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Emphasis expression : an approach to teaching aesthetic perception at the junior high school Treit, Kit 1978

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EMPHASIS EXPRESSION: AN APPROACH TO TEACHING AESTHETIC PERCEPTION AT THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL KIT TREIT B.Ed., University of British Columbia, 197k A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Art Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Ap r i l , 1978 Kit Treit, 1978 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thesis fo r f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of A r t ^ c a t i o n The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date A * r i l 1978 i i ABSTRACT The thesis being explored i s a conceptual basis f o r developing a curriculum unit which expounded the use of discourse and analysis to supplement a regu-l a r Junior High School studio art program. This approach represented a departure from traditional studio art programs which stress production s k i l l s while neglecting aspects of c r i t i c a l judgment. In particular, aesthetic per-ception was discussed i n terms of Broudy's theory of aesthetic perception. In essence Broudy argued the need for curriculum changes which coincide more appropriately with the current emphasis i n art education to develop not only producers but also enlightened c r i t i c s and consumers of art. The concept of phenomenological objectivity and i t s importance as a part of c r i t i c a l en-counters with art was elaborated. Special emphasis was placed on the express-ive qualities of aesthetic objects since research i n psychology suggests that this i s an area of i n t r i n s i c interest to adolescents at the Junior High school le v e l . The practical implication of this theoretical stance evolved as a curriculum module that provides the teacher with a specific approach to teaching elements of art criticism and analysis to adolescents. This pract-i c a l module was designed to assist the teacher i n the integration of the students' interests, to expose the students to global themes i n art, and to teach a perceptual strategy which would help the students i n their c r i t i c a l encounters with art of their own and others' creation. Included i n the module were: (1) filmstrips which introduced the concept of aesthetic perception and applied this concept i n respect to three themes; (2) mounted visuals from the filmstrips; (3) independent study sheets; and (1;) a teacher's guide which offered suggestions for preparation, i i i questioning techniques and follow up studio ac t i v i t i e s as well as evaluation materials. It was hoped that the materials provided a supplement to exist-ing studio orientated art programs and would foster further development of visual learning materials which encourage students to talk about, as well as produce, art. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF NON-PRINT MEDIA v i A CKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i PART I. EMPHASIS EXPRESSION: AN APPROACH TO TEACHING AESTHETIC PERCEPTION AT THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 1 Introduction • • • 3 Aesthetic Perception 7 Emphasis on the Expressive Qualities . 15 Expressiveness and the Adolescent 18 References 20 PART II. TEACHER'S GUIDE 22 Introduction • . . . • 25 Rationale 25 Use of the Materials 26 Use of the Filmstrips 28 Introduction • 28 Preparation 28 Filmstrip 29 Studio Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Dreams and Visions . . . . . . . 3k Preparation . . 3k Filmstrip 3k Studio Activities 36 Portraits and Faces 37 Preparation . . . . . . . . 37 Filmstrip 37 Studio Activities 38 V Page Animals i n Art . . . . . . . UO Preparation hO Filmstrip liO Studio Activities h2 Use of Other Materials hh Independent Study Sheets . . . . . . • h$ Mounted Visuals , • , , Li s t of Slides $8 Evaluation and Further Development • 62 Criteria for Evaluation . . . . . 62 Developing your own Materials . . . . . . . . . . 65 References . . . . . . . . . 68 vi •it" LIST OF NON PRINT MEDIA 1. Filmstrips Introduction Dreams and Visions Portraits and Faces Animals in Art 2. Mounted Visuals (°~ -6 £ — s 4 ^ ^ ) "Self Portrait" Siquerios "Wheatfield with Crows" Van Gogh "The Gulf Stream" Holmer "Maternity" Picasso "The Chronicle of Rased-ud-Din" artist unknown "Savannah Sparrow" Richard Fyfe "Snake Charmer" Rousseau "The Temptation of St. Anthony" Grunewald Tibetan silk painting artist unknown "The Joy of Living" Ernst "Summer" Archimboldi "Working Woman" Kollwitz "Portrait of Mr. James" Magritte "Woman Weeping" Picasso "Portrait of Chopin" Delacroix "Frog Victoria" Gilhooley "Brenda and Florence" McEnery Cats in Rome Vollmer Camel poster "Hound in Field" Colville "Summer Diversion" Masson v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank my thesis committee Jim Gray, Graeme Chalmers and Doris Livingston for their valuable help and encouragement i n the pre-paration of this manuscript. Their assistance, concern, and patience are greatly appreciated. I would also like to express my gratitude to my advisor, Penny Gouldstone, who i s and always has been a continuous source of inspiration. 1. PART I EMPHASIS EXPRESSION: AN APPROACH TO TEACHING AESTHETIC PERCEPTION AT THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL PART I. EMPHASIS EXPRESSION: AN APPROACH TO TEACHING AESTHETIC PERCEPTION AT THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL Introduction Aesthetic Perception Emphasis on the Expressive Qualities Expressiveness and the Adolescent References Introduction A constant problem for art teachers, educators,and philosophers has been what should be taught i n the Art classroom. Few leaders i n the f i e l d of education would s t i l l support courses which have as their only objective the development of s k i l l and understanding of basic art media. Yet, i n the Junior High School Art classroom, the emphasis is almost always on studio performance and development of technical s k i l l s . Few schools offer courses i n art criticism and, despite recent encouragement to incorporate art c r i t i -cism and history into the studio format, few teachers use this approach ex-cept within the context of humanities or related art courses (Rockefeller, 1977). Recent literature i n art education has shown support for the concept of aesthetic perception as a viable addition to the media oriented studio program. For example, a recent study by Hardiman and Zernich (1976), has shown that "aesthetic behavior" was by far the most popular research topic for dissertations between 1970 and 197U. Especially i n this time of account-a b i l i t y and core curricula concerns i t is becoming increasingly necessary for art educators to develop art programs which reflect the nature of art and which ju s t i f y the necessity of i t s inclusion i n the school system. Teaching for aesthetic perception i s one method of achieving this goal. What then i s aesthetic perception? Simply, aesthetic perception refers to a distinct way of viewing an object which would enable the viewer to make judgments about i t s worth. What good i s this for the student? F i r s t l y , i t would enable the student to develop a specific and understand-able basis for making aesthetic judgments. This i n turn would allow the development of a frame-work of reference to judge objects of the student's own creation and objects i n his or her environment. Of major importance, then, i s the assumption that by developing the perceptual awareness of students, the nature of art objects, both of their own production and of those i n their environment and cultural heritage, would a l l become more mean-ingful because the student would be able to view them in some continuum. If aesthetic perception were to become part of the student's repertoire of res-ponses, he or she could then be considered as being aesthetically l i t e r a t e . This literacy could allow for rational choices as a producer, a c r i t i c , and a consumer of art. In this study, aesthetic perception i s viewed as being composed of three separate categories useful for the analysis of an object. One relates to an object's sensory or l i t e r a l qualities. These are the qualities that are most directly related to the visual senses, such as texture, line, col-our, material, or the other senses such as taste, smell, etc. The second relates to an object's formal or structural qualities. These are the quali-ties that relate to the design and composition of an object, such as balance or harmonyj the technical merits of an object, such as the choice and hand-l i n g of o i l paint or marble; the thematic subject matter of an object, such as war, animals,or family; and the symbolic images of an object such as a cross or the colour white to denote the good or right. The third relates to an object's expressive qualities. These are the qualities that relate to the import or message or emotion expressed by the object such as hate, pathos,or serenity. Obviously these qualities are variable among objects and events, but they do provide a basis for a careful analysis and f u l l aes-thetic perception of any aesthetic phenomenon whether i t be a painting, sculp-ture, or dance. Although only the visual arts are dealt with i n this study, this approach to teaching for aesthetic perception could be used i n any arts courses from literature to music. Because of limitations of space and know-ledge, the material developed i n this thesis i s designed to be used only at 5 . the Junior High school level as a supplement to the studio art program. Many studio art courses touch on the teaching of aesthetic percep-tion through the study of the principles of design. However, usually only the sensory and formal qualities of design are covered and a l l three analy-t i c categories, sensory, formal}and expressive, are very seldom stressed i n any cohesive way. The expressive qualities of a work of art are often i g -nored. Often, too, these principles of design are viewed simply as such, principles of design, and not as the overriding structure by which a l l art forms may be perceived. Certainly expressiveness i s the most d i f f i c u l t area to deal with analytically because i t does stray into the nebulous region of human emotions. As Arnheim (19!?U) notes, "expressiveness i s the crowning aspiration of a l l perceptual categories." Broudy (1972) sees the significance of expressiveness as the a b i l i t y to u t i l i z e imagination and metaphor. The role of art i n aesthetic education i s twofold. One i s to objectify for perception those metaphors which the imagination of the a r t i s t creates. These help the pupil to objectify his own feelings and values. In doing so they expand his value domain, for they reveal l i f e p o s s i b i l i t i e s not available through direct experience. The second role of art i s to purify the pupil's imagic store and thereby to make him more conscious of and less satisfied with the stereotyped image and the worn-out metaphor. In this sense i t makes pupils more discriminating both about art and about l i f e i t s e l f (p. Ui;). The Junior High School imposes major challenges to the aesthetic development of the students. Adolescents have a different set of needs and values than younger children. For the teenager, however, art expression i s one of the few socially acceptable outlets for his emotions. The very sig-nificance of art i n secondary school education resides i n i t s subjective and imaginative qualities, i t s attention to the inner l i f e and to the nuances of human experience (Barkan, 1972). The thesis being examined i s that one can develop a curriculum unit to 6. supplement existing studio courses with an approach to teaching aesthetic perception with special emphasis on one element: expressiveness. This unit i s to be used at the Junior High school level and could serve as a model to be adapted by others for use with their own age groups and cultural norms. The theoretical basis of the thesis