I s o l a t i o n ) , Kondo Shuppan-sha, 1972. Katsube , Mitake and Eto , Jun-(e ds . ),Katsu K a i s h u Zenshu K a i s h u ) , K e i s o Shobo, 1971-. :  (Complete Works of Katsu  Kattendyke, W.J.C. R i d d e r van, see M i z u t a ( t r . ) Kawai H i k o m i t s u , N i h o n - j i n Hyoryu-ki (Records of Japanese Castaways), S h i s o - s h a , 1967. K i t a j i m a Masamoto, Edo Bakufu no Kenryoku Tokugawa Bakufu), Iwanami Shoten, 1964. , Mizuno Tadakuni  Shakai  Kozo (The Power S t r u c t u r e of the  (Mizuno T a d a k u n i ) , Yoshikawa  Kobun-kan,  1969.  Konishi.. S h i r o , Kaikoku t o J o i (The Opening of the Country and E x c l u s i o n i s m ) , i n Nihon no R e k i s h i (A H i s t o r y of Japan) s e r i e s , v o l . 19, Chuo Koron-sha, 1966. Koshaku Shimazu-ke Hensan-jo ( e d . ) , Sappan K a i g u n - s h i (The H i s t o r y of the Satsuma Han Navy), 3 v o l s . , Shimazu Koshaku-ke, 1929. Koyama H i r o t a k e , K i n d a i Nihon G u n j i - s h i G a i s e t s u A f f a i r s i n Modern Japan), I t o Shoten, 1944  (An O u t l i n e H i s t o r y of M i l i t a r y  , Nihon G u n j i Kogyo no S h i t e k i Bunseki ( H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s of Japan's M i l i t a r y I n d u s t r i e s ) , Ochanomizu'Shobo, 1972. Kudo  Takeshige, Mizuno Chikuzen  (Mizuno T a d a k u n i ) , 189 7.  K u r i h a r a R y u i c h i , Bakumatsu Nihon no Gunsei ( M i l i t a r y Systems of L a t e Tokugawa Japan), Shin J i n b u t s u O r a i - s h a , 1972. Meerdervoort, . Jh'r. J.L.C. Pompe" van, see Numata and Arase M i y a g i , E i s h o , Okinawa no R e k i s h i Kyokai. Miyamoto  (A H i s t o r y of Okinawa),  (trs. )  Sakuma Shozan  •-  Nihon Hoso Shuppan  1968. Chu,  :  (Sakuma Shozan), Iwanami Shoten,  1932.  139  M i z u t a Nobutoshi, Bakumatsu n i Okeru Waga Kaigun to Oranda H o l l a n d - i n the L a t e Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , Yushu-kai, 1929.  (Japan's Navy and  M i z u t a Nobutoshi ( t r . ) , Nagasaki Kaigun Denshu-jo no H i b i (The Days of the Nagasaki Naval T r a i n i n g S c h o o l ) , Heibon-sha, 1964. T h i s i s a Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n of W i l l e m Johan C o r n e l l s R i d d e r van Kattendyke, U i t t r e k s e l u i t het Dagboek van W.J.C. R i d d e r H. v. Kattendyke Gedurende z i j n V e r b l i j f i n Japan i n 1857, ' 1858 en 1859, The-Hague, 1860. Nakahama. T o i c h i r o , Nakahama M a n j i r o Den Fuzanbo, 19 36.  (A Biography o f Nakahama M a n j i r o ) ,  Nakano R e i s h i r o ( e d . ) , Nabeshima Naomasa Ko Den Naomasa), Koshaku Nabeshima-ke Hensan-jo, 1920.  (A Biography of L o r d Nabeshima  Nihon R e k i s h i D a i - j i t e n Hensan-kai ( e d . ) , Nihon R e k i s h i D a i - j i t e n of Japanese H i s t o r y ) , Kawade Shobo, 1968. Numajiri, Gen'ichiro Shobo,  (Encyclopedia  ( e d . ) , M i t o no Yogaku (Western S t u d i e s i n M i t o ) ,  Kashiwa  1977.  Numata , J i r o , Bakumatsu Yogaku-shi (A H i s t o r y of Western Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , T5ko S h o i n , 1952.  