i s an amalgamation of research and theories of selected contemporary experts i n the f i e l d s of aesthetic de-velopment, aesthetic education, adolescent psychology,and art education. The unit, i t s e l f , i s i n the form of a teaching k i t which includes filrastrips, mounted visuals, a teacher's guide,and independent study sheets for the stud-ent. There are four filmstrips i n the k i t ; the f i r s t explains the concept of aesthetic perception and the next three demonstrate expressive qualities through three themes deemed of interest to adolescents. The visuals were selected according to their appropriateness to f i t into five main c r i t e r i a by a group of professionals i n the f i e l d of secondary art education. A l l the objects selected had to f i t into either the three themes: animals i n art, portraits and faces, and dreams and visions, or they had to be outstanding examples of the expressive qualities of aesthetic perception. A l l objects are i n the category of the visual arts. Craft as well as fine art objects are represented. The objects selected are from assorted media both two and three dimensional. These objects are also exemplary of a variety of d i f f e r -ent time periods, and a variety of different cultures. The teacher's guide includes a rationale for the use of aesthetic perception as a supplement to the studio art program, suggested questioning and evaluation techniques and outlines for complementary studio ac t i v i t i e s for each of the themes. Mounted visuals of selected slides from the filmstrips are included for display and discussion purposes. Independent study sheets are available for students who might have missed any of the presentations 8 7. Aesthetic Perception Aesthetic perception refers to a distinct way of viewing an object which would enable the viewer to make judgments about i t s worth. Fundamental to this concept i s the principle of phenomenological ob-j e c t i v i t y . That i s , when teaching for aesthetic perception, whatever i s said about the object must refer to some perceptible feature i n the object. Att-ention to the aesthetic dimensions requires some effort to achieve what Edward Bullough called "psychical distance" (Parsons, 1976), whereby the viewer disinvolves himself from the content of the work of art. It i s "phen-omenally" objective because human feelings or emotions are not properly lodged i n inanimate objects. The distinction between simply having an emo-tion i n contrast to contemplating the image of an emotion i s important for aesthetic perception. Ideally the emotion must be expressed in such a way i n the object that the viewer i s moved by the expression of that emotion rather than solely by the emotion i t s e l f . For example, when viewing Picasso's "Guernica" the viewer i s aware of not only the expression of horror and helplessness i n the face of war but also of the ways the a r t i s t has achieved this expression. The horror i s not so all-encompassing that i t overwhelms perception of the object i t s e l f . The object, however, must be expressive enough to draw the viewer's attention to the emotion or mood expressed so that recognition of the subtleties of that emotion might be as f u l l and profound as possible. As Feldman (1970) notes, "To get the most out of a work of art, i t would be best to have as l i t t l e distance as possible without 'completely losing your-sel f . ' In that way you can concentrate on your own reactions and the art object at the same time." (p. 291.) 8. The viewers, i n our case the students, w i l l bring their own set of personal experience, knowledge, and cultural background which affects their attitudes and perceptions of aesthetic objects to bear upon the aesthetic object they are viewing. Their overall a b i l i t y to perceive, both psycholog-i c a l l y and physiologically, their level of aesthetic development, their age and maturity, their receptiveness and openness towards the objects they view, a l l w i l l have an effect on their aesthetic perception. It i s crucial from a phenomenlogical analysis standpoint that these vastly different people attend to perceptible features of the object so that their ultimate percep-tion i s of qualities i n the object which can be appreciated by most of hum-anity rather than making the object a blank slate against which to bounce off their own specific views. Aesthetic perception i s at one end of an objectivity continuum; a Rorschach test, with i t s emphasis on subjectivity, i s at the other. The phenomenological approach,,as-applied to aesthetic per-ception's one where objectivity i s emphasized. The phenomenological approach i s a c r i t i c a l process based upon des-cription, analysis ?and interpretation of an object. Perceiving goes beyond merely looking at an object. The perceptual process i s a cognitive function of the human i n t e l l e c t . Many people have developed theories which delineate this c r i t i c a l process. Feldman (1970) describes his method of c r i t i c a l act-i v i t y as proceeding through four stages: description, analysis, interpreta-tion and evaluation. This i s much the same type of system as outlined by Ralph Smith (1966a)and Stanley Madeja and A l Hurwitz (1977). As Hurwitz and Madeja (1977) point out, . . . one characteristic shared by a l l discussions of the c r i t i c a l process i s the emphasis upon the integrity of the art product and i t s effect upon the respondent. It i s this belief i n the value of the viewing experience as i t relates to the contemplation of the art work that constitutes the 9. most significant meeting ground of the viewer and the aesthetic properties of the art object, (p. 11.) The question then arises, i f we are to teach students to perceive aesthetically, how can this be done? Because art i t s e l f i s a complex phen-omenon that generates numerous questions, analysis necessitates careful struc-turing i f efforts to perceive and understand art are to be successful. One way would be to isolate the various qualities of an aesthetic object to which the viewer could attend when seeking maximum understanding. For this thesis the researcher chooses to view aesthetic perception as being composed of these three categories for the purpose of analysis. The f i r s t category contains the sensory qualities of an aesthetic ob-ject. The sensory qualities aire the sensory elements such as l i n e , color, texture, material, tone, etc., of which the object i s composed. These quali-ties can be readily identified by the student and are really simply descript-ive qualities. The second category contains the formal qualities of the object. This i s a more d i f f i c u l t area i n that i t requires some analysis as well as straight description. For our purposes the formal qualities not only encompass the design and composition of the object but also the technical merits, the them-atic or general subject matter of the object and any symbolic images that are used i n the object. The third category contains the expressive qualities of the object. This i s by far the most d i f f i c u l t area because i t r e l i e s not only on descrip-tion and analysis but interpretation as well. This area deals with the ex-pressive significance of the object, i t s import or message or meaning as aesthetically expressed. This basically i s the same set of analytic categories as outlined by 10. Broudy (1966, 1972, 197k). The main changes advocated i n this study are i n the formal qualities. Broudy sees the technical merits of a work of art having a separate category for perception. By technical merits, Eroudy means the use of the media i n which the arti s t has chosen to work. However, he states, "while these matters are not centrally relevant to aesthetic judgment or to perception, nevertheless not knowing the limitations of tapestry, water colours, traditional instruments, etc., may influence expectations that distort perception." (Broudy, 197k, p. 2li.) And later along these same lines, "among the formal characteristics must be included those elements of style which no a r t i s t can quite overcome." (Broudy, 197kt p. 21;.) Because he himself i s ambivalent as to the importance and place of technical qualities and because junior high school students are overly concerned with technical excellence's they equate the a b i l i t y to represent r e a l i s t i c a l l y with the "right" way (Rump and Southgate, 1967), i t was decided to sub-head technical qualities under formal qualities. By play-ing down the technical aspects of perception, i t was hoped that the students would be less pressured to produce technical excellence i n their own work and be more able to view i t as only part of the work rather than the defin-ing quality. Eisner (1972) outlines a theory of c r i t i c a l a ctivity which helps to supplement and further c l a r i f y the one that i s being used here. He divides his c r i t i c a l aspects of a r t i s t i c learning into six categories. These are the expressive, the formal, the symbolic, the thematic, the material, and the contextual dimension, which i s not a phenomenological aspect as i t deals with the place of a work i n history. That i s not to say that the contextual dimension of a work of art i s not important or that students should not be aware of the place of an object within i t s historical setting. The perceptual 11. approach can certainly be used i n conjunction with contextual approaches. At this time i t i s important to explore aesthetic perception as a viable supplement to a studio program. Further exploration as to how other app-roaches could complement and benefit this are certainly i n order at a later date. However, Eisner's other categories can easily f i t into the system previously explained. Especially pertinent are Eisner's explanations of the thematic and symbolic dimensions of a work of art. For the purposes of this thesis they have been included under the formal qualities. This is a distinction made by this writer, not by Broudy. The reasons for their inclusion can be based on observations about the formal dimension made by Eisner. He sees the focus of the formal dimension as being on how the work i s structured and put to-gether. Symbols are a way i n which artists encode meaning i n the work. They must be recognized and decoded i f the structure of the work i s to be total l y understood. As Eisner (1972) states, "Perception of works of art requires, therefore, the a b i l i t y not only to perceive complex and subtle qualitative relationships among the forms used, i t also requires an understanding of the meaning of icons used i n the work." (p. 109.) I t i s important that the sym-bolic meaning of a work is not confused with the symbols used i n a work. De-coding of symbols i s a formal quality while the symbolic meaning of a work i s an expressive quality. For example, i n Edward Hick's painting "Peaceable Kingdom," the l i o n i s a symbol of a strong, aggressive beast of prey while the symbolic meaning of the painting is that a l l creatures can l i v e to-gether peacefully. The two meanings are quite different and should not be confused when analyzing the painting. The theme or general underlying mean-ing or subject matter of the work of art is important to the student's formal understanding of the work as well. "Once understood, the theme then feeds 12. back into the forms by providing a new matrix that confers new meaning to the forms." (Eisner, 1972, p. 110.) Hopefully this expanded definition of formal qualities w i l l further both the student's interest and understanding of aesthetic objects. Mittler (1973) confronts us with the problem that there are numerous qualities about a work of art to which the viewer could attend when seeking maximum understanding. He quoted Z i f f (1966) to il l u s t r a t e the multiplicity and complexity of qualities inherent i n a work. . . . we may attend to (the art work's) sensuous features, to i t s 'look and f e e l . 1 Thus we attend to the play of light and color, to dissonances, contrasts, and harmonies of hues, val-ues, and intensities. We notice patterns and pigmentations, textures, decorations, and embellishments. We may also attend to the structure, design, composition, and organization of the work. Thus we look for unity, and we also look for variety, for balance and movement. We attend to the formal interrela-tions and cross connections i n the work, or i t s underlying structure. We are concerned with both two-dimensional and three-dimensional movements, the balance and opposition, thrust and r e c o i l , of spaces and volumes. We attend to the sequences, overlaps, and rhythms of l i n e , form, and color. We may also attend to the expressive, significant, and symbolic aspects of the work. Thus we attend to the subject matter, to the scene depicted, and to the interrelations between the formal structure and the scene portrayed. We attend to the emotional character of the presented forms, and so forth, (p. 26I4.). Careful examination of these qualities could s t i l l place them i n the three categories suggested earlier. This three category system of analysis seems general enough to allow enough f l e x i b i l i t y to cover a l l aspects of an aesthetic object and yet s t i l l i s structured enough to offer the student a basis on which to build a strong understanding and c r i t i c a l analysis of works of art of his own and others productions. Broudy (197k) offers various rationales for the specific inclusion of aesthetic perception as the pivotal approach to art education. A short discussion on these points i s worthwhile to further c l a r i f y teaching for 13. aesthetic perception. The f i r s t point i s obvious but s t i l l extremely pertin-ent. "Neither good performance nor appreciation i s l i k e l y i f there i s mis-perception to begin with." (p. 17.) Most students do not know what to look for or strive for when dealing with art. Often they have erroneous ideas of what excellence really i s or could be. Without any basis from which to make judgments, students are l e f t without much hope of achieving either good per-formance or appreciation. "Art i s t i c perception is teachable i n that certain qualities can be identified more or less systematically i n the aesthetic object." (p. 17.) This i s the statement which provides the basis for teaching for aesthetic perception. Identifying sensory, formal, and expressive qualities of an ob-ject gives the student the possibility of achieving both good performance and appreciation. This systematic categorization of aesthetic qualities makes teaching for aesthetic perception possible. At this time i t i s imperative that this writer state the differences between Broudy's philosophy of aesthetic education and the use this writer i s making of Broudy1s theories regarding the teaching of aesthetic percep-tion. Although the idea of aesthetic perception i s a major tenet of Broudy's philosophy and a major tenet of this thesis, Broudy specifies distinct ways of teaching which go beyond his original concept of aesthetic perception and certainly beyond what i s acceptable here. F i r s t l y , Broudy sees his perceptual approach to the teaching of art as appealing to a larger group of students than those generally engaged i n school studio practice because i t focuses on criticism and judgment rather than performance and production. However, this study i s meant to provide a supplement to existing studio courses rather than a replacement. Broudy stresses that many Junior High School art classes cater exclusively to the Iii. "talented." In my experience as an art co-ordinator and art teacher the days of teaching art only to the technically adept student are fading. In-stead, the studio courses are being used to capture the students' interest and motivate them toward the discovery of perception s k i l l s . It i s more li k e l y to attract rather than alienate students. Secondly, Broudy stresses the value of the "Fine Arts" as the proper study of aesthetic education. Here again there i s conflict i n the position taken by Broudy and my own position. For this writer the perceptual approach to aesthetic education offers a criterion by which people can make judgments about a l l aesthetic objects whether they be paintings, sculpture, movies, or the place i n which they l i v e . It seems equally important that aesthetic choices be successfully made about the state of one's environment and the constant stream of impressions that flow from the mass media as i t i s to derive understanding and pleasure from works of art. This brings us to the f i n a l difference between Broudy's philosophy and the one fundamental to this work. Broudy believes that teaching for aesthetic perception through western classical exemplars w i l l lead to the attainment of proper moral and democratic values. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to argue against "save the world philosophies" except to say they seldom work. The oft stated example of the high level of aesthetic appreciation as exempli-fied by Hitler's officers surely casts some doubt on the a b i l i t y of art to humanize mankind. There i s no doubt that aesthetic perception broadens people's appreciation or that i t humanizes them by opening them up to the many nuances of human experience but this does not necessarily produce a more humane, democratic populace. Aesthetic perception does quite enough i n enabling people to enrich their experience without holding i t up as a panacea for the problems of the world by giving people the proper moral and IS democratic values. To teach these values through "Western classical exemp-lar s " seems incredibly e l i t i s t i n a part of the world where we are building a multicultural society. This researcher does not wish to imply that this system of analysis put forth i s the only way to teach aesthetic perception. Morris Weitz' (1966) warning i s well heeded: Indeed, the great contribution of theories of works of art i s precisely i n their teachings, not i n their definitions, of art: each of the theories represents a set of explor-able c r i t e r i a which reminds us of what we may have neglected or make us see what we may not have seen. (p. £5>.) However, guidelines to various aesthetic qualities which, once identified and understood, could be of great value to students i n their c r i t i c a l en-counters with art. This idea i s well summed up by B.O. Smith (1966): I f we want students to be disciplined i n the processes of making value judgments, to be s k i l l e d i n the handling of value questions, to be alert to the p i t f a l l s of reasoning and prudent i n making decisions and taking actions, and to be perceptive of the deeper aspects of art, then a renewed emphasis upon the logical aspects of teaching i n the arts, as well as i n other subjects, seems clearly called for. (p. 272.) Emphasis on the Expressive Qualities Aesthetic perception as i t has been defined i n this paper i s composed of three broad categories which house perceptible features of an aesthetic object. It has already been mentioned that i n this teaching unit the express-ive qualities are to be emphasized. Because i t i s relatively easy to analyze and teach for the discovery of sensory and formal qualities of aesthetic ob-jects, these two categories of aesthetic perception are usually well covered i n most art classes. Even those teachers who like to bundle experiences into neat l i t t l e packets are mollified when teaching for sensory or formal 16. quallties because they are easily discernible and defined. This i s not the case with the expressive qualities of an aesthetic object. These qualities are open to individual interpretation, what they mean or can mean, how they make the perceiver feel imaginatively, creatively, symbolically, metaphoric-a l l y and emotionally. This i s not an area of cut and dried answers. Add to this the problem that aesthetic images express not merely the gross emotions but also an indefinite range of feeling. How then are we to teach for the perception of expressive qualities? We find aesthetic qualities i n every aspect of our world. As Eisner (1972) notes, "Everything that we perceive can be attended to with respect to the quality of feeling the object or event e l i c i t s . The impact and import of an image i s the sense of feeling that i t generates i n those who encounter i t . " (p. 73.) In the arts, artists create objects or experiences which have spec-i f i c aesthetic intent—expressions of their reactions to the world. For the purpose of this thesis, there are three limitations set to make teaching for the understanding of expressiveness more possible. The f i r s t limitation i s that only objects which have been produced for their aesthetic characteristics w i l l be considered for discussion i n either the filmstrips or visuals. In other words, only objects which are recognized as works of art w i l l be viewed aesthetically. The second limitation has been previously discussed. The principle of phenomenological objectivity requires that the qualities expressed must be perceived as being i n the object. This should be discernible by careful analysis of the sensory and formal qualities of the object. There i s no expressiveness without sensory materials formally arranged. The reverse does not always hold true, however. Patterned wallpaper i s not necessarily 17. expressive, to give just one example of sensory and formal structure which i s not expressive. The third limitation to be enforced on our perception of expressive-ness i s that there i s no absolute right answer as to what i s being expressed. If a student, after careful analysis of the sensory and formal properties of an object f a i l s to perceive the expressive qualities of the object, the stud-ent i s not wrong about the expressiveness of the object, he has merely f a i l e d to perceive i t . Similarly, i f one person perceives an emotion from an object which i s different than that perceived by another, as long as both can point to clues within the sensory and formal properties which verify their choices, both would have perceived valid statements about the object. It i s important to remind the students that judgment must be j u s t i -fied beyond a simple "like and dislike" category of response. Ecker (1967) outlines two steps which are valid at this point: Get (the students) to distinguish psychological reports which are true by virtue of their correspondence with psychological states, from value judgments which are true, or better j u s t i -f i e d , by virtue of arguments and supporting evidence. Finally, broaden their experiences with contemporary and historical works of art and develop their a b i l i t y to justify their indep-endent judgments of the merit of art objects, whether they i n i t i a l l y happen to like them or dislike them. (p. 6.) The purpose of teaching for the identification of expressiveness i s not to discover fixed meanings but rather to extend the boundaries of our knowledge of human experience. The more deeply we explore, the more l i k e l y we are to recognize one of the many guises of human expression and become sensitive to i t . Eisner (1972) describes what he calls an "expressive objective" to be used by teachers when planning an art curriculum. He believes "that ex-pression was not simply a matter of giving vent to feelings, but that i t was 18. the transformation of feeling, image, or idea into some material. Once trans-formed, the material becomes a medium of expression." (p. 156.) This idea lends credence to the concept of the student vievrilng and understanding the components of any aesthetic object so that that transformation of feeling, image, or idea into an art product w i l l be more successfully evocative. By developing not only technical but also c r i t i c a l s k i l l s the student can cope better with producing objects of significant aesthetic value or can, at least, articulate the nature of his perceptions and expectations. Expressiveness and the Adolescent Why is i t especially important to explore the dimension of express-iveness with Junior High school students i n the studio arts program? A new climate of thought and speculation is now being generated about what the conceptual foundations should be for art education. This new philosophy recognizes both the psychological demands of pupils and the logical demands of content. The concern i s to see the teaching about important ideas like aesthetic perception i n relation to the child's characteristic outlook at any given time i n his cognitive and affective growth (Smith, 1966b). Both the understanding and production of expressiveness are probably more important concepts for adolescents than for any other age group.-While technical s k i l l s are waning, emotional sensitivity i s surging. The heights of emotional sen-s i t i v i t y to the glamour and misery of existence are reached i n adolescent art (Hathaway, 1977). However, adolescents tend to be less enthusiastic about acquiring s k i l l s i n the arts and less ready to immerse themselves f u l l y i n expressive media (Gardner, 19lh)• One reason for this paradox i s that the adolescent i s developing c r i t i c a l reasoning s k i l l s and applying this new ex-panded criticism to his or her own work, comparing i t unfavorably to other 19. students' and adults' work. Therefore, the fear of criticism i s l i k e l y to inhibit art expression. A program of aesthetic perception which allows stud-ents an objective basis for making c r i t i c a l judgments i s more l i k e l y to free them from inhibiting subjective judgments about their own a b i l i t y . The ado-lescent i s capable of describing, classifying, explaining and interpreting his own and others' works of art i f given training and practice (Kagen, 1968). If l e f t without training, however, the adolescent w i l l tend to make only associational and subjective mode statements about his or her aesthetic choices (Valentine, 1962). A program, then, which develops c r i t i c a l s k i l l s w i l l surely also foster the a b i l i t y to express the adolescents' deepened emotional sensitivity through their art. References 20. Arnheim, R. Art and Visual Perception. University of California Press, Berkeley, 195U. Barkan, M. "The Visual Arts i n Secondary Education," School Review, Vol. 90, No. k, Winter 1972. Broudy, H. "The Structure of Knowledge i n the Arts," Aesthetics: and Criticism i n Art Education. Rand McNally, Chicago, 1966. Broudy, H. Enlightened Cherishing; An Essay on Aesthetic Education. University of I l l i n o i s Press, Urbana, 1972. Broudy, H. "Art Education as A r t i s t i c Perception." Address, Conference on the Foundations of Education, Lehigh University, 197U. Ecker, D. "Justifying Aesthetic Judgments," Art Education, May 1967. Eisner, E. Educating A r t i s t i c Vision. Macmillan Co., New York, 1972. Feldman, E.B. Becoming Human Through Art. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , 1970. Gardner, H. "Children's Conceptions of the Arts." Harvard Project Zero, Cambridge, 197U. Hathaway, W. Art Education: Middle/Junior High School. The Nation Art Education Association, Reston, 1977. Hardiman, G.W., and T. Zernich. "Research i n Art Education, 1970-197U, Portrayal and Interpretation," Art Education, February 1976. Kagen, J., H. Moss, and I. Sigel. "Basic Cognitive Processes i n Children," Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Development, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1968. Madeja, S,, and A. Hurwitz. The Joyous Vision. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , 1977. Mittler, G. "Experiences i n C r i t i c a l Inquiry," Art Education, Vol. 26, No. 2, February 1973. 21. Rockefeller, D. (ed.) Coming to Our Senses. McGraw H i l l Book Co., New York, 1977. Rump, E., and V. Southgate. "Variables Affecting Aesthetic Appreciation i n Relation to Age," British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 37, No. 1., 1967. Smith, B.O. "The Logic of Teaching i n the Arts," Readings i n Art Education. Blaisdell Publishing Co., Waltham, Mass., 1966. Smith, R. (ed.) Aesthetics and Criticism i n Art Education. Rand McNally, Chicago, 1966a. Smith, R. "Aesthetic Criticism: The Method of Aesthetic Education," Studies i n Art Education, 1966b. Valentine, C.W. The Experimental Psychology of Beauty. Methuen and Co., London, 1962. Weitz, M. "The Nature of Art," Readings i n Art Education. Blaisdell Publishing Co., Waltham, Mass., 1966. Z i f f , P. "The Task of Defining a Work of Art," Aesthetics and Criticism i n Art Education. Rand McNally, Chicago, 1966. PART II 23. PART II. TEACHER'S GUIDE Introduction Use of the Filmstrips Use of Other Materials Evaluation and Further Development References 24. I. INTRODUCTION A. Rationale B. Use of the Materials 2$. I. INTRODUCTION A. Rationale This k i t was conceived as a supplement to the regular studio art pro-gram. It provides the teacher with a specific approach to teaching elements of art criticism and analysis to adolescents. The k i t was designed to assist the teacher i n the integration of the students' interests, to expose the students to global themes i n art, and to teach a perceptual pattern which w i l l help the students i n their c r i t i c a l encounters with art of their own and others' creation. The introductory lesson explains a concept of aesthetic perception: a way of viewing art by analyzing i t i n terras of three main qualities. Em-phasis has been placed on the expressive qualities of art throughout the lessons as this i s an area of particular importance i n adolescent a r t . After the introduction there are three theme units to which the stud-ents can be exposed. Each theme unit—Dreams and Visions, Animals i n Art, or Portraits and Faces—provides a look at a variety of art work which i s representative of that theme. Also included are suggested studio a c t i v i t i e s which reinforce concepts learned through viewing and discussing the film-strips. Linking studio a c t i v i t i e s and performance with class discussions provides both a broadening of knowledge of media, s k i l l s , and techniques, and a dialogue with ideas and concepts. I t i s hoped that the materials pro-vided w i l l produce positive results i n the classroom and foster further de-velopment of visual learning materials which encourage students to talk about, as well as produce, a r t . 26. B. Use of the Materials The materials provided i n this k i t are: 1. the teacher's guide 2. filmstrips i ) Introduction i i ) Dreams and Visions i i i ) Portraits and Faces iv) Animals i n Art 3. mounted visuals from each filmstrip iu student independent study sheets. Before using the materials please read the relevant sections of the teacher's guide. Part II of the guide i s directly related to classroom use of the filmstrips. It i s divided into four sections which correspond to the four filmstrips. Each section i s divided into three parts which include: a) suggestions for classroom discussions prior to showing filmstrip, b) teacher notes to read at appropriate places during the filmstrip and questions to stimulate discussion. Bracketed sections are notes to the teacher which provide further information and suggestions for questions, c) suggested discussion ideas and possible studio a c t i v i t i e s for follow-up. Part III of the guide explains some uses of the mounted visuals and student independent study sheets, plus gives a l i s t of the reproductions used with relevant biographical information. Part IV of the teacher's guide provides a checklist for evaluation of the unit of instruction and of the students' responses and suggestions for development of further instructional units. Part V i s a selected reference section. USE OF THE FILMSTRIPS A. Introduction to Aesthetic Percept B. Dreams and Visions C. Portraits and Faces D. Animals in Art 28. I I . USE OF THE FILMSTRIPS A. Introduction to Aesthetic Perception a) Preparation It i s recommended that you engage the entire class i n discussions of their experiences, feelings and perceptions to prepare them for the discuss-ions which w i l l take place during the viewing of the filmstrip. This dis-cussion should occur immediately prior to the f i r s t filmstrip. Some suggested questions are: What does i t mean to have moods? Do people always have the same kinds of feelings or moods? What different kinds of moods do you think people have? What does the word mood mean? (A state of mind i n which an emotion prevails?) Is i t beneficial to express your moods? Is feeling exuberant, joyous, or playful a mood? Can we be reflective, quiet, curious, concerned? Are these moods? Are some of your moods more special or noticeable than others? Can the mood we are i n make us fee l differently than the other people around us? Do things on the outside change how we fee l inside? Does going to a different place change our mood? Do your moods change with the weather? The time of day? Because of things that occur around you? Because of what you do or what others do or say? How many kinds of moods can you identify? Can you describe different moods you've experienced? L i s t the different types of moods or feelings your students name. Discuss how moods are expressions of emotion. 29. Filmstrip Slide number (1) "Self Portrait" by Siqueiros. (2) There are many ways that people look at the objects in their world. A person may look at an object scientifically, note its chemical composition or weigh and measure i t . The same person may look at the same object from an artistic point of view. What mood or emotion does the object express? How does the colour, compos-ition, or subject matter affect this emotion? This artistic way of looking can be called Aesthetic Perception. (3) "Wheatfield with Crows" by Van Gogh. This painting is "Wheatfield with Crows"by Vincent Van Gogh. What mood or emotion is expressed by this painting? What things in the painting point to that emotion? (Point out areas such as the colour of the sky or the brushwork to help students observe in more detail. Ask what the crows might sym-bolize. Are they generally thought of as cheery birds? Remind the students that the artist can represent his own view of reality to heighten what he wishes to express.) (li) There are three main qualities that we look for when viewing objects aesthetically. The f i r s t are the SENSORY qualities of the objectj those qualities that affect our senses such as the type of lines, shapes, colours and textures in the object. (Return to the slide of "Wheatfield with Crows." Ask the students to name and describe the sensory qualities of the painting.) (5) Untitled weaving by Vivian Bevis. This is a weaving. What are some of the sensory qualities? What col-ours are used? What textures, shapes? Which are the most important 30. sensory qualities of this weaving? Would i t make any difference i f the weaving was a l l one colour? (Continue questioning until satisfied that the students can identify sensory qualities.) (6) The second set of qualities to look for are called FORMAL qualities. Formal qualities have to do with how sensory quali-ties are arranged: - design and composition (balance, harmony) - the symbols used in the object (the cross, red rose) - the general subject matter of the object (war, animals), and - the technical aspects (the type and handling of the material -clay, o i l paint, marble). (7) "Indian Church" by Emily Carr. This is a painting by Emily Carr called "Indian Church." What are the formal qualities of this painting? What is the subject matter? Are there symbols used? Look at the church and the forest. How is one treated differently from the other? How do the sensory qualities such as colour, shape, line, and texture reinforce the formal qualities? (Formal qualities are more difficult for most students to understand and identify. Ask questions that will direct the students to observe and identify formal qualities.) (8) The third set of qualities are called the EXPRESSIVE qualities. What mood, emotion, or feeling is expressed by the objects? The sensory and formal qualities combine to emphasize the expressive qualities. (9) "Gulf