S t u d i e s i n the L a t e  Numata- J i r o e t a l , ( t r s . ) , Pompe Nihon T a i z a i Kenbun-ki (Pompe's Records i n Japan), Yusho-do Shoten, 1968. T h i s i s a Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n of J h r . Johannes L i j d i u s C a t h a r i n u s Pompe van M e e r d e r v o o r t , V i j f J a r e n i n Japan (1857-1863: B i j dragen t o t de k e n n i s van h e t Japansche k e i z e r r i j k en z i j n e b e v o l k i n g , 2 v o l s . , L e i d e n , 1867-1868. Ogasawara C h o s e i , Nihon T e i k o k u K a i j o Kenryoku-shi Kogi ( L e c t u r e s on the Naval Power of the Japanese Empire), date unknown. Ogata  Tomio ( e d . ) , Rangaku to Nihon Bunka (Dutch S t u d i e s and Japanese  Tokyo U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  Culture),  1971.  Ohara Sakingo, Hokuchi Kigen (Warning about the North Land), i n Hokumon Sosho (Books about the North) s e r i e s e d i t e d by Otomo K i s a k u , Hokko Shobo, 1943. Ohira., Kimata, Sakuma Shozan  (Sakuma Shozan), Yoshikawa Kobun-kan,  1959.  O i s h i . Shinzaburo, Bakuhan-sei no Tenkan (Changes i n the Tokugawa Bakufu-Han System), i n Nihon no R e k i s h i (The Great H i s t o r y of Japan) s e r i e s , v o l . 20, Shogakkan, 19 75. Oito T o s h i o , Bakumatsu H e i s e i K a i k a k u - s h i (A H i s t o r y o f M i l i t a r y Reforms i n the L a t e Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , Hakuy5-sha, 1939. Okumura S h o j i , Hinawa-ju k a r a Kuro-fune Made (From the Matchlock to the B l a c k S h i p s ) , Iwanami Shoten, 1970. ;  Otomo  Kisaku (ed.),  Hokumon Sosho  (Books about the N o r t h ) , Hokko Shobo,  1943.  Oyama S h i k i t a r o , Bakumatsu Z a i s e i K i n y u S h i r o n ( H i s t o r i c a l Essays on F i n a n c e i n the Late Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , Mineruba Shobo, 1969.  140  Saga-ken-shi Hensan-kai 1972.  ( e d . ) S a g a - k e n - s h i (A H i s t o r y of Saga-ken),  Sakanoue Nobuo, Nihon K a i b o - s h i do, 1942.  Saga-ken,  (A H i s t o r y of M a r i t i m e Defense of Japan), T a i k o -  Sato. Shosuke, Yogaku-shi Kenkyu J o s e t s u ( I n t r o d u c t i o n to Research i n the H i s t o r y of Western S t u d i e s ) , Iwanami Shoten, 1964. Shimonaka. Yasaburo et_ a l . ( e d s . ) , Sekai R e k i s h i J i t e n H i s t o r y ) , Heibon-sha, 1955.  ( E n c y c l o p e d i a of World  Sugimoto Isao ( e d . ) , Kagaku-shi ( H i s t o r y of S c i e n c e ) , i n T a i k e i N i h o n - s h i Sosho (An O u t l i n e H i s t o r y of Japan), Yamakawa Shuppan-sha, 1964. Suzuki. N a o j i , Edo J i d a i n i Okeru Kome T o r i h i k i no Kenkyu (A Study o f the R i c e Market i n the Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , e n l a r g e d e d i t i o n , Kashiwa Shobo, 1965. Suzuki Seisetsu k a i , 1910.  ( e d . ) , Kazan Zenshu  (Complete Works o f Watanabe Kazan), Kazan-  Tabohashi,- K i y o s h i , K i n d a i Nihon Gaikoku K a n k e i - s h i (A H i s t o r y of Japanese F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s i n the Tokugawa P e r i o d ) , Toko Shoin, 1943. Takahashi / K u n i t a r o , Gunj i ( M i l i t a r y A f f a i r s ) , i n O y a t o i G a i k o k u - j i n ( F o r e i g n e r s i n Government S e r v i c e ) s e r i e s , v o l . 