Stream" by Winslow Homer. This is a painting by Winslow Homer called "Gulf Stream." What mood or emotion i s expressed by this painting? How do the sensory and 31. formal qualities of the painting contribute to this feeling? (Continue questioning the students so they observe a l l the character-istics in the painting which lead them to make their responses about the expressive nature of the painting. What do the sharks symbolize? Why is the boat tilted Instead of upright? and so on.) (10) When we look at an object to evaluate its artistic or aesthetic expression we must not let our own feelings or taste interfere with our judgment. "Like" and "don't like" are terms of taste, not critical judgment. (11) "The Circus" by Seurat. For example, some people might not like this painting because they don't like clowns or circuses, or they may not like i t because they like only very realistic paintings or very abstract paintings. How-ever, despite their likes or dislikes, to judge the painting aesthet-ically they must observe the qualities of the painting—What does i t express? Do the sensory and formal qualities complement this express-ion of mood? The painting could be judged to be good by the viewer and yet not personally liked. (12) Flowers in a vase. Some objects express harmony and beauty. Not a l l objects have to be realistic representations of the world. We surround ourselves with a l l sorts of objects whose function is to provide pleasure in viewing them and to express this feeling of harmony and beauty. (13) Clay Warrior by Basara. Some express anger. (Hi) "Maternity" by Picasso. Some express tenderness and love. (15) The following slides are meant to give you a chance 32. to describe, analyze, and interpret the aesthetic qualities of each work of art. Try not to let personal taste get in your way. Look at the object and pick out how the sensory and formal qualities affect the expressiveness. (Continue with the same type of questioning techniques that have al-ready been outlined. Remember the more the student observes and dis-cusses each work of art, the more likely he or she will be to transfer what he or she has observed into his/her later encounters with art. Also be sure to encourage student responses which are directly related to phenomena which exist in the work being examined. Remind them that "likes" and "dislikes" are not the issue. Rather, their responses should be justified by virtue of evidence from within the object. This will hot yield an area of cut-and-dried answers: several differ-ent opinions might be suggested and supported. The purpose of teach-ing for the identification of expressiveness is not to discover fixed meanings but rather to extend the boundaries of our knowledge of human experience. The more deeply we explore, the more likely we are to recognize one of the many guises of human expression and become sen-sitive to it.) (16) "The War" Rousseau The next two slides are paintings of war. Look carefully at how two different artists represented the same theme. Is the emotional res-ponse the same for both paintings? Point to qualities in the paint-ings which make them different. (17) "The Chronicle of Rased-ud-Din" Persian miniature. 33. (18) "Savannah Sparrow" Richard Fyfe. A photograph can express a mood or feeling as well. What i s expressed by this photograph? How do the sensory and formal qualities contrib-ute to this expression? (19) "Woman at the Window" Casper The next three paintings express very different moods. Describe and analyze them. (20) "View of Toledo" E l Greco (21) "Guernica" (section) Picasso (22) Tsimshian mask a r t i s t unknown. This i s a mask used by the Tsimshian Indians of British Columbia to symbolize and express a feeling during r i t u a l dance ceremonies. What feeling does the mask express to you? (23) Artists create visual expressions of their world. By analyzing what they have done i n a rational, objective way we can learn to appreciate art more f u l l y and we can apply this learning to our own art work. c) Studio and Follow-Up Ask the students to pick a mood from the ones l i s t e d before the film-s t r i p . How could they create a work of art which would express that mood? What medium would they usej what colours, textures, types of line? What sym-bols might be appropriate, what subject matter? Now i s the time to reinforce what they have just learned. Encourage the students to apply their understand-ing of aesthetic perception to problems they might encounter with their own art work. 3k. B. Dreams and Visions a) Preparation Prepare your students for the theme by discussing dreams and visions with the class. In this theme, the student should focus his or her attention on works of art in which a private vision or fascination with the unknown seems to be emphasized. Some appropriate discussion questions are: What are dreams like? Do they mirror what happens in our everyday life? Do a l l people have the same kinds of dreams? Do you have different dreams each time you dream? Are dreams and visions the same thing? Are they always different (or the same)? Have you ever had a vision? Can you describe a very vivid dream? Do you dream in colour? b) Filmstrip Slide number (l) "Snake Charmer" Rousseau (2) Artists across many cultures and over many centur-ies have been concerned with the dreams and stirrings of the uncons-cious mind, the whims of gods and demons, views of a world beyond our present reality. Some horrify, some amuse, yet each gives us new in-sight into the workings of the human mind. (3) View the following slides with these questions in mind: What emotions or feelings are expressed? (Remember that these are private visions of a world beyond our real-ity. Has the artist expressed this "other" world?) (Ii) How do the sensory and formal qualities in the ob-ject add to this expression? 35. (Ask the students to l i s t a few sensory and formal qualities. The theme of a l l the slides will be the same but the other sensory and formal qualities—colour, line, shape, texture, technique, symbols used, design and composition—will differ. Review the sensory qualities: line, shape, colour and texture. Review the formal qualities: the use of symbols, the type of media used and the artist's mastery of that media; design and composition; and the general theme or subject matter of the work.) (5) How can I use this knowledge to improve my own art work? (This is the crux of this unit. If the student cannot transfer the knowledge gained in viewing and analyzing art work then no real learning has taken place.) (6) "Garden of Earthly Delights" Bosch The next six slides show how different artists from different cultures have represented their ideas of gods and demons. What emotions or feelings are expressed? How do the sensory and formal qualities i n the works add to this expression? (7) "The Temptation of St. Anthony" Grunewald (8) Italian mozaic "Hell" Battistero de sa Giodanni (9) Tibetan thangka (silk painting) artist unknown (10) "Thunderbird Woman" Babon (11) "House of the Dead" Blake (12) "Shells" Arnaud de Rosnay This is a photograph but i t has a dream-like feeling. How is this achieved? (13) "Tree" Emily Carr 36. The next two slides are paintings of natural environments. How does the mood expressed differ? (Iii) "The Joy of Living" Max Ernst (15) "Summer" Archimboldi The last slides have the human form as part of their similarity. What makes them dream-like or fantasy? (16) "Disquieting Muses" Giorgio de Chirico (17) "Mao Tse Toad" David Gilhooley We have now viewed the dreams and visions of several artists from different countries and different periods in time. In the studio activities to follow, we will try to put our own personal view into a form for others to enjoy. c) Studio Activities and Follow-Up Some suggested studio activities are: Painting, drawing, fabric or print making which tries to express a specific personal dream of the student. Individual interpretations of heaven and/or hell. Surrealistic magazine collages made by combining images not normally seen together$ distorting size relationships - (objects which are much larger or smaller than usual), placing people or things in places they would not nor-mally be, etc. Creating three dimensional forms—buildings, animals, etc.,—which have a dream-like or fantasy quality. Illustrating science fiction stories. 37. C. Portraits and Faces a) Preparation We are a l l interested in how we look and hope to be remembered as individuals. Discuss with the class some of the important aspects of portrait-ure. Some suggested questions are: What i s a portrait? Why do people want portraits of themselves or others? What things about the person can you t e l l from a portrait? Can you sometimes t e l l age, social position, moods, personality, etc.? Can you make a person seem better or look more handsome through a portrait? Portraits can be done in what types of media? (Photography, clay, o i l paint, drawing, etc.) Can the artist establish his or her vision of the person in a l l media? Can moods or emotions be expressed through portraits? b) Filmstrip Slide number (1) Aztec mask artist unknown (2) Man has long been interested in his own form, es-pecially his face. Portraits in every media from clay to paint have explored the many facets of human emotion. (3) View the following slides with these questions in mind: What emotions or feelings are expressed? (h) How do the sensory and formal qualities in the port-rait add to this expression? (Review the sensory qualities: line, shape, colour and texture. Review the formal qualities: the use of symbols, the type of media used and the artist's mastery of that mediaj design and composition} and the general theme or subject matter of the work,) 38. (5) How can I use this knowledge to improve my own art work? (Emphasize to the students that the importance of viewing and analyz-ing others' work is to develop greater insight into how to improve their own work.) (6) "Working Woman" Kollwitz (7) Helmet mask artist unknown (8) "Portrait of Mr. James" Magritte (9) "Disciples Lamenting" artist unknown (10) "Woman Weeping" Picasso (11) "Portrait of Chopin" Delacroix (12) Japanese clay warrior Jikoku-Ten (13) "Guiseppe Ungarette" Scipione (lit) Photograph of a Boxer Karlheinz Foil (15) "Frog Victoria" Gilhooley (16) "Self Portrait" Beckman The previous pictures have given you a chance to see how other artists from different cultures and different periods in time, and through different media, have tackled the theme of portraits and faces. Now, making use of this knowledge, try to put your own personal statements into your own art work. c) Studio and Follow-Up Some suggested studio activities are: Drawings, paintings, fabric or printmaking activities where the em-phasis is on trying to establish a mood or feeling through portraiture. Self portraits. Black and white newspaper pictures of people reproduced in colour 39. (non-realistic) or with different backgrounds, etc., to change the mood ex-pressed by the picture. Plaster cast moulds of the students' faces from which clay or paper mache positives can be taken. These can be added to or painted. Masks which express or represent emotions. Photography - a study of several different facets of one person's personality. - several different people expressing the same emotion. Ho. D. Animals in Art a) Preparation Animals have been a source of interest, amusement, companionship, wor-ship, and survival for mankind. Discuss animals and their influence on our lives with your class. Some suggested questions are: Do you own any animals? Do you treat them as though they had human feelings and emotions?. What emotions can animals express? What animals fascinate you? Why? If you could have only one pet, what would i t be? Some cultures worshipped animals. What animals have been sacred? Name some frightening animals; some cute ones; some mean or vicious animals. Could one animal be described more than one way? (as brave and mean or cute and frightening, etc.). b) Filmstrip Slide number (1) "Great Bull and Running Horses" cave painting (2) Since the f i r s t