6, Kashima Kenkyu-jo Shuppan-kai, 1968. TakimotOj S e i i c h i (ed.), Sato Nobuhiro Kagaku Zenshu Nobuhiro), 3 v o l s . , Iwanami Shoten, 1925.  (Complete Works o f Sato  Tamura. E i t a r o , M e i j i Kaigun S o s h i - s h a , Kawamura Sumiyoshi Nakamuda Kuranosuke Den ( B i o g r a p h i e s of Kawamura Sumiyoshi and Nakamuda Kuranosuke, Founders of the M e i j i Navy), Nihon G u n j i Tosho, 1944. T o k i t a , E k i c h i , Sato Nobuhiro Tokugawa Koshaku-ke Tokugawa-ke, 1915.  (Sato N o b u h i r o ) , Daikan-do,  (ed.), M i t o Han  Shiryo  Tokutomi, I i c h i r o , K i n s e i Nihon Kokumin-shi J i j i T s u s h i n - s h a , 1960.  1941.  ( H i s t o r i c a l Documents of M i t o Han),  (A N a t i o n a l H i s t o r y of Modern Japan),  , Y o s h i d a Shoin (Yoshida S h o i n ) , Minyu-sha,  1908.  Tsuchiya S h i g e a k i , K i n d a i Nihon Zosen Kotohajime, Hida Hamagoro no Shogai (The B i r t h o f S h i p b u i l d i n g i n Modern Japan and t h e - l i f e of Hida Hamagoro), Shin J i n b u t s u O r a i - s h a , 1975. Tsuda Hideo, Tempo Kaikaku (The Tempo Reforms), i n Nihon no R e k i s h i H i s t o r y of Japan) s e r i e s , v o l . 22, Shogakkan, 1975. Watanabe  S h u j i r o , Abe Masahiro J i s e k i  private edition,  1910.  (The Great  (A Biography o f Abe M a s a h i r o ) , 2 v o l s . ,  141 Yamamoto Yutaka ( e d . ) , Hayashi S h i h e i Zenshu S e i k a t s u - s h a , 1943.  (Complete Works of Hayashi S h i h e i ) ,  Zosen Kyokai ( e d j ^ Nihon K i n s e i Z o s e n - s h i (A H i s t o r y of Modern Japan), Kodo-kan, 1911.  Shipbuilding i n  Japanese A r t i c l e s Goto Y o i c h i , "Abe Masahiro (Abe M a s a h i r o ) " i n Daimyo Retsuden Daimyo), v o l . 8, J i n b u t s u O r a i - s h a , 1966.  (Biographies of  Ishii K e n j i , " S a k o k u - j i d a i no Koyo-sen Kenzo (The C o n s t r u c t i o n of Ocean-going Ships D u r i n g the P e r i o d of N a t i o n a l I s o l a t i o n ) , " i n Miyamoto J o i c h i e t a l . ( e d s . ) , Nihon no Kaiyo-min (Oceanic People of Japan), M i r a i - s h a , 19 74. , "Suetsugu Heizo no Kara-bune (The C h i n e s e - s t y l e Ship of Suetsugu H e i z o ) , " i n Nihon R e k i s h i Gakkai ( e d . ) , Nihon R e k i s h i (Japanese H i s t o r y ) , Yoshikawa Kobun-kan, No. 180, 1963. K a t a g i r i . Kazuo, " K a n r i n M a r u — J a p a n — n i Kansuru Shin S h i r y o (New H i s t o r i c a l M a t e r i a l Concerning the K a n r i n Maru, Japan) ," i n Geppo (Monthly News), no. 2 of Katsu K a i s h u Zenshu, v o l . 12. K e i s o Shobo, 1971-. Nakamura T a d a s h i , "Shimabara no Ran to Sakoku (The Shimabara R e b e l l i o n and N a t i o n a l I s o l a t i o n P o l i c y ) " i n Iwanami Koza Nihon R e k i s h i (Iwanami H i s t o r y of Japan), v o l . 9, Iwanami Shoten, 19 75. 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