caveman made drawings on the cave walls, animals have been a source of creative expression for mankind. We have portrayed them as predators, food sources, companions, competi-tors, gods, and demons. These views of animals offer valuable insights into human nature. (3) View the following slides with these questions in mind: What emotions or feelings are expressed? (U) How do the sensory or formal qualities add to this expression? (Review the sensory qualities: line, shape, colour, and texture. Review the formal qualities: the use of symbols, the type of media used and the artist's mastery of that media; design and composition; and the general theme or subject matter of the work.) hi. (5) How can I use this knowledge to improve my own art work? (Emphasize to the students that the importance of viewing and analyz-ing the work of others lies not only with the greater knowledge and insight gained about others' work but also with a new awareness they can apply to their own art work.) (6) Egyptian bronze cat artist unknown The next three pictures are of cats. See how different artists have expressed different moods or feelings by using the same subject matter. (7) "Brenda and Florence" David McEnery (8) Cats in Rome Manfred Vollmer (9) Wolf mask - N.W. coast Indian This is a ritual dance mask of a wolf. What did the artist express with this mask? (10) Camel Chinese sculpture The next two slides have camels as their subject matter but express entirely different moods. (11) Dutch poster advertising Camel cigarettes (12) "Summer Diversion" Masson This is a non-realistic painting in which insects are the main theme. What mood is expressed? (13) "Hound in Field" Colville The next two paintings are very realistically painted. However, the artists s t i l l are able to make decisions about the sensory and formal qualities in the paintings which will affect the expressiveness of the paintings. (lU) "Dead Birds with Cherries" Oudrey h2. (15) Polar bear Eskimo carving The next slides show three dimensional or sculptural representations of animals* (16) Ivory and gold leopard a r t i s t unknown (17) Alpaca llama a r t i s t unknown (18) Crab Norris Animals have been great sources of inspiration for ar t i s t s through the centuries. In the studio ac t i v i t i e s that are to follow, try and put your responses to animals i n a form that others can respond to and enjoy. c) Studio Activities and Follow-Up Some suggested studio a c t i v i t i e s are: Drawing, painting, fabric, and printraaking ac t i v i t i e s which involve expressing a mood or emotion with animals as the subject matter. Choosing several moods or emotions such as tension, fear, gentleness, anger, and expressing them through one animal i n several different media. Fantasy or r e a l i s t i c sculptural forms of animals i n clay. Photography - studies of several different moods expressed by one animal. - the same mood or feeling expressed by several different animals. USE OF OTHER MATERIALS A. Independent Study Sheets B. Mounted Visuals C. List of Slides hh. III. USE OF OTHER MATERIALS A. Independent Stady Sheets The independent stady sheets are meant to be used by students who might have missed the class discussion and viewing of any of the filmstrips. By viewing the filmstrip on a viewer and answering the questions on the study sheets on a separate piece of paper, the student is introduced to the main concepts and can then go into the studio activities with a better knowledge of their purpose. B. Mounted Visuals The mounted visuals are provided to give the teacher examples which can be quickly shown and discussed to emphasize previous learning, displayed on the walls, or otherwise used to reinforce the concepts stressed in the filmstrips. A. Independent Study Sheets  Introduction a) Preparation Before you actually view the filmstrip, read over the following l i s t of questions. Answer them in your own mind and then make a l i s t on a separ-ate piece of paper of several different moods or feelings that you have ex-perienced. What does i t mean to have moods? Do people always have the same kinds of feelings or moods? What different kinds of moods do you think people have? What does the word mood mean? (A state of mind in which an emotion prevails?) Is i t beneficial to express your moods? Is feeling exuberant, joyous, or playful a mood? Can we be reflective, quiet, curious, concerned? Are these moods? Are some of your moods more special or noticeable than others? Can the mood we are in make us feel differently than the other people around us? Do things on the outside change how we feel inside? Does going to a different place change our mood? Do your moods change with the weather? The time of day? Because of things that occur around you? Because of what you do or what others do or say? How many kinds of moods can you identify? Can you describe different moods you've experienced? b) Filmstrip You are now ready to view the Introduction filmstrip. Keep your paper with your l i s t of moods and feelings. There will be some questions on the filmstrips which you may answer in one or two words on this same paper. h6. Slide number (1) "Self Portrait" by Siqueiros. (2) There are many ways that people look at the objects in their world. A person may look at an object scientifically, note its chemical composition or weigh and measure i t . The same person may look at the same object from an artistic point of view. What mood or emotion does the object express? How does the colour, composition, or subject matter affect this emotion? This artistic way of looking can be called Aesthetic Perception. (3) "Wheatfield with Crows" by Van Gogh. This painting i s "Wheatfield with Crows" by Vincent Van Gogh. What mood or emotion is expressed by this painting? What things in the painting point to that emotion? Really look at the way the artist has used colour. Does the colour of the sky add to the feeling you have about the painting? What about the brushwork? Is i t calm and peaceful? What other things in the painting create the mood? Remem-ber that Van Gogh could change in the painting what he actually saw in real l i f e to heighten the feeling he wished to express. (li) There are three main qualities that we look for when viewing objects aesthetically. The fi r s t are the SENSORY quali-ties of the objectj those qualities that affect our senses such as the type of lines, shapes, colours and textures in the object. Return to the slide of "Wheatfield with Crows." Name and describe the sensory qualities of this painting. ( 5 ) Untitled weaving by Vivian Bevis. This is a weaving. What are some of the sensory qualities? What colours are used? What textures, shapes? Which are the most import-ant sensory qualities of this weaving? Would i t make any difference i f the weaving was a l l one colour? (6) The second set of qualities to look for are called FORMAL qualities. Formal qualities have to do with how sensory qual-ities are arranged r. - design and composition (balance, harmony) - the symbols used in the object (the cross, red rose) - the general subject matter of the object (war, animals), and - the technical aspects (the type and handling of the material -clay, o i l paint, marble). (7) "Indian Church" by Emily Carr. This is a painting by Emily Carr called "Indian Church." What are the formal qualities of this painting? What is the subject matter? Are there symbols used? Look at the church and the forest. How is one treated differently from the other? How do the sensory qualities such as colour, shape, line, and texture reinforce the formal quali-ties? The painting style is not photographically realistic. Does this add or detract from the mood expressed? (8) The third set of qualities are called the EXPRESS-IVE qualities. What mood, emotion, or feeling is expressed by the objects? The sensory and formal qualities combine to emphasize the expressive qualities. (9) "Gulf Stream" by Winslow Homer. This is a painting by Winslow Homer called "Gulf Stream." What mood or emotion is expressed by this painting? How do the sensory and formal qualities contribute to this feeling? What do the sharks symbolize? Why is the boat tilted? How does the colour affect the mood? (10) When we look at an object to evaluate its artistic or aesthetic expression we must not let our own feelings or taste U8. interfere with our judgment. "Like" and "don't l i k e " are terms of taste, not c r i t i c a l judgment. (11) "The Circus" by Seurat. For example, some people might not l i k e this painting because they don*t l i k e clowns or circuses, or they may not like i t because they only li k e very r e a l i s t i c paintings or very abstract paintings. How-ever, despite their likes or dislikes, to judge the painting aesthet-i c a l l y they must observe the qualities of the painting—What does i t express? Do the sensory and formal qualities complement this express-ion of mood? The painting could be judged to be good by the viewer and yet not personally liked. (12) Flowers i n a vase. Some objects express harmony and beauty. Not a l l objects have to be r e a l i s t i c representations of the world. We surround ourselves with a l l sorts of objects whose function i s to provide pleasure i n viewing them and to express this feeling of harmony and beauty. (13) Clay Warrior by Basara. Some express anger, (lli) "Maternity" by Picasso. Some express tenderness and love. (15) The following slides are meant to give you a chance to describe, analyze, and interpret the aesthetic qualities of each work of art. Try not to l e t personal taste get i n your way. Look at the object and pick out how the sensory and formal qualities affect the expressive-ness. For each of the slides: (a) state the mood or emotion you feel i s being expressed by the object, (b) describe two or three qualities U9. of the object which lead you to that conclusion. Just naming the qualities i s not good enough. For example, colour would not be a proper answer. Describe what i t i s about the colour that makes the object express a certain mood. (16) "The War" Rousseau The next two slides are paintings of war. Look carefully at how two different artis t s represented the same theme. Is the emotional res-ponse the same for both paintings? Point to qualities i n the paint-ings which make them different. (17) "The Chronicle of Rased-ud-Din" Persian miniature. (18) "Savannah Sparrow" Richard Fyfe. A photograph can express a mood or feeling as well. What i s expressed by this photograph? How do the sensory and formal qualities contrib-ute to this expression. (19) "Woman at the Window" Casper The next three paintings express very different moods. Describe and analyze them. (20) "View of Toledo" E l Greco (21) "Guernica" (section) Picasso (22) Tsimshian mask a r t i s t unknown. This i s a mask used by the Tsimshian Indians of Br i t i s h Columbia to symbolize and express a feeling during r i t u a l dance ceremonies. What feeling does the mask express to you? (23) Artists create visual expressions of their world. By analyzing what they have done i n a rational, objective way we can learn to appreciate art more f u l l y and we can apply this learning to our own art work. 50. c) Studio and Follow-Up Pick a mood from the ones l i s t e d before the fi l m s t r i p . How could you create a work of art which would express that mood? What medium would you use; what colours, textures, types of line? What symbols might be appropri-ate, what subject matter? In a short paragraph describe a work of art that you might like to try which expresses one of the moods or feelings you have experienced. Dreams and Visions a) Preparation Before you actually view the filmstrip, read over the following l i s t of questions and think about what your answers could be. What are dreams like? Do they mirror what happens i n our everyday l i f e ? Do a l l people have the same kinds of dreams? Do you have different dreams each time you dream? Are dreams and visions the same thing? Are they always different (or the same)? Have you ever had a vision? Can you describe a very v i v i d dream? Do you dream i n colour? b) Filmstrip You are now ready to view the Dreams and Visions filmstrip. Have a piece of paper and a pen or pencil handy to write down answers to the ques-tions that w i l l be asked during the viewing. Slide number (1) "Snake Charmer" Rousseau (2) Artists across many cultures and over many centur-ies have been concerned with the dreams and stirrings of the uncons-cious mind, the whims of gods and demons, views of a world beyond our 51. present r e a l i t y . Some horrify, some amuse, yet each gives us new insight into the workings of the human mind. (3) View the following slides with these questions i n mind: What emotions or feelings are expressed? (Remember that these are private visions of a world beyond our real-i t y . Has the a r t i s t expressed this "other" world?) (h) How do the sensory and formal qualities i n the ob-ject add to this expression? \ (Remember that sensory qualities are l i n e , shape, colour and texture. Formal qualities are: the types of symbols; the type of media and the artists* mastery of that media; design and composition; and the general theme or subject matter of the work.) (5) How can I use this knowledge to improve my own art work? Look at the following slides and try to answer the following questions on your paper: (a) What mood or feeling i s expressed i n the object? (b) Describe two or three qualities of the object which suggest the mood or emotion you named i s being expressed by the object. Just naming the qualities i s not good enough, you must describe them. For example, "colour" would not be a proper answer. Describe what i t i s about the colour (or symbols, or mater-i a l , or texture, or subject) which makes the object express a cer-tain mood. (6) "Garden of Earthly Delights" Bosch The next six slides show how different artists from different cult-ures have represented their ideas of gods and demons. What emotions or feelings are expressed? How do the sensory and formal qualities i n the works add to this expression? 52. (7) "The Temptation of St. Anthony" Grunewald (8) Italian Mosaic "Hell" Battistero de sa Giodanni (9) Tibetan thangka (silk painting) artist unknown (10) "Thunderbird Woman" Babon (11) "House of the Dead" Blake (12) "Shells" Arnaud de Rosnay This is a photograph but i t has a dream-like feeling. How is this achieved? (13) "Tree" Emily Carr The next two slides are paintings of natural environments. How does the mood expressed differ? ( I l l ) "The Joy of Living" Max Ernst (15) "Summer" Archimboldi The last slides have the human form as part of their similarity. What makes them dream-like or fantasy? (16) "Disquieting Muses" Giorgio de Chirico (17) "Mao Tse Toad" David Gilhooley We have now viewed the dreams and visions of several artists from different countries and different periods in time. In the studio activities to follow, we wil l try to put our own personal view into a form for others to enjoy. Portraits and Faces a) Preparation Before you actually view the filmstrip, read over the following l i s t of questions and think about what your answers could be. What is a portrait? Why do people want portraits of themselves or others? 53. What things about the person can you t e l l from a portrait? Can you sometimes t e l l age, social position, moods, personality, etc.? Can you make a person seem better or look more handsome through a portrait? Portraits can be done in what types of media? (Photography, clay, o i l paint, drawing, etc.) Can the artist establish his or her vision of the person in a l l media? Can moods or emotions be expressed through portraits? b) Filmstrip You are now ready to view the Portraits and Faces filmstrip. Have a piece of paper and a pen or pencil handy to write down answers to the ques-tions that will be asked during the viewing. Slide number (l) Aztec mask artist unknown (2) Man has long been interested in his own form, es-pecially his face. Portraits in every media from clay to paint have explored the many facets of human emotion. (3) View the following slides with these questions in mind: What emotions or feelings are expressed? (it) How do the sensory and formal qualities in the por-trait add to this expression? (Remember the sensory qualities are: line, shape, colour and texture. The formal qualities are: the use of symbols, the type of media used the the artist's mastery of that media; design and composition; and the general theme or subject matter of the work.) (5) How can I use this knowledge to improve my own art work? Look at the following slides and try to answer the following questions on your paper: (a) What mood or feeling is expressed in the object? 5U. (b) Describe two or three qualities of the object which suggest the mood or emotion you named is being expressed by the object. Just naming the qualities is not good enough, you must describe them. For example, "colour" would not be a proper answer. Describe what i t is about the colour (or symbols, or material, or tex-ture, or subject) which makes the object express a certain mood. (6 (7 (8 (9 (10 (11 (12 (13 (Ik (15 (16 "Working Woman" Kollwitz Helmet mask artist unknown "Portrait of Mr! James" Magritte "Disciples Lamenting" artist unknown "Woman Weeping" Picasso "Portrait of Chopin" Delacroix Japanese clay warrior Jikoku-Ten "Guiseppe Ungarette" Scipione Photograph of a Boxer Karlheinz Poll "Frog Victoria" Gilhooley "Self Portrait" Beckman The previous pictures have given you a chance to see how other art-ists from different cultures and different periods in time, and through different media, have tackled the theme of portraits and faces. Now, making use of this knowledge, try to put your own personal statements into your own art work. Animals in Art a) Preparation Animals have been a source of interest, amusement, companionship, worship, and survival for mankind. Before you actually view the filmstrip, 5 5 . read over the following l i s t of questions and think about what your answers could be. Do you own any animals? Do you treat them as though they had human feelings and emotions? What emotions can animals express? What animals fascinate you? Why? If you could have only one pet, what would i t be? Some cultures worshipped animals. What animals have been sacred? Name some frightening animalsj some cute ones; some mean or vicious animals. Could one animal be described more than one way? (as brave and mean or cute and frightening, etc.). b) Filmstrip You are now ready to view the Animals in Art filmstrip. Have a piece of paper and a pen or pencil handy to write down answers to the questions that will be asked during the viewing. Slide number (1) "Great Bull and Running Horses" cave painting (2) Since the first caveman made drawings on the cave walls, animals have been a source of creative expression for mankind. We have portrayed them as predators, food sources, companions, compe-titors, gods, and demons. These views of animals offer valuable in-sights into human nature. (3) View the following slides with these questions in mind: What emotions or feelings are expressed? (li) How do the sensory or formal qualities add to this expression? (Remember the sensory qualities are: line, shape, color, and texture. The formal qualities are: the use of symbols, the type of media used and the artist's mastery of that mediaj design and compositionj and 56. the general theme or subject matter of the work.) (5) How can I use this knowledge to improve my own art work? Look at the following slides and try to answer the following questions on your paper: (a) What mood or feeling i s expressed i n the object? (b) Describe two or three qualities of the object which suggest the mood or emotion you named i s being expressed by the object. Just naming the qualities i s not good enough, you must describe them. For example, "colour" would not be a proper answer. Describe what i t i s about the colour (or symbols, or material, or tex-ture, or subject) which makes the object express a certain mood. (6) Egyptian bronze cat a r t i s t unknown The next three pictures are of cats. See how different a r t i s t s have expressed different moods or feelings by using the same subject matter. (7) "Brenda and Florence" David McEnery (8) Cats i n Rome Manfred Vollmer (9) Wolf mask - N.W. coast Indian This i s a r i t u a l dance mask of a wolf. What did the a r t i s t express with this mask? (10) Camel Chinese sculpture The next two slides have camels as their subject matter but express entirely different moods. (11) Dutch poster advertising Camel cigarettes (12) "Summer Diversion" Masson This i s a non-realistic painting i n which insects are the main theme. What mood i s expressed? (13) "Hound i n Field" Colville The next two paintings are very r e a l i s t i c a l l y painted. However, the 57. artists s t i l l are able to make decisions about the sensory and formal qualities in the paintings which will affect the expressiveness of the paintings. (lli) "Dead Birds with Cherries n Oudrey (15) Polar bear Eskimo carving The next slides show three dimensional or sculptural representations of animals. (16) Ivory and gold leopard artist unknown (17) Alpaca llama artist unknown (18) Crab Norris Animals have been great sources of inspiration for artists through the centuries. In the studio activities that are to follow, try and put your responses to animals in a form that others can respond to and enjoy. 58. C. List of Slides This l i s t will provide more background data on the slides included in the kit. They are in the order that they are presented on the filmstrips. The name of the work, the artist's name, the medium, the culture and the time period of each work of art is included in that order. Introduction: (1 (2 (3 (U (5 (6 (7 (8 (9 (10 (11 (12 (13 (Hi (15 (16 "Self Portrait" Siqueiros. Oil painting, Mexican contemporary. "Wheatfield with Crows" Vincent Van Gogh. Oil painting, Dutch 19th century. Untitled Vivian Bevis. Wool weaving using natural dyes, Canad-ian contemporary. "Indian Church" Emily Carr. Oil painting, Canadian 20th century. "The Gulf Stream" Winslow Holmer. Oil painting, American 19th century. "The Circus" Seurat. Oil painting, French 19th century. Flowers in a vase. Untitled Basara. Clay sculpture, Japanese 8th century. "Maternity Picasso. Oil painting, Spanish 20th century. "The War" Rousseau. Oil painting, French 19th century. "The Chronicle of Rased-ud-Din" artist unknown. Persian minia-ture, 15th century. "Savannah Sparrow" Richard Fyfe. Photograph. Canadian contemporary. 'Woman at Window" David Casper. Painting, American 19th century. "View of Toledo" El Greco. Painting, Spanish 17th century. "Guernica" Picasso. Mural, Spanish 20th century. Tsimshian mask artist unknown. Wood carving with paint and human hair. N.W. coast Indian. Dreams and Visions (1) "Snake Charmer" Rousseau. Painting, French 19th century. (2) "Garden of Earthly Delights" Bosch. Painting, Spanish 16th century, (3) "The Temptation of St. Anthony" Grunewald. Painting, German 16th century. (k) "Hell" Battistero di sa Giodanni. Mosaic, Italian, 16th century. (5) Tibetan (silk painting) Thangka (6) "Thunderbird Woman" Babon. Collage and painting, Canadian Indian contemporary. (7) "House of the Dead" William Blake. Lithograph, English late 18th century. (8) "Shells" Arnaud de Rosnay. Photograph, French contemporary. (9) "Tree" Emily Carr. Painting, Canadian 20th century. (10) "The Joy of Living" Max Ernst. Painting, 20th century. (11) "Summer" Archimboldi. Painting, Austrian 16th century. (12) "Disquieting Muses" Giorgio de Chirico. Painting, 20th century. (13) "Mao Tse Toad" David Gilhooley. Clay sculpture, Canadian contemporary. Portraits and Faces (1) Aztec mask artist unknown. Stone mozaic, pre-Columbian. (2) "Working Woman" Kathe Kollwitz. Lithograph, German 20th century. (3) Helmet mask artist unknown. Wood carving, Blsmark Islander, 20th century. (k) "Portrait of Mr. James" Rene Magritte. Painting, French 20th century. (S>) "Disciples Lamenting" artist unknown. Clay, Japanese 8th century. (6) "Woman Weeping" Pablo Picasso. Painting, Spanish 20th century. 60. (7) "Portrait of Chopin" Delacroix. Painting, French 19th century. (8) "Warrior" Jikoku-Ten. Clay sculpture, Japanese 8th century. (9) "Guiseppe Ungarette" Scipione. Painting, Italian 20th century. (10) Photograph of a Boxer Karlheinz Poll. Photograph, German con-temporary. (11) "Frog Victoria" David Gilhooley. Clay sculpture, Canadian contemporary. (12) "Self Portrait" Max Beckman. Wood cut, German 20th century. in Art (1) "Great Bull and Running Horses" artist unknown. Cave painting, French, 15,000 B.C. (2) Egyptian cat artist unknown. Bronze and gold, Egyptian, 2000 B.C. (3) "Brenda and Florence" David McEnery. Photograph, British con-temporary. (U) Cats in Rome Manfred Vollmer. Photograph, German contemporary. (5) Wolf mask artist unknown. Carved wood, N.W. coast Indian - Tlingit 19th century. (6) Camel artist unknown. Clay, Chinese (7) Camel poster advertisement for Camel cigarettes. Dutch contempor-ary. (8) "Summer Diversion" Masson. Painting, French 20th century. (9) "Hound in Field" Alex Colville. Painting, Canadian contemporary. (10) "Dead Birds with Cherries" Oudrey. Painting, French 18th century. (11) Polar Bear artist unknown. Stone carving, Eskimo 20th century. (12) leopard artist unknown. Ivory and gold, Nigerian 16th century. (13) Alpaca llama artist unknown. Silver, Peru Pre-Columbian Uj.00-1550. (Ik) Crab Norris. Metal sculpture, Canadian contemporary. EVALUATION AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT A. Criteria for Evaluation 8. Developing Your Own Materials 6 2 . IV. EVALUATION AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT A. Criteria for Evaluation (adapted from CEMREL) The following checklists for evaluation of the teaching unit and the students1 achievement have been included to give the teacher a more detailed idea of the goals of this unit of instruction. When checking the evaluation criteria, ask yourself where you could improve both the unit and your own in-struction to make them more compatible with your learning environment and the students' specific needs. Flexibility is the key to a successful program. 1. CRITERIA PERTAINING TO ABILITY (Did the unit of instruction start where the student was?): a) Did the sequence within the unit move from less to more difficult concepts and activities? b) Did the unit allow for different levels of development, e.g., intellectual, perceptual, kinesthetic, motor, etc.? c) Did the unit allow for different aptitudes of the students, e.g., aural, visual, cognitive, etc.? d) Were remedial content and activities provided for atypical stud-ents? Were they appropriate? 2 . CRITERIA PERTAINING TO STUDENT INVOLVEMENT (Did the unit of instruction consider the student's feelings?): a) Were activities included relevant to the experience of the age group for which the unit of instruction is intended? b) Were the general psychological needs of the students (such as interests) reflected in the activities? 3. CRITERIA PERTAINING TO TEACHING THE UNIT (Was i t possible to implement the unit of instruction?): a) Did the activities and concepts in the unit contribute toward the general goals of art education? b) Were the goals in the unit compatible with the policies and general objectives of the school? .. . 6 3 . c) Was the teacher competent to carry out the unit? d) Was the teacher provided with the necessary instructional mater-ials to carry out the unit? e) Were the necessary physical facilities available to allow the act-ivities in the unit and the use of the instructional materials which were provided? U. CRITERIA PERTAINING TO ACHIEVEMENT OF GOALS (What did the student achieve from the unit of instruction?): a) To what degree did the student extend his or her understanding of aesthetic perception? 1) Did the student realize that aesthetic perception was a method of analysis? 2) Did the student respond more readily to discussion about art work after learning a specific method of analysis? b) To what degree did the student master the s k i l l of selecting sensory, formal, and expressive qualities from the object examined? 1) Did the student understand what sensory and formal qualities are? 2) Was the student able to name the sensory and formal qualities of specific examples? 3) Could the student describe the expressive qualities of a given object? c) To what degree could the student learn to apply the concept of aesthetic perception and the skills of selecting specific quali-ties to an aesthetic phenomena? 1) Was the student able to explain how the sensory and formal qualities related to the expressiveness of the object? d) Did activities included cause the student to reflect upon his or her values and beliefs about aesthetic objects? 1) Was the student objective in his or her assessments? 2) Did the student refrain from passing judgements of taste such as "I like it"? 3) Did the student support his or her answers with evidence that was directly related to phenomena which existed within the aesthetic object? 6JU. Did the activities included cause the student to reflect upon choices concerning his or her own art work? 1) Did the student seem more able to express moods or feelings? 2) Did the student apply any of the insights gained from analyz-ing the work of others to his or her own art work? 65. B. Developing Your Own Materials Again let i t be emphasized that this unit has been intended as a supplement to existing studio art courses. The teacher is encouraged to add to this package themes of special interest to his or her own students. Fur-ther, the teacher is encouraged to design similar packages which emphasize other important goals of art education. When developing such material, the following points might be of some assistance: 1) Identify the goal for which the unit is designed. 2) Specify your student population and develop motivation and identify interests for that particular group. 3) The unit must be pedagogically and conceptually sound. h) The unit should provide the necessary content in the form of aesthetic objects (or reproductions), concepts, and facts. 5) Criteria should be established for the selection of instructional materials. 6) Each unit should specify student and teacher activities. 7) An evaluation checklist such as the one described in the previous section is helpful in clarifying intended outcomes. A short digression into the development of this unit might offer fur-ther guidance and insight into developing curriculum units. From my own ex-perience as a teacher and from study of the art education literature, came the belief that analyzing art and applying the resultant knowledge was a rare occurrence in the average art classroom. If analysis of art is in fact an important goal of art education then methods of implementing this goal should be found. Therefore, because of my own interest in Junior High school teach-ing and of particular interests of adolescents, a more refined approach to this unit emerged. That approach is teaching aesthetic perception with em-phasis on the expressive qualities because these qualities are the most cru-cial to the adolescent. Research of the literature in art and aesthetic education 66. as well as adolescent psychology determined that the concept was pedagogic-all y and conceptually sound. Then came the d i f f i c u l t task of putting together materials which would not only teach about the concepts but also interest and motivate the students. Dialogue between teacher and students seldom accounts for much time i n studio courses. I f e l t i t important that discussions with the students lead thenr back into an examination of their own art work as well as the work of others. Generally, students expect to do art work i n an art class and not to talk. I hoped that placing emphasis on their talking i n re-lation to their doing would not conflict with positive and conventional ex-pectations about art classes. My teaching had been strongly affected by the Ontario Guidelines for Art Education i n the Junior High school which stress a theme approach to i n -tegrating an art program. Therefore I chose this same approach when develop-ing the materials for the unit on aesthetic perception. In consultation with other teachers and professionals i n the f i e l d , three themes were f i n a l l y chosen as suitable. They were: Dreams and Visions, Animals i n Art, and Por-tr a i t s and Faces. If filmstrips were to be made which explored aesthetic perception with reference to these themes, then some c r i t e r i a had to be chosen to establish what objects would be proper exemplars for these f i l m -strips. I t was important that the examples chosen be not only of interest to the student but also allow the student to view art i n a large perspective as something other than wall decoration. The f i n a l c r i t e r i a for selection of visuals exist as six main points. F i r s t l y , a l l objects selected had to be visually interesting to adolescents. There was no use i n using reproductions of art work that the students would find boring. Secondly, the objects selected had to have very definite ex-pressive qualities as this was to be the emphasis of the unit. Thirdly, the 67. aesthetic objects had to cross as many cultural boundaries as possible. It was important that the students observe art work from many cultures to see art i n a world perspective. Fourthly, the objects represented had to be from many periods of history. Again this i s to provide the students with a sense that art work was not isolated i n one time period but i s continuous i n the history of mankind. Fift h l y , the art selected must contain examples of two as well as three dimensions, and f i n a l l y , both fine art and craft objects would be represented. The last two c r i t e r i a were included to keep the student's pers-pective on the meaning of art as broad as possible. Often classical works of art such as paintings or sculpture are assumed to be the only types of art which students recognize as worthy of discussion or analysis. The actual selection process took place i n three parts. I determined a wide variety of visuals I f e l t might be appropriate. These were presented to two different groups of teachers and their choices and additions were considered. A more refined group of visuals was shown to several different students for their views and this f i n a l culling process resulted i n the choice of slides i n the filmstrips. Sources such as Art, Culture, and Environment by McFee and Begge, and Guidelines: Curriculum Development for Aesthetic Education, the manual for curriculum development published by the Central Midwestern Regional Educational laboratory, offered positive ideas for questioning techniques, layout, and evaluation c r i t e r i a , I was also fortunate to be able to confer with Univer-sity and High School teachers about my directions and ideas. Bouncing ideas off interested professionals not only c l a r i f i e s but often expands one's own thinking. I strongly recommend that teachers do try out their material on people other than their students. Not only are others often able to add to your storehouse of techniques and knowledge but you can add to theirs as well. 68 REFERENCES Barkan, M. and L. Chapman, E. Kern. Guidelines: Curriculum Development for Aesthetic Education St. Louis, Missouri: Central, Midwestern Regional laboratories Inc., 1970. Broudy, H.S. Enlightened Cherishing: An Essay on Aesthetic Education. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972. Eisner, E. Educating Artistic Vision. New York: Macmillan Co., 11972. Feldman, E.B. Becoming Human Through Art: Aesthetic Experience in the School. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1970. Gaitskell, C. "Art Education During Adolescence," Ontario Department of Education Guidelines. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1961*. Hathaway, W. (ed.) Art Education: Middle/Junior High School. Reston, Virginia: The National Art Education Association, 1977. McFee, J. and R. Degge. Art. Culture, and Environment: A Catalyst for Teaching. Belmont, Calif.:: Wadsworth Publishing Inc., 1